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Full text of "The Liturgies of S. Mark, S. James, S. Clement, S. Chrysostom, and the Church of Malabar; translated, with introduction and appendices"

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EXPLANATION OF FRONTISPIECE. 



The Frontispiece is taken from one of the series of 
nine plates in a beautiful MS. of the Greek Liturgies now in 
the Vatican ; but, in a.d. 1600, in the Monastery of S. Mary 
at Gethsemane. They 1/ n engraved by Cardinal Mai, 

in the vi. volume of the " Nova ^. ja." The intention 

of the designer is to show the fellow-mirisfr. ation of angels with 
men in the Liturgy. This plate (thosixtl represents the Great 
Entrance : (see pp. sxv. & 109.) The I-riest, carried by angels, 
brings in the chalice covered with the aer : in his right hand, 
he holds the paten, covered with its veil. The door, out of which 
he comes, is that of the prothesis. The Deacon, with a taper, 
and the stole marked with the Ter Sanctus, bows. To the right, 
an archimandrite stands up : by him is S. Michael : in answer to 
the prayer, " Grant that with our entrance may be an entrance 
of tlie holy angels." In front of the altar, the Priest is repre- 
sented again: he wears iha $toicharion, or alb; over it a plain 
phmlonion, or chasuble ; on his left (by the designer's mistake 
for his right) is seen a part of the cpigonation. On the altar are 
the two tapers: the chalice, covered with the aer ; the asterisk 
covered with the veil ; and behind, the books of the Epistles and 
Gospels. The Great Entrance, as we shall see, is the grandest 
piece of ritual in the Eastern Church, and mystically represents 
I he Incarnation. 




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THE GREA'l- ENTRANCE. 



TNijxTurc:- 



THE 

LITURGIES 



OF 



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t'jie Cjiiirrjj nf Blalakr, 



TRANSLATED, 



WITH 



TRODUCTION AK.D APPENDICES, 
EEV. f Mf^'NEALE, M.A., 

Warden of Sackville College. 

LONDON : ^ ' 

. T. HAYES, LYALL PLACE, EATON SQUARE. 

1859. 



TO THE 

REV. JOSEPH HASKOLL, M.A., 

RECTOR OF EAST BARKWITII 
IN THE DIOCESE OP LINCOLN, 

THESE LITUKGIES 
ARE DEDICATED 
IN REMEMBRANCE OP 
A FRIENDSHIP OF TWENTY YEARS 



PREFACE. 



As I have said in the Introduction to my Edition 
of the Liturgies in Greek, it has for many years 
been my desire to render these most pure sources of 
Eucharistical Doctrine accessible to all my brethren. 
Hitherto the whole of them have not been procurable 
in Greek, except with difficulty, and at a heavy 
expense : in English, not at all. 

I had not, however, intended to translate them ; but 
the united advice of all the Ecclesiastical Reviews, 
and of many private friends, and many Priests with 
whom I was previously unacquainted, has encouraged 
me to undertake that task also : — and the result is now 
before the reader. 

A brief Introduction is prefixed ; but to enter, in 
such very narrow limits, at any satisfactory length on 
the subject, is impossible. 

The reader who desires to study it more deeply may 
consult : — 1. Mr. Palmer's Essays on the Eastern 
Church : 2. My own Introduction to its History : 
3. (which may easily be procured through Messrs. 
Williams& Norgate,) the translation of M.Mouravieff's 
work on the Eastern Ritual, by Theodore Ballianus. 
{aitKTtoKoi.i TTefi rcZv Is^wv ukoKovSiouv trji; avoLtokiyirg 
opSoSo^ov 'EKKX.rj(risc$. Athens : Philadelpheus, 1857.) 

The Translations in the present volume are as 
follows : 

A 



VI PREFACE. 

S. Mark] The pro-anaplioral portion, new : the 
V anaphoral, slightly altered from my 
S.James J Introduction. 

S. Clement. The pro-anaphoral portion, new : the 
anaphoral, corrected from Dr. Brett's Translation. 

S. Chrysostom '\Slightly altered from my Intro- 
The Prothesis J duction. 

The Malabar Liturgy — entirely new. 

I have endeavoured, most carefully, to abstain in 
my notes from all polemical remarks ; but one observa- 
tion I should not feel justified in omitting. For nearly 
twenty years these, and the other early Liturgies, have 
been my daily study : there are very few passages in 
them which I could not repeat by heart ; and scarcely 
any important works on the subject which I have not 
read. I may therefore claim some little right to be 
heard with respect to them. And I say most unhesi- 
tatingly, that ; while I can conceive that some passages 
in them might be tortured into a Calvinistic sense, 
were sufficient ingenuity employed ; no ingenuity can 
make any single clause even patient of the theory of 
equivalence, which the "Opinion" of a Scotch Bishop 
seems to endorse. If that theory be true, the Eucha- 
ristic teaching of every Eastern Liturgy is absolutely 
false. 

I would conclude by praying that the doctrine of 
these Liturgies may spread more and more widely 
amongst us ; and that this poor little effort of mine 
may be blessed to that end. 

Sacltville College, Michaelmas 1859. 



INTRODUCTION. 



I. Liturgical Families, 

1. Primitive Liturgies may be divided into five 
principal families. (1.) That of S.James, or Jerusalem; 
(2.; That of S. Mark, or Alexandria ; (3.) That of 
S. Thaddeus, or the East ; ('4.) That of S. Peter, or 
Rome; (5.) That of S. John, or Ephesus. 

2. That of Jerusalem may be divided into three 
branches : the Clementine, Caesarean, and Hierosoly- 
mitan. (^) 

3. Of these, the Clementine has no branches. 

4. The normal form of the Csesarean Liturgv is 
that of S. Basil. This on the one hand branches out 
into that of iS. Chrysostom; on the other, into the 
Armenian. 

5. The norm of the Hierosolymitan family is the 
Liturgy of S. James : and this family has three divisions. 

(1) In my Introduction to the History of the Holy Eastern 
Church, I had classed tlie Clementine Liturgy by itself; but Dr. 
Daniel, in his observations on my book, teems to me to have 
show a that it has a very close connection with the Hierosolymitan, 
or, as he prefers to call it, Antiochene. 

a2 



VIU INTRODUCTION. 

(1.) Sicilian S. James, as said in that island before the 
Saracen conquest, and partly assimilated to the Petrine 
Liturgy. (2.) S. Cyril : where used uncertain, but 
assimilated to the Alexandrian form. (3.) Syriac S. 
James, the source of the largest number of extant 
Liturgies. They are these: [1.] Lesser S. James. 
[2.] S. Clement. [3.] S. Mark. [4.] *S. Bionysius. 
[5.] S. Xystus. [6.] S. Ignatius. [7.] S. Peter I. 
[8.] S. Peter II. [9 ] S. Jidins. [10.] S. John 
Evangelist. [11.] S. Basil. [12,] {S.) Bioscorus. 
[13.] S. John Ch-ysostom I. [14.] All Apostles. 
[15.] S. 3Iarutas. [16.] S. Eustathiits. [17.] Phild- 
xemtsl. [18.] Matthew the Shepherd. [19.] James 
Baradaeus. [20.] James of Botna. [21.] James 
ofEdessa. [22.] Moses Bar- Cephas. [23.] Thomas 
of Heraclea. [24.] Holy Boctors. [2-5.] Philo- 
xenus II. [26.] <S. John Chrysostom II. [27.] 
Ahu'lfaraj. [28.] John of Bara. [29.] S.Celestine. 
[30.] John Bar-Susan. [31.] Eleazar of Babylon. 
[32.] John the Scribe. [33.] John Maro. [34.] 
Bionyshis of Cardou. [35.] Michael of Antioch. 
[36.] Jolin Bar-Vahib. [37.] John Bar-Maadn. 
[38.] Bionysins of Biarbekr. [39.] Philoxenus of 
Bagdad. All these, from Syriac S. James inclusive, 
are Monophysite Liturgies. 

6. The norm of the Alexandrian family is S. Mark. 
From this are derived these Liturgies: (1.) S. Cyril. 
(2.) S. Gregory. (3.) S. Basil. 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

From S. Basil finother family ST3i'in<rs. used in 
Ethiopia, and for the most part very barbarous. Tho 
norm of this is the Liturgy of All Apostles. From 
this, as from their source, spring the followinc;' Litur- 
gies : [1.] S. John Evangelist. [2.] The Three 
Hundred and Eighteen. [3.] S. Epiphanius. [4.] 
S. James of Serug. [o.] Oar Lord Jesus. [6.] 
(S.) Dioscorus. [7.] S. Gregory. [8.] S. Mary. 
[9.] S. John Chrysostom. 

There is a bastard Liturgy between Egyptian S. 
Basil and Syriac S. James, called John of Bassora. 

7. The Eastern family is much loss numerous. The 
norm of this is All Apostles. From this there spring 
(L) Theodore the Interpreter. (2.) Nestorius. (3.) 
Narses the Leper. (4.) The Liturgy of 31alahar or 
S. Thomas. But this last is rather collateral with, 
than derived from. All Apostles. The first four of 
these are Nestorian. The fifth, originally Nestorian,, 
has since become Jacobite. 

8. The Petrine family has only one Liturgy, the 
Moman. 

9. The Ephesine family may be divided into two 
orders, (L) The Mozarabic. (2.) The Gallican. 

Bxit springing from the mixture of these -with the 
Roman, are [1.] The Amhrosian Liturgy. [2.] The 
Patriarchine, or that used in the province of Aquilcia. 

And these arc all. 



X INTRODUCTION. 

II. Difference between Eastern and Western 

Liturgies. 

By Eastern, I mean those of 
S. James, 
S. Mark, 
S. Thaddeus, 
S. John. 

1. The Eastern have, the.V/estern have not, a distinct 
invocation of the Holy Ghost, without which the 
transmutation of the Elements is not considered per- 
fected. It is true that this has been obliterated from 
the Mozarabic rite, but there it was originally : in the 
Galilean it is still visible. 

2. The Western — and that of S. John — have vary- 
ing collects, as well as epistles and gospels— the others 
have not. 

3. The three purely Eastern — S. James, S. Mark, 
and S. Thaddeus — have only one preface for every 
day in the year. 

4. The Mozarabic, Galilean, and Ambrosian, have 
a different one for every festival : the Roman had, 
and has several still. 

III. Distinctive marks of Oriental Liturgies. 

These are principally to be found in the position of 
the intercession for quick and dead. 



INTRODUCTIGX. XI 

(1.) In tlie Hierosolymitan family, it is between 
the Invocation of the Holy Ghost and the Lord's 
Prayer. 

(2.) In the Alexandrian, it is before the Commemo- 
ration of the Institution. 

(3.) In the Nestorian, it is between the Commemo- 
ration of Institution and the Invocation of the Holy 
Ghost. 

IV. Tiie Order of the Liturgies themselves. 

1. Every Liturgy may be divided into two parts : 

The Pro-Anaphoral : and 
The Anaphoral portion. 
The former extends to the Sursum corda : the latter 
from thence to the end. 

2. The Pro-Anaphoral portion is divided into 

The Mass of the Catechumens : and 
The Mass of the Faithful. 

3. The Anaphoral portion has these four divisions : 

The great Eucharistic Prayer : 

Tlie Consecration : 

The Intercession for quick and dead : and 

The Communion. 

4. The Mass of the Catechumens consists of these 
parts : 



XIV 



INTRODUCTION. 




1. The ayioi fyy\iJt.a., or sanctuary. 

2. The altar, in the centre of the chord of the apse. 

3. The protJu'sis ? which when divided, as here, by walls 

4. The diaconicon $ from the bema, are called parabemata. 

5. The iconostasis. 

0. The tndlus, or dome : under it the choir. 

7. The trapeza, or nave, not architecturally divided from the choir. 

8, The narthex. 

2. Every Eastern Church consists of four portions : 

Bema or Sanctuary : 

Choir : 

Trapeza, or Na\'e: 

Narthex, or Western Porch. 
But, as in the West, the sanctuary and the choir 
have hardly any separation, and go together under 
the name of chancel, so in the East the choir and 
nave have hardly any separation, and go together 
under the name of naos. 



INTRODUCTIOX. XV 

3. The bema is separated from the naos by a solid 
screen— the iconostasis; so termed because of the icons 
on it. 

This answers, not to the rood screen of the Western, 
but to the altar-rails of the English, Church. Its 
doors are called the Holy Doors. 

4, North of thf! altar — there is only one altar in every 
Eastern Church — is the chapel of the prothesis, with 
the table at which the preparation of the Elements 
takes place. Thence the Little and Great Entrances 
are made. 

5, South of the altar is the diaconicon, skeuophy- 
lakion, or sacristy. 

VI. The Liturgies contained in the 2)resent volume 
are those of 

S. James, S. Mark, 

S. Chrysostom, S. Clement, {") 

The Church of Malabar. 

The Anaphoras of the first four have been translated 

by Dr. Brett ; the whole of S. James by Dr. Rattray; 

and of S. Chrysostom by Dr. King and Dr. Covel. I 

believe that the whole of these Liturgies has not ap- 

(2) I am anxious to correct a mistake in my preface to the Greek 
edition of this Liturgy, into which I was led by too implicitly 
following an assertion of my friend Dr. Daniel. It is that the 
expression, " cleansing- ourselves from all filthiness both of the 
flesh and spirit," is quoted seven times in the Clementine Liturgy. 
I ought to have said that the verse, which contains that express- 
fcion, is referred iofive times in that Liturgy. 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

peared before in English : the Avliole of S. Chrysostom 
and the AnajDhorae of S. James and S. Mark may be 
found in my Introduction to the History of the Eastern 
Church. The Malabar Liturgy is given as a specimen 
of the family of S. Thaddeus, rather than one of the 
tiiree Nestorian Liturgies, as not less valuable, and 
not havino- been before translated. 

To these I add the office of the Prothesis ; as now 
said all over the Eastern Church. 

The Liturgy of S. Chrysostom is the normal 
Liturgy of the Eastern Church. That of S. Basil is 
said on all the Sundays in Lent, (except Palm Sunday,) 
Maundy Thursday, Easter Eve, the Vigils of Christ- 
mas and Epiphany, and the Feast of S. Basil (Jan.L) 
That of S. James is said in some of the Greek islands 
on the Festival of the Saint. That of S. Mark has 
been obsolete since the time of Theodore Bolsamon. 
This prelate, a complete Oriental ultramontane, Avas 
for squaring everything according to " the most 
strictest" rule of the Great Church; and procured the 
abolition of this Liturgy, more venerable tlian his own, 
just as Rome has abolished, and is still abolishing, the 
national Liturgies of other Churches. 

The Malabar Liturgy I have never been able to sec 
in the original ; and an tmadultemted copy of the 
original does not seem to exist. Diligent enquiry, 
but in vain, was made for it in India by the late Dr. 
Mill. As it is now^ printed, it was revised by the 
Portuguese Archbishop of Goa, Alexis de Menezes,and 



INTRODUCTION. XVll 

the Synod of Diamper, (1599)— a revision which, as 
even Roman Liturgists allow, shows utter ignorance of 
Oriental Liturgies. Raulin, in his edition, professes 
to point out all the alterations made by the Synod, 
and to give, in a note, the original; but the least study 
of his work will show that some important changes 
pass without the least notice by him. 

VII. BIystkal Interpretation of Oriental Liturgies, 

The best key to the mystical explanation of 
the Liturgy of S. Chrysostom is to be found in the 
Commentary of Symeon of Thessalonica — a translation 
of the latter part of which here follows. This prelate 
—a man of the highest character for learning and 
piety, and the stay of the whole Eastern Church iu 
troublesome times,— died in 1429. To his treatise 
should be added that of Theodore of Andida, a writer 
of uncertain age, lirst published by Cardinal Mai, in 
the sixth vol. of his Nova Bibliotheca, in 1855. 

" The Bishop therefore who is about to celebrate, 
descending from the throne in which he has been 
stationed, figures the condescension of God the Son 
to us. And having put on the holy stole, (3) he figures 

( •) The stole, used by Priests in the Eastern Church, is also 
called epitrachelion and horarion, or orarion : it differs in shape 
from that of the West. It is merely a long piece of silk or other 
stuff, something more than double the width of the Western stole, 
and with a hole in the middle of the upper jtart, through which 
tlie celebrant puts his head. As, however, it has an embroidered 
seam down the middle, its appearance is much the same as that 
to which we are accustomed. — Symeon on the LUnrijt/. 



XVm INTRODUCTIOiV. 

the Lord's most holy Incarnation ; and going out to 
the gates of the temple, His presence and manifesta- 
tion on earth, even till His death and descent into 
hell. This is signified by the Priest going towards 
the West and as far as the Church doors. 

"Now when the holy Liturgy is begun, which is 
when the Bishop gives the sign — for no one can 
attempt to commence anything without him — the 
Priests within the bema commence the prayers, and 
the singers modulate the Antiphons and divide them 
into three portions, and those things which are taken 
from the Psalms : (-*) to these they add the hymns 
which pertain to the time of grace. By the Psalms, the 
prediction of the Incarnation of the Word to those of 
old time is set forth : by the hymnody which foUowS; 
the perfect completion of grace is typified to the by- 
standers, and the Son of God incarnate, and all the 
things which He worked for our sakes. Wherefore 
also, first of all, we honour her who virginally bare 
Him, and beseech her mediation for us, saying : J3i/ 
the intercession of the Mother of God, O Saviour, 
hear us. Then, commemorating the Saints, who, 
agonising for the mystery of faith, died a holy death, 
vre beseech their supplications also ; and last of all, 
venerating Christ, the author and finisher of onr 
salvation, we cry out with a lend voice, Save us, O 

(*) The three Antiphons of the Constautinopolitan rite will be 
seen in the Liturgy of S. Chrysostom, where an explanation of 
them is given. 



INTRODUCTIOX. XIX 

Son of God. (5) But when the Bishop has finished 
his holy prayers without the bema, ihe Deacons stand 
by him, who typify, not only the Apostles, but also 
the Angels, who minister also in the mysteries of 
Christ. But when the Priests within the bema have 
also finished their own prayers, and come forth, the 
descent of the holy Angels, which took place in the 
Ascension of Christ, is signified. And when the 
torches are borne forth, and tlie Deacons advance by 
two and two, and the Holy Gospel is carried in pro- 
cession, and the Bishop, supported on either side by 
Deacons, advances, and the other Priests follow 
behind, and sing out clearly, come let us worsJiip 
Christ, and the acclamations of good wishes to the 
Bishop resound, and the Deacon after the prayer of 
the Entrance, while he holds the Gospel in his hands, 
exclaims : Wisdom; stand tqj : (^) the Resurrection and 
Ascension of the Saviour is shadowed forth. For the 
Deacon, while he thus cries out, announces the Resur- 
rection of Christ ; and the choir of Priests and 
Deacons, as we said before, typify the Apostles present 
with the Lord and beholdins' Him, and the most holy 
Angels. But the Bishop is a type of the Lord Him- 
self made manifest to the disciples, and taken up from 

(5) The reader is recommended to follow the Liturgy of S. 
Chrysostom, as given below, •\vhile he reads the explanation of 
SymeoD, comparing it at the same time with the ground plan of 
kS. Theodore, above. 

CO This refers to the ceremonies of the Little Ei.trance, of 
which more at length hereafter. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 



eartli to heaven. Wherefore, as ^ve liave said, the 
whole of the exterior naos is a type of earth ; the most 
holy berna represents heaven. Wherefore, as David 
also prophecies, when the Loud ascended, the Angels 
assisted in his triumph ; and cried out to them tliat 
were above, Lift up your doors, and they named Him 
King of Glory and Lord, and confessed Him The 
Mighty. Thus too doth the Church, while she honors 
the celebrant entering with the pomp of a procession 
into the Holy of Holies; and the holy doors of tlie 
bema shut before that procession enters, and opened 
that it may enter, signify the same thing. 

But when the celebrant has entered and has censed 
the holy table around, the advent of the Holy Ghost 
is signified by him. For the Spirit came to us from 
heaven, when Christ went up into heaven. Further- 
more, the Bishop, signing the Gospel crosswise by a 
certain double taper, dikerion, typifies the illumina- 




INTRODUCTION. 



XXI 



tion brought to pass both in heaven and earth by the 
Incarnation of Jesus in His two natures. For by the 
Incarnation of tlie Word of God, He not only gave 
light to men, but also to the Angels . 

The Trisagion which is forthwith said, manifests 
the mystery of the Trinity; which the Incarnation of 
one person of the Trinity manifested to men ;(7) and 
also the sympathy and union of Angels and men. 
Wherefore also it is sung within the bema by the 
Priests, and without it by the clerks and laity : for one 
Church of Angels and men hath been formed through 
Christ. It is this which the Pontiff proclaims, while 
he signs the Gospel crosswise with a three-headed 
taper, (trikerion,) and shows that the preaching of 



-\.' 




C') The expression "Oneof theTiiiNiTY," is not used accident- 
ally by Symeon, but is a profession of the faith of the writer 
with respect to the phrase so much controverted in the Mono- 
physite discussions, " One of the Trinity suffered for man." 



XXll INTRODUCTIOy. 

the Trinity is contained in the same, and prajs that 
by it we may be confirmed and stablished. 

But also Avhile he advances to the divine syn- 
thvonus, Q^) which typifies the session of Christ at the 
Right Hand of the Father; and then blesses the 
people crosswise with the trikerion, he assures us of 
the sanctification which is through the Trinity, and 
reminds us that Christ, having ascended into heaven, 
sent down upon us the splendour of the Trinity, typi- 
fied by the light, and the blessing. And sitting down 
in the syiithronus, where he is a type of Christ, and 
where he has, as his fellow-assessors, his brother 
Bishops and Priests, who represent the figure and the 
similitude of the Apostles, he gives peace to all ; and 
this is a symbol of Christian union. For it is Christ, 
saith Paul, Who hath put an end to enmity in His 
Flesh, and hath made both one, both things in heaven 
and things in earth. Then follovrs the lection of the 
Apostolic words, which allegorises the mission of the 
Apostles to the nations. And the Bishops and Priests 
sit while these are read, but the Deacons do not ; 
because the former also possess the grace of the 
Apostolate. Then follows the hymn Alleluia, (9) 



(8) The sjnthronns is the seat in the depth of the Eastern apse, 
in the centre of which the Bishop sat with his iace westwaid 
towards the altar, — the altar itself occupying the central position 
in the chord of that apse, — and having his Clergy on his right and 
left hand. 

(°) See the note on this Alleluia in the Liturgy of S. Chrysoetom 
between the Epistle and Gospel. 



INTKODUCTION. ^-"^"' 

which manifests the praise of God, and the advent of 
the Divine grace, which is the lection of the Gospei. 
Now this lection sets fortli the preaching of the Gospel 
throuc^hout the whole world, which was brought to 
pass after the Ascension of the Lord, by the hands of 
His Disciples. Wherefore also, we first read the 
Epistle, then the Gospel ; because the Disciples were 
first invigorated and sent forth, and afterwards, per- 
forming their circuit throughout the world, preached 
the Gospel. And before the Gospel, incense is offered 
on account of the grace of the Holy Ghost, which 
by means of the Gospel was given to the whole 
world. 

But while the Gospel is being read, the Bishop lays 
aside his omophorion, (lo) thereby making profession 
of his service to the Lord. For since it is the 
Lord Who is represented as speaking by the Gospel, 
and is, as it were. Himself present, the Bishop at that 
time ventures not to be arrayed with the symbol of His 
Incarnation— I mean the omophorion ; but taking it 
off from his shoulders he gives it to the Deacon, Avho 
holds it folded in his right hand, himself standing 
near the Bishop, and preceding the holy gifts. He 
also holds the trikerion in his hand : and this signifies 
that in the world to come, Jesus, Who was Incarnate 
and wounded for us, and being one of the Trinity 

(1") This oraophoiion, which is worn by every Eastern Bishop, 
resembles the LiUiu pallium, except that it is broader and tied 
round the neck in a knot. 



^^1^ INTRODUCTION. 

shining upon us with the rays of Godhead, will be 
manifestly revealed to all. Then the Pontiff, descend- 
ing from the synthronus, and after the Gospel and the 
prayer for the Emperors, blessing the people with the 
trikerion, makes manifest that the pious empire and 
the priestliood exists by means of the Gospel, and prays 
that they may remain by the grace of the Trinity. 

And now, approaching the altar, he begins the 
work of prayers, manifesting himself to be the 
minister of the mystery. And forthwith the cate- 
chumens are dismissed, and the faithful are exhorted 
to remain ; because that moment represents the season 
of the end of the Avorld. " For," saith he, " the 
Gospel must first be preached throughout all the 
world, and then shall the end be." And again he 
saith, "He shall send forth His Angels, and they' 
shall sever the wicked from the good." Thus also the 
Church doth when she commands the catechumens to 
depart, and the faithful alone to remain. Whence 
also we may learn how careful tlie foithful ought to 
be that they communicate not with them with Avhom 
there ought to be no communion ; and tJiis is more 
particularly the duty of Priests. For if it is unlawful 
to associate in prayer, how much more in the Sacrifice? 
Neither ought they to receive the oblations for the 
sacrifice of those faithful who are open and notorious 
sinners, but first to require from them penitence? 
For mutual communion arises from the oblations that 
are brought to the altar ; and it i^ not meet that the 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

vm worthy should partake in the sacrifice. And when 
the Divine aifts are about to be offered, the Pontiff 
first washes his hands before all, thereby manifesting 
his purity and irreprehensibleness in this hierurgy ; 
and that it is right to approach that which is so pure 
without any manner of pollution, so far as is possible 
for man, and thus to minister in those most pure 
mysteries. 

But the procession, after these things, of the Divine 
gifts, is with great pomp of Readers, Deacons, and 
Priests, with the lamps and holy vessels preceding 
and following : (^i) because this symbolises the last 
Advent of Christ, when He shall come with glory. 
Whence the omophorion marked with the Cross goes 
before, v/hich sets forth the sign of the Son of Man, 
which will appear from heaven, and the Son of Man 
Himself And after this follow the Deacons in order, 
symbolising the ranks of Angels ; and this also the 
Fans, (^-) as they are called, set forth, which S. 



(!') That is the Great Entrance, for which see page 109; and 
also the frontispiece. 

('-) These Fans are a not unimportant part of the pkte of an 
Oriental Church ; they are now generally made of silver, and in 
the shape of the lieads and wings of cherubim. The Clementine 
Liturgy, (see page 77) orders them to be made of silk or peacock's 
feathers, or some other light material: they were originally 
intended to prevent flies and the like insects from settling on the 
Holy Mysteries, and in process of time came to signify mysti- 
cally the vibration of the wings of the Seraphim before the throne 
of God. Under the name of Flabella or ]\Iuscarla, they were 
employed in early Western ritual. Ilildebert of Le Mans has an 
elegant and playful letter to a friend who presented him with a 



XXVI INTRODUCTION'. 

Dionysius names wings. Then come tliey who cany 
the Holy Gifts, after whom follow the rest, and 
they Avho bear on their head the holy veil, which 
represents the veil that was wrapped about the Body 
of the Lord Jesus. These then, going round the 
Temple processionally, and praying for the people, 
enter in to the altar, and all of them pray for the 
Pontiff 5 and they give heed to no other prayer, but 
only for the kingdom of God. Now all these things 
teach that, in the end of the world, after the departure 
of the wicked, when the Saviour shall have appeared, 
there shall be no other heritage for the faithful, save 
the Kingdom of God. Now Christ Himself is the 
Kingdom of God, and the contemplation of His dis- 
pensation : His having been humbled even to death 
His having been sacrificed for us, to behold that sac- 
rificed and divine and quickening Body, manifesting 
its wounds — the Body That indeed tasted of deatli, 
but is the earnest to us of victory over death ; the 
Body which bestows on us, out of its wounds, immor- 
tality and life and the Beatific Vision with the Angels, 

pair. S. Udalric, in his constitutions of Cluny, book ii 
chap. 29, thus writes : " And one of the Deacons, of whom there 
always ought to be two, shall stand with a fan near the Priest, 
from the time that flies begin to be troublesome, till the end of the 
service, that he may drive them away from the sacrifice and 
fi'om the altar." Durandus thus writes, iv. 35 — 8 : " But lest 
flies should come and spoil the sweetness of the ointment, that is, 
lest troublesome thoughts should arise and destroy the devotion 
of prayer, they are to be driven away by the fan of tlie spirit. 
And to signify this, in summer time, a material fan should be 
used while the secreta is being said." 



INTRODUCTION. XXVU 

and food and drink, and life and light, tlie veryBread 
of Life, the True Light, eternal life, Christ Jesus. 
Wherefore this entrance symbolises, at the same time, 
both the Second Advent of Chiust and His sepulture: 
for it is He, as we have said before. Who will be our 
Beatific Vision in the life to come. Then all the 
faithful, as is meet, fall down before the Priests, 
partly as desiring their prayers, and to be remembered 
in their hierurgy, and partly venerating the DivinQ 
gifts. For although they have not yet been sancti- 
fied, yet they have been dedicated to God in the 
prothesis ; and the Priest there presented them to 
God, and besought that they might be received upon 
the heavenly altar. Although then their sanctification 
is not yet complete, yet they are prepared for com- 
pleteness, and are dedicated to God, and an antitype 
of the Lord's Body and Blood. If then we attribute 
honour and adoration to holy images, how much more 
do these gifts which, as the great Basil says, are the 
antitypes of, and are brought in to the end that they may 
become, the Body and Blood of Christ. {}^) .... 
And the people saith not Kyrie Eleison, but. For 
many years, O Lord : asking, as it were, that he 
should proceed prosperously in his hierurgy, and 

('") Symeon is replying to tiie objections brought by Latin 
writers agains.t this aiitici])ative adoration, which is common, as 
we sliall tee, to all the Eastern Communions, heterodox as well as 
Catholic, and which is even defended by many Roman writers, 
fcfoine sentences in the text which dilate on this subject ar 
omitted. 



XXVIU INTRODUCTION. 

should continue his sacrificial functions for a long 
time. When he has entered in, the doors are shut ; 
because it is not fitting that the Mystery should be 
beheld by all, but only by those who have been 
invested with the priesthood. Furthermore, in the 
same way that there is order and rank in the blessed 
Angels : for they that are highest enjoy the Beatific 
Vision without any intermediation, the second rank 
through the first, (i*) and the third through the 
second, as Dionysius (i^), endowed with heavenly 
wisdom, teaches, so also is the case in the Church. 
The Pontiff approaches the Divine altar without 
any intermediary ; the Priests and other ecclesias- 
tics, by means of him. And by the Priests and the 
Ministers, the people is admitted to a participation in 
the tremendous Communion and the sacred hymns. • 
But when, after the first set of prayers, the Creed 
has been recited, comes the Kiss of Peace, because 
by the true confession of the Trinity, and of the 
One of the Trinity That was Incarnate, Ave are 
united with each other, and that confession associates 
us with the Angels. And because we ought to love 
each other, since Christ became an oblation through 
love, and whoever is about to communicate, ought to 
present himself without any feeling of anger ; and 



(1*) Seo this idea worked out with greater fulness in the Liturgy 
of Joseph Bar-Vahih : Renaudot, torn. ii. p. 525. 

(1°) The writer is of course referring to the Treatise of pseudo- 
Dionysius the Arcopagite on the Heavenly Hierarchy. 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX 

because all, in the world to come, are in union with 
each other, and no one there can be an enemy. But 
they keep the sacred veil over the gifts until the holy 
Creed is finished ; because we must first make a true 
and sincere confession about the Lord, before we can 
behold Him without any veil. After this, the Pontiff 
who is to celebrate approaches the altar, and praises 
the works of God, and giving thanks for all, associates 
himself with the Angels, and vociferates with them 
the triumphal hymn, the Holy, Holy, Holy : and the 
people also recite it, typifying the equality of peace 
which we shall hereafter enjoy with the Angels, and 
our union with them. Then the Pontiff having praised 
the greatest of the works of God, the Incarnation of 
the Only-Begotten, and again the greatest act of His 
dispensation. His Death for us, goes on to the com- 
mencement of the Mysteries, and utters the holy 
words, the same which our Lord used when Himself 
sacrificing. Then, having given thanks for all things, 
and offering the gifts on account of all, he invokes 
upon himself, and upon the Mysteries laid on the 
altar, the divine grace of the Spirit. By which, 
having accomplished the rite by the seal of the Cross, 
and the invocation of the Holy Ghost, He forthwith 
beholds the living Jesus lying before him, and Him 
in His very essence, being truly the Bread and the 
Ciij). For His is that saying, This Bread is My 
Body; and His again is this saying, That which is in 
the cup is My Blood. And the sacrifice for the ^hole 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

world, and the common propitiation, and the living 
delicacy, and the infinite joy, and the kingdom of the 
heavens, and the only essential good, is set before all 
on the Divine table ; wherefore, also the celebrant 
prays with the greater boldness on behalf of all. 
For he takes confidence when he beholds Him Who 
is the patient Lover of men, lying before him a 
sacrifice ; and he offers praise and makes supplication 
for all, and remembers those that are absent, and 
more especially the Maiden Mother of God, v/ho 
virginaliy bare Him. Testifying also iu this how 
we are one with the Saints, and by this sacrifice are 
partakers with them, and that they, having boldness 
with Him Who loves and is loved, have the power to 
reconcile and nnite us with Him. At last, having 
exhorted lis with one mind and one mouth to praise our. 
God, and having called down upon us the mercies of 
our great God Jks'js Christ, He leads us up to our 
adoption by our heavenly Father, and prays that we, 
being purged from sin by Him Who is His Son 
according to nature, may become His sons according 
to grace; and that Ave may be able rightly to call 
Him our Father, Who is the Father of heaven. 
And this is the sign of the union in the future world, 
and of our being united to God, through the Only- 
Begotten by the Holy Ghost. Whence the Pon- 
tiff, having prayed for peace and returned thanks, 
calls upon Jesus that He would make him par- 
taker of the Holy Mysteries, that the rest may be 



liNTRODUCTIOX. XXxi 

counted worthy to become partakers of them through 
him. 

When he has finished the Liturgy, and comes to the 
Communion, he again assumes the omophorion, mani- 
festing that, before this, he was one of the ministers, 
and was afraid to put upon himself that holy garment. 
But when the work is accomplished, and he goes on 
to elevate the Bread and to divide it into parts, and to 
receive it himself and distribute it to others, it is neces- 
sary that he should put on all the sacred symbols cf 
his dignity ; and since the omophorion is the principal 
vest of a Pontiff, he necessarily assumes that, and in 
that is partaker of the most divine Things. Having, 
therefore, put it on, and having made the elevation, 
and having proclaimed the Holy Things for Holy 
Persons, he invites all holy persons to that divine and 
living Food of the Holy Table. And the people with 
one mind cry out. One holy. One Lord, Jesus Christ, 
to the glory of God the Father. And this, as Paul 
saith, shall be preached in the Last Day, when every 
knee shall be bowed to Jesus, and every tongue shall 
confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of 
God the Father. Hence then, the common union 
of all the faithful is published, and the consent of all 
concerning the preaching of the Incarnate Son of God, 
Who shall reign over all, and of His Kingdom there 
shall be no end, as it is written. But the answer made 
to the Holy Things for Holy Persons, namely. There is 
One Holy, &:c., first signifies to us the essential sanctity 



XXXll INTRODUCTION. 

of God Himself, and tliat from Him is the sanctifica- 
tion of all things that are hallowed. And it is, as it 
were, an expression of humility ; as if we said. Who 
of us is holy, or who of ns is pure? One only is holy 
One only is the Lord Jesus Christ, Who will of 
His mercy sanctify ns. 

Now the elevation of the Bread sets forth to us the 
elevation of Jesus on the Cross ; wherefore also the 
cup itself lies before our eyes containing the Blood 
and Water which flowed from His Holy Side. The 
bread then he divides into four parts, and places them 
crosswisCj and in this he sees Jesus crucified. Nor 
can there be any greater spectacle than the vision of 
the Most High God humbled for our sakes. Then 
taking the upper portion, and with it making the sign 
of the Cross, he dips it in the chalice, and makes the 
union of the mysteries ; and then he pours the warm 
water into the cup. Q^) And this he does to signify 
that the Lord's Body, even when dead, and when 
the Divine Soul was separated from it, still re- 
mained possessed of its quickening powers : the 
Divinity never being separated from it, as neither any 
of the energies of the Divine Spirit. Since then warm 
water affords by its heat a type of life, it is tlien 
employed in the time of Communion that when our 
lips touch the chalice and participate in the Blood, 
we mav be so affected as if we received it from that 



(16) See all these rites more fully explained at page V21. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIU 

quickening side. There are other reasons also, and 
that of marvellous depth, assigned by writers far 
superior to ourselves ; but that which we have men- 
tioned may suffice for us. For we may understand 
from the words that accompany the injection of 
warm water, that this which we have mentioned is 
the intention of the Church. For he saith, "The 
fervour of the Holy Ghost." And a still clearer 
proof is, that this admixture also takes place in the 
Liturgy of the Presanctified.(i'') For there would be 
no use in this, were the reason of the rite any other than 
that we have assigned ; seeing that in the previous 
Liturgy it had already been mixed with the Gifts. But 
the Pontiff, dividing the Bread into many particles, 
intimates in that action the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. 
For it is written. He took bread and brake and gave 
to His disciples. He first then Himself communi- 
cates in the Bread, and participates in the tremendous 
Chalice. For no one else administers it to him, ex- 
cept it be some one of his own rank, namely another 
Pontiff". Then he imparts the Communion to all 
the rest, who kiss his hand and cheek, by which he 
proclaims the communion of the Body of Jesus, even 
in the future world, which shall be for ever and ever. 
But the hand and cheek receive the kiss — the former 



(") The Liturgy of the Presanctified, or of S. Gregory, is 
employed by the whole Eastern Clmrch, and has been so at least 
since the time of the Council in Trullo, on every day of Lent 
except the Saturdays, the Sundays, the Annunciation, and Maundy 
Thursday. 



XXXvi INTRODUCTION. 

forth, and the uppermost part has been cut out and has 
been consecrated. This, after being signed with the 
spear, (21) and hallowed by the divine words said over 
it, is distributed instead of the tremendous Gifts to 
those who have not communicated. Which, when the 
Pontiff has done, and has prayed over the people, he 
puts an end to the Liturgy. . . . ("2) 

(21) For an explanation of the spear, by the means of which 
the Lamb is cut out and stabbed, see the office of prothesis, at 
the end of the book. The oblation serves two uses : the seal or 
Lamb stamped with IC XC NIKA serves for the Sacrament ; 
the remaining part, as here, for the antidoron. 

(22) The rest of the treatise is taken up by the author's apology 
and by a few remarks on the Prothesis, wliich will better be given 
under that rite. 



THE DIVINE LITURGY 



OF 



K SU\[h 



The Priest. Peace be with all. 

Peoj^le. And with thy spirit. 

Deacon. Pray. 

People. Lord, have mercy. Lord, have mercy. 
Lord, have mercy. 

Priest. We yield Thee thanks, we yield Thee exx-eed- 
ing thanks, O Lord our God, Father of our Lord 
and God and Saviour Jesus Christ, for all things, 
and through all things, and in all things : for that 
Thou hast sheltered, assisted, defendeil, and hast 
brought us through the past time of our life, and hast 
guided us to this hour, vouchsafing again to set before 
Thee, in Thy holy place, us who ask pardon of oui- 
sins, and propitiation for all Thy people. And we 
pray and beseech Thee, O Lover of men, O good God, 
give us to accomplish (^) this holy day (-) and all the 
time of our life sinlessly, with all joy, l>calth, safety, 
and with all sanctification and Thy fear. But all envy, 
all fear, all temptation, every Satanic operation, every 

(') I know not but tliat the word i-rritixurxi may liere partly 
retain its religious sijrnification, " to otier us a suciitice:'" thus, 
^Eliau in his Various History: Ka,i xmS-' tKuirrov ito; l<rtriXovv 
uiiTu. (Lib. 12, cap. Gl ) 

(") It is a mistake to concliule from this expression that this 
Liturgy was only used on the siunday ; since wo know from the 
replies of Timotiiens, Patriarch ot Alexandria, (a.d. ^80 — 380,) 
that it was said daily. 

B 



plot of wicked men, repel from us,0 GoD,an{lfromThy 
holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. That which is 
good and profitable, do Thou supply to us : if we have 
at all sinned against Thee in word or deed, or by 
thought, do Thou, as good and the Lover of men, 
vouchsafe to overlook it, and forsake not us, O God, 
who put our trust in Thee, nor lead us into tempta- 
tion, but deliver us from the evil one, and from his 
works, through the grace and pity and benignity of 
Thine Only-Begotten Son : (aloud) through Wliom 
and with Whom, be to Thee the glory and the might, 
in Thine all-holy and good and life-giving Spirit, 
now and ever, and to ages of ages. 
People. Amen. 
Priest. Peace be with all. 
People. And with thy spirit. 
Deacon. Pray for the king. 

People Lord, have mercy. Lord, have mercy. 
Lord, have mercy. 

Priest. Master, Lord, and God,Father of ourLoRD 
and God and Saviour, Jesus Christ, we beseech and 
supplicate Thee that Thou wouldest perpetually keep 
our king in peace and fortitude and righteousness. 
Subject to him, O God, every enemy and adversary : 
lay hand upon the shield and buckler, and stand up to 
help him. Grant to him, O God, victories, and that 
he may be peaceably disposed towards us, and towards 
Thy holy Name. (3) That we also in the tranquility 

(^) This is a clear proof that this prayer was composed before 
the beginning of the great Tentli Persecution j during •which it 
would have been differently worded, and after which, it would 
have been inappropriate. In fact there is no doubt that these 
three prayers are of the most remote antiquity; and this par- 
ticular clause, with its singularly crabbed construction, may, not 
improbably, contain the original words of the Apostle. 



of his days, may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all 
godliness and honesty, (■*) through the grace and 
mercies and benignity of Thine Only-Begotten Son : 
(aloud) through Whom and with Whom, be to Thee the 
glory and the might, in Thine all-holy and good and 
life-giving Spirit, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

People. And with thy spirit. 

Deacon. Pray for the Pope and the Bishop. (^) 

People. Lord, have mei'cy. Lord, have mercy. 
Lord, have mercy. 

Priest. Master, Lord, and God, the Almighty, (^) 
the Father of our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus 
Christ, we beseech and supplicate Thee, O Lover of 
men, O good God, preserving our most holy and 
blessed Pontiff, the Pope N., and the most sacred 
Bishop N., preserve them to us peacefully many 
years, executing the holy Archpriesthood entrusted by 
Thee to them according to Thy holy and blessed word, 
rightly dividing the word of truth, with all orthodox 
Bishops, Priests, Deacons, Sub-deacons, Readers, 
Singers, and laymen, with the whole fulness of Thy 
holy and only Catholic Church, granting to them 

(^) Notice the coincidence of these expressions, with those in 
the First Epistle to Timothy ; and remember that it is quite as 
likely that the Apostle was quoting from the Liturgy, as the 
Liturgy from the Apostle. 

( ^) By the Pojie is of course meant the Patriarch of Alexandria, 
Pope being his specific title, as Patriarch was that of the Metro- 
politan ofAutioch, and Archbishop that of him of Constantinople, 
Probably the original bidding prayer was simply, — Pray for the 
Bishop. 

('^) I take the epithet by itself, as more in accordance with the 
structure of the commencement of the second prayer. 

ii2 



peace and health and salvation. And their prayers 
which they make for us, and we for them, receive, U 
Lord, into Thy holy and heavenly and reasonable 
altar. And every enemy of Thy holy Church subdue 
speedily under their feet, through the grace and 
mercies and benignity of Thine Only-Begotten Son : 
{aloud) through Whom and with Whom, be to Thee 
the glory and the might, in Thine all-holy and good 
and life-giving Spirit, now and evei-, and to ages of 



ages. 



People. Amen. 
Priest. Peace be with all. 
People. And with thy spirit. 
Deacon. Stand for prayer. 

People. Lord, have mercy. Lord, have mercy. 
Lord, have mercy. 

The Priest subjoins the Prayer of the Entrance^'^ 
and for the Incense: 

Master, Lord, and our God, Thou Who didst elect 
the twelve-lighted lamp of the twelve Apostles, and 
didst send them into the whole world, to preach and to 
teach the Gospel of Thy kingdom, and to heal every 
sickness and every infirmity in the people; and didst 
breathe into their faces, and didst say to them, 
Receive the Holy Ghost, the Comforter : whose sins 
ye remit, they are remitted unto them ; whose sins ye 
retain, they are retained ; thus do Thou also upon us 
Thy servants that stand around in the Entrance of 
our holy ministry * * * * with the Bishops, Priests, 

C) That is to say the Little Entrance, or the bringing in of 
the Gospel — a ceremony of considerable pomp. Prectded by 
tapers and incense, the Priest and Deacon carry the Holy 
Mysteries from the I'roihe&is, and so thi-ough the Holy Uoors to 
the Altar. 



Deacons, Readers, Singers, and laity, together with 
all the fulness of Thy holy Catholic and Apostolic 
Church. Preserve us, O Lord, from curse, and ban, 
and from anathema, and binding, and excommunica- 
tion, and from the part of the adversary, and purify 
our lips and our heart from all pollution and from all 
iniquity ; that with a pure heart, and pure conscience, 
we may offer to Thee this sacrifice for a sweet-smelt- 
ing savour, and for the remission of our sins, and of 
the sins of Thy people: through the grace and mercies 
and benignity of Thine Only-Begotten Son : (aloud) 
through Whom and with Whom, be to Thee the glory 
and the might, with Thine all-holy and good and life- 
giving Spirit, now and ever, and to ages of ages, 

Pi'iest. Amen. 

Deacon. Stand up. (^) 

And they sing the Only-Begotten Son. 

Priest. Only-Begotten Son and Word of God, 
immortal. Who didst vouchsafe for our salvation to 
take flesh of the holy Mother of God, and Ever- Virgin 
Mary, and didst without mutation become man, and 
wast crucified, Christ, our God, and by death didst 
overcome death, being one of the Holy Trinity, and 
glorified together with the Father and the Holy 
Ghost, save us. (9) 

And the Entrance of the Gosjjel tahes place. 
Deacon. For prayer. 

(*) This word, ojS-o/, has, like other short ^peeches of the 
Deacon, been relaiuuil uutraueilatuu iu other Lituigieti: llius tlie 
Aiineuiitu gives it urtl 

(") Thib anthem, which is in the original simply referred to, is 
clearly of later dale tlian therouiicil of h.i)hcsLis, and is one of the 
lour employed iu the Oriental Liturgies. 



Priest. Peace be with. all. 
People. And with thy spirit. 
Deacon. For prayer. 
People. Lord, have mercy. 

The Priest saith the Prayer of the Trisagion. (^°) 

Master, and Lord Jesus Christ, co-eternal Word 
of the self-existent Father, Who didst become like 
us in all respects, sin except, for the salvation of our 
race: Who didst send forth Thy holy disciples and 
Apostles to preach and teach the Gospel of Thy king- 
dom, and to cure all sickness and all infirmity among 
Thy people, do Thou Thyself, O Lord, send out Thy 
light and Thy truth, and enlighten the eyes of our 
understanding to the comprehension of Thy Divine 
oracles; and enable us to be hearers of them, and not 
hearers only, but also doers of the word, that we may 
bring forth fruit and produce good fruits, thirty-fold, 
and an hundred-fold, that we may be counted worthy 
of the kingdom of heaven. {Aloud). And let Thy 
mercies speedily prevent us, O Lord, for Thou 
art the good tidings. Saviour, and guardian, of our 
souls and of our bodies. Lord our God ; and to Thee 
we send up glory and giving of thanks and the hymn 
of the Trisagion, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

People. Amen. Holy God, Holy and Mighty, 
Holy and Immortal, have mercy upon us. 

(10) This prayer is said in a low voice, while the people are 
singing the Trisagion, as presently. This little anthem is usually 
ascribed to a miraculous origin, in the time of S. Proclus, (434 — 
437,) but it is probably far older, and if not Apostolic, is at least 
Isapostolic. The troubles excited by the addition made by 
Peter the Fuller, " Thou That wast crucified for us," are well- 
known. 



And after the Trisagion, the Priest signs (") the 
peoj)le, saying, Peace be with all. 

People. And with thy spirit. 

And the Attend : (}") the Apostle ; the Prologue of 
the Alleluia. 2'he Deacons, according as they are 
enjoined, say — 

Sir, give the blessing, (i^) 

Priest. The Lord bless and minister with you by 
His grace, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

The Priest before the Gospel offers incense and 
saith thus : 

We offer incense before Thy glory, O God : do 
Thou receive it (i*) to Thy holy and super-celestial 
and intellectual altar. Do Thou, in its stead, send 
down the grace of Thy Holy Spirit, for Thou art 
blessed, and do Thou send forth Thy glory. 

When the Deacon is about to read the Gospel, the 
Priest saith : 

The Lord bless and strengthen, and make us to be 
hearers of His holy Gospel, — God, That is blessed, 
now and ever, and to ages of ages. Amen. 

(") That is, makes the sign of the Cross towards or on them. 

(^2) This Rubric requires explhiiition. Attend, is a not 
unfrequent exclamation of the Deacon in the Oriental rites. The 
T^orx'-'/^t'' of the Greek is literally retained in the Armenian, 
Proscliume. The Apostle is the more usual title in the Oriental, 
as it was in the Galilean, Liturgy, for the Bpistle. The i'rologue 
of the Alleluia seems to have been some prayer recited by the 
Priest, while the Alleluia was sung by the people. 

('■*) This might also be translated, Lord, bless : but, by the 
analogy of the Western Chm'ch, I prefer the version which 1 
have given. 

('^) Tlie reading seems rather corrupt, but its sense is manifest. 



8 

Deacon. Stand : let us hear the holy Gospel. 
Priest. Peace be with all. 
People. And with thy spirit. 

The Beacon saith the Gospel The Priest siibjoins 
the Collect : (i^) 

Visit, O Lord, in Thy pity and mercies, those of 
Thy people that are sick : those of our brethren that 
have departed, or are about to depart, give to each a 
prosperous journey in his place, and seasonably. Send 
down rains on the places that want and stand in need 
of them. Raise the waters of the river to their mea- 
sure, through Thy grace, (i^) Increase the fruits of 
the earth, to see'd-tifte and to harvest ; guard the 
kinc^dom of Thy servant, Whom Thou hast appointed 
to rule over the* land, in peace and courage and right-, 
eousness and tranquility. This humble and poor and 
CuRisT-loving city, preserve it, O God, from evil 
days, from famine, plague, and incursion of .the hea- 
then, as Thou didst spare the city Nineveh : because 
Thou art full of mercy and pity, and keepest not in 
remembrance the iniquities of man. Thou, by Thy 
prophet Isaiah, hast said, I will protect this city, and 
save it for My sake, and for My servant David's sake. 
Wherefore we beseech Thee, and supplicate Thee, O 
Lover of men, O good God, guard this city for the 
sake of Thy Martyr and Evangelist, Mark, who 

(15) Synapte, literally, Collect ; but in no way responding to 
the prayer so called in the Western Church, to which, indeed, the 
East oiFurs no parallel. This answers much more nearly to the 
Ectene, or Missal Litany — perfect examj)les of which will be 
found in the Liturgies of S. James and S. Chrysostom. 

(16) The rise of the Nile being a point of such vital importance 
to the Egyptian harvest, is a subject put prominently forward in 
all the Coptic Liturgies. 



showed to us the way of salvation, through the grace 
and mercies and benignity of Thine Only-Begotten 
Son : (aloud) through Whom and with Whom, be to 
Thee the glory and the might, in Thine all-holy and 
good and life-giving Spikit, now and ever, and to 
ages of ages, (i^) 
Deacu/i. Be«:in. 



^s' 



u4.nd thej say the Stichos. The Deacon saith the 

Three. (}^) 
Priest. Master and Lord, God the Almighty, the 
Father of our Lord Jksus Christ, we pray and 
beseech Thee, assign the peace which is from heaven 
to the hearts of all of us, and also bestow on us the 
peace of this world. Our most holy and blessed Pope 
N., and our most sacred Bishop IN., guard to us for 
many years, peacefully accomplishing the holy Arch- 
priesthood, entrusted by Thee to them, according to 
Thy holy and blessed will, rightly dividing the word 
of truth J with all orthodox Bishops, Priests, Deacons, 
and Sub-deacons, Readers, Singers, with all the full- 
ness of Thy holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. 
Bless, O Lord, our assemblies; grant them to be 
without let and without hindrance, according to Thy 
holy will. Grant them to be houses of prayer, houses 

(") Ii is almost unnecessary to remark that the reference to 
the Evangelist is of far later date than the oni-inal Liturgy : and 
the whole prayer, as perhajJS the next also, seems to me made up 
trom the great miercessiou for quick and dead, to which wo shall 
presently come. 

('^) The Stichos, or Versicle, was no doubt some varying 
anthem for different festivals. W hat is intended by the Thrte, is 
not agreed. Some take it to mean three collects to be recited iu 
this place : others, a verso begiuuiug, " The Three Persons and 
One Essence," or something of a siuular kind. 



10 

of blessing:, to us and to Thy servants after us for ever. 
Arise, O Lord, and let Thine enemies be scattered ; 
let them also that hate Thee flee before Thee. And 
bless Thy faithful and orthodox people ; increase them 
to myriads of myriads, and let not the death of sin 
prevail against us, nor against all Thy people, through 
the grace and mercies and benignity of Thine Only- 
Begotten Son : (aloud) through Whom and with 
Whom, be to Thee the glory and the might, in Thine 
all-holy and good and life-giving Spirit, now and 
ever, and to ages of ages. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

People. And with thy spirit. 

Deacon. Look lest any of the Catechumens . . . Q^) 

Here they sing the Cherubic Hymn. 

Let us, who mystically represent the Cherubin, and 
sing the holy hymn to the quickening Trinity, lay by 
at this time all worldly cares, that we may receive the 
Kino- of Glory, invisibly attended by the angelic 
orders. Alleluia. Alleluia. Alleluia. (20) 

The Priest offers Incense for the Entrance, and 
prays. (-1) 



(19) Here followed the expulsion of the Catechumens and 
penitents, preceded probably in this, as in the Constantinopolitan 
ritual, by the Priest unfolding the Corporal. We shall find a 
fuller form for this expulsion in other Liturgies. 

(2") This, one of the four Liturgical hymns, is not earlier than 
the time of Justinian; and accordingly does not occur in any of 
the heretical Liturgies except the Armenian. It is found in all 
the great rites, except the Clementine. 

(21) This is the Great Entrance j the carrying the Elements from 
the Prothesis to the altar. It is the most imposing ceremony in 
the Eastern Church. The anticipative worship paid to these 



11 

Priest. Lord our God, Who hast no need of any 
gift, accept this incense offered by an unworthy hand, 
and count us all worthy of the blessing which is from 
Thee ; for Thou art our sanctification, and to Thee we 
ascribe glory. 

And the Holy Tilings enter to the Altar, and the 
Priest prayeth thus : 

Holy, lofty, tenible, Thou Who restest in the 
holies, O Lord, Thyself sanctify us, and count us 
worthy of Thy fearful Priesthood, and cause us to 
approach to Thy venerable altar with all good con- 
science : and purify our hearts from every pollution : 
chase away from us every evil sensation : hallow our 
mind and our soul, and grant us to accomplish the 
worship of our holy fathers with Thy fear, propitiating 
Thy Face at all times ; for Thou art He That blessest 
and sanctifiest all things, and to Thee we ascribe glory 
and giving of thanks. 

Deacon. Kiss one the other. 

The Priest saith the 'prayer of the Kiss. 

Master, and Lord Almighty, look down from 
heaven upon Thy Church, and upon all Thy people, 
and all Thy flocks, and save ail of us Thine unworthy 
servants, the creatures of Thy fold ; and grant to us 
Thy peace, and Thy love, and Thy help, and send 
down upon us the gifts of Thy most Holy Spirit, 
that, in a pure heart, and with a good conscience, we 

Elements by the congregation, who fall down in the very path of 
the Priest, is defended with difficulty by Greek ritualists ; but at 
all events proves thus much, with how true and real a worship 
they must adore those Elements after Consecration, which belore 
it were counted worthy, as they themselves seom to say, of auti- 
cipative lutria. 



12 

may salute one another with an holy kiss, not in 
hypocrisy, not * * * (22^ ^yt blameless and unspotted, 
in one spirit, in the bond of peace and of love, one 
body and one spirit, in one faith, as we have also been 
called in one hope of our calling, that we may all of 
us arrive at the Divine and boundless affection, in 
Christ Jesus our Lord, with Whom Thou art 
blessed. 

Then the Priest offers Incense, saying : 

Incense is offered to Thy Name. Let it ascend, we 
pray Thee, out of the poor hands of us sinners, to Thy 
super-celestial altar, for a sweet smelling savour for 
the propitiation of all Thy people. For to Thee is 
due all glory, honour, worship and giving of thanks, 
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, now 
and ever, and to ages of ages. 

And after the Kiss of Peace, the Deacon, aloud: 

Stand, to make your offerings according to your 
order. (23) 

The Priest siffning with the Cross the patens and the 
chalices, saith with a loud voice — 

I believe in one God the Father Almighty, 
Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible 
and invisible : and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the 
Only-Begotten Son of God, begotten of His Father 
before all worlds. Light of Light, very God of very 
God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with 
the Father ; by Whom all things were made : Who 

(-~) There is something here corrupt. 

(23) Tijig J take to be the meaning of xara t^ottovs. Renaudot 
translates it modestly. 



13 

for us men, and for our salvation came down from 
heaven, + and was Incarnate by the Holy Ghost of 
tlie Viro;in Mary, and was made man, and was cruci- 
fied + also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered 
and was buried, and the third day He rose again 
according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, 
and sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And 
He shall come again with glory to judge both the 
quick and the dead : Whose kingdom shall have no 
end. And I believe in the + Holy Ghost, the Lord 
and Giver of Life, Who proceedeth from the Father, 
Who with the Father and the Son together is wor- 
shipped and glorified, Who spake by the Prophets. 
And I believe one Catholic and Apostolic Church. 
I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins : 
and I look for the Resurrection of the dead, and the 
life of the world to come. Amen. 

Deacon. Stand for prayer. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

Deacon. Pray for them that offer. 

The Priest saith the prayer of the Offertory. 

Our Master, Jesus Chrlst, Lord, co-eternal Word 
of the self-existent Father and of the Holy Ghost, 
Thou That art the Great High Priest, the Bread that 
comest down from heaven, and bringest up our life 
from corruption, That didst give Thyself, a spotless 
Lamb, for the life of the world, we pray and beseech 
Thee, O Lord, Lover of men, cause Thy face to 
shine upon this bread and upon these chalices, which 
the most holy table receives, through the ministry of 
angels, and the surrounding choirs of archangels, and 
the priestly hierurgy, to Thy glory and the renovation 
of our souls; through the grace and mercies and love 
to men of Thine Only-Begotten Son, through Whom 



14 

and witli Whom, be to Thee the glory and the 
might. (2i) 

At the end of the Creed, the Priest signs the people 
7vith the Cross, saying aloud — 

The Lord be with all. 

People. And with thy spirit. 

Priest. Lift we up our hearts. 

People. We lift them up unto the Lord. 

Priest. Let us give thanks to the Lokd. 

People. It is meet and right. 

The Priest begins the Anaphora. 

It is verily meet and right, holy and becoming, 
and advantajieous to our souls, Jehovah, Lord God, 
Father Almighty, to worship Thee, to hymn Thee, 
to give thanks to Thee, to return Thee praise, both night 
and day, with unceasing mouth, and lips that keep not 
silence, and heart that cannot be still : Thee Who 
madest the heaven and the things that are in heaven, 
the earth and the things that are in the eai'th, the sea, the 
fountains, the rivers, the lakes, and all things that are 
in them : Thee Who didst make man after Thine own 
image and likeness, and also gavest him the delights 
that were in paradise, and didst not overlook him 
when he fell, nor desert him, O good God, but didst 
call him back by the Law, didst educate him by the 
Prophets, didst reform him, and renew him by this 
tremendous and life-giving and heavenly mystery. All 
which things Thou hast done by Thy wisdom, the 
^ * - — — — , — 

(-^) Observe the corruption which affixes such an ending to a 
prayer addressed to the Son ; unless by a most violent construc- 
tion we leave the former part of the prayer without any apodosis, 
and conceive the clause that begins, " We jiray and beseech 
Thee," to be addressed to the Fatuek. 



15 

true Light, Thine Only-begotten Son, our Lord and 
God and Saviour Jesus Christ, by Whom, render- 
ing thanks to Thee with Himself and the Holy 
Ghost, we offer to Thee this reasonable and unbloody 
sacrifice, which all nations offer to Thee, O Lord, 
from the rising of the sun unto the going down of the 
same ; from the north and the south ; for Thy name 
is great among the Gentiles, and in every place incense 
is offered to Thy Name, and a pure offering. 

And we pray and beseech Thee, O Lover of men, 
O good God : 

Remember, O Lord, the holy and only Catholic 
and Apostolic Church, which is Irom one end of the 
earth to the other end of it, all peoples and all Thy 
flocks. Vouchsafe to all our hearts the peace which 
is from heaven, and also bestow on us the peace of 
this life. 

The king, the military orders, the Princes, the 
Councils, the boroughs, every neighbourhood, our 
coming in and our going out, set in order in all 
peace. 

O King of peace, give to us Thy peace in concord 
and love : possess us, O God ; beside Thee we know 
none other : we are called by Thy Name : quicken all 
our souls, and the death of sin shall not have dominion 
over us, nor over all Thy people. 

Them that are sick, O Loud, of Thy people, visit 
in Thy pity and mercies, and heal. 

Avert from them and from us all sickness and 
infirmity, drive away from them the spirit of weak- 
ness : raise up again them that are lying in long sick- 
ness ; heal them that are vexed of unclean sjjirits, 
them that are in prisons, or in mines, or in courts of 
justice, or with bcnlence given against them, or in 
bitter slavery, or tribute, have mercy on all, free all : 



16 

for Thou art our God, He That sets free the bound. 
He that raises those that are in misery, the hope of the 
hopeless, the succour of the defenceless, the resurrec- 
tion of the fallen, the harbour of the tempest-tost, the 
avenger of the afflicted. To every Christian soul that 
is in trouble, and that is a petitioner to Thee, give 
mercy, give remission, give refreshment. Furthermore, 
O Lord, heal the diseases of our souls, cure our bodily 
weaknesses, O Physician of souls and bodies ; overseer 
of all flesh, oversee and heal us by Thy salvation. 

To our brethren that have departed from us, or are 
about to depart, in whatever place, give a fair journey, 
whether by land or rivers, or lakes, or highways, or 
in whatever way they may be travelling, restore them 
all everywhere to a tranquil harbour, to a safe harbour: 
vouchsafe to be their fellow- voyager and fellow- 
traveller. Give them back to their friends, rejoicing 
to the rejoicing, healthful to the healthful. 

And preserve, O Lord, to the end, our sojourning 
also in this life, without harm, and without storm. 

Send down richly good showers on the places that 
need them and desire them ; rejoice and renew by 
their descent the face of the earth, that in their drops 
it may be made glad, and may spring up, liaise up 
the waters of the river to their full measure ; rejoice 
and renew by their ascent the face of the earth : water 
her furrows, multiply her increase. Bless, O Lord, 
the fruits of the eaith. Preserve them continually 
whole and unhurt ; preserve them to us for seed and 
for harvest. Bless also now, O Lord, the crown of 
the year of Thy goodness, for the poor of Thy people, 
for the widow, and lor the oi-phan, for the proselyte, (^sj 

(■■^) If this word, which is probable, is to be taken in its Jewish 
uieauiug, it must fix the date of this intercession to a period of 
the most remote antiquity, jjrior to the destruction of Jerusalem. 



17 

for all of us who hope in Thee, and who are called by 
Thy holy Name : for the eyes of all wait upon Thee, 
and Thou givest them their meat in due season. Thou 
That givest meat to all flesh, fill our hearts with joy 
and gladness, that we always, having all sufficiency 
in all things, may abound unto every good work, in 
Christ Jesus our Lord. 

King of kings, and Lord of Lords, ***** the 
kingdom of Thy servant, the orthodox and Christ- 
loving king, whom Thou hast vouchsafed to rule over 
the land in peace and might and justice. * * * * (j 
God, every enemy, both native and foreign. Lay 
hand upon the shield and buckler, and stand up to 
help him ; bring forth the spear, and stop the way 
against them that persecute him. Cover his head in 
tlie day of battle : cause them that spring from his 
loins * * * * (^26^ [speak good things to his heart] for 
Thy holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, and all the 
people that loveth Christ ; that we also in his tran- 
quility may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all 
godliness and honesty. Give rest to the souls of our ^ 
fathers and brethren that have heretofore slept in the 
faith of Christ, O Lord our God, remembering our 
ancestors, fathers, patriarchs, prophets. Apostles, 
martyrs, confessors. Bishops, holy and just persons, 
every spirit that has departed in the faith of Christ, . 
and those whom to-day we keep in memory [and our 
holy father Mark, the Apostle and Evangelist, who 
made known to us the way of salvation]. 

[Hail, thou that art full of grace, the Lord is with 
thee J blessed art thou among women, and blessed is 

(^) We may, I think, see in the broken and corrupted state of 
the petitions lor the Emperor, that tliey formed no ])art of the 
orif^inal Liturgy, but were a later edition, when the Government 
had become Cliristiau. 



18 

the fruit of thy womb, because Thou didst bring forth 
the Saviour of the woi'ld,] {aloud) especially the 
most holy, stainless, blessed, our Lady, Mother of God 
and ever- Virgin.- 

Deacon. Sir, pray for a blessing. 

Priest. The Lord shall bless thee with His grace, 
now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

The Deacon reads the Dipfychs of the departed, (^"f) 
The P7'iest bows down and prays : 

And to the spirits of all these give rest, our Master, 
Lord and God, in the tabernacles of Thy Saints, 
vouchsafing to them in Thy kingdom the good things 
of Thy promise, (-s) which eye hath not seen, and ear 
hath not heard, and it hath not entered into tlie heart 
of man, the things which Thou hast prepared, O God, 
for them that love Thy holy Name. Grant rest to 
their souls, and vouchsafe to them the kingdom of 

(27) That is to say, the names of the former Prelates of the See , 
and of celebrated benefactors to the Church, The name is 
derived from their being inscribed on a board with two leaves, 
like a modern book : just as Triptych is a board with three 
leaves, two of which overlap and cover the third. The insertion 
of a name in tlie Diptychs, or its erasure from them, was equiva- 
lent to a declaration that its possessor died in, or out of, the 
Communion of the Church ; and hence tierce contests in the 
earlier ages, especially between Rome and Constantinople, on this 
subject. The only Church which at present retains the lectui-e 
of the Diptychs as a part of the Liturgy, is the Mozarabic. 

(2'') Observe here, (1 ) one of the many examples of prayers for 
the dead as an Isapostolic practice; (2) that, nevertheless, every 
single expression contained in them militates against the doctrine 
of a purgatory, — i e., in the sense of a place ot pain. As this is 
a subject of such great importance, I have thrown together in an 
Appendix the prayers for the departed contained in the principal 
Liturgies not here translated ; the exceeding beauty of the lan- 
guage will render them acceptable to those who have no need of 
a proof of the doctrine. 



19 

heaven ; and to us grant that the end of our lives may 
be Christian and well-pleasing to Thee, and without 
sin, and grant to us to have a portion and a lot with 
all Thy saints. The thank-offerings of them that 
offer sacrifices and oblations receive, O God, to 
Thy holy and super-celestial and rational altar, to 
the height of the heavens, by Thy arch-angelic 
ministry ; of them that offered much or little, secretly 
and with open boldness, of them that desired and had 
not wherewithal to offer: and of them that have brought 
this day their oblations: as Thou didst receive the gifts 
of Thy righteous servant Abel ; [mid the Priest offers ' 
incense, and saith,] thesacrificeof our father Abraham, 
the incense of Zacharias, the alms of Cornelius, and 
the two mites of the widow, receive also their thank- 
offerings, and give to them instead of things earthly, 
things heavenly ; instead of things temporal, things 
eternal. The most holy and blessed Pope N., whom 
Thou didst foreknow and * * * to take in hand the 
government of Thy holy Catholic and Apostolic 
Church, and our most sacred Bishop N, guard them 
by Thy care, for many years, in peaceful times, ac- 
complishing Thy holy Archpriesthood entrusted to 
them by Thee, according to Thy holy and blessed will, 
rightly dividing the word of truth. And remember 
also all orthodox Bishops everywhere. Presbyters, 
Deacons, Sub-deacons, Readers, Singers, Monks, ever- 
virgins, widows, laymen. Remember, O Lokd, the 
holy city (-9) of Christ our God, and the reigning 

(-S) Notice the extreme antiquity of this collocation, which 
places Jeru><alem first. I am inclined to think that the "reigning 
city " is not Constantinoi)le, but Rome ; since it is hardly likely 
that, were this clause posterior to the time of Constantine, three 
of the Patriarchal thrones should be mentioned without that which 
was by universal consent, the first. Anyhow it is remarkable, 



20 

city, and this our city, every city and recjion, and 
those that dwell in it in the orthodox faith of Christ, 
their peace and safety. Remember, O Lord, every 
Christian soul in affliction and trouble, that needs the 
mercy and succour of God, and the conversion of 
them that have wandered. Remember, O Lord, our 
brethren that are in bonds ; grant them to find mercy 
and pity in the sight of all those that have carried 
them captive. Remember, O Lord, also us, as sin- 
ners and Thy unworthy servanls, and blot out our 
sins as the good God, and Lover of men. Remember, 
( ) Lord, also me. Thy humble and sinful and unworthy 
servant, and blot out my sins, as the God that is the 
Lo"per of men. Be present with us who are minister- 
ing to Thy all-holy Name. Bless, O Lord, our 
congregations. Hoot out idolatry Avholly from the 
world: bruise Satan and all his power and wickedness 
beneath our feet. The enemies of Thy Church, O 
Lord, as at all times, so now also humble. Lay bare 
their pride, speedily make manifest their weakness ; 
bring to nought their plots and their villainy which 
they employ against us. Arise, O Lord, and let 
Thine enemies be scattered, and let all them that hate 
Thy holy Name flee backward, (so) [Bless] Thy faith- 
ful and orthodox people, them that do Thy holy will, 
with a thousand thousand and ten thousand times ten 
thousand blessings. 

Deacon. Ye that are sitting, stand up. 

Priest. Free them that are bound, bring forth them 
that are in necessities. Satisfy the hungry, comfort 

that Rome is either omitted altogether, or is preceded by Jeru- 
salem; and that, too, in the Litnrgy of Alexandria, the Church, 
■which, of all in the East, clung most closely to the Latin See. 

(3o) The passage is manifestly corrupt : but this is the sense. 



21 

the pusillanimous, convert them that have strayed, 
enlitrliten them that are in darkness, raise the fallen, 
establish those that are wavering, heal the sick : direct 
all, O good God, into the way of salvation, and unite 
them to Thy holy flock ; and preserve us from our 
iniquities, being in all things our guard, and our 
defender. 

Deacon. To the East. 

The I*?'iest bows down and prays. 

Thou art above all power and dominion, and might, 
and principality, and every name that is named not 
only in this world but also in that which is to come. 
Round Thee stand thousand thousands, and ten thou- 
sand times ten thousand armies of holy angels and 
archangels. Round Thee Thy two most honourable 
creatures, the Cherubin with many eyes, and the 
Seraphim with six wings, with twain whereof they 
cover their feet, with twain their face, and with twain 
they do fly; and cry one to the other with incessant 
voices and perpetual praise, singing, vociferating, 
glorifying, crying, and saying to the Majesty of Thy 
glory, the triumphal Trisagion : Holy, Holy, Holy, 
Lord of Sabaoth : heaven and earth are full of Thy 
holy glory. {Aloud.) Thou ever sanctifiest all: but 
with all that glorify Thee, receive, O Lord, our praise 
also, who with them laud Thee and say, 

People. Holy, Holy, Holy Lord. 

The Priest signs the Holy Mysteries with the Cross, 

saying, 

Verily earth and heaven are full of Thy holy glory, 
through the manifestation of our Loud and God and 
Saviour Jesus Christ: fulfll also, O God, this 
sacrifice with Thy heavenly blessing, by the coming 



22 

down on it of Thy most Holy Ghost. Fortlie Lord 
Himself and our God and universal King, Jesus 
Christ, in the night wherein He surrendered Himself 
for our sins, and .... [underwent] death in the flesh 
for all, sitting down at supper with his holy Disciples 
and Apostles, took bread (^i) in His holy and pure 
and spotless hands, looked up to Thee His own Father, 
our God and the God of all, and gave thanks, and 
blessed, and hallowed, and brake, and distributed to 
His holy and blessed Disciples and Apostles, saying, 
{aloud) Take, eat. 

Deacon. Pray earnestly. 

Priest. For this is My Body which is broken for 
you, and distributed for the remission of sins. 

Choir. Amen- 

Priest. Likewise also the cup after supper, having 
taken, and mingled with wine and water, and looking 
up to heaven to Thee His own Father, our God, and 
the God of all, He gave thanks. He blessed. He filled 
with the Holy Ghost, He distributed it to His holy 
and blessed Apostles and Disciples, saying, {aloud) 
Drink ye all of this. 

Deacon. Yet pray earnestly. 

Priest. This is My Blood of the New Testament, 
which is shed and distributed for you and for many 
for the remission of sins. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Do this in remembrance of Me. For as often 

(31) The points dwelt on in tlie Oriental Liturgies with respect 
to the institution of the Blessed Eucharist, are principally these. 
Of the bread J that our Lord (1) looked up to Heaven : (2) took 
leavened hvead. : (3) blessed : (4) brake: (5) Himself received: 
(0) distributed to His Apostles. Of the Chalice : (1) that He 
mingled it with wine and water : (2) looked up to heaven : (3) 
blessed : (4) Himself received : (5) distributed to His Apostles. 
In Appendix II., I give the words of institution from all known 
Liturgies. 



23 

as ye eat this bread and drink this cup, ye shew forth 
My death, and confess My Resurrection and Ascen- 
sion till I come. 

O Almighty Lord and Master, King of heaven, we, 
announcing the death of Thine Only-Begotten Son, 
our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ, and 
confessinrr His blessed Resurrection from the dead on 
the third day, confess also His Ascension into heaven, 
and His session on Thy right hand, His God and 
Father, lookins: also for His second and fearful and 
dreadful coming, when He shall come to judge the 
quick and the dead injustice, and to render to every 
man accoiding to His works » 

O Lord our God, we have set before Thee Thine 
own of Thine own gifts. 

And we pray and beseech Thee, (^") O good God 

(^■-) We now come to the Invocation of the Holy Ghost, by 
which, according to the doctrine of tlie Eastern Cliurch, and not 
by the words of institution, the bread and wine are " changed," 
" transmuted," " trauselemented," " transubstantiated," into our 
Lord's Body and Blood. This has always been a point of 
contention between the two Churches — the time at which the 
change takes place. Originally, there is no doubt that the Invo- 
cation of tlie Holy Ghost formed a part of all Liturgies. The 
Petrine has entirely lost it : the Ephesine (Galilean and Moz- 
arabic,) more or less retains it: as do also those mixtures of 
the Ephesme and Petrine, — the Ambrosian and the Patriarchine 
or Aquileian. To use the words of the authorised Russian cate- .' 
chism : " Why is this (the Invocation) so essential ? Because, at | 
the moment of this act, the bread and wine are changed or tran- } 
substantiated into the very Body of Christ, and into the very f 
Blood of Christ. How are we to understand the word Tran- ' 
substantiation ? In the exposition of the faith by the Eastern 
Patriarchs, it is said that the word is not to be taken to define 
the manner in which the bread and wine are changed into the 
Body and Blood of our Lord ; for tiiis none can understand but 
God; but only this much is signified, that the bread, truly, 
really, and substantially becomes the very true Body of the Lord, 
and the wine the very Blood of the Lord." 



24 

and Lover of men, to send down from Thy holy height, 
and appointed habitation, and incircumscript bosom, 
the very Paraclete, the Spirit of truth, the Holy, 
the Lord, the Life-giving : Who spake in the Law 
and by the Prophets and the Apostles; Who is every- 
where present, and filleth all things, and works of His 
own free will, and not as a minister, according to Thy 
good pleasure, in those in whom He wills, sanctifica- 
lion. One in His nature, manifold in His energies, 
Fountain of Divine graces : consubstantial with Thee, 
proceeding from Thee, fellow-sharer in the throne of 
Thy kingdom, and of Thine Only-Begotten Son, our 
Lord and God and Saviour, Jesus Christ. Send 
down then on us, and on these loaves, and on these 
cups. Thy Holy Ghost, that He may sanctifv and 
perfect them, as God Almighty. (Aloud.) And may 
make this bread the Body. 

People. Amen. 

-Priest. And this cup the Blood of the New Testa- 
ment, of our very Lord and God and Saviour and 
universal King, Jesus Christ. 

Deacon. Come down, ye Deacons. 

Priest. That they may be to all of us who partici- 
pate in them for faith, for sobriety, for healing, for 
temperance, for sanctitication, for renovation of soul, 
body, and spirit, for participation of the blessed- 
ness of eternal life and immortality, for the glory of 
Thy holy Name, for the remission of sins, that Thy 
most holy and precious and glorious Name may 
here, as also in every place, be hallowed, and hymned, 
and sanctified with Jesus Cjirist and the Holv 
Ghost. 

People. As it was and is. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

Deacon. Pray. 



25 

Priest. God of light, Father of life, Author of 
^race, Fraraer of the worlds, Founder of knowledge, 
Giver of wisdom, Treasure of holiness, Teacher of pure 
prayers, Benefactor of the soul. Who givest to the 
weak-hearted who trust in Thee those thing's into 
which the angels desire to look : Who hast raised us 
from the abyss to light, hast given us life from death, 
hast granted us freedom from slavery, hast dissolved 
in us the darkness of sin by the coming of Thine Only- 
Begotten Son ; now also, O Lord, illuminate the 
eyes of our understanding by the visitation of Thy 
Holy Spirit, that we may without condemnation 
partake of this immortal and heavenly food ; and 
sanctify us wholly, soul, body, and spirit, that with 
Thy holy Disciples and Apostles we may say to Thee 
this prayer. Our Fathkr, &c. And make us worthy, 
O Lord and Lover of men, with boldness, without 
condemnation, with a pure heart, with an enlightened 
soul, with a countenance that needeth not to be 
ashamed, with hallowed lips, to dare to call upon Thee 
our holy God and Father, Which art in heaven, 
and to say, 

People Our Father, &c. (^3) 

Priest. Even so. Lord, Lord, lead us not into 
temptation, but deliver us from the evil one : for Thy 
great mercy knoweth that we are unable to bear up 
through our much infirmity ; but make with the 
temptation also a way of escape, that we may be able 
to bear it ; for Thou hast given us power to tread on 
serpents and scorpions, and on all the might of the 



(33) The Lord's Prayer, as is well known, forms a part of 
every Liturgy, except the C'lerncntine ; and is always followtd liy 
the short 8U])i)lication against temptation, technically known as 
the EmbuUsmus 



26 

enemy: (aloud) for Thine is the kingdom, and the 
power. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

Deacon. Bow your heads to Jesus. 

People. To Thee, O Lord. 

Priest. (34) Master, Lord, and God Almighty, 
Who sittest upon the Cherubim, and art glorified by 
the Seraphim ; Who didst prepare the heaven from the 
waters, and didst adorn it with the choirs of the stars; 
Who hast arranged the bodiless armies of angels in 
the highest, to sing Thy praise everlastingly ; to Thee 
we have bowed the neck of our souls and bodies, 
signifying the outward appearance of service ; and we 
pray Thee, disperse the dark attacks of sin from our 
understanding, and enlighten our soul with the divine 
rays of Thy Holy Spirit, that we, being filled with 
the knowledge of Thee, may worthily participate in 
the good things that are set before us, the spotless 
Body and precious Blood of Thine Only-Begotten 
Son, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Chhist; for- 
giving us every kind of sin, through Thy great and 

(34) rpjjjg jg ijjg prayer of Intense Adoration, which has its 
place in all Oriental Liturgies, and answers to the worship paid 
by the Western Church to our Lokd's Sacramental Body and 
Blood at the Elevation of the Host. An attempt has been made 
to prove that the East does not agree with the AVest in paying 
the worshi]> of li/tria to that Body and that Blood, from the 
long interval which separates the prayer of Intense Adoration (in 
all Liturgies except the present one) from the Invocation of the 
Holy Ghost, Nothing can be more futile: the obvious tangible 
reason being, that, during the consecration, the holy doors 
were closed, or, ii\ the Armenian Church, the veil was drawn; so 
that the people could hardly be called on to worship that which 
wasmot presented to their eyes, as they can be and are in the 
Western Church, where it is so presented. But now the holy 
doors are opened ; hence the reason of the position of this prayer. 



27 

uninvestigable goodness, througli the grace and mercies 
and benignity of Thine Only-Begotten Son : (aloud) 
by Whom and with Whom, be to Thee the glory and 
the might, in Thine all-holy and good and life-giving 
Spirit. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

Deacon. With the fear of God. 

Priest. Holy, most high, tremendous Lord, Who 
restest in the holies : sanctify us, Lord, by the word 
of Thy uiace and the visitation of Thy most Holy 
Spiuit. For Thou, Lord, hast said, Be ye holy, 
for I am holy. O Lord our God, incompreliensibie 
Word of God, consubstantial and co-elernal, and 
ruUng (35) with the Father and the Holy Ghost, 
receive the pure hymn, with Cherubin and Seraphim, 
and from me a sinner and Thine unworthy servant, 
crying and saying from my unworthy lips, 

People. Lord, have mercy, (thrice.) 

Priest. Holy Things for Holy Persons. (^^) 

One holy Father, one holy Son, one Holy Ghost; 
in the unity of the Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Deacon. For salvation and succour, &c. 

The Priest, signing the people with the sign of the 
Cross, saith, 

The Lord be with all. 



(35) ffuva/ix^; unless, indeed, the true reading be rather 
(Tvtavcc^X'} toyether vnth Them without origbi. 

('■"') The famous exclamation wliich makes a part of all Eastern 
Liturgies, and is accompanied with tlie Elevation of tlie Host. 
These words are no doubt of Apostolic origin, and are quoted 
over and over again by the Eastern Fathers. It is the more 
wonderful that, to carry out a novel theory, an eminent scholar 
should lately have attempted to translate them : " The holy things 
are lifted up to the holy places." 



28 

He breaks the breads and saith, 
O praise Gob, (Ps. 150.) 

The Priest divides it amony the assista^its, and saith, 

The Lord shall bless and minister with vou, through 
His great mercy. 

Priest. Command. 

The Clerks. The Holy Ghost commands and 
sanctifies. 

Priest. Behold, they are sanctified and consecrated. 

The Clerks. One Holy Father, &c. (thrice). 

Priest. The Lord be with all. 

The Clerks. And with thy spirit. 

Priest. Himself hath blessed it. 

And, the Priest saith either the prayer^ 
According to Thy mercy. (^7) 
Or else, Psalm xlii. Quemadmodum. 

And he communicates. Aiid when he gives the 
Com^mmion to any one, he saith, 

The Holy Body. 

And when he gives the Chalice, he saith, 

The precious Blood of our Lord and God and 
Saviour. 

And when all is ended, he saith, 

Stand for prayer. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

Deacon. Pray. 



(37) This prayer, as so much else of the ritual of S. Mark, 
appears to be lost. 



29 

Priest. We give Thee thanks, Master, Lord, and 
our God, for the reception of Thy holy, spotless, 
immortal, and heavenly mysteries, which Thou hast 
given us for the well-doing and sanctification and sal- 
vation of our souls and bodies; and we pray and beseech 
Thee, good Lord and Lover of men, to grant that the 
participation of the holy Body and precious Blood of 
Thine Unly-Begotten Son, may be to faith that shall 
not be ashamed, to love unfeigned, to the fulfilment of 
piety, to the turning away the enemy, to the keeping 
Thy commandments, to a provision on our way to 
eternal life, to an acceptable defence before the fearful 
tribunal of Thy Christ : {aloud) by Whom and with 
Whom, &c. 

Then the Priest turns to the people, and saith, 

Mighty King and co-sharer of Thy Father's rule, 
Who didst by Thy might spoil hell, and trample on 
death, and didst raise Adam from the tomb, by Thy 
god-like might, and by the illuminative splendour of 
Thine ineti'able Godhead, do Thou, O Lokd, by the 
participation of Thy spotless Body and precious Blood, 
send forth Thine invisible right hand, that is full of 
blessings, and bless us all; pity and strengthen by Thy 
divine power, and destroy in us the vicious and sinful 
working of fleshly lust : enlighten the eyes of our 
souls from the darkness of sin that lies around them ; 
unite us to the all-blessed company that is well-pleasing 
to Thee: for through Thee and with Thee, to the 
Father and the Holy Ghost, every hymn is due, 
honour, might, adoration, and giving ot than .s, now 
and ever, and to ages of ages. 

Deacon. Depart in j)eace. 

People. In the Name of the Lord. 



30 

Priest, {aloud.) The love of God and the Father, 
the grace of the Son and our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the communion and gift of the Holy Ghost, be with 
us all, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

People. Amen. Blessed be the Name of the Loud. 

m 

(38) In the printed copies there is another prayer "to be said 
in the Sacristy :" which, as clearly having no business in this place, 
1 have omitted." 



i 



THE DIVINE LITURGY 



OP 



I. lantiJjj. 



Priest. Master, Lord, and our God, reject me not 
utterly, though polluted with the multitude of my 
sins ; for, behold, I have come to this Thy divine and 
heavenly mystery. Not as being worthy, but looking 
up to Thy goodness, I address my voice unto Thee. 
O God, be merciful to me a sinner : I have sinned 
against heaven and before Thee, and am not worthy 
to present myself before this Thy sacred and spiritual 
Table, whereon Thine only-begotten Son, and our 
Lord, Jesus Christ, is mystically set forth as a sacri- 
fice for me a sinner, and marked with every stain. 
Therefore I offer unto Thee this supplication and 
thanksgiving, in order to the sending down upon me 
thy Spirit of consolation, to confirm and prepare me 
for this service; and do Thou make me worthy to 
declare, without condemnation, the word delivered by 
me to Thy people from Thee, through Jesus Christ 
our Lord ; with Whom Thou art blessed, together 
with Thy most holy, and good, and quickening, and 
consubstantial Spirit, now and ever, and to ages of 
ages. Amen. 

Prayer of Standing hefore the Altar. 

Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the 
Holy Ghost, the Trinal and only light of Godhead, 
existing. One Substance in Trinity, and undividcdly : 



32 

for the OTifi Almighty God is the Trinity, Whose 
fijlory the heavens relate, and the earth His power, 
and the sea his might, and every sentient and intelli- 
gent creature, heralds everywhere His greatness : for 
to Him befits all glory, honour, might greatness and 
magnificence, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 
Amen. 

Prayer of the Incense. 

Master and Lord, Jesus Christ, O Word of God, 
Who didst voluntarily offer Thyself, a spotless sacri- 
fice, upon the Cross to God and the Father, the 
coal of two natures. Who didst kindle with the tonps 
the prophet's lips, and didst take away his sins, kindk 
also the perceptions of us sinners, and purify us from 
every spot, and cause us to stand pure before Thy 
holy altar, that we may offer to Thee the sacrifice of 
praise : and receive from us, Thine unpi'ofitable ser- 
vants, for a sweet-smelling savour, and make sweet 
that which is unsavoury both in our souls and our 
bodies ; and sanctify us with the sanctifying power of 
Thy most Holy Spirit : for Thou only art holy, Who 
sanctifiest, and art distributed to. Thy faithful people; 
and glory befits Thee with Thy self existent Father, 
and Thy most holy and good and quickening Spjrjt, 
now and ever, and to ages of ages. Amen. 

Introductory Prayer. 

O Beneficent King of Ages, and Maker of the 
whole Creation, accept Thy Church approaching Thee 
through Thy Christ; fulfil that which is profitable 
to each ; bring all to perfection ; and make us worthy 
of the grace of Thy sanctification ; gathering us 
together in Thy holy Church, which Thou hast pur- 
chased by the precious blood of Thine Only-Begotten 



33 

Son, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ ; with 
Whom Thou art blessed and glorified, together with 
the most holy and good and quickening SpiRiT^now 
and ever, and to ages of ages. Amen. 

Deacon. Let us yet pray to the Lord. 

Priest. O God, Who didst receive the gifts of Abel, 
the sacrifice of Noah and Abraham, the incense of 
Aaron and Zacharias, receive also out of the hand of 
us sinners, this incense for a sweet-smelling savour, and 
for the remission of our sins, and of all Thy people; 
for Thou art blessed, and to Thee glory is due, Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, now and ever. 

Deacon. Sir, give the blessing. 

Priest' Jesus Christ, our Lord and God, Who, 
through the exceeding greatness of Thy goodness, and 
Thy love not to be restrained, wast crucified, and 
didst not refuse to be pierced by the spear and the 
nails ; AYho didst provide this mysterious and fearful 
rite as an eternal remembrance to us continually ; 
bless thy ministry in Christ our God, and bless our 
Entrance, and accomplish perfectly the ministration 
of this our Liturgy by His ineffable loving-kindness, 
now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

Responsory prayer from the Deacon. 

The Lord bless and vouchsafe to us to bring pre- 
sents to Him seraphically, and to sing the widely- 
celebrated hymn of the divine Trisagion, by the 
measureless fullness of all the completeness of sancti- 
fication, now and ever, (i) 



(') These prayers, except the first and fourth, have a compara- 
tively later origin, and cannot be considered more ancient than 
the time of S. Proclus. 



34 

The Deacon sings in the Entrance. 

Only-Begotten Son and Word of God, immortal, 
Who didst vouchsafe for our salvation to take flesh 
of the holy Mother of God, and Ever- Virgin Mary, 
and didst without mutation become man, and wast 
crucified, Christ, our God, and by death didst over- 
come death, being one of the Holy Trinity, and 
glorified together with the Father and the Holy 
-Ghost, save us. 

The Priest saith this prayer from the gates to the 

Altar. 

O God, the Almighty and glorious Lord, Who 
hast given to us an Entrance to the Holy of Holies, 
fey the sojourning on earth of Thine Only-Begotten 
Son, our Lord, and God, and Saviour, Jesus Christ, 
we beseech and supplicate Thy goodness, seeing that 
we are full of fear and trembling, when about to stand 
before Thy holy Altar, send down upon us, O Lord, 
Thy good grace, and sanctify our souls and bodies 
and spirits, and change our dispositions to piety, that 
we, with a pure conscience, may offer to Thee gifts, 
presents, fi-uits, to the putting away of our transgres- 
sions and for the propiation of all Thy people, through 
the grace and mercies, and love to man of Thine Only- 
Begotten Son, with Whom Thou art blessed to ages 
of a^es. Amen. 



"tj" 



And after entering to the Altar, the Priest saith — 

Peace be with all. 

People. And with thy spirit. 

P7-iest. The Lord bless us all, and hallow us in 
the entrance and hierurgy of the divine and spotless 
Mysteries, giving peace also to the blessed souls with 



35 

the holy and the just, through His grace and love to 
man, now and ever, and to ages of ages. Amen. 

Then the Deacon saith the Collect— In peace let u* 
make our supplication to the Lord. 

For the peace that is from above, and the loving- 
kindness of God, and the salvation of our souls, let 
us make our supplication to the Lord. 

For the peace of the whole world^ '^nd the union of 
all the holy Churches of God, let us make ouv suppli- 
cation to the Lord. 

For the forgiveness of our sins, and the remission ot 
our transgressions, and that we may be preserved 
from all aiSiction, passion, danger, and necessity, and 
the insurrection of our enemies, let us make our sup- 
plication to the Lord. 

IVien the Singers sing the hymn of the Trisagion. 

Holy God, Holy and Mighty, Holy and Immortal,, 
have mercy upon us. 

Priest. Merciful and pitiful, long-suffering, and 
gracious, and true Lord, look upon us from Thy 
prepared habitation, and hear us Thy suppliants, and 
preserve us from all temptation whether of the devil 
or of man, and set not Thy help far from us, nor 
bring upon us chastisements heavier than we can bear : 
for we are not able to conquer the things which are 
adverse to us : but Thou art able, O Lord, to save 
us from all adversities. Save us, O God, from the 
difficulties of this world, according to Thy goodness j 
that we, entering with a pure conscience to Thy holy 
Altar, may without blame send up to Thee, together 
with the celestial, the blessed hymns of the Trisagion ; 
and, accompHshing the Liturtiy, well-pleasing to Thee 
and divine, may be counted worthy of everlasting life. 

c2 



36 

Exclamation. For Thou art holy, O Lord, our 
God, and Thou dwellest and restest in the HoUes, 
and to Thee we ascribe glory, and the hymn of the 
Trisagion, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, now and 
ever, and to ages of ages. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

People. And with thy spirit. 

The Singers. Alleluia ! 

Then are read consecutively (") the sacred oracles of the 
Old l^est anient and the Prophets ; and the Incar- 
nation of the Son of Alan, His sufferings and 
Resurrection from the dead, His Ascension into 
heaven, atid His Second Coming with glory, are set 
forth. And this is done every {^) day in the holy 
and Divine Service. And after the reading and 
teaching, the Deacon says. 

Let us all say. Lord, have mercy. 

Lord, Almighty, God of our Fathers, we beseech 
Thee to hear us. 

For the peace that is from above, and the salvation 
of our souls, let us make our supplication to the 
Lord. 

For the peace of the whole world, and the unity of 
the holy Churches of God, let us make our supplica- 
tion to the Lord. 

For the salvation and succour of all the Christ- 
loving jieople, we beseech Thee to hear us. 

Q) lii^adiKarara.. So they usually interpret the word, though 
.others will have it to mean at very great length. The Rubric is 
„of the most venerable antiquity. 

(3) licif ixaa-rnv. It is most natural to understand ri/ai^av. This 
passage is anotlier proof that the Primitive Liturgies were not 
rfionfined to Sunday only. 



37 

That we may be delivered from all affliction, pas- 
sion, danger, and necessity, bondage, bitter death, and 
our iniquities, we beseech Thee to hear us. 

For the people that is standing round about, and 
expecting the rich and great mercy that is Irom i hee, 
we beseech Thee be compassionate and have mercy. 

Save, O Lord, Thy people, and bless Thine inhe- 
ritance. 

Visit Thy world in mercy and loving-kindnesses. 

Raise the horn of Christians, by the might of the 
precious and quickening Cross. 

We beseech Thee, O Lord of many mercies, hear 
us who supplicate Tliee, and have mercy. 

People {tkrice.) Lord, have mercy. 

Deacon. For the forgiveness of our sins, and the 
remission of our offences, and that we may be pre- 
served from all affliction, passion, danger, and neces- 
sity, let us make our supphcation to the Lord. 

Let us beseech from the Lord, that we may pass 
through this whole day in perfectness, holiness, peace, 
and sinlessness. 

Let us beseech from the Lord, an Angel of peace, 
a faithful guide, guardian of uur souls and bodies. 

Let us beseech from the Lord, pardon and remis- 
sion of our sins and transgressions. 

Let us beseech from the Lord, such things as are 
good and convenient to our souls, and peace to the 
world. 

Let us beseech from the Lord, that we may accom- 
plish the remainder of our lives in peace and health. 

Let us beseech that the ends of our life may be 
Christian, without pain, and without shame, and a 
good answer at the dreadful and fearful judgment-seat 
of Christ. 

Priest. For Thou art the good tidings, and the 



38 

illumination, the Saviour and the Guardian of our 
souls and bodies, God, and Thy Only-Begotten Son, 
and Thy all-holy Spirit, now and ever. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Commemorating our all-holy, spotless, 
exceeding glorious Lady, the Mother of God, and 
ever- Virgin Mary, with all Saints and just men, let us 
commend ourselves and each other, and all our life to 
Christ, our God. 

People. To Thee, O Lord. 

Priest. O God, Who hast sounded into our ears 
Thy divine and salutary oracles, illuminate the souls 
of us sinners to the comprehension of that which has 
been before read, so that ^xe may not only be seen to 
be hearers of spiritual things, but doers of good works, 
following after faith without guile, blameless life, 
conversation without charge of guilt. 

Exclamation. In Christ Jesus our Lord, with 
Whom Thou art blessed, with Thy most holy and 
good and quickening Spirit, now and ever, and to 
ages of ages. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

People. And with thy spirit. 

Deacon. Let us bow our heads to the Lord. 

People. To Thee, O Lord. 

Priest. Lord and Giver of Life, Supplier of good 
things, Thou That didst give to men the blessed hope 
of everlasting life, our Lord Jesus Christ, vouchsafe 
that we may in holiness accomplish this divine Liturgy 
to Thee, to the enjoyment of future blessedness. 

Exclamation. To the end that we, ever guarded by 
Thy might, and conducted to the light of truth, may 
send up to Thee glory and thanksgiving, Father 
Son, and Holy Ghost, now and ever. 



39 

People. Amen. 

Deacon. Let none of the Catechumens, let none of 
the uninitiated, let none of those who are not able to 
join with us in prayer ; — look upon ('*) one another. 
The doors ! All upright ! Let us pray yet to the 
Lord. 

Prayer of the Incense. 
Pr?es^. Master, Almighty,King of Glory ,Whoknowest 
all things before their origin, be Thyself present with 
us who call upon Thee in this holy hour, and ransom 
us from the shame of our falls. Purify our mind and 
our thoughts from impure concupiscences and worldly 
deceit, and every diabolic influence ; and receive from 
the hands of us sinners this Incense, as Thou didst 
receive to Thyself the offering of Abel and Noe, and 
Aaron and Samuel, and all Thy Saints ; defending us 
from every evil thing, and preserving us to the being 
evermore well-pleasing to Thee, and worshipping Thee, 
the Father and Thine Only-Begotten Son, and Thy 
most Holy Spirit, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

And the Readers begin the Cheruhic Hymn. 

Let us, who mystically represent the Cherubin, and 
sino- the thrice-holy hymn to the quickening Trinity, 
lay by at this time all worldly cares, that we may 
receive the King of Glory, invisibly attended by the 
angelic orders. Alleluia. (5) 

Priest. Let all mortal flesh keep silence, and stand 
with fear and trembling, and ponder notliing earthly 
in itself; for the King of Kings and Lord of Lords, 

(4) So as to be sure that none, whom any worshipper knew to 
be a Catechumen or heretic, might conceal himself in the 

court. 

(^) See this hymn in the Liturgy of S. Mark. 



40 

Chrtst our God, cometh forwai'd to be sacrificed and 
to be given for food to the faithful ; and He is pre- 
ceded by the choirs of the Angels, with every Domi- 
nation and Power, the many-eyed Cherubim, and the 
six-winged Seraphim, that cover their faces, and 
vociferate the hymn, Alleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia. 

Tlie Priest brings in the Holy Gifts, and saith 
this prayer. {^) 

God, our God, Who didst send forth the heavenly 
Bread, the nourishment of the whole world, our Lord 
Jesus Christ as our Saviour and Ransomer and 
benefactor, blessing and sanctifying us, Thyself bless 
this offering, and receive it to Thy super-celestial 
Altar. Remember, as good and the Lover of men, 
them that brought it, and them for whom they brought 
it : and continually guard us without condemnation, in 
the hierurgy of Thy divine mysteries. For hallowed 
and glorified is Thine all-honourable and majestic 
name, of Father, and Son, and of Holy Ghost, now 
and ever, and to ages of ages. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

Deacon. Sir, give the blessing. 

Priest. Blessed be God, Who blesseth and halloweth 
us all at the offering of the divine and spotless mys- 
teries, and giveth rest to the blessed souls with the 
Saints and the just, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

Deacon. Let us attend in wisdom. 

The Priest begins — 

1 believe in one God the Father Almighty, 
Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible 

(^) The Great Entrance : for which see the parallel passage in 
the Liturgy of S. Mark. 



41 

and invisible : and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the 
Only-Begotten Son of God, begotten of His Father 
before all worlds. Light of Light, very God of very 
God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with 
the Father ; by Whom all things were made : Who 
for us men, and for our salvation came down froin 
heaven, and was Incarnate by the Holy Ghost of 
the Virgin Mary, and was made man, and was cruci- 
fied also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered 
and was buried, and the third day He rose again 
according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, 
and sitteth on the right hand of the F'ather. And 
He shall come again with glory to judge both the 
quick and the dead : Whose kingdom shall have no 
end. And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord 
and Giver of Life, Who proceedeth from the Father ; | 
Who with the Father and the Son together is wor- 
shipped and glorified, Who spake by the Prophets. 
And I believe one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. 
I acknowledge one Baptism ibr the remission of sins. 
And I look tor the Resurrection of the dead, and the 
life of the world to come. Amen. 

Then he prayetlt, bowing the nech. 

God and Master of all things, make us, the unworthy, 
O Lover of men, worthy of this hour, that we, remain- 
ing pure from all guile and all hypocrisy, may be 
united together by the bond of peace and of love, being 
stablished by the sanctification of Thy divine know- 
ledge, through Thine Only-Begotten Son, our Lord 
and SAViouR Jesus Christ: with Whom. 

Beacon. Let us stand well ; let us stand piously ; 
let us stand with the fear of God, and compunction of 
heart. In the place of the Lord, let us pray. 

Priest. For the God of peace, mercy, love, bowels 



42 

of compassion, and love to man, art Thou and Thine 
Only-Begotten Son, and Thine all-holy Spirit, now 
and ever. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

People. And with thy spirit. 

Deacon. Let us kiss one another (J) with an holy 
kiss. Let us bow our heads to the Lord. 

The Priest bowing down, saith this prayer. 

Thou Who alone art Lord and merciful God, on 
them that bow down their necks before Thine holv 
Altar, and seek the spiritual gifts that are from Thee,, 
send forth Thy good grace ; and bless us all with every 
spiritual blessing, that cannot be taken away, Thou 
Who dwellest on high, and regardest things that are 
humble. 

Exclamation. For laudable and adorable and exceed- 
ing glorious is Thy most holy Name, of Fatheij, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, now and ever, and to ages of 
ages. 

Deacon. Sir, give the blessing. 

Pritst. The Lord shall bless, and shall minister 
with all of us in His grace and love to men. And 
again. The Lord shall bless, and make us worthy oi 
standing before His holy Altar, always, now and ever., 
and to ages. And again. Blessed be God, Whc 
blesseth and sanctifieth all of us in our presence at, 
and hierurgy of. His spotless mysteries, now and ever, 
and to ages. (^) 

(') Observe that the Kiss of Peace follows the Creed in this 
Liturgy — precedes it in that of S, Mark. 

(^) It is not easy to say whether these are different versions of 
the same blessing, or whether tliey bear any reference to the 
Blessed Trinity. 



43 

The Deacon makes the universal Litany. 

In peace let us make our supplication to the Lord. 

People. Lord have mercy. (9) 

For the peace that is from above, and the love of 
God, and the salvation of our souls, let us make our 
supplication to the Lord. [Each clatcse ends in the 
same wai/.] 

For the peace of the whole world, and the unity of 
all the holy Churches of God. 

For them that bear fruit and do good deeds in the 
holy Churches of God, that remember the poor, the 
widows and the orphans, the strangers, and them that 
are in need ; and for them that have desired us to 
make mention of them in our prayers. 

For them that are in old age and infirmity, the sick, 
the distressed, and that are vexed of unclean spirits, 
their speedy healing from God and salvation. 

For them that lead their lives in virginity, and 
purity, and asceticism, and in venerable marriage, 
and them that carry on their struggle in the caves and 
dens (10) and holes of the earth, our holy fathers and 
brothers. 

For Christians that sail, that journey, that are 
strangers, and for our brethren that are in bonds and 
exiles, and imprisonment and bitter slavery, their 
peaceful return. 

For the forgiveness of our sins and remission of our 
offences, and that we may be preserved from all 
affliction, passion, danger and necessity, and the insur- 
rection of enemies. 

('-') The Deacon in the printed texts, continues. Preserve, have 
pity, and guard us, O God, by Thy grace. This petition is 
clearly luisjiiaced here : it may have belonged to the end. Com- 
jiare this " Catliolic Synapte " with the Ectene of the Liturgy of 
S. Clu-ysostoui. 

('") A clause probably added in the 4th century. 



44 

For good temperature of the atmosphere, peaceful 
showers, pleasant clews, abundance of fruits, fulness of 
a good season, and for the crown of the year. 

For those, our fathers and brethren, that are present 
and praj^ touether with us in this holy hour and at all 
seasons, their diligence, labour, and readiness. 

And for every Christian soul in affliction and dis- 
tress, and needing the mercy and succour of God, and 
for the conversion of the erring, the health of the sick, 
i the rescue of the prisoners, the rest of them that have 
departed afore, our fathers and brethren. 

That our prayer may be heard and acceptable before 
God, and that His rich mercies and pities may be 
sent down upon us. 

Let us commemorate the most holy, spotless, ex- 
ceedingly gloi'ious, blessed Lady the Mother of God 
and Ever-Virgin Mary, with all the Saints together, 
' that we may obtain mercy through their prayers and 
intercessions. 

And for the proposed, precious, heavenly, ineffable, 
spotless, glorious, fearlul, terrible, divine gifts, and 
the salvation of the Priest that stands by and offers 
them, let us supplicate the Lord our God. 

People. Lord have mercy. 

Then the Priest sig^is the Gifts with the Cross, and 
standing saith secretly thus — 

Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, 
good-will to men. (^Thrice.) 

O Lord, open Thou my lips, and my mouth shall 
shew forth Tiiy praise. (IVirice. ) 

Let my mouth be filled with Thy praise, O Lord, 
that I may set fori h Thy glory, and Thy majesty all 
the day long. (^Thrice.) 

Of the Father. Amen. And of the Sox. Amen. 



45 

And of the Holy Ghost. Amen. Now and ever, 
and to aojes of a^es. Amen. 

And bowing to this side and that, he saith — 

O magnify' the Lord with me, and let us exalt His 
Name together. 

And they answer, bowing down. 

The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the 
power of the Highest shall overshadow thee. 

And the Priest at length. 

Lord and Master, Thou That dost visit us with 
mercies and loving-kindnesses which has freely given 
boldness to us Thy humble and sinful and unworthy 
servants, to stand before Thy holy Altar, and to offer 
to Thee the fearful and unbloody sacrifice for our sins 
and for the ignorance of the people, look upon me, 
Thine unprofitable servant, and blot out my sins by 
Thy tender mercy ; and cleanse my lips and heart from 
all pollution of flesh and spirit ; and remove from me 
every unseemly and foolish thought, and make me fit, 
by the might of Thine all-holy Spirit, for this 
Liturgy ; and receive me by Thy goodness, approach- 
ing to Thy holy Altar ; and vouchsafe, O Lord, that 
these gifts, brought to Thee by our hands may be 
acceptable, condescending to my weaknesses : and 
cast me not away from Thy Face, neither ahbor Thou 
mine unworthiness : but pity me according to Thy 
great mercy, and according to the multitude of Thy 
loving-kindnesses pass by my tears and passion : that 
I, coming blamelessly into the presence of Thy jilory, 
may be counted w^orthy of the protection of Thine 
Only-Begotten Son, and of the illumination of the 
most Holy Spirit ; and may not, as a slave of sin, 



46 

be rejected, but, as Thy servant, may find grace and 
mercy and remission of sins before Tliee, in this world 
and in that which is to come. Yea, all-ruling Master, 
Almighty Lord, hear my supplication ; for Thou art 
He That workest all in all, and we all seek in all 
things after the succour and assistance that is from 
Thee and Thine Only-Begotten Son, and the good and 
quickening and consubstantial Spirit, now and for 
ever. 

O God, Who through Thy great and ineffable love 
to man didst send Thine Only-Begotten Son into the 
world, that He might turn back again the sheep that 
had gone astray ; turn us not back, sinners, that take 
hold of Thee in the fearful and unbloody sacrifice : 
for we trust not in our own righteousness, but in Thy 
good mercy, by which Thou redeemest to Thyself our 
race. We supplicate and beseech Thy goodness that 
this Mystery planned for our salvation may not be 
to condemnation to Thy people, but to the blotting 
out of sin, to the renewal of souls and bodies, to the 
well-pleasing of Thee our God and Father, in the 
mercy and love to men of Thine Only-Begotten Son, 
with Whom Thou art blessed, with, &c. 

Lord God, Thou That didst form us and bring us 
to life. Thou That hast manifested to us ways to sal- 
vation ; Thou That hast vouchsafed to us the revela- 
tion of celestial Mysteries, and didst place us in this 
ministry in the might of Thine all-holy Spirit : vouch- 
safe, Master, that we may be servants of I'hy New 
Testament, ministers of Thy spotless mysteries, and 
according to the multitude of Thy mercy receive us 
who approach to Thy holy Altar, that we may be 
worthy to offer to Thee gifts and sacrifices for our own 
ignorances and for those of the people ; and grant us, 
O Lord, with all fear and with a good conscience to 



47 

set before Thee this spiritual and unbloody sacrifice, 
which receiviiig into Thy holy and super-celestial and 
rational Altar, for a savour of spiritual sweetness, 
send down to us in its stead the grace of Thine 
all-holy Spirit. Yea, O God, look upon us, and 
have regard to this our reasonable sacrifice, and 
received, as Thou didst receive the gifts of Abel, 
the sacrifices of Noe, the priestly offerings of Moses 
and Aaron, the peace-off"erings of Samuel, the repent- 
ance of David, the incense of Zacharias : as Thou 
didst receive from the hand of Thine Apostle this 
true worship, thus receive also from the hands of us 
sinners, in Thy goodness, these gifts that are laid before 
Thee. And grant that our oblations may be well- 
pleasing to Thee and hallowed by the Holy Ghost, 
for a propitiation of our transgressions, and of the j 
ignorances of the people, and for the repose of the 
souls that have fallen asleep; that Ave also. Thy 
humble and sinful, and unworthy servants, being 
counted worthy to minister without guile to Thy holy 
Altar, may receive the reward of faithful and wise 
stewards, and may find grace and mercy in the fearful 
day of Thy just and good recompense. 

Prayer of the Veil, (i^) 

We render thanks to Thee, Lord our God, for that 
Thou hast given us boldness to the entrance in of Thy 
holy places, the new and living way which Thou hast 
consecrated for us through the veil of the Flesh of 
Thy Christ. We therefore, to whom it hath been 
vouchsafed to enter into the place of the tabernacle of 



(11) Because the Veil is now raised, and the Holy Mysteries 
exposed to view. 



48 

Thy glor}', and to be within the veil, and to behold 
the Holy of Holies, fall down before Thy goodness : 
Master, have mercy upon us : since we are full of fear 
and dread, when about to stand before Thy holy Altar, 
and to offer this fearful and unbloody sacrifice for our 
sins and for the ignorances of the people. Send forth, 
O God, Thy good grace, and hallow our souls, and 
bodies, and spirits ; and change our disposition to 
piety, that in a pure conscience we may present to 
Thee the mercy of peace, the sacrifice of praise. (^-) 

Exclamation. Through the mercy and love to men, 
and Thine Only-Begotten Son, with likewise. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

Deacon. Let us stand with piety; let us stand with 
the fear of God and compunction of heart ; let us 
attend to the holy Anaphora, to offer peace [i.e., a 
peace-offering] to God. 

People. 'J'he mercy of peace, the sacrifice of praise. 

Priest. And do Thou, uncovering the veils of 
enigmas which mystically surround this holy rite ; 
make them gloriously manifest to us ; and till our 
intellectual eyes with incomprehensible light; and, 
having cleansed our poverty Irom every pollution of 
flesh and speck, make it worthy of this fearful and 
dread ministration : for Thou art the God of exceedinjr 
tender mercy : and to 'ihee we send up the glory and 
the giving of thanks to the Father, the Sow, and the 
Holy Ghost, now and ior ever. 

Then he exclaims — 



(12) Notice the sublime depth of this prayer, which seems per- 
fectly apostolic. Did the writer quote S. Paul, {Heb. x. 19, 20,) 
or did S. Paul, in writing to the Hebrews, quote their own 
Liturgy ? 



49 



[Here beginneth the Anaphora.] 

Tlie love of the Lord and Father, the g;race 
of the Lord and Son, the communion and gift of the 
Holy Ghost, be with us all. 

People. And with thy spirit. 

Priest. Lift we up our mind and our hearts. 

People. It is meet and right. 

Priest. It is verily meet and right, fitting and due, 
to praise Thee, to hymn Thee, to bless Thee, to wor- 
ship Thee, to glorify Thee, to give thanks to Thee, 
Who madest all creation visible and invisible ; the 
Treasure of eternal goods, the Fountain of life and 
immortality, the God and Master of all things, Whom 
heaven, and the heaven of heavens hymn, and all their 
powers : the sun and the moon and all the choir of 
the stars ; the earth, the sea, and all that is in them ; 
Jerusalem the celestial assembly, the Church of the 
First-born written in heaven : the spirits of just men 
and of Prophets ; the souls of Martyrs and Apostles ; 
Angels, Archangels, thrones, dominations, principali- 
ties, virtues, and the tremendous powers ; the Che- 
rubin of many eyes, and the Seraphim that have six 
wings, with twain whereof they cover their faces, and 
with twain their feet, and with twain they do fly, 
crying one to the other, with ceaseless tongues and 
perpetual doxologies, the triumphal hymn to the 
majesty of Thy glory, singing with a loud voice, cry- 
ing, praising, vociferating, and saying. 

Choir. Holy, Holy, Holy Lord of Sabaoth ; hea- 
ven and earth are full of Thy glory. Hosanna in the 
highest : blessed is He that cometh in the Name of 
the Lord: Hosanna in the highest. 

Holy art Thou, King of ages, and Lord and Giver 
of all holiness: holy also 'ihine Unly-Begotten Son, 



50 

our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom Thou didst make 
all things : holy also the Holy GHosT,Who searcheth 
all things, yea, even the deep things of God : holy art 
Thou, O Omnipotent, Almighty, Good, Tremendous, 
Long-suffering, and of great compassion towards Thy 
creatures : Thou Who didst make man from the earth 
after Thine image and likeness : and didst give him 
the delight of Paradise, and when he transgressed Thy 
commandment and fell, Thou didst not disregard nor 
leave him, O good God : but didst correct him as a 
tender Father, didst call him by the law, didst educate 
him by the Prophets ; and lastly didst send forth into 
the world Thine Only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus 
Christ, that He might come and renew and restore 
in us Thine image : Who descended from heaven, and 
being incarnate of the Holy Ghost and Marv the 
Virgin and Mother of God, and having had His con- 
versation with men, accomplished all the dispensation 
for the salvation of our race, and Who being about to 
endure His voluntary and life-giving death on the 
Cross, the sinless, for us sinners, in the night wherein 
He was betrayed, or rather surrendered Himself for 
the life and salvation of the world, {here the Priest 
takes the bread in his hands,) taking bread in His 
holy and spotless and pure and immortal hands, and 
looking up to heaven, and shewing it to Thee, His 
God and Father, He gave thanks, and hallowed, 
and brake, and gave to us His Apostles and Disciples, 
saying. 

The Deacons. For the remission of sins and eternal 
life. 

Priest (aloud.) Take, eat : this is My Body which 
is broken for you, and is given for the remission of 
sins. 

People. Amen. 



51 



Then he takes the ctqj, and saith, 

Likewise also the cup after supper, having taken, 
and mixed it with wine and water, and having looked 
up to heaven, and displayed it to Thee, His God and 
Father, He gave thanks, and hallowed, and blessed, 
and filled with the Holy Ghost, and gave it to us. 
His Disciples, saying, 

Drink ve all of this : 

This is My Blood of the New Testament, which for 
you and for many is shed and distributed for the 
remission of sins. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Do this in remembrance of Me. For as 
often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye set 
forth the death of the Son of Man, and confess His 
resurrection, till He come. 

Deacon. We believe and confess. 

People. We set forth Thy death, O Lord, and 
confess Thy resurrection. 

Priest. We therefore also, sinners, remembering 
His life-giving Passion, His salutary Cross, His 
Death, and Resurrection from the dead on the third 
day. His ascension into heaven, and session on the 
right hand of Thee, His God and Father, and His 
glorious and terrible coming again, when He shall 
come with glory to judge the quick and the dead, and 
to render to every man according to his works, offer 
to Thee, O Lord, this tremendous and unbloody sacri- 
fice, beseeching Thee that Thou wouldst not deal with 
us after our sins, nor reward us according to our 
iniquities : but according to Thy gentleness and ineff- 
able love, passhig by and blotting out the hand-writing 
that is against us. Thy suppliants, wouldst grant us 
Thy heavenly and eternal gifts, which eye hath not 



52 

seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the 
heart of man to conceive the things which Thou, O 
God, hast prepared for them that love Thee. And 
set not at nought Thy people, O Lord and Lover of 
men, for me and for my sins {He repeats thrice.) 
For Thy people and Thy Church supphcate Thee 

People. Have mercy upon us, Lord God, Father 
Almighty. 

Priest. Have mercy on us, God Almighty. 

Have mercy on us, God our Saviour. 

Have mercy on us, O God, according to Thy 
great goodness, and send upon us, and upon these 
proposed gifts. Thy most Holy Ghost, {he bends his 
head,) the Lord and Life-giving ; sharer of the throne 
and of the kingdom with Thee, God and Father, 
and Thine Only-Begotten Son, consubstantial and 
co-eternal. Who spake in the Law, and the Prophets, 
and Thy New Testament, Who descended in the form 
ofadoveon our Lord Jesus C^hrist in the river 
Jordan, and rested on Him, Who descended upon Thy 
holy Apostles in the likeness of fiery tongues in the 
upper room of the holy and glorious Sion, at the day 
of Pentecost : send down the same most Holy Ghost, 
Lord, upon us, and upon these holy and proposed 
gifts, {he raises himself and saith aloud,) that coming 
upon them with His holy and good and glorious pre- 
sence, He may hallow and make this bread the holy 
Body of Thy Christ. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. And this cup the precious Blood of Thy 
Christ. 

People. Amen. 

Priest, rising vp, in a low voice. 
That they may be to those that partake of t'lem, for 



53 

remission of sins, and for eternal life, for sanctification 
of souls and bodies, for bringing forth good works, for 
the confirmation of Thy Holy Catholic Church, which 
Thou hast founded upon the rock of faith, that the 
gates of hell may not prevail against it ; freeing it 
from all heresy and scandals, and from them that 
work wickedness, and preserving it till the consum- 
mation of all things. {Bendmrj his head, he continues.) 
We offer them also to Thee, O Lord, for Thy holy 
places which Thou hast glorified by the divine appa- 
rition of Thy Christ, and by the advent of Thine All- 
Holy Spirit : especially for the glorious Sion, the 
mother of all Churches. And for Thy holy Catholic 
Apostolic Church throughout the world. Supply it, O 
Lord, even now, with the plentiful gifts of Thy Holy 
Ghost. Remember also, O Lord, our holy fathers 
and brothers in it, and the Bishops that in all the 
world rightly divide the word of Thy truth. Remem- 
ber also, O Lord, every city and region, and the 
Orthodox that dwell in it, that they may inhabit it 
with peace and safety. Remember, O Lord, Christians 
that are voyaging, that are journeying, that are in 
foreign lands, in bonds and in prison, captives, exiles, 
in mines, and in tortures, and bitter slavery, our 
fathers and brethren. Remember, Lord, them that are 
in sickness or travail, them that are vexed of unclean 
spirits, that they may speedily be healed and rescued by 
Thee, O God. Remember, Lord, every Christian soul 
in tribulation and distress, desiring the pity and succour 
of Thee, O God, and the conversion of the erring. 
Remember, Lord, our fathers and brethren that labour 
and minister to us through Thy holy Name. Remem- 
ber, Loud, all for good ; have pity. Lord, on all ; be 
reconciled to all of us ; give peiice to the multitude of 
Thy people ; dissipate scandals ; put an end to wars ; 



54 

stay tlie rising up of heresies. Give us Thy peace 
and Thy love, O (iou our Saviour, the succour of 
all the ends of the earth. Remember, Lord, the 
healthfulness of the air, gentle showers, healthy deAvs, 
plenteousness of fruits, the crown of the year of Thy 
goodness, for the eyes of all wait upon Thee, and 
Thou givest them their meat in due season ; Thou 
openest Thine hand, and fillest all things living with 
plenteousness. Remember, Lord, them that bear 
fruit and do good deeds in Thy holy Churches, and 
that remember the poor, the widows, the orphans, the 
stranger, the needy ; and all those who have desired 
us to remember them in our prayers. Furthermore, 
O Lord, vouchsafe to remember those who have this 
day brought these oblations to Thy holy Altar ; and 
the things for which each brought them, or which he 
had in his mind ; and those whom we have now com- 
memorated before Thee. Remember also, O Lord, 
according to the multitude of Thy mercy and pities, 
me Thy humble and unworthy servant ; and the 
Deacons that surround Thy holy Altar. Grant them 
blamelessness of life, preserve their ministry spotless, 
keep in safety their goings for good, that they may 
find mercy and grace with all Thy Saints that have 
been pleasing to Thee from one generation to another, 
since the beginning of the world, our ancestors, and 
fathei's. Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Martyrs, Con- 
fessors, Teachers, Holy Persons, and every just spirit 
made perfect in the faith of Thy Christ. 
I (^3) Hail, Mary, full of grace ; the Lord is with 

(13) Tlie introduction of the angelical salutation is clearly a later 
interpolation, as interrupting the sequence of the prayer. And 
so is the £or< ffo) x'^'P-h '''"^ thoughts in which seem borrowed 
from the magnificent sermon of S. Proclus, delivered at Constan- 
tinople, March 25, A.D. 4:29. 



55 

thee ; blessed art thou among women, and blessed is 
the fruit of thy Avomb, because thou hast brought 
forth the Saviour of our souls. (Aloud.) Especially 
the most holy, spotless, excellently laudable, glorious 
Lady, the Mother of God and Ever-Virgin Mary. 

Chorr. It is very meet to bless thee, the Mother of 
God, the ever blessed, the entirely spotless, {^*) more 
honourable than the Cherubin, and infinitely more 
glorious than the Seraphim, thee, who didst bear 
without corruption God the Word, thee, vei'ily the 
Mother of God, we magnify. 

In thee, O full of grace, all creation exults, and the 
hierarchy of Angels, and the race of men ; in thee, 
sanctified temple, spiritual paradise, glory of virgins, 
of whom God took flesh ; our God, That was before 
the world, became a child. For He made thy womb 
His throne, and rendered it more extended than the 
heavens. In thee, O full of grace, all creation exults : 
glory to thee. 

The Deacons. Remember, Lord our God. 

Priest (bowing). Remember, Lord, the God of 
the spirits and all flesh, the Orthodox whom we have 
commemorated, from ri^ihteous Abel unto this day. 
Give them rest there, in the land of the living, in Thy 
kingdom, in the delight of paradise, in the bosom of 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our holy fathers, whence 
pain, sorrow, and groaning is exiled, where the light of 
Thy countenance looks down, and always shines. 
And direct, Lord, O Lord, in peace the ends of our 
lives, so as to be Christian, and well-pleasing to Thee, 
and blameless ; collecting us under the feet of Thine 
elect, when Thou wilt, and as Thou wilt, only without 

('*) It is impossible in English, without tautology, to repeat 
the fii^Ti^a. Tou e-ou rifi&iv, after having already given the hoToxov. 



56 

shame and offence : through Thine Only-Begotten 
Son, our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ ; 
for He alone hath appeared on the earth without sin. 

Deacon. And for the peace and stability of the 
whole world, and of the holy Churches of God, and for 
that for which each hath brought his offering, or hath 
in his mind : and for the people that stand around, 
and for all both men and women. 

People. For all, both men and women. 

Priest. For which things' sake, to us also, as being 
good, and the Lover of men. 

People. Remit, forgive, pardon, O God, our of- 
fences, voluntary and involuntary, in deed and word, 
by knowledge and ignorance, by night and by day; in 
mind and intention : forgive us all as being good, and 
the Lover of men. 

Priest. Through the grace, and pity and love of 
Thine Only-Begotten Son, with Whom Thou art to 
be blessed and glorified, together with the most holy 
and good and life-giving Spikit, now and ever, and 
to all ages. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

People. And with thy spirit. 

Deacon. Again and always in peace, let us make 
our supplications to the Lokd. 

For the oblations, and hallowed, precious, celestial, 
ineffable, stainless, glorious, terrible, tremendous, 
divine gifts to the Lord God. 

That the Lord our God having received them to 
His holy, heavenly, intellectual and spiritual Altar, 
for the odour of a sweet-smelling sacrifice, would send 
down in their stead to us divine grace, and the gift of 
the most Holy Ghost. 

Having prayed for the unity of the faith, and the 



57 

participation of the Holy Ghost, let us commend 
ourselves and each other and all our life to ChhisT 
our God. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. God, the Father of our Lord and God and 
Saviour Je3us Christ, the mighty Lord, blessed 
nature, measureless goodness, the God and Lord of 
all, Who art blessed for evermore: Who sitteth upon 
the Cherubin, and art glorified by the Seraphim : 
before Whom stand thousand thousands, and ten 
thousand times ten thousand armies of holy Angels, and 
Archangels. Thou hast received in Thy goodness the 
gifts, presents, fruits, that have been offered beforeThee 
for a sweet-smelling savour, and hast been pleased to 
sanctify and perfect them by the grace of Thy Christ, 
and the visitation of Thy most Holy Spirit : sanctify 
also, O Lord, our souls, bodies, and spirits ; touch the 
powers of our minds, search out our consciences, and 
cast out from us every evil thought, every impure 
imagination, every base lust, every unfitting motion, 
all envy and pride and hypocrisy, all falsehood and 
guile, every worldly distraction, all avarice, all vain- 
glory, all idleness, vice, anger, passion, remembrance 
of wrongs, blasphemy, all motion of body and soul at 
variance with the will of Thy holiness. (Aloicd.) And 
grant us, Lord, and Lover of men, with boldness, 
without condemnation, with a pure heart, with a 
broken spirit, with a face that needeth not to be 
ashamed, with hallowed lips to dare to call upon Thee, 
our holy God and Father in the heavens, and to say, 
People. Our Father, &c. 

Priest {bowing). And lead us not into temptation, (is) 

C'') This is theEmbolifsmus, or Prayer against Temptation, which 
follows the Lord's Prayer in every Liturgy. See S. Alark, p. 25. 



58 

Lord God of Hosts, Who knowest our infirmity, but 
deliver us from the evil one, and his works, and all 
his insults and devices, for Thy holy Name's sake, by 
which our humility is called. 

Aloud. For Thine is the kingdom, the power, and 
and the glory, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, now 
and ever. 

JPeople. Amen. 

Priest. Peace to all. 

People, And with thy spirit. 

Deacon. Let us bow our heads to the Lord. (^^) 

People. To Thee, O Lord. 

Priest. To Thee, O Lord, we Thy servants have 
bowed our necks before Thy holy Altar, waiting for 
the rich mercies that are from Thee : send down upon 
us, O Lord, Thy rich grace and blessing ; and sanctify 
our souls, bodies, and spirits, that we may become 
worthy partakers and communicants of Thy holy mys- 
teries : to the forgiveness of our sins and eternal life. 

Aloud. For Thou art to be worshipped and glorified, 
O our God, and Thine Only-Begotten Son, and Thy 
most Holy Spirit, now and ever. 

People. Amen. 

Priest, {aloud). And the grace and mercies of the 
Holy and consubstantial and uncreated and adorable 
Trinity shall be with us all. 

People. And with thy spirit. 

Deacon. With the fear of God let us attend. 

The Priest saith secretin/. 
Holy Lord, That restest in the holies, hallow us by 

(1") lu the printed Greek Liturgy of S. James, there is a double 
proclamation by the Deacon, and a double prayer of inclination ; 
but one of these is clearly a second edition of the other, that I 
have ventured to omit it. 



59 

the word of Thy grace, and by the visitation of Thine 
All-holy Spirit, for Thou hast said, O Lorb, Be ye 
holy, for I am holy. Lord our God, incomprehen- 
sible Word of God, consubstantial, co-eternal, indivi- 
sible, with the Father and the Holy Ghost, receive 
the pure hymn, in Thy holy and spotless Sacrifice, 
with the Cherubin and Seraphim, and Irom me a 
sinner, crying and saying, 

TJien he elevates the gifts, and saith, 
Holy things for holy persons. 

People. One holy, one Lord, Jesus Christ, in 
the glory of God the Father, to Whom be glory for 
ever and ever. 

Deaco7i. For the remission of our sins, and the 
propitiation of our souls, and for every afflicted and 
distressed soul, that needeth the pity and help of God: 
and for the conversion of them that have strayed, the 
healing of them that are sick, the liberation of them 
that are in captivity, the rest of our fathers and I 
brethren that have fallen asleep before us, let us pray 
earnestly and say, Kyrie eleison. 

People. Kyrie eleison. {Twelve ti7nes,) 

Then the Priest hreahs the bread, and holds the half 
in his right hand, and the half in his left ; and dips 
in the chalice that which he holds in his right hand, 
saying, 

The union of the most holy Body and precious 
Blood of our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus 
Christ. 

Then he signs that which he holds in his left hand : 
then with that which is signed the other half: then 
he begins to divide before all, and to distribute one 
jyart into each chalice, saying, 



60 

It hath been united and sanctified and accomplished 
in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost, now and ever. 

And when he signs the bread, he saith, 

Behold the Lamb of God, the Son of tlie Father, 
That taketh away the sin of the world, sacrificed for 
the life and salvation of the world. 

A nd when he distributes one part into each chalice, 

he saith, 

A holy portion of Christ, full of grace and truth, 
of the Father and the Holy Ghost, to Whom be 
the gloiy and the might, for ever and ever. 

Then he begins to break, and to say. 

Psalm xxiii. 

Psalm xxxiv. 

Psalm cxlv. 

Psalm cxvii. 

Deacon. Sir, bless. 

Priest. The Lord shall bless us and keep us with- 
out condemnation for the communion of His spotless 
gifts, now and ever, and to all ages. 

Deacon. Sir, bless. 

The Lord shall bless us and make us to receive 
with the pure tongs of our fingers the burning coal, 
and to place it in the mouths of the faithful, for the 
purification and renewal of their souls, and bodies, 
now and ever. 

O taste and see that the Lord is good : He That 
is broken, and not divided, distributed to the faithful, 
and not consumed, for the remission of their sins and 
eternal life, now and ever, and to all ages. 

Deacon. In the peace of Christ let us sing. 



61 

Chorr. O taste and see that the Lord is good. 

Priest, (before communi eating). Lord our God, 
the Heavenly Bread, the Life of the world, I have 
sinned against heaven and before Thee, and am not 
wortliy to partake Thy spotless mysteries : but do 
Thou, Who art a compassionate God, make me worthy 
by Thy grace to communicate without condemnation 
in the holy Body and precious Blood, for the remission 
of sins, and eternal life. 

[IVie Priest comrnunicates.'] 

But rvhen the Deacons talie wp the patens and chalices 
to communicate the ])eo2)le, the Deacon that takes 
the first paten, says, 

Sir, bless. 

Priest. Glory to God, Who hath sanctified, and 
sanctifieth us all. 

Deacon. Set up Thyself, O God, above the heavens, 
and Thy glory above all the earth ; and Thy kingdom 
remaineth for ever and ever. 

And when the Deacon is about to take it up from (^7) 
the side table, the Priest saith, 

Blessed be the Name of the Lord our God for 
ever. 

C) All the editions read below, l-ralfin rov VitrKov a-jro toZ ■jra.pa.T- 
paviX^ou, and here, on f^iXXn o oiaKovoi Tihvai ii; to vapc-.Tpa-vi'^Oy, 
It is nearly certain that the rubrics have been misplaced. The 
point is one of great difficulty, but tiie commentators entirely 
neglect it. The first question is, what is the '7rapar^a.viZ,ov ; Du 
Cange will have it to be that on which the sacied jjortions were 
lying, tlie^Ej/'SEs of the office of prothcsis. But it is clear that the 
Deacons are now in the naos, or just on the point of leaving the 
bema. The antidoron then is out of the question, for the Com- 
munion has not yet taken place. We must imagine the Tra^ar- 
(ja;ri^o» m this instance to be a side table placed in the bema, on 



62 

Deacon. With the fear of God, and faith, and love, 
draw near. 

People, Blessed be he that cometh in the Name of 
the Lord. 

[The Communion.l 

And again, when the Deacon pvts the paten down on 
the side table, he saith, 

Sir, bless. 

Priest. O Lord, save Thy people : and bless Thine 
heritage. 

Glory to our God Who hath sanctified us all. 

Deacons and people. Fill our mouths with Thy 
praise, O Lord, and fill our lips with thankfulness, 
that we celebrate Thy glory and Thy majesty all the 
day long. 

We give Thee thanks, Christ our God, that Thou 
hast vouchsafed to make us partakers of Thy Body 

which the chalices, &c., were set down (by the rubric before, 
oTOCv SiSiiu //.i^i^a, a.'Tr'k'ht lis ix.airrov x.^arn^a., Xiyn, it is clear that 
several were contemplated) in order that the Deacons might take 
them thence, and not from the Altar. By the transposition of 
the rubrics, all is now clear : when the Deacon takes the paten 
up, for the purpose of administering to the people, he says, 
" Blessed be the Name," &c. He then desires the people to 
approach ; and they accordingly communicate. After this he 
returns to the ■^a^a.r^d'TnZoi, and setting doivn the paten or chalice, 
says, " Sir, bless," &c., as below. But if the alteration in the 
rubrics be not allowed, the only possible way of making sense is 
the arrangement which I adopted in another place, where I did 
not feel justified in making the change. (Tetralog. Liturgic, p. 
192.) The Deacon, receiving the chalice from the Priest to set 
it on the side table, says, " Blessed be the Name," &c. He sets 
it down. He calls the people to approach. He then lifts it up, 
and says, " Sir, bless:" but the Priest does not bless till after 
the Communion is finished. The great awkwardness of this is 
clear. 



63 

and Blood, for the remission of sins, and eternal life. 
Keep us, we beseech Thee, without condemnation, 
because Thou art good, and the Lover of men. 

The Prayer of Incense at the last Entrance. 

Priest. We thank Thee, God and Saviour of all, 
for all the good things whicli Thou hast bestowed on 
us ; and for the participation of Thy holy and spotless 
mysteries. And we offer to Thee this incense, praying 
Thee to keep us under the shadow of Thy wings; and 
vouchsafe that, till our last breath, we may receive 
Thy sanctifications ; for the sanctification of souls and 
bodies, for the inheritance of the kingdom of heaven : 
for Thou, O God, art our sanctification, and to Thee 
we ascribe glory and thanks, &c. 

The Deacon begins in the Entrance. 

Glory to Thee, glory to Thee, glory to Thee, Christ 
the King, Only-Begotten Word of the Father, for 
that Thou hast vouchsafed us sinners and Thy un- 
worthy servants to enjoy Thy spotless mysteries, for 
the forgiveness of sins and for eternal life : glory to 
Thee. C«) 

(18) Here, in the editions, follows this : 

And lohen he makes the entrance the Deacon begins to say 
thus, 

Again and again, and evermore in peace, let us make our 
supplications to the Lord. 

That the participation of His sanctification may be to us for 
the turning away of every evil thing, for a viaticum of eternal 
life, for tlie participation and gift of the Holy Guost. 

Priest. Commemorating the most holy, &c. 

People. To Thee, Lord. 

Priest. God, Which through Thy great and ineffable love to 
man didst condescend to the weakness of Thy servants and hast 



64 

And when he puts clown the chalice on the hol>/ table, 
the Priest saith, 

(^9) Blessed be the'Name of the Lord for ever and 
ever. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

People. And with thy spirit. 

Deacon. In the peace of Christ let us chant. 

And again In the peace of Christ let us depart. 

Peojjle. In the Name of the Lord; Lord, bless us. 

Prayer of Dismissal said by the Deacon. 

From glory to glory advancing, we hymn Thee, 
the Saviour of our souls. Glory to the Father, and 
to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. We hymn 
Thee, the Saviour of our souls. 

vouchsafed that we should partake of this heavenly Table, con- 
demn us not in the participation of Thy spotless mysteries, but 
guard us, good God, by the sanctification of Thy Holy Ghost; 
that, being holy, we may find part and inheritance with all Thy 
Saints who have pleased Thee from the beginning of the world, 
in the light of Thy countenance, through the mercies of Thine 
Only-Begotten Son, our Lord and God and Saviour Jesds 
Christ; with Whom Thou art blessed, with Thy most holy and 
good and quickening Spirit, &c. 

People. Amen. 

But, in all probability, this is nothing but a second edition of 
the two last prayers ; it is hardly possible to conceive that both 
the Deacon and the Priest would say over again, in other words, 
what each of them has just been already saying; and the more 
so as the time is limited to that of the entrance. It will be seen 
that, as we at present have the Liturgy of S. James, the Priest 
remains at the Altar, while the Deacons distribute to the people. 

(>9) Here I have made another change. In the editions, the 
rubric precedes the prayer of incense at the last entrance. But 
as it is clear that the Deacon must have entered the bema before 
he can set down the chalice on the Altar, I have reversed the 
order. 



65 

The Priest saith this prayer as he goes from the Altar 
to the Sacristy. 

From might to might advancing, and having accom- 
plished all the Divine Liturgy in Thy temple, we now 
also pray Thee, vouchsafe to us Thy full mercy ; 
rightly divide our paths: root us in Thy fear; and 
count us worthy of Thy heavenly kingdom, in Christ 
Jesus our Lord: with Whom, &c. 

Deacon. Again and again and evermore in peace, 
let us make our supplications to the Lord. 

Prayer said in the sacristy after the dismissal. 

Thou hast given us, O Lord, sanctification, &;c. 
As in the Liturgy of IS. Mark, (^o) 

(20) It cannot be parallelised with that prayer, because this 
follows, that precedes, the dismissal. 



THE DIVINE LITUEGY 



OF 



And after the reading of the Law and the Prophets, 
and onr Epistles and Acts, and the Gospels, let him 
that hath been elected salute the Church, saying, 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, tlie love of 
God and our Father, and the Communion of the 
Holy Ghost, be with you all. 

And let all answer : And with thy spirit. 

And after this, let him address to the People words of 
exhortation, and when he hath accomplished the 
Word of Teaching, I, Andrew, the brother of Peter, 
say: All standing up, let the Deacon ascending to 
some high place, proclaim : Let none of the audi- 
tors : let none of the unbelievers. And when quiet 
hath been made, let him say : 

Ye that are Catechumens, pray. 

And let all the faithful, as they will, pi^ay for them, 
saying, 

Lord, have mercy. 

And let him minister on their behalf, saying : 
Let us all beseech God (i) for the Catechumens, 
that He Who is good and the Lover of men, may 

Q) S. Chi-ysostcim, in his third homily on the incom])rehen- 
sible nature of God, refers to this prayer, when he says — 
" Immediately after this exhortation follows the prayer." And 
the same thing is to be found in the nineteenth canon of the 
Council of Laodicea. (a.d. 363 or 365.) 



67 

mercifully hear their prayers and supplications, and, 
receiving their requests, may assist them and grant 
them their hearts' desire as may be expedient for them, 
and may reveal to them the Gospel of His Christ, 
and may enlighten them and cause them to understand 
and may instruct them in Divine knowledge, and may 
teach them His commandments and judgments, and 
may implant in them His true and salutary fear, and 
may open the ears of their hearts to discover the things 
that are in His law day and night, may stablish them 
in piety, may unite and may number them together 
with His holy fold, may count them worthy of the 
Laver of regeneration, of the vestment of immortality, 
of the true life ; may preserve them from all impiety, 
and may give no place to the enemy against them ; but 
may purify them from all pollution of flesh and spirit, 
may dwell in them and walk in them, by His Christ, 
may bless their comings in and their goings out, and 
may direct that which lies before them as may be 
profitable. Furthermore, let us earnestly supplicate 
for them, that having obtained the remission of their 
transgressions through the initiation of baptism, they 
may be counted worthy of the holy mysteries, and of 
perseverance with the Saints. Ye that are Catechu- 
mens arise. 

Ask for the peace of God through His Christ ; 
that this day and all the time of your life may be 
peaceful and siidess ; that your ends may be Christian ; 
that God may be merciful and gracious ; that your 
sins may be remitted : commend yourselves to the 
Only, Unbegotten, God, through His Christ. Bow 
down and receive the blessing. 

And for each of these whom the Deacon addresses, as 
we have said before, let the people sai/, Lord, have 

d2 



68 

mercy : and before all the children. (2) And rvhiJe 
they bom down their heads, let him that hath been 
elected Bishop, bless them with this blessing : 

The Almighty God, the Unbegotten and Un- 
approachable, the only true God, the God and 
Father of Thy Christ, Thine Only-Begotten Son, 
the God of the Paraclete, and the Lord of all : 
Thou Who didst by Christ ^constitute Thy disciples 
as teachers of piety ;— do Thou Thyself also now look 
upon these Thy servants, the Catechumens of the 
Gospel of Thy Christ, and give to them a new heart, 
and renew within them a right spirit, to know and do 
Thy will with a full heart and willing soul. Make 
them worthy of the holy initiation of baptism, and 
unite them to Thy holy Church, and make them par- 
ticipators of the Divine mysteries, through Christ 
our Hope, Who died for them : through Whom be to 
Thee the glory and the worship, in the Holy Ghost, 
through atl ages. Amen. 

And after this, let the Deacon say. Go forward, 
ye Catechumens in peace. And after their having 
gone forth, let him say : Pray ye thai are troubled by 
unclean spirits. Let us all earnestly pray for them, 
that God, the Lover of men, may, through Christ, 
rebuke the unclean and wicked spirits, and may pre- 
serve His suppliants from the over-mastery of the 
enemy: He That rebuked the legion of fiends, and- 

(2) It has been discussed what children are hero intended. 
Cotelerius would understand it of the choir j but I am inchued to 
think that the words are s])oken of all the children present; the 
same who are afterward committed to the charge of their mothers. 
The explanation, given by S. Chrysostom in his seventy-second 
homily on S. Matthew, seems to make this interpretation clear; 
and I am glad to see that my friend Di: Daniel also adopts it. 



the primaeval source of evil, the Devil, let Him rebuke 
also now the apostates from piety, and preserve His 
own handiwork from the energy of Satan, and purify 
them whom with much wisdom He made. Further- 
more, let us intently pray for them : save and raise 
them up, O God, in Thy might. Bend your heads, 
ye Energumens, and receive the blessing. jLnd let 
the Bishop pray over them, sayimj, Thou That didst 
bind the strong man, and spoil all his goods : Thou 
That didst give us power to tread upon serpents and 
scorpions and all the might of the adversary : Thou 
That didst give over to us bound, the man-slaying 
serpent, as a sparrow to children : (^) Whom all things 
fear and tremble at from the face of Thy power : Thou 
That didst break him as lightning from heaven, not 
w^ith a local fracture, but from honour to dishonour, 
through his own evil-mindedness : Tiiou Whose look 
drieth up the abysses, and Whose threat wasteth the 
mountains, and Whose truth remaineth for ever ; 
Whom infants praise, and sucklings bless : Who 
lookest upon the earth, and makest it to tremble: 
Who touchest the mountains, and they smoke : Who 
threatenest the sea, and driest it up, and utterly 
destroy est all the rivers : to Whom the clouds are the 
dust of Thy feet : Thou That walkest upon the sea as 
upon a foundation : Only-Begoiten God, Son of the 
Mighty Father, rebuke the evil spirits, and preserve 
the works of I'hine Hands from the energy of an 
adverse spirit : for to Thee is glory, honour, and wor- 
ship, and by Thee to Thy Father, and the Holy 
Ghost. Amen. 



Q) The allusion is to Job xli. 5 — '•' Wilt thou play with him as 
with a bird, or wilt thou biad him with thy maidens ? " 



70 

And let the Deacon say : Pass forward, ye Ener- 
gumens. And after this let him exclaim : Pray, ye 
that are illuminated. Let us, the faithful, all pray 
earnestly for them, that the Lord may count them 
worthy, having been initiated into the death of Christ, 
raise them up together with Him, and to become par- 
takers of His kingdom, and sharers of His mysteries, 
that He may unite and may collect them together with 
those that are saved in His Holy Church. Save and 
raise them up in Thy grace. Let them that have been 
sealed to God by His Christ, bow down and be blest 
with this blessing from the Bishop. Thou Thatsaidst 
aforehand by Thy holy Prophets to the initiated. Wash 
you, make you clean, and didst through Christ give 
them the law of spiritual regeneration, — do Thou Thy- 
self now look upon the baptised, and bless them and 
hallow them, and prepare them so as to be worthy of 
Thy spiritual gift, and the true adoption of Thy spiritual 
mysteries, the gathering together with them that 
are saved, through Christ our Saviour : (•*) through, 
&c. 

And let the Deacon say : Pass forward, ye that 
are illuminated. And ajter this, let him proclaim : 
Pray, ye that are in penitence. Let us earnestly sup- 
plicate for our brethren that are in penitence, that 
God, the very pitiful, may point out to them the way 
of repentance, may receive their recantation and their 
confession, and may bruise Satan under their leet 
shortly, and may ransom them from the snare of the 
devil, and the insult of demons, and may deliver 
them from every unlawful word, and every unseemly 
deed and wicked imagination ; may pardon them all 

(4) This prayer would appear, from the Council of Laodicea, 
and from the silence of S. Chrjsostom, to be of later dale than 
the others. 



71 

their falls, voluntary and involuntary ; and may blot 
out the handwriting that is against them, and may 
■write them in the Book of Life, and may cleanse them 
from every pollution of flesh and spirit, and may 
restore them so as to unite them to His holy flock : for 
He knoweth our frame. For who can boast that he 
hath a pure heart ? Or who can be confident that he 
is pure from sin ? For we are all subject to penalty. 
Let us yet pray more earnestly for them, because there 
is joy in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, that 
they, turning away from every unlawful work, may 
be made familiar with every good deed, to the end 
that God, the Lover of men, may speedily receive 
their prayers with favour, may give them the joy of 
His salvation again, and may stablish them with His 
Princely Spirit, that they may be no more shaken : 
that they may become partakers of His holy things, 
and sharers of the Divine mysteries, and being mani- 
fested as worthy of adoption, may attain eternal life. 
Let us yet say earnestly for them : Lokd, have mercy : 
save them, O God, and raise them up by Thy mercy. 
Rise up and bend your heads to God, through His 
Chhist, and receive the blessing. 

IVien. let the Bishop pray after this fashion. Al- 
mighty, everlasting God, Master of all, Creator and 
Governor of all things. Thou Who didst through 
Chiust consecrate man to be the ornament of the 
world, (5) and didst give him a law implanted in him 
and written, to the end that he might live according 
to Thy statutes, as is reasonable : and didst by Thy 
goodness give to him when he had siimed a warning 
to repentance ; look down upon these that have bowed 

("') Ornament of the world. It is of course impossible to 
preserve the paranomasia, k'xt/^ov tSu KOfffi-av. 



72 

to Thee the necks of their souls and their bodies ; for 
Thou wiliest not the death of the sinner, but Ills eon- 
version, so as to turn him from his evil ways that he 
may live. Thou That didst receive the repentance of 
the Ninevites ; Thou That wiliest that all men should 
be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth ; 
Thou That didst, through Thy Fatherly pity receive 
the son who devoured his substance in riotous living, 
because of his repentance ; do Thou Thyself now 
receive the repentance of Thy suppliants ; for there is 
none who sinneth not before Thee ; for if Thou, Lord, 
shalt be extreme to mark what is done amiss, O Lord, 
who may abide it? for with Thee there is mercy. And 
restore them to Thy holy Church in reputation and 
honour, through Christ, our God and Saviour : 
through Whom, &c. 

And let the Deacon say : Depart, ye that are in 
penitence. And let him add : Let none of those that 
are not able to pray with us, pass foi-ward : let as many 
as are faithful kneel with us. Let us all with one 
accord call upon God through His Christ. For the 
peace and good condition of the world, and the holy 
Churches, let us make our supplication ; that He, 
Who is the God of all, may bestow peace on us, 
eternal, and that cannot be taken away, to the end 
that he may preserve us perseveringly in the fulness of 
that virtue which is according to godliness. For the 
Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, which is from 
one end of the earth to the other, let us make our 
supplication ; that the Lord would preseive it and 
guard it continually, unshaken and witliout storm, 
until the consummation of all things, founded upon 
the rock, [p) And for the holy parishes here. Let us 

('') Observe that tlie reference is not to S. Mdtthew xvi. 18, but 
to b. Matthew vii, 25. 



73 

mate our supplication, that He Who is the Lord of 
all may vouchsafe to give us a share in His heavenly 
hope, and to bestow unceasingly the reward of our 
prayers. * 

For every Episcopate under heaven of those who 
rightly divide the word of 1 hy truth, let us make our 
supplication : and for our Bishop James and his 
parishes, let us make our supplication : for the Bishop 
Clement and his parishes, let us make our supplication : 
for our Bishop Euodius and his parishes, let us make 
our supplication. (J) That the meiciful God may 
vouchsafe them to their holy Churches safie, honour- 
able, full of length of days, and may afford them an 
honourable old age in piety and righteousness. 

And for their Presbyters let us make our suppli- 
cation ; that the Lord would preserve them from 
every unseemly and wicked thing, and afford to them 
their priestly office, safe and honourable. For all the 
diaconate, and ministry in Christ, let us make our 
supplication, that the Lord may preserve their services 
blameless. 

For Readers, Singers, Virgins, Widows, and 
Orphans, let us make our supplication : for them that 
are in the yoke of marriage, and the production of 
children, let us make our supplication : that the Lord 
may have mercy on them all. 

For Eunuchs, walking holily, let us make our 
supplication : for those that are in continence and 
piety, let us make our supplication : for them that 
bring forth fruit in the holy Church, and do alms to 
the poor, let us make our supplication ; and for them 



(7) These names are manifestly an insertion by way of a pious 
fraud on the i)art of the compiler ot the Apottolie Oonstituiions. 
In some Mtjsj. instead of Euodius, Aniauus, the first Bishop of 
Alexandria after S. Mark, is mentioned. 



74 

that bring offerings and first-fruits to the Lord our 
God, let us riiake our supplication : that the all-good 
God may recompense them with His heavenly gifts, 
and may give them a hundred-fold more in the present 
world, and in the world to come, life everlasting, and 
may grant to them of His grace, for things earthly, 
things heavenly. 

For our newly-illuminated brethren, let us make 
our supplication that the Lord may confirm and 
stablish them. 

For our brethren that are exercised by sickness, let 
us make our supplication ; that the Lord may preserve 
them from all diseases and infirmity, and may restore 
them safely to His holy Church. 

For them that sail and that journey, let us make our 
supplication : for them that are in mines and exiles 
and prisons and bonds for the Name of the Lord, let 
us make our supplication : for them that travail in 
bitter slavery, let us make our supplication : for our 
enemies, and them that hate us for the Lord's sake, 
let us make our supplication : that the Lokd may soften 
their mind, and disperse their passion against us. 

For them that are without and wandering, let us 
make our supplication : that the 1,ord may convert 
them. 

Let us remember the little ones of the Church, that 
the Lord, perfecting them in His fear, may bring 
them to the full measure of age : for each other, let 
us make our supplication ; that the Lord may guard 
us and preserve us by His grace to the end, and may 
defend us from the wicked one, and all the scandals 
of them that work iniquity, and may save us to His 
heavenly kingdom. 

For every Christian soul, let us make our supplica- 
tion. Preserve and raise us up, O God, by Thy pity. 



75 

Let us rise up. 

Having earnestly made our supplication, let us 
commit ourselves and each other to the Living God, 
through His Christ. Then let the Bishop pray over 
them and say : Lord Almighty, most highest, Thou 
That dwellest in the Highest, Thou Holy One That 
restest in the Holies, Thou That art without begin- 
ning, Thou That art only Ruler : Thou Who through 
Christ didst give us the preaching of knowledge for 
the acknowledgment of Thy glory and of Thy Name 
which He manifested to our comprehension : do 
Thou Thyself now look down through Him upon this 
Thv flock : and free it from all ignorance and evil 
practices, and grant that it may entirely fear Thee 
and perfectly love Thee, and may be endued with the 
glory of Thy countenance: be Thou propitious to 
them, and merciful, and ready to hear their supplica- 
tions, and keep them without turning, without blame, 
without accusation ; that they may be holy in body 
and soul, not having spot, nor wrinkle, nor any such 
thing : but that thoy may be perfect, and not one of 
them may be imperfect or incomplete. Thou That 
art the Helper, the Mighty, Thou That respectest 
not the persons of men, become Thou the assistance 
of this 'I'hy people, whom Thou didst purchase with 
the precious JBlood of Thy Christ. Defender, 
Guardian, Steward, Most secure Wall, Fence, Se- 
curity, for none can pluck out of Thine Hands ; nor 
is there any other God like Thee, for in Thee is our 
trust. Sanctify them in * hy truth, for Thy word is 
truth. Thou that art not to be flattered, thou That 
canst not be deceived, preserve them from all sickness 
and all infirmity, from every fall, from all injury and 
deceit, from the fear of the enemy, from the arrow 
that flieth by day, from the thing that walketh iu 



76 

darkness : and vouchsafe to them the eternal life, 
which is in Christ Thine Only-Begotten Son, our 
God and Saviour, tlirough Whom. 

jind after this h.t the Deacon say : Let us attend. 

And let tite Bishop salute the Church, and say: 
Let the peace of God be with you all. 

And let the people answer, And with thy spirit. 

And let the Deacon say to all, Salute one another 
with an holy kiss. 

And let the Clergy kiss the Bishop; and of the Laity, 
the men the men, and the women the rvomen. And let 
the children stand by the Berna. And let a Deacon 
preside over them, that they may not he disorderly- 
And let other Deacons walk about and observe the 
men and the women that there may be no disturbance, 
and that no one nod, or whisper, or 7vink. And let 
the Deacon stand at the doors of the men, and the 
Sub Deacons at those of the women, that no one may 
go out, and that the door may not be opened even 
though it be by one of the faithful, during the time of 
the Anaphora. And let one Sub- Deacon give water 
to the Priests to wash their hands, the symbol of the 
purity of the soids devoted to (jod. 

The order of James, the brother of John, the son 

of Zebedee. 

And I, James, the brother of John, the son of 
Zebedee, command that forthwith the Deacon say. 

Let none of the Catechumens, none of the hearers, 
none of the unbelievers, none of the heterodox stay. 
Ye who have prayed the former prayer, depart. 
Mothers, take up your children. Let no one have 
ought against any man. Let none be in hypocrisy. 
Let us stand upright, to present unto tlie Lord our 
offerings with fear and trembling. 



77 

When this is done, let the Deacons bring the gifts to 
the Bishop at the Altar ; and let the Priests stand 
on his right hand, and on his left, as disciples hy 
their Master. But let two of the Deacons on each 
side of the Altar hold a fan made up of thin mem- 
branes, or peacock's feathers, or fine cloth, and let 
them silentlfi drive away flies and gnats, that they 
tnay not fall into the cups. Then the Bishop, aper 
having prayed secretly, {and lihewise the Priests) 
and having put on his splendid vestment, and stand- 
ing at the Altar, and signing himself with the sign 
of the Cross upon his forehead, let him say, 

The grace of the Almighty God, and the love of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, and the fellowship of the 
Holy Ghost, be with vou all. 

And let all with one voice say, And with thy spirit. 

Bishop. Lift up your mind. 

People. We lift it up unto the Lord. 

Bishop. Let us give thanks to the Lord. 

People. It is meet and right. 

Bishop. It is indeed meet and right before all things 
to sing praises to Thee, the true God, from everlasting, 
of Whom the whole family in heaven and earth is 
named; Who alone art unbegotten, without beginning, 
the supreme Lord, Almighty King, and self-sufficiont; 
the Author and Giver of all good things, without cause, 
without generation, self-existing ; the same yesterday, 
to-day, and for ever. At Thy Word, as from a neces- 
sary original, all things started into being. For Thou 
art everlasting knowledge, sicjht before all objects, hear- 
ing before all sounds, wisdom without instruction ; the 
first in nature, the law of being, exceeding all number. 
Thou createdst all things out of nothing by Thine 
Only-Begotten Son, begotten before all ages by no 



78 

other means than Thy will, Thy power, and Thy 
goodness ; God the Word, the Only-Begotten Son, 
the Living Wisdom, the First-born of every creature, 
the Angel of Thy great counsel, Thy High Priest, but 
Lord and King of all sensible and intellectual crea- 
tures, Who was before all things, and by Whom all 
things were made. Thou, O eternal God, didst make 
all things by Him, and by Him too dispensest Thy 
providence over them ; for by the Same that Thou 
didst graciously bring all things into being, by Him 
Thou continuest all things in well being. The God 
and Father of Thine Only-Begotten Son; Who by 
Him didst make first the Cherubim and Seraphim, 
the Ages, Thrones, Archangels, and Angels, and 
after these didst by Him create this visible world, 
and all things which are therein. For it is Thou Who 
hast fixed the heaven like an arch, and stretched it 
out like the covering of a tent ; and didst establish the 
earth upon nothing by Thy will alone ; Who hast esta- 
blished the firmament, and prepared the night and the 
day, bringing light out of Thy treasures, and darkness 
to overshadow it, that under its covert the living 
creatures of this world might take their repose. Thou 
hast appointed the sun to rule the day, and the moon 
to govern the night ; and moreover hast inscribed 
in the heavens a choir of stars for the honour of 
Thy glorious majesty. Thou hast made water for 
drink, and for cleansing, the vital air for respiration, 
and conveyance of sounds by the tongue's striking 
of it, and the hearing which co-operates with it, so 
as to perceive the voice when it is received by it, 
and falls upon it. Thou madest fire for our consola- 
tion in darkness, and for the relief of our necessities, 
that we might be both warmed and enlightened by 
it. Thou didst divide the great sea from the land, 



79 

makinp; the one navigable, and the other a basis for 
our feet in walking ; the former Tlioii hast replenished 
with small and great beasts, the latter too both with 
tame and wild ; and hast moreover furnished it with 
various plants, crowned it with herbs, beautified it with 
flowers, and enriched it with seeds. Thou didst con- 
stitute the great deep, and didst set about it a mighty 
hollow ; (®) seas of salt waters stand as an heap bounded 
on every side with barriers of sand; sometimes Thou 
dost swell it by the wind, so as to equal the high 
mountains, and sometimes smooth it into a plain ; now 
making it rage with a tempest, then stilling it with a 
calm, for the ease of mariners in their voyages. The 
earth, which was made by Thee, through Christ, 
Thou hast encompassed M'ith rivers, watered with 
currents, and moistened with springs which never fail; 
Thou hast girt it about with mountains, that it may 
not be moved at any time ; Thou hast replenished and 
adorned it with fragrant and medicinal herbs, with 
many and various kinds of living creatures, strong 
and weak, for food and for labour, tame and wild ; 
with the dull harsh noises of those creatures which 
move upon the earth, and the soft sprightly notes of 
the gaudy many-coloured birds which wing the air ; 
with the revolution of years, the number of mouths 
and days, the regular succession of the seasons ; with 
the courses of the clouds big with rain, for the pro- 
duction of fruits, the support of living creatures; 
where also the winds take their stand, which blow at 
1 hy command, and for the refreshment of trees and 

(**) Brett translates " didst cast a mound about it." But I can- 
not sec what is tlie authority tor tliis siynitication of xjjto;. it is 
best to take it in tlie sense of a fjreat iioilow or chasm. See Butt- 
niau'sLexilogus, undei- the word Knruiitaa.. Had that distinguished 
scholar been acquainted with Patristic writings, he would have 
been glad to find iuthis passage a corroboration of his hypothesis. 



80 

plants. And Thou hast not only created the world, 
but man likewise the citizen of it; manifesting in him 
the beauty and excellency of that beautiful and excel- 
lent creation. For Thou saidst to Thine Own wisdom, 
Let us make man in Our Own image, and after Our 
likeness, aud let them have dominion over the fish of 
the sea, and over the fowl of the air. Wherefore Thou 
madest him of an immortal soul, and perishable body, 
the soul out of nothing, the body of the four elements ; 
this endued with five senses, and a power of motion ; 
that with reason, and a faculty of distinguishing 
between religion and irreligion, the just and the unjust. 
Thou, O Almighty God, didst also by Christ plant 
a garden eastward in Eden, adorned with every plant 
that was meet for food ; into this Thou didst put him, 
a rich and magnificent habitation ; having given him 
a law in his nature, and such powers that without the 
assistance of other means, even in himself he might 
have the principles of divine knowledge. And when 
Thou didst put him into this paradise of pleasure. 
Thou gavest him the privilege of enjoying all its de- 
lights, with this only exception, that he should not 
out of vain curiosity in hopes of bettering his condition, 
taste of one tree, and immortality was to be the 
reward of his obedience to this command ; but when 
he had broken through it, and eaten of the forbidden 
fruit, over-reached by the subtilty of the serpent, and 
the counsel of the woman. Thou didst justly drive him 
out of paradise ; but in Thy goodness didst not despise 
him, nor suffer him wholly to perish ; for he was the 
work of Thine own hands : but Thou gavest him 
dominion over all things, and by his labour, and the 
sweat of his face, to procure his food. Thy providence 
co-operating with him, so as to make the fruits of the 
earth to spring up, increase, and ripen. And having 



81 

subjected him for a wliile to a temporary death, Thou 
didst bind Thyself by an oath to restore him to life 
again ; loosing the bands of that death, by the pro- 
mise of a resurrection to the life which is eternal. 
Nor was this all; but Thou didst likewise multiply 
his posterity without number, glorifying as many of 
them as were obedient unto Thee, and punishing those 
who rebelled against Thee. Thou didst accept the 
sacrifice of Abel upon account of his righteousness, 
and reject the offering of Cain who slew his brother, 
because of his unworthiness. And besides these. Thou 
didst receive Seth and Enos, and translate Enoch. 
For Thou art the creator of men, the author of life, 
the supplier of our wants, the giver of laws, the 
rewarder of tiiose who keep them, and the avenger 
of those who transgress them. Who didst bring the 
great flood upon the world because of the multitude 
of the ungodly, but didst deliver righteous Noah from 
it with eight souls in the ark, the last of the foregoing, 
and the first of the succeeding generations. Who 
didst kindle a dreadful fire in the five cities of Sodom, 
and turn a fruitful land into a salt lake for the wicked- 
ness of them that dwelt therein ; but didst snatch holy 
Lot out of the conflagration. Thou art He, Who 
didst preserve Abraham from the idolatry of his tore- 
fathers, and appoint him the heir of the world, mani- 
festing unto him Tiiy Christ. Who didst ordain 
Melcliisedeck an high priest for Thy worship. Who 
didst approve Thy servant Job by his patience and 
long sulfering, the conquei'or of that serpent, who is 
tlie author and promoter of all wickedness. Who 
madest Isaac the son of the promise, and Jacob the 
father of twelve sons, whom Thou didst multiply 
exceedingly, bringing him into Egypt with seventy- 
five souls. Thou, O Loud, didst not overlook Joseph, 



82 

but gavest him as the reward of his chastity for Thy 
sake, the government over the Egyptians. Neither 
didst Thou, O Lord, overlook the Hebrews when in 
bondage under the Egyptians, but according to Thy 
promises made to their fathers. Thou didst deliver 
them, and punish the Egyptians. And wlien men 
corrupted the law of nature, and esteemed the creation, 
sometimes the effect of chance, and sometimes to be 
worthy of honour equal to Thine, Who art the God 
of all. Thou didst not suffer them to wander in error ; 
but didst raise up Thy holy servant Moses, and by 
him give a written law to strengthen the law of nature, 
and shew the ci-eation to be Thy work, and that there 
were no other Gods besides Thee. Thou didst adorn 
Aaron and his posterity with the honour of the priest- 
hood. Thou didst punish the Hebrews when they 
sinned, and receive them again when they returned 
to Thee. Thou didst torment the Egyptians with ten 
plagues, and divide the sea for the Israelites to pass 
through, overwhelming the Egyptians in their pursuit 
after them with the waves thereof. Thou didst sweeten 
the bitter water with wood, and bring water out of the 
precipitous rock. Thou didst rain manna from heaven, 
and quails out of the air for food. Thou madest a 
pillar of fire to give them light in the night, and a 
pillar of a cloud to shadow them from the heat in the 
day. Thou didst raise up Joshua to be general of 
their armies, and by him destroy seven nations of the 
Canaanites. Thou didst divide Jordan, and dry up 
the rivers of Etham. Thou didst overthrow walls 
without engines, or any assistance of human force. 
For all these things, glory be to Thee, O Lord 
Almighty; Thee the innumerable hosts of angels, 
archangels, thrones, dominions, principalities, autho- 
rities, powers, Thine everlasting armies adore. The 



83 

cherubim and seraphim with six wings, M'ith twain 
they cover their feet, with twain their heads, and with 
twain they fly, and say, together with thousand thou- 
sands of archangels, and ten thousand times ten thou- 
sand of angels, crying incessantly with uninterrupted 
shouts of praise ; 

And let all the People say with them : 

Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of Sabaoth, heaven 
and earth are full of His glory. Blessed be He for 
evermore. Amen. 

After this, let the Bishop say, 

Thou art indeed holy, and most holy ; the highest, 
and most highly exalted for ever. Holy is also Thine 
Only-Begotten Sox Jesus Christ, our Lord and 
God. Who always ministering to Thee His God and 
Father, not only in the various works of the creation, 
but in the providential care of it, did not overlook lost 
mankind. But after the law of nature, the admoni- 
tions of the positive law, the prophetical reproofs, and 
the superintendency of angels, when men had per- 
verted both the positive and natural law, and had 
forgotten the flood, the burning of Sodom, the plagues 
of the Egyptians, the slaughter of the nations of 
Palestine, and were now ready to perish universally ; 
He, Who was man's creator, was pleased with Thy 
consent to become man ; the Lawgiver to be under 
the law ; the Priest to be Himself the sacrifice ; the 
Shepherd a sheep ; to appease Thee His God and 
Father, to reconcile Thee (9) to the world, and deliver 



(3) Notice here, and again presently, thia " unscriptuial " 
phrase. Accoi'ding to S. Paul's teaching, it is man that must be 
reconciled to God, not God to man. This ajjpears to me a good 
argument in favour of the belief that S. Clement's Liturgy was 



84 

all men from the impending wrath. He was incarnate 
of a Virgin, God the Word, the beloved Son, the 
First-born of every creature ; and, as He Himself had 
foretold by the mouth of the prophets, of the seed of 
David, and of Abraham, and of the tribe of Juda. 
He, Who forms all that are born in the world, was 
Himself formed in the womb of a Virgin ; He That 
was without flesh, became flesh; and He Who was 
begotten from eternity, was born in time. He was 
holy in His conversation, and taught according to 
the law ; He cured diseases, and wrought signs and 
wonders amongst the people; He Who is the feeder 
of the hungry, and fills every living creature with 
His goodness, became partaker of His own gifts, 
and eat, and drank, and slept amongst us ; He 
manifested Thy Name to them that knew it not ; 
He dispelled the cloud of ignorance, restored piety, 
fulfilled Thy will, and finished Thy work which Thou 
gavest Him to do. And when He had regulated all 
these things, He was seized by the hands of a dis- 
obedient people, and wicked men abusing the office of 
Priests and High -Priests, being betrayed to them by 
one who excelled in wickedness ; and when He had 
suftered many things from them, and been treated 
with all manner of indignity. He was by Thy permis- 
sion delivered to Pilate the governor : the Judge of 
all the world was judged, and the Saviour of mankind 
condemned ; although impassible. He was nailed to 
the cross; and although immortal, died. The Giver 
of Life was laid in the grave, that He might deliver 



never really employed by any Church. Such an error might 
easily escape the notice of an individual writer; but the marvel- 
lous) theological accuracy of early Liturgies would not have 
allowed the phrase to remain in use. 



85 

those from the pains of death, for whose sake He 
came ; and that He might break the bands of the 
devil, and rescue man from his deceit. He arose 
from the dead the third day; and after continuing forty 
days with His disciples, He was taken up into heaven, 
and is set down on the right hand of Thee His God 
and Father. 

CalUnff therefore to remembrance those thino;s which 
he endured for our sakes, we give thanks unto Thee, 
O God Almighty, not as we ought, but as we are 
able, to fulfil His institution. For in the same night 
that He was betrayed, taking bread into His holy 
and immaculate hands, and looking up to Thee His 
God and Father, and breaking it, He gave it to 
His disciples, saying. This is the mystery of the New 
Testament ; take of it ; eat ; this is My Body, which 
is broken for many for the remission of sins. Like- 
wise also having mingled the cup with wine and water, 
and blessed it, He gave it to them, saying: Drink 
ye all of it : this is My Blood, which is shed for 
many for the remission of sins ; do this in remem- 
brance of Me ; for as often as ye eat of this bi'ead, 
and drink of this cup, ye do shew forth My death 
till I come. 

Wherefore having in remembrance His passion, 
death, and resurrection from the dead, His return into 
heaven, and His future second appearance, when He 
shall come with glory and power to judge the quick and 
the dead, and to render to every man according to his 
works ; we offer to Thee our King and our God, 
according to this institution, this bread and this cup ; 
giving tlianks to Thee through Him, that Thou hast 
thought us worthy to stand before Thee, and to sacri- 
fice unto Thee. And we beseech Thee, that Thou 
wilt look graciously on these gifts now lying before 



) 



86 

Thee, O Thou self-sufficient God ; and accept them 
to the honour of Thy Christ. And send down Thy 
Holy Spirit, the Witness of the sutferinofs of the 
Lord Jesus, on this sacrifice, that He may make 
this bread the Body of Thy Christ, and this cup the 
Blood of Thy Christ. That all who shall partake of 
it, may be confirmed in godliness, may receive remis- 
sion of their sins, may be delivered from the devil and 
his wiles, may be filled with the Holy Ghost, may 
be made worthy of Thy Christ, and may obtain 
everlasting life ; Thou, (^o) O Lord Almighty, being 
reconciled to them. 

We further pray unto Thee, O Lord, for Thy holy 
Church, spi'ead from one end of the world unto the 
other, which Thou hast purchased by the {)recious 
Blood of Thy Christ, that Thou wilt keep it stedfast 
and immoveable unto the end of the world ; and for 
every Episcopate rightly dividing the word of truth. 
Further we call upon Thee for my unworthiness, who 
am now ofiering ; and for the whole Pi-esbytery ; for 
the Deacons, and all the Clergy ; that Thou wouldst 
endue them with wisdom, and fill them with the Holy 
Ghost. Further we call upon Thee, O Lord, for the 
King and all that are in authority, for the success of 
the army, that they may be kindly disposed towards 
us ; that leading our whole life in peace and quietness, 
we may glorify Thee through Jesus Christ our 
hope. Further we off'er to Thee for all the saints, 
who have pleased Thee from the beginning of the world ; 
the patriarchs, prophets, righteous men, apostles, 
martyrs, confessors, bishops, priests, deacons, sub- 
deacons, readers, singers, virgins, widows, laymen, 
and all whose names Thou knowest. We further 

(1") Notice what is said before of this expression. 



87 

offer to Thee for this people ; that for the glory of 
Thy Christ Thou wilt render them a royal priest- 
hood, an holy nation ; for the virgins, and all that 
live chastely ; for the widows of the Church ; for those 
that live in honourable marriage, and child-bearing ; 
for the young ones among Thy people ; that Thou 
wilt not permit any of us to become cast-aways. 
Farther we pray unto Thee for this city, and the 
inhabitants thereof ; for the sick; for those that are 
in bitter slavery; for those that are in banishment; for 
those that are in prison ; for those that travel by land 
or by water; that Thou wilt be to all of them an 
helper, strengthener, and supporter. 

We further beseech Thee also for those who hate us 
and persecute us for Thy Name's sake ; for those that 
are without, and wander in error ; that Thou wouldst 
convert them to that which is good, and appease their 
wrath against us. Further we pray unto Thee for the 
catechumens of the Church ; for those who are under 
possession, and for those our brethren who are in the 
state of penance : that Thou wilt perfect the first in 
Thy faith, deliver the second from the power of the 
wicked one, accept the repentance of the last, and 
grant unto them and to us the remission of our sins. 
Further we offer unto Thee for seasonable weather, 
and that we may have plenty of the fruits of the earth; 
that receiving tlie abundance of Thy good things, we 
may incessantly praise Thee who givest food to all 
flesh. Further we pray unto Thee for all those who 
are absent upon a just cause ; that Thou wilt preserve 
all of us in godliness, and gather us together in the 
kingdom of Thy Christ our king, the God of every 
sensible and intellisent bein<j. And that Thou wilt 
keep us stedfast, unblameable, and unreprovable. For 
to Thee is due all glory, adoration, and thanksgiving, 



88 

honour, and worship to the Fatheh, and to the Holy 
Ghost, both now and ever, and world without end. 

And let all the Feople say, Amen. 

And let the Bisltoj) say, The peace of God be with 
you all. 

And let all the People say. And with ihy spirit. 

And let the Deacon again proclaim, 

Again and again let us pray to God through His 
Christ, in behalf of the gift that is offered to the Lord 
God ; that the good God will receive it through the 
mediation of His Christ at His heavenly Altar for a 
sweet-smelling savour. Let us pray for this Church 
and people. Let us pray for every Episcopate, for the 
whole Presbytery, for all the Deacons and Ministers 
in Christ, for the whole congregation ; that the Lord 
will preserve and keep them all. Let us pray for 
kings and all that are in authority, that they may be 
peaceable towards us; so that enjoying a quiet and 
peaceable life, we may spend our days in all godliness 
and honesty. Let us commemorate the holy martyrs, 
that we may be deemed worthy to be partakers of their 
trial. Let us pray for all those who have fallen asleep 
in the faith. Let us pray for the good condition of 
the air, and the ripening of the fruits. Let us pray 
for those that are newly -baptized, that they may be 
confirmed in the faith, that all may be mutually com- 
forted by one another. Raise us up, O God, by Thy 
grace. Rising up, let us devote ourselves to God 
through Jesus Christ. 

And let the Bishop say, 

O God Who art great, great in name and counsel, 
powerful in Thy works, the God and Father of Thy 
holy Son Jesus Christ our Saviour, look upon this 



89 

Thy flock, which Thou hast chosen throupfh Him to 
the glory of Thy Name; sanctify us in body and soul ; 
and grant that we being purified from all filthiness of 
flesh and spirit, may partake of the mystic blessings 
now lying before Thee, and judge none of us unworthy 
of them, but be Thou our supporter, our helper, and 
defender, through Thy Christ, with Whom glory, 
honour, laud, praise, and thanksgiving be to Thee 
and the Holy Ghost for ever. Amen. 

And after all have said, Amen, let the Deacon say, 
Let us attend. 

And the Bishop shall speak aloud to the People in 
this manner : 

HOLY THINGS FOR HOLY PERSONS. 

And let the People answer: There is one IJoly, 
one Lord, one Jesus Christ to the glory of God 
the Father, blessed for evermore. Amen. Glory be 
to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will 
towards men. Hosannato the Son of David. Blessed 
be He that cometh in the Name of the Lord : God 
is the Lord, and He hath appeared unto us. 
Hosanna in the highest. 

After this, let the Pi shop receive ; then the Pres- 
byters, and Peacons, and Sub-Peacons, and I{eade?-s, 
and Singers, and A.^cetics ; and of the n-omen, the 
Peaeonesses, Virgins, and Widows. Afterwards the 
Children, and then all the People in oxlcr rcith fear 
and reverence, without tumult or noise. And the 
Pishop shall give the oblation, saying. The Body of 
Christ. 

A7id let him that receives say. Amen. 

And the Peacon shall hold tlie cup, and v)hen he gives 
it, let him say, The Blood of Cuiusr, the cup of life. 



00 

And let him that drinks sai/, Amen. 

Let the 2Viirt7j-Third Psalm he said while the r-est 
are receiving ; and when all, both men and women, 
have received, let the Deacons take up that which is 
over and carry them into the Sacristy. {}^) 

And let the Deacon say, when the Singers have 
finished, 

Having received the precious Body and precious 
Blood of Christ, let us give thanks'^ to Him Who 
hath vouchsafed that we should receive His holy- 
mysteries,— and let us beseech Him that they may 
not be to us to judgment, but to salvation; to the 
advantage of soul and body, to the pres( rvation of 
godliness, to the forgiveness of sins, to the life of the 
world to come. Let us rise. In the grace of Christ, 
let us commend ourselves to God, the only-unbegotten 
God, and to His Christ. 

And let the J3ishop give thanks. 

Master, God Almighty, Father of Christ, Thy 
Blessed Son, Who art ready to hear them that with 
uprightness call upon Thee ; Who also knowest the 
petitions of them that are silent; we yield Thee thanks 
tiiat Thou hast vouchsafed us to receive Thy holy 
mysteries, which Thou hast afforded us, to the preser- 
vation of godliness, to the remission of sins, because the 
name of Thy Christ has been called upon us, and we 
have been made members of Thy family. Thou That 
liast separated us from fellowship with the wicked, unite 

(^^) 'Eis ra va(rri)(pofia. The word Seems originally to have been 
used of that which was bonie on a shrine : from 'pra.irTov, a small 
chapel ; and that again from -jracffu, either iu the sense of orna- 
mental work generally, or of embroidery in particular, from the 
curtain hung before such a shrine. 



91 

us with them that are hallowed to Thee : establish us 
in the truth by the coming down of the Holy Ghost : 
that which we know not do Thou reveal : that which is 
wanting in us do Thou fill up ; in that which we know 
do Thou strentjthen us: guard continually Thy Priests 
.blameless in Thy service : keep evermore kings in 
peace, rulers in righteousness, the atmosphere in good 
temperature, the fruits in abundance, the world in 
all-powerful (*') forethought. Soften the natures that 
dehght in war : turn again that which has gone astray : 
hallow Thy people : continually preserve them that 
are in chastity : preserve in faith those who are in 
marriage: fill with mio;ht them that observe continence: 
bring the babes to ripe age : confirm the newly- 
initiated : educate the catechumens, and cause them 
to become worthy of initiation ; and bring us all 
together to the kingdom of heaven : through Christ 
Jesus our Lord : through Whom. 

And let the Deacon say, 

To God, through His Christ, bow down and 
receive the blessing. 

And let the Bishop pray, saying, 

God, the Almighty, the True and Incomparable, 
Who art ever existent, and all present, and existest in 
nothing ; Thou Who art not circumscribed by places. 
Who art not aged by times. Who art not limited by 
ages. Who art not led aside by words; Who art not 
subject to generation. Who needest not guard, Who art 

(•2) I would propose to substitute for TravaX*?;, which does not 
seem to tjive any particular sense here : the woi d vavccXdi, which 
is used by Nicauder, in the sense of all healing, and which would 
better respond to the general sense. 






92 

superior to destruction, Who art unsusceptible of turn- 
ing, Who art immutable by nature, Who inhabitest the 
light which no man can approach unto, Who art com- 
prehensible to all rational natuies that seek Thee with 
good feeling, Who art invisible by Thy nature, Who art 
comprehended of them that with good will seek Thee 
the God of Israel, of him that truly ('^) seeth Thee: 
of Thy people that belie veth in Christ: be favour- 
able and hear me for Thy Name : and bless them 
that have bowed down their necks to Thee, and give 
to them the desires of their hearts so far as may be 
expedient for them ; and grant that none of them may 
be rejected from Thy kingdom ; but sanctify them, 
guard, shelter, assist, preserve fi'om the enemy, and 
from every adversary. Guard their houses ; preserve 
their comings in and their goings out : for to TIjee is 
glory, laud, magnificence, worship, adoi-ation, and to 
Thy Son Jesus, Thy Christ, our Loru and God and 
King, and to the Holy Ghost, now and ever, and to 
ages of ages. Amen. 

And let the Deacon say, Depart in peace. 

These things we, the Apostles, enjoin concerning the 
Mystic Service to you, the Bishops, the Priests, and 
the Deacons. 



(^^) Allusion is made to the derivation of Israel — "that sees 
God." 



THE DIVINE LITURGY 

OP 



Deacon. Sir, give the blessing. 

Priest. Blessed be the kingdom of the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost, now and ever, and to 
aiies of ages. 

Choir. Amen. 

Deacon. In peace let us make our supplications to 
the Lord. 

Choir. Kyrie eleison : {and so at the eiid of every 
■petition.) 

Deacon. For the peace that is from above, and for 
the salvation of our souls, let us make our supplica- 
tions to the Lord. 

For the peace of the whole world, the stability of 
the holy Churches of God, and the union of all, let. 

For this holy house, and them that in faith, piety, 
and the fear of God enter into it, let. 

For our Archbishop N. ; the venerable Presbytery, 
the Diaconate in Christ, all the Clergy and the laity, 
let. 

For our most pious and divinely preserved kings, 
all their palace and their army, let. 

That He would fight on their side, and subdue 
every enemy and adversary under their fieet, let. 

For this holy abode, the whole city and country, 
and them that inhabit it, in faith, let. 



94 

For healthfulness of air, plenty of the fruits of the 
earth, and peaceful times, let. 

For them that voyage, that journey, that are sick, 
that labour, that are in bonds, and their safety, let.^ 

That we may be preserved from all tribulation, 
passion, danger, and necessity, let. 

Assist, preserve, pity, and protect us, O God, by 
Thv o;race. 

Commemorating the all-holy, spotless, excellently 
laudable, and glorious Lady, the Mother of God and 
Ever-Virgin Mary, with All Saints, let us commend 
ourselves and each other and all our life to Christ 
our God. 

Choir. To Thee, O Lord. 

Priest (aloud). For all glory, worship, and honour 
befits Thee, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, now 
and ever, and to ages of ages. Amen. 

The first Antiphon is sung hy the Choir, and the 
Priest saith the Prayer of the first Antij)hon. The 
Deacon, having made a reverence, leaves his place, 
and goes and stands before the Icon of the 3Iother of 
GoT>, {^) looking towards the Icon of CnniST, taking 
hold of theSorarion with three fingers of his right hand. 

\_First Antiphon. {^) 

Stichos. The heavens declai-e the glory of God : 
and the firmament sheweth His handywork. 

By the intercession of the Mother of God. 

(1) This rubric is not given in the older editions. In the Russian 
Church it is worded differently, but with the same meaning. 
"The Deacon goes and stands before the icon of Christ." But 
hoth directions simply place him on the north side of the holy 
doors, under the icon of the Panaghia, there represented. 

(-) As an example of these Antiphons, I have given those for 
Pentecost ; and shall do so in the succeeding Antiphons. 



95 

St^chos. One day telleth another : and one night 
certifieth another. 

By the intercession of the Mother of God. 
Stichos. There is neither speech nor language : but 
their voices are heard among them. 

By the intercession of the Mother of God. 
Stichos. Their sound is gone out unto all lands : 
and their words unto the end of the world. 

By the intercession of the Mother of God. 

Glory. Both now. 

By the intercession of the Mother of God.] 

Prai/er of the First Antiphon. 

Lord our God, of boundless might, and incompre- 
hensible glory, and measureless compassion, and 
ineffable love to man, look down, O Loud, according 
to Thy tender love, on us, and on this holy house, and 
show to us, and to them that pray with us, the riches 
of Thy mercies and compassions. 

And after the Antiphon hath been sung, the Deaco7i 
comes and stayids in the accustorned place, adores and 
says, 

Again and again in peace let us make our supplica- 
tions to the Lord. 

Assist, preserve, pity, and protect us, O God. 

Commemorating the all-holy, undefiled, excellently 
laudable, glorious Lady, &c. 

Exclamation. For Thine is the strength, and Thine 
is the kingdom, the power and the glory, Father, 
&c. 

In lihe manner the Choir sing the second Antiphon. 
The Deacon doth the same as in the foi^mer Prayer, 



96 

[Second Antiphon. 

Stichos. The Lord hear thee in the day of trouble: 
the Name of the God of Jacob defend thee. 

Save us, O good Paraclete, who chant to Thee 
Alleluia. 
Stichos. Send thee help from the Sanctuary : and 
strengthen thee out of Sion. 

Save us, O good Paraclete, who chant to Thee 
Alleluia. 
Stichos llemember all thy offerings ; and accept 
thy burnt sacrifice. 

Save us, O good Paraclete, who chant to Thee 
Alleluia. 
Glory. Both now. 
The Only-Begotten Son and Word of God.] 

The Prayer of the Second Antiphon. 

Lord our God, save Thy people, and bless Thine 
inheritance: guard the fulness of Thy Church: hallow 
them that love the beauty of Thine house. Glorify 
them in recompence with Thy divine power : and 
forsake not them that put their trust in Thee. 

Deacon. Again and again, in peace, &c. 

Assist, preserve, &c. 

Conimeiiiorating the most holy, &c. 

Exclamation. For Thou art the good God, and the 
lover of men, and to Thee we ascribe, &c. 

The Prayer of the Third Antiphon. (3) 

Thou, Who hast given us grace, at this time, with 
one accord, to make our common supplications unto 

(•*) It would be curious to trace how this prayer came into our 
Prayer-liook : for tliere is no reason to supjio&e the Reformers 
intimately acquainted with the formularies of the Eastern Church. 



97 

Thee : and dost promise that, when two or three are 
gathered together in Thy Name, Thou wilt grant their 
requests : fulfil now, O Lord, the desires and petitions 
of Thy servants, as may be most expedient for them : 
granting us in this world knowledge of Thy truth, 
and, in the world to come, life everlasting. 

And while the Third Antiphon is being sung hy the 
Choir, or, if it he Sunday, the Beatitudes, {^^ when 
they come to the Doxology, the Priest and Deacon 
make three reverences before the Holy Table. Then 
the Pi-iest, taking the Holy Gospel, giveth it to the 
Deacon : and thus going through the north portion of 
the Sanctuary, preceded by lamjis, they make the 
Little Entrance. 

{Third Antiphon. 

Stichos. The king shall rejoice in Thy strength, O 
Lord : exceeding ghid shall he be of thy salvation. 
Blessed art Thou, Christ our God. 
Thou hast given him his heart's desire : and hast 
not denied him the request of his lips. 

Blessed art Thou, Christ our God. 
Stichos. For Thou shalt prevent him with the bless- 
ings of goodness : and shalt set a crown of pure gold 
upon his head. 

Blessed art Thou, Christ our God. 
Stichos. He asked life of Thee, and Thou gavest 
him a long life : even for ever and ever. 

Blessed be Thou, Christ our God. 

{}) It is strange that Goar should not have known that our 
LoKD'd Beatitudes were here intended; or at least should not 
have been certain of it. " Hymui," says lie, "sanctorum beati- 
tudinis memoriam recolentcs : vel potius ei« beatitudincs de quibus 
S. Mafthiei v. : vel tandem pia vivcutiuni vota pro defunctorum 
requie." 

E 



98 

Isodicon. (^) Be Thou exalted, Lord, in Thine 
own strength : so will we sing and praise Thy power. 
Save us, O good Paraclete, who sing to 
Thee Alleluia.] 

Deacon, (in a low voice.) Let us make our suppli- 
cations to the Lord. 

Priest secretly saith the Prayer of the Entrance. 

Master, Lord, and our God, Who hast disposed in 
heaven troops and armies of Angels and Archangels, 
for the ministry of Thy glory : grant that with our 
entrance there may be an entrance of holy Angels, 
ministering together with us, and with us glorifying 
Thy goodness. 

For to Thee is due all honour, &c. 

The Prayer being finished, the Deacon jwinting 
with his right hand to the cast, and holding his 
Horarion with three Jingers, saith to the Priest, 

Sir, bless the Holy Entrance. 

Priest. Blessed be the entrance of Thy Saints, 
always, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

Then the Deacon thus goes to the Ilegumen, if any 
he present, who hisseth the Gospel : hut if none he 
present, the Priest hisseth it. 

And when the Troparia are ended, the Deacon 
comes forth into the vu'tdle, and standing before the 
Priest., raiseth his hands a little, and showing the Holy 
Gospel, saith with a loud voice, 

Wisdom, stand up. (^) 

(^) The anlhem accompanying the Little Entrance. 

(6) 'J his seems the more natural reading ; but many editions 
read, o-«(pi((, which must be interpreted to mean, "In wisdom 
stand up ;" and thus be a warning against the sin and folly, of now 
sitting. 



09 

Then he himself adores, and the Priest behind him: 
and they both go to the hohj bema, and the Deacon 
puts down the Hoh/ Gospel on the Holy Table, and the 
Choir sing the accustomed Troparia, and when they 
are singing the last, the Deacon saith, 

Let us make our supplications to the Lorb. (7) 

Priest. For holy art Thou, our God ; and we 
ascribe glory to Thee, Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, now and for ever. 

Deacon. And to ages of ages. 

Choir. Amen. 

The Choir sing the Trisagion. 

Holy God, Holy and Mighty, Holy and Immortal, 
have mercy upon us. (five times.) 

In the meantime the Priest saith secretly the Prayer 
of the Trisagion. 

God, Which art holy, and restest in the holies. 
Who art hymned with the voice of the Trisagion by 
the Seraphim, and glorified by the Cherubim, and 
adored by all the heavenly powers : Thou Who didst 
from nothing call all things into being j Who didst 
make man after Thine image and likeness, and didst 
adorn him with all Thy graces ; Who givest to him 
that seckcth wisdom and understanding, and passest 
not by the sinner, but dost give repentance to salva- 
tion ;' Who hast vouchsafed that we, Thy humble and 
unworthy servants, should stand even at this time 
before the glory of Thy holy Altar, and should pay 
to Thee the worship and praise that is meet : receive, 
Lord, out of the mouth of us sinners the hymn of the 



Q) In the older copies this is thus given : " Sir, bless the time 
of the Trisagion." 

e2 



100 

Trisagion, and visit us in Thy proodness. Forgive ns 
every offence, voluntary and involuntary. Sanctify 
our souls and bodies, and o-rant that we mav serve 
Thee in holiness all the days of our life ; through the 
intercessions of the Holy Mother of God, and all the 
Saints who have pleased Thee since the beginning of 
the world. {Aloud.) For holy art Thou, our God, 
and to Thee. 

When this Prayer is finished, the Priest also and 
Deacon say the Trisagion, viahing at the same time 
three reverences before the holy Table. Then the 
Deacon saith to the Priest, 

Sir, give the order. And they go towards the 

throne. 

And the Priest saith as he goes, 

Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord. 

Deacon. Sir, bless the throne. 

Priest. Blessed art Thou upon the throne of Thy 
glory, Who sittest upon the Cherubims, always, now 
and ever, and to ages of ages. 

And when the Choir have finished the Trisagion, 
the Deacon, covi'ing hefiore the holy doors, saith, 

Let us attend. 
Reader. Alleluia, (s) 

(^) Here, as in the Rubric at the end of the Epistle, the Greek 
runs thus : Alleluia, a Psalm of David. But no Psalm is here 
sung; and therefore the question arises, what is the reason of the 
insertion. Some commentators receive it as an explanation of 
the Alleluia; as much as to say, that this ascription of praise was 
of the composition of David. But this seems very harsh. Were 
there any trace in Greek ritualists of a psalm having been anciently 
followed, 1 should believe that after the rile was given up the 
Rubric remained. The addition is not to be found in the 
Slavonic. 



101 



Deacon. Wisdom. 



The Reader saith the Prokimenon Q>) of the Apostle^ 
e.g. on the Festival of S. Demetrius. 

The righteous shall rejoice in the Lord. 
Stichos. Hear, O God, my voice. 
Deacon. Let us attend. 

The Apostle is read. 

And the Apostle being ended, the Priest saith, 

(1°) Peace be to thee. 
Reader. Alleluia. 

While the Alleluia is being sung, the Deacon goes 
to the Priest, and after ashing for a blessing Jrovi 
him, censes the holy Table in a circle, and the whole 
sanctuary, and the Priest. And the Priest saith the 
Prayer before the Gosjjel. 

O Lord and lover of men, cause the pure light of 
Thy Divine knowledge to shine forth in our hearts, 
and open the eyes of our understanding, that we may 
comprehend the precepts of Thy Gospel. Plant in 
us also the fear of Thy blessed commandments, that 
we, trampling upon all carnal lusts, may seek a 
heavenly citizenship, both saying and doing always 

(9) The Prokimenon, or short anthem before the Epistle, con- 
sists of a verse and response : generally, but not always, taken 
from the Psalms, but hardly ever consisting of consecutive phrases. 
According to S. Germanus, tlie Prokimenon signifies the previous 
proclamation by the Prophets of that Christ of Whom the 
Epistle is about to tell. And the versicles are chosen with that 
intent, e.g. in the festival of the Expectation of the Nativity: 

V. The Lord said unto Me, Thou art My S'on. 
R. Desire of Me, and I shall give Thee the heathen for Thine 
inheritance. 

('") This is technically called i'ipr,viiin rh 'A^ia^rokiv. 



102 

such things as shall well please Thee. For Thou art 
the illumination of our souls and bodies, Christ our 
God 5 and to Thee we ascribe, Ike. 

And the Deacon drawing nigh to the Priest, and 
laying aside his censer, and bowing to the Priest and 
holding the Horarion with the Holy Gospel with the 
tips of his fingers, in the 2>i'^('Ce of the holy Table 
whereon it lies, saith, 

Sir, bless the preacher of the holy Apostle and 
Evangelist N. 

And the Priest, signing him with the Cross, saith, 
God, through the preaching of the holy and glori- 
ous Apostle and Evangelist N., give to thee who 
evangelizest the word with much power, to the accom- 
plishment of the Gospel of His beloved Son our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 
Deacon. Amen. 

Aiid having adored with reverence the Holy Gosjyel, 
he tahes it vp ; and going through the holy doors, 
preceded by tapers, he stands in the ambon, or in the 
appoirtted place Arid the Priest standing before the 
holy Table, and looking towards the west, saith, with 
a loud voice, 

Wisdom, stand up ; let us hear the holy Gospel. 

Peace to all. 

Deacon. The lection from the Holy Gospel accord- 
ing to N. 

Priest. Let us attend. 

The Gospel is read. 
When it is finished, the Priest saith to the Deacon, 
Peace be to thee that evangelizest. 



103 

And the Deacon golnf) to the holy doom, returns 
the Holy Gospel to the Priest; and standing in the 
accustomed place, begins thus : 

Let us all say with our whole heart and soul, 

Choir. Lord, have mercy. (Thrice.) 

Lord Almighty, God of our fathers, we pray Thee, 
hear, and have mercy upon us. 

Have mercy upon us, O God, after Thy great good- 
ness : we pray Thee, hear, and have mercy upon us. 

Prayer of the Ectene. 

Lord our God, we pray Thee to receive this intense 
supplication from Thy servants, accoiding to the mul- 
titude of Thy merc^ , and send down Thy compassions 
upon us, and upon all Thy people, which is expecting 
the rich mercy that is from Thee. 

Deacon. Further we pray for pious and orthodox 
Christians. 

Peoj)le. Lord, have mercy. (And so at the end of 
every petition.) 

Further we pray for our Archbishop N. 

Further we pray for our brethren, Priests, Monks, 
and all our brotherhood in Christ. 

Further we pray for the blessed and ever memorable 
founders of this holy abode, and for all our fathers and 
brethren that have fallen asleep before us, and lie here, 
and the orthodox that lie everywhere. 

Further we pray for mercy, life, peace, health, safety, 
protection, forgiveness, and remission of sins of the 
servants of God, the brethren of this holy habitation. 

Further we pray for them that bring forth fruit and 
do good deeds in this holy and all- venerable temple, 
that labour, that sing, and for the peojjle that stand 
around, and are expecting the great and rich mercy 
that is from Thee. 



104 

Exclamation. For Thou art the merciful God and 
the lover of men, and to Thee we ascribe. 

Deacon, Catechumens, pray unto the Lord. Let 
us, the faithful, pray for the Catechumens, that the 
Lord may have mercy upon them, and may teach 
them the word of truth. 

People. Lord, have mercy. And so at the end of 
each petition. 

That He may reveal to them the Gospel of right- 
eousness. 

That He may unite them to His Holy Catholic and 
Apostolic Church. 

Preserve, have mercy, support, and continually 
guard them, O God. 

Catechumens, bow your heads to the Lord. 

Prayer of the Catechumens before the holy Oblation- 

Lord our God, Who dwellest on high, and beholdest 
the humble. Who didst send forth the salvation of the 
race of man. Thine Only-Begotten Son, our God and 
Lord Jesus Christ, look down upon Thy servants 
the Catechumens, who have bowed their necks unto 
Thee ; and make them worthy, in due season, of the 
laver of regeneration, of the forgiveness of sins, of the 
robe of immortality ; unite them to Thy Holy Catholic 
and Apostolic Church, and number them together with 
Thy elect flock, {aloud.) That they also, together 
Avith us, may glorify Thy honourable and majestic 
Xame, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, now and 
ever, and to ages of ages. 

Choir. Amen. 

The Priest unfolds the corporal, 
EXPULSION OF THE CATECHUMENS. 



105 

Deacon. Let all the Catechumens depart ; (ii) Cate- 
chumens depart ; let all the Catechumens, depart ; let 
not any of the Catechumens — ; let all the faithful ; — 

Again and again in peace let us make our supplica- 
tions to the Lord. And he saith the short Ectene : 
while the Priest saith secretly 

The first Prayer of the Faithful, after the unfoldiny 
of the corjwral. 

We yield Thee thanks, Lord God of Sabaoth,Wlio 
hast thought us worthy to stand even now at Thine 
Altar, and to fall down before Thy mercies, for our 
sins and the ignorances of Thy people : receive, O 
God, our supplications ; make us worthy to offer to 
Thee supplications and prayers, and unbloody sacri- 
fices for all Thy people ; and strengthen us, whom 
Thou hast placed in this Thy ministry, with the 
strength of the Holy Ghost, that we may without 
offence, and without scandal, in a pure testimony of 
our conscience, call upon Thee in every time and 
place ; that hearing us Thou mayest be merciful to us 
in the multitude of Thy goodness. 

Deacon, Assist, preserve, pity. 

Wisdom. 

Priest. Exclamation. For to Thee belonseth all 
glory, honour, and worship. Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

Deacon. Again and again in peace let us make our 
supplications to the Lord. And he saith the short 
Ectene ; rvhile the Priest saith secretly 

(") Literally, pass forward, {■^rpoixh^ri) but quite used in the 
seuse of depart ; and so translated in the Slavonic. 



106 



The second Prayer of the Faithful. 

Again and oftentimes we fall down before Thee, and 
beseecli Thee, O good God and lover of men, that 
Thou wouldest look upon our prayers, purify our souls 
and bodies from all pollution of flesh and spirit, and 
grant that our standing before Thy holy Altar may be 
irreprehensible and unblameable. Grant, O Lord, to 
them who pray together with us, advance in [holy] 
life, wisdom, and spiritual understanding : grant them 
at all times with fear and love to serve Thee irrepre- 
hensibly ; and without condemnation to partake of 
Thy holy mysteries, and to be thought worthy of Thy 
heavenly kingdom. 

Deacon. Assist, preserve, &c. 
Wisdom. 

Priest. Exclamation. That, being ever guarded 
by Thy might, we may ascribe glory to Thee, Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, now and ever, and to ages 
of ages. 

Choir. Amen. 

The Choir sing the Cherubic Hymn. 

Lot us, who mystically represent the Cherubim, and 
sing the holy hymn to the quickening Trinity, lay 
by at this time all worldly cares ; that we may receive 
the King of Glory, invisibly attended by the angelic 
orders. Alleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia. 

Prayer which the Priest saith secretly, while the 
Cherubic Hymn is being sung. {}•) 

('-) As the Cherubic hymn was only composed in the time of 
Justinian, it is clear thiit the prayer of that liymn must be an 
insertion. And accordingly, it is not to be found in the very 
ancient Barberini MS. of this Liturgy, to which Goar so often 
refers. 



107 

None is worthy among them that are bound with 
fleshly desires and pleasures to approach Thee, nor to 
draw near, nor to sacrifice unto Thee, King of Glory; 
for to minister to Thee is great and fearful, even to the 
heavenly powei's themselves. Yet through Thine 
ineffable and measureless love, Thou didst unchange- 
ably and immutably become man, and didst {^^) take 
the title of our High Priest, and didst give to us the 
Ilierurgy of this liturgic and unbloody Sacrifice, as 
being Lord of all : for Thou only, O Lord our God, 
rulest over things in heaven and things on earth. Who 
sittest upon the cherubic throne, Lord of Seraphim, 
and King of Israel, only hol}'^, and resting in the 
holies. On Thee I importunately call, (i*) That art 
only good and ready to hear, look upon me a sinner, 
and Thine unworthy servant, and cleanse my soul and 
heart from an evil conscience ; and strengthen, with 
the might of Thy Holy Ghost, me that have been 
endued with the grace of Priesthood, that I may stand 
by this Thy holy Altar, and sacrifice Thy holy and 
spotless Body and precious Blood. For Thee I 
approach bowing my neck, and pray of Thee, Turn 
not Thy face away from me, nor reject me i'rom the 
number of Thy sons ; but condescend that these gifts 
may be offered to Thee by me, a sinner and Thine 
unworthy servant. For Thou art He That oti'erest, (^5j 

(13) 'Ex;p-/i/u.a.riira;. King, less correctly, " becainest." But 
in the new Greek, this verb means to assume a name; so Poly- 
bius, more than once. 

('■*) King, " I call upon Thee :" Goar, " Te deprecor." But 
iuiruTcu is more than this; it is "to put a man out of counte- 
nance," and so " to be imjJortuDate :" and is frequently thus used 
by Plutarch, though not by more classical authors. 

('^) That offercst and art offered, and rcceivest and art dis- 
tributed. One sliould have thought that no great difficulty could 
be found or made in these words, lliat afferent — "for this He 



108 

and art offered, and receivest and art distributed, 
Christ our God ; and to Thee we ascribe, &c. 

When this prayer is finished, they also say the 
Cheruhic Hymn. Then the Deacon, taking the censer ^ 
and putting incense on it, goes to the Priest : and 
after receiving a blessing from him, censes the holy 
liable in a circle, and all the sanctuary, and the Priest : 
and he saith the 6\st Psalm, and other penitential 
Troparia, such as he Kill, with the Priest. And they 
go to the Prothesis, the Deacon preceding. And the 
Deacon having censed the holy things, and said to 
himself, 

God be merciful to me a sinner, saith to the Priest , 
Sir, lift up. 

And the Priest raising the Air, puts it on the left 
shoulder of the Deacon saying. 
Lift up your hands in the sanctuary, and bless the 
Lord. 

Then, taking the holy disk, he jiuts it with all care 
and reverence on the Deacon s head, the Deacon also 
holding the censer with one of his fingers. And the 
Priest himself taking the holy chalice in his hands, 
they go through the 7iorth part, p)receded by tapers, 
and make 

did once, when He offered up Himself," — and art offered, in the 
Oblation of the Mystic Sacrifice, — That receivest that Sacrifice, 
and art received by them that present it. However, about the 
year 1155 a great dispute arose on the question. A Deacon of 
Constantinople taught that this could not be the meaning of the 
passage, because the sacrifice was not offered to Christ, but to 
the Father and the Hoi.y Ghost alone. A Council met at 
Constantinople, January 2t!th, 1166, under the Patriarch, Luke 
Chrysoberges, to decide the question : and Soterichus Panteu- 
genus, Patriarch Elect of Antioch, who had taught the new 
dogma, was declared unworthy of his office. 



109 

The Great Entrance, (i^) 

hoth prayiiifj for all, and saying, The Lord God 
remember us all in His kingdom, always, now and 
ever, and to ages of ages. 

A7id the Deacon, going within the holy doors, stands 
071 the right hand ; and when the Priest is about to 
enter in, he saith to him, 

The Lord God remember thy Priesthood in His 
kingdom. 

Priest. The Lord God remember thy Diaconate in 
His kingdom, always, now and ever, and to ages of 
ages. 

And the Priest sets down the chalice on the holy 
Table, and taking the holy dish from the head of the 
Deacon, he places it there also, saying, 

Honourable Joseph took Thy spotless Body from 
the cross, and wrapped it in clean linen with spices^, 
and with funeral rites placed it in a new tomb. 

In the grave bodily, in Hades spiritually, as GoD^ 
with the thief in paradise as in a throne, wert Thou, 
O Christ, with tiie Father and the Holy Ghost, 
Who art incircumscript and fillest all things. 

How life-giving, how more beautiful than paradise,. 
and verily more splendid than any royal chamber, ia 
Thy tomb, O Christ, the fountain of our resurrec- 
tion. 

('•') It is the custom of those who are sick, or who stand in 
need of any especial blessinjj, to liiicel in the path of the Great 
Entrance, in order to receive the viitue of tlie Holy Mysteries. 
Tlie custom of adoring tlirt wliicli is, as yet, mere bread and 
wine, with anticipaiive adoration, has always cost the Orientals 
much trouble to defend it 3 and it has been abolished by the 
Roman Censors in Uniat rites. A treatise on the subject, by 
Gabriel of Philadelphia, v.as published at Venice in 1G04. 



no 

Then, taking the coverings from the holy dish and 
the holy chalice, lie places them on one part of the 
holy Table; and taking the Air from the Deacon's 
shoulder, and censing it, lie covers with it the holy 
things, saying. 

Honourable Joseph, dow7i to in a new tomb. 

And taking the censer from the Deacon's hands, he 
censeth the holy things thrice, saying, 

Then shall they offer young bullocks upon Thine 
Altar. 

And jnitting doivn the censer, and letting fall his 
phelonion, and borving his head, he saith to the Deacon, 

Remember me, brother and fellow-minister. 
Deacon. The Loud God remember Thy Priesthood 
in His kingdom. 

Then the Deacon also himself slightly bowing his 
head, and holding his Horarion with the three fingers 
of his right hand, saith to the Priest, 

Holy Sir, pray for me. 

Priest. The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, 
and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee. 

Deacon. The same Spirit shall be fellow-minister 
with us, all the days of our life. 

Aiid again, Holy Sir, remember me. 

Priest. The Lord God remember thee in His 
kingdom, always, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

Deacon. Amen. 

And having hissed the Priest's hand, he goes out, and 
standing in the customary place, saith. 

Let us accomplish our supplications to the Lord. 

Choir. Kyrie eleison. Atid so to the end of each 
suffrage. 



Ill 

Deacon. For the precious gifts that have been pro- 
posed, let us make our supplications to the Lord. 

For this holy house, and them that with faith, reve- 
rence, and the fear of God, enter into it, let. 

That we may be delivered from all afflictions, passion, . 
danger, and necessity, let. 

Assist, preserve. 

That the whole day may be perfect, holy, peaceful, 
without sin, let us ask from the Lord. 

Choir. Grant, O Lord. And so at the end of every 
suffrage. 

Deacon. The angel of peace, faithful guide, guardian 
of our souls and bodies, let. 

Pardon and remission of our sins and our trans- 
gressions, let. 

Things that are good and profitable for our souls, 
and peace to the world, let. 

That we may accomplish the remainder of our lives 
in peace and penitence, let. 

Christian ends of our lives, without torment, with- 
out shame, peaceful, and a good defence at the fearful 
tribunal, let us ask from Christ. 

Commemorating the all-holy. 

As this Ectene (i'^) is being said, the Priest saith 
secretly the Prayer of Oblation, after the Divine 
Gifts are placed on the holy Table. 

Lord, God Almighty, Only Holy, Who receivest 
the sacrifice of praise from them that call upon Thee 
with their whole heart, receive also the sup|)lication 
of us sinners, and cause it to approach to Tliy holy 
Altar, and enable us to present gifts to Thee, and 

(") It is not worth while to notice the verbal differences of this 
Ectene. In no part of tlio Litiir{j;y do MSS. and editions so much 
vary. But tlie variations are quite non-essential. 



112 

spiritual sacrifices for our sins, and for the errors of 
the people : and cause us to find i^race in Thy sight, 
that this our sacrifice may be acceptable unto Thee, 
and that the good Spirit of Thy grace may tabernacle 
upon us, and upon these gifts jiresented unto Thee, 
and upon all Thy people. 

Priest. (Exclamation.) Through the mercies of 
Thine Only-Begotten Son, Avith Whom Thou art to 
be blessed, and with the all-holy, and good, and 
quickening Spirit, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

Peace to all. 

Deacon. Let us love one anothei'j that we may with 
one mind confess. 

Choir. Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, the Con- 
substantial and Undivided Trinity. 

A?id the Priest, having thrice adored, hisses the Holi/ 
Gifts, as they lie veiled, saying secretly thrice, 
I will love Thee, O Lord, my strength ; the Lord 
is my stony rock and my defence. 

If there he two or more Priests, each kisses the 
Holy Things, and then each other on the shoulder, 
saying, 

Christ is among us. 

He is and will be. 

In like manner also the Deacon adores thrice where 
he stands, and hisses his Ilorarion on its cross, and 
tJius exclaims. 

The doors ! the doors ! (}^) Let us attend in wisdom. 

(1**) The meaning of this sentence is very obscure. Some 
authors, as Cabasilas, explain it mystically, as an injunction to 
close the doors of the mind against worldly business and thoughts ; 
others, much moie naturally, take it as an injunction to the 
Clerks, not to allow heathens, &c,, to be present at the Divine 
Mysteries. 



113 

People. I believe in one God. 
Deacon. Stand we well : stand we with fear : let us 
attend to offer the holy Oblation in peace. 

Choir. The mercy of peace, the sacrifice of praise. 

Ayid the Deacon adores, and comes to the holy JBema ; 
and taking the fan, fans the Oblation reverently. 

Ajid the Priest taking the Air from the Holy Gifts, 
lays it on one side, saying. 

The grace of our Loud Jesus Christ, and the love 
of God the Father, and the fellowship of the Holy 
Ghost, be with you all. 

Choir. And with thy spirit. 

Priest. Lift we up our hearts. , 

Choir. We lift them up unto the Lord. 

Priest. Let us give thanks to the Lord. 

Choir. It is meet and right to worship the Father, 
the Sox, and the Holy Ghost, the consubstantial and 
undivided Trinity. 

Priest. It is meet and right to hymn Thee, to bless 
Thee, to praise Thee, to give thanks to Thee, to wor- 
ship Thee, in every part of Thy dominion, For Thou 
art God, ineflable, inconceivable, invisible, incompre- 
hensible, the same from everlasting to everlasting ; 
Thou and Thine Only-Begotten Son, and the Holy 
Ghost. For Thou broushtedst us forth to being from 
nothing, and when we had fallen didst raise us up 
again, and gavest not over until Thou liadst done 
every thing that Thou mightest bring us to heaven, 
and bestow on us Thy kingdom to come. For all 
these things we give thanks to Thee, and to Tiiinc 
Only-Begotten Son, and Tiiy Holy Ghost, for Thy 
benefits which we know, and which we know not, 
manifest and concealed, which Thou hast bestowed 



114 

npon us. We give Thee thanks also for this ministry 
which Thon hast vouchsafed to receive at our hands : 
although there stand by Thee thousands of Archangels, 
and ten thousands of Angels, the Cherubim, and the 
Seraphim that have six wings, and are full of eyes, 
and soar aloft on their wino-s, sinccine:, vociferatins:, 
shouting, and saying the triumphal hymn. 

Choir. Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord of Sabaoth ; 
heaven and earth are full of Thy glory. Hosanna in 
the highest : blessed is He that cometh in the Name 
of the Lord : Hosanna in the highest. 

Then the Deacon, tahing the asterhhfrom the holy 
disk, signs it with the sign of the cross, and having 
saluted it, replaces it. 

Priest. We also with these blessed powers. Lord 
and Lover of men, cry and say, Holy art Thou and 
All-Holy, Thou and Thy Only-Begotten Son, and 
Thine Holy Ghost. Holy art Thou and All-Holy, 
and great is the majesty of Thy glory : 

Who didst so love Thy world, as to give Thine 
Only-Begotten Son, that whoso believeth in Him 
might not perish, but might have everlasting life : 
Who having come, and having fulfilled for us all the 
dispensation, in tlie night wherein He was betrayed, 
or rather surrendered Himself for the life of the world, 
took bread in His holy and pure and spotless hands, 
and gave thanks, and blessed, and hallowed, and 
brake, and gave to His holy Disciples and Apostles, 
saying, {aloud,) Take, eat : this is My Body which is 
broken for you for the remission of sins. 

Choir. Amen. 

Priest, (?n a low voice,) Likewise after supper He 
took the cup, saying, (aloud,) Drink ye all of this : 



115 

Tliis is My Blood of the New Testament, wliich is 
shed for you and for many for the remission of sins. 

Choir. Amen. 

Priest, {_m a low voice,) We therefore remembering 
this salutary precept, and all that happened on our 
behalf, the Cross, the Tomb, the Resurrection on the 
third day, the Ascension into heaven, the Session on 
the right hand, the second and glorious coming again, 
{aloud,) in (i9) behalf of all, and for all, we oifer Thee 
Thine own of Thine own. 

Choir. Thee we hymn. Thee we praise : to Thee 
■we give thanks, Lord, and pray to Thee, our God. 

Priest, (in a low voice,) Moreover we offer unto 
Thee this reasonable and unbloody sacrifice: and 
beseech Thee and pray and supplicate; send down 
Thy Holy Ghost upon us, and on these proposed 
gifts. 

The Beacon lays down the veil, and goes nearer to 
the Priest, and they both adore thrice hej'ore the holy 
Tahle, i)raying secretly, and saying, 

God be merciful to me a sinner. 

Then 
Lord, YvHio didst send down Thy Holy Ghost the 
third hour on the Apostles, take Him not from us, O 
good God, but renew Him in us who pray to Thee : 

Then 

Make me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right 
spirit within me. Cast me not away from Thy pre- 
sence. 
. Glory. 

Blessed art Thou, Christ our God, Who didst fill 

(•3) Kara -KavTu. is better rendeied by in relation to all, or in 
behalf of all, than by tlio usual version, in all. 



116 

the fishermen with all manner of wisdom, sending 
down upon them the Holy Ghost : and by them hast 
brought the whole world into Thy net, O Lover of 
men : glory be to Thee. 

Both now. 

When the ?Iighest came down and confounded the 
tongues, He divided the nations ; when He distributed 
the tongues of fire, He called all to unity, and with 
one voice we praise the Holy Ghost. 

Then the Deacon bowing his head, and pointing 
with his Horarion to the holy bread, saith in a low 
voice, 

Sir, bless the holy bread. 

The Priest standeth up, and thrice maheth the sign of 
the cross on the Holy Gifts, saying, 

And make this bread the precious Body of Thy 
Christ. 

Deacon. Amen. Sir, bless the holy cup. 

Priest. And that which is in this cup, the precious 
Blood of Thy Christ. 

Deacon. Amen. And pointing with his Horarion 
to both the Holy Tilings, 

Sir, bless. 

Priest. Changing them by Thy Holy Ghost. 

Deacon. Amen, Amen, Amen. 

Then the Deacon bows his head to the Priest, and 

saith. 
Holy Sir, remember me a sinner. 

Then he stands in his former 2)l(icc, and taking the 
fan, fans the Oblations as before. 
Pi'iest. So that they may be to those that participate, 
for purification of soul,i'orgiveness of sins, communion 



117 

of the Holy Ghost, fulfilment of the kino-dom of 
heaven, boldness towards Thee, and not to judgment 
nor to condemnation. 

And further we offer to Thee this reasonable service 
on behalf of those who have departed in the faith, our 
ancestors, Fathers, Patriarchs, Propliets, Apostles, 
Preachers, Evangelists, Martyrs, Confessors, Virgins, 
and every just spirit made jjerfect in the faith. 

The Deacon censes the holy Table in a circle, and 
commemorates such of the living and dead as he will. 

Priest, {aloud.) Especially the most holy, undefiled, 
excellently laudable, glorious Lady, the Mother of 
God and Ever-Virgin Mary. 

Choir. In Thee, O full of grace, (as in the Liturgxf 
of S, James.) —yS ^^^^^ J'^y' — 

The Deacon I'cads the diptychs of the departed. 

Priest. The holy John the Propliet, Forerunner, 
and Baptist, the holy, glorious, and all celebrated 
Apostles, Saint N. (the Saint of the day), Avhose 
memory we also celebrate, and all Thy Saints, through 
whose prayers look down upon us, O God. And > 
remember all those that are departed in the hope of ' 
the resurrection to eternal life, and give them rest 
where the light of Thy countenance shines upon them. 
Furthermore we beseech Thee, remember, O Lokd, 
every orthodox bishoprick of those that rightly divide 
the word of truth, the presbytery, the diaconate in 
Christ, and for every hierarchical order. Further- 
more we offer to Thee this reasonable service for the 
whole world : for tlm Holy Catholic and Apostolic 
Church, and for them that live in chastity and holiness 
of life. For our most faithful kings, beloved of 
Christ, all their court and armv. Grant to them, 



118 

Lord, a peaceful reign, that we, in their peace, may- 
lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and 
honesty. (Aloitd.) Chiefly, O Lord, remember our 
Archbishop N., whom preserve to Thy holy Churches 
in peace, in safety, in honour, in health, in length of 
days, and rightly dividing the word of Thy truth. 

The Deacon, hy the holy doors, saith, 

N. the Patriarch, Metropolitan, or Bishop, (as the 
case may be.) 

Then he commemorates the diptychs of the liviiig. 

Priest, {secretly.) Remember, Lord, the city in 
which we dwell, and every city and region, and' the 
faithful that inhabit it. Remember, Lord, them that 
voyage, that travel, that are sick, that are labouring, 
that are in prison, and their safety. Remember, Lord, 
them that bear fruit, and do good deeds in Thy holy 
Churches, and that remember the poor. And send 
forth on us all the riches of Thy compassion, {aloud,) 
and grant us with one mouth and one heart to glorify 
and celebrate Thy glorious and majestic Name,FATHER, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, now and ever, and to ages of 
ages. And the mercies of the great God and our 
Saviour Jesus Christ shall be with all of us. 

The Deacon tahing his time from the Priest, and 
standi?ig in the accustomed place, saith. 

Commemorating all Saints, again and again in 
peace let us make our supplications to the Lord. 

Choir. Kyrie eleison. {And so at the end of each 
petition.) 

Deacon. For the venerable gifts now offered before 
Him and hallowed. 

That our merciful God, the Lover of mankind, Who 



119 

hath received them into His holy and heavenly and 
spiritual Altar, for the savour of a sweet spiritual 
scent, may in return send down on us His Divine 
grace, and the gift of the Holy Ghost. 

That we may be preserved from all affliction, pas- 
sion, &C. /tfi^^ »^. /// „ 

The Beacon continues the Ectene domn to Christian 
ends of life. 

The Priest meanwhile saith secretly, 

To Thee, O Lord and Lover of men, we commend 
in pledge all our life and our hope, and beseech and 
pray, and supplicate : make us worthy to partake of 
Thy heavenly and terrible mysteries of this holy and 
spiritual Table, with a pure conscience, for the remis- 
sion of siris7Torgiveness of transgressions, participation 
of the Holy Ghost, inheritance of the kingdom of 
heaven, boldness of access to Thee : not to judgment 
nor to condemnation. 

Deacon. Having prayed for the oneness of the 
faith, and the participation of the Holy Ghost, let us 
commend ourselves and each other and all our life to 
Christ our God. 

Priest, {aloud.) And make us worthy, O Lord, 
with boldness and without condemnation to dare to 
call upon Thee, our God and Father which art in 
heaven, and to say, 

People. Our Father. 

Priest. For Thine is the kingdom. 

Priest. Peace to all. 

Deacon. Let us bow our heads to the Lord. 

Priest. We render thanks unto Thee, O King 
invisible. Who hast framed all things by Thy measure- 
less power, and in the multitude of Thy mercy hast 



120 

brought all things into being from non-existence. 
Look down, O Lord, from heaven, upon them that 
have bowed their heads unto Thee, for they bowled 
them not to flesh and blood, but to Thee, the fearful 
God. Bestow, therefore, O Lord, on all of us an 
equal benefit from these offerings, according to the 
need of each : sail with them that sail, journey with 
them that journey, heal the sick, Thou Who art the 
Physician of our souls and bodies. 

(Aloud.) Through the grace, and mercy, and love 
to men, of Thine Only-Begotten Son, with Whom, 
together with the most Holy, and good, and life-giving 
Spirit, Thou art blessed, now and ever, and to ages 
of ages. Amen. 

Hear us, O Lord Jesus Christ our God out of 
Thy holy dwelling-place, and from the throne of the 
glory of Thy kingdom, and come and sanctify us, 
Thou That sittest above M-ith the Father, and art 
here invisibly present with us : and by Thy mighty 
hand make us worthy to partake of Thy spotless Body 
and precious Blood, and by us all Thy people. 

The Priest and the Deacons adore in the place where 
they stand, saying secretly thrice, 

God be merciful to me a sinner. 

And wlien the Deacon sees the Priest stretching 
forth his hands, and touching the holy bread, to make 
the holy elevation, he exclaims. 

Let us attend. 

A?id the Priest, elevating the holy bread, exclaims, 

Holy things for holy persons. 
Choir. One Holy, one Lord, Jesus Christ, to the 
glory of God the Father. 



121 

And the Choir sing the Koinonicon : (-*^) e.g. on the 
festivals of Apostles. 

Their sound is gone out into all lands : and theii: 
■words into the ends of the world. 

The Deacon then girds his Horarion crosswise, and 
goes into the holy Bema, and standing on the right 
hand, {the Priest grasping the Jioly bread,) saith, 

Sir, break the holy bread. 

And the Priest, dividing it into four parts with care 
and reverence, saith, 

The Lamb of God is broken and distributed ; He I 
That is broken and not divided in sunder ; ever eaten 
and never consumed, but sanctifying the communi-j 
cants. 

And the Deacon pointing with his .Horarion to the 
holy cup, saith, 

Sir, fill the holy cup. 

And the Priest tahing the upper portion, (that is, 
tlie IHC,) mahes with it a cross above the holy cup, 
saying, The fulness of the cup, of faith, of the Holy 
Ghost : and thus puts it into the holy cup. 

Deacon. Amen. 
And tahing the warm water, he saith to the Priest, 

Sir, bless the warm water. ("^) 

(20) This is a stichos, deriving its name, of course, from the 
Communion which it precedes ; and is eciuivalent, though not 
exactly answering in place, to tlio Mozarabic Communion. 

(■-') This very strange rite, the pouring warm water into the 
chalice after consecration, occasioned the greatest astonishment 
among the Latins at the Council of Tlorence. Dorotheus, liishop 
of Mitylene, is said to have given the Pope ample satisfaction by 
his explanation, which, however, is unfurtimately lost. But S. 



122 

And the Priest hlesseth, saying, 

Blessed is the fervour of Thy Saints, always, now 
and ever, and to ages of ages. Araen. 

And the Deacon pours forth a sufficiency into the holy 
cup, in the form of a cross, saying, 

The fervour of faith, full of the Holy Ghost. 
Amen. (Thrice.) 

Then, setting doivn the warm water, lie stands a 
little way off'. And the Priest, taking a particle of 
the holy bread, saith, 

(") The blessed and most holy Body of our Lord 
and God and Saviour Jesus Christ, is communi- 
cated to me, N., Priest, for the remission of my sins, 
and for everlasting life. 

I believe, Lord, and confess. 

Of Thy Mystic Supper to-day. 

Let not, O Lord, the communion of Thy holy 
mysteries be to my judgment or condemnation, but to 
the healing of my soul and body. 

And thus he pariahes of that wliich is in his hands 
with fear and all caution. Then he saith, 

Deacon, approach. 

And the Iteacon approaches, and reverently makes 
an obeisance, ashing forgiveness. And the Priest, 

Germanus tells us : "As Blood and warm Water flowed both of 
them from the side of Christ, thus hot water, poured into the 
chalice at the time of consecration, gives a full type of the 
mystery, to ihose who draw that holy liquid from the chalice, as 
from the life-giving side of our Lord." 

(22) The MSS. and printed editions vary excessively in the 
whole Communion both of the Priest and the people : so that it 
would be hard to find two copies exactly alike. 



123 

taking the hohj bread, gives it to the Deacon ; and the 
Deacon, kissing the hand that gives it, saith, 

Sir, make me partaker of the precious and holy 
Body of our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus 
Christ. 

Priest. N. the holy Deacon is made partaker of the 
precious and holy and spotless Body of our Lord and 
God and Savioi-r Jesus Christ, for the remission 
of his sins, and for eternal life. 

And the Deacon going behind the holi/ Table, borveth 
his head a?id prageth, and so doth the Priest. 
Then the Priest standing up, takes the holy chalice 
with its covering in both hands, and drinks three times, 
sai/ing, I, N., Priest, partake of the pure and holy 
Blood of our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus 
Christ, for the remission of my sins, and for eternal 
life. 

And then he wipes the holy cup and his own lips 
with the covering lie has in his hands, and saith, 

Behold, this hath touched my lips, and shall take 
away my transgressions, and purge my sins. 

Then he calls the Deacon, saying. Deacon, approach. 

The Deacon comes, and adores once, saying. 

Behold, I approach the Immortal King, 

I believe, Lord, and confess. 

Priest. N. the Deacon and servant of God is made 
partaker of the precious and holy Blood of our Lord 
and God and Saviour Jesus Christ, for the remis- 
sion of sins, and for eternal life. 

And when the Deacon hath communicated, the Priest 

saith, 
Behold, this hath touched thy lips. 



124 

Then ihe Deacon, taking the hoh/ dish, and holding 
it over the holy chalice, wipes it ihorovghhj iviih the 
hob/ sponge ; and witli care and reverence covers it 
with the veil. In lilic manner lie covers the disk with 
the asterisk, and that with its veil. 

The Priest saith the prayer of Thanksgiving. 

We yield Thee thanks, O Lord and Lover of men, 
Benefactor of our souls, tliat Thou hast this day 
thought us worthy of Thy heavenly and immortal 
mysteries. Rightly divide our path, confirm us all in 
Thy fear, guard our life, make safe our goings: through 
the prayers and supplications of the glorious Mother 
of God and Ever-Virgin Mary, and all Thy Saints. 

(-3) And thus they open the doors of the holy Bema; 
and the Deacon, having made one adoration, takes the 
chalice with reverence, and goes to the door, and raising 
the holy chalice, sheas it to the people, saying. Ap- 
proach "vvith the fear of God, faith and love. 

They who are to communicate draw near with all 
revere7ice, and hold their arms crossed on their breast; 
and the Priest, as he distributes the mysteries to each, 
saith, 

N. the servant of God is made partaker of the pure 

("')'From the Communion to the end of the office, all the 
Liturgies, except that of S. Chrysostom and the Armenian, where 
we have the rubrics in full, become almost inextricably confused; 
but most of all that of S. James. Three different stages have, 
however, to be distinguished : 1. The return of the Priest to the 
Altar; "2. His going thence to the prothesis, which in some of the 
Liturgies precedes, in others follows, the dismissal ; 3. His return 
to the Altar, the gift of the antidoron, and the disrobing, which 
in the Const antinopolitan family is done before the dismissal : to 
which S. James adds, 4. The prayer said as he finally goes to the 
sacristy. 



125 

and holy Body and Blood of our JiORD and God and 
Saviour Jesus Christ, for the remission of his sins, 
and life everlasting. 

Then the Priest blessetk the people, saying aloudj 
O God, save Thy people, and bless Thine heritage. 

The Deacon and the Priest retvrn to the hohj Table, 
and the Priest censeth thrice : sayintj secretly, 

Be Thou exalted, Lord, above the heavens : and 
Thy glory above all the earth. 

Then, taking the holy disk, he puts it upon the head 
of the Deacon, and the Deacon taking it n-ith reverence, 
and looking out towards the door, goes in sile?ice to the 
proihssis, and puts it down : and the Priest having 
made obeisance, takes the holy chalice, and turns 
towards the doors, saying secretly. 

Blessed be our God : {theyi cdoud,') always, now 
and ever, and to ages of ages. 

Aiul the Deacon having come out, and standing in the 
the accustomed place, saith. 

Standing upright, and having partaken of the divine, 
holy, spotless, immortal, heavenly, life-giving, and 
terrible mysteries of Christ, let us worthily give 
thanks to the Lord. 

Assist, preserve. 

That we may pass this whole day. 

Exclamation. For Thou art our sanctification, and 
to Thee we ascribe glory. Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

Choir. Amen. 

Priest. Let us go on in peace. 

Deacon. Let us make our supplications to the Lord. 



126 

Prayer behind the amhon,{"'^^ said aloud hy the Priest 
without the hema. 

Loud, Who blessest them that bless Thee, and 
sanctifiest them that put then- trust in Thee, save Thy 
people, and bless Thine inheritance : guard with care 
the fulness of Thv Church : hallow those that love the 
beauty of Thine house. Glorify them in return by 
Thy divine might, and forsake not them that put their 
trust in Thee ; give Thy peace to Thy world, to Thy 
Churches, to our Priests and Kings : to the army, 
and to all Thy people ; because every good gift and 
every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down 
from Thee, the Father of lights : and to Thee we 
ascribe. 

This being ended, the Priest goes through the holy 
doors, and departs into the prothesis, and saith this 
Prayer. 

Thou, O Christ our God, Who art Thyself the 
fulness of the Law and of the Prophets, Who didst 
accomplish all the disjiensation of Thy Father, fill our 
hearts with joy and gladness ahvays, now and ever, 
and to ages of ages. Amen. 

.Deacon. Let us make our supplication to the Lord. 

Priest. The blessing of the Lord upon you. Then, 
Glory to Thee, our God : Glory to Thee. 

People, Glory. Both now. 

Then the Deacon, also going through the north part, 
gathers together the Holy Things, with fear and all 
safety : ,so that not the very smallest particle should 
fall out, or be left : and he washes his hands in the 
accustomed place. And the Priest goes forth, and gives 

(^) This means behind the ambon as respects the bema : that 
is, before it as regards the people. 



127 

the antidoron (-5) to the people. Then he goes into 
the holt/ bema, and puts ojf his priestl// vestments, say- 
ing Nunc dimittis, the Trisagion, and the other things. 
Then he saith the dimissory prayer of S. Chrysostom. 

The grace of Thy lips, shining forth like a torch, 
illuminated the -world, enriched the universe with the 
treasures of liberality, and manifested to us the height 
of humility : but do thou, our instructor by thy words, 
Father John Chrysostom, intercede to the Word, 
Christ our God, that our souls may be saved. 

Kyrie eleison, (twelve times.) 

Glory. Both now. 

Thee, the more honourable than the Cherubim. 

And he viahes the disniis,-<ion : and having adored, 
and given thanks to Godjorall tilings, {^-'^) he departs. 

(-3) The Antidoroa is the bread which has been offered for tlie 
service of the Altar, but which has uut been required for conse- 
cration : it in some respects resembles tlie y;ai?i hini of most of 
the Frcncli rites. It is not so very unusual a thing in Russia 
that those monks who practise the most regular asceticism, should 
take no other food during Lent, except the Antidoron. 

(-'') This expression is taken from the favourite exclamation of 
S. John Chrysostom — the last words which he spoke — " Glory 
be to God for all things.'' 



gltd 3iim'^\i of ||laliilrai[. 



The Priest advances with the Deacon to the Altar. 

Priest. Glory to God in the highest. 

Deacon. Amen. 

Priest. Glory to God in the highest. 

Deacon. Amen. 

Priest and Deacon. And on earth peace, and a 
good hope to men. Our Father, Which art in hea- 
ven, hallowed be Thy Name : Holy, Holy, Holy : 
Our Father, Which art in heaven, heaven and earth 
are full of the majesty of Thy glory, and Angels and 
men exclaim to Thee, Holy, Holy, Holy. Our 
Father, Which art in heaven, hallowed be Thy 
Name : Thy kingdom come : Thy will be done in 
earth as it is in heaven : Give us this day the bread of 
our necessity : And forgive us our sins, as w^e also 
forgive our debtors : And lead us not into temptation, 
but deliver us from evil : for Thine is the kingdom, 
and the power and the glory, for ever and ever. 
Amen. 

Priest. Strengthen, O Lord God, our infirmity 
by Thy mercy, that we may minister in Thy holy 
Sacraments, given for the salvation and renewal of 
our nature, through the love of Thy most dearly 
beloved Son, O Lord of all things. Father, Son 
and Holy Ghost. 

Deacon. Amen. 



129 

Priest. Adored and glorified, honoured and exalted, 
lauded and blessed in heaven and in earth, be the glori- 
ous Name of Thy most resplendent Trinity, at all 
times, O Lord of all things, Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost. 

Deacon. Amen. 

The Priest and Deacon say alternateli/, Psalm 15, 
150, and 117. 

Priest. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, 
and to the Holy Ghost, from ages to ages. Amen 
and Amen, 

Deacon. Set me, O Lord, with pure thoughts before 
Thy altar. 

Priest. Lord, who shall dwell in Thy tabernacle, 
and who shall rest upon Thy holy hill ? How glori- 
ous and lovely is Thy sanctuary, God, the Sanctifier 
of all things ! 

Deacon. Peace be with us. 

Priest. Before the exceeding glorious throne of Thy 
Majesty, my Lord, and the lofty and supreme seat of 
Thy domination, and the Altar of expiation, which 
Thy will hath fixed in the place of the habitation of 
Thy glory, we Thy people, and the sheep of Thy 
pasture, with the thousands of Seraphin that praise 
Thee, and the ten thousands of Angels and Archangels 
that minister to Thee, bend our knees before Thee, 
and ever adore and glorify Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, to ages of ages. 

To the Name of Thy ever-glorious Trinity, great, 
formidable, holy, laudable and incomprehensible; also 
to Thy mercy which Thou hast manifested towards our 
race, we are bound to return continual thanks, and to 
attribute laud and adoration : O Lord of all tilings. 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

M. Ainen. 

P 



130 

Priest. Thee, the Lord of all things, we praise : 
Thee, Jesus Christ, we glorify ; because Thou art the 
raiser up of our bodies, and the most holy Saviour of 
our souls : I have washed my hands in innocency, O 
LoHD, and liave surrounded Thine Altar. 

Deacon. Thee, the Lord of all things. {As the 
Priest, who then repeats it again.) 

Deacon. Peace be with us all. 

Priest. Thou art truly my Lord, and the raiser up 
of our bodies, and the good Saviour of our souls, and 
the constant Keeper of our life : and it is meet that we 
should laud and glorify Thee at all times, Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost. 

Deacon. Amen. 

Priest. Lord, our God, when the most sweet odour 
of Thy goodness and love shall breathe upon us, and 
when our souls shall have been enlightened with the 
splendour of Thy truth, then we shall meet Thy most 
beloved Son Who shall be revealed from heaven, and 
in Thy Church, already honoured with the crown, 
>shall praise Thee incessantly, for Thou art the Lord 
and Creator of all things, Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost. 

Deacon. Amen. Bring your voices, and praise, O 
ail ye people, the Living God. 

Priest. Holy God, Holy and Mighty, Holy and 
Immortal, have mercy upon us. Glory be to the 
Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. 

Deacon. Holy God, Holy and Mighty, Holy and 
Immortal, have mercy upon us. 

Priest. From everlasting- to everlasting. Amen 
and Amen. 

Deacon. Holy God, &c. 

Priest, taming to the i)eo2Jle. Let us all stand in 
order, and with joy and gladness let .us seek and say, 



131 

Peoijle. O our Lord, liave mercy upon us. (^And 
so at the end of every petition, (i) 

Deacon. Father of Mercies and God of all Con- 
solation, we beseech Thee. 

Onr Saviour, the Dispenser of our salvation, and 
the Captain of all things, we, &c. 

For the peace and unity and well-being of the 
whole world, and of all Churches: 

For the healthfulness of the air, the richness of the 
year and its provisions, and the beauty of the whole 
world : 

For our holy Fathers, our Patriarch, the universal 
Pastor of the whole Catholic Church ; and our Bishop, 
that they may enjoy good health : 

The merciful God Who governeth all thing's by 
His love : 

Him That is rich in mercy and Whose loving-kind- 
ness is shed abroad : 

Him That is good in His Essence, and the Giver of 
all gifts : 

Him That is glorious in heaven, and exceeding 
laudable upon earth : 

The Immortal Nature That inhabits that most 
glorious light, we beseech : 

Save us all, OChhist, our Lord and God, by Thy 
grace, and multij)ly in us peace and love, and have 
mercy upon us. 

Let us pray and beseech the Lord, the God of all, 
that He may hear the voice of our prayers, and listen 
to our supplications, and have mercy upon us. 

Let us pray also for the holy Catholic Church, 
vvhich is spread over the whole orb of the world, that 

Q) This manifestly answers to the first Ectene in the preceding 
Liturgies, although the form differs considerably. 

f2 



132 

the peace which is from God may remain in it till 
the consummation of all things : 

Let us pray also for the holy Fathers, our Bishops, 
that without blemish and complaint they may remain 
all the days of their life in the government of their 
Churches ; hut chiefly we are bound to pray for the 
!:afety of the Lord Patriarcli, the Pastor of the Avhole 
Ciiurch, and the Lord Bishop of this Metropolis : let 
us pray that the Lord may keep them and preserve 
them at the head of their flocks, that tliey may feed 
and govern and prepare for the Lord a perfect people, 
zealous of all good works. 

Let us pray also for the Presbyters and Deacons 
who are occupied in the ministry of the truth ; that 
with a good heart and a pure conscience they may 
accomplish their ministry before God. 

Let us pray also for every holy and sober congre- 
gation of the sons of the holy Catholic Church, that 
they may accomplish the most excellent course of 
sanctity, and may receive the hope and promise of 
the Lord in the Land of the Living. 

Let us commemorate the most Blessed Virgin Mary, 
the Mother (•) of Christ and our Saviour. 

Let us pray that the Holy Ghost, Who dwelt in 
her, may sanctify us by His grace, and accomplish 
His will in us, and sign His truth in us, all the days 
of our life. 

Let us venerate the memory of Prophets, Apostles, 
Martyrs, and Confessors : let us pray that by their 
prayers and the passions which the}^ endured, God 



(-) Jiro<7;er 0/ Christ. Notice here the Nestorian lieresy — 
Mother of Christ, instead of Mother of God. This is one of 
the few expressions ■which was rightly altered at the Synod of 
Diamper. 



133 

ir.ay give to us with tliem a good hope and salva- 
tion ; and that we may be made worthy of their 
blessed commemoration, and their living and true 
promises in the kingdom of heaven. Let us com- 
memorate also our fathers and the doctors of truth, 
S.Nestorius, (3) S. Diodorus, S.Theodore, S. Ephraim, 
S. Abraham, S. Narcissus, and all Doctors and Pres- 
byters, followers after truth. Let us pray that by their 
prayers, the pure truth and the sincere doctrine which 
they taught may be preserved in the holy Church till 
the consummation of the world. 

Let us remember also our fothers and our brethren \ 
who have departed out of this world in the orthodox.  
I'aith ; let us pray, I say, to the Lord that He may 
absolve them, and may forgive them their offences, 
and may vouchsafe that they, with all just and right- 
eous men who have obeyed the Divine yAU, may \ 
rejoice for ever and ever. 

Also for this province and city, and for them that 
dwell therein, especially for this congregation : let us 
pray that the Lord by His grace may turn away from 
us sword, captivity, rapine, earthquake, famine, pesti- 
lence, and other things which are injurious to the soul 
and the body. 

For those also that have departed from the true 
faith, and are held in captivity by the net of Satan : 
let us pray that the Lord God may convert their 
hearts, and that they may verily acknowledge Goi> 
the true Father, and His Son, Jesus Christ, our 
Lord. 

Let us pray also for the sick : and especially for 
them who are vexed with cruel diseases, and are tried 
by most evil spirits : we pray that the Lord our God 

(') The arcb-hcretic. 



134 

may send to tliem His holy Angel of love and salva- 
tion, and may visit and heal and help them, through 
the greatness of His grace and mercy. 

Also for the poor, orphans, widows, and afflicted ; 
and them that suffer persecution : let us pray that the 
Lord may govern them by His grace, and nourish 
and console them by His pity, and by His loving- 
kindness set them free from them that do violence to 
them. 

Pray and beseech the love of the God of all, that 
Ave may be to Him a kingdom, a priesthood, and a 
holy people. Cry to the Lord, the Mighty God, with 
all your heart, and with all your soul, for God is a 
tender Father, and merciful and clement, andwilleth 
not that His handywork should perish, but rather 
should be converted and live. But above all tilings 
it is fit and meet that we should pray to, laud and 
adore, glory and honour, and exalt the One God, the 
Father, the Lord of all, most worthy of adoration, 
Who by Christ hath made to us a good hope and 
salvation for our souls, that He may accomplish His 
ofrace and love in us even to the end. 

While the Deacon saith these things, the Priest, 
standing in the middle of the Altai^, taheth the Paten; 
and the Deacon giving incense, and holding the 
Thurible with both hands, he censeth it in the form of 
a Cross, saying, 

Lord, our God, cause this paten to have a sweet- 
smelling savour, after the pattern of Aaron, the most 
illusti'ious Priest in the tabernacle of testimony. Thou 
That art the Creator and the Lord of the roots and 
spices that breathe a sweet odour, in the Name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 
Amen. 



135 

Then he coueth the Veil of tlic Chalice, and saith : 

LoKD, our God, cause this veil to have a sweet 
savour, after tlie fashion of the mantle wherewith 
Elias, the prophet of truth, clotlied. himself; in the 
Name. 

Then he censetJi the Chalice, and saith : 

Lord, our God, cause this chalice to send forth a 
sweet smell, after the fashion ofAarou the Priest in 
the tabernacle of witness. Thou Who art the Creator 
of roots and spices that breathe forth a sweet odour, 
in the Name. 

Tlien he poureth wine into the Chalice, and saith : 

Let the precious Blood of our Loud Jesus Christ 
be miiigled in the chalice. ('') 

He 2^oureth\in water, and saith : 

One of the soldiers came, and with a spear piei'ced 
the side of our Lord Jesus Christ, and forthwith 
came thereout Blood and Water, and he that saw it 
bare record, and his record is true. 

Again pouriiig in wine, he saith : 

Let water be mingled with wine and wine with 
water, in the Name of he Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost. {^) Then he saith : Expect- 
ing I expected the Lord, the Body of Christ, and 

(*) This anticipative calling that which is simple wine, " the 
Blood of Christ," is on a par with the anticipative adoration of 
the Holy Mysteries at the Great Entrance, common through all 
the Eastern Church. 

(5) PI ere follows, in the modern edition, a long rubric, of the 
insertion of which no notice is given, but which is evidently taken 
roni the Eoinan Missal. 



136 

His precious Blood on tlie holy Altar. Let us all 
offer it with fear and honour, and with the Angels let 
tis exclaim, Holy, Holy, Holy, is our Lord God. 

Deacon. The poor shall eat and he satisfied of the 
Body of Christ and His precious Blood upon the 
holy Altar : let us all offer it with fear and honour, 
and with Angels let us exclaim, Holy, Holy, Holy, 
is our Lord God. 

Let us pray. Peace be with us. 

Priest, {secretly.) Let glory be offered and immo- 
lated to Thy ever-glorious Trinity, for ages of ages : 
and may Christ Who was offered as an oblation for 
our salvation, and has commanded us that we should 
sacrifice in memory of His Passion, Death, Sepulture, 
and Resurrection, receive this sacrifice from our 
hands, through His grace and His love, for ever and 
ever. 

He puts the Holy Gifts on the Altar. 

Let these exceeding glorious, holy, and life-giving 
mysteries be constituted and ordained upon the holy 
Altar of Christ, until the glorious Advent from hea- 
ven of the Same, to Whom is laud, glory, and adora- 
tion now and at all times, and to ages of ages. 

{Aloud.) Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, 
and to the Holy Ghost. Be there a commemoration 
upon the holy Altar of the Virgin Mary, the Mother 
of Christ. 

Deacon. From everlasting to everlasting. Amen 
and Amen. Apostles of the very Son, friends of the 
Only- Begotten, pray ye that there may be peace in 
the creation. 

Priest. Let all the people say Amen and Amen. 
Be Thy commemoration. Apostle Thomas, our holy 
father, upon the hoiy Altar, together with the just who 



137 

have conquered, and the martyrs who have received 
the crown. 

Deacon. The Mip:hty God is with us, our Father 
is with us, our Angel and our Helper, the God of 
Jacob. 

Priest. Little ones, with the elders, behold all the 
faithful have fallen on sleep in a good hope, who have 
paid the debt of humanity. By Thy exceeding glori- 
ous resurrection. Thou shalt raise them up to Thy 

Deacon. Pour forth before him your hearts in 
prayer, fasting and penitence. They have made pro- 
pitiation to Christ, the Fatheu, and His Spirit. 

The Priest saith, while he covereth the Oblations, 

Thou coverest Thyself with light as with a garment, 
and stretchest out the heavens like a curtain, now and 
ever, and to ages of ages. 

While the Priest masheth his hands the Deacon saith: 

By the prayer and supplication of the Angels of 
peace and of love we ask, 

People. From Thee, O Lord. 

Deacon. Night and day, and all the days of our 
life, we ask for eternal peace to Thy Church, and a 
life without sins. 

People. From Thee, O Lord. 

Beacon. Remission of sins, and that which may be 
profitable to our life, and may appease His Divinity, 
we ask, 

{^) If we compare these vcrsicles and responses with the " God 
is with us," in the Groat Apodeipnou of the Constantiuopolitan 
rite, (which we know to be, at the very latest, of the beginning of 
the fourth century,) we may conclude them in like manner to be of 
the most remote antiquity. 



138 

People. From Thee, O Lord. 

Deacon. The mercies of the Lord, and His be- 
nignity, ever and at all times we ask, 

People. From Thee, O Lord. 

Deacon. Ourselves and our souls let ns commend 
to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. 

People. To Thee, Lord God. 

Priest. We pray and beseech Thee, Lord God, the 
Mighty, perfect in us Thy grace, and by our hands 
pour forth Thy gifts and love, and the tender mercy 
of Thy Divinity ; and let them be to the propitiation 
of the debts of Thy people, and to the remission of all 
the sins of the sheep of Thy pasture, which, by grace 
and Thy love, Thou hast chosen to Thyself: of all, 
Lord, Father, Sox, and Roly Ghost. 

Deacon. Amen. Bow dovv'n your heads for the 
imposition of hands and receive the blessing. 

Priest (secretly). Lord, Mighty God, Thine is the 
holy Catliolic Church, purchased by the wonderful 
passion of Thy Christ: on the sheep of Thy flock, 
by the grace of the Holy Ghost, Who is equal to 
Thee in most glorious Deity, the orders of true priest- 
hood are conferred. Thou, my Lord, by Thy 
clemency, hast vouchsafed to the exiguity of the 
nature of our misery, that we men should become 
glorious members of that mighty body which is the 
Catholic Church, and by Thy ministry may confer on 
believing souls, spiritual helps. Do Thou therefore, 
my Lord, accomplish in us Thy grace, and pour forth 
by our hands. Thy gifts: let also Thy love be upon 
us, and the piety of Thy Deity upon this people v.liich 
Thou hast chosen to Thyself. (Aloud.) Grant also, 
my Lord, through Thy mercy, that we all, in all the 
days of our life, may equally please Thy Deity by the 
best v.'orks of righteousness, which render us accept- 



139 

able to the glorious will of Thy Majesty ; and that in 
this manner we may be made worthy of the assistance 
of Thy grace, that we may ever offer to Thee, hymns, 
honour, laud, and adoration, Lord of all, Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost. 

[Expulsion of the Catechumens.] 

Deacon, Amen. He that hath not received baptism 
let him depart. 

Choir. Amen. 

Deacon. He that hath not received the seal of life, 
let him depart. 

Choir. Amen. 

Deacon, He that hath not received it, let him 
depart. 

Priest. Go, auditors, (") and see the doors. Let us 
pray : peace be wdth us. Illuminate, O Lord our 
God, the motions of our tlioughts, that we may listen 
to and understand the most sweet voice of Thy pre- 
cepts, life-conferring and divine. Grant to us also by 
Thy grace and Thy loves, tliat from them we may 
gather advantage, that is to say, love, hope, and sal- 
vation, as may be expedient to soul and to body, 
and that we may ever sing praise to Thee, without 
cessation, at all times. Lord of all things. Father, 
So.v, and Holy Ghost. 

Deacon. Amen. 

Priest. Thee, the most wise Governor and marvel- 
lous preserver of Thy servants, and great treasury 
whence every good thing and all help proceedeth 
from Thy mercy : we beseech Thee, turn Thee, O my 
Lord, and be propitious to us, and have mercy upon 

("} He is addressing of course that class of Catechumens who 
are called Auditors or Audicntes. 



140 

lis always, as Thou art accustomed, Lokd of all, 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

Deacon. Keep silence. Paul the Apostle : the 
Epistle to the my brethren : bless, my Lord. 

Priest. Christ bless thee. (^) 

[The Ejiistle is read-l 

Choir. Glory to Christ the Lord. 

Priest, (9) before the middle of the Altar, hawing : 
Thee, the splendour of the glory of the Father Him- 
self, and the Image of the Substance of Him That 
begat Thee, Who didst appear in the body of our 
humanity, and didst illuminate our soul by the light 
of Thy life-giving Gospel, Thee, I say, we laud- and 
adore and glorify at all times. Lord of all, Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost. 

Make me wise, O Lord, with Thy holy wisdom., 
and grant to me that, without intermission and without 
spot, I may minister to Thee by the keeping of Thy 
Commandments, life-conferring and divine, Lord of 
all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

Deacon. There is silence. Be silent. 

Priest. Peace be with us. 

Choir. With thee and with thy spirit. 

Deacon. The holy Gospel of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, the preaching of 

Choir. Glory to Christ the Lord. 

Deacon. Bless, my Lord. 

Priest. Christ bless thee. 

(8) The respective speeches of the Priest and Deacon are curi- 
ously countercharged in the printed copies. The actual Liturgy 
giveu is that for a departed Priest ; the Ej)istle is the ii. Cor. 
V. 1—12; the Gospel, ii. John vi. 24—35. 

(o) Here again I follow Le Erun : Raulin gives this prayer to 
the Deacon. 



141 



[The Gospel is read.'] 
Choir. Glory to Christ the Lord. 

TJie Nkene Creed is recited as at page 12. 

Deacon. Let us pray. Peace bo with us. Pray, 
bearing in memory our fathers, the Catholics, (^°) and 
all Presbyters and Deacons, youths and virgins, and jf 
all the faithful who have departed from the living and | 
are dead in the true faith. And all our fathers and 
brethren, and sons and daughters : also faithful kings 
beloved of Christ, and all Prophets, Apostles and 
Martyrs : let us pray, I say, that, in the resurrection . 
from the dead, they may be rewarded by God with \ 
the crown, with a good hope, and the inheritance of 
the life of the kingdom of heaven : furthermore, that 
this oblation may be confidently received, that by the 
(") Word of God and the Holy Ghost it may be con- 
secrated, that it may be to us for help and salvation 
and eternal life in the kingdom of heaven, through the 
grace of Christ. 

In the meanwhile the Priest saith seci'etly : Glory 
be to Thee, Finder of them, that have perished : 
glory be to Thee, Collector of them that are dispersed, 
and Bringer-back of them that are afar off": glory to 
Thee Who convertest the wanderers to the knowledge 
of the truth. Glory to Thee, my Lord, Who hast 



(1") Tho original petition referred of course to the Catholic of 
Babylon or Mosul, the spiritual head of tho Church of Malabar. 
But it was hift by the Roman Censors, as it stood, they intending- 
to receive it in the sense of" our Catholic Fatliers.'' 

(11) The reference is to 1 Thnothy iv. 5, as alluding to tho 
Words of Institution, and prayer for the Descent of the Hor.v 
Ghost, as botli necessary, according to tlie teaching of the 
Eastern Church, to a valid Eucharist. 



142 

called Avretched me by Thy mercy and grace to ap- 
proach to Thee, and hast made me, as it were, an 
illustrious member in the mighty body of the Holy 
Church, that I may offer lo Thee this one, holy, and 
' acceptable Sacrifice, which is the memorial of the 
Passion and Death, Sepulture and Resurrection of our 
Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, through Whom it 
pleased Thee to forgive the sins of all men. 

The Priest censeth those ivlio are on the right of the 
Altar, and saith to them : 

Bless, my lords, and pray for me, my fathei-s, and 
my brethren, and my masters, that this oblation may 
be consecrated by my hands. 

They rejjly with the Deacon : 

May Christ hear thy prayers and receive thy 
oblation, and cause thy priesthood to shine befoi'e 
\ Him ; and may He be well-pleased with this sacrifice 
wJiich thou off'erest for thyself, for us, and for all the 
world, from the least to the greatest, through Thy 
grace and love for ever and ever. Amen. 

The Priest adores, howing before the Altar. 

Yea, O Lord our God, look not upon the multi- 
tude, nor let Thy domination be angry at the weight, 
of my sins; but by Thy ineffable grace consecrate 
J this great sacrifice, and bestow it in virtue and power, 
that it may abolish our many sins : and when at the 
latter day Thou appearest in the human body which 
Thou didst assume of our race, we may find before 
Thee grace and love, and may be made worthy to 
praise Thee with the multitude of angels. 



143 

Mising, he saith : 

We confess and praise, Lord our God, the riches 
of Thy grace shed abroad over us ; for when we were 
sinners and weak, Tliou nevertheless, through the mul- 
titude of Thy mercy, didst make us worthy of the 
dispensation of the holy sacrament of the Body and 
Blood of Christ : Ave beseech therefore Thy help, the 
Stiength of our souls, that with perfect love and true 
faith, Ave may administer Thy gift Avhich we have, and 
may offer to Thee hjmns, honour, laud and adoration, 
now and for ever. 

Deacon. Amen. 

Priest. Peace be with all. 

Deacon. V/ith thee and with thy spirit. 

Priest. Give the peace to each other. 

And for Patriarchs, Bishops, Presbyters and Dea- 
cons, and for those who having accomplished this life, 
have departed out of this congregation of the Church j ' 
and for the peace of the world and the crown of the 
year, that it may be blessed and filled with Thy mercy : 
and for all Thy servants, and for us all, that this 
oi)lation be accepted for ever and ever. 

Deacon, (i") Let us confess, and let us all of us 
beseech the Lord Avith the voice of choral m.elody : 
stand fairlv and attend to these things Avhich are done 
in the tremendous mysteries Avhich are consecrated: 
the Priest is praying that by his intercession peace 
may be multiplied in you : cast your eyes doAvn to the 
ground, and vigilantly take care to raise your mind to 
heaven ; seek and petition at this time, and let no one 
venture to speak j and he that prayeth, let him pray 



('-) The following speech is not in the books attributed to the 
Deacon, but clearly belongs to him, and is followed by a prayer 
which is " said in the meanwhile " by the Priest. 



144 

mentally, while he remaineth in silence and fear. 
Peace be with us. 

In the meanwMle the Priest saith : 

Lord, Mighty God, strengthen my weakness by 
Th}' mercy, and make me worthy of the assistance of 
Thy grace, that I may offer to Thee an oblation for 
the benefit of all men, and to the praise of Thy 
exceeding glorious Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, for ever. 

He nnveils the mysteries and blesses incense, and puts 
it in the censer, and saith : 

[beginning the Anaphora.] 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love 
of God the Father, and the communication of the 
Holy Ghost, be with us all, now and for ever. 

Deacon. Amen. 

Priest. Lift up your hearts. 

Choir. To Thee, God of Abraham, Isaac, and 
Israel, the exceeding glorious King. (J^^) 



(12) This sentence is precisely the same as that iu the Liturgy 
of the Apostles, which is the Nestorian norm. In the Liturgies 
of Jfestorius and Theodore the Interpreter, themselves apparently 
of the fifth century, it is very much amplified, as thus in the 
former : 

Priest. Up in the sublime heights, in the fearful and glorious 
region, where the Cherubin cease not to agitate their wings, and 
there is no end to the hymns and the sweet sounds of the sancti- 
fication of the Seraphin, there be your minds. 

CJioir. They are lifted up to Thee, God of Abraham, Isaac, and 
Israel, King of Glory. 

Hence I gather the extreme antiquity of the Malabar Anaphora, 
clearly a much eai-lier form. 



145 

Priest. The oblation is offered to tlie Lord, the 
God of all. 

Choir. It is meet and right. Peace be with us. 

Priest. Loud, Mighty God, give us boldness before 
Thee, that we may confidently perform this quickening 
and holy ministry with consciences pure, and free from 
all malice, simulation, and guilt, and bitterness, and sow 
in us, my Lord, charity and mutual unity of soul ; 
and guard Thy holy Catholic Church here and every- 
where, from everything noxious, from all fault and 
perturbation, by Thy grace and love for ever. 

Choir. Bless, my Lord. 

Priest. By the mouth of all be it glorified, by the 
tongue of all be it praised, by all creatures be it wor- 
shipped and exalted, the adorable and exceeding glori- 
ous Name of the most illustrious Trinity, Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, Who created the world and 
all that dwell therein by His goodness, and hath saved 
the sons of men by His loving-kindness, and hath 
shown great mercy to mortals. Thy Majesty, my 
Lord, is adored and venerated by thousand thousands 
of heavenly beings, and ten thousand times ten 
thousand of holy Angels; and the hosts of the Spirits 
of fire glorify Thy Name. And with holy Cherubin 
and Seraphin, they offer adoration to Tliy greatness, 
they cry, they glorify without intermission, and say 
one to another : 

Choir. Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord, mighty God : 
heaven and earth are full of His songs : Hosanna in 
the highest : Hosanna to the Son of David : blessed 
is He That cometh and shall come in the Name of the 
Lord : LTosanna in the highest. 

Priest. Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord, mighty God: [1.] 
full are the heavens and the earth of His songs, and 
of the essence of His substance, and the splendour of 



146 

His exceeding glorious beauty, so tliat Do I not; 

fill heaven and earth, saith the Lout) ? Holy art 
Thou, God, the Father of Truth, from Whom all 
paternity in heaven and in earth is named : holy also 
is Thine Only-Begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, 
by Whom all things "vvere made : holy also is the 
Spirit, the cause of all truth, by Whom all are sanc- 
tified. Woe is me, woe is me ; for I am astonished ; 
because I am a man of polluted lips, and T dwell in 
the midst of a people of polluted lips, and mine eyes 
have seen the King, the Lord of Hosts. How 
terrible is this place to-day, in which face to face the 
Lord is seen ! And now, O Lord, let Thy mercy be- 
upon us, and purify our filth, and sanctify our lips, and 
commingle the voices of our imbecility with the praises 
of Seraphin and Archangels, who sing glory to Thy 
love : for corporeal men Thou hast associated with 
spirits. With these celestial hosts then, we also. Thy 
miserable servants, weak and useless, praise Thee, my 
Lord, because Thou hast shown great mercy to us, 
for which we cannot return equal thanks. For Thou 
didst take upon Thyself our humanity, that Thou 
mightest quicken us with Thy divinity; Thou didst 
exalt our humanity, and set up our fall, and forgive 
our sins, and justify us by wiping out our offences, 
and didst illuminate our understandings, and didst 
prove, O Lord our God, our enemies to be guilty, 
and because of the love of Thy grace shed abroad over 
us, didst bestow the victory on the weak exiguity of 
our nature. For all helps, therefore, and mercies 
bestowed on us, let us offer to Thee a song, laud and 
honour, and adoration, now and ever, and to ages of 
ages. 

Deacon. Amen. Pray in your hearts. Peace be 
with us. 



147 

lie Jiisseth the Altar thrice, and saith : Glory to [7.] 
Thy rl oiy Name, and adoration to Thy Divinity, at 
all times, Lord Jesus Christ, Living Bread, giving 
life. Who didst descend from heaven, and quickenest 
the Avhole world, and they that eat this Bread shall 
never die, and they that receive it in truth are freed 
and sanctified by it, and are cleansed and live for 
ever. 

Our Lord Jesus Christ (^^) in the same night 
wherein He was betrayed, took the holy bread into 
His pure and loving hands, and lifted up His eyes to 
heaven, and gave thanks to God the Father, the 
Creator of all things, and blessed and brake, and gave 
to His Disciples and said, — Take and eat of this bread 
all of you : for this is My Body. In like manner 
after He had supped, He took the Chalice into His 
pure hands, and gave thanks, and blessed, and gave 
to His Disciples, saying. Take and drink ye all of 
this Cimlice : for as often as ve eat this Bread, and 



(-■') I have ventured to make a considerable alteration in the 
order of the above prayers. As we liave the Malabar Liturgy 
from the Portuguese revisers, the sequence of the Collects is that 
which is given by bracketted numerals in the margin. Here the 
Invocation of the HoLY Ghost, contrary to the use of every other 
Oriental Liturgy, preceded tlio words of Institution. This, in 
itself, would be a sutficieut proof that an alteration had been made; 
though very carelessly, if not malAjide, no notice is given of it. 
But fortunately the Nestorian Liturgy of Theodore the Interpreter 
bears a sufficient resemblance to this to show what was the original 
order: I have therefore arranged the prayers according to that. 
The Liturgy of All Apostles, the Nestorian norm, bears, as would 
be natural, a closer resemblance still to the Malabar ; but as All 
Apostles, from whatever cause, has not the words of Institution at 
all, it is not so useful in showing how the Malabar was arranged. 
Ilenaudot has a note on the Malabar, (Vol. II., p. 599, Edit. 
Leslie,) but he maniiestly refers to a very diSercnt edition of it 
Irom that which we are employuig. 



148 

drink this Cup, ye show forth My remembrance : for 
this is the Chalice of My Blood, of the New Testa- 
ment, which for you and for many shall be poured 
forth for the i-emission of sins : this shall be My pledge 
even to the consummation of all things. 

Glory to Thee, my Lord : glory to Thee, my LoiiBt 
glory to Thee, my Lord, for Thine ineffable gift. 

Tlie Priest signs the Oblations, and saitli : 

2.] Lord God of Hosts, hear the voice of my cry, and 
listen, my Lord, and give ear to my groans and my 
sighs, and receive the prayers of me, a sinner : for in 
I this hour in which tlie Sacrifice is offered to Thy 
Father, I beseech Thy grace to have mercy upon all 
creatures ; to forgive the offenders, to bring back the 
wanderers, to console the afHicted, to give peace to 
the disturbed, to heal the infirm, to hear them that 
are troubled in spirit, and to impart tranquillity to 
them ; to accomplish the almsdeeds of them that work 
righteousness, and for Thy holy Name's sake to be 
propitious ever to me, a sinner, through Thy grace. 
[3.] Thanks be to Thee, Lop.d God of Hosts : let this 
oblation be received for the whole Catholic Church, 
and for priests and princes ; for the poor also that are 
oppressed in sorrow and misery, and for the faithful 
/ departed, and for all them who desire the prayer of 
' my weakness, and for my sins. Yea, O Lord, my 
God, visit Thy people, and my unhappiness, according 
to Thy love, and the multitude of Thy mercy, and 
not according to my sins and iniquities : but grant 
that we may be made worthy of the remission of our 
sins by the Holy Body which we shall in faith receive, 
through grace which is from Thee. Amen. 
[4.] Prostrating himself, he continues: Thou, my LorD;, 
according to Thy exceeding love, receive this best and 



149 

acceptable commemovation of the fathers wiio are 
just and upright, and please Thee, — the remembrance 
of the Body and Blood of Thy Christ, which we 
shall offer to Thee upon the pure and holy altar, as 
Thou hast taught us, and give peace to us and ti'an- 
quillity all the days of our life. Yea, O Lord, give 
us peace, that all the inhabitants of the earth may 
know that Thou art God, the only Father of truth. 
Thou didst send Thv most beloved Son, and He the 
Lord our God came and taught us, all the holiness 
and purity of Prophets and Apostles, Martyrs and 
Confessors, Bishops and Doctors, Priests and Dea- 
cons, and all the sons of the holy Catholic Church, who 
have been sealed with holy baptism. We, therefore, 
my Lord, Thy weak and unprofitable servants, who 
are gathered together in Thy Name, and at this time 
stand before Thee, and by holy tradition have received 
a pattern from Thee, Avith exultation and joy, glorify, 
exalt and venerate this memorial, and sacrifice this 
Mystery, great, terrible, holy and divine, of the Passion 
and Death, Sepulture and Resurrection of our Loud 
and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

And the Priest stretcheth forth, j)ureli/, his hands rq i 
to heaven, and consecrateth the Body and JBlood of^ 
Christ. 

Send then, my Lord, Thy Holy Spirit, and let [4 
Him rest upon this oblation of Thy servants and p«- 
sanctify it, that it may be to us, my Lord, for the ''""'''^-^ 
payment of our debts and the remission of our sins, 
and the great hope of resurrection from the dead, and 
a new life in the heavenly kingdom, with all v/ho have 
pleased Thee. Moreover, for all Thy admirable dis- 
pensation carried on towards us, we praise and glorify 
Thee without ceasing in the Church, which hath been 



150 

redeemed by the Blood of Thy Son, and -with open 
mouth and unveiled countenance, we will ofi'er unto 
Thee a song and honour, laud and adoration, to Thy 
living, holy and quickening Name, now and ever and 
to ages of ages. Amen. 

[5.] The Priest saith Psalm li. 1—13 ; ami Psalm 
cxxiii. 1—3. Then : Stretch forth Thy hand, and let 
Thy right hand save me, O Lord ; let Thy love 
remain over me for ever, and despise not the works of 
Thy hands. 

[6.] Me riseth and saith : Christ, the peace of things 
that are on high, and the great rest of those that are 
below, stablish, O Lord, in Thy peace and rest, the 
four regions of the world, but principally Thy holy 
Catholic Church, and destroy wars and battles from 
the ends of the earth, and disperse the people that 
delight in war, and pacify by the mercy of Thy 
Divinity, the Priesthood, and the kingdom, that we 
may have n secure habitation with all sobriety and 
piety, and forgive the debts and sins of them that have 
departed this life, through Thy mercy and love for ever. 

Tlic Priest blesses Incense, and puts it in the thurible, 

saying : 

Let V.S offer a hymn to Thy most glorious Trinity, 
at all times and for ever. O Lord our God, cause 
the savour of our souls to be pleasant to Thee, through 
the sweet savour of the mercy of Thy love, and cleanse 
us by it from the defilements of sin. 

Me censeth the Oblations therein, and saith thrice : 

The Lord our God give us access by the clemency 
of His mercy to these sacraments, most glorious, holy, 
quickening, and divine. For in truth we are not 
worthy. 



151 

Beacon. I am the Living Bread Which came down [8.] 
from heaven : I am the Bread Which descended from 
on high, said the Saviour in a Mystery to His Dis- 
ciples : whosoever ap]n"oacheth in love, and receiveth 
Me, shall live in Me for ever, and shall by heritage 
acquire the kingdom. 

Choir. The ministers, who do His will, Cherabin 
and Seraphin, and Archangels, stand with fear and 
trembling before the Altar, and l^eliold the Priest, 
when he breaks and divides the Body of Christ for 
the propitiation of sin. 

Deacon. Open to me the gates of righteousness, O 
Thou Merciful One, Whose door is open to penitents, _ 
and Who invitest sinners to draw near to Thee ; open 
to us, my Lord, the gate of Thy loves, that we may 
entei- in,'^and sing praise to Thee day and night. 

Choir, Set, O Lord, a watch before my mouth. 
Glory be to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

Beacon. O Merciful One, have pity on us, and [10.] 
show mercy to us ; and despise us not in the time of 
affliction, for night and day we hope in Thee : and 
they that trust in Thee shall not be confounded. 

Choir. Let all the people say, Amen and Amen. 
Isaiah kissed the fire in the kindled coal, and his lips 
were not burnt, but his iniquity was pardoned: 
mortals in this very bread receive fire, and it guards 
their bodies and burns out their sins. 

Deacon. From everlasting to everlasting: the Altar 
is fire in fire : fire surrounds it : let Priests bcAvare of 
the terrible and tremendous fire, lest they fall into it, 
and be burnt for ever. 

The Priest breaks the Host, and saith : 

We draw near, my Lord, in the faith of Thy 
Name to these Holy Mysteries, and in Thy love 



152 

we break, and in Thy pity we sign the Body and 
Blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ, in the Name 
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost. 

The Priest layeth that part of the Oblation wliich 
he holdeth in his left hand, on the paten : he dips the 
other in the Blood, zip to the midst. 

Let the Precious Blood be signed with the Holy 
Body of our Lord Jesus Christ, in the Name of 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 

(1^) The Priest marhs with his right thumb nail 
that part of the Oblation which hath been dipped in 
the JBlood, 

Let the Holy Body be signed with the Blood of 
Propitiation of our Lord Jesus Christ, in the Name 
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost. 

Then joining the two together, he says : 

These predestinated Mysteries, exceeding glorious, 
holy, and quickening, and divine, are consecrated, per- 
fected, completed, and united together in the venerable 
and illustrious Name of the glorious Trinity; that they 
may be to us, O Lord, lor the propitiation of our 
sins, and a great hope of resurrection from the dead ; 
and the renewal of life in the kingdom of heaven. 

Glory to Thee, my Lord, because Thou didst create 
me by Thy grace : glory to Thee, my Lord, because 
Thou didst call me by Thy mercy : glory to Thee, my 

Q°) This rubric was altered by the Portuguese censors ; for 
which Lo Brun sharply rebukes them ; and it is not very easy to 
make out i'rom the rubrics that remain, what the original 
' ■direction was. 



153 

Lord, because Thou hast made me the mediator of 
Thy o-ifts : and for all the dispensation which Thou 
hast carried out towards ray weakness, let praise, 
laud, honour and adoration ?iscend to Thee, now, and 
to ages of ages. 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love 
of God the Father, and the communication of the 
Holy Ghost be with us all, now and ever, and to 
ages of ages. 

Deacon. Let us all with fear and reverence approach 
the mystery of the Body and precious Blood of our 
Saviour : and with pure heart and true faith let us 
call to memory His Passion and Resurrection, and 
understand it plainly : for our sakes the Only- 
Begotten took on Himself a mortal body, and spiritual 
reason and immortal soul : and in His precepts, 
which confer life, and in His holy law has brought 
us back from error to the acknov.'ledgment of the 
truth : and after all the dispensations which He 
wrought for us, He offered tiie first fruits of our 
nature as a sacrifice on the Cross, and bestowed on us 
this Holy Sacrament, by means of which we might 
remember all the grace which He manifested to us. 
Let us then with overflowing charity, and humble 
will, receive the gift of eternal life, and with pure 
prayer, and earnest grief for our sins, be made par- 
takers of the Holy Mysteries of the Church, and be, 
by the hope of penitence, converted from our iniquities, 
and grieve for our transgressions: let us furthermore 
ask tor love and mercy, and let us call on God the 
Lord of all, and let us forgive the debts of our fellow 
servants. 

People. Lord, have mercy on the sins and iniqui- 
ties of Thy servants. [And so at the end of eacfi 
clause.] 



154 

Deacon. Let us cleanse our consciences from divi- 
sion and contention ; 
Let our souls be thoroughly perfect, both from 

all hatred and malice to others. 
Let us receive sanctity, and be inflamed by the 

Holy Ghost. 
Let us receive the societv of the Divine Mvsteries 

in unanimity of mind and mutual peace. 
And may it be, O Lord, to us for the resurrec- 
tion of our bodies, and the salvation of our 
souls, and the life that is to ages of ages. 
Amen. 
3Ieanwhile the Priest saith : Blessed art Thou, 
Lord God of our fathers, and hiohlv exalted and 
excellently laudable is Thy Name for ever : in that Thou 
hast not dealt w^ith us after our sins, neither rewarded 
us according to our iniquities, but according to the 
multitude of Thy love hast delivered us irom the 
power of darkness, and hast called us to the kingdom 
of Thv most dearly beloved Son our Lord Jesus 
Christ, by Whom Thou hast made bare, and hast 
brought to nought, the power of darkness, and hast 
bestowed on us life incorruptible. And now, O Lord, 
'J'hou Who hast vouchsafed that I should stand before 
this Thy pure and holy Altar, to ofler unto Thee this 
loving and holy sacrifice, make us also v/orthy, by Thy 
love, that in all pureness and holiness we may receive 
the Gift : and that it may not be unto us for judgment 
or vengeance, but for love and piety and the remission 
of sins, and resurrection from the dead, and eternal 
life : so that we may all be the fullest witnesses of 
Thy glory, and the habitation of a holy shrine : that 
after we have been incorporated into the Body and 
Blood of Thy Christ with all Thy Saints, we may 
shine with light, in His ever-glorious and lofty reve- 



155 

lation : for to Thee and to Thine with the Holy 
Ghost, is glory and honour and laud and adoration, 
now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

Blot out, O Lord, tlie sins and transgressions of 
Thy servants, and sanctify our life hy the songs of the 
Holy Ghost, to the end that we, with all Thy Saints, 
may offer to Thy most lofty Divinity the fruits of 
glory and praise ; and make us worthy, O Lord, to 
stand in Thy Presence ever with pure heart and open 
countenance ; and that with the confidence which by 
Thy love is conferred on us, we may all of us together 
invoke Thee, and thus say : 

Our Father. 

Priest. Yea, O Lord, (i6) God of Hosts, O our 
most glorious God, and our merciful Father, we 
earnestly ask, beseech, and implore the clemency of 
Thy goodness : lead us not, my Lord, into temptation, 
but save and deliver us from the evil one, and from 
his host ; for Thine is the kingdom and the strength, 
the glory and the power, the empire and the might, 
in heaven and in earth, now and to ages of ao-es. 

Deacon. Amen. 

Priest. Peace be with you. 

Deacon. And with thee and with thy spirit. 

Priest. That which is holy befits the holy, my 
Lord, to be received. 

Deacon. One holy Father, one holy Son, one 
Holy Ghost. Glory be to the Father,"^ and to the 
SoK,and to the Holy Ghost, to ages of ages. Amen. 

TJie Deacon goes to the Altar : the Priest takes his 
right hand and 'piits it into the Paten. 
Deacon. The glory of our Lord 

('•) The EinboUsmus : as in S. Mark, p. 2 3 ; S.James, n. 70- 
b. Ijasil, p. 1/2. 



156 

Priest. Be with them and with iis, in the heavenly 
kingdom : glory be to the Living God. 

JJeacon. Glorify the Living God. 

People. Glory to Him and to Thy Church : Plis 
love and His pity. Amen. 

Priest. Lord, my God, I am not worthy, nor is 
it indeed meet that I should receive Thy Body and 
the Blood of propitiation, nor that I should touch "them ; 
but let Thy words sanctify my soul, and heal my body, 
in the Name of the Father, and of the Sox, and "of 
the Holy Ghost. 

And he receives the Body of our Lord. Pa the 
meantime the Deacoyi sings : 

Let this oblation be received above in the heavenly 
places, together with that which Abel, Noah, and 
Abraham, offered to the heavenly kingdom. 

Priest. Let the gift of the grace of our Saviour 
Himself, Jesus Christ, be accomplished throuoh 
love in all of us. 

Deacon. To ages of ages. Amen. 

j^_^ 2Vie Priest receives the Chalice, and then saith : 

The Blood of the propitiation of our Lord Jesus 
Christ nourish my soul and body in this life, and in 
the life to come. 

Deacon. My brethren, receive the body of the Son 
Himself, saith the Church, and drink His Blood. 

And Tvhile the 2Jeople communicate, the Deacon saith: 

Strengthen, O Lord, the hands which are stretched 
out to receive the Holy Thing: vouchsafe that they 
may daily bring forth fruit to Thy Divinity; that they 
may be worthy of all things which they have sung to 
Thy praise within Thy sanctuary, and may ever laud 



157 

Thee. (^7) Grant, moreover, My Lord, that tlie ears 
which have heard the voice of Thy songs, may never 
hear the voice of clamom" and dispute. Grant also 
that tlie eyes which have seen Thy great love, may 
also behold Thy blessed hope ; (J^) that the tongues 
which have sung the Sanctus may speak the truth. 
Grant that the feet which have walked in the church 
may walk in the region of light: that the bodies which 
have tasted Thy living Body may be restored in new- 
ness of life. On this congregation also, which adores 
Thy divinity, let Thy aids be multiplied, and let Thy 
gi-eat love remain with us ; and by Thee may we 
abound in the manifestation of Thy glory, and open a 
door to the prayers of all of us. We all then, who 
have drawn near by the gift of the grace of the Holy 
Ghost, and to whom it has been vouchsafed to become 
fellow participators in the reception of these mysteries, 
most excellent, holy, divine, and quickening, let us all 
praise and exult in God, the Giver of them. 

Priest. Glory be to Him for Kis unspeakable gift. 
It is meet, just and right, O Lord, that at all times, 
and days, and hours, we should laud, adore and 
glorify the terrible Name of Thy Majesty ; since by 
Thy grace and Thy love, my Lord, Thou hast vouch- 
safed to the weak nature of the mortal sons of men, to 
hallow Thy Name with blessed spirits, and hast given 
us to be partakers of the gift of Thy mysteries, and to 
be delighted with the sweetness of Thy words which 
give life and are divine, and always to offer praise 

('") This seems to be the sense of a veiy obscure expression. 

C^) JVotico this remarkable prayer, which has no parallel that 
I am aware of in any liastern rite : there is nothing like it in the 
kindred Nestorian Liturgies, nor in the mongrel JS'cstorian service 
of John of iiassora. It appears to me of the most remote 
antiquity. 



158 

to Thy divinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. (^'J) 
Then all say, Our Father. 

The Priest Uirneth to the people, and hlessetk them, 

saymg, 

He Who blesseth us with all benediction in heaven, 
by the Son of humanity, (^o) and hath invited to Kis 
kingdom and eternal sweetness : 

And Who hath given Plis promise to the apostolic 
congregation, and also in verity 'hath signed His word, 
that there should be no doubt in it : 

Ye shall say. Verily, veiily, I say, and in verity I 
sign My words : every one that eateth My quickening 
Body, and drinketh my Blood of the salutary chalice, 

I forgive him all his debts, and I blot out all his 
sins, and I call him to tlie kingdom ; and let it deliver 
you from affliction, and save you from scandals. 

He bless (-1) the seeds of your fields. He bless the 
fruits of your trees, and He multiply and bless your 
substance, and of His love give jo\x long life. 

O God, the Lord of men, bless this congregation, 
and give strength to the weak, for behold, he beginneth 
from the beginning. 

By the living sign of Christ, may the glorious 
throne of the Oriental Cathoiici be blessed, that 
righteousness may rise and shine in it. 

Let the father full of splendour, the Bishop v,ho 
is pastor and lord of the whole flock, full of sobriety, 
be Guarded from evil. 

(1^) Then follows, in the original, an alternative thanksgiving 
with the above. 

(=") Tliia singular substitution for the Son of Man was altered 
by the Diamperese censors into His Sou. 

(21) This verb of course is to be connected with the first clause 
of the benediction. 



159 

Bless the holy presbyters, clerks and ministers : let 
them be set free from dangers and devils, and very 
evil men. 

To the ancient of days, to old men, illustrious through 
age, may the Lord give them a good end, and call 
them to the kingdom. 

Young men, fair in stature and possessed of strengtli, 
may He cause them to increase in splendour, and fill 
them -with purity. 

The frail nature of women, virgins also and the 
wedded, may they may be kept from fall, from snares 
and scandals. 

The Lord that sitteth in heaven, give us a quiet 
peace, a good and sweet peace, that we may rejoice 
day and night. 

He give you peaceful times, that ye may ever 
rejoice and not be turbulent and unquiet, but loving 
each other through charity. 

And since ye are assembled together this day, in 
the solemnity of this oblation, may the Cross of the 
Celestial King guard you. 

The Lord receive your oblation and your sacrifice, 
and your prayers, and may His Spirit rest upon your 
alms, and may your petitions enter into His Presence. 

May he that is illustrious in the congregation of the 
Saints, the religious Hormisdas, ("-) the holiness of 
holinesses, keep you from plague and devils and very 
evil men. 

May he pray also for this crowd, the poor, the 
miserable, for they are disciples of this Saint, that 
thus they may be free from calamity. 



(") Hormisdas, a celebrated ascetic in Malabar, beai's the same 
relation to the Cluirch of India that S. Ajitony does to Egypt, 
b. tfabbas to Palestine, or Tekla-IIaiinaiioth to Ethioiiia. 



160 

Furthermore may they who have modestly laboured 
and served witli simphcity in this v^^orld, be guarded 
in righteousness from ill. 

And they -vvho are strangers among us, and are far 
off from their homes, may the King of ages of ages 
cause them to return in peace. 

Let this feast be holy upon you, O humble people, 
and may the Lokd be your establisher and councillor 
to good things. 

Now and ever, and at all times and occasions, by 
nights also and days, and even to ages of ages. (-•'') 

('^) In the original tliere follow three alternative benedictions. 
That translated above, I take to be for lesser festivals. The others 
are — 1, For the highest feasts : 2, For ferial days : 3, For 
masses of the dead — which last I imagine to be Roman. 



THE OFFICE OF THE PROTHESIS. 



The Okder of the Holy Prothesis, as per- 
formed IN THE Great Church, and the 
Holy Mountain. 

The Priest mid Deacon go to the prothesis, Q-) and 
wash their hands, (2) saying, (^) 

I will wasli my hands in innocency, O Lord, and 
so will I go to Thine Altar, to the end of the Psalm. 

Then they ynahe three adorations before the prothesis^ 
and each saith, 

God be merciful to me a sinner, and have pity upon 
me. 

(1) i.e., into the chapel of np'i^nri; ; the name, being the same 
for botli it and the credence, may create confusion. 

(-) In most churches, there is a lavatory for this purpose near 
to the credence. 

Q) Tlie antiquity of tliis rite in the Eastern Church is shewn 
by S. Cyril, (Catech. Myst. 5.) '' Ye have seen the Deacon 
giving water to the Priest to wash his hands, and to the Pres- 
byters, who surrounded the Altar of God. Did he give it tlicm 
to tlie end that the tilth of the body might be purged away ? I 
trow not : for we use not to enter the Church polluted with tilth. 
But that cleansing of tho hands is a symbol, that we must be 
made clean from all our sins and iniquities." And of old the 
custom was, that all who intended to be communicants should 
•wash their hands. S. Maximus : " All men who propose to 
commuuicuto first wash their hands." 

O 



162 



Thou hast redeemed us from the curse of the law, 
by Thy precious Blood, being naikxl to the Cross, 
and wounded with the lance, and didst pour forth 
streams of immortality to men : glory be to Thee, our 
Saviour. 

Deacon. Sir, give the blessing. 

Priest. Blessed be our God always, now and ever, 
and to ages of ages. Amen. 




Then the Priest tahes in his left Itand the Oblations (^) 
and in his right the holy sfear. 

In remembrance of our Lord and God, and Savi- 
our Jesus Christ. (This he saith thrice.) 

He then thrusts the spear into the inght (s) side of 
the (^) seal, and saith, as he cuts, 

(^) Five small loaves, of the form indicated in the text, are 
provided in the prothesis. They are round, symbolically repre- 
senting, imder the shape of a i)iece of money, the price of our 
redemption, (Durandus, 4, 41 ;) but each has a square projection 
rising from it, usually called the Uoly Lamb, but sometimes 
simply the Holy Bread. Tliis, in the Greek Church, is stamped 
with the words, IC XC NIK A. Jesus Christ conquers. 

(5) That is, of the Holy Lamb, which he is now going to 
divide from the rest of the Oblation. 

(«) The seal {a-^^ayis) is, properly speaking, the Cross im- 



1G3 
He was led as a sheep to the slaughter. 

Into the left, saying. 

And as a blameless lamb dumb before His shearers^ 
so He opened not His mouth. 

Into the tipper part, saying, 
In His humiliation His judgment was taken away. 

Into the lower, saying, 
And who shall eclare His generation? 

The Deacon, looking devoutly on this rite, saith, at 
each incision. 

Let us make our supplications to the Lord : holding 
his horarion in his hand. (") 

After these things, (f) he saith. 
Sir, take up. 



pressed on the Holy Lamb, and is so to be taken here ; but is 
sometimes used fur the thing thus sealed, namely, the Holy 
Lamb itself, as in what follows. 

(') The posture, which continually occurs in the Liturgy, can 
scarcely be understood except from actual sight. The Deacon is 
now, like S. John Baptist, preaching the Lamb of God; or, 
according to the before-named system of S. Germanus, he repre- 
sents the Angel saluting tlio Blessed Virgin at her Annunciation, 
T^v ayyiXo-j ^i(/.iiTu.i to X'^'i- ''"') ITaj^'svisu TT^o/rf^iyyofiivov. In the 
same way, ihe separation of the Lamb from the Oblation sets 
forth, so to speak, tlie separation of our Lokd from His Mother 
at His birth: ri ■irpixr'po^u. . .i!; rv'Ttov Tr,; awrot^fivou Xc/.f/,f^uvircci' ra 
Kvpiaxov ^ufice, us ik tivo; noiXta; . . tou oXov a^roVy (fi'/ifi^i, oiaTifiviTait 

(t') The Holy Lamb being now entirely separated from the 
Oblation. 

g2 



164 

A7}d the Priest, thrusting the holy spear obliquely 
into the right side of the Oblation, raises tip the holy 
Bread, ('J) saying. 

For His life is taken away from the earth; [always, 
now and ever, and to ages of ages.] 

And layeth it, cross downwards,{}'^) in the holy dish. 
The Deacon saith, Sir, sacrifice. 

The Priest saith, while he cuts if crosswise, 

The Lamb of God is sacrificed, Which laketh away 
the sin of the world, for the life and salvation of the 
world. 

Then he turns it cross upwards, (i^) and the Deacon 
saith, Sir, stab. 

And the Priest, piercing the right side (^•) with the 
holy spear, saith. 

One of the soldiers with a spear pierced Plis side, 
and forthwith came thereout Blood and Water : and 
he that saw it bare record, and his record is true. 

The Deacon the?i pours into the holy chalice, wine and 
water, first saying to the Priest, 

Sir, bless the Holy Union. And the Priest blesses 
them. 

{^) That is, the Lamb. 

('") This is evidently done for convenience, that the softer part 
of the bread may be cut by the holy sj^ear: but mystically repre- 
sents the helplessness of a lamb exjiiring under the deathblow. 

(!') This is explained of Christ's bearing His Cross, i ya^ 
ffTttv^oi, says an anonymous writer quoted by Goar, oh» tfx.i'^ocrhv, 
aXX' o'Ticrhii tou ffuifiaro; rou Yiv^iou l-Ti^n' to. IX VT!ox,a,roi — i.e., of 
the Lamb — t« 'ifj.'riioir^iv tovtov u.vaiJ,(pi(^oXus OiiXoi. 

('■-) This shows that the Greek Ciiurch had the same tradition 
as the Latin, that our Lokd's Wound was oii His right side. 



165 



Then the Priest, taking the second Q-^) Oblation, saith, 
In honour and memory of the most excellent and 
glorious Lady, tlie Mother of God and Ever- Virgin 
Mary, by whose intercessions receive, O Lord, this 
Sacrifice to Thy heavenly altar. 




a The Holy Lamb. b The portion of S. Mary, 

c The nine portions of Prophets, Apostles, Martyrs, &c. 

d Portions for the living. e Portions for the dead. 

('^) According to the present use of the Eastern Church, five 
Oblations are originally set on the prothesis, probably in com- 
memoration of the miracle of the five loaves. Anciently, indeed, 
the number of Oblations varied with the number of offerers. But, 
though five be the usual number, and invariable in the Russian 
Church, yet often in Greece one Oblation only is offered ; the 
porfiona being taken fiom the same loaf from which the Holy 
Lamb hils been previously cut. And this not only in small places, 
but even in the Patriarchal Church. 



16G 

A7id tailing a portion, (i*) he places it on the right 
side of the holy Bread near its middle part, saying, 

At Thy right hand did stand the Queen in a vesture 
of gold, wrought about with divers colours. 

Then, tahing the third Oblation, he saith, 

Of the honourable and glorious Forerunner, Prophet, 
and Saptist John. 

And taking one 2'>ortio7i, he places it on the left side 
of tlie holy Bread, making a beginning of the first 
row : then he saith : 

Of the holy and glorious Prophets, Moses and 
Aaron, Elijah, Elisha, David and Jesse, the Three 
Holy Children, and all holy Prophets. 

And he places the second portiori orderly tinder the 
first. Then he saith : 

Of the holy and glorious and all celebrated Apostles, 
Peter and Paul, the Twelve, and the Seventy, and all 
holy Apostles, (i^) 

And tktts he places the third portion below the second, 
finishing the row. Then he saith : 

Of our holy Fathers, and oecumenical great Doctors 

('!) This portion, fi'ipis, is called the Virgin's; and hence, 
perhaps, arose the error by which the Greeks were accused of 
pretending to consecrate it into the Body of S. Mary. The por- 
tions are pyramidal pieces of bread, cut out of the Oblation with 
the holy spear. 

(15) The Eastern Church commemorates in the Menaea the 
Seventy, and others who were immediately connected with our 
Lord as Apostles : hence the necessity for the addition. Saints, 
next in her estimation, she denominates la-wproffTcXm, the equals 
of the Apostles. 



1G7 

and Hierarchs, Basil the Great, Gregory the Theo- 
logian, and John Chrysostom, Athanasius and Cyril, 
Nicolas of Myra, and all holy Hierarchs. 

And taking the fourth portion, he places it near the 
first, beginning a second row. Then he saith again, 

Of the holy Proto-martyr and Archdeacon Stephen, 
the great and holy Martyrs Demetrius, George, Theo- 
dore, and all holy Martyrs, both men and women. 

And taking the fifth portion, he lays it under the first 
of the second row. Then he saith : 

Of our holy Fathers, filled with God, Antony, 
Euthymius, Sabbas, Onuphrius, and Athanasius of 
Mount Athos, and all holy ascetics, men and women. 

And thus, taking the sixth portio7i, he places it 
belo7v the second portion, to the accomplishment of the 
second row. After this he saith : 

Of the Avonderworking and unmercenary Saints, 
Cosmas and Damian, Cyrus and John, Panteleemon 
and Hermolaus, and of ail unmercenary Saints. 

Then taking the sevejith jyortion, lie puts it at the top, 
beginniiig the third row. 

Of the holy and just parents of God, Joachim and 
Anna, of N. {the Saint of the day,) and all Saints, 
through wliose intercessions God look upon us. 

And taking the eighth portion, he places it in order 
a little below the first (of the third row). 

Yet further he saith : 

Of our holy Father, John Chrysostom, Archbishop 
of Constantinople, {if his Liturgy be said that day ; 
but if S. liasil's be, he commemorates him.) 



1C8 

And this, taking the ninth portion, hejiniahes rvith 
it the third row. Then taking the fourth Oblation, 
he saith : 

Remember, O Lord and Lover of men, all Orthodox 
Sees, our Bishop N., the venerable Presbytery, the 
Diaconate in Christ, and every hierarchical rank, 
the Hegumen N., our brothers and fellow-ministers, 
Priests and Deacons, and all our brothers, ■whom 
Thou hast called to Thy Communion, through Thy 
mercy, O good Lord. 

And taking a portion, he places it helow tke holy 
Bread. Then he commemorates also those living n-hose 
names he has, (^^) and thus taking their portions, 
places them below the holy Bread. Then taking the 
fifth Oblation, he saith : 

For the memory and forgiveness of sins of the 
blessed founders of this holy habitation. 

Tie then commemorates the Bishop) that ordained 
1dm, and such other of the dead as lie p)leases ; and 
lastly, saith thus : 

(i") " Before they go to the prothesis to begin the Liturgy," 
says Dr. Covel, " all good people who are disposed to have their 
absent friends, dead or living, commemorated, go to them that 
celebrate, and get their names set down, there being two cata- 
logues, one for the living, one for the dead, for which they 
deposit some aspers, or richer presents, in silver or gold, as they 
are able or disposed ; this being a great part of a common Priest's 
maintenance, especially in country villages. And as the Priest 
reads over these catalogues, at every name there written, there 
is a scrape made u])on the crust to rub off some mites as their 
particular portions." This custom much resembles that which 
is referred to by S. Innocent I., in his Epistle to Decentius : 
" The Oblations are first to bo commended to Gon, and then 
their names, whose are the Oblations, to be recited, that they 
may be named in the mysteries." And S. .Terome (Homil. in 
Ezech., cap. 6 and 18,) rebukes the pride which some offerers 
took in hearing their names thus recited. 



1G9 



And of all our Orthodox fathers and brethren, who 
have departed in the hope of the resurrection and in 
Thy communion to eternal life, O Lord and Lover of 
men. (And he takes a portion.) 

Then the Deacon, himself also taking a Seal and 
the holy spear, commemorates i}"^^ those of the living 
whom he pleases ; and lastly saith thus : 

Remember, also, O Lord, my unworthiness, and 
forgive me every sin, voluntary and involuntary. 

Then, in like manner, he takes another Seal, and 
commemorates whom he will of the departed : and 
puts the portions below the holy Bread, in the same 
way as the Priest. Then he takes the sponge, {^^) and 
fjatJiers together the j^ortions in the disk tinder the 
holy Bread, so that they are safe, and that nothing 
can fall off. IVien the Deacon, taking the censer, 
and incense in it, -saith to the Priest : 

Sir, bless the incense. Let us make our supplica- 
tions to the Lord. 

The Priest saith the Prayer of Incense. 

We offer to Thee incense, O Christ our God, for 
a savour of a spiritual perfume : receive it unto Thy 
heavenly altar, and send down in its stead the grace 
of Thy most Holy Spirit. 

{}') This is an innovation. S. Symeon of Thessalonica dis- 
tinctly condemns it. " Tlie Deacon* must not offer portions ; for 
tfiey have not the grace of offering to God." {ol Si? Iiecxnov; 

£;%;oi/(ri.) 

("*) The Greeks use a " holy sponge," in place of the purifi- 
catorium of the Latins. It is generally calh-d ^^Troyyoj,-, but hero 
j-toiiaa, the more modern term for the same thing. 



170 



Deacon. Let us make our supplications to the 
Lord. 

The Priest censes the Asterisk, (i9) and places it over 
the lioly Bread, saying : 




di) 



And the star came, and stood over where the young- 
Child was. 

Deacon. Let us make our supplications to the Lqkd. 
And the Priest taking the first veil, ("") covers with 
it the hohf Bread with the disk, saying : 

('■') The asterisk is as shown in the text; it folds and unfolds 
for the purpose of being more conveniently put away. Its use is 
to prevent the veil of the disk from disarranging the order of the 
2)ortions ; its mystical oneaning, as the versicle shews, is the star 
•which led the "Wise Men to the Infant Saviour. S. Germanus, 
■who usually finds a reference to the Nativity, where the context 
of the office refers to the Death of our Saviour, here finds a 
reference to the latter, where the Liturgy intends the former, and 
explains the asterisk of our Lord's bier and its coverings. 

(-*•) This veil is called the "hKrxoKa.Xvf/.i^a,. The second veil has 
no distinctive name, but the third is called 'A-^^ or vtcpiXn, It is 
called air, because, as the air surrounds the earth, so does this 
surround the holy gifts ; and cloud, because it is wiitten, "There 
came a cloud and overshadowed them." This name, air, has 
found its way into our own Church, through Bishop Andrewes, 
and the divines of his time, who (especially Wren) were well 
versed in the Eastern Liturgies. 



171 

The Lord hatli reigned ; He liatli put on glorious 
apparel : the Lord hath put on His apparel, and 
girded Himself with strength. 

Deacon. Let us make our supplications to the Lord. 
Sir, cover. (>caAu4'oy.) 

And the Priest, censing the second veil, covers with it 
the hoi// chalice, saying : 

Thy glorj^, O Christ, hath filled the heavens, and 
the earth is full of Thy praise. 

Deacon. Let us make our supplications to the 
Lord. Sir, shelter. (cr/ciTracroy.) ("^.) 

The Priest censing the covering which is called 
the Air, and covering both chalice and dish witlt it, 
■saith : 

Shelter us with the covering of Thy -vvings, chase 
away from us every enemy and foe ; give peace in 
our time ; Lord, have mercy upon us, and on Th}'' 
world, and save our souls, for Thou art good, and the 
lover of men. 

2yten the Priest, taking the censer, censes the jyrotliesis, 
saying thrice : 

Blessed be our God, who is thus well pleased: 
glory be to Thee. 

The Deacon saith at each time : 

Always, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 
Amen. 

(~^) The difference of the two expressions used for the covering 
■with the first and with tlio second veil, will show the proiiriety of 
the exclamations hy the Priest that follow each. 



172 



Then they both adore reverently, three times. Then 
the Deacon, taking the censer, saith : 

At the oblation of the Holy Gifts, let us make our 
supplications to the Lord. 

The Priest saith the Prayer of Prothesis : (j^~) 

O God, omy God, Who didst send forth the 
Heavenly Bread, the nourishment of the whole world, 
our Lord and God, Jesus Christ, as a Saviour and 
Redeemer and Benefactor, blessing and hallowing us; 
Thyself bless this Oblation, and receive it to Thy 
heavenly altar : remember, of Thy goodness and love 
to men, theiTi that offered it, and them for v/liom they 
offered it ; and keep us without condemnation in the 
celebration of Thy holy mysteries. For blessed and 
hallowed is Thy holy and glorious Name, Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, now and ever, and to ages of 
ages. Amen. 

And after this he there makes the Dismission, saying 

thus : 

Glory be to Thee, Christ, our God and PI ope : 
glory be to Thee. 

Deacon. Glory. Both now. Lord have mercy. 
Sir, give the blessing. 

And the Priest givss the Dismission, saying : 
(if it be Sunday, Christ, that arose from the dead,"! 
\ifnot, Christ, our true God, J 

through the intercessions of His spotless Mother, and 
our holy Father, John Chrysostom, Archbishop of 



(") This prayer is word for word from the Liturgy of S. James, 
where it is said by the Priest when the Oblations are brought 
from the Prothesis to the altar, i.e., at the Great Entrance. 



173 

Constantinople, {or, if it he the Liturgjj of S. Basil, 
of S. Basil the Great, of Cffisarea in Cappadooia,) and 
All Saints, have mercy upon us, and save us; for 
Thou art frood and the lover of men. 
Deacon. Amen. 

After the Dismission, the Beacon censes the holy 
prothesis; then he goes and censes the holij Table all 
round in the form of a Cross, saying secretly : 

In the tomb bodily, in Hades spiritually, in para- ' 
dise with the thief, while Thou wert, O Christ, with 
the Father and the Holy Ghost on the throne, as 
God filling all things ai»d incircumscript. Then he 
saith the fifty-first Psalm. In the meantime he censes 
the Sanctuary and all the Church, and comes again 
to the holy Altar, and again censes the holy Table and 
the Priest ; then he puts down the censer in its place, 
and comes close to the Priest ; and they stand in front 
of the holy Table, and mahe three reverences; praying 
secretly, and saying : 

O heavenly King, the Paraclete, the Spirit of 
truth. Who art every where present, and fillest all 
things, the Treasure of good things, and Giver of life, 
come and tabernacle in us, and cleanse us from all 
stain, and save our souls, O good God. 

Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, 
good-will towards men. Twice. 

O Lord, open Thou my lips, and my mouth shall 
show forth Thy praise. 

Then the Priest hisses the Holy Gospel, and the 
Deacon the holy Table. Then the Deacon, bowing 
his head to the Priest, and holding his horarion with 
the three fingers of his right hand, saith : 



174 

It is time to sacrifice (-3) to the Lord. Holy Sir, 
give the blessing. 

The Priest, signing him with the Cross, sai/h : 

Blessed be our God always, now and ever, and to 
ages of ages. Amen. 

Deacon. Holy Sir, pray for me. 

Priest. The Lord make straight thy goings to 
every good work. 

Deacon. Holy Sir, remember me. 

Priest. The Lord our God remember thee in His 
kingdom, always, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 

Deacon. Amen. Then he makes a reverence, and 
goes out, and standing in the accustomed place, over 
against the Italy doors, makes tliree reverences, saying 
to himself : O Lord, open Thou my lips, and my 
mouth shall shew Thy praise. After this, he begins, 
Sir, give the blessing. 

Priest. Blessed be the kingdom, &c. 

[The Liturgy will he found at page 93.] 

(23) Ilocav. King translates ''to perform;" and Goar, doubt- 
fully, " faciendi." The M'ord often, in late Greek signifies to 
sacrifice. 8o the LXX, Isaiah xix. 21 ; 1 Kings xi. 33; Levit, 

ix. 7. So in S. Luke ii.27, " toZ -Xoimai au<roh; xuto. to I'l^ifff^ivov ToZ 

MiiiJt,o)t" — ought to he translated — ''that they might offer a sacrifice 
according to the custom ot the law." So facere is often used iu 
Latin, Virg. iii. 77, " Cum faciam vitula ])ro frugibus." And 
the similar word (i't^iv, as every one knows, constantly means 
the same thins. 



APPENDIX I. 



THE FORMUL.^ OF INSTITUTION 

As they occur in every extant Liturgy. 

[alphabetically arraxged.] 



]. All Apostles. 

[Ethiojnc : 3Ionophysite.] 

In the same night in which He was betrayed, He 
took bread into His hands, holy, blessed, and imma- 
culate. He looked up to heaven, to Thee, His Father, 
He gave thanks. He blessed, lie sanctified and gave 
to His disciples, saying: Take, eat yo all of this : This 
Bread is My Body, which is broken for you 

FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS. Amen. 

JPeople. Amen. Amen. Amen. We believe and 
are certain. We praise Thee, O Lohd, our God: 
this is truly, and we thus believe, Thy Body. 

Priest. In like manner the cup of thanksgiving He 
blessed, and sanctified, and said to them : Take, drink 
ye all of it : This is the chalice of My Blood 
WHICH shall be sued for you, for the redemp- 
tion op many. 



176 

People. Amen. Tliis is verily Thy Blood : we 
believe. 

[The first formula has been made the subject of great rejoicing 
by Protestants : -while by some LituiL:ical writers it has been 
considered invalid. But the extremely strong language 
employed in the response of the people, ought to set the 
Ethiopic canon above suspicion. I do not mean to defend 
its compilers from the charge of presumption in altering our 
Lord's own most sacred woi'ds : I would only urge with 
most Catholic writers, that they ai-o perfectly orthodox. 
When the Priest says, holding the paten in his hand, — Tins 
bread, that which is in the paten is bread, and no more : 
■where he to terminate then, the bread would be only so far 
sanctified as being an oblation to God, but true bread still.] 

2. Ambrosian. 

"Who, on the day before He suffered for the salva- 
tion of us and of all, taking bread, He lifted His eyes 
to heaven to Thee, God, His Father Almighty ; and 
giving thanks, He blessed. He brake, and gave to His 
disciples, saying to them : Take and eat ye all of it; 
FOR THIS IS JN]y Body. 

In the like manner, after He had suffered, taking 
the chalice, He lifted up His eyes to heaven, to Thee, 
God, His Father Omnipotent : also giving thanks to 
Thee, He blessed, and gave to His disciples, saying 
to them : Take, drink ye all of it ; for this is the 
CHALICE OF My Blood, of the New and Eternal 
Testament, the Mystery of Faith, which for 
you and for many shall be poured forth for 
THE REMISSION OF SINS. Commanding also, and 
saying to them, These things as oft as ye shall do, ye 
shall do them in memorial of Me : ye shall preach 
My Death : ye shall announce My Resurrection : ye 
shall hope for My Advent, till again I shall come to 
you from heaven. 



177 

3. Apostles (Nestorian.) 
[In this Liturgy thelVords of Institution are wantinfj.] 

4. Apostles (Si/ro- Jacob lie.) 

Who, when for us He vi-as made man, ^vithout 
mutation, He came to the Cross ; and before His 
quickening Passion, He took bread into His quicken- 
ing hands, He blessed. He sanctified. He brake, and 
ate, and gave to His disciples, saying : Take and eat 
of it: For THIS IS My Body, which for you and 

FOR MANY IS BllOKEN AND GIVEN FOR THE REMISSION 
OF SINS AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner the clialice also, after they 
had supped. He mingled with wine and water. He 
blessed. He sanctified, and when He had tasted it, 
He gave it to His disciples, saying : Take, drink ye 
all of it : FOR this is the New Testament in My 
Blood, which for you and for many is poured 
forth for the expiation of sins and life 
eternal. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. As often as ye shall eat this broad and 
drink this chalice, ye shall keep My memory till I 
shall come. 

People. Amen. 

5. Armenian. 

He instituted this "rcat mvsterv of faith and reli- 
gion when He was about to give Himself up to death 
for the life of the world. 

People. We believe. 

Priest. Taking bread into His Hands, holy, divine. 



178 

most spotless, and venerable, He blessed, He gave 
to His elect, holy, and fellovv-dlsciples, saying, 

Deacon. Sir, bless. 

Priest. This is My Body, which for you and 

FOR 51 ANY IS GIVE.V FOR REMISSION AND PARDON 
OF SINS. ' 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner He took the chalice, He 
blessed, He gave thanks. He drank, and gave it to 
His elect, holy, and fellow-disciples, saying. 

Deacon. Sir, bless. 

Priest. This is My Blood of the New Testa- 
ment, WHICH FOR you AND FOR MANY IS SHED FOR 
THE REMISSION AND PARDON OP SINS. 

People. O Heavenly Father, Who didst give up 
Thy Son to death, as the Debtor of our debts, we 
beseech Thee for the sake of His Blood, which hath 
been shed, to have mercy upon Thy rational flock. 

Deacon. Sir, give the blessing. 

Priest. And Thine Only-Begotten Son, the Lover 
of men, commanded us to do this in remembrance of 
Him. 

6. S. Basil {Orthodox.^ 

In the night in which He gave Himself up for the 
life of the world, taking bread in His holy and spot- 
less hands, exhibiting it to Thee His God and Father, 
He gave thanks, blessed, hallowed, brake, and gave to 
His holy Apostles and Disciples, saying : Take, eat: 
This is My Body, which is broken for you for 

THE remission OF SINS. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner also the Chalice, out of the 
fruit of the vine, He mingled. He gave thanks, He 
blessed. He hallowed, He gave to His holy Apostles 



179 

and disciples, saying: Drink ye all of it : for this is 
My Blood of the New Testament, which for 
you and for many is poukeu forth for the 
remission op sins. 

J^eople. Amen. 

Priest. Do this in remembrance of Me : for as 
often as ye eat this Bread, and drink this Chalice, ye 
show forth My Death, and confess my Resurrection. 

7. S. Basil (Cojjto- Jacobite.) 

He instituted this great mystery of piety and reli- 
gion M'hen He had determined to give Himself up to 
death for the life of the world. 

People. We verily believe. 

Priest. He took bread into His hands, holy, pure, 
immaculate, blessed and life-giving, and looked up to 
heaven to Thee, O God, His Father, and the Lord 
of all. 

People. Amen. 

Priest, {raising his eyes.) And gave thanks. Amen. 
And blessed it. Amen. And sanctilied it. Amen. 
And brake it, and gave it to His holy Apostles and 
disciples, saying : Take, eat ye all of this : For this 
IS My Body, which for you is broken, and for 
many is given for the remission of sins : do this 
in remembrance of Me. Amen. 

Priest. Likewise also the cup after supper, He 
mingled with wine and water, Amen. H e gave thanks, 
Amen. He blessed. Amen. He sanctified it. Amen. 
He tasted, and gave it to His disciples and holy 
Apostles, saying: Take, drink ye all of it : for this 
IS My Blood of the Isew Testament, which is 

SHED FOR YOU AND FOR MANY FOR THE P.EMISSION 

OF SINS : do this in remembrance of Me. 



180 

People. Amen. It is so. 

Priest. As often as ye shall eat of this Bread and 
drink this Chalice, ye shall set forth My Death and 
confess my Kesurrection, and remember Me until I 
come. 

8. S. Basil (Si/ro- Jacobite.) 

For when He was about to go forth to His volun- 
tary and salutary Cross, in the night in which He was 
betrayed for the life and redemption of the world, He 
took bread in His holy, immaculate, pure, and spot- 
less hands. He gave thanks, He blessed, He sanctihed, 
He brake, and gave to His disciples and His holy 
Apostles, saying : Take, eat of this: for this is My 
Body, vi^'HicH for you and for many is broken 

A^'D DIVIDED for THE EXPIATION OF TRANSGRES- 
SIONS, AND THE REMISSION OF SINS, AND FOR LIFE 
ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner also the Chalice of wine 
from the vine, after they had supped. He took, 
He mingled with water, He gave thanks, He blessed. 
He sanctified and tasted and divided to His disciples 
and holy Apostles, saying : Take, drink ye all of it : 

THIS IS THAT My BloOD, WHICH FOR YOU AND FOR 
MANY IS POURED FORTH AND SPRINKLED, FOR THE 
EXPIATION OF TRANSGRESSIONS, AND REMISSION OF 
SINS, AND FOR LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Pynest, For as often as ye do this, ye announce My 
Death, and celebrate the memory of My Burial and 
Resurrection, until I shall come. 

People. We announce Thy Death, O Lord, and 
profess Thy Resurrection, and expect Thy Second 
Advent : let Thy mercies be upon all of us. 



181 

9. S. Celestine {Syro-Jacohite.') 
[I have not been able to procure a copy of the canon.l 

10. S. ClIRYSOSTOM, 

\_See page 114.] 

11. S. Chrysostom (JEthiopic.) 
[This also I have been tenable to procure.'\ 

12. S. Chrysostom I. (Syro-Jacobite.) 

When therefore He was prepared, of His own free 
will, to taste of His Passion, to ascend the Cross and 
the place of siiiFeriiig, and to undergo death for the 
life of the whole world, in that evening in which He 
accomplished the consummation of mysteries and 
marvels, He took bread into His pure and holj^ hands, 
and giving thanks, He blessed, and sanctified, and 
brake, and gave to them that were initiated in this 
His Mystei'j, His holy Apostles, saying : Take, and 
eat of it: because this is My Body, which for 

YOU IS BROKEN AND GIVEN, TOR THE FORGIVENESS 
OF ALL THE FAITHFUL, OF VERY MANY FOR WHOM IT 
IS IMMOLATED AND DIVIDED, 10 THE PKOPIATION OF 
TRANSGRESSIONS, THE REMISSION OF SINS, AND LIFE 
ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. After that mystical supper. He mingled the 
Chalice of Life with wine and water, and raising His 
eyes to Thee, God and Father, He gave thanks, 
blessed, sanctified, and gave to the band of His elect 
disciples and holy Apostles, and said : Take, drink ye 
all of it: this IS My Blood, which confirms the 
Testament of My Death : which for you is 



182 



POURED FORTH, AND FOR MANY IS GIVEN AND 
DIVIDED, TO THE PROPITIATION OF TRANSGRESSIONS, 
THE REMISSION OF SINS, AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. When therefore ye shall communicate of 
this Bread, and shall use this Chalice of Life, ye shall 
make commemoration of My Death, and make 
memorial of My Resurrection, until I shall come. 

People. We make memory, O Lord, of Thy Death, 
■we confess Thy Resurrection, and we look for Thy 
Second Advent : we beseech from Thee mercy and 
grace : we pray for the redemption of our sins : let 
Thy mercies be upon us all. 

13. S. Chrysostom II. (Syro-Jacohite.) 

And in the night of His Passion He took bread 
into His holy hands, He blessed. He sanctified, He 
brake, and gave to His disciples, saying: Take, eat : 
This is My Body, which is given for the remis- 
sion OF SINS, AND THE NeW LiFE WHICH IS FOR 
EVER. 

In like manner also He took the Chalice, and 
blessed and gave to His disciples, and said : Take, 
drink ye all of it: This is My Blood, which for 

you is poured forth for the EXPIATION OF TRANS- 
GRESSIONS, THE REMISSION OF SINS, AND THE NeW 

Life which is for ever. And in the first place He 
commanded them, saying : As often as ye shall cele- 
brate this Mystery of Gladness, ye shall commemorate 
My Death and Resurrection, until 1 shall come. 
People, (As in 12.) 

14. S. Clement. 
[See page 85.] 



183 

15. S. Clement {Syi'o- Jacobite.) 

For in tliat night in which He was betrayed to 
death, for the life and salvation of the world, He took 
bread into His holy hands, He looked up to Thee, 
God and Father, and gave thanks, He sanctified, 
and brake, and gave it to His disciples the holy 
Apostles, saying : Take, eat of it : for this is truly 
My Body, which for you and for many is 

BROKEN and OIVEN TO THE REMISSION OF SINS, AND 
LIFE ETERNAL. 

In like manner also, taking the Chalice after they 
had supped. He mingled it moderately and temperately 
with wine and w'ater. He gave thanks. He blessed, 
He sanctified, and gave it to the same His disciples, 
the holy Apostles, saying : Take, drink ye all of it : 

FOR THIS IS TRULY My BlOOD, THE SAME WHICH 
FOR YOU AND FOR MANY IS POURED FORTH AND IS 
GIVEN FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS, AND LIFE ETER- 
NAL : do this in remembrance of Me. For as often 
as ye shall eat this Bread, and drink this Chalice, ye 
shall set forth My Death, until I come. 
People. {As in 12.) 

Notice ; 1. the remarkable addition, truly My Body : truly My 
Blood : as some of the Nesloriaus hold extremely unsound 
doctrine on the Blessed Eucharist, this likewise may be con- 
sidered a protest against that. The date of this Liturj^y is 
only to be guessed from internal evidence : from which I 
should be disposed to consider it neither one of the earliest 
or latest : — perhaps of the 8th or 0th centuri(!S. 
2, Observe also the temperately and moderately, as applied to 
the mixed chalice. 

IG. S. Cyril (Copto-Jacobite.) 

For Thine Only-Begotten Son our Lord God, the 
Saviour and Universal King Jesus Christ, in that 
night in which He gave Himself up that He might 



184 

suffer for our sins, before the death which by His own 
free will He undertook for us all. 

People. We believe. 

Priest. He took bread into His holy, immaculate, 
pure, blessed, and quickening hands, and looked up 
to heaven, to Thee His God and Father, and the 
Lord of all, and gave thanks. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. And blessed it. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. And sanctified it. 

Priest. And brake it, and gave it His holy disciples 
and pure Apostles, saying : Take, eat ye all of it : 
FOR THIS IS My Body, which shall be broken 

FOR Y017, AND FOR MANY SHALL BE GIVEN FOR THE 

REMISSION OF SINS : do this in remembrance of Me. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner also He mingled the Chalice 
after supper with wine and water, and gave thanks. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. And blessed it. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. And sanctified it. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. And tasted it, and gave it to His glorious 
holy disciples and Apostles, saying : Take, drink ye 
all of it: This IS My Blood of the New Testa- 
ment, WHICH for you is POURED FORTH, AND FOR 
MANY SHALL BE GIVEN TO THE REMISSION OF SINS : 

do this in remembrance of Me. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. For as often as ye shall eat of this Bread 
and drink of this Chalice, announce My Death, and 
confess My Resurrection, and keep my memory till I 
come. 



185 

People. We announce Thy Death, O Lord, and 

we confess Thy Resurrection. 

iVoTE. S. Cyril's is one of the most valuable of the second class 
of Liturgies. From its singular resemblance to, and in some 
respects, its even more singular departure from, that of 
S. Mark, it is very probably the real composition, or rather 
edition, of the saint whose name it bears. 

17. S. Cyril (Si/ro-Jacohite.) 

Tie then before His salutary Passion took bread 
into His holy hands, and blessed, and brake, and gave 
it into the hands of His disciples, and said : This is 
My Body, which is broken, and prepares you 
and many of the faithful to life eternal. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. He also mingled with wine and water the 
Chalice of Life, and blessed it, sanctified it, and gave 
it to the hand of His disciples, and said : This is My' 
Blood, v^^hich seals the Testament of My Death, 
and prepares you and many of the faithful to 
eternal life. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. And when He had made them partakers of 
holiness, and of the benefit of remission of sins, and 
of His Blood, He first commanded them and enjoined, 
"When ye shall communicate of this Bread and this 
Chalice, be manifest of, and celebrate the memory of 
My Death, and make its commemoration until I shall 
come. 

People. {As in 12.) 

18. DiONYSius OF Athens {Syro- Jacobite') 

And at the end and consummation of His dispensa- 
tion, for our sakes, and before His salutary Cross, He 
took bread into His holy and pure hands, and looked 
to Thcc; His God and Father, and, giving thanks, 



186 

blessed, sanctified, brake, and gave to His disciples, 
the holy Apostles, saying. Take and eat of it : and 
believe "^(1) that This is My Body : the very same 

WHICH FOR YOU IS BROKEN AND GIVEN FOR THE 
EXPIATIOV OF TRANSGRESSIONS, THE REMISSION OF 
SINS, AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In the same manner also the Chalice, 
which He mingled with wine and water, He gave 
thanks, He blessed. He sanctified, and gave the same 
over to His disciples and holy Apostles, saying : Take, 
drink ye all of it: and believe (i) that This is My 
Blood of the New Testament, %vhich for you 

AND for many is POURED FORTH AND GIVEN FOR 
THE EXPIATION OF TRANSGRESSIONS, THE REMISSION 
OF SINS, AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Pi'iest. And He gave to the whole company and 
congregation of the faithful, through the same holy 
Apostles, this precept, saying. Do this in remembrance 
of Me : as often as ye shall eat this Bread and drink 
that which is mingled in this Chalice, and shall cele- 
brate this feast, ye shall commemorate My Death 
until I shall come. 

Peop)le. {As in 12.) 

19. [S.] DioscoRUS (Ethiojnc.) 

In that night in which they betrayed Him, He took 
bread into His hands, holy, pure, and immaculate; 

(') This most presumptuous and unlawful alteration docs not 
render tlie formula invalid, since it leaves the vital portion, TJiis 
is My Body, This is 31 y Blood, untouched. The disposition, 
however, to interfere with the ])lain words of our Lokd, here 
manilfeijted, led, as we shall presently see, to consequences more 
serious on some of the Syro-Jacobite Liturgies. 



187 

He loolced up to heaven, there, where His Father is, 
He £>-ave thanks, He blessed and brake, and gave 
to His holy disciples and pure Apostles, and said 
to them : Take, eat : this bread is My Body, which 

IS BROKEN FOR YOU FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS. 

In like manner also. He mingled wine and water, 
He gave thanks, He blessed, sanctified, and gave to 
His holy disciples and His pure Apostles, and said to 
them : Take, drink : this cup is My Blood, which 

FOR you is poured FORTH FOR THE REMISSION OF 

SINS. 

[This is translated from the very rare edition of Wansleb. I 
suppose that the responses of the people are supplied from the 
Ethiopic norm, whence the expression, this bread, is borrowed. 

20. [S.] DioscoRUS OF Cardou {S>/)-o- Jacobite.) 

But in that night in which He was prepared to 
suffer for the life of creatures. He gave to us the pledge 
of life, and prepared for us the mystery of His holy 
Body and Blood : He took bread, after Pie had 
accomplished the Mosaic Pascha, and laid it upon His 
holy hands, in the sight of the band and fellowship of 
His disciples, gave thanks to Thee, God and Father, 
blessed, sanctified, brake it, and gave to the band of 
His twelve after He Himself had communicated, and 
said: Take, eat of it: this is My Body, which 

FOR THE LIFE OF THE WORLD IS BROKEN AND GIVEN 
FOR THE EXPIATION OF TRANSGRESSIONS, AND THE 
REMISSION OF SINS. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner, after they had supped. Ho 
took the Chalice of Life, mingled it temperately with 
wine and water, gave thanks, blessed, sanctified it, 
and gave it also to the same band of holy Apostles, 
saying : Take, drink ye all of it : this is My Blood 



188 
OF TH15 jS'kw Testament, which for you is 

POURED FORTH, AND PREPARETH YOU, AND MANY 
THAT BEMEVE, FOR ETERNAL LIFE. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. And when ye shall celebrate these quiclcen- 
ino- and holy Mysteries, believe and be certain that ye 
eat of My Body and live ; and drink of My Blood, 
to the expiation of transgressions, and the remission of 
sins. And when ye perform all these things, remem- 
ber and commemorate My Death, Sepulture, and 
Resurrection, until I come. 

21. Eleazar of Babylon {Syro-Jahohite.) 
[This Liturgy I have not been aide to procure.] 

22. S. Epiphanius {Ethiopic.) 
[This Liturgy also lies beyond my reach.] 

23. S. EusTATHius {Syro-Jacobite.) 

"Who, when by His own free will, He went, as it 
were a substitute for lis sinners to death, took bread 
into His holy hands. He blessed, sanctified, brake, 
and tyave to His holy disciples, and said : Take, eat of 
it: This is My Body, which prepareth you, 

AND ALL THE FAITHFUL THAT RECEIVE IT, TO LIFE 
KTERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Pi'iest. In like manner the Chalice which He liad 
mino-led of wine and water, He blessed. He sanctified, 
and^gave to the same His holy disciples, and said ; 
Take* drink of it : This is My Blood, which pre- 
pareth YOU, AND ALL THE FAITHFUL THAT RECEIVE 
IT, TO L1F15 ETERNAL. 

Peopile. Amen. 



189 

Priest. Moreover, Avlieii ye sliall celebrate this 
mystery, keep the memory of My Death, until I shall 
come. 

Peojjle. (^As in 13 ) 

24. S. Gregory (Copto-Jacohite.) 

Priest. For in the nigrht in which Thou didst frive 
Thyself up by Thine own power, 

People. We believe. 

Priest. Taking bread into Thy holy, and spotless, 
and blameless hands. Thou didst look up to Thine 
own Father, our God, and the God of all: Thou 
didst give thanks. Thou didst bless, Thou didst hallow, 
Thou didst break, Thou didst distribute to Thy holy 
dis-ciples, and say to Thy Apostles, Take, eat: Tins 
IS My Body, which for you and for many is 

BROKEN AND DISTRIBUTED FOR THE REMISSION OP 

SINS : do this in remembrance of Me. 

In like manner after supper, Thou didst take the 
Chalice, and didst mingle it of the fruit of the vine and 
of water, Thou didst give thanks, and bless, and 
hallow, and distribute to Thy holy disciples, and say 
to Thine Apostles, Drink ye all of it: This is My 
Blood OF THE New Testament, which for you 

AND FOR MANY IS POURED FORTH FOR THE REMIS- 
SION OF SINS : do this in remembrance of Me. For 
as often as ye eat this Bread and drink this Cup, ye 
set forth My Death, and confess My Resurrection, 
until I come. 

People. Amen. Amen. Amen. We announce 
Thy death, Loud, and set forth Thy resurrection. 

25. S. Gregory (Ethiopic.) 
{This Liturgy I have not been ahle to jirocure.'] 



190 



26. Holy Doctous (Si/ro-Jacohlte.) 

[This is mereh/ a cento from the Lititrgies held in 

most esteem hij the Si/ro-.Tacohites. The Institation, 

frovi the beginninrj down to This is My Blood of the 

New Testament, is from Sijriac S. James : j)osterior 

to that from Syro-Jacohlte S. Cyril.'] 

27. S. Ignatius of Antioch {Syro-JacoUte.) 

Who accomplished the whole salutary dispensation 
for us, and by His holy Passion demonstrated the 
verity of Flis advent in the Flesh. (-) For in the night 
of the Pascha in which He was betrayed for the life 
and salvation of the world, He took bread into His 
holy hands, He sanctified it, and brake, and gave to 
His disciples the holy Apostles, saying, Take, eat of 
it: This is My Body, which prepareth you 

AND MANY FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS AND ETER- 
NAL LIFE. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner also, when He had mingled 
the Chalice of Life with wine and Avater, He sanctified 
it, and gave it to His holy disciples, saying, Take, 
drink ye all of it: This is My Blood, which for 

THE LIFE OF THE WORLD GIVE I, AND WHICH 
PREPARETH YOU AND MANY FOR THE REMISSION 
OF SINS AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Do this in remembrance of Me : for as often 
as ye shall eat this bread and drink this chalice, ye 



{-) This expression, clearly directed against the Phantasiasts 
and other Leictics of a similar chaiacter, shows the comparative 
lateness of this Liturgy. 



191 

shall ccmraemoi-ate My Death, and confess My 
Resurrection until I come. 
Feoi)le. {As in 13.) 

28. Ignatius Bar Vahib {Syro- Jacobite.) 

Priest. Who, when He had willed to taste the cup 
of death, that He might comfort and confirm us 
mortals against death appointed for us by the law of 
nature, and to descend into the abyss of them that are 
buried, that they might not be deprived of His 
quickening visitation ; in that night which was of the 
beginning and of the end, {^) He took perfect bread (4) 
into His hands full of benedictions, out of which His 
holy Body was composed in the Virgin, who knew 
not the nuptial engagement, before His friends : giving 
thanks, He blessed. He sanctified, and brake it, and 
divided it into parts, and gave it to His twelve com- 
panions, and said: Take, eat : This is My Flesh, 

WHICH rOR YOU, AND FOR MANY LIKE Y'OU, IS 
BROKEN, SANCTIFIED, AND GIVEN FOR THE ABOLI- 
TION OF SINS AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner, having raised His eyes to 
heaven, signifying that His Will was one with that of 
His Father and His Holy Spirit, as if to confirm 
the verity of His voluntary Death, for the salvation 
of His image which lay in corruption. He took also 
the Chalice of Life, which He had mingled witli wine 
of grape and natural water, according to due measure, 

(3) Thiit is the beginning of the New, and the termination of 
the Okl, Passover. 

(') That is, leavened bi'ead ; a clear proof that this Liturgy is not 
older than the time of Photius. It is not absolutely coitain at 
what period Ignatius Bar-Vahib iilkd the Jacobite throne of 
Antioch ; but probably in the eleventh or twelfth century. 



192 

after they had feasted on the Sacraments, and gave 
thanks, blessed, sanctified, and in hke manner reached 
it forth to His friends, and said, Take and drink each 
from the hand of the other : for this is My living 
Blood WHICH is poured forth for the humak 

RACE that believe IN Me, FOR THE ABOLITION 
OF FOLLIES AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. And when He had Himself accomplished 
this in His person. He enjoined them in His com- 
mandments, and said, As often as, being in union 
among yourselves, ye are joined together by these 
things, keep the memory of My voluntary Death, 
make commemoration of My salutary Resurrection, 
and expect My Advent until My coming again. 

People. {As in 13.) 

29. S. James (Orthodox.) 
[See page 50.] 

30. S. James {Syro-JacoUte.) 

\This is the same as the last, with one or two verbal 
differences not worth notice.] 

31. S.James: (the shorter: Stjro-Jacohite.) 

[Abbreviated by Gregory, Catholic of the East, in 
the year 1591.] 

Priest. And when He was prepared to undergo 
voluntary Death for us sinners, He Who had done no 
sin. He took bread into His holy hands, and gave 
thanks, blessed, sanctified, and brake, and gave to His 
holy Apostles and said : Take, eat of it : This is My 
Body, which for you and for many is broken 



193 



AND GIVEN FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS AND LIFE 

ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner also He took the chalice 
and gave thanks, blessed, sanctified, and gave to the 
same His holy Apostles, saying. Take, drink ye all of 
it: This is My Blood, which for you and for 

MANY IS POURED FORTH AND GIVEN FOR THE RE- 
MISSION OF SINS AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Do this in remembrance of Me : when ye 
shall communicate in this mystery, commemorate My 
Death and My Resurrection until I come. 

People. (J.S in 13.) 

32. Jat.ies Barad/EUs. (^) {Syro-Jacohite.) 

Priest. Who, when He had accomplished all His 
salutary dispensation above the condition of human 
nature, Himself, God the Word Incarnate for our 
sakes : in that night in which it was to be that He 
should suffer voluntarily, lie took common bread into 
His holy hands, and giving thanks. He blessed. He 
sanctified and brake, and gave to His Apostolic band, 
and said to them : This is My Body; take, and 

eat OF IT, BECAUSK WITHOUT ANY DOUBT IT IS 
BROKEN FOR THE LIFE OF THE WORLD, AND SHALL 
BE TO YOU, AND TO ALL THAT BELIEVE IN Me, 
FOR THE PROPITIATION OF OFFENCES, THE REMIS- 
SION OF SINS, AND ETERNAL LIFE. 

People. Amen. 



(5) The celebrated heretic from -whom the sect of the Mono- 
physites derive the more usual name of Jacobites. He flourished 
in the fifth century j but the Liturgy which goes under his name 
is of far later date. 

H 



194 

Priest. And after they had supped, He took the 
Chalice mingled with wine and water into His pure 
hands, and giving thanks, He blessed. He sanctified, 
and gave to His disciples, and said to them : This is 
My Blood op the New Testament; take, 
drink ye all of it ; for without doubt it is 
poured forth for the life of the world, 
and shall be to you and of all that shall 

BELIEVE IN Me, FOR THE PROPITIATION OF OF- 
PENCES, THE REMISSION OF SINS, AND ETERNAL 
LIFE. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. As often therefore as ye shall eat this Bread 
and drink this Cup, ye shall commemorate My Death 
and Resurrection until 1 come. 

People. i^As in 13.) 

33. James of Edessa (St/ro- Jacobite.) 

Priest. When therefore He was eating that legal 
Lamb, which was tlie type of the Heavenly Lamb, 
with His holy disciples, and willed to deliver us from 
corporal sacrifices of lambs, of bulls, and of kids, and 
to raise us to more worthy sacrifices, celestial and 
divine mysteries, — in that evening, in which He was 
about to give Himself up to be a Sacrifice for us, He 
took bread into His holy hands, free from all stain, 
and raising His eyes to heaven, to His Father, He 
gave thanks. He blessed, He brake. He ate, and gave 
to His disciples, saying : Take, eat of it : This is My 
Body, which for the life of creatures is 
broken and divided for the remission of sins 
and life eternal. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner, he temperately mingled the 



195 

cup with wine and water, He gave thanks over it, 
after He had supped witli His disciples in the mystical 
table, He blessed, He sanctified, and reached forth to 
His holy Apostles, and said : This is My Blood, 

WHICH I POUR FORTH FOR THE LIFE OF THE WORLD, 
AND WHICH PREPARETH, FOR THEM THAT BELIEVE 
IN Me, ETERNAL LIFE. 

Peo'ple. Amen. 

Priest. Tills do as often as ye shall eat this Body 
and drink this Chalice: keep memory of My Death 
till I shall come. 

People. {As in 13.) 

34. James of Seruq {Ethopic.) 
[This Liturgy I have not been able to procure.] 

35. James of Serug {Syro- Jacobite.^ 

Priest. And when He was prepared to sufler, He 
left us a commemoration of Himself. For in that 
evening in which were accomplished all the mysteries 
of the types and miracles, in that night in which He 
was betrayed for the lite and salvation of the world, 
taking bread into His holy hands, He looked up to 
Thee, God and Fa i her. He gave thanks. He blessed, 
He brake, and gave to tlie assembly of His disciples, 
and said to them. Take, eat of it: This is My Body, 

WHICH FOll VOU AND FOR MANY IS BROKEN AND 
GIVEN FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS AND LIFE 
ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner, after they had supped, He 
mingled also the Chalice of Lite, ot wine and water, 
and sanctified, and gave to the assembly of His dis- 
ciples, and said to them, Take, drink ye all of it : 

h2 



196 

This is the Chalice of the New Testament in 
My Blood, which for you and for many is 
poured follth and given for the remission of 
sins and life eternal. 

Peojjle. Amen. 

Priest. As often as ye shall eat this Bread and 
drink this Chalice, ye shall set forth My Death and 
Resurrection till I come. 

People. {As in 13.) 

36. John Bar-Maadn (Syro-Jacobite.) 

Pi'iest. But when He had accomplished and ful- 
filled in Himself the figures and shadows of the ancient 
law, as the Lord of both Testaments, and willed to 
take away from the eyes of the Apostolic band, the 
typical veil of prophecy, and to bear witness that that 
true Body which of old time was obscui'ely, and as it 
were afar off prefigured, was now in a certain excel- 
lent manner close at hand ; in that night which 
destroyed the night of sin and death ; in that very 
night in which He was about to celebrate this reli- 
gious sacrifice as a Priest for the expiation of the 
whole world; He took bread into His holy hands 
which created the world, and raised His blessed eyes 
to the height of heaven, to the Father, and gave 
thanks, and blessed, and brake, and ate, and gave to 
the company of His holy Apostks, and said : Take, 
eat of it: This is My true Body, which for the 

LIFE and salvation OF THE WHOLE HUMAN RACE 
IS BROKEN AND GIVEN FOR THE EXPIATION OF TRANS- 
GRESSIONS AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Thus also He mingled the Chalice mystic- 
ally of wine and water, after He had refreshed them at 



197 

the Table of Life, He gave thanks, He blessed, He 
sanctified, and gave to the band of the holy Apostles, 
and said : Take, drink ye all of it : This is My living 
Blood of the Nkw Testament, which is poured 
forth for the salvation of the whole world, 
and which prepareth those that believe in 

Me TO LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. And again He admonished them, saying, 
As often as ye are gathered together and break this. 
Eucharist, ye shall keep and renew the commemora- 
tion of My voluntary Death and Resurrection : and.-, 
shall forbid it to pass into oblivion until I come. 

People. {^As in 13.) 

37. John of Basso r a {Sjjro-JacoMte.) 

Priest. He then, the Prince of the Revelation of our 
good things, on that evening of His voluntary groan- 
ing, explaining by these quickening and easily-to-be- 
handled Elements, this Mystery Avhieh cannot be 
expressed in words, He took bread into His holy 
hands, and as the High Priest and Apostle of our 
confession, rendering thanks for us, He gave thanks, 
He blessed. He sanctified, He brake, and gave to His 
disciples, saying: Take, eat of it: This is My Body, 

Vv^HlCII FOR YOU AND FOR MANY IS BROKEN AND 
DIVIDED FOIl THE EXPIATION OF TRANSGRESSIONS, 
AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner also, when He had mingled 
the Chalice with wine and water. He blessed. He 
sanctified, and divided to His disciples, saying: Take,, 
drink ye all of it : This is My Blood of the New 
Testament, which for you and for many is 



19S 



POURED FORTH AND GIVEN lOR THE REMISSION OF 
SINS AND ETERNAL LIFE, 

People. Amen. 

Priest. This, saith He, do in remembrance of Me : 
for I say unto you that I will be in the midst of you, 
and will give holiness to those rites Avhich shall be 
accomplished : for he that eateth My Body, and 
drinketh My Blood, dwelleth in Me and 1 in Him ; 
and as I live through the Father, so also he that 
eateth Me, shall live through Me. Receiving, there- 
fore, this mystical institution, according to the disposi- 
tion of Thy laws, O God, the Word, we have prepared 
Bread, and have mingled theChalice — commemorating 
over them all Thy dispensation, from the first assump- 
tion of our flesh, which took place in a moment and 
in the twinkling of an eye, even to the Passion, the 
Death, the Cross, and the Resurrection Avorthy of 
God ; with a pure heart, and with one voice, accord- 
ing to that Divine precept. Ye shall set forth My 
Death and confess My Resurrection until Mine 
Advent. 

People. {As in 13.) 

38. S. John the Evangelist (Ethiopic.) 

{Of this Liturgy I have not been able to procure a 

copy.] 

39. S. John the Evangelist {Syr o- Jacobite.) 

Priest. And when, by His own free-will. He had 
come to Eis salutary Passion for our salvation, He 
took bread into His holy hands, before the eyes of the 
band of His disciples; He looked up to heaven, He 
gave thanks, He blessed, and sanctified, He brake. 



199 

and gave to His holy Apostles, and said : Take, eat of 
it: This is My Body, which for you and for all 

THAT BELIEVE IX Me IS BROKEN AKD DIVIDED FOR 
THE EXPIATION OF TRANSGRESSIONS, THE REMISSION 
OF SINS, AND THE LIFE TO COME THAT IS FOR EVER- 
LASTING. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. And after that His mystical supper. He 
also received the Chalice of wine and water, and gave 
thanks over it and blessed, sanctified, and gave to the 
band of His Apostles, and said to them : This is the 
Chalice of My Blood of the New Testament: 

TAKE, drink ye ALL OF IT: THIS IS SHED FORTH 
FOR THE LIFE OF THE WORLD, FOR THE EXPIATION 
OF TRANSGRESSIONS, THE REMISSION OF SINS TO ALL 
THAT BELIEVE IN HiM FOR EVER AND EVER. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Thus shall ye do in remembrance of Me ; 
for as often as ye shall use this Sacrament, and shall 
drink this Blood, ye shall set forth My Death till I 
come. 

People. {As in 13.) 

[Observe in this Liturgy the remarkable transposition of the two 
clauses regarding the Chalice — " This is the Chalice," and 
" Take, diiuk ye all of it."] 

40. John Maro {Syro-Jacobite.) 

[This Liturgy has not been published, nor have I been 
able to procure it.] 

41. John the Scribe (Si/ro-Jacobite.) 

Priest. For our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, 
when it was about to be that He was to undergo a 
voluntary death for us sinners, Himself free from sin, 



200 

He took bread into His holv and immaculate hands, 
and looked up to Thee, God and Father, and gave 
thanks, and blessed, and sanctified, and brake, and 
gave to His disciples who were to be initiated in His 
mystery, and said : Take, eat of it : This is My 
Body, which for you and for many is broken, 

AND given for THE EXPIATION OF TRANSGRESSIONS, 
THE REMISSION OF SINS, AND ETERNAL LIFE. 

jPeople. Amen. 

Priest. Thus also the Chalice,which He had mingled 
of w'ine and water ; He gave thanks, He blessed, He 
sanctified, and gave to His holy disciples, and said : 
This is My Blood; take, and drink ye all of 

it; THIS IS POURED FORTH FOR THli LIFE OF THE 
WORLD, FOR THE EXPIATION OF TRANSGRESSIONS, THE 
REMISSION OF SINS, AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

JPeojAe. Amen. 

Priest. And when ye shall accomplish this mystical 
ministry, according to My doctrine, for the salvation 
of your life, and shall eat this Bread and drink this 
Chalice, ye shall set forth My death, and confess My 
Besurrection, until I shall come. 

People. {As in 13.) 

42. S. Julius {Syro-Jacohite.) 

Priest. In that last evening in which He was about 
to give Himself up for the life and salvation of the 
world. He took bread into His holy hands, and blessed 
and brake, and gave to His holy disciples, and said : 
Take, eat of it : This is My Body, the very same 

WHICH FOR you AND FOR MANY IS GIVEN FOR THE 
EXPIATION OF TRANSGRESSIONS, THE REMISSION 01^ 
SINS, AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 



201 

Pi'iest. In like manner also He gave thanks over 
the Chalice, He blessed, He sanctified, and gave to 
His disciples the holy Apostles, and said : Take, 
drink ye all of it: This is My Blood of the New 
Testament, which for you and for many is 
given for the expiation of transgressions, and 
remission of sins, and eternal life. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. For as often as ye shall celebrate this mys- 
tery, ye shall accomplish the commemoration of My 
Death and Resurrection, until I shall come. 

People, {As in 13.) 

43. S. Mark {Orthodox.) 
\_See page 22.] 

44. S. Mark {Syro-Jacohite.) 

Priest. When therefore He, for our sake, had come 
to His Passion in the flesh, by His grace. He in 
Whom sin was not found, took bread into His holy 
hands, and looked up to heaven, and blessed, and 
sanctified, and brake, and said to His disciples: This 
IS My Body; take, eat, for the remission of 

SINS OF YOURSELVES, AND OF ALL THE TRUE FAITH- 
FUL, AND FOR ETERNAL LIFE. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner also, mingling the Chalice 
of wine and water. He blessed and sanctified, and 
gave to His disciples, and said: This is My Blood 
OF the New Testament ; take, drink ye all of 

IT, FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS OF YOU AND OF ALL 
THE TRUE FAITHFUL, AND FOR ETERNAL LIFE, 

People. Amen. 



202 

Priest. And when ye shall accomplish these My 
precepts, ye shall set forth My Death and Resurrec- 
tion, until I come. 

People. (As in 13.) 

45. S. Marutas {Syro-Jacohite.) 

Priest. And in that last night in which it was 
ordained that He should save the world, and should seal 
and fulfil the law, and should, at the same time, begin 
the New Testament, and should teach to those that 
were saved by Him the doctrine full of life ; He took 
leavened bread into His pure hands, and giving thanks 
to the Father, He blessed, He sanctified, He brake 
and divided to His disciples, and said: Take, eat: 
believe and be certain, and thus preach and teach, 
that This is My Body, which for the salvation 
OF the world is broken, and to them that eat 

IT AND believe IN Me, GlVElH EXPIATION OF SINS, 
AND ETERNAL LIFE. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Continuing in like manner, He took also the 
wine, and when He had mingled it in just proportion 
with water, He blessed, He sanctified, and gave it to 
the same disciples, and said : Take, drink ye all of it, 
and believe and be certain, and thus preach and teach, 
that This is My Blood, which for the salvation 
OF the world is poured forth, and to them 
that drink it and believe in Me, giveth expia- 
tion of sins and life eternal. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. And while He made them partakers of His 
Body and His holy Blood, He taught them with His 
holy doctrine, and said : As ye have seen Me do, thus 
do and teach ye in the never-to-be-forgotten com- 



203 

memoration of My dispensation, and to the salvation 
of your life : Believe also My Resurrection, hope in 
Me, and at the same time expect My Advent, until I 
come. 

People. {As in 13.) 

46. Malabar, orlginalJij Nestorian. 
[See page 147.] 

47. S. Mary (Ethiopic.) 
[This Liturgy I have never seenJ] 

48. Matthew the Shepherd (S^ro-Jacobite.) 

Priest. And when He willed to give a New Testa- 
ment, by which the Old shall be abolished, He took 
1 avened bread, in whicli the mystery of life was con- 
cealed, and earnestly looking to Thee, Father, He 
give thanks, He blessed, He sanctified. He brake, and 
gave to them that were lying at the supper, saying : 
Take, live on it : This is My Flesh, which for all 

THE faithful THAT ADHERE TO Me IS DIVIDED, 
THAT IT MAY BE EATEN FOR THE EXPIATION OF 
TRANSGRESSIONS, THE REMISSION OF SINS, AND 
ETERNAL LIFE. 

People. Amen. 

Deacon. In like manner also, He took the Chalice 
of Life, which He had temperately mingled with the 
fruit of the vine and water, and gave thanks, blessed, 
sanctified and gave also to them that were initiated to 
His mystery, and exhorted thorn that all should com- 
municate of it, and declared that in it should be salva- 
tion to them that drank, and they have it in a pure 
conscience, to the expiation of transgressions, the 
remission of sins, and eternal life. 



204 

People. Amen. 

Priest. He adjoined also an admonition and decla- 
ration, saying : As often as ye shall be partakers of 
the Mysteries, ye shall celebrate the memory of My 
Death and Resurrection until I come. 

People. {As in 13.) 

[Observe that, valid, though much corrupted, in the first part 
of the Institution, this formula is invalid in the second.] 



49. Michael or Antioch (St/i-o-Jacohite.) 

Priest. And He thus accomplished our salvation 
by His Divine dispensation, and set forth, accom- 
plished, pointed out and taught, these Mysteries full 
of life. Taking bread into His holy hands. He blessed 
it, sanctified it, brake, and gave to His Apostles, and. 
by their hands to the whole Catholic Church, saying : 
This is My Body, which for you is broken, and 

GIVEN for the expiation OF OFFENCES, THE REMIS- 
SION OF SINS, AND THE New Life that is to come. 

People, Amen. 

Priest. Together also with the Bread, He took the 
Chalice, when He had first mingled with wine and 
Avater, He blessed it, He sanctified it, and commended 
it by the hands of II is Apostles to His Holy Church, 
saying: This is My Blood, which for you is 
given, to the expiation of offences, the remis- 
sion of sins, and the jNew Life that is to 
come. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Ye shall perpetually make this commemo- 
ration of My Death and Resurrection, until I shall 
come. 

People. {As in 13.) 



205 

50. Moses Bar-Cephas (St/ ro- Jacobite.) 

Priest. And in the evening of His salutary Passion, 
He ate and abrogated the legal Lamb : then He took 
bread into His holy hands, and looked up to Thee, 
God and Father, giving thanks: He blessed and 
sanctified, and brake and gave to His holy disciples, 
saying: Take, eat of it : This is My Body, which 

ECU ALL THAT BELIEVE IN Me IS BROKEN AND 
DIVIDED FOR THE EXPIATION OF TRANSGRESSIONS, 
THE REMISSION OF SINS, AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner He took the Chalice, tem> 
perately mixed of wine and water, and giving thanks. 
He blessed and sanctified, and gave to His holy dis- 
ciples and all His Apostles, saying : Take, drink ye 
all of it: This is My Blood, which for you, and 

FOR THEM THAT BELIEVE IN Me, IS POURED FORTH 
AND GIVEN, AND WHICH PREPARETH ALL THEM THAT 
RECEIVE IT FOR LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen, 

Priest. As often as ye shall thus accomplish these 
things, believe and be certain that ye eat My Body, 
and drink My Blood, and keep ye memory of My 
Death and Sepulture and Resurrection, until I shall 
come. 

People. (As in 13.) 

51. MOZARABIC. 

Priest. Our Lord Jesus Christ in the same 
night in whicli He was betrayed, took bread ; and 
when He had given thanks. He blessed, and brake, 
and gave to His disciples, saying: Take and eat: 
This is My Body, which shall be given for you. 



206 

As often as ye shall eat, this do in remembrance of 
Me. 

In like manner also, the Chalice, after He supped, 
saying: This is the Chalice of the New Testa- 
ment IN My Blood, which for you and for many 

SHALL BE POURED FORTH FOR THE REMTSSION OF 

SINS : as often as ye drink, do this in remembrance of 
Me. 

People. Amen. 

Pi'iest. As often as ye shall eat this Bread and 
drink this Chalice, ye shall set forth the Death of the 
Lord, until He come in glory from heaven. 

People. Amen. 

52. Narses THE Leper (Nestorian.) 
[This Liturgy I cannot procure.'] 

53. Nestorius (Nestorian.) 

Priest. For when the time had come in which He 
was betrayed for the life of the world, after He had 
supped on the Passover of the Mosaic law, He took 
bread into His holy, immaculate, and unpolluted 
hands : He blessed, and brake, and ate, and gave to 
His disciples, and said : Take, eat ye all of it : This 
is My Body, which for you is broken for the 
remission of sins. 

In like manner also He mingled the Chalice of wine 
and water, and blessed, and drank, and gave to His 
disciples, and said : Drink ye all of it : This is My 
Blood of the New Testament, which for many 
is poured forth for the remission of sins ; and 
this do ye in remembrance of Me, until I shall come. 
For as often as ye shall eat of this Bread, and drink 



207 



of this Chalice, ye shall set forth My Death, until My 



coming. 



54. Nonjurors. 

And when His hour was come to offer the pro- 
pitiatory sacrifice on the Cross, when He Who had no 
sin Himself, mercifully undertook to suffer death for 
our sins ; in the same night that He was betrayed, He 
took bread: and when He had given thanks, He 
brake it, and gave it to His disciples, saying : Take, 
eat : This is My Body, which is given for you : 
this do in remembrance of Me. 

People. Amen. 

Likewise, after supper. He took the Cup, and when 
He had given thanks. He gave it to them, saying : 
Drink ye all of this : for this is My Blood of the 
New Testament, which is shed for you and for 

MANY FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS : do this, aS oft aS 

ye shall drink it, in remembrance of Me. 
People. Amen. 

55. Our Lord (Ethiojxic.) 

Priest. In the same night in which He was 
betrayed. He took bread into His blameless hands, 
full of blessings, and looking up to heaven to Thee, His 
Father and our Father, He blessed. He sanctified, 
He brake, He ate. He gave to His disciples, saying : 
Take, eat ye all of it : This bread is My Body, 

WHICH IS GIVEN FOR YOU AND FOR MANY FOR THE 
REMISSION OF SINS. 

People. Amen, Amen, Amen. We beUeve and 
are certain. 

Priest. In like manner, He took the Chalice, He 
blessed, He sanctified, He received, and said : Drink 



208 
ye all of it: This is the Chalice of My Blood, 

WHICH is shed for YOU AND FOR MANY. 

Peojde. Amen, Amen, Amen. 



' 56. Saint Peter I. (Syro-Jacohite.) 

Priest. And when He was preparing that ban- 
quet of His Body and Blood, imparting it to us, and 
near Avas His salutary Passion, He took bread in 
His immaculate hands, and lifted it up, and vouch- 
safed to bestow on it His visible aspects and insensible 
benediction, and blessed it, and sanctified it, and gave 
it to the disciples, His Apostles, and said : Let these 
mysteries be the support of your journey ; and when- 
ever ye eat this in the way of earthly food, believe and 
be certain that This is My Body, which for you 

AND FOR MANY IS BROKEN AND IS GIVEN FOR THE 
EXPIATION OF CRIMES, THE REMISSION OF SINS, AND 
LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner the Chalice also ; after He 
had supped. He mingled wine and water, and blessed, 
and sanctified, and gave to the disciples. His Apostles, 
saying: Take, drink ye all of it; for this is My 
Blood of the New Testament, whfch for you 
and for many is poured and given for the 
pardon of faults, the remission of sins, and 
eternal life. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. And that they might receive the most sweet 
fruit of that divine operation. He commanded them 
after this fashion : As often as ye shall be gathered 
together, keep memory of Me, and eating this pre- 
pared Bread, and drinking that which is prepared in 



209 

this Cup, ye shall do it in remembrance of Me, and 
shall confess My death, until I come. 

57. S. Peter II. (Si/ro-Jacoblte.) 

Priest. Who, when He willed to taste death, and 
was accomplishino; the Pascha in the evenint;, He 
took bread into His hands, He blessed. He sanctified 
and brake, and gave to the company of the boly 
Apostles, and said. Take and eat, for the remission of 
sins and life eternal. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner, mingling the Chalice of 
Avine and water, He blessed, sanctified, and said to 
them, Take, and drink ye all of it, for the remission 
of sins and life eternal. 

Peo2')le. Amen. 

Priest. This He commanded and admonished them, 
That as often as ye shall accomplish these mysteries, 
ye shall commemorate My Death and Resurrection, 
until I come. 

People, (yls ill 13.^ 

[This is one of tho Liturgies which is invalid from the omission 
of the words, This is My Body, This is iMy Blood. It is one 
of the shortest of all the Syro-Jacohite offices : and perhaps 
the composer ignorantly thought that the Invocation of the 
Holy Ghost, which is singularly plain and expressive, 
might, by itself, avail for the transmutation of the Elements. 
He miglit also wish to express his dissent from the Latin 
practice of entirely omitting the Invocation. Some copies 
of this Liturgy have the words inserted by a later hand.] 

58. Philoxenus of Bagdad {Sijro-Jacohite.) 

Priest. But, desiring to assist the work of His 
hands by His gifts, and to destroy the dominion of 
deatii by His own death: lie, before His salutary 



210 

Passion, took bread into His pure, immaculate, and 
unspotted hands, and looked up to Thee, God and 
Father; and giving thanks, He blessed, sanctified, 
brake, and gave to His disciples and holy Apostles, 
paying: Take, eat of it : This is My Body, that 
Body which for you is broken and given, for 

THE expiation OF TRANSGRESSIONS, THE REMISSION 
OF SINS, AND LIFE ETERNAL TO THEM THAT RECEIVE 
IT. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner also, after they had supped, 
mingling the Chalice with wine and water, and giving 
thanks. He blessed. He sanctified, and gave to the 
same His disciples and holy Apostles, saying : Take, 
drink ye all of it : This is My Blood of the New 
Testament, that Blood which for you and for 

MANY is poured FORTH AND GIVEN FOR THE EXPIA- 
TION OF TRANSGRESSIONS, THE REMISSION OF SINS, 
AND LIFE ETERNAL TO THEM THAT RECEIVE. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Do this in remembrance of Me ; for as often 
as ye shall eat this Bread and drink this Chalice, ye 
shall set forth My death, until I shall come. 

Peojde. {As m 13.) 



59. Philoxenus of Mabug I. (Sf/ro-Jacobife.) 

Priest. And when He willed of His own free will 
to taste death for us, and to accomplish the legal 
Passover, He took bread into His holy hands, and 
lifted up His eyes to Thee, His God and Father; 
He gave thanks. He blessed. He sanctified. He brake, 
and gave to the order of His holy Apostles, and said: 
This is My Body, which for you and for many 



211 



IS BROKEN AND DIVIDED, FOR THE REMISSION OF 
SINS, AND LIFE ETERNAL. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner He also mingled the Chalice 
of wine and water, He gave thanks, He blessed. He 
sanctified, and gave to the company of His holy 
Apostles, and said: Take, drink ye all of it: This is 
My Blood, which for you and for many is 
poured forth for the remission of sins, and 
life eternal. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. Thus also He commanded and admonished 
them : As often as ye shall celebrate these Mysteries, 
ye shall do it to commemorate My Death and Resur- 
rection, until I shall come. 

People. (As in 13.) 

60. Philoxenus of Mabug II. (Syro- Jacobite.) 

Priest. Who, when He had accomplished all His 
dispensation, salutary, and full of life, and had exhi- 
bited virtues and miracles to all creatures, and had in 
all places destroyed the power of the Rebel and 
Seducer, and coming to His salutary Passion through 
love to us men. He had eaten that legal Lamb with 
the company of His disciples; taking bread into His 
pure, holy, immaculate and unpolluted hands, raising 
His eyes to heaven. He looked up to Thee, God the 
Father, and gave thanks, blessed, sanctified, brake, 
and gave to His holy disciples, saying: Take, eat of 
it : This is My Body, which trepareth you and 
many faithful to life eternal. 

People. Amen, 

Priest. In like manner also He took the Chalice, 
tempered with wine and water, and gave thanks, 



212 

blessed, sanctified, and gave to the same disciples His 
Apostles, saying: Take, drink ye all of it: This is 
My Blood of the New Testament, which pre- 
pareth you and many faithful to life eternal. 

Peoj)le. Amen. 

Priest. And ever do this in remembrance of Me : 
for as often as ye shall eat this Bread and shall drink 
this Chalice, ye shall make memory of My Death and 
announce My Resurrection, until I come. 

People. {As in 12.) 

Gl. Roman. 

Priest. Who, the day before He suffered, took 
bread into His holy and venerable hands: and having 
lifted up His eyes to heaven, to Thee His Father God 
Almighty, He blessed, He brake, and gave to His 
disciples, saying : Take, and cat ye all of this : For 
TFiis IS My Body. 

In like manner after they supped, taking also this 
glorious Chalice into His holy and venerable hands ; 
also rendering thanks to Thee, He blessed and gave 
to His disciples, saying : Take, and drink ye all of it : 
For this is the Chalice op My Blood, of thj: 
New and Eternal Testament, the Mystery of 
Faith: which for you and for many shall be 

POURED forth for THE REMISSION OF SINS. As 

often as ye do these things, ye shall do them in 
memory of Me. 

62. Scotch. 

Priest, Who, (by His own oblation of Himself 
once offered,) made a full, perfect, and sufficient sacri- 
fice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole 
world j and did institute, and in His Holy Gospel 



213 

command us to continue, a perpetual memorial of that 
His precious death and sacrifice, until His coming 
again. For in the night that He was betrayed, He 
took bread; and when He had given thanks, He 
])rake it, and gave it to His disciples, saying : Take, 
eat: This is My Body, which is given for you: 
do this in remembrance of Me. 

Likewise, after supper He took the cup ; and when 
He had given thanks, He gave it to them, saying : 
Drink ye all of this : For this is My Blood of the 
New- Testament, which is shed for you, and 

FOR MANY, FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS: do tllis, aS 

oft as ye shall drink it, in remembrance of Me. 

63. Severus of Antioch (Si/i-g- Jacobite-) 

Priest. Who, when He left His salutary Passion 
and Cross for a memorial to us, He, the Physician of 
our wickednesses, offering the oblation of Himself 
for us to Thee, God and Father, took bread into 
His hands, and stretching them to heaven. He blessed, 
He sanctified, He brake, and divided to His disciples 
the Apostles, saying: Take, eat of it : For this is 
My Body, which for you and for many is 
broken and given unto life eternal. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner also He took the Chalice, 
after they had supped, and mingling it with wine and 
water. He gave thanks, and sanctified, and divided to 
His disciples the Apostles, saying : Take, drink ye all 
of it: This is My Blood of the New Testament, 
which for you and for many is poured forth 
and given for the remission of sins. Do tliis 
in remembrance of iMe ; for as often as ye sliall eat 



214 

this Bread, and shall drink this Chalice, ye shall set 
forth My death. 

People. (^As in 13.) 

64. Theodore the Interpreter {Nesio^^ian.') 

JPriest. Who, with His Apostles, in that night in 
which He was betrayed, celebrated this Mystery, 
great, tremendous, holy and divine: taking bread, He 
blessed and brake, and gave to His disciples, and 
said : This is My Body, which for y^ou is broken 

FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS. 

In like manner also the Chalice : He gave thanks, 
and gave to them and said : This is My Blood of 
THE New Testament, which for many is poured 
FORTH FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS. Take ye all, 
therefore, and eat of this Bread and drink of this 
Chalice, and do thus, as often as ye shall be gathered 
together, in remembrance of Me. 

65. Thomas of Heraclea {Syro-Jacolite.) 

Priest. Verily and certainly He took on Himself 
the form of a servant, that in that form He might 
accomplish the things that were to be for our salva- 
tion, and the life that was to be given us. He took 
bread and wine : He blessed, He sanctified. He brake, 
and gave to His Apostles, saying : Take use, and thus 
do. And when ye shall receive these things, believe 
and be certain that ye eat My Body and drink My 
Blood, doing it in remembrance of My death, until I 
shall come. 

People. {As in 13.) 

[This is one of the invalid formulaa : the words inserted in the 
second clause, according to the judgment of the best ritualists, 
scarcely avails to make good their omission in the first.] 



215 

66. The Three Hundred and Eighteen 

(Fathers of Nicaea.) {Ethiopic.) 

[This I have not been able to procure.] 

67. S. Xystus {Syro-Jacobite.) 

Priest. Who, when He was prepared for His salu- 
tary Passion, in the bread which by Him was blessed, 
sanctified, broken, and distributed to His holy Apostles, 
sanctifying Plis Body, He gave it to us, saying: 
Eat ye of it: For this is My Body, which for 

YOU AND FOR MANY IS BROKEN AND DIVIDED, FOR 
THE EXPIATION OF FAULTS, AND THE REMISSION OF 
SINS, TO ETERNAL LIFE. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. In like manner, in the Cup which was by 
Him signed, sanctified, and given to the same holy 
Apostles, giving to us, His propitiatory Blood, He 
said: Take, drink ye all of it: For this Is the 
Chalice of My Blood of the New Testament, 
which for you and many is given for the 
expiation of crimes, and hath given to us 
the remission of eternal life. 

People. Amen. 

Priest. He also added this admonition, saying : As 
often as ye shall communicate in this Bread, ye shall 
set forth My Death and Resurrection, until I come. 

People. {As in 13.) 



APPENDIX II. 



PRAYERS FOR THE DEPARTED 
FAITHFUL. 



In the following Appendix I propose to give the 
more interestins; among^ the intercessions for the faith- 
fill departed which occur in the whole body of 
Liturgies. The more they are examined, the more 
clearly two points will appear. 1. That prayers for 
the dead, and more especially the oblation of the 
blessed Eucharist for them, have been from the begin- 
ning the practice of the Universal Church. 2. And 
this without any idea of a purgatory of pain, or of 
any state from which the departed soul has to be 
delivered as from one of misery. The examples are 
arranged in alphabetical order ; and the many that 
are omitted, are omitted, not because they contravene 
the above statements, (a polemical deceit of which 
God forbid that I should be guilty,) but only, either 
because they say less strikingly what is better expressed 
in some example that I have given ; or as being con- 
ceived in precisely the same words. 

1. Arjienian. 

Remember, Lord, and have mercy, and be propi- 
tious to the souls of the departed, and give them 
repose and life, and set them with Thy Saints in the 
kingdom of heaven, making them worthy of Thy 
mercv. 



217 

2. S. Basil {Copto-Jacohite.) 

In like manner, O Lord, remember also all those 
who have already fallen asleep in the Priesthood, and 
amidst the laity ; ■vouchsafe to give rest to all their 
souls, in the bosom of our holy fathers, Abraham, and 
Isaac, and Jacob. Bring them in and collect them 
into a place of greenness, by the water of comfort in 
the paradise of pleasure, where grief and misery and 
sighing are banished, in the brightness of Thy Saints. 

3. S. Clement {Si/ro- Jacobite.) 

And at Thy spiritual and holy altar, O Lord, grant 
rest, good memory, and felicity to all the souls, bodies, 
and spirits of our fathers, brethren, and sisters, cor- 
poral or spiritual, who have departed in whatever 
regions, cities, or states ; or have been suffocated in 
the sea or in rivers, or have died in travel, and of 
whom there is no memory in the Churches constituted 
on earth. Thou, O Lord, give them good memory, 
who have departed to Thee in the orthodox faith, 
tofiether with those whose names are written in the 
book of lite. 

And to all of them, who having run the race of this 
life, have appeared perfect and illustrious before Thee, 
and having been set free from the ocean of sins have 
reached Tliee, our fathers and brethren according to 
the flesh and the spirit, — give rest, O Lord, in that 
spiritual and mighty bosom. Give them the spirit oi 
jo}^ in the habitations of light and gladness, in the 
tabernacles of shade and rest, in the treasures of happi- 
ness, whence every sorrow is far banished, and the 
souls of the pious wait without labour for the first 
fruits of life ; and the spirits of the righteous in like 
manner, are waiting for the fulfilment of the promised 



218 

reward : in that region, where the labourers and the 
weary look towards paradise, and they that are invited 
to the wedding long for the celestial Bridegroom : 
when they that are called to that feast wait till they 
go up thither, and ardently desire to receive that new 
state of glory : where sorrows are banished and where 
joys are found ; for love only has appeared not 
entangled in the passions of sin of all who have been 
arrayed with the human body, namely, Thine Only- 
Begotten Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord, through 
Whom also Ave hope to obtain mercy for ourselves 
and for them. 

4. Gregory Abu'lfaraj (S^ro- Jacobite.) 

Because Thou art the just remunerator of the living 
and the dead, and because in Thy hands are the spirits 
of all flesh, we pray Thee, Lord, for all men who 
have passed to Thee out of this temporal life, who 
have departed in the orthodox faith, that Thou wouldst 
remember them, of Thy mercy, and hear these our 
prayers, and neglect not these our supplications on 
their behalf; for they are created in Thy king-like 
image; but spare them of Thy grace; forgive them 
according to Thy clemency ; lead them into Thy 
dwellings ; direct them to Thee, adding them to the 
numbers of heavenly hosts, where Thy Only-Begotten 
Son is celebrated and glorified by hymns, and is 
honoured and extolled by hymns returning in a circle. 
According to the promises made by Him to us, we 
hope in Thy mercy and the remission of sins, as well 
for us as for them. 

5. S. Ignatius {Syro-JacoUte.) 

Placidly and tranquilly receive through Thy good- 
ness; O Lord, the souls and spirits of Thy servants 



01C 



19 

and worshippers, who have departed to Thee out of 
the present life ; but chiefly them for whom, and on 
account of whom, this sacrifice is offered and perfected. 
Remember them, gi-ant them rest, and place them in 
the habitations of light, in the abodes of blessed spirits, 
in the heavenly Jerusalem, in the Church of the 
First-born who are written in heaven : and bestowing 
on them good memory and a most happy rest, through 
Thy love to men, give them the life that knoweth not 
old age, the good things that pass not away, the 
delights that have no end. Mercy may they obtain 
through Thy clemency ; rest may they be possessed 
of through Thy mercy : let them be hid under the 
wings of Thy grace and not condemned, because they 
have put their trust in Thee and Thine Only-Begotten 
Son, through Whom, &c. 

6. James Barad.eus {S^ro-Jacobile.) 

Lord God of spirits and of all flesh, grant that 
they all whom we have commemorated, and they also 
whom we have not commemorated, who have departed 
in the orthodox faith out of this mutable lilie, may 
become worthy of that indefectible existence in the 
bosom of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, where are all 
Saints: where griefs and straits are not found, but 
where beatitude and joy only reign : where Thine 
Only-Begotten Son is glorihed with Thee by all; 
through Whom also, we hope to obtain mercy, and 
revelation of face, before Thee, and lor His sake as 
well for them as for us. 

7. James of Botna {Syro-Jacohite.) 

Grant, O Loud, rest to their souls whom we com- 
memorate, and write their names in the book of life, 



220 

and make them "worthy of the pleasure which is 
received in Paradise. Set them in the region of the 
just, and join them to the ranks of the j^ious, and 
cause them to arrive in the harbour of life, where is 
the habitation of rest, where griefs, infirmities, groans 
and miseries fly ; where all the Saints enjoy blessed- 
ness, where all the pious rest. Cast out none of them, 
or of us, in condemnation from Thy heavenly kingdom;, 
for One only hath appeared upon earth without sin, 
&c. 

8. John Bae-Maadn (Sp-o- Jacobite.) 

Them, who with true faith and confidence, and in 
the orthodox belief, have been set free from this 
temporal life, according to the sentence promulgated 
by Thy equity, and have returned to Thee, O God, 
as to their first omnipotent cause ; spare them by Thy 
mercy ; reckon them among the number of Thine 
elect; cover them with the bright cloud of Thy 
Saints : (^) set them with the lambs on Thy right 
hand, and bring them into Thy habitation : cause them 
to arrive in tlie blessed dwelling of Thy kingdom ; 
grant that they may be invited to Thy banquet, and 
bring them into the region of exultation and joy, 
where place there is none for gi-ief and misery, and 
passion and sighing is at an end. Examine them not 
severely, since they beseech Thee to deal mercifully 
with them, because of the errors to which this flesh, 
formed of clay and subject to sin, is liable ; but in that 
terrible hour of judgments, let them be patterns, O 
Lord, for us and for themselves, for none is there 
without sin, &c. 

(1) A very beautiful allusion to the bright cloud which over- 
shadowed the Apostles during the Transfiguration. 



221 

9. S. John ChrysostoM {Syro-Jacohite.) 

And remember tliera wlio with purity of heart, and 
sanctity of soul and body, have departed from this 
workl, and have come to Thee, O God. Them whom 
from the first Adam, the first made of our creation, 
in all generations have pleased Thee, and confessed 
Thee, and have hoped for and expected the manifesta- 
tion of Thine Only-Begotten Son, and have desired to 
see His great and glorious day. Them who in the 
spiritual bosom of Baptism, have put Thee on splen- 
didly and have believed in Thy Name. Give them 
rest in Thy celestial habitations, in the paradise of 
delights, in the tabernacles of light, in quiet dwelling- 
places. Enter not into judgment with them, O Lord, 
for in Thy sight shall no man living be justified: for 
there is only One Who hath appeared ujjon earth, 
pure and without blemish, &c. 

10. S. John the Scribe (Syro-Jacohite.) 

Maker and Creator of all things, God and Father, 
grant that the bodies and spirits of Thy servants who 
have departed in Thy hope, may come to celestial 
good things and to those pleasures Avhich have no 
end, to those joys which are without termination, to 
the indesinent banquet. Write their names in the 
book of life, gladden them with the aspect of Thy 
countenance ; set them in the region of the righteous, 
count them among the bands of the pious. Grant 
that they may rejoice in the good things of the Saints; 
grant that they may lie down at Thy spiritual table ; 
forgive their sins through Thy mercy; save them from 
grief and sighing; deliver them Irom the burninc^s of 
Gehenna; cause them to pass beyond those terrible 



222 

straits of the place of fear; (2) set them In the taber- 
nacle of light; grant them rest in the bosom of 
Abraham, Jsaac, and Jacob, our fathers, in Thy 
celestial habitations, in places of quiet. Enter not 
into judgment with Thy servants, lor in Thy sight 
shall no man living be justified. 

11. S. Marutas {Syro-Jacohlte.) 

Remember, O Lord, through Thy grace, all those 
■oho by means of the sentence pronounced against our 
first father Adam, have departed out of this miserable 
life, and are gone -where Thou only knowest ; and 
give them rest among those delights which Thou hast 
promised to them that love Thee, not calling to 
memory their sins and ours, for no man is without 
sin. 

12. S. Maek {Syr 0- Jacobite.) 

And remember those who are worthy of pious 
commemoration through Thy mercy, O Lord, priests, 
deacons, and chaste sub-deacons, readers, singers, 
and all the departed faithful, especially our fathers, 
brethren, and masters, and all who have sought the 
prayers of our littleness, and all who have been made 
partakers of any ecclesiastical dignity, and all who 
have communicated to the necessities of all the poor 
of our society, and those whom we desire to remember. 
We beseech Thee, Lord God of the holy fathers, 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and of all the company 
of the just and pious, that Thou wouldst give rest to 
them, — to them all who have left us and departed to 
Thee, and to Thy blessed seats. Blot out, forgive, 

(*) It would almost seem as if constant association with 
Mahometan theology had somewhat influenced the writer's ideas 
of the passage from this world to the next. 



223 

and remit all their sins, known and unknown, volun- 
tary or involuntary ; for none hath appeared upon 
earth without sin, excepting Thy Only-Begotten Son, 
our Lord God and Saviour, Jesis Christ, by 
Whom also we desire to obtain mercy and the remis- 
sion of sins Avhich is for His sake, both for them and 
for ourselves. 

13. Michael, Patriaech of Antioch 
( Syr o- Jacobite. ) 

O our God, Artificer of our nature, only to be 
adored and knowing all things, Who desirest the life 
and salvation of all, give by Thy mercy, good memory, 
and remission of transgressions and forgiveness of 
sins, to our fathers, masters, and doctors, and all the 
sons of Thy holy Church, who by the decree which 
Thy equity hath pronounced against us, drank of old 
time the sad cup of death, and of most bitter separa- 
tion. Visit them, O Lord, and console them in the 
habitations in which they rest, by Thy divine and 
most wise decree, by Thy just dispensation, by the 
feeling of Thy Spirit, blessed, sweet and full of cle- 
mency, by this mystical sacrifice, full of all blessed 
hope, Lord, receive our prayers for them, and blot 
out their sins and defects, and purify their faults ; for 
there is none, &c. 

14. Philoxenus of Mabug IL {Syro-JacoUte.) 

Grant, O Lord, that Thy servants who have 
departed with Thy hope in faith, may arrive at those 
celestial good things, and indeficient delights, and the 
pleasures which perish not : to the port in which the 
weary and tempest-tost rest together : to that feast in 
which martyrs and confessors exult, and to the supper 



224 

prepared for all the blessed : preserving them from 
fire, darkness, and the worm that dielh not, because 
none is free from sin, &c. 

15. Seveeus of Antioch {Syro-JacoUte.) 

And give rest in the bosom of Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob in the paradise of pleasure, in the place of repose, 
in the tabernacles of the Saints, where is the multitude 
of them that keep the glorious holy-day, to the souls, 
bodies, and spirits of them who have come to Thee 
out of flesh and blood, to Thee, O Lord of all flesh : 
where is the perfection of life without molestation, and 
the first-fruits of ineffable promises; of the consum- 
mation whereof make them worthy, not reckoning to 
them their offences, not entering into judgment with 
Thy servants, for in Thy sight shall no man living be 
justified, for One only is without sin, &c. 

16. Theodore the Inteepeeter (Nestorian.) 

Lord, our God, receive from iis, through Thy 
grace, this sacrifice of tlianksgiving, namely, the 
reasonable fruits of our lips, that the memory may be 
good before Thee of the ancient righteous men, holy 
prophets, blessed Apostles, martyrs, and confessors, 
bishops, doctors, priests, deacons, and all the sons of 
the holy Catholic Churclj, who with true faith have 
departed out of this Avorld, that by Ihy grace, O 
Lord, Thou mayest give them pardon of all sins and 
transgressions, which, in this world, in a moi'tal body, 
and a soul, subject to temptation, they have sinned 
and offended, for there is no man that sinneth not. 



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