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The Literature of the Pennsylvania German Dialect: 
with a Bibliography. 

A Dissertation submitted to the Board of University 
Studies of the Johns Hopkins University in conformity with 
the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 


Harry Hess Re i chard. 

Baltimore, Maryland. 

!$"<&, o 3^ 

Sunt bona, sunt quaedam mediocria, aunt mala plura 
Quae legis hie: aliter non fit, Avite, liber. 

Martialis Epigranimaton Lib. I. XVI, 

Poetry may be regarded and estimated from two 
points of view,- the a priori and the a posteriori. 
The former rests on principles which are very likely 
to be arbitrary and incomplete. It will always be 
found to be more satisfactory to ask ourselves what 
a thing is or has been - provided of course, an answer 
is possible - than to decide what it ought to be 
according to certain principles laid down by our- 

R.Y.Tyrrell - Turnbull Lectures on 
Latin Poetry. 


Introduction - - p. 3 

Beginnings of the Literature - - p. 11 

Sohaff, Philip - - p.22 

Rond thaler, Emanuel - - p. 24 

Miller, Louie - - P«30 

The earlier period and writers no longer living . 

Harbaugh, Henry - - p. 3 2 

Rauch, Edward H. - - p. 33 

Wollenweber, Ludwig A. - - .62 

Fisher, Henry L. - - p. 68 

Home, Abraham R. - - p. 80 

Rupp, Israel D. - - p. 92 

Brunner, David B. - - p. 95 

Grumbine, Lee L. - - p. 101 

Mays, George - - p. 115 

Shuler, Henry A. - - p. 120 

Hoffman, Walter J. - - .124 

Hermany, Edward - - - p. 127 

The later period: writers still living. 

Eshelman, Edgar M. - - p. 120 

Grumbine, Ezra - - p. 134 

Harter, Thomas H. - - p. 145 

Henninger, Milton C. - - p. 153 

Keller, Eli - p. 159 

Lins, Joseph - - p. 164 

Meyer, Henry - p. 168 

Miller, Daniel - p. 172 

Miller, Harvey M. - - p. 177 

Rhoads, Thomas J.B. - - p. 188 

Stump, Adam - - p. 191 

Weitzel, Louisa - - p. 197 

Wuohter, As tor 0. - - p. 201 

Ziegler, Charles C. - - p. 207 

Zimmerman, Thomas C. - - p. 231 

Results and Conclusions - p. 245 

Bibliography - - - p. 255 

p. 271 

Bibliography of the Literature of the Pennsylvania German 

Dialect.- - p. 277 

Poetry - - - p. 281 

Prose - p. 319 

Dictionaries - - p. 346 

A List of Newspapers - - p. 349 



"People who will take no pride in the noble achieve- 
ments of remote ancestors will never achieve anything worthy to 
be remembered with pride by remote descendants" are the words of 
Liacaulay that were prefixed to a call that went out from Lancaster 
Pennsylvania, in February, 1891. The call was issued by a small 
self' appointed committee to certain representative Pennsylvania 
Germans in particular, and to all who might be interested in gen- 
eral, inviting them to meet in the Court House at Lancaster on the 
15th of April for the purpose of organizing a society of the des- 
cendants of early German, and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania, with 
the following objects in view; 

1. to search out and preserve ancestral records. 

2. to bring their forefathers into such recognition in the 
eyes of the world and especially of their own children as 
they deserved. 

3. to develop the friendly and fraternal spirit that should 
exist between those in whose vein the same blood flows. 

4. to lift their history then unnoticed or unknown to the po- 
sition it ought to hold, and very particularly 

5. to preserve to posterity the old public records, landmarks, 
and memorials which in another generation would have en- 
tirely disappeared. 

On the day set, the Pennsylvania German Society was 
organized with George F.Baer, President of the Reading Railroad 
System as its first President. The sentiments of the call were in- 
corporated In its constitution? then it began to set itself ser- 


iously to the self =impoaed task; how well it has succeeded is 
attested in part, by the eagerness with which historical organi- 
zations subscribe for the massive volume issued every year. To 
the substantial work of this society it is due tliat statements like 
the following are now being made: "JJhe closing years of the nine- 
teenth and the opening years of the twentieth century witnessed the 
birth of a deep and widespread interest in the early history of the 
Germans who came to Pennsylvania in the first days of that great 
Commonwealth. The subject has grown in interest as records of the 
past brought to light the doings of these sturdy, pious, conscientious 
sons of the Fatherland, until today every new phase of the subject 
is anxiously waited for and warmly welcomed by all who take an in- 
terest in our beginnings, in our country. Pennsylvania Dutch, once 
a term of ridicule, has become a topic of the most absorbing inter- 
est to all who are inclined to look into the history of the past." 
The statement is made by Elder D.L.Miller of Mt. Morris, 111. in the 
Introduction to John L.Plory's "Literary Activity of the German 
Baptist Brethren" published by the University of Virginia, in 190 9. 
As further evidence of this aroused interest, it might be men- 
tioned that a North Carolinian is at present tracing the influence 
of the Pennsylvania German in the upbuilding of that Commonwealth 
and a student of Columbia University is at work upon the influence 
of the Pennsylvania German in the West. 

On October 27, 1905, when the Pennsylvania German 
Society met in Reading, Pa. Judge Gustav A.Endlich, LL.D. in his 
address as President said: "I almost feel constrained to apologize 
for not addressing you in your own vernacular. But you know they 
Insist on printing everything that is said at theae meetings and 


f ortunately as yet everyone has his own way of spelling in Penn- 
sylvania German, so that hardly anybody can make sense out of what 
any other has written. If it were not for the lack of a distinctive 
alphabet or at least a settled orthography, the Pennsylvania German 
might even have a literature." 

But there doe3 exist such a literature, and it has 
been recognized and 3poken of in sufficiently coii^endatory terms 
to warrant U3 at the outset in overruling the decision of the Judge, 
learned in the law. To note but a few instances where such liter- 
ature ha3 been recognized: 

Oscar Kuhns: "German and Swiss Settlements in Pennsylvania" 
c hapter five, p. 121 ff. - three poets are briefly dis- 
cussed, a fourth is mentioned in a footnote: and one 
prose writer. 
Karl Knor,z: "Streifzuge auf dem Gebiete Amerikanischer Volks- 

kunde" p. 76 ff . speaks of two poets^ and in his "Geschichte 
der Nord Amerlkanische Literatur" Vol.11, p. 190 ff. three 
writers are mentioned. 
Julius Goebel: "Das Deutschthum in den Vereinigten Staaten 

von Nord Amerika" refers to one poet. (p. 30 ) 
The Collection "Deutsch in Amerika" edited by Dr.G.U.Zimmermann 

Chicago, describes three writers. p.XLV. and 245 ff. 
Georg von Bosse: "Das Deutsche Element in den Vereinigten 
Staaten" S. 436 mentions one writer and one volume of 
collected poems. 
Albert Bernhardt Paust: "The German Element in the United 

States" discussed two poet3, Vol.11, p. 340; and gives a 
somewhat fuller list in the Bibliography. 


It is not our purpose here to consider the old def- 
initions of literature nor yet to 3et up a new one, but rather to 
accept such a general recognition of a Pennsylvania German litera- 
ture a3 indicated above and to adopt a liberal definition such a3 
the one offered by Prof. George S.Woodberry in his "Appreciation 
of Literature" (Baker and Taylor Co., New York, 1907) p.l ff. and 
present what has been written in the dialect. 

"Literature" he says, "is an art of expression: the 
material which it employs is experience or in other words, litera- 
ture is the expression of life. Action, emotion and thought are 
the three great divisions of life and constitute experience. Lit- 
erature attempts to represent such experience through the medium 
of language and to bring it home to the understanding of the reader." 

In the of the works cited above, it is in- 
variably the same authors that are discussed. In all about half 
a dozen different writers are briefly mentioned. Prof .Faust, in 
the latest authoritative work that mentions this literature is able 
to give less than two pages to it but says that it is "refreshing 
and historically valuable? if this be true, it ought to be worth- 
while to have a more extensive knowledge of it. With a view to 
thi3 - I now have in my possession or have seen all the books that 
have ever been published in the dialect and also advance copies of 
two that are shortly to be published. 

"In poetry" says Prof. Kuhn3 "much more of a higher 
sort has been written, generally however, in the form of transla- 
tions from English, and occasional poetry appearing for the most 
part in newspapers or recited on festive occasions." Along this 

line I have made collections from papers, magazines and manuscripts 


that run up into several hundred selections, and have added a 
large number of names. The fact that for a short time a magazine 
was published in the dialect, does not 3eem to be known to any one 
that has written about the dialect literature. A Calendar in the 
dialect i3 mentioned in Americana-Germanica Vol. p. : I have 
found and am in possession of another} finally the prose written in 
the form of weekly letters to a large number of newspapers have a 
value and an interest that has never received its due appreciation. 

In the next place, there ought to be room for an 
investigation and balancing of opinions as variant as the following: 
Karl Knoi;z, in discussing one of tho two poets mentioned by him 
says: "Einer der neuesten Beitrage zur Pennsylvaniech-deutschen 
Literatur - - bildet, um es kurz und bundig zu sagen das a ller - 
t raurigste ^rzeugnis derselben. M --- "Der Verfasser, der noch nicht 
einmal seine sogenannte 'Muttersprache' kennt aieht mit den Regeln 
der Dichtkunst auf gespanntom Fusse? and then goes on to show that 
the book has no legitimate excuse to justify its existence. It is 
of the same man and the same book that Dr.Zimmermann in his col- 
lection "Deutsch in Amerika" says "Von Hatur mit gesundem Humor 
begabt, schrieb er viele Gedichto und Skizzen in Pennsylvanisch 
deutscher Mundart, das Alltagsleben der Deutschen in Pennsylvanien 
meisterhaf t schildern d" And again this same nan and this same 
work is referred to by Prof .Faust when he says: "The two most prom* 
inent poets , for such a title may be bestowed upon them " and when 
he says: "This poetical literature of the Pennsylvania Germans is 
one of the few original notes in American lyrical poetry." 

Here there certainly seems room for a meditation 
between such divergent opinions. Or to cite another instance: In 


the Friedensbote, published at Allentown, Pa. a Pennsylvania Ger- 
man writes a letter in the dialect, apropos of the book to be issued 
on and in the dialect by Dr. Home, then Principal of the Keystone 
State Normal School at Kutztown, Pa. After discussing the ancestry 
of the dialect, he proceeds to consider the books that have hither- 
to been written in the dialect, with a view to giving the prospective 
author advice as to what errors of former writers he must avoid. 
The particular paragraph that I have at present in mind, I give in 
the original dialect: M Rau warm du dra* gehst for sel Buch zu 
schreiwe los des verhenkert (Snglisch) Kauderwelsch haus wo gar 
net in unser Sproch g'hort. Ich arger mich allemol schwarz un 
bio wann so dumm stoff gedruckt un in die Welt g'schickt werd wo 
Pennsylvanisch deitsch sei. soil, awer lautor geloge is. 'S is uns 
verlaschtert wo mirs net verdient hen. Un wann dei Buch mol fer- 
tig is un's kummt mir unner die Finger un ' s is so *n elendiger 
V/isch wie kerzlich wieder eoner in Fildelfi raus kumme is, dann 
ufgobasst - for dann verhechel ich dich dass du aussehnst wie 
verhudelt Schwingwerk, un die Leut dich for'n Spuks a'gucke." 

"Schinnerhannes von Calrr.ushiwel ." 
Such is the opinion expressed by a Pennsylvania Ger- 
man editor of a book published in Philadelphia- "Gemalde aus dem 
Pennsylvania chen Volksleben: Schilderungen und Aufsatze in poetischer 
und prosaischer Form in Mundart und Ausdrucksweise der Deut3ch 
Pennsylvanier? von Ludwig August '-Vollenweber. Schaeffer und Koradi, 
Philadelphia und Leipzig, 1859. This same work is called by 
Karl Xnorz M ein wertvollos Workchen 11 and then he tells that here 
we may expect the truth, for the author was himself one of these 
people, etc. Here again there seems to be room for an investigation 

into the reason for this difference of opinion and perhaps a chance 
to get at the truth where opinions differ and surely where there 
are errors of fact. 

A more nearly oomplote survey of the whole field 
and an attempt to arrive at the exact truth in questions of fact 
are accordingly here offered in the first Instance. The attempt 
is then made to determine whether the one or the other of the op- 
posing general estimates is correct, and finally whether a new one 
will have to be set up. 


The Beginnings of the Literature. 


For the earliest example in print of what purports to 
be a specimen of the dialect we must undoubtedly ha r e recourse to 
Johann David Schopf 'a Travels (1783-1784) published at Erlangen 
1788 and reprinted in Radlof f s "Musteraaal aller teutschen Mund- 
arten" Bonn, 1822. Vol.11, p. 361; but the man does not exist who 
would acknowledge this as his dialect, or who would recognize it 
as a native idiom at all. Prof .Ilaldeman, who cited the passage in 
"Pennsylvania Dutch" agrees in regarding it as nothing other than 
a sportive example and a spurious joke. 

In Firmenich: "Germaniens Vftlkerstimmen" , Vol. III. 
p. 445 Berlin, 1854, there is another longer specimen which was taken 
from a Pennsylvania Newspaper. 

The earliest examples in print of writing in the 
dialect by such as also spoke it, must be sought in the newspapers 
of eastern Pennsylvania of the early 40* s; w Der Deutsche in 
Amerika" of 1841 contained some rhymed compositions: they were "ex 
hamaxes" and in various ways suggest the impromptu productions 
which we are taught to believe were the forerunners of the Aris- 
tophanean comedy, and which were composed by the bacchanalian 
chorus of rustics. In 1846 advertising doggerels appeared in the 
Allentown Friedenebote. One after another the newspapers took up 
the matter, publishing short prose or verse selections; their read- 
era wanted it; except in familiar intercourse with each other, the 
fcural population of eastern Pennsylvania was obliged to use one or 
the other of two foreign languages; in business chiefly and in law 
entirely it was the English: in their religious and intellectual 
life it was the High German; accordingly they seem to have welcomed 
almost anything that was in the language of their daily speech; they 


seem to have felt a void because their speech was only something 
to he heard and not also something that oould he seen; that that 
is the way they felt I prove in this way; twenty years after this, 
when in many papers they could see their speech in print every 
week, there manifested itself a more ambitious desire, to see their 
speech between the covers of a book. I take the story from the In- 
troduction to Wollenwober's "Gem&lde aus dem Pennsylvanlschen Volks- 
leben? I can believe that the story is literally true. (On the 
language, which is not strictly Pennsylvania German, I shall have 
something to say when I consider the contents of the book.) 

"Ich war nie uf de Gedanke komme das Buch zu schreiwe, abey , 
do war ich das Fruhjohr uf dem grosse Pelse bei Allentaun, un hab 
uf dem wunnerbar schftne Platz, wo mer viele Meile weit die schftne 
Berge un das vun Gott so gesegnete Land sehene kann. 

"Un wie ich do so gestanne, un die Natur so bewunnert 
hab, das mei Herz ganz weeg geworre, un's Wasser mer schier in 
die Auge komme ischt, do kommt uf e mol en alter Mann dorch die 
Hecke un stellt sich grad nebe mich, und frogt mich, wie ich die 
Ansicht do gleiche that. Sehr gut, geb ich ihra zur Antwort. Well, 
sagt er, ich wohne a paar Meile von do, un komme wanna Wetter schft 
ischt, schier alle Monat uf de Pelse, un warm ich mich dann so 
recht satt gesehne hab, do geht mei Herz uf , un ich mehn ich war 
im rechte Tempel Gottes, und dank dem guten Vater un Schftpfer mit 
ganzer Seele mit ganzem Herze, dass er una e so schon's un gut's 
Land gegebe hot.- Un warm ich vun meiner Bergras wieder hem kumra, 
bin ich ganz vergnugt, un predig meiner Fra un Kinner, wie scho 
als Gott die Welt gemacht hot, un wie mer ihm daftir danke sollte. 

"Nau hab ich a schon dran gedenkt, wenn e mol e 


Bucherhandler dran gehn dat, un dat e Buch drucke losse wo mer in 
uns're egene deutache Sproch, fiber unser Land un Volk less konnte 
un nebebei a so gespassige Stuckelchen nin bringe, wie ae manchmol, 
im Doylestouner Morgenatem un Express 3tehn, un wie ae die Yohre 
zuruck ira Kutztowner Neutralist gestanne hent, daa em der Bauch 
vor Lache gewackelt hot, un ich bin achur davon alle raeine Nochbere 
date ao e Buch kafe, un der Buchhandler dat net achlecht dabei aua- 
mache un aich noch Dank dazu verdiene.- 

"Well, sagt ich zu dem Altem, ich geh morge nftber 
noch Philadelphia, wo ich die Buchhandler Schafer und Koradi kenn, 
und ich will mit ihm von Eurera Vorachlag schwatze, vielleicht gehn 
ae dran, un loaae ao a Buch drucke, un bia mer dann wieder e mol 
uf dem Felae zuaamme kumme iacht3 Buch vielleicht fertig. Awer 
Drubel warda koate, dann unaer Pennaylveniach Deutach iacht hart 
zu schreiwe, un Ehner achreibts ao, der Annere wieder anneraht, un 
mancher verengliacht es so, daaa mehr gar nimme draus kumme kann. 
Doch denk ich wann a hier un do a Mistak im Buch gemacht werd, 
warre die Leut es net ao hart ufnehme, aiacht jo 'a erdt Probe- 
stftck, e Buch in Pennaylveniach Deutach. Nau aagte der Alte, wann 
du aell aewege bringat, un e Peddler kommt mit dem Buch in unare 
Gegend, do wett ich eena gege zwe, dass er all verkaft wo er hot, 
dass er geschwind mit fertig werd, will ich ihm mei bests Gaul gebe 
for rum zu reite.- 

"Der alte Mann druckte mir die Hand und 3agte very 
well. - Ich war aber noch net aatt genunk fiber die acho Gegend 
zu guke, un ea war schier Nacht wie ich hem kumme bin. -Dem alte 
Mann aei Geschwatz ischt mir die ganze Nacht dorch de Kop ge- 
gange, un nachste Morge bin ich noch Philadelphia un weil mei 

Geschaft a bald gesettlet war, hab ich den Buchhandler dem alten 
Mann von Lecha County 3ei Wunsch gesagt, un sie ware a gleich redy 
for die Sach* un nau werd bald das Buch uberall rum gehn, wanna 
nur a gefallt, das dat dem Schrelwer en arge Freud mache, un er 
dat uf sei Pennsylvenier un uf sel Pennsylvenier noch stolzer 
werre wie er jetzt achun iacht." 

The same forces which called these fir at nrewpaper 
artiolea and this first book into exiatence continued to operate 
and to a certain extent are atill operative. In a book published 
in 1904 entitled "Boonastiel" -Pennsylvania Dutch, by Thomas Harter, 
the author expreaaea himself thus in the preface: "The articlea 
contained in this volume were published from time to time in the 
Middleburgh Post, (Pa) of which I was editor until 1894 and aince 
then in the Keyatone Gazette, Belief onte, Pa. under the headline 
'Brief e ifum Hawaa Barrick' addressed to myaelf as 'Liewer Kernel 
Harder' and aigned 'Gottlieb Boona8tiel f . At first they were only 
written for peraonal amuaement, and appeared only occaaionally, but 
I soon found them 30 eaaential to the proaperity of my paper that 
in order to keep up ita circulation, I was compelled to write every 
week and now have a great number of lettera on file, out of which 
I have selected the substance that composes this volume." As 
recently as July of this year -1910 - Xr. Harter announced that the 
Boonastiel letters would be reprinted and they are at present 
running in the Gazette. 

Twice already has H.K.Miller, who writes for the 
Elizabethvills Echo, Elizabethville, Pa. felt that his articles 
were popular enough to warrant his publishing them in book form. 
Two of these publications have run through a second edition, and 

each has had a second printing. Another volume has been printed, 
(I have a copy) and is nearly ready to be given to the public. 

A man who can guage the forces at work among the Penn- 
sylvania Germans and interpret then as correctly as few are able to 
do is Daniel Miller of Reading, Pa. After retiring from the pub- 
lishing business he collected and published in 1903 a volume of 
prose and verse in the dialect which has gone through two editions; 
during the last year - 1909 - he has made further collections and 
has now in press another volume which will be issued early in 1911, 
and of which I was permitted to see the manuscript this summer -1910 - 
and now- April 1911 - havo the advance sheets. 

I have cited these few instances to indicate one 
reason for the existence of certain works in the dialect. Karl 
Knor A z, "Nord Amerikanische Literatur" Vol. II. p. 192 speak3 of a 
book which he does not think has a right to exist and leaves the 
impression that the author rushed into print; this again is not 
correct, for whether the author was justified or not in yielding 
to the demand, there was a distinct demand that he make the pro- 
ductions accessible in permanent form; to the teachers of York 
County he had recited the productions at a County Institute and 
they were desirous of possessing them. 

In like manner the friends of Dr.Grumbine of Lebanon 
have for a number of years been urging him to make a selection of 
his numerous writings and publish them in book form, but he has 
not yet consented to do so. 

A book in the dialect will naturally obtain only a 
small circulation outside of the district where the dialect is spok- 
en; if the book is written by one of these people and for them and 

for the most part about them, and accepted with satisfaction hy 


these people, we may be reasonably certain that we have either a 
flattering idealization of then or at loagt a faithful portrait 
and not a caricature. (It may be noted in illustration of this 
point, that Mrs. Helen Reifsnyder Martin's novels are not among the 
most popular works in the district about which she writes.) 

w Ein Bauer der seine Sprache frei und sicher spricht, 
1st ein ' Mann ? er bringt una den Hauch einer eigener 7/elt, seine 
Weltanschauung, mit: so hart sie sein mag - er korant nie an una 
heran ohne Erquickung der Seele" says Klaus Groth. That a number 
of writers, by responding to the desire of the people to have some- 
thing in their own speech, have succeeded in giving us the Welt- 
anschauung of the body of the Pennsylvania Germans will be shown 
by the words with which they have been greeted by their own people 
and the success which has attended their endeavors as authors. 
President John S.Stahr of Franklin and Marshall College, said a 
number of years ago: "The Pennsylvania German dialect effectively 
expresses the simplicity, honesty, innocence, pathos and beauty 

of the daily life of these people, and the experiences which they 
have made as part of their history. There is certainly room, 
therefore, for the study of such literature as they have produced 
on this plane." 

In a little volume "Marsch und Geest: Gedichte in 
Oldenburg, niederdeutscher Mundart" von Franz Poppe, Oldenburg, 
1379 we may read on the first page: 

Se saen, wi Noorddutschen 
Verstunnen kin Gesang 
An'n Rhiin un an de Donau, 
Dar harr de Sprak blot Klang. 

Dat hett us lang verdraten 
Dat se us so veracht't 

As harm se't Recht torn Singen 
Far sick allsenig pacht't. 

Evidently dialects in different parts of the world 
have the same reproaches hurled at them and have the same prejudices 
to contond with. Out of pure Belf defense they have sought adequate 
expression. The spirit thus aroused expresses itself in one of two 
ways} the first - men of poetic bent, men who have already written 
poetry in a recognized literary idiom , now at last, either of their 
own motion or by request, essay the rhythm of their native speech 
and bring forth their productions with a defiant- There , now stand 
corrected. The second - men will burst out with declarations of 
their affection for the despised tongue and in their very passion 
create poems. 

Of the first class in Pennsylvania German are 
J.Max Hark: "En Hondfull Farsh", and some of the poems of Lee Light 
Grumbine. Both are men enjoying a wide acquaintance with literature 
both can frame their thoughts as readily in Pennsylvania German 
as in English; both had written English poetry. To them the Pem 
sylvania German Society said in effect - "Why not speak for and in 
the dialect?" Among those who acknowledged conversion may be cited 
C.F.Ferdinand Ritschl, Imperial German Consul at Philadelphia, Pa, 
who said of Grumbine' s efforts "I am sure your book will be most 
successful in correcting the popular misconceptions of the dialect. 
I was surprised myself by the adaptability of the dialect to a 
subject like tha 'Ancient Mariner'. Your translation of that poem 
is beautiful, etc. Till now I had had the idea that Pennsylvania 
German was only adapted for homelike feelings and situations, but 
I stand corrected." 


To those who moved of their own initiative belongs 

Col. Thomas G. Zimmerman, who after translating many German lyrics 

into English, proceeded to translate Scotoh, English and Irish 

ballads into Pennsylvania German. To the second class belong such 

poems as that of worshipful adoration of his mothertongue by 

Adam Stump, of which the last stanza runs thus: 

eanfto, deire Muttersproch: 

Wie Hunnig fliesst sie darrich mei Sinn! 

Un wann ich mol im Himmel hoch 

Mei scheene Heemet dun gewinne 

Dann heer ich dort zu meinomiwohl 

En Mutterwort - ja, ah ebmol. 

Or the words of Ziegler, confident of its powers: 

Will ich recht ve'stannig schwetze 
Eppes ausenanner setze - 
A,B,C un eens, zwee, drei, 
So dass jeder commoner Mann 
Klar un deitlich sehne kann 
Well 'as Gold is un wel Blei, 
Nem ich gute deitsche Warte, 
We is un schwarzi, weech un harte 
Noh vollbringt die Sach sich glei. 

Or again the vigorous words of Dr. Keller: 

Ich schwetz in der deitsche Sproch 
Lieb sie ah un halt sie hoch; 
Sie is ah ken Nevekind 
Das mer in de Hecke find - 
Sie kummt her fum Sch6ne Rhei 
Wu sie Trauwe hen un Weil 

This incentive to write, finds its parallel again in Europe; listen 

once more to Franz Poppe: 

Us' Sprak is as us' Heiden 
Ursprungelk noch un free 
Us Sprak is deep un m&chtig 
Un prachtig as de See. - - 
Min Modersprak, wo klingst du 
So sot un doch so stark; 
We leew: ick di van Hart en, 
Du Land vull Kraft un Mark I 

The establishment of the Pennsylvania German Magazine, 

now in its eleventh year, affording a reasonably large audience of 


interested readers has been instrumental in bringing forward a 

number of new singers, among whom at the present time is a Professor 

in a lar^e University in Ohio. 

From a Pennsylvania German poetess the call has 

gone out ; 

WU sin die deitsche Dichter 
Sie sin verschwunne all 
Wu sin die grosse Lichter 
In unsere Ruhmeshall 
Heraus, heraus, Reimreiser, 
Wu sin ihr all versteckt 
Ihr sin jo die Wegweiser 
Die Schoheit uferweckt. 

Still another reason for the existence of verses 
in the dialect, is that somebody perhaps now grown old remembers a 
custom in vogue in the days of the grandfathers. The custom wa3 
peculiar to German people: the person who vaguely remembers it, 
wishes to communicate his knowledge to the younger generation which 
does not know of it, or he wishes to delight the old by recalling 
it. Instinctively he feels for the dialect as the proper medium 
and generally in veneration of the old custom he will try to dig- 
nify it by versifying. The writer of some verses in the Lebanon 
Report of Feb. 5, 1900 has prefixed introductory remarks of the 
above tenor to a description of "The Metzel Day Soup." 

Moreover, the person who is thus imparting know- 
ledge has often been induced to versify, because his poetized lore 
will live longer, not to his own glory, for he does not attach 
his name, but to recall something that is no more. The folk, and 
this is well known, will be more likely to cut out and preserve 
such a selection than one in prose or in English on the same sub- 
ject. A much better description of "The Metzel Soup Day" was printed 


in a Lancaster Llagazine in 1891, but only in the files of the 
editor did I find it, whereas rhymed descriptions can be gathered 
almost anywhere. This is one case that can be paralleled by many. 
Such selections have a historical value. 

Another small class of books may be mentioned as owing 
their existence to a very real necessity: it is stated thus in tfee 
preface to the second edition of Home's "Pennsylvania German Manual" 
1895. "The great problem presented for solution i3 how shall 6 to 
800,000 inhabitants of eastern Pennsylvania, to say nothing of 
those of other parts of our own state and of other states, to whom 
English is as much a dead language as Latin and Greek, acquire a 
sufficient knowledge of English to enable them to use that language 
intelligently." As a guide to the study of English, the manual 
which includes a guide to pronunciation, a select Reader, and a 
Dictionary, was submitted to the public for use in schools and 
families. The book was first published in 1875 and a fourth edition 
is at present being called for. There exist a number of other 
works of this class. 


Philip Schaff. 

When in the year 1843, Dr. Krummacher, the Berlin 
theologian and pulpit orator, after some hesitation declined the 
profferred Professorship of Theology at ^ercersfeurg, Pa. he suggest- 
ed for the place, a young licentiate, who had just taken up his 
position as privat dozent at the University of Berlin. After the 
necessary formalities, this young man, Dr. Philip Schaff, landed 
in New York in July 1844. Prom Easton, Pa. where he entered the 
region of the people who had called him, his progress to Mercers- 
burg was almost a triumphal procession; Germans and Americans pour- 
ing out to meet him. Dr. Schaff was attracted by the signs of 
prosperity in town and country, the ample farmhouses, the large and 
well cultivated farms and the kindness with which he was entertain- 
ed. Everywhere he heard German, not the German of the peasantry or 
of the Educated classes in Germany, but the Colloquial dialect 
known as Pennsylvania German. - - For twenty years he went in 
and out among them, finding sterling virtues not excelled in any 
other population in the land. These facts are cited from the Life 
of Philip Schaff by his son, David S. Schaff. (Scribner's, New York, 

This commanding personage, who meant so much for 
the religious life of Europe and America, merits for several reasons 
brief consideration in an account of Pennsylvania German poetry; 
early in life he had ambitions to become a poet, nourished his 
mind at the founts of German poesy and had even versified to a 
certain extent himself; his developing literary sense presently 
told him that he was no poet, notwithstanding it enabled him to 
recognize poetic talents in others. In 1848, he began the publi- 


cation of the "Deutschen Kirchenfreund" (the first German Literary 
Monthly in this country) to supply the literary need of those to 
whom he ministered; in this he published (and perhaps for the 
first time) what is said to be the earliest poem in the dialect - 
a poem which appeared anonymously in the number of August 1849, 
entitled "Abendlied^ (See Rondthaler) 

But his connection with the poetry of this people 
was to become more fruitful still. He it was who detected poetic 
talent in the timid Harbaugh, and calling his attention to the above 
mentioned lone specimen in the dialect, suggested to him the de- 
sirability of doing for Pennsylvania German in song what Hebel 
had done for the Allemanic dialect; the first fruits of this 
suggestion were then modestly submitted to Schaff before publication; 
these did not however Include the one poem now known and cited 
wherever Pennsylvania German is mentioned "Das Schulhaus an der 
Krick" As Harbaugh is the inspiration in turn of all or nearly 
all the subsequent writers in the dialect, it may be truly said 
of Schaff that he it was who awakened the muse among a people who, 
from the days of terror at the end of the seventeenth century when 
they left their Fatherland along the Rhine, down to the middle 
of the nineteenth century, had not expressed themselves in secular 


other' sources of information 
for the chapter on 
B manu9l Rondth a 1 e r . 

Correspondence with members of his family. 

Life of Harbaugh - Lynn Harbaugh, Philada, 1900. 

Life of Philip Schaff- D.S.Schaff, Hew York, 1897. 

Nazareth Hall and it3 Reunions. Reichel, Philada, 1869. 

Pennsylvania German, Vol. I. 2. 18. 

Pennsylvania German, Vol.7. 3. 121. 


Emanual Rondthaler. 

The aong for which the claim has been ! ade that it 
is the earliest known poem in the dialect wa3 entitled "Abendliod" 
when, in August 1349, it first appeared in the "Deutsoher Kirchen- 
freund" published by Philip Schaff. Up to 1857, Dr.Schaff declined 
to reveal the identity of the author, but shortly thereafter 
attributed its authorship to the Rev. Edward Rondthaler Sr. a Mo- 
ravian missionary and minister who was for a time tutor and sub- 
sequently Principal of the famous Moravian School, Nazareth Hall, 
Nazareth, Pa. and who died in 1855. 

On the occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of 
the founding of this school in 1769, a book was prepared by 
William C. Reichel, "Nazareth Hall and its Reunions',' Lippincott, 
Philada, Pa, 1869, in which our poem is included in an appendix, - 
but under the title "Morgets un Oweds" and with a slightly modified 
orthography; we are there informed that the author was the Rev. 
Emanuel Rondthaler, a brother of the above named, who had also been 
a teacher in the same institution, and who died in 1848. This 
la3t statement is confirmed by Bishop Edward Rondthaler, of 
Winston-Salem, N.C. a son of the former, and by Miss Elizabeth 
Rondthaler of Bethlehem, Pa, a daughter of the latter, from whom 
also comes the statement that it was written by her father about 
1335 when he was twenty years old because he desired to prove as 
above stated A that the Pennsylvanie German, so generally despised 
could bo used to express poetic and refined sentiment. A consider- 
ation of certain phenomena of nature and particularly of the morn- 
ing bringing favorable omens as compared with those of evening, 
leads our divine to note in general the mutability of human fortiine 


on which follows the comforting reflection that "up yonder" what 
is fair In the morning will "be no less so at eventide, if there 
he an eventide there at all. Hereupon the poet hurst into an 
expression of passionate longing for that blest abode, and calls 
upon his friends not to grieve for him when he is laid in the 
tomb and enters the realms where there is no change. (cf. for 
subject matter I.Thess. IV. 13 ) 

Prof .Reichel, in his introductory remarks declared 
it as his belief "that it is one of the first attempts to render 
that mongrel dialect the vehicle of poetic thought and diction." 
He commends the poem for the touching appeal it makes to the finer 
feelings of our nature, and the spirit of Christian faith and hope 

with which it is imbued. The Professor adds a translation into 

. - j 
English in a different metre^this is in reality more in the nature 

of a paraphrase. 

As to the "mongrel" dialect, it is interesting to 
note that of the 162 words in the poem, only two are English, and 
of these it is possible that one could be eliminated if we had the 
original text, inasmuch as a third extant version of the poem make3 
in this very place a good rhyme with an undoubted Pennsylvania 
German word. 

Reichel' s version betrays an effort made by means 
of the orthography to accentuate the difference between the pro- 
nunciation of the dialect and the High German. While a few of his 
changes might meet with acceptance, his version i3 not on the 
whole successful, and at least one change is made in gender which 
violates present usage in that same county. 



Margets acheint die Sun bo scho 

Owets gent der gehl Mond uf, 
Margets leit der Dau im Klee, 

Owets tritt mer drucke druf. 

Marge t9 sings all die Vogel, 

Owets greischt die Loabkrot arg. 
Margets gloppt mer mit der Flegel, 

Owets leit mer schon im Sarg. 

Alles dut sich annern do, 

Nix bleibt immer so wie now, 
Was ei'm Freed macht, bleibt net so, 

Werd gar arg bald hart un rau. 

Drowe werd es anners sein, 

Dart, wo's now so blow aussicht; 
Dart is Margets alles feih, 

Dart is Owets alles Lioht. 

Margets is dart Freed die Full: 

Owets is es au nooh so, 
Margets i9 em's Herz so still, 

Owets is mer au noch froh. 

AchJ wie dut me doch gelischte 

Nach der blowe Wohnung dart; 
Dart mit alle gute Chrischte, 

Freed zu habe, Ruh alsfcrt. 

Warm sie mi in's Grab nein trage, 

Greint net, denn ich hab's so scho: 
Wann sie es is Owets sage 

Denkt - bei ihm is sell all anes; 

Deutscher Kirchenfreund, 1649 
Pennsylvania German, May 1906. p. 121. 

Morgets und Owets. 

Morgets scheint die Sun so scho, 

Owets geht der gehl Mond uf , 
Morgets leit der Dau im Gla 

Owets drett mer drucke druf. 

Morgets cinge all die Feggle, 

Owets greyscht der Lawb-krott arg, 
Morgets gloppt met mit der Fleggle, 

Owets leit mer sho im Sarg. 

Alles dut sich ennere do, 

Nix belibt immer so wie nau; 
Wos' em Frad macht, bleibt nett so, 

Werd gar arg bald harrt un rau.- 


Drowe werd es annors sein, 

Dart wo nau so bio aussicht, 
Dart is Morgets alles fein, 

Dart ia Owets alles Licht. 

Morgets is dart Frad die Fill, 

OwotB is es o noch so; 
Morgets is ems Herz so still j 

Owets is mer o noch fro. 

Ach! wie dut mer doch gelischte, 

Nach der blo'e Woning dart; 
Dart nit alle gute Christe 

Frad zu have - Roo ale fort. 

Wann sie mich ins Grab nei drage, 

Greint nett - denn ich habs so echo,- 

Wann sie - "Ess is Owet!" - sage - 

Denkt - bci ihm is sell, "Allone". 

Nazareth Hall and itB Reunions, 1869 

Pennsylvania German, May 1906, p. 121. 

Morgets laid Owets. (Translation) 

In the morning the sun shines cheerful and bright, 

In the evening the yellow moon's splendor is shed; 

In the morning the clover's with dew all bedight, 

In the evening its blossoms are dry to the trea-" . 

In the morning the birds sing in unison sweet, 

In the evening the frog cries prophetic and loud; 

In the morning we toil to the flail's dull beat, 

In the evening we lie in our coffin and shroud. 

Here on earth there is nothing exempt from rude change - 
Naught abiding, continuing always the same; 

What pleases is passing - is past, oh how strange! 

And the joy that so mocked us is followed by pain. 

But above twill be different, I very well know- 
Up yonder where all is so calm and so blue! 

In the morning there objects will be all aglow, 

In the evening aglow too with Heaven's own hue. 

In the morning up yonder our cup will be filled, 

In the evening its draught will not yet have been drained, 

In the morning our hearts will divinely be stilled, 

In the evening ecstatic with bliss here unnamed. 


And oh, how I long, how I yearn to be there, 

Up yonder where all is so calm and so blue, 

With the spirits of perfected just ones to share 
Through eternity's ages joy and peace ever new. 


And when to my grave I shall slowly he borne, 

Oh weep and lament not, for I am bo blest ', 

And when "it is evening" you'll sar or, "tis morn"- 
Remember for me there is nothing but rert! 

This is the translation of Rondthaler's "Abendlied" 

made by Prof .William C.Reichel, Nazareth, Pa. 

Pennsylvania German, Kay 1906. p. 121 f. 


the sketch on 

Louis Miller. 

Amerikanische Volkskunde- Knorz, Leipzig. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, 

Vol. XII. p. 379. 

Short Sketch of the Pennsylvania Germans- Fisher, 



Louis Miller. 

Antedating Rondthaler is another Pennsylvania German 

poet whose poems were however, in all probability not in print at 

so early a date. Louis Miller was born the the son of a school 

teacher, at York, Pa. Dec. 3rd. 1795 $ he became a carpenter and 

later a builder, and is said to have gained credit and distinction 

as suchj he was a man of ready wit, and of a culture unusual for 

his time and in his community. This fund of inf ormation A acquired 

by diligent self instruction and by one very extensile trip 

through Europe. Besides this He was a talented cartoonist and 

caricaturist as is shown by two volumes of his sketches still 

extant. So far I possess only one of his poems; it is a driver's 

song which was said to have had a goodly share of popularity in the 

days when the German farmers of southern Pennsylvania used to 

convey the products of their farms to market in Baltimore, in 

their great Cones toga wagons. 


Henry Harbaugh. 

When this dis.Tertation is published, the writer 
will (with the consent of the Department) insert here an essay 
on Henry Harbaugh. In view of the fact that in comparison with 
other writers treated in this dissertation, Henry Harbaugh is 
wellknown and of the additional fact that a Life of Henry Harbaugh 
by his son, Lynn Harbaugh, has been published, it did not seem 
necessary to make a special study of him and his work, for the 
purposes of this dissertation. 


A Bibliography 

for the chapter on 
Edward H.Rauch. 

Allibone's Dictionary of Authors. Supplement. 1891. 

Canton, Ohio Repository and Republican, Canton, Ohio. 

Carbon County Democrat, Mauch Chunk, Pa. 

College News, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa. 

ElliB, Early English Pronunciation. London, 1869. 

Father Abraham, Reading, Pa. 1864. 

Father Abraham, Lancaster, Pa. 1868. 

Geschichte der Nordamerikanischer Littsratur. Knorz, Berlin, 

History of Carbon and Lehigh Counties, Matthews and Hungerford. 

London Saturday Globe, Aug. 18, 1886. 

Lebanon News, Lebanon, Pa. 

National Baptist, 

New York Deutsche Blatter. 

Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook, Mauch Chunk, Pa. 1879. 

Philadelphia Press, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. III. 171 

Reading Times and Dispatch, Reading, Pa. 

The Pennsylvania Dutchman, Lancaster, Pa. 1873. 

Rip Van Winkle. Mauch Chunk, Pa. 1883. 


Col. Edward Henry Rauch. 
In Col. Edward Henry Rauch were centered a ceaseless 
activity, a wonderful initiative and an untiring energy that meant 
more for the growth of Pennsylvania German Literature than any other 
individual group of forces. To trace in detail his movements in 
Pennsylvania would be too long a story, yet they must be passed in 
rapid review, in order that we may be able to understand his re- 
lations to the people of the state. He was born in Lititz, Pa. 
July 19, 1820, grandson of Johann Heinrich Rauch who had come from 
K&ln in 1769. 

Presently we find Rauch in politics, as clerk in 
the office of the Prothonotary at Lancaster - 1845; then three years 
later, 1847, Deputy Register of Wills} again three years later 
entering 3o urna li 0in > and under the leadership of Thaddeus Stevens 
editing and managing two anti-slavery Whig papers- the Independent 
Whig and the Inland Daily; in 1854 on his own account going to 
Bethlehem and starting the Lehigh Valley Times, which he sold in 
1857 and purchased the Mauch Chunk Gazette, to which he added, in 
1859 a German paper - the Carbon Adler. 

In ^859 he became transcribing clerk of the State 
Legislature and in 1860 - 1862, chief clerk, although he accepted 
this office only on condition that he sould have leave to go with 
the Qompany he had raised for the war. Three years he was at the 
front, when, on being discharged because of physical disability, he 
started the Father Abraham at Reading, Pa. - a militant campaign 
sheet in a county of doubtful loyalty. Next he became city editor 
of the Reading Eagle; in 1868 we find him once more in Lancaster, 
a second time founding a Father Abraham. 



With Col.McClure he was one of the Greely Campaign managers in 1872, 
four years after he published the "Uncle Samuel" in the Tilden Campaign 
in 1878 x political conditions invited him oncejmore to Mauch Chunk 
where he founded the Carbon County Democrat, and was sotan able to 
absorb his rival whereupon he settled down to the end of his days 
in ; in which place his son is still conducting the same paper. 

Among minor accomplishments Rauch had the ability 
to simulate almost any handwriting or to reproduce any signature. 
This led him to study the subject until he became an expert, and as 
such, during a period of almost fifty ^ears, he was called into 
the courts of many states in cases involving disputed handwriting. 

But this military and civil tribune was withal a 
dialect writer. Already in his first Father Abraham, there appeared 
an occasional short selection in dialect, but those were times of 
too terrible earnestness for such work} but later, in 1868 with 
the advent of the second Father Abraham, contributions in the dialect 
over the signature of Pit Schweff elbrenner became a regular feature. 

Karl Knorfe has referred to these selections as "Humor- 
istisch sein sollende Brief e!J acormentary on this readers capacity 
to appreciate humor; for, five years later the author of the letters 
could speak of them as follows: n Our first regular productions 
in Pennsylvania Dutch appeared in the Father Abraham campaign paper 
over the signature of Pit Schweff elbrenner. They contributed more 
to the remarkable popularity of that paper than anything else it 
contained and the circulation increased rapidly not only in Penn- 
sylvania but also in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, Wisconsin, 
and other states." A bit of presumably disinterested opinion is 
the following: While these letters were running in the Father 

Abraham, the Philadelphia Press published a translation of one of 


the letters for the benefit of its readers and prefaced the pro- 
duction by the following statement. 

Pennsylvania Dutch. 
We give below a first class specimen of that unique lit- 
erature, which has within a few years become intensely popular, and 
which carries with it a quaint logic often more convincing than 
harder facts wrapped in satin ornaments. Every one has read with 
delight the celebrated Bigelow papers, which gave point and pun- 
gency to thoughts that the language of the forum or the parlor 
would have suffered to lie dormant. The shrewd observations of 
Naseby have not only immortalized the man, but have answered a pur- 
pose which no other literature could have met. Thousands of dogmas 
are presented which no argument can banish simply because they 
cannot be reached by argument. They can be pushed aside by a con- 
par tson, exploded by a joke, vaporized by a burlesque, or the vic- 
timized party may be made ashamed of himself by seeing how ridiculous 
his neighbor appears, who carries out the doctrines he so gladly 
entertains and so blindly believes. Great good then, may be done 
by the adoption of such a literature. Why, it is hard to tell, but 
the fact is true, as every one will admit. 

The East has thrown its patois into the books of 
James Russell Lowell, under the signature of Hosea Biglow and no 
one regrets their perusal. The Southweste-n form of speech and 
method of argument has been incorporated in side-splitting letters 
by Petroleum V. Naseby. The Pennsylvania Dutch is a language pe- 
culiarly susceptible of similar use. Rauch, editor of Father Abra- 
ham, a spirited campaign sheet, published in Lancaster, conceived 

the idea of rounding this language, or rather this compound of 


English and German languages, into effective and popular canvass* 
ing logic. His success has been complete, and the letters of Pit 
Schweffelbrenner, from Schliff letown have created a sensation, if 
not as widespread, as intense as those from the "Confederate Cross- 
roads which is in the Strait of Kentucky". The translation we append 
is merely to give the substance of the original. It convoys no 
idea of the peculiar and inimitable merits of the German version, 
which consists more in the manner of saying it, than in what is said" 
Prom the Pennsylvania Dutchman. Vol. I. No. I .1873. January. 

Interesting in this connection ia a notice in the 
work - Early English Pronunciation - by Prof .Alexander J.Ellis. If 
we recall that some of these early letters were issued as a small 
pamphlet, the quotation is self explanatory. "While I was engaged 
with the third part of my Early English Pronunciation, Prof .Haldeman 
sent me a reprint of some humorous letters by Rauch, entitled 
"Pennsylvania Daitsh: De Campaign Breefa fum Pit Schweffelbrenner" 
Perceiving at once the analogy between this debased German with 
English intermixture and Chaucer's debased Anglo Saxon with Norman 
intermixture, I requested and obtained such further information 
as enabled me to give an account of this singular reproduction of 
the manner in which our English language itself was built up, and 
insert it in the introduction to my chapter on Chaucer's pro- 

In 1873 another enterprise Rauch nftc had under ccn- 
r a number of years saw its beginning with the issuing 
in January, 1873 of the first number of - The Pennsylvania Dutchman- 
a monthly magazine. This first number contaired the publisher's 
announcement in parallel columns of English and Pennsylvania German , 


(This will be included in entirety elsewhere with the contents of 
all the known numbers of the magazine and specimens of the articles 
contained): familiar sayings in similar parallel columns, a poem 
by Tobias Witmer, together with a translation into English by Prof .Hal- 
deman of the University of Pennsylvania: a poem by Rauch himself, 
evidently in the manner of Harbaugh and entitled "Unser Alty Heemet"; 
a Pennsylvania German letter; the first of Rauch' s Shakespeare 
translations; a number of pages of English short stories and poems; 
followed by the first installment of the author's Pennsylvania 
German Dictionary with this interesting note n We are confident that 
before the first of January 1874 every reader of the Pennsylvanie 
Dutchman, by simply studying this part of tho publication together 
with the page of familiar sayings will be able to re i.p substantial 
benefits and use the language for practical business purposes." 

That the language was necessary for business pur- 
poses will seem evident by the parallel column advertisements in 
which lawyers and merchants assure their readers that they speak 
"Deitsch so goot dos E nglish" . 

Apropos of the use of the dialect for business pur- 
poses, it might be remarked that as recently as 1905 a candidate for 
Judge in a County in which his party was in overwhelming majority 
was defeated, because, though he had been long a resident of the 
County he had not thought worthwhile to learn the dialect. Lest 
this cause any surprise, I call attention to the remarkable par- 
allelism between the argument used by the organ of the party that 
opposed him and the statement made by Jos. Grimmer in the Strass- 
burger Post of Sept. 19, 1905, the very same year. The paper said: 
"The question^ whether the judicial candidate can or cannot speak 


Pennsylvania German, and it in no way reflects 

upon the intelligence of any public man to be able to do business 
in a language that has been spoken from the earliest history of the 
county. On the other hand it is important that the man who sits 
upon the Bench to administer justice with an even hand shall be con- 
versant with the dialect of a large majority of the people and which 
does not always admit of strict interpretation." What Grimmer said 
in his article I can only report at second hand, but the Zeit- 
schrift fur Deutsche Mundar ten, 1910 1.52 f. says: "Die Mundart in 
ihrer Stellung zuir. Bffentlichen Leben erortert eine Aus las sung von 
Grimmer der die Notwendigkeit dass der Richter die Mundart der 
Gegend in der er seines Amtes waltet wo nicht beherrsche so doch 
verstehe, an gut gewahlten Beispielen erlautert. 

In this connection it may not be out of place to 
cite from a newspaper of 1907. "Three different kinds of German 
were spoken recently in Court at Harrisburg. A witness spoke High 
German, Judge Thomas Capp spoke the Pennsylvania Dutch of Lebanon 
County and Senator John E.Fox, the defendant's counsel spoke the 
Pennsylvania Dutch of Dauphin County. I have myself heard a lawyer 
review in the dialect before the Jury, testimony that had been 
given in the dialect, at such length that the Judge stopped him 
to inquire whether he purposed to give his entire plea in the 
dialect. Curiously enough, the lawyer in questionjwas a native of 
Cornwall, England, but he at least appreciated what Hauch implied, 
that a knowledge of the dialect was a business necessity. 

But to return to the Pennsylvania Dutch Magazine. 
After the Dictionary, there followed, strir.gley enough in the first 
number of the Magazine - Answers to Correspondents!! and then a page 

of editorials. "Here is richness for you n is the way a Mt. Joy 
paper expressed itself over this new Magazine. The Reformed 
Church Messenger, although objecting to the name Dutchman, found 
the enterprise a "commendable one" and "hoped it would prove a 
success." The Canton, Ohio Repository said: "Mr. Rauch is best 
known to our reiders under the name of Pit Schweffelbrenner; he 
has done more to popularize this amusing dialect than any man in 
America", while the following is from the New York Deutsche Blatter 
"In Lancaster erscheint jetzt ein neuer Magazin - Der Pennsylvania 
Dutchman - es ist Teils Englisch und Teils in dem eigenttimlichen 
Pennsylvania Deutsche Dialekt geschrieben und fuhrt nicht bloss 
die Sprache sondern die Sitten vor, welche sich unter den deutschen 
Ansiedlern im Innem des Staats erhalten haben. Die Zeitschrift 
wird ohne Zweifel sowohl hier als in Europa das Interesse der Phil- 
oologen erregen." This last prophecy can hardly be said to have 
ccme true, for that Ms magazine had ever existed seems to have 
been completely forgotten, nor is it anywhere mentioned. 

Three months of the magazine I have seen; it must 
have survived a little longer, if the Deutsche Pionier of Cin- 
cinnati is correct in citing from it material that does not appear 
in these first three numbers. At the most, its life was no douht 
a short one. On the editorial page of the first number Rauch had 
said: "It is the only publication of its kind, but that it will 
be the last one we do not believe." In this he was correct, for 
the Pennsylvania German Magazine, now in its twelfth volume, al- 
though operating along entirely different lines, may be counted as 
its logical successor. 

Rauch' 3 next undertaking was in the 3hape of a book: 


according to the supplement to Allibone's Dictionary of Authors 
Vol.11, p. 1391, a first venture ^entitled p enn3ylvania Dutch In- 
structor, Lancaster, Pa. 1877, 16 mo. , followed by a second, Pen. - 
sylvania Dutch Handbook, a Book for Instruction, Philadelphia, Pa. 
1880, IS mo. These publications have thus far eluded my search, 
but a book under the latter title was published at Mauch Chunk, 
1879. This contains an English-Pennsylvania German Preface, from 
which I cite the opening paragraph. "About im yohr 1370, hob 
ich my mind uf gemacht for'n booch shreiva un publisha fun Penn- 
sylvania Deit3h in English, un English in Pennsylvania Deitsh, mi t 
der obsicht for practical un profitliche instructions gevva, abbord- 
ich for bisness menner 03 in pletz woona fun Pennsylvania Deit3h 
schwetzende Leit un aw for die feela daussende fun Pennsylvania 
Boova un "aid 03 in Englisha shoola gane un doch sheer nix schwetza 
derhame un in der nochberschaft os Pennsylvanie Deitsh." 

The first part of the book consists of his English 
Pennsylvania German and Pennsylvania German - English Dictionary, 
then follow several general chapters on the use of words, and 
practical exercises, - reminding one of the first aids to those 
landing on foreign 3hores, handed out by Transatlantic Steamship 
Companies,- together with special chapters entitled Bisness G'schwet3. 
The first of these conversations is Der Boochshtore - a talk be- 
tween the Boochhondler and a customer, in '\rhich we learn how fast 
Rauch's book is selling. Clothing store, Drugstore, Doctor, Dry« 
goods, Furniture "tore, Hotel and Lawyer are the subjects of the 
succeeding conversations. A brief history of the dialect lit- 
erature up to that time follows, "/ith illustrative examples, in- 
cluding the author's own Shakespeare translations, a translation 

of Luke XV., of Matthew VII. 13-20 and of the Lord 1 3 Prayer. A 
chapter illustrating Prof .Whi truer' a ideas on spelling reform and a 
few recent Pit Schweffelbrenner letters conclude the volume. 

Rauch referred slightingly p. 209 to Col .Zimmerman ' s 
Pennsylvania German work, and Zimmerman in his turn published a 
merciless review of hi3 critic' 3 book in the Reading Times and Dis- 
patch: Racuh's controvery with those who did not spell as he did 
was perennial, and Zimmerman continued to pile up evidence of Rauch 
contradicting Rauch in spelling, until all eastern Pennsylvania 
was Convulsed. Rauch strove, in letters to all the papers that 
reprinted Zimmerman's review to defend himself, and as Zimmerman 
was content with his first article, the controversy went no far- 
ther. Rauch 's contention was, that inasmuch as English was the 
language Pennsylvania Germans studied in the schools and that inas- 
much as they and not people trained in German were expected to 
read Pennsylvania German, - it ought to be spelled after the rules 
of English orthography. Prof .Haldeman once wrote him saying, that, 
in order to read what Rauch wrote, a German had first to learn 
to read English, to which Rauch replied, "very true? that that 
was what Pennsylvania Germans did in the schools, whereas if they 
wanted to read what some others wrote, then Pennsylvania Germans 
would first have to learn High German. 

Since many differed with Rauch, not only on this point 
but also on the propriety of calling the dialect Pennsylvania Dutch 
he proposed at one time, that those who spelled after the German 
fashion should be styled Pennsylvania German and those who used 
the English orthography should follow him and call themselves Penn- 
sylvania Dutch. This initial controversy as to how the dialect 

should be spelled, Involved constantly widening circles. among the 
Pennsylvania Germans, nor was it confined wholly to them, Karl 
Knorfe, a German, has made his contribution, as well as a writer in 
the London Saturday Globe. The latter while conceding that Rauch 
was a very popular writer and the author of a Dictionary, disproves 
nevertheless of his Phonography, which he characterizes as a very 
inaccurate and misleading method of spelling one language accord- 
ing to the standard of another. 

The last word in the controversy, at least from the 
scientific point of view, will be the publication of the Diction- 
ary by Profs. Learned and Pogel who are using a good phonetic al- 
phabet, but among the folk the strife will doubtless continue, 
until the last writer in the dialect has uttered his last word, 
spelled as he and a kind Providence wills. 

Rauch' s apparent coldness to Zimmerman in this book 
seems strange in view of his tone towards him two years before. 
The former passage I include here as a specimen of the dialect 
when it essays literary criticism. "Schliff letown, Jonuawr 1, 1877. 
Mister Drooker:- Ich winsh deer un all dine freind en rale olt 
fashiondes neies Yohr. De 7.'uch hut mei olter freind Zimmerman, der 
Editor fum Readinger Times un Dispatch en copy fun seiner Tseit- 
Ing mit a Pennsylvania Deitsh shtickly drin g'schickt. Es is 'n 
Ivversetzung fun a English shtickly un ich muss sawga os der Zimmer- 
man es ardlich ferdeihenkert goot gadu hut. Des explained no;? 
olles wo oil de fiela sorta shpeelsauch un tsucker sauch her cooma. 
Now whil der Zimmerman so bully goot is om shticker shreiwa a&b er 
sich aw draw macha for 'n Nei Yohr's leedly. ff 

Another form of activity in which this busy man 

engaged is indicated from the following notice culled from the 
columns of the Pennsylvania Dutchman. "The editor of the Dutchman 
will deliver a lecture under the auspices of the -illerstown (Le- 
high County) Lecture Association, on Saturday Evening, March 15, 
1873 | in the Pennsylvania Dutch language on the subject of "Alte 
un Neie Zeite." He will also read Dr.Harbaugh's "Das Schulhaus an 
Der Krick" and several other popular productions including "De alt 
Heemet" and "De Pennsylvania Millitz" (Incidentally it may be men- 
tioned that this '■lillsrstown is the same as the town where some 
of Elsie Singmaster's stories - published in the Century are local- 
ised; the town is now Macungie, though still locally known as 
Millerstown) This lecture he frequently repeated before ot iu- 
diences, and notably before the Pennsylvania German Society (which 
he wanted named Pennsylvania Dutch Society) at one of its earlier 
meetings. The discourse is in part reprinted in one of the early 
volumes of the Proceedings of that Organization. 

Finally, in 1333, Rauch published a Pennsylvania 
Dutch Rip Van Winkle; a romantic drama in two acts. Translated 
from the original with variations. In the Appendix to this essay 
I give tha characters of the play, the costumery as prescribed by 
the author and an outline of the skit. Home writes of it in 
Matthew's and Hungerford's History of Carbon and Lehigh Counties: 
"Rauch' 3 Pennsylvania Dutch Rip Van Winkle ia a very happy trans- 
lation and dramatization of Irving 's story, the scene being changed 
from the Catskill to the Blue fountains to give it a locale in 
keeping with the language in whicli it is rendered" I will add that 
in one remarkable instance, our author has forgotten himself. In 
Scene 3 of the Second Act when Rip returns to the town of his nativ- 

ity, a town no more, but a populous settlement, George III. no 
longer swinging on the tavern sign, but George Washington instead, 
he al o sees the harbor filled with ships! J But perhaps he meant 
the harbor of Mauch Chunk on the Lehigh River!! 

The dramolet is well adapted to the local town halls, 
where it was intended to be, and was performed. It is boisterous 
and tumultuous, but we do not expect anything altogether refined 
in the home of the old sot Rip, nor in a play which, as far as the 
First Act is concerned, might well be construed as a horrible ex- 
amplo to illusti^ate a temperance lecture. 

The language of the romantic parts, of Rip's dealings 
with the spirits of the mountains, is interesting as an illustration 
of what form the dialect takes on, in the hands of a man, who never 
hesitates for a word; if he find3 it not in the dialect vocabulary 
he reaches over and fetches one out 0? the English; indeed Rauch 
worked 6n this principle all his life and it must not be denied 
that this is the way a large number of Pennsylvania Germans are 
doing all the time. 

One more word about his influence: Kuhns calls him 
the Nestor of all those who have tried their hand at composition 
in the dialect, and of hie influence on subsequent writers there 
can be no doubt. Sometimes the acknowledgement comes incidentally, 
as when a writer in the "Spirit of Berks" speaking of Zimmerman's 
poetry says "Er kann em Pit Schwef f elbrenner die Auge zu achreiwe" 
but quickly adds "Wanna awer ans Breefa schreiwa geht dann is der 
Schwef f elbrenner als noch der Bully Kerl" : sometimes the acknow- 
ledgement comes indirectly as when somebody signs himself "Em Pit 

Schweffelbrenner 3ei Cousin" and sometimes it comes frankly and 


freely as in the caae of Hartor (Boonastiol) in a private letter 
I received from him. 


Pennsylvania Dutchman. Vol. I. No. I. Jan. 1875. Page I. 


Der Pennsylvania Dutchman i3 net yuacht intend for 

Laecherlich un popular leh3a shtuff for oily de unaer Pennsylvan- 

isch Deitsch - de mixture fun Deitsh un English - forstehn awer aw 

for usefully un profitlichy instruction for oily de druf ous 

sin bekannt tsu waerra mit der sproch, un aw mit em geisht, 

character un hondlunga fun unseam fleisiche, ehrlicha un tSAhlreicha 

folk in all de Middle un Westliche Shtaate. 

Der title, Pennsylvania Dutchman, hen mer select 
noch dera das mer feel drivvor considered hen, un net ohna a wennich 
tzweifel der waega, weil mer wissa dass a dehl Deitsha leit uf 
der mistaken notion sin das an "Dutchman" g'hehsa waerra waer dis- 
respectful qwer sell is an mistake. Un weil unsor Pennsylvanisch 
Deitsh sproch ivverall bekonnt is alls Pennsylvania Dutch wun's 
shun wohr is das es Deitsch is, un net Dutch odder Hollendish - 
awer an g'mix fun Deitsch un English, sin mer g* satisfied dos mer 
net besser du kenna dos fore ' s public tsu gae unner 'era plaina 
title wo mer select hen. Un wann mer considera was waerklich der 
all gemeina character fun de Pennsylvania Deitscha is, donn feela 
mer dos mer specially gooty reason hen shtolz tsu sei dos mer ssl- 
wor tsu dem same folk g'hehra, un das mer mit recht de hoffnung hen 
ehra ^etreier diener tsu aei in unser neie editorial aerwet de 
fore una is. 

Es is unser obsicht freind tsu treata mit a liberal 
supply fun neia articles, shtories, breefa, poetry, etc. in dere 
pure Pennsylvania Deitsch sproch g'schrivva unner der English rule 
for ahpella, so dos aw oily leit es loh3a kenna. Mer hen aw im 

sin ivversetzung tsu gevva fun kortzy shticker, un mer hen aw an 
Pennsylvania Deitsoh Dictionary aw g'fonga wo mer expecta t3U 
drucka in buch form. Awer um die yetzicha publication recht in- 
teresting tsu macha hen mer conclude aw tsu fonga, un in yeder 
nummer an dehl fum Dictionary tsu publisha. Awer es is yusht an 
awf ong. 

Mer assura aw all unser freind dos gor nix erecheina 
soil in dem publication dos net entirely frei is fun indecency, 
odder im geringshta unmorawlich sei konn. 

Ea copy, ea yohr - - -$1.50 
5 copies " " -7.00 

Tsea copies, es yohr - - 13.00 
Ehntaelly copies 20^, un sin tsu ferkaufa bei oily News Dealers. 

E.H.Rauch, Lancaster, Pa. 

Page 2. 

A Bright Star Quenched. 

Under this caption the Phil« 
adelphia Press of Nov. 30 contain- 
ed a highly appropriate and ably 
written editorial, evidently 
from the pen of Col. Forney on 
the death of Horace Greely from 
which we extract. 

One of the rarest char- 
acters in history is suddenly 
dropped from the ranks of men. 

An Heller Shtarn Ousgonga. 

Unner dem heading f inna mer 
in der Phila. Press fum 30th Nov. 
an ivverous schicklich un goot 
g'shrivva editorial - wohrshein- 
lich fum Col. Forney seinre fedder 
fun weaga 'm Horace Greely aeim 
doht, fun wellam mer copya: 

Ehns fun de rahrste char- 
acters in unser g'shicht is uf 
amohl gedropt fun ir.ensha ranks. 

(Almost to the end of Page 2. ) 


Familiar Sayings. 
I wish you a happy New Year. 

'.Vhat "business are you driving 

The Assembly will meet in a 
few days. 

A good man is kinder to his 
enemy than a had man to his 

Carpets are bought by the 
yard and worn out by the 

A man suffering from influenza 
was asked by a lady what he 
used for his cold. He answer- 
ed "Five handkerchiefs every 

Ich winsh der an glick-3ehlich 
Neies Yohr. 

Was for bisness treibsht olla 

Die Semly kumrat tsomma in a paar 

An guter mon is besser tsu seim 
freind dass an schlechter mon 
tsu 3eim freind. 

Carpets kawft mer by der yard 
un weard se ous mit em fuss. 

An mon daer der schnuppa g'hot 
hut is g'froaked waerra by 
a lady wass er braucht fer sei 
kalt. Sei ontwart war "Finf 
shnupdicher oily dog. w 

etc. to middle of Page 4. 

Rest of Page 4. 
De Freschlin 
Tobias V/ it mer • 

The Frogs. 
Translated by S.S.Haldeman. 

Page 5 . 

Unser Olty Heemet - by E.H.Rauch (Almost a column) 
Fum Jonny Blitsfonger - Dunnerstown, Dec 15, 1872. 
Mr. Dutchman Drucker, Dare Sir:- Weil ich un du olty bekannte sin, 
un wie ich ous g'funna hob des du im sin husht eppes neies tsu 
publisha, in goot alt Pennsylvania Deitsh so dos unser ehns es aw 
lehsa un fershtea konn, hob ich grawd amohl my mind uf g'macht der 
en breef zu shreiva. 

etc. to end of Page 6. 

Page 7. 

Shakespeare in Pennsylvania = Page 7 and Part of Page 8. 

Der Freedman's Bureau. For'n gooty Fraw choosa. "onmanat" eunocht 
"schnifters" The puzzled Dutchman. 

Pago 9. 

Select Reading, a poem Christmas Tide by Rev. H.Hastings. Weld. 

Justice- from the Christian Union, to ^age 11. 

Page 12jThe Green Spot.- The Nation. - How to Amuse Children. - 

Arthur's Magazine. - Middle of Page 14. Anecdote of Luther. 
Mrs . M . . Johnson. 

Page 15. The Loaf of Bread. Watching One's Self. Poison for Children. 

Page 16. Original Articles. Pure German in Pennsylvania. Lititz. 
Anno Domini 1973. a Dialogue. 

Page 19. The First Railroad. Ephrata. Lancaster. 

Page 20. Lancaster. 

Page 21. Kris Krinkle. Der Easel (in dialect) 

Page 22. Miscellaneous Reading. Meade at Gettysburg, a Pennsylvania 
soldier to his son. A German story. 

Page 23. The slanderous tongue. From the Christian Advocate. 
Letters of Recommendation. 

Page 24. Thaddeus Stevens Monument. Cured of Romance; A singular 

Page 25. The House and Farm. 

Page 26. Dutch Governors. Wit and Humor. 

Page 29. English and Pennsylvania Dutch Dictionary. We are confi- 
dent that before the first of January 1374, every reader of the 
Pennsylvania Dutchman, by simply studying this pa~t of the pub- 
lication, together with the pages of familiar sayings will be 
able to reap substantial benefits, and use the language for 
practical business purposes. 


Page 30. Answers to Correspondents. 

The popular Pit Schweffelbrenner letters in the Pennsylvania 
Dutchman written by the editor of the Dutchman will continue to 
appear as heretofore in the Father Abraham newspaper for which, 
under existing conditions they are expressly written. 

Page 31. Editorials. The purpose of the publication. On the spell- 
ing. Haldeman to Pit. "In oKder to read your Dutch, a German 
must fifcst learn to read English" "very true" 

Review of Book and article by S.S. Haldeman. "Our first regular 
productions in Pennsylvania Dutch appeared in the Father Ab- 
raham campaign paper in 1868 over the signature of P. 3. They 
contributed more to the remarkable popularity of that paper than 
anything else it contained and the circulation increased very 
rapidly not only in Pennsylvania, but also in Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Maryland, Wisconsin and other states. Our present 
enterprise has been under consideration for over two years and 
from all we can learn and from words of encouragement by a num- 
ber of highly esteemed friends including gentlemen of learning, 
and position in the community, we cannot and do not doubt our 
entire success. It is the only publication of this kind, but 
that it will be the last one we do not believe." 

Page 32. Where spoken. Prof .Haldemann on "Bellsnickle" From Phila. 

Advertisements. Inside first page. Singer Sewing Machines. Jos. 

Barton's Old Southern Hat and Cap Store. 

Inside Last Page. Bookbinding. Wylie and Griest. Confections. 

John Seltzer, Eng. Attorney at Law, 

Pen.Deitsch Lawyer. 
Deit3ch so goot dos English. 

Pennsylvania Dutchman. Vol. I. No. 2. 

1. Familiar Saying3. 

2. Extract from a poem by Tobias Witmer. Translated by S.S.Haldeman. 

3. We feel lenger? Ehns fun de grossy froga dos bol amohl's Amer- 
ikanisha folk ontwarta muss is we feel lenger de rings fun deeb 
corruptionists un adventurers in politics erlawbniss hawa solla 

de greashty responsible offices im lond tsu filla. Der unnersheed 
- (doctoring and magazine printing) 

4. De Pennsylvania Millitz. E.H.Rauch. Poem in the dialect. 

5* Uf Unser Side. Translation of article from January number of 
Educator by A. R. Home. 

6. Was is Millich? 

7. Key to sounds of the Vowel3 in Pennsylvania German by Tobias 
Witmer. (he refers to Haldeman's system as a complete one.) 

8. Loveletter an mei Anni - Peter Steineel. 

9. Letter from Johnny Blitzfonger. 

10. En shtickly Hoch Deitsch. (Ode on das Schwein.) 

11. Uvva nous gonga. (how slow trains can go) 

12. Der Process. 

13. Unser Klehny Jokes. 

14. Select Reading. 

15. Original Articles. Lititz. 

16. Tobias Witmer, 474 Main Street, Buffalo, N*Y. in praise of the 
undertaking. He follows the German method of pronunciation. 

17. Lexicon. 

18. Editorials. "College Days" of Feb. 1873 contains an editorial by 
W.U.Hensel on Pennsylvania Dutch and an extract from Prof. Schae- 
ffer's speech at the Lehigh County Institute. 

Reformed Church Messenger: "The enterprise of Mr.Rauch i3 a commend- 
able one and it will afford us pleasure to find it proving a 
success. etc." They object to the name. Rauch defends it. 
JLoadarn - Lutzer) Haldeman approves his naming. 

Page 20. O u rselves. "Here is richness for you w -Mt.Joy Herald. 

"Unser Alty Heemet*' reminds one very much of Harbaugh's "Alt 
Schulhaus an der Krick." "E.H.Rauch is best known to our readers 
under the title of Pit Schweff elbrenner. He has done more to 


popularize this amusing dialect than any other man in America" 
Canton, Ohio Repository and Republican. 

"Judging from its first n$unber it should commend itself to all 
who are fond of those utaid and sober people who form a large 
portion of the population of our interior counties. n Nation- 
al Baptist. 

Note its usefulness to those learning the language. 

"In Lancaster erscheint jetzt ein neues Magazin - Der Pennsyl- 
vania Dutchman - es ist theils English theils in dem eigentum- 
lichen Pennsylvania Deitsche dialect geschrieben und fuhrt uns 
nicht bios die Sprache sondern die sitten vor, welche sich 
untsr den Deutschen Ansiedlern ira innern des staats erhalten 
haben. Die Zeitschrift wird onne Zweifel sowohl hier als in 
Europa das Interes3e der Philologen ©rrogen." New York Deutshe 

Pennsylvania Dutchman. Vol. I. No. 3. 

1. Familiar Sayings. English and translation. 

2. Keaha mit der Deitsha Sense. Criticism. 

3. Letter in praise of the magazine, and in it a poem on "De Deutsche 
Baura un de Morrick Leit." 

4. For der Simple Weg. (Spelling) 

5. Unsor Klshner Omnibus. 

6. Der Shnae. Tobias Witraer. 

7. An Temperance Lecture. 

8. De Beera Wella Net Folia. 

9. Parable of the Prodigal Son. Miss L.A.Ash, live r town, Pa. 
10. Der Himmel Uft Eerda. Tobias Witmer. 

11. Open Letter to Editor on Dialects . I. D.Rupp. 

12. Pennsylvania German. A. R. Home. 

13. Seeking One's Vocation. A Story. 

14. Scandal in Congress. 

15. Society and Scandal. 

16. Local Option. 

17. Popular Provorbs. 


18. Signs and Omens. 

19. Wit and Humor. 

20. Origin of a Fashion. 

21. Billing's Advice to Joe. 

22. Use Tour Life Well. 

23. Curious Epitaphs. 

24. A Quaint Essay on Dogs. 

25. Our Table Drawer. 


Rip Van Winkle. 

Ac t I. 1763* 


Rip Van Winkle - - A Dutchman. 

Knickerbocker - A rchoolmaeter. 

Derrick vtn Slaus - - The Squire 

Hermann van Slaus - - Hi 3 Son. 

Nicholas Vedder - - Friend to Rip. 

Clausen - - Friend to Rip 

Rory van Clump - A Landlord 

Gustaffe - - A Young man 

Dame Van Winkle - - -Rip's Wife. 

Alice - - Rip's Sister 

Lorena - Rip's Daughter 

Ganderkinr Spirits of the Blue Mountains. 
Acken J 

Act II. 

After a lapse of 20 years supposed to occur "between the 
First and Second Acts. 

Rip Van Winkle - - The Dreamer. 

Herman Van Slaus 

Seth Slough 


The Judge 


Rip Van Winkle, Jr. 

First Villager 

Second Villager 

Alicw Knickerbocker 

Lorenna. & Costume. 

Rip - 1st, a deerskin coat and belt, full brown breeches, deer 

skin gaiters, cap. 2nd. Same, but much worn and ragged. 
Knickerbocker - 1st, Brown square cut coat, vest and breeches, 
shoes and buckles. 2nd, Black coat, breeches, hose, etc. 
Derrick - Square cut coat, full breeches, black silk hose, shoes, 

buckles, powder. 
Hermann - 1st. Ibid. 2nd. Black frock coat, tight pants, boots, 

and tassels. 

Clausen Dark square cut coats, vect3, breeches, etc. 

Gustaffe - Blue jacket, white pants, shoes. 
Seth Slough - Gray coat, striped vest, large gray pants. 
Judge - Full suit of black. 

Young Rip- a dress similar to Rip's first dress. 
Dame - Short Gown and quilted petticoat, cap. 
Alice - 1st -Bodice with half skirt, figured petticoat. 

2nd. Brown satin bodice and skirt, etc. 
Lorenna - Act I. A child 

Act II. White muslin dress, black ribbon belt, etc. 
Stage Directions: L.R. SEL.SER. USL. UER. C. L.C. R.C. TEL 
TER. CD. DR. D.L. UDL. U.D.R. 
Reader on stage facing audience. 


Village Inn. 
Act I. Scene 1. Choru3. 

Vedder, Knicke -bocker and Rory talk with the Landlord. 
V/here is Rip? Knickerbocker determined to wed Rip's nister. Mrs. Rip 
evidently opposed. Knickerbocker knows. 

Alice and Lorenna come. Music. They have delayed because Alice 
wanted to see Knickerbocker. Knickerbocker turns up - would call. 
Lorenna volunteers a way in which he can see Alice. Knickerbocker 
says he no longer cares for Dame Van Winkle. At that moment she is 
calling Alice from the outside. They leave hastily. Rory and 
Vedder comment on the old woman. Where is Rip? Rip appears from a 
hunting trip. Has sworn off drinking. Is persuaded to take one. 
Talk turns to Rip's inability to manage his wife. Rip refuses to 
take a drink to keep his oath. Having shown he can control himself 
he takes one J Rip sings a song. Mrs. Rip is heard outside. Rip 
gets under table with bottle. Music. Mrs. Rip enters with a stick, 
chases them. Upsets table and discovers Rip. She gets him by the 
ear and would know what he has been doing. Hare3, ducks, the bull, 
she leads him home by the ear and beats him. 
Scene II. A Plain Chamber in First Grooves. 

Derrick complains about his spendthrift lawyer son. The son 
is heard outside. He has a plan. Rip's sister made a will in 
favor of Alice. He proposes to get a paper too from Rip to wed 
Lorer^ k when she i3 of age to marry him and then get money in advance. 
Rip's rent is due and they decide to try it. Son says of course a 
lawyer must not have too much conscience. 



Scene III. Rip's Cottage. 

Knickerbocker enters and Alice comes soliloquizing how 

she loves him: he catches her in his arms. Mrs. Rip is heard outside. 

Knickerbocker is concealed in the clothes hamper. Music. Mrs. Rip 

and Rip come inj she would know where jj the game, the money for 

the rent* then she turns on Alice, who she says has done nothing. 

Rip begs for a drink. Alice and Mrs. Rip withdraw, then Rip proceeds 

to the cupboard. Music. - Rip stops on Knickerbocker who yells; 

Rip falls, upsetting dishes. Knickerbocker rushes out into a chair. 

Alice throws cloak over him. Mrs. Rip enters. The Devil has been 

in the cupboard. She raves, falls into a half faint in a chair. 

Knickerbocker again safely makes the closet. Mrs. Rip up again. 

Somebody was in the chair. Asks Alice to get bottle from her pocket 

Rip and Mrs. Rip drink. Alice tries to get Knickerbocker off but he 

retreats again. Alice announces Squire's coming. Rip would to bed 

but is compelled to meet the Squire while Mrs. Rip goes calling. 

Alice is excused. Rip tells how honest a man he is. Squir9 would 

talk of other things. They make the contract, but : Rip may withdraw 

in twenty years and one day. "Still du Hex". Rip is to live free 

of rent. A bottle is always to be at Rory's for Rip. He goes at 

once. Knickerbocker would escape but Mrs. Rip approaches. Puts on 

the peddlar woman's dress. 

Mrs. Rip comes - She discovers Knickerbocker's identity - she zoes 

afte~ him with the broom and he goes out of the window. 

Scene IV . 

Half dark, A front wood. Gun heard. Rip enters. He has 

missed his aim. Decides not to go homo. Tomorrow a new rule. No 
drinking. Dead pause. Noise like rolling of cannonballs. Dis- 
cordant laughter. Rip wakes and sits up astonished. Somebody calls 


Rip. Music. Swaggerino. Grotesque dwarf with large cask. Music. 
Swaggerino asks Rip to help him up the mountain with it. Cask is 
put on Rip's shoulder. 
Scene V. 

Dark. The Sleepy Hollow in the bosom of the mountains 
occupying the extreme of the stage. Stunted tress. Moon. Entrance 
to abyss. Music. Grotesque Dutch figures with enormous masked 
heads and lofty tapering hats, playing cards, dutch pins, battledoors 
and shuttlecocks. Most of them seated on rocks smoking and drink- 
ing. "Heit is unser f iredawg M . "Fooftzich yohr is unser Zeit im 
Barrick doh, un luss una all now looshtich si." What penalty if 
any have detained their brother. Spirits take immovable attitude. 
Rip amazed. Music. Figures advance and stare. Swaggerino taps 
cask and asks Rip to hand around. Rip is pleased, believes they are 
witches. Drinks. Music. Grotesque dance. Rip drinks, dances, 
reels, sinks. Dance stops. Music. Curtain slowly descends. 

Act II. Scene I. 
Last of Act I. repeated, but in the distance a richly cul- 
tivated country. The bramble by Rip's side is a tree. Rip's 
gun has only a rusty barrel left. Bird Music. Rip asleep. Beard 
and hair gray. Dawn. Rip talks in sleep. Awakes. Had a good time 
but is stiff. The fellow stole his gunJ 2 Sees the tree. Not sure 
whether he is asleep or awake. Old woman vill tell. Music. H e 
Scene II . 

Well furnished apartment in the house of Knickerbocker. 
Lorenna soliloquizes on her sad lot. Must giv© up all if she does 
not wed a man she does not like. Knickerbocker and Alice enter. 

Are surprised to find Lorenna. Note her trouble. Lorenna is en- 
couraged to hope. She would marry Gustaffa only. His 3hip is 
coining and he will come. Sophia enters, announcing the lawyer. 
Knickerbocker is going to take care of him. They withdraw. Lawyer 
insists on carrying out the terms. Knickerbocker 3ays that Rip 
was not capable as he kiows. They get rid of him but trouble is 
feared. Alice and Knickerbocker see a fine young man come. Gustaffe 
rushes in. 
Scene III . 

Town of Rip's nativity, instead of a village, a populous 
settlement. No longer George III. but George Washington. Harbor 
filled with ships. Seth Slough. Temperance election is over. 
Hello, who is this old fellow? Music, Villagers enter laughing. Where 
is he? Can they talk German? Who is your barber? Is advised to go 
home. Rip is dead twenty years. I'm sorry Rip. Seth gives him a 
drink. Rip's wife is dead. Are you a democrat or republican? 
-orylJ Music. They hurry him o"f. Gustaffe arrives. Cowards. 
What '3 your name? Rip Van Winkle. Have you a daughter Lorenna? 
Do you remember a paper? Cone with me. 
Scene IV . 

Knickerbocker's house. Knickerbocker elected to Assembly. 
Enter Hermann (lawyer) wants to have the matter settled. Gustaffe 
enters. Hurra for Knickerbocker. 
Last Scene . 

C^urt House. Judges seated. Knickerbocker asked to "bring 
Alice. Paper is read. Who can testify? Hermann say3 Knickerbocker 
knows and will say so if honest. How was the oontract drawn? 
Hermann explains. Lorenna refuses him. Judge says contract must 


te carried out. Knickerbocker appeala. Gustaff9 enters. Rip 

Van Winkle! If this is Rip, Hermann want3 to know where he has 

"been. "Last night I went"- Judge would jail him. Nobody seems to 

recognize him. Did you forget how I savod your life? Hermann 

demanded justice. Judge says if he is Rip he ought to havo a paper. 

He fumbles. Finds it. Judge decider it is all right. 

All shout and shake hand3. 

Hermann- Qua g'shpeeld, ufgused, obgawickled! 

Gus.- Mach plotz - ' s kint will nocharaol dawdy sana. 

Gus. and Lorenna, Alice and Knickerbocker.- Who is this? Si, bruder. 


A Bibliography 
for the sketch on 
Ludwig August Wollenwober. 

Der Deutsche Pionier, Cincinnati, Vol. I. 87 & Vol. V. 66 

Dialekt Dichtung-Fick. 

Gemalde aus dem Pennsylvanischen Volksleben, Wollenweber, 

Philadelphia und Leipzig, 1869 

Geschichte der Schwabischen Dialekt Dichtung, Holder, 

Heilbronn, 1896 

National Cyclopedia of American Biography, The. 

Pennsylvania Dutch, Gibbons, Philadelphia. 

Pennsylvania German. Vol. I I I. 4. 192 

Publications of the Deutsche Pionier Verein, Philada. 

Records of the Berks County Historical Society. 


Ludwig August V/ollenweber. 

Few of the later immigrants from Germany have been 
able to conform their language even approximately tc the compound 
dialect which formed itself as the speech of the descendants of 
the pre-Revolutionary German settlers of Pennsylvania, who accord- 
ing to the fiat of the Pennsylvania German Society were the true 
Pennsylvania Germans; to state the truth, fewer yet of those who 
came over later, wished even to be classed with or cared to claim 
to be Eennsylvania German. Gen. Louis Wagner and certain others 
afterwards prominent in the work of German. American Societies, did 
at one time hope to have the Pennsylvania German Society estab- 
lished on a broader basic, but subsequently accepted gracefully the 
ruling of the Society's founders. 

One of those who did come later, who thought he 
had learnt their speech, who protested he was a Pennsylvania Ger- 
man, who wrote in what he called their dialect, was Ludwig August 
Wollenweber. Born at Ixheim near Zweibrftcken, Rheinpfalz, Dec. 5, 
1807, he early lost his parents, was obliged to give up his hope 
of a University education, and became a printer. In 1832 he was 
employed on the Deutsche Tribune in Hamburg, a paper which was 
shortly afterwards suppressed by the German Diet, and Wollenweber 
fled to America via France and Holland, to escape persecution for 
his connection with ant i -government movements. 

After arriving in Philadelphia, he travelled through 
the State on foot, then returned to Philadelphia, and worked on 
Wesselhoft's Journal "Die Freipost', 1 himself established "Der 
Freimuthige" and ended by purchasing the "Philadelphia Democrat" 
In 1853 he retired from the newspaper business and shortly after- 


wards from all but literary labors, removing first to Lebanon, 
and later to Reading, Pa., where he died in 1888. 

He wrote chiefly in the literary (High ) German, but 
for the rost part on subjects pertaining to the early history of 
Pennsylvania. "Gila, das Indianer Madchen, oder die Wiedergefund- 
enen deutschen Kinder unter den Indianern',' "Freuden und Leiden 
in Amerika, oder Die Lateiner am Schuylkill Canal" (plays), 
w Gen. Peter Muhlenberg',' "Sprache, Sitten und Gebrauche der deutsch 
Pennsylvanier" M Aus Eerks County schwerster Zeit',' "Die Drei Graber 
auf dem Riethen Kirchhof" "Die erste Muehle am Muehlbach',' are 
among his chief works. In what he calls the "Mundart und Ausdrucks- 
weise der deutsch Pennsylvanier" he wrote "Gemalde aus dem Pennsyl- 
vanischen Volksleben" The Genesis of this book has already been 
told (see p Introduction) also a Pennsylvania German opinion 
of the same (see p Introduction). 

"Daraus kann man das Deutsch Pennsylvanische Leben 
schon kennen lernen, denn der inzwischen verstorbene Verfasser ge- 
horte dem Stamme selber an und konnte sich daher mit grosser Berecht- 
igung der Aufgabe unterziehen, lebenagetreue Schilderungen aus 
alien Phasen des Volksleben zu entwerfen" says Earl Knortz. "Das 
Bttchlein enthalt derbe Heiratsantrage, Gesprache aus dem Farmerleben T 
Sagen, Geistergeschichten, Klagen uber die Allmacht der demorali- 
sierenden Mode, verzeihliche Sehnsuchtsblicke nach der guten alten 
Zeit, wo die Buwe noch keine f teite T Hosen und 'Standups' und die 
Mad keine bauschigen 'Hupps* batten und 'gehle Brustspells'ansteck- 

That Wollenweber succeeded in passing for a Penn- 
sylvania German wa3 no doubt due to his poem: 

Ich bin o Pennsylvanier 

Druff "bin ion stolz und froh. 

Das Land is scho, die Leut sin nett 

Bei Tschinksl ich maoh schier en'ge Wett, 

' S biets ke Land der Welt. 

His long and intimate association with the people 
of the State did indeed enable him to give a true account of their 
life but why Knortz should find Wollenweber's ''Sehnsuchts Blicke 
nach den guten alten Zeiten" verzeihlich while damning the same 
when coming from a real Pennsylvania German (See Fisher) remains 
unexplained. Dr.H.H.Fick - Die Deutsch Amerikanische Dialekt Dich- 
tung (following Zimmermann's Deutsch Amerikanische Dichtung) thus 
records his opinion of the chief merit of this "eifrigen Be- 
schutzer und Lobredner der Deutsch Pennsylvanier? Konnen seine 
schriftstellerischen Arbeiten sich auch nicht mit denen Harbaughs 
messen, so zeugen sie doch von einem redlichon Streben im Volke 
Biederkoit und Gesittung wachtzuerhalten. Passt seine sammtlichen 
schriftstellerischen Arbeiten lassen diese Tendenz durchblicken 
und In diesem seinem humanisierenden Einflusse haben wir auch das 
Hauptverdienst des ausgezeichneten Mannes zu suchen. 

As to his language, it resembles that wMch many 
another High German speaking native of Germany has constructed in 
trying to speak the dialect, and, as is usual in such cases, it is 
full of reminiscences of High German and remains on the whole 
remote from the actual language of the people. Many natives of 
England or Ireland that I have known, unembarrassed as they were 
by a knowledge of High German, have not only acquired the dialect, 
but have reached a comparative degree of naturalness and ease in 
its use, which seems denied to the imported High German. It is true 
that in those days (1869) German newspapers were more common than 

now, German preaching more general, circumstances which affected 
the vocabulary characteristically, as it were . The same differen- 
tiation may be observed at the present day; the grandmothers of 
the children now growing up have retained in their vocabularies 
many words that to the young folks seem to smack of the High Ger- 
man and in place of which they now use an English word. In all such 
cases the vocabulary in its inflections bears the characteristic 
marks of the dialect and not of High German. A constantly re- 
curring uncertainty of Wollenweber's inflections is clear enough 
proof of the struggle within. Now he says: w Ich bin ge-komme w and 
now as in the dialect " Ich bin kummef at times he uses English 
words and forgets that the dialect treats an English verb as though 
it were German; accordingly, in incautious moments he says "satis- 
fied at another time he remembers and amends it into "g'satisfiedy 
or even ventured to the extreme of M ge-satisf ied" 

"Farms and Farmhaus" words which I have frequently 
heard in Germany and seen in High German newspapers, he uses 
about as frequently as "Bauerei" and "Bauerehaus',' which are the 
only v/ords I have ever heard in Pennsylvania. He says "Schon 
Obst" and "SchB Obst" within half a dozen lines of each other; 
similarly wir alternates with mir and mer. The Infinitive end- 
ing with n and without n; hat and hot ; sometimes he writes hab e, 
then hawe, hent, haben and hen , as plural forms of the auxiliary 
verb. He uses erzahle more frequently than ve r zahlo . Von inter- 
changes with vum, f unu 

In a word like battle he evidently transferred the 
High German gender of Schlacht; so, in accordance with German 


idiom he says: "die Battel" and "Bei der Battel*,' instead of "Der 
Battle" and "In Battle'.' "Abend", "ObendV "Owent" are with him 
interchangeable forms. 

In gewesen he drops the n as in the strong parti' 
ciplos, instead of treating it as the weak, gewest . These are a 
few examples that could be increased ad libitum, of his striving 
to write the dialect as spoken, and his inability to dissociate 
it from the High German. 


A Bibliography 
the chapter on 
Henry Lee Fisher. 

Annals of the Harbaugh Family, Harbaugh, Chambersburg, 1861 

Der Deutsche Pionier, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Deutsch in Amerika, G.U.Zimmermann, Chicago, 111. 

German and Swiss Settlements in Pennsylvania. Kuhns, N.Y. 

GeBohichte der Nordamerikanischen Litteratur. Knortz, Berlin. 


Geschichte der Schwabische Dialektdichtung. Holder, Heilbronn, 


The Independent, New York, June 20, 1880. Dr .L.Steiner . 

Kurzweil un Zeitvertreib, York, 1882; 2nd Edition, 1896 

Pennsylvania Dutch, L'.rs. Gibbons, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pennsylvania German, Vol. VII. 4. 178 

Pennsylvania German, Vol. XI. 1.2. f. Dr.Betz. 

Pennsylvania German Dialect. Learned. Baltimore, 1889 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vil.III.156 

'S Alt Marik Haur, Mittes in d'r Stadt. York, 1879. 

The German Element in the United States. Faust. Boston and N.Y, 

York County Historical Society Publications. York, Pa. 


Honry Lee Fisher. 
Henry Lee Fisher was born 1822, in a part of Franklin 
County, Pennsylvania, cAlled the Dutch Settlement. In those days 
life was, in many respects more primitive than now; and before 
Fisher died in 1909 he had witnessed many changes in the manner 
of living and the ways of thinking of even so conservative a people 
as the Ger ans of Pennsylvania. When past middle age, he wrote 
a book in which he described things as they had been: how in his 
youth father and mother, if well to do, saddled their animals 
and rode on horseback to church, where now several automobiles are 
lined up on Sunday morning. The stage coach made its trips 
through the valleys at intervals during the week, where now ex- 
press trains sp^ed along several times a day. In the harvest 
fields the farmers bent over the sickles for week# where now the 
self -binding harvester accomplishes everything in a few daysj in 
winter they threshed with flail and horses where now the steam 
thresher does the work before the grain leaveS the field. In 
the days of his youth the shoemaker and tailor still want their 
rounds to make shoes and clothes for the family from leather often 
tanned in their own or a community tannery, and from wool and 
flax raised and spun on the farm. The youn,^ folk gathered at a 
neighbor's house in the evening to play their simple games or 
assembled at a nearby schoolhouse for Singschule etc, etc. where 
now for the most part they board a trolley and find their amuse- 
ment in the town. 

As a boy Fisher attended school at that schoolhouse 
- as he was fond of telling - which was later immortalized as "Das 
Schulhaus an Der KrickV On the title page of his first book in 

the dialect he printed the well known line: 


"Vom Lift tter chen die Frohnatur, und Lust zu> fa bulire n." 
by which he intended to call attention to the fact, that on his 
mother's side he was descended from that sarr.e Joost Herhach who 
was the great grandfather of two other dialect poets - Henry Har- 
baugh and Rachel Bahn. In his young days the sons of Pennsylvania 
Germans were expected by their kin to take up seme of the yet 
unoccupied land and follow in the same peaceful and honorable 
occupation as those before their - namely agriculture - and not 
to follow any of the learned professions. These, with the excep- 
tion of the ministry, were generally looked upon with distrust, or 
at any rate with suspicion; ouf youth did not share these prejudices 
and what with working on the farm and attending the public schools, 
he prepared himself to become a teacher. After several yeafcs of 
teaching in Ohio and Pennsylvania, he took up the study of law and 
in 1849 was admitted to the bar at Chambersburg. Like many others 
at that time, he felt the lure of the West, but was dissuaded from 
carrying out his adventurous plan, and upon the advice of friends 
settled in York, Pa, in 1555, where he continued active in his 
profession for a half century and achieved distinction. 

York was an historic town, was for a time the seat 
of Government of the United States during the Revolutionary War, 
when the Continental Congress had to flee from Philadelphia upon 
the approach of the British. In more than one old town of Penn- 
sylvania are still to be seen the traces of the first municipal 
architecture in the way of a public square in the center of the 
town and in the middle of the square a circle, on which originally 
stood a Court House. Selection and layout of town sites goes 
back as a rule to the first charters granted either directly by 

William Perm or by his sons John and Richard. These squares and 
circles became the centers of public business, and around then were 
grouped the offices of all the functionaries of the government, 
of the office holders and the justices and the lawyers. '.Vhen 
the proprietaries similarly granted to these towns the privileges 
of holding a public market, wares were usually displayed on the 
pavement surrounding the circle in Center Square. In one Pennsyl- 
vania city of considerable rize, this is still the only public 

In York, the Court House stood not in the center 
of the Square, but along the side, and consequently, there grew 
up in the course of time a row of market stalls and sheds and 
shambles right through the center of the block and also along the 
sides of the street. Through these busy haunts of men Fisher 
passes daily for a quarter of a century, and whether he courted 
the muse, or as he himself said, was possessed by a muse, snatches 
of rhyme were continually taking form and shape as he went in and 
out to his office and back, and to and fro from the Court House. 

In 1875 he was confined to his room with an illness 
and during this time he gave his rhymes permanent form. He must 
have derived pleasure from this work, for on publishing it later, 
he declared: "Oebs mer net au e bitzli grothen isch, wereder scho 
finde. Hener numme halb so vil Vergnuge byrn Lese asz i g' spurt 
ha byrn mache, so wirds so schlecht nit ausfalle sy." And because 
everybody was making Centennial objects, resurrecting antiques, 
and also labelling reproductions "Centennial',' in anticipation of 
the hundredth Anniversary of American Independence, he kept on 
rhyming on half a hundred things in and around the old Market 


House in the middle of the town until a Centennial poem had taken 
shape, in number of stanzas one hundred. Even the slenderest "bond 
of unity is lacking to the poem, save that each stanza is suggest- 
ed by sometMng about that spot, and that they nearly all end in 
the refrain "Am Marik Haus Mittes in d'r Schtadt 1 ,' or some vari- 
ation of it. Many bits of local lore, many thrusts at local 
politics, many a picture of a rare old character has he preserved 
in these verses, which gain when considered as single stanzas or at 
most in small groups of stanzas, but which are entirely inadequate 
as parts of a longer poem. It must be said however, that they 
were not intended for the public eye, although he was urged to 
publish them by some friends to whom he had read them in private. 

But he did not stop musing when he had finished 
these hundred stanzas. His mind takes a bolder flight, in fancy 
he wanders with a companion to visit the old place. In the key of 

"Tis srweet to hear the watch dog's honest bark, 
Bay deepmouthed welcome as we draw near home." 

he begins thus: 

"Horich! horscht du net? der Wasser gautzt, 
Er seen'd uns dorch de Bamj 
Er hockt im Hoof, dort for'm Haus, 
Un gautzt uns welcome Heen." 

Then he dreams him-.elf back again into boyhood, and from Plumsack 

and Blindemeisel and all the other joyous games of childhood 

onward, there are few experiences in the life of those people that 

do not pass in review until the time when he goes 

Mei alte Heemet sehne; 

Doch guckts gar nimme wies als hot 

Die alte Bekannte sin all fort, 

Mei Age sin voll draene; 

Ich ruuf un froog ""m sin sie all?" 

Der Schall antwort "Wu 3in sie all?" 


E dehl sin weit fort Owenau;;, 

Weit, weit fum alte Heerd; 

E paar bo alte sin noch do, 

Un die sin krumm un schop un groh, 

Un feel sin in der Erd, 

Ihr alter un ah wie sie heese, 

Kannscht uf de schtee im Kerch Hoof leese. 

It is in these verses that he is at his best; they have, 
been read and reread and printed tines without number. Karl Knortz 
in his "Geschichte der Nordarr.erikanische Litteratur" rejects the 
whole book in terms that are only less bitter than the condem- 
nation which Karl Knortz ' s own poetry has received in a recent 
Chicago dissertation. Knortz says: "Einer der traurigsten Beitrage 
zur Pennsylvanisch deutschen Litteratur ftthrt den Titel " 'S 
Alt Marik Haus Mittes in d'r Stadt un die Alte Zeite^ En Centen- 
nial Poem in Pennsylvanisch deutsch. Bei H.J. Fischer, York, Pa. 
1879". "Der Verfasser, der noch nicht einmal seine sogenannte 
Muttersprache kennt, steht mit den Regeln der auf sehr 
gespanntem Fusse und dass en, wie er sagt, seine nur zum Zeit- 
vertreib, als ihn ein hartnackiger Rheumatismus an des Zimmer fes3- 
elte, schrieb, entschuldigt weiaigstens die VerBffentlichung der- 
selben nicht." 

The dishonesty of Knortz deserves to be noticed in 
this connection; he had evidently read the Introduction, but he 
chose to suppress that part of it in which the author tells how 
the book was not intended for publication; how that friends who 
had heard him read in private had him invited to read at the York 
County Teachers' Institute, and how only after the contents had 
become semi public property had he consented to publish the book 
and then only with a* full realization of its imperfections. The 
fact that those who succeeded in persuading him to take this step 

did not have Knortz' s literary estimates must not be laid alto- 


gether to the author's charge. If Knortz had read the Introduction 
to Fisher's next book which was issued nine years before Knortz' 
own "Geschichte5 he might have read in reference to the first on 
"Es erfreut raich zu wisse dass en Buch das gute '.'/orte grigt hut 
fon so Leit wio Longfellow, Steiner, Haldeman, Zimmerman, Gtahr, 
Krieg's Secretary Ramsay un noch hunnert annere net gans 'Vertlos 
sei kan." The book has been offered to me for $17.00 which shows 
that the fortunate possessors of the few thousand copies in exis- 
tence are not over eager to get rid of the trash. 

But to cite further: "Er schildert in diesem oben- 
drein auch noch mit schauderhaf ten Illustrationen verunzierten 
Buche das alte und neue Leben und Treiben seines Vaterstadtchens, 
York und verselt unzusammenhangend uber Moden, Scheerenschleifer, 
Landstreicher, Friedensrichter, und aberglaubische Gebrauche." 
This, as I have indicated above, refers of course only to the first 
part of the book. The rest, which has to do with the second part 
shows by its whole tenor as clearly as possible how faithfully 
the author has portrayed a certain period in the life of the 
people. "Naturlich lobt er dabei wie jeder bejahrte Bauer, die 
gute alte Zeit in der es noch keine Prozesse gab, man nichts von 
Temperance wusste und die Sonne und T&chter noch den Lohn fur 
Knechte und Kagde ersparten. Ja, in der guten alten Zeit, da 
nahm man noch den Mann beim Word und den Ochsen beim Horn. Da 
gab es keine Kartoffelkafer und Versicherungsgesellschaften un 
nur hochst selten brannte einiral eine Scheune ab. Die beste Bank 
was damals ein alter Strumpf und dieselbe war viel sicherer als 
alle jetzigen Geldschranke mit ihrem gepriesenen Patentschlossern. 
Da nahmen noch Nadel und Fingerhut die Stelle der Nahmaschinen ein 

und die einzige Zeitunge die es gab war der Hundert Jahrige Kalender. 


Da hatten die Madchen noch den schbnen Glauben dass der Teufel 
im Kornfeld versteckt sei weshalb sio sich ate Lb einen schmuckert 
kraftigen Burschen wahlten wenn sie darin zu arbeiten hatten. Da 
setzte man am Freitag keine Kinkel und deshalb hat auch damals nle 
eins den 'Pippser grigt'." 

Knottz' utter inability to understand the book is 
shown in this last sentence. "Diese alte Buschbauernheit ist nun 
langst vorbei (Pi3her was only too well aware of this) und wir 
glauben auch nicht dass ee der Poesie Fisher's jemals gelingen wird 
das entschwundene Paradies zuruck zu zaubern." A statement with 
which Fisher would have been in hearty accord, nor would he have 
wished to call it back had he been able, but that he described it 
faithfully, few will deny. 

Dr.G.U.Zimmermann, in his "Deutsch in Amerika" says: 
"Der bedeutendste Dichter dieses Dialectes aber war Heinrich Har- 
baugh, dessen Dichtungen insgesammt eine Frische und Urspringlich- 
keit athmen, wie man sich origineller kaum denken kann; dabei giebt 
sich ein reiches Gemuth mit freiem Humor kur.d. Getrost durfen 
wir ihn naben Karl von Holtei stellen," and he adds of our author- 
"Ebenso naturwahr schildert uns Heinrich L.Fisher das Leben der 
Deutschen in Pennsylvanien in dieser Mundart; nur geht ihm das 
tiefe Gemuth Harbaugh's ab M and in another place the same author 
says of Fisher: "Von Natur mit gesundem Humor begabt schrieb er 
viele Gedichte und Skizzen in Pennsylvanisch-deutscher -iundart, 
das Alltagsleben der Deutschen in Pennsylvanien "eisterhaft 
schildernd. " 

Oscar Kuhns in his German and Swiss Settlements of 
Pennsylvania recognized the work as the "picture of the life of 


the Pennsylvania German farmer fifty years ago, describing among 
other things old customs, super. i s, worl ii th< iields and 
house, planting, harvc , thres] , bee 

: the joys, toils and pleasures of a farmer's life - butcher- 
ingo, butterboiling3, huskings and quiltingparties ." His next 
statement that the volumes contain in the main only imitations of 
German originals or translations from English and especially Am- 
erican poetry, must be amended so as to read that this applies only 
to the aubhor's second volume - Kurzweil un Zeitvertreib - and 
only to a very small extent to the volume at present under con- 

A short time after the publication of this volume, 
Dr. Lewis H.Steiner, of Frederick, Md. contributed an article to 
the Independent, New York, which may be taken as a conservative 
Pennsylvania-German estimate of the book: "Along with the disappear- 
ance of the dialect? says Steiner "the manners and customs of 
those who employed them are also dying out. Surely historic pride 
should struggle to preserve a faithful record of these as of a 
people who have contributed so much to the upbuilding of the 
Keystone State and whose children have made their homes in Mary- 
land and Ohio abodes of manly and womanly virtues. Such a record 
could only be made in the dialect ordinarily employed by them. It 
would seem in English as awkward as even the best translations 
from the Greek and Roman writers always do to a careful student. 
To meet such a want, H.L. Fisher, a member of the York County Bar, 
has recently made quite a notable contribution. Living in a town 
which was honored for a few months in 1777 as a place of meeting 
of the American Congress, he has endeavored to collect the his- 
toid cal reminiscences of York and to enshrine those of the old 


Market House along with the custo lvania dermar. ." 

" ' ] ;•" ■ • nowhere chows t. noetic fire 

that pervaded the genial Karbaugh's lines yet his descriptive pe- 
ers are unusually accurate in seizing the minute peculiarities 
of the Pennsylvania customs and his verses are very valuable 
as embodying detailed accounts of the simple, honest ways of the 
Pennsylvania Germans. A vein of humor moreover pervades his lines 
that makes them very acceptable" (This is a point that Knortz missed 
entirely) "He has seized the serio-comic rather than the pathetic 
side of the life he undertakes to: portray, which does: not detract 
from the value of his work. He has also called upon the pencil 
of the artist to assist in his task, and over one hundred wood cuts, 
illustrative of domestic habits, manners, and customs have been 
incorporated into the book, which if not indicative of high art, 
are nevertheless exceedingly interesting a3 faithful delineations 
of scenes described by the author in the text. Fisher g : ves a 
reliable account of the home life of the Pennsylvania Germans which 
will be read with interest by the lovers of the curious as well 
as the student." 

The latest recognition the author has received is 
contained in Faust's Prize Book on "The German Element in the 
United States" According to Faust, "The two most prominent pcetr , 
for such a title may be bestowed upon them, who wrote in Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch are Henry Harbaugh and Henry L.Firher". We may not 
be ready to agree with his statement that these are the two most 
prominent poets (Faust is evidently not acquainted \ ] r's 

k, the ] his name in the General Bibliography) 

everyone qualified to judge will agree with him ii Lng 

/ I, 

their right tc ' - • Paua ] 10 ace 

as an au ic ace of conditions that or. . ,d add' . 

" ' .is poetical literature of the Pennsylvania Germans is one of 
the few original notes of American lyric poetry." 

Fisher's second book - il un Zeitvertroi v - 
York, 1882, consists almost entirely of translations and adaptati 
of English and American poetry and of German dialect writers. Of 
the latter, Hebel, Nadler and FelneT are drawn upon most exten- 

His first selection: 

Dort unner 'm alto Keschte Baan 
Dort war der alt Schmidt Schop 

is full of reminis- 
cences of Longfellow. Bryant too, has been rendered into the 
dialect. Except for the few poems of his own in which he deals 
with the natural scenery or places near his ho^e or where, as in 
"Hesse Dahl" he tells the story of a stockade in which Hessian 
prisoners were kert, or when he takes a drive into "Backmult Valli", 
the poems have nothing distinctively Pennsylvania German. The 
language is of course the one exception, but even here he gets 
into trouble, where the Allemanian, Suabian or Palatinate will 
not yield him a corresponding Pennsylvania German rhyme. His 
renderings o" the German dialect poets are however, not confined 
to translation. Many of them are adaptations and not infrequently 
he expands them or adds to them ide s of his own. This book 
appeared in a second edition in 1895. 

Ludwig Eichrodt in his Rheinschwabisch - Gedichte 
in L'ittelbadischer Sprechweise- says: "Druckfehler glaw e een net 

drin, sonsch gabts noch e Versaichnuss."This our author could not 


say of his boo] ' hai ;iven " .ichnua " brains 

i 1 .- 
fierte " r ort 3 - "z 
Do -1 a a noch b ' Ira 
Suns cht f al 1 ' t die Z e i 1& kur z . 

On the misprints he say 3: 

.ckfehler, die ferderwes Buch, 
Wiesoht sin sio Oiine Zweifel 

ler drivvor fluchtl 
Mer gebt die ^chuld dem Deufel. 

Eiohrodt had said similarly: 

Un wo urn's Lewe net d Spass, odar z'varstelin ish letz gar 
Do denkt, 's isoh am end e Dail Lesfehler vomme G etzar . 

This sketch would not be complete wi >ut mention of 
a poem which Fisher did not include in the collection, notwith- 
standing it is by no means one of the worst; it is his translation 
of Poe's Raven into the metres of the original. The most obvious 
fault of the translation is a frequent wandering from the exact 
sense of the original; its greatest virtues are a certain rude 
vigor and a surprising skill in reproducing the rhyth . 

Un so wie ich mir er inner 

Wars so ahfangs in om Winter 
Un en jede gluhend Zinder 
Macht sei Geischtli uf em floor. 
Un ich hob gewinscht ' s war I'orge 

.'er do war nix zu borge 
Aus de Bicher - nix as Sorge 
oorge for de liob Lenore 
Ach dass sie noch bei mir war 
' logel hen ' ire 
Do genennt doch nimrnermehr. 

Falsch Propheet, du, ohne Zweifel, 
Unglicks Fogel oder Deifel 

Ich zu ketzore un 3U quale 
V.'u der Deifel ka:.v:scht du her? 
rum duscht du mich besuche 

as bus cht du bei mir zu sue 1 , 
"'it mich in die Hell verfluc" 

".t deim ewig Himmermeer. 



A Bibliography 
the article on 
Abraham Reeser Home. 

Beginner's Book in French, Doriot, Boston, 1886 

Correspondence and Interviews with members of his family. 

Der Deutsche Pionier, Cincinnati, 0. Vol. VII. 161 

History of Carbon and Lehigh Counties, Matthews and 
Hungerford, lS r 54. 

National Educator, Allentown, Pa. Jan. 1903, 

New York Journal, New York. 

Pennsylvania German Manual, Kutztown, Pa. 1875. Allentown 
1895, 1905, 1910. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol.11, 
p. 46 and Vol . ITT .p. 161 

Prominent Pennsylvanians, Vol.1. 

Reading Eagle, Reading, Pa. 

The Pennsylvania Dutchman, Lancaster, 1873 


Abraham R. Horno. 

In November 1910 there All , Pa. 

" '".' Horn sei Pennsylfawnish Deitsh Buch, ' s fert mol un fel fa 
bess'rd" This book which is a sort of Raritaten-Kasten, giv 
evi : nevertheless of a far more serious purpose than any of 
the other works in the dialect} this purpose - lay better under- 
bid after seeing who the author was. Abraham Ree3er Home was 
born in Bucks County, Pa., on 'larch °4, ; his ancestors who 
were of the Mennonite faith had emigrated from Germany and had pur- 
chased land from John and Thomas Perm early in the 18th century. 
His own religious tendency manifested itself early in life, when 
at eight years oC ige he is said to have preached to the fowls of 
the barnyard what he remembered of the sermons he heard, md per- 
haps some things he had not heard. At the same age he had made 
sufficient progress in his studies to await eagerly the Postrider 
who once a week distributed the county papers throughout the coun- 

When sixteen years old he began to teach school , 
and at twenty ho was principal of the schools of Bethlehem, P , 
it this time he entered Pennsylvania College at Gettysburg, teach- 
ing vacation school, to raise the funds tc ] his course. 
Upon graduation ^ tablished in 1354, at Quakertown, Pa., the 
Bucks County Normal and Classical Institute. Starting with three 
students, at the end of his five years work here he was employ- 
ing fifteen teachers to instruct the ever increasing number of 
students. This school was virtually the forerunner of the Normal 
School System of Pennsylvania, there being at that time no other 
school in the state that was conducted so nearly along the lines 

subsequently followed by tho Normal Schools. 


It was during this period ' ohool 

journal, which under various names, but 1 iwn by its last, 
The National Educator, he continued to pub!' is long as he liv 
It was during thi-- same time that he was ordained a Lutheran min- 
ister and served a number of congregations as pastor. In 1365, he 
went to "Villiamsport as pastor to several Lutheran cor itions 
there, and two years later became city Superinten " hools 
at Williamsport . It was here that he was associated w 
Thompson, late President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, who was a 
director of the schools. After five years (1 i ' -" 2) of success- 
ful labor, he was called to the Principal ship of the State Normal 
School at Kutztown, Pa. After five years (1372 - 1877 ) in this 
position he organized and directed the Normal and Preparatory 
Department of Muhlenberg College, also for a period of five years 
(1377 - 1382) 

The foregoing account does not by any means include 
all the activities of the life of the man, who, even when almost 
70, was popularly known as Allentown's busiest man. In addition 
to his work as preacher, as teacher and as editor, he wrote fr< - 
quantly for magazines, newspapers and educational journals; as a 
lecturer and instructor at Teachers' Institutes ho wa3 always in 
demand, not only in Pennsylvania but in neighboring states and 
through '-.he South, .There he made four extensive lecture tours, 
after he had given up his work as teacher in 1333. It was after 
one of these trips that he wao elected President of the University 
of Texas, but declined the position. During these trips he w 
also correspondent for Philadelphia Pa] 

I lover of .. ' 1! ' ] -. , and 


1 o students ' intr 

he pub] :T " T • uid tc 

' Df self h lp he publisi fc' Ihem- 

istr; 1 sub J . Believ' hat if 

of selves as he did, their health w ] 1 equal his own, he pub- 
lished his Common Sense Health Notes. He was a member of many 
socities and prepared and read many papers before them, among othera 
he was one of the founders of the Pennsylvania German Society. In 
] )8 he was appointed by the Governor to be the State Educational 
Commissioner to the Omaha Exposition. Late in life he p 1, 
organized and became p resident of a Railroad Company and built a 
Railroad. He also published the Memoirs of Rev. Joshua Yeager, a 
noted preacher of Eastern Pennsylvania. 

A Pennsylvania German by birth, a teacher in the 
public schools at a time and in a place where the dialect only 
was spoken, Principal of a Normal School which is notorious for 
the percentage of Pennsylvania Germans among its students, he 
appreciated a3 few had done, the difficulties these young people 
had to contend with in getting an English education. Indeed, the 
original object of his paper was "to supply a long felt want in 
education among the Pennsylvania Germans, namely an organ for the 
schools and parents of the German section of the State, specially 
devoted to their interests." During his first twenty five years 
as a teacher, he had become convinced, as he tells us in his 
Manual published in 1875, that the system of education generally 
pursued among these people admitted of very great improvement, 
as far as it pertained to language instruction. In thinking and 
reasoning, as for instance in Mathematics, he found the Pennsyl- 


vania Germans not only the luala "but superior to many of sh 
ancestry; but where there wan requ' i of e 'ion, 

he found them greatly handicapped by their inability to use the 
English language. 

"The groat problem presented for solution, is how 
shall six to eight hundred thousand inhabitants of Eastern Penn- 
sylvania to say nothing of those of other parts of our own State 
and of other States, to whom English is as much a dead language a3 
Latin and Greek, acquire a sufficient knowledge of English to en- 
able them to use the language intelligently?" - "To render such 
assistance to those who speak Pennsylvania German only, as will 
enable them to acquire the more readily the two most important 
modern languages, English and German, has induced us to prepare 
this Manual." 

It will be noticed that he says to teach English 
and German; this idea was not a n£w one with him; in an article in 
the Pennsylvania Dutchman, Vol. I. No. 3. 1373 which discusses among 
other things to what extent the German language should be taught 
by the side of English and in what manner this should be done, he 
had already recommended Pennsylvania German for Pennsylvania Ger- 
man pupils and High German for European Germans as the first 
language of instruction. For those who are accustomed to speak 
Pennsylvania German he recommended the use of articles written in 
Pure Pennsylvania German! in the newspapers and especially Har- 
igh's poems to teach pronunciation, translation, construction 
and simple grammatical forms. Then turning to the question of 
English, he says every child attending the schools should receive 
a sufficient knowledge of English to be able to hold intelligent 

conversation and conduct correspondence In this language; two 
thirds of our Pennsylvania German pupil3 fail to do this at 
present; having shown how, according to true pedagogical principl 
the teacher must pass from the known to the unknown, he goes on to 
demonstrate how corresponding words and sounds in English and Penn- 
sylvania German should he made the basis of exercises in pronun- 
ciation. Finally, some book in Pennsylvania German like Harbaugh ' s 
Harfe or Ranch's Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook should be placed in 
the pupil's hands. In the same number of the Dutchman there appear- 
ed an editorial commending the scheme. 

Filled with these ideas, Horns began while Principal 
of the Normal School, the collection of material for a book which 
should be more adapted to school work along the lines of his articl -s 
than either Karbaugh's Harfe or Rauch's Handbook. The first part 
of the book, intended to be the basis for a correct pronunciation 
of English, takes up seriatim the sounds supposed to be most diffi- 
cult to acquire, with rules for pronunciation. Exercises for 
practise are appended, of which such sentences as - "He that re- 
fuseth thriftlessness and rejoiceth in thorough thinking thrives" 
and "What whim led White Whitney to whittle, wisper, whistle and 
whimper near the wharf where a whale wheeled and whirled?" i 
stand as examples. Those who were in his classroom bear testimony 
to the rigorous drills he used to subject them to at this time 
whenever he caught them mispronouncing English; meanwhile the news 
got abroad that the Professor was preparing a book; it wa - being 
noised about in the newspapers. The following letter in the dialect 
contributed to the Allentown Friedensbote by Edward D. Leisenring 
about the Professor and his forthcoming book I include here partly 

for general reasons, but also because it contains the views of 
Leisenring, who deserves to be heard on the vexed question, ".'hat 
is Pennsylvania German? Incidentally it contains a criticism of 
".Volleiiweber's "Gemalde aus deni Pennsylvanisch Deutschen Volksleben" 
which had appeared a short time before, and also of the poems of 
Harbaugh; besides all this it is a speciemn of a dialect newspaper 
letter Such as the latter becomes when it discusses serious things 
in a serious vein. 

" f N Brief an der Hochwerdig Prof .Home von der Kutztauner 

Normal schul. 
Hochwerdiger Professor:- Ich hab schon von d'r gelese im Friedensbote 
un annere Zeidinge, un g'aehne, dass du dich bis uf die neunt Haut 
welire dusht for unser schftne Pennsylvania DeutacheSprach ufzu- 
halte, dass sie net unnerdruckt un vernicht sott werre von dene 
Englisha kerls, wo doch net English konne un loeber Gott, ah kenn 
Deutech. * S hot mich werklich geplasirt, dass 3o'n gelerntef Kerl, 
wie du eenor biat, unser Part nemmt. Ich bin 'n Pfalzer, mei 
Gros3dadi is aus der Pfalz ruwer kumme, un dieweil die gelernte 
Leut behaupten, der Grossdadi dhat alsfort widder im Enkel raus 
kumme, do bin ich dennoch mei grossdadi selwert, wo von der Pfal2 
ruwer kumme is. Uf sell bin ich stolz, vonwege er war'n schmartor 
Mann . 

"Was ich eegentlich hab sage wolle is des "Ich han in 
der Zeidung gelese, du dhatst mit dera Gedanke ungeh, 'n Buch un * n 
Dickachonary uwer Pennsylvanisch Deut3ch rauszugewe. Weest was - 
so 'n Buch dhat 'n die Leut do in Pennsylvania un sunst uwerall 
wo die Pennsylvanisch Deutsch Sprach sch.vatze gewiss arg gleiche, 

un die Nallyann is recht in die hoh g'huppst for Freede wie ich 


sell Stuckel in der Zeidung vorgelose hab. Awer, sag ich zu der 
Nallyann, wie mor oweds beinanner g'sotze hen, wie sie bein Petty 
licht 'n paar Blacke uf eens von de Buwe sei Hoseknie genaht hot, 
Nellyann, sag ich, denksht seller Professor wees war er unnernornnt? 
Nau du bist 'n dorch un dorch 1 ennsylvani3ch '.Veibsmensch alle zoll 
von d'r. Glaabste so'n Buch konnt zuwege g'schriwe werre, dass 
m'r sich net sohamme braucht init? "Well* sagt sie, weil sie ihre 
schone braune Aage uwer der Disch zum'r ruwer g'schraisse hot, sagt 
sie 'ich glaab wol net dass es der ufgeblose, hochmudig Hanne- 
wackel drunne im Wanzedhal es dhu' konnt, was seller Professor dhu 
kann wees ich net, awer sel wees ich, dass wann inei Hannes so'n 
Lerning hatt, dass er 's dhu kennt'. Guck, 'wer so'n Fraa hot, lebt 
noch so long sagt der Sirach in der Biwel, un sel hot rnich ufgeweckt, 
dass ich d'r den do Brief schreiwe dhu. 

"Ich bin, denk ich net ganz so g f 3cheidt wie die 
Nellyann meent awer wann du sell Buch schreiwe wit, mocht ich d'r 
eppes von Adveis gewe, vonwege weil ich selwert 'n Pennsylvanier un 
noch newebei 'n Pfalzer bin wie ich d'r bewisse hab. Nau die Efalz- 
er Sprooch un die Pennsylvanisch Sprooch sauwer g'schwatzt, sin eens, 
un is schier keen Unnerschied dazwische. Les mol "FrbhcPfalz, Gott 
erhalts" (Nadler) noh geh ufs Land un geb gut acht wie die Leut 
schwatze; was die Buwe un die Mad zu nanner sage an der Singschul, 
vor'ra Schulhaus wann's dunkel i3; was die Baure 3age von de Gaul, 
vom Rinsvieh, von de Sau, vom Weeze, voin "elschkorn un vora Hai ; was 
un wie die Weibsleit mitnanner dischkurire uwer allerhand Sache, 
die juscht sie alleen a' belange, un du werscht bal etffahre, was 
Pennsylvanisch Deutsch is. Do sin viel von dene Kerls wo's prowirt 
hen, die raeene, wann sie recht hunsgeschmeo schlecht hoch Deutsch 


schreiwe un ferchterlich viol 3nglische worte drunner schmiere dhate, 
sell war Pennsylvanisch, un ao narrisohe Deutsche, wo's net besser 
verstehen, spend 'ne dann grosse Lorbeere for 'dieses Gottlicho 
Verhunzen der so edlen deutschen Sprache ' . 7or selle, hochwerdiger 
Professor, m&cht ich dich gewarnt hawe. 

" ' S kann gewiss niemand 'n hoherer Respect hawe vor eelle 
Lieder, wo der Parre Harbach g'schriwe hot, wie ich. Ich wees, 
wie's'm urn's Herz war, wie'r alsemol selle Lieder g'schriwe hot - 
dotlich weech, heemwehrig. Herzewoh noch de unschuldige Kinnerjohre 
un bei so Gelegenheite hot noch eppes von owerunner aus der annere 
Welt uf 'n gewerkt - so dass m'r viol von seinr Lieder die Poosie 
gewiss net ablegle kannj awer die Sproch - well ich will nicks 
druwer sago - just, wo in 're Schrift Oder in 'me Lied so viel Snglisch 
wie Pfalzisch oder Deutsh vorkuramt, is es net Pennsylvanisch Deutsch. 

"Nau warm du dra' gehst, for sel Buch zu schreiwe los 
des vorhenkert 3nglisch Kauderwalsch haus, wo gar net in unser 
Sproch g'hore dhut. Ich arger mich allemol schwarz und bio, wann 
so dumm stoff gedruckt un in die Welt g'schickt werd wo Pennsylvan- 
isch Leutsch sei sol awer lautor geloge is. 'S is uns verlascht- 
ert wo ra'r's net verdient hen. Un wann dei Buch mol fertig is, un's 
kummt mir unner die Finger un's i3 so 'n elendiger 7/isch wie kerzlich 
wieder eener in Fildelfi raus kurorne is, dann ufgebasst for dann 
verheckel ich dich, das3 du aussehnst wie verhudelt Schwingwerk, 
un die Leut dich for'n Spuks a'gucke. 

Schinnerhanne3 vom CalmushtWel" 
Horno found it impossible to get his promised pub- 
lication ready by Christmas of 1375, but the students were so eager 
to have the book to take with them during the holidays to canvas 

for its sale, that a ntlmber of specimen copies in the form of agent3 
samples were struck off for their use; of these I possess a muti- 
lated copy. When it appeared, the second part was entitled Penn- 
sylvania German Literature, consisting first of directions for the 
use of the exercises, a phonetic key, and then a long series of 
object lesson pictures, serious, humorous and Comic, each supplied 
with a title in English, Pennsylvania German and High German. 

This part of the book (as well as the first part) 
finds a certain pedagogical justification and example. Ten years 
later (1836) the firm of Ginn and Company published "The Beginner's 
French Book" by Sophie Doriot "with Humorous Illustrations". In 
the author's Introduction she says: "Experience has taught me fur- 
ther that children as a rule are rather hard to please and not 
very willing to submit to arduous and humdrum work; it is necessary 
to amuse them - - I also rely on pictures which have been made 
as humorous as possible - Children who do not know how to read 
should be taught the words and expressions contained in each lesson 
by means of pointing to the different parts of the picture." In 
fact, her entire Introduction might be bodily transferred to out 
Pennsylvania German book; this evidently belonged to the pedagogy 
of the time. 

Next follow proverbs, riddles, rhymes, anecdotes, 
descriptions of old customs by the author; lives of distinguished 
Pennsylvania Germans, especially of the Pennsylvania German Gov- 
ernors and of the State Superintendent of Education, by Conrad 
Gehring of the Kutztown Journal; and finally selection^ from dialect 
poets. The third part contained a brief grammar, a dictionary of 
Pennsylvania German words with their English and High German equiva- 


lents. As a guide to the study of English and Cierman, the book 
was submitted to the public for use in schools and families. (Vide 
the Introduction) The editor of the Reading Eagle had attacked 
Home's scheme, when first he had proposed to introduce the dialect 
into the schools; Rauch of Lancaster championed Home in an editorial 
in which he said he supposed the Professor would attend to the 
fellow and then encourages him thus "Du 'm mohl sei dicker dum-cup 
t'zurecht setza.* 

I have inquired of those who ought to know whether 
the book ever got into the schools; the result is disappointing, 
save this from a letter from David S.Keck of Kutztown, who was Super- 
intendent of the Schools in Berks County in those days: he says: "I 
occasionally found a copy on the teacher's desk, the teacher some- 
times consulted it to get the English names of common objects." 
(Letter of February 13, 1911) The situation which the book was in- 
tended to meet seems to have been generally recognized as actually 
existing, for on the appearance of the book, the New York Journal 
said, "Prof .Home, bekarmtlich einer der unermudlichsten Ver£echter 
des Deutschtums in Amerika, gibt ein Lesebuch. Dies Buch wird ei i>: 
lang geftlhlten Bedurfniss abhalfen, da dann Pennsylvanisch Deutsche 
Kinder das Englisch nicht bios lesen sondern auch verstehen lernen 
k6nnen. Ein solches Werk ist nicht bios wunschenswerth sondern gar 
unter den jetzigen Verhaltnissen zum dringenden Bedurfniss geworden." 
It is of course possible that almost all of this was read out of 
the Introduction by the reviewer, but it was in turn quotod by the 
Deutsche Pionier of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

After the Manual had been ten years our of print, a 
second edition was issued in 1896 with numerous additions to all 


three parts, with the addition of a supplement, comprising an Eng- 
lish Dictionary with the Pennsylvania German equivalent. The 
author has dropped the word German from his preface, and has in 
mind a Manual only for the acquiring of English. He says further 
that although the necessity for such a work might "be supposed to 
exist no longer, yet experience and observation shows, that in 
Pennsylvania German districts on the very eve of the 20th century 
what was said in the preface in 1875 may again he repeated. *n 
referring to the second edition The Pennsylvania German calls it: 
"a book that has for years been a standard among those having to cL> 
with the mastery of the dialect or the English education of the 
children who speak this tongue." In response to a wide public de- 
mand, Borne 1 s son was induced to issue a third edition in 1905; 
it had again been enlarged in every part and purports no longer to 
servo merely as a guide book for the study of English, but also to 
show how the Pennsylvania German i3 spoken and written; an indi- 
cation that the boo^: is on the way to become a historical docu- 
memt and will presently show how Pennsylvania German was spoken. 
In November, 1910, as stated at the outset, the Manual was issued, 
"Es fert mol un feel ferbessered" . Such is the history of one of 
the most popular Pennsylvania German books by one of the most 
widely known Pennsylvania Germans, one who, wherever he was, was 
fond of applying IVollenweber f s lines to himself: 

w Ich bin en Pennsylfawni Deutscher 
Druf bin ich shtuls un dro." 


A Bibliography 
for the sketch on 
Israel Daniel Rupp. 

Egle, W.H. in the Historical Magazine, Feb. 1871 

R. - in the Deutsche Pionier, Vol. X. p. 200 

Ringwalt, I.Trs. Jessie C. in the Deutsche Pionier, Vol. VI 

p. 351 

Pennsylvania German, Vol. VII .1 . I.-F.C.Croll. 


Israel Daniel Rupp. 

The name of the author of "Thirty Thousand Names 
of German and Other Immigrants to Pennsylvania" is known to all 
students of early histories, as is also his remarkable series 
of County Histories which ha3 become the storehouse whence all 
later writers have drawn. Biographical sketches of him have ap- 
peared in the Historical Magazine, Pet. 1871 by his friend Dr.Sgle; 
in the Deutsche Pionier 1874 p. 351 a translation of an "nglish 
article by Mrs. Jessie C.Ringwalt; in the Deutsche Pionier 1878, p. 200 
by some one who signs himself R. (Rattermann, H.A. ?); in the 
Pennsylvania Magazine Jan. 1891 by the late Prof .Seidensticker 
of the University of Pennsylvania; and in the Pennsylvania German 
Magazine, Jan. 1906 by Rev.P.C.Oroll. 

Vihile no new material on Rupp has been discovered 
it is due to his memory to recall here how he went through Penn- 
sylvania with a horse and wagon and a load of books to sell, while 
gathering information from house to house; how he went from torn 
to town teaching school, either obtaining a position or starting 
new schools, in places where there were records to be searched, 
while he later as itinerant life insurance agent travelled for 19 
years through Pennsylvania, all the while picking up the material 
out of which his famous works were evolved. 

A :aaoter of rany languages and a student of language 
as well as of history, he found time to scrutj . 

* 2fermany, and frequently wrote , artic] 

he compared these several dialects of Germany with the Pennsyl- 
vania German. Such a one is a dialect Deutsche 
Pionier: "En Kurze G'schicht von ineim Grosvater Johann Jonas Rupp" 


two other artel wrote for . are entitled 

"Eppes uber Pennsylvania Deutsch" and. "Eppes de Deutsche Baure" . 

In 1871 Dr.Egle wrote of him: "There (in Philadel- 
phia)he still resides, pursuing his vocation, laying up treasures 
of history for the great work of his life, 'An Original Fireside 
History of German and Swiss Immigrants in Pennsylvania from 1688 
to 1775a. It i3 nearly completed and it is hoped that Rupp will 
soon give it to the public who have been on the lookout for the 
work for so many years." 

In 1873, in an article sent to Rauch's Pennsylvania 
Dutchman he himself said of the chapter on ' Pan Patois of Pennsyl- 
vania German' that was to appear in the above mentioned volume: "I 
have for nearly fifty years been studying the Pan Patois, Kauder- 
welsch, spoken in Pennsylvania. I have in my budget a va,ried col- 
lection of German phrases, words, idiomatic sentences, written 
by myself as pronounced in different counties in Pennsylvania, noted 
carefully in the dialectic variations" 

In 1878 when he died, the work which would no 
doubt vie with all his other collections and compilations in value, 
had not yet been published nor has it to this time seen the light 
of day. 


A Bibliography 

the sketch on 
David B. Brunner. 

Biographical History of Berks County, Norton L. Montgomery, 

Chicago, 1909. 

Pennsylvania German, Lititz, Pa. Vol. VII. 4. 3 

Proceedings of lylvania German Society, Vol. IV. p. 159 

Publications of the Berks County Historical Society, R ':jg,Pa 

Personal interviews with his fri 


David B. Brun e . 

David B.Brunner of ' . - : 'A a 11 

number E 1 : 'led Xenieii,' rhyme* prov ba, , Baura- 

spruchej to which he signed hi ] " von F "i.e. from 

Berks County. 

7er sucht for'n rechter har r Job 
Der geh un wart sich selwer ab. 

lisst nel 'na dra s i 

Un alfert im a Schussj 
1 ide Fin H 1 :>ls 

". Pochol odder 'n 

t Hi 1 sohtehlt, 

Dann sperren sie en ei' 
Doch warm or dausent Daler sohtehlt 
it er ] Lch frci. 

thorough ' x> I files of the Reading /Idler (estab- 
lished 1796) for which he wrote | sntly /rould yield n 
numb or o^ 

Widely dif " ... contained 

Home's Pennsylvania German Manual, entitled "De ' on un 
si Bile". The familiar cherry tree story is rehearsed; George' 
father is portrayed as a thrifty Pennsylvania 
had seen tc it that his estate had its due share of oho- , 
growing all about. George, who was a good boy, - "warm er bei 
seim pap war"- was tempted by the red ripe fruit; his prude 
praised in not electing to cli >e; suppo. "alien 
and crushed out his young life - 

How i^on des ding so ghappened het 

Un sis una goot geglickt 
Don hetta mir silawa ken 

Unites Ctates do grickt. 

George's father discovers the deed, and to the ques- 
tion why he cut down the tree with his little hatchet, George 
replies with the countryman's joke,- because ho could not find the 

axe. Half in j If yield] ptation to po' 

a moral the selection 

Der George hut net viol chansa g'hot 
r grosse Buwo het. 
■ George hut gor net leaya kenna, 
Ihr kennt, doot ov )t. 

Danie] Mil] '. Collection of Pennsylvania Ge tains 

five selections in verse by Brunner. 1. . ich juscht en Bauer 

war, in praise of country life: 

Oi warm ich juscht en Bauer war, 

Un hatt en gut "tuck Lai 
Dann hatt ich ah mei Sack voll Geld 

Un ah noch in der Hand. 

In rapid survey are passed in review all the arguments 
that used to be brought forward by the affirmative, when in the 
old days was discussed in "Speakin- school" the ques , Resolved: 
That country life is preferable to city life. Not until we have 
read the last four lines of the poem, 

0: wann ich juscht en Bauer war, 

".'arm's ah juscht dauere deht 
Bis dass ' s gut Sach gesse is 

Un's an die Erwet gehti 

do we realize that this is 
a satire; that our author is sporting with us and with his subject, 
that he has in his humble wa£, contributed to a type of literature 
as old as literature itself. 

2. Bezahlt E}uer Parre - narrates how a witty parson 
moved a wealthy though delinquent congregation to meet its finan- 
cial obligations, and ends with a merry explanation of a similafc 
phenomenon, that a preacher also cannot live without pay. 

3. En Gross Misverstandniss - 

Die scho un lacherlich "' ' Lcht, 
Go duhn viel sie heese, 


Hab ioh in meiner Ilerche Zeiti 
Sechs Johr zurft. lose. 

hrscheinlich is die G'schicht ah wahr, 
So hot sie mir geguckt, 
Sunst hatte unser Parre sie 
Sei lebdag net gedruckt. 

Th Misverst&ndniss is great 
enough to arouse, tost expectatioi , while the disillusion- 
ment is invariably followed by a burst of li -r, for in the main 
it is true that the Pennsylvania German loves a joke on the "Parre". 

4. Die Grundsau - after considering this creature 
and all her ways, and all her claims, and all her influence, he 
finds that we have to with a thorough humbug, and that: 

Exactly wie die Grundsau is, 

So duht ihr Manner finne; 
Auswennig sin sie Gentellout, 

Un humbugs sin sie inne. 

This gives Brunner occasion to consider the various kinds 
of sharpers that are neither what they seem, nor what they claim 
to be; U' d 

Nau geb ich euch en guter Roth 

Un den du ich euch schenke, 
'j'ann ihr so humbugs als ahtrefft, 

Duht an die Grundsau denke. 

5. Der alt un der Jung Krebs - tells of an old 
crayfish that chid his offspring for swi: "hinnorsch-f odderscht" 
but the saucy youngster replies that he has learnt it from his 

^s is ihr wisst on alte Ruhl, 

Dass schier gar all de S6h, 
Grad duhne was der Vatter duht, 

Un juscht en bissel meh. 

By a number of salient examples our author shows that fathers and 
nothers must not expect to forbid their sons and daughters the 


follies they the uilty of, with any prospect of 

being obeyed. 

In M Der Dan Y/ebster un sei Sens" he treats another 
well known tale after the manner of the George V/ashington story. 
Dan is a Pennsylvania German boy fcho has gone to College and 
comes back having forgotten how to work, prefers to talk English 
and would rather sit in the shade than do anything else. This 
is a favorite theme of our writers; Daniel Miller has a pro. 
version of this same story; the effect of the first year of College 
life on the farmer boys has received the attention of a number of 
writers, one notable selection having been prepared by T.H.Harter 
(Boonastiel q.v. ) at the instance and to the complete satisfaction 
of a former President of State College, Pennsylvania. 

Brunner wrote also, occasional prose letters for the 
papers, notably in his campaign for Congress; during this time 
he had his own letters appear in numerous County papers, but over 
the signature of those who ordinarily contributed dialect pro- 
ductions to the respective papers. 

It is time to consider briefly what manner of man 
this strange handicraftsman of literature was. David B. Brunner v;as 
fifth in line of descent fror, Peter Brunner, who emigrated from 
the Palatinate about 1736. The subject of our sketch was born in 
.ity Township, Berks County, Pa. "u'arch 7, 1835; he attended the 
public schools until twelve years old allowed the car- 

nter's trade with his father till he was nineteen, meantime con- 
tinuing his attendance at school during the winter months. He 
taught school three years and prepared himself for Dickinson 
College, which he entered in 1852, graduating in 1356} he conducted 


the Reading Classical f-chool until 1869, whereupon he was elected 
Superintendent of Schools of Berks County. ifter serving two 
terms, he founded the Reading Academy of Sciences and the Reading 
Business College; in 1880 he "became Superintendent of the City 
Schools of Reading, Pa, and from 1838 on served two terms in 

Brunner was interested in archaeology, and published 
works on the Indians of Berks County and of the State j in the 
domain of microscopy and mineralogy, his studies on the minerals 
of his County have been incorporated in the publications of the 
2nd Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. He died on the 29th of 
November, 1903* His dialect writing was an incident and a diver- 
sion in a busy life. His prose letters will be found chiefly in 
the files of the Reading Adler. 


A Bibliography 

for the 
chapter on 
Lee Light Grumbine. 

Allentown Daily City Item. 

Bethlehem Times. 

Biographical History of Lebanon County, Chicago, 1904 

Der Alt Dengelstock, Grumbine, Lebanon, 1903 

Harrisburg Star Independent. 

Lancaster New Era 

Lebanon County Historical Society, Vol. I. No. 11 

Lebanon Courier 

Lebanon Daily News 

Lebanon Evening Report 

Lee Light Grumbine -Cr oil in Pennsylvania German, Vol. V. 145 

Letters in possession of S.P.Heilman 

National Cyclopedia of American Biography, New York. 1894 

Vol. V. p. 264 

National Educator, Allentown, Pa. 

Pennsylvania German, Vol. V. 2. 96. w Der Dengelstock" 

Pennsylvania German, Vol. VII. 4. 178 

Philadelphia Inquirer 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. IV. 169 

Vol. XIV. 55 

Publications of the L-eabnon County Historical Society, Vol .3 

Transactions of the American Philological Association. 


Lee Light Grumbine . 

Lee Light Grumbine was born in Fredericksburg, Leb- 
anon County, Pennsylvania, July 25, 1858. The ancestry of his 
family has already been discussed in the article on his brother 
Dr. Ezra Grunbine (q.v.) where also it has bee noted that "to 
scribble and rhyme runs in the family" Lee Grumbine possessed 
another talent that ic characteristic of the best dialect writers 
according to a writer in the Forum (Vol. XIV. Dec. 1892, p. 470) who 
says "Recalling Col. R.M.Johnston's dialectic sketches with his own 
presentation of them from the platform, the writer notes a fact 
that seems to obtain among all true dialect writers, namely, that 
they are also endowed with native histrionic capabilities. Hear 
as well as read Twain, Cable, Johnston, Page, Smith and all the 
list, with barely an exception." 

In: the public schools and at Palatinate College, 
Grumbine gave evidence of his ability along thic line, and when a 
student at the Wesleyan University, Conn, he began giving public 
elocutionary entertainments, and this, with lecturing and Teachers' 
Institute work he kept us as a diversion during his lifetime. 

When he had graduated from Wesleyan University, Conn, 
in 1881, he took up teaching but began the study of law at the 
same time, and three years later was admitted to practice in the 
Courts of Lebanon County, and in 1887 to practice before the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania; for a time he was the law partner of the 
late Gen.Gobin. In 1886 he was appointed Instructor of Elocution 
at Cornell University, but never entered upon the duties of his 
position j in 1889 he was Principal of the School of Oratory at 
the Silver Lake (New York) Chautauqua. 

In 1889 he became the founder and editor of the Leb- 
anon Daily Report, which he conducted along independent line, 
making it the organ of reform movements, and the dread of evil - ■ 
doers and machine politicians. In politics, a Prohibitionist, he 
held a high place in the councils of hi3 party, both in the State 
and in the Nation, and as a platform orator and as candidate he 
made many a vigorous fight for a forlorn hope. 

Grumbine was also one of the prime movers in the 
organization of the Pennsylvania Chautauqua at Lit. Gretna; a mem- ■ 
ber and one of the founders of the Lebanon County Historical So- 
ciety: a member of the American Philological Association, for 
which he prepared several papers on the results of his study of 
the provincialisms of the English speech of eastern Pennsylvania 
which have their origin in German idioms and expressions. He viae 
one of the founders, and during his life, Vice President and a 
Director of the Lebanon Trust Company. 

It was his paper - The Lebanon Daily Report - that 

first suggested in December 1890 and January 1891 the organization 

of the Pennsylvania German Society, and when other papers quickly 

seconded the idea, it led to the organization of that society early 

in the same year (1891). At its first regular meeting, after 

organization Oct. 14, 1891, he read an English poem entitled "The 

Marriage of the Muse" in 21, 12 verse stanzas. He calls for 

"The happy bard, the poet and seer, 
Whose voice, with its tuneful charm, will make men hear, 
As he tells, in stately epic, or lyric story, 
Of a quiet and simple folk, of their trials and glory- 
As he sings with wisdom and grace and musical measure, 
To their children's glad delight, or a busy world's pleasure, 
The sterling virtues of that brother band, 
'The sorrowing exiles from the Fatherland, 
Leaving their homes in Kriesheim's bowers of vine, 


And the blue beauty of their glorious Rhine, 
To seek amid their solemn depths of wood 
Freedom from man and holy peace with God.' " 

The last 
five lines are an incorporation of verses from Whittier's "Penn- 
sylvania Pilgrim" 

"A timid youth , 

V/ho only knows to speak with simple truth 
His love. 

appears as suitor to the Muse. 

after explaining 

"who dares by such a bold demand 
Persistent, sue the Kuse's heart and hand?" 

the poet 
proceeds to tell of the noble ancestry of the youth, and finally 
makes bold to reveal his name- it is the Pennsylvania German 
Society. His petition is evidently heard, for the successful or- 
ganization of the Society is celebrated as the Nuptial Feast and 
the hope is expressed that 

"From this holy union may there spring 
A progeny of poets, that will sing, 
The praises of those hero souls who came, 
In search of neither fortune nor of fame, 
From Alpine slopes and banks of castled Rhine, 
To land where Liberty's fair sun would shine." 

The second and third parts of this poem are entitled 
respectively "Their Dowry" and "Our Heritage" 

Grumbine remained an active member of the Society 
until his death in 1904; at that time he had in course of prepar- 
ation a history of the Mennonites, which he was writing for the 
Association. In 1901 he presented a paper to the Society - an 
essay on the Pennsylvania German Dialect: A study of its status as 
a spoken dialect and form of literary expression, with reference 
to it6 capabilities and limitations, and lines illustrating the 

same!!- also undertaken at the request of the Society. In part it 
contains good poetics as when he says "The Pennsylvania German 
occupies a unique place among the tongues of Babel and their der- 
ivations. It is like a provincial rustic youth, strong in the 
vigor of athletic young manhood, lusty in the spirit of adventure, 
and joviality, schooled in self-reliance, honesty and industry, 
trained in all the domestic virtues - love of home, of work, of kin 
and of God, but not used to the courtliness of state, unskilled 
in the hollowness of vain compliment, untutored in the frippery and 
polish of artificial society, unacquainted with the insincerity and 
diplomacy of the wider world, removed from kith and kin, and thrown 
upon his own resources among strangers and new surroundings. The 
feelings and sentiments of its own provincial home life it can ex- 
press with a force and beauty, a directness ^a tenderness and humor 
all its own, but in the more cosmopolitan relations it is awkward 
and wholly inadequate, probably because as soon as the Pennsylvania 
German individual strikes out into the larger world of human en- 
deavor, beyond the modest and circumscribed limits of his provin- 
cial sphere, to the extent that he becomes a cosmopolitan in taste 
in education, or culture, or achievement he discards the provincial 
for the national} he loses the marks of his native racial and 
linguistic individuality; in short loses himself in the great mass 
of the national commonplace. He discards the mother tongue and 
adopts the ruling speech, the English." 

Or again, when he says "A foul tongue cannot express 
a pure mind even though a corrupt mind may at times clothe itself 
in fair language. The artist, the poet, the writer, the musician 
each expresses his thought, his life, his inner self; and what the 


vocabulary is to the individual, that the dialect is to the com- 
munity, and the language to the nation. If the people as a people 
are concerned with the heroic affairs of human activity - with 
statecraft and commerce, with science and art, with schemes of 
metaphysics and education, with the pomp of wealth and the parade 
and pageantry of aristocracy, with the stilted ceremonials of 
society and the outward formalities of religion, their language will 
be stately, courtly, scholarly, classical, majestic, and sometimes 
hollow and insincere. The stormy passions of the soul, the machin- 
ations of ambition, the intrigues of politics, the plottings of 
hatred and revenge, and the cruelties of persecution can only be 
portrayed upon the large theater of the world where are played the 
dramas of statecraft, and where great events and movements mark 
the onward march of history from epoch to epoch. For these the 
language and life of the Pennsylvania Germans furnish neither 
example, opportunity, nor means of expression. It were ludicrous 
to try to write an epic poem in the dialect of a provincial com- 
munity whose interests do not go beyond 'the daily task, the common 
round 1 of its simple life. Cathedrals are not built upon the plan 
or out of the materials of which dwellings are made, and yet while 
the cathedral with its noble proportions, its majestic arches and 
softly colored light, 

'Where through the longdrawn aisle and fretted vault 
The pealing anthem swells the note of praise." 

may help to lift the devout spirit's aspir- 
ations toward the Infinite God, it is the pure and simple life in 
the happy home of the plain and virtuous people, no matter how 
humble the architecture or how modest the comforts, where the Muse 
of Poesy loves to come a lingering gue3t. Here are cultivated 

the tender sentiments of the fireside, affection, kindness, filial 
love and obedience, paternal solicitude, generosity, unselfishness. 
Here dwell the domestic virtues - truth, sincerity, charity, con- 
fidence, candor, devotion, chastity. Here too, is religion's real 
altar where piety, reverence and holiness are not the formal profes - 
sion of the lips, or the ceremonial and perftuictory offices of the 
priest, but the true expression of the heart in daily right living. 
Sportive humor plays its mirthful part, songs of contentment and 
the rippling laughter of childhood enliven the labors of happy in- 
dustry. These are some *of the sweet notes in the joyous minstrel- 
sy which rises to Heaven when the poet sings of the Pennsylvania 
German life and people. The common range of every day human ex- 
periences, human activities, human feelings and failings, these are 
the domain and these the materials and opportunity for the Penn- 
sylvania German poet; and if ho cannot produce the heroic measures 
of the music drama with its grand world chorus of immortals, or 
the stately epic with its mighty epoch making movements of nations 
and of gods, he can at least, on the sweet toned lyre of his pro- 
vincial dialect, play simple pastoral songs and melodies." 

He is not unfamiliar with some of the dialect poets 
of Germany and it is to be noted that not all the poems that 
accompany the essay were written to illustrate the essay, some 
having appeared earlier, nor can it be said that he has touched 
up all the phases that his introduction points out as possibilities 
for the dialect poet. Accompanying the essay is a brief prefa- 
tory note, explaining the basis of several poens as well as fur- 
nishing a sort of psychological self analysis of the author's moods 
and an explanation of his aims. I include this in its entirety 


bo that any one who cares may have the opportunity of deciding for 
himself in how far he has succeeded or failed in his endeavors. 
"It may be said in a general way that everything 
here written is founded on actual fact or incident within the 
writer's observation. The verses are picture? from nature. Take 
for example those on a country Sabbath morn - "Sonntag Morge'ds an 
der Ziegle Kerch" - if I had the hands of an artist and could trans- 
late the lines into the language of pictorial art almost every 
verse would make a complete picture which each one of you and 
every Pennsylvania German would recognize as a glimpse into the 
mirror of his own life. And yet I may say the whole poem was 
suggested by Robert Louis Stevenson's "A Lowden Sabbath Morn", of 
parts of which it is a more or less liberal translation adapted 
to the conditions of Pennsylvania German country life. "Elendig" 
is an almost literally true narrative of an actual incident, but 
even if it were not it is absolutely true to the pathetic fact in 
life that when we are becoming physically infirm we speak of it 
ourselves in the hope of eliciting comfort from our friends and 
the assurance that things are not as bad as we think; but we do 
not like it when others mention the fact, and we invariably resent 
it when our friends take us at our word. The several translations 
further serve to illustrate what has been stated in reference to 
the limitations and capabilities of the dialect. Whittier's 
"Barbara Prietchie" and John Vance Cheney's "Kitchen Clock" show 
how readily the themes and incidents of provincial, pastoral or 
personal everyday life lend themselves to dialect treatment; while 
on the other hand the more dignified philosophical or moral theme 
of Longfellow's "Psalm of Life" could not be rendered into Penn- 


sylvania German without the effect of burlesquing it, but calls 
for the statlier measures of a more classical German." 

n Mei Arme Be" with a mixture of satire, humor and 
pathos paints a very common character familiar to us all - the vil- 
lage toper - who makes every ridiculous pretext an excuse for his 
indulgence, blames everything but himself for his weakness, and 
who protests up he day that hi p " 1 irium i 
"be can drink or let it alone? but who never lets it alone." 

"Der Schumacher" is another character common to 
every village and suggests his various brothers in the guild of 
handicraftsmen would furnish subjects for similar treatment - Der 
Weber, Der Schmied, Der Wagner and others. "Der Viert July" is a 
somewhat illnatured portrayal of the national holiday and the pain- 
ful, senseless, wasteful and almost intolerable way in which it 
has come to be celebrated in our cities. It was written while 
still smarting under the tortures which the 'Glorious Fourth' en- 
tails upon the sensitive nerves of a suffering people." 

"Lest the lines under the title 'Ich war Jurymann' 
might be thought to contain expressions unnecessarily emphatic, 
or inelegant perhaps, it is mentioned that the poem was suggested, 
and is based upon the following true incident, beyond the state- 
ment of which I have nothing to add in justification or apology: 
'There lived where I spent my childhood a little old man, who in 
the happy days before individualism in industrial life was entire- 
ly crushed out by the spirit of combination in our commercial 
evolution, earned a livelihood in the pursuit of his chosen handi- 
craft - that of a tailor. He lived in the country several milec 
back of my native village and the demands of fashionable society 


made no heavy draft upon his artistic powers, it may be assumed; 
but he lived a contented and useful life contriving wonderful gar- 
ments for youthful rural swains to court and get married in, which 
were ever afterwards preserved from the ravages and corruption of 
'moth and rust' with scrupulous care and never worn again except 
upon some occasion of equal state. In those days it was a par- 
ticularly shiftless and improvident lout unworthy the name or the 
station of a householder who did not preserve his 'Hochaig-kle'der ' 
to the day of his death when they might fulfil tho last important 
function in their and their owner's career, namely that of shroud. 
It happened by rare chance that the under or deputy sheriff stopped 
at his house one day to his infinite astonishment and satisfaction 
with a summons to do jury duty at the County Court ten or twelve 
miles distant. This was such an unusual event in the old man's 
life, never having happened before, and withal invested him with 
such dignity and importance in his own eyes that he straightway 
celebrated the event with one of his mild sprees in which he was 
wont to indulge upon every occasion of excessive fueling, and he 
devoted that entire day to little excursions between the bottle 
in the cupboard and his other duties, strutting about meanwhile 
with infinite self satisfaction before the proud gaze of his ad- 
miring spouse and giving vent to the contemplation of hi3 sudden 
greatness in the oft repeated exclamation: "Bin ich awer net e 'n 
donnerwet terser Jurymanni" In after years when I became more 
familiar with the scenes, the characters and the methods of courts 
of justice myself this remark was often recalled and as often 
served to give suitable expression to my own estimate, not only of 
jurors, but of various other important functionaries that 


figure there, as w-;"' ] i the sort of justice that, in tr 1 : :uage 

of : ' - "" is 'dispi ' pon occ ,." 

" ' S L a . • r " " r ] Is took" 

two other pictures of t' h ppy co* it and peaceful domestic 

simplicity of rustic Pennsylvania Ger;; life, w Lcl very ont 

has . ■ seen or known it wil] recog Lze as coincident with 

his own experience or observation. I had lust enough of "both to 

qualify me to "speak by the card" on the subject depicted, to wit: 

the boiling of applebutter at the particularly eventful moment when 

it is finished, as described in the lines: 

^r is gar: du kannst 's net besser treffe; 
Hehk der Kes3el ab, un' schoepp's in die Hoeffej 
Was muss der klo' Joe doch die Zung 'raus strecke, 
Pur der Loeffel un* der Ruhrer ab zuschlecke ." 

" d equally of that second occasion in the hayfield where 

the very spot can be pointed out that will be forever linked with 

the feeling and the situation suggested by the other lines: 

Dort hoert m'r laute stimnie, 

Die Buwe 3 in am schwimme, 
Im Damm wird gebotzelt un' gekrischej 

Un dort drunne im Krickle, 

Im Loch un' er'm Bruckle, 
V/ahrhaftig sin sie a' am fische!" 

""'hoever has seen a Pennsylvania German home on a pros- 
perous eastern Pennsylvania farm has seen the most perfect and 
idyllic picture of contentment, of manly independence, of plenty, 
of comfort, of good cheer, of peace of body and of mind that is to 
be seen anywhere on the face of the globe." 

Grumbino clearly had the feeling that he was con- 
tradicting his own principles when he undertook the translation of 
Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner" into the dialect, though he defends 
himself by stating that the original in the simplicity of its 

character, its language, Its plan and its teaching, is consonant 
with the simplest life and therefore admits of adequate expression- 
even under the limitations of a provincial dialect. Hon. G.F. Fer- 
dinand Ritschl, Imperial German Consul at Philadelphia, who was 
present when the poem was read, expressed his surprise at the 
adaptability of the dialect to a subject like the "Ancient Mariner" 
- a criticism that might easily be made by one who did not know that 
the dialect had no perfect tense, no genitive case, that, when 
lacking a word in the- dialect it prefers^ as a rule, an English 
one to a German one. These facts I am inclined to think the 
German Consul was not acquainted with. 

Then Grumbine himself says that he has constantly 
kept in mind that he is writing in a German dialect for a German 
rather than an English speaking constituency, and has discarded 
English word3 to a much larger extent than in ordinary Pennsylvania 
German conversation, he admits that he has created an artificial 
language, which, while it may be intelligible to any native born 
German, as he says, is however not the language of the Pennsylvania 
Germans. In the matter of language wo must heartily agree with 
the Philadelphia .Inquirer which at the time of the publication of 
the essay and the poems in book form said: "The fact remains that 
hi3 dialect is very different from that of current publications 
such as the fugitive pieces which papers published in Pennsylvania 
German communities occasionally give their readers - such as for 
example the "Olt nhulmashter',' letters printed weekly in the Daily 
News of his own city of Lebanon, Pa. Does it not seem likely 
that these letters, being in the common speech of the people, rep- 
resent the real Pennsylvania German?" 

Grumbine's original poems deserve higher praise than 
his translations; the degree in which they appeal to Pennsylvania 
Germans far away from the old roof tree i3 illustrated in a letter 
from Rev. Francis T.Hoover, a former Berks Countian, pastor of the 
Congregational church at Lockport, IT. Y. and author of "Enemies in 
the Rear" etc "I am free to say that few things could have 
given me more pleasure. My copy of the 'Pennsylvania German' came 
with the same mail, and so I've spent two whole evenings and part 
of the night3 reading the vernacular of my old Berks County home. 

"Last evening, I read among other pieces, ' Ich war 
Jurymann'. To say I laughed is putting it a trifle mildly. But 
say! How did that 'donnerwetterser Jurymann' ever hoar of the 
gentle, keusch Portia? Good! Only a lawyer - one who knew all 
the ins and outs of the 'donnerwetterser Gericht' - could have pro- 
duced 'Ich war Jurymann'. 

"Then I read 'Der Alt Dengelstock 1 and when I read 
the stanza 'S Dengel lied hat g'shtoppt' a feeling of sadness 
came over me, for the picture of my old father, mowing in the 
meadow in front of the house, came up "before my vision, and I was 
carried to the grave at 'Eck Kerch' where he ha3 slept since 1364. 

"Next came ' S Latwerg Koche' and I confess that 
when the eye took in the words, 

>hi wie schnell vergeht die Jugend's Zeiti 
Gut nacht, zu'm Latwerg Koche! 

a feeling of 'he'm-weh' 
took possession of me for a time. 

"You have done a work, which though you do not pre- 
sume to "be an expert in the dialect, I believe equals that of 
Dr.Harbaugh in this department of literature. Indeed, you have 

tested and proved the capabilities of Pennsylvania German more 
fully than the bard of i^ercersburg." 

Prof .Oscar Kuhns of the Department of Romance 
Languages, V/esleyan University too thought the poems would be 
placed besides Harbaugh's Harfe, while Prof .Learned of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, referring to "Der Dengelstock" (or to the 
book of that name ?) says it belongs to classical dialect poetry 
and takes its place alongside of Hebel's, Schandein's or Nadler's 

In 1903 the essay and poem3 were published in a 
handsome limited (300 copies) Autograph edition. For the "Rime 
of the Ancient Mariner" Elbert Hubbard loaned the cuts and head 
and tail pieces which were used in illustrating the beautiful 
Roycroft Edition of the "Ancient Mariner". 


A Bibliography 
other sources of information 
for the chapter on 
Dr. George Mays. 

Christ Reformed Church News. 

Heidelberg Herald. 

History of Schaeff era town, Brendle. York, 1901. 

Interviews with the family. 

Lebanon Courier and Report. 

Montgomery Transcript. 

Papers of the Philadelphia County Medical Society. 

Philadelphia Evening Bulletin. 

Philadelphia Public Ledger. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society. 


George Mays. 
George Mays, who was born of Pennsylvania German parents 
at Schaeff erst own, Pa. July 5, 1836 could not talk English before 
he learned it in the public school. At the University of Penn- 
sylvania he completed a course in Medicine in 1861; entered the 
Army as surgeon, later practised his profession at Lititz until 
1871 when he removed to Philadelphia, where he lived until his 
death in 1900. 

Almost every year after coming to Philadelphia he 
returned to old Schaofferstown for the summer, and his greatest 
delight was to drive over all the familiar roads of the adjoining 

According to his intimate friend, Dr. Stretch of 
Philadelphia, his dialect productions were written not so much for 
their poetic beauty, as to carefully preserve in phonetic form a 
language which he felt aure would soon be extinct, insisting that 
much -that was being published in the Pennsylvania German Magazine 
was not Pennsylvania German at all but only a mixture of English 
and German with a sprinkling of the dialect. The poems were 
written primarily for himself and his friends. Some of them later 
found their way into Daniel Miller's collection and others into 
the columns of the Pennsylvania German Magazine. Nine such pro- 
ductions were known, a few more finished or partly finished I found 
among his effects. 

Only poetic in form, aa he insisted, they yet give 
us touches that other writers passed by - while, for instance, 
writers have described the parties and pastimes of Pennsylvania 
German Rural life - it is nowhere else that I find a party of the 

kind referred to ^ tk*. / ^u*~ 

En achpinning Party finaht du oft 
Wu gar net denkaht, ganz unvorhoff t 
Un warn du ergends besuche wit 
Heost gleich, nem ah del apinnrad mit. 

An unserra HauB in seller Zeit 
Do sammlo oft die Nochbers Leut 
Mit'm Spinnrad dort zu apinne 
Un dabei Plasier zu firme. 

Dort hen aie g'schpunne un gelacht 
Storiea verzahlt un spuohto gemacht 
Wie oft hab ich dort zugegvickt 
Un waa es gebt mit Luate geaohluckt. 

Hia attitude toward a possible reading public ia clearly 

ahown in the linss with which he began one tale: 

Die Schtory de ich hier beitrag 
Ia'n wohri G'achicht ao g'wiaa ich aawg 
Wen achon ehn8 denkt ich moch ai uf 
Ken dier sich aure ferluaaa druf . 

Truz dem es ia en alte G'achicht 
So mehn ich doch sis unser Pflicht 
Solchi* soche fohr zu stelle, 
For die loit wo* a lehsa welle . 

In many of hia verses he thus goes back to memories of 

long ago and places of local interest. As with so many of the 

Pennsylvania German writers, the churchyard and the tolling of 

the bell make atrange appeala. In one aelection he celebrates the 

waterworks of the town of Schaeff era town - 

Das aller erscht Werk, vun dem 
Mer leae, ia in Bethlehem; 
Dann kummt wie ich hier bemerk 
Da3 Schafferstadtel Wasserwerk. 

Ich hab des net vum Hbresage 
Drum kannst du mir es herzlich glaabe 
Der alte Charter weist eo plahn 
Das Jedermann kann heut noch sehn. 

Interesting are the verses found among his effects in 

which he tells why some Pennsylvania Germans opposed the Free School 

Law. The poem was never completed, I have it in three different 


forms, each with some stanzas of the other forms, and each with 

some new stanzas; what was tits ho it3 final form we cannot exactly 

determine . 

That the Germans were not as a body opposed to the 

free schools any more than the Quaker, notwithstanding that many 

of both classes for various reasons were opposed to the law of 

1834 is well known (of .Shimmel's article P.G. Vol. ) The Quakers 

opposed the proposition because having schools for themselves tbt»y 

were averse to supporting schools for others; the Germans, because 

the law was enacted in accordance with a recommendation in the 

constitution whereby a law should be enacted to establish schools 

where the poor might be taught gratis and they had none of that 

class amongst themselves. 

Other reasons of some Germans are given U3 by Dr. Mays: 

Will ich bel der Woret bleiwe 
Mus ich eich au des noch schreive 
' S waar net de Ormut bei de Leit 
Das Schule raar mocht 3elle Zeit 

* * * * 

Sie wisse ob de fri Schul law 
Die greift yo ihre Geldsock au 
In fact ' s war nix os ihre Geld 
Os selli leit so long z'rick held. 

Sel G'sets mocht unser toxbill gross 
Un benefit die Schtat leit bios 
Kauft uns ken blotz, net mol en gaul 
Un macht yuscht unser kinner foul. 

So waar's bi feeli baure's Gschwetz 
So hen sie g'fuchte geges Cteetz 
Un moncher glaubt er wert gedrickt 
So bol mor mohl de frei schul krickt. 

(Hort hen sie gfuchte geges Gsetz 
Un feel de mehne es 1 
Sich en Laming au zu schoffe 
'Veil es deht foulenssr moche.) 


Onri glauwe oni zweifel 

01 de Laming kumnit fum Teifel 

Un dor wo'n doraht for bioher hut 

Wert afters shendlich ausgeschput. 

Our author did not agree with these notions, as several 

other discarded or not yet incorporated stanzas show- 

Uf der Bauerei zu schaffe 

Un de Erwet leioht zu moche 

Do helft uns net des sohul gesets - 

Sel waar of course en dummes gschwetz, 

' S gebt heit noch leit de hases letz 
Un schteibere sich om schul gesetz 
Doch wons net for de schul law wehr 
Kemt moncher net so schmart do hehr. 

Two lines from one of these poems: 

In sellem shane Deitsche schtick 
Des alt Schulhaus an der Krick. 

are interesting as 

showing that to this writer too Dr.Harbaugh stood as a model and 

ideal. One of Dr. Mays* best and most sustained pieces is his 

picture - Der Olt Mon. 


' A Bibliography 
other ouroes of information 
for the account of: 

Pennsylvania German, Vol. IX. 3. 99 ff. "by H.W.Kriebel. 
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. XVII. p. 56 
Town, and Country, Pennsburg, Pa. 
Veltbote, Allentown, Pa. 


Henry A. 'huler, born July 12, 1850, in Upper Milford, 
Lehigh County, Pa. atas a strange character; an unuoua : ly precocious 
"boy. There are copybooks 3till extant containing expressions 
in German, English, Latin, Greek, Hebrew and French, which he 
copied at the age of nine years. Early in life he began pain- 
fully detailed accounts of his doings, of his incomes and expendi- 
tures, of his thoughts and his musings on his doings, of outgoes 
and expenditures; all this he rewrote after new ponde rings and 
meditations. All this material we possess. 

Far eleven years (1370 - 1881) he taught school, 
then became editor of the Friedensbote, Allentown, Pa. until 1893, 
and from that time to 1903 conducted the V/eltbote, Allentown, 
In 1906 he assumed the editorship of the Pennsylvania German, which 
position he held at the time of his death, Jan. 14, 1908. For a 
fuller account of his life, see P. G. Vol. IX. March 1903. 99 ff. 

As a writer of Pennsylvania German he contributed 
occasional letters to all of the papers he edited, occasionally 
a poem and some spirited translations; in the dialect he gave a 
third loase of popularity to the rhymes "V/hen the angry passions 
gathering in my mother's face I see" which had their second vogue 
in the Hans Breitman form. For Home's Manual, 3rd Edition, he 
wrote a chapter on "Zeechaglawa un Braucherei" and in 1904 during 
his temporary retirement he compilod- for the Boten Druckerei - 
"Unssr Pennsylvanisch Deitscher Kalenner" for the year 1905, the 
second calendar ever issued in the dialect. 

The Kalenner • contains an introduction^ explains 
the appearance of another calendar amid the multitude of those 
already existing; he intends it for the thousands of Pennsylvania 

Germang who lovo the beautiful old speech and hold it in esteem. 
He guarantees the accuracy of the reckoning - "Her stehn dafor 
dass sie recht is - dass die Daga grad so long s'n, dass der ".land 
grad so sei G'sicht weist un versteckelt, dass die Gterne grad 
so laafa und die Finschternissa grad so kumma wies dart steht." 
For each month he has a Geburtsdag Kalenner as well as an essay, 
"'.'.'as no's iwrig Gales a'geht dart hen mer'a bescht for oich 
rausgsucht. Rezepta wu mer sich druf verlossa kann; Baurasprich 
wu aushalta; stories wu interesting sin un wu mer lacha kann 
drivver bis em der Bauch weh dut, un viol annera Sacha. Among 
these merry tales are a number of specimens which will find their 
place in the anecdote book long projected by the Pennsylvania 
German Society. 

"Nau hot der Kalenner mann sei kleene Spietsch gemacht, 
3r prowirt eich all zu pliesa un hoft, ihr nemmt sei Kalenner so 
gut uf dass er's neekscht Johr widder kumma darf un alia Johr 
bis er so alt werd wie der Redingtauner. " '2 war jo a schand, 
warm unser leit net ihr egener Plalenner ufhalta kennte." But no 
continuation has ever appeared. 

Noteworthy was Shuler's contribution to the contro- 
versy as to how the dialect should be spelled; "Mer schwetza 
deitsch wie mer's vun der ^ammi un vum Dadi gelernt hen, un mer 
schreiwa'S ah deitsch, dass mer's arndlich lesa kann, des heest; 
mer shpella'a uf da deitscha '''eg, wie sich' 3 gheort." 

The Pennsylvania German Magazine spoke of the Calendar 
as follows: "It has come to this that onr people want even their 
weather prognistications and signs of the Zodiac told in Pennsyl- 
vania German, and so the Weltbote office has supplied the want. 

There will be more consultation of it in certain parts than of 
the Church or cosmopolitan newspaper Almanac" 


A Bibliography 
the chapter on 
Walter James Hoffman. 

Journal of American Folklore, Vol.1, and Vol.1 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. IV. 171 

Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 
Vol. XXVI and Vol. XXXI I. 


Iter J ai:;ec Ho? 

"/alter James Hoffman was born at Weidasville, 

Lehigh County, ay 30, 1346. Only th Ln linos of his "busy 
life can be pointed out. He became a physician, served in the Ger- 
man army during the Franco Prussian War, and was honored with an 
iron medal with the ribbon of non-combatants, awarded only to 
worthy surgeons and Knights of St. John. 

On his return to this country, he was attached to 
an exploring expedition of the United States Army into Nevada and 
Arizona in 1371; this gave the final turn to his life and his sub- 
sequent appointments were determined solely by the opportunity to 
make new studies of the Indian tribes. From the organization of 
the Bureau of Ethnology in 1877 he was associated with it, As an 
illustration of his activity, the fact is interesting that, during 
the summer of 1884 he travelled 11,000 miles among the Indians in 
the Northwestern part of the United States and in British Col- 
umbia. The publications of the Bureau bear abundant testimony to 
the work he did in Anthropology. His talent in painting, drawing 
and carving served him in good stead in the study of pictograph- 
ic writing. He was the first white man to be initiated intc the 
secret rites of the Grand Iledicine Society of the Ojibways of 

During the Franco Prussian war, he invented 
bullet extractor which recommended by many scientific insti- 
tutions and adopted by the government of Turkey. B 
he was a ' a lj ' . t t w bril 1 

learned Societies and an Honorary ber of . more, 
many foreign countries ha Lng 1 ! ] and orde - 

Prom 1S97 until hi ath two yearn 1 Liter, he was United States 

Consul at "annheim, another appointment to enabl • him to carry 
on research work. 

While serving with the Prussian Army around Metz 
under Wilhelm I. he was struck by the surprising similarity between 
many of the dialects he heard and his own, the Pennsylvania German, 
and determined to study his own. The fruitful results of this stim- 
ulus are exhibited in two articles on Folklore of the Pennsylvania 
Germans* in the First and Second Volumes of the Journal of American 
Folklore; an article, in the dialect, on 'Tales and Proverbs"with 
English translations of the same, in the Second Volume 6f the Jour- 

II v 

nal of American Folklore; an article on Folk 1'edicine in Volume 
26 of the American Philosophical Society, in the same volume Gram- 
matical Notes and a Vocabulary of over C-ooo words, and in the 32nd 
Volume of the same publication, an article in the dialect, entitled 
"G'schicht fun da Alta Tsaita in Pensilfani". 


Source of Information 
the sketch 
Edward Hermany. 

Corresponder ce vr" t] member of his family. 

/JL }r 

Edward Hermany. 

In 1895 there died in the town where he was horn - 
Jacksonville, Lehigh County, Pa. - a curious, eccentric, old bach- 
elor schoolmaster, Edward Hermany; his life covered almost the 
entire 19th century, and during this time he lived much to himself 
and kept his doings to himself. 

Up to the time of his death, no human being seems 
to have known that he had done any work of the kind that his effects 
showed - for among the possessions were found a collection of over 
5000 verses in Pennsylvania German, in many of which he has described, 
often with an almost brutal frankness, characters only odder than 
himself. My informant (a member of the family) tells me that 
because of this it is perhaps well these poems have been withhold 
from publication for upwards of a generation} the twentyfour poems 
in the collection seem to have been written between 1S60 and 1672. 

His brother Charles, engineer of the celebrated water- 
works of Louisville, Kentucky took charge of the MSS, intending to 
publish them; he had written an introduction on the Pennsylvania 
Germans and on the poems of his brother when death came to him too, 
and the MSS again found their way back to Jacksonville, Pa., into 
the hands of another brother. 

The poem$ seemfe to take in the complete round of life! 
the first one is the metrical preface - Furnahahr - the last one - 
Lebensmude -j between them are "Der Dorraday ihr Huchdsich", "Die 
Yuggeles Leicht?; 'Swerd evva 30 3y sulla" is probably not so op- 
timistic as it looks. Of his sketches - "Die Olid Eluddshawl"- 
which may be rendered the old baldheaded wench, "Der Olid Xnucha 
Fritz',' "D'r Porra Tiddle" are probably characteristic. "D'r Cchtodd 


Ongle im Boosh" is a familiar subject. "Wie die Ollda Koch d'r 
'Hyo Sin tt - records a chapter in the early migration to the West. 
Another subject that lent itself to his satire, he has portrayed in 
"Kerch un Shoodelmetsch" . In more genial vain he writes, "Foon 
d'r Hoyet" "Foon d'r Ahrn" "Foom Lodwerk KuchaV all well worn 
subjects of the dialect writers. 

Although the MSS is now in the region I canvassed 
a year ago, I heard not a word of it. If the possessors, his 
relatives, have any of hi3 peculiarities, any use of the mails for 
eliciting information might shut off all future sources. The know- 
ledge I now have comes from Ohio, and I believe it best to be sat- 
isfied with this for the present, until the case can be handled 
personally. The prospect of regaining or losing over five thousand 
verses demands that one proceed with care. 

/£ 9. 

Sources of Information 
for the chapter on 



Pennsylvania German Magazine 


' . . - 1 8] an. 

"Saw a copy of the Pennsylvania German ilagazine 
at the home of a friend, borrowed it, read it, had many pleasant 
memories suggested by it and desired to say a few good things about 
them out of love and respect fer our people" - this is the story 
of how another Pennsylvania German who had wandered away from the 
old settlements, came to give us a number of selections in verse. 

Edgar Mover Eshelman was born at Topton, Berks Coun- 
ty, Pa. July 14, 1872 of stoc> that had come to this country before 
the Revolution. His youth was spent in the Pennsylvania German 
region of the state, but having become a bookbinder his interests 
took him away, and after undertaking work in various cities and 
service in the hospital corps during the Spanish American War, he 
located in "Washington, S.C. where he is employed in the Government 
Printing Office. 

n 'S New Fogel Haus" he wrote because he wished to be 
classed as a lover of birds: "My Aldty Geik M celebrates the favor- 
ite musical instrument of the family, his father having been 
teacher of the violin - M '5 alt Rchwimloch' 1 may be compared with 
similar poetic treatment of the same class by James V.'hitcomb Riley 
and others; "Sclinitzpei" celebrates a w dish his mother used to make" 
which only Pennsylvania Germans can prepare to suit his taste: 

Ich wees en Madel - gleicht mich gut, 

Sie wohnt net weit aweck, 
Sie is ah herrlich schmart un gut 

Un siess wie Zuckerschleck. 
Doch meind - eb sie mich heira dut 

Ks kann net annerscht sei - 
So muss sie backe kenna - heerscht? 

En rechter guter Schnitz Pei. 


In lively fashion he tells the story of "Der Fer- 
lore Gaul" a new version of the "absent minded Professor" but this 
tine based on fact; 

Hoscht du shun g'heert vurc Jakey Schmitt, 

Versgesslich, bees un grob? 
" .u is mei Brill?" kreischt er, sucht rum 

Un - hot sie uf 'm Kop! 

Villeicht hoscht ah die Schtory g'heert 

Vuiri Jake seim Weissa Gaul. 
Hoscht net? Dann harchl Ich sag der's garn - 

Leit wissa's iwerall. 

Schmitt inspired by the notion that he had left his 
horse in town, goes to the barn, saddles his horse and galloping 
down the pike draws up before the hotel porch - 

"'.Vohl n ruft der Jake. w Ich sag der, wohJ 

So geht *m Schmitt sei Maul: 
"Hen ihr nix g' senna, Buwa, vun 

Teim alta weissa Gaul?" 

Jetzt hen sie g'lachtJ Deel falla um 

Un schtehna net grad uf . 
Sie gehn schier doot - dann kreischt mol Eens: 
"Ei, Jake, du hokscht jo druf !" 

The best of his serious poems "Juscht en Deppich" 

he has written to Eulogize one of the loveliest of grandmothers of 

the oldfashioned kind. "The favorite pastime of her later years 

was the piecing of quilt3 of various well known designs; it was 

a labor of love - ^feA of her large 'freundschaft ' ha J one„ ctl ]uorC 

of hor home made quilts, the making of which consumed many precious 

hours. Nowadays it is considered a waste of time. It is a relief 

to recall her simple ways, manners, dress, In contrast with modern 

showy artificial life. Her needs were few. Contentment was her 

lot ; her life was one of Christian womanhood and I shall always 

cherish her memory." 


' S is juscht en commoner Deppioh - eeh! 
En quilt alt Fashion - aver acheo. 
Was scheckig guckt's! Die Patches fei 1 
Die acheina Schpot johrsbletter zu sei. 
Hoscht du die Scheeheet schun betracht 
Vun so ma Deppich, heemgemacht? 

So scheona Placka, gross un klee' 

Di^ Farwa all in Roia schteh; 
Drei - un viereckig, lang un karz, 
En jeder grad am rechta Platz. 
Alles in Ordnung zamma g'neht; 
Juacht druf zii gucka is en Freed. 
# # * * 

Sie hot als Nama for sie g'hat: 
Do ia en grosses "Eecheblatt" 
En "Sunnadeppich" lang un breet - 
Paar dausent Patches zamma g'neht. 
So darrich nanner geht der do, 
Sel ia der "Ewig Jager" no. 

En "Bettelmann" ia ah dabei, 
Un seller soil "Log Cabin" aei; 
En "Siwaschtern" gar wunnerschee, 
En "Gansfuss" un en "Backaschtee" 
Sie hot gemacht en hunnert schier, 
Des war der Grandmam ihr Plessier. 
-::- # «• * 

Sie hot net juscht an sich gedenkjbj 

Die ganz Freindschaft hot sie beachenkt. 

Wer in die Freindschaft kumma is, 

Der muss en Deppich hawa gewiss. 

Die Grandmam sagt: M 'S kummt handig nei 

Die Kinner missa warem sei'". 

Sie schafft die Schtunna fleissig weg; 

En nitzlich Lewa, hocher Zweck. 

Guck mol ihr G'sicht, wie fromm un mild ■ 

Nau, is sel net en scheenes Bild? 

0, halt in Ehr un Dankbarkeit 

So guta, fleissige, alt-fashioned Leit! 

Jetzt is die Grandmam nirme do; 
Sacht schloft sie unner'm Himmelsblo. 
Ihr Hand sin nau zur Ruh gebracht, 
Ihr letschter Deppich hot sie g'macht. 
Ihr Lewa christlich, herrlich, siess - 
So'n Seel, die geht in's Paradies. 


A Bibliography 
Other sources of information 
for the article on 
E zra Grumb ine . 
Biographical History of Lebanon County& Chicago, 1904. 
Correspondence with Xr. Grumbine. 

Der Inshurance Agent. Dramolet. Lebanon. No date. 
Interviews with his friends. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society. Vol. Ill . 
Publications of the Lebanon County Historical Society. 
Newspaper Clippings. 
Stories of Old Stumpstown. Lebanon, 1910. 


Ezra Grumbine. 

Dr. Ezra Grumbine is of the fifth generation in line 
of descent from Leonhart Krumbein, who came to this country in 
1754 from the Palatinate and settled in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania . 
In that same county several branches of the family have continued to 
reside until the present time. 

Dr. Ezra Grumbine, the subject of this sketch, was 

born in Fredericksburg on February 1, 1845 and except for the time 

spent in the study of medicine has been a resident of the county. 

For this reason and especially because as a general practitioner 

of medicine, he has never failed to give his services cheerfully 

to the unfortunates who were suffering with bodily ailments, and 

because he has never allowed his own comfort or convenience to 

count when any one thought that he could be of help to them, he is 

loved and honored by his fellow citizens. Indeed, the only negative 

note that has ever been heard from him in cases where his profession- 

al aid has been desired, has been in the shape of somo verses on 

the intolerable condition of the road3 which he was obliged to 


"Both horse and cart in every mile 
Are splashed from mane to tire, 
And the driver utters words of guile 
As the wheels swish through the mire. 

"And when the darkness settles down 
Upon the sodden earth, 
The trav'ler asks with scowl and frown 
'Is life the living worth?' " 

His early education he received in the public schools 
of his native village, at the Lebanon Valley Institute, Annville, and 
at Dickinson Seminary, Williamsport. After this he taught school, 
read medicine and finally graduated from the University of Penn- 
sylvania as a Doctor of Medicine in 1868. Besides taking a lively 

interest in his profession, being a member of the County and State 


Medical Societies and standing in the fore front of successful 
practitioners, he has found time to evince his capacity for business 
by organizing a bank, and under his presidency - an office which 
he still holds - making it one of the strongest financial insti- 
tutions in the Lebanon Valley. 

"To rhyme and to scribble" - those are his words - 
are his pastimes and for these he modestly offers the excuse that 
it"runs in the family'.' His great grandfather, r eter Fuehrer, wrote 
verses in German; his brother Lee Light Grumbine wrote a book of 
Pennsylvania German poems; while his son, Harvey Carson Grumbine, 
Professor of English at the University of Wooster, Ohio, has pub- 
lished a small volume of poetry. Grumbine's own efforts began when 
he was about fourteen years of age, with amatory verses for his 
fellow pupils in school. Among the earliest of his dialect poems 
is one "Ich wot ich ""aer en Bauer',' which like Henninger's later 
song "Des Fahra in der Train" was written to the tune of "Michael 
Schneider's Party". Grumbine's poem has been sung to the accompani- 
ment of the parlor organ at social gatherings on the Swatara, on 
the Quittaphilla, and on the Tulpehocken. Others of his compositions 
have been recited at rural spelling schools, and debating societies 
all over Eastern and Central Pennsylvania. It appeared also in 
the papers of other counties than his own - in the Reading Times, 
in the Mauch Chunk Democrat, etc. Rauch-"Pit Schweff elbrenner? 
pronounced his " 'S Unnersht 'S Eversht Landt" a "gem". More than 
one of his productions have attracted the attention of the Metro- 
politan Press, including the Philadelphia Inquirer and the New York 
Recorder, which later published his "Klag-liod" with three English 
versions . 


Before the Pennsylvania German Society, of which or- 
ganizations he was one of the founders, he read a poem - "Der Prahl- 
hans"- facetiously named "An Epic of the War of 1812". It tells the 
stcry, based on fact, of a certain well known character, who, when 
forces were being raised for the defense of Baltimore during the 
War of 1812, aimed single handed to put the entire British army to 
rout, but before he got within a hundred miles of the enemy de- 
cided it was safer at home. 

As to the quality of his verse, he has disarmed 
criticism by the story he tells of the thirty cent machine he 
bought on which he turns it out. Yet his modesty on this point 
must not be taken too seriously- he does not venture beyond the prope: 
range of subjects for dialect verse and there is little that could 
be designated artificial. The following stanza for instance 
from "En Gluck voll Bieplin"- in which a Pennsylvania German boy 
goes to see the newly hatched chicks, copies only nature: 

Gluck Gluck, Gluck Gluck J du liewer Grund! 

V/as biescht du doch so bees! 
Efaltigs dhier! Ich hab 30 gar 

Nix gega dich, Gott weessJ 

Much of his verse is parody, but not always pure 

parody. His "Mary and her Little Lamb" is a satire on some facts 

in our educational system. Others are versions, either translations 

as of Nadler's " 'S Bott Alles Fix" or approaching translations as 

Ralph Hoyt's "A World for Sale" which he has rendered in masterful 


"0, yes' yes J Now harcht amol, 

Un kommt jetz bei, ihr liewa Leit, 
Ihr all wu wolfel kawfa wollt 

Kommt bei, for do is fendu heit! 

Die Welt is 'us mit Schlechts un Goots, 

Der Groyer nemmt ke falsch Gabut; 

/3 7- 

Die Welt mucs fort, sie werdt ferkawft, 
Mit Glftck un Elendt, Ehr un Schpott! 

One of his tenderest poems "Der Alt Busch Doktor7 

suggested by one of Will Carleton's, might be interpreted as a sort 

of commentary on his own life. Even here, at this saddest of 

scenes, the funeral of the good old doctor who has helped so many, 

and was always willing, his playful satire crops out in at least 

one stanza: 

Aer cured en moncher Patient 
Un shtellt ihn richtig haer,- 
Don wor's yo Gottes '.'.'ilia, 
Un der Herr der grickt de EhrJ 
Is f n Gronkes awer g'schtorwa, 
Un der Doat gawinnt der Fecht 
Don blamed mer evva der Dokter 
Un shellt ihn dumm un schlecht. 

A Republican by party allegiance, he did not fail to 
see the humorous contrast between Teddy's great "Noise" before, and 
his great Silence' after the last ele-tion and he has incorporated 
his thoughts in two poems "Before'* and "After" in the metre of 
Longfellow's "Excelsior". It should be mentioned that in his 
"Stories of Old Stumpstown" (Lebanon County Historical Society Pub- 
lications, Vol.V.) he has preserved some Pennsylvania German politi- 
cal rhymes from the time when Buchanan was running for the Presi- 

As one of the organizers and an enthusiastic member 
of the Lebanon County Historical Society, he has prepared for its 
publications a ponograph on the "Folklore and Superstitious Beliefs 
of Lebanon County" (Vol. III. No 9.) As a trusted physician he has 
had rare opportunities to get close to the "Volk" and to learn 
what they believe in their heart. In this same monograph he has 
a collection of proverbs and sayings, containing a number that have 

been nowhere else recorded: and some counting out rhymes. 

Yet perhaps his most important work as a writer is 
that in which he has engaged in the last fifteen years - the writing 
of the letters - first for the Lebanon Report (at one tine owned 
by his brother Lee Light Grumbine) and later upon the death of M Der 
Alt Schulmeeschter" (J. J. Light) for the Lebanon Daily and Semiweekly 
News, (widely copied by other .papers ) over the signature Hon. Wen- 
dell Kitzmiller: in those letters he has been engaged for the most 
part in laughing out of existence the follies and foibles of his 
fellow men. "Ridens dicere verum" . Laughingly telling the Penn- 
sylvania Germans the truth. And although this laughter is generall y 
that of the genial satirist, he can occasionall y be sharp and cutting 
when he thinks there is sufficient provocation. 

There follow a few extracts culled from his letters, 
which may be considered characteristic. He advises all, but pol- 
iticians in particular: "Schtail, note brauchst nimme schaffe, un 
so long as d'uf en lawfuller waig schtaileht, kummscht aw net in die 

He is of course speaking out of his own experience 
when on one occasion he writes of a strange case of illness of a 
little child, that baffled all the doctors of a certain species. 
w Un dael eawga nuch gawr es waer ferhext. Sie hen schun aentzig- 
ebbes gabroveert awwer es will olles nix botta. Im aerschta blotz 
hen se mol die oldt Ducktor Eetz g'hot, un de hut olles gedu was 
sie gewisst hut. Sie hut em gebraucht for de Gchweining mol for's 
aerscht, un note hut sie don gebraucht on Mond wie er or. zunemma 
war awwer do war nix. Des glae is evva als weniger worra." 

He has this comment on those who at religious camp- 


meeting rise to make confession w Es is a wenig en kitzlich ding so 
for da bakonnta uf tzu schtae in ra Chrischtlicha Fersomlung un en 
loud gebait mocha fore Leit as aem sei bisness schtraich auswennich 

He offers the above half playful excuse for not him- 
self having made a public profession. But genuine wrath intervenes 
when he threatens to withdraw from the Hardshell Church and start 
one of his own and become himself its preacher and treasurer. He 
complains that although it was for no less reason than a failure of 
crops and failure of a bank in which he had money, that he could not 
make his annual contribution, yet he was from that time on "Der 
Oldt Kitzmiller" and "Der Fersuffa Kitzmiller". "Now so long as 
Ich bully gut bezawlt hob won sie sin rum for collecta do waescht 
war ich der Eruder Kitzmiller j des war Bruder hie in Bruder haer, 
un won ich aw don un won t/f en souf spree bin konma,- do is nix 
g'sawd worra, so long as ich tzu da dootzend un drei dinga batzawlt 
hob as mir de awga ivver g' luff a sin". He makes merry at the expense 
of the preachers and their attempts to explain difficult passages. 

His contribution to academic lore may fitly close 
the series of illustrations. Along with satire on extravaganz es in 
religious practice, this may be said to constitute for the folk of 
which we are writing, the higher criticism of social conditions. 
The Pennsylvania German farmers sent their sons in great numbers to 
college. 'Alien those not infrequently at the end of the year came 
back with long hair and idyllic notions of loafing under shady trees, 
while father and mother, and younger brothers and sisters did the 
work, but were ever ready with suggestions as to how things should 
be done, and were full of superficial knowledge of the causes of 


things and ever willing to air the same, the Satirist had a proper 
subject for work. There are extant no end of stories of farme" 
boys who thus came home and had not only forgotten to work, but 
had even forgotten the names of the commonest tools and implements, 
etc While these conditions prevailed perhaps to an equal degree 
in other American rural communities, yet there is this difference, 
the Pennsylvania German satirist stayed at home and labored among 
his own people, and so his satire strikes home. 

He heads his article as follows: "Wendell Kitzmiller 
goes on the new trolley road from Lebanon to Schaefferstown." It 
was a balky car - A college man explains volts, ohms, microbes and 
feverbugs. (This will at the same time show where the dialect 
stands in relation to a scientific and technical vocabulary) Sud- 
denly the car stopped. "Eb het aw nemond ous g'funna was de oor' 
sach war fun der balkerei won net *n dakolletschter Karl druf 
waer g'west uf f m car. Well henyah, aer hut g'sawd, secht er 'So 
weit as ich saena konn sin's die - entwedders de ohms odder de volts. 
'Was sin sell' hut *n oldter Schaeff erschtedtler Shoolmaeschter 
g'frogt os uf 'm hameweg war fum a Deestrick Institoot. 'Wy de ohms 
un de volts sin dinga os uf der same waeg schoffa. Waescht sie 
kumma in die wires nei ollagabut, un dort shpeela sie der Deifel 
monnich mol. Note gebts was mer en resistance haest, ebbes as es 
ding fershtuppt, uf'n waeg as we'n lot ohla die Schnitzkrick Wasser- 
peife ferschtuppt hen, saen dir? Of course die ohms sin net so 
!rross as wie en ohl awwer sie gucka schier so, $uscht feel glenner 
so sella waeg. Sie sin so gla as wie '.likrobes, die glaena Keffer, 
die Fever Bugs, waescht, woos titefut fever mache un newmony un 
en g'schleer (uf em Baertzel), un so. Of course, ich selwer hob 


nie kenny g'saena. M'r kon se net caena oony so 'n rohr, en telly- 
scope oder nitroschope we m'r secht. Ich "aes de hocha wordta 
nimmy recht. Ich hob so es menscht football g'shteert. 1 'Un i3 
sell now die oorsach' hut der Chim Kichman g'frogt. 'Wy sell is 
orrig interesting so ebbes tsu wissa. Well now'. 1 " 

Even in the latest social discussions, Grumbine's 
playfully serious note may be heard. The present writer recalls an 
incident of last, when certain classes were very anxious to 
know whether the daughter of one of our ex Presidents indulged in 
cigarettes, In answer, our author presented us with an amusing skit 
of a Woman's Club meeting, embodying resolutions offered by the pros 
and cons in favor of and against twenty cent women's clubs minding 
their own and other people's business. 

His true catholicity of opinion appears in sayings 
like that to Sara Jane "Mer kon ebmols ebbes lerna even fun Schtadt- 
leit, un even fun Leit wu mer maent sin nuch dummer wie die Hawsa 
Barricker." His writings are a faithful reflex of opinions he has 
found to prevail, of beliefs and customs he knows thoroughly, and 
from his homely philosophy might be culled many a proverb and old 
saw which he has all unconsciously interwoven into his stories 
without even having incorporated them in the collection he has 
made. He has frequently been urged by his friends to publish a 
collection of his letters in book form, as several other writers 
of such literature have done, but he still stands aloof. 

Finally he has written a little play. "Die Inshurance 
Business" - that has been on the boards in many a town hall or 
crossroads schoolhouse. 

A winter evening scone in a country farm house pre- 

serits the old farmer, plaiting a corn husk mat and. discussing the 
price of farm products and the disposal of the receipts of the days ' 
sale. Mother wants them for a new dresc for the daughter who has 
a beau, the sons insist they need new books for school - a neighbor- 
one who has a mortgage on their farm - drops in and the old folks 
agree that the old tines were best, when in the schools all learned 
reading, while those who wanted to study writing and arithmetic, 
could do so, with no consequent humiliation for those who stopped 
at reading. In those days whiskey was cheap and there was no talk 
of putting it away by vote. Granny has a heavy cold and talks 
chiefly about her health. One by one, Granny and the youngsters 
are packed off to bed, the neighbor delivers his message that he 
must have money or he will foreclose, and leaves just in time for 
Sally to receive her bgau, a clork in the store, who comes when the 
shop closes. 

The Insurance scamp persuades the farmer to insure 
Granny, the agent paying the dues, taking a judgment note on the 
farmer, the profits to be divided. Meanwhile they change Granny's 
baptismal certificate so as to be able to establish her eligibility. 

Two years have passed, the insurance agent needing 
more and more dues to meet assessments, the farmer loth to drop his 
policies and thus to lose what he has paid in. "hey agree to give 
Granny something that will put her to sleep. The farmer, long in 
a frame of mind that has caused the neighbors to remark, goes to 
store for rat poison: the clerk gives him Plaster of -i-'aris instead, 
and at night hastens to tell his sweetheart his suspicions. She 
objects that Granny is too old to be insured: they look up the cer- 
tificate and discover the forgery. 

In the final scene these two enter the sitting room as the 
agent pours the powder into the hoarhound tea Granny takes each 
evening; one of the boys has a cold and decides he wants some of 
Granny's tea and drinks of it before the father can stop him. 
Father raves because he thinks his son is poisoned. The clerk 
relieves the situation by explaining that it is harmless stuff; then 
at the point of his pistol he recovers the policies, tears them up, 
bids th* agent leave the county nor return on pain of being indicted 
for attempted murder, then announces that he has received an inher- 
itance which will enable him to pay off the mortgage and that he 
and Sally will, with the father's consent relieve him of the cares 
of life by themselves taking over the farm. While Granny pours 
her blessing over the couple, the curtain falls. 

Thus ends what is the only origina l play in the dialect 
one that, with the exception of the near tragic element of the plot- 
which I am inclined to doubt - is from beginning to end, replete 
with pictures from the life of the folk, the faithfulness of which 
no one who knows a Pennsylvania German farm house, would presume 
to deny. 


Sourc~s of Information 
for the chapter on 
Thomas H.Harter. 


Pennsylvania German Magazine. 


Thoraaa H.Harter. 

Just as In the last generation, Peregrine Pickle, 
Petroleum V.Naseby, Max Adeler and other, and in our own day- 
George Ade and "r.Dooley first wrote sketchos for their respective 
newspapers, next were paid the compliment of being copied by other 
papers and finally were encouraged to issue their productions in 
book form - so did a number of Pennsylvania German writers come to 
be publishers of works in the dialect. One such Pennsylvania Ger- 
man dialect writer is Thomas H.Harter of Bellefonte, Center County, 
Pa and his book "Boonastiel? named from "Gottlieb Boonastiel" the 
pseudonym of the author, is about to appear in its third edition, 
two editions of 3,000 copies each of the years 1904 and 1906 having 
been sold. 

In addition to this, the entire book is appearing, 
letter by letter, in Harter's paper, the Keystone Gazette, since 
June of this year, the author having yielded to the pressure of 
his readers who, if they could not have new letters, wanted the 
old ones over again, many of which having been written a quarter 
of a century ago, are really new to those of his readers who do 
not possess the book. Besides thi3, no less than twenty five 
newspapers in Pennsylvania and Ohio, having wished to give their 
readers the same articles, entered into negotiations with the 
author for copyright privileges - to all of which Harter has 
given the same free of charge, while a3 many more papers, cutting 
off the head and tail to disguise them and escape detection, are 
publishing the same clandestinely without the consent of the author. 

This popularity of the work is of course due to the 
complete inside knowledge, which the author possesses, of the 

character of the people whose peculiarities and eccentricities he 
describe^ ; how he come3 to this knowledge will be apparent; he wa3 
born on a farm near Aaronsburg, Center County, Pa., May 28, 1854, 
the eleventh child in a family of eight boys and four girls. Until 
fifteen years of age, he worked on the farm; up to the age of 
twelve he could neither speak nor understand English; when he was 
fifteen his father moved to the small town and then the subject 
of this sketch attended school in winter and was sent to work on 
the farm in summer. 

Sent to Ohio to learn the tanner's trade, he saved 
enough money to enable him to attend the Smithville Ohio Normal 
School for two terms. After this he returned to his home in 1872 
and learned the printer's trade in the office of the Center Hall 
Reporter; it was during this time that he read all of Shakespeare 
with his mother, translating it into the dialect for her as he 
proceeded. Two ten s at an Academy (Springs Mills) completed hi3 
schooling, and then in 1876, May 1, at the age of 22 he started 
out for himself as editor and owner of the Nevada (Ohio) Enterprise, 
which he conducted for seven years, whereupon he purchased the 
Middleburgh (Pa) Post in 1882. 

As editor of a county paper in Pennsylvania he 
naturally knew of the git Schwoffelbrenner letters which Rauch 
had made famous or which had made Rauch famous; he began to look 
over these letters in his exchanges, and then for personal amuse- 
ment, he began to hand out some of his own "fun and filosofy" in 
the shape of occasional letters under the heading of "Brief Fum 
Hawsa Barrick" addressed to himself as "Liewer Kernal Harder" and 
signed "Gottlieb Boonastiel" 


He had reckoned without his host; his readers clamored 
to have them regularly and threatened to drop off his subscription 
list unless he acceded to their requests. When, after twelve years, 
he sold this paper and bought the Keystone Gazette at Belief onte, 
he continued the letters. In 1904 he made a selection from his 
large collection and issued them in book form; as intimated above 
he is no longer writing new articles and he gives me two reasons: 
that he has no time, and that he is pumped out of original ideas; 
those who know him however, are not ready to admit that the well- 
spring of good humor whence these letters sprung has run dry: the 
fact is, that what with his business and political interests, 
serving as postmaste - of his city, hunting big game and attending 
to his numerous interests his time is fully occupied and he need 
not write new letters, for, to the present generation of his readers 
who do not possess his book the old letters are really new - a 
proof at the same time that his productions are filled with a 
freshness that does not at once grow old. 

The criticism has often been made that many (critics 
have usually said all) of the newspaper letters in the dialect 
were characterized by a certain tendency toward the vulgar or 
the profane and catered to a depraved taste. The time has come 
for a distinction between letters and letters, and of those which 
will, and deservedly will survive i3 this volume of mild satire; 
privileged to tell plain and disagreeable truths to his own people, 
and being guaranteed an audience because he continued to love them 
even when he chastened them, he has already accomplished the two 
purposes he avows in the preface to his book; 1. To assist in per- 
petuating the memory of the Pennsylvania Germans, and 2. By the 

combination of fun and Philosophy, characteristic of the language, 
to correct the wrong and strengthen the right, to stimulate noble 
thought and action and lead to honor, happiness and success. 

This however must not make us forget the other side 
of the book, the joy of reminiscence it gives to largo numbers of 
Pennsylvania Germans who have left the farm for service in other 
fields. In this connection three letters received by Harter may 
be cited; the sincerity of their tone can hardly be denied; they 
produce the conviction that they were written because the writers 
had a certain feeling about the book which they were impelled to 
communicate to the author. The first one reads: "It is an un- 
doubted fact that when two or three Pennsylvania Dutch assemble 
together socially, they can get more fun to the square inch read- 
ing your "Boonastiel" than any book published in America. Many of 
your pieces carry me back to my boyhood day3 to the old farm in 
Somerset County, and forcibly recall the old fashions and pe- 
culiar expressions and phrases which I had not heard for the last 
forty five years. You bring them back into life with the old 
familiar sound and jingle. It seems marvelous that you can weave 
them all into your stories and spell them that any one can pro- 
nounce them. You certainly deserve great credit for thus pre- 
serving our mother tongue and perpetuating the memory of our sturdy 
ancestry." This i3 from a letter from H.J.Miller, an attorney in 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

The next one comes from Washington, D.C.: "To say 
that I am ■slighted would not express one tenth of my admiration 
and appreciation of the work. In perusing its pages so full of 
genuine humor and expressed in the true vernacular of the old 

fashioned farmer, I can scarcely realize that a generation has 
come and gone the way of all the living since I was familiar with 
this peculiar dialect. Well do I remember the time when I did 
not know the English name of that handy little tool nogel bore 
(gimlet) used by my father in plying the cooper's trade; hence you 
can very readily perceive the tender chord of memory your book has 
so fondly touched. It recalls to memory the joyful days of youth 
and the happy years s; ent on the old farm after the manner of the 
good old song in Denman Thompson's impressive play *The Old Home- 
stead' : 

'Take me back to the days when the old red cradle rocked, 

In the sunshine of years that have fled, 
To the good old trusty days when the door was never locked, 

And we judged our neighbor's truth by what he said.' " 

This was written April 22, 1905, by Samuel Beight, then First 

Assistant Postmaster General of the United States. 

The third is from a former neighbor of my own. After 
Baying of the book "It touches more phases of life among the Penn- 
sylvania Germans than any collections that I have 3een? he goes 
on to say "Geshter Owet bin ich aw mohl draw kumma dei buch zu lese 
ub hob gelocht bis mer der bauch wae gedoo hut. Du conshts gawiss 
net ferlaigla dos du uff der bowerei uff gabrocht bisht worra. 
Anich ebber dare shriva konn fum barfoosich boo dos shpote yohrs 
de gile holt won olles wise is mit rifa un joompt g'schwint hee 
woo der Gowl galeaga hut fer si fees tsu waerma, dare wore shunt 
dabei." It is by Marcus B.Lambert, teacher of German in the Boys 
High School of Brooklyn, N.Y. 

By admitting at the outset, what he says some avow 
of him, "Ich ware net recht g'scheit" he gains for himself the 
privileges of the old time court fool, of speaking the truth with 

impunity. In this way he does not bring down upon himsolf the 
wrath of good country women as Washington Irving is said to have 
done in the case of the good Dutch Dames of New York, by his de- 
scriptions of their manner of housekeeping. 

By attributing the political sins of the party to 
which the author and his newspaper did not belong to his own party 
he avoided arousing political animosities. 

Christian Science -Der Christian Science Duckter: 
woman suffrage - De Weibsleit in Politics: prohibition;- social 
science - Die Schuld os Leit Awrum Sin; fashions - Die Uferstenicha 
Fashions; these are among the subjects of his reflections, all 
phases of human life come under his consideration - from an article 
on "De Liens cha un de Monkeys" through all the experiences of boyhood 
and girlhood, until the question comes up "Wie Con ich's besht Laewa 
I.iaucha" then presently he goe3 "Karesseera" then arises the question 
"Ware sull Ich Hira? "Ware Sull de Priscilla Hira" and so on 
through marriage 2-Onera Huchtzich" to Death "Onera Leicht" and the 
Grave "Uf em Karri chofe " . 

"ometimes he tells an old tale -"Rip Van Winkle" 
or gives us a new version of an old one -"Der Bush Hoond un der 
City Hoond - or "Der Asel in der Giles Howd" One on "De College 
Boova" (referred to in the article on S.Grumbine) was written at 
the request of the late Pres. Atherton of the Pennsylvania State 
College, and the finsi3hed article so pleased Atherton, that he 
requested to have it translated into English for the benefit of 
young graduates. With his pen, Harter ha3 drawn years ago the 
same lines, illustrating and exaggerating some phases of college 
life, which have of late years become a favorite of the colored 

poster artist. 

Harter has also made his contribution to the ques- 
tion bf the spelling of the dialect, in which he follows Rauch in 
the main. w V/hen I attempt to read some of the pyrotechnic spelling 
adopted by some of our writers, I am impressed with the belief 
that their effort is not so much meant to make themselves under- 
stood, as it is to create the impression that besides being able 
to write English and speak Pennsylvania Dutch, they are also 
High German scholars." 


A Bibliography 
other sources of information 
for the sketch on 
Milton C. Henninger. 

History of Carbon and Lehigh Counties. Matthews and 

Hungerf ord. 

Smull's Legislative Handbook of Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania German. Vol.11, (in press) Daniel Miller. 

Personal Interviews and correspondence. 


Milton C. Henninger. 
In the spring of 1874 the Senior class of f-uhlenberg 
College elected Milton C. Henninger to recite a piece of Pennsyl- 
vania German poetry at its Class Day exercises; he elected to com- 
pose one himself, and this production happily adapted as it is to 
the tune of Micahel Schneider's Party, soon became, as it has con- 
tinued to be, the most popular song ever written in the dialect. 

From the windows of his room at College were visible 
for a stretch of about a mile the tracks of two railroads on either 
side of the Lehigh River and the two stations at Allentown; the time 
schedule on each road brought a passenger train in at the precise 
moment, 4:30 in the afternoon, when the student's were returning 
from their last hour's recitation, and they presently perceived, 
or thought th'^y were witnessing a race taking place before their 
eyes each day; and so it came that they often watched which train 
should win that day by getting into the station first. In this 
fashion, Henninger came by his subject - "Des Fahre in der Train" - 
or the delights of travelling by steam; and into the picture he 
wove some reminiscences of his childhood days when a railroad was 
built past his home, notable enough event for farmer boy, and 
Henninger himself sprang from the glebe, having been born on a 
farm near Emaus, Pa. April 22, 1851. 

Subsequently the author of our song had worked in a 
blacksmith's shop, attended the public schools, the Freeland Sem- 
inary, and the State Normal School at Kutztown, and had taught school 
even before his college days. The year after the composition of 
the song in question he was instructor in Muhlenberg College, All en- 
town, and read law. In 1876 he was Admitted "o the bar; two years 
after this he was elected District Attorney, and in 1882 State 

Senator, an office for which he was returned for a period of twelve 
years, three full terms. 

The opening stanzas of his poem run as follows: 

Sis oll^s hendlch eigericht 

In unsera gute zeit 
Mer brauch sich gor net bloga meh 

Unless mer is net gscheit. 
Der schtoam dut olles fer die leit 

Gel is juscht wos ich maen 
Un won mer aergets he gae will 

Don fawrt mer in der train. 

Swar net so gut in olter zeit 

Sel waes ich forna nous, 
Des mocht f 'rleicht die olta bae- 

Doch sag ich's frei heraus. 
Sie sin galuffa ol de weg 

Fun finf bis fufzig mile 
'N fawr die eppes reicher warn 

Sin ganga uf de geil. 

So wawr der schteil in olter zeit, 

'S lawfa wawr ken schond, 
'.'OS is mer ols do he gadopped, 

Sel is eich gut bakond, 
' S is nimma so in unsera zeit 

' S fawrt jeder won er kon 
Un waer gor nimme lawfa dut 

Der is der gentlemon. 

and so on through nine more 
stanzas in which he describes the iron horse, tells of the num- 
erous classes of people one sees in the train, describes the dis- 
advantages of travel in this fashion, especially the danger of 
accidents, but finally again descides in favor of the steam: 

So gaet des fawra in der train, 

Ich haes es orrig schae, 
Mer griokt ken kopweh fun de hitz 

Un aw ken schteifa bae, etc. 

There is no schoolhouse in German Pennsylvania, in 
which this poem has not been sung at an entertainment or at a 
meeting of the "speaking school'} the boys of a dozen colleges in 
Eastern Pennsylvania have sung it in glee; many years after its 


composition the author, when State Senator, travelled in North- 
western Pennsylvania and heard it sung by logging trains in the 
lumber regions of the State; it has even been intimated that the 
composition has been rendered by church choirs, and the name of 
at least one church was whispered where it was so sung, but be the 
truth of the matter what it may, one would rather think this an 
' Ortsneckerei' aimod at some out of the way settlerent. 

More than ordinary attention is due to this 3ong 
for a double reason; not only did the therie kindle the imagination 
of a Pennsylvania German writer who cormunicated his enthusiasm too 
the Pennsylvania Germans in general, but also the subject itself 
has in like manner appealed to dialect writers and their readers 
at all times; the following instances which date back a generation 
earlier than ours, may be noted; 

"Untorredung eines oberschwabischen Bauern mit seinem Pferd, 
welches Hans heisst, betreffend die Eisenbahnangolegenheit. Von 
'.Vilhelm V/ickel. Selbstverlag 1843 8° 8 S. 

"Der Veepertrunk im schwarzen Adler zu Klatschausen oder Hans 

Jorg, Peter und Frieder im Gesprach uber die Wuttembergischen 

Sisenbahn angelegenheiten. Schwabische Dorfszene von Jakob Daiss 

und Karl Siegbert, genannt Barbarossa. Boblingen, J.F.Landbeck- 

1843 8* 16 S. 

Motto: Bald braucht mer koine Rossle ami, 
Koin Waga und koin Schlitta# 
Jatzt spannt mer Dampf in d* Kessel ei, 
Und so wurds furscha gritta. 

(Very like our song.) 

"Die in Knittelversen, besprochen zwiscften einem 

Schullehrer, einem Barbier und zwei Bauern, die im Rossle am 

runden Tische satzen. Teutlingen, J. J. Beck. 1843, 8*15 S. 


"Der Bauer auf der Eisenbahn. Ein heiteres Gedicht in schw&b- 
ischer Mundart von einora Filderbauern. seudonymer Verfasoer: 
Blasius Sturmwind) Stuttgart, zu haben bei C.Hetschel. 8* 8S. 

"Die Ankunft dss ersten Neckerdarnpsschiffbootes in Heilbronn 
in Dezember 1841. Von : .Vilhelra Wickel. Stuttgart. (Selbstverlag?) 
h* 16 S." 

From Friedrich Richter a 3imilar strain may be cited; 

Moi, uf der Eisebah 
Do goht es schnell vura, 
Und ma sitzt prachtig drauf, 
Do hot es jo sein lauf . 

Koine Ross spannt ma na 

Uf dener Eisebah; 

'S Fuier isch, was es treibt, 

Das ma net 3itza bleibt. 

Das isch a wissaschaft 
Hot uch der Dampf a Kraft 
Ruf uf dia EisebahJ 
Do geht es schnell Fura. 

Some passages from the famous German song "Der Goisbock 

an der Sisebah" might likewise be compared. While our writer, as 

shown above, is not afraid to remind the old folks that some things 

are better now than in the olden times, yet he does not wholly 

approve of the pleasures of these days, notably not those which 

are now sought in the city; this is shown in a subsequent song, 

"Die Singschul im Lond" : 

Die junga leit in unsra zeit 

Hen arrig feel plessier 
Die Meed die danza dag un nacht 

Die Buwa drinke bier. 
Es karta schpiela macht viel Gschpass 

Uns flirta mit de Meed 
Des is de Fun vun city leit 

Die heesa sie first rate. 

For mei Deel ich geh net mit noi 

Geb mir die Land Sing Schul ; 
Dart geht mer hie fer scheona Gschpass 

Un folligt aw der rule. 

continuing, he describes the old institutions, and thereupon con- 
cludes with: 

Die Singschula ira ^ond sag ich 

Die sin mei greeschta Freed 
So long os die noch ghalte warn 

Is ' s mir gor net vorleed. 
Un won ich schterb, ^orlost eich druf, 

Dann werds der welt bekond, 
Dos ich nei Geld un oilers geb 

Per Singschula ira Lond. 

Henninger has written a number of other poems (See Index) 
and more are to be expected. In a recent private communication 
he announces that, 'if the Muse has not entirely deserted him' we 
may soon have a new poem from him entitled w ' S Macht Nix Ous." 

At the celebration of the one hundredth Anniversary of 
American Independence at Kutztown, Pa. Henninger re-id a poem "En 
Kunnert Yohr Zuruck" which is full of his characteristic notes, 
love of the past, qualified dissatisfaction with the present, and 
a hopeful confidence in the future. The last two stanzas prephesy 
concerning the most modern of modern things,- navigation of the air. 

Mer hen so viel Fortschritt gemacht 

Im letschte hunnert Yohr, 
Un dass mer so fortmache duhn, 

Sell hot gewiss ken G'fohr; 
Ball fahre mer in die klore Luft, 

Bis in die V/olke neij 
Un warm sel wenig kommon werd, 

Dann bleibt es net dabei. 

or welle als noch mehner duh, 

Teh wees net alles was; 
Ich sag euch nau, ihr liewa Leit, 

Es 3in mer shuhr ken s chpass; 
En hunnert Yohr ins Zukunft nei 

.Veisst un'sre Republic 
So viel dass wie mer g'sehne hen 

Seit hunnert Yohr zuruck. 



other sources of information 
for the chapter on 

Eli Keller. 

Deutscher Kirchenfreund, 1S48 - 1850. 

Friedenstote, Allentown, Pa. 


Pennsylvania Dutchman, Lancaster, Pa. 

Pennsylvania German. 

Pennsylvania German, Vol. VI I. 4. 178. 

Personal Interview. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. VII 

Unser Fennsylvanisch Deutscher Kalenner - 1895. 


Eli Keller. 
Rev. Dr. Eli Keller of Allentown was a merry farmer "boy 
who became a preacher and has remained the latter with certain 
characteristics of the former to this day: born in Northampton 
County, near Nazareth, Pa in 1835 before Pennsylvania had a Free 
School System, his chances for an education were small; by the 
time the system came however, he had made sufficient progress in 
his studies to teach a country school for several years; after 
this he attended Marshall College at Mercersburg, Pa., moved with 
the College to Lancaster, when it was united with Franklin College 
and afterwards returned to the Seminary at iiercersburg to complete 
his theological studies. At Lancaster, he made the acquaintanceship 
and formed a lifelong friendship with Henry Harbaugh, who had how- 
ever at that time, not yet developed into a dialect writer. 

His ministerial work began' in Ohio in 1856. At first 
he preached in English and German; but in Ohio the German sermon 
fell into partial disuse sooner than in Pennsylvania: during the 
last part of his eighteen years stay in Ohio he was required to 
preach in English only and with this he began to long for the old 
hoire surroundings; in 1874 the way was opened to him to come back 
and from that time until his retirement in 1901 (87 years) he min- 
istered to two, three and finally four congregations super-adding 
himself the work involved in the two additional congregations. 
Thus he frequently had to drive twentyfive miles on a single 
Sunday to meet three congregations. But these labors, his outdoor 
life and his association with the people he loved have kept him 
young in spirit even as the years advanced. 

Man*- of his poems are therefore sermonettes, pictures 
from nature with the lesson the preacher draws from it. Such a 

one is the example already known to Prof .Learned when he was stud- 
ying the phonology of the dialect; it is entitled "Der Keschtabaam" , 
in 13 four verse stanzas of acatalectic iambic lines of seven beats, 
he expresses his delight in the beauties of the tree, not so early 
to bloom as the willow or maple, not so speedy to bring forth its 
fruit as the cherry, - the umbrageous chestnut tree, which, even 
after the nut is fully ripe, must wait for the "Keschta Schtarm" 
to put it within our reach. 

Der Keschtabarcm vun alle Beem halt ich mer fer der schenscht, 
Warm du net ah so denke kannscht, glaab ich net dass du'n kennscht. 
Mit seina Blatter, Bliet un Frucht, is er net in der En 
Was ebbes rechtes werra will, nemmt imner'n gute Weil. 

When the tree at last is covered with its fragrant golden tassels, 

about which bees in swarms gather, 

1 S is en Genuss, gewiss ich leb, for Aage, Nas un Ohr, 
Nix kenr.t mer schenner, besser sei im gansa liewa yohr. 

He who with patience has waited for "The Keschta Gchtarm" will have 

no trouble in getting the ruddy fruit: 

Geduld is doch en grosse Sach, sie schpart uns Not un Mih, 

Wer ohne sie sei Glick versucht, der finn't 's doch werklich nie. 

The lessons are endless: 

Guck mol so'n Boll genauer ah, wie wunnerbarlich schee! 

Inwennig zart wie Kisse schtofft, auswennig Schtachle, Z&h, 
Was is des doch en unnerschied, beinanner ah so dicht, 
' S gebt viel zu lerne iwwerall, vum beschta unnerricht. 

Nor does he forget the carefree time, when he played in its 

shade, weaving belt and wreath of the leaves and flowers; 

Ich schteck mer Blattcher an die Bruscht, un Blimmcher uf der Hut, 
Un denk dabei in siesser Luscht, Was haw ich's doch so gut. 

In another poem, he describes his sallying out, a 

boy, in the springtime, to find the slender shoot of the chestnut 

tree just when the sap begins to rise, to make "Keschta Peiffe." 

Was peifft doch nau des ding so schee! 
Ken Orgel kennt yo schennor geh; 
Tut, ta-ta, te te, ti ti, ti 
Des biet die Vegel un die - Kuh. 
Ya Keschta Peiffe fer ihr Geld 
Bieten alle Peiffe in der Welt. 

"Mer Wolla Fischa Geh", "Es Glatt Eis Fahre" are others 

in which he revels in the pastimes of youth. Only one who has had 

the experience of a boy for the first time initiated into the 

mysteries of the uses of the German scythe, can make his verses bob 

up and down in onomatopoetic glee as Keller does in " 'S Liehe mit 

Der Deitsche Sens": 

In so* re schone Zeit 

Werd ehm * s Herz recht weit 

Die arme gt&dtel- Leut 

Die wisse nix vun Freud. 
Now schwenkt euer Sense, 
Un loss aie glanze, 

To whit, to what, 

To whit, to what, to whate 
Ihr macht's first rate, 

To whit, to what, 
Gut gewetzt is halb gemeht. 

His abounding joy in life, he frequently gave utter- 
ance to, on festival occasions, to his people, as in 

Der Chrishdag is der herrlicht daag, 
Im liewa longa Johr; 
Mei Glaawa is ken leeri Saag 
Juscht fer en kinnisch Ohr, 

Der Chrischdag macht mich immer jung, 

Un fullt mich ganz mit Freed 

Er nemmt mers Klage vun der Zung 

Un heelt mei Herze-leed. 

Dann bin ich widder Jung un klee 

Wie ich vor lang gewest, 

Mei Herz werd weiss wie Chrischdag 's schnee, 

Mei Leeb die allerbescht. 

He no doubt had many an opportunity to practise in 

his broad field of labor - as he also had in his own family - 

before he put into rhyme- 


'N Buwli Id's, Ganz aus 're annere V/elt, 

Wer hets gedenkt das bo was war bostelltl 

Ken Strumpche ah, ken Hemmshe, un ken Keppche net, 

Ja streck dich noli Wunscht gel das dich der Guguck 

Ei was'n G'slcht, un was'n grosse gchtimmJ 
Du denkscht, ich reib zu hart, un mach's zu schlimm 
So muss's sei, Ich hab so Erwet gut gelernt 
Mit so bissche GschpasB werd mer net grad verzernt. 

Guck, Mutter, Guckt do bring ich deer en Mann 
So klee, un schee as raer juscht denke kann, etc. 

For a Pennsylvania German Kalenner which he edited in 
1885 he wrote a longer poem in ten parts entitled "Vum Flachs- 
baue" This can mosfc profitably be read in grandfather's garret, 
for with flax raising entirely out of vogue in this section, or, 
where it is still raised, coupled with modern appliances, such 
terms as Flachs Britsch, Hechle, Brech, etc. are to Pennsylvania 
Germans of today, words of a time that is past. 

A number of Dr. Keller's poems are included in the 
collection published by Daniel Miller, Reading, Pa. Some others 
as well as several prose tales are to be found in the Allentown 
Friedensbote. In his younger days he wrote for the "Deutsche Pionler" 
but most of what I have presented and other material that I have 
omitted, has come direct from his own manuscript Notebook and has 
never been published. In addition to these productions, he has 
written occasional poems in English, as well as High German, ins 
eluding hymns, epilogues, and prologues for Christmas and Easter 
Festivals, birthdays and anniversaries, and one curious composition 
in which alternate couplets 6f English and Pennsylvania German 
rhyme with each other. 


A Bibliography 
other sources of information 
for the sketch on 
James C. Lins. 

Rural Press, Kemp ten, Pa. 

Rural Press, Reading, Pa. 

Common Sense Dictionary of Pennsylvania German, Reading, 
Pa. 1887 and 1895. 

Personal Correspondence and Interviews. 


James C. Lins. 
man . who will have to be considered when a com- 
plete statement is made of those who wrote Pennsylvania German 
newspaper letters, is James C. Lins of Reading, Pa. To the Kemp- 
ton Rural Press, later called the Reading Press, when he moved his 
printing office to Reading he contributed letters over the signa- 
ture "Sam Kisselmoyer fun Wohlaver Schtedel." Very many of these 
letters are distinctly political and do not take the trouble to 
introduce fictitious names; the only reason why they did not appear 
on. the editorial page (he was himself editor and owner) is because 
of the greater license allowed to this letter column; August 
Reiff says in his Schwab ische Gedichte:- 

So Nochb'r wie meine, geits gwiss koine maih 

'Vie die anand schimpfet; und doch tuets koim waih; 

Anander seggiere, dees tent se am gernschte, 

Und doch hent se nie no' en Streit ghet, en ernschte; 

Am Spottle und Stichle do hent se a Freud, 
Wenn oiner em andre sei Moining reacht sait. 

When the introduction of the Free Delivery of rural 
mail gradually forced the weekly newspapers out of the field he 
ceased to be an editor and continued to be a printer; but mean- 
time he had been activB in another related field of work. In 
1887, he issued a word list, containing "nearly all the Pennsyl- 
vania German words in common use',' under the title "Common Sense 
Pennsylvania German"; this being a list of German and English 
words in the form in which they are used by those speaking the 
dialect, with their English equivalents. At first sight, this 
publication is disappointing, nearly half the Preface is taken 
word for word from Home's Manual published 12 years before; these 
are furthermore the contents of Home's Dictionary and the words 
are made to conform to a different spelling. - but despite these 

shortcomings, Mns ' publication is not lacking in original work; 
hi3 list comprises 9613 words as compared with Home's 5522, in- 
creased "by several hundred in the second edition. This ^reat 
difference in bulk is partly due to a peculiar limitation in the 
language horizon of many Pennsylvania Germans; such might be 
perfectly familiar with words like bodderashun, demagrawd, raishta, 
whereas they did not, when they were in search of the English 
equivalent syllable or word, know that it was spelled both , -crat 
roast, in English, Lins has accordingly included many" such words 
in his list. The result amounts to precisely what he says in the 
preface, that, desiring to help the Pennsylvania German who is 
studying English, he has introduced a great many English words in 
the dialect form, whereas Home, according to M.D.Learned's 
counting, gives only 176 English words. 

That there was in those days, a real search for 
English is shown by the fact that children in one of their games 
at school wrote on their slates a list of words they used at home, 
and the contest turned upon who could in a given time think of 
the greatest number of English equivalents; one of the favorite 
questions thrown into the school question box was in the form of 
a list of hard German words, the requirement being made that the 
one to whom it was referred was to furnish the English equivalents. 

The younger generation would not have been willing 
to expose an ignorance such as did an old farmer in a story told 
in "Skizzen aus dem Lecha Thai" - "J. S. Hess, Esq. erzahlt in 
einer geschichtlichen Skizze von Nieder Saucon Township, dass 
einmal ein deutscher Bauer mit Latwerge nach E a ston gekommen sei. 
Als inn die Stadtleute nach dem Preise von Applebutter fragten 

schuttelte er den Kopf tndem er nicht wusste, was sie wollten, "bis 
ihm ein Bekannter erklarte dass sie Latwerg meinten ".Vas 1 sagt 
er 'Latwerg - Applebutter, Applebutter - Latwerg - Was en "proch. 
Warm sie Latwerg gewollt hen, for was hen sie net Latwerg g'satl" 
Under such circumstances a younger man would have been apt to 
take refuge in a Dictionary. 

Even to the present day the oldest inhabitants 
delight in requiring, especially of those who have been away to 
school, the English equivalent of some common utensi '. or tool. 

It is not by the introduction of English words alone 
that the disparity in numbers between Home and Lins is to be 
explained. The latter has swelled the sum total by the intro- 
duction of compound words, and of what are not properly words 
but phrases 5 "Moul-nei-henka" , for instance, is not a word but 
an idiom; it must be said however, that the book is not les3 val- 
uable for these additions. 

Finally, Lins records many words that had not 
appeared in any previous compilation - on a small page of 62 
words, I find four such new words - moshy, mosserich, mowlgrisht, 
mowlish. I have called the whole production a V.'ord List rather 
than a Dictionary; there is no attempt to give the pronunciation 
of words - he says in his introduction that he follows the English 
method of spelling because that is used in the schools, he does 
not indicate parts of speech, etc, etc. He avows of his book, 
that "Its aim is not money, and its object is not praise" and 
that it was not superflous is shown by the fact that in 1895 a 
second edition was called for and this also is now sold out. 

/Cj t 

A Bibliography 
other sources of information 
for the sketch on 
Henry lleyer. 

Correspondence . 

Genealogy of the Meyer family. 

Smull's Legislative handbook. 


Henry Meyer. 

Henry Meyer of Rebersburg, Pennsylvania, was born 
Dec. 8, 1840 in Center County, Pa. He learnt the miller's trade, 
went to the War and having lost a hand there, was obliged to find 
a different way of making a living. For several years he taught 
and studied, completing a course at the Keystone State Normal School 
at Kutztown, in 1869. Next he taught in the Center County Normal 
School, and in 1875 and again in 1878 he was elected Superinten- 
dent of the schools of the County, and in 1882 a member of the 
State Legislature. 

He is the author of a genealogy of the Meyer fami- 
ly, and for a family reunion he wrote a poem "Die alt Keemet M -the 
first stanza suggests Harbaugh: 

Heit kumrce mer noch emol z'rick 

Ans alt Blockhaus nachst an der Krick 

Der Platz wu un.3er Heemet war 

Schun langer z'rick wie sechzig Yohr. 

In reminiscential mood he leads his hearers up to 

the high mountain overlooking the Brush Valley, and points out 

all the scenes of their youthful pleasures, the old schoclhouse, 

the sugar camp (he seems to be the only Pennsylvania German writer 

who has included this among his descriptions), the swimming hole, 

the crossroads store, the neighbor whose apple orchard the boys 

used to visit; at the close he turns their glance to the cemetery 

below, where many of their friends already lie and where soon they 

too will find eternal rest. 

In der "Alt Scharnschtee" he de scribe a an oldfashion- 

ed log house j 

Der alte Scharnschtee war im Haus 
Vum Keller nuf bis owa naus 
Grad mitta drin, wie'n schtarka fort 
Im wind un schtarm en gut support. 


Am Winter Owet was en Freed 

Do hen die Buwa un die Meed 

Die Eltra un vielleicht der Schquier 

Im weita Ring dart g'hockt an Feier. 

Then he goes on to describe the winter evening 

pastimes, the coming of the chimney sweep j and borrowing fire from 

the neighbors, if the rains came down the chimney too heavily; 

Gebreicha vun da alta Johre 
Sin viel nau leeder ganz verlore. 
* * # 

Die Freind wu als inns Feier dart 
Rum g'hockt hen sin ah ball all fart 
Die Schee alt Zeit is ewig hi 
Doch ihr gedachtniss bleibt mir grie. 

He strikes a note that is entirely unknown elsewhere 

in Pennsylvania German writing, when he takes his Maud a-walking 

in the meadows where the violets blow, or they seek the shady 

places by the streams, and look into each other's eyes and see 

things they are too timid to tell, or when to shun the bumblebee, 

she buries her face on his shoulder and then 

Ach ihre Leftse sin so wohr 
Gedufte wilde Ro3e gleich 
Un nergets - woo sin sie in G'fohr 
So oft as wie in sellem Deich. 

Die Maud hut Backe roht wie Blut 
Un hut en schtimm wie'n Nachtigall 
Un ihre Kisses wees ich gut 
Sin Honig sees im Heck6dahl. 

Such subjects are not on the tongues of the Penn- 
sylvania Germans, and Meyer stands alone in having even referred 
to them, not to speak of having given them explicit treatment. 
Even when he taught "Wei Schtettel Schul" he had a sweetheart 'mongst 
his pupils: 

Es kumme uft in mei Gemeet 
Juscht wie en alt bekanntes Lied 
Dehl G'schichte wu mol G'schone sin 
In meine Schul am Schtettel drin. 

Ich winsch ich konnt in scheene Dichte 
Verzehle selle alte g'schichte 
Un kennt ah kalle nocli emol 
De Roll vun selle Schuler all. 

But Katie would no longer answer to the roll, her seat 

would be empty, Katie to whom his eyes would ever wander (and it 

seems she reciprocated his feelings): 

Un wann ich als en Blick hah g'schtohle 
Sie war jo schuhr en z'rick zu hohle. 

Katie who often broke his rules: 

Un awer 'n Blick vun ihra Ahge 
Halt mich vun beese Worte sage. 

En Fashion newig mich zu sitze 

Hen g'hatt die grosse Meed, die Knitze, 

Un bettle dass ich helfe daht 

Ihr Sums zu rechle uf de Schlet. 

When Katie came, it took him twice as long to shov; her how. But- 

Ss roht un gold Meepel Laub 
Bedeckt schun oft ihr greenes Graab 
Un wann ich dort so traurig schteh 
Scheint's mir ich wer net ganz allee. 


other sources of information 
for the chapter on 
Daniel Miller. 

Biographical History of Berks County. 

Das Deutsche Element in den Vereinigten Staaten. Von Bosse, 

p. 456. 
Interviews and correspondence. 

Pennsylvania German, Vol.1. 

Pennsylvania German, Vol. V.I. 46. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society. 

Reformed Church Record. 


Daniel Miller. 

"Jede Amerikanische Zeitung ist froh, wenn sie unter 
ihren Mitarbeitern ein Individuum besitzt, dae mit der Gabe be- 
haftet ist, zur rechten Zeit einen witzigen Artikel vom Stapel 
lassen zu konnen. Humorist ieche Skizzen sind naturlich der Lese- 
welt viel lieber als Auszuge aus langweiligen Predigten und wir 
sind d6r Letzte der sie deshalb tadeln will. Das Leben had leider 
so viele ernste jSeiten dass man Jeden Willkoranen heiscen sollte, 
der einem die Burde des Daseins erleichtet. 1 ' With these words Karl 
Knorz introduces his chapter on American Newspaper Humorists. 
What Peregrine Pickle, Bob Burdette, Orpheus C.Kerr, Petroleum V. 
Naseby, Max Adeler and others who became national characters were 
to the great metropolitan papers, this the Pennsylvania German 
dialect humorists were to the country weeklies, and the best of 
them became at least as widely influential as the dialect was known. 

A case illustrating the commercial importance of 
these letters is that of Daniel Miller, Reading, Pa. In 1869, 
he came from Lebanon to Reading, a young printer 26 years old, and 
established a German newspaper: a journal with Republican prin- 
ciples, in a county, where as the story goes, the farmers are still 
voting for Andrew Jackson. For forty years, or until, upon his 
retirement from business, it was suspended, this was an influential 
sheet, and gathered among its readers many outside the German Re- 
publican pale of that and the adjoining counties. The editor 
oredits a large number of these to the dialect letter, which without 
missing a number was contained in it, under the caption, Humorist isch. 
Mr. Miller took pains to emphasize that his composition tried to 
differentiate itself from the general run of such compositions. He 


seems to have had in mind, something which Josh Billings some- 
where expresses thus: "Don't be a clown if you can help it; people 
don't respect enny thing mutch thet they kan only laff at:" or 
again, a reminiscence of a thought as expressed by the Oldenburg 

dialect poet: 

Low jo nich, du kunnst de Leeder 

So schuddeln ut de Mau 

As mannig Pap sin Predigtj 

Dat geit man nich so gan. 

Indeed, more than one name might be cited of such 
as confessed that they composed while setting up the type. It 
is true these do not call for further consideration, but for com- 
pleteness' sake, they may be included in the list of those who 
"also wrote" . 

Upon my request to have it indicated what Miller con- 
sidered representative selections, he presented me with two - Con- 
versation Between Father and Mother on a Proper Trade for their 
Son, 1869 - and another written in 1870 - purporting to be a Con- 
versation between two Democrats on Politics. Here is opened up 
another question- the political influence of the dialect writings 
this can however be more appropriately discussed in connection with 
another man. (See Rauch p. ) These two selections were among his 
earlier compositions. He also gave me a number of his very latest- 
which are opening a new field in the dialect literature. 

Miller was a delegate of the Reformed Church in the 
United States to the World's Missionary Conference in Scotland, 
in June 1910. After the Conference, and in company with his son, 
he travelled in Europe for four months. Efrery week fror the time 
he left New York until now he had one or two lengthy letters in 
the Reformed Church Record, and every now and then one of these 
was in the dialect, so I have one written from Zurich, one from Rome. 

If his life is spared we may look for an entire volume of stories 
in the dialect, describing the tour. His English letters are bald 
presentations of the facts of his journey, a chronicle of progress 
with the assistance of Baedecker but his dialect letters are written 
in a distinctly quaint and simple language, style and manner of one 
who knows how the Volk thinks and feels, and are interspersed with 
many a shrewd satirico-didactic observation on life at home and 

The paper "The Reformed Church Record" just mentioned, 
was also founded by Mr. Miller, 24 years ago and in it have appear- 
ed many articles in the dialect by himself and others. The fre- 
quency of these has increased as Miller has gradually resigned 
the business of his publishing house to others. This paper and 
the Pennsylvania German Magazine may be said to be the only two pub- 
lications now furnishing dialect material, that have a more than 
local reading public. Among other things that Miller has written 
for this paper, there are brief biographical sketches of the Penn- 
sylvania German Governors of Pennsylvania, which will be reprinted 
in his book of selected prose and verse, now in press. For this 
book he has written almost all the prose portions himself as also 
he did for a similar collection published in 1903 and now in its 
second edition; among the few in this first volume not written 
by him are an address by Dr .N.C.Schaeff er, for the last 20 years 
Superintendent of Public Instruction in Pennsylvania, delivered at 
a Reunion of the Schaeffer family, and a brief historical sketch 
by the late Prof .Dubbs, of Lancaster, Pa. The book has an Eng- 
lish introduction by John S.Stahr, late President of Franklin and 
Marshall College, a man who can speak with authority on the sub- 

ject and who assures us that while the selections are of unequal 
value they afford better than anything else, an insight into the 
life and character of the Pennsylvania Germans, their simplicity, 
their humor and shrewd common sense, and their deep feeling and 

The work now in progress follows in part the plan of this 
former work, in that it will contain selected poems by various 
authors and prose articles by Miller; in part it is clearly in- 
fluenced by Home's Manual because the Pennsylvania German Gov- 
ernors had already made their appearance there, in brief sketches 
by Conrad Gehring; also in that it will contain a collection of 
sayings and proverbs, and a brief list of differences of vocabulary 
within the dialect but with no attempt to localize them. 


A Bibliography 
other sources of information 
the chapter on 
Harvey M.Miller. (Solly Hulsbuck) 

Center County Democrat, Bellefonte, Pa. Jun.28, 1908. 

Der Boyertown Bauer, April 17, 1907. 

Harrisburg Star Independent, Aug. 26, 1907 

Old Perm, Philadelphia, Oct. 5, 1907 

Personal Correspondence 

Reading Times, Jan. 14, 1907. 

Reforned Church Record, Reading, Pa. Jan. 17, 1907 

Pennsylvania German. Vol.VII.6.328j Vol. VIII .4.192. 

Works : 

Pennsylvania German Poems, Elizabethville, Pa. 1906 

Pennsylvania German Stories, Elizabethville, Pa. 1907 

Pennsylvania German Poems, II. (in press) 

Poems of Childhood, Elizabethville, Pa. 1908. 

Harmonies of the Heart, Elizabethville, Pa. No date. 


Harvey Miller. (Solly Hulsbuck) 
Solly Hulsbuck - the pseudonym under which Harvey M. 
Miller of Elizabethville, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania sends out 
his dialect productions, bids fair to become the most voluminous 
writer in the dialect, Hartep having ceased producing, and Grumbino 
and Rauch's contributions never having been collected. During the 
ten years since i'iller began wirting, he has issued in book form, 
Pennsylvania German Poems in two editions, (1906) each of which 
required a second printing within six months after their first 
publication; Pennsylvania German Stories, in prose and verse (1907) 
while the advance sheets of a second series of Pennsylvania German 
Stories, (to be issued in 1911) is in my hands. The last mentioned 
will constitute a book of nearly two hundred pages. Each of these 
books has exceeded in size the one preceding it, and as Miller is 
still a comparatively young man - he was born at Elizabethville, Pa 
in 1871 , - and as there seems to be no decrease in the demand for 
his work, a large production may still be expected of him. 

In ancestry he is of Wurtemberg stock on his father's 
side while on the mother's side he traces his descent from German 
and English stock, the latter in direct line from the family of 
Mary Ball, the wife of Augustine Washington and the mother of 
George Washington. 

The dialect was the only spoken language he hnew when 
he entered school at ten years of age, for though he read English as 
taught at home, he did not understand English when addressed by 
the teacher. It was the dialect poems also, especially thove of 
Harbaugh, that were his favorite recitations at school on Friday 
afternoons. The frequency with which he recited these and the con- 
sequent fluency he acquired, obtained for him invitations tc recite 


also before the pupils of the High School. 

These tones of Harbaugh struck a responsive chord 
in his own heart and presently thoughts akin to those began troop- 
ing through his own brain and urged him to give them tuneful form. 
He has told me how, at dead of night he often wakes up with the 
substance of a poem ringing through his brain, and how he cannot 
sleep until he gets up and has committed it to paper. 

His first productions were, neverthleess in English, 
and the very first ones he published are contained in an artistic 
little volume entitled "Harmonies of the Heart" which is literally 
the work of his own and his wife's hands, even to setting the type, 
printing, sewing, binding, embellishing - for above all other things, 
poet in English and in the dialect, writer of prose in the dialect, 
writer on subjects connected with local history (he has contributed 
several series to the home paper The Elizabethville Echo, and to 
several papers in Harrisburg) business man and secretary of the 
Local Eoard of Trade - above all this, he is an artistic printer, 
and a maker of artistic books. This first book brought him unso- 
licited letters of praise, among others, from Dr.Marden of the 
Success Magazine, and Dr. Theodore L.Cuyler. 

His first work in the dialect he announces as a 
volume of Pennsylvania Dutch Poems on a wide range of subjects 
bearing on the daily experiences and philosophies of "our folk". 
In the second impression he changed Pennsylvania Dutch to Pennsylvania 
German, whereupon the Pennsylvania German magazine, and all those 
who are sensitive on this point applauded. It is professedly 
humorous and the reviewer in the Pennsylvania German I-agazine 
assured hi3 readers it was "just the thing to drive away the blues" 


as, in a private letter the editor speaks of having read it to his 

wife "who laughed over it until the tears came." There are some of 

course who "have laughed at it" and to all intents and purposes 

said of it what Hans Breitman puts down as the criticism of his 

first book by a "Boston shap." 

Dough he maket de beoples laughen 
Boot dot vas only all. 

Hans Breitman' s reply, put into the mouth of a Dutchman, is equally 

appropriate here 

Twas like de saying dat Heine, 
Haf no witz in good or bad 
Boot he only Kept saying witty dings 
To make beoplefe he had. 

Indeed our author's wit is generally as spontaneous and 

free as it was when as a boy he had been compelled to listen to a 

long and tedious sermon by a new parson and at the end, when the 

preacher closed the book, he inquired "Hut aer now sel gros buch 

darch g'lasa?" Miller has at times anticipated the latest witticisms 

in our Metropolitan humorous Journals. The present writer was; one 

day last summer, examining the files of papers published some ten 

years ago, containing some articles by Miller. The same evening 

he purchased a copy of the latest number of "Life" and was amused 

to find in ±t cartoons for which the Pennsylvania German he had 

been reading might have furnished the text. The identity extended 

even to the figures of speech and the same sort of things were held 

up to ridicule. 

"Literature" says George E.Woodberry "is an art of 

expression; the material it employs is experience - - it endeavors 

to represent experience through the medium of language and bring it 

home to the understanding of the reader. It is obvious that liter- 

aturo makes its appeal to the individual and is intelligible only 

so far as the individual is able to comprehend its language and 

interpret the experience imbedded there" . It is because our author 

has, in satiric, humorous vein, portrayed that which appeals to all 

who know Pennsylvania Germandom that he is popular. For instance, 

in every district where his book was read people recognized their 

own Billy Bloseroar, who goes down to the crossroads store, day in 

and day out, crosses one leg over the other and with a long face 

declares he has never had a show at all; 

"Yah" sagt er "grawd fer zwanzich yohr 
Bin ich do alle dawg am schtore, 
Un ward geduldich far en chance, 
Joe Hustler iss now sel net wohr?" 
"Yah" sagt der J oe, 
"Du huscht ken show 
Du warscht success aw net bakondt 
Wan' s maul juscht schofscht un net die hondt." 

"Di hussa sitz is blendy proof 

Dass du ken chance huscht in der Weldt, 
Du bischt farflommt gaduldich, yah, 
Gaduld iss ken exchange far Geld." 
"So"sagt der Joe 
"Du huscht ken show, 
Except am loafa dawg un nacht" 
Noh hen die loafers all gelacht. 

Wherever this selection has been read, people have named 

the character described; this spells universality, at least in so 

far as this word may be used at all when a comparatively small 

number of people make up the world he describes. This is why Miller's 

selections in prose and verse have been copied by the papers in 

every dialect speaking county in the State - over fifty of them- 

Under date of June 27, 1908 the Center Democrat, Bellefonte, Pa, wrote 

"We find that our people greatly appreciate reading these selections 

and as our supply is about exhausted we should like to hear if 

you have anything more to offer." 

April 17, 1907 Hon.Chas.B.Spatz, editor of the Berkes County 

Democrat and Der Boyertovm Bauer said "Have been a great admirer 

of your work and have used selections frequently in our columns. 

We are more than anxious to read all you write." 

In book form they have found their way as far south 

as Texas, west as far as Nevada, north to Canada and east to New 

Hampshire; in fact wherever Pennsylvania Germans have gone. His 

verses "Augawanet" 

Es war amohl en certain kolb 
Dos rum gsucht hut far ufenholt. 

Un dorrich bush und hecka rum 

Hut • s kolb en pawd gemocht gons grum - havt. a wider 

application than Pennsylvania German; as he goes on and tells how 

that crooked path became in turn a dog's trail and a cow's path, 

a foot path for pedestrians who swore about it but did not make a 

straight one, then a lane, a village built around it, there arise 

before our eyes pictures of large cities which are no sooner 

visited by great fires or earthquakes than they ebgin to plan to 

simplify a Bystem of narrow and crooked streets. His own application 

to be sure is more general: 

In dere weldt dun* blendy leit, 
Im olda waig fort doppa heit. 

Grawd we far oldars, shrift un sproch 
Un a kolb mochts ma onner noch. 

The Star Independent of Harrieburg has already called 

attention to the fact that Miller's thoughts are not confined to 

those who ordinarily express themselves in Pennsylvania German, but 

have elements that are universal. 

The amusement which the present writer has seen play 

on the features of parson and flock on the occasion of the reading 

of the poem beginning: 

Won der Porra coomt 

Waerdt rum gejumpt 
De euchre deck waerdt g'echwindt ferbrennt, 
Es hymnbuch un ea Testament 
Obg'schtawbt un uf der dish garennt 
Won der Porra 

has indicated all too 
plainly that the author had known whereof he had written. 

Another type he is fond of taking off, is the man 
who is always ailing during the busy season of the year, but always 
recovers by the time the picnic season comes around. Ho laughs at 
those who are the easy marks of the "garrulous but shrewd and per- 
sistent 'Bicher Agent' who plays so successfully with the vanity of 
his would be customer." This poem in particular attnacted the 
attention of Richard E.Helbig of the Lennox Library, New York City 
and from him I have quoted almost all of the above sentence. 

Of the dissatisfied farmer he concludes a short 
poem thus: 

Wun's immer dawler waetza ware 
Un het ken toxa un egshpense 
Don ware de geld kisht nemohls lare 
Und Bowera hetta aw en chance. 

In 1650 an unknown poet in Aug3burg wrote in similar strain, 

Das Bauer werck ist nix mehr wert 
Der Handel hat sich bald verkehrt, 
Ist nix dabei als Muh und Gschwar, 
Wolt, das der Teuffel ein B a uer war. 

Other points of similarity might be pointed out, thus do the satir- 
ists through all the ages find it necessary to hammer on the same 
old failings of humanity. 

On the other hand, our author is full of real joy in 
the baauties of nature, whether she manifests herself in the bloom- 
ing of the flowers, the waving of the golden grain, the singing of 
the birds, the patter of children's footsteps or the prattle of 

/• S 

their voices, but he has no patience with the thoughtless "back to 
the country movement" of those who think they may enjoy its bounties 
without paying the proper price j 

Wie sees is doch die summer tseit, 

Es Paradies fum yori 
En himmel's bild fer ola leit 

Wu awga hen dafor. 

* * * 

Woe pikters sait mer uf de bame 

Mer kent net won mer wut 
Sel'r Rambo farba naksht so sha 

Sel war de hond fun Gott. 

* # * * 

0, mei hartz klupt dos en brumd 
Now, wun's free yohr wid'r kumt. 
* * * * 

Ich sa es nuch, mei lewas kint 

Un's dut mer laed im hartz 
Bin shoor in Paradies er findt 

Ken hung'r, pein un schnartz. 
Doch war's mer loeb un grosa lusht 

Un 0J Gott wase we fro 
Het ich mei bebeli uf da brusht 

War juscht mei engli doh: 

* * * * 

Oh, de tswa klana shu - supposin ich het 

Sie nimma urn ufa do 
Un ken kleena fees im trundle bet 

Wie bid'r war's lava derno! 

He extemporizes in masterful variations on the general 

theme of : 

Die weldt is nimme we se wore 
En hunnert yohr zurick. 

1810 • ., * 

Der Bower nemt sei Beev 1 uf 

Un las'd ols owets ou3 em Buch 

De Fraw hukt bei un singt en shdick 

Un So* un Duchd'r singa mit 

Recht orndlich. 

Der Bower grikt Fildelfy "news 
Full marderei fun kup zu foos, 
De Boev'l shtawwich uva druf 
De Fraw gookt fashion bicher uf 


De duehd'r shbeeld de drumb'l boks 
Mit weisa hend we gips un woks 
Der so wo in de city bletc 
Shmok'd lawda neg'l cigarettes, 
Gone shondlich. 

Yet he is not a laudator temporis acti to the extent 

of wiBhing the good old days backj he is no pessimist, he would 

merely spund a warning: 

Ei, wos en hunnert yor duch mocht 
Farennaring we dawg un nacht 
Bei Bower un bei ola leit. 

Mer winsht ' s aw nimma we ' s mol wor 
Duch man'd mer *s is a bis'l g'for - 
Leit werra in a hunnert yc} r 
Tzu weldlich un zu Gctlcs g'f it. 

Cnc of Miller's very 7 -~ 4 . poem was nc 

\ nnyson'e "Rfng Cut, Wild Bells"- 

Ring'd, bella ringd 
Par fraed uf ' s Nei Yohr he 
Far bessra dawga forna drous 
Un freindlicher we dej 
Far man'r leeb un wennich'r shond 
Far wenich'r shdreid un mae farshtond 
Un darch aweck en besser lond 
Ring'd, bella ring'd. 

Dol'd, bella dol'd 
Ous la'd far'n moncha seeza shtund 
V/u f orhar unser war 
Ous sorya fer ferlawra zeit 
Far nidra driks un klan'r shbeit 
Un folshad g'shwisha chentleleit 
Dol'd, bella dol'd. 

Ring'd, bella ring'd 
Kaling, a ling, ka long, 
Ringt's olt Tohr nous mir sorg und lad 
Uns Nei Yohr rei mit g'sung. 
Ring'd far en Shtondhcft r:enlichkad 
Ring'd loud mit lushd und fraed, 
Far Breeda und garechtigkaed, 
Ring'd, bella ring'd. 

Likewise in parody he has given many harpy renderings. I 

have not yet spoken of the philosophy he develops for himself; 

how amid complaints of too much this and too much that, in our 

complex life; 

Nix in der welt dos guter farshtond 
Kann alles darrich mocha. 

He dilates on the pleasures to be drawn from a corn cob 

pipe - I'ex Alte Krutza Pife - on the beauty of accepting things 

as they come - Mer Nemmt's we's Kummt - and finally locates Heaven 


Dale schwetza fum Hi mine 1 we en lond wide aweck 

En blotz das mer nix wa3e derfun, 
Wu die leit all gechanged sin fun juscht comner dreck 

Un sin ^ngel und fliega dart rum. 
Sie sawga sis arryets ivver'm say 

En mechtiger lunger weg fart, 
Wu niemond sich kenna kon bis mer schier denkt 

Die Leit sin all foreigners dart. 


So mochts net feel aus ware schwetzt odder sucht 

Far die awich und sees harlichkeit 
Der Hirnmel is net im Geogrpahy Buch 

Ovver naigscht Tbei em Hartz vun de Leit 
V, r un mer breederlich lebt wie die Schrift sagt mer set, 

Iss mer harlich und alles geht gude 
Un won em de g'sundheit derno aw net fehlt 

Iss der Hirnmel grawd unnich em Hut. 

In his prose selections he usually writes on some timely 
subject - politics, flying machines, woman suffrage, the comet, on 
abstract subjects- pride, church going, but whatever the subject, 
he as a rule sends the truth straight home, making an appeal di- 
rect to his own people, who accept well merited rebuke in good 
grace because administered by one of their own number and because 
tho sarcastic comment is mingled with such playful humor that it 
often difficult to tell whether the writer is in earnest or only 
making game. 

On certain questions that have become the subject of 
great national agitation, the dialect write -s are working hand in 
hand with the great Metropolitan papers. To mention but one example 

-on a sane celebration of the Fourth of July. To a r of poems 
on this subject in my possession, our author has an essay in prose. 
Another of this writer's subjects illustrates how the dialect 
adapts itself to modern English slang - Die Nei Runzel im Shpella. 

When he applies to the Dictionary that they propose making, he is 
in danger of getting such stuff palmed off on: him as Government 
reports tell him he is really getting at the store nowadays when 
he imagines he is purchasing pure groceries - a wonderful mixture 
of unmentionable stuff "Ovver ich denk die nei Runzel im Shpella wart 
gae wie fiel onnera so narheita." 

The present writer asked him what had been the moving 
cause in leading him to do this sort of work, and he modestly 
phrased it thus: "My purpose in writing has been chiefly to meet 
a local demand for such literature, which derand seems to have beer, 
created after it became known that new matter could be manufactured 
at home. The first selections were written out of a spirit of 
humor, impulsively, and when the editor asked for more, the mill 
was kept running." Liar ion D. Learned has referred to Miller's 
work as a valuable contribution to Pennsylvania German Literature. 


A Bibliography 
other sources of information 
for the chapter on 
Thomas J.B.Rhoads. 

Biographical History of Berks County, Montgomery, Chicago, 1909 

Onkel Jeff's Reminiscences of Youth and Other Poems. Boyertov/n, 

Pa. 1906 

Personal Correspondence. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. V. 165 


Thomas J.B.Rhoads. 

Dr. Thomas J.B.Rhoads of Boyertown, Pa. graduated 
from the Jefferson i.edical College, Philadelphia in 1861 and 
shortly afte 1 " that entered the army as Assistant Surgeon. After 
the battle of Gettysburg his regiment was mustered out and he re- 
turned to Boyertown where he has been engaged in rftultifarious bus- 
iness undertakings, drugs, mines, insurance, banks, real estate, 
theaters, being his principal lines; as local politician and aa 
a member of local fraternities he has held almost all offices in 
the gift of his friends. With all this, he has kept up for fifty 
years (he is now 74 yrs old) an extensive practice as physician. 

It was while making the rounds of his patients and 
especially ?/hen, as was not infrequently the case he had to take 
long drives of eight or ton miles at night that 'he meditated 
the thankless musej with the result that two volumes of verses 
of 400 pages each, gradually formed themselves. Those called 
M 0nkel Jeff's Reminiscences of Youth" are for the most part in 
English although a number are in dialect, while sundry of his dia- 
lect poems have appeared elsewhere since the publication of the 
books (1905). 

One of his earliest effusions "Die Whiske Buwe" des- 
cribes all the excuses drinkers offer as they step up to the bar 
and explain why they must have a drink. In "Das Alt Achteckig 
Schulhaus" he compares the three months school in the year with 
present systems of school all the year round and day and night, 
compares the simple curriculum with those in vogue at present, which 
include everything from "buchstabiere" to"skriveliere" , "philosophiere" 
and "karassierey with many other "iere'sV and concludes: 

Warm mer denkt die lange Zei1 
Wu sio in die Schule gehne 
Vun sex Johr nuf bis zwanzig 
Sollt mer doch gewiss ah mehne, 

Sie sotte besoere Laming hawe, 
Sotte g'scheidt sei wie die Parre. 
Oft mols sin die hochst gelernte 
Am End doch die grosste Narre. 

In "Neue Mode" he seems to have a special incident 

in mind, - everything is changed by Fashion's decree, even the 

Lord's Prayer has been supplanted. 

Die Sache werre ganz verdreht 
Der Schwarz Gaul is en schimmel; 
Fer Kinner nerrf s en neu Gebet 
Un bald en neuer Himmel. 

Probably his bent is the descriptive poem "Es Lat- 

werg Koche fer Alters^} he here tells the story in greater detail 

than is to be found in poems on the same subject by others, and 

also in smoother meters than is his own wont. 


Sources of Information 
for the chapter on 
Adam Stump. 


Pennsylvania College (Student's Publi- 

cation. ) 

Pennsylvania German Magazine. 


Adam Stump. 

Adam Stump has been a preacher in his native county 
of York, Pa for the last twenty one years, after having been five 
years a missionary to Nebraska, before which he preached four years 
in York and Adams Counties. The first member of the Stump family 
came to America in 1710J several other lines of ancestry he traces 
to a period nearly as early. 

After leaving the farm, in 1871, at the age of 17 
he studied at York Academy; taught school for two years, then en- 
tered Pennsylvania College at Gettysburg and upon graduation took 
the course in the Lutheran Smeinary at the same place. 

His poems are all based on personal experience or 

were written for some occasion. Everything seems to him a symbol, 

an emblem of the perishable in this world and a reminder of the 

grave and the entrance into the next world. So even the "Alt 

Cider Muehl w which his grandfather built and the processes of which 

he describes becomes a picture of the grind of life where in the 

end nought is left but the "Droeschter." 

Adieu, du alte, liebe Muehl, 
Du gebst mir jetz en wehes g'fuehl, 
Die Lust der Kindheit wie des Laub, 
Geht mit dir zu Aesch un Staub. 

Ganz vermahle, 

Bis an die Schale, 

Zehrt una die Welt, 

In unser Zelt, 
Un dreibt, des lebe in des Grab. 

In w Es Haemelt em a' " he goes back to the old home and 

passes from one to the other of the scenes of childhood: 

Dort steht's alt Haus am Weg, 

Dort is des Kammerlie, 

* •» * 

Dort is diessolbe Schwell; 

Es steline fremrae Puesse druf; 
Mer achleicht ira Zweifel na' 
Es is wie's war, un doch net, gel? 

Doch haemelts em a' 

Es haemelt em a'. 

Yet with all the old familiar faces at the old home gone and with 

names of mother, wife and child to greet him as he wanders to the 

nearby 'Gottesackeri' it almost makes him feel as though the latter 
place had the stronger attractions; 

Der Todes Acker blueht; 

Mer fuehlt net ganz so frem in dem. 

Ja, Mutter, Kind un Fra, 
Guck wie mer yetz die Name siehti 

So haemelts em a' 

Ec haemelt em a' . 

Die "Mami Schloft" is a most tender effort to per- 
suade the heart that she whose day was long and labor sore, is now 
better off in the sweet rest of eternityj but the recollection of 
all that she meant from earliest childhood on, brings pangs to the 
heart. Her Feierowet has come and she lies peaceful on her bed, 
but for him she will wake no more. 

Die Nacht is doh, die Drauer-Nacht: 

Ss hangt en flor uf meinra dhier; 
Die Mami schloft! Der 7/elt ihr Pracht 

Is ganz vergange, sag ich dir! 

Ihr Aug hot mich es erscht erschaut, 

Erscht haw' ich ihre Stimm erhoertj 
Uf sie haw' ich die Welt gebaut, 

Ihr Lewe war mir alles wert. 

Ihr dag war lang, Ihr Arwet schw-r, 
Ihr Pilger reis war hart un weit, 

So mied war sie, un matt so sehr, 
Die Ruh is siess in Ewigkeiti 

* # # # 

Doch Feierowet is jo doh, 

Die --ami leit in ihrem Bett, 


Im Kaemmerli schloft aie recht fro, 

Dann week sie net, oh week sie net! 

M'r sagts net gern: m'r muss 93 dun; 

Des Herz es hangt an seinem gut - 
:Ier guckt noch ee Mohl - Jetz mach zui 

Die Draehne nemme mir den Muthi 

Ihr Aug is zu, ihr Mund sohweigt schtill, 

Un kalt is ihra Herzens- quell. 
Dann, gute Nachti Mach's wie mer will - 

Doh muss mer saga "Ferrawell." 

"Es Hofdehcle" as it swings back and forth sings a 
melancholy tale. By it entered the joyou3 bride, merry children 
in their play passed in and out, many friends and strangers rich 
and poor were glad to enter by it to the home where all were made 
welcome, but presently one after another in sad procession all passed 
out neve" to return again. 

Die Braut, die Kinner un der Mann, 

Die Bluma, 's Grass, der Vogelsang, 
Die Blatter, Summer - alles geht als anni 

So singt des Dehrle dagelang. 

Es schwingt, es singt im Summerwind; 

Es werd ah niemohls matt un mied. 
Es weint un greint wie en verlornes Kind, 

Un jetzt weescht du mei trauerig Lied. 

Es geht mol uns en Dehrle zu, 

Un gar vielleicht im Aageblick. 
Noh gehna mer vun heem, ja, ich un du, 

Un kumma nie ja nie zurick. 

Die "iluttersproch" is a heaping up of reasons why 
he doe3 as he ought to, love the speech that first he heard from 
his mother r s lips; 

Wie kenne mir die Liewe Sproch, 

So leichtsinnig im stolz verlo33e! 
Der alte Strom, so nooh un noch, 

Is noch net ganz un gar verflosso. 
Mer henke fescht am alte Stam, 
So wie die Braut am Braut iga:. 

Latin and Greek are a rusty old gun, his mother tongue is as 

bread and salt, the blossom ne-ror forgets the dew that fell upon 

and nurtured it, the ^rape does not hate the vine, a dog does not 

bite his friend: 

Muttersproch di bischt \ms liebi 
In deinem Ton is 3eliger Trieb. 

# # n # 

Ja in der Schockel, in der Lad, 
Bleibt unsere liewe Sproch dieselwej 

He knows he will hear it even when he gets over to the other shore, 

sanfte, deire MuttersprochJ 

'.Vie Hunnig fliesst sie daroh mei Sinne; 

Un wan ich mol imm Himmel hooh 
Mei scheene Haemet du gewinne, 

Dann heer ioh dart zu meinem wohl 
En Mutterwort - ja, ah ebmol. 

Der "Zuk" describes scenes well known and annually repeat- 
ed at the time of moving, which lead our good pastor to his in- 
evitable conclusions j 

Im Himmel gebts ken Zieges meh, 
Des Scheide dort duht nimme wehj 

Dort bleibt die V/ohnungszelt, 
Dort geht ken langer Zuk meh fort 
So laest mer klor in Gottes wort; 

Sel is en bessre Welt. 

Only seldom and for special occasions does he allow that 

feeling to get the upper hand which proves to us that the feeling 

of growing old is an illusion. I call attention to the vividness 

and the playfulness with which twenty years after, he recalls the 

impressions of the time when first he coiild say: 

Do bin ich jetst in Gettesberg 
•» # * # 

Ich war juscht vor der Facultee 
Es hut mer g'fehlt an meine Gnie; 

# # * a 

Hab wunners gmaent was ich aw kann 
Bis sie mich awgeguckt - ei dann- 

His struggles with his courses are reflected in the lines 


I oh waes net rocht was sol es sei 
'S haost rait "Conditions" darf ioh nei; 
Doch warm ich mol reoht inside bin 
Darin, wie en Glett, bleib ich drin, 

and it seems he did. 

He has sean a girl in town but hears there is a Senior- but re- 

uionbers Seniors will leave; he learns the reason and tells: 

n '.Varum ioh dummer Freshman heas." 

Dooh Socrates hut ae mohl gsagt, 

So hen sio rnirs ins Hern gejagt 

Des erscht der Schuler lerne muss 

Wie rrad as wie en daube Muss, 

Er gar nix wisse daeht. Geb achti 

Ich hab en guter schtaert 3chun gmachti 

Ich reib mei Rick do an die Wand, 

Un reid en Pony aus Verstand, 

Dann ess ich Fisch bis mirs verlaed, 

Nord waer ich a en Graduade! 

In a poem for the Dallastown reunion he gets into 
similar vein, but this is the exception. 

He has written a. number of books in English and 
been a frequent contributor to Church periodicals, and has been 
known to express the wish for the leisure to do for Pennsylvania 
German life and history, and in the dialect some part of what Sir 
Walter Scott accomplished. A similar desire to have this done and 
the hope that somebody would do it, has been expressed by Judge 
Grosscup of Chicago, himself of Pennsylvania German descent; sim- 
ilar utterances by a young student of the University of Penn- 
sylvania with a bent toward writing suggest the thought that some 
day a beginning of this kind may yet be made. 


Sources of Information 
for the sketch on 
Louisa V/eitzel. 

Correspondence . 

Pennsylvania German Magazine. 


Louisa A.Wei tzel. 
Louisa A.Weitzel of Lititz, Pa., is one of those 
Pennsylvania Germans who took up writing in the dialect after a 
medium had been created whereby they might reach an audience. Even 
before she had finished her studies at Sunny side College, 1876 and 
Linden Hall Seminary in 1880 she had written stories and verse 
that had been published in the Moravian, and other church period- 
icals. For these she ha3 been writing ever since, as well as for 
the Lititz, Lancaster and Philadelphia papers. 

For a time she served a3 Associate Editor of the 
Lititz Express and while acting in that capacity, in 1899, began 
writing articles in prose in the dialect. Shortly after the found- 
ing of the Pennsylvania German Magazine, 3he turned her attention 
to verse j new contributions by her have appeared year by year, and 
one of these it was my privilege to receive in MS (before its 
publication in December 1910); it is an enthusiastic Aufruf; 

Wu sin die Deitsche Dichter 
Sie sin verschwunne all, 
Wu sin die grosse Liohter 
In unsere Runmeshall. 
Heraus, heraus Reimreiser, 
Wu sin ihr all versteckt 
Ihr sin jo die Wegweiser 
Die Schoheit uferweckt. 

There is a cheerfulness and hopefulness in her 

lines that is in beautiful contrast to a life that has been far 

from free from sorrow and gloom. 

Ich wees net was es Neu Yohr bringt 
Uns gebt ke Mensch das dut. 
Doch's Herz sich mit de Glocke schwingt 
Un frohlich steigt der Mut. 
* * # « 

Kumm her du frisches junges Johr, 
Geb mir dei treue Hand, 
Dei Bruder ware gut zuvor 
Du bischt es ah im schtand. 

Her poems impress one as though she had gone out 

into the wood* and laid her care^ on the lap of Mother Nature, even 

as a child goes to her mother to have her cry and then goes 

merrily hack to her playj 

Es i3 so scho im alte Bush, 
Der Bodde gru mit Moss - 
V.'eechsitzt mer uf der kuhle E^d, 
As wie im Mutter Shoss, 
Un fuhlt fun all em was em krankt 
So glucklich, frei un los. 

It is a pleasing note of a young old age that we 
hear in the following, as in reply to the repinlngs so often in- 
dulged in j 

Mer schwatze vun alte Zeite, 

Un denke gar net dra* 
Die werd net alter net junger, 

Jusht r.iir werre alt un gro' 
Sie zahlt ihro Johre bei dausend 

Die Welt un werd net alt 
Mir zahle sie juscht bei zwanzig, 

Un die vergehne bald. 

Dal mehne die Zeit war besser, 

In ihre Jugend. Ne 
Sie ware junger, ge sunder 

Un do war alles echo 
Jetzt sin sie ausgewohre 

Jetzt sin sie mud un satt, 
Un die Welt sheint schlimmer wie frtiher, 

Un luderlich un matt. 

Tven the fall, and the departure of the robins 
recall to her only the joyous season when they came and anticipate 
its recurrence another year. 

Persistent as she is in refusing to look on the 
dark side herself, she is aware there are some who do not see 
much light. In M En Charakter" she has given us a picture of a 
species of individual not unknown here as elsewhere, a picture 
which the detractors of the Pennsjrlvania Germans would have us be- 
lieve was fa,[r$ly representative of the whole body of the peopl . 

Er shafft, un gratzt, un geitzt, un shpuhrt, 

Un blogt sich shpaet un fruel ; 
Er shpart sich nett, er shpart ke Leut, 

Un shpart ah nett sei Pi eh. 
Ass wie ne Kaetzle uf 'e Maus 

Guckt er uf jeder Cent, 
Er wendt un dreht en sivvemol 

Bis dass er aner shpendt. 

Sei Fraw gelt weniger ass die Geul, 

Sei Kinner wie die Sau: 
Er rechend oft sie koste neh 
Un bringe wenniger ei. 
shickt die Kinner in die Shul 
Wann sie sinn jung un glee, 
Ann ihre Erwet ebbes mehnt 
Dann darfe sie nimmie geh. 

Some of our latter-day novelists have given admirable 

pictures of such characters, but only the perennial recurrence of 

this figure in literature has revived the mistaken notion that he 

represents not a type, but the people itself. 

Our writer's plan of life is summed up in hor lines: 

Hie un do a Liedle 
Hie un do a Blum 
'.Veil mer gehne uf un ab 
V.'ege grad un grum. 
# * * 

Ebmols is es dunkel trub 
Regnet alle Dag 
Bat es wann mer brumme dut? 
Helft em sei geklag? 

In 1908 she published a collection of her English poems, 

"A Quiver of Arrows" for which Longfellow ' s "I shot an arrow into 

the air" suggested the title. 


A Bibliography 
other sources of information 
for the chapter on 
As tor Clinton V/uchter. 

Herringshaw ' s Cyclopedia of American Biography. 
Personal Correspondenco. 



To a remote past, to nobility, to relationship with the 
Dukes of Orleans the family to which Wuchter belongs traces its 
ancestry. Prom Suabia, the first ancestor : i 3-ica in 1749, 
although the father of this one h .' fled to 

political refugee even earlier under an assumed name and has never 
been definitely traced. On the maternal side his ancestors came 
from Hanover, in 1730. Astor Clinton Wuchter was born in Jackson- 
ville, Lehigh County, Pa February 4, 1856$ worked on the farm and 
was a pupil in the common schools until 18 yoars old; attended ihe 
l.'illersville State Normal School, taught in the public schools 1874 
1878 j then taught and studied for three years in ^-aris, France; 
graduated from the Lutheran Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa. 
1885, then served successively the congregations at Summit Hill, Ea 
from 1885 - 1890; Weissport 1890 - 1893; Gilbert 1893 - 1909 as 
pastor, after which he became Professor of French at 'Vittenberg 
College, Ohio. After one year in this position he went back to Lhe 
ministry and is now preaching at Paulding, Ohio. 

He began writing very early; his published works 
consisting for the most part of hymns and religious poems, origin- 
al and translated, appeared chiefly in "The Lutheran". The trans- 
lations include renderings from Latin, German and French. It 
was also at an early age that he began producing Selections in 
the dialect, but there are none of these extant of a date earlier 
than 1894, Wuchter* s reasons for writing in the dialect deserve 
mention - "I sav; many limping efforts, as I thought, especially 
in verse, and so I essayed what I could do as to meter and rhythm." 

Ho finds the Pennsylvania German just a3 easy for him as the High 


German; and as the charm grew upon him , and Pegasus got restive, 
they ventured on bolder but still measured flights. 

It is, as a rule, only the masters of any subject 
that fully realize its difficulties} Heine could say: "Furwahr, die 
Metrik ist rasend schwer; es giebt vielleicht sech3 oder sieben 
Manner in Deutschland, die ihr V'esen verstehen." A considerable 
number of our dialect writers have either never heard such a state- 
ment, or act as though it excused them from giving the subject ser- 
ious attention} they have all too often gone merrily a-rhyming, ' 
without shaping their course or avoiding rude jolts of cross country 
roads. Here as always, careful workmanship aims at and reaches 
more than outward smoothness. Thus in reading some of Wuohter's 
lines we experience an indefinable pleasure not elsewhere afforded 
by the dialect verse. His highest success he has perhaps achieved 
in the playful onomatopoetic lines in which he tell3 the familiar 
story of the hired boy who was set to work picking stones from a 
field, while his master, Dinkey and the latter' s spouse went off 
to the village on business. Now towards evening they are coming 
home, but are not yet is sight of the place where the boy is work- 

Mer sin de Lane so langsam nuf ; 

Der Schubkarch hot gegrahnt. 
Noh lacht die Betz: "Sag, bass mol ufi 

: Veescht 7/ie mich sell gemahnt? 
Der Dinkey kummt noch la-ang net 

Er kummt noch net, rah-ie-J 
Der Dinkey kummt noch net, I bet, 

Er kummt net, sweet Marie." 

Er hut uns ivverdem erb] ,; 

Noh hot die Betz gelacht; 
"Guck, was der Joe net Eifer krigtl 

Heerscht v;ie der Schubkarch macht? 
Dar Dinkey kummt, der Dinkey kummt 

Ta-rie, Tarie! Tariei 
Der Dinkey kummt, 'r 'rumpt, ' r 'rumpti 

Hurrah for Tshin'rel Lee!" 

U 03 

His first productions appeared over the signature 
"Silfanis" in the Allen f own Democrat, under the editorship of 
C. Frank Haines, who, although himself in the dark as to the author, 
was convinced that no such writer had as yet appeared in Pennsyl- 
vania. German. '.Vuchter's range of subjects is also rather broader 
than that of the average writer in the dialect, but he too returns 
to the central thought of these dialect poets and defends "Die 
Muttersprooch" in a poem which concludes: 

Drum tzwischa Gott un tzwischa mensch 

Was hut die schproch tz' dun? 
Grickt ehner'n schennor Pletz'l dert, 

Geht's in die ewich Ruh? 
Kummt alles aw uf Shibboleth 

Beim Jordan ivvergeh? 
'"eg mit so dumnhait, ewich week - 

Die Muttersprooch is scheh. 

which seems in sentiment 

to tally with the linos of Suabian Michel Buck 

I schwatz, wia miar der Schnabel g'wachsa 'n ischt 
Un wia'n is han von meiner Muatar ghairt 
Und glaub, wear seiner Muatar Sproch it aihrt, 
Dear sei schau' weagadeam koi ' reachter Chrischt. 

He reverts also, like his companion poets, to the 
old times, and describes to us in inimitable verse ""n Alte Lumpa 
Party^ he indulges in a satirical disapproval of Sunday clambakes 
and in. his "Schpundaloch" he has given a picture and embodied a 
story which have been pronounced by his church to be better than 
many a temperance lecture. His muse also has not scorned "occasion- 
al peers? as the one on the 30th anniversary of the Ordination of 
one of his fellow ministers. 

Under the guise of an old cobbler, Yohli, he 
philosophizes; with Yohli he makes a trip (as many in real life 
have done) "Die 'hio naus? to visit those of the family who went 

West In the days when Ohio was West. 

He is particularly fond of versifying stories with 

a point to them. One of these "Der Geitz" he has brought with him 

from Brittany, another "Der Verlora Ehsel" is an Oriental tale, 

adapted from the High German, "Hummingbirds" relates an incident 

of the War of 1812 and "Hans and Herrgott" an anecdote of Martin 


At times he becomes reminiscent, as in "Kinner Yohr" , 

"Die Erschta Hu-sa" even yielding at times to the feeling induced 

by the gray days of November, "Nof emberklawg" ; but here aS always, 

we witness the triumphs of a cheerful optimism, most noticeable in 

his poem of the seasons. Such a one has a right to his joy in the 

approaching springtime, as expressed in his lines of welcome to 

,: Der Pihwie" ; 

Ei, guck amohl derta 

Der Pihwie is doh! 

Er huckt uff 'm Poschta 

''.'os is 'r so froh; 

Now guckt ' r mohl nunner 

Now guckt 'r mohl nuff 
Now sing'd or a bissel 

Now haerd r r schun uff . 

Ei, Pihwie, wo warscht du 

Seid schpote yohr gewest 
Warscht fart mit em Summer 

Warscht sudlich farraest? 
Ich denk derta drunna 

Huscht's Heemweh recht ghot, 
Huscht nix wie gedrauert 

Warscht 's Lehwa recht sot. 

i' /' 

This is praised by Dr.G.W.Sandt, in The Lutheran 

"Genuine poetry, as striking an equal, if not a higher note than 

And again his delight in the pleasure of ".'inter is 
the outward symbol of inward joys; 

Hurrah for dor winter, hurrah for der "chnee, 
Nau raus mit'm Schlitta, un sahl mer kon zwee . 
-::- tt •:.<■ -::- 

Hurrah for der Winter, der Schlitt i s raus, 
Was hockt mer am Offa? Was will mer in Hai. 
Un druf mit de Bella, sunscht is es ken G'fahr, 
De ter is karz, un die Schlittabah rohr. 

Hurrah for der '"inter! So eppes is Gschpass 

Die Meed singa en Liedel, die Buwa der Bass 

Un gehts in die Schrieebank un schmeist's err.ol urn 

Seht's drunner un drivver, was gebt mer dann drum? 

V.hile ".'uchter's verses prove him a thorough Pennsyl- 
vania German, it is interesting to have the confirmation of it, in 
a letter of his own. After stating that there are many promine; rt 
men in Ohio who still speak or at least are able to speak the dia- 
lect, he says: "I am not one of those who would like to attend the 
funeral of Pennsylvania German tomorrow, if it were possible. It 
runs in smoother measures than many of the dialects of the Father- 
land. They do not asphyxiate dialects over there * -::• -:<• There 
are those who presume to write about the Pennsylvania Germans, who 
are either totally ignorant of their subject, or what is worse, 
renegade Simon Girtys-German blood in their veins, but troubled 
with Yankee or T Hinglesh' brainbunions. They would not recognize 
their own. grandmother speaking Pennsylvania German, should they 
happen to meet her on the street. 

". , ucht6"• , is still in his prirr.e, and his successive 
bits of writing are evincing constantly increasing force and 

2fi & 

A Bibliography 
and other sources of information 
for the chapter on 
Charles Calvin Ziegler. 

Atlantic Monthly. 

Bethlehem Times, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Boston Transcript. 

Bryant's Thanatopsis. 

Critic, New York, Feb. 11, 1895. 

Drauss un Deheem Reviewed. Pennsylvania German, Vol. IV. 

Fick, H.H. Deutsch Amerikanische Dialekt Dichtung. 

Fiske, John. Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America. Vol II. 

German and Swiss Settlements of Pennsylvania, Kuhns. N. Y. 

Hark, J.M. Warm der Wind mol iwwer die Schtubble Blohsed. 

Hark, J.M. Im Busch wann's Schnayd. 

Hart, Albert Bushnell. The Pennsylvania Germans. 

Holmes* The September Gale. 

Holmes' The Chambered Nautilus. 

Klopstock, G.E. Die Todte. 

Lang, A. Lost Love. 

Longfellow. The Snowf lakes. 

Longfellow. The Reaper and the Flowers. 

Nation, The. 

New York World, Feb. 11, 1895. 

Personal Correspondence. 

J?0 7, (See next page) 

Philander von der Linde. Kein Sonett. 

Proceedings of the Pennaylvania German Society, Vol.1 II 

Reformed Church Messenger. Duhbs, Sept. 10, 1891. 

Schiebeler. Ein Sonett. 

Schlegel, A.W. Das Sonett. 

Tennyson. In Memoriam. 

The Democratic Watchman, Bellefonte, Pa. 


Charles Calvin Ziegler. 

"That Brush Valley should increase its celebrity by pro- 
ducing a poet, confers an honor upon that ancient settlement which 
should not be lightly regarded." Reformed Church Messenger, Sept. 
10, 1891. 

Charles Calvin Ziegler is a Pennsylvania German of the 
Pennsylvania Germans; he was born June 19, 1854, at Rebersburg, Pa., 
and is descended from a family that came to America in 1748. He 
attended the public schools and also the Select Schools of 
R.M.Magee and Henry Meyer in his home town; it was while as a bare- 
foot boy he was attending these schools that one of the "big boys" 
on a Friday afternoon recited "Das Alt Schulhaus an der Krick" to 
the great delight of all the school. This was before Harbaugh's 
book had been published and such selections were rare, and when se- 
cured, greatly prized. About this time, Ziegler and his brother 
secured a prose copy of a New Year's address, in the dialect, which 
they hid away as a treasure, though sometimes they recited it in 
the school. It was not until some years afterwards that the boys 
were willing to give it to the public and then the older brother 
copied it and sent it to the Democratic Watchman, Belief onte, Pa. 

In 1870 Kr. Ziegler went to live with his brother in West 
Union, Iowa. In 1873, he entered the State University of Iowa from 
which he graduated with the class of 1878 with the degree of Ph.B. 
Here it seems that his literary work began; one of his teachers 
recalls with pleasure the charming poetic translations from Greek 
and Latin which he used to make. According to the Bethlehem Times, 
Bethlehem, Pa. (Sept.l, 1891) he also graduated from the Lawrence 
Scientific School, but this I am unable to confirm. At any rate 

he was for a few years engaged in teaching near his old home in 
Pennsylvania and writing dialect poetry for the Democratic Watch- 
man, Belief onte, Pa. 

1881 - 1882 he spent with Prof. Ulrich of the Bethlehem 
Preparatory School getting his Greek in shape for entering the 
Junior Class at Harvard College in the fall of 1882 and he grad- 
uated from the Arts Course here, magna cum laude, 1884, with honors 
in Natural History and honorable mention in English composition. 

His poetry written at this time received high praise 
from his instructor, Barrett Wendell; he also published some witty 
material in the Lampoon and although at Harvard only two years, was 
elected by his class to write the Class Day Song. Among hiB verses 
of this period might be mentioned one in High German for Washing- 
ton's Birthday, to be sung to the tune, Lauriger Horatius; 

Bruder, sagt warum so froh? 

Was soil es bedeuten? 
Warum toben alle so - 

Jauchzen wie die Heiden? 
'S 1st weil unser Washington 

Heute war geboren; 
Darum stossen alle an - 

Saufen wie die Thoren. 

Unsere Gesprach Club auch 

Will dem Georg was bringen; 
Speis 1 und Trank sei Uneerm Bauch, 

Ihm das Lob und Singen. 
Dieses Lied dem grossen Mann, 

Unserm Landesvater! 
Wer, wie er, nicht lugen kann 

1st ein guter Katerl 

The next year he was at the Upper Iowa State University, 
as Instructor, but did not like the work, accordingly he left, went 
to St. Louis, and drifted into business, first as Clerk of the Pan 
Missouri Telephone Co., while later he became connected with the 
American Brake Company, a Westlnghouse concern of which he has now 


for many years been Secretary and Treasurer. It was during that 
first period in St. Louis when, separated from all his kin and a 
stranger in a large city for the first time, there burst upon him 
in terrible earnestness the fact that during the two years at Har- 
vard he had lost both father and mother. Prom a heart full, even 
to overflowing with a species of homesickness he began to work upon 
a memorial he planned to his mother, taking for his model Tennyson's 
memorial to his friend Hallam - In Memoriam. It was in this way 
that there grew up the poem "Zum Denkmal" in nineteen songs. The 
first one carries him back to his graduation day. 

Heit graduir ich, un mit Ehrj 

Mar maerche rum darch grossi Crowds; 

Des is 'n Wese - Music, Shouts - 
A's wann dar Bresident do waer. 

Ich nem mei She re im grosne Show - 

G-rick mei Diploma - "k'agna cum" 

Es scheint ich bin doch net so dun 
Wie Dheel v\xn denne Yankees do. 

Un doch - es is allwan h i 

Mit all msim Glickj mei Luscht is klee, 
Wie 'n Blummeschtrauss im grosse See, 

Im See vun meinre Draurigkeit. 

Was batt die Laming un die Ehr? 

Warm ich noch meinre Heemet geh 

Finn ich ken guti Mammi meh, 
Un des macht now mei Harz so schwaer. 

this la3t idea he ha3 further expanded in a song - 1 a. "Laming 

un Weisheit." 

Was batt di9 Laming? Nix - un viel; 

'S depend en wennig uf dar Kopp: 

En marcher eifersichter Dropp 
Mit frischem Muth un hochera Zielj 

Hot's Ham sohier gaarli rausgschtudiert - 

Un was hot's dann am End gebatt? 

Ei, endlich hot ar, bleech un matt, 
Sei Krafte ganz veruminirt; 

Dar Zweifel hot sei Seel verzw&rnt; 
Uf dunkli Barri^e rum is er 
Wahnsinnig gschtolpert hi' un her 

Un hot dar recht Weg net gelarnt. 

Die Laming muss verwandelt sei 

In' a Lewe - juscht wie Brod zu Blut, 
Sohunscht dhut's 'm Mensoh ganz wennig gut, 

Kann gaar noch Schade dhu debei. 

Es gebt en Soheeheit vun de Seel, 
En liebliche Gerechtigkeit, 
'As sich versohennert mit de Zeit 

Un is vara wahre Gott 'n Dheel. 

Sel is die haupt Sach; in der Dhaat 

Sell is es eenzigsoht Ding 'as bschteht 
Wann Welt un Hinnnel mol vegeht; 

Un sel hot aa die Mammi g'hat. 

In ihrem kleene Finger waar 

Mah Weisheit vun de reohte Sart 

A' a man cher Witzkop finne ward 
In all de Bicher gross un rahr. 

In some of these songs he very ol03ely imitates his 

model and his favorite poet, Tennyson. In none however, has he 

oome quite so close to Tennyson as in the tenth where will be seen 

the thoughts and in part a translation of the lines in Cantos 49 

and 50 of In Memoriamj 

Be near me when my light is low 

When the blood creeps, and the nerves prick 

And tingle; and the heart is sick, 

And all the wheels of Being slow. 

Be near me .vhen the sensuous frame 

Is racked with pangs that conquer trust j 
» * * « 

Be near me when my faith 1b dry, 
» * « 

Be near me when I fade away, 

To point the term of human strife, 

And on the low dark verge of life 
The twilight of eternal day. 
* * # 

Be near ub when we climb or fall, 
* * « * 

Sei bei mar uf rneim Lewespaad 

Un hiit raich far de falache Schritt; 

Veloss mloh not - ach, geh doch mit* 
Noh hot f e ken Gfohr - noh laaf ich graad. 

Sei bei mar warm mei Glaaw© schwacht 

Un Gottes Sache lappich sin; 

Wann ich uf letzi Weege bin 
Saag mar wuhi ' un sohtell mich recht. 

Sei bei mar in de letschte Noth 

'.Vann sich die Seel vum Karper drennt; 
Sei bei mar, nooch 'm dunkle End, 

Ira ewige Daag sei Margeroth. 

It is worthwhile in the case of the man who has 
mounted highest in all Pennsylvania German literature to note that 
in addition to a true poet, we have in Ziegler a careful and pains- 
taking artist, one who knows that crude material must be worked 
over and over again slowly and laboriously before a splendid achieve- 
ment can be the result. For this reason we find his compositions 
elaborated with more care and finished with a finer touch than 
those of any other. Moreover, Ziegler seems to possess more of the 
spirit of poetry and to know more about poetic structure both in 
theory and its illustration than any one else who has essayed to 
write in the dialect. 

His former teacher of Latin at the State University 
of Iowa, was selected as his critic and adviser before he sent the 
poems to the printers to be issued in book form. In an article 
she later wrote to the "Quill" - a publication of the University- 
she has revealed to us the author's consciousness of his task. In 
this article she quotes from a letter which she had had from him 
as follows: " Since 1885, I have done a great deal in my own dia- 
lect, the Pennsylvania German. At first it was uphill work, the 
nature of the dialect not seeming to be adapted to poetical 
expression. It is the language of farmers - of a people whose 


life is immersed in material things, and who have paid scarcely 
any attention to intellectual abstractions. Hence the language ia 
graphic enough but lacks flexibility and the aesthetic quality. It 
is almost impossible to do any shading in it: e.g. there is only 
one word schee or scho (Ger. schon) for pretty, beautiful, fine, 
nice, superb, gorgeous, etc.; in erotic expressions, it is difficult 
to find anything poetical enough etc." In spite of her ignorance 
of the dialect, it was not difficult for her to recognize the poetic 
quality of these selections, as we see from her following remark: 
"Out of consideration of my ignorance of the dialect, Mr. Ziegler 
kindly sent me with each poem its English rendering very literally 
done, and in these, without any effort at rhyme and but little in 
rhythm, is found the true spirit of poetry." Mrs. Currier was par- 
ticularly pleased with the eighth song in "Zum Denkmal" - "Ich sehn 
die scheckige dage geh n - " The conception of the different days, 
the fair seeming ones, that after all bring us no good - the rough 
oneB that look angry and are our friends, do we not all know them? 
but only a poet can thus set them forth." 

Another illustration of Ziegler 's method of work is 
found in his poem "Es Schneckehaus" which he devotes to his art. 
The figure recalls Holmes' "Chambered Nautilus" Without sinking 
foundations, or laying off corners, the ugly creature, the snail, out 
of mire and slime, slowly and noiselessly, builds its wonderously 
beautiful structure in which human ingenuity can find no imperfection. 
Thus works the poet, but listen to the wholo poem; 

'N Schneckehaus i Hoscht schun betracht 
Wie wunner schee es is gemacht? 

Es hot ken Fundament, ken Sck, 

Es is gebaut aus Schleim und Dreck, 
Langsam un net mit Angscht un Jaclit. 

Die Schneck is wuscht un ward veracht, 
Doch kann 'm Jflensch aei Geischtesmacht 
Ken Fehler finne un ken Fleck 
Im Schneckshaua. 

So dhut dar Dichter, langsam, aacht - 

Wann ar aa viel ward ausgelacht - 
Gedrei aich halte an sei'm Zweck, 
Un aus Gedanke - Schleim, wie 'n Schneck, 

Baut endlich aei Gedicht, voll Pracht, 
Wie'n Schneckehaua. 

In 1891 he had a small collection of his dialect pro- 
ductions published by Hesse und Becker, Leipzig, under the title 
"Drauss un Daheem." The book takes it3 name from the first poem 
in which the author reflects after years of experience with the 
world that the words of his mother were true when she used to re- 
mind her boys, chafing under the restraints of home, saying to 
them "Wart - drauss is net deheem." In the bitter loneliness of 
the little room in St. Louis where he spent his nights after the 
labors of the day, and with the knowledge that there no longer was 
a home and a mother to whom he could turn if he wished, he began 
to realize with terrible earnestness that "Drauss i3 net Deheem." 

The National Educator Company of Allentown, Pa. with 
Dr. Home a3 its President was the chief American Salesagent, and 
advertised the book in unique fashion, by pointing out, in dialect, 
gems that ought to make the book appeal to young men, young ladies, 
parents, children: 

"Buwe, wan d'r en guti impression uf die Mad mache wet dann 
schenk 'ne des Buch. Sel Schtuck 'Kitzel mich net!' macht sie 
fihle as warm sie 'n 'love powder' geschiuckt hatte." 

"Kinneri Shrt eier Eltere' Wan d'r die Mammi liebt dann ward 
d'r selli schticker "Zum Denkmal" hoch schatze." 

"Eltere • Wan d'r guti Gedanke in eier Kinner blanze wet, dan 

grick 'ne des Buch." 

"Schtudentel (Allentown is a college town) "Wan d'r 'm Home 
eel Manual un 'm Ziegler sei Drauaa un Deheem fleiaaig leeat, dan 
het d'r ken Druwwel mit 'm Virgil un Homer." 

Well, the book made ita impreaaion and not only on Perm- 
aylvania Germans j but on the Coamopolitan critics aa well, as 
Prof. Joseph H.Dubbs, Secretary of Franklin and Marshall College ,^1887 
to whom the poems were also submitted before publication, predicted 
it would. "I have read your verses with great pleasure. They are 
in my opinion compositions of a very superior order and their pub- 
lication cannot fail to be alike honorable to yourself and to the 
people in whose language you have written them. They will certain- 
ly be appreciated by all persons of culture who are familiar with 
the Pennsylvania vernacular; and their poetic merit3 will, I feel 
certain, be recognized by the German press of America and Europe." 

Whether the book was ever seen in Germany after the 
edition which was printed for tha author was sent to America, I am 
unable to say, but the American Press had nothing but words of 
appreciation and with these we must atill agree, with the single 
exception of the Atlantic Monthly; for by what mental processes the 
writer in that magazine "inevitably thought of Hana Breitman" seems 
hard to determine, unlesa it be becauae our author and Hana Breit- 
man have nothing whatever in common. The incidental criticiam of 
John Fiske - he had evidently read it, because he cites from it in 
"Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America" Vol.11, p. 352. to illuatrate 
the nature of the dialectand calls it a " charming book " - goes far 
to make us forget that the above from the Atlantic Monthly also 
came from Boston. 

The Nation, New York, Oct. 15, 1391 found it w a moat 
curious and interesting little book which might well have been 
larger" and gave from it as a specimen to Its readers a few stanzas 
from the translation of Longfellow's "The Reaper and the Flowers" 
Better yet to a Pennsylvania German seems his translation of Long- 
fellow's "Snowf lakes" which may be included here as illustrating 
Ziegler's work in the field of translation: 

Aus de Luft ihrem grosse Schoos, 

Runner g'schittelt aus de wolkige Falte, 
Iwwer die Felder leer un blooss, 

Iwwer die Barrige, die grooe alte, 
Langsam un sacht un schee 
Flattort dar Schnee. 

Juscht wie 1m *me harrliche Gedlcht 

Die Newwliche Gedanke sich vereene, 
Juscht wie sich im 'me bleeche Gsicht 
Drtlbsal, Druwwel un Schmarz bekenne, 
So macht die Luft bekannt 
Ihr Drauerschband. 

Des is de Luft ihr Drauer-lie} 

Langsam in weisse Warte sacht ig g'schriwwe; 
Des is die Verzweiflung vum Gemftth 

Lang in ihre Bruscht ve'schteckt gebliwwe - 
In Pischpere now gemeldt 
Zum W a ici un Feld. 

The New York Critic (Nov. SI, 1891) found "That the language, 
in its soft vocalic utterance, bears to the High German much the 
same relation that the Scottish dialect bears to the English, and 
like that is well adapted to poetry of a plaintive and domestic 
cast or to rustic fun and satire. To the latter forma Ziegler's 
muae seema little inclined. Most of his corapoaitions are of a pen- 
sive character." To this we muat now add that aince that time, 
Ziegler has given us several illustrations of his Jovial muse some- 
what in the vein of "Kitzel mi oh net" - found in his book - of 
which the best are no doubt, an English one which I should like to 

include here, and an inimitable translation of Oliver Wendell Holmes' 


"The September Gale" and "Die Harte Zeite." 

Behold, I am deathless ; The scytheman 

'.Vho deemB that all flesh is but grass 
Shall find me a tough and a lithe man, 

Pull of years as the sands in his glass. 
But fare as it may with the Ego 

And whether or no I am crowned, 
My life shall not fare like Carthago - 

Shall not be brought down to the ground. 

I have fashioned a poem sublime r 

Than any that Milton e'er penned, 
Nor did the great German at Weimar 

My latest endeavor transcend. 
No more by the critical croaker 

Shall my work as unworthy be classed; 
I am out of the hole mediocre, 

I'm an author immortal at last! 

Not in books like the lyrics of Horace, 

But in forms of the flesh sweet and rare, 
In my Lalages, Lilies and Lauras 

Shall my spirit persist and grow fair. 
And to prove what I claim - for I know you 

Are anxious for facts that convinoe - 
Gome up to the house and I'll show you 

My poem immortal - the twins. 

The S eptember G ale. - ©.vu.Ud-Ca*. 

I'm not a chicken: I have seen 

Pull many a chill September, 
And though I was a youngster then, 

That gale I well remember j 
The day before, my kite string snapped, 

And I, my kite pursuing, 
The wind whisked off my palm leaf hat;- 

For me two storms were brewing! 

It came as quarrels sometimes do, 

'Then married folks get clashing; 
There was a heavy sigh or two, 

Before the fire was flashing, - 
A little stir among the c„oUlJd3, 

Before they rent asunder, - 
A little rocking of the trees, 

And then came on the thunder. 

Lord! how the ponds and rivers boiled; 

They seemed like bursting craters! 
And oaks lay scattered on the ground 

As if they were p'tatersj 
And all above was in a howl, 

And all below a clatter, - 
The earth was like a frying pan, 

Or some such hissing matter. 

It chanced to be our washing day, 

And all our things were drying; 
The storm cane roaring through the lines, 

And set them all a flying; 
I saw the shirts and petticoats 

Go riding off like witches; 
I lost, ah» bitterly I wept,- 

I lost my Sunday breeohes! 

I saw them straddling through the air, 

Alas: too late to win them; 
I saw them chase the clouds, as if 

The de^ll had been in them; 
They were my darlings and my pride, 

My boyhood* s only riches, - 
"Farewell, farewell", I faintly cried, - 

"My breeches* my breeches." 

That night I saw them in my dreams, 

How changed from what I knew them. 
The dew had steeped their faded threads, 

The wind had whistled through them. 
I saw the wide and ghastly rents 

Where demons claws had torn '■hen; 
A hole was in their amplest part, 

As if an imp had worn them. 

I have had many happy years, 

And tailors kind and clever, 
But those young pantaloons have gone 

Forever and forever! 
And not till fate has cut the last 

Of all my earthly stitches, 
This aohing heart shall cease to mourn 

My loved, my longlost breeches* 

T ranslatio n. 

Ich bin ken Hinkel. Hab schun viel 

Septembers sehne hausse; 
Ee* Schtarm waar awwer sonderbaar - 

Den haer ich he it noch brausse. 
Der Daag devor hot mir dar Wind 

Mei Kite mit fort genumme; 
Mei Schtroh-hut hinne drei, - far mich 

Waar'n zwetter Schtarm am kummeJ 
*S waar juscht/vwann'n Fraa browiert 

Die Hosse aa'zeziege: 
Mar haert'n Seifzer oder zwee 

Ep f s Feier aafangt ze f liege :- 
Die Vifolke hen sich rumgedreht - 

Noh hot mar Schwewwel geroche; 
Die Beera hen gschittelt un gegaunscht - 

Noh is es losgebrocheJ 

Gott! wie es doch gegleppert hot 

In aellem wilde Wetterl 
Die Beem sin gfloge wie im Gfecht 

Vun alte deitache Getter. 
Drowwe un hunne hot's gedoobt - 

Schwarz, rauschig, bollerig, blitzig; 
Die Aerd waar wie en Brodtpann g'weat - 

3ie waar so arrig schpritzig. 

'S waar unaer Waachdaag; uf de Lines 

Waar sohier die Waaoh gedrickeltj 
Dar Wind hot Waach un Lines mit fort - 

Veschattort un vewickelt. 
Die Hemmer un die Unnerreck 

Sin wie vehext rumgachosse; 
Verlore haw ich - aoh, Harr Je; 

weh' - mei Sundaag'e Hoase. 

Ja, grattlig 3in aie darch die Luft - 

Zu weit aie meh ze finne; 
Die Wolke ain aie noochge,1aagt 

Ala waer dar Deifel in'ne. 
"Wie reioh un schtolz waar ich in eichl 

Now hat dar mich velosses 
Goot-bye, goot-bye J" - so haw ich g'heilt,- 

"Mei Hoaee, mei Hosaei" 

Im Draam haw' ioh aie gaehne - aoh: 

Wie waare aie verennerti 
Vun Wind verschlitzt, im Rege gaoakt - 

Sie waare net ve'achennertJ 
Aa' g'aehne hen aie juaoht a* a wann 

Die Deifel 8ie veriaae; 
'N looh waar ninne drin - dea het 

Par'n Deifel sachwanz aei miase' 

Ich hab schun gute Schneider ghat 

Un viele frohe Johre, 
Mei Junge Hosse awwer sin 

Par ewig mir velore. 
Un bis dar Dod mol piachpert, "Kumm, 

Du muscht die Aerd veloasei" 
Schwaer bleibt mei Harz un drauervoll 

Far aelli liewe Hosse! 

"They (his poems) are in flowing, harmonious verse" 
the New York Critic goes on "embodying gentle and pleasing sen- 
timents. As a first attempt [11) to make this interesting Ger- 
man American dialect the vehicle of literary expression the book 
may be pronounced a decided success." 


One of the facts hinted at in the above, had been noted 
in the Bethlehem Times, Bethlehem, Pa several months earlier, (Sept. 
1, 1891) when it said: "Some of the poems are full of the ten- 
der, homely sentiment, the lack of which in the verse of most Amer- 
ican poets is one of the great misfortunes which come as a penalty 
of straining after effect." It is not surprising that a church 
paper - The Reformed Church Messenger - should find as among the 
very best of Ziegler's poems the one entitled "Die Alte Lieder? in 
which are enumerated some of the grand old chorals sung in the 
German churches. Elbert Hubbard, who is not known to scatter 
compliments except where he thinks they belong, counted the book as 
"a valuable addition to the Roycroft Library of Choice Things." 

Ziegler's old friands at Harvard and his new ones 
of the Washington University, St. Louis expressed equal delight at 
the book. The paper of his native county, for which he had in 
earlier days written under the pseudonym of Carl Schreiber - the 
Democratic Watchman, of Belief onte, Pa.- unhesitatingly put the 
work by the side of Harbaugh's "Harfe" and noted that it excelled 
the latter" in range of thought and power of expression." 

His old teacher, Henry Meyer, (himself the author of 
verses in the dialect. See article H.Meyer) wrote him as follows: 
"I turned over the leaves as a miser inspects and counts his crock 
of gold coins. You know that I am no literary critic, but when I 
see a good thing in Pennsylvania German, I think I know it. And 
when a poem has the potency to stir an audible smile or move one 
to tears it certainly possesses the right ring; and that is just 
what happens if one sit3 down and peruses "Drauss un Deheem" . The 
Pennsylvania Germans, and especially those of your old home, owe 

you a debt of gratitude for having added this gem to the few lit- 
erary productions in their mother tongue." 

In another poem "Der Rewwer Un ich? the poet looks 
forward to the loss of identity in the being of the great God even 
aa the river mingles with and is lost in the seaj the author how- 
ever assures me that he never entertained any pantheistic beliefs 
except such as seem to be general poetic stock; and in another 
poem, he defends after the manner of an orthodox churchman, as he 
is ( (Lutheran) "Es Oltfashioned Buoh n against the scorners, and 
ventures the belief that it has enough of truth for many a thousand 

The first mentioned poem - Der Rewwer un Ich - was trans- 
lated into English and sent to the New York World, Feb. 11, 1895, 
by William Vincent Byars, a New York Critic, with the following 
note of explanation: "The other day I took down from the shelves 
of my bookcase a thin volume in pasteboard covers "Poems in Penn- 
sylvania German" by Charles Calvin Ziegler, published some little 
while ago. It is not paying Mr. Ziegler too high a compliment to 
say that he is as true a poet as the very best of the contemporary 
-Aeous writers of verse for American periodicals. He takes some 
pride in being the first man who has ever written a sonnet in 'Penn- 
sylvania Dutch* and I think he is entitled to the satisfaction he 
feels because of the exploit. I will not attempt a translation 
of his sonnets, but here is a version of one of his songs, - The 
River and I - which may suggest its deeply spiritual meaning to a 
wider oircle of readers than it could reach in the original." 

For present purposes it will be more to the point to 
give the original here than the translation and if a trite expression 
may be used- the translation is not equal to the original. 

Dar Rewwer fliesst munter un froh dehij 

Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer; 
Ar geht sei Gang unne Kummer un Mih, 
Ar froogt net fe' was? Ar wunnert net Wie? 

Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer. 

Un so wie dar Rewwer geht gehn ich, 

(Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer) 
Ar wees dar Weg - nie verliert ar sich - 
Un mar trav'le zamme recht bruderlichj 

(Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer.) 

Die Welle lache wie'n luschtig Kind, 

(Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer); 
Bal vereent, bal getrennt - sie weoh3le gschwind- 
Die Schpielsaohe sin sie vum wilde Wind; 

(Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer.) 

Warm die Sohtarne funkle in de Nacht 

Ruhig rollt dar Rewwer ; 
Ar schockelt mich ei, ar draagt mien sacht, 
Un ich geb mich ganz in Gottes Macht; 

Ruhig rollt dar Rewwer. 

Hinaus un hlnab zum ewigs See 

Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer j 
Ar gebt sich hi* unne Ach un Weh 
Un vergeht Ira Meer wie'n Floclce Schnee; 

Sorglos achtarbt dar Rewwer. 

In connection with t he first sonnet , it was rather amus- 
ing to find that claims to priority in any particular department of 
literature, such as we frequently meet in the case of those who 
play the game more seriously, find their counterpart among the 
writers of this dialect. In 1900 , Rev. J.Max Hark, after an inves- 
tigation in which he says that he satisfied himself that there is 
no inherent lack of capability for poetic expression in the Penn- 
sylvania German, set about composing several poems in various poet- 
ical forma and speaks thus of his own essay with the sonnet. "It, 
(the Sonnet) is a form of verse that perhaps more than any other, 
tests the capabilities of the dialect, requiring as it doe3, great 
delicacy of touch and great flexibility of language. So far as I 
know it had never before been attempted in Pennsylvania German(; ) 
until I tried it in "Im Busch Vann's Shnayd" and "Wann der Wind 

mohl Iwwer dee Shdubble Blohsdt." It wae not in this connection 
that I wished to consider the merits of Dr.Hark's two sonnets, "but 
only to note- in view of their first publication in 1900 - a fact 
that seems to have escaped his attention- namely, that full nine 
years previousl y Ziegler had published the sonnets in "Drauso un 
Deheem" and that in one of these, in the course of its fourteen 
lines, he twice lays claim to priority in this department, and with 
justice , for it was written even nine years before the publication 
of the book. 

It is far more successful than the two attempts of 
Hark, because the latter, while seeming to realize the seriousness 
of his undertaking takes himself too seriously and does not under- 
stand the nature of the sonnet as well as Ziegler; the latter under- 
stands, as stated^ the technique of the sonnet and playfully "Leimt 
zusammen" as Goethe said, until Lo, he has the first sonnet in 
the dialect 2 

To a certain extent it suggests the famous sonnet by 

August 7Vilhelm Schlegel on the Nature of the Sonnet, because it 

touches on the same theme, though not in the same tone* In serious 

vein Schlegel wrote: 

Zwei Reime heiss' ich viermal kehren wieder, 
Un stelle sie, getheilt, in gleiche* Reihen, 
DasB hier und dort zwei, eingefasst von zweien 
Im Doppel Shore schweben auf und nieder. 

Dann schlingt des Gleichlauts Kette durch zwei Glieder 
Sich freier wechselnd, jegliches von dreien. 
In solcher Ordnung, solcher Zahl , gedeihen 
Die zartesten und stolzesten der Lieder. 

Dem word ich nie mit meinen Zeilen kranzen, 
Dem eitle Spielerei mein Wesen dftnket, 
Und Eigensinn die kunstlichen Gesetze. 

Doch, wem in mir geheimer Zauber winket 

Dem leih' ich Hoheit Full' in engern Grenzen 

Und reines Ebenmaas der Gegensatze. 

In humorous vein wrote Ziegler; 

Vor mir hot niemand en Sonett noch gschriwwe 

In Pennsylvanisch Deitoch. Ich will's mol waage 
'M Dante un 'm Petrarch nooch ze jaage 

Bia ich die Warte zamme hah gedrivve. 

Now, 'em Sonett eel Lines sin zwee mol siwwe, 
Net mehner un net wenniger kann's vertrage; 
Zwee Dheol hot's; 's aersoht - 'es Octave so ze saage- 

Hot juscht zwee Rhymes, die darf mar net verechiewe. 

Es zwet ion klenner Dheel - Sestette ward's g'heese - 
Kann zwee Rhymes haw we odder drei, (net meh) 
Un die darf mar arrange wie mar will. 

Es fehle noch drei Lines; halt dich now schtill*- 
Ich hab sie schund! - un du hoscht now, versteh, 
Es aerscht Sonett in daere Schprooch gelese. 

(July 1882) 

When however, I found in the private collection of Ziegler under 

"Sonnets that I like" the two that follow by Daniel Schiebeler and 

Philander von der Linde, I could no longer doubt the source of his 

inspiration. The one by Schiebeler reads as follows: 

Du forderst ein Sonett von mir; 

Du weisst wie echwer ich dieses finde, 

Darum, du lose Rosalinde, 
Versprichst du einen Kuss dafur. 

Was ist, um einen Kuss von dir, 

Dass sich Myrtill nicht understands? 
Ich glaubefast, ich uberwinde; 

Sieh zwei Quadrains stehn ja schon hier. 

Auf einmal hort es auf zu fliessen. 
Nun werd ich doch ve^zagen mussen. 

Doch nein, hier ist schon ein Terzett. 
Nun beb* ich doch - Wie werd' ich schliossen? 
Komm, Rosalinde, laas dich kftssen: 

Hier, Schonste, hast du dein Sonett. 

The one by Philander von der Linde thus: 

Bei meiner Treu', es wird mir Angst gemacht, 

Ich soil geschwind ein rein Sonettgen sagen 
Und meine Kunst in vierzehn Zeilen wagen, 

Bevor ich mich auf reciiter Stoff bedacht; 

Was reimt sich nun auf agen und auf aoht ? 

Doch eh' ich kann mein Reimregister fragen, 
Und in dem Sinn das A, B, C durchjagen, 

So wird bereits der halbe Theil belacht. 

Kann Ich nun noch sechs Verse dazu tragen, 
So darf ich mich mit keinem Gr.Hen plagen; 

Wohlan, da aind schon wieder drei vollbrachtl 

Und well noch viol in meinem vollew Kragen, 
So darf ich nicht am letzten Reim vorzagen, 

Bei meiner Treu! da3 Work is schon gemacht. 

Besides this sonnet Ziegler has written a number of 
others: ono on his "Old Pipe", another in different vein on the 
death of his father. 

In a poem with the unpoetic title "Cremation" ad- 
dressed to his wife, he expresses the wish not to be buried in the 
earth when dead: not only his soul but also his body is to fly on 
the wings of Heaven. 

Mei Geischt war noch immer en freier 
Un mei Leib soil aa so sei; 
Mit'm Wind soil ar rum schpatziere - 
In de Luft - wie die Veggel frei. 

Ich will net sei bei de Warrem, 
Im Grund, wu die Sai rum drete, 
In de Sunn will ich sei un de Wolke 
Drum sollscht du mich cremate. 

Noh brauchst net in der Karri chof 
Wann du mich b'suche wit; 
Noh flieg ich frei in de Luft rum 
Un kann dir iwwerall mit. 

Noh pischper ich scheene Sache 
Warm ich zu d'r kumm im *me Breeze 
Noh boss ich dlch oft uf die Backe 
Un uf dei Maul so sus. 

Un in de Sunn wann sie ufgeht 
Lachle ich dlch freindlich aa, 
Un segen dich Owets vum Himmel 
Mei liewe guti Fraa. 

These are not the only poems; there might be mentioned 
others in which he has translated Emerson, or original ones in 
which he shows the influence of his enthusiastic Emerson studies 
of his younger days. I close my account of his little book with 
a reference to his translation of Bryant* a "Thanatopsis" which in- 
dicates unusual akill and patient labor and which ia reasonably 

faithful in the language, retaining aa it does very remarkably 
the spirit of the original. 

Zum Mensoh 'as lieb hot far die schee Nadur 
Un fihlt mit ihrem Wese sich ve'wandt 
Schwetzt sie en Schprooch we ' schiede: is ar froh 
Dann is sie frehlich un vezahlt ihm viel 
Un wunnersoheeni Sache, un sie schluppt 
So sachtig un mit so 'me Mitgefihl 
In sei Gedanke wann ar Druwwel hot 
Dass ihm sei Drauer, ep ar's wees, vegeht. 

The rest of Ziegler's poems, in part published in magazines, 
and in part unpublished as yet may be passed more rapidly in re- 
view although his powers have been by no mean3 diminished. After 
he had come back to his native Brush Valley and taken to himself 
a Pennsylvania German wife, his pensive strain gives way in cer- 
tain measure to other tunes and presently we hear him singing 
the praiBes of "Zwiwwle" and "Sauerkraut" About the time of the 
arrival of the twins he writes: 

Die Eltere fihle schtolz un froh - 
Sie hen en Bobli - *s is 'n Soh'. 
Die News geht rum, un ziemlich glei' 
Viel Preind un Nochbere kumme bei, 
Un ganz nadlrlich kumme aa* 
Dar Onkel Henner un sei Praa. 
Dar Onkel, wis ar's Kind aaschaut, 
Lachelt un saagt so zimlich laut, 
"Ei, guck juscht wle des Kind doch hot -" 
Noh sagt die Aunt gschwind, "Tut, tut, tut!" 

'os hot dar Onkel saage welle? 
Des waer net schwaer sich vor se schtelle; 
Doch wann 's aa wohr waer, 's is net gut 
Das mar alii Wohret saage dhut, 
Ich glaab 's waar besser, in d'r Dhat, 
Dar Onkel hot net alles gsaat, , 
Un dass sei Praa inn abgecut 
Mit ihrem gschwinde "Tut, tut, tut!" 

His own disappointment that "es Bobli" was not "en Soh" seems 

to have been made up for, by the fact that they were two girls 

(cf . the EngliBh poem mentioned above - Exegi Monumentum) - and 

soon and apparently for them - he writes - n Der Sandmann? 


Waer is des 'as kummt £9 schleiche 

Owets aus 'm Schatte and? 
Scheint die Kinner gut ze gleiche - 

Ihne is ar gut bekannt. 
Mit 'me Sa - cack dhut ar kumme, 

Un ar schtreut uniher gaar sacht 
Aage -sand - *m Schloof sei Sume,- 

Sel is was em schlafrig macht. 

Wann die Kinner 'b Maul ufschparre 

BIb es wie en Keller guckt; 
Wann die Aage sandig warre, 

Un en jedes Kepli nuckt,- 
Kann mar leicht dar Sandmann schpftre, 

(Sehne, haere kann mar *n net)j 
Jar, 's is ihn - ar kummt ze fihre 

Jedes in sei Drunrelbett. 

His lamentation: 

Die Zeite sin so greislich hart 
Dass e'm schier gaarli dottlich ward; 
Ken Geld, ken Arwet, schier ken Brod,- 
Es sieht bal aus wie Hunger snoth. 

Economy , Economy ! 

Schpaare misse mar , saagt die Fraa , 

Economy , economy , 

Bis mar aus 'a Ha lsli kummt I 

must not "be taken too seriously, for a man that is crushed does 
not write merry songs to the tune "Ich bin der Dokter Eisenbart, 
Zwie-li-di-li-wick bamm bumm!" To get his view point we quote fur- 

Was is die grindlich Drsach dann- 
Weescht du's, gedreier Handwerksmann?- 
Dass unser Land so voll is heit 
Vun Millionaires un Bettelleit? 

Dheel meene des, dheel meene sel 
Waer Schuld an daere dulle Shpellj 
Mir is es deitlioh wie die Sunn - 
Dar Tariff is die Schuld devun. 

In recent years he has translated Longfellow's version 

of Klopstock's "Die Todten" ; Andrew Lang's "Lost Love"; he has sung 

in praise of "En Simpler Mann" and has written a beautiful ode - 

" Danksaagungsdfiag" 


An ardent defender of the Pennsylvania Germans, when 
Prof. Albert Bushnell Hart several years ago, after an automobile 
trip through Lancaster County, wrote his impressions for the Bos- 
ton Transcript, Ziegler took up the gauntlet and came out with a 
vigorous reply to what seemed to be the Professor's snap Judg- 

Likewise in verse "Die Muttersproch" has he 
glorified the tongue to which he turns when he wishes to talk 
sense j the language not polite,- reminding one of Goethe's: 

"Im Deutschen lugt man wenn man hoflich ist." Paust II. - 
which best can express his wrath, the language in which alone he 
seems able to approach the throne of his Creator. 

Will Ich recht ve'schtannig echwetze - 
Eppes ausenanner setze - 
A,B,C un eens, zweo, drei,- 
So dass jeder commoner Mann 
Klar un deitlich.sehne kann 
Wei 'as Gold is un wel Blei,- 
Nem ich guti deutschi Warte, 
Weis un schwarzi, weech un harte, 
Noh vollbringt die Sach sich glei.' 

Bin ich an de Wohret suche 
Un fin Ungerechtigkeit, 
Luge, HeicMsrei, un Schtreit 
Bis ich alles kennt ve'fluche,- 
Schteigt mei Zarn wie rothe Flamme 
Un will alles noh ve' damme, - 
Use ich net *n Schprooch polite j 
Nee' ich nemm mei deitsche Warte 
Beisslg scharf wie Hickory Garte - 
Hack derwedder dass ee battj 
Schlack druf los un fluch mich sattl 

Wann ich war die Sinde ledig, 
Schwaer bedrickt vun meinre Schuld, 
Arnschtlich noh un ehrlich bet ich 
Urn Vergebung, Gnad un Huld; 
Kann dar Vatter Unser, meen ich, 
In de Mutterschprooch allee 
Mich reoht haere un ve'schteh; 
Far in deitsche Warte leenig 
Hot die Mar-mi mich gelarnt 



Wie ze bete j mich bereit 
Ze mache far die Ewigkeit; 
Hot dar Daadi mi oh gewarnt 
Un gerothe braav un grad. 
Grosser Gott! 0, echteh mar bei! 
Helf mar doch en Grischt ze sei! 

Dr. Hermann H. Fick of Cincinnati, in a little pam- 
phlet on "Deutsch Amerikanische Dialekt Dichtung" has said: "Der 
wahre Dichter folgt dem Gebote der Empfindungen und Gefuhle, 
welche machtig um Wiedergabe werben und nach Gestaltung rlngen. 
Er *gehorcht der gebietenden Stunde* und singt well es inn dazu 
treibt. Das was ihn freudig oder in TrSuer bewegt, sein ei- 
genstes Wesen, aussert er in seinen Versen." To no writer in the 
Pennsylvania German dialect do these lines seem to be so com- 
pletely applicable as to Charles Calvin Ziegler, late of Brush 
Valley, Pa., and now of St. Louis, Mo. 


A Bibliography 
other sources of information 
for the chapter on 
Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman. 

Berlin Times, Berlin, Germany. 

Biographical Annals of Berks County, Chicago, 1909. 

Carbon County Democrat. 

German American Annals. 

History of Berks County, Montgomery. Philadelphia, 1886 

New York Staats Zeitung. 

011a Podrida. Book Notice. Pennsylvania German. Vol. IV. 69 

011a Podrida. Reading, Pa. 1893. 

Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook. Rauch. Mauch Chunk, Pa. 

Pennsylvania German, Vol. IV. 2. 269. 

Vol. VII. 4. 178. 

Personal Interviews and correspondence. 

Philadelphia Record. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. III. 

Scranton Tribune. 

Spirit of Berks. 

The Lutheran. 

Wilkeebarre Record. 


Thomaa C. Zimmerman. 

In every enumeration of Pennsylvania German writers, the 
name of Col. Thomas C.Zimmerman would demand worthy mention, as 
that of the translator of song from many lands, and as the author 
of some dialect prose. But upon those Pennsylvania Germans whose 
reading is confined chiefly to literature in English, Zimmerman 
has a special claim. These he has made acquainted, through ex- 
cellent translations, with what is best in German lyric song, and 
has thus restored and interpreted to them the choicest literary 
treasures of the stock from which they sprung. In this respect 
Zimmerman occupies a position absolutely unique among Pennsylvania 
German writers. 

For many years he carried out a consistent policy, 
publishing in the papers he edited, in parallel columns, German 
lyrics and his own excellent translations of the same. For this 
reason a fuller account of his career is here demanded, and, in- 
asmuch as no more appreciative one could be written than that 
from the pen of Morton L. Montgomery, Esq. in historical and Bio- 
graphical AnnalB of Berks County, I have made an abstract of his 
article. The briefer portion beginning with P« whicli deals with 
his work in dialect literature is my own. 

Thomas C.Zimmerman was born in Lebanon County, Pa. 
Jan. S3, 1838. The only academic education he ever enjoyed was 
the public school training he received during the years of his 
boyhood in Lebanon County. Thus he never had the advantages of a 
classical education, and deserves accordingly the higher praiBe, 
for making such notable use of his talents and opportunities. When 
13 years of age he was apprenticed to the printing trade in the 

newspaper establishment of the Lebanon Courier. Upon the comple- 
tion of his term of service he went to Philadelphia and worked on 
the Philadelphia Inquirer for a brief interval until Jan. 8, 1856, 
when he entered the office of the Berks and Schuylkill Journal in 
Reading, Pa. as a journeyman printer. In 1859, Zimmerman moved 
to Columbia, S.C. where he worked as compositor on the State LawB 
in the printing establishment of Dr. Robert Gibbs, who afterwards 
became Surgeon General of the Confederate Army. In March 1860, 
Zimmerman returned to Reading, as the Anti Northern sentiment had 
beoome so intense that his life was endangered. 

Here he again entered the employ of the "Reading 
Times" and "The Berks and Schuylkill Journal" and gradually rose 
to the position of editor, and Co-proprietor. This paper- the 
Reading Times - is one of the foremost journals in the state and 
exerts a potent influence upon the moral and material development 
of its city, being held, furthermore in high estimation among 
political leaders in the state and at Washington. 

A brother editor says of him: " He has a genuine 
taste for literature, poetry and the fine arts, as many of his 
articles attest. He is one of the ablest writers in the Common- 
wealth." One of his most widely published and copied productions 
was a sketch of his visit to the Luray Caverns in Virginia. On 
returning home he chose this theme for an editorial in his paper. 
It fell into the hands of the Cave Company: the merits of this in- 
spiration of the moment were so appreciated by them that they 
caused upward of 60,000 copies in illustrated pamphlet form to 
be published for general circulation. The newspapers of Richmond, 
Va. copied this article and the favor it met with resulted in a 

request that Zimmerman visit Alabama and write up the undeveloped 


resources of that state. 

Very early in life, our author began to read poetry 
for the intellectual pleasure and profit it afforded him, and at 
the age of 18 he had already made considerable progress in a care- 
fully systematized perusal of the whole line of English poets or of 
as many of them as lay within his reach. The instinct of the trans- 
lator asserted itself in marvelous maturity when he began to make 
this one of the prominent features of the Reading Times. Hundreds 
of translations from the German classics into English appeared 
from time to time; the Saturday issue of the paper invariably con- 
taining a translation into English of some German poem, the original 
and the translation appearing close together in parallel columns. 

One of his most noted translations from the German 
-The Prussian National Battle Hyran- appeared in the Berlin Times 
and was favorably noted. To the reception which his translation 
of Luther's "Ein Peste Burg" won, I cannot do justice here. The 
Westliche Post, St. Louie, Mo. a few weeks after its publication 
said of it: "So beautiful is the translation that there is already 
talk of substituting it for the present version in English Luther- 
an Kymnbooks." 

His translation of Schiller's "Song of the Bell" 

met with even more favor. Prof .Marion D. Learned of the University 

of Pennsylvania said of it "A masterful hand is visible in all 

the translation. It is perhaps safe to say that Schiller's 'Song 

of the Bell' is the most difficult lyrical poem in the German 

language to render into English with the corresponding metres. 

Your version seems to me to excell all other English translations 

of the poem, both in spirit and in rhythm. Especially striking in 

point of movement is your happy use of the English participle in 


reproducing Schiller's feminine rhymes. Your version however, 
while closely adhering to the form of the original maintains at 
the same time dignity and clearness of expression which translators 
often sacrifice to meet the demands of rhythm. Your poetic in- 
stinct has furnished you the key to this masterpiece of German 

The New York World says: "Mr. Zimmerman's rendering 
of Schiller's 'S ng of the Bell' is a triumph of the translator's 
art and recalls the work of Bayard Taylor" The New York Herald says: 
"Mr. Zimmerman has placed his name in the category of famous 
litterateurs by a very creditable translation of Schiller's 'Song 
of the Bell'." 

The following ably written criticism 1b from the 
pen of J.B.Ker, who, while a resident of Scotland, once stood 
for Parliament. "To Col. Thomas C.Zimmerman. Sir: Having read and 
studied your noble translation of Schiller's 'Song of the Bell' 
I have been forcibly impressed by the music of the poem. In es- 
timating the value of the translations of the great German poems, 
it is necessary to bear in mind the weight which the literary and 
critical consciousness of Germany attached to the ancient classical 
canons of poetry. There is no question here as to whether the 
ancients were right. The point for us is, that their influence was 
loyally acknowledged as of high authority during the Augustan Age 
of German Literature. Proof of this can be found in Goethe, as 
distinctly as it superabundantly appears in Lessing's famous 
dramatic notes, where the poetic dicta of Aristotle are treated 
with profound respect. In the study of Aristotle's work on the 
poetic, nothing is perhaps more striking than his dictum that 
poetry is imitation with the explanation or enlargement so aptly 

given by Pope In the words: 

Tia not enough, no harshneBs gives offence, 
The sound must seem an echo to the sense. 

Now, knowing the German recognition of the law and 
acknowledging its realization in the workB of the leading Teutonic 
poets, one of the crucial tests of a translation of a great German 
poem is, Does the language into which the original is rendered 
form an echo to the sense? It seems to me that one of the strongest 
points in your translation of the 'Bell 1 is that the words which 
you have selected and gathered have sounds, which like the music 
of a skillful musical composer, convey a signification independent- 
ly of their literal meaning. Not to protract these remarks unduly, 
few words could more appropriately refer to the music of strong and 
distant bells than your rendering - 

That from the metal's unmixe'd founding 
Clear and full may the bell be sounding. 

Very slight poetic capacity must admit the music of these 

words as eminently happy in the 'Song of the Belli The echo to 

the sense is also striking in the sound of the word symbols in 

many places throughout the rendering, where the poet describes 

the occurences conceived in connection with the bells' imagined 

history. Speaking of the visions of love: 

0, that they would be never ending 

These vernal days with lovelight blending, 

the way in 
which the penult of the word ending conveys the idea of finality, 
while the affix of the present participle yet prolongs the word as 
though loth to let it depart, is a beautiful and enviable reali- 
zation of the Aristotelian rule, a prolongation of the words which 

express doubly a prolongation of desire. The four lines reading 


Blind raging, like the thunder's crashing, 
It hursts its fractured hed of earth, 
As if from out hell's jaws fierce flashing, 
It spewed its flaming ruin forth. 

have a vehement 

strength and a rough and even painful and horrid sound which 

applies with singular propriety to the horrible images "by which 

the poet presents the catastrophe to our quickened apprehensions.' 

In 1903 Zimmerman published a collection of his 
addresses, sketches of outdoor life, translations and original 
poems in two volumes entitled "011a Podrida" These volumes were 
received with great favor and almost the entire edition was sold 
within a month, a number of the public libraries having become 
purchasers • 

Zimmerman was also the author of the official Hymn 
for Reading's Sesqui-Centennial, sung by a chorus of 500 voices 
on Perm Common, June 7, 1898; of the Hymn for Berks County's Sesqui- 
Centennial, Mar. 11, 1902 and of the Memorial Hymn sung at the dedi- 
cation of the McKinley Monument in the City -Park, in the presence 
of one of the largest audiences ever assembled in Reading. 

One of the proudest achievements of Zimmerman's 

Journalistic career was the erection of a monument to Stephen C. 

Foster at his home in Pittsburg, which, according to the Pittsburg 

papers had its real inception in an editorial prepared by Zimmerman 

for the Reading Times, after a visit to Pittsburg, during which 

he found no memorial to perpetuate the memory of the world's 

greatest writer of negro melodies. The editorial was republished 

in the PittBburg Press and endorsed by that paper which also 

started (Keenan) a fund to provide a suitable memorial and called 

on the publio for popular subscriptions, the ultimate result of 


which is seen in the statue which now adorns Highland Park in that 

Several years ago, The Pittsburg Times, in a notice of Zimmer- 
man's visit to that Park said: "°ut in Highland Park yesterday, 
pasBersby noticed a handsome, military looking gentleman making 
a minute study of Stephen C.Foster's statue. Every feature of 
this artistic bit of sculpture, from Foster's splendid face, to 
Uncle Ned and the broken string of his banjo was examined with 
affectionate interest. The man was Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman, editor 
of the Reading (Pa) Times and the statue was the fruition of his 
fondest wish. Col. Zimmerman has been for many years one of the 
staunchest admirers of Foster's imperishable songs and melodies; 
16 yearB ago, while in Pittsburg lie visited the late Maj.E.A.Montooth, 
he asked the latter to show him the monument to Foster, and was 
painfully surprised to discover that no such memorial existed; 
shortly after his return to Reading, he wrote an editorial for his 
paper calling the attention of the world in general and ^ittsburg 
in particular to the neglect of Foster's memory." 


After having translated many German poems into English, 
Zimmerman came out in the fall of 1876, with a translation in the 
dialect of Charles C.Moore's "The Night Before Christmas" This at 
once caught the fancy of the press and brought him letters from dis- 
tinguished men in public life, as well as from philologists, urging 
him to continue to test the compass and flexibility of the dialect 
for metrical expression t among the former were Hon. Andrew D.White, 
Ambassador to Germany, Gen. Simon Cameron of Lincoln's Cabinet, and 
P.F.Rothermel the oelebrated painter, himself a Pennsylvania Ger- 
man: and of the latter class, Prof . S . S . Haldemann and Prof.M.D. 
Learned among others. 

The local newspapers as a rule expressed their 
appreciation of the work by articles in the dialect of which, as 
examples of literary criticism in the dialect, I include a few 
specimens here. First the one from Rauch, the leader of the Penn- 
sylvania German writers at this time, in which he also cites from 
another paper of this period. 

Rauch 's Carbon County Democrat: - "Der Tom Zimmerman, seller 
os die Times und Dispatch rous gebt in Reading is 'n ordlich 
gooty hond for English poetry £hticker ivversetza in Pennsylvanisch 
Deitsch un doh is en fhtick oe im 'Spirit of Berks' g'schtonna 
hut derweaga: 'Unser older fYeind Zimmerman aver fun der Dimes 
und Tispatch drooker conn ferhoftlich Englische leeder in Pennsyl- 
vanisch Deitsch gons goot ivversetza, According zu unser maining 
coomt ar net feel hinner der badauerta Porra Harbaugh, un warm mer 
de wohret sawga missa, ar conn, wann mer schwetza weaga wass mer 
poetry haisst, 'm Pit Schweffelbrenner si awga zu schreiwa. Mer 
missa ower explaina uf 'm Pit si side os ar sich nemohls ous gevva 

hut for 'n leeder schreiwer tzu si. Warm's awer ons breefa 

schreiwa coomt don is der Schweffelbrenner als noch der bully kerl! 

For selly notice dut der Zimmerman seim Noohber orrlck 

shae donka un weil ar der Pit acknowledged os der 'bully' Deitsoh 

breefa schreiwer wella mer don aw donk shae sawga." 

A second one by Rauch urges our author to follow up 

his Christmas poem by a New Year's poem: 

"Schliffletown, Yonuawr der 1, 

Mister Drooker: Ich winsch deer un all dina freind an rale olt 

fashiondes glicklich Neies Yohr. De wuch hut mei freind Zimmer- 
man der editor fum Redinger Times und Dispatch an copy fun seiner 
Tzeitung g'schiokt mit a Pennsylvania Deitsch shtickly drin. Es 
is 'n ivversetzung fun an Englisha shtick, un ich muss sawga os 
der Zimmerman es ardlich ferdeihenkert goot gadu hut. Des ex- 
plained now olles wo all die fee la sorta shpeesauch un tzuckersauch 
har cooma» Now, while der Zimmerman so bully goot is om shticker 
shreiwa set ar sich aw draw macha for 'n Nei Yohr's leedly." 

A third one by an unknown writer (in an undated 
clipping from an unidentified newspaper of apparently the year 
1877) confesses to the encouragement received to take up similar 
work and incidentally rehearses some of the difficulties and dis- 
couragements that stood in the way of the beginnings of dialect 
literature, particularly in the decade preceding 1850 t 

"For about flnf un zwanzig bis dreissig yohr zuruck hen mir 
alsemol prowirt Reime zu schreiwe in Pennsylvanisch Deitsch: awer 
des einbildisch Menscheshtofft hot Just druwer gespott so dass 
mer uns endlich selwer mit geschamt hen un unser Harf an die V/eide 
g'hangt hen. 'Die Reimen raogen noch Ginne geh - es bezahlt besser 
in Cash un Ehr, Sau zu masten un speck un Bonne zu rasen as so 

Reimen zu schreiwe' hen mer gedenkt. In spaterer Zeit hen annere 
Manner die Sach ufgenommen, tin bo gut gemacht dass sie respektable 
worre is, un do is apart ig ehner Zimmerman in Reading, ehner von 
de beste English Editors in der stste, kerzlich in selly Bussniss 
gange tin scheint so gut auszumachen, dass er uns uf die Noschen 
bringt ah nochemol zu prowiren wa.nn mir's ah net so gut thun konne 
as der Harb.rugh, der Ziirr.erman un so Eerls so "brauchen uns 
doch net E.:] r n <~ mit der Cumpani* . ''er her en Reire g'funne im 
Englische 'Telescope' un machen en F ylvanii cb Deuti v . uckle 
fiber sell Tatter:. Nau l^ore 1 " c'lrl." 

in in December 1896, "Der Alt Schulmaeschter" 
( Jos. H. Light) in his letter in the"Lebanon News" republished the 
poem "De Kacht vor de Krischdag? warm der Belsnickel als sei appear- 
ance macht, en sehr scha poslich Gadicht dos mei freind der 
Kurnel Zimmerman iwwersetzt hut, er huts ah firBtrate gaduh, des 
waer nau eppes for de Buwa un Maed ouswennich zu larne." 

With the encouragement of the philologians and at 
the request of the Pennsylvania German Society, Zimmerman continued 
his experiments, making selections from the Scotch Irish, English 
and German and from the Greek Anthology; embracing many moods, 
humorous, pathetic, didactic, as well as poems of love. The 
author tells us that he has endeavored not only to reproduce the 
rhythm of the originals but to leave their idiomatic expressions 
intact and as a result "has been handicapped in not being able 
to invest his work with creations of his own fancy, through which 
he might have gained a more comprehemeive diction and with it a 
wider latitude of expression." 

Another poem he has translated, "The Bonnie George 

2 9/, 

Campbell", has been turned and returned many times - William 
Motherwell partly compiled and partly wrote it for hio collection 
"Minstrelsy Ancient and Modern" 1827. 0. L.B.Wolff translated it 
into German: Longfellow made the German version the basis of his 
own and this was used by our author. I cite the second stanza: 

Out came hie mother Raus kummt sei Mutter - 
Weeping so sadly) Weine'd so herzlich; 

Out came his beauteous bride Raus kummt sei schftne Praa 
Weeping so madly. Weine'd so schmerzlich. 

All saddled, all bridled All g'sattled ge'zammt 

Home came the saddle, Heem kummt der Sattel 
But he nevermore. Doch er nimmermehr. 

Here is a stanza from "Auld Robin Gray." 

He hadna been gane a week but only twa 

When my father brake his arm and our ccw was stown awa ' 

My mither she fell sick and my Jamie at the sea, 

And auld Robin Gray came a courting me. 

Er war net 'n Woch aweck, 'cept juscht en paar, 
Wan mei Fatter brecht sei Arm und die Kuh g'schtole war, 
Mei Mutter sie wart krank, und mei Dschimmy's uf em See, 
Un mich zu karessiere, kummt der Alt Robin Grey. 

Or still another song: 

The bairnie's cuddle doon at nicht 

Wi muckle faucht and din 
"0 try and sleep, ye waukrife rogues,' 

Your father's coming in." 
They never heerd a word I speak, 

I try to gie a froonj 
But aye I hap them up, an' cry, 
"Oh bairnies, cuddle doon." 

Die Kinner lige hie des nachts 

Mit Jacht und Fechtereij 
"Browier und schloft, ihr wackrich Schelm, 

Euer Fater kummt Jetzt rei." 
Sie hor'e net 'n Wort's ich sag 

Ich guck jetzt bos an sie. 
Doch heif ich immer uf und schrei, 

"Oh, Kinner, legt eich hie." 

Or finally from the Greek Anthology: 

My Mopsa is little and my Mopsa is brown 

But her cheek is as soft as the peach's soft down, 

And for blushing no rose can come near her, 
In short, she has woven such nets round my heart, 
That I ne'er from my dear little Mopsa can part,- 
Unless I can find one that's dearer. 

Mei Mopsy is brau, un mei Mopsy is klee, 

Wie die Woll fun de Persching, ihr Backe so echo 

Un for blushe, ke Rose gebt's 's frisher is; 

En Net hot sie g'wove so ganz rum meim Herz, 

Ich kann fon mei Mopsy nimme geh unne Schmerz, 
Except eane fin ich as besser is. 

Other translations that might be mentioned are "Baby 
Mine? "The Road to Slumberland? George P.Morris' "When Other 
Friends are Round Thee" and Barry Cornwall's "Sing, Maiden Sing." 

It is not surprising that he is at his best in songs 
that are the expression of the deep yet simple feelings of the 
heart, and that his translations of Oliver Goldsmith's "Elegy 
on the Death of a Mad Dog" or the anonymous "John Jenkin's Sermon" 
or the "New Casabianca" have brought forth many turns which Penn- 
sylvania Germans would call artificialities of their speech. Some 

fifteen of such translations were included by the author in his 
book "011a Podrida? in a review of which work in German American 
Annals, Prof .Learned of the University of Pennsylvania recognized 
Zimmerman as belonging to the school of Harbaugh and Fisher. 

Edmund Clarence Stedman speaking of these translations 
said: "Your metrical renderings of English verse into the local 
German vernacular are unique. They have a special value, not only 
philological but of curious poetic craftsmanship. I like your 
sense of the worth of what is right at hand, and though still 
fresh is likely to pass away in time, and of which I may say 'pars 
magna fuisti;' I don't suppose my old friend Leland - peace to his 
wanderings* - knew Pennsylvania German well enough to have writton 
in it. If so he is the only man I can think of who could have trolled 
it forth so racily." -from a private letter. (In this he shows 

that he knows whereof ha speaks - at any rate he does not make the 
mistake often made even by such as the Atlantic Monthly* of taking 
Leland's own language for Pennsylvania German. 

Other of Zimmerman's translations are scattered 
through the file3 of the Reading Times and Dispatch, as are also 
his infrequent articles in prose - of whioh the most famous are 
the letters purporting to pass between "Wilhelai" (The Kaiser) and 
"Mei Leevi Grosmommy" (Queen Victoria) in which he rebukes her for 
allowing herself to be under the influence of Salisbury in the 
matter of the Boer War, censures "Uncle Wales" (Prince Edward? 
for his gambling proclivities, and threatens that he may have to 
take a hand in the war himself. In due time Victoria replies to 
"Mei Leewer Billy" in regretful and conciliatory tone. These 
letters were widely copied by the press, taken up into several 
anthologies (Home's and Miller's) and presumably represented 
Pennsylvania German editorial (and perhaps popular) opinion at the 
time of the Boer War. 



Results and Conclusions. 


Results and Conclusions. 

By means of travel, correspondence and the assist- 
ance of a large number of Pennsylvanians interested in the subject, 
the present writer believes that he has succeeded in collecting 
the great bulk of material in Pennsylvania German dialect in veuse, 
that is at present accessible. The appended bibliographical index 
has been made with some care, and the sources and localities are 
enumerated where printed productions or those in manuscript are to 
be found. In almost all cases copies of both are now in my pos- 

Of prose, a similar collection has been made and 
a similar index of selections that have appeared either in book 
form or were published in magazines, and an extended list (not yet 
complete) has been made of newspapers which are now publishing or 
at one time did publish prose dialect articles. 

Of thi3 literature, the most important has been de- 
scribed by means of a method in the main biographical: "Literature 
can do no more than give us the opinions and sentiments of par- 
ticular persons at particular times. To estimate - even to under- 
stand - these opinions and sentiments, we must know something of 
the times and circumstances in which they were expressed. It will 
be requisite, therefore, now and then, to invade the domain of 
history and biography and thus diversify our purely literary studies." 
Thus did R.Y.Tyrell introduce a series of lectures on the litera- 
ture of a people (the Romans) whose history and intellectual life 
are, and in the nature of the case always will be, on a plane 
vastly higher than that which we have here treated can ever hope 
to be; but the principle is the same and seems to be particularly 

applicable in the case of a people relatively unknown - if we are 
to understand them. 

.'.'hat Armstrong Wanchope said in the North American 
Review, (May 1894, Vol.158, p. 640) of story writers in general 
seems to apply with peculiar aptness to the authors I have con- 
sidered. "Story writing" he said "is an attempt to preserve the 
life of a certain time and locality with all the concomitants of 
local coloring. The personal experience of the writer becomes thus 
all important as it should. He can testify only of what he knows." 
The large element of biography here introduced is therefore, neither 
unprecedented nor, in the nature of the case, unreasonable. 

The principal reasons for the existence of dialect 
literature have been pointed out in a chapter at the beginning 
of this essay} special reasons individual writers have had for 
writing in the dialect have been noted under the respective authors. 
In not a few cases the writers began as makers of dialect rhymes 
for the hamlet and the neighboring farmsteads, or contributors of 
English or High German verses for distant periodicals. They had 
lacked both a recognition of the dialect as a literary medium, add 
local journals in which to publish. VJhen such was offered them, 
the response was immediate, and the dialect literature flourished. 
This movement was further encouraged by the establishment i 
of a magazi] bended to reach all Pennsylvania Ger , "The 
nsylvania German." 

"Der wahre Dichter folgt dem Gebote der Empfindungen 
und Gefuhle, welche machtig um VJiedergabe werben und nach Gestalt- 
ung ringen. Er 'gehorcht der gebietenden Stunde* und singt w 
es ihn dazu treibt. Das, was ihn freudig oder in Trauer bewegt, 

sein eigenstec "'esen aussert er in seinen versen. Der Dialect 

zeigt da3 Vojk wie es ist, bei seinen Festen und in seinen Leide, 

an der Arbeit ur:d bei seiner Erholung, in seinen Hoffen und seinen 

Harren, wie nicht minder im Verkehr mit Hohergestellten sowohl als 

mit Seinesgleichen oder Untergebenen." Go wrote Hermann H.Fick, in 

a small pamphlet on "Deutsch Amerikanische Dialekt Dichtung." She 

Pennsylvania German dialect poets have done exactly what this 

writer requires, and thi3 it is, which renders their productions 

from the view point of the Kultur Historiker of the utmost value. 

Criticism and faultfinding of which the literature has been made 

to bear the "brunt, should more properly be leveled at the people; 

if the writers had done otherwise than they did, their picture had 

been less true. If the poetry occasionally falls to a flat and 

heKvy level, it should be remembered that in a measure the people 

are themselves prose (not to say prosy) idyls, and the wonder is 

not that they sang no better, but that, what with the horrors of 

the wars in the Rhine valley before their migration, what with a 

long struggle in America afterwards, in which they were, when not 

fighting savage Indians, 

Busy with hewing and building, with garden plot and with rnerestead, 
Busy with breaking the glebe, and mowing grass in the meadow. 

they plucked up courage enough to sing at 
all. Their language in the new surroundings could grow only by 
the engrafting of foreign forms and even then was useless, except 
in their own small territory, an oasis as it were surrounded by 
the var.t body of English settlements. '"hat other people have so 
completely expatriated themselves and yet retained so truly an in- 
dividuality of their own, even to the extent of creating a litera- 
ture ? "This poetical literature of the Pennsylvania Germans" says 

Prof. Faust "is one of the few original no1 f American lyrical 

poetry. w 


in the introduction to "Die Deutschen Sacular Dichtungen an der 

'Vends des IS u. 19 Jahrhunderts says: "Wenn das Leben den Mensohen 

sich dem Ende nahert so treten die Ereignisse seiner fr!lhesten 

Jugend am starksten in seinem Gedachtnisse hervor." In Geron der 

Adelige, Wieland had already expressed the same idea thus: 

Das 41ter ist geschwatzig, .vie ihr wisst, 
Es liebt za reden von den guten Zeiten, 
Die nicht raehr sind, in denen es, air, wie 
In einem Traum allein noch lebt. 

These two quotations exactly describe the situation in re- 
spect to Pennsylvania German literature. Harbaugh did indeed, to 
a certain extent set the pattern for this, as some of his titles 
show, w Das Alt SchulhausJ. "Die Nei S ort Tschsntelleit',' "Die Alt 
Miehiy "Der Alt Fcierherd? "Kerchegang in •liter Zeit? not to 
speak of titles by other poets, such as " 'S Latwerg Koche fer 
Alters" -Rhoads, "Zeit un Leit Ennore Sich"- Eisenbrown, "Wis es 
for Alters war"- Brunner, etc., and the many "Hachklange" heard 

written but here and there we may gather some of the laws that 
will be incorporated in it. Karl V.'einhold, in an essay "Ueber 
Deutsche Dialekt Forschung" when speaking of the ne.v life that en- 
tered Dialekt Dichtung through Hebel, adds: "Viele meinten es ihm 
nachthun zu kftnnen, allein nur einer unter den zahlreichen Dialekt- 
Dichtern hat erreicht was er wollte" and he gives as his reason 
"Er hat nicht -.vie die andern, lands chaftliche Laute und Worts mit 
Hoch Deutschen Empf indungon und Gedanken zusammsngslsimt, sondsrn 

das Ftthlen, Donken und Spreohen des Volkes glucklich wieder er- 
schaffen. Das ist das einzige und hochste was diese literarisohe 
Gattung leisten kann, alles andere ist leere Gpreu und eitele 

In this respect, few of the Pennsylvania German poet3 
have transgressed; the numerous translations of the "Psalm of Life" 
and Lee Light Grumbine's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" must be put 
down a3 among failures, because the themes are not suitable for 
dialect treatment, and yet Ziegler has translated Bryant's "Thana- 
topsis" with wonderful fidelity to the thought, into a language 
smooth and rhythmical and yet so that in words and structure it 
remains as the lang of true poetry often does, strangely near 
the language of daily speech. 

"V.'ie sich das Volk in 3einen Dichtungen nur an das wirk- 
liche Leben halt und bei seiner rastlosen Arbeit keine Zeit zur 
Schwamerei findet, so muss auch die Behandlungsweise des Dialekt 
Dichters Bilder schaffen, die der 'Virklicheit nachgezeichnet sind" 
is another rule laid down by Beyer that our writers have seldom 
transgressed. v 

LANGUAGE: The language used by the writers varies 
from the one extreme where stands Rauch, who stopped at nothing 
short of incorporatir. - any word in the Unabridged English Diction- 
ary if necessary, or Jos. H. Earner, who facetiously writes" Ich un 
der Darwin agreea in dem, Er sagt uns da3 im anfang wie cosmos 
gleichartig is worra, hat entwicklung augfanga aus welchera molecule 

gewachsen sin. Molecule han protoplasm ^V.acht un bald werd all 
licht n etc, > or the political orator who told his audience that a 

■tain policy must be pursued "damit die prerogatives vun der Con- 
stitution net geviolate warn", all the way to the other extreme 

of the editor of Harbaugh's " ]J trf ■" (not Bausman "but the man to 
whom he entrusted this portion of the work) who substi a 
High German equival rherever possible, where Harbaugh himself 
had used English words in the Germanized for . 

S.D.Leisenring. criticised on the one hand, V.'ollenweber 
for his German, and on the other hand "Der Alt Kunradt" of Ohio 
for his English, in language that is not free frc ' :aev. To be 

pecially emphasized in reference to language, is the opportunity 
afforded "by prose writers for study pf the varieties of dialect - 
as to idiom, vocabulary and pronunciatioi . Thus in the writing i 
of Dr.Grumbine, the use of da for ga as prefix, d'shtola, daglivva 
(for gablivva), dschrivva; similarly g becomes t before s as bsucht, 
tsawt, tsehna, or in nouns tsicht: so the omission of e in the prefix 
ge before w; an old Lebanon County schoolmaster used to say "Wie 
mer sich gwehnt won mer jung is, is mer gwehnlich won mer gwoxe 
is". The editor of a Lancaster County paper who publishes the same 
letter occasionally always adapts th 1 e to the idiom of his 
people. It is thus possible by the comparison of different ver- 
sions of the same letter to differences in the speech of different 
counties. It is well known that these differences exist; I myself 
know of a family whose sons and daughters have gone from home in 
different directions and who when they return are much amused by 
the outlandish ways of speaking each thinks the others have acquired. 
Such differences have never been collected and localized. 

the lyric on the one hand, and narrative and descriptive poems on 
the other, are the predominant forms, and althotigh in prose the 
satirico-didactic newspaper letters have as it were pre-empted the 

field, yet attention has been called to the faot that a few dram- 
olets have been written, that there exists a body of something like 
literary criticism, that at least one (comic) history has been 
written, and that a number of dictionaries have been compiled. A 
few chapters, as yet unwritten, and reserved for future treatment 
will be entitled Oratory, Letterwriting, The Short Story, and Comic 
Opera in the dialect. 

ORIGINALITY: Although the great German Hebel was 
held up as a pattern to our first characteristic singer, Harbaugh, 
yet the latter must be allowed to rank as an original poet, in 
spite of scattered traces of possible influence, for Harbaugh was 
a poet, before he became a dialect poet. All others, before or 
since were, perhaps unfortunately, but nevertheless avowedly, either 
translators, or else truly original as far a3 foreign influence is 
concerned in the matter of expression, and were dependent only, if 
at all, on Harbaugh in poetry and Rauch in prose. 

wide field} I have endeavored wherever the material was accessible 
to compare the feeling, thoughts and ideas of the Pennsylvania Ger- 
man poets with those of dialect poets of the Fatherland, and have 
frequently noted how easily they may be paralleled; the impulse 
that makes so many break forth in song in defence of the dialect, 
does not spring from fashion; it has its roots in real feeling. 
Their hopes and aspirations, their joys and sorrows, are as a rule 
from the same sources; in their rustic philosophy they not seldom 

METRE AND THYTHM: In this our poets often leave 
much to be desired; they are too frequently satisfied with a rhyme, 


nor can we 3ay that even here they are uniformly good. The 
rhythm in many cases can he easily assisted after the manner de- 
scribed by Fisher in one of his metrical corrections of misprints: 

Im neechster Zeil, graad unnedra, 
Es fierte Wort leest schwarz 
Dort mach en e noch hinnedra 
Sunscht fallt die Zeil zu karz. 

A comparison of sundry of the poems with the author's MS 
leads to the conclusion that we are justified in helping out many 
a line of this character, which halts by reason of poor proofreading 
and bad printing. I have the testimony of more than one editor 
that he gave up publishing dialect selections in his paper, evon 
where his readers would welcome them, because his typesetters and 
proof readers were so lacking in all feeling for the dialect, that 
it became too difficult to get out reasonably correct copy. It is 
probably for this reason that there has come into existence a Press 
Syndicate Dialect Letter in Eastern Pennsylvania, which is sold 
in type and published to my own knowledge in at least five dif- 
ferent newspapers. 

the language of Rev. J. Max Hark must stand as a just characteri- 
zation: "Nearly all that has been done" (this is exaggerated) "has 
been broadly humorous, with no attempt at anything else, no higher 
ambition or aim than to make the reader or hearer laugh. From 
this the world has formed its judgment of us and of our speech. 
But the Pennsylvania German i3 not to be too severely censured for 
having confined himself thus almost exclusively to humor in his 
writings. Let us remember that he was from the beginning a hard 
worker. The early settlers and makers of this Commonwealth were 

kept exceedingly busy in their struggle for bare existence. Their 


daily lives were full of hardships, disappointments, suffering, 
full of tragedy and pathos all bhe time. When they did have 
loisure to write, or even in their social converse, what they 
needed was not the recital of these experiences and feelings which 
they were constantly having, but rather to emphasize the other side, 
that which would take their minds off the too great seriousness 
of their life. They naturally, nece33arily turned to humor to light- 
en their lot." In this connection a passage in Beyer's "Deutsche 
Poetik" Vol. lit. p. 178 may be cited: "Besonders abor eignet sich 
fur den Qialekt alles was den treffenden Ausdruck der auf gesundem 
Menschen Verstand beruhenden praktischen Moral verlangt: die 
Spruchdichtung, ferner tiefe und innige, dabei aber ganz natur- 
liche Empf indungen, vorzuglich aber alle Arten der sowohl derbon, 
als schalkhaften Komik und Humoristik." The satirico-didactic 
element that has gradually crept into this kind of literature has 
been elsewhere emphasized. 



Citations from newspapers have frequently been made 
from clippings in the private collections of different 
persons, and in such cases it has often been impossible to 
get the exact date of the paper cited. An individual bib- 
liography accompanies each author separately treated. 


ADLER, CARL. Mundartlich Heiteres. In Steiger'e Humoristische 
Blbliothek. Nos. 1, 10 and 16. New York, 1866. 

ALLEMANIA. Zeitschrift fur Sprache, Litteratur un Volkskunde des 
Elsasses und Oberrheins. Herausgegeben von Dr. Anton 
Birlinger - Fr. Pfaff. Bonn, 1873 - 1899. Neue Folge, 
1900 - 1910. 

ALLENTOWN CALL. Allentown, Pennsylvania. 

ALLENTOWN DAILY CITY ITEM. Allentown, Pennsylvania. 

ALLENTOWN DEMOCRAT. Allentown, Pennsylvania. 


phia. Annually. 

ALMANAC, PILGER. The Pilger Book Store, Reading, Annually. 


Pennsylvania. 1843 - 1910. 

BAER, GEORGE F. The Pennsylvania Germans. In the Mercer sburg 
Review. Vol. 23, p. 248. 

■ Tht Pennsylvania Germans. Myerstown, Pa. 1875. 

BAHN, RACHEL. Poems. Introduction by Rev. Ziegler. York, 1869. 

BEIDELMAN, WILLIAM. The Story of the Pennsylvania Germans: em- 
bracing an account of their origin, their history and 
their dialect. Easton, Pa. 1898. 



BERLIN, ALFRED FRANKLIN. Walter Jacob Hoffman. In Pennsylvania 
German. Vol. VIII. p. 12. 

BERLIN RECORD. Jan. 7, 1893. Berlin, Somerset County, Pa. 

BERLIN TIMES. Berlin, Germany. 

BETHLEHEM TIMES. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 

BEYER, C. Deutsche Poetik, Theoretisch-praktisches Handbuch der 
deutschen Dichtkunst. Dritte Auflage. Berlin, 1900. 


BITTENGER, LUCY F. Pennsylvania Germans. In the New England 
Magazine. 1902. 

BOOK NEWS MONTHLY, THE. Philadelphia, Pa. 1910. 


B0SSE,GE0RG von. Das Deutsche Element in den Vereinigten Staat- 

6n, unter besonderer Berucksichtigung seines politischen, 
ethnischen, socialen und erzieherischen E influsses. 
Preisgekronte Schrift. New York, 1908. 

BOYERTOWN BAUER, DER. Boyertown, Pennsylvania. 

BRAINS. Boston, Massachusetts. 

BRENDLE, A.S. History of Schaefferstown, Pa. York, Pa. 1901. 

BUCK, MICHEL. Bagenga'. Oberschwabische Gedichte. Stuttgart, 

BUEHRLE,R.K. On an Anthology. In the Pennsylvania German. 
Vol. VII. p. 422. 


CALENDER, WELTBOTE. Allentown, Pennsylvania. Annually. 





CENTER COUNTY DEMOCRAT. Bellefonte, Pennsylvania. 


CIARLA. Annual of the Junior Class at Muhlenberg College, Allen- 
town, Pennsylvania. 

COBB, SANFORD H. The Palatine or German Immigration to New York 
and Pennsylvania. Wyoming Historical and Genealogical 
Society, Wilkesbarre, Pa. 1897. 

The Story of the Palatines. An Episode in Colonial 

History. New York and London. 1897. 

CROLL,P.C. I.D.Rupp. In the Pennsylvania German. Vol. VII. 1.1 

DEMOCRATIC WATCHMAN, THE. Bellefonte, Pennsylvania. 

DEUTSCHE KIRCHENFREUND, DER. Redigirt von Dr.Schaff, Mercers - 
burg, Pa. 1848 - 1850. 

DEUTSCHE PIONIER,DER. Erinnerungen aus dem Pionier Leben der 
Deut3chen in Amerika. Herausgegeben vom Deutschen 
Pionier Verein, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1869 - 1887. 



DIEFENDERFER, F.R. Review of M Der Dengelstook" in the Lancaster 
New Era, Lancaster, Pa. 

DORIOT, SOPHIA. Beginner's Book in French. Boston, 1886. 

DUBBS,J.H. The Pennsylvania Germans. In The Nation, New York, 
Vol.41, p. 532. 

EARLE, ALICE MORS 11 :. Home Life in Colonial Days. New York, 1898. 

EBY, EZRA E. The Biographical History of Waterloo Township and 
other Townships of the County, being a history of the 
early settlers, mostly of Pennsylvania Dutch origin. 
Berlin, Ontario. 1895. 

EGLE,W.H. I.D.Rupp. In the Historical Magazine. February. 1871. 

EICHRODT, LUDWIG. RheinschwSbisch Gedi-hte in mittelbadischer 
Sprechweise, Zweite Auflage, Karlsruhe, 1873. 

ELLIS, ALEXANDER J. Early English Pronunciation, London. 1869. 


& . History of Lancaster County, Pa. Philadelphia. 1883. 

ERMENTROUT , DANIEL. Our people in American History. An- -oration 
delivered at the German Centennial Jubilee at geading, 
Pa. June 19, 1876. Reading, 1876. 

FATHER ABRAHAM. Lancaster, Pa. 1868. 

FATHER ABRAHAM. Reading, Pa. 1864. 

FAUST, ALBERT BERNHARDT. The German Element in the United States, 
with special reference to its political, moral, social 
and educational influence. Boston and New York, 1909. 


FICK,H.H. Die Dialectdichtung in der Deutsch Amerikanlscher 
Litteratur. Cincinnati, Ohio. No date. 

FISHER, HENRY L. Kurzweil un Zeitvertreib, odder Pennsylvanisch 
Deutsche Folks-Lleder. York, Pa. 1882. 2nd Edition. 

Olden Times: or, Pennsylvania Rural Life some fifty 

years ago and other poems. York, 1886. 

»S Alt Marik-Haus Mittes in D'r Schtadt, un die Alte 

Zeite: En Centennial Poem in Pennsylvanisch Deutsch. 
York, Pa. 1879. 

Short Historical Sketch of the Pennsylvania Germans. 

Chicago, 111. 

FISHER, SYDNEY GEORGE. The Making of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia 
Pa. 1896. 

The Pennsylvania Dutch. Chicago Record Herald. Oct. 9, 


FLORY, JOHN L. Literary Activity of the German Baptist Brethren. 
Published by the University of Virginia. 1909. 

FLUGBLATT. Privately published poems. 

FOLKLORE, JOURNAL OF AMERICAS. Boston. 1888 - 1910. 

FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN. Franklin on the Pennsylvania Germans. In 
Sparks' Works of Franklin. Vol.11, p. 71 - 73. 


FRIEDENSBOTE. Allentovm, Pennsylvania. 

FRICK,W.K. Notes on Pennsylvania German Literature. In Muhlen- 
berg Monthly. Vol. IV. No. 2. Allentovm, Pa. 

GERMAN AMERICAN ANNALS. Continuation of the Quarterly Americana 
Germanica. A monthly devoted to the comparative study 
of the historical, literary, linguistic, educational 
and commercial relations of Germany and America. Philada. 
1903 - 1910. A6o 

GIBBONS, MRS. PHOEBE E. Pennsylvania Dutch and Other Eseaye. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 1874. 2nd. Edition, 1882. 

GIBSON, JOHN. History of York County, Pa. York and Chicago. 1886. 

GLOSSBRENNER AND CARTER. History of York County, Pa. 

GOEBEL, JULIUS. Das Deutschtum in den Vereinigten Staaten von 
Nord-Amerika. In "Der Kampf urn das Deutschtum" heraus- 
gegeben vom Alldeutschen Verband. Heft 16. Munchen, 

GRUMBINE, EZRA. Stories of Old Stumpstown. A History of Inter- 
esting Events, Traditions and Anecdotes of Early Fred- 
ericksburg, known for many years as Stumpstown. Leb- 
anon, Pa. 1910. 

GRUMBINE, LEE LIGHT. Der Dengelstock and Other Poems and Transla- 
tions in the Pennsylvania German Dialect. Lebanon, Pa. 

GUARDIAN, THE. A Monthly Magazine. Lancaster, Pa. 1850 - 18 

H&BERLE, D. Auswanderung und Koloniegrundung der Pf&lzer im ISten 
Jahrhunderts . Kaiserslautern, 1909. 

HALDEMAN , S . S . Pennsylvania Dutch. A Dialect of South German with 
an infusion if English. London, 1872. 

HARBAUGH, HENRY. Harbaugh's Harfe: Gedichte in Penney lvanisch- 

Deutscher Mundart. Herausgegeben von B. Bausman, Phi la . 

-Hours at Home. October, 1866. 
-Poems. Philadelphia, Pa. 1860. 

HARBAUGH, LINN. Life of the Rev. Henry Harbaugh, D.D. with an 
Introduction by Dr. Nathan C. Schaeffer and Eulogy by 
Rev. E.V.Gerhart. Philadelphia, Pa. 1900. 

HARRIS, ALEXANDER. A Biographical History of Lancaster County, Pa 
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HARRISBURG STAR INDEPENDENT. Harriaburg, Pennsylvania. 

HARTER, T.H. Boonaatiel, A volume of legend, etory and song in 
"Pennsylvania Dutch". Belief onte, Pa. 1904. 


HEBEL, JOHANN PETER. Allemanische Gedichte, 1803. 

HEIDELBURG ARGUS. Heidelburg, Ohio, 

HEIDELBURG HERALD. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

HEILMAN, SAMUEL P. Private Scrap Book. 


HOLDER, AUGUST. Alleweil vergnuagtJ Schwabiaches Vortrag und 
Singbuch. Dritte Auflage. Stuttgart. No date. 

Geschichte der Schwabische Dialektdichtung. Heilbronn, 


HORNE, A.R. Pennsylvania German Manual. How Pennsylvania German 
is spoken and written. For Pronouncing, speaking and 
writing English. Kutztown, 1875. 

2nd Edition, Allentown, Pa. 1895. 

3rd Edition, Allentown, Pa. 1905. 

4th Edition, Allentown, Pa. 1910. 



INDEPENDENT, THE. New York, June 24, 1880. 


INDEPENDENT GAZETTE. Philadelphia, Pa. 1910. 

KEYSTONE GAZETTE. Belief onte, Pennsylvania. 

KNORTZ, KARL. Geschichte der Nordamerikanischen Litteratur. 
Berlin, 1891. 

Streifzfige auf dem Gebiete amerikanischer Volkskunde 

Altes und Neues. Leipzig. No date. 

KOBELL, FRANZ von. Gedichte in Pf&lzischer Mundart. 5te Auflage, 
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KOONS, ULYSSES S. Henry Harbaugh. In Proceedings of the Penn- 
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man Literature Department, p. 5. 

KUHNS, OSCAR. The German and Swiss Settlements of Colonial Penn- 
sylvania: A study of the so called Pennsylvania Dutch. 
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caster, Pennsylvania. 1896 to date. 

LANCASTER NEW ERA. Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 

LEARNED, MARION DEXTER. The Pennsylvania German Dialect. Part 1. 
Baltimore, 1889. 


1898 - 1910. ££ 3 

LEBANON COURIER. Lebanon, Pennsylvania, 

LEBANON DAILY NEWS. Lebanon, Pa. Dec. 16, 1898. 

LEBANON REPORT. Lebanon, Pa. Nov. 2, 1901: Feb. 5, 1900: Men. 10, 

LEBANON VOLKSZEITUNG. Lebanon, Pa. Feb. 8, 1899. 

LELAND, CHARLES GODFREY. Hans Breitman's Ballads. Complete 
Edition. Philadelphia, Pa. 1869. 

LINS, JAMES C. Common Sense Pennsylvania German Dictionary. Con- 
taining nearly all the Pennsylvania German words in 
common use. Reading, Pa. 1887. 2nd Edition, 1895. 

LONDON SATURDAY GLOBE. London, Aug. 18, 1888. Vol.66 pp. 208, 209. 

LONG, HARRIET. Select Bibliography of the Pennsylvania German. 

LUTHERAN, THE. Philadelphia, Pa. 

MANN, WILLIAM J. Die Gute alte Zeit, in Pennsylfanien, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 1880. 

MANUSCRIPTS. From the Private Effects of various authors. 
A.C.Wuchter, Eli Keller, Adam Stump, Henry Meyer, 
Thomas B.Rhoads, George Mays, Louisa Weitzel and 

Carbon Counties. Philadelphia. 1884. Contains a 
lengthy chapter on the Pennsylvania Germans; their his- 
tory, character, customs, language, literature and 
religion, contributed by Dr. A. R. Home. 

MERCERSBURG REVIEW. Mercersburg, Pa. 1848. 

MILLER, DANIEL. Pennsylvania German. A collection of Pennsyl- 
vania German productions in Prose and Verse. With an 

MILLER, DANIEL. (Continued) Introduction by Prea. J.S.Stahr. 
Reading, Pa. 1904. 

Pennsylvania German. Vol.11. Selections in Prose and 

Verse. Reading, Pa. Announced for 1911. 

MILLER, HARVEY. (SOLLY HULSBUCK) Selections in Prose and Verse. 
Elizabethville, Pa. To appear in 1911. 

Pennsylvania German Stories. Elizabethville, Pa. 1907. 

Pennsylvania German Poems. Elizabethville, Pa. 1906. 

2nd Edition $1.00 

-— -Pennsylvania German Poems. Elizabethville, Pa. 1906. 

2nd Edition, 40/ . 

M0KBERT, J.I. An authentic history of Lancaster County, Pa. 
Lancaster. 1869. 

MONTGOMERY, MORTON L. Historical and Biographical Annals of BerkB 
County, Pa. Chicago, 111. 1909. 

MONTGOMERY, MORTON L. History of Berks County, Pa, Philadelphia 


MUHLENBERG MONTHLY. Student's Publication of Muhlenberg College 
Allentown, Pa. 

NADLER, KARL G. Frohlich Pfalz, Gott Erhaltsi Gedichte in 
Pfalzischer Mundart. 2te Auflage. Kaieerlautern. 


York 1892 - 1905. 

NATIONAL EDUCATOR, THE. Various places and finally Allentown, Pa, 
1860 - 1903. A. R. Home, Editor. 

NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE. Boston, Massachusetts. 





OLD PENN. Publication of the students of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

PENN MONTHLY. Student publication of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia. 

PENNSYLVANIA DUTCHMAN, THE. Monthly magazine. E.H.Rauch. Editor. 
Lancaster, Pa. 1873. 

PENNSYLVANIA GERMAN, THE. Quarterly. January 1900 to October 
1905. Editor P.C.Croll. Bimonthly, January 1906 to 
July 1906. Editor, H.A.Shuler. Monthly, September 1906 
to March 1911. Editor H.A.Shuler and since his death, 
January 14, 19C8 H.W.Kriebel. 

PENNSYLVANIA GERMAN SOCIETY, THE. Proceedings and addresses. 
Vols. I to XIX. Published for the Society. 1891 to 




PHILADELPHIA PRESS. Philadelphia, Pa. 


POPPE, FRANZ. Marsch und Geest. Gedichte humorist ischen und 

ernsten Inhalta - in Oldenburg-niederdeutacher Mundart. 
Oldenburg. 1879. 


R. E.D.Leisenring. In Der Deutsche Pionier. Vol. XIV. p. 68. 

RADLOF, Mustersaal aller teutschen Mundarten. Bonn. 1822. 

RAUCH, E.H. Pennsylvania!! Deitsh. De Campain Breefa fum Pit 

Schweffelbrenner un de Bevvy, si Alty, gepublished oily 
Woch in "Father Abraham" Lancaster, 1868. 

■Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook. A book for ina true t ion. 
Mauch Chunk, Pa. 1879. 

-Pennsylvania Dutch Rip Van Winkle. A Romantic Drama 
in two acta. Tranalated from the original with var- 
iations. Mauch Chunk. 1883. 

READING EAGLE. Reading, Pa. 



REFORMED CHURCH MESSENGER, THE. Weekly. Philadelphia, Pa. 
1828 - 1910. 

REFORMED CHURCH RECORD, THE. Weekly. Reading, Pa. 1888-1910. 

REFORMED CHURCH REVIEW, THE. Quarterly. Lancaater, Pa. 

REICHEL, WILLIAM C. Hiatorical Sketch of Nazareth Hall from 

1755 to 1869 with an account of the reuniona of former 
pupils. Philadelphia, Pa. 

REIFF, AUGUST. Rosestuck, Holderbluet. Schwabische Gedichte. 
3te Auflage. Stuttgart. No date. 

RILEY, JAMES WHITCOMB. The dialect in literature. Forum, Vol. 
XIV. p. 465. 

RINGWALT, MRS. J.C. I.D.Rupp. In Der Deutsche Pionier. Vol. 
VI. p. 351. 

RITSCHL, G.F. Imperial German Consul at Philadelphia, Pa. Per- 
sonal Letter. 

RUSH, BENJAMIN. An Account of the Manners of the German In- 
habitants of Pennsylvania written in 1789. Notes 
added by I.D.Rupp. Philadelphia, Pa. 1875. 


SAUER, AUGUST. Die Deutsche Sekular-Dichtung an der Wande des 
19 Jahrhunderts. Deutsche Litteratur Denkmaler. 
Berlin, 1901. 

SCHAFF, D.S. The Life of Philip Schaff. New York, 1897. 

SCHOPF, JOHANN DAVID. Reise durch einige der mittlern und sftd- 
lichen vereinigten nordamerikanischen Staaten nach ost 
Florida und den Bahama Inseln, unternommen In den 
Jahren 1783 und 1784. Erlangen, 1788. 2 Bande. 


SCRANTON TRUTH. Scranton, Pa. 

SMULL*S LEGISLATIVE HANDBOOK. Harrisburg, Pa. Annually. 

SPIRIT OF BERKS. Reading, Pa. 

STAHR, John S. The Pennsylvania Germans. In the Mercersburg 
Review, October, 1870. 

STAHR, JOHN S. (Continued) Introduction to Daniel Miller's 
Pennsylvania German. Reading, Pa. 1904. 


STEINER, LEWIS H. The Pennsylvania Germans. In The Independent. 
New York, June 24, 1880. 

STETZEL, HENRY. A Brief Biography of Moses Diasinger, Preacher, 
of the Evangelical Association. Allentown, Pa. 1892. 

STOUDT, JOHN BAER. Pennsylvania German Riddles and Rhymes. In 
the Journal of American Folk Lore. Vol. XIX. p. 113. 

THOMPSON, ROBERT ELLIS. Henry Harbaugh. In the Perm Monthly. 
Vol.1, p. 80. Philadelphia, Pa. 

TOWN AND COUNTRY. Pennsburg, Pa. 

TREXLER, B.F. Skizzen aus dem Lecha Thale. Eine Sammlung von 
Nachrichten fiber die ersten Ansiedlungen der Weisen 
in dieser Gegend. Von Ben. Allentown, Pa. 1880-1886 

January 24, 1870. 

TYRELL, R.B. Lectures on Latin Poetry. Boston and New York, 

WANH0PE, Value of Dialect. North American Review. Vol.CLVIII. 
p . 640 . 

WARNER, JOSEPH H. (Johann Klotz) Amerikanische Historie. 
Annville, Pa. 1905. 

-Private Scrap Books. 

WEISER, C.Z. The Life of (John) Conrad Weiser, The German Pioneer 
Patriot and Patron of two Races. First Edition, 1876. 
Second Edition, 1899. 


WOLLENWEBER, LUDWIG A. Gemalde aue dem Pennsylvanischen Volks- 
leben Schilderungen und Aufsatze in poetischer und 
prosaischer Form, in Mundart und Ausdrucksweise der 
Deutsch Pennsylvanier, verfasst und zusammengetragen. 
Philadelphia, und Leipzig. 1869. 

WOODBERRY, GEORGE E. Appreciation of Literature. New York, 1907 


dee Allgemeinen Deutschen Sprachvereins . Herausge- 
geben von Otto Heilig und Philip Lenz. Jahrgang 1906 
Berlin. Verlag des Allgemeinen Spraohvereins. Viertel- 

ZIEGLER, CHARLES C. Draus un Daheem. Gediohte in Penneylvaniach 
Deitsch. Leipzig. 1891. 

ZIMMERMAN, GUSTAV ADOLPH. Deutsch in Amerika. Beitrage zur 
Geschichte der Deutsch Amerikanischen Litteratur, 
Chicago, 1894. 

ZIMMERMAN, THOMAS C. Schiller's "Song of the Bell" and Other 
Poems. Printed for Private Circulation, Reading, Pa. 

-Private Scrap Book. 

-011a Podrida. Consisting of Addresses, Translations, 
Hymns, Poems and sketches of out door life. Reading, 
Pa. 1903. 2 Volumes. 


sources of information 
for writers not specially treated. 

xt i 

other sources of information 
for writers not specially treated. 


Biographical Annals of Berks County, Montgomery, Chicago, 1904 
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. V. 151 


Pennsylvania Dutch -Mrs. Gibbons, Philada. 1874 

Pennsylvania Dutch-Haldemann, London, 1872 

Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook-Rauch, Mauch Chunk, 1879 

Pennsylvania German Dialect-Learned, Baltimore, 1889 

Personal Correspondence with Dr.Betz, York, Pa. 

Poems-Rachel Bahn, York, 1369. Introduction by Rev.Ziegler. 

Rachel Bahn, the York County Poetess-Dr.Betz, Pennsylvania 

German, Vol. VII. 3. 99 

Truebner's American and Oriental Journal, London and Strass- 

burg, Jan. 24, 1370. 


History of Schaeff erstown, York, 1901 


Biographical History of Berks County, Montgomery, Chicago. 

Interviews with friends. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society. Vol. XVII. 



Pennsylvania German Magazine, Vol. X. 6. 294 


History of Schaeffer3town, Brendlo, York, Pa. 
Life of Dissinger, Stetzel, Allentown, Pa. 


His private correspondence. 

Publications of the Lancaster County Historical Society. 
Vols. XV. 1.31 and XIV. IV. 

Reformed Church Messenger, Philada, Vol.LXXIX. No. 14. p. 4 
and Vol.LXXIX No. 18 

Reformed Church Review, Fourth Series, Vol. XIV. No. 4. 


Correspondence and interviews with members of his family. 
Obituary memoir. 


Stories of Old Stumpstown, Grumbine, Lebanon, 1910. 


Reformed Church Messenger, Philada. Vol.LXXVIt.No.16.19. 
Reformed Church Record, Reading, Pa. 


Personal Correspondence and Interviews. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. III. 159 


HARK, J.MAX: (Continued) 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society. Vol.X.Ap.l. 
Tributes of esteem "by Lancaster friends. 


Biographical Annals of Lebanon County, Chicago, 1904 

Lebanon County Historical Publications, Vol. 1.2. 

Personal Interview and Correspondence. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. VI. Vol. I II , 


Interviews with members of his family. 
Pennsylvania German, Vol. XI. 10. 626 
Reformed Church Messenger, Philada. Pa. 
Reformed Church Record, Reading, Pa. 


Correspondenco with J.S.Dubb3. 
Heidelberg Argus, Ohio. 
Interviews and Correspondence. 


Der Deutsche Pionier, Cincinnati, 0. Vol. XIV. 68 
Priedensbote, Allentown, ?a. 


Allentown Morning Call, Allentown, Pa. 

Lenanon News, 1883 

Shenandoah Papers J-7h, 


Franklin and Marshall College Obituary Record, Vol.1. p. 48 
Pennsylvania German, Vol. X. 7. 316 


Muhlenberg Monthly, Al lent own, Pa. Vol. IV. 2 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. IV. 179 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. XVI. 37 


Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. I II. 181 
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. X. 36 


Reformed Church Almanac, 1903, p. 54 
Reformed Church Messenger. 


Muhlenberg Monthly, Allentown, Pa. Vol. IV. 2 

Pennsylvania Dutch-Haldeman, London, 1872 

Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook-Rauch, Mauch Chunk, 1879 

Pennsylvania G erman Dialect-Learned, Baltimore, 1839 

The Pennsylvania Dutchman, Lancaster, Pa. 

Transactions of the American Philological Association, Vol.1 

p. 30 


Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. I II. 186 


WEISER, C.Z: (Continued) 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. VIII. 151 
Reformed Church Messenger. 
Reformed Church Record. 



1. Poetry 

2. Prose. 

3. Dictionaries and '.7ord Lists. 

4. Newspapers. 

J w, 


Al. - 

All.Dein. - 

Am.Volk. - 

B. Co. Express - 

Ciarla - 

Cia.l". - 

D.Kir. - 


D.M.2 (in press) - 

D.P. - 

Father Ab. - 

Fick.Dia. - 

Fir. - 

Fried. - 

Flugblatt - 


Ger .Cor .&Dem. - 

Guard. - 

Hal.P.D. - 

Heil.Col. - 

H.Harfe - 

Hist. Berks - 

Hist. Sk. of P.G. - 


Allentown Democrat. 

Ameriikanische Volkskunde. 

Bucks County Express. 

Muhlehberg College junior 1. 

Dialect Notes. 

Deutscher Kirchenfreund. 

Pennsylvania German 1st Vol. Daniel Miller. 

Pennsylvania German 2nd Vol. Daniel Miller. 

Der Deutsche Pionier. 

Father Abraham 

Dialekt Dichtung. Fick. 

Firminich Germaniens Volkerstimmen. 


Privately published poems. 

Gottlieb Boonestiel. 

German Correspondent and Democrat. 

The Guardian. 

Pennsylvania Dutch. Haldeman. 

Heilman Collection. 

Harbaugh ' s Harf o . 

History of Berks County, Pennsylvania. 

Historical Sketch of the Pennsylvania Germans 


Home 1st Edition 
Home 2nd Edition 
Home 3rd Edition - 
Home 4th Edition 

Hul.P.G.(in press) - 


Hul.P.G.Stor. - 

Jour. Am. F. - 


Leb . Adv . - 

Leb.News - 

Leb. Report - 

Leb.Volks Zeit. - 

Life Har. - - 

M.H. - - 

MS. - 

Naz.Hall - 

P.D. - 

P.D.H. - 

P.G. - 

P.Leb.Hist.Soc - 

Pro. Am. Phil os oph. 3. - 


Pro . P . G . S . Ap . - 

Read. Times and Dispatch 
Ref.Ch.Al. - 
Ref.Ch. Rec - 

-Pennsylvania German Manual. 

Pennsylvania German. Solly Huslbuck. 

Pennsylvania German Poems. Solly Huslbuck. 

Pennsylvania German Stories. Solly Hulsbuck. 

Journal of American Folklore. 

Journal of American Folk Lore. 

Lebanon Advertiser 

Lebanon News . 

Lebanon Report 

Lebanon Volks Zeitung. 

Lifo of Harbaugh 

Mundartlich Heiteres. 

From the private records of various authors 

Nazareth Hall and its Reunions. 

The Pennsylvania Dutchman (a Magazine) 

Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook 

Pennsylvania German Magazine 

Publications of the Lebanon County His- 
torical Society. 

Proceedings of the American Philosoph- 
ical Society. 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German 

Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German 
Society. Appendix. 

- Reading Time Dj itch. 

Reformed Church Almanac 

Reformed Church Recor ■ 

3.7 f 

Ref.Rec. - 
Sk.Lecha Thai - 
Sk.P.G. - 

Stumps .Stories 
Trans . Am . Phil . Soc • 

Unsor P.D.Kalenner 
Unser p .D.Kal. - 
W.B.Kal - 
'.'oll.Gemalde - 

Refomed Church Record. 

Skizzen aus dera Leoha Thal.Trexler. 

Short Sketch of the Pennsylvania Germans. 

Stumpstown Stories. Grumbine. 

Transactions of the American Philological 

Uns°r Pennsylvanisch Deitscher Kalenner 

Unser Pennsylvanisch Deitscher Kalenner. 

Welt Bote Kalenner 

Gemalde aus dera Pennsylvanisch " T ] lehen 



2$ I, 


Bauraspruoh - 

Befehl am Fouerheerd - 

De Deutsche Baura - 

Der "Bio Berg M - 

Der Process - - 

Der Verwerrte Deutsche - 

Der '.'/ipperwill - 

Des County Funf zu Ehm fur Quay 

Die Bettler's Klage - 

Die Kerche Bell - - 

Dokter Eisenbart - 

En Klagelied - - 

En Trerap - 

Ferzig Johr Zuruck 

Hurrah ihr Denokraten - 

"^ei Nochbor Dschon - 

Sauerkraut - 

Sie Hucka Run - 

'Sis Nergeds beaser wie deheem • 

To the Disfranchised Voters of 
Lebanon County - 

Unser Register - 

kumt die Cute Zeit - 

Zu wiel wiske, Jake - 

Yukle will net Bera Shitla - 


Unser P.D.Kalenner,1895 
Unser P." . ] er,190 5 

P. G. Vol. X. 4. 131. 

P. D. Vol.1. No. 3. 

Sk.Lecha Thai p. 

P. D. Vol.1. No. 2. 

D. P. Vol. V. 1873 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 5.? 

-Leb.Volks.Zeit.Feb.3, '99 

D.LI. 5 (in press) 


D.M.2 (in press) 

D.M.2. (in press) 

P. G. Vol. V. 3. 115 

D.M.2 (in press) 


D.M.2 (in press) 

D.M.2 (in press) 

P. G. Vol. II. 5. 305 

r V'.° (in press) 



D.M.2 (in press) 

D.M.2 (in pre. x 

-P.D.Vol. ] • • 
He 1 . p . 49 
Horn i 2 . a 4 . 

1 : Bote, ' 

See also index u 1 I - 1 

BAHl.,.. 3K Li 

Poems-R 1 Bal , published at York, Pa. 1869. . &Co, 

■ it) 
-::- * # # 

Der Alt Schocklo Stuhl - 
Der Alt Weide Bahm For'm Hous 
Der Herbst - - 
Der Summer - 

Der Winter - - 
Haeb am Felse Dich - 
' S Fruehyohr - 

'S Glatt Ice - 

*S Himmlisch Haemweh - 

Vocal Music - 

Poems p. ] 

p. 187 

p. 183. 

p. 180 

D.Li. 2 (in presn) 

p. 185 

p. 186 

p. 179 

p. 186 

p. 195 

p. 198. 


Du und Ich - 

Leb.Ne'.?3,Dec. 16, 
1898 . 

Christ Dag - 

Der Alt Garret - 

Der Juni un der Juli - 

.p. 32 
Home 4th Bd.186 

- P. G. Vol. VIII. 505 
D.M.2 (in press) 

P. G. Vol. IV. 317. 


BRUNNER, FRANK R: (Continued) 
Des Menache Lewe - 
Die Schulhaus Bell - 
Drei Sache - 

Sa Fet und Inschlicht Licht 
Lewe land Himmel - 
Neujohr'a Wunsch - 
Oschtre - 

Schpotjohr - 
Wie es als War - 

.Vie raer Glee Ware - 

. .p,96. 
P. G. Vol. V. 3. 113 
P. G. Vol. VI. 3. 303. 
P. G. Vol. X. 11. 576 
P. G. Vol. VI. 1.207 

. .p. 102 

D . M . p . 74 

P. G. Vol. IV. 2. 261. 

P. G. Vol. V. 1.23. 


P. G. Vol. XII. 2. 119 


P. G. Vol. IV. 1.21". 

BRUNNER, DAVID Bi (Goethe von Berks) 
Bezahlt euer Parre - 
Der Alt tui der Jung Krebs - 
Der Dan Webster un Sei Sens - 

Der Washington un sei Bile - 

Die Grundsau - - 

En Gross Mi avers tandniss - 

Unzufriedenheit unner de Mensche 

Wann ich just en Bauer War 

Wie die Leut des Duhne - 

Xenien - - 

Xenien - 

Xenien - 

Xenien - 


D.I I. p. 153 

Reading Adler 
P. G. II. 3. 110. 

Home 3rd Ed. p. 159. 

: . .p. 149 


D.M.2 (in press) 


P. G. Vol. IX. 3. 135 

P. G. Vol. VII. 5. 255 

P. G. Vol. VII. 7. 376 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 274 

P. G. Vol. VII CQ. 449 


The Old Chain Bridr 

P. G. Vol. X. 6. 294 


Die Gold'ne Hochzig - 

P. G. Vol. II. 1.33 


Zeit un Lout annere aich 

-P. G. Vol. III. 2. 65 

Herz Schrnerza - 


Der Alt Shoff Buck - 
Die guta alta Zeita - 

-P.G. Ad. Section. 

P. G. Vol. II. 1.13 
P.G. Vol. III. 2. 66. 


Das Vater Unser in Reiraen 

' • .n.134 


Die '.Veibsleut - 

Zeit un Leut annere Sich 

Der Bauer Hot' 3 Plenty - 

.p. 123 


Der Verlora Gaul - 


P.G. Vol. VIII. 6. 231 
D.M.2 (in press) 

ESHELMAN,E.M: (Continued) 

Ein Psalm de3 Lebens (Trans) - - P. G. Vol .V. 1.24 

Juscht an Deppich - - P. G. Vol. VII. 5. 263 . 

My Aldty Gelk (Rev. by Dr.E.Grumbine) - P. G. Vol. III. 1.111 

♦S Alt Schwim Loch - - - P. G. Vol. VI. 4. 351 

Schnltzpei - - - P. G. Vol. VII .6.310. 

D.M. 2 (in press) 

•S Neu Pogel Haus - - - P. G. Vol. V. 2. 77. 


»S Schulhaus am Weg - P. G. Vol. 11. 2. 70 


" »S Alt Marik Haus Mittes in D*r Schtadt un Die Alte Zeite" 

In two parts. Published at York, Pa. 1379. (0 u t of Print) 
* * # # ■» 

Part 1. 

Bonesohteoke - - - - p. 60. 

Der Alt Fritz Horn - - - p. 63 

Der Washington - - p. 68 

Der Schquire Braxton - - p. 61 

Die Fashions - - p. 58 

D'r Fette Haas - p. 59 

Hanover - - - - p. 75 

Marik Geh - - - p. 43 

Paradies - - - p. 47 

Philadelphia - - p. 48 

Ready Mocha for noch em Marik - p. 65 


FISHER, HENRY L: (Continued) 
'S Marik Haus - 
Part II. 

Aepple - 

Alt Zeit Dresche - 

Butchere - 
Buwli Gchpiele 
Der Dadi 'N Jackson 'Ion- 
Die Doktor Praa - 
Die Heemet - 
Die Muhl - 
Die Schul - 

Die Schweizer Scheuer - 
Die Zinn Schissel - 

D'r Abe - 

D'r Dschon - 

D'r Fiert July - 

D'r Kremer - 

D'r Schnee - 

D'r Schneider und Schumacher 

Fier Gauls Fuhrwerk - 

Flax Schtickli - 

Harce kumme - 

Ich bin die Alt Heeaet Sehne 

p. 25 

p. 104 

p. 162 

Home 3rd Edition 141 


P. G. Vol. IX. 9. 469 

p. 118 

p. 185 

p. 149 

p. 122 

p. 217 

p. 165 

p. 191 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. I. 51 

p. 143 

p. 124 

Home 3rd Ed. p. 134 

p. 155 

p. 174 

p . 141 

p. 160 

p. 159 

p. 116 

p. 170 

p. 108 

p. 81 

P. G. Vol. II. 1.51 
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. 1.52 


FISHER, HENRY L: (Continued) 

Ihr Pennsylvania oh Deitsche Leut - - p. 199 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol.1. p. 48 

Im Erntfeld - - p. 132 

P. G. Vol. IX. 7. 386 

Latwerg Koohe - - - p. 100 

Mei Alte Heemet - p. 131 

Pennsylvanisch Deitsoh - - - p. 198 

'S Alt Brennhaus - - p. 168 

Schulhau3 un Kerrioh - - p. 184 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. I. 51 

Seider - - p. 106 

Singen Schul - -p. 149 

Sundag Morge - p. 146 

Wie m'r ufg'wachse sin- - - p. 178 
# -::• * # * 

"Kurzweil un Zeitvertreib" Fisher. Published at York, Pa. 1882. 

Two Editions. (Out of Print) 

Alt Lang Syne -after the Scotch - - p. 146 

Backmult W&lli - - - p. 102 

Bier Lied -after Felner - p. 132 

Der Abschied nooch Amerika-af ter Suabian- 122 

Der Bauer Hans un der Advokat - - p. 81 

Der Bettler -after Hebel - p. 66 

Der Dschonni Sohuss - - p. 114 

Der Ehrlich Fritz - p. 51 

Der Ehrlich Schmidt - - p. 5 

P. G. Vol. V. 2. 80 

Der Glucklig Bauer -after Felner - p. 49 

Der Luschtig Bauer - - p. 32 


FISHER, HENRY L: (Continued) 

Der Mai -after Felner - - - 

Der Parre un die Hummler - 

Der Snnee - - 

Der Weg Weiser-after Hebel - 

Der Y/ei - - - 

Der Winter -after Felner - 

Die Wertschaft - 

Drink Lied -after Felner - 

Ei so Geig -after Nadler - 

Em Bettelmon sei Owet Lied -after Felner- ; 

Em Lump sei Leewes Reiss - 

En Bier Liedle-after Felner - 

En Ferwickelte Ferwandtschaf t - 

Es Bachli-af ! ,er Bryant - 

Frfthjohr's Lied - 

Gas Bock odder Parre- after Nadler - 
Hesse Dhal - 

Het ich nix as mei Lisli - p. 62 

Hirten Lied an der Krippe -after Felner - 120 

Ion kann nix dafoori -after Nadler - -p. 58 

Ich un die Nancy - - - p. 34 

Kreuzkriok Willi - - - p. 139 

Hist. 3k. of F.G. 

Luechtig iBch's Zigwuner Leewe - - p. 134 

Mei Buwli - - - p. 29 

Mei Fraa un Kind - - - p. 94 





































P 1 







FISHER, HENRY Lj (Continued) 

Owet Lied - - p. 118 

Reichdim -after Felner - - - p. 27 

'S Badd Alles Nix-after Palatinate - p. 133 

•S Prtthjohr's Bttwli-after '.Veisman - -p. 39 

Tiddel un Abodhekersbuche -after Nadler)-p.ll6 

Waeser Lied-after Felner - - p. 93 

Wiegelied-af ter Felner - - - p. 124 

Zu gross for sei Hosse - - p. 126 
# «• # # # 

Der Krabb (Poe's Raven Trano.) - - P. G. Vol. IX. 8. 373 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. II. 93 

Kuchler's Ruuscht - - Hist. Berks p. 991. 


Schlitz Beer - P. G. Vol. V. 3. IIS 


De Leab Schwatar - P.G.Vol.IX.10 .470 

Die Alt Familia Uhr - - - P. G. Vol. VIII. 3. 13 

D.M.2 (in press) 





Im Bergeland - 

En Ruf an die Brtider - 



Die Blinde Man un» der Elefant-Trana. -P. G. Vol. X. 11. 693 
Wann d'r Frosoht is uf de Kerbse-Trans. -P. G. Vol. X. 11.694 


Der Alt Fischermann - 

Die Alta Bapplabaem - 

Die Letscht Maud Muller - 

Die Y/omelsdorfer f Cademie - 

Du bist wie eine Blume (Trans) ■ 

•Haend all 'rum (Trans) - 

*M "Leaven" Sei Sauertheg - 

f N Schoenie Altie He'math - 

Sell Schtettel im Nordkill Dahl 

Zum Andenken an L.L.Grvunbine - 

P. G. Vol. IV. 2. 263. 
P. G. Vol. VI. 2. 267 
P. G. Vol. V. 1.26 
P. G. Vol. V. 2. 73 
P. G. Vol. V. 1.26 
P. G. Vol. VI. 4. 363 
P. G. Vol. II. 2. 67 
P. G. Vol. III. 4. 157 
P. G. Vol. VIII. 9. 450 
P. G. Vol. V. 4. 160 


Der Alt Busch Doktor - 
Der Pralhans - 

Die Alt verlosse Muehl (Trans) 

Stumps. Stories p. 145 

D.M.2 (in press) 

P. G. Vol. VI. 1.203 

GRUMBINE, EZRA: (Continued) 

Die Mary uii Ihr Hundle - Leb. Report, Nov. 2, 01. 

P. G. Vol. VIII. S. 394 

Die Welt uf Vendue (Trana) - - P.G.Vol .III .4. 1S1 

En Gluckvoll Bieplin - - P. G. Vol. VII C. 6. 281 

Es Bodt Alios Nix (Trans) - - P.G.Vol. IV. 2. 264 

Gedachtniss der Rothen Kolbe (Trans) - P.G.Vol. 1.4.26 . 

Hoch der Teddy - P.G.Vol .II . 12.755. 

After the Election - - P.G.Vol. 11. 12. 755. 

(See also Prose for GRUMBINE, EZRA: 


"Der Dengelstock" - published at Lebanon, Pa. 1903. 153 pages 
* # * •» # 

Der Alt Dengelstock - P. Leb. His. Soc Vol. I. 53 

P. G. Vol. I. I. S. 
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 86 
p. 54 (in book) 
Home 3 Ed. p. 157 

Der Reim vom alte See Mann (Trans) - p. 92 

Der Schumacher - - - p. 32 

P.G.Vol. VI. 3. 304 
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 64 

Der Viert July - p. 37 

P.G.Vol. VI. 3. 304 
P.G.Vol. IX. 7. 327 
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 69 

Die Alt Bevvy Fritchie (Trans) - - Pro. P. G.S. Vol. VI. 88 

p. 58 

P.G.Vol. IV. 4. 347 
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 90 

Die Uhr in der Kuch (Trans) - - p. 40 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 72 

Ein Psalm des Lebens (Trans) - - p. 60 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 92 

Elendig - 

Ich war Jurymann - 
Mei arme Be 1 - 

f S Latwerg Koche - - 
Sonntag Morgeds an der Ziegel Kerch 

p. 35 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 67 

p. 45 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 77 

P. G. Vol. II. 1.14 
- p. 42 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 74 

P. Leb. Hist. Soc. Vol.1 .2 

P. G. Vol. I. 4. 22 

p. 49 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 81 

p. 25 

P. G. Vol. IV. 3. 309 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 57 


"Harbaugh's Harfe" - Philadelphia, 1370. 121 pp. 2nd Ed. 
# «■ # x 

Busch un Schtedtel 

Das Alt Schulhaus an der Krick - 

Das Krischiindel - 

Der Alte Feierheerd - 

Guard. Mar. 1362 
p. 51 

P. G. III. 2. 112 
D.M. 2 (in press) 

Guard. Aug. 1861 

Woll.Gemalde p. 86 

p. 13 

Al. Vol. II. 242 

P.D.H. p. 210 

P. Leb. Hist. Soc. Vol. I .11 

D.M. p. 15 

Home 3rd Ed. p. 127 

Life of Har. p. 68 

P. G. Vol. V. 2. p. 78 

Guard . 

p. 39 

Al. Vol. II. 247 

D. P. Vol. XV. 377 

D.M. p. 21 

P.G.Vol. XI. 12. 754. 

- p. 25 


HARBAUGH, HENRY: (Continued) 

Der Belanickel - 

Der Kerchegang in Alter Zeit - 

Der Pihwie - 

Der Reiche Gerr in Deich - 

Der Rejeboge - 

Die Alt Miehl - 

Die Neie Sort Bschent 'lleit - 

Die Schlofschtub - 

Guard . 
p. 23 

p. 61 

..III. 2. 61 
..1910- p. 121 

Guard . 
p. 59 



Guard . 
- p. 37 


. 1 . 24 

Guard . 
p. 53 



Guard . 
p. 45 

June IS 6 2 

Guard . 
p. 21 

II. 2 


p. 31 
Guard . 



Heemweh - 

Lah Bisniss - 

Will widder Buweli Sei I - 



En Stick Uerwer's Aernfeld - 

Daa Union Arch - 
Die Staedtel Bump - 

Guard. Nov. 1861 

Woll.Gemalde p. 92 

p. 77 

P.D.H. p. 215 

D.M. p. 9 

Life of Har. p. 63 

Guard. Feb. 1862 
p. 69 

Father Ab. Feb. 1869 
p. 65 

Guard. Nov. 1862 
Hal.P.D. p. 55 

Ref .Ch.Al. 

P. G. Vol. V.I. 27 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XI. 2. 3 

Guard. Aug. 1862 




An der Pair - 

Dee Amshel - 

Der Aide Karen Hof Uf'm Barg 

Der Koo Shdohr - 

Der Shbohde Shool Boo - 

En Ley end - 

En Herrnhoodter Ashder Marge 

Fire! - 

Im Bush Vann's Shnayd - 

Unnich 'em Keschda Bawm - 

Unaer Henny - - 

Vann der Wind Blohsdt - 

P. G. Vol. IV. I. 208 
Home 3rd Ed. p. 162 

Pro .P . G . S . Vol . X . Ap .2 5 
P. G. Vol. II. 68 



- Pro.P.G.S.Vcl.X.Ap.22 

HEILMAN,S.P: (Collector) 

Pennsylvania German Rimes - 
Mei Schoene Sally 
Des Buchlich Maennli 
Now, Bill Ich will dich froge. 
Ich hob g'trara't 
Mei Ulla, Ulla Ei 
Schpinn, Schpinn mei Lieve Tochter 

P.Leb.Hist.Soc.Vol.I .11 



Der Yokel un die Lunch Route 
Die Singschula im Land - 

En Hunnert Johr Zuruck - 
• S Fawra in D'r Tran - 

P. G. Vol. IV. 3. 319 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 8. 392 
D.M. 2 (in press) 

D.M. 2 (in press) 

Home 3 rd Ed. p. 112 
G.B. p. 251 


Die Olid Bluddshawl - 

Die Yuggules Leicht - 

D'r Boodsher Wiggle - 

D'r Dorraday ear Huchdsich - 

D'r Olid Deedre - 

D'r Olid Knucha Fridz - 

D'r Olid Sously - 

D'r Porra Tiddle - 

D'r Stodd Ongle in Boosh - 

Eckenrohd - 

Foom Lodw'rk Kucha - 

Foon d'r Hoyet - 

Foon d'r Ahrn - 

Furnahahr -(Preface) - 

Gebt ons Cllda Shool Korregder 

Hinnanoh - 

K'rch oon Shoodlmetsch - 

Lebens Mude - 

Lobbes - 

Meddlezoyer - 


- MS 
- MS 

- MS 

- MS 

- MS 

- MS 




HERMANY, EDWARD: (Continued) 

S' Barvelcha - MS 

S' Olid Wyeerla - MS 

S' Werd evva so sy sulla - MS 

Wie die Ollda Noch d'r Hyo sin - - MS 


Die Kerch is Aus - - P. G. Vol. VII. 2. 83 

HORN, A. Pi 

Die Alte Grabmacher - - P. G. Vol. XI . 10 .626 


"Pennsylvania German Manual" 4th Edition, Allentown, Pa. 372pp, 


# * * # * 

Rimes - - Horns 4th Ed. p. 108 

(See also D.B.Brunner, F.R.Brunner, Fisher, L.L.Grumbine, 

Henry Harbaugh, J.Max Hark, Henringer, Kopenhaver, Newhard, 

Rauch, Rhoades, Schuler, Stoudt, V/eiser, Witmer, Wuchter, 
Ziegler. ) 
(See also Prose) 





Der Sailor da8 Nimmymeh Kunit 

- P. G. Vol. V. 1.25 


Der Valontine Dawg - 
Die Elfetritsoha Jagt 

Die Metzel Soup - 


Leb. Report 

P. G. Vol. VII. 1.37 

Leb. Report Feb. 5, 1900 


Aageweh - 

Alter Mutterklag un Trost 

Bericht an die Klassis - 

Christ Daag - 

Der Alt Weide Baam - 

Der Holzhacker - 

Der Jockel - 

Der Kesohtabaam - 
Der Schnee Starm - 

Der winter Kummt - 

Der Stadtbu -m '.Velshkornfeld 

Die Deutech Sproch - 

Die Wesch Fraa - 
Drucke ion Heesz - 
Es Schaudert Mich - 




p. 50 



p. 59 


p. 63 

D.M. p. 69 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 11. 560 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 10. 505 

P. G. Vol. VI. 2. 269 
D.M. 2 (in press) 

D.M. p. 61 

' . . 2 (in press) 

P. G. Vol. I. 2. 20 
D.M. p. 67 

P. G. Vol. II. 1.12 


D. . 2 (in presc ) 


KELLER, ELI: (Continued) 
Holz Beschlaga - 
Kesta Peife - 
Mei Kerschebaam - 
Mer Wolla Pische Geh - 

Monet Sprtich - 

1 N Buwl i is 's - 

*S Glatt Eis Pahre - 

'G Mehe mit der Deutsche Bens 

'S V/etter Brecht - 
Sag nix! - 
Trub Wetter - - 
Vum Flachsbaue - 

'S Plaohs Stueck 

Der Plachs Blueht 

Der Flachs is Zeitig 

Flachs Roppe 

Flachs Britsche 

Flachs Roetse 

Flachs Breche 

Flachs Schwinge 

Flachs Hechle 

Flachs Spinne 
Warm der Rege V/idder Kummt - 
V'ilda Dauwa - 

P.M. p. 65 


P. G. Vol. IV. 2. 262 
D.M. p. 54 

D.M. p. 71 



P. G. Vol. II. 3. 109 
D.M. p. 46 


D.M. p. 62 

D.M. p. 68 

P. G. Vol. II. 4. 158 

Unser P.D.Kalenner 1895 

D.M. 2 (in press) 
P. G. Vol. VIII. 4. 183 

1 1 1 


Der Auto Waga - 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 4. 183 


*M Shded'l Mora Sei V/unsh 

Home 3rd s d. p. 117 


Kerche Streit - 


Spotjohr - 

(See also Prose) 

P. G. Vol. III. 4. 160 


Der Miller un die Mtthl - 

- D.M. 2 (in press) 


Die Alte Kersche Beerr. - 

P. G. Vol. XI. 8. 501 


Dao Alt Wertshaua 

Das Spinnrad - 



D.M. p. 36 

MAYS, GEORGE: ( Continued ) 
Der Alt Kerchhof - 
Der Alt Mann - 
Der Gigerigee - 

Der Hon3Worsht - 

Die Brunne Trog - 

Die Glock - 

Die Kerche Glock - 

Die Shule in der Alte Zeit - 

Preie Yohr im Lond - 

Hoyet un Em - 

Psalm des Lebens (Trans) - 

'Sis now shun men als ftifzig Johr 

Vtfill Ich bei der Woret Bleiwe - 

D.M. p. 27 

D.M. p. 31 

P. G. Vol. III.?. 110 
D.M. p. 43 

- Flugblatt 

D.M. p. 40 

P. G. Vol. VII. 1.38 

D.M. 2 (in press) 




P. G. Vol. VI. 2. 270 




'Sis nimme wie 's als war - 

D.M. 2 (in press) 


Der Alt Scharr.schtee - 

Die Alt Heemet - - 

Die Mary hut en Lamb (Trans) - 
Finkel, Finkel Klehne Schtern (Trans) 
Im Heckedahl - 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 5. 252 


P. G. Vol. IX. 6. 279 




P. G. Vol. XI. 9. 563 


MEYER, HENRY: (Continued) 

Mei Schtettel Sohul - - Flugblatt 
To my old friend, Reuben Stover - - MS 


"Pennsylvania German", Reading, Pa. 1904. 

Prose and Poetry. 
# * * % * » 




See also Prose. 

«- •» * » # 

"Pennsylvania German" Vol.11, to be issued 1911. 

Reading, Pa. 





See also Prose. 

MILLER, HARVEY: (Solly Hulsbuck) 

"Pennsylvania German Poems"- Elizabethville, Fa. 1906. 

Two Editions, $1.00 and 40$/. Pages the same. 
* * * * # 

Awgawanet - - - p. 28 

Hul.P.G.192 (in press) 

Billy Bloseroar - - - p. 23 

Hul.P.G.Stor. p. 9, 


MILLER, HARVEY: (Continued) 
Dawler Waitza 
De Farbessering - 
De Guta Tseita - 
De Krutza Fife - 

Der Bicher Agent - 

Der Butcher - 

Der Deitsch A,B,C - 

Der Haws - 

Der Magnet - 

Der Sensa Wetzer - 

En Drawm - 

En Vollentine - 

En Wohrhofter Fisher - 

Epitaff - 

Fendu - 

Free Yohr - 

Fun Kindheit zu Ewigkeit 

Himnels Eck - 

I oh bin so gairn Derhame 

Im Winter - 

Kreiz V/aig - 

Leeb und G'sundheit - 

Lond's Mon We Gaids - 
Mensha Fresser - 

p. 48 

p. 77 

p. 76 

- p. 78 

Hul.P.G.Stor. p. 79 

p. 63 

Hul.P.G.Stor. p. 37 
Hul.P.G. p. 189 (in press) 

p. 38 

p. 71 




p. 58 




p. 75 

p. 53 

p. 9 

p. 34 

p. 15 

p. 75 

p. 43 

p. 5 

- p. 34 




p. 76 

p. 31 

p. 42 

p. 55 

p. 67 




p. 35 

p. 67 


MILLER, HARVEY; (Continued) 
Mer nemt's we's Coomt - 

Nancy Hanks - 
Neija Resolushuns - 
Nei Yohr - 
Oh El end - 

Shpode Yohr - 

Sinda Shuld - 

Sis olles Ivverdu - 

Unser Bandt - 

Unser Tillie - 

Will widder Buvely si - 

Wos Noshun Dut - 

V, r un der Porra Coomt - 

Wun Ich Dote Ware - 

p. 68 

Hul.P.G.Stor. p. 45 
Hul.P.G.158 (in press) 

p. 26 

p. 17 

p. 49 

p. 45 
Hul.P.G.Stor. P. 27 

p. 13 

P. G. Vol. VII. 6. 320 

p. 67 

p. 60 
Hul.P.G.Stor. 47 

p. 19 

p. 7 

p. 39 

Hul.P.G.Stor. p. 17 

p. 77 

p. 11 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 10. 503 

p. 21 

"Pennsylvania German StoriesS. Elizabethvillc, Pa. 1907. 112 pp. 
De Nacht vor Krischdag (Trans) - 

De Krutza Pife - 

Der Billy Bloseroar * 

Der Deitsch A,B,C, - 
Der Bicher Agent - 

p. 91 

p. 79 

Hul . F . G . P . p .23 
p. 9 

p. 83 

Hul. P. G. P. p. 63 
p. 37 

J 01/. 

MILLER, HARVEY: (Continued) 
Der Haws - 

Pun Kindheit tzu Ewigkeit - 

Hend in de Seek - 

Leeb und G'sundheit - 

Mer Nemt's We's Coornt - 

Elend! - 

Romeo and Juliet (Balcony Scene) - 

Schlofe Bubbeli - 

Shule Shticker - 

Sis Olles Ivverdu - 

Will widder Buvely si - 






p. 57 

Hul . , 





p. 77 






- p. 71 






p. 61 






- p. 45 






p. 27 

p. 33 

p. 107 

p. 65 




• p< 


p. 47 



» £ < 



- p. 17 



"Pennsylvania German" (in press) See also Prose. 

Hul. P. G. P. p. 28 
Awgavanet - - p. 192 

Awtzacha und B'deitunga - - p. 15 

Ba'd Dawg - - - p. 63 

Base Bolla - - - p. 107 

De Mommy era Kolenner - - p. 3 

Der Feert Jooly - p. 25 

P. G. Vol. IX. 9. 424 
Der Olmechtich Dawle~ - - p. 35 

P. G. Vol. X. 8. 404 
De Olda Shool Dawga - - - p. 45 

De Picnic - p. 139 

Druka V/ e d'r - - p. 141 

MILLER, HARVEY: (Continued) 
De Karche Bell - 
De Till era Wollentine - 

De gute Clt Summer Taeit - 
De Kwilting Pardy - 
De Olt Seid'r Meel - 
De Olt Wek - 

Der Bicher Agent - 

Der Boss - 

Em Shmock'r Sei Leed - 

En Brief tsu'm Sanda Claus 

En Haemweh Shdick - 

Es Boyertown Feier - 

Es Nei Blawd - 

Es Olt Finf Dawler Bill - 

Es Olt Yor un's Nei - 

Fisha - 

Freeyor - 

Far Oldars un now - 

Hartz Hung'r - 

Im Washington Sei Tseit - 

Mer Nemt's We's Kumt - 
Menlich - 

Mi Bubbeli (Trans) - 
Moi 30 - 

p. 143 

p. 157 

P. G. Vol. XI. 9. 563 
p. 179 

p. 184 

p. 185 

p. 182 

p. 189 

p. 188 

p. 154 


p. 187 

P. G. Vol. IX. S. 87 
p. 77 

p. 121 

p. 120 

p. 71 

p. 95 

p. 159 

p. 166 

p. 180 

p. 85 

p. 158 

p. 177 

p. 53 

p. 97 


MILLER, HARVEY: (Continued) 
Neia Resolutions - 
Och du lewar - 

Tswa Klana Shu - 
Un's Schni tiler's Shdor 
Wun da Sanda Claus Kurat 
Wun de Band Shbeeld - 

p. 191 

p. 83 

P. G. Vol. XI. 3. 179 
p. 149 

p. 186 

p. 190 

p. Ill 


Nooch Baltimore gent unser Fuhr 



Der Bettle Mon - 

Der Oldt Huls Elotz - 

P. G. Vol. II. 1.15 
P. G. Vol. 1.3. 12 


De Lecha County Fair - 

P. G. Vol. X. 9. 462 


Der Tschellyschlecker - 
Die Schatta uf der Krick - 
Leera Bumpa - 

P. G. Vol. V: 11.11.561 
P. G. Vol. VIII. 8. 392 

36 7. 

MORE, CHARLES C: (Continued) 
Mei Droni - 

Unsere Jugendzeit - 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 8. 392 
D.M. 2 (in press) 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 6. 282 


Wie ich en Chap War (Trans) 

Home 2nd Ed. p. 115 




Em Sam Sei Kinner 

P. G. Vol. IX. 5. 230 


Die Pennsylvania Millitz - 
Shakespeare in Pennsylvania 

Julius Caesar (Act III. So. 2) 
Hamlet - (Act I.Sc.5) - 

King Richard III. (Act I.Sc.I) 

(Acr V.Sc.4) 

P. D. Vol. I. No. 2 


P. D. Vol. I. No. 1 

P.D.H. p. 220 

Home 2nd Ed. p. 121 

P.D.H. p. 219 
P.D.H. p. 220 

See also Prose. 


Die Alt Plainfield Kerch - 


D.M. p. 122 

P. G. Vol. X. 7. 316 

RHOADES, THOMAS B: (Onkel Jeff) 
Der Bullfrog war Versoffe 

Des Alt Acht Eckig Schulhaus 

Die Alt Mahl Muel - 

Die Tadler - 

Die Wiskey Buwe - 

Nei Yohr Schitz - 

Neue Besem Kehre Gut - 

Neue Mode - 

Schpuks oder ken Schpuks - 

* S Latw6rk Koche fer Alters • 

Unner f m Walnissbaam - 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 10. 493 
D.M.2 (in press) 

D.M. 2 (in prese ) 

P. G. Vol. II. 3. 112 


D.M. p. 114 

Home 3rd Ed. p. 151 

P. G. Vol. III. 1.23 





D.M. p. Ill 

P. G. Vol. 1.1. 18 

Abendlied - 

D.Kir. Aug. 1849 
P. G. Vol. VII. 3. 121 
D.M. 2 (in press) 


Die Sumner Schul - 

Ebbes fon eellem Spuck - 

In der Spiel Stunde - 

' S Schulhaus am Sandloch - 


Sk.Lecha Thai p. 61 


Sk.Lecha Thai p. 60 


Sk.Lecha Thai p. 61 


Sk.Lecha Thai p. 59 
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. VI. 38 
P. G. Vol. VI. 3. 306 



The PennBylvania German (2 dialect verBes)-Fro.P.G.S.Vol .III . 


Schulhaus an der Kerch - 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 7. 335 
D.M. 2 (in press) 


Das ist im Leben Hesslich eingerichtet 
Der Beik - - 

Die Mammi Ihre Schindel (Trans) - 

En Gem Kalenner - - 

P. G. Vol. X. 11. 693 

Home 3rd Ed. p. 14 5 

P. G. Vol. IX. 7. 136 
D.M. 2 (in press) 

Unser P. D. Kalenner, 05 
P. G. Vol. IX. 1.39 


Der Winter - 

Die Alt Uhr - 

Die Kerche Bell - 

Die Oley Picnic - 

Es Jahresfest Am Wei3ehaus 

D.M. 2 (in press) 
P. G. Vol. IX. 10. 628 
D.M. 2 (in press) 
P. G. Vol. XI. 2. 113. 
D.M. 2. (in press) 


Uf 'm O'werste Speicher - 

- P.Leb.Hist.Coc.V.l, 


STOUDT, J.BAER: Collector. 

"Pennsylvania German Rhymes and Riddles"-Jour.Am.F. 19 . 113 

Home 4th Ed. p. 116 


Counting Out Rhymes 
Cradle Songs 
Evening Prayer 
Hock Sermon 


Der Alt Kerchhof - - P. G. Vol. I. 3. 28 

Der Bu am Steh Lehse - - P. G. Vol. V. 1.30 

Der Wald - _ - MS 

Der Zuk - - P. G. Vol. II. 2. 70 

Die Alt Cider Muehl - - P. G. Vol. III. 4. 156 

Die Dallastown Reunion - - P. G. Vol. VI. 3. 307 

Die Mami Schloft - P. G. Vol. IX. 5. 229 

Die Muttersproch - P. G. Vol. VII. 3. 135 

Es Haemelt Em a' - P. G. Vol. IV. 3. 321 

Es Hof Dehrle - P. G. Vol. VIII. 6. 280 

(One of the above poems was published in the Pennsylvania 
College paper in the nineties)-A.S. ) 


Der Alt Kerchhof - D.M.p.104 

En Fruhjohr's Lied - - D.M.p.109 



D'r Kramer - 

Zum Andenke an Dr.Harbaugh - 

Home 1st Ed. p. 57 
Homo 3rd Ed. p. 108 

H.Harfe p. 9 


Der Alt Kerchhof - 

Der Bush - 

Der Mensh - 

Die Amschel - 

Die Besht Zeit - 

En Auf ruf - 

En Character - 

Hie un do en Liedel - 

Nei Yohr - 

Sauerkraut - 

P. G. Vol. III. 2. 63 

P. G. Vol. II. 3. 112 

P. G. Vol. X. II. 575 

P. G. Vol. IV. 4. 351 

P. G. Vol. III. 4. 162 

P. G. Vol. XI. 11. 695 

P. G. Vol. V. 4. 162 



P. G. Vol. IV. 2. 258 


Grocsmutterchen am Feierheerd 

- P. G. Vol. X. 1.36 


De Freschlin - 

Der Himmel uf d'Erde 
Der Schnay - 

Geburtsdag - 


P. D. Vol. I. 1.1. 
Tran . Am . Phi 1 . Soc . 

P. D. Vol. I. 3 

P. D. Vol. I. 3. 

Father Ab . Feb . 8 , 1870 
Hal. P. D. p. 42 
P.D.Vol.I." • 

P.D.H. p. 216 

WITMER, TOBIAS: (Continued) 

Seks OOr - Home 1st Ed. p. 59 

Home 3rd Ed. p. 109 


n Gemalde ana dem Pennsylvanischen Volksleben" ^'hila. und 

Leipzig. 1869. 143 pp. (See also Prose.) 

Das Lied von der Union -U - - p. 69 

Der Herbs t U - - - - p. 27 

Der Herbst U - - - p. 30 

Der Pit un die Betz U - - p. 97 

Der Winter U - - - p. 31 

Die Berg Marie U - - - p. 126 


Die Luterische Kerch bei Trappe W - p. 85 

Fruehling und Jugend L.A.W - - - p. 18 

Fruehjohr -U - - - p. 10 

Haersweh (Harbaugh) - - p. 92 

Heirat's Anzeichung-V.', Morgenstern Ex. p. 36 

Ich bin en Pennsylvanier - - p.5 

Fick Dia. 

Im Fruehjohr -U - - - p. 7 

Im Summer L.A.W* - - - p. 19 

Fick Dia. 

Schulhaus an der Krick (!!) - - p. 86 

Verheiratet M - - - p.47 

Wie der Ben sich verliebt - - - p. 10 


Zwe Brief U - - - p. 66. 



"Many of the following poems appeared 

the Allentovm Democrat" A.C.W. 
Der Verlora Ehsel - 
Der Geitz - - - 

Der Hendrik Voss - 
Der Pihwie - - - 
Der Porra Koons - 
Der Yohll Versteht's Net - 
Der Yohli Wunseht - - 
Die Aerschta Hussa - 
Dio 'Hio Naus - 

Die Muttereprooch - - 

Die Kalmustown G'meh - 
Die Kinneryohr - 
Fasnacht -- 

Fiert July - 

Fische Geh - 

Guckuloh - 

Hans un Herrgott - - 

Humming Birds - - 

In Show - - 

Im Druvvel - 

Lumpaparty - - 

'M Dinkey sei Knecht - 

first anonymously in 

P. G. Vol. IV. 4. 353 

P. G. Vol. IV. 3. 320 

P. G. Vol. VI. 4. 357 

P. G. Vol. II. 2. 69 


All .Dem. 


P. G. Vol. X. II. 575 

All.Dem.i'.ay 1910 
June 1910 


All. Dem. Fov. 1910 

P. G. Vol. X. 5. 238 

P. G. Vol. III. 2. 61 
Home 3rd Ed. p. 165 

P. G. Vol. III. 3. 109 



All.Dem. 1907 

All.Dem. 1907 



P. G. Vol. XI. 9. 592 
P. G. Vol. XII. 59 
P. G. Vol. 2. 118 

P. G. Vol. IX. 2. 89 



Moi Lied - 
Mugtown Rieschter 
Nofemberklaag - 
An' 8 Honnese - 
Schlittafahre - 

Schpundaloch - 
Yuni Lied - 



P. G.Vol. III. 4. 159. 

All .Dem. 

P. G.Vol. I 11.1.22 
P. G.Vol. IX. 1.38 

P. G.Vol. VI. 1.204 



"Drauss un Deheem" - Leipzig- 1891. Out of Print, 
An Mei Pelf - 

Bryant's Thanatopsis (Trans) - 
Cremation - - - 

Dar gut "Henner" - 
Dar Nadurgeischt - - 

Dar Rewwer un Ich - 

Dar Schnitter un die Blume (Trans) - 

Dedication - - 

Die Alte Lieder - - - 

- p. 


- p< 

















.IX. 9 



Drauss un Deheem - 

p. 3 

p. 9 

Home 3rd Ed. p. 120 

P. G.Vol. VI. 1.204 

p. 9 

P. G.Vol. IV. 1.214 

Du V/olk mit de weisce Fliggel - - p. 21 

Emerson (Trans) - - - p. 40 

j;'Zum Denkmal 

Heem kumm ioh, un schteh widder do -p. 24 



Zum Denkmal -(Continued) 

Kunm, Schweschter, kumm un heil net so-p.25 

Fart vun daheem un darch die Welt - p. 26 

In daere Schtille Summersnacht - - p. 26 

Wann epper saage dhat zu mir - p. 27 

Ioh sehn die Scheckige Dage geh - - p. 28 

Die Welt gent rum, was dunkel is - - p. 28 

Deas is mei Hoffning dass d'r Dod - p. 29 

Dar Sud Wind bringt de Mensche Ivluth - p. 30 

Sei bei m'r uf mei'm Lewespaad - - p. 30 

Du scheeni kleeni Weissi Blum - - p. 31 

Dar Noah hut sich b'sunna dann - -p. 32 

Owet am aerschte Oschterdaag - - p. 33 

Wann Laylocks blihe schee un siis - p. 34 

Wie Krischtus Ufwrsohtanne is - p. 34 

Is es vielleicht 'n Draam in Schloff? -p. 35 

Die Sunn geht unner in der West - p. 36 

Es Schneckehaus - - - - p. 11 

Es Sonnet t - - - p. 18 

Im Draam - - - p. 14 

In Ruh - - - p . 19 

Kitzel Mich Net - - p. 12 


Lied an Die Nacht (Trans) - - p. 39 

'M Daag Sei Dod - - - p. 19 

•N Alt Fashioned Buch - - p. 17 

Samschdaag Owet - - p. 11 


Schnee Flocke (Trans) - 

p. 37 

Am Danksagung Dag - 
Die Laming - 
En Simpler Mon - 
Mei Muttersprooch - 
Sauerkraut - 

P. G. Vol. VII. 7. 374 
P. G. Vol. IV. 3. 314 
P. G. Vol. VIII. 30. 504 
P. G. Vol. X. 5. 238 
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. I II. 13 6 


" Metrical Trans lati on a" 
Bewi Me in - 

Der Alt Robin Gray - 

Der Gut Dschorg Campbell - 

Der V. r eg Noch Schlummerland - 

Die Jung Witfraa - 

Die Nacht, for de Chrischdaag - 

Dschon Dschankin's Predich - 

E'n Lieb G'sang - 
Legt Eich Hie - 
Lieder - 


011a Podrida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 129 

011a P^rida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 11 3 

011a Podrida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 10 9 

011a Podrida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 155 

011a Podrida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. Ill 

011a Podrida 
P. G. Vol. 1.1. 11 
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. II. 93 

011a Podrida 

Pro- P. G.S. Vol. XI 1. 131 

011a Podrida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XI 1. 13 5 

011a Podrida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XI 1. 12 7 

011a Podrida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 13 7 


Moi Mopsy is Klee - - 

' N Neues " Casat>ianca M - 

*N Trauer Gedicht uf 'n Doter Hund - 

'S Dotes Bedt - - - 

Sing, Madel Sing - 

Wan an' re Freunde rhum dich sin - 

011a Podrida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 10 9 

- 011a Podrida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 121 

- 011a Podrida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 12 5 

011a Podrida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XI I. 13 9 

011a Podrida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 11 5 

- 011a Podrida 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 123 



This does not include newspaper articles that have not sub- 
sequently "been reprinted either in books or magazines. 


ANONYMOUS: (See alao Poetry) 

Der Eael - P. D. Vol. I .1.23 

Der Gapenachenda Merder - - P. G. Vol. IX. S. 375 

Dialog on aelecting a Vocation - - Fir. Vol. III. 445 

En Neie Cure for die Rumatlea (Adapted)P.G.Vol.VIII.6.232 

For Oldars - - - Home 3rd Ed. 102 

Geburt3monet Profizeiunga - - P. G. Vol. IX. 1.41 

Letter Commending the Publication of the 

Pennaylvania Dutchman - - P. D. Vol. 1. 1. 

Letter with poem "Die Deitahe Baura"- P. D. Vol. I. 3 

Letter to the editor of the "Pionier" - D. P. Vol. VI II. 88 

Lovelettor an mei Anni - - P. D. Vol. I. 2 

*M Captain Jonea aei Chriach Kindel - P. G. Vol. VII. 8. 431 

'M Jimmy Dull aei Schnapachtuhl - - P. G. Vol. VIII. 2. 89 

Pennaylvania German Proverbs - - P. G. Vol. VII. 5. 265 

Uvva Nous Gonga - - P. D. Vol. I. 2 

Waa em Happena kann, warm mer Oier f innt-P.G.Vol.VIII.5.233 

Widder aa geachmiert - - Hal. P. D. p. 49 

B. Co. Express, Jul.'69 

V/ie kunnt es - - - Hal. P. D. p. 52 

Ger.Cor.& Dem.Aug.'69 


Die Sallie Geht noch Chicago - - P. G. Vol. XI. 10.527 


Die Macht der Hutteraprach - - P. G. Vol. XI. 5. 305 


ASH, L.A: 

Parable of the Prodigal Son 

P. D. Vol. I. 


Grumblere Keffer - 

Ref .Ch.Rec. 

P. G. Vol. X. 7. 350 

Letter - 

P. D. Vol. I. 2. 



BRUNNER, FRANK R: (See also Poetry) 

Slwe Briefe wi der Sallie Besemstiel - M.H.Jan. 20, 1S86 p. 25 

DUBBS, J: (See also Poetry) 

Deustche Settlements vor der Revolution. D.M. p. 161 


Charlie Green's Experiment mit Erne Skunk-P.G.Vol.VIII.4.184 


Pennsylfawnish Deitsha Guw'rnera - 

- Home 3rd Ed. p. 169 
Home 4th Ed. p. 203 

GRUMBINE, EZRA: (See also Poetry) 

Die Inshurance Business - - Dramolet* 

Die Yunga Richter - - P. G. Vol. VII. 1.39 


Was raer G* happen t is Bei'm Hausbutza - P. G. Vol. VI I .3. 137 

Wie mer unser Offa Uf ' gschtellt hen - P. G. Vol. VII. 6. 320 


Der Harning - - - P. G. Vol. VIII. 2. 36 

Der Sam Gilderi uf der Greieri - - P. G. Vol. VII. 7. 375 

En Paar Neijohr's Gedanke - - P. G. Vol. VIII. 1.41 

Is 's Maulhalta en Soheene Sach? - P. G. Vol. VII. 2. 84 

HARTER, THOMAS H: (Gotlieb Boonastiel) 

"Boonastiel, Pennsylvania Dutch? Belief onte, Pa. 1904 

Are Gsed Hawsa Hoonda - - p. 85 

Are Schwared Ob - - p. 23 

By Da Soldawda - - - p. 173 
Die Beckie Shtitsel 

Im Orma House - - p. 113 

Se Ooomed Widder Hame - - p. 115 

De Deitscha un die Englisha - - p. 24 

De Feela Lingner - - p. 102 

Die Gickser - - - p. 35 

De House Butz Gichtera - - p. 47 
De Hous Butz Gichtera Brecha Widder Ous-p.92 


HARTER, THOMAS H: (Continued) 
De Hoonds Dawga - - 
De Hoyet - 

De Leit woo Olsfart G'hared ai '.Vella 
De Maed 3in we Glaena Fish - - 
De Mensha un Die Monkeys - 
De Ma Laws os mer Breicha - 
De Orma hen Mer Olsfart by Uns - 
Denksht Are Gebt en Editor - 
Der Boonastiel an der Court - 
Der Bowera Boo un der Dude - 
Der Bush Hoond un der City Hoond - 

Der Butcher Dawg - 

Der Census Numerator - 

Der Donks Dawg - 

Der Fiert July - 

Der Goot Freind - 

Der Nei Nuohber - 

Der Oldt Hon Lawft far en Office - 

Der Schmart Boo - 

Der Boo os si Marrick Maucht - 

Der U-Bennich Boo - 

Em Boona3tiel Sei Buftcheres - 

Em Brown-Sequard 3i "Life Lixer" - 

Em Grover Helfa Tzeega - 

Em Mike Sendapetzer 3i City Fraw - 

En Bower's Boo - 

En Drawm - - 

p. Ill 

p. 16 

- p. 9 
p. 11 

- p . 148 
-p. 159 

p. 93 

- p. 31 

- p. 116 

- p. 103 

- p. 171 


P. G. Vol. X. 4. 131 

p. 105 

p. 45 

p. 108 

p. 174 

p. 97 

- p. 30 
p. 121 
p. 164 
p. 163 
p. 72 

- p. 63 
p. 161. 

-p. 33 
p. 156 
p. 81 

J A3. 

HARTER, THOMAS H: (Continued) 

En Hior-rawd Pardy - - - p. 68 

P. G. Vol. X. 2. 39 

En Maidel Progt urn Rode - - - p. 57 

En Neie Sart Rigel-wake - - P. 33 

En Ride uff ma Si-bickel - - p. 59 

En Shaeda Brief - - - p. 49 

En Shil-grut - - - p. 7 

En: Siffer - - p. 42 

Es Rodda Nesht - - p. 12 

Friheit Convention 

On der Convention - p. 39 

Hame fun der Convention - - p. 41 

Gebt mere Duwock - - - p. 54 

Grishkindlin Kawfa - - - p. 50 

In Ma Hexa Nesht - - - p. 20 

Karraseera by Machinery - - p»166 

Knecht Shoffa - - - p. 52 

My Leava's Lawf - - - p. 5 

On der Campmeoting - - - p. 110 

On der 'Noggeration Ball - - - p. 27 

On dere '.Veldt's Fare - - p. 169 

Onera Huohtzich - - p. 66 

Onera Leioht - - - p. 61 

Rip Van Winkle 

De Shtory - - - p. 74 

Are Soocht En Onery Haemet - - p. 78 

Widder Uff Em Nesht - - p. 79 

Saela 0s mer Net Essa Con - - p. 119 


HARTEH, THOMAS H: (Continued) 

Shpeoulata Mit Oner Leit Eram Geld - p. 37 


Ona Hullerhocka, - - p. 87 

Are Act Lawyer - - - p. 39 

Es sholk Yohr - - p. 123 

Druvvel Mit Der Polly - p. 126 

En Tramp - - p. 128 

Unner Fremma Leit - - p. 129 

In der Jail - - p. 131 

Are Findt En Freind - - p. 133 

Hame Wae - p. 135 

Widder Im Druvvel - - p. 137 

Om Bowera - p. 139 

Are un de Betsy Wetzel Gaena Fisha-p.141 

In Fildelfy - - - p. 143 

Widder Dahame - - p. 146 

Shtyle Aw Do Won's Em Net Baooomed - p. 91 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 3. 137 

Sols Rever - 

Der Rever Druvva - - p. 150 

"Jos Hut's Gadoo - - p. 152 

Im Sols Rever Shtore - - p. 154 

Tsu Feel Leit - - p. 29 

Tswae Baniche Si - - p. 25 

Uff Der Kup G'shtellt - p. 100 

Uff Em Karrioh-hofo - - p. 13 

Uff Ganumma on Sime Wardt - - p. 94 

Ware Sull de Prescilla Hira - - p. 167 

HARTER, THOMAS H; (Continued) 

Ware Sull Ich Hira - - p. 56 

We Con Ich' a Besht Laeva Maucha - - p. 9 5 

We Mer Gaid PI aha - - p. 65 

We' a Gait Onera Infair - - p. 106 

Wos Gebta Mit Unaera Boova - p. 15 

Part II. 

Axiom3 and Epigrama- 

Sprichworta - - p. 246 

Bleaaeer Coomed Oony G'frogt un Gait 

Ooney Ghaesa - p. 222 

De College Boova - - - p. 179 


Der Aael in der Gilea Howd - - p. 242 

Der "Chriatian Science" Duckter - p. 195 

De Retcha un de Bletcha - - p. 216 

Der Jecky Leebshtickle Tend Court - p. 223 

Der Mon Woo Reich-Awreni i3 - - p. 201 

Der Oldt Billy Sultzer un de Looder Grobba-p.182 

De ahuldt 0a Leit Awrum ain - - p. 218 

Der Tawa Keppich Elefont - - p. 240 

De U-farahtenicha Faahiona - - p. 185 

De Weipaleit in Politics - - p. 198 

En Jury -mon - p. 187 

Ich Wutt Ob Ich en Bower Ware - - p. 191 

In Pildelfy - 

Em Wannamaker Si Karrich Hofe - p. 229 

Em Mike Sendapetzer Si Stylishe Fraw -p. 232 

Grishdoom in Ga-kooahenda Sitz - p. 235 


HARTER, THOMAS H: (Continued) 

Widder Dahame - - p. 238 

Karrassera-Der Oldt un dor Nei Wake - p. 211 

On der Teacher's Institute - - p. 214 

Onera Karicha Fare - - p. 203 

Politics un De Karricha - - p. 189 

Shtride in der Hous-holdting-was machts- p. 209 

Unser Niar Porra - - p. 206 

Widder Uff der Oldta Bowerei - - p. 226 

Deitscha Leeder -See Poetry-Ziegler and 

Historical - - - 

# # * * 
De Scientists un de Hexaductor - 
De Suckers in Politics - - 

p. 255 

Home 3rd Ed. 149 


Der Hok'lbira B&rig - 

Der Marti Bechtel - 

Der Tshek Shtraus - 

Di Granni Shidl - 

Jake Strauss - 

Proverbs - - 

G'schicht fun da alta Tsaita in Pen- 

silfani - 

J our . A . F . L * p . 194 
Jour. A. F.L. p. 195 
Jour. A. F.L. p. 193 
Jour. A. F.L. p. 192 
Jour. A. F.L. p. 194 
Jour. A. F.L. p. 197 

Pro.Am.Philosonh. . 




"Pennsylvania German Manual" - let Ed. 1875 

2nd Ed. 1896 

3rd Ed. 1905 

4th Ed. 1910 

Part I. English Prominciation of P. G. words- p. 5 f. 

Part I I. Pennsylvania German Literature 
with English Translations. 

Sprioh w erder - - - p. 70 f. 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. II. p. 47 

Ratsla - - - p. 78 

Reima - - p. 81 

Spichta - - - p. 89 

De G'breicha fun d'Pennsylfanisch 

Deitsoha in Oldta Zeita - - p. 93 

Pestdauga - - - p. 95 

De Oldta Games - p. 100 

Gschichta - - p. 102 

See also Poetry-Weiser, Witmer, Henninger, Newhard, Kopenhaver, 

Ziegler, Rauch, Harbaugh, Fisher, Schuler, Rhoads, Grumbine, 

D.B.Brunner, Hark and Wuchter. 

See Prose- Gehring, Zimmerman, Schuler, Harter, and Warner. 

Part III. A Pennsylvania German and English 

Dictionary - - p. 184 ff. 

(The page numbers are those of the third edition, 
the 4th edition contains 34 more pages.) 





En Hexe G'schicht - 

P. G. Vol. XI. II. 695 

KELLER, ELI j (See also Poetry) 

En Gesprach an der Mittel Fence - 

Penn3ylvanier Sprich Worter - 

?/ie der Stoffel 3ei Geld Verlore Hot 

Fried. Jan. 20, &17, '09 
Feb. 3 _ 10, '09 

Fried. Jul. 14, '09 



Em Mark Twain Sei Kameel (Trans) - 

-P. G. Vol. VII. 4. 211 


Mei Experience im 0ircu3 - 

P. G. Vol. VIII. II. 561 


Letters to the Editor of the Pionier- 


.IV. p. 7 
.IV. p. 50 
.IV. p. 95 
.IV. p. 132 
.IV. p. 170 
•IV. p. 203 
.IV. ft. 236 
.IV. p. 258 
.IV. p. 344 
.IV. p. 298 
.IV. p. 373 
.IV. p. 402 


Brief an n Der Deutsche Pionier" - 

-D.P. May, 1882 

LEISBNRING, E.D: (Continued) 

Brief an "Der Deutsche Pionier" - P. G. Vol. IX. 7. 325 
Pennsylfawnisch Deitsch - - D. P. Vol. XIV. p. ^0 


"Pennsylvania German" Vol. I. Reading, Pa. 1904 

Part I. See Poetry. Harbaugh, Veiser, Mays, Keller, F.R.Brunner, 

Fisher, Vogt, Rhoads, Graeff, Reinecke, Sisenbrown, Dubbs, 

and D.B.Brunner. 

Part I I. Prose. 

Bete Am Disoh - 

Buffel Ochse - 

Bush Knuppel - - 

Das Alt Sohulhaus - 

Das Alt Schulhaus in der Stadt - 

Das Battalje - 

Deiwel's Loch - 

Dem Conrad Weiser Sei Drahm - 

Dem Dr.Schaeffer sei Speech an der 
Schaeffer's Reunion •■ « 

Dem Parre Sei Drahm - - 

Dem Pitt Sei Handwerk - 

Dem Parre Sei Worscht - 

Dem Parre Sei Gelichniss - 

Dem Parre Stoey sei Preddig - 

Der Bauer un die Studente - 

Der Dan Webster un sei Sens - 

Der Elteste am Preddige - 
















- p. 


- p, 








- p« 










MILLER, DANIEL: (Continued) 

Der Moae Dissinger - - 

Der Parre un die Schunke - 

Des Leine Vorsage - - - 

Die Gemee in Ochseschwamm - 

Die Haase Preddig - - 

Die Kanzel is Umgefalle - 

Die Pennsylvanisch Deutsche - 

Die Regina Hartman - 

Die Stadtol Bump - - 

Die V/orzel vum Uewel - 

Elbetritsche Fanga - 

En Brief an der Parre vun der Jacobua 

Kirche - 

En Gleichniss - - 

Englisoh Denka un Deitsch Sohwetze - 

En Laute Stimm - 

En Parre s Trick - 

En Reich Paar - 

Grosse '"orte - 

Gauls Preddige - - 

Gross Gegrisch Awer V/ennig Woll - 

Heiere uf Credit - - 

In der Kerch Schlofe - 

Kerchegang vor Alters - - - 

Korze Preddige - 

Leeks chonire - 

Lions ch uf em Peld un in der Kerch - 

Pennsylvania English - - 






















































MILLER, DANIEL: (Continued) 

Sag.. Ich, Hab ich Gesaht - - p. 270 

Schlechto Parre - - p. 225 

Sonderbare Ferrywoll Preddige - p. 220 

Uewer3etzunge -Translations - - p. 266 

Was Gehapponed is - - - p. 257 

Wer Hot die Welt Erschaffe? - - p. 160 

Wetterhahne - - p. 258 

Wie en Loch zu Kache - - p. 265 

Wie er Die Haas Verbroche Hot - - p. 178 

Wie er in der Semly war - - p. 246 

Wie Der Parre sich Hot - p. 219 

Wohleberstadtel - - p. 217 

See also Prose. Keller, Dubb3, Zimmerman. 

■» * # •» # * 

"Pennsylvania German" - Vol.11. In Press. 
Part I. Vocabulary of 1200 word3. 
Part I I. Variations. 
Part IH.Piterature. 

See Poetry. Rondthaler, Harbaugh, Weiser, Stahr, Keller, 
F.R.Brunner, Shuey, E.Grumbine, Rhoads, D.B.Brunner, 
Bahn, Lisberger, L.Grumbine, Gerhardt, Eshelman, Anon- 
ymous, Henninger, Schuler, -lays, ore, engel, Wollenweber. 

Dem Kunradt Weiser sei House. Illustrated. 

Dem Kunradt Weiser sei Shtore in Reading. Illustrated. 

Der Bauer Huts Goot 

Der Parre Harbaugh. Portrait 

MILLER, DANIEL: (Continued) 

Die Reoht un die Letz Sort Lerning. P. G. XI. 7. 433 

En Ferhuttelt Welt 

En Klane Kerch. Illustrated 

En Pennsylvanier in der Stadt Berlin. 

Ea Alt Courthoua in Reading 

Ferennerunga und Improfmenta 

Geba de Judde 

Grumbiere Keffer 

In Fildelfi 

In New York - - P. G. Vol. X. 8. 406 

Ref .Rec. 

Meiner Mammy ihr Spinnrad Illuatrated. 

Pennaylvaniaoh Deutsche Begrauche. 

Pennsylvaniach Deutache Sprichworte. 

Pennaylvaniaoh Deutsch GouVeniere. Illuatrated. 

Stadt un Landt. 

Uf der Jury. 

Wan Ich en Porre war. 

Wan ich net Porre war. 

MILLER, HARVEY M: (Solly Hulsbuck) 

"Pennsylvania German Storiea n -Elizabethville, i J a.l907. 
See alao Poetry. 

Bank Bianias - - - - p.l 

Basebolla G'ahpielt - -p. 49 

De O.W.L. Society - - p. 53 

De Engli3ha - - p. 99 


MILLER, HARVEY: (Continue.!) 

De Fiert July Celebrashun- - - p. 59 

De Irisha - - - - p. 101 

De Mawd Gald uf en Shtrike - - p. 15 

De Nei Runzel im Shpella - - p. 67 

De Picnic - - p. 63 

De Polly Grickt en Surprise - - p. 19 

Der Ab Lincoln - - - p. 3 

Der Bawrfeesich Bu - - - p. 11 

Der Fader Fu'm Lond - p. 7 

Der Feert Jooly - p. 43 

Der Inshing - p. 103 

Der Hebuchadnozzer und der Napolyun - p. 109 

Der Reicha Era Drovvel - - p. 87 

Em Jeckie Si Komposishun - - p. 29 

En Chury Lion - - - p. 95 

En Thanksgiving Shtory - - p. 85 

P. G. Vol. IX. 

En Trip Noch Sm Shtate Hous - - p. 93 

Fendu - - - - p. 13 

Flying Macheena - - p. 51 

Geil Xawft Und G,schwoppt - - p. Ill 

Hochmood udder Hunger - - p.l 

Ira Febiwerry - - - p. 5 

Labor un Capital - - - p. 21 

Mi Pedigree - - - p. 25 

Political icement - - - p. 4 

Politicks - - - p. 69 

MILLER, HARVEY M: (Continued) 

Romeo and Juliet - 

Romeo and Juliet - 

Setta de '.Veibsleit Vote? - 

Um Beara Hunda - - 

Un der Fair - 

V/as aw gaid im Deich - 

We ' s gai d won do Fraw em in der 3htore 

shickt - 

V. r os iss sugcess? - - 

Wos mer essa - - 

Wu de Deitsha Harcooma - 

WutsJ Wutsi Wutsi - - 

* •::• # 

"Pennsylvania German" in press. 

A f r is de onar wart - 

Advertisa batsawld - - - 

Badrochda noch da am - 

Boona ols I'adazen - 

De Bevvy singt en Anthem - 

De Huchtsioh - - 

De Maria gaid iver der Barg - 

De Macht fun Xlanichkada - 

De Mommy ols en Duckd'r - 

De Nancy Hanks im Race - 

De Nei Sort Bud'r - 

De Rachel Powhana - - 

Der Comet - 

Der Drolley - - 



















































MILLER, HARVEY M: (Continued) 

Der Duckd'r Lawdanagler - - p. 79 

Der Feert Jooly - p. 103 

Der Hochmood - - p. 130 

Der Jecky Graddlate - - p. 171 

Der Jecky larnd en Lesson - - p. 152 

Der Jecky un sei Brief - - p. 73 

Der looses Cadwallader Schmidt e - p. 165 

Der Nei V/ek un der 61 1 - - p. 126 

Der Nord Pole - - p. 140 

Der Osht'r Haws - - p. 93 

De Schlung im loot - p. 174 

De Weibsleit - p. 128 

Donkbawr in ola Unglik - - p. 151 

Drawm Buch Bedeitunga - - p. 173 

D'r Sh-Shduddera Jeck - - p.l 

Em Jecky Sei Walk far Shduddia - - p. 61 

Em Pit'r sei gaba'd - - p. 148 

Em Pit'r sei Drik - - p. 153 

Em Pitt sei Handwerk - - p. 147 

En Arlich'r Raskal - - p. 105 

En Asel Drik - p. 117 

En Bisniss Notice - p. 167 

En Drawm Buch - - p. 172 

En Preigawich'r Deeb - - p. 142 

En Gros'r Dosh'd - - p. 135 

En Hinar-end Collision - - p. 19 

En Hink'l-shproe - - .134 

MILLER, HARVEY M: (Continued) 

En Publick Eilawdung - - p. 169 

Eishtars un English-Solz - p. 59 

En Pendu Fever - p. 169 

Es Helra - - - p. 129 

Es Hun'rt-yarich Fesht - - p. 43 

Es Karoh-Gae - - - p. 3 

Far' s Denka kon era nemond henl-a - p. 39 

Fawsnocht - - p. 124 

Filosofikal Gadonka - - p. 155 

Fireworks uf da Konsel - - p. 29 

Fisikal J'ografy - - - p. 75 

Free-yor - - - p. 39 

Gold-shtock kawft - - - p. 31 

Ham-g'mocht Mushk - - p. 67 

Hink'l Filosofy - - p. 87 

Hunsdawga Blazeer - - p. 27 

Im Dreebsawl - - p. 163 

In da Lotsh - - p. 162 

Karaseera we far oldar3 - - p. 21 

Kourt Bizness - p. 133 

Kurnal Soakum - - p. 115 

Law Bizness - - p. 91 

Lawendich irargrawva - - p. 136 

Lond un Shtot - - p. 183 

Marb'l Kucha - - - p. 55 

Milchhawr - - - p. 113 

Musich bei da tcwilling - - - p. 122 


MILLER, HARVEY Mj (Continued) 
Nuchterlicha Badrochda' - 
Nuchbershoft Nochrichta - 
Obrilakelv'r - - 
Off is Hung'r - 
Rawer im Hous - 
Reich iv'r Nocht - 
Rul • r Ghkeeda - 
Shprich Wart a - 
Siva Deiv'l - 
Tschentleleit - 
Tswa sorta Grip - 
Uf B'sooch in da Shool - 
Uf da Eowerei - 
Um Circus - 

Un da Jamestown Exposition 
Ung'farlicha Feiarworks - 
Unich em Wed'r - 
We der Bower farlussa Wart - 
Weesht galoga is nemo^d batroga 
Wei is de Mud'r - 

p. 127 
p. 109 

p. 164 
p. 178 
p. 119 
p. 125 
p. 145 
p. 131 
p. 181 
p. 81 
p. 156 
p. 146 
p. 132 
p. 7 
p. 47 
p. 175 
p. 101 
p. 113 
p. 51 
p. 160 

MORE, CHARLES C: See also Poetry. 
Der Hexadoktor - 
Der Hexadokto:- - 
Der Wiescht Mann von der Flett 
Die Kutztown Mail - 
En Wieschter Eraam - 

.G. Vol. IX. 3. 136 

P. G. Vol. VIII. 9. 448 
P.G.Vo] .XI. 4. 239 
P. G. Vol. VIII. 10. 505 



MORE, CHARLES 0: (Continued) 

'S Wash Heller's Ihra Chris chtdagszug - P. G. Vol. VIII. 12.61: 

RAUCE, E.H: (See also Poetry. 

"Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook", J'auch Chunk, Pa. 1879. 

Part I. Dictionary of circ-5000 words to p. 146 

Part II. Special Words - - - p. 151 

Abbreviations - - p. 158 

The Use of words - - p. 160 

Counting - - - p. 171 

i'onths and days - - p. 172 

Weights and 1-easures - - p. 173 

Practical Exercises - - p. 174 

Business Talk - p. 185 

Home 3rd 123 
Progress of Pennsylvania Dutch 

Literature - - p. 208 

Quotations from Shakespeare 

Speech of Brutus - - p. 218 

Richard III. Act I. So. I. - p. 219 

Act V.Sc.IV. - p. 220 

Hamlet Act I.Sc.V. - - p. 223 

Extracts from Scripture - - p. 222 

Pit Schweffelbrenner - - p. 228 

Another Letter of Schwef « r, elbrenner-p.231 

Aether Letter of Schweffelbrenner-p.234 
# # # « 

An Heller Shtarn Ousgonga (Trans) - - P. D. Vol. I. I. 

An Temperance Lecture - P. D. Vol. I. 3 


RAUCH, E.H: (Continued) 

De Olta un Neia Tzeita - 

Familiar Sayings (Trans) - 

Familiar Sayings (Trans) - 

Familiar Sayings (Trans) - 

For der Simple Weg - - - 

Im V/ashingtoner Schtadtel - 

Prospectus to Pennsy,vania Dutchman - 

Rip Van Winkle - 

Uf Unser Side - - - 

Unser Klehny Jokes - - - 

Unser Klehner Omnibus - 

-Pro. P. G.S. Vol. I. 33 

- P. D. Vol. I. I. 

- P. D. Vol. 1.2 
P. D. Vol. I. 3. 
P. D. Vol. 1.3 
M.H.Jan. 20, '86. p. 63 
P. D. Vol. I. I. 

P. D. Vol. I. 2 
P. D. Vol. I. 2 
P. D. Vol. I. 3 


Eppos Ueber Pennsylvanisch Deitsch - P. G. Vol. IX. 5. 230 

D. P. 1870 

Open Letter to the Editor on Dialects - P. D. Vol. I. 3 

SCHANTZ, F.J.F: See also Poetry. 
Hombug Orgel Bissniss - 
Letter to Dr.Fritschl - 

Part of a sermon on Job - 

Speech before Dr.Mohldenke f s Congre- 
gation i$ Hew York City - 

Stories - - 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. III. 83 Dienzer's acc't 
of his visit to Am- 

Pro. P. G.S. Vol. III. 126 

MS in family 
Pilger Almanac 



Hex Erst Blugges 

P. G. Vol. IX. 10.470 

SHULER, K. A: See also Poetry. 
Stories - 
Zeechaglawa un Braucherel^ 


Home 3rd Eci. p. 146 


Der "Bockwampan" und sein Getheirs - 

Sk.Lecha Thai. p. 192 

WARNER, JOSEPH: (Johann Klotz) 

"Amerikanisch Historic? Annville, Pa. 1905 

Einleitung - - 

Epoch I . 

Der Columbus Entdeckt America - 

Andere Entdeckungen - 
Epoch II. 

Virginia - - 

Massachusetts - - 

Rhode Island - - 

Connecticut - 

New Hampshire - 

New York - 

Pennsylvania - - - 


p. 7 
p. 12 

p. 19 

p. 25 

p. 51 

p. 53 

p. 56 

p. 58 

p. 42 

Home 4th Ed. p. 201 

WARNER, JOSEPH: (Continued) 

New Jersey - - p. 45 

Delaware - - p. 47 

Maryland - - p. 48 

Georgia - - p. 52 

Epoch III. 
Francosischen Greek 

Koenig William's Greek - - p. 56 

Koenigin Anne's Greek - - p. 57 

Koenig George's Greek - - p. 57 

Pransosish urd Inshing Greek - p. 57 

Epoch IV. 
Freiheits Greek. 

Ursache der Greek - - - p. 61 

Der Greek un der Auskum - - p. 64 

Epoch V. 
Constitutional Government 

George Washington - - - p. 71 

John Adams - - p. 73 
Thomas Jefferson - - - p. 75 

James Vadison - - p. 75 

James Konroe - - - p. 72 

John Quincy Adams - - - p. 78 

Andrew Jackson - - - p.8C 

Martin VanBuren - - - p»8 

William Henry Harrison - - p. 80 

John Tyler - p. 21 

James K.Polk - - p. 81 

WARNER, JOSEPH: (Continued) 

Zachary Taylor - - p. 81 

Millard Fillmore - - p. 83 

Franklin Pierce - - - p. 83 

James Buchanan - - - p. 83 

Abraham Lincoln - - - p. 84 

Andrew Johnson - - - p. 89 

Ulysses Grant - - p. 90 

Rutherford Hayes - - - p. 90 

James A.Garfield - - p. 91 

Chester A.Arthur - - p. 91 

Grover Cleveland - - p. 91 

Benjamin Harrison - - p. 91 

Grover Cleveland - - p. 93 

William McKinley - - - p. 95 

Theodore Roosevelt - - p. 96 

Zum Beschluss - - - p. 97 


Gemalde aus dem Pennsylvania chen Volksleben n 
1869. Leipzig and Philadelphia. 

See Poetry. 

Ab Reff Schneider un Susie Leimbach - p. 10 

M.H.May 19, 1886 p. 136 

A Lutarische Hochzig-Unsigned - - p. 46 

Conrad Weiser's Grab. U. - - - p. 135 

Der Aldermann Mehlig - Wollenweber - p»102 

Der Baron Stiegel-U. - - p. 127 


Der Mister Lebtag- W. - p. 108 

Der Mitle Weg ischt der Goldene V.'eg-U - p. SO 

Der Herbet - U. - - - p. 28 

Der Pitt fun der Trapp-U - - p. 109 

Der Winter-U - - - - p. 31 

Die Berg Maria -U - - - - p. 125 

Die Pas chens -U - - - - p. 75 

Die llargareth und die Leah -U - - p. 66 

Das Wilde Heer -U - - - p. 52 

Die Sag von End vura Spieler-U - - p. 60 

Die Sag von Zwee Saufer -U - - - p. 57 

Die Sara un die Betz -U - - p. 68 

Dr Dady -U - - - p. 131 

Ein Gesprach-Eppes zum Lacha - - p. 76 

Eppes zum Lacha -U - - - p. 73 

Farmleben-U - - - p. 23 

Heirath's Kalender-U - - p. 32 

Im Frfthjohr - - - p. 8 

Korz awer gut-U - - - p«65 

LBb un Bar oder alter Lieb rost nit - p. 50 

Pennsylvanisch Ehrlichkeit-U - - p. 121 

Pitt Kommnoch-W - - - p. 35 

Sie kumme doch noch zusamme - - p. 47 

Teite Hosen un Standups mache der 

I.'enech net -U - - p. 93 

Vom Obstbaumbutza - - - p. 15 

Vum Obst - - - - p. 24 

3¥9 t 


Vorrede - - 

Vum Ueberhitze un Sunnestich-U - 

vie die Nochbere de Charle Dorst vom 
Branntweintrinke Kure-W - 

Wie mer aei Fraa ProMrt - 

Womelsdorf - - - - 
Vendue, -Grease -U - - 

p. 3 
p. 25 

p. 71 

p. 42 

P. G. Vol. XII. 1.54 

p. 140 

p. 71 

ZIMMERMAN, THOMAS: See also Poetry. 
Kaiser Wilhelm's Brief e - 

Read. Times and Dispatch 
Home 3rd Ed. p. 14-2 






"Kursweil un Zeitvertreib"- 1882 Special Glossary- 1983 words. 
•S Alt Marik Hous - - 1870 Special Glossary- 2182 " 



"Harfe" 1870 - Special Glossary - - 245 " 


German Dialect in the Virginia Valley. Dia.N.III. 
Pt.4. 1908. P. G. Vol. X. 10. 

Brief Vocabulary - 194 " 


In the Proceedings of the Am. Phil. Soc. Vol. XXVI. Dec. 1888. 
A Pennsylvania-German -English Dictionary - - 5689 words 
"A quite exhaustive glossary of the Pennsylvania German 
dialect. (P.G.English) This is little more than a 
review of Home 'a Dictionary. The author acknowledges 
no sources by name and hence gives us no clue to his mode 
of procedure." M.D. Learned. 


"Em Home Sei Buch"- 1875-lst Ed. 

Pennsylvania German- English Dictionary - - 5522 words 
"This i3 far the most complete and scientific lexicon 
of the Pennsylvania German speech." M.D. Learned. 1889 
1895-2nd Edition-several hundred additional words and 
an English Pennsylvania German Dictionary. 


HORNE, A.R: (Continued) 

1905-3rd Edit ion- Some additional words 
1910-4 th Edition-Some more additional words. 


Pennsylvania German Plant Names in the P. G. Vol. XII. 2 
Pennsylvania German, English and Latin - - - H65 words 

LEARNED, M.D: Assisted by E.M.Pogel. 

Complete Pennsylvania German Dictionary- Announced. 


Common Sense Pennsylvania German Dictionary, Reading, 1887 
1895 2nd Edition. P. G. -English - - 9613 words 


Pennsylvania German Plant Names - P. G. Vol. XI. 9. 

Pennsylvania German, English, and L a tin - - 92 words 

Pennsylvania German Plant Names- P. G. Vol. XI. 12 

Pennsylvania German, English and Latin - - 38 words 


Pennsylvania German - Vol.11. (in press) 

Pennsylvania German, English and German - - 1200 words 


Pennsylvania Dutchman - Vol. I. No. I and following (incomplete) 
Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook- 1879, I.'auch Chunk, Pa. 
Pennsylvania German- English and English-Pennsylvania 

German - circ.5000 w, 






Allentovm Call 
Allentown Democrat 




Berks and Bchuylkill 

Journal - Reading 

Berks County Democrat Boyertown 

Bethlehem Times Bethlehem 

Boyertown Bauer Boyertown 

Bucks County Express Doylestown 

Canton(Ohio) Repository Canton, Ohio 

Carbon County Democrat Mauch Chunk 

Center Democrat Bellefonte 

Coopersburg Sentinel Coopersburg 

Der Waffenlose Wachter Gap - 

Der Deutsche Pionier Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Doylestown Morgenstern Doylestown 

East on Argus 
Easton Democrat 
Easton Express 
Easton Free Press 
Easton Sentinel 
Easton Sunday Call 
Elizabethville Echo 
Emaus Herald 
Evening Leader 
Father Abraham 
Father Abraham 
Geist der Zeit - 














Lehigh County 
Lehigh County 



















Hummelstown Sun - 

Jefferson Democrat 

Keystone Gazette 

Kutztown Journal and 

Lebanon News 

LebanonCourior and 

Hummel stovm 










Mauch Chunk 

Mauch Chunk 

Lebanon Pennsylvanier 

Lehighton Press 

Lititz Express 

Lititz Record 

Macungie Progress 

Manheim Sentinel 

Manheim Sun 

Mauch Chunk Democrat 

Mauch Chunk Times 

Mauch Chunk Daily Times Mauch Chunk 

Middleburg Post Middleburg 

Myerstown Sentinel Myerstown 

Myerstown Enterprise Myerstown 

Northampton Correspondent Easton 

Northampton Democrat Easton 

Penn Press 

Pennsylvania Dutchman 

Pennsylvania German 


Pennsylvania Staats 

Pine Grove Herald 


Pine Grove 


























Reading Adler 



Reading Times and 



Reformed Church Record 



Republikaner von Berks 



Rural Press 

Kemp ton 


Rural Press 



The Advocate 



The American Volunteer 



South Bethlehem Star - 

South Bethlehem 


Spirit of Berks 



The National Educator 



Unabhangiger Republikaner -Allentown 


Uncle Samuel - 








The writer of this dissertation was born at Lower Saucon 
(Hellertown) , Pennsylvania, August 27, 1878. He attended the 
public schools, and 1894-5, the Keystone State Normal School, 
Kutztown, Pa., from which he graduated 1895. After three years 
of teaching he studied at the Pennsylvania State College, State 
College, Pa. and at Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., graduating 
from the latter in the Classical Course (A.B.) 1901. From 1901- 

1906 he was Tutor of German and Greek at Lafayette College; 1906 - 

1907 Instructor at the United States Naval Academy Preparatory 
School, Annapolis, Aid. During the summer of 1903 he attended 
Summer School at the University of Marburg, Germany. 

In September, 1907 he entered the Graduate School of the 
Johns Hopkins University. (During the year 1907-8 he was Instructor 
in Latin and German at the College of Notre Dame, Baltimore, Mdj 
1908-9 he was University Scholar in Germanics and 1909-11, Uni- 
versity Fellow in Germanics). He has studied under Professors 
V/ood, Collitz, KIrby Smith, Gildersleeve, Bloomfield, Wilson, 
Robinson, Mustard, Hofmann and Roulston. 

He takes this opportunity to express his gratitude to them 
for the inspiration they have been to him and the helpful en- 
couragement they have given him; his especial indebtedness to 
Professors Wood and Collitz is hereby acknowledged. Under the 
direction of Professor V/ood this dissertation was prepared; to 
his counsel and criticism during every stage of its preparation 
the writer here bears testimony. 

The Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 

May 1, 1911. 


I '-■