I HE FISENHOWER LIBRARY
3 1151 02692 0193
■■BHH H i^HBHi Cf^e^
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The Literature of the Pennsylvania German Dialect:
with a Bibliography.
A Dissertation submitted to the Board of University
Studies of the Johns Hopkins University in conformity with
the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy,
Harry Hess Re i chard.
!$"<&, o 3^
Sunt bona, sunt quaedam mediocria, aunt mala plura
Quae legis hie: aliter non fit, Avite, liber.
Martialis Epigranimaton Lib. I. XVI,
Poetry may be regarded and estimated from two
points of view,- the a priori and the a posteriori.
The former rests on principles which are very likely
to be arbitrary and incomplete. It will always be
found to be more satisfactory to ask ourselves what
a thing is or has been - provided of course, an answer
is possible - than to decide what it ought to be
according to certain principles laid down by our-
R.Y.Tyrrell - Turnbull Lectures on
TABL E of C ONTENTS .
Introduction - - p. 3
Beginnings of the Literature - - p. 11
Sohaff, Philip - - p.22
Rond thaler, Emanuel - - p. 24
Miller, Louie - - P«30
The earlier period and writers no longer living .
Harbaugh, Henry - - p. 3 2
Rauch, Edward H. - - p. 33
Wollenweber, Ludwig A. - - .62
Fisher, Henry L. - - p. 68
Home, Abraham R. - - p. 80
Rupp, Israel D. - - p. 92
Brunner, David B. - - p. 95
Grumbine, Lee L. - - p. 101
Mays, George - - p. 115
Shuler, Henry A. - - p. 120
Hoffman, Walter J. - - .124
Hermany, Edward - - - p. 127
The later period: writers still living.
Eshelman, Edgar M. - - p. 120
Grumbine, Ezra - - p. 134
Harter, Thomas H. - - p. 145
Henninger, Milton C. - - p. 153
Keller, Eli - p. 159
Lins, Joseph - - p. 164
Meyer, Henry - p. 168
Miller, Daniel - p. 172
Miller, Harvey M. - - p. 177
Rhoads, Thomas J.B. - - p. 188
Stump, Adam - - p. 191
Weitzel, Louisa - - p. 197
Wuohter, As tor 0. - - p. 201
Ziegler, Charles C. - - p. 207
Zimmerman, Thomas C. - - p. 231
Results and Conclusions - p. 245
Bibliography - - - p. 255
Bibliography of the Literature of the Pennsylvania German
Dialect.- - p. 277
Poetry - - - p. 281
Prose - p. 319
Dictionaries - - p. 346
A List of Newspapers - - p. 349
"People who will take no pride in the noble achieve-
ments of remote ancestors will never achieve anything worthy to
be remembered with pride by remote descendants" are the words of
Liacaulay that were prefixed to a call that went out from Lancaster
Pennsylvania, in February, 1891. The call was issued by a small
self' appointed committee to certain representative Pennsylvania
Germans in particular, and to all who might be interested in gen-
eral, inviting them to meet in the Court House at Lancaster on the
15th of April for the purpose of organizing a society of the des-
cendants of early German, and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania, with
the following objects in view;
1. to search out and preserve ancestral records.
2. to bring their forefathers into such recognition in the
eyes of the world and especially of their own children as
3. to develop the friendly and fraternal spirit that should
exist between those in whose vein the same blood flows.
4. to lift their history then unnoticed or unknown to the po-
sition it ought to hold, and very particularly
5. to preserve to posterity the old public records, landmarks,
and memorials which in another generation would have en-
On the day set, the Pennsylvania German Society was
organized with George F.Baer, President of the Reading Railroad
System as its first President. The sentiments of the call were in-
corporated In its constitution? then it began to set itself ser-
iously to the self =impoaed task; how well it has succeeded is
attested in part, by the eagerness with which historical organi-
zations subscribe for the massive volume issued every year. To
the substantial work of this society it is due tliat statements like
the following are now being made: "JJhe closing years of the nine-
teenth and the opening years of the twentieth century witnessed the
birth of a deep and widespread interest in the early history of the
Germans who came to Pennsylvania in the first days of that great
Commonwealth. The subject has grown in interest as records of the
past brought to light the doings of these sturdy, pious, conscientious
sons of the Fatherland, until today every new phase of the subject
is anxiously waited for and warmly welcomed by all who take an in-
terest in our beginnings, in our country. Pennsylvania Dutch, once
a term of ridicule, has become a topic of the most absorbing inter-
est to all who are inclined to look into the history of the past."
The statement is made by Elder D.L.Miller of Mt. Morris, 111. in the
Introduction to John L.Plory's "Literary Activity of the German
Baptist Brethren" published by the University of Virginia, in 190 9.
As further evidence of this aroused interest, it might be men-
tioned that a North Carolinian is at present tracing the influence
of the Pennsylvania German in the upbuilding of that Commonwealth
and a student of Columbia University is at work upon the influence
of the Pennsylvania German in the West.
On October 27, 1905, when the Pennsylvania German
Society met in Reading, Pa. Judge Gustav A.Endlich, LL.D. in his
address as President said: "I almost feel constrained to apologize
for not addressing you in your own vernacular. But you know they
Insist on printing everything that is said at theae meetings and
f ortunately as yet everyone has his own way of spelling in Penn-
sylvania German, so that hardly anybody can make sense out of what
any other has written. If it were not for the lack of a distinctive
alphabet or at least a settled orthography, the Pennsylvania German
might even have a literature."
But there doe3 exist such a literature, and it has
been recognized and 3poken of in sufficiently coii^endatory terms
to warrant U3 at the outset in overruling the decision of the Judge,
learned in the law. To note but a few instances where such liter-
ature ha3 been recognized:
Oscar Kuhns: "German and Swiss Settlements in Pennsylvania"
c hapter five, p. 121 ff. - three poets are briefly dis-
cussed, a fourth is mentioned in a footnote: and one
Karl Knor,z: "Streifzuge auf dem Gebiete Amerikanischer Volks-
kunde" p. 76 ff . speaks of two poets^ and in his "Geschichte
der Nord Amerlkanische Literatur" Vol.11, p. 190 ff. three
writers are mentioned.
Julius Goebel: "Das Deutschthum in den Vereinigten Staaten
von Nord Amerika" refers to one poet. (p. 30 )
The Collection "Deutsch in Amerika" edited by Dr.G.U.Zimmermann
Chicago, describes three writers. p.XLV. and 245 ff.
Georg von Bosse: "Das Deutsche Element in den Vereinigten
Staaten" S. 436 mentions one writer and one volume of
Albert Bernhardt Paust: "The German Element in the United
States" discussed two poet3, Vol.11, p. 340; and gives a
somewhat fuller list in the Bibliography.
It is not our purpose here to consider the old def-
initions of literature nor yet to 3et up a new one, but rather to
accept such a general recognition of a Pennsylvania German litera-
ture a3 indicated above and to adopt a liberal definition such a3
the one offered by Prof. George S.Woodberry in his "Appreciation
of Literature" (Baker and Taylor Co., New York, 1907) p.l ff. and
present what has been written in the dialect.
"Literature" he says, "is an art of expression: the
material which it employs is experience or in other words, litera-
ture is the expression of life. Action, emotion and thought are
the three great divisions of life and constitute experience. Lit-
erature attempts to represent such experience through the medium
of language and to bring it home to the understanding of the reader."
In the C8.se of the works cited above, it is in-
variably the same authors that are discussed. In all about half
a dozen different writers are briefly mentioned. Prof .Faust, in
the latest authoritative work that mentions this literature is able
to give less than two pages to it but says that it is "refreshing
and historically valuable? if this be true, it ought to be worth-
while to have a more extensive knowledge of it. With a view to
thi3 - I now have in my possession or have seen all the books that
have ever been published in the dialect and also advance copies of
two that are shortly to be published.
"In poetry" says Prof. Kuhn3 "much more of a higher
sort has been written, generally however, in the form of transla-
tions from English, and occasional poetry appearing for the most
part in newspapers or recited on festive occasions." Along this
line I have made collections from papers, magazines and manuscripts
that run up into several hundred selections, and have added a
large number of names. The fact that for a short time a magazine
was published in the dialect, does not 3eem to be known to any one
that has written about the dialect literature. A Calendar in the
dialect i3 mentioned in Americana-Germanica Vol. p. : I have
found and am in possession of another} finally the prose written in
the form of weekly letters to a large number of newspapers have a
value and an interest that has never received its due appreciation.
In the next place, there ought to be room for an
investigation and balancing of opinions as variant as the following:
Karl Knoi;z, in discussing one of tho two poets mentioned by him
says: "Einer der neuesten Beitrage zur Pennsylvaniech-deutschen
Literatur - - bildet, um es kurz und bundig zu sagen das a ller -
t raurigste ^rzeugnis derselben. M --- "Der Verfasser, der noch nicht
einmal seine sogenannte 'Muttersprache' kennt aieht mit den Regeln
der Dichtkunst auf gespanntom Fusse? and then goes on to show that
the book has no legitimate excuse to justify its existence. It is
of the same man and the same book that Dr.Zimmermann in his col-
lection "Deutsch in Amerika" says "Von Hatur mit gesundem Humor
begabt, schrieb er viele Gedichto und Skizzen in Pennsylvanisch
deutscher Mundart, das Alltagsleben der Deutschen in Pennsylvanien
meisterhaf t schildern d" And again this same nan and this same
work is referred to by Prof .Faust when he says: "The two most prom*
inent poets , for such a title may be bestowed upon them " and when
he says: "This poetical literature of the Pennsylvania Germans is
one of the few original notes in American lyrical poetry."
Here there certainly seems room for a meditation
between such divergent opinions. Or to cite another instance: In
the Friedensbote, published at Allentown, Pa. a Pennsylvania Ger-
man writes a letter in the dialect, apropos of the book to be issued
on and in the dialect by Dr. Home, then Principal of the Keystone
State Normal School at Kutztown, Pa. After discussing the ancestry
of the dialect, he proceeds to consider the books that have hither-
to been written in the dialect, with a view to giving the prospective
author advice as to what errors of former writers he must avoid.
The particular paragraph that I have at present in mind, I give in
the original dialect: M Rau warm du dra* gehst for sel Buch zu
schreiwe los des verhenkert (Snglisch) Kauderwelsch haus wo gar
net in unser Sproch g'hort. Ich arger mich allemol schwarz un
bio wann so dumm stoff gedruckt un in die Welt g'schickt werd wo
Pennsylvanisch deitsch sei. soil, awer lautor geloge is. 'S is uns
verlaschtert wo mirs net verdient hen. Un wann dei Buch mol fer-
tig is un's kummt mir unner die Finger un ' s is so *n elendiger
V/isch wie kerzlich wieder eoner in Fildelfi raus kumme is, dann
ufgobasst - for dann verhechel ich dich dass du aussehnst wie
verhudelt Schwingwerk, un die Leut dich for'n Spuks a'gucke."
"Schinnerhannes von Calrr.ushiwel ."
Such is the opinion expressed by a Pennsylvania Ger-
man editor of a book published in Philadelphia- "Gemalde aus dem
Pennsylvania chen Volksleben: Schilderungen und Aufsatze in poetischer
und prosaischer Form in Mundart und Ausdrucksweise der Deut3ch
Pennsylvanier? von Ludwig August '-Vollenweber. Schaeffer und Koradi,
Philadelphia und Leipzig, 1859. This same work is called by
Karl Xnorz M ein wertvollos Workchen 11 and then he tells that here
we may expect the truth, for the author was himself one of these
people, etc. Here again there seems to be room for an investigation
into the reason for this difference of opinion and perhaps a chance
to get at the truth where opinions differ and surely where there
are errors of fact.
A more nearly oomplote survey of the whole field
and an attempt to arrive at the exact truth in questions of fact
are accordingly here offered in the first Instance. The attempt
is then made to determine whether the one or the other of the op-
posing general estimates is correct, and finally whether a new one
will have to be set up.
The Beginnings of the Literature.
For the earliest example in print of what purports to
be a specimen of the dialect we must undoubtedly ha r e recourse to
Johann David Schopf 'a Travels (1783-1784) published at Erlangen
1788 and reprinted in Radlof f s "Musteraaal aller teutschen Mund-
arten" Bonn, 1822. Vol.11, p. 361; but the man does not exist who
would acknowledge this as his dialect, or who would recognize it
as a native idiom at all. Prof .Ilaldeman, who cited the passage in
"Pennsylvania Dutch" agrees in regarding it as nothing other than
a sportive example and a spurious joke.
In Firmenich: "Germaniens Vftlkerstimmen" , Vol. III.
p. 445 Berlin, 1854, there is another longer specimen which was taken
from a Pennsylvania Newspaper.
The earliest examples in print of writing in the
dialect by such as also spoke it, must be sought in the newspapers
of eastern Pennsylvania of the early 40* s; w Der Deutsche in
Amerika" of 1841 contained some rhymed compositions: they were "ex
hamaxes" and in various ways suggest the impromptu productions
which we are taught to believe were the forerunners of the Aris-
tophanean comedy, and which were composed by the bacchanalian
chorus of rustics. In 1846 advertising doggerels appeared in the
Allentown Friedenebote. One after another the newspapers took up
the matter, publishing short prose or verse selections; their read-
era wanted it; except in familiar intercourse with each other, the
fcural population of eastern Pennsylvania was obliged to use one or
the other of two foreign languages; in business chiefly and in law
entirely it was the English: in their religious and intellectual
life it was the High German; accordingly they seem to have welcomed
almost anything that was in the language of their daily speech; they
seem to have felt a void because their speech was only something
to he heard and not also something that oould he seen; that that
is the way they felt I prove in this way; twenty years after this,
when in many papers they could see their speech in print every
week, there manifested itself a more ambitious desire, to see their
speech between the covers of a book. I take the story from the In-
troduction to Wollenwober's "Gem&lde aus dem Pennsylvanlschen Volks-
leben? I can believe that the story is literally true. (On the
language, which is not strictly Pennsylvania German, I shall have
something to say when I consider the contents of the book.)
"Ich war nie uf de Gedanke komme das Buch zu schreiwe, abey ,
do war ich das Fruhjohr uf dem grosse Pelse bei Allentaun, un hab
uf dem wunnerbar schftne Platz, wo mer viele Meile weit die schftne
Berge un das vun Gott so gesegnete Land sehene kann.
"Un wie ich do so gestanne, un die Natur so bewunnert
hab, das mei Herz ganz weeg geworre, un's Wasser mer schier in
die Auge komme ischt, do kommt uf e mol en alter Mann dorch die
Hecke un stellt sich grad nebe mich, und frogt mich, wie ich die
Ansicht do gleiche that. Sehr gut, geb ich ihra zur Antwort. Well,
sagt er, ich wohne a paar Meile von do, un komme wanna Wetter schft
ischt, schier alle Monat uf de Pelse, un warm ich mich dann so
recht satt gesehne hab, do geht mei Herz uf , un ich mehn ich war
im rechte Tempel Gottes, und dank dem guten Vater un Schftpfer mit
ganzer Seele mit ganzem Herze, dass er una e so schon's un gut's
Land gegebe hot.- Un warm ich vun meiner Bergras wieder hem kumra,
bin ich ganz vergnugt, un predig meiner Fra un Kinner, wie scho
als Gott die Welt gemacht hot, un wie mer ihm daftir danke sollte.
"Nau hab ich a schon dran gedenkt, wenn e mol e
Bucherhandler dran gehn dat, un dat e Buch drucke losse wo mer in
uns're egene deutache Sproch, fiber unser Land un Volk less konnte
un nebebei a so gespassige Stuckelchen nin bringe, wie ae manchmol,
im Doylestouner Morgenatem un Express 3tehn, un wie ae die Yohre
zuruck ira Kutztowner Neutralist gestanne hent, daa em der Bauch
vor Lache gewackelt hot, un ich bin achur davon alle raeine Nochbere
date ao e Buch kafe, un der Buchhandler dat net achlecht dabei aua-
mache un aich noch Dank dazu verdiene.-
"Well, sagt ich zu dem Altem, ich geh morge nftber
noch Philadelphia, wo ich die Buchhandler Schafer und Koradi kenn,
und ich will mit ihm von Eurera Vorachlag schwatze, vielleicht gehn
ae dran, un loaae ao a Buch drucke, un bia mer dann wieder e mol
uf dem Felae zuaamme kumme iacht3 Buch vielleicht fertig. Awer
Drubel warda koate, dann unaer Pennaylveniach Deutach iacht hart
zu schreiwe, un Ehner achreibts ao, der Annere wieder anneraht, un
mancher verengliacht es so, daaa mehr gar nimme draus kumme kann.
Doch denk ich wann a hier un do a Mistak im Buch gemacht werd,
warre die Leut es net ao hart ufnehme, aiacht jo 'a erdt Probe-
stftck, e Buch in Pennaylveniach Deutach. Nau aagte der Alte, wann
du aell aewege bringat, un e Peddler kommt mit dem Buch in unare
Gegend, do wett ich eena gege zwe, dass er all verkaft wo er hot,
dass er geschwind mit fertig werd, will ich ihm mei bests Gaul gebe
for rum zu reite.-
"Der alte Mann druckte mir die Hand und 3agte very
well. - Ich war aber noch net aatt genunk fiber die acho Gegend
zu guke, un ea war schier Nacht wie ich hem kumme bin. -Dem alte
Mann aei Geschwatz ischt mir die ganze Nacht dorch de Kop ge-
gange, un nachste Morge bin ich noch Philadelphia un weil mei
Geschaft a bald gesettlet war, hab ich den Buchhandler dem alten
Mann von Lecha County 3ei Wunsch gesagt, un sie ware a gleich redy
for die Sach* un nau werd bald das Buch uberall rum gehn, wanna
nur a gefallt, das dat dem Schrelwer en arge Freud mache, un er
dat uf sei Pennsylvenier un uf sel Pennsylvenier noch stolzer
werre wie er jetzt achun iacht."
The same forces which called these fir at nrewpaper
artiolea and this first book into exiatence continued to operate
and to a certain extent are atill operative. In a book published
in 1904 entitled "Boonastiel" -Pennsylvania Dutch, by Thomas Harter,
the author expreaaea himself thus in the preface: "The articlea
contained in this volume were published from time to time in the
Middleburgh Post, (Pa) of which I was editor until 1894 and aince
then in the Keyatone Gazette, Belief onte, Pa. under the headline
'Brief e ifum Hawaa Barrick' addressed to myaelf as 'Liewer Kernel
Harder' and aigned 'Gottlieb Boona8tiel f . At first they were only
written for peraonal amuaement, and appeared only occaaionally, but
I soon found them 30 eaaential to the proaperity of my paper that
in order to keep up ita circulation, I was compelled to write every
week and now have a great number of lettera on file, out of which
I have selected the substance that composes this volume." As
recently as July of this year -1910 - Xr. Harter announced that the
Boonastiel letters would be reprinted and they are at present
running in the Gazette.
Twice already has H.K.Miller, who writes for the
Elizabethvills Echo, Elizabethville, Pa. felt that his articles
were popular enough to warrant his publishing them in book form.
Two of these publications have run through a second edition, and
each has had a second printing. Another volume has been printed,
(I have a copy) and is nearly ready to be given to the public.
A man who can guage the forces at work among the Penn-
sylvania Germans and interpret then as correctly as few are able to
do is Daniel Miller of Reading, Pa. After retiring from the pub-
lishing business he collected and published in 1903 a volume of
prose and verse in the dialect which has gone through two editions;
during the last year - 1909 - he has made further collections and
has now in press another volume which will be issued early in 1911,
and of which I was permitted to see the manuscript this summer -1910 -
and now- April 1911 - havo the advance sheets.
I have cited these few instances to indicate one
reason for the existence of certain works in the dialect. Karl
Knor A z, "Nord Amerikanische Literatur" Vol. II. p. 192 speak3 of a
book which he does not think has a right to exist and leaves the
impression that the author rushed into print; this again is not
correct, for whether the author was justified or not in yielding
to the demand, there was a distinct demand that he make the pro-
ductions accessible in permanent form; to the teachers of York
County he had recited the productions at a County Institute and
they were desirous of possessing them.
In like manner the friends of Dr.Grumbine of Lebanon
have for a number of years been urging him to make a selection of
his numerous writings and publish them in book form, but he has
not yet consented to do so.
A book in the dialect will naturally obtain only a
small circulation outside of the district where the dialect is spok-
en; if the book is written by one of these people and for them and
for the most part about them, and accepted with satisfaction hy
these people, we may be reasonably certain that we have either a
flattering idealization of then or at loagt a faithful portrait
and not a caricature. (It may be noted in illustration of this
point, that Mrs. Helen Reifsnyder Martin's novels are not among the
most popular works in the district about which she writes.)
w Ein Bauer der seine Sprache frei und sicher spricht,
1st ein ' Mann ? er bringt una den Hauch einer eigener 7/elt, seine
Weltanschauung, mit: so hart sie sein mag - er korant nie an una
heran ohne Erquickung der Seele" says Klaus Groth. That a number
of writers, by responding to the desire of the people to have some-
thing in their own speech, have succeeded in giving us the Welt-
anschauung of the body of the Pennsylvania Germans will be shown
by the words with which they have been greeted by their own people
and the success which has attended their endeavors as authors.
President John S.Stahr of Franklin and Marshall College, said a
number of years ago: "The Pennsylvania German dialect effectively
expresses the simplicity, honesty, innocence, pathos and beauty
of the daily life of these people, and the experiences which they
have made as part of their history. There is certainly room,
therefore, for the study of such literature as they have produced
on this plane."
In a little volume "Marsch und Geest: Gedichte in
Oldenburg, niederdeutscher Mundart" von Franz Poppe, Oldenburg,
1379 we may read on the first page:
Se saen, wi Noorddutschen
Verstunnen kin Gesang
An'n Rhiin un an de Donau,
Dar harr de Sprak blot Klang.
Dat hett us lang verdraten
Dat se us so veracht't
As harm se't Recht torn Singen
Far sick allsenig pacht't.
Evidently dialects in different parts of the world
have the same reproaches hurled at them and have the same prejudices
to contond with. Out of pure Belf defense they have sought adequate
expression. The spirit thus aroused expresses itself in one of two
ways} the first - men of poetic bent, men who have already written
poetry in a recognized literary idiom , now at last, either of their
own motion or by request, essay the rhythm of their native speech
and bring forth their productions with a defiant- There , now stand
corrected. The second - men will burst out with declarations of
their affection for the despised tongue and in their very passion
Of the first class in Pennsylvania German are
J.Max Hark: "En Hondfull Farsh", and some of the poems of Lee Light
Grumbine. Both are men enjoying a wide acquaintance with literature
both can frame their thoughts as readily in Pennsylvania German
as in English; both had written English poetry. To them the Pem
sylvania German Society said in effect - "Why not speak for and in
the dialect?" Among those who acknowledged conversion may be cited
C.F.Ferdinand Ritschl, Imperial German Consul at Philadelphia, Pa,
who said of Grumbine' s efforts "I am sure your book will be most
successful in correcting the popular misconceptions of the dialect.
I was surprised myself by the adaptability of the dialect to a
subject like tha 'Ancient Mariner'. Your translation of that poem
is beautiful, etc. Till now I had had the idea that Pennsylvania
German was only adapted for homelike feelings and situations, but
I stand corrected."
To those who moved of their own initiative belongs
Col. Thomas G. Zimmerman, who after translating many German lyrics
into English, proceeded to translate Scotoh, English and Irish
ballads into Pennsylvania German. To the second class belong such
poems as that of worshipful adoration of his mothertongue by
Adam Stump, of which the last stanza runs thus:
eanfto, deire Muttersproch:
Wie Hunnig fliesst sie darrich mei Sinn!
Un wann ich mol im Himmel hoch
Mei scheene Heemet dun gewinne
Dann heer ich dort zu meinomiwohl
En Mutterwort - ja, ah ebmol.
Or the words of Ziegler, confident of its powers:
Will ich recht ve'stannig schwetze
Eppes ausenanner setze -
A,B,C un eens, zwee, drei,
So dass jeder commoner Mann
Klar un deitlich sehne kann
Well 'as Gold is un wel Blei,
Nem ich gute deitsche Warte,
We is un schwarzi, weech un harte
Noh vollbringt die Sach sich glei.
Or again the vigorous words of Dr. Keller:
Ich schwetz in der deitsche Sproch
Lieb sie ah un halt sie hoch;
Sie is ah ken Nevekind
Das mer in de Hecke find -
Sie kummt her fum Sch6ne Rhei
Wu sie Trauwe hen un Weil
This incentive to write, finds its parallel again in Europe; listen
once more to Franz Poppe:
Us' Sprak is as us' Heiden
Ursprungelk noch un free
Us Sprak is deep un m&chtig
Un prachtig as de See. - -
Min Modersprak, wo klingst du
So sot un doch so stark;
We leew: ick di van Hart en,
Du Land vull Kraft un Mark I
The establishment of the Pennsylvania German Magazine,
now in its eleventh year, affording a reasonably large audience of
interested readers has been instrumental in bringing forward a
number of new singers, among whom at the present time is a Professor
in a lar^e University in Ohio.
From a Pennsylvania German poetess the call has
gone out ;
WU sin die deitsche Dichter
Sie sin verschwunne all
Wu sin die grosse Lichter
In unsere Ruhmeshall
Heraus, heraus, Reimreiser,
Wu sin ihr all versteckt
Ihr sin jo die Wegweiser
Die Schoheit uferweckt.
Still another reason for the existence of verses
in the dialect, is that somebody perhaps now grown old remembers a
custom in vogue in the days of the grandfathers. The custom wa3
peculiar to German people: the person who vaguely remembers it,
wishes to communicate his knowledge to the younger generation which
does not know of it, or he wishes to delight the old by recalling
it. Instinctively he feels for the dialect as the proper medium
and generally in veneration of the old custom he will try to dig-
nify it by versifying. The writer of some verses in the Lebanon
Report of Feb. 5, 1900 has prefixed introductory remarks of the
above tenor to a description of "The Metzel Day Soup."
Moreover, the person who is thus imparting know-
ledge has often been induced to versify, because his poetized lore
will live longer, not to his own glory, for he does not attach
his name, but to recall something that is no more. The folk, and
this is well known, will be more likely to cut out and preserve
such a selection than one in prose or in English on the same sub-
ject. A much better description of "The Metzel Soup Day" was printed
in a Lancaster Llagazine in 1891, but only in the files of the
editor did I find it, whereas rhymed descriptions can be gathered
almost anywhere. This is one case that can be paralleled by many.
Such selections have a historical value.
Another small class of books may be mentioned as owing
their existence to a very real necessity: it is stated thus in tfee
preface to the second edition of Home's "Pennsylvania German Manual"
1895. "The great problem presented for solution i3 how shall 6 to
800,000 inhabitants of eastern Pennsylvania, to say nothing of
those of other parts of our own state and of other states, to whom
English is as much a dead language as Latin and Greek, acquire a
sufficient knowledge of English to enable them to use that language
intelligently." As a guide to the study of English, the manual
which includes a guide to pronunciation, a select Reader, and a
Dictionary, was submitted to the public for use in schools and
families. The book was first published in 1875 and a fourth edition
is at present being called for. There exist a number of other
works of this class.
When in the year 1843, Dr. Krummacher, the Berlin
theologian and pulpit orator, after some hesitation declined the
profferred Professorship of Theology at ^ercersfeurg, Pa. he suggest-
ed for the place, a young licentiate, who had just taken up his
position as privat dozent at the University of Berlin. After the
necessary formalities, this young man, Dr. Philip Schaff, landed
in New York in July 1844. Prom Easton, Pa. where he entered the
region of the people who had called him, his progress to Mercers-
burg was almost a triumphal procession; Germans and Americans pour-
ing out to meet him. Dr. Schaff was attracted by the signs of
prosperity in town and country, the ample farmhouses, the large and
well cultivated farms and the kindness with which he was entertain-
ed. Everywhere he heard German, not the German of the peasantry or
of the Educated classes in Germany, but the Colloquial dialect
known as Pennsylvania German. - - For twenty years he went in
and out among them, finding sterling virtues not excelled in any
other population in the land. These facts are cited from the Life
of Philip Schaff by his son, David S. Schaff. (Scribner's, New York,
This commanding personage, who meant so much for
the religious life of Europe and America, merits for several reasons
brief consideration in an account of Pennsylvania German poetry;
early in life he had ambitions to become a poet, nourished his
mind at the founts of German poesy and had even versified to a
certain extent himself; his developing literary sense presently
told him that he was no poet, notwithstanding it enabled him to
recognize poetic talents in others. In 1848, he began the publi-
cation of the "Deutschen Kirchenfreund" (the first German Literary
Monthly in this country) to supply the literary need of those to
whom he ministered; in this he published (and perhaps for the
first time) what is said to be the earliest poem in the dialect -
a poem which appeared anonymously in the number of August 1849,
entitled "Abendlied^ (See Rondthaler)
But his connection with the poetry of this people
was to become more fruitful still. He it was who detected poetic
talent in the timid Harbaugh, and calling his attention to the above
mentioned lone specimen in the dialect, suggested to him the de-
sirability of doing for Pennsylvania German in song what Hebel
had done for the Allemanic dialect; the first fruits of this
suggestion were then modestly submitted to Schaff before publication;
these did not however Include the one poem now known and cited
wherever Pennsylvania German is mentioned "Das Schulhaus an der
Krick" As Harbaugh is the inspiration in turn of all or nearly
all the subsequent writers in the dialect, it may be truly said
of Schaff that he it was who awakened the muse among a people who,
from the days of terror at the end of the seventeenth century when
they left their Fatherland along the Rhine, down to the middle
of the nineteenth century, had not expressed themselves in secular
other' sources of information
for the chapter on
B manu9l Rondth a 1 e r .
Correspondence with members of his family.
Life of Harbaugh - Lynn Harbaugh, Philada, 1900.
Life of Philip Schaff- D.S.Schaff, Hew York, 1897.
Nazareth Hall and it3 Reunions. Reichel, Philada, 1869.
Pennsylvania German, Vol. I. 2. 18.
Pennsylvania German, Vol.7. 3. 121.
The aong for which the claim has been ! ade that it
is the earliest known poem in the dialect wa3 entitled "Abendliod"
when, in August 1349, it first appeared in the "Deutsoher Kirchen-
freund" published by Philip Schaff. Up to 1857, Dr.Schaff declined
to reveal the identity of the author, but shortly thereafter
attributed its authorship to the Rev. Edward Rondthaler Sr. a Mo-
ravian missionary and minister who was for a time tutor and sub-
sequently Principal of the famous Moravian School, Nazareth Hall,
Nazareth, Pa. and who died in 1855.
On the occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of
the founding of this school in 1769, a book was prepared by
William C. Reichel, "Nazareth Hall and its Reunions',' Lippincott,
Philada, Pa, 1869, in which our poem is included in an appendix, -
but under the title "Morgets un Oweds" and with a slightly modified
orthography; we are there informed that the author was the Rev.
Emanuel Rondthaler, a brother of the above named, who had also been
a teacher in the same institution, and who died in 1848. This
la3t statement is confirmed by Bishop Edward Rondthaler, of
Winston-Salem, N.C. a son of the former, and by Miss Elizabeth
Rondthaler of Bethlehem, Pa, a daughter of the latter, from whom
also comes the statement that it was written by her father about
1335 when he was twenty years old because he desired to prove as
above stated A that the Pennsylvanie German, so generally despised
could bo used to express poetic and refined sentiment. A consider-
ation of certain phenomena of nature and particularly of the morn-
ing bringing favorable omens as compared with those of evening,
leads our divine to note in general the mutability of human fortiine
on which follows the comforting reflection that "up yonder" what
is fair In the morning will "be no less so at eventide, if there
he an eventide there at all. Hereupon the poet hurst into an
expression of passionate longing for that blest abode, and calls
upon his friends not to grieve for him when he is laid in the
tomb and enters the realms where there is no change. (cf. for
subject matter I.Thess. IV. 13 )
Prof .Reichel, in his introductory remarks declared
it as his belief "that it is one of the first attempts to render
that mongrel dialect the vehicle of poetic thought and diction."
He commends the poem for the touching appeal it makes to the finer
feelings of our nature, and the spirit of Christian faith and hope
with which it is imbued. The Professor adds a translation into
. - j
English in a different metre^this is in reality more in the nature
of a paraphrase.
As to the "mongrel" dialect, it is interesting to
note that of the 162 words in the poem, only two are English, and
of these it is possible that one could be eliminated if we had the
original text, inasmuch as a third extant version of the poem make3
in this very place a good rhyme with an undoubted Pennsylvania
Reichel' s version betrays an effort made by means
of the orthography to accentuate the difference between the pro-
nunciation of the dialect and the High German. While a few of his
changes might meet with acceptance, his version i3 not on the
whole successful, and at least one change is made in gender which
violates present usage in that same county.
Margets acheint die Sun bo scho
Owets gent der gehl Mond uf,
Margets leit der Dau im Klee,
Owets tritt mer drucke druf.
Marge t9 sings all die Vogel,
Owets greischt die Loabkrot arg.
Margets gloppt mer mit der Flegel,
Owets leit mer schon im Sarg.
Alles dut sich annern do,
Nix bleibt immer so wie now,
Was ei'm Freed macht, bleibt net so,
Werd gar arg bald hart un rau.
Drowe werd es anners sein,
Dart, wo's now so blow aussicht;
Dart is Margets alles feih,
Dart is Owets alles Lioht.
Margets is dart Freed die Full:
Owets is es au nooh so,
Margets i9 em's Herz so still,
Owets is mer au noch froh.
AchJ wie dut me doch gelischte
Nach der blowe Wohnung dart;
Dart mit alle gute Chrischte,
Freed zu habe, Ruh alsfcrt.
Warm sie mi in's Grab nein trage,
Greint net, denn ich hab's so scho:
Wann sie es is Owets sage
Denkt - bei ihm is sell all anes;
Deutscher Kirchenfreund, 1649
Pennsylvania German, May 1906. p. 121.
Morgets und Owets.
Morgets scheint die Sun so scho,
Owets geht der gehl Mond uf ,
Morgets leit der Dau im Gla
Owets drett mer drucke druf.
Morgets cinge all die Feggle,
Owets greyscht der Lawb-krott arg,
Morgets gloppt met mit der Fleggle,
Owets leit mer sho im Sarg.
Alles dut sich ennere do,
Nix belibt immer so wie nau;
Wos' em Frad macht, bleibt nett so,
Werd gar arg bald harrt un rau.-
Drowe werd es annors sein,
Dart wo nau so bio aussicht,
Dart is Morgets alles fein,
Dart ia Owets alles Licht.
Morgets is dart Frad die Fill,
OwotB is es o noch so;
Morgets is ems Herz so still j
Owets is mer o noch fro.
Ach! wie dut mer doch gelischte,
Nach der blo'e Woning dart;
Dart nit alle gute Christe
Frad zu have - Roo ale fort.
Wann sie mich ins Grab nei drage,
Greint nett - denn ich habs so echo,-
Wann sie - "Ess is Owet!" - sage -
Denkt - bci ihm is sell, "Allone".
Nazareth Hall and itB Reunions, 1869
Pennsylvania German, May 1906, p. 121.
Morgets laid Owets. (Translation)
In the morning the sun shines cheerful and bright,
In the evening the yellow moon's splendor is shed;
In the morning the clover's with dew all bedight,
In the evening its blossoms are dry to the trea-" .
In the morning the birds sing in unison sweet,
In the evening the frog cries prophetic and loud;
In the morning we toil to the flail's dull beat,
In the evening we lie in our coffin and shroud.
Here on earth there is nothing exempt from rude change -
Naught abiding, continuing always the same;
What pleases is passing - is past, oh how strange!
And the joy that so mocked us is followed by pain.
But above twill be different, I very well know-
Up yonder where all is so calm and so blue!
In the morning there objects will be all aglow,
In the evening aglow too with Heaven's own hue.
In the morning up yonder our cup will be filled,
In the evening its draught will not yet have been drained,
In the morning our hearts will divinely be stilled,
In the evening ecstatic with bliss here unnamed.
And oh, how I long, how I yearn to be there,
Up yonder where all is so calm and so blue,
With the spirits of perfected just ones to share
Through eternity's ages joy and peace ever new.
And when to my grave I shall slowly he borne,
Oh weep and lament not, for I am bo blest ',
And when "it is evening" you'll sar or, "tis morn"-
Remember for me there is nothing but rert!
This is the translation of Rondthaler's "Abendlied"
made by Prof .William C.Reichel, Nazareth, Pa.
Pennsylvania German, Kay 1906. p. 121 f.
the sketch on
Amerikanische Volkskunde- Knorz, Leipzig.
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society,
Vol. XII. p. 379.
Short Sketch of the Pennsylvania Germans- Fisher,
Antedating Rondthaler is another Pennsylvania German
poet whose poems were however, in all probability not in print at
so early a date. Louis Miller was born the the son of a school
teacher, at York, Pa. Dec. 3rd. 1795 $ he became a carpenter and
later a builder, and is said to have gained credit and distinction
as suchj he was a man of ready wit, and of a culture unusual for
his time and in his community. This fund of inf ormation A acquired
by diligent self instruction and by one very extensile trip
through Europe. Besides this He was a talented cartoonist and
caricaturist as is shown by two volumes of his sketches still
extant. So far I possess only one of his poems; it is a driver's
song which was said to have had a goodly share of popularity in the
days when the German farmers of southern Pennsylvania used to
convey the products of their farms to market in Baltimore, in
their great Cones toga wagons.
When this dis.Tertation is published, the writer
will (with the consent of the Department) insert here an essay
on Henry Harbaugh. In view of the fact that in comparison with
other writers treated in this dissertation, Henry Harbaugh is
wellknown and of the additional fact that a Life of Henry Harbaugh
by his son, Lynn Harbaugh, has been published, it did not seem
necessary to make a special study of him and his work, for the
purposes of this dissertation.
for the chapter on
Allibone's Dictionary of Authors. Supplement. 1891.
Canton, Ohio Repository and Republican, Canton, Ohio.
Carbon County Democrat, Mauch Chunk, Pa.
College News, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa.
ElliB, Early English Pronunciation. London, 1869.
Father Abraham, Reading, Pa. 1864.
Father Abraham, Lancaster, Pa. 1868.
Geschichte der Nordamerikanischer Littsratur. Knorz, Berlin,
History of Carbon and Lehigh Counties, Matthews and Hungerford.
London Saturday Globe, Aug. 18, 1886.
Lebanon News, Lebanon, Pa.
New York Deutsche Blatter.
Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook, Mauch Chunk, Pa. 1879.
Philadelphia Press, Philadelphia, Pa.
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. III. 171
Reading Times and Dispatch, Reading, Pa.
The Pennsylvania Dutchman, Lancaster, Pa. 1873.
Rip Van Winkle. Mauch Chunk, Pa. 1883.
Col. Edward Henry Rauch.
In Col. Edward Henry Rauch were centered a ceaseless
activity, a wonderful initiative and an untiring energy that meant
more for the growth of Pennsylvania German Literature than any other
individual group of forces. To trace in detail his movements in
Pennsylvania would be too long a story, yet they must be passed in
rapid review, in order that we may be able to understand his re-
lations to the people of the state. He was born in Lititz, Pa.
July 19, 1820, grandson of Johann Heinrich Rauch who had come from
K&ln in 1769.
Presently we find Rauch in politics, as clerk in
the office of the Prothonotary at Lancaster - 1845; then three years
later, 1847, Deputy Register of Wills} again three years later
entering 3o urna li 0in > and under the leadership of Thaddeus Stevens
editing and managing two anti-slavery Whig papers- the Independent
Whig and the Inland Daily; in 1854 on his own account going to
Bethlehem and starting the Lehigh Valley Times, which he sold in
1857 and purchased the Mauch Chunk Gazette, to which he added, in
1859 a German paper - the Carbon Adler.
In ^859 he became transcribing clerk of the State
Legislature and in 1860 - 1862, chief clerk, although he accepted
this office only on condition that he sould have leave to go with
the Qompany he had raised for the war. Three years he was at the
front, when, on being discharged because of physical disability, he
started the Father Abraham at Reading, Pa. - a militant campaign
sheet in a county of doubtful loyalty. Next he became city editor
of the Reading Eagle; in 1868 we find him once more in Lancaster,
a second time founding a Father Abraham.
With Col.McClure he was one of the Greely Campaign managers in 1872,
four years after he published the "Uncle Samuel" in the Tilden Campaign
in 1878 x political conditions invited him oncejmore to Mauch Chunk
where he founded the Carbon County Democrat, and was sotan able to
absorb his rival whereupon he settled down to the end of his days
in ; in which place his son is still conducting the same paper.
Among minor accomplishments Rauch had the ability
to simulate almost any handwriting or to reproduce any signature.
This led him to study the subject until he became an expert, and as
such, during a period of almost fifty ^ears, he was called into
the courts of many states in cases involving disputed handwriting.
But this military and civil tribune was withal a
dialect writer. Already in his first Father Abraham, there appeared
an occasional short selection in dialect, but those were times of
too terrible earnestness for such work} but later, in 1868 with
the advent of the second Father Abraham, contributions in the dialect
over the signature of Pit Schweff elbrenner became a regular feature.
Karl Knorfe has referred to these selections as "Humor-
istisch sein sollende Brief e!J acormentary on this readers capacity
to appreciate humor; for, five years later the author of the letters
could speak of them as follows: n Our first regular productions
in Pennsylvania Dutch appeared in the Father Abraham campaign paper
over the signature of Pit Schweff elbrenner. They contributed more
to the remarkable popularity of that paper than anything else it
contained and the circulation increased rapidly not only in Penn-
sylvania but also in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, Wisconsin,
and other states." A bit of presumably disinterested opinion is
the following: While these letters were running in the Father
Abraham, the Philadelphia Press published a translation of one of
the letters for the benefit of its readers and prefaced the pro-
duction by the following statement.
We give below a first class specimen of that unique lit-
erature, which has within a few years become intensely popular, and
which carries with it a quaint logic often more convincing than
harder facts wrapped in satin ornaments. Every one has read with
delight the celebrated Bigelow papers, which gave point and pun-
gency to thoughts that the language of the forum or the parlor
would have suffered to lie dormant. The shrewd observations of
Naseby have not only immortalized the man, but have answered a pur-
pose which no other literature could have met. Thousands of dogmas
are presented which no argument can banish simply because they
cannot be reached by argument. They can be pushed aside by a con-
par tson, exploded by a joke, vaporized by a burlesque, or the vic-
timized party may be made ashamed of himself by seeing how ridiculous
his neighbor appears, who carries out the doctrines he so gladly
entertains and so blindly believes. Great good then, may be done
by the adoption of such a literature. Why, it is hard to tell, but
the fact is true, as every one will admit.
The East has thrown its patois into the books of
James Russell Lowell, under the signature of Hosea Biglow and no
one regrets their perusal. The Southweste-n form of speech and
method of argument has been incorporated in side-splitting letters
by Petroleum V. Naseby. The Pennsylvania Dutch is a language pe-
culiarly susceptible of similar use. Rauch, editor of Father Abra-
ham, a spirited campaign sheet, published in Lancaster, conceived
the idea of rounding this language, or rather this compound of
English and German languages, into effective and popular canvass*
ing logic. His success has been complete, and the letters of Pit
Schweffelbrenner, from Schliff letown have created a sensation, if
not as widespread, as intense as those from the "Confederate Cross-
roads which is in the Strait of Kentucky". The translation we append
is merely to give the substance of the original. It convoys no
idea of the peculiar and inimitable merits of the German version,
which consists more in the manner of saying it, than in what is said"
Prom the Pennsylvania Dutchman. Vol. I. No. I .1873. January.
Interesting in this connection ia a notice in the
work - Early English Pronunciation - by Prof .Alexander J.Ellis. If
we recall that some of these early letters were issued as a small
pamphlet, the quotation is self explanatory. "While I was engaged
with the third part of my Early English Pronunciation, Prof .Haldeman
sent me a reprint of some humorous letters by Rauch, entitled
"Pennsylvania Daitsh: De Campaign Breefa fum Pit Schweffelbrenner"
Perceiving at once the analogy between this debased German with
English intermixture and Chaucer's debased Anglo Saxon with Norman
intermixture, I requested and obtained such further information
as enabled me to give an account of this singular reproduction of
the manner in which our English language itself was built up, and
insert it in the introduction to my chapter on Chaucer's pro-
In 1873 another enterprise Rauch nftc had under ccn-
r a number of years saw its beginning with the issuing
in January, 1873 of the first number of - The Pennsylvania Dutchman-
a monthly magazine. This first number contaired the publisher's
announcement in parallel columns of English and Pennsylvania German ,
(This will be included in entirety elsewhere with the contents of
all the known numbers of the magazine and specimens of the articles
contained): familiar sayings in similar parallel columns, a poem
by Tobias Witmer, together with a translation into English by Prof .Hal-
deman of the University of Pennsylvania: a poem by Rauch himself,
evidently in the manner of Harbaugh and entitled "Unser Alty Heemet";
a Pennsylvania German letter; the first of Rauch' s Shakespeare
translations; a number of pages of English short stories and poems;
followed by the first installment of the author's Pennsylvania
German Dictionary with this interesting note n We are confident that
before the first of January 1874 every reader of the Pennsylvanie
Dutchman, by simply studying this part of tho publication together
with the page of familiar sayings will be able to re i.p substantial
benefits and use the language for practical business purposes."
That the language was necessary for business pur-
poses will seem evident by the parallel column advertisements in
which lawyers and merchants assure their readers that they speak
"Deitsch so goot dos E nglish" .
Apropos of the use of the dialect for business pur-
poses, it might be remarked that as recently as 1905 a candidate for
Judge in a County in which his party was in overwhelming majority
was defeated, because, though he had been long a resident of the
County he had not thought worthwhile to learn the dialect. Lest
this cause any surprise, I call attention to the remarkable par-
allelism between the argument used by the organ of the party that
opposed him and the statement made by Jos. Grimmer in the Strass-
burger Post of Sept. 19, 1905, the very same year. The paper said:
"The question^ whether the judicial candidate can or cannot speak
Pennsylvania German, and it in no way reflects
upon the intelligence of any public man to be able to do business
in a language that has been spoken from the earliest history of the
county. On the other hand it is important that the man who sits
upon the Bench to administer justice with an even hand shall be con-
versant with the dialect of a large majority of the people and which
does not always admit of strict interpretation." What Grimmer said
in his article I can only report at second hand, but the Zeit-
schrift fur Deutsche Mundar ten, 1910 1.52 f. says: "Die Mundart in
ihrer Stellung zuir. Bffentlichen Leben erortert eine Aus las sung von
Grimmer der die Notwendigkeit dass der Richter die Mundart der
Gegend in der er seines Amtes waltet wo nicht beherrsche so doch
verstehe, an gut gewahlten Beispielen erlautert.
In this connection it may not be out of place to
cite from a newspaper of 1907. "Three different kinds of German
were spoken recently in Court at Harrisburg. A witness spoke High
German, Judge Thomas Capp spoke the Pennsylvania Dutch of Lebanon
County and Senator John E.Fox, the defendant's counsel spoke the
Pennsylvania Dutch of Dauphin County. I have myself heard a lawyer
review in the dialect before the Jury, testimony that had been
given in the dialect, at such length that the Judge stopped him
to inquire whether he purposed to give his entire plea in the
dialect. Curiously enough, the lawyer in questionjwas a native of
Cornwall, England, but he at least appreciated what Hauch implied,
that a knowledge of the dialect was a business necessity.
But to return to the Pennsylvania Dutch Magazine.
After the Dictionary, there followed, strir.gley enough in the first
number of the Magazine - Answers to Correspondents!! and then a page
of editorials. "Here is richness for you n is the way a Mt. Joy
paper expressed itself over this new Magazine. The Reformed
Church Messenger, although objecting to the name Dutchman, found
the enterprise a "commendable one" and "hoped it would prove a
success." The Canton, Ohio Repository said: "Mr. Rauch is best
known to our reiders under the name of Pit Schweffelbrenner; he
has done more to popularize this amusing dialect than any man in
America", while the following is from the New York Deutsche Blatter
"In Lancaster erscheint jetzt ein neuer Magazin - Der Pennsylvania
Dutchman - es ist Teils Englisch und Teils in dem eigenttimlichen
Pennsylvania Deutsche Dialekt geschrieben und fuhrt nicht bloss
die Sprache sondern die Sitten vor, welche sich unter den deutschen
Ansiedlern im Innem des Staats erhalten haben. Die Zeitschrift
wird ohne Zweifel sowohl hier als in Europa das Interesse der Phil-
oologen erregen." This last prophecy can hardly be said to have
ccme true, for that Ms magazine had ever existed seems to have
been completely forgotten, nor is it anywhere mentioned.
Three months of the magazine I have seen; it must
have survived a little longer, if the Deutsche Pionier of Cin-
cinnati is correct in citing from it material that does not appear
in these first three numbers. At the most, its life was no douht
a short one. On the editorial page of the first number Rauch had
said: "It is the only publication of its kind, but that it will
be the last one we do not believe." In this he was correct, for
the Pennsylvania German Magazine, now in its twelfth volume, al-
though operating along entirely different lines, may be counted as
its logical successor.
Rauch' 3 next undertaking was in the 3hape of a book:
according to the supplement to Allibone's Dictionary of Authors
Vol.11, p. 1391, a first venture ^entitled p enn3ylvania Dutch In-
structor, Lancaster, Pa. 1877, 16 mo. , followed by a second, Pen. -
sylvania Dutch Handbook, a Book for Instruction, Philadelphia, Pa.
1880, IS mo. These publications have thus far eluded my search,
but a book under the latter title was published at Mauch Chunk,
1879. This contains an English-Pennsylvania German Preface, from
which I cite the opening paragraph. "About im yohr 1370, hob
ich my mind uf gemacht for'n booch shreiva un publisha fun Penn-
sylvania Deit3h in English, un English in Pennsylvania Deitsh, mi t
der obsicht for practical un profitliche instructions gevva, abbord-
ich for bisness menner 03 in pletz woona fun Pennsylvania Deit3h
schwetzende Leit un aw for die feela daussende fun Pennsylvania
Boova un "aid 03 in Englisha shoola gane un doch sheer nix schwetza
derhame un in der nochberschaft os Pennsylvanie Deitsh."
The first part of the book consists of his English
Pennsylvania German and Pennsylvania German - English Dictionary,
then follow several general chapters on the use of words, and
practical exercises, - reminding one of the first aids to those
landing on foreign 3hores, handed out by Transatlantic Steamship
Companies,- together with special chapters entitled Bisness G'schwet3.
The first of these conversations is Der Boochshtore - a talk be-
tween the Boochhondler and a customer, in '\rhich we learn how fast
Rauch's book is selling. Clothing store, Drugstore, Doctor, Dry«
goods, Furniture "tore, Hotel and Lawyer are the subjects of the
succeeding conversations. A brief history of the dialect lit-
erature up to that time follows, "/ith illustrative examples, in-
cluding the author's own Shakespeare translations, a translation
of Luke XV., of Matthew VII. 13-20 and of the Lord 1 3 Prayer. A
chapter illustrating Prof .Whi truer' a ideas on spelling reform and a
few recent Pit Schweffelbrenner letters conclude the volume.
Rauch referred slightingly p. 209 to Col .Zimmerman ' s
Pennsylvania German work, and Zimmerman in his turn published a
merciless review of hi3 critic' 3 book in the Reading Times and Dis-
patch: Racuh's controvery with those who did not spell as he did
was perennial, and Zimmerman continued to pile up evidence of Rauch
contradicting Rauch in spelling, until all eastern Pennsylvania
was Convulsed. Rauch strove, in letters to all the papers that
reprinted Zimmerman's review to defend himself, and as Zimmerman
was content with his first article, the controversy went no far-
ther. Rauch 's contention was, that inasmuch as English was the
language Pennsylvania Germans studied in the schools and that inas-
much as they and not people trained in German were expected to
read Pennsylvania German, - it ought to be spelled after the rules
of English orthography. Prof .Haldeman once wrote him saying, that,
in order to read what Rauch wrote, a German had first to learn
to read English, to which Rauch replied, "very true? that that
was what Pennsylvania Germans did in the schools, whereas if they
wanted to read what some others wrote, then Pennsylvania Germans
would first have to learn High German.
Since many differed with Rauch, not only on this point
but also on the propriety of calling the dialect Pennsylvania Dutch
he proposed at one time, that those who spelled after the German
fashion should be styled Pennsylvania German and those who used
the English orthography should follow him and call themselves Penn-
sylvania Dutch. This initial controversy as to how the dialect
should be spelled, Involved constantly widening circles. among the
Pennsylvania Germans, nor was it confined wholly to them, Karl
Knorfe, a German, has made his contribution, as well as a writer in
the London Saturday Globe. The latter while conceding that Rauch
was a very popular writer and the author of a Dictionary, disproves
nevertheless of his Phonography, which he characterizes as a very
inaccurate and misleading method of spelling one language accord-
ing to the standard of another.
The last word in the controversy, at least from the
scientific point of view, will be the publication of the Diction-
ary by Profs. Learned and Pogel who are using a good phonetic al-
phabet, but among the folk the strife will doubtless continue,
until the last writer in the dialect has uttered his last word,
spelled as he and a kind Providence wills.
Rauch' s apparent coldness to Zimmerman in this book
seems strange in view of his tone towards him two years before.
The former passage I include here as a specimen of the dialect
when it essays literary criticism. "Schliff letown, Jonuawr 1, 1877.
Mister Drooker:- Ich winsh deer un all dine freind en rale olt
fashiondes neies Yohr. De 7.'uch hut mei olter freind Zimmerman, der
Editor fum Readinger Times un Dispatch en copy fun seiner Tseit-
Ing mit a Pennsylvania Deitsh shtickly drin g'schickt. Es is 'n
Ivversetzung fun a English shtickly un ich muss sawga os der Zimmer-
man es ardlich ferdeihenkert goot gadu hut. Des explained no;?
olles wo oil de fiela sorta shpeelsauch un tsucker sauch her cooma.
Now whil der Zimmerman so bully goot is om shticker shreiwa a&b er
sich aw draw macha for 'n Nei Yohr's leedly. ff
Another form of activity in which this busy man
engaged is indicated from the following notice culled from the
columns of the Pennsylvania Dutchman. "The editor of the Dutchman
will deliver a lecture under the auspices of the -illerstown (Le-
high County) Lecture Association, on Saturday Evening, March 15,
1873 | in the Pennsylvania Dutch language on the subject of "Alte
un Neie Zeite." He will also read Dr.Harbaugh's "Das Schulhaus an
Der Krick" and several other popular productions including "De alt
Heemet" and "De Pennsylvania Millitz" (Incidentally it may be men-
tioned that this '■lillsrstown is the same as the town where some
of Elsie Singmaster's stories - published in the Century are local-
ised; the town is now Macungie, though still locally known as
Millerstown) This lecture he frequently repeated before ot iu-
diences, and notably before the Pennsylvania German Society (which
he wanted named Pennsylvania Dutch Society) at one of its earlier
meetings. The discourse is in part reprinted in one of the early
volumes of the Proceedings of that Organization.
Finally, in 1333, Rauch published a Pennsylvania
Dutch Rip Van Winkle; a romantic drama in two acts. Translated
from the original with variations. In the Appendix to this essay
I give tha characters of the play, the costumery as prescribed by
the author and an outline of the skit. Home writes of it in
Matthew's and Hungerford's History of Carbon and Lehigh Counties:
"Rauch' 3 Pennsylvania Dutch Rip Van Winkle ia a very happy trans-
lation and dramatization of Irving 's story, the scene being changed
from the Catskill to the Blue fountains to give it a locale in
keeping with the language in whicli it is rendered" I will add that
in one remarkable instance, our author has forgotten himself. In
Scene 3 of the Second Act when Rip returns to the town of his nativ-
ity, a town no more, but a populous settlement, George III. no
longer swinging on the tavern sign, but George Washington instead,
he al o sees the harbor filled with ships! J But perhaps he meant
the harbor of Mauch Chunk on the Lehigh River!!
The dramolet is well adapted to the local town halls,
where it was intended to be, and was performed. It is boisterous
and tumultuous, but we do not expect anything altogether refined
in the home of the old sot Rip, nor in a play which, as far as the
First Act is concerned, might well be construed as a horrible ex-
amplo to illusti^ate a temperance lecture.
The language of the romantic parts, of Rip's dealings
with the spirits of the mountains, is interesting as an illustration
of what form the dialect takes on, in the hands of a man, who never
hesitates for a word; if he find3 it not in the dialect vocabulary
he reaches over and fetches one out 0? the English; indeed Rauch
worked 6n this principle all his life and it must not be denied
that this is the way a large number of Pennsylvania Germans are
doing all the time.
One more word about his influence: Kuhns calls him
the Nestor of all those who have tried their hand at composition
in the dialect, and of hie influence on subsequent writers there
can be no doubt. Sometimes the acknowledgement comes incidentally,
as when a writer in the "Spirit of Berks" speaking of Zimmerman's
poetry says "Er kann em Pit Schwef f elbrenner die Auge zu achreiwe"
but quickly adds "Wanna awer ans Breefa schreiwa geht dann is der
Schwef f elbrenner als noch der Bully Kerl" : sometimes the acknow-
ledgement comes indirectly as when somebody signs himself "Em Pit
Schweffelbrenner 3ei Cousin" and sometimes it comes frankly and
freely as in the caae of Hartor (Boonastiol) in a private letter
I received from him.
Pennsylvania Dutchman. Vol. I. No. I. Jan. 1875. Page I.
Der Pennsylvania Dutchman i3 net yuacht intend for
Laecherlich un popular leh3a shtuff for oily de unaer Pennsylvan-
isch Deitsch - de mixture fun Deitsh un English - forstehn awer aw
for usefully un profitlichy instruction for oily de druf ous
sin bekannt tsu waerra mit der sproch, un aw mit em geisht,
character un hondlunga fun unseam fleisiche, ehrlicha un tSAhlreicha
folk in all de Middle un Westliche Shtaate.
Der title, Pennsylvania Dutchman, hen mer select
noch dera das mer feel drivvor considered hen, un net ohna a wennich
tzweifel der waega, weil mer wissa dass a dehl Deitsha leit uf
der mistaken notion sin das an "Dutchman" g'hehsa waerra waer dis-
respectful qwer sell is an mistake. Un weil unsor Pennsylvanisch
Deitsh sproch ivverall bekonnt is alls Pennsylvania Dutch wun's
shun wohr is das es Deitsch is, un net Dutch odder Hollendish -
awer an g'mix fun Deitsch un English, sin mer g* satisfied dos mer
net besser du kenna dos fore ' s public tsu gae unner 'era plaina
title wo mer select hen. Un wann mer considera was waerklich der
all gemeina character fun de Pennsylvania Deitscha is, donn feela
mer dos mer specially gooty reason hen shtolz tsu sei dos mer ssl-
wor tsu dem same folk g'hehra, un das mer mit recht de hoffnung hen
ehra ^etreier diener tsu aei in unser neie editorial aerwet de
fore una is.
Es is unser obsicht freind tsu treata mit a liberal
supply fun neia articles, shtories, breefa, poetry, etc. in dere
pure Pennsylvania Deitsch sproch g'schrivva unner der English rule
for ahpella, so dos aw oily leit es loh3a kenna. Mer hen aw im
sin ivversetzung tsu gevva fun kortzy shticker, un mer hen aw an
Pennsylvania Deitsoh Dictionary aw g'fonga wo mer expecta t3U
drucka in buch form. Awer um die yetzicha publication recht in-
teresting tsu macha hen mer conclude aw tsu fonga, un in yeder
nummer an dehl fum Dictionary tsu publisha. Awer es is yusht an
Mer assura aw all unser freind dos gor nix erecheina
soil in dem publication dos net entirely frei is fun indecency,
odder im geringshta unmorawlich sei konn.
Ea copy, ea yohr - - -$1.50
5 copies " " -7.00
Tsea copies, es yohr - - 13.00
Ehntaelly copies 20^, un sin tsu ferkaufa bei oily News Dealers.
E.H.Rauch, Lancaster, Pa.
A Bright Star Quenched.
Under this caption the Phil«
adelphia Press of Nov. 30 contain-
ed a highly appropriate and ably
written editorial, evidently
from the pen of Col. Forney on
the death of Horace Greely from
which we extract.
One of the rarest char-
acters in history is suddenly
dropped from the ranks of men.
An Heller Shtarn Ousgonga.
Unner dem heading f inna mer
in der Phila. Press fum 30th Nov.
an ivverous schicklich un goot
g'shrivva editorial - wohrshein-
lich fum Col. Forney seinre fedder
fun weaga 'm Horace Greely aeim
doht, fun wellam mer copya:
Ehns fun de rahrste char-
acters in unser g'shicht is uf
amohl gedropt fun ir.ensha ranks.
(Almost to the end of Page 2. )
I wish you a happy New Year.
'.Vhat "business are you driving
The Assembly will meet in a
A good man is kinder to his
enemy than a had man to his
Carpets are bought by the
yard and worn out by the
A man suffering from influenza
was asked by a lady what he
used for his cold. He answer-
ed "Five handkerchiefs every
Ich winsh der an glick-3ehlich
Was for bisness treibsht olla
Die Semly kumrat tsomma in a paar
An guter mon is besser tsu seim
freind dass an schlechter mon
tsu 3eim freind.
Carpets kawft mer by der yard
un weard se ous mit em fuss.
An mon daer der schnuppa g'hot
hut is g'froaked waerra by
a lady wass er braucht fer sei
kalt. Sei ontwart war "Finf
shnupdicher oily dog. w
etc. to middle of Page 4.
Rest of Page 4.
Tobias V/ it mer •
Translated by S.S.Haldeman.
Page 5 .
Unser Olty Heemet - by E.H.Rauch (Almost a column)
Fum Jonny Blitsfonger - Dunnerstown, Dec 15, 1872.
Mr. Dutchman Drucker, Dare Sir:- Weil ich un du olty bekannte sin,
un wie ich ous g'funna hob des du im sin husht eppes neies tsu
publisha, in goot alt Pennsylvania Deitsh so dos unser ehns es aw
lehsa un fershtea konn, hob ich grawd amohl my mind uf g'macht der
en breef zu shreiva.
etc. to end of Page 6.
Shakespeare in Pennsylvania = Page 7 and Part of Page 8.
Der Freedman's Bureau. For'n gooty Fraw choosa. "onmanat" eunocht
"schnifters" The puzzled Dutchman.
Select Reading, a poem Christmas Tide by Rev. H.Hastings. Weld.
Justice- from the Christian Union, to ^age 11.
Page 12jThe Green Spot.- The Nation. - How to Amuse Children. -
Arthur's Magazine. - Middle of Page 14. Anecdote of Luther.
Mrs . M . . Johnson.
Page 15. The Loaf of Bread. Watching One's Self. Poison for Children.
Page 16. Original Articles. Pure German in Pennsylvania. Lititz.
Anno Domini 1973. a Dialogue.
Page 19. The First Railroad. Ephrata. Lancaster.
Page 20. Lancaster.
Page 21. Kris Krinkle. Der Easel (in dialect)
Page 22. Miscellaneous Reading. Meade at Gettysburg, a Pennsylvania
soldier to his son. A German story.
Page 23. The slanderous tongue. From the Christian Advocate.
Letters of Recommendation.
Page 24. Thaddeus Stevens Monument. Cured of Romance; A singular
Page 25. The House and Farm.
Page 26. Dutch Governors. Wit and Humor.
Page 29. English and Pennsylvania Dutch Dictionary. We are confi-
dent that before the first of January 1374, every reader of the
Pennsylvania Dutchman, by simply studying this pa~t of the pub-
lication, together with the pages of familiar sayings will be
able to reap substantial benefits, and use the language for
practical business purposes.
Page 30. Answers to Correspondents.
The popular Pit Schweffelbrenner letters in the Pennsylvania
Dutchman written by the editor of the Dutchman will continue to
appear as heretofore in the Father Abraham newspaper for which,
under existing conditions they are expressly written.
Page 31. Editorials. The purpose of the publication. On the spell-
ing. Haldeman to Pit. "In oKder to read your Dutch, a German
must fifcst learn to read English" "very true"
Review of Book and article by S.S. Haldeman. "Our first regular
productions in Pennsylvania Dutch appeared in the Father Ab-
raham campaign paper in 1868 over the signature of P. 3. They
contributed more to the remarkable popularity of that paper than
anything else it contained and the circulation increased very
rapidly not only in Pennsylvania, but also in Ohio, Indiana,
Illinois, Maryland, Wisconsin and other states. Our present
enterprise has been under consideration for over two years and
from all we can learn and from words of encouragement by a num-
ber of highly esteemed friends including gentlemen of learning,
and position in the community, we cannot and do not doubt our
entire success. It is the only publication of this kind, but
that it will be the last one we do not believe."
Page 32. Where spoken. Prof .Haldemann on "Bellsnickle" From Phila.
Advertisements. Inside first page. Singer Sewing Machines. Jos.
Barton's Old Southern Hat and Cap Store.
Inside Last Page. Bookbinding. Wylie and Griest. Confections.
John Seltzer, Eng. Attorney at Law,
Deit3ch so goot dos English.
Pennsylvania Dutchman. Vol. I. No. 2.
1. Familiar Saying3.
2. Extract from a poem by Tobias Witmer. Translated by S.S.Haldeman.
3. We feel lenger? Ehns fun de grossy froga dos bol amohl's Amer-
ikanisha folk ontwarta muss is we feel lenger de rings fun deeb
corruptionists un adventurers in politics erlawbniss hawa solla
de greashty responsible offices im lond tsu filla. Der unnersheed
- (doctoring and magazine printing)
4. De Pennsylvania Millitz. E.H.Rauch. Poem in the dialect.
5* Uf Unser Side. Translation of article from January number of
Educator by A. R. Home.
6. Was is Millich?
7. Key to sounds of the Vowel3 in Pennsylvania German by Tobias
Witmer. (he refers to Haldeman's system as a complete one.)
8. Loveletter an mei Anni - Peter Steineel.
9. Letter from Johnny Blitzfonger.
10. En shtickly Hoch Deitsch. (Ode on das Schwein.)
11. Uvva nous gonga. (how slow trains can go)
12. Der Process.
13. Unser Klehny Jokes.
14. Select Reading.
15. Original Articles. Lititz.
16. Tobias Witmer, 474 Main Street, Buffalo, N*Y. in praise of the
undertaking. He follows the German method of pronunciation.
18. Editorials. "College Days" of Feb. 1873 contains an editorial by
W.U.Hensel on Pennsylvania Dutch and an extract from Prof. Schae-
ffer's speech at the Lehigh County Institute.
Reformed Church Messenger: "The enterprise of Mr.Rauch i3 a commend-
able one and it will afford us pleasure to find it proving a
success. etc." They object to the name. Rauch defends it.
JLoadarn - Lutzer) Haldeman approves his naming.
Page 20. O u rselves. "Here is richness for you w -Mt.Joy Herald.
"Unser Alty Heemet*' reminds one very much of Harbaugh's "Alt
Schulhaus an der Krick." "E.H.Rauch is best known to our readers
under the title of Pit Schweff elbrenner. He has done more to
popularize this amusing dialect than any other man in America"
Canton, Ohio Repository and Republican.
"Judging from its first n$unber it should commend itself to all
who are fond of those utaid and sober people who form a large
portion of the population of our interior counties. n Nation-
Note its usefulness to those learning the language.
"In Lancaster erscheint jetzt ein neues Magazin - Der Pennsyl-
vania Dutchman - es ist theils English theils in dem eigentum-
lichen Pennsylvania Deitsche dialect geschrieben und fuhrt uns
nicht bios die Sprache sondern die sitten vor, welche sich
untsr den Deutschen Ansiedlern ira innern des staats erhalten
haben. Die Zeitschrift wird onne Zweifel sowohl hier als in
Europa das Interes3e der Philologen ©rrogen." New York Deutshe
Pennsylvania Dutchman. Vol. I. No. 3.
1. Familiar Sayings. English and translation.
2. Keaha mit der Deitsha Sense. Criticism.
3. Letter in praise of the magazine, and in it a poem on "De Deutsche
Baura un de Morrick Leit."
4. For der Simple Weg. (Spelling)
5. Unsor Klshner Omnibus.
6. Der Shnae. Tobias Witraer.
7. An Temperance Lecture.
8. De Beera Wella Net Folia.
9. Parable of the Prodigal Son. Miss L.A.Ash, live r town, Pa.
10. Der Himmel Uft Eerda. Tobias Witmer.
11. Open Letter to Editor on Dialects . I. D.Rupp.
12. Pennsylvania German. A. R. Home.
13. Seeking One's Vocation. A Story.
14. Scandal in Congress.
15. Society and Scandal.
16. Local Option.
17. Popular Provorbs.
18. Signs and Omens.
19. Wit and Humor.
20. Origin of a Fashion.
21. Billing's Advice to Joe.
22. Use Tour Life Well.
23. Curious Epitaphs.
24. A Quaint Essay on Dogs.
25. Our Table Drawer.
Rip Van Winkle.
Ac t I. 1763*
Rip Van Winkle - - A Dutchman.
Knickerbocker - A rchoolmaeter.
Derrick vtn Slaus - - The Squire
Hermann van Slaus - - Hi 3 Son.
Nicholas Vedder - - Friend to Rip.
Clausen - - Friend to Rip
Rory van Clump - A Landlord
Gustaffe - - A Young man
Dame Van Winkle - - -Rip's Wife.
Alice - - Rip's Sister
Lorena - Rip's Daughter
Ganderkinr Spirits of the Blue Mountains.
After a lapse of 20 years supposed to occur "between the
First and Second Acts.
Rip Van Winkle - - The Dreamer.
Herman Van Slaus
Rip Van Winkle, Jr.
Lorenna. & Costume.
Rip - 1st, a deerskin coat and belt, full brown breeches, deer
skin gaiters, cap. 2nd. Same, but much worn and ragged.
Knickerbocker - 1st, Brown square cut coat, vest and breeches,
shoes and buckles. 2nd, Black coat, breeches, hose, etc.
Derrick - Square cut coat, full breeches, black silk hose, shoes,
Hermann - 1st. Ibid. 2nd. Black frock coat, tight pants, boots,
Clausen Dark square cut coats, vect3, breeches, etc.
Gustaffe - Blue jacket, white pants, shoes.
Seth Slough - Gray coat, striped vest, large gray pants.
Judge - Full suit of black.
Young Rip- a dress similar to Rip's first dress.
Dame - Short Gown and quilted petticoat, cap.
Alice - 1st -Bodice with half skirt, figured petticoat.
2nd. Brown satin bodice and skirt, etc.
Lorenna - Act I. A child
Act II. White muslin dress, black ribbon belt, etc.
Stage Directions: L.R. SEL.SER. USL. UER. C. L.C. R.C. TEL
TER. CD. DR. D.L. UDL. U.D.R.
Reader on stage facing audience.
Act I. Scene 1. Choru3.
Vedder, Knicke -bocker and Rory talk with the Landlord.
V/here is Rip? Knickerbocker determined to wed Rip's nister. Mrs. Rip
evidently opposed. Knickerbocker knows.
Alice and Lorenna come. Music. They have delayed because Alice
wanted to see Knickerbocker. Knickerbocker turns up - would call.
Lorenna volunteers a way in which he can see Alice. Knickerbocker
says he no longer cares for Dame Van Winkle. At that moment she is
calling Alice from the outside. They leave hastily. Rory and
Vedder comment on the old woman. Where is Rip? Rip appears from a
hunting trip. Has sworn off drinking. Is persuaded to take one.
Talk turns to Rip's inability to manage his wife. Rip refuses to
take a drink to keep his oath. Having shown he can control himself
he takes one J Rip sings a song. Mrs. Rip is heard outside. Rip
gets under table with bottle. Music. Mrs. Rip enters with a stick,
chases them. Upsets table and discovers Rip. She gets him by the
ear and would know what he has been doing. Hare3, ducks, the bull,
she leads him home by the ear and beats him.
Scene II. A Plain Chamber in First Grooves.
Derrick complains about his spendthrift lawyer son. The son
is heard outside. He has a plan. Rip's sister made a will in
favor of Alice. He proposes to get a paper too from Rip to wed
Lorer^ k when she i3 of age to marry him and then get money in advance.
Rip's rent is due and they decide to try it. Son says of course a
lawyer must not have too much conscience.
Scene III. Rip's Cottage.
Knickerbocker enters and Alice comes soliloquizing how
she loves him: he catches her in his arms. Mrs. Rip is heard outside.
Knickerbocker is concealed in the clothes hamper. Music. Mrs. Rip
and Rip come inj she would know where jj the game, the money for
the rent* then she turns on Alice, who she says has done nothing.
Rip begs for a drink. Alice and Mrs. Rip withdraw, then Rip proceeds
to the cupboard. Music. - Rip stops on Knickerbocker who yells;
Rip falls, upsetting dishes. Knickerbocker rushes out into a chair.
Alice throws cloak over him. Mrs. Rip enters. The Devil has been
in the cupboard. She raves, falls into a half faint in a chair.
Knickerbocker again safely makes the closet. Mrs. Rip up again.
Somebody was in the chair. Asks Alice to get bottle from her pocket
Rip and Mrs. Rip drink. Alice tries to get Knickerbocker off but he
retreats again. Alice announces Squire's coming. Rip would to bed
but is compelled to meet the Squire while Mrs. Rip goes calling.
Alice is excused. Rip tells how honest a man he is. Squir9 would
talk of other things. They make the contract, but : Rip may withdraw
in twenty years and one day. "Still du Hex". Rip is to live free
of rent. A bottle is always to be at Rory's for Rip. He goes at
once. Knickerbocker would escape but Mrs. Rip approaches. Puts on
the peddlar woman's dress.
Mrs. Rip comes - She discovers Knickerbocker's identity - she zoes
afte~ him with the broom and he goes out of the window.
Scene IV .
Half dark, A front wood. Gun heard. Rip enters. He has
missed his aim. Decides not to go homo. Tomorrow a new rule. No
drinking. Dead pause. Noise like rolling of cannonballs. Dis-
cordant laughter. Rip wakes and sits up astonished. Somebody calls
Rip. Music. Swaggerino. Grotesque dwarf with large cask. Music.
Swaggerino asks Rip to help him up the mountain with it. Cask is
put on Rip's shoulder.
Dark. The Sleepy Hollow in the bosom of the mountains
occupying the extreme of the stage. Stunted tress. Moon. Entrance
to abyss. Music. Grotesque Dutch figures with enormous masked
heads and lofty tapering hats, playing cards, dutch pins, battledoors
and shuttlecocks. Most of them seated on rocks smoking and drink-
ing. "Heit is unser f iredawg M . "Fooftzich yohr is unser Zeit im
Barrick doh, un luss una all now looshtich si." What penalty if
any have detained their brother. Spirits take immovable attitude.
Rip amazed. Music. Figures advance and stare. Swaggerino taps
cask and asks Rip to hand around. Rip is pleased, believes they are
witches. Drinks. Music. Grotesque dance. Rip drinks, dances,
reels, sinks. Dance stops. Music. Curtain slowly descends.
Act II. Scene I.
Last of Act I. repeated, but in the distance a richly cul-
tivated country. The bramble by Rip's side is a tree. Rip's
gun has only a rusty barrel left. Bird Music. Rip asleep. Beard
and hair gray. Dawn. Rip talks in sleep. Awakes. Had a good time
but is stiff. The fellow stole his gunJ 2 Sees the tree. Not sure
whether he is asleep or awake. Old woman vill tell. Music. H e
Scene II .
Well furnished apartment in the house of Knickerbocker.
Lorenna soliloquizes on her sad lot. Must giv© up all if she does
not wed a man she does not like. Knickerbocker and Alice enter.
Are surprised to find Lorenna. Note her trouble. Lorenna is en-
couraged to hope. She would marry Gustaffa only. His 3hip is
coining and he will come. Sophia enters, announcing the lawyer.
Knickerbocker is going to take care of him. They withdraw. Lawyer
insists on carrying out the terms. Knickerbocker 3ays that Rip
was not capable as he kiows. They get rid of him but trouble is
feared. Alice and Knickerbocker see a fine young man come. Gustaffe
Scene III .
Town of Rip's nativity, instead of a village, a populous
settlement. No longer George III. but George Washington. Harbor
filled with ships. Seth Slough. Temperance election is over.
Hello, who is this old fellow? Music, Villagers enter laughing. Where
is he? Can they talk German? Who is your barber? Is advised to go
home. Rip is dead twenty years. I'm sorry Rip. Seth gives him a
drink. Rip's wife is dead. Are you a democrat or republican?
-orylJ Music. They hurry him o"f. Gustaffe arrives. Cowards.
What '3 your name? Rip Van Winkle. Have you a daughter Lorenna?
Do you remember a paper? Cone with me.
Scene IV .
Knickerbocker's house. Knickerbocker elected to Assembly.
Enter Hermann (lawyer) wants to have the matter settled. Gustaffe
enters. Hurra for Knickerbocker.
Last Scene .
C^urt House. Judges seated. Knickerbocker asked to "bring
Alice. Paper is read. Who can testify? Hermann say3 Knickerbocker
knows and will say so if honest. How was the oontract drawn?
Hermann explains. Lorenna refuses him. Judge says contract must
te carried out. Knickerbocker appeala. Gustaff9 enters. Rip
Van Winkle! If this is Rip, Hermann want3 to know where he has
"been. "Last night I went"- Judge would jail him. Nobody seems to
recognize him. Did you forget how I savod your life? Hermann
demanded justice. Judge says if he is Rip he ought to havo a paper.
He fumbles. Finds it. Judge decider it is all right.
All shout and shake hand3.
Hermann- Qua g'shpeeld, ufgused, obgawickled!
Gus.- Mach plotz - ' s kint will nocharaol dawdy sana.
Gus. and Lorenna, Alice and Knickerbocker.- Who is this? Si, bruder.
for the sketch on
Ludwig August Wollenwober.
Der Deutsche Pionier, Cincinnati, Vol. I. 87 & Vol. V. 66
Gemalde aus dem Pennsylvanischen Volksleben, Wollenweber,
Philadelphia und Leipzig, 1869
Geschichte der Schwabischen Dialekt Dichtung, Holder,
National Cyclopedia of American Biography, The.
Pennsylvania Dutch, Gibbons, Philadelphia.
Pennsylvania German. Vol. I I I. 4. 192
Publications of the Deutsche Pionier Verein, Philada.
Records of the Berks County Historical Society.
Ludwig August V/ollenweber.
Few of the later immigrants from Germany have been
able to conform their language even approximately tc the compound
dialect which formed itself as the speech of the descendants of
the pre-Revolutionary German settlers of Pennsylvania, who accord-
ing to the fiat of the Pennsylvania German Society were the true
Pennsylvania Germans; to state the truth, fewer yet of those who
came over later, wished even to be classed with or cared to claim
to be Eennsylvania German. Gen. Louis Wagner and certain others
afterwards prominent in the work of German. American Societies, did
at one time hope to have the Pennsylvania German Society estab-
lished on a broader basic, but subsequently accepted gracefully the
ruling of the Society's founders.
One of those who did come later, who thought he
had learnt their speech, who protested he was a Pennsylvania Ger-
man, who wrote in what he called their dialect, was Ludwig August
Wollenweber. Born at Ixheim near Zweibrftcken, Rheinpfalz, Dec. 5,
1807, he early lost his parents, was obliged to give up his hope
of a University education, and became a printer. In 1832 he was
employed on the Deutsche Tribune in Hamburg, a paper which was
shortly afterwards suppressed by the German Diet, and Wollenweber
fled to America via France and Holland, to escape persecution for
his connection with ant i -government movements.
After arriving in Philadelphia, he travelled through
the State on foot, then returned to Philadelphia, and worked on
Wesselhoft's Journal "Die Freipost', 1 himself established "Der
Freimuthige" and ended by purchasing the "Philadelphia Democrat"
In 1853 he retired from the newspaper business and shortly after-
wards from all but literary labors, removing first to Lebanon,
and later to Reading, Pa., where he died in 1888.
He wrote chiefly in the literary (High ) German, but
for the rost part on subjects pertaining to the early history of
Pennsylvania. "Gila, das Indianer Madchen, oder die Wiedergefund-
enen deutschen Kinder unter den Indianern',' "Freuden und Leiden
in Amerika, oder Die Lateiner am Schuylkill Canal" (plays),
w Gen. Peter Muhlenberg',' "Sprache, Sitten und Gebrauche der deutsch
Pennsylvanier" M Aus Eerks County schwerster Zeit',' "Die Drei Graber
auf dem Riethen Kirchhof" "Die erste Muehle am Muehlbach',' are
among his chief works. In what he calls the "Mundart und Ausdrucks-
weise der deutsch Pennsylvanier" he wrote "Gemalde aus dem Pennsyl-
vanischen Volksleben" The Genesis of this book has already been
told (see p Introduction) also a Pennsylvania German opinion
of the same (see p Introduction).
"Daraus kann man das Deutsch Pennsylvanische Leben
schon kennen lernen, denn der inzwischen verstorbene Verfasser ge-
horte dem Stamme selber an und konnte sich daher mit grosser Berecht-
igung der Aufgabe unterziehen, lebenagetreue Schilderungen aus
alien Phasen des Volksleben zu entwerfen" says Earl Knortz. "Das
Bttchlein enthalt derbe Heiratsantrage, Gesprache aus dem Farmerleben T
Sagen, Geistergeschichten, Klagen uber die Allmacht der demorali-
sierenden Mode, verzeihliche Sehnsuchtsblicke nach der guten alten
Zeit, wo die Buwe noch keine f teite T Hosen und 'Standups' und die
Mad keine bauschigen 'Hupps* batten und 'gehle Brustspells'ansteck-
That Wollenweber succeeded in passing for a Penn-
sylvania German wa3 no doubt due to his poem:
Ich bin o Pennsylvanier
Druff "bin ion stolz und froh.
Das Land is scho, die Leut sin nett
Bei Tschinksl ich maoh schier en'ge Wett,
' S biets ke Land der Welt.
His long and intimate association with the people
of the State did indeed enable him to give a true account of their
life but why Knortz should find Wollenweber's ''Sehnsuchts Blicke
nach den guten alten Zeiten" verzeihlich while damning the same
when coming from a real Pennsylvania German (See Fisher) remains
unexplained. Dr.H.H.Fick - Die Deutsch Amerikanische Dialekt Dich-
tung (following Zimmermann's Deutsch Amerikanische Dichtung) thus
records his opinion of the chief merit of this "eifrigen Be-
schutzer und Lobredner der Deutsch Pennsylvanier? Konnen seine
schriftstellerischen Arbeiten sich auch nicht mit denen Harbaughs
messen, so zeugen sie doch von einem redlichon Streben im Volke
Biederkoit und Gesittung wachtzuerhalten. Passt seine sammtlichen
schriftstellerischen Arbeiten lassen diese Tendenz durchblicken
und In diesem seinem humanisierenden Einflusse haben wir auch das
Hauptverdienst des ausgezeichneten Mannes zu suchen.
As to his language, it resembles that wMch many
another High German speaking native of Germany has constructed in
trying to speak the dialect, and, as is usual in such cases, it is
full of reminiscences of High German and remains on the whole
remote from the actual language of the people. Many natives of
England or Ireland that I have known, unembarrassed as they were
by a knowledge of High German, have not only acquired the dialect,
but have reached a comparative degree of naturalness and ease in
its use, which seems denied to the imported High German. It is true
that in those days (1869) German newspapers were more common than
now, German preaching more general, circumstances which affected
the vocabulary characteristically, as it were . The same differen-
tiation may be observed at the present day; the grandmothers of
the children now growing up have retained in their vocabularies
many words that to the young folks seem to smack of the High Ger-
man and in place of which they now use an English word. In all such
cases the vocabulary in its inflections bears the characteristic
marks of the dialect and not of High German. A constantly re-
curring uncertainty of Wollenweber's inflections is clear enough
proof of the struggle within. Now he says: w Ich bin ge-komme w and
now as in the dialect " Ich bin kummef at times he uses English
words and forgets that the dialect treats an English verb as though
it were German; accordingly, in incautious moments he says "satis-
fied at another time he remembers and amends it into "g'satisfiedy
or even ventured to the extreme of M ge-satisf ied"
"Farms and Farmhaus" words which I have frequently
heard in Germany and seen in High German newspapers, he uses
about as frequently as "Bauerei" and "Bauerehaus',' which are the
only v/ords I have ever heard in Pennsylvania. He says "Schon
Obst" and "SchB Obst" within half a dozen lines of each other;
similarly wir alternates with mir and mer. The Infinitive end-
ing with n and without n; hat and hot ; sometimes he writes hab e,
then hawe, hent, haben and hen , as plural forms of the auxiliary
verb. He uses erzahle more frequently than ve r zahlo . Von inter-
changes with vum, f unu
In a word like battle he evidently transferred the
High German gender of Schlacht; so, in accordance with German
idiom he says: "die Battel" and "Bei der Battel*,' instead of "Der
Battle" and "In Battle'.' "Abend", "ObendV "Owent" are with him
In gewesen he drops the n as in the strong parti'
ciplos, instead of treating it as the weak, gewest . These are a
few examples that could be increased ad libitum, of his striving
to write the dialect as spoken, and his inability to dissociate
it from the High German.
the chapter on
Henry Lee Fisher.
Annals of the Harbaugh Family, Harbaugh, Chambersburg, 1861
Der Deutsche Pionier, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Deutsch in Amerika, G.U.Zimmermann, Chicago, 111.
German and Swiss Settlements in Pennsylvania. Kuhns, N.Y.
GeBohichte der Nordamerikanischen Litteratur. Knortz, Berlin.
Geschichte der Schwabische Dialektdichtung. Holder, Heilbronn,
The Independent, New York, June 20, 1880. Dr .L.Steiner .
Kurzweil un Zeitvertreib, York, 1882; 2nd Edition, 1896
Pennsylvania Dutch, L'.rs. Gibbons, Philadelphia, Pa.
Pennsylvania German, Vol. VII. 4. 178
Pennsylvania German, Vol. XI. 1.2. f. Dr.Betz.
Pennsylvania German Dialect. Learned. Baltimore, 1889
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vil.III.156
'S Alt Marik Haur, Mittes in d'r Stadt. York, 1879.
The German Element in the United States. Faust. Boston and N.Y,
York County Historical Society Publications. York, Pa.
Honry Lee Fisher.
Henry Lee Fisher was born 1822, in a part of Franklin
County, Pennsylvania, cAlled the Dutch Settlement. In those days
life was, in many respects more primitive than now; and before
Fisher died in 1909 he had witnessed many changes in the manner
of living and the ways of thinking of even so conservative a people
as the Ger ans of Pennsylvania. When past middle age, he wrote
a book in which he described things as they had been: how in his
youth father and mother, if well to do, saddled their animals
and rode on horseback to church, where now several automobiles are
lined up on Sunday morning. The stage coach made its trips
through the valleys at intervals during the week, where now ex-
press trains sp^ed along several times a day. In the harvest
fields the farmers bent over the sickles for week# where now the
self -binding harvester accomplishes everything in a few daysj in
winter they threshed with flail and horses where now the steam
thresher does the work before the grain leaveS the field. In
the days of his youth the shoemaker and tailor still want their
rounds to make shoes and clothes for the family from leather often
tanned in their own or a community tannery, and from wool and
flax raised and spun on the farm. The youn,^ folk gathered at a
neighbor's house in the evening to play their simple games or
assembled at a nearby schoolhouse for Singschule etc, etc. where
now for the most part they board a trolley and find their amuse-
ment in the town.
As a boy Fisher attended school at that schoolhouse
- as he was fond of telling - which was later immortalized as "Das
Schulhaus an Der KrickV On the title page of his first book in
the dialect he printed the well known line:
"Vom Lift tter chen die Frohnatur, und Lust zu> fa bulire n."
by which he intended to call attention to the fact, that on his
mother's side he was descended from that sarr.e Joost Herhach who
was the great grandfather of two other dialect poets - Henry Har-
baugh and Rachel Bahn. In his young days the sons of Pennsylvania
Germans were expected by their kin to take up seme of the yet
unoccupied land and follow in the same peaceful and honorable
occupation as those before their - namely agriculture - and not
to follow any of the learned professions. These, with the excep-
tion of the ministry, were generally looked upon with distrust, or
at any rate with suspicion; ouf youth did not share these prejudices
and what with working on the farm and attending the public schools,
he prepared himself to become a teacher. After several yeafcs of
teaching in Ohio and Pennsylvania, he took up the study of law and
in 1849 was admitted to the bar at Chambersburg. Like many others
at that time, he felt the lure of the West, but was dissuaded from
carrying out his adventurous plan, and upon the advice of friends
settled in York, Pa, in 1555, where he continued active in his
profession for a half century and achieved distinction.
York was an historic town, was for a time the seat
of Government of the United States during the Revolutionary War,
when the Continental Congress had to flee from Philadelphia upon
the approach of the British. In more than one old town of Penn-
sylvania are still to be seen the traces of the first municipal
architecture in the way of a public square in the center of the
town and in the middle of the square a circle, on which originally
stood a Court House. Selection and layout of town sites goes
back as a rule to the first charters granted either directly by
William Perm or by his sons John and Richard. These squares and
circles became the centers of public business, and around then were
grouped the offices of all the functionaries of the government,
of the office holders and the justices and the lawyers. '.Vhen
the proprietaries similarly granted to these towns the privileges
of holding a public market, wares were usually displayed on the
pavement surrounding the circle in Center Square. In one Pennsyl-
vania city of considerable rize, this is still the only public
In York, the Court House stood not in the center
of the Square, but along the side, and consequently, there grew
up in the course of time a row of market stalls and sheds and
shambles right through the center of the block and also along the
sides of the street. Through these busy haunts of men Fisher
passes daily for a quarter of a century, and whether he courted
the muse, or as he himself said, was possessed by a muse, snatches
of rhyme were continually taking form and shape as he went in and
out to his office and back, and to and fro from the Court House.
In 1875 he was confined to his room with an illness
and during this time he gave his rhymes permanent form. He must
have derived pleasure from this work, for on publishing it later,
he declared: "Oebs mer net au e bitzli grothen isch, wereder scho
finde. Hener numme halb so vil Vergnuge byrn Lese asz i g' spurt
ha byrn mache, so wirds so schlecht nit ausfalle sy." And because
everybody was making Centennial objects, resurrecting antiques,
and also labelling reproductions "Centennial',' in anticipation of
the hundredth Anniversary of American Independence, he kept on
rhyming on half a hundred things in and around the old Market
House in the middle of the town until a Centennial poem had taken
shape, in number of stanzas one hundred. Even the slenderest "bond
of unity is lacking to the poem, save that each stanza is suggest-
ed by sometMng about that spot, and that they nearly all end in
the refrain "Am Marik Haus Mittes in d'r Schtadt 1 ,' or some vari-
ation of it. Many bits of local lore, many thrusts at local
politics, many a picture of a rare old character has he preserved
in these verses, which gain when considered as single stanzas or at
most in small groups of stanzas, but which are entirely inadequate
as parts of a longer poem. It must be said however, that they
were not intended for the public eye, although he was urged to
publish them by some friends to whom he had read them in private.
But he did not stop musing when he had finished
these hundred stanzas. His mind takes a bolder flight, in fancy
he wanders with a companion to visit the old place. In the key of
"Tis srweet to hear the watch dog's honest bark,
Bay deepmouthed welcome as we draw near home."
he begins thus:
"Horich! horscht du net? der Wasser gautzt,
Er seen'd uns dorch de Bamj
Er hockt im Hoof, dort for'm Haus,
Un gautzt uns welcome Heen."
Then he dreams him-.elf back again into boyhood, and from Plumsack
and Blindemeisel and all the other joyous games of childhood
onward, there are few experiences in the life of those people that
do not pass in review until the time when he goes
Mei alte Heemet sehne;
Doch guckts gar nimme wies als hot
Die alte Bekannte sin all fort,
Mei Age sin voll draene;
Ich ruuf un froog ""m sin sie all?"
Der Schall antwort "Wu 3in sie all?"
E dehl sin weit fort Owenau;;,
Weit, weit fum alte Heerd;
E paar bo alte sin noch do,
Un die sin krumm un schop un groh,
Un feel sin in der Erd,
Ihr alter un ah wie sie heese,
Kannscht uf de schtee im Kerch Hoof leese.
It is in these verses that he is at his best; they have,
been read and reread and printed tines without number. Karl Knortz
in his "Geschichte der Nordarr.erikanische Litteratur" rejects the
whole book in terms that are only less bitter than the condem-
nation which Karl Knortz ' s own poetry has received in a recent
Chicago dissertation. Knortz says: "Einer der traurigsten Beitrage
zur Pennsylvanisch deutschen Litteratur ftthrt den Titel " 'S
Alt Marik Haus Mittes in d'r Stadt un die Alte Zeite^ En Centen-
nial Poem in Pennsylvanisch deutsch. Bei H.J. Fischer, York, Pa.
1879". "Der Verfasser, der noch nicht einmal seine sogenannte
Muttersprache kennt, steht mit den Regeln der Dichtkur.st auf sehr
gespanntem Fusse und dass en, wie er sagt, seine Ver.se nur zum Zeit-
vertreib, als ihn ein hartnackiger Rheumatismus an des Zimmer fes3-
elte, schrieb, entschuldigt weiaigstens die VerBffentlichung der-
The dishonesty of Knortz deserves to be noticed in
this connection; he had evidently read the Introduction, but he
chose to suppress that part of it in which the author tells how
the book was not intended for publication; how that friends who
had heard him read in private had him invited to read at the York
County Teachers' Institute, and how only after the contents had
become semi public property had he consented to publish the book
and then only with a* full realization of its imperfections. The
fact that those who succeeded in persuading him to take this step
did not have Knortz' s literary estimates must not be laid alto-
gether to the author's charge. If Knortz had read the Introduction
to Fisher's next book which was issued nine years before Knortz'
own "Geschichte5 he might have read in reference to the first on
"Es erfreut raich zu wisse dass en Buch das gute '.'/orte grigt hut
fon so Leit wio Longfellow, Steiner, Haldeman, Zimmerman, Gtahr,
Krieg's Secretary Ramsay un noch hunnert annere net gans 'Vertlos
sei kan." The book has been offered to me for $17.00 which shows
that the fortunate possessors of the few thousand copies in exis-
tence are not over eager to get rid of the trash.
But to cite further: "Er schildert in diesem oben-
drein auch noch mit schauderhaf ten Illustrationen verunzierten
Buche das alte und neue Leben und Treiben seines Vaterstadtchens,
York und verselt unzusammenhangend uber Moden, Scheerenschleifer,
Landstreicher, Friedensrichter, und aberglaubische Gebrauche."
This, as I have indicated above, refers of course only to the first
part of the book. The rest, which has to do with the second part
shows by its whole tenor as clearly as possible how faithfully
the author has portrayed a certain period in the life of the
people. "Naturlich lobt er dabei wie jeder bejahrte Bauer, die
gute alte Zeit in der es noch keine Prozesse gab, man nichts von
Temperance wusste und die Sonne und T&chter noch den Lohn fur
Knechte und Kagde ersparten. Ja, in der guten alten Zeit, da
nahm man noch den Mann beim Word und den Ochsen beim Horn. Da
gab es keine Kartoffelkafer und Versicherungsgesellschaften un
nur hochst selten brannte einiral eine Scheune ab. Die beste Bank
was damals ein alter Strumpf und dieselbe war viel sicherer als
alle jetzigen Geldschranke mit ihrem gepriesenen Patentschlossern.
Da nahmen noch Nadel und Fingerhut die Stelle der Nahmaschinen ein
und die einzige Zeitunge die es gab war der Hundert Jahrige Kalender.
Da hatten die Madchen noch den schbnen Glauben dass der Teufel
im Kornfeld versteckt sei weshalb sio sich ate Lb einen schmuckert
kraftigen Burschen wahlten wenn sie darin zu arbeiten hatten. Da
setzte man am Freitag keine Kinkel und deshalb hat auch damals nle
eins den 'Pippser grigt'."
Knottz' utter inability to understand the book is
shown in this last sentence. "Diese alte Buschbauernheit ist nun
langst vorbei (Pi3her was only too well aware of this) und wir
glauben auch nicht dass ee der Poesie Fisher's jemals gelingen wird
das entschwundene Paradies zuruck zu zaubern." A statement with
which Fisher would have been in hearty accord, nor would he have
wished to call it back had he been able, but that he described it
faithfully, few will deny.
Dr.G.U.Zimmermann, in his "Deutsch in Amerika" says:
"Der bedeutendste Dichter dieses Dialectes aber war Heinrich Har-
baugh, dessen Dichtungen insgesammt eine Frische und Urspringlich-
keit athmen, wie man sich origineller kaum denken kann; dabei giebt
sich ein reiches Gemuth mit freiem Humor kur.d. Getrost durfen
wir ihn naben Karl von Holtei stellen," and he adds of our author-
"Ebenso naturwahr schildert uns Heinrich L.Fisher das Leben der
Deutschen in Pennsylvanien in dieser Mundart; nur geht ihm das
tiefe Gemuth Harbaugh's ab M and in another place the same author
says of Fisher: "Von Natur mit gesundem Humor begabt schrieb er
viele Gedichte und Skizzen in Pennsylvanisch-deutscher -iundart,
das Alltagsleben der Deutschen in Pennsylvanien "eisterhaft
Oscar Kuhns in his German and Swiss Settlements of
Pennsylvania recognized the work as the "picture of the life of
the Pennsylvania German farmer fifty years ago, describing among
other things old customs, super. i s, worl ii th< iields and
house, planting, harvc , thres] , bee
: the joys, toils and pleasures of a farmer's life - butcher-
ingo, butterboiling3, huskings and quiltingparties ." His next
statement that the volumes contain in the main only imitations of
German originals or translations from English and especially Am-
erican poetry, must be amended so as to read that this applies only
to the aubhor's second volume - Kurzweil un Zeitvertreib - and
only to a very small extent to the volume at present under con-
A short time after the publication of this volume,
Dr. Lewis H.Steiner, of Frederick, Md. contributed an article to
the Independent, New York, which may be taken as a conservative
Pennsylvania-German estimate of the book: "Along with the disappear-
ance of the dialect? says Steiner "the manners and customs of
those who employed them are also dying out. Surely historic pride
should struggle to preserve a faithful record of these as of a
people who have contributed so much to the upbuilding of the
Keystone State and whose children have made their homes in Mary-
land and Ohio abodes of manly and womanly virtues. Such a record
could only be made in the dialect ordinarily employed by them. It
would seem in English as awkward as even the best translations
from the Greek and Roman writers always do to a careful student.
To meet such a want, H.L. Fisher, a member of the York County Bar,
has recently made quite a notable contribution. Living in a town
which was honored for a few months in 1777 as a place of meeting
of the American Congress, he has endeavored to collect the his-
toid cal reminiscences of York and to enshrine those of the old
Market House along with the custo lvania dermar. ."
" ' ] ;•" ■ • nowhere chows t. noetic fire
that pervaded the genial Karbaugh's lines yet his descriptive pe-
ers are unusually accurate in seizing the minute peculiarities
of the Pennsylvania customs and his verses are very valuable
as embodying detailed accounts of the simple, honest ways of the
Pennsylvania Germans. A vein of humor moreover pervades his lines
that makes them very acceptable" (This is a point that Knortz missed
entirely) "He has seized the serio-comic rather than the pathetic
side of the life he undertakes to: portray, which does: not detract
from the value of his work. He has also called upon the pencil
of the artist to assist in his task, and over one hundred wood cuts,
illustrative of domestic habits, manners, and customs have been
incorporated into the book, which if not indicative of high art,
are nevertheless exceedingly interesting a3 faithful delineations
of scenes described by the author in the text. Fisher g : ves a
reliable account of the home life of the Pennsylvania Germans which
will be read with interest by the lovers of the curious as well
as the student."
The latest recognition the author has received is
contained in Faust's Prize Book on "The German Element in the
United States" According to Faust, "The two most prominent pcetr ,
for such a title may be bestowed upon them, who wrote in Pennsyl-
vania Dutch are Henry Harbaugh and Henry L.Firher". We may not
be ready to agree with his statement that these are the two most
prominent poets (Faust is evidently not acquainted \ ] r's
k, the ] his name in the General Bibliography)
everyone qualified to judge will agree with him ii Lng
their right tc ' - • Paua ] 10 ace
as an au ic ace of conditions that or. . ,d add' .
" ' .is poetical literature of the Pennsylvania Germans is one of
the few original notes of American lyric poetry."
Fisher's second book - il un Zeitvertroi v -
York, 1882, consists almost entirely of translations and adaptati
of English and American poetry and of German dialect writers. Of
the latter, Hebel, Nadler and FelneT are drawn upon most exten-
His first selection:
Dort unner 'm alto Keschte Baan
Dort war der alt Schmidt Schop
is full of reminis-
cences of Longfellow. Bryant too, has been rendered into the
dialect. Except for the few poems of his own in which he deals
with the natural scenery or places near his ho^e or where, as in
"Hesse Dahl" he tells the story of a stockade in which Hessian
prisoners were kert, or when he takes a drive into "Backmult Valli",
the poems have nothing distinctively Pennsylvania German. The
language is of course the one exception, but even here he gets
into trouble, where the Allemanian, Suabian or Palatinate will
not yield him a corresponding Pennsylvania German rhyme. His
renderings o" the German dialect poets are however, not confined
to translation. Many of them are adaptations and not infrequently
he expands them or adds to them ide s of his own. This book
appeared in a second edition in 1895.
Ludwig Eichrodt in his Rheinschwabisch - Gedichte
in L'ittelbadischer Sprechweise- says: "Druckfehler glaw e een net
drin, sonsch gabts noch e Versaichnuss."This our author could not
say of his boo] ' hai ;iven " .ichnua " brains
i 1 .-
fierte " r ort 3 - "z
Do -1 a a noch b ' Ira
Suns cht f al 1 ' t die Z e i 1& kur z .
On the misprints he say 3:
.ckfehler, die ferderwes Buch,
Wiesoht sin sio Oiine Zweifel
ler drivvor fluchtl
Mer gebt die ^chuld dem Deufel.
Eiohrodt had said similarly:
Un wo urn's Lewe net d Spass, odar z'varstelin ish letz gar
Do denkt, 's isoh am end e Dail Lesfehler vomme G etzar .
This sketch would not be complete wi >ut mention of
a poem which Fisher did not include in the collection, notwith-
standing it is by no means one of the worst; it is his translation
of Poe's Raven into the metres of the original. The most obvious
fault of the translation is a frequent wandering from the exact
sense of the original; its greatest virtues are a certain rude
vigor and a surprising skill in reproducing the rhyth .
Un so wie ich mir er inner
Wars so ahfangs in om Winter
Un en jede gluhend Zinder
Macht sei Geischtli uf em floor.
Un ich hob gewinscht ' s war I'orge
.'er do war nix zu borge
Aus de Bicher - nix as Sorge
oorge for de liob Lenore
Ach dass sie noch bei mir war
' logel hen ' ire
Do genennt doch nimrnermehr.
Falsch Propheet, du, ohne Zweifel,
Unglicks Fogel oder Deifel
Ich zu ketzore un 3U quale
V.'u der Deifel ka:.v:scht du her?
rum duscht du mich besuche
as bus cht du bei mir zu sue 1 ,
"'it mich in die Hell verfluc"
".t deim ewig Himmermeer.
the article on
Abraham Reeser Home.
Beginner's Book in French, Doriot, Boston, 1886
Correspondence and Interviews with members of his family.
Der Deutsche Pionier, Cincinnati, 0. Vol. VII. 161
History of Carbon and Lehigh Counties, Matthews and
Hungerford, lS r 54.
National Educator, Allentown, Pa. Jan. 1903,
New York Journal, New York.
Pennsylvania German Manual, Kutztown, Pa. 1875. Allentown
1895, 1905, 1910.
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol.11,
p. 46 and Vol . ITT .p. 161
Prominent Pennsylvanians, Vol.1.
Reading Eagle, Reading, Pa.
The Pennsylvania Dutchman, Lancaster, 1873
Abraham R. Horno.
In November 1910 there All , Pa.
" '".' Horn sei Pennsylfawnish Deitsh Buch, ' s fert mol un fel fa
bess'rd" This book which is a sort of Raritaten-Kasten, giv
evi : nevertheless of a far more serious purpose than any of
the other works in the dialect} this purpose - lay better under-
bid after seeing who the author was. Abraham Ree3er Home was
born in Bucks County, Pa., on 'larch °4, ; his ancestors who
were of the Mennonite faith had emigrated from Germany and had pur-
chased land from John and Thomas Perm early in the 18th century.
His own religious tendency manifested itself early in life, when
at eight years oC ige he is said to have preached to the fowls of
the barnyard what he remembered of the sermons he heard, md per-
haps some things he had not heard. At the same age he had made
sufficient progress in his studies to await eagerly the Postrider
who once a week distributed the county papers throughout the coun-
When sixteen years old he began to teach school ,
and at twenty ho was principal of the schools of Bethlehem, P ,
it this time he entered Pennsylvania College at Gettysburg, teach-
ing vacation school, to raise the funds tc ] his course.
Upon graduation ^ tablished in 1354, at Quakertown, Pa., the
Bucks County Normal and Classical Institute. Starting with three
students, at the end of his five years work here he was employ-
ing fifteen teachers to instruct the ever increasing number of
students. This school was virtually the forerunner of the Normal
School System of Pennsylvania, there being at that time no other
school in the state that was conducted so nearly along the lines
subsequently followed by tho Normal Schools.
It was during this period ' ohool
journal, which under various names, but 1 iwn by its last,
The National Educator, he continued to pub!' is long as he liv
It was during thi-- same time that he was ordained a Lutheran min-
ister and served a number of congregations as pastor. In 1365, he
went to "Villiamsport as pastor to several Lutheran cor itions
there, and two years later became city Superinten " hools
at Williamsport . It was here that he was associated w
Thompson, late President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, who was a
director of the schools. After five years (1 i ' -" 2) of success-
ful labor, he was called to the Principal ship of the State Normal
School at Kutztown, Pa. After five years (1372 - 1877 ) in this
position he organized and directed the Normal and Preparatory
Department of Muhlenberg College, also for a period of five years
(1377 - 1382)
The foregoing account does not by any means include
all the activities of the life of the man, who, even when almost
70, was popularly known as Allentown's busiest man. In addition
to his work as preacher, as teacher and as editor, he wrote fr< -
quantly for magazines, newspapers and educational journals; as a
lecturer and instructor at Teachers' Institutes ho wa3 always in
demand, not only in Pennsylvania but in neighboring states and
through '-.he South, .There he made four extensive lecture tours,
after he had given up his work as teacher in 1333. It was after
one of these trips that he wao elected President of the University
of Texas, but declined the position. During these trips he w
also correspondent for Philadelphia Pa]
I lover of .. ' 1! ' ] -. , and
1 o students ' intr
he pub] :T " T • uid tc
' Df self h lp he publisi fc' Ihem-
istr; 1 sub J . Believ' hat if
of selves as he did, their health w ] 1 equal his own, he pub-
lished his Common Sense Health Notes. He was a member of many
socities and prepared and read many papers before them, among othera
he was one of the founders of the Pennsylvania German Society. In
] )8 he was appointed by the Governor to be the State Educational
Commissioner to the Omaha Exposition. Late in life he p 1,
organized and became p resident of a Railroad Company and built a
Railroad. He also published the Memoirs of Rev. Joshua Yeager, a
noted preacher of Eastern Pennsylvania.
A Pennsylvania German by birth, a teacher in the
public schools at a time and in a place where the dialect only
was spoken, Principal of a Normal School which is notorious for
the percentage of Pennsylvania Germans among its students, he
appreciated a3 few had done, the difficulties these young people
had to contend with in getting an English education. Indeed, the
original object of his paper was "to supply a long felt want in
education among the Pennsylvania Germans, namely an organ for the
schools and parents of the German section of the State, specially
devoted to their interests." During his first twenty five years
as a teacher, he had become convinced, as he tells us in his
Manual published in 1875, that the system of education generally
pursued among these people admitted of very great improvement,
as far as it pertained to language instruction. In thinking and
reasoning, as for instance in Mathematics, he found the Pennsyl-
vania Germans not only the luala "but superior to many of sh
ancestry; but where there wan requ' i of e 'ion,
he found them greatly handicapped by their inability to use the
"The groat problem presented for solution, is how
shall six to eight hundred thousand inhabitants of Eastern Penn-
sylvania to say nothing of those of other parts of our own State
and of other States, to whom English is as much a dead language a3
Latin and Greek, acquire a sufficient knowledge of English to en-
able them to use the language intelligently?" - "To render such
assistance to those who speak Pennsylvania German only, as will
enable them to acquire the more readily the two most important
modern languages, English and German, has induced us to prepare
It will be noticed that he says to teach English
and German; this idea was not a n£w one with him; in an article in
the Pennsylvania Dutchman, Vol. I. No. 3. 1373 which discusses among
other things to what extent the German language should be taught
by the side of English and in what manner this should be done, he
had already recommended Pennsylvania German for Pennsylvania Ger-
man pupils and High German for European Germans as the first
language of instruction. For those who are accustomed to speak
Pennsylvania German he recommended the use of articles written in
Pure Pennsylvania German! in the newspapers and especially Har-
igh's poems to teach pronunciation, translation, construction
and simple grammatical forms. Then turning to the question of
English, he says every child attending the schools should receive
a sufficient knowledge of English to be able to hold intelligent
conversation and conduct correspondence In this language; two
thirds of our Pennsylvania German pupil3 fail to do this at
present; having shown how, according to true pedagogical principl
the teacher must pass from the known to the unknown, he goes on to
demonstrate how corresponding words and sounds in English and Penn-
sylvania German should he made the basis of exercises in pronun-
ciation. Finally, some book in Pennsylvania German like Harbaugh ' s
Harfe or Ranch's Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook should be placed in
the pupil's hands. In the same number of the Dutchman there appear-
ed an editorial commending the scheme.
Filled with these ideas, Horns began while Principal
of the Normal School, the collection of material for a book which
should be more adapted to school work along the lines of his articl -s
than either Karbaugh's Harfe or Rauch's Handbook. The first part
of the book, intended to be the basis for a correct pronunciation
of English, takes up seriatim the sounds supposed to be most diffi-
cult to acquire, with rules for pronunciation. Exercises for
practise are appended, of which such sentences as - "He that re-
fuseth thriftlessness and rejoiceth in thorough thinking thrives"
and "What whim led White Whitney to whittle, wisper, whistle and
whimper near the wharf where a whale wheeled and whirled?" i
stand as examples. Those who were in his classroom bear testimony
to the rigorous drills he used to subject them to at this time
whenever he caught them mispronouncing English; meanwhile the news
got abroad that the Professor was preparing a book; it wa - being
noised about in the newspapers. The following letter in the dialect
contributed to the Allentown Friedensbote by Edward D. Leisenring
about the Professor and his forthcoming book I include here partly
for general reasons, but also because it contains the views of
Leisenring, who deserves to be heard on the vexed question, ".'hat
is Pennsylvania German? Incidentally it contains a criticism of
".Volleiiweber's "Gemalde aus deni Pennsylvanisch Deutschen Volksleben"
which had appeared a short time before, and also of the poems of
Harbaugh; besides all this it is a speciemn of a dialect newspaper
letter Such as the latter becomes when it discusses serious things
in a serious vein.
" f N Brief an der Hochwerdig Prof .Home von der Kutztauner
Hochwerdiger Professor:- Ich hab schon von d'r gelese im Friedensbote
un annere Zeidinge, un g'aehne, dass du dich bis uf die neunt Haut
welire dusht for unser schftne Pennsylvania DeutacheSprach ufzu-
halte, dass sie net unnerdruckt un vernicht sott werre von dene
Englisha kerls, wo doch net English konne un loeber Gott, ah kenn
Deutech. * S hot mich werklich geplasirt, dass 3o'n gelerntef Kerl,
wie du eenor biat, unser Part nemmt. Ich bin 'n Pfalzer, mei
Gros3dadi is aus der Pfalz ruwer kumme, un dieweil die gelernte
Leut behaupten, der Grossdadi dhat alsfort widder im Enkel raus
kumme, do bin ich dennoch mei grossdadi selwert, wo von der Pfal2
ruwer kumme is. Uf sell bin ich stolz, vonwege er war'n schmartor
"Was ich eegentlich hab sage wolle is des "Ich han in
der Zeidung gelese, du dhatst mit dera Gedanke ungeh, 'n Buch un * n
Dickachonary uwer Pennsylvanisch Deut3ch rauszugewe. Weest was -
so 'n Buch dhat 'n die Leut do in Pennsylvania un sunst uwerall
wo die Pennsylvanisch Deutsch Sprach sch.vatze gewiss arg gleiche,
un die Nallyann is recht in die hoh g'huppst for Freede wie ich
sell Stuckel in der Zeidung vorgelose hab. Awer, sag ich zu der
Nallyann, wie mor oweds beinanner g'sotze hen, wie sie bein Petty
licht 'n paar Blacke uf eens von de Buwe sei Hoseknie genaht hot,
Nellyann, sag ich, denksht seller Professor wees war er unnernornnt?
Nau du bist 'n dorch un dorch 1 ennsylvani3ch '.Veibsmensch alle zoll
von d'r. Glaabste so'n Buch konnt zuwege g'schriwe werre, dass
m'r sich net sohamme braucht init? "Well* sagt sie, weil sie ihre
schone braune Aage uwer der Disch zum'r ruwer g'schraisse hot, sagt
sie 'ich glaab wol net dass es der ufgeblose, hochmudig Hanne-
wackel drunne im Wanzedhal es dhu' konnt, was seller Professor dhu
kann wees ich net, awer sel wees ich, dass wann inei Hannes so'n
Lerning hatt, dass er 's dhu kennt'. Guck, 'wer so'n Fraa hot, lebt
noch so long sagt der Sirach in der Biwel, un sel hot rnich ufgeweckt,
dass ich d'r den do Brief schreiwe dhu.
"Ich bin, denk ich net ganz so g f 3cheidt wie die
Nellyann meent awer wann du sell Buch schreiwe wit, mocht ich d'r
eppes von Adveis gewe, vonwege weil ich selwert 'n Pennsylvanier un
noch newebei 'n Pfalzer bin wie ich d'r bewisse hab. Nau die Efalz-
er Sprooch un die Pennsylvanisch Sprooch sauwer g'schwatzt, sin eens,
un is schier keen Unnerschied dazwische. Les mol "FrbhcPfalz, Gott
erhalts" (Nadler) noh geh ufs Land un geb gut acht wie die Leut
schwatze; was die Buwe un die Mad zu nanner sage an der Singschul,
vor'ra Schulhaus wann's dunkel i3; was die Baure 3age von de Gaul,
vom Rinsvieh, von de Sau, vom Weeze, voin "elschkorn un vora Hai ; was
un wie die Weibsleit mitnanner dischkurire uwer allerhand Sache,
die juscht sie alleen a' belange, un du werscht bal etffahre, was
Pennsylvanisch Deutsch is. Do sin viel von dene Kerls wo's prowirt
hen, die raeene, wann sie recht hunsgeschmeo schlecht hoch Deutsch
schreiwe un ferchterlich viol 3nglische worte drunner schmiere dhate,
sell war Pennsylvanisch, un ao narrisohe Deutsche, wo's net besser
verstehen, spend 'ne dann grosse Lorbeere for 'dieses Gottlicho
Verhunzen der so edlen deutschen Sprache ' . 7or selle, hochwerdiger
Professor, m&cht ich dich gewarnt hawe.
" ' S kann gewiss niemand 'n hoherer Respect hawe vor eelle
Lieder, wo der Parre Harbach g'schriwe hot, wie ich. Ich wees,
wie's'm urn's Herz war, wie'r alsemol selle Lieder g'schriwe hot -
dotlich weech, heemwehrig. Herzewoh noch de unschuldige Kinnerjohre
un bei so Gelegenheite hot noch eppes von owerunner aus der annere
Welt uf 'n gewerkt - so dass m'r viol von seinr Lieder die Poosie
gewiss net ablegle kannj awer die Sproch - well ich will nicks
druwer sago - just, wo in 're Schrift Oder in 'me Lied so viel Snglisch
wie Pfalzisch oder Deutsh vorkuramt, is es net Pennsylvanisch Deutsch.
"Nau warm du dra' gehst, for sel Buch zu schreiwe los
des vorhenkert 3nglisch Kauderwalsch haus, wo gar net in unser
Sproch g'hore dhut. Ich arger mich allemol schwarz und bio, wann
so dumm stoff gedruckt un in die Welt g'schickt werd wo Pennsylvan-
isch Leutsch sei sol awer lautor geloge is. 'S is uns verlascht-
ert wo ra'r's net verdient hen. Un wann dei Buch mol fertig is, un's
kummt mir unner die Finger un's i3 so 'n elendiger 7/isch wie kerzlich
wieder eener in Fildelfi raus kurorne is, dann ufgebasst for dann
verheckel ich dich, das3 du aussehnst wie verhudelt Schwingwerk,
un die Leut dich for'n Spuks a'gucke.
Schinnerhanne3 vom CalmushtWel"
Horno found it impossible to get his promised pub-
lication ready by Christmas of 1375, but the students were so eager
to have the book to take with them during the holidays to canvas
for its sale, that a ntlmber of specimen copies in the form of agent3
samples were struck off for their use; of these I possess a muti-
lated copy. When it appeared, the second part was entitled Penn-
sylvania German Literature, consisting first of directions for the
use of the exercises, a phonetic key, and then a long series of
object lesson pictures, serious, humorous and Comic, each supplied
with a title in English, Pennsylvania German and High German.
This part of the book (as well as the first part)
finds a certain pedagogical justification and example. Ten years
later (1836) the firm of Ginn and Company published "The Beginner's
French Book" by Sophie Doriot "with Humorous Illustrations". In
the author's Introduction she says: "Experience has taught me fur-
ther that children as a rule are rather hard to please and not
very willing to submit to arduous and humdrum work; it is necessary
to amuse them - - I also rely on pictures which have been made
as humorous as possible - Children who do not know how to read
should be taught the words and expressions contained in each lesson
by means of pointing to the different parts of the picture." In
fact, her entire Introduction might be bodily transferred to out
Pennsylvania German book; this evidently belonged to the pedagogy
of the time.
Next follow proverbs, riddles, rhymes, anecdotes,
descriptions of old customs by the author; lives of distinguished
Pennsylvania Germans, especially of the Pennsylvania German Gov-
ernors and of the State Superintendent of Education, by Conrad
Gehring of the Kutztown Journal; and finally selection^ from dialect
poets. The third part contained a brief grammar, a dictionary of
Pennsylvania German words with their English and High German equiva-
lents. As a guide to the study of English and Cierman, the book
was submitted to the public for use in schools and families. (Vide
the Introduction) The editor of the Reading Eagle had attacked
Home's scheme, when first he had proposed to introduce the dialect
into the schools; Rauch of Lancaster championed Home in an editorial
in which he said he supposed the Professor would attend to the
fellow and then encourages him thus "Du 'm mohl sei dicker dum-cup
I have inquired of those who ought to know whether
the book ever got into the schools; the result is disappointing,
save this from a letter from David S.Keck of Kutztown, who was Super-
intendent of the Schools in Berks County in those days: he says: "I
occasionally found a copy on the teacher's desk, the teacher some-
times consulted it to get the English names of common objects."
(Letter of February 13, 1911) The situation which the book was in-
tended to meet seems to have been generally recognized as actually
existing, for on the appearance of the book, the New York Journal
said, "Prof .Home, bekarmtlich einer der unermudlichsten Ver£echter
des Deutschtums in Amerika, gibt ein Lesebuch. Dies Buch wird ei i>:
lang geftlhlten Bedurfniss abhalfen, da dann Pennsylvanisch Deutsche
Kinder das Englisch nicht bios lesen sondern auch verstehen lernen
k6nnen. Ein solches Werk ist nicht bios wunschenswerth sondern gar
unter den jetzigen Verhaltnissen zum dringenden Bedurfniss geworden."
It is of course possible that almost all of this was read out of
the Introduction by the reviewer, but it was in turn quotod by the
Deutsche Pionier of Cincinnati, Ohio.
After the Manual had been ten years our of print, a
second edition was issued in 1896 with numerous additions to all
three parts, with the addition of a supplement, comprising an Eng-
lish Dictionary with the Pennsylvania German equivalent. The
author has dropped the word German from his preface, and has in
mind a Manual only for the acquiring of English. He says further
that although the necessity for such a work might "be supposed to
exist no longer, yet experience and observation shows, that in
Pennsylvania German districts on the very eve of the 20th century
what was said in the preface in 1875 may again he repeated. *n
referring to the second edition The Pennsylvania German calls it:
"a book that has for years been a standard among those having to cL>
with the mastery of the dialect or the English education of the
children who speak this tongue." In response to a wide public de-
mand, Borne 1 s son was induced to issue a third edition in 1905;
it had again been enlarged in every part and purports no longer to
servo merely as a guide book for the study of English, but also to
show how the Pennsylvania German i3 spoken and written; an indi-
cation that the boo^: is on the way to become a historical docu-
memt and will presently show how Pennsylvania German was spoken.
In November, 1910, as stated at the outset, the Manual was issued,
"Es fert mol un feel ferbessered" . Such is the history of one of
the most popular Pennsylvania German books by one of the most
widely known Pennsylvania Germans, one who, wherever he was, was
fond of applying IVollenweber f s lines to himself:
w Ich bin en Pennsylfawni Deutscher
Druf bin ich shtuls un dro."
for the sketch on
Israel Daniel Rupp.
Egle, W.H. in the Historical Magazine, Feb. 1871
R. - in the Deutsche Pionier, Vol. X. p. 200
Ringwalt, I.Trs. Jessie C. in the Deutsche Pionier, Vol. VI
Pennsylvania German, Vol. VII .1 . I.-F.C.Croll.
Israel Daniel Rupp.
The name of the author of "Thirty Thousand Names
of German and Other Immigrants to Pennsylvania" is known to all
students of early histories, as is also his remarkable series
of County Histories which ha3 become the storehouse whence all
later writers have drawn. Biographical sketches of him have ap-
peared in the Historical Magazine, Pet. 1871 by his friend Dr.Sgle;
in the Deutsche Pionier 1874 p. 351 a translation of an "nglish
article by Mrs. Jessie C.Ringwalt; in the Deutsche Pionier 1878, p. 200
by some one who signs himself R. (Rattermann, H.A. ?); in the
Pennsylvania Magazine Jan. 1891 by the late Prof .Seidensticker
of the University of Pennsylvania; and in the Pennsylvania German
Magazine, Jan. 1906 by Rev.P.C.Oroll.
Vihile no new material on Rupp has been discovered
it is due to his memory to recall here how he went through Penn-
sylvania with a horse and wagon and a load of books to sell, while
gathering information from house to house; how he went from torn
to town teaching school, either obtaining a position or starting
new schools, in places where there were records to be searched,
while he later as itinerant life insurance agent travelled for 19
years through Pennsylvania, all the while picking up the material
out of which his famous works were evolved.
A :aaoter of rany languages and a student of language
as well as of history, he found time to scrutj .
* 2fermany, and frequently wrote , artic]
he compared these several dialects of Germany with the Pennsyl-
vania German. Such a one is a dialect Deutsche
Pionier: "En Kurze G'schicht von ineim Grosvater Johann Jonas Rupp"
two other artel wrote for . are entitled
"Eppes uber Pennsylvania Deutsch" and. "Eppes de Deutsche Baure" .
In 1871 Dr.Egle wrote of him: "There (in Philadel-
phia)he still resides, pursuing his vocation, laying up treasures
of history for the great work of his life, 'An Original Fireside
History of German and Swiss Immigrants in Pennsylvania from 1688
to 1775a. It i3 nearly completed and it is hoped that Rupp will
soon give it to the public who have been on the lookout for the
work for so many years."
In 1873, in an article sent to Rauch's Pennsylvania
Dutchman he himself said of the chapter on ' Pan Patois of Pennsyl-
vania German' that was to appear in the above mentioned volume: "I
have for nearly fifty years been studying the Pan Patois, Kauder-
welsch, spoken in Pennsylvania. I have in my budget a va,ried col-
lection of German phrases, words, idiomatic sentences, written
by myself as pronounced in different counties in Pennsylvania, noted
carefully in the dialectic variations"
In 1878 when he died, the work which would no
doubt vie with all his other collections and compilations in value,
had not yet been published nor has it to this time seen the light
the sketch on
David B. Brunner.
Biographical History of Berks County, Norton L. Montgomery,
Pennsylvania German, Lititz, Pa. Vol. VII. 4. 3
Proceedings of lylvania German Society, Vol. IV. p. 159
Publications of the Berks County Historical Society, R ':jg,Pa
Personal interviews with his fri
David B. Brun e .
David B.Brunner of ' . - : 'A a 11
number E 1 : 'led Xenieii,' rhyme* prov ba, , Baura-
spruchej to which he signed hi ] " von F "i.e. from
7er sucht for'n rechter har r Job
Der geh un wart sich selwer ab.
lisst nel 'na dra s i
Un alfert im a Schussj
1 ide Fin H 1 :>ls
". Pochol odder 'n
t Hi 1 sohtehlt,
Dann sperren sie en ei'
Doch warm or dausent Daler sohtehlt
it er ] Lch frci.
thorough ' x> I files of the Reading /Idler (estab-
lished 1796) for which he wrote | sntly /rould yield n
numb or o^
Widely dif " ... contained
Home's Pennsylvania German Manual, entitled "De ' on un
si Bile". The familiar cherry tree story is rehearsed; George'
father is portrayed as a thrifty Pennsylvania
had seen tc it that his estate had its due share of oho- ,
growing all about. George, who was a good boy, - "warm er bei
seim pap war"- was tempted by the red ripe fruit; his prude
praised in not electing to cli >e; suppo. "alien
and crushed out his young life -
How i^on des ding so ghappened het
Un sis una goot geglickt
Don hetta mir silawa ken
Unites Ctates do grickt.
George's father discovers the deed, and to the ques-
tion why he cut down the tree with his little hatchet, George
replies with the countryman's joke,- because ho could not find the
axe. Half in j If yield] ptation to po'
a moral the selection
Der George hut net viol chansa g'hot
r grosse Buwo het.
■ George hut gor net leaya kenna,
Ihr kennt, doot ov )t.
Danie] Mil] '. Collection of Pennsylvania Ge tains
five selections in verse by Brunner. 1. . ich juscht en Bauer
war, in praise of country life:
Oi warm ich juscht en Bauer war,
Un hatt en gut "tuck Lai
Dann hatt ich ah mei Sack voll Geld
Un ah noch in der Hand.
In rapid survey are passed in review all the arguments
that used to be brought forward by the affirmative, when in the
old days was discussed in "Speakin- school" the ques , Resolved:
That country life is preferable to city life. Not until we have
read the last four lines of the poem,
0: wann ich juscht en Bauer war,
".'arm's ah juscht dauere deht
Bis dass ' s gut Sach gesse is
Un's an die Erwet gehti
do we realize that this is
a satire; that our author is sporting with us and with his subject,
that he has in his humble wa£, contributed to a type of literature
as old as literature itself.
2. Bezahlt E}uer Parre - narrates how a witty parson
moved a wealthy though delinquent congregation to meet its finan-
cial obligations, and ends with a merry explanation of a similafc
phenomenon, that a preacher also cannot live without pay.
3. En Gross Misverstandniss -
Die scho un lacherlich "' ' Lcht,
Go duhn viel sie heese,
Hab ioh in meiner Ilerche Zeiti
Sechs Johr zurft. lose.
hrscheinlich is die G'schicht ah wahr,
So hot sie mir geguckt,
Sunst hatte unser Parre sie
Sei lebdag net gedruckt.
Th Misverst&ndniss is great
enough to arouse, tost expectatioi , while the disillusion-
ment is invariably followed by a burst of li -r, for in the main
it is true that the Pennsylvania German loves a joke on the "Parre".
4. Die Grundsau - after considering this creature
and all her ways, and all her claims, and all her influence, he
finds that we have to with a thorough humbug, and that:
Exactly wie die Grundsau is,
So duht ihr Manner finne;
Auswennig sin sie Gentellout,
Un humbugs sin sie inne.
This gives Brunner occasion to consider the various kinds
of sharpers that are neither what they seem, nor what they claim
to be; U' d
Nau geb ich euch en guter Roth
Un den du ich euch schenke,
'j'ann ihr so humbugs als ahtrefft,
Duht an die Grundsau denke.
5. Der alt un der Jung Krebs - tells of an old
crayfish that chid his offspring for swi: "hinnorsch-f odderscht"
but the saucy youngster replies that he has learnt it from his
^s is ihr wisst on alte Ruhl,
Dass schier gar all de S6h,
Grad duhne was der Vatter duht,
Un juscht en bissel meh.
By a number of salient examples our author shows that fathers and
nothers must not expect to forbid their sons and daughters the
follies they the uilty of, with any prospect of
In M Der Dan Y/ebster un sei Sens" he treats another
well known tale after the manner of the George V/ashington story.
Dan is a Pennsylvania German boy fcho has gone to College and
comes back having forgotten how to work, prefers to talk English
and would rather sit in the shade than do anything else. This
is a favorite theme of our writers; Daniel Miller has a pro.
version of this same story; the effect of the first year of College
life on the farmer boys has received the attention of a number of
writers, one notable selection having been prepared by T.H.Harter
(Boonastiel q.v. ) at the instance and to the complete satisfaction
of a former President of State College, Pennsylvania.
Brunner wrote also, occasional prose letters for the
papers, notably in his campaign for Congress; during this time
he had his own letters appear in numerous County papers, but over
the signature of those who ordinarily contributed dialect pro-
ductions to the respective papers.
It is time to consider briefly what manner of man
this strange handicraftsman of literature was. David B. Brunner v;as
fifth in line of descent fror, Peter Brunner, who emigrated from
the Palatinate about 1736. The subject of our sketch was born in
.ity Township, Berks County, Pa. "u'arch 7, 1835; he attended the
public schools until twelve years old allowed the car-
nter's trade with his father till he was nineteen, meantime con-
tinuing his attendance at school during the winter months. He
taught school three years and prepared himself for Dickinson
College, which he entered in 1852, graduating in 1356} he conducted
the Reading Classical f-chool until 1869, whereupon he was elected
Superintendent of Schools of Berks County. ifter serving two
terms, he founded the Reading Academy of Sciences and the Reading
Business College; in 1880 he "became Superintendent of the City
Schools of Reading, Pa, and from 1838 on served two terms in
Brunner was interested in archaeology, and published
works on the Indians of Berks County and of the State j in the
domain of microscopy and mineralogy, his studies on the minerals
of his County have been incorporated in the publications of the
2nd Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. He died on the 29th of
November, 1903* His dialect writing was an incident and a diver-
sion in a busy life. His prose letters will be found chiefly in
the files of the Reading Adler.
Lee Light Grumbine.
Allentown Daily City Item.
Biographical History of Lebanon County, Chicago, 1904
Der Alt Dengelstock, Grumbine, Lebanon, 1903
Harrisburg Star Independent.
Lancaster New Era
Lebanon County Historical Society, Vol. I. No. 11
Lebanon Daily News
Lebanon Evening Report
Lee Light Grumbine -Cr oil in Pennsylvania German, Vol. V. 145
Letters in possession of S.P.Heilman
National Cyclopedia of American Biography, New York. 1894
Vol. V. p. 264
National Educator, Allentown, Pa.
Pennsylvania German, Vol. V. 2. 96. w Der Dengelstock"
Pennsylvania German, Vol. VII. 4. 178
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. IV. 169
Vol. XIV. 55
Publications of the L-eabnon County Historical Society, Vol .3
Transactions of the American Philological Association.
Lee Light Grumbine .
Lee Light Grumbine was born in Fredericksburg, Leb-
anon County, Pennsylvania, July 25, 1858. The ancestry of his
family has already been discussed in the article on his brother
Dr. Ezra Grunbine (q.v.) where also it has bee noted that "to
scribble and rhyme runs in the family" Lee Grumbine possessed
another talent that ic characteristic of the best dialect writers
according to a writer in the Forum (Vol. XIV. Dec. 1892, p. 470) who
says "Recalling Col. R.M.Johnston's dialectic sketches with his own
presentation of them from the platform, the writer notes a fact
that seems to obtain among all true dialect writers, namely, that
they are also endowed with native histrionic capabilities. Hear
as well as read Twain, Cable, Johnston, Page, Smith and all the
list, with barely an exception."
In: the public schools and at Palatinate College,
Grumbine gave evidence of his ability along thic line, and when a
student at the Wesleyan University, Conn, he began giving public
elocutionary entertainments, and this, with lecturing and Teachers'
Institute work he kept us as a diversion during his lifetime.
When he had graduated from Wesleyan University, Conn,
in 1881, he took up teaching but began the study of law at the
same time, and three years later was admitted to practice in the
Courts of Lebanon County, and in 1887 to practice before the Supreme
Court of Pennsylvania; for a time he was the law partner of the
late Gen.Gobin. In 1886 he was appointed Instructor of Elocution
at Cornell University, but never entered upon the duties of his
position j in 1889 he was Principal of the School of Oratory at
the Silver Lake (New York) Chautauqua.
In 1889 he became the founder and editor of the Leb-
anon Daily Report, which he conducted along independent line,
making it the organ of reform movements, and the dread of evil - ■
doers and machine politicians. In politics, a Prohibitionist, he
held a high place in the councils of hi3 party, both in the State
and in the Nation, and as a platform orator and as candidate he
made many a vigorous fight for a forlorn hope.
Grumbine was also one of the prime movers in the
organization of the Pennsylvania Chautauqua at Lit. Gretna; a mem- ■
ber and one of the founders of the Lebanon County Historical So-
ciety: a member of the American Philological Association, for
which he prepared several papers on the results of his study of
the provincialisms of the English speech of eastern Pennsylvania
which have their origin in German idioms and expressions. He viae
one of the founders, and during his life, Vice President and a
Director of the Lebanon Trust Company.
It was his paper - The Lebanon Daily Report - that
first suggested in December 1890 and January 1891 the organization
of the Pennsylvania German Society, and when other papers quickly
seconded the idea, it led to the organization of that society early
in the same year (1891). At its first regular meeting, after
organization Oct. 14, 1891, he read an English poem entitled "The
Marriage of the Muse" in 21, 12 verse stanzas. He calls for
"The happy bard, the poet and seer,
Whose voice, with its tuneful charm, will make men hear,
As he tells, in stately epic, or lyric story,
Of a quiet and simple folk, of their trials and glory-
As he sings with wisdom and grace and musical measure,
To their children's glad delight, or a busy world's pleasure,
The sterling virtues of that brother band,
'The sorrowing exiles from the Fatherland,
Leaving their homes in Kriesheim's bowers of vine,
And the blue beauty of their glorious Rhine,
To seek amid their solemn depths of wood
Freedom from man and holy peace with God.' "
five lines are an incorporation of verses from Whittier's "Penn-
"A timid youth ,
V/ho only knows to speak with simple truth
appears as suitor to the Muse.
"who dares by such a bold demand
Persistent, sue the Kuse's heart and hand?"
proceeds to tell of the noble ancestry of the youth, and finally
makes bold to reveal his name- it is the Pennsylvania German
Society. His petition is evidently heard, for the successful or-
ganization of the Society is celebrated as the Nuptial Feast and
the hope is expressed that
"From this holy union may there spring
A progeny of poets, that will sing,
The praises of those hero souls who came,
In search of neither fortune nor of fame,
From Alpine slopes and banks of castled Rhine,
To land where Liberty's fair sun would shine."
The second and third parts of this poem are entitled
respectively "Their Dowry" and "Our Heritage"
Grumbine remained an active member of the Society
until his death in 1904; at that time he had in course of prepar-
ation a history of the Mennonites, which he was writing for the
Association. In 1901 he presented a paper to the Society - an
essay on the Pennsylvania German Dialect: A study of its status as
a spoken dialect and form of literary expression, with reference
to it6 capabilities and limitations, and lines illustrating the
same!!- also undertaken at the request of the Society. In part it
contains good poetics as when he says "The Pennsylvania German
occupies a unique place among the tongues of Babel and their der-
ivations. It is like a provincial rustic youth, strong in the
vigor of athletic young manhood, lusty in the spirit of adventure,
and joviality, schooled in self-reliance, honesty and industry,
trained in all the domestic virtues - love of home, of work, of kin
and of God, but not used to the courtliness of state, unskilled
in the hollowness of vain compliment, untutored in the frippery and
polish of artificial society, unacquainted with the insincerity and
diplomacy of the wider world, removed from kith and kin, and thrown
upon his own resources among strangers and new surroundings. The
feelings and sentiments of its own provincial home life it can ex-
press with a force and beauty, a directness ^a tenderness and humor
all its own, but in the more cosmopolitan relations it is awkward
and wholly inadequate, probably because as soon as the Pennsylvania
German individual strikes out into the larger world of human en-
deavor, beyond the modest and circumscribed limits of his provin-
cial sphere, to the extent that he becomes a cosmopolitan in taste
in education, or culture, or achievement he discards the provincial
for the national} he loses the marks of his native racial and
linguistic individuality; in short loses himself in the great mass
of the national commonplace. He discards the mother tongue and
adopts the ruling speech, the English."
Or again, when he says "A foul tongue cannot express
a pure mind even though a corrupt mind may at times clothe itself
in fair language. The artist, the poet, the writer, the musician
each expresses his thought, his life, his inner self; and what the
vocabulary is to the individual, that the dialect is to the com-
munity, and the language to the nation. If the people as a people
are concerned with the heroic affairs of human activity - with
statecraft and commerce, with science and art, with schemes of
metaphysics and education, with the pomp of wealth and the parade
and pageantry of aristocracy, with the stilted ceremonials of
society and the outward formalities of religion, their language will
be stately, courtly, scholarly, classical, majestic, and sometimes
hollow and insincere. The stormy passions of the soul, the machin-
ations of ambition, the intrigues of politics, the plottings of
hatred and revenge, and the cruelties of persecution can only be
portrayed upon the large theater of the world where are played the
dramas of statecraft, and where great events and movements mark
the onward march of history from epoch to epoch. For these the
language and life of the Pennsylvania Germans furnish neither
example, opportunity, nor means of expression. It were ludicrous
to try to write an epic poem in the dialect of a provincial com-
munity whose interests do not go beyond 'the daily task, the common
round 1 of its simple life. Cathedrals are not built upon the plan
or out of the materials of which dwellings are made, and yet while
the cathedral with its noble proportions, its majestic arches and
softly colored light,
'Where through the longdrawn aisle and fretted vault
The pealing anthem swells the note of praise."
may help to lift the devout spirit's aspir-
ations toward the Infinite God, it is the pure and simple life in
the happy home of the plain and virtuous people, no matter how
humble the architecture or how modest the comforts, where the Muse
of Poesy loves to come a lingering gue3t. Here are cultivated
the tender sentiments of the fireside, affection, kindness, filial
love and obedience, paternal solicitude, generosity, unselfishness.
Here dwell the domestic virtues - truth, sincerity, charity, con-
fidence, candor, devotion, chastity. Here too, is religion's real
altar where piety, reverence and holiness are not the formal profes -
sion of the lips, or the ceremonial and perftuictory offices of the
priest, but the true expression of the heart in daily right living.
Sportive humor plays its mirthful part, songs of contentment and
the rippling laughter of childhood enliven the labors of happy in-
dustry. These are some *of the sweet notes in the joyous minstrel-
sy which rises to Heaven when the poet sings of the Pennsylvania
German life and people. The common range of every day human ex-
periences, human activities, human feelings and failings, these are
the domain and these the materials and opportunity for the Penn-
sylvania German poet; and if ho cannot produce the heroic measures
of the music drama with its grand world chorus of immortals, or
the stately epic with its mighty epoch making movements of nations
and of gods, he can at least, on the sweet toned lyre of his pro-
vincial dialect, play simple pastoral songs and melodies."
He is not unfamiliar with some of the dialect poets
of Germany and it is to be noted that not all the poems that
accompany the essay were written to illustrate the essay, some
having appeared earlier, nor can it be said that he has touched
up all the phases that his introduction points out as possibilities
for the dialect poet. Accompanying the essay is a brief prefa-
tory note, explaining the basis of several poens as well as fur-
nishing a sort of psychological self analysis of the author's moods
and an explanation of his aims. I include this in its entirety
bo that any one who cares may have the opportunity of deciding for
himself in how far he has succeeded or failed in his endeavors.
"It may be said in a general way that everything
here written is founded on actual fact or incident within the
writer's observation. The verses are picture? from nature. Take
for example those on a country Sabbath morn - "Sonntag Morge'ds an
der Ziegle Kerch" - if I had the hands of an artist and could trans-
late the lines into the language of pictorial art almost every
verse would make a complete picture which each one of you and
every Pennsylvania German would recognize as a glimpse into the
mirror of his own life. And yet I may say the whole poem was
suggested by Robert Louis Stevenson's "A Lowden Sabbath Morn", of
parts of which it is a more or less liberal translation adapted
to the conditions of Pennsylvania German country life. "Elendig"
is an almost literally true narrative of an actual incident, but
even if it were not it is absolutely true to the pathetic fact in
life that when we are becoming physically infirm we speak of it
ourselves in the hope of eliciting comfort from our friends and
the assurance that things are not as bad as we think; but we do
not like it when others mention the fact, and we invariably resent
it when our friends take us at our word. The several translations
further serve to illustrate what has been stated in reference to
the limitations and capabilities of the dialect. Whittier's
"Barbara Prietchie" and John Vance Cheney's "Kitchen Clock" show
how readily the themes and incidents of provincial, pastoral or
personal everyday life lend themselves to dialect treatment; while
on the other hand the more dignified philosophical or moral theme
of Longfellow's "Psalm of Life" could not be rendered into Penn-
sylvania German without the effect of burlesquing it, but calls
for the statlier measures of a more classical German."
n Mei Arme Be" with a mixture of satire, humor and
pathos paints a very common character familiar to us all - the vil-
lage toper - who makes every ridiculous pretext an excuse for his
indulgence, blames everything but himself for his weakness, and
who protests up he day that hi p " 1 irium i
"be can drink or let it alone? but who never lets it alone."
"Der Schumacher" is another character common to
every village and suggests his various brothers in the guild of
handicraftsmen would furnish subjects for similar treatment - Der
Weber, Der Schmied, Der Wagner and others. "Der Viert July" is a
somewhat illnatured portrayal of the national holiday and the pain-
ful, senseless, wasteful and almost intolerable way in which it
has come to be celebrated in our cities. It was written while
still smarting under the tortures which the 'Glorious Fourth' en-
tails upon the sensitive nerves of a suffering people."
"Lest the lines under the title 'Ich war Jurymann'
might be thought to contain expressions unnecessarily emphatic,
or inelegant perhaps, it is mentioned that the poem was suggested,
and is based upon the following true incident, beyond the state-
ment of which I have nothing to add in justification or apology:
'There lived where I spent my childhood a little old man, who in
the happy days before individualism in industrial life was entire-
ly crushed out by the spirit of combination in our commercial
evolution, earned a livelihood in the pursuit of his chosen handi-
craft - that of a tailor. He lived in the country several milec
back of my native village and the demands of fashionable society
made no heavy draft upon his artistic powers, it may be assumed;
but he lived a contented and useful life contriving wonderful gar-
ments for youthful rural swains to court and get married in, which
were ever afterwards preserved from the ravages and corruption of
'moth and rust' with scrupulous care and never worn again except
upon some occasion of equal state. In those days it was a par-
ticularly shiftless and improvident lout unworthy the name or the
station of a householder who did not preserve his 'Hochaig-kle'der '
to the day of his death when they might fulfil tho last important
function in their and their owner's career, namely that of shroud.
It happened by rare chance that the under or deputy sheriff stopped
at his house one day to his infinite astonishment and satisfaction
with a summons to do jury duty at the County Court ten or twelve
miles distant. This was such an unusual event in the old man's
life, never having happened before, and withal invested him with
such dignity and importance in his own eyes that he straightway
celebrated the event with one of his mild sprees in which he was
wont to indulge upon every occasion of excessive fueling, and he
devoted that entire day to little excursions between the bottle
in the cupboard and his other duties, strutting about meanwhile
with infinite self satisfaction before the proud gaze of his ad-
miring spouse and giving vent to the contemplation of hi3 sudden
greatness in the oft repeated exclamation: "Bin ich awer net e 'n
donnerwet terser Jurymanni" In after years when I became more
familiar with the scenes, the characters and the methods of courts
of justice myself this remark was often recalled and as often
served to give suitable expression to my own estimate, not only of
jurors, but of various other important functionaries that
figure there, as w-;"' ] i the sort of justice that, in tr 1 : :uage
of : ' - "" is 'dispi ' pon occ ,."
" ' S L a . • r " " r ] Is took"
two other pictures of t' h ppy co* it and peaceful domestic
simplicity of rustic Pennsylvania Ger;; life, w Lcl very ont
has . ■ seen or known it wil] recog Lze as coincident with
his own experience or observation. I had lust enough of "both to
qualify me to "speak by the card" on the subject depicted, to wit:
the boiling of applebutter at the particularly eventful moment when
it is finished, as described in the lines:
^r is gar: du kannst 's net besser treffe;
Hehk der Kes3el ab, un' schoepp's in die Hoeffej
Was muss der klo' Joe doch die Zung 'raus strecke,
Pur der Loeffel un* der Ruhrer ab zuschlecke ."
" d equally of that second occasion in the hayfield where
the very spot can be pointed out that will be forever linked with
the feeling and the situation suggested by the other lines:
Dort hoert m'r laute stimnie,
Die Buwe 3 in am schwimme,
Im Damm wird gebotzelt un' gekrischej
Un dort drunne im Krickle,
Im Loch un' er'm Bruckle,
V/ahrhaftig sin sie a' am fische!"
""'hoever has seen a Pennsylvania German home on a pros-
perous eastern Pennsylvania farm has seen the most perfect and
idyllic picture of contentment, of manly independence, of plenty,
of comfort, of good cheer, of peace of body and of mind that is to
be seen anywhere on the face of the globe."
Grumbino clearly had the feeling that he was con-
tradicting his own principles when he undertook the translation of
Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner" into the dialect, though he defends
himself by stating that the original in the simplicity of its
character, its language, Its plan and its teaching, is consonant
with the simplest life and therefore admits of adequate expression-
even under the limitations of a provincial dialect. Hon. G.F. Fer-
dinand Ritschl, Imperial German Consul at Philadelphia, who was
present when the poem was read, expressed his surprise at the
adaptability of the dialect to a subject like the "Ancient Mariner"
- a criticism that might easily be made by one who did not know that
the dialect had no perfect tense, no genitive case, that, when
lacking a word in the- dialect it prefers^ as a rule, an English
one to a German one. These facts I am inclined to think the
German Consul was not acquainted with.
Then Grumbine himself says that he has constantly
kept in mind that he is writing in a German dialect for a German
rather than an English speaking constituency, and has discarded
English word3 to a much larger extent than in ordinary Pennsylvania
German conversation, he admits that he has created an artificial
language, which, while it may be intelligible to any native born
German, as he says, is however not the language of the Pennsylvania
Germans. In the matter of language wo must heartily agree with
the Philadelphia .Inquirer which at the time of the publication of
the essay and the poems in book form said: "The fact remains that
hi3 dialect is very different from that of current publications
such as the fugitive pieces which papers published in Pennsylvania
German communities occasionally give their readers - such as for
example the "Olt nhulmashter',' letters printed weekly in the Daily
News of his own city of Lebanon, Pa. Does it not seem likely
that these letters, being in the common speech of the people, rep-
resent the real Pennsylvania German?"
Grumbine's original poems deserve higher praise than
his translations; the degree in which they appeal to Pennsylvania
Germans far away from the old roof tree i3 illustrated in a letter
from Rev. Francis T.Hoover, a former Berks Countian, pastor of the
Congregational church at Lockport, IT. Y. and author of "Enemies in
the Rear" etc "I am free to say that few things could have
given me more pleasure. My copy of the 'Pennsylvania German' came
with the same mail, and so I've spent two whole evenings and part
of the night3 reading the vernacular of my old Berks County home.
"Last evening, I read among other pieces, ' Ich war
Jurymann'. To say I laughed is putting it a trifle mildly. But
say! How did that 'donnerwetterser Jurymann' ever hoar of the
gentle, keusch Portia? Good! Only a lawyer - one who knew all
the ins and outs of the 'donnerwetterser Gericht' - could have pro-
duced 'Ich war Jurymann'.
"Then I read 'Der Alt Dengelstock 1 and when I read
the stanza 'S Dengel lied hat g'shtoppt' a feeling of sadness
came over me, for the picture of my old father, mowing in the
meadow in front of the house, came up "before my vision, and I was
carried to the grave at 'Eck Kerch' where he ha3 slept since 1364.
"Next came ' S Latwerg Koche' and I confess that
when the eye took in the words,
>hi wie schnell vergeht die Jugend's Zeiti
Gut nacht, zu'm Latwerg Koche!
a feeling of 'he'm-weh'
took possession of me for a time.
"You have done a work, which though you do not pre-
sume to "be an expert in the dialect, I believe equals that of
Dr.Harbaugh in this department of literature. Indeed, you have
tested and proved the capabilities of Pennsylvania German more
fully than the bard of i^ercersburg."
Prof .Oscar Kuhns of the Department of Romance
Languages, V/esleyan University too thought the poems would be
placed besides Harbaugh's Harfe, while Prof .Learned of the Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania, referring to "Der Dengelstock" (or to the
book of that name ?) says it belongs to classical dialect poetry
and takes its place alongside of Hebel's, Schandein's or Nadler's
In 1903 the essay and poem3 were published in a
handsome limited (300 copies) Autograph edition. For the "Rime
of the Ancient Mariner" Elbert Hubbard loaned the cuts and head
and tail pieces which were used in illustrating the beautiful
Roycroft Edition of the "Ancient Mariner".
other sources of information
for the chapter on
Dr. George Mays.
Christ Reformed Church News.
History of Schaeff era town, Brendle. York, 1901.
Interviews with the family.
Lebanon Courier and Report.
Papers of the Philadelphia County Medical Society.
Philadelphia Evening Bulletin.
Philadelphia Public Ledger.
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society.
George Mays, who was born of Pennsylvania German parents
at Schaeff erst own, Pa. July 5, 1836 could not talk English before
he learned it in the public school. At the University of Penn-
sylvania he completed a course in Medicine in 1861; entered the
Army as surgeon, later practised his profession at Lititz until
1871 when he removed to Philadelphia, where he lived until his
death in 1900.
Almost every year after coming to Philadelphia he
returned to old Schaofferstown for the summer, and his greatest
delight was to drive over all the familiar roads of the adjoining
According to his intimate friend, Dr. Stretch of
Philadelphia, his dialect productions were written not so much for
their poetic beauty, as to carefully preserve in phonetic form a
language which he felt aure would soon be extinct, insisting that
much -that was being published in the Pennsylvania German Magazine
was not Pennsylvania German at all but only a mixture of English
and German with a sprinkling of the dialect. The poems were
written primarily for himself and his friends. Some of them later
found their way into Daniel Miller's collection and others into
the columns of the Pennsylvania German Magazine. Nine such pro-
ductions were known, a few more finished or partly finished I found
among his effects.
Only poetic in form, aa he insisted, they yet give
us touches that other writers passed by - while, for instance,
writers have described the parties and pastimes of Pennsylvania
German Rural life - it is nowhere else that I find a party of the
kind referred to ^ tk*. / ^u*~
En achpinning Party finaht du oft
Wu gar net denkaht, ganz unvorhoff t
Un warn du ergends besuche wit
Heost gleich, nem ah del apinnrad mit.
An unserra HauB in seller Zeit
Do sammlo oft die Nochbers Leut
Mit'm Spinnrad dort zu apinne
Un dabei Plasier zu firme.
Dort hen aie g'schpunne un gelacht
Storiea verzahlt un spuohto gemacht
Wie oft hab ich dort zugegvickt
Un waa es gebt mit Luate geaohluckt.
Hia attitude toward a possible reading public ia clearly
ahown in the linss with which he began one tale:
Die Schtory de ich hier beitrag
Ia'n wohri G'achicht ao g'wiaa ich aawg
Wen achon ehn8 denkt ich moch ai uf
Ken dier sich aure ferluaaa druf .
Truz dem es ia en alte G'achicht
So mehn ich doch sis unser Pflicht
Solchi* soche fohr zu stelle,
For die loit wo* a lehsa welle .
In many of hia verses he thus goes back to memories of
long ago and places of local interest. As with so many of the
Pennsylvania German writers, the churchyard and the tolling of
the bell make atrange appeala. In one aelection he celebrates the
waterworks of the town of Schaeff era town -
Das aller erscht Werk, vun dem
Mer leae, ia in Bethlehem;
Dann kummt wie ich hier bemerk
Da3 Schafferstadtel Wasserwerk.
Ich hab des net vum Hbresage
Drum kannst du mir es herzlich glaabe
Der alte Charter weist eo plahn
Das Jedermann kann heut noch sehn.
Interesting are the verses found among his effects in
which he tells why some Pennsylvania Germans opposed the Free School
Law. The poem was never completed, I have it in three different
forms, each with some stanzas of the other forms, and each with
some new stanzas; what was tits ho it3 final form we cannot exactly
That the Germans were not as a body opposed to the
free schools any more than the Quaker, notwithstanding that many
of both classes for various reasons were opposed to the law of
1834 is well known (of .Shimmel's article P.G. Vol. ) The Quakers
opposed the proposition because having schools for themselves tbt»y
were averse to supporting schools for others; the Germans, because
the law was enacted in accordance with a recommendation in the
constitution whereby a law should be enacted to establish schools
where the poor might be taught gratis and they had none of that
class amongst themselves.
Other reasons of some Germans are given U3 by Dr. Mays:
Will ich bel der Woret bleiwe
Mus ich eich au des noch schreive
' S waar net de Ormut bei de Leit
Das Schule raar mocht 3elle Zeit
* * * *
Sie wisse ob de fri Schul law
Die greift yo ihre Geldsock au
In fact ' s war nix os ihre Geld
Os selli leit so long z'rick held.
Sel G'sets mocht unser toxbill gross
Un benefit die Schtat leit bios
Kauft uns ken blotz, net mol en gaul
Un macht yuscht unser kinner foul.
So waar's bi feeli baure's Gschwetz
So hen sie g'fuchte geges Cteetz
Un moncher glaubt er wert gedrickt
So bol mor mohl de frei schul krickt.
(Hort hen sie gfuchte geges Gsetz
Un feel de mehne es 1
Sich en Laming au zu schoffe
'Veil es deht foulenssr moche.)
Onri glauwe oni zweifel
01 de Laming kumnit fum Teifel
Un dor wo'n doraht for bioher hut
Wert afters shendlich ausgeschput.
Our author did not agree with these notions, as several
other discarded or not yet incorporated stanzas show-
Uf der Bauerei zu schaffe
Un de Erwet leioht zu moche
Do helft uns net des sohul gesets -
Sel waar of course en dummes gschwetz,
' S gebt heit noch leit de hases letz
Un schteibere sich om schul gesetz
Doch wons net for de schul law wehr
Kemt moncher net so schmart do hehr.
Two lines from one of these poems:
In sellem shane Deitsche schtick
Des alt Schulhaus an der Krick.
are interesting as
showing that to this writer too Dr.Harbaugh stood as a model and
ideal. One of Dr. Mays* best and most sustained pieces is his
picture - Der Olt Mon.
' A Bibliography
other ouroes of information
for the account of:
Pennsylvania German, Vol. IX. 3. 99 ff. "by H.W.Kriebel.
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. XVII. p. 56
Town, and Country, Pennsburg, Pa.
Veltbote, Allentown, Pa.
Henry A. 'huler, born July 12, 1850, in Upper Milford,
Lehigh County, Pa. atas a strange character; an unuoua : ly precocious
"boy. There are copybooks 3till extant containing expressions
in German, English, Latin, Greek, Hebrew and French, which he
copied at the age of nine years. Early in life he began pain-
fully detailed accounts of his doings, of his incomes and expendi-
tures, of his thoughts and his musings on his doings, of outgoes
and expenditures; all this he rewrote after new ponde rings and
meditations. All this material we possess.
Far eleven years (1370 - 1881) he taught school,
then became editor of the Friedensbote, Allentown, Pa. until 1893,
and from that time to 1903 conducted the V/eltbote, Allentown,
In 1906 he assumed the editorship of the Pennsylvania German, which
position he held at the time of his death, Jan. 14, 1908. For a
fuller account of his life, see P. G. Vol. IX. March 1903. 99 ff.
As a writer of Pennsylvania German he contributed
occasional letters to all of the papers he edited, occasionally
a poem and some spirited translations; in the dialect he gave a
third loase of popularity to the rhymes "V/hen the angry passions
gathering in my mother's face I see" which had their second vogue
in the Hans Breitman form. For Home's Manual, 3rd Edition, he
wrote a chapter on "Zeechaglawa un Braucherei" and in 1904 during
his temporary retirement he compilod- for the Boten Druckerei -
"Unssr Pennsylvanisch Deitscher Kalenner" for the year 1905, the
second calendar ever issued in the dialect.
The Kalenner • contains an introduction^ explains
the appearance of another calendar amid the multitude of those
already existing; he intends it for the thousands of Pennsylvania
Germang who lovo the beautiful old speech and hold it in esteem.
He guarantees the accuracy of the reckoning - "Her stehn dafor
dass sie recht is - dass die Daga grad so long s'n, dass der ".land
grad so sei G'sicht weist un versteckelt, dass die Gterne grad
so laafa und die Finschternissa grad so kumma wies dart steht."
For each month he has a Geburtsdag Kalenner as well as an essay,
"'.'.'as no's iwrig Gales a'geht dart hen mer'a bescht for oich
rausgsucht. Rezepta wu mer sich druf verlossa kann; Baurasprich
wu aushalta; stories wu interesting sin un wu mer lacha kann
drivver bis em der Bauch weh dut, un viol annera Sacha. Among
these merry tales are a number of specimens which will find their
place in the anecdote book long projected by the Pennsylvania
"Nau hot der Kalenner mann sei kleene Spietsch gemacht,
3r prowirt eich all zu pliesa un hoft, ihr nemmt sei Kalenner so
gut uf dass er's neekscht Johr widder kumma darf un alia Johr
bis er so alt werd wie der Redingtauner. " '2 war jo a schand,
warm unser leit net ihr egener Plalenner ufhalta kennte." But no
continuation has ever appeared.
Noteworthy was Shuler's contribution to the contro-
versy as to how the dialect should be spelled; "Mer schwetza
deitsch wie mer's vun der ^ammi un vum Dadi gelernt hen, un mer
schreiwa'S ah deitsch, dass mer's arndlich lesa kann, des heest;
mer shpella'a uf da deitscha '''eg, wie sich' 3 gheort."
The Pennsylvania German Magazine spoke of the Calendar
as follows: "It has come to this that onr people want even their
weather prognistications and signs of the Zodiac told in Pennsyl-
vania German, and so the Weltbote office has supplied the want.
There will be more consultation of it in certain parts than of
the Church or cosmopolitan newspaper Almanac"
the chapter on
Walter James Hoffman.
Journal of American Folklore, Vol.1, and Vol.1
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. IV. 171
Transactions of the American Philosophical Society,
Vol. XXVI and Vol. XXXI I.
Iter J ai:;ec Ho?
"/alter James Hoffman was born at Weidasville,
Lehigh County, ay 30, 1346. Only th Ln linos of his "busy
life can be pointed out. He became a physician, served in the Ger-
man army during the Franco Prussian War, and was honored with an
iron medal with the ribbon of non-combatants, awarded only to
worthy surgeons and Knights of St. John.
On his return to this country, he was attached to
an exploring expedition of the United States Army into Nevada and
Arizona in 1371; this gave the final turn to his life and his sub-
sequent appointments were determined solely by the opportunity to
make new studies of the Indian tribes. From the organization of
the Bureau of Ethnology in 1877 he was associated with it, As an
illustration of his activity, the fact is interesting that, during
the summer of 1884 he travelled 11,000 miles among the Indians in
the Northwestern part of the United States and in British Col-
umbia. The publications of the Bureau bear abundant testimony to
the work he did in Anthropology. His talent in painting, drawing
and carving served him in good stead in the study of pictograph-
ic writing. He was the first white man to be initiated intc the
secret rites of the Grand Iledicine Society of the Ojibways of
During the Franco Prussian war, he invented
bullet extractor which recommended by many scientific insti-
tutions and adopted by the government of Turkey. B
he was a ' a lj ' . t t w bril 1
learned Societies and an Honorary ber of . more,
many foreign countries ha Lng 1 ! ] and orde -
Prom 1S97 until hi ath two yearn 1 Liter, he was United States
Consul at "annheim, another appointment to enabl • him to carry
on research work.
While serving with the Prussian Army around Metz
under Wilhelm I. he was struck by the surprising similarity between
many of the dialects he heard and his own, the Pennsylvania German,
and determined to study his own. The fruitful results of this stim-
ulus are exhibited in two articles on Folklore of the Pennsylvania
Germans* in the First and Second Volumes of the Journal of American
Folklore; an article, in the dialect, on 'Tales and Proverbs"with
English translations of the same, in the Second Volume 6f the Jour-
nal of American Folklore; an article on Folk 1'edicine in Volume
26 of the American Philosophical Society, in the same volume Gram-
matical Notes and a Vocabulary of over C-ooo words, and in the 32nd
Volume of the same publication, an article in the dialect, entitled
"G'schicht fun da Alta Tsaita in Pensilfani".
Source of Information
Corresponder ce vr" t] member of his family.
In 1895 there died in the town where he was horn -
Jacksonville, Lehigh County, Pa. - a curious, eccentric, old bach-
elor schoolmaster, Edward Hermany; his life covered almost the
entire 19th century, and during this time he lived much to himself
and kept his doings to himself.
Up to the time of his death, no human being seems
to have known that he had done any work of the kind that his effects
showed - for among the possessions were found a collection of over
5000 verses in Pennsylvania German, in many of which he has described,
often with an almost brutal frankness, characters only odder than
himself. My informant (a member of the family) tells me that
because of this it is perhaps well these poems have been withhold
from publication for upwards of a generation} the twentyfour poems
in the collection seem to have been written between 1S60 and 1672.
His brother Charles, engineer of the celebrated water-
works of Louisville, Kentucky took charge of the MSS, intending to
publish them; he had written an introduction on the Pennsylvania
Germans and on the poems of his brother when death came to him too,
and the MSS again found their way back to Jacksonville, Pa., into
the hands of another brother.
The poem$ seemfe to take in the complete round of life!
the first one is the metrical preface - Furnahahr - the last one -
Lebensmude -j between them are "Der Dorraday ihr Huchdsich", "Die
Yuggeles Leicht?; 'Swerd evva 30 3y sulla" is probably not so op-
timistic as it looks. Of his sketches - "Die Olid Eluddshawl"-
which may be rendered the old baldheaded wench, "Der Olid Xnucha
Fritz',' "D'r Porra Tiddle" are probably characteristic. "D'r Cchtodd
Ongle im Boosh" is a familiar subject. "Wie die Ollda Koch d'r
'Hyo Sin tt - records a chapter in the early migration to the West.
Another subject that lent itself to his satire, he has portrayed in
"Kerch un Shoodelmetsch" . In more genial vain he writes, "Foon
d'r Hoyet" "Foon d'r Ahrn" "Foom Lodwerk KuchaV all well worn
subjects of the dialect writers.
Although the MSS is now in the region I canvassed
a year ago, I heard not a word of it. If the possessors, his
relatives, have any of hi3 peculiarities, any use of the mails for
eliciting information might shut off all future sources. The know-
ledge I now have comes from Ohio, and I believe it best to be sat-
isfied with this for the present, until the case can be handled
personally. The prospect of regaining or losing over five thousand
verses demands that one proceed with care.
Sources of Information
for the chapter on
Pennsylvania German Magazine
' . . - 1 8] an.
"Saw a copy of the Pennsylvania German ilagazine
at the home of a friend, borrowed it, read it, had many pleasant
memories suggested by it and desired to say a few good things about
them out of love and respect fer our people" - this is the story
of how another Pennsylvania German who had wandered away from the
old settlements, came to give us a number of selections in verse.
Edgar Mover Eshelman was born at Topton, Berks Coun-
ty, Pa. July 14, 1872 of stoc> that had come to this country before
the Revolution. His youth was spent in the Pennsylvania German
region of the state, but having become a bookbinder his interests
took him away, and after undertaking work in various cities and
service in the hospital corps during the Spanish American War, he
located in "Washington, S.C. where he is employed in the Government
n 'S New Fogel Haus" he wrote because he wished to be
classed as a lover of birds: "My Aldty Geik M celebrates the favor-
ite musical instrument of the family, his father having been
teacher of the violin - M '5 alt Rchwimloch' 1 may be compared with
similar poetic treatment of the same class by James V.'hitcomb Riley
and others; "Sclinitzpei" celebrates a w dish his mother used to make"
which only Pennsylvania Germans can prepare to suit his taste:
Ich wees en Madel - gleicht mich gut,
Sie wohnt net weit aweck,
Sie is ah herrlich schmart un gut
Un siess wie Zuckerschleck.
Doch meind - eb sie mich heira dut
Ks kann net annerscht sei -
So muss sie backe kenna - heerscht?
En rechter guter Schnitz Pei.
In lively fashion he tells the story of "Der Fer-
lore Gaul" a new version of the "absent minded Professor" but this
tine based on fact;
Hoscht du shun g'heert vurc Jakey Schmitt,
Versgesslich, bees un grob?
" .u is mei Brill?" kreischt er, sucht rum
Un - hot sie uf 'm Kop!
Villeicht hoscht ah die Schtory g'heert
Vuiri Jake seim Weissa Gaul.
Hoscht net? Dann harchl Ich sag der's garn -
Leit wissa's iwerall.
Schmitt inspired by the notion that he had left his
horse in town, goes to the barn, saddles his horse and galloping
down the pike draws up before the hotel porch -
"'.Vohl n ruft der Jake. w Ich sag der, wohJ
So geht *m Schmitt sei Maul:
"Hen ihr nix g' senna, Buwa, vun
Teim alta weissa Gaul?"
Jetzt hen sie g'lachtJ Deel falla um
Un schtehna net grad uf .
Sie gehn schier doot - dann kreischt mol Eens:
"Ei, Jake, du hokscht jo druf !"
The best of his serious poems "Juscht en Deppich"
he has written to Eulogize one of the loveliest of grandmothers of
the oldfashioned kind. "The favorite pastime of her later years
was the piecing of quilt3 of various well known designs; it was
a labor of love - ^feA of her large 'freundschaft ' ha J one„ ctl ]uorC
of hor home made quilts, the making of which consumed many precious
hours. Nowadays it is considered a waste of time. It is a relief
to recall her simple ways, manners, dress, In contrast with modern
showy artificial life. Her needs were few. Contentment was her
lot ; her life was one of Christian womanhood and I shall always
cherish her memory."
' S is juscht en commoner Deppioh - eeh!
En quilt alt Fashion - aver acheo.
Was scheckig guckt's! Die Patches fei 1
Die acheina Schpot johrsbletter zu sei.
Hoscht du die Scheeheet schun betracht
Vun so ma Deppich, heemgemacht?
So scheona Placka, gross un klee'
Di^ Farwa all in Roia schteh;
Drei - un viereckig, lang un karz,
En jeder grad am rechta Platz.
Alles in Ordnung zamma g'neht;
Juacht druf zii gucka is en Freed.
# # * *
Sie hot als Nama for sie g'hat:
Do ia en grosses "Eecheblatt"
En "Sunnadeppich" lang un breet -
Paar dausent Patches zamma g'neht.
So darrich nanner geht der do,
Sel ia der "Ewig Jager" no.
En "Bettelmann" ia ah dabei,
Un seller soil "Log Cabin" aei;
En "Siwaschtern" gar wunnerschee,
En "Gansfuss" un en "Backaschtee"
Sie hot gemacht en hunnert schier,
Des war der Grandmam ihr Plessier.
-::- # «• *
Sie hot net juscht an sich gedenkjbj
Die ganz Freindschaft hot sie beachenkt.
Wer in die Freindschaft kumma is,
Der muss en Deppich hawa gewiss.
Die Grandmam sagt: M 'S kummt handig nei
Die Kinner missa warem sei'".
Sie schafft die Schtunna fleissig weg;
En nitzlich Lewa, hocher Zweck.
Guck mol ihr G'sicht, wie fromm un mild ■
Nau, is sel net en scheenes Bild?
0, halt in Ehr un Dankbarkeit
So guta, fleissige, alt-fashioned Leit!
Jetzt is die Grandmam nirme do;
Sacht schloft sie unner'm Himmelsblo.
Ihr Hand sin nau zur Ruh gebracht,
Ihr letschter Deppich hot sie g'macht.
Ihr Lewa christlich, herrlich, siess -
So'n Seel, die geht in's Paradies.
Other sources of information
for the article on
E zra Grumb ine .
Biographical History of Lebanon County& Chicago, 1904.
Correspondence with Xr. Grumbine.
Der Inshurance Agent. Dramolet. Lebanon. No date.
Interviews with his friends.
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society. Vol. Ill .
Publications of the Lebanon County Historical Society.
Stories of Old Stumpstown. Lebanon, 1910.
Dr. Ezra Grumbine is of the fifth generation in line
of descent from Leonhart Krumbein, who came to this country in
1754 from the Palatinate and settled in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania .
In that same county several branches of the family have continued to
reside until the present time.
Dr. Ezra Grumbine, the subject of this sketch, was
born in Fredericksburg on February 1, 1845 and except for the time
spent in the study of medicine has been a resident of the county.
For this reason and especially because as a general practitioner
of medicine, he has never failed to give his services cheerfully
to the unfortunates who were suffering with bodily ailments, and
because he has never allowed his own comfort or convenience to
count when any one thought that he could be of help to them, he is
loved and honored by his fellow citizens. Indeed, the only negative
note that has ever been heard from him in cases where his profession-
al aid has been desired, has been in the shape of somo verses on
the intolerable condition of the road3 which he was obliged to
"Both horse and cart in every mile
Are splashed from mane to tire,
And the driver utters words of guile
As the wheels swish through the mire.
"And when the darkness settles down
Upon the sodden earth,
The trav'ler asks with scowl and frown
'Is life the living worth?' "
His early education he received in the public schools
of his native village, at the Lebanon Valley Institute, Annville, and
at Dickinson Seminary, Williamsport. After this he taught school,
read medicine and finally graduated from the University of Penn-
sylvania as a Doctor of Medicine in 1868. Besides taking a lively
interest in his profession, being a member of the County and State
Medical Societies and standing in the fore front of successful
practitioners, he has found time to evince his capacity for business
by organizing a bank, and under his presidency - an office which
he still holds - making it one of the strongest financial insti-
tutions in the Lebanon Valley.
"To rhyme and to scribble" - those are his words -
are his pastimes and for these he modestly offers the excuse that
it"runs in the family'.' His great grandfather, r eter Fuehrer, wrote
verses in German; his brother Lee Light Grumbine wrote a book of
Pennsylvania German poems; while his son, Harvey Carson Grumbine,
Professor of English at the University of Wooster, Ohio, has pub-
lished a small volume of poetry. Grumbine's own efforts began when
he was about fourteen years of age, with amatory verses for his
fellow pupils in school. Among the earliest of his dialect poems
is one "Ich wot ich ""aer en Bauer',' which like Henninger's later
song "Des Fahra in der Train" was written to the tune of "Michael
Schneider's Party". Grumbine's poem has been sung to the accompani-
ment of the parlor organ at social gatherings on the Swatara, on
the Quittaphilla, and on the Tulpehocken. Others of his compositions
have been recited at rural spelling schools, and debating societies
all over Eastern and Central Pennsylvania. It appeared also in
the papers of other counties than his own - in the Reading Times,
in the Mauch Chunk Democrat, etc. Rauch-"Pit Schweff elbrenner?
pronounced his " 'S Unnersht 'S Eversht Landt" a "gem". More than
one of his productions have attracted the attention of the Metro-
politan Press, including the Philadelphia Inquirer and the New York
Recorder, which later published his "Klag-liod" with three English
Before the Pennsylvania German Society, of which or-
ganizations he was one of the founders, he read a poem - "Der Prahl-
hans"- facetiously named "An Epic of the War of 1812". It tells the
stcry, based on fact, of a certain well known character, who, when
forces were being raised for the defense of Baltimore during the
War of 1812, aimed single handed to put the entire British army to
rout, but before he got within a hundred miles of the enemy de-
cided it was safer at home.
As to the quality of his verse, he has disarmed
criticism by the story he tells of the thirty cent machine he
bought on which he turns it out. Yet his modesty on this point
must not be taken too seriously- he does not venture beyond the prope:
range of subjects for dialect verse and there is little that could
be designated artificial. The following stanza for instance
from "En Gluck voll Bieplin"- in which a Pennsylvania German boy
goes to see the newly hatched chicks, copies only nature:
Gluck Gluck, Gluck Gluck J du liewer Grund!
V/as biescht du doch so bees!
Efaltigs dhier! Ich hab 30 gar
Nix gega dich, Gott weessJ
Much of his verse is parody, but not always pure
parody. His "Mary and her Little Lamb" is a satire on some facts
in our educational system. Others are versions, either translations
as of Nadler's " 'S Bott Alles Fix" or approaching translations as
Ralph Hoyt's "A World for Sale" which he has rendered in masterful
"0, yes' yes J Now harcht amol,
Un kommt jetz bei, ihr liewa Leit,
Ihr all wu wolfel kawfa wollt
Kommt bei, for do is fendu heit!
Die Welt is 'us mit Schlechts un Goots,
Der Groyer nemmt ke falsch Gabut;
Die Welt mucs fort, sie werdt ferkawft,
Mit Glftck un Elendt, Ehr un Schpott!
One of his tenderest poems "Der Alt Busch Doktor7
suggested by one of Will Carleton's, might be interpreted as a sort
of commentary on his own life. Even here, at this saddest of
scenes, the funeral of the good old doctor who has helped so many,
and was always willing, his playful satire crops out in at least
Aer cured en moncher Patient
Un shtellt ihn richtig haer,-
Don wor's yo Gottes '.'.'ilia,
Un der Herr der grickt de EhrJ
Is f n Gronkes awer g'schtorwa,
Un der Doat gawinnt der Fecht
Don blamed mer evva der Dokter
Un shellt ihn dumm un schlecht.
A Republican by party allegiance, he did not fail to
see the humorous contrast between Teddy's great "Noise" before, and
his great Silence' after the last ele-tion and he has incorporated
his thoughts in two poems "Before'* and "After" in the metre of
Longfellow's "Excelsior". It should be mentioned that in his
"Stories of Old Stumpstown" (Lebanon County Historical Society Pub-
lications, Vol.V.) he has preserved some Pennsylvania German politi-
cal rhymes from the time when Buchanan was running for the Presi-
As one of the organizers and an enthusiastic member
of the Lebanon County Historical Society, he has prepared for its
publications a ponograph on the "Folklore and Superstitious Beliefs
of Lebanon County" (Vol. III. No 9.) As a trusted physician he has
had rare opportunities to get close to the "Volk" and to learn
what they believe in their heart. In this same monograph he has
a collection of proverbs and sayings, containing a number that have
been nowhere else recorded: and some counting out rhymes.
Yet perhaps his most important work as a writer is
that in which he has engaged in the last fifteen years - the writing
of the letters - first for the Lebanon Report (at one tine owned
by his brother Lee Light Grumbine) and later upon the death of M Der
Alt Schulmeeschter" (J. J. Light) for the Lebanon Daily and Semiweekly
News, (widely copied by other .papers ) over the signature Hon. Wen-
dell Kitzmiller: in those letters he has been engaged for the most
part in laughing out of existence the follies and foibles of his
fellow men. "Ridens dicere verum" . Laughingly telling the Penn-
sylvania Germans the truth. And although this laughter is generall y
that of the genial satirist, he can occasionall y be sharp and cutting
when he thinks there is sufficient provocation.
There follow a few extracts culled from his letters,
which may be considered characteristic. He advises all, but pol-
iticians in particular: "Schtail, note brauchst nimme schaffe, un
so long as d'uf en lawfuller waig schtaileht, kummscht aw net in die
He is of course speaking out of his own experience
when on one occasion he writes of a strange case of illness of a
little child, that baffled all the doctors of a certain species.
w Un dael eawga nuch gawr es waer ferhext. Sie hen schun aentzig-
ebbes gabroveert awwer es will olles nix botta. Im aerschta blotz
hen se mol die oldt Ducktor Eetz g'hot, un de hut olles gedu was
sie gewisst hut. Sie hut em gebraucht for de Gchweining mol for's
aerscht, un note hut sie don gebraucht on Mond wie er or. zunemma
war awwer do war nix. Des glae is evva als weniger worra."
He has this comment on those who at religious camp-
meeting rise to make confession w Es is a wenig en kitzlich ding so
for da bakonnta uf tzu schtae in ra Chrischtlicha Fersomlung un en
loud gebait mocha fore Leit as aem sei bisness schtraich auswennich
He offers the above half playful excuse for not him-
self having made a public profession. But genuine wrath intervenes
when he threatens to withdraw from the Hardshell Church and start
one of his own and become himself its preacher and treasurer. He
complains that although it was for no less reason than a failure of
crops and failure of a bank in which he had money, that he could not
make his annual contribution, yet he was from that time on "Der
Oldt Kitzmiller" and "Der Fersuffa Kitzmiller". "Now so long as
Ich bully gut bezawlt hob won sie sin rum for collecta do waescht
war ich der Eruder Kitzmiller j des war Bruder hie in Bruder haer,
un won ich aw don un won t/f en souf spree bin konma,- do is nix
g'sawd worra, so long as ich tzu da dootzend un drei dinga batzawlt
hob as mir de awga ivver g' luff a sin". He makes merry at the expense
of the preachers and their attempts to explain difficult passages.
His contribution to academic lore may fitly close
the series of illustrations. Along with satire on extravaganz es in
religious practice, this may be said to constitute for the folk of
which we are writing, the higher criticism of social conditions.
The Pennsylvania German farmers sent their sons in great numbers to
college. 'Alien those not infrequently at the end of the year came
back with long hair and idyllic notions of loafing under shady trees,
while father and mother, and younger brothers and sisters did the
work, but were ever ready with suggestions as to how things should
be done, and were full of superficial knowledge of the causes of
things and ever willing to air the same, the Satirist had a proper
subject for work. There are extant no end of stories of farme"
boys who thus came home and had not only forgotten to work, but
had even forgotten the names of the commonest tools and implements,
etc While these conditions prevailed perhaps to an equal degree
in other American rural communities, yet there is this difference,
the Pennsylvania German satirist stayed at home and labored among
his own people, and so his satire strikes home.
He heads his article as follows: "Wendell Kitzmiller
goes on the new trolley road from Lebanon to Schaefferstown." It
was a balky car - A college man explains volts, ohms, microbes and
feverbugs. (This will at the same time show where the dialect
stands in relation to a scientific and technical vocabulary) Sud-
denly the car stopped. "Eb het aw nemond ous g'funna was de oor'
sach war fun der balkerei won net *n dakolletschter Karl druf
waer g'west uf f m car. Well henyah, aer hut g'sawd, secht er 'So
weit as ich saena konn sin's die - entwedders de ohms odder de volts.
'Was sin sell' hut *n oldter Schaeff erschtedtler Shoolmaeschter
g'frogt os uf 'm hameweg war fum a Deestrick Institoot. 'Wy de ohms
un de volts sin dinga os uf der same waeg schoffa. Waescht sie
kumma in die wires nei ollagabut, un dort shpeela sie der Deifel
monnich mol. Note gebts was mer en resistance haest, ebbes as es
ding fershtuppt, uf'n waeg as we'n lot ohla die Schnitzkrick Wasser-
peife ferschtuppt hen, saen dir? Of course die ohms sin net so
!rross as wie en ohl awwer sie gucka schier so, $uscht feel glenner
so sella waeg. Sie sin so gla as wie '.likrobes, die glaena Keffer,
die Fever Bugs, waescht, woos titefut fever mache un newmony un
en g'schleer (uf em Baertzel), un so. Of course, ich selwer hob
nie kenny g'saena. M'r kon se net caena oony so 'n rohr, en telly-
scope oder nitroschope we m'r secht. Ich "aes de hocha wordta
nimmy recht. Ich hob so es menscht football g'shteert. 1 'Un i3
sell now die oorsach' hut der Chim Kichman g'frogt. 'Wy sell is
orrig interesting so ebbes tsu wissa. Well now'. 1 "
Even in the latest social discussions, Grumbine's
playfully serious note may be heard. The present writer recalls an
incident of last sumr.er, when certain classes were very anxious to
know whether the daughter of one of our ex Presidents indulged in
cigarettes, In answer, our author presented us with an amusing skit
of a Woman's Club meeting, embodying resolutions offered by the pros
and cons in favor of and against twenty cent women's clubs minding
their own and other people's business.
His true catholicity of opinion appears in sayings
like that to Sara Jane "Mer kon ebmols ebbes lerna even fun Schtadt-
leit, un even fun Leit wu mer maent sin nuch dummer wie die Hawsa
Barricker." His writings are a faithful reflex of opinions he has
found to prevail, of beliefs and customs he knows thoroughly, and
from his homely philosophy might be culled many a proverb and old
saw which he has all unconsciously interwoven into his stories
without even having incorporated them in the collection he has
made. He has frequently been urged by his friends to publish a
collection of his letters in book form, as several other writers
of such literature have done, but he still stands aloof.
Finally he has written a little play. "Die Inshurance
Business" - that has been on the boards in many a town hall or
A winter evening scone in a country farm house pre-
serits the old farmer, plaiting a corn husk mat and. discussing the
price of farm products and the disposal of the receipts of the days '
sale. Mother wants them for a new dresc for the daughter who has
a beau, the sons insist they need new books for school - a neighbor-
one who has a mortgage on their farm - drops in and the old folks
agree that the old tines were best, when in the schools all learned
reading, while those who wanted to study writing and arithmetic,
could do so, with no consequent humiliation for those who stopped
at reading. In those days whiskey was cheap and there was no talk
of putting it away by vote. Granny has a heavy cold and talks
chiefly about her health. One by one, Granny and the youngsters
are packed off to bed, the neighbor delivers his message that he
must have money or he will foreclose, and leaves just in time for
Sally to receive her bgau, a clork in the store, who comes when the
The Insurance scamp persuades the farmer to insure
Granny, the agent paying the dues, taking a judgment note on the
farmer, the profits to be divided. Meanwhile they change Granny's
baptismal certificate so as to be able to establish her eligibility.
Two years have passed, the insurance agent needing
more and more dues to meet assessments, the farmer loth to drop his
policies and thus to lose what he has paid in. "hey agree to give
Granny something that will put her to sleep. The farmer, long in
a frame of mind that has caused the neighbors to remark, goes to
store for rat poison: the clerk gives him Plaster of -i-'aris instead,
and at night hastens to tell his sweetheart his suspicions. She
objects that Granny is too old to be insured: they look up the cer-
tificate and discover the forgery.
In the final scene these two enter the sitting room as the
agent pours the powder into the hoarhound tea Granny takes each
evening; one of the boys has a cold and decides he wants some of
Granny's tea and drinks of it before the father can stop him.
Father raves because he thinks his son is poisoned. The clerk
relieves the situation by explaining that it is harmless stuff; then
at the point of his pistol he recovers the policies, tears them up,
bids th* agent leave the county nor return on pain of being indicted
for attempted murder, then announces that he has received an inher-
itance which will enable him to pay off the mortgage and that he
and Sally will, with the father's consent relieve him of the cares
of life by themselves taking over the farm. While Granny pours
her blessing over the couple, the curtain falls.
Thus ends what is the only origina l play in the dialect
one that, with the exception of the near tragic element of the plot-
which I am inclined to doubt - is from beginning to end, replete
with pictures from the life of the folk, the faithfulness of which
no one who knows a Pennsylvania German farm house, would presume
Sourc~s of Information
for the chapter on
Pennsylvania German Magazine.
Just as In the last generation, Peregrine Pickle,
Petroleum V.Naseby, Max Adeler and other, and in our own day-
George Ade and "r.Dooley first wrote sketchos for their respective
newspapers, next were paid the compliment of being copied by other
papers and finally were encouraged to issue their productions in
book form - so did a number of Pennsylvania German writers come to
be publishers of works in the dialect. One such Pennsylvania Ger-
man dialect writer is Thomas H.Harter of Bellefonte, Center County,
Pa and his book "Boonastiel? named from "Gottlieb Boonastiel" the
pseudonym of the author, is about to appear in its third edition,
two editions of 3,000 copies each of the years 1904 and 1906 having
In addition to this, the entire book is appearing,
letter by letter, in Harter's paper, the Keystone Gazette, since
June of this year, the author having yielded to the pressure of
his readers who, if they could not have new letters, wanted the
old ones over again, many of which having been written a quarter
of a century ago, are really new to those of his readers who do
not possess the book. Besides thi3, no less than twenty five
newspapers in Pennsylvania and Ohio, having wished to give their
readers the same articles, entered into negotiations with the
author for copyright privileges - to all of which Harter has
given the same free of charge, while a3 many more papers, cutting
off the head and tail to disguise them and escape detection, are
publishing the same clandestinely without the consent of the author.
This popularity of the work is of course due to the
complete inside knowledge, which the author possesses, of the
character of the people whose peculiarities and eccentricities he
describe^ ; how he come3 to this knowledge will be apparent; he wa3
born on a farm near Aaronsburg, Center County, Pa., May 28, 1854,
the eleventh child in a family of eight boys and four girls. Until
fifteen years of age, he worked on the farm; up to the age of
twelve he could neither speak nor understand English; when he was
fifteen his father moved to the small town and then the subject
of this sketch attended school in winter and was sent to work on
the farm in summer.
Sent to Ohio to learn the tanner's trade, he saved
enough money to enable him to attend the Smithville Ohio Normal
School for two terms. After this he returned to his home in 1872
and learned the printer's trade in the office of the Center Hall
Reporter; it was during this time that he read all of Shakespeare
with his mother, translating it into the dialect for her as he
proceeded. Two ten s at an Academy (Springs Mills) completed hi3
schooling, and then in 1876, May 1, at the age of 22 he started
out for himself as editor and owner of the Nevada (Ohio) Enterprise,
which he conducted for seven years, whereupon he purchased the
Middleburgh (Pa) Post in 1882.
As editor of a county paper in Pennsylvania he
naturally knew of the git Schwoffelbrenner letters which Rauch
had made famous or which had made Rauch famous; he began to look
over these letters in his exchanges, and then for personal amuse-
ment, he began to hand out some of his own "fun and filosofy" in
the shape of occasional letters under the heading of "Brief Fum
Hawsa Barrick" addressed to himself as "Liewer Kernal Harder" and
signed "Gottlieb Boonastiel"
He had reckoned without his host; his readers clamored
to have them regularly and threatened to drop off his subscription
list unless he acceded to their requests. When, after twelve years,
he sold this paper and bought the Keystone Gazette at Belief onte,
he continued the letters. In 1904 he made a selection from his
large collection and issued them in book form; as intimated above
he is no longer writing new articles and he gives me two reasons:
that he has no time, and that he is pumped out of original ideas;
those who know him however, are not ready to admit that the well-
spring of good humor whence these letters sprung has run dry: the
fact is, that what with his business and political interests,
serving as postmaste - of his city, hunting big game and attending
to his numerous interests his time is fully occupied and he need
not write new letters, for, to the present generation of his readers
who do not possess his book the old letters are really new - a
proof at the same time that his productions are filled with a
freshness that does not at once grow old.
The criticism has often been made that many (critics
have usually said all) of the newspaper letters in the dialect
were characterized by a certain tendency toward the vulgar or
the profane and catered to a depraved taste. The time has come
for a distinction between letters and letters, and of those which
will, and deservedly will survive i3 this volume of mild satire;
privileged to tell plain and disagreeable truths to his own people,
and being guaranteed an audience because he continued to love them
even when he chastened them, he has already accomplished the two
purposes he avows in the preface to his book; 1. To assist in per-
petuating the memory of the Pennsylvania Germans, and 2. By the
combination of fun and Philosophy, characteristic of the language,
to correct the wrong and strengthen the right, to stimulate noble
thought and action and lead to honor, happiness and success.
This however must not make us forget the other side
of the book, the joy of reminiscence it gives to largo numbers of
Pennsylvania Germans who have left the farm for service in other
fields. In this connection three letters received by Harter may
be cited; the sincerity of their tone can hardly be denied; they
produce the conviction that they were written because the writers
had a certain feeling about the book which they were impelled to
communicate to the author. The first one reads: "It is an un-
doubted fact that when two or three Pennsylvania Dutch assemble
together socially, they can get more fun to the square inch read-
ing your "Boonastiel" than any book published in America. Many of
your pieces carry me back to my boyhood day3 to the old farm in
Somerset County, and forcibly recall the old fashions and pe-
culiar expressions and phrases which I had not heard for the last
forty five years. You bring them back into life with the old
familiar sound and jingle. It seems marvelous that you can weave
them all into your stories and spell them that any one can pro-
nounce them. You certainly deserve great credit for thus pre-
serving our mother tongue and perpetuating the memory of our sturdy
ancestry." This i3 from a letter from H.J.Miller, an attorney in
The next one comes from Washington, D.C.: "To say
that I am ■slighted would not express one tenth of my admiration
and appreciation of the work. In perusing its pages so full of
genuine humor and expressed in the true vernacular of the old
fashioned farmer, I can scarcely realize that a generation has
come and gone the way of all the living since I was familiar with
this peculiar dialect. Well do I remember the time when I did
not know the English name of that handy little tool nogel bore
(gimlet) used by my father in plying the cooper's trade; hence you
can very readily perceive the tender chord of memory your book has
so fondly touched. It recalls to memory the joyful days of youth
and the happy years s; ent on the old farm after the manner of the
good old song in Denman Thompson's impressive play *The Old Home-
'Take me back to the days when the old red cradle rocked,
In the sunshine of years that have fled,
To the good old trusty days when the door was never locked,
And we judged our neighbor's truth by what he said.' "
This was written April 22, 1905, by Samuel Beight, then First
Assistant Postmaster General of the United States.
The third is from a former neighbor of my own. After
Baying of the book "It touches more phases of life among the Penn-
sylvania Germans than any collections that I have 3een? he goes
on to say "Geshter Owet bin ich aw mohl draw kumma dei buch zu lese
ub hob gelocht bis mer der bauch wae gedoo hut. Du conshts gawiss
net ferlaigla dos du uff der bowerei uff gabrocht bisht worra.
Anich ebber dare shriva konn fum barfoosich boo dos shpote yohrs
de gile holt won olles wise is mit rifa un joompt g'schwint hee
woo der Gowl galeaga hut fer si fees tsu waerma, dare wore shunt
dabei." It is by Marcus B.Lambert, teacher of German in the Boys
High School of Brooklyn, N.Y.
By admitting at the outset, what he says some avow
of him, "Ich ware net recht g'scheit" he gains for himself the
privileges of the old time court fool, of speaking the truth with
impunity. In this way he does not bring down upon himsolf the
wrath of good country women as Washington Irving is said to have
done in the case of the good Dutch Dames of New York, by his de-
scriptions of their manner of housekeeping.
By attributing the political sins of the party to
which the author and his newspaper did not belong to his own party
he avoided arousing political animosities.
Christian Science -Der Christian Science Duckter:
woman suffrage - De Weibsleit in Politics: prohibition;- social
science - Die Schuld os Leit Awrum Sin; fashions - Die Uferstenicha
Fashions; these are among the subjects of his reflections, all
phases of human life come under his consideration - from an article
on "De Liens cha un de Monkeys" through all the experiences of boyhood
and girlhood, until the question comes up "Wie Con ich's besht Laewa
I.iaucha" then presently he goe3 "Karesseera" then arises the question
"Ware sull Ich Hira? "Ware Sull de Priscilla Hira" and so on
through marriage 2-Onera Huchtzich" to Death "Onera Leicht" and the
Grave "Uf em Karri chofe " .
"ometimes he tells an old tale -"Rip Van Winkle"
or gives us a new version of an old one -"Der Bush Hoond un der
City Hoond - or "Der Asel in der Giles Howd" One on "De College
Boova" (referred to in the article on S.Grumbine) was written at
the request of the late Pres. Atherton of the Pennsylvania State
College, and the finsi3hed article so pleased Atherton, that he
requested to have it translated into English for the benefit of
young graduates. With his pen, Harter ha3 drawn years ago the
same lines, illustrating and exaggerating some phases of college
life, which have of late years become a favorite of the colored
Harter has also made his contribution to the ques-
tion bf the spelling of the dialect, in which he follows Rauch in
the main. w V/hen I attempt to read some of the pyrotechnic spelling
adopted by some of our writers, I am impressed with the belief
that their effort is not so much meant to make themselves under-
stood, as it is to create the impression that besides being able
to write English and speak Pennsylvania Dutch, they are also
High German scholars."
other sources of information
for the sketch on
Milton C. Henninger.
History of Carbon and Lehigh Counties. Matthews and
Smull's Legislative Handbook of Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania German. Vol.11, (in press) Daniel Miller.
Personal Interviews and correspondence.
Milton C. Henninger.
In the spring of 1874 the Senior class of f-uhlenberg
College elected Milton C. Henninger to recite a piece of Pennsyl-
vania German poetry at its Class Day exercises; he elected to com-
pose one himself, and this production happily adapted as it is to
the tune of Micahel Schneider's Party, soon became, as it has con-
tinued to be, the most popular song ever written in the dialect.
From the windows of his room at College were visible
for a stretch of about a mile the tracks of two railroads on either
side of the Lehigh River and the two stations at Allentown; the time
schedule on each road brought a passenger train in at the precise
moment, 4:30 in the afternoon, when the student's were returning
from their last hour's recitation, and they presently perceived,
or thought th'^y were witnessing a race taking place before their
eyes each day; and so it came that they often watched which train
should win that day by getting into the station first. In this
fashion, Henninger came by his subject - "Des Fahre in der Train" -
or the delights of travelling by steam; and into the picture he
wove some reminiscences of his childhood days when a railroad was
built past his home, notable enough event for farmer boy, and
Henninger himself sprang from the glebe, having been born on a
farm near Emaus, Pa. April 22, 1851.
Subsequently the author of our song had worked in a
blacksmith's shop, attended the public schools, the Freeland Sem-
inary, and the State Normal School at Kutztown, and had taught school
even before his college days. The year after the composition of
the song in question he was instructor in Muhlenberg College, All en-
town, and read law. In 1876 he was Admitted "o the bar; two years
after this he was elected District Attorney, and in 1882 State
Senator, an office for which he was returned for a period of twelve
years, three full terms.
The opening stanzas of his poem run as follows:
Sis oll^s hendlch eigericht
In unsera gute zeit
Mer brauch sich gor net bloga meh
Unless mer is net gscheit.
Der schtoam dut olles fer die leit
Gel is juscht wos ich maen
Un won mer aergets he gae will
Don fawrt mer in der train.
Swar net so gut in olter zeit
Sel waes ich forna nous,
Des mocht f 'rleicht die olta bae-
Doch sag ich's frei heraus.
Sie sin galuffa ol de weg
Fun finf bis fufzig mile
'N fawr die eppes reicher warn
Sin ganga uf de geil.
So wawr der schteil in olter zeit,
'S lawfa wawr ken schond,
'.'OS is mer ols do he gadopped,
Sel is eich gut bakond,
' S is nimma so in unsera zeit
' S fawrt jeder won er kon
Un waer gor nimme lawfa dut
Der is der gentlemon.
and so on through nine more
stanzas in which he describes the iron horse, tells of the num-
erous classes of people one sees in the train, describes the dis-
advantages of travel in this fashion, especially the danger of
accidents, but finally again descides in favor of the steam:
So gaet des fawra in der train,
Ich haes es orrig schae,
Mer griokt ken kopweh fun de hitz
Un aw ken schteifa bae, etc.
There is no schoolhouse in German Pennsylvania, in
which this poem has not been sung at an entertainment or at a
meeting of the "speaking school'} the boys of a dozen colleges in
Eastern Pennsylvania have sung it in glee; many years after its
composition the author, when State Senator, travelled in North-
western Pennsylvania and heard it sung by logging trains in the
lumber regions of the State; it has even been intimated that the
composition has been rendered by church choirs, and the name of
at least one church was whispered where it was so sung, but be the
truth of the matter what it may, one would rather think this an
' Ortsneckerei' aimod at some out of the way settlerent.
More than ordinary attention is due to this 3ong
for a double reason; not only did the therie kindle the imagination
of a Pennsylvania German writer who cormunicated his enthusiasm too
the Pennsylvania Germans in general, but also the subject itself
has in like manner appealed to dialect writers and their readers
at all times; the following instances which date back a generation
earlier than ours, may be noted;
"Untorredung eines oberschwabischen Bauern mit seinem Pferd,
welches Hans heisst, betreffend die Eisenbahnangolegenheit. Von
'.Vilhelm V/ickel. Selbstverlag 1843 8° 8 S.
"Der Veepertrunk im schwarzen Adler zu Klatschausen oder Hans
Jorg, Peter und Frieder im Gesprach uber die Wuttembergischen
Sisenbahn angelegenheiten. Schwabische Dorfszene von Jakob Daiss
und Karl Siegbert, genannt Barbarossa. Boblingen, J.F.Landbeck-
1843 8* 16 S.
Motto: Bald braucht mer koine Rossle ami,
Koin Waga und koin Schlitta#
Jatzt spannt mer Dampf in d* Kessel ei,
Und so wurds furscha gritta.
(Very like our song.)
"Die Eisenbahnfro.ge in Knittelversen, besprochen zwiscften einem
Schullehrer, einem Barbier und zwei Bauern, die im Rossle am
runden Tische satzen. Teutlingen, J. J. Beck. 1843, 8*15 S.
"Der Bauer auf der Eisenbahn. Ein heiteres Gedicht in schw&b-
ischer Mundart von einora Filderbauern. seudonymer Verfasoer:
Blasius Sturmwind) Stuttgart, zu haben bei C.Hetschel. 8* 8S.
"Die Ankunft dss ersten Neckerdarnpsschiffbootes in Heilbronn
in Dezember 1841. Von : .Vilhelra Wickel. Stuttgart. (Selbstverlag?)
h* 16 S."
From Friedrich Richter a 3imilar strain may be cited;
Moi, uf der Eisebah
Do goht es schnell vura,
Und ma sitzt prachtig drauf,
Do hot es jo sein lauf .
Koine Ross spannt ma na
Uf dener Eisebah;
'S Fuier isch, was es treibt,
Das ma net 3itza bleibt.
Das isch a wissaschaft
Hot uch der Dampf a Kraft
Ruf uf dia EisebahJ
Do geht es schnell Fura.
Some passages from the famous German song "Der Goisbock
an der Sisebah" might likewise be compared. While our writer, as
shown above, is not afraid to remind the old folks that some things
are better now than in the olden times, yet he does not wholly
approve of the pleasures of these days, notably not those which
are now sought in the city; this is shown in a subsequent song,
"Die Singschul im Lond" :
Die junga leit in unsra zeit
Hen arrig feel plessier
Die Meed die danza dag un nacht
Die Buwa drinke bier.
Es karta schpiela macht viel Gschpass
Uns flirta mit de Meed
Des is de Fun vun city leit
Die heesa sie first rate.
For mei Deel ich geh net mit noi
Geb mir die Land Sing Schul ;
Dart geht mer hie fer scheona Gschpass
Un folligt aw der rule.
continuing, he describes the old institutions, and thereupon con-
Die Singschula ira ^ond sag ich
Die sin mei greeschta Freed
So long os die noch ghalte warn
Is ' s mir gor net vorleed.
Un won ich schterb, ^orlost eich druf,
Dann werds der welt bekond,
Dos ich nei Geld un oilers geb
Per Singschula ira Lond.
Henninger has written a number of other poems (See Index)
and more are to be expected. In a recent private communication
he announces that, 'if the Muse has not entirely deserted him' we
may soon have a new poem from him entitled w ' S Macht Nix Ous."
At the celebration of the one hundredth Anniversary of
American Independence at Kutztown, Pa. Henninger re-id a poem "En
Kunnert Yohr Zuruck" which is full of his characteristic notes,
love of the past, qualified dissatisfaction with the present, and
a hopeful confidence in the future. The last two stanzas prephesy
concerning the most modern of modern things,- navigation of the air.
Mer hen so viel Fortschritt gemacht
Im letschte hunnert Yohr,
Un dass mer so fortmache duhn,
Sell hot gewiss ken G'fohr;
Ball fahre mer in die klore Luft,
Bis in die V/olke neij
Un warm sel wenig kommon werd,
Dann bleibt es net dabei.
or welle als noch mehner duh,
Teh wees net alles was;
Ich sag euch nau, ihr liewa Leit,
Es 3in mer shuhr ken s chpass;
En hunnert Yohr ins Zukunft nei
.Veisst un'sre Republic
So viel dass wie mer g'sehne hen
Seit hunnert Yohr zuruck.
other sources of information
for the chapter on
Deutscher Kirchenfreund, 1S48 - 1850.
Friedenstote, Allentown, Pa.
Pennsylvania Dutchman, Lancaster, Pa.
Pennsylvania German, Vol. VI I. 4. 178.
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. VII
Unser Fennsylvanisch Deutscher Kalenner - 1895.
Rev. Dr. Eli Keller of Allentown was a merry farmer "boy
who became a preacher and has remained the latter with certain
characteristics of the former to this day: born in Northampton
County, near Nazareth, Pa in 1835 before Pennsylvania had a Free
School System, his chances for an education were small; by the
time the system came however, he had made sufficient progress in
his studies to teach a country school for several years; after
this he attended Marshall College at Mercersburg, Pa., moved with
the College to Lancaster, when it was united with Franklin College
and afterwards returned to the Seminary at iiercersburg to complete
his theological studies. At Lancaster, he made the acquaintanceship
and formed a lifelong friendship with Henry Harbaugh, who had how-
ever at that time, not yet developed into a dialect writer.
His ministerial work began' in Ohio in 1856. At first
he preached in English and German; but in Ohio the German sermon
fell into partial disuse sooner than in Pennsylvania: during the
last part of his eighteen years stay in Ohio he was required to
preach in English only and with this he began to long for the old
hoire surroundings; in 1874 the way was opened to him to come back
and from that time until his retirement in 1901 (87 years) he min-
istered to two, three and finally four congregations super-adding
himself the work involved in the two additional congregations.
Thus he frequently had to drive twentyfive miles on a single
Sunday to meet three congregations. But these labors, his outdoor
life and his association with the people he loved have kept him
young in spirit even as the years advanced.
Man*- of his poems are therefore sermonettes, pictures
from nature with the lesson the preacher draws from it. Such a
one is the example already known to Prof .Learned when he was stud-
ying the phonology of the dialect; it is entitled "Der Keschtabaam" ,
in 13 four verse stanzas of acatalectic iambic lines of seven beats,
he expresses his delight in the beauties of the tree, not so early
to bloom as the willow or maple, not so speedy to bring forth its
fruit as the cherry, - the umbrageous chestnut tree, which, even
after the nut is fully ripe, must wait for the "Keschta Schtarm"
to put it within our reach.
Der Keschtabarcm vun alle Beem halt ich mer fer der schenscht,
Warm du net ah so denke kannscht, glaab ich net dass du'n kennscht.
Mit seina Blatter, Bliet un Frucht, is er net in der En
Was ebbes rechtes werra will, nemmt imner'n gute Weil.
When the tree at last is covered with its fragrant golden tassels,
about which bees in swarms gather,
1 S is en Genuss, gewiss ich leb, for Aage, Nas un Ohr,
Nix kenr.t mer schenner, besser sei im gansa liewa yohr.
He who with patience has waited for "The Keschta Gchtarm" will have
no trouble in getting the ruddy fruit:
Geduld is doch en grosse Sach, sie schpart uns Not un Mih,
Wer ohne sie sei Glick versucht, der finn't 's doch werklich nie.
The lessons are endless:
Guck mol so'n Boll genauer ah, wie wunnerbarlich schee!
Inwennig zart wie Kisse schtofft, auswennig Schtachle, Z&h,
Was is des doch en unnerschied, beinanner ah so dicht,
' S gebt viel zu lerne iwwerall, vum beschta unnerricht.
Nor does he forget the carefree time, when he played in its
shade, weaving belt and wreath of the leaves and flowers;
Ich schteck mer Blattcher an die Bruscht, un Blimmcher uf der Hut,
Un denk dabei in siesser Luscht, Was haw ich's doch so gut.
In another poem, he describes his sallying out, a
boy, in the springtime, to find the slender shoot of the chestnut
tree just when the sap begins to rise, to make "Keschta Peiffe."
Was peifft doch nau des ding so schee!
Ken Orgel kennt yo schennor geh;
Tut, ta-ta, te te, ti ti, ti
Des biet die Vegel un die - Kuh.
Ya Keschta Peiffe fer ihr Geld
Bieten alle Peiffe in der Welt.
"Mer Wolla Fischa Geh", "Es Glatt Eis Fahre" are others
in which he revels in the pastimes of youth. Only one who has had
the experience of a boy for the first time initiated into the
mysteries of the uses of the German scythe, can make his verses bob
up and down in onomatopoetic glee as Keller does in " 'S Liehe mit
Der Deitsche Sens":
In so* re schone Zeit
Werd ehm * s Herz recht weit
Die arme gt&dtel- Leut
Die wisse nix vun Freud.
Now schwenkt euer Sense,
Un loss aie glanze,
To whit, to what,
To whit, to what, to whate
Ihr macht's first rate,
To whit, to what,
Gut gewetzt is halb gemeht.
His abounding joy in life, he frequently gave utter-
ance to, on festival occasions, to his people, as in
Der Chrishdag is der herrlicht daag,
Im liewa longa Johr;
Mei Glaawa is ken leeri Saag
Juscht fer en kinnisch Ohr,
Der Chrischdag macht mich immer jung,
Un fullt mich ganz mit Freed
Er nemmt mers Klage vun der Zung
Un heelt mei Herze-leed.
Dann bin ich widder Jung un klee
Wie ich vor lang gewest,
Mei Herz werd weiss wie Chrischdag 's schnee,
Mei Leeb die allerbescht.
He no doubt had many an opportunity to practise in
his broad field of labor - as he also had in his own family -
before he put into rhyme-
'N Buwli Id's, Ganz aus 're annere V/elt,
Wer hets gedenkt das bo was war bostelltl
Ken Strumpche ah, ken Hemmshe, un ken Keppche net,
Ja streck dich noli Wunscht gel das dich der Guguck
Ei was'n G'slcht, un was'n grosse gchtimmJ
Du denkscht, ich reib zu hart, un mach's zu schlimm
So muss's sei, Ich hab so Erwet gut gelernt
Mit so bissche GschpasB werd mer net grad verzernt.
Guck, Mutter, Guckt do bring ich deer en Mann
So klee, un schee as raer juscht denke kann, etc.
For a Pennsylvania German Kalenner which he edited in
1885 he wrote a longer poem in ten parts entitled "Vum Flachs-
baue" This can mosfc profitably be read in grandfather's garret,
for with flax raising entirely out of vogue in this section, or,
where it is still raised, coupled with modern appliances, such
terms as Flachs Britsch, Hechle, Brech, etc. are to Pennsylvania
Germans of today, words of a time that is past.
A number of Dr. Keller's poems are included in the
collection published by Daniel Miller, Reading, Pa. Some others
as well as several prose tales are to be found in the Allentown
Friedensbote. In his younger days he wrote for the "Deutsche Pionler"
but most of what I have presented and other material that I have
omitted, has come direct from his own manuscript Notebook and has
never been published. In addition to these productions, he has
written occasional poems in English, as well as High German, ins
eluding hymns, epilogues, and prologues for Christmas and Easter
Festivals, birthdays and anniversaries, and one curious composition
in which alternate couplets 6f English and Pennsylvania German
rhyme with each other.
other sources of information
for the sketch on
James C. Lins.
Rural Press, Kemp ten, Pa.
Rural Press, Reading, Pa.
Common Sense Dictionary of Pennsylvania German, Reading,
Pa. 1887 and 1895.
Personal Correspondence and Interviews.
James C. Lins.
man . who will have to be considered when a com-
plete statement is made of those who wrote Pennsylvania German
newspaper letters, is James C. Lins of Reading, Pa. To the Kemp-
ton Rural Press, later called the Reading Press, when he moved his
printing office to Reading he contributed letters over the signa-
ture "Sam Kisselmoyer fun Wohlaver Schtedel." Very many of these
letters are distinctly political and do not take the trouble to
introduce fictitious names; the only reason why they did not appear
on. the editorial page (he was himself editor and owner) is because
of the greater license allowed to this letter column; August
Reiff says in his Schwab ische Gedichte:-
So Nochb'r wie meine, geits gwiss koine maih
'Vie die anand schimpfet; und doch tuets koim waih;
Anander seggiere, dees tent se am gernschte,
Und doch hent se nie no' en Streit ghet, en ernschte;
Am Spottle und Stichle do hent se a Freud,
Wenn oiner em andre sei Moining reacht sait.
When the introduction of the Free Delivery of rural
mail gradually forced the weekly newspapers out of the field he
ceased to be an editor and continued to be a printer; but mean-
time he had been activB in another related field of work. In
1887, he issued a word list, containing "nearly all the Pennsyl-
vania German words in common use',' under the title "Common Sense
Pennsylvania German"; this being a list of German and English
words in the form in which they are used by those speaking the
dialect, with their English equivalents. At first sight, this
publication is disappointing, nearly half the Preface is taken
word for word from Home's Manual published 12 years before; these
are furthermore the contents of Home's Dictionary and the words
are made to conform to a different spelling. - but despite these
shortcomings, Mns ' publication is not lacking in original work;
hi3 list comprises 9613 words as compared with Home's 5522, in-
creased "by several hundred in the second edition. This ^reat
difference in bulk is partly due to a peculiar limitation in the
language horizon of many Pennsylvania Germans; such might be
perfectly familiar with words like bodderashun, demagrawd, raishta,
whereas they did not, when they were in search of the English
equivalent syllable or word, know that it was spelled both , -crat
roast, in English, Lins has accordingly included many" such words
in his list. The result amounts to precisely what he says in the
preface, that, desiring to help the Pennsylvania German who is
studying English, he has introduced a great many English words in
the dialect form, whereas Home, according to M.D.Learned's
counting, gives only 176 English words.
That there was in those days, a real search for
English is shown by the fact that children in one of their games
at school wrote on their slates a list of words they used at home,
and the contest turned upon who could in a given time think of
the greatest number of English equivalents; one of the favorite
questions thrown into the school question box was in the form of
a list of hard German words, the requirement being made that the
one to whom it was referred was to furnish the English equivalents.
The younger generation would not have been willing
to expose an ignorance such as did an old farmer in a story told
in "Skizzen aus dem Lecha Thai" - "J. S. Hess, Esq. erzahlt in
einer geschichtlichen Skizze von Nieder Saucon Township, dass
einmal ein deutscher Bauer mit Latwerge nach E a ston gekommen sei.
Als inn die Stadtleute nach dem Preise von Applebutter fragten
schuttelte er den Kopf tndem er nicht wusste, was sie wollten, "bis
ihm ein Bekannter erklarte dass sie Latwerg meinten ".Vas 1 sagt
er 'Latwerg - Applebutter, Applebutter - Latwerg - Was en "proch.
Warm sie Latwerg gewollt hen, for was hen sie net Latwerg g'satl"
Under such circumstances a younger man would have been apt to
take refuge in a Dictionary.
Even to the present day the oldest inhabitants
delight in requiring, especially of those who have been away to
school, the English equivalent of some common utensi '. or tool.
It is not by the introduction of English words alone
that the disparity in numbers between Home and Lins is to be
explained. The latter has swelled the sum total by the intro-
duction of compound words, and of what are not properly words
but phrases 5 "Moul-nei-henka" , for instance, is not a word but
an idiom; it must be said however, that the book is not les3 val-
uable for these additions.
Finally, Lins records many words that had not
appeared in any previous compilation - on a small page of 62
words, I find four such new words - moshy, mosserich, mowlgrisht,
mowlish. I have called the whole production a V.'ord List rather
than a Dictionary; there is no attempt to give the pronunciation
of words - he says in his introduction that he follows the English
method of spelling because that is used in the schools, he does
not indicate parts of speech, etc, etc. He avows of his book,
that "Its aim is not money, and its object is not praise" and
that it was not superflous is shown by the fact that in 1895 a
second edition was called for and this also is now sold out.
other sources of information
for the sketch on
Genealogy of the Meyer family.
Smull's Legislative handbook.
Henry Meyer of Rebersburg, Pennsylvania, was born
Dec. 8, 1840 in Center County, Pa. He learnt the miller's trade,
went to the War and having lost a hand there, was obliged to find
a different way of making a living. For several years he taught
and studied, completing a course at the Keystone State Normal School
at Kutztown, in 1869. Next he taught in the Center County Normal
School, and in 1875 and again in 1878 he was elected Superinten-
dent of the schools of the County, and in 1882 a member of the
He is the author of a genealogy of the Meyer fami-
ly, and for a family reunion he wrote a poem "Die alt Keemet M -the
first stanza suggests Harbaugh:
Heit kumrce mer noch emol z'rick
Ans alt Blockhaus nachst an der Krick
Der Platz wu un.3er Heemet war
Schun langer z'rick wie sechzig Yohr.
In reminiscential mood he leads his hearers up to
the high mountain overlooking the Brush Valley, and points out
all the scenes of their youthful pleasures, the old schoclhouse,
the sugar camp (he seems to be the only Pennsylvania German writer
who has included this among his descriptions), the swimming hole,
the crossroads store, the neighbor whose apple orchard the boys
used to visit; at the close he turns their glance to the cemetery
below, where many of their friends already lie and where soon they
too will find eternal rest.
In der "Alt Scharnschtee" he de scribe a an oldfashion-
ed log house j
Der alte Scharnschtee war im Haus
Vum Keller nuf bis owa naus
Grad mitta drin, wie'n schtarka fort
Im wind un schtarm en gut support.
Am Winter Owet was en Freed
Do hen die Buwa un die Meed
Die Eltra un vielleicht der Schquier
Im weita Ring dart g'hockt an Feier.
Then he goes on to describe the winter evening
pastimes, the coming of the chimney sweep j and borrowing fire from
the neighbors, if the rains came down the chimney too heavily;
Gebreicha vun da alta Johre
Sin viel nau leeder ganz verlore.
* * #
Die Freind wu als inns Feier dart
Rum g'hockt hen sin ah ball all fart
Die Schee alt Zeit is ewig hi
Doch ihr gedachtniss bleibt mir grie.
He strikes a note that is entirely unknown elsewhere
in Pennsylvania German writing, when he takes his Maud a-walking
in the meadows where the violets blow, or they seek the shady
places by the streams, and look into each other's eyes and see
things they are too timid to tell, or when to shun the bumblebee,
she buries her face on his shoulder and then
Ach ihre Leftse sin so wohr
Gedufte wilde Ro3e gleich
Un nergets - woo sin sie in G'fohr
So oft as wie in sellem Deich.
Die Maud hut Backe roht wie Blut
Un hut en schtimm wie'n Nachtigall
Un ihre Kisses wees ich gut
Sin Honig sees im Heck6dahl.
Such subjects are not on the tongues of the Penn-
sylvania Germans, and Meyer stands alone in having even referred
to them, not to speak of having given them explicit treatment.
Even when he taught "Wei Schtettel Schul" he had a sweetheart 'mongst
Es kumme uft in mei Gemeet
Juscht wie en alt bekanntes Lied
Dehl G'schichte wu mol G'schone sin
In meine Schul am Schtettel drin.
Ich winsch ich konnt in scheene Dichte
Verzehle selle alte g'schichte
Un kennt ah kalle nocli emol
De Roll vun selle Schuler all.
But Katie would no longer answer to the roll, her seat
would be empty, Katie to whom his eyes would ever wander (and it
seems she reciprocated his feelings):
Un wann ich als en Blick hah g'schtohle
Sie war jo schuhr en z'rick zu hohle.
Katie who often broke his rules:
Un awer 'n Blick vun ihra Ahge
Halt mich vun beese Worte sage.
En Fashion newig mich zu sitze
Hen g'hatt die grosse Meed, die Knitze,
Un bettle dass ich helfe daht
Ihr Sums zu rechle uf de Schlet.
When Katie came, it took him twice as long to shov; her how. But-
Ss roht un gold Meepel Laub
Bedeckt schun oft ihr greenes Graab
Un wann ich dort so traurig schteh
Scheint's mir ich wer net ganz allee.
other sources of information
for the chapter on
Biographical History of Berks County.
Das Deutsche Element in den Vereinigten Staaten. Von Bosse,
Interviews and correspondence.
Pennsylvania German, Vol.1.
Pennsylvania German, Vol. V.I. 46.
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society.
Reformed Church Record.
"Jede Amerikanische Zeitung ist froh, wenn sie unter
ihren Mitarbeitern ein Individuum besitzt, dae mit der Gabe be-
haftet ist, zur rechten Zeit einen witzigen Artikel vom Stapel
lassen zu konnen. Humorist ieche Skizzen sind naturlich der Lese-
welt viel lieber als Auszuge aus langweiligen Predigten und wir
sind d6r Letzte der sie deshalb tadeln will. Das Leben had leider
so viele ernste jSeiten dass man Jeden Willkoranen heiscen sollte,
der einem die Burde des Daseins erleichtet. 1 ' With these words Karl
Knorz introduces his chapter on American Newspaper Humorists.
What Peregrine Pickle, Bob Burdette, Orpheus C.Kerr, Petroleum V.
Naseby, Max Adeler and others who became national characters were
to the great metropolitan papers, this the Pennsylvania German
dialect humorists were to the country weeklies, and the best of
them became at least as widely influential as the dialect was known.
A case illustrating the commercial importance of
these letters is that of Daniel Miller, Reading, Pa. In 1869,
he came from Lebanon to Reading, a young printer 26 years old, and
established a German newspaper: a journal with Republican prin-
ciples, in a county, where as the story goes, the farmers are still
voting for Andrew Jackson. For forty years, or until, upon his
retirement from business, it was suspended, this was an influential
sheet, and gathered among its readers many outside the German Re-
publican pale of that and the adjoining counties. The editor
oredits a large number of these to the dialect letter, which without
missing a number was contained in it, under the caption, Humorist isch.
Mr. Miller took pains to emphasize that his composition tried to
differentiate itself from the general run of such compositions. He
seems to have had in mind, something which Josh Billings some-
where expresses thus: "Don't be a clown if you can help it; people
don't respect enny thing mutch thet they kan only laff at:" or
again, a reminiscence of a thought as expressed by the Oldenburg
Low jo nich, du kunnst de Leeder
So schuddeln ut de Mau
As mannig Pap sin Predigtj
Dat geit man nich so gan.
Indeed, more than one name might be cited of such
as confessed that they composed while setting up the type. It
is true these do not call for further consideration, but for com-
pleteness' sake, they may be included in the list of those who
"also wrote" .
Upon my request to have it indicated what Miller con-
sidered representative selections, he presented me with two - Con-
versation Between Father and Mother on a Proper Trade for their
Son, 1869 - and another written in 1870 - purporting to be a Con-
versation between two Democrats on Politics. Here is opened up
another question- the political influence of the dialect writings
this can however be more appropriately discussed in connection with
another man. (See Rauch p. ) These two selections were among his
earlier compositions. He also gave me a number of his very latest-
which are opening a new field in the dialect literature.
Miller was a delegate of the Reformed Church in the
United States to the World's Missionary Conference in Scotland,
in June 1910. After the Conference, and in company with his son,
he travelled in Europe for four months. Efrery week fror the time
he left New York until now he had one or two lengthy letters in
the Reformed Church Record, and every now and then one of these
was in the dialect, so I have one written from Zurich, one from Rome.
If his life is spared we may look for an entire volume of stories
in the dialect, describing the tour. His English letters are bald
presentations of the facts of his journey, a chronicle of progress
with the assistance of Baedecker but his dialect letters are written
in a distinctly quaint and simple language, style and manner of one
who knows how the Volk thinks and feels, and are interspersed with
many a shrewd satirico-didactic observation on life at home and
The paper "The Reformed Church Record" just mentioned,
was also founded by Mr. Miller, 24 years ago and in it have appear-
ed many articles in the dialect by himself and others. The fre-
quency of these has increased as Miller has gradually resigned
the business of his publishing house to others. This paper and
the Pennsylvania German Magazine may be said to be the only two pub-
lications now furnishing dialect material, that have a more than
local reading public. Among other things that Miller has written
for this paper, there are brief biographical sketches of the Penn-
sylvania German Governors of Pennsylvania, which will be reprinted
in his book of selected prose and verse, now in press. For this
book he has written almost all the prose portions himself as also
he did for a similar collection published in 1903 and now in its
second edition; among the few in this first volume not written
by him are an address by Dr .N.C.Schaeff er, for the last 20 years
Superintendent of Public Instruction in Pennsylvania, delivered at
a Reunion of the Schaeffer family, and a brief historical sketch
by the late Prof .Dubbs, of Lancaster, Pa. The book has an Eng-
lish introduction by John S.Stahr, late President of Franklin and
Marshall College, a man who can speak with authority on the sub-
ject and who assures us that while the selections are of unequal
value they afford better than anything else, an insight into the
life and character of the Pennsylvania Germans, their simplicity,
their humor and shrewd common sense, and their deep feeling and
The work now in progress follows in part the plan of this
former work, in that it will contain selected poems by various
authors and prose articles by Miller; in part it is clearly in-
fluenced by Home's Manual because the Pennsylvania German Gov-
ernors had already made their appearance there, in brief sketches
by Conrad Gehring; also in that it will contain a collection of
sayings and proverbs, and a brief list of differences of vocabulary
within the dialect but with no attempt to localize them.
other sources of information
the chapter on
Harvey M.Miller. (Solly Hulsbuck)
Center County Democrat, Bellefonte, Pa. Jun.28, 1908.
Der Boyertown Bauer, April 17, 1907.
Harrisburg Star Independent, Aug. 26, 1907
Old Perm, Philadelphia, Oct. 5, 1907
Reading Times, Jan. 14, 1907.
Reforned Church Record, Reading, Pa. Jan. 17, 1907
Pennsylvania German. Vol.VII.6.328j Vol. VIII .4.192.
Pennsylvania German Poems, Elizabethville, Pa. 1906
Pennsylvania German Stories, Elizabethville, Pa. 1907
Pennsylvania German Poems, II. (in press)
Poems of Childhood, Elizabethville, Pa. 1908.
Harmonies of the Heart, Elizabethville, Pa. No date.
Harvey Miller. (Solly Hulsbuck)
Solly Hulsbuck - the pseudonym under which Harvey M.
Miller of Elizabethville, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania sends out
his dialect productions, bids fair to become the most voluminous
writer in the dialect, Hartep having ceased producing, and Grumbino
and Rauch's contributions never having been collected. During the
ten years since i'iller began wirting, he has issued in book form,
Pennsylvania German Poems in two editions, (1906) each of which
required a second printing within six months after their first
publication; Pennsylvania German Stories, in prose and verse (1907)
while the advance sheets of a second series of Pennsylvania German
Stories, (to be issued in 1911) is in my hands. The last mentioned
will constitute a book of nearly two hundred pages. Each of these
books has exceeded in size the one preceding it, and as Miller is
still a comparatively young man - he was born at Elizabethville, Pa
in 1871 , - and as there seems to be no decrease in the demand for
his work, a large production may still be expected of him.
In ancestry he is of Wurtemberg stock on his father's
side while on the mother's side he traces his descent from German
and English stock, the latter in direct line from the family of
Mary Ball, the wife of Augustine Washington and the mother of
The dialect was the only spoken language he hnew when
he entered school at ten years of age, for though he read English as
taught at home, he did not understand English when addressed by
the teacher. It was the dialect poems also, especially thove of
Harbaugh, that were his favorite recitations at school on Friday
afternoons. The frequency with which he recited these and the con-
sequent fluency he acquired, obtained for him invitations tc recite
also before the pupils of the High School.
These tones of Harbaugh struck a responsive chord
in his own heart and presently thoughts akin to those began troop-
ing through his own brain and urged him to give them tuneful form.
He has told me how, at dead of night he often wakes up with the
substance of a poem ringing through his brain, and how he cannot
sleep until he gets up and has committed it to paper.
His first productions were, neverthleess in English,
and the very first ones he published are contained in an artistic
little volume entitled "Harmonies of the Heart" which is literally
the work of his own and his wife's hands, even to setting the type,
printing, sewing, binding, embellishing - for above all other things,
poet in English and in the dialect, writer of prose in the dialect,
writer on subjects connected with local history (he has contributed
several series to the home paper The Elizabethville Echo, and to
several papers in Harrisburg) business man and secretary of the
Local Eoard of Trade - above all this, he is an artistic printer,
and a maker of artistic books. This first book brought him unso-
licited letters of praise, among others, from Dr.Marden of the
Success Magazine, and Dr. Theodore L.Cuyler.
His first work in the dialect he announces as a
volume of Pennsylvania Dutch Poems on a wide range of subjects
bearing on the daily experiences and philosophies of "our folk".
In the second impression he changed Pennsylvania Dutch to Pennsylvania
German, whereupon the Pennsylvania German magazine, and all those
who are sensitive on this point applauded. It is professedly
humorous and the reviewer in the Pennsylvania German I-agazine
assured hi3 readers it was "just the thing to drive away the blues"
as, in a private letter the editor speaks of having read it to his
wife "who laughed over it until the tears came." There are some of
course who "have laughed at it" and to all intents and purposes
said of it what Hans Breitman puts down as the criticism of his
first book by a "Boston shap."
Dough he maket de beoples laughen
Boot dot vas only all.
Hans Breitman' s reply, put into the mouth of a Dutchman, is equally
Twas like de saying dat Heine,
Haf no witz in good or bad
Boot he only Kept saying witty dings
To make beoplefe he had.
Indeed our author's wit is generally as spontaneous and
free as it was when as a boy he had been compelled to listen to a
long and tedious sermon by a new parson and at the end, when the
preacher closed the book, he inquired "Hut aer now sel gros buch
darch g'lasa?" Miller has at times anticipated the latest witticisms
in our Metropolitan humorous Journals. The present writer was; one
day last summer, examining the files of papers published some ten
years ago, containing some articles by Miller. The same evening
he purchased a copy of the latest number of "Life" and was amused
to find in ±t cartoons for which the Pennsylvania German he had
been reading might have furnished the text. The identity extended
even to the figures of speech and the same sort of things were held
up to ridicule.
"Literature" says George E.Woodberry "is an art of
expression; the material it employs is experience - - it endeavors
to represent experience through the medium of language and bring it
home to the understanding of the reader. It is obvious that liter-
aturo makes its appeal to the individual and is intelligible only
so far as the individual is able to comprehend its language and
interpret the experience imbedded there" . It is because our author
has, in satiric, humorous vein, portrayed that which appeals to all
who know Pennsylvania Germandom that he is popular. For instance,
in every district where his book was read people recognized their
own Billy Bloseroar, who goes down to the crossroads store, day in
and day out, crosses one leg over the other and with a long face
declares he has never had a show at all;
"Yah" sagt er "grawd fer zwanzich yohr
Bin ich do alle dawg am schtore,
Un ward geduldich far en chance,
Joe Hustler iss now sel net wohr?"
"Yah" sagt der J oe,
"Du huscht ken show
Du warscht success aw net bakondt
Wan' s maul juscht schofscht un net die hondt."
"Di hussa sitz is blendy proof
Dass du ken chance huscht in der Weldt,
Du bischt farflommt gaduldich, yah,
Gaduld iss ken exchange far Geld."
"So"sagt der Joe
"Du huscht ken show,
Except am loafa dawg un nacht"
Noh hen die loafers all gelacht.
Wherever this selection has been read, people have named
the character described; this spells universality, at least in so
far as this word may be used at all when a comparatively small
number of people make up the world he describes. This is why Miller's
selections in prose and verse have been copied by the papers in
every dialect speaking county in the State - over fifty of them-
Under date of June 27, 1908 the Center Democrat, Bellefonte, Pa, wrote
"We find that our people greatly appreciate reading these selections
and as our supply is about exhausted we should like to hear if
you have anything more to offer."
April 17, 1907 Hon.Chas.B.Spatz, editor of the Berkes County
Democrat and Der Boyertovm Bauer said "Have been a great admirer
of your work and have used selections frequently in our columns.
We are more than anxious to read all you write."
In book form they have found their way as far south
as Texas, west as far as Nevada, north to Canada and east to New
Hampshire; in fact wherever Pennsylvania Germans have gone. His
Es war amohl en certain kolb
Dos rum gsucht hut far ufenholt.
Un dorrich bush und hecka rum
Hut • s kolb en pawd gemocht gons grum - havt. a wider
application than Pennsylvania German; as he goes on and tells how
that crooked path became in turn a dog's trail and a cow's path,
a foot path for pedestrians who swore about it but did not make a
straight one, then a lane, a village built around it, there arise
before our eyes pictures of large cities which are no sooner
visited by great fires or earthquakes than they ebgin to plan to
simplify a Bystem of narrow and crooked streets. His own application
to be sure is more general:
In dere weldt dun* blendy leit,
Im olda waig fort doppa heit.
Grawd we far oldars, shrift un sproch
Un a kolb mochts ma onner noch.
The Star Independent of Harrieburg has already called
attention to the fact that Miller's thoughts are not confined to
those who ordinarily express themselves in Pennsylvania German, but
have elements that are universal.
The amusement which the present writer has seen play
on the features of parson and flock on the occasion of the reading
of the poem beginning:
Won der Porra coomt
Waerdt rum gejumpt
De euchre deck waerdt g'echwindt ferbrennt,
Es hymnbuch un ea Testament
Obg'schtawbt un uf der dish garennt
Won der Porra kumi.it.
has indicated all too
plainly that the author had known whereof he had written.
Another type he is fond of taking off, is the man
who is always ailing during the busy season of the year, but always
recovers by the time the picnic season comes around. Ho laughs at
those who are the easy marks of the "garrulous but shrewd and per-
sistent 'Bicher Agent' who plays so successfully with the vanity of
his would be customer." This poem in particular attnacted the
attention of Richard E.Helbig of the Lennox Library, New York City
and from him I have quoted almost all of the above sentence.
Of the dissatisfied farmer he concludes a short
Wun's immer dawler waetza ware
Un het ken toxa un egshpense
Don ware de geld kisht nemohls lare
Und Bowera hetta aw en chance.
In 1650 an unknown poet in Aug3burg wrote in similar strain,
Das Bauer werck ist nix mehr wert
Der Handel hat sich bald verkehrt,
Ist nix dabei als Muh und Gschwar,
Wolt, das der Teuffel ein B a uer war.
Other points of similarity might be pointed out, thus do the satir-
ists through all the ages find it necessary to hammer on the same
old failings of humanity.
On the other hand, our author is full of real joy in
the baauties of nature, whether she manifests herself in the bloom-
ing of the flowers, the waving of the golden grain, the singing of
the birds, the patter of children's footsteps or the prattle of
their voices, but he has no patience with the thoughtless "back to
the country movement" of those who think they may enjoy its bounties
without paying the proper price j
Wie sees is doch die summer tseit,
Es Paradies fum yori
En himmel's bild fer ola leit
Wu awga hen dafor.
* * *
Woe pikters sait mer uf de bame
Mer kent net won mer wut
Sel'r Rambo farba naksht so sha
Sel war de hond fun Gott.
* # * *
0, mei hartz klupt dos en brumd
Now, wun's free yohr wid'r kumt.
* * * *
Ich sa es nuch, mei lewas kint
Un's dut mer laed im hartz
Bin shoor in Paradies er findt
Ken hung'r, pein un schnartz.
Doch war's mer loeb un grosa lusht
Un 0J Gott wase we fro
Het ich mei bebeli uf da brusht
War juscht mei engli doh:
* * * *
Oh, de tswa klana shu - supposin ich het
Sie nimma urn ufa do
Un ken kleena fees im trundle bet
Wie bid'r war's lava derno!
He extemporizes in masterful variations on the general
theme of :
Die weldt is nimme we se wore
En hunnert yohr zurick.
1810 • ., *
Der Bower nemt sei Beev 1 uf
Un las'd ols owets ou3 em Buch
De Fraw hukt bei un singt en shdick
Un So* un Duchd'r singa mit
Der Bower grikt Fildelfy "news
Full marderei fun kup zu foos,
De Boev'l shtawwich uva druf
De Fraw gookt fashion bicher uf
De duehd'r shbeeld de drumb'l boks
Mit weisa hend we gips un woks
Der so wo in de city bletc
Shmok'd lawda neg'l cigarettes,
Yet he is not a laudator temporis acti to the extent
of wiBhing the good old days backj he is no pessimist, he would
merely spund a warning:
Ei, wos en hunnert yor duch mocht
Farennaring we dawg un nacht
Bei Bower un bei ola leit.
Mer winsht ' s aw nimma we ' s mol wor
Duch man'd mer *s is a bis'l g'for -
Leit werra in a hunnert yc} r
Tzu weldlich un zu Gctlcs g'f it.
Cnc of Miller's very 7 -~ 4 . poem was nc
\ nnyson'e "Rfng Cut, Wild Bells"-
Ring'd, bella ringd
Par fraed uf ' s Nei Yohr he
Far bessra dawga forna drous
Un freindlicher we dej
Far man'r leeb un wennich'r shond
Far wenich'r shdreid un mae farshtond
Un darch aweck en besser lond
Ring'd, bella ring'd.
Dol'd, bella dol'd
Ous la'd far'n moncha seeza shtund
V/u f orhar unser war
Ous sorya fer ferlawra zeit
Far nidra driks un klan'r shbeit
Un folshad g'shwisha chentleleit
Dol'd, bella dol'd.
Ring'd, bella ring'd
Kaling, a ling, ka long,
Ringt's olt Tohr nous mir sorg und lad
Uns Nei Yohr rei mit g'sung.
Ring'd far en Shtondhcft r:enlichkad
Ring'd loud mit lushd und fraed,
Far Breeda und garechtigkaed,
Ring'd, bella ring'd.
Likewise in parody he has given many harpy renderings. I
have not yet spoken of the philosophy he develops for himself;
how amid complaints of too much this and too much that, in our
Nix in der welt dos guter farshtond
Kann alles darrich mocha.
He dilates on the pleasures to be drawn from a corn cob
pipe - I'ex Alte Krutza Pife - on the beauty of accepting things
as they come - Mer Nemmt's we's Kummt - and finally locates Heaven
Dale schwetza fum Hi mine 1 we en lond wide aweck
En blotz das mer nix wa3e derfun,
Wu die leit all gechanged sin fun juscht comner dreck
Un sin ^ngel und fliega dart rum.
Sie sawga sis arryets ivver'm say
En mechtiger lunger weg fart,
Wu niemond sich kenna kon bis mer schier denkt
Die Leit sin all foreigners dart.
So mochts net feel aus ware schwetzt odder sucht
Far die awich und sees harlichkeit
Der Hirnmel is net im Geogrpahy Buch
Ovver naigscht Tbei em Hartz vun de Leit
V, r un mer breederlich lebt wie die Schrift sagt mer set,
Iss mer harlich und alles geht gude
Un won em de g'sundheit derno aw net fehlt
Iss der Hirnmel grawd unnich em Hut.
In his prose selections he usually writes on some timely
subject - politics, flying machines, woman suffrage, the comet, on
abstract subjects- pride, church going, but whatever the subject,
he as a rule sends the truth straight home, making an appeal di-
rect to his own people, who accept well merited rebuke in good
grace because administered by one of their own number and because
tho sarcastic comment is mingled with such playful humor that it
often difficult to tell whether the writer is in earnest or only
On certain questions that have become the subject of
great national agitation, the dialect write -s are working hand in
hand with the great Metropolitan papers. To mention but one example
-on a sane celebration of the Fourth of July. To a nuir.be r of poems
on this subject in my possession, our author has an essay in prose.
Another of this writer's subjects illustrates how the dialect
adapts itself to modern English slang - Die Nei Runzel im Shpella.
When he applies to the Dictionary that they propose making, he is
in danger of getting such stuff palmed off on: him as Government
reports tell him he is really getting at the store nowadays when
he imagines he is purchasing pure groceries - a wonderful mixture
of unmentionable stuff "Ovver ich denk die nei Runzel im Shpella wart
gae wie fiel onnera so narheita."
The present writer asked him what had been the moving
cause in leading him to do this sort of work, and he modestly
phrased it thus: "My purpose in writing has been chiefly to meet
a local demand for such literature, which derand seems to have beer,
created after it became known that new matter could be manufactured
at home. The first selections were written out of a spirit of
humor, impulsively, and when the editor asked for more, the mill
was kept running." Liar ion D. Learned has referred to Miller's
work as a valuable contribution to Pennsylvania German Literature.
other sources of information
for the chapter on
Biographical History of Berks County, Montgomery, Chicago, 1909
Onkel Jeff's Reminiscences of Youth and Other Poems. Boyertov/n,
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. V. 165
Dr. Thomas J.B.Rhoads of Boyertown, Pa. graduated
from the Jefferson i.edical College, Philadelphia in 1861 and
shortly afte 1 " that entered the army as Assistant Surgeon. After
the battle of Gettysburg his regiment was mustered out and he re-
turned to Boyertown where he has been engaged in rftultifarious bus-
iness undertakings, drugs, mines, insurance, banks, real estate,
theaters, being his principal lines; as local politician and aa
a member of local fraternities he has held almost all offices in
the gift of his friends. With all this, he has kept up for fifty
years (he is now 74 yrs old) an extensive practice as physician.
It was while making the rounds of his patients and
especially ?/hen, as was not infrequently the case he had to take
long drives of eight or ton miles at night that 'he meditated
the thankless musej with the result that two volumes of verses
of 400 pages each, gradually formed themselves. Those called
M 0nkel Jeff's Reminiscences of Youth" are for the most part in
English although a number are in dialect, while sundry of his dia-
lect poems have appeared elsewhere since the publication of the
One of his earliest effusions "Die Whiske Buwe" des-
cribes all the excuses drinkers offer as they step up to the bar
and explain why they must have a drink. In "Das Alt Achteckig
Schulhaus" he compares the three months school in the year with
present systems of school all the year round and day and night,
compares the simple curriculum with those in vogue at present, which
include everything from "buchstabiere" to"skriveliere" , "philosophiere"
and "karassierey with many other "iere'sV and concludes:
Warm mer denkt die lange Zei1
Wu sio in die Schule gehne
Vun sex Johr nuf bis zwanzig
Sollt mer doch gewiss ah mehne,
Sie sotte besoere Laming hawe,
Sotte g'scheidt sei wie die Parre.
Oft mols sin die hochst gelernte
Am End doch die grosste Narre.
In "Neue Mode" he seems to have a special incident
in mind, - everything is changed by Fashion's decree, even the
Lord's Prayer has been supplanted.
Die Sache werre ganz verdreht
Der Schwarz Gaul is en schimmel;
Fer Kinner nerrf s en neu Gebet
Un bald en neuer Himmel.
Probably his bent is the descriptive poem "Es Lat-
werg Koche fer Alters^} he here tells the story in greater detail
than is to be found in poems on the same subject by others, and
also in smoother meters than is his own wont.
Sources of Information
for the chapter on
Pennsylvania College (Student's Publi-
Pennsylvania German Magazine.
Adam Stump has been a preacher in his native county
of York, Pa for the last twenty one years, after having been five
years a missionary to Nebraska, before which he preached four years
in York and Adams Counties. The first member of the Stump family
came to America in 1710J several other lines of ancestry he traces
to a period nearly as early.
After leaving the farm, in 1871, at the age of 17
he studied at York Academy; taught school for two years, then en-
tered Pennsylvania College at Gettysburg and upon graduation took
the course in the Lutheran Smeinary at the same place.
His poems are all based on personal experience or
were written for some occasion. Everything seems to him a symbol,
an emblem of the perishable in this world and a reminder of the
grave and the entrance into the next world. So even the "Alt
Cider Muehl w which his grandfather built and the processes of which
he describes becomes a picture of the grind of life where in the
end nought is left but the "Droeschter."
Adieu, du alte, liebe Muehl,
Du gebst mir jetz en wehes g'fuehl,
Die Lust der Kindheit wie des Laub,
Geht mit dir zu Aesch un Staub.
Bis an die Schale,
Zehrt una die Welt,
In unser Zelt,
Un dreibt, des lebe in des Grab.
In w Es Haemelt em a' " he goes back to the old home and
passes from one to the other of the scenes of childhood:
Dort steht's alt Haus am Weg,
Dort is des Kammerlie,
* •» *
Dort is diessolbe Schwell;
Es steline fremrae Puesse druf;
Mer achleicht ira Zweifel na'
Es is wie's war, un doch net, gel?
Doch haemelts em a'
Es haemelt em a'.
Yet with all the old familiar faces at the old home gone and with
names of mother, wife and child to greet him as he wanders to the
nearby 'Gottesackeri' it almost makes him feel as though the latter
place had the stronger attractions;
Der Todes Acker blueht;
Mer fuehlt net ganz so frem in dem.
Ja, Mutter, Kind un Fra,
Guck wie mer yetz die Name siehti
So haemelts em a'
Ec haemelt em a' .
Die "Mami Schloft" is a most tender effort to per-
suade the heart that she whose day was long and labor sore, is now
better off in the sweet rest of eternityj but the recollection of
all that she meant from earliest childhood on, brings pangs to the
heart. Her Feierowet has come and she lies peaceful on her bed,
but for him she will wake no more.
Die Nacht is doh, die Drauer-Nacht:
Ss hangt en flor uf meinra dhier;
Die Mami schloft! Der 7/elt ihr Pracht
Is ganz vergange, sag ich dir!
Ihr Aug hot mich es erscht erschaut,
Erscht haw' ich ihre Stimm erhoertj
Uf sie haw' ich die Welt gebaut,
Ihr Lewe war mir alles wert.
Ihr dag war lang, Ihr Arwet schw-r,
Ihr Pilger reis war hart un weit,
So mied war sie, un matt so sehr,
Die Ruh is siess in Ewigkeiti
* # # #
Doch Feierowet is jo doh,
Die --ami leit in ihrem Bett,
Im Kaemmerli schloft aie recht fro,
Dann week sie net, oh week sie net!
M'r sagts net gern: m'r muss 93 dun;
Des Herz es hangt an seinem gut -
:Ier guckt noch ee Mohl - Jetz mach zui
Die Draehne nemme mir den Muthi
Ihr Aug is zu, ihr Mund sohweigt schtill,
Un kalt is ihra Herzens- quell.
Dann, gute Nachti Mach's wie mer will -
Doh muss mer saga "Ferrawell."
"Es Hofdehcle" as it swings back and forth sings a
melancholy tale. By it entered the joyou3 bride, merry children
in their play passed in and out, many friends and strangers rich
and poor were glad to enter by it to the home where all were made
welcome, but presently one after another in sad procession all passed
out neve" to return again.
Die Braut, die Kinner un der Mann,
Die Bluma, 's Grass, der Vogelsang,
Die Blatter, Summer - alles geht als anni
So singt des Dehrle dagelang.
Es schwingt, es singt im Summerwind;
Es werd ah niemohls matt un mied.
Es weint un greint wie en verlornes Kind,
Un jetzt weescht du mei trauerig Lied.
Es geht mol uns en Dehrle zu,
Un gar vielleicht im Aageblick.
Noh gehna mer vun heem, ja, ich un du,
Un kumma nie ja nie zurick.
Die "iluttersproch" is a heaping up of reasons why
he doe3 as he ought to, love the speech that first he heard from
his mother r s lips;
Wie kenne mir die Liewe Sproch,
So leichtsinnig im stolz verlo33e!
Der alte Strom, so nooh un noch,
Is noch net ganz un gar verflosso.
Mer henke fescht am alte Stam,
So wie die Braut am Braut iga:.
Latin and Greek are a rusty old gun, his mother tongue is as
bread and salt, the blossom ne-ror forgets the dew that fell upon
and nurtured it, the ^rape does not hate the vine, a dog does not
bite his friend:
Muttersproch di bischt \ms liebi
In deinem Ton is 3eliger Trieb.
# # n #
Ja in der Schockel, in der Lad,
Bleibt unsere liewe Sproch dieselwej
He knows he will hear it even when he gets over to the other shore,
sanfte, deire MuttersprochJ
'.Vie Hunnig fliesst sie daroh mei Sinne;
Un wan ich mol imm Himmel hooh
Mei scheene Haemet du gewinne,
Dann heer ioh dart zu meinem wohl
En Mutterwort - ja, ah ebmol.
Der "Zuk" describes scenes well known and annually repeat-
ed at the time of moving, which lead our good pastor to his in-
evitable conclusions j
Im Himmel gebts ken Zieges meh,
Des Scheide dort duht nimme wehj
Dort bleibt die V/ohnungszelt,
Dort geht ken langer Zuk meh fort
So laest mer klor in Gottes wort;
Sel is en bessre Welt.
Only seldom and for special occasions does he allow that
feeling to get the upper hand which proves to us that the feeling
of growing old is an illusion. I call attention to the vividness
and the playfulness with which twenty years after, he recalls the
impressions of the time when first he coiild say:
Do bin ich jetst in Gettesberg
•» # * #
Ich war juscht vor der Facultee
Es hut mer g'fehlt an meine Gnie;
# # * a
Hab wunners gmaent was ich aw kann
Bis sie mich awgeguckt - ei dann-
His struggles with his courses are reflected in the lines
I oh waes net rocht was sol es sei
'S haost rait "Conditions" darf ioh nei;
Doch warm ich mol reoht inside bin
Darin, wie en Glett, bleib ich drin,
and it seems he did.
He has sean a girl in town but hears there is a Senior- but re-
uionbers Seniors will leave; he learns the reason and tells:
n '.Varum ioh dummer Freshman heas."
Dooh Socrates hut ae mohl gsagt,
So hen sio rnirs ins Hern gejagt
Des erscht der Schuler lerne muss
Wie rrad as wie en daube Muss,
Er gar nix wisse daeht. Geb achti
Ich hab en guter schtaert 3chun gmachti
Ich reib mei Rick do an die Wand,
Un reid en Pony aus Verstand,
Dann ess ich Fisch bis mirs verlaed,
Nord waer ich a en Graduade!
In a poem for the Dallastown reunion he gets into
similar vein, but this is the exception.
He has written a. number of books in English and
been a frequent contributor to Church periodicals, and has been
known to express the wish for the leisure to do for Pennsylvania
German life and history, and in the dialect some part of what Sir
Walter Scott accomplished. A similar desire to have this done and
the hope that somebody would do it, has been expressed by Judge
Grosscup of Chicago, himself of Pennsylvania German descent; sim-
ilar utterances by a young student of the University of Penn-
sylvania with a bent toward writing suggest the thought that some
day a beginning of this kind may yet be made.
Sources of Information
for the sketch on
Pennsylvania German Magazine.
Louisa A.Wei tzel.
Louisa A.Weitzel of Lititz, Pa., is one of those
Pennsylvania Germans who took up writing in the dialect after a
medium had been created whereby they might reach an audience. Even
before she had finished her studies at Sunny side College, 1876 and
Linden Hall Seminary in 1880 she had written stories and verse
that had been published in the Moravian, and other church period-
icals. For these she ha3 been writing ever since, as well as for
the Lititz, Lancaster and Philadelphia papers.
For a time she served a3 Associate Editor of the
Lititz Express and while acting in that capacity, in 1899, began
writing articles in prose in the dialect. Shortly after the found-
ing of the Pennsylvania German Magazine, 3he turned her attention
to verse j new contributions by her have appeared year by year, and
one of these it was my privilege to receive in MS (before its
publication in December 1910); it is an enthusiastic Aufruf;
Wu sin die Deitsche Dichter
Sie sin verschwunne all,
Wu sin die grosse Liohter
In unsere Runmeshall.
Heraus, heraus Reimreiser,
Wu sin ihr all versteckt
Ihr sin jo die Wegweiser
Die Schoheit uferweckt.
There is a cheerfulness and hopefulness in her
lines that is in beautiful contrast to a life that has been far
from free from sorrow and gloom.
Ich wees net was es Neu Yohr bringt
Uns gebt ke Mensch das dut.
Doch's Herz sich mit de Glocke schwingt
Un frohlich steigt der Mut.
* * # «
Kumm her du frisches junges Johr,
Geb mir dei treue Hand,
Dei Bruder ware gut zuvor
Du bischt es ah im schtand.
Her poems impress one as though she had gone out
into the wood* and laid her care^ on the lap of Mother Nature, even
as a child goes to her mother to have her cry and then goes
merrily hack to her playj
Es i3 so scho im alte Bush,
Der Bodde gru mit Moss -
V.'eechsitzt mer uf der kuhle E^d,
As wie im Mutter Shoss,
Un fuhlt fun all em was em krankt
So glucklich, frei un los.
It is a pleasing note of a young old age that we
hear in the following, as in reply to the repinlngs so often in-
dulged in j
Mer schwatze vun alte Zeite,
Un denke gar net dra*
Die werd net alter net junger,
Jusht r.iir werre alt un gro'
Sie zahlt ihro Johre bei dausend
Die Welt un werd net alt
Mir zahle sie juscht bei zwanzig,
Un die vergehne bald.
Dal mehne die Zeit war besser,
In ihre Jugend. Ne
Sie ware junger, ge sunder
Un do war alles echo
Jetzt sin sie ausgewohre
Jetzt sin sie mud un satt,
Un die Welt sheint schlimmer wie frtiher,
Un luderlich un matt.
Tven the fall, and the departure of the robins
recall to her only the joyous season when they came and anticipate
its recurrence another year.
Persistent as she is in refusing to look on the
dark side herself, she is aware there are some who do not see
much light. In M En Charakter" she has given us a picture of a
species of individual not unknown here as elsewhere, a picture
which the detractors of the Pennsjrlvania Germans would have us be-
lieve was fa,[r$ly representative of the whole body of the peopl .
Er shafft, un gratzt, un geitzt, un shpuhrt,
Un blogt sich shpaet un fruel ;
Er shpart sich nett, er shpart ke Leut,
Un shpart ah nett sei Pi eh.
Ass wie ne Kaetzle uf 'e Maus
Guckt er uf jeder Cent,
Er wendt un dreht en sivvemol
Bis dass er aner shpendt.
Sei Fraw gelt weniger ass die Geul,
Sei Kinner wie die Sau:
Er rechend oft sie koste neh
Un bringe wenniger ei.
shickt die Kinner in die Shul
Wann sie sinn jung un glee,
Ann ihre Erwet ebbes mehnt
Dann darfe sie nimmie geh.
Some of our latter-day novelists have given admirable
pictures of such characters, but only the perennial recurrence of
this figure in literature has revived the mistaken notion that he
represents not a type, but the people itself.
Our writer's plan of life is summed up in hor lines:
Hie un do a Liedle
Hie un do a Blum
'.Veil mer gehne uf un ab
V.'ege grad un grum.
# * *
Ebmols is es dunkel trub
Regnet alle Dag
Bat es wann mer brumme dut?
Helft em sei geklag?
In 1908 she published a collection of her English poems,
"A Quiver of Arrows" for which Longfellow ' s "I shot an arrow into
the air" suggested the title.
other sources of information
for the chapter on
As tor Clinton V/uchter.
Herringshaw ' s Cyclopedia of American Biography.
To a remote past, to nobility, to relationship with the
Dukes of Orleans the family to which Wuchter belongs traces its
ancestry. Prom Suabia, the first ancestor : i 3-ica in 1749,
although the father of this one h .' fled to
political refugee even earlier under an assumed name and has never
been definitely traced. On the maternal side his ancestors came
from Hanover, in 1730. Astor Clinton Wuchter was born in Jackson-
ville, Lehigh County, Pa February 4, 1856$ worked on the farm and
was a pupil in the common schools until 18 yoars old; attended ihe
l.'illersville State Normal School, taught in the public schools 1874
1878 j then taught and studied for three years in ^-aris, France;
graduated from the Lutheran Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa.
1885, then served successively the congregations at Summit Hill, Ea
from 1885 - 1890; Weissport 1890 - 1893; Gilbert 1893 - 1909 as
pastor, after which he became Professor of French at 'Vittenberg
College, Ohio. After one year in this position he went back to Lhe
ministry and is now preaching at Paulding, Ohio.
He began writing very early; his published works
consisting for the most part of hymns and religious poems, origin-
al and translated, appeared chiefly in "The Lutheran". The trans-
lations include renderings from Latin, German and French. It
was also at an early age that he began producing Selections in
the dialect, but there are none of these extant of a date earlier
than 1894, Wuchter* s reasons for writing in the dialect deserve
mention - "I sav; many limping efforts, as I thought, especially
in verse, and so I essayed what I could do as to meter and rhythm."
Ho finds the Pennsylvania German just a3 easy for him as the High
German; and as the charm grew upon him , and Pegasus got restive,
they ventured on bolder but still measured flights.
It is, as a rule, only the masters of any subject
that fully realize its difficulties} Heine could say: "Furwahr, die
Metrik ist rasend schwer; es giebt vielleicht sech3 oder sieben
Manner in Deutschland, die ihr V'esen verstehen." A considerable
number of our dialect writers have either never heard such a state-
ment, or act as though it excused them from giving the subject ser-
ious attention} they have all too often gone merrily a-rhyming, '
without shaping their course or avoiding rude jolts of cross country
roads. Here as always, careful workmanship aims at and reaches
more than outward smoothness. Thus in reading some of Wuohter's
lines we experience an indefinable pleasure not elsewhere afforded
by the dialect verse. His highest success he has perhaps achieved
in the playful onomatopoetic lines in which he tell3 the familiar
story of the hired boy who was set to work picking stones from a
field, while his master, Dinkey and the latter' s spouse went off
to the village on business. Now towards evening they are coming
home, but are not yet is sight of the place where the boy is work-
Mer sin de Lane so langsam nuf ;
Der Schubkarch hot gegrahnt.
Noh lacht die Betz: "Sag, bass mol ufi
: Veescht 7/ie mich sell gemahnt?
Der Dinkey kummt noch la-ang net
Er kummt noch net, rah-ie-J
Der Dinkey kummt noch net, I bet,
Er kummt net, sweet Marie."
Er hut uns ivverdem erb] ,;
Noh hot die Betz gelacht;
"Guck, was der Joe net Eifer krigtl
Heerscht v;ie der Schubkarch macht?
Dar Dinkey kummt, der Dinkey kummt
Ta-rie, Tarie! Tariei
Der Dinkey kummt, 'r 'rumpt, ' r 'rumpti
Hurrah for Tshin'rel Lee!"
His first productions appeared over the signature
"Silfanis" in the Allen f own Democrat, under the editorship of
C. Frank Haines, who, although himself in the dark as to the author,
was convinced that no such writer had as yet appeared in Pennsyl-
vania. German. '.Vuchter's range of subjects is also rather broader
than that of the average writer in the dialect, but he too returns
to the central thought of these dialect poets and defends "Die
Muttersprooch" in a poem which concludes:
Drum tzwischa Gott un tzwischa mensch
Was hut die schproch tz' dun?
Grickt ehner'n schennor Pletz'l dert,
Geht's in die ewich Ruh?
Kummt alles aw uf Shibboleth
Beim Jordan ivvergeh?
'"eg mit so dumnhait, ewich week -
Die Muttersprooch is scheh.
which seems in sentiment
to tally with the linos of Suabian Michel Buck
I schwatz, wia miar der Schnabel g'wachsa 'n ischt
Un wia'n is han von meiner Muatar ghairt
Und glaub, wear seiner Muatar Sproch it aihrt,
Dear sei schau' weagadeam koi ' reachter Chrischt.
He reverts also, like his companion poets, to the
old times, and describes to us in inimitable verse ""n Alte Lumpa
Party^ he indulges in a satirical disapproval of Sunday clambakes
and in. his "Schpundaloch" he has given a picture and embodied a
story which have been pronounced by his church to be better than
many a temperance lecture. His muse also has not scorned "occasion-
al peers? as the one on the 30th anniversary of the Ordination of
one of his fellow ministers.
Under the guise of an old cobbler, Yohli, he
philosophizes; with Yohli he makes a trip (as many in real life
have done) "Die 'hio naus? to visit those of the family who went
West In the days when Ohio was West.
He is particularly fond of versifying stories with
a point to them. One of these "Der Geitz" he has brought with him
from Brittany, another "Der Verlora Ehsel" is an Oriental tale,
adapted from the High German, "Hummingbirds" relates an incident
of the War of 1812 and "Hans and Herrgott" an anecdote of Martin
At times he becomes reminiscent, as in "Kinner Yohr" ,
"Die Erschta Hu-sa" even yielding at times to the feeling induced
by the gray days of November, "Nof emberklawg" ; but here aS always,
we witness the triumphs of a cheerful optimism, most noticeable in
his poem of the seasons. Such a one has a right to his joy in the
approaching springtime, as expressed in his lines of welcome to
,: Der Pihwie" ;
Ei, guck amohl derta
Der Pihwie is doh!
Er huckt uff 'm Poschta
''.'os is 'r so froh;
Now guckt ' r mohl nunner
Now guckt 'r mohl nuff
Now sing'd or a bissel
Now haerd r r schun uff .
Ei, Pihwie, wo warscht du
Seid schpote yohr gewest
Warscht fart mit em Summer
Warscht sudlich farraest?
Ich denk derta drunna
Huscht's Heemweh recht ghot,
Huscht nix wie gedrauert
Warscht 's Lehwa recht sot.
This is praised by Dr.G.W.Sandt, in The Lutheran
"Genuine poetry, as striking an equal, if not a higher note than
And again his delight in the pleasure of ".'inter is
the outward symbol of inward joys;
Hurrah for dor winter, hurrah for der "chnee,
Nau raus mit'm Schlitta, un sahl mer kon zwee .
-::- tt •:.<■ -::-
Hurrah for der Winter, der Schlitt i s raus,
Was hockt mer am Offa? Was will mer in Hai.
Un druf mit de Bella, sunscht is es ken G'fahr,
De ter is karz, un die Schlittabah rohr.
Hurrah for der '"inter! So eppes is Gschpass
Die Meed singa en Liedel, die Buwa der Bass
Un gehts in die Schrieebank un schmeist's err.ol urn
Seht's drunner un drivver, was gebt mer dann drum?
V.hile ".'uchter's verses prove him a thorough Pennsyl-
vania German, it is interesting to have the confirmation of it, in
a letter of his own. After stating that there are many promine; rt
men in Ohio who still speak or at least are able to speak the dia-
lect, he says: "I am not one of those who would like to attend the
funeral of Pennsylvania German tomorrow, if it were possible. It
runs in smoother measures than many of the dialects of the Father-
land. They do not asphyxiate dialects over there * -::• -:<• There
are those who presume to write about the Pennsylvania Germans, who
are either totally ignorant of their subject, or what is worse,
renegade Simon Girtys-German blood in their veins, but troubled
with Yankee or T Hinglesh' brainbunions. They would not recognize
their own. grandmother speaking Pennsylvania German, should they
happen to meet her on the street.
". , ucht6"• , is still in his prirr.e, and his successive
bits of writing are evincing constantly increasing force and
and other sources of information
for the chapter on
Charles Calvin Ziegler.
Bethlehem Times, Bethlehem, Pa.
Critic, New York, Feb. 11, 1895.
Drauss un Deheem Reviewed. Pennsylvania German, Vol. IV.
Fick, H.H. Deutsch Amerikanische Dialekt Dichtung.
Fiske, John. Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America. Vol II.
German and Swiss Settlements of Pennsylvania, Kuhns. N. Y.
Hark, J.M. Warm der Wind mol iwwer die Schtubble Blohsed.
Hark, J.M. Im Busch wann's Schnayd.
Hart, Albert Bushnell. The Pennsylvania Germans.
Holmes* The September Gale.
Holmes' The Chambered Nautilus.
Klopstock, G.E. Die Todte.
Lang, A. Lost Love.
Longfellow. The Snowf lakes.
Longfellow. The Reaper and the Flowers.
New York World, Feb. 11, 1895.
J?0 7, (See next page)
Philander von der Linde. Kein Sonett.
Proceedings of the Pennaylvania German Society, Vol.1 II
Reformed Church Messenger. Duhbs, Sept. 10, 1891.
Schiebeler. Ein Sonett.
Schlegel, A.W. Das Sonett.
Tennyson. In Memoriam.
The Democratic Watchman, Bellefonte, Pa.
Charles Calvin Ziegler.
"That Brush Valley should increase its celebrity by pro-
ducing a poet, confers an honor upon that ancient settlement which
should not be lightly regarded." Reformed Church Messenger, Sept.
Charles Calvin Ziegler is a Pennsylvania German of the
Pennsylvania Germans; he was born June 19, 1854, at Rebersburg, Pa.,
and is descended from a family that came to America in 1748. He
attended the public schools and also the Select Schools of
R.M.Magee and Henry Meyer in his home town; it was while as a bare-
foot boy he was attending these schools that one of the "big boys"
on a Friday afternoon recited "Das Alt Schulhaus an der Krick" to
the great delight of all the school. This was before Harbaugh's
book had been published and such selections were rare, and when se-
cured, greatly prized. About this time, Ziegler and his brother
secured a prose copy of a New Year's address, in the dialect, which
they hid away as a treasure, though sometimes they recited it in
the school. It was not until some years afterwards that the boys
were willing to give it to the public and then the older brother
copied it and sent it to the Democratic Watchman, Belief onte, Pa.
In 1870 Kr. Ziegler went to live with his brother in West
Union, Iowa. In 1873, he entered the State University of Iowa from
which he graduated with the class of 1878 with the degree of Ph.B.
Here it seems that his literary work began; one of his teachers
recalls with pleasure the charming poetic translations from Greek
and Latin which he used to make. According to the Bethlehem Times,
Bethlehem, Pa. (Sept.l, 1891) he also graduated from the Lawrence
Scientific School, but this I am unable to confirm. At any rate
he was for a few years engaged in teaching near his old home in
Pennsylvania and writing dialect poetry for the Democratic Watch-
man, Belief onte, Pa.
1881 - 1882 he spent with Prof. Ulrich of the Bethlehem
Preparatory School getting his Greek in shape for entering the
Junior Class at Harvard College in the fall of 1882 and he grad-
uated from the Arts Course here, magna cum laude, 1884, with honors
in Natural History and honorable mention in English composition.
His poetry written at this time received high praise
from his instructor, Barrett Wendell; he also published some witty
material in the Lampoon and although at Harvard only two years, was
elected by his class to write the Class Day Song. Among hiB verses
of this period might be mentioned one in High German for Washing-
ton's Birthday, to be sung to the tune, Lauriger Horatius;
Bruder, sagt warum so froh?
Was soil es bedeuten?
Warum toben alle so -
Jauchzen wie die Heiden?
'S 1st weil unser Washington
Heute war geboren;
Darum stossen alle an -
Saufen wie die Thoren.
Unsere Gesprach Club auch
Will dem Georg was bringen;
Speis 1 und Trank sei Uneerm Bauch,
Ihm das Lob und Singen.
Dieses Lied dem grossen Mann,
Wer, wie er, nicht lugen kann
1st ein guter Katerl
The next year he was at the Upper Iowa State University,
as Instructor, but did not like the work, accordingly he left, went
to St. Louis, and drifted into business, first as Clerk of the Pan
Missouri Telephone Co., while later he became connected with the
American Brake Company, a Westlnghouse concern of which he has now
for many years been Secretary and Treasurer. It was during that
first period in St. Louis when, separated from all his kin and a
stranger in a large city for the first time, there burst upon him
in terrible earnestness the fact that during the two years at Har-
vard he had lost both father and mother. Prom a heart full, even
to overflowing with a species of homesickness he began to work upon
a memorial he planned to his mother, taking for his model Tennyson's
memorial to his friend Hallam - In Memoriam. It was in this way
that there grew up the poem "Zum Denkmal" in nineteen songs. The
first one carries him back to his graduation day.
Heit graduir ich, un mit Ehrj
Mar maerche rum darch grossi Crowds;
Des is 'n Wese - Music, Shouts -
A's wann dar Bresident do waer.
Ich nem mei She re im grosne Show -
G-rick mei Diploma - "k'agna cum"
Es scheint ich bin doch net so dun
Wie Dheel v\xn denne Yankees do.
Un doch - es is allwan h i
Mit all msim Glickj mei Luscht is klee,
Wie 'n Blummeschtrauss im grosse See,
Im See vun meinre Draurigkeit.
Was batt die Laming un die Ehr?
Warm ich noch meinre Heemet geh
Finn ich ken guti Mammi meh,
Un des macht now mei Harz so schwaer.
this la3t idea he ha3 further expanded in a song - 1 a. "Laming
Was batt di9 Laming? Nix - un viel;
'S depend en wennig uf dar Kopp:
En marcher eifersichter Dropp
Mit frischem Muth un hochera Zielj
Hot's Ham sohier gaarli rausgschtudiert -
Un was hot's dann am End gebatt?
Ei, endlich hot ar, bleech un matt,
Sei Krafte ganz veruminirt;
Dar Zweifel hot sei Seel verzw&rnt;
Uf dunkli Barri^e rum is er
Wahnsinnig gschtolpert hi' un her
Un hot dar recht Weg net gelarnt.
Die Laming muss verwandelt sei
In' a Lewe - juscht wie Brod zu Blut,
Sohunscht dhut's 'm Mensoh ganz wennig gut,
Kann gaar noch Schade dhu debei.
Es gebt en Soheeheit vun de Seel,
En liebliche Gerechtigkeit,
'As sich versohennert mit de Zeit
Un is vara wahre Gott 'n Dheel.
Sel is die haupt Sach; in der Dhaat
Sell is es eenzigsoht Ding 'as bschteht
Wann Welt un Hinnnel mol vegeht;
Un sel hot aa die Mammi g'hat.
In ihrem kleene Finger waar
Mah Weisheit vun de reohte Sart
A' a man cher Witzkop finne ward
In all de Bicher gross un rahr.
In some of these songs he very ol03ely imitates his
model and his favorite poet, Tennyson. In none however, has he
oome quite so close to Tennyson as in the tenth where will be seen
the thoughts and in part a translation of the lines in Cantos 49
and 50 of In Memoriamj
Be near me when my light is low
When the blood creeps, and the nerves prick
And tingle; and the heart is sick,
And all the wheels of Being slow.
Be near me .vhen the sensuous frame
Is racked with pangs that conquer trust j
» * * «
Be near me when my faith 1b dry,
» * «
Be near me when I fade away,
To point the term of human strife,
And on the low dark verge of life
The twilight of eternal day.
* * #
Be near ub when we climb or fall,
* * « *
Sei bei mar uf rneim Lewespaad
Un hiit raich far de falache Schritt;
Veloss mloh not - ach, geh doch mit*
Noh hot f e ken Gfohr - noh laaf ich graad.
Sei bei mar warm mei Glaaw© schwacht
Un Gottes Sache lappich sin;
Wann ich uf letzi Weege bin
Saag mar wuhi ' un sohtell mich recht.
Sei bei mar in de letschte Noth
'.Vann sich die Seel vum Karper drennt;
Sei bei mar, nooch 'm dunkle End,
Ira ewige Daag sei Margeroth.
It is worthwhile in the case of the man who has
mounted highest in all Pennsylvania German literature to note that
in addition to a true poet, we have in Ziegler a careful and pains-
taking artist, one who knows that crude material must be worked
over and over again slowly and laboriously before a splendid achieve-
ment can be the result. For this reason we find his compositions
elaborated with more care and finished with a finer touch than
those of any other. Moreover, Ziegler seems to possess more of the
spirit of poetry and to know more about poetic structure both in
theory and its illustration than any one else who has essayed to
write in the dialect.
His former teacher of Latin at the State University
of Iowa, was selected as his critic and adviser before he sent the
poems to the printers to be issued in book form. In an article
she later wrote to the "Quill" - a publication of the University-
she has revealed to us the author's consciousness of his task. In
this article she quotes from a letter which she had had from him
as follows: " Since 1885, I have done a great deal in my own dia-
lect, the Pennsylvania German. At first it was uphill work, the
nature of the dialect not seeming to be adapted to poetical
expression. It is the language of farmers - of a people whose
life is immersed in material things, and who have paid scarcely
any attention to intellectual abstractions. Hence the language ia
graphic enough but lacks flexibility and the aesthetic quality. It
is almost impossible to do any shading in it: e.g. there is only
one word schee or scho (Ger. schon) for pretty, beautiful, fine,
nice, superb, gorgeous, etc.; in erotic expressions, it is difficult
to find anything poetical enough etc." In spite of her ignorance
of the dialect, it was not difficult for her to recognize the poetic
quality of these selections, as we see from her following remark:
"Out of consideration of my ignorance of the dialect, Mr. Ziegler
kindly sent me with each poem its English rendering very literally
done, and in these, without any effort at rhyme and but little in
rhythm, is found the true spirit of poetry." Mrs. Currier was par-
ticularly pleased with the eighth song in "Zum Denkmal" - "Ich sehn
die scheckige dage geh n - " The conception of the different days,
the fair seeming ones, that after all bring us no good - the rough
oneB that look angry and are our friends, do we not all know them?
but only a poet can thus set them forth."
Another illustration of Ziegler 's method of work is
found in his poem "Es Schneckehaus" which he devotes to his art.
The figure recalls Holmes' "Chambered Nautilus" Without sinking
foundations, or laying off corners, the ugly creature, the snail, out
of mire and slime, slowly and noiselessly, builds its wonderously
beautiful structure in which human ingenuity can find no imperfection.
Thus works the poet, but listen to the wholo poem;
'N Schneckehaus i Hoscht schun betracht
Wie wunner schee es is gemacht?
Es hot ken Fundament, ken Sck,
Es is gebaut aus Schleim und Dreck,
Langsam un net mit Angscht un Jaclit.
Die Schneck is wuscht un ward veracht,
Doch kann 'm Jflensch aei Geischtesmacht
Ken Fehler finne un ken Fleck
So dhut dar Dichter, langsam, aacht -
Wann ar aa viel ward ausgelacht -
Gedrei aich halte an sei'm Zweck,
Un aus Gedanke - Schleim, wie 'n Schneck,
Baut endlich aei Gedicht, voll Pracht,
In 1891 he had a small collection of his dialect pro-
ductions published by Hesse und Becker, Leipzig, under the title
"Drauss un Daheem." The book takes it3 name from the first poem
in which the author reflects after years of experience with the
world that the words of his mother were true when she used to re-
mind her boys, chafing under the restraints of home, saying to
them "Wart - drauss is net deheem." In the bitter loneliness of
the little room in St. Louis where he spent his nights after the
labors of the day, and with the knowledge that there no longer was
a home and a mother to whom he could turn if he wished, he began
to realize with terrible earnestness that "Drauss i3 net Deheem."
The National Educator Company of Allentown, Pa. with
Dr. Home a3 its President was the chief American Salesagent, and
advertised the book in unique fashion, by pointing out, in dialect,
gems that ought to make the book appeal to young men, young ladies,
"Buwe, wan d'r en guti impression uf die Mad mache wet dann
schenk 'ne des Buch. Sel Schtuck 'Kitzel mich net!' macht sie
fihle as warm sie 'n 'love powder' geschiuckt hatte."
"Kinneri Shrt eier Eltere' Wan d'r die Mammi liebt dann ward
d'r selli schticker "Zum Denkmal" hoch schatze."
"Eltere • Wan d'r guti Gedanke in eier Kinner blanze wet, dan
grick 'ne des Buch."
"Schtudentel (Allentown is a college town) "Wan d'r 'm Home
eel Manual un 'm Ziegler sei Drauaa un Deheem fleiaaig leeat, dan
het d'r ken Druwwel mit 'm Virgil un Homer."
Well, the book made ita impreaaion and not only on Perm-
aylvania Germans j but on the Coamopolitan critics aa well, as
Prof. Joseph H.Dubbs, Secretary of Franklin and Marshall College ,^1887
to whom the poems were also submitted before publication, predicted
it would. "I have read your verses with great pleasure. They are
in my opinion compositions of a very superior order and their pub-
lication cannot fail to be alike honorable to yourself and to the
people in whose language you have written them. They will certain-
ly be appreciated by all persons of culture who are familiar with
the Pennsylvania vernacular; and their poetic merit3 will, I feel
certain, be recognized by the German press of America and Europe."
Whether the book was ever seen in Germany after the
edition which was printed for tha author was sent to America, I am
unable to say, but the American Press had nothing but words of
appreciation and with these we must atill agree, with the single
exception of the Atlantic Monthly; for by what mental processes the
writer in that magazine "inevitably thought of Hana Breitman" seems
hard to determine, unlesa it be becauae our author and Hana Breit-
man have nothing whatever in common. The incidental criticiam of
John Fiske - he had evidently read it, because he cites from it in
"Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America" Vol.11, p. 352. to illuatrate
the nature of the dialectand calls it a " charming book " - goes far
to make us forget that the above from the Atlantic Monthly also
came from Boston.
The Nation, New York, Oct. 15, 1391 found it w a moat
curious and interesting little book which might well have been
larger" and gave from it as a specimen to Its readers a few stanzas
from the translation of Longfellow's "The Reaper and the Flowers"
Better yet to a Pennsylvania German seems his translation of Long-
fellow's "Snowf lakes" which may be included here as illustrating
Ziegler's work in the field of translation:
Aus de Luft ihrem grosse Schoos,
Runner g'schittelt aus de wolkige Falte,
Iwwer die Felder leer un blooss,
Iwwer die Barrige, die grooe alte,
Langsam un sacht un schee
Flattort dar Schnee.
Juscht wie 1m *me harrliche Gedlcht
Die Newwliche Gedanke sich vereene,
Juscht wie sich im 'me bleeche Gsicht
Drtlbsal, Druwwel un Schmarz bekenne,
So macht die Luft bekannt
Des is de Luft ihr Drauer-lie}
Langsam in weisse Warte sacht ig g'schriwwe;
Des is die Verzweiflung vum Gemftth
Lang in ihre Bruscht ve'schteckt gebliwwe -
In Pischpere now gemeldt
Zum W a ici un Feld.
The New York Critic (Nov. SI, 1891) found "That the language,
in its soft vocalic utterance, bears to the High German much the
same relation that the Scottish dialect bears to the English, and
like that is well adapted to poetry of a plaintive and domestic
cast or to rustic fun and satire. To the latter forma Ziegler's
muae seema little inclined. Most of his corapoaitions are of a pen-
sive character." To this we muat now add that aince that time,
Ziegler has given us several illustrations of his Jovial muse some-
what in the vein of "Kitzel mi oh net" - found in his book - of
which the best are no doubt, an English one which I should like to
include here, and an inimitable translation of Oliver Wendell Holmes'
"The September Gale" and "Die Harte Zeite."
Behold, I am deathless ; The scytheman
'.Vho deemB that all flesh is but grass
Shall find me a tough and a lithe man,
Pull of years as the sands in his glass.
But fare as it may with the Ego
And whether or no I am crowned,
My life shall not fare like Carthago -
Shall not be brought down to the ground.
I have fashioned a poem sublime r
Than any that Milton e'er penned,
Nor did the great German at Weimar
My latest endeavor transcend.
No more by the critical croaker
Shall my work as unworthy be classed;
I am out of the hole mediocre,
I'm an author immortal at last!
Not in books like the lyrics of Horace,
But in forms of the flesh sweet and rare,
In my Lalages, Lilies and Lauras
Shall my spirit persist and grow fair.
And to prove what I claim - for I know you
Are anxious for facts that convinoe -
Gome up to the house and I'll show you
My poem immortal - the twins.
The S eptember G ale. - ©.vu.Ud-Ca*.
I'm not a chicken: I have seen
Pull many a chill September,
And though I was a youngster then,
That gale I well remember j
The day before, my kite string snapped,
And I, my kite pursuing,
The wind whisked off my palm leaf hat;-
For me two storms were brewing!
It came as quarrels sometimes do,
'Then married folks get clashing;
There was a heavy sigh or two,
Before the fire was flashing, -
A little stir among the c„oUlJd3,
Before they rent asunder, -
A little rocking of the trees,
And then came on the thunder.
Lord! how the ponds and rivers boiled;
They seemed like bursting craters!
And oaks lay scattered on the ground
As if they were p'tatersj
And all above was in a howl,
And all below a clatter, -
The earth was like a frying pan,
Or some such hissing matter.
It chanced to be our washing day,
And all our things were drying;
The storm cane roaring through the lines,
And set them all a flying;
I saw the shirts and petticoats
Go riding off like witches;
I lost, ah» bitterly I wept,-
I lost my Sunday breeohes!
I saw them straddling through the air,
Alas: too late to win them;
I saw them chase the clouds, as if
The de^ll had been in them;
They were my darlings and my pride,
My boyhood* s only riches, -
"Farewell, farewell", I faintly cried, -
"My breeches* my breeches."
That night I saw them in my dreams,
How changed from what I knew them.
The dew had steeped their faded threads,
The wind had whistled through them.
I saw the wide and ghastly rents
Where demons claws had torn '■hen;
A hole was in their amplest part,
As if an imp had worn them.
I have had many happy years,
And tailors kind and clever,
But those young pantaloons have gone
Forever and forever!
And not till fate has cut the last
Of all my earthly stitches,
This aohing heart shall cease to mourn
My loved, my longlost breeches*
T ranslatio n.
Ich bin ken Hinkel. Hab schun viel
Septembers sehne hausse;
Ee* Schtarm waar awwer sonderbaar -
Den haer ich he it noch brausse.
Der Daag devor hot mir dar Wind
Mei Kite mit fort genumme;
Mei Schtroh-hut hinne drei, - far mich
Waar'n zwetter Schtarm am kummeJ
*S waar juscht/vwann'n Fraa browiert
Die Hosse aa'zeziege:
Mar haert'n Seifzer oder zwee
Ep f s Feier aafangt ze f liege :-
Die Vifolke hen sich rumgedreht -
Noh hot mar Schwewwel geroche;
Die Beera hen gschittelt un gegaunscht -
Noh is es losgebrocheJ
Gott! wie es doch gegleppert hot
In aellem wilde Wetterl
Die Beem sin gfloge wie im Gfecht
Vun alte deitache Getter.
Drowwe un hunne hot's gedoobt -
Schwarz, rauschig, bollerig, blitzig;
Die Aerd waar wie en Brodtpann g'weat -
3ie waar so arrig schpritzig.
'S waar unaer Waachdaag; uf de Lines
Waar sohier die Waaoh gedrickeltj
Dar Wind hot Waach un Lines mit fort -
Veschattort un vewickelt.
Die Hemmer un die Unnerreck
Sin wie vehext rumgachosse;
Verlore haw ich - aoh, Harr Je;
weh' - mei Sundaag'e Hoase.
Ja, grattlig 3in aie darch die Luft -
Zu weit aie meh ze finne;
Die Wolke ain aie noochge,1aagt
Ala waer dar Deifel in'ne.
"Wie reioh un schtolz waar ich in eichl
Now hat dar mich velosses
Goot-bye, goot-bye J" - so haw ich g'heilt,-
"Mei Hoaee, mei Hosaei"
Im Draam haw' ioh aie gaehne - aoh:
Wie waare aie verennerti
Vun Wind verschlitzt, im Rege gaoakt -
Sie waare net ve'achennertJ
Aa' g'aehne hen aie juaoht a* a wann
Die Deifel 8ie veriaae;
'N looh waar ninne drin - dea het
Par'n Deifel sachwanz aei miase'
Ich hab schun gute Schneider ghat
Un viele frohe Johre,
Mei Junge Hosse awwer sin
Par ewig mir velore.
Un bis dar Dod mol piachpert, "Kumm,
Du muscht die Aerd veloasei"
Schwaer bleibt mei Harz un drauervoll
Far aelli liewe Hosse!
"They (his poems) are in flowing, harmonious verse"
the New York Critic goes on "embodying gentle and pleasing sen-
timents. As a first attempt [11) to make this interesting Ger-
man American dialect the vehicle of literary expression the book
may be pronounced a decided success."
One of the facts hinted at in the above, had been noted
in the Bethlehem Times, Bethlehem, Pa several months earlier, (Sept.
1, 1891) when it said: "Some of the poems are full of the ten-
der, homely sentiment, the lack of which in the verse of most Amer-
ican poets is one of the great misfortunes which come as a penalty
of straining after effect." It is not surprising that a church
paper - The Reformed Church Messenger - should find as among the
very best of Ziegler's poems the one entitled "Die Alte Lieder? in
which are enumerated some of the grand old chorals sung in the
German churches. Elbert Hubbard, who is not known to scatter
compliments except where he thinks they belong, counted the book as
"a valuable addition to the Roycroft Library of Choice Things."
Ziegler's old friands at Harvard and his new ones
of the Washington University, St. Louis expressed equal delight at
the book. The paper of his native county, for which he had in
earlier days written under the pseudonym of Carl Schreiber - the
Democratic Watchman, of Belief onte, Pa.- unhesitatingly put the
work by the side of Harbaugh's "Harfe" and noted that it excelled
the latter" in range of thought and power of expression."
His old teacher, Henry Meyer, (himself the author of
verses in the dialect. See article H.Meyer) wrote him as follows:
"I turned over the leaves as a miser inspects and counts his crock
of gold coins. You know that I am no literary critic, but when I
see a good thing in Pennsylvania German, I think I know it. And
when a poem has the potency to stir an audible smile or move one
to tears it certainly possesses the right ring; and that is just
what happens if one sit3 down and peruses "Drauss un Deheem" . The
Pennsylvania Germans, and especially those of your old home, owe
you a debt of gratitude for having added this gem to the few lit-
erary productions in their mother tongue."
In another poem "Der Rewwer Un ich? the poet looks
forward to the loss of identity in the being of the great God even
aa the river mingles with and is lost in the seaj the author how-
ever assures me that he never entertained any pantheistic beliefs
except such as seem to be general poetic stock; and in another
poem, he defends after the manner of an orthodox churchman, as he
is ( (Lutheran) "Es Oltfashioned Buoh n against the scorners, and
ventures the belief that it has enough of truth for many a thousand
The first mentioned poem - Der Rewwer un Ich - was trans-
lated into English and sent to the New York World, Feb. 11, 1895,
by William Vincent Byars, a New York Critic, with the following
note of explanation: "The other day I took down from the shelves
of my bookcase a thin volume in pasteboard covers "Poems in Penn-
sylvania German" by Charles Calvin Ziegler, published some little
while ago. It is not paying Mr. Ziegler too high a compliment to
say that he is as true a poet as the very best of the contemporary
-Aeous writers of verse for American periodicals. He takes some
pride in being the first man who has ever written a sonnet in 'Penn-
sylvania Dutch* and I think he is entitled to the satisfaction he
feels because of the exploit. I will not attempt a translation
of his sonnets, but here is a version of one of his songs, - The
River and I - which may suggest its deeply spiritual meaning to a
wider oircle of readers than it could reach in the original."
For present purposes it will be more to the point to
give the original here than the translation and if a trite expression
may be used- the translation is not equal to the original.
Dar Rewwer fliesst munter un froh dehij
Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer;
Ar geht sei Gang unne Kummer un Mih,
Ar froogt net fe' was? Ar wunnert net Wie?
Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer.
Un so wie dar Rewwer geht gehn ich,
(Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer)
Ar wees dar Weg - nie verliert ar sich -
Un mar trav'le zamme recht bruderlichj
(Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer.)
Die Welle lache wie'n luschtig Kind,
(Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer);
Bal vereent, bal getrennt - sie weoh3le gschwind-
Die Schpielsaohe sin sie vum wilde Wind;
(Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer.)
Warm die Sohtarne funkle in de Nacht
Ruhig rollt dar Rewwer ;
Ar schockelt mich ei, ar draagt mien sacht,
Un ich geb mich ganz in Gottes Macht;
Ruhig rollt dar Rewwer.
Hinaus un hlnab zum ewigs See
Sorglos rollt dar Rewwer j
Ar gebt sich hi* unne Ach un Weh
Un vergeht Ira Meer wie'n Floclce Schnee;
Sorglos achtarbt dar Rewwer.
In connection with t he first sonnet , it was rather amus-
ing to find that claims to priority in any particular department of
literature, such as we frequently meet in the case of those who
play the game more seriously, find their counterpart among the
writers of this dialect. In 1900 , Rev. J.Max Hark, after an inves-
tigation in which he says that he satisfied himself that there is
no inherent lack of capability for poetic expression in the Penn-
sylvania German, set about composing several poems in various poet-
ical forma and speaks thus of his own essay with the sonnet. "It,
(the Sonnet) is a form of verse that perhaps more than any other,
tests the capabilities of the dialect, requiring as it doe3, great
delicacy of touch and great flexibility of language. So far as I
know it had never before been attempted in Pennsylvania German(; )
until I tried it in "Im Busch Vann's Shnayd" and "Wann der Wind
mohl Iwwer dee Shdubble Blohsdt." It wae not in this connection
that I wished to consider the merits of Dr.Hark's two sonnets, "but
only to note- in view of their first publication in 1900 - a fact
that seems to have escaped his attention- namely, that full nine
years previousl y Ziegler had published the sonnets in "Drauso un
Deheem" and that in one of these, in the course of its fourteen
lines, he twice lays claim to priority in this department, and with
justice , for it was written even nine years before the publication
of the book.
It is far more successful than the two attempts of
Hark, because the latter, while seeming to realize the seriousness
of his undertaking takes himself too seriously and does not under-
stand the nature of the sonnet as well as Ziegler; the latter under-
stands, as stated^ the technique of the sonnet and playfully "Leimt
zusammen" as Goethe said, until Lo, he has the first sonnet in
the dialect 2
To a certain extent it suggests the famous sonnet by
August 7Vilhelm Schlegel on the Nature of the Sonnet, because it
touches on the same theme, though not in the same tone* In serious
vein Schlegel wrote:
Zwei Reime heiss' ich viermal kehren wieder,
Un stelle sie, getheilt, in gleiche* Reihen,
DasB hier und dort zwei, eingefasst von zweien
Im Doppel Shore schweben auf und nieder.
Dann schlingt des Gleichlauts Kette durch zwei Glieder
Sich freier wechselnd, jegliches von dreien.
In solcher Ordnung, solcher Zahl , gedeihen
Die zartesten und stolzesten der Lieder.
Dem word ich nie mit meinen Zeilen kranzen,
Dem eitle Spielerei mein Wesen dftnket,
Und Eigensinn die kunstlichen Gesetze.
Doch, wem in mir geheimer Zauber winket
Dem leih' ich Hoheit Full' in engern Grenzen
Und reines Ebenmaas der Gegensatze.
In humorous vein wrote Ziegler;
Vor mir hot niemand en Sonett noch gschriwwe
In Pennsylvanisch Deitoch. Ich will's mol waage
'M Dante un 'm Petrarch nooch ze jaage
Bia ich die Warte zamme hah gedrivve.
Now, 'em Sonett eel Lines sin zwee mol siwwe,
Net mehner un net wenniger kann's vertrage;
Zwee Dheol hot's; 's aersoht - 'es Octave so ze saage-
Hot juscht zwee Rhymes, die darf mar net verechiewe.
Es zwet ion klenner Dheel - Sestette ward's g'heese -
Kann zwee Rhymes haw we odder drei, (net meh)
Un die darf mar arrange wie mar will.
Es fehle noch drei Lines; halt dich now schtill*-
Ich hab sie schund! - un du hoscht now, versteh,
Es aerscht Sonett in daere Schprooch gelese.
When however, I found in the private collection of Ziegler under
"Sonnets that I like" the two that follow by Daniel Schiebeler and
Philander von der Linde, I could no longer doubt the source of his
inspiration. The one by Schiebeler reads as follows:
Du forderst ein Sonett von mir;
Du weisst wie echwer ich dieses finde,
Darum, du lose Rosalinde,
Versprichst du einen Kuss dafur.
Was ist, um einen Kuss von dir,
Dass sich Myrtill nicht understands?
Ich glaubefast, ich uberwinde;
Sieh zwei Quadrains stehn ja schon hier.
Auf einmal hort es auf zu fliessen.
Nun werd ich doch ve^zagen mussen.
Doch nein, hier ist schon ein Terzett.
Nun beb* ich doch - Wie werd' ich schliossen?
Komm, Rosalinde, laas dich kftssen:
Hier, Schonste, hast du dein Sonett.
The one by Philander von der Linde thus:
Bei meiner Treu', es wird mir Angst gemacht,
Ich soil geschwind ein rein Sonettgen sagen
Und meine Kunst in vierzehn Zeilen wagen,
Bevor ich mich auf reciiter Stoff bedacht;
Was reimt sich nun auf agen und auf aoht ?
Doch eh' ich kann mein Reimregister fragen,
Und in dem Sinn das A, B, C durchjagen,
So wird bereits der halbe Theil belacht.
Kann Ich nun noch sechs Verse dazu tragen,
So darf ich mich mit keinem Gr.Hen plagen;
Wohlan, da aind schon wieder drei vollbrachtl
Und well noch viol in meinem vollew Kragen,
So darf ich nicht am letzten Reim vorzagen,
Bei meiner Treu! da3 Work is schon gemacht.
Besides this sonnet Ziegler has written a number of
others: ono on his "Old Pipe", another in different vein on the
death of his father.
In a poem with the unpoetic title "Cremation" ad-
dressed to his wife, he expresses the wish not to be buried in the
earth when dead: not only his soul but also his body is to fly on
the wings of Heaven.
Mei Geischt war noch immer en freier
Un mei Leib soil aa so sei;
Mit'm Wind soil ar rum schpatziere -
In de Luft - wie die Veggel frei.
Ich will net sei bei de Warrem,
Im Grund, wu die Sai rum drete,
In de Sunn will ich sei un de Wolke
Drum sollscht du mich cremate.
Noh brauchst net in der Karri chof
Wann du mich b'suche wit;
Noh flieg ich frei in de Luft rum
Un kann dir iwwerall mit.
Noh pischper ich scheene Sache
Warm ich zu d'r kumm im *me Breeze
Noh boss ich dlch oft uf die Backe
Un uf dei Maul so sus.
Un in de Sunn wann sie ufgeht
Lachle ich dlch freindlich aa,
Un segen dich Owets vum Himmel
Mei liewe guti Fraa.
These are not the only poems; there might be mentioned
others in which he has translated Emerson, or original ones in
which he shows the influence of his enthusiastic Emerson studies
of his younger days. I close my account of his little book with
a reference to his translation of Bryant* a "Thanatopsis" which in-
dicates unusual akill and patient labor and which ia reasonably
faithful in the language, retaining aa it does very remarkably
the spirit of the original.
Zum Mensoh 'as lieb hot far die schee Nadur
Un fihlt mit ihrem Wese sich ve'wandt
Schwetzt sie en Schprooch we ' schiede: is ar froh
Dann is sie frehlich un vezahlt ihm viel
Un wunnersoheeni Sache, un sie schluppt
So sachtig un mit so 'me Mitgefihl
In sei Gedanke wann ar Druwwel hot
Dass ihm sei Drauer, ep ar's wees, vegeht.
The rest of Ziegler's poems, in part published in magazines,
and in part unpublished as yet may be passed more rapidly in re-
view although his powers have been by no mean3 diminished. After
he had come back to his native Brush Valley and taken to himself
a Pennsylvania German wife, his pensive strain gives way in cer-
tain measure to other tunes and presently we hear him singing
the praiBes of "Zwiwwle" and "Sauerkraut" About the time of the
arrival of the twins he writes:
Die Eltere fihle schtolz un froh -
Sie hen en Bobli - *s is 'n Soh'.
Die News geht rum, un ziemlich glei'
Viel Preind un Nochbere kumme bei,
Un ganz nadlrlich kumme aa*
Dar Onkel Henner un sei Praa.
Dar Onkel, wis ar's Kind aaschaut,
Lachelt un saagt so zimlich laut,
"Ei, guck juscht wle des Kind doch hot -"
Noh sagt die Aunt gschwind, "Tut, tut, tut!"
'os hot dar Onkel saage welle?
Des waer net schwaer sich vor se schtelle;
Doch wann 's aa wohr waer, 's is net gut
Das mar alii Wohret saage dhut,
Ich glaab 's waar besser, in d'r Dhat,
Dar Onkel hot net alles gsaat, ,
Un dass sei Praa inn abgecut
Mit ihrem gschwinde "Tut, tut, tut!"
His own disappointment that "es Bobli" was not "en Soh" seems
to have been made up for, by the fact that they were two girls
(cf . the EngliBh poem mentioned above - Exegi Monumentum) - and
soon and apparently for them - he writes - n Der Sandmann?
Waer is des 'as kummt £9 schleiche
Owets aus 'm Schatte and?
Scheint die Kinner gut ze gleiche -
Ihne is ar gut bekannt.
Mit 'me Sa - cack dhut ar kumme,
Un ar schtreut uniher gaar sacht
Aage -sand - *m Schloof sei Sume,-
Sel is was em schlafrig macht.
Wann die Kinner 'b Maul ufschparre
BIb es wie en Keller guckt;
Wann die Aage sandig warre,
Un en jedes Kepli nuckt,-
Kann mar leicht dar Sandmann schpftre,
(Sehne, haere kann mar *n net)j
Jar, 's is ihn - ar kummt ze fihre
Jedes in sei Drunrelbett.
Die Zeite sin so greislich hart
Dass e'm schier gaarli dottlich ward;
Ken Geld, ken Arwet, schier ken Brod,-
Es sieht bal aus wie Hunger snoth.
Economy , Economy !
Schpaare misse mar , saagt die Fraa ,
Economy , economy ,
Bis mar aus 'a Ha lsli kummt I
must not "be taken too seriously, for a man that is crushed does
not write merry songs to the tune "Ich bin der Dokter Eisenbart,
Zwie-li-di-li-wick bamm bumm!" To get his view point we quote fur-
Was is die grindlich Drsach dann-
Weescht du's, gedreier Handwerksmann?-
Dass unser Land so voll is heit
Vun Millionaires un Bettelleit?
Dheel meene des, dheel meene sel
Waer Schuld an daere dulle Shpellj
Mir is es deitlioh wie die Sunn -
Dar Tariff is die Schuld devun.
In recent years he has translated Longfellow's version
of Klopstock's "Die Todten" ; Andrew Lang's "Lost Love"; he has sung
in praise of "En Simpler Mann" and has written a beautiful ode -
An ardent defender of the Pennsylvania Germans, when
Prof. Albert Bushnell Hart several years ago, after an automobile
trip through Lancaster County, wrote his impressions for the Bos-
ton Transcript, Ziegler took up the gauntlet and came out with a
vigorous reply to what seemed to be the Professor's snap Judg-
Likewise in verse "Die Muttersproch" has he
glorified the tongue to which he turns when he wishes to talk
sense j the language not polite,- reminding one of Goethe's:
"Im Deutschen lugt man wenn man hoflich ist." Paust II. -
which best can express his wrath, the language in which alone he
seems able to approach the throne of his Creator.
Will Ich recht ve'schtannig echwetze -
Eppes ausenanner setze -
A,B,C un eens, zweo, drei,-
So dass jeder commoner Mann
Klar un deitlich.sehne kann
Wei 'as Gold is un wel Blei,-
Nem ich guti deutschi Warte,
Weis un schwarzi, weech un harte,
Noh vollbringt die Sach sich glei.'
Bin ich an de Wohret suche
Un fin Ungerechtigkeit,
Luge, HeicMsrei, un Schtreit
Bis ich alles kennt ve'fluche,-
Schteigt mei Zarn wie rothe Flamme
Un will alles noh ve' damme, -
Use ich net *n Schprooch polite j
Nee' ich nemm mei deitsche Warte
Beisslg scharf wie Hickory Garte -
Hack derwedder dass ee battj
Schlack druf los un fluch mich sattl
Wann ich war die Sinde ledig,
Schwaer bedrickt vun meinre Schuld,
Arnschtlich noh un ehrlich bet ich
Urn Vergebung, Gnad un Huld;
Kann dar Vatter Unser, meen ich,
In de Mutterschprooch allee
Mich reoht haere un ve'schteh;
Far in deitsche Warte leenig
Hot die Mar-mi mich gelarnt
Wie ze bete j mich bereit
Ze mache far die Ewigkeit;
Hot dar Daadi mi oh gewarnt
Un gerothe braav un grad.
Grosser Gott! 0, echteh mar bei!
Helf mar doch en Grischt ze sei!
Dr. Hermann H. Fick of Cincinnati, in a little pam-
phlet on "Deutsch Amerikanische Dialekt Dichtung" has said: "Der
wahre Dichter folgt dem Gebote der Empfindungen und Gefuhle,
welche machtig um Wiedergabe werben und nach Gestaltung rlngen.
Er *gehorcht der gebietenden Stunde* und singt well es inn dazu
treibt. Das was ihn freudig oder in TrSuer bewegt, sein ei-
genstes Wesen, aussert er in seinen Versen." To no writer in the
Pennsylvania German dialect do these lines seem to be so com-
pletely applicable as to Charles Calvin Ziegler, late of Brush
Valley, Pa., and now of St. Louis, Mo.
other sources of information
for the chapter on
Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman.
Berlin Times, Berlin, Germany.
Biographical Annals of Berks County, Chicago, 1909.
Carbon County Democrat.
German American Annals.
History of Berks County, Montgomery. Philadelphia, 1886
New York Staats Zeitung.
011a Podrida. Book Notice. Pennsylvania German. Vol. IV. 69
011a Podrida. Reading, Pa. 1893.
Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook. Rauch. Mauch Chunk, Pa.
Pennsylvania German, Vol. IV. 2. 269.
Vol. VII. 4. 178.
Personal Interviews and correspondence.
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. III.
Spirit of Berks.
Thomaa C. Zimmerman.
In every enumeration of Pennsylvania German writers, the
name of Col. Thomas C.Zimmerman would demand worthy mention, as
that of the translator of song from many lands, and as the author
of some dialect prose. But upon those Pennsylvania Germans whose
reading is confined chiefly to literature in English, Zimmerman
has a special claim. These he has made acquainted, through ex-
cellent translations, with what is best in German lyric song, and
has thus restored and interpreted to them the choicest literary
treasures of the stock from which they sprung. In this respect
Zimmerman occupies a position absolutely unique among Pennsylvania
For many years he carried out a consistent policy,
publishing in the papers he edited, in parallel columns, German
lyrics and his own excellent translations of the same. For this
reason a fuller account of his career is here demanded, and, in-
asmuch as no more appreciative one could be written than that
from the pen of Morton L. Montgomery, Esq. in historical and Bio-
graphical AnnalB of Berks County, I have made an abstract of his
article. The briefer portion beginning with P« whicli deals with
his work in dialect literature is my own.
Thomas C.Zimmerman was born in Lebanon County, Pa.
Jan. S3, 1838. The only academic education he ever enjoyed was
the public school training he received during the years of his
boyhood in Lebanon County. Thus he never had the advantages of a
classical education, and deserves accordingly the higher praiBe,
for making such notable use of his talents and opportunities. When
13 years of age he was apprenticed to the printing trade in the
newspaper establishment of the Lebanon Courier. Upon the comple-
tion of his term of service he went to Philadelphia and worked on
the Philadelphia Inquirer for a brief interval until Jan. 8, 1856,
when he entered the office of the Berks and Schuylkill Journal in
Reading, Pa. as a journeyman printer. In 1859, Zimmerman moved
to Columbia, S.C. where he worked as compositor on the State LawB
in the printing establishment of Dr. Robert Gibbs, who afterwards
became Surgeon General of the Confederate Army. In March 1860,
Zimmerman returned to Reading, as the Anti Northern sentiment had
beoome so intense that his life was endangered.
Here he again entered the employ of the "Reading
Times" and "The Berks and Schuylkill Journal" and gradually rose
to the position of editor, and Co-proprietor. This paper- the
Reading Times - is one of the foremost journals in the state and
exerts a potent influence upon the moral and material development
of its city, being held, furthermore in high estimation among
political leaders in the state and at Washington.
A brother editor says of him: " He has a genuine
taste for literature, poetry and the fine arts, as many of his
articles attest. He is one of the ablest writers in the Common-
wealth." One of his most widely published and copied productions
was a sketch of his visit to the Luray Caverns in Virginia. On
returning home he chose this theme for an editorial in his paper.
It fell into the hands of the Cave Company: the merits of this in-
spiration of the moment were so appreciated by them that they
caused upward of 60,000 copies in illustrated pamphlet form to
be published for general circulation. The newspapers of Richmond,
Va. copied this article and the favor it met with resulted in a
request that Zimmerman visit Alabama and write up the undeveloped
resources of that state.
Very early in life, our author began to read poetry
for the intellectual pleasure and profit it afforded him, and at
the age of 18 he had already made considerable progress in a care-
fully systematized perusal of the whole line of English poets or of
as many of them as lay within his reach. The instinct of the trans-
lator asserted itself in marvelous maturity when he began to make
this one of the prominent features of the Reading Times. Hundreds
of translations from the German classics into English appeared
from time to time; the Saturday issue of the paper invariably con-
taining a translation into English of some German poem, the original
and the translation appearing close together in parallel columns.
One of his most noted translations from the German
-The Prussian National Battle Hyran- appeared in the Berlin Times
and was favorably noted. To the reception which his translation
of Luther's "Ein Peste Burg" won, I cannot do justice here. The
Westliche Post, St. Louie, Mo. a few weeks after its publication
said of it: "So beautiful is the translation that there is already
talk of substituting it for the present version in English Luther-
His translation of Schiller's "Song of the Bell"
met with even more favor. Prof .Marion D. Learned of the University
of Pennsylvania said of it "A masterful hand is visible in all
the translation. It is perhaps safe to say that Schiller's 'Song
of the Bell' is the most difficult lyrical poem in the German
language to render into English with the corresponding metres.
Your version seems to me to excell all other English translations
of the poem, both in spirit and in rhythm. Especially striking in
point of movement is your happy use of the English participle in
reproducing Schiller's feminine rhymes. Your version however,
while closely adhering to the form of the original maintains at
the same time dignity and clearness of expression which translators
often sacrifice to meet the demands of rhythm. Your poetic in-
stinct has furnished you the key to this masterpiece of German
The New York World says: "Mr. Zimmerman's rendering
of Schiller's 'S ng of the Bell' is a triumph of the translator's
art and recalls the work of Bayard Taylor" The New York Herald says:
"Mr. Zimmerman has placed his name in the category of famous
litterateurs by a very creditable translation of Schiller's 'Song
of the Bell'."
The following ably written criticism 1b from the
pen of J.B.Ker, who, while a resident of Scotland, once stood
for Parliament. "To Col. Thomas C.Zimmerman. Sir: Having read and
studied your noble translation of Schiller's 'Song of the Bell'
I have been forcibly impressed by the music of the poem. In es-
timating the value of the translations of the great German poems,
it is necessary to bear in mind the weight which the literary and
critical consciousness of Germany attached to the ancient classical
canons of poetry. There is no question here as to whether the
ancients were right. The point for us is, that their influence was
loyally acknowledged as of high authority during the Augustan Age
of German Literature. Proof of this can be found in Goethe, as
distinctly as it superabundantly appears in Lessing's famous
dramatic notes, where the poetic dicta of Aristotle are treated
with profound respect. In the study of Aristotle's work on the
poetic, nothing is perhaps more striking than his dictum that
poetry is imitation with the explanation or enlargement so aptly
given by Pope In the words:
Tia not enough, no harshneBs gives offence,
The sound must seem an echo to the sense.
Now, knowing the German recognition of the law and
acknowledging its realization in the workB of the leading Teutonic
poets, one of the crucial tests of a translation of a great German
poem is, Does the language into which the original is rendered
form an echo to the sense? It seems to me that one of the strongest
points in your translation of the 'Bell 1 is that the words which
you have selected and gathered have sounds, which like the music
of a skillful musical composer, convey a signification independent-
ly of their literal meaning. Not to protract these remarks unduly,
few words could more appropriately refer to the music of strong and
distant bells than your rendering -
That from the metal's unmixe'd founding
Clear and full may the bell be sounding.
Very slight poetic capacity must admit the music of these
words as eminently happy in the 'Song of the Belli The echo to
the sense is also striking in the sound of the word symbols in
many places throughout the rendering, where the poet describes
the occurences conceived in connection with the bells' imagined
history. Speaking of the visions of love:
0, that they would be never ending
These vernal days with lovelight blending,
the way in
which the penult of the word ending conveys the idea of finality,
while the affix of the present participle yet prolongs the word as
though loth to let it depart, is a beautiful and enviable reali-
zation of the Aristotelian rule, a prolongation of the words which
express doubly a prolongation of desire. The four lines reading
Blind raging, like the thunder's crashing,
It hursts its fractured hed of earth,
As if from out hell's jaws fierce flashing,
It spewed its flaming ruin forth.
have a vehement
strength and a rough and even painful and horrid sound which
applies with singular propriety to the horrible images "by which
the poet presents the catastrophe to our quickened apprehensions.'
In 1903 Zimmerman published a collection of his
addresses, sketches of outdoor life, translations and original
poems in two volumes entitled "011a Podrida" These volumes were
received with great favor and almost the entire edition was sold
within a month, a number of the public libraries having become
Zimmerman was also the author of the official Hymn
for Reading's Sesqui-Centennial, sung by a chorus of 500 voices
on Perm Common, June 7, 1898; of the Hymn for Berks County's Sesqui-
Centennial, Mar. 11, 1902 and of the Memorial Hymn sung at the dedi-
cation of the McKinley Monument in the City -Park, in the presence
of one of the largest audiences ever assembled in Reading.
One of the proudest achievements of Zimmerman's
Journalistic career was the erection of a monument to Stephen C.
Foster at his home in Pittsburg, which, according to the Pittsburg
papers had its real inception in an editorial prepared by Zimmerman
for the Reading Times, after a visit to Pittsburg, during which
he found no memorial to perpetuate the memory of the world's
greatest writer of negro melodies. The editorial was republished
in the PittBburg Press and endorsed by that paper which also
started (Keenan) a fund to provide a suitable memorial and called
on the publio for popular subscriptions, the ultimate result of
which is seen in the statue which now adorns Highland Park in that
Several years ago, The Pittsburg Times, in a notice of Zimmer-
man's visit to that Park said: "°ut in Highland Park yesterday,
pasBersby noticed a handsome, military looking gentleman making
a minute study of Stephen C.Foster's statue. Every feature of
this artistic bit of sculpture, from Foster's splendid face, to
Uncle Ned and the broken string of his banjo was examined with
affectionate interest. The man was Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman, editor
of the Reading (Pa) Times and the statue was the fruition of his
fondest wish. Col. Zimmerman has been for many years one of the
staunchest admirers of Foster's imperishable songs and melodies;
16 yearB ago, while in Pittsburg lie visited the late Maj.E.A.Montooth,
he asked the latter to show him the monument to Foster, and was
painfully surprised to discover that no such memorial existed;
shortly after his return to Reading, he wrote an editorial for his
paper calling the attention of the world in general and ^ittsburg
in particular to the neglect of Foster's memory."
After having translated many German poems into English,
Zimmerman came out in the fall of 1876, with a translation in the
dialect of Charles C.Moore's "The Night Before Christmas" This at
once caught the fancy of the press and brought him letters from dis-
tinguished men in public life, as well as from philologists, urging
him to continue to test the compass and flexibility of the dialect
for metrical expression t among the former were Hon. Andrew D.White,
Ambassador to Germany, Gen. Simon Cameron of Lincoln's Cabinet, and
P.F.Rothermel the oelebrated painter, himself a Pennsylvania Ger-
man: and of the latter class, Prof . S . S . Haldemann and Prof.M.D.
Learned among others.
The local newspapers as a rule expressed their
appreciation of the work by articles in the dialect of which, as
examples of literary criticism in the dialect, I include a few
specimens here. First the one from Rauch, the leader of the Penn-
sylvania German writers at this time, in which he also cites from
another paper of this period.
Rauch 's Carbon County Democrat: - "Der Tom Zimmerman, seller
os die Times und Dispatch rous gebt in Reading is 'n ordlich
gooty hond for English poetry £hticker ivversetza in Pennsylvanisch
Deitsch un doh is en fhtick oe im 'Spirit of Berks' g'schtonna
hut derweaga: 'Unser older fYeind Zimmerman aver fun der Dimes
und Tispatch drooker conn ferhoftlich Englische leeder in Pennsyl-
vanisch Deitsch gons goot ivversetza, According zu unser maining
coomt ar net feel hinner der badauerta Porra Harbaugh, un warm mer
de wohret sawga missa, ar conn, wann mer schwetza weaga wass mer
poetry haisst, 'm Pit Schweffelbrenner si awga zu schreiwa. Mer
missa ower explaina uf 'm Pit si side os ar sich nemohls ous gevva
hut for 'n leeder schreiwer tzu si. Warm's awer ons breefa
schreiwa coomt don is der Schweffelbrenner als noch der bully kerl!
For selly notice dut der Zimmerman seim Noohber orrlck
shae donka un weil ar der Pit acknowledged os der 'bully' Deitsoh
breefa schreiwer wella mer don aw donk shae sawga."
A second one by Rauch urges our author to follow up
his Christmas poem by a New Year's poem:
"Schliffletown, Yonuawr der 1,
Mister Drooker: Ich winsch deer un all dina freind an rale olt
fashiondes glicklich Neies Yohr. De wuch hut mei freind Zimmer-
man der editor fum Redinger Times und Dispatch an copy fun seiner
Tzeitung g'schiokt mit a Pennsylvania Deitsch shtickly drin. Es
is 'n ivversetzung fun an Englisha shtick, un ich muss sawga os
der Zimmerman es ardlich ferdeihenkert goot gadu hut. Des ex-
plained now olles wo all die fee la sorta shpeesauch un tzuckersauch
har cooma» Now, while der Zimmerman so bully goot is om shticker
shreiwa set ar sich aw draw macha for 'n Nei Yohr's leedly."
A third one by an unknown writer (in an undated
clipping from an unidentified newspaper of apparently the year
1877) confesses to the encouragement received to take up similar
work and incidentally rehearses some of the difficulties and dis-
couragements that stood in the way of the beginnings of dialect
literature, particularly in the decade preceding 1850 t
"For about flnf un zwanzig bis dreissig yohr zuruck hen mir
alsemol prowirt Reime zu schreiwe in Pennsylvanisch Deitsch: awer
des einbildisch Menscheshtofft hot Just druwer gespott so dass
mer uns endlich selwer mit geschamt hen un unser Harf an die V/eide
g'hangt hen. 'Die Reimen raogen noch Ginne geh - es bezahlt besser
in Cash un Ehr, Sau zu masten un speck un Bonne zu rasen as so
Reimen zu schreiwe' hen mer gedenkt. In spaterer Zeit hen annere
Manner die Sach ufgenommen, tin bo gut gemacht dass sie respektable
worre is, un do is apart ig ehner Zimmerman in Reading, ehner von
de beste English Editors in der stste, kerzlich in selly Bussniss
gange tin scheint so gut auszumachen, dass er uns uf die Noschen
bringt ah nochemol zu prowiren wa.nn mir's ah net so gut thun konne
as der Harb.rugh, der Ziirr.erman un so Eerls so "brauchen l.ir uns
doch net E.:] r n <~ mit der Cumpani* . ''er her en Reire g'funne im
Englische 'Telescope' un machen en F ylvanii cb Deuti v . uckle
fiber sell Tatter:. Nau l^ore 1 " c'lrl."
in in December 1896, "Der Alt Schulmaeschter"
( Jos. H. Light) in his letter in the"Lebanon News" republished the
poem "De Kacht vor de Krischdag? warm der Belsnickel als sei appear-
ance macht, en sehr scha poslich Gadicht dos mei freind der
Kurnel Zimmerman iwwersetzt hut, er huts ah firBtrate gaduh, des
waer nau eppes for de Buwa un Maed ouswennich zu larne."
With the encouragement of the philologians and at
the request of the Pennsylvania German Society, Zimmerman continued
his experiments, making selections from the Scotch Irish, English
and German and from the Greek Anthology; embracing many moods,
humorous, pathetic, didactic, as well as poems of love. The
author tells us that he has endeavored not only to reproduce the
rhythm of the originals but to leave their idiomatic expressions
intact and as a result "has been handicapped in not being able
to invest his work with creations of his own fancy, through which
he might have gained a more comprehemeive diction and with it a
wider latitude of expression."
Another poem he has translated, "The Bonnie George
Campbell", has been turned and returned many times - William
Motherwell partly compiled and partly wrote it for hio collection
"Minstrelsy Ancient and Modern" 1827. 0. L.B.Wolff translated it
into German: Longfellow made the German version the basis of his
own and this was used by our author. I cite the second stanza:
Out came hie mother Raus kummt sei Mutter -
Weeping so sadly) Weine'd so herzlich;
Out came his beauteous bride Raus kummt sei schftne Praa
Weeping so madly. Weine'd so schmerzlich.
All saddled, all bridled All g'sattled ge'zammt
Home came the saddle, Heem kummt der Sattel
But he nevermore. Doch er nimmermehr.
Here is a stanza from "Auld Robin Gray."
He hadna been gane a week but only twa
When my father brake his arm and our ccw was stown awa '
My mither she fell sick and my Jamie at the sea,
And auld Robin Gray came a courting me.
Er war net 'n Woch aweck, 'cept juscht en paar,
Wan mei Fatter brecht sei Arm und die Kuh g'schtole war,
Mei Mutter sie wart krank, und mei Dschimmy's uf em See,
Un mich zu karessiere, kummt der Alt Robin Grey.
Or still another song:
The bairnie's cuddle doon at nicht
Wi muckle faucht and din
"0 try and sleep, ye waukrife rogues,'
Your father's coming in."
They never heerd a word I speak,
I try to gie a froonj
But aye I hap them up, an' cry,
"Oh bairnies, cuddle doon."
Die Kinner lige hie des nachts
Mit Jacht und Fechtereij
"Browier und schloft, ihr wackrich Schelm,
Euer Fater kummt Jetzt rei."
Sie hor'e net 'n Wort's ich sag
Ich guck jetzt bos an sie.
Doch heif ich immer uf und schrei,
"Oh, Kinner, legt eich hie."
Or finally from the Greek Anthology:
My Mopsa is little and my Mopsa is brown
But her cheek is as soft as the peach's soft down,
And for blushing no rose can come near her,
In short, she has woven such nets round my heart,
That I ne'er from my dear little Mopsa can part,-
Unless I can find one that's dearer.
Mei Mopsy is brau, un mei Mopsy is klee,
Wie die Woll fun de Persching, ihr Backe so echo
Un for blushe, ke Rose gebt's 's frisher is;
En Net hot sie g'wove so ganz rum meim Herz,
Ich kann fon mei Mopsy nimme geh unne Schmerz,
Except eane fin ich as besser is.
Other translations that might be mentioned are "Baby
Mine? "The Road to Slumberland? George P.Morris' "When Other
Friends are Round Thee" and Barry Cornwall's "Sing, Maiden Sing."
It is not surprising that he is at his best in songs
that are the expression of the deep yet simple feelings of the
heart, and that his translations of Oliver Goldsmith's "Elegy
on the Death of a Mad Dog" or the anonymous "John Jenkin's Sermon"
or the "New Casabianca" have brought forth many turns which Penn-
sylvania Germans would call artificialities of their speech. Some
fifteen of such translations were included by the author in his
book "011a Podrida? in a review of which work in German American
Annals, Prof .Learned of the University of Pennsylvania recognized
Zimmerman as belonging to the school of Harbaugh and Fisher.
Edmund Clarence Stedman speaking of these translations
said: "Your metrical renderings of English verse into the local
German vernacular are unique. They have a special value, not only
philological but of curious poetic craftsmanship. I like your
sense of the worth of what is right at hand, and though still
fresh is likely to pass away in time, and of which I may say 'pars
magna fuisti;' I don't suppose my old friend Leland - peace to his
wanderings* - knew Pennsylvania German well enough to have writton
in it. If so he is the only man I can think of who could have trolled
it forth so racily." -from a private letter. (In this he shows
that he knows whereof ha speaks - at any rate he does not make the
mistake often made even by such as the Atlantic Monthly* of taking
Leland's own language for Pennsylvania German.
Other of Zimmerman's translations are scattered
through the file3 of the Reading Times and Dispatch, as are also
his infrequent articles in prose - of whioh the most famous are
the letters purporting to pass between "Wilhelai" (The Kaiser) and
"Mei Leevi Grosmommy" (Queen Victoria) in which he rebukes her for
allowing herself to be under the influence of Salisbury in the
matter of the Boer War, censures "Uncle Wales" (Prince Edward?
for his gambling proclivities, and threatens that he may have to
take a hand in the war himself. In due time Victoria replies to
"Mei Leewer Billy" in regretful and conciliatory tone. These
letters were widely copied by the press, taken up into several
anthologies (Home's and Miller's) and presumably represented
Pennsylvania German editorial (and perhaps popular) opinion at the
time of the Boer War.
Results and Conclusions.
Results and Conclusions.
By means of travel, correspondence and the assist-
ance of a large number of Pennsylvanians interested in the subject,
the present writer believes that he has succeeded in collecting
the great bulk of material in Pennsylvania German dialect in veuse,
that is at present accessible. The appended bibliographical index
has been made with some care, and the sources and localities are
enumerated where printed productions or those in manuscript are to
be found. In almost all cases copies of both are now in my pos-
Of prose, a similar collection has been made and
a similar index of selections that have appeared either in book
form or were published in magazines, and an extended list (not yet
complete) has been made of newspapers which are now publishing or
at one time did publish prose dialect articles.
Of thi3 literature, the most important has been de-
scribed by means of a method in the main biographical: "Literature
can do no more than give us the opinions and sentiments of par-
ticular persons at particular times. To estimate - even to under-
stand - these opinions and sentiments, we must know something of
the times and circumstances in which they were expressed. It will
be requisite, therefore, now and then, to invade the domain of
history and biography and thus diversify our purely literary studies."
Thus did R.Y.Tyrell introduce a series of lectures on the litera-
ture of a people (the Romans) whose history and intellectual life
are, and in the nature of the case always will be, on a plane
vastly higher than that which we have here treated can ever hope
to be; but the principle is the same and seems to be particularly
applicable in the case of a people relatively unknown - if we are
to understand them.
.'.'hat Armstrong Wanchope said in the North American
Review, (May 1894, Vol.158, p. 640) of story writers in general
seems to apply with peculiar aptness to the authors I have con-
sidered. "Story writing" he said "is an attempt to preserve the
life of a certain time and locality with all the concomitants of
local coloring. The personal experience of the writer becomes thus
all important as it should. He can testify only of what he knows."
The large element of biography here introduced is therefore, neither
unprecedented nor, in the nature of the case, unreasonable.
The principal reasons for the existence of dialect
literature have been pointed out in a chapter at the beginning
of this essay} special reasons individual writers have had for
writing in the dialect have been noted under the respective authors.
In not a few cases the writers began as makers of dialect rhymes
for the hamlet and the neighboring farmsteads, or contributors of
English or High German verses for distant periodicals. They had
lacked both a recognition of the dialect as a literary medium, add
local journals in which to publish. VJhen such was offered them,
the response was immediate, and the dialect literature flourished.
This movement was further encouraged by the establishment i
of a magazi] bended to reach all Pennsylvania Ger , "The
"Der wahre Dichter folgt dem Gebote der Empfindungen
und Gefuhle, welche machtig um VJiedergabe werben und nach Gestalt-
ung ringen. Er 'gehorcht der gebietenden Stunde* und singt w
es ihn dazu treibt. Das, was ihn freudig oder in Trauer bewegt,
sein eigenstec "'esen aussert er in seinen versen. Der Dialect
zeigt da3 Vojk wie es ist, bei seinen Festen und in seinen Leide,
an der Arbeit ur:d bei seiner Erholung, in seinen Hoffen und seinen
Harren, wie nicht minder im Verkehr mit Hohergestellten sowohl als
mit Seinesgleichen oder Untergebenen." Go wrote Hermann H.Fick, in
a small pamphlet on "Deutsch Amerikanische Dialekt Dichtung." She
Pennsylvania German dialect poets have done exactly what this
writer requires, and thi3 it is, which renders their productions
from the view point of the Kultur Historiker of the utmost value.
Criticism and faultfinding of which the literature has been made
to bear the "brunt, should more properly be leveled at the people;
if the writers had done otherwise than they did, their picture had
been less true. If the poetry occasionally falls to a flat and
heKvy level, it should be remembered that in a measure the people
are themselves prose (not to say prosy) idyls, and the wonder is
not that they sang no better, but that, what with the horrors of
the wars in the Rhine valley before their migration, what with a
long struggle in America afterwards, in which they were, when not
fighting savage Indians,
Busy with hewing and building, with garden plot and with rnerestead,
Busy with breaking the glebe, and mowing grass in the meadow.
they plucked up courage enough to sing at
all. Their language in the new surroundings could grow only by
the engrafting of foreign forms and even then was useless, except
in their own small territory, an oasis as it were surrounded by
the var.t body of English settlements. '"hat other people have so
completely expatriated themselves and yet retained so truly an in-
dividuality of their own, even to the extent of creating a litera-
ture ? "This poetical literature of the Pennsylvania Germans" says
Prof. Faust "is one of the few original no1 f American lyrical
SUBJECT MATTER AND METHOD of TREATMENT: August Sauer,
in the introduction to "Die Deutschen Sacular Dichtungen an der
'Vends des IS u. 19 Jahrhunderts says: "Wenn das Leben den Mensohen
sich dem Ende nahert so treten die Ereignisse seiner fr!lhesten
Jugend am starksten in seinem Gedachtnisse hervor." In Geron der
Adelige, Wieland had already expressed the same idea thus:
Das 41ter ist geschwatzig, .vie ihr wisst,
Es liebt za reden von den guten Zeiten,
Die nicht raehr sind, in denen es, air, wie
In einem Traum allein noch lebt.
These two quotations exactly describe the situation in re-
spect to Pennsylvania German literature. Harbaugh did indeed, to
a certain extent set the pattern for this, as some of his titles
show, w Das Alt SchulhausJ. "Die Nei S ort Tschsntelleit',' "Die Alt
Miehiy "Der Alt Fcierherd? "Kerchegang in •liter Zeit? not to
speak of titles by other poets, such as " 'S Latwerg Koche fer
Alters" -Rhoads, "Zeit un Leit Ennore Sich"- Eisenbrown, "Wis es
for Alters war"- Brunner, etc., and the many "Hachklange" heard
THE POETIK of DIALECT LITERATURE has not yet bee
written but here and there we may gather some of the laws that
will be incorporated in it. Karl V.'einhold, in an essay "Ueber
Deutsche Dialekt Forschung" when speaking of the ne.v life that en-
tered Dialekt Dichtung through Hebel, adds: "Viele meinten es ihm
nachthun zu kftnnen, allein nur einer unter den zahlreichen Dialekt-
Dichtern hat erreicht was er wollte" and he gives as his reason
"Er hat nicht -.vie die andern, lands chaftliche Laute und Worts mit
Hoch Deutschen Empf indungon und Gedanken zusammsngslsimt, sondsrn
das Ftthlen, Donken und Spreohen des Volkes glucklich wieder er-
schaffen. Das ist das einzige und hochste was diese literarisohe
Gattung leisten kann, alles andere ist leere Gpreu und eitele
In this respect, few of the Pennsylvania German poet3
have transgressed; the numerous translations of the "Psalm of Life"
and Lee Light Grumbine's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" must be put
down a3 among failures, because the themes are not suitable for
dialect treatment, and yet Ziegler has translated Bryant's "Thana-
topsis" with wonderful fidelity to the thought, into a language
smooth and rhythmical and yet so that in words and structure it
remains as the lang of true poetry often does, strangely near
the language of daily speech.
"V.'ie sich das Volk in 3einen Dichtungen nur an das wirk-
liche Leben halt und bei seiner rastlosen Arbeit keine Zeit zur
Schwamerei findet, so muss auch die Behandlungsweise des Dialekt
Dichters Bilder schaffen, die der 'Virklicheit nachgezeichnet sind"
is another rule laid down by Beyer that our writers have seldom
LANGUAGE: The language used by the writers varies
from the one extreme where stands Rauch, who stopped at nothing
short of incorporatir. - any word in the Unabridged English Diction-
ary if necessary, or Jos. H. Earner, who facetiously writes" Ich un
der Darwin agreea in dem, Er sagt uns da3 im anfang wie cosmos
gleichartig is worra, hat entwicklung augfanga aus welchera molecule
gewachsen sin. Molecule han protoplasm ^V.acht un bald werd all
licht n etc, > or the political orator who told his audience that a
■tain policy must be pursued "damit die prerogatives vun der Con-
stitution net geviolate warn", all the way to the other extreme
of the editor of Harbaugh's " ]J trf ■" (not Bausman "but the man to
whom he entrusted this portion of the work) who substi a
High German equival rherever possible, where Harbaugh himself
had used English words in the Germanized for .
S.D.Leisenring. criticised on the one hand, V.'ollenweber
for his German, and on the other hand "Der Alt Kunradt" of Ohio
for his English, in language that is not free frc ' :aev. To be
pecially emphasized in reference to language, is the opportunity
afforded "by prose writers for study pf the varieties of dialect -
as to idiom, vocabulary and pronunciatioi . Thus in the writing i
of Dr.Grumbine, the use of da for ga as prefix, d'shtola, daglivva
(for gablivva), dschrivva; similarly g becomes t before s as bsucht,
tsawt, tsehna, or in nouns tsicht: so the omission of e in the prefix
ge before w; an old Lebanon County schoolmaster used to say "Wie
mer sich gwehnt won mer jung is, is mer gwehnlich won mer gwoxe
is". The editor of a Lancaster County paper who publishes the same
letter occasionally always adapts th 1 e to the idiom of his
people. It is thus possible by the comparison of different ver-
sions of the same letter to differences in the speech of different
counties. It is well known that these differences exist; I myself
know of a family whose sons and daughters have gone from home in
different directions and who when they return are much amused by
the outlandish ways of speaking each thinks the others have acquired.
Such differences have never been collected and localized.
THE DEPARTMENTS REPRESENTED: Although in poetry
the lyric on the one hand, and narrative and descriptive poems on
the other, are the predominant forms, and althotigh in prose the
satirico-didactic newspaper letters have as it were pre-empted the
field, yet attention has been called to the faot that a few dram-
olets have been written, that there exists a body of something like
literary criticism, that at least one (comic) history has been
written, and that a number of dictionaries have been compiled. A
few chapters, as yet unwritten, and reserved for future treatment
will be entitled Oratory, Letterwriting, The Short Story, and Comic
Opera in the dialect.
ORIGINALITY: Although the great German Hebel was
held up as a pattern to our first characteristic singer, Harbaugh,
yet the latter must be allowed to rank as an original poet, in
spite of scattered traces of possible influence, for Harbaugh was
a poet, before he became a dialect poet. All others, before or
since were, perhaps unfortunately, but nevertheless avowedly, either
translators, or else truly original as far a3 foreign influence is
concerned in the matter of expression, and were dependent only, if
at all, on Harbaugh in poetry and Rauch in prose.
COMPARISON WITH POETS OF THE FATHERLAND: This is a
wide field} I have endeavored wherever the material was accessible
to compare the feeling, thoughts and ideas of the Pennsylvania Ger-
man poets with those of dialect poets of the Fatherland, and have
frequently noted how easily they may be paralleled; the impulse
that makes so many break forth in song in defence of the dialect,
does not spring from fashion; it has its roots in real feeling.
Their hopes and aspirations, their joys and sorrows, are as a rule
from the same sources; in their rustic philosophy they not seldom
METRE AND THYTHM: In this our poets often leave
much to be desired; they are too frequently satisfied with a rhyme,
nor can we 3ay that even here they are uniformly good. The
rhythm in many cases can he easily assisted after the manner de-
scribed by Fisher in one of his metrical corrections of misprints:
Im neechster Zeil, graad unnedra,
Es fierte Wort leest schwarz
Dort mach en e noch hinnedra
Sunscht fallt die Zeil zu karz.
A comparison of sundry of the poems with the author's MS
leads to the conclusion that we are justified in helping out many
a line of this character, which halts by reason of poor proofreading
and bad printing. I have the testimony of more than one editor
that he gave up publishing dialect selections in his paper, evon
where his readers would welcome them, because his typesetters and
proof readers were so lacking in all feeling for the dialect, that
it became too difficult to get out reasonably correct copy. It is
probably for this reason that there has come into existence a Press
Syndicate Dialect Letter in Eastern Pennsylvania, which is sold
in type and published to my own knowledge in at least five dif-
CHARACTER OP THE NEWSPAPER LETTERS: On this point
the language of Rev. J. Max Hark must stand as a just characteri-
zation: "Nearly all that has been done" (this is exaggerated) "has
been broadly humorous, with no attempt at anything else, no higher
ambition or aim than to make the reader or hearer laugh. From
this the world has formed its judgment of us and of our speech.
But the Pennsylvania German i3 not to be too severely censured for
having confined himself thus almost exclusively to humor in his
writings. Let us remember that he was from the beginning a hard
worker. The early settlers and makers of this Commonwealth were
kept exceedingly busy in their struggle for bare existence. Their
daily lives were full of hardships, disappointments, suffering,
full of tragedy and pathos all bhe time. When they did have
loisure to write, or even in their social converse, what they
needed was not the recital of these experiences and feelings which
they were constantly having, but rather to emphasize the other side,
that which would take their minds off the too great seriousness
of their life. They naturally, nece33arily turned to humor to light-
en their lot." In this connection a passage in Beyer's "Deutsche
Poetik" Vol. lit. p. 178 may be cited: "Besonders abor eignet sich
fur den Qialekt alles was den treffenden Ausdruck der auf gesundem
Menschen Verstand beruhenden praktischen Moral verlangt: die
Spruchdichtung, ferner tiefe und innige, dabei aber ganz natur-
liche Empf indungen, vorzuglich aber alle Arten der sowohl derbon,
als schalkhaften Komik und Humoristik." The satirico-didactic
element that has gradually crept into this kind of literature has
been elsewhere emphasized.
Citations from newspapers have frequently been made
from clippings in the private collections of different
persons, and in such cases it has often been impossible to
get the exact date of the paper cited. An individual bib-
liography accompanies each author separately treated.
ADLER, CARL. Mundartlich Heiteres. In Steiger'e Humoristische
Blbliothek. Nos. 1, 10 and 16. New York, 1866.
ALLEMANIA. Zeitschrift fur Sprache, Litteratur un Volkskunde des
Elsasses und Oberrheins. Herausgegeben von Dr. Anton
Birlinger - Fr. Pfaff. Bonn, 1873 - 1899. Neue Folge,
1900 - 1910.
ALLENTOWN CALL. Allentown, Pennsylvania.
ALLENTOWN DAILY CITY ITEM. Allentown, Pennsylvania.
ALLENTOWN DEMOCRAT. Allentown, Pennsylvania.
ALLIBONE'S DICTIONARY OP AUTHORS. New York, 1891.
ALMANAC FOR THE REFORMED CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES. Philadel-
ALMANAC, PILGER. The Pilger Book Store, Reading, Annually.
AMERICAN PHILOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, TRANSACTIONS OF THE. 1871-
AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, PROCEEDINGS OF THE. Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania. 1843 - 1910.
BAER, GEORGE F. The Pennsylvania Germans. In the Mercer sburg
Review. Vol. 23, p. 248.
■ Tht Pennsylvania Germans. Myerstown, Pa. 1875.
BAHN, RACHEL. Poems. Introduction by Rev. Ziegler. York, 1869.
BEIDELMAN, WILLIAM. The Story of the Pennsylvania Germans: em-
bracing an account of their origin, their history and
their dialect. Easton, Pa. 1898.
BERKS COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY, PUBLICATIONS OF THE. Reading, Pa.
BERLIN, ALFRED FRANKLIN. Walter Jacob Hoffman. In Pennsylvania
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BERLIN RECORD. Jan. 7, 1893. Berlin, Somerset County, Pa.
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BETHLEHEM TIMES. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
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deutschen Dichtkunst. Dritte Auflage. Berlin, 1900.
BIOGRAPHIE, ALLGEMEINE DEUTSCHE. Leipzig, 1875 - 1910.
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B0SSE,GE0RG von. Das Deutsche Element in den Vereinigten Staat-
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CALENDER, WELTBOTE. Allentown, Pennsylvania. Annually.
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CARTER. See GLOSSBRENNER.
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Short Historical Sketch of the Pennsylvania Germans.
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3rd Edition, Allentown, Pa. 1905.
4th Edition, Allentown, Pa. 1910.
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Pennsylvania German Stories. Elizabethville, Pa. 1907.
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NEW YORK DEUTSCHE BLATTER. New York, N.Y.
NEW YORK JOURNAL. New York, N.Y.
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NEW YORK STAATS-ZEITUNG. New York, N.Y.
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PENNSYLVANIA GERMAN, THE. Quarterly. January 1900 to October
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July 1906. Editor, H.A.Shuler. Monthly, September 1906
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January 14, 19C8 H.W.Kriebel.
PENNSYLVANIA GERMAN SOCIETY, THE. Proceedings and addresses.
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PENNSYLVANIANS, PROMINENT. Philadelphia, Pa.
PHILADELPHIA COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY PAPERS. Philadelphia, Pa.
PHILADELPHIA EVENING BULLETIN. Philadelphia, Pa.
PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER. Philadelphia, Pa.
PHILADELPHIA PUBLIC LEDGER. Philadelphia, Pa.
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Hymns, Poems and sketches of out door life. Reading,
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Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. V. 151
Pennsylvania Dutch -Mrs. Gibbons, Philada. 1874
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Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook-Rauch, Mauch Chunk, 1879
Pennsylvania German Dialect-Learned, Baltimore, 1889
Personal Correspondence with Dr.Betz, York, Pa.
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burg, Jan. 24, 1370.
History of Schaeff erstown, York, 1901
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Interviews with friends.
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CRAIG, WILLIAM J
Pennsylvania German Magazine, Vol. X. 6. 294
History of Schaeffer3town, Brendlo, York, Pa.
Life of Dissinger, Stetzel, Allentown, Pa.
His private correspondence.
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Vols. XV. 1.31 and XIV. IV.
Reformed Church Messenger, Philada, Vol.LXXIX. No. 14. p. 4
and Vol.LXXIX No. 18
Reformed Church Review, Fourth Series, Vol. XIV. No. 4.
EISENBROWN, P. Ft
Correspondence and interviews with members of his family.
Stories of Old Stumpstown, Grumbine, Lebanon, 1910.
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Reformed Church Record, Reading, Pa.
Personal Correspondence and Interviews.
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HARK, J.MAX: (Continued)
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society. Vol.X.Ap.l.
Tributes of esteem "by Lancaster friends.
HEILMAN, SAMUEL P:
Biographical Annals of Lebanon County, Chicago, 1904
Lebanon County Historical Publications, Vol. 1.2.
Personal Interview and Correspondence.
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. VI. Vol. I II ,
Interviews with members of his family.
Pennsylvania German, Vol. XI. 10. 626
Reformed Church Messenger, Philada. Pa.
Reformed Church Record, Reading, Pa.
Correspondenco with J.S.Dubb3.
Heidelberg Argus, Ohio.
Interviews and Correspondence.
Der Deutsche Pionier, Cincinnati, 0. Vol. XIV. 68
Priedensbote, Allentown, ?a.
Allentown Morning Call, Allentown, Pa.
Lenanon News, 1883
Shenandoah Papers J-7h,
Franklin and Marshall College Obituary Record, Vol.1. p. 48
Pennsylvania German, Vol. X. 7. 316
Muhlenberg Monthly, Al lent own, Pa. Vol. IV. 2
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. IV. 179
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. XVI. 37
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. I II. 181
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. X. 36
Reformed Church Almanac, 1903, p. 54
Reformed Church Messenger.
Muhlenberg Monthly, Allentown, Pa. Vol. IV. 2
Pennsylvania Dutch-Haldeman, London, 1872
Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook-Rauch, Mauch Chunk, 1879
Pennsylvania G erman Dialect-Learned, Baltimore, 1839
The Pennsylvania Dutchman, Lancaster, Pa.
Transactions of the American Philological Association, Vol.1
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. I II. 186
WEISER, C.Z: (Continued)
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. VIII. 151
Reformed Church Messenger.
Reformed Church Record.
PENNSYLVANIA GERMAN DIALECT
3. Dictionaries and '.7ord Lists.
B. Co. Express -
D.M.2 (in press) -
Father Ab. -
Ger .Cor .&Dem. -
Hist. Berks -
Hist. Sk. of P.G. -
Bucks County Express.
Muhlehberg College junior 1.
Pennsylvania German 1st Vol. Daniel Miller.
Pennsylvania German 2nd Vol. Daniel Miller.
Der Deutsche Pionier.
Dialekt Dichtung. Fick.
Firminich Germaniens Volkerstimmen.
Privately published poems.
German Correspondent and Democrat.
Pennsylvania Dutch. Haldeman.
Harbaugh ' s Harf o .
History of Berks County, Pennsylvania.
Historical Sketch of the Pennsylvania Germans
Home 1st Edition
Home 2nd Edition
Home 3rd Edition -
Home 4th Edition
Hul.P.G.(in press) -
Jour. Am. F. -
Leb . Adv . -
Leb. Report -
Leb.Volks Zeit. -
Life Har. - -
M.H. - -
Pro. Am. Phil os oph. 3. -
Pro . P . G . S . Ap . -
Read. Times and Dispatch
Ref.Ch. Rec -
-Pennsylvania German Manual.
Pennsylvania German. Solly Huslbuck.
Pennsylvania German Poems. Solly Huslbuck.
Pennsylvania German Stories. Solly Hulsbuck.
Journal of American Folklore.
Journal of American Folk Lore.
Lebanon News .
Lebanon Volks Zeitung.
Lifo of Harbaugh
From the private records of various authors
Nazareth Hall and its Reunions.
The Pennsylvania Dutchman (a Magazine)
Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook
Pennsylvania German Magazine
Publications of the Lebanon County His-
Proceedings of the American Philosoph-
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German
Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German
- Reading Time Dj itch.
Reformed Church Almanac
Reformed Church Recor ■
Sk.Lecha Thai -
Trans . Am . Phil . Soc •
Unser p .D.Kal. -
Refomed Church Record.
Skizzen aus dera Leoha Thal.Trexler.
Short Sketch of the Pennsylvania Germans.
Stumpstown Stories. Grumbine.
Transactions of the American Philological
Uns°r Pennsylvanisch Deitscher Kalenner
Unser Pennsylvanisch Deitscher Kalenner.
Welt Bote Kalenner
Gemalde aus dera Pennsylvanisch " T ] lehen
Befehl am Fouerheerd -
De Deutsche Baura -
Der "Bio Berg M -
Der Process - -
Der Verwerrte Deutsche -
Der '.'/ipperwill -
Des County Funf zu Ehm fur Quay
Die Bettler's Klage -
Die Kerche Bell - -
Dokter Eisenbart -
En Klagelied - -
En Trerap -
Ferzig Johr Zuruck
Hurrah ihr Denokraten -
"^ei Nochbor Dschon -
Sie Hucka Run -
'Sis Nergeds beaser wie deheem •
To the Disfranchised Voters of
Lebanon County -
Unser Register -
kumt die Cute Zeit -
Zu wiel wiske, Jake -
Yukle will net Bera Shitla -
Unser P." . ] er,190 5
P. G. Vol. X. 4. 131.
P. D. Vol.1. No. 3.
Sk.Lecha Thai p.
P. D. Vol.1. No. 2.
D. P. Vol. V. 1873
P. G. Vol. VIII. 5.?
D.LI. 5 (in press)
D.M.2 (in press)
D.M.2. (in press)
P. G. Vol. V. 3. 115
D.M.2 (in press)
D.M.2 (in press)
D.M.2 (in press)
P. G. Vol. II. 5. 305
r V'.° (in press)
D.M.2 (in press)
D.M.2 (in pre. x
-P.D.Vol. ] • •
He 1 . p . 49
Horn i 2 . a 4 .
1 : Bote, '
See also index u 1 I - 1
BAHl.,.. 3K Li
Poems-R 1 Bal , published at York, Pa. 1869. . &Co,
-::- * # #
Der Alt Schocklo Stuhl -
Der Alt Weide Bahm For'm Hous
Der Herbst - -
Der Summer -
Der Winter - -
Haeb am Felse Dich -
' S Fruehyohr -
'S Glatt Ice -
*S Himmlisch Haemweh -
Vocal Music -
Poems p. ]
D.Li. 2 (in presn)
Du und Ich -
BRUHNT5R, PRANK R:
Christ Dag -
Der Alt Garret -
Der Juni un der Juli -
Home 4th Bd.186
- P. G. Vol. VIII. 505
D.M.2 (in press)
P. G. Vol. IV. 317.
BRUNNER, FRANK R: (Continued)
Des Menache Lewe -
Die Schulhaus Bell -
Drei Sache -
Sa Fet und Inschlicht Licht
Lewe land Himmel -
Neujohr'a Wunsch -
Wie es als War -
.Vie raer Glee Ware -
P. G. Vol. V. 3. 113
P. G. Vol. VI. 3. 303.
P. G. Vol. X. 11. 576
P. G. Vol. VI. 1.207
. .p. 102
D . M . p . 74
P. G. Vol. IV. 2. 261.
P. G. Vol. V. 1.23.
P. G. Vol. XII. 2. 119
P. G. Vol. IV. 1.21".
BRUNNER, DAVID Bi (Goethe von Berks)
Bezahlt euer Parre -
Der Alt tui der Jung Krebs -
Der Dan Webster un Sei Sens -
Der Washington un sei Bile -
Die Grundsau - -
En Gross Mi avers tandniss -
Unzufriedenheit unner de Mensche
Wann ich just en Bauer War
Wie die Leut des Duhne -
Xenien - -
D.I I. p. 153
P. G. II. 3. 110.
Home 3rd Ed. p. 159.
: . .p. 149
D.M.2 (in press)
P. G. Vol. IX. 3. 135
P. G. Vol. VII. 5. 255
P. G. Vol. VII. 7. 376
P. G. Vol. VIII. 274
P. G. Vol. VII CQ. 449
The Old Chain Bridr
P. G. Vol. X. 6. 294
Die Gold'ne Hochzig -
P. G. Vol. II. 1.33
Zeit un Lout annere aich
-P. G. Vol. III. 2. 65
DELONG, GEORGE KELLER:
Herz Schrnerza -
Der Alt Shoff Buck -
Die guta alta Zeita -
-P.G. Ad. Section.
P. G. Vol. II. 1.13
P.G. Vol. III. 2. 66.
Das Vater Unser in Reiraen
' • .n.134
Die '.Veibsleut -
Zeit un Leut annere Sich
Der Bauer Hot' 3 Plenty -
Der Verlora Gaul -
P.G. Vol. VIII. 6. 231
D.M.2 (in press)
Ein Psalm de3 Lebens (Trans) - - P. G. Vol .V. 1.24
Juscht an Deppich - - P. G. Vol. VII. 5. 263 .
My Aldty Gelk (Rev. by Dr.E.Grumbine) - P. G. Vol. III. 1.111
♦S Alt Schwim Loch - - - P. G. Vol. VI. 4. 351
Schnltzpei - - - P. G. Vol. VII .6.310.
D.M. 2 (in press)
•S Neu Pogel Haus - - - P. G. Vol. V. 2. 77.
»S Schulhaus am Weg - P. G. Vol. 11. 2. 70
FISHER, HENRY L:
" »S Alt Marik Haus Mittes in D*r Schtadt un Die Alte Zeite"
In two parts. Published at York, Pa. 1379. (0 u t of Print)
* * # # ■»
Bonesohteoke - - - - p. 60.
Der Alt Fritz Horn - - - p. 63
Der Washington - - p. 68
Der Schquire Braxton - - p. 61
Die Fashions - - p. 58
D'r Fette Haas - p. 59
Hanover - - - - p. 75
Marik Geh - - - p. 43
Paradies - - - p. 47
Philadelphia - - p. 48
Ready Mocha for noch em Marik - p. 65
FISHER, HENRY L: (Continued)
'S Marik Haus -
Alt Zeit Dresche -
Der Dadi 'N Jackson 'Ion-
Die Doktor Praa -
Die Heemet -
Die Muhl -
Die Schul -
Die Schweizer Scheuer -
Die Zinn Schissel -
D'r Abe -
D'r Dschon -
D'r Fiert July -
D'r Kremer -
D'r Schnee -
D'r Schneider und Schumacher
Fier Gauls Fuhrwerk -
Flax Schtickli -
Harce kumme -
Ich bin die Alt Heeaet Sehne
Home 3rd Edition 141
P. G. Vol. IX. 9. 469
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. I. 51
Home 3rd Ed. p. 134
p . 141
P. G. Vol. II. 1.51
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. 1.52
FISHER, HENRY L: (Continued)
Ihr Pennsylvania oh Deitsche Leut - - p. 199
Pro. P. G.S. Vol.1. p. 48
Im Erntfeld - - p. 132
P. G. Vol. IX. 7. 386
Latwerg Koohe - - - p. 100
Mei Alte Heemet - p. 131
Pennsylvanisch Deitsoh - - - p. 198
'S Alt Brennhaus - - p. 168
Schulhau3 un Kerrioh - - p. 184
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. I. 51
Seider - - p. 106
Singen Schul - -p. 149
Sundag Morge - p. 146
Wie m'r ufg'wachse sin- - - p. 178
# -::• * # *
"Kurzweil un Zeitvertreib" Fisher. Published at York, Pa. 1882.
Two Editions. (Out of Print)
Alt Lang Syne -after the Scotch - - p. 146
Backmult W&lli - - - p. 102
Bier Lied -after Felner - p. 132
Der Abschied nooch Amerika-af ter Suabian- 122
Der Bauer Hans un der Advokat - - p. 81
Der Bettler -after Hebel - p. 66
Der Dschonni Sohuss - - p. 114
Der Ehrlich Fritz - p. 51
Der Ehrlich Schmidt - - p. 5
P. G. Vol. V. 2. 80
Der Glucklig Bauer -after Felner - p. 49
Der Luschtig Bauer - - p. 32
FISHER, HENRY L: (Continued)
Der Mai -after Felner - - -
Der Parre un die Hummler -
Der Snnee - -
Der Weg Weiser-after Hebel -
Der Y/ei - - -
Der Winter -after Felner -
Die Wertschaft -
Drink Lied -after Felner -
Ei so Geig -after Nadler -
Em Bettelmon sei Owet Lied -after Felner- ;
Em Lump sei Leewes Reiss -
En Bier Liedle-after Felner -
En Ferwickelte Ferwandtschaf t -
Es Bachli-af ! ,er Bryant -
Frfthjohr's Lied -
Gas Bock odder Parre- after Nadler -
Hesse Dhal -
Het ich nix as mei Lisli - p. 62
Hirten Lied an der Krippe -after Felner - 120
Ion kann nix dafoori -after Nadler - -p. 58
Ich un die Nancy - - - p. 34
Kreuzkriok Willi - - - p. 139
Hist. 3k. of F.G.
Luechtig iBch's Zigwuner Leewe - - p. 134
Mei Buwli - - - p. 29
Mei Fraa un Kind - - - p. 94
FISHER, HENRY Lj (Continued)
Owet Lied - - p. 118
Reichdim -after Felner - - - p. 27
'S Badd Alles Nix-after Palatinate - p. 133
•S Prtthjohr's Bttwli-after '.Veisman - -p. 39
Tiddel un Abodhekersbuche -after Nadler)-p.ll6
Waeser Lied-after Felner - - p. 93
Wiegelied-af ter Felner - - - p. 124
Zu gross for sei Hosse - - p. 126
# «• # # #
Der Krabb (Poe's Raven Trano.) - - P. G. Vol. IX. 8. 373
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. II. 93
Kuchler's Ruuscht - - Hist. Berks p. 991.
Schlitz Beer - P. G. Vol. V. 3. IIS
De Leab Schwatar - P.G.Vol.IX.10 .470
Die Alt Familia Uhr - - - P. G. Vol. VIII. 3. 13
D.M.2 (in press)
GOETHE von BERKS:
See BRUNNER, DAVID S:
Im Bergeland -
En Ruf an die Brtider -
Die Blinde Man un» der Elefant-Trana. -P. G. Vol. X. 11. 693
Wann d'r Frosoht is uf de Kerbse-Trans. -P. G. Vol. X. 11.694
Der Alt Fischermann -
Die Alta Bapplabaem -
Die Letscht Maud Muller -
Die Y/omelsdorfer f Cademie -
Du bist wie eine Blume (Trans) ■
•Haend all 'rum (Trans) -
*M "Leaven" Sei Sauertheg -
f N Schoenie Altie He'math -
Sell Schtettel im Nordkill Dahl
Zum Andenken an L.L.Grvunbine -
P. G. Vol. IV. 2. 263.
P. G. Vol. VI. 2. 267
P. G. Vol. V. 1.26
P. G. Vol. V. 2. 73
P. G. Vol. V. 1.26
P. G. Vol. VI. 4. 363
P. G. Vol. II. 2. 67
P. G. Vol. III. 4. 157
P. G. Vol. VIII. 9. 450
P. G. Vol. V. 4. 160
Der Alt Busch Doktor -
Der Pralhans -
Die Alt verlosse Muehl (Trans)
Stumps. Stories p. 145
D.M.2 (in press)
P. G. Vol. VI. 1.203
GRUMBINE, EZRA: (Continued)
Die Mary uii Ihr Hundle - Leb. Report, Nov. 2, 01.
P. G. Vol. VIII. S. 394
Die Welt uf Vendue (Trana) - - P.G.Vol .III .4. 1S1
En Gluckvoll Bieplin - - P. G. Vol. VII C. 6. 281
Es Bodt Alios Nix (Trans) - - P.G.Vol. IV. 2. 264
Gedachtniss der Rothen Kolbe (Trans) - P.G.Vol. 1.4.26 .
Hoch der Teddy - P.G.Vol .II . 12.755.
After the Election - - P.G.Vol. 11. 12. 755.
(See also Prose for GRUMBINE, EZRA:
GRUMBINE, LEE LIGHT:
"Der Dengelstock" - published at Lebanon, Pa. 1903. 153 pages
* # * •» #
Der Alt Dengelstock - P. Leb. His. Soc Vol. I. 53
P. G. Vol. I. I. S.
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 86
p. 54 (in book)
Home 3 Ed. p. 157
Der Reim vom alte See Mann (Trans) - p. 92
Der Schumacher - - - p. 32
P.G.Vol. VI. 3. 304
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 64
Der Viert July - p. 37
P.G.Vol. VI. 3. 304
P.G.Vol. IX. 7. 327
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 69
Die Alt Bevvy Fritchie (Trans) - - Pro. P. G.S. Vol. VI. 88
P.G.Vol. IV. 4. 347
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 90
Die Uhr in der Kuch (Trans) - - p. 40
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 72
Ein Psalm des Lebens (Trans) - - p. 60
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 92
GRUMBINE, LEE LIGHT: (Continued)
Ich war Jurymann -
Mei arme Be 1 -
f S Latwerg Koche - -
Sonntag Morgeds an der Ziegel Kerch
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 67
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 77
P. G. Vol. II. 1.14
- p. 42
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 74
P. Leb. Hist. Soc. Vol.1 .2
P. G. Vol. I. 4. 22
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 81
P. G. Vol. IV. 3. 309
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 57
"Harbaugh's Harfe" - Philadelphia, 1370. 121 pp. 2nd Ed.
# «■ # x
Busch un Schtedtel
Das Alt Schulhaus an der Krick -
Das Krischiindel -
Der Alte Feierheerd -
Guard. Mar. 1362
P. G. III. 2. 112
D.M. 2 (in press)
Guard. Aug. 1861
Woll.Gemalde p. 86
Al. Vol. II. 242
P.D.H. p. 210
P. Leb. Hist. Soc. Vol. I .11
D.M. p. 15
Home 3rd Ed. p. 127
Life of Har. p. 68
P. G. Vol. V. 2. p. 78
Al. Vol. II. 247
D. P. Vol. XV. 377
D.M. p. 21
P.G.Vol. XI. 12. 754.
- p. 25
HARBAUGH, HENRY: (Continued)
Der Belanickel -
Der Kerchegang in Alter Zeit -
Der Pihwie -
Der Reiche Gerr in Deich -
Der Rejeboge -
Die Alt Miehl -
Die Neie Sort Bschent 'lleit -
Die Schlofschtub -
..III. 2. 61
..1910- p. 121
- p. 37
. 1 . 24
June IS 6 2
Lah Bisniss -
Will widder Buweli Sei I -
En Stick Uerwer's Aernfeld -
Daa Union Arch -
Die Staedtel Bump -
Guard. Nov. 1861
Woll.Gemalde p. 92
P.D.H. p. 215
D.M. p. 9
Life of Har. p. 63
Guard. Feb. 1862
Father Ab. Feb. 1869
Guard. Nov. 1862
Hal.P.D. p. 55
P. G. Vol. V.I. 27
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XI. 2. 3
Guard. Aug. 1862
An der Pair -
Dee Amshel -
Der Aide Karen Hof Uf'm Barg
Der Koo Shdohr -
Der Shbohde Shool Boo -
En Ley end -
En Herrnhoodter Ashder Marge
Im Bush Vann's Shnayd -
Unnich 'em Keschda Bawm -
Unaer Henny - -
Vann der Wind Blohsdt -
P. G. Vol. IV. I. 208
Home 3rd Ed. p. 162
Pro .P . G . S . Vol . X . Ap .2 5
P. G. Vol. II. 68
Pennsylvania German Rimes -
Mei Schoene Sally
Des Buchlich Maennli
Now, Bill Ich will dich froge.
Ich hob g'trara't
Mei Ulla, Ulla Ei
Schpinn, Schpinn mei Lieve Tochter
Der Yokel un die Lunch Route
Die Singschula im Land -
En Hunnert Johr Zuruck -
• S Fawra in D'r Tran -
P. G. Vol. IV. 3. 319
P. G. Vol. VIII. 8. 392
D.M. 2 (in press)
D.M. 2 (in press)
Home 3 rd Ed. p. 112
G.B. p. 251
Die Olid Bluddshawl -
Die Yuggules Leicht -
D'r Boodsher Wiggle -
D'r Dorraday ear Huchdsich -
D'r Olid Deedre -
D'r Olid Knucha Fridz -
D'r Olid Sously -
D'r Porra Tiddle -
D'r Stodd Ongle in Boosh -
Foom Lodw'rk Kucha -
Foon d'r Hoyet -
Foon d'r Ahrn -
Furnahahr -(Preface) -
Gebt ons Cllda Shool Korregder
K'rch oon Shoodlmetsch -
Lebens Mude -
HERMANY, EDWARD: (Continued)
S' Barvelcha - MS
S' Olid Wyeerla - MS
S' Werd evva so sy sulla - MS
Wie die Ollda Noch d'r Hyo sin - - MS
Die Kerch is Aus - - P. G. Vol. VII. 2. 83
HORN, A. Pi
Die Alte Grabmacher - - P. G. Vol. XI . 10 .626
"Pennsylvania German Manual" 4th Edition, Allentown, Pa. 372pp,
# * * # *
Rimes - - Horns 4th Ed. p. 108
(See also D.B.Brunner, F.R.Brunner, Fisher, L.L.Grumbine,
Henry Harbaugh, J.Max Hark, Henringer, Kopenhaver, Newhard,
Rauch, Rhoades, Schuler, Stoudt, V/eiser, Witmer, Wuchter,
(See also Prose)
See MILLER, HARVEY.
Der Sailor da8 Nimmymeh Kunit
- P. G. Vol. V. 1.25
Der Valontine Dawg -
Die Elfetritsoha Jagt
Die Metzel Soup -
P. G. Vol. VII. 1.37
Leb. Report Feb. 5, 1900
Alter Mutterklag un Trost
Bericht an die Klassis -
Christ Daag -
Der Alt Weide Baam -
Der Holzhacker -
Der Jockel -
Der Kesohtabaam -
Der Schnee Starm -
Der winter Kummt -
Der Stadtbu -m '.Velshkornfeld
Die Deutech Sproch -
Die Wesch Fraa -
Drucke ion Heesz -
Es Schaudert Mich -
D.M. p. 69
P. G. Vol. VIII. 11. 560
P. G. Vol. VIII. 10. 505
P. G. Vol. VI. 2. 269
D.M. 2 (in press)
D.M. p. 61
' . . 2 (in press)
P. G. Vol. I. 2. 20
D.M. p. 67
P. G. Vol. II. 1.12
D. . 2 (in presc )
KELLER, ELI: (Continued)
Holz Beschlaga -
Kesta Peife -
Mei Kerschebaam -
Mer Wolla Pische Geh -
Monet Sprtich -
1 N Buwl i is 's -
*S Glatt Eis Pahre -
'G Mehe mit der Deutsche Bens
'S V/etter Brecht -
Sag nix! -
Trub Wetter - -
Vum Flachsbaue -
'S Plaohs Stueck
Der Plachs Blueht
Der Flachs is Zeitig
Warm der Rege V/idder Kummt -
V'ilda Dauwa -
P.M. p. 65
P. G. Vol. IV. 2. 262
D.M. p. 54
D.M. p. 71
P. G. Vol. II. 3. 109
D.M. p. 46
D.M. p. 62
D.M. p. 68
P. G. Vol. II. 4. 158
Unser P.D.Kalenner 1895
D.M. 2 (in press)
P. G. Vol. VIII. 4. 183
1 1 1
Der Auto Waga -
P. G. Vol. VIII. 4. 183
*M Shded'l Mora Sei V/unsh
Home 3rd s d. p. 117
Kerche Streit -
(See also Prose)
P. G. Vol. III. 4. 160
Der Miller un die Mtthl -
- D.M. 2 (in press)
Die Alte Kersche Beerr. -
P. G. Vol. XI. 8. 501
Dao Alt Wertshaua
Das Spinnrad -
D.M. p. 36
MAYS, GEORGE: ( Continued )
Der Alt Kerchhof -
Der Alt Mann -
Der Gigerigee -
Der Hon3Worsht -
Die Brunne Trog -
Die Glock -
Die Kerche Glock -
Die Shule in der Alte Zeit -
Preie Yohr im Lond -
Hoyet un Em -
Psalm des Lebens (Trans) -
'Sis now shun men als ftifzig Johr
Vtfill Ich bei der Woret Bleiwe -
D.M. p. 27
D.M. p. 31
P. G. Vol. III.?. 110
D.M. p. 43
D.M. p. 40
P. G. Vol. VII. 1.38
D.M. 2 (in press)
P. G. Vol. VI. 2. 270
'Sis nimme wie 's als war -
D.M. 2 (in press)
Der Alt Scharr.schtee -
Die Alt Heemet - -
Die Mary hut en Lamb (Trans) -
Finkel, Finkel Klehne Schtern (Trans)
Im Heckedahl -
P. G. Vol. VIII. 5. 252
P. G. Vol. IX. 6. 279
P. G. Vol. XI. 9. 563
MEYER, HENRY: (Continued)
Mei Schtettel Sohul - - Flugblatt
To my old friend, Reuben Stover - - MS
MILLER, DANIEL: Ed.
"Pennsylvania German", Reading, Pa. 1904.
Prose and Poetry.
# * * % * »
See: ANONYMOUS; BRUNNER, D.Bj BRUNNER, F.R; pUBBS; EI SENBRBWN ;
FISHER; GRAEFF; HARBAUGH; KELLER; MAYS; REINEOKEj RHOADSj
See also Prose.
«- •» * » #
"Pennsylvania German" Vol.11, to be issued 1911.
Sees BAHN; BRUNNER, D.B; BRUNNER, F.R J ESHELMANf GEPHARDT;
GRUMBINE, E; GRUMBINE, L.L; HARBAUGH; HENNINGER; KELLER;
LISBERGER; MAYS; MENGEL; MORE; RONDTHALER; SCHULER; SHUSY;
See also Prose.
MILLER, HARVEY: (Solly Hulsbuck)
"Pennsylvania German Poems"- Elizabethville, Fa. 1906.
Two Editions, $1.00 and 40$/. Pages the same.
* * * * #
Awgawanet - - - p. 28
Hul.P.G.192 (in press)
Billy Bloseroar - - - p. 23
Hul.P.G.Stor. p. 9,
MILLER, HARVEY: (Continued)
De Farbessering -
De Guta Tseita -
De Krutza Fife -
Der Bicher Agent -
Der Butcher -
Der Deitsch A,B,C -
Der Haws -
Der Magnet -
Der Sensa Wetzer -
En Drawm -
En Vollentine -
En Wohrhofter Fisher -
Free Yohr -
Fun Kindheit zu Ewigkeit
Himnels Eck -
I oh bin so gairn Derhame
Im Winter -
Kreiz V/aig -
Leeb und G'sundheit -
Lond's Mon We Gaids -
Mensha Fresser -
- p. 78
Hul.P.G.Stor. p. 79
Hul.P.G.Stor. p. 37
Hul.P.G. p. 189 (in press)
- p. 34
MILLER, HARVEY; (Continued)
Mer nemt's we's Coomt -
Nancy Hanks -
Neija Resolushuns -
Nei Yohr -
Oh El end -
Shpode Yohr -
Sinda Shuld -
Sis olles Ivverdu -
Unser Bandt -
Unser Tillie -
Will widder Buvely si -
Wos Noshun Dut -
V, r un der Porra Coomt -
Wun Ich Dote Ware -
Hul.P.G.Stor. p. 45
Hul.P.G.158 (in press)
Hul.P.G.Stor. P. 27
P. G. Vol. VII. 6. 320
Hul.P.G.Stor. p. 17
P. G. Vol. VIII. 10. 503
"Pennsylvania German StoriesS. Elizabethvillc, Pa. 1907. 112 pp.
De Nacht vor Krischdag (Trans) -
De Krutza Pife -
Der Billy Bloseroar *
Der Deitsch A,B,C, -
Der Bicher Agent -
Hul . F . G . P . p .23
Hul. P. G. P. p. 63
MILLER, HARVEY: (Continued)
Der Haws -
Pun Kindheit tzu Ewigkeit -
Hend in de Seek -
Leeb und G'sundheit -
Mer Nemt's We's Coornt -
Romeo and Juliet (Balcony Scene) -
Schlofe Bubbeli -
Shule Shticker -
Sis Olles Ivverdu -
Will widder Buvely si -
Hul . ,
- p. 71
- p. 45
» £ <
- p. 17
"Pennsylvania German" (in press) See also Prose.
Hul. P. G. P. p. 28
Awgavanet - - p. 192
Awtzacha und B'deitunga - - p. 15
Ba'd Dawg - - - p. 63
Base Bolla - - - p. 107
De Mommy era Kolenner - - p. 3
Der Feert Jooly - p. 25
P. G. Vol. IX. 9. 424
Der Olmechtich Dawle~ - - p. 35
P. G. Vol. X. 8. 404
De Olda Shool Dawga - - - p. 45
De Picnic - p. 139
Druka V/ e d'r - - p. 141
MILLER, HARVEY: (Continued)
De Karche Bell -
De Till era Wollentine -
De gute Clt Summer Taeit -
De Kwilting Pardy -
De Olt Seid'r Meel -
De Olt Wek -
Der Bicher Agent -
Der Boss -
Em Shmock'r Sei Leed -
En Brief tsu'm Sanda Claus
En Haemweh Shdick -
Es Boyertown Feier -
Es Nei Blawd -
Es Olt Finf Dawler Bill -
Es Olt Yor un's Nei -
Far Oldars un now -
Hartz Hung'r -
Im Washington Sei Tseit -
Mer Nemt's We's Kumt -
Mi Bubbeli (Trans) -
Moi 30 -
P. G. Vol. XI. 9. 563
P. G. Vol. IX. S. 87
MILLER, HARVEY: (Continued)
Neia Resolutions -
Och du lewar -
Tswa Klana Shu -
Un's Schni tiler's Shdor
Wun da Sanda Claus Kurat
Wun de Band Shbeeld -
P. G. Vol. XI. 3. 179
Nooch Baltimore gent unser Fuhr
Der Bettle Mon -
Der Oldt Huls Elotz -
P. G. Vol. II. 1.15
P. G. Vol. 1.3. 12
De Lecha County Fair -
P. G. Vol. X. 9. 462
MORE, CHARLES C:
Der Tschellyschlecker -
Die Schatta uf der Krick -
Leera Bumpa -
P. G. Vol. V: 11.11.561
P. G. Vol. VIII. 8. 392
MORE, CHARLES C: (Continued)
Mei Droni -
Unsere Jugendzeit -
P. G. Vol. VIII. 8. 392
D.M. 2 (in press)
P. G. Vol. VIII. 6. 282
Wie ich en Chap War (Trans)
Home 2nd Ed. p. 115
See RHCADS, THOMAS,
Em Sam Sei Kinner
P. G. Vol. IX. 5. 230
Die Pennsylvania Millitz -
Shakespeare in Pennsylvania
Julius Caesar (Act III. So. 2)
Hamlet - (Act I.Sc.5) -
King Richard III. (Act I.Sc.I)
P. D. Vol. I. No. 2
P. D. Vol. I. No. 1
P.D.H. p. 220
Home 2nd Ed. p. 121
P.D.H. p. 219
P.D.H. p. 220
See also Prose.
Die Alt Plainfield Kerch -
D.M. p. 122
P. G. Vol. X. 7. 316
RHOADES, THOMAS B: (Onkel Jeff)
Der Bullfrog war Versoffe
Des Alt Acht Eckig Schulhaus
Die Alt Mahl Muel -
Die Tadler -
Die Wiskey Buwe -
Nei Yohr Schitz -
Neue Besem Kehre Gut -
Neue Mode -
Schpuks oder ken Schpuks -
* S Latw6rk Koche fer Alters •
Unner f m Walnissbaam -
P. G. Vol. VIII. 10. 493
D.M.2 (in press)
D.M. 2 (in prese )
P. G. Vol. II. 3. 112
D.M. p. 114
Home 3rd Ed. p. 151
P. G. Vol. III. 1.23
D.M. p. Ill
P. G. Vol. 1.1. 18
D.Kir. Aug. 1849
P. G. Vol. VII. 3. 121
D.M. 2 (in press)
Die Sumner Schul -
Ebbes fon eellem Spuck -
In der Spiel Stunde -
' S Schulhaus am Sandloch -
Sk.Lecha Thai p. 61
Sk.Lecha Thai p. 60
Sk.Lecha Thai p. 61
Sk.Lecha Thai p. 59
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. VI. 38
P. G. Vol. VI. 3. 306
The PennBylvania German (2 dialect verBes)-Fro.P.G.S.Vol .III .
Schulhaus an der Kerch -
P. G. Vol. VIII. 7. 335
D.M. 2 (in press)
Das ist im Leben Hesslich eingerichtet
Der Beik - -
Die Mammi Ihre Schindel (Trans) -
En Gem Kalenner - -
P. G. Vol. X. 11. 693
Home 3rd Ed. p. 14 5
P. G. Vol. IX. 7. 136
D.M. 2 (in press)
Unser P. D. Kalenner, 05
P. G. Vol. IX. 1.39
Der Winter -
Die Alt Uhr -
Die Kerche Bell -
Die Oley Picnic -
Es Jahresfest Am Wei3ehaus
D.M. 2 (in press)
P. G. Vol. IX. 10. 628
D.M. 2 (in press)
P. G. Vol. XI. 2. 113.
D.M. 2. (in press)
STEIN, THOMAS S:
Uf 'm O'werste Speicher -
STOUDT, J.BAER: Collector.
"Pennsylvania German Rhymes and Riddles"-Jour.Am.F. 19 . 113
Home 4th Ed. p. 116
Counting Out Rhymes
Der Alt Kerchhof - - P. G. Vol. I. 3. 28
Der Bu am Steh Lehse - - P. G. Vol. V. 1.30
Der Wald - _ - MS
Der Zuk - - P. G. Vol. II. 2. 70
Die Alt Cider Muehl - - P. G. Vol. III. 4. 156
Die Dallastown Reunion - - P. G. Vol. VI. 3. 307
Die Mami Schloft - P. G. Vol. IX. 5. 229
Die Muttersproch - P. G. Vol. VII. 3. 135
Es Haemelt Em a' - P. G. Vol. IV. 3. 321
Es Hof Dehrle - P. G. Vol. VIII. 6. 280
(One of the above poems was published in the Pennsylvania
College paper in the nineties)-A.S. )
Der Alt Kerchhof - D.M.p.104
En Fruhjohr's Lied - - D.M.p.109
D'r Kramer -
Zum Andenke an Dr.Harbaugh -
Home 1st Ed. p. 57
Homo 3rd Ed. p. 108
H.Harfe p. 9
Der Alt Kerchhof -
Der Bush -
Der Mensh -
Die Amschel -
Die Besht Zeit -
En Auf ruf -
En Character -
Hie un do en Liedel -
Nei Yohr -
P. G. Vol. III. 2. 63
P. G. Vol. II. 3. 112
P. G. Vol. X. II. 575
P. G. Vol. IV. 4. 351
P. G. Vol. III. 4. 162
P. G. Vol. XI. 11. 695
P. G. Vol. V. 4. 162
P. G. Vol. IV. 2. 258
Grocsmutterchen am Feierheerd
- P. G. Vol. X. 1.36
De Freschlin -
Der Himmel uf d'Erde
Der Schnay -
P. D. Vol. I. 1.1.
Tran . Am . Phi 1 . Soc .
P. D. Vol. I. 3
P. D. Vol. I. 3.
Father Ab . Feb . 8 , 1870
Hal. P. D. p. 42
P.D.H. p. 216
WITMER, TOBIAS: (Continued)
Seks OOr - Home 1st Ed. p. 59
Home 3rd Ed. p. 109
n Gemalde ana dem Pennsylvanischen Volksleben" ^'hila. und
Leipzig. 1869. 143 pp. (See also Prose.)
Das Lied von der Union -U - - p. 69
Der Herbs t U - - - - p. 27
Der Herbst U - - - p. 30
Der Pit un die Betz U - - p. 97
Der Winter U - - - p. 31
Die Berg Marie U - - - p. 126
Die Luterische Kerch bei Trappe W - p. 85
Fruehling und Jugend L.A.W - - - p. 18
Fruehjohr -U - - - p. 10
Haersweh (Harbaugh) - - p. 92
Heirat's Anzeichung-V.', Morgenstern Ex. p. 36
Ich bin en Pennsylvanier - - p.5
Im Fruehjohr -U - - - p. 7
Im Summer L.A.W* - - - p. 19
Schulhaus an der Krick (!!) - - p. 86
Verheiratet M - - - p.47
Wie der Ben sich verliebt - - - p. 10
Zwe Brief U - - - p. 66.
"Many of the following poems appeared
the Allentovm Democrat" A.C.W.
Der Verlora Ehsel -
Der Geitz - - -
Der Hendrik Voss -
Der Pihwie - - -
Der Porra Koons -
Der Yohll Versteht's Net -
Der Yohli Wunseht - -
Die Aerschta Hussa -
Dio 'Hio Naus -
Die Muttereprooch - -
Die Kalmustown G'meh -
Die Kinneryohr -
Fiert July -
Fische Geh -
Hans un Herrgott - -
Humming Birds - -
In Show - -
Im Druvvel -
Lumpaparty - -
'M Dinkey sei Knecht -
first anonymously in
P. G. Vol. IV. 4. 353
P. G. Vol. IV. 3. 320
P. G. Vol. VI. 4. 357
P. G. Vol. II. 2. 69
P. G. Vol. X. II. 575
All. Dem. Fov. 1910
P. G. Vol. X. 5. 238
P. G. Vol. III. 2. 61
Home 3rd Ed. p. 165
P. G. Vol. III. 3. 109
P. G. Vol. XI. 9. 592
P. G. Vol. XII. 59
P. G. Vol. 2. 118
P. G. Vol. IX. 2. 89
Moi Lied -
An' 8 Honnese -
Yuni Lied -
P. G.Vol. III. 4. 159.
P. G.Vol. I 11.1.22
P. G.Vol. IX. 1.38
P. G.Vol. VI. 1.204
ZIRGLER, CHARLES CALVIN:
"Drauss un Deheem" - Leipzig- 1891. Out of Print,
An Mei Pelf -
Bryant's Thanatopsis (Trans) -
Cremation - - -
Dar gut "Henner" -
Dar Nadurgeischt - -
Dar Rewwer un Ich -
Dar Schnitter un die Blume (Trans) -
Dedication - -
Die Alte Lieder - - -
Drauss un Deheem -
Home 3rd Ed. p. 120
P. G.Vol. VI. 1.204
P. G.Vol. IV. 1.214
Du V/olk mit de weisce Fliggel - - p. 21
Emerson (Trans) - - - p. 40
Heem kumm ioh, un schteh widder do -p. 24
ZIEGLER, CHARLES CALVIN: (Continued)
Zum Denkmal -(Continued)
Kunm, Schweschter, kumm un heil net so-p.25
Fart vun daheem un darch die Welt - p. 26
In daere Schtille Summersnacht - - p. 26
Wann epper saage dhat zu mir - p. 27
Ioh sehn die Scheckige Dage geh - - p. 28
Die Welt gent rum, was dunkel is - - p. 28
Deas is mei Hoffning dass d'r Dod - p. 29
Dar Sud Wind bringt de Mensche Ivluth - p. 30
Sei bei m'r uf mei'm Lewespaad - - p. 30
Du scheeni kleeni Weissi Blum - - p. 31
Dar Noah hut sich b'sunna dann - -p. 32
Owet am aerschte Oschterdaag - - p. 33
Wann Laylocks blihe schee un siis - p. 34
Wie Krischtus Ufwrsohtanne is - p. 34
Is es vielleicht 'n Draam in Schloff? -p. 35
Die Sunn geht unner in der West - p. 36
Es Schneckehaus - - - - p. 11
Es Sonnet t - - - p. 18
Im Draam - - - p. 14
In Ruh - - - p . 19
Kitzel Mich Net - - p. 12
Lied an Die Nacht (Trans) - - p. 39
'M Daag Sei Dod - - - p. 19
•N Alt Fashioned Buch - - p. 17
Samschdaag Owet - - p. 11
ZIEGLER, CHARLES CALVIN: (Continued)
Schnee Flocke (Trans) -
Am Danksagung Dag -
Die Laming -
En Simpler Mon -
Mei Muttersprooch -
P. G. Vol. VII. 7. 374
P. G. Vol. IV. 3. 314
P. G. Vol. VIII. 30. 504
P. G. Vol. X. 5. 238
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. I II. 13 6
" Metrical Trans lati on a"
Bewi Me in -
Der Alt Robin Gray -
Der Gut Dschorg Campbell -
Der V. r eg Noch Schlummerland -
Die Jung Witfraa -
Die Nacht, for de Chrischdaag -
Dschon Dschankin's Predich -
E'n Lieb G'sang -
Legt Eich Hie -
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 129
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 11 3
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 10 9
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 155
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. Ill
P. G. Vol. 1.1. 11
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. II. 93
Pro- P. G.S. Vol. XI 1. 131
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XI 1. 13 5
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XI 1. 12 7
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 13 7
ZIMMERMAN, THOMAS: (Continued)
Moi Mopsy is Klee - -
' N Neues " Casat>ianca M -
*N Trauer Gedicht uf 'n Doter Hund -
'S Dotes Bedt - - -
Sing, Madel Sing -
Wan an' re Freunde rhum dich sin -
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 10 9
- 011a Podrida
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 121
- 011a Podrida
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 12 5
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XI I. 13 9
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 11 5
- 011a Podrida
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. XII. 123
This does not include newspaper articles that have not sub-
sequently "been reprinted either in books or magazines.
ANONYMOUS: (See alao Poetry)
Der Eael - P. D. Vol. I .1.23
Der Gapenachenda Merder - - P. G. Vol. IX. S. 375
Dialog on aelecting a Vocation - - Fir. Vol. III. 445
En Neie Cure for die Rumatlea (Adapted)P.G.Vol.VIII.6.232
For Oldars - - - Home 3rd Ed. 102
Geburt3monet Profizeiunga - - P. G. Vol. IX. 1.41
Letter Commending the Publication of the
Pennaylvania Dutchman - - P. D. Vol. 1. 1.
Letter with poem "Die Deitahe Baura"- P. D. Vol. I. 3
Letter to the editor of the "Pionier" - D. P. Vol. VI II. 88
Lovelettor an mei Anni - - P. D. Vol. I. 2
*M Captain Jonea aei Chriach Kindel - P. G. Vol. VII. 8. 431
'M Jimmy Dull aei Schnapachtuhl - - P. G. Vol. VIII. 2. 89
Pennaylvania German Proverbs - - P. G. Vol. VII. 5. 265
Uvva Nous Gonga - - P. D. Vol. I. 2
Waa em Happena kann, warm mer Oier f innt-P.G.Vol.VIII.5.233
Widder aa geachmiert - - Hal. P. D. p. 49
B. Co. Express, Jul.'69
V/ie kunnt es - - - Hal. P. D. p. 52
Die Sallie Geht noch Chicago - - P. G. Vol. XI. 10.527
Die Macht der Hutteraprach - - P. G. Vol. XI. 5. 305
Parable of the Prodigal Son
P. D. Vol. I.
Grumblere Keffer -
P. G. Vol. X. 7. 350
P. D. Vol. I. 2.
See HARTER, THOMAS H.
BRUNNER, FRANK R: (See also Poetry)
Slwe Briefe wi der Sallie Besemstiel - M.H.Jan. 20, 1S86 p. 25
DUBBS, J: (See also Poetry)
Deustche Settlements vor der Revolution. D.M. p. 161
Charlie Green's Experiment mit Erne Skunk-P.G.Vol.VIII.4.184
Pennsylfawnish Deitsha Guw'rnera -
- Home 3rd Ed. p. 169
Home 4th Ed. p. 203
GRUMBINE, EZRA: (See also Poetry)
Die Inshurance Business - - Dramolet*
Die Yunga Richter - - P. G. Vol. VII. 1.39
Was raer G* happen t is Bei'm Hausbutza - P. G. Vol. VI I .3. 137
Wie mer unser Offa Uf ' gschtellt hen - P. G. Vol. VII. 6. 320
HANJERG, OLD SCHOOLMASTER:
Der Harning - - - P. G. Vol. VIII. 2. 36
Der Sam Gilderi uf der Greieri - - P. G. Vol. VII. 7. 375
En Paar Neijohr's Gedanke - - P. G. Vol. VIII. 1.41
Is 's Maulhalta en Soheene Sach? - P. G. Vol. VII. 2. 84
HARTER, THOMAS H: (Gotlieb Boonastiel)
"Boonastiel, Pennsylvania Dutch? Belief onte, Pa. 1904
Are Gsed Hawsa Hoonda - - p. 85
Are Schwared Ob - - p. 23
By Da Soldawda - - - p. 173
Die Beckie Shtitsel
Im Orma House - - p. 113
Se Ooomed Widder Hame - - p. 115
De Deitscha un die Englisha - - p. 24
De Feela Lingner - - p. 102
Die Gickser - - - p. 35
De House Butz Gichtera - - p. 47
De Hous Butz Gichtera Brecha Widder Ous-p.92
HARTER, THOMAS H: (Continued)
De Hoonds Dawga - -
De Hoyet -
De Leit woo Olsfart G'hared ai '.Vella
De Maed 3in we Glaena Fish - -
De Mensha un Die Monkeys -
De Ma Laws os mer Breicha -
De Orma hen Mer Olsfart by Uns -
Denksht Are Gebt en Editor -
Der Boonastiel an der Court -
Der Bowera Boo un der Dude -
Der Bush Hoond un der City Hoond -
Der Butcher Dawg -
Der Census Numerator -
Der Donks Dawg -
Der Fiert July -
Der Goot Freind -
Der Nei Nuohber -
Der Oldt Hon Lawft far en Office -
Der Schmart Boo -
Der Boo os si Marrick Maucht -
Der U-Bennich Boo -
Em Boona3tiel Sei Buftcheres -
Em Brown-Sequard 3i "Life Lixer" -
Em Grover Helfa Tzeega -
Em Mike Sendapetzer 3i City Fraw -
En Bower's Boo -
En Drawm - -
- p. 9
- p . 148
- p. 31
- p. 116
- p. 103
- p. 171
P. G. Vol. X. 4. 131
- p. 30
- p. 63
HARTER, THOMAS H: (Continued)
En Hior-rawd Pardy - - - p. 68
P. G. Vol. X. 2. 39
En Maidel Progt urn Rode - - - p. 57
En Neie Sart Rigel-wake - - P. 33
En Ride uff ma Si-bickel - - p. 59
En Shaeda Brief - - - p. 49
En Shil-grut - - - p. 7
En: Siffer - - p. 42
Es Rodda Nesht - - p. 12
On der Convention - p. 39
Hame fun der Convention - - p. 41
Gebt mere Duwock - - - p. 54
Grishkindlin Kawfa - - - p. 50
In Ma Hexa Nesht - - - p. 20
Karraseera by Machinery - - p»166
Knecht Shoffa - - - p. 52
My Leava's Lawf - - - p. 5
On der Campmeoting - - - p. 110
On der 'Noggeration Ball - - - p. 27
On dere '.Veldt's Fare - - p. 169
Onera Huohtzich - - p. 66
Onera Leioht - - - p. 61
Rip Van Winkle
De Shtory - - - p. 74
Are Soocht En Onery Haemet - - p. 78
Widder Uff Em Nesht - - p. 79
Saela 0s mer Net Essa Con - - p. 119
HARTEH, THOMAS H: (Continued)
Shpeoulata Mit Oner Leit Eram Geld - p. 37
Ona Hullerhocka, - - p. 87
Are Act Lawyer - - - p. 39
Es sholk Yohr - - p. 123
Druvvel Mit Der Polly - p. 126
En Tramp - - p. 128
Unner Fremma Leit - - p. 129
In der Jail - - p. 131
Are Findt En Freind - - p. 133
Hame Wae - p. 135
Widder Im Druvvel - - p. 137
Om Bowera - p. 139
Are un de Betsy Wetzel Gaena Fisha-p.141
In Fildelfy - - - p. 143
Widder Dahame - - p. 146
Shtyle Aw Do Won's Em Net Baooomed - p. 91
P. G. Vol. VIII. 3. 137
Sols Rever -
Der Rever Druvva - - p. 150
"Jos Hut's Gadoo - - p. 152
Im Sols Rever Shtore - - p. 154
Tsu Feel Leit - - p. 29
Tswae Baniche Si - - p. 25
Uff Der Kup G'shtellt - p. 100
Uff Em Karrioh-hofo - - p. 13
Uff Ganumma on Sime Wardt - - p. 94
Ware Sull de Prescilla Hira - - p. 167
HARTER, THOMAS H; (Continued)
Ware Sull Ich Hira - - p. 56
We Con Ich' a Besht Laeva Maucha - - p. 9 5
We Mer Gaid PI aha - - p. 65
We' a Gait Onera Infair - - p. 106
Wos Gebta Mit Unaera Boova - p. 15
Axiom3 and Epigrama-
Sprichworta - - p. 246
Bleaaeer Coomed Oony G'frogt un Gait
Ooney Ghaesa - p. 222
De College Boova - - - p. 179
Der Aael in der Gilea Howd - - p. 242
Der "Chriatian Science" Duckter - p. 195
De Retcha un de Bletcha - - p. 216
Der Jecky Leebshtickle Tend Court - p. 223
Der Mon Woo Reich-Awreni i3 - - p. 201
Der Oldt Billy Sultzer un de Looder Grobba-p.182
De ahuldt 0a Leit Awrum ain - - p. 218
Der Tawa Keppich Elefont - - p. 240
De U-farahtenicha Faahiona - - p. 185
De Weipaleit in Politics - - p. 198
En Jury -mon - p. 187
Ich Wutt Ob Ich en Bower Ware - - p. 191
In Pildelfy -
Em Wannamaker Si Karrich Hofe - p. 229
Em Mike Sendapetzer Si Stylishe Fraw -p. 232
Grishdoom in Ga-kooahenda Sitz - p. 235
HARTER, THOMAS H: (Continued)
Widder Dahame - - p. 238
Karrassera-Der Oldt un dor Nei Wake - p. 211
On der Teacher's Institute - - p. 214
Onera Karicha Fare - - p. 203
Politics un De Karricha - - p. 189
Shtride in der Hous-holdting-was machts- p. 209
Unser Niar Porra - - p. 206
Widder Uff der Oldta Bowerei - - p. 226
Deitscha Leeder -See Poetry-Ziegler and
Historical - - -
# # * *
De Scientists un de Hexaductor -
De Suckers in Politics - -
Home 3rd Ed. 149
Der Hok'lbira B&rig -
Der Marti Bechtel -
Der Tshek Shtraus -
Di Granni Shidl -
Jake Strauss -
Proverbs - -
G'schicht fun da alta Tsaita in Pen-
J our . A . F . L * p . 194
Jour. A. F.L. p. 195
Jour. A. F.L. p. 193
Jour. A. F.L. p. 192
Jour. A. F.L. p. 194
Jour. A. F.L. p. 197
"Pennsylvania German Manual" - let Ed. 1875
2nd Ed. 1896
3rd Ed. 1905
4th Ed. 1910
Part I. English Prominciation of P. G. words- p. 5 f.
Part I I. Pennsylvania German Literature
with English Translations.
Sprioh w erder - - - p. 70 f.
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. II. p. 47
Ratsla - - - p. 78
Reima - - p. 81
Spichta - - - p. 89
De G'breicha fun d'Pennsylfanisch
Deitsoha in Oldta Zeita - - p. 93
Pestdauga - - - p. 95
De Oldta Games - p. 100
Gschichta - - p. 102
See also Poetry-Weiser, Witmer, Henninger, Newhard, Kopenhaver,
Ziegler, Rauch, Harbaugh, Fisher, Schuler, Rhoads, Grumbine,
D.B.Brunner, Hark and Wuchter.
See Prose- Gehring, Zimmerman, Schuler, Harter, and Warner.
Part III. A Pennsylvania German and English
Dictionary - - p. 184 ff.
(The page numbers are those of the third edition,
the 4th edition contains 34 more pages.)
See MILLER, HARVEY M.
En Hexe G'schicht -
P. G. Vol. XI. II. 695
KELLER, ELI j (See also Poetry)
En Gesprach an der Mittel Fence -
Penn3ylvanier Sprich Worter -
?/ie der Stoffel 3ei Geld Verlore Hot
Fried. Jan. 20, &17, '09
Feb. 3 _ 10, '09
Fried. Jul. 14, '09
Em Mark Twain Sei Kameel (Trans) -
-P. G. Vol. VII. 4. 211
KL0TZK0PP, JOE. ESQ.:
Mei Experience im 0ircu3 -
P. G. Vol. VIII. II. 561
KUNRADT, DER ALT:
Letters to the Editor of the Pionier-
.IV. p. 7
.IV. p. 50
.IV. p. 95
.IV. p. 132
.IV. p. 170
•IV. p. 203
.IV. ft. 236
.IV. p. 258
.IV. p. 344
.IV. p. 298
.IV. p. 373
.IV. p. 402
Brief an n Der Deutsche Pionier" -
-D.P. May, 1882
LEISBNRING, E.D: (Continued)
Brief an "Der Deutsche Pionier" - P. G. Vol. IX. 7. 325
Pennsylfawnisch Deitsch - - D. P. Vol. XIV. p. ^0
"Pennsylvania German" Vol. I. Reading, Pa. 1904
Part I. See Poetry. Harbaugh, Veiser, Mays, Keller, F.R.Brunner,
Fisher, Vogt, Rhoads, Graeff, Reinecke, Sisenbrown, Dubbs,
Part I I. Prose.
Bete Am Disoh -
Buffel Ochse -
Bush Knuppel - -
Das Alt Sohulhaus -
Das Alt Schulhaus in der Stadt -
Das Battalje -
Deiwel's Loch -
Dem Conrad Weiser Sei Drahm -
Dem Dr.Schaeffer sei Speech an der
Schaeffer's Reunion •■ «
Dem Parre Sei Drahm - -
Dem Pitt Sei Handwerk -
Dem Parre Sei Worscht -
Dem Parre Sei Gelichniss -
Dem Parre Stoey sei Preddig -
Der Bauer un die Studente -
Der Dan Webster un sei Sens -
Der Elteste am Preddige -
MILLER, DANIEL: (Continued)
Der Moae Dissinger - -
Der Parre un die Schunke -
Des Leine Vorsage - - -
Die Gemee in Ochseschwamm -
Die Haase Preddig - -
Die Kanzel is Umgefalle -
Die Pennsylvanisch Deutsche -
Die Regina Hartman -
Die Stadtol Bump - -
Die V/orzel vum Uewel -
Elbetritsche Fanga -
En Brief an der Parre vun der Jacobua
En Gleichniss - -
Englisoh Denka un Deitsch Sohwetze -
En Laute Stimm -
En Parre s Trick -
En Reich Paar -
Grosse '"orte -
Gauls Preddige - -
Gross Gegrisch Awer V/ennig Woll -
Heiere uf Credit - -
In der Kerch Schlofe -
Kerchegang vor Alters - - -
Korze Preddige -
Leeks chonire -
Lions ch uf em Peld un in der Kerch -
Pennsylvania English - -
MILLER, DANIEL: (Continued)
Sag.. Ich, Hab ich Gesaht - - p. 270
Schlechto Parre - - p. 225
Sonderbare Ferrywoll Preddige - p. 220
Uewer3etzunge -Translations - - p. 266
Was Gehapponed is - - - p. 257
Wer Hot die Welt Erschaffe? - - p. 160
Wetterhahne - - p. 258
Wie en Loch zu Kache - - p. 265
Wie er Die Haas Verbroche Hot - - p. 178
Wie er in der Semly war - - p. 246
Wie Der Parre sich Rausgeschl.lt Hot - p. 219
Wohleberstadtel - - p. 217
See also Prose. Keller, Dubb3, Zimmerman.
■» * # •» # *
"Pennsylvania German" - Vol.11. In Press.
Part I. Vocabulary of 1200 word3.
Part I I. Variations.
See Poetry. Rondthaler, Harbaugh, Weiser, Stahr, Keller,
F.R.Brunner, Shuey, E.Grumbine, Rhoads, D.B.Brunner,
Bahn, Lisberger, L.Grumbine, Gerhardt, Eshelman, Anon-
ymous, Henninger, Schuler, -lays, ore, engel, Wollenweber.
Dem Kunradt Weiser sei House. Illustrated.
Dem Kunradt Weiser sei Shtore in Reading. Illustrated.
Der Bauer Huts Goot
Der Parre Harbaugh. Portrait
MILLER, DANIEL: (Continued)
Die Reoht un die Letz Sort Lerning. P. G. XI. 7. 433
En Ferhuttelt Welt
En Klane Kerch. Illustrated
En Pennsylvanier in der Stadt Berlin.
Ea Alt Courthoua in Reading
Ferennerunga und Improfmenta
Geba de Judde
In New York - - P. G. Vol. X. 8. 406
Meiner Mammy ihr Spinnrad Illuatrated.
Pennaylvaniaoh Deutsche Begrauche.
Pennsylvaniach Deutache Sprichworte.
Pennaylvaniaoh Deutsch GouVeniere. Illuatrated.
Stadt un Landt.
Uf der Jury.
Wan Ich en Porre war.
Wan ich net Porre war.
MILLER, HARVEY M: (Solly Hulsbuck)
"Pennsylvania German Storiea n -Elizabethville, i J a.l907.
See alao Poetry.
Bank Bianias - - - - p.l
Basebolla G'ahpielt - -p. 49
De O.W.L. Society - - p. 53
De Engli3ha - - p. 99
MILLER, HARVEY: (Continue.!)
De Fiert July Celebrashun- - - p. 59
De Irisha - - - - p. 101
De Mawd Gald uf en Shtrike - - p. 15
De Nei Runzel im Shpella - - p. 67
De Picnic - - p. 63
De Polly Grickt en Surprise - - p. 19
Der Ab Lincoln - - - p. 3
Der Bawrfeesich Bu - - - p. 11
Der Fader Fu'm Lond - p. 7
Der Feert Jooly - p. 43
Der Inshing - p. 103
Der Hebuchadnozzer und der Napolyun - p. 109
Der Reicha Era Drovvel - - p. 87
Em Jeckie Si Komposishun - - p. 29
En Chury Lion - - - p. 95
En Thanksgiving Shtory - - p. 85
P. G. Vol. IX.
En Trip Noch Sm Shtate Hous - - p. 93
Fendu - - - - p. 13
Flying Macheena - - p. 51
Geil Xawft Und G,schwoppt - - p. Ill
Hochmood udder Hunger - - p.l
Ira Febiwerry - - - p. 5
Labor un Capital - - - p. 21
Mi Pedigree - - - p. 25
Political icement - - - p. 4
Politicks - - - p. 69
MILLER, HARVEY M: (Continued)
Romeo and Juliet -
Romeo and Juliet -
Setta de '.Veibsleit Vote? -
Um Beara Hunda - -
Un der Fair -
V/as aw gaid im Deich -
We ' s gai d won do Fraw em in der 3htore
V. r os iss sugcess? - -
Wos mer essa - -
Wu de Deitsha Harcooma -
WutsJ Wutsi Wutsi - -
* •::• #
"Pennsylvania German" in press.
A f r is de onar wart -
Advertisa batsawld - - -
Badrochda noch da am -
Boona ols I'adazen -
De Bevvy singt en Anthem -
De Huchtsioh - -
De Maria gaid iver der Barg -
De Macht fun Xlanichkada -
De Mommy ols en Duckd'r -
De Nancy Hanks im Race -
De Nei Sort Bud'r -
De Rachel Powhana - -
Der Comet -
Der Drolley - -
MILLER, HARVEY M: (Continued)
Der Duckd'r Lawdanagler - - p. 79
Der Feert Jooly - p. 103
Der Hochmood - - p. 130
Der Jecky Graddlate - - p. 171
Der Jecky larnd en Lesson - - p. 152
Der Jecky un sei Brief - - p. 73
Der looses Cadwallader Schmidt e - p. 165
Der Nei V/ek un der 61 1 - - p. 126
Der Nord Pole - - p. 140
Der Osht'r Haws - - p. 93
De Schlung im loot - p. 174
De Weibsleit - p. 128
Donkbawr in ola Unglik - - p. 151
Drawm Buch Bedeitunga - - p. 173
D'r Sh-Shduddera Jeck - - p.l
Em Jecky Sei Walk far Shduddia - - p. 61
Em Pit'r sei gaba'd - - p. 148
Em Pit'r sei Drik - - p. 153
Em Pitt sei Handwerk - - p. 147
En Arlich'r Raskal - - p. 105
En Asel Drik - p. 117
En Bisniss Notice - p. 167
En Drawm Buch - - p. 172
En Preigawich'r Deeb - - p. 142
En Gros'r Dosh'd - - p. 135
En Hinar-end Collision - - p. 19
En Hink'l-shproe - - .134
MILLER, HARVEY M: (Continued)
En Publick Eilawdung - - p. 169
Eishtars un English-Solz - p. 59
En Pendu Fever - p. 169
Es Helra - - - p. 129
Es Hun'rt-yarich Fesht - - p. 43
Es Karoh-Gae - - - p. 3
Far' s Denka kon era nemond henl-a - p. 39
Fawsnocht - - p. 124
Filosofikal Gadonka - - p. 155
Fireworks uf da Konsel - - p. 29
Fisikal J'ografy - - - p. 75
Free-yor - - - p. 39
Gold-shtock kawft - - - p. 31
Ham-g'mocht Mushk - - p. 67
Hink'l Filosofy - - p. 87
Hunsdawga Blazeer - - p. 27
Im Dreebsawl - - p. 163
In da Lotsh - - p. 162
Karaseera we far oldar3 - - p. 21
Kourt Bizness - p. 133
Kurnal Soakum - - p. 115
Law Bizness - - p. 91
Lawendich irargrawva - - p. 136
Lond un Shtot - - p. 183
Marb'l Kucha - - - p. 55
Milchhawr - - - p. 113
Musich bei da tcwilling - - - p. 122
MILLER, HARVEY Mj (Continued)
Nuchterlicha Badrochda' -
Nuchbershoft Nochrichta -
Obrilakelv'r - -
Off is Hung'r -
Rawer im Hous -
Reich iv'r Nocht -
Rul • r Ghkeeda -
Shprich Wart a -
Siva Deiv'l -
Tswa sorta Grip -
Uf B'sooch in da Shool -
Uf da Eowerei -
Um Circus -
Un da Jamestown Exposition
Ung'farlicha Feiarworks -
Unich em Wed'r -
We der Bower farlussa Wart -
Weesht galoga is nemo^d batroga
Wei is de Mud'r -
MORE, CHARLES C: See also Poetry.
Der Hexadoktor -
Der Hexadokto:- -
Der Wiescht Mann von der Flett
Die Kutztown Mail -
En Wieschter Eraam -
.G. Vol. IX. 3. 136
P. G. Vol. VIII. 9. 448
P.G.Vo] .XI. 4. 239
P. G. Vol. VIII. 10. 505
MORE, CHARLES 0: (Continued)
'S Wash Heller's Ihra Chris chtdagszug - P. G. Vol. VIII. 12.61:
RAUCE, E.H: (See also Poetry.
"Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook", J'auch Chunk, Pa. 1879.
Part I. Dictionary of circ-5000 words to p. 146
Part II. Special Words - - - p. 151
Abbreviations - - p. 158
The Use of words - - p. 160
Counting - - - p. 171
i'onths and days - - p. 172
Weights and 1-easures - - p. 173
Practical Exercises - - p. 174
Business Talk - p. 185
Home 3rd 123
Progress of Pennsylvania Dutch
Literature - - p. 208
Quotations from Shakespeare
Speech of Brutus - - p. 218
Richard III. Act I. So. I. - p. 219
Act V.Sc.IV. - p. 220
Hamlet Act I.Sc.V. - - p. 223
Extracts from Scripture - - p. 222
Pit Schweffelbrenner - - p. 228
Another Letter of Schwef « r, elbrenner-p.231
Aether Letter of Schweffelbrenner-p.234
# # # «
An Heller Shtarn Ousgonga (Trans) - - P. D. Vol. I. I.
An Temperance Lecture - P. D. Vol. I. 3
RAUCH, E.H: (Continued)
De Olta un Neia Tzeita -
Familiar Sayings (Trans) -
Familiar Sayings (Trans) -
Familiar Sayings (Trans) -
For der Simple Weg - - -
Im V/ashingtoner Schtadtel -
Prospectus to Pennsy,vania Dutchman -
Rip Van Winkle -
Uf Unser Side - - -
Unser Klehny Jokes - - -
Unser Klehner Omnibus -
-Pro. P. G.S. Vol. I. 33
- P. D. Vol. I. I.
- P. D. Vol. 1.2
P. D. Vol. I. 3.
P. D. Vol. 1.3
M.H.Jan. 20, '86. p. 63
P. D. Vol. I. I.
P. D. Vol. I. 2
P. D. Vol. I. 2
P. D. Vol. I. 3
Eppos Ueber Pennsylvanisch Deitsch - P. G. Vol. IX. 5. 230
D. P. 1870
Open Letter to the Editor on Dialects - P. D. Vol. I. 3
SCHANTZ, F.J.F: See also Poetry.
Hombug Orgel Bissniss -
Letter to Dr.Fritschl -
Part of a sermon on Job -
Speech before Dr.Mohldenke f s Congre-
gation i$ Hew York City -
Stories - -
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. III. 83
Fub.in Dienzer's acc't
of his visit to Am-
Pro. P. G.S. Vol. III. 126
MS in family
Hex Erst Blugges
P. G. Vol. IX. 10.470
SHULER, K. A: See also Poetry.
Zeechaglawa un Braucherel^
Home 3rd Eci. p. 146
Der "Bockwampan" und sein Getheirs -
Sk.Lecha Thai. p. 192
WARNER, JOSEPH: (Johann Klotz)
"Amerikanisch Historic? Annville, Pa. 1905
Einleitung - -
Epoch I .
Der Columbus Entdeckt America -
Andere Entdeckungen -
Virginia - -
Massachusetts - -
Rhode Island - -
New Hampshire -
New York -
Pennsylvania - - -
Home 4th Ed. p. 201
WARNER, JOSEPH: (Continued)
New Jersey - - p. 45
Delaware - - p. 47
Maryland - - p. 48
Georgia - - p. 52
Koenig William's Greek - - p. 56
Koenigin Anne's Greek - - p. 57
Koenig George's Greek - - p. 57
Pransosish urd Inshing Greek - p. 57
Ursache der Greek - - - p. 61
Der Greek un der Auskum - - p. 64
George Washington - - - p. 71
John Adams - - p. 73
Thomas Jefferson - - - p. 75
James Vadison - - p. 75
James Konroe - - - p. 72
John Quincy Adams - - - p. 78
Andrew Jackson - - - p.8C
Martin VanBuren - - - p»8
William Henry Harrison - - p. 80
John Tyler - p. 21
James K.Polk - - p. 81
WARNER, JOSEPH: (Continued)
Zachary Taylor - - p. 81
Millard Fillmore - - p. 83
Franklin Pierce - - - p. 83
James Buchanan - - - p. 83
Abraham Lincoln - - - p. 84
Andrew Johnson - - - p. 89
Ulysses Grant - - p. 90
Rutherford Hayes - - - p. 90
James A.Garfield - - p. 91
Chester A.Arthur - - p. 91
Grover Cleveland - - p. 91
Benjamin Harrison - - p. 91
Grover Cleveland - - p. 93
William McKinley - - - p. 95
Theodore Roosevelt - - p. 96
Zum Beschluss - - - p. 97
WOLLENWEBER, LUDWIG A:
Gemalde aus dem Pennsylvania chen Volksleben n
1869. Leipzig and Philadelphia.
Ab Reff Schneider un Susie Leimbach - p. 10
M.H.May 19, 1886 p. 136
A Lutarische Hochzig-Unsigned - - p. 46
Conrad Weiser's Grab. U. - - - p. 135
Der Aldermann Mehlig - Wollenweber - p»102
Der Baron Stiegel-U. - - p. 127
WOLLENWEBER, LUDWIG: (Continued)
Der Mister Lebtag- W. - p. 108
Der Mitle Weg ischt der Goldene V.'eg-U - p. SO
Der Herbet - U. - - - p. 28
Der Pitt fun der Trapp-U - - p. 109
Der Winter-U - - - - p. 31
Die Berg Maria -U - - - - p. 125
Die Pas chens -U - - - - p. 75
Die llargareth und die Leah -U - - p. 66
Das Wilde Heer -U - - - p. 52
Die Sag von End vura Spieler-U - - p. 60
Die Sag von Zwee Saufer -U - - - p. 57
Die Sara un die Betz -U - - p. 68
Dr Dady -U - - - p. 131
Ein Gesprach-Eppes zum Lacha - - p. 76
Eppes zum Lacha -U - - - p. 73
Farmleben-U - - - p. 23
Heirath's Kalender-U - - p. 32
Im Frfthjohr - - - p. 8
Korz awer gut-U - - - p«65
LBb un Bar oder alter Lieb rost nit - p. 50
Pennsylvanisch Ehrlichkeit-U - - p. 121
Pitt Kommnoch-W - - - p. 35
Sie kumme doch noch zusamme - - p. 47
Teite Hosen un Standups mache der
I.'enech net -U - - p. 93
Vom Obstbaumbutza - - - p. 15
Vum Obst - - - - p. 24
WOLLENY/KBER, LUDWIG: (Continued)
Vorrede - -
Vum Ueberhitze un Sunnestich-U -
vie die Nochbere de Charle Dorst vom
Branntweintrinke Kure-W -
Wie mer aei Fraa ProMrt -
Womelsdorf - - - -
Vendue, -Grease -U - -
P. G. Vol. XII. 1.54
ZIMMERMAN, THOMAS: See also Poetry.
Kaiser Wilhelm's Brief e -
Read. Times and Dispatch
Home 3rd Ed. p. 14-2
FISHER, HENRY Li
"Kursweil un Zeitvertreib"- 1882 Special Glossary- 1983 words.
•S Alt Marik Hous - - 1870 Special Glossary- 2182 "
F0GEL,E.Ii; (See LEARNED.
"Harfe" 1870 - Special Glossary - - 245 "
German Dialect in the Virginia Valley. Dia.N.III.
Pt.4. 1908. P. G. Vol. X. 10.
Brief Vocabulary - 194 "
In the Proceedings of the Am. Phil. Soc. Vol. XXVI. Dec. 1888.
A Pennsylvania-German -English Dictionary - - 5689 words
"A quite exhaustive glossary of the Pennsylvania German
dialect. (P.G.English) This is little more than a
review of Home 'a Dictionary. The author acknowledges
no sources by name and hence gives us no clue to his mode
of procedure." M.D. Learned.
"Em Home Sei Buch"- 1875-lst Ed.
Pennsylvania German- English Dictionary - - 5522 words
"This i3 far the most complete and scientific lexicon
of the Pennsylvania German speech." M.D. Learned. 1889
1895-2nd Edition-several hundred additional words and
an English Pennsylvania German Dictionary.
HORNE, A.R: (Continued)
1905-3rd Edit ion- Some additional words
1910-4 th Edition-Some more additional words.
Pennsylvania German Plant Names in the P. G. Vol. XII. 2
Pennsylvania German, English and Latin - - - H65 words
LEARNED, M.D: Assisted by E.M.Pogel.
Complete Pennsylvania German Dictionary- Announced.
Common Sense Pennsylvania German Dictionary, Reading, 1887
1895 2nd Edition. P. G. -English - - 9613 words
Pennsylvania German Plant Names - P. G. Vol. XI. 9.
Pennsylvania German, English, and L a tin - - 92 words
Pennsylvania German Plant Names- P. G. Vol. XI. 12
Pennsylvania German, English and Latin - - 38 words
Pennsylvania German - Vol.11. (in press)
Pennsylvania German, English and German - - 1200 words
Pennsylvania Dutchman - Vol. I. No. I and following (incomplete)
Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook- 1879, I.'auch Chunk, Pa.
Pennsylvania German- English and English-Pennsylvania
German - circ.5000 w,
PARTIAL LIST OF NEWSPAPERS
THAT ARE OR AT
ONE TIME HAVE BEEN PUBLISHING
PLACE OF PUBLICATION
Berks and Bchuylkill
Journal - Reading
Berks County Democrat Boyertown
Bethlehem Times Bethlehem
Boyertown Bauer Boyertown
Bucks County Express Doylestown
Canton(Ohio) Repository Canton, Ohio
Carbon County Democrat Mauch Chunk
Center Democrat Bellefonte
Coopersburg Sentinel Coopersburg
Der Waffenlose Wachter Gap -
Der Deutsche Pionier Cincinnati, Ohio.
Doylestown Morgenstern Doylestown
East on Argus
Easton Free Press
Easton Sunday Call
Geist der Zeit -
Hummelstown Sun -
Kutztown Journal and
PLACE OF PUBLICATION
Mauch Chunk Democrat
Mauch Chunk Times
Mauch Chunk Daily Times Mauch Chunk
Middleburg Post Middleburg
Myerstown Sentinel Myerstown
Myerstown Enterprise Myerstown
Northampton Correspondent Easton
Northampton Democrat Easton
Pine Grove Herald
PLACE OF PUBLICATION.
Reading Times and
Reformed Church Record
Republikaner von Berks
The American Volunteer
South Bethlehem Star -
Spirit of Berks
The National Educator
Unabhangiger Republikaner -Allentown
Uncle Samuel -
The writer of this dissertation was born at Lower Saucon
(Hellertown) , Pennsylvania, August 27, 1878. He attended the
public schools, and 1894-5, the Keystone State Normal School,
Kutztown, Pa., from which he graduated 1895. After three years
of teaching he studied at the Pennsylvania State College, State
College, Pa. and at Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., graduating
from the latter in the Classical Course (A.B.) 1901. From 1901-
1906 he was Tutor of German and Greek at Lafayette College; 1906 -
1907 Instructor at the United States Naval Academy Preparatory
School, Annapolis, Aid. During the summer of 1903 he attended
Summer School at the University of Marburg, Germany.
In September, 1907 he entered the Graduate School of the
Johns Hopkins University. (During the year 1907-8 he was Instructor
in Latin and German at the College of Notre Dame, Baltimore, Mdj
1908-9 he was University Scholar in Germanics and 1909-11, Uni-
versity Fellow in Germanics). He has studied under Professors
V/ood, Collitz, KIrby Smith, Gildersleeve, Bloomfield, Wilson,
Robinson, Mustard, Hofmann and Roulston.
He takes this opportunity to express his gratitude to them
for the inspiration they have been to him and the helpful en-
couragement they have given him; his especial indebtedness to
Professors Wood and Collitz is hereby acknowledged. Under the
direction of Professor V/ood this dissertation was prepared; to
his counsel and criticism during every stage of its preparation
the writer here bears testimony.
The Johns Hopkins University,
May 1, 1911.