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Full text of "A little book of Filipino riddles"

PHILIPPINE STUDIES 



I 



AJJTTLE BOOK 

OF 

FILIPINO RIDDLES 



COLLECTED AND EDITED 
BY 

FREDERICK STARR 




WORLD BOOK CO. 

YONKERS. NEW YORK 

1909 



■xfAl 

6377 



COPYRKiHTED 1909 
BY FREDERICK STARR 



THE TORCH PRESS 
CEDAR RAPIDS. IOWA 



THIS LITTLE BOOK OF 
FILIPINO RIDDLES 
IS DEDICATED TO 
GELACIO CABURIAN 
CASIMIRO VERCELES 
RUFINO DUNGAN 
OF 

AGOO, UNION PROVINCE 



INTRODUCTION 

Although I had already inquired for 
them from Iloeano boys, my first actual 
loiowledge of Filipino riddles was due 
to ]Mr. George T. Shoens, American 
teacher among the Bisayans. He had 
made a collection of some fifty Bisayan 
riddles and presented a brief paper re- 
garding them at the Anthropological 
Conference held at Baguio. under my 
direction, on May 12-14, 1908. My own 
collection was begim among Iloeano of 
Union Province from whom about two 
himdred examples were secured. Others 
were later secured from Pangasinan. 
Gaddang, Pampangan, Bisayan and 
Tagal sources. My informants have 
chiefly been school-boys, who spoke a 
little English ; they wrote the text of 
riddle and answer in their native tongue 
and then we went over them carefully 
together to make an English translation 
and to get at the meaning. ]\Iany Fil- 
ipinos IvQow how to read and write their 
native language, although few have had 
actual instruction in doing so. There 
is no question that errors and incon- 

[51 



sisteneies exist in the spelling of these 
riddles, due to this lack of instruction 
and to the fact that the texts have been 
written by many different persons. I 
am myself not acquainted with any 
^Malay language. I have tried to secure 
uniformity in spelling within the limits 
of each language but have no doubt 
overlooked many inconsistencies. The 
indulgence of competent critics is asked. 
It has been our intention throughout to 
adhere to the old orthography. Thus 
the initial qu and the final ao have been 
preferred. 

The word for riddle varies with the 
population. In Ilocano it is hurhurtia, 
in Pangasinan honiqueo. in Tagal hug- 

foug, in Gaddang , in Pampan- 

gan hugtong, in Bisayan tugmahanon. 

Riddles are common to all mankind. 
They delighted the old Aryans and the 
ancient Greeks as they do the modern 
Hindu and the Bantu peoples of dark- 
est Africa. ]\Iany writers have defined 
the riddle. Friedreich in his Geschichte 
des Bdthsels, says: "The riddle is an 
indirect presentation of an unknown ob- 
ject, in order that the ingenuity of the 
hearer or reader may be exercised in 

finding it out AVolf has given 

the following definition : the riddle is a 
I)lay of wit, which endeavors to so pre- 

[6] 



sent an object, by stating its character- 
istic features and peculiarities, as to 
adequately call it before the mind, with- 
out, however, actually naming it." 

The riddles of various Oriental peo- 
ples have already been collected and more 
or less adequately discussed by authors. 
Hebrew riddles occur in the Bible, the 
best kno\\Ti certainly being Samson 's : 
"Out of the eater came forth meat. 

And out of the strong came forth 
sweetness. ' ' 

Arabic riddles are many and have 
been considerably studied; Persian rid- 
dles are well kno^^Ti; of Indian riddles 
at least one collection has been printed 
separately under the name Lalshmin- 
afha npasaru, a series of Kolarian rid- 
dles from Chota Xagpur has been print- 
ed as. also, an interesting article upon 
Behar riddles; Sanskrit riddles are 
numerous and have called for some at- 
tention from scholars: a few Gypsy rid- 
dles are known; two recent papers deal 
with Corean riddles. AYe know of but 
two references to Malayan riddles; one 
is Eizal, Specimens of TagaJ Folk-Lore, 
the other is Sibree's paper upon the 
Oratory, Songs, Legends, and Folk-Tales 
of the Malagasy. This is no doubt an 
incomplete bibliography but the field has 
been sadly neglected and even to secure 

[7] 



this list has demanded much labor. It 
suffices to show how deeply the riddle 
is rooted in Oriental thought and indi- 
cates the probability that riddles were 
used in ^Malaysia long before European 
contact. 

To what degree Filipino riddles are 
indigenous and original is an interest- 
ing but difficult question. So far as 
they are of European origin or influ- 
enced by European thought, they have 
come from or been influenced by Spain. 
"Whatever comparison is made should 
chiefly, and primarily, be with Spanish 
riddles. But our available sources of 
information regarding Spanish riddles 
are not numerous. We have only Dem- 
ofilo's Collecion de enigmas y adivinan- 
zas, printed at Seville in 1880, and a 
series of five chap-books from jMexico, 
entitled Del Pequefio Adivinadorcito, 
and containing a total of three hundred 
and seven riddles. Filipino riddles 
deal largely with animals, plants and 
objects of local character; such must 
have been made in the Islands even if 
influenced by Spanish models and ideas. 
Some depend upon purely local customs 
and conditions — thus numbers 170, 237, 
etc., could only originate locally. Some, 
to which the answers are such words as 
egg, needle and thread, etc., (answers 

[8] 



common to riddles in all European 
lands), may be due to outside influence 
and may still have some local or native 
touch or flavor, in their metaphors ; thus 
No. 102 is actually our "Humpty 
Dumpty sat on a wall;" the Mexican 
form runs: 

"Una arquita muy chiquita 

tan blanca como la cal 

todo lo saben abrir 

pero ninguno cerrar." 
But the metaphor ''the King's limebox" 
could only occur in a district of betel- 
chewing and is a native touch. ]\Iany of 
the Filipino riddles introduce the names 
of saints and, to that degree, evidence 
foreign influence ; but even in such cases 
there may be local coloring; thus, call- 
ing rain-drops falling "rods," "St. Jo- 
seph's rods cannot be counted," could 
hardly be found outside of the tropics. 
Religious riddles, relating to beads, bells, 
church, crucifixes, are common enough 
and are necessarily due to outside in- 
fluence, but even such sometimes show 
a non-European attitude of mind, met- 
aphorical expression or form of thought. 
Everywhere riddles vary in quality 
and value. Many are stupid things, 
crudely conceived and badly expressed. 
Only the exceptional is fine. Examine 
any page of one of our own riddle books 

[9] 



and you may criticize almost every rid- 
dle upon it for view-point, or form, or 
Havor. We must not demand more from 
Filipino riddles than from our own. 
Some knowledge of local products, cus- 
toms, conditions, is necessary for the 
understanding of their meaning; when 
understood, they are fully equal to ours 
in shrewdness, wit and expression. 
Krauss emphasizes the fact that every- 
where riddles tend to coarseness and 
even to obscenity and discusses the rea- 
sons. "What is true elsewhere is true 
here; a considerable number of Filipino 
riddles are coarse; Ave have introduced 
them but emphasize the fact that any 
scientifically formed collection of Ger- 
man or English riddles would contain 
some quite as bad. 

Probably few of our readers have con- 
sidered the taxonomj^ of riddles. Fried- 
reich offers a loose and unscientific 
classification as follows: 

I. The Question Kiddle. 

II. The Simple Word Riddle (with 
seven sub-divisions). 

III. The Svllable Riddle or Charade. 

IV. The Letter Riddle. 

1. With reference to sound. 

2. With reference to form. 

V. Punctuation Riddles. 

VI. The Rebus. 

[10] 



VII. Complex Kiddles; combination 
of two or more simple tvpes. 

YIII. Xinnber Riddles. 

Several of these forms occur in our 
collection. 

More scientific than Friedreich's work 
is Petsch's Studien ilher das Yolksrdtsel. 
His analysis and dissection of riddle 
forms best enable us to test the indi- 
genous content of our Filipino riddles. 
He recognizes two fimdamental riddle 
types. He says: "Two groups of rid- 
dles have long been distinguished in the 
collections, the true rhymed riddles and 
the short 'catch-questions" expressed in 
prose. The difference is not only in 
form but in content. 'True riddles' have 
as purpose the describing of an object 
in veiled, thought-arousing, perhaps mis- 
leading, poetical clothing, which, from 
this presentation of its appearance, its 
source, its utility, etc.. shall be recognized 
by the intelligence, i. e.. can and shall 
be guessed. 'Catch-questions.' on the 
contrary, are not to be guessed, the 
questioner intending himself to give the 
solution ; at their best they are intended 
to trick the hearer, and since their solu- 
tion is impossible to the uninitiated are 
not 'true riddles' but false ones. Since 
I propose to divide the total riddle ma- 
terial of each single nation between these 

[11] 



two great chief groups, may I not some- 
what extend the scope of the hitter, in- 
cluding some things which are rejected 
from most collections as having little to 
do Avith actual riddles — those questions 
which are generally insoluble and such 
tests of wisdom as appeal not to wit 
and luiderstanding, but to knowledge — 
which are certainly not true riddles. 
Thus, in the group hero characterized 
as ''false" different classes of things 
are brought together, the characteristics 
of which I shall investigate later." It 
would be interesting to quote the au- 
thor's discussion further. "We can, how- 
ever, only state that he recognizes three 
classes of "false riddles," to which he 
gives the names ''wisdom tests," "life- 
ransoming riddles," and "catch-ques- 
tions. ' ' 

Of "true riddles" there is a vast 
variety of form and content. ]\Iost typ- 
ical is the descriptive riddle of a single 
object to be guessed. In its complete 
and normal form Petsch claims that 
such a riddle consists of five elements or 
parts. 1 Introduction ; 2 denominative ; 
3 descriptive; 4 restraint or contrast; 5 
conclusion. 1 and 5 are merely formal, 
trimmings; 2 and 3 are inherent and 
essential; 4 is common and adds vigor 
and interest. Such complete and "nor- 

[12] 



mal" riddles are rare in any language. 
I7siially one or more of the five elements 
are lacking. It is only by such an analy- 
sis of riddle forms that a comparative 
study of riddles can be made. Any 
single riddle is best understood, by the 
constant holding before the mind this 
pattern framework and noting the de- 
gree of development of the case in hand. 
The Filipinos themselves recognize 
several classes of riddles. An old Tagal 
lady told us there were three kinds: 

1. AJo-divino : concerning God and 
divine things. 

2. Alo-humano: concerning persons 

3. Parahula: all others 

There is no science in this classifica- 
tion, which embodies considerable cor- 
rupted Spanish. Another informant 
recognizes six classes: 

1. Alo-divino 

2. Historia-vino: history of God and 
saints 

3. Alo-humano 

4. Historia-ynano : history of persons. 

5. Karle-mano'. God and saints and 
persons together. 

6. Parahula or hiniyahas 

These names call for little comment 
and the classification they embody is 
of the loosest. The word parahula is 
[13] 



Spanish in source and equivalent to 
our parable; hiniyahas is Tagal. 

Some features of our riddles call for 
comment. Filipino riddles, in whatever 
language, are likely to be in poetical 
form. The commonest type is in two 
well-balanced, rhyming lines. Filipino 
versification is less exacting in its de- 
mand in rhyme than our own ; it is suf- 
ficient if the final syllables contain the 
same vowel; thus Rizal says — aijup and 
pagud, aval and alam, rhyme. The 
commonest riddle verse contains five 
or seven, or six, syllables, thus: 

Daluang balon 

hindi nialingon 
or 

Bahay ni San Gabriel 

punong puno nang barel. 
Just as in European riddles certain 
set phrases or sentences are found fre- 
quently at the beginning or end of the 
riddle. In Ilocano and Pangasinan a 
common introductory form is ''What 
creature of God" or "What thing made 
by Lord God," the expression in reality 
being ecpiivalent to a simple "what." 
These pious forms do not at all neces- 
sarily refer either to animals or nat- 
ural objects; thus, a boat or a house is 
just as good a "creature of God" as 
a fowl is. A common form of ending 

[14] 



is ''Tell it and I am yours," "Guess it 
and I am your man." 

Quite analogous to calling inanimate 
or artificial thino-s "creatures of God" 
is the personification of all sorts of things, 
animate and inanimate ; thus, a rat is 
"an old man," a dipper is "a boy." 
Xot infrec[uently the object or idea thus 
personifiecl is given a title of respect; 
thus, "Corporal Black" is the night. 
Akin to personification is bold metaphor 
and association. In this there may or 
may not be some evident analogy; thus 
a crawfish is "a bird," the banca or 
canoe is "rung" (like a bell.) Not un- 
commonly the word "house" is used 
of anything thought of as containing 
something; thus "Santa Ana's house," 
"San Gabriel's house;" this use is par- 
ticularly used in speaking of fruits. 
"Santa Ana's house is full of bullets" 
is rather pretty description for the 
papaya. The word "work" is often 
used for a thing made, or a manufact- 
ured article. 

Saints' names are constantly intro- 
duced, generally in the possessive case: 
examples are "Santa Ana's house," 
"Santa ^Maria's umbrella." "San Jose's 
canes." Less commonly the names of 
other Bible worthies occur; thus "Ad- 
am's hair." There is not always any 

[15] 



evident fitness in the selection of the 
Saint in the connection established. San 
Jose's connection with rain is suitable 
enough. One would need to know a 
good deal regarding local and popular 
hagiography in order to see to what 
degree the selections are appropriate. 

Sometimes words without meaning, 
or with no significance in the connec- 
tion where they occur are used. These 
may serve merely to fill out a line or to 
meet the demands of metre. Such often 
appear to be names of the style of 
"Humpty Dumpty:" these may be 
phonetically happy, as similar ones 
often are in European riddles, fitting 
well with the word or idea to be called 
up. Marahotania is probably meaning- 
less, merely for euphony. Place names 
with no real connection with the thought 
are freciuently introduced, as Pantaleon, 
Mariveles. " Giiering-guering'' and 
''Minimin'^ are merely for sound. 

Particularly interesting and curious 
are the hisforia-vino given in numbers 
312-317. No doubt there are many such. 
Those here given were secured from one 
boy at ]\Ialolos. AVhen first examined, 
I believed the boy had not miderstood 
what I was after. He assured me that 
they were hiigtoug and hugtong of the 
best and finest class. The idea in these 

[16] 



is to propound a statement in a paradox- 
ical form, which calls for some refer- 
ence to a bible story or teaching; the 
answer is not immediately clear and de- 
mands a commentary which is quite 
often subtle and ingenious. Friedreich 
gives examples of similar expository re- 
ligious riddles from Europe. 

A curious group are the relationship 
riddles, numbers 286-289, which closely 
resemble trick questions among our- 
selves. The evidence of outside influ- 
ence is here conclusive in the fact that 
the ideas and terms of relationship in 
them are purely European, in nowise 
reflecting the characteristic Malayan 
system and nomenclature. 

Some of the riddles are distinctly 
stupid. "I let the sim shine on your 
father's back" seems to mean no more 
than that the house roof is exposed to 
the solar rays. It is doubtful whether 
this means much even in the original 
Tagal. Of course many of the riddles 
demand for their adequate understand- 
ing a knowledge of native customs, which 
the outsider rarely has. Thus, until 
one knows a common method of punish- 
ing naughty children, the riddle "I 
have a friend ; I do not like to face him ' ' 
means nothing. Perhaps the most diffi- 
cult to adequately present are some plays 

[17] 



on words. These frequently need a con- 
siderable explanation. In some of these 
the parts of the word to guess are con- 
cealed in or are suggested by the form 
of the statement and one must extract 
them and combine them; such are 
' ' iscopidor ' ' and ^ ^ sampaloc. ' ' In others 
the play depends upon homophony, the 
same sound or word have different mean- 
ings. In yet a third class the answer is 
a smart Aleck sort of an affair, "How 
do you take a deer without net, dogs, 
spear, or other things for catching?" 
"Cooked." Most inane of all, but with 
plenty of analogues among ourselves, are 
those where the answer itself is intro- 
duced into the question with the inten- 
tion to mislead; "Its skin is green and 
its flesh is red like a watermelon." 
"Watermelon." 

Filipino riddles are mostly given out 
by young people. When several are 
gathered together they will question 
and answer; they are much in vogue 
when a young gentleman calls upon his 
sweetheart ; among Tagals and Pampan- 
gans at least the chief occasion for giv- 
ing hugtong is when a little group are 
watching at night beside a corpse. In 
propounding a riddle it is not uncom- 
mon to challenge attention by repeating 
as witty a rhyme, which is quite as often 

[ 18 1 



coarse as witty. One Tagal example 
runs : 

Bugtong CO ka Piro! 

Turan mo ka Baldo ! 

Pag hindi mo naturan 

Hindi ea nang iwang; 

Pag maturan mo 

^lav tae ang pnit mo. 

I have a bugtong compadre P I 

Guess it compadre B ! 

If you cannot guess it 

You have not cleaned yourself; 

If you do not guess it 

You are dirty. 

AYe have mentioned two references to 
^lalay riddles. Of the eight given in 
Rizal's paper five have been given us 
by our informants. As Rizal's entire 
paper will be reprinted in another vol- 
ume of this series we have not copied 
the other three. Sibree's paper is im- 
portant for comparison, since it pre- 
sents matter drawn from the uttermost 
point of ^Malaysia. ^Madagascar, which 
has been unaffected by Spanish influ- 
ence. Sibree's article is translated fr(~>m 
a little book by another missionary, the 
Rev. Louis Dahle. Dahle's book is en- 
titled Specimens of Malayasij Folklore 
and its material is presented in ^lalag- 

ri9i 



asy only. ]\Ir. Sibree translates twenty 
of his riddles. They are in character 
and flavor like many of the Filipino 
riddles. As Sibree does not give the 
native text and I have not seen Dahl's 
book, I cannot know whether they are 
rhymed. They are all of the type of 
true riddles to be guessed, descriptions 
wherein one or two characteristics or 
striking features are presented, either 
directly or figuratively. Examination 
of this little series deepens an impres- 
sion already made by study of our own 
collection, namely, that the true riddles 
in our series are largely original Filipino 
while the insoluble riddles, the catches, 
the plays on words, are those where for- 
eign influence is most evident. Although 
Sibree 's article is easily accessible, we 
quote a few of thees ^lalagasy examples 
for comparison. 

' ' Cut and no wound seen V " Water, ' ' 
is our number 231. 

**The mother says let us stand up, 
but the children say let us lie across?" 
"A ladder." and ''At night they come 
without being fetched and by day they 
are lost, without being stolen?" ''The 
stars." are quite in the style and spirit 
of Filipino riddles. Compare "Coarse 
rafia cloth outside and white robe in- 
side?" ."Manioc root" with the "Poor 
r2ci 



outside; rich within," ''Langea" of the 
Iloeano. 

The order of presentation of these rid- 
dles has been a considerable problem. 
To arrange them rigidly in Petsch's or- 
der of development might have been 
fairly satisfactory but would have ren- 
dered the finding of any desired riddle 
difficult. We have struck out a crude 
arrangement in alphabetical order of 
the English answers, with subdivisions 
under some general headings. The ar- 
rangement is not scientific nor. complete- 
ly developed, but it will perhaps work 
fairly Avell in practice. The original 
text is first given for riddle and answer ; 
the English translation of both follows: 
then are given such explanation and 
comment as are necessary. When a rid- 
dle occurs in different languages, the 
text of the question is given in one. but 
the fact of its occurrence in others is 
indicated. 

We are indebted to many for assist- 
ance. The list is too long for individual 
aclmowledgment. To our original Ilo- 
eano helpers this little book is dedicated. 
To ]\Iessrs. George T. Shoens, Francisco 
A. Santos (Calumpit), Rufino Santos 
(Arayat) and Conrado Benitez (Pag- 
sanghan), Ave are so deeply indebted 
• that their names must be mentioned. To 

[21] 



school boys in Agoo, San Fernando 
(Union), Malolos, ^Manila and Tayng, 
we owe many thanks. Would that the 
publication of this imperfect collection 
might lead to their greater interest in a 
neglected section of their folklore. Some 
]\Ialay worker ought to perfect and com- 
plete the work here begun. 

This volume is the first number of a 
series of little books which the under- 
signed plans to bring out under the gen- 
eral title of Philippine Studies. Each 
number will treat of a distinct and sep- 
arate subject ; each will be independent. 
The extent to which the series will be 
developed, will depend upon the recep- 
tion given to it and the degree in which 
it appears to respond to a real need. 
Two numbers at any rate are. already 
arranged and the second should appear 
within a year. 

Frederick Starr. 

September, 1909. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

OF WORKS MENTIONED IN THE 
INTRODUCTION 

Bernheisel, K. Korean Conundrums. 
Korean Review, 1905, pp. 81-86. 

Bloomfield, M. Religion of the Veda, 
pp. 215-218. 

(Sanskrit Riddles.) Journal Ameri- 
can Oriental Society, Vol. X, p. 172. 

Dahle. L. Specimens of ^lalagasy Folk- 
Lore. Atananarivo, 1877, 8vo, pp. 
■157. Del pequeno Adivinadorcito. 
]\lexico. Five chap-books, 16mo each, 
16 pp. 

Demofilo. Colleccion de enigmas y adi- 
vinanzas. Sevilla, 1880. 8vo, pp. 495. 

Friedreich, J. B. Geschichte des Ratsels. 
Dresden, 1860. 8vo, pp. viii, 248. 

Fiihrer. A. Sanskritische Ratsel. Zeit- 
schrift der Deutsch. Morganlander 
Gesel. 1885. pp. 99-102. 

Haug. Vedische Ratselfragen und Rat- 
selspruche. Trans. ^Munich Academy, 
1875. 

Krauss, F. S. Allegemeine ]\lethodik d. 
Volkskimde 1891-97, p. 112. 
[23] 



Korean Conundrums. Korean Review. 
Seoul, 1906. pp. 59-60. 

Lakshminatha upasaru. Collection of 
Riddles. Patna, 1888 . 32mo, pp. 32. 

Ludwig. Der Rig Veda. iii. pp. 390. 

Mitra, Sarat Chandra. Riddles current 
in Bihar. Jouranl Asiatic Society, 
1901, 8vo. pp. 33-58. 

Petsch, R. Studien iiber das Volksratsel. 
Berlin, 1898, 8vo, pp. 139. 

Phillott, D. C. Persian Riddles. Cal- 
cutta, 1906. Journal Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, pp. 86-94. 

Rizal, J. Specimens of Tagal Folk-Lore. 
London, 1889, Triibner's Record, pp. 
45-46. 

Sibree, Jr., J. The Oratory, Songs, Le- 
gends and Folk-Tales of the IMalagas.y. 
London, 1883, Folk-Lore Journal, pp. 
38-40. 

Two Gypsy Riddles. Journal Gypsy 
Folk-Lore Society, 1907, pp. 92. 

Wagner, P. Some Kolarian Riddles. 
Calcutta, 1904. Journal Asiatic So- 
ciety of Bengal, pp. 62-79. 



[24 



FILIPINO RIDDLES 

Animals: mammals. 

1. Ania iti pinarsna iti Dios a balin 
snec a matnrog? 

(Hoc.) Panniqui 

What thing that God made sleeps 
with its head down? Bat 

2. Pantas ca man, at marimong bimi- 
asa at sumulat, aling ibon dito sa 
mundo ang lumilipad ay sumiisuso 
ang anak? 

(Tag.) Kabag 

Although you are wise and know 
how to read and write, which bird 
in this world flies and yet suckles 
its young? Bat 

3. Uppat iti adiguina, maysa iti ba- 
otna, dua iti paypa\Tia, dua iti 
boneng. 

(Hoc.) Carabao 

Four posts, one whip, two fans, and 
two bolos. Carabao 

[25] 



4. Apat na tukod lang:it at isang pang 
hagupit. 

(Tag.) Kalabao 

Four earth posts, two air posts and 
Avhip. Carabao 

5. Saque}" so torutoro duaray quepay- 
quepay a patiray mansobsoblay. 

(Pang.) Dueg 

One pointing, two moving, four 
changing. Carabao 

The head points,, the ears move, the legs 

change position. 

6. Xu mat-tut-lud ay atanang udde; 
nu mat-tadag ay ibbafa. 

(Gad.) Atu 

If he sits down he is high ; if he 
stands up he is low. Dog 

7. Adda maysa nga parsua ni Apo 
Dios nga adda uppat a sacana, 
ipusna quen maysa nga ulona nga 
aoan ti imana. 

(Hoc.) Caballo 

There is one creature of our Lord 
God which has four legs and a tail 
and one head; but it has no arms. 

Horse 

[26 1 



8. Carga nang carga ay iialang npa. 

(Tag.) Babuy 

Always working and no pay. 

The pig 
He is ever eating garbage and waste. 

9. Eto na si "Xuno," may siinong 
na quinto. 

(Tag.) Babuy 

Here comes ''Ximo" with gold on 
his head. Pig 

The pig is a constant scavenger and 
frequents the space below latrines and 
privies; it is a common thing that his 
snout is yellow^ as result of his search. 

KJ. ]\Iagmagna ni inam sangsangitam. 

(Hoc.) Burias 

A\'hile the mother is walking the 

child is crying. A little pig 

11. Adda maysa nga lacay gomogoyod 
ti oay. 

(Hoc.) Bab 

There is an old man, who always 
drags rattan. Rat 

i. e. his tail. 

[27] 



12. Kahoy cong ]\Iarigundong, na san- 
gay ualang dahon. 

^ (Tag.) Sungay 

My tree in Marigiindong (town in 
Cavite) has branches but no leaves. 

Horn 
The branching horn of a deer. 

13. Maco ca quian, yacu naman ing 
quian. 

(Pamp.) Ding bitis daring 
animal a tiapat a bitis nung 
lalacad ya. 
Away! let me have your place. 
The forward legs of an animal 
The hind feet tread in the prints of the 
forefeet. 

Bell. 

14. Xang hataken co ang baging nag- 
kagulo ang niatsing, 

(Tag.) Batingao 

"When I pulled the vine the mon- 
keys came around. Bell 

15. Tinugtog CO ang bangca nagsilapit 
ang isda. 

(Tag.) Campana sa misa 

[28] 



I rang the banca and the fishes 
came. Bell 

Banea is the canoe or boat ; to strike it 
as with the pole is to ring it. People 
called to mass by the ringing bell are 
likened to fishes. 

16. Togtoquec ti teppang 
agarayat ti bagsang 

(Hoc.) Campana 

I strike upon the washout and the 
hag sang come for help. 
The curved side of the bell is compared 
to a washed out slope or curve of the 
bank; the hagsang are small fishes; the 
bell is the church bell — the little fishes 
are the people. 

17. Otin nen laquic Tapal ni baleuet 
ed corral manaquis, ya agnaecal. 

(Pang.) Campana 

Tapal's hanging within the 

corral is crj^ing to get out. Bell 

Tapal is a nickname for an old man. 

Betel. 

18. Adda tallo nga babbalasang quet no 
mapanda maquimisa ; iti caoes ti 
maysa ata berde, quet dadiay maysa 

[29] 



ata porao, quen dadiay maysa ata 
lomabaga ; quet norommiiardan ata 
malabaga ainin iti caoesdan. 

(Hoc.) Mamabuyo 

There are three ladies who went to 
mass; the dress of one was green, 
of another white, of the other red; 
when they came out together the 
dresses of all were red. Betel 

19. Nasatiyan pa nang kanyang ina, 
kinuha at pinapagasawa. 

(Tag.) 

Ang bungang isinasama sa itso 
Still in his mother's body was 
taken and made to marry. Betel 
The areca nut is first taken out of 
its covering before being united 
with the betel leaf and lime. 

20. Bulong tiptipparo; puso balasang 
baro. 

(Hoc.) Mama 

A tiptipparo leaf; the heart, a 
young man and a young woman. 

Betel 

21. Papel a berde sinoratac ti purao 

[30] 



quet intedco iti sangaili clina in- 
subli. 

(Hoc.) Gaoed 

I wrote a green paper with white: 

I gave it to my visitor and he did 

not return it. Betel-leaf 

White lime is smeared upon the green 

leaf, which is then used to enwrap a bit 

of areca nut for chewing. 

Birds. 

22. Xagcapa dimet nagpadi; 
Xagcorona dimet nagari. 

(Hoc.) Manoc 

Gown but not priest ; crown but not 
king. Cock 

23. Xancorona agmuet ari ; nan capa 
agmuet pari. 

(Pang.) Manoc 

The king's crown but not king; the 
priest's cope, but not priest. Cock 

24. Ania ti pinarsua ni Apo Dios nga 
ag-gungon ti maquimbaba quet ag- 
pidot ti maquin ngato ? 

(Hoc.) ]\Ianoe 

What thing that Lord God made 

[311 



sifts below and picks up above? 

Fowl 

25. Dinay penalsay Dios ya managtay 
carne ? 

(Pang.) Manoc 

What creature of God is with meat 
on its head? Cock 

26. Ania a parsuo ni'Apo Dios ti nag- 
susoon ti carne nga aoan ti imana? 

(Hoc.) Tapingar 

AYhat creature of our Lord God 
carries meat but has no hands? 

Cock 
The meat is the cock's comb, 

27. T7yana-uyana mamuntuk y a n g 
baya! 

(Pamp.) ]\Ianuc 

Here he comes with glowing char- 
coal on his head ! A cock 

28. Xo umayac idiay bala^^o 
agtuptupuaccayo. 

(Hoc.) Manoc 

If I come to your house you will 
jump away. Fowl 

Boats. 

29. Ania ti pinarsua ni Apo Dios nga 



ipagnana ti bocotna? 

(Hoc.) Baloto 

AVhat creature made by Lord God 
walks on its back? Boat 

30. Oalay asoc ya quisquis no onbatic 
tirakiang. 

(Pang.) Baloto 

I have a hairless dog, who goes 
belly upward. Boat 

31. Xaligo ang eapitan hindi nabasa 
ang tian. 

(Tag.) Banca 

The captain took a bath without his 
belly getting Avet. Banca 

32. Adda impatacderco a caoayan no 
agbolong intan. 

(Hoc.) Parao 

I set up a banibu ; if it leafs out we 
shall go. Prao 

The bambu set up is the mast ; the leaf 

is the sail. 

33. Xano nga cahoy nga con may da- 
hon may gamut, pero con ua-ay 
gani dahon ua-ay man sing gamut? 

(Bis.) Parao 

AVhat tree is it. that when it has 
[33] 



leaves it also has roots, but when it 
has no leaves it also has no roots ? 

Parao 
Sail, rudder and oars. 

34. Nagalacat nagahayang. 

(Bis.) Sacayan 

He walks with his back. A ship 

35. Manica maco tana, 
tipa ca queti tana. 

(Pamp) Ancla 

Come up and let us go. go down 
and here we stay. Anchor 

Body: parts. 

36. Ania ti pinarsna ti Dios a masicog 
ti licudan ? 

(Hoc.) Botoy 

What thing created by God has the 
fullness of pregnancy (masicog) 
behind 1 The calf of the leg 

Masicog is the swollen abdomen of the 

pregnant woman. 

37. Bulong ti cappa-cappa nagtalicud 
nagpada. 

(Hoc.) Lapayag 

Cappa-cappa leaves placed back to 
back. Ears 

[34] 



38. Daluang balon hindi malingon. 

(Tag.) Tainga 

Two wells, of which you cannot 
catch sight. (Your) ears 

39. Pito iti taoana ; 
taltallo iti requepna. 

(Hoc.) Lapayag. agong, mata, 

ngioat 
There are seven windows; only 
three shut. 

Ears, nostrils, eyes, mouth 

40. Sipac nga sipac, saan nga mangeg 
ti caaroba. 

(Hoc.) . Mata 

Claps and claps, but the neighbors 
do not hear. Eyes 

41. Tepac cac tan tepac agnereguel na 
ybae. 

(Pang.) Mata 

Clapping and clapping but my 
companions cannot hear me. Eyes 

42. Dalana cong cahon bucsan ualang 
ugong. 

(Tag.) Mata 

I open my two boxes noiselessly. 

Eyes 

[35] 



43. Dalawang batong maitim malayo 
ang dinarating. 

(Tag.) Mata 

Two black stones which reach far. 

Eyes 

44. Dalawang tindahan sabay iia binu 
bucsan. 

(Tag.) :\rata 

Two stores are open at the same 
time. Eyes 

45. Adda dua nga Princesas quet nag- 
seng nga tan da iti dua nga ban- 
tay; no agsangit iti maysa agsangit 
danga dua. 

(Hoc.) Mata 

There are two princesses, who live 
on the two sides of a mountain ; 
when one cries both cry. The eyes 

46. Adda dua nga pisi agtongpal idiay 
langit. 

(Hoc.) Mata 

There are two halves; they go to- 
ward the sky. Eyes 

47. ]Malaon nang patay hindi maibaon 
at buhay ang capit bahay. 

(Tag.) Bulag ang isang mata 

[36] 



It is a long time since it died, yet it 
can not be buried for its neighbor 
is still alive. One blind eye 

48. Senora a samsamping addai ti uneg 
ti sarming. 

(Hoc.) Taotao ti mata 

A samsamping is in the middle of 
the mirror. The pupil of the eye 

49. Daluang balahibuhen masarap pag 
daiten. 

(Tag.) Mata at kilay 

Two hairy things, it's pleasant to 
have them meet. Eyelids 

50. Adda dua nga Princesa quet nag- 
baetanda ti maysa nga bantay quet 
daytoy a bantay adda met dua nga 
oaig quet no agsangit daguitoy a 
Princesa agayos met daytoy nga 
oaig ngem no saanda nga agsangit 
mamagaan daguitoy nga oaig. 

(Hoc.) ]\Iata quen agung 

There are two princesses with a 
mountain between them. In this 
mountain are two brooks and when 
the princesses cry these brooks 

[371 



flow and when the princesses do 
not cry the brooks dry up. 

Eyes and nose 

51. Isang biyabas 
pito ang butas. 

(Tag.) :\rukha 

One guava with seven holes. Face 

52. Limang puno nang niog; 
isay matayog. 

(Tag.) Dalire 

Five cocoanut pahns ; one is higher. 

Fingers 

53. Adda lima nga Principes nagcallo- 
gongda amin ti pisi. 

(Hoc.) Ramay 

There are five princes and their 
hat is one half. Fingers 

The nails are the hats. 

54. Adda maysa nga calapati nga nag- 
na ti tinga ti ili manocayo cona ti 
ari no adda mainayon nga pisi 
justo nga dua polo cami. 

(Hoc.) Ramay 

There is a dove that walked in the 

middle of the town. How many 

are you said the king. If there is a 

[381 



half added we shall be twenty. 

Fingers 
^)'}. Ni ni conconana 
aoan ti matana 

(Hoc.) Tammodo 

Here, here, he says, but has no eyes. 

Forefinger 
It points here and there, touching the 
things in question, but it cannot see. 

56. Tata baculud ay ain-mena maita 
na ut-tunna si catanang-nga. 

(Gad.) Quiray 

A mountain the summit of which 
cannot be seen, being very high. 

Forehead 

57. Tubo sa punso, ualang buko. 

(Tag.) Buhoc 

Sugar-cane on clay, with no joints 
(knots). Hair 

58. Cahoy nga tambalisa, tapson indi 
malaya. 

(Bis.) Buhoc 

A plant which does not fade when 
cut down. Hair 

59. Iclog iti calao bolig iti lima. 

(Hoc.) Ima 

[39] 



The ealao's egg is five-parted. 

Hand 
The calao is the hornbill ; the egg here 
in question is perhaps his strange head- 
excrescence. 

60. Isang bayabas peto ang butas. 

(Tag.) Ulo 

One guava with seven holes. Head 

61. Isa ca bimgsud nga pito ang iya 
buho. 

(Bis.) Olo 

A small hill having seven holes. 

Head 

62. Sica a tao ti van ti minuterum. 

(Hoc.) Puso 

You are the man who has the min- 
ute-beater. Heart 
Mi7iuterum the pendulum beating. 

63. Xo agtacderac ania ngata ti omona 
a ipagnac? 

(Hoc.) Mocod 

If I stand, what will be the first 
that steps? Heel 

64. Daluang bangiasan nag hahagaran. 

(Tag.) Binte 

[40] 



Two fence stakes chasing each 
other. Legs 

65. Atian na ing gulut ; ing gulut na 
ysL ing atian, 

(Pamp.) Bitis 

Its front is the back, and its back 
is the front. 

The lower leg (below the knee) 

66. Adda oaig a bassit napnut bnebu- 
caig. 

(Hoc.) Xgioat 

There is a small brook filled with 
shells. Mouth 

67. Isang balong malalem. 
punong puon nang pataleni. 

(Tag.) Bibig 

A deep well is filled with chisels, 

:\routh' 

68. Isa ca cahon-cahon nga punu sang 
tignib. 

(Bis.) Baba 

A box full of chisels. ]\Iouth 

69. Dna nga bobon napnot allid quen 
da gum, 

(Hoc.) Agung 

[41] 



Two wells filled with wax and nee- 
dles. Nose 

70. Baston ti Ygorot 
diea maparot 

(Hoc.) Bato 

The cane of the Igorot, yoii cannot 
pull np. Penis 

71. ]\Iapatar ya dalin tinoboay garing. 

(Pang.) Ngipuen 

Plain earth has gro^^^l ivory. 

Teeth 

72. Umona nga aglaguis sa agdarecdec. 

(Hoc.) Ngipen 

First place the bars and then the 
posts. The teeth 

The comparison is with fence-building. 
Here the posts are first set, and then the 
cross-pieces. The babe has first smooth, 
horizontal gums; then the upright teeth 
appear. 

73. Nagapanilong apang basa. 

(Bis.) Dila 

He is under the shed but is always 
wet. Tongue 

[42] 



74. Enlongon eiiipaiition onbangon 
maiLsermoii. 

(Pang.) Dila 

Coffin in graveyard Avakes up ser- 
mon. Tongue 

75. Xa manantang ay niaceataua 
udde na mannam a}" malussao. 

(Gad.) Attut 

He who loses it rejoices, but he who 
finds it gets mad at it. 

Bad odor; breaking wind 

76. Iti nacapoeao agayayat quet iti 
nacabiroc agong onget. 

(Hoc.) Ottot 

Who loses it is glad ; who finds it is 

mad. Bad odor 

Breaking of wind 

77. ]\ragna sirirquep no nacalueat madi 
met. 

(Hoc.) Mucat 

It walks while it is shut ; when it 
is open it does not care to walk. 
Secretion from eye corner 

78. Aso cong pute inutusan co, ay hin- 
di na umue. 

(Tag.) Lura 

[43] 



I sent out my white dog and he 
did not return. Spittle 

The practice of spitting, even unrelated 
to betel-chewing or tobacco-chewing, is 
far commoner among the Filipinos than 
among ourselves. 
Book. 

79. Tinadtacl a root 
insenpen a panonot. 

(Hoc.) Libro 

Chopped grass hidden in the mind. 

Book 
Fodder or ''food for thought." 

80. Nagbulong nagbunga nanganac di- 
ay nangala. 

(Hoc.) Pagbasan 

It has leaves and fruits. Godfather 
took it. Book 

Candle. 

81. Ania iti anac a pooranna iti baguis 
ni inana? 

(Hoc.) Canclela 

What son burns his mother's in- 
testines? Candle 

82. Tite nang pare, mapute. 

(Tag.) Candela 

[44] 



The priest's is white. Candle 

88. Kung babayaan mong ako ay mab- 
uhay yaong kamatayay dagli kong 
kakamtan, ngungit kung akoy pa- 
taing paminsan ay lalong lalawig 
ang ingat kong buhay. 

(Tag.) Kandilang may sindi 
If you let me live I shall soon die ; 
if you kill me I shall live long. 

A lighted candle 

84. ]Masondug a cayu talaque na donna. 

(Gad.) Candelat 

A slender tree which bears only one 
leaf. Lighted candle 

85. Isang butel na palay punong punc 
ang bahay. 

(Tag.) Ilao 

A grain of rice fills the whole house. 

Light 
The flame of a candle is a little thing, 
comparable to a rice grain ; yet it gives 
light to the whole house. 
Cardinal Points. 

86. Adda uppat a nga amigos; idi na- 
parsua toy lubong inda naisigud. 

(Hoc.) Uppat aturong 

[45 1 



There are four friends; the,y have 
existed since the beginning. 

The four directions 
Clock: Watch. 

87. Aldao rabii agririaoac. 

(Hoc.) Reloj 

Day and night I cry. Clock 

88. Amanu na mararamdam. dapot 
masaquit yang intindian, nung ing 
lupa na ing quecang lauan a usta 
mu ing qucang sasabian. 

(Pang.) Eelos 

His words are audible but difficult 
to understand; when you look at 
his face you will understand what 
he says. Clock 

89. Ania ti parsua ni apo Dios nga 
aoan ti imana nga aoan ti sacana 
quet ammona ti agsao? 

(Hoc.) Leros=reloJ 

What creature of God has no arms 
and legs, but can talk? Clock 

Coffin. 

90. Ang nagapahimo nagahibi ; ang 
nagahimo indi iya ; ang tag-iya uala 

[46] 



sing calibutan. 

(Bis.) Longon 

The one who orders it made is cry- 
ing; the one who has it, it is not his 
to give; the one who .owns it does 
not care anything about it. 

Coffin 

Disease. 

91. Taong buhay inaanay. 

(Tag.) Bulutong 

A living person being eaten up by 
' ' anay. ' ' Smallpox 

Anay. termites or white ants. 

92. Ania ti pagayatan na a mabalud. 

(Hoc.) Ti masaquit 

AYhy does he wish to be in prison ? 

Pain 

Dress. 

93. Dadiay adalem agassiquet; 
dadiay ababao agatengngned. 

(Hoc, — also Pang.. Bis.) 

Calzon : l)ado 
AYhat is deep reaches only to the 
waist ; what is shallow comes to the 
neck. Drawers; jacket 

[47] 



94. Daluang pipit nag titimbangan sa 
isang siit. 

(Tag.) Hicao 

Two pipits balancing on a bambu 
stick. Earrings 

The pipit is a small bird. 

95. Bumili ako nang alipin mataas pa 
sa akin. 

(Tag.) Sambalilo 

I bought a slave, taller than myself. 

Hat 

96. Aniat aramid a canennaca. 

(Hoc.) Bado 

"What work devours you. Camisa 
The word work is used in several of 
these riddles with the meaning of a thing 
made, a manufactured article. The 
camisa is a shirt. 

97. Xacaquitaac iti dua a sasacayan ; 
maymaysat naglugan. 

(Hoc.) Zap at OS 

I saw two boats ; only one person 
was on board. Shoes 

98. Dala mo siya, 
dala ca niya. 

(Tag.) . Bakia 

[48] 



You carry it, it carries you. Shoe 
99. Dalan mucu, dalan da ca, 
mipa quinabang cata. 

(Pamp.) Sapin 

Carry me, I will carry you; let us 
share alike. Shoes 

Drinks. 

100. Con aga naga lapta. pero eon hapon 
naga tipon. 

(Bis.) Tuba 

In the morning it is scattered in 
many places, but in the evening it 
is imited into one place. Tuba 

An intoxicating drink made from cocoa- 
palm sap ; it is gathered daily. In the 
morning it is at the trees which yield; 
at evening it is brought in and stored. 

101. Adda maysa a balasang conana toy 
maysa a baro no ayatennac dacquel 
ti pagdacsam. 

(Hoc.) Arac 

There was a lady said to a gentle- 
man ''If you love me it will harm 
you." Wine 

Egg. 

102. Yti pagapugan ti Ari; 

[49] 



no malnetan saan nga maisiibli. 

(Hoc.) Itlog 

The limebox of the king; if you 
open it you cannot restore it. 

An egg 

103. Adda bayabasco idiay ^lanila aoan 
ti pamorosanna. 

(Hoc.) Itlog 

I have a guava in ]\Ianila that has 

no stem. Egg 

104. Aug balay sang encantadora ua-ay 
ventana ua-ay puerta. 

(Bis.) ' Itlog 

The house of an enchantress which 
has neither window nor door. 

Egg 

Fishes. 

105. Lindus ne enetiran, 

dapot king asbuk ya milulan. 

(Pamp.) Balulingi 

Harpooning at it he missed it, but 
it went into his mouth. 

Balulungi 
The shovel-nosed shark. In aiming at 
food, if it really enters his mouth which 

[50] 



is below the long and projecting snout, 
he must seem to miss it. 

106. Adda maysa nga laeav; puquis nga 
oacray. 

(Hoc.) Corita 

There is an old man ; his hair cut 
short, the hair hangs. Corita 

It is a fish, with slender, pendent, feel- 
ers. 

107. Asino ti nabiag a togtogaoanna ti 
ngeoatna ■ 

(Hoc.) Corita 

^"hat living thing sits on its 
mouth ? Corita 

108. Ania iti parsua ni Apo Dios nga 
pispisi iti baguina ? 

(Hoc.) Dadali 

"What creature of our Lord God is 
but a half-body? Flounder 

109. Xag saeng si pusong, sa ibabao ang 
gatong. 

(Tag.) Bibingca 

The clown cooked rice with the lire 
above. Cake 

110. Tignan, tignan, bago ngiuitan. 

(Tag.) ^ Mais 

[511 



Look at it first, before making a 
face at it. Corn 

Refers to eating it from the cob. 

111. Pina pina marabotinia 
no aoan dayta matayea. 

(Hoc.) Bagas 

Pina pina marabotinia, 
If there is none yon will die. 

Rice 

112. Siasino ngata ti nagbuniag a daga? 

(Hoc.) A sin 

What earth has been baptised? 

Salt 

113. Aniat cangatoan a recado? 

(Hoc.) Asin 

What is the best spice? Salt 

11-1. Perlas yang maningning a ibat 
qung mina, nnng mibalic ya qung 
penibatana matda ing ningning na. 
(Pamp.) Asin 

A sparkling pearl that came from 
the mine, in going to its source 
loses its brilliancy. Salt 

The original source was the sea; but in 

Avater salt dissolves. 

[52 1 



Fruit. 

115. ^latebtibonee malimtimbocol bago- 
bagooay tapuco anbalbalangay da- 
lem. 

(Pang.) Atsuete 

Round, plump; hairy outside; red 
inside. Atsuete 

A red fruit used for seasoning fish. 

116. Ulo ng prineipe tinadtad ng ispile. 

(Tag.) Bunga ng bangcol 

Head of a prince stuck full of pins. 

Bangcol 
It is like a round ball stuck with pins. 

117. Dinan van penalsay Dios ya loab 
tod tabla it say paoay toel ecpiet. 

(Pang.) Cabatite 

What creature of God is smooth 
inside but like a net outside? 
A fruit. Cabatite 

118. Agbibitin a sinanlagangan. 

(Hoc.) Damortis 

Hanging like a pot-rest. 

Camaehilis (fruit") 

119. Balay ni Santa Ana nalicmut ti 
caramba. 

(Hoc.) ^^'^iog 

1531 



Santa Ana's house is surrounded 
by a jar. Cocoanut 

120. Langit ngato, langit baba, danom 
ti tengana. 

(Hoc, — also Pang., Tag.) 

Niog 
Sky above, sky below, water in the 
middle. Cocoanut 

121. Danum sadi Minimin, 
di mastrec ti an gin. 

(Hoc.) Niog 

The water of Minimin, the wind 
cannot reach it. Cocoanut 

122. Sang bata pa maniuang, anay sang 
tigulang na matamboc. 

(Bis.) Lubi 

When young he is lean, but when 
he becomes old he is fat. Cocoanut 
The meat of the cocoanut grows in thick- 
ness. 

123. Tatlong bundok ang tinibag bago 
dumating nang dagat. 

(Tag.) Niog 

Three mountains were blown down 
before they reached the sea. 

Cocoanut 

[54] 



The husk, the shell, and the meat are 
passed to reach the water within. 

124. Pispisi a dalayap nagcatlo nag- 
capat. 

(Hoc.) Buquel ti capas 

A half-lemon divides into three or 
four. Fruit of cotton 

125. Adda maysa nga banga nga bassit ; 
Xapno ti bato nga babassit. 

(Hoc, — also Pang.) Bay abas 
Here is a little pot ; it is full of 
small stones. Guava 

126. Aling cacania dito sa mimdo ang 
nacalabas ang buto? 

(Tag.) Kasoy 

AYhich of his brothers in this world 

has his bones outside? Kasoy 

A fruit, the hard seed of which projects 

entirely beyond its outer surface. 

127. Isang ungoy nakanpo sa lusong. 

(Tag.) Kasoy 

One monkey sitting on a mortar. 

Kasoy 
The seed of the haJiihad or Kasoy 
suggests the figure. 

[ 55 ] 



128. Babuy sa piilo, ang balahibu ay 
paco. 

(Tag.) Langea 

Wild hog, whose hairs are nails. 

Langea 

129. Pobre ti rabaona mayaman ti 
onegna. 

(Hoc.) Langea 

Poor outside, rieh within. Langea 

130. Tinadtad ti rabaona. lauya ti 
onegna. 

(Hoc.. — also Pang.) Langea 
Minced outside; lauya within. 

Langea 
Lauya; meat on bones, thoroughly 
cooked in water with vinegar and spices. 
Langea is a large sort of breadfruit. 

131. Agbibitin nga oging. 

(Hoc, — also Pang.) Longboy 
Charcoal hanging. Longboy 

A plum-like fruit. 

132. Adda inbitin eo nga langdet 
tangtangaden ti baboaquet. 

(Hoc.) Longboy 

I hang up a chopping-block : the 
old women look up at it. Longboy 

[56] 



133. Hindi havop, hindi tao, 
Nag dadamit ng de pano. 

(Tag.) Mabal(.> 

Net an animal, not a man. 
Yet it is clad in velvet. ]\Iabalo 
A fruit somewhat like a peach. 

134. Agbibiten a puso. 

(Hoc.) ■ Manga 

A heart hanging. Mango 

135. Isang cabang senorito. pnlus may 
sombrero. 

(Tag.) Bunga 

A group of little gentlemen, all 
with their hats. Palmnuts 

136. Bahay ni sta. ana pumong punu 
nang bala. 

(Tag.) Papaya 

Santa Ana's house is full of bul- 
lets. Papaya 
The papaya contains abundance of 
round, shining, black seeds the size of 
])uckshot or larger. 

137. Metung a bulsa mitmu yang pa- 
minta. 

(Pamp.) Kapaya 

[57 1 



A pocket full of peppercorns. 

Papaya 
The round black seeds of the papaya are 
the peppercorns. 

138. Abongnin Doiia Maria alictob na 
botilla. 

(Pang.) Apayas 

Dona Maria's house is surrounded 
by a bottle. Papaya 

139. Balay ni Santa ]\Iaria nalicmut ti 
espada. 

(Hoc, — also Pang., Gad., Bis.) 

Pina 
Santa Maria's house is surrounded 
by swords. Pineapple 

140. Seiiora a nasani-sam-it addat oneg 
ti siit. 

(Hoc.) Piiia 

A sweet lady among the thorns. 

Pineapple 

141. Isang dalagang may corona at ca- 
loob saan ay may mata. 

(Tag.) Pina 

The lady with a crown has eyes 
everywhere. Pineapple 

[58] 



142. Agbibiten a danog. 

(Hoc.) Santol 

A fist hanging. Santol 

143. Bahay ni Sang Gabriel, punong 
pimo nang barel. 

(Tag.) Lucban 

San Gabriel's house is full of guns. 

Shaddock 
Furniture. 

144. Con adlao naga uba. pero con gabi 
naga saya. 

(Bis.) Catre; mosquitero 

During the day she is naked, but 
at night she puts on her skirt. 

Bed ; mosquito bar 
Games. 

145. Aso CO sa pantalan. 
lumucso nang pitong balon. 
umuli nang pitong gubat. 
bago nag tanao dagat. 

(Tag.) Sungkahan 

]\Iy dog from the wharf jumped 
over seven wells,, jumped again 
over seven forests, before it saw 
the sea. ^lancala 

This well-known game is played upon a 

[59 1 



board in which a number of round pits 
are scooped out; two lines of seven of 
these are placed side by side. 
Greeting. 

146. Bumile ako nang bigas. bigas din 
ang ibinayad. 

(Tag.) Ang pagbibigay 

nang magandang arao o gabi sa 
kanino man. 
I bought rice with rice. The ex- 
change of greeting — good morning 
or good night. 

Hammock. 

147. Taray nga taray di met macaalis. 

(Hoc.) Indayon 

Running and running, but it can- 
not go aAvay. Hammock 

148. Adda caballoc a labang agsinan- 
pontol panalian. 

(Hoc.) Indayon 

I have a gray horse ; I can halter 
him at both ends. Hammock 

Heavenly bodies. 

149. Kabac na niog magdamag na kin- 
ayod. 

(Tag.) Buan 

[60] 



ITalf-a-eoeoanut, retreating slowly 
all night. ^loou 

l.^O. Kabaae na niog, niagdaniag na ipod 
nang ipod. 

(Tag.) Buan 

A half-eoeoanut. scraped the whole 
night. Moon 

The moon keeps freshly white, like cocoa- 
nut meat just scraped. 

151. Sancagalip a rabong sila oanna 
amin a lobong. 

(Hoc.) Bulan 

A half section of a bambu shoot 
illuminates the whole world. ]Moon 

152. Adda pisi a dalayap nga incalic ; 
tal-lo a papadi dina macali. 

(Hoc.) Bulan 

I planted a half-lemon : three 
priests cannot dig it up. ^Moon 

153. Letrang C a maging 0, O maging 
C. 

(Pamp.. — also Tag.) Bulan 

The letter C becomes 0, becomes 
C. The :\roon 

[611 



154. Sim-migpatac ti tanobong 
silaoco a nagodong; 
sim-migpatac ti alodig, 
silaoco nga nagaoid. 

(Hoc.) Biilan quen bituen 

I chop a tanohong for light when 
I go to town ; I chop an alodig for 
light when I go home. 

Moon and stars 
A iano'bong is a sort of bambu; alodig is 
a small bush. 

155. Adda maysa nga dalaVap imporoac 
CO idiay tayac no may bagam cn- 
cuanac. 

(Hoc.) Bulan 

There was a lemon which I threw 
out into the wide plain. Guess it 
and I shall be yours. Moon 

156. Ako ay naghasik nang mais. pagka 
umaga ay palis. 

(Tag.) Bituin 

I sowed maize grains : in the morn- 
ing they were swept away. Stars 
The stars, grains of maize, disappear 
with the dawn. 

[62] 



157. Sangaplato no-a busi maoarasanna 
amin ti iniliiiili. 

(Hoc.) Bituen 

A plate of roasted rice can be 
spread all over the town. Stars 

158. Mayaqnit alila nung ing sumbu 
macaslag ya, dapot nung- capilan 
milaco ya carin la paqiiit. 

(Pamp.) Batuin at aldo 

AYlien the lamp is shining they can 
scarcely be seen, but when it is 
taken away they become visible. 

Stars and sun 

159. Abong nen Don Juan agnalocasan. 

(Pang.) Agueo 

Don Juan's house, you cannot open. 

Sun 

160. Caoayan queling agnatacpiiling. 

( Pang. ) Agueo 

You cannot look directly at ca- 
oai/a)i queliiig. Sun 

A sort of baml)u. of great diameter. 

161. Isbu ti andidit di masirip. 

(Hoc.) Ynit 

A}uli(lif's urine cannot be looked 
at. Sun 

The andidit is a cricket. 
[63 1 



162. Kung ako ay iyong pakatitigan 
pagkita sa akiv di mapapalaran. 

(Tag.) Arao 

If YOU look at me, yon cannot see 
me. Sun 

163. Xagmulaac iti saba idiay da^^a saan 
a nagbnnga ta naabac ti cnenta, 
nagmnlaac iti niog idiay land saan 
a nagngnt ta naabac iti panonotna. 

(Hoc.) Ynit cpien bnlan 

I planted a banana in the east and 
it did not fruit for it lost the count 
and I planted a cocoanut in the 
west and it did not sprout because 
it lost its mind. Sun and moon 

Hole. 

164. Tapat nga guindadugangan 
tapat nga nagamag-an. 

(Bis.) Buho 

The larger it grows, the lighter it 
becomes. A hole 

House: and parts. 

165. Dinan yan penalsay Dios ya say 
cpienantoit maengal ? 

(Pang.) Abong 

"What creature of God. having eat- 
en makes a noise ? House 
F64 1 



166. Ariia iti pinarsua ni Apo Dios nga 
agtagtagari ti quin nanna ? 

(Hoc.) Balay 

AYhat creature of Lord God has 
talking its food? House 

167. Ania iti parsua ni Apo Dios nga 
uniona nga agsilia sa agap-ap. 

(Hoc.) Balay 

"What creature of Lord God puts 
the saddle first and then the 
blanket ? House 

The roof of a house is built before the 

Avails. 

168. Xaligo ang Kapitan 
hindi binasa ang tiyan. 

(Tag.) Sahig 

The Captain took a bath. l)ut did 

not wet his belly. Floor 

When being scrubbed with water, the 

bambu is as promptly dry as a duck's 

back. 

168. Hindi tayop. hindi tao nag ngan- 
galan nang Tranquilino. 

(Tag.) Trangk'a nang pinto 

Not animal, not man : its name is 

Tranquilino. Lock of door 

^lere resembUmee in sound between 

[65] 



Tranquilino, a personal name, and 
Trangka — a lock. 

169. Ang sino ang naunang umakiat 
siyang nahuli sa lahat. 

(Tag.) Pagaatip 

He who climbed first became the 
last. Nipa thatching 

In roofing the work begins at the 
lower part and ends at the ridge. 

170. Adda ay ayatec nga gayyem 
(amigo) ngem saanco a cayat a 
casango. 

(Hoc.) Adigi 

I have a loving friend but I do 

not wish to face him. Post 

A post in the house construction. ]\roth- 

ers punish naughty children by standing 

them in the corner facing the post. 

171. Quimmali simmari cpiimmagat. 

(Hoc.) Adigi 

Set into the ground, breaks through, 
and bites. Post 

A post in house construction meets the 
requirement. It is firmly planted, pene- 
trates flooring, and clutches and holds 
a rafter or other pole. 



172. x\tin Cling metiing a caballero 
pabanua yang makakabayo, dapot 
eya mamako. 

(Pamp.) 

Pakabayu ning bubungan 
I have a horseman who has been 
riding for a year but has not gone 
a bit. Rider of bambu. over 

the ridge to keep the nipa from l)e- 
ing blown away. 

173. Balnbog nang ama mo, pina ara- 
wanco. 

(Tag.) Palupo nang babay 

I let the sunshine on your father's 
back; i. e. the sun shines on your 
father's back. 

The long poles at the roof crest of 
the house. 
These poles are the ''father's back;" 
they are directly exposed to the sun's 
rays. 

174. Xo omoli baro, no omolog balo. 

(Hoc.) Atep 

When it ascends it is new (yoimg) ; 
When it goes down it is a widow. 

Roof 

[67] 



175. ^linalemae nga ao:tacop binigatae 
met nga agpiguis. 

(Hoc.) Tandoe 

I mend it every evening, I tear it 
every morning. Window 

176. Xa labi mansacabac ; 
no agueo manpilatac. 

(Pang.) Ventana 

At night closed; in day open. 

Window 

177. Abosta kippit, 
Comalcalipkip. 

(Hoc.) Riquep 

Although thin, it can slide. 

Window shutter 

Implements. 

178. Ypacapetco toy colisipco dita bo- 
cotmo maimbagan ta nasaquitmo. 

(Hoc.) Tandec 

I place my colisipco upon your 
back and it cures your illness. 

Cupping-horn 
Colisipco is a slender bambu sucking 
tube. Tandoc is a piece of horn for 
blood-letting. 

[68] 



170. Adda iiiaysa nga amigoe no icaraed 

cod toy olie, inaornos datoy booc. 

(Hoc.) Sagaysay 

I have a friend and when I arrange 

my head, my liair is in order. 

Comb 

180. Aniat ina ni sa])a ? 

(Hoc.) Xi daga 

Qnet ania met ti amana? Barrita 
"What is the mother of the banana ? 

The earth 
And what its father ? 

Digging-stick 

181. Tombong ccm tombong manpilieay 
gustum. 

(Pang.) Agniob 

Intestine (gut) choose what you 
want. Fire-bhnver 

It is a simple tube of l)ambu. 

182. ]\Iagdala ya biman mete, 
mamita yang laman mabie. 

(Pamp.) Mamaduas ing 

apana ating asan a dumamit. 
He carries the flesh of the dead, 
but seeks the flesh of the living. 

Fishline 
[69] 



183. Banga sadi Sinait, 
naapiiian ti nangisit. 

(Hoc.) Tintiroan 

A pot from Sinait, 
lined with black. Ink bottle 

184. Adda bassit nga quita nga casla 
tisa ngem niabalinna nga ayoanan 
ti maysa nga balasang nga casla 
mangayoan a cas niaysa nga leon. 

(Hoc.) Tulbec 

There is a little thing like a piece 
of crayon, but it can guard a lady 
like a lion. Key 

185. Hindi madangkal. hindi madipa, 
pinag- tutuangan nang lima. 

(Tag.) Carayom 

You can not span it, you cannot 
measure it by your outstretched 
arms, and it is being carried by 
five. Needle 

186. Begut ne ing andang tinuki ya ing 
ubingan. 

(Pamp.) Carayum ampong 

sinulad. 
He pulled out a stick and it was 
followed by a snake. 

Needle and thread 
[70] 



187. Xa una ang trozo sa manghihila. 

(Tag.,— also Bis., Pang.) 

Carayom 
The log comes first, then the haul- 
ing cable. Needle (and thread) 

188. Tinoduc ni ampalocneng ti obet ni 
ampatang quen. 

(Hoc.) Dagum 

The soft one is thrust through the 
anus of the hard one. 

Xeedle and thread 

189. Ania nga abut iti tacopan iti 
iapadana nga abut '! 

(Hoc.) Iquet 

What hole do you mend with holes ? 

Net 

190. Magmagnaac mangibatbatiae ^i 
magnaac agbalbalicas. 

(Hoc.) Pluma 

I am walking leaving tracks where 
I walk. Pen 

191. Mangipatacderae ti adigi madoma- 
doma a corte. 

(Hoc.) Pluma 

I set up a post, variously cut (fash- 
ioned). Pen 

[-1] 



The pen of this riddle is the old-tinio 
quill pen. 

192. Con uyatan naga lacat; 
con buhi-an naga liguid. 

(Bis.) Pluma 

"When held it goes; 
"When let loose it lies down. Pen 

193. Bolong na nnas 
mancancanioas. 

(Pang.) Catli 

Sugarcane leaves moving crisscross. 

Scissors 
191. Pukeng payat 
nangangagat. 

(Tag.) Gunteng 

A narrow vagina bites. Scissors 

195. ]\Iaysa nga colibangbang tinaoen- 
taoen nga niangan. 

(Hoc.) Raquem 

There is a butterfly Avhich is eating 

evers^ year. Rice knife 

The small knife used to cut rice. Its 

shape suggests that of a butterfly. 

196. Diac maquita nacamolagatac ; no 
abbongac maquitac. 

(Hoc.) Anteojos 

I cannot see although my eyes are 
[72] 



wide open ; if I cover. I can see. 

Spectacles 
Insects: and other invertebrates. 

197. Diotay pa si compare cahibalo na 
mag saca sa lubii. 

(Bis.) Subay 

^ly compadre is tiny, yet he knows 
how to climb up a cocoanut tree. 

Ant 

198. Bahay ni ]\Ian Tute haligue ay 
bali-bali. 

(Tag.) Alimango 

House of ^Ir. Tute, whose rafters 
are twisted. Crab 

199. Xano nga pispis nga iia-ay pag 
lupad, may pac-pac cag may bala- 
hibu, cag naga butn. 

(Bis.) ' Ulang 

What bird is it. having wings can- 
not Hy. which makes its nest and 
hatches its young under its Avings? 

Crayfish 

200. Xo umolog maturog; no umoli 
tomacqui. 

(Hoc. — also Pang.) Alinta 

When it goes down, it sleeps ; when 



it goes up it drops waste matter. 

Earthworm 

201. ]Magmagna mamingpingqui. 

(Hoc.) Colalanti 

Walking, it strikes fire. Makes a 
spark. Fireflies 

202. Con sa latagon palanacal; 
con sa balay magansal ; 

pero con sa mesa ma ugdang. 

(Bis.) Lango 

Out in the field she talks too much ; 
In the house she makes much noise ; 
But when at table she is quiet. 

Fly 

203. Ang patay nag bata sing buhi, ang 
buhi nag bata cag ang iya bata 
iya guin bilin sa patay, cag ang 
patay amo ang nag buhi sang bata 
sang buhi. 

(Bis.) Langao, ulucl, carne 

A living thing left its young to a 
dead thing; this dead thing gave 
nourishment to the young of the 
living thing. Fly, maggots, meat 

204. Siasino iti parsua ni apotayo nga 
Dios nga casta agropropa a caballo 

[74 1 



quet iti payacna easla bulong iti 
eaoavan ? 

(Hoc.) Diidon 

What creature of our Lord God 
has a face like a horse and wings 
like banibu leaves? Grasshopper 

205. Adda maysa nga tumatayal yanna 
aniin nga liigar uray no tayac 
quen cabaquiran. quet iti rupana 
rupa iti baca, iti tengnguedna 
tengngued iti caballo. iti baro- 
congna barocong iti tao, iti payacna 
casla bolong iti caoayan iti ipusna 
casla uleg, iti saeana casla saca iti 
tocling. 

(Hoc.) Oasay-oasay 

There is a flying thing, which stays 
anywhere, — even in the forest and 
tayac ; its face is the face of a cow, 
its neck the neck of a horse, the 
breast the breast of a man. the 
wing is like the leaf of a bambu. 
his tail resembles a snake, and his 
feet look like the feet of a bird. 

Grasshopper 

[751 



206. ]\Iadilim na bundoc hayop na wa- 
lan buto. 

(Tag.) Cutu 

Dark mountain — boneless animal. 

Louse 

207. Atimon sa cagulangan ua-ay alipo- 
po-an. 

(Bis.) Lusa 

207. Atimon sa cagulangan ua-a}^ alipo- 

( Bis. ) Lusa 

^lelon of the wilderness without a 
steaii. Nil 

208. Ating metung a cacanan ing que- 
ang pengan marayu ya qung atian. 

(Pamp.) Paro 

There is a certain thing to eat ; its 
fleshiness is far from its belly. 

Shrimp 

209. Ing labuad nang quebaitan yang 
ena na buring balicad, uling ing 
bie na carin mipalamang. 

(Pamp.) Yamuc 

He does not like to return to the 

land where he was born for therc^ 

he will meet his fate. ^Mosquito 

Born of water; he drowTis in water. 

[76] 



210. Aling hayop dito sa mnndo. ang 
iiiilalakad ay ulo ? 

(Tag.) Suso 

AVhat animal in this world walks 
with his head? Snail 

211. Maysa a naparato ti oatayna pag- 
silona. 

(Hoc.) Laoalaoa 

A joker uses his spittle for a snare. 

Spider 

212. Ating- palaeio niitmii yang cuartu, 
l)alang metiing a cuartu maqui 
nietung yang curatu. 

(Pamp.) Calaba ning tamu- 

mu, o panilan. 
There is a palace full of rooms, 
each containing a priest. 

Honeycomb 

213. Aroi Dom Pedro, hindi macolabas 
sa carcel? 

(Tag.) Tinik 

Oh I Don Pedro, why don 't you get 

out of prison ? Sting 

Tinik means either a string of an insect 

or the thorn of a plant. It is the sting 

or thorn which here is considered in 

prison and" exhorted to escape. 

[77] 



Lamp. 

214. ]\letung a butil a pale kitmu lie 
ing bale. 

(Pamp.) Sumbii 

A single grain of rice, filled the 

whole house. A lamp 

215. ]Memala ya ing labak nieto ya ing 
tugak. 

(Pamp.) Sumbii 

The swamp dried up and the frog 
died. An oil lamp 

216. Adda lognac quen adda met agtay- 
tayab daytoy nga agtaytayab aggi- 
yan ditoy nga lognac quet no ma- 
mamagaan daytoy nga lognaquen 
matay met datoy agtaytayaben. 

(Hoc.) Lamparaan 

There is a pond and a bird; this 
bird lives in the pond. When the 
pond dries up, the bird dies. Lamp 

Love. 

217. Aniat casam itan ti nasamit? 

(Hoc.) Ayat 

What is the sweetest of the sweet? 

Love 

[78] 



218. Ania ti avat nga agmalmalem ? 

(Hoc.) Ti apagcascasar 

What love lasts all day? 

Of those just married 

219. Ramaycot panagaladeo luac ti pan- 
agsibugco. 

(Hoc.) Panangasaoa 

I fence with my fingers; I water 

with my tears. To marry 

220. Xag molaae iti masetas ditoy lo- 
cong iti dacolapco iti pinag si bogco 
toy loae quet iti pinamorosco toy 
matac. 

(Hoc.) Xagayanayat 

I planted a plant in the midst of 
the palm of my hand, I watered it 
with my tears. • I gathered it with 
my eyes. Loving each other 

221. Acoi nag tanim nang dayap sa 
gitna nang dagat marami ang na- 
hanap, iisa ang naka palad. 

(Tag..— also Hoc.) Dalaga 

I planted a lemon tree 
in the middle of the sea 
many sought it 
onlv one found it. Girl 



222. Oalay saquey ya dalayap temmo- 
bocl pupgley na dayat amayamay 
ya inanped peraod sac sacquey so 
acagaoat. 

(Pang.) Panangasasa 

There is a lemon-tree growing in 
the middle of the sea ; many people 
desire to take it. but cannot; only 
one person can succeed. 

Your sister 
To be married. 
Mat. 

223. Mig quera cu babo ebus, 
lalam sasa eu me tudtud. 

(Pamp.) Dase 

I lay down upon the buri. under 

the nipa I slept. Petate 

The sleeping mat i^ laid down upon the 

floor (of huri) ; the roof is of niim. 

224. Sa gabey dagat sa arao ay bum- 
bong. 

(Tag.) Baneg 

At night it is a sea. in the day it is 

the bambu carry-tube. Petate 

The petaie is the sleeping mat of rushes ; 

in the day-time it is rolled np and set 

awa}^; at night it is unrolled and spread 

[80] 



upon the floor. The word sea is often 
used for any extended or Hat surface. 

225. No aldao tuhong no rabii dadali. 

(Hoc.) Icamen 

If day a tube; if night a flounder. 
Sleeping mat^petate 
Mirror. 

226. Quitquitaec quet quitaennac ; 
no eataoaac cataoaan nac. 

(Hoc.) Espejo 

I am looking at it. and it looks at 
me; if I laugh, it laughs. ]Mirror 
Musical Instruments. 

227. Guerret nga agpucpuc-cao, agpuc- 
puc-cao a guerret. 

(Hoc.) Tambor 

Guerret crying, crying guerret. 

Drum 
Guerret is a section cut transversely 
from a fish. It has somewhat the shape 
of a drum. 

228. Ania ti pinarsua ni Apo Dios nga 
iti ngioat na adda ti tian-na may- 
maysa taequiag na. quen ti ramay 
na adda ti bocot ti dacolapna, quen 
naquinruar ti baguisna. 

(Hoc.) Guitarra 

[81] 



There is a creature made by Lord 
God whose mouth is in his belly; 
he has one arm and his fingers are 
in his back; and his intestines are 
outside. Guitar 

229. Secal que batal levari que atian, 
ginulisac yang masican. 

(Pamp.) Dibit 

I choked him, I sawed him across 
the belly, he screamed furiously. 

Violin 
Nature Elements. 

230. Bibingca nang hari, 
hindi mo mahati. 

(Tag.) Tubig 

The king's cake, you cannot divide 
it. Water 

231. Xo tinagbat, nagpiglat. 

(Hoc.) Danom 

If you chop it, it heals at once. 

Water 

232. Tng inda maging anak ya, ing anak 
ma gin g inda ya. 

(Pamp.) Yelo 

The mother becomes the daughter 

and the daughter becomes the 

mother. Water, ice 

[ 82 ] 



Number. 

283. 8iac nacaquitaac iti siam abilit quet 
pinaltogac iti lima mano iti na- 
tedda? 

(Hoc.) Lima 

I saw nine birds; I shot five of 
them; how many were left? Five 

The dead ones: the rest flew away. 

Occupations. 

234. Ang madamu giiina dugangan, pero 
ang diotay giiina buhinan. 

(Bis.) Ang pag limas sang 

tubi sa sulod sang sacayan. 
The greater is increased, the 
smaller is diminished. 

AVhen water is pumped out of 

a boat. 

235. Ang iya olo sapat, ang iya lanao 
cahoy cag ang iya icog tauo. 

(Bis.) Carabao arado cog 

tauo. 
His head is an animal, his body is 
wood and his tail is man. Plowing 

236. Adda tallo nga caquita ; 

dadiay immona magmagna nga 
aoan tagarina i 

[ S3 ] 



dadiay inaicadua iiiangiiiangaD 

qiiet ; 

dadiay inaicatlo iiiagniagna nga to- 

nianagari. 

(Hoc.) Agarado 

There are three things; the first is 
walking without talking: the sec- 
ond is eating; the third is walking 
and talking. Plowing 

The carabao. the plow, and the man. 

237. Manoc cong pute, nag talon sa pu- 
sale. 

(Tag.) Hngas bigas 

'My white chicken jumped into the 
puddle. Rice-washing 

The water that runs from rice washing 
is white; it falls from the kitchen down 
into the accumulated water under the 
house. 

238. Ania ti aramid ti babay a dina mal- 
pas? 

(Hoc.) Abel 

What woman's work is never fin- 
ished ? Weaving 

There is always a lower edge which can- 

Hof l)e woven. 

Persons. 

r 84 1 



239. Aeoi nag tanein nang sile 
sa tabe nang c-atre, 

ang idinileg coi, pure 
ang ibinungav diaiiiantc. 

(Tag.) Bata 

I planted a pepper near a ])ed. 
I watered it with honor, 
it yielded a precious jewel. 

Baby 

240. Con mag atubang si' tatay ; apang 
eon mag talieud si nanay. 

(Bis.) Insik 

If it faces you it is your father; 
but if it turns its back it is your 
mother. Chinaman 

8een from before the general appear- 
ance is that of a man ; from behind, a 
woman. 

241. Taung inucul dang loco, dapot ing 
dapat na mibulalag quing yatu. 

(Pamp.) Cristobal Colon 

One whom they thought a fool, his 
work became world-known. 

Columbus 

242. Xag habla ang nuiy sala nag tago 
ang justicia. 

(Tag.) Xagevennipisal 

[85] 



The culprit appears in court, the 
justice is hidden. The Confessional 

The person confessing is plainly seen ; 

the priest receiving the confession is out 

of sight. 

243. Nagmolaac iti pipino idiay arisad- 
sad ti convento 

dimet nagbunga ti pipino no di 
Sto. Cristo. 

(Hoc.) Natay 

I planted a pip near the convent 
but it did not produce a squash but 
Sto, Cristo. A dead persoii 

24-i. Ania ti ringgor nga saan nga ag- 
taud ti dila? 

(Hoc.) Umel 

"What quarrel is not made with the 
tongue? A dumb man's 

245. Sin-o ang napatay nga guin lu- 
bung sa tiyan sang iya nanay? 

(Bis.) Pari 

"Who died, who was buried in his 
mother's bosom? Friar 

He was buried in the church. 

246. Duro co nga dalagan pero ua-ay 
aco dinalaganan? 

(Bis.) Naga sacay sa duyan 
[861 



AYho was running fast but did not 
move from where he started? 

One in a hammock 

247. Tng makalub makalual ya. ing ma- 
kalual makalub ya. 

(Pamp.) Ing inda ampo ing 
anak. 

AYhat was exposed is inside, what 

was inside is exposed. 

Mother and babe, when the lat- 
ter is baptized. 
The mother stays at home in the house. 

248. Pinonggosco a pinongos bino cay- 
eayan iti Dios. 

(Hoc.) Masicog 

I grasped and grasped and God 
loosed it. Pregnant woman 

249. Ania ti anac a mangisquis quen 
inana. 

(Hoc.) Ti mangrarit ti pira- 
cna. 
^"hat child shaves his mother? 

Who spends her money 

250. Aniat baybay a di aglippias? 

(Hoc.) Ti Quinaquirmet 

"What sea does not overflow? 

The stingy- man 
[87 1 



Though he has abundance he gives out 
none. 

251. Con tuleon nimo uala sia pag pa- 
huay sang lacat apang uala man 
sing limacatan. 

(Bis.) ]\Ianoghabol 

She appears to be always walking, but 
after all is still in her place as before. 

A weaver 
Plants. 

252. Deli ciueenteng kaballero rianu 
mang tiknang an nang palacio, 
agad yang malaso. 

(Pamp.) Balite 

A gallant horseman causes any 
castle in Avhich he is. to crumble to 
pieces. The Balite 

This is the great parasitic fig, which en- 
closes other trees in its embrace. 

253. Adda maysa nga cayo nga bulong 
nga bulong di met agsabong ; sanga 
nga sanga dimet agbunga. 

(Hoc.) Caoayan 

There is a plant that produces 
leaves after leaves, but no flowers; 
branches after branches, but no 
fruit. Bambu 

[88] 



254. Siroc iti balay ti baenan^ di nia- 
caycayan. 

(Hoc.) Bulong ti caoayan 

Under the hacnang's house it can- 
not be clean. Banibu leaves 

255. Xab-barnasi sin accab-bing-nga 
udde sicuana. 

(Gad.. — also Hoc. Pang.. Bis.^ 

Ufud. 

When newly-born, well dressed, 

but when he gets old he is naked. 

Bambu shoot 

The bud is covered with a down, which 

disappears. 

256. Xang numte ay may tapis, nang 
lumaki ay bul isles. 

(Tag.) Caoayan 

When young she wore a tapis; 
when grown she is unclad 

Bambu shoot 
The iapis is the most characteristic part 
of the woman's dress. It is a w4de band 
of dark cloth (black or brown) worn 
over the other clothing, around the 
whole middle part of the body. 

[89 1 



257. Xanganak ang virgen 
itinapon ang lampen. 

(Tag.) Sagueng 

The virgin gave birtli to a child 
and threw away the blanket. 

Banana 

258. Xanganak ang asuang 
sa tnktok nagdaan. 

(Tag.) Sagueng 

An asuang gave birth to a child 
from the top. Banana 

259. Xaguit-log ni cannaoay inocopan 
ni teg-gaac idi cuan guiaoen ni oac 
ti nagtaraquen. 

(Hoc.) Saba 

A stork laid an egg; the crane 
hatched a lark from it ; the crow 
took care of the young. Banana 

260. Sancadaoa sangalabba. 

(Hoc.) Sangcabulig a saba 
A seed-bearing stem; one fills a 
basket. Bunch of bananas 

261. ^Macagto sa simbahan si Mary, pito 
o valo ang iya saya. 

(Tag.) Puso 

]\Iary is going to church having 
seven or eight shirts. Banana bud 
[90] 



The bud is wrapped or folded within a 
number of bracts. 

262. Adda puso a maysa dagat nag 
apuanna alupasit naglasatanna. 

(Hoc.) Puso ti saba 

There is a heart that came from the 
earth and pushed up fhrough alu- 
pasit. The heart of the banana 
Alupasit is banana fibre. 

263. Caballo moreno umosoc idiay ngato. 

(Hoc.) Sabonganay ti saba 

The red horse comes out upward. 

Banana flowers 

264. Ista CO sa Sapa-sapa sapin-sapin 
ang taba. 

(Tag.) Saha nang saguing 

'My fish in Sapa-sapa has manifold 

layers of fat. Stem of banana 

The stem of a banana cut through shows 

inwrapping layers, not imlike fat. 

265. Dasug ca kaka. libutad ya y inda. 

(Pamp.) 

Saging ampo ding sui na 
]\Iove on my brother, let mother be 
in the middle. 

A banana plant and its suckers 

[91] 



The new ones displace the older ones, 
pushing them outward. 

266. Ang puno lubi ; 
ang dahon espada ; 
ang bunga bala. 

(Bis.) Cahoy ngaburi 

The trunk cocoanut ; 
the leaves swqrds; 
the fruit bullets. Buri palm 

267. Angibitinac na liquen tangtanga 
yey mamasiquen. 

(Pang.) Camantilis 

I was hung by a potring; the old 
men looked up at me. 

Camaehili 
The pendent fruit suggests the riddle. 

268. Nano nga sapat nga ang iya palod 
hayang pero ang iya tudlo culub? 

(Bis.) Paclang sang lubi 

What animal is it which has its 
palm upside up but its fingers up- 
side down? Cocoanut leaves 

269. Payung y Santa ]\Iaria ammena 
mabata. 

(Gad.) Tafal 

Saint Clary's umbrella cannot be 
wetted. Gabi 

[92] 



This is the cultivated plant commonly 
known as taro. Its great loaf sheds 
water perfectly. 

270. No malipatam maca-alaca ; 

quet no malaguipmo dica maca-ala. 
(Hoc.) Poriquet=amorsico 

If you do not remember, you get ; 
but if you do remember, you do 
not get. Grass-burs 

271. Agsabong dina met bonga agsanga 
isut bongana. 

(Hoc.) Mais 

It produces a flower but it is not 

its fruit : it produces branches 

which are its fruit. ]Maize 

272. Xag tapis nang nag tapis nacalitao 
ang bulbolis. 

(Tag.) Mais 

She wore and wore her tapis 
yet her pubic hair was displayed. 

]\raize 
The green husks are considered the 
iapis, or wrap about the mid-body; the 
silk appearing from the husk wrapping 
is the pubic hair. 

[93] 



273. Alo-divino de graeia malayo ang 
bulaklak sa bunga. 

(Tag.) Mais 

Of all divine gifts it is the only 
plant whose flower is far from the 
fruit. ]\Iaize 

274. Tite nang Ingles, puno nang gales. 

(Tag.) Mais 

The Englishman's is full of 

pustules. Maize; ear 

275. Siasino iti pinarsua ni Apo Dios 
nga umuna nga matay santo ag- 
bonga ? 

(Hoc — also Pang.) Sarguelas 
What thing our Lord God made 
dies first and then fruits? 

Plum tree 

276. Uala sa langit, uala sa lupa. ang 
dahon ay sariwa? 

(Tag.) Quiapo 

It is not in heaven, it is not on 
earth, its leaves are fresh. 

Quiapo 
The water-lettuce; it covers the surface 
of quiet spots in rivers. 

[94] 



277. Cmig liindi lamang si tagabuiidok 
si tagalati ay maliuhulog. 

(Tag.) lyantok at parvid 

But for the one living in the moun- 
tain the one living in the swamp 
would fall. Nipa and rattan 

The rattan (growing in the mountain) 
is used to lash on the nipa (growing in 
the swamp) to the house framework. 

278. Xo colditenea matayea quet no 
adayoanea mabiagea. 

(Hoc.) Bainbain 

If I touch you you will die; but if 

I get away from you you will live. 

Sensitive plant 

279. Adda maysa a cayo idiay toctoc 
adda bobonco. 

(Hoc.) Silag 

There is a tree up there and I have 
a well on it. Silag 

A sort of palm, the bud is cut out and 

a sweet sap secured. 

280. Tagbatec ta sacam : 
inomec ta da ram. 

(Hoc.) Unas 

T chop your feet ; 
I drink your blood. Sugarcane 
[95] 



281. Lalabas cu. 
tindus dacu. 

(Pamp.) Sulput 

I was going out into the field, they 
pierced me. 
A grass with slender and sharp seeds. 

282. Pinagsakitan kong aking matukla- 
san ang bagay na isang ninais 
makamtan at nang sa pagkita y 
hindi mapalaran tinaglay-taglaj^ ko 
hangang kamatayan. 

(Tag.) Tinik 

I sought a thing I wished to get, 
and as I could not find it I kept it 
until my death. Spine 

283. Adda tal-lo a Princesas sag-gaysa 
ti coartoda ngem saan da nga ag- 
quiquita. 

(Hoc.) Tagunbao 

There are three princesses; each 
has a separate room and they can- 
not see each other. Tagunhoa 
A shrub used for hedges, with a tripar- 
tite pod or capsule. 

28-i. Ania iti mula a uray holding 
mailasinna ? 

(Hoc.) Siit 

[96] 



AYhat thing is blind hut can se- 
lect ? Thorn 

Qualities. 

285. Aniat cala-adan ti bomaro atao? 

(Hoc.) Ti quinasuquer 

^Yhat is the worst disfigurement 
for a young man ? Disobedience 

Relationship. 

286. Ano ang itat awag mo sa biyanang 
babayi nang asawa nang kapatid 
mo ? 

(Tag.) Ina 

"What will you call the mother-in- 
law of your sister's husband? 

^Mother 

287. Ang amain kong buo ay mayr isang 
kapatid na babayi. ngunit siyai 
hindi ko naman ali. Sino suja ? 

(Tag.) Aking ina 

]\Iy uncle has a sister but she is not 
my aunt. ^Yhoisshe? My mother 

288. Ang mga babaying A at B ay 
nakasalubong sa daan ng dala- 
wang lalaki ; at nagwika si A ; 
naito na ang ating mga ama, mga 

[97] 



ama nang ating mga anak; at mga 
tun ay nating*. 
(Tag.) ■ 
Ang ama ni A ay napakasal kay 
B at ang ama ni B ay napakasal 
kay A at nagkaroon sila nang tig- 
isang anak. 

Ladies A and B met two men and 
said. ^^ There come our fathers, 
fathers of our sons and our o\\ti 
husbands. ' ' 

A's father married with B and B's 
father with A, and each of them 
had a child. 
289. Nang malapos nang madalao nang 
isang lalaki ang isang bihmgo ay 
tinanong nang bantay; ano mo ba 
ang tawong iyon? Kapatid mo ba 
ano? Ang sagot nang bilango 
ay ito; akay ualang kapatid, ni 
pamangkin ni amain, ni nuno, ni 
apo, ni kahit kaibigan ; ngungit 
ang ama nang tawong ujan, ay 
anak nang anak nang aking ama. 
Ano nang bilango ang tawong iyon. 
(Tag.) Anak 

After a man visited a prisoner, 
[98] 



the guard asked him — 'Ms that man 
your brother, or what?" The pris- 
oner's answer was, ^'I have no 
])rother, no unele, no nephew, no 
grandfather, neither grandson nor 
friend; but that man's father is 
my father's son. Who was that 
man ? Son 

Religious. 

290. Oahiyan pinalsay Dios ya amay- 
amay iran sanaagui et sacsaquey 
so pait da. 

(Pang.. — also Bis.) Colintas 
]\Iany of them, brothers — but they 
have only one bodytube. Beads 

291. Adda tal-lo gasut a bacac maymay- 
sat nanglidingac. 

(Hoc.) Cuentas 

I have three hundred cattle, with 
a single nose cord. Beacis 

292. Xacno agapaldua. 

(Pang.) Simbaan 

Only half full. Church 

293. Xapuno pero ua-ay mag tunga. 

(Bis.) Simbahan 

They said it was full but it was 
half-full. Church 

[99 1 



204. Idi nagcasar ni Tiia quen ni xViiia 
avanae pay a dara ngem idi iia- 
gbuniag ni Apo siac ti namadrino. 
(Hoc.) Cristo 

When my father and mother were 
married I was not yet in the womb, 
but when my grandfather was bap- 
tized I was his godfather. Christ 

296. Dua ti taquiagna, maysat saeana, 
adda olo aoan matana. 

(Hoc.) Cruz 

Two arms, one leg and a head, but 
no eyes. Cross 

297. Tatlo ang botones. 
•apat ang ohales. 

(Tag.,— also Bis.) Cristo 

Three buttons, four holes. 

Crucifix 

298. May isang batang lalaque, umaky- 
at sa camachile nang hindi ma ca 
puede, likod ang idinale. 

(Tag.) Si Cristo 

There is a boy climbed up a cama- 
cJiili tree; when he could not stand 
it he climbed on his back. 

Crucifix 

[ICO] 



299. ]\Iaysa a cayo nagango idiay poona 
nabasa idiay tingana. nagango met 
ti ngodona. 

(Hoc.) Sto Cristo 

A tree dry at the foot, wet in the 
middle, dry also above. 

Christ, i. e., crucifix 

300. Aramid ti masirib canen ti nalaing. 
amin a macaquita pasig amin a 
logpi. 

(Hoc.) Ostia 

Work of a wise man, eaten by a 
wise man : all who see are lame. 

The host 

301. Akoi nag tanim nang sicolo sa 
gitna nang convento. ibinunga ay 
si Cristo. 

(Tag.) Hostia 

I planted a sicolo in the midst of 

the convent : it bore Christ foi* 

fruit. The host 

A sicolo is a small i)iece of money; it 

here relates to the contribution made 

at communion service. 

302. Isang tubong sinanduyon. 
abut sa langit ang dahon. 

(Tag.) Panalangiu 

[ ICl ] 



A sugarcane without joints, whose 
leaves reach heaven. Prayer 

303. Nang maitayo na yaong hangang 
baywang nagbitiu ng pawang ka- 
lunkut lunkutan. 

(Tag.) 
Ang pitong wikang iniaaral nang 
pari sa Viernes Santo. 
After he hid from his feet to his 
waist he gave very sad things. 
The preaching in the pulpit hy a 
priest about the seven utterances 
of Christ on Good Friday. 

304. Aquinngatot cadsaaran, 
aquinbabat bobengan. 

(Hoc.) Polpito 

The floor is higher, the roof lower. 

Pulpit 
i. e. than that of the building in which 
it stands. 

305. Sag magkakapatid na pitong sin 
liyag ako ang naunang nagkitang 
liwanag. At ako rin naman yaong 
nagkapalad na tawaging bunso sa 
kanilang lahat. 

(Tag.) Ang pitong linggo 
nang Cuaresma. 

rio2i 



I 



Seven brothers are we; the first- 
born was I, but I am the youngest 
of all. 

The seven weeks of Quaresma. 

306. Asin ti yanti espiritu iti bagui ? 

(Hoc.) Aquineatiquid nga 

abaga. 
Where is the spirit in the body? 

In the left shoulder 
In making the sign of the cross the word 
spirit comes when the left shoulder is 
pointed to. 

307. Adda pitu a botonisco; maymaysat 
pinat pategeo. 

(Hoc.) Domingo 

I have seven buttons; I like one 
best. Sunday 

308. Pitu casiglot maymaysat nairut. 

(Hoc.) Domingo 

Seven twined ("twisted'')» oiily 
one tight. Sunday 

309. Contirad contibong; 
bandera ti lobong. 

(Hoc.) Torre 

Sharp and long; flag of the world. 

Tower 

[103 1 



310. Caoayan bayog ag nayogayog. 

(Pang.) Torre 

Caoayan bayog^^ you cannot shake 
it. Tower 

*A species of bambu; firm, slender and 

high. 

311. Mayroon akong pitong bunga nang 
kohol ibinigay co sa iyo ang anini 
at ang isang natira sa akin ay ibig 
mo pang kunin. 

(Tag.) Ang pitong arao nang 

isang linggo. 
I have seven oranges. I gave you 
six and you want to take the re- 
maining one. 

The seven days of the week 

312. ]\Iinagaling pa ang basag cay 
sa baong ualang lamat. 

(Tag.) 
Ang sabi sa evangelio ni Cristo ay 
ganito. Hindi rao sia naparito o 
nanoag dito sa lupa para sacupin 
ang niga banal cung di ang maca- 
salanan. 

Better the broken piece than the 
whole without crack. 
In the gospel Christ said that he did not 
[1041 



(•(inie upon eMi'th for the righteous but 
for the sinner. 

SIS. Cung uala cay magbigay ca at 
eung meroon ay huagna. 

(Tag.) 

Xung*ang nga fariseo ay nacahull 

nang niangangaluniang babae ay 

i ni habla cay Cristo. at ang cani- 

lung sabi, Hindi po ba maestro na 

sabi sa ley ni Moises na sino mang 

mahuli sa pangangalunia ay pupu- 

culin nang bato hangan sa mania- 

tay. Ang isinagot ni Cristo ; sino 

mang ualang sala ay cumuha nang 

bato at puclin na. 

Give if you have none ; if you have 

don't give. 

AVhen the Pharisees caught a woman in 

adultery, they took her before Christ. 

They said, "what sentence do you give 

to those taken in adultery, since in th^* 

law of Closes it is commanded that the 

woman taken in adultery shall be stoned 

until she die." Christ answered, "Let 

him which is without sin among you 

cast the first stone." 

[105] 



31-4. Ilumiling ang hari sa canyang 
alagad nang uala sa kanyat di pa 
natatangap, ang hiningan naman 
ay dagling nag-gaoad nang sa bo- 
ong yatu'y di pa natutuklas. 

(Tag.) 
Ang pagbibinyag ni San Juan 
Bautista cay Cristo. 
The King asked from his soldier 
what he had not, and the soldier 
gave him what Avas not in the 
world. 
The Baptism by St. John Baptist of 
Christ. 

315. Nang mabasag ang bote 
lalong na paka buti. 

(Tag.) Mahal na Yirgen 

The bottle became better when 
broken. The Virgin Mary 

''When ]\Iary was yet unmarried and 
Christ had not yet been born she w^as 
not considered very sacred; we say the 
bottle was not yet broken. When she 
was married to Joseph and Christ was 
born she became very sacred; so we say 
that when the bottle was broken the bet- 
ter it became." 

[106] 



i 



31 f). Xang j)itasin ang hinog hilas ang 
siang nahulog. 

(Tag.) 
Xoong magpapugot si Herodes 
nang mga bata dahilan sa gusto 
niang mapatay si Cristo. Xapatay 
ang meroon 1000 bata data puat 
si Cristo hinde napatay. Sa naca- 
tnid napitas nia ang hilao at at 
ang hinog ay hindi. Si Cristo 
sapageat pmio nang carumingan 
ay ipinalagay na hinog at ang niga 
bata ay hilao sapageat sila nala- 
pang carnmungan. 
"When he plucked the ripe, the un- 
ripe fell. 
When King Herod wanted to kill Christ, 
he ordered to kill all children ; he 
thought that if all the children in his 
country were killed. Christ could not 
escape. But he did not know how pow- 
erful Christ was. So the children who 
knew nothing (were unripe) fell and 
Christ (ripe) because he knows every- 
thing escaped. 

317. Tpinalit ang guinto sa bibinga. 
(Tag.) 

[ 107 ] 



Ito i naiiucol sa pagsacop ni Cristo 
sa 'citing casalanan iia hindi cail- 
angan sia mainatay masacop 1am- 
ang ang ating easalanan na siang 
catulad ng bibinga at ang ea niang 
pagea Dios na catulad ang guinto. 
Sand is changed to gold. 
This applies to Christ, when he redeemed 
our sins. He did not value his life but 
gave it that we might be saved from 
our sins. His life is gold because he 
was full of knowledge; he died on ac- 
count of our sins which are like sand. 

Reptiles, etc. 

318. Xang mimti ay may bun tot 
nang lumakiy napugot. 

(Tag.) Palaca 

When he was little he had a tail 
but when he was grown he had 
none. Frog 

319. Adda maysa nga ubing nga adcla 
idiay danum ngem di met uminom. 

(Hoc.) Tocak 

There is a boy living in the water 
who does not drink. Frog 

[ 108 1 



I 



320. Bast on ti baenang saan iiio nga 
iiiaigaiian. 

(Hoc. — also Pang.) l^^leg 

The hacnang's cane, you cannot 
hold it. Snake 

Bacnanc), a man of wealth. 

321. No nacariing naeanuilagat : 
no naeaturog naeannildagat. 

(Hoc.) rieo: 

If awake, his eyes wide open ; if 
asleep, his eyes wide open. Snake 

322. Anano nga sapat nga con niag- 
lacat, dala nia ang iya balay? 

(Bis., — also Pang.) Ba-o 

AYhat animal carries his house 
wherever he goes ? Turtle 

323. Tata a tolay ieacangcalinna na 
balena. 

(Gad.) Dagga 

A man who always carries his 
house along Avith him. Turtle 

324. ]\Iagmagna itugtogotnat balayna. 

(Hoc.) Pag-ong 

AValking and walking and cariying 
his own house. Turtle 

[1C9 1 



325. Eto na si caca may sunong na 
dampa. 

(Tag.) Pagong 

Here comes brother with a house 
over his head. Turtle 

326. Magma nagcal-logong 
no maibagam pag-ong. 

(Hoc.) Pag-ong 

Walking, wearing his hat. Turtle 

Road. 

327. Bulong ti saba lunac-acaba ; 
bulong ti niog umat-atid-dog. 

(Hoc.) Calzada 

Leaf of a banana become wider; 
leaf of a eocoanut become longer. 

Road 

328. Nagmolaac iti carabosa iti santac 
na macada non idiay Manila. 

(Hoc.) Calzada 

I planted a calabash; its branches 
can reach to Manila. Road 

Also has for answer, telegraph line. 

329. Nan ta ne mac na laver ed Dagu- 
pan angad diay lamoto. Calzada 

(Pang.) Calzada 

f 110 1 



I 



\ 



I have planted a betel-tree in Dagii- 
pan but its roots reach to here. 

Road 
Shade, Shadow, etc. 

330. Xo aoan sapolsapolen ngem no ad- 
da saan mo met nga alaen. 

(Hoc.) Linong 

If there is none you are seeking it ; 
if there is some you do not take it. 

Shade 

331. Ania ti umona nga aramiden diay 
vaca no lumgac ti init .' 

(Iloe.^ Qnitaenna diay an- 

ninioanna 
"What is the first thing the cow- 
does when the sun rises? 

Looks at its shadow 

332. Xo magnaac iti nasipnget aoan 
caduac quet no magnaac iti nala- 
oag adda caduac. 

(Hoc.) Anninioan 

If I walk in the dark I have no 
companion : if I walk in the light 
I have one. Shadow 

333. X"o tilioec tilioennac : no itarayac 
camatennac. 

(Hoc.) Aninioan 

[1111 



i 



If I catch, it catches; if I rim 
away it chases me. Shadow 

334. Diad ogtoy agueo oalay iiiapalit 
con anapuen no na anap co agco 
alaen. 

(Pang.) Serom 

At noon I must depart to find; if 
I can find it, I will not take. 

Shadow 

335. ]\Iilub yang alang- liban, linual 
yang alang liualan. 

(Pamp.) Anina tanni a may- 
ay aquit quing salamin. 
He came in through no door and 
went out through no door. 

Reflection in a mirror 

Smoking. 

336. San Fernando at Bakulod sabay 
na nasunog. 

(Tag.) Cigarillo 

San Fernando and Bacolor were 
burned at the same time. 

Cigarette 
The paper and the tobacco are con- 
sumed together. 

[1121 



storm, Sky, etc. 

;337. Daluaiig dahon nang pinda-pinda, 
sing lalapad sing gaganda. 

(Tag.) Langit at lupa 

Two loaves of pinda-pinda equal 
in width and beauty. 

Sky and earth 

338. Quinosicus a barraas; no niaib- 
agam cucuanae. 

(Hoc.) Quimat 

Twisted like a harraas; tell it and 
I am yours. Lightning 

The word harraas is local. Perhaps the 

name of some vine. 

339. Baston ni San Josep 
indi ma isip. 

(Bis.) Ulan 

Saint Joseph's canes cannot be 
counted. Rain 

Drops of rain in a tropical storm may 

well suggest rods or staves. 

340. Buhoc ni Adan, hindi mabilang. 

(Tag.) Ulan 

Adam's hair cannot be counted. 

Rain 

fll31 



34L Isbu ti guelang-guelaiij^' di iiuibi- 

(Iloc.) Todd 

Giiebuig-g'uelaiig-'s piss, you can not 

count. Kaiii 

342. Vaca co sa Mayiiila, liangang ditoi, 
dinig ang iinga. 

(Tag.) Culog 

My cow in IManila, Avliose mooing 
is heard here. Thnnder 

343. Aniat magna a saan a maquita? 

(Hoc.) Angin 

What walks that cannot be seen? 

Wind 

344. Etuna-etuna hindi mo pa naqui- 
quita. 

(Tag.) Hangin 

Here it comes, yet you do not see 

it. AVind 

34.5. Picabaluan de ding malda alang 

maca ibie uaga. 

(Pamp.) Angin 

He is known everywhere but no 
one can explain what he is. 

Wind 
Stove. 

346. Tal-lo a pugot natured ti pudut. 
(Hoc.) Dalican 

[114] 



Three ghosts endure miK-li heat. 

Stove 
The three supports for the pot are 
meant. It seems that the pugot (ghost) 
is black. 

.'U7. Tatlong magkakapatid nagtiliis .sa 
init. 

(Tag.) Tungko nang calang 

Three brothers suffering from the 

heat. Pot rests 

34:8. Tatlong mag kakapitid sing pupute 

nang dibdib. 

(Tag.) Calan 

Three sisters with equally white 

breasts. Stove 

They are equally white — i. e. they are 

all three black from the fire. 

349. Xagcal-logong iiag pica nagcaballo 

tallot sacana. 

(Hoc.) Dalican 

It has a hat and a spear, a horse 
and three feet. Stove 

. 350. ]\ralaki ang namahay cay sa bahay. 
(Tag.) Calang at ang bahay 
nang Calang. 
The inhabitant is larger than the 

[1151 



house. Stove and its lower part 
(called its house.) 

351. Na upo si ca Iteii], sinulot uiea 
Pula. 

(Tag.) Fallot at apoy 

Compadre "Item" (black) sat 
down. Compadre "Pula" (red) 
poked him. Pot and flame 

352. Ing caballero cung negro makasake 
yang attung cabayu dapat kikiak 
yang anting loco. 

(Pamp.) Balanga ampong 

nasi. 
]\ry black horseman rides three 
horses but he is crying like a fool. 
A pot of cooking rice 
The three horses are the firestones or 
the three supports of the pot in the pot- 
tery stove; the bubbling is the crying. 

Time. 

353. Ania nga aldao ti caatid-dagan? 

(Hoc.) Ti aldao a saan a 

panangan. 
What day is the longest? 
The day on which you do not eat 

[ 1161 



I 



854. Xag daan si Cabo negro, naiiiatay 
ua lahat ang tao. 

(Tag.) Gabi 

The black Corporal passed, all the 
people died. Night 

Died. here, is slept. 

Tools. 

355. Xmig eiiiiniiiia ing iiialati. ing iiiar- 
agiil emitiiqui. 

(Pamp.) Barrenang espiral 

If not preceded by the smaller the 
larger one will not go. Anger 

356. Adda pinarsua iti Dios natanciuen 
ti pammaguina niadi a mangan no 
di matoen ti olona. 

(Hoc.) Paet 

There is a creature of God whose 
body is hard: it does not wish to 
eat unless you strike its head. 

Chisel 

357. Adda babay a labang di mangan no 
dial paculan. 

(Hoc.) Paet 

There is a woman who does not 
eat unless you strike her. Chisel 

[117] 



358. Ing damulag cung dapa, quing 
gulut ya ta tacla. 

(Pamp.) Catam 

My crawling carabao excretes its 
feces upward. Plane 

359. Taot ngato, taot baba, cayot tin- 
gana. 

(Hoc.) Ragadi 

]\ran above, man below, wood in 
middle. Saw 

Below the liorizontall}^ placed timber to 
be sawed a pit is dug; one sawyer is be- 
low in the pit. the other above, each 
holds a handle of the great saw, which 
works up and down. 

Toy. 

360. Enbontayog coy ecnol 
quinmocaoc ya tampol. 

(Pang.) Bibintarol 

I throw the eggs; they crow im- 
mediately. Firecracker 

361. Adda abalbalayco a sinam granada 
rineppetco a binastabasta imbarsac- 
co diay daga nasay sayaat ti can- 
cionna. 

(Hoc.) Sunay 

[118] 



I have a toy like a granada ; I tied 
it around and around and threw it 
on the ground and it sang sweetly. 

Top 

Trunk. 

362. Pusipusec ta pusegmo ta iruarco 
ta quinnannio. 

(Hoc.) Lacaza 

I turn your navel to take out what 
you have eaten. Trunk 

363. Adda pay maysa nga quita diay 
balay a naaramid iti cayo quet ad- 
da met uppat nga sacana nga 
babasit quet adda met innem nga 
aeaba queneuana rupano quet 
agngiao saan nga magna. 

(Hoc.) Baol 

I have something in my house 

made of wood; it has four short 

legs and six fiat faces; it squeaks, 

but cannot walk. Trunk 

Umbrella. 

364. No umulog ti senora augucrad ti 
sampaga. 

(Hoc.) Payong 

[119] 



When the lady comes down the 
sampaga^ opens. Umbrella 

365. Con butongon pasoc ; con induso 
payog. 

(Bis.) Payong 

When pulled it is a cane ; Avhen 
pushed a tent. Um])rella 

Utensils, etc. 

366. Hindi tayop. hindi tao, apat ang 
suso. 

(Tag., — also Pang.) Buslo 

Not animal, not man. She has 
four breasts. Basket 

367. Hindi hare, hinde pare, nag dada- 
met nang sari-sari. 

(Tag.) Sampayan 

Not king, not padre, it wears many 
kinds of clothes. Clothes-line 

368. Adda maysa nga ubing 
a natured ti lammin. 

(Hoc.) Sudo 

There is a boy. who does not shiver 
with the cold. Dipper 

This dipper is made from the half of a 

polished cocoanut shell. 



a tiower. 

[120] 



369. Xang isoot coi, tuyo, nang bunu- 
ten coi natulo. 

(Tag.) Tal)() 

When I plunged it in it was dry -. 
when I drew it out it was dripping. 

Dipper 

370. Sacay sino balay ina nga puno 
sang ventana ? 

(Bis.) Puluguan 

Whose house is that, which is full 
of windows? The hen house 

371. Xo adda ti lenong 
agcalcal logong. 

(Hoc.) Caramba 

If it is in the shade it Avears its hat. 

A jar full of water 

372. Aniat aramid a nagbaticuling ti 
sabut. 

(Hoc.) Pagbagasan 

What work has a gizzard like a 
sabut 1. Storage jar for rice 

The scibut is the eocoanut cup or bowl : 
in the paghagasan, there is always a 
ganta for measuring rice. This ganta 
is the gizzard here meant. 

[121] 



373. Pusepusec ti bato tumbog caravan 
Veto. 

(Hoc.) Gilingan 

I turn the stone and there flows 
out like the Veto river. ~SU\l 

314:. Hiniguit co ang yantok, nag bibi- 
ling ang bundoc. 

(Tag.) C4uilingan 

I i)ulled the rope and the moun- 
tain turned. Mill 

375. Hiniguit co ang Caguin. nag ka- 
kara ang maching. 

(Tag.) Guilingan 

I pulled the rope and the monkey 
began to howl. 

Refers to the creaking of the mill, when 

grinding. 

376. Isang malaking babai, sa likuran 
tumatae. 

(Tag.) Guilingan 

A big woman, who excretes at the 

back. :Mill 

The meal is here considered as excreted. 

377. Dinalas nang dinalas mapute ang 
lumabas. 

(Tag.) Guilingan 

[122] 



Somebody got busy and something 
white appeared. ^lill 

The ground rice pours out from the mill 

as a white meal. 

378. Aldo at bengi macanganga ya, ma- 
nena ya yang parusa. 

(Pamp.) Asung 

It gapes day and night awaiting 
punishment. ^lortar 

379. Isa lamang ang sapin, duha ang 
batiis apat ang pa-a, isa ang lauas, 
isa ang baba apang uala sing olo. 

(Bis.) Luzong 

He has but one shoe, two shins, 
four legs, one body, one mouth, but 
no head. ]\Iortar 

380. No igamac ta siquet mo lagtoca a 
lagto. 

(Hoc.) Al-o 

If I hold your waist you .jump and 

jump. Pestle 

In pounding rice, the great wooden 

pestle is taken by the middle, which is 

more slender than the pounding ends. 

381. Xo magna ni arodoc agparintomeng 
amin a root. 

(Hoc.) Arado 

[123] 



When the creeper passes all th.^ 
grass kneels. Plow 

382. Cobbo ni aniani quiad ni inaiu sica 
nga anaccla daramodum ca. 

(Hoc.) Arado 

The father is bent over, the mother 
is bent back and the son is bent for- 
ward. Plow 

This has reference to the different sticks. 

or pieces, of which the plow is composed. 

383. Sa palacol nabnhay 
at sa nntog namatay. 

(Tag.) Palayoc 

Produced by hammering but de- 
stroyed by a jar. Pot 
Clay for pottery is prepared by pound- 
ing it Avith a light hammer; it is also 
beaten into shape in the process of giv- 
ing it form. 

384. Pegarenco abot pegarenco abot. 

(Pang.) Liquen 

I turn over completely, I turn over 
completely. Pot ring 'support 

385. Adda abal-balayco a pusipusac a 
pusipus mabalbal-cut. 

(Hoc.) Pudonan 

[124 1 



I have a thing, which I twine and 
twine and it is covered. 

Weaving spool 

386. Nano nga sapat nga baba ang naga 
caon. mata ang nga pamns-on ? 

(Bis.) Ayagan 

What animal is it. which takes its 
food through its mouth and ex- 
cretes it through its eyes? Sieve 

387. Bahay ni Guiring-guiring butas- 
butas ang sinding. 

(Tag.) Bithay 

'^ Guiring-guiring 's'' house is full 
of holes. Sieve 

388. Adda maysa a caballo; tal-lot sa- 
cana ; no dica sacayan di magna. 

(Hoc.) Egad 

There is a horse ; he has three legs : 
if you do not ride on him, he never 
walks. Copra shredder 

389. Limma ac ed Dagupan dugduaray 
bacatco. 

(Pang.) Sali 

I went to Dagupan but I left only 
two footprints. Sled 

390. Aniat aramid a duduat tugaona 

[125] 



inganat panaeaparsuana ? 

(Hoc.) Pasagad 

What work has two seats since its 
creation ? Sled 

391. Ania ti nppat ti sacana dudiia ti 
tugotna ? 

(Hoc.) Pasagad 

AYhat has four feet but only two 
foot-prints ? Rice-sled 

The sled for hauling rice has four sup- 
ports or legs, which end in two runners. 

392. Pusepusec ti pengan tum-bog ca- 
ravan Vigan. 

(Hoc.) Dadapilan 

I turn the plate and water flows out 
like the Yigan River. Sugarniill 

393. Oalay baboy con baleg son laben 
nga libngaleb. 

(Pang.) Darapitan 

I have a large pig: during the 
night he gnmts. Sugarmill 

Vegetables. 

39-1:. Tite nang ania mo. isinubsob co sa 
abo. 
■ (Tag.) Camote 

Your father's I place in the 

ashes. Camote 

[126 1 



The camote is a sort of sweet potato; it 
may be baked in the ashes. 

395. Xcig'sabong ti sinan malueong nag- 
bunga imeg ti daga. 

(Hoc.) Camote 

It produces a tiower like a cup; 
fruit underground. Camote 

396. Sirad mirahiJis oalad dalem so sic- 
sic. 

(Pang.) Cete 

The wirahilis (fish) has his scales 
inside. Cete 

The cete {'' piquant e'') is the pepper. 

397. Otin nen laquic Duardo batil ya 
anga ed ngoro. 

(Pang.) Palia 

]\Iy grandfather Eduardo's is 

covered with pimples. Cucumber 

398. Oquis nan bagasnan. 

(Hoc.) Lasona 

Its bark is its seed. Onion 

399. Binili ang isang minithi kong ba- 
gay at ang hinahangad ay pakina- 
bangan. pagdating sa amin ang 
pinangyarihan. nang gagamitin 
luha koy ])umakal. 

(Tag.) Sibuyas 

[1271 



I bought a thing I wished to iise; 
when I tried to use it my tears 
fell. Onion 

400. Lsta eo sa ^lariveles sapin-.sai)in ang 
caliskis. 

(Tag.) Sile 

]\Iy tish in ]\Iariveles has manifold 

scales. Pepper 

Scales laid upon one another; the seeds 

of the pepper are fiat and stacked 

against one another, 

401. Mahanghang hindi naman pa- 
minta ; maputi hindi naman papel ; 
verde hindi naman suha ; turang 
mong bigla. 

(Tag.) Rabanos 

It is sharp but not pepper; white 
but not paper; green but not shad- 
dock; guess what that is. Radish 

402. Ang iloy naga camang ang bata 
naga pungco. 

(Bis.) Calabaza 

The mother creeps, and the son sits. 

Squash 
The mother is the vine; the child is the 
fruit. The riddle gains point, by sug- 

[128] 



gesting a reversal of the natural condi- 
tions. 

40;^). Ania iti parsiia ni Apo Dios nga 
aoan ti matana aoan ti ngioatna 
([uen aoan ti obetna qiiet mangan ti 
lacloc-ladoc ? 

(Hoc.) Tabungao 

AVhat creature of Lord God has no 
eyes, no mouth, no anus — and eats 
Jacloc-Iadoc ? A white squash 

Ladoc-ladoc is rice flattened in the mor- 
tar by the blows of the pounder. The 
seeds of the iahungao resemble it. 

404. Berdi ya balat. malutu ya laman 
anti mo ing pacuan. 

(Pamp.) Pacuan 

Its skin is green and its flesh is like 
a watermelon. Watermelon 

The riddle is poor, in that it introduces 
the answer as a term of comparison, in a " 
way to mislead. Similar cases occur in 
other lands. 

405. Verde ang balat pula ang laman 
espeetorante cung turan. 

(Tag.) Pacuan 

Green skin, red meat, espeetorante 
they call it. Watermelon 

[129 1 



Vision. 

406. Limoesoae alabasco agco asabi. 

(Pang.) Paeanengneng 

I jumped further but I did not 
reach. To see 

Waves. 

407. Naga dalagan nga ua-ay sing ti-il 
cog naga ngurub nga ua-ay sing 
baba. 

(Bis.) Balod 

It runs having no feet and it roars 
liaving no mouth. Waves 

Word plays. 

408. Ania iti mainaganan ari ditoy ba- 
gui? 

(Hoc.) Aripoyot 

"What king (ari) do you name in 
your body? Anpoyot 

This is the great inner muscle of the 

upper leg. 

409. Cung hindi lamang ang tatlong 
letra t. o, at s ay kinakain saua 
siya. 

(Tag.) Asintos 

But for the letters t o s we would 

be eating it. (String) 

The word asintos means string; drop- 

[130 1 



ping the letters fos we have asin left, 
meaning salt. 

410. Bugtong pasmiasa. puno at duloi 
may bimga. 

(Tag.) Calamias» 

Bugtong pas''mias''a. whose trunk 
and branches have fruit. Calamias 
Bugtong is a riddle: the word pas" mi- 
asma has no meaning. There is here a 
mere phiy on the sound of words. "Pas- 
"mias"a suggests the answer. 

411. Casano iti panangtiliu iti ugsa a di 
masapul iti silo, aso, gayang, oen 
no a aniaman a paniliu? 

(Hoc.) Urayec a maloto 

How do you take a deer without 
net, dogs, spear, or other things for 
catching? Cooked 

412. Laguiung tao, laguiung numuc. 
delana ning me tung a yayup. 

(Pamp.) Culassisi 

The name of a man. the name of a 

chicken, were carried by a bird. 

Culas is a man's name; sisi the name of 

a chicken. Combined they make a 

bird's name. 

[131] 



41 ;i. Indi sapat indi man tano apang, 
ang ngalan nia si "esco. " 

(Bis.. — also Tag.) Escopidor, 
Escopeta. 
Xeither animal nor man bnt its 
name is ''esco." 

Escopidor. Escopeta 
A mere play on the words. Esco is a 
nickname for Francisco. The escupidor 
is a cuspidor, the escopeta a broom. The 
meaning of the words goes for nothing. 
The words are both of Spanish origin. 

414. Macatu ti poonna. rugae iti ngo- 
duna. 

(Hoc.) ]Macaturugac 

]\Iacatu=cloth 

Rugac=old. rotten clothing 

Cloth is the beginning; tatters the 

ending, 
i. e. Macatu is the beginning, rugnc the 
ending. The whole Avord means I am 
sleeping. 

415. Salapi iti poona ; ngao ti ngodona. 

(Hoc.) Salapingao 

(Fifty cents) Salapi is the begin- 
ning; ( ) oigao the end. 

[132] 



The Salapingao is a bird "like a swal- 
low." 
416. Sinampal co bago inaloc. 

(Tag.) Sampaloc 

I slapped before I offered. 

Sampaloc 
There is simple word play here; the be- 
ginning and end of the riddle give the 
word S(in)ampal-oe. The Sampaloc is 
a fruit tree. 



[133] 



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