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THE Turkish dominions are about four times as large as France, 
and the Turkish language is spoken not only in them, but it is the 
Court language of Persia and Egypt, and is more or less used from 
the Danube to the Nile, and from Constantinople to the confines 
of China. It is the language of millions of Mussulmans who hold 
some of the most important strategic positions in the world, which, 
if occupied by a more aggressive power, might threaten the liberty 
of the world. Friendly intercourse between Turks and English- 
men, and a good understanding between their governments, which 
have many interests in common, would be greatly promoted by 
Englishmen being able to talk to Turks in their own language. 
The trade which England now carries on with Turkey might be 
immensely developed and extended, if English merchants in the 
Levant, or their employes, could speak and write the language of 
the country, which at present, with exceedingly rare exceptions, 
they cannot do. Our political and commercial interests in Turkey 
are, therefore, at the mercy of Levantine interpreters, who cannot 
be expected to have the good of Turkey or England very much at 
heart; as they are, properly speaking, neither Englishmen nor Turks, 
and they are most often men who possess only a colloquial and 
imperfect knowledge of^Turkish. Their sympathies are generally 
not with the Turks, and the Turks would much prefer dealing- 
directly with Englishmen, if Englishmen could understand them. 
Yet, until quite lately, the number of Englishmen who knew Turkish 
was exceedingly small, and even now there is a wide-spread belief 
in Europe that the Turkish language is scarcely worth learning, 
and that the Turks have no literature, or no literature worth perusing. 
A few years ago the War Office having seen, I suppose, during 

viii Preface. 

the war in Egypt, the difficulties and evils which arose from our 
officers not being acquainted with Arabic or Turkish (which latter 
language is very useful for a military man in Egypt), very wisely 
offered rewards to induce them to study Turkish and Arabic. 
The result has been that numerous English officers have studied 
those languages, and many successfully. If some inducement 
to study Turkish were also offered to civilians by the Govern- 
ment and the London Chamber of Commerce, no doubt English 
Civil servants in the East would, in a few years, be able to do 
business directly with the Turks ; and English merchants would find 
English representatives competent to transact their business and 
extend it by direct communication with the Osmanlis. Englishmen 
are quite capable of acquiring Oriental languages, but one can 
hardly expect them to learn them without some object in view. 
The Germans, who have perceived the importance of having the 
Turks as their allies in the event of a war with Russia, and the 
splendid field for commercial enterprise in the Turkish dominions, 
have lately established an Oriental Academy with a view to teach- 
ing not only diplomatic and consular officials, but mercantile men, 
Turkish, Arabic, and other Oriental languages.^ The German 
merchants in Turkey have already begun to take the trade out 
of the hands of the English ; and if the Oriental Academy in 
Berlin send out men ^conversant with Turkish to extend German 
trade, and the English do not take a lesson from them in time and 
turn their attention to Oriental languages, they will not only not 
obtain the enormous trade which might be done between the Levant 
and England, if intercourse were easier, but lose that portion of it 
which has for many years been almost a monopoly in their hands 
and they will deserve to lose it if they do not bestir themselves 
and take warning in time. 

The Imperial Institute has done England a great service by 

* The Correspondent of the Morning Post at Constantinople wrote in November 
last : " The Imperial visit will increase the tendency which already exists among 
Germans to find a field for commercial enterprise and an opening for military 
and civil official careers in the dominions of the Sultan. It is somewhat humi- 
liating for an Englishman to observe with what persistency the Germans are ai-M-ri - 
ing their commercial position in Constantinople. Already people are beginning to 
ask if Germany is to become the commercial mistress of H'e Levant." 

rreface. ix 

starting a School of Oriental languages, where our countrymen 
have now an opportunity of acquiring Turkish and other Eastern 
tongues. In the excellent speech made by the Prince of Wales at 
the opening of the above institution, His Koyal Highness said : 
" That the New School of Modern Oriental Studies is a worthy 
object of material support by this country none can doubt, but the 
best aid and support it can receive will be derived from the extension 
of an active encouragement by public bodies and by the Government 
departments." The nation will owe His Koyal Highness a great 
debt of gratitude if his sensible remarks convince the Government 
of the importance of their attending to this matter ; for the exist- 
ence and success of such an Academy for Oriental languages must, 
to a great extent, unavoidably depend on support and encourage- 
ment from the State, and the public would now be disappointed if 
it did not nourish, as they have, by the medium of the press, fully 
endorsed the opinion of the Prince of Wales as to it being required 
and deserving of support. 

One great impediment to the acquisition of the Turkish language 
hitherto has been the difficulty students have experienced in finding 
anything to read, after they had learnt the grammar, especially in 
England. This, perhaps, contributed not a little to the idea so 
prevalent in Europe that the Turks have no literature. The Turks 
have a literature, and a varied and interesting literature, but it 
consists chiefly of somewhat rare and costly standard works, 
sometimes only to be found in manuscript; and a collection of 
these involves the expenditure of a large amount of money. A 
Chrestomathy was, therefore, peculiarly necessary for the acquisi- 
tion of Turkish, but not one was to be found in all Europe. The 
only Turkish Reading-book for the use of European students ever 
published was a small collection of tales from the "Forty Vezirs," 
printed by the French Government for the use of the students of 
the Ecole des langues Orientates vivantes, at Paris. It consists of 
some tales in Turkish, without translations or notes, and the 
Turkish text having been printed from an antiquated MS. the 
spelling is so obsolete and defective that the perusal of it is greatly 
impeded, and a student would learn to spell from it most incorrectly. 
Moreover, there is no variety of style, all the tales being from one 

x Preface. 

author ; and even this most incomplete Beading-book is scarcely to 
be had for love or money, as it was published nearly a hundred 
years ago, in the reign of Napoleon I., who was fully alive to the 
importance of a knowledge of Oriental languages, and copies of it 
are now exceedingly rare. I am perfectly sure, therefore, that a 
collection of extracts from standard Turkish authors will be welcome 
to Turkish students, several of whom even have requested me to 
prepare a book of this kind ; but I think, as I have given translations 
in English of all the selections, the volume may have some interest 
for the general public, as they will see from it that there are 
Turkish historians, poets, novelists, dramatists, and journalists, 
whose works possess decidedly some attraction for the student of 
history, the literary man, and the politician. 


" Seek knowledge even in China." 

Words of Mahomet. 

IT will be seen from the words of Mahomet I quote above that it 
is a great mistake to suppose that the religion of the Turks has 
prevented them from cultivating learning and literature. Mahornet 
also said, " It is permitted to the Moslems to possess all sciences ;" 
and again, in another place, he asserted that " Wisdom came from 
poetry " (Inne min-esshiri liilvmeturi), and that "There are treasure 
chambers 'neath the Throne of God, and the keys are the tongues 
of poets/* (" Lillahi Kunuz taht il arshi mefatihu elsinet es shuara.") 
Most Europeans being unable to read Turkish books, and scarcely 
anything from their literature having been translated into European 
languages, it has been somewhat rashly presumed that they possess 
no literature, and some unscrupulous writers have not hesitated to 
represent the Turks as illiterate barbarians. This is very far from 
beiDg the case. The Turks possessed a literature even before the 
conquest of Constantinople, and they have always had the greatest 
respect for learning and admiration for literature, and in no coun- 
try, perhaps, in the world have literary men been so favoured by 
Royalty or so munificently rewarded. Numerous Sultans did not 
think it beneath their dignity to become authors themselves, and 
they delighted especially in the society of poets, historians, and 
other literati. Even the Conqueror of Constantinople, Mahomet II., 
was a poet himself, and he patronised literature not only in his own 
wide dominions but even in other lands. He is said to have pen- 
sioned thirty Turkish poets, and to have sent a thousand ducats a 
year to the Indian Khoja'-i-Jihan and the Persian Jami. Many of 
his vezirs were poets. Two universities were founded by him, 
that of Ayia Sofia and the Muhammedie. Over the public library, 
which he also built, was written this motto: "The study of all 

xii Preface. 

sciences is a divine precept for all True Believers." Mahomet II. 
did not destroy the library of the Greek Emperors. He was him- 
self acquainted with the Greek and Arabic languages and literature, 
and delighted in reading the exploits of Alexander the Great, 
Scipio, Hannibal, and Julius Ceesar. He had several European 
works translated into Turkish. During the reign of the first 
Sultans many Greek and Latin works were translated into Turkish. 
A translation of Plutarch was made by order of Mahomet II., the 
Conqueror, and the commentaries of Caesar were circulated amongst 
the Turks in the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent. Aristotle 
and Euclid are also to be found in Turkish, and it is natural to 
suppose that many other great classical productions were translated 
into Turkish, although copies of them are not now to be seen. 
Historical, astronomical and poetical works are still extant, 
although rare, which were produced by the Turks before they con- 
quered Constantinople. There is a history of the Turks written by 
Ahmed-Ben-Yahya, which was produced in the reign of Orkhan. 
I venture, therefore, to slightly alter the words of Mahomet, and 
to say to the English public, and especially students of Turkish : 
" Seek knowledge even in Turkey ! " Few people know that the 
idea of inoculation came from Turkey, from which country Lady 
Montague introduced it into England. It is possible, therefore, 
that we may learn something more from the Turks fresh facts 
connected with European history, their customs, and their opinions 
of ourselves, if we take the trouble to peruse their literature ; and it 
must not be supposed that the love of literature and the production 
of it in Turkey are things of the past only. One of the greatest of 
modern Turkish writers, Kemal Bey, who only died last year, says : 
"A people without a literature are like a man without a tongue;" 
and he has himself produced poems, novels and dramas, which are 
quite on a level with similar works in European countries. His 
description of London, from which I give an extract hereafter, is 
very clever and interesting, as showing us what impression our 
great capital makes on an intelligent Oriental. 

The Turks possess numerous works on history, geography, 
astronomy, and scientific subjects, but they particularly excel in 
history. Sa'd-ud-Din, who lived more than three hundred years 


ago, wrote a history of the Turks called " Taj-ut-Tevarikh," " The 
Crown of Histories," which is considered one of the finest specimens 
of Turkish prose, and made him immortal. The book is remarkably 
well written, and the facts in it are related with a truthfulness and 
boldness which are very surprising when one considers the age and 
the country he lived in. He was the tutor of Murad III., and he 
had such influence over that monarch that it is reported that 
Queen Elizabeth of England sent him presents to induce him to 
prevail on his sovereign to send a fleet to help the English against 
Philip of Spain, when the latter was preparing the Armada. Sa f d- 
ud-Din was one of the few men who not only could write history 
but make history. He accompanied Sultan Mahomet III. in his 
campaign in Hungary, and the great victory the Turks gained at 
the battle of Keresztes was due in great part to the courage and 
firmness of Sa f d-ud-Din, who prevented the Sultan from flying 
when the battle at first seemed lost. He exhorted his master to 
remain, telling him in the words of the Koran that " Patience 
brings victory and joy succeeds to sorrow/' and the sequel proved 
him to be right. 

Another great historian whose writings are well worthy of 
perusal is Naima. He was one of the Imperial historiographers 
who continued the history of Turkey after Sa f d-ud-Din. His 
works were printed at Constantinople as long* ago as 1734 A.D., 
and consist of two folio volumes. His style is not so ornate as that 
of Sa'd-ud-Din, but it is clear and elegant. It throws great light 
on the history of Europe in connexion with Turkey, and it is 
amusing and instructive sometimes to hear events in European 
history related by a Turk from a Turkish point of view. His 
account of the conquest of Crete by the Osmanlis possesses a 
peculiar interest at the present moment, and I have consequently 
given rather copious extracts from that, from which it will be seen 
that the Turks took the island from the Yenetians, and that the 
population were not very loth to receive the Turks as their 
masters, as the Turkish Generalissimo treated non-combatants 
with a certain amount of wise clemency and forbade wanton 
destruction of life and property. This, and other such facts in the 
history, may probably be depended on, as the author did not write 

xiv Preface. 

for Europeans, and never imagined that his words would be trans- 
lated into English or any other European language. The history 
of Turkey was continued by Rashid Effendi and Chelebi Zade. 
This work also forms two large folio volumes. Amongst other 
curious and instructive things which it contains is a journal kept 
by a Turkish ambassador who was specially sent to the Court of 
France in 1720 A.D. It is very quaint and entertaining, as we see 
from it how European manners and customs really strike a Ma- 
hommedan. He was particularly struck with the respect the men 
in France had for ladies, and their politeness to them. '* The 
French women," he says, "go where they please and do what they 
like. France is a real paradise for women, for there they live free 
from all care, and get everything which they can possibly desire." 

Another great writer was the celebrated Haji Khalife, the author of 
the " History of the Naval Wars of the Turks/' in which he depicts 
in glowing colours the naval achievements of the Turks in the reign 
of Suleyman the Magnificent. The details he gives respecting the 
Turkish Lord High Admiral, Kha'ir-ud-Din, or Barbarossa, and the 
Genoese Admiral, Andria Doria, are very valuable. He wrote many 
other important works on history and geography. 

The Turks always were, and still are, very much addicted to 
writing poetry, for which they have an extraordinary love and 
admiration. High and low amongst them have cultivated poetry. 
The Sultans, themselves, were often poets. Indeed, from Murad II. 
to Murad IV., inclusive, there was an unbroken succession of Poet- 
Sultans. Verses by all these twelve monarchs are still extant, and 
they were not the only Sultans who indulged in verse. It may, 
therefore, justly be said that the Ottoman Sultans have been the 
most poetical royal family in the world. The learned von Hammer 
gives translated extracts in German from more than two thousand 
Turkish versifiers ; but all of these can scarcely be called poets. 
The Turks have, however, produced some really good poets, 
amongst whom we may mention Baki, Mesihi, Nejati, Fouzouli, 
Misri, Kemal Pasha Zade in ancient times, and Izzet Molla, the 
father of the celebrated Ali Pasha (Prime Minister of Turkey), 
Ziya Pasha, and Kemal Bey in recent times. Abd-ul-Hak 
Hamid Bey, at present First Secretary at the Ottoman Embassy in 

Preface. xv 

London, is also a well-known modern poet of great promise. 
Turkish poetry is open to the objection that it is not very original, 
as it is almost always an imitation of Persian poetry; and most 
Turkish poets indulge in such extravagant metaphors and similes 
that their works, if translated into English at all closely, would be 
distasteful to most of us. They have, however, sometimes pretty 
and quaint ideas cleverly expressed, as in the case of Mesihi's Ode 
to the Spring, which I have translated. Probably our poetry 
appears to them rather tame and insipid, so different are oriental 
and western taste. 

In the same way Turkish music is not agreeable to most Euro- 
pean ears, and cultivated Turks have frankly confessed to me that 
they could not appreciate our operas, until they became accustomed 
to them by long residence in Europe. Although Turkish music is dis- 
tasteful to the ears of most Europeans, it is sweet to the Turks, and 
that it is capable of exciting deep feeling is proved by the incident 
which led to the introduction of music amongst the Osmanlis. The 
Turks of Constantinople were without the art of music, it is asserted 
on good authority,* before 1047 Anno Hegirce, when Murad IV. 
captured Bagdad. This cruel tyrant ordered that thirty thousand 
Persians should be slaughtered before his eyes. Before the massacre 
was over, Shah-Kouli, a famous Persian musician, managed to pre- 
sent himself before the Sultan, singing to the harp. His music so 
touched the hard heart of Murad that he burst into tears, and 
stopped the massacre. Murad took him and four other musicians 
back with him to Constantinople, where they introduced the science 
of music. There are even some few works on music written in 
Turkish, but they are rare. One, entitled " Tarif-i-ilm-i-Musiki," 
was written by Prince Cantimir, and dedicated to Sultan Ahmed III. 
It is said to have been once very much in use, but nowadays scarcely 
a copy can be found. The Turks are indebted to Cantimir for 
musical notes, which were first applied to Turkish airs by him. 
Afterwards, however, the Turks again returned to composing and 
executing everything by memory, according to their old custom. 

With regard to fiction, the most famous book is a collection of 

* Toderini, Letteratura Turchesca, Vol. I., page 222. 

xvi Preface. 

tales called the " Kirk Vezir " (The Forty Vezirs). It is a sort of 
Turkish (( Arabian Nights/' but neither so good nor so voluminous. 
Some of the stories are curious and quaint, and valuable as illustra- 
tions of Oriental manners and customs. The style is clear and 
simple, and therefore the book is very suitable for students of 
Turkish, and especially beginners. An abridgment of it, published 
by the French Government, has hitherto been the only Turkish 
Reading-book for the use of Europeans, but it is so full of errors in 
spelling that it is embarrassing and misleading for a learner. The 
" Kirk Vezir " is still popular in Turkey, and printed copies now 
are numerous in Constantinople, several editions of it having been 
printed. The orthography in these modern editions has been 
corrected, and in this form the book is very serviceable for students 
of Turkish, especially as it contains much colloquial Turkish. 
Hence I have given long extracts from it with these improvements. 
During the present generation a number of novels on the 
European model, written by Turks acquainted with the French 
or English language and literature have appeared, some of 
which are very creditable. Amongst these I may mention " Jezmi," 
and the " Adventures of Ali Bey," by Kemal Bey, and Ishtiyak, by 
Mehemet Tevfik, published last year, which one might imagine had 
been written by Alexander Dumas. Numerous translations of French 
romances, such as the " Mysteries of Paris/' have been published, 
and the " Merchant of Venice" and " Othello " have been turned 
into Turkish. Dramatic literature was quite unknown amongst the 
Turks until recently, but now there are several Turkish melo- 
dramas and comedies. The best drama we have seen is one called 
" Yatn " (The Fatherland), founded on the heroic defence of 
Silistria by the Turks, a very good subject for a dramatic author. 
Iki Chaoush (" The Two Sergeants "), by Mehemet Hilmi, is also 
good. These plays, although good reading, are intended for the 
stage, there having been now for some years a Turkish theatre at 
Stamboul. These modern books of fiction, and these entirely novel 
dramatic productions, are not only a sign that the Turks have not 
declined as regards their literary ability, but a decided proof of 




Preface ... vii 

The Literature of the Turks xi 



and Free Translations and Pronunciation .... 1 
Turkish Proverbs and Sayings ....... 1 

Aphorisms 10 

Anecdotes ....... .18 


tions and Explanatory Notes : 


SAD-UD-DIN. Historiographer 25 

The Tyranny of Timour 26 

Timour and the Molla ...... .28 

The Capture of Constantinople . . . . . . .29 

XAIMA. Historiographer 40 

The Conquest of Crete ...... 42 

The Taking of Aya-Todori .50 

The Siege of Canea ....... 60 

Sad-ud-Din the Historian, and Mahomet III., at the Battle of 

Keresztes ....... 71 

Arrival of an Ambassador from England in the time of 

Charles I. 

... oU 

xviii Literature of the Turks. 


RASHID EFFENDI. Historiographer . 82 

Arrival of a Russian Ambassador with Presents, and of a French 
Ambassador with a Letter of Apology from the King of 
France .......... 83 

Journal of Mehemet Effendi, Turkish Ambassdor to France in 

1720 A.D 88 


A Muhammedan Life of Christ . . . . . .97 

Christ's Miracles 100, 105 

The Birth of Jesus 103 

Wonders before Christ's Birth 104 

Raising a Woman's Son from the Dead ..... 105 

A Marvellous Miracle ..... 

The Ascension .106 

SHEIKH-ZADE. Novelist ...... 107 

The History of the Forty Yezirs ... .108 

Dr. Avicenna and the Mice ... 

Christ and the Dead Woman . ... .117 

The Woodcutter's Wife . . i -121 

The Woman with Two Husbands 


The Story of Said 138 

Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent, Poet. Grandeur . 


The Merry Spring 144, 155 

KEMAL BEY. Novelist, Dramatist, Journalist and Poet 


Patriotism .... 

The Adventures of Ali Bey. A Novel . .165 

The Fatherland, or Silistria. A Drama . 

Jezmi. A Novel i92 




MBHEMBT TEVFIK. Novelist 207 

" Ishtiyak." A Novel 207 

MAHMOUD EKREM. Essayist 215 

Love 216 

MEHEMET HILMI. Dramatist . . . * 218 

The Two Serjeants. A Drama 218 

ABOU 'L ZIA. Journalist ........ 246 

Historical Anecdotes . . ... . 247 

Friends .248, 250 

Sim PASHA. Statesman and Orator . . . . . .251 

A Letter to a Writer 252 

Despatch to the Minister of Public Works on the State of Tre- 

bizond ..... . . 254 


Facsimiles of MSS., Turkish Letters and Documents, with Translitera- 
tion and Translation . 260 



3, line 

16, for 

^.aJj! read 



4, ,, 


AJS * 



5) ,5 


jCo ,, 












, 55 


adami ,, 



,5 55 



blind fairy 























^* ,, 

cr ^,l 


,, note 







J^^i 1 








32, note 


foreigners ,, 



44, line 















,, 55 






Musselman ,, 



60, note 


Oakela ,, 





obsolete or provincial ,, 

(obsolete or provincial) 


64, line 


^ I 










height ; 





gigantic walls 

a gigantic wall 





r ~~i 


55 55 








u^ 1 




A O^* " 




1 5. ,. 

6 ^ 






line, for his read his accession in 




6, ,, chronicaling ,, chronicling 



n. - - . - 

, 55 LjT-V " \ t ^Jr 



6, AS-^I As. 3 ^! 




line, ,, ^>.juljj ,, ^^.AJjj 




17, A\ J % ,^ a^^ 



2, l^k* ' UW 




5, ,, j** jj?- c 


JO, ,, a)J ,, *J^ 




17, y, UP^^* " tgA^?* 




15, word world 



5, ,, ^5 > u*^ 




, ,, WkAA ,, _J*?** 




6, dL>jT dkjf 




2, o^ ijJ J^ " cl^^j 1 




9, *Cj1 ***J 




^iXj 1 S*^i 




10, ,, c^jj u?^ 




13, *l i5Jf 



21, ,, jjA ,, ^j^ls 




13, UjJlS UjJli 




1, j** j* 




21, &jj. ,, ^je 



2, .- A-9 U i* iJ L X* 




N.B. In reading the transliteration of the Turkish text in 
European letters, the vowels must be pronounced as in French, 
and the consonants as in English. 

Words marked '' A " are Arabic, and those marked " P " are 
Persian, although used in Turkish. 




^D X jrtv 


olmaz insan insan He mal ' 

does not become man man with wealth 

One does not become a man by wealth. 


dir a'ib tenbellik deil a'ib fakirlik 

is shameful laziness not shameful poverty 

Poverty is no sin, but laziness is. 

olour alim yanile yanile 

becomes learned by making mistakes a man 

By making mistakes one learns.* 

u] / A ur~-; r-r^r^rv/si^ 

olamaz kimeti nasihatin ama dif var kimeti jevahirin Ok/*^*^ , I 
cannot be its price of advice but is existing price jewels Jii 

Jewels have a price, but there can be no price (high enough) for 


gechmaz yaresi namous ama gecher yaresi bicliak 

passes not its wound honour but passes its wound a knife 

A wound from a knife gets well, but a wound in one's honour does not. 

* This exactly corresponds to the Italian proverb : Sbagliando s' impara. 


Literature of the Turks. 








dir aji 


aji dir 



tatli dir 


is bitter 


bitter is 

its fruit 


sweet is 



dir tatli me'ivesi ama 
is sweet its fruit but 

Impetuosity is sweet, but the fruit of it is bitter ; advice is bitter, 
but its fruit is sweet. 

selo^net girlilmaz jennete ibadetle yaliniz 

necessary heart of goodness cannot be entered in paradise by worship only 

One cannot get to paradise by worship alone ; goodness (sound- 
ness) of heart is necessary. 

yoksa seversin enislii mi hi sormoushlar deveye 

or dost thou like the descent (?) that they asked to a camel 

ikisinide sora oldalcdan yuk ode yokoushoumou 

both after having become load he the ascent 

demish alsin^ slieitan 

he said take the devil 

They asked the camel which he liked best, going up hill or down 
hill. He said : " When I have got a load, the devil take them 
both ! " 

achmali buyulc kapousounou ghieurushun He deveji 

must open wide his door who visits with a camel-driver 

He who is on visiting terms with a camel-driver must open his 
door wide. 

* ji> ' is,' is often understood as in this sentence. 

<i ud fri 

... | . i 




cJ * 

o -X>*O 1 ^^ 


,,i'linetJe insan 

ate*hde altov.n 



in trouble man 

in fire gold 

Gold is tested by fire, man by affliction. 

nazikdir ghiulden pek tashdcn insan 

is delicate than the rose hard than stone man 

A man is harder than stone and more delicate than the rose. 

inan ghieuzine kendi ziade seuzinden bashkasinin 
believe to his eye own more than his word of another 

Believe a man's eye more than his words. 

dolmaz torlasi dilenjinin 

does not fill his bag of the beggar 

The beggar's bag does not get full (ever). 

gliezeyor deyneksiz "boulmoush kieui kieupeksiz 

promenades without a stick having found a village without a dog 

He who has discovered a village without dogs, goes walking 
without a stick. 

flemish dell ichun benim demishler chikdi bahaye mourn kieure 

he paid not for me they said have risen in price candles to a blind man 

They said to the blind man : " Candles have risen in price ! " 
" Xo," said he, " they have not for me." 

merkeb yine merkeb yir>e woursen senier altoun merkebe 

an ass still an ass still if you put on a saddle gold to a donkey* 

If you put a gold saddle on a donkey, still he is a donkey, and 
remains a donkey. 

* Merkeb means any beast that is ridden, either a horse, donkey, mule or ass. 
We have something similar in the word ' mount.' 

Literature of the Turks. 

, c c 

wrfer chapa deil dua bagh 

it wants a hoe not prayers a vineyard 

A vineyard does not require prayers, but it does require a hoe. 


nerdiban* kadinler deseler var dughun yuzinde ghieuk 

ladder the ladies if they say existing a feast in the face sky 

JMs ** ,.; 

- V \ci 4J J J 

^Xc^ kalkarlar Jcouvmaglia 

they get up to erect 

If any one said : " There is a wedding feast in the sky/' the 
ladies would begin putting up ladders. 

fcafc ouse khou'iye bakma b<~>.*e bo'iye 

Look! to good behaviour to disposition don't look to appearance to stature 

Do not look at (a man's) stature and appearance; look at his 
disposition and behaviour. 

keserler bashini khorosin euten vakitsiz 

They cut off his head cock crowing at the wrong time 

A cock who crows at the wrong time has his head cut off. 

almali beraber | ^upeyi | gj l ^ en davetine kourdoun 

It is necessary to take together a dog going to his invite of the wolf 
He who accepts an invitation from a wolf must take a dog with him. 

achar f 1ea ou 9] dtmir seuz gliiuzcl 
( kapiyi $ 

opens door iron words pretty 
Nice words open an iron door. 

* ' Nerdiban ' is a Persian word, which the Turks mispronounce and call 


Tnrkisli Proverbs and Sayiuys. 

kou'irougJiina yilanin ouyouyan 
do not tread to his tail snake sleeping 

Do not tread on the tail of a sleeping snake. 

**J> ) JJp >3 

yerde ya erde ya kiz yashinde besh on 

in the earth or married either girl in her '/.; -ag^ fifteen 

A girl fifteen years of age ought either to be married or buried 

besler fareleri beslemeyen kedi 

feeds the mice not feeding a cat 

He who does not feed a cat feeds the mice. 

chikarir delikinden yilani dil tatli 

brings out from his hole the snake tongue sweet 

A sweet tongue brings out the snake from his hole. 

patlar basliina kabak ekenin kabak He sJteitan 

its bnrsts to his head who sows gourd *H&h the devil 

If you sow gourds along with the devil, they will burst against 

your head. 

kazar dishile mezarini yeyen yemek iken tok 

digs with his teeth his grave J dinner being full 

He who eats dinner when he has eaten his full digs his grave with 
his teeth. 

oZo?6r ydkin Bagdad ise e'i refikin 

becomes near Bagdad is good for thy friend 

If your friend (companion) is a good one, Bagdad becomes quite 

Literature of the Turks. 

edersin arslan tawshani eurketma 

you make a lion the hare do not frighten 

Do not cause a hare to take fright or you may make him a lion. 

dir ms/t ibadetin chalishmak 

is the half of religion 

"Working is the half of religion. 

ederler Tiujouin bile tawshanlar arslana eulmush 

attack even the hares to a lion dead 

Even the hares attack a dead lion. 

lalezaridir gliiununun kish kenari atesh 

its bed of tulips is of a winter-day its edge fire 

The fire-side is the tulip-bed of a winter day. 

Tcapilerini kala anakhtar altoun 
opens gates castle key gold 

A gold key opens the gates of a castle. 


kieupekdif ikiside kieupek kara kieupek ak 

a dog is both of them dog black dog white 

A white dog and a black dog are both dogs. 

chikarir tashdan etmeghini olan er 

extracts from a stone his bread who is a man 

He who is a man will extract his bread from a stone. 

merkeb yirte merkeb yitie taksa yoular altoun eshek 
a beast still a beast still if he fix headstall gold an ass 

If an ass has a gold headstall, he is still (only) an ass. 

7V/-/-/X// rrorrrbs and Saytnys. 

does not show 

his tooth 

it isiran 
a dog who bites 

A dog who bites does not show his teeth. 

y tontoulour yoularindan ha/iwan ikrarindan insan 

is held by his headstall a beast by his admission a man 


A man is held fast by his words, and a beast by his headstall. 

lilmaz kadrini insan olmayan insan 

does not know his value a man who is not a man 

He who is not a man does nob know the value of him who is a man. 

deildir serv aghaj ouzoun her 

is not a cypress tree tall every 

Every tall tree is not a cypress. 

dusher yere meive eren kemale 

falls to the ground fruit attaining to perfection 

Fruit which has reached perfection falls to the ground, 

olmaz devlet ghibi kanaat 

is not grandeur like contentment 

There is no grandeur like contentment. 

10 Literature of the Turks. 


dir mizani terakkisinin dereje niswani milletin ~bir 

is its scales of its progress the degree its women of nation a 

The women of a nation are the best measure of the degree of 
progress it has reached.*- (Abd-ul-Hak Hamid Bey.) 

jti *JUU J!^ ^jj^j ^Ixo liUIlr cu*U- JULJ! 

eyyamine zewal evvelinden scibah alemin khilkat insariler 

up to its days disappearance its first morning of the world creation men 

olounmoushdoiM' kho,lTc ichin deukmtlc yaslii gTiieuz chekmek iztirab 
were created for to shed moisture the eye f to suffer tribulation 

Men, from the first morning after the creation till the end of days 
(time), were created to suffer tribulation and shed tears. (Seza'i 

deildir farkli muteharrikden meit insan marifetsiz 

not is different from moving corpse a man without knowledge 

A man without knowledge is like a moving corpse. (E/crem.) 

muattaldir ghibi makina boukharsiz insan umidsiz 

is useless like a machine without smoke a man without hope 

A man without hope, like a machine without smoke, is inactive 
and useless. (Mehemct Nadir.) 

* Many English people will be surprised at this being written by a Turk and a 
Mussulman, a living Ottoman poet, who is at present First Secretary to the Turkish 
Embassy in London. C. W. 

f Tears. 

Turkish Aphorisms. 

1 1 

Utaraflik dir 
impartiality is 

L5 "" ua 


liyuk en 
the greatest 

of the historian 

The greatest quality of a historian is impartiality. (Suleyman 

He mushabihleri 
with fellow creatures 


yine insanleri 

again men 


jelildir fen bir eder 
glorious is art an doing 

khidmet terbiyeye ve talim 

service to educating and teaching 

History is a noble art, which aids the education and instruction 
of men by their own fellow-creatures. (Suleyman Pasha.) 

uzerinde ki dour yol dik kadar o 

on it that is road perpendicular such a 

sarp kadar o zeman 
steep such a time 

always for 

not to fail 

yivarlanip olamaz inumkin t&vctkkuf 
rolling orer cannot be possible stopping 

. > .*** 

eder iktiza chikmak suratle 
it is requisite to ascend with rapidity 

Life (time) is such a steep and perpendicular road that standing 
still is impossible. In order not to roll over and fall, it is 
requisite constantly to ascend with rapidity.* (8ami Bcij). 

* How many English people ever supposed the ' unspeakable ' Turks uttered 
such sentiments as those above ! C. W. 

1 2 Literature of the Turks. 


Tiai ichin kourtoulmak izmihlalden re tedenni urntnet bir 

state for to be saved from disappearance and decline people a 

kuvvetini etmeye terakki da'ima etmeyip Tcanaat He hazif 

its power to make progress always satisfied not being with its present 

iUriletmeye maarifini yaliniz maarifni Idia'ir kha'ir servetini 

to advance its knowledge only its knowledge No ! No ! its prosperity 

must be striven 

A people, in order not to decline and decay, must not be content 
with its present condition. It must always strive to progress. It 
must strive to advance in power and prosperity No ! Mo ! in 
knowledge, only in knowledge. (Sami Bey.) 

up v~^- ^ 

serkhoslilik lakin dour yok mcshroub bir leziz kadar hurriyet 

intoxication but There is not drink a delicious as liberty 


^ h L^-^ *&*s f- 

dir var ilitiyaji mezeye bir denilen itidal ichin vermemek 

there is its necessity appetizer an called moderation for not to give 

There is no beverage so delicious as liberty, but in order that it 
may not intoxicate one, a little something must be taken with it 
called "moderation." (Scnni Bey.) 

* The word meze means a whet before dinner, which it is customary in Turkey to 
take. It consists of salt condiments, or fruit, and Raid. 

7 V / /,:///, Aphorisms. 1 3 

tijarct chikarmakdir elmas kazlp toprak ziraat 

commerce to produce is a diamond digging earth agriculture 

kazanmakdir altoun satip demir 
to earn is gold selling iron 

Agriculture is digging the ground and (thereby) bringing forth 
diamonds ; commerce is selling iron and (thereby) winning gold. 
(Abd-ul-Hals Hamid Bey.) 

dlr padishahi aleminin kendi kimse her 

is the king of his world own person every 

Every one is king of his own world. (Mahmoud Nedim Pasha.) 

hurriyet ita'i millete bir edemeyan takdir hurriyeti kimet 

freedom of the giving to a nation not being able to appreciate freedom the value 

j *jc 

khanjer ~bir aghzina, efradinin millet o etmek 

rebellion of dagger a in their mouth of its individuals nation that to do 

dir gibi vermek 
is like to give 

To give freedom to a nation which does not appreciate the value 
of liberty is like putting the dagger of rebellion into their hands 
(mouths). (Said Bey.) 

silah khayala Ur ichinde zoulmet serzenisli talie 

an arm to chimera a in darkness rebuke to fortune 


dir kabilinder chekmek 

is of the category to draw 

Complaining of fortune is like drawing one's sword against a 
chimera. (Abd-ul-Hak Hamid Bey.) 

14 Literature of the Turks. 

tahassun daire'i mahabetinde beden ve burj ichin kavm bir 
fortification circle in its grandeur walls and tower for people a 

dir mill itihad 

is national unity 

National unity is the best thing to support the walls and towers 
of a nation's grandeur. (Idem.) 

dir liangisi Tcha'irlisi muzafferiyetin 

is which the most advantageous of victory 

ghelen housoula dukulmeksizln kan 

coming to accomplishment without spilling blood 

Which is the most beneficial victory ? 

That which is achieved without shedding blood. (Abou'l Zia 

dir kini sekhi 
is who generous 

j ci^ls*" aJuJU 

malinden bashkasinin ve sekhavet malile kendi 

from his wealth of another and generosity with wealth own 


dir eden siyanet nefsini 

is he who restrains his passions 

Who is liberal ? 

He who is generous with his own property and restrains his desire 
for the wealth of others. (Abou'l Zia Tevfik.) 

* Housoula ghelmek means ' to be realized, accomplished.' 

Turkish Aphorisms. 

zevkinde jihanin olma, inter iven olmak Jiur 

in its amusement of the world do not be if thou wishest to be free 

kederinde gheminde safastnde 

in its care in its sorrow in its pleasure 

If you wish to be free do not enter into the amusements and 
pleasure of the world (nor) into its cares and sorrows. (Zia 

olmaz medeniyet akicamde olmayan tniliyesi akhlak 

does not become civilization peoples in not being national moral qualities 

Amongst nations who have no national moral qualities, civilization 
is impossible (does not exist). (Zia Pasha.) 

buyuk hayatin sefahet kardashi kiuchuk mevtin atalet 

great of life ostentation brother little of death inertia 

dir dushmeni 
is enemy 

Idleness is the little brother of death (half death), and ostentation 
is the great enemy of life. (Kemal Bey.) 

var saadet Ur hakiki {chin insan fanide jihan bou 

be happiness a real for man fleeting in world this 

* Zia Pasha, a really good modern Turkish poet, a couplet of whose we give 
above, was a very remarkable man. Although Secretary to Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz, he 
took up with liberal ideas, and urged reforms on the government. For this he 
was obliged to leave Turkey, and lived for a long time in England in retirement, 
when the author of this volume had the pleasure of meeting him. He did not give 
up the world for ever, as he advises above, but returned again to the Turkish 
Court, got again into favour, and was promoted to the rank of Pasha, which he 
did not possess when I met him. He died only a few years ago. 

1 6 Literature of the Turks. 

gechirmekdir He aUye tefekkiurat ve mutalaat vakitini ode ise 
to pass is with exalted reflections and studies his time that also if there 

In this fleeting world, if there be real happiness, it is passing 
one's time in exalted studies and reflections. (Mustapha Reshid.) 

^J! ^LJl )&>. j> ^XuAJj 

istedighi ani insan Icieuprudur bir olounmousli terfiJc adami beni tali 

that he wished him man is bridge a accompanyings to mankind luck 

Ulir ghetire cliekip tarafa 

it can to bring drawing side to 

Luck is a bridge sent to help men, and a man can pull it and 
bring it in the direction he wishes. (Abd-ul-Hak Hamid Bey.) 

olamaz defn lei meitdir bif olamaz hayatdan erbab tenbel 

cannot be buried which corpse a cannot be of the living a lasy 

he is (person) 

A lazy person is a dead body which does not belong to the living 
but cannot be buried. (Kemal Bey.) 

demekdir bekjisi khazine a'iliksiz ghani olan khasis 

may be called its watchman a treasure without salary a rich man who is a miser 

A rich man who is a miser may be called an unpaid watchman 
for a treasure. (Ekrem.) 

her alisliir sheiye her ki ha'iwandir yharib bir insan 

every gets accus- to everything who an animal is strange one man 
tomed to 

fcorfcar sheidan alishmadighi 

fears thing to which he is not accustomed 

Man is a strange animal who gets accustomed to everything, but 
who is frightened of anything to which he is not accustomed. 
(Kpmctl Bey.) 

Turkish Aphorisms. 

JU*\ *U*=>- J 

i/jcidi>' efkiar kliadim ve alem ibretnuma-i 
peoples is thoughts the servant and the world warning 

mir'&t gliazeta 
mirror a newspaper 

A newspaper is a mirror of the world, containing warnings for us, 
and it is the servant of the thoughts of nations, (Ziver Bey.) 

he lives 



gechewir sayesinde zeman adam 

exists by the help of time a man 

A man exists by the help of time, but he only lives by exertion. 
(Kemal Bey.} 

ghurebadir edeba arasinde tdebler bi 

foreigners are literary men amongst the illiterate 

Literary people are like foreigners amongst the illiterate. (Ekrem.) 

were it 

lazim vouroulmak kilid dihanine edebsizlerin 

necessary to put a lock to their mouth impudent people 




servetlerile chilinghirler miyanindd sana'i asliab 

acquire with their wealth locksmiths among 



they would 

If it were necessary to put a lock on the mouth of impertinent 
people, locksmiths would become famous for their wealth amongst 
artisans. (A lou'l-Zia.) 

1 8 Literature of the Turks. 


eder tnwngcMt berbere bir ichun olinak trash adam bir 

has recourse to a barber a for to be shaved man it 

merkoum Tceser yerini leach bir ederiken trash bashini herijin 
the aforesaid cuts places few a while shaving his head the fellow 

lyVet /i-a< ifci berbere chikaroup beitinje oloup trash 
he gives pay gold two to the barber taking out to his house being shaved 

hajamet biride trash biri mcrkowm bakinje yuzine berber 

cupping one shaving one the aforesaid on looking to hia face the barber 

der pareai 

is its money 


A man went to a barber to get shaved. While the fellow was 
shaving his head f he cut some places in it, the aforesaid person 
having been shaved, and being about to go home, took out double 
the price and gave to the barber. The barber having stared at 
him, he said : " One (the half) is for shaving and the other is for 
cupping me." 

* De means *' also," and follows the word it applies to. 
f The Turks have the tops of their heads shaved. 


ca, . ^i 

^ 3 \ 

^ j^i ^ j, Lr ^ 


pek altnifh 

satoun * ev 

feir uzerinde jadde bir khasis 


very having 

bought house 

a on highway road a miser 


b-irinc hich 


istermi&h sadaka glielov.p^ dileryiler 


to one any 

the miser 

wished alms coming beggars 



&** ' 

f ! ^l uuAJic " ^yi^ ; ^i 




ol6 inayet vermeyoub shei 


dismissed (them) 


be ! grace not giving thing 




satalim evi 
let us sell house 

bou yahou ghiun 
this Oh ! (God) day 




ise chok 

if they be many 

its beggars 

He said 




chok daha 
much more 

khasis denje chok 

the miser on saying many 



in me 


A miser having bought a house on a high road, very many 
beggars came and asked for alms. The miser did not give 
anything to any of them, and sent them away, saying : t( May 
God show you favour/' || One day his wife said : " Oh, God ! let 
us sell this house. There are so many beggars here/'' The miser 
replied : " No matter ! If the beggars be many, I have more 
Inayet ole's [" May God show you favour " s] than there are 

* Or satin. f Or ghelip. 

J Bende, ' in me,' is equivalent to ' I have.' 

The singular is often used in a collective sense for the plural. 

|| This expression is always used when one wishes to get rid of a beggar. 

c 2 

2O Literature of the Turks. 

i ^ -^/J^ 

olmazden sabah gheje her kiuchiuklughinden So^di sheikh meshour 
it became morn night every from his childhood Sadi Sheikh celebrated 

L^AJO ,tX> t ^ i.Qi.'V ^j.) 

"beraber pederil6 ve dourour yaninde pederinin kalkoiip ev-vel 

together with his father and stands at his side of his father rising Before 

j. .. *- t- .. j .. 

kalkdi He veje mutadi gejt bir yine" sheikh eiler-idi-ibadet 

rose as usual night one again the sheikh they worshipped 

her bashka kendisinden v& pederinden ichinde khane fakat 

every except himself and his father inside house but 

boularin baksdniz pederine de ghieuroup oldouklarini ouyoumakda kessin 

of these look ! to his father seeing that they were in sleeping person 

liU birisi hich ichoun etme ibadet ouyouyorlar nasl hepsi 

even not one of them for to worship they sleep how all 

ghibi anlar d6 sen keshki pederi denje" kaldirmayor bashini 

like them also thou would that his father on saying does not raise his head 

gJiieurniaya'iden kousouTini a'ibini kimsenin olsa'iden ouyoumoush 

you had not seen his defect his fault of no one you had slept 

he said 


The celebrated Sheikh Sadi in his childhood used to get up every 
night, just before daybreak, and stand by his father's side and say 

* Or ichin. 

Anecdotes. 21 

his prayers with his father. One night he got up as usual, but 
seeing that everybody in the house but his father and himself were 
still sleeping, he said : " Look ! see how they are all sleeping ! Not 
one of them even raises his head for devotion." His father replied : 
"Would that you were asleep too, so that you could not see any- 
body's faults and failings." 

diivanelerin beste-i-zinjir ghidip khaneye timar biri Jierifin 

maniacs chained going to a madhouse one fellow 

uzer6 eghlenmek douroup euninde penjeresi bir malialin oldoughou . 
to amuse himself standing in front window a place where they were 

ghieurunje bounou de liri diwanelerden chikarmish tishari dilini 

seeing this one from the maniacs stretching out his tongue 

** * +*- ! 

tie zwjirsiz zinjirli olounmaz sual hikmetden reb ya aman 

how many and not chained chained is not asked from wisdom Lord oh Dear me ! 

* d6mish va>r diwan6lerin 

he said there are madmen 


A fellow went to a madhouse, and, standing before the window 
where the chained lunatics were, amused himself by putting out his 
tongue at them. One of the maniacs seeing this, said : " Dear me, 
Oh Lord, thy ways are inscrutable. What a lot of lunatics there 
are, some chained, and some unchained !/' 


Literature of the Turks. 

dedikde aghlayorsin ne chojouglia bir boulounan aghlamakde birisi 
on his saying are you crying what to child a who was crying someone 



amn de etdim glia'ib * ghrouslii bir verdighi anamin 

I have lost piastre a which she gave of my mother 


de al verip ghrousli bir ana de zat o der aghlayorim 

take givings piastre a to him also person that he says I cry 

detect evvelkinden alip parayi chojouk denje aghlama artik 

more than before taking the money the child on his saying do not cry anymore 

*Jt> ^.^J 

sorouldoukda deye agJilayorsin nicliin shindi bashlar aghlamaglia ziade 
having asked saying do you cry why now he begins to cry more 

tfei shindi olmasa'iyidim etmisJi ka'ib verdighini-de anamin eyer 

two now I had not lost what she gave of my mother if 

der aghlayorim ichin anin olajagliidi gliroushoum 

he saya I cry therefore would have been my piastres 


Some one said to a child who was crying : " What are you crying 
for ? " The child replied : " Because I have lost a piastre which 
my mother gave me." The gentlemen gave him another piastre, 
and said : " Take that, and cry no more." Whereupon the child 
took the money, and began to cry more than before. The gentle- 
man asked : " What are you crying for now ? " The child replied : 
" If I had not lost the piastre which my mother gave, I should now 
have had two ! " 

* Generally pronounced ka'ib in Turkish. 





Sad-ud-Din is the most celebrated of Turkish historians. His great 
work, called p}\ r^ (TaJ-ut-Tevarikh) , 'The Crown of Histories/ 
is remarkable for the elegance and grandeur of its style and 
the truthfulness of the author. This work gives the history of 
the Ottomans from the earliest times up to Sultan Selim I. Sad- 
ud-Din was the tutor and historiographer of Sultan Murad III., 
and also of Mahomet III. He was a great favourite with both, 
and his influence and advice to the latter, whom he accompanied 

'to the war in Hungary, was the cause of the Turks achieving a 
grand victory, in 1596 A.D., over the Archduke Maximilian and the 
Imperialists, when the Sultan, despairing of success, had wished to 
retreat. Sad-ud-Din's courage and eloquence at the Battle of Ke- 

\ resztes, when, after two days fighting, all seemed lost for the Turks, 
induced the Sultan to remain, and led to a crushing defeat of the 
Christians in the East. Fifty thousand Germans and Transylvanians 
perished in the marshes or by the sword, and ninety cannon were 
taken by the Turks, who, at the beginning of the battle, had lost 
all their own. Sad-ud-Din died Mufti of Constantinople in the year 
of the Hefira 1006, that is to say about three hund?*ed years ago. 
The extracts made in this volume are taken from a beautiful manu- 
script, once the property of the celebrated Orientalist Silvestre de 

* Kindly lent to mo by Mr. Quaritch, whom I hare to thank for the loan of 
several other rare works in Turkish. 

26 Literature of the Turks. 


a ^/a*j J> j 

2 jiial 

. ^j Jo) 

*i>1 ^AJ (*-<*>** _j ^.U ^v> 

- ' 

Jlf <&Jol L^UJl kxii W is 



\ \ 23 
^w*v^ . . . 2i 


* 1^4*1 

p j Vj> . , ^ L] u; ^- , ^ 

(1) A. Mutetebba, ' who follows.' Mutetebba-i-assar, ' one who reads works.' 
(2) A. Muteialli, ' one who studies.' (3) P. Shinass, ' one who knows, or is 
acquainted with.' (4) Ba*i' Naarde, 'at the first glance.' (5) Ihsas, 'feeling.' 
(6) Meham, ' important affairs.' (7) A. TaltJirib, ' ruining.' (8) A. Khulk, 'nature, 
disposition.' (9) Siret, 'course of life.' (10) A. Matmah, 'an object one has in 
v i ew .' (ii) Serir, ' a throne, government.' (12) A. Mahkiuk, ' scratched out.' 
(13) MesUkiuk, ' doubted.' (14) A. Fazz, 'a brutal fellow.' (15) A. Nedemter'am, 
'the twin-brother of repentance,' i.e. 'which will be rued.' (16) A. Vfo^efret, 
' disgust.' (IV) P. Bed-kirdar, ' whose deeds are evil.' (18) P. Sitem-kiar, 'oppres- 
s { ve> ' (19) p. Merdum-o.zar, 'vexing men.' (20) A. Seba, ' a wild beast ' (a lion). 
(21) P. Pelenk, 'a leopard, panther.' (22) P. Nam-niku, < good name.' (23) Ghoul 
kirdar, ' monstrous.' (24) Nwma, ' a favour.' 

* Timour the Tartar, better known in Europe as Tamerlane, was one of the most 
formidable enemies the Ottomans ever had to encounter, and he nearly overthrew 
their empire. His name ' Timour ' means ' Iron ;' but he was also called Timour 
lenlc, which signifies ' Timour the Lame,' he having been lamed by a wound he once 
received : the European word Tamerlane is a corruption of this. He was a greater 
conqueror than even Alexander. Caesar, or Napoleon, and shed more human blood, 
and caused greater misery in the world, than any man who ever lived. 

Ancient Writers. 27 


Those who study the history of Timour, see at the first glance 
that liis object was to destroy countries, and to sow disorder and 
trouble amongst the worshippers (of God). The tendency of his 
disposition, and the aim of his rule, was the destruction of the 
world, and torturing mankind. Mercy and compassion were 
'erased from the page of his heart/ and conscience he had none. 
He was* a hard-hearted brutal man, who looked upon the slaughter 
of infants, and plunder, as good deeds. He had unlimited 
courage for rapine and destruction, and in the places where he 
set his cruel foot he was universally detested. He was an 
oppressive, tyrannical doer of evil. His heart was of stone, and 
he was like a wild beast. He limped* in his efforts to make a 
good name. Wherever his filthy soldiery whose deeds were like 
those of ghouls-^ appeared, they plundered and destroyed crops 
and agriculture, root and branch, and all the blessings of God. 
Wherever he halted, safety departed therefrom ; and wherever 
he dwelt, it seemed as if the last day had arrived ; and if he 
traversed a country, no countpy remained afterwards. 

* This refers to Timour being lame, and means that he was lame in mind as well 
as body. 

f Ghoul (JyO means ' a demon, 3 or ' goblin.' 

28 Literature of the Turks. 


(1) Usually spelt O LX- , although pronounced seltsen. (2) Foute, a kind of apron. 
(3) P. KhanM, 'laughter.' (4) P. Bisiar, ' much.'- (5) Fiddeh, ' silver.' (6) A. 
Z6heb, 'gold.' (7) A. Hibe, ' to present gratis.' 


Timour (Tamerlane) having come to the country of Roum-f 
(Turkey), liked to converse with Molla Ahmedi. One day he 
entered a bath, and said to the Molla : " State what you think 
the value of each of the commanders (gentlemen) in the bath." 
The Molla set a price on each. Timour then said : " Value me 
also/' The Molla priced him at eighty akche% (about l^d). Timour 
said : <( You have not done me justice. That amount is only the 
price of a foute (an apron) ." The Molla said: "I meant only the 
price of an apron ; or rather, that you are not worth a farthing." 
This pleased Timour. He involuntarily laughed, and made the 
Molla a present of all the gold and silver vessels in the bath. 

* y^. , A., when pronounced Mevla, means God, 'the Lord,' or 'Master.' No, 
means in Arabic 'our.' Thus Meclana signifies ' Our Lord ;' a title applied to God, 
and to any high dignitary of the law. When pronounced Molla, it means ' a judge ' 
of a large town. 

f The Eastern Empire, or Turkey. 

An aJccJie was about ^ of a penny. 

Ancient Writers. 



(1) P. Mar-peiker, ' serpent-faced.' (2) P. Azhder-ser, ' dragon-headed.' 
(3) A. Talih, ' to arrange, settle in battle array.' (4) Azb, the name of a body 
of troops under the old Turkish system. (5) Muvekkel, ' appointed.' (6) An 
Arabic sentence taken from the Koran, meaning : ' Wherever you may be death 
will reach you.' (7) P. Noumoudar, 'an example, likeness, like.' (8) A. Mareke, 
'a battle-field.' (9) Kiouka, 'a kind of ship' (obsolete). (10) Serev, 'spars.' 
(11) P. Dnuzakhi, ' one who is doomed to hell.' (12) Keshef-var, ' like a tortoise.' 
(13) A. Itale'-lissan, ' abuse.' 

3 Literature o the Turks. 

'1 LSj'iSjl VOjJJl (^C J y . JliU V 

(1) Fighting. (2) P. Gliiousli, ' the ear.' (3) P. Housh, ' intelligence, mind, sense.' 
()Melam, 'reproach, rebuke.' (5) P. Enjam, 'the end, upshot.' Thus melam- 
enjam means 'pioductive of rebuke, reproach.' (6) A. Me/tour, 'inclined by 
nature.' (7) Gharazendoud, 'interested.' (8) Arabic words from the Koran which 
mean: 'Then Eoum (Greece) will be opened to you.' (9) Other Arabic words 
meaning : ' The greatest fight will be the conquest of Constantinople.' (10) A. Idad, 
'preparing.' (11) P. Jilregher, 'coquettish.' (12) P. Khujeste, 'auspicious.' 
(13) A. Tekelluf, ' labour and bother.' (14) A. Berid t 'a courier; ' 'a running foot- 

Ancient Writers. 31 

9 8 

i . / 10 / . / -9 

ija/LJ zitS^ ^,S Ar^\j 8J;i.s 

" J J V " >^/ 

(1) Difficult. (2) P. Ead-pa, 'a horse swift as the wind.' (3) P. Tekia-poui, 
'running here and there, seeking.' (4) Illiam-pezir, 'inspired.' (5) P. Kishver- 
ghir, 'conqueror of countries.' (6) P. Dest-yari, 'assistance.' (7) P. Khoudadad, 
'the gift of God.' (8) P. Neshib, 'a descent.' (9) Firaz, 'an ascent.' (10) P. 
Kiouli-shukiouli, ' majestic as a mountain.' (11) P. Dilirun, ' brave men.' (12) Tekir, 
or jj*& Tekfour, 'the Greek Emperor.' (13) Mourdar (moundar], 'filthy, unclean.' 
(14) P. Na-bekarin, ' worthless.' (15) Distracted. 

32 Literature of the Turks. 

ibl jjJJUU* <xU>J! 

*Uul liUj^l 4 J^ 3 

(1) Rcnjide, ' annoyed.' (2) P. Bighiane, 'foreigners.' (3) P. Qhiwouh, ' people.' 
(4) Error. (5) A.Makhazil, 'rascals.' (6) P. Erzan, 'cheap.' (7) P. Barou-efken, 
' overthrowing castle walls.' (8) Adrianople. (9) P. Dervaze, ' a gate.' (10) P. Tar, 
' a cord.' (11) A. Evtar, pi. of J) vatr, 'a cord, string.' (12) Intention. (13) A. 
Dcy-jour, 'darkness.' (14) P. Daver, 'a monarch.' (15) Victorious. (16) P. Nize, 
' a dart, javelin.' (17) P. Mihr, ' the sun ' ; mihr iltima, ' shining like the sun, glit- 
tering.' (18) A. M ezmoum, ' blamed, detestable.' (19) P. Tarim, ' the sky, heaven, 
a dome.' (20) P. Charum, ' fourth.' (21) P. Tigh, 'a sword.' (22) P. Bi-Dirigh, 
^ever-failing' (which never refuses). (23) P. Furough, 'light, splendour.'^ (24) 
P. Piramen, 'circuit, inclosure, environ.' (25) P. Efroukhte, 'lighted, on fire, illu- 
minated.' (26) P. Sourkh, 'red.' (27) P. Ze'rd, ' yellow.' (28) A. Muzcyyen, 'or- 
namented. (29) P. Bam, 'the dawn.' (30) A. Reu-ah, 'the evening time.' 

Ancient Writers. 


AvJ Jo! ^U 

.UjJjj Jjj 

c y 


- 3 


(1) A. Nesoubat, 'rewards promised for good actions.' (2) Pollution. (3) Sins. 
(4) P. Ahenk, 'intention.' (5) Nimble. (6) A. Bat/, ' injustice.' (7) Like a 
spider. (8) The belly.- (9) A.Idbw, 'retrogression,' 'adversity.' (10) A window. 
(11) Opening. (12) An owl. (13) P. Asliyan, 'a nest.' (14) Unlucky. 
(15) Flying, adj. (16) A hook. (17) Seeking, desiring. (18) A river, torrent. 
(19) Swiftly running. (20) That very moment. (21) P. Shir, 'a lion.' 
(22) P. Nakhjwr-ghir, 'a hunter.' (23) To be let loose. (24) P. Baran, 'rain.' 
(25) P. Hemvare, 'continually, constantly.' (26) P. Shital etmek, 'to hasten.' 
(27) P. Birehne, ' bare, naked.' (28) P. Peikan, 'an arrow.' (29) Plural of JJ", Tcebd, 
' the heart, the liver.' (30) Yalashmak, ' to lick.' (31) A moment, instant, time. 

34 Literature of the Turks. 

(1) Doing his utmost. (2) Bearers. (3) A. Melhouz, ' anticipated, expected.' 
(4) Inverted, turned upside down. (5) Sdkar -mohair , 'whose abode will be in hell.' 
(6) Where ? (7) A. Mefer, '& place of refuge.' (8) Qhiriz, ' flight.' (9) Small. 
(10) Number. (11) Fire (12) P. Kine, 'rancour, malice.' (13) The breast. 
(14) Dark, gloomy. (15) The harvest, produce. (16) To reap. (17) Shedding, 
scattering. (18) Like. (19) Suffering. (20) Directing against. (21) To desire. 
(22) The last spark of life. (23) P. Him, 'fear;' Bim-i-jan-iU, 'in desperation.' 
(24) P. Zin, ( a saddle.' (25) P. Khalc, ' earth.' (26) P. Mourche, ' a little ant ; the 
marks on Damascus steel.' (27) A. Merhem (melhem], ' a plaster.' (28) P. KTiadem, 
' servants.' (29) A. Hashem, ' retinue.' (30) P. Der-hem, ' in confusion.' (31) P. 
' procrastination.' 

Ancient Writers. 






(1) Tenfil, 'giving the whole of the spoil to soldiers.' (2) Day and night. 
)) P. Dest, 'the hand. 5 (4) Gherden, 'the neck. 5 (5) Intentions. (6) A sword- 
alt. (7) Female slaves, girls. (8) Like the honris of paradise. (9) A. Zuabe, ' a 
tuft of hair, forelock.' (10) P. Khouban, 'Belles.'- (11) Sweet smiles. (12) P. 
Behremend, 'participating.' (13) A court, gate. (14) A. Zejr, 'restraining.' 
(15) A. Kaza-maza, ' which must be executed. 5 (16) A. Ham, ' making known.' 
(17) A. Meserret, 'joy. 5 (18) P. Aram, ' repose.' (19) P. Niyyam, ' scabbard. 5 
(20) Sitting in a corner. (21) A. Zulal, 'sweet-water. 5 (22) A. Newal, 'grace, 
favour.' (23) A. Ghoubar, ' dust.' (24) P. Ghirudar, 'conflict, fighting.' 
(25) Efforts. (26) A. Nakous, ' a bell.' (27) P. Ghiul-bangh, ' the Mussulman call 
to prayer.' (28) A. Zemzeme, ' a soft murmur of voices. 5 (29) Nuwa, ' note, 
tone.' (30) A. Eda, 'grace of manner or tone.' (31) P. Pur, 'full.' (32) A. 
Esnam, ' idols. 5 (33) A. Khasis, ' ignoble. 5 (34) A. TaTchliyye, ' emptying, or 
evacuating. 5 

D 2 

36 Literature of the Turks. 



(1) The impure, or the dirty, pi. of ,^-si nejis. (2) Crime, filth. (3) Making any- 
one a son, adopting; probably referring to the Christians calling Christ the Son of 
God. (4) Cleaning. (5) Old, ancient. (6) PL of mihrab, a niche in the wall of a 
mosque indicating in which direction one ought to turn when praying. (7) PI. of 
minber, ( a pulpit.' (8) A convent. (9) Heaven. (10) Places of worship, pi. of Xiu, 
ma'led. (11) Kef ere, ' infidels ;' pi. of JX Tcafir, ' an infidel, pagan.' (12) PI. of J~sr 
mesjid, 'a small parish mosque.'' (13) Pious people; pi. of j'o barr. (14) Successful. 


(The Turks) planted the aforementioned serpent-faced * and 
dragon-headed^ cannon in the requisite positions, and constructed 
intrenchments. The Janissaries and the Azebs were entrusted 
with the duty. They made the gate and walls and fortifications as 
full of rents and holes as the hearts of lovers are full of groans, and 
they widened the breach made by the repeated blows of the tre- 
mendous " castle-levelling" cannon. The fire from the mouths of 
these iron-bodied and fiery-muzzled engines (of destruction) spread 
confusion and dismay amongst the infidels. The smoke, which rose up 
to the sky, prevented any one seeing any thing, and the bright day 
became like dark night, and the face of the world became as dark 
as the fate (which awaits) unbelievers. The arrow from the bow, like 
an envoy, conveyed to the wretched f ear of the stupified enemy, in 
a loud voice, the following message (from the Koran) : " Wherever 
you may be death will overtake you." ...... 

However, the stone cannon-balls, and the musket bullets, which fell 
like rain, destroyed many a martyr, who were strewn like a bed of 

* These compound Persian adjectives continually occur in Sad-ud-Din's work, 
and form one of the beauties of it, but when translated literally into English, as 
is necessary for the learner, they may sound peculiar, or even awkward ; but we 
have similar expressions in English, as, for example, Richard the Lion-Hearted. 

f Bi-souroush means, literally, ' without a guardian angel.' 

Ancient Writers. 37 

tulips, and the ground was rod with the blood of our champions of 
religion, and the battle-field covered with casques and helmets. 

In the meantime two large vessels, whose masts reached the sky, 
came, bringing- succour from the Franks. The devils who were in 
them entered the fortifications and began stopping the breaches and 
holes, and driving the Mussulman army from the fort. Then the 
infidel children of the devil put out their heads from the walls and 
abused us. 

Those amongst the great men in the government (pillars of the 
State) who agreed with Khalil Pasha, and approved of relinquishing 
the combat and making peace, argued that it was impossible to 
conquer, and urged our victorious sovereign to retreat ; but he, being 
by nature averse to giving ear to crude advice, or listening to 
talk "which leads to sorrow," took no notice of their perverse and 
interested counsels, and remained steadfast in battle, with the oulema 
and the sheikhs, and cast into the ditch of death the ungrateful 
creatures of God who defended the walls with arrows and other 

Sheikh Ahmed Kourani,one of the oulemas, and Sheikh Ak Shems- 
ud-Din,one of the doctors of Law and Divinity, and the Yezir, Zagtous 
Pasha, opposed peace and conciliation, and exhorted the glorious 
troops, saying : ft It is a sign of want of resolution to withdraw one's 
hand from the hem of victory;" and explained the promise implied 
by the words (of the Koran): "Then Roum (the Eastern Empire) 
shall be opened to you (conquered by you) ;" and gave them to 
understand that it was necessary to use every effort (as it was said 
in another place) " The greatest battle will be the conquest of Con- 
stantinople." (Hence) the valorous men in the Holy War prepared 
to sacrifice their lives for the sake of religion, and the battle-field 
was illuminated night and day by the flashing of their swords. 

(However) as the goddess of victory was coquettish in making 
her appearance, the ingenious monarch assembled his brilliant- 
minded commanders, and said : " Entrance on this side is stopped 
by a deep ditch, and the means of guarding and defending it are 
numberless. We cannot cross the ditch without much trouble, nor 
can the courier of our thoughts find a place through which to pass 

38 Literature of the Turks. 

over the ramparts. There are three walls. It is waste of time to 
work only on this side. By operating (warring) in one place only 
victory will be difficult, and it will cause the death of a large number. 
It is necessary to find a way to attack the fortifications on the side 
of the sea." 

(However) as a chain was drawn over the Strait (canal) dividing 
Galata and Constantinople, closing it against the passage of ships, 
(the above idea) was beyond the range of ordinary possibility ; how- 
ever much the great men of the State thought the matter over they 
could come to no conclusion. Finally, it occurred to the mind of the 
inspired monarch that they should drag ships from the direction of 
the new Fort (Yeni Hissar), and bring them round the back of 
Galata to the sea, and guns round to attack the fortifications 
from the direction of the sea also. The execution of this idea 
was one of those things which are ordinarily impossible, but by 
the help of the divinely-inspired monarch it was easily carried out. 
By the astounding arrangements of his skilful mechanicians they 
dragged great ships along on greased rollers over the rough ground, 
uphill and down dale. They erected a bridge on these ships, and 
breast- works, and ranged valorous troops and intrenchments as 
extensive as Constantinople, before the eyes of the unbelievers. 

The unclean Emperor of the Greeks, hearing that there were 
breaches in the direction of the sea, sent an additional division of 
the infidels to that side. Distracted by the breaches made in 
numerous places, he was forced to attend now to this side and now 
to that, and entrusted the stopping of the breaches made on the 
south side of the Adrianople gate to the Frank soldiers. His own 
soldiers were annoyed by this, and uncomfortable because he had 
not entrusted the defence of the place which required the greatest 
zeal of all to them, and that he had confidence in strangers. Hence 
disturbance arose amongst them; and this state of things caused 
disorder amongst these misguided people, and increase of good 
fortune to our glorious Sultan, and was a joyful sign that the star 
of his hopes was in the ascendant. 

As soon as the mighty Turkish heroes ascertained that the affairs 
of those rascals were upset, and that they were in a state of alarm, 
they stormed the breaches on the south side of the Adrianople gate ; 

Ancient Writers. 39 

but when they were about to climb up the ramparts " with the rope 
of perseverance/' the scouts of the night appearing on the western 
horizon, our valourous monarch ordered his glorious troops to fix 
lanterns and lighted candles on their javelins and spears to throw light 
on the detestable people, and thus give splendour to the flashing of 
their own unfailing swords, "until the torch of the Fourth Heaven 
shone," in order that the infidels should have no repose, and no time to 
stop their breaches. In accordance with the royal command the front 
of the fortifications, and the circuit of the ramparts were lit up, and 
they made them, as it were like a rose-garden decorated with red 

id yellow roses and tulips. From dawn to evening, and from 
evening to morning, they fought steadily, like religious heroes, and 
they cleansed the stain of sins from their garments in the water of 

The leader of the Frank rascals who were fighting with our heroes, 
having mounted on the ramparts to repel the champions of religion, 
a valiant nimble youth climbed up the castle wall like a spider, 
and, drawing his "crescent-like" sword, with a single blow caused 
his owl-like soul to fly from the unclean nest of his body. 

As soon as the Franks saw the plight their leader was in, they 
withdrew their garments from the clutches of war and all took to 
flight, and rushed down to the sea to join their ships like an 
impetuous torrent. Immediately our champions of religion, like 
lion-hunters, without delay, disregarding the shower of arrows and 
stones, and the cannon and musketry continually being fired, bravely 
entered the battle-field, and looking upon the breaches as the gates 

of victory, hastened to the places they had demolished They 

bared their swords and fought, and their javelins and arrows drank 
the heart's blood of the hardnecked people/* In a moment they 
mounted the walls and planted the flag of victory there, and with 
the tongue of the sword proclaimed the triumphal verses (in the 

The wretched Greek Emperor, busy repelling the besiegers of the 
fortifications, in his palace situated to the north of the Adrianople 
gate, did his utmost to defend the approaches to it. Suddenly he 
became aware that the " Flagbearers of the Word of God " (i.e. the 

* This means the people who refuse to hear Mahomet's teaching. 

40 Literature of the Turks. 

Mussulmans) had found their way into the fortress, and knowing 
that his hopes were blighted, and the flag of his fate overthrown, he 
rushed out of the palace. Cursing his unfortunate lot, that infidel 
(whose abode will be in hell) fled, crying : " Where is there a place 
of safety .V Meeting a small group of the heroes who were cheerfully 
engaged in gathering the spoil, the fire of malice in his gloomy 
breast was kindled ; with his sword he reaped the harvest of their 
lives, and his " blood-shedding " sword drank the blood of those 
inoffensive men. 

Amongst them, one of the Azeb soldiers, who was helpless and 
wounded, his blood flowing in a stream, fell down and was bathed 
in his gore. The Greek Emperor noticing this suffering man raised 
his sword, wishing to extinguish the last spark of life in him. The 
poor wretch made a supreme effort, and, with the help of God, tore 
that enemy of religion down from his saddle, and, felling him to the 
ground, knocked him on the head with his Damascus blade. His 
decapitating the Emperor was a plaster to his own wounds, and put 
the Emperor's servants and retinue in confusion and disorder, and 
they vanished from sight. Losing all ardour for fighting, not one 
dared to handle his sword, and (the Mussulmans) opened the gates, 
and the glorious (Turkish) troops outside the walls began to enter 
in the presence of their proud sovereign. 

By permission of the Sultan they were allowed to sack the town 
for three days and nights, and being attracted by the black-eyed 
(Greek) girls they feasted the eyes of their hopes with the sight 
of beauties whose smiles were like sugar. 

On the third day the officers of the Court, in accordance with 
the royal orders, restrained the heroes who were engaged in plunder. 
They stopped their hands and controlled their avarice, and proclaimed 
that the royal command, which must be obeyed, required that mercy 
should be shown. The King's orders being obeyed, their swords 
were sheathed .... In a word, with the sweet water of the imperial 
grace, the dust of combat was layed. Arrows were thrown away 
and bows trodden under foot. (Thus) the land which had been the 
abode (nest) of infidelity became the threshold of glory and good 
fortune .... By the laudable efforts of the Sultan, instead of the 
evil sound of the disreputable Church-bells the Mussulman call to 

Ancient Writers. 

prayer, aiid the sweet murmer of voices repeating the confession of 
faith, five times a day, was substituted. The ears of the people of 
the world were filled with this sweet sound. The churches in the 
city were emptied of their vile idols, and cleansed from their 
impurities. The old rites were changed, and Mihrabs and 
(Mussulman) pulpits being erected in them, many chapels became 
like Paradises. The temples of the infidels were turned into the 
mosques of the faithful. The splendour of Islamism drove away 
the legions of darkness from the ancient abode of the infidels, and 
the darkness of wickedness disappeared on the announcement of 
the glad tidings of the Faith ; and the orders of the august monarch, 
which all must obey, became supreme in the management of that 
new dominion. 

42 Literature of the Turks. 


is, perhaps, the most celebrated historiographer, after Sad- 
ud-Din. He gives the annals of the Ottoman year by year from 
Anno Hejirae 1000 to 1050. His history was one of the first books 
ever printed in Turkey, and appeared in print in the year Anno 
Domini 1734. It consists of two thick volumes, in folio. His style 
is clear and good, and the facts he gives are sometimes remarkably 

The Conquest of the Island of Crete. 

^'*ir* M 

(1) P. Asitane, 'a threshold,' 'a royal court,' 'Constantinople.' (2) A. Dar-us 
Seadet, 'the house of felicity,' i. e. the Sultan's harem. Dar-us-Seadet-aghasi is the 
title of the Sultan's chief eunuch. (3) A. Sar, 'vengeance.' (4) Ak-Deniz, 'the 
Mediterranean.' (5) One who comes close to the sovereign ; henoe ' a cour- 
tier.' (6) P. Silahdar (silihdar"), 'an esquire, or sword-bearer.' (7) Kapou- 
dan, 'a sea captain ;' Kapoudan Pasha, 'Lord High Admiral.' (8) Serdar, 
' Commander.' 

Ancient Writers. 43 

^l LJ'O J, 

(1) Karardade, 'settled, resolved.' (2) P. Sipahsalar, ' Commander-in-CHef,' 
(3) A. Eltaf, pi. of lutf, ' favours.' (4) Sheref, ' honour.' (5) A. Housaheret, ( re- 
lationship by marriage;' from^-o silir, 'a son (or brother) -in-law.' (6) P.Nam-zed, 
'betrothed.' (7) A. Nafil, 'an engagement present.' (8) At meidani, ' Hippro- 
drome,' (a place in Constantinople). (9) A. Nazir, 'overlooking.' (10) A castle ; 
a royal pavilion. (11) P. Dilara, 'charming.' (12) A. Ghiurfe, 'an upper chamber.' 
(13) P. Bi-hemta, 'unique.' (14) A. Muzayaka, ( inconvenience, pressure, obstruc- 
tion.' (15) P. Shahnishin, 'a balcony, or bow-window.' (16) A. Izale, 'to remove.' 
(17) A. Tevsi i-tarik, ' to widen a road.' (18) P. Nuicazish, 'a caress, kindness, 
attention.' (19) A Amim, 'general.' (20) A. Kuzat is the pi. of Kazi, or Kadi, 
' a judge.' Two of these, called Kazi-i-asker, or ' judges of the army,' one for 
Roumelia and one for Anatolia, exercised the office of supreme judges in Con- 
stantinople, although at first they were only the judges of the array. (21) P. Khet- 
~k~huda, 'a steward, manager, warden' (generally pronounced Kiaya). (22) Chor- 
baji, 'the master of a household, or a shop ;' ' colonel of the Janissaries, in former 
times. 5 

44 Literature of the Turks. 

u , \ 

u f.2; ^^J 

^1 Cl 


(1) A. Simmir, ' a companion.' (2) TesJchir-etmeJc, 'to conquer.' (3) Kalyon, 'a, 
man-of-war.' (4) Sha'ika, a Saic, ' a kind of ship.' (5) P. Lengher-endaz-ol'mak, 
( to anchor.' (6) 7ouwalak t 'a ball, bullet.' (7) Kazme, 'a pickaxe.' (8)Kiurek, 
'an oar.' (9) Or *)!? JeWchane, 'a powder magazine, or powder in store.' J.Za-i- 
jebkJiane, 'armoury implements. 5 ' (10) Lewazim kala-gliiri, 'necessaries for a siege/ 
(11) Bi-hissab, ' innumerable.' (12) P. Numoune-i-numa, ' setting an example.' 
(13) A. Mukaddeme, 'the advanced-guard.' (14) Ghaza, ' a holy war, crusade.' 
(15) P. Ba-vekar, 'dignified, majestic.' (16) Rodos, 'the island of Rhodes.' 
(17) A. Azim, 'departing.' (18) A. Sudde, 'a threshold;' Sudde-i-Saadct, ' tho 
threshold of felicity,' the seat of empire, the capital. (19) A. Ulela'in, ' accursed 
people.' (20) Yedeklemek, 'to tow.' *(21) P. Firkh&nde, 'happy.' 

Ancient Writers. 



? 1 .^ <)uLcJs" 

Jib I 

(1) Jeza'ir, ' Algiers.' (2) Ojak, ' a colony, a corps,' and especially the corps of 
the Janissaries. (3) P. Muta, ' obeyed. 3 (4) A. Mulhak olmak, 'to be joined, 
attached.' (5) Joush-ou-Khouroush, 'commotion, ebullition.' (6) P. Sipehsalah, 
' a captain, or commander-in-chief, of an army.' (7) Derya, ' the sea.' (8) A. 
Tedaruk, 'preparation.' (9) A. Ihtimam, 'effort.' (10) Tersane, 'an arsenal.' 
(11) A. Amir, 'busy,' 'public.' (12) A. Biz-zat, 'in person.' (13) Teshrif etmek, 
( to honour.' (14) A. Sefa'in, pi. of Sefine, ' vessels.' (15) Donanma, ' a fleet.' 
(16) A. Ihzar, ' bringing into one's presence, producing.' (17) Perseverance. 
(18) A. AST, 'the time for the afternoon prayer.' (19) A. Azimet, 'departing.' 
(20) Shenlik, ' rejoicings.' (21) A. Sefr, * a campaign, or expedition.' (22) Bahr~ 
i-Sefidj'ihe Mediterranean.' (23) P. Sadulan-lcuslia'i, 'unfurling sails.' (24) Sakiz 
'the island of Scio.' (25) Selanik, ' Salonica.' (26) Liman, 'a harbour.' 
(27) Rodos, ' Rhodes.' (28) Kadirghe, ' a galley.' (29) A. Tenlih, 'giving notice.' 
(30) Anatoli, 'Anatolia.' (31) Sivas, ' a town in Asia Minor.' 

4 6 Literature of the Turks. 

^j JM ^) > %-fj sjoj j, * <.*, s. 


*U. Mj ^ CJj J, ^ " Jjj^, ^j _, 




(1) X'armcwi-, ' Caramania.' (2) Damen-lous, 'kissing the hem of one's garment.' 
(3) A. Mezlier, ' a recipient.' (4) Iltifat, ' favours, attentions.' (5) A. Istirahat, 
' rest.' (6) GhieucJimek, ' to migrate.' (7) Firtina, 'a storm.' (8) Zuhour etmek, 
'to appear, arise.' (9) Prakende, 'scattered.' (10) P. Perishan, 'in disorder.' 
(11) Midilli, 'Mytelene.' (12) Mulaki olmuk, ' to meet.' (13) Otouralc, 'a halt.' 
(14) OtaTc, or otagh, ' a large tent.' (15) Mir-i-Miran, ' a governor of a district, with 
the rank of lieutenant-general.' (16) A. Musherref, 'honoured.' (17) Ser-efraz, 
' who holds up his head,' ' exalted.' (18) P. Kiamkiar, ' successful.' (19) A. Tatyib 
etmek, 'to make pleased and happy.' (20) A. Jihad, ' the good fight.' (21) A. 
Terghib, 'inciting.' (22) AktarmaTc, 'to turn over.' (23) Kiurek. 'an oar,' 'the 
galleys.' (24) Peida olmalc, ' to appear, arise.' (25) A. Muwufi'k, ' favourable.' 

Ancient Writers. 



29 i.. 




.. 32 




(1) A. Shiddet, 'violence.' (2) Sha'ika, 'a kind of vessel called Sa'ic.' 
(3) Bourtoun, ' a lighter, flat-bottomed barge, store-ship.' (4) Choka, ' the 
island of Cerigo.' (5) P. Dour, ' far off.' (6) A. Te-essuf, ' regret.' (7) P. 
i&r (meyer), ' but.' (8) Venedik, ' Venice.' (9) Ghirid, ' Crete.' (10) A. Im- 
dad, ' help, assistance.' (11) A. Seba, ' a zephyr.' (12) P. Eeftar, ' walking.' 
(13) Barout, ' gunpowder.' (14) Dane, ' A cannon, or musket-ball.' (15) Kour- 
shoun, 'lead.' (16) Khumbara, 'a bomb.' (17) TufenJc (Tufek), 'a market.' 
(18) Fitil 'a wick of a candle,' 'a quick-match.' (19) P. Malamal, 'quite full.' 
(20) P. Kirdighiar, ' God.' (21) A. Kahmet, ' trouble;' Bi-zahmet, 'without trouble.' 
(22) P. Jenk, 'war, battle.' (23) A. Fal (Fe'l), 'an omen.' (24) Khiyam (pi. of 
*** Khaime), ' tents.' (25) Tirabalous, 'Tripoli.' (26) Tounous, 'Tunis.' 
(27) Mulalcat etmek, ' to meet.' (28) P. Seraser, ' from end to end.' (29) A. Khilat, 
'a dress of honour.' (30) P. Ser-bulend, 'their heads high.' (31) Enghin, 'the 
open sea.' (32) Salmak, v.n., 'to rush;' v.a., 'to send, cast.' (33) A.Kiyas, 'think- 
ing, supposing, calculating.' (34) Davet olounmoA, ' to be summoned, called.' 
(35) Khat-i-sherif, ' an imperial decree.' 

48 Literature of tlie Turks. 

(1) JbrajB, 'displaying.' (2) A. Hazmoun, ( sense.' (3) A. Ham, 'to make 
known.' (4) A. Keshf, 'revealing. (5) P. Raz, 'a secret.' (6) A. Feth, 'conquest.' 
(7) Hania, ' Canea.' (8) Bouroun, ' a nose, cape, promontory.' (9) A. Bi, ' by;' 
inayet, 'grace;' Allah, 'God;' Bi-inayet-i-'llahi, 'by the grace of God.' 
(10) A. Eyyam, ' days.' (11) A. Latif, ' pleasant.' (12) Asia, ' not at all.' 
(13) A. Mutela'id, ' distant.' (14) A. Sherbet, ' majesty.' (15) A. Mahabet, 
' dreadness.' (16) IJcindi, ' the prayer in the middle of the afternoon, or 
the time thereof.' (17) A. Kharabe, ' deserted.' (18) Glvieuzju, ' a scout.' 
(19) A. DuTchan, ' smoke.' (20) Sechmek, generally means 'to choose,' but here it 
means 'to discern.' (21) Lights. (22) Yanmah, 'to burn.' (23) A. Fil-hal, 
' immediately.' (24) Firkate, or eLs/ firlcatein, ' a frigate.' (25) A. Reis, ' a cap- 
tain.' (26) A. HaMoul, ' killed.' (27) P. Zinde, ' alike.' (28) Akhz olounniak, 
' to be taken.' (29) Ihtiram, ' respect, veneration;' Sahib-i-ihUram, 'a possessor 
of respect,' *. e., ' respected.' (30) P. Kenar, ' the shore.' (31) DeuTcmeTc, ' to 
pour, pour on.' (32) A. Koura, pi. of *>/ Kartyye, ' a village, ' (33) Buyout, pi. 
of o~? beit, ' a house.' (34) A. Kvfar, pi. of >Us Kiafir, ' an infidel.' (35) P. Tar- 
mar, or Tar-ou-mar etmeJc, ' to scatter, demolish.' (36) P. Ser, 'a head.' (37) P. 
Pishyhiah, ' the front.' (38) Qhaltan olmak, ' to roll,' v.n. (39) A. Sahri, ( early in 
the morning.' 




21 i i .. 20 i.. .1 19 -\\ n 18 


.. 17 

40 i . . 39 i ... ^ 38 37 


(1) Dolashmak, 'to go round.' (2) Muhimat, 'military stores, ammunition.' 
) Ikhraj olunmak, ' to be got out.' (4) Hisar, ' a fart.' > (5) A. Muhasere, 
siege.' (6) Tevejjuh olmak, 'to turn one's face towards, proceed towards.' 
A. Nisf-u-'l-leil, ' midnight.' (8) A. Sabah, ' morning.'^9) A. Nehr, ' a river.' 
)) P. Khoshgliiuvar, ' delicious.' (11) Aram etmek, ' to rest.' (12) P. Dushmeu, 
m enemy.' (13) Erislimek, 'to reach, to come up.' (14) P. Avaze, ' a rumour, a 
)ice.' (15) A. vis?, ' origin, foundation.' (16) Kha'iU, ' much, many.' (17) Tufek 
atmak, 'to fire a gun.' (18) A. Bein, 'between,' (19) A. Es-salatein, ' the two 
prayers.' (20) Kala, ' a castle.' (21) A. MukabeU, ' the front.' (22) A. Jisr, 'a 
bridge.' (23) P. Senghin, ' of stone.' (24) A. Kurb, ' vicinity.' (25) Tepe, 'a, hill.' 
(28) A. Nuzoul, ' descending.' (27) A. Taraf, ' a side, direction.' (28) Farigh-u-l- 
Bal, 'free from care, light-hearted.' (29)P. Bagh' a vineyard.' (30) Bagche, 'agarden.' 
(31) A. Eswab, 'clothes.' (32) P. Ghiran, 'heavy, dear;' baha, ' price ;' Ghiran- 
taha, ' high-priced.' (33) A. Muzeyyen, ' adorned.' (34) A. MutaJishem, ' respect- 
able.' (35) A. Zerk, 'enjoyment.' (36) A. Nansour, ' vi-torious.' (37) A.Makhour, 
'subjected.' (38) P. Sour.' merry-making.' (39)Basmak, 'to put down, suppress.' 
(40) A. Ghana'im, ' plunder. 3 (41) P. Bi'$humar, ' innumerable ' (42) A. Mvqtenim, 
' seizing ' (booty). (43) A. Wafir, ' abundant.' (44) A. Mai, ' wealth.' (45) A. Esir, 
1 a prisoner, slave.' (46) A. Tedbir, ' arrangement.' (47) P. Ghiriftar, ' seized.' 
A. Ra'aya, ' subjects, peasants.' (49) Iff a 7, ' children.' 


50 Literature of the Turks. 

3 - j.J t \>: '. S . . . \ I \ 2 | '\ .. t | . ,-s . . ^ .t ..,/ 1 

17 JJU 

(1) A. Niswan, ' women.' (2) In'am, ' to bestow favours on.' (3) Azad, ' free.' 
(4) 7/irafc, 4 burning.' (5) MemaUk, ' territories.' (6) Kat, ' cutting.' (7) A. 
Eshjar, ' trees.' (8) A. Katl, ' killing.' (9) Men etmek, 'to prohibit.' (10) A. 
Jenab, ' honour, excellency.' (11) A. Merhamet, * mercy.' (12) Istima etmek, ' to 
hear.' (13) A. Memleket, 'a country.' (14) Ordou, 'an army.' (15) A. Zakhirr, 
1 provisions.' (16). A. Khidmet (hizmet), ' service.' (17) A. Ma'il, ' inclined.' 
(18) A. Jezire, ' an island.' (19) A. Ka'il olmak, ' to consent, be satisfied.' 


Events of the year 1055 (Anno Hejirce] and tlie commencement oj tlie Holy War 

in Crete. 

It having come to the ears of the Sultan that some Maltese ships, 
as mentioned in the preceding year, had seized on the vessel of 
His Majesty's chief eunuch going from Constantinople to Egypt,* 
the Sultan exerted himself with a view to taking vengeance 
on the infidels, and an expedition in the Mediterranean was 
ordered ...... 

It was resolved that Yusuf Pasha, formerly Sword-bearer, and 
one of the high officials in the Imperial Seraglio, who, leaving 
there had become Lord High Admiral, should be the commander of 
the Imperial fleet, and, by the wish of the Padishah, the title of 

* The Sultan Ibrahim at first wished to send armaments against the Knights of 
Malta, but he was persuaded, not to attempt the conquest of Malta, which even the 
great Suleyman had failed to accomplish, but to wreak his vengeance on the Vene- 
tians who held Crete, a rich island conveniently situated for annexation to Turkey, 
and who had permitted the Maltese to anchor with their Turkish prizes on the 
south coast of that island. Venice was at peace with Turkey, and offered apologies, 
which the Turks pretended to accept, but only the better to surprise the Venetians. 

Ancient Writers. 

ralissinio of the land and sea forces was added to that of Lord 
llio-h Admiral. In addition to these favours he was honoured by 
being made a son-in-law of the Sultan, and thus raised above his 
iVllow statesmen. He was affianced to a daughter of His 
Majesty, two years of age, and orders were given for the betrothal 
presents to be prepared. The palace of Ibrahim Pasha, over- 
looking the Hippodrome, was repaired, and one or two charming 
royal pavilions, and a peerless upper chamber, were added to it. 
The arrangements for the betrothal were set about energetically, 
the roads were widened through which the presents would pass, 
md balconies in them which blocked the way were demo- 
li>hed ...... 

When His Excellency Yusuf Pasha was honoured with these 
bvours and attentions, and was entrusted with such important 
latters, he at once set about making arrangements, and sent 
lessen gers to the two Kazi-Askers (the Supreme Judges of the 
army) with commands ...... The province of Roumelia was 

conferred on Kiuchuk Hasan Pasha, who had been removed from 
Bagdad, and he was sent that week to Salonica, to assemble the 
army of Roumelia, and to await the Lord High Admiral on the 
coast of Ben ef she. Murad Agha, the Kiaya of the Janissaries 
from Zagherji-Bashlik, coming from Bagdad, was appointed to 
the expedition, in the stead of the Agha of the Janissaries ; and 
Samsounji-Bashi Ibrahim Agha, Khaski Ali Agha, with other 
colonels of the Janissaries, were ordered to join it. One of the 
Yezirs also, Bosnavi Koja Mousa Pasha, was sent with the expedi- 
tion, to be a companion and coadjutor to the Commander-in-Chief, 
so that they might manage the war well. 

Hasan Pasha proceeded to Salonica and summoned and assembled 
the commanders of Roumelia. Upwards of fifty merchant vessels 
were hired from these parts, laden with provisions for the above 
troops, and sent before the Imperial ships. Ninety men-of-wav 
and Saics * came to Salonica, and fifty vessels to Cheshme, and 
anchored in the harbours; and these ships were loaded with ammu- 
nition fifteen thousand quintals of gunpowder, fifty thousand 

~ A kiu-1 of vessel now out of fashion. 

K :> 

Literature of the Turks. 

iron balls, and fifty pieces of cannon, pick-axes, oars, and other 
armoury implements, and innumerable siege requisites 

The naval commanders, the advanced-guard of the Holy War, in 
the meanwhile, began to come and prostrate themselves in the 
Majestic presence of the Generalissimo. Amongst these, the sons 
of Mimi Pasha, leaving Rhodes for Constantinople, while on their 
way, having reached the port of the island of Eskeri, one of the 
Mediterranean islands, encountered a Maltese vessel from that 
port carrying thirty-six infidels, captured it, and put the accursed 
(wretches) in chains, after overcoming them with the sword. They 
then took the ship in tow, brought her to the Generalissimo, and 
received dresses of honour, and other favours. This episode was 
regarded as a happy omen of victory 

Orders were sent to the regencies of Tunis, Tripoli, and Algiers, 
and letters from the Grand Vezir, saying that there would be an 
expedition to the Mediterranean in the spring, and that they should 
all be ready with their ships and join the Imperial fleet. The 
people of the regencies, on being invited to the Holy War, were in 
a state of great ebullition, and answered that they were ready to 
serve the Sultan with body and soul, and were awaiting the arrival 
of the Generalissimo. 

The Padishah, taking a great interest in the preparations for 
sea, and the affairs of the expedition, honoured the Imperial dock- 
yard every day with his presence, exerted himself about the ships 
of the fleet and the siege requisites being got ready, and carefully 
attended to naval and military matters. On Wednesday, the 22nd 
of the month of Safer, about the time of afternoon prayer, the officers 
and colonels of the Janissaries were invested with war dresses of 
honour, and then immediately orders were given to start. The Lord 
High Admiral, Yusuf Pasha, also sailed for the Mediterranean on 
Sunday, the 4th of Eabbi-ul-Evvel, with a large fleet and great 
rejoicings on the expedition, said to be, to Malta. On their arriving 
at the island at Scio, the Bey of Rhodes, Ibrahim Bey, known as 
Kara Khoja, was sent, with eight fine galleys, for the ships in the 
harbour of Salonica, and notice was given for them to assemble in 
the harbour of Kizil Hissar. On entering Scio, Ahmed Pasha, 
Commander-in-Chief of Anatolia, came, with the Beys of Sivas, 

Ancient Writers. 53 

Karamania and Anatolia, to do homage, aud had favours bestowed 
on them. On the 25th of Rebbi-ul-Evvel the troops from Anatolia 
embarked, and with forty Saics anchored in the harbour of Scio. 
After eight days' rest they proceeded to Kizil Hissar harbour. On 
their way a great storm arose, and the ships were scattered and 
thrown in disorder. Veli Bey, the Bey of Mytelene, proceeded and 
directed all to assemble at a place called Termish, and in three 
days forty-nine vessels came together. The Co mmander-in- Chief 
of Roumelia, Hassan Pasha, also, with the troops from his province, 
on the 24th of Rebbi-ul-Evvel, began to move. The troops from 
Roumelia passed Kizil Hissar, and on the first of the month 
>f Rebbi-ul-Akhir came to the shores of Termish, and, with 
linety-eight vessels and a large quantity of stores and ammunition, 
joined the Imperial fleet. 

The next day a halt was ordered, and early in the morning 
Yusuf Pasha, disembarking from his galley, all the noble com- 
manders of the Musselman army, together with the " Mirmiran " 
(Lt.-General), Hassan Pasha, came into a large tent and had the 
lonour of kissing the hem of the Generalissimo's garment (paying 
their respects) and receiving Imperial favours. The august Com- 
lander-in- Chief encouraged every one of them, and incited them to 
bhe Holy War. . . 

Kara Batak Bey, of Coron, embarking on board his frigate, cap- 
tured a ship from Crete, and bringing it to the Lord High Admiral 
lad a dress of honour conferred on him. The twelve infidels who 
on board of her were put to the oars (condemned to the 
lleys). The next day they moved on, and when opposite the 
coast of Benefshe a mighty wind arose. Although it was favour- 
able, it was so violent that the fleet put into harbour, and some 
Saics and store-ships (barges) rowed for Cape Mania. Some 
of the commanders who were at sea, finding it impossible to put 
into harbour, fell off to the island of Cerigo. 

While they were regretting that they were separated from the 
Generalissmo, by the grace of God they fell in with a fine ship sent 
from Venice to the assistance of Crete, which was full of gunpowder 
and cannon-balls, bullets, bombs, muskets and matches, which 
they captured without fighting; which was really a blessed omen. 

54 Literature of the Turks. 

There were several unbelievers in the ship who were put to the 
oars (condemned to the galleys) 

Orders had been given to the members of the expedition to 
prepare for a war with Malta. The troops landed and went into 
tents, and they fastened the vessels of the Imperial fleet. 
While there, Abdur-Rahman Pasha, the governor of Tripoli and 
Tunis, came with eight galleys and a great lot of men, and joined 
the fleet. The commanders of Morocco, and their sea-captains, and 
the officers of the Janissaries, had dresses of honour bestowed on 

them While everybody was under the impression that they 

would start from the port of Navarino for the open sea, the admirals 
and captains were summoned, and an Imperial Decree produced and 
explained to them ordering them to proceed on an expedition to 
Crete. The secret was thus divulged, and they then started 
straight to Cape Canea, for the conquest of Crete. 

It happened fortunately that, by the favour of God, the weather 
being fine and the wind favourable, the vessels of the fleet were not 
at all separated from one another ; they sailed majestically and im- 
posingly that day, and at night anchored near the island of Cerigo. 
The next day they sailed again about the time of the afternoon 
prayer, and on their reaching the desert island, called Siklaya, in 
the vicinity of Crete, some infidel scouts made it known to Crete by 
smoke that the fleet was coming. In the evening the mountains 
of Crete were discernible, and lanterns were lit on board the ships. 
The wind being strong the army of the Moslems immediately 
anchored on the shore of Crete. Then at once the aforementioned 
captain of a frigate, Kara Batak Bey, turned about and went to the 
island of Sekliya to gain intelligence of the enemy's movements, 
and two of the infidel scouts were killed in fight and four taken 

That day the Moslem army, with the Generalissimo, landed on 
the shore, and immediately demolished the villages and houses of 
the unbelievers, and a few infidel heads rolled before the Com- 
mander-in- Chief. On Saturday, early in the morning, they rounded 
Cape Kilij, and anchored in a place like a harbour, between Todori 
and Crete, and disembarked. The infidels did nob sbow their 
heads. The Governoivgeneral of Koumelia, Hasan Pasha, with 

Ancient Writer*. 55 

the troops from Roumelia, and the Kiaya of the Janissaries, 
Mourad Agha, and Samsounji Bashi Ibrahim Agha, at the head of 
the Janissaries, after having taken put ammunition from the ships, 
proceeded, in the evening, in the direction of the Fort of Canea, 
for the siege of which orders had been given. They went on that 
night, but rested from midnight until morning. During that time 
a report was spread that the enemy had come up, and until it was 
announced that it was without foundation, several shots were 
fired. The next day, between the two prayer times, the Moslems 
descended on the hills near the stone bridge opposite the castle of 
Canea, and while the unbelievers in this part were enjoying them- 
selves, decked out in their finest clothes, quite free from anxiety, in 
the vineyards and gardens, our victorious troops suddenly put a 
stop to their joy, took enormous lots of booty, much wealth and 
many prisoners. But, by one of the merciful arrangements of the 
Commander-in-Chief, when the peasants captured by the Turkish 
troops, and the women and children of the villages were brought in, 
he rewarded the brave soldiers, but set their prisoners free, and 
forbade the troops to set the country on fire, or to cut down trees or 

to kill captives The inhabitants of the country who heard 

of this clemency on the part of the Commander-in-Chief, came from 
all parts to the camp and served it with provisions, and were well 
disposed to the Moslem army, and agreeable to the island becoming 

* It appears that the native population hated the rule of the Venetians, and were 
not unwilling to change masters. See Creasy's " History of the Ottoman Turks," 
vol. ii., p. 25. 

56 Literature of the Turks. 


(1) A. Mudevver, ( round.' (2) A. Saghir, ' small;' put in the feminine by the 
addition of to agree with ^ja. jezire, an island, which is feminine. (3) A. Tarof, 
' side, direction.' (4) Yalin, ' bare, naked.' (5) Or U bay a, 'rock.' (6) A. Hisar, 
' a fort, castle.' (7) A. Metin, ' strong, firm.' (8) P. Nigheban, or ^tklC nigiah- 
lan, ' a guardian, protector.' (9) A. Shekl, ' form.' (10) A. Vaki, ' situated.' 
(11) P. Diwar or domvar, ' a wall;' T. L ^ ; ^.^ diwarji, * a bricklayer.' (12) A. Arz, 
' breadth.' (13) A. Dira, the Turkish yard (30 inches). (14) A. Irtifa, ' height.' 
(15) P. Khusrevane, 'princely, royal,' from jy->, khusrev, ' a prince.' (16) Bal- 
yemez (j+> Jl>), 'of large calibre,' ' culverine.' (17) A. Zakha'ir, 'provisions.' 
(18) P. Malamal, ' full.' (19) Y.Balater, ' higher.' (20) A. Muliafiz, ' a protector, 
guardian, governor.' (21) P. Outside. (22) P. Zirter. ' lower.' (23) A. 
Kharis, ' drinking,' ' who drinks.' (24) P. Enderoun, ' interior.' (25) A. Kabze, 
1 the grip of the hand ;' ' handle (of a sword).' (26) A. Teskhir, ' conquest.' - 
(27) A. Vasil, 'arriving.' (28) P. Khaksar, 'vile, contemptible.' (29) A. Musha- 
hede etmek, ' to see, observe.' (30) A. Muliasere, 'to besiege.' (31) A. Metanet, 
' strength, firmness.' (32) A. Itimad, ' confidence.' (33) A. Jumle, ' all.' 
(34) Inmek, ' to descend.' (35) Jem olmak, ' to assemble.' (36) P. Leshkcr, 
'troops.' (37) A. Kudoum, 'approach.' (38) A. Muntezir, ' expecting, awaiting.' 
(39) P. Kamkiar, 'successful, fortunate.' (40) A. Mira-liiva, 'a major-general,' or 
a governor of corresponding rank. (41) YenicJieri, ' Janissary.' 

Ancient Writers. 



i i I i 19... 

24 23 i i i x .. i 22 1 1 i .. i 21 

<O .XC Jo !. &d.)A5iXlul <v!k^- <O<XxX9 t i. il. I 

28 i ' . 27 i . t 26 

**t. i v__>j tx> 

31 i i 30 ci 




(1) Tirabolous, ' Tripoli.' (2) Sandal, 'a ship's boat.' (3) A. Safct'Z, 'shore.' 

(4) P. Mii/an, ' middle.' (5) Farmafc, ' to arrive/ ' to go on furlough,' ' to go 

slose to / ^j\ s A)ia.y Kojaye varmak, ' to get married/ (6) P. Bala, ' high.' 

-(7) A. Jidal, ' fighting, quarreling.' (8) A. Kabz etmek, ' to seize.' (9) Al es- 

ibah, ' in the morning.' (10) P. Shenbe, ' Saturday.' (11) A. Rebi 1 , ' the spring 

season / the name of two Muhammedan lunar months, the first called Rebi u'l-Evvel, 

ind the other Rebi' u'l-akhir. (12) P. Rezm, ' combat.' (13) Bashtarda, or s^kiU, 

' a galley.' (14) A. Iktida, ' following, imitating/ (15) Kadirgha, ' a galley/ 

(16) Maghouna, 'a barge/ (17) A. Sada, 'sound.' (18) P. Asiman, ' the heavens, the 

sky, a ceiling.' (19) Pe'iveste, P. adj., ' reaching, attaining;' T. adv. 'uninterrup^ 

jdly/ (20) Heman ol-saat, ' immediately, at once.' (21) Ikhraj olumak, l to be 

iken out, extracted.' (22) Hau'ale etmek, 'to direct against.' (23) Ghazi, 'a 

champion of the faith.' (24) A. Ghairet, ' zeal.' (25) Bir oghourdan, ' all at once, 

all together/ (26) A. Hujoum, 'attack.' (27) Alam (pi. of ^ alem), ' flags, stan-, 

lards.' (28) P. Nusret enjam, ' victorious/ (29) Nasb, ' setting up/ (30) A. Me'-. 

lous, ' despairing/ (31) P. Bi, f without ;' din, A. ' religion ;' bi-din, 'an athei&t, 

irreligious person/ (32) P. Hilekiar, 'crafty/ ' a knave/ (33) P. Kiunyhere : > 

'crevelated battlements of a castle/ 'a small tower/ 'a hill-top, peak/ ' tho 

summit.' (34) A. Mubarek, ' blessed ;' but with the Persian privative particle 

na before it, it means just the reverse, i.e., ' accursed.' (35) A. Beyaz, ' white. 5 

- (36) A. Makrama (mahrama}, ' a pocket-handkerchief.' (37) A. Iz<.tihani, ' a 

crowd, multitude/ 

5 8 Literature of the Turks. 

(1) A. Erlab-zelal, ' people in error.' (2) Firar etmek, ' to flee.' (3) P. Amade, 
' prepared.' (4) Laghem, ' a mine.' (5) Atesh, ' fire.' (6) Zir-zemin, ( a sub- 
terranean place.' (7) A. Eflalc, ' the heavens.' (8) P. Pertab, ' a jump.' 
(9) Kebab, ' roast meat.' (10) P. Birian, ' roasted.' (11) A. Kiram (pi. of ^^> 
kerirn), ' noble.' (12) A. Liam (pi. of ^J leim), ' blameable, vile, base, worthless.' 
(13) A. Ejsam (pi. of r * jism), 'bodies.' (14) A. Toume, 'prey-food.' 
(15) P. Raclmedar, 'pierced, rent, breached.' (16) A. Zafr-karin, 'whose com- 
panion is victory,' i. e. ' victorious.' (17) P. Delirane, ' valiant.' (18) P. Yekser, 
( all at once, all together. (19) P. Tigh, * a sword, dagger,' ' the prow of a caique,' 
1 a sun-beam.' (20) P. Abdar, ' watered, 5 ' tempered,' ' lustrous.' (21) P. Kellc, 
' the head, pate;' T. Ghiullc, ' a cannon-ball, a shot;' P. Kiule, 'a, cap, spire.' 
(22) P. Feravon, ' abundant.' (23) P. Bahadur, ' a hero.' (24) P. Shadman (or 
jli shad (shaz), or ^Uli shadan), ' delighted, merry, happy/ (25) A. Badu, ' after- 
wards.' (26) A. Safa, ' purity,' ' freedom from care,' ' enjoyment ;' ^1U. ^U-* safayi- 
khatir, ' peace of mind, without anxiety or scruple.' (27) Leman, ' a harbour.' 
(28) A. Rahat, ' repose, comfort.' (29) P. Resan, ' which brings.' (30) P. Asovde, 
' at rest, tranquil.' 


A little island, three or four miles round, near to the island of 
Crete, which has two strong forts, built on the solid rock, a mile 
apart, one 011 each side of it, which are called the Castles of Aya 
Todori, stands like a sentinel near the district of Canea. The 
breadth of the walls was fifty yards and the height twelve, and 
each of them was full of enormous heavy cannon and ammunition, 
and provisions. These two ports, of which one, the higher, 

Ancient Writers. 59 

di'lVndrd the outside, nnd the other was near the interior sea, were 
cnptnred in four hours. 

The vile unbelievers perceived that the Imperial fleet hud 
reached the harbour, and they knew that it would besiege them. 
Believing in the strength of the lower fort, they all descended 
and collected there, and awaited the approach of the Moslem 

The Commander-in-Chief, after having despatched troops in the 
riight in the direction of Canea, disembarked the Governor of 
Amasia, Ahmed Pasha, and the Bey of Terhale, Ahmed Bey, and a 
portion of the Janissaries and of the Tunisian and Tripoli troops, 
and sent them in boats to the shore of the mountain of the afore- 
said island. They came in the night to the upper fort, and seeing 
the gates open captured it immediately, without firing a shot. The 
next morning, which was Saturday, the 28th of Kebi-ul-akhir, the 
champions of the Faith besieged the lower fort and fired cannon 
and muskets at it from two sides. The Commander-in-Chief also, 
joining in the combat, fired guns from his galley at the fort. The 
other commanders followed his example and fired such a number 
of shots from the galleys and barges, that the report reached 
up to the heavens. Immediately two guns were taken out of the 
galleys and turned against the fort, and thereupon our champions 
coming all at once, stormed the castle. On the infidels seeing them 
raise our victorious standards, despairing of safety, one crafty 
villain, coming to the front of the battlements, waving a white 
handkerchief in his accursed hand, cried : " Come on ! the castle is 
yours : take it ! Our champions attacked, and on their arriving 
at the place in crowds all the misguided unbelievers but one fled 
inside ; a mine was sprung, which they had previously prepared 
for this place near the gate, which sent those who were above it, 
or near it, some flying into the air, and burnt some like roast 
meat. Many bodies of our noble warriors, and of the vile unbelievers 
became the prey of fire. 

A breach having been made in the wall of the castle, our 
victorious troops took it bravely by storm, and the infidels in it 
were put to the sword. Their heads were brought into the presence 
of the Commander-in-Chief, who munificently rewarded the brave 
soldiers. After that the Imperial fleet comfortably moored in 
the Bay of Aya Todori without anxiety. 

60 Literature of the Turks. 


<f .. 4 i .. 3 I . 2 

lac AC sjju/ju -< <*** 

(1) A. Fas/, 'description.' (2) A. Mezlour, 'aforementioned.' (3) A. Bina, 
1 building.' (4) A. AM, ' intellect.' (5) A. Oakela, ' people of intellect.' 
(6) A. Kasir, ' deficient.' (7) P. Rou-i-zemin, ' the face of the earth.' 
(8) Y.Manend, ' like.' (9) A. MemaUJc-i-mahrous^, 'the well-defended dominions,' 
i. e. Turkey,' (10) A. Tarz, ' a fashion, way.' (11) A. Imaret, ' being in a state 
of cultivation or good repair,' ' any public building,' ' a kind of soup-kitchen for 
the poor.' (12) A. Bunyan, ' building.' (13) A. Bezl-i-mahdoor, ' doing one's 
utmost.' (14) A.Mertebe, 'a degree.' (15) IstihMam, ' solidity;' oUKs^-1 istihkiamat, 
* fortifications.' (16) P. Glicrclii or gherche, ' although/ ' it is true.' (17) A. Irtifa, 
< heights.' (18) A. Vusat, ' extend.' (19) A. Kila, pi. of b Icala, ' a fort, castle.' 
(20) A. Muteber, 'respectable.' (21) A. GJia'iri mukerrer, ' not repeated, unique.' 
(22) A. Val-i, ' situated (is).' (23) A. Burj, ' a tower/ (24) A. Refi, ' high/ 
(25) A.Vusat, 'extent.' (26) Irtifa, 'heights.' (27) Benzemelc, ' to resemble/ 
(28) Balyemcz, 'large (cannon)/ (29) A. Arz,' breadth.' (30) Atli,' a horseman.' 
(31) P. Hemrilciab, ' abreast.' (32) Reftar, ' going' (33) Dolma, ' anything filled 
in.' (31) P. IVf'u, ' lii-rh.' (35) You/can', ' up. upwards, the upper part.' 

Ancirnt Writers. 



(1) Te'ssir etmek, 'to have effect.' (2) Murettcb, ' arranged.' (3) P. Sengin, 
'stone/ (4) P. Trashide, ' hewn, cut.' (5) 2'afcia, 'a redoubt.' (6) A. Burouj, 
'towers.' (7) Yovje, 'tall;' obsolete or provincial. (8) A. Urouj, 'ascent.' 
(9) Saclima, 'small shot.' (10) A.Muhafeze, ' defence.' (11) P. Kiushe, 'a, corner/ 

-(12) Khaki, ' earthen, earthly/ (13) Dagh, ' a mountain, hill, mound/ 
(14) A. Jemia (or U,** jemian), ' all together/ (15) A. Ber, ' the land/ (16) A. 
Balir, ' the sea/ (17) A. Nazir, ' looking to, or one who looks at or over ; a director 

or overseer/ (18) Vaz olounmah, ' to be placed/ (19) A. Jewanib, ' sides/ 

(20) A. Erbaa, ' four/ (21) P. Kiuhsar, ' a hill district/ (22) Alt, ' the space 
underneath/ (23) A. Mujewef (mujevf), 'hollow/ (24) A. Koubbe, 'a^dome, 
vault, arch/ (25) P. Ender, ' in, inside/ (26) A. Makhzen, ' a magazine, store- 
house, cellar.' (27) A. Janib, ' a side/ (28) A. Latif, ' pleasant/ (29) Ghirmek, 
' to enter/ (30) Yine, 'yet, still/ (31) A. Nazir, ' looking to, or over/ (32) P. 
Kiarghir (Iciavghir), ' built of brick or stone.' (33) Kourshoun, ' lead, a bullet/ 
(34) Ewrtmek, 'to cover/ (35) Tersane, 'dockyard, arsenal/ (36) P. Rou-i-zemin, 
'the face of the earth/ (37) A. Nazir, ' a peer, equal/ (38) A. Khazine, 'treasure/ 
(39) Sarf olounmak, ' to be spent/ (40) A. Khusousa, 'especially/ (41) A. Buyout 
(pi. of e^> beit), ' a house/ (42) A. Sera'i, ' a palace/ (43) A. Safi, ' pure/ 
(44) Mermer, ' marble/ (45) Shidad, ' strong' (pi. of ^ai &Tiedid).(46) A. Bina, ' a 
building/ (47) P. Kiashane, ' a hall, large apartment/ (48) A. Kasr, ' a castle' 
(49) A. Khawarnak is the name of a castle often alluded to as the type of a magni- 
ficent edifice. It was built, in Babylonia, for King Behram, by Numan-ben-Muzir. 

62 Literature of the Turks. 



J! Ju: 

42. A 41 40 I , , , , , 39, . 38 37 M 36 35 


, , 39, . 
j}! by 

(1) A. Musanna, ' made with art.' (2) P. ChesJime, 'a fountain, a spring.' 
(3) A. EswaJc (pi. of J^-. sowfc), ' a street of shops.' (4) A. DekaJcin (pi. of 
jyto dukian), 'a shop/ (5) A. Khalk, ' people.' (6) A. Asliab, 'possessors.' 
(7) A. Emival (pi. of JU waZ), ' wealth, riches.' (8) A. Ehl, ' a person connected 
with anything.' (9) A. Jemal, ' beauty.' (10) A. Marouf, ' known.' (11) A. Mu- 
yesser, ' facilitated ' (bj God). (12) A. Had, < a limit.' (13) P. Biroun, ' out of, 
beyond.' (14) P. Ghiranbaha, 'heavy in price/ (15) P. Daftar, ' a register, list.' 
(16) A. Hendek, l a ditch, moat.' (17) A. Umk, ' depth.' (18) A. Elcser, 'most.' 
(19) P. Leb, ' the lip, edge, brink.' (20) P. Sengh trashide, ' hewn stone.' 
(21) P. Seh, ' three / seh-shenbeli, l Tuesday/ (22) A. Haziran, the Syro-Roman 
month of June.' (23) Dughmek, ' to beat, cannonade, bombard.' (24) P. Pa?, ' the 
foot/ (25) Sebat, ' firmness.' (26)Vekar, ' gravity/ (27) A. Muhkem, 'strong, firm.' 

(28) Basmak, 'to press, to tread,' (29) A. Kusour, 'deficiency/ 'a fault, defect.' 

(30) Tophane, ' an artillery arsenal.' (31) A. Tahris, ' inciting.' (32) Sa'ika, ' a 
thunderbolt.' The Persian termination ^U bar means ' which pours forth, or rains.' 
Thus the compound word saika-bar signifies 'thunderbolt casting.' (33) P. Sipahi, 
' a soldier, a spahi.' This word is that from which our word ' sepoy' has been cor- 
rupted. (34) A. Shehid, 'a martyr.' (35) A. Erkian, 'pillars '(of the State). 
(36) A. Hirz, 'an amulet or charm.' (37) A. llalii, 'divine.' (38) A. Masoun, 
'protected.' (39) Mahfouz, 'preserved.' (40) A. Luhouin (pi. ^ lahm, ' flesh.' 
(41) A. Dema, ' blood.' (42) A. Sliulierla, 'witnesses, martyrs.' (43) A. 
'clothes/ (44) P. Aloud <', ' stained.' 


' " 


27 .. 26 ,* ... i , . M . / . | 

.fcX5 LH^OO 8 jyu>^X< ^J^rs- SOU JUS .XwJJ 

... 28 , .. 

Vf* f 

(L) A. J)ar&, 'a blow.' (2) A. Shedid, ' violent.' (3) Seped, ''a small open- 
mouthed basket.' (4) Ba'id, ' distant.' (5) A. Mulhalc, 'joined/ 'an arm,' 'a branch 

of anything' (not trees or plants), 'a patrol/ (6) Tayin etmek, ' to appoint/ 

(7) Sanjak, ' a flag, ensign, banner,' ' a minor province.' (8) Kelissa, ' a church.' 
(9) Karaol (sometimes spelt Jjfej/ Itaraghol), ' a picket, outpost, guard ;' *U. J^.s 
karaghol khane, ' a guard-house.' (10) Emr olounmak, ' to be ordered.' (11) A. 
Mahal, ' a place.' (12) A. Mezbour, ' aforementioned. 5 (13) Senghsar etmek, ' to 
stone.' (14) A. Khasaret, ' damage.' (15) Shirare, ' a spark.' (16) P. Pash, ' scat- 
tering.' Thus Sliirare-pash means 'which scatters sparks ' (flaming). (17) P. Per- 
vane, 'a moth.' (18) P. Soukhte, ' burnt.' (19) Ileri, ' forward,' (20) Surmtlc 
1 to push, drive.' (21) Ikdam etmek, ' to persevere, strive.' (22) TufenTc (tufek), 
1 a musket.' (23) Mukademma, ' formerly, before.' (24) A. Tel, ' a hill.' 
(25) A. Eefi, ' high.' (26) A. Satit, ' firm.' (27) A. Kadm, ' a foot.' (28) Ihti- 
mam, 'exertion.' (29) A. Hujoum, 'attack.' (30) P. Derd, 'ailment, pain, grief.' 
(31) P. Derman, ' a remedy ;' bi-derman, ' incurable.' (32) P. Chare, ' a resource ;' 
jnn 'i, -' seeking.' (33) A. Memalik, 'dominions.' (34) Baz-i, 'some.' 

64 Literature of the T 


(1) P. IVame, 'a letter.' (2) A. Tahrik, 'to urge.' (3) A. Meshghoul, ' busy.' 
(4) A. Mahsour,' besieged.' (5) A. MiMar, 'a portion, a bit.' (6) A. La-jerem, 'with- 
out fail, in any case.' (7) Yatmak, ' to lie.' (8) Jem olmak, ' to be collected, 
assembled.' (9) Zum, ' illusion.' (10) A. TedMr, 'arrangement, management.' 
(11) A. Tank, ' a road, a way.' (12) A. Shevket, ' pomp.' (13) A. Alat, ' imple- 
ments.' (14) A. Harb, ' war/ (15) P. Jebe, ' armour, arms/ (16) P. Joushen, < a 
cuirass.' (17) P. Ustuvar, 'firm, strong/ (18) P. Perva, ' fear ;' Bi-perva, 'fear- 
less/ (19) Komak or ko'imak, ' to put, let/ (20) A. Bari, ' the Creator;' a Turkish 
adverb meaning i at least,' ' just only/ (21) A. Ghalib, 'conquering, a ponquerer/ 
(22) P. Ghiuruh, ' people/ (23) A. Mekrouh, ' disgusting/ (24) A.Maghloub, 'con- 
quered/ (25) A. Mukarin, 'close to, nigh to/- (26) A. Meteris, 'an intrench- 
ment/ (27) A. H&zir, 'ready/ (28) Tufek, 'a musket;' tufeke toutmak, 'to 
fusillade/ (29) Doundourmek, ' to turn, cause to turn/ (30) Roum e'ili, ( Rou- 
melia/ (31) P. Khounriz, ' running with blood/ (32) Erishmek, ' to reach, come 
U p/ (33) Xatl etmek, ' to kill/ (31) Mejrouh, ( wounded/ (35) Deukmek, ' to 
pour;' or dughmek, ' to beat/ 

Ancient Writers. 65 

J j 


o jJbl ^U- 



(1) A. .Berd, 'coldness, cold.' (2) P. Rustemane, ' Eustem-like;' Rustem 
was a celebrated hero of romance. (3) Mushahede etmek, ' to behold, see.' 
(4) Bir-daha (generally spelt U^ ^j), 'again.' (5) Jeraet etmelc, 'to have courage, 
be bold.' (6) A. Misr, ' Egypt.' (7) Boghaz, 'the throat, windpipe/ ' a defile, strait, 
channel, the mouth of a river,' the Bosphorus par excellence. (8) Pousou, 'an 
ambush.' (9) A. Jami, 'a mosque.' (10) A. Haled, 'a place of worship.' 
(11) A. Kadim, 'ancient.' (12) Changlik, ' a peal of bells' (from chang, 'a big 
bell'). (13) Ujule, 'a wonder, miracle, prodigy.' (14) A. Dehr, 'an age.' 
(15) A. Jumle, ' all.' (16) A. EnUye, ' buildings.' (17) P. Ser-efraz, ' eminent 
illustrious.' (18) P. Mil, ' a landmark.' (19) Zirwe, ' summit.' (20) A. Salib 
'a cross.' (21) P. Ahenin, 'of iron.' (22) A. Fersekh, 'a parasang,' 'an 
hour's journey on horseback at a walk.' (23) P. Khalc, 'the earth, ground.' 
(24) Yeksar, ' level.' (25) P. Ameden, ' to come, the 'coming.' (26) A. Bi-imdad ; 
li, ' with;' imdad, ' help, succour.' (27) A. Ghalebe, ' victory.' (28) A. Diyar, 'a 
country, a district.' (29) P. Perverdighiar, ' God.' (30) A. La jerem, ' without 
fail, in any case.' (31) A. Oumour, 'affairs.' 

66 Literature of the Turks. 


L>! ^JJJ^ CJ^lfti' ^ ^C^-); JJJJU5 

i' <xii) 

(1) A. Tedbir, ' arrangement.' (2) A. BM jumle, ' altogether/ (3) MuwafiTc, 

'agreeable to.' (4) A. TaJcdir, * fate.' (5) P. Kiar, 'work, business.' (6) Idbar, 

1 retrogression.' (7) Tuz toutmak, ' to threaten/ (8) A. Emir-ul-umera, l com- 

mander of commanders, commander-in-chief/ (9) A. Istilah, ' a technical way 

of speaking, a technical term.' (10) A. Dar, ' a house ;' Milk, ' sovereignty, domi- 

nion ;' Dar-ul-Milk, ' the seat of government, capital.' (11) Tahkik etmek, ' to 

ascertain, verify.' (12) P. Endaz, 'throwing;' tufenk-endaz, 'a musketeer/ 

(13) A. Feda'i, ' one who goes on a forlorn hope.' (14) A. Istimalet, ' encourage- 

ment.' (15) Subh el-Kiazib, ' the false dawn ;' also called c-o-ilT^ Fejr-i-Kiazib, 

after which darkness is said to fall again, in contradistinction to the true dawn or 

break of day, called J*\*j*? fejr-i-Sadik. (16) East ghelmek, ' to meet, encounter.' 

(17) A. Kesret, ' quantity, abundance.' (18) P. Tebr, ' battle-axe.' (19) P. Kha- 

dengh, 'an arrow.' (20) P. Shemshir, 'a sword.' (21) Bozmak, 'to spoil, defeat.' 

(22) Kilijden gechmek, ' to put to the sword.' (23) A. Tabl (dawoul), ' a drum.' 

(24) Arz etmek, ' to present, offer, submit.' (25) Bi-avn, ' by the help.' 

(26) A. Dar ul-Bevar, ' The House of Destruction ' (hell). (27) A. Tilal, 'hills.' 

(28) Jibal, ' mountains.' (29) Firar, l to flee, run away.' (30) A. Nejal, ' power, 

ability.' (31) Anjak, ' only, but.' 

Ancient Writer*. 67 


Description of the Castle of Canea. The construction of this 
castle is such that the cleverest man cannot describe it, for there is 
nothing like it on the face of the earth ; and in the Ottoman 
dominions a castle of this kind does not exist. The Lords of Venice 
for four hundred years had done their utmost in building and 
improving this fortress, and thus fortified and strengthened it most 
perfectly. Although there are many fortresses in the Imperial 
dominions equal to it in height, extent and strength, the fashion 
of this noble fortress is unique. It is situated in a level place, its 
circuit being as large as Galata, and has seven lofty towers, each of 
which resembles a fortress in extent and height ; and is provided 
with twenty heavy cannons apiece. The breadth of the walls, which 
take a thousand fighting men, is such that seven horsemen can ride 
abreast on them, and then in the filled-in ground in the wall twenty 
horsemen can ride side by side. From the high battlements of the 
said wall, upwards, there are ten yards of raised ground, which, in 
case of fighting there, neither cannon nor anything else can have 
any effect upon. And there are nine redoubts with strongly built 
walls of hewn stone, bigger than the other towers, which reach up 
to the sky, and defend the city with fifteen heavy cannon apiece. 
Then, at their two corners two mounds of earth have been raised, 
which look on the towers and the redoubts, and land and sea. In 
each of them twenty enormous, valuable cannons have been placed, 
which defend the four sides. The space underneath these mounds 
is all hollow, and vaults within vaults, which are magazines for powder 
and cannon balls. As regards the sea-side of the fortress, it is a 
pleasant harbour surrounded by gigantic walls, which only a galley 
can enter, and then again at its entrance there are big cannon com- 
manding the sea. And there are twenty shot-proof arsenals, 
arched over with stone or brick, which have not their like on 
the face of the earth, on each of which much treasure has been 
expended ! 

In particular there are houses and palaces inside the city which 
are of pure marble, fine buildings and princely halls, compared to 

F 2 

68 Literature of the Turks. 

which the famed palace of Khawarnak is nothing, artistic fountains 
and streets and shops, the like of which men's eyes have never 
beheld. The inhabitants are renowned for their wealth and beauty. 
After the conquest of the town, the magazines which fell into our 
hands were innumerable. Three hundred and ninety-five valuable 
cannon alone were registered. Outside the fortress the depth of 
the moat is fifteen yards and its width seventy-five, and most of the 
edge of the moat is of hewn stone. 

The attack of the fortress began on the morning of the fourth of 
the above-mentioned (Muhammedan) month, which was Tuesday, 
(corresponding to) the seventeenth of June, by a cannonade of the 
castle. The vile unbelievers displayed great firmness and steadiness, 
and fought well. On the twelfth day of the siege the Commander- 
in-Chief came to the place where the guns were, and while he was 
animating our warriors an infamous infidel fired a tremendous 
(" thunder-bolt casting ") gun, which struck the place where the 
Vezir stood. Five spahis from Koumelia were " martyred 5 ' (killed), 
and the Yezir and staff escaped by the divine protection; but the 
flesh and blood of the martyrs somewhat soiled the dress of the 
Commander-in-Chief. The ball of the above-mentioned cannon 
came with such tremendous force that it passed through three 
baskets filled with earth and went further. As the afore-mentioned 
place was somewhat distant from the fortress, on the thirteenth day 
of the siege the trenches were changed, and the troops from 
Anatolia, with their commander, Ahmed Pasha, brought two guns 
and joined the trenches of the Roumelians. The troops of Caramania, 
with two guns, were appointed to the patrol of Samsoungi; and the 
Bey of Bouzak also, with the soldiers from his province, were 
stationed as an out-post (guard) in a vaulted church. 

In the morning early they cannonaded the fortress from the above- 
mentioned position ; but although great injury was done from there 
to the fort and the city, the terrific fire of the enemy's guns burnt 
many Moslem warriors like moths (in a candle). Murad Agha 
persevered and pushed his trench closer. The glorious Commander- 
in-Chief also, disregarding the cannon and muskets of the infidels, 
broke up the Imperial camp and stationed it opposite the Fort, on 
the high hill, where previously the artillery had been planted. Our 

Ancient \Vrilvrs. 69 

" ever-victorious " troops stood firmly in all the trenches and 
executed themselves bravely 

The abominable infidels, seeing the assault of our "ever-success- 
ful " warriors, tried to find a remedy for the incurable evil, and wrote 
letters to some infidel cavalry and infantry in the Cretan dominions, 
aud urged them to come forth and fight, that the Moslem troops, 
being occupied by them, the besieged might have some rest. 
The inhabitants of Crete, and the troops from seventeen galleys and 
seven men-of-war which were lying in Souda Bay, collected together, 
and attempted to raise the siege by attacking our troops. Accord- 
ingly, they came on the Bey of Douka-Kin, Ali Bey, and the troops 
of Serdenkechdi in grand array, looking like a strong wall. More 
than a thousand infidel cavalry and infantry, with armour and cui- 
rasses and weapons of war, were opposed by about three hundred 
of our fearless braves. After a long struggle, by the grace of God, 
the latter were the victors and worsted the disgusting wretches. 
As trophies they brought thirty heads into the presence of the 
Commander-in-Chief, and were rewarded by his favour. 

On the sixteenth day of the siege above a hundred of the infidels 
made a sortie and attacked the trenches ; but Murad Agha, and 
several valiant men, were ready for them, received them with 
musketry fire and turned them back ; and some Koumelian and other 
troops coming up, with their doughty swords killed most of them ; 
and they brought their heads to the Commander-in-Chief. Those 
who escaped, wounded, and beaten, were driven (cast) into the moat. 
Discomfited, the vile unbelievers, having felt the weight of the 
* Bus tern-like" hand of the Moslem troops, did not venture to come 
out of the fortress again. 

At this time three vessels from Tripoli, and a few " Saics," and 
also many heroes from the Egyptian army, arrived and met the 
Imperial fleets. The Egyptian soldiers also remained in ambush 
at the mouth of Souda Bay, and were ordered to remain as a 

On the same day an iron cross at the top of a church called San- 
fransisco, inside the town (since converted into a Mosque by the 
Generalissimo), an ancient place of worship, whose peal of bells was 
the wonder of the age, and which towered, like a lofty landmark 

70 Literature of the Turks. 

over the other buildings of Canea, and was visible leagues away, 
was struck by a cannon ball, and levelled with the ground. 

Arrival of Infidels with reinforcements to relieve the fortress, and 
victory of the Mussulmans. 

As it was the intention of the Almighty that this country should 
be conquered, every arrangement of the Moslems was entirely suc- 
cessful, and the affairs of the infidels threatened to get worse. 
Whereupon the Chief Ruler of Crete, who, in their phraseology, was 
called a " General/' and resided in the capital of Crete, Candia, 
having ascertained that Canea was being besieged, sent his agent 
with a forlorn-hope of five hundred musketeers to Souda Bay, who 
took four hundred men from there and then arrived before the 
fortress, bringing letters of encouragement. On the ninth day of the 
siege they encountered the troops from Douka-Kin, Egypt and 
Tunis, who altogether were about five hundred, at the time of the 
" False Dawn." The Moslems, not at all frightened at the superior 
numbers of the unbelievers, fought stoutly with the musket, the 
battle-axe, the arrow and sword, and in an hour the disgusting 
wretches were defeated and scattered. During the combat, the Agha, 
of Serden-Kechdi Yahyali-zade Hassan Agha, the Arnaoud, was 
killed ; the agent of the General and more than fifty of the infidels 
were put to the sword, and their heads and their drums in the morning 
early were presented to the Generalissimo, who rewarded every one 
of our soldiers. By the help of God (may He be exalted !) so many 
infidels having been sent to perdition, the others fled to the hills 
and mountains, and not one was able to enter the fortress ; but 
only four of the true-believers were killed 

Ancient Writers. 



(1) Zafryab, 'victorious.' (2) A. Mulahaza, 'observation, consideration. 5 
(3) Mela'in, ' accursed ones.' (4) A. Sejjade, ' a prayer- carpet/ (5) Bir ok men- 
eli, ' the range of an arrow.' (6) P. Jenk, * war, battle.' (7) Ordou, ' a camp, an 
y.' (8) A. Erkian-i-devlet, ' the pillars of the state.' (9) Otagh, '& large 
.' (10) A. Tinab, pi. of t_^k tunub, 'tent -ropes.' (11) P. Enderoun, 'the 
harem ;' enderoun aghaleri, ' the higher attendants attached to the Sultan's private 
apartments.' (12) P. Restakhiz, ' the last judgment.' (13) A. Balagat el-kuloub 
el-hanajir, an Arabic saying which means ' their hearts were in their mouths, they 
despaired.' (14) En en-nasr ma es-sabr, we en ma el-usr yusra, two other Arabic 
sayings to the effect that ' victory comes from patience, aad happiness comes from 

* Sad-ud-Din accompanied the Sultan Mahomed III. in his campaign in. Hun- 
gary. The battle of Keresztes lasted three days. The Turks had to contend with 
the Imperialists under the Archduke Maximilian, and the Transylvauians under 
Prince Sigismund, with whom they had effected a junction. On the first day, one 
body of the Turks, after fighting bravely, were obliged to retreat, with a loss of 
a thousand Janissaries, a hundred Spahis, and forty-three cannon. The Sultan 
wished to retire himself, and that a general retreat of the Turkish army should 
be ordered. A Council of War was held, and the author, Sad-ud-din, although not 
a soldier, had the courage to tell his master that he ought not to turn his back 
on the enemy. Owing to this advice it was resolved to fight, and the Sultan was 

ersuaded to remain. On the second day the Turks had some partial successes. 

n the third day the Christians appeared completely victorious. They drove back 
the Turks and Tartars, attacked the Ottoman batteries in flank, and routed the 

siatic feudal cavalry. The Sultan wished to fly, and again it was only by the 

xhortations of Sad-ud-Din that he was prevented. The Imperialists scattered 
order to plunder the Turkish camp, and while they were in disorder, Cicala 
Pasha, who was in command of a large body of irregular cavalry, and who had 
hitherto not been in action, rushed on them, and turned defeat into a victory, 
which was in great part due to the firmness of a literary man. 

7 2 Literature of the Turks. 

(1) A. Mazmoun, ' a bon-mot, p'un.' (2) A. KhirTca, ( a quilted jacket, a garment 
made of shreds and patches.' (3) A. Bunyan, ( construction, physical constitu* 
tion/ (4) A. Mersus, ' held firmly together with irons.* (5) A. Jidar, ' a wall ;' 
var, P. ' like;' Jidar-var, ' like a wall.' (6) A. Sabit, 'firm..' (7) Alim-ul-israr we 
el-lchefiyai, ' He who knows secrets and hidden things' (i.e. God.) (8) A. Hunajat, 
'prayers/ (9) A. Ghirye, 'weeping, tears.' (10) A. Khouzou> 'humility.' 
(11) A. Nesim, ' a zephyr, breeze.' (12) P. Perchem, the tuft of hair left on the 
head of a Muhammedan, the rest of the head being shaved. (13) Tough, the 
special kind of banner or insignia of a Pasha in the olden times (a tail). A Pasha, 
received one, two or three of them according to his rank. (14) Tesrih elmek, ' to 
set free, let go.' (15) Ashji, 'a cook,' (16) P. Kherbende> ' a donkey-man.' 
(17) Deveji, 'a camel-driver.' (18) Sals, ' a groom.' (19) Kirmak, 'to break, to 
massacre, slaughter.' (20) Tari olmak, ' to happen, overtake one.' (21) Mefal^ 
power, ability.' (22) Tabour, 'a battalion, column/ (23) Firar etmelc, 'to 
run away, fly/ (24) Ense, ' the back part of the head, the back or hind part of 
anything/ (25) P. Kiushte, 'killed/ (26) P.Piyade, ' infantry/ (27) A. Bakiyyet* 
t-s-s>juf, or USftJI l : .ib, 'the leavings of the sword/ i.e. those who escape the 
swords of the enemy. 

Ancient Writers. 73 

Another account of the battle. 
)j* ^$ <*^r^ / 

19 v 18 .: x x 17, * 1/16 (.. 15 

(1) Suwariler, 'cavalry/ (2) P. Perishan, ' scattered/^(3) P. Desht, 'the open 
country.' (4) P. Gherizan, ' a fugitive,' < who takes flight.' (5) A. Ifa/isour, 
'helped' (by God), ' victorious.' (6) P.Nik nam, 'a good name.' (7) A. Eslaf 
(pi. of v_aL selef), ' predecessors.' (8) .EweJ asr, or asr-i-evyeZ, ' the time of after- 
noon prayer.' (9) P. Ahen-posh, ' dressed in iron,' i.e. in armour. (10) Ghieuk, 
' the sky;' ghieulc, adj., ' sky-blue.' (11) A. Dirhem, < a drachm.' (12) P. Tufenk- 
endaz, ' who fire muskets, musketeers.' (13) Mcy'ar, ' Hungarian.' (14) Haidoud, 
* robber;' 'a Hungarian soldier.' (15) Sirik, 'a small pole, a long, thick stick. 3 
(16) Ba'irak, 'flag, banner.' (17) A. Eshjar, ' trees.' (18) Nemche, 'German, 
Austrian.' (19) Cheh, ' Bohemia.' (20) Leh, ' Poland.' (21) A. Ejnas (pi. of u~~ 
jins), 'kinds, sorts.' (22) A. Mulhak, 'annexed, joined to.' (23) A. Mukavemet 
'resistance.' (21) P. Perakende, ' scattered.' (25) Batak, 'a morass.' (26) Sahra 

a duscrt, plain.' 

74 Literature of the Turks. 

. . o u^r:. j- - 

12 <jc^25\ ^ .^Li^oJ ^Jb^lSLjj 

IL ^1 SciJjb'lo; J^UUac 1 jLv^-l .^J 



' ' ; ' 


(1) A. Kious, f a kettle-drum, a drum/ (2) Tranpeta, ' a drum.' (3) Chalma'k, 
to play' (an instrument). (4) Batak, ' a morass.' (5) Gechid, ' a pass, defile/ 
' a ford, ferry.' (6) P. Zor (subst.), ' violence, strength, force ;' Turkish, adj., ' diffi- 
cult, hard.' (7) P. Bak, ' fear ;' bi-~balc-ou-bi-perva, ' without fear or dread.' 
(8) T.Henouz (hcniz), yet.' (9) A. Gharet, 'plunder.' (10) A. Amir, ' public.' 
(11) HachU, ' having a cross on it.' (12) A. Raks, ' dancing.' (13) A. Manzour, 
'seen.' (14) A. Ejdad, 'ancestors.' (15) A. Izam (pi. of p& azim), 'great/ 
(16) A. Nusret, ' victory/ (17) Tesliyyet etmek, 'to console/ (18) MenTcoul, ' handed 
down/ ' reported/ (19) A. Infial, ' affliction, grief/ (20) A. Ner^ou, ' raised/ 
(21) A. Tezerru, 'a humbling oneself/ (22) A. lUihal, ' supplication, groaning in 

Ancient Writers. 


(1) left oghlanleri, youths in the Snltan's palace brought np to be officers in the 
iperial palace in olden times. (2) P. Serafer. From end to end. (3) A. Ghoulam, 
a lad, a slave ;' in Persia, ' a courier.' (4) Eyerli eyersiz, ' saddled or unsaddled.' 
[5) Kochou, 'a large coach.' (6) P. Mir-i-akTior (emrakhor} , ' Master-of-the- 
[orse/ (7) A. Mustcvli, 'overrunning, occupying, taking.' (8) At oghtani, ' a stable- 
r.' (9) Kara-koullovJcjou, 'a common soldier among the Janissaries placed at a 
L-house.' (10) Kiurelc, ' a wooden shovel, an oar;' TcieuruJc, 'a pair of bellows.' 
-(11) A. Hezimet, ' defeat, a total rout.' (12) Serseri, ' wandering, a vagabond.' 
-(13) Eurkmelc, ' to take fright, shy.' (14) A. Harbi, l an enemy, an alien.' 
15) P. Jeste jeste, 'little by little.' (16) A. An, 'a moment.' (17) A. Wahid, 
one.' (18) A. Minnet, 'grace, favour.' (19) A. Mutejariz 
exceeding, more.' (20) Batmak, ' to sink ' (u.n.). 

76 Literature of the Turks. 


(1) GMZa, ' food.' (2) P. Shir, ' a lion.' (3) P. Yekta, ' only.' (4) 
ducat, sequin/ 


The infidels, thinking they were victorious, entered the tents of 
our army and began plundering. More than two thousand of the 
accursed wretches pushed forward and were fighting in a place only 
a bow shot from the Sultan's prayer-carpet. In the camp muskets 
were given up and Moslems and Christians fought with the sword 
hand to hand. The Vezirs and the Grandees of the State stood 
surrounding the Sultan. The accursed infidels having laid hands 
on the tent ropes of the Imperial pavilion, the attendants of the 
harem took swords and killed them. There was one hour that 
terrible day when oar whole army felt the force of the (Arabic) 
expression SalagTiat el-Kulout el-hanajir (their hearts were in 
their mouths). His Honour Sad-ud-Din Efendi reminded the 
Sultan of the (Arabic) saying : " Victory comes from patience, and 
happiness comes after difficulty ;" and His Majesty, the " Asylum of 
the Faith/'' put on the liirlca* of the Prophet (prayers and peace be 
on him !), and then his body became as firm as a wall, and he put 
up prayers to Him " who knows all secrets and all hidden things," 
and wept, and humiliated himself, and raised his hands in suppli- 
cation to Heaven, whereupon the breeze of victory unfurled 

* Hirlca is a kind of quilted jacket. The jacket of Mahomet is supposed to be a 
precious relic, having miraculous virtues. 

Ancle n 7 Writers. 


the Muliamraedan standard. On the Infidels who " scatter fire" * 
falling on the tents of the Moslem army, and dispersing in order 
to collect booty, by the grace of God, the Merciful, their regular 
ranks were broken. The victorious unbelievers entered the tents 
in twos and threes and set about plundering without fear or anxiety. 
Then, the stable-boys, and cooks and donkeymen, and camel-drivers 
and grooms, and servants of the Moslem army in the tents, en- 
countering the infidels, began to slaughter them with hatchets and 
knives, and whatever instruments they found. By reason of this the 
jursed wretches begun to grow weak, and had not the power to 
jsist, and fled. On the cry being raised that the ' Ghiaours ' were 
>eaten, the Muhammedans who heard it turned back, followed the 
Christians and massacred them, so that, according to one truthful 
;ount, in a short time, as many as a hundred thousand infidels fell 
m our field of victory. In the evening that extensive plain was 
leaped up with dead bodies. The infantry could not save their lives ; 
id the cavalry, the only ones who escaped our swords, not being 
ible to make a stand anywhere, were scattered in every direction 
ind fled until day-break over hill and dale. 

Thanks be to God, that great Sultan, by the Divine help, was 
rictorious, and thanks to his firmness and steadfastness he acquired 
great name and raised the honour and glory of his religion and 
country more than any of his predecessors. 

Another account of the battle. 

In the afternoon the infidels began to move, and appeared in 
lasses. First, the German infantry regiments, all in armour, with 
mces in their hands, and some regiments with guns, which they call 

Muskets," which cast fifteen or twenty drachms (of lead), and the 
Hungarian <c brigands/' some regiments with fire-arms, who were 
more than a hundred regiments of infantry, each regiment con- 
taining five hundred infidels. Then came the Hungarian cavalry 
regiment, who, with their flags and spears looked like a "hilly 
country full of trees/' and several cavalry regiments composed 
of Germans, Bohemians, Poles and other races, every unbeliever 

* Tliis refers to the fire-arms the Christians used. 

78 Literature of the Turks. 

carrying three or five Hungarian guns apiece, of these there were 
more than fifty regiments 

Murad Pasha, and the head of the <( Bostanjis, " Ali Pasha, were 
sent to reinforce Sinan Pasha, and joined him ; but, all the Chris- 
tians having fire-arms, resistance was impossible, the Moslem regi- 
ments scattered and passed the morass and spread out in the plain. 
The infidel army fired cannon and small arms, beat their drums and 
passed the morass and marched straight on our army. Hassan Pasha 
had received orders to go to the head of the pass with the Roumelian 
troop?, and stand there and hold back the enemy. He stood there, 
but owing to the violence of the fire-arms he could not make a stand 
for a moment, and joined the other regiments. The infidels, with- 
out any fear or dread, reached our army, and before the Moslem 
army had been defeated, set about plundering and pillaging. Some 
of the infidels even, with one or two flags, attacked our public 
treasury, and the Spahis and Janissaries, who had to guard it, were 
scattered. The Christians fell on the treasury chests, hoisted their 
flags with the cross on them, and began to dance. When this state 
of things was seen by the Sultan, he asked the professor, who was 
in the Imperial presence, and saw what had happened, what was to 
be done, who consoled him, saying : " Sire, what is necessary is that 
you remain firm and steady in your place. Thus were your great 
ancestors wont to do in most great battles. By a Muhammedan 
miracle, please God, the Moslems will have an opportunity to be 
victorious. Do not be cast down." It is stated in the German 
accounts that the Sultan sat on horseback, bewildered and afflicted, 
the professor by his side, and that they raised their hands in prayer 
and supplication, and that the professor's prayer was answered. 

At that time a large number of the Sultan's pages mounted horses, 
saddled or unsaddled, and fled, and their flight caused another body 
of the troops to run. Great confusion was caused by it being said 
that they had fled in the afternoon with the Master-of-the-Horse in 
a coach. 

When the enemy's troops entered our camp and beheld more 
booty than they had ever seen in their lives, they overran the tents, 
busied themselves with taking possession of the things there, and 
left off fighting and killing. One out of every four companies of the 

Ancient Writers. 79 

Ottoman troops had gone and fled. The evening was drawing nigh ; 
the Moslems despaired of success by ordinary means, and trusted 
only to the favour of God. Suddenly, men of God appeared, and the 
champions, in the form of stable-boys, cooks, and privates of the 
Janissaries, who were in the tents, fell on the infidels and attacked 
them with hatchets and wooden shovels and such things, and knocked 
lots of infidels on the head ; and signs of defeat began to be visible 
amongst those misguided people. The cry arose that the ' ( Ghiaours " 
had fled. The Ottoman regiments who had taken flight and were 
wandering round about, turned back and put the enemy to the sword. 
Strings of the enemy's infantry, dragged along in chains, fell little 
by little ; many died from fear, and many thousands were put 
to the sword. In a very short time more than fifty thousand 
infidels were sabred without mercy, some of them also sank in tbe 
morass and there their heads were cut off. The Vezir, Sinan Pasha, 
and those by him, put twenty thousand Christian cavalry, who came 
to the right of the Imperial army, to the sword in half an hour, and 
drove many into the water. Those who saved their vile lives, instead 
of standing took to flight ; and then Feth Ghera'i, with the Tartar 
troops, pursuing them in every direction, slaughtered them, and 
broke their batallions. They attempted to fortify themselves in 
their tents, but they could not hold their ground, and abandoned 
all their effects and ammunition, and fled to the mountains with 
nothing but their heads. Ninety-seven splendid cannon, worth 
ten thousand ducats apiece, and bombshells and whole magazines 
of warlike muniments were captured. 

8o Literature o the Turks. 


*il) " 


j j jjo cu^o^j^ *x ^j (jjj <^ --. 

jj**^- u 

(1) JTraZ, ' a king.' (2) P. Elclii, ' an ambassador.' (3) A. Mevedet, 'friendship, 
amity.' (4) A. Izn, ' permission/ (5) Kapiji-baslii, ' a chamberlain.' (6) A. 
MaTiTouse, l well-protected;' Memalik-i-Mahrousd, ' tne well-protected dominions,' 
t. e. Turkey. (7) EsTcele, ' a wbarf, landing-place,' ' a port.' (8) Ahd-name, ' a 
written treaty.' (9) A. MuTchalif, 'contrary.' (10) Teklif, 'a tax.' (11) A. Messela, 
'for example, for instance.' (12) P. Bahane, ' a pretext.' (13) Ghiumruk, 'a 
custom-bouse,' ( a custom's duty.' (14) Habs etmek, ' to imprison.' (15) A. Mel- 
lagh, ' a sum, amount.' (16) A. MouTcataat, a fief attacbed to an office, tbe titbes 
from wbicb went to tbe bolder of tbe office (now abolisbed). (17) A. Tijaret, 
1 commerce.' (18) A. Tujar, ' merchants.' (19) Itlak etmek, ' to set free, let go.' 
(20) Telef olmak, ' to be destroyed.' (21) A. Mai, ' property, wealth,' (22) A. 
AsJicib, 'owners' (pi. of ^~l<>, sahib). (23) Red e'ilemelc, ' to restore.' (24) Tahrir 
olounmak, ' to be written.' 


An ambassador having arrived from the King of the English 
(Charles I.) with a letter proposing friendship, and announcing his 

Ancient Writers. 81 

his father's stead, and asking for a Treaty, and the Imperial permis- 
sion, in order to trade with Algiers and Tunis, a Chamberlain was 
sent to the Governors of Algiers and Tunis, and orders were sent 
that no taxes contrary to the Treaty should be exacted at any of the 
ports in Turkey, like the Hasderiye, and a letter saying that the 
late Khosrev Pasha, while Governor of Algiers, having imprisoned 
some English people in Algiers and in Tunis, and taken a few thou- 
sand piastres from them, the said sum should be taken from his 
receipts ; and that twenty-four merchant vessels, which had been 

ken from the English coming from India to Yemen to trade, 
restored to the owners, with the property destroyed, and the 

erchants in them set free. 

82 Literature of the Turks. 


EASHID EFFENDI, Imperial historiographer, a lawyer, continued the 
annals of the Turkish Empire after Naima's death. His work was 
printed at the Imperial press of Constantinople in 1734 A.D., and, 
with its continuation by Chelebi Zade, relates the history of Turkey 
up to 1141 Anno Hejirce. Eashid, in chronicaling the events of the 
year 1133 A.H., gives nearly the whole of a journal written by 
Mehemet Effendi, describing his voyage from Constantinople to 
Paris, when sent as Turkish Ambassador to that city, which is very 
quaint and original. The Turkish Ambassador was greatly pleased 
by the gardens and fountains at Versailles, and by Paris, which 
city, in his opinion, had no equal in the world, excepting Constan- 
tinople. When surprised by some of the beautiful places he saw 
he consoles himself by the verse of the Koran, which says that 
" this world is the prison of true believers, but the paradise of the 
infidels." The Turkish grandee was greatly amazed at the liberty 
enjoyed by ladies in France, and the respect shown to them by the 
men. " In this country," says he, " the women go where they 
please and do what they like, live free from all care, and get 
everything. In short, France is heaven for women." 

Ancient Writers. 83 


Arriral <>f a Russian ambassador with presents, and a French 
with a letter of apology from the King of France. 

JUJ )lj j 


, " , 
<KJU_ .JOJo Ui.'j tX* 

L^J Ax5 JCJli>KJU 

24 , 23. 
27 26 i .. , , 25 

(1) Cheul, t a desert ;' ^c ara&, pi. ^Uy ourlan, ' Arabs.' (2) A. Mufsid, l one who 
causes strife,' ' malefactor.' (3) A. Hawaii, * the environs.' (4) A. Haleb, ' Aleppo.' 
(5) A, Khalaset, ' villainy.' (6) A. Irtikiab etmek, ' to commit.' (7) A. Kat'-i-tarik 
means literally ' cutting the road,' i.e. stopping travellers and robbing them ; hence 
' highway robbery.' (8) A. Katl, ' killing.' (9) Nufous, * persons, individuals, souls.' 
(10) P. Shevretyab,' celebrated.' (11) A.Eyalet, 'a province.' (12) P. Ghiriftar, 
* seized.' (13) P. Chenghal, or J^ chengel, 'a hook, or fork.' (14) A. NeTcial, 'exem- 
plary punishment.' (15) A. Rilciab, 'a stirrup;' Rikiab-i-humayoun, 'the imperial 
stirrup,' i.e. ' the capital.' (16) A. Safer, the 2nd month in the Muhammedan year. 
(17) A. Jeza, 'punishment, retribution.' (18) A. Tertib, ' arranging.' (19) A. 
EsUTtiya, ' rascals.' (20) A. Terhib, ' frightening.' (21) A. Tedib, 'punishing, cor- 
recting.' (22) A. Vuroud, ' arrival.' (23) P. Elchi, 'an ambassador.' (24) Char, 
' the Czar.' (25) P. Asitane, ' a threshold;' Asitane-i-saadet, 'the threshold of feli- 
city,' i.e. Constantinople. (26) A. Vasil, 'arriving.' (27) A. Resni, 'a custom, 
usage, ceremony.' (28) A. Kadim, ' ancient.' (29) A. Idad olounmak, 'to be pre- 
pared.' (30) Konak, 'a mansion, a resting-place on a journey,' ' a day's journey,' 
' a guest, a lodger, one billeted in a house ;' konak etmek, ' to halt for the night or 
for a time.' (31) A. Nazil, 'descending.' (32) A. Bil jumle, 'all, every one.' 

* Anno Domini 1682, in the reign of Mahomet IV. 
G 2 

84 Literature of the Turks. 

^AajJtfjl ^j~UJI J&yk*- aJb^jl^JUbUUej **<^ i-r'jjy" jj*. *t.^ 

26 it 25 M 24 23 22 t . .. 21 ... 20 i / 19 . 


38 .-I 37^ .... 36 . 35 n .. 34 

k .jiUi 

n .. 


(1) oj^^ls ^ Mr fcacTz, grTimn, ' a few days.' (2) A. Neks, ' staying.' (3) A. Isti- 
rahat, 'repose, resting. '' (4) A. Rebbi-ul-evvel, the name of a Muhammedan month. 

(5) A. Uloufe, 'pay, salary.' (6) A. Ikliraj, 'causing to come out, drawing out. 

(7) A. Hesfour, ' above-mentioned.' This word is only used when speaking of 
anyone for whom one wishes to show contempt. (8) P. CheJire, ' the face.' (9) 8a'i t 
' who rubs.' (10) P. Der, 'in.' (11) P. Devlet-medar, ' the centre, focus, of sove- 
reignty.' (12) A. Ne'zoun, ' permitted.' (13) Chaoush, ' a sergean* in the army, a 
herald or sergeant-at-arms in ancient times ; Chaoush-bashi was in olden times 
even a sort of grand usher, and is now a kind of chief baron in the Court of 
Chancery.' (14) A. Delalet, 'guidance.' (15) A. MustetaJb, 'good, approved.' 
(16) P. Shehriyari, ' royal.' (17) A. Khilat, 'a dress of honour.' (18) Ilbas oloun- 
maky * to be dressed.' (19) A. Arz, 'presenting;' irz, 'honour.' (20) A. Vuz&ra, 
' Vezirs.' (21) A. Izam, ' great ' (in the plural.) (22) Akbinde, ' after.' (23) P. 
Paye, ' foot.' (24) A. Serir, ' a throne.' (25) Ala, 'very high.' (26) P. RouS-mal, 
1 who rubs his face.' (27) A. Teslim, 'delivering.' (28) A. Hedaya, 'presents.' 
(29) A. Semmour (Samour), ' the sable.' (30) A. Jenah, ' a wing.' (31) Sonkour, 
'a gerfalcon.' (32) A. Arz, ' offering.' (33) A. Takdim, 'presenting.' (34) A. Iti 
zar, 'apologizing;' Itizar-name, 'a letter of apology.' (35) Krai, ( a king/ 
(36) P. Serai, 'for.' (37) A. Fitne, 'disorder, riot, conspiracy, sedition.' 
(38) Saliiz, the island of Scio. (39) P. Balade, 'above.' (40) A. Tahrir olounmdk, 
1 to be written.' (41) A. Fesad, 'disorder,' ' wrong practice, villainy, sedition.' 
(42) A. Keifvyet, 'matter.' (43) A.MakouU, ' kind/ 

Ancient Writers. 85 

6| . .1 . . t_ .. t i . * 4 

2 Jlo *< _ j 

Jj* "jJU;UJ <U ^i> JoW 

(1) A. EJiilaf, ' contrary to.' (2) Sulh, ' peace.' (3) A. Salah, 'harmony.' 
(4) A. Herekiat, 'acts, behaviour.' (5) A. Shenie, 'odious.' (6) A. Riza, 'consent.' 

(7) A. Jevaz, ' permission.' (8) A. Jesaret, ' boldness.' (9) A. Zarar, ' damage.' 

(10) A. Khasaret, 'injury.' (11) Nukabelesinde, 'in return for.' (12) A. Sefain y 
'vessels.' (13) A. Kemayamlaghi, 'as is fit.' (14) A. Te'dib, 'correcting.' (15) Ma 
yelik, ' as is suitable.' (16) Tertib olounmak, ' to be arranged.' (17) A. Mushii 
' indicative of.' (18) Jevher, ' a jewel, precious stone.' (19) A. Tuhef, ' elegant 
things fit for presents.' (20) A. Heduje, 'a present.' (21) A. Ithaf, 'presenting.' 
(22) A. Jurm, ' a fault, culpability.' (23) Kousour, ' defect, fault.' (24) A. Itiraf, 
' admitting.' (25) A. Terjuman, ' an interpreter ' (from which the word ' drago- 
man' has been corrupted). (25) Yali, ' the sea-shore.' (27) KieusTik, 'a pavilion, 
or summer residence.' (28) A.Musoul, ' standing respectfully waiting for orders.' 
(29) P. Niyazmend, ' a petitioner.' (30) P. Sadr-i-azam, 'the prime minister.' 
(31) A. Shifaet (shefaet), ' intercession.' (32) A. Raja, ' request.' (33) A. Nevan, 
'in some manner j somewhat.' (34) A. Musaade, 'allowing.' (35) Erzani, 'deem- 
ing fit.' 


The events of the year 1093 Anno Ifejirce. 

An Arab, one of the malefactors of the Arabian desert, called 
Melhem, who had committed many acts of villainy in the neighbour- 
hood of Aleppo, and had been notorious for a long time for highway 
robbery and murder, having fallen into the hands of the law, by 

86 Literature of the Turks. 

the management of Kara Mehemet Pasha, at present Governor- 
General of Aleppo, having been sent to the capital, was executed 
on the 25th of Safer, in front of the Bab-i-Humayoun,* as a warn- 
ing and a lesson to other Arab rascals. 

Arrival of the Ambassador of the Czar of Moscow. 

An Ambassador Extraordinary from the Czar of Moscow 
having arrived in Constantinople, according to an ancient cus- 
tom, alighted at a mansion which had been got ready for him, 
and all the necessary provisions were provided for him. After he 
had rested himself for a few days, an Imperial Divan being held on 
the 7th of Eebi-ul-evvel, for drawing pay, the said ambassador was 
allowed to prostrate himself in the Imperial presence. According 
to an old law he was admitted to the Imperial levee under the 
guidance of the Grand Usher, and he and his principal followers 
having received dresses of honour, were admitted, coming after the 
great Yezirs, to the presence. He rubbed his face at the foot of 
the throne, delivered his letter and his presents, consisting of 
eleven hundred and ninety-eight sables, twenty fishes' teeth and 
ten gerfalcons. 

Arrival of a Letter of Apology from the King of France respecting the 
disorders in Scio. 

On the 20th of the month Jumadi-ul-Evvel, the Kiaya of the 
French Ambassador, with his dragoman, presented a letter of 
apology from the King of France for what the French men-of-war 
had done, as we previously mentioned, in the island of Scio, saying 
that it was entirely without his knowledge, and that he had in no 

* The principal entrance to the old imperial residence, near the mosque of 
St. Sophia. It would appear, from the above, that in old times, at any rate, the 
Turks took care to put down robbery and murder, whether committed by Mussul- 
mans or Christians, by exemplary punishment. 

Ancient Writers. 

way consented to or permitted such shameful acts, incompatible 
with peace and goodwill, and that, as compensation for the damage 
which they had been bold enough to commit, the captains of the 
said ships would be properly punished. lie also brought ninety 
purses of jewels, and thirty purses of other presents and ornaments, 
which altogether amounted to sixty thousand piastres worth of 
gifts, acknowledging that the French had been in the wrong, and, 
coming to the Imperial levee at an Imperial sea-side kiosk, begged 
their acceptance, which, at the request of the Prime Yezir, arid by 
his intercession, was graciously acceded to. 

88 Literature of the Turks. 



(1) Jemaziyyul 'l-evvel, the fifth Mnhammedan month. (2) A. Selt, 'Saturday.' 
(3) Ihzar oloumak, ' to be prepared, to be produced.' (4) P. Sera'i, ( a palace, man- 
sion.' (5) A. Muyesser, 'facilitated,' 'permitted by God.' (6) A. We/ret, ' abun- 
dance, a great number, or quantity.' (7) A. Ziham, ' a crowd, crowding.' (8) A. 
Muta'ayyen, 'appointed, deputed, distinguished.' (9) A. Tehniyye etmek, 'to con- 
gratulate.' (10) A. Koudoum, ' arrival, approach.' (11) A. Zoulir, ' noon.' 
(12) Tayin etmek, to appoint, fix.' (13) A. Alii, f weak, sick.' (14) P. Abhir, 'a 
stable.' _ (15) S&r akhor, ' head of the stable/ (16) Tevzi etmclc, ' to distribute.' 

Ancient Writers. 89 

Jlil LDcX-U^^ 12 >'];> 

"/ 17 i . . 16 i i \'\ \ 15 in ..14 


(1) A. Istiklal, 'going to meet anyone.' (2) Ei'ayei etmek, 'to show respect.' 

(3) A. JKfear, ' grandees ' (used as a Turkish singular sometimes for a grandee). 

(4) Hinto, ' a carriage' (from the Hungarian). (5) A. Ikraman, 'as an honour 
to you, in your honour.' (6) A. Muzeyyen, 'adorned, decorated.' (7) P. Rana, 

'beautiful.' (8) Mukaddeman, 'in front,' 'formerly.' (9) Ardinje, 'behind.' 

(10) Kiurk, ' a fur.' (11) Kereke, a silk mantle, part of a dress of honour, formerly 
worn on grand occasions.--(12) Mizrak, 'a spoar.' (13) Aghevat, ' Aghas,' < lords, 
masters, chiefs.' (14) A. Nakoule, 'a category, kind.' (15) Sakalli, ' bearded.' 

(16) A. Imam, ' a leader, one who leads to prayers, a chief a priest.' (17) Kapou- 

jilar kiayasi, 'chief chamberlain.' (18) Inan (A.), ' the reins of a horse ; heminan, 
(P.), ' abreast.' (19) Yedek, 'a led horse. '(20) A. Huserrej, < saddled.' (21) Akbi- 
mizde, 'behind us.' (22) A. Ala meratibhim, 'according to their rank;' Meratib 

(pi. of VT mertele), 'degree, rank.' (23) Dizmek, ' to range, draw up in a line.' 

(24) A. Zokak, ' a street.' (25) A. Ziliam, ' a multitude, a crowd.' (26) A. Setr, 
' looking at, a spectacle, a sight.' 

go Literature of the Turks. 

&.jdljj J'Ji 

(1) iCat, a floor.' (2) P. GUunjayish-pezir, ' measured.'(3) P. Efzoun,' more.' 
(4) P. Jkferc?, ' a man.' (5) P. Zew, ' a woman.' (6) A. Hutezahim, ' crowding, 
crowded, flocking.' (7) Ghiuzar etmeTc, c to pass.' (8) Veda etmek, ' to say fare- 
well, good-bye.' (9) A. Perhiz, 'a, Christian fast.' (10) A. Me'louf, ' habituated, 
habitual.' (11) A. Fir ash, 'a bed.' (12) Siklet vermek, 'to worry, annoy.'- 
(13) As before. (14) Laid, 'a man who has charge of a child, a guardian.' 
(15) A. Iydb t ' coming back j' Zihdb-ou-iyab, ' a coming and going.' 

Ancient Writers. 91 

L_j>i>ty ^jJiA 

J CJjjJby* Jl/ ^JJO 1 ^ jAi>. 

Jf Aij> P 

S-y^ ^Jo U-JJyj SciJUUj 

^ Jl/ yij^y 

J/ Jtbl 

^, <d>*^ 8^ job I 

(1) Diwan-efendisi, 'an official secretary.' (2) P. Destar, 'the cloth which 
forms a turban, a turban.' (3) A. Feraje, 'a cloak worn by women, formerly a 
cloak worn by the doctors of the law.' (4) P. Rakht, ' dress, effects.' (5) P. Khiam, 
'a relative.' (6) A. 31 uj ewer, 'jewelled.' (7) A. Munhaski, ' glittering, flashing.' 

92 Literature of the Turks 

(1) A. Fa^, 'attitude, pose, gesture.' (2) Sirma, ' gold lace, gold embroidery.' 
(3) PousJiide, < covered, hidden.' (4) Eskimle, 'a stool.' (5) P. Damad, 'a son-in- 
law, or brother-in-law (of the Sultan).' (6) A. Meri, ( observed, in force.' 
(7) A. Te'saddi, ' setting about.' (8) A. Khatve, ' a step, a pace.' 

Ancient Writers. 93 


On Saturday, the 9th of the month Jemaziyyu'l-Evvel, we alighted 
at a palace which had been prepared in the environs of the city 
of Paris, where we stayed a week. Day and night the multitudes 
of people, and the number of men and women, cannot be described. 
There was more crowding than at houses where there is even a mar- 
riage feast. On the second day a person came from the king to 
congratulate us on our arrival, called " Antore Doctor/' who holds an 
office here, which consists in welcoming Ambassadors and arranging 
processions, and bringing them to the king. After two days he 
came again, and said : " Our king invites you to come to the city 
next Sunday, at noon ; and a mansion has been especially prepared 
for you. Troops in full dress have been prepared to attend you and 
salute you. The ' Chief Marshal ' had been appointed to bring 
you ; but as he is occupied with the education of the king, and is 
himself aged and infirm, and not able to mount a horse, the third 
Marshal (Detre), has been appointed. Please God, he will come 
next Tuesday before midday to take you in the king's carriage, and 
you will accompany him." The next day came a colleague of his, 
who had to look after this matter, and said : " I have come to 
arrange the programme of your procession ; tell me how many 
people there are of yours to mount, and I will bring good horses 
from the king's stable ;" whereupon a list was made and given to 
him. Afterwards, Monsieur Konyar, one of the king's equerries, 
distributed them to each person. Subsequently, Marshal " Detre," 
with " Antore Doctor," came in the king's carriage ; and we showed 
them respect by going to meet them. They stated that the king 
had sent his own carriage for me, and that all the grandees of the 
State had sent their own carriages in our honour, and as many as 
a hundred beautiful, ornamental carriages came. Then they rose 
and said : " It is time, with your permission, let us proceed." In 
front marched a regiment of the king's guards, behind them rode 
our men, part of whom I dressed in furs, and put muskets in their 
hands, and part of whom I dressed in silk mantles and put spears in 
their hands ; behind them marched bearded "Aghas;" and then 

94 Literature of the Turks. 

our priest (Imam) and the Steward of the Chamberlains. Behind 
them rode our son and our steward, side by side. Then followed 
six led horses, richly caparisoned and saddled. After them came 
the king's equerry and the interpreter. I mounted a horse saddled 
with court trappings, and, with the Marshal on my right, and 
Antore Doctor on my left, we started. Behind us canie a regiment 
of cavalry followed by the carriages in the order of their rank. 

The streets of Paris are extremely spacious. Although it is pos- 
sible for five or six carriages to drive abreast, in some places, owing 
to the throngs of people, three horsemen passed abreast with diffi- 
culty. It seemed as if all the people in the city had come to see 
the procession. The houses have four of five stories, and the win- 
dows look on to the streets. Every window was crowded with an 
innumerable lot of men and women. Thus arranged, we alighted 
at the mansion prepared for us. The troops saluted, and passed 
before our house, and then the Marshal took leave and went home. 

Again the men and women came in crowds, some to look at us, 
some to visit us. They were especially desirous to see us eat. One 
said : " My daughter, and another my wife, desires, with your per- 
mission, to look at you eating." As we could not drive some of them 
away, we gave our permission nolens volens. As this time happened 
to coincide with a Christian fast, they did not eat themselves, but 
surrounded the table and looked on. Out of politeness to them, we 
had patience. As for them, they were accustomed to look on while 
people ate, for anyone wishing to see the king eat was allowed to 
come and look on. It is also a strange thing that they go and see 
how the king gets up out of bed, and how he dresses. Hence it 
was that they bothered us with this kind of thing. 

After a couple of days, " Antore Doctor " came again, and said : 
" The king invites you on Friday. Please God, you will go ; and he 
has appointed Prince " Lanheski " to do you honour. We will come 
together ; and, as before, we will ride side by side. Hitherto no 
Marshal or Prince has ever been appointed for Ambassadors who 
have come ; and a grander procession has been arranged than before. 
When you have delivered the Sultan's letter, the Regent (guardian) 
will answer you ; and the king will rise on your coming and going. 
You will behave as friendship requires." So saying, he left. 

Ancient Writer*. 95 

When Friday came, the above persons arrived. I arranged my 
people as before, only I did not arm them with swords, or spears, or 
muskets. I put the Sultan's Imperial letter into my son's hand (as 
he was in the stead of an official secretary), for whom they had 
brought a mare, whose bridle and reins were ornamented with 
precious stones, which he mounted and went before me. I, in the 
sable furs and cloak, and turban of a Kiatib, mounted my own 
horse, saddled with court trappings, and had Prince Labinski on 
my right and Antore Doctor on my left ; and we started. 

The king, in order to let us see his troops, caused some regi- 
ments of infantry and cavalry, from barracks in the neighbourhood, 
to be brought, and dressed most of them in new uniforms. Altogether 
there were upwards of thirty thousand troops, who were ranged 
from the mansion we were in as far as the king's palace. 

We entered the king's palace from the side of the garden. Of 
the regiments ranged in the garden, one is called the White Horse- 
Guards, and the other the Black Horse-Guards. These two regiments 
are most esteemed of any in the whole army ; and all the privates 
in them are the sons of great men and gentlemen. On coming to 
the bottom of the steps at the palace gate, we alighted and entered 
through the gate, and were conducted to a room on the right, to 
rest ourselves, which was the apartment of. the king's steward. 
After a little rest we arose, and began to ascend the staircase. At 
every landing-place one of the grandees of the State met us, and 
on arriving at the door of the Court Room there were such a 
number of people that those who came to receive us surrounded us 
completely, and we could scarcely pass. We also passed through 
the door of the Court Room with twelve men. We arrived near the 
king's throne. On each side some hundred seats had been arranged 
one above another, like the seats at a marriage feast. On these sat 
the wives of the grandees, and the relatives of the king, in splendid 
apparel, covered with jewels. On our entering they all rose. On 
our coming near the king he also rose. I had taken the Sultan's 
Imperial letter in front of me. I put my hand on my breast,* 

* One most respectful way of saluting in Turkey is to place one's hands on 
one's breast, and bow. 

Literature of the Turks. 

and assumed an attitude as if I were saluting the Imperial letter. 
On coming close to the king I raised my hand to my head to 
salute him. Then taking the Imperial epistle, I said : " This is the 
letter of His Majesty, the potent, great and mighty Emperor of the 
Moslems, my benefactor, Sultan Ahmed Khan, son of Sultan 
Mahomet Khan." The king being a minor, his Vezir took it out of 
my hand respectfully, and placed it on a stool concealed by a table 
covered with gold lace, at the king's side. Afterwards, I took the 
letter of our Prime Minister, and said: "This is the letter of His 
Excellency the most illustrious Grand Yezir, the respected brother- 
in-law of the Sultan." Whereupon the Minister again took it from 
my hand, and placed it on the stool with the Imperial letter; and 
I said : " I have been sent as an Ambassador, to cement the firm 
friendship which exists between these two countries, and to explain 
the love, friendship, and respect we have for His Majesty the King 
of France." The king, who was about twelve years of age, 
and very handsome, sat glittering amidst the company, in gold 
apparal covered with diamonds. He did not answer himself, but, 
the Marshal, his guardian, replied: " His Majesty the King is much 
pleased by the letter from His Majesty the potent, mighty Emperor 
of the Ottomans, and that he selected you as his Ambassador ;" 
and everybody right and left of him rose. Then I placed my 
hand to my head, and, after retiring a few steps, put my hand on 
my breast and took my leave. 

Ancient Writers. 97 



(1) A. Tefasir, commentaries, especially of the Koran.' (2) A. Meryem, ' Mary, 
the Virgin Mary.' (3) A. Ha'iz, ' menstruus sanguis.' (4) Teyze, also written *>?, 'a 
maternal aunt, mother's sister.' (5) A. Mesjid, 'a place of worship,' 'a small 
parish or private mosque. Our word mosque is derived from this word. (6) A. 
t, 'worship, adoration.' (7) A. Ghousl etmek, ' to wash the whole body.' 
(8) Si'jhinmak, 'to take refuge, to take shelter.' (9) Kaftan, 'a kind of robe worn 
in former times.' (10) Fata, ' a collar.' (11) Yeng, ' a cuff, lower part of a sleeve.' 
(12) Irak, ' distant.' (13) Ufurmek, 'to blow on, or in.' (14) A. Uamil olmak, 'to 
become enceinte.' (15) A. Kavl, ' an assertion, statement.' (16) Ya'imak, ' to spread, 

* The Mirror of the Universe is the title of a kind of universal history, in Turkish, 
printed at Constantinople in 1269 Anno Hejirce. Most Europeans will bo greatly 
astonished to see, from the above extract from this work, that Muhammedans not 
only admit that Christ was a great prophet, but believe that he was miraculously 
begotton, and performed miracles. 


98 Literature of the Turks. 

b") ^Jjl _,i iL 

(1) A. Mervi, ' narrated, handed down.' (2) A. Esr, l a trace, sign.' (3) A. Ham/, 
pregnancy, or the foetus.' (4) Generally written _j*.>j>> douimak, ' to feel ' (v.a.); ' to 
hear, learn;' pronounced do'imak, it means 'to be satisfied, satiated.' (5) Kouds, 
' Jerusalem.' (6) A. Karlye, ' a village.' (7) A. Ala'im, ' signs.' (8) A. Zuhour, 
1 appearance.' (9) Veled, ' a child.' (10) P. Ashikiar, ' evident.' (11) A. Istinad, 
'leaning on.' (12) A. Istitar, ' seeking shelter.' (13) A. Khourma, ' a date.' 
(14) Iltija, 'taking refuge, shelter.' (15) IttiMa etme'k, 'to recline, lean on, or 
against.' (16) ATcmaTc, ' to flow.' (17) Boudaklamak, ' to put forth branches.' 
(18) A. Tan, 'reproaching, speaking ill of.' (19) A. Teslini, 'defaming, slandering, 
reproaching.' (20) P. Pur, 'full of.' (21) A. Gliam, 'grief, regret.' (22) Arabic 
words meaning : ' Would that I had died before this, and been forgotten ! ' 
(23) Tesliyet etme'k, 'to console.' (24) Levrn etme'k, 'to blame, reprimand.' (25) In- 
kiar ettnek, 'to deny.' (26) A. Muayen, 'appointed.' (27) Nezr etmek, 'to make a 
vow.' (28) Meme, ' a nipple, a teat, udder.' (29) Emmek, ' to suck.' (30) Words in 
Arabic, meaning : ' I am the servant of God. God gave me the Book, and made 
me blessed wherever I may be, and commanded me to pray and be pious all my life, 
and made my mother pure.' (31) A. Badehou, ' then,' ' afterwards.' (32) Buyumek, 
'to grow, get bigger, grow up.' (33) Artik, adv. (with a negative) 'no more, never 
again ;' (with an affirmative) 'now, at last ;' adj., ' over and remaining.' 

Ancient Writers. 99 

<xi'Uy j CL?Uie ^JoJ 

(1) P. Peygamber, or ^^l^ peyamber, ' a messenger, a prophet/ (2) A. Meghare, 
' a cave, cavern.' (3) Iletinek, ' to forward, send forward, Bend.' (4) Zina, 
'adultery/ (5)^A. Rouh, 'a spirit;' Rouh-oul-Koudous, ' the Holy Ghost,' according 
to Christians, but ' Gabriel,' according to Muharnmedans ; Rouh-ou'-llali, ' the Spirit 
of God (Jesus Christ).' (6) A. Nifas, 'forty days after childbirth.' (7) P. Muzhde, 
1 glad tidings.' (8) A. Mesih, 'the Messiah.' (9) A. Akreba, ' relations.' (10) A. 
Ahibba, 'friends.' (11) A. Souleha, 'righteous people.' (12) A. Elem, 'pain, 
anguish.' (13) Ayhlashmak, ' to weep together.' (14) Rejm etmek, 'to stone.' 
(15) Ferajhat etmek, ' to give up.' (16) A. Erhasat, ' wonders preceding the birth 
of a prophet.' (17) A. Mutaalik, ' connected with, dependent.' (18) A. Elamet, 
'sign, -wonder, phenomenon.' (19) A. Keramet, 'a marvel, wonder.' (20) A. 
Xut.umf, 'being a prophet.' (21) A. Mujixe, ( a miracle.' (22) Tahija, 'John 
the Baptist.' 

ij 2 

ioo Literature of the Turks. 

jl/f j^aL ujy^ji' ^^ jfbT ^Cl LLUi/ ^j ^^^c * 


J^ Lj^ 


- j 

23 ... 22 i . x 21 20 .... 19 

(1) Sejde, Ho bow the head, to worship.' (2) P. Tenha, ' lonely, alone.' (3) A. 
Tesbih, 'a rosary,' 'a kind of litany of masses for which the rosary is used in 
counting.' (4) A. Meshghoul, 'occupied.' (5) A. Mustaghni, ' independent of, not 
requiring.' (6) A. Tevrat, ' the Pentateuch.' (7) A. Injil, ' the Gospel.' (8) A. 
Khelk, ' creating.' (9) A. Mursel, 'an apostle.' (10) A. Merdoud, 'rejected, dis- 
owned.' (11) A. Juhoud, 'denying.' (12) A. Ilah, ' a god, God.' (13) Kavm, ' a 
people.' (14) A. Mustahik, 'deserving.' (15) A. Tazib, 'torment, punishment.' 
(16) A. Shetm, ' abuse, abusing.' (17) A. Israr, ' persisting.' (18) Izrar, 'injuring.' 
(19) T. Dil, 'the tongue, language,' 'information got by spies.' P. Dil t 'the 
heart.' (20) A. Ghil, 'deceit,' (21) A. Muhur, 'a seal/ (22) A. Kiufr, 'un- 
belief, owearing.' (23) A. Khatm ctmek, ' to seal, to conclude (a speech).' 

Ancient Writers. 


(1) Terase, ( a bat.' (2) TeratmaTc, 'to create.' (3) TefcZ*/ etmeTc, ' to propose/ 
(4) Balchik, ' clay ; the guard of a sword handle.' (5) A. Tasvir etmeTc, ' drawing, 
designing, modelling, shaping.' (6) A. Itya, ' to animate, bring to life.' (7) A. 
Ajouz, 'an old woman.' (8) Tabout, ' a coffin.' (9) Hasad, 'the harvest, reaping.' 
(10) Yaklashmak, 'to draw near, approach,' V.TO. (11) Tarla, 'a field.' (12) Ogh- 
ramak, 'to pass by or through, to meet with.' (13) A. Rouh, 'a spirit,' Rouh- 
oullah, ' the Spirit of God (Jesus Christ).' (14) Efcm, 'a crop, seed-sowing.' 
(15) KoparmaJc, ' to pluck, gather/ (16) A. Ijazet, ' permission.' (17) A. Eba-en- 
jeddin, ' hereditary.' (18) A. Mulk, 'freehold property;' Milk, ' dominions, terri- 
tory.' (19) A. 8arih t 'clear.' (20) A. Teserruf, 'possessing, using, disposing of.' 
(21) A. Devr, 'a period, time.' (22) Boghdai, ' wheat ;' ^>lJ*^ Misr bogMayi, ' Indian 
corn.' (23) Sap, ' a stalk, a straw, a handle.' (24) A. Dib, 'the bottom.' 
(25) Kimi, 'some of them.' 

IO2 Literature of the Turks. 

siW .-> 

liajui ^>)jj iff] 

.^, ,. ^ 

J -i- 


1 16 jJult) ^ ^^5 (i^^ 


(1) A. ASavi, ( a voice, a sound.' (2) ^4Za, 'very high, excellent.' (3) A. Mezrea, ' a 
sown field, an arable field.' (4) A Ha'iran, 'bewildered, astounded.' (5) A. Mazour, 
< excused/ (6) A. Helal, ' permitted (by God), lawful;' Helal etmek, ' to give up.' 
(7) A. Jem, ' a crowd, multitude.' (8) A. Gliafir, ' great, immense.' (9) A. Regret- 
ting, a sigh. (10) A. Hewari (pi. Hewariyyoun), 'an apostle, companion of a 
prophet.' (11) P. Chartak, 'an arbour.' (12) A. Lain, 'accursed.' (13) P. Khar, 
'an ass, donkey.' (14) P. Bed-akhter, ' ill-starred, evil.' (15) A. Jennet, 'paradise.' 
(16) Dulbend (Tulbent), ' muslin.' (17) A. Asa, 'a staff.' 

Ancient Writers. 103 


Thirty -second Chapter, concerning the Prophet Jesus. 
(Peace be on Him!) 

The Birth of Jesus. 

It is recorded in the Commentaries that Mary (the Virgin Mary), 
on seeing the menstruus sanguis went to her maternal aunt, the 
wife of Zaccharia, Ishaa (Elizabeth), and, having become clean, 
repaired to the Temple and continued praying. Then, one day, 
while she was performing her complete ablution of her whole body, 
in the house of her maternal aunt, Gabriel (On him be peace !) 
appeared in the form of a handsome young man. Mary, not knowing 
who he was, said : " I will take refuge with God ! " Gabriel made 
himself known, and, according as is related in the Koran, they 
conversed together, and then Gabriel blew, either on the collar 
of Mary's robe, or in her sleeve, or in her mouth, from a distance 
or close to her, and by the power of God she became immediately 
pregnant. According to the statement of Ibn Abas, she grew big 
in an instant, and, according to the account of others, in three 
months. After six, or eight, or nine months, when Mary was either 
in the thirteenth, or sixteenth, or twentieth year of her age, Jesus 
came into existence. 

It is related that Mary, on feeling the symptoms of pregnancy, left 
Jerusalem, and went to a village a few miles off, called Bethlehem. 
On it becoming clear that a child would be born, she leaned against 
a dried-up date tree for support and shelter, and Christ was born. 
Gabriel (On him be peace !) striking the ground with his foot, sweet 
water flowed out, and the date tree immediately put forth branches 
and brought forth dates. Her Holiness Mary became full of grief, 
thinking that the people would probably reproach and slander 
her, and cried : " Would that I had died, ere this, and been for- 
gotten ! " Whereupon, as is stated in the Koran, Gabriel, or Christ, 
consoled her. Then Mary took Jesus and came to the city; and 
when Mary's people reviled and denied her, saying : " Is a child 
born without a father ? What a strange thing thou hast done ;" 

1 04 Literature of the Turks. 

she said that she had taken a vow to be silent about this till a 
certain time, and suggested they should speak to the child. They 
waxed wroth, and added : " What can we say to the child in the 
cradle ? " Jesus, who was forty days old, and sucking at the breast, 
left off, and said : " I am the servant of God, he brought me the 
' Book ' and made me a prophet, and made me blessed wherever I 
may be, and recommended me prayer and piety as long as I live, 
and made my mother pure." 

After that he grew, as is usual, and said no more. The people of 
Israel, on seeing this wonderful miracle, knew that Jesus would be 
a prophet, and their evil thoughts about Mary were dispelled 

It is mentioned in the Keshaf that Joseph sent Jesus and Mary 
to a cave, and, on the way, thought about killing them. Whereupon 
Gabriel came and said : " Jesus is not (the fruit) of adultery, 
but of the Spirit of God. Do not kill Mary!" Wherefore he 

Mary remained in the cave the forty days after child-birth 
(called ' Nifas ; ), and then came to the city. On the way, Jesus 
said : " Glad tidings for thee ! for I am the servant of God the 
Most High, and His Messiah." 

On their entering the city, their relations and friends, being all 
righteous people, wept, and said : " Oh Mary, thou hast given us a 
bad name, and filled us with grief and pain," and on their wishing 
to stone them (according to what some say), Jesus spoke to them, 
and they desisted. 

Wonders before Christ's Birth. 

Before the birth of every prophet, and at the time of his birth, 
and afterwards, till he become a prophet, certain signs and wonders 
occur which are termed Erhasat. After his becoming a prophet, 
they are called miracles (Mujizat). Well, the wonders preceding 
His Holiness Jesus' birth are innumerable, but amongst those 
recorded are the following : " It is related in the commentary 
of Libab, and others, that the mother of His Holiness John (the 
Baptist) (Peace be on him !), being in the company of Mary, while 
the former was pregnant with St. John, and the latter with Jesus, 
said : ' Dor t thou know that I am with child ? 3 Mary replied : 

Ancient Writers. 105 

'And I am also/ Then the mother of John said : ' He who is in 
my womb bows his head to him in your womb to honour him.' * 

Another narrative is this Her Holiness Mary is reported to 
have said : " While Jesus was in my womb, when we were alone, 
we used to talk to one another. If any one came, or if I were 
engaged saying my rosary, I could plainly hear him in my womb 
saying his rosary/' 

Another is this When Jesus was one day old he seemed a 
month old ; and when He was nine months old, and His mother 
wished to send Him to a master, Jesus said : " Oh, mother, God 
(May He be Exalted !) made me independent of masters, and while 
I was in thy womb taught me the Pentateuch and the Gospel." 

Creation of a Sat. 

It is related in the history of Mir Khanda that Jesus (Peace be 
on Him!), having become a prophet, came to Jerusalem; and, on 
his urging the Jews, the disowned of God, and the people who 
denied Him, to enter the path of God, that nation, "worthy of 
punishment" contradicted the well-beloved apostle, whose truth- 
fulness had been confirmed, reviled him in all kinds of ways, and 
persisted in their obstinacy, and sealed their deceitful hearts with 
the seal of unbelief. 

It is stated in the commentary of Libab, that on his prophesying, 
and performing miracles, the Jews proposed to him to create a bird, 
called a Bat (in Turkish termed Yerase, and in Arabic Khuffasli), 
whereupon He shaped one out of clay, blew on it, and gave it life; 
and it flew into the air and went away, and on falling in a lonely 
place died, in order that the difference might be seen between a 
creature created by God Himself and one made by one of God's 

Raising a Woman's Son from the Dead. 

Again, on Jesus meeting the son of an old woman while they 
were carrying him in a coffin, Jesus prayed, and he, the young- 
man, came to life, and, putting on his robe, took the coffin on his 
shoulder, and returned home. 

1 06 Literature of the Turks. 

A Marvellous Miracle. 

It is written in the chronicle of Mir Khande that, one day, while 
Jesus (Peace be on Him !) was travelling with his companions 
(disciples) they came through a field where the harvest was at hand, 
and his disciples said : " We are extremely hungry. Dost thou 
permit us to pluck the crop and eat ? " and Jesus said : " It is per- 
mitted/' Whereupon, at his suggestion, his disciples plucked the 
crop. The owner of the field hearing this, cried : " This field is my 
undoubted property, by hereditary succession, by whose permission 
do you use it ? " Jesus prayed that all those who had owned it from 
the time of Adam might come to life ; and from the bottom of 
every straw of wheat rose human beings, some men, some women, 
and each one cried out, in a loud voice : f< By whose permission did 
you use my field ? " The proprietor of the field was bewildered, and 
said : " Who hath performed this great miracle V On their telling 
him, " Jesus, the son of Mary/ 5 he exclaimed : " Oh ! Spirit of God, I 
did not know you. Pardon me. I now give up all the harvest to 
your disciples." Jesus (On Him be Peace !) replied : " Oh man ! in 
reality neither the field nor the produce is thine, because, before 
thee a great multitude of people have possessed it, in the hope of 
profit, and gave it up with regret, and thus will it be with thee." 

The Ascension of Jesus. 

When the Jews had resolved on killing Jesus, the apostles were 
collected in a pavilion, and Jesus (On Him be peace !) entered 
through the window. The devil having given information to the 
unbelieving Jews, four ill-starred Jews came to the door. Jesus 
having said to his apostles : " Who will go forth and be killed, and 
become my companion in Paradise?" one replied : "I, Oh Prophet !" 
Whereupon he gave him his robe, and his staff, and, by the power 
of God, he was changed into the form of Jesus, and went out, and 
was taken and crucified. On the other hand, Jesus, by the will 
of God, obtained wings and ascended into heaven with angels, in 
a cloud of glory. 

Ancient Writers. 107 


OF SHEIKH-ZADE, the author of the most celebrated collection of 
Turkish tales, called the " Forty Vezirs," nothing is known. It is 
supposed that he translated or adapted them from the Arabic, but no 
corresponding book of tales has ever been discovered in the Arabic 
language, The origin of the stories is probably Indian, and most 
likely they were carried from India to Persia and thence found their 
way westward. The tales in Turkish are at least between four and 
five hundred years old, as one edition, still extant, is dedicated to 
Murad II. (the father of Mahomet II. the conqueror of Constan- 
tinople), who reigned from 1421 to 1451 Anno Domini. It was from 
this ancient version that the selections from the Forty Yezirs were 
made by Belletete, which book was published at the expense of the 
government of Napoleon, in 1812, for the use of French students of 
Turkish. Apparently Napoleon was aware of the importance of 
Oriental languages, but this reading-book, in which the old spelling 
of the ancient MS. spoken of above was copied, was not by any 
means fit to teach students the current Turkish ; but yet it has been 
the only Turkish reading-book in Europe until now ! The tales 
are quaint and curious and have continued to be popular in Turkey 
up to the present time. Many editions have been issued at 
various times. In the more recent issues the spelling has been 
modernized and corrected, and in this form the book is still good 
Turkish, and the style being simple and clear, it is well adapted for 
students, and especially beginners. It is a sort of Turkish Decam- 
eron, but it is by no means so indecent as Boccacio's work. One 
tale, which I have called the "Wife with Two Husbands," reminds 
one of " Box and Cox/' but I am sure that the author of that 
charming comedy did not plagiarise from this old Eastern tale, of 
which, probably, he never heard. 


Literature of the Turks. 

Tarikh Kirk Vezir. 


ve kevn khalik ol payan hi sliukr ve ferawan hamd 

and existence creator that endless thanks and abundant praise 


kudrethou jellet' jan ve ins rmzik ve 

his omnipotence magnified be soul and mankind maintainer and place 

cyje j 

ve salawat ve olsoun hazretlerine" azamethou azzet ve 

and prayers and be ! to his majesty his magnificence glorified be and 

dakhi v6 olsoun 
also and be ! 

resoul ol yuhsa- la teslimat 
prophet that innumerable salutations 

illah rizwan olsoun 

uzerine ashal)leri 

ve al 

God satisfaction be ! 

on friends 

and family 

w*~*l f^ 

J 1 - 

ejma'in aleihim 


all on them May 

He be exalted ! 

* This is the way in which this word ought to be spelt, and not vizier, as we 
often see it written in European books. It is an Arabic word, meaning one who 
bears a burden, and hence a minister of state. It is pronounced in Arabic Wezir, 
so that it may be spelt in English letters either with a v or a w. 

f These Arabic words Bism-i-'llah ! ' In the name of God ! ' are to be found at 
the beginning of every Turkish book, and are used as a sort of grace, not only 
before commencing a meal, but before beginning anything. Turks are very much 
astonished at our impiety in abruptly commencing a book without using any feuch 

AncAent Writers. 


^ ji 

'.^ ^ 


*T J* 


ghiun bir 

Sabukteghin Mahmoud 




day one 

Sabukteghin Mahmoud 



the king 

re'-i roushen vuzera-'i iken eder 

opinion brilliant the Yiziers chatting 

with his Yezirs 

padisliahleri gechmish oloup fevt ve ghitmish gheloup dunyaye 
of kings passed (away) dying and gone coming to the world 






( whose character was ") 

praiseworthy C Mahmoud the Sultan they made mention 

nedir ismi padishahlerin ol buyourdiki el-fial messoud 

C whose deeds were ") /^ 
what is ? the name of those kings those asked < fortunate 

said the Yezir 

future life the palace 


ol zemandenberou bounche 

those time ago such a long 

* Sabukteghin is the name of the father of Sultan Mahmoud, the founder of the 
dynasty of the Gaznevids, who flourished at the beginning of the eleventh century. 

f Vuzera is the Arabic plural of /jj vezir, 'a Vezir.' The sound of i inserted 
after it is given because it is followed by a Persian adjective. See Wells' Grammar, 
pp. 178, 179. 

| The word Mahmoud means ' praised,' and JU*. Jchisal means ' moral qualities.' 
The expression ' Mahmoud el-Khisal ' thus signifies ' one who has praiseworthy 
qualities, and is a jeu-de-mots on Sultan Mahmoud' s name. 

The word eU^l , when pronounced etmek, means ' to do,' but when pronounced 
eitmek means ' to say.' In this sense it is now somewhat obsolete. The same word, 
when pronounced itrnek, means ' to push.' 

no Literature of the Turks. 


ismi birinin binde buyourmoushler intikal 

the name of one in a thousand they condescended transported to 

"V <J 

var padiahah bir zemande filan anjak bilenmaz 

existing king a at a time such and such but is not known 

buyourddiki padishah dediklertnde suilenir deyou imish 

condescended ) 

to say C *ke king on * y sa y m & lfc 1S sal(i saying was 

j> <* 

deghin kiyamete ta ki edesiz tedbir bir bana 

until the Resurrection until that make contrivance a to me 


meshour namim ve mezkiour jihande aerai adim 

celebrated my name and mentioned in the word the palace my name 

may be 

binasine imaret bir ki etdiler beyan vezirler 

to its building- public building a that explained the Vezirs 

olour kharab He eyyam murour buyourseniz shurou 

if you con- to com 

it will become a ruin with days lapse , 

descend mence 

* Anjak, when an adverb, tneans ' only just, hardly,' but when a conjunction it 
means ' but, however, still.' 

f In conversation pronounced deye. 

Ancient Writers. 


meshoor suilenip memleketde akhar kalmaz-baki naminiz 

celebrated being talked of in a country another will not remain your name 

su'ilediler seuz durlu bir biri her deyou oknaz 

they said word kind ^ a one of them every saying it will not be 


bir naminde eyas khas filahmoudoun sultan akibet 

a called Khac oyuo- of Mahmoud Sultan at last 

tedbir ghayet idi var khidmetkiari sevghili 

ingenious extremely was existing his servant favourite 

fasnif kitab bir adine padishahiiniii megheT oloup 

composed book a to his name of my king may be being 

.jJokxi/*^ l_- ?JU tijP& *X<Lw V lj &>" ^jJi 

memleketden kaloup dejhin kiyarnete ta ki oluna 

from country remaining until to the Resurrection until that may be 

sebebile kitabin ol ve okouna oloup-shayi memlekete^ 

by reason of book that and it may be read being spread to country 

J 1 

a War ila 

the end to 

oloimoup yad 

being remembered 


his noble 


ism padishahimin 

name of my kiug 

* Generally pronounced liizmetkiar. 

f Tt'dbir-sahibi literally means 'a possessor of management, or contrivance.' 

+ Hegher generally means ' unless, and yet ;' but here it means ' may be, it 
might be.' 

Ta is a Persian word meaning c as far,' and deg Jiin a Turkish word meaning 
1 until.' Sometimes both are used, the former before, and the latter after the word 
to express ' until.' 

1 1 2 Literature of the Turks. 

8bX5iXJfc) <Uj! 1*5 Jw< <U) i let) ._^v. 


dedikde ola mezkiour He dua-< kha'ir 


on his saying may it be mentioned with blessings 


.M .1 v 

$ 1 OF \JfJ $ \J** 

tedbiri bou ve la'ik re'iyi bou dakhi vezirler 

arrangement (plan) this and fit opinion this also the Vezirs 

etdiler- tahsin ghieurub mufavik 

approved seeing (considering) favourable 



naminde tousi 

Ferdousi Mahmoudoun sultan mahalde ol 
Ferdousi of Mahmoud Sultan place in that 


padishah idi var ustadi aghiah arif ve kiamil bir 

the king was exerting master intelligent learned and perfect a 

altmish ki kitabini Shahnamd ve 
sixty which the book of Shahname and 

eiledi emr kiamile ol 
ordered to perfect that 

kendi veroup 
own giving 

gold piece 






verses is 


etdirdi- te'lif adine 

caused to be written to his name 

* Ferdousi, the most celebrated of the poets of Persia, and of the whole East, 
author of the Shah-Name, or ' King's Book,' He lived in the reign of Sultan 
Mahmoud the Ghaznevid. and died in the 421st year of the Hejira (or Anno 
Domini 1030), at Tons, where he was born. He nourished, therefore, before the 
Norman conquest of England, when this country was in a very illiterate condition . 

f Toiisi means ' one who was born in Tous.' 

Ancient Writers. 113 


In the name of God the Merciful, the Clement ! Abundant 
praise and endless thanks be to the Creator of all things, the 
maintainer of mankind and life (May His omnipotence and glory 
be magnified !) ; and may prayers and salutes innumerable be 
offered for His Apostle (Mahomet), and for his family and friends 
(May God be well pleased with them all !). 

One day, while Sultan Mahmoud Sabukteghin the Just* was 
chatting with the Yezirs, the latter brilliant-minded men made 
mention of past kings who had come into the world and gone, and 
died. Sultan Mahmoud (The Praised), whose qualities were praise- 
worthy and whose deeds were fortunate, condescended to say : 
" What is the name of those kings ? " A Yezir said : " It is such 
a long time since those kings have passed into (the palace of) 
eternity that the name of one in a thousand is not known. People, 
speaking of them, say : ' At a certain time there was a king/ ' 
Thereupon, the king said : " Find out for me a contrivance 
whereby my name may be mentioned in the world, and celebrated 
until the Besurrection/" The Yezirs replied : " If you erect a 
public building, by the lapse of time it will fall into ruins, and 
your name will not be perpetuated, and it will not be spoken of in 
other lands and become celebrated." They were all unanimous in 
speaking thus. 

At last, a very ingenious favourite servant of Sultan Mahmoud, 
called Khas-Eyyas, said : " Suppose a book were written in the 
king's name, which may last till the Eesurrection, be spread from 
country to country and read, and thus the king's noble name, by 
means of this book, be remembered to the end of time, and 
mentioned with blessings/' The Yezirs approved, thinking this 
opinion good and the contrivance suitable. 

Sultan Mahmoud had a clever, learned and intelligent tutor in 
that place, called Ferdousi ; the Sultan ordered him to write, in 
his name, the Shahname (The King's Book), which has sixty 
thousand verses, and for every verse he gave him a gold piece. 

* The celebrated conqueror of India, who ruled at Ghazni from A.D. 998 to 1030. 

14 Literature of the Turks. 


(1) JJaZeb, Aleppo. (2) SJiehir, 'city.' (3) P. Padishah, < & king.' (4) Siclian, 
'a mouse, or rat.' To distinguish them a mouse is called ^If <JJ^ findilc sichani, 
and a rat L5 'V - ^*5"' ghemer-sichani. (5) Ehali, ' people, inhabitants.' (6) Shikiayet 
etmek, ' to complain.' (7) Abou-ali-Sina, the celebrated physician Avicenna, as 
Europeans call him. He was born in Bokhara, A.D. 983, and died at Hamadan, 
A.D. 1036. (8) Kelam etmek, 'to talk.' (9) Rahat etmelc, 'to be comfortable.' 
(10) Taki, 'in order that.' (11) Ama, 'but.' (12) 8hol, or yi shou, 'that.' _ 
(13) A. Sliart, 'a condition, stipulation;' shartile, 'on condition.' (14) Zinhar, 
' Beware ! take care ! ' (15) GMulmek, ' to laugh.' (16) Razi olmak, ' to consent, 
agree.' (17) A. Shad (sliaz), ' delighted.' (18) P. Der hal, 'at once, immediately.' 
(19) Envr etmelc, 'to order.' (20) A. Hazir, 'ready.' (21) Suwar olmalc, 'to 
mount.' (22) A. Taraf, ' side, direction.' (23) Sokak, 'a street.' (24) Dourmale, 
' to stand.' (25) Efsoun oTcnumiak, ' to read an incantation.' (26) Sichan, 'mouse.' 
(27} Davet e'ilemeJc, 'to invite. '(28) Birisi,'one of them.' (29) Toutmak,'To catch.' 
(30) Helak etmek, ' to destroy.' (31) Tabout, ' a coffin.'- (32) Yukletmek, ' to place 
as a load (on anything). (33) Aheste aheste, ' slowly.' (34) Youroumelc, 'to walk.' 

Ancient Writers. 115 

(1) Jenaze, ' a funeral/ (2) Hitmr here means ' present.' (3) Surmek, 'to drive;' 
sure sure, ' driving and driving.' (4) P. Shah, e a king.' (5) Kimisi, l some of them.' 

(6) ~Euninde, ( in front of.' (7) Ardinde, 'behind.' (8) Seir etmeTc, 'to look on. 

(9) Omouz, 'the shoulder.' (10) Ghieurmek, 'to see.' (11) Dayanmak, 'to bear 
support.' (12) Ghiulmek, ' to laugh/ (13) Tashra, or (jj^> dishari (adv.), ( oufc, 
beyond ;' subst., ' the exterior,' ' a provincial place/ (14) Chikmalc, ' to go out/ 
(15) Jamie, 'all/ (16) Helalc olmalc,<to perish/ (17) Icheri, ' inside/ (18) Da- 
ghilmak, ' to be dispersed/ (19) Kachmak, ' to run away/ (20) A. NasUhat, ' ad- 
vice/ (21) Dem, 'a moment/ (22) P. Peshiman (or pishmcbn), ( to be sorry, to 
repent/ (23) Ne eilesin, ' what could he do ? ' 


There was a king in the city of Aleppo, and as there were a 
great many mice in that city, the inhabitants were every day 
complaining of the mice. One day, while the king was talking 
with Abou-Ali-Sina (Avicenna), the conversation turned on the 
mice. The king said: " Abou-Ali-Sina, everybody is complaining 
of the mice. How would it be if you found a remedy for them, 
and everybody were made comfortable." Abou Ali Sina said: 
" I will do something for them, so that not one will remain in this 
town, but on condition that you stand at the gate of the city, and 
whatever strange things you see you must not laugh, or beware ! " 
The king consented, and was delighted. He immediately ordered 
them to get a horse ready. He mounted and came to the gate. 

i 2 

Ii6 Literature of the Turks. 

Abou All Sina also stood in a street in that direction, and read 
an incantation and called the mice. One of them came, and he 
caught hold of it and killed it, put it into a coffin, and made 
four mice bear it. He again read an incantation, and they began 
to strike their hands together, and the four mice commenced 
slowly marching. All the mice in the city attended the funeral ; 
and they came rushing along to the gate where the king stood, 
some in front of the coffin, and some behind it. The king looked 
on, but on seeing the mice carrying the coffin on their shoulders, 
he could not stand it, and laughed. At once, on his laughing, all 
the mice who had passed out of the town perished, and all the 
mice who were inside the gate were scattered inside the town and 
fled. Abou Ali Sina said : " Oh, king, if you had taken my advice 
and not laughed for one moment more, not one mouse would have 
remained in the city, all would have gone out and perished, and 
everybody would have been comfortable. The king repented of 
his laughing; but what could he do? Kepentance too late is of 
no avail. 

Ancient Writers. 1 1 7 


Jb j ^^P^^ S-^^T^y (J^.^r ^*jf Jj^ 


(1) Koujaklamak, ' to take into one's arms, to encircle with one's arms.' 
(2) fevt olwafe, 'to die.' (3) Dirilmek, 'to come to life.' (4) P.Dem, 'a moment/ 
(5) A. Iklim, 'a clime, country.' (6) Sarilmak (v.n.} } ' to embrace, to twine ;' 
(v.p.) *to be bound up, or bound round.' (7) Gharib, ' stranger.'- (8) Harami, c a 

n8 Literature of the Turks. 

(1) GhetirmeTc means 'to bring,' but glieuturmek (generally spelt v^jsj^} means ' to 
carry off, to carry.' Evidently it is in the latter sense that the word is here used, 
and it would have been better spelt el-/jC (2) Halal, ' lawful property.' (3) Ip 
is 'a rope ;' iptakmalc, 'to adjust a rope round.' (4) Ber-dar means ' on the gibbet, 
gibbeted;' and Ber-dar etmeJc, ' to hang.' (5) Kat generally means 'a fold/ but 
here it signifies ' presence.' (6) P. Murd, ' dead.' 

Ancient Writers. 119 


It is related that in the time of His Holiness* Jesus, there was 
a young man, a tailor ; he had a beloved wife and they loved one 
another extremely. One day they agreed to make a covenant that, 
if the wife died first the husband would not take another wife, but 
that he would embrace his (deceased) wife's tomb, and mourn (every 
day) till evening. If the young man died, the wife also would do 
thus. By the will of God, the wife died. The tailor, after lamen- 
tations, buried her, and, carrying out the covenant they had made, 
he embraced her tomb and wept, and always remained on her tomb. 
One day, while Jesus was passing through that place he saw a 
young man embracing a tomb and weeping. He approached him, 
and asked why he wept. The youth narrated all that had passed. 
Jesus at once put up a prayer, and the woman came to life ; 
and she arose from the grave in her winding-sheet. Jesus went 
on his way again. The youth said : " It won't do for you to walk 
about thus in your winding-sheet. Stop a minute here, and I 
will go and bring some clothes from home. Put them on, and 
then we will go together." Whereupon, he went quickly to his 
home, and left the woman there. By chance the son of the king 
of that country happened to pass that way, and saw a lovely 
woman sitting with a winding-sheet wound round her. As soon 
as the prince saw her he fell madly in love with her, and exclaimed : 
"Who art thou?" The woman said: "I am a stranger; and a 
robber has stripped me." The prince immediately ordered his 
servants to take the woman and bring her to the palace, and put 
clean clothes on her. 

When the young tailor brought the clothes, he did not find the 
woman. He began to weep, and made enquiries of the passers by. 
There was no one who had seen her, and the poor fellow, asking 

* The Muhammedans, far from speaking of Christ disrespectfully, as we do of 
Muhammed, always prefix this title of respect to his name, as they consider he 
was a prophet, and even divinely inspired, but not God Himself. It would appear 
also from this tale that they even believe in his power of performing miracles. 

i2o Literature of the Turks. 

and asking, at last met the prince's servants. They asked the 
tailor why he was weeping, and he said : " Some time ago my 
wife died, but (praise be to God) by the prayers of the Prophet 
Jesus she was brought to life. I went to get her clothes, and in 
the meanwhile the woman has been lost ; that's why I weep/ 1 
They answered : " The prince sent that lady to day to the palace." 
The tailor went at once into the presence of the prince, and said : 
"The woman whom you carried off is my lawful wife;" and 
claimed her. The prince asked the woman about this, and she 
denied it, and said : " This thief stripped me, and took my things 
and ran away. Thanks be to God he has now come. If you kill 
him you will do a meritorious action." The prince gave orders 
for them to bind the tailor's hands behind his back. His cries 
were of no avail. They put a rope round his neck and took him off 
to hang him. On the road they saw His Holiness Jesus. They 
stood and waited. When he came near, he enquired about the 
matter, and they informed him. Jesus stopped them, and went 
himself to the prince. He called the woman and asked her, and 
said : " This woman is the wife of that youth. I put up prayers 
and she was brought to life." The woman, as she saw there was 
no possibility of denying it, admitted the truth. Jesus again put 
up prayers, and the woman died. The tailor was saved from the 
precipice into which he had fallen, and he regretted that he had 
wept over the woman so long. 

Ancient Writers. 121 


2' i / x 21 .. 20 



(1) A. Zeman, ' time.' (2) A. SaMfc, ' former.' (3) Odoun (sometimes spelt 
means ' firewood,' and odounji, or odounjou, ' a wood-cutter.' (4) Yighit, ' a young 
man.' (5) Yawit^, ' cruel, ferocious.' (6) A. Selite, ' a sharp-tongued, loquacious, 
woman.' (7) Avret, ' a woman, a wife.' (8) A. Da'im, 'always.' (9) Kazanmak, 'to 
earn.' (10) El, ' the hand.' (11) Almak, < to take.' (12) Sheuile ki, ' so that.' 
(13) Akche, ' money, cash, a small coin worth about -^ of a penny.' (14) A. Yed 
' the hand.' (15) Brakmak, 'to leave.' (16) P. Qhiah (acZr.), 'sometimes.' 
(17) Oeje yemeyi, ' supper.' (18) Touzlon, ' salt.' (19) Pishirmek, ' to cook.' 
(20) Dedikde, ' on his saying.' (21)Ire'si geje, ' the next night.' (22) Katmak, ' to 
add.' (23) A. Kezalik, ' likewise, also.' (24) A. Wafrr, ' abundant.' (25) A. Ekl, 
* eating.' (26) Aari, ( free from ;' ekl-den a'ri etmek, ' to make it uneatable.' 

(27) Ip, 'rope.' (28) Almak, ' to buy.' (29) Para, a small coin, ^ of a penny.' 

(30) Ghizlemek, ' to hide.' (31) Ko'in, 'breast pocket.' (32) Boulmak,' to find.' 
(33) Gha'iri, ' another.' (34) GTiizli, ' secret.' (35) O'inash, ' a prostitute.' 
(36) And ichmek, 'to swear.' (37) Inanmak, 'to believe.' (38) Behe, 'Oh!' 
(39) Janim I literally means ' My soul ! ' but it is often equivalent to ' My dear ! 
My good fellow ! My dear madam ! ' (40) Brakrnak, ' to leave.' (41) Ber-dar etmek, 
' to hang.' 

122 Literature of the Turks. 

Jb jLl " Icy: ' ^ ^ * * J Jo 

^t^j) 6 ,-J^< 

{ *-^*J.^ <*r*j* 



(1) P. Bed-dua, 'bad prayers,' -i.e. ' malediction.' (2) A. El-hasil, 'in short.' 
(3) A. Azim, 'great, big. ' (4) GJiavgha (generally pronounced Wiavga), 'a quarrel, 
or a fight.' (5) Khatoun, ' a woman, lady, wife/ (6) A. Sabah, ' morning.' 
(7) A. Merlcel, 'a, beast.' (8) Dogh, 'a mountain.' (9) 8aUn ! 'Take care ! ' 
(10) Binmelc, ( to mount.' (11) Ardinin-ardirye, 'behind him.' (12) For^J-u neler, 
'what things.' (13) BaJcmak, 'to look.' (14) Sess, 'a sound, voice.' (15) Odoun, 
'firewood.' (16) Kesmek, ' to cut.' (17) Bashlamak, ' to begin.' (18) Dolanmak, 
'to wander about/ (19) Kouyou, 'a well, pit.' (20) Bash, ' head.' (21) Ghelmek, 
'to come.' (22) Nazr etmek, 'to look.' (23) Ea'iJcirmak (often spelt j^s**.), 'to cry 
out, call out.' (24) CheUlmeTc, ' to withdraw, go back, retire.' (25) A. MOc-dar, ' a 
quantity, bit.' (26) Ileri, 'forward.' (27) Ghitmek, 'to go.' (28) Tikrar, ' again.' 
(29) Adim, a step, pace.' (30) BasmaTc, ' to tread, step.' (31) Ayak, * foot.' 
(32) P. Pa'idar, 'firm.' (33) Ka'imaTc, 'to slip.' (34) Dushmek, 'to fall.' 
(35 & 36) Ajiz kalmak, ' to be unable, not powerful enough ;' elinden ajiz kalmish, 
'he could not help it.' (37) A. Mukayyed, 'attentive.' (38) Ferdas'i ghiun, 'the 
next day.' (39) Yine, 'again.' 

Ancient Writers. 123 

j^ Jb^i3JU| JB^vJ .xi> f. j&A C^J^ftc ^^J XJol^ic J^oJ 

. 27 




(1) ^IgrTiz, 'the month.' (2) GhiewunmeJc, ' to appear.' (3) Turefc, < the heart.' 
(4) 4jimafc, 'to ache, to pity. 5 (5) Sarkitmak (j^U), 'to let down danglingly;' 
from Jv sarkmak, 'to hang down' (y.w.). (6) Toutmak, 'to hold, catch.' 
(7) Chekmek, 'to pull, draw.' (8) J.0fc>, 'heavy.' (9) Ghairet, ' zeal.' (10) Ifrit, 
'a hideous genie.' (11) Khavf etmek, 'to be frightened.' (12) A. Hak, 'truth,' 
' God.' (13) A. Taala, 'May His name be exalted ! ' (Arabic). (14) Razi, 'con- 
tented.' (15) A. Azab, ' pain, punishment, torture.' (16) A. Khalas etmek, ' to 
save.' (17) A. Kiyamet, ' the resurrection.' (18) K~hatir, ' mind, memory.' 
(19) A. Muhal, ' impossible.' (20) A. Mesken, ' place of abode.' (21) Dounki ghiun, 
'yesterday.' (22) A. Nahis, 'unlucky, of evil omen.' (23) Koulak, 'the ear.' 
(24) A. Muhkem, ' fast.' (25) Brakmak, ' to let, let go, leave.' (26) ChagUrmak, 
' to call.' (27) Kourtoulmak, ' to be delivered.' (28) Klialas olmak, ' to be saved.' 
(29) Istemek, ' to wish.' (30) Mukiafat etmek, 'to reward.' (31) Yaprak, ' a leaf.' 
(32) A. 7 icy, 'medicine.' (33) Yuz, 'the face.' (34) Surmek, 'to rub.' (35) A. 
Nimet, ' a favour.' (36) Ihsan etmek, 'to confer.' 


Literature of the Turks 








/; fJ*j 

(1) A. JSTisa, 'a tale.' (2) Orajikdan, 'thence.' (3) Douglirou, 'straight.' 
(4) Sera?, 'a palace.' (5) P. Der mest la yaUl, 'in a state of insensibility.' 
(6) Ah ! ' Oh ! '(7) P. Fighan, ' cry, lamentation.' (8) A. JCTiabr, ' news ;' fcTialr 
ghiundermek, ( to send word.' (9) Bash aghrisi, l a head-ache.' (10) Chabuk, 
'quick.' (11) A. Hekim, ' a doctor.' (12) Toy in etmek, 'to appoint.' (13) Kiar 
etmedi, 'he did nothiug.'^ (14) A. El Kisa, 'in short.' (15) Evlad, ' children,' an 
Arabic plural used, strange to say, for the singular ' child.' (16) Feryad etmek, 
' to cry out.' (17) A. Ilm-i-Nujoum, ' astrology.' (18) A. Maher, ' skilful.' 
(19) A. Khawas, 'special things.' (20) Turin, ' kind, sort;' turlu-turlu, 'all kinds.' 
(21) A. M a -j era, 'what had happened' (Arabic). (22) Talim etmek, ' to in- 
form.' (23) Anjak, ' only, but.' (24) Inanmak, ' to believe.' (25) P. Ferman, 
'order.' (26) A. Mazmoun, 'purport.' (27) Khasta, ' ill.' (28) Bou kadar, 'so 
many.' (29) A. Munajjim, 'astrologer.' (30) ^IsZa, 'not. all, never.' 
(31) A. Fa'ide, ' use, advantage.' (32) Her kirn, ' whoever.' (33) A. Mussliman, 
' Muhammedans,' but pronounced Mousoulman, and used as a Turkish singular, it 
signifies ' a Muhammedan.' (34) Tek, when an adverb, as in this case, means 
merely, ' only, but once ;' but used as an adjective it signifies 'odd ' (not even), or 
' quiet, alone.' (35) A. Kiafir, ' an infidel.' (36) A. Dunya, ' the world.' 

Ancient Writers. 125 







38 . t .| x . . iy 37 .. ,. A 

p> ^r^ T^r U j <-* y ;^ - * 

(1) A. Enam (pi. of nimet), 'favours, benefits.' (2) Gherek, 'fitting, proper,' 
corresponding to ' ought ' in English. (3) Jm^o. ctmefc, ' to sign.' 5 (4) A. Izn, ' per- 
mission.' (5) She/a boulmak, ' to be cured, recover.' (6) A. Filhal, ' immediately.' 
(7) Teslim-etmelc, ' to deliver.' (8) Azimet etmek, 'to depart.' (9) A. Vi'aytt, 
'country, province.' (10) DaTchil oZmafc, 'to enter.' (11) Chabuk, 'quick.' 
(12) A. Huzour, 'presence.' (13) Chikarwalc, ( to bring out, cause to go out.' 
(14) A. Tarif, l explanation.' (15) Ami etmek, 'to act.' (16) P. Da'mad, 'son-in- 
law.' (17) P. Megher (meyer), ' but, unless.' (18) Dost, ' a friend.' (19) Sevmek, 
' to love.' (20) Injitmek, 'to pain, hurt.' (21) P. Ehosh, ' agreeable.' (22) Isliit- 
mek, 'to hear.' (23) Ghiundermel, 'to send.' (24) Taleb etmek, 'to demand, 
summon.' (25) Taki, 'in order that.' (26) P. Chare, 'a resource, cure.' (27) P ess, 
'then.' (28) Tan, 'side.' (29) Ghirmek, ' to enter.' (30) Div (dev), 'a demon.' 
(31) P. Khod, 'self.' (32) A. Ghiyek, ' extremely.' (33) Darilmak, 'to grow 
angry.' (34) Eorkou, ' fear.' (35) A. Hairan, 'stupefied.' (36) Kalmak, ' to re- 
main.' (37) Chikmak, 'to go out.' (38) Alrilmak, 'to be separated.' 

126 Literature of the Turks. 

fr*- j*. Jl 

(1) KacTimaTc, ( to run away, flee.' (2) A. Haram, unlawful.' (3) Koyouvermelc, 
to let loose, let go.' 


In former times, in a certain town, there was a young man, a 
wood-cutter. He had a cruel, sharp-tongued wife. Continually, 
whatever the wood-cutter earned, his wife took it from him, so that 
she did not leave him a farthing. Sometimes, if the supper were 
too salt, and the wood-cutter said : " To-night the supper is too 
salt," the next night she put no salt in and cooked it without salt. 
In the same way, if he remarked : " There is no salt in it/' then she 
would put in too much, and make it uneatable. 

One day the wood-cutter hid a few pence from his wife, to buy 
rope with. When it was night, finding them in his pooket, she said : 
" You have got another bad girl besides me, and you take the money 
and bring it to her." The wood-cutter swore that he had not, but she 
did not believe him. " Oh my dear, I left it to get rope with." The 
woman replied : " I hope they may hang you with that rope ! " He 
said : (< Why do you abuse me thus ? " She answered : " The curses 
I uttered are too few for you." In a word, they had a big quarrel, 
and the wood-cutter struck the woman ; and they passed the night 
somehow, till day broke. The man arose and took one of his asses, 
and when going to the mountains said to the woman : " Take care 
you do not come with the other ass." The woman at once arose, 
got on the other ass, and followed him to the mountains. She said : 
' ' As soon as you are by yourself who knows what things you will do." 
The wood-cutter looked, and saw the woman was coming. He went 
to the mountains without uttering a sound. The wife went too. 
He began to cut wood. The wife, wandering about the mountains, 
came to the brink of a well. The wood-cutter looked at the well, near 

Ancient Writers. 127 

which the woman was, and cried out to her, " Go back ! " She went 
a little more forward. Again the wood-cutter called out, saying : " I 
tell you to go back, and you go forward. Go back back ! " The 
woman said : " I shall go forward/' and went a step more forward. 
The stone under her was not firm,, and slipped, and she fell into the 
well. The wood-cutter, as he could not help it, paid no attention, 
loaded his asses and went home. That night passed ; the next day, he 
again took his asses and went to the mountain. He said to himself 
I will go and look at that woman, and came to the well. He looked, 
the woman was not visible. He took pity on her, and, letting down 
a rope, said : " Hulloa ! wife, catch hold of this rope, and I will 
pull you up/' He looked, the rope felt heavy. He exerted himself 
and pulled, and an Ifrit who had wound himself in the rope, came 
forth. The wood -cutter was frightened. The Ifrit said : " Oh ! 
youth, fear me not ! May God be pleased with you. You have 
saved me from great torture, and I can never forget it till the Day 
of ' Judgment." The wood-cutter answered : "What tortures were 
you in ? " The Ifrit said : " This well has been my abode for a long 
time; yesterday an ill-omened virago fell on top of mej her 
shoulders came on my head, and she caught tight hold of my ears 
and has never let me go. You came, and, throwing me a 
rope, cried out : " Catch hold of this rope ! " She let me go, and did 
not catch the rope, and, thanks be to God, I was freed and saved. 
Now, I want to reward you for the service you have done me " 
saying which, he drew forth three leaves, and gave them to the 
young man, adding : " Now I shall go and possess the daughter of 
the king of this country. However much they doctor her, I shall 
not leave her until you come, and putting one of these leaves in 
water you rub the juice on her face. Then I will leave her and go. 
The king will bestow great favours upon you." The young man 
took the leaves from the Ifrit's hand, and not caring about the 
woman, went home. But to return to the Ifrit. The Ifrit went from 
there direct to the king's palace, and possessed his daughter. The girl 
lay stupefied, crying : " Oh, my head ! " They sent word to the 
king. He came, and looked, and cried : " She has got a headache," 
and ordered a doctor. The doctor was no use ; he appointed another 
doctor, and he did no good ; and another, and he did no good ; in 
short, there were as many as ten doctors, but they were all no use. 

128 Literature of the Turks. 

The girl, on seeing her father, cried : " Oh! father, my head ! " He 
answered : " My child, my head and heart ache when you cry so, 
and more than your head, but what shall I do ? I will go and find 
an astrologer." So saying, he went and called the most skilful 
astrologers. Several of them came, and applied all kinds of remedies. 
But to return to the wood-cutter. When the Ifrit gave him the 
leaves and told him what we have related, the youth did not believe 
him, and paid no attention. One day a man came from the city of 
that king and brought a firman, which was to this effect : " My 
daughter has fallen ill. I ordered many docters and astrologers, 
but they have been no use at all. Whoever is skilful, let him come 
and treat her. If he be a Mussulman, I will give him my daughter. 
Only let her get well. If he be an unbeliever, I must confer a world 
of favours upon him. -The'WOOd-cutter came, and said : " I will go 
and cure her, with God's permission/' They immediately brought 
him to the man who came from the king. They started at once. 
One day they entered the king's country. They informed the king. 
He gave orders for him to come directly, and they brought him 
into his presence. The king ordered the girl to be fetched. The 
wood-cutter acted according to the If rit's directions, and the girl 
was cured. The king gave him his daughter, and made him a 
son-in-law. Now, that king had a friend, a king also, and the Ifrit 
loved his daughter, and was always plaguing that girl. Hearing 
that the other king's daughter had recovered, he (her father) sent 
a man and asked for his son-in-law to cure his daughter. The king 
sent him. When the youth came to the girl he saw that the Div 
was in her. When the Div saw the youth, he cried : " Look here ! I 
did you a kindness ; and I like this girl. Have you come to take her 
from me ? " Thus he got into a great rage and said : " I will .go and 
take that other girl from you." The wood-cutter, terror-stricken, 
said : " I have not come for the girl, but the woman in the well was 
my wife. I left her in the well to get rid of her ; but now she has 
got out of the well, and has come here. Wherever I go, she will 
not leave me. 1 have fled and come to you. She will come in here 
too, directly." As soon as the Div heard the words, " She will 
come in here directly," he cried : " Oh, dear ! she has come here 
too, has she ? This place is not for me then, and he let the girl 
go," and went off ; and the king's daughter also was cured. 

Ancient Writers. 129 



. ViW;^ Jjl U^JjJ 

(1) The feminine of the Arabic word J* wekkiar, 'a knave, or cheat.' (2) Er, 
an old Turkish word for 'a husband,' or 'a man.' (3) Generally spelt ^JcT 
kendi. (4) A. Ayyar, 'a rogue, impostor, cheat.' (5) Oghrou (obsolete), 'a 
thief, robber.' (6) Talan, 'the sole of the foot;' taban kaldirmalc, 'to take to 
one's heels.' (7) Cheurek, < a kind of cake, or bun.' (8) Pounar, 'a spring, foun- 
tain ;' often spelt jK?.->, pinyar. 


1 30 Literature of the Turks. 


>.u ^ .t 

j - 
J>> ^J3 Jj) j 



, I Jb A^jj^J^I jljj ft CJ-Ai' Cc Jod^ Ul 

Sl <Uj>! 

(1) Ere! 'Sirrah! fellow ! '(2) Ay an, c manifest.' (3) Or 

Ancient Writers. 131 



(1) Jfoi'n, 'the bosom or breast pocket, a fob.' (2) A. Zarafet, 'tact, elegance 
or wit.' (3) Makhfi, ' secret, hidden.' (4) A. Lain, ' accursed one, the devil.' 
(5) Komok, or ko'imak, generally means ' to place, put,' but here it means 
' to leave, or let alone.' (6) A. Mahlteme, or mehkenie, 'a court of justice.' 
(7) A, Sille, ' a smack on the face, or box on the ear.' (8) Pronounced messel 
this word means ' a proverb, or parable,' but pronounced misl it signifies ' a like 
thing, the like.' (9) P. Clioun means 'when,' or 'as.' (10) Kemenil,'& halter, 

K 2 

132 Literature of the Turks. 




(1) /gfcisfc, f a skewer, a spit," a swelling.' (2) ^Jd u 'What art thou doing ?' 

(3) Pishman, properly the Persian word ^UjAi pesJiiman, 'to repent, be sorry.' 

(4) Kieult, ' a male slave.' (5) Oghmalc, ' to rub with the palm of the hand, 
shampoo.' (6) Sakiz, a kind of gum which is chewed like tobacco in the East. 
(7) Chinemek, ' to chew, masticate,' ' trample on.' (8) P. Aheste, c softly, slowly.' 
_ (9) 2ftj f < a hair, or bristle.' (10) Esnemek, ' to yawn, gape,' 'to be elastic.' 
(11) P. Darcnr, or dari, ' a drng.' (12) Generally spelt J-jj zenlil, 'a rush basket, 
teol-basket.' (13) KimildoMmaTt, ' to move,' (v.n.). 

Ancient Writers. 133 


*^J J'y** e;^'^ S- 

(1) Edinmek, ' to provide for one's self,' ' procure for one's self,' ' gain for 
one's self.' 


In former times tliere was a crafty woman, in the city of Cairo, 
called Dallat-ul-Muhtal. She had two husbands, and each one 
thought she was his own wife, and for a long time she was wife to 
both. The men were completely unaware of this state of affairs. 
As regards their calling: one of these men was a sharper, and the 
other a thief; and both were pupils of the woman. One day the thief 
went to the bazaar and sold an article, and took the money. Another 
person meeting the man to whom he had delivered the article, cried 
out, " Thanks be to God ! I have found a clue, you have got my other 
property; come,speak quickly !" The man replied, <( Don't talk non- 
sense ! I bought this and paid for it. You talk thus because you want 
this property/' The thief saw them, and at once took to his heels, 
and came home. He said to the woman : " Wife ! my robberies have 
been found out ; bring me a piece of bread and I will go elsewhere, 

134 Literature of the Turks, 

until this row lias blown over." The woman prepared a cake and a 

lamb's tail, and cutting them in two, gave the thief a half of the 

cake and a half of the lamb's tail. The thief took them, and went 

on his way. After a time the sharper came too, and said : tf Wife ! 

ray swindling has been detected, give me a piece of bread. I will 

not appear for a few days, and go somewhere else." The woman gave 

the sharper the remaining half of the lamb's tail, and he departed. 

However, the thief, who went first, coming to an agreeable shady 

place, and a nice spring of water, sat down by that agreeable water, 

and took out the bread and the lamb's tail, and was about to eat, 

when, lo ! the sharper also came to that place, and sat down at the 

edge of the spring. On his sitting down, and taking out the lamb's 

tail, the thief said : " Come mate, let us dine together." The sharper 

approached, and looked at his own cake and the thief's. He saw 

they resembled each other. They put them together, and it was 

one cake. They then put the pieces of the lamb's tail together, 

and found they were one tail. The sharper was astonished, and 

said : " There's no offence in asking. "Where do you come from ? " 

The thief said : " I come from Cairo." The sharper replied : 

" Where is your house." The thief said : " My house is Dallat-ul- 

Muhtal's house, in Cairo ; and she is my wife." The sharper said : 

" That house is mine, and that woman is my wife, and I have lived 

there for how many years. Now why do you tell lies ? " The thief 

^said : " Fellow ! are you mad, or are you joking? She has been 

my married wife for many years." Thus talking the dispute waxed 

greater and greater. At last the sharper said : " There is no use 

in our quarelling here ; come, let us go to the woman, and ask 

her. Then we shall see whose wife she is." Then the two arose, 

and came to the woman. As soon as the woman saw them she knew 

what was the matter. She showed them both a seat, and sat down 

before the two. The sharper said : " Holloa, wife ! whose wife are 

you ?" She said : ' Wallah,* hitherto I have been the wife of both 

of you, but henceforth he will be my husband who is the cleverer. 

I taught you both to be skilful, but whoever's skill is greater, I will 

be his wife." They both consented to this agreement. The 

* ' By God ! ' 

Ancient Writers. 135 

sharper said : " To-day I will do some swindling, then you can 
show your skill." Then they both arose, and went to the bazaar. 
The sharper noticed that a Frank put a thousand pieces of gold 
into a purse and the purse into his bosom, and went to the market. 
The sharper at once followed the Frank, reached him in the middle 
of the bazaar, and, by a skilful trick, stole it out of his pocket. He 
then went into a secret place, took nine gold pieces out of the purse, 
and taking off his finger a ring engraved with his own name, put it 
into the purse, and came back and put it into the Frank's pocket. 
The thief saw all this. Then the sharper made a circuit, came in 
front of the Frank, seized him by the collar and beat him several 
times, saying : " Halloa, you devil ! why did you take my purse and 
my gold pieces/' The Frank said : " Go about your business. Go, 
and let me alone. Who are you ? I have never seen you until now." 
" There is no necessity for you to know me. Come ! we will go 
together to a Court of Justice." The Frank agreed, and they went 
together. The sharper prosecuted, and the Cadi asked the Frank : 
"How many are your pieces of gold? " The Frank said : " A thousand 
pieces of gold/' He (then) asked the sharper: "How many areyours?" 
"Nine hundred and ninety-one pieces, and even there is a silver ring 
of mine, on which my name is written, inside the purse/' The Cadi 
took out the purse and counted. Exactly nine hundred and ninety- 
one came out, and a ring. They gave the Frank a few smacks on 
the face, and the money to the sharper, who took them and 
returned with the thief to the woman. The woman said : " Behold ! 
he has shown skill the like of which has hitherto not been heard of/' 
When night came the thief took a slip-knot and went with the 
sharper to the king's palace. The thief took his slip-knot and 
climbed up, and then, pulling, got the sharper up. They descended 
(inside). They went to the treasury, and, taking out various kinds 
of keys, opened the door, and entered the king's treasury. The 
thief said to the sharper : " Pick up and carry as much gold as you 
can." The sharper loaded himself and they went out. They then 
proceeded to the poultry house, took a goose and killed it, lit a fire 
and put it on a skewer, which the sharper turned. The latter then 
went in the direction of the king's bedroom. The sharper said : 
" What are you doing ? " The thief said : " I am going to the king 

136 Literature of the Turks. 

to submit our skill to liim. We shall see which of us has the greater 
skill, and whether you or I deserve the woman." The sharper said: 
" Come ! for God's sake let us go away, I have given up the woman. 
Let her be yours. The thief replied : <( You say so now ; but to- 
morrow, you will be sorry for it, but when the king has arbitrated 
then you will be satisfied. " So saying, he, hiding himself behind 
the door, peeped in. A male slave was shampooing the king's 
feet, and chewing mastic, sometimes awake, sometimes asleep. 
The thief softly hid himself under the throne ; and stuck the end of 
a piece of horse-hair into the boy's mouth. The boy chewed up the 
the hair with the mastic, but he yawned and opened his mouth. 
The thief pulled the hair, and drew the mastic out of his mouth. 
The boy opened his eyes and looked for the mastic on this side 
and on that side, but after a short interval fell asleep. The thief 
held a drug to his nose, the boy became quite unconscious and 
dropped down. The thief put him into a rush-basket and hung him 
up on the wall, and began to shampoo the king's foot himself. The 
sharper saw all things from the door. The king moved, the thief 
softly said : " Sire, if you desire it, I will tell you a tale." The king 
said : " Tell it me, and I will listen/' The thief commenced to 
relate everything that had happened between him and the sharper, 
and from time to time looking out, addressed the sharper, who sat 
outside turning the goose, saying : " Turn, turn, the goose is 
burning." He even explained that he had entered the king's 
treasury with the sharper, that the sharper was sitting outside 
turning the goose, and that he by a trick had stolen the mastic out 
of the slave's mouth, in short all that had occurred. The sharper 
trembled and beckoned to him for them to go. The thief replied : 
" Go on turning, the goose is burning ; " and turning to the King 
said : " Oh, King ! is the skill of the sharper greater or that of the 
thief ? and which deserves the woman." The king said : " The skill 
of the thief is greater, and the wife is his/' Then the thief sham- 
pooed the king's leg a little, and when he fell asleep, he softly arose, 
and coming to the sharper's side, said : " Have you heard that the 
king says that the woman is the thief s." The sharper said : 
have heard it." The thief said : " The woman is whose ? " The 
sharper replied : lf Yours/' The thief said : " You are telling lies, 

Ancient Writers. 137 

I will go again, and ask the king." The sharper said : " For God's 
sake, let it be. Come ! let us go. Not only the woman, but I will 
be yours, if you wish." Then they arose, and brought those riches 
to the woman, and explained how things were. The woman 
approved, and took the thief as her husband. 

138 Literature of the Turks. 


The Tooti-Namt, or " Parrot's Book," is a Turkish version of the Fables of BidpaY. 
The tales are amusing, and well adapted for practice in reading for students. 


(1) Diyar, ' a country.' (2) Haleb, 'Aleppo.' (3) P. Bazirghian (bazirglian), <a 
merchant.' (4) P. Khaje (khoja), ' a gentleman, schoolmaster, teacher, professor, 
a civil servant.' (5) A. Mahboub, ( beloved, lovely.' (6) Suwar olmak, ' to mount.' 
(7) P. Bagh, ' a vineyard' (in poetry, 'a garden'). (8) GUezmek, ' to promenade;' 
ghezinmek, 'to walk about without any object.' (9) A. Rijaat, 'returning/ 
(10) A. Hammam, 'a bath.' (11) Oghramak (v.n.), 'to pass by, or through, to 
touch at.' (12) Ayak, 'a foot.' (13) Surchmek, 'to slip.' (14) Yikilmak, ' to fall, 
or be pulled down.' (15) P. Bi-housTi, 'insensible.' (16) Ah! yazik, 'What a 
pity i '(17) Helak olmak, ' to perish.' (18) Bir katch, < a few.' (19) Sokmak, 'to 
push in.' (20) P. Tenha, ' lonely.' (21) Serpmelt, 'to sprinkle.' (22) Mualeje, 
* curing, medical treatment.' (23) A. Ka'id, 'fixing one's attention on any thing.' 
(24) P. Mejher (mey&r), 'but, however.' (25) A. Nisi, 'a like thing, or quantity.' 
(26) P. Nayab, 'not existing,' ' not to be found.' (27) A. Sin, 'age.' (28) A. Itifak, 
'chance, by chance.' (29) P. Ber-an^ 'thereupon.' (30) P. Khosh, 'agreeable, well,' 

Ancient Writers. 139 

Axib^J l^Jb ^.Jij^cU- 


JcLJ ji' e-?^^ 29 jjJ 

(1) S^Ze, 'an aunt.' (2) A. Jariye, 'a female slave, girl.' (3) Sevinmek, 'to 

he glad.' (4) A. Ahwal (pi. of JL hil], 'state.' (5) Medh etmek, ' to praise/ 

(6) A. Fursat, ' an opportunity. 3 (7) Bari, ' at least, at any rate/ (8) A. 4vre*, 

a woman.' (9) A. JewaZ, ' beauty.' (10) Nazr etmek, 'to look.' (11) P. Dide, 

4 an eye.' (12) P. Mestane, l intoxicated.' (13) Rast ghelmek, ' to meet.' 

(14) A. MeleTc, ' an angel.' (15) A. Souret, ' form, figure ;' m4lek souret, ' who has 

an angel's form.' (16) A. Ashk, ' love.' (17) P. Ghiriftar, ( seized.' (18) Tamasha 

etmek, ' to view, survey.' (19) TaashuTc etmek, to fall in love.' (20) P. Gherm, 

warm,' ' swift.' (21) A. Illet, < a disease.' (22) P. Bous, 'a, kissing j' bows etmek, 

to kiss.' (23) Daye, ' a foster-mother.' (24) Chaghirmak, 'to call.' (25) Boyoun, 

the neck.' (26) Sarilmak, ' to entwine one's self, embrace.' (27) Han e'ilemek, 

to make known, inform.' (28) A. Mushfik, ' compassionate, kind.' (29) P. Tta (tez), 

quick, quickly.' (30) A. Ibtida, 'a commencement, beginning ;' (adv.) Turkish, 

first of all.' (31) A. Nadir, ' rare.' (32) P. Deveran, 'the world, time;' thus 

Nadir e-i-dcveran, ' Oh, rare one of the age ! '(33) A. Mesrour, ' delighted.' 

140 , Literature of the Turks. 

JL> 5jjo JJj j| ^,*! j I 


(1) A..Vasite, 'a means.' (2) A. Hedaya, 'presents.' (3) Tebligh etmek, 'to 
forward.' (4) Murour etmelc, 'to pass.' (5) A. Ziarei, 'a visit.' (6) P. Didar, 'the 
eight of any one, after absence;' 'the face.' 


There was a merchant in the country of Aleppo, called Khoja 
Behram, who had a handsome son, fifteen years of age, whose name 
was Said. 

One day Said mounted his horse and went to the vineyards 
outside Aleppo. After riding about for a long time he returned. 
While on his road back he passed by a bath, and, his horse's foot 
slipping, he was thrown off, and became senseless. The women 
coming from the bath saw Said in that condition, and some of them 
reported it, and they came and took Said and laid him down in a 
quiet place in the bath, sprinkled water in his face and tried to 
restore him. 

Now there was (another) merchant in Aleppo who had a lovely 
daughter called Gulnush, fifteen years of age, the like of whom was 
not to be found in the world, who happened to be in the bath that 
day. Said, in the meanwhile, had got better, and his senses returned ; 
and his aunt and her women rejoiced. Gulnush, hearing of this affair, 
said to herself: "They extol this young man and say he is handsome 
and nice. There could not be a better opportunity. I will just 
have one look at least."" So saying she came and looked at him, and 
called for water for Said. They gave it to her, and while he was 
drinking it, the beauty of Gulnush met his intoxicated gaze, and he 
said : " Who is this maiden with the form of an angel ? " and 

Ancient Writers. 141 

fell in love with her. The maiden also, on beholding Said, fell in 
love with him, too ; in short, the love was mutually ardent. Said 
being completely recovered, kissed his aunt's hand, left the bath, 
mounted his horse and went home. He then sent for his foster- 
mother, and, when they were alone, threw himself on her neck, and 
told her how matters stood, and that his aunt and her women had 
been there and knew whose daughter the maiden was, and that he 
wanted her to find out. The foster-mother said : " There is no girl 
in Aleppo prettier than Khoja Yousouf s daughter/' She went and 
inquired of the aunt's women, and came and told Said that the girl 
was Khoja YousouPs daughter. Said fell at the feet of his foster- 
mother and said : " Take my compliments to that maiden, and tell 
her my condition." Finally his foster-mother had compassion on 
him, and went directly to the girl, and bringing his compliments, 
addressed her thus : " Oh, rare one of the age ! Said has seen you 
in the bath, and fallen in love with you." Gulnush was delighted, 
and said : " Oh, Madam ! I also fell in love with him that day, and 
since then I have not been able to find a means of sending my 
greeting to him." So saying, she sent her salutation to Said, and 
numerous presents, and the foster-mother brought them to him. 
A few days having elapsed after this, Gulnush went with her mother 
on a visit to Khoja Behram's house. She saw the foster-mother 
privately, and said : " Oh, Madam, my patience is exhausted, let me 
see Said to day." The foster-mother replied : " I will go and speak 
to Said." . 

142 Literature of the Turks. 


2 . . 1 .. 

(1) A. Muteber, ( esteemed.' (2) Nesne, ' a thing.' (3) A. Devlet, < empire, pros- 
perity.' (4) A. Nefes, 'the breath;' ne/s, 'the soul, the flesh, the passion.' 


" There is nothing so esteemed by the people as grandeur (empire); 
whereas there is nothing so good in worldly grandeur as one breath 
of health." (Sultan Suleyman, the Law-giver). 

* This great monarch, who was distinguished both for his victories and his 
literary talent, is called by Europeans 'Suleyman the Magnificent,' but by the 
Turks ' Suleyman the Law-giver.' 

Ancient Writers. 143 


MESHIHI is a Turkish poet who excelled in describing the beauties 
of nature, and may be called the Longfellow of the Turks. He was 
born near Uskub. His productions were highly esteemed by his 
contemporaries ; indeed so much so that the Grand Vezir, AH Pasha, 
the Eunuch, gave him a fief on the revenues of which he existed, 
and also appointed him Secretary of the Divan, in consequence of 
a poetical petition Meshihi had addressed to the Prime Minister. 
This poem is still extant. It appears, however, that Meshihi was 
not so good an official as a poet, and neglected the duties of his 
office to indulge in dissipation. The Sultan, on learning this, con- 
siderably reduced his salary. After his patron AH Pasha's death, 
Meshihi again solicited government employment, but unsuccessfully. 
He died in the year of Hejira 918 (1512 Anno Domini). 

144 Literature of the Turks. 



. 2 

(1) Dinlemek, 'to listen.' (2) P.Bulbul, 'the nightingale.' (3) A. Ztsa, 'a tale.' 
(4) JBKw (in old books used for **"&*), 'for, because.' (5) A. Eyyam, 'days.' 
(6) A. Bahar, ' spring.' (7) Kourmak, ' to set going, to place in working order, to 
pitch, to plan.' (8) P. Henghiame, ' a.tumult.' (9) P. Henghiam, ' time.' (10) P. Sim, 
silver.' (11) P. Efshan, ' scattering, who scatters.' (12) A. Ezhar (pi. of i/y), 
' flowers.' (13) F.Badam(or ^.badem), 'an almond.' (14) P. Shughioufe, 'a blossom, 
flower.' (15) BezenmeTc, 'to adorn one's self, put on one's best clothes.' (16) P. 
Bagh, 'a garden.' (17) A. Ish, 'pleasure, jollity, gaiety.' (18) P. Noush, 'drink- 
ing.' (19) A. Sahab6 (pi. of --U), 'companions' (especially of Mohammad). 
(20) P. Lale, 'a tulip. 5 (21) Huzour, 'tranquillity, pleasure.' (22) A. Hal, ' the 
present.' (23) P. Roukh, ' the cheek.' (24) P. Evnghin, ' coloured, capital, funny, 
varied in colour.' (25) P. Zhde, 'a dewdrop, dew.' 

Ancient Writers. 145 

(1) A. Firash, 'a bed ;' sahib-firash, ' ill in bed/ (2) P. Ghonche, ' a rosebud.' 
(3) Baghir, ' the bowels' ('the breast'), obsolete. (4) A. Soubh, 'the morning.' 
(5) P. Ghevher, or ghiuher, 'a pearl, or precious stone.' (6) P. Bar, 'pouring;' 
ghevlier-bar, ' which pours out pearls or precious stones.' (7) A. Nefhe, ' a breath.' 
(8) P. Bad, 'the wind.' (9) A. Salir, 'the early morn.' (10) P. Nafe, 'a 
bag of musk;' 'the navel.' (11) P. Bout, 'scent.' (12) P. Ghiulzar, 'a bed of 
roses.' (13) Dinlou, 'manner, kind;' shol, ' that ;' shol-dinlou, ' in such a manner.' 
(14) P. Mush'k, ' musk;' nab, ' pure.' (15) A. Katre, 'a drop.' (16) P. Shebnem, 
< dew.' (17) P. Qhiulab, 'rose-water.' (18) P. Charkh, the universe, firmament.' 
(19) Otak, 'a large tent.' (20) GMunluk, ' frankincense.' (21) A. Sehab, 'a 


[The following free translation of the above appeared some years ago in a collec- 
tion of Oriental tales, &c., in English, published by the Author of this volume.] 

Hark ! 'tis the nightingale ! 

Come, let us spring-time hail ; 
For joy's own bower, 
'Neath the almond-flower 

In the spring-time 's to be found. 

146 Literature of the Turks. 

Oh ! hear the spring's voice, 
And laugh and rejoice 

For the merry spring, 

On Time's swift wing, 
Doth quickly, quickly pass. 

Flowers cover hill and dale, 
Arid heath and smiling vale ; 

But a fleeting thing 

Is the merry spring, 
And ne'er may you see her more ; 
So hear the spring's voice, 
And laugh and rejoice ; 

For the merry spring, 

On Time's swift wing, 
Doth quickly, quickly pass. 

The groves are all bright 
With < ' Ahmed's light." * 
Oh, people of Mahomet, come, 
For pleasure's season 's now begun. 
And hear the spring's voice, 
And laugh and rejoice ; 
For the merry spring, 
On Time's swift wing, 
Doth quickly, quickly pass. 

The rose and the tulip, in the fresh, crisp air, 
Look as blooming and charming as damsels fair; 
And the dew on the leaves, the dew-drops of morn, 
With fairy-like diamonds these sisters adorn. 
Then hear the spring's voice, 
And laugh and rejoice ; 
For the merry spring, 
On Time's swift wing, 
Doth quickly, quickly pass. 

* A kind of flower. 

Ancient Writers. 147 

The season of darkness and sickness is o'er, 
And the plants and the flowers recover once more, 
And, passive and sorrowful, down on its breast, 
Doth the rosebui no longer its sickly head rest. 

Then hear the spring's voice, 
And laugh and rejoice; 

For the nierry spring, 

On Time's swift wing, 
Doth quickly, quickly pass. 

The clouds in their passage, at early morn, 
The rosebuds with fresh sparkling gerns adorn, 
And the gentle zaphyrs, as on they sweep, 
The earth in the musk of Tartary steep. 

Then hear the spring's voice, 
And laugh and rejoice; 

For the merry spring, 

On Time's swift wing, 
Doth quickly, quickly pass. 

The scent of the roses, as it upward flies, 
Meets the dew of the morn as it comes from the skies, 
And together they mingle, and downward fall, 
Every drop of the dew rosewater all. 

Then hear the spring's voice 
And laugh and rejoice ; 

For the merry spring, 

On Time's swift wing, 
Doth quickly, quickly pass. 

148 Literature of the Turks. 



KEMAL BEY was one of the greatest of modern Turkish authors, if 
not the greatest. He was- a poet, novelist, dramatist and journalist, 
and excelled in all branches of literature. His novels are nearly 
as good as those of Sir Walter Scott or Alexander Dumas, and his 
political articles in the I~bret } and other Turkish newspapers, are 
very ably written. His political ideas, which had been cultivated 
by the study of European history and literature, were in advance of 
his age in Turkey, and during the reign of Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz, he 
was exiled, and came to London, where he appears to have enjoyed 
himself and profited by what he saw, if we judge by the interesting 
description of London which he has bequeathed to his countrymen. 
He was acquainted with the languages and literatures of Persia, 
Arabia, England and France. While in London he published a 
Turkish journal called the Hurriyet ("Liberty"), which contained 
some remarkable articles suggesting reforms in the government of 
Turkey. He seems certainly to have been a good patriot, although 
some of his ideas were not approved of by his government. After 
a long stay in England he was allowed to return to his native land, 
and became eventually governor of the island of Scio. Notwith- 
standing his official duties his devotion to literature still continued. 
Unfortunately, last year, death put a stop to his literary activity at 
the early age of forty-eight. 

I may, I think, appropriately conclude these few remai-ks about 
this great author, whom I had the privilege of being personally 
acquainted with, by a quotation from his own works, which shows 
that he deeply felt what a fleeting thing life is : 

" If we rightly reflect, the life of man consists only of the Future. 
What is the Past ? A perpetual death. What is the Present ? One's 
last breath." 

Modern Writers. 




(1) A. Mutemeden, ' civilized.' (2) Dolashmalc, e to go round, walk round, travel 
round.' (3) IVe hajet, ' what necessity ? ' (4) A. Iman, 'regarding attentively.' 
(5) Temasha, 'viewing, seeing' (any sight). (6) A. Beda'i, 'wonders.' (7) A. Vele, 
' astonishment, amazement.' (8) ITnwuzoj, ' type, pattern, model.' (9) A. Mula- 
lagha, 'exaggeration.' (10) A. Terafefct, ' progress.' (11) A. Medeniyyet, 'civiliza- 
tion.' (12) A. Misal, ' an illustration, an example, a counterpart.' (13) A. Re'ib, 
'doubt.' (14) A. Ghiouman, 'doubt, suspicion.' (15) A. Ikbal, 'good luck.' 
(16) A. Besher, 'mankind, a human being, a man.' (17) A. Mouhat, ' surrounded.' 
(18) A. Ahjar, 'stones' (pi. of ^ liajar). (19) Sirayet etmek, 'to be com- 
municated,' ' to be contagious.' (20) P. Siyah, ' black, blackness, a black spot.' 
(21) A. Nikab, ' a veil.' (22) A. Zoulmani, ' dark.' (23) P. Nazenin, 'a beautiful 
girl.' (24) P. Dilruba, 'charming.' (25) A. Temeddun, 'civilization/ (26) P. En- 
dam, 'figure, stature, symmetry.' (27) A. Ahkiam, 'influences,' 'principles,' 'com- 
mands.' (28) A. Adalet, ' justice.' (29) A. Jcreyan, ' a being current, happening 
taking place.' (30) A. Mchd, ' a cradle.' 

150 Literature of the Turks. 

(1) A. Efkiar-i-umoumiyye, 'public opinion.' (2) A. Jismaniyyet, 'incarnation, 
embodiment.' (3) Deghme, 'not every one.'' (4) A. Tehajjur, 'to turn to 
stone' (v.n.). (5) A. Melus, 'a deputy, representative. ' (6) A. Amal, 'hopes.' 
(7) A. Sera'ir, 'secrete.' (8) A. Istinad, 'relying on for support,' 'taking as a 
basis.' (9) P. Enjumen, 'an assembly, society.' (10) A. Tejavuz, 'an offensive 
act, infringement.' (11) A. Daghdaghe, ' turmoil.' (12) A. Mubahasat, ' discus- 
sions.' (13) P. Edibane, 'well-behaved, polite, refined,' (14) Sikje, 'often.' 
(15) Euksuruk, ' a cough.' (16) Sess, ' a sound.' (17) Birden, ' at once.' (18) A. 
Khulous, ' candour, sincerity, friendship, purity.' (19) A, Adah, 'gentlemanly be- 
haviour.' (20) A. Mutave'et, ' conformity, obedience.'- (21) A, Hakim, ' a judge, 
a ruler.' 

Modern Writers. 151 

(1) A. Insaf, ' conscience.' (2) A. Shefket, ' compassion, clemency, indulgence.' 
(3) A. Ubuvvet, 'paternity.' (4) A. Tayin, 'pointing out.' (5) Yemin etmek, * to 
swear.' (6) P. Badi-heva (bedawa), ' gratis.' (7) Etek, 'a skirt.' (8) A. Etfal, 
' children.' (9) A..Me'louf, ' accustomed.' (10) A. Riyazat, 'mathematics.' (11) A. 
Kuvre-i-jazibe, 'the attracting power' (power of gravity). (12) A. Amik, 'deep, 
profound.' (13) A. Mesail, 'questions.' (14) A. Hukema, ' wise men.' (15) Mu- 
hakeme etmek, ( to judge of.' 

i5 2 Literature of the Turks* 

lasl*. te-J^j j$ JLk&cj ^i Jt> 

. . 
.^3 &> iiUw.JaS' ^ ^b V^JJUUj ^,^1 j$^AJ*,i) 

Odf^Ji <Cwj.j>jl C.. ?.A> .J c^As^c vJ^^i' <wj jjLOUj .I 

.1 tfl J- 

LMJ/ JJU- JojJjaT ^Us^ AfM J.U.y 

J^J J>A^ 

(1) A. Seftne-i-Nouli, 'Noah's Ark.' (2) A. Toufan, 'the Flood.' (3) Kitab- 
Ichane, ' a library.' (4) A. Allame, ' a very learned man.' (5) Hafiz-i-Kiutub, ' a 
librarian.' (6) Numoune-kliane, ' a museum.' (7) A. Dar-ul-kiutub, ' a library. '- 
(8) Na marouf, ' unknown, outlandish' (9) A. Matbou, 'printed.' (10) A. Mejbour, 
' obliged.' (11) Parlamento, ' parliament.' (12) Vakf etmek, ' to bequeath.' - 
(13) A. Kiiniya, ' chemistry/ (14) A. Hikmet-i-tabiiyye, ' natural philosophy.' 
(15) A. Berahin, ' proofs ;' aleni, ' public, open ;' Berahin~i-aleniyy6, ' experiments, 
illustrations.' (16) CUn, ' China/ (17) A. Meslihoud, 'seen, witnessed.' - 
(18) Haml etmek, ' to attribute.' (19) A. Jevahir, l jewels.' (20) A. Nefa'is, ' precious, 
beautiful things.' (21) A. Defa'in (pi. of vj* define), ' buried treasures.' (22) Khazain, 
' treasures, treasuries.' (23) A. Servct, ' wealth, opulence.' (24) P. Serapa, 'entirely, 
totally.' (25) P. GUrdal, 'a whirlpool.' (26) A. La-ycnkati, ' continually, uniu- 

Modern Writers. 153 


j c 

** *i ^SJJUJJ <L.! 


(1) A. Merkez, 'a centre.' (2) Noubet beklemek, ' to wait one's turn.' (3) Ara- 
sira, 'sometimes.' (4) Seir, 'a promenading/ (5) Devr etmek, 'to circulate' (v.n.). 
(6) A. Mahzen, ' a warehouse.' (7) Idkhalat, 'imports.' (8) Ikhrajat, 'exports.' 
(9) Mujib olmak, ' to cause.' (10) A. Jezr-ve-med, ' the tide' (the ebb and flow). 
(11) A. Malisoulat, 'productions, produce.' (12) Mamoulat, 'manufactures, manu- 
factured articles.' (13) Fabrika, 'a manufactory.' (14) A. Dehshet, 'terror.' 
(15) Div, 'a monster.' (16) P. Alienin, 'of iron.' (17) P. Bedn, 'a body.' 
(18) Puskiurmek, ' to spout out of the mouth in a fine shower.' (19) Ouzv, ' a 
member of the body.' (20) A. Mudhish, ' terrible.' (21) Peida etmek, ' to get, 
to find, to get into one's possession ;' Peida olmak, ' to spring up, appear/ 
(22) P. Zenjir, 'a chain.' (23) A. Hukm, 'authority, power, influence;' 'a decree.' 
(21) A. Esir, 'a captive, slave '(25) A. Nelik, 'a king's.' (26) A. AM, ' intel- 
lect.' (27) A. Bila, ' without.' (28) P. Aram, < rest, repose/ (29) A. Li/a., 
' causing an order to be put in force/ 

154 Literature of the Turks. 

(1) A. ^Zat (pi. of cJl, olet), 'an iastruraent, tool ;' Alat-i-TaUyije, 'printing 
machines.' (2) Ibret, the name of a Turkish newspaper. (3) A. Nuskhe, ' a copy.' 
(4) A..Matba, 'a printing-office. ' (5) A. Amele, 'workmen, labourers.' (6) Istikh- 
dv,m olounmak, * to be employed.' (7) Yaldiz, ' gilding ;' J>^\ jjJU yaldiz altini, ' a 
Venetian ducat,' ' a gold sequin.' (8) A. MustaghraTc, ' immersed, drowned/ 
'covered.' (9) P, Ghibta-resa, 'causing longing.' (10) UsTciudar, the village of 
Scutari, near Constantinople. (11) A. Kiafi, ' sufficient.' (12) A. Mushteri, ' a 
customer.' (13) Erfcefc, 'male.' (14) A. Muntazem, 'regular.' (15) Cliarslii, 'a 
bazaar, market.' (16) P, Ayine, 'a mirror, reflector;' ayine sera'i, 'the Crystal 
Palace.' (17) A. Mesv-e, 'a promenade.' (18) A. Initaf, 'reflection.' (19) A. 
Shule, 'flame.' (20) A. Hawai, 'belonging to the air.' (21) A. Ma'i, 'blue' 
(generally, in Turkish, pronounced written even ^L mavi}. (22) P. Zemin, '.the 
surface of the ground,' ' the ground ' (of colours). (23) A. Ala'im-us-sema, ' a rain- 
bow' (commonly pronounced Eleim-sama). (24) P. Kiouh, 'a mountain.' (25) A. 
Elmas, 'a diamond.' (26) Fiskiyye, 'a fountain, jet d'eau.' (27) Feveran etmek, 
* to spirt up, bubble.' 

Modern Writers. 155 

'j CJUjuJ J-oU- ^JU^I Jb y 

n & ^j jo 


M i)W 1UU 

JlA3 ^^j 

(1) A. En/as (pi. of *+jj ravza), ' gardens.' (2) A. Khouldi, ' eternal.' (3) A. TaJc- 
lid, ' imitation.' (4) A. MuJctedir, ' able.' (5) A. Meshkiouk, ' doubted, doubtful.' 
(6) A. Satvet, ' military strength, might/ (7) Zirhli, ( iron-clad.' (8) A. Muknet, 
' what one is able to do.' (9) Doul-lcadin, 'widow lady/ (10) A.Eytam, 'orphans/ 
(1L) Ihda etmck, ' to give a present/ (12) Vasiyyet-Name, ' a will/ (13) A. Gha- 
rib, 'strange/ (14) P. Asayish, 'order, tranquillity/ (15) A. Muhafezd, 'protec- 
tion, preservation/ (16) Zabtiyyeler, 'policeman/ (17) Charpmalc, ' to knock or 
dash anything against another' (r.a.). (18) A. Ahad, ' individuals.' (19) A. Hai- 
siyyet, 'status, dignity, consideration;' Ashab-i-Ha'isiyyet, 'people of quality or 
position/ (20) A. Isliaret, 'a sign/ 

156 Literature of the Turks. 

ab) CL>UJ'ju ^J CJuo 

18 jjb 


23 A ! 22 f.. . 21 .. 
flJ ^^S: A; UA^J &U**.2*. 

(1) A. Servet, 'opulence;' Ashab-i-servet, 'opulent people.' (2) A. Refaliiyyet, 
'prosperity, comforts, good circumstances.' (3) A. Mubalaghat, 'exaggerations.' 

(4) Iran, 'Persia.' (5) Shalrane, l poetical.' (6) Hind, ' India,' (7) P. Jevlierin, 
'of jewels, jewelled.' (8) P. Zerin, 'of gold, golden.' (9) Rengliin, 'coloured,' 
'gorgeous.' (10) P. Ghiulistan, 'a rose garden, a flower garden.' (11) Top, 'the 
whole of anything, all.' (12) A. Asr, ' an age, century.' (13) A. Esbab, ' causes.' 
(14) A. Terakki, ' progress.' (15) A. Movjid, 'an inventor.' (16) A.Vesa'it, ' means.' 

(17) Etrafli, ' thoroughly.' (18) Hich olmazsa, 'at least, at any rate.' (19) A. 
Islitibah, 'doubt.' (20) A. Hayat, 'life.' (21) A. Jemiyyet, 'a community.' 
(22) A.. Nisbeten, 'in relation to.' (23) A. LemTie, 'a glance;' i-lasr, ' the twinkling 
of an eye, a moment.' 


What necessity is there to travel through all civilized countries ? 
If one only visits London with observant eyes, the wonders one 
will see will amaze one. If all the improvements in the world 
were photographed in a picture, the whole civilized world could 
only show as much as London. It is no exaggeration to say that 
London is a type of the world. Therefore we have chosen it as 
a sample (of the civilized world). 

Modern Writers. 157 

This city is generally enveloped in a black mist, like the 
happiness of mankind is involved in clouds of doubt and 
uncertainty, and its houses are as deeply covered with blacks as 
its very stones and trees are affected by the habits of civilization. 
But if we look behind that dark veil, the beauty of civilization is 
revealed to us in such splendour and majesty that an intelligent 
man must be smitten by it. 

If any one who is in London wish to see the principles of justice 
in full play, before all things, there is that gigantic House of 
Parliament, which was the cradle of many of the constitutions 
(rules of politics) which we see in the world. If one looks at its 
construction, it seems as if the power and resistance of public 
opinion with regard to the administration had been embodied, and 
that that tremendous body had been turned to stone, to show as it 
were, that it is protected from destruction by any shock. If one 
enters it, he sees three or four hundred representatives, the most 
distinguished men of a nation (composed of one hundred and eighty 
millions of members) which, if not the first of all civilized nations, 
is one of the first, every one of whom explains, with extraordinary 
eloquence, the wishes of the people and the wants of the future, 
and displays all possible skill in expounding the principles of 
justice and the secrets of progress. 

This distinguished body has, as its basis and support, political 
assemblies, each one as extensive as a town, which consists of forty 
or fifty, and, sometimes, a hundred, or a hundred and fifty 
thousand people, who have all agreed about a common object. 
When they meet, not only is there no disorder or turmoil, but 
very often, except the polite discussions which are going on, not 
even a cough is to be heard. So many men meet together in 
one place ; some of them speak, and their defects are listened to 
in silence, and then, at once, they go candidly and politely to 
their government, and explain what they need. Ninety out of a 
hundred of their demands are granted, as they are consistent with 
right and supported by overwhelming force. 

Judges in the Court of Justice, appointed in accordance with 
the principles laid down by the Parliament, are to be seen, whom 
all parties trust even more than the indulgence of their own fathers. 

158 Literature of the Turks. 

These judges are helped and controlled by a body called the 
" Jury," who swear to do their utmost to investigate the truth, 
and who are themselves the friends and neighbours of the 
two litigants. There are lawyers to state clearly both sides 
of the question in the presence of the Jury, who (some of 
whom) would prefer gaining 1 a deserving case to a lap full 
of gold. 

Behold, this is the state justice is in, but education is still more 
perfect. If you go into any school, children ten or twelve years 
of age are accustomed to order and education only to be found 
amongst men of twenty or thirty (elsewhere). There are higher 
schools where the pupils study three or four languages, and know 
six or seven sciences. 

Twenty, or five-and-twenty children, ten or twelve years of age, 
will go to a garden (park). Either they have a newspaper in their 
hand and try to make themselves acquainted with what is going 
on in the world, or they sit in a corner and enjoy the pleasantness 
of the air, and freshness of the trees, which they survey with an 
intelligent glance. In their ships, crews are to be found who 
study the most abstruse mathematical questions, like the laws of 
gravitation. In the shops clerks are to be found who will discuss 
the ideas of the savans of Germany about the philosophy of rights. 

There is a Zoological Garden. When all the animals in the 
cages pass before one's eyes, one by one, one fancies that Noah's 
Ark has just arrived there saved from the Flood, and all in it just 

If you enter their libraries, there are two or three millions of 
books, in all languages, and hundreds of librarians, who deserve 
to be called " Universal Geniuses/' to help you find them. There 
are never less than eight hundred readers, and, amongst them, 
there are professors ninety years of age, and girls of eighteen. 

Well ! in the Museum Library, if any one wants a printed book, 
in no matter how outlandish a language, they must give it him, 
or if they have not got it, they must send for it as quickly as 

There is a library in the House of Parliament to which one lord 
alone bequeathed thirty thousand volumes ! 

Modern Writers. 159 

If one goes to a " refined place of amusement/' * he can see 
experiments in difficult matters connected with chemistry and 
natural philosophy which, if they were made in China, would be 
considered miracles. 

If one sees the jewels and precious things in the shops, one 
thinks that the hidden treasure of nature, and the wealth of the 
world, have been plundered and brought there. 

The traffic is such, that in every street the rapid and continual 
circulation is like a whirlpool of men, which flows from one end to 
another without cessation. 

In the town, besides more than forty thousand private carriages, 
there are more than thirty-five thousand hired vehicles, and more 
than fifteen thousand omnibuses. At the centre of the railways of 
the town, for fourteen hours every day there is a train with sixty 
carriages every two minutes. Nevertheless, it often happens to 
any one that he has to wait his turn to get into a train or an 
omnibus, and sometimes, in a crowded part of the town, he can 
find no vehicle. 

There is one place in the town where three trains run one above 
the other by the means of bridges ; and there is a park, in which, 
at promenade times, fifty or sixty thousand carriages circulate. 

When one goes to the warehouses on the banks of the River 
Thames, and looks at the exports and imports every day, he thinks 
that the tide,f which causes the river to rise and fall every day, 
casts all the productions of the world here, and that all the 
manufactures made by man go from here to be distributed. 

If one goes to the factories here, his hair stands on end ! He 
thinks the thing at work is not a machine, but an iron monster 
as big as a piece of a mountain, who spouts forth fire from his 
mouth, and every member of whom, when it moves, gives out a 
terrible cry, and that he is continually working without repose, 
day and night, to carry out the orders of " King Intellect/' who 
has made him his prisoner. 

There are printing-machines, which print in one hour two 

* I suppose this refers to the Polytechnic. 

f The Turks have no tide in their own country, as the Mediterranean is a tide- 
less sea, and they only know of such a thing from books or hearsay. 

160 Literature of the Turks. 

hundred and fifty thousand copies of a newspaper eight times as 
large as the Ibret* In one printing-office fifty thousand workmen 
are employed, and in one beer brewery they have fifteen thousand 
cart horses. 

There are hotels one mass of gilding, ornamented in a way to 
make palaces envious, where three thousand people can sleep, and 
four thousand persons can dine at their tables. There is a tailoring 
establishment where sufficient clothes are to be seen to dress all 
the people in our town of Scutari, from seven to seventy years of 
age ; and there are seven or eight hundred shopmen, and five or 
six hundred shopwomen, to show the goods to customers. 

There are regular markets under the river ;f and splendid bridges 
up in the air ! ! ! 

There is a place of amusement called the " Mirror Palace " 
(Crystal Palace), which, owing to all the colours of the rainbow 
sparkling on it from the reflection of the light, on a sky-blue 
ground, looks, from a distance, like a mountain of diamonds. 

In the daytime the water from the fountains forms steeples of 
light ! In the evening, when the gardens are flooded with gas and 
moonlight one thinks it is day, and one can see from one end 
of them to the other. These gardens are such that it is doubtful 
whether any one who was capable of visiting Paradise could produce 
any better imitation of it in this world of affliction. 

To see the military strength of their government, it is sufficient 
to go down to the banks of the river, or to the old castle of the 
town (the Tower). There are iron-clad vessels to be seen which are 
like a big city made of iron. 

If you wish to know what the people can do, you need only look 
at the lists of subscriptions in the newspapers. 

One widow lady presents three hundred thousand pounds to an 
orphan asylum ! 

A blacking manufacturer, in his will, leaves twenty thousand 
pounds to the poor ! 

It is very wonderful that one sees no other signs of such a 

* The name of a Turkish newspaper. 

| We suppose this refers to the Thames tunnel. 

Modern Writers. 161 

powerful government in public but the police, who are employed 
only in preserving public order. 

As regards the police, their work consists in the daytime of such 
things as seeing that carriages do not collide, and stopping the 
greatest people of quality with a sign, if they wish to go out of their 
turn before some ordinary individual : and at night, in quelling a 
few drunken squabbles, examining the doors of shops and houses 
to see if they are closed, and windows to see if they; are fastened, 
and such like things connected with order and justice. 

Although the people are so opulent, the greatest millionaire will 
go to his shop when he is eighty, and work till evening, like a 

By continual effort and knowledge they have produced a world 
of opulence, compared to which, all the golden palaces and jewelled 
castles, and splendid flower-gardens which the imagination of the 
Persian poets described in the most exaggerated way in India 
a ad China, are as nothing. 

Well, we know it is impossible in a few years to make Constanti- 
nople like London, or Roumelia like France. But, as Europe has 
got into this condition in two centuries, and they had to discover 
the means of progress, whereas we find those means ready to our 
hands, if the work be properly taken in hand, there is no doubt 
that in two centuries, at any rate, we shall be able to get into a 
condition to be counted one of the most civilized nations. And 
as regards two centuries, are they more than a twinkling of an eye 
in the life of a community ? 


1 62 Literature of tlie Turks 


25 i ... . . i t \ .. i 24 

i 30 i ..... 29 < ii . 28 i ..... \ 27 A | 26... 

,Jj) jUj <)uub _j t^JU- iJa^wLuil 



39 38 i 37 i . A / 36 35 . . x 1* ..i 34 . . 

i)U J 

(1) P. S7ur, 'milk ;' j^ P. Khar, ' one who drinks or eats.' Thus Jyj~> means 
' one who drinks milk,* i. e. 'a suckling, or babe.' (2) Beshik, ' a cradle.' 
(3) Eghlenmek, ' to amuse one's self.' (4) GTienj, 'young.' (5) A. Maishet, 'means 
of living;' ' a pension.' (6) Ikhtiar, 'old.' (7) P. Kiushe, 'a corner, a place of 
retreat.' (8) A. Firagh, ' ease, freedom from work or care.' (9) A. Evlad, ' child,' 
often used as a Turkish singular. (10) P. Peder, ' father.' (11) A. Alle, 'a family.' 
(12) A. Hisiyat, 'feelings.' (13) A. Vatan, 'one's country, the Fatherland.' 
(14) Sebebsiz, ' without cause/ (15) A. Meil, 'an inclination, affection.' (16) A. 
Tabint, 'nature.' (17) A. Ibaret, 'consisting.' (18) A. Mevahib, 'gifts.' (19) A. 
Koudret, 'might, power, omnipotence ;' 'the Almighty.' (20) A. Aziz, ' dear/ 
(21) A. Hayat, ' life.' (22) A. Hava, ' air.' (23) Tenefus, ' breathing.' (24) A. 
Ataya, ' gifts.' (25) A. Revnalcli, 'splendid, glorious.' (26) Nazr, ' the sight.' 
(27) A. Lemhe, 'a glance.' '(28) A. Iftitah, 'opening, commencement.' - 
(29) P. Khak, ' earth.' (30) Taaluk etmek, ' to be attached to, or connected with.' 
(31) A. Madde, ' matter,' ' an article.' (32) A. Vujoud, ' the body,' * existence, 
being.' (33) A. Jnz, a part.' (34) A. Etraf, ' sides.' (35) P. Kiushe, *a corner.' 
(36) A. I7mr, ' life.' (37) P. Ghiugeshle, 'adventure, event.' (38) P. Yad, 'memory, 
remembrance.' (39) A Hazin, ' sad.' (40) Tehejjuretmek, ' to turn into stone' (v.n.). 

Writers. 163 

*u Jy*. ^ ^ 

U 13 

20 i I 19 i/. 18 

(1) A. Hurriyet, 'liberty.' (2) A. Rahat, 'comfort.' (3) A. Hak, 'right, due,' 
'truth.' (4) P. Saye, ' shadow, protection/ 'auspices/ (5) A. Ka'im, 'up- 
right, standing/ 'existing.' (6) A. Ejdad, 'forefathers.' (7) A. Makbere, 
' burial-ground, grave, sepulchre.' (8) A. Sulciiin, ' tranquillity, remaining 
in one place, rest, quiet.' (9) A. Netije, 'the end.' (10) A. Hayat, 'life.' 
(11) A. Zuhour, 'appearing.' (12) A. Ishtirak, 'community.' (13) A. Itihad, 
'unity.' (14) A..Menfaat, 'interest, advantage.' (15) A. Mu'anesset, ' familiar inter- 
course.' (16) A. Karabet, 'relationship.' (17) A. Kalb, 'the heart.' (18) A. 
Oukhouvvet, ' brotherhood.' (19) A.Efkiar, 'ideas.' (20) Hasil olmak,' to arise.' 


A man loves his fatherland with the same feelings, and in the 
same way, as a babe loves its cradle, children the place they play in, 
young men where they gain their livelihood, old people their easy 
corner, a child its mother, and a father his family. These feelings 
are not a mere inclination of nature without a reason. A man 
loves his country because the most precious gift of the Almighty, 
his life, begins by breathing the air of his fatherland. 

A man loves his country because the most splendid gift of 
nature, his sight, at its first glance falls on the earth of his father- 
land. A man loves his country because the material of his body 
is a bit of his country. A man loves his country because, on 
looking around in it, in every corner he sees some reminiscence 
embodied as it were- 

A man loves his country because his freedom, his rights and 
his comfort exist only under the auspices of his country. A man 

M 2 

164 Literature of the Turks. 

loves his country because it is the burial-place of the authors of 
his being, his forefathers, and the place where his children will 
come into the world. A man loves his country because, owing to 
community of language and identity of interests amongst the sons 
of the same fatherland, a relationship of the heart and a fraternity 
of ideas spring up. 

Modern Writers. 165 


SuX <ulio ^U) Jfji? v^- 


23 ^ 22 bL 

26 (i . 25 ... *?.. 24- 

(1) A. Dunya, ( the world.' (2) A. Malcsad, 'an object, intention.' (3) A. 
kiarlik, ' a sacrifice.' (4) Ikhtiyar etmek, ' to choose, prefer.' (5) A. Nuskha, ' a 
copy.' (6) A. Nadir, ' rare.' (7) A. Missl, * a like thing, quantity, or value;' 
jj^* -.^1 uch misli, ' three times the quantity or value.' Here Bahasinin kirk elU 
misline almakda idi means ' He used to bay books at forty or fifty times as much 
as their real price.' (8) Khastolanmak, ' to get ill.' (9) A. Bahss, ( discussion, 
discourse.' (10)A. Maghloub, ' conquered, beaten.' (11) A. Mesele, ' a question.' 
(12) Hal etmek, 'to solve.' (13) A. Inkilab, 'change' (in circumstances), 'a reverse.' 
(14) A. Sebat, ' firmness, steadiness.' (15) Yash, ' age.' (16) A. Murebbi, ' an edu- 
cator;' murebba (also written l^), 'preserved, prepared.' (17) A. Akhiret, * the 
next world.' (18) Intikal etmek, ' to pass from one place (or subject) to another;' 
eUiil lSj ; b J'^SjJl , ' to die ' (i. e., to pass to the ' abode of permanence '). (19) Huta- 
akib, ' following each other.' (20) A. Enva, ' kinds.' (21) A. Teghayyur, ' change.' 
(22) A. Belaya, ' calamities.' (23) Zuhour etmek, ' to appear.' (24) A. Fit-ret, 
* natural constitution, disposition.' (25) A. Te'essur, ' being effected, effect.' 
(26) Ghalib olmak, ' to prevail.' (27) A. Terliyye, 'education.' 

1 66 Literature of the Turks. 


(1) A. Vijdwn, 'ecstasy, rapture.' (2) A. Ba'is, 'cause/ (3) Indinde, 'in his 
estimation/ (4) A. Mukaddcs, ' holy/ (5) A. Mushteshar, 'an adviser/ (6) Raz- 
dash, 'confidant/ (7) P. Tar, 'a friend/ (8) A. Sadik, ' sincere/ (9) Ghiunul, 
' the heart' (the seat of the affections). (10) A. Kabitiyah, 'capabilities/ (11) A. 
Mo^hebet, ' affection.' (12) Hasr etmek, 'to confine.' (13) A. Ma melek, 'what he 
possessed, possessions/ (14) A. Irfan, 'knowledge/ (15) A. Telafi, 'replacing/ 
(16) A. Baghteten, ' suddenly/ (17) A. Lezzet, 'delight, pleasure/ (18) A..Nedim, 
' companion/ (19) A. Rouh, 'the soul, spirit/ (20) Ish-ghiuch, 'occupation, busi- 
ness.' (21) A. Zeiy, ' husband/ (22) A. Vefat, ' death/ (23) P. Endishe, 'care, 
anxiety/ (24) P. Behredar, 'a participator/ (25) A. Maarif, 'knowledge/ 
(26) A. Millet, 'a nation/ (27) Kadin, 'a lady/ (28) Danishli, ' learned/ (29) A. 
Zatan, ' personally/ (30) Zckia, ' intelligence.' (31) A. Hadise, 'an event, acci- 
dent/ (32) A. Irshad, ' guidance in the right path/ (33) Bouna bina'an, 'in con- 
sequence of this/ (34) A. Fe<s, ' despair.' (35) A. Keder, ' grief, sorrow/ 
(36) Salivermek, 'to let loose/ (37) P. Dour, 'distant/ (38) Jigher, ' the liver;' 
Jigher parasi, ' a piece of one's liver,' means ' a darling/ 

Modern Writers. 167 

_ ~a 
^* to *)b) 



(1) Eulu, 'a dead person, dead.' (2) A. Muzir, ' injurious.' (3) Fa'idesiz, ' use- 
less.' (4) P. Merdane, ' manly, courageous.' (5) A. Ikdam, 'an effort.' (6) A. 
Fikdan, 'loss.' (7) A. Memdouh, ' praised, praiseworthy.' (8) Ketm etmek, 'to 
hide.' (9) A. Mejbour, l forced.' (10) Ariz olmak, ' to come upon, light upon, 
happen.' (11) A. Teles sum, 'a smile.' (12) P. Khande, 'laughter, a smile.' 
(13) A. Nishat, * joy.' (14) A. Souret, < figure, form.' 

The Adventure of All Bey. 

AH Bey, during his father's life-time, and until he was fourteen 
or fifteen years of age, had found nothing in the world to talk 
about, or to desire, but knowledge. He was so busy with his 
lessons that he forgot the world. If he made a great sacrifice for 
a small object, it was purchasing rare books at forty or fifty times 
their value. If he fell ill, he fell ill because he was beaten in a 
discussion. If he cried, he cried because having met with some 
difficult question in something he read he could not solve it. 

But this world of change, not being so constant as he, when 
the young man was about twenty, on his father, the author of his 
being and the educator of his mind, dying, a succession of changes 
and misfortunes began for him. The education he received 
strengthened the poetic tendency of his nature ; and, his father 
having been not only the author of his being, on which account 
he considered him more sacred than life, but also his instructor in 
every thing, his counsellor, his confidant, and his sincere friend ; all 

1 68 Literature of the Turks. 

his capacity for love was confined to him. Thus, on his suddenly 
losing when he least expected such a thing the dear person, who 
had imparted to him all he knew, and his imagination, in an irre- 
parable way, he lost also all pleasure in living. The companions of 

his soul, his books, were now as dross to him Withdrawing 

into a corner of his study he did nothing but sigh and weep. 
This state of his caused his mother more anxiety than her 
husband's death. 

The Bey's mother, although she was not so erudite as the ladies 
in more learned lands, was naturally intelligent, and, moreover, 
she had been cultivated by intercourse with the Bey (her husband) 
for five-and-twenty years, and had learnt many things under his 
guidance. Therefore, as she knew that if she gave way to despair 
and grief she would lose her darling, as she had her husband, and 
that if she cried so much over the dead till she could not see the 
living, it would only be injurious to those in this world and useless 
to those in the next, she made a brave effort, and whatever might 
be the grief and sorrow she felt, she kept it in her heart, and 
concealed, as if it were a fault, any condition however laudable 
like weeping for the loss of her husband, and converted into smiles 
of cheerfulness the bitter smiles which came on her countenance. 

Modern Writers. 169 

(A Drama.) 



(1) A.. Fa-si, 'a part, an act.' (2) A. Huzar, 'those present.' (3) Gliiunulu 
zabiti, 'a volunteer officer.' (4) Jf-ir aZai', 'a colonel.' (5) A. Ka'immekam, 'a 
lieutenant-colonel.' (6) Neferler, 'privates.' (7) Keu'iluler, ' peasants.' (8) Perde, 
'a curtain.' (9) A. Nazir, 'looking at, on, over.' (10) Arnaoudlik, 'Albania.' 
(11) A. Makhsous, ' special, peculiar.' (12) Minder, ' a sofa, divan, mattress.' 
(13) Ouzanmak, ' to lie, lie down at full length,' ' to become longer.' 

* Published at Constantinople, 1289 Anno Hejirce, by Agop Bey. 

i 70 Literature of the Turks 

*Juj Uj 

(Jw0) i 

JixJlo ! .*j^.ld. , 

! ,AiAAO ^,jJl JCJ JkJ,; 

o " 

uy ^JA 

! y . ,* 

(1) A. Mejlis, ' a sitting, seance, a scene.' (2) Nerce, or .Nme, ' a mother, or fofeter- 
ra other 5 (used by children); Nenejek, 'little mother' (a term of endearment). 
(3) A. Riklcat, ' tenderness, compassion.' (4) Beyn, < the mind.' (5) Ghenish, Marge, 
wide, full.' (6) Charpmdk, * to strike ' (v.a.), 'to beat' (v.n.). (7) jgfawfct, 'as if, as 
though.' (8) Koparmak, 'to tear, or break away.' (9) Firlamak, ' to fly off ' (r.n.). 
(10) Eritmek, ' to melt ' (v.a.). 

Modern Writers. 171 

. .. ~ 

< -JJ X_ 

-.> ^AXJai v-J^>o <olj JLJ'J J^ CJjU, Us^ ! 

.... t 




Jj/ CJ! 

(1) A. Kahkaha, 'a burst of laughter.' (2) Chi, 'dew* (generally spelt <^). 
(3) Mourn, 'a candle.' (4) Zewalli! 'poor !' (5) Dulcenmek (spelt also eUiS^), 'to 
be used up, exhausted,' ' to expire, come to an end.' (6) Soud-nene, 'foster-mother. 
(7) A. Ar, ' shame.' (8) Childirmak, ' to go mad.' (9) A. Khiyanet, ' treachery.' 
(10) SaUamak, 'to hide, hide away,' 'to keep, protect/ (11) A. Te'emmul, 
' deliberation, consideration,' 

72 Literature of the Turks. 


. t^b ^tU^ JCjij ioA3 


,t <X f AMJJ ( I>, ^jf^ ^J - 

. J 

X.l J ...JS.flCU . J^ J.J 

(1) Kliitab etmelc, ' to address.' (2) Itimad etmeJc, ' to trust.' (3) A. Barid, 'cold.' 
(4) A. Jasous (Shesldd), ' a spy.' (5) A. Itifial, ' affliction, grief.' (6) A. Kiyamet, 
' the Resurrectior.' (7) Ha'idov.d, ' a bandit, robber.' 

Modern Writers. 173 

, . , . , , - 

(8) Kourtoulmak, to escape, be delivered.' (9) "Towramafc, 'to close' (one's 

1 74 Literature of the Turks. 

5 .' 



A^e jyw . 

(1) Ikiz, 'a twin, twins.' (2) Eutede, 'yonder, far off.' (3) Dunya, 'the world, 
this world.' (4) A. Akhiret, ' the next world.' (5) P. Far, 'a lover, a mistress, a 
friend.' (6) A. Wallahi, ' by God ! ' (7) A. Ijbar, ' compelling, forcing ;' nefs, ' one's 
self.' (8) A. Hiddet, ' violence, impetuosity. 3 (9) Suzini kessmek, to interrupt any- 
one .'_(10) A. Mezar, ' a grave.' (11) P. M uzhde, ' glad tidings.' (12) Sullenmek, 
' to talk to one's self, murmur.' 

Modern Writers. i 75 



v^ JLilj^l . 

(1) A. Fazt/c, 'a duty.' (2) A. Yemin, ' an oath.' 

i 76 Literature of the Turks. 

Lai . *kO Jjlc . ^ * 



i^JJu*<xJu LJl 

(1) Chinemek, 'to chew, to trample on j' chinenmek, ' to bo trampled on.' 

Modern Writers. 177 

law . . . -jl / J 

JCJ CAAbJjUfc: jLjiiUJb Jdjt) 




(1) J.M etmek, 'to promise solemnly, to undertake.' (2) Talia, 'a redoubt, 
battery, an earthwork.' (3) ue beride, ' here and there.' (4) A. Hav:a, ' the air, 
' an air in music, a tune.' (5) Turkiu, ' a song.' 


i 78 Literature of the Turks. 

. , 

j ^L ^ Ij b ^^. .> 


] (Vj 

,<\Mj ^ iib^j Jb 


(1) A. JTe/cn, ' a winding. sheet.' (2) A. Shehadet, ' martyrdom.' (3) P. Kiam, 
' desire, wish.' (4) Ova, ' a plain, a field.' (5) P. Lerze, a trembling 5' lerze-resan, 
' who or which bring trembling,' ' terrific.' (6) A. Heibet, ' awfulness, dreadness, 
awe, fear.' 

Modern Writers. i 79 

^li Ujfcdi* - 

\J\ - (( 

(1) A. Ikhwan, 'brethren, comrades.' (2) Kiyamet JcopmaTc, 'to take place '(a 
confusion). (3) A. Subhana-'llah, < Oh, Ood ! ' (I sing the praises of God). 

N 2 

180 Literature of the Turks. 


cC Ut) 

S^yjjj! yfe 

Jlj* J^j 


(1) A. Muhasere, ' a siege.' (2) Kourshoun, ( lead, bullets.' (3) Ghiulle, ' shot, 
a cannon-ball.' (4) A..Khulyela, 'arrogance.' 

Modern Writers. 181 

AJJ . Aiv 


! *T 

I . . . vil^l j^Jb CJjy^/ ^.^1 CJUJ ^J 

(1) Sunghu, 'a bayonet.' (2) Sunghu sungMye ghelmek, ' to cross bayonets. 

1 8 2 Literature of the Turks. 

. . .^ 

(1) KawousJimaTc, ' to join, meet, come together.' (2) JebJchane, 'gunpowder, a 
powder magazine.' (3) Dukenmek, 'to be exhausted/ (4) YaklashmaTe, 'to 


-4 Drama in Four Acts. 

Dramatis Persons. 


ESLAM BEY . . . . .A Volunteer Officer. 

AHMED SIDKI BEY . . A Colonel. 

RUSTEM BEY. .... A Lt.-Colonel. 

ABDALLAH. ..... The Colonel's Chawoush* 

A Lt.-Colonel. A Major. A First Officer. A Second Officer. 
A Third Officer. Peasants and Privates. 

* Chawoush, ' a sergeant.' 

Modern Writers. 183 


On the curtain rising, a room is discovered, looking into the street. 
Zekia, dressed in the Albanian national costume, is lying on a sofa, 
a book in her hand, and a candle before her. Eslam Bey is walking 
up and down in the street. 


ZEKIA [Leaving the book on a coffer]. All ! My dear mother, my 
dear mother ! Why didst thou impart so much tenderness to my 
heart? Why didst thou develop my intellect so much? If thou 
couldst see thy daughter now, thou wouldst repent of having 
taught her .... How can my heart bear such a great life ? How 
can my brain bear such great imaginings. My heart beats as if 
it would tear my breast, and leap forth. My brain aches as if it 
would break my skull, and be scattered forth. 

[Covering her face with her hands.] 

My dear mother ! the mind which thou cultivated and prepared, 
in order for me to think of my father, is now occupied by another. 
In the heart which thou cultivated and enlarged, in order that it 
might love thee, another reigns. 

My father educated thee. Thou died for his sake. Thou educated 
me -, but I am not thinking about dying for thee, or even of weeping 
over thy death. 

Ah ! It is he always .... He is in my eyes, he is in my imagi- 
nation, in my mind. He ! he ! he ! and I saw him once in the street. 

Would that the fire, which entered my heart when I looked 

on his face, had melted it ! .... 

Collecting all the strength I had in my body, I wished to turn 
my eyes in another direction. Alas ! I neither found strength in 
my body, nor did my will appear in my eyes. It was as if all the 
beautiful things I had seen or heard of, or thought of in my life, 
were collected in one man's face, and stood before me. 

[After some reflection.] 

What a strange thing is life ! But a few days ago, if any one near 
me wept, I thought his tears arose from pleasure. To-day, peals 
of laughter seem to me like sounds of mourning. To-day, if I see 

184 Literature of the Turks. 

dew on roses just in full blossom I think some one has shed 

tears ! A few days ago my face smiled, as if everything smiled with 

me. To-day my heart weeps as if everything wept with my heart. 

It is morning again ! Again,, I have not had a moment's sleep. 

[Extinguishing the lights.'} 

Poor candle ! I wonder whether I shall gradually be consumed 
like thee, and perish. . . . 

If I could only sleep five small minutes ! 
My God ! What was that letter ? 
If it were written in fire it could not burn so much ! 
As I read it, it seemed as if drops of fire were scattered on my 
face and in my breast. 

When my foster-mother brought it I nearly sank into the ground 
with shame ! 

One does not die of joy, but one goes mad. As soon as I saw the 
words of the letter I knew he would come. I love him, and he 
loves me ! It is written in his letter. It is written with his own 
writing It is certain it is true Oh, God ! Such a hand- 
some body does not conceal treachery. Ah ! 

[After meditating awhile.] 
Who knows? Snakes are found in the most beautiful flowers. 


ESLAM BEY [Entering through the window]. 

ZEKIA [On seeing Eslam Bey, in great excitement, is impelled to run 
towards him, but collects herself ; after an affecting silence, speaks to 
herself, hut audibly]. . . . Was I not right in wishing every day for 
my death ? What would happen to me, if any one saw this ? 

ESLAM BEY. There is no probability of anyone seeing us. How 
many days and nights have I crept along the ground in order not 
to be seen. Day is breaking. People's eyes are not yet open, as 
night is only ending. I have been wandering round here every 
night. Trust to the trial I have made. 

ZEKIA \ coldly, concealing her pleasure], Did anyone invite you? 

Modern Writers. 185 

ESLAM BEY. For God's sake do not cover your face with your 
hands. I saw all the world once, for you are the whole world to 
me. Shall I see it again ? God only knows. 

From that moment, like a spy under your window, I have been 
listening to your words. [Zelcia appearing grieved.] 

I know how great my fault is. If anyone acted so towards me, 
I should despise him till the Day of Judgment. 

[Zekia appears still more afflicted.] 

I have entered a house by the window like a robber. 

If anyone entered our house, as I have entered here, I would 
consider it lawful to take his blood, and would kill him ; but what 
am I to do, as I have no control over my will. 

I love you I am going to be separated from you 

To-day I heard from your own mouth that you love me 

To-day I bid you adieu 

See, the more your heart wishes to avoid me, the more thy feet 
approach me. 

I too, if master of myself, would certainly control myself .... I 
would certainly strive not to be guilty towards you. 

Mercy ! mercy ! For a stony heart would ill befit such an 
angel's body.* 

ZEKIA [struggling with herself, excitedly and hesitatingly]. How 
long have I been suffering the pain of death ? 

[Addressing Eslam Bey] 

What is your purpose ? I am struggling with myself. You have 
taken me from myself. If I sleep, you are in my dreams. If I 
wake, you are in my imagination. If I am alone, you are before 
me. Always you ! If you wish for my body, I will be your slave. 
If you wish for my soul, take it ! that I may be delivered (from 
this state). 

ESLAM BEY. When you saw me, you tried to avert your eyes. 
. . . Was it not so, cruel one ? When I saw you, do you know what 
a state my heart was in ? If I closed my eye-lids for one moment, 
until they opened again it seemed to me as if I had lost my whole 
life-time ! 

* Literally, a body ' made of light.' 

1 86 Literature of the Turks. 

Thanks be to God that you love, like me, involuntarily, and that 
your heart overcomes you. 

You have only seen me once and I you only once. Our hearts 
were created twins ! God has given you to me and me to you. 

If we are parted here, we shall be united yonder. If we are 
parted to-day, to-morrow we shall be united. We may appear 
separated, but we shall find each other. We may be supposed to 
be separated, but we are one. 

Come ! . . . Come near to me! . . . Swear to me that whether 
we be separated, in this world and the next, you will love none 
but me. 

ZEKIA [not able to control herself] . By God 

[After collecting herself shyly.] 

I do not understand what you mean . . . [Forcing herself.] 

I said to myself .... you appeared . ... I .... I .... I said 

nothing .... Did I say anything ? . . . . What shall I say ? . . . . 

[Again losing command over herself.] 

If you love me, why shall we separate ? 

ESLAM BEY. I will go .... for .... 

ZEKIA [interrupting him impetuously]. You have driven the love 
for my father and mother out of my mind. My brother's grave 
was in my heart. You have caused me to forget it. Now his image, 
like his body, is buried in the dark earth .... I have no sleep .... 
no will .... no desire for anything. You have left nothing in my 
heart but yourself .... And now you wish to take yourself away 
from me ; and you bring the glad tidings yourself ! 

[Pacing up and down and talking to herself excitedly.] 

In the end what will happen ? He will leave this country, and I 
shall quit the world. After losing all pleasure in life what is the 
grave ! 

ESLAM BET. I must go .... 

ZEKIA [rushing towards him, and interrupting him]. First kill me ! 

ESLAM BEY [as if he had not heard], I must go 

Ami not a man. Have I not a duty to perform. Shall I not love 
my country ? How can you expect affection for you from a man 
who does not love his country ? 

ZEKIA. If .... the country. When you speak of country, what 

Modern Writers. 187 

am I to say ? Go ! Go ! Bey Did you not wish an oath 

from me ? I solemnly promise, by the thousand and one names 

of the Lord, who created the world in love, that Zekia is yours in 
this world and the next, that Zekia is your slave. 

ESLAM BEY. I also swear by God 

ZEKIA [interrupting him}. Silence. I do not wish you to take 
an oath. If I think for cne moment that a lie can come from your 
mouth, that moment I shall go mad 

ZEKIA. in the room. ESLAM BET and Volunteers without. 

ESLAM BEY [in the street}. Comrades, we are all here. 

[Zekia hears his voice, runs frequently to the window, and conceals 
herself near the glass.} 

A VOLUNTEER. We are all here. 

ESLAM BEY. Comrades ! You have rallied round my flag, and I 
am proud of it, but I do not know whether you will be pleased with 
me. I am going to the war, but I go intending to die. I have no 
pay. Let those who wish for pay come not with me. I do not think 
of booty. Let those who think of it, retire. I do not seek comfort. 
Let those who seek it, not follow me. I do not fear cannon-balls or 
bullets. Let those who do, stay with their wives. Do you. com- 
prehend my words ? Are you able to expel all fear of death from 
your hearts ? Are you capable of looking upon your breasts as a 
fortification made to defend the frontiers of your country ? Can 
you go and seek your death ? . . . . We shall defend our country, 
and God will defend us; but if he does not, He knows best. Have 
you so much confidence in yourselves ? . . . . 

Comrades I we are going to the banks of the Danube. The Danube 
is life to us. If the Danube be lost, the country cannot live ; and 

no one in the country can live Perhaps there may be one 

who could live yes, perhaps. 

No ! . . . No ! There may be one who could live, but he is not a 
man. A man, when he sees his country trampled under foot, cannot 
live. A man cannot live if he sees his mother trodden under foot. 
A man cannot live if he sees his benefactor trampled on. Anyone 

1 88 Literature of the Turks. 

who sees his benefactor trampled on, and lives, is viler than a dog : 
and, brethren ! a man is not viler than a dog. 

God commands us to love our country. Our country means the 
Danube ; for if the Danube goes, our country will not remain. 

Wherever you go on the banks of the Danube, the bones of your 
fathers or comrades are to be found. If the waters of the Danube 
be stirred up, the mud which rises to the surface is compounded of 
the bodies of those who defended it. 

The Danube has been crossed, since the name of the Turks was 
first heard. It has been crossed several times, many times, but it 
has never been taken. As long as the Turks remain it never will 
be taken. Are you ready to die for your country ? Until we die, 
the enemy will not cross the Danube. Those who do cross will 
find us either dead or wounded. 

I tell you I shall die. Who of you do not fear death ? Do you 
swear to God you will follow me ? 

VOLUNTEERS. We swear by God. 

ESLAM BET. Let him who loves me follow me ! . 


[On the curtain rising a number of Volunteers are seen sitting here 
and there in a redoubt of the Castle of Silistria, and ZeJcia disguised 
in male attire]. 


A VOLUNTEER. Silence .... Silence ! 
ANOTHER VOLUNTEER. What is the matter ? 
1st VOLUNTEER. Do you not hear the band? 
2nd VOLUNTEER. Well, why such a fuss ? The troops are coming. 
1st VOLUNTEER. The tune is a martial air. 

ZEKIA. If the band is playing a martial air, let us also sing a 
war song ? 

2nd VOLUNTEER. See ! What childishness ! 

Modern Writers. 189 

SERGEANT ABDALLAH. Where is the childishness ? 
1st VOLUNTEER. Silence, my dear fellow ! 

[ Anumber of people together.] 
Come, let us have the song ! [^H together.] 

Our hopes and our thoughts are for the Fatherland, 

And our bodies are a bulwark for the Turkish frontierland. 

We are Turks, and our pride is a bloody winding-sheet. 

We desire nothing else but a martyr's death in war ; 

We are Turks, who will pay for fame with our gore. 

Our flag is a sword upon a bloody ground ; 

In our valleys, on our mountains, no fear of death is found, 

And, in every corner of our land, a lion lurks unbound. 

We desire nothing else but a martyr's death in war ; 

We are Turks, who will pay for fame with our gore. 

The name of the Turks makes every hearer shake, [quake. 

And the terror of our fathers' name once made the whole earth 
And, think not we are altered, our blood is jusfc the same. 

We desire nothing else but a martyr's death in war ; 

We are Turks, who will pay for fame with our gore. 

Then let the cannons roar, and around the bullets fly, 
For Heaven's gate is open for those who bravely die ; 
And what does earth us offer, that we should dying shy ? 

We desire nothing else but a martyr's death in war ; 

We are Turks, who will pay for fame with our gore. 


SIDKI BEY. Let those who wish to stay in the castle step on one 

A VOLUNTEER. We all wish to remain here ; for we have come 
here, and why should we separate ? 

SIDKI BEY. Gentlemen ! the enemy has crossed the river. The 
government is capable of defending its castle with its own soldiers. 

190 Literature of the Turks. 

Whoever among you may not wish to remain, has permission to go 
out to-day. 

A VOLUNTEER. The enemy are numerous. Our soldiers are few. 
Do you want to decrease them still more ? 

SERGEANT ABDALLAH. If the soldiers are few does that matter ? 
If they are few, few will die. If there are many, many will die. 

SIDKI BEY. Silence I Let them speak ! 


SIDKI BEY [interrupting him]. Oh God! Gentlemen! In 

a siege, besides bullets and cannon balls, there are hunger and 
thirst. Whoever wishes to save himself .... 

A VOLUNTEER. Bey ! Bey ! We came here of our own free will. 
Our coming was only for this. With one hand you show us the 
enemy, and with the other you show us the door to escape ! I 
consider I have lived long enough. I have my shroud with me, 
and am ready to die. I have come from Bagdad here with that 

SIDKI BEY [not looking at any one]. Comrade ! I am not speak- 
ing to you. 

ANOTHER VOLUNTEER. Which of us do you think mean enough to 
turn his back to the enemy before the fight begins ? 

SIDKI BEY. Very good. You also, like us, desire to die for our 
country. Your efforts will be appreciated by God. If you lose 
your life, your name will remain. For him who is a man, leaving a 
glorious name after dying, is better than not dying. Keep a bold 
heart. Fear not death : for whether you fear it or do not fear it, 
one day it will assuredly find you. [Addressing Zekia] 


ZEKIA. Sir ! 

SIDKI BEY. Who art thou ? 

ZEKIA [embarrassed] . A man ! 

SIDKI BEY. What is thy name ? 

ZEKIA [collecting herself]. A man, Sir! 

SIDKI BEY [to himself]. What impertinence ! [Addressing Zehia] 
Thou art permitted to leave the castle. 

ZEKIA. I offer you my life. You talk to me of my youth. Did 
you come here to kill men, or to die ? If you came to kill, kill 

Modern Writers. 191 

ine also. If you came to die, be assured I shall die more easily and 
contentedly than you 


ESLAM BEY [running, with several wounds in his breast]. Bey, 

ZEKIA. Ah ! 

ESLAM BEY. They have crossed the river. Ten thousand of 
them came ; we opposed them with three hundred. We struggled 
for three hours. In three hours . . . Ah ! in three hours ... all our 
comrades fell. All have gone to heaven; but each one took two 
of the enemy with him at least ; their bodies are lying on the 

ground We were three hundred ; we stood against three 

thousand bayonets. We rebounded between the cannon-balls. We 
let them see what the Turks are like ; we all died . . . Ah ! all 
died ; seven only remained. God knows I wished to die also. I 
was in front of all of them. But our powder was exhausted, and 
my sword broke. 

[Zekia, while hearing these words, draws closer and closer to Eslam 
Bey. Eslam Bey falls into Zekia's arms. Everybody collects round 

ESLAM BEY. Abdallah, come here ! Take her at once to my 
room ; look to all her wants. Call a surgeon ; send for a doctor. 
Do not leave her a moment till I come... 

1 92 Literature of the Turks. 


Jezmis feelings on first going into action. 

.Jo'jST^I ^3^o j) A*OJ L-J^. 
28 Mt-^l 27 "I 26 I/ 25 

^ .^ 

(1) A. Meslek, '& road, path, a career.' (2) A. Teshellus, 'setting about a thing.' 
(3) Tesavvur, ' picturing to one's self, forming an idea.' (4) A. Tejribe, ' expe- 
rience, an experiment, a trial.' (5) A. Kiyas, 'measuring, judging of;' kiyas 
etmeTc, (u.a.) ' to liken, compare;' (v.n.) 'to think, suppose.' (6) Fitret, 'disposi- 
tion, nature.' (7) La-ubali-lik, 'carelessness.' (8) A. Meshreb, 'temperament, 
character.' (9) Ka'idsizlik, 'recklessness.' (10) FedaMarlik, ' self-sacrifice.' 
(11) A. Tabiat, 'nature.' (12) A. Base, ' a feeling, a sense.' (13) A. Hifz-i-Nefs, 
' self-preservation.' (14) A. InhimaTc, ' diligent application ;' ' setting about a thing 
with heart and soul ;' ' being urged or pressed to do something.' (15) Za'il olmak, 
' to disappear/ (16) ItiyadsizliJc, 'being unaccustomed to a thing.' (17) A. Tern- 
yiz, ' distinction. 5 (18) Zihnan, ' mentally.' (19) A. Tereddud, ' hesitation.' (20) A. 
Khalejan, ' agitation, or tremor.' (21) A. Ihtimal, ' probability.' (22) A. Meidan, 
' an open space, a square ;' meidan-harb , ' a battle-field.' (23) A. Mevki, ' a place, 
position.' (24) A. Imtihan, ' trial, testing, examination.' (25) A. Mesafe, 'dis- 
tance.' (26) Ghiulle, 'a cannon-ball.' (27) A. Ibaret-olmak, 'to consist of.' 
(28) Itilaf etmek, ' to be accustomed to.' (29) A. Hadim, ' who demolishes ;' hadim- 
u-lezzat, 'the destroyer of pleasures' (death). (30) A. Mevt, 'death.' (31) A. 
Bittali, ' naturally.' 

Modern Writers. 193 

16 ... til .. \ 15 . .. | 


i t 22 .. - 21 .p . 20 i A i 

^ <^^> 8 Jo i L. tj> ( jjj^ l ^juki 1 ^^ o 

(1) Gliieulglie, ' a shadow.' (2) Tejessum etmelc, ( to take bodily form.' 
(3) A. Mezar, 'a burying-ground/ (4) A. Beda'i (pi. of A*>.X* bedia, ' wonderful or 
beautiful things.' (5) A. Eumr, 'life-time.' (6) A. Lezaiz, 'enjoyments.' (7) A. 
Amal, ' hopes.' (8) A. Ishtiyak, l longing to see anyone.' (9) A. Devr etmek, ' to 
revolve.' (10) Arzoukesh, ' desirous.' (11) Alalj 'a regiment.' (12) A. Infialat, 
' afflictions.' (13) A. TaU'i, ' natural.' (14) A. Akil, 'sensible.' (15) Itimad etmeJc, 
' to trust.' (16) A. Tali, ' luck.' (17) Oumak, ' to hope, expect.' (18) A. Badire, 
' what happens suddenly.' (19) A. Meharet, ' skill.' (20) A. Shejaat, ' valour, 
courage.' (21) A. Shein, 'disgrace.' (22) Terettub etmek, ' to result, proceed, to 
take form and being.' (23) A. Hami, 'a protector.' (24) Alchaklik, ' meanness, 
baseness.' (25) A. Marouf ' known.' (26) Vahime, ' a fear, fancy.' (27) Iztirab, 
' disturbance, perturbation.' (28) A, Fitret, ' disposition, nature.' (29) A. Azm, 
' determination.' (30) A. Meziyyet, ' a virtue.' (31) A. Da'iyye, ' an incentive, 
cause.' (32) A. Sa'ike, ' what urges.' (33) Mukabelc etmek, ' to counterbalance.' 
(34) P. Keshakesh, ' discord, pulling in various directions.' (35) A. Tereddud, 
' hesitation.' (36) Alev, 'a flame, a flash.' (37) Parladi (w.), < shining, flashing.' 
(38) Jevelan etmek, ' to move, circulate.' (39) A. Mouharebtj ' war, a battle.' 


194 Literature of the Turks 

57* e Battle with the Persians 


25 * i oT \ \ .( 24 i 23 it . | . 22 

*3.^o ^JU^^C ^0^2 St^SjCd^J L^O. 1 ^ LL^SJol c>. 



(1) Kuvvede, ' in posse.' (2) A. Mesire, ( a place of promenade.' (3) File ghetir- 
mek, ' to execute, perform;' jft/e gTielmek, ' to be realised.' (4) Tevehlium etmek, 
1 to surmise, dread.' (5) A. Mubrem, ' irresistible, urgent.' (6) P. JevelangliioJi, 
1 the place where anything moves or happens ' (theatre). (7) Hukminde, 'like.' 
(8) Kahramanlik, ' might, valour.' (9) Zatan, ( personally.' (10) A. Hutehavvir, 
'impetuous.' (11) Savlet, 'a rush, impetuosity.' (12) Sliirane, 'lion-like.' 
(13) A. Heivas (pi. of A-.U.), 'senses, faculties.' (14) A. Kuva (pi. of i^5 kouvvet), 
' powers, faculties.' (15) A. Tefavout, ' the difference, surplus, remainder.' 
(16) Eliemiyyet, ' importance.' (17) A. Rayet, 'a, flag, standard.' (18) P. DiUr, 
' a hero.' (19) P. Kallghiah, ' the place of the heart.' (20) P. Zebane, ' a flame.' 
(21) P. Jihansuz, ' which burns or consumes the world.' (22) Yighin, 'a heap.' 
(23) P. Khashak, ' sticks or straws blown about.' (24) A. Saf, ' a rank, row.' 
(25) A. Sadame, 'a shock.' (26) Mahv olounmak, 'to be annihilated.' (27 & 28) P. 
Taket ler-endazaiie, ' strong enough to overthrow,' 'tremendous.' (29) A. Tezelzul, 
'quaking, shaking.' (30) A. Inhizam, ' a defeat, rout.' (31) A. Rezalet, 'base- 
ness.' (32) A. Slieni, ' odious, shameful.' 

Modern Writers. 195 


j j t^jJu! jdsl^J ^Cj.c ^ *L>1 <uJiyU c^U 

(j\ *y 3 U v 


31 k i 30 ... 29 ii i 28 MI i 27 i 26 

(1) A. Muliajemat, ' attacks.' (2) Mutevali, t successive.' (3) A. Shuheda, 
'martyrs.' (4) P. Lerzenalc, 'seized with trembling.' (5) A. Mv. kemmel, 'com- 
plete.' (6) Sevk olounmak, ' to be nrged/pushed, driven.' (7) A. Tevabi, 'depen- 
dents.' (8) A. Jeladet, ' intrepidity.' (9) P. Ghiurz, 'a mace.' (10) A. Darbe, 
'a blow.' (11) A..Hujahid, 'a champion of the faith.' (12) P. Haadar-iktidar , 
* having the might of a lion. '--(13) Oghrashmak, ' to struggle.' (14) Feda'i, 'one 
who risks his life desperately.' (15) A. Mudafaa, ' defence.' (16) P. Rustem, a 
famous hero; Rustem -pesendane, ' heroic.' (17) A. Jeladet, ' intrepidity.' (18) A. 
Fevk-el-ade, 'extraordinary.' (19) Sarmak, ' to bind or twine round ' (a thing). 
(20) Yarmak, ' to cleave.' (21) Silahdar (silihdar}, * an esquire, a sword-bearer.' 
(22) Ijtima etmek, 'to assemble.' (23) A. Veli-nimet, ' a benefactor.' (24) P. Mu- 
rebliane, Murebli, 'an educator;' Murebbiane, pertaining to an educator (exem- 
plary). (25) A. Ha, 'elevating.' (26) P. Takht, < a throne.' (27) TaTcht-i-rewan, 
' a palanquin.' (28) A. Ijlal, ' glory.' (29) P. Zin, ' a saddle.' (30) P. Semend, 'a 
horse.' (31) Isaad etmek, ' to raise.' 

o 2 

196 Literature of the Turks. 

<x J& 


li' y v^JUt jbL>Ll 

(1) Sipahi, ( a Spahi.' (2) A. Ma'iyyet, ( a suite.' (3) Ishtvrak etmelc, ' to par- 
ticipate in.' (4) A. Mukhatere, ' danger.' (5) A. Badire, ' an unexpected event.' 
(6) A- Khitam, 'completion, conclusion.' (7) A. NehleTce, ' peril.' (8) Seundurmek, 
' to extinguish.' (9) A. HamU, ' a charge, an effort, a pull.' (10) Kiyam eilemek, 
' to set about diligently.' (11) Pe'i-der-pei, 'by degrees, continuously.' (12) A. 
Tezyid, ' increasing.' (13) A. Teyid, ' strengthening.' (14) A. Bedel, ' a substitute, 
equivalent.' (15) A. Jeriha, 'a wound.' (16) P. Siper, 'a protection, shield;' 
' parapet, peak of a cap.' (17) Se'ireJclenmek, l to get thinned.' (18) P. Pertev, 
aray, light.' (19) P . Rakhsan, 'brilliant.' (20) A. Hamiyyet, 'patriotism.' 

Modern Writers. 197 

o*>l jjj 




v aJj 

24 / . \ ao . / i T i. iii ... 

(1) 4eZ*'rw, 'a pace.' (2) A. Mesafe, * distance.' (3) A. Qharizi, 'innate/ 
(4) Birdenlire, ' all at once/ (5) Iltihab etmek, ' to flame up/ (6) BouroumeJc, 'to 
cover np, wrap up/ (7) Tut, ' a feather, soft hair, down/ (8) Eupermek, ' to stand 
on end/ (9) A. Tarz, 'way, fashion, manner/ (10) A. Muhib, 'terrific/ (11) A. 
Beit, 'a couplet, verse/ (12) P. Yadighiar, 'a souvenir, a memento/ (13) Diz- 
ghin, ' the reins, a rein ;' &&* $> dolou dizghin, ' at full gallop/ (14) Keskin, 
' sharp, swift/ (15) A. Murafakat, ' accompanying/ (16) Cheklnmek, ' to be loth, 
to scruple, to hang back, to be bashful/ (17) MusalaTca etmek, 'to race with, com- 
pete with/ (18) P. Shah-rah, 'a public road/ (19) A. Melek, 'an angel/ 
(20) A.Muvekkel, ' charged, appointed as an agent/ (21) A. Mejrouh, ' wounded/ 
(22) A. Vurou'l e'ilemek, 'to arrive/ (23) Uzcnglii, 'a stirrup/ (24) Eupmek, 
' to kiss/ 

198 Literature of the Turks. 

(1) J^aji, 'saving, rescuing/ (2) A. MuTiajim, 'an assailant.' (3) P. Chire-dest, 
( adroit.' (4) Shah-beyendi, ' a kind of horse.' (5) Doman, ' a fog, mist.' (6) Fir- 
tinali, ' stormy.' (7) A. Imdad, 'assistance.' (8) Hamil oln.ak, ' to bear, carry.' 
(9) Damla, 'a drop.' (10) Dewani etmeTc, 'to continue.' (11) A. Mouzmaliil, 
'destroyed, annihilated.' (12) A. Nukwrrer, 'sure.' (13) A. Mouakhkheran, 

Modern Writers. 199 

8 Jo I 

(1) Mouattal, 'useless, idle, inactive.' (2) Ghiuwenmek, ' to put faith in, to 
trust.' (3) Ghieuks, ' the chest ;' ghieuks ghieukse ghelmek, ' to fight hand to hand.' 
(4) A. Kiyafet, ' costume, form, appearance.' (5) Ghazanfer, ' a lion.' (6) A. 
Faik, ' excelling.' (7) Iskat etmek, ( to lower, cause to fall.' (8) Euile, ' noon.' 
(9) A. Ghuroub, ' sun-set.' (10) Imtidad etmek, ' to extend ' (v.w.). (11) Taadud, 
t exceeding calculation.' (12) A. Surat, ' swiftness.' (13) Jebr-ma-fat etrnek, ' to 
repair what has happened, to restore, retrieve.' (14) Ightinam, ' taking advan- 
tage of.' (15) Nuwafak olmak, ' to succeed.' (16) Kademli, ' one whose approach 
brings good luck;' 'lucky, fortunate.' (17) Iktidarli, * capable.' (18) Chadir, ' a 
tent.' (19) Chekilmek, 'to retire, withdraw' (v,n.~). (20) A.Ma-mafih, ' however.' 
(21) A. Fasl, 'a division, section, chapter, season/ (22) A. Hukavernet, 'Resis- 
tance.' (23) A. Mumtaz, ' distinguished.' (24) A. Defa, 'a time.' (25) P. Rengh- 
iareng, 'of various colours.' (26) A. Zilam, 'darkness.' (27) A. Tehashshad, * con- 
gregaling, collecting together.' (28) A. Mutaadid, 'numerous.' (29) A. Kavsi- 
Kouzali, ' a rainbow.' 

200 Literature of the Turks 

(1) Karamak, ' to get dark, black.' (2) Sebat etweJfc, 'to be firm.' (3) Istifade 
' taking advantage of.' (4) A. MaJctoul, ' killed.' (5) A. Katar, *a striug of mules, 
horses, or camels.' (6) A. Ma-jcra, 'what has happened.' (7) JfowZe', ' bay- 
coloured.' (8) Tefc, 'merely.' (9) A. KhitaUe, 'addressing.' (10) A. Teltifat, 
' kindnesses and attentions.' (11) A. Hustaghrak eilemck, ' to overwhelm with.' 
(12) Chelenk, 'an ornament worn on the head-dress, which was in the olden times 
conferred as an honour.' (13) Takmak, 'to put on.' (14) Kabze, 'the handle of a 
sword.' (15) A. Zumurrud (Zumrud), 'an emerald.' (16) P. Khanjer (Handier), 
1 a large curved dagger.' (17) ITisan etmik, 'to confer.' 

Modern Writers. 201 


Everybody knows, from his own experience, what effects the first 
step, the first act, in 'any path in life has on one's feelings, and the 
reflections it produces on one's mind. 

The effects the first step in Jezmi's career soldiering had on 
him, and how it excited his imagination, cannot be described. 
However reckless and careless he might be by nature, or whatever 
self-sacrifice there was in his heart, it was impossible to suppress 
the predominant feeling of nature self-preservation and it is 
improbable that want of experience and practice does not produce 
hesitation in the mind, and agitation in the heart, of even most 
distinguished people (on such an occasion). 

A battle-field one has to go to is a place of trial between which, 
and the next world, the greatest distance is only the range of a 
cannon-ball. Those who are unaccustomed to it naturally see the 
incarnation of death, the " destroyer of all delight/' not merely in 
the soldiers of the enemy but even in their shadows. One looks 
upon every part of the ground he walks on as burying-ground 
prepared for him. All the beauties of the world, all the pleasures 
of life, all the hopes of one's heart, are collected together in one 
place, and present themselves enticingly before one's eyes. 

Hence, however eager Jezmi had been to go to the war, still, 
when he mounted his horse, and entered his regiment, he could not 
free himself from these natural anxieties. Moreover, however 
much a sensible man may have confidence in himself, he cannot be 
confident about fortune. Therefore, the dread that an unexpected 
accident might bring discredit on his valour and skill, and make 
him contemptible in the eyes of his patrons and friends, greatly 
increased the perturbation of his heart ; but the courage and 
determination in his nature, and the pride and ambition he possessed, 
counterbalanced the feelings spoken of above. 

On Jezmi coming against the enemy with this agitation, and this 
mental struggle going on in him, and muskets began to be fired, 
and swords to flash, he neither found war such a pleasant agreeable 
promenade as he had imagined it while his desire for it was 

2O2 Literature of the Turks. 

in posse, nor the theatre of irresistible calamity as he had dreaded it 
might be after his desire for it had been realised. 

The Battle with ike Persians. 

Dervish Pasha being a young courageous man, and of an impetuous 
disposition, as soon as he saw the enemy, the " lion-like" impulse 
of his nature prevailed over all his senses and faculties, and he 
attached no importance to the difference in numbers between the 
two armies. With three or four hundred heroes who were under 
his fortunate flag he attacked the centre (the heart) of a large army. 
The Persians, as it were, were like a heap of straw opposed to the 
" world-consuming' 5 flame of the Pasha's detachment. The Persian 
regiments which were in the front rank were annihilated at the 
first shock. Although this terrific rush shook the whole of the 
enemy's army, and some of their regiments even began to retreat, 
Tokman Khan, looking upon the disgrace of flying before such a 
small detachment as more odious than death, by dint of great 
exertion got his army to stand steady again, pushed a detachment 
stronger than the whole of the Turks in every direction forward, 
and surrounded the Pasha 

The Persians, by successive attacks, surrounded our soldiers, and 
killed many men. Dervish Pasha, with the remainder of the heroes 
who were with him, by valiantly fighting hand to hand for two or 
three hours, again having shaken the enemy, Tokman Khan sent a 
whole detachment of cavalry more forward. This fresh force, by a 
violent rush, killed thirty of the Pasha's intrepid companions, and by 
blows of the sword and the mace, brought him down from his horse. 
The lion-like " Champion of the Faith," when dismounted, struggled 
by himself against a whole army for a long time, and cut in two 
three desperate self-sacrificing Persians who successively attacked 
him. After this heroic defence, his suite, who were his pupils in 
valour, with a supreme effort, cleaving the crowd of Persians 
hemming them in on all sides, collected near his standard-bearer, 
and with a rush, " calculated to enhance the exemplary glory of 
the Pasha/' scattered the Persians who surrounded him in every 
direction, and again mounted him in his horse's saddle, the 
palanquin of his glory. Jezmi, although he was a Spahi, having 

Modern Writers. 20 

separated from his regiment and joined the Pasha's suite, and having 
mixed with the Pasha's attendants (as he had letters of recommen- 
dation from the Commander-in-Chief), took part in this valiant 
charge. The danger, however, did not terminate with this episode. 
The Pasha having been rescued from the peril into which he had 
fallen, as soon as he had a horse to ride, set about violently charging 
in the hope of extinguishing the enemy's regiments, and he nearly 
succeeded in realising his hopes of victory. But Tokman Khan, 
continually pushing forward fresh detachments, increased and 
strengthened his forces engaged in the fight, and the combat 
flamed up again for the third time. As the more the Turks 
decreased the more the Persians increased several fold, this last 
collision was more violent and irresistible than the preceding ones. 
Every man amongst the Ottomans struggled with eight or ten 
persons, and for every drop of their blood they took a life in 
exchange. Amongst the remnant of the heroes not one remained 
unwounded ; but, as the arms of that period had not the same effect 
as those used at present, the wounds of most of them were slight. 
At last, as the ranks of the followers of the Pasha who shielded 
their benefactor with their bodies became thinned, the Persians, 
with a violent charge, killed the whole of some horsemen on the 
right side of the Pasha, and then, destroying his horse with one 
arrow and wounding him himself with another arrow, they brought 
that " brilliant light of patriotism " to the ground. 

Jezmi, who was a few hundred paces distant, seeing the peril the 
Pasha had fallen into, all the innate ardour of his nature was at once 
kindled, and he changed colour " like the trees when in contact with 
the sun of Spring." His eyes became blood-shot ; and each one 
looked " like a newly opened rose-bud." His hair stood on end, like 
thorns, and, beside himself, he recited, in a terrific manner, the 

<f Serkeshlik etdi te-vsen bakht setizkiar, 
Dushdou zemine saye-i-eltaf-i-kerdighiar," 

and cried : " The Pasha is on the ground ! Let him who loves his 
religion and his country follow me ! " He took his sword in his 
mouth and his " karghi " in his hand, and threw the reins on the 
neck of the horse which Ferhad Pasha gave him as a keepsake, 

2O4 Literature of the Turks. 

and turned his head towards the enemy, and, at full gallop, charged 
in the direction where the Pasha was. Those belonging to the 
Pasha's suite who were near did not hesitate to accompany Jezmi 
in the path of valour, and perhaps they exerted themselves more 
than he to rescue their benefactor, but as Jezmi's horse possessed 
a swiftness equal to that of the wind, he reached the enemy's troops 
who surrounded the Pasha before anybody else; and, after killing 
several Persians, one after another, came to the side of the wounded 
man like a guardian angel by a path which he bravely opened by 
arms. He at once alighted, and mounted the Pasha on his horse. 

When he was kissing his stirrup respectfully, his companions 

in arms came up one after another. 

By the continued charges of this troop, which came to the res- 
cue, our assailants were again repelled. Jezmi, who, after giving 
his horse to the Pasha, remained on foot, caught hold of the 
reins of a Persian horseman, killed him, mounted his steed, and 
then joined our champions. After a short interval, a black mist 
appeared behind the enemy's troops, and red dust arose behind 
our soldiers. 

The mist in the direction of the enemy's army was a stormy 
rain-cloud, and the dust which arose on our side was raised by the 
detachment of Osman Pasha, son of Uz Timour, whom the Corn- 
mander-in- Chief had sent to the assistance of Dervish Pasha .... 

Osman Pasha began to pour bullets on the enemy, so that they 
vied with the way in which the drops of the rain, which the cloud 
contained, fell on the armies. 

If the fire of the Turkish troops had continued half an hour, it is 
certain that the Persian army would have been entirely destroyed. 
But of what avail was it that as the arms of that period were not 
proof against wet owing to the violence of the rain, in ten or fifteen 
minutes, muskets and cannon were entirely unserviceable, and the 
matter again rested with the sword ? 

As for the Persian army, as they were seventy per cent more 
numerous than Dervish Pasha's division, and to all the divisions 
which had come to his help, all put together, on fire-arms (the 
skilful use of which was one of the specialities of the Turks in those 
days) becoming useless, they trusted to their numbers, and fancying 

Modern Writers. 205 

they could resist our swords, did not hesitate to coine to hand to 
hand fighting with us. 

Osman Pasha did not resemble Dervish Pasha. Dervish Pasha 
was like a lion in the form of a man, but Osman Pasha, being a man 
with the impulses of a lion, was superior to all his contemporary 
warriors in military tactics. This being the case, when the matter 
rested with the sword, the skill he displayed materially counter- 
balanced the numerical superiority of the enemy. 

In the battle, which lasted from noon till sunset, Osman Pasha 
rushed to every place of danger with extraordinary rapidity, re- 
paired what had happened, and succeeding in turning to advantage 
every opportunity for victory. 

Dervish Pasha, on the arrival of such a person on the battle-field 
superior to himself in luck and capacity, retired to his tent to have 
his wound attended to. However, at this stage of the battle, still 
the most distinguished of the Ottoman troops in resisting the 
assault of the enemy, and in assaulting them where they resisted, 
was the remnant of Dervish Pasha's division, and the most 
distinguished one of them was Jezmi. 

Towards sunset the whole of the two armies met again for the 
last time, and the variously coloured flags of the Turks amongst 
the black mass of the Persians presented a strange scene, as if 
several rain-bows had appeared. The Persians, nolens tolens, stood 
firm until it became quite dark, and then took advantage of tho 
darkness to save the rest of their army from total destruction, by 
flying away as far as possible, after leaving five thousand killed, and 
as many prisoners, on the battle-field, and abandoning their tents, 
their animals, and all kinds of military stores to be plundered by the 

The first thing Osman Pasha did on returning from the battle- 
field was to inquire after Dervish Pasha. Dervish Pasha, also, 
immediately he saw Osman Pasha, related all that Jezmi had done, 
and asked for him to be rewarded. Osman Pasha replied : " I have 
also to-day seen a Spahi on a bay-coloured horse, who was more useful 
than our Pashas. I hope to reward both of them at once." On 
Dervish Pasha explaining that there was only one man in the army 
with a bay- coloured horse, and that he was the same Spahi who had 

206 Literature of the Turks. 

rescued him, Osman Pasha said the youth deserved to be doubly 
rewarded, and after giving orders to the followers of Dervish Pasha 
to find Jezmi and send him to him, returned to his tent. 

When they found Jezmi, and brought him, the Pasha at once 
rose from his seat, and addressing this simple Spahi with the 
words : " Come, my son! " embraced him and overwhelmed him with 
kindnesses. He then fixed two " Chelenk "* (ornaments) on his 
head with his own hand, invested him with a robe of honour, 
gave him five hundred pieces of gold, a sword with a gold hilt, 
and a dagger studded with emeralds. 

* A reward for bravery and a kind of decoration, much prized in those days by 
the Turks. 

Modern Writers. 207 



* * * * * 

(1) A. Titrle, < a grave.' (2) A. Bdb-i-ali, 'the Sublime Porte/ (3) A. Jade, 'a 
highway.' (4) A. Delalet, 'to conduct.' (5) Miyaninde, 'amongst.' (6) Ghenj, 
'young/ (7) Arkadash, 'companions.' (8) P. Yekdigher, 'one another.' (9) P. 
Henouz, 'only just this moment,' (with a negative) ' not yet.' (10) A. Ma'i (generally 
pronounced by the Turks Maw), 'light blue.' (11) Biyik, ' the moustache.' 
(12) Sarilik, 'yellowness.' (13) Jihetle, 'by reason of.' (14) Hiss olounmak, 'to 
be felt, perceived.' (15) Koumral, 'auburn.' (16) Sachli, 'haired.' (17) Achik, 
'light.' (18) Ala, ' reddish.' (19) Sarishin or ^j^L., 'yellowish, reddish.' 
(20) Beshashet, ' hilarity, joy.' (21) Leman etmek, ' to shine, flash/ (22) A. Vej, 
'a face/ (23) Surour, 'joy, pleasure/ (24) Bir kat daha, ' still more, doubly/ 
(25) A. Tejelli etmek, ' to become manifest/ (26) Sagh, 'right/ (27) Chapraz, the 
braidings on military coats with loops and buttons. (28) Yakatamak, ' to lay hold 
of, to collar/ (29)'A. Samitni, ' sincere/ (30) A. Hiss, 'feeling/ (31) A. Mahalbet, 
'affection, friendship/ (32) Sikmak, 'to squeeze/ 

208 Literature of the Turks. 


12 11 

Jfj sjj iiU 

^r' 5 *- 


1C** . 

(1) Sormalc, 'to ask.' (2) Aratnak, 'to seek, look for, to miss, inquire for.' 
(3) Mustajel, 'urgent/ (4) A. TesvCye, 'arranging, settling.' (5) A. 'Mam, 'an 
obstacle.' (6) Kira' et-Khane, ' a reading-room.' (7) A. Khabr, 'news;' Khabr 
Irakmak, 'to leave word/ (8) BeUetmek, 'to keep anyone waiting/ (9) A.Muhib, 
'a friend/ (10) DinUmeJc, 'to listen/ (11) .Hem .... hemde, 'both/ (12) A. 
Zi/m, 'tne intellect, mind ;' Zihnan, ' in his mind, mentally/ (13) A. Meshghouliyet, 
4 occupation, business/ (14) His etmek, 'to feel.' (15~) Sevinj, *joy/ (16) Hele ! 
h-ele! 'now ! now ! did you ever '/ (17) Muzevver is an Arabic word meaning 'con- 
cocted, made up,' and Muzervverlilc is a Turkish noun made from it, meaning 
* fibs, humbugs, nonsense/. (18) P. Bakhtiair, ' lucky.' (19) Suratile, 'rapidly/ 
(20) Dikkat etmek, 'to pay attention/ (21) Dalmak, 'to plunge, dash/ (22) Melek, 
'an angel/ (23) Inayet ctmck, ' to do a favour/ 

Writers. 209 

Jl Jl*\ 

(1) A. Takrir, *an official report or diplomatic note.' (2) Koparmak, to tear off, 
break off, pluck off.' (3) A. Refill, ' companion.' (4) JToZ, 'the arm.' (5) CheJcmelc, 
' to pull, draw.' (6) Birliltde, 'together, in unity.' (7) GhirmeTc, ' to enter.' (8) 4fv 
etmefc, 'to pardon.' (9) Telash, ' a hurry, fuss.' (10) A. Sihat, ' health.' (11) Kiaghid, 
1 paper, a card/ (12) Jawab vermeTc, ' to answer.' (13) Kourshoun-Kalemi, < a lead- 
pencil.' (14) A. Barf, ' a letter.' (15) Shuphe etmeTc, ( to doubt.' (16) ErlceTc, ' a male.' 
(17) A. Elhasil, ' in short.' (18) A. Khat, < writing.' (19) A. Ifade, ' expression.' 
(20) Fata*, 'only.' (21) A. Nemleket, ' a country.' (22) A. TerUye, 'education.' 
(23) A. Tahsil, ' study.' (24) A. Kemal, ( perfection.' (25) A. MuMeviat, 'the 

contents.' (26) A. Mezher, 'an object.' (27) A. Iltifai, 'attention, notice.' 

(28) P. Nuivazish, 'treating with kindness, a caress.' (29) P. Sermaye, 'capital, 
stock, material.' (30) A. Hayat, ' life.' (31) A. Te'sir, < effect.' (32) A. Ashk, 
'love.' (33) Zahmli, ' wounded.' (34) Ghiunul, 'the heart.' (35) A. MouMaj, 
'needing.' (36) A. DaJcika, ' minute ? 

2io Literature of the Turks. 

27 f t i .. 26 

^^ ^ V*** ^ *' -?-> -5 ^ 

JoJ^Jjl 32 ^Jil*i' 


(1) A. J'ifc-r, 'thought, idea.' (2) A. Khayal, 'an idea, fancy, a vision, imagina- 
tion.' (3) A.Meshgoul, ' busy, occupied.' (4) Arzou, ' wish.' (5) A. Etnl, ( hope.' 
(6) A. Ziaret, 'a visit.' (7) A. Jimal, 'beauty.' (8) Musherref, 'honoured.' 
(9) A. Matouf, 'inclined, turned.' (10) A. Khatire, 'a thought.' (11) P. Nam, 
'name.' (12) P. Nishan, 'a sign, signal, trace.' (13) A. Tevejjuhat, 'favours.' 
(14) P. Ghiraribaha, 'valuable.' (15) A.Hak, ' truth;' Jiakimde, 'with respect tome.' 
(16) P. Jariane, ' humble.' (17) EsirghemeTc, 'to spare, to be chary of ;' esirghen- 
mek, 'to be spared.' (18) A. Tasdi, 'giving a headache, bothering.' (19) Jessaret- 
lenmek, 'to have the boldness.' (20) A. Jera'et, 'boldness, aadacity.' (21) A. Kalahat, 
'a fault.' (22) A. Afv, ' pardon.' (23; A..Murouvvet, ' magnanimity, generosity.'- 
(24) A. Loutf, ' kindness, amiability.' (25) A. Inaye-t, ' grace.' (26) Nihayet, 'end.' 
(27) A. Itmam-, ' completing.' (28) A. Defa, ' a time.' (29) Tekrarlemek, ' to repeat.' 
(30) A. Nahabbet, ' affection.' (31) A. Makar, abode.' (32) A. Taaluk, ' connection.' 
-(33) A. Setr, 'a line.' (34) Inje, 'thin, fine.' (35) A. Murassam, 'drawn.' 
(36) Telash, 'haste, flurry.' (37) A. Zahir, 'evident.' (38) A. Tesaddvf, 'meet- 
iugs.' (39) A. Surour, 'pleasure.' 

Modern Writers. 2 1 1 




(1) JfcuZ olmak, 'to attain.' (2) A. Mesoud, 'happy.' (3) lade etmefc, 'to 
return, give back. 1 (4) Tebrik etmek, ' to congratulate.' (5) A. Me'mour, ' an 
official.' (6) Khatirlamak, ' to remember.' (7) Jenaze, 'a funeral. 5 (8) A. H ouz- 
lim, ' dark.' (9) Kasvetli, ' severe.' (10) A. Mutaalik, ' belonging to.' (11) Istidlal 
etmek, ' to infer.' (12) Merak etmek, ' to be curious.' (13) Yashlije, 'elderly.' 
(14) P. HemsJiire, ' a sister.' 

212 Literature of the Turks. 

The Two Friends. 

If you went back under our guidance to the year , and to the 

afternoon of the 13th of August, in the street leading from the 
tomb of Sultan Mahmoud to the Sublime Porte, amongst the passers 
by you would see two young friends meet one another. One of 
them was going straight up the road, and the other was coming 
straight down. Both of them were only just about twenty years of 
age. The one going up was fair, and had light blue eyes. His 
slight moustache was so fair that it was scarcely perceptible. The 
other had auburn hair and light brown eyes. The face of the fair 
youth was radiant with joy. On his seeing the young man who 
was descending, the pleasure on his face became still more manifest. 
The other perceived this. They met, shook hands, and embraced 
each other with sincere affection. 

The fair youth asked : ' ' Where have you been, my friend, I have 
been expecting you to return for a week, and now it is three days 
since you came back, and yet we have not met each other." 

" Yes, I have wanted to see you also, but I had pressing affairs to 
attend to which prevented me. You left word that we could meet 
to day in the reading-room, and I have come, and I thank you 
that you have not kept me waiting." 

The fair youth listened to the words of his friend, but it was 
clear, from his excitement, that his mind was occupied by some- 
thing eke. 

The other, noticing this, said : " What has come to you ! You are 
not yourself to day ?" 

" My joy at seeing you/' 

" Come, come, no humbug, speak plainly." 

" Shefik, you must know that I am in luck's way to day, I have 
seen you and also," 

a And also?" 

" As you were coming here did you not see a carriage pass 
quickly by V " 

" No, I did not pay attention, I was rushing towards you/' 

" Shefik, you ought to have seen it. Was I not always talking to 

Modern Writers. 213 

you about her ? That angel to-day favoured me with this." So 
saying he gave Shefik a paper, which it was evident from two of 
the edges being gilt and the two others torn, had been torn from 
a piece of official paper (on which diplomatic notes are written). 
" Come, let us go, you can read it here in the reading-room." So 
saying, he pulled Shefik by the arm, and they entered the reading- 
room, which is there together. 

Arfan said : " Pardon me, my friend, I was in such a flurry that 
I did not ask you how you are." 

Shefik was now so absorbed in the letter that he gave Arfan no 
answer. He was most attentively reading it. It was written in 
pencil, and the letters looked like scattered pearls. Anyone 
who looked at it attentively would have known it was a lady's 
handwriting. These ladies everything about them, and everything 
they do is different from what belongs to a man. 

In a word, it was evident from the style of the writing on the 
piece of paper in Shefik' s hand that it was a lady's writing, but the 
writing of a lady educated and brought up in our country's way. 

The paper which Shefik read so attentively ran thus : " To be 
the object of your attentions and favours is the only aim of my life. 
That my heart, which has been pierced by love, needs your notice, 
I feel every minute. My thoughts are busy with your image, and 
my desire and hope is to be honoured by the sight of your beauty. 
Probably you have forgotten my name and appearance. As I trust 
you will not be chary with your favours to your slave, I have 
troubled you with this foolish letter. If this boldness of mine be a 
fault, I expect your magnanimity will pardon it. For the rest, you 
must bestow favours as you think fit/ 7 

After reading the letter through, he read it several times again. 

Hitherto his heart had been a stranger to all love but that for 
his relations 

This kind of letter, although it did not belong to him, he read 
with a palpitating heart. After having read it several times, he 
saw there were a few lines of writing on the back. The words of 
these lines were not so fine or so carefully written as those inside 
the letter. It was clear from the irregular and scattered way in 
which they were written that they had been penned iii the carriage. 

214 Literature of the Turks. 

It was evident that the young lady who wrote the letter had first 
prepared her billet-doux, and then, on happening to meet him, saw 
she could give it him, and added the other words in joy and haste. 
They were as follows : " What a long time I have been looking 
for you and could not meet you ! How happy the double luck I 
have had to-day has made me ! " . . . 

Shefik, after reading these lines also, returned the paper to 
Arfan Bey. 

Arfan Bey, on taking the paper returned to him, said : " Well, 
what do you think of it, eh ! " 

' Very good ! I congratulate you. If she be as beautiful as the 
writing and the style, and be constant in the love she has begun 
to show you, you are lucky." 

" If you had looked attentively at the carriage which passed close 
by you when we met, you would have seen how beautiful she is." 

" I wish I had ! But I could not see her. May I ask who is the 
lady you like so much ? " 

" What a forgetful boy you are ! Was I not always talking about 
her ? . . . Do you not remember the daughter of Sermed Effendi, 
one of the great officials ? One day in winter, in cold weather, we 
went to ' Azeb Kapousou/ in order to go to Eyoub. From there, 
in the distance, we saw them bringing a corpse in a boat." 

" Yes, yes, I remember. How dark and severe the weather was 
that day ! . . . We thought, from the number of persons who followed 
the corpse, that it must be the funeral of some great person, and, 
being curious to know, we began to inquire. An elderly man who 
was there told us it was the funeral of a young daughter of Sermed 
Effendi. Well, the lady whose funeral you saw was the sister of 
this lady." .... 

Modern Writers. 



MAHMOUD EKREM is a modern Turkish writer, whose style is as 
remarkable for its elegance as his ideas are for their refinement. 
It will be seen from the following extract that he is one of the new 
authors, like Kemal Bey, who have introduced the European system 
of punctuation. Formerly Turkish was written without any stops 
whatever, which rendered its perusal extremely difficult, and gave 
rise, sometimes, to great ambiguity. In this respect, at any rate, 
the Turks have progressed of late years. 

216 Literature of the Turks. 


17 I ... 16 

j+cjb \Jtij* rf^jl^s**' .jJjl^s^ Jc^^U jAc^A^U jcbl J 

(1) A. AsTilc, love.' (2) A. Hay at, ' life.' (3) A. Lezzet, l taste, enjoyment/ 
(4) A. Bowfc, '.the soul, spirit.' (5) A. 8afa, 'pleasure.' (6) A. Sema, < the sky.' 
(7) A. Oiifouk, ' the horizon.' (8) Doghmalc, ' to be born, to rise.' (9) A. Sihr, 
1 enchantment ;' sahr, ' early morning.' (10) A. Hezin, ' sad.' (11) A. Revnak, 
'splendour, beauty, glory.' (12) A. Huzn, ' sadness/ (13) Ber-bad etmek, 'to 
send flying, send into the air;' 'to destroy, ruin/ (14) A. Khelejan, 'agitation/ 
(15) Kasd etmek, ' to intend ;' ' to make an attempt on anyone's life/ (16) Varlik, 
1 property, possessions, wealth/ (17) Ilaret, olmaJc, ' to consist of/ (18) Par- 
lamak, 'to shine/ (19) Ey, 'oh!' (20) P. Joush-ou-Khourousli, 'commotion, 
ebullition/ (21) Kawoushmak, ' to bring together/ 

Modern Writers. 217 

<da> . ^J 
7 JJJCU jcijjj 1 *$ 6\* 6 {jus& to .JuJjlL UbJ Aai) <KJ 

(1) P. Niglriah, 'a, glance.' (2) A. Ashik, ' a lover.' (3) A. MashouJc, 'beloved, 
a beloved one.' (4) Doudak, 'a lip.' (5) A. Leziz, 'pleasant, delightful.' 
(6) P. Bakhtiar, ' fortunate.' (7) A. Mutelezziz, < enjoying.' (8) P. Bi-chare, 
( wretched.' 


Wliat is love ? It is the enjoyment of life. The pleasure of the 
spirit, an affection which is heaven. When the sun of love appears 
on the horizon how lovely is it ! When love is combined with affec- 
tion it is the dawn of the heart's world. However sad dawn may 
be, it yields beauty to the sight and pleasure to the soul ..... 

Oh ! love, withdraw not thy hand from me ! If thou wilt, fill my 
heart with sadness . . . Ah ! how strange it is that love scatters 
sense and thought to the winds. It consumes the body and the 
soul, and leaves the heart continually in a state of agitation. It 
drives away sleep and deprives one of appetite. In this way it 
attacks one's life, yet the pleasure of life is only known through 
love ; all one possesses consists of love. 

" It is true that all one possesses comes from love." If there were 
no love, would there be anything existing ? The world was created 
by love. The world lives by love. If there were no love, there 
would be no dawn (for us). If there were no dawn, the sun would 
not rise. If there were no love, there would be no night and the 
stars would not shine (for us). 

Oh ! stormy ocean ! Is not thy commotion to show thy love ? . . . . 

How the soul comes into the light of the eye ! How the heart 
comes into the mouth. If thou hast never seen the condition of lovers 
glancing at each other's beauty, mark it well. See how their souls 
flash in their eyes, see the trembling on their lips ! How sweet it is 
to be loved ! Well ! to love is still sweeter. How fortunate are 
they who have tasted these two delights ! How wretched are those 
who go from the world without tasting them ! 

218 Literature of the Turks 




. .w* 

y * 

u A 
(1) Mussin, ' aged, old.' 

* Constantinople, 1301 Anno Hejircc, published by Arakil. 

Modern Writers. 


(1) Zewalli, 'poor!' (2) Diwane, 'a lunatic.' (3) Juavi (or 
significant, partial, trifling.' (4) Ha ! ' Oh, ho ! ' (5) Va'i, ' Alas ! ' 

Holloa ! oh ! ' 

220 Literature of the Turks. 



(1) Shoura, 'this place, this spot.' (2) Kahraman, 'a. hero.' (3) A. Husn, 
' beauty.' (4) A.-3falife, 'a possessor.' (5) A. -4fct6et, 'after all.' (6) Chawoush, 
1 a sergeant.' (7) P. PCM/<?, ' rank, grade.' (8) A. Hasan, ' beautiful, good/ 
(9) Tevejjuh, 'favour, attention, countenance/ (10) A.Tavr (pi. etvar), 'manners, 
behaviour ' (11) Kapmak, 'to snatch, catch, seize;' KapilmaTc, 'to be caught, 
taken, smitten/-(12) Abbreviation for JJI , ' Qod/-(13) A. GhriU, < a diffioulty/- 
(14) A. Izdicaj, marriage.'- (15) A. Ebniye (pi. of U btna), 'a building.' 

Modern Writers. 221 

Jj/ JCJ (*xtfPj) - 1 




(1) A. Nusaade, ' permission, assistance ;' jftz\ o , ' by your leave.' (2) A. Ijad, 
'invention.' (3) Tamir etmeTc, 'to repair.' (4) Beuluk, 'a division, a company (cf 
infantry), squadron (of cavalry).' (5) Evli, ' married.' (6) Isabet etmek, ' to hit. 3 
(7) A. Ma eliftikhar, ' with pride.' 

222 Literature of the Turks. 

UJ'i . 

(1) Teka'ud oltnak, ' to be pensioned off.' (2) Damar, ' a vein, artery, nerve.' 
(3) Teayyush, ' living,' ' maintaining one's self.' (4) Orta, ' middling.' (5) Ko~ 
parmaTc, c to pluck, gather,' 'obtain by pertinacity.' (6) A. Silk, 'a career, road.' 
_ (7) A. Zatan, ' in person.' (8) Yaver, ' an aide-de-camp.' (9) A. Asr, ' a cen- 
tury, age.' _ (10) A. Af'-aliJinxr, ' celo})vatod.' (11) Hainiijclli, ' patriotic, zealous.' 

Modern Writers. 223 

<d>! CJ^ s^xb ^ysrj J-*JjJjl 2 JJ'J aO^, J^l ^JJc 


. ., . j ^ . , 

j . . 

x JOA- 

JwJ L-x04ilj> Jo JaJ' 

" "J J :-/ 

.^Ju^l l^\ JtHi'J 
aa j^ae jilb . xAJlju^o ^J,./^ tojsp ji) j 

. - 

(1) Istikhdam olounmak, ' to be employed.' (2) Na'il olmak, < to attain.' (3) A. 
Tebessum, ' smiling, a smile.' (4) A. Sheji, ( valiant.' (5) Ali-jenab, ' magnanimous.' 
(6) Hulalagha etmek, 'to exaggerate.' (7) Hedhe-shayan, 'praiseworthy.' 
(8) Rivayete ghieure, ' according to report.' (9) Tighit, ' a young man, a brave 
fellow ;' Baba yighit, ' a full-grown young man.' (10) Ajitnak, ' to pity, to hurt.' 

* The 3rd person plural is often used for the 3rd person and the 2nd person 
singular, to show respect either for a person spoken of or to whom one is speaking. 

224 Literature of the Turks. 

l^cXj] (s 



(1) A. JTfcato, 'error, fault, mistake.' (2) Or *^(P.) Gfciime, 'sort, kind.'- 
(3) JTasavet etmefc, ' to grieve, be frightened.' (4) A. Jeza, ' punishment.' (5) P. 
Pak, 'pure, clean.' (6) A. Divan~i-harb, 'a court-martial.' 

Modern Writer*. 225 

8JJU. ^ 

jo jJj'o IjJ^j^JcKoJ (aJU^U) - 

.Jo; t) J - 

Sj6^l jsri^^, xJy 


ji - 

(1) Sallamak, ' to shake, nod, wag, wave.' (2) Bende euile, ' and I too.' (3) A. 
Muteessir, 'affected.' (4) Neubet beUemek, 'to stand sentry, to be on guard ;' neu- 
betji, ' a sentry.' (5) Orjtl Katvr, ' a mule.' (6) Ilishmek, ' to catch, adhere to.' 


226 Literature of the Turks. 

(1) IJchtar etmeJc, 'to warn.' (2) Te7id*d etmek, ' to threaten.' (3) Mirildanmak, 
1 to murmur, mutter.' (4) Or ^jJLGl Inildi, ' a moaning;' Inlemek, 'to moan.' 
(5) P. Ilenouz, 'scarcely, only, just.' (6) A. Masoum, 'an innocent, a young 
child.' (7) A. Sefalet, ' lovvness, indigence.' (8) Saplamalc, 'to stick in;' 
'(v. a.} saplanmak, ' to be stuck in.' (9) Kapanmak, ' to stumble, trip.' (10) Irmak, 
' a river.' (11) Yash, ' moisture,' ' tears.' 

Modern Writers. 227 


^ v^L j/jJu! 


, r^- 

i* ^yb ,jyb SjJjj _ Jlt.U 

(1) Der aghoush etmek, 'to embrace.' (2) Daivranmak, 'to assume an attitude,' 
' behave.' (3) Artik (with a negative), ' no longer, never again ;' (with an affir- 
mative), 'now, at last.' (4) A. Rishvet, 'a bribe.' (5) A. Kha'in, ' a traitor.' 
(6) A. Intikam, 'vengeance, revenge.' (7) Der dest etmek, 'to take, arrest.' 
(8) A. Mazbata, 'a report,' ' proces-verbal.' ; (9) A. Muttehim, 'guilty, culpable.' 
(10) Kourshoune dizmek, ' to shoot.' 

Q 2 

228 Literature of the. Turks. 

jdJI LsJI 

A** - 

(1) Jfa wa^/i, 'however.' (2) Demin. Deminjek, 'Just this moment/ 

Modern Writers. 229 


. J;/ ^ 


(1) Ho, ' oh! ' (2) P. Dilber, < charming.' (3) A. Mahbous, imprisoned.' 
(4) A. Asl, 'origin, foundation.' (5) Tiwariak, round.' (6) Parmaklik, 'a 
grating, railing, banister.' (7) Or Jjl/ Karaol, ' a guard of soldiers or police/ 
(8) Mouavin, * an assistant.' (9) A. Talimat, 'instractions.' (10) Sikindi, 'un- 
pleasantness, trouble.' 

230 Literature of the Turks. 

. fc,^*) UJto 

<d!l Uol A iaJ . ^A-BtU/ * **** 

. jul! 41 



(1) A. Mesoje, ' distance.' (2) Boundan leuiU, l henceforth.' (3) Sandal, ' a 
large boat, a ship's boat.' (4) Yimourjak, 'the plague.' (5) Boulashmak, 'to 
spread by contagion.' (6) Boulashih, ' contaminated.' (7) A.Musafir, ' a traveller.' 
(8) (j^UJb Dallcawoulc, ' a buffoon ;' Dalkawouklouk, 'buffoonery, foolery.' (9) 0?- 
maz, * It won't do ! ' (10) P. Ber taraf, ' aside, on one side.' (11) A. Ghourour, 
' presumption, vanity.' (12) Haz etmek, ' to like,' 

Modern Writers. 231 

r^^ Jj/ ^ e^ 

. . 

_ ^ j . ^ ,; 

(1) Vazifesizlik, ' neglect of duty/ (2) Ghevshek, ( lax, loose, slack, lukewarm.' 
(3) A. Herkez, ' a centre, head-quarters.' (4) A. Ham, ' an official report, declara- 
tion ;' 'a sentence of a court given in writing.' (5) P. Kin, 'rancour, ill-will, 
malice.' (6) A. Gharaz, 'spite,' 'a motive.' (7) Akindi, ' a current;' AMndili, 
1 having a strong current ;' ' rapid.' (8) Cha'i, ' a brook, stream, rivulet,' 

232 Literature of the Turks. 

(1) YaTca, ' the shore, coast, bank.' (2) Ety', ' revenge.' (3) A. Mahbous, 'im- 
prisoned,' 'a prisoner.' (4) Huzour, 'presence,' (5) A. Maglirour, 'haughty, 

Modern Writers. 233 

iu, J 

' <xJUlcXc! 
JolV ScXj^l^l ^^ t^JoJ'j' ^ ^ jjj 


j .. 

(1) A. Adavet, ' enmity.' (2) TesHn etme'k, 'to calm.' (3) Aza, 'a member.' 
(4) Siparish olounmak, 'to be entrusted to.' (5) A. Bil itifalc, 'unanimously.' 
(6) A. Idam, 'killing, destroying.' (7) A. Bil tensib, ' approving, deeming fit and 
proper.' (8) Zar, ' a die ' (for playing dice). (9) A. Tard, ' expulsion.' 


Literature of the Turks. 


oinamak, ' to gamble/ 


. Drama in Three Acts. 

Dramatis Personse. 





Gu STAVE ..... . 

THOMAS ...... 

THERESA ...... 

LAURA . . . . . . 

ANDREW ...... 

..... A Jailor. 

.A Naval Officer. 
..... An aged man. 
..... William's wife. 
. . . . . Robert's sweetheart. 
..... A Sailor. 

The 1st and 3rd Acts take place in Porto Andera ; the 2nd in 
the island of Ruza. 


The Court-yard of a Castle. 


VALANTINE. What you say is all very fine ; and there is nothing 
to be said to your arguments, only you cannot convince me. 
LAURA. At any rate, Sir 

Modern Writers. 235 

VALANTINE. No, no, it is not my business to listen to such things. 

LAURA. Dear uncle ! You always wish for my good ; don't you ? 

VALANTINE. Yes, as I ana your uncle, I always wish for your 
good; but I cannot listen to your nonsensical words. 

LAURA. Oh, poor young man ! poor Kobert ! 

YALANTINE. Ah, silly girl ! What will you learn from Koberfc ? 

LAURA. What shall I learn from Robert ? He loves me, and has 
promised to marry me. Is not that happiness for me ? 

YALANTINE. Do you know that he has been sentenced by a Court- 
martial and put in prison ? 

LAURA. Yes, along with his brave comrade William, only 

YALANTINE. Do you know that they are preparing to punish 

LAURA. If they decide on punishing them for such a trivial fault, 
it will be a few weeks imprisonment. What else can it be ? 

YALANTINE. This matter appears to me very serious. 

LAURA. Ah ! 

YALANTINE. What ! You think it a trifle to commit an act con- 
trary to military law ? 

LAURA. That came from their being merciful. 

YALANTINE. Martial law does not listen to such things. Whether 
they had mercy or compassion, out of kindness, in the eyes of the 
law they are guilty, and there 's an end of it. Therefore, there is 
no hope for their lives. 

LAURA. My God ! 

YALANTINE. Perhaps, here, this evening. . . 

LAURA. Mercy. Oh, Lord ! 

YALANTINE. Who told you to give your heart to a soldier ? If 
he is a brave, handsome young fellow, after all he is only a soldier, 
with the rank of sergeant. 

LAURA. He is a sergeant, who wears the Legion of Honour on 
his breast, who has gained the favour of his superiors, and the love 
of the whole regiment. When he came here, four years ago, for the 
defence of the harbour of Aiidera, as soon as I saw him, I was smitten 
by his manners and fell in love with him. What can I do ? I love 
him. Without him the world is a desert to me. Ah ! my heart 
cannot bear it. 

236 Literature of the Turks. 

YALANTINE. Do my words affect your heart ? 

LAURA. Mine ? No ; not at all. 

YALANTINE. Oh, yes they do. There are tears in your eyes. 

LAURA. Oh, dear uncle, do not make me wretched with your 
dismal imaginings, My heart tells me Robert will be saved. Please 
God, this difficulty will soon be got over, and you will help us to 
get married, as you love me, and be the cause of our happiness. 

YALANTINE, Retire ! Retire ! Some one is coming. 


PRIVATE. The Colonel has given orders for you to show this 
gentlemen, a traveller, over all parts of the castle and the building 

YALANTINE. Certainly. I am ready to carry out his orders. 

PRIVATE. By your leave [exit]. 

THE MARSHAL. You know. 

LAURA [to Valantine]. What a handsome young man ? 

YALANTINE. Yes, he is handsome. 

THE MARSHAL. This castle seems very old. 

YALANTINE. Yes, Sir, it must have been built three hundred 
years before the invention of gunpowder. For a long time it 
was standing in ruins ; but since a cordon has been drawn, owing 
to this illness, it has been repaired a little. They have made it the 
prison of the first division of the army. If you please, let us go. 

THE MARSHAL. I am very tired. Let me take breath a little. 
Then . . . 

YALANTINE. As you please, Sir. 

LAURA [to her uncle]. I shall go. [To herself] I will go and inquire 
about Robert. [To the Marshal] By your leave. 

THE MARSHAL. Is this young lady your daughter ? 

YALANTINE. I am not married. She is the daughter of my late 
brother. My brother was a bold soldier. Twelve years ago a cannon- 
ball struck him on the head, on the field of battle. 

THE MARSHAL. What is your name ? 

YALANTINE. Yalantiue ; and my surname. Sergeant Ghamsiz, of 
the artillery. 

Modern Writers. 237 

THE MARSHAL. How long have you been a soldier ? 

VALANTINE. Not long. For thirty-two years ; and I am proud 

of being in the service. What matters, if a cannon-ball came during 

the last war and carried away this arm ? Since then I have been 

pensioned. Notwithstanding that, my blood boils in my veins like 

a youth. There is no profession in the world like the army. In 

fact, if there be many dangers in it, there are so many joys that 

they make us forget the dangers. When a man remembers such 

times, he is happy. So, when I think of by-gone times I am consoled. 

THE MARSHAL. How do you live ? 

VALANIINE. Pretty middling. They have given me a small 
pension for my services, and permission to spend the rest of my days 
here, in my native village. As they have given me the care of this 
castle, I live contentedly, if I can occasionally obtain a trifle. I beg 
your pardon ; are you also in the military profession ? 


VALANTINE. But what is your rank ? 

THE MARSHAL. Equal to yours. 

VALANTINE [looking at his clothes carefully]. I dont expect it. Do 
you come from Paris ? 


VALANTINE. Do you know when His Excellency, the Marshal, 
who has undertaken the command of our army, will come here ? 

THE MARSHAL. He has come himself. 

VALANTINE. Really ? 

THE MARSHAL. Do I tell lies (do you think) ? 

VALANTINE. Probably you also ? 

THE MARSHAL. Yes, I am one of his aides-de-camp ! 

VALANTINE. I rejoice with you that you have the honour of being 
employed in the service of the most famous and glorious Marshal of 


our age. 

THE MARSHAL [smiling]. What do you say? 

VALANTINE. Such a gallant, magnanimous man 

THE MARSHAL. You exaggerate very much. 

VALANTINE. It is not exaggeration. He is deserving of praise 
in every way, for he has done great service both to his country and 
to His Majesty the Emperor. It is true, I have not seen him, 

238 Literature of the Turks. 

himself, but, according to report, he is very kind to all in the military 
profession, and a just man. He very often goes about in disguise, 
sees things with his own eyes, and investigates and inquires into 
them. He rights the oppressed and punishes traitors. That is 
something like an officer ! 

THE MARSHAL. Very good. According to what I hear, you attend 
very carefully to this castle. 

VALANTINE. You are right ; but it is also very trying. Only last 
week, there was a poor prisoner, who took his clothes and his arms 
and broke a window, and ran away; and they shot him for it. To-day 
there are two poor prisoners who will suffer the same punishment, 
they have just brought them before a Court-martial. 

THE MARSHIAL. Two sergeants? 

VALANTINE. God Almighty ! They are two young men, and the 
finest soldiers in our army, and for that reason the army pities them. 

THE MARSHAL. What is their offence ? 

VALANTINE. What shall I say ? How shall I say it ? Mercy. 
Anyhow they have committed an error. But here they come, you 
can ask them themselves. 



SERGEANT. Corporal Ghamsiz. Here, I bring you the prisoners 
again. The Court-martial directs you to deal kindly with these 
poor fellows. They are not to be ill-treated in any way, and the 
whole army request you to act thus. 

VALANTINE. Certainly ! Never fear ! 

ROBERT. Oh ! I thank you both. And give our thanks to our 
comrades. Whatever punishment we may receive our consciences 
are clear. We have no remorse. 

VALENTINE [to the Marshal]. Do you hear? 


ROBERT. William, my friend ! 

WILLIAM. Robert ! I have no longer any hope. The Court- 

Modern Writers. 239 

martial are here, consulting together. The sentence of death will 
soon be issued. 

ROBERT. There is no longer any hope for us. I pity poor Laura. 
Poor girl, how attractive, how -good she is ! How sad ! When she 
receives this bad news what a state she will be in ! 

WILLIAM [to himself]. Oh, my poor wife ! Oh, my poor children ! 
Ah ! although so near to them, I shall die without wishing them 
good bye [he covers his face]. 

ROBERT [shaking his head}. Thinking about it is useless. I will 
go. I will go to my room. 

WILLIAM. And I, too. [Taking leave of each other and separating.} 

VALANTINE. Stop. This gentleman wishes to speak with you. 

WILLIAM. Let us go. As we are in a very sad state, our stopping 
here will be of no use, but affect him and make him sorrowful. 

THE MARSHAL. Oh, no. One can see from your physiognomy 
that you are two brave fellows. 

ROBERT. I thank you for your good opinion. 

VALANTINE. This gentlemen is an aide-de-camp of the Marshal's. 

WILLIAM. Are you in the suite of that good gentleman ? 

ROBERT. That brave, valiant gentleman 

VALANTINE [to the Marshal] . Listen ! See, how they praise him. 


WILLIAM. If he were here himself, if he saw that the good action 
we did is the cause of our death. 

ROBERT. Who knows how he would pity us ? 

VALANTINE. He has come here himself. 

ROBERT. Has he come ? 

THE MARSHAL. Yes ; and who knows ? . . . . Tell me about it. 
Let me see. What have you done ? Have you deserved the punish- 
ment of the law ? 

WILLIAM. Sir, I will explain to you briefly. I was standing 
sentry, yesterday, with Robert, on the (( Cordon " boundary. He 
was in the first, and I in the second, patrol. I had approached him, 
and while we were talking together we caught sight of a Spaniard, 
mounted on a mule. As soon as he saw us he dismounted, and came 
towards us. He wanted us to permit him to cross the Cordon. He 
threw twenty pounds before us as a bribe. We did not accept the 

Literature of the Turks. 

money offered to us, and warned him to retire. He persisted several 
times, but we did not allow him. At last we pointed our guns at 
him, and threatened to kill him if he did not obey. Whereupon 
he muttered to himself, picked up his money, mounted his horse and 
went away, and was lost amongst the rocks. Again, about sunset, we 
heard some crying and moaning, and a woman came slowly towards 
us, saying: "Have pity on me ! Have compassion!" She was in such 
a state anyone would have pitied her, even if he had been of stone. 

ROBERT. The poor woman led a child, scarcely six years of age, 
with one hand, and carried a baby six months old, and was in such 
a state of starvation and misery that she had scarcely strength to 
speak. On her asking permission to pass, and our motioning to 
her to go back, she uttered a heart-rending cry. To be brief, 
Sir, the poor thing came and fell, with her children, at our feet; 
and they all stretched out their arms and cried for mercy. I 
looked at William, and saw his eyes were streaming with tears. 

WILLIAM. The tears from your eyes, too, prevented you speaking. 

ROBERT. After we had looked at this heart-rending sight ..... 

WILLIAM. We threw ourselves on each other's neck. 

ROBERT. Then we raised the poor things from the ground. 

WILLIAM. We showed them a secret road, and accompanied them 
to the first line. 

ROBERT. We gave them all the money we had about us. 

WILLIAM. The wretched woman trembled, passed the Cordon, 
and went away. 

VALANTINE. Come, my brave boys, Come ! Let me embrace you 
once. Let me kiss your hands. In my position I ought to be 
severe, but when I hear what you have gone through, my heart is 
broken. I can stand it no longer, I shall cry. You did right. You 
behaved well. 

THE MARSHAL. Stop ! How came it that the matter came out. 

ROBERT. The treacherous Spaniard, whose bribe we threw in his 
face, hid behind a rock, saw what happened, and gave information 
to the government, in order to be revenged on us. 

VALANTINE, The mean traitor ! 

ROBERT. This morning they arrested us, and brought us before 
a Court-martial, And they are now drawing up the report. 

Modern Writers. 241 

WILLIAM. Of course they will sentence us to death, and towards 
sunset they will shoot us, like criminals. 

ROBERT. I have fought with so many enemies, I have been in 
the battle-field twenty times ; but now that I think that my comrades 
will kill me, my heart is broken. 

THE MARSHAL. You need not despair entirely. It is most 
necessary to guard the "Cordon" but, thank God, the disease is 
not so very bad in the neighbourhood now. You did not do this 
from a corrupt motive, or through avarice. You acted so from pity ; 
the Court-martial understand that. Your tale has affected me. I 
will let the Marshal know, and I hope we shall find a remedy. 

WILLIAM. Will you, really ? 

VALANTINE. To be sure ! God bless you ! Bight. Help these 
poor fellows. Is there any probability ? 

THE MARSHAL. Just this moment you thought mercy was certain, 
and now you doubt. 

ROBERT. There is a sound of footsteps ; Laura is coming. Let 
me go to my room, and not make her sad. 

WILLIAM. I will go, too, comrade ! 

. ROBERT. Good bye ! [They take leave of each oilier, and enter their 
cells, which are opposite to each other.] 

VALANTINE. [closing the doors of the cells. To the Marshal]. What 
do you say to this ? 

THE MARSHAL. Well, to tell the truth, they are brave boys. 
However, come, show me over the castle. I will see. 

VALANTINE. You can look over the castle another time. Go, I 
beg of you, and explain the matter to the Marshal. 

THE MARSHAL. There is plenty of time. 

VALANTINE. What do you mean by saying there is plenty of time ? 
Efe who knows the value of time does not waste it. 

THE MARSHAL. What is there to hurry about ? 

VALANTINE. Two people's lives are in danger. 

242 Literature of the Turks. 


GUSTAVE. Ah, charming Laura ! 

LAURA. I am glad to see you, Gustave. Have you heard what 
punishment will be given to those two sergeants ? What I have 
heard is that they will only be imprisoned for two or three weeks. 
Is there any foundation for that ? 

GUSTAVE. Everybody thinks so. 

LAURA. Ah ! How glad I am. 

GUSTAVE. For Kobert's sake, is it not ? 

LAURA. Is there any doubt ? 

GUSTAVE. 1 ; for William's sake 

[Eleven o'clock, strikes. The guard is relieved outside a round grating.] 

GUSTAVE. It is near eleven o'clock. 

LAURA. Are you waiting for some one ? 

GUSTAVE. I am waiting for the general's head-assistant. I shall 
carry instructions to the company in the island of Rouz. 

LAURA. You will go to the island of Rouz ? 

GUSTAVE. In an hour. 

LAURA. Dear me ! As the weather is very fine to-day you will 
not have any unpleasantness on the road. 

GUSTAVE. Please God. It is a distance of three miles by sea. 
If the weather is good it is done in an hour, especially as now, in 
summer, the wind is always favourable. I shall go to the island of 
Rouz for the first time, but, henceforward, I hope to go often, as it 
has been decided that a boat shall go three times a week. 

LAURA. The plague frightens the people in all parts. It is 
necessary to take measures for its not spreading again. 

GUSTAVE. Yes. In order that there may be no danger from the 
infected district we have taken off all the boats in the island. 
Now there is no connection between the island and the shore ; but, 

Modern Writers. 243 

as the inhabitants of the island have worried the government very 
much about it, it has been decided that a boat shall go from our 
port three times a week ; and I shall be the captain of it. 
LAURA. I hear footsteps. Monsieur Yalmour is coming. 


VALMOUR. Quick ! Go and call your uncle to me. 

LAURA. He is speaking with a traveller. 

VALMOUR. He should attend to his own duty. It won't do for 
him to waste his time with such tomfoolery. Send him here directly, 
or I will send an officer after him to fetch him. 

LAURA. I. ... I. ... I'm going, Sir. Your orders will be executed. 
[Aside] How presumptuous ! I don't like this fellow. . . . 

VALMOUR. Such neglect of duty. I do not know why the Court- 
martial behaves so weakly. 

GUSTAVE. Sir ! The Colonel has given me instructions about the 
island of Kouz. If you have any orders 

VALMOUR. Go ! and wait for me at the head-quarters of the 
protective force. In a little while I will come and see you. 

GUSTAVE. I beg your pardon ; what has been decided respecting 
the two sergeants ? 

VALMOUR. Here is their sentence. 

GUSTAVE. Their sentence ! 

VALMOUR. To-day the Colonel wished to give the whole division 
a good lesson, 

GUSTAVE. Both will be executed. 

VALMOUR. No ; only one of them will be executed. 

GUSTAVE. God grant that my benefactor, William, may be saved ! 

VALMOUR. I, too, hope he may be saved. 

GUSTAVE. Yes, I know; because Eobert, hitherto, has not won 
your favour. 

VALMOUR. Go ! Wait for me at the place I told you. 

GUSTAVE. Very good, Sir. [Exit.] 


244 Literature of the Turks. 

VALMOUR [to himself]. No, there is no probability of it. The 
rancour and spite I feel against Robert will never be extinguished ; 
for the events of that war are still in my mind. It was requisite, 
in order to rejoin the army, to cross a rapid stream, and, while I 
stood hesitating, he collected a number of his comrades round him 
and threw himself into the current, and reached the opposite bank. 
Then he went and said I was a coward, and complained of me to 
the Colonel. I received four months imprisonment, and he got a 
decoration. Everybody said, tf Well done ! " and applauded him. 
Now, if chance helps him, and he tramples on William, I will oppress 
him as much as I can, I must find a means to get my revenge. 


VALANTINE. You wanted me, Sir ! 

VALMOUR. As you are the keeper of this castle you ought always 
to obey your superiors. You ought not to strive to do honour to 
travellers. If you keep me waiting so again, when I call you, I 
will give you a month's imprisonment on bread and water. 

VALANTINE [to himself]. If so, I shall get still thinner. 

VALMOUR. Did you hear ? 

VALANTINE. I heard, but you must know that 

VALMOUR. That will do. 

VALANTINE. What are your orders ? 

VALMOUR. Bring the two sergeants, who are in confinement, 
before me. 

VALANTINE. Certainly, Sir. [To himself] The proud devil ! [To 
the prisoners], Come out. 


ROBERT. Thanks for seeing you again. . . . Monsieur Valmour, no 
doubt you bring us bad news. You rejoice too, heart and soul, at 
seeing me in such a wretched position. Don't you? 

VALMOUR. What do you say, Robert? 

Modern Writers. 245 

ROBERT. I know very well the hatred you have for me. You 
will not be satisfied till you have drunk my blood. But I tell you, 
to your face, that I henceforth have no reason to fear you. 

WILLIAM [coming forward], I await your orders. 

VALMOUR. I come on behalf of the members of the Court- 
martial to read to you the decision they have arrived at ; and they 
have entrusted the carrying out of it to me. 

ROBERT. Shall we both be shot ? 

VALMOUR. No, one of you will be saved. 


VALMOUR [reading the sentence']. Then listen. The Court-martial 
condemned both the Sergeants, called William and Robert, to death, 
for having violated the law laid down with regard to the sanitary 
" Cordon ; " but, considering that the conduct of the aforesaid arose 
from pity, and yet it is impossible for the law not to be carried out, 
with a view to showing respect for the military law, and making an 
example, the Court have approved of the law not being put in force in 
the case of both, and one only will be executed ; the other will be 
expelled from the army. According to ancient military custom, 
the aforesaid will cast lots. Whichever gets the big die will be 
expelled, and the other be shot at seven o'clock in the evening. 
The carrying out of the terms of this sentence has been entrusted 

to Lt.-Colonel Valmour 

ROBERT. That is enough of it. 

VALANTINE. That is to say these poor fellows are to gamble for 
their lives ! . 

246 Literature oj the Turks. 


ABOU 'L ZIA is a living Turkish writer of considerable ability, who 
has published several useful works. He is the Editor of a Turkish 
Magazine called " Abou 'I Zia's Magazine/ 5 which appears monthly, 
and which is very creditably written, from which we have taken 
the following extracts. 

Modern Writers. 247 


(1) Miyaninde, ( among.' (2) Demir-Bash, ' a pensioner, or old servant.' 
(3) P. Mest, ' tipsy, intoxicated.' (4) A. Hurmet, respect/ (5) A. Bedel, ' a 
substitute,' 'instead of.' (6) A.Moukliil, ( injurious, detrimental.' (7) A. Riayet, 
' respect.' (8) A. Ihtijab, < retirement.' (9) A. Merak, ' curiosity.' (10) A. Kou- 
rena, 'associates,' 'the suite of a Sovereign.' (11) A. Istifsar, 'enquiring.* 
(12) Ittila etmek, to be informed.' (13) A. Kadeh, ' a glass.' 

248 Literature of the Turks. 

. .* t>L 

(1) A. 7c/at, ' death.' (2) Sherab, ' wine.' (3) Terfc cimefe, ' to leave.' (4) A. 
Ellise, 'clothes.' (5) Awjak, 'only. 5 (6) fa^'asnit.' (7) A. Muddet, 'a space ' (of 
time). (8) A. Umr, ' life.' (9) Piramalc, 'to grow old/ (10) P. Kiuhne, 'old;' 
Kiuhneleshmish, * worn out, old.' (11) Chizme, 'a boot.' (12) Ghiumlek, 'a shirt.' 

(13) Chemashir, 'linen.' (14) A. Mutenasib, 'in proportion, correspondiog.' 

(15) A. Kiubera (pi. of j^=, Icebir), ' grandees.' (16) A. Ejnebi, ' foreign.' 
(17) Elbise odasi, l a wardrobe.' (18) Sirt, ' the back (of a man or animal)/ ' a 
ridge.' (19) Gejelik ghiumleyi, 'a iiight-dress.' (20) A. Liyakat, ' merit.' 

Modern Writers. 249 

(1) Murejjah, ' preferable.' (2) Za'i oltnak, ' to be wasted, lost.' (3) Zaya, 
destruction.' (4) A. Masoun, 'preserver, protected, safe.' (5) Ebedi, ' eternal.' 


Charles XII. of Sweden, well known among the Turks by the 
name of Demir Bash (the Pensioner) * being tipsy one day, did not, 
show his mother the respect which was due to her. His mother, 
being extremely pained by this treatment, retired to her apart- 
ments, and did not come out for three or four days. 

Charles, being curious to know the reason of this retirement, 
inquired of one of her suite, and was informed of the real state 
of things. He at once took a glass of wine in his hand, hastened 
to his mother and said: "Madam, I have heard that owing 
to intoxication I have been wanting in the respect due to you. 
I drink this glass of wine to your health, intending never to 
be intoxicated again. It is the last glass I shall drink in my life." 

And, in reality, from that day, till his death, he never put a drop 
of wine in his mouth in any way. 

On the death of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, the 
clothes which he left were only worth two hundred francs. Only 
three suits of clothes appeared in his box, one of these was 
his full dress uniform, which he had only worn three times in 
his life. 

The other two suits were so old and worn out that anyone who 
saw them would not have believed that the king had worn them. 
His hat and boots, and his linen, such as shirts and handkerchiefs, 

* Charles XII. of Sweden was thus called by the Turks, as he took refuge from 
the Russians, after his defeat, in Turkey, and was kept by the Turks. 

250 Literature of the Turks. 

were in a corresponding condition. Then, it is well known that 
one day a foreign personage, while walking about the palace of 
Sans Souci, at Potsdam, asked the keeper of the royal apart- 
ments where the king's wardrobe was, and the keeper replied, 
" It is on the king's back." 

In the wardrobe of Elizabeth, Empress of Russia, there were 8700 
costumes and 1500 night-dresses ! 


Friends made by one's merit are preferable to friends made by 
one's wealth ; because wealth, generally, is wasted and lost ; but 
merifc, being safe from waste, friends made through it are ever- 
lasting friends. 

Modern Writers. 251 


SIRI PASHA, Governor of Angora, in recent times, distinguished 
himself by his eloquence as a public speaker, his elegant letters, 
and powerfully written official despatches. His letters, speeches, 
and articles in newspapers, being considered models of good 
Turkish composition, have lately been collected in a volume 
called Mektoubat-i-Siri Pasha (Letters of SIRI PASHA). 

252 Literature of the Turks. 


A Letter to a Writer. 

(1) P. Kimetdar, c valuable/ (2) Takdir etmek, ' to appreciate, value highly.' 
(3) A. Ghafil, 'negligent, ignorant.' (4) A. Muteghafil, 'pretending to be ignorant.' 
(5) P. HaTdca-ki, ' verily, truly.' (6) A. Medad, ink.' (7) P. Khame, ' a reed, 
a pen.' (8) A. Katre, 'a drop.' (9) A. Mizan, 'a, balance, a pair of scales.' 
(10) A. Adi, ' justice.' (11) A. Muaddel, ' equal.' (12) A. Zafr, ' victor y. 
(13) Te'min etmek, ' to assure.' (14) P. Sihr-aferin, 'enchanting.' (15) A. Sheref, 
' honour.' (16) A. Shan, 'glory.' (17) A. Ulviyyet, ' sublimity, height.' (18) A. 
Koudsiyyet, ' sanctity, holiness.' (19) Ind, ' the space near anything j' ' apprecia- 
tion, estimation.' (20) A. Ehl-i-insaf, 'people of conscience.' (21) Iktidarli, 
' powerful, able.' (22) Shasheali, ' brilliant, flashing.' (23) A. Unvwan, ' a title.' 
(24) A.Vatn, 'fatherland.' (25) A. Mutantan, ( magnificent.' (26) Eute, 'far off;' 
euteden-leri, 'for a long time.' (27) P.Perestkiar, 'a worshipper.' (28) A. Mutefa- 
khir, 'proud.' (29) A. Tahrirat,' despatches;' sometimes used in Turkish as a singular 
for 'a despatch.' (30) P. Vejd-aver, 'rhapsodical.' (31) A. Rouhperver, i intel- 
lectual.' (32) A. Uirz, ' an amulet,' 

Modern Writers. 253 


If their be anyone in the world who does not appreciate the 
service you have done to-day, by your valuable pen, not only to 
Turkey, but to the whole Muhammedan community, I maintain 
positively that he is ignorant, or feigns ignorance. 

Verily, every drop of the ink of your pen, in the scales of 
justice and truth, is equal to the blood from the sword of 
a warrior (Ghazi). 

The commander of the most complete and well-organised army 
cannot perhaps ensure a victory equal to your literary service to- 

ISTo doubt what has gained this honour and glory for your en- 
chanting pen is the sublimity and sanctity of your purpose. 
Amongst righteous people your able and brilliant pen has been 
given the title of " The Servant of the Interests of the Country. 33 
What a magnificent title ! 

I am very proud that I have always been one of the admirers 
of the beauties of your works. Therefore, as I have found a 
rhapsodical intellectual pleasure in your philosophical letter of the 
llth of January 1300 (Anno Hijirce) t I have made it into an 
amulet of the soul. . 

254 Literature of the Turks. 


(1) MemaUk-i-mahrouse, 'the well-guarded dominions;' i. e. the Ottoman Empire. 

(2) P. Shaliane, ' imperial/ (3) Mahoud, 'well-known,' 'notorious.' (4) A. 
Anielliyat, ' operations.' (5) Duzghiunje, ' in proper order.' (6) A. Adi, ' ordinary.' 

(7) A. Kassabe, 'a town, borough/ (8) Kieu'i, 'a village,' 'the country/ 
(9) A. Elviye (pi. of Ijl liwa), 'provinces,' 'flags/ (10) A. Mutejavir, 'adjacent, 
neighbouring/ (11) Ashmak, ' to pass over, or beyond/ (12) A. Mushkilat, ' diflfi- 
culties/ (13) P. Douchar, ' a prey to, afflicted by/ (14) A. Toughyan, c rebellion j' 
' overflowing, flooding/ (15) A. Malisour, ' besieged, shut in/ (16) A. Tevalc'kouf, 
' stopping/ (17) A. Mejbour, 'forced/ (18) A. Servet, wealth/ (19) A. Mamou- 
riyyet, 'prosperity/ (20) A. Mutehasir, 'sighing after, longing for/ (21) A. 
Umran, 'an inhabited place/ (22) A. Kha'ib, 'disappointed/ (23) A. Khasir, 
' disheartened/ (24) Orman, * a wood, forest/ (25) Maden, ' a mine/ 

Modern Writers. 255 

(1) A. Madoud, 'counted, accounted.' (2) A. Mujerred, 'mere, sole, alone;' 
Turkish adverb, ^merely, only.' (3) A. Istifadc, ' deriving benefit.' (4) A. Sultanet- 
i-seniyye, the 'splendid government' (the Turkish empire or government). 
(5) A. Tezayud, ' increase/ (6) A. Varidat, * revenues.' (7) A. Menabi, ' sources.' 
(8) A. Te's, 'despair.' (9) Mulahazat, 'observations.' (10) A. Kasirane, 'de- 
fective' (humble). (11) Evvelje, 'previously, already.' (12) Nezaretpenahi, 'the 
asylum of the ministry' (Your Excellency). (13) A. Tasdi, ( to bother, give any- 
one a headache.' (14) Jereet etmeTc, 'to have the boldness.' (15) A. MouekMaran, 
' latterly, lately.' (16) A. Awariz, 'accident, misfortune.' (17) A. Mebni, 'based 
on, built on.' (18) A. Zerouri, 'necessary, which must be.' (19) A. Muessesat, 
' institutions.' (20) A. Nafi, 'useful.' (21) A. Huwafak olmak, ' to succeed.' 
(22) A.Hadm, 1 warmth, anger.' (23) P. Watanyerver, 'a patriot.' (24) P. Saman, 
' necessary things, requirements.' (25) A. Beden, 'the bodyj' bedenen, ' with one's 
body, bodily.' (26) Mejanan, 'gratis/ 

256 Literature of the Turks. 


If there be one province in the Imperial Ottoman dominions 
without any roads, I may say it is the province of Trebizond. 
In the interior of the province, apart from the well-known 
Erzeroum road, there is not merely no carriage road, but not even 
an ordinary well-kept bridle-path made by man's labour. Those 
who are obliged to go from the towns to the villages, or from one 
town to another, and even to the neighbouring province or 
districts, passing over hill and valley, are exposed to trouble and 
difficulties which no one can imagine who has not seen them. 

In particular, when the waters overflow, owing to the absence of 
bridges, travellers, wherever they may be, are blocked in, and 
obliged to stop there. 

Owing to this, our people are deprived of the wealth and 
prosperity which must come by roads; and those who desire 
to increase and promote the cultivation and prosperity of the 
country are disappointed and disheartened. 

Although, owing to the abundance of forests and mines in it, the 
province of Trebizond is accounted one of the richest in the 
Imperial dominions, merely owing to the absence of roads no 
advantage can be derived from them. 

(1) A. Nukellef, 'responsible for, charged with.' (2) Tek (adv.), 'only 
merely.' (3) Ibrax etmek, 'to display.' (4) A. Heves (haves), ' desire, inclination.' 
(5) A. BU istifade, ' by taking advantage of.' (6) Fedakiarlik. ' self-sacrifice, 

Modern Writers. 257 

At a time when it is extremely necessary to increase the 
revenues of Turkey, one cannot help regretting that some means 
is not sought and found to turn these real sources of wealth to 

I have before made these observations to your office; but, as 
now everybody entertains great hopes from Your Excellency, I 
venture to trouble you again. 

The road going from Keresoun to Eastern Kara Eisar was 
begun at both ends a few years ago, but, after the works had 
pretty well progressed, they have been lately stopped and aban- 

This stoppage and abandonment must be owing to some accidents; 
but if we are prevented by such natural and inevitable obstacles, 
we shall succeed in no useful undertakings. 

Without any temper in the matter, I say this as a sincere patriot. 

Why should the people not labour gratuitously, and with their 
own hands, at such public works, which will foster the development 
of their wealth and requirements ? 

Undoubtedly if, in accordance with the old system, the inhabitants 
are not obliged to attend to the road works, no road can be made. 

Our people for a long time have perceived that wealth and 
prosperity can only enter the country by roads, and hence they have 
begun to say : " We are willing to work gratuitously if the neces- 
sary roads are only made at once." 

Well, the State ought to take advantage of this desire and 
inclination shown by the people to attend to the roads, and make 
a little sacrifice itself, in order to carry out the requisite works 




Appendix. 261 





Mektovb-i-maliabet ousloubounouzou memnouniyetile cikhz ve 
mutalaa etdim. Bou ghioune kadar jawcibini terkim ve takdini 

262 Literature of the Turks. 

edemediyimden inut&etsif xe mahjoub is6m de bounou kesret-i- 
meshgheleyg haml bouyourajakleri me'moulile muteselli im. Yine 
o meshghouliyet munasebetile bir " JJra'iton" seyyaheti ikhtiyarine 
ne vakit fur sat boula bilejeyim mejhouldonr. Her halde azimetimi 
taraf-i alilerine vakiti ghelinje ishar ve sJiimdilik * davet-i-vakie-i- 
muliibanenizden dolayi beyan-i-sJiukr ve mesar ederim, effendim. 

Fi 20 femmuz, sene 1302. 



I have received your friendly letter, and considered it. 
Although I am sorry and ashamed that I have not been able 
until to-day to write and send an answer to it, I am consoled by 
the hope that you will attribute this to my being so much occupied. 
I do not know when I shall be able to find an opportunity of 
making a trip to Brighton, but, in any case, when the time comes, I 
will apprise you of it. For the present I merely express my thanks 
and my joy at receiving your kind invitation. 

Your Friend, 

July 20, 1302.t 

* (ieiierally pronounced sliindi. t Aww Hejircc. 

Appendix. 263 


x X 

+ ^\ 

* This mark stands for Bism illah, 'In the name of God ! ' with which words 
every good Mussulman begins a letter or book. 

264 Literature of the Turks. 


Bon sabah dakhi Taimse derj olounmoush olan ikinji mektoubou- 
nouzou matbouounou aldim. Turkche terjumesine muntezirim ; 
zira birinji mektouboun terjumesini tab edejeyiz bounou dakhi tab 

Doghrousou, chok himmet bouyourdounouz Doghroulouk etdiniz, 
zircij peh buyuk ve muhim mesele dir, chunki shaskin Inglizler eyer 
shindi shou ejnebi ha'idoudlere iane verejek oloursa Ghirid isyani 
shou iane kuvvetile bou sene dakhi dayanmish olour, fakat shou 
iane vermezlerse Ghirid isyani tamam biter. 

Shindi Mukhbirde bounlarin turcheleri tab olounjaHusulmanlerin 
hep maloumou oloup, bitun millet ve devlet himmetinizden mesrour 
olour y ve me'moul ederim ki Ghirid musulmanleri tarafinden size 
hediye ghelir, chunki, ghiriddeki musulman ehali sa'ir memleketler- 
imize nisbetile okour yazar ghiuzu achik ve hurriyete mail ashab-i- 

Bendenix ai bashina kadar bourade im, Effendim. 

27, Agostos, 1868. 



I have printed your second letter, which was inserted in the 
Times, this morning, and am waiting for the Turkish translation of it, 
for we shall print the Turkish of the first letter and this also.* 

To speak truly, you have exerted yourself very kindly. You 
have done an act of justice ; for this is a very great and important 
question : because if the English, who do not know what they are 
about, give assistance to the foreign banditti, the insurrection in 
Crete, by the aid of that assistance (subscriptions) will last this 
year too ; but if they do not give this help the insurrection will 
completely end. 

* Suavi Effondi, the writer of this letter, was the editor of the M'ukhbir, a 
Turkish newspaper formerly printed and published in Londou. 

Appendix. 265 

When we print the Turkish of these letters in the Mukhbir, all 
Mussulmans will know about it, and the whole nation and the State 
will be pleased at your kind efforts : and I hope a present will 
come to you from the Mussulmans of Crete, for the Mussulman 
population there are better educated, more intelligent, and greater 
friends of liberty than those in our other dominions. I shall be here 
till the end of the month. 

August 27th, 1868. 


Literature of the Turks. 



Appendix. 267 



Fazilet-me'abim ve muliib-i vefasliiarim, Fjffendim, hazretleri ! 
On deurt shiibat, sene bin, sekkiz yuz seksen dokkouz tariklili 
vasil-i-eyyad-i-tazim ve tekrim olan keremname-i-alilerinizden 
pek zitidesile memnoun ve muteshekkir kaldim. vazife bana 
cfid idise de, gechenlerde alamanyaye vukou boulan seyyahetden 
avdet idc'li iki hafta oloup bouraja olan iMerimin kesreti- 
ise na kabil tar if oldoughoundan zerouri takdim-i-arizede 
kousouroum edilmishdir. Ma haza her da'im ezkiar ve evsaf 
-I jemilerini yad etmekde glieri douroulmamakdada devletlu 
Said Pasha hazretlerine birinji rutbeden bir kita mejidi Nishan- 
i-::I-xlian ihsan bouyourouldoughou bende ghazetade okoudoum^ 
Otourdoughou Mahal Toplianede, Sali-bazarind oldoughounou 
h il ir-idi-semdc *li indik i me'movr iyetinden khabrim yokdour. Rutbesi 

268 Literature of the Turks. 

mushirdir. Boundan evvel konia valisi idi. Yering digheri ta- 
yin olounarak kendisi Istambola chagirildi, ama daha henuz bir 
memouriyyete tayin bouyouroulmadi zan ederim. Yazajak oldou- 
ghounouz tebriknameyi bana ghieundururseniz Soli ghiunu Der-i- 

Saadetg hereket edejek olan Madam Pasha He ghieundur 

urum ve kendisine suitedem. Bash ustuna dediler. Adresinizi ve 
Brditona yakin bir mahalda otourdoughounouzou bilmish olsdidi 
sizi ghieurmek arzou etdighini de suilemishdir . Londraye 
teshrifinizde sefarete oghrayip de beni boulamadighiniza pelc 
ziade teessuf etdim. Ne olour oudou. Bir ghiun evvel maloumat 
vere-idiniz ghieurmush olour-oudouk I 

Bou Jcadar kiafi dir tasdi etmeijeyim. Inshallah yine mulakat 
olour ve ghieurushulour Effendim. 

XT- -,/> 07 -L j. icon MUKHLISINIZ. 

Fi 16 Shubatj 1889. 



I am obliged and thankful to you for your kind and esteemed 
letter dated the 14th of February, 1889, which has reached my 
hands. It was my duty to have written, but, although it is a fortnight 
since my return here from a journey in Germany I made lately, I 
have been unable to write, because I cannot tell you how busy I 
have been. 

I also saw in the newspaper that H.E. Said Pasha, who is always 
mentioning your good qualities, has had the Mejidiyyeh of the 
First Class, in diamonds, conferred on him. Although I know 
that he resides at Tophane, at Sali-Bazar, I do not know what 
office he now holds. His rank is that of " Mushir " (Full General). 
He was formerly Governor of Koniah. Another has now been 
appointed in his place, and he has been recalled to Constantinople. 
As yet, I think, he has not received another appointment. If you 
send me your letter of congratulation for him, I will forward it by 

Madame Pasha, who will start for Constantinople on Tuesday. 

I spoke to her about it, and she said : " Certainly ! " She said also 
that if she had known that you resided near Brighton she would 
have liked to have seen you 



I much regret you did not find me at the Embassy, when you 
visited London and called there. If you had sent word a day 
before we should have seen each other. 

I think this is sufficient ; I will not tire you. I hope we shall 
see each other again. 

Your Sincere Friend, 


February 16th, 1889. 

* The above letter was written by Capt. Halil Bey, now Naval Attache at the 
Turkish Embassy in London, formerly a student at the Imperial Naval College at 
Constantinople, while I was Professor there. He distinguished himself at the 
College by his zeal and ability in acquiring English under myself; and he has 
since studied German in Germany. I have lately had the pleasure of seeing that 
he is most proficient both in German and English. Such linguistic ability, and 
other scientific talents, make him a most promising officer, of whom his country 
will some day be proud. C.W. 


Literature of tlie Turks. 

Appendix. 2 7 1 


Londraji 22 Kinnoun-i-evvel send 1889. 


On deurt kianoun-i-evvel seksen dokkouz tarikhli reside-i-dest- 
i-mefkharetim olan tahriratinize shindiye kadar jawab yazamadi- 
ghimdan jidden mahjoubim. Hani ise kesret-i-meshghouliyyet 
oldouyhoundan mazour ghieurulurum fikrile afvinizi talabe shita- 
ban oldoum verdighim kitablerin ishinize yarardiyhini okouyarak 
memnoun oldoum ousede } bashkalerinin yanimd boulounmadighina 
t&essuf etdim. Gechenlerde istambolde boulounan ahibbamdan 
birine yazdighim mektoubde mumkin oloursa bir terjume-i-hal 
kitabi ghieundurmasini rija etmishdim, boulourde ghieundururuse 
der hal tarafinizg isbal edejeyim, tabi dir. 

Hamid Bey, beraderimiz Londraya avdet etdiyinden maloumatimz 
oldoughounon bilgyorim liali bir vaJcitinizde sefarete teshrif ederseniz 
kendisile gldeuruslmr bizi de mesrour ed&rsiniz. Umid ederim-ki 

madam bitoun bitoun kesb-i-afiyyet etmishdir Dewam-i- 

ievejjuTiunuzu temenna ederim. 


* London, 22nd December, 1889. 

I am quite ashamed that I have not until now been able to 
answer your esteemed letter of the 14th December. As I think I 
shall be excused owing to my being prevented by press of business, 
I hasten to ask your pardon. I was glad to hear that the books I 
gave you for your work were of use, and I regret that I have not 

* The address of the writer, and the date, are usually written at the foot of the 
letter in Turkey. Their being written at the head of the letter is an innovation, 
probably made by the writer owing to his being in England. 

272 Literature of the Turks. 

others. In a letter I lately wrote to a friend of mine in Con- 
stantinople, I requested him, if possible, to send a book such as 
you require. If he sends it here, I will immediately forward it 
to you. 

I know that you are aware that our " brother " (friend) Hamid 
Bey has returned to London. When you have leisure, if you call 
at the Embassy, you can meet him, and we shall be delighted to 
see you. I hope your wife has quite recovered her health. I beg 
for the continuation of your favour. 


* I have to thank this gentleman, Hilmy Bey, for his courtesy and kindness in 
drawing my attention to several interesting Turkish works lately published in 

List of Works on and in Turkish, sold by BERNARD 
QUARITGH, 15, Piccadilly. 







LE STAMBOTJL. (Constantinople). September 3rd, 1880. 

"The name of Dr. Wells, formerly professor of the Imperial 
Naval College in this city, is well known both to the Turkish and 
European population of Constantinople, and they will be glad to 
learn that he has just given to the world the fruit of his study of 
the Turkish language and literature during twenty years, in the 
shape of an entirely new and very comprehensive Turkish Grammar. 
Englishmen will be glad to hear of the appearance of this work, as 
no Turkish Grammar worthy of the name has hitherto appeared in the 
Eoglish language ; and even the imperfect and rudimentary works 
on the subject which have hitherto been published virtually do not 
exist, as they are nearly all out of print. We have no hesitation in 
saying that no one could acquire a thorough knowledge of Turkish 
by the help of such superficial and incorrect books, as those of 
Barker, David, Boyd and Arnold. Dr. Wells' work, on the con- 
trary, aims at being at the same time complete, clear and practical, 
and we congratulate him on having thus supplied a very great public 
want. In it the student will find all that is requisite to enable 
him to write and speak Turkish correctly." 



"Dr. Wells' Turkish Grammar is a useful manual of acquiring 
the Ottoman tongue as spoken in Constantinople, and contains 
numerous exercises for translation from English into that language. 
It is an improvement on most of the preceding grammars, inasmuch 
as it is written on the same lines as the most approved manuals for 
the study of modern European languages. Apart from the increasing 
necessity for acquiring a knowledge of the language of a people 
whose affairs enter so largely into the politics and commerce of the 
present day, Turkish possesses an extensive and valuable literature 
well deserving of study. The dialogues at the end of the work are 
very idiomatic and well arranged." 

THE ATHEN-ffiUM. September 18tk, 1880. 

" Dr. Wells' Grammar will be found a very useful addition to 
our resources. While it gives us the materials of the best authorities, 
it furnishes, as the author promises, much new matter. It is a very 
copious work, and will be most valuable for study and reference. 
Dr. Wells has had great advantages for such a task, and he has 
turned them well to account. He has introduced exercises which 
will be welcome to many, and he claims as a speciality to have given 
illustrations from Turkish works, which will be a step towards the 
study of the literature. It is of some importance that, while pro- 
viding for the acquisition of the language as a written language, he 
has not neglected what is essential for conversation." 

THE ACADEMY. April IQth, 1881. 

'Dr. Charles Wells, the editor of the new edition of Redhouse's 
Turkish Dictionary, has done good service to students of Turkish by 
his Practical Grammar of the Turkish Language (Quaritch). In 
some respects the title he has chosen is misleading, because the term 
" practical," as applied to guide-books, grammars, &c,, at the present 
day, is usually intended to imply one of two things either that other 
books on the same subject are unpractical, or that the writer has kept 
his work free from the taint of erudition. Dr. Wells does not use it in 
either of these senses, but only wishes to draw attention to the sim- 
plicity of his method and the introduction of numerous exercises for 
purposes of practice. The Grammar which hitherto could most safely 
be recommended to students is that of Mr. Redhouse, in the first part 
of his Turkish Vade-Mecum. This is the work of one who is at once 
a good philologist and a thorough Turkish scholar ; but the narrow 
limits within which the author has purposely restricted it render it 
suitable only for persons who confine themselves to an elementary and 
colloquial knowledge of the language, while Dr. Wells' book is in- 
tended for more advanced, or, at least, more thorough-going, students. 
Its most distinguishing features are the exercises already mentioned, 

together with illustrative quotations from native authors, and the 
account of tha peculiarities of Arabic and Persian accidence and 
syntax as far as they affect the Turkish language. The words are 
printed throughout both in Arabic and italic letters ; the elaborate 
forms of the verb are fully and clearly given ; certain practical diffi- 
culties, such as the declension of nouns with possessive pronouns, are 
well illustrated ; and useful lists are given of the most important 
adverbs, conjunctions, and postpositions, which last take the place of 
prepositions, and of the case-endings of regular inflectional languages. 
The methods, also, by which the two great deficiencies of the Turkish 
language the absence of a verb " to have " and a relative pronoun 
are supplied are satisfactorily detailed. In these and most other 
respects the execution of the work is excellent." 



London, 19to April, 1882. 

I hasten to inform you that I have received a despatch 
from His Excellency Assim Pacha, acknowledging the receipt of the 
books, which, at your request, I transmitted to the Sublime Porte, 
and instructing me to express its thanks to you for your interesting 
works, which have been transmitted to His Imperial Majesty the 

Believe me, Dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

FROM THE TIMES. August 22nd, 1876. 

" General Sir Arnold Kemball, who is now acting as Military 
Attache to Her Majesty's Embassy, will now proceed to the head- 
quarters of the Ottoman Army to report on warlike operations. Sir 
Arnold has long been here as British Delegate and Member of the 
Commission appointed for the rectification of the Turco-Persian 
frontier. Both he and his Private Secretary, Dr. Wells, are ex- 
cellent Turkish, Persian and Arabic scholars. 


"COMMERCIO DO OPORTO." April \Qth, 1877. 

"Having come to pass a week at the waterside (Brighton), I ex- 
pected to be separated from anyone who could give me information 
on the Eastern Question. On the contrary, I met by accident an 
old friend who has just come from that part, and who possesses over 
all other informants, not excluding the Marquis of Salisbury, the 

inestimable advantage of knowing the Turkish language. Dr. 
Charles Wells having devoted himself to the study of Oriental 
languages and even the author of a work, written in Turkish on 
Political Economy, went to Turkey eight or ten years ago, and passed 
all that time there, with little interruption, and under circumstances 
which singularly enabled him to know the Ottoman world. 

" In the first place, for some five years, Professor of English in the 
Naval College of Turkey, then employed on the mixed Commission 
which was to settle the Turco-Persian frontier question ; lastly, 
Secretary to the English General Kemball in the Servian campaign, 
while at the same time acting as Special Correspondent of the Levant 
Herald, he saw the higher and the lower classes of Turkish society, 
visited the sumptuous palaces of Constantinople and slept on the 
damp earth of the camp at Nish ; beheld the temple of Saint Sophia 
at Stamboul and the little church at Alexinatz ; bathed in the limpid 
waters of the Sea of Marmora and drank the muddy waters of the 
rivers of Bulgaria. I have the satisfaction of finding that his 
statements confirm the opinions I have expressed for two years." 

-L- EORTY VAZIRS, in Turkish, a new edition, 12mo, bds., 4s. 

Istambol, 1305 (A.D. 1886). 

The only European edition (by Belletete in the last century) contains 
merely an abridgment of the text of this famous story. 

~D FADING BOOK. TA'LIM KIRA'AT . . Exercises for in- 
-*** struction in Reading, in Turkish, 4 parts, 12mo, about 480 pp. 
sd., 5s. Istambol, 1306-03 (A.D. 1887-4). 

-*- Turkish, translated from the Persian original, 8vo, lithographed, 
bds., 5s. Istambol, 1304 (1885). 

A second story, the Kdmil-ul-Kaldm, is printed on the margins. 





mm ONLY 



Not wanted in RBSC