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L O I>r X> O I>T : 




10" HI "^V "g-Q Ta.-gg-. 


kr.tercd according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, by Rev. John O'Hanlon. 
ID the Oflficc of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

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Ta be completed in Twdve Royal Odwvo Volumes^ and in 120 Parts, 
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Compiled from Manuscript and other Sources, 

BHitij tfje Commemorationg an» JFestibals of l^olg Ipasons, 


Calendars, Martyrologies, and Various Works, 

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Articlk I. — St. Cronan Hua Ecain or Ua Eoan, Abbot of Lismore, County 
OFWaterford. [Seventh and Eighth Centuries,] 

Chap. I. — Introductionr-Early Christian Establishment of St. 
Mochuda or Carthage* at Lismore — Historical Mis- 
takes corrected — Succession of Abbots there to the 
Time of St Cronan Hua Ecain or Ua Eoan — Period 
for his Birth and early Education ... ... I 

Chap. IL— Probable Term of the Rule of St. Cronan— Hua Ecain 
as Abbot over Lismore — Hb Virtues — Dates assigned 
for his Death, in the Irish Annab and Calendars — 
Subsequent religious Growth of Lismore — Conclu- 
sion ... ... ... 4 

AJiTlcUb II.<— St. Ronan, or Renan, Bishop in Ireland, and a Solitary in Lesser 

Britain. [Fifth and Sixth Centuries,"] ... ... 8 

Ajiticlx III. — St Cummin, or Cuimmein, Abbot of Rechrann, or Rathlin Island, 

County of Antrim. [Eighth Century,"] ... ... 12 

AJITICI.X IV. — St Leban, or Laobhan, of Ath-Eguis, or Atha Egais. ... I2 

ArticxjrV. — St EgoIyOfDisert Egoilse ... ... .^ 13 

Articxjb VI. — St Steallan ... ... ... ... 13 

AmncLJtVII. — StCohnan ... ... ... ... 13 

AktVCLB VIII. — Fcstiyal of St Theda, Virgin and Martyr . . ... 13 

Articlk IX. — Reputed Feast of St. DicuU, Hermit at Bosenham ... ... 14 

Ak«CLK X. — ^Reputed Feast of St Damian, Priest ... ... 14 

Articljc XI. — Elevation of the Relics of St Madelgisilus, at Centule • ... 15 

Seconli Bag of ^une. 

Ajlticlk I. — St. Aldbgisus, Adalgisus, or Algisus, Priest, and Missionary, 
IN Hannonia. [Seventh Century.] 
Chap. L — Introduction — Writers of the Acts of St Aldegisus — 
Hb Parentage, and Education in Ireland — He is said 
to have become a Disciple of St Furscv — His Ordina- 
tion — He proceeds as a Missionary to France — Aldegi- 
sus is honourably received by King Clodoveus at Laon 
— He settles as a Hermit, with some Companions, at 
Terascia, in Picardy ... ... 15 

Chap. IL— Certain Irish Disciples with St. Annan come to the 
Monastery of St Adelgisus — Legend of Corbican's 
Mission to Ireland, his I^th, and miraculous Trans- 
fer of his Body to France — He visits Rome — Return 
to Picardy — His missionary Career — His Death and 
Burial-— His Memorials — Conclusion. ... 20 

Articlb II. — Reputed Festival of St. Colman Finn, of Kildief Parish, Barony of 

Lecale, OSuitv 6f Down ... ... ... 22 

Article III« — St Nateid or Naiunidh, of CInain h-Uinnsenn ... ... 25 

Article IV.—Reputed Festfawi of St Cellach or Kellach, also called St Ceolath. 

[Smenth Century,] ... ... ... 25 

AmcLK v.— St Conall, Lough Gill, County of Sligo ... ... 26 

Articls VL^St. Faroan6n,ofLua ... ... ... 26 

Article VIL— St Aedhan, of Cluain Domhuil ... ... .-26 

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Article VIII.— St. Loran, Son of Conan ... ... ... 27 

Article IX.— St Femdidh ... ^ ... ... , ... 27 

Article X.— St. Foim ... ... ... ... 27 

Article XL— St. Senan, or Seanan ... ... ... 27 

Article XII. — St. Erasmus, Bishop, and his Companions, Mlrtyrs ... 27 

Article XIIL^-Reputed Festival of St. Damianus, Companion of St. Regolosp 

Scotland ... ... ... ... 2t 

W^itti Bag of %\xau 

Article L— St. Kevin or Coemgin, Abbot of Gl^tdalouoHi County of 
Wicklow. [Sixth and Seventh Centuries,^ ^ 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Authorities for the Life of St Kevin 
— His Family and Parentage — His early Training — 
He embraces a religious Life — His Retirement from 
Temptation — His Hermitage at Luggela — His 
Obedience and its Reward— His Humility — He seeks 
for another Place to practise Prayer and Contempla- 
tion ... ... ... 28 

Chap. II. — Migration of St. Kevin to Glendalough, where he 
leads the Life of a Hermit — Discovered there, and 
brought to the Monastery of Saints Eogain, Lochan 
and Enna — Miracles — He visits the Hermit Beoan 
and Bishop Lugid — He enters the Monastery of this 
latter Prelate, by whom he was ordained — He after- 
wards lives in a Cell at Cluainduach — He next pro- 
ceeds with some Monks to Glendalough, where he 
founds a Monastery — Its probable Site — He estab- 
lishes other subject Communities — His Cell at Disert 
Caughin or Teampul na Scellig — ^Tempted by the 
Demon to leave his Place, but dissuaded from follow- 
ing that Course by the Monks of St. Comgall ... 38 
Chap. HI.— The Austerities of St. Kevin— His Oratory and Road 
beside the Lake— King Brandubh's Huntsman and 
• the Boar— St Kevin^ Bed — He is providentially 

rescued from a Land-slide — St Fintan Munnu's 
Vision of the Demons — St. Kevin beholds St. Patrick 
in a Vision— St. Kevin and his Monk Cronan — An 
Angel appears and commands St Kevin to found his 
chief Monastery — He receives a Grant of the Place 
from Dymma — St. Kevin's Journey to Usneach, when 
he meets the holy Abbots Columba, Comgell and 
Cainnic ... ... ... 48 

Chap. IV.— Resolution of St. Kevin to undertake a Pilgrimage, 
but dissuaded from it by St. Garban— He visits St 
* Berchan — ^The Tanist Colman and his Son Foelan — 
Murder of Melerius by Scholastics — Works attributed 
to St Kevin — Invasion of Leinster by the Hy-Niall 
—The Outlaws of Degha— The Monk Berchan— 
Miracles— St Mogoroc— Church of the Holy Trinity 
at Glendalough ... ... • • • 55 

Chap. V. — Declining years of St. Kevin — He seems only to have 
been Abbot of Glendalough — His 6rst supposed 
Church, built in the Middle of that Valley— His 
House or Cell there— Attended in his last Illness hy 
St. Mocharoc— His Death and Burial-place — His 
Festivals, Commemorations, and Memorials — 
Scenery, early History, and Antiquities of Glenda- 
lough— Conclusion. ... ... 67 

Article II.— St. Affine, Effinus or liffen, of Cill Aiffein, or Killaffan, County of 

Wicklow. [Frobabfy Sixth or Seventh CenJlury,] ... 90 

Article III.— St. Glunshalaich, or Glunsialach, of Midh-luachair. [Sixth or Seventh 

Centufy,] ... ... ... ... 93 

Article IV.— St Branduibh or Brandubh, Bishop . .. .«. 93 

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Articlb v. — St. Cronanus, or Mochoa. \Sixth and Seventh Century^ 

Articlk VI. — Ua Trianlugha ... ' 

Articue VII. — St Sillan, Bishop... 

ARTIC1.K VI 1 1. — St. Moninn^ Virgin 

ARTICI.K IX. — St. Kanicus, Abbot 

Article X. — St. Etchius 

Article XI. — St. Didea, Virgin ... 

Article XII. — ^Auitren Loco Anchoritae 

Article XIII. — Feast of St. Failbcus. Abbot, in Trioit 

Article XIV. — Feast of a Reputed St. Zephan, or Zephanius 



jFourtt I9as of %^x^. 

Articlk I. — St. Cornblius Mac Conchaillkadh, or the Blessed Corne- 
lius, Archbishop of Armagh, and Patron of Lemenc, in 
Savoy. {Twelfth Century, } 
Chap. L — Introduction — ^Authorities for Life of Blessed Corne- 
lius — His Family, Birth and early Education—He 
enters a religious Order in Armagh — State of its 
Church at that Period — Ordination of Cornelius — He 
becomes Abbot, and it is said assists at a Council — He 
succeeds as Archbishop of Armagh ... 96 

Chap. IL — Ministration of the Church at Armagh by St. Con- 
cord — He visits Rome— He returns to mland by way 
of Savoy and Chambery — His pious Actions while 
living there — His Death — His subseouent Venera- 
tion by the People of Savoy— The Relics and Shrine 
of St. Concord — Honours paid to his Memory ini 854 
— Visit of Most Rev. Joseph Dixon, Archbishop of 
Armagh, to Chambery, whence he procures Relics of 
his sainted Predecessor which are brought to Ireland 
— Conclusion. ... ... ... loi 

ARTICI.B II. — St. Petrock, Abbot, and Patron of Bodmin, Cornwall. [Sixth Century 1 112 
Articlk III- — St. CruimUier Colum, of Donoughmore, County of Tyrone ... 122 

ARTlcUt IV. — St. Emin, or Ernineus, of Cluain ... ... ... 123 

Article V.— St. Finehan, or Fionnchan ... ... ... 123 

Arti ci-« VI. — St Faithlenn, Son of Aedh Diamhan ... ... 1 24 

Articlk VII. — St. Colman of Cloonoun, County of Roscommon ... ... 124 

Artici^k VIII. — St. Molua, Son of Sinell, of Etardroma ... ... 124 

Article IX. — Sl Mochua Cicheach ... ... .., 125 

Article X. — Feast of the Translation of St Patrick's Relics ... ... 125 

Articlk XI. — St Cassan, or Cassain, of Donnoughmore ... ... 125 

Article X 1 1 — The Feast of St. Apollinarus and his Companions ... ... 1 26 

Articlb XIII. — Feast ofSt. Martin's Translation ^ ... ... 126 

ARTictB XIV. — St Nennoca, or Nennoc, Virgin, of Armorica. \Fifth Century,"] ... 129 
Artici-K XV. — St Fothadus or Fothardus, Bishop. [ Tenth Century,] ... 135 

Ajlticuc XVI. — St. Breaca, or Breague, Virgin, in ComwalL [Fifth or Sixth 

Century.] ... ... ... ... 137 

AjlTICLK XVIL— St Buiian, or Buriana, of Cornwall .^ ... 138 

jFi&f) Bag of 3une« 

AftTlcuc I.-~St» Boniface, Apostlb of Germany, and his Companions, 
Martyrs. [Seventh and Eighth Centuries,] 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Ancient and modem Lives of St. 
Boniface — His Origin and Place of Birth — His early 
Training and religious Dispositions — He choses a 
religious State of Life — His Teachers and Studies — 
Promoted to the Priesthood — Selected to attend a 
Synod among the West Saxons~He resolves on 

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becoming a Missionary among the people of Friaa — 
He leaves Eim^and for this Purpose ... 138 

Chap. II.— State of Frisia at this Period— Winfrid leaves 
England for that Mission— He returns unsuccessful — 
Goes to his Monastery — Beclines to become its 
Abbot — He obtains commendatory Letters from 
Daniel Bishop of Winchester — Boniface proceeds to 
France and thence he travels to Rome — Favourably 
received by Pope St. Gregoiy II. — Obtains from him 
a Commission to preach the Gospel in Germany — ^^St. 
Gregory of Utrecnt his Disciple — His Mission among 
the Thurin^ns— He travels into Frisia and Hesse — 
Again he visits Rome, where he is consecrated Bishop 
and named Boniface — His Return to Germany — In 
Hesse he cuts down the Tree of Jupiter ... 148 

Chap III. — St. Boniface commences his Mission in Thuringia — 
State of that Province — His Success — Foundation of 
Ordorf — His Letters — Pope Gregory III. writes to 
approve his Labours, and creates him Archbishop- 
Boniface erects several Sees and religious Establish- 
ments — He resolves on visiting Rome, where he is 
favourably received by the Pope — His Mission in 
Bohemia and Bavaria — ^Wars of Charles Martel — 
Pope Zachary encourages Boniface to convene a 
Synod — Decrees passed in the German and French 
Councils ... ... ... 158 

Chap. IV.— Foundation of Fulda Monastery— The Heretics 
Adalbert and Clement— Pope Zachary writes to St 
Boniface recommending Cologne as suitable for be- 
coming a Metropolitan City — Subsequent Selection of 
Mayence and Deposition of Gewileib— St Boniface 
created Archbishop of Mayence and Primate of Ger- 
many — His Jurisdiction and episcopal Appointments 
— His Letter to King Ethelbald — Pepin diosen 
King of France^Letter of Boniface to Pope Zachary 
— St Bonifieu:e crowns King Pepin at Soissons — Pepin 
delivers Rome from the I^mhkrds ... 171 

Chap. V. — Decision of Pope Zachary regarding the Form of Bap- 
tism — Literary Compositions and Correspondence of 
St. Boniface^His Relations with the See of Utrecht 
— He departs again from Mayence for Frisia — His 
Martyrdom and that of his Companions there — ^Trans- 
lation of hb Relics to Fulda — Miracles, Memorials, 
Relics and Calendar Celebrations, referring to the 
holy Archbishop — Conclusion. ... ... 179 

Articls II.— St. Eoban, Martyr, and Assistant Bishop of Utrecht, Holland. 

[Eighth Century, \ ... ... ..19$ 

Article III.— Reputed Fe^t of St. Adelarius, Martyr in Frisia, [Eighth Century,^ 197 
Article IV. — Translation of the Relics of St. Praecordius of Velia to Corbie, in 

Picardy, France... ... ... ... 197 

Article V. — Saints Niadh and Berchan, of Cluain Aodh Aithmeth, in Luighne ... 198 
Article VI.— Saints Fionnlugh and Brogan, of Cluain-Mic-Feig... ... 199 

Article VII. — St Leain or I^n, of Cill Gabhail, or Cill Gobuil ... ... 199 

Article VIII. — Feast of St. Marcian, and Companions, Martyrs ... ... 199 

Article IX.— Reputed Festival of St. Bathen, Abbot ... ... 199 

Article X. — Reputed Festival of St. Branan, Bishop and Martyr ... ... 200 

Article XI. — St Kevinus, Abbot ... ... ... 200 

Sixtfr Bas of 3une. 

Article L— St. Jarlath, Patron Bishop of Tuam Archdiocese, County of 

Galway. [Sixth Century, '[ 

Chap. I.— Introduction— St. Jarlath's Family and Birth— He 

becomes a Disciple of St. Benignus and receives Holy 

Orders — He erects a Monastny at Cluain-Fois, near 

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Toam — St Brendan of Clonfert becomes his Pupil — 
St. Jarlath flourished about the Middle of the sixth 
Chap .11— The Place of St Jarlath's future Rest indicated by St 
Brendan — ^The holy Man departs for Tuam — He be- 
comes its first Bishop-— His Sanctit3r and Spirit of 
Prophe^— Period of his Death — Festivals— Antiqui- 
ties at Tuam — ^Veneration of the People there and 
throughout the Diocese for their Patron— Conclu- 
sion. ... ... ... 

Articlb II. — St. Colman, or Colmoc, or Colmus, Bishop op the Orkney 
Islands, Scotland. [Said to have hem of the Tenth atid Eleventh 
Article III. — St. Cocca, Cucca, Cuach, Cuaca, or Coc, Patroness of Kilcock Parish, 

County of Kildare 
Article IV. — St Gurvall, Bishop of Aleth, in Armorica, France. [Sixth and 

Seventh Centuries.] 
Article V. — St. Maelaithghen, of Tech Maeilaithglin, probably in Cairpre Ua- 
Ciardba, now Barony of Carbury, and County of Kildare^ or in 
Meath ... •• ... ... 

Article VI. — St Medhran, or Medrain, Bishop ... 

Article Vll.^t Claireneach, of Cluain-Caoic ... 

Article VIII.— St Lonan 

Article IX. — St Faolan 

Article X. — St Deocharus 

Article XI. — Reputed Feast of a St Columba, Confessor and Priest 

Article XII.— Reputed Feast of St Finnbar, Bishop and Confessor 

Article XIII. — Feast of St Kilianus, Confessor... 

Article XIV. — Feast of Amantius, Martjrr 

Article XV. — Reputed Feast of St Eata, Abbot of Melrose, and Bishop of Lindis- 

fame, England... 
Article XVI. — Reputed Feast of St Colman, Bish^ of Dromore 
Article XVII.^Reputed Festival of St. Viuianus, Bishop 









Sebentfi IBas of Sunt. 

ARTICI.X I.— St. Colman, Bishop and Conpessor, Patron of Dromore 
Diocese. [Fifth and Sixth Centuries.] 
Chap. I.— Introduction— Authorities for St Colman's life- 
Prophecies regarding him — Family and Birth — His 
early Education— St. Colman seeks Dromore to found 
a Monastery — It becomes an Episcopal See— Mira- 
cles of St Colman — Said to have been consecrated 
Bishop in the City of Rome 
Chap. II.— St. Colman of Dromore confounded with St Colman 
of Lindisfame — Dromore and some of its ancient Re- 
mains—Miracles of the Saint— Period of his Death 
— Commemoration in Calendars — Churches and Insti- 
tutions dedicated to him— Conclusion. 
Article IL — St Coemhan, or Caomhan, of Airdne Coemhan* or Ardcavan, County 

of Wexford 
Article III.— St Mochonne, or Mochonna 
Article IV.— St Colum Gobha, or the Smith 
Article V. — St Colum, Monk ... 
Article VI.— St Lunecharia, of Kill-Lunechair ... 
Article VIL— Festival of St Paul, Bishop of Constantinople, and Martyr. [Fourth 

Article VIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Bathenus, Abbot and Disciple of St Colum- 
kille, in Switzerland ... ... , ry'" 

Article IX,— Reputed Feast of St. Colman, Bishop of Lindisfame. [Seventh Cen^ 

Article X.— Reputed Feast of St Columba 
Article XI.— Reputed Feast of St. Moling, Bishop of Ferns 






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"WiS^ Bag of June. 


AjiTicLE I.— St. Bron, Bishop of Cassel-Irra, County of Sligo. \F^h and 

Sixth Centuries,'\ ... ... ... 24I 

Article II. — St. Luathrenna, or Loaithrenn, Virgin, of Kill Luathrenn, or Kil- 

lurin, County of Sligo ... ... ... 244 

Article III.— Reputed Feast of St. Syra, or Syria, Virgin, at Meaux or Troyes, 

France. [Supposed to have lived in the ^enth Century,'] ... 245 

Article IV. — St. Airmedach, or Ermedhach, Abbot of Cong, County of Mayo ... 249 

Article V. — St. Murchon or Murchu, Mac Ua Maichtene ... ... 250 

Article VI.— St. Meadhran, Mac Ua Maichten, also called Madrine orMedrain .^ 253 

Article VII. — Reputed Festival of St. Disibod, Bishop, Belgium ... ... 254 

Article VIII. — St. Cormac h. Liathain ... ... ... 254 

Article IX. — Festival of Translation to the Breirenavien Monastery of Four Bodies 

belonging to the Company of Ursulines ... ... 254 

Article X. — St. Columba ... ... ... ... 254 

Article XI.— Festival of Holy Job's Death ... ... -.255 

Article XII.— St. Muician ... ... ... ... 255 

j^intii ]9as of 3une. 

Article I.— Life of St. Columkille or Columba, Abbot of Iona, and 
Apostle of Caledonia. [Sixth Century,] 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Ancient Manuscript Lives of St. 
Columba or Columkille in Ireland, Great Britain and 
on the Continent — Printed Acts of the holy Apostle 
• of Caledonia — Prophecies relating to him — ^The 

Descent and Family of St. Columba— His Birth and 
Baptism — ^Various rfames given to him ... 255 

Chap. II.— Anecdotes of St Columba^ Childhood— Fostered at 
Kilmacreanan — He studies under St. Finian of Magh- 
bile — In Leinster, he becomes a Disciple of St. 
Gemman— A Student under St. Finian, Abbot of 
Clonard — He remains for some Time under the Dis- 
cipline of St. Mobi at Glasnevin — He returns to 
Ulster ... ... ... 284 

Chap. III.— St. Columba returns to his native Place— His 
Ordination as Priest — He founds the Monastery of 
Derry — His Manner of Life there and great Virtues 
— Various Miracles — He builds a Monastery at 
Durrow — He blesses the Sword of Colman Mor — 
The Book of Durrow — Columba and his Uncles in 
Tyrconnell ... ... ... 29$ 

Chap. IV,— The Monastic Rule of St. Columba and the Culdees 
— Churches and religious Houses of St. Columkille 
in Ireland— Foundation of Kells— The Book of Kells 
— St. Columba's missionary Career in Meath and 
Bregia — His Visit to St. Kieran at Clonmacnois ... 310 

Chap. V.— The Literary Works of St. Columba— The various 
Subjects he treated in Prose and Verse — His Prophe- 
cies — Travels of St. Columb through Leinster, and 
the religious Institutions there founded by him ... 326 

Chap. VI. — St. Columba re-visits Tyrconnell— His Foundations 
there — He travels southwards — His Residence in 
Seangleann — He travels to Connaught, when 
Churches are built — Vbit to the Aran Islands — 
Various Miracles and Acts ... ... 335 

Chap. VII.— Resolution of St Columba to spread the Faith in 
Scotland — Allied Causes leading to the Battle of 
Cul-Dreimhe — Its Results said to have caused the 
Departure of St. Columba from Ireland — ^Account of 
the Picts and Scots— lona granted of St. Columba . . . 352 
Chap. VIII. —Prophecy of St. Brendan, Abbot of Birr— The Island 
selected for St. Columba's permanent Habitation — 
His Voyage to Scotland— His Choice of lona for ^ 

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monastic Establishment — European and Britannic 
Society before St. Colomba*s EpJoch— His first Er&- 
tions, at lona, and Mode of Living there — St. 
Columba's prophetic Announcement of a Battle 
fought ia Irelana ... ... ... 369 

Chap, IX.— St Columba takes a Resolution to visit Northern 
Pictland — He takes a north-eastern Course to the For- 
tress of King Brude — Opposition at first experienced 
and subsequent Conversion of the Monarch — St. 
Columba is thwarted by Broichan the Druid — His 
Success among the Picts — His Return to lona, and 
an Account of his Establishment there. ... 383 

Chap. X. — St. Columba's Manner of Living at lona — ^Various 
Anecdotes illustrating it — His Spirit of Prophecy 
and his Gifts of Second Sight — His spiritual 
Illuminations — His Healing of the Sick and miracu- 
lous Manifestations ... ... 405 

Chap. XI. — The chief missionary Establishment was fixed at lona 
— Monastery of St. Columba on the Island of Hinba 
— Inauguration of King Aidan at lona — Ethica — 
Anecdotes of his occasional Residence there — His 
Visions — Columba's Foundations on Ethica or Tiree — 
Baithan's Presidency — Adventures— St. Columba 
predicts the Arrival of a Penitent in lona — Monas- 
tic Establishment in the Island of Skye ... 424 
Chap. XII. — Foreknowledge of St. Columba regarding the Deaths 
or two Irish Chiefs — Ordination of Aedh Dubh — 
Prophecy of St. Colimiba in Respect of iEngus Bron- 
bachall — Various Miracles of the holy Man m Druim 
Alban — He sees in Spirit the Destruction of a Roman 
City — His Prophecies — ^The Navigator St. Cormac 
Ua liathain — St. Colimiba aids a poor Man ... 439 

Chap. XIII. — St. Columba's Blessing multiplies the Herds of cer- 
tain poor Men — Fate of the impious Joan, son of 
Conall — Miraculous Powers of St. Columba — The 
Visit of St. Canice to lona — Mental and angelic 
Visions vouchsafed to St. Columba — Inchcolm — 
Inauguration of King Aidan as King over Dalriada, 
by St. Columba— Rydderch Hall becomes King of 
Strathclvde ... ... — 457 

Chap. XIV.— State of Scotland after the Death of Bruide Mac 
Maelchon— Literary Labours of St. Columba — The 
Causes which led to the Great Convention, assembled 
at Drumcreat — It is attended by St. Columba — His- 
tory of this Convention — Results achieved — Miracles 
wrought by St. Columba at that Place ... 470 

Chap. XV.— Various Visits of St Columba to religions Establish- 
ments, after the Convention at Drumceat — Founda- 
tions attributed to him— His Spirit of Prophecy mani- 
fested on various Occasions — He attends a great 
religious Assembly at Easdara — ^Aidus Slane— 
Baithen, the Sonof Cuanach — ^Disciples of St. Colum- 
kiUe. ... ... ... 493 

Chap. XVI.— The Departure of St Columba for Scotland— St 
Mochonna becomes his Disciple — St. Columba arrives 
at lona — Pilgrims visit him from various Quarters — 
Apocryphal Acts of our Saint — His Life fe prolonged 
four Years owing to the Prayers offered up in manv 
Churches — His Prophecy in Reference to King Aidan s 
Sons — His Intuition of the Battle of the Miathe ... 515 
Chap. XVII. — The true Character and personal Accomplishments 
of St. Columba— St Fintan Muimu visits lona to live 
under the holy Abbot's Rule, but he is advised to live 
in Ireland— The last Years of St. Columba's Life, and 
premonitory Warnings about his last Illness — Details 
of his edifying Death— Dates assigned for his Depar- 
ture Commemorations in Tahous Calendars- 

Digitized by 



Churches and Chapels dedicated to his Memory — 
• Other Memorials — Miracles wrought through his 

Intercession — Conclusion ... .. 533 

Article II.^Feast of the Translation of the Relics of St Patrick, St Columba, and 

St Brij^d, Chief Patrons of Ireland ... ... 593 

A&TiCLB III. — St. Baithine or Baoethin, of Tech-Baoithin, in the County of Done* 

gal» and Abbot of Hy, in Scotland \Sixth Century, \ 
Article IV. — St Cummin, a Bishop, and a Monk at Bobbio. [Seventh Cintmy,\ ... 
Article V. — St. Mothorian, Torannan, or Mothoria, of Druim-chliabh, now Drum- 
cliff, County of Sligo [SetfentA Century.} ... ... 609 

Article VI. — St Daghinna or Dafhionna, Son of Deglan or Declain ... 609 

Article VII. — Feast of a Holy Woman whose Name is unknown, and who was 

borne into Heaven by Angels. [Sixth CenturyJ] ... 610 

Article VIII— St Amalghaidh Mac feachach ... ... ... 610 

Article IX. — Cruimther, Mac Ua Nesse ... ... ... 610 

Article X. — Festival ascribed to St Colman ... ... ... 610 

Article XI. — St Come, or Comus, Abbot. [Sixth Century,} ... ... 610 


Eentfi ]9as of Sune. 

Article I.— St. Illadan or Iolladhan, Son of Eochaidh, Bishop op Rath- 
LiPHTHEN, NOW Rathuhen, King's County. [Sixth 

Century,} ... ... ... .« 61 1 

Article Il'St Sanctan, or Santan, Bishop ... ... ... 614 

Article III. — St Sen Berach, of Cuil-Drephni, County of Sligo ... ... 615 

Article IV.— St Forchellach or Faircheallach, of Fore, Counhr of Westmeath ... 615 

Article V. — St. Ferdomhnach, of Tuam, County of Galway. [£M>hth Century.} ... 610 

Article VI. ^-St Ainmire, or Ainmirech, of Aileach, County of Donegal ... 616 

Article VII.— Reputed Feast for the Translation of the Relics of St Patrick, St 

Columba and St Brigid ... ... ... 616 

Article VIII.— St Rethach, Son of Coemhan ... ... ... 617 

Article IX.— Reputed Festival of Segianus, Presb^er, at Inverleith ... 617 

Article X.— Festival of the Elevation of the Remains of St. Suitbert, Confessor, at 

Keiserswerdt, on the Rhine ... ... ... 617 

Article XL— Festivals of Mark and Barnabas ... ... ... 617 

Article XII.— Reputed Festival of St. Etto, Bishop ... ... 618 

(Sflebentfi ]9as of 3ttne« 

Article I.— St. Mac Tail, of Kilcullen, County op Kildare. [Fifth and 

Sixth Centuries,} ... ... ... 5ig 

Article II.— St Ri^huil, Abbot of Bangor, County of Down. [Ninth Century,} ... 622 

Article III.— Festival of St Basilla, Roman Martyr ... ... 623 

Article IV.— Reputed Festival of St Silvester ... ... ... 623 

Article v.— Festival of St Fortunatus, Martyr at Aquileia ... ... 623 

Article VI.— Reputed Festival of St. Gajus, Martyr, in the Island of May) 

Scotland ... ... ,., .., 523 

Article VII.— Tocomracht, Virg^in ... ... *'/ 624 

Article VIII. — St Tochumra, Virgin ... ... ]*, 624 

Article IX.— The Daughter of Laisren, of Caill Cola, or Cill-Cule !!. 624 

ffl;torfftf> ©ag of June. 

Article I.— St. Christian or Croistan O'Morgair, Bishop of Clogher. 
County of Tytone. [Tweijth Century,} 
Chap. I.— Introduction— Birth and Parentage ol St Christian 
or Criostan O'Morgair— His Virtues — Consecrated 

Digitized by 



Bishop of Clogher — Origin of the Cistercian Order in 
France — Memes into the Reformed Congr^tion of 
La Trappe — Cistercian Order brought into England, 
Scotland and Irehmd — Houses established in the 
latter Country 
Chap. IL — Supposed Privil^es obtained from Pope Innocent II., 
for the See of Clogher— Death of St. Christian 
O'Morgair — Buried at Armagh — Commemorations — 
Foundation of Mount Mellery in Ireland — ^Affiliate 
Branches — Conclusion 
Aeticlk II. — St. Teman, Apostle among the Picts. [Fifth or Sixth Century^ 
A&TICLB III. — Reputed Festival of St. Torannan, or Tarannan, Abbot of Bangor, 
County of Down 

ARTICLE rV. — St. Murchon, or Murchu, probably of Cill Murchaid or Murchon, in 
Corann, County of Sligo 

Article V. — St. Cunera, Virgin and Martyr 

Article VI. — St. Coeman, or Coamhan, of Ardcavan, County of Wexford 

Article VII. — St. Agatan, of Disert-Agatain, on the River Inny. 

ArncLE VIII.~St Mochuille, of Innsnat, in Fotharta Fea, County of Carlow 

AmCLE IX. — St. Troscan, of Ard Brecan, County of Meath 

AmcLE X. — St Lochen, or Loichein 

AtncLE XI. — St Tommen mac h Bim, Ailithir, Locha uane 

Article XII.— Festival of St. Nicholas, Bbhop and Martyr 

Article XIII.— St. DiucaiU or Dichuill, of Achadh-na-cro 

Article XIV.— St. Cronan 








Efilrteentf) IBas of Sune. 

Article I.— St. Cairsll, Bishop at Tir Rois. [Probably in the Seventh Century,^ 656 
Article II.— St Mac Nessi, Abbot of Clonmacnoise, King's County. [Sixth 

Century J] ... ... ... ... 657 

Article IIL — St. Psalmodius, Hermit, Diocese of limoges, France. [Sixth or 

Sei'enth Century, 1 ... ... ... 658 

AmcLE IV. — St Mocuma Cruimther, or Cruimtheran, of Clontibert, County of 

Monaghan ... ... ... ... 659 

Arhclb V. — Reputed Feast of a St Mochumma ... ... ... 660 

ilRTiCLX VI.— St DamnatorDamhnat, Virgin, of Sliabh Betha. [Fifth or Sixth 

Century,^ ... ... ... ... 660 

Article VII. — ^Thc Venerable Caius Coelius Sedulius ... ... 661 

Article VIIL— Feast of St Bartholomew, Apostle ... ... 662 

Article IX.— Festival of Exhumation of St. Anatolius' Relics, at Salins, in 

France ... ... ... ... 662 

Article X. — St Branduibh, Bishop ... ... ... 662 

Article XI.— Feast for the Translation of the Relics of St Aldetrude, or Aide- 

trudis, Virgin and Abbess of Malbod or Maubeuge^ Belgium ... 663 

Article XII. — St. Caninus ... ... ... ... 663 

JFottrteentfi ©ag of June. 

Article I. — St. Nem Mac ua Birn, Abbot of Arran, County op Galway. 

[Sixth and Seventh Centuries. "[ ... ... 663 

Article II.— St. Cuman Becc, or Cumman Beg, Virgin, of Cill Cuimme. ... 664 

Article III.— St. Ciaran, of Bealach-Duin, now Castle-Kieran, County of Meath. 

[Eighth Century.] ... ... ... 665 

Article IV. — St. Colman mac Luachain ... ... ... 667 

Article V. — Reputed Festival of St. Psalmodius ... ... 667 

Article VI.— Festival of St Benedict ... ... ... 667 

Article VII.— Feast of St Brendan, Abbot ... ... ... 668 

Article VIIL— Reputed Feast of St Mansuct or Maunsey, Bishop of Toul ... 668 

Digitized by 



jFifteentfi Bag of 3une* 


Article I.— St. Vouga, Vib, orVauk, Bishop, in Brittany, Francs, and 
Patron of Carn Parish, County of Wexford. \Sixth 
Century.] ... ... ... ... 668 

Article II. — St. Colman, Son of Corodran, of Meelick, County of Monaghan ... 671 
Article III. — Festival ascribed to a St. Carnoc, a Culdee Bishop at Barae, in Marr, 

Scotland ... ... ... ... 672 

Article IV. — St. Sineall or Sinell Ua Liathain ... ... ... 672 

Article V. — St. Vitus and Companions, Martyrs ... ... 672 

Article VI. — Reputed Festival of St. Wandelinus, Wandalius or Ladalinus, 

Confessor, Disciple of St. Columban ... ... 673 

Article VII. — Festival of St. Psalmode or Saumay, Solitary in Limonsin, 

France ... ... ... ... 673 

Article VIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Conald, Abbot in England ... ... 673 

&ixtttn^ Sas of Sunt. 

Article L— St. Cethig, or Cethach, Bishop of Cill Garadh, or Oran, 

County of Roscommon, and of Domhnach Sairigh, in 

Cianachta, County of Meath. [Fifth Century,] ... 674 

Article II. — St. Berthold, or Bertaud, Hermit, at Chaumont-Porcien, Champagne, 

France. [Fifth and Sixth Centuries.] ... ... 676 

Article III. — St. Amandus or Amand, Hermit, of Beaumont, Champagne, France. 

[Sixth Century.] ... ... ... 680 

Article IV.— St. Aitheachan, or Athcain, of Inbher Colpthai, now Colpe, County 

of Meath. [Probably in the Sixth Century.] ... ... 682 

Article V.— St. Colman, Son of Roi, Abbot of Reachrainn, now Lambay Island, 

County of Dublin. [Probably in the Sixth Century.] .. 683 

Article VI. — St. Lugh, supposed to have been a Monk of lona ... ... 684 

Article VII. — Festival of Translation of the Holy Virgins, Cunigenda, Mechtunde, 

Walrande, and Chriscona, or Christiana, Switzerland ... 68j 

Article VIII.— St. Setna, Son of Tren, Bishop ... ... ., 688 

Article IX. — Sl Quiricus and Companions, Martyrs ... ... 689 

Article X.— Reputed Feast of St Jero or Gero, Abbot of the Scots, at St. Panto- 

leon, Cologne ... ... ... ... 690 

Article XL— Reputed Feast of St. Similian, Bishop and Confessor, Nantes, 

France ... ... ... 690 

Article XII.— Finding of St. Berlin's Body, in the Monastery of Sithiu, France. 

[Sixth er Seventh Century^ ... ... ... 690 

ArticleXIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Furcacus ... ... ... 691 

Article XIV.— Reputed Feast of St Osmanna, Virgin ... ... 691 

Article XV.— Reputed Feast of St. Fiacre ... ... ... 691 

Se&enteentfi I9as of Sune. 

Article I.— St. Molingus, or St. Moling Luachra, Bishop and Confessor, 

OF Teach-Moling, now St. Mullins, County of Carlow. 

[Seventh Centtoy,] 
Chap. I — Introduction— Sources for St. Moling's Biography^ 
His Parentage, Birth and early Education — He em- 
braces the ecclesiastical and monastic State — He 
erects a Monastery at St Mullins— Pilgrims resort to 
the Place — Anecdotes ... ... 691 

Chap. II.— St. Moling*s Visits to Glendalough— St Molyng is 
said to have succeeded St. Aidan as Bishop of Ferns 
— St. Moljrng digs with his own Hands a Millrace — 
Pilgrims visit the Place — ^Various Miracles — St 
Molyng arrests the Ossorians and their Prey— He 
extinguishes a Fire at Ferns — His Fasts ... 698 

Chap. III.— St. Molyng's Vision after St. Fechin's Death— The 
Borumha-Laighean or Leinster Tribmte— St. Molyng 

Digitized by 




procures its Remission— He procures the Release of 
a Captive — Legendary Accounts of the holy Abbot — 
His Prophecies — His Kindliness towards irrational 
Animals— Punishment of Pride and Reward of Humi- 
lity ... ... ... ... 70s 

Chap. IV. — St. Moling is said to have resigned the See of Ferns 
— He beds various Persons — Visits of our Lord Jesus 
Christ to him— Close of St. Moling's Life— His De- 
parture — Festivals and Commemorations — Memorials 
and Relics— Celebrity of St. Mullins — Conclusion ... 716 
Aeticle II. — St. Botulphns, Abbot in England. [Sevetith Century.] ... 724 

AiTicuc III. — St. Coluian, of Lann Mic-Luachain, now supposed to be Lynn, 

County of Westmeath. [Seventh or Eighth Century,] ... 730 

AxTiCLE IV. — St Mochummog, Son of Dobharchu ... ... 732 

Aeticle V.— Festival of the Translation of the Relics of St Patrick, St. Columba 

and St Brigid ... ... ... ... 732 

Aeticle VI. — St Aedhan Dubh .. ... ... ... 732 

Aeticle VII.— The Sons of Neachtan, of Drumbric ... ... 733 

Aeticle VIIL— St Cellan or Ceall6n, Son of Fionan ... ... 733 

Aeticle IX. — St. Totholoan ... ... ... ... 733 

Aeticle X.— St Enolichus ... ... ... ... 733 

SiSflteentfi Bag of 3une. 

Aeticle I. — St. Fueadhean or Furodrain, Abbot of Lakn-Lbirb, now 

Dunleer, County OF Louth ... ... ... 734 

Aeticle IL — St Baithin or Baothan, of Lann-Leire, now Dunleer, County of 

Louth ... ... ... ... 735 

Aeticle IIL— St. Colman, Son of Mici ... ... . • 735 

Article IV.— The Blessed Aidus Hua-Foirreth. [Tenth and Eleventh Centuries,] 736 

Article V.— Reputed Feast of St. Brendan, Abbot and Bbhop. [Sixth Century,],,, 736 

Itineteentfi Bag of Sune* 

AincLB I.— St. Colman, op Deuim Lias, now Drumleasb, County op 

Leiteim ... ... ... 736 

AiTiCLK IL — St. Coelain or Caolan, of Doire Choelaine ... ... 737 

AiticlkIII.- StFailbeorFailbhe, ofTobucht .. ... ... 737 

Aiticlk IV. — St. Dima, Monk of lona ... ... ... 737 

Kmcum. V. — Reputed Festival of St. Moloma, of Domnaigh Imlech ... 737 

Articlk VI.— Rieputed Feast of St. Cassan, of Cluana Raitte ... ... 738 

AETICL.X VII. — St. Deodatus, Adeodatus, or Theodatus, Bishop of Nevers, France. 

[Sixth and Seventh Centuries.] ... ... ... 738 

AehcLpB VIIL^Reputed Festival of St. Dubtach or Duthac, Bishop of Ross, Scot- 
land. \EUventh Century,] ... ... ... 743 

Article IX. — Festival of St. Buriena, Virgin, Cornwall, England ... 743 

AiTiCLK X. — St Celsus ... ... ... ... 743 

Aeticlk XL — Festival of St Gervasius and of St Protasius, Martyrs ... 744 

Ctoentiet^ Bag of %Viixu 

Aeticlb I. — ^St, Gobanus oe Gobain, Priest and Martyr, Patron op Saint- 
GOBAIN, Diocese of Laon, France. [Seventh Century,] 
Chap. I. — Introduction — Ancient and modem Acts of St. 
Gobanus — An Irishman by Birth — His Parentage, 
Youth and Prop-ess in Virtue — He b elevated to the 
Priesthood with many other Companions — St. 
Gobain restores a blind Man to Si^ht — ^A heavenly 
Vision which induces him to leave his native Country 
and to sail for Franoe ... ... 744 

Digitized by 



Chap. II. — Arrival of St Gobain and his Companions at Corbie — 
He afterwards seeks Laon — His Miracles — His Her- 
mitage established at Eremi-Mons-^His Maimer of 
Life—His Martyrdom — His Relics — His Veneration 
— Conclusion ... ... ••• 747 

Article II.— St Faolan^ of Rath Erann, in Scotland, and of CiU Phaelan, in Leix, 

Queen's County... ... ... ... 750 

Article IIL — St. Guibhsech, of Quain-Boirenn, now Cloon-burren» County of 

Roscommon ... ... ... ... 752 

Article IV.— St Sinchell Ua Liathain ... ... ... 75a 

Article V. — St Cassan» of Cluain-Ratha ... ... ... 753 

Article VI.— St Molomma, of Domhnach-Imleach ... ... 753 

Article VII. — Festival of the Passion of Saints Paul and Cyriacus, with Companions 753 
Article VIII.— Festival of St. Deodatus or Die, Bishop and Confessor, Diocese of 

Strasburgh, France ... ... ... 753 

Ei»ents::first Bag of Sune. 

Article I.— St. Corbmac Ua Liathain, Abbot of Dearmagh, now Dur&ow, 
Kino's County. [Sixth Century.^ 
Chap. I.— Introduction — Pedigree of St Corbmac Ua Liathain 
— His Birth and religious Career — His Love for mari- 
time Adventure — ^The Monastery of Durrow — St 
ColumkiUe appoints St. Corbmac to preside over it 
as Abbot ... ... ... 754 

Chap. II.— Visit of St Corbmac Ua Liathain to St Columba in 
Scotland — St Corbmac's Arrival in the Orkney 
Islands— Their Settlement and History— St. Corb- 
mac's Voyages — Place of his Death and Burial — 
Memorials and Commemorations in Ireland and Scot- 
land — Conclusion ... ... ... 757 

Article II.— St Diarmaid, Bishop of Castledermot, County of Kildare. [Supped 

to have lived in the Fifth and Sixth Centuries,] ... ... 761 

Article III. — St Suibhne, Bishop of Armagh, County of Armagh . . . 763 

Article IV.— Reputed Feast of St Senilis ... ... ... 763 

Article V.— Festival of Constantia, Queen» Virgin and Martyr ... ... 763 

Einents^seconH IBag at 3uw. 

Article I.— St. Mochua Luachra or Cronan, Abbot of Fearna, or Ferns» 

County OF Wexford. [Seventh Century,} ... ... 764 

Article II.— St Crunnmael, Son of Ronan, of Berrech ... ... 765 

Article III.— St. Suibhne, Abbot of lona, Scotland ... ... 767 

Article IV. — St Sidlde, Virgin, in the Province of Cenomannia, Gaul ... 768 

Article V.— St. Guaire Beg or Bic, also called Guairius ... ... 768 

Article VI. — Feast of James, the Son of Aiphaeus, Apostle in Persia ... 769 

Article VII.— Festival of St Kilian, and his Companions, Martyrs ... 769 

Cinents^tfiirli Bag of Sunt. 

Article I.— St. Mochaoi or Mochay, Abbot and Patron of Nendrum, 

County OF Down. [Fifth Century,] ... ... 769 

Article II. — St Foelaine, or Faelan, and the Daughters of Moinan ... 779 

Article III.— The Children of Senchan ... ... ... 779 

Article I v.— The Children of Scnan ... ... ... 780 

Article v.— Reputed Feast of St Gillenus Scotus ... ... 780 

Article VI.— Reputed Festival of St. Hildulph, Bishop of Treves, and of SS. 

Argobast, Florentius, Fidelis and Adeodatus, Companions ... 780 

ArtiCLbVIL— Reputed Feast of St Adalbert ... .^ ... 780 

Digitized by 



Etoents^ourt^ ]9as of :3fune. 

ARTICLE I. — St. Thiu, Patron of Rubha, Diocese of Down ... 

AKT1CL.K II.— St. Gabrin, or Gaibhrein 

Article III. — Martyrdom of St. Rumold, Apostle of Belgium. [Eighth Cmlury,'\ 

Akticls rv.— St. Lon, of GUI Gobhra 

Article V. — St. Gormac or Gorbmac, of Senchoimhet 

Article VI. — Reputed Feast of St. Golvenus, Bishop of Leon, Aremorica 

Article VIL— Festival of St. John the Baptist's Nativity 

Article VIII.— Feast of St. Brendan, Abbot 

Article IX.— Reputed Feast of St. Gillebert, or Agilbert 




Cinentg^fiftfi IBas of Sune; 

Article I.— St. Sincheall the Younger, of Killeigh, King's Gounty. 

[Sixth Century,\ ... ... ... 786 

Article II. — St. Moluog of liss-mor, Scotland. [Sixth ot Seventh Century,'\ ... 787 
Article Ill.^St. Adalbert, or Adelbert, Gonfessor. [Seventh and Eighth 

Centuries."] ... ... ... ... 795 

Article IV.— St. Telle, Son of Seigin, of Tehelly, King's Gounty. [Seventh 

Century.] ... ... ... ... 799 

Article V.— St. Ailell, Son of Seigen ... ... ... 801 

Article VI. — The Daughter of Mionghar ... ... ... 80a 

Article VII. — Reputed Festival of St. Rumold, Mechlin, Belgium ... 802 

Article VIII.— Reputed Festival of St. Egbert ... ... 80a 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Filan, Scotland .. ... 80a 

Article X. — Reputed Feast of a Translation of St. Livinns' Relics ... 803 

Article XI. — Reputed Festival of St. Nessan, Deacon ... ... 803 

Einents^sixt]^ Bag of Suite. 

Article I. — St. Laichtein, or Lachtan. [Sixth or Seventh Century,] ... 803 

Article II. — St Babolin, First Abbot of St Maur, Fossey, Belgium. [Seventh 

Century.] ... ... ... ... 806 

Article III. — St. Golman, Son to Roi, of the Refectory, and over Lambay Island 

Ghurch, Gounty Dublin ... ... ... 808 

Article IV. — St. Soadbair, or Soadbar, Bishop ... ... ... 808 

Article V. — The Nine Hundred Martyrs of Bangor ... ... 808 

Article VI. — Reputed Festival of St Gorbican, Gonfessor. [Eighth Century,] ... 809 
Article VII.— Festivals of St. John and St Paul, Martyrs and Brothers, 

Rome ... ... .., ... 809 

Article VIII.— St Duthac ... ... ... ... 810 

Article IX.— Reputed Festival of St. Giswald, Gompanion of St. Disibod ... 810 

Article X— Feast of Gallicanus, Martyr ... ... ... 810 

tlTfnnttS'Se&entfi Bag of Sunn 

Article I.— St. DiMMAN OR DiOMAN ... ... ... 810 

Article II.— St Brocan ... ... ... ... 810 

Article III. — St. Scandal, in Cuain ... ... ... 811 

Article rv. — Venerationof St David, Ardnurcher, Gounty of Westmeath ... 811 
Article V. — Elevation and Second Translation of the Body of St Livinus, Martyr, 

at Ghent, Belgium ... ... ... 813 

Article VI. — Reputed Festival of St. Goluen, Bishop of Leon, France ... 813 

Article VII*— St Aedha or Aedh ... ... ... 814 

Article VIII.— Festival of St Symphorosa and of her Sons, Martyrs ... 814 

Article IX«— St. Senic ... ••• — ••. 814 

Digitized by 



Article X.— Reputed Feast of St. Godricns, called an Eremite and Archbishop of 

St Andrews, Scotland ... ... ... 814 

Article XI.— Feast for a Reputed St Enolichus ... ... ... 815 

Ef»entS::eigI^fl Bag of Suite* 

Article I.— St. Cruminb or Cruimmen, Bishop of Leacan, or Moygish, 

County of Westmeath. [Fifth or Sixth Century,] ... 815 

Article II.— St Emin, of Cluain-finn ... ... ... 819 

Article III.— St Bigesg, Bicsecha, or Bigsech, Virgin, of Kilbixy, County of West- 
meath ... ... ... — 819 

Article IV.— Translation of the Relics of St Livinus, Martyr ... ... 820 

Article v.— Festival of Jonas, Disciple of St Columbanus ... ... 820 

Article VI.— St Flavianus ... ... ... ... 821 

Article VII.— Feast of St Merenus, Abbot in Bennchor ... ... 821 

Article VIII.— The Blessed Malchus, Monk of Mellifont, County of Louth. 

[Trvelfth Century.] ... ... ... 821 

Efnents^nint^ Bag of Suite. 

Article I.— St. Cocha or Cocca, Abbess of Ros-Bennchuir. [Fifth Century.] 821 
Article II. — St. Conuan, Bishop of Tigh CoUain, or Tigh Connain, in Cremh- 

thanna, now Stackallan, County of Meath ... ... 823 

Article III. — St. Foelduarius, or Faeldobhair, Bishop of Clogher, County of 

Tyrone. [Seventh and Eighth Centuries.] ... ... 824 

Article IV. — St. Cain Comrac or Caenchomhrac, of Disert-Chinnchlair ... 824 

Article V. — St Maeldoid, Son of Derbhdara ... ... ... 825 

Article VI.— St. Stellan ... ... ... ... 825 

Article VII.— Festival of St. Suitbert, Bishop of Verden ... ... 825 

Article VIII.— Festival of St Vincent Ferrer .. ... ... 825 

Article IX.— Festival of St. Peter and St Paul, Apostles ... .» 826 

^ilirtietfi Bag of %\xixt. 

Article I.— St. Erentrudis, or Erentrude, Virgin, Abbess of Nunbbrg, 

Bavaria. [Sixth and Seventh Centuries.] ... ... 826 

Article II. — St Failbe of Cill-eo, County of Longford ... ... 831 

Article III. — St Coelan Dahoc, or Caolan ... ... ... 831 

Article IV. — St Sproc or Sporoc, Daughter of Colum ... ... 831 

Article V.— Festival of St Adilia, Abbess and Virgin, of Aldorp, Brabant ... 831 

Article VI.— Festival of St. Zoilus and St. Timofiy, Martyrs ... ... 83a 

Article VII.— Festival of Job ... ... ... ... 83a 

Article VIII.— St Fillan or Faolan ... ... ... 83a 

Article IX. — Commemoration of Holy Diermit, Island of Zona. [i^xth 

Century.] .•••»•« ••• ^33 

Digitized by 



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IN that combination of sound judgment, superior taste, and true religious 
feelmg, which guided the good men of old, great services had been 
rendered by the early monks to our Church, and to our country, as also to 
arts and sciences, in those disturbed and comparatively ignorant ages, in 
which they lived. Purifying men's minds through pious influences, their 
lives tended to improve humanity. Such services are now too liable to be 
forgotten, *by superficial and prejudiced students of history. In literature, 
architecture, music, in all thereaming and research, that tend to enlighten the 
minds and increase the happiness of men, the monks in the early Irish Chris- 
tian ages were pre-eminent, and their energies were well directed. That self- 
devotion and charity, displayed by the inmates of monasteries, are worthy of 
our eulogy and imitation. Without the monasteries, in ages when the sword 
was the chief arbitrator, in dealing with the destinies of men, there could have 
been no asylum for the sick or poor. Literature could have made no progress, 
and civilization no advancement When every dispute was settled by an appeal 
to brute force, nothing could have averted a general anarchy, or a universal 
chaos, but a body of men, whose opinions were sacred, and whose persons, 
surrounded by a feeling of sanctity, were approached with that reverence, 
justly due to the servants of our Divine Redeemer. The constitution, rules, 
and objects of the monastic houses and orders, in their various localities, and 
the special services rendered by each, to the age in which the monks 
flourished, greatly deserve the reverence and gratitude of posterity. We 
should ever remember those inherited benefits we have received, and those 
advantages we still enjoy, as a precious legacy coming from them. When we 
think of the illustrious body of men to whom we are so indebted, let it be 

Vol, VI.— No. i. a 

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with feelings of satisfaction and of love ; let us consider their labours and 
lives, as a warning from the past, and as a guide to the future ; for, their 
example and prayers in Heaven must have produced an abiding influence. 
As renowned ancestors leave the inheritance of a distinguished name and 
memory to their descendants, so do illustrious saints the heritage of their 
spirit and virtues to those, who are called to succeed them, in a station of 
exalted dignity and usefulness. Thus, when great religious founders had 
blessed some Irish locality, by their labours and presence, many of their suc- 
cessors in office naturally emulated the holiness of their predecessors. The 
reign of grace was continued by the effort, while good example lived in its 
moral and religious influences, long after the early masters of a religious life 
had passed away, to enjoy their rewards in a blissful eternity. 

In a spot of rare loveliness, this holy man lived the course ofa faithful steward. 
We have already related something, about the origin ofDunsginne* — afterwards 
called Lismore — no doubt owing to the fact, that a famous fort had been there 
erected. Even in the more remote times, the tract immediately around it 
went by the name of Magh Sgiath, or " the field of the shield." About the 
year 630,* the illustrious founder St Mochudda or Carthage 3 arrived there, 
and obtained a grant of the place, where he began to establish his religious 
institute, destined subsequently to give such great celebrity to Lismore. But, 
he did not live very long, after he had taken possession of this inheritance. 
It was quite evident, from the concurrent testimony of St. Mochudda's Lives, 
from all our Annals, and from Colgan, when expressly treating on this subject, 
there was no monastery at Lismore, until the foundation by St. Carthage, and 
that he was both its first bishop and first abbot.* Many of the bishops in 
this See were men remarkable for religious austerity, as also for learning and 
sanctity; while, through their influence, the rigid monastic discipline was 
well preserved.5 The city of Lismore, long after the death of St. Carthage 
was regarded as illustrious and holy.^ This city was full of cells and monastic 
houses, where pious men dwelt. And, not only religious, from all parts of Ire- 
land, but others from Britain, came thither, wishing to spend their lives in this 
city, so delightfully situated on the Avonmore.7 

Some of our Irish writers, however, have strangely enough mistaken the 
references in ancient Annals, which regard another place, but quite distinct, 
although similarly named. In the Topographical Index toColgan's ** Acta 
Sanctorum Hiberniae," under the head of Lismore in Munster, Lugadius, who 
was bishop or abbot of the Island of Lismore,® one of the Hebrides,^ and 
who died in 588," is transferred to the present city." Having found, in a 

Teoflfrey Keating's ** General History of Ire- 
land," book ii., p. 397. Duffy's edition. 

Article i. — Chapter i.— ' See Rev. trails fluminis quondam dicti Neamh, mode 

autem Abhanmnor, id estt Amnis-magnus, in 
plaga regionis Nandesi." — "Acta Sancto- 

■See Archbishop UssherV "Briiannica- rum," tomus iii. , Maii xiv. De S. Carthaco 

rum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," Index seu Mochudda, &c. Vita ex antiquo MS. 

Cbronolo^us, A.D. Dcxxx., p. 537. Hibemico, cap. iv., num. 50, p. 388. 

5 See his Life in the Fifth Volume of this ® For an excellent historical account of 

work, at May 14th, Art. i., chap. iv. this Lismore, head of the Sec of Ar^ll, the 

* See Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical His- reader is referred to Rev. Mackenzie E. C. 
tory of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, xiv., sect. 14, Walcott's ** Scoti-Monasticon ; The An- 
il. 202, pp. 356, 357. cicnt Church of Scotland, "&c., pp. 218 to 

5 See Rev. R. H. Ryland's ** History, 222. 

Topography and Antiquities of the County • Owing to its inaccessible position in 

and City of Waterfoitl," scci. ii., p. 334. stormy wtather, it was proposea to remove 

* See Dr. Charles Smith's " Ancient and the See to a new site granted by the Scottish 
Present State of the County and City of King, in 1249. See ibid^ Supplemental 
Wattrrford," chap, iii., p. 27, n. 4. Notes, p. 401. 

1 1psa dvitas posita est super ripam Aus- '^ See Dr. 0*Donovan*s " Annals of the 

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June i.] 


Life of St. Senan," a bishop named John, who was a contemporary with him, 
Colgan threw out, with carelessness about the anachronism, a conjecture, that 
he might have been a bishop of Lismore,'^ so called, and found in the Calen- 
dar, at the 13th of November.'^ Most unchronologically, Archdall also places 
here a bishop, John,'5 in the time of St Senan of Inniscatthy ; no doubt he 
was led astray, on what he considered to be good authority, but, he had no 
right to give as certain, what Colgan proposed, as a thoughtless conjecture. 
Reckoning upseveral saints of the name Maidoc,'^ Colgan '7 has among tliem 
a bishop of Lismore,'* without however, a word concerning the times, in 
which he lived. '^ Then, we find another mistake of Archdall, as to a St. 
Neman,"** whom the Four Masters call abbot of Lismore, placing his death in 
610." They could not have meant the Lismore of Munster; but, it has 
unluckily happened, that in the above-mentioned Index of Colgan, Neman is 
mentioned under the head of it. Thence, Archdall removed him to that place. 
An abbot named Eochaidh" — or, as Archdall incorrectly calls him, Leochadius 
— and whose death is assigned to a.d. 634,'3 is likewise called abbot of 
this Lismore, as if there were no other place so denominated, except that in 

The death of St. Mochuda or Carthage, on the 14th of May, a.d. 636, is 
entered in the Annals of Ulster 's and of the Four Masters f" but, at a.d. 637, 
in the Annals of Tigernach,»7 and of Clonmacnoise. This latter, we are told, 
is the true date.*' Afterwards, it is stated, that St. Cathaldus *9 was regent 
over a flourishing school, established at Lismore, and to which a prodigious 
number of scholars flocked, not only from the neighbouring country, but even 
from distant lands.3° He became subsequently Bishop of Tarentum in Italy .3* 

Four Masters,'* vol. i., pp. 212, 213. 

" Archdall has him at our Lismore, thus 
leading astray the reader, as if there were, at 
least, a monastery in this place, before that 
of St. Carthaghe. See " Monasticon Hiber- 
nicum," p. ^i. The present entry in our 
Annals led the learned Irish historian, Dr. 
O' Donovan, to suppose, that a church had 
been at Lismore, previous to that founded 
by St. Carthage. See " Annals of the Four 
Masters," vol i., n. (r), p. 213. 

** See his Life, at the 81 h of March, in the 
Third Volume of this work. Art. i. 

»' See "Acta Sanctorum Hibemiae," viii. 
Martii. Supplementum Vitse S. Senan i, n. 
13- P- 539. recfe 535. 

'^ But, the Calendar does not state, at 
what particular period this John of Lismore 

'5 See " Monasticon Hibcmicum," p. 691. 

** Misspelled Maidoe, by Archdall. See 

■7 Sec "Acta Sanctorum Hibemiae," 
Janoarii xxxi. Appendix ad Acta S. 
Maidod, cap. i., p. 221. 

^ His feast is set down, for the 19th of 

■» However, Archdall took it into his 
bead, to make him flourish earlier than St 

''See Arcbdall's "Monasticon Hibemi- 
com," p. 691. 

" See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 236, 237. The 
learned editor remarks, that this is the 

second Abbot of Lismore, mentioned in the 
Annals, before St. Carthage or Mochuda. 

^* His feast is kept on the 17th of April. 
See an account of him, at that date, in the 
Fourtli Vohime of tliis work. Art. vi. 

** The Four Masters and Colgan knew, 
that the abbot of this Li^^more, at that date, 
was probably no other than Carthage him* 

** Eocha'd, in all probability, was a 
Columbian monk, a«id perhaps the Eochaid 
or Eoglod celebrated by Scottish writers as 
a preacher among the Picts, and of whom 
Colgan treats, at the 25th of January. It is 
very natural to suppose, that he was abbot 
of the Island of Lismore, in Scotland. 

»5 See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's " Rerum 
Hibemicarum Scriptores," tomus iv., p. 


^ See Dr. John O'Donovan's edition, 
vol. i., pp. 254,255. 

^ See Rev. Dr. Conor's " Rerum Hiber- 
nicarum Scriptores," tomus ii., Tigeroachi 
Annates, p. 193. 

* See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 
Histoiy of Ireland," vol. ii., pp. 353t 355* 

»• The feast of this saint is set downv 
at the 8th of March, and at the loth of 

3» See Dr. Charles Smith's "Ancient and 
Present State of the County and City of 
Waterfoid," chap, iii., p. 28. 

3' See •* A Dictionary of Christian Biogra- 

fhy," &c., edited by Dr. William Smith and 
ienry Wace, M.A., vol. i., pp. 421* 422. 

Digitized by 



According to some accounts, a St. Cuanna,3* Abbot of Kill-cuanna or Kil- 
coona, in the county of Gal way, is said to have been a brother 33 of St. Car- 
thage, and to have succeeded him as Abbot of Lismore ; however, this is not 
generally believed, although he may have been a monk, at this place. It is 
stated, by Archdall,34 that from Kilcoona, he was removed to Lismore ; but, 
this account seems altogether apocryphal. At the year 698, the death of 
lamla, Abbot of Lismore, is recorded ;35 and, already, at the 1 6U1 of January ,3^ 
some allusion has been made to him. 37 St Colman immediately succeeded 
lamla ; and, during his presidency here, the schools of Lismore were in the 
zenith of their great reputation. He is venerated as a saint, and his festival 
has been assigned to the 22nd of January.3® In the year 702, the death of 
Colman, son of Finnbhar, Abbot of Lismore, is recorded. 39 The death of an 
Abbot Ronan is entered, on the authority of the Annals of Munster, at a.d. 
703.*** Soon after him, the present St. Cronan succeeded. 

The Annals of Ulster*' state, that he belonged to the Hi Ecain family. 
Nearly similar to this is the statement of Tigemach, who calls him Cronan h. 
Hecain.4« It is difficult, at present, to ascertain his race ; but, under this 
form of name, it seems to resemble O h-Aedhagain, Anglicized sometimes 
O'Hegan or Egan.« He is said to be of the Ua Eoan, according to the 
Annals of the Four Masters.** We may fairly infer, however, that he was 
bom, sometime about the middle of the seventh century. The date for 
his birth certainly fell sometime within that age ; but, the exact year has not 
been ascertained. It seems probable enough, that his early education had 
not been neglected, and that he had been trained to a religious life in Lis- 
more ; for, it was usual to single out some domesticated monk, to succeed 
as Abbot, in that house where he had been living. On this day, the Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh*5 has an entry, regarding St Cronan of Lismore; but, 
furthermore, it seems to furnish little to elucidate his history. 



The silence of our Annals, on the subject of those pious inmates of the 
religious establishments erected at Lismore, from the death of Abbot Ronan, 
until the obituary record of St. Cronan Hua Ecain, appears to favour a belief, 

^ See his Life, in the Second Volume of Four Masters,'* vol. i., pp. 304, 305. 

this work, at the 4th of February, Art. i. *» See Archdall's "Monasticon Hiberni- 

« Hb mother b called Meadh, Latinized cum," p. 692. 

Meda. 41 Sec Rev. Dr. O'Conor's "Rcmm 

>* See "Monasticon Hibemicum," p. Hibemicarum Scriptores." tomus iv., An- 

691. nales Ultonienscs, a.d. 717, p. 75. 

as See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the *» In Irish written CpotiAti h hecAiti. See 

Four Masters,** vol. i., pp. 300, 301. ibid.y tomus ii., at A.D. 718, Annales Tiger- 

3* The Rev. Mervyn Archdall — who calls nachi, p. 229. 

himjarlaith — has a misprint of the 26th of ^^ See ** Topographical Poems of John 

January, at this entry. See ''Monasticon 0*Dubhagain and Giolla na Naomh 

Hibemicum,** p. 691. O'Huidhnn," edited by John O'Donovan, 

37 See First Volume of this work, at that LL.D., p. Ixxxv., nn. 764, 766. 

date. Art. i. ^ See Dr. 0'Donovan*s edition, vol. i., 

''See an account of him, at that date, in pp. 314, 315, and n. (p). Ibid. 

the First Volume of this work, Art. i. *s Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxv. 

» See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the Chapter ii.— ' See John D*AltoQ*8 aiti- 

Digitized by 



that from at least twelve to fourteen years, the latter holy personage had been 
superior over the large community, which had been there congregated, during 
the period of his rule. About the beginning of the eighth century, likewise, 
the schools of Lismore were in the zenith of their reputation.' We think some 
confusion must have arisen, however, when we find the account of Cronan, a 
man of noble birth, and presumably this saint, whose rule is placed at a.d. 
702, and who is said to have died, on the 9th of February, a.d. 717.' It is 
said, too, that the name Cronan is probably a misprint ; as in those Calendars 
which Colgan used, he is called Mochuaroc, alias Cuaran the Wise, of Deisi 

The exact observance of religious discipline, with the personal character 
and virtues of our saint, gave earnest of a spirit, which survived his lime, as 
it had been transmitted to holy and learned men who flourisiied there, when 
the pious Cronan had been called away to receive his eternal reward. The 
Irish Annals of the Four Masters assign his death, to the ist day of June, a.d. 
716 ; but, the Annals of Ulster record his decease, under the following year.4 
The death of Cronan h-Hecain, Abbot of Lismore, is entered at a.d. 718, in 
the Annals of Tighernach.s Strange to state, that the Bodleian copy of the 
Annals of Inisfallen ^ record the departure of Colmain hua Liatain, Abbot of 
Lismoir, at this very same year, 718, as if there had been some confounding 
of St Cronan h-Hecain with him ; while, in the Dublin copy of these Annals, 
a similar entry is altogether omitted. 

After our saint's happy departure, monastic life seems to have held a dis- 
tinguished feature of society in Lismore, as our Annals sufficiently reveal. In- 
deed, in may well be set down, as one foremost among Ireland's holy cities. 
Half of it was an asylum, into which no woman dared to enter ; but, it was full 
of churches and monasteries, while religious and monks in great numbers abode 
there. Pious men flocked to it from all parts of Ireland, while even from 
England and Britain they came, being desirous to remove thence to Chrlst.7 
Besides the cathedral of Lismore,® there were at least twenty other churches 
in this place f and, during mediaeval times, the city was regarded as one of 
great importance. The former cathedral, on high ground over the River 
Blackwater, is now the Protestant church, and it is shaped like a cross, the 
grand entrance looking towards the south. Tliere is reason to think, it 
escaped the destructive fires and plunderings, which the city experienced, after 
the time of St. Carlhagh. It was originally constructed in the Irish Roman- 
esque style ; the windows being narrow, and terminated with circular arches. 
Each was surmounted with a small window, in shape like a circle. These 
round windows were also over the entrance, and at the extremities of the 
transepts.'** However, in the beginning of the present century, measures 

cle in the •* Irish Penny Magazine," vol. i., • Founded, it is said, by St. Carthagh, who 

No. II, p. 82. became its first bishop. See Archdeacon 

• See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's ** Fasti Cotton's " Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernicae,"part i. 

Ecclesiae Hibcmjcae," parti. Diocese of Dioceses of Wat erford and Lismore, p. 39. 

Waicr(ord and Lismore, p. 39. ' i'he Annals of Inisfallen arc said to relate, 

» Sec "Journal of the Kilkenny and South- that the city, with all its churches, had bren 

East of Ireland Archaeological Society,*' burned down, a.d. 1207. See Dr. Charl f 

ToL i., part ii.. New Series, p. 289. Smith's ** Ancient and Present State of the 

^Se^ \yr. O' Donovan's ** Annals of the County and City of VVatcrford,'* chap, iii.. 

Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 314, 315, and n. n. 13, p. 29. However, the Inisfallen An- 

{p),i^id. nals, as published by Rev. Dr. Charles 

5 Sec Rev. Dr. 0*Conor*s ** Rerum Hibcr- O'Conor, do not come down to that date. 

nicarum Scriptores," lomus ii., p. 229. "See Rev R. H. Ryland's "History, 

*Setihd*,p» 19* Topography and Antiquities of the County 

f See Hams* Wsure, voL L, " Bishops of and City of Waterford," sect, ii., p. 338, 

Lismore," pp. S47» 548. " See J. R OTlanagan's "Blackwaier in 

Digitized by 



were taken, to make alterations and repairs, which have resulted in a most in- 
congruous admixture of Gothic style with the more ancient features. A 
square tower, surmounted by a light and taper spire, was added." The 
cathedral choir seems to be very ancient ; but, the nave appears to have been 
built long subsequent to it, and to be of no very remote antiquity. Its south 
and east walls were supported by buttresses." 

The Diocese of Lismore was divided into four Rural Deaneries, 
viz., Ardmore, Kilbarmeadan, Kilshellan, and Ardfinnan. The chapter 
consisted of the Dean, who had some peculiar privileges, a Chantor, a 
Chancellor, a Treasurer, an Archdeacon, and eleven Prebendaries. There 
were also five Vicars-Choral, attached to that church. »3 About a.d. 
1130, Muretus, King of Munster, repaired the cathedral. The institu- 
tion and endowment of vicars-choral had been made by Griffin Christopher, 
bishop of Lismore, about the year i23o.*4 Thomas le Reve was advanced 
to this See in 1358; and, during his government, the two bishoprics 
of Lismore and Waterford were united a.d. 1363, by Pope Urban V.'s 

A castle at Lismore was first erected, by King John,** in the year 1185.*' 
Four years afterwards, it was taken by surprise and broken down by the Irish; 
while on this occasion, its commander Robert Barry and its garrison were put 
to the sword.'® Afterwards, however, it was rebuilt. For some hundreds 
of years, as we are told, the Bishop of the Diocese held his state, at Lismore 
Castle.'^ From being built on a very elevated situation on the verge of a 
hill, rising steep over the Blackwater River, it is one of the most imposing 
residences in Ireland.'** It continued to be the Bishop's home, until the time 
of Meyler Magrath, who, with consent of the Dean and Chapter, transferred it 
to Sir Walter Raleigh.'* The manor of Lismore was added as a possession.** 
In after time, it passed into tlie hands of Sir Walter Raleigh, and from him 
it went to the Earl of Cork. The castle was besieged in 1642, by Richard 
Bealing and the Confederates; but, in 1645, it was burned by Lord Castle- 
haven. In consequence of the marriage ot its heiress Lady Charlotte Boyle 
with the Duke of Devonshire, in 1748, it fell into the Cavendish family. *3 
Several portions of this mediaeval castle are yet to be seen standing; and their 
baronial grandeur, even in decay, adds a dignity and picturesquencss to the 
more modern magnificent mansion.'* This latter was erected by the Duke 
of Devonshire, in 18 14, and in it are preserved some ancient and interesting 
records and manuscripts, as also valuable objects of antiquity.** Among the 
manuscripts in Lismore Castle are the ancient Book of Lismore, and also, the 

Munster,** p. 54. Dimock, M.A., vol. v., p. 386. 

" With the exception of a tomb placed '* Sec the " Dublin Penny Journal,** 

over one Magrath, who was buried here in vol. i., No. 43. p. 337. 

1548— some have it 1557— no veiy ancient '' Sec William F. Wakeman's "Tourists* 

monument is to be seen. Guide to Ireland/* Dublin to Cork, p. 342. 

»3 See Harris* Ware, vol. i., ** Bishops of "^ The reader is referred to Lady Morgan's 

Lismore,** p. 547. novel ** Florence MacCarthy,'* for special 

»* See Charles Smith's "Ancient and Pre- reference to this place, 

sent State of the County and City of Water- " See J. R. 0'Flanagan*s " Blackwater in 

« ford,*' chap, iii., n. 8, and p. 28. Munster," p. 48. 

•5 See Harris' Ware, vol. i., "Bishops of " See Rev. R. H. Ryland's "History, 

Waterford,*' pp. 533, 534, and *' Bishops of Topography and Antiquities of the County 

Lismore,** p. 554. ami City of Waterford/* sect. ii.,p. 338. 

**See Rev. R. H. Ryland's "History, »3 vjee William F. Wakeman*s "Tourists* 

Topography and Antiquities of the County Guide to Ireland,** Dublin to Cork, pp.341, 

and City of Waterford,** sect, i.. Historical 342. 

Sketch, p. 15. ** The accompanying illustration, drawn 

'7 Such is the statement of Giraldus Cam- on the wood from a photograph, by William 

brensis, in ** Expugnatio Hibernica,** lib.ii^ F. Wakeman, has been engraved by Mrs. 

cap. XXXV. •* Opera,'* edited by James F. Millard. 

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June i.] 



Diary of Sir Richard Boyle, afterwards Earl of Cork, in which he kept a 
regular journal of almost every occurrence, with which he was concerned.*^ In 
a tower of Lisraore Castle was discovered, a.d. 1814, the beautiful pastoral 
staflf of Bishop Mac Mic (Educan or M*Gettigan ;»7 and this is now shown, in 
the hall of the modern mansion. During the seventeenth century, the ruins 
of several ecclesiastical buildings only presented heaps of rubbish ; although, 
many persons, then living, had a remembrance of better remains. It is 
evident, that the more recent improvements in Lismore have completely 


Lismore Castle, County of Waterford. 

altered the plan of this ancient town, and have effaced almost completely its 
former religious sites. The Martyrology of Donegal ** registers the name of 
Cronin, Abbot of Lismor Mochuda, at the ist of June. However, in the great 
Collection of Saints, by the Bollandists, at this day, we find no mention of 
St. Cronan made. 

The heart as the hand of the holy and diligent prelate, and the blessings 
of the Lord are joined together, before his career on earth has closed, to make 
us rich in the treasures of body or mind, of time or eternity, while our trials 
continue, and we are imitators of his noble example. Though like the distant 
stars, their effulgence of light may not range to our vision, not lesser are they 
luminous within their sphere, than those planets which revolve nearer to our posi- 
tion. Let us lift up our hands and our hearts to thesaints in Heaven, who, altliough 
little distinguished in chronicle, we may rest assured had a very important 

■s'Sce the *' Irish Penny Magazine,*' vol. 
i.. No. ii»p. 83. 

"*Sec Rev. R. H. Ryland's "History, 
Topography and Antiquities of the City and 
CoBiityofWaterford,"sect ii^p. 338. This 

Diary has been lately published. 

*7 See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's "Fasti 
EcclesiaB Hibemicae," vol. v., p. 24. 

** Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
142, 143. 

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part, in the preservation of the virtues and faith among our people, where they 
were called upon to minister. The present holy man lived, at a glorious period 
in the history of our Irish Church. 

Article II. — St. Ronan, or Renan, Bishop in Ireland, and a 
Solitary in Lesser Britain. \Rfth and Sixth Centuries^ This holy 
man, who lived in the early times of Christianity in these Islands, has acquired 
considerable renown in the north-western part of France. The name Ronan, 
which he bears in ancient documents, is one very familiar to the students of 
Irish history ; but, it is also written Renan. He is noted, in the Breviary of 
Corisopitan, now commonly called Kempercorentin, and its text contains the 
chief particulars of his Life, which tradition has given to us. Albert le 
Grand, among the saints of Armoric Britain, has a Life of this St Ronan. In 
the tide, he is simply styled an anchorite ; but, in the body of the tract, he is 
called priest. The Bollandists, too, have his Acts at this day.' They are 
taken from the Breviary of Corisopitan, and they are given in four paragraphs, 
while there is a previous commentary, in four paragraphs, with annotations.* 
Among the saints of Brittany, Lobineau has some notices of him ;3 as also, 
in his History of that Province.^ There is a Life of this holy solitary, in the 
Petits Bollandistes,s at the ist day of June ; it is also given by Rev. S. Baring- 
Gould.* We have ahready alluded to this holy man, in the Life of St. Finan,7 
Bishop of Lindisfarne, and Apostle in Northumbria, at the 9th day of January, 
as likewise — if he be not a different Ronan — in a special article, at the 6th of 
February.® This is said to have been that Ronan, a Scot by birth, to whom 
Venerable Bede alludes.9 However, such a statement is more than doubtful ; 
nor is it credited, by Father Hennschen, who states, that the Ronan men- 
tioned by Venerable Bede must have lived, at least a century later than the 
present saint*** The parents of this holy man are said to have been persons 
of the middle class. At first pagans, they became Christians in Ireland," 
where they were moved to the profession of Faith, owing to the preaching of 
St Patrick." When their son was bom has not transpired ; but, possibly the 
date for this event may be referred to the latter part of the fifth century. He 
was a native of Ireland,'^ according to the writers of his Acts. It is said, that 
Ronan was educated, in profane science, at first /^ but, that his mind was 
prepared by Divine grace for the reception of truth, when he had discovered 
the error and folly of paganism. He was a child of naturally good disposi- 
tions ; and, whatever science he acquired was diligently stored in his mind, 
while he learned soon to obey all the Divine precepts. Then, after he had 

Article 11. — ' See the Bollandists* lorum," lib. iii., cap. xxv., p. 233. 

" AcU Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii i. De S. " See the Bollandists* "Acta Sanctoram,'* 

Ronano Episcopo, Eremita in Britannia tomus i., Junii i. De S. Ronano Episcopo, 

Armorica, pp. 83, 84. Eremita in Britannia Armorica, Commenta- 

• Edited by Father Godefrid Henschenn. rius Praevius, num. 4, p. 83. 

» See " Les Vies des Saints de Bretagne," " Albert le Grand states, that Ronan 

tome i., June i., pp. 154 to 161. passed over to Great Britain, where he was 

^ Sec *• Histoire de Bretagne,** tome i., instructed and baptized ; but, the Bollan- 

liv. ii., num. clxxx., p. 73. dist editor of his Acts states, that the Anglo- 

5 See "Les Vies des Saints," tome vi., Saxons were idolaters, during the fifth and 

Premier Jour de Juin, pp. 366 to 368. sixth centuries, while the Iri^had embraced 

• See ** Lives of the Saints," vol. vi., June the true faith. 

1st, Dp. 4, 5. «» See " Les Petits Bollandistes," tome vi., 

' See the First Volume of this work, ler Juin, p. 366. 

Art. ii. '3 See Colgan's " AcU Sanctorum Hiber- 

• See the Second Volume of this work, niac," ix. Januarii. De S. Finano Epbcopo 
Aft. \x» Lindisfamensi, cap. iv., and n. 6, pp. 44, 

9 In " Historia Ecdesiastica Gentis Ang* 45. 

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received Minor Orders, he was gradually raised to the dignity of Subdeacon, 
Deacon, and Priest Finally, he obtained the episcopal grade, '5 through the 
distinguished merits which were recognised in him. His ministry became 
fruitful in every good work, and he was found to be just in the sight of God. 
The holy spirit ever guided his course. That his parents were persons of some 
distinction may be inferred from a circumstance related, that our saint was held 
in much honour in Ireland, although his humility discarded all display. Desir- 
ous to lead a life of greater perfection, Ronan left his native country; for, he 
believed, that as a true follower of Christ, he should enjoy a greater reward 
by renouncing home, kindred and friends, after the words and spirit of the 
Gospel, so as to deny himself and to take up his cross, thus imitating his 
Divine Master. He desired to cross the ocean, and to seek the territory of 
Britain.'* He sought the shores of Aremorica, and went to the country of 
Leon,*y the chief episcopal city of which is called Saint Pol de Leon, after its 
first Bishop St. Pol or Paul.** He settled in Basse Bretagne, or Lower Bre- 
tagne, where he lived, it is thought, in the sixth century.^9 Day and night he 
devoted to God's service ; and, through his prayers, numbers who were blind 
received the gift of vision ; the sick were healed ; and persons who were 
possessed obtained freedom from their afHiction, so that the fame of Ronan 
soon spread abroad. The place where he lived was called by the Bretons 
Loc-Renan-Ar-Fang, and it is in the present town of Saint Renan-en-L^on. 
There, probably he might have remained, for the rest of his days ; but, for 
the miracles he wrought, and which brought a great number of people to his 
cell. He desired to have more time for prayer and a greater seclusion. He 
resolved, therefore, on seeking some^ other situation, and accordingly, accom- 
panied by an Angel of the Lord, he passed over the gulf of Brest, and arrived 
at the forest of Coat-Neven,** in the country of Cornouailles. There, he 
found a very holy man, and when Ronan came to his house, the pilgrim was 
joyfully received, and pressed to remain with him for some time. His host 
asked about his country and his purpose, when Ronan replied : " I am a Scot 
by birth, belonging to a land beyond the sea, wanting all things which I had 
fireely from my father, and for the love of Him who willingly left worldly 
goods for our sake ; I sought exile of my own accord ; I relinquished worldly 
things, trusting to receive greater favours from Him, on the Day of Judgment." 
Only a few days passed, until Ronan began the erection of his cell ;'* and 
when it had been completed, there he devoted himself assiduously to prayer 
and fasting. At this time Grallon,** King of the Britons, ruled over that 
country. Soon an account was circulated about Ronan, his country, and the 

■* According to Albert le Grand, the 12th of December. See "Acta Sane- 

■5 Such is the statement of Albert le torum,'* tomus i., Junii i. De S. Ronano 

Grand. Episcopo, Eremita in Britannia Armorica, 

»* Whether he went first to Greater or Commentarius Pruevius, num. i, p. 83. 
Lesser Britain is not specified, in the Bre- " The Acts of St. Ronan state, tiiat it was 

viary of Corisopitan. built near the Nemsean wood, which was 

■^ See Lobineau's ** Histoire de Bretagne," formerly of great extent, and which was a 

tmne i., liv. ii., num. clxxx., p. 73. great covert for wild animals. It is called 

»• His feast is held, on the I2th of the Koat Nevet, rendered Foret Sacree, in 

March. the L^ende de Saint Ronan, given by Le 

*^ The Rev. Dr. Lanigan says, he retired Vicomte Hersart de la Villemarque, in his 

to Britanny, about the latter end of the fifth " Barzaz Breiz,' pp. 477, to 482. 
century. See "Ecclesiastical History of " This appears to have been Grallon, 

Ireland," vol. L, chap, ix., sect, xii., p. 492. Comte de Cornoiiaille, founder of the Abbey 

■"It was otherwise known as Nemea of Landeveiiec, and of the Seeof Quimper, 

Sylva— called Neve \f^ Albert le Grand — mentioned by Lobineau, in his "Histoire 

and it was about three leases from Kemper- de Bretagne," tome i., liv. i., sect, xxviii., 

corentiii, so called from its first bishop and p. 9. 
patron St. Corcntiii, whose feast is kept 0.1 «3 See the Bollandiste' " AcUSanctortfm, 

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purpose he had in leaving it. This holy man was remarkable for his austere 
manner of living ; and, Grallon desired to visit him, and to receive his bene- 
diction. The multitude followed this example afforded by their king. Ronan 
preached the word of God to all who flocked thither, and great was the con- 
solation he afforded.'^ One day, while Ronan stood at the door of his cell, 
he saw a wolf bearing away in his mouth a sheep from some adjoining farm, 
and hastening to the wood. Trusting in the Almighty, he shouted, and the 
wolf dropped its prey. Nor was the like incident a singular one, for often 
he saved the flocks of his neighbours, in the same manner. »♦ At one time, 
he was so oppressed with hunger and fatigue, that he was obliged to seek a 
means of living from a good peasant, who hospitably entertained him. So 
touched was his host, with the purity of Ronan's motives, that he asked per- 
mission some times to visit the saint. However, Keban, or Queban, the wife of 
this peasant,'^ was a passionate and an envious woman, who gave way to her 
irritability of temper, when she found her husband staying too long at the 
hermitage. Keban complained, that he had neglected her, and had become 
idle ; while her complaints were especially directed against Ronan, who bore 
these reproaches in silence, and with admirable patience. This only increased 
her fury, and she furthermore circulated calumnies against him, among her 
neighbours who were over-credulous. She pretended, that Ronan was a 
magician, who was desirous of initiating her husband to the mysteries of some 
diabolic arts. Although her false statements were credited, by some ignorant 
persons ; yet, those who were more reasonable continued to honour Ronan, 
and this served to counteract her malicious designs. But, she conceived a 
still more wicked project, to effect her revenge. She had a little daughter, 
only between four and five years, and her she concealed in a closet. Then, 
she circulated a report, that Ronan, through his magic arts, was able to trans- 
form himself into a wild beast, whenever he so willed, while in such a guise, 
he was the wolf, which destroyed so many animals, in that part of the country. 
She averred, moreover, that hating herself more than any of the other inhabi- 
tants there, that abominable man had devoured her only daughter. These 
charges created a popular excitement, and accompanied by many other 
women, Keban immediately went to the saint's hermitage, and with horrible 
cries demanded her child. Still deceiving her followers, that wicked woman 
induced them to accompany her to Quimper, where King Grallon lived. 
There, shedding tears in abundance, and with violent contortions, she cast 
herself at the king's feet, demanding justice to be executed against Ronan, 
who had devoured her daughter, and who had made her husband a sorcerer. 
So like were her actions to the impulses of nature, that Grallon, and the 
greater part of his nobles, were deceived. Seduced by her words, and horrified 
at the enormity of the imputed crime, the king sent a messenger to arrest 
Ronan. When he came before Grallon,** the latter, in a towering passion, 
and giving way to his natural impetuosity of disposition, would not allow 
Ronan the slightest opportunity, to say a word in his own defence. " I have 
two furious bull-dogs," shouted the king," and they shall soon prove, if this 
man be innocent ; let them be hounded on against him, and we shall test the 
sanctity of his life, if he be not guilty." Accordingly, the dogs were loosed 
against Ronan, who instantly raised his hand, making a sign of the cross. 

tomus i., Junii i. Vita ex Breviario Coriso- ** Bertrandus Ar^entrseus, states, that 

piten&i, num. 3, p. 84. Grallon or Gradlon died ** anno quadringen* 

*«See >^., num. 3, p. 84. tessimo quinto,'* lib. i., "Historise Britan- 

*s The Rev. S. Banng-Gould mistakes her nic"cap. 22. This date, however, is incor- 

lor the wife of Grallon. See " Lives of the rect, as the Bollandists show in the Acts of 

Saintly" ToL vl, June ist, p. 4. St. Winwaloe Abbot, at March iii. 

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and saying : " May our Saviour prevent you." The dogs seemed at once to 
abandon their natural ferocity, for a manner of gentleness, as they approached 
Ronan, only to fawn on and caress him. This caused Grallon to change the 
current of his mind, as he recollected how precipitate he had been. Then, 
allowing our saint to plead in turn, he was enabled to manifest his innocence 
of diat crime imputed to him. The malignity of Keban was soon thoroughly 
revealed, and the power of God was shown. Ronan declared, that the woman's 
daughter had been concealed in a place he mentioned, and so small was it, 
that she could not breathe freely, and that consequently she died. Immedia- 
tely, officers were despatched to search for the body. It was accordingly 
found, and at once public indignation was so inflamed, that the people 
declared Keban deserved to be stoned to death or burned at the stake. How- 
ever, the charity of Ronan delivered her from that peril ; for, in the presence 
of the whole crowd assembled, he restored to life the daughter of his enemy, 
thus proving his true Christian spirit. The close of St. Ronan's days is buried 
in obscurity, and his Acts seem to be silent regarding it. He is though t,*7 
to have been the same as Renan the Monk, who has been said, but through 
mistake, to have been a contemporary with St. Martin of Tours. His body 
was buried, in the place of his second hermitage,'* which afterwards bore the 
name in the Armoric tongue, of Loc-Renan-Ar-Coat-Nevent*9 A shrine 
contained his relics, which were formerly borne in procession around the 
mount, every seventh year, on the ist of June, and with solemn ceremonies. 
Great numbers assembled to assist at this celebration. There, the piety of the 
Count of Cornuailles built a noble church. Thither, too, several pilgrims re- 
sorted from all parts of Brittany, to obtain spiritual favours, at the tomb of our 
saint. The church of Loc-Renan-Ar-Coat-Nevent yet contains the tomb of this 
holy man. It is built of Kersanton stone, and it consists of a massive tablet, 
on which is a recumbent figure of St. Ronan, represented in episcopal dress, 
the mitre on his head, with a pastoral staff, in his left hand. Under the feet 
is a monster, supposed to symbolize paganism, the remains of which he con- 
tributed to extirpate in the country of Brittany. The popular devotion and 
respect for our saint served to raise this place into a considerable town. In 
its church, two of St. Ronan's ribs had been long preserved as relics ; but, the 
greater part of his body had been transferred, to the cathedral church of Quim- 
per,3*> where it was religiously kept, until the period of the French Revolu- 
tion.3« Great miracles are said to have been wrought, at the tomb of St. 
Ronan, as also at Quimper. At present, in the city and diocese of Kemper- 
corentin, the feast of St. Ronan, Bishop and Confessor, is kept on the 
Kalends of June, as a Double Rite.3' This is the date for his festival, in the 
local Calendars. Besides the two towns of Saint-Ronan, in the dioceses of 

•y 5>ec Rev. Dr. Lanigan's *' Ecclesiastical authority of Acts, taken from an old Bre- 

History of Ireland," vol. i., chap, ix., sect. viary, and sent to them, by Peter Bernand, 

xii., n. i8l. p. 493. S.J. Also, they had *• Proprium Sanctorum 

* According to Albert le Grand. Ecclesiae Coisopoiensis,*' printed a.d. 164a, 
•» "Quod aedes Ronani fuerit," adds in which at the same date were Lessons of 

Albert \r. Grand. the Second Noctum taken from the same 

* A stately edifice, lately restored from Life, but contracted. At the end, what had 
the designs of M. VioUet le Due. See been wanting in it is found supplied, and 
Murray's "Hand-Book for Travellers in this has reference to his death and relics. 
France," Brittany, sect, ii., Route 44, The ecclesiastical office is of a Confessor and 
p. 156. Pontiff. See **Acta Sanctorum," tomusi., 

^ Sae Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des Junii i. De S. Ronano Episcopo, Eremita, 

Saints," tome vi. , Premier Jour de Juin, m Britannia Armorica, Commentarius Prse- 

p. 367. vius, num. i, p. 83. 

>* This the BoUandists state, on the 

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L^n and Quimper, there was another called Laurenan, dedicated to our 
saint, and it gives name to the parish of Lan-Renan, in the diocese of Saint- 

Article III. — St. Cummin, or Cuimmein, Abbot of Rechrann, 
OR Rathlin Island, County of Antrim. {Eighth Century^ We find 
the simple entry of Cummin, in the Martyrology of Tallagh,* at the ist of 
June. The O'Clerys think, that he was the same as Cuimmein Cadhan,* son 
of Cronchu, son to Ronan, son of Eochaidh Ballderg, son to Cairthenn Finn, 
son of Blod, son to Cas, son to Conall Eachluath, and descended from the 
race of Corbmac Cas, son to Oilioll Oluim. This saint appears to be identi- 
fied with Cumineus Hua Kierain, Abbot of Rechrann or Rathlin Island, 
county of Antrim, who probably succeeded St. Flann,3 son to Kellach, bishop 
of Rechrann, who died a.d. 734.* We find, that his successor Cuimmin Ua 
Ciarain must have had a short term of rule, as he died in 738,5 according to 
a Calendar, which has been compiled by the Rev. William Reeves,^ or in 
742, according to the Annals of Ulster.' His name is entered, also, in the 
Calendars of Marianus O'Gorman and of Charles Maguire.® The Martyr- 
ology of Donegal 9 mentions Cummein, as having been venerated on this day. 

Article IV.— St. Leban, or Laobhan, of Ath-Eguis, or Atha 
Egais. The Martyrology of Tallagh ' registers the name of Leban Atha egais, 
at the ist of June. Colgan thinks the present saint may be identified with a St. 
Macetus,* orSt. Maccectus, of Domnach Leobain, who manufactured a famous 
reliquary, called Finn Faidheach. He appears to have been not only a disciple 
of St. Patrick, but one of his oflScial servants or domestics.3 When St. Patrick 
left Elphin and journeyed to Hua-Noella, otherwise, Tiroillell he is said to have 
built a church, at a place called Sean Cheall Dumhaighe, where he left a 
Macetus, with many of his disciples. The church of Domnach Leobain, 
with which he was connected, is thought to have been identical with the 
parish church of Kill-Leoban, in the Diocese of Clonfert. However, it is 
possible, that his real name is unknown, and that Mac Cecht — meaning son 
of Cecht — may have been only his patronymic* Colgan calls him a piriest* 
Marianus O'Gorman and Cathal Maguire commemorate Loebain or Loeb- 
hanus, at the ist of June,^ and his place is called Ath-egais. We read, also, 

Article hi. — * Edited by Rev. Dr. rum Scriptores," tomusiv. 

Kelly, p. xxvi ® See Colgan *s " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

• In Colgan*s "Trias Thaumaturga," he niae,*' xii. Januarii. De S. Cumiano Epis- 
is called Cumineus Hua Kierain. Quinta copo, n. 6, p. 59. 

Appendix ad Acta S. Columbae, cap. viii., » Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

pp. 509. 510. 142, 143- 

3lleis venerated, on the 1 7lh of July. Article iv.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

^ According lo Dr. 0*l)onovan's ** Annals Kelly, p. xxvi. 

of the Four Masters," vol. i., PP- 336, 337. * See "Trias Thaumaturga," Septima 

According to Tighemach's Annals he de- Vita S. Patricii, lib. ii., cap. xli., p. 135, 

partetl, however, A.D. 739. See Rev. Dr. and nn. 80, 81, 82, 83, p. 176. 

O'Conor's ** Rerum Hibernicum Scriptores," ^ gee ibid.t lib. iii., cap. xcviii., p. 

tomus iL, p. 243. 167. 

5 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the ^ If Cecht be assumed as an appellative, 

Four Masters." vol. i., pp. 338, 339. it sometimes means "a plough," and some* 

* Sec" Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, times " power.'* — See ibid.^ n. 130, p. 188. 
Connor and Dromore,** Appendix L.L.. ^ See ibid^^ (Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. 
p. 379. Patricii, cap. xxiii., p. 267. 

^ Sec Dr. O'Conor's " Rerum Hibcrnica- * See ibid,^ n. 129, p. iSiS. 

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m the Martyrology of Donegal,' that Laobhan, of Ath-Eguis, had a festival 
on this day. However, in William M. Hennessy's copy of this work, I find the 
following manuscript note, " Laoban atha Eguis," nearly in the same manner, 
and apparently as a correction. That writer states, this saint's locality was 
formerly called Kill Laobhain, now Killevan,* partly in the barony of Dartry,9 
and partly in that of Monaghan, county of Monaghan. This was a portion 
of the great parish of Galloon, while the name Cill Laebain, " Church of 
Laebhan/' indicates an ecclesiastical origin ; and, it may be, that it commemo- 
rates the St. Laebhan of Cill-Laebhain, in the Diocese of Clonfert, or of Kil- 
more*** There were three churches or chapels in this district;" the most 
ancient of which at Killeevan the people in the neighbourhood call ** the 
Abbey of Killeevan ;" but of the original church, there only remains the western 
gable, with a very small lancet window, which indicates the antiquity of this 

Article V. — St. Egol, of Disert Eegoilse. At this date, the 
Martyrology of Tallagh ' records a festival to honour Egol, of Disert Eegoilse. 
Among the many Diserts or Deserts mentioned in Irish topography, we have 
not been able to identify the present spot. 

Article VI. — St. Steallan. We have Stealldn, recorded in the 
Martyrology of Donegal,' on this day, as having been honoured with a 

Article VII. — St. Colman. The Martyrology of Donegal,' on this 
day, registers the name of Colman, as having been venerated. He is other- 
wise undistinguished. 

Article VIII. — Festival of St. Thecla, Virgin and Martyr. In 
the Irish Church, St Thecla was venerated, on the ist of June, as we find it 
set down, in the " Feilire " of St. ^Engus.' In notes to the " Leabhar Breac " 

copy,* we meet further references to this holy virgin and martyr.3 She 

' Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. Article vi.— ' Edited by Drs. Todd 

142, 143. and Reeves, pp. 142, 143. 

* It contains 11,570a. 3r. 6p. It is shown, Article vii.— » Edited by Drs. Todd 

on the " Ordnance Survey Townland Maps and Reeves, pp. 142, 143. 

for the County of Monaghan," sheets 12, 13, Article viii.— » Thus is the stanza 

16, 17, 21. found, in the ** Leabhar Breac " copy, and 

« The greater part of the acreage is within it is translated into English, by Whitley 

this part, and only 257a. or. i3p. is in the Stokes, LL.D. : — 
barony of Monaghan. 

«• See Evelyn Philip Shirley's " History Oit> wenmiAti fell UecUi 

of the County of Monaghan," chap. xL, -dt\T)li5 T)uti Acecul 

p. 335. Corlog At>bui UAf At 

" <S»e at Shanco, adioining Killeevan, 1 KU luin ecAti. 
was bnilt in 1790; while one was in the 

townland of Drumswords, and it b marked " Music of the mind is Thecla's feast ; it 

on the County Map of 1 793. behoves us to sing of her with a host vast Mid 

" There w a wood engraving of this ruin, noble, in the front of June's Calends."—- 

in the work already mentioned, where a " Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy," 

more complete account will be met with in Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., part i. On 

chap, xi., pp. 335 to 337, chap, xiv., pp. 442, the Calendar of Oengus, p. xdi. 

to 447, ai»d Appendix iv., pp. 566, 567. « These are chieBy glosses to the text of 

Articxb v.— » Edited by Rev. Dr. the foregoing stanza:— 1. Oit> .1. ceol no 

KcUy p. xxv»- Aipficitro no bitiwuf [in right margin] Oio 

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suffered at Antioch, with Zozimus ; and, their feast is commemorated, at this 
date, in several ancient Martyrologies, as the Bollandists mention.* They are 
noticed, also, at the ist of June, in the Petits Bollandistes.^ 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Dicull, Hermit at Bosen- 
HAM. There is a Festival, to commemorate the Elevation of the Relics of a 
St. Dicull, said to have been the founder of a monastery, at Bosanhame, 
according to Thomas Dempster's " Menologium Scotorum."* It is placed at 
the ist of June ;* as also, there is a feast for this saint, at the nth of Feb- 
ruary. He is called Dicul, a monk of the Scottish nation ; while, his monas- 
tery is said to have been situated, between Sussex ? and Southampton. If 
we are to credit Dempster,* he flourished a.d. 689,5 and he wrote a book, 
" Ad Occidentales Saxones Exhortationes." It is stated, that his place was 
surrounded by woods and by the sea ; and, that with him, in holy companion- 
ship, lived five or six monks.^ Dempster holds, that he flourished at a time, 
somewhat later than a Dicullus, alluded to by Venerable Bede.7 

Article X. — Reputed Feast of St. Damian, Priest. Thomas 
Dempster, in his '* Menologium Scotorum,"' has a festival, at the ist of June, 
for Damian, a priest, at Cummemald, or Cumbernauld. He is said to have 
brought the Relics of St. Andrew, the Apostle, with St. Regulus, to Scotland.* 
These came to Otholinia, under the dominion of the Picts, at that time, which is 
stated to have been in the fourth century.3 He is called a Priest, and a cousin- 
german to the deacon Merinatus ; however, Dempster would not determine. 

m 911111 An 7|\l. .1. uigit). bit) t)iii. oi-o .1. 
tt^huT) no AidilugtiT) menitiAti. no oit> .1. 
in'oecVitni^ .1. CAb^ifN T)ocAipe. no oit>. 
bin-oig. bin T)in ot>A [cWiJ. Lat, ode^ odd\ .1. 
AX)bonx), ec tinDe x)icictJt\ ox) .1. binnef . ec 
meloDi^ tic t>icicti|i. 

Aef 'OAnA mnig cotMnnib 
ConAcliApAiD ceol bint)e 
Cit> bint) tACAch x)ib a ot) 
m choifcf ewne AnAipficeox). 

This stanza is thus translated into English :~ 

" The artists of the kin^r with melodies. 
With their trains music-sweet. 
Though his (own) song is sweet to 

each of them, 
We will not hear their playing." 

.1. CAb|\At> XKnnenniA t>iA lioit>. no oit> 
t)ocnieninAin. A|\biD oit> .1. ugut) menm^n 
nobinoef wenwAn 7 comAo oit) <juAfi od 
Ab OOA foept>e no oit> .1. u AnAig oocmen- 
WAin .1. CAbAift t>ocAi|\e .1. A|\ipii mon 
tibei\CAf ec nACiuicAf euif [hj 001© net 
in Voc t>ie. 2. Acecui .1. AAipief no 
AcecchAncAin. 4. .1. in f ponce htnuf 
menpf.— /^/V/., p. xcvi. 

^ See ibid,^ p. xcviii. 

^ See "Acta Sanctorum/' tomus L, 
Junii i De SS« Zosimo et Teda Vlrgine» 

Martyribus Antiochise, p. 42. 

5 ** Vies des Saints, tome vi. Premier 
Jour de Juin, p. 357. 

Article ix. — ' It is thus entered : 
Bosanhame monasterio DicuUi Eremitae 
fundatoris elevatio. B." 

• See Bishop Forbes* "Kalendars of Scot- 
tish Saints" P. 201. 

3 Under the Additions to this County, 
Boseham or Bosenham is described, in 
Cough's Camden's "Britannia," vol. i., 
pp. 192, 193. 

* See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentts 
Scotorum," tomus i., lib. iv., num. 406, 
p. 222. 

5 Dempster adds : " Sanctum putat eccle- 
sia Scotica, ex Beda, lib. iii. Hist. Eccles. 
Anglor, cap. xix." 

** This is related in Surius, " De Probatis 
Sanctorum Vitis," tomus v. Vita S. 
Wilfridi, xii. Octobris. 

' In "Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglo- 
rum," lib. iii., cap. xxviii 

Article x. — ' It is thus entered: 
" Cummemaldiae Damiani presbyteri, qui 
S. Andreae reliquias a S. K^ulo aUatas 
recepit. B T." 

•See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of 
Scottish Saints," p. 201. 

3 See the account given by Hector Boece, 
in "Scotorum Historiae,' lib. vi., foL 

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whether he was a Scot or a Greek, or whether he accompanied St Regulus to 
Scotland, or there joined him, with his other companions. He is said to have 
written a hook, " De Reliquiarum S. Andreae in Britanniam Advectione," 
and to have flourished, in the year 332.4 One of the churches at St Andrew 
I dedicated to him.' 

Article XI. — Elevation of the Relics of St. Madelgisilus, at 
Ckntule. Some Elevation of the Relics of St. Madelgisilus, at Centule, is 
commemorated by the Bollandists,* at the ist of June. The Life of this 
saint has been presented, already, at the 30th day of May,' which is his prin- 
cipal festival, and where allusion is made to the Elevation in question. 

deconli sap of %\mt. 




IKTRODUCTION— writers of the acts of ST. ALDEGISUS— his PARENTAGE, AND 

IF lovers of this world desire to write about transitory and evil things, 
much more should those who desire to record what subjects are eternal 
and salutary for the devotion of the faithful, and for the salvation of posterity. 
Sosutes the mediaeval author of our saint's Acts, in which he recognises the 
wonderful gifts of God, and the glory of his august name ; since before the con- 
ttitution of this world, his holy ones were under the prescience of His 
Supreme Wisdom, and after its creation in due course were they glorified. 
This is fully revealed in the lives and works of the Patriarchs and Prophets ; 
in the glorious choirs of the Apostles and Evangelists ; as in the multitudes 
of the holy Martyrs and Confessors. Among the latter class may be ranked 
the present holy man — the special Patron and Confessor of the writer — a 
brilliant light amid those stars of the Heavenly firmament, and whose rays 
were calculated to chase darkness from the souls of men, through his virtues 
and miracles. 

Certain mistakes probably crept into the Acts of this holy missionary. 
Colgan intended to treat of St. Algisus, at the 2nd of June.* There are Acts 

^ See Tbomas Dempster's " Historia tomus i., Junii L Among the pretermitted 

EcclcaastJcai Gentis Scotonim,** tomus ii., saints, p. 4. 

lib. IT., Dam. 410. pp. 223, 224. ' See the Fifth Volume of this work, 

< See WiUiam F. Skene s <' Chronicles of Art. i., at that date, 

the Picti wnd Socus," p. 187. Article i.— Chapter l— « According 

Aeticls Xi.— ' See " Acta Sanctorum,** to " Catalogus Actuum Sanctorum quae MS. 

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[June 2. 

of St Etto, fiishop, in which among the companions of St. Fursey are distin- 
guished as constituting his brethren or disciples Algisus and Adelgisus or Alde- 
gisus — ^whereas these names seem to be applicable to one and the same person. 
Again, while Algisus b said to have died in one monastery, Aldegisus is said 
to have departed in another.* Although there may be mistakes of statement 
and exaggerations, in the Acts of Algisus ; yet, may it be alleged, also, they do 
not deserve those severe criticisms, which such errors have called forth. The 
Manuscript Life of this saint was extant in the time of Molanus,^ at the Beth- 
lehemitc monastery of Canons Regular, near Louvain. The author of this 
Tract states in its preface, that he collected the Life and Virtues of the most 
excellent Father — whom he terms our Algisus — from the faithful narratives 
of his senior Fathers -f and, while desirous of correcting and arranging what 
had been written into one Treatise, he desired to include, also, what had been 
derived from tradition. This was done, through motives of piety, and not to 
challenge literary admiration, so that devout persons might have a memorial 
of the holy man, and praise the work of God wrought by him. The Bollan- 
dists 5 have such Acts ^ — illustrated by notes— of this holy man, at the 2nd of 
June. These are edited by Father Francis Baert, preceded by a Commen- 
tary,7 and they are followed by an Appendix.* In the Third Volume of the 
" Acta Sanctorum Belgii,9 the Acts of St. Chillen and of St Adalgisus will 
be found." A short notice of the latter saint is met with in Molanus." He 
is commemorated, also, by Miraeus," and Bucelin.'3 There are notices of 
this holy missionary, likewise, in Thomas Dempster's "Menologium Scoto- 
rum,"'4 and in the Petits BoUandistes.'s 

This holy man was born in Ireland,'* where he was brought up in the 
exercise of every virtue, having been dedicated to the Almighty, by his dis- 
tinguished and pious parents. They offered vows and prayers, diat their son 
might have intellect and will, to serve God with his whole mind. From his 

habentnr ordine Mensium et Dierum.*' 

* Father Francis Baert hereupon remarks : 
" Ego vero, ubi de uno laboramus satis, 
alterum quaerendum non existimo, ut labore- 
mus ma^s ; prsesertim cum scriptor hie, non 
alia ratione ad divisionem illam motus 
videatur, quam aliquali, apud varios Autores 
non antiquos, reperta nominis dissimilitu- 

3 This writer states, he had seen it, and 
from that source has been drawn, what he 
had compiled in eulogizing our saint. 

^ However, the BoUandist Father Baert, 
reljring much on the opinion of Father 
Godefrid Henschen, throws much suspicion 
on the antiquity of these writers, who lived, 
as he supposed, only a short time before the 
compilation had been made, since there are 
matters somewhat incredible, such as the 
miraculous well, the cell Adalgisus built, the 
reception of Corbican's body, and the vision 
of St. Peter the Apostle, there introduced. 
It is not easy to understand, how Baert 
arrived at an opinion, that because St. Adal- 
gisus is said to have come to France with St. 
Fursey, this thought must have been derived 
from perusing the writings of Venerable 
Bede, and from the well known acts of St. 
Fursey, which mention his other Scottish 
companions, nkhough no notice be taken of 
St. Algisus among them. Henschen con- 

sidered, that the Acts in question should not 
be published, and that the Epitome of 
Molanus should suffice ; however, Baert re- 
solved otherwise, leaving freedom to the 
critic to form bis own opinions as to their 

5 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus L, Junii 
ii. De S. Adalgiso, sive Algiso Presbytero, 
in Theoracia Picardiae Regiuncula, pp. 22a 
to 228. 

* These are contained in two chapters, 
containing seventeen paragraphs. A Pro- 
logue of me author is prefixed. 

t In five paragraphs. 

^ In five paragraphs. 

' In a Histonco'Critical Sylloge, by 
Cornelius Smet, sees. I to 19. 

«• At the 2nd of June, pp. 589 to 598. 

" See " Natales Sanctorum Belgii," Junii 
ii., at pp. 108, 109. 

" See Fasti Belgici et Burgundici,'* pp. 

272. 393- 

»3 In his Benedictme Martyrology. 

'*Thus: "in Belgio Adalgisi Apostoli. 
M.L."— Bishop Forbes' '•Kalendars of Scot- 
tish Saints,*' p. 201. 

»5 See "Vies des Saints," tome vi.. 
Second Jour de Juin, p. 371. 

** The writer of his Acts states : ** Hie de 
transmarinis panibus, de Hibemia scilicet^ 
darii parentibus ortus," &c. 

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youth, they took good care to have him indoctrinated with learning, both 
mundane and sacred. Through the efficacious grace of Him, who rules all 
hearts, Adalgisus resolved on dedicating himself wholly to the Lord's ser- 
vice. According to the compiler of our saint's Acts, his brothers were Saints 
Goban '? and Etho.'^ In the time of our saint flourished the illustrious man 
Fursey,'9 said to have been a Bishop,*** in the Island of the Hibernian Scots, 
and who devoted himself to the most pious manner of living and to the work of 
Almighty God. He desired, also, to join with himself those companions, who 
would find the same delight in a religious life, and who had an evident voca- 
tion for it. Wherefore, Saints Algisus, and his venerable brothers, Etho and 
Goban, as also a holy man Eloquius,*' placed themselves under his guidance, 
when serving God with one heart and mind, full of wisdom and faith, the 
Holy Spirit guided them through a course of learning, while they neglected 
not to study the Sacred Scriptures. With earnestness of purpose and unchang- 
ing charity, those pious pupils pursued their meditations on the Divine Law, 
by day and by night. 

When they had remained imdef his tutelage for a sufficient time, St Fursey 
called them to himself, and exhorted them to prepare for the reception of 
Holy Orders. He advised them, through faith in the Holy Trinity and 
through the virtue of the Holy Ghost, to receive the Priesthood, and the 
blessings it conferred, in the name of Him, who rescued them from eternal 
death. They responded to his exhortations, by yielding obedience, and by 
receiving the Body and Blood of our Lord, when they were ordained by St. 
Fursey. This ordinance was duly conferred, according to the ritual, and they 
returned to their friends, giving thanks to God. The sixth hour of the night 
following, which was that of the Sabbath, and while rechning on their beds, 
as a reward for their pious recollection and vigil, all of those Priests deserved 
to hear these words, as if addressed to them by the Lord : " Come to me 
all you who labour and are burdened, and I will refresh you at my heavenly 
table in my kingdom." This gave them great consolation, and on the follow- 
ing day, which was Sunday, Saints Algisus, with his brothers-german Goban 
and Etho, as also Eloquius and many others, went to their holy superior, St. 
Fursey. They related what had occurred in the vision, and they sought his 
permission to visit the tombs of the Apostles, Peter and Paul, with those of 
other saints, so that there they might offer vows and prayers. St Fursey 
hearing their narrative gave thanks to God ; but, wishing to accompany them, 
he answered St. Algisus and his companions, with a cheerful countenance : 
" Certainly, I shall not give you permission to go, unless 1 am with you." 

Then, having called his brothers St. Ultan " and St. FoilIan»3 to 
him, St. Fursey said : *' My dear brothers, do you wish to seek Christ with 
me?^ They replied : " Our father and our superior, wherever you go, we 

"7 His Feast has been assigned to the 20th when he is said to have visited Rome, 

of June. »' His Feast is referred to the 3rd of 

*■ His Festival occurs at the loth of December. 

July. " His Festival is kept, on the xst of May, 

** The reader is referred to his Life, at the and the reader is referred to that date, in the 

l6th of January, in the First Volume of this Fifth Volume of this work, for his Acts, at 

work. Art. L Art. iii. 

* This is a doubtful statement, since '^ His feast is held, on the 30th of Octo- 

neither in his own Acts, nor in the notices ber. 

of him, hy Venerable Bede, is it to be found ** This name has been derived from a 

related. Some think, he might have been Teutonic source, signifying '* noble pledge." 

ordained as a bishop, before he left Ireland; — '* Dictionary of Christian Biography," 

while others are of opinion, that he might edited by William Smith, LL.D., and Henry 

have been consecrated by Pope St. Martin, Wace, M.A., vol. i., p. 32. 


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shall follow you." In like manner, the holy Confessor Algisus or Adalgisus •< 
called his brothers, Goban, and Etho, with Eloquius, and another godson, 
named Corbican, as also his servant, named Rodalgus. He then spoke to 
them : " Dearly beloved, let us go and follow Christ, and offer ourselves to 
him as a holocaust." They replied to him : " Be it as you have spoken, O holy 
man, who desireth not only to profit yourself, but to have others, especially 
those so closely related by family ties, and through the exercise of pious 
works, as your companions." Wherefore, asking the blessing and absolution 
of St. Fursey, and commending themselves to the Lord, having obtained 
such favours, they returned thanks. St. Fursey, in turn, asked their blessing, 
which he received ; then, in the name and with the peace of God, he went 
with them to the sea-shore. They embarked on board a ship, while the waves 
being calm, they sailed to a more distant country.'^ Where they landed is 
not stated, save that it was on some part of the French shore. However, 
they directed their course to Corbei,'^ where there was a church,'^ dedicated 
to the honour of the Holy Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul,'^ in that district 
about Amiens,'9 and in which diocese it was situated. There, the pilgrims were 
received in a hospitable manner, when they had entered that monastery.^** 
Prostrating themselves before the altar of the most blessed Peter, these 
devout souls poured forth their prayer : " O Lord God, omnipotent King, 
who art, who hath been, and who art to be, who hath caused us to pass over 
the waves of a tranquil sea, and who hath brought us safely hither, we humbly 
request thee, O most bountiful Creator, to show us that place destined for 
each one of us, from the beginnmg of the world. Amen." Having poured 
forth this prayer in sighs and in tears, they arose. Embracing each other, 
they issued from that monastery, and in the cause of Christ, they separated for 
different quarters ; but, while absenting themselves thus in body, the bond 
of Faith and of Charity united them in soul. Wherefore, to different places 
of the Gaulish kingdom they went, preaching the Lord's Gospel everywhere, 
until each arrived at his respective destination. Then, severally addicting 
themselves to prayers, vigils, and pious exercises, they spent the rest of their 
days, entirely devoted to God's service. 

From the sixth to the seventh century, as ancient chronicles record, 
many are the holy missionaries of Ireland, who are known to have 
preached the Gospel in France. It has been groundlessly assumed,^* how- 
ever, that Adalgisus, from his name, had been a native of Gaul, who became 
a disciple of an Irish missionary, greatly distinguished in Gaul, during the 
seventh century. Among St. Fursey's companions, at Lagny, is thought to 

•5 It is the opinion of Father Baert, that marks, that it was " satis honorifice con- 
st. Algisus preceded St. Fursey to France, structa." 

and that after his departure from Ireland, •' It was consecrated with the monastery 

Fursey went to Sigebert, King of the East here by Berthefroid, Bishop of Amiens, 

Angles, before the year 636. He tliinks, in 662. 

there must be an anachronism in the Acts of *» A description of this city, with an illus- 

Si. Adelgisus, who is represented as finding tration of the facade of its magnificent cathe- 

Clodoveus II. at Laon, as he did not begin dral, wiU be found in Elis^e Reclus' ** Noa- 

to reign in France, until 638. Now, the veUe Geographic UniverseUe," tome ii., 

monastery at Corbei was first founded, a.d. chap, xii., sect, iv., pp. 787 to 789. 
657, in the reign of Clotaire III., so that it ^o it must be obsared here, that Corbie 

should be difficult to believe, Algisus could was founded by Queen Bathilde, during her 

have been entertained there at a much earlier regency, in the year 657 or 662, and over it 

period. For the date of its foundation, Baert she placed St Theodefroi, a religioas of 

refers to Le Cointe, tomus i., " Conciliorum Luxeuil. See an account of it, in M. Maxime 

Gallise," for its charter, which is cited. de Monirond's " Dictionnaire des Abbayes 

••This is stated by Molanus and Buce- et Monast^res, " &c., cols. 222, 223. 
lin. ^ By Father Francis Baert, S.J. 

"^ The author of our saint's Acts here re- 3« gee Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 

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have been included A(ialgisiis;3» but, this hardly appears to have been the 
case, if we follow the old writer of his Life. However, with those holy persons, 
already alluded to, the blessed Al^sus, especially recommending himself to 
Divine protection, and regarding the destined object of his way, is said to 
have come to Laon.33 There, he was reverently welcomed, by King 
Clodoveos,^ who most generously acceded to a request earnestly preferred, 
that Algisus and his companions might obtain a suitable place, where they 
could serve our Lord, in a religious community life. Wherefore, with Cor- 
bican, Rodald, and Carebert,35 our saint went into a retired place, called 
Cellula, in the wood of Therascia, or Thierache,^^ in Picardy. This was near 
Mount-Saint Julian, on the River Oysia,37 or Isara, now the Oyse, which falls 
into the Seine. There, St. Algisus fixed his staff in the ground, and imme- 
diately, a clear fountain of water sprung up ;3^ afterwards, it was known to 
have cured many persons from their infirmities.39 When this miracle was 
witnessed, by the holy man, he gave thanks to God, in these words : " O 
Lord, to thee be all glory." Two possessed persons came there, who requested 
Algisius in the name of Christ to deliver them from demoniac influence. For 
these, he earnestly prayed on his knees, with an humble and a devout soul, 
and rising up, he imposed hands on them. Then signing them with a sign 
of the cross, instantly the Liberator of all, through the merits of our saint, 
released the afflicted from their miserable bondage. This miracle, wrought 
before a number of persons, ended in their perfect restoration ; nor was it 
more than the beginning of wonderful works, whereby the Almighty mani- 
fested his power, while the fame of Adelgisus increased each day. 

The holy roan found a suitable site for his habitation, near the miraculous 
fountain ; and, according to the custom of that age, before he began to build, the 
founder spent the night in prayer and vigil When the next day dawned, his 
servants went to the neighbouring Mount, where they vigorously cut down trees, 
to serve for their future habitation. Of this proceeding, Adelgisus was ignorant; 
but, an Angel of the Lord appeared, in the shape of a dove, and carrying in 
its bill a leafy branch from the wood. That dove then flew towards the place, 
destined for them by the Almighty, and full in their presence. The disciples, 
who had been at work, retired from the Mount, and they followed that dove 
towards the spot, where their holy superior was engaged at prayer. Here, 
they found the dove, standing beside him. The disciples were filled with a 
reverential awe. Then, Adalgisus rising from prayer took an axe in his hands, 
to commence his religious foundation. There, the holy Confessor built his 
church, and he laboured at the work, with his own hands, aided by those of 
his disciples. That place was afterwards called Cellula, or " the little monas- 
tery."^ When the house had been erected, the servant of God, Algisus, 

History of Ireland," voL ii., chap, xvi., sect. ^ See ** Histoire Literaire de la France," 

x^ p. 462. tome vil, Siecle xi., p. 190. 

33 This is stated by Molanus and Buce- 3? it is also called Oesia, Esia, and ^sia, 

tin. by the old writers. See Bavdrand's " Novum 

^li seems probable Clovis II., husband I^con Geographicum," tomus i., pp. 15, 

of Queen Batbude, is here meant, who died 278, 389. 

io August, 656. See " Dictionary of Chris- 3* This was well known, in the time when 

tian ffiograpby," edited by William Smith, the old writer of our saint's Acts lived ; yet, 

LL.D., and Henry Wace, M.A., vol. i., it appears to have been forgotten, when the 

p. 583. Bollandbts came to treat about the memo- 

3S It seems most likely, this is the new rials of St. Adelgisus. 

servant of our saint, to whom Baert alludes 3» According to Molanus and Bucelin. 

as having a French name, and who was pro- ♦» We believe, the BoUandist editor has 

bablr associated with St. Adelgisus, after mistaken the character of the r^ww^wiw here, 

he hid arrived in France. as having been a smaU house to accommodate 

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together with his pious subjects, Corbican, Rodald, and Carebert, settled 
down, to praise Almighty God, and to proclaim that precious miracle, which 
had inaugurated their religious enterprise, as also to thank unceasingly 
our Lord Jesus Christ, for his bountiful regard, towards these devoted 



When it was known in Ireland, that St. Adelgisus and his companions had 
taken up their residence at Cellula, certain Irish pilgrims set out with a St. 
Annanus f they passed over the sea, and guided in a providential manner, 
they came to that place. There, they were joyously received by St. Adelgisus, 
who exclaimed : " Oh ! how good and pleasing it is for brothers to dwell 
together." Kissing each other, in monastic fashion, they give thanks to the 
Almighty, and then partaking of food, the travellers rested for that night 
When the next day had dawned, the blessed Annanus and his companions 
with St. Adelgisus and his brethren began to labour earnestly in the service 

At this time, the holy Priest Adelgisus built a church, in honour of St 
Peter and of the other Apostles, and of all the Saints. Having finished its 
erection, he called his godson Corbican, and he said : ** My dearly beloved 
son, Corbican, it behoves you to go beyond the sea to my country, and to 
tell my father, mother, brothers and sisters, what you know regarding our 
affairs. Convey to them this message, that the portion of my inheritance which 
remains must be sold, and that the product shall be sent here through you. 
This, too, must you state, that never shall they see me more, unless they come 
hither ; but, you must return to me, for I shall proceed to visit the tombs of 
the Apostles, St. Peter and St Paul, at Rome." Then, replied Corbican : 
" My Father, if I should die on the way, what shall become of the treasure?" 
The holy Confessor Adelgisus said to him : ** Lo 1 if death overtake thee, 
direct my father and mother to place the treasure by thy side, to cover thee 
with a waxed linen cloth, and to set thy body in two hides of animals, sewed 
up on every side ;3 afterwards, they shall commit your body to the deep and 

four of five hermits ; perhaps, it is more holiness of life, " suscipiente Madelgario, 

likely, they dwelt in separate cells, but living qui postea Sanctus Vincentius dictus est, 

near each other, around a church. Hannonise comite." — ** Historia Ecclesias- 

** See the Bollandists* "Acta Sancto- tica Geniis Scotorum," tomus i, lib. L, 

rum,'* lomus L, Junii il De S. Adalgiso num. 8, p. 9. 

sive Algiso Prcsbytero, in Theoracia, Picar- ' There can be little doubt, that the pre- 

diae Regiuncula. Acta S. Algisi, cap. i., sent is one of those incredible legends, so 

num. I to 8, pp. 223 to 225. Also, Appen- frec^uently met with in the Lives of the 

dix, num. 22, 23, p. 228. Saints ; however, there are several practices, 

Chapter ii.— ' The BoUandist editor like the present, incidenUlly alluded to, 

Baert remarks, that elsewhere he finds no and which serve to throw some light on the 

account of a saint so named. usages of past times. In the present case, 

■ If we are to credit the statement of the manner of ancient interments is ex- 
Dempster, St. Adalgisus exercised holy posed, 
offices in Belgium, and he was celebrated for ^ Some of these relics are enumerated, in 

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to Divine guidance, while, I trust to the Lord's clemency, that you shall be 
brought hither, in a direct course." The renowned servant of God humbly 
obeyed the holy Father, and having received his blessing, Corbican set out 
on his journey. Through Almighty guidance, he came to the sea, which he 
cn-ossed, and soon he brought the request of Adelgisus to his parents. These 
were greatly rejoiced, to have a pleasing and an authentic account of their 
son, and they readily complied with his request to effect the sale of his pro- 
perty. The proceeds were then given to Corbican, who was to transfer what 
had been obtained to his holy superior. But, when Corbican prepared for 
his return to Adelgisus, he began to waste in strength, and finding the chill 
of death approaching, he called the parents of his superior, and he told them 
what were the instructions of their son, in such a contingency. They promised 
to obey these directions. Soon, the happy death of Corbican took place, and 
while his body lay far from his holy superior, his soul was associated with the 
choirs of Heaven. Then were his remains covered with the waxed linen, the trea- 
sure was placed by his side, and the skins enclosed ail; while the parents of 
Adelgisus, mindful of their son's orders, had the body brought to the sea, where 
it was committed to the waves, and to the disposition ot Divine Providence. 
The old writer of our saint's Acts — after moralizing on these particulars ol the 
Legend — proceeds to state, that Angels guided the remains of Corbican over 
the sea, until in a direct course they floated onwards, to the place where 
Adalgisus lived at Cellula. While they were moving against the current of 
the River Isara, some shepherds on the bank, noticing the floating object and 
not knowing what it was, left their flocks, and endeavoured to draw it towards 
them. Yet, their efforts were in vain ; and, while they followed the unknown 
object to one part of the river, soon it eluded their grasp, by gliding away to 
another place. This caused them to wonder greatly; but, soon Father 
Adelgisus, who had a revelation of what had taken place, came to the river's 
brink. Towards him, instantly, the body of Corbican floated. Filled with 
thanksgiving, the soul of St. Adelgisus expanded in prayer, and receiving the 
remains of his faithful disciple, they were soon brought to his oratory. The trea- 
sure was found beside his remains. There, Corbican was religiously interred, 
hymns and psalms were recited, and all glory was given to God, who 
had wrought such a stupendous miracle, to manifest the merits of his true 

Then, it is stated, that in fulfilment of a purpose he had formed and of a 
vow he had long before made, the amiable lover of Christ Adelgisus set out 
for Rome, asking Almighty protection on the way, that he might perform an 
act becoming his zeal and piety. When he arrived in the Eternal City, he 
went to the Basilica of St. Peter, and there he offered up prayers with great 
devotion, and tears coursed down his cheeks, when he knelt in the holy 
places. He desired most earnestly to receive sacred relics, so that he might 
bring them to that place, where he chose to serve the Almighty. In response 
to his wishes, he was favoured with a vision, in which the Blessed Apostle of 
our Lord Peter appeared, and brought him those sacred relics, which he had 
so eagerly requested.* Having visited the various oratories of the saints in 
Rome, the holy Priest Adelgisus, commending himself to Almighty protec- 
tion, prepared for his return. His heart was filled with gratitude for the 
favours he had received, and therefore he hastened homewards to his cell, 
Vfhert he devoted himself most assiduously to prayer and Divine meditation. 
There, too, he chastised the body and kept it in subjection, lest while he 

the Lcf end of oar sainf s Acts, as objects of tomus i., Junii ii. De S. Adalgisuo sive 
special reneration. Alf^ Presbytero, in Theoracia Picardiae 

5Sec the BoUandists' "Acta Sanctorum," Regiuncnla, cap. it., sect. 9 to 16. 

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preached to others he should become a castaway .s He spread the Gospel 
of Christ throughout the territory of Hannonia, between the Rivers Isara and 
Helpra.* Thence, he banished all traces of idolatry, towards the middle of 
the seventh century. He established there the Christian Faith firmly, atid 
he brought many within the fold of Holy Church. 7 When not engaged on the 
active duties of his mission, the saint spent his time, in prayer, meditation 
and pious exercises. Thus, was he duly prepared for that final summons from 
this life, the comforts and seductions of which he had so long abandoned. 
The year of his decease is not on record ; but, it occurred, probably some time 
after the middle of the seventh century. The day assigned* for his depar- 
ture is the 2nd of June. He was interred in the territory of Laon,9 and his 
tomb was rendered famous, through the many miracles he wrought, even after 
death. His remains were at last transferred to and buried in the church of St. 
Michael," which Count Eilbert restored and endowed about the year 970," 
in the wood of Therascia, and at the instigation of St Forannan, whose feast 
is celebrated on the 30th day of April." An arm of St. Adalgisilus was pre- 
served in the monastery, called Maricolis, according to Raysius,'^ although 
this matter has been called into question by Father Baert.*^ According to 
Molanus, Mirseus, Bucelin, Menard, Dorgan, Saussay, and Wion, the feast of 
St. Adalgisus is set down, at the 2ndof June.'S Also, in the "Menologium 
Scoticum,"*^ of Thomas Dempster, his festival is on this day. At the same 
date, in that anonymous List, published by O'Sullevan Beare, we find Algisus. 
This name occurs, likewise, in Henry Fitzsimon's Catalogue, on the autho- 
rity of Molanus.*^ An error has been admitted by Camerarius,'* who has 
placed the festival of Adalgisus, at the 22nd of January. In the Martyrology 
of the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity, '9 Dublin, the feast of St. Algisus 
is on 2nd of June. 

During the years of his exile, the holy man Adelgisus left his parents, 
friends, and native country, to live for the sake of Christ, and to hold daily 
communication with him, in the bonds of a pious brotherhood, while he 
regarded Heaven as his true country and home. The exchange was only 
the abandonment of transitory terrestial things for eternal and celestial 
rewards. His choice was that of the truly wise man, who despises the glit- 
tering but worthless baubles, which engage the desires and pursuits of mere 
worldlings, so that called to the end of his mortal career, the glories of 
a heavenly Jerusalem dawned on his mental vision, and crowned his hopes of 
a blissful immortality. 

Article II. — Reputed Festival of St. Colman Finn, of Kilclief 
Parish, Barony of Legale, County of Down. According to tradition, 

^ According to Molanus. '^ In his Commentarius Prsevius to this 

7 According to Bucelin. saint's Acts, he states, that in a Manuscript 

■ According to Molanus and Bucelin. Catalogue of Relics preserved in this monas- 

» According to Saxissay, in his " Martjrr- tery, there is no account of this relic, while the 

ologium Gallicanum." record professes to include all the relics there 

*<» Here a Benedictine monastery is said preserved,fromA.D. 1586 to 1590. Sec num. 2. 

to have been established or repaired by St. *5 See the Acts of this saint, in the BoUan- 

Malcalan, an Irishman, about the year 940. dists* collection Commentarius Prsevius, 

Hewas the first Abbot of St.Michael. SeeM. num. 3, and Appendix, num. 18 to 20. 

Maxime de Montrond's " Dictionnaire des '* See Bishop Forbes* "Kalendars of Scot - 

Abbayes et Monastcres," &c., col. 527. Edi- tish Saints," p. 201. 

tion of TAbb^ Migne, Paris, 1856, sm. fol. '^ See O^Sullevan Beare's "Historise 

See ** Histoire literaire de la France," Catholicse Ibemise Compendium," tomus i., 

me vii, Siecle xi., p. 190. lib. iv., cap. xi., xii., pp. 50, 52. 

" See vol. iv. of this work, at that date, " According to Father Baert. 

rt. i. ^ Edited by John ClarkeCrosthwaite, A.M., 

'3 In Hierogazophylado Belgico. and Rev. Dr. James Henthom Todd, p. 122. 

Digitized by 


June a.] 



Kilclief,' a parish in the baronies of Upper and Lower Lecale, on the east 
border of Ulster, boasts of an early ecclesiastical origin. The church here is 
said to have been founded by St. Patrick ;' while Eugenius and Niellus are 
held to have been its first ministers,? and his own disciples.^ The village, 
where it was built, stands on the sea-shore ; while the surface lies, along the 
w^est side of the entrance 5 or lower part of Lough Strangford channel, and 
almost everywhere this parish consists of good arable land.*^ North- west of the 
Protestant church here, and which now occupies the original site, there is a 
townland at present denominated the Glebe,^ but consisting of three distinct 
old denominations, viz. : Drumroe, Carriff,and Carrowvannish,* Originally, it is 
probable, Kilclief had been a small parish, consisting only of 1,484 acres ; 
although presenting on the Ordnance Survey Maps five detached portions,^ 
^irhich, perhaps, were formerly chapelries, added to augment its income. 
A Hospital for Lepers had been founded here under the patronage of St 
Peter.*** When allusion is made to this place, it is called Cill-cleithe," or 
Cill-cliath," in our Annals. The word signifies " church of the hurdles," 
probably in reference to its original construction. '3 We find, however, that 
a daimliag, or stone church, had been here, in or before the tenth century, 
when it was burned. There, the parish church was dedicated to a St. Coelan, 
or Kelan.*^ He was probably either Cay Ian, the founder of Neddrum, or 
Cillin of Achadh-chail.^5 The original name Caolan admits of these varie- 
ties.^ He was probably son to Derinila, surnamed Cethuir-chich-each, i>., 
of the Four Provinces, mentioned by St. iEngus the Culdee.*^ In 1034, 

Articlb II. — ■ It is described, on the 
•* Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for the 
County of Down, '*^ sheets 31, 32, ^7, 38, 39, 
45. The townland proper is in the barony 
of Lower Lecale, and shown on sheets 32, 

^ 39. 

« Sec Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
niae," xiii Januarii Vita S. Alildi, p. 62, 
and n. 7. 

3 See " Trias Thaumaturga,"Sexta Vita S. 
Patricii, n. 35, P. no. 

* See ibid^ Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. 
Patricii, cap. xxiiL, p. 265. Also, cap. xxiv., 
p. 27a 

sSee Archdall's "Monasticon Hibemi- 
cam,*' p. 122. 

• See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ire- 
land.* vol. ii, p. 373. 

^ It consists of 400 acres, and it belonged 
formerly to the Archdeaconry. 

• In 1592, these were called Spittle Quar- 
ter, Carrowreagh, and Fenneannes. ** In 
the first of the^ quarter-lands is a plot called 
the spital'Jieldy which, within memory, con- 
tained ^ome vestiges of an ancient building. 
These were the remains of an Ho<ipital of 
Lepers, which was standing here in the four- 
teenth century." — Rev. Dr. Reeves* ** Eccle- 
siastical Antiquities of Down, Connor, and 
Dromore,** Appendix N, pp. 217, 218. 

* These are called Ringreagh, in the heart 
of Down parish ; Carrowdressex and Com- 
momreagh, in different parts of Bright ; 
Rossgla^ with four parishes intervemng; 
and Ross, near Ardglass. In 1834, by Act 
of Council, these five townlands were trans- 
fmed respectiyely to the adjacent parishes, 

while, in lieu of them, the two Killards and 
Ballvwoodan were incorporated with Kil- 
clief. See Third Report on Ecclesiastical 
Revenue, A.D. 1836, p. 264. 

*** See an article by Dr. Petrie, on Kilclief 
Castle, with a wood encraving of it, in the 
*• Dublin Penny Journal/* vol. i.. No. 49, 
June 1st, 1833, pp 385. 386. 

" See Dr. O* Donovan's "Annals 
of the Four Masters," vol. ii., at A.D. 
looi. Also the " Tigemachi Aimales," at 
1002, in Rev. Dr. 0*Conor*s "Rerum 
Hibemicarum Scriptores,'* tomus ii., p. 270. 

*• By the country people, it b generally 
called Killeeth. 

'3 Venerable Bede tells us, that " more 
Scotorum," churches were built of plank- 
wood and covered with thatch. See " His- 
toria Ecclesiastica Gentb Anglorum/' lib. 
iii. , cap. XXV. However, stone churches were 
built by the Scots or Irish, from the earliest 
Christian times, especially where stone mate- 
rials were found to abound more than 

»* According to the " Registrum Prene," 
p. 398, and "Regristrum Mey," lib. ii., 
p. 214. 

*5 See Rev. Dr. Reeves* ** Ecclesiastical 
Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dromore," 
Appendix N, p. 216. 

** See Colgan's *« Trias Thaumaturga," 
Sexta Vita S. Brigidse, n. I, p. 597' 

'7 In his tract, on the Mothers of the Irish 
SainU. See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum 
Hibemise," xx. Ik&rtii. Vita S. Muri, n. 6, 

^'^ Sec Rev. Dr. Rccvei' •' Ecdeaastical 

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Cillchiath was annexed to the See lands of Down ; and, about the year 1178, 
John De Courcy confirmed the possession of Kilcleth to the bishop. About 
the year 11 83, Bishop Malachi granted the church of Killecleth to the Abbey 
of St. Patrick.*^ Near the site of the former church rises the old castle of 
Kilclief, in which'the bishops of Down, at one time, resided. It seems to be 
a building of the fourteenth century, and it is still in good preservation, being 
^ well roofed.'* The 

castle and lands of 
Kilclief were an an- 
cient See House and 
Manor, belonging to 
the Bishops of Down.*** 
In the middle of the 
last century," the cas- 
tle was still entire, and 
covered with thatch.** 
There was a chamber, 
in this castle, called 
the Hawk's Cham- 
ber p and possibly, 
it may have been so 
designated, from the 
figure of a fowl, re- 
sembling a hawk, 
which was carved on a 
stone chimney-piece, 
in a room on the se- 
cond floor, and on 
which was cut, also, 
in bas-relief, a Cross 
Patee.»4 The first floor 
is vaulted. It has two" 
front wings, in one of 
which there was a 
stair-case, and in the 
other a stack of 
closets.'s Among the 

Kilclief Castle, County of Down. 

many holy men, bearing the name of Colman, and mentioned in our Calen- 
dars, the writer can only discover the name of Colman Fionn, venerated at 

Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dromore," 
n. (f), p. 38. 

'9 It was used as a granary, in 1847. See 
ibiii.^ Appendix N, p. 218. 

** The accompanying illustration, drawn 
on the woo«l by Wiiliam F. Wakeman, has 
been engraved by Mrs. Millard. 

" When Walter Harris wrote his " An- 
cient and Present State of the County of 
Down," &c., which was publiahed in Dublin, 
A.D. 1744, 8vo. 

"See tbid.j chap, iii., sect, i., pp. 23, 24. 

*3 According to the old natives, it was so 
called, because it was the place kept for the 
Bishop's falconer and hawks. Visitation 
Book in College Library, of 1623. 

■♦ Sec Walter Harris* description, in 

** Ancient and Present State of the County 
of Down,'* &c., chap, iii., sect, i., p. 24. 

»s ** The Lands surrounding the Castle are 
a fine Demense, and some of the best Land 
in the Barony, which with a Water Mill on 
them are held from the Bishop by the Reyd. 
Peter Leslie ; and South is a Denomination 
of Land called Bishop Court, in Lease to Mr. 
Justice IVard, near which axe SAeepiand and 
Bally hernan.*'— Ibid. ^ p. 24. 

^ See at that date, in the Fourth Volume 
of this work, Art. vii. But, no place has 
been assigned to him. 

•^ Also, at that date, there is a notice of 
this saint, but he is not there associated with 

"• See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 

Digitized by 



the 4th of April ;*^ or perhaps, Colman Ban, at the 19th of October.'^ We 
find a Colman Finn, an anchorite, whose death is set down, at a.d. 771 ;'• 
yet, we are not informed, if a date or a place has been assigned to him, or a 
rank among the Irish Saints. The writer is unable to find, on what authority, 
the Rev. William Reeves connects, at this day, the church and saint heading 
the present article j*^ but, these are included, in our collection, resting on his 

Article III. — St. Nainnid or Nainnidh, of Cluain h-Uinnsenn. 
An entry is found, in the Martyrology of Tallagh,* at this date, Nainnid 
Cluana usend. However, the parentage and period of this saint seem to be 
slirouded in obscurity. The place, called Cluain-Uinnseann is mentioned, 
in the Annals of the Four Masters,' as having been connected with the death 
of Maeltuile — probably an ecclesiastic — in a.d. 871. It means, in English, 
•* The Lawn or Meadow of the Ash Tree ;'* however, its exact situation has 
not been identified.^ There was a Nennidius or Nennius, who administered 
Holy Viaticum ^ to the illustrious Virgin, St. Brigid,s Patroness of Kiidare, 
when she died a.d. 523.^ He is usually distinguished, by the title Nennidh 
Lamghlann or Lamhidhan ; and, to him, by some writers, has been attributed 
a Hymn in praise of St. Brigid, commencing with these words : " Audite 
Virginis laudes.''^ An allusion to that holy attendant will be found, at the 
1 8th day of January;® but, his feast seems referable, rather to the 2nd day of 
April.9 Wherefore, we may assume, that the present holy man was quite a 
different person. On this day, a festival in honour of Nainnidh, said to have 
been of Cluain h-Uinnsenn, is set down, in the Martyrology of Donegal*® 

Article IV. — Reputed Festival of St. Cellach or Kellach, also 
CALLED St. Ceolath. {Seventh Century.^ According to a Manuscript 
Kalendar of Saints, belonging to the Benedictine Order, and according to 
Dempster,' a feast has been assigned to St. Ceolathus, second Bishop of 
Lichfield in England, at this date." Already, at the 14th of February, his Acts, 
so far as known, have been given, when treating about St. Cellach or Kellach, 
Bishop and Confessor.3 There is allusion to him, by Thomas Dempster,-* in 
his Ecclesiastical History of Scotland. Coella, Bishop of the Scottish nation, 
who succeeded Diuma, in the bishopric of the Mid-Angles, is commemorated 
on the 2nd day of June.5 He left his bishopric and returned to Hy,* as we 

Four Masters/* voL i., pp. 374, 375. « See the First Volume of this work, at 

■» Sec "Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, that date. Art. ii. 

Connor and Dromore," Appendix LL, p. 9 See an account of him, in the Fourth 

379. Volume of this work, at that date, Art. ii. 

Article hi.—-' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, " EtUted by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

p. xxvi. 142, 143. 

pp. 516, 517. ticum.*' See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of 

5 Sec ibid., n. (m), p. 517. Scottish Saints." p. 192. 

* According to the Third, Fourth and * See the Bollanclists* " Acta Sanctorum,** 

nfth Lives of St. Brigid. tomus ii., xiv. Februarii. Among the prc- 

5 See her Life, in the Second VoUime of termiiled saints, p. 742. 

this woric. Art. L, at the 1st of February, 3 See the Second Volume of this work, 

chap. xiv. Art. ii. 

* See Colgan's "Trias Thaiunaturga," *See "HistoriaEcclesiasticaGentisScoto- 
Appendix Tertia ad Vitam S. Brigidae, mm,*' tomus i., lib. iii., num. 272, pp. 160, 
cap. L, p. 609. 161. 

y Sec Sir fames Ware. " De Scriptoribus 5 See Bishop Forbes* *' Kalendars of Scot- 

Hibemue/' lib. i., cap. t, p. 3. tish Saints,'* p. 299. 

Digitized by 



are informed. Likewise, at the 2nd day of June, the Bollandists f have 
allusion to Ceolachus, Cellacus, Colatus, or Colachus, who has been com- 
memorated as a saint, by Camerarius,^ and who has been so recognised, in a 
Manuscript Calendar of St. Benedict's Order. 

Article V. — St. Conall, Lough Gill, County of Sligo. There 
is a well, on the northern shore of Lough Gill, called Tobar Chonaill.* On the 
Lake, there is an Island, called St. Conall's Island." Tradition says, his day 
was formerly celebrated, on the 2nd of June, at the well.3 We are not able to 
discover any memorials relating to him. Without particularizing the exact day 
or locality, the traveller Henry D. Inglis* visited a holy well, two or three hun- 
dred yards from the banks of Lough Gill, where eleven devotees were engaged 
at some religious ceremonies. Some of the lake boatmen declare, that on a 
particularly bright and still day, a noble and buried city, with its towers and 
houses, may still be traced distinctly beneath its waters. It is a local tradi- 
tion, that where the waters of the Lough now spread, there was formerly a rich 
plain ; and, the people relate, that its name has been derived from a hapless 
lady, named Gill, who met her fate on its banks.s We find a Connallus, 
bishop and disciple of St. Columba,^ noted in Thomas Dempster's '* Menolo- 
gium Scoticum,'*' at the 2nd of June, and as living in " Monasterio Divini 
Juris." He is also introduced, by the same writer, as living at the " Monas- 
terium Divini Ruris, and as flourishing a.d, 609.** He cites Hector Boetius 
for an account of St. Conallus, but he does not give a reference. Ferrarius 
mentions him, on the authority of Dempster. The Bollandists » merely state 
the foregoing particulars, at the 2nd of June ; but, they wait for further infor- 
mation, to elucidate his Acts. 

Article VI. — St.'Faroun6n,"of Lua. This day, the Martyrology of 
Donegal ' mentions Farounon, of Lua, as having been venerated. In the 
Appendix to the Introduction of this work, he is called Forandan.' His place 
or period is unknown to us. 

Article VII. — St. Aedhan, of Cluain Domhuil. We read, in the 

Martyrology of Donegal,* that on this day was venerated, Aedhan, of Cluain 

• See Venerable Bede*s " Historia Eccle- * See his "Journey throughout Ireland 
siastica Gentis Anglorum/' lib. iii., cap. xxii., during the Spring, Summer, and Autumn of 
xxiv. 1834, ' chap, xxii., p. 275. 

f See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii * See William F. Wakeman's "Tourists* 

ii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 157. Guide to Ireland," p. 259. 

* Thus is he noticed : ''Sancius Ceolachus, * See his Life, in this Volume, at the 9th 
CeDacus, Colathus vel Colachus Episcopus of June, Art. i. 

Lindisfarniae et Leichfeldensis, Apostolus ^ See Bishop Forbes* " Kalendars of Scot- 

Merciorum.*' — Bishop Forbes' ** Kalendars tish Saints," p. 201. 

of Scottish Saints." See Scottish Entries in ® See ** Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Sco- 

the Kalendar of David Camerarius, p. 237. torum," tomus i., lib. iii., num. 286, p. 167. 

Article v. — * In the Irish characters * See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii 

Cobap ChoriAiite, Latinized "FonsConallL" ii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 158. 

■In the Irish characters 01 tcAnChonAi It, Article vi.— » Edited by Drs. Todd 

Latinized "Insula Conalli." and Reeves, pp. 142, 143. 

3 See ** Sligo Letters," vol. i., of the Irish * In the Irish character, written fo^xAti- 

Ordnance Survey, in the R.I. A. Thomas oati. See p. xlvii. 

0'Conor*s letter, dated Grange, September Article vii.— ' Edited by Drs. Todd 

the 5th, 1836, p. 71. and Reeves, pp. 142, 143. 

Digitized by 


JUNB 2.] 



Domhuil, at Alraain. He is said to have descended, from the race of Corb- 
mac Cas, son to OilioU Oluinu We have not been able to identify his place 
or period. 

Article VIII. — St. Luran, Son of Conan. According to the 
Martyrology of Donegal,' we find that a St. Lurdn, son of Conan, had vene- 
ration given to him, on this day. \Vhen or where he lived seems to be 

Article IX. — St. Femdidh. A festival, in honour of Femdidh, was 
celebrated on this day, as we read in the Martyrology of Donegal.' 

Article X. — St. Foim. The simple record Foim, without any other 
distinguishing epithet, appears, in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at this date. 
The writer strongly suspects, this present saint may be identified with Fem- 
didh, who is set down at the same day, in the Martyrology of Donegal. 

Article XL — St. Senan, or Seanan. An entry is found, in the 
Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 2nd of June, regarding a festival in honour of 
St. Senan. It does not appear to be an easy matter to find his family, period, 
or place ; but, probably he flourished, in the earlier ages of Irish Chris- 
tianity. His feast is set down, in the Martyrology of Donegal ;' where, it is 
stated, that veneration was given to Seanan, on this day. 

Article XII. — St. Erasmus, Bishop, and his Companions, Martyrs. 
In the Irish Church, on the 2nd of June, was commemorated the Festival of 
St. Erasmus, Bishop, and of his companions, who were Martyrs, as we find 
recorded in the " Feilire"' of St. iEngus.* The Bollandists^ have published 
Acts of St. Erasmus — the authenticity of which has been suspected — ^and these 
state, that three hundred and thirty men suffered with him as Martyrs, in the 
city of Antioch.* 

Akticlb viil — ■ Edited by Drs. Todd 
and Reeves, pp. 142, 143. 

Article ix.— * Edited by Drs. Todd 

and Reeves, pp. 142, 143. 
Article x. — ' Edit 
Kelly, p. xxvi. 

Article x. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

Article xi. — * Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Keliy, p. xxvi, 

• Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
142, 143. 

Article xii. — * In the " Leabhar Breac" 
copy, we have the following Irish quatrain, 
with its translation into English, by Whiiley 
Stokes, LL.D. :— 

efApntif iricefcop 
^nb|\eo coTnb|\tJcn bjiige 
t>e|\c CO C|\ifc cleip mbtiAOA 
,ccc. tnotbcAch wile. 

^" Erasmus the bishop, a splended flame 

with ardour of might ! — took unto Christ a 
victorious train — three hundred praiseworthy 
thousands." — *' Transactions of the Royal 
Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, 
vol. i. , part i. On the Calendar of Oengus, 
p. xcii. 

* A comment is affixed " Erasmus .i. 
antioch [i] ae a dioclitiano imperatore passus 
est" — lOid.y p. xcviii. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii 
ii., De S. Erasmo Episcopo, Marty re For- 
miis in Campania. Father Godefrid Hen> 
schen, who has edited his Acts, gives a 
previous commentary, in 10 paragraphs ; 
then follow the Acta Suspecta, m two chap- 
ters, containing twelve paragraphs, with 
notes ; afterwards, an Appendix, compiled 
by Father Daniel Papebroke is introduced, 
in eleven paragraphs, pp. 211 to 219. 

4 At this date, also, the Bollandists have a 
separate article, "De Plurimis Sanctis 

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Article XIII.— Reputed Festival of St. Damianus, Companion of 
St , Regulus, Scotland. Among the Scottish Entries," in the Kalendar of 
David Camerarius, at the and of June, we find a St. Damianus, a companion 
of St. Regulus, or Rule.* On the same authority, and at this date, the BoUan- 
dists3 alluded to him, among the saints passed over, on the ist day of this 
month ; while, reference is made to the 17th of October, for further possible 

€W^ IBap of %imt. 





NOTHING tends more to the aggregate happiness of mankind, than to 
have individual members of society engaged in promoting work of real 
utility. It was an observation, profoundly made by an ancient moralist, that 
several persons spend their whole lives in evil works, or in idleness, or in pur- 
suing objects, extraneous to their true interests.* Such remarks cannot justly 
apply to the saints of our early Church. Their lives and morals were edifying 
and exemplary; their toils and trials were unceasing; with entire self- 
devotedness, they sought to sanctify themselves and to promote the Christian 
welfare of others. The actions and virtues of the saint, whose memory we 
celebrate on this day, may be regarded, in many points of view, as exhibiting 
that love of holiness, that greatness of soul, and that force of character, he so 
eminently possessed. Very different characteristics — but all very admirable — 
are developed in the accidents of his birth, education, and position. These 
have received an additional and a reflected lustre, from the instructive, lauda- 
ble, and persevering tenor of his blameless life and conversation. The 
opposite workings of nature and of grace are probably best delineated, in 
certain simple details of his biography, which — even when exaggerated or 
contradictory in some respects — serve not the less to awaken our interest and 
adesire for more accurate information, regardingso holy and so renowned a man. 

Martyribus, Antiochise passis," &c., ibid., p. Saints," p. 238. 

169. These do not seem 10 differ from the ■ His feast has been assigned to the 30th 

companions of Erasmus, already mentioned ; of March, and to the 17th of October. See 

but, there appear to be great diversities of ibid., p. 436. 

statement and conjectures, regarding their ' See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

Acts. Junii ii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

Article xiii.— ' Thus: "Hoc codem p. 157. 

die Sanctus Damianus Sancti ReguH comes." Article i.—Chapter i.— * See Seneca, 

—Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of Scottish *< Opera," Epistolai. 

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Several old Acts of St Kevin are still extant In the time of the 
O'Clery's, his Irish Life was in possession of Domhnall Carrach, son of 
Fcaghal Mac Eochada, at Eanach Mor, in Ui Ceinnsellaigh.' There is a 
Manuscript,^ belonging to Trinity College, Dublin, containing an Irish Life 
of St Kevin of Glendalough, in prose. In the Codex Kilkenninsis is a Life 
of St Comegan, in a folio.* There were probably two of his Irish Lives, one 
in prose and the other in verse, left transcribed, by Michael O'Clery, and 
among the Burgundian Manuscripts, at Bruxelles.s There is a Manuscript, 
VitaS. Coemgeni, preserved among the Records, belonging to the Franciscan 
Convent, Dublin.^ On the 3rd of June, Colgan had intended to produce the 
Acts of St. Coeragen.y His Acts are very fully published, in the great Bol- 
landist collection.* A previous commentary and notes,* as we may learn 
from the initialled marginal letters, were written by Father Francis Baert. 
Our saint's Latin Life has been printed from a Manuscript, formerly belong- 
ing to Hugh Ward.*** This narrative is contained in six chapters, comprising 
forty-nine paragraphs. However, this Life of St. Kevin is very justly sup- 
posed to abound in fables. It is thought to have been written, during or 
before the twelfth century, and on very reasonable grounds. For, mention 
is made, regarding the flourishing state of Glendalough city, at the time, 
when this life had been written ; while, in the thirteenth century, this episcopal 
seat had dwindled into an insignificant and wasted village." Now, it is 
supposed, that a least one hundred years must have elapsed, before a pros- 
perous city could have become a small village, in the ordinary course of things. 
Those proofs, on which the Bollandists rely for the fact of Glendalough being 
in a flourishing state at the time when St Kevin's published Life had been 
written, shall be reproduced, in the sequel of this narrative. Baert remarks, 
that at first he intended to suppress many fables contained in this Life, and to 
issue a more compendious and reliable account, regarding our saint. After- 
wards, however, his mind changed on the subject, for these following reasons. 
Many things are related in this Life, which the author could have seen and 
recorded, as existing in his own time. Matters, referring to the site of places 
and monasteries, in or near Glendalough, are found written there, and this 
information need not necessarily have been derived from popular tradition. 
Again, there are accounts, relating to miracles and prophecies, whereby we 
arc not so certainly informed, indeed, regarding what St Kevin did and pre- 
dicted, as respecting what had been then rumoured, and as a picture repre- 
senting the state of things which prevailed during the writer's own lifetime. 
Moreover, as several Irish Historographers " used this Life, it was judged 
advisable to publish a document, which had not in its entirety as yet seen the 

* See " A Dictionary of Christian Biogra- iii., De S. Coemgino, sive Keivino, Abbate 

eiy," edhed by William Smith, LL.D., and Glindelacensi in Hibemia, pp. 310 to 322. 

cnnr Wace, MA., vol. i., p. 59a » In seven paragraphs, 

s U is classed H. 4, 4. ''^ So endeared to every Irishman, in con- 

^ See pp. 65 to 71 of that MS. ViU Coem- nexion with the order of Friars Miuor of St. 

ii, VD^ Keivcm. prima. Abbatis Glende- Francis, and who had made considerable pro- 

anctoreanonymoExMS. Hugonis gress in collecting the Acts of the Irish 

Ward, oidinis Minorum MS. Marsh, Saints, before Col^ commenced their pub< 

Dublin. lication. 

« See voL iv.. Part ii., pp. 166, 176, of the " It was united to the See of Dublin in 

catalogae. 12 14, on the death of its Bishop William 

* In the *'Vitae Sanctorum,*' ex Cod. Piro. For further particulars, relating to 
IwT«fncT, pp. 95 to 99. this union of Sees, the reader is referral to 

'According to " Catalogus Actuum Sane- Harris Ware, vol. i., *' Bishops of Glenda- 

tonim qu« MS. babentur, ordine Mensium et lough," pp. 375 to 378. 

Diensm. " " Sucn as if ssber, Colgan, &c. 

* See "Acu Sanctorum," tomusLyJunii '^ See "Acta Sanctorum^" tomns !., 

Digitized by 




[Junk 3. 

light ; while, to judicious readers was left the option of pronouncing on its 
questionable or credible passages. It is supposed, by Baert, that Irish 
Hagiographists were accustomed to attribute miracles, in particular instances, 
to certain saints, which had been before related respecting other holy persons. 
This happened, less through a desire of practising deception, than from a 
motive of misconceived piety. He allows, also, that there may be some truth 
in various transactions related. Yet, the writers of those acts, for the most 
part, having received their accounts from traditions of the vulgar, these are 
usually accompanied with so many fabulous circumstances, that they appear 
in certain instances unworthy of credit.'^ The Life of blessed Kevin, as 
published by Baert, tells us on its title page, that our saint was both Bishop 
and Confessor. But, this title is supposed to have been supplied by some 
more modern commentators. In three more compendious Lives of our saint» 
which are also supposed to have been of considerable antiquity, this title of 
Bishop is wanting. '♦ One of these three Lives had been written, after the 
manner of a short Eulogy or Panegyric on the saint ; another, which was lent 
by the Jesuit, Henry Fitzsimon, appears to be more filled with fabulous tra- 
ditions which its author had collected ; while, a third Life had been taken from 
a Book, belonging to the Library of Salamanca in Spain. This latter MS. 
was at least three centuries old, before coming into Baert's possession, and in 
his opinion, it contains many things, which might be tolerated and believed, 
if they were not accompanied by some mythical accounts.'s There are notices 
of this holy Abbot, by Archbishop Ussher,'^ Dr. Meredith Hanmer,*7 and 
by Bishop Challoner.'* At the 3rd of June, as also, in Rev. Alban Butler's 
" Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints,"'^ and in the work 
of Rev. Dr. Lanigan ;«» by Mrs. Anastasia O'Byme," Bishop Forbes," Rev. 
S. Baring-Gould ,'3 he is recorded ; while, in the Dictionary of Christian Bio- 
graphy,'* there is an account of this celebrated Abbot 

The holy man was born, in the year 498, according to Archbishop Ussher ;»5 
and, his chronology has been accepted by most writers. Yet, there are strong 
motives for doubting his having been bom so early ; and, it seems very pro- 
bable, that date for Kevin's birth should be advanced to some year, in the 
earlier part of the sixth century. Nor does the year assigned well accord 
with the chronological dates, in reference to his brother '* and nephew.'^ Nor 

Junii iiL De S. Coemgino Commentarius 
Praevius, num. 4, p. 311. 

'* In one of these lives the title runs as 
follows: " Vita Coemgini, magnse sanctita- 
tb viri ;" in the second : ** Vita Coemgini," 
and in the third : ** Vita Coemgini Abbatis." 
A fourth life, found in the Imperial Library, 
at Vienna, was intituled, " de S. Coengeno." 
See "Acta Sanctorum,'* tomus i., Junii iii.. 
Vita S. Coemgeno, Commentarius Prsevius, 
num. 3, p. 311. 

'5 In quoting the two latter documents 
alluded to, Baert calls that one, received 
from Fitzsimon, the Acta breviora ; the 
other he designates, as the Salmanticense 
CompcndiuoL — SeciM,, num. 5, p. 311. 

«* See " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Anti- 
quitates," cap. xvii., pp. 394, 395. 

'7 See " Chronicle of Ireland," pp. 121, 

'«See "Britannia Sancta," Part i., pp. 


*» In VOL VI., June lu. 

" See "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, x., pp. 43 
to 50. 

" See " Saints of Ireland," pp. 98 to 

"See "Kalendars of Scottish Saints," 
p. 302. 

•3 See "Lives of the Saints," vol. vi., 
June 3, pp. 27 to 29, 

»* Edited by William Smith, LL.D., and 
Rev. Henry Wace, M.A., vol. L, pp. 589, 

•5 " Coem^mus qui & Keimnus^ in Hibcr- 
nia natus est : si, ut a quibusdam habetur 
traditum, annos cxx. vixerit & anno Chri^ti 
Dcxviii. mortem ille obierit. A. S. Cronano 
presbytero baptiwitum fuisse Scriptor Vit« 
ipsius indicate* — "Britannicarum Ecclesia- 
rum Antiquitates," cap. xviL, p. 494. Also 
Index Chronologicus, p. 524. 

^ Called St. Mocuemin, who was a disci- 
ple to Columba, son of Crimthann, and 
Abbot of Tirdaglass. Now, this Columba 

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June 3.] 



can it be ascertained, that a passage in the Irish Metrical Acts of St. Brigid *^ 
has allusion to what occurred, while she lived. The only reason Dr. Lanigan'9 
can discover, for placing this saint's birth in 498, is the supposition that he 
lived 120 years. As he is said to have died in 618, it therefore became 
necessary to go back for his birth to that year. St. Kevin' Acts, as published 
by the Bollandists, state, that he was bom in the eastern part of Leinster 
province.3** His parents seem to have lived on the sea-borders, and among a 
people, known as the Dalmasincoirb.3' It is said, St. Kevin belonged to a family 
of great rank.3« This also is related, in the old Acts of the saint ;33 but, it re- 
mained for a modern writer, 3^ not only to deny St. Kevin's civilized descent,35 
but even the fact of his birth.36 The father of St. Kevin was named Coiu- 
logha,37 or Coemlugus.3® According to his genealogy,39 he belonged to the 

bad been a disciple ofFinnian, at Clonard , and, 
probably, he did not found his monastery, 
until about a.d. ^o. See ColganVActa 
Sanctorum Hibemiae," Februarii xvii. Vita 

5. Fintani Abbatis, cap. ill, p. 350, and nn. 

6, 7, 8. pp. 353. 354, 586. 

■y Among some nephews of St. Cocmgen, 
by his sbter Coeltigema, or, as some call 
ber, Coemaca, we find St Dagan of Inver- 
daoile, who lived until A.D. 639. See Dr. 
CDonovan's * * Annals of the Four Masters, " 
vol. i., pp. 256, 257. Yet, he docs not ap- 
pear to have reached a very great age. Sup- 
posing Dagan to have been bom, in 565, it is 
not easy to believe, that he was the nephew 
of a man, who was then 67 years old, unless 
we are to admit a very uncommon dis- 
parity between the ages of the saint and his 

** Colgan has thus translated it into Latin : 
* ' Accesserat ad praelinm Coemginus Celebris ; 
nivem per tempestatem aquitat ventus : 
Glinndaiachse sustinuit crucem, ita ut repere- 
rit requiem post tribulationes." This passage 
has no apparent connection with what we 
find in the context as to St. Brigid, unless it 
should be considered as a sort of comparison 
between the watchfulness of the two saints. 
If the author alluded to a transaction in St. 
Brigid's lifetime, Coemgen would, accord- 
ing to him, have been a grown-up man be- 
fore her death, and so he might justly be 
supposed to have been bom in 498. 

*• See his ** Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land, "voL iL, chap. X., sect x., n. 146, pp. 

45» 46. 

^ See Bishop Tanner*s " Bibliotheca Bri- 
tannico-Hibemica," &c, p. 187. 

»» The pedigree and family connections of 
St. Kevin are mentioned in Colgan's ** Acta 
Sanctorum Hiberaiae,'* xii. Martii, De S. 
Dagano Abbate et Episcop, cap. i., p. 584, 
and nn. i, a, 3, 4 5» ^» 7. 8, 9, 10, p. 

*■ See Harris Ware, vol. i., "Bishops of 
Glendaloch," p. 373* See, also, vol. ii., 
** Writers of Ireland,*' book i., chap, iii., 
p. 21. 

» The Salmt*"*^" Manoscript sajrs, that 
the parents of our saint were of noble 

3* The pseude- antiquary Dr. Ledwich 
says ; " to believe that a barbarous people, 
nied and ignorant as American Indians, 
should have preserved the pedigree of St. 
Kevin, is too much for the most stupid cre- 
dulity,"— " Antiquities of Ireland," p. 174. 

35 Yet, whenever it suited his convenience, 
Ledwich is not ashamed to leave his incon- 
sistency on record. Thus he gives a pomp- 
ous account of the Irish schools and studies, 
not only in the sixth century, but so far back 
as the middle of the fifth. It is difficult to 
discover, how he could reconcile that barbar- 
ous state of his country with his praises of 
the Asiatic and Greek missionaries, whom 
he brings at a very early period to Ireland, 
See sect. 7. Again, he tells us, that there 
was certainly a Christian Church in Ireland, 
during the fourth and beginning of the fifth 
century ; and, that letters were then and there 
known and cultivated. 

3* To these sUtements of Ledwich, the 
Rev. Dr. Lanigan replies : " When he wishes 
to keep out Rome and Palladius, and, above 
all, St. Patrick from any interference with 
the early Christianity of Ireland, he repre- 
sents the Irish as Christians and civilized long 
before anyone from Rome came amon^ us ; 
but when he takes it into his head to drive a 
saint, ex. c. Kevin, not only out of ihe calen- 
dar, but likewise out of existence, he de- 
scribes them as naked and the greatest 
of savages, even in the sixth century. As to 
the recording of genealogies, it did not re- 
quire any great degree of learning, but was 
practised by the most ancient nations chiefly 
of the East, from some of whom, together 
with many other practices, it was derived to 
the Irish, with whom, as none but an incor- 
rigible sceptic will dare to deny, it was a 
favourite sort of study. Strange that 
Ledwich, who is so fond of the Asiatics, 
could express a disbelief of it, and did not 
rather use it as an argument to prove, that 
we had been instructed by Eastern mis- 
sionaries. — "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, x., n. 148, pp 
47. 48. 

37 According to the Manuscnpt of Father 
Hugh Ward. 

3* TThus is his name written in tlie ** Acu 

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[June 3. 

race of Laeghaire Lore, monarch of Erin, and from whom the Leinstermen 
are descended. His mother's name was Coenhella/** or CaemelL** How- 
ever, the Acts of St. Kevin state, that his father sprang from the royal race of 
Leinster Kings \ but, to lead a more pious life, he left his friends and inherit- 
ance, while he sustained himself, by the labour of his hands.4* What was 
still much better, than nobility or titles, this saint's parents were just and faith- 
ful persons, in the sight of God and men/3 

It is related, as one of the legends of his Acts, that an Angel appeared 
to Coenhella, during her sleep, and said to her : " O happy woman, thou 
shalt bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Coemgen. He shall be 
dear, both to God and men, and he shall be a Father over many monks. The 
grace of the Holy Spirit sliall abound in his place ; but, immediately after his 
birth, let him be brought to the baptismal font"^ According to the heavenly 
messenger's advice, the infant was brought for the purpose of being baptized, 
by certain persons. These, too, were accosted by an Angel of God, on the 
way ; and, he appeared to them, in the shape of a beautiful young man. He 
asked those, who bore the child, what purpose they had in view. Those 
persons replied, they were on their way, towards a certain holy priest, who 
lived an eremitical life in the neighlJourhood, and that they wished him to 
perform the baptismal rite for the infant. It is said, moreover, that Angel 
breathed on the child, and signed him, in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Then praying, he bestowed a benediction on 
the future saint.^5 Afterwards, the bearers of the infant visited a holy Priest, 
named Cronan.*^ He enquired, on what business they had come. They 
answered, that he might baptize the child. Whereupon, he replied : " This 
holy infant needs not a repetition of baptism,*^ for he has been baptized by a 
better and holier person than I am."^® While those present were in admira- 


» So state the O'Clerys. 

*** According to the Manuscript Life, be- 
longing to Father Hujjh Ward. 

** She was the daughter of Ceannfhionnan, 
son to Ceisi, son of Lugaidh. See Bishop 
Forbes* **Kalendars of Scottish Saints, 
p. 302. 

*' A remark is offered by Baert, that if 
this be a fiction, it is made to correspond 
with other passages in the published Life ; 
for, the circumstance of a cow, being mira- 
culously sent by God for the infant's nourish- 
ment, seems to indicate the poverty of St. 
Kevin's parents. But again, if they were 
poor, Baert enquires, how they could have 
been owners of a flock of sheep, as 
stated in the Life. See ** Acta Sanctorum,*' 
tomus i., Junii iii. De S. Coemgino sive 
Keivino, Abbate de Glindelacensi in Hiber- 
nia, cap. i., n. (a), p. 313. This apparent 
incongruity, however, can easily be recon- 
ciled. In certain parts of Wicklow County, 
at the present day, the mountains are only 
suitable for the [>asturage of sheep and goats ; 
while, these animals form the chief stock of 
several peasants and £eurmers. The circum- 
stances and pastoral customs there, at the 
time of St. Kevin's birth, must have been 
more primitive, but, perhaps, nearly iden- 

^ See ibid,^ cap. i., num. i., p. 313. 

^ In another copy of our saint's Life, it is 

related, that the Angel appeared, not to the 
mother, but to St. Kevin's father. It is a 
characteristic of Irish Hagiological accounts, 
that scarcely any of our most celebrated 
saints are found, whose births had not been 
previously revealed to one parent or to both 
parents, by an Angel ; or, occasionally, to 
some other holy individual. 

*5 The Salmancan Manuscript merely 
says, that the infant was blessed by an Angel, 
on the way, when he was brought to be 

^ Baert remarks, that nothing more can 
be known regarding the Cronan here 
mentioned, as there were so many saints 
b^rine this name, to be found in the Irish 
Calendars. Could this particular Cronan's 
history be discovered, it might tend greatly 
to indicate the period of our saint's birth. 

*7 If an infusion or use of water were not 
in question, a mere breathing alone, could 
not have sufficed for the administration of 
Baptism, according to the doctrine of the 
Church. Hence, the writer of our saint's 
Acts must have fallen into a great error, or he 
must have unaccountably overlooked the ne- 
cessary matter for baptismal ablution. 

^ In the ** Acta Brcviora," it is said, the 
infant received both an unction and breath- 
ing ^m the Aneel, and afterwards, that he 
had been washed in the savins waters of a 
neighbouring fountain, which thenceforward 
afforded health to the sick. 

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tion at what Cronan said, the Priest asked, if any one had met tketH on the 
way. Then, they told him, that a young man blessed the infant, and called 
him Coemgen,^9 or Kevin,5«> as the name is diflferently spelled,5' although the 
pronunciation is the same.^' The Priest then said : ^' This was the Angel of 
the Lord, who baptized the child, and as the Angel named him, so shall hq 
be always called Coemgen,53 which in Latin means, Pulcher-genitus ; for, he 
shall be most beautiful."^ Then, the holy old man Cronan, looking upon 
the boy, and being filled with a prophetic spirit, cried out : " O beautiful 
child of God, may the Almighty Lord bless thee; I shall be thy first monk^ 
and I give thee my place with all my effects."55 Then having prayed and 
blessed the infant, this spiritual treasure was brought back to his parents.^^ 
We are told, that during St. Kevin's infancy, a white cow was miraculously 

. « The Rev. Dr. Ledvrich sajrs, that the 
name Coernhgen was unknown until after 
the thirteenth century, and he would fain 
make us imagine, that it meant not a man 
bat a mountain. See "Antiquities of Ire- 
land," p. 174. Were he better read, he might 
have found the name of Coemgen the senior, 
even in our present saint^s Acts. He ridi- 
culously asserts, moreover, that 'Hhe moun- 
tain Keun at Glendaioch was metamor- 
phosed into St. Kevin." Thus he proceeds : 
** Keun is the name of many moimtains in 
Wales noticed by Camden." Then, he refers 
to Lhuyd ^Adversar), who reckons Ceun, 
a Welsh word, meaning "back," among. 
those denominations that enter into the 
names of mountains. Thus, does Dr. 
Lanigan refer to his absurd statements : 
^ Suppose a person, treating of our mighty 
antiquary, should write his name Leadwich, 
as an ingenious author, who conceals him- 
self under the signature Anonjrmous, has 
done ; or that even it were written Lead- 
wig, it would be immediately understood as 
the name of the antiquary ; unless some one 
should be. so foolish as to think, that it was 
not the name of a man, but a compound of 
lead and wig, taking, agreeably to a very 
nsoal trope, wig for what is contained under 
it. Similar to this folly is the Poctor's mod^ 
oi arguing. He was striving to show, that 
St. Coemgen was neither a saint nor a man^ 
but a mere mountain in the county of Wick- 
low. . . . And, it b thus that this bare- 
faiced quack has the e£Brontery to substitute 
his lies for history 1 Or is an accidental 
likeness between die Welsh word Ceun and 
the name Kevin to be received as a proof of 
the non-existence of a person of the highest 
reputation, and who is mentioned over and 
over in numberiess documents long prior to 
the Doctor's 13th century." — " Ecclesiastical 
Histoiy of Ireland," voL ii., chap, x., sect, x., 

n. 147, pp. 46, 47. ^ . .r ,, , 

*» Coemgen, or Coemghen, sigmfies Pul- 
cher-genitus or Fair begotten. See Ussher*s 
"firitannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," 
cap. xvii, p. 494- 

5' Thus : Caoimhghen, Coemgen, Keevin, 
Keevinns» Keuvinus, and Koemgenus. See 

Bishop Forbes* ''Kalendars of Scottish 
Saints," p. 302. 

5» It is scarcely necessary to add, that th^ 
Irish C was always the same as K. The 
letter M with the aspirate annexed (either H 
or a point) sounds Uke V. The diphthong 
CE has been generally modified mto the 
single sound E. The letter G aspirated in 
the middle of a word almost loses its sound 
as in Tigheama» which becomes Tiema. See 
Vallancey's "Irish Grammar," at the 
letter G. 

53 Instead of that name, in some edition^ 
of Giraldus Cambrensis it is written Keiwuu 
However, in that published by the Master of 
the Rolls, he is called Keivin. See Giral<]^ 
Cambrensis "Opera," vol. v. Edited by 
James F. Dunock, M.A., "Topographia 
rlibemica," Dist. ii., cap. xxviii., p. 113, 
It is found spelled, also, Koemin, Coemin, 
and even Caymin ; but, these in reality arq 
all one and the same name. See Col^^an s 
•* Acta Sanctorum Hibemia," Februani xv^ 
Vita S. Berachi Abbatis, cap. vi., ix., p. 


5* The Rev. Dr. Ledwich alleges, that the 
" imaginary saint " has a name which " does 
not intimate his beauty but diminutive size." 
— ** Antiquities of Ireland," p. 174. His 
subsequent remarks are simply puerile. 

55 In the " Acta Breviora," tne following 
is said to have been Colman's prophecy: 
" The whole of this province shall serve thee 
as its Patron for ever, and when its inhabi- 
tants first become insensible to your honour 
a foreign enemy shall come, and eradicate 
them in divers ways. " From such passages, 
it has been supposed, that thb Life of th^ 
saint must have been written in the time of 
or after Henry II.'s invasion^ or perhaps, 
when it had been intended to remove the 
Episcopal seat from Glendalough, in the 
beginmngof the twelfth century 

56 See the Rev. S. Baring-Gould's 
"Lives of the Saints, vol. v., June iii., 
p. 28. 

57 See '*AcU Sanctorum," tomus L, 
Junii iii. De S. Coemgeno sive Keivino, &c., 
cap.L, num. i, 2, 3, and n. (a), pp. 31^1 3»7- 

SB Such providential manifesUtions are 


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sent to his- parents' house, each morning and evening.'' With the milk of 
this animal, the child was nourished. It was not known, whence the animal 
came, or whither she went, at other titles ; but, two large vessels of milk 
were obtained from her each day. This drcumstance caused no little d^ee 
of interest to be excited in the neighbourhoodt regarding that child, in whose 
favour such wonders were wrought^^ In the shorts Acts of our saint, it is 
said, that his parents lived in this place, for two yws. When Coemgen 
attained sufficient age, he was employed in tending, with other shepherds, the 
sheep of his parents. While thus employed, some poor persons one day 
came to him, and stated, from an account heard regarding his sanctity, they 
hoped he would afford them some relief. In the presence of certain persons, 
the holy youth delivered four sheep to those paupers. When evening came, 
and the flock had been counted over, still it was found, that the number of 
sheep remained complete. Thus, it would appear, the Almighty wished to 
reward this charity of his servant, and to avert all blame from him, because 
of his great liberality, Coemgen felt greatly strengthened in the love of God, 
after this occurrence.59 It is stated, that when seven years of age,^ our saint 
was sent by his parents to receive a literary and religious training from a holy 
man called Petrocus,^' who was a Briton by birth. He lived as a hermit, and 
having left his paternal kingdom, Petrocus ^ embraced a monastic life. About 
A.D. 498,^3 he is said to have been distinguished for sanctity, in Ireland. 
Here, he remained for twenty years, which expired in a.d. 518.^ 

The writer of Kevin's Life says, that while his youth was spent in the house of 
his parents, many miracles were wrought through him. These are not written, it is 
alleged, so that Uius his biographer might sooner arrive at those incidents, con* 
nected with our saint's more mature age. Seeing so many indications of sanctity 
in their son, the boy's parents placed him under direction of three holy men, 
who dwelt in a celL^s Guided by these venerable seniors,^ who were named, 
Eogoin,^' Lochan,^ and Enna,^ our saint prosecuted his studies with the 

often related, in reference to the infancy of 
celebrated Irish saints, as appear from their 
various Acts. 

» See ibid,t num. 3, 4, p 312. 

*» At A.D. Dv. See Ussher*s " Britanni- 
carum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates/' Index 
Chronologicus, p. 524. 

** See ibid,^ cap. xiv., p. 292. Having 
spoken regarding thb Petrocus, and the time 
he remained in Ireland, Ussher afterwards 
adds to his account concerning this holy 
Briton*s residence in Ireland: ''Quo tern- 

Sore S. Coemgenum sive Kevvinum, Glin- 
elacensem postea Abbatem (de que in xvii. 
capite erit dicendum) a septimo usque ad 
duodecimum aetatis annum, m Uteris ac Sanc- 
tis moribus ab eo fuisse institutum, Vitse 
Coemgeni scriptor memorat."— See ibid.t 
Addenda quaedam omissa, p. 506. 

** His feast occurs, at the 4th of June, at 
which day, his Life is given in this Volume, 
Art ii. 

*3 However, according to Dr. Lanigan, it 
is probable, that Ussher*s chief reason for 
assigning Petrocus' term in Ireland, between 
the dates he mentions, was because, St 
Kevin is said to have been his scholar. See 
his "Ecclesiastical History of Ireland,'* 
vol. ii., chap, x., sect, x., n. i^, p. 48. 
^ According to Ussher, m nis Index 

Chronologicus. See *' Britannicarum Eccle- 
siarum Antiquitates," p. 526. 

*5 The locality is not specified. 

** Harris calls them "Dogain, Lochan, 
and yEneas or Enna." Harris Ware, vol. i., 
** Bishops of Glendaloch," p. 373. Dogain 
is probably a misprint for Eo^iin. A^ch- 
dall copies this mistake, in his notice of 
Glendalogh. See "Monasticon Hibemi- 
cum," p. 765. 

^ Baert observes, that among manv bear- 
ing this name, the Eugenius or Eogam, here 
spoken of, appears to have been one, num- 
bered among the disciples of a St Fintan* 
afterwards Bishop of Ardstra. However, as 
this saint flourished beyond the middle of the 
sixth century, he is not to be considered a 
senior in resjpect of age, but rather, on ac- 
count of his office ; for, as St Kevin is said 
to have been bom in 498, the age of Eogoin 
could not have been very advanced, unless 
as Baert remarks, we are willing to assign 
very extraordinary ages to Saints Fintan and 
Eugenius, such as we find attributed to St. 
Kevin himself. 

*• This master is called Lochran, in the Sal- 
mancan Manuscript Although there are 
many Lochans mentioned, in both tomes 
of Colgan, it is impossible to discover, if 
the person here mentioned be one of them. 

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greatest diligence. A local tradition has it, that St Kevin lived near Bray,7<» 
in the county of Wicklow, before he went to Glendalough. Nothing is dis* 
tjactly known r^arding Eogoin, Lochan and £nna, although it may fairly be 
supposed, they lived not very far distant from the home of St. Kevin's 
parents.7* This event of our saint's life is said to have occurred in his twelfth 
year, and consequently, assuming the earliest chronology, about A.D. 510.7s 
We are told, shortly after this period, and in the bloom of youth, that our 
saint was ^eatly distinguished for his comely appearance. While engaged 
at work, with the brethren of his cell, the young novice was one day seen by 
a youthful and beautiful maiden. She then conceived a particular affection 
for him. At first, thb female began to manifest great friendship towards our 
saint ; but, dissembling her real object for some time, she endeavoured to 
engage the love of this holy youth, by her looks, her words, and sometimes, 
by her messages. However, Kevin rejected these several advances. Thus 
baffled and disappointed, the maiden sought an opportunity, and found him 
alone. The brethren being at work in the wood, Kevin separated from them. 
Soon was he found in a solitude by that young female, who had followed the 
band of workmen. Seizing an opportunity, that now presented itself, she 
approached our holy youth. With words of affection, and with blandish- 
ments, capable of overcoming one less firmly resolved, she sought to tempt 
him from that course of life, he had voluntarily embraced. But, Kevin, 
arming himself with a sign of the cross, and being filled with the graces of the 
Holy Spirit, at once fled from the maiden's solicitations. He sought conceal- 
ment within a wood. Here, the pious youth buried himself among some 
nettles. Yet, having discovered his place of concealment, the girl followed 
him thither, when binding a bundle of nettles, our saint repelled her further 
advances, by striking her several times with them.73 These nettles stung her 
severely .74 In fine, she became repentant, for indulging her former thoughts. 
Prostrate on her knees, she asked pardon from God, and from the saint 
Kevin offered up his prayers for her. Afterwards, she promised to dedicate 
her virginity to God, and in presence of his servant Kevin. At this moment, 
the brethren coming up were in admiration, at what they had heard and seen. 
The maiden modestly related, what had taken place before their arrival : and, 
on learning this, the brethren were more confirmed in their love for holy piuity. 
Thenceforward, that female became distinguished for great prudence and 
sanctity. During the whole of her subsequent life, she diligently observed 
the wise and holy admonitions of blessed Kevin.75 

•» The history of Enna, Eanna, or iEneas, ** Bv that Lake, whose gloomy shore 

b not known further, from any available Skylark never warbles o'er, 

scarce. See ** Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Where the cliff hangs high and 

Jimii iiL Vita S. Coemgcni, cap. L, n. (g), steep, 

p. 313. Young St Kevin stole to sleep, "&c* 

^ Even the site is shown, where a ruined 

church still exists. — " Poetical Works," vol. iii., Irish Melodies, 

'' See Rev. Dr. Lanigan*s "Ecclesiastical p. 294. 

History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect. '♦ There is, indeed, very little similarity 

X., n. 151, p. 48. between the principal circumstances, related 

7* According to Ussher's Index Chronolo- in the prose Life of St. Kevin, and in the 

gicus, in ** Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Anti- poetical lqg[end. Nevertheless, the account 

qiutates,"p. 525. Baert tells us, the histo- furnished in the text, is the only narrative 

nan of the Bntish Churches had this account found in St Kevin's published Acts, that 

fiom the •* Acta Breviora." would account for the origin of a popular 

'^ A reader of the foregoing passage will tradition, connected with ** St. Kevin's 

perh;^)s call to mind, that local legend re- Bed," over the lake of Glendalough. 

gardingStKevin, which Moore has wedded y* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

to immortal verse, and which commences Junii iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. l, num. 5, 

wkh these lines :— p. 3i3« 

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[June 3^- 

There is a local tradition, that when St. Kevin resolved on retir- 
ing from the world, to commence his religious course of life, he selected 
for such a purpose, that retired and deep valley, now known as Lug* 
gela.7« Whether this was the place of his noviceship or not is unknown, 
but it seems to be sufficiently probable.77 It must be observed, accord- 
ing to the peasantry living near the district of Lough Tay, county of- 
Wicklow, • St. Kevin is said to have founded a monastery,^' in the upper 
part of this romantic valley, before he retired to Glendalough. The site 
of this cell or monastery is yet pointed out, on a delightful spot, adjoining the 

Ruins at Luggela, County of Wicklow. 

waters of Lough Tay, where the Annamoe River enters it, and on that beau- 
tiful lawn, extending in front of Luggala Lodge. Hardly a vestige of the 
old building now remains.79 A shapeless pile of stones, just rising over the 

^ There are some beautiful illustrations of 
Luggelaw and its adjoining Lough Dan in 
Mr. and Mrs. Hall's, ** Ireland : its Scenery, 
Character," &c., vol. ii., pp. 207 to 211. 
Xhese pictures, however, only convey a very 
partial jglimpse of many lovely scenes, in 
^connection with those romantic spots. 

^ The pure-minded Gerald Griffin has 
written a metrical romance, entitled, "The 
Fate of Cathleen,*' founded on the well- 
known Wicklow legend, and referring to St. 
Kevin. It contains 56 stanzas, commencing 
with these lines : — 

** In Luggelaw's deep-wooded vale 
The summer eve was dying ; 
On lake and cliflf, and rock and dale 
A lulling calm was l3ring ; 

And virgin saints and holy men 
The Vesper song were singing, 

And sweetly down the rock^ glen 
The Vesper bell was ringmg." 

— '* Poetical and Dramatic Works," p. I, et 
seg. From the construction of this narrative, 
and from his beautiful tale, "The Rivals,!* 
Gerald Griffin would seem to have learned 
in Luggelaw the legend there current, and 
as related to the present writer on the spot, 
in June, 1855. 

'* According to the popular story, Kath- 
leen — as the maiden of story is called— first 
made advances to St. Kevin, when he had 
resolved to establish hb hermitage, in this 
romantic valley. But, it is said, he then 
stole away to Glendalough, in order tb4ude 

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earth, and grass-covered mounds, mark the site of a former religious edifice, 
which undoubtedly occupied this exact spot.^ The people of Luggela neigh- 
bourhood supposed it a profanation, to destroy any of those branches, that grew 
within the ruins of St. Kevin's deserted hermitage, and that some evil must 
be sure to await any such offender.^* The local traditions*' hardly leave a 
doubt on the enquiring mind, that at one period of his life, St Kevin hal- 
lowed this lone dell with his presence and prayers.*3 The scenery around 
possesses features of the most magnificent and romantic character. Even in 
a district of country, unrivalled for the grandeur and loveliness of its varied 
landscapes, no more appropriate or fascinating spot could be selected, for the 
quiet hermitage of an ascetic or a contemplative. One day, our saint was 
told to go into a wood near the cell, and in company with a namesake, known 
as Coemgen, the senior. This latter told our saint, to bring fire into the 
wood, for some purpose required by the brethren. His orders, however, were 
forgotten and neglected. When they had come to that place, where he 
wished it to be kindled, the senior Coemgen *< asked, where was the fire. 
Then, St. Coemgen junior declared he had forgotten the mandate. The 
senior cried out : ** Brother, nm quickly for the fire, and bring it with you." 
St. Kevin asked, in what manner he should bear it, when his senior rather 
hastily answered : " In your bosom." Then, going to the kitchen, Kevin 
placed a burning torch, as we are told, with some live coals, in his bosom, 
thus literally observing the senior's mandate. Coming towards him, the young 
novice tiirew this fire, on the ground, in the presence of his superior.^s Not 
alone his flesh, but even his garments, seemed to suffer no injury. When the 

hiinseU from her visits. Discovering his re- 
treat once more, that tragic incident — so 
t>eautifally versified by Moore in his Irish 
MelodieS'--afterward is stated to have oc- 

t^ In May, 1886, the accompanying illus- 
tration was drawn on the spot, by William 
F. Wakeman, who afterwards transferred it 
to the wood, engraved by Mrs. Millard. 

** At a time, it was first visited by the 
writer, in June, 1855, several large and 
spreading trees, with tangled thickets of 
liuftwthom, surrounded the place, and these 
ailiied greatly to the lonely, secluded posi- 
tion of the ruins. During a visit made in 
May, 1886, the thorns had been cleared 
away, and only the fine trees growing 
around it were to be seen. 

*' It was stated to the writer, in the sum- 
mer of 1855, ^y ^ ^^xaX guide, that the re- 
spected proprietor of Luggela Lodge, Mr. 
Latouche, using an axe to clear away some 
of the brambles, had personal experience, 
regarding the truth of this legend. A thorn 
on rebounding nearly deprived him of sight. 
He was said to be a firm believer, in ihe 
certainty of retribution attenaing Vandalic 
acts oi this nature, nor would he allow any 
person afterwards to meddle with that 
tiiicket. A probability is, the gentleman in 
question amused himself at the expense of 
Jm tenantry's and dependants' credulity, by 
giving circulation to the circumstance, which 
Diay well have happened, without at all 
trenching on the supernatural, or even on 
the marvellousy whatever might have been 

the effect. The romancist or archaeologist 
would have no reason to fell displeased, if 
Mr. Latouche's statements had the result of 
preserving from desecration any vestige of 
these time-hallowed ruins or their sylvan 
accessories. It is very probable, that many 
legends, connected with this place and with 
the valley of Glendalough, are merely mo- 
dem inventions of the guides, who, by these 
stories, endeavour to cater for the amuse- 
ment of strangers and tourists, delighting in 
this species of lore. 

•• These date back to a period, long prior 
to the influx of fashionable tourists, towaixis 
this magic region. 

^5 The pesaantry of the neighbourhood en- 
tertain a belief, that St. Kevin only com- 
menced the building of a monastery at this 
place, when his retreat was discovered by 
Kathleen of the legend. 

*■♦ In the Salmancan Manuscript, this 
senior is called Braitdiucus, and nothing 
more is found regarding him, in any accessi- 
ble accounts. In the ** Acta Breviora," this 
miracle is said to have occurred, when our 
saint was under the tuition of St. Petrocus. 
See *• Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Juniiiii., 
Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. i., n. (h), p. 313. 

®5 It is probably, in this sense, his name of 
Coemgen Senior is to be understood. 

** Perhaps, the correct reading may be 
Petrocus, bom in Cambria, and who was 
one of St. Kevin's preceptors. See Bishop 
Tanner's " Bibliotheca Britannico-Hiber- 
nica," &c., p. 594. 

^ See '*Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

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senior Coemgen ^ witnessed this miracle, he cried out : " O holy youth, I see 
that thou are full of the Holy Ghost, and that thou oughtest to rule over our 
community." The youthful saint replied : " It must be an absurd supposi- 
tion, that reverend old men should ser\-e under the rule of a foolish young 
man ; but, tell this occurrence to no person." The senior said : " Now, it 
is more proper, that thou be set over others, than that thou shouldst be 
under a superior. Truly, a day must come, when all of us and our place 
shall be subject to thee." The senior then related such a miraculous occur- 
rence to Kevin's superiors, and to all the brethren. This, however, dis- 
pleased our saint, and it gave him much inquietude. His resolution was 
soon formed. As a lone wanderer, he took his departure from among them. 
He then journeyed far off, and tlirough a desert country,^' to seek a more con- 
venient retreat for practices of austerity and contemplation. 



-During his wanderings, through the rugged and desert regions met with, in 
the county of VVicklow, St. Kevin one day entered that singularly romantic 
valley, lying embosomed in the midst of lofty and precipitous mountains. 
Within this secluded valley were two distinct lakes, which are connected by 
a stream running from the Upper into the Lower Lough. These reflect the 
dark shadows of overhanging mountains, even when a noontide sun pours its 
rays over the waters. But, at morning's dawn and evening's close, no gleam 
of sunshine spreads its cheering effulgence over their surface, on account of 
the natural barriers, within which those waters are pent. The scene likewise 
changes, from that of the over-topping rocks and mountains.* The whole 
valley of Glendalough is fully three miles in length, with an average width of 
about one quarter of a mile. The near mountains bounding it are Brockagh 
and Coomaderry, on the north, with Derrybawn and Lugduff, on the south 
side. Towards the west, Coomaderry and Lugduff mountains join, the latter 
forming steep precipices over the Upper Lake. The whole valley has that 
appearance of monastic retirement and religious awe, which have peculiarly 
fitted it, as a retreat for holiness and learning, from the earliest Christian ages.* 

Junii iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. i., n. 6, the ancient city of St. Kevin." — ^Vol. iii., 

pp. 312,313. No. 17, p. 243- 

Chapter ii. — * In an interesting article, * See an interesting little book, "The Hls- 
coiUributed by William F. Wakeman, and tory and Antiquities of Glendalough/' by 
headed, ** A Day at Glendalough," as pub- Joseph Nclan, F.R.G.S.I., cap. i., p. 9. 
lished in Duffy's ** Hibernian Magazine," There is a good compendium of narrative and 
this writer remarks, " we find ourselves, as of architectural description, regarding this 
•it were, shut out fiom the rest of the world, remarkable place, in it, with a few wood- 
by huge gloomy mountains, the sides of cuts, 
twhich, in many places, actually overhang ^See Mr. and Mrs. HalPs "Ireland: its 

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In some parts, the surrounding mountains are bare of verdure to the very 
summit, or covered with huge projecting masses of rock, among which 
descending rivulets foam and revel ; in other places, they are crowned with 
sable peat sods or brown heather. This valley is said to have been anciently 
called Gleand D^, in the Irish language, and at a subsequent period, it was 
denominated Gleanndaloch. This latter compound word signifies, ** valley 
of the two Lakes."3 

Admiring its scenery, St. Kevin penetrated the depths of this lonely place. 
He proceeded towards the upper part, where the lake is buried within over- 
topping mountains, and where it extends from one side to the other, with 
hardly a margin accessible to human footstep.* In the youth of St. Kevin, 
the hoary ruins now to be seen there had not any material existence, and he 
found that wild spot a perfect solitude ; yet, he left it, in after time, peopled 
with a pious colony of monks, and numerous inhabitants, the nucleus of a 
flourishing and religious city. 5 Near the upper lough, it would appear, our 
saint dwelt for some time, in the hollow of a tree, and here he led a most 
austere life. He seldom went forth, from his confined place of habitation, 
except for the purpose of collecting a few wild herbs. These he chiefly 
lived upon, and he only used a little water for drink.* While here, it is 
stated, that he wrote several learned works, and particularly a Life of St 
Patrick -^ but, if so, these treatises are most probably assignable to a later 
period of his career. While in this retreat, the shepherd of a certain man, who 
was named By, had been accustomed to bring his herd to pasture on particu- 
lar days, and within that valley, where St. Kevin lived. as a hermit. The 
Almighty, as if to disclose his servant's seclusion, and to draw him from that 
place of retirement, caused a cow, belonging to By's herd, to wander each 
day towards that hollow tree, in which our saint dwelt. This animal would 
frequently lick St. Kevin's garments. At the close of each day, she heard 
the lowing of other cattle, returning from their pasturage, and from the dark 
deep waters of the lake, with the loud shouts of herdsmen reverberating 
through the mountains and valleys, while conducting their herds homeward ; 
then, this animal speedily rejoined the herd, and she proceeded with her 
homed companions. She appeared to be satisfied with very meagre fare. Thus, 
it happened daily, when the herd had been driven into the valley, that 
animal separated herself from the rest. She sought our saint, to lick his gar- 
ments with her tongue. It was found, however, that she gave an almost incre- 
dible quantity of milk. Wondering at such a circumstance, the milkers told their 
master, who enquired from his shepherd, what had occurred to account for 
this cow's superior yield of milk. The herdsman said he could not assign any 
sufficient reason. He was desired by his master to observe her closely, on 
the following day, so that the matter might be more fully investigated. The 
herdsman accordingly committed the charge of his herd to younger boys. He 
then followed that particular animal wherever she went It was soon dis- 
covered, that she took her usual course towards the hollow tree, where St, 

Scenery, Character," &c., voL ii., p. 214. gazine," for August, 1871, vol. Ixxviii., No. 

* " Ubi est lacus in angustiori suo fine, cccclxiv., pp. 231 to 240. It is, however, 

inter eacumfna montium sdtissimorum ; sed considerably spiced by false assumptions, and 

lacus ad radices eorum a monte usque ad anti-Catholic prejudice, 
montem constat.'*— ** Acta Sanctorum,*' * See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

tomus L, Junii iiL Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. Junii iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. ii., num. 7, 

ii.,n.7,p.3i3. ?• S^S* . „.. 

« A very interesting topographical and ' See Archdall*s " Monasticoa Hiberni* 

annalistic account of this remarkable place cum,** p. 765. 

wiU b^ found in an article entitled, '^The " See "Acta Sanctorum,*' tomus i. 

History and Antiquities of Glendaloch,** to Junii iii. ViU S. Cocmgenit cap. u., n. 8, 

bf met with in the *" Dublin University Ma* pp. 313* ^14* 

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Kevin lived. There, the herdsman observed her licking our saint's garments. 
Much surprised at this cu-cumstance, he began to drive her way; while, at 
the same time, he reproved our saint, and in a clownish manner. Holy Kevin 
felt greatly displeased at this rencontre, as he feared the rustic should dis- 
close the place of his retreat. The herdsman drove his cattle homewards, 
and on coming to their stalls, the cows and calves are said to have become 
tnaddened to such a degree, that not knowing each other, the dams seemed 
about to kill their own calves. On seeing this, the herdsman felt alarmed, 
and told his master, what he had witnessed in the valley. Owing to special 
orders from his employer, the servant returned to St. Kevin. Falling on his 
knees, this menial besought pardon from God's holy servant. The saint 
adjured him, not to discover his place of retreat; for, he did not know, that 
the rustic had already disclosed such a secret Having obtained the saint's 
forgiveness, the herd then received water, that had been blessed by St. Kevin. 
With this, the cows and calves were sprinkled. Then, they became gentle, as 
they were before, and, immediately, St. Kevin's fame was divulged abroad. His 
former teachers, Eogoin, Lochan, and Enna — hearing that their pupil was to 
.be found in the recesses of Glendalough — brought him thence to their monas- 
tery, although this was done, contrary to his own inclinations.® 

One day in autumn, our saint's superiors collected many reapers for their 
harvest. An abundance of flesh meat and beer had been prepared for these 
labourers. Having been appointed to serve his turn for this day, in the kitchen, 
a great crowd of pilgrims arrived, end these asked Kevin for food, in the name 
of Christ. Full of compassion, he entreated the cooks to bestow on these 
strangers the reapers' food, which had been prepared. St. Eogoin sent to the 
workmen saying, that they shoi^ld come to dinner. But, St. Lochan, hearing 
what had occurred, went to the kitchen. He addressed these words to Kevin : 
" O good youth, what hast thou done without our orders? There are many 
reapers, and they justly deserve a good dinner, for they have wrought a good 
day's work; and, we would have given other food to the pilgrims." On hearing 
this reproach, falling on his knees, the holy youth besought pardon. The 
pious senior went outside the kitchen. Kevin then closed it, and ordered the 
attendants to collect all the bones, and to fill with water all those vessels, 
which before had contained beer. Afterwards, he desired the cooks to retire, 
and then he prayed with great fervour. Immediately, through favour of 
Heaven, the water is stated to have become wine, while the bones were 
.covered with an abundance of excellent flesh meat. Then, calling the chief 
xook, our saint showed him the miracle, that had taken place. Instantly, 
.the cook liastened with an account of this event, to his pious superiors in the 
monastery. These seniors glorified God, whose Almighty power was mani- 
Jfested in this miracle, and then they blessed their holy disciple, who had been 
.made iein instrument, for procuring such a great abundance of excellent food 
^and drink. Three days in succession, there was a suflSciency for all reapers, 
pilgrims^ and brothers, who remained in the place. 

-We.-are told, among the many legends in his Acts, that at another 
•time, our saint went to visit a holy hermit, named Beoan,9 with whom 
:he remained for some days. This hermit had only a single cow. His ser- 
'Vant being engaged one day in the performance of other duties, Beoan re- 
quested Kevin to look after this beast, lest an accident might happen her. 
On going out, Kevin saw, that the cow was about to bring forth a calf. He 

9 AUhbtlgh Colgah mentions three or four of Fiodh-cuilinn, is mentioned, at the 8th of 

Beo^ps, yet, it is not possible clearly to iden- August, a St. Beoan, Bishop of Tamlacht, at 

Hlfy any of tbem with llie hermit here named. the 26lh of October, and a St. Beoan, bishop, 

*In the Iilih 'Calendars, 'a * St. Boean, Bishop at the 3rd of December, 

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prq)ared to drive both animals towards the hermitage. Suddenly, a she- wolf, 
altogether emaciated with hunger, appeared and devoured the young calf. Its 
dam sent forth a plaintive lowing, while being driven towards her master's 
home, and on account of what had happened to her offspring. Having had 
an intimation, regarding what occurred, Beoan asked the visitor, why he per- 
mitted such an accident and loss, which seemed even to overwhelm the poor 
cow with grief. He then ordered Kevin, in the name of God, to afford some 
solace to this animal. On hearing these words of reproach, his guest went 
into a neighbouring wood, and there, through the power of God, he called the 
wolf towards- him. This wild animal obeyed his call, when Kevin directed 
her, to seek that cow, whose calf had been devoured, and to supply the loss 
of her offspring, at the time of daily milking. Wonderful to relate, adds the 
legend, immediately after such an admonition, this wolf ran towards the cell, 
and stood before the cow. On seeing this action, it is told, that the cow loved 
her as a mother would an only child. Afterwards, at ordinary milking hours, 
this wolf came from the woods. The cow, also, while giving milk, licked her, 
with an appearance of affectionate regard. The hermit, Beoan, recognising 
this as a great miracle, gave thanks to God, and his blessing to St. Kevin. 

Having received his blessing, and obtained St. Beoan's leave, blessed Kevin 
went to visit Bishop Lugid,'** who ruled over a monastery of religious brethren, 
after a very holy and exemplary manner. This pious Bishop " willingly re- 
ceived our saint into his community. One day, as we are told, a robber had 
stolen an animal belonging to the flock of St. Lugid*s monastery, and after- 
wards he denied this theft. Not taking into account St. Kevin's admonitory 
words,, the robber advanced towards some sacred relics," to swear he was 
innocent of that theft. When he had done so, a miracle is said to have 
revealed the fact of his perjury.'s AH who were present cried out for the 
thief s death, with the exception of God's servants, who liberated him. St. 
Kevin then said : ** O foolish man, abandon this world, and save thy soul 
from criminal leprosy." This just counsel he obeyed, and he brought forth 
fruits worthy of penance, during his after life.'* 

Another legend of our saint is thus related. One day, Lugid sent Kevin 
to a certain part of the country. Whilst on his way thither, our saint found 
the dead bodies of two females, 's who had been beheaded. On beholding 
this distressing and revolting spectacle, Kevin stood for some time, on the 

*" Baert remarks, that he could find no x., sect, x., n. 152, p. 48. 
stint, named Lugid or Lugidius, in Colgan ; " ** Accessit ad signa sacra ut juraret." — 

but, he finds many named Lugaid, Lugbee '* Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii iii. Vita 

and Lagneo. He confesses himself at a loss S. Coem^eni, cap. ii., 11. ii, p. 314. 
to discover, if any of them could be identified *3 a miracle somewhat similar to the fore- 

with the present Lugid. See *' Acta Sane- going is related in Colgan's ** Trias Thauma- 

tormn,'* tomns i., Tunii iii Vita S. Cocm- turga." See Sexta Vita S. Pairicii,orJocelyn's 

geni, c^. ii., n. (a), p. 315. Life of St. Patrick, cap. cxlviii., p. 97. 

" The Rev. Dr. Lanigan observes, that ** The fore^ing accounts are taken from 
supposing St. Coemgen to have been bom St. Kevin's Life in the " Acta Sanctorum,'* 
in A.D. 498, he knew of no Bishop Lugidus, tomus i., Junii iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. ii., 
by whom he could have been ordained, when num. 9, 10, 11, p. 314 
arrived at a proper a^e for priesthood, ex- *5 1'hesc are saia to have belonged to the 
cept Lugadius, and this person is thought to family of Dallayn. The word Val means 
be the same as Lugidus, Bishop of Connor. ** tribe," or "progeny.'* See Dr. John 
"But how account," he asks, "for Coem- O'Donovnn's Introduction to **Topographi- 
gen's going so far from his own country as cal Poems of John O'Dubhagain and GiuUa 
the diocese of Connor? There might have na Naomh O'Huidhrin,*' p. 6. The re- 
been a Leinster bishop, Lugidus, in the da3rs mainder of the compound word is not easily 
td Coemgen *s youth ; and that name was recognisable, among the tribe-names of Ire- 
ibrmerly Tery common in Ireland." — **Ec- land. 
dcsiasticflJ History of Ireland,** vol.ii., chap. '^Jn the "Acta Breviora," it is stated, 

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spot, lest their dead bodies might become the prey of birds or dogs. He 
offered up prayers to God, at the same time. Soon afterwards, the perpetrators 
of this wicked action came there, in a disturbed state of mind, and having in 
their possession the heads of those, who had been slain.'* On seeing them, 
Kevin upbraided those ruffians, with the murder already committed. The 
assassins acknowledged the commission of that foul and cruel deed. They 
averred, it was done through hatred, and to be revenged of their parents, who 
had persecuted themselves. Our saint asked those mangled remains from 
the murderers. The heads being then deposited on the ground, Kevin joined 
them to their bodies. He next engaged in prayer, for some time, when in 
the presence of all, the females arose perfectly restored. These women gave 
thanks to God. Their murderers, seeing the great miracle which had taken 
place, suppliantly asked pardon for that crime. The murderers expressed 
joy, likewise, at the fortunate issue of this event, and then promised they 
would never be guilty of any like action. Returning to their people, the restored 
maidens gave an account of what had occurred. Owing to this wonderful 
miracle, St. Kevin's renown was spread throughout that whole region. »7 

In his youth. Bishop Lugid had resolved on leaving Ireland, to become a pil- 
grim, in some foreign land. Then, the Angel of the Lord came to him and said : 
*^ Do not leave Ireland, for through the providence of God, you shall ordain 
many saints in it." Acting on this admonition, Lugid remained in his native 
country. The holy Kevin was one among those saints, he afterwards 
ordained. When our saint had become a Priest, Lugid sent him with other 
disciples, whom he had ordained, that he might build a cell in God's honour, 
and in any place he might be able to find. On coming to a spot, called 
Cluainduach, the blessed Kevin built a cell, in which he remained for some 
time. While some writers assert, that this place was identical with Glenda- 
lough, and its more ancient denomination ;'^ others will have it a distinct 
locality.'^ This latter opinion — in conjunction with its peculiar name and 
the context of this narrative — seems to establish it as the correct conclusion. 
Its position, however, has not been ascertained. However, if a conjecture 
be allowable, perhaps it was not distinct from Luggala**>— which has been 
already described — and it may have been the ancient name for that place, 
with which St. Kevin's name has been associated in tradition. At Cluain- 
duach, it is said, he collected together many seiTants of Christ.'* 

While our saint remained at this place, where in seclusion he 
practised great austerities, a poor fugitive ran towards his cell door, pur- 
sued by twelve men, who were his enemies. These had resolved on taking 
away his life. The door being closed, the runaway could not enter ; but, he 
fell on the ground, before it. Arriving at the spot, in search of their intended 
victim, his enemies could see nothing, but what appeared to be a log of wood, 
lying stretched on the earth. They wondered very much thereat, for they 

that by a divine revelation, St. Kevin knew, ** they come bubbling or trickling among 

that tne heads of those murdered females rocksand huge roots, now and then concealed 

were hidden in the hollow of a tree. both from sight and hearing ; but anon 

»7 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., forcing their way through tangled under- 

Juniiiii. Vita S. Coemgeni,cap. ii.,num. 12, wood, and forming, when their journey is 

p. 314. nearly over, most deliciously clear and cool 

•® Hanmer, who possessed, or who had fountains." — Mr. antl Mrs. HalFs ** Ireland : 

access to, a Manuscnpt Life of St. Coemgen, its Scenery, Character," &c., vol. ii., p. 208. 

is of this opinion. See ** Chronicle of Ire- There, too, may be seen an exquisite engrav- 

land," p. 126. ing of Luggela, from the pencil of Mr. 

'9 See Harris' Ware, vol. iii., ** Writers of Creswick. 

Ireland," Book i., chap, iii., p. 21. " See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

*> Several miniature cascades proceed Junii iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. ii., num. 

from the upper precipices to form the Lough : 1 3, p. 3 14* 

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had not seen St. Kevin's door open, or the man escape from that place, 
inquiring from one another, what could have become of the fugitive, or what 
they should next do, some among them sat down upon what appeared to be 
only a piece of timber. Meantime, being within his oratory, and engaged at 
prayer, Kevin had a revelation, regarding the occurrence outside his cell. 
Going forth, at last, he called a certain brother, and said to him : " My son, 
bring those men, who are sitting before the door, to nve." When they were 
in his presence, the blessed anchorite said : ** O wretches, why have you 
wished to kill a man, before the door of Coemgen's cell ?" On hearing this 
name pronounced, and knowing from his saintly countenance and words, that 
he who addressed them could have been no other than blessed Kevin him- 
self, the marauders fell prostrate upon earth, humbly asking his pardon. 
Then, a servant of St. Kevin said to them : '*0 fools, go, and see the man 
you seek, and on whom you sit ; he appearing to you as wood, through the 
power of God, and through the merits of our Abbot.'* Those marauders 
afterwards saw a man there sitting, and he related to them what had occurred. 
Then, presenting themselves to God and to St. Kevin, they all became monks, 
and lived under our saint. With him they remained, leading pious and reli- 
gious lives to the period of their respective deaths.*' 

A workman, belonging to St. Kevin's family, being one day engaged 
braying a stone in a mortar; a particle from this stone suddenly struckthe 
roan's eye. This accident deprived him of sight. The circumstance so 
occurring was revealed to St. Kevin, who had been engaged at this time, pray- 
ing within his oratory. On coming forth, and seeing the blind man's unhappy 
slate, with the brethren lamenting around him, the holy anchorite placed his 
hand on the workman's eye and prayed for him. Kevin also signed the 
wound, \xi the name of Christ. Immediately, and in presence of all, that 
man rcr overed the use of sight. He was freed from pain and blood, hke- 
wise, as if he had never been struck. He and the other brethren gave thanks 
to God, glorifying their holy patron, at the same time. 

After these and many Hke miracles, blessed Kevin left his cell at 
Cluainduach, having placed some venerable men in charge of it. '3 Then, 
taking some monks with him, our saint directed his footsteps towards his own 
country. While walking alone, and through a desert place, his monks having 
preceded him on the way, St. Coemgen saw a man's dead body lying near 
the roadside. Not being able to bury the corpse without assistance, our 
saint prayed to God, that the deceased might be restored to life. The dead man 
arose, and blessed the saint, giving thanks to the Almighty. Then accom- 
panying holy Kevin, the man told him, that he had been suddenly suffocated 
and overtaken by death, on that very spot, where he had been found. Coming 
up with the rest of St. Kevin's brethren, these made enquiries regarding that 
stranger, who declared, he had been raised to life, by their venerable 

■• See ibid.^nxvoi, 14, pp. 314, 315. Anglo-Saxons ! O mighty antiquary I on 

■J See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical this stupid statement it is sufficient to ob- 

History of Ireland," vol. il, chap, x., sect. serve, that Glendalou^jh is, both as a com- 

z., p. 44. pound word and in its parts, downriglit 

*« See ** Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii Irish, consisting of Glen^ valley, </<£?, two, 

ui. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. ii., num. 15, 16, and lough lake. The Doctor need not have 

p. 315. gone further than Johnson's Dictionary to 

^ ** Lcdwich, to make a display of his learn that glen and lough are orijjinally Irish 

learning, says (Ant. p. 33), that Glendalogh words, which as well as very many others, 

or rather Glendalough, seems to be an have crept into the English language. The 

Anglo-Saxon compound, and that the name place has very appropriately been so called 

was derived from the first Firbolgian pos- from there being two lakes in the valley." — 

sessorsof the valley, viz., the Tuathals or Dr. I^inigan's "Ecclesiastical History of 

OTooles. So then these Firbolgians were Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, x., n. 154, 

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superior. Hearing such a surprising account, the disciples gave praise to 
Christ, the Saviour of men. The stranger soon became a monk, and he lived 
under St. Kevin, with whom he remained to the day of his death, in a state 
of holy obedience.'* 

Thence, pursuing his course, and having come towards his own part of the 
country, St. Kevin began to inhabit those solitudes of Wicklow, now known as 
the Valley and Lakes of Glendalough.»5 There, in youth, he had led an eremi- 
tical life, until he had been discovered in this place of his retreat, and in the 
manner already mentioned. From the beginning, our saint had dearly loved this 
place. The old writer of his Acts states, that in the lower part of this valley, 
and where two clear rivers flow together, he began to found a great monas- 
tery. We may well suppose, these streams must be that one of Glenealo, as 
now called, which rolls down from the bleak and precipitous mountain, at the 
head of the Upper Lough, which supplies its deep basin, and afterwards 
escapes from its outlet, again forming a river, until it enters the Lower 
Lough, from which it again issues, and a little below, it is joined by the Glen- 
dasan rivulet.*^ The ancient pass running upwards towards the head of this 
latter glen is called St. Kevin's Road ; while huge Caraaderry Mountain 
rises between both streams, and terminates at their junction. Within these 
rivulet boundaries, and immediately near their blending into one course — 
thence taking the name ofGlendasan River until it falls into the Avonmore — 
the ancient city of Glendalough was chiefly situated, as the numerous ruins 
still there sufficiently indicate. However, other opinion prevails, that where 
the stream of Lugdiiff*, below Poulanass Waterfall, joins the Upper Lake, and 
within the woods, must have been the site originally selected by St. Kevin for 
his religious house. This monastic institute has been identified w.tli what is 
now called Reafert Church, which the learned Dr. Petrie calls St. Kevin's 
earlier church, near the upper Lake. ^7 Even at the present day, its ruins are 
buried in an almost perfect solitude.'^ After descending the valley, a very 
short distance from St Kevin's Bed, and still below it, but on a steep ledge 
of rock, under Lugduff" there is a circular wall, 12 feet in diameter, and two 
feet or more in thickness. A cross in the centre, and a few trees cluster 
about the place picturesquely. This seems to have been a place for holding 
stations. A little distance below it in the valley, and on the same side of the 
lake, is Reafert church,"^ in a most secluded position. Numbers of old broken 
stone crosses lie scattered about this church, which had been surrounded by 
a graveyard, now embosomed in fine shady trees. The date, for the erection 
of a monastery at Glendalough, is not recorded ; but, an opinion is entertained, 
that it must have been founded, before a.d. 549, supposing our saint to have 
been abbot there, when he went to pay a visit to St. Kieran,3o at Clonniacnois, 

pp. 48, 49. tend from the inner to the outer face. A 

** An inspection of the " Ordnance Sur- massive lintel covers the doorway. Some 

yey Townland Maps for the County of completed chiselling on its left side seems to 

Wicklow,*' sheet 23, will bring the whole of indicate an intention of adding an architrave, 

this locality, as also the site and ruins of like that seen in the Lady's Church, at Glen- 

Glendalough, most intelligibly under the eye dalough. See ^/V., p. 174. 

of the inspector. ^ The finest and most characteristic cn- 

■7 See ** Ecclesiastical Architecture and graving, by George Hanlon, we have seen. 

Round Towers of Ireland, "part ii., sect, iii., and representing the doorway of Refeart 

subs, i., p. 173. church at Glendalough, is, that designed by 

* There may be seen, likewise, a beauti- William F. Wakeman, in the " Irisn 

ful woodcut, representing the doorway. Literary Gazette," vol. ii. There is an arti- 

which is formed of chiselled granite blocks. cle descriptive of the antiquities of Glendar 

This doorway is six feet in height, two feet lough appended, and written in the graceful 

six inches in width at top, and two feet and style of that accomplished artist See pp. 

nine inches at the bottom. The wall is three 299, 300. 

feet ia thickness, and most of it3 stones ex- 30 The Rev. Dr. Lanigan, however, sus- 

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and where he did not arrive until three days after the Abbot's death.3* This 
event is held to have occurred, a.d. 549*^' 

At one time, as we find the circumstance related, St Kevin went on a visit 
to that St Kieran, who dwelt in Clonmacnoise city, on the banks of the River 
Shannon, and towards the western confines of Meath province, opposite the 
territory of Connaught But, three days before St Kevin's arrival, the Abbot 
of Clonmacnoise had departed this life. The exact date for his death, there- 
fcwe, must determine the year of St Kevin's visit to Clonmacnoise. The body 
was then placed upon a bier, within a certain church, until Kevin and other 
men should be present to assist at the interment. Our saint arrived at a late 
hour in Clonmacnoise monastery, and he entered the church, where the dead 
Abbot's body lay. He commanded all the brethren to go outside, as he 
wished to be left alone with the sacred relics. Doing as they had been com- 
manded, our saint closed the church doors, and remained himself within it, 
until the following day. But, some of the brethren remained watching with- 
out the door. While St Kevin prayed, St. Kieran's beatified spirit is said 
to have returned to his body, and a holy conversation afterwards passed 
between both saints. Their words were distinctly heard, by the brethren 
without ; and, Kieran asked our saint, that as a sign of lasting friendship, both 
should change their garments. This was accordingly done. The doors 
being opened on the following day, the monks found St. Kevin clothed with 
St. Kieran's garments. The latter holy person, in like manner, was covered 
with the garments of our saint. Kieran's body, moreover, seemed full of vital 
heat, and his face appeared ruddy in colour. Then, St. Kevin declared, that 
the deceased Abbot had established a fraternity and union with himself, and 
that this extended to the monks of Clonmacnoise and to these of Glenda- 
lough. The body of St. Kieran being buried, with great honour, St Kevin 
returned towards his own city.33 

Many pious men with religious vocations flocked to him, firom all parts of the 
surrounding country, and became monks at this place, being under our saint's 
spiritiial guardianship.34 Various cells and monasteries were founded, afterwards, 
in the Leinster province; while, a great number of monks lived at different sta- 
tions, all being subject to the Rule of St Kevin. The monastery of Glendalough, 
and other monasteries, subject to him, were assigned to the care of approved 
and saintly men. He appointed their several duties for each of his religious. 

Having provided for the spiritual wants and welfare of others, the holy 
Abbot — who had always loved perfect retirement and contemplation — 
resolved to indulge his desire for solitude and prayer. He then went alone, 
into an upper part of the valley, about a mile distant from his monastery. 
Here, he erected a small hermitage for himself, in a narrow place, between the 
lake and the mountain above it, where there were thick shady trees and clear 
rivulets. He ordered his monks, to send him ho kind of food, and that none 
should approach him, except on urgent business. While thus alone, in the 
tipper part of Glendalough valley, and in different places between the moun- 
tain and the lake, he led an eremitical life, for four years. These he passed, 
in continual fasting and vigil, without fire, and without even a roof to cover 
him. It was not known, whether he lived on roots, found in the earth, or on the 
fruits of trees, or on food miraculously sent him from Heaven ; for, he would 

pects, that our saint was not an abbot at the nicarum Scriptores," tomus ii., Tigemachi 

time of this event. See " Ecclesiastical Annales, p. 138. 

History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect. 33 See ** AcU Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii 

X., p. 44, and n. 155, p. 49. Ibid, iii Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. iv., num. 30, 

^ His feast is commemorated, at the 9th p. 318. 

of September. * 3* See Archdall's *• Monasticon Hibemi- 

3» Hit RcT. Dr. O'CoBor's "Renim Hiber- cum," p. 766. 

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[June 3. 

not disclose the secret manner of his life to any person. His monks built a 
renowned cell, however, in that desert place, where St. Kevin dwelt, between 
the upper mountain and the lake on its southern side.3S In the Scottish or 
Irish language, this place was called Disert-Caughin, which is rendered in Latin, 
**Ereraus Coemgeni,"36 This cell, which was tenanted by St. Kevin, must 
have been the present almost shapeless mass of ruins, some short distance 
above St. Kevin's Bed, and on the very margin of the lake. Towering and 
precipitous black rocks, rise perpendicularly over this *' Teampul na Scelbg." 
The walls of a cell there measure 2 1 feet, by 1 7 feet interiorly ; while, they 

Ruins of St. Kevin's First Cell Glendalough. 

are over two feet, in thickness. Outside of this quadrangular cell, a circularly 
built wall may be seen. Through it, there is a very narrow passage faced 
with stone, and having steps descending towards the cell. 37 Here, it is very 
likely, St. Kevin spent his most lonely hours. Perhaps, some of the stones 
yet remaining were placed there, by the saint's own hand. Here, however, 
there could not have been space, for the erection of any considerable monas- 
tery,38 g© that it must have been merely a hermitage. 

As illustrating the gentleness of his disposition, it is said, that the 
beasts, on the mountains and in the woods, laying aside their natural ferocit) 
accompanied St. Kevin. In a domesticated state, they tamely drank water 

35 Here, at the time the biographer of St. 
Kevin wrote, a famous monastery stood, and 
in which religious men always lived. 

3* It may be translated, "Kevin's soli- 
tude," or "desert,*' in English. 

37 In company with the Rev. Richard 
Galvani P.P., Rathdrum, and the Rev. 
James Gaffhey, M.R.I. A., these remains 
were examined by the writer in May, 187 1, 
with much curious interest. The writer then 
took a drawing of this ruined cell, which was 

transferred to the wood, by William F 
Wakeman, for the present illustration, en- 
graved by Mrs. Millard. 

3^ According to a tradition, which pre- 
vailed towards the close of the last century, 
St. Kevin had an apartment here, for the 
purposes of study. See Jonathan Fisher's 
•* Scenery of Ireland," p. 6, at the beautiful 
series of Aquatinta views, illustrating the 
Scenery and Antiquities at Glendalough, 
plates (v., Ivi., Ivii. Iviii., Ux., Ix. 

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from his hands. After the term of four years, many holy men assembled 
tc^ether, and drew persuasively St. Kevin from his place of retreat, although 
much against his inclinations ; for, there he wished to dwell, until he should 
be called to his reward in the next life. It seems, that he lived too austere 
a life when alone. His friends therefore compelled him to reside among his 
monks, in that monastery, to which allusion has been already made.39 

One day, after he had resolved on this change of residence, St. 
Kevin took his station on a stone without his monastery. There, the devil 
transforming himself into an Angel of light appeared. With apparent modesty 
of demeanour, and in a very beautiful form, the demon said to our saint : 
** Hail, O holy man of God ; behold, I am sent to thee by the Lord, that I 
may give thee counsel. Already thou hast sustained great labour, and the 
holy Angels praise thee, in the sight of God. The Lord hath ordered thee 
in love, to depart from this rocky valley, and to seek a place more habitable for 
thy monks after thee." Pretending to bless St. Kevin, the devil immediately 
vanished, after communicating these fallacious orders. Deceived by the 
modest and beautiful appearance of the demon, Kevin felt greatly preplexed, 
on hearing this message. For, if it were true, that his life had been pleasing 
to God and to the Angels in this place; he knew, also, that the Almighty could 
provide means of living for his servants, at all times, and in all places. Where- 
fore, he said : " With the permission of God, I will finish my mortal course, 
in this valley, whether my life be praised by an Angel or by a demon." After- 
wards, with a number of wicked spirits, Satan went beyond the mountain 
called Tuayd,^^ in the Ulster province, and in the northern part of Ireland. 
Here, he appeared to the Abbot Comgall,-*' who said to him : " Whence hast 
thou come, Satan." The devil answered : " I have come from the territo- 
ries of Leinster, and from the valley of the two Lakes, where austere Kevin 
dwells. In that place, with his baneful company, that man hath been greatly 
and incessantly injuring my followers, for seven whole years. Afterwards, I 
went to him, and persuaded him to leave his place. But, my representations 
did not ava^, for his fortitude hath overcome all my powers. Now, I and 
my family, must depart foiled to our place of habitation. Our standards are 
broken by him, as we must proclaim ; yet, we still wish to tempt him." Then, 
St Comgall said to him : " Satan, return with my monks to St. Coemgen. 
Thou shalt approach him, neither before nor after, but simultaneously with 
them ) and, thou shalt manifest to him thy wiles and plots, against him, my 
monks being present. Thus, I command thee, in the name of Christ." St. 
Comgairs monks dien coming to St. Kevin, Satan appeared at the same 
time with them. The devil told our saint all things, after the manner in which 
he had been directed, by the holy Abbot of Bangor. Whereupon, giving 
thanks to God, and blessing his friend St. Comgall, our holy Abbot ordered 
the devil, that he should, thenceforward and for ever, remove his wicked com- 
panions from that happy valley. On hearing St. Kevin's orders, with a terri- 
ble howling the demons departed from Glendalough, and saying at the same 
time, that they should never more take up their station within it After this 
departure of the demons, that rock on which they were accustomed to alight 
fell into pieces. These were precipitated into the Lake, and with a great noise. 
Blessed Kevin, as we are informed, had been engaged at prayer, to eflfect this 
miracle,^' at the time of its occurrence. 

» See ** Acta Sanclorum," lomus i., Junii ** The Life of this saint is already given, 

iii. Vita S. Cocmgcni, cap. iil, num. 17, in the Fifth Volume of this work, at the loth 

p. 315. of May, Art. i. 

** This denomination has not been identi ♦* See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii 

fied: but, probably. Fiodb, or Feadha, the iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. iii., num. i8, 

Fewi of Arauigh, may be the correct reading, pp. 315, 316. 

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St. Kevin is said to have prayed each night, for a full hour, surrounded by the 
Lake waters, in that place where he stood. A monster frequenting the Lough, 
according to a legend, was accustomed to swim around his body, without 
offering him any violence. The servant of God bore all this with patience, 
for a long time. To reward his virtues, the Almighty sent an Angel, at last, 
to assist him, and to relieve him from what he saw and endured. For three 
principal reasons, the Angel was despatched to his assistance :<—* First, that he 
might be relieved from his many self-imposed labours ; secondly, that the 
monster might be repelled ; and thirdly, that the cold water might be ren- 
dered warm. For, on the Angel of the Lord coming to him each night, the 
monster retired. Then, reposing on his bosom, that Angel caused the Lake 
water to lose its naturally cold temperature, and to become warm. It is also 
said, that within a period of seven years,' previous to this time,' St. Kevin 
had constructed a little oratory, formed of osiers, on the northern shore of the 
Lake. At present a passage is shown, near the lower outlet of the Upper 
Lough, and through the young plantations, which now cover that side of 
Camaderry, and, it is traditionally called St. Kevin's Road. This pathway 
goes upwards by a very steep ascent to the very summit of that mountain, 
and then it drops downwards into Glendassan, on the other side ; while, it 
continues afterwards to ascend that ravine, on the northern face of the glen. 
Perhaps, his abode might be located somewhere, over the outlet of the Upper 
Lough, and near the beginning of St. Kevin's Road. At least, this conjecture 
should accord very well, with the account contained in his published Acts, 
In that temporary bower, the holy man had often prayed to God. In this retreat, 
moreover, St Kevin dwelt free from the interruptions of mankind, and sustained 
by no human nourishment. It seems most probable, also, that his manner of 
living there must be referred to the latter part of the sixth century,3 About 
this time lived the celebrated Brandubh,^ son to Eatach, belonging to the 
family of Enna,^ who was King of Leinster. He had a huntsman, who entered 
this valley, on a certain day, his dogs being engaged in the pursuit of a boar. 
The hunted animal ran into the saint's oratory ; but, the dogs, not daring to 

Chapter hi. — ' The Life says: "In- Keating's "History of Ireland, " book ii., 

fra spatium prsedictorum septem anno- part i., chap, i., p. 465. 

rum,'^&c. ♦ In the Life of St. Aidan or Moedhoc, 

' It is difficult to collect the author's mean- there is an account of Brandubh, and 
ing, for there is no allusion in previous especially in reference to' his victory ob- 
parap;raphs to a period of seven years. St. tamed over Aedh I., or Hugh, son of Am- 
Kevin is stated to have lived a hermit's life mirech. King of Temoria and of Aileach. 
for a duration of four years. But, it is said, He reigned fi-om a.d. 572 to A.D. 598, 
likewise, himself and his disciples had with- when he was killed in the Battle of Dun- 
stood the demons, in Glendalough, for seven bolg. See Ussher's " Bhtannicarum Eccle- 
whole years. siarum Antiquitates," cap. xvii., pp. 490, 

3 St. Kevin was regarded as the special 5oo,andIndexChronologicus,A.D. Dxcvni., 

Patron of the Tuathalaigh (0*Toolcs) and p. 535. 

Brannaigh(O'Bymes). See John O^Mahony's s Iq the Life of St. Kevin a parenthesis ift 

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June 3] 



follow, lay down before the door. St. Kevin remained praying beneath a tree, 
while many birds were seen perched upon his head and shoulders. They 
flew around him, likewise, and warbled sweet hymns in honour of God's ser- 
vant. Surprised at what he witnessed, the hunter called away his dogs. He 
there left the boar at liberty, on account of a reverence he entertained towards 
the holy anchorite ; and, he told this miraculous occurrence, which he had 
witnessed, to the king, and to all others. Even, the branches and leaves of 
trees were said to chant sweet hymns to St. Kevin, in order to assuage by 
heavenly psalmody his extraordinary austerities.^ 

On the southern bor- 
der of the Upper Lake 
rises a steep, rocky and 
m ou n tainous range ; 
while at a height of 
about thirty feet over 
the water's surface, a 
cave may be seen, and 
it has been artificially 
hollowed out in the 
northern face of the 
rock. This is said to 
have been the work of 
St. Kevin's own hands ; 
and, to it he frequently 
retired, for purposes of 
devout contempla- 
tion.' Here, too, he 
reposed by night on 
this stony bed, when 
not engaged in pious 
vigil and meditation. 
A ledge of level rock 
is formed at its en- 
trance. Even yet, 
adventurous pilgrims 
dare climb into it, 
from Tempul na Skel- 
lig, while they ascend 
by a steep and dan- 
gerous pathway.* Sta- 
tions were formerly made there, by the devout peasantry,^ and especially on 
their Patron's festival day. Many of the young and agile mountaineers are 

Approach from the Lake to St. Kevin's Bed, Glendalough. 

inserted, as follows : "a quo nominatur 
pens Censelach, qui innumerabilem csedem 
m maxima pla|ia super Aquilonales Hiber- 
BiK provincias m bello magno fecit," &c. 

•See ''Acta Sanctorum,*' tomus i., Junii 
m. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. iii., nn. 19, 20, 

' This is poetically described, by J. T. S. 
Le£ma, in mese lines : — 
" Where in yon low-browed glooming 
TTie fair-bcKOttcn Coemghine — 
Hnne midway o'er the pathless 

—** Glendalough, or the Seven Churches, "a 
didactic poem, by an ex-Moderator, T.C.D., 
Canto iii., St. Kevin's Bed, sect iii., p. 75. 

® The accompanying illustration of this 
rocky ascent, as taken from a photograph, by 
Frederick Mares, has been transferred to the 
wood, by William F. Wakeman, and it has 
been engraved by Mrs. Millard. 

9 Numerous caiseals or circular stone en- 
closures, cairns and crosses are in the field 
below the Upper Lake, and St. Kevin's chair 
is shown on the rock above Teampul-na 
Skellig, which is reduced to little more than 
its foundations. 

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accustomed to ascend toSt. Kevin'sBed,byapathwaystill more dangerous; and, 
sometimes, even they descend from the upper part of the mountain, on to that 
ledge of rock, which lies before the cave. This south-eastern part of the lake 
was called Disert Caoimhghin, or Disartkevin, which comprised Righfeart or 
Reafert Church " and Teampul-na-Skellig, with a large number of ancient 
crosses " and tombstones,'* Many of these are now setup in the cemetery, at- 
tached to the former ruin, which has been very carefully repaired and restored. 
An ancient ** pilgrims' road" extended across the valley, from the Righfeart 
Church to that river which connects the two Lakes. It was bordered by lines of 
cairns and crosses, which still remain, as do a couple of *'caiseals " — apparently 
sepulchral enclosures — in the adjoining fields. But, the southern half of the road 
has been destroyed, and its site was ploughed over within the last few years. 

During the time of Lent, when our saint lived in the desert, an 
Angel of the Lord appeared to him, on three different nights. This Angel 
said : " O servant of Christ, that rock hanging over the cave '3 in which you 
dwell, will soon fall upon it, wherefore speedily look out for some other place."** 
St. Kevin rephed : " This is a narrow place in which I dwell, but, I wish to 
remain in it, during the time of Lent, if it be pleasing to God." The Angel 
continued : "Truly, the hand of the All-powerful God shall sustain this rock 
for many days, lest it should deprive thee of life." Saying these words, the 
Angel vanished. Holy Kevin then said within himself: "Trusting in the Lord 
Jesus Christ, my God, here shall I remain, until Eastertide." There can be no 
question, as enormous precipices of amorphus granite soar at the head of Glen- 
dalough, and are cut irregularly across by fissures, that, in former times, vast 
masses of rock have tumbled away to their base, or slipped down from their brow, 
and formed a kind of gigantic or acclivitous stair, in certain places, to the 
very summit of the mountain.'' To a providential escape of St. Kevin from 
one of these landslides is allusion here made ; and, it has been an early tra- 
dition in the Irish Church, that such an accident actually occurred, during 
the time he resided *^ under the brow of LugdufT. Nay more, immediately over 
the ruined cell of the saint, in the upper valley, the geological spectator at 
the present day may have ocular demonstration of a vast rent, from the face 
of that mountain, which must have carried large masses of stone into the 
valley beneath, or further even into the waters of the Lough. When the holy 
evening of Easter came, the Angel again warned St. Kevin : " Depart imme- 
diately from this cave following me." Then, blessed Kevin followed the 
Angel across the Lake and with dry feet. As the Angel had intimated, the 

'^ It was formerly oversown with trees stood on the margin of the Lake, may be 
and brambles ; but, these have been cleared questioned ; but, most probably, itrelatestothe 
awav from thb church and its cemetery. Its latter, as being the chief place where he lived. 
Cyclopean doorway shows to ereat advan- '* At present, there is a remarkable open- 
tage. It had a nave and chancel, now ing between the rocks on the south side of 
restored ; the voussoirs of the chancel-arch the lake. According to the local guides, it 
have been set in their place, and the arched is called " the Giant's Cut, a long fissure in 
heads of windows, recovered from heaps of the Glen*s side, where the mighty Finn Ma- 
stones, now fit over them, and in their origi- coul (they say) tried his sword.**— G. R. 
nal position. The churchvard*s boundaries PoweU's "Official Railway Hand-book to 
have been ascertained, and fenced, with ap- Bray, Kingstown, the Coast, and the County 
proaches, appropriately planned. of Wicklow,*' p. 70. 

" These are usually of clay-slate, and for '^ See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ire- 

the most part smaU and rudely fashioned. land,** vol. ii., p. 267. 

«* One of these, said to have had an in- '* In the "mansiunculum,** or cell, "in 

scnptioh, which designated it as that of King loco angusto inter montem et stagnum." In 

0*TooIe,has been so mutilated, that the for- the ** Fdlire ** of Oengus, he alludes to St. 

mer inscription cannot now be recognised. Coemhghan escaping, ^m the perils of the 

'3 'Whether this refers to St. Kevin's Bed mountain, at Gleann d& Locha. 

on the brow of the cliff, or to that cell, which '7 On a knoU above the Righfeart Church, 

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JUNB 3.] 



rock fell immediately afterwards on the cave/7 so soon as our saint had taken 
his departure.'* On another day, the holy Abbot Munna '9 — who lived in his 
monastery called Teach-Munna, in the southern part of Hy-Kinsellagh terri- 
tory — heard one demon, conversing withanother, and after this manner: *' Why, 
O friend, is thy countenance so sorrowful, and so very pale, at this time ?" 
The demon thus addressed replied : " Why should I not be sad ? For, I 
with my other confederates fought bravely for a long time against one man, 
and we have been vanquished. The place in which he dwells had been ours, 
from the beginning of the world. But now, as it is impossible for any living 
man to exist in a burning fire, so it is difficult for us to traverse the space, 
between that place and the sky ; for, we are consumed with the flame of his 
prayer. If you wish to know who this man is, his name is Coemgen, and he 
dwells in the valley of the two Lakes. However, at this time, we have per- 
suaded him to set out on a pilgrimage, from that place ; and, he is now pre- 
pared to go, if God shall not prevent his journey.*® On hearing these words, 
through the Divine assistance, St. Munnu bound this demon with a flery 
chain.'* Then, St. Munna sent messengers to holy Kevin, to tell him minutely 
those designs of the demon, directed against him. Giving thanks to God 
and to his servant Munna, our saint did not fulfil that vow he had made, to 
undertake his projected pilgrimage.'* 

On a certain night, it is related, that St. Kevin and his monks 
were engaged singing a hymn to St. Patrick.*^ Suddenly, the holy 
Abbot remained in a silent ecstasy, and then ordered his brethren to sing 
this hjrmn three different times. When the monks enquired, why they should 
sing it so often, the Abbot said : " Our holy Patron Patrick, whose hymn «4 
you have sung, stood on the pavement leaning on his staff, and he blessed 
us,*5 when we ceased our singing." We are then told, that this was St 

OTerlumging the upper lake, and command- 
ing a fine view of the valley, is a circular en- 
closure about 10 feet in diameter, containing 
A rude cross of day-slate, and formed bv a 
wall of loose stones, about two feet high, 
with an entrance facing the east This looks 
like a sepulchral enclosure ; but, the late 
George V. Du Noyer thought it to have been 
tbecdl, which St Kevin built for his habi- 
tation. See "Proceedings of the Royal 
Irish Academy," vol viL Mr. G. V. Du 
Noyer's description of his Series of 118 Ori- 
^p£aX Drawings of Irish Antiauities, includ- 
ing 3 1 sketches of Glendalough, p. 256, and 
TiH. iz., at p. 424. 

^^ ■• See •* Acu Sanctorum," tomus L, Junii 
iiL Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. iil, n. ai, 

^ This saint's festival is celebrated, on the 
2ist of October. In a note, at this passage 
of our saint's Life, after explaining that St. 
Munnu was also called Fintan, son of Tul- 
cfaan, Father Frandi Baert promised, that 
St Munua's Life should be puolished, at the 
2ist of October ; but, he fears that abound- 
ii^ as it does in prodigies of narrative, the 
reader may well suspect the authenticity of 
many stories there recorded. See n. (c), 

" Hasc audiens S. Munna, doemonem 
iUum in catena ignita per virtutem Christi 
aJUgavit, per lapideum titulum Dei auxiUo 
hoc osqoe in memoriam virtutis Ugatum." 

The latter part of the foregoing sentence does 
not furnish as with any very intelligible 
idea ; but, it probably refers to some local 
legend or tradition, which had been known 
at that time^ when the author of our saint's 
Life composed hb narrative. 

*' This account in the text will naturally 
suggest to the reader the circumstance of the 
Angel Raphael taking the devil, and bind- 
inp him in the desert of Upper FgyPt as 
rebted in the Sacred Scripture. See Tobias 
viii., 3. 

■* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii 
iiL Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. iii., n. 32, p. 

^ In the sixth and beginning of the seventh 
century. Father Baert remarks, there is 
hardly a doubt, many hymns, composed in 
honour of St Patrick, were extant There 
is a hymn said to have been composed before 
the time of St. Kevin, by St Secundin, uid 
another by St. Fiech of Sletty. See the 
latter, Irish, with Latin translation and notes, 
in Col^an's ** Trias Thaumaturga," Hymnus 
seu Prima Vita S. Patridi, pp. i to 10. 

^ However, Father Baert does not think* 
that it was that hymn, said to have been 
composed, by one Sechnal, as mentioned by 
Colgan, in Tertia ViU S. PatriciL See 
" Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii iii. Vita 
S. Coemgeni, cap. iii., n. (e), P. 3*7» 

*s It is perfectly credible, that St. Patrick 
would have blessed those reciting his Hymn, 

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Patrick,*^ the Archbishop, who had converted Ireland from the errors of 
paganism to the true Faith ; who, many years before, had departed happily ; 
and, it is stated, that the efficacy of this hymn was to be found related in his 
Life.*7 On the night following such occurrence, St. Kevin walked over the 
Lake with dry feet, from that place where he had sung the hymn of St 
Patrick, with his monks, and he came to that spot, where his city afterwards 
stood,'* The holy Abbot thought he had not been observed, during this 
migration ; but, his tanner, named Cronan,'9 followed our saint across the 
Lake, and in the same manner, with dry feet. Seeing him following in this 
way, blessed Kevin said to him : " O Brother, why hast thou dared to under- 
take this unusual journey without my leave? Wherefore, I tell you, that your 
bones cannot rest in the place, where my remains shall be interred. But, 
however, that you may not be driven to despair, you shall repose with me in 
Heaven.'* It is somewhat remarkable, that the occupation of the tanner, and 
successful tanneries,3® have been established from probably the sixth to the 
present century, in or near Glendalough, where extensive oak forests and cop- 
pice woods arel yet to be found.3' Cronan followed this trade,3" in the 
community of St. Kevin. Being obedient, faithful, and humble, these things 
happened, according to the prophecy of his holy Abbot33 Soon, however, 
it was destined, that the latter should leave his hermitage, in the unsociable 
desert of the steep encircling mountains surrounding the Lakes, and seek 
another site,34 for the permanent foundation of his monastery. 

After these things, an Angel of the Lord came to St. Kevin and said : 
'^ O saint of God, the Lord hath sent me with a message, that you may be 
induced to go to a place he hath appointed for you, eastwards from the lesser 
Lake. There you shall be among your brethren, and it shall be the place of 
your resurrection." St. Kevin replied : " If it would not displease the Lord, 

in the mannerMescribed. 

■* See his Life, in the Third Volume of 
this work, at the 17th of March, Art i. 

•y It is doubtful, if that Life of St. Patrick, 
to which allusion is here made, be extant. 
Its superior antiquity to the published Acts 
of St. Kevin must be manifest. 

* The writer of St. Kevin's Life has it 
•' now stands." 

"9 Baert maintains, that this Cronan must 
have been a different person, from the 
Cronan, who is said to nave baptized St. 
Kevin ; althou^, the last-named Cronan is 
there represented, as saying prophetically, 
that he should be first monk with the child 
he baptized. For, Baert observes, if he were 
the same, it should be necessary to assign 
him a liifetime, at least extending to one 
hundred and forty years. In the ensuing 
portion of our samt's Life, a Cronan — sup- 
posed to be the present one— was to survive 
St. Kevin, for the duration at least of one 
year. Now, St. Kevin is said to have lived 
one hundred and twenty years. The Cronan, 
by whom he was baptized, must have been 
not less probably than twenty-five years old, 
being a Priest at the time of the baptism. 
Baert remarks, moreover, that the place, 
where the relics of both these saints had been 
deposited, is not now known. See <* Acta 
Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii iii. V\\m. S. 
Cocmgcni, n. (f), p. 317. 

y> Especially those established, by the re- 
spectable family of the Byrnes ef Croney- 
■ 3* See on this subject Robert Eraser's 
** General View t>f me Agriculture and 
Mineralogy, Present State and Circum- 
stances of the County of Wicklow,'* &c 
part iii., chap, v., sect 18, pp. 267 to 271. 

^ It is interesthig to meet with such early 
indications of manual industries, in the an- 
cient ecclesiastical establishments of Ireland, 
as instanced from this old Life of our saint. 

33 See " Acta Sanctorum,'* tomus i., Junii 
iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. iii., nn. 23, 24, 
pp. 316, 317. 

94 It is thus described, by John D'Alton, 
in his Poem : — 

" In the east, no envious height 
Shut out the golden flood of light ; 
No interposing forest stood 
To veil tne rismg orb— that rode 
Full in the breach— e'en now; — as 

Had placed it there a golden gate, 
To guard and gild this sacred ground ; 
While, brightly arched o'er all, and 

About the mountains' tops — the sky 
Closed up the enchanted scenery." 

— *' Dermid ; or Erin in the Days of BorQ," 

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I should wish to remam to the day of my death in this place, where I have 
toiled for Christ" The Angel answered : " If you, with your monks, go to 
that place indicated, many sons of light shall be always in it ; and after your 
time, the monks shall have a sufficiency of earthly possessions, and many 
thousands of happy souls shall arise with you, from that place, to the king- 
dom of Heaven." Kevin said : ** Indeed, O holy messenger, it is impossible 
for monks to dwell in this valley surrounded by mountains, unless God assist 
them by his power." The Angel then spoke : " Hear me, O man of God, if 
you desire it, the Lord will maintain without earthly food fifty holy men in 
that place, should they remain unanimous after thy departure. And, to the 
day of juij^gment, another shall succeed for those after their death, in the same 
habit and profession, having fear and love for God." Kevin answered : ^ I 
do not wish that my monks should be so few, in that place." Then, said the 
Angel : " If you are unwilling, that they be few, many thousands shall dwell 
there prosperously and abundantly, the Lord preparing for them all earthly 
necessaries.3s And thou, from thy celestial habitation, thou shalt aid thy 
earthly family, as thou mayest wish in Christ, and through God's assistance, 
here and hereafter, thou shalt govern thy monks. For, that place shall be 
sacred and venerable ; kings and the powerful ones of Ireland shall honour 
it with a religious veneration, on thy account. It shall be enriched with 
lands, gold and silver, precious gems and silken garments,3^ with gifts from 
beyond the sea, as with regal treasures and abundance. A great city 37 shall 
spring up ; and the ministry of thy monks shall be so perfect, that none of 
them, buried under this soil, shall endure the pains of hell. 3* And, if thou 
desiresti that these four mountains, surrounding this valley, should become 
pleasant and fruitful plains, no doubt the Almighty would so order it, on thy 
account" St. Kevin said: **I do not desire, that God's creatiures be moved 
on my account, for the Lord can otherwise assist my place ; and, moreover, all 
animals about these mountains are mild and domesticated towards me, and 
they should feel sorrowful, at what thou sayest." With these and like dis- 
courses, the Angel and St Kevin walked upon the waters of the Lake, 
towards a locality indicated. Diligently examining this site, holy Kevin 
said to the Angel : " This place is rugged ; obstructions 3» cover its surface ; 
and, there is no place fitted for burial within it" The Angel replied : " These 
stones are immovable from the first day of creation, to this time ; yet, from 
this day, they shall always be movable."^ We are told, that in this soil, 
pointed out to St Kevin, by the Angel, no stone is found immovable.** Not 
long afterwards, the same Angel appeared to St Kevin. He said : " In the 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ, arise with thy monks, and go to that place, 
which the Lord hath ordained for thy resurrection." After pronouncing these 
words, the Angel departed. 

Canto v., sect xi., p. 13a. * This promise must have been made, 

» From this statement, it appears evident, under certain reservations. In any case, iJf 

that the author of our saint's Acts set down, given, it can only be^cepted as applicable 

what had been the current popular tradition, generally to deceased persons, happUy dis- 

in his day, and when the early religious es- posed for death, and there buried, 

tablishment of holy Kevin at Glendalough » The Latin word is " scrobes," which 

enjoyed a great degree of temporal and has either the signification of ** furrows," or 

spiritual prosperity. of "sloughs." , ,, . 

'•Such a description plainly indicates, not ^ It is a remarkable circumstance, that 

afeoe the aether's fcmilwuity with a dviliied the whole of the lower valley at Glenda- 

state of society, but even with objects of lough is covered with huge boulders, and 

£icat value and luxury, then abounding in the laige detached stones. . ^ .. 

relwioos houses of Ireland. *' See " AcU Sanctorum," tomus i., Jumi 

» This seems to have been written, while iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. iv., n, 25, 

Glendaloagh was yet a flourishing city. P- 3i7« 

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While St Kevin yet remained in that same place he chose for a home, 
a good man named Dymma,** son to Tiagni, and descended from a noble 
Leinster family, came to him. At that time, this valley of Glendalough is said 
to have been in the possession of Dymma, and the following story is told, to 
account for its transfer to our saint. Dymma and his sons presented it to God 
and to his servant Kevin, in this manner. The latter said to Dymma : " On 
a day appointed, do you and your people come to me, that you may transfer 
the chattels and houses of your brethren to another place, appointed by God." 
Coming as he had promised, Kevin asked this man, if he had brought all his 
people with him as commanded. Dymma answered, that he had brought 
eight sons and other followers widi him; but, that a ninth son remained at 
home, unwilling to come. Kevin asked the name of the recusant, and then 
learned, that he was called Moelguby. Then said the saint : ^* Alas ! it is a 
meet name for him ; because, after a few days, he shall be crucified, in the 
southern part of Leinster, called Kinsellagh ; and, indeed, the name Moel- 
guby ^i seems to suit him, for a dolorous end awaits him. Then, St. Kevin 
said to Dymma, in a prophetic manner : "You and your eight sons shall not 
be butchered, but after penance you shall peaceably depart to Heaven." This 
prophecy was duly fulfilled. After such predictions, Dymma, with his sons, 
servants, and others, removed their habitations and effects to that place, in- 
dicated by the Angel to Kevin. Afterwards, our saint said : " In this place 
shall my city be built, and within it, my resurrection shall be accomplished/' 
Dymma and his sons asked where the church and cemetery of Glendalough 
should be located. He received this answer from our saint : ** Here, a shep- 
herd was formerly buried, and around him many shall arise ; for, the local 
cemetery shall there be found." St. Kevin then said to Dymma and to his 
sons : '* O my children, cut away the thorns and brambles, and make a com- 
mencement, in this place, since in it you shall be buried ; here, after a con- 
siderable time, a temple shall be built to God in my name, and under its 
altar shall you repose." This foundation of a monastery at Glendalough has 
been assigned, to the year 549 ;<* but, we are of opinion, it must be referred 
to a period much later, in the sixth century. The eighth son of Dymma, named 
DycoU, laboured in an humble manner, and more than all the rest, in pro- 
portion to his strength. Our saint said to him : " O my son, thou shalt be 
blessed by God and by men, and thou shalt be amiable, in the sight of all ; 
as thou hast been more humble than all the rest, so shalt thou and thy seed 
be elevated above others, and thou;^shalt rule over thy brethren.'* Then, 
Dymma and his sons, rejoicing in the saint's benediction, went to their own 

There, Kevin began to live holily, in that spot he had chosen for his 
dwelling. Clothed in rough garments, he lay without a bed on the bare 
ground ; he fasted much, only tasting herbs and a little water. Without a 
fire to warm him, or a roof to shelter him, he lived mostly in the open air, and 
for a long time. At length, at the request of his disciples, some pious men 
withdrew him, by reasonable representations, from those austerities, and 
attracted him to the society of his brethren. A renowned and religious city soon 
arose there, in honour of St. Kevin.4S It was called Gleanndaloch, from the name 
of that valley, in which it was situated. The surrounding territory was called 

^ He 18 not more particularly identi- cal History of Ireland," chap, iii., p. 91. 

fied. Du%*s Edition, 1864. 

« Interpreted in Latin, "Calvus lugubris," « See ** Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Tunii 

which mav be Anglicized, "a sorrowful iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. iv., num. 26, 27, 

bold man.*' pp. 317, 518. 

^ See Rev. M. J. Brennan's " Ecdesiasti- ^ The Forthuatha or Fothartha, Angli- 

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Fortuatha,^ and it lay in the eastern part of Leinster province. A certain 
man, hearing that a golden zone had been given as a present to St. Kevin^ 
deceitfully came to ask for it, pretending that his mother was a captive, and 
that he wanted this valuable gift to effect her ransom. Our saint complied 
with his request. However, the swindler, departing with his treasure, mira- 
culously missed his way three different times. Having thus found himself at 
fault, he returned to blessed Kevin, acknowledging his fraud, and afterwards 
he did penance for it^^ At another time, St. Kevin hearing that the three 
Abbots, Saints Columba,** Comgell,*^ and Cainnic,5«» were assembled together, 
in a place called Hicysneach,^' went to them, to strengthen his acquaintance 
and friendship. According to one account, this visit took place, before that 
made to St. Kieran in 549, as mentioned in his Life f* but, it seems more 
probable, that as Comg<dl did not become an Abbot before a.d. 555, the jour- 
ney of our saint occurred after this latter date.53 On the day of his arrival, a great 
concourse of people flocked to that locality, to see St. Columba. This latter. 
however, beholding Kevin approach the assembly, and at a distance, arose to 
honour him. Columba remained standing, until our saint came up ; and, while 
on his way towards the assembly, having been attacked by ferocious dogs, it 
was thought by all, that these animals should tear him in pieces. However, 
making a sign of the cross on their approach, blessed Kevin at once ap- 
peased their fury, and in a gentle manner, with their ears, nostrils, and 
tongues, those dogs stroked the feet and garments of God's servant On seeing 
this wonder, those who were present blessed the Lord in his saints. Certain 
rustics, at this assembly, upbraided Columba, for standing so long, on the 
appearance of Kevin. Holy Columba then said to them : '* Why, foolish 
men, should we not arise at the arrival of Kevin, the servant of God, 
when at his approach the Angels of our Lord arise in heaven." And all, who 
were there present, felt much edified, at this testimony to the blessed Abbot's 



One day, the devotion of Kevin had it in contemplation, to make a pilgrimage 
alone, and for some considerable distance. Holding this purpose in mind, he left 

cized "Strangers* Territories," and also ^ His feast occurs on the loth of Mav. 

called Forths, were in various parts of Ire* *• His festival is held, on the 1 1 in of 

land. They are so denominated, because Octolier. 

their inhabitants were immigrants, and not ^ This is intended for Usneach, in 

of the royal race. " The Leinster Forthua- Meatb. 

tha were in the mountainous regions of $' See Harris' Ware, vol. ii., " Writers of 

Wicklow and the bordering territories." — Ireland,** book i., chap, iii., p. 22. 

Rev. John Francis Shearman's '*Loca ^ See Rev. Dr. Lanigan*s ** Ecclesiastical 

Patridana," No. i., n. I, pp. 1 1, 12. History of Ireland,*' vol. ii., chap, x., sect x., 

^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., n. 156, p. 49. 

Junii ilL Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. iv., num. ^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii 

2$, p. 318. ill Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. iv., num. 29, 

4* See bis Life in this Volume, at the 9th p. 318. 
of June, Art. i 

DigitizesLby VriOOQlC 


his monastery. But, a holy hermit, named Garban, or Garbhan,* on seeing 
him alone, said : " O servant of God, whither art thou bound ? It is better 
for thee to remain in one spot, serving the Lord, than to go about from place 
to place, in thy old age ; for, thou hast heard, that no bird, while flying, can 
hatch her eggs." Hearing this, the holy Abbot felt some degree of com- 
punction, and he promised to return to his place. Then,St.Garbhan» presented 
himself with his cell to God and to St Kevin. This St. Garban dwelt near 
the city of Athcliath, in the northern part of Leinster, and lying on the sea- 
shore. The author of our saint's Life remarks, that in the Scottish language 
this city was called Dublus,3 which is interpreted in Latin by these words, 
Nigra themia, and this city was a powerful and warlike one in his day ; while, 
in it dwelt men, who were always valiant in battle, and skilled navigators.* No 
doubt, he alludes to the Scandinavians,s who were dominant in Dublin, ante- 
rior to the Anglo-Norman Invasion. Returning from St. Garban, holy Kevin 
went to the venerable senior Berchan,^ who was blind, that they might hold 
conferences together on some sacred subject. St. Berchan had a divine ad- 
monition, concerning the approach of his guest, and he said prophetically to 
his disciples : " O my children, quickly prepare a bath for the holy and vene- 
rable old man, Kevin, who is on his way towards us." After our saint's 
arrival, Berchan said : " Holy Father, wash thy body in this bath, prepared 
for thee, by Divine monition." Kevin replied ; *' Indeed, father, from the 
time I resolved upon a religious life, in my youthful days, to this time, I have 
never bathed, but in cold water, that I might chastise ray body ; however, on 
thy account, and for the sake of that God, whose servant thou art, I will 
bathe." Whilst our saint was laving himself in the bath, Berchan desired his 
servant, to bring St. Kevin's wooden shoes to him. After an inspired manner, 
we are told, St. Berchan saw the tempter of man upon them. He then asked 
the demon, why he had dared to enter the holy man's shoes. Satan answered : 
" The demons can persuade him to do nothing, but by presenting their temp- 
tations, under some appearance of good, and hence, I entered his shoes, per- 
suading him to make a pilgrimage, and to desert his place. This was an evil 
act, disguised under the appearance of good." Saying these words, the demon 
cried out, in a loud manner, requesting that he might be permitted to depart 
thence ; for, in the presence of God's saints, he felt himself deprived of power. 
His request was complied with, and then he vanished from sight After- 
wards, St Kevin and St Berchan entered upon a holy conference ; and, 
while the latter remained within his cell, fearing and loving God, the fonner 
returned to his monks glorifying the Divine name.7 

Chapter iv. — * See Joseph Nolan's ,iii. Viti S. Coemgeni, cap. iv., num. 31, 

** History and Antiquities of Glendalough," pp. 318, 319. 

chap, iii., p. 18. s gee Charles Haliday*s "Scandinavian 

• ** ThisGarbhan, who is called the son of Kingdom of Dublin," &c., edited by John 
Lugadius, to distinguish him from other P. Prendergast, for an account of their 
persons of the same name, had been a dis- prowess, after making Dublin their chief 
ciple of Coemgen, and lived near where place of settlement in Ireland. 

Dublin is now situated. His memory was * This Berchan was most probably the 

revered on the 9th of July. AA., SS., p. saint who is venerated, on the I2lh of Octo- 

751.'* — Rev. Dr. Lanigan's ** Ecclesiastical ber, at a place called Glas-naoidhan, in the 

History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect. territory of Galenga, near the River Liffey. 

X., n. 158, p. 49. See Colgan*s "Trias Thaumaturga,'* AcU 

3 The Irish name applied to Dublin seems S. Brigidae, Appendix Quarta, cap. 3, p. 613. 

to have been Ath Cliath, before the English It is now known, as Glasnevin, near the city 

Invasion. See John T. Gilbert's " History of Dublin. 

of the City of Dublin," vol. i., Appendix ? See ** Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii 

No. i., pp. 403 to 408. iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. iv., num. 32, 

* Sec " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i.,Junii p. 319, 

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Colman,* son to Carbri, who was Tanist over the fourth part of northern 
Leinster, had married a certain noble woman in his youth ; but, their mode 
of living, not being in accordance with a mutual agreement, he put her away, 
and took another as his wife. The divorced woman was a wicked person, 
skilled in magic acts, and inflamed with resentment against Colman. All of his 
children, by the second wife, she put to death through her magic incantations. 
It is said, that when hearing about the birth of one among those sons or 
daughters, she came from some quarter or other to where the child was nursed, 
and she continued to sing some mystic verses, until the infant died. A child 
being bom to Colman, in his old age, it was immediately baptized, lest it 
might die without benefit of the sacrament of regeneration, and through some 
unholy means. This infant was named Foelan,' Immediately afterwards, 
the father sent this child to St. Kevin. He hoped, that the latter, through 
God's power, might be able to defend his son from attempts of the sorceress, 
and afterwards to educate him as a secular. The child was presented to our 
saint, that he and his posterity might be buried in his holy city ; and, if Foelan 
survived, it was intended he should serve the Abbot. Holy Kevin received 
him, with joy. According to the father's orders, our abbot brought him up 
in the habit and training of a layman.'** Our saint greatly loved his infant 
charge. However, he had no fresh milk to give him nourishment, as women 
and cows were far removed from his monastery. Notwithstanding, in this 
emergency, he prayed the Lord to assist him. Immediately, a doe came from 
the neighbouring mountains to St. Kevin. With the milk of this animal, 
Colman's child was nourished. This same deer each day came to St. Kevin's 
monastery, and she was there milked, by a brother, to supply the infant 
Faelan's wants, until he became an adult. After this, the animal returned to 
graze, in its accustomed haunts. On a certain day, while milking that doe, a 
monk placed the vessel containing her milk on the ground. A crow coming up, 
and trying to drink the milk, overturned the vessel containing it, with her 
bill. On seeing this, St. Kevin is said to have exclaimed : " Thou, and birds 
of thy species, for a long time shall repent this fault ; at the time of my depar- 
ture, much food shall be prepared, yet you shall not partake of it. And, if 
any of you should have the audacity to touch the refuse or blood of animals 
slain, during those days, with general satisfaction, death shall immediately over- 
take you. But, you shall be in sorrow on the tops.of the surrounding mountains, 
cawing and contending in discontent, among yourselves." This prophecy 
is said to have been fulfilled, on each anniversary day of the patron's festival," 
even to that time, when the writer of St. Kevin's Acts flourished." Having 

■ This King of Leinster died at Sliabh- nexion with legendary accounts, as indicating 

Maiige, or Sievemaragae, in the south- the distinction between the training of 

eastern part of the present Queen's County, clerics and laics, in our early Irish monas- 

A.D. 576. See Dr. 0'Donovan*s ** Annals teries. Glendalough had a school, as well as 

of the Four Masters,'* vol. i., pp. 208, 209, a church, in St. Kevin's time. See ** A Dic- 

aod n. (t), tionaiyof Christian Biography," vol.i., p. 590. 

» This prince long survived St. Kevin. " Allusion is made to this fast-day of the 

His brother, Aedh Cerr, died A.D. 591. It ravens at Glendalough, in the twelfth cen- 

seems probable, that Ronan, son of Colman, tury, by Giialdus Cambrensis, in "Opera," 

King of Leinster, who died a.d. 610, had vol. v. Edited by James F. Dimock, M. A., 

been another of Foelan *s brothers; while TopographiaHibcmica,Dist. ii.,cap.xxviii., 

there appears to be a repetition of this same p. 113. 

obit, Ronan, son of Colman, at A.D. 619 ; " The BoUandist Father Baert remarks, 

while again it occurs at A. D. 624. Foelau that there is nothing wonderful in the accom- 

distinguished himself in the battle of Ath- plishment of the latter part of this prophecy, 

Goan, A.D. 628, and he died a.d. 665. See as wherever crows are found, they are usually 

ibid., pp. 214, 215, 236, 237, 242, 243, 246 clamorous. See '* Acta Sanctorum,'* tomus 

10249,250,2^,278,279. i., Junii iii. Vila S. Coemgeni, cap. v., 

«• Soch allusions arc precious even in con- num. 33, and n. (a), pp. 319, 320. 

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[June 3. 

heard that the infant, Foelan, was with our saint, the sorceress came and 
stood on the top of a mountain, called Eanach,'3 which impends over the 
southern side of Glendalough city. From that station, she beheld the monastery 
of our saint, and she sought to kill the boy, Foelan, through her magic spells. 
Having a Divine admonition to this effect, blessed Kevin said to his monks : 
" My brethren, hide carefully the boy Foelan, lest that wicked woman, who 
beholds us from the adjoining mountain, may see him." On saying these 
words, Sl Kevin betook himself to prayer against her arts. Roving here and 
there around the mountain summits, she practised her magic wiles, still per- 
sisting in her wickedness, until blinded by the power of God. At last, she 
fell from the mountain top, over a steep, and into the valley, which was called 
Cassain.'4 Most probably, we should here read Gleann Dassain, the c being a 
mistake for ^. Thus, she perished miserably, and having all her limbs dreadfully 
mangled. After these things had occurred, during the time of spring, Foelan 
asked St. Kevin for apples ; and, the servant of God, wishing to please him, 
blessed a willow-tree.'s Immediately, through favour of the Almighty, sweet 
apples grew thereon,'^ and of this fruit the boy partook. '^ Another time, not 
liking cold milk, Foelan asked St, Kevin for some that was warm. Not being 
able to find a pipkin, the saint put milk into a wooden vessel, and he placed it 
on the fire. The vessel was in no manner injured by the flame, and the milk 
was thus warmed, in an unusual way.'^ On another occasion, while still a youth, 
the aforesaid Foelan was sent by St. Kevin, with other companions, to a St. 
Mochonna.'^ This pious man said to his monks : ** Some of our holy Father 
Kevin's family shall come to us this day ; prepare, therefore, refreshments for 
them." Afterwards, Foelan and his companions arrived, and tliey were very 
warmly received. Mochonna asked Foelan on what errand he came. This 
youth answered : " Our venerable Kevin, O holy father, hath not told us the 
reason why we were sent to thee ; but this we understand, now, that thou 
knowest the secret thought of Kevin, and he wishes that you approve of it" 
** O son, thou hast rightly answered ; this is what our Father Kevin wishes. A 
favourable time is coming, my son, that you may reign in your father's king- 
dom through our counsel and prayers, and that thy posterity may reign after 
thee, to the world's end. But, if any one of thy offspring shall oppose St 

*3 At the present time, Derrybawn and 
Lugduff mountains — separated by Poulenass 
waterfall — skirt the southern side of Glenda- 
lough. The natural growth on the sides of 
Derrybawn is composed of oak, ash, birch, 
holly, and quicken trees. Some yew trees 
are yet found on the sides of Lugduff, over 
the Upper and Lower Lakes. Glendalough 
was anciently called Gleann Eanaigh, ac- 
cording to the Manuscript Dictionary of 
Peter Connell. 

*♦ Allusion is made subsequently to the 
same place, which seems to have been within 
or close adjoining the valley of Glendalough. 

'5 This willow is mentioned by Giraidus 
Cambrensis, as growing not far from the 
Church of Glendalough, in his time, and 
near the cemetery, with other similar trees, 
having willow-like leaves and branches, yet 
even then bearing apples each year. These 
are described to l^, m his own nervous Latin, 
'*poma alba et oblonga, salubriamagis quam 
sapida; in magna reverentia ab indigenis 
habita."—" Opera," vol. v. Topographia 
Hibemica, Dist. ii., cap. xxvii., p. 113. 

Edited by James F. Dimock, M.A. 

** The growth of this tree seems to have 
been propagated in Glendalough for cen- 
turies lone after the time of St. Kevin. In 
the twelfth century, the fruit was called St. 
Kevin's Apples, and these were in request 
for the cure of diseases, throughout the most 
remote parts of Ireland. See ibid, 

'7 Our saini*s biographer remarks, that to 
his time, this willow each year produced 

*' See " ActA Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii 
iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. v., num. 34, 35, 

pp. 3'9. 320. 

*' Colgan treats of a St. Mochonna, at the 
8th of March. See " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nise," De S. Machonn qui et Dachonna, 
pp. 565, 566. Baert appears to think the 
saint already named must be identical with 
him. Mochonna, it is said, was a disciple 
to St. Columkille, who died towards the 
end of the sixth century. It is supposed, 
that what is here related took place, about 
the beginning of the seventh century. 

^ Baert remarks, that this prophecy could 

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Kevin's successors, all goods here and hereafter shall be taken from him."*® 
Afterwards, that happy young man, Foelan, reigned in his father's territory, with 
the prayers and exhortations of St. Kevin and of St Mochonna. Through the 
merits of these saints, the principality continued in a flourishing state, under his 
rule. At another time, this Foelan came to visit his fosterer, St. Kevin. 
Some of his enemies, on hearing it, wished to take possession of his kingdom, 
and they entered into a conspiracy against his life. But, the holy Abbot, hav- 
ing a revelation to that effect, told what was designed to his beloved foster- 
child while bestowing his blessing; and, St. Kevin told Foelan, that he should 
safely return to his principality. Although the tanist had but a few followers 
with him ; yet, trusting in his holy patron's benediction, he went by a direct 
route into his own part of the country. Both himself and his companions are 
said to have appeared to their enemies, in the shape of deer, and 
to have escaped through their ambushes, with a velocity characteristic 
of those animals. This miracle was attributed to the benediction and patronage 
of St. Kevin."' 

At one time, three scholastics came to St. Kevin, from the plain of Lipsi, 
as stated in the Life of our saint ; but, most probably, the Liffey *" is here 
meant, for, it is afterwards remarked, that the place was known as the level 
plain of Leinster. Whilst disputing among themselves, on some philo- 
sophical questions,*3 one of them, named Melerius,'* surpassed the 
others in argument. Being greatly incensed, his opponents beheacfed 
him, in the valley of Cassain — probably Gleann-Dassain — already men- 
tioned. Although within his cell, St. Kevin knew what had taken place ; 
and, he ordered, that when these two young men who perpetrated that 
murder arrived, no welcome should be given to them. They were to be re- 
ceived only with reproachful words. This order was obeyed. Feeling mortified 
at their reception, those strangers said to each other, in a sorrowful manner : 
** Holy Father Kevin, already knowing our guilt, hath ordered this brother to 
receive us, with such asperity of manner ; let us act upon a good suggestion, 
and do penance, by confessing our crime to him." St. Kevin said to them : 
•* O my children, you have committed an evil action, yet trust in the mercy 
of Qod, and return to him you have killed. Bear my staff with you, and plant 
it upon his breast. Place the head, also, which lies at his feet, upon the neck, 
in an exact manner, and I believe your companion shall be restored to life. 
For, no beast hath yet touched him, with the exception of a fox, which has 
lapped a little of his blood." They Ment and did as they had been com- 
manded. He, who had been killed, arose to life, as if awaking from a pro- 
found sleep. All three rejoicing returned to St. Kevin. The scholastic, who 
had been raised to life, remained an obedient monk to the end of his days. 
The saint told him, that he should never go further from the monastery than 

not have been fulfilled ; most probably for O* Byrnes, previously to the English Inva- 

the reason, that Ireland's ancient septs were sion." — Dr. John O Donovan's ** Annals of 

subdued, after the English Invasion. But, the Four Masters," vol. i., n. (z), p. 25a 

the subsequent condition might not have '^ Commenting on this account, Baert 

been fulfilled, and must be taken into ac- says, he was ignorant regarding what Philo- 

count sophy or Philosophers existed in Ireland, at 

" Sec "Acta Sanctorum,** tomus i., Junii this time, and that if the author had intro- 

iii Vita S. Cocmgeni, cap. v., num. 36, 37, duced Bards or Druids as quarrelling or con- 

^^. 32a tending among themselves, he might per- 

•» That part of the present county of Kil- haps have found some to believe him, as this 

dare, embraced by the River Liffey in its should be an action becoming them. 

borse-shoe winding, was anciently called ■♦ It seems probable enough, that he, and 

Oirtbcar-Liffe,i>.,Eastof Liffey; and that also the other scholastics, were pursuing 

part lying west of the same winding was their studies at Glendalough, when this hap. 

called larthar-Liffey, %^„ west of Liffey. pened. 

Both diitricts belongcKl to the Ui-Faelain, or »* It was customary fot the Irish, to set up 

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[June 5. 

that spot, where he had been slain, and then only for the purpose of showing 
strangers their way through the mountains. At a time, when the writer of St. 
Kevin's Acts lived, a cross '5 had been erected •* on the spot,'' where that 
murder had been committed.'® Sl Kevin ordered, that on their return, the 
other two scholastics should go on a pilgrimage, and afterwards live religiously. 
These recommendations, they faithfully observed.*^ 

To St. Kevin several literary compositions have been ascribed ; but, the 
authenticity of many mentioned may well be questioned. As a poet, he is 
said to have been distinguished. To him has been attributed a Rule for 
Monks, in Irish verse.s** This Harris thinks is much more probable, than that 
he concerned himself, in writing profane history. The latter writer is of 
opinion, also, that the Rule for his Monks is hinted at in his Life, where we 
read, that he taught his Rule to those monks, over whom he presided.3* Ano- 
ther treatise, called the Leabhar Breathnach3« or Book of the Britons,33 and 
a book on the origin of the Milesians,^^ are ascribed to him. 35 We are told, 
likewise, St. Kevin was author of a Life of St. Patrick, among the many 
learned works, which are attributed to him, by Archdall.3* But, we must 
suppose this to have been a mistake on his part, and he quotes no authority for 
such a statement. The Third Volume of theO'Longan Manuscripts, kept in the 
Royal Irish Academy, contains a poem of St. Comgan,37 probably St. Kevin. 
Besides his proficiency in poetry, like many others among the clerics of his 
cMmtry,38 St. Kevin was accustomed to play on the Irish harp. This relic of 
the saint was preserved in the twelfth century, and it was held in especial re- 
verence, by the people, then living in and near Glendalough.39 

A certain prince came to the venerable old man Kevin, that his zone or girdle 
might be blessed by the saint, for thus he hoped to escape the hands of his ene> 
mies. This girdle being blessed, on the return to his own country, a great crowd 
of enemies suddenly rushed upon him. But, with belt girt on, he began to 
mvoke the name of St. Kevin. Altliough surrounded by his enemies, on every 

crosses in those places, where anything re- 
markable occurred. 

•* It may easily be credited, that some 
persons killed there had been raised from the 
dead by our saint, although circumstances 
attending this miracle appear fabulous. 

^ It is the custom in Belgium, to plant a 
cross on the spot, where any person had been 
killed, that the faithful might be reminded 
to pray for the repose of the deceased. Baert 
supposes, the same custom formerly pre- 
vailed in Ireland ; and hence, it is thought, 
that the cross stood at this place, in memory 
of some person who had been killed, and not 
of a person who had been raised to life. 

*" Even yet, it is usual, in Ireland, to place 
a cross over the spot, where any sudden or 
violent death occurred. A cairn or heap of 
small stones is often found in connexion with 
it ; as passers-by were accustomed to take 
up a stone on approaching, and to cast it on 
the pile, which thus by degrees increased in 
size. See "Irish Folk-Lore," &c., by 
Lageniensis, chap, xiii., p. 88. 

•> See " Acta Sanctorum,'* tomus i., Junii 
iii. Vita S. Coemffeni, cap. v., num. 38, 
p. 320. Also, nn. (e, f, g), p. 321. 

" See Edward O'Reilly's " Chronological 
Account of nearly Four Hundred Irish 

Writers," p. xlii. 

3« Harris Ware, vol. ii., "Writers of Ire- 
land," book i., chap, iii., p. 22. 

^ According to Dr. Meredith Hanmer, it 
was styled "De Britanorum Origine,"Ub. 
i., Bryto sive Brutus. See "Chronicle of 
Ireland," p. 121. 

33 It is said to be contained, in the " Book 
of Leinster, sometime called the Book of 
Glendalough," &c., edited by Robert Atkin- 
son, M.A., LL.D. The ori|;inal is kept 
among the Manuscripts of Trmity College, 

3* This 'probably is the one, intituled by 
Dr. Meredith Hanmer, " De Hiberoet Her- 
mone," lib. i., Hyber et Hermon. See 
"Chronicle of Ireland," p. 121. 

35 See Edward O'Reilly's " Chronological 
Account of nearly Four Hundred lirish 
Writers," p. xlii. 

3* See " Monasticon Hibemicum," p. 765. 

37 It contains 48 stanzas. See pp. 1 1, 12. 

38 See Joseph C. Walker's '^Historical 
Memoirs of the Irish Bards," vol. i., secUiv., 
p. 65. 

39 See Giraldi Cambrensis " Ope^^" vol. 
v.. Edited by Tames F. Dimock, M.A. 
"Topographia Hibemica," Distinctio iiL, 
cap. xu., p. 155. 

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June 3.] 



side, they were unable to see him. He passed unharmed among them, and 
learning from their conversation, that he was invisible to them.^ When Niall's 
posterity *' and the men of the northern province entered the Leinster terri- 
tory, in order to ravage it, the king of this latter province came to St Kevin 
and sought counsel. But, the Abbot not permitting him to enter that valley, 
the king — supposed to have been Brandubh 4» — stood on the southern moun- 
tain's brow.« Thence, the king sent messengers to St. Kevin, to whom this 
servant of God said : '^According to human laws, a king should fight for the 
country committed to his charge, if he cannot otherwise defend it." On hear- 
ing these words of the holy man, the king joyfully and readily marched forth 
to battle. The result was a total defeat of the northerns, by the men of 
Leinster, as also a great slaughter of their invaders/* After this battle, the 
king, with his Leinster people, gave thanks to God and to St. Kevin. <5 

We find, that St Kevin or Coemgenus — ^as he is most usually styled by the 
older writers of his Acts — ^has been placed in the Second Class of Irish Saints.** 
A certain soldier, named Rotan, had a very beautiful head of hair, and he felt 
so vain, in consequence, that he cherished its growth with great care. He 
lived luxuriously and sinfuU}', to the utter neglect of his spiritual concerns. 
On hearing this, the holy senior Kevin felt much displeased. Blessing some 
water, he sent it to the soldier, ordering him therewith to wash his head. Sup* 
posing some advantage might be derived from this action, Rotan joyfully 
obeyed the order, when all his hair fell off; then, understanding that St. 
Kevin wished this result, he came and did penance before him, promising 
a future amendment of life. Accepting his repentance, the servant of God 
blessed his head. Immediately, other hair grew upon it sufficiently beautiful, 
but not comparable to the first. Then, returning home, Rotan gave thanks to 
God and to his saint, for all blessings.^^ Certain robbers of the country, called 
Degha,^ came, and hid themselves in the mountains, near St. Kevin's monas- 
tery. Those outlaws intended to attack a village, belonging to the people of 
Neill's posterity, and to slaughter its inhabitants. But, this infamous design 
had been revealed by the Lord to St. Kevin. Wherefore, not having any other 
messenger at hand, he ordered a certain man, named Guaire, who had been 
blind from the time of his birth, to warn those people, against the robbers' 
approach. Rising without delay, an Angel of the Lord rewarded the blind 

*" See •* Acta Sanctorum,'* tomus i., Junii 
uL Vito S. Coemgeni, cap. v., num. 39, p. 320. 

^ If this invasion took place, after the 
death of Aidos IL, Father Baert remarks, 
that the Nepotes Nielli must have been 
Aldus III., sumamed Slane, grandson to 
Ndll, and whose father was King Diermit, 
and Colman, his conjoint occupant of the 
kingdom ; both of whom perished, in the 
year 600^ according to some authorities. The 
•' Annales Tigemachi " give the particulars 
of their death, at A.D. 604. See Rev. Dr. 
O'Conor's "Rerum Hibemicarum Scrip- 
tores," tomus ii., pp. 177, 178. 

^ A celebrated King of Leinster, the son 
of Eachach, and who was undoubtedly con- 
tempofaaeotts with our saint His death is 
fccorded by Tigeniach, at a.d. 605. See 
^W., pp. 178, 179. 

<3 There, in the time of the writer of St. 
Kevin's Li]Re» the Pine Tree of the King was 
to be seen. 
** Allusion is probably made to the cele* 

bratcd victory obtained by Brandubh, King 
of Leinster, over Cumoscagh, son of Aedh, 
and the Ulstermen, at the ** Munimentum 
Dunbuiced," or Dunbolg, A.D. 597. See 
Dr. Charles O'Conor's " Rerum Hibemica- 
rum Scriptores," tomus ii., Annales Tiger- 
nachi, p. 160. 

<5 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii 
iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. v., num. 40, 
p. 320. 

^ SeeUssher's " Britannicarum Ecclesia- 
rum Antiquitates," cap. xvil, p. 474, 

*' See "Acta Sanctorum/' tomus i., Junii 
iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. v., num. 41, 
p. V20. 

♦■This district is said to have been in 
•'regione Kenselach," or in the "Territory 
of Kmsellagh." The people there dwelling 
were known as the Ui Ceinnsealaigh, and 
their country comprised a very considerable 
portion of South Leinster. See John 
0*Donovan*s " te^bh^it ha 5-CeAnc, or the 
Book of Rights," pp. 208, 209, n. (g). 

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man's prompt obedience. He was safely led to the village and back, by a mira- 
culous light. Giving thanks for this favour, the villagers betook themselves 
to places of security, and the robbers departed without obtaining any booty. 

Then is told the story of a monk, named Berchan,49 who was sent 
on a journey by St. Kevin, to his tanner Cronan, who had desired a faithful 
person, to convey a confidential message to the holy Abbot. Cronan appears 
to have lived at a very considerable distance from Glendalough. We are told, 
that the monk Berchan had been sent alone, according to an ancient custom. 
Proceeding on his journey through the woods and lonely mountains, he was 
exposed to a great temptation. He met a young and beautiful woman on the 
way. Being alone, she represented herself as needing a guide through the 
wilderness, and besought the monk to allow her to proceed in his company. 
Moved by her unprotected situation, Berchan promised he would conduct 
her in safety, through the desert towards her own habitation. Being a young 
man and of comely appearance, that female entertained an unlawful affection 
for him, and she sought to tempt him to a violation of his religious profession. 
He repelled, however, these advances, and even had recourse to force, that 
he might restrain her importunities. Her conduct at length moved him to 
indignation, and he struck her several times. St. Cronan had a divine intima- 
tion, in his cell, regarding what had occurred, and he cried out : '* O good 
brother, Berchan, act courageously by chastising that improper woman." St 
Kevin had a like intimation concerning this occurrence, while in his monastery, 
and he too cried out : " O my son, my dearly beloved Berchan, be indulgent, 
and do not strike that wretch any more." Afar from both saints, Berchan 
miraculously heard their words in the desert, and on recognising the com- 
mand of his holy superior, he did not chastise the woman longer. She became 
a penitent. Berchan led her with him through the wilderness, as he had pro- 
mised. Afterwards, that female told her friends what had occurred on the 
way. She took occasion to extol the great sanctity of her conductor. After 
this, Berchan came to the cell of St Cronan, who received him with joy, and 
praised him for his fortitude in resisting temptation. The monk was then 
sent back to St. Kevin. Among other messages, Cronan said to him : " Tell 
our Father Kevin, that on the same day, I desire to depart with him to Christ" 
On hearing this, St. Kevin said prophetically: "Both of us shall not go to 
Heaven, on the same day of the same year ; however, on the festival of my 
departure, but some time afler it, he shall rest in Christ Hereafter, our festivd 
shall be solemnized, on the same day.5** Such was afterwards the case.5* 

A certain cruel soldier had frequently perpetrated robberies among those 
mountain ridges.5« He had never done a good action but one, which was pray- 
ing each day, that through St Kevin's merits, his soul might be saved. On a 
particular occasion, being surrounded by those who were in pursuit of him, 
he was put to death, and afterwards cut to pieces. An Angel of the Lord 
then appeared to Kevin saying : " A certain wretched man, who hath daily 
invoked thee to ward off danger from his soul, is slain on this day. Do you, 

^ He appears to have been a different 43, 44, p. 321. 

person, from one bearing the same name, ^ It should seem from this account, that 

and already mentioned. these wild desert mountains had given re- 

^ Of the many St. Cronans mentioned in cesses of shelter for banditti and lawless 
the Martyrology of Tallagh, we do not find persons, from very remote times. Such out- 
one set down at the 3rd of June. However, in laws appear to have occasioned the utter 
the Martyrology of Donegal, there is a ruin of the once celebrated diy of Glenda- 
Mochua, at this date, and he is probably to lough, in the beginning of the thirteenth 
be identified with this Cronan. century, when this See was united to that of 

5' See ** Acto Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii Dublin. See Harris Ware, vol. i., " Bishops 

iiL Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. vi., num. 4a, of Glendalough," pp.375 to 378. 

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Jmn 3.] Ijy^S OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 63 

therefore, act valiantly in the Lord's name, and follow the demons who drag 
his soul to torments. For, although his body is destroyed, yet through the 
power of God, you shall snatch his soul from destruction." Then, the holy 
Abbot felt comforted. Guided by the Angel, he was taken up from earth to 
the higher regions of air, where he remained from the nmth hour to the fol- 
lowing day, engaged in a contest with demons. In fine, through the mercy 
of God, he released the wretched man's soul from their power. Meantime, 
not knowing the cause of their holy Abbot's absence, his monks felt sorrow- 
ful, on finding their venerable superior missing. When he returned to them, 
on the following day, he said : ** O my brethren, bury the body of that culprit 
in your cemetery, for on his account, I ascended towards heaven. His soul 
is now liberated from the demons, and is at rest in God's presence." The 
monks did as they were commanded, while admiring those wonders wrought 
by the Almighty, through his holy servant.53 A certain holy virgin, named 
Cassayr,54 daughter to Aedha, on seeing the holy old man Kevin in the air, 
and clothed with rough skins, asked him in God's name, to receive better 
garments from her. But, the servant of God rejected them, lest Satan might 
tempt him through avarice. The virgin felt sorrowful, on account of his re- 
fusal. She afterwards placed herself, with all her religious daughters and her 
monastery, under the rule of St. Kevin. Then, the Angel of the Lord, taking 
his rough vesture from the holy old Abbot, who was decrepid, clothed him 
with garments offered by the virgin. Wherefore, St. Kevin, St Cassayr, and 
ber nuns, returned thanks to God, on account of what had occurred. 

According to local tradition, that celebrated " Bed of St. Kevin, ss where this 
holy recluse was accustomed to retire for contemplation, had been formed by 
himself artificially into a cave. It is scoped, also, from the face of a perpendicular 
rockf which rises steeply above the waters of the Upper Lake. This he appears 
to have chosen as aplace for retreat — especially in his younger years; but, it is 
probable, in declining life, it must have become less accessible to him. A certain 
man named Critan, and his enemies, had entered into a bond of peace, in St. 
Kevin's presence. He had enjoined, upon both parties, its solemn observance. 
But, after some time, a new occasion of disagreement arose between the dispu- 
tants. Nevertheless, they agreed to revisit St. Kevin, and to renew their engage- 
ments in his presence. But, his enemies quarrelled with Critan, on the way, 
and slew him. Afterwards, coming to St. Kevin, they began to slander the 
deceased, by representing their own conduct, in the most justifiable light St. 
Kevin said to them : *' O wretches, what is this you falsely state, in my pre- 
sence ? You have killed this man to-day, not observing your engagements ; 
and, I was present in spirit, when you slew him. Return to him, immedi- 
ately, and say to him, he must come with you to me, that you may know, how 

» Sec •• Acta Sanctorum," tomus i.. Junii Kevin's Bed, in Lcinster. See the Elegiac 

m. Vita S. G>emgeni, cap. vu, num. 45, Latin verses of Father D. Nicholas Aylmer 

p. 321. an Irish Priest, beginning with the lines : — 

s« Among the female saints of Ireland, we 

search in vain for one so called. However, " Quot loca devote coeli meditantibus 

there are many holy women, named Lassar ; arces, 

and, it is possible, this may have been the Sanctorum meritis percelebrata 
name found in the original account, the letter tenet ?" 
C having been substituted for L. It is pro- 
bable, she lived in or near Glendalough. — Guil. D. O'Kelly's " Historica Descriptio 
» This became one of the four chief places Hibemiae, seu Maioris Scotiae, Insulse Sane- 
for pilgrimage, in Ireland : these being, the torum," p. 47. New edition by Patrick 
Mountain ofCroagh Patrick in Connaught ; O'Kclly, translator of L'Abb^ Ma-Geo^he- 
the Purgatory of St. Patrick, in Ulster ; St. gan*s " History of Ireland," DubUnii, 
Micfaaers Rock, in Munster; and St. 1838, 8vo. 

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[June 3. 

precious in the sight of Christ is the observance of good faith." Doing as 
they had been commanded, the man who was killed arose from the dead, and 
came with them to St. Kevin ; when all of them did penance, at the blessed 
Abbof s recommendation. He who had been raised to life, gave thanks to 
the saint, magnifying the Lord in his works.s^ 

Near the portals of the cathedral at Glendalough s? once grew *'St Kevin's 
yew-tree," which had an extraordinary width of trunk, and it stood until 
of late years.5* That tree had become an object of great veneration to the 
neighbouring people. Traditionally, it was said to have been planted by our 
saint Two men, being condemned to death by the King of Leinster, were 
led out for execution, to the plain of the Liflfey.59 When they came to the 
place of execution, both offered up a prayer to St. Kevin, at the same time ; 
one of them asked, that he might obtain eternal life, the other, that he might 
live yet longer in this world. Although absent in body, the venerable Kevin 
was present in spirit ; and, in his cell, he besought the Lord, that tlieir peti- 
tions might be granted. The Almighty heard their prayers, through the 
merits of his holy servant. One of those men was executed, and while com- 
mending himself to God, and to the. aged Kevin's patronage. Angels 
conducted his soul to Heaven. But, the king's executioners vainly 
endeavoured, during the whole day, to put the other man to death.^ Towards 
evening, they asked him by what means or magic arts he was enabled to set 
their efforts and weapons at defiance. This man replied : " You have heard 
to-day, how I and my companion besought holy Kevin. He prayed for 
eternal and I for temporal life. Him you killed immediately, and the Angels 
of God received his soul ; but, I now see our holy Patron Kevin near me, 
warding off your weapons and strokes." When these words had been reported 
to the king, he ordered this man to be set free, in honour of God and of St 
Kevin. Being thus released, the culprit gave thanks to the Almighty and 
to his venerable servant.^^ 

About the close of our saint's career, as his Acts narrate, a holy man 
namedMocherog ^ — who was by birth a Briton — seems to have had intimate 
spiritual relationship with the illustrious Abbot. We are informed, that his cell 

s* See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii 
ill. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. vi., num. 46, 47, 
pp. 321, 322. 

^ The drawing of Glendalough, by Dr. 
Wynne, and published in Grose's ** Antiqui- 
ties of Ireland," p. 96, assumes to present 
several of the old churches, but without cor- 
rect perspective, and probably with inaccu- 
racies of delineation, which so greatly dis- 
figure that fine pictorial work, its antiqui- 
ties and illustrations are not always reliable. 

5* It had been cut down, by a neighbour- 
ing landed proprietor ; while some fragments 
of it had been procured and preserved in the 
summer of 1855, when the writer first visited 

5» This plain was in the level county of 
Kildare ; but, the exact locality is not 

** Crucifixion was the kind of death, 
sought to be inflicted, according to our saint's 
Acts ; and, in another instance, here, we find 
allusion to a similar cruel punishment. Yet, 
it is extremely doubtful, if such revolting 
executions ever took place, at least after the 
introduction of Christianity, into our Island. 

Beheading and hanging appear to have 
been the most common modes for taking life^ 
to expiate capital offences. 

** See " Acta Sanctorum,'* tomus i., Junii 
iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. vi., num. 48, 
p. 322. 

*• There is a St. Mochiarog or Mochua- 
rog of Doire Echdroma — this locality being 
undiscovered — and his feast occurs at the 7th 
of May, where some account of him mav be 
found in the Fifth Volume of this work, at 
that date. Art. ii. There was also a St. 
Mochorog, son of Brachan, of Deirgne, 
venerated at the 23rd of December ; and, 
as he was a Briton, there can hardly be a 
doubt, that he may be identified with the 
present holy man. Deirgne has been inter- 
preted to be identical with Delgany, in the 
county of Wickiow. The Rev. Dr. Lanigan 
observes, it can scarcely be doubted, this 
was St Mo^oroc of Delsany. *' And hence we 
see, that this saint lived in the seventh cen- 
tury."—" Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 
vol ii., chap.x., sect, x., num. 159, p. 49. 
Yet, Delgany lies, some miles north-east* 
wards firom Glendalough. 

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lay eastwards from Glendalough. Owing to the position here indicated, an 
opinion has been generally entertained, that its locality may be on the site of 
the present ruined church, called Tempul na Trinoite,^^ or Church of the 
Trinity,^* the most eastern of the group of what are popularly known as '* the 
Seven Churches of Glendalough." It is situated, in the more open part of the 
valley, and on a rising bank, at the north side of the Glendasan River. It 
had been called the \yy Church, from being enveloped in the umbrage ^s of 
that " glorious green decorator."^ It was built of undressed mica slate, with 
good-sized stones, especially near the bottom of the wall. The chancel quoins 
are granite, and some blocks of a similar stone are in the walls.^7 It was the 
most perfect in the valley, but the trees were beginning to destroy the walls, 
previous to the late restorations. The south nave window was considerably 

distorted by them, 


and some of its 
stones had been 
forced out. The cen- 
tral voussoir of the 
fine chancel arch had 
sank considerably. 
The square building 
at the west end, which 
originally carried a 
Round Tower,^ was 
very ruinous, and the 
curious south door- 
way^ of the nave 
had become a shape- 
less breach.T® Of late 
years, some efforts 
have been made 
to arrest decay.7* 
Trinity Church shows 
a nave and a chan- 
cel,7^ running a little 
to the south of east.73 
In the clear, the nave 
is 29 feet, 6 inches, 
by 17 feet, 6 inches; 
and, in addition to 
its doors, it was 
lighted by a small 
round-headed win- 
dow, in the south-east 
wall'* The chancel was 13 feet, 6 inches, long, by 9 feet wide. 75 A fine 
chancel arch,7^ with dressed blocks of granite stone, divides the nave from 

Tempul an Trinoite, Glendalough. 

^ There is a description of this old church, 
with two autotypes, and two woodcut illus- 
trations, in "Notes on Irish Architecture," 
bj Edwin, third Earl of Dunraven, edited 
bj Miss Stokes, vol. i., pp. 98 to loi. 

^ This is thought to have been a title, 
not originally given to it. 

•5 See Rev. Dr. Ledwich's "Antiquities 
of Ireland ;" but, he incorrectly distinguishes 

Vol. VI.— No. 2. 

it from Trinity Church, pp. 38, 41. 

« See Sir WiUiam R. Wilde's " Memoir 
of Gabriel Beranger, and his Labours in the 
Cause of Irish Art, Literature, and Antiqui- 
ties from 1760 to 1780, with Illustrations," 
in "The Journal of the Royal Historical 
and Archaeological Association of Ireland," 
vol. ii., part ii.. Fourth Series, p. 457' 

•7 One of these, in the south wall of the 

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[June 3. 

the choir. Formerly, a Round Tower Belfry surmounted the western end of 
tl)e building ; but, as the foundations, which are square,^^ had not been incor- 
porated with the church, these are supposed to have been laid and built upon, 
subsequently to the original structure.^^ The remains of an arch are to be 
seen, which formerly supported the Round Tower Belfry;^ while an 
old doorway, with a square head, enters it from the interior.^ In the 
first instance, it would seem, that Archdall,^* with other mistakes, had set 
down Trinity Church and Ivy Church, as two distinct churches ; while this mis- 
take has been copied by Ledwich,** and by Grose.^3 However, this is a most 
egregious blunder, as Trinity Church has been called the Ivy Church, on 
account of the profuse growth of that creeping plant over its ruins.®^ The 
original doorway ®$ is in the west end of the nave, and it has a horizontal 
lintel with inclined sides, very massive in construction, and formed of wcU- 
chiselled granite blocks. There was also a doorway, in the south wall, and a 

nave, measures 6 feet long, by I foot, 6 in- 
ches, in height. See " Notes on Irish Archi- 
tecture,*' by Edwin, third Earl of Dun- 
raven, edited by Miss Stokes, vol i., p. 98. 
*• The Round Tower, 40 feet in heieht, 
fell to the ground, during the winter of 1818. 
Sec J. N. Brewer's "Beauties of Ireland," 
vol. i.,p. pi3. 

^ It had a triangular head, if we can trust 
that drawing, in Rev. Dr. Ledwich's "Anti- 
quities of Ireland," see p. 305. 

70 See the Report of J. A. Purefoy CoUes, 
Esq., M.D., read at a general meeting of the 
Association, on Wednesday, July 6th, 1870, 
among the Proceedings and Papers, in "The 
Toumal of the Royal Historical and Archaeo- 
logical Association of Ireland,** vol. i., 
part i.. Fourth Series, p. 19$. 

^' In 1873, Sir William R. WUde, and the 
Rev. Eugene Clarke, P.P., of Derrylassey, 
the parish in which Glendalou^h is situated, 
obtained permission from Major Longfield 
and Captain Hugo— on whose joint property 
this building was situated — to effect some 
restorations. Soon afterwards, the roots and 
branches of trees were cut away from the 
walls and foundations, when they had bulged 
out the largest stones, and some necessary 
repairs were executed. 

7* Its walls are about seven feet high, to 
the commencement of the gable. 

73 The old Irish churches do not always 
lie due east and west ; hence, some antiqua- 
ries have started the fanciful theory of tneir 
orimiationt at that season of the year, when 
their foundations were laid. 

7* Very admirable illustrations and de- 
scriptions of this window, with the interior 
of the choir and nave, wUl be found in Dr. 
George Petrie*s " Ecclesiastical Architecture 
and Round Towers of Ireland,'* part ii., 
sect, iii, subs. 2, pp. 183, 186. 

'5 The walls are 2 feet, 6 inches in thick- 
ness. See " Notes on Irish Architecture,** 
by Edwin, third Eail of Dunraven, edited 
by Miss Stokes, vol. i., p. 98. 

y* Said to be the finest of its period in Ire- 
and. See William F. Wakeman's " Hand* 

book of Irish Antiquities, Pagan and Chris- 
tian,** part ii., chap, ii., p. 73. 

'^ This square base was built, in an inferior 
way to the rest of the church ; and, at pre- 
sent, its walls are not higher than 10 or 12 

^ The drawing of this old church, as it 
stood in 1779, hy Beranger, has been faith- 
fully reproduced in the annexed illustration 
by William F. Wakeman, and drawn on the 
wood, engraved by Mrs. Millard. 

79 The condition of this church, as it stood 
with the Belfry in October, 1779, is shown 
in Gabriel Beranger*s sketch, which has been 
drawn by William F. Wakeman for Sir 
William R. Wilde*s Paper in *' The Journal 
of the Royal Historical and Archaeologiod 
Association of Ireland,** vol. ii., part ii., 
Fourth Series, p. 458. 

^ For a view of this latter, see ftW., 
p. 462. 

•' See his description and history of Glcn- 
dalough, in " Monasticon Hibemicum,** pp. 
765 to 776. 

*» See "Antiquities of Ireland,** p. 38. 

•3 See " Antiquides of Ireland,*^ voL ii., 

■* For a very accurate description, accom- 
panied with some diagrams and measure- 
ments of details, the reader is referred to 
John 0*Donovan*s Essay on the Antiquities 
of Glendaloueh, in April, 1840, where he 
devotes a Fifm Section to the Ivy Church 
or theiChurch of the Blessed Trinity. See 
" Letters containing Information relative to 
the Antiquities of the County of Wicklow, 
collected during the Progress of the Ord- 
nance Survey in 1838,** vol. i., pp. 488 to 


"s It is 6 feet, 2 inches in height, b^ 2 
feet, 7 inches wide, at the base ; 2 feet 5 in- 
ches, at the top, and 2 feet, 6 inches, deep. 
The granite blocks of which it is formed are 
the full thickness of the wall. See the 
" Gentleman*s Magazine,'* New Series, voL 
xvL, Notes on the Architecture of Ireland, 

p. 277. 
^ Nothing now remains of this aperture^ 

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few feet from the west end.^ This was evidently an insertion of a later date, 
when the belfiy,*^ built against the west door, had been added.®* The walls 
of the nave are about 10 feet high, and the gable is rather of a steep pitch. 
The north and west walls of the small quadrangular structure added are still 
tolerably perfect, and in the former, there is a small circular- headed light.** 
The east window 9° of this church is small and round-headed, both on the 
inside and on the outside. The arch is cut out of one stone. There is a 
triangularly-headed window, in the south wall of the chancel .9* The nave 
south window is of chiselled stone, and it splays to a good width. To the 
right of the east window, in the gable, there is a small recess.^* The chancel- 
arch of semicircular form is constructed of well chiselled granite, having 
two faces, with an arch of rubble stone between the voussoirs. It is without 
chamfer or moulding, while it springs without imposts from jambs, which 
slightly incline.93 The church has outside stones, projecting about one foot, 
at both ends of the nave and on the chancel.94 Over the outside of the east 
window, a flat table projection of 2 feet in depth extends. This church has 
an old character about it, in all respects, except that the granite quoin- 
blocks are well cut and chiselled.95 Trinity Church is described by Mr. 
O'Donovan, as ** the most perfect specimen of an ancient Irish Daimhliag," 
that he had seen ^ and, its present appearance justifies the remark, in the 
characteristics which are preserved. 



Having now attained a most venerable age, St Kevin wished to pass out of 
this life, to be with Christ. From his infancy to his declining years, he 

bat some of the stones fonning the lower 
part of the j&mbs. 

•7 According to Mr. Petrie*s Manuscript 
Notes, it was !ux>nt 60 feet in height, and 40 
feet in circumference, the lower story being 
square to the height of 15 feet. 

" Fortunately, a correct representation of 
this doorway has been preserved, by Gabriel 

•» It is deeply splayed internally, where it 
measures 3 feet, 10 inches high, and I foot, 
1 1 inches, across, at the middle ; but, it 
widens below like the ancient square door- 
ways. See " Journal of the Royal Historical 
and Arclueological Association of Ireland,'* 
Fourth Series, vol. ii., part iL Sir William 
Wlde's Paper, "M:emoir of Gabriel 
Beranger, and lus Labours in the Cause of 
Irish Art, Literature and Anticjuities, from 
1760 to 1780, with Illustrations, * p. 461. 

^ It measures 2 feet, 6 inches, high : it is 
I foot wide at the base, and 10 inches, at the 

top. There is a flat table projection, 2 feet 
in depth, over the outside arch. 

9» The jambs of the inner arch are upright. 
It is 8 inches wide, at the bottom, 7^ in- 
ches at the top ; i foot, $ inches high, and 
6 inches, to the springing of the arch. The 
lower ciil-stone is bevelled off. 

9»See "Notes on Irish Architecture," by 
Edwin, third Earl of Dunraven, edited by 
Miss Stokes, voL i., p. 99. 

93 Archdall incorrectly places Trinity 
Church north of the Abbey, at Glendalough. 
See ** Monasticon Hibernicum,*' p. 772. 

9* Sir William Wilde suggests, that these 
may have been early attempts at gargoyls. 
See "Journal of the Royal Historical and 
Archaeological Association of Ireland," 
Fourth Series, vol. ii., part ii., p. 461- 

95 See " Notes on Irish Architecture, by 
Edwin, third Earl of Dunraven, edited by 
Miss Stokes, vol. L, pp. 98 to 100. 

9* See " Letters containing Information 

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always ran in the Commandments of God without blame, in holiness, and 
in justice, adorned with many virtues, and performing various miracles. Now, 
he called together twelve of his most religious brethren, and he sent them to 
the place, where the Apostle of Ireland stood, when his hymn had been sung 
three several times.' These holy monks betook themselves to that spot, in- 
dicated by the venerable Abbot. Here, according to his orders, they prayed, 
that the Lord would grant his petition to our saint However, they received 
no intimation, whatever, regarding its object. On ending their prayer, they 
returned to the venerable superior. Knowing their request had been granted, 
he told them, that he had asked to be released from the prison of his body, 
and that the Lord had formerly told him, he should not pass out of life, until 
he preferred such a request and of his own accord to the Almighty. Hearing 
this, the brethren felt very sorrowful. But, our saint consoled them, by saying, 
that hitherto he had seen God's kingdom, while living in the flesh. He 
encouraged them, likewise, to observe diligently his Rule, and all God's Com- 
mandments. Afterwards, elevating his hands, he blessed them and their 

It has been stated, by some writers, that St Kevin attained the episcopal 
dignity.3 It is generally supposed, that he was only an Abbot ; but, that 
Glendalough became an episcopal See,^ not long after his death. There is 
nothing in St Kevin's Life to induce us to think, that he belonged to the 
episcopal order. However, as the See of Glendalough was undoubtedly very 
ancient, and as he was the founder of that monastery, which gave rise to it, 
some writers thought, that he had been bishop there.* Moreover, St Libba, or 
Molibba,^ a nephew of St. Coemgen, is called bishop of Glendalough.7 If 
he were so, it seems pretty evident, that the antiquity of its See can be traced 
back, to the early part of the seventh century. A city soon grew up there, 
and near the site of St Kevin's monastery.® From the circumstance of two 
Lakes being conspicuous objects, Hoveden has Latinized the name of the See, 
established at Glendalough, into Episcopatus Bistagniensis.9 The Cathedral 
Church there is said to have been placed under the invocation of St Peter and 
St. Paul.»*> 

When St Kevin had been warned by the Angel, to leave the upper part of 
the valley at Glendalough, it is supposed, that he commenced the erection of 

relative to the Antiquities of the County of siastical historian. Several manuscript notes 

Wicklow, collected during the Progress of of his in addition are to be found, in his own 

the Ordnance Survey in 1838," vol. i., Essay copy of the work, now contained in the 

of John 0*Donovan on the Antiquities of Library of the Royal Irish Academy, and 

Glendalough, written in April, 1840, p. which was used to prepare a Second Edi- 

488. tion. 

Chapter v.— * See the account ahready s See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's ** Ecclesiastical 

given, in a former chapter of this Life. History of Ireland,'* voL ii., chap, x., sect. 

' See the BoUandists' '' Acta Sanctorum," x., n. 161, pp. 49, 50. 

tomusi.,Junii iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. * See an account of him, in the First 

vi., num. 49, p. 322. Volume of this work, at January 8th, the day 

3 See Hams Ware, vol. i., "Bishops of for his feast, Art. viii. 

Glendalough," pp. 372, 373. Also, Rev. ' Sec Colgan*s "AcU Sanctorum Hiber- 

Mervyn Archdall's " Monasticon Hibemi- niae," Januarii viii. De S. Molibba, p. 43. 

cum,^* p. 766. • «' In Coemgen's Life we read : " In ipso 

♦ In his "Antiquities of Ireland," the Rev. loco clara et religosa civitas in honore S. 

Dr. Ledwich has a separate Essay, on the Coemgeni ere vit, quae nomine prsedictsevallls. 

History and Antiquities of Glendalough, in in qua ipsa est GleandaJoch vocatur." See 

the comity of Wicklow, pp. 31 to 54. It is Ussher's " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Anti- 

not only disfigured by gross inaccuracies, but quitates," cap. xvii., pp. 494, 495. 

it evinces a contemptible ignorance, com- » See Hams* Ware, vol. L, " Bishops of 

bined with sectarian rancour and prejudice, Glendalough," p. 371. 

unworthy the spirit and feeling of any eccle- *® See fS/., p. 372. 

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JTJNK 3.] 



his church," a little to the north-west of the old cathedral A ruined building— 
now popularly called the Lady Church "—occupies the site, and it stands out- 
side the line of that great cashel/3 which enclosed the present cemetery. In 
its later state, this church consisted of a nave *^ and a chancel/^ The latter is 
lighdy bonded into the nave ; but, the walls are greatly ruined, and to such a 
degree, that it is impossible to say with certainty, whether or not it had pro- 
jecting stones at the comers. No pilasters or plinths appear to have been in 
it.*^ According to a respectable authority,'7 it was the first church erected ** 
by the holy Abbot, within the precincts of Glendalough valley, in the middle 
part. Nor is such conclusion at all weakened from the fact, that this build- 
ing had been afterwards dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. '9 

Among the undoubtedly ancient remains at Glendalough is St. Kevin's 
House or Cell ** — commonly called his '* kitchen."" It was kept in a better 
state of preservation, than most of the other churches." Its name is thought 
to have been derived from some ancient tradition, that during the latest life- 
time of St Kevin, it had actually been the house in which he resided. This 
cell consisted, originally, we are told,'3 of nave ** and choir, with an Erdam or 
lateral apartment, off the choir, on the north side. Formerly, it was called Cro- 
Coemhghin, and this is the name it seems to have borne, before the Anglo- 
Norman Invasion.'s The west gable '^ contains a doorway ,*7 with an arch,** 

'■ A woodcut delineation of the western 
gable and a portion of the southern side wall 
of this ancient church, with a description, by 
William F. Wakeman, may be seen, in the 
" Irish Literary Gazette," voL iii., No. xlvi., 
PP- 54» 57. 

" The length of this building externally is 
62 feet. 

"3 Sec "Journal of the Royal Historical 
and Archaeological Association of Ireland,'* 
Fourth Series, vol. ii., part ii. Memoir of 
Gabriel Beranger, and his Labours in the 
Cause of Irish Art, Literature and Antiqui- 
ties from 1760 to 1780, with Illustrations, by 
Sir William R. Wilde, p. 479. 

** It is 32 feet long, and 20 feet, 6 inches 
wide, according to Buss Stokes. With some 
slight variation of measurement, John 
0*Donovan introduces his own, in an Essay 
on the " Valley of Glendalough, present Re- 
mains and Features mention^ in the Life of 
the Patron Su Kevin, written in April, 1840." 
See " Letters containing Information rela- 
tive to the Antiauities of the County of 
Wicklow, collected during the Progress of 
the Ordnance Survey in 1838," vol. i., pp. 

'3 It is 21 (edf 4 inches long, and 19 feet, 
6 inches wide, according to Miss Stokes. A 
writer in the " Gentleman's Magazine," New 
Series, vol. xiv., thinks that this has been an 
addition mxide to the nave, at a later period ; 
its rubble work being more regular, and of 
smaller stones, than that in the nave. See 
" Notes on the Architecture of Ireland," p. 
277. fiut. Miss Stokes holds a different 

^ Sec " Notes on Irish Architecture," by 
Edwin, third £arl of Dunraven, edited by 
Miss Stokes, vol. i., p. loi. 
'7 That of Dr. George Petrie^ who states. 

that many years before his great work was 
written, the old natives of Glendalough had 
communicated this as the local tradition, 
while it seems to be fully confirmed in that 
passage, he quotes from the old Life of St. 

** Dr. Petrie thinks " that its erection may 
be fairly referred to the middle of the sixth 

»9 See Dr. Petrie*s " Ecclesiastical Archi- 
tecture and Round Towers of Ireland," part 
ii., sect, iii., subs, i, pp. 170 to 173. 

*° The artists who examined Glendalough 
for Colonel Burton Conyngham called it St. 
Kevin's house or kitchen. 

" Dr. CoUes believed, this name was at 
first applied by the " guides " to iht erdam ; 
but, that it is now extended to the whole 

" There is an interesting description of 
this cell, in an article, headed ''Glenda- 
lough," and written for the "Irish Literary 
Gazette," vol. iii,, by William F. Wakeman. 
See No. xlviii., p. 186. There is also a pic- 
ture of it, drawn by him, and engraved by 
George Hanlon, at p. 185. 

"3 See ** Letters containing Information 
relative to the Antiquities of the County of 
Wicklow, collected during the Process of 
the Ordnance Survey in 1838," voL 1. John 
0*Donovan*s Essay on ** Valley of Glenda- 
lough, present Remains, and Features, men- 
tioned in the life of the Patron St. Kevin," 
sect. 3. St. Kevin's Kitchen, anciently Cro 
Coemghgin, pp. 471 to 477. 

■♦ The nave measures, on the inside, 32 feet, 
%yi, inches, in length, by 1$ feet, 5 inches, in 
breadth, and the walls are 3 feet, 6 inches, in 

•s It was burned, A.D. 1163. SeeO*Dono- 
van*s " Annals of the Four Masters," vol. ii., 

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(June 3. 

similar to one over the western doorway of the cathedral. Its lintel *9 of 
mica slate projects in the middle. As the nave ^ appears at present,^* it is 
arched over head, with remarkably finn work. It has a concave arch, the 
apex of which is about 18 feet, from the level of the floor. 3« There is a Round 
Tower, or Cloightheach,33 on the west end of this building. It is surmounted 
by a Bencover, or pointed top.34 It contains six apertures or windows of a 
quadrangular form.35 The choir is now destroyed, but its dimensions can be 

St. Kevin's Cell, or House, Glendalough. 

calculated, as it was of the same length, with what has been called the little 
Erdam3^ or lateral apartment,37 which still remains uninjured, while its 
breadth can be determined from the tracks of its walls, in the external face on 
the east gable of the nave. The choir arch 3* is solidly built, and still in good 
preservation ; but, it is so plastered over with mortar, that the shape of the 

pp. 1 150, 1 151, and n. (x), ibid, 

■• It has a very steep-pitched stone 

■^ It is 7 feet, in height, and in breadth, it 
is 2 feet, 4 inches, at the top, and 2 feet 1 1 
inches, at the bottom. There is a rude draw- 
ing of the stones, composing this doorway, by 
Mr. O'Donovan, with measurements. 

** From north comer of the gable, to this 
doorway, it is 9 feet, 8 inches. 

•9 It is 5 feet, 6 inches, long, and 11 inches 

3° The ridge of its roof is estimated, by Rev. 
Dr. Ledwich, to be " about 30 feet above the 

3»/rhe height of its side wall to the roof is 
II feet. 

^ The accompanying illustration, drawn 
on the spot, by William F.Wakeman, and by 

him transferred to the wood, has been en- 
graved by Mrs. Millard. 

33 It surmounts the gable, on which its 
base partly rests, about 20 feet, the gable 
itself being about 22 feet from the ground. 
The Rev. Dr. Ledwich very loosely and in- 
correctly states, that this Round Tower is 
about 45 feet in height. See " Antiquities 
of Ireland," p. 40, 

3* From the ground to its vertex, the height 
is nearly 45 feet. 

35 Two are placed near the base, one at the 
east and another at the west side ; while four 
face the cardinal points, near the top, and 
immediately under the Bencover or conical 

3* According to Mr. O'Donovan, this little 
Erdam, rendered sacristy, leading off the 
choir to the north, is a stone-roofed cell. 

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June 3.] 



stones constructing it are not now observable. Over the coved arch of the 
nave is a loft,39 and near the west gable, there is a quadrangular aperture in 
the ceiling, through which from below the inside of the Round Tower, on the 
west end, can be partially seen. The chancel at St. Kevin's House fell, or 
was pulled down, about the year i84o.4<* Yet, the roofs of its nave and belfry 
wanted some repairs, as the rain began to percolate through them, and to in- 
jure the vault ; but, within the last few years, this restoration has been care- 
fully made. An iron doorway, with gratings, enables all visitors to see the 
interior, without the necessity of entering this building.-** 

When St. Kevin had consoled his monks and imparted his benediction, 
his thoughts were solely devoted to preparation for his departure from that 
place, so endeared to him by religious associations ; and, he now turned his 
mind, on the abiding home he sought for in Heaven. He then received 
Christ's most Sacred Body and Blood, from the hands of St. Mocherog.** This 
holy man, it was thought, dwelt in a cell,^3 or oratory, at Delgany, when he 
was called to administer the last rites of the Church to St. Kevin ; but, to us, 
it seems more likely, that he lived quite convenient to Glendalough. His 
monks stood around, in tears and lamentations, when their venerable 
superior breathed his last. Having lived, in this world, according to common 
report, for the extraordinary and lengthened period of one hundred and 
twenty years,^ he departed to join choirs of Angels and Archangels, in the 
Heavenly Jerusalem. The Third of June Nones *5 is the date assigned for 
his death ; and, on the 3rd of June, accordingly, his festival is celebrated. ^^ 

measnriDg on the inside 10 feet, 2 inches, in 
length, which was also the exact length of 
the choir, and 7 feet, 9^ inches, in breadth, 
which is somewhat less than the breadth of 
the choir. It contains a doorway on the 
sonth side, by which it communicated with 
the choir, and which measures 5 (?) feet in 
height, and in breadth at the top 2 feet, and 
3 feet, 3 inches, at the bottom. It also has 
m window in the east gable, placed at the 
height of 4 feet, from the ground. It is broad, 
on the inside, and it gradually narrows to 
the breadth of 6 inches, on the outside. Its 
dimensions are : breadth inside, 2 feet, 6 in- 
ches, height inside, 4 feet, breadth outside, 6 
inches, height outside, 2 feet 

^ It had sunk to the northward ; and, it 
was very ruinous, before the late repairs had 
been executed. A great part of its stone- 
roof had fallen, and a thorn bush ¥ras grow- 
ing from the remains. 

^ It measures 8 feet, 10 inches, in height, 
and 5 feet, 2 inches, in breadth. 

* Over this is an apartment, lighted by 
the two windows, at tne base of the tower, 
and b]r a smaU quadrangular aperture, near 
the top of the choir west gable. It looked 
into the choir through a window, placed im- 
mediately under the choir roof. The fore- 
going descriptions are rendered quite intelli- 
gible— even to those who have not had an 
opportunity for inspecting the building on its 
site — by referring to two distinct pen and ink 
sketches, frona opposite points, by William 
F. Wakeman. He also gives an imaginary 
third view of St. Kevin's Kitchen, before the 
choir had been removed, with the great 

Round Tower of the cathedral, in the dis- 

*° The stones of which it had been built 
were piled up into a large square mass, at a 
little distance to the eastward, until the late 
restorations had been carried out. 

** Within the nave of St. Kevin's kitchen 
are now collected all carved stones, where- 
ever found, and which could not be replaced 
in their original position, as also, all frag- 
ments of crosses, sepulchxkl slabs, &c., which 
are not in situ. 

** Of this saint, Baert observes, that he 
knew nothing about this^Mocherog the Briton, 
unless perchance he was the same as 
Mochuarocus the Abbot, who is venerated on 
the 9th of February, according to Colgan : 
" in cujus festo dicitur obiisse inclitus Prin- 
ceps Donmaldus Hua Lochlainx, apud eum- 
den Colganum 27 Martii, in Gelasio Abbate 
n. IV.'* — "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii 
iii. De S. Coemgino, sive Keivino, Abbate 
Glindelacensi in Hibemia, cap. vi., n. (f), 
p. 322. 

*i Assuming the locality to be established, 
on the authorit]^ of Rev. Dr. Lanigan ; Mrs. 
A. O'Byme writes, with a good knowledge 
of local topography, that it is ''possible the 
one whose ruins yet exist in the demesne of 
Down's Lodge."— "Saints of Ireland,*' p. 

^ See the 0*Clerys* Calendar. 

<s See "Acta Sanctorum,** tomus i., Junii 
iii. Vita S. Coemgeni, cap. vL, num. 49, 
p. 322. 

^ See Sir James Ware, " De Scriptoribus 
Hibernise," lib. i., cap. iii., p. 19. 

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[June 3. 

This samt's death has been variously assigned, to the years 617/7 6iV« and 
622.^ If this latter were the real year of St Coemgen's death, it will follow, 
that he was bom in 502, or late in 501, supposing that he lived to the age of 
120 years. 50 

According to a former tradition,^* St. Kevin was said to have been buried, 
at Our Lady's Church, in Glendalough f^ but, now, there is not a vestige of 
his tomb,53 which is believed to have remained unbroken, down to the middle 
of the last century. Again, the supposed tomb of this saint is said to have 
rested, within a small chapel or oratory,54 about fourteen feet long, by twelve 
wide. For many centuries subsequent to St. Kevin's death, great numbers 
were accustomed to visit Glendalough, in order to celebrate the festival of its 
holy patron.55 The penal times were even characterized by devotions peculiar 
to the memory of this saint, within the secluded recesses of Glendalough 
valley.5^ At a much later period, that singular and interesting ruin, which is 
locally called " St Kevin's Kitchen," served as a place of worship, for 
Catholics living in the parish of Glendalough. Yet, it must have been quite 
insufficient to afford proper accommodation for the congregated worshippers, 
owing to its very limited dimensions.s7 

^ "The Age of Christ, 617. The seventh 
year of Suibhna. St. Caemhghm, Abbot of 
Gleann-da-locha, died on the 3rd of June, 
after having spent one hundred and twenty 
years of his age tiU then." — Dr. 0*Donovan s 
'* Annals of the Four Masters,*' vol. i., pp. 
240, 241. The Annals of Ulster have the 
same date. 

** The Annals of Tigemach, Harris Ware, 
vol. i., " Bishops of Glendalough," p. 373 5 
and, vol. ii., *' Writers of Ireland," book L, 
chap, iii., p. 22. See also, Rev. Dr. 
Lanigan's ''Ecclesiastical History of Ire« 
land, vol. ii., chap, x., sect, x., p. 44. 
Through amisprint, the deathof St.Coemgen 
of Ireland is put down at 161 8, in the 
•' Circle of the Seasons.'* See p. 155. 

^ "Annis cxx. vitse exactb. iii. Nonas 
Junii, circa annum DCXViii. vil DCXXII. ad 
Christum Coemgenus migravisse, dicitur." — 
Ussher*s " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Anti- 
quitates," cap. xvii., p. 495. In his Index 
Chronologicus, p. 537, Ussher places the 
death of our saint, at the year 618. 

5° See Rev. Dr. Lanigan s ** Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect. 
X., n. 160, p. 49. 

s* So states William F. Wakeman, in an 
article headed "Glendalough." 

5* There is a fine woodcut and description 
of Our Lady's Church, Glendalough, in the 
'* Irish Literary Gazette," vol. iii., Na xlvi., 
pp. 54, 57. 

53 If it be true, that St. Kevin was buried 
in this church, we might hope to find here, 
on exploration, if not his tombstone, at least 
the tombs of some among his earlier succes- 

^ It had lain for ages beneath the ruins of 
an adjoining church, until discovered by the 
antiquarian zeal of the late S. Hayes, Esq., 
of Avondale. See Mrs. A. O'Byme's 
" Saints of Ireland," p. 103. 

55 The Rev. Dr. Lanigan has some well- 
merited sarcasms, directed against the 
mighty Ledwich, who says in hb *' Antiqui- 
ties of Ireland," p. 46, that the ninth cen- 
tury ** was the era of the saintship of St 
Kevin," while he had already told us, that 
St. Coemgen was not known until after the 
thirteenth. See " Ecclesiastical History of 
Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, x., n. 165, 
p. 50. 

5* Within the graveyard enclosure, sur- 
rounding the ruined cathedral, are stilt 
pointed out to strangers, the tombs of two 
priests, who died about the middle of the last 
century. Here they were interred. One of 
these ecclesiastics is said to have died in the 
odour of sanctity, and his memory is tradi- 
tionally held in great veneration, by the 
neighbouring peasantry. These were in the 
habit of removing and preserving clav that 
covered his remains. To their faith and 
prayers, in its application, miraculous results 
are attributed; but, it must be remarked, 
these and similar practices have been dis- 
countenanced by the local clergy. 

57 In an interesting article on Glenda- 
lough, which forms No. v., in a series of 
" lOustrations of Irish Topography," written 
for the " Irish Penny Magazine,'' Mr. John 
D'Alton says, at the year 1810: ''St. 
Kevin's Kitchen was about this time and for 
some years subsequently used as a Roman 
Catholic Chapel : in 1827, however, it was 
allowed to relapse into the desolation that 
seems " to suit the gloomy habit of the soil." 
vol. i., No. 5, p. 34. The cause of this 
''desolation" is afterwards explained, by 
this same writer in a different work, when 
giving the biography of the late William 
Magee, Protestant Archbishop of Dublin, 
who died a.d. 1831. Speaking of this Pre- 
late, the writer says : " He is known also to 
have prohibited the natives of the valley of 

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In the '' FeOire "^ of St iEngus, this holy Abbot is commemorated^ with 
a high eulogy, at the 3rd of Jmie.*^ The Martyrology of Tallagh ^ records 
a festival, in honour of Coemgin, Abbot of Glinni da Locha, at this sam^ 
date. In the Martyrology of Christ Church, at iii. of the June Nones, there 
is an entry of St. Coemgin's Natalis.*' This day, the Martyrology of Done- 
gal ^ records veneration for Caohnhghin, Abbot of Gleann-da.loch.^3 The 
anonjmious Catalc^ue, published by O'Sullevan Beare, contains an entry of 
Coenginus, or Kivinus, at this date ; as also, in Father Henry Fitzsimon's 
list is Coenginus Abbas ^ included. Under the head of Glenn-da-lacha,^s 
Dnald Mac Firbis enters Caoirahghin of Glenn da locha,^ for the 3rd of June. 
In Scothmd) his feast was celebrated, on the same day, as we find his Natalis, 
in the Kalendar of Drummond,^ and in Thomas Dempster's '' Menologium 
Scotonim."^ An office for this saint, in Nine Lessons, was formerly read, in 
the Cathedral Church of Dublin.*? His festival is also noticed, in various 
ancient Calendars.?^ As special Patron of the united Dioceses of Dublin and 

GIcDdalougfa from celebrating Mass, as they 
bad Iberetofoie done, in their ancient and 
yenerated cathedral of St Kevin, availing 
himsdf <^ his right as archbishop to the 
groond on which the chapel stood." — 
D'Alton's "Memoirs of the Archbishops of 
Dublin.^ p. 359. 

^ In the '* Leabhar Breac '* copy, we find 
the following stanza, with English transla- 
tion, by Whitley Stokes, LL.D. :— 

mit C^ifC ic|\ich nef enn 
^{vo Axxmi t>Afi utnm) C|\euhAii 
Coemgeti c^xo c^iti CAicbpe^ 
^nslim> t>^lim> lech ah. 

*' A soldier of Christ into Ireland's border : 
a high name over the sea's wave : Coemgen, 
chaste, iaxt warrior, in the glen of the two 
broad linns.*' — " Transactions of the Royal 
Irish Academy,'* Irish Manuscript Series, 
vol. i, part L On the Calendar of Oengus, 
p. xdi. 

^ We find the foUowing commentary on 
his name : " Coemlog nomen patris eius, 
CoemeU nomen matris eius. Coeman et Nat- 
coemi nomina duonrni fratrum eius. Aibind 
sororcala eorum." Then follows an Irish 
qoatraiD: — 

CoetnAii, Coemgin, itlo-choemi 
Cfi imc choemA Choemitte 
bAIIIAIch 1T»CpiA|\ b|\AchAi\ 
C|tt tnic n)iichA|\ Aibinne. 

It is thus rendered into English : — 

" Coemin, Coemgin, Mo-choeme, 
Three lovable sons of Coemell, 
Good was the triad of brothers, 
Three sons of a delightfcd mother." 

Afterwards, .1. Aibem> Am>e|\bfft]|\ "Ai- 
benn was the sister." On hiiis place is the 
comment .1. t>nx>ch plcc Atit) Ajjuf 
ifAciechAn 1AC, " two lakes are therein, 
and broad are they." — Ibid^ p. xcviii. 

*> Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxvi. 

*' Thus : "In Hybemia ; natalis sancti 
Coemgini abbatis et confessoris." — "Book 
of Obits and Martyrolo^ of the Cathedral 
Church of the Holy Trinity, commonly called 
Christ Church, Dublin,*' edited by John 
Clarke Crosthwaite, A.M., and Rev. Dr. 
James Henthom Todd, p. 122. 

^ Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
142 to 145. 

*3 A note by Dr. Todd states, at Gleann* 
da-loch: "Over this word is the gloss .1. 
t)Atoch ptec Ann, 7 ac te^n^, "Z^., there 
are two lakes there, and they are very ex- 

** He quotes Floratius, " Idem Kenuis." 
See O'Sullevan Beare's ** Historiae CathoU- 
cse Ibernise Compendium," tomus i., lib. iv., 
cap. xi., xii., pp. 50, 53. 

*5 Glenn-da-locna ; County of Wicklow, 
WiUiam M. Hennessy's note. 

** See " Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy," Irish MSB. Series, voL 1., part i., 
pp. 112, 113. 

^See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of 
Scottish Saints,^ p. 14. 

*® Thus entered : " Keuini abbatis, in 
Insulis Scotids oriundi. Girald." — Ibid,^ 
p. CGI. 

*9 See " Book of Obits and Martyrology 
of the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity, 
commonly called Christ Church, Dublin," 
edited by John Clarke Crosthwaite, A.M., 
with an Introduction by Rev. Dr. James 
Henthom Todd, p. 66. 

y° A Manuscript in Trinity College Li- 
brary, Dublin, classed B, i, 3, contains a 
notice, at June the 3rd, Nones iiL, Sancti 
Keivini Abbatis, Duplex fin. per constit. 
Dublin. Another, classed B, i, 4, contains 
a notice at June the 3rd, Nones iii., Sancti 
Kevini Abbatis, Duplex f., ix. Lect. Ano- 
ther classed B, 3, ID, contains a notice, at 
June 3, Nones iii., Sancti Kevini Abbatis 
ix. Lect. Another, classed B, 3, 12, con- 
tains a notice at June 3, Nones iii, Coem- 
geni Abbatis et Conf., ix. Lect. Another, 

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of Glendalough, the 3rd of June is celebrated, as a Double of the First-class, 
with an octave ; while, throughout Ireland generally, it is regarded as a greater 

Nothing can exceed in interest and beauty the romantic scenery of Glen- 
dalough. The Round Tower first attracts notice, on entering the valley ; 
and then, as the tourist advances, one after another, several ruined objects of 
archaeological curiosity 7' appear to the gaze.^* The sort of ancient enclosure 
about Glendalough was probably a rampart, built of or faced with stone, and 
called a CaUeaL Traces of it remained, down to the present century. The 
gateway of the CaiscalvrsiS well restored a few years ago, and it is now in a 
fairly good condition. The old city is thought to have extended from Rea- 
fert Church, on the west, to the Ivy Church, on the east, and to have been 
built on either bank of the River Glendassan, before its junction with the 
Avonmore, at the extreme eastern entrance to this magnificent valley.73 The 
site of a former market-place 74 may still be traced, within a small square plot 
of ground, where the market-cross once stood ; its base only remains at pre- 
sent It lies north of Glendassan River. 's The debris of a paved street, 
leading westward firom this spot towards the coimty of Kildare, can yet be 
traced for a considerable distance. It now takes the name of St. Kevin's 
Road. At the present day, the singular and venerable group of ruins, known 
as the Glendalough " Seven Churches,"'^ and the wildly sublime scenes of the 
region around, attract the regards of antiquaries, artists, and tourists. The 
mountain, called Camederry, rises over the northern margin of the two lakes. 
These lie deep beneath its summits. On its southern side, young larch and 
coppice woods are now flourishing luxuriantly; while, their trees form an 
agreeable contrast, with the steep heath-covered rocks, rising beyond the 
Lakes. At the head of the Upper Lake, and entering it, may be seen the 
broken torrent of a streani, called Glanealo, descending die valley, and coming 
from the west, in a succession of miniature cascades. Beyond Camederry, 
and descending from the central range of the Wicklow Mountains, opens the 
rugged valley of Glendassan, through which a river, bearing the same name 
flows. It joins the Glanealo, a little below the old Cathedral and Round 
Tower.77 St. Kevin's Well is shown, somewhat below this confluence.^* 
Camederry and Brocha mountains enclose Glendassan,79 on either side ; and, 
St Kevin's Road, extending from Glendalough up the defile, is an ancient 

classedB, 3, 13, contains, at June 3rd, Nones See Rev. Dr. Ledwich's "Antiquities of 

iii., this entry, Sancti Kcvini Abbatis. Ireland," p. 176. Second edition. 

7< One of the giants of modem romantic ^ Among our Irish ancestors, there must 

literature, Sir Walter Scott, describes Glen- have been some mystic veneration for the 

dalough as "the inexpressibly singular number Seven, on account of the many 

scene of Irish Antiquities." — "Quarterly places, in which that number of churches is 

Review,*' vol. xli., p. 148. traditionally said to have existed. 

^ See Mr. and Mrs. Ha11*s " Ireland ; its ^7 At this point, a bridge anciently crossed 

Scenery, Character,*' &c., vol. ii., pp. 212 to it. A clo^han, composed of stepping-stones, 

230, for illustrations and descriptions of this replaced it, in the earlier part of this cen- 

secluded spot. ^^Vl' 

7^ There is a pen-and-ink sketch of the '' Stations were performed near it, by the 

ruins of Glendalough, copied from a drawing country people. The Deer stone convenient 

of Colonel Burton Conyngham's artists, by to an ancient roadway, and higher up the 

William F. Wakeman, in the Wicklow valley, has a legend associated with the nsune 

Ordnance Survey Letters, vol. i., p. 462. of St. Kevin. 

74 About a furlong west from the Ivy 79 iiie Lead Mines, belonging to the 
Church, and on the same side of the River Mining Company of Ireland, lie chiefly with- 
Glendassan. in Glendassan basin. The washings from 

75 It is nearly opposite the Hotel. For- these mines banished fish from the stream ; 
merly, an ancient bridge spanned the River, but, as the mines are now unworked, the 
and it was leading towards the Cathedral. fishes have again returned. 

Digitized by 





pass over the Wicklow Mountains, towards the level plains of Kildare. The 
entrance to the cemetery and cathedral, at Glendalough, has a gateway, inter- 
nally and externally arched,^ semicircular at top, and perfectly Roman in its 
style of architecture.** To all appearance, it is old as any of the buildings 
within the walls of old Glendalough city,-** and John O'Donovan thinks it 
formed part of the former walls.*3 This gateway had originally a tower over 
it, of which fragments still remain. The internal part of the arch *4 over- 
head is in good preservation. In some respects, the old city of Glendalough 
appears to have possessed features, in common with the older and long-buried 
cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii. The gates of these were in some 
instances found to have been double, so as to offer a greater obstacle to 
assault. Whether such was the object intended or not at Glendalough, the 
gate which entered its cemetery is found to have been composed of double 
archways, spreading wide apart.*5 Here, too, as in ancient Pompeii, the 
streets are shown to have been extremely narrow, for the most part, and to 
have been worn into irregular ruts.*^ 

We shall here present a brief account of the various objects of ecclesias- 
tical and antique interest, at Glendalough, in addition to the ancient build- 
ings and features, to which allusion has been already incidentally made.*7 
Very detailed descriptions of the chief antiquities have been given, by John 
O'Donovan,** and with these are associated certain incidents in the Life of 
St. Kevin. ®9 Numerous pen-and-ink sketches have been introduced, to 
illustrate the antiquities. The remains at Glendalough were reported of late to 
be in a very decaying condition,^® and suitable suggestions were made for their 
restoration. The chief causes assigned for the rapid disappearance of several 
interesting architectural features were, the appropriation as headstones over 
humble graves of several carved or dressed stones, the luxuriant growth of 
trees, through interstices of the ecclesiastical structures, and near the walls, as 
also the tendency of tomists or visitors to steal away sculptured blocks. 

*» Sec a characteristic engraving of it, in 
the *' Irish Literary Gazette," vol. iii., No. 
xlix., p. 20I. 

•« There is a north view of the ancient 
gateway at Glendalough, sketched by 
William F. Wakeman, with the Round 
Tower to the right and in the distance. See 
'* Letters containing Information rela- 
tive to the Antiquities of the County of 
Wicklow, collected during the Progress of 
the Ordnance Survey in 1838,*' vol. i., 
p. 486. 

■" Dr. Petrie saw the city wall of Glenda- 
lough before it had been destroyed. The 
Rev. Dr. Ledwich leads us to suppose, that 
the ancient city, as traced by its walls above 
and foundations below the ground, extended 
probably from Refeart Church to the Ivy 
Church, on both sides of Glendassan River. 
.See** Antiquities of Ireland " p. 173. Se- 
cond edition. 

•s The distance from the internal to the 
external arch is 16 feet. See his Dissertation 
on the Antiquities of Glendalough, in the 
Wicklow Letters, vol. i 

•♦ The arch is 1 1 feet, in height, and 9 feet, 
8 inches, in breadth, at the ground. See ibid, , 
p. 48s. 

^ See a woodcut iUustration of an ancient 
gateway, entering the cemetery, in **The 

Irish Penny Mas^ne," vol. i.. No. v., p. 3$. 

^ See W. H. Davenport Adams* •* Buried 
City of Campania; or Pompeii and Hercu- 
laneum, their History, their Destruction, and 
their Remains,*' sect, ii., pp. 49 to 53. 

^ There is an admirable and general de- 
scription of Glendalough, to which is pre- 
fixed a Map of its valley — giving its antiqui- 
ties clearly indicated — and taken from the 
Ordnance Survey, in "The Gentleman's 
Magazine and Historical Review,** by Syl- 
vanus Urban, Gent., New Series, vol. xvi., 
A.D. MDCCCLXiv., March.— Vol. i., "Notes 
on the Architecture of Ireland,** No. ili., 
pp. 277 to 294. The article in question is 
illustrated by various woodcuts ; one of these 
represents St. Kevin's Church, anotherthe in- 
terior of its Nave, another its Doorway closed 
with masonry, another the Interior and Ex- 
terior view of the East window of the Sacristy 

^ Professing to have been written, during 
the month of April, 1840. 

89 See "Letters containing Information 
relative to the Antiquities of the County of 
Wicklow, collected during the Progress of 
the Ordnance Survey in 1838,** vol i., pp. 
432 to 515. 

^ In the year 1870. 

»* Full permission to carry out these need- 
ful operations had been granted to the As- 

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QUNE 3. 

According to that Report furnished, on the actual state of those interesting 
archaeological monuments, at the July meeting of the Royal Historical and 
Archaeological Association of Ireland, the submitted scheme, for the preser- 
vation, and) where possible, for the restoration, of the remains at Glendalough, 
was approved; and, it was resolved, to invite subscriptions for the purpose.'* 
A circular was accordingly issued,9« to solicit co-operation, in this movement, 
which should command the sympathies of all Irishmen ; and, when the 
picturesque beauty of the ruins, their historical associations, and their value 
as specimens of early Christian and national art are considered, all lovers of 
antiquity should feel indebted for their restoration, to the gentlemen who took 
kn active part in this work. A few years ago, not only the Daimhliag or 
Cathedral Church— said to have been under the Invocation of the Apostles 
St. Peter and St. Paul 93 — ^was fast going to decay, but even its nave m and 
choir 95 presented the appearance of an unsightly ruin.9* There was a mass of 
fallen wall, at the east end of the nave. The bases of the jambs in the chancel 
arch remained. In the chancel there was a square mass, built of the stones 
of the church.97 Little could be done to check the ruin of this noble old 
church, beyond replacing some of those large stones at the angles of the nave 
which had fallen, and building up those breaches in the walls. There were lying 
about the church a number of the carved stones 9^ of the Romanesque east 
window,99 and of the Romanesque north doorway, in the nave.*~ The ori- 
ginal doorway of this church — quadrangular in form and semi-Cyclopean — 
was placed in the middle of the west gable, and nearly facing the doorway of 
the Round Tower."* A small arch above the doorway, is constructed, 
evidently to keep the weight of the gable off the lintel, and it is like that over 
the doorway of St Kevin's House.'*** After its original erection, the cathedral 
appears to have been remodelled and enlarged. "3 On the south side of the 

sociation, by the Mining Company of Ire- 
land, to whom the vaUey of Glendalough 
belongs ; and, the professional assistance of 
Thomas Drew, Esq., F.R.I. A. I., had been 
promised, when the work should be com- 

^ Bearing date, Dublin, July 29th, 1870, 
having appended thereto the names of J. A. 
Purefoy Colles, M.D., Honorary Secretary, 
and of the Reverend James Graves, Inisnag, 
Stoneyford, Honorary Treasurer of the Glen- 
dalough Restoration Fund. 

93 See Harris* Ware, vol. i., " Bishops of 
Glendalough," p. 372. 

»♦ Its nave — measured on the inside — ^was 
48 feet, 6 inches, in length, by 30 feet, in 

»5The choir — ^measured on the inside — 
was 30 feet, in breadth. 

5« See Report on the stale of the ancient 
Remains at Glendalough, read at the Gene- 
ral Meeting of the Rcyil Historical and 
Archaeological Association of Ireland, on 
Wednesday, July 6th, i860, by J. A. Purefoy 
Colles, Esq., M.D. 

w Dr. Colles spent three days, in the 
month of June, 1870, examining the state of 
these ruins, for the purpose of preparing his 

<* These are like Caen stone, and com- 
posed of soft oolite. 

^ Of this nothing was left standing, only 

a portion of the southern pilaster. 

*** An excavation was made there in 1857. 
The carved jambs of the fine Romanesque 
doorwav, to the extent of about a foot and 
a-half, had been exposed. The soft oolite, 
in which the mouldings were executed, 
offered a tempting field for wanton mischief ; 
and, since that time, many of these have been 

'**' On the outside, it measured 6 feet, 9^ 
inches, in height, and 3 feet, 1 1 inches, in 
breadth, at bottom, and 3 feet, 4 inches, at 
top. The lintel traversing it at top is 5 feet, 
4 mches, in length, 1 1 inches, in height, while 
it extends 2 feet, 4 inches, into the thickness 
of the wall. On the inside, where this door- 
way widens, it measures in height 7 feet ; in 
breadth 4 feet, 8^ inches, at the bottom, 
and 4 feet, 6 inches, at the top. The thick- 
ness of the wall is 3 feet, 7^ inches, as as- 
certained at this doorway ; 5ie thickness of 
' the south wall is 3 feet, 6 inches, while the 
thickness of the choir is 3 feet, 3 inches. 
Rough diagrams and measurements of the 
doorway are given, by John O'Donovan, in 
his Essay, " Valley of Glendalough, present 
Remains and Features, mentioned in the 
Life of the Patron St. Kevin." Sec "Ord- 
nance Survey Letters for the County of 
Wicklow," vol. i., sec., i., pp. 450 to 454. 

«*" This seems owing to the feet, that the 
materials are of mica slate. 

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June 3.] 



choir, there is a window,**^ near the west gable, and east "5 of that window, 
there was another,'*^ stopped up with rough mason- work. At a distance of 4 
feet from the choir-arch, the same wall contains a broken window/**^ The 
choir-arch is now destroyed, but it was semicircular. '<»* It was 18 feet, 2 in- 
ches, broad, at the ground.'**^ The eastern window was nearly destroyed ;"** 
but, it was semicircularly headed, and it was ornamented with a chevron 
moulding.'" There were ornaments of moulding on the east window, but 
these are now destroyed ;"' however, some illustrations have been preserved, 
from drawings taken during the last century."3 There was an inscribed tomb 
and a font, in the north-east comer of the cathedral ; these yet remain, in the 
same position."^ No doubt, in former times, the monastic house of Glenda 
lough was built in close proximity, although few traces of it can now be found. 
The old graveyard extends on every side around the cathedral, within an 
enclosure ; and, it is now overcrowded with interments, on account of the rever- 
ence always attaching to it This cemetery is full of foundations, which, if 
carefully examined and measured, might give some information, as to the 
plan of the ancient monastery. Within this cemetery flourished an ancient 
yew tree, said to have been planted by St. Kevin ; but, it has now dis- 
appeared. About twenty years before the Rev. Dr. Ledwich wrote,"s a 
gentleman had lopped the branches of that yew to make furniture ; but, 
although the trunk then measured three yards in diameter, it had gradually 
declined."^ The fine old Round Tower is now standing, in a state of good 

w>3 Dr. Petrie exhibits in a woodcut a por- 
tion of the masonry on the inner face of the 
Cathedral Church here, at the west end. See 
"Ecclesiastical Architecture and Round 
Towers of Ireland," part ii., sect, i., sub- 
sect I, p. 187. 

'*♦ It IS 6 feet, 8 inches from the ground \ 
in height 5 feet, 6 inches, and in breadth 2 
feet, 4 in(£es. It is semicirculat at top, and 
constructed of cut stones, so far as the arch, 
which is rough mason-work, and evidently 
more modem than the lower part, accord- 
ing to Mr. O'Donoyan's description already 

»** About 14 feet 4^ inches of dis- 

"* It is placed, at a height of 6 feet, from 
the level of the ground, while it measures 5 
feet, 2 inches, in height, and I foot, 10 in- 
ches, in breadth. It is altogether constructed 
of cat stones, and it is semicircular at 

■^ It is placed, at a height of 3^ feet from 
the ground, but it is so injured, that its 
dimensions cannot be correctly eiven. Mr. 
0*Donovan gives diagrams and measure- 
ments of the other windows. See ibid,^ pp. 

454> 455* 

*<« Sec Ledwich's "Antiquities of Ireland," 
p. 176. Second edition. 

"•This was ascertained from the stones 
remaining, according to Mr. O'Donovan's 
Essay, to which aUusion has been already 
made. See iHd.f p. 455. 

"" Its lower part is 3 feet, 6 inches, from 
the level of the ground, and, it measures 6 
ittt, in breadth, at the bottom. Ledwich has 
gfren ft drawing of this window, an inside 

view, represented as perfect and highly 
ornate, in his " Antiquities of Ireland," p. 
177. Second edition. The correctness of 
this view is questionable. 

»" About the year 1780, an Italian artist 
drew an inside view of it, for Colonel Bur- 
ton Conyngham. This has been copied by 
William F. Wakeman, in the County of 
Wicklow Letters for the Irish Ordnance 
Survey, vol. i., p. 458. 

"* See ibid.f p. 459. 

"3 In the year 1780, by an Italian artist 
for Colonel Burton Conyngham. 

"4 See an account of this cathedral, in 
" The Journal of the Royal Historical and 
Archaeological Association of Ireland," 
Fourth Series, vol. ii., part ii.. Memoir of 
Gabriel Beranger, and his Labours in the 
Cause of Irish Art, Literature, and Antiqui- 
ties, from 1760 to 1780, with Illustrations, by 
Sir W. R. Wilde, M.D., pp. 464 to 466, and 
pp. 471, 472. 

"5 See •* Antiquities of Ireland," p. 173. 
Second edition, 

*'* When the writer first visited Glenda- 
lough, in June, 1855, he obtained a portion 
of the root, which was wrought into the 
fashion of an Irish cross, and it is still in his 
possession. Some of the Catholic clergy in 
the neighbourhood procured larger portions ; 
and, in one case, a tabernacle was con- 
structed from them, which is still preserved 
in an adjoining church. 

"' Already two minor belfiries have been 
noticed, one in connexion with Triniw 
Church, and the other with St. Kevin s 

«"• Sec "The Journal of the Royal Histo- 

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[June 3. 

preservation ; and, as the great belfry,"^ it is not the least interesting object, in 
this group of venerable ecclesiastical remains. It stands, at a distance of about 
fifty yards from the cathedral, towards the north-west. Putlock holes may be 
observed, in this structure, showing it was built from without, by means of 
scaffolding."* It was no feet, in height, being 52 feet, in circumference, 
without the cone top."' This tower is built of mica slate, with a few courses 
of granite, at intervals, which have rather the appearance of encircling bands."** 
The Tower has no regular plinth, but only a base-course, of rather small 
stones, and projecting 6 inches. The doorway,"' which is 10 feet, above the 
level of the ground, is constructed of granite blocks chiselled, without orna- 
ment or moulding of any kind."' There are four square-headed windows, 
facing the four cardinal points, in this Tower ; while, in each of its five other 
stories,"3 there is one square-headed window. All the apertures have inclined 
jambs, and they have no internal splay."< This curious structure had become 
very ruinous, while the conical roof was gone. "5 The north jamb of the 
eastern upper window had fallen ; the joints throughout the building had 
opened a good deal ; and, at about three- fourths of the way up, the wall had 
bulged extensively in two places. This was probably the effect of lightning, and 
it seems to batter almost in a straight line, the entasis, if any, being very slight. 
Of late years, the Cathedral and Round Tower have been very considerably 
and substantially repaired."^ 

There can hardly be a doubt, that several antique remains at Glendalough 
have been misnamed, while the objects for which they had been originally 
designed are now misconceived, and misrepresented. An old structure in the 
Cathedral cemetery was called the Priests' Church, or House ;*»7 but, only 
two or three courses of its masonry remained. Many of its cut stones were 
lying about it, in the graveyard and in the adjoining Cathedral. Of late, the 
walls have been rebuilt This, probably, was only a portion of the former 
Abbey, attached to the cathedral. About 5 perches, and 15 links, to the south- 

rical and Archseological Association of Ire- 
land,'* Fourth Series, vol. ii., part ii. Me- 
moir of Gabriel Beranger, and his Labours in 
the Cause of Irish Art, Literature, and An- 
tiquities from 1760 to 1780, with illustra- 
tions, by Sir W. R. Wilde, M.D., p. 464. 

"» This formerly surmounted it, and lately 
it has been rebuilt. 

"*° The masonry is spawled, yet some of 
the stones measure 3. feet long, and they are 
hammer-dressedf^to bring them into the ne- 
cessary curve. 

"' Its head is formed of one stone, which 
extends the entire thickness of the wall. See 
*' Letters containing Information relative to 
the Antiquities of the County of Wicklow, 
collected during the Progress of the Ord- 
nance Survey in 1838, vol. i. John 
0*Donovan*s Essay, ** Present Remains at 
Glendalough," &&, sect. 2, 0.46410 466. 

''* It is round-headed, with inclined sides, 
the arch being cut out of three stones ; it is 
5 feet, 7 inches, hi^h, 2 feet wide at the 
base, and I foot, 10 inches, at the top. See 

'•3 The following is John O'Donovan's de- 
scription : *• The first story was dark ; the 
second was lighted by the doorway 5 the 
third by a quadrangular window, placed on 
the south side ; the fourth by a similar win- 

dow on the west side ; the fifth by a small 
aperture on the north side ; the sixth by a 
quadrangular window, placed on the east 
side, nearly over the doorway, but a little to 
the north ; the seventh story is lighted by 
four quadrangular apertures, placed im- 
mediately under the conical cap or Ben* 
cover. It is curious, that no triangular-headed 
window is to be seen in thb tower." See 
ibid,^ p. 466. 

■"* See "Notes on Irish Architecture," 
by Edwin, third Earl of Dunraven, edited 
by Miss Margaret Stokes, vol. ii., part iii., 
sect, i., pp. 15, 16. 

**s In uiis state, a very fine autotype is 
presented, in that work, edited by Miss 
Stokes, plate Lxxiii. Cloicthech Glinde- 
da-Locha. There is a woodcut illustration 
of the immediate surroundings, also, on the 
opposite page. 

"^ A late visit to the spot, in June, 1886, 
enabled the writer to observe the present well- 
preserved state of those anti(^ue remains. 

*^ See an interesting description and illus- 
tration of this building, in Dr. George 
Petrie's "Ecclesiastical Architecture and 
Round Towers of Ireland," part ii., sect, iii., 
sub-sect L, pp. 247 to 253. 

*•" So is It designated, in the drawing 
made for Colonel Burton Conyngham, and 

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Junk 3.] 



west of this building, is the little church, " where the priests are buried."'** 
This has been called a sacristy, by a writer,"^ very incapable of offering a 
correct opinion on the subject ;'3*> and, it has been stated, that a closet re- 
mained, during the last century, in which the vestments and holy utensils were 
formerly kept. An arched recess was on the east front of the so-called Priests' 
House, and an arch, presenting a well-decorated architrave, rested on narrow 
columns, with capitals richly sculptured.'3' The recess, which it enclosed, 
bad a narrow unomamented window in the centre.'^a The mouldings and 
bases of the columns were elegantly cut ;*33 while, an oblong doorway was 
placed in the south wall, and although quite plain in its jambs, it was sur- 
mounted by a triangular pediment, in the tympanum of which, there was a 
sculptured bas-relief, *34 formed on a single stone. *35 This building is sup- 
posed to be of very considerable antiquity. *36 

In the year ii63,*37 the city of Glendalough was burned, together with 
Cro-Chiarain,'38 and Cro-Chaeimhghin,'39 as also the church of the two 
Sinchells.^^ The artists, who examined Glendalough during the last cen- 
tury for Colonel Burton Conyngham, drew a Map of the valley. On this, 
they represent the ruins of an old and a nameless church, about 2 perches, 
and lo links, to the north of St Kevin's House — sometimes called 
Tempul Chaimhghin *<' — ^and facing its north-west corner. Fragments of 
the walls yet remain ; but, from these, no idea can now be formed, regarding 
its extent or characteristics. They show, also, another nameless old church, 
opposite the south-west comer of St. Kevin's House, at the distance of 2 
perches, and 20 links.'^* At the distance of 6 perches, and 20 links, towards 
the east, and by south of the last nameless old church, is shown the site of 
Cro-Chiarain, or St. Keiran's House. It seems likely, that after the time of 
Sl Kevin, this cell had been dedicated, by the monks of Glendalough, as both 

which has been copied by William F. Wake- 
man, in the County of Wicklow Ordnance 
Survey Letters, vol. L, p. 468. 

«*• See Rev. Dr. Edward Ledwich's 
" Antiquities of Ireland,** p. 176. Second 

■J" Other rery foolish and prejudiced re- 
marks on the antiquities here have been well 
exposed by Rev. Dr. Lanigan, in his " Ec- 
clesiastical History of Ireland,** vol. iv., 
chap, xxxii., sect, xv., n. 123, pp. 398, 


•^ See an account of this building, in "The 
Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeo- 
logical Association of Ireland,** Fourth 
Sories, vol. iL, part ii. Memoir of Gi^briel 
Beianeer, and his Labours in the Cause of 
Irish Art, Literature and Antiquities, from 
1760 to 1780, with Illustrations, by Sir W. 
R. WiMe, M.D., pp. 466 to 471. 

'^A beautiful woodcut of this building 
ornaments Dr. Petrie's work. 

'31 A woodcut represents them, in Dr. 
Petrie*s work. 

^3* This was drawn on the spot, by Dr. 

'^ The figures are supposed to represent 
St Kenn in the centre, with a bishop or an 
abbot on his right hand, andl a porter or 
beflrh^er on his left side, holding a qua- 
dianguar belL 

'^ Dr. Petrie thinks, it was erected either 

previously to the Danish irruptions, or, at 
least, during that period of repose, which in- 
tervened t^tween the years 886 and 977. 
See '* Ecclesiastical Arcnitecture and Round 
Towers of Ireland,** part ii., sect, iii., sub- 
sect. I, pp. 248 to 253. 

'37 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters,'* vol. ii., pp. 1 150, 1 151, and 
nn. (w, x), ibid, 

'3" Anglicized, St. Ciaran's or St. Kieran*s 

'39 Anglicized, St. Coemghin's or Kevin*s 

'^ Patron saints of Cill-achaidh-Droma- 
foda, now KiUeigh, in the barony of Geshill, 
King's County. 

'^ There is an interesting and a charac- 
teristic autotype of Tempul Chaimhghin, or 
St. Kevin's Church, plate LXXXViii., with 
surmounting belfry, as also a detailed de- 
scription, in ** Notes on Irish Architecture,*' 
by Edwin, third EUirl of Dunraven, edited by 
Miss Stokes, pp. 43 to 45. ' 

^ No trace of this was to be seen, when 
John O'Donovan described this place, in 
'' Letters containing Information relative to 
the Antiquities of the County of Wicklow, 
collected during the Progress of the Ord- 
nance Survey in 1838," vol i. See his Essay 
on the ** Valley of Glendalough, present Re- 
mains and Features mentioned in the Life of 
the Patron St Kevin," p. 477« 

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holy men appear to have been not only contemporaries, but personal friends.*^ 
The sites "^ of Cro-Ciarain, and of the Regies an da Sinchell, with one or two 
other buildings, are pointed out to the north, south, and east, of St Kevin's 
House,**5 the only one of those ancient buildings, which has been tolerably 
well preserved. Of late years, several ancient crosses '^ and tombstones '^^ 
have been recovered, and set up within the cemeteries ; while various remains 
of stone crosses are still found, and scattered about the dismantled churches. 
The Church of the Monastery is the most eastern of those ruined ecclesiasti- 
cal buildings, now remaining at Glendalough. It is thought to have been 
originally stone-arched, as indications of that sort were discoverable, on the 
top of its side walls. '♦* It is surrounded by a cu-cular oval fence; but, 
although two or three tombstones are to be found there, at present no inter- 
ments take place. '49 South east from the Ivy Church, and on the opposite 
side of the Glcndassan River, is located this Eastern Church, called by some 
the Priory of St. Saviour. *5o Near this is a stone-roofed chapel or choir, dis- 
covered by Samuel Hayes, Esq.,»s» about the year 1770.*^ For long, it was 
a heap of ruins, '^3 and nothing curious could be seen among its remains save 
the pilasters of the choir-arch, the capitals of which were ornamented with 
grotesque figures.*^ The Rev. Dr. Ledwich assumes to give an explanation 
of the symbolical meanings to be attached to those figures 'S' sculptured on 

^ See ibid.^ pp. 477 to 479. 

»^ It has been supposed, that these should 
probably repay antiquarian excavation. 
This could easily be conducted, as their sites 
lie outside of the Cathedral cemetery. 

'^ To the north side of St. Kevin^ House, 
there is a raised piece of ground, which ijf 
examined carefully, might bring to light 
some antique relics. 

*^ A large granite cross — called St. Kevin's 
cross— hewn from a single stone, stands in 
the Cathedral cemetery, and southwards 
from the Cathedral Of this, Mr. O'Donovan 
gives a rude drawing, and he describes its 
dimensions, as 11 feet, in height, from the 
. pedestal, which was I foot above the level 
of the churchyard ; its shaft is 7 feet, 4 in- 
ches, in height, while its arms are 3 feet, 8 
inches, in breadth. See his Essay already 
Quoted at pp.469, 476. The upper pirt of ano- 
ther smaU cross now lies withm St. Kevin's 
House. The crosses of clay slate, of which 
there are great numbers throughout the 
valley, are for the most part very small, and 
many are extremely rude. 

^^ These are usually slabs of clay-slate. 
Many are perforated, with large square or 
smaU rouna holes. There are now the follow* 
ing ancient slabs in the cathedra], and in its 
neighbourhood : — In its chancel there is a 
large granite slab, broken in two, with an inter- 
laced cross, incised ; and two small crosses, 
, within circles, in relief ; it has two inscrip- 
tions'—one iUegible — the other, or do 
DiAHMA . . . also, another plain cross 
and circle, in relief; likewise, a very laijge 
granite slab, having a curious pattern of dia- 
gonal incised lines, with circles at their in- 
tersections, forming a number of saltier- 
crosses, like that on the lintel at the Lady's 
Church ; this slab lies outside the west end of 
the Priest's Church, and at the head of this 

slab is a cross of clav slate. There is a sim- 
ple but elegant incised cross of granite on 
the pathway, between the west door of the 
Cathedral and St. Kevin's House. There is 
an incised cross, of clay slat^ with gracefully 
interlaced ends, and half buried m a deep 
trench which runs northwards, beside the 
path leading from St. Kevin's House, to the 
Cathedral Again, there is a large broken 
slab of granite, a plain cross and circle in 
relief, on the ground between the latter and 
St. Kevin's House. 

'^ Such is the opinion given by Beranger, 
in 1779. 

^ See for a complete and recent descrip- 
tion <* The Journal of the Royal Historical 
and Archaeological Association of Ireland,** 
Fourth Series, vol. ii., part ii. Memoir of 
Gabriel Beranger, and nis Labours in the 
Cause of Irish Art, Literature, and Antiqui- 
ties, from 1 7^ to 1780," with illustrations, 
by Sir W. R. Wilde, M.D., pp. 451 to 


'^ According to Archdall and other mo- 
dem writers, but without sufficient autho- 
rity. See ''Monasticon Hibemicarum," 

P- 775- 

»5«See Rev. Edward Ledwich's "An- 
tiquities of Ireland," p. 176. Second edi- 

**• According to Dr. Petrie. 

'S3 The rubbish of the contiguous church 
had faUen over it, and the entrance was 
through a west door. 

'54 Drawings of these had been made, by 
the artists of Colonel Burton Conyngham, 
with a ground plan of the stone-roofed chapel 
or crypt, mentioned by Ledwich, and its de- 
tails are measured. 

■5S These have received the most ridi- 
culous interpretations from his over-wrought 

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the pilasters.'56 The crypt is said to have been about 14 feet in length, by 
xo in breadth ^'57 while, according to that writer, the tomb of St. Kevin occu- 
pied a great part of the space. The nave connected with this chancel, and 
which appears to have been without ornament, was about 42 feet in length, 
by about 26 feet in breadth. It seems to have been entered by a doorway, 
near the chancel arch, and placed at the eastern extremity of the south wall.'ss 
One of the most interesting features of this curious structure is the chancel 
archway, of which only the piers with their semi-columns remain. A great 
many of the sculptured stones, which formed its compound arch, were scat- 
tered about the adjoinuig cemetery ; but, a great number of others had been 
carried away.'S9 

Rich in the traditions of St. Kevin's virtues, and sustained by an un- 
broken succession of eminent ecclesiastics, at a time when Dublin was scarcely 
noticed, Glendalough took a place of honour and importance among the 
Leinster churches, and second to none but Kildare.'^ It also established a 
claim to preference, in the development of architectual skill, and in the mul- 
tiplication of its sacred edifices. Almost from the time of St. Kevin, we find 
a record of its bishops and abbots.'^^ Meantime, Dublin had grown to be a 
city of great importance, after the Danes and Norwegians settled there ; but, 
it was regarded as exempt from the jurisdiction of Glendalough, on account 
of the fact, that the Irish held little intercourse with a foreign element of 
population within its walls. Any history of the early Dublin prelates com- 
prises but slender and doubtful materials ; although, several are enumerated 
as living, from the seventh to the eleventh century.'^ During the latter 
period, Donat or Dunan, a Dane, is said to have governed this See, from a.d. 
1038 to May the 6th, 1074. With the aid of King Sitric, he commenced 
building the Cathedral, at first dedicated to the Most Holy Trinity, about 
A.D. 1 038.^^3 It was erected in the centre of the city. This erection was 
afterwards better known as Christ's Church. King Sitric bestowed consider- 
able landed possessions on the religious fraternity, who served that cathedral, 
which appears to have been placed under the Archbishops of Canterbury as 
metropolitans. At least, the latter prelates consecrated Donat and four other 
bishops of Dublin in succession. At the time of the Rathbreasal Synod, 
A.D. mo, the diocese of Glendalough is defined, as extending from 
Grianoge '^* to Beg Erin,*^5 and from Naas *^ to Rechrann.'^^ These are 

'5* See " Letters containing Information 
relative to the Antiquities of the County of 
Wicklow, collected during the Progress of 
the Ordnance Survey in 1838," vol. i., John 
O'Donovan's Essay on the ** Valley of Glen- 
dalough, present Remains and Features, 
mentioned in the Life of St. Kevin," sect. 6, 
pp. 496 to 502. 

'57 Ihe interior measurements of Dr. Petrie 
mve it 15 feet, 6 inches, in length, by 11 
feet, 5 inches, in breadth, the walls being 3 
feet in thickness. 

■5" See Dr. Petrie's " Ecclesiastical Archi- 
tec ^ I and Towers of Ireland," 

part ii., sect, iii., sub-sect, i., p. 256. 

'^ A series of beautiful woodcuts, repre- 
senting the ruined archway, and its sculp- 
tured stones, may be seen in the work just 
quoted, i&id., pp. 257 to 265. 

'^ Much of the information here conveyed, 
and in. subsequent pages, is taken from a 

tract, compiled by Rev. Dr. William Reeves, 
and dated Tynan Rectory, September 22, 
1869. It is mtituled : " Analysis of the 
United Dioceses of Dublin and Glenda- 
lough ;" and the tract in question was 
written to oblige a friend. 

'*»» See Rev. Mervyn Archdall's " Monas- 
ticon Hibemicum/* pp. 766 to 771. 

**« See John D'AUon's "Memoirs of the 
Archbishops of Dublin,'* pp. 16 to 26. 

'^3 An excellent account of this Cathedral 
will be found in John T. Gilbert's " His- 
tory of the City of Dublin," vol. i., chap, iii., 
pp. 98 to 132. 

*** Now Greenoge, in Ratoath, on the 
confines of Meath and Dublin. 

**5 A small Island, formerly in Wexford 

"^ Once a chief city, in the present county 
of Kildare. 

«67 Now the Island of Lambay, on the 

Digitized by 



well-known landmarks, and form in a rough way the outline of a tract, even 
more extensive than the present united Diocese of Dublin and Glendalough. 
During the Northman rule, the Diocese of Dublin was confined to the walled 
city, and to its immediate suburbs. However, in the year 1152, when asjrnod 
had been convened at Kells,*^ and when Pope Eugenius had sent his Legate 
Cardinal Paparo to Ireland, so that he might constitute four Archbishoprics 
there, and confer the Pallium on the four Archbishops of Armagh, Cashel, 
Tuam and Dublin ; this latter had then become the most populous and im- 
portant city in Leinster, and it was naturally chosen as an ecclesiastical 
metropolis, under the episcopate of Gregory. At that time, Dublin was re- 
garded as a part of Glendalough Diocese ; but, to give territorial importance 
to this new creation, the region north of Bray was transferred from the Dio- 
cese of Glendalough, and added to that of Dublin. Archbishop Gregory died 
A.D. ii6t, and he was succeeded by the illustrious St. Laurence O'Toole,'^ 
who had been Abbot of Glendalough. The respective rights and jurisdiction 
of the bishops and abbots, in this See, have not been clearly ascertained. In 
early times, it is probable enough, the monks of the adjacent monastery 
served the Cathedral Church of Glendalough, which was dedicated to St. 
Peter and St. Paul. The temporal possessions and wealth of the Abbot there 
far exceeded those of the Bishopric. *7*> 

Authentic accounts are extant, and these memorials of the past are 
contained in ancient documents, which serve to throw much light on the 
subject, at least so far back as the twelfth century. The following transla- 
tion of a charter, executed during his incumbency, by Richard Strongbow, 
Earl of Pembroke, in favour of Thomas, Abbot of Glendalough, is supposed 
as referable, to about the year a.d. i i 73.*^' There is no exact date recorded, 
however, but we obtain from it a very fair idea, regarding the extent of the 
Abbot's jurisdiction, and the possessions of his Abbey, about or previous to 
the period of the Anglo-Norman Invasion. " Let all men now and hereafter 
know, that I. R., Com. Vices, acting for the King of England, in Ireland, 
have given and granted, and by these my deeds have at present confirmed to 
my specially beloved Thomas (clico) ? clerico, the entire abbacy and person- 
alties of Glendelaughe, with all appurtenances of lands and dignities in that 
city, and in all its churches and villages without the city, as a 
perpetual free gift. These are the bmds, which of ancient right 
belong to the aforesaid abbey, scilicz, flrertir,'^' and magmersa,*73andumail,*w 
with all appurtenances around that city, and in the district of Wyglo,*^* 

east coast of Dublin County. Slaney takes its course—is in the Baronies of 

>*• See Rev. P. J. Carew*s " Ecclesiastical Upper and Lower Talbotstown, towards the 

History of Ireland," chap, iv., pp. 120 to west. Glendalough was situated within this 

123. territory, otherwise called Forthuatha. 

»*9 See his Life, at the 14th of November, After the Anglo-Norman Invasion, the 

the date for his Festival. O'Tooles driven from their original territ<»7 

'y° See Harris* Ware, vol. i., ** Bishops of in the southern part of the county of Kif- 

Glendalough," p. 372. dare settled in this district See " IcAbhAp 

»7' The 20th year of the reign of King tiA c-CeAnc, or the Book of Rights," edited 

Henry II. by John O'Donovan, p. 207, n. (d). 

»7» Now represented by the territory '^s Now Wicklow. 

around the River Vartry. It comprised '^ Now Glenely. 

twenty-two townlands, and it is variously *77 Probably Annaghcurragh, in the parish 
called Fartir, Fartire, Fartry, Fertir and ofKilpipe. Creevin is also a small parish in 
Fertyr, in the Wicklow Inquisitions, tempore the Barony of Shilelagh. There is Anna- 
Charles I. envy, formerly An-Crewyn, as also Kil« 

'73 Under this form of name, it is not easy garran, in the parish of Powerscouit. 

to identify the locality. ''• Now Ennereil^ Parish. 

'74 Ui-Mail, now Imail, a well-known ter- '^^The church of Cullen, inFeara-Cualann 

ritory in the centre of Wicklow County. The or Fera-CuUen. This territory, also called 

Glen of Imale— through which the River Crioch Cualann, was oo-ezteosive with the 

Digitized by 


June 3.] 



Cellmolibbo, eredmochae, Glenfadli,*'* Rubascolage, Achad Caracane,*77 
Inbemaeli,'78 with its appurtenances, Cullenn/79 Cellbritton,*^ Cell maccub- 
nadan/** with it appurtenances baccuaseri,*^' Cnoc loigusechane, and in the 
district of Arclo,**3 balliumeill '^^ Carrac Cochaill,'®5 Cellbicsigi/^ Cellmo- 
dicu,'*7 Cillfimmagi,'^ Cell nupodi, Cell cassaille,'^ Clyriachane,'^Cennturc, 
Achad Cruachane.'9« In the district of ducemselaige,*9« Cell ached, and in 
the district, indalbaig, Teg Imbeochaire. In the land of umurethaige,'93 • 
the half part of umaill,'94 scilicz, lessnahmusen, with all appurtenances, Cell- 
namanadie, balitorsna,*95 Domnachmorc,*^^ Munisuli, hicotlud, the half part 
of Loche leig, raflfann, Ardnicrebane, Cluamdarcada,'97 and in the district of 
ufelan,'^ baliucutlane, Dundaemane, Raithedagain, Lathrache nabroon,*^ 
Cell chenulli, and tegmochna.'°° In (anisna) and in the district of Macgillamo- 
chalmoc, Teg dologa,»°'Celladgair, Glenn MuneriDeirgin,«» Cell maccabinriu, 
Cell mo mothenoc,*°3 with its appurtenances, and the village (adunetha), Cell 
escoib silleam, ballivodraHi,'<'< and on the other side of the mountains, Dun- 
buoci,*»5 elpi,**^ Ardmeicbrein, baliloman, Cell belat,»**7 achadbudi, Dun- 
arde,**® balimenaig,**^ Cell chuachi, Rathsallache,'**» Dunmeillobam, Balliu- 
BoaiJ,*'* Topor,*" with its appurtenances, bali Ingunbram, Cillfrenne, Bali 
unennendig, Cellin ulugair,*'3 the whole district umeilgille, baliudalehinsa, 
ball uraelan, balliulacuane,**^ Balli udaling,*** Cell beodam,**^ Cell ugarrcon, 
with appendages. Wherefore, I desire and strictly order, that the aforesaid 

half Barony of Rathdown, in the northern 
part of Wicklow County, and probably con- 
taining parts of Dublin County, near Bray. 
Sec "le-AbliA^ riA 5-CeAtjc, or Book of 
Rights," edited by John 0*Donovan, p. 13, 
n. (b). 

«*» Probably Kilbride, or Cill-Brighitte, a 
parish in Wickluw County, according to the 
supposition of Rev, Richard Galvin, late 
P.P., of Rathdnim, who had an excellent 
knowledge of Wicklow Topography, and 
who studied the Inquisitions, to find out the 
names in this document for the writer. 

»*« Would this be Killickabawn, in the 
parish of Kilcoole, or Castlemacadam, a 
parish near the Ovoca, which is called Bally- 
cadaxnus, in the corrupt Latin of the Leinster 

■■■ Perhaps Derrylossery, near Glenda- 
lough, is the conjecture of Rev. Richard 
Galvin, P.P., Rathdrum. 

"•5 Or as at present written Arklow. 
■*• Probably Baliymoyle, in the Parish of 

**5 Eochaill or Oghil, Upper and Lower 
Parish of Redcross. 

»* Kilbixi, "the Church of St. Biccsech," 
supposed to have been near Arklow. 

^ Now Kilmcoo, Upper and Lower 
Parish of Castlemacadam, on the opposite 
side of Ovoca Glen from Kilcashel, and look- 
ing towards Rathdrum. 

'** This is the Cillfionmaigh of the Irish 
Calendar, stated to be situated in Ui-Fenech* 
lais, the modem barony of Arklow. The 
Rev. Richard Galvin thinks it is identical 
with Kilmagig, the townland on which 
Ovoca Roman Catholic Church is now built. 
He thmks it to be the Cill-Fine, of St 
■^ Now Kilcashd, in the parish of Castle- 


«9o Now Clerihan. 

»»' Probably Crohane, near Arklow. 

'9» Probably Cronsallagh, in the parish of 

«93 Or Ui-Muiredhaigh, the old deanery of 
Omuirthi, in the south-east of Kildare 
County, and it was originally possessed 
by the CTooles. 

'»♦ Where the Glen of Imale is situated, 

'95 BaJIytarsna, in the Glen of Imaile. 

»9^ Donoughmore, in the Parish of Dun* 

w Probably Cluaindartada, in the south* 
east of Kildare, 

»9" OrOfelan. 

«99 Now Laraghbryan, in the county of 

«» Probably it should be written Tcg- 

*»* Perhaps, St. Doulough*s. 

'*** Perhaps, Delgany. 

•*3 Perhaps, Monmahenock, near Rath- 

*»♦ Perhaps, Ballybodan. 

*5 Dunboick. . 

** Perhap, Crehelp is here meant 

•^ Now kilbeylet, near Dunlavin. 

** Now Donard. 

■**' Probably Ballymoney. 

«» Now Rathsalla^h. 

«" There is a Baliymoyle, in the Parish of 

"» Tipper. 

"3 Now Killeen Cormac. See Rev. Tohn 
F. Shearman's "Loca Patriciana," No. i., 
pp. I to 15. 

•t4 Now probably Lackeen. 

«'5 Now Ballydowling. 

"• Perhaps Templebodan, in 

Digitized by 




[June 3. 

abbot hold, entirely, freely, and honourably, the lands already designated, on 
land, by sea, in wood, plain, on water, the right of mills, of fishing, of hunt- 
ing, in pastiwes, meadows, woods (in foro), the right to alms and oblations, 
and to hold his judicial court, regarding all things appertainmg to the afore- 
mentioned abbey, and without pajrment of tribute, adjudication, entertain- 
ment or any sort of service, rendered to any lay person."*'' In a subsequent 
charter, the foregoing was confirmed by Henry II., about a.d. 1174.*'* 

In the year 1 1 79, in the twentieth year of the reign of Pope Alexander III., 
this Sovereign Pontiff issued twoBulls,*'^ from which we are able to ascertain 
.the extent of Dublin diocese, as distinguished from that of Glendalough, in 
the time of St. Laurence OToole. It has been even alleged by some, in order 
to account for the singular occurrence of two cathedrals in one city, that St. 
Patrick's was the cathedral of Glendalough, and Christ Church that of Dublin.*** 
This is quite an erroneous supposition ; for, it must be observed, that before 
St Patrick's cathedral was built, or the union of the Sees contemplated, the 
church, on whose site it was erected, in Pope Alexander's Bull was described, 
as one of the Parishes, and within the Diocese of Dublin ; while, a contem- 
poraneous Bull of the same Pope mentions the cathedral of Glendalough, as 
being in the little city of that name, where its ruins are still identified.**" 
From the foregoing Bulls, and fi-om other soiuces,*'* the extent and boundary 
of the See of Dublin may be defined, as havings included Lusk **3 and its 
appurtenances^*** Swords,**5 with all its appurtenances, within and without;*** 
Fynglass,**7 with all its appurtenances ; Cluaindolcain or Clondalkin, with all 
its appurtenances;*** Tauelachtan,**^ with all its appurtenances; Cell- 
episcopi-Sanctain,*3® with its appurtenances; the half of Tignai,*3* 
with the church of its town; Rathmichael,*3* Cellcomgaill,*33 now Shan- 
kill,*34 united to the parish of Rathmichael; Cellachaich Dreignig,*35 supposed 

"7 As a confirmation of this true deed, King 
Diannicius is a witness. '' Witnessed by L. 
Archbishop of Dublin. Eva Countess. Rann 
Const. Robo de brumarde. Waltero de 
Ridell, Meilero filio Henrci Tohe de ClohalL 
Adam de [s] hereff and Donmall Mgell 
Mochomoc and Nicho clico, who sealed this 
charter." It is quite evident, there are 
various literal errors admitted in the preced- 
ing document, owing to mistakes in the 
course of transcription from the original 
Manuscript, taken from the R^stry of 
Archbishop Alan, fol. 21, d. See " Charta, 
Privilagia, et Immunitates," p. I. 

■*8 See ibid. In the 21st year of Henry IL's 

••» These are to be found, in an ancient Re- 
gister of the See of Dublin, called the Crede 
mihi, compiled about one hundred years, 
after the foregoing date. From that Register 
it was copied — but, with several inaccura- 
cies, especially in the names — by Arch- 
bishop Ussher, in his *• Veterum Epistola- 
rum Hibemicarum Sylloge," Epistola xlviii., 
pp. 112 to 114. From the Crede mihif it 
was copied into Archbishop Alan*s Register, 
known as the Liber Niger, The Rev. Dr. 
Reeves furnishes a faithful translation from 
the Crede miki topy, as tested by that in the 
Liber Niger; both of which were lent him 
for the purpose by Archbishop Trench, and 

it is to be found in " Analysis of the United 
Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough," pp. 
3 to 5. 

•* See John D' Alton's •'Memoirs of the 
Archbishops of Dublin," p. 6. 

*'' See on this subject William Monck 
Mason's " History and Antiouities of the 
Collegiate and Cathedral Church of St. 
Patrick,'' Introduction, sect i., ii., iii., and 
nn., pp. I to 6. 

■** Especially from certain grants, by Jcdm, 
Earl of Moreton. 

"« Called Lusca, in the Bull. 

•^ These included the chapelries of Bal- 
rothery and Baldungan, while they extended 
to the northern boundary of Dublin Diocese 
and County. 

*^ In the Bull, called Surdum. 

■*• These included the chapelries of Clog- 
han, Killeek, Donabate, Malahide, Killoc 
seiy, Balgriffin and Coolock. 

*^ Now Finglass, north of Dublin. 

"^WithitschapehriesofRathcool, Esker 
and Drinagh. 


"3^ Or the Church of Bishop Sanctain, now 
vulgarly and improperly called Kill St. 

*3> Now Taney, near Dundnun. 

*3* Near Bray. 
. *» Or the Church of St ComgiU. 

Digitized by 


June 3.] 



to be Killadrenan;«3* Cellcrithaich,»37 with the mountain tract to Igis as far as 
Sudi Cheli; Cellcoemgen, or Kilkevin,«38 with the suburb and other of its 
appurtenances; Technabretnach ;«39 Lethrechrand or half of Lambay.*^" The 
Bull of Pope Alexander III. continues, by making the following reservations: 
saving, moreover, as the mensal of the Canons, the half of Rechrannu,*** and 
the port of Rechrann f^ Rathchillin ;«43 Glasneden,*^ together with its mill ; 

Old Church of Killadrina, County ot Wicklow. 

Ciiendroichit, with the mill of the bridge of Ballemacc-Amlaib ; Dun- 
cunache ;*** Balevgore ;**^ Cellesra ;»*7 Cenannsali ;'^ Lisluan ; the third 
part of Clochar;*49 the third part ofCellalia; Cluinchenn ,-"5® Kalgaghe;»s* 

•^ Meanii^ " the old Church." 
■» According to a conjecture of the Rev. 
Dr. Reeves, although he adds, that it seems 
too far south. 

*3» In a crowded cemetery, not far from 
Kewtownmountkennedy, in the county of 
Wicklow, is the old church of Killadreenan, 
consisting of a nave 36 feet 5 inches long, by 
22 feet 2 inches broad ; and a choir 27 feet 
in length, by 16 feet 9 inches, in width. The 
walls are greatly ruined ; but, the cemetery 
is well enclosed, with a handsome iron gate 
entrance. The church is on the angle of 
two roads ; one of these was the former 
coach-road from Dublin to Wicklow. The 
old building was used as a Catholic place of 
worship, even after the Rebellion of 1798, 
for the Catholic Parish of Delgany, Kil- 
qnade and Newtownmountkennedy. There 
are building peculiarities, noticed in this 
church, by Dr. George Pctrie, viz., a trian- 
gular-headed south doorway, and herring- 

bone masonry. He thinks, also, this church 
was re-edified in the twelfth century. See 
"Ecclesiastical Architecture and Round 
Towers of Ireland," part ii., sect, iii., sub- 
sect I, pp. 181, 188. The illustration of 
this church, as conveyed in the text, is 
from a drawing of the writer, taken in April, 
1878, and afterwards transferred to the 
wood, engraved by Mrs. Millard. 

■37 Archbishop Alan identifies it as 
" Powerscourt in pede montium*** 

'3« It is on the frontier of the Counties of 
Dublin and Wicklow." 

•39 This may be Anglicized " the House of 
the Britons," and it lay near Kilgobbin. 

■^ An Island off the east coast of the 
county of Dublin. 

^ Or the other half of Lambay. 

*** Now Portrane. 

«*3 Or Clonmcthan. 

■♦^ Now Glasnevin. 

■45 >iow Drumcondra. 

Digitized by 




QUNE 3. 

TUachachain ;«5« Celingenalenin ;«53 Celltuca;'^ Rathsalcan ;»« Tulach- 
nanephscope ;«56 Drumindfsz Balencharain ;»58 Tirodrann; Ballevrooleflf;*s« 
Balemochain ;»^ Balemaccmurgussa «*' and Baleodelan."^ Saving also the 
parish churches, to wit, of St. Thomas, of St. Nicholas, of St Warburga,*^^ of 
St. Patrick in the Island,'^^ with all their appurtenances ; the Island of the 
former sons of Nessan ;*^5 and Delcinis f^ with their appendages.'^^ Further- 
more, was it forbidden, to disturb the aforesaid Church of Dublin, or to abstract 
its possessions, or to hold them when abstracted, or by any vexatious acts to 
embarrass them. It was enjoined, also, to preserve intact all these 
possessions — saving the authority of the Apostolic See — to serve the 
various purposes of those, for whose government and support they were 

The foregoing recital of local names exhausts the county of Dublin; but, 
it scarcely passes its bounds on the south or west. The same Pope Alexan- 
der III., while Malchus was bishop of Glendalough, issued a Bull, dated the 
13th of May, A.D. 1179,*^ in which the possessions of Dublin and of Glenda- 
lough are respectively defined, and these are exempt, which had been 
abstracted from Glendalough and annexed to Dublin. Thus, the Diocese of 
Glendalough embraced the tracts, which were occupied by the ancient Lagenian 
tribes of the Feara Cualann,'7o Ui Garrchon,'?' Ui Mail,*7« Ui Enechlais,«73 
Ui Erchon,«74 Ui Faelain,»75 and Ui Muiredhaigh.'^fi These tribes were all 

■<• Or Balengore, near Coolock. 

"♦y Now KiUcstcr. 

■^ Now Kinsaley. 

■«NowSt. Doolagh's. 

•s* Now Kill of the Grange. 

•s' In Kill. 

•s> Near Kill. 


•5* Now Kiltuc, Old Connaught, near 

•55 Thought to be Kilsallaglian. 

•5* N6W TuUy. 

*57 Unless it be Drimnagh, this place has 
not been identified. 

•s* Not known. 

»» In Cullagh. 

■** Unknown. 

"*" Unknown. 

"** It is not known. 

•*3NowSt. Werburgh's. These churches 
were in the city of Dublin. 

"*♦ This was the old church, which occu- 
pied the site of the present St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, and which stood in Patrick- 
street, between two branches of the Pod- 

"*5 Or Inis-mac-Nessain, now Ireland's 
Eye, with its chapels of Howth and Kil- 

■** Now Dalkey Island. 

^ " Kilcullen was indisputably in Glen- 
dalough Diocese, Alderg was so much on 
the confines, that an inquisition was neces- 
sitated in 1329 to determine to which See it 
appertained, when, it being proved that it 
paid half a mark proxies to the Archdeacon 
of Dublin, the jury gave their verdict accord- 
ingly in favour of that diocese."— John 

D* Alton's "Memoirs of the Archbishops of 
Dublin," p. 9. 

•*• The Latin text of this Bull will be 
found, in "The Life of St. Laurence 
O'Toole," by the present writer, in a note to 
chap. vii. 

■^ In the 20th year of his Pontificate. See 
Harris' Ware, vol. i., "Bishops of Glen- 
dalough," p. 375. 

*^ Or Fercoulan. This ancient territory 
was nearly co-extensive with the half Barony 
of Rathdown, in the north of the county of 
Wicklow, and adjoining Dublin county. Sec 
John T. Gilbert's" History of the City of 
Dublin," vol. i., Appendix i., n. ( i ), p. 406. 

*7« In the eastern part of Wicklow 

"^ Said to have derived their name, from 
Manius Mai, brother to Cathair Mor. See 
Roderick O'Flaherty's " Ogygia," pars iii., 
cap. lix., p. 310. 

^^ The Ui n-Enichglais were seated along 
the east coast of the county of Wicklow, and 
they were borderers on the Ui Deaghaidh, 
now the deanery of Odea, in the Diocese of 
Ferns. Afterwards, they became located on 
the southern side of the River Dea, which 
falls into the sea, near the town of Wick- 

*7* Its bounds have not been ascertained ; 
but, the tribe was a small one located about 
Narraghmore and Glashely. See Rev. John 
Francis Shearman's **Loca Patridana," 
No. vii., n. I, p. 122. 

'^s Seated in the northern part of Kildare 

■^ Seated in the southern part of Kildare 

Digitized by 





descended from a common sovereign.*^; The two last-named tracts now form 
that portion of Kildare included in Glendalough Diocese, and these became 
the ancient Deaneries of Ofelan »78 and Omurthy.*79 These were respectively 
the original patrimonies of the O' Byrnes and OTooles f^ Ofelan on the north- 
east, and Omurthi south of this. The Diocese of Glendalough represents, at 
this early date, the territorial jurisdiction of one or more hereditary Irish 
chiefs. The aforementioned Bull decrees, to set out the following under their 
several names,*** as belonging to the See of Glendalough, its city, wherein is 
the Cathedral See, together with its churches and other appurtenances ; saving 
the rights of the Abbot of the Church of Glendalough, with its territory from 
Dulgen to Tegfledi,'** from Athcass, as far forward as Adhundchenn ; Disser- 
diarmada,**^ with its appurtenances ; Cenneche ;'** Mugnam,»^5 with its 
appurtenances ; Riban,»^ with its appurtenances; Cluaindaananair '^^^ Cluain- 
d^saxaA2i^ Maen,**^ with all its appurtenances ; the Church of Forach ;*9o 
Cellcalind,'9« with all its appurtenances ; Domnachmorimachethda ;*9» Don- 
roachimlech,«93 with all its appurtenances ; Techeli,'^^ with all its appurten- 
ances ; the Church of Cellusali ;*9S Techtua,»96 with all its appurtenances ; 
Lathrachbriuin,*^' with all its appurtenances; Techcumni,*^^ with all its 
appurtenances ; Letconfi,»» with all its appurtenances ; the Grange of Gael- 
lincemghin ;3~ Cellgnoe ;3*** Cellepscupedain ;y*» Athinchip ;303 Senchel;3°4 
Ballinrodrach ;3*»5 Ballinfind *^ Techugonaill j3*>7 Achadlommalethain ;3o8 
Crinan;3*9 Inisboethin ;3»o with all their appurtenances ; Lechpadric,3" with 

*n Said to hare been Cathair Mor, who 
died A.D. 174, and who Icdft a numerous pos- 
terity. See Roderick 0'Flaherty*s " Ogygia," 
pars, ill., cap. lix., pp. 310 to 313. 

■7« The Ui-Faolain was a tribe name of 
the Mac Eochaidhs or Keo^hs and O'Bymes ; 
and it applied also to their territoiy, which 
comprised about the northern half ot Kildare 
County. Thence they were driven, shortly 
alter the English Invasion, when they 
settled in the east of the present county of 
Wicklow. See "Topographical Poems of 
John O'Dubhagain and Giolla na Naomh 
O'Huidhrin," edited by Dr. O'Donovan, n. 
368, p. xlviL 

*^ Afterwards, they were changed to the 
Deaneries of Salmon-Leap, Athy and Tris- 
teldermot This was the original patri- 
monial inheritance of the family of the 
CTooles, until after the death of St 
Laurence OToole, when they were driven 
from this fertile district, by the Baron 
Walter de Riddlesford, who haid his castle at 
Tristerdermot (now Castledermot), in the 
territory of Omurethi, according to Giraldus 

■•• Bran Mut was their common ancestor. 
See John T. Gilbert's " History of the City 
of Dnblint" voL i., chap, vi., p. 230. 

"•* The majority of which are now obso« 

*•■ According to the Rev. Dj. Reeves — 
who has identified several of these places 
with confidence in their correctness, said 
whose authority the writer has chiefly fol- 
lowed — this was a small churchyard in the 
hills, about three miles from the Seven 

**i Now Castledermot, in the county of 

'•♦ Now Kineagb, in the counties of Kil- 
dare and Carlow. 

^ Now Ballaghmoone, in the county of 

*** Now Churchtown, in the county of Kil- 

^ In Irish Cluain-da-an-dobair, in the 
south-east of Kildare. 

•*• Also, in Ui-Muiredhaigh, in the south- 
east part of Kildare County. 

*•» Anciently Maen-Coluimcille, now 
Moone, county of Kildare. 

•»°Now Narraghmore, county of Kil- 

"^ Now Kilcullen, county of Kildare. 

"»• Now Jago, or Yago, in the county of 

^^ Now Burgage, or Blessington, in the 
north-west of the county ofWiclclow, and 
on the confines of Kildare County. 

*»* This place is in the north-east of Kil- 
dare County. 

•^5 Now Killashee, in the county of Kil- 

■»* Now Taghadoe, in Kildare County. 

*^ Now Laraghbryan, in the county of 

^ Now Stacumney, in Kildaie County. 

»» Now Confey, in Kildare County. 

3~ Called in another rescript Croch- 
Keivin, and situated in the nonh-east of Kil- 
dare county. 

*»■ Unknown. 

3«* Or the Church of Bishop Aedan, which 
has not been identified. 

*»J A spot on some river, in the north-east 

Digitized by 





its appurtenances ; Cellmantan 3" Cellochtair ;3«3 the Church of Cellus- 
quedi;^** the Church of Cellpichi ;3'S Inverdele,3»* with its appurtenances; 
Cellcassill ;3«7 the Church of Cellbicsigi ;3«« the Church of Domnachrig- 
naigi 3«9 Celltamlanitha ;3»o Cellfinnmaegi ;3«' Cellgormayn ;3aa with all their 
appurtenances; Inis-Mocholmoc, 3*3 with all its appurtenances ; Celltagain;3M 
Lathcluanaraoirmoedoc ;3»s and the Church of Domnachmor-Umail.3«* 
Wherefore, it may be stated, at that period, Glendalough Diocese embraced 
all the churches of the present Wicklow County — Bray 3»7 on the northern 
verge alone excepted, and a few in the south, which belong to Ferns and 
Leighlin — as also a long stripe of Kildare County, adjoining Dublin and 
Wicklow Counties, on the west. Wherefore, by the positive documentry evi- 
dence of its contents, and from the territorial jurisdiction of-the kindred tribes 
upon whose limits the diocese had been anciently modelled, the former 
bounds of Glendalough See may still be .known.2*^ Thus, it was not formed 
out of portions of counties ; but these latter were created subsequently, and 
irrespective of the ancient ecclesiastical limits. 

The abbey of Glendalough — much more opulent in temporal possessions 
than the See, which was subsequently erected there — was regarded as a dis- 
tinct and separate jurisdiction ;3»9 for, we find, after the time of St. Kevin, the 
Bishop and Abbot were joint sojourners in the place. Sometimes, however, 
the same person enjoyed the Episcopal and abbatial dignity.33o For centu- 

of Kildare ; it is also the name of a ford on 
the Shannon. In the form of Akip, it is a 
townland, in the Queen's County. 

*»* Now Shankill, in the parish of Kilbride* 
near the spot where the three counties of 
Kildare, >fVicklow and Dublin meet. 

3**s Now Kilruddery, in the parish of Bray, 
formerly a chapelry of Stagonil. 

** Possibly Kilmaconoge, formerly a 
chapelry of Delgany. 

3*? Now Stagonil, in Powerscourt Parish, 
county of Wicklow. 

** Now unknown. 

*^ In the Baronv of Newcastle. 

s*** Now Ennisbo)me, in the Parish of 
Dunganstown, county of Wicklow. 

3" Now Kilpatrick, m the Parish of 

3" The old name for Wicklow. 

3«3Now Killoughter, in the Parish of 

s** Now the Parish of Killiskey. 

3'S NowKllpipe, partly in Wicklow County 
and partly in Wexford County, but trans- 
ferred to the Diocese of Ferns. 

3»* Now Ennereilly Parish, county of 

J»7 Now Kilcashel, in the Parish ofCastle- 

3«8 Or the Church of St. Biccsech. It lies 
near Arklow, and it was written Kilbixi, in 
later documents. 

3*9 It is written Donaghrie, in the ** Re- 
pertorium Viride " of Archbishop Alan, and 
ft was situated, near Arklow. 

3*o Or Celltamlamcha, now unknown. 

*" This was the Cillfiomnaighe of the 
Irish Calendar, and stated to be situated in 
Ui'Feuechlais, the modem Barony of Ark- 

3" Now Kilgorman, in the county of Wex- 
ford, and united to Inch. 

3»3 Now Inch, partly in Wicklow County 
and partly in Wexford County. 

3^ Now Kiltegan, in the county of Wick- 

3*5 A portion of Clonmore, in that part of 
the county of Carlow, which deeply indents 
the county of Wicklow, on uic souths 

3"* Now Donaghmore, in the county of 
Wicklow. See Rev. William Reeves' 
** Analysis of the United Dioceses of Dublin 
and Glendalough," pp. 5, 6. 

3*' It appears to have been in the Diocese 
of Dublin ; since it was united to Rath- 
michael, which was undeniably in Dublin, 
and which confers prebendal status on the 
incumbent of the union. 

3»^ According to Rev. Dr. Reeves, the 
following parishes, in their present form, 
constituted the Diocese Jot Glendalough pro- 
per, viz. : — Arklow Union, Athy Union, 
ballynaclash P. C, Ballymore- Eustace 
Union, Blessington Union, Calary P. C, 
Castledermot Union, Castlemacadam Union, 
Delgany Union, Derralossary P. C, 
Donaghmore R. V., Donard Union, Ehm- 
ganstown R., Dunlavin Union, Fonstown 
R. v., Glanely Union, Greystowns P. C, 
Hollywood R. V., Inch Union, Kilberry V., 
Kilbride (Arklow) Union, Kilbride (Bles- 
sington) v., Kilcullen Union, Kildroughl or 
Celbridge Union, Killisky V., Kineagh V., 
Leixlip Union, Maynooth Union, Narragh* 
more R. V., Newcastle (County Wicklow) 
v., Newtownmountkennedy C. E., Powers- 
court v., Rathdrum, R. V., Rathmore Union, 
Redcross P. C, StrafEin P. C, Timolin 
Union and Wicklow Union. See " Analysis 

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ries succeeding St. Kevin's tune, Glendalough is often mentioned, with its 
more renowned bishops, abbots, and clerics, in the Irish Annals.33> The city 
began to decline in the twelfth century ; when it became the prey of robbers 
and depredators.33« In 1214,333 we are told, that through the then dominant 
English influence, the See of Glendalough was annexed to that of Dublin. The 
hardy sons of the mountain long resisted the annexation, and persisted for 
more than two centuries longer, in retaining " the Bishopric of the two Lakes," 
as an independent ecclesiastical jurisdiction. On the 30th of May, a.d. 1479, 
it was at length surrendered,334 in the Cathedral of St. Patrick, Dublin. Some 
churches— especially in the Diocese of Dublin and Glendalough — have been 
erected to commemorate this illustrious abbot and patron saint. Several other 
memorials to honour him remain. In the city of Dublin, a parish was for- 
merly dedicated to St Kevin. Within it were a church and a cemetery. Not 
feirfrom the latter, in modem times, has been erected a fine Gothic church.335 
Around this, as a nucleus, has grown a great increase of houses and inhabi- 
tants. A district had been defined, by His Eminence, Cardinal Paul Cullen, 
Archbishop of Dublin, to mark the outlines of the new Catholic Parish of 
St. Kevin. Close beside this church are the spacious and well-attended 
schools of the Christian Brothers, also rejoicing in the patronage of St. Kevin. 
A street in the city of Dublin is also called St. Kevin's, while a holy well, 
dedicated to him was known as St. Kevin's well.336 in tlie county of Wick- 
low, some modem Catholic churches and chapels have been dedicated to St. 
Kevin ; but, it is difficult to procure an exact list of such erections.337 At the 
entrance to the Glen of the Downs, and at the right hand side of die road 
proceeding southwards, springs a well,338 formerly called Tubber nabrin. This 
b reputed holy.359 Before the commencement of this century, a patron 3<o 
used to be held there, each 3rd day of June,*^' which is the Feast Day of St. 
Kevin. In Scotland, as well as in Ireland, this saint was held in great vene- 

of the United Dioceses of Dublin and Glen- 
daloogb,'' p. 8. 

» See Harris' Ware, voL !., " Bishops of 
Glendalough," p. 372. 
* 390 See a pretty full annalistic account of 
Glendalough, in Archdall's " Monasticon 
Hibemicum,'* pp. 765 to 771. 

»« See Dr. John O'Donovans " Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. vii. Index Loco- 
rum, at Gleann-da-locha, Glendalough, 
p. 64. 

33' According to the Papal Legate John 
Papiron. See his account of it in Harris' 
Ware, toI. L, '* Bishops of Glendalough," 

PP- 376, 377- 

3" By a patent, dated the 30th of July 
during this year, King John granted to the 
Archbishop of Dublin and to his successors 
the episcopal See of Glendaloueh, and the 
lands thereunto belonging, together with the 
abbey ; but, reserviiig to the Abbot lliomas 
his tenements, to wit, half a cantred, he to 
bold the same during life from the Arch* 
biihop. See Archdall's '* Monasticon Hiber- 
nicom,'.' pi 770. 

I'* As we are informed, by Friar Denis 
White, " the last who held it in opposition 
to ecdedastical and regal authority.'* — 
Mrs. A, O'Byrne's "Saints of Ireland,'* 

p. loa 

^ Designed by Messrs. Pogin and Asl\lin, 


33* In the kitchen of Mr. Donegan, a 
butcher, living at the comer of Montague- 
street, in the Parish of St. Nicholas, there b 
a stone trough, formerly belonging to St. 
Kevin's well, and which was wiuin the yard 
of that house. 

^ One of the succursal chapels of Rath- 
drum Parish had been dedicated to St. 
Kevin, during the lifetime of the former vene- 
rated pastor, the Rev. Richard Galvin, P.P. 

33« It is still a great place of resort for pic- 
nic parties, and the scene around is one of 
the most romantic spots in the county of 
Wicklow, so very celebrated for its charming 

^ The country people formerly drank the 
water of this "holy well," as a cure for 
•* the shakes " — we presume the ague. 

^ After its popular discontinuance, Mrs. 
Latouche, formerly a Miss Vickers, used to 
regale her friends and the children of her 
schools at the place. Two tents, with a band 
of music, were available, while the children 
danced and otherwise amused themselves. 

3^ Such is the substance of that informa- 
tion, given to the writer, several years ago by 
a very old woman, who during her earliest 
days resided in this neighbourhood. 

«»See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of 
Scottish Saints," p. 302. 

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ration.3^' The remains of a religious edifice, dedicated to and called after St. 
Coivin (Kevin) are on the lands of Ballyshean.343 There is also Kilchevin 
and Kilcowan.344 A remarkable salutation to St. Kevin, in the Irish lan- 
guage, is found in the Drummond Castle MissaLs^s 

We should have rather chosen to dwell on the personal biographical 
actions and characteristics of St Kevin, than on the numberless legends that 
are told in reference to him. However, one of the most learned and accom- 
plished contributors to Catholic literature in our language 34* has called special 
attention to truths, which are often to be found in supposed legends, and to 
the mode or consideration, which must be observed, in a correct process of 
investigation.347 These legends are not to be confounded with fables. Nor 
have they been generally written, with any intention of deceiving pious 
Catholics, or other persons, without the pale of our Church. There are in- 
stances on record, indeed, when foolish and designing men undertook the 
forging or falsification of documents or evidence ; and, perhaps, in particu- 
lar cases, this had been done through some distorted moral motives.34* Le 
Clerc, better known by his literary name, Clericus, observes, that school 
themes were sometimes drawn, from the Acts of Martyrs, in past times, as 
exercises have been written, in our own day, and even more remotely,943 from 
some clas$ical subject. In such cases, however, no profession of writing 
exact history was made by students ; no more than the historical novelist or 
historical playwright desires to impose his fictitious narratives on the reader 
for facts, although he may wish, neither to contradict history, nor to stray far 
from its probabilities. In the primitive and mediaeval times of our Church, 
writers were usually ecclesiastics or monks, and education had been chiefly 
derived, through monastic sources. Hence, religious subjects had a special 
interest for both master and pupil ; and, among those, no species of composi* 
tion met with greater favour than the compilation of Acts, which included 
legends, referring to Martyrs and other great Saints. 

Article II. — St. Affine, Effinus, or Iiffen, of Cill Aiffein, or 

KiLLAFFAN, CouNTY OF WiCKLOW. {Probobly Sixth or Seventh Century^ 
This day, the Martyrology of Tallagh » simply enters Affine, at the 3rd of 
June. His locality is not even mentioned, in this record. In an Irish Life 
of St. Kevin,* it is stated, that St. Effinus or Ifinus 3 had a convent * of monks, 

343 Near the mansion of Mr. Macdonald. which reference is made in the text, is en- 
See •* New Statistical Account of Scot- titled, •* The Truth of supposed Legends 
land," Argyleshire, p. 429, and ** Origines and Fables," pp. 235 to 280. This learned 
Parochiales Scotiae," pars ii., p. 9, article is declared to have been taken by 

3*» See •* Old Statistical Survey of Scot- shorthand. The first 8vo volume of these 

land," vol x., p. 536. Also "Origines Essays was published at London, 1865. 

Parochiales ScoUae, pars, ii., p. 1 1. 348 Tjjyg^ ^g jj^ve an account, regarding 

345 See Preface to tne Arbuthnott Missal, a Priest, who wrote false Acts of St. Paul, as 
p. xxxiii. Also Bishop Forbes' "Kalen- furnished by TertuUian. The delinquent, as 
dars of Scottish Saints," p. 302. a consequence, had been suspended from the 

346 His EminencelCardmal Nicholas Wise- exercise of his sacred ministry. 

man, formerly Archbishop of Westminster. 349 As in Pagan times, when Juvemal 

347 See *' Essays on Religion and Litera- says of Hanibal : — 
ture," by various writers, Edited by his 

Grace the Most Rev. Henry E. Manning, *' Idemens et ssevas curre per Alpes 

D.D., Archbishop of Westminster. These Ut pueris placeas et declamatio fias.*' 

Essays were prepared for the Academia of 

the Catholic Religion, established in 1861, Article ii. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

at London, by Cardinal Wiseman, and which Kelly, xxvi. 

had been affiliated to the Roman Academia. ' Preserved as a Manuscript in the Lib- 

A contribution of the illustrious founder, to rary of Trinity College, Dubliii» and classed 

Digitized by 


Junk 3.] 



at Elilleffin, under St Kevin ; and, in it, two legends are given connected 
with his church. The latter of these is thus rendered into English, by John 
CVDonovan : — One day, minstrels came with their harps s to Killeffin, where 
St. Kevin had a convent of monks. They asked entertainment from them, 
but the convent had no food. For that reason, St. Kevin and inmates of the 
convent became very much ashamed. It happened, however, that a small 
quantity of seed remained \ yet, this not being sufficient to entertain the 
strangers, St. Kevin bethought him of an expedient, to prevent his getting the 
name of being inhospitable. He sent a party of the monks to dig plots,^in which 
the small quantity of seed they had might be sown, and in order that the pro- 
duce might be prepared for the strangers' dinner towards evening. In the 
meantime, St Kevin himself and another party of the monks remained to 
entertain the minstrels, and to kill time by kind and friendly conversation ; 
but, this was of no avail to them, for the minstrels began pressingly to demand 
refreshments. These not being at hand, they took their leave of St. Kevin 
against his will, muttering their disapprobation, because the convent had not 
satisfied their requirements. 7 The legend relates, furthermore, that the seed, 
which St. Kevin had sown at Killeffin, grew up before evening, and of its 
produce the monks were fed that same night.^ There is more tillage, and the 
land is more fertile around Our Lady's Church than any other in the valley ; 
wherefore, it is thought to be more than probable, that it is the Kill Effin above 
mentioned.9 It is thought by Miss Stokes,'** that Tempdl Muire " or Our 
Lad/s Chiu-ch," at Glendalough, is older than Trinity Church. Although 
Tempiil Muire appears to have been constnicted with more knowledge of 
art, than the other buildings at Glendalough, over one hundred years ago it 
was almost in ruins. At the east end was an arch of hewn stone, exactly 
similar to that of the Cathedral. '3 A granite doorway of admirably-chiselled 


' 'Ihe Irish fonn of his name is Aiffen. See 
•* Notes on Irish Architecture," by Eklwin, 
third Earl of Dunraven, edited by Miss 
Stokes, part L, p. 102. 

* The word in the original is Coiiti- 

5 In the l^end it is emits. 

• The word in the original is cappachs. 

' Afterwards, St. Kevin, is said to have 
prayed, that the harps which they bore might 
oe turned into stones; and, when thev 
were crossing a river, which lies to the soutn 
of the church, their harps were metamor- 
phosed into stones, and they fell into the 
stream. There they remained in the ford, 
under the feet of all, from that day to the time 
of the written legend. 

' We are told, that Solomon, the disciple 
of St Kevin, states this occurrence, in the 
following translation of an Irish Rann : — 

** The seed which was sown in the 
At Kill Effin of divine prosperity. 
Of its produce flourishmg at night 
Sages were respectively fed." 

» See " Letters containing Information re- 
lative to the Antiquities of the County of 
Wicklow, collected during the Progress of 
the Ordnance Survey in 1838," vol. i. John 

O'Donovan's Essay "Valley of Glenda- 
lough, present Remains and Features men- 
tioned in the Life, of the Patron St. Kevin," 
written in April, 1840, sect. 4, pp. 483, 

'° See "Notes on Irish Architecture," by 
Edwm, third Earl of Dunraven, part L, 
p. 102. 

" A beautiful autograph is presented of 
the doorway of this church, all mantled 
round with the ivy on its gable. See ibid.^ 
p. loi. 

" The accompanying illustration is from a 
sketch taken on the site, by William F. 
Wakeman, and it has been engraved by Mrs. 

'3 So states Archdall, who thus describes 
some of its features : — ** The door consists of 
only three courses ; the lintel is five feet six 
inches in length, and fourteen inches and 
a-half in depth ; the door is six feet four in 
height, two feet six in width at top, and two 
feet ten at bottom ; a kind of architrave is 
marked round the door six inches broad, and 
in the bottom of the lintel an ornament is 
wrought in a cross resembling the flyer of a 
stamping press. The walls are carried up 
with hewn stone, in general of a large size, 
to about the height of the door, and the re- 
mainder are of the rude mountain rag-stone, 
but laid iiicomparably well."—" Monasticon 
Hibemicuin," p. 774. 

Digitized by 




[June 3. 

stones '^ has a lintel carved with a double moulding in the architrave, while 
on its soffit is an ornamental saltier-wise cross.'^ Including the lintel, the 
massive stones of this doorway are only seven in number, and they are all there 
the thickness of the wall, which measures three feet.'^ Like the ancient 
Egyptians, who preferred perpendicular supports and horizontal imposts 
although acquainted with thei principle of the arch,^7 the old Irish builders 

Teampul Muire, or Our Lady's Church, Glcndalough. 

^^^"^I^^^ave preferred the square-headed doorway, in the oldest of their 
churches. Our Lady*s Church was greatly overgrown with trees, thorns and ivy. 
These were beginning to break it up, but they have been cleared away, while 
a breach m the north wall of the nave has been repaired. No architectural 
feature of this church survives intact, except its noble western doorway.'* 
1 here was a mass of fallen masonry at the east end of the nave. Ruins filled 
the chancel. Some of the rubbish has been cleared away, during the late 
restorations, and the walls have been repaired. A festival in honour of Aiffen 
of Cill Aiffein— now Killaffan— near Gleann-da-loch, is entered in the 
Martyrology of DonegaV9 as having been celebrated on this day. There is 

'* A beautiful and clear woodcut of this 
doorway and of the surrounding walls isgiven 
in Dr. Petrie's work, at p. 170. 

'5 A woodcut illustration is also furnished, 
at p. 171. 

«« When Sir Walter Scott visited Glcnda- 
lough in 1825, he sat for a considerable 
time before this doorway, and he expressed 
admiration of and wonder at its ancient 

'' See Rev. Canon George Rawlinson's 
"History of Ancient Egypt,^* vol i., chap, 
▼»M p. 255. London, iSfii, 8vo. 

"•There are detailed admeasurements of 
the doorway by John O'Donovan, in 
** Letters containing Information relative to 
the Antiquities of 3ie County of Wicklow, 
collected during the Progress of the Ord- 
nance Survey in 1838,*' vol. L See Essay 
«* Valley of Glendalough, present Remains 
and Features motioned in the Life of the 
Patron St. Kevin," sect. 4, p. 481. Also a 
rough drawing in ink of Our Lady's Church 
at Glendalou^ is given there, by William 
F. Wakeman, at p. 482. 

'9 Edited by Drs. Todd andReeres, pp. 

Digitized by 


Junk 3.] LIVES OF THE lEISff SAINTS. 93 

a Killeven, in the barony of Dartry, and county of Monaghan.*® But, it is 
doubtful, if it have any relation with this saint, more than an apparent affinity 
with the first-named local denomination. In the posthumous List of Colgan's 
Manuscripts, the Acts of a St. Alphinus had been prepared for publication, at 
this date.^' He may possibly be identical with the present St. Affine or Aiffen. 

Article III. — St. Glunshalaich, or Glunsialach, of Midh- 
LUACHAIR. [^Sixth or Scvtfith Century^ Here we find a remarkable instance 
of God's goodness and mercy towards his creatures. At first, the present 
saint appears to have been guilty of very grievous crimes, which obliged him 
to avoid intercourse with society, and to shun the haunts of honest men. At 
last, the grace of God touched his heart, and he resolved to abandon all his 
evil courses. On the 3rd of June, we find entered, in the Martyrology of 
Tallagb,' the name of Glunshalaich ; but, he is somewhat differently described 
elsewhere. This may be Glunsalach, son to Costamhail, of Sliabh Fuaid,' state 
the (yaerys.3 If such be the case, he belonged to the race of Irial, son to 
Conall Ceamach. In the posthumous list of Colgan's Manuscripts, it would 
seem, that the Acts of St. Glunsalahus had been prepared for publication at 
the 3rdof June.4 This day, likewise, the Martyrology of Donegal 5 records 
the name of Glunsalach, a famous outlaw, who was on the highway of Midh- 
lauchhair, for a long time committmg all sorts of injuries. The Slighe Midh- 
lauchra^ led as a road from Teamhair or Tara to the north of Ireland, but its 
exact position has not been determined.' At length, the outlaw resolved in mind 
to turn firom his misdeeds. He went to Caoimghin,^ and made a confession 
to him. Afterwards, the penitent remained with him until his death, so that 
he was sanctified. He was buried, as we are told, with Caoimghin in his 
church. Thus, he went to heaven, on account of his great sacrifices of 
self for God's sake. This was his festival day, as it was also that of St 

Article IV. — St. Branduibh or Brandubh, Bishop. If our succeed- 
uig conjecture be right, the present holy man flourished in the sixth age. 
Where he exercised the episcopal office does not appear to be known ; but, 
it was probably in some part of southern Leinster. He seems to have been 
a native of that district The name Brandubh, Episcopus, occurs in the 
Martyrology of Tallagh » at the 3rd of June. It seems possible, that he may 
have been that holy Bishop Brandubh, who came from Hy-Kinsellagh, to 

144» 145- 5 Edited by Drs. Todd aud Reeves, pp. 

"* See a notice about St. Laobhan, at the I44f HS* 

1st of this month, Art. iv. Also, Evelyn * It is said to have been first discovered, 

Philip Shirley's ' History of the County of together with four other principal roads, on 

Monaghan," chap, xi, p. 335. the night of the birth of King Conn of the 

" See " CataJogns Actuum Sanctorum Hundred Battles. See Roderick 0*Flaherty's 

quae MS.habentur, ordine Mensium et Die- "O^rgia," pars iii., cap. Ix., p. 314. 

rum." ^ See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 

Articlb III.— » Edited by Rev. Dr. Four Masters," vol. i., n. (n), p. 104. 

Kelly, p. xxvL • The celebrated Abbot of Glendalou^, 

' The Fews Mountains, at Amu^h. whose Life is set forth in Art. i., on (Idb 

'See "The Martvrology of Don^,** day* 

edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. Akticls iv.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

144, 145. Kelly, p.xxvL 

. ^ See '* Caisdogiis Actanm Sanctorum ' See his Life, at the I7tb of Febmary, 

qise MS. habentnr, ordine Menkium et Die* toI. iL of this work, Ait. i. 

9 The published Life of St Fintan statei 

Digitized by 



visit St. Fintan ' of Clonenagh, while he was sojourning at Achadh Finglass» 
near Old Leighlin, and who by his advice assumed the monastic habit there, 
in the sixth century. When Fintan's death became known to the Bishop 
who remained at Achad-Finglass, he told the brethren, that the day of his 
own decease was at hand. A short time afterwards,^ the Bishop's servant saw ' 
in his sleep a certain window opened in the cell of this venerable master, with 
seven men approaching it, clothed in white garments, and surrounded with a 
great light. One of these was heard, calling out in a loud voice : *' Come 
forth, O holy Bishop, and delay not, for we are sent by God to meet your soul, 
as had been promised. Behold, Fintan of wonderful sanctity cometh to 
thee." Hereupon awaking, the servant struck a light, and he then proceeded 
towards that cell, in which Brandubh lay. There, he was found lifeless. His 
servant related these foregoing circumstances to the brethren, who, having 
paid the last rites of sepulture to the holy man's body, gave glory to God, for 
those wonders wrought through his saints.^ This day was venerated, accord-' 
ing to the Martyrology of Donegal,5 Brandubh, Bishop. The compilers state, 
that he may be Brandubh, the Bishop, son of Maenach, who descended from 
the race of Mac Con, son to Macniadh, King of Erin. He belonged to the 
race of Lughaidh, son to Ith. The Natalis of a certain saint, called son to 
Cniaden, occurs, although his own proper name is suppressed. St. Brandubh's 
father might possibly have been called Cruaden,^ yet, Colgan rather believes, 
that '' post tres menses " should be substituted, instead of the readings already 
given; and, then, we should be brought to the 13th 7 — more correctly the 
3rd — of June.^ 

Article V. — St. Cronanus, or Mochua. {Sixth and Sevmth Cen- 
turies^ There is a St. Cronan's name, at the 3rd day of June, in the 
anonymous Catalogue of Irish Saints, published by O'Sullevan Beare.' We 
have already alluded to him, as a tanner of St Kevin's community, and under 
the illustrious patron he seems to have lived, while practising that trade." He 
was a holy and pious man, who built a renowned cell to the Lord. Although 
he departed — according to the prophecy of St. Kevin — on the 3rd June, it 
was on a year subsequent to the decease of his spiritual superior. A festival, . 
in honour of a St. Mochua, is registered, on this day, in the Martyrology of 
Donegal.3 This is only another form of St. Cronan's name. 

Article VI. — ^Ua Trianlugha. We find in the Martyrology of Done- 
gal,' that veneration was given on this day to Ua Trianlugha." Marianus is 
quoted, as an authority for this insertion. 

"expletis duabus septimanis a morte S. ^Between the 17th of February and the 

Fintani;"theBookofthe Island has it, "in- 13th of June, twelve weeks, or tliee lunar 

venit sanctum Episcopum emissere spiritum months, intervene. 

expletis tribus diebus a morte S. Fintani ; i This was the Natalis of St Brandubh, 

while the Salamancan Manuscript states, Bishop, according to the Martyrology of Tal- 

*' expletis tribus hebdomadibus a morte Fin- lagh. 

tani,^' &c. The latter reading is rather » See " Acta Sanctorum Hibemiae," xvii. 

approved, by Colgan ; for, he says, the name Februarii, n. 24, p. 354. 

Brandubh cannot be found applied to any Article v. — * See "Historise Catho- 

saint, in our Irish Martyrologies, and whose licse Ibemise Compendium," tomus L, lib. 

festival occurred three days, or even two iv., cap. xi., xii., p.- 50. 

weeks, after the 17th of February. • See Life of St. Kevin, chap, iv., in the 

4 See Colmi's *' Acta Sanctorum Hiber- present volume of this work, Art. i., June ' 
niae," xvii., Februarii. Vita S. Fintani, cap. 3rd. 

«.,pp. 352, 353. s Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

5 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 146, 147. 

I44» 145* Article vi.— ' Edited by Drs. Todd 

Digitized by 



Article VII. — St. Sillan, Bishop. He is recorded in the Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh,' at the 3rd. of June, and called Sillen, Bishop; but, we 
know not the See, with which he had been connected, nor is his period 
known. On this day was venerated Sillan, Bishop, as we read also in the 
Martyrology of Donegal.' 

Article VIII. — St. Moninne, Virgin. This day veneration was 
given, as we find mentioned in the Martyrology of Donegal,' to Moninne," a 
Virgin. About her, it seems difficult to glean other notices. 

Article IX. — St. Kanicus, Abbot. At the 3rd of June, we find St. 
Kanicus, an Abbot, set down in the Carthusian Martyrology and in Father 
Henry Fitzsimons* Catalogue.* Unless some mistake of transcription has 
occurred, in setting down this name for that of Kevinus, we do not know 
where to find fiurther particulars regarding him. 

Article X. — St. Etchius. A festival in honour ofEtchius is foimd' 
inserted in the Martyrology of Tallagh,* at the 3rd of June. Nothing more 
is known concerning him. 

Article XI. — St. Didea, Virgin. Doubt has been expressed, if the 
present saint must not be identified with Moninne, who is also venerated on 
this day, accordmg to the Martyrology of Donegal. A festival in honour of 
Didea, Virgin, was celebrated at the 3rd of June, as we read in the Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh.* 

Article XII. — Auitren Loco Anchoritae At the 3rd of June, we 
find inserted, in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' Auitren Loco anchoritae. It 
is not easy to determine, what such an entry can signify. 

Article XIII. — ^Feast of St. Failbeus, Abbot, in Trioit. The 
Bollandists ' have allusion to this saint, on the succeedmg authority. At 
the 3rd of June, the Deposition of Failbe Abbot in Trioit is entered in the 
" Menologium Scotorum,"' and also in the Ecclesiastical History of Scotland,3 
of Thomas Dempster. By this latter writer, he is stated to have written Acts 

and Reeves, pp. 144, 145. Taml. vocat Didea," i,e,, " Consider 

' In note 2, Dr. Todd says, at Ua whether Moninna is not the same who is 

Trianlngha : " This name is added by the called Didea^ in the Martyrologpr of Tam- 

more recent hand, quoting * Mar,^ i.e., lacht.'* Both entries occur on this day. 

Marianus O'Gorman." Seei^ii/.,p. 145. Article ix. — ' See **Caulogusaliquo- 

Article VII. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. rum Sanctorum Iberniae," in O'SulIevan 

Kelly, p. xxvL Beare's " Historiae Catholicae Ibernia Com- 

• Edited by Drs. Tod^ and Reeves, pp. pendium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xii., p. 55. 

144, 145. Article x.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. KeUy, 

Article viii.— ' Edited by Drs. Todd p. xxvL 

and Reeves, pp. 146, 147. Article xi.— « Edited by Rev. Dr. 

' A more recent hand wrote in the Manu- Kelly, p. zzvi. 

script from which the Martyrology of Done- Article xii.— * Edited by. Rev. Dr. 

gal has been pablisfaed : *' Vide an sit qnam Kelly, p. xzvi. 

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of St. Columba/ lib. i., and On the Future Sute of Scotland, lib. i. We are 
informed, that he flourished A.D. 640 ; while he was venerated on the 25th of 
January, the day of his deposition being the 3rd of June, and another feast 
has been assigned to him at the 6th of October. It is said, also, that he was 
gifted with a prophetic spirit, and that he foretold many things which 

Article XIV.— Feast of a Reputed St. Zephan, or Zephanius. 
This form of name is very unusual, in the Irish Calendars. Nor do we learn, 
with what place he had been connected. According to the Martyrology of 
Tallagh/ veneration was given to Zephan, or Zephanius, at the 3rd of June. 
It is possible, some of the letters in his name may have been displaced ; and, 
perhaps, he is not different from a St Trefanus, Confessor, who is classed 
among the Saints of Scotland.* At the 3rd of June, a St. Trefanus, Con- 
fessor, is noted by Camerarius.3 He refers to Dempster ;4 while the Bollan- 
dists remark,5 that the latter writer mentions no Trefanus, save Trefanus in 
Champagne of Gaul, and whose Acts are given by them, at the 7th of 

jfourtf) iBap of 3ime* 







T T ERE have we a holy prelate who lived in distinction at home, and who 

J[ J[ died in a retired village, and in a remote province abroad ; while 

the people flock there to venerate his memory, at frequent intervals. They 

Article xiii. — * See " Acta Sancto- Article xiv. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

rum," tomus i., Junii iii. Among the pre- Kelly, p. xxvi. 

termittcd feasts, p. 269. • See Bishop Forbes' ** Kalendars of Scot- 

■Thus: **In Trioit depositio FaUbei tish Saints," p. 238. According to the 

abbatis. C." — Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scottish Entries in the Kalendar of David 

Scottish Saints," p. 201. Camerarius. 

s See '* Historia E^lesiastica Gentis Sco- 3 See " De Scotorum Fortitudine," &c., 

torum,", num. 503, p. 272, Bononise, lib. iii., cap. iv., p. 152. 

1627, 4to. * It is probable, the /is a literal error for 

4 See his Life, at the 9th of June, in this s. In Dempster, there is reference to St. 

volume, Art. i. Tressanus in his " Historia Ecclesiastica 

s Reference is made by Dempster to Gentis Scotorum,*' lib. xviii., num. ill 3, p. 

Adamnan's Vita S. Columbae, lib. i„ cap. 610, Bologna edition. He is said to nave 

iii. However, this relates to Failbeus, flourished, early in the sixth centuiy, and 

Eighth Abbot of lona, from A.D. 669 to to have had his feast, at the 3rd of Decem- 

679. He is yenerated, on the and day of ber. 

March. s See **Acta Sanctorum,'* tomtis i. 

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June 4.] 



communicated from one to the other, surprising accounts of the saint's 
austerity and singlemindedness during his life, and of miraculous manifesta- 
tions after death. Thus was a holy pilgrim's reputation spread, even though 
unconsciously, on his part, and without making any effort for fame ; but, it 
was reserved to our own days, to have his veneration properly transferred to 
the people of his beloved country. 

This Irish saint was almost unheard of in Ireland, until the Most Rev. 
Dr. Dixon, late Archbishop of Armagh,' published an interesting little work,' 
the substance of which, so far as connected with our saint, we shall endea- 
vour to introduce into the present memoir. In the Bollandists' "Acta 
Sanctorum "3 — that great collection of saints' lives — there is an account con- 
cerning him.4 A brief French Life of this saints has been published at 
Chambery, in France, the particulars of which — as we are told— could only 
have been learned from " blessed Cornelius " himself, or from some priests, 
who probably accompanied him from Ireland.^ The family name 7 of this 
holy man was Mac-Concalede,® or Mac-Conchailleadh ;9 or, probably, as 
better written, Mac Concoilla,'® or Mac Concoille." This name is now 
obsolete, or translated Cox or Woods." In Ireland, the Christian name he 
seems to have borne was that of Conor. '3 He was a native of Armagh city, 
in Ireland. From Most Rev. Dr. Dixon's work, we learn, that our saint was 
formerly called Cornelius, derived from the Celtic Conchoard. However, he 
is also named Concors or Concord.'^ He was born, on the 17th of Septem- 
ber, A.D. 1 1 20. His parents were careful to provide a most excellent educa- 
tion for him. When ten years of age, he was devoted entirely to his duties. 

Tanli iii. Amoni' the pretermitted feasts, 
p. 2d8. 

• We rather suspect Tressan or Tresan is 
the correct rendering, and his Life is given in 
the Second Volume of this work, at that 
date, Art. i. 

Article i.—Chapter i.— ' The parti- 
culars of his own Life are embodied in 
Sister Mary Frances Clare Cusack's " Life 
of His Grace the Most Rev. Dr. Dixon, late 
Ardibishop of Armagh, and Primate of all 
Ireland," crown 8vo. 

» The title of this book is as follows : "The 
Blessed Cornelius : or some Tidings of an 
Archbishop of Armagh, who went to Rome in 
the Twelfth Century, and did not return ; pre- 
faced by a brief Narrative of a Visit to Rome, 
etc., m 1854.'* By the Most Rev. Joseph 
Dixon, Archbishop of Armagh, and Primate 
of all Ireland. Dublin, 1855, ^^o. 

' See tomus i., Junii iv. 

< It has t)cen written, by Father Daniel 
Papebroch, and it is thus headed : " De S. 
Concorde Episcopo prope Camberiacum in 
Sabaudia." It is a historic commentary, 
contained in 10 paragraphs, pp. 412 to 

5 TTiis Life is thus translated into English, 
and it is intituled, "An Abridgment of the 
Life of St. Concord, Archbishop of Armagh, 
and Primate of Ireland, who died at the 
Monastery of St. Peter of Lemenc." 

* We are informed, likewise, that the 
tompiler of this biography added some 
matters, counecled with the state of the Irish 

Church, in our saint's day, but these state- 
ments are not drawn from reliable sources. 

7 This had either never been known to the 
inhabitants at Chambery, or it had been for- 
gotten there. 

* It is so written, by Ware. 

9 According to Rev. Dr. Lanigan. 

•** According to the O'Clerys. As the 
Four Masters are the most ancient Irish 
authority that we possess on this point, their 
mode of writing the name ought to be pre- 

" The distinguished Irish scholar. Professor 
Eugene O'Curry, says, that this Irish family 
name, as pronounced by Ware and Lanigan^ 
was formerly very common, but that now it 
is universally translated Woods. See Most 
Rev. Dr. Dixon's " Blessed Cornelius," &c, 
chap, xii., p. 103. 

" As stated by Dr. John O' Donovan. 
See ** Annals of the Four Masters," vol. iii., 
n. (p), p. 22. 

'3 See th'd., pp. 22, 23. 

»'♦ There is no doubt entertained at Cham- 
bery — where he is venerated as a special 
patron — regarding the identity of St. Con- 
cord and the Conchovar of Colgan, the Con- 
cobar of Ware, and the Conor of the Four 
Masters. Indeed, we may presume, that any 
one, who knows how gn Irish- speaking 
people pronounce Conchovar, and how a 
French-speaking people pronounce Concord, 
might easily admit an almost perfect identity 
of sound in both names. 

*s Archbishpp Ussher has placed the 

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and he exhibited a gravity, far beyonci his years. At the age of fifteen, Conor 
or Concord had made such progress in knowledge and virtue, that it was easy 
to anticipate, he would embrace the ecclesiastical state, and be advanced to 
some of the highest dignities in the Church. 

It is said, that about the middle of the fifth century,*' St. Patrick,'^ 
the illustrious Apostle of Ireland, had founded an Abbey for Canons 
Regular of St. Augustine, at Armagh, and that he dedicated it to the 
Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul. For many ages, it continued to be 
one of the most celebrated ecclesiastical foundations in the world.'' 
Frequently in the Irish Annals do we find, that although usually distinct, 
the dignities of bishop and of abbot were united, in this great metro- 
politan See. But, among the various pious institutions there, the abbey was 
undoubtedly that most renowned, and to it was annexed the great school of 
Armagh, bearing the character of a university. It was richly endowed, and 
we often meet with notices of professors and lecturers having been appointed 
to chairs of divinity and of science ; while foundations for professorships here, 
by the chief monarchs of Ireland, are recorded. Nay more, at the period of 
which we now treat, Florence O'Gonnan, the head moderator of Armagh 
University and of all the schools in Ireland, a man well skilled in divmity, 
and deeply learned in all the sciences, died on the 20th of March, a.d. 1174.'^ 
As the houses in Armagh were chiefly roofed with thatch or planks of wood — 
many perhaps being constructed from the latter material — we have frequent 
accounts of their destruction through fire. The celebrated abbey there was 
burned, in 11 16; but, in the year 11 26, the abbot Imar Hua Hocdhagain *» 
rebuilt *° the greatChurch of St. Peter and St. Paul.*' At the age of twenty, and 
in A.D. 1 1 40, through an inspiration from Heaven, Conchover is said to have 
entered into the Order of Canons Regular of St. Augustine, who are stated to 
have been attached to that church."- It would seem, that the great monas- 
tery and school at Armagh lay near the Regies of Saints Peter and Paul, and 
on the northern verge of the hill within the ecclesiastical precincts, and about 
130 yards north of the present Protestant cathedral.'^ Notwithstanding the 
many burnings and plunderings of the city, its great abbey continued to 
flourish, until a.d. 1557, when an Inquisition was taken, during the first year 
of Queen Elizabeth's reign, in which its possessions in houses and lands are 
set forth ; but, as the Irish power was too strong in the North, at that time 
and subsequently, their final confiscation was deferred to May, 161 2, when 
Sir Toby Caulfield, Knight, received a grant of these possessions at the rent 
of five pounds Irish.'^ During the thirteenth century, the Franciscan Friars 
founded a monastery for their order, under the patronage of Maelpatrick 
O'Scannail, Archbishop of Armagh.'^ In 1264, Mac Donnell, chief of 

foundation of the church at Armagh, so early O'Hegan, helongs in modem times to a 

as 445. See ** Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Presbyterian place of worship ; but, in the 

Anliquitates," cap. xvii., p. 444, and " In- name (Abbey-sireet), of the adjoining 

dex Chronologicus,*' A.D., ccccxLV., p. thoroughfare is still preserved the memory 

518. of the older building which stood once in the 

**See his Life, in the Third Volume of same locality."— Rev. Robert King's "Me- 

this work, at the 17th of March, Art. i., moir Introductory to the Early History of 

chap. xxii. the Primacy of Armagh,'* p. 86. 

*7 See Archdall's "Monasticon Hiberni- *' See Axchdairs <*Monasticon Hibemi- 

cum," p. 14. cum," pp. 23, 24. 

**See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," " See Sir James Ware, " De Hibemia et 

Acta S. Patricii, p. i la Antiquitatibus ejus," &c, cap. zxvi., p* 

*• He is venerated as a saint, and his feast 177. 

is on the 13th of August, where further no- '^ See Rev. Dr. Reeves* "Ancient 

tices regarding him shall be found. Churches of Armagh," sect, vii., pp. 28, 29. 

«» **The site of the Regies, or Abbey, of »* See Lodge's "Irish Peerages,^' vol. iii., 

SS. Peter and Paul, erected by Xvar p. 86, n. 

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June 4.] 



O'Neill's gallow-glasses or heavy-armed body-guards, began the erection of 
the conventual buildings, which were completed in 1266.*^ The O'Neills 
were great patrons of the Franciscans, and they chose this church as their 
place of sepulture. The Franciscans of the strict observance began the refor* 
mation of this friary in I5i8.'7 During that fierce war waged by Shane 
O'Neill against Sir Henry Sydney, Queen Elizabeth's Lord Deputy, this con- 
vent was burned to the ground. The friars were obliged to fly to more remote 
fastnesses in Ulster. In 1596, Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, placed his son 
Conn in ambuscade among the ruins, whence he sallied out with all his forces 
upon a large detachment of English, who were conveying provisions to the 
city of Armagh, then held by Stafford, as governor. He surprised the relieving 
party and cut them to pieces. Soon afterwards, the English surrendered 
Armagh to Hugh O'Neill. He dismantled the fortress.** The site and pre- 
cinct of the monastery being granted to the See, in 1620, the premises 

Monastery of Friars Minor, in the Protestant Primate's Demesne, Armagh. 

became incorporated with the demesne lands.'' There, a considerable portion 
of the venerable ruin yet exists, 3<» within the ornamental grounds, which 
environ the mansion of the Protestant Archbishop of Armagh. 

After his novitiate, and on the completion of his studies, Conchovar was pro- 
moted to the priesthood, to the great satisfaction of his superiors, and of the reli- 
gious belonging to his order. The year following his ordination, he was made a 

"5 Sec Edward Rogers* ** Memoir of the 
Armagh Cathedral," p. 57. 

»* Sec Rev. C. P. Mechan's " Rise and 
Fall oi the Irish Franciscan Monasteries,'* 
Ac., Appendix, p. 280. 

*7 See Archdall's " Monasticon Hibemi- 

^S^Thoinas D*Arcy M'Gee*s " Popular 
History of Ireland," vol. ii., Book viii., chap. 

viiL, p. 42. , , 

■9 See Rev. Dr. Reeves' "Ancient Churches 
of Armagh,*' sect, viii., pp. 32 to 34. 

y> The accompanying drawing of this 
Franciscan Friary was taken on the spot, by 
William F. Wakeman, and bv him trans- 
ferred to the wood, engraved by Mrs. Mil- 

3»'They labour under a mistake at Cham- 

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professor. This office Conchovar filled for five whole years, during which time, 
he was occupied in instructing the religious connected with his order. Such was 
his merit, that at the end of that period, he was named Abbot of the Church 
of St. Peter and St. Paul. It is said, he was attached to the Cathedral at 
Armagh, while he was considered the most eligible person to fill this post 
It required a man, entirely devoted to the service of God, and one who took 
every means to instruct people committed to his charge, in the duties of our 
holy religion. As Cornelius was thirty-two years of age, at the time of the 
Synod of Kells3' — in 1152 — where so many abbots and priors assisted, it is 
most probable, that he was present, as Abbot of Armagh. It appears to be cer- 
tain, that the Abbot of Armagh must have been present, also, at the Synod of 
Clane, in the county of Kildare, and which was held by Gelasius in 1 162. This 
was attended by twenty-six bishops, many abbots and other clergymen. There 
a famous decree was enacted, with the unanimous consent of the S)mod, that 
for the future, no one should be admitted as a professor or teacher of theo- 
logy, in any church throughout Ireland, who should not be approved of for 
that office, by the great school at Armagh. 

The Life of St. Concord then tells us, that during the time our saint was 
Abbot, Henry II., King of England, added Ireland to his dominions, in the 
year 1 1 7 1 ;3a and, that this king had a council convened at Cashel,^^ in 
1172,3* by the authority of Pope Alexander III., then the reigning Pontiff 35 
This the English monarch procured, chiefly through motives of civil polity.3* 
The Legate who presided over the Synod of Cashel in 1172 was Christian, 
Bishop of Lismore. The council was composed of a Legate, three Arch- 
bishops, twenty-eight Bishops, wuth several Abbots, Priors and Deans. The 
Life says, that in this council, Cornelius, who was remarkable for his eminent 
virtues, and who had spent his days and nights in meditation on what should 
be done to promote the glory of God and the salvation of his neighbour, 
found no difficulty in imiting all the votes of the Bishops and others, who 
composed the council ; for his sentiment alone prevailed, and it was confirmed 
by the Pope.37 It is true as mentioned in this Life, that there were but three 
Archbishops at the Synod of Cashel, for Gelasius, the Primate, was not there ; 
and if he absented himself through an unwillingness to favour the progress of 
Henry, we might not expect to find Cornelius there either; but, if the absence 
of Gelasius was owing to his age and infirmities, and that he waited on Henry 
in Dublin, approving of what had been done in the Synod,3^ then we may 
suppose, that not only Cornelius was present, but also that he represented 
there Gelasius, which circumstance must have added considerably to his 

bcry, in supposing that Cardinal Paparopre- in Sir Harris Nicolas' " Chronology of His- 

sided over the Synod of Cashel, or that he tory," p. 248. 

was in Ireland at all, at that time. The Car- ^s He presided over the Church from A.D. 

dinal had presided over the Synod of Kells in 1 1 59 to 1 1 81 . See ibid.^ p. 208. 

1 1 52, and ne left Ireland very soon afterwards. ^o See Rev. M. T. Brenan's * * Ecclesiastical 

5* See account of these proceedings, in History of Ireland," Twelfth Century, chap. 

Rev. Sylvester Malone's ** Church History iii., pp. 277 to 279. 

of Ireland," chap, ii., pp.34 to 56. 3^ See Most Rev. Dr. Ducon's "The 

33 The Most Rev. Dr. Dixon hasthefollow- Blessed Cornelius, "^c, chap, xii., and note, 

ing note atthispassage : " We must observe, pp. 96, 97. 

that the Life here sp^Jcs of two Councils, one ^ Pk% Giraldus Cambrensis informs ns. 

at Cashel and another at Armagh, and that it See "Opera Omnia," vol. v., edited by 

assigns the same number of Bishops to both, Dimock, Expugnatio Hibemica, lib. i., cap. 

and the same influence to Cornelius in both. xviiL, p. 283. 

I cannot find any reference in our Irish his- 39 See Harris' Ware, vol. i., " Aidibishops 

torians to this S3mod at Armagh. At that of Armagh," p. 61. 

time, Henry's power was hardly recognised ♦» See an account of him, in the Third 

in the North," Volume of this work, at the 27th of March, 

• 3* Incorrectly placed at November, 1171, Art. i. 

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inflaence at the council In the year 11 74, and on the 27th of March,39 
St Gelasius,4o Primate of Ireland, and Archbishop of Armagh, died. To 
replace this great prelate, Concord was selected, to the great satisfaction of 
the whole kingdom. On a tablet, at Lemenc, there is a title and hymn where 
St. Concord, Bishop and Confessor is called Presul or Archiepiscopus 
Yllandiae ;<' but, this latter word is evidently a misUken spelling. According 
to a supposition of the " Fullienses,"4a Yllandia, whereof Concord is called 
Archbishop, means Iceland; but, Father Papebroke^s observes, that the 
term is intended to express Irlandia or Ireland.-w Besides, in the series of 
Icelandic or northern bishops carefully compiled,*5 no mention of a Con- 
cord can be found.46 According to the traditions in the Church of Savoy, 
Cornelius — in Celtic Conchoard and from which Concord is derived — was the 
fifty-fifth Pontiff placed over the Church of Armagh. After directing atten- 
tion to some thmgs, which tend to determine that period, at which the holy man 
lived. Father Papebroke says, that Ware and Colgan do not mention any 
Concord, in their lists of Irish Archbishops ;47 but, it is clear from this, the 
learned Bollandist did not recognise Blessed Concord by that name, which 
Colgan 48 or Ware 49 gives him. 



Being elevated to the dignity of Archbishop, the splendour of his virtues 
shone forth with remarkable brilliancy ; and, he fulfilled the duties of his 
sacred office, with all the zeal, prudence, virtue and charity, required by St. 
Paul, in a Bishop. The people of Chambery say, St. Concord suffered much 
from the persecution of a particular family in Ireland. This family is sup- 
posed to have been the one, that usurped the temporal possessions of Armagh 
See, for so long a period, until an end had been put to their domination, by 
holy Archbishop Celsus, himself a member of that same family. St. Malachy 
O'Morgair,' also, the successor of Celsus, suffered much from their unhallowed 

4" Sec the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," « In the Atlantis Blaviani, tomus i., inter 

tomns i., Junii iiL De S. Concorde Epis- Hyparctica, p. 46, ^t seq, 

copo, &C., num. 3^ 4, p. 413. ^ First, the bishops of Schalholte|isis are 

** They quote Amgrim Jones ** Historia enumerated from 1056, and secondly, those 

Islandig," which brings the lists of bishops of HoUensis, from 1 107 to 1525. 

there down to the year 12 Jo. See cap. x. ^^ Papebroke concludes his notice, con- 

^ He declares, that this opinion is quite ceming the Blessed Prelate, by saying, that 

untenable, because we have a most accurate he leaves all the rest, about his See and the 

list of Icelandic bishops, down to 1525 ; time in which he flourished, to the investi- 

while none of them found, bearing gation of learned Irishmen, 

the name Concord. What he deems per- *• The titles given by him to this holy man, 

fectly conclusive on this point, b the fact, are Conchovar — called by Latin writers Cor- 

that no archbishop can be discovered, among nelius — Mac Conchaiileaah, Abbot of the 

the entire number. Monastery of SS. Peter and Paul, at Armagh, 

<♦ Until the year 11 52, Archbishops were and afterwards Archbishop of Armagh. 

not recognised in Ireland, although the ^ Ware calls this Archbishop, Cornelius, 

Primacy was in the Church of .A^agh. or Concobar Mac-Concalede. See Harris' 

Then four Archbishops were created in the Ware, vol. i., ** Archbishops of Armagh,* 

Synod of Kells, as related in the ancient p. 61. 

Book of Clonenagh. Chapter ii.— « Sec hb Life, at the 3rd 

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[June 4 

pretensions.' Finding it necessary to make some reforms in the discipline of 
his chiurch, through luimility and diffidence in his own judgment, or in the 
extent of his jurisdiction, Concord would not presume to effect these changes, 
without visiting Rome, and consulting the Pope, Alexander III. In con- 
sequence, he set out for the City of the Soul, where he arrived on the i6th of 
January, 1 176.3 Being fully informed regarding the piety of this Archbishop, 
and about his zeal in the furtherance of religion. Pope Alexander at once 
granted the object of his petition, by saying to him : " You have hitherto 
devoted your life to the happiness of the people ; for this, you shall reap its 
fiuits in the experience of an eternal happiness, which is to reward your 
fidelity in strengthening the Catholic religion on the ruins of heresy/'* Having 
obtained what concessions he demanded, Concord prepared for a return to 
his diocese. 

On his way home, he travelled over the mountains, along the route to Savoy, 
which takes its name from the Latin Sabaadia, a country anciently inhabited by 
theCeltes, and lying between France and Italy among the Alps. The holy Arch- 
bishop had resolved on visiting Camberium or Camberiacum.5 The Almighty 
decreed, that in passing by Chambery, or Ciamberi — as written by the 
Italians — the capital of Savoy duchy, he should stop in that city, which 
stands in a fertile plain, near the confluence of tlie River Leysse with the 
rivulet Orbanne. It is environed with gentle eminences covered with vine- 
yards, and having the Alps in the background.^ There the dukes of Savoy 
resided, before the removal of their seat of government to Turin, and the 
French held possession of it from 1792 to 181 5. During this period, it was 
the capital of Mont Blanc Department.7 This western slope of the Alps has 
been ceded to France in i860. The ancient castle and its cathedral are objects 
of interest in Chambery.* The place chosen for St. Concord's temporary 
sojourn was at St. Peter's monastery of Lemenc, near that city.^ According 
to one account,*** it was founded by a colony from a monastery in Lyons, 
called Athanacum. The Church of St. Peter at Lemenc, attached to the 
monastery, was then served by eighty Benedictines." The Prior and brethren 

of November, vol. xi., of this work, Art. i. 

' It is not at all improbable, that the efforts 
to regain possession of those temporalities 
survived the times of St. Malachy, and con- 
tinued during the episcopacy of his suc- 
cessors, St. Gelasius and St. Concord. 

3 The Most Rev. Dr. Dixon subjoins, as a 
note to this passage : ** I have changed the 
figures in the Life here, which, through an 
evident mistake, are written 1 174." — **Thc 
Blessed Cornelius," &c., chap, xii., p. 98. 

* We subjoin the Most Rev. Dr. Dixon's 
note. *• It would appear from these words 
Italicized in the Life, and from other tradi- 
tions- at Chambeiy, that among the merits of 
Cornelius in the eyes of the Pope, one was, 
the efforts which he had made to root out 
heresy from his diocese j the heresy referred 
to appears to have been that of Pelagius, 
which it had been attempted before to intro- 
duce into Ireland, as appears from the letter 
addressed by the clergy of the Roman Church 
in 640, during the vacancy of the Holy See, 
to the Archbishop of Armagh, and other 
Bishops and clergy of Ireland.*'— "The 
Blessed Cornelius, &c., chap, xii., p. 99. 

5 These were the denominations of Cham- 
b^rv, during the Middle Ages. 

* SeeFullarton's " Gazetteer of the World," 
vol. iii., p. 445. 

7 See Grillet's " Dictionnaire Historique 
du Department du Mont Blanc et du 
Leman," two vols., published in 1807, 8vo. 

" See Elisee Reclus* " Nouvelle Geogra- 
phie Universeile,** tome ii., liv. ii., chap, lii., 
sect, vi., p. 342. 

9 About the year 1842, Martin Haverty, 
Esq., author of the "History of Ireland," 
" Travels in Spain,*' and other works, 
passed through Chambery, and while staying 
m this ancient city, he drew a very exact out- 
line of its general features, as viewed from a 
height, which overlooked the place and the 
surrounding valley. Mr. Haverty has obliged 
the author with his sketch, which has been 
transferred from his Sketch-Bookto the wood 
by William F. Wakeman, and it has been 
engraved by Mrs. Millard. This subject forms 
the illustration in the text. 

'0 This is given, in a letter, written to Bol- 
landus, in 1653, by Father John Ferrand, of 
the Jesuit Society, and in which is stated 
some particulars re^^arding the Monastery of 

" In the year 1809, when the French Life 
of our saint was written, that church was 

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June 4.] 



of the monastery received Blessed Cornelius, with that zeal and respect, due to 
his merit and virtues. When at the door of the church, he said in presence of 
the whole hody of religious : " I have served the Church of St. Peter at 
Armagh, in Ireland ; I have visited the Church of St. Peter, at Rome; and 
\ shall be buried in the Church of St. Peter, at Lemenc." He then entered 
this church, adored the Most Holy Sacrament, and afterwards, he went into 
the monastery. On the day subsequent to his arrival, the prophecy he had 
made, at the church door of St. Peter, at Lemenc, began to be realized. He 
then communicated to the priests of Armagh — who were his companions on 
the journey from Rome — instructions he had received from the Holy Father, 
for the welfare of the Church at Armagh. Having given them all these 

The City of Chambery, France. 

instructions, he believed to be necessary, Cornelius withdrew to a chamber of 
the monastery, destined for his use, by the religious. From this moment, he 
was occupied in continual fasting and mortification, in meditation and prayer. 
He climbed a height, and he went every day to prostrate himself at the foot 
of a cross, which stood on the solitude of a neighbouring mountain, from 
time immemorial." There, he offered constantly his devotions. The cross 

attended by the parish priest of Lemenc. 

" ** Perhaps it may be asked, why the 
saint chose a place so steep and nigged, and 
assuredly he did not seek it in his long and 
daily excursions for idle pastime ; he did not 
walk so far to abandon himself to idle reve- 
ries ; for, in the lives of the saints, time is 
well disposed of, and each of their actions 
has a praiseworthy motive. Perhaps, the view 
from this hill, whence we can trace the lake 
of Bourget and its shores, recalled to him his 
distant island home, and his beloved flock ; 
and his fatherly heart transported itself in 

spirit to the dear flock confided to him, which 
he would never more see. Perhaps his holy 
soul, foreseeing its approaching deliverance, 
loved better this elevated spot, whence it 
might wing its flight to heaven. It may be 
presumed, that in contemplating from these 
Heights our city and its suburbs at his feet, he 
had for them an earnest soUcitude, and that 
he uttered ardent vows for their prosperity, 
calling down on them abundant blessings ; 
since he has merited to become their perpe- 
tual intercessor. But what we cannot doubt 
is, ihat he withdrew thus from all eyes to 

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[JUllK 4.*, 

has since been called after our saint. A chapel had been erected near it, 
and on a site known as St. Louis of the Mount. It was held in great vene- 
ration, by the people of Leraenc. Having persevered in these practices for a 
few days, a fever seized him, which soon proved fatal. When he was con- 
fined to bed, he desired to have the Holy Viaticum administered to him. 
This, he received with great fervour and interior peace, to the edification of 
the whole community. He died, on the third day following, the 4th of June, 
1 1 76. It has been incorrectly stated, by the O'Clerys,'^ that Conchobhar or 
Conor Mac Concoille died at Rome, in the year 1 1 75 ;'4 and this mistake has 
been copied by Colgan.'s Regarding this sanctified Prelate, all Irish accounts 
have been hitherto taken from the Four Masters. Hence, nearly all our later 
writers have copied mistakes into which they fell, in supposing that Conor 
Mac-Concoille died at Ronie.'^ As happened, in the case of many distin- 
guished Irishmen who departed this life, away from their native country, his 
very existence is ignored in some of our records ;'7 and, as his rule in the See 
of Armagh was only for a short time, he has been omitted even from its list of 

He had scarcely passed away to Heaven, however, when his adopted people 
discovered, that they possessed a powerful Patron, in our saint. '9 For, 

pray.** — Most Rev. Dr. Dixon's ** Blessed 
Cornelius/* &c., pp. 88, 89. 

*-^ See Dr. 0*Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters,*' vol. iii., pp. 22, 23. 

** In Harris* Ware, he is said to have died 
at Rome, in 1175 o^ ni^* 

*5 The entire notice concerning this Arch- 
bishop runs as follows: **Conchovarius 
(Latinis Scriptoribus Cornelius) Mac-Con- 
chaillcadh, Abbas Monasterii SS. Petri et 
Pauli Ardmachae, et postea Archiepiscopus 
Ardmachamus, obiit Romoe, quo summum 
Pontificem, de rebus Ecclesiae consulturus 
venerat.*' — ** Trias Thaumaturga.*' 

'« See Most Rev. Dr. Dixon's ** Blessed 
Cornelius," &c., chap, xii., pp. 116 to 120. 

»7 As in the Annals of St. Mary's Abbey, 
near Dublin, and in those at the end of 

*® See Harris' Ware, vol. i., " Archbishops 
of Armagh,** p. 6t. 

'» As a proof of the veneration in which he 
is held at Chambery, the Most Rev. Dr. 
Dixon appends some prayers and hymns, 
which they have composed in his honour. 

** Prayer 

** To St, Concord f which one can sayjor Nine 

Days to obtain some special Graces in 

Time of Affliction, 

* * O Glorious St. Concord ! whom God 
has conducted into our couutry to be our 
protector and our guide in our pressing 
wants, I come profoundly humbled to pros- 
trate myself at thy feet, to obtain through thy 
powerful protection, a grace very necessary 
for the salvation of my soul. [Here the par- 
ticular favour which one seeks is specified.] 
Draw me from this urgent peril, and give me 
the courage and streiigth necessary to over- 
come the attacks of the enemy, who seeks my 

destruction and eternal damnation ; banish 
from me all thoughts of despair, which are so 
contrary to the merciful views which God 
ceases not to entertain towards His children, 
and which should deprive me for ever of the 
ineffable delights of that eternal glory re- 
served for the courageous : make me learn, 
for the love of Jesus Christ, and after His 
example, to submit as becomes a Christian, 
to the transitory afflictions of this vale of 
tears ; that thus, instead of being the subject 
of my condemnation, they may become, by 
my resignation, my repentance, and my 
fidelity, an invincible ram{)art against the 
enemy of my salvation, and the object of my 
glory, to conduct me one day to everlasting 
repose. Amen.'* 


** To the same Saint, which Fathers and 

Mothers can say to obtain from God the 

Grace to bring up their children well, 

** O Thou great Saint, who ceasest not to 
give us proofs of tender love for our children, 
by obtaining for them from God sometimes 
life, and sometimes the cure of the most griev- 
ous maladies ; wilt thou refuse to ask for 
us the graces which we come to implore fer- 
vently for the salvation of their souls ; sucfr 
as will dispel our darkness, and grant us the 
lights necessary to second by our cares and 
vigilance the merciful designs which God ha» 
formed in their r^ard ; and wilt thou pre- 
serve us from placing an obstacle to those de- 
signs by our bad example and negligence in 
imparting to them the principles of a holy 
education ? But above all, do thou great saint, 
who hast so well preached the truth and al)- 
horred lying, obtain for us the grace to inspire 
them early with a hoiTor for this vice, which 
is the source of all others, and which by de- 

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June 4.] 



through his intercession, striking miracles were wrought, in favour of the blind, 
the lame, the deaf, and children at the point of death whom he healed.** 
The religious of St. Peter at Lemenc have obtained from the Holy Father 
his Office and Mass of the Major Rite, and this feast is celebrated, on the 4th 
of June, each year. Such festival is calculated to perpetuate that veneration, 
which the people have entertained towards this holy Prelate even to the pre- 
sent time.'* 

In 1 1 78, the inhabitants of Chambery, and the parishes bordering 
on St. Peter of Lemenc, established an association, under the name of 
St. Concord's Confraternity. At first, it was only composed of the most 
noble persons, and the most respectable citizens, at Chambery ; and, after 
the example of the patron, these persons exercised themselves daily, in works 
of charity and in the practice of every virtue. When the Benedictines were 
expelled from this Monastery, they were succeeded by another community, 
called Fullienses," by Father Papebroch. These possessed the entire body 
of St. Concord,*3 our Irish Archbishop. It was religiously venerated by 
ihem."^ These religious told Father Riondet,=5 that they had foundations for 
Masses,*^ to be celebrated in the chapel of St. Concord, which were estab- 
lished for three hundred years.'' A hymn '^ was inscribed, in front of the 
altar dedicated to him.*9 A verbatim copy of this hymn 3© was sent to Bollan- 
dus, by Father Ferrand. That the members of the Confraternity could assist 
in a more becoming manner at the functions of the Church in Lemenc, per- 

g'ees draws down the greatest evils on 
xnilies, so far as to deprive them of the 
happy quality of the children of God, and to 
render them unworthy of His love and His 
i)rotection : it is from this evil, that we ear* 
ncstly entreat of thee to preserve us, and to 
conduct us all in the way of truth, which 
cannot deceive, since it is God himself. 
Amen. Thrice, Our Father, and Hail 

The Latin Hjnnns, with an English trans- 
lation that accompanies them, commence 
with the lines :— 

" Ave, Pater, gloriose,** &c. 

** Sancte quem nobis hodie precamur," &c. 

—See Most Rev. Dr. Dixon's "Blessed 
Cornelius," &c., chap, xii., pp. 104 to 115. 

•• The Life tells us, that for six centuries 
af^er his death, sick persons daily asked 
fheir cure of him ; and that, even at the date 
of its publication, the efficacy of his protec- 
tion was seen, when he was invoked, on 
occasion of public calamities. 

•* Not only the people of Chambery city, 
sometimes headed by their magistrates, but 
even the population of the surrounding 
parishes, crowded to Lemenc, to invoke their 
powerful protector. 

" This name appears to designate Friars 
of some Mendicant order, like the Pries 
Feuillans of the French, according to Most 
Rev. Dr. Dixon*s note. 

•5 Father Papebroch observes, that the 
name of this Archbishop is everywhere 
written Concord — ^in Latm, Concors— not 


'* This Father Ferrand declares, in his 

'5 Father Papebroch states, that he caused 
further enquiries to be made froni this com- 
munity (the Fullienses) by Rev. Father 
Balthazar Riondct, Rector of the Jesuits, 
College, in Chambery, A.D. 1689. 

^ Papebroke adds, that it should be very 
desirable to see authentic records, regarding 
those foundations for Masses, as they might 
furnish so good an argument for the anti- 
quity of that veneration, paid to St. Con- 

•7 At the year 1689. 

^ According to Father Ferrand, this hymn 
was disfigured by mistakes in spelling, 
characteristic of a tune, when it was inscrib^ 
on this altar. 

"9 Father Papebroch appends a copy of the 
hymn, which is the same as that given in Dr. 
Dixon's volume. 

30 "Ave Pater Gloriosa" are the first 
words. The title of this hymn, says Pape- 
broch, on an ancient tablet, in the chapel of 
S. Concord, is :— 

** * Oratio Confessoris Episcopi B. Con- 
cordis, Archiepiscopi Yllandiae ;' ue. 'Prayer 
of the Confessor Bishop, B. Concord, Arch- 
bishop of Yllandiae (Ireland).* " 

** At the end of the hymn, after the vcr- 
sicle and responsory : — 

** * V. Sancte Concors spes infirmorum. 

** ' R. Dirige nos ad regna Coelorum.'" 
In English : — 

•• * V. St. Concord, hope of the infirm, 

***R. Guide us to the Kingdom of 

The Life which Dr. Dixon brought from 

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[June 4. 

mission was obtained from Rome,3x that they might wear a white habit and a 
cincture of purple colour.3« The inhabitants of Chambery likewise believe, that 
the Almighty has been pleased to grant special favours, to the intercession of 
their holy Coraelius.33 A beautiful painting, representing St. Concord givinghis 
blessing to children, is to be seen over the altar of his chapel at Lemenc. 

For a long time, nevertheless, his holy relics had reposed in a poor panelled 
walnut shrine, and they were covered with still poorer ornaments. A petition 
was prepared, to ask for approval from the Sovereign Pontiff of that religious 
veneration, which had been rendered to the Blessed Concord to that time. 
Then, the people of Chambery wrote to Hugh,34 the Archbishop of Armagh, 
for details of his life.35 This petition from Chambery was granted in 167 1, 
by Clement X. The pious and charitable family of Rouen de St. Severin, 
who had a chapel in the church of St. Peter at Lemenc, gave it in 167 1, to the 
Confraternity of St. Concord, so that these associates might translate to it, the 
body of their holy Bishop. Then wa sestablished, in perpetuity, a grand annual 
festival for the day of this translation to the chapel. To mark the respect, 
which the people entertained towards their Patron, the Senate, the religious 
bodies and confraternities, and all the most distinguished persons of Cham- 
bery city, assembled at this ceremony. At the same time, Clement X. con- 
firmed the Confraternity of St. Concord, by a Bull, and granted to it many 
indulgences and privileges. 

At one time — a little before the French Revolution — their celestial 

Chambery has subjoined the usual prayer of 
the Liturgy for a Bishop and Confessor, **Da 
q|uasumus ;" but, Papebroch subjoins the an- 
aent prayer of S. Concord, which is as 
follows :— 


•"Creator mundi Deus, qui in Sanctis tuis 
semper es mirabilis, quique multa mirabilia 
in gloriosum Confessorem tuum Concordem 
atque Archipraesulem ostendere voluisti : et 
ut diem depositionis per universum orbem 
(faceres venerabilem, nomen ejus) in Martyr- 
ologiis per Sanctos Angelos tuos, eodem die 
mirabihter scribere fecisti, clementiam tuam 
suppliciter imploramus, ut meritis et inter- 
cessione ejusdem sancti Prsesulis, mereamur 
in libro Vitae adscribi, et ab omnibus adver* 
sitatibus et infirmitatibus mentis et corporis 
liberari, tecumque firmiter in coelis cum 
Christo betari. Per. Dom. nostrum Jesum,' " 

*• In English thus : — 

" Prayer. 

" O God, Creator of the world ! who art 
always wonderful in thy saints, and who 
wouldst show forth many wonders in thy 
glorious Confessor and Archbishop, Con- 
eord ; that thou mightest make the day of 
his death venerable throughout the whole 
world, thou didst cause his name to be in- 
scribed, marvellously, on the same day, by 
thy holy angels, in Nf artjnrologies, we hum- 
bly implore thy clemency, that owing to the 
merits and intercession of the same holy Pre- 
late, we may deserve to be inscribed m the 
Book of Life, to be freed from all adversities 

and infirmities of mind and body, and to re- 
joice with thee unceasingly in Heaven, 
through our Lord Jesus,* " «c 

s» It is stated, in 1175 ; but, it is evident, 
that the date for this permission must have 
been at a much later date. 

^The foregoing particulars are procured 
from a smaU work, printed in 1809, and pub- 
lished at Chambery, with the following, as 
the title page rendered into English: 
*' Abridgment of the Life of Saint Concord. 
Rules of the Confraternity erected in the 
Parish Church of St. Peter of Lemenc, in 
167 1, by a Bull of Pope Clement X." 
— Chambery, 1809. 

33 One of these is, the procuring of rain for 
their parched crops, and hence the £umers 
of the surrounding country entertained a par- 
ticular devotion, towards this sainted Arch- 
bisho|). Other favours are the procuring of 
a special blessing for children, to correct their 
natural deformities, where any such exist ; to 
heal their different diseases ; to make them 
obedient to parents, and virtuous in their en- 
tire conduct. 

3* ** The Hugh here referred to must have 
been Hugh O'Keilly, who died about 1656. 
He was succeeded by Edmund O'Reilly, the 
immediate predecessor of Oliver Plunkett." 
— ** The Blessed Cornelius,*' chap, xii., note, 
p. 103. 

35 They received for answer, from the 
Vicar-General of the time, that nothing was 
known regarding the particulars of his life, 
more than that he had been immediate suc- 
cessor to Gelasius, according to an account 
furnished by the reigning Archbishop of 

3^ To save the saint's body from ndn« the 

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benefactor was earnestly and unceasingly invoked, by the people, as the 
most powerful resource of the country, in an unusually dry season. During 
a procession, in which his holy relics were borne, the clouds gathered quickly, 
and then poiu-ed their refreshing shower upon the parched earth so bountifully, 
that St. Concord seemed even to forget the honour due to his mortal remains.s^ 
The people of Chambery feel it, likewise, as a peculiar favour, that the relics 
of their holy Patron had been preserved from indignity, during the period of 
the French Revolution. 

Nothing of particular importance remains to be recorded subsequently, ex- 
cept what took place at Lemenc, previous to and during the year 1854. On 
the occasion of repairing the interesting church, a happy idea was adopted 
of replacing the precious treasure of St. Concord's relics in a more suitable 
ciase. The wretched panel, which formed the old front of his shrine, was replaced 
with a handsome plate glass covering. Thanks to the zeal of several pious 
persons, the holy Bishop's reliquary is richly adorned, at present. Exertions 
were made by the confraternity and by the reverend rector of the parish, 
aided by some pious friends, to give all the solicitude and importance it 
merited, towards further honouring the blessed Cornelius. It had been re- 
solvecl, for reasons which will here be stated, to have the sacred relics removed 
for a time from Lemenc to Rome. Precautions had been taken, moreover, to 
secure their more artistic decoration and preservation. There they were 
recognised and authenticated, by the venerable prelate, who was charged to 
perform that duty. For this purpose, documents had been forwarded to the 
Eternal City, relative to the Life of this Saint, and the veneration in which he 
was held, by all the Savoyards, in virtue of authorization given by the Holy 
See. These were found to be highly interesting. To enter on a closer 
examination, the Roman authorities went so far, as to open the head of this 
revered body. Doubtless, the Almighty permitted this minute investigation, 
to manifest more clearly the glory of his servant ; for, in the interior portion 
of this part of the sacred relics — which had been for nearly seven centuries 
entombed — the brain was found hard, and still coloured with blood,37 though 
it is well known, that this organ is of a soft nature, and is consumed in 
ordinary bodies, within a very short time after death.38 ^\y{^ interesting part 
was preserved specially and returned, to increase the treasure of Lemenc 
parish church. There, it is now enshrined apart, and in a silver reliquary. 
These preliminaries terminated, the relics were enclosed in a waxen bust, re- 
presenting the saint with that natural and fine expression, they know so well 
how to give in the City of the Saints.39 The relics of Cornelius were after- 
wards returned and brought to the city of Chambery. Thus disposed, they 
were richly clad with vestments, suitable to the archiepiscopal dignity. 
Numerous and distinguished were the contributors to this decoration.^o The 

bearers were obliged to enter a house in the noble dignity, the serious and meditative air, 

suburbs, called Reclus. of the inhabitants belonging to the north of 

37 Struck bv this discovery, the Roman Europe. It is joined to a sweetness and 

examiner, before whom the operation had serenity of expression, which recalls at once 

been made, availing of his right to some por- the distant birth-place of St. Cornelius, his 

lion of the holy relics, wished to retain this exemplary life, and his early death. 

part ; but, the Rev. Father Alphonse, Capu- *° His Grace the Archbishop presented the 

chin, charged with the commission, insisted pastoral ring, which he wore on the day of 

on his making choice of some other por- his consecration, a touching mark of the alii- 

lion. ance there is between our two pastors, one 

3^ The decayed face has been filled up on earth and the other in heaven. But, other 

with wax. relations unite them more intimately, in the 

» The head is a fine one, adds the writer public veneration. The reverend parish 

of this account, and the beholder is pleased to priest of Lemenc has given the cross set in 

sec imprinted on the stranger's brow the precious stones, which he wore for many 

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saint's body was apparelled, in mitre and chasuble ; the latter was cut in an 
antique form, and in texture, it was like that of the other accessories, being 
white silk, embroidered with gold. The alb appears to be beautifully worked ; 
and, the cushion that supports the head is of red damask, trimmed with gold 
fringe. The pallium is spread out near the mitre. In a word, all connected 
with the apparel shows perfect coincidence with the most approved taste. 

The account of grand solemnities atLemenc, in 1854, will be found con- 
tained in a pamphlet,** which purports to have been written, by ''An Inhabitant 
of the City of S. Concord" — the author's real name being the Count de Fimix. 
In this little brochure, we are informed concerning ceremonies accompanying 
the celebration of St. Cornelius* Feast, in the Church at Lemenc, on Sunday, 
the second day of the month in July, 1854.*' Some months had elapsed 
since the relics were brought from Rome, while some delay was deemed 
necessary for preparing the ceremonial. On other occasions, it was held on 
that Sunday, immediately following the 4th of June, each year. Special care 
was taken to embellish the shrine. *3 The relics of blessed Cornelius were 
exposed that year, with more than ordinary magnificence. On Saturday, July 
I St, 1854, the saint was replaced upon his altar, and next day his festival was 
celebrated with grand solemnity. At the early hour of four o'clock the follow- 
ing morning, Sunday, July 2nd, the faithful assembled around the shrine, 
which contained the relics of the blessed Archbishop of Armagh. In the 
morning, the church was filled ; but, in the evening, a still more numerous 
throng crowded to hear the panegyric of the saint, and to assist at the bene- 
diction given by the Lord Archbishop, who desired to take part in the festival. 
An imposing procession was organized, and its march occupied a duration of 
two hours. It led along a road, conducting to St. Louis-of-the-Mount, towards 
the cross of St. Cornelius. This was the end of the pilgrimage. The little 
statue of St. Cornelius, enriched with a portion of his holy relics, was borne 
by the celebrant.^ The author afterwards proceeds to relate, that a chapel 
had been erected near the cross of St. Concord ; that it was decorated with all 
luxuries of the field, that its columns were of boxwood, and its carpet of moss ; 
while the wild flowers enhanced and embellished these verdant ornaments. 
Art also was put in requisition, yet, through regard for the locality, it left first 
rank to nature. Some artificial bouquets were mixed with their inimitable 
originals, and seemed placed there, to show the Creator's incomparable skill. 
Long ribbons were fixed on the summit of pillars, being destined to hang in 
graceful festoons ; but, an invisible architect raised them in a contrary manner^ 
into elegant arcades, by which he divided into compartments of light the 
azure vault of the firmament. Above this rustic tabernacle, which had not 

years, as a military chaplain ; and, we may during the month of July in the same year, 

truly say, that it was worthy of the guardian Published at Chambery ; Government Print- 

of the holy relics, to present this distinctive ing Office, 1854. 

badge. *' The following particulars are taken from 

^' It is intituled, in the English translation this account, 

from the French language, ** A Tribute of *3 The author of the pamphlet, "A Tribute 

respect to the Blessed Cornelius. Arch- of Respect to the Blessed Cornelius," &c., 

bishop of Armagh, Prelate of Ireland, who proceects to give an account regarding the 

died in the odour of sanctity, at Lemenc ter- local religious institutions, in the neighbour* 

ritory of the city of Chambery, the 4th June, hood of Lemenc. This portion of his little 

1170, returning from Rome, where had gone work is extremely interesting. He then de- 

on the affairs of his diocese." His Relics are scribes that religious procession, in honour 

exposed for public veneration in a chapel of of St. Concord, in July, 1854, at which he 

the parochial church of Lemenc. The res- had the happiness of assisting, 

toration of that shrine, which contains them, ^^ A hynm proper for this occasion, and of 

took place in 1854, and on that occasion the recent composition, was entoned in honour 

present pamphlet was written, at Chambery, of our saint. 

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June 4.] 



any other covering, the s])ort of elements appeared intentional, so graceful 
and well supported it had been, as if designing to concur in the festal decora- 
tions. Owing to another attention of this amiable Providence, who often 
condescends to enter into the minutest details, especially on like occasions • 
a light cloud, which did not make day in the least appear sombre, interposed 
between the sun and the worshippers/s The statue of St. Concord was placed 
by the celebrant on the rustic altar, when the procession had there arrived. 
Amid broken rocks, with which the ground in this place is strewn, an im- 
mense surrounding crowd, by the diversity of its attitude, originality of its 
situation, and a uniform piety that appeared predominant, formed a picture 
as striking as it was new. Raised on the heights of the Red Cross, men looked 
down on that rich valley, which extended from Chambery^^ to the Lake of 


Lemenc and St. Louis-of-the- Mount, near Chambery. 

Bourget. Joining mortification to recollections, worshippers knelt on the 
naked rock, and had rough stones for benches. A return of the processionists 
obliged them to descend by a sharp and deep ravine, especially remarkable, 
for unevenness of the soil,^7 and numerous obstacles Uiat were opposed along 
their passage.-** 

It was an account of the foregoing solemnities,^^ which accidently reached 

*s A statue of the Blessed Virgin occupied 
the middle of this rural sanctuary. 

^ Anciently called Camennum. See 
**Chroniqve de Savoye/' liv. i., chap, x., 
p. 6. 

^ The included illustration, copied from 
a local photograph and drawn on the wood, 
by William F. Wakeman, has been engraved 
by Mrs. Millard. The foreground repre- 
senUt Chambery ; on the rising ground in the 
middle distance and to the left is Lemenc, 
with its Church of St. Concord ; immediately 
beyond which rises St. Louis-of-the-Mount, 

whither pilgrimages are made to the cross 
and oratory of St. Concord. In fact, 
Lemenc may be regarded as a suburb of 

** After some pious reflections, the writer 
adds: ** Arrived at the end of our descent, 
theassistants, before taking their places, came 
to venerate, under fresh fohage, the holy relics 
borne by the priest ; then the procession 
having reformed, took the road to Aix, 
chanting a sublime psalm entoned to the air 
of the * Magnificat.' It was the * Domine 
probasti me,*" &c. See Most Rev. Dr 

Digitized by 




[Junk 4. 

the Most Rev. Dr. Dixon,5o Archbishop of Armagh, that induced him to 
write afterwards a valuable little work.s' Towards the close of that year, 
and about the end of December, few days before starting for Ireland, he re- 
ceived a comraunication,5« through the secretary of the Bishop,53 of St. 
Maurienne, in Savoy, referring to St. Concord. A reply, containing some 
historic notices of him, was sent to Monsieur de St. Sulpice. Then Dr. 
Dixon had resolved at once — ^having been before undetermined in the matter 
— to go home through Chambery,54 where he could visit the shrine of the holy 
Archbishop. He also hoped to procure, from the guardians of Concord's 
blessed remains, a considerable relic for his church of Armagh. He arrived 
in Chambery, late on the night of Saturday, the 13th of January. ss On the 
next morning, having celebrated the holy mysteries in a church belonging to 
the Capuchin Fathers, himself and his travelling companion were visited after 
breakfast by the pious Count de Firnex,s6 accompanied by his son. The 
Irish ecclesiastics were visited, at the dame time, by Monsieur de St. Sulpice. 
The parish priest of Lemenc also came to visit them. The Archbishop 
arranged with him, to celebrate Mass in his church, at the altar of Cornelius, 
Archbishop of Armagh, on the following morning, which was Monday. After- 
wards, the Most Rev. Dr. Dixon and his companion went to pay their respects 
to his Grace the Archbishop of Chambery.57 This prelate was very devoted 
to blessed Concord ; yet, he graciously permitted, that Dr. Dixon should take 
with him a considerable relic of his holy predecessor. Early on Monday 
morning, the parish priest of Lemenc, accompanied by the Vicar-General and 
the Diocesan Chancellor, waited on the Irish prelate at his hotel. They con- 
ducted him to the residence of the parish priest, at Lemenc.s^ Here he waited, 
until a grand procession, composed of male and female confraternities of the 

Dixon's "Blessed Cornelius," Ac, pp. 90 

to 93. 

^ An Irish gentleman, who had been re- 
siding in Rome for some time, directed his 
attention to an extract, which he had trans- 
lated from the Courier des Alpes — a news- 
paper published in Chambery — and referring 
to the celebrations of July, 1854. 

5° He was then at Rome, being invited in 
common with other Bishops of the Catholic 
world, to take part in solemnities accom- 
panying the celebrated decree, defining the 
doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of 
the Blessed Virgin, and published by Pope 
Pius IX., on the memorable 8ih of Decem- 
ber, 1854. 

s« Intituled, " The Blessed Cornelius," &c. 

s* It was to this effect, after giving the 
local traditions regarding their patron : "We 
have at Chambery but very few details on the 
life and labours of this holy personage. De- 
sirous of publishing a more complete Life of 
the Blessed Cornelius, commonly called 
Concord, the parish priest of Lemenc, and a 

Seat number of pious persons supplicate 
onseigneur, the Archbishop of Armagh, his 
worthy and august successor, to have the 
kindness to transmit to them the documents 
which may be preserved in Ireland on the 
pontificate of the holy Archbishop, and on the 
church of Armagh at thai epoch. The sup- 
pliants would be happy to offer to the church 
of Armagh, ftnd to the august Pontiff who 

governs it, a relic of Blessed Concord. 
They shall not cease to invoke their holy pro- 
tector for the prosperity of religion in Ire- 
land, and according; to the intentions of its 
venerated primate. 


"/» the nanie of the Suppliants^ 

"A. De St. Sulpice, 

** Canon Chancellor of the Archbishoprie 
of Chambery:' 

S3 His Lordship had been residing in the 
Vatican, and he was then preparing for a 
return to his diocese. 

5* A description of Chambery will be found 
in the "Chroniqvede Savoye,"liv. i.,chap. 
xxvii., p. 24. 

5S See " The Blessed Cornelius," &c., in 
the xi. chapter, which has for its heading, 
** How I came to hear of the Blessed Cor- 
nelius — visit to his relics at Chambery.'* 

5* The Count came to present a number of 
small pamphlets to the Archbishop, and of 
which this visitor was the author. The book 
was entitled, "A Tribute to the Blessed 
Concord." It had been written during the 
preceding year. As an appendix to his chap- 
ter. Dr. Dixon published the greater part of 
this brochure, in an English dress, for whidi 
he felt indebted to a ^ood religious, belong- 
ing to the Convent of the Sacred Heart, at 

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June 4.] 



Blessed Concord, dressed in their habits and carrying several standards, 
formed in front of the house, whence they walked before hira down to the 
church. 59 The Archbishop of Armagh was obliged to stop at the entrance 
of Blessed Cornelius* chapel, until the parish priest read an address to hira in 
French, To this, the Archbishop replied in a few words of the same language. 
Then, approaching an altar, on which the body of the blessed Archbishop 
rested in a handsome shrine, dressed out with rich pontifical ornaments, Dr. 
Dixon celebrated Mass, assisted by the Vicar-General and Chancellor, in full 
canonicals. After Mass, he was obliged to put on a mitre of the Archbishop 
of Chambery, and with a pastoral staff in hand he wentfto the high altar. There 
he gave benediction, with the most Holy Sacrament, to a devout throng, who 
had assembled to see the successor of Blessed Concord. Having partaken 
of the good parish priest's hospitality, whose kindness and attention to the 
Archbishop and to all the clergy present on the occasion, could not be sur- 
passed ; Dr. Dixon afterwards went to visit that house, and he saw the room, 
in which Blessed Cornelius died^ From this house, the strangers went to 
visit a convent of the Carmelite nuns; this community, too, had a special 
interest for them.** They had been good enough to prepare, in a beautiful 
case, relics ^ of the holy man, intended as a present for the church at Armagh. 
All this was done privately, that the people belonging to the parish might not 
be generally aware of what had happened ; because, great as was their respect 
for the Blessed Concord's successor, they would hardly have endured to see so 
much of the bones of their revered patron and protector taken away from 
them. In the evening, the Irish travellers prepared to set out,^3 from Cham- 
bery for Lyons. Thus, it had been granted to a very' worthy successor of that 
holy Archbishop, to make known in Ireland the glorious sepulchre, where 
his bones repose, and to restore to his diocese a portion of these bones, after 

S7 By him, they were invited to dine ; and, 
it was a great grati6cation to meet at dinner 
the venerated successor of St. Francis of 
Sales, the Bishop of Annecy,Vho, like the 
Irish pilgrims, was on his way home from 
the Eternal City. 

s* Having as a travelling com^nion the 
Rev. Michael 0*Hea of the Diocese of 
Dublin, on returning from Italy, by way of 
Turin and the Mount Cenis Tunnel, both 
stayed at Chambery the evening of Novem- 
ber the 9th, 1886, and on the morning of 
the day following we had the happiness of 
being allowed to celebrate Mass in St. 
Concord's church, Lemenc. The writer was 
privileged, by officiating in the special 
chapel of St. Concord, and on the altar be- 
hind which were the beautiful new shrine 
and relics of the holy Archbishop. Nothing 
could be more kind than those attentions of 
the hospitable and excellent Cur^ of the 
Parish of Lemenc, Fr. Dumont, who in- 
sisted on our remaining to breakfast with 
him, having showed us over his most in- 
teresting church, standing on the site of a 
pagan temple of ancient Gaul, and which is 
now converted into a cr3rptic chapel. From 
him we received much valuable information 
about the church of which he was pastor, 
and regarding its patron. He'also presented 
OS with a small '^Vie de Saint Concord," 
Uymnesy Cantiqaes et Pri^res en son Hon- 

neur," printed at Chambery in l88i, 24mo. 
It has been reprinted, with some additions 
from an abridged Life of the saint, issued in 
1809, for the use of the Confraternity of the 
Blessed Cornelius. 

S9 When all had arrived there, it was found 
thronged by the parishioners, at that early 
hour, and the choir was practising its best 

*** In his day, it had been a Benedictine 
monastery ; then it was occupied by nuns of 
the Visitation Order. These kept a board- 
ing school, and the young ladies would in- 
sist on marking the occasion of the Irish 
Archbishop's visit, by a formal address, 
which was pronounced viva voce by one of 

*' To these good nuns had been committed 
the office of dressing the Blessed Cornelius 
in certain new pontifical ornaments, which 
he then wore. 

*» These were a bone of the thigh, and a 
portion of a rib, taken from the Blessed Cor- 
nelius' remains. 

^^ Before bidding farewell to the worthy 
parish priest of Lemenc, the Archbishop lelt 
some aims with him, to be distributed among 
the poor of his flock. This was an humble 
return to that parish, for a great^ spiritual 
treasure ; and, thanks to Go<C the'voyagers 
were enabled to bring home safelv their 
prized treasure to Ireland. The small «* Vie 

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long lapse of seven hundred years.^* Those relics of Blessed Concord are now 
carefully preserved in Ireland : a portion of the rib at the Presentation Con- 
vent, in Drogheda, and a thigh-bone, at the Sacred Heart Convent, near Armagh, 
The Most Rev. Dr. Dixon tells us, also, that he applied to the Sacred Con- 
gregation of Rites in Rome, for permisson to have the office of this saint 
celebrated in Armagh diocese, under the same rite, as that observed at Cham* 
bery. There, Novenas arid various devout practices, in honour of Blessed 
Concord, have been long established. 

Not only the religious world, but every student of human nature, ought 
to take a special interest in the study of a saint's acts and character. We 
cannot doubt, but during life, the prayers of this holy Prelate were frequently 
offered, both at home and abroad, not for himself alone, but for many others, 
who sought his good offices. The pious stranger people, who were under 
his specml patronage, and who loved in life as after death their Irish pilgrim 
prelate, still share with Ireland that veneration, which must continue to re- 
ceive increase with the coming of future generations. 

Article II. — St. Petrock, Abbot, and Patron of Bodmin, Corn- 
wall. l^Sixth Century.] At an early period, and soon after St. Patrick's 
mission had succeeded in Ireland, the rocky lands of Cornwall were overspread 
by missionaries from our Island, and these strangers have left the impress of 
their names on her hills, valleys and churches. We shall here endeavour, to 
illustrate and fill up such scanty outlines, with some probable and consistent 
materials, which older writers furnish, regarding the biography of one well re- 
membered among her earliest of missionaries. Possibly, there might have been 
two saints, each bearing the name of Petrock ; for, we find some irreconcilable 
dates in his Acts. However, we are now only concerned with the holy man» 
who flourished undoubtedly, so early as the sixth century. The Church his- 
torian, Thomas Fuller, regards him, as " the Captain of the Cornish Saints ;"* 
but, this eulogy may be taken to signify a missionary career, passed in Corn- 
wall, without his having been born there. . A summary of the few^historical facts, 
which have been handed down to us, regarding Petrock, and stripped of the 
traditional fancies, in which they were clothed, are furnished from an old Life 
of the saint, by John Leland." By the French, he is called Perreux.3 Manu- 
script Acts of this saint are extant.** John Capgrave has given us the Life of 
this patriarch ;5 and John of Teignmouth wrote an ancient life.* St. Petrock 
has been noticed, by the antiquary John Leland, in his Commentaries on 
British Writers,^ and thi? account has been reproduced by Bishop Tanner.* 

de Saint Concord "states ; **Chaque ann^e, Confessore, MS. Cottonian Tiber. E. i ff, 

depuis lors, on voit venir a Lemenc des 172 b — 174. Also, that published in the 

^veques ou des pr^tres Irlandais pour y "Acta Sanctorum,'* at the 4th of June, ex 

venerer le tombeau du saint qui a laiss^ de MS. Cod. Rubese Vallis. See Sir Thomas 

si pr^eux souvenirs en Irlande." — "Notice Duffus Hardy's "Descriptive Catalogue of 

sur la Vie ct le culte de Saint Concord," Materials relating to the History of Great 

p. 20. Britain and Ireland," vol. i., part i., p. 

^See Most Rev. Dr. Dixon's "Blessed 117. 

Cornelius," &c., chap, xi., pp. 68 to 75. s See "Nova Legenda Angliae," Pridie 

Article ii. — ' See ** Church- History of Nonas Junii, fol. cclxvi., cclxvii. 

Britain ; from the Birth of Jesus Christ until * It is quoted by Ussher, in " Britannica- 

the year m.dc.xlviii.," endeavoured by rum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," cap. xiv.K 

Thomas Fuller, vi. centurie, Book i., sect. 1 1, p. 292. 

p. 42. 7 See ** Commentarii de Scriptoribus Bri- 

* In his Itinerary, ** Ex Viid Petroci,** vol. tannicis," auctore Joanne Lelando Londin- 

viii., p. 52. ate. Ex Autc^apho Lelandino nunc primus 

3 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des edidit Antonius Hall, A.M., ColL Reg. 

Saints," tome vL, iv«. Jour de Juin, p. 441. Oxon. Sodus, tomus i., cap. xxxv., pp. 61, 

.♦ Thus we find, De S. Petroco, Abbate et 6a. Oxonii, 1709, 8vo. 

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Juke 4-1 1.1 YES Of THE IRISH SAINTS. 113 

At this day, as appears from the posthumous Hst, Colgan intended to publish 
his Acts.» These will be found, in the BoUandist collection," and edited by 
Father Godefrid Henschen ;" while, they are published from a Manuscript 
Life, attributed to John of Tinniouth. We find an account of this holy man, 
likewise, by Dean Cressy," Rev. Alban Butler, '3 the Petits Bollandistes,'* 
and Rev. S. Baring-Gould. *s John of Tinmouth, Capgrave and Ussher call 
St. Petrock a Cumbrian ; but, as he has been commonly named Corinius, 
which is said to have been an equivalent for Cornubiensis, these writers think- 
the word Cumber must have been a mistake for Camber. Suasius incorrectly 
calls him a Cimber.*^ The Welsh document, " Bonedd y Saint," declares,- 
that his father was named Clement, and that he was a Cornish prince. 
According to Dr. Thomas Fuller, Petrok was a Welsh-Irish-Cornish man, 
having his birth in Wales, and his breeding in Ireland. *7 However, St. 
Petrock was a native of Wales, and of royal extraction, according to most 
accounts. Tlie Rev. Jolm Adams regards him, however, as being a Cornish- 
man.'^ According to his Itinerary, an old Life of this saint,'9 the author had 
seen, supplies information, that Petrock was by race, if not by birth, a Cam- 
ber. Designated simply as a Camber, this word may signify a native of either 
Wales or Cornwall ;~ and, accordingly, he is claimed, as a denizen, by both 
coiintries. Some of the Welsh writers maintain, that he was born of princely 
parentage in Wales ; while nearly all authors are agreed, that he was son to 
Clement, said to have been a prince or chief, in Wales or Cornwall The. 
time of his birth is regarded as having occurred, in the very early part of the 
sixth century, if not late in the fifth. He was more ennobled for his virtues, 
however, than he had been distinguished, owing to his family connexions. 
Such was his life fi'om childhood, and so closely did he imitate St. Peter's, 
faith and works, that he seemed not without a Divine presage, to have re- 
ceived a name derived from that of the Apostle. These graces, God had 
conferred on him, were so extraordinary, that he was admired and loved by. 
all. Ever modest and humble, he was a cheerful giver ; he was fervent in 
charity, and assiduous in all the duties of religion. According to some writers, 
Petrock was a disciple of St Patrick ;»* but, this seems to be a more than 
doubtful statement. Upon the death of his father, his people insisted oa 
Petrock succeeding in the kingdom. He was resolved, however, to choose 
the better part He wished to give up an earthly, for a heavenly crown.'* 

• See his '^Bibliotheca Britannico-Hiber- to the mode of that Age, wherein all BritisA 

nica," p. 594. sailed over into Ireland (as the English in 

9 According to the " Catalogus Actuum after-ages did into Frances^ there to have 

Sanctorum quse MS. babentur, ordine Men- their Education in all learned sciences. Who 

sium et Dierum. " would have thought to have found Heluon 

*** Sec " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii amongst the BogSt as indeed it was at that 

iv. Dc S. Petroco Abbate, in Cornubia timer* — *'The History of the Worthies of 

Britannix Provincia, pp. 399 to 402. England :" endeavoured by Thomas Fuller, 

" He has a previous commentary, with D.D., first printed in 1662. A new edition 

notices of his cultus and the different trans- with a few explanatory Notes, by John 

lations of his body, in 5 paragraphs, with Nichols, F.S.A., Lond., Edinb. & Perth, 

notes, illustrating Uie Acts, from John of vol. ii. The Worthies of Wales Generall, 

Tinmouth. p. ^63. 

** Sec Dean Cressy's " Church History of * See "Journal of the Royal Institution of 

Brittany** book x., chap. xxiv., pp. 223 to 225. Cornwall, 1868," No. ix., Chronicles of Cor- 

'3' Sec "Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and hish Saints, No. ii., S. Petrock. 
other principal Saints," vol. v.,Tuneiv. *» There we have it, ''Petrocus genera 

*< Sec "Vies des Saints, tome vi., Camber." See voL viii., p. 52. 
iv*. Jourdc Jnin, pp. 401, 402. ** In the Itinerary of William of Worces 

»5 Sec " Lives of the Saints," vol. v., June ter, it is stated : ** Sanctus Petrocus, rex 

4, p. 35. patriae Cumborum id est partis borialis regni 

«• See Father Godefrid Henschen's n. («). Angliae," p. loi. 
•^This writer quaintly adds, "accordii^; "'See Borlase's "History of Cornwall,* 

Digitized by 



In consequence of this resolution, be retired from the world. He left the 
royal inheritance to his younger brother. '3 A hermit, who lived in a very 
holy manner, had been at first an inhabitant of Bosmanach. His name has 
been Latinized Guronus.'^ This solitary, named also St. Gorran, or Guron,»5 
had an humble abode in a small hut, which he left to St. PetroC* It is stated, 
that he lived in a valley. He settled afterwards, most probably in Gorran 
parish, perhaps, at Polgorran, or Gorran's Pool, a little northwards from the 
church.»7 It is said,'* that St. Petrock professed a monastic life, under the 
Rule of St. Bennet,'5 at Bodmin, then called Brosmana, that is, the ''mansion 
of the Monks."3° With sixty other companions, St. Petroc embraced a monas- 
tic life, in his native country. There, he remained, for some years ; yet, it is 
not known, where that monastery, in which he dwelt, had been located. 
After the lapse of those years, he left his hermitage, resolved on going else- 
where to study theology. When St. Petrock reached the age of an adult,3« 
with favouring winds he passed over into Ireland, there to improve himself in 
the knowledge of Holy Scripture. He left the ship in a harbour, where it safely 
remained.3* Several excellent Masters then flourished, in that Island. Here, 
he became a great proficient in Sacred Letters, ''reading good Authors 
there,"35 and in the science of the saints he advanced to perfection. In turn, 
he became a teacher. It is said, St. Finian 3* had previously spent thirty 
years of his life in Britain ; and, when returning to his native land, that he was 
accompanied, by many British Christians, who were afterwards held in great 
veneration for their sanctity, by the Church in Ireland. As the time of his 
return corresponds with the time of Petrock's migration to Ireland, we may 
suppose, that our saint was one of the companions of that Finian alluded to, or, 
at all events, that he was attracted to our Island by him, there to pursue his 
studies under such guidance, at Clonard, in Meath. This was the most famous 
school in the Island, established at that time. It was founded by St. Finian, 
about A.D. 520. This institution soon became a kind of university, for the 
whole country. The fame of the founder's good works, it is said, drew many 
great men to him from divers parts of the land, as to an admirable sanctuary 
of all wisdom. They desired to learn in his school the sacred Scriptures and 
the ecclesiastical institutes.3S The monastery at Clonard, at that time, boasted 
of many teachers and students. These were famous, in their generation, for 
sanctity and learning. It is said, that no less than 3,000 scholars studied 
there, during the course of St. Finian's presidency.3* The account in the old 

sect, i., p. 380. 5° We know, that a conventual establish- 

^ See the Life of our saint, attributed to ment, which was associated with his name^ 

John of Tinmouth, in the BoUandists' ''Acta existed in subsequent times, near the site of 

Sanctorum," tomus i., Tunii iv., p. 400. the present parish church. Perhaps, we may 

'3 This is stated in William of Worcester's conjecture, that the scene of his retirement 

Itinerary, p. lOi. must have been at that place. Besides the 

*♦ See John Leland^s **Commentarii de copious fountain, which still flows in that 

Scriptoribus Britannicis," tomus i., cap. pleasant valley, we may picture to ourselves 

XXXV., p. 61. the young recluse, deepening his religious 

*^ He is probably the same as St. Guier, ardour by devotion, and ac(}uuring day by 

or Guerir, to whom a church was formerly day a firmer establishment, m the love of 

dedicated, in Cornwall, not far from Padstow. our Lord. 

* See Joannis Lelandi Antiquarii ** De ^i See John Leiand's "Commentarii de 

Rebus Britannicis Collectanea," vol. i., p. 75. Scriptoribus Britannicis,'* tomus i., cap. 

■7 The parish seems to have derived its xxxv., p. 61. 
denomination from him. See Whitaker's ^ According to the nanative of John of 

" Cathedrals of Cornwall," vol. i., p. 36. Tinmouth. 

»« By Dugdale. 33 See Dr. Thomas Fuller's " History of 

■» We are told, that the Monks followed the Worthies of Engknd," vol. ii., p. 503. 
this Rule, until the time of Athelstan. The ^ This saint is venerated at the 23rd of 

rule of St. Bennet, however, was not known Februarv, where in the Second Volume of 

in Cornwall, so early as the sixth century. this work, at that date, Art. ix., some no- 

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Life of St. Petrock states, that he studied twenty years in Ireland.^' St. 
Petrock*s character and reputation were soon well established there. In 
the Life of St. Coemgen,3^ one of the most illustrious among the Irish Saints, 
we read, that his parents, who were Christians and of princely birth in Lein- 
ster, committed their son to St. Petrock for instruction. Then Coemgen was 
only seven years of age, and he remained with that master for five years. The 
selection, therefore, of Petrock, to be the teacher of such a pupil, stamps him 
as a man of mark, and as a most capable instructor, among his contemporaries 
in Ireland, It seems most probable, that Petrock lived chiefly, in the pro- 
vinces of Meath and of Leinster, while sojourning in our Island. At length, 
having attained a lengthened experience, our saint resolved on returning to 
Britain, and several disciples were ready to accompany him, from Ireland. 
Having with great care and diligence laid up in Hibemia a good store of 
Divine wisdom and learning, St. Petrock went to where his bark remained, 
and thence he returned to Britain, after a favourable passage. There he 
desired to impart hke treasures to his countrymen,39 as those he had received 
in our Island. Great calamities had befallen his native land, during Petrock's 
long absence. Saxon armies had well nigh quenched the independence of the 
British chiefs. The invading hordes ravaged the country, from the banks of 
the Tweed, to the borders of Dartmoor. It is true, during many years, the 
renowned King Arthur^® kept the pagan hosts at bay, and in some degree he 
restored the supremacy of British power. This hero had departed, however, 
and his successor, Constantino II.,4» was obliged to wage war, with the two 
sons of Mordred. These now claimed the throne, and they had induced the 
Saxon invaders to espouse their cause. Still, the stronghold of British power, 
Cornwall, was beset, and invaded on all sides, by the foe. During his long 
residence in our Island, Petrock had seen the great value of monastic institu- 
tions there. St. Patrick's famous establishment at Armagh, as well as St. 
Finian's at Clonard, must have been examples to him of their wonderful 
power and success. Having disembarked, with those disciples, who accom- 
panied him from Ireland, he was asked by certain reapers to procure water to 
assuage their thirst.^* Before the barbarians, who lived in that part of the 
country, where they landed, he struck the living rock with his st^ and im- 
mediately, a clear stream of pure water began to flow.<3 The pagans no less 
than the Christians surrounding him admired the wonders of God's mercy in 
this miracle. When returning to his native country, with a band of fellow- 
labourers, Petrock's object was to establish a Monastery in Cornwall. 
Inquiring of these people there, if any Christian remained in the province, they 
told him of one Sampson,** who dwelt in a hermitage, not far distant, and 

ticc of him will be found. However, we ^ See his Life in this volume, at the pre- 

shali treat of him more in detail, at the 1 2th vious day, June 3rd, Art. i. 

of December, which is regarded as his chief » See John Leland's "Commentarii de 

festival. Scriptoribus Britannicis," tomus L, cap. 

^ See Colgan's '* Acta Sanctorum Hiber- xxxv., De Petroco, p. 61. 

ni«," xxiii. Febniarii. Vita S. Finniani seu ^ He was son of Uthur Pendragon, and 

Finenni Abbatis Cluain-Eraird, cap. xix., his eventful reign, from A. D. 517 to A.D.542, 

p. 395. will be found related in the Rev. William 

*• From the Hymn *' Ad Laudes," in the Warrington's ** History of Wales," vol. i., 

office oi St. Finian : — Book ii., pp. 104 to 118^ 

•* Trium virorum millium *' See Charles Wilkins* "Wales, Past and 

Sorte fit doctor humilis ; Present," chap, x., p. 61. 

Verbi his fudit fluvium, *' Jam loca ilia occupaverat Saxo, Britan- 

Ut fons emanens rivulis." nosque inde fugaverat ; vel qui cum Parto 

— «$f^., p. 401. nuper, vel qui cum Cerdicio venerat prius ; 

^ Thus, " Petrocus 20 annis studuit in unde sequitur in Capgravio ; E^essis de 

Hibemia.**— John Leland's "Itinerary," nave discipulis, messores ilUc operantes 

▼oL Tfii.* p. 52. amare illis locuti sunt"— Alford's " Annalcs 

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[Junk 4. 

who was in great repute, for his zeal and sanctity.^s Here he lived, as a soli- 
tary, in great abstinence, labour, watching and prayer, for many years. He 
used only barley bread for his subsistence. Petrock had a great desire to 
visit this neighbour, and to have the happiness of holding a spiritual confer- 
ence with him. Our saint also wrought a miracle on his behalf. We gather 
from the memoirs, that Sampson ^^ was much addicted to the life of a recluse ; 
and, there is local evidence, confirmatory of this incidental mention, regard- 
ing his residence in Cornwall.*^ Petrock betook himself to St Saimpson's 
hermitage, where he found that holy man living, in great poverty. He was 
labouring with his own hands, in an adjoining field. Giving and receiving 
the kiss of peace, when they were about to part, Petrock had resolved on 
settling somewhere in the neighbourhood, with his disciples. It has been sup- 
posed,*^ that Coemgen *» accompanied Petrock, and that he is the saint from 
whom the Church of Keverne in Cornwall takes its etymon. The name, in 
fact, is sometimes written ** Keivin." Leland s® and Whitaker 5» assert, that 
the patron was identical with Piran ; but. Dr. Borlase 5» argues, that he must 
have been a different person, and, chiefly on the ground, that different parents 
are ascribed to them.53 Many Irish disciples, illustrious for learning and 
sanctity, were associated with Petrock's arduous work. Among these, the 
names of only three have been handed down. They were Credanus, Medanus, 
and Dachanus.54 It seems very likely, they were natives of Ireland. In a 
brief memoir of*' Dechanus" or ** Deganus," Colgan states,55 that he was bom 
at the end of the sixth century, within the borders of Lagenia, in the east of 
Ireland, that he was a man of high repute, first as an Abbot, and afterwards 
as a Bishop, in Ireland, and that he was a nephew of Coemgen, St. Petrock*s 
pupil 56 In order to effect the good work he meditated, Petrock settled in 
Cornwall. His residence is said to have been fixed some miles off the Severn 
Sea, and at a place, then named Loderic,57 or Laffenac.s^ It stood, on the 
North Sea, and at the mouth of a river. That locality was called tlie Heile- 

Ecclesise Anglo- Saxcnicse," vol. ii., p. 10. 

-♦3 John of Tinmouth adds, **et usque in 
hodiemum diem manare non desinit.'* 
John Bale says: *'Qusesitus hac laboriosa 
scientiae thesaurus cura, tandum est inuen- 
tus : qui jam ne deliteret, inventor Hiber- 
nicas gazas in Coriniam seu Comubiam 
transtuUt, et videndas omnibus exhibuit." — 
** Scriptorum Illustrium Majoris Britanniae," 
&c., Centuaria Prima, num. xL, p. 56. 

^ In the opinion of Alford, this Sampson 
was, no doubt, the famous disciple of St. 
Iltutus, who became Bishop of Menevia,and 
who afterwards presided over the See of 
Dol, in BritUny. See " Fides Regia Bri- 
tannica, sive Annales Ecclesiae Bntannicae," 
tomus i , A.D. 505, num. 3. 

^5 According to Dom Gui Alexis Lobineau, 
he was "n^dans le South- Wale." — **His- 
toire de Bretagne,** tome i., liv. L, sect. 
xxxii., p. 10. 

** His feast occurs, at the 28th of July, 
where notices of him maybe found. 

*' The parish of Golant, in ancient times, 
was called by his name. There was formerly 
an old chapel, called St. Sampson, standing 
on the spot, now occupied by Place House, 
at Padslow. This chapel was no doubt built 
on the site of his Oratory, and it was pro- 
bably that spot to which Petrock had been 
.directed, by the Saxon pirates. 

♦• By the Rev. John Adams. 

^ See his Life, at the previous day. Art L 

5° Sec Leland's ** Ilmcrary," voL iii., 
p. 24. 

5'See Whitaker*! "Cathedral of Corn- 
wall,'* vol. ii., p. la 

^ See William Borlase's "Histoijr of 
Cornwall," voL i., Book iv., chap, xi., p. 


53 He adds, also, that in Domesday, Per- 
ranzabulse is called Lanpiran ; whereas St 
Keverne is called Lannachebran, ut^ Lan-a- 
Chebran, the Church of Chebran. There 
were formerly considerable ruins to be seen, 
near the parish church of St. Keverne, at a 
place, called Tregonin. According to tradi- 
tion, these were me remains of an old chapel 
and priory. 

^ Leland tells us, that they were all buried 
at Bodmin. " Extat Petroburgi libellus d4 
SeptUturd sanctorum An^^Iorum ; ex quo 
liquet Credanum, Medanum, et Dackunumt 
viros sanctitate vitse illustreis, et Petroci imi- 
tatores, Dosmanach fuisse sepultot.*' — Com- 
mentarii de Scriptoribus Britannicis, tomos 
i., cap. XXXV., De Petroco, p. 61. 

ss See "Acta Sanctorum Hibemise,** 
Martii xii. De S. Degano, Abbate et Epik- 
cop. cap. i., p. 5S4. 

^ John Bale states : " In ccenolMO iier6 
apostolid ordinis, quod in Comubia aliquot 

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muth, by Roger Wendover ; and, by William of Malmsbury, it is named the 
H^elmith.59 Petrock is said to have built a monastery, on the north coast 
of Cornwall, about a.d. 520.^ For thirty years, St. Petrock is stated to have 
lived, where he had selected the site for his religious establishment, in inno- 
cence and seclusion. He crucified the flesh, by remaining immersed in cold 
water, during a considerable part of the night ; his fasting and abstinence were 
so rigorous, that he only permitted himself to eat a morsel of bread for his 
meals ; he was incessant in vigil and prayer : solely on the day of the Lord's 
Resurrection would he take some pulse, as a refreshment, and in honour of 
that great festival. This holy man is supposed to have occupied a hermitage. 

City of Jerusalem. 

and to have lived a monastic life, under the rule of St. Benedict at Bodmina, 
in the valley at Bodmin.^' We are informed, that St. Petrock had resolved 
on making a visit to Rome ;^' although, at first, his disciples sought to dis- 
suade him from this purpose, as the weather seemed to be foul and stormy. 
But, Petrock promised, that the day following should prove more favourable. 
However, his hopes were frustrated, and he began to think the Almighty had 
deemed him presumptuous ; but, on the third day, the tempest abated, and 
he set out on his journey, wiih an assured conscience. Following the me- 
moir, attributed to John of Tinmouth, Capgrave and Ussher place this visit 
to Rome, after Petrock had returned to Cornwall, and had spent thirty years 

passauin millibus a Sabrino littore sedificabat, 
discipulos habuit, Credanum, Medanuin, et 
Dachanum, uiros doctrina et uiUe sanctitate 
illustres.'' — ** Scriptorum lUustrium Majoris 
Britanniae," &c Centuaria Prima, num. be., 
p. 56. 

» This is rendered " the Creek of Rob- 
bers," by Borlase. 

^ "LafTenac, quasi Lan-manach, the 
Church of the Monks ; as Bodvenah (now 
Bodman) from Bodmanacb, the House of 

the Monks."— Borlase *s " History of Corn- 
wall, "vol. i., Book iv., chap, xi., sect, i., 
p. 379. 

5* See Ussher, " De Primordiis," cap. 
xvii., p. 1014. 

'o See Sir William Dugdalc's " Monasti- 
con Anglicanum,** vol. ii., p. 459- 

«« See John Leland's ** De Rebvs Briian- 
nicis Collectanea,*' vol. i., p. 75- Editio 
Altera, with the preface, notes and Index of 
Thomas Heam. 

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there/3 When he arrived in Rome, his great consolation was to visit the 
holy places. The old writers of St. Petrock's Acts speak also of his making 
a pilgrimage to Jerusalem,^ at the same time of life, when he had accom- 
plished his journey to Rome. His deepest reflections and warmest religious 
sympathies in Palestine were profoundly and most sensitively moved ; for, 
when he visited the sepulchre of our Divine Lord, pouring forth the most 
fervent prayers, he burst into tears. Thence, he is said to have travelled to 
India, where encountering great dangers, in crossing rivers, and from the 
plots of robbers, he came at last to the extreme Eastern Ocean. There, over- 
come with fatigue, he lay down on the shore, and soon he fell into a pro- 
found sleep. On awaking, according to the Legend of his Life, Petrock saw 
a vessel approaching him from the sea, and it was all lightsome within, but it 
could only contain a single person. However, with great confidence in God, 
he went on board, when without oar or boatman, the sea wafted it onwards 
and towards an Island. Here he landed, and led the life of a contemplative, 
apportioning certain hours to prayer. It is said, that when he reached that 
part of India,*5 he spent seven years on the solitary Island already mentioned. 
During all that time, he fed only on a single fish ; but, when this period had 
elapsed, and while in his sleep, an angelic vision warned him, that the vessel 
on which he came was now ready to take him away.^ However, the narra- 
tive of this remote journey is so blended with improbable and supernatural 
stories, that nothing historical can be deduced from it, besides the fact, that 
he was absent a long time, and that he travelled beyond Palestine. Having 
obeyed the direction of Heaven, and finding all things prepared for his 
voyage homewards, the holy man directed his course to Western Britain. At 
the time of Petrock's return, that country, in the immediate neighbourhood 
of Padstow,^7 seems to have been in the hands of pirates. It is stated, more- 
over, that serpents and noxious animals infested the lakes and places, in that 
part of the country. By his miraculous gifts, Petrock succeeded in banishing 
the last of those pests beyond the seas. According to some accounts, our 
saint flourished a.d. 560,^ under Maglocum, or Malgon, a King of Britain.^ 
Taking twelve companions with him to a solitary place, where no water was 
to be found, Petrock stnick the ground with his baculus, and water was pro- 
duced from the earth. He there founded a college or monastery of the 
Apostolic Order. From him, this place was afterwards called Petrockstow, 
which has been contracted to Padstow ;7o although, BoHase thinks Padstow, 
to have have been so called by the Saxons — from St. Patrick — viz., Patrick- 
stow.7» About this period, Tendurus, or as also called Theodorus,^* and 
Constantine,73 were chieftains of renown, in Cornwall. Rapacious bands 
hovered about the fords of the Tamar, and piratical ships kept the coasts in 

•"The anciftnt Life quoted by John Leland the year M.DC.XLViii., Cent. I, Book i., 

states, •* Petrocus Romam peiiitJ* sect. 1 1, p. 42. 

*3 However, it is altogether more proba- "John of Tinmouth's Life adds this direc- 

ble, that Petrock should have undertaken tion from the Angel : *' Ubi vero mare 

this long journey in middle life, and soon after transieris cum baculo, quem cum melote re- 

his withdrawal from Ireland, than in his old liqueras, assistentem hipum reperies, quem 

age,andafter a thirty years' sojourn in Com- tibi Domini's coll^am, me praeparavit prae- 

wall,whenhe must have beenseventyyearsold. vium, donee notas in partes pervenias.*' — 

** The accompanying illustration, drawn ** Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii iv. Vita 

on the wood by William F. Wakeman, and suspecta auctore Joanne Tinmouthensi, ex 

engraved by Mrs. Millard, presents a view MS. et Capgravio, sect, iv., p. 401. 
of this celebrated city, from without its *' This town ** was called by the Saxons 

walls. Petrockstow ; but by the Britons Bodmanna, 

<^5 "AH far countries,** says Fuller, in that is the Habitation of the Monks." — 
allusion to this narrative, "are East Indies William Borlase*s ''History of Corn- 
to ignorant people."—'* Church History of wall," vol. i., Book iv., chap, xi., sect, i., 
Britain ; from the Birth of Jesus Christ, until p. 381. 

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June 4.] 



constant alarm. Moreover, the country itself was full of insurrection and 
strife, for petty chieftains were everywhere struggling for supremacy. One 
of the mightiest among them, in the west, seems to have been the regulus, 
named Tendurus.7* In the Acts of St. Petrock, by John of Teignmouth, a 
Constantine is mentioned, not however as a chief, but as a rich man. His ser- 
vants had chased a stag, which fled for protection to the cell of St. Petrock. 
This circumstance was related to theu: master, who became violently indignant 
He made an attempt to draw his sword, against the holy man ; but, suddenly, 
his whole frame seemed rigid. However, Petrock forgave his enemy, and on 
pouring forth prayers for him, Constantine was restored to strength. After- 
wards, on being taught the Faith of Christ, he and twenty of his pagan war- 
riors, were converted from the evil of their ways, while Constantine himself 
became a Christian teacher. He resided in Cornwall, for some time, after his 
conversion. This may he inferred, from the fact, that a church in the country 75 
has from time immemorial been associated with his name. It marked, pro- 
bably, the place of his abode, and where his Christian labours had been 
exercised. Moreover, there is a trace of his connection with the district, in 
which Petrock himself resided. In the parish of St, Minver, which originally 
belonged to Padstow, were the ruins of an old chapel, 7^ dedicated to St. Con- 
stantine.77 It is not improbable, that the change, which God's grace wrought 
in Constantine, was brought to pass, through the instrumentality of St 
Petrock, and that the penitent occasionally occupied a cell, on the sands of 
the northern shore, to hold frequent intercourse with his spiritual guide. 
The place above all others, which was dear to Petrock's memory, mUst have 
been the hermitage of his early days, at Bodmin.?^ Thither, it is said, he 
proceeded, to pUmt the first and most renowned monastery, that ever existed 
on Cornish soil. Tendurus or Theoderic and Constantine aided St. Petrock, 
by their generosity and piety. 79 Among other works, Petroc is said to have 
composed a book ** De Vita Solitaria ;"**' but, we are at a loss to find any 
good authority for such a statement. A monastery, which some holy Irish- 
men aided in establishing, is related to have occupied the site of Sr. Petrock's 

« Sec Dr. Thomas Fuller's ** Worthies of 
EngUnd," p. 563. 

•» Sec i5ale*s ** Scriptorum Illustrium 
Majoris Britanniae," &c Centuaria Prima, 
num. xl., p. 56. 

»• Sec Right Rev. Patrick F. Moran*s 
** Irish Saints in Great Britain," chap, ii., 


7> He adds : *' others think it called Pad« 
stow from St. Petrock, a Disciple of St. 
Patrick, who settled in the same bouse and 
built here."—*' History of CornwaU," vol. i., 
Book iy., chap, xi., sect, i., p. 380. 

v* According to John Leland. 

^ This Constantine may be identical with 
the tyrant of that name, whom Gildas vehe< 
mently denounced for his life of iniquity ; 
since we are told, that after having slaugh- 
tered his rivals, the sons of Mordred, he was 
seized with remorse, and he resigiied the 
throDC^ to spend the rest of his days in seclu- 
sion. Thus, in his old age, he became 
a pattern of Christian virtue, and he was a 
preacher of the Gospel, in distant lands. 

7^ He is described, in the Life attributed 
to John of Tinmouth, as a man of fierce 
a^>ect and of savage mannexs. 

f^ Constantine, in the Hundred of Kirrien 
From the notice of the Church in Domesday, 
it seems to have been, as Polwhele sa3rs, one 
of more than ordinary note. " S. Constan- 
tinus tenet dim. hidam terrse, quse fuit quieta 
ab omni servicio T, R. E." 

^ There was a " Well strong built of stone 
and arched over," near it, as we are in- 

7' When Hals wrote his history. 

y' "The late Priory of Blake Chanons 
stoode at the Est Ende of the Paroch Chirch 
Yard of Bodtnyne, S. Peirocus was Palrone 
of this and sumtyme dwell)rd ther." — ^John 
Leland's " Itinerary," vol. ii., p. 84. 

^ " Regnabant eo in CorinUi sseculo duo 
reguli, fam& celebres, Theodorus et Constan- 
tinus ; quorum cum liberal itate turn pietate 
adjutu^ locum condendo aptissimum monas- 
terio aliouot passuum miUibus a Sabrino dis- 
tantem littore accepit ; cui nomen patri& 
lingui Bosmanach a monachis iditum." — 
** Commentarii De Scriptoribus Britannicis.*' 
auctore Joanne Lelando Londinatc, tomus i , 
cap. XXXV., De Petroco,p.6l. 

*» Sec Bale's ** Scriptorum lUustnum Ma- 
joris Britanniae," &c Centunrio Prima, 

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former cell, in Cornwall ; and, it must have been an institute of considerable 
magnitude. No less than twelve ancient churches,^* in Devon, and in Corn- 
wall, owe tlieir foundation to the seed which had been planted on this coast. 
These places are in Cornwall, viz., Padstow, Bodmin, Little Petherick, or St 
Petrock Minor, and Trevalga; and, in Devon, viz., West Anstey, Soutii 
Brent, Clannaborough, St. Petrock, HoUacombe, Lidford, Newton St. 
Petrock, and Petrockstow.^* The old Lives of our saint contain an account 
of many miracles, attributed to St. Petrock's merits, in the sight of God. He 
healed the sick, and he wrought other supernatural works, while his sanctity 
was acknowledged to be of a most exalted character. At last, his life was 
about to close, and knowing this, his disciples were summoned to receive 
Petrock's last legacy. It was in the shape of an instruction, that as they had 
abandoned the world, so should they its pleasurable allurements, that they 
should repress anger, avoid falsehood, and detest envy ; that they should not 
only shun detraction, but even avert all evil suspicions from their neighbours ; 
that they should overcome pride, and give room only in their hearts to virtue 
and the love of God. He wished them to be worthy temples of the Holy 
Ghost. These and such like exhortations were commended by his life-long 
virtues.^3 At Petrocstow ^* or Padstow ^s his mortal course terminated, and 
there too, he was buried. The year of his death is uncertain. While one 
account has it, that he passed to everlasting bliss, before the middle of the 
sixth century ; again, we are told, Petroc exchanged this mortal life for a 
happy immortality, on the 4th of June, sometime in the sixth century.^ He 
died, it is said, after thirty years' labour in the word of God, a.d. 564,^7 on the 
day before the nones of June.^^ The monastery of Padstow was near the sea- 
shore, and it was greatly exposed to the piracies of the Saxons. It was 
destroyed, but its possessions were afterwards obtained by the monks, who 
after the time of the Danes removed to Bodmin, and who brought the body 
of Petrock with them. Its church was dedicated to that saint, who had for- 
merly passed some part of his retirement in the place. There, too, a priory was 
established,^? and a church was built in his honour.?© The hermitage, which 
Petrock had founded, continued, it is stated, to be inhabited by monks 
of the Benedictine Order, until the reign of King Athelstan.?* Long after 
the time of Petroc, King 4^thelstan entered Coriniaas a conqueror, when he 
repaired and enlarged the monastery of our saint.?' There, also, he founded 

num. xl., p. 56. Leland the Antiquary," vol. ii. Second cdi- 

** These are even now called by, or asso- tion by Thomas Hearae, M. A., p. 83. 

dated with, the name of St. Petrock. ^ See the Rev. Alban liutler*s ** Lives of 

^^ By Fuller it is rendered "the siation or the Fathers, Martyrs and other principal 

abiding-place of Petrok." He adds : ** it is Saints," vol. vi., June iv. 

now corruptly Pad-Stowe, where many •? According to Borlase's ** History of 

eminent scholars were brought up under Cornwall," vol. i., Book iv., chap. xi. secL i., 

him."—" Worthies of England," p. 563. p. 380. 

*•' See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus 1., Junii ^ Pelrocus obiit prid Noft,'\\xmV* — "The 

iv.. Vita Suspecta, auctore Joanne Tin- Itinerary of John Leland the Antiquary," 

mouthensi, ex MS. et Capgravio, num. 5, 6, vol. viii., p. 52. Second edition by Thomas 

7, p. 401. Heame, M.A.. 

*♦ Oiim Loderic, or Laffenac, or Adelston, ^ See Bishop Tanner's ** Notitia Monas- 

in the deanery of Pydre. See Bishop tica," James Nasmyth's edition, Cornwall, 

Tanner's "Notitia Monastica," James sect, xxiii. 

Nasmilh's edition. Cornwall, sect, xxiii., ^ See ilnd.y sect. iv. 

p. 459. 9* See ** Magna Britannia,*' by the Rev, 

•5 In the reign of Henry VIIL, we have Daniel Lysons and Samuel Lysons, Esq., 

this account of it : ** There use many Bri' vol. iii., p. 30. 

tons with smaui shippes to resorte to Fade^ ^ See John Leland's ** Commentarii de 

stow with commoditees of their countery and Scriptoribus Britannicis," tomus i., cap. 

to by Fische. The Town of Padestviv'is ful xxv. De Petroco, p. 61. 

of Irisch Men." — "The Itinerary of John « in his " Monasticon," Dugdale gives 

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Juice 4.] 



a monastery, in honour of St Petrock.93 Giving a list of the Bishops of 
Cornwall, Heylin 94 names, in the first place, St. Petrock ; adding, that he 
lived about the year 850. But, this date is three hundred years, after the 
time of St Petrock of Pads tow ; and, some writers suppose, he must have 
been — although a namesake — a different person from the patron. The 
episcopal See for Corwall was placed at Bodmin,95 by King Edward the 
Eider, and by Bishop Plegmund, a.d. 905. Until the year 981,96 Bodmui 
was the seat of the Bishops in Cornwall.97 At that date, the pirates, who 
infested the shores of Domnonia and Cornubia, ravaged St Petroc's-stowe.^^ 
We are informed, that King Athelstan^Q gave part of the bones, hair and gar- 
ments of St. Petrock, to the monastery of St Peter's, at Exeter. **» The monas- 
tery of St Petrock, at Bodmin, being burnt down by the Danes, the bishops 
removed their seat further east to St German's, on the River Lyner.*<>' The 
monastery seems to have continued in ruins for some time, and it went into 
the possession of the Earl of Moreton and Cornwall at the conquest ; but 
soon after it was re-edified — in mo, according to some accounts, or 1120,*°* 
as otiiers state — and restored to its former use by a nobleman, called Algar,'«»3 
with the licence of the king, and with the assistance of William Warlewast, 
Bishop of Exeter.*®* Then, it was given to Canons Regular. '^'s In the year 
117 7,*°^ a Canon of the Abbey of Bodmin, by name Martinus, removed the 
bones of this saint, and carried them to the Abbey of St. Mevennus,'**' 
in Brittany. *°* However, Roger, the prior of Bodmin, went with his brethren 
to King Henry II., and implored of him to aid them, in recovering the sacred 
relics. The king granted their request. A band of armed men was sent to 
the Abbey of St. Mevennus.'*^ Ihese insisted on the restoration of the 

from ancient Charters of Donation, an ac- 
count of St. Petrock and his monastery, vol. 
L, p. 213. This, however, is not easily re- 
concilable with the time; in which he 
flourished, according to other historians. 

wSee "Help to EngUsh History," p. 

^ At Bodmin, Cornwall, there was a 
Laxar House dedicated to St. Laurence. 
See " Monasticon An^licanum,'* by Sir 
WiUiam Dugdale, vol. vii., part ii., p. 757, 
new edition by John Caley, Esq., F.R.S., 
Henry Ellis, LL.B., and the Rev. Bulkeley 
Bandmel, D.D. 

5* See William Borlase*s ** History of 
Cornwall," vol. i., book iv., chap, xi., 
sect. L, p. 381. 

w "William of Malmesbury writes : ** Cor- 
nubiensium sane potificum succiduum or- 
dinem uec scio nee appono, nisi quod apud 
sanctum Peirocum confessorem fuerit episco- 
patus sedes." — "De Gentii Pontificum Angr 
lorum," lib. ii., p. 146. Saville*s edition. 

5* Sec the " Anglo-Saxon Chronicle," p. 
399, in "Monumenta Historica Britannica, 
or Materials for the History of Britain," &c. 
vol. i. Also, Plorentii Wigomensis " Chroni- 
con," p. 579. 

99 See "Monasticon Anglicanum," p. 

. »«> See William Borlase*s "History of 
Cornwall," voL i., book iv., chap, xi., 
sect, i., p. 3^^- 

>oi <*I>xnis est apod aquilonales Brittones 
supra mare iuxta flumen, quod dicitur 

Hegelmithey quidam dicunt fuisse ad sanctum 
Germanum iuxta flumen Liner supra mare 
in australi parte." — " De Gestis Pontificum 
Anglorum, lib. ii., p. 146. '* RerUm Ang- 
licarvm Scriptores post Bedam prsecipui/* 
edito W. Saville, Londini, 1596, fol. 

*°' See Bishop Tanner, in his " Notitia 
Monastica," Cornwall, sect, iv., edition of 
James Nasmyth, M.A. 

"3 He was uterine brother to King 
William I. of England, and he despoiled ot 
all its forms the shrine of Petroc. ^^ Algarus 
nobilis et GulUlmu% Guarvestius episcopus 
Iscanus fundos, canonicis Augustinianis in 
loci possessionem adduclis, solicite in jus 
pri^tinum reduxerunt." — " Commentarii de 
Scriptoribus Britannicis," auctore Joanne 
Lelando Londinate, tomus i., cap. xxxv, pp. 
61, 62. 

»°* See William Borlase*s " History of 
Cornwall," vol. i., book iv.,. chap, xi., sect, 
ii., p. 380. 

*** In reference to this place, we read : 
"There hath been Monkes, then Nunnys, 
then Seculare Prestes, then Monkes agayn, 
and last Canons Regular in S. Petrocken 
Chirch yn Bodmym*'—]o\\vi Leland's 
" Itinerary," vol. ii., p. 84. • 

''^ See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Viesdes 
Saints," tome vi., iv« Jour de Juin, p. 441,. 
n. I. 

"7 His feast occurs, on the 31st of Jun6. 

'«* See Roger de Hoveden's " Annales," 
p. 324. 

*^ It was in the diocese of St# Maclo- 

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body. On this occasion, too, the abbot and monks were compelled to take 
an oath, on the relics belonging to their church, that they had not retained any 
part of the remains, but had restored them, unaltered and complete. These 
relics were doubtless brought back to the scene of the saint's former devotions 
and final labours, and were restored to their early tomb. A beautiful shrine 
in a small chapel,"® attached to the east end of the parish church of Bod- 
min,"' marked the place of St. Petrock's interment. For many ages, pil- 
grimages were made to it, for the veneration of his relics. His body for- 
merly reposed in the church dedicated to his name, at Bodmin. There, to 
the time of John Leland,"' the antiquary, the tomb and shrine of this holy 
man were to be seen, in the eastern part of the great church. It is needless 
to state, that the ravages of subsequent ages caused his relics to be desecrated 
and lost. Cornwall still enrols his name^ among the greatest and best of her 
Christian heroes. Besides his Acts, as given by John of Teignmouth and by 
John Capgrave, his feast was venerated, according to the Kalendar of an old 
English Missal, preserved in a monastery, Gemeticensis, in Normandy, and 
this was written about the year 1000. In the Carthusian additions to 
Usuard,"3 and in an old Breviary belonging to the Church of St. Malo, his 
festival is noticed. In the Martyrology of John Wilson,"* in Ferrarius,"5 
and in a Manuscript Martyrology of Bruxelles, his feast is commemorated, at 
the 4th of June."^ In the works of Bishop Challoner,"^ of Rev. Alban 
Butler,"^ andofRev.S. Baring-Gould,"9atthe samedate, he is commemorated. 
This holy man's festival is found entered, likewise, in the Circle of the 
Seasons.**® That he had some connection with Wales must be admitted, 
from the fact, that Petrock is titular saint of two churches, in that principa- 
lity. These are known as Llanbedrog, in Carnarvonshire, and Llanbedrog, 
in Pembrokeshire. Dr. Thomas Fuller remembered a handsome church in 
Exeter, dedicated to St. Petrock."' In addition, Lobineau "» informs us, 
that St. Petrock is the titular of a church in France. After his death, his 
memory was gratefully revered, especially in Greater and Lesser Britain ; 
but, although no vestige of his sepulchre remains, the place, where he dwelt 
on earth, shall always preserve the memory of this holy man. 

Article III. — St. Cruimther Colum, of Donoughmore, County 
OF Tyrone. This saint invoked the blessings of heaven on his flock, and 
governed them solely for their spiritual profit. Simply the name Colman 
Cruimther, is entered in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at this date ; although, 
there is likewise another notice of a Colum, a priest, of Cluana Emain, at the 

▼ius. "6 See the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctoram," 

"° See Bishop Tanner's ** Notitia Monas- tomus i., Junii iv. De S. Petroco Abbate, 

Uca," sect, xxiii. &c. Commentarius Pr«vius, sect. 3, p. 

'" A House of Grey Friars was built on 400. 

the south side of the market place there in "7 See " Britannia Sancta," part i., pp. 

1239. See Sir William Dugdale*s ** Monas- 337, 338. 

ticon Anglicanum," new edition by John "■ See ** Laves of the Fathers, Martyrs 

Caley, Esq., F.R.S., Henry Ellis, LL.D., and other principal saints," vol. vi., 

and the Rev, Bulkeley Bandinel, D.D., vol. June iv. 

viii., partiii., p. 1510. "» See "Lives of the Saints," vol. vi., 

ita « ji^g Shrine and Tumbe of S. Peirok June 4, p. 35. 

yet standith in thest Part of the Chirche."— *^ See p. 156. 

" Itinerary," vol. ii., p. 84. "' See ** Worthies of England," p. 563. 

"5 Printed in the year 1515 and 1521. *" In his Lives of the Saints of Bre 

"* Known as " Martyrologium Anglica- tagne. 

num." Article hi.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr 

"5 Sc^ " Catalogus Generalis Sanctorum." Kelly, p. xxvi. 

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same day. Probably, some mistake of entry has occurred, in either instance — 
perhaps in both cases. The church of CIuain-Emain, which is said to have been 
the church of St. Columbus » — called by some Coiumbanus 3 and by others 
Columba — ^was situated in Delbhna,^ a territory of Meath. It was formerly 
and otherwise called Magassuil. The Bollandists,s who have a notice at this 
date of St. Columbus, of Cluain-Ernain, cannot undertake to distinguish him, 
among the many Irish saints having homonymous names, and therefore they 
must wait further information regarding him. This saint has been alluded 
to, in our notices of St.^Meallan,^ and he is classed among the disciples of 
Patrick.7 St. Columba or Columbus of Killeanain, he is called in the Tri- 
partite Life,* and Coiumbanus by Joceline.9 We find entered in the Martyro- 
logy of Donegal,'** that veneration was given, on this day, toCruimtherColum. 
He is said to have been a priest of Domhnach-mor-Maighe Imchlair. This 
place has been identified with Donaghmore, near Dungannon, in the county 
of Tyrone." 

• Article IV. — St. Ernin, or Ernineus, of Cluain. When the 
leaves are young and vigorous in the seasons of spring and summer, the 
rough breezes cannot remove them from the branches ; but, when they begin 
to fade and wither in autumn and winter, they fall before the slightest gust. 
So do men easily yield before the blasts of temptation, when the energies of 
their souls fail ; while the holy ones of earth preserve a spiritual vitality, under 
the most trying circumstances of their lives, and like the ever-green trees, the 
tude winds cannot cause decay or failure. It is set down in the Martyrology 
of Donegal,* that Ernin, of Cluain, had a festival, on this day. The simple 
denomination of his place — applied in composition to so many Irish localities 
— ^renders it difficult to identify this saint* However, he is called the son of 
Craskin,3 in Adamnan's Life of St. Columba ; and, in the Annals of Roscrea,* 
these state, that he departed this life, a.d. 634.5 Father John Colgan and the 
Bollandists ^ refer his festival, to this 4ih day of June. 

Article V. — St. Finchan, or Fionnchan. An entry is found, in the 
Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 4th of June, regarding Finchan, whose name 
is entered simply, and without account of any other particulars, which might 
serve to identify him. This day, likewise, the Martyrology of Donegal » only 
mentions the veneration paid to Fionnchan. 

•See Colgan*s "Trias Thanmaturga," Article iv.— ' Edited by Drs. Todd 

Septima Vita S. Patricii, pars ii., cap. ix., and Reeves, pp. 146, 147. 

p. 130. • If he be the same as St. Eemneus, the 

^ By Joceline. See ibid,,, Sexta Vita S. son of Crascen, said to be of Dairmag, in the 

Patricii, cap. xciii., p. 86. midland parts of Ireland, more shall be 

. * See ibid., n. 29, p. 174. found regarding him, in the Life of St. 

s See **Acta Sanctomm," Junii iv., ColumkiUe, wmch follows in this volume, 

tomns 1. Among the pretermitted saints, p. at the 9th day of June. 

374. 3 See Colgan's *' Trias Thaumaturga," 

• * See Volume First of this work, at Vita Quarta S. Columbae, lib. i.,cap. iii., 
the 28th of January. pp. 339, 340. 

7 See Colgan's '* Trias Thaumaturga," ^ As these anonymous Annals are some- 
Appendix Qttinta ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. times called, 
xxiiii., p. 26(3. ^ See n. 30, p. 373, ibid, 

• Sec ibid.^ psu^ ii., cap. ix., p. 130. * See •* Acta Sanctorum," Junii iv., 

• ' See Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. xdii., p. tomus i. Among the pretermitted saints, 
86, as also n. 104, p. 113, ibid, p. 374. 

•• Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. Article v.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

146, 147, Kelly, p. xxvi 

" In William M. Hcnncssy's copy. » Edited by ^Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

Digitized by 



Article VI, — St. Faithlenn, Son of Aedh Diamhan. He is 
entered, in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 4th of June, as Faithlenn Mac 
Aodha Damhain. Marianus O'Gorman has his festival, at this same date. 
We read, in the Martyrology of Donegal,* that on this day was venerated, 
Faithlenn, son of Aedh Diamhan, descended from the race of Core, son to 
Lughaidh, son of OilioU Flannbeg, sun to Fiacha Muilleathan, son to Eoghan 
Mor, son of OilioU OIuim.3 Under the head of Inis-Faithlenn,4 Duald Mac 
Firbis enters, Faighlen or Faighlenn, from Inis-Faighlen. He is also called 
the son of Aedh Darahan, or the son of Aedh Bennan, of the race of Core Mac 
Luigdech.s He is regarded, as having descended from a Munster family of 
the blood royal.* Our records regarding many holy men are exceeding 
meagre. The most interesting particulars, concerning our national saints, 
are often those unnoted, as the most profound and valuable thoughts of men 
are more frequently concealed than expressed. 

Article VII. — St. Colman of Cloonoun, County of Roscommon. 
A festival, in honour of Colum sac. — for sacerdos — Cluria Emain,' is set 
down, in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 4th of June. This place is 
identical with Clonoun or Cloonoun, in the parish of St Peter, barony of 
Athlone.3 So there is likewise a Colman Cruimthir ; but, some error is here 
probable. Marianus O'Gorman has a notice of this saint. We find, recorded 
in the Martyrology of Donegal,* that a Colman, was venerated on this day. 
No addition is found to his name. However, he seems to have assisted, at 
that great synod held in Dromceat, a.d. 580.5 

Article VIII.— St. Molua, Son of Sinell, of Etardroma. In the 
Martyrology of Tallagh,* this saint is mentioned, at the 4th of June, under 
the designation of Molua,* Etardroma. This place does not appear to have 
been as yet identified. The Martyrology of Donegal ' mentions, on this day, 
a festival in honour of Molua, son of Sinell,* and sprung from the race of 
Brian, son to Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin. He was a relation of St. Colum- 
banus, a disciple of St. Columba.5 A St. Moluanus I^prosus is mentioned by 
Roderick O'Flaherty f but, probably, he was a different person from the 
present holy man. 

146. 147 146. «47. 

Article vi.— * Edited by Rev. Dr. 5 Colgan thinks he belonged, to the seven 

Kelly, p. xxvi. bishops, mentioned at Cluain Emhain. See 

* Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. "Acta Sanctoram HibernitB,'* xv. Feb- 

146, 147. ruarii, n. 28, p. 339. 

3 According to the " Sanctilogium Gcnea- Ariiclb viii. — 'Edited by Rev. Dr. 

logicum," cap. xxxiv. Kelly, p. xxvi. 

.* Rendered InisfaUen, KiUamey, in 'See what occurs, at the feast of St Molua, 

William M. Hennessy*s note. on the 15th of October. 

5 See *• Proceedings of the Royal Irish ' Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

part i., pp. 114, 115. * He is said to have been son of Amirgin, 

• See Colgan*s ** Acta Sanctorum Hiber- son to Ernin, son of Duach. See Colgan's 

niae,*' xxxi. Martii, Acta SS.Colmani, Foil- '*TriasThaumaturga,*'Adamnan*sor Quarta 

laniet Fethadii, p. 799. Vita S. Columbse, Kb. ii., cap. xvL, p. 354, 

Article vii. — « Also written Cluain and n. 16, pp. 382, 383. Also, Ub. ii.^ cap. 

Hemam. xxix., p. 357, and n. 27, |)p., 383, 384. Also, 

' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxvi. Quarta Appendbcad Acta S. Columbie, cap. 

'See John 0*Donovan*s "Tribes and x., num. 93, p. 492. 

Customs of Hy-Many," p. 79, n. 3, and 5 See his Life, in this volume, at the 9th of 

the Map prefixed to that work. June. 

< Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. * See <*Ogygia,'' pars ill, cap. lxxxiL,.p. 389. 

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June 4.] 



Article IX. — St. Mochua Cicheach. An entry occurs, in the Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh,' at the 4th of June, regarding Mochual Cichech. A clerical 
error of one letter may here be detected. More correctly is this saint's name 
entered, in a later Calendar. There, on this day was venerated, Mochua 
Cicheach,* as recorded, in the Martyrology of Donegal.3 This appears to be 
the St. Daluanus of Craoibheach,* also called Mo-luanus, entered by the 
Bollandists,sat the 4th of June. They state, that he had possibly another 
festival, for the 5th of October, when if further light were thrown on his Acts, 
they might again recur to him. 

Article X. — Feast of the Translation of St. Patrick's Relics. 
At the 4th of June, the BoUandists » notice from a Manuscript in their 
X>ossession, the Translation of St. Patrick's Relics as a recorded feast. They 
refer to the i6lh of March, after the same memorandum. To that date, also, 
the readers of this work " are referred, for observations which it contains. 

Article XI. — St. Cassan, or Cassain, of Donnoughmore. Much 
uncertainty prevails, regarding this holy man. On the 4th of June, the 
Martyrology of Tallagh ' inserts the name of Cassain, Domnaigh moir Petair. 
It seems to have been Colgan's intention, to have published the Acta of this 
St Cassan, at the same date, as we find the name on his posthumous list of 
saints.* The BoUandists 3 record, at this date, Cassanus with Columbanus 
and other saints, on the authority of Joceline.^ If he be the same, we must 
regard him as a disciple of St. Patrick ; and Colgan refers his feast to this 
date.5 He is supposed, however, to have been the master of St. Senan,^ 
Abbot of Iniscathy, in another passage of Colgan. 7 This day, also, a festival, in 
honour of Cassan, a priest, is set down in the Martyrology of Donegal.^ It 
is stated, that he belonged to the race of Laeghaire,^ son to Niall of the Nine 
Hostages.'** In the Acts of St. Patrick, this saint is called Cassan, a Pres- 
byter of Domnachmor, in Magh-Echnach." He was one of the holy Apos- 
tle's favourite disciples." Joceline has been careiul to rescue his name from 
obUvion,'3 and that writer enumerates him among several other religious 

AancLE IX. — * Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxvi. 

• A note by Rev. Dr. Reeves says, Cich- 
each : " An epithet derived from ci6 'a pap/ 
aiid signifying, * of the breasts.* " 

3 Edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, 
pp. 146, 147. 

* He is noticed in Colgan's " Trias Thau- 
matur^" Vita Septima S. Patridi, pars ii., 
cap. ni., p. 131, and n. 40, p. 174, 

* Sec "Acta Sanctorum," Junii iv., 
tomns i. Among the pretennitted feasts, p. 


Article x.— * See ** Acta Sanctorum,** 
Junii iv., tomus i. Among the pretennitted 
saints, p. 373. 

• Sec the Third Volume. 

Article xi.— • Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kellj, xzvL 

' See '' Catalogus Actuum Sanctorum qux 
MS. lutbentur, oidine Mensium et Die- 

3 Sec "Acta Sanctorum,** Junii iv., 
tomus i Among the pretennitted saints, 

*See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga,^' 
Sexta Vita S. Patricii. cap. xciii., p. 86. 
5 See ibid., n. 104, p. 113. 

* See his Life m the Third Volume of this 
work, Art. i., at the 8th of March. 

' A certain Cassidus, or Cassidanus — con- 
jectured to have been Cassianus or Cassinus 
— is mentioned as the Abbot, who instructed 
St. Senan, Abbot of Iniscathy. See " Acta 
Sanctorum Hibemise,** Martii viii. Vita mc- 
trica S. Senani, cap, ix., p. 516, and n. 7, 
p. 525. Vita Secunda S. Senaui, cap. xi., 
p. «7. 

* Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
146, 147. 

9 The exploits of this monarch are treated 
of, m Dr. Sylvester 0*Halloran*s "General 
Histoiy of Ireland,** vol. ii., book viii., 
chap. i. to v., pp. I 1033. 

'** See an account of him, ibid,^ book vi., 
chap, v., pp. 293 to 299. 

"See Colgan*s "Trias Thaumaturga,*' 
Septima Vita S. Patricii, pais ii., cap. ix., 
lii, pp. 130, 136^ and nn. 33, 108, pp.. 174, 
177. ... ,:. 

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[June 4. 

Article XII. — The Feast of St. Apollinarus and of his Com- 
panions. We find noticed, in the ** Feilire " of St iEngus,* at the 4th of 
June, a feast for St. Apollinarus and his companions, who appear to have 
been martyrs. However, neither in the great Bollandist collection, nor in 
any other Martyrology or Calendar, are we able to discover authority for the 
feast, at this date. 

Article XIII. — Feast of St. Martin's Translation. Such a fea^t 
is entered, at this date, in the *' Feilire " of St. ^ngus, and it probably has 
reference to St. Martin, Bishop of Tours. His Life has been written, by many 
ancient ' and modem authors.' The chief festival for this holy man has been 
constantly celebrated on the nth of November ;3 and, not only was he held 
in great veneration throughout France, but also in the ancient Church of 
Ireland, owing to his supposed relationship with our great Irish Apostle St. 
Patrick.** St. Martin was bom at Sabaria,5 at present called Stinemanger, ih 
Lower Hungary. His parents were pagans, and his birth was in the year 
316,* or before Easter in 317, the eleventh year of the Emperor Constantine 
the Great. 7 He became a Christian, but by an imperial decree, he was 
obliged to enter the army. Having an evident vocation for the religious state, 
when he obtained leave to retire from military service, Martin sought St. 
Hilary,® who became Bishop of Poitiers, in 353, or in 354. By him, Martin 
was ordained an exorcist, and after a visit to Pannonia, he returned to 
Poitiers, about a.d. 360. There, he built a monastery, about two leagues from 
the city, at a place called Locociagum,^ now known as Ligug^.'** In the 
year 371, he was chosen successor to St. Litorius," as the third Bishop of 

" See ibid, Quinta Appendix ad Acta 
S. Patricii, cap. xxiii., p. 266. 

'3 See ibid, Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. 
xciii., cxliv., pp. 86, 96, and nn. 104, 153. 
pp. 113. 115. 

** Another feast, at the 5th of August, 
has been assigned to St. Cassan or Cassia- 

Article xii.— • In the **Leabhar 
Breac " copy, the stanza runs as follows with 
the English translation, by Whitley Stokes, 
LL.D. :— 

ttllt) ApDttx>nA|Mf 

t)o flAith t)^ fOTX-oige 
Coinoix ctei^x conu^ige 
tACApmbpeich iriA^tine. 

'*Apollinaris went to God's kingdom 
straightway, with a great train with virginity, 
at Martin's translation." — ** Transactions of 
the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 
Series, vol. i., part i» On the Calendar of 
Oengus, p. xdi. At the words mo^ ctei|\is 
the gloss i. XXX. L&u^i mile, thus trans- 
lated "thirty with three thousand." p. 

Article xiii. — * Among these may be 
mentioned St Sulpidus Severus, his illus- 
trious disciple, who wrote "Vita Sancti 
Martini," as also Three Dialogues to supply 
omissions in that Life, while he alludes, in 
his Epistles and in his Sacr^ History, Ub. 
ii*! cap. 50, 51, to St. Martin's Acts. A^, 

St. Gregory of Tours, in his " Historia Fran- 
corum," lib. i. and x., has an account of 
him, as likewise in his work on the Virtues 
and Miracles of St. Martin, in Four Books. 

' See Le Nain de Tillemont, in his work 
" M^moires pour servir a J'Histoire Ekxlesias- 
tique des six premiers Sidles, avec unc 
Chronologic et des Notes, " tome x.; p. 309 ; 
"Gallia Christiana," tome xiv., col. 6. 
** Histoire Literaire de la France," tome i., 
p. 417; I'Abb^ Gervaise's "Vie de Saint 
Martin," published at Tours, a.d. 1699. 

3 At this date, a very excellent and ex- 
tended biography of St. Martin may be 
found» in " Les Petits BoUandistes, Vies des 
Saints," tome xiii., pp. 312 to 340. 

< See his Life, in the Third Volume of 
this work, at the 17th of March, Art. i., 
chap. iii. 

5 A town of Upper Pannonia. 

* According to St. Gregory of -Tours. 

^ See Rev. Alban Butler's "Lives of the 
Fathers, Martyrs and other principal saints," 
vol. xi., November xi. 

* His feast occurs, on the 14th of 

9 The parochial and abbatial church of 
this place was dedicated to St. Martin. An 
oratory near it was greatly frequented by 
pilgrims. See '*L^ Petits BoUandistes, 
Vies des Saints," tome xiii., p. 340. 

" This is thought to have beeti the most 
ancient of the French monasteries. • 

" His festival is held on the 13th of Se{b 

Digitized by 


June 4.] 



Tours, and he was consecreted, on the 3rd of July. This See had been 
originally established by St. Gatian," who came from Rome, about the middle 
of the third century.'3 The early cathedral of Tours was built by St Martin, 
and it was at first dedicated to St. Maurice ; but, since the year 1096, it bears 
the name of St. Gatian. '4 However, its parts are the work of different periods, 
as this noble building now appears. The choir, situated under the cross and 
before the high altar, was commenced a.d. 1170. The nave was 
completed during the reign of St Louis. The west end is of a 
still later date, and it has been assigned to the fifteenth century. 

The west front, dis- 
playing the character 
of the Flamboyant 
style, is referred to 
about 1 5 10. It con- 
sists of tliree lofty por- 
tals,enriched with florid 
ornaments, niches and 
foliage. It has a large 
window surmounting. 
Two towers, which 
flank the front compart- 
ment, are 205 feet in 
height, and they are 
crowned with domed 
tops. '5 These are of 
a debased style, and 
seem to be somewhat 
later than the rest of 
this building. The 
interior is Gothic in 
style, and the cathe- 
dral measures 256 feet 
in length, while its 
height is 85 feet.'^ St 
Martin was most assi- 
duous in visiting all 
parts of his diocese, 
and in giving instruc- 
tion to his flock. He 
wrought many mira- 
cles. He destroyed 
several temples dedicated to idols, while he endeavoured to remove all super- 
stitious practices of the pagans. He likewise founded various churches and 
monasteries. St. Martin resided in the celebrated monastery of Marmoutier,'' 
near the River Loire ; and there, he presided over a community of fervent 

Cathedral of Tours, France. 

tember. After a long vacancy of the See, 
he succeeded the founder St. Gatian. 

" His feast occurs, on the i8th of Decem- 

" He governed the See for fifty years, as 
stated by St. Gregory of Tours. 

•* See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the 
Fathers, Martyrs and other principal 
Saints," voL xi., November xi. 
■5 The accompanying engraving was 

drawn from a photograph, by William F. 
Wakeman, and it has been engraved by 
Mrs. Millard. 

»* See Murray's " Hand-book for Travel- 
lers in France," sect, iii., Route 53, p. 

'7 An account of this remarkable Abbey 
is set forth, by the Maurist monk, Dom. 
Badier, in ** Histoire de TAbbaye de Mar- 
moutier,et de TEgliseRoyalede S. Martin de 

Digitized by 



monks. After great labours and virtues, he departed this life, on the 8th of 
November, if we credit some writers ; but, on the irth of that month, accord- 
ing to an opinion more generally entertained. The year for his death has been 
variously assigned, to 396,*® 397»'' or 400.** His body was interred in a little 
grove, at some distance from the monastery, and about five hundred and 
thirty paces from the city of Tours,*' as. then existing. His successor St.. 
Brice** built a chapel over St. Martin's tomb. So great was the concourse 
of pilgrims to the spot, that St. Perpetuus,'^ the sixth Bishop of Tours, about, 
the year 472, built a great church and monastery ^there.'^ The first chapel 
built over St. Martin's tomb was dedicated to St, Stephen,»5 the Protomartyr; 
but, afterwards, the name of Tours' great patron was given to it, and a par- 
ticular city was built around the church of St, Martin. The only remaining 
relics of this vast cathedral, at present, are two towers, rising on either side 
of the Rue St. Martin. Here, the shrine of St. Martin was preserved, and his 
relics were under the guardianship of a select number among his disciples. St, 
Martin's tomb was placed behind the high altar, and this first translation of 
his relics — seeming to correspond with the anniversary of his ordination — is 
celebrated on the 4th of July. Afteruanls, about the middle of the ninth 
century, to save it from Norman invasions, the shrine of this holy bishop was 
successively removed to Cormery, to Orleans, to St. Bcnoit-sur-Loire, to 
Chablis, and finally to Auxerre, in 856. However, the people of Tours 
reclaimed their lost treasure, when France became more peaceable, and on 
the 13th of December, a.d. 887, the remains were brought to Tours, an im- 
mense concourse of people assisting, with several bishops and priests. There 
they remained, until the month of May, 1562, when the Calvinists pillaged 
the shrine and burned the relics.*^ Some portions, however, have been pre- 
served, and they are kept in difierent churches. During the times of the 
French Revolution, that ancient church of St. Martin was utterly destroyed, 
and a street has been run through the space it once occupied. '7 One of 
those towers, to which we have alluded, contains a clock, having a domed 
summit, and it is called Tour de Saint Martin^ or Tour de THorloge. 
Attached to it may be seen Romanesque pillars and capitals of an earlier 
period. Here, it is thought, was the site of St Martin's rock-hewn tomb, 
discovered in i86i,and under a house, which occupied the place of the high 
altar.'* Monseigneur Guibert, the late Archbishop of Paris, made an appeal to 
the Catholic world, to recover possession of this spot, and to restore it, in the 
interest of art, of country, and of religion.'? The other tower is called Tour 
de Charlemagru, because it is believed his wife Luitgarde lies buried beneath 
it These are the only two of the five towers, that once adorned the cathe- 
dral of St. Martin, at Tours.3° However, we cannot find any recorded Trans- 
lation, such as is set down on the 4th of June in the ** P^ilirc," among the 

Tours." tome xiii., xi* Jour de Novembre, p. 339. 

»* Dom. Gervaise, in his " Vie de Saint 'S His festival occurs, on the 26m day of 

Martin," adopts this calculation. December. 

'« Tillemont and Lecointe place his death, »® See Murray's "Handbook for 1 ravel- 

at this year. lers in France,*' sect, iii., Route 53, p. 

** Fran9ois Chifflet and Dom. Liron have 204. 

this date. See le Dr. Hoefcr's " Nouvelle =7 See " Les Petits Bollandistes, Vies dea 

Biographic G^n^rale,** tome xxxiv., p. Saints," tome xiii., p. 339. 

14, n. ■ * See Murray's " Handbook for Travel* 

^' According to St. Gregorv of Tours. lers in France,'^ sect, iii., Route 53, p. 204. ' 

»• His festival is held, on the 13th of No- ^ See '* Les Petits Bollandistes, Vies dea 

vember. Saints,'* tome xiii., p. 339, 

*3 His festival occurs, on the 8th day of *» s^e Murray*s •* Handbook for Tra- 

April. vellers in France,** sect, iii. Route S3- 

" Sec **Le$ Bollandistes, Vies des Saints,'* p. 204. ^ 

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June 4] 



many historic references to St. Martin and to his cultus. Nor can allusion be 
made to any of those removals, which took place during the Northman dis- 
orders in France, since these happened, after that poetic calendar had been 
composed The scholiast on St -^ngus in the " Leabhar Breac " copy seems 
to doubt, whether this transference of St. Martin meant into a bishopric, or 
whether it signified the removal of his body from the sepulchre to another 
place, or — as otherwise expressed — his relics being carried out of that monas- 
tery wherein he died to the city,3* 

Article XIV. — St. Nennoca, or Nennoc, Virgin, of Armorica. 
\Fifth Century,'] There appears to have been a revival of hagiographical 
literature and investigation in Ireland, due to the impetus given it by^Engus 
the Culdee, as also to the earlier and more successful labours of Adamnan, 
the biographer of St. Columcille.' Subsequently, the love for legends grew 
up, and such a taste has diminished in too many instances the authenticity 
of saintly biography, not alone in Ireland, but more especially in Great 
Britain, and on the Continent of Europe. Colgan intended to have given 
the Acts of Nennoca, Virgin,' at this date ; and, therefore, we have reason to 
think he regarded her, as having some intimate relations with Ireland. The 
oldest known Life of this holy woman seems to have existed in Brittany ; 
but, it is not certain, that it has survived the wreck of time. The Legend of 
St. Nennoc's Acts was preserved, in the monastery of Quimperl^ Cross, in 
the diocese of Quimper, and province of Brittany. The writer states, that 
its matter had been taken from an old book, written in a rustic style.3 This 
Quimper Legend was chiefly derived from oral traditions, and written in the 
twelfth or tliirteenth century, by a monk of Ste. Croix de Quimperle, who 
was named Gurherden.^ These accounts appear to have been chiefly com- 
posed, from popular Breton ballads. The Bollandists quote them, but do 
not deem it necessary to publish them in full.s They contain several 
anachronisms, and therefore the Legend is of very doubtful authority.^ The 
Bollandists have inserted the Acts of St. Ninnoca, Virgin, at the 4th day of 
June, in their great collection.' These are contained in a historic Commen- 
tary, consisting of three sections, containing twenty-two paragraphs. Albert 
le Grand* includes the Acts of St Ninnoc, Virgin, in his collection of Breton 

" See "Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 
part L On the Calendar of Oengus, by Dr. 
Whitley Stokes, pp. xcii., xcviii., xcix. 

Article xiv. — ' See Rev. John Francis 
Shearman's ** Loca Patriciana," No. x., n. 
(I), p. 250. 

» She is thus noted, in his " Catalogus 
Actuum Sanctorum quae MS. habentur, or- 
dine Mensium et Dierum." 

3 It has been suggested by the Bollandist 
editor as probable, that the original had been 
written in the old Breton tongue, from 
which the Latin translation has been liter- 
ally made. 

4 See an account of him in Histoire Lit- 
teiaire de la France,'' tome xi., xii. Steele, 
pp. 45, 46. 

5 Neither does Lobineau insert these ac- 
counts, nor has he any mention of St. 
Kinnoc, in his "Vies des Saints de Bre- 

Vol. VI.— No. 3. 

^ As for example, her mother Moneduc is 
stated to have been the daughter of Con- 
stantine, the King of Cornwall and of 
Devon. It is stated, that he descended 
from Julius Caesar, and that he died, A.D. 
576. Again, St. Columba, who departed 
this life in the year 597, is said to have bap- 
tized St. Nennocha, although she lived m 
the eighth century. Moreover, St. Germain 
of Auxerre, who died in the year 448, and 
who is reputed to have been sent from Ire- 
land by St. Patrick to Britain in the fifth 
century, is made a contemporary with St. 
Turian, Bishop of Dol, who lived in the 
eighth century. 

f See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii 
iv., De S. Ninnoca Virgine, in Brittannia 
Minori, pp. 407 to 411. 

* He belonged to the Order of Preachers 
of the Strict Observance. 

9 See "De Sanctis Britanniae Anno- 

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[June 4. 

Saints,' at the same date. Some notices of her are to be found in the 
work of Chatelain,'** at the 4th day of June. The chief Acts of St. Nennoke, 
Virgin, are met with in " Les Petits Bollandistes."" Accounts of St. Nenno- 
cha, Virgin, are to be found, in the works of Rev. Alban Butler," and of Rev. 
S. Baring-Gould.'3 The Rev. Alban Butler '^ makes St. Nennoc a native of 
Britain, where she is said first to have served God. If the following account 
be reliable, her period must be referred to the latter part of the fifth or to the 
beginning of the sixth century. She was daughter to Brecan or Brychan »5 — 
also called Brochan — the regulus of Brecknock,'^ who was the ancestor of 
many saints. Already have we alluded to him and to his children/^ This 
ruler of Brecheinoc,'^ now Brecknockshire, is said '9 to have lived contem- 
poraneously with the Emperors Arcadius and Honorius ; however, owing to 
the conflicting statements of various writers, we find nothing but confusion, 
in the thread of his biography. An Irish king, named Gormac "** or Cormac, 
had a son, Aulach, it is stated, and he was father to Brecan. This Aulach was 
leader of an armed band, that made a descent on the Welsh coast, towards 
the close of the fourth century. He conquered Tewdrig, the chief ruler in 
South Wales, and carried off as a captive his daughter Marchella, who subse- 
quently became his wife. On the death of Tewdrig, about A.D. 420, their 
son Brecan, having come to mail's estate, claimed his territory, and asserted 
this claim by the sword.'* He was a pagan, but his countryman, St. Brenach,** 
converted him to the Christian faith. Afterwards, Brecan was distinguished 
for his fervent piety, and he trained a numerous family in the way of perfec- 
tion. The Welsh writers seem to regard him, not as a foreigner, but as one 
of their own hereditary chiefs. His valour in the field was equalled by his 
wisdom in council. The Triads mention him,*3 with distinguished praise.'* 
It is stated, again, that the King of Wales named Breochan — ^another form 
for the name Brychan — had a wife named Moneduc '* or Menduke. She 
was of the Scottish race, and daughter to King Constantine.'^ According 

" Also called Claude Chastelain, Canon of 
the Cathedral at Paris. He compiled, be- 
sides other writings, two very useful works, 
the Roman Martyrology traublated into 
French, with notes, A.D. 1704, in 4to, and 
a work " Le Martyruloge Universel, with 
additions and notes, a.d. 1709, in 4to. See 
an account of him, in Le Dr. Hoeffer's 
** Nouvelle Biographic Gen^rale," tome x., 
cols. 64, 65. 

" See *• Vies des Saints." tome vi., iv« 
Jour de Juin, pp. 455 and 456. 

''See "Lives of the fathers, Martyrs 
and other principal saints,'* vol. vi. 
June iv. 

'3 See •* Lives of the Saints,*' vol. vi., pp. 

36, Z7' 

'* See •* Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs 
and other principal saints,'* vol. vi., June iv. 

*5 See a very complete account of this 
"Welsh ruler, and his of descendants, in Rev. 
Rice Rees* ** Essay on the WeUh Saints,*' 
sect, vii., pp. no to 113, and sect. viii.,pp. 
136 to 160. 

** The Legend of our saint's Life states, 
that he was a nobleman " in Combronensia 
regione,** and that he was ** ex genere Gur- 
tluerni,** while he was respected throughout 
the whole of Britain. 

«7 See the First Volume of this work, at 
the 1st day of January, Art.ii. 

** In Sir John Prise's Description of Cam- 
bria now called Wales, it is stated to have 
consisted of three cantreds and eight comots. 
See ** The Historic of Cambria," translated 
by H. Lhoyd, corrected by David Powel, 
p. 20. 

'9 See " Les Petits Bollandistes, Vies des 
Saints," tome vi., iv* Jour de Juin, p. 455. 

*» See Jones' " History of Wales,** chap, 
xi., p. 307. 

»» See Right Rev. Patrick F. Moran's 
*' Early Irish Missions,** p. 7. 

" See notices of him, in this work, at the 
7th of April, Fourth Volume, Art. vi. 

•3 See Williams' ** Ecclesiastical Antiqui- 
ties of the Cymry,** p. 53. 

** See "Myvyrian Archaeology,*' vol. ii» 
p. 98. 

'5 Elsewhere, at the 1st of January, we 
find it stated, that the wife of Brychan was 
Digna, Dina or Din, who was daughter of 
a Saxon king. It is not improbable, how- 
ever, that Brychan may have been twice 
married, and that all of his diildren were 
not bom of the same mother. 

*^ Following the Legend of St Nennoc*t 

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to tradition, this couple had fourteen sons, all of whom were saints.'^ These 
chose to become missionaries, or monks, in various places. This however 
was a cause for sorrow to their parents, who desired to have them as temporal 
rulers, in that country they possessed. Its dynast felt most anxious to have 
a child left as his companion, and he promised, that should the Almighty 
bestow such a favour on him, he would yield a tenth part of all his gold and 
lands for religious endowments. He resolved, moreover, to retire for a time 
into a desert place, and there on a high mountain, he built a church and 
he erected an altar to God's honour. Here for forty days and forty nights 
he fasted rigorously with his priests, and he bestowed alms to procure the 
fulfilment of his wishes. On the night before Easter Sunday, he had an angelic 
vision, in which it was intimated to him, that his wife should conceive, and 
that her child should be called Nennoc, whose birth should be a source of 
joy and consolation to all living in Britain. In like manner, Meneduc be- 
wailed her loss of children,'^ awaiting the return of her husband to his house. 
He announced to her, in due course, the promise received from the angel, 
and to her great relief of mind. Thereupon, she gave thanks to God with 
great fervour ,'» It pleased the Almighty, that Moneduc brought forth a 
daughter. At that time, if we are to credit the Legend of his Acts, St. Colum- 
kille,3** the great Abbot of the Scots, came to hold a conference with Brochan. 
The king most earnestly pressed him, to confer the Sacrament of Baptism on 
his daughter, and he is said to have consented. In baptism, she received the 
name of Ninnoc Guengustle.3* She was afterwards given in charge of 
fosterage to Gurkentel,3* who was a kinsman of the king, and to his wife, 
who was named Guennargant, related to the queen. These, too, had been 
selected as the sponsors. Nennoca was distinguished as a child for her 
modesty, obedience and charity ; she loved pious reading and pilgrimages to 
holy places; she was addicted to prayer, and she frequented the sacraments ; 
her love of industry was manifested by her daily engaging in household and 
manual labour.33 How different is the disposition of loo many females, not 
having had her advantages of birth and position, and who love idleness or 
frivolous amusements, while leading useless and criminal lives. Nennocha 
returned to her father's house, when fourteen years of age, and remarkable 
for her beauty, as for her virtues. She was sought in marriage, by a young 
prince from Ireland, and his addresses were encouraged by her father, who 
considered that family alliance to be an advantageous one, as well for Nen- 
noke, as for the interests of himself, his chiefs, and people. However, the 
secret inclinations of his daughter were for espousals with the Son of Him who 
rules in Heaven. When urged on the subject of marriage by her father, cast- 
ing herself on her knees before him, Nennoca candidly and filially opened 
her mind, in nowise doubting as she declared the merits of the prince favoured 
by her parents, but manifesting her purpose to chose the better part, by fol- 
lowing the example of her brothers and sisters. Several of the Cambrian 

•7 Another account has it, that he " had ** The history of Braganus or Biachanus 

twenty-four sons and twenty-five daughters, and of his oflf:»pring is treated at consider- 

several of whom are recorded in the long able length in Alford's *• Annales Ecclesias- 

list of Welsh saints." — B. B. Woodward's tici ct Civiles Britannorum, Saxonum, An- 

" History of Wales," vol. i., chap, vi., pp. glomm," tomus i., pp. 623 to 633. 

80, 81. 50 His Life is given in this volume, at the 

* Giraldus Cambrensis states in his 9th of June, Art. i. 

"Itincrarium Cambria;,"that Braganor Bry- 3« See Rev. S. Baring- Gould's ** Lives of 

chan had twenty-four daughters, who were the Saints,*' vol. vi., June 4. 

saints, having various churches in Cambria 3* The Legend adds : ** qui vocabatur 

dedicated in their honour, lib. i., cap. ii. See Ufin." 

edition of James F. Dimock, " Opera," 33 See ** Les Petits BoUandisics, Vies des 

tomus vi., pp. 31, 32. Saints," tome vi., p. 455. 

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nobles were then present.34 Without a word of remonstrance, at that time, 
Brychan referred the matter to his wife Meneduc, and engaged her to use 
maternal influence, to change their daughter's intentions. Meneduc con- 
sented, while she prudently advanced every means, to obtain the desired 
result. Still, her daughter's resolution was not to be altered. However, 
although her father was reluctant in giving his consent to her choice of a state 
of life, it was finally obtained ; and, as it concerned her personal happiness, 
Nennoca was allowed to follow the direction of Heaven. This was to her 
a cause of great joy, and she thanked the Almighty most heartily for her free- 
dom. At this time, St. Germanus, the Bishop,35 was a visitor at the house 
of King Brychan, who received his guest with distinguished honour. There 
he preached several times with great fervour. 3^ From his lips, Nennoca heard 
the whole exposition of a perfect state, as laid down in the sacred writings, 
as also, about the holy lives of several pious women, in France, and notably 
in Britannia Armorica.37 She greatly desired to imitate their example, and to 
obtain permission from her parents to retire thither, where she might spend 
her life in holy exercises and in works of charity.3^ As she had an inclination 
for the religious state, St Germanus earnestly advised Nennoc to follow the 
bent of her inclinations. The king had prepared a great banquet for his chiefs 
and nobles, on the first day of the New Year, and to it St. Germanus had been 
invited. When all were assembled, Nennoc entered and fell on her knees 
before her father. She besought him to grant the petition, which she was 
about to prefer to him, before all the guests who were present.39 The king 
promised he should do so ; when, to his surprise and that of his nobles, Nen- 
noc asked, not for any temporal favour or wealth, but that she might be allowed 
to go beyond the sea to Letavia,^** together with all those, who wished to 
accompany her for God's service. The king, queen,^' Guennargant, and all 
who were at the banquet, felt sorrowful, on account of the wish so expressed, 
and they remonstrated. However, St Germanus interposed, and counselled 
them to be consoled, as Nennoc only followed the will of Heaven in her 
regard, that she had renounced earthly treasures and enjoyments, that her 
heart had been consecrated to her Divine Spouse, and that she only aspired to 
heavenly rewards. Brochan was moved by these words, and gave his con- 
sent. Learning that Gurkentelius and his wife were about to accompany her, 
Nennoc was commended to their care. All things necessary for her purpose 
were ordered to be ready, and ships were provided for their voyage.** The 
example thus given by the noble lady, when the news of her departure went 

s* According to the Legend of our Saint's Britannico Tractu, pp. 164 to 182. Parisiis, 

Acts. A.P. MDLVII., fol. 

^5 The Legend states " ex Hibemensium 3* See ** Les Petits BoUandistes, Vies dcs 

Tegione transmissusa S. Patricio Archiepis- Saints,** tome vi., pp. 456, 457. 

copo. ** 39 A dialogue of rather a dramatic charac- 

3* Albert le Grand styles him, St. Ger- ter is introduced in the Legend, 
manus, Bishop of Auxerre. But, the Bol- •♦» A name often given in ancient docu- 
landist editor observes, that he had only ments to Armoric Britain, 
been in Britain, and not in Ireland. If this ♦* She is represented as giving vent to her 
account be credited, it was another Ger- feelings in these Latin lines : — 
manus, who, according to Joceline in his "Quidmihi divitiae prosunt ? quid no- 
Life of St. Patrick, had been made a Canon bile regnum ? 
of Lateran with him in Rome, who then ac- Jam tulit exilium natos, quos fiiderat 
companied him to Ireland, and who after- alvus : 

wards had been sent by him on a mission to Nunc superest ut me sine prole relic- 

the Isle of Man. tam, 

37 An account of this ancient division of Mors miseram rapiat.** 

France will be found in D. Robcrti Cocnalis <» Such is a synopsis of the account con* 

"Gallica Historia,'* tomus i., lib, iL, Dc tained, in the Legend of our Saint*s Acts. 

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June 4.] 



abroad, caused a great number to retire from the world, in order to prepare 

more securely for the way which leads to heaven. They sold earthly possesr 

sions, and distributed the product in alms, resolving to leave their country 

and relations. Accompanied by four bishops, a number of priests, deacons, 

many holy virgins and religious men, St. Nennocha retired from Greater to 

Lesser Britain, having received a last paternal embrace from Brochan at the 

port of embarkation. With mutual benedictions they separated ; and the king 

relumed sorrowfully to his home. It is stated, that she accompanied St. Ger- 

manus,*3 Bishop of Auxerre,^* during his journey into France, and that he had 

general direction of the course. Seven vessels are said to have sailed, and 

they had a prosperous voyage to Letavia. Their ships landed at a place, called 

Pullilfyn.-^s Having taken counsel together, a deputation, consisting of the 

Bishop Morhedrus and Gurgalonus, with Gurkentelius, also named Ilfm — the 

patron and confidant of St Nennoc — ^were appointed to wait on the local re- 

gulus, to relate all the circumstances concerning their journey and purpose, 

while they were to seek from him a place, where they could serve God as a 

community within his territories. When the pious pilgrims had disembarked, 

they sought hospitality and protection from that Duke or chief, who is called 

Guerec*^ or Guerech.^7 He was a brother to KingBudix, and from him, they 

received a kindly welcome. The ruler in that part of the country also bestowed 

a tract of land on St. Nennocha, and at a deserted place, called Pleumur,*^ or 

Ploermel. Here are some remains of its ancient ramparts, and a church of 

the sixth century, the facade of which is adorned with curious sculptures.*^ 

This place granted to our saint lay towards the south, and near to the sea. 

There, St. Nennoc founded a celebrated church and monastery, building 

several cells for herself and her religious. There they lived in peace and holy 

recollection, serving God with heart and soul. Especially were they addicted 

to prayer, and to a contemplative life. There, too, she established a monas^ 

tery, for the holy men who accompanied her. so Some of the bishops and 

abbots, who were her companions, also erected churches and habitations in 

Letavia ;S« and these were held in great veneration, by the people, to that time 

when the Legend of St. Nennoc's Acts had been written. This pious woman 

had the grace to work many miracles during her lifetime ; for, she gave sight 

to the blind, hearing to the deaf, speech to the dumb, activity to the lame, and 

^3 He was a distinguished opponent of 
Pelagianism. See Kev. Dr. George T. 
Stokes* "Ireland and the Celtic Church," 
Lect. iii., pp. 50, 51. 

** Sec the History of his Life and Writings 
in " Histoire Literaire de la France," tome 
ii., V. Siecle, sect, i., ii., pp. 256, 261. 

^ Its exact position we are not able to 

^TheBollandists remark, notwithstanding, 
that no such ruler is found thus named, among 
the Chiefs or Dukes of Britanny. Among 
the Counts of Nantes, however, there is one 
so named, as belonging to the tenth century, 
and therefore he cannot be assigned to the 
period of St. Nehnoc. Also, there was a 
Guerec, Count of Vennes, a very dbtin- 
guished warrior, living in the time ol Alan I., 
King of Britanny, about the end of the 
sixth century. See Le Bavd's ** Histoire 
de Brctagne,'*chap. x., pp. 72, 73. 

*' He may have been Guerec, Count of Ven- 
nes, who might have endowed the monastery 
(rf'Lan-Nennock, but not while St. Nennoc 

herself lived, nor in the time of St. Turriaii 
of Dol, who flourished during the eighth 
century. See ** Acta Sanctorum,'* tomus i., 
Junii iv. De S. Ninnoca Virgine, commen- 
tarius Historicus, sect, i., nifm. 2, pp. 407, 
408. Also, sect, ii., num. 14, p. 410. 

*^ This seems to be identical with Pleu- 
meur-Gautier, a small commune, having a 
population of 2,651 in 1846. It is in the de- 
partment of Cotesdu-Nord, in the province 
of Britanny. See *' CJazetteer of the World," 
vol. xi., p. 79. 

^ See Elis<Je Reclus' ** Nouvelle Geogra- 
phic Universelle," tome ii., chap, viii., sect. 
IV., pp. 621, 624. 

5° rhe writer of her Legend states, that 
the ruins of this house were to be seen there 
in his time. 

5* In Bavdrand's " Novum Lexicon Geo- 
graphicum," this denomination is further 
rendered Lhydcaw, said to have been 
a tract of Armorica, or I-esser Britain, 
and a region of Celtic Gaul. See tomus i., 
p. 418. 

Digitized by 



strength to those who had been paralyzed. St. Ncnnoc healed lepers, and 
even she brought the dead to life. As a reward for her merits, while she lived, 
the Almighty was pleased to produce an abundance of com and trees for that 
agricultural people of the whole Kemene Thebone region.s* Moreover, the 
fishermen along that coast procured an abundant supply of fish, as a reward 
for their labours. 53 One day, while engaged hunting near that place, a stag 
pursued by Prince Guerech fled towards the oratory of St. Nennoke, wlio was 
then engaged at prayer with her sisters. 54 The choir of bishops, abbots, monks 
and nuns were singing the divine praises. The dogs and huntsmen were arrested 
at a rivulet, and they did not intrude on the sacred enclosure. However, the 
Duke entered the church, where the stag had taken refuge. This terrified 
animal had there couched down at Nennoc's feet, as if to obtain her pro- 
tection. The sight greatly astonished Guerech, who not only saved the life 
of that poor animal, but the dynast remained there for seven whole days, 
offering many gifts to the convent, and commending himself to the prayers 
of its venerated superioress. After a conference with the holy Abbess, he gave 
the place where she then dwelt, and all the lands of the parish of Plemaur, as 
an inheritance and an endowment. This he did with great form and cere- 
mony, having convened an assembly of Bishops, Abbots and holy men, to 
offer the sacred mysteries, and to witness in a public manner his gift of that 
patrimony, which he destined for St Nennoc and for her religious. He also 
prepared a charter, which was duly sealed, to authenticate that grant. Thank- 
ing the Duke most gratefully for his largesses, St. Nennoc asked a blessing 
from God on him and on his posterity. She prayed for his long life, and 
that his seed might be multiplied and flourish in the land of Letavia. Again, 
she urged, that the protectorate of that patrimony and its appurtenances 
might be conferred on her guardian Gurkentelius, and that he might be 
advanced to the abbatial rank, as he was a man of noble parentage and of 
consummate wisdom. She had experienced, also, true fidelity and good service 
from him. The king listened favourably to her request Soon Gurkentelius 
obtained charge of a monastery there established, having been appointed by 
the bishops, who were on the spot, as an Abbotss Duly accomplishing these 
formalities, all the bishops returned to their respective places, having received 
the benediction of St Thurrian.56 St Nennoc became superioress over a con- 
vent, and she tramed many nuns, in the way of religious life, at that place, 
afterwards known as Land-Nennoke,57 among the people of Pleumur.58 The 
donation, to which we have alluded, has been assigned, to the year 458 ;59 
however, the Bollandists are of opinion, that the foundation of Lan-Ninnoc — 
in honour of*our saint — did not take place until the eighth century.^ St 

5* The Bollandist editor remarks, that this it, owing to his want of knowing that part 

was probably the former name of her place ; of France well, or of obtaining any informa- 

but now probably, if has become obso- tion through members of the Society of 

lete. Jesus, or of having books, which should 

S3 See '* Acta Sanctorum,*' tomus i., Junii throw some light on its history and topogra- 

iv. De S. Ninnoca Virgine, Commentarius phy. 
Historicus, sect, ii., num. 15, 16, p. 410. 5^ Lann-Nennock must have had its site 

s* This event is said to have occurred, three within or near the present commune of Pleu - 

years after St. Nennoc came to dwell in that meur-Gautier, according to this statement, 

place. in the Legend of St. Nennoc's Acts. See 

55 Gurkentelin is said to have ruled over "Acta Sanctorum,*' tomus i., Junii iv. De 

thb monastery, for forty-three years. S. Ninnoca Virgine, sect iii., num. 17, 18, 

5* His festival has been assigned to the 19, 20, 21, pp. 410, 411. 
13th of July. S9 See " Les Petils Bollandistes, Vies des 

57 Although Albert Ic Grand alludes to this Saints,** tome vi,, iv« Jour de Juin, p. 456. 
place as well known in his time, the Bollan- ^ See " Acta Sanctorum,'* tomus i., Junii 

dist editor confesses his inability to identify iv. De S. Ninnoca, Virgine, sect iii., num. 

Digitized by 



Nennoca lived holily in the province of Arraorica, where a number of 
pious women emulated her example, and continued her good works. In 
Pleumur or Ploermei she continued to reside, until the time of her death 
approached, and this was heralded by a malady, which prepared her departure 
from tliis world of exile, to a life of perfect enjoyment, in her true country and 
home. Such event has been assigned, to the 4th of June, in the year 467.^* 
This saint is invoked, in a Breton litany of the twelfth century, which 
proves, that the origin of her veneration must be referred to a still earlier 
date. In the twelfth century, as the writer of her Legend states, the miracles, 
wrought through her intercession while she lived, had not ceased in his day. 
This contemporaneous record of their continuance deserves our credence, as 
its incidents must have come within the author's cognizance. 

Article XV. — St. Fothadus or Fothardus, Bishop. \Tenih Cen- 
tury^ Although Irish-born bishops seem to have been the rule and not the 
exception, in the earlier centuries of Scottish Christianity ; yet, in the later 
ages, it is probable, the cases had been reversed, so that it might not be fairly 
assumed the present holy man belonged to Ireland, while, in the absence of 
authority, it is still possible, that he was a native of our Island. There are no- 
tices of St. Fothadus, the first bishop of Kihule, in Scotland, to be found in 
Thomas Dempster's ** Menologium Scotorum,"* at the 4th day of June. We 
are informed, that he was the second of the recorded Bishops of St. Andrews, 
and that he was celebrated for his holy life, thoughout all Scotia.' At the 
same date, he is mentioned by David Camerarius, or Chambers, as Sanctus 
Fothardus, vel Fothadus.3 The Bollandists ^ notice him, at this date, on the 
authority of the Scottish writers. We also find St. Fothardus or Fothadus, 
Doted in the work of Bishop Forbes,* at this date, and drawn from the Scot- 
tish Entries, in the Kalendar of David Camerarius. The Scottish authorities, 
about the middle of the tenth century, assigned this Bishop Fothad to St. 
Andrews.* There were two bishops, however, bearing the name of Fothad, 
in the See of St Andrews ; the first being regarded as the founder,7 and 
Fothad II.,* having place as the tenth in succession.^ The first of these has 
been called Bishop of Insi-Albau, or Islands of Scotland ;'** and, the circum- 
stances of his being noted in our native Irish records may give Ireland some 
pretension to regard him as one of her sons. If we are to believe Dempster, 
the St. Fothadus, that flourished in 981," has left a Tract, " Pro Conjugio 

22, p. 411. * Sec Rev. Dr. Reeves' Adamnan*s "Life 

*« See "Les Petits Bollandistes, Vies des of St. Columba," Additional Notes (N), p. 

Saints," tome vi., p. 456. 365, n. (9). 

Article xv.— * Thus: "Kilreuli ^ Bishop Forbes makes him Fothad 

Fothadi episcopi primi, qui in Scotia sedem whose feast is at June 4th, and who died 

certam habuerit et ornamenta Ecclesiae suae A.D. 963. 

multa contulit, inter alia Euanjjelium argen- * The same authority places him at the 3rd 

teatheca inclusit, quae nomen ipsius praefere- of February, while his death is assigned to 

bat. S."— Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of A. D. 1093. 

Scottish Saints,'' p, 202. 'See Joannis de Fordum " Scotichroni- 

* See Rev. Dr. Reeves* ** Culdees of the con," cum supplementis et continuatione 
British Islands, as they appear in History,'* Waltere Boweri, &c., vol. i., lib. vi., cap. 
Evidences, P. No. 2, and n., p. 125. xxiv., p. 339. Editiou of Walter Goodall. 

3 See "De Scotorum Fortitudine,** &c., " See Dr. 0*Donovan's ** Annals of the 

lib. iii., cap. iv., p. 152. Four Masters,*' vol. ii., pp. 682, 683. 

* See **Acta Sanctorum,** Junii iv., " It may be observed, that this date does 
tomus i. Among the pretermitted saints, not agree with either Bishop of the name, 
p. 375. " See **Historia Ecclesiastica Gemis 

* See *'KaleDdars of Scottish Saints,** Scotorum,** tomus i.,, num. 545, p. 
p. Z%o. 289. 

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[JUBTK 4. 

sacro, adrersus Dunstanum," lib. i., which he asserts was extant in his time,^ 
although his other assumed writings have perished, owing to the injury caused 
by time." The earliest bishop of the Scottish Isles is called Fothadh, son of 
Bran^ a scribhnidh or scribe.*^ That he was a writer of books appears to be 
very probable, from that account. Also, his period has been referred to that 
of Indulf, who reigned from a.d. 954 to 962.'4 As will be seen, hereafter, 
this king has been synchronized with Fothad II./5 through a mistake of For- 
dun.'* According to this account, Fothad had been banished from his See 
by Indulf. St. Fothad died a.d. 961, according to the " Annals of the Four 
Masters /' but, the true year was 963.'7 While the foregoing entry is sup- 
plied by the Four Masters only,*^ the Pictish Chronicle simply records his 
death,*^ during the reign of Niger, the son of Malcolm. Another and later 
Fothad, bishop, is mentioned with high commendation, by John Lesley,** 
Bishop of Ross, and by Hector Boetius,*' but by neither is he called a saint. 
The latter writer praises him for his clemency, and for his other distinguished 
virtues. He is said to have made peace between Grimus^ the eighty-second 
King of Scotland, and Malcolm II., at a time, when both were prepared to 
join issue in hostile array. Clothed in his episcopal robes, Fothad, the 
Bishop, intervened ; and, such was the reverence entertained for him, that 
he was enabled to appease their anger and quarrels,** by proposing as the 
conditions of a truce he established between them, that so long as Grimus 
lived, he should continue unmolested on his throne of Scotland, while after 
his death, Malcolm was to succeed him, and his posterity were to continue 
the legitimate inheritors of his royalty.*^ Having sworn on the Holy (rospels 
to observe this covenant, both dynasts laid aside their warlike preparations, 
and willingly set about procuring the public welfare of the kingdom.*^ It is said, 
Fothad was banished from his See,*5 by Indulphus.*^ It is also stated, that the 
bishop lived eight years afterwards, and died a.d. io93.*7 The last known 
Gaelic or Ciildee Bishop of St. Andrews was Fothadh, who died in the same 
year »^ as Malcolm Ceanmore. The See remained vacant during the three 
succeeding reigns.*^ A case for the Book of Gospels, and on which the 
Bishop Fothet caused an inscription to be made,3«> was preserved to the time 

'3 See Dr. 0*Donovan's •* Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 682, 683. 

'♦See E. WUliam Robertson's "Scot- 
land under her Early Kings," voL i., chap. 

iii.. P- 7S» 76. 

»5 See an account of him, in the Second 
Volume of this work, at the 3rd day of 
February, Art. iiL 

** In ** Scotichronicon," vol. i., lib. vii., 
cap. xxiv., p. 339. 

«'See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters," voL ii., n. (o), pp. 683, 

«8 See Rev. Dr. Reeves* Adamnan's " Life 
of St. Columba," Additional Notes (O), p. 
394, n. (k), ibid, 

*9 "Foihach episcopus pausavit."— 
William F. Skene's " Chronicles of the Picts 
and Scots," p. 10. 

^ See " De Origine, Moribus et Rebus 
Gestis Scotorum," lib. v., cap. Ixxxii., p. 

" See "Scotorum Historic," lib. xi., 
fol. ccxUv. 

" The particulars of this quarrel are very 
minutely set forih by Hector Boece, in 

" Scotorum Historise, lib. xi.., foL ccxliii. to 

*3 See John Lesley, " De Orgine Moribus 
et Rebus Gestis Scotorum," lib. v., cap. 
Ixxxii., p. 192. 

»*See Hector Boece, "Scotorum Histo- 
riae," lib. xi., fol. ccxlv. 

'5 Fordun represents him to be the first 
bishop of St. Andrews. See "Scotichroni- 
con," vol. i., lib. vi., cap xxiv,, p. 339. 

'* This is an incorrect statement, however, 
since Indulphus was not contemporaneous 
with him, but rather with St. Fothad I. 

*7 See Rev. Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's 
" Life of St. Columba," Additional Notes 
(O), p. 402. 

^ This was A.D. 1093, according to the 
Annals of Ulster. 

»9 See E. William Robertson's "Scotland 
under her Early Kings," voL i., chap. viL, 
p. 174. 

3«>On it were these words: " Hanc 
Evangelii thecam construxit aviti."— The 
Legend of St. Andrew, in William F. 
Skene's " Chronicles of the Picts and Scots," 
p. 19a 

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pf Fordun.3« While the period of Fothad, the first bishop of that name in the 
See of St. Andrews, is not indicated ; the Fothad or Fothach, who gave a 
superb case to the Gospels, has been entered under the year 1065, in the list 
of prelates belonging to this See.3' 

Article XVI. — St. Breaca, or Breague, Virgin, in Cornwall. 

\Fifih or Sixth Cetiiury,'] A short account of this holy virgin is found, in 

the works of Rev. Alban Butler* and of the Rev. S. Baring-Gould.' An 

ancient Life of St. Breacha had been written, and from this John Leland, the 

antiquary, has taken short extracts. Her original Celtic name appears to 

have been Breague, which is Latinized Breacha. That old Life of St. Breacca 

states, that she was born in the parts of Lagonia and Ultonia 3 — rather an 

indefinite description. Some have it, that St. Breca was one of St. Patrick's 

disciples ; but, this is more than questionable.* St. Breaca is said to have 

lived in a monastery, which St. Brigid founded in the plain of Bi-eagh, after 

she had built an oratory.^ St Breacha must have lived in the fifth or sixth 

century, according to this account. From Ireland, she went to Cornwall,^ 

about the time, when Theodoric king of that territory reigned, and ascribed 

to the year 460. It is said, that his part of Britian was anciently called by 

its people Kemou or Kerniw, signifying " the horn," Latinized to Cornubia ; 

whUe the Saxons afterwards called it Cornweales, interpreted to be " Cornish 

Wales."' St Breag was attended by many holy persons, and among these 

were Sinninus alias Senanus, an Abbot who had been at Rome with St 

Patrick, Germmochus, said to have been an Irish king, and several others, 

according to tradition.^ Marnanus a monk, Elwen, Crewenna, Helena and 

Tecla are also named,' as having accompanied her. She landed at Rey ver, 

which was situated on the eastern bank of the Hayle river. At present, it is 

called the Alan. It was situated in the hundredth of Penrith.'® There, 

Theodorick or Tewder " had his castle of residence, and he is said to have 

slain a great part of the holy multitude who accompanied St Breag." She 

led a solitary life at Reyver, and became renowned for her holiness.'3 A 

church was built in that place to her honour. It was afterwards miich fre»^ 

quented by pilgrims, and many miracles were wrought at her tomb. Beacca 

came to Pencair and to Trenewith, and she built a church in Trenewith and 

Talmeneth, as we read in the Life of St Elwin.'^ According to the ancient 

3« See "ScotichronicoD," vol. i., lib. vi., ' See William Borlase*s "Antiquities His 

cap, xxiv., ed. Gocxlall, vol. i., p. 339. torical and Monumental of the County of 

5* See Rev. Dr. Mackenzie E. C. Cornwall," vol. i., book iv., chap, x., sect. 

Walcott's "Scoti-Monasticon." pp. 84, 85. iii., p. 370. 

Article xvi— » See "Lives of ihe 'See Leiand's "Itinerary," vol. iii.. 

Fathers, Martyrs and other principal saints," p. 5. 
vol. vi., June iv. ' '*' See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the 

■See "Lives of the Saints," vol. vi., Fathers, Martyrs and other principal saints,'! 

p, 36. vol. vi., June iv. 

3 See "The Itinerary " of John Leland, " So is he called in " The Itinerary " of 

vol. iii., p. 5. John Leland, vol iii., p. 5. 

* See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of "See William Borlase's ** Antiquities 
the Saints," vol. vi., June 4th, p. 36. Historical and Monumental of theCountyof 

5 See "The Itinerary" of John Leland, Cornwall," vol. i., bookiv., chap, x., sect, 

vol. iii., p. 5. iii., p. 370. 

* See William Borlase's " Antiquities '^ See Rev. Alban Butler's "Lives of th^ 
Historical and Monumental, of the County Fathers, Martyrs and other principal saints," 
of Cornwall," vol. i., book iv., chap, x., vol. vi., June iv, 

sect, iii, p. 370. '* See "The Itinerary of John Leland, * 

7 Sec Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary vol. iii., p. 5. 
of England," vol. i., p. 687. 's Quoted by Leland. . - i 

Digitized by 



Exeter Martyrology of B. Grandison/J this saint was formerly venerated on 
the 4th of June, in the diocese of Exeter. According to the Rev. Alban 
Butler's " Lives of the Saints,"*^ Breaca, now Breague, a Virgin, was honoured, 
at the 4th of June. This holy Irish virgin is entered for the same date, in 
the Circle of the Seasons.*' 

Article XVII. — St. Burian, or Buriana, of Cornwall. In Rev. 
Alban Butler's work,* and in the Circle of the Seasons;* St. Burian, an Irish 
woman, is mentioned, at the 4th of June. She appears to have left her native 
country, and to have passed over to Cornwall.3 There she had an oratory, in 
which she is said to have been buried.4 Going into Scylly, and thence return- 
ing, King Athelstan made a vow to build a college where St. Buriana's oratory 
stood.5 Accordingly, within sight of the Scilly Rocks, he founded a collegiate 
church in her honour.^ The church of St. Buryens enjoyed tiie privilege of 
a sanctuary. In the time of John Leland, the antiquary, not more than eight 
dwelling-houses were there.' 

Jfiftft ©ap of Sunt* 





THE illustrious Apostle of Germany, St. Boniface, has been classed 
among our Irish Saints, resting on those testimonies adduced in the 
present effort to evolve and epitomize his biography. No doubt, a very general 
impression prevails, that England had been the country of his birth ; and 
accordingly, several modern writers have advanced statements, resting on 
very credible sources, to accept such a conclusion. Scotland has claimed 
the honour of his nativity, likewise, on the ground, that some early and ex- 

'* See vol. vi., June iv. < See Lewis* " Topographical Dictionary of 

*' See p. 156. England," vol. i., p. 437. 

Article xvii.— * See *' Lives of the 'See Gough's Camden's "Britannia," 

Fathers, Martyrs and other principal saints," vol. i., p. 12. 

vol. vi., June iv. • He placed a Dean and Three Prebends 

• See p. 156. in the College. See William Borlase*s 

3 Sec William Borlase's ** Antiquities *' Antiquities Historical and Monumental of 

Historical and Monumental of the County the County of Cornwall/* vol. i., book iv., 

of Cornwall,** vol. i., book iv., chap, xi., chap, xi., sect, iv., p. 383. 

sect, iv., p. 383. 1 Sec hb ** Itinerary,*" vol. vii., p. to8. 

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June 5.] 



cellent authorities have pronounced his father and mother to be Scots/ while 
St. Boniface himself is expressly denominated a Scottish Archbishop;' in one 
instance, he is called a Scot by birth.3 It is easy, however, to show, that 
these applications of such terms can only have reference to Ireland.* Hence, 
we may regard the controversy on this subject, as being practically narrowed 
to the claims of Ireland and England. While we of Ireland should rejoice to 
have the matter of evidence for the birth of St. Boniface decided in our favour; 
far be it from our intention or desire, in the interests of historic truth, to de- 
prive England of the credit to which she is justly entitled, by having an addi- 
tional great name added to the bead-roll of her illustrious sons. In any case, 
it seems more than probable, that some of St. Boniface's missionary aids and 
companions in martyrdom were from Ireland; while, a knowledge of his 
a|x>stolic career must be necessary, to illustrate the lives of many holy and 
learned Irishmen and Irishwomen, who flourished during his age and after 
his time on the Continent of Europe. 

The Life of St. Boniface — dedicated to LuUus 5 and Megingozus,* con- 
temporaneous bishops — was written by a priest, named VV' illibald.' He is said 
to have been the disciple of our saint,® although this seems to be a very doubt- 
ful matter.9 From this tract,*® and from his own Epistles, writers have taken 
their most reliable accounts. These sources we have chiefly relied upon, to 
furnish matter for the present biography; but, they are supplemented, 
also, from other ancient and modern documents and records. There is a "Vita 
Sancti Bonifacii Episcopi Moguntini et Martyris," auctore Willibaldo secun- 
dum priorem, ut videtur, conscriptionem, very lately edited. Including a 
Prologue, it contains Forty-two chapters." It seems doubtful enough, if we 
are in possession of Willibald's genuine text of the Vita S. Bonefacii ;" 
although various editions of it have been published. Thus, Henricus Cani- 

Article I.— Chapter i.— * In his 
"Chronicon," at a.d. 737—715, it is en- 
tered by Marianus Scottus, referring to him, 
"patrc atque etiam matre Scottum.** — 
Pertx's •* Monumenta Germanise Historica," 
tomusv., p. 545. 

■ Again, at A.D. 723, in the same work, 
Marianus calls him *• Sancti Scotti Archi- 
eptscopi Bonifacii." — See iind, 

' See Abbot John of Trittenheini, who 
wiitcs, that St. Bonifuce was ** Scotlus 
nam." — ** Catalogus Scriptonim Ecclesias- 
tior»nnn,"fol. li. 

♦ Marianus, well known to be an Irish- 
man, yet calls himself Scot tus. 

5 He succeeded St. Boniface, in the See of 
Maycncc, A.D. 755. 

• Also called Mengoz, Mengosus and 
Megiugaudus. Several years btfore the 
martjrrdoro of St. Boniface, he had been 
bishop of Wurzbiirg in Fianconia. 

'It bai been incorrectly thought, by 
Canisius, Serarius, and Mabillon, that he 
bad been the same Willibald, whom Boni- 
face appointed to the See of Eichstadt, about 
the year 750. See "The Irish Ecclesiastical 
Record," Third Series, vol. v., No. 2, p. 115. 
• In the Prologue, he intimates, that this 
Ufc of St. Boniface was undertaken in a 
spirit oif obe^Jicnce, while humbly protesting 
his inability to do proper justice to the sub- 
ject. It has been proved to evidence, by 

Father Godefrid Henschen, that the work is 
not from the pen of Bishop Willibald, disci- 
ple of St. Boniface. But, the Priest who 
wrote it probably derived his name from 
that Bishop. The two great German histo- 
rians of our own day, Pertz in " Monu- 
menta Germaniae Historica,*' and Jafl^ in 
** Monumenta Moguntina," have adopted 
the opinion of the Jesuit Henschen. 

9 l^he writer declares, that his narrative 
had been drawn up in a simple style from 
the accounts of religious men who lived con- 
temporaneously with St. Boniface ; and, he 
even appears to iniimate, that these accounts 
had been committed to writings, which he 
had used. Among others, he tells us, that 
Bishop Lull was one of his authorities. 

*° In the *' Annales Ecclesiastici " of Car- 
dinal Baronius, we find copious illustrations 
of the historic character and acts of St. Boni- 
face, tome ix., from A.D. 716 to A.D. 755. 

" See " Analecta Bollandiana," edidcrunt 
Carolus De Smedt, Gulielmus Van Hooff, 
et Josephus De Backer, Presbyteri Societa- 
tis Jesu, tomus i., pp. 51 to 72. 

" It has been ably edited by Jafi^, who 
states : " Est vero cognitum opusculum hoc 
non integrum usque ad nos remansisse . . 
ut maxime verisimile sit, jam primum vita 
exemplar detrimenta cepisse hiatusquc et ri* 
mas postea levi brachio oblitos fuissc."— 
"Monumenta Moguntina," p. 424. 

Digitized by 




[June 5. 

6ius *3 has copied from different Manuscripts,'* that Life which he issued. 
Again, Laurence Surius has given us a version. A History of the Passion of 
St. Boniface '5 was written at an early period, yet it does not seem to have 
been published. From various records are the Acts of this holy Apostle 
capable of receiving illustration ; thus, from the Chronicle of Marianus 
Scotus,** from the Martyrology of Bede, of Usuard, of Hraban, of Ado, as also 
from the Roman Martyrology. To make clearer what has been rendered obscure, 
in the Life of our saint by Willibald,*' Otho or Othlo, a priest and monk ** 
of the twelfth century, wrote his Acts, in two Books. '^ Since that period, 
many writers have treated about this celebrated Apostle of Germany. John of 
Trittenheim ** and Petrus de Natalibus have a short account of Bonifacius, 
Archbishop of Maguntinum.*' The Religious Benedictines of the Congregation 
of St. Maur have learnedly illustrated his Life and writings." His Acts are con- 
tained in the compilation of Surius, '3 of Thomas Dempster,'* and of Canisius.** 
The Bollandists have treated exhaustively the Acts of St. Boniface, in their 
great work.'^ According to their usual method for giving particulars regard- 
ing the biographies of illustrious saints, they commence with a previous com- 
mentary ;'7 then, their first Life is that by the priest Willibald ;'* this is fol- 

*3 In " Antiquae Lectiones," tomus vL 

*♦ He used. Manuscripts belonging to 
Rebdorff, near Eichstad and Windberg, in 
Bavaria, as also a Manuscript belonging to 
Albert Hunger. 

«5 Allusion is made to it, in a supplement 
to Willibald 's Life of St. Boniface, which has 
been published by the Bollandists. 

'* See his •* Chronicon," edited by 

'7 HbLife of St. Boniface is stated to have 
been written in a chamber, or cell, at the 
church of St. Victor, situated without the 
walls of Mayence. The Archbishops of that 
city were patrons of the church, in which 
LuUus and Raban prayed. Willigisus also 
established there a great monastery and a 
chapter of twenty Canons in honour of St. 
Victor, and he presided from a.d. 977 to 
loii. In memory of St. Boniface a church 
was there dedicated, and Otho III., 
Emperor of Germany, was present. The 
latter confirmed by deed a farm belonging to 
himself in Thuringiaas an endowment. WiUi- 
bald wrote that Life at first on waxen tablets, 
so that it might be submitted to Archbishop 
Lullus and to Megingaudus, and thus re- 
ceive their approval, lest anything had been 
inserted through mistake or misstatement, 
before it should be transferred to parchment, 
in a more permanent shape. See Supple- 
ment to the Life of St. Boniface, cap. iii., 
sect. 14. 

»* Of the Monastery of Boniface, accord- 
ing to Henricus Canisius. Although he de- 
dicated this work to the brethren at Fulda, it 
is thought that he lived in another monas- 
tery. The Bollandists donotfind any great ob- 
scurities in Will ibald's Acts, and such emen- 
dations as the^ deemed necessary are sup- 
plied by the introduction of asterisks and 

»' Surius has published the Acts of St. Boni- 
face, as written by Willibald and by Otho. 

** See ** Catalogus Scriptorum Ecclesias- 
ticorum," fol. li. 

" See ** Catalogus Sanctoram et Gesto- 
tum eorum ex diversis voluminibus collec- 
tus :" editus a Reverend issimo in Christo 
Patre Domino Petro de Natalibus dc 
Venerns del Gratia episcopo .^quiiino. See 
Nonus Junii, lib. vi., fol. cxlvii. 

" See'* Histoire Literaire de la France," 
tome i v., Siecle,viiL, pp. 92 to 120. New 

*3 See "De Probatis Sanctorum Vitis," 
tomus vi., Nonus Junii. He has published 
one of those Lives — said to have been writ- 
ten by Otho — without giving the author's 
name, and by changing the style in certain 

'* See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Sco- 
torum,'* tomus i., lib. ii., num. 130, pp. 71 
to 74. 

=5 He has published Otho's Life of St. 
Boniface from a parchment, belonging to the 
monastery of Rebdorff. 

** See "Acta Sanctorum,** tomus L, Junii 
V. De Bonifacio Martyre, Legato Apostol. 
et Archiep. Moguntino, sociisque Martyri- 
bus ; Eobano, co-episcopo, Adalario seu 
Adalhero, Wintrungo et Waltero, Presby ; 
Hamundo, Scribaldo, Bosa, Levitis ; 
Waccaro, Gundecaro, Ellehero, Hathevulib, 
Monachts; Hiltebrando et aliis xl. Laicis. 
Doccomii in Frisia," pp. 452 to 504. 

*' In four sections and thirty-three para- 
graphs. The first three sections are the com- 
position of Father Godefred Henschenn, and 
the fourth has been compiled by Father 
Daniel Papebroch. 

'* Precc5ding it is a Prologue, in four para- 
graphs. The Life proper is in four chapters 
and fifty-six paragraphs, with notes by 

Digitized by 


June 5.] 



lowed by a supplement,'^ the author being a priest of Mentz ;3o the second 
Life 3» is that of the Utrecht Priest of St. Martin's ;3a next follows the third 
Life,33 supposed to have been written by a Miinster author ;3^ then appear 
Extracts 3S from St Ludger's Vita S. Gregorii, Pastoris Ultrajectini ;36 and, 
in fine, we have Analecta Bonifaciana,37 the joint production of editorial 
labours, by Fathers Henschenn and Papebroke. Besides, the Bollandists have 
added some account, regarding the Translation and Relics of Saints Adalarius 
and Coban, which were preserved at Erfurt.38 The church histories and annals 
of Germany and France, general and local, have devoted several pages towards 
the illustration of his Acts; thus, the Annales Fuld3e,39 Baronius,^** Serra- 
rius,4* Mabillon,4« Fluery,^3 Cellier,44 Schannat,45 Heda,4« Matter,47 Jean- 

Father Henschenn. This is alluded to in 
subsequent Pf g^ ^ Willibald's Life of St. 
Boniface. The Bollandists took their ver- 
sion from an ancient Manuscript belonging 
to the monastery of St. Maximin, at Treves. 
To this was added the supplement, contain- 
ing some matters, which were either omitted 
by Willibald or not exactly related. 

*9 This is published in three chapters, con- 
sisting of foarteen paragraphs, with notes by 
Father Henschenn. This we shall quote 
hereafter as the Supplement to Willibald. 
Father Henschenn has supplied notes. Also, 
some matters contained m it have been 
transferred to Otho's Life. 

** He describes himself as writing it in a 
place, where stood the church of St. Victor, 
m the retirement of a cell, "primitus in 
ceratis tabulis ad probationem Domini LuUi 
et Megingaadi, post eorum examinationem 
in pergamenis rescribendam, ne quid incaute 
vel superfluum exaratum appareret." 

5« This has a Prologue of five paragraphs, 
with three chapters, comprising sixteen 
paragraphs. Hereafter, it shall be quoted 
as the Life by the Utrecht Priest, or the 
Second Life of St. Boniface. Notes are ap- 
pended by Father Henschenn. 

5* It is published from a Utrecht Manu- 
script of St. Saviour's Church. The author 
is supposed to have lived and written about 
the same time as Willibald. Bollandus found 
a copy of this Life, but without its Prolo^e, 
in the collection of a gentleman, Schenckmg. 
The Carmelite Joannes a Leydis, by others 
called Joannes Gerbrandus, formerly prior 
of his order in the Convent at Haarlem, who 
wrote a Chronicle of the Utrecht Bishops and 
the Counts of Holland, brin^g it to the 
year 14 17, as also Reyner Snoius, who wrote 
Annals of the Counts of Flanders, printed 
at Frankfort, took a considerable portion of 
their work from this Life. 

33 It is in eight paragraphs, and quoted 
henifter as the Third Life of St. Boniface. 
It is taken from a Manuscript belonging to 
the church of St. Saviour at Utrecht, from a 
collection of D. Lindan, as also from that of 
the Bollandists themselves. 

34 Mabillon had a Manuscript copy of it, 
which he largely used, and it belonged to 
the Monasteiy C^ompendientis. The author 

mentions, that he had a Book of the Virtues 
of St. Gregory, constitutetl Pastor of Utrecht 
by St. Boniface, supposed to be that written 
by St. Ludger. 

35 These are in sixteen paragraphs. Notes 
are supplied by Father Henschenn. 

3* It IS thus quoted, in succeeding pages. 

37 Thisis in seven chapters and seventy-five 
paragraphs ; and in it are given many parti- 
culars, regarding the Relics of St. Boniface 
and of his companions. 

3* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomusi., Junii 
v., De S. Bonifacio, Martyre, &c Com- 
mentarius Praevius, sect, i., num. I to 6, pp. 
452 to 454. 

39 See Freher's «* Scriptores Renim JGer- 
manicarum," tomus i. 

^ See " Annales Ecclesiatici." 

♦* See ** Rerum Mogunticarum," cum An- 
notationibus et Supplemento, a Georgio 
Christiano Joannis, lib. iii., pp. 251 to 370. 
Francofurti ad Msenum. A.D. 1722. 

*»See "Annales Ordinis S. Benedict!,*' 
tomus i., lib. xviii., sect, xlix., p. 610, tomus 
ii., lib. xix., sect, xxviii., xxx., pp. 14, 15, 
lib. XX., sect i., ii., pp. 41, 42, sect. xxvi. 
to xxviii., pp. 52, 53, sect, xliii., p. 61, sect. 
Iv., Ivi. pp. 67, 68, sect. Ixiv., pp. 71 
to 73, sect. Ixxix., Ixxx., pp. 79 to 81, lib. 
xxi., sect. XV., p. 93, sect, xix., p. 95, sect, 
xlii., xliii., pp. 105, 106, sect, xlbc., p. 108, 
sect. Ixvii., Ixviii., Ixix., pp. 116 to 118., lib. 
xxii., sect i. toviii., pp. 125 to 129, sect.xiv., 
XV., pp. 133, 134, sect, xvii., xviii., pp. 135, 
136, sect. xxvi. to xxxii., pp. 139 to 143, sect, 
lix., lx.,pp. 155, 156, sect. IxiiL, Ixiv., pp. 
I57» '59» sect.lxviii., pp. 160, 161, sect. Ixxiit, 
p. 163, lib.xxiii., sect, x., pp. 170 to 172. 

« See " Histoire Ecclesiastique," tome 
ix., liv. xli., sect, xxxvii., pp. 185 to 187, 
sect. xliv. to xlviii., pp. 195 to 203, liv. 
xlii., sect. X., xi., pp. 227 to 229, sect xx., 
xxi., xxii., xxiii., pp. 256 to 264, sect, xxxii. 
to xxxvii., pp. 277 to 290. sect. xliv. to Iii., 
pp. 300 to 314, sect Ivi. to Ivii., pp. 319 to 
315, liv. xliii., sect xix., xx., xxi., xxii., pp. 
353 to 360. 

♦• See " Histoire des Auteurs Ecclesiasti-. 
ques," tome xviii., p. 74. 

^ See *• Historia Fuldensis, A.D. 1729. 

^ See " Historia Ultrajactensis." 

<7 See •* Histoire Universelle de TEglisc 

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[June 5. 

Frangois le Petit/* severally present notices. There are Lives of St. Boniface, 
of greater or lesser length, in the works of Bishop Challenor,^^ of Rev. Alban 
Butler,5o and in Les Petits Bollandistes.s' Rev. J.— Ch. — A. Seiters,5« Catho- 
lic cur^ of Goetingue, Ozanam,53 Le Dr. Hoefer's '* Nouvelle Biographic 
G^n^rale,"54 and Rev, S. Baring-Gould,55 have accounts of this celebrated 
Christian missionary, Lately has been published an English Life of St 
Winifrid or Bonefacius, Martyr, Archbishop of Mentz, and Apostle of Ger- 
many. 5^ The writings which are extant of St. Boniface himself — especially 
his Epistles 57 — will probably give us the most accurate insight, regarding his 
inner life and thoughts ; so that, in the attempt to investigate his history, 
those writings must have a chief share in our consideration. 

Much controversy has been raised, regarding the questions of descent and 
race, as also on the place where this great German Apostle was born. Car- 
dinal Bellarmin 58 makes St Boniface an Englishman; but, his editor Labbe 59 
remarks, that others call him Scotus. Among these are Hieronymous.^ 
That the great Apostle of Germany had been an Anglo-Saxon was understood, 
by many of the ancients,^' and by most of the modern German ^» and French^' 
historians. This, however, does not appear to have been the opinion of our 
early Irish writers. St Boniface is classed among the Scots' saints, by Adam 
King,^4 and by Camerarius,^5 who quote various authorities to establish their 
statements. At the year 723, Marianus Scotus records'^ him as being a 
Scottus. In the marginal addition to the text, made in Marianus's own hand, 
St, Boniface is said to have been from Ireland.^^ Proofs of St Boniface, 

Chr^iennc," tome ii,, chap. i. 

*■ See ** Grande Chronique de Hol- 

^Sce "Britannia Sancta," part i., June 
5th» PP' 339 tc 344. 

5° See ** Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and 
other principal saints," vol. vi., June v. 

5» See ** Vies des Saints," tome vi., v* Jour 
de Juin, pp. 459 to 464. 

5* Intituled *' Boniface, Apotre des Alle- 
mands, sa Vie, ses CEuvres," Mayence, 

55 In his work " Etudes Germaniques." 

5* See tome vi., cols. 576, 577. 

5$ See *' Lives of the Saints," vol. vi., June 
5, pp. 41 to 54. 

5* Its contents are : I. His Early Days. 
II. He goes to Rome, III. He goes to 
Bavaria and Friesland. IV. He returns to 
Germany. V. Letter of Bonifacius — No. 
2a VI. Labours in Thuringia and Bavaria. 
VII. Provincial Synods held. VIII. Pro- 
gress of the Mission. IX. The Martyrdom. 
Appendix. The author of " St. Willibrord " 
is announced as the writer. It is published 
by Messrs. Bums and Oates, London. 

5' These have been edited by Serarius, 
with notes, and they have been published in 
the ** Bibliotheca Patruum." They are to 
be found, in the " CoDectio Conciliorum," 
with notes by Labbe, Sirmond and Binius, 
together with Epistles of the Sovereign 
Pontiffs. The Bollandists had the intention, 
at first, to publish them, with various read- 
ings, under the supervision of one of their 
Jesuit Fathers, Joannes Grothusius; but, his 
death occurring, and finding, that others had 

assumed the task, their project was aban- 

58 See "Operum," tomus vii. De Scrip- 
toribus Ecclesiasticis, p. 255. 

s' In a subjoined historical Disserta- 

^ See " De Bono Statu Religiosi,'* lib. ii, 
cap, 30. 

** Thus, his Life, by the Utrecht priest has 
it : " Beatus Bonifacius gentitale solum in 
insula, quas Britaimia diciiur, habuit ; quam 
modo incolit gens Anglorum, quae a Saxoni- 
bus traxisse originem putatur." — Cap. i., 
sect. 6. The Third Life of St. Boniface tells 
us of Winfrid, " nobilique prosapia Anglo- 
rum oriundus,"sect. i. 

*' See Leopold Ranke, in his "Ecclesiasti- 
cal and Political History of the Popes of 
Rome," translated by Sarah Austin, vol. i., 
chap, i., p. 16. 

*^' See " Histoire Literaire de la France," 
tome iv., p. 92. 

** In his Kalendar, at the 5th of June, we 
read : ** S. Boniface Scotisman apostle of 
germanie mart, in frisland vnder leo ye 3." — 
Bishop Forbes' **Kalendars of Scottish 
Saints," p. 154. 

*s See " De Scotorum Fortitudine," lib. 
iii., cap. iv., pp. 152, 153. 

^In his "Chronicon," at A.D. 723. 
*' Juramentum Sancti Scotti Archiepbcopi 
Bonifatii i,sic) in ecclesia Sancti Petri Apos- 
loli coram Papa Gregorio Secifndo." 
— '* Monumenta Germanise Historica," 
tomus v., p. 546. 

*' See Peru's edition of his ** Chronicon," 
where we read : " Iste enim Bonifatius de 

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June 5.] 



Archbishop of Mayence, having been a Scotus are discoverable, even from 
Popes* Letters and Councils.^ Thus various passages from Pontifical letters 
are cited by Marianus, addressed to the Irish Boniface, Archbishop of 
Mentz.^ Recording the destruction of the monasteries at St. Gall and Fulda, 
in the Hungarian incursions, Marianus Scotus links these great monasteries 
together, as founded by Scottish or Irish saints, and one of these is expressly 
named Boniface.^ According to John of Trittenheim, St. Boniface was a 
Scot by birth,7« and his statement is unquestionably of considerable weight 
and importance.^' We have it on excellent authority, that the father and 
mother of Boniface were Scots,73 only a term synonymous for Irish.74 They 
seem, likewise, to have been persons of some distinction. 

St. Winfrid— afterwards called Boniface 75 — is said by Engjish writers 
generally, to have been bom, in the west of England. The saint himself seems 
to intimate very distinctly, that he was bom in transmarine Saxonland,7* 
which can only have reference to England. It is probable, that his parents 
left Ireland for that country, and at a period when there were most cordial 
and reciprocal feelings of friendship existing between the Anglo-Saxons and 
the Irish.77 The date assigned for his birth is about a.d. 680.78 ^Qgt 

Hibemia, missus est cum Willebrordo Ang- 
lico Episcopo, ut in vita ejus Willebrordi 
Icgitur."— A/V/. 

*• See Mariani Scotti "Chronicon," edited 
by G. Waitz, in ** MonumentaGennanicse His- 
torica," Scriptorum, tomusv., pp. 546, 547 

•* Thus we read : " Epistola Gregorii ad 
Bonifacium Scottum Moguntinum Aichie- 
piscopum." Again, ** Epistola Zachariae 
Papae ad Bonifacium Scottum Archiepisco- 

Sum Moguntinum data nonas Januarias," 
:c. Likewise : " Alia epistola 21achariae 
Papae ad Bonifacium Scottum Archiepisco- 
pum Moguntinum." 

^Thus, at A.D. 937, we find : "Monas- 
teria sanctorum Scottorum, Sancti Galli et 
sancti Bonifacii, igne consumuiitur," ibid,, 

p. 554. 

^' See his work, ** De Scriptoribus Eccle- 

^ In a communication on this question, ad- 
dressed to the Editor of "The Irish Ecclesi- 
astical Record," and intituled, "Was St. 
Boniface an Irishman?" the Most Rev. 
Patrick F. Moran, then Bishop of Ossory, 
and now Cardinal Archbishop of Sydney, 
thus writes concerning Trithemius : ** He 
held in his hand the traditions of Mentz and 
Fulda — that is, of the See of St. Boniface, 
and of the great monastery which he founded. 
It appears to me, that it would be alike 
strange to suppose that if St. Boniface were 
a Saxon, the traditions of Mentz and Fulda 
would assign him to Ireland, as thatLuxeuil 
and Bobbio would conspire to assign to 
England their great patron and founder St. 
Colombanus. But, it is said, that Trithe- 
mius dtes Marianus, and evidently consulted 
his chronicle. It is to be presumed, indeed, 
that it was so : but whilst Trithemius accepts 
as correct the statements of Marianus rela- 
ting to St. Boniface, he becomes voucher to 
OS that those statements are conformable to 

the traditions of the spiritual children of St 
Boniface, which is the strongest confirmation 
that we could ask of Marianus's authority in 
this particular." — Third Series, vol. v., 
No. 3, p. 189. 

" Thomas Dempster denying the state- 
ment that St. ^oniface was a native of Eng- 
land, adds: 'Sbi enim educatus, non natus, 
nam Scotum faciunt nostrates, et praeterea 
Wilhelmus Heda, Jo. a Beca, Anton. Pos- 
sevinus, vir pius, et polyhistor. tom. i. Ap- 
par. Sacri pag. cccLXiii. Hieron. Platus, 
lib. II., Stat. Relig.," — "Historia 
£cclesiaticaGentisScotorum,"tomus i., lib. 
ii., num. 130, p. 71. 

7* In his *' Chronicon," at A.D. 715, Maria- 
nus Scotus, alluding to Pope Gregory II., 
has the following statement : '* Hie erat vir 
castus er sapiens, qui Bonifacium, patre at- 
que etiam matre Scottum, ordinavit Episco- 
pum ad sedem Moguntinum, et per eum in 
Germania verbum salutis praedicavit, gen- 
temque illam in tenebris sedentem evange- 
lica luce illustravit." — "Monumenta Ger- 
manise Historica," tomusv., pp. 545, 546. 

75 See Matthew of Paris "Chronica 
Majora," edited by Henry Richards Luard, 
M.A., vol. i., p. 341. 

7* St. Boniface, writing to Pope Zachary, 
mentions the transmarine Saxonland *'in 
qua natus et nutritus fui." According to the 
First Epistle to Pope Zachary, which is 
numbered 134 in Serarius, and in Labbe's 
**Collectio Conciliorum," tomus vi., col. 
1494, num. 5. 

'7 It is a fact well known, at present, that 
the children bom of Irish parents in England 
and Scotland, in a vast number — if not in 
the generality^-of cases, call themselves 
Irish, and would resent the attempt to im- 
pose on them the name of Englishmen or of 
Scotchmen. The historic recollections of the 
past should give us to understand, that the 

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English writers assert, that his birth occurred at Cridiantum,79 or Crediton, 
contracted to Kirton, in Devonshire. For this statement, we find no authority, 
among the most ancient writers of his Life, in Germany. When baptized, he 
is said to have received the name of Wynfrith or Winfrid — sometimes written 
Winnifred ; but, this statement is not found, in the earlier Acts of this saint.^ 

While an infant, his mother's love for the child was so great, that she nursed 
and cherished him with extraordinary care ; the father sharing this affection 
with such excess, as to prefer him to his other children.^* In very tender 
years, the child was wonderfully affected by the appearance of any person or 
object, that directed his attention towards the love and service of God. He 
was particularly solicitous to enquire about the proper means to shape his 
future course of life. It was customary in his age and country to hold stations 
or make domiciliary visits to private houses,^' where religious truths were 
taught to the family. Whenever any priest or cleric came to his father's house, 
the young Winfrid was delighted to confer with such visitor on heavenly 
things. Moreover, he was earnestly desirous, at an early age, to quit the 
world and all its vanities. His chief object was to consecrate himself to 
God in a religious profession. When he was as yet but four or five years old,^3 
the young Winfrid seemed to have a great desire for the monastic state, and he 
learned to despise all things, that were merely terrestrial. His father had in- 
tended, however, that his child should be addicted to some worldly pursuit, and 
that he should succeed to the possession of a family patrimony. After some time, 
Winfrid's intention was discovered to his dissatisfied father. The latter sought 
by all means to divert him from it, partly urging him by threats, not to leave 
the paternal home, and partly holding out by blandishments, how much more 
preferable it should be, that he followed a secular calling. Every expedient 
was devised, to alter the child's resolution, but in vain ; for, Winfrid earnestly 
desired to addict himself to sacred studies, and to unite with them a con- 
templative life. Being visited with a sudden sickness, which brought him to 
death's door, the father of Winfrid acknowledged this visitation came from 
the hand of God, and that it was a correction for opposing the call of Heaven, 
given to his son.^^ 

Being now thirteen years of age, the father of Boniface sent his son to the 
monastery of Adescancaster, now Exeter.^5 it is said,^^ that this religious 
house was on the site of a Roman camp, called Isca Danmoniorum, on the 
Exe River. In the seventh century, it was called Exanceaster,^^ more com- 

Anglo-Nonnans have been the common op- registered in the Irish Kalendars, as having 

pressors of the ancient Saxons and Irish, who been called Curitan, is known in Scottish 

were formerly on exceedingly good terms. It history as Bonifacius. 

is easy to understand, how the social and ^' See Willibald's Life of St. Boniface, 

race relations have changed since the earlier chap, i., num. 5. 

ages. *» See Lea Petits Bollandistes, ** Vies 

'" See Rev. Alban Butler's '* Lives of the des Saints," tome vi., v«Jour de Juin, 

Fathers, Martyrs and other principal saints/* p. 459. 

vol. vi .. June v. ^^ Hieronjrmus Platus has the words, 

yj William Cambden, describing Devon- "adhuc quinquennis esset.*' — ** De Bono 

shire, states, it was — *'ad Credenum,** scil. statu religiosi," lib. ii., cap. 30. 

fluvium. — See " Britannia," Danmonise or ^ See Les Petits Bollandistes, ** Vies des 

Devonshire, Joannis Janssonii **Novus Saints," tome vi., v« Jour de Juin, p. 

Atlas, sive Theatrum Orbis Terrarum," 450. 

p. 134. * *5 Kow a city of Devonshire. 

•° It has been suggested, by his Eminence ^ By Father Henschenn, in n. (a), to 

Cardinal Moran, that it is far from being im- Willibald*s Life of St. Boniface, chap, i., p. 

probable, that both the Saxon name Wini- 462. 

frid, and the Latin Bonifacius may be no- *7 The root of this word was not Anglo- 

t)iing more than translations or adaptations Saxon, as Henschenn supposes ; it came 

of an original Celtic name. Thus, a saint from the Celto-British word Exe, closely 

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June 5.] 



monly Excester.^ According to some accounts,^ the young Winfred received 
his education in a monastery,9<> which stood on the site of the Cathedral 
Close,'* at Exeter, and under Abbot Wolfliard. There, it was intended he 
siiould be educated, under the holy Abbot Wolfhard, to whom he was given in 
charge. Winfrid remained many years with him ; and, while still very young, 
he desired to learn wisdom from the example and counsel of his superiors. It 
was soon rendered manifest, that he had been divinely called to the religious 
state, and the Abbot Wolfhard, in a conference with his monks,9» gave assent 
to the earnest prayer of Winfrid. A strong impression was made on his mind, 
owing to the holy influences that surrounded him. At the early age of seven, 
his intellect became developed by the assiduity he devoted to his studies, 
while his modesty and gravity of deportment were an index of the solid vir- 
tues he had acquired. He became a model student and a vessel of election, 
at one and the same time. Every moment of his existence was well spent. His 
disciplined soul answered to the highest expectations of his religious teachers, 
and his naturally good dispositions were a preservative against the effeminacy 
which vice engenders. Perfectly pure were all his intentions, and an abun- 
dance of Divine Grace kept him chaste and sober ; each day was he engaged 
accumulating merits, while he was preparing that store of learning and of vir- 
tue, destined to serve for the successful prosecution of his future Apostolic 
career. It was soon found, that his masters were unable to teach their pupil in 
that monastery, where his course had been conimenced.93 Thence, for 
further improvement, with consent of the Abbot Wolfhard and his community, 
Winfrid entered the monastery of Nutscelle,5'*or Huntcell. It was flourishing, 
at that time, in regular discipline, under the rule of Abbot Winbercht. Here 
he studied under another master, and he became endeared to all the monks. 
He applied himself anew to the service of God, and to all the details of sacred 
and profane learning. He was versed in Grammar and Rhetoric, in historic 
studies and in the measures of poetry. He united fasting with prayer; while 
he cherished the virtues of humility and obedience, with a spirit of charity 
towards his brethren and the rest of mankind.^s Especially to enquire what 

corresponding with the Irish, Isca, which 
means wattr. 

* Latinized Exonta. 

•^ See *'The Irish Builder," vol. xxviii. 
No. 639, p. 225. 

«* According to the account of Bishop 
Grand isson. 

9* The Rev. Dr. Oliver, in his " History 
of Exeter," says : " In Exeter, long before 
the Conquest, the place of mterment was in 
the Close : nay, among ihe archives of (»ur 
Chapter, we find an ordinance of Pope Inno- 
cent III.betweenJan.iiQSand 1216,'atnulli 
liceat construere infra cemeteria terrainos 
parochse Exoniensis ecclesi^e sine assensu 
Capituli et Episcopi ' — «.^., * that to no one 
may it be lawful to build cemeteries below 
the boundaries of the Parochial Church of 
Exeter wit) tout consent of the Chapter and 
Bishop.' This privilege had been conceded, 
however, to the various religious houses, and 
Bishop Grandisson, on the 31st March, 1354, 
extended this licence to St. John's Hospital. 
But the Close, which Bishop Grandisson 
Myles 'commune civitatis poliandrum,' 
i^.y * the common burying*place of the 
dty/ becaoie at last an intolerable nuisance, 

and was especially so during the pestilence 
of 1636. The accumulation of corpses, and 
the mounds of earth, to u>e the energetic 
language of Bishop Joiin Hall, tiireatened to 
bury iniiecorouj»ly the very Cathedral. This 
led to the opening of a new cemeieiy in the 
old Prisonhay on St Bartholomew's Day, 
24th August, 1637." 

»' Will I bald adds: "et eorum accepta 
(sicut regularis vitae poposcit ordo) benedic- 
tione," &c. Life of St. Boniface, chap, i., 
num. 7. 

9' John of Trittenhem states, that St. 
Boniface had been sent by his parents to an 
English monastery, called Mischele — evi- 
dently a mistake for Nutscelle — when he was 
only five years old. It seems, however, the 
holy student was many years older, at that 
particular time of his life. 

9* This monastery underwent a common 
fate with all the rest, during the time of the 
Danish devastations. It was never since re- 
stored. We know not, at present, even the 
place where it stood. 

95 See his Life by the Utrecht priest, 
cap. i., sect. 6. 

^ St. Boniface is claimed as a Benedictine 

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he must do to secure his soul, was a subject for conversation. Daily medita- 
tations he exercised, on the great truths of eternity. Meantime, his devotional 
and literary exercises, were alternated with manual labour, according to the 
constitutions of the holy Father Benedict.y^ He observed with great perfec- 
tion, the whole discipline of a regular life. Incessantly he meditated on the 
Holy Scriptures; and he learned their triple interpretation,97 so that he was 
competent to expound them for the instruction even cf his masters. These 
mstructions appear to have been given in the shape of lectures ; since his 
biographer relates, that when the fame of his learning went aboard, among 
the monasteries of holy men and women, numbers of these religious wished to 
profit by his teaching, and flocked to hear his instnictions. The spirit of light 
and of charity seemed to come from his lips, and to descend into the hearts of 
his hearers; while food for pious reflections and resolves was afforded and to 
those of both sexes, who were present. He inspired a taste for spiritual scrip- 
tural reading, with a desire to penetrate the hidden mysteries, and he furnished 
motives to excite divine love. His noble example gave earnestness and faith 
to his teaching ; so that, while his affability and charity caused him to be 
esteemed by all who knew him, his rare abilities and facile mode of teaching 
were thoroughly admired. Having acquired such profound and varied erudi- 
tion, we should not feel surprised, that Winfrid had been promoted, at thirty, 
to the holy order of Priesthood, as that seems to have been the canonical 
age, at the period of which we treat. This happened about the year 710 »* 
or 712.W Ina,'«» King of the West Saxons, a good and pious ruler, reigned,"* 
at the time. 

Some dissensions had unhappily prevailed in the kingdom and in the 
Church, when the king advised the holding of a Synod by the ecclesiastical 
supenors. To this, he suggested, that the clergy should be invited. Accord- 
ingly, an assembly was convoked, and when the questions which were to be 
discussed had been proposed, the different grades of the Ecclesiastical order 
and the faithful who were present deemed it just to consult their Primate, by 
sending delegates to him. For this errand, the Abbot Winbercht of Nutscelle 
Monastery, the Abbot Wintra of Disselburg '®» Monastery, and the Abbot 
Beerwald *®3 of Glastonbury ^^^ Monastery, were chosen. They bore a mes- 
sage from the king to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and it required judgment 
and delicacy to accommodate matters. Among others, Winfrid had been 
chosen, and he was sent by the fathers of this Synod, held in the province of 
the West Saxons, to Berchtwald or Brithwald,**'5 at that time Archbishop of 
Canterbury. He presided over this See from a.d. 693 to a.d. 731.'°^ The 
deputation set out on their journey to Kent. The purpose of this visit was 
to treat with him, about those ecclesiastical controversies, which had been con- 
sidered. So great was the opinion his superiors already entertained of Win- 
frid's capacity and knowledge, that young as he was in the ministry, his 

monk, by John of Trittcnhem. See ** Cata- "* His tenn of rule dates from about 688 

logus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum," fol. to 726. In the year 727, he resigned the 

li., b. government of his kingdom to his kinsman 

^ Distinguished as Literal, Topological Aethelhard, and went to Romev where with 

and Anagogical or Mystical. the consent and desire of Poj>e Gregory, he 

*■ See I'Abb^ Fleury's " Histoire Eccle- established a house, called ** Schola Anglo- 

siastique," tome ix., liv. xli., sect, xxxv., p. rum," and near it, he built a church, in 

179. honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, in which 

*» This is the chronology adopted by the the Saxon English coming to Rome cele- 

Bollandists, and by many other authoii- brated the Divine Mysteries, and also where 

ies. dying they received Christian burial. See 

»*» He is venerated as a saint, and a Matthew of Westminster's **Florcs His- 

festival has been assigned to him, at the 6th toriarum," p. 265. 

day of February. »•• By Otho it is written Wessesbuigh, 

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talents and prudence marked him as a most suitable representative. Regard- 
ing his commission, Winfrid discharged it, to the great satisfaction of King 
Ina and the Prelates ; for having clearly explained what was necessary to be 
known and decided, it pleased the Archbishop to accord with the king and 
the ecclesiastics assembled at the Synod, who received the returned message 
and messengers with great rejoicing. 

His reputation thus exalted, Winfrid might have risen to high honours, 
in his own province, but other aspirations had now taken possession 
of his souL"7 He made such extraordinary progress in sacred learning and 
religious perfection, under the holy Abbot VVinbert, as to be judged a capable 
master and a teacher for others. But, one great desire consumed his soul, as 
news had been received of the great conversions effected, through the zeal of 
St. Willibrord and other missionaries, in the northern parts of Germany.'®^ At 
that lime, a common descent and speaking a common language eminently 
qualified the Anglo-Saxons to become Christian guides, for the pagans who 
dwelt in those regions. This mission, however, involved the sacrifice of Win- 
fiid leaving parents, friends, and home, as also worldly comforts,'°9 to venture 
his life among a strange and an uncivilized people. He dwelt long on the 
purpose held in view, and at last he resolved to open his mind on that subject 
to the Abbot Winbercht. His earnest prayer was, to be allowed permission 
to follow what he deemed the designs of Providence. For a time, Winbercht 
was opposed to the entreaties of his subject, while admiring his disinterested- 
ness and devotedness. With some difficulty, Winfrid obtained from his Abbot 
and from the religious leave to visit Frisia."«* There, he intended to extend 
the Gospel among infidels. He was allowed to take with him two or three of 
the monks, to sustain the labours of his adventurous journey; and accordingly, 
they proceeded towards London,"' even at that time a city of great trade and 
commerce. Here, they were enabled to secure a vessel, in which they took 
passage. A prosperous wind brought them to the Islands of Frisia,"* and to 
the mouth of the Rhine,"3 where Dorstat or Doeistadt stood, then a flourish- 
ing emporium, but now almost obliterated from historical memory."^ The 
date assigned for this adventurous course is about the year 7i6."5 Our saint 
being inflamed with zeal for the glory of God, and for the salvation of souls, 
desired so preach God's word in Germany,"^ of which vast country he was 
destined to become the Apostle. 

and by others Tisselbourg. The Bollandist 
editor deems it to be Tisburie, in Wilt- 

«*3He is said to have been Abbot, A.D. 
705. See "Monasticon Anglicarum," 

"»* In Somerset. 

"^ He is venerated as a saint, and his 
feast occurs at the 9th of January. 

•^ Sec an account of him, in Venerable 
Bede s " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis An- 
glorum," lib. v., cap. iv., xxiv. 

•^ See Rev. S. Baring- Gould's "Lives of 
the Saints," vol. vi., June 5, p. 42. 

•** See Charles Knight's ** English Cyclo- 
pedia of Biography,'* vol. i., col. 819. 

•«* Sec St. Benedict's life, by the Utrecht 
priest, cap. i., sect. 6, 7. Also, the Third 
Life of our saint, sect i. 

"• This country extended between the 

Rhine and the Weser. The people who in- 
habit it are now distinguished as East and 
West Frieslanders. 

'" In Willibald's Life of St. Boniface, it 
is called Lundenwic. This also was the 
name given to it bv the Anglo-Saxons, as 
Cambden states, wnen treating about Mid- 

"' Thus is it expressed, in the Life, by the 
Utrecht priest, cap. i., sect. 7. 

"3 According to the Third Life of St. 
Boniface, sect. 2. 

"* See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's "Lives of 
the Saints," vol. vi., June $, p. 43. 

"5 According to the computation of the 
Bollandists. See, also, I'Al^be Fluery's 
•* Histoire Ecclesiastique," tome ix. , liv. xli., 
sect. XXXV., p. 180. 

"* See John of Trittenham's ** Catalogui 
Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorrim,*' foL li., b. 

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[June 5. 



That lime, however, proved unfavourable forWinfrid's enterprise, although the 
Faith had made some progress in the Low Countries. Tiie French mission- 
aries had already established churches and congregations in several parts. 
Among these, St. Eligius,' Bishop of Noyon, was distinguished, towards the 
middle of the seventh century. Later on, St Wulfran* resigned his dignity of 
Archbishop of Sens, in tlie year 695, when he proceeded to Friesland. There 
horrible superstitions prevailed. Among others, the pagans of that country were 
accustomed to sacrifice human victims to propitiate demons, while they were 
barbarous to a degree in their habits and usages. Frisia 3 had been subjected 
by the French, under Pepin of Heristal,^ during the dynasty of the Merovin- 
gians.s Towards the year 678, St. Wilfrid commenced a mission among the 
Frisons, favoured by their King Algise ; he baptized numbers of their chiefs 
and many thousands of the people.^ However, the vast proportion of these 
continued to remain addicted to idolatry and paganism.7 We have already 
seen, that St. Egbert ^ had desired to leave Ireland, in person, to preach the 
Gospel, among the barbarous people of Northern Europe ; but, he was 
diverted from this purpose, owing to a vision he had, that the field was 
destined for other reapers. Yet, one of his companions, named Wicbert,^ 
had gone to Frisia, where for two years, he preached the Gospel of Christ 
among the pagans. However, Radbod was then King of Frisia, and when 
Wigbert reached his territories about a.d. 688, he was opposed by that ruler, 
and he was obliged to seek Ireland again, without having achieved much suc- 
cess. Afterwards, St. Willibrord,»° St. Swibert," and their companions, ven- 

Chapter II — « He is venerated, on the 
1st of December. See an account of his life 
and missionaiy career, in Les Petits Bollan- 
distes, ** Vies des Saints," tome xiv., pp. 4 
to 15. 

' His feast occurs at the 20th of March. 
His career and labours are related to the end 
of his life, A.D. 720. See ibid,t tome iii., pp. 
542 to 546. 

3 The extent of Frisia is set forth in the 
accurate translation from German into 
French of Mon. TAbbe G. Beetenie's 
" Sainte Ursule et scs onze mille Vieiges 
ou I'Europe occidentale au Milieu du v« Sie- 
clc Monographic histoiique et critique, " par 
J. H. Kessel Dr. en Theologie. See the 
map, Europe Occidentale au milieu du 
v« Siecle, in the Appendix. Its geographi- 
cal conditions had undergone no material 
changes to the time of St. Boniface. 

* Also called Pepin the Big, Duke of 

France, and Mayor over the king's palace. 

5 See ** The Popular EncyclopSia or Con- 
versations Lexicon," &c., vol. iii., Art 
France, p. 250. 

«See I'Abbe Fleury's «'HUtorie Ec- 
clesiastique," tome ix., liv. xl., sect, iy., 
p. 15. 

7 The Vita III. S. Bonefacii has it 
"maxima parte diis et daemonibus csecato 
corde serviebat, et asternse felicitatis viam 
nesciebat." — Sect. 2, p. 482. 

* See his Life, at the 24th of April, in the 
Fourth Volume of this work, Art. i. 

9 His festival occurs at the 13th of August, 
when notices of him will be found. 

" See his Life, at the 7th of November. 

" See his Life, at the 1st of March, Third 
Volume of this work, Art. ii. 

" They are said to have landed at the 
mouih of the^Rhine^ and to have, travelled 
thence to Utrecht, a town buDt by the 

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tured upon a similar enterprise ;" and, although they encountered much 
opposition, notwithstanding they were enabled to erect the standard of Faith 
among that uncivilized and pagan people. About the year 696, St. VVille- 
brord was consecrated Bishop of Utrecht. »? The newly-planted Church of 
Christ had been severely persecuted by the tyrant, Radbod, who had formerly 
heard the instructions of St. Wulfran, and who had even come to the baptismal 
font to receive baptism, when he opposed a capricious objection. '< He then 
withdrew, with apparently doubts about the course adopted, but continuing 
to favour the idolatrous usages of his country, for the remainder of his days. 
However, Pepin of Heristel — who virtually ruled France about this time \^ — 
had conquered a considerable part ofFrieseland, and he compelled Radbod 
to pay him tribute ; while the southern part of that territory remained subject 
to the Franks.'^ Radbod drove the religious from their monasteries, he levelled 
their churches and houses; while, he erected pagan temples and shrines to re- 
place them.'7 This fierce Dynast was compelled, however, to confine his abso- 
Uite rule to the northern territory of Frisia. Still, he did not wholly prevent St. 
WiiUbrord from preaching to his subjects ; and, what is even more strange, he 
sometimes heard himself that Christian missionary's discourses. 

Pepin of Heristel had departed this life in December, ad. 714, and some 
time before, Winfrid had arrived to preach the Gospel in Frisia. The death of 
Pepin was deemed to afford a favourable opportunity for the revolt of Radbod, 
and accordingly, he began hostilities, with a view to recover his former domina- 
tion. Charles or Karl Martell, a youthful prince of Germanic race,'^ and the 
son of Pepin Heristel, at this period swayed the destinies of France, where his 
power was acknowledged. He had also carried his victorious army towards 
the Rhine, conquering the Frisons. Afterwards, with fire and sword, he en- 
tered the country of the Saxons.*^ In the year 716, a fierce war was waged 
by Charles Martel against Radbod,'** who was a determined persecutor of the 
Christians. Some advantages King Radbad had lately obtained over Charles 
Martel, who, as Maire of the Palace, virtually governed the kingdom of 
France. The affairs of the Christians were in a very bad condition, owing to 
those reverses. St. Boniface proceeded to Utrecht, the capital of Frisia, 
where he seems to have awaited the coming of Radbod for some days. Mean- 
while, he was carefully observing the state of affairs in that distracted pro- 
vince, and weighing in his mind the chances for future progress of the Gos- 
pel. There, St. Willibrord had established his See, having received the royal 
castle of Viltaburg as a gift from Pepin. He built the Church of our Saviour, 
and restored that of St. Martin, which afterwards became the cathedral."* 
This place grew to be a handsome city, surrounded by an earthen mound. 
The approaches to Utrecht are very beautiful."' It is situated on a branch 

Romans at a passage over that river, whence '• See Mabillon's ** Annales Ordinis S. 

it derived the name Trajectum, afterwards Benedict!," tomus ii., lib. xx., sect, i., p. 

called Trecht, and lastly Utrecht, from 41. 

Outrecht or the Old Passage. It was also ^^ See I'Abb^ Fleury's " Histoire Ecclesi- 

denominated Ultrajectum, or Passage at the astique," tome ix., liv. xli., sect, xxxv., p. 

Town Vulta. It was thus distitiguished from 180. 

the ancient town of Maestricht or Passage *^ See Leopold Ranke's ** History of the 

over the Maese. Reformation in Germany," translated by 

»3 The author of our saint's Third Life tells Sarah Austin, vol. i., Introduction, p. 5. 

us, that it was anciently called Wiltemburch. '» See Le Dr. Hoefer's ** Nouvelle Biogra- 

See sect. 2, phie G^nerale," tome ix., col. 815. 

'♦ See the account of this incident, in ^ See Du Chesne, " Historiae Francorum 

Fleury's "Histoire Ecclesiastique,"toraeix., Scriptores, tomus ii., Annales Francici Bre- 

liv. xli., sect. XXXV., pp. 180, 181. ves, p. 3. . , „ r 

»5 See CEuvres Completes de Bossuet, tome »* Both of these were served by colleges of 

X,, Abr^^ dc I'Histoire de France, col. 1 181. Canons. 

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[June 5. 

of the old Rhine."3 At present, Utrecht is the capital of a province, bearing 
the same name, in the kingdom of Holland. The streets are of tolerable 
width, and intersected by canals below their level. At Utrecht, Winfrid 
opened his commission to the V\ng ; but, the zealous missionary met with 
little success, in representations made by him. However, he converted many 
people to the Christian faith.'^ Notwithstanding, Radbod had refused him 
permission to preach the Gospel in Frisia.'^ During this time, it is possible,^* 
Winfrid wrote his Epistle to the Abbess Eadburga, which is still preserved. 

Part of the summer and autumn had passed, before he resolved on 
leaving a country, which then was not ripe for the harvest. Taking with him 


\^i f 


Utrecht on Le Vieux Canal. 

the companions of his voyage, he sought the most convenient port, and thence 
they sailed over to England. To their monastery of Nuscelle, the faithful 
servant of Christ then proceeded.'^ Here they were joyfully received by the 
Abbot and the monks, in whose good offices and works they were soon en- 
gaged. However, Winbercht had reached to a great age, and the infirmities 
consequent on it brought him to an extremity, which indicated approaching 
dissolution. None felt more sorrowful than Boniface among the brethren. At 
length, the holy Abbot rendered his spirit to the Lord, and the monks pain- 
fully mourned the loss of their superior. Soon afterwards, upon the death of Win- 

*■ This was the impression produced on 
the writer, during a tour there in July, or 
August, 1863. 

*3 The accompanying illustration of 
Utrecht, drawn by William F. Wakeman on 
the wood, has been engraved by Mrs. 

** This is stated, in the Second Life of St. 
Boniface, cap. i., sect. 7. 

»s See Michaud's "Biogrnphie Universelle 
Ancienne et Modeme," new edition, par une 
Socie't^ de Gens de Lettres et de Savants, 
tome v., Art. Boniface (saint), p. 4. 

■* See Mabillon's *• AnnalesOrdinis S. Be- 
nedicti," tomus ii., lib. xx., sect, ii., p. 42. 

7 See I'Abb^ Fleury's "Histoire Ecclesi- 
astique," tome ix., liv. xli., sect, xxxv., p. 

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June 5.] 



bert, the brethren unanimously chose Winfrid to become their Abbot f^ but, he 
remonstrated on this account, and denied his ability to discharge satisfactorily 
the duties of such an office. He had reasons to urge for his non-compliance. 
This position he declined, chiefly as being called to labour in the conversion of 
infidels.'^ The winter had now passed over, but it chilled not the resolve of 
the holy Priest, to seek once more the scenes of his self-imposed mission. He 
had an angelic vision, which urged upon him this course.3° Having procured, 
through the interest of St. Daniel,^' Bishop of Winchester,3» that another 
should be named Abbot in his place ;33 Boniface, obtained commendatory 
letters from the same Prelate to Pope St. Gregory H. 34 With his license and 
benediction, our saint hoped for permission, to preach the Faith of Christ 
among the Germans. Accordingly, a holy man named Stephen was appointed 
as Abbot ; and Boniface, taking leave of the brethren, again set out for London, 
where a vessel was procured, and in it he embarked. With favouring gales, 
he sailed over to Cuent, or Canicum,35 now known as Canche. This was 
near the town denominated Stapulas, now Estaples. For a time did Winfrid 
here remain, until he had collected a great number of companions, who pro- 
ceeded with him to visit as pilgrims several churches, dedicated to saints. 

He feared dangers to be encountered, by crossing the Alps in that winter 
season, as also the ferocity of the Lombards, who might be disposed to molest 
them. He and his companions set out for Rome, however, under the 
gxiidance of Divine Providence, and protected by the intercession of the 
saints, in the autumns^ of the year 718.37 All arrived there safely. They 
went then to the Church of St. Peter, to return thanks for the prosperous issue 
of their journey. Votive offerings were likewise presented, and according to 
custom, a circuit of all the Roman Churches was made. 3^ After a few days 
tlius spent in Rome, Winfrid sought an interview with the Sovereign Pontiflf 
Gregory n.,39 of blessed memory. To him was explained those motives and 
objects, that urged the pilgrim to undertake his journey. He was there 
honourably received by the Pope. Before he approved this call, to preach 
the Gospel among the pagans, Gregory asked, if Winfrid had letters of recom- 
mendation from his bishop. Immediately, Winfrid removing his cloak pro- 
duced the case, in which these letters had been enclosed, and he then pre- 
sented them to his Holiness. The testimonial,^® which seems to have been 
of a formal character, and the commendatory letters ^* were read,^' when the 

"• Sec Mabillon*s "Annales Ordinis S. 
Bcnedicti,'* tomus ii., lib. xx., sect, i., p. 

*^ Sec TAbW Fleury's "Histoirc Ecclcsi- 
astique," tome ix., liv. xli., sect, xxxv., p. 

3* According to the writer of the Second 
Life of St. Boniface, cap. i., sect 7. 

5' He presided as bishop from A.D. 705 to 
A.D. 723. His festival has been assigned to 
December loth. 

5* An admirable ** History, Civil and 
£ccle!uastical, and Survey of the Antiquities 
of Winchester," has been written by Rev. 
John Milner, D.D. It was l^ued in Two 
Volumes 4to, Winchester, a.d. 1798. 

» Three letters of St. Boniface to this 
Bishop Daniel are extant. 

3* His festival occurs, at the 13th of Feb- 
nuurv. He felt a great desire for the con- 
version of Germany. 

^ Also called Quanda, a river, in the pro- 

vince of the Morini. 

3* See Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S. 
Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xx., sect, xxvi., 
p. 52. 

37 See Michaud*s " Biographic Universellc 
Ancienue et Moderne," &c., new edition, 
tome v., Art. Boniface (saint), p, 5. 

38 According to the Second Life of St. 
Boniface, cap. i., sect. 7. 

39 He presided over the Church from A.D. 
715 to 731. See Sir Harris Nicolas' 
" Chronology of History,*' p. 211. 

^ This letter was sealed, as being of a 
private character, and it has not yet seen 
the light. 

<* These generally recommendatory letters 
to all Christians were unsealed, as we are 
informed, in TAbb^ Fleury's ** Histoire 
Ecclesiastique," tome ix., liv. xli., sect. 
XXXV., p. 182. 

♦» The Encyclical Letter is the third in 
order, among the preserved letters of St. 

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Pope had made a signal for our saint to retire. Having duly weighed the 
matter, without hesitation the Pope approved of Winfrid's intention, and 
manifested great delight, that in him he had found a suitable missioner, to 
bear the Gospel message among unenlightened nations. But, that season 
was not suitable for a journey to the North of Europe, and besides, it was 
necessary to consider well the preliminaries for so great an undertaking. 

Gregory II., at last gave Winfrid his important mission, for the conversion 
of Germany. However, before he was allowed to depart from Rome, the Pope 
held daily colloquies with him,*3 and they discussed all those plans, which 
could best be devised to ensure success. The winter months had now passed, 
and the month of Nisan or April had advanced near to Jair or May, before 
the parting benediction from the Pope was asked and obtained. Apostolic 
letters/* setting forth his powers, were furnished, and these authorized him to 
preach the Gospel everywhere throughout Germany. Taking with him many 
relics from Rome, and accompanied by his band of fellow-workers, Winfrid 
returned to Lombardy, where Liodebrand,^^ or Luitprand, then reigned. 
There, the apostolic man courteously presented gifts to that ruler, and by 
him was received with distinction. He was requested, to wait for a time and to 
rest, before he should venture to cross the rough and precipitous gorges of 
the Alps, which led into Bavaria and other provinces of Germany. 

His first labours, according to a mandate he had received from the Sovereign 
Pontiff, were among theThuringians.*^ The Gospel had been already preached 
in their country, owing to the zeal of previous holy missionaries. Winfrid ad- 
dressed the chiefs and leaders of the people, who had fallen from their former 
religious practices, thus endeavouring to correct the error of their ways. He 
placed holy ministers among the Alemani, the Norici, and the Thuringians. 
Especially, certain Priests he found there, were reprehended by him, and it is to 
, be hoped, they were reclaimed from their disorders and vices.^7 Afterwards, 
the holy man travelled into France, with those who had made the pilgrimage, 
and who now desired to revisit their own country. Wherever he went, Win- 
frid desired to erect churches, altars, and monasteries, so that the true wor- 
ship of God might serve to displace Gentile superstitions and idolatry.^^ He 
now received intelligence regarding the death ^^ of King Radbod, who had 
ruled in Friselaml. This event occurred a.d. 719.S** For an opportunity to 
resume his labours there, his mind was strongly inclined. The conquest of 
Frisia, by Karl Martell, was the preparatory signal for spreading the sacred 
word,5* chiefly through the instrumentality of our saint Accordingly, 
taking boat he sailed along the great river — which we may suppose to have 
been the Rhine — until he entered the territory of the Frisons.s* The perse- 
Boniface. Benedict!," tomus ii., lib. xx., sect. xxviLj 

*3See Mabillon*s **Annales Ordinis S. p. 53. 
Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xx., sect. xxvL, ** See Second Life of St. Boniface, cap. !., 

p. 52. sect. 8. 

♦* These were dated on the Ides of May, *' The Abbess Bugga or Eadburga, vene- 

" imperante Augusto Leone, anno teriio Im- rated on the 28th of July, congratulates St. 
pcrii, Indictione 2,'* which coincides with Boniface on this occasion, because a great 
A.D. 719. obstacle 10 spreading the Gospel had been 

*5His reign dates from A.D. 712 to A.D. removed. See Epist. Bonifacii, 33. 
743- ** ^ee I'Abb^ Fleury's *' Histoire Eccle- 

*♦* The author of the Second Life of St. siaslique/* tome ix., liv. xli., sect, xxxv., 
Boniface tells us, that the Germans, at this p. 181. 
time, were accustomed to worship in their s« See Leopold Ranke's ** History of the 

f roves and in their temples, sprites and Reformation in Germany," translated by 
obj^oblins, as also Fauns and Satyrs, Sarah Austin, vol. i. Introduction, pp. 
Dryads and Nymphs of the woods. See 5, 6. 

cap. i., sect. 8. s* The author of St. Boniface's Second 

♦'See MabilIon*s "Annales Ordinis S. Life remarks of them, ''qui fere, quemadmo- 

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cution of Radbod had now ceased, and mindful of his commission, Winfrid 
began to announce the truths of Christianity to the pagans. The supremacy 
of Charles Martel had again been established among the Prisons, and this 
warlike monarch wished earnestly, that the Christian religion should be 
founded there on a wide and secure basis. The zealous Winfrid soon reduced 
to the obedience of reason, many who were addicted to superstition ; and, in 
conjunction with the holy Archbishop Willibrord,53 and several labourers in 
this portion of the Lord's vineyard, Winfrid converted a great number of un- 
believers to the true Faith. For three years — a.d. 720 to 722 — he laboured 
in that difficult mission with great zeal. 

Having well proved this efficient missioner, St. Willibrord, then Bishop of 
Utrecht, and the Apostle of that country, being now very old, earnestly 
desired to resign his Bishopric to Winfrid, and to consecrate him as a 
successor. With this object in view, he asked for a conference, and then 
endeavoured by force of argument, to persuade the holy man, that he should 
assume such an office. However, Winfrid objected, that he was compara- 
tively young and inexperienced for so great a charge, while the customary 
usage required fifty years to have elapsed, before a bishop should be conse- 
crated.54 Again, St. Willibrord urged how readily a dispensation from the 
practice might be obtained, while the circumstances of the place and oppor- 
tunity should induce him to give his assent. More than once was this matter 
a subject for pious contention between Notwithstanding all that 
could be said, the man of God would not accept of this dignity ; for, he chose 
rather to labour in Germany, and when his persistence seemed driven to a 
last effort, he revealed to Willibrord, that Pope Gregory II. had actually 
desired him to preach the Gospel among the parts of that vast country, where 
Christianity had not as yet been sufficiently extended, and where barbarism still 
prevailed.56 Furthermore, he pleaded, that considering himself to be bound 
in obedience to the apostolic mandate, he could not comply with the request 
preferred, unless the Holy See should countermand the commission he had 
received. Winfrid concluded by praying, that he had a strong inclination to 
accept Germany as his proper field, and that he should be permitted to de- 
part for it. Then, Willibrord consented, and giving him a blessing, Winfrid 
left that part of the country and went to Germany.57 The saint had already 
brought numbers of persons to an orderly and to a regular conversation. God 
was pleased to bless his preaching with great success, in the district of Frisia. 
His first stage of journey was to a place in Upper Hesse, called Amoeneburg,58 
or Amelburg,59 where twin brothers named Detdic^ and Dierolf^' were 
chiefs. These had been addicted to idolatrous practices, which still prevailed 
there, and which were not wholly abandoned with the introduction of Chris- 
dam et pisces morantur in aquis, quibus ita p. 183. 

undique concluduntur, ut raro ad exteras 57 The author of St. Boniface's Second 

regiones accessum habeant, nisi navibussub- Life has it, **orantes alter pro ahero, ab in- 
vehantur.'' — Cap. i., sect. 9. vicem discesserunt.'* — Cap. i., sect. 10. 

53 His feast is celebrated, on the yih of 5« a doubt has been expressed, if this can 
November. mean Hamburg or Homburg, whicli lay not 

5* Treating about St. Boniface, Edward far from Frisia, or Amelburg, near to Mar- 
Matheu observes, that in England, accord- burg. 

ing to canonical usage to be ordained a 59 This town was near the Oma or Amana 

Priest required the attainment of thirty river, and the Bollandist editor thinks it is 
years, while fifty were necessary for the con- the place in question, 
secration of a Bishop. ^ Othlo calls him Dietich, and the Rebdorf 

55 See *• Vita iii. S Bonifacii, sect, 2, p. manuscript Diettic. 
482. ** He IS called Deorulf, by Othlo, and 

5* See TAbb^ Fleury's " Histoire Eccle- Deoruulf in the ReHdorf manuscript, 
siasiique,** tome ix., liv. xli., sect, xxxv., ••See I'Abb^ Fleury's "Histoire Eccle- 

Digitized by 



tianity. However, Winfrid was enabled through Divine assistance to recall 
them to a sense of their duties, while the people were instructed and brought 
into the straight paths, having rejected with disdain whatever savoured of 
gentilism. There, too, having collected a religious congregation, the holy 
missioner built a cell, and laid foundations for the establishment of a monas- 
tery,^ on the banks of the River Omh. 

In the meantime, before travelling from Friesland to Hesse and 
Thuringia, St. Boniface, came to the monastery Palens or Pfalzel ^3 near 
the city of Treves, where he was kindly received by the foundress, also 
the Abbess and a widow, named Addala or Adela,^< who was sister 
to St. Irmina, Abbess over the monastery of Horre,^5 in the same 
city. Both of these were daughters to Dagobert II., King of the Aus- 
trasian Franks.^^ There, St Boniface first became acquainted with the youth- 
ful Gregory,^7 the son of Albricus, who was son to the Abbess Addala. He 
had just returned from school, and from the palace, dressed in the habit of a 
laic. At this time, he was only a boy, some fourteen or fifteen years of age. 
His grandmother, the Abbess, desired him to read for the nuns at Palens. 
Having complied, he was asked to explain the instructions he had read, in 
favour of those, who did not understand Latin. This he declared he could 
notdo, yet after some little hesitation. Then, Boniface seized on that opportunity 
to expound the meaning of the author more fully to the Abbess and to her nuns, 
with such unctuous and forcible eloquence, that the youthful Gregory became 
an enthusiastic admirer of Boniface, while the grace of God urged him to re- 
solve on leaving his relations and everything dear to him in this world, to 
follow such a master. Gregory went to his grandmother, the Abbess, to 
obtain her consent ; but, she told him he was too young and inexperienced, 
as also that he had little idea of what he was about to undertake. After 
much hesitancy, seeing the inflexible purpose of the boy, she gave her con- 
sent, while she provided valets and horses, to serve them during their travels.^ 
He became the disciple of St. Boniface, who engaged to instruct him in sacred 
learning. They set out for Thuringia, then a country where paganism was 
rampant, and also where war and its attendant ravages prevailed. Notwith- 
standing, the master and his youthful charge feared not these dangers. They 
were ready to endure every hardship, in order to serve the cause of religion. 
While Boniface continued to train the young novice in his allotted studies, 
they were obliged to work with their own hands, according to the exact and 
severe discipline of their rule of life. Frequently were they in danger of 
losing their lives, for a continual warfare was waged between the Christian 
and pagan people. Sometimes they were obliged to flee before the riots ex- 
cited, yet they always had fortitude to persevere in watching over the flock 
entrusted to their charge. During all tliese persecutions, however, Gregory 
growing in years, in strength, and in grace, was the faithful companion, during 
the missionary rounds of his great teacher, as also a great source of consola- 
tion to him, under their multiplied trials. 

siastique," tome ix., liv. xli., sec . xxxv., in excited sedition, he was there put to 

p. 183. death. See L.— P. Anquctil's **Histoire 

*3 Latinized Palaliolum. See Rev. John de France," Premiere Race dite des M^ro- 

Alzog's "Manual of Universal Church His- vingiens, sect, v., p. 54. 

tory, vol. ii.. Period 2, Epoch i.. Part i., *' He is veneratwi as a saint, and his festi- 

chap. i., sect. 159, p. 84. val occurs, at the 25th of August. St. Ludger, 

^ After the death of her husband. the Bishop, has written his Life, from which 

•s Latinized Horreum. the present account is abbreviated. 

•* He was son to Sigibert, and he was ^ Seel* Abbe Fleury*s ** Histoire Ecdesi- 

banished to the Scots in Ireland, but after- astique," tome ix., liv. xli., sect, xxxvi., pp. 

wards, he returned to rule over a part of 183, 184. 

Austrasia. However, some of the chiefs hav- ^ See Les Petits Bollandistes, " "V^es des 

Digitized by 



Meantime, after some resistance, Charles Mattel had delivered Hesse 
and Thuringia from the oppression of the Saxons.^ The people of 
Hesse — or the ChattiT® as otherwise called — were addicted to heathenish 
rites, and the zeal of VVinfrid was exercised, in preaching the Gospel of Christ 
to them, A.D. 723. He soon converted many thousands of that people, from 
their idols, to a knowledge of the true and living God.7* He even baptized 
numbers of the Hessians, who bordered on the Saxon territory.72 His next care 
was to select a trusty messenger, named Binna, to carry letters for the Pon- 
tiff, who ruled in the Apostolic See at Rome. 73 In these were set forth what 
important events had transpired, and how he had carried the Gospel into the 
province of the Hessians, where he had converted great numbers from their 
superstitions and idolatry. It is said, that he was urged by King Charles 
Martel, with the Christian Princes and people in France, that he should again 
go to Rome, and become the bearer of their petition to the Holy Father, that he 
might be consecrated an Archbishop.74 Already, St. Winfrid had submitted for 
consideration to the Pope certain queries, pertaining to the present necessities 
of his mission, and to the spiritual welfare of his people. Some time elapsed, 
before his messenger could return from the Eternal City, to bear with him the 
instructions of the Pope. From these he learned, that his presence should 
be very desirable in Rome ;75 and, in obedience to this mandate, with a num- 
ber of companions, he traversed the hilly countries of France and Burgundy 
over the Alps, until he came to that city, in which was the Church of St. 
Peter. There he entered, to thank the Almighty for his safe journey. 
When news of this arrival reached Pope Gregory II., the Pontiff hospitably 
received Winfrid in the hospital for poor travellers. On a certain day, which 
was found convenient for both, they went to the basilica of St. Peter. There, the 
Sovereign Pontiff made enquiries about the Symbol and Tradition of eccle- 
siastical Faith. Then, said Winfrid, " Apostolic Lord, I know that as a pil- 
grim, I am unskilled in the language, with which you are so familiar ; but, I 
ask time and rest, to write out my confession of Faith, and the words shall 
reasonably open my sentiments on those matters." This permission he obtained, 
and he was directed to proceed, soon as he possibly could, with the under- 
taking. When some time had elapsed, Winfrid produced in a finished style 
5 his confession of Faith in the Most Holy Trinity. He then presented it to 
I the Father of the Faithful. He awaited the result, for some days, when he 
f^, was again invited to the Lateran house of the Pope. There having arrived, 
t and prostrating himself at the feet of his Holiness, he was raised from the 
' earth by the latter, who gave to Winfrid the manuscript, in which such a com- 
plete and clear exposition of the Faith had been set forth. The Pope caused 
him to sit down, and further instructed Winfrid, that he should preserve this 
doctrine inviolate, while he should without intermission teach it to others the 
best way within his power. They spent together the greater part of that day 
conversing on doctrinal topics ; and, towards its close, Winfred was directed, 
as to how he should proceed, in preaching to the ignorant people beyond the 
Alps,7® and with whom he should have to deal, during his future labours. 
Having learned, that a great multitude had been brought from demonaical 
influences and sorceries to a profession of the true faith, the Pope intimated 

Saints," tome vi., v« Jour de Juin, p. 460. '^ See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's ** Lives of 

7oSecMabillon's"AnnalesOrdinis S.Bene- the Saints," vol. vi.. June 5, p. 44. 

dicti,"tomus ii., lib. xx., sect. Iv., p. 67. ^* See the Third Life of St. Boniface, sect. 

7« See Bishop Challoner's " Britannia 3, p. 482. 

Sancta," part L, p. 341. ^5 SeeMabillon*s" AnnalesOrdinisS,Be^e- 
^ See Mabillon*s "Annales Ordinis S. dicti/* tomus ii., lib. xx., sect. Ivi., p. 68. 

Benedicii," tomus ii., lib. xx., sect Iv., t* See "Vita IIL S. Bonefacii," sect. 3 

p. 68. p. 482. 

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[June 5. 

to Winfrid, that he sliould be advanced to the episcopal grade,77 so that those 
people, deprived of a shepherd, should have one to guide them to the Lord's 
pastures. Winfrid could not resist this call, imposed on him, through rever- 
ence and obedience towards the Sovereign Pontiff. Wherefore, the day 
before the Kalends of December was set apart for his consecration. This was 
on the Feast of St. Andrew,'^ and, at the same time, the Pope imposed on 
him that name Boniface, by which he afterwards became so distinguished.79 

The year assigned for this elevation is a.d. 723,^ when he received the mitre. 
At tlie same time, the Pope encouraged him to attempt the Christian conquest 
of that great German nation, then so immersed in idolatries, and to remember the 
example of David going forth bravely to contend with the Philistine giant Go- 
liath. Even, if necessary, he should brave persecution and martyrdom. Then, 
the Pope bestowing the kiss of peace and his benediction, they parted, and Boni- 
face was ready to resume his missionary toils.^* Filled as he was with reverence 
for St. Peter and his successors, this devoted pilgrim promised from the very 
beginning to conform faithfully to all the decrees of the See of Rome. He 
even bound himself by oath,^' in the presence of Pope Gregory,^3 and he 
l)laced the document on which it was written before the sacred remains of St. 
Peter.^4 This solemn proniise he most rigorously performed.^5 Having 
undertaken the conversion of Thuringia, Hesse,^^ and other like heathen 
countries, St. Boniface appliedjto the Pope for his commission, and he was con- 
secrated a Bishop, exempt from the jurisdiction of other Bishops, but without 
any determinate See. ^7 He became, ever afterwards, a zealous upholder of 
the Apostolic Chair.^^ To him was also given a small book, in which were 
written Pontifical constitutions and laws f^ while, on these were to be per- 
manently founded the institutes and discipline of his new mission. With 
them agreed, likewise, those charters of the glorious King Charles, who was 
so anxious to assist the holy man in his noble enterprise.^ With very affec- 
tionate commendatory letters,^* the holy man undertook a longjourney to Charles 
Martel, Maire of the palace, who received him most graciously ;9» while, to 
tlie clergy and people of Germany, St. Boniface was sent with high en- 

'7 See r Abbe Fleury's "Histoire Ecclesi- 
astique,*' tome ix., Uv. xli., sect, xxxvii., 
p. 185. 

7* The 30th of November. 

79 Oihlo adds, that before this time, he had 
been called Winfrid. 

*» See Michaud, ** Biq?raphie Universelle 
Ancienne et Moderne," &c., tome v., Art. 
Boniface (saint), p. 5. 

■* See the Second Life of St. Boniface, 
cap. i., sect. 10. 

** This dates, from the seventh year of the 
Emperor Leon, and in the sixth Indiction, 
corresponding with A.D. 723. 

*3 The text of this is given, in Othlo's Life 
of St. Boniface. 

** This shows, that he was consecrated in 
the old Vatican Church, where the remains 
of SS. Peter and Paul repose, and where, at 
present, they are preserved in a magnificent 
subterranean chapel, under the great dome 
of St. Peter's. 

■5 See Leopold Ranke*s " Ecclesiastical 
and Political tlistory of the Popes of Rome," 
translated by Sarah Austin, vol. i., chap, i., 
p. 16. 

•* See '« ViU III. S. Bonefacii/* lect, 3, 

p. 482. 

'7 The Bollandists explain, that he was 
constituted a Bishop Apostolic, and in this 
sense, he is styled an Archbishop, in Letters 
Apostolic. See n. (c), p. 483, ibid, 

" See Michelet's " Histoire de France," 
tome i., liv. ii., chap, ii., pp. 294 to 296. 

^ The substance of these may be found, in 
Mabillon's '' Annales Ordinis S. Benedict]," 
tomus ii,, lib. xx., sect. Ivi., pp. 68, 69. 

9** See among the Epistles of St. Boniface, 
Epist. xxxii., in the edition of Serarius, and 
col. 1446, in Labbe's '* Concilia." Baronius 
refers it to A.D. 724. 

9* Theset— six in number — are inserted iu 
the ** Annales Ecclesiasticae," of Cardinal 
Baronius, tomus ix., sect. vi. to xv., pp. 
27 to 30, at A.D. 723; as also, in the tomus 
vi., ** Novorum Conciliorum," with the notes 
of Sirmond, Binius and I^bbe. Their date 
is on the Kalends of December — the day 
immediately following bis consecration. 

»» See the Third Life of St. Boniface, sect. 
4, p. 482. 

93 Wlio ruled over the Germans, east of 
the Rhine river, where his kingdom ex- 

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comiums of the Pope, to resume his missionary work. One of these letters 
is addressed to Charles Martel ;93 another to all Bishops, Priests, Deacons, 
Dukes, Counts, and to all Christians f^ a third is addressed to the clergy 
and people, over whom Boniface was to be placed ;95 a fourth is written to 
the Christian people of Thuringia -f" a filtli is addressed to all the pagan peo- 
ple of Thuringia ff the sixth was directed to all the ancient Saxon people.^ 
We may well suppose, that the saint drafted those letters himself, as best 
knowing the habits of the people to whom he had been sent, and as best judg- 
ing the effects they might be calculated to produce.99 

Fame hail now spread abroad the great missionary successes of Boni- 
face ; but, while his admirers were very numerous, he had enemies in 
the fold, who were willing to criticise and to traduce his actions.'**** Rather 
prejudiced against him, from what had been reported, Charles Martel 
yet desired to see the Apostolic man. Soon the king became con 
vinced, regarding the purity of his motives and virtues ; while, he was 
firmly persuaded, that the eflforts of Boniface and of his disciples were 
only exercised in the interests of true civilization, and to procure the reign of 
grace in the hearts of men. On his return from Rome, Boniface laboured to 
perfect that work, which had been begun in Hesse, having first obtained the 
sanction and protection of Charles Martel. To this period may be referred, 
that admirable letter of Daniel, Bishop of Winchester, to our saint, in which 
^suggestions are offered to combat the errors ofthe pagans indirectly, and with- 
out violently wounding their susceptibilities. Referring to their gods and 
goddesses, he recommends the holy missionary to accept their own state- 
ments, regarding the birth and descent of those false divinities, so as to show, 
how they could not as generated beings create a world, which admittedly 
existed before their time, and those laws of nature, which they were manifestly 
powerless to control. By using these and like arguments, it was to be hoped, 
they might be ashamed of their absurd notions. Another objection could be 
urged, that if the pagan deities had any power or influence in governing not 
alone the earth and visible skies about it, but all space, how came it to pass, 
that they were not able to gain special advantages for their followers, and to 
punish the Christians who despised them. Yet, by instituting a comparison 
in matters temporal, the Christian portion of the world was grand and civi- 
lized, while the Gentile portion ofthe human race was driven to cold and in- 
hospitable regions. Many similar trains of reflection, ably conceived and 
clearly expressed, with many valuable hints adroitly introduced, give us a 
very exalted idea of the wisdom and learning of Bishop Daniel. Other letters 

5^ They are exhorted in it, to receive baptized, to build houses and churches for 

favourably St. Boniface and his com- themselves and for their missionaries, 

panions ; to give food and all necessary sue- 9" As distinguished on the Continent, 

cour to them; while anathema is pronounced from those who were in Great Britain. The 

against all, who should oppose his minis- Pope exhorts them to abandon idolatry, and 

try. to receive Boniface as their apostle. 

w In it are laid down rules to be observed » See I'Abb^j Fleury's ** Histoire Eccle- 

in his functions, which word for word agree siastique," tome ix., hv. xli., sect, xxxvii., 

with those addressed to the people of Bava- pp. 1 86, 187. 

ria in 716. »** See Mabillon's **Annales Ordinis S. 

^ Particularly is it addressed to their five Benedict!," tomus ii., lib. xx., sect. Ixii,, 

princes, who are there named. The Pope con- p. 71. 

gratulates them, that they had resisted the **»* See TAbbe Fleury*s " Histoire Eccle- 

pagans, who desired to draw them into siaslique," tomeix., liv. xli., sect, xlv., xlvi., 

idolatry ; he also exhorts them to persever- pp. 196 to 198. 

ancc, to attach themselves to the Holy See, *<" These practices seem to have been in- 

and to obey Boniface. herited from their ancestors. See Carson's 

w These he exhorts, to receive the instruc- Taciti Opera, " De Situ, Moribus, et Populis 

tions of Boniface, to become converts, to be Germaniae," cap. x., pp. 418, 419. 

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of a very interesting character were received, also, from the friends of Boniface 
in England.^®' 

Tlie Apostle of Germany found very many, that still remained obstinate 
in their infidelity, addicted to the worship of woods and fountains ;'*" as also, 
numbers that had cast off the Faitli, to which they liad been so lately con- 
verted. Others defiled it, with a mixture of their old heathenish sacrifices 
and superstitions, following auguries and divinations, while they had various 
rites of an impious character, derived from the practices of their forefathers. 
He also brought over such as already believed, but who led lives not \^y 
agreeble to the Gospel precepts ; while he took care, by the imposition of 
hands, to confirm many with the seven-fold gifts of the Holy Spirit. "^ There 
was a tree of enormous growth — called by the people the Tree of Jupiter '**^ — 
at a place called Frit2lar,'°5 near Gicesmere,'®^ or Geismar. To this giant of 
the forest, the people paid a superstitious worship. This tree the saint 
undertook to fell with the axe, while those who worshipped the true God were 
present to encourage and aid his efforts. Thereupon, a multitude of the pagans 
assembled together, and determined to oppose his enterprise; for, they 
deemed it nothing less than a sacrilege, to destroy that tree. They even in- 
tended to kill him, as an enemy of their gods.'**7 By Divine power, how- 
ever, that tree, which he had intended to cut down, was suddenly agitated by 
the winds and split into four equal parts, to the great astonishment of the 
pagans and the Christians who were present.'*^ Wherefore, renouncing their 
false gods, the unbelievers embraced the Faith of Christ. Then, with the 
advice of liis monks, their zealous superior constructed from the fallen wood 
an oratory, **>9 which he dedicated to St Peter the Apostle. 



From Hesse, St. Boniface passed into Thuringia,* which had been subdued 
by Theodoric,' son to Clovis I. However, the authority of the French kings 

"3 See TAbb^ Fleury's ** Histoire Eccle- Forest." This painting was executed by the 

siastique," tome ix., liv. xli., sect, xliv., pp. artist at the age of nineteen. 

I9S» 196» *°' It grew, in course of time, to be a large 

»«H By some writers, it is called the Tree and fine church ; but, since the Reformation, 

of Thor the Thunderer ; by others, the it has passed out of the possession of Catho- 

Thunder Oak of Geismar, See Rev. John lies. 

Alzog*s "Manual of Universal Church His- Chapter hi. — ' This territory — formerly 

tory," vol. ii.. Period 2, Epoch i., Part i., more extensive — is now a Landgraviate of 

chap, i., sect. 159, p. 85. Saxony, having Misnia on the east, Bruns- 

'•^s See Rev. S. Baring-Goiild*s ** Lives of wick on the north, Hesse on the west, and 

the Saints," vol. vi., June 5, p. 45. Franconia on the south. The chief city was 

'*^ It is written Gesmere, by Othlo. We Erfurth. 
are told by Serarius, that Geismaria is a ' See Andrea du Chesne's "Historise Fran- 
village in Lower Hesse. coram Scriptorcs Cosetanei ab ipsius Gentis 

^^ See Bishop Challenor's ** Britannia Origiue," &c., tomus i. Gregorii Episcopi 

Sancta,'* part i., p. 341. Turonensis Historia: Francorum, lib. iii., 

*** In 1870, the Museum of Cologne, pur- cap. iv., pp. 294, 295, and cap. vii., pp. 

chased, for the sum of one thousand thalers, 296. 297. 

Alfred Rethel's picture of ** Bonilace Felling 3 St. Gregory of Tours states, that Chris- 

the Sacred Oak of Thor in the Thuringian tian laws had been framed for Thuringia. See 

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began to decline there,3 especially when subordinate chiefs created broils, 

dissensions, and disorders, which induced the Saxons to invade the country, 

and to establish a domination over its people. There, Theobald and Heden 

had exercised tyrannical rule, and had brought that state to the verge of 

ruin. Upon the death of some of their Princes, Christianity, that had been 

so lately established, by St. Kilian,* met with a great shock, from inroads of 

their new masters, the Saxons. Religion had almost perished there, and it 

required new efforts to raise it from ruin.s Certain abandoned men, named 

Torchtwine, Berchthere, Fanbercht and Hunred,^ who are called fornicators 

and adulterers, had introduced heretical errors under the guise of reh'gion, 

and these depravities had seduced many people. But, the saint, by his 

labours and preaching, brought many back again to the way of truth. From 

the communion of the Church, he expelled those false Christians, whose 

seduction and wickness for a time had much obstructed his pious endeavours. 

Then, piety began to revive, and the harvest became ripe for the reapers. Soon 

their number be^an to increase, while preachers from France and Ireland, as 

also from England,^ were found. Monasteries were established, also, to receive 

congregations of monks. 

In the meantime, the fame of his labours spread all over Europe, 
and especially in Britain, while the character of Boniface had been well 
established, so that many desired to aid him. Thence he received divers 
excellent men, eminent for their abilities and learning, as for their zeal and 
holiness. The similarity of language eminently qualified the Anglo-Saxon 
missionaries to labour among the Teutonic races.^ Those preachers intended 
to subject themselves to his rule, so that they might eradicate errors ^of 
paganism from among the Germans. There were lectors and scribes in this com- 
munity of missioners.i' Among them are specially mentioned Denfcvaldus, Bur- 
chard, Wigbert, Gregory, Sturim, Lul, Memgoz, Willibald, and his brother 
Winibald.'** Jointly with him, and under his direction, these gloriously 
advanced the kingdom of Christ, especially among the hamlets and villages 
of Hesse and Thuringia." Besides, there were many holy virgins to serve 
the cause of charity and education, among those of their own sex.** Among 
them are distinguished Chunihilda, and her daughter Berathgit, Chunidrut, 
Tecla, Lioba, and Waltpurgis, who was sister to Willibald and Winibald. 
Especially Chunihilde and her daughter Berathgide, well instructed in the 
liberal sciences, were appointed as religious superioresses in Thuringia; 
Chunitrude was sent to Bavaria, as her sphere of action ; Tecla was stationed 
in Franconia; while Lioba, a relation of St. Boniface, presided over a 
community of nuns at Bischofesheim. All of these did not join the great 
Apostle ol Germany, at one and the same time, or place ; but, as'the occasion 
required, they were ready to second his various enterprises. *3 

fW., '*HistoriaeFrancorum,"iib. iv., cap. X., Christianity," vol. ii., book iv., chap, v., 

xi., p. 310. p. 58. 

* His feast is held, on the 8ih of July. » See Mabillon's " Annates Ordinis S. 
5 See Jules 2^11er*s ** Histoire d'Alle- Benedicti,** tomus ii., lib. xx., sect. Ixiii., 

magne/' tome i., liv. iii., chap, vii., sect, iii., p. 72. 

p. 394. »" See the Third Life of St. Boniface, 

* Their names have been difierentlyspelled, sect. 4. 

by various writers. " See ** Histoire Literaire de la France," 

' The Third Life of St. Boniface states, tome iv., pp. 93, 94. 
"Alios ctenim ex gente sua, alios ex parte "See Jules Zeller's "Histoire d*Alle- 

Francise, nonnuUos eiiam de finibus Hiber- magne," tome i., liv. iii., chap, vii., sect, iii., 

nix, quatenus adessent sibi cooperatores in p. 398. 

vineam Domini,'' &c.— " Vita III. S. Bone- '^ See Mabillon's "Annates Ordinis S. 

£acii," sect. 4, p. 482. Benedicti,** tomus ii., lib. xx., sect Ixiii., 

* See Dean Milman's " History of Latin p. 72. 

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Oil a certain occasion, a.d. 724, *< the holy man journeyed eastward, from the 
city of Mayence, preaching and baptizing as he went towards Thuringia. Find- 
ing an agreeable spot for encampment, on a plain and beside a river, he re- 
mained there for a night, during which the Archangel Michael appeared to him, 
in a vision. Celestial light also surrounded the tent. When morning came, and 
when the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass had been over, he ordered a table to be 
brought and food to be placed upon it.'S But, his attendant declared that 
none was to be found. Boniface replied : " Will not he, who fed the multi- 
tude for forty years in the desert with manna from Heaven, vouchsafe to me 
the least of his servants food for one day." Wherefore, the table was set, 
and he recited the usual Psalm before meals. Immediately afterwards, a large 
bird flew over the spot, and dropped a trout, sufficient for that day's refec- 
tion, near the table. This was taken up and broiled for his repast, Boniiace re- 
turning thanks to the Almighty for such a favour. He there erected the church 
and monastery of Ordorp or Ordorfe.*^ I'he place was granted to him by 
Hugo the Senior, to whom it belonged.'^ Over these establishments St. Wig- 
bert *^ was appointed superior. *9 In that monastery, Boniface placed a con- 
gregation of religious brethren, who, after the manner of the Apostles, gained 
their livelihood, by their labours. A certain man, named Albotus, with others, 
added to the endowment, by granting lands for its maintenance. 

That very same year, Boniface wrote to Daniel, Bishop of Winchester, com- 
plaining about the conduct of many among the clergy, and asking advice as to 
the course he ought adopt, in reference to them. He also asks for a Codex, 
containing six books of the Prophets, which his master, the Abbot Winbert, 
had written with his own hand, in clear, separate, and large letters, not small and 
abbreviated, such as were to be found in Germany; because, as his eyes 
began to grow dim, he could not see minute and conjoined characters. He 
sends, also, through the priest Forihere, some gifts, such as a chasuble, partly 
of silk and partly of goat's hair, with a rug made of course long hair, for 
the bishop's feet. The answer of Daniel to this communication is preserved. 
In it, he consoles Boniface, by recommending patience and the examples of 
the saints, while he exhorts to be conciliatory among a rude people, as also to 
act with firmness and vigour against the immoral clergy. This letter is 
addressed to him as archbishop, but not as then ruling over any fixed See."** 

Some short time "afterwards, a pious cleric, named Adelhere, who had been 
the confidant and servant of Boniface, took ill. With the advice of his bishop, 
Adelhere bequeathed his patrimony to the church of St. Martin, at Mayence. 
After his death, however, two brothers, named Asperth and Truthmundt, 
seized on his property; and, when cited by the Bishop to show a reason for 
so doing, these declared themselves ready to prove on oath, that the property 
belonged to them. They went for that evil purpose to the altar. The Bishop 
threatened them with the consequences of their perjury. He declared, that a 
bear should kill the elder brother, and that the younger should have neither 
son nor daughter to inherit his possessions. The younger brother Truthmundt, 
when he found that his elder brother came to a violent end, feared some 

** This is the date usually assigned for ihe '^ See Mabil Ion's ** Annales Ordinis S. 

foundation of Ordorf church and monastery. Benedicii," tomus ii,, lib. xx., sect. Ixii., 

See lAbb^ Fleury's ** Histoire Ecclesiasti- p. /i* 

que," tome ix., liv. xli., sect, xlvi., p. *" His feast occurs, on the 13th of 

199. Au^st. 

*5 Such is the account as given in Othlo's *' This is indicated, by Lupus Servatus, in 

Vita S. Bonifacii, lib. ii., cap. 23. Vita S. Wigberti. 

'* It is a village, at the River Or, from ^ See Mabillon's '* Annales Ordinis S. 

which increased by other streams, thejera Benedict!," tomus ii., lib. xx., sect. Ixiv., 

flows by the city of Erfurt. p. 72. 

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judgment on himself. Then, he voluntarily surrendered that patrimony to the 
church of St Martin." On the 4th of December, in the year 724," after 
Pope Gregory had received assurance of the success, which attended the 
labours of St. Boniface, he wrote a congratulatory Epistle, recommending 
courage and perseverance in his good work. A Bishop had complained, that 
Bonifax:e encroached on his jurisdiction, in Thuringia ; but, as that man had 
not preached the Gospel to the people there living, Gregory states, that he 
had written to the excellent Prince Charles, to restrain his pretensions, and that 
he had no doubt, but such recommendation must be effective. About the 
year 725, Boniface consulted Pethelmus, Bishop of Candida Casa, regarding 
the case of a widow contracting marriage with a godson, tlie Prankish and 
Roman Priests holding it to be illegal.»3 The reply of Pethelmus has not 
come down to us. Boniface desired to consult Pope Gregory, in 726, regard- 
ing some questions of discipline. This letter was sent through the Priest 
Denval. In reply, the Sovereign Pontiff decrees certain matters to be observed, 
and these are reduced, under twelve different heads.** Among the Epistles 
of Boniface is one's toCoengislus, written a.d. 7 28, in which thanks are given 
for his prayerful commemorations, and in which he alludes with praise to the 
missionary career of Wiethbert, among the Hessians and Saxons. 

Pope Gregory II. having died, a.d. 731, Gregory III. — sty led the junior «^ — 
was chosen in his place. During thirteen years, St. Boniface had laboured 
strenuously, in the conversion of the Hessians and Thuringians. He now desired 
to tender his obedience anew to the visible Head of the Church, and besides 
he had some difficulties, which required an authoritative solution. Being fully 
informed, through messengers from Boniface, regarding the Gospel progress in 
Germany, and that the Apostle desired for himself and for his fellow-labourers 
patronage from the newly-chosen Sovereign Pontiff, with his blessing on 
their works ; Boniface also professed his entire devotedness and subjection 
to the Apostolic See, with his intention of being bound to it, in the firmest 
links of amity and unity. Soon he received a response, which assured him 
of the Pontifical approval and reward for his efforts. Owing to the labours 
of St. Boniface, the Sovereign Pontiff made him Archbishop — but without a 
See*' — over that country in 732, and conferred on him the Pallium. Gregory 
also sent different relics of the saints, when the messengers returned to the 
country whence they came. Our saint received powers, likewise, to erect 
Sees throughout Germany ,^^ and to place over them bishops, in those places, 
which he deemed to be most suitable.*^ Alluding to the numberless conver- 
sions effected through the instrumentality of our saint, the Pope encouraged 
him to establish bishops in those places, where the faithful were numerous, 
always following the canonical prescriptions, and having two or three bishops 
present at their consecration. He warned the holy man, likewise, never to 
lower the episcopal order, by too large an exercise of these powers. Further- 

»* See Supplement to the Life of St. 731 to 741. See Berti's " Ecclesiasticae 

Boniface, by Willibald, chap, ii., num. 7. Historiae IJreviarium," Pars Prima, Octavum 

" During the eighth year of the Emperor Ecclesiae Seculum, cap. i., p. 188. 

Leon's reign, and in the eighth Indiction, ^ See ** A Dictionary of Christian Biogra- 

which correspond with this year. pl^y>" by Dr. William Smith and Henry 

•5 This b Epist. xi. in the collection. Wace, vol. i., p. 325. 

^ See r Abb^ Fleury's *' Histoire Eccle- ^ See Dean Henry Hart Milman's ** His- 

siastique," tome ix., liv. xli., sect, xlvii., pp. tory of Latin Christianity,** vol. ii., bookiv., 

199 to 201. chap, v., p. 58. 

*5 In the Serarius collection it is Epist. 52. ^ SeeMichaud, ''Biographic Universelle, 

** He was thus called by the Romans, in Ancienne et Moderne," &c., tome v., Art. 

comparison with his predecessor St Gr^ory Boniface (saint), p. 5. 

II. He ruled over the Church, from a.d. ^ Situated in Hesse. 

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more, the Pope resolves for him certam questions, touching morals and dis- 
cipHne, while incidentally setting forth certain manners and customs peculiar 
to society, as it then existed among the Germans. The messengers returning 
congratulated their superior on the distinctions he had obtained from Rome, 
and Boniface was consoled, that his proceedings had been there approved. 
Filled with gratitude for tlie Divine mercy, he founded a church and a monas- 
tery, at Fridislar,3o on the River Eder.3» These were dedicated to St. Peter 
and to St. Paul.3' Over this erection, St. Wigbert33 presided. He erected an 
establishment, also, at Hamanaburg or Hamenburg,34 in honour of St. Michael 
the Archangel. To this, likewise, a monastery was attached. The next 
labours of St. Boniface were in Bavaria, where Hucpert or Hubert 35 then 
ruled. There, by his preaching, he greatly advanced the Christian Faith, and 
went his circuit of its various churches.36 About this time, a schismatic, 
named Ermwlf, rendered himself obnoxious, by drawing the people into some 
errors, which seem to have savoured of idolatry. He was condemned by Boni- 
face, according to the canonical observances, and cast out, the people re- 
nouncing his teaching. Then Boniface, having a desire to order well the 
state of his mission, visited those brethren, who were in charge of the various 
stations. Meantime, the saint kept up a correspondence with some of the 
most learned and holy persons in England. Among these, Northelme,37 
Archbishop of Canterbury, is distinguished ; and, to him, application is made 
for prayers to sustain the courageous confessors of the Faith, against those 
assaults he had to suffer in Germany. He asks especially for the copy of a 
letter, containing the question of the Bishop Augustine, with the answers of 
Pope St. Gregory, in which it is stated, that permission was given for the 
faithful to marry in the third generation. He also refers to a case, in which 
a man, having been the godfather of a child, afterwards had married the 
mother, when she became a widow. He desires to know, moreover, in what 
year of the Incarnation, the first missionaries sent by Pope St. Gregory had 
arrived in England. He wrote a letter, also, to the Abbess Edburge,38 thank- 
ing her for the books and habits she had sent him. He asks her, while 
regarding St. Peter and respecting him as the patron of his mission, to write 
the Epistles of that Apostle, in letters of gold, so that grosser spirits might 
the more reverence him. These letters were sent through the priest Eoba, 
who afterwards had been appointed bishop of Utrecht. Another letter he 
despatched to the same Abbess, in which he complains of the opposition met 
with, from open foes and from false brethren. The intrigues of these latter were 
subjects of more pain to him, than the malice of the pagans. St. Boniface 
wrote many letters to the same Abbess. To this period may be referred, like- 
wise, the letter 39 of Bishop Torthelme <" to Archbishop Boniface, who is congra- 
tulated on the conversion of the Saxons. While commemorating our saint, in the 
Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, and in his daily prayers, a like favour is asked as 

s" Sec Mabillon's **Annales Ordinis S. ing to Andrew Brunner, **Boicorum," 

Benedicti,*' tomus ii., lib. xxi., sect, xv., lib. v. 

p. 93. 3« See I'Abb^ Fleury's " Histoire Eccle- 

3" Venerated on the 29th of June. siastique," tome ix., liv. xlii., sect, xx., 

55 He departed this life, a.d. 747, and he p. 256. 

is venerated as a saint, on the 13th of 3? According to Matthew of Westminster, 

August. he was consecrated a.d. 735, and he received 

3* In Hesse, also called Amcenaburg. the Pallium in the following year. Sec 

See Jules Zeller's ** Histoire d'AUemagne," •* Flores Historianim," p. 270. 

tome i., liv. iii., chap, vii., sect, iii., p. 3« she is supposed to have been one so 

394. named, who ruled over the nunnery of Win- 
as He was the son of Theodon, and his bum, in Wcssex. 

reign was from a.d. 730 to 739, accord- ^ It is numbered 44, in the Serarius col- 

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June 5.] 



a return from Boniface. There is also extant a letter ♦' of Sigebald, King of 
Wessex,** stating, that he offers up prayers at Mass for our saint, who seems 
to have engaged his various correspondents to render him such a service/3 
Another letter from Aelbualde, King of the East Angles, manifests the same 
communion of prayer. It states, that the king writes in his own name, and 
in that of all the monasteries in the kingdom. Ethelbert, King of Kent,** 
mentions the Abbess Bugga, who sends him a silver vessel and some other 
presents ; while, he asks in return for two falcons, since none so good as those 
in Germany could be found in his own kingdom.*5 In the year 736, Saints 
Willibrord and Boniface consecrated as Abbesses two holy virgins, Harlindis 
and Reinula, for Belgic Gaul, where they founded a convent of the Benedic- 
tine Order, at a place called Eika, between Meastrich and Ruremonde.*^ 

The City of Rome. 

Ashe advanced in years, so did the labours of Boniface increase. He had 
already built several churches in Hesse and Thuringia, while he provided 
them with zealous pastors. He now earnestly wished to hold a conference 
with the reigning Sovereign Pontiff, and accordingly, he made a third journey 
to Rome,*7 accompanied by a band of disciples, in the year 738. He was most 

lecUon of Epistolse Bonifacianx. 

** The Sec of this Anglo-Saxon bishop 
does not seem to be known. 

«* This in numbered 49, in the collection 
of Epistolae Boni£u:ianse. 

<* This state gradually became one of the 
most powerful of the old provinces, incor- 
rectly called the Saxon Heptarchy. See 
Edward A Freeman's " History of the Nor- 
man G>nquest of England/* vol. i., chap, ii., 
sect. L, pp. 22, 23, and sect ii., pp. 33 
to 35. 

4> Both of these Epistles were written in 

733. See Mabillon*s " Annales Ordinis S. 
Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxi., sect, xix., 
p. 95. 

<* He reigned over this kingdom from A.D. 
749 to 759, the year of his death. See Tohn 
Speed's " History of Great Britaine," book 
viL, chap. 5, pp. 298, 299. ^,. . _ , 

*5See I'Abbe Fleury's "Histoire Eccle- 
siastique," tome ix., liv., xlii., sect, xx., pp. 
258, 259. 

<* See Mabillon's "Annales Ordinis S. 
Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxi., sect, xxxv., 
p. 102. 

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i64 LIVES 02? THk IRISH SAINT^ [June 5: 

benignantly received by Pope Gregory III., while the Romans and strangers 
in the Eternal City held him in great veneration. Not alone the Franks, the 
Bavarians, and the Saxons from Britain, flocked to hear his preaching, but' 
also the inhabitants of other provinces. While here, too, he engaged some 
priests to serve his German mission.^^ He spent the greater part of a year, in 
Rome ; and he visited various churches, containing relics of the saints. At 
this time, Boniface was about sixty years of age. He wrote an account of 
bis journey and of his interview with the Pope, intimating that he should be 
delayed in Rome, until an approaching council had been held.**' However, 
he resolved on taking leave of the Pope, in 739, for the scenes of his former 
and future labours.5° He received gifts in parting, and especially sacred relics. 
Then, travelling through Italy, Boniface entered the walls oiTurin city, where 
dwelt Liodbrand, King of the Lombards. Now, worn with advancing age and 
great labours, he there took a little rest. He was the bearer of three different 
letters ; one of these recommended him to all bishops and abbots, who were 
exhorted to furnish him with labourers for his mission. The second of these 
letters was addressed to the newly-converted people of Germany, who were 
implored to be docile to the instructions of Boniface, and to receive favourably 
those bishops and priests he should ordain, through faculties granted him by 
the Pope. In this letter are mentioned the Thuringians, the Hessians, and other 
barbarous people, who lived eastwards from the Rhine. Those who had been 
baptized are warned against the damnation they should incur, by transgress- 
ing the Canons of the Church ; or by resorting to pagan superstitions, such 
as sacrifices to the dead, or to woods, or to fountains. He forbids divinations 
or sorceries, enchantments or auguries, as also various other malpractices of 
those rude nations. The third letter was addressed to the Bishops of Bavaria 
and of Germany, viz., Virgnon of Ausburg, Luidon of Spire, Rudolt or 
Rudolf of Constance, Vivilon of Lorch or of Passau, and Adda or Heddon ol 
Strasburg. The Pope exhorts these bishops, to receive Boniface courteously, 
and to profit by his instructions ; to reject all heretics and false bishops, no 
matter from what quarter they might come — especially Bretons — and to 
deliver their people from the remains of pagan superstitions. They were 
recommended to hold a council at Augsburg, near the Danube, or in what- 
ever place best suited the inclinations of Boniface.s* Departing from Turin, he 
went among the people of Bohemia,5' where Duke Odilo or Utilo had suc- 
ceeded Hubert, about the year 739. Here, Boniface preached the word of 
God with great fruit, for several days. He had many perverse and irregular 
ecclesiastics and disorders to overcome; while one of his most painful duties 
was to chase several seducers of the people, who falsely represented themselves 
as bishops and priests. Through divers pretexts, these had perverted a great 
number among the faithful, and had scandalized them, owing to the laxity of 
their morals. With consent of Duke Odilon, he divided that nation subject 
to him, into four dioceses. Boniface now settled the churches of Bavaria upon 
a solid basis. He corrected various abuses and errors. He also established 
three new Bishoprics, in that kingdom : one at Saltzbourg,53 over which he 
placed Bishop John, 54 one at Frisijagen, over which was Bishop Erembrecht,5s 

*7 The accompanying illustration of Rome so See ** Histoire Literaire de la France," 

was drawn on the wood from an approved tome iv., p. 94. 

view, by William F. Wakeman, and it was si gee 1 AbW Fleury*s "Histoire Eccle- 

engraved by Mrs. Millard. siastique," tome ix., liv. xlii., sect xxi, 

^ Amorig these may be noted his own re- pp. 159, 160. 

latives, the brothers Willibald and Wuni- s* See " A Dictionary of Christian Biogra- 

bald. phy," by Dr. William Smith and Henry . 

*«Thii is niarked 27, in the collection Wace, vol. i., ?• 325. 

Epistola Bonifacianae. «' This See--aIso called Juravia— had 

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and one at Ratisbon,s« over which Goibald S7 or Garibald ruled ; while, a fourth 
bishopric before established was at Passau,s8 over which Vivilo 59 was cqn- 
stituted bishop. 

These matters being happily disposed, and canonical rule having been 
enforced in Bohemia, Boniface then eargerly sought the churches of his 
own particular region, and there he wisely provided for the welfare of his 
spiritual children. Writing an account of what he had done in Bavaria to 
the Pope, the Sovereign Pontiff soon replied, by felicitating Boniface on what 
had been effected. This letter is dated the 29th of October, 739.^ If Boni- 
face had doubts, regarding the ordination of certain bishops and priests tliere, 
he was recommended to ordain them anew, supposing them to be Catholics 
and of good morals. The Pope urges on those, who had been validly baptized, 
the duty of receiving the Sacrament of Confirmation. A certain bishop, called 
Vivil, consecrated by the Pope, was to be corrected, if necessary, by Boniface, 
He is exhorted, likewise, to continue his vast labours, and to o.pen the ways 
of God in those regions, where Catholics were scarce, and to seek those rough 
places, widely scattered, where the Faith of Christ had as yet not been suffi- 
ciently preached. A hundred thousand people had been baptized, already, and 
were brought under the rule of Christ, through his labours, aided by the zeal of 
Charles, Prince of the Franks. That Boniface himself should preside over 
that council to be held near the Danube,^' was specially approved by the 
Pope. By his letters, Gregory declared, that he could not sufficiently return 
thanks to the Divine Majesty, for that blessing he had given to the seed of 
His word, so happily sown by Boniface. The Bavarian Synod, convoked by 
the holy Archbishop in 740, contributed materially to strengthen ecclesiasti- 
cal organization.^ As the harvest of his labours was so great, the Apostolic 
man desired to send other labourers into the vineyard, so that the fold of 
Christ should not want shepherds. With consent of King Charles,^^ St. 
Willibald, who was a man of most exemplary life, he made Bishop of Eich- 
stad,^ about the year 741. He ordained his worthy disciple, St. Burchard, 
to become Bishpp of Wurtzbourg, in Franconia f^ and, then bestowing on 
him a pastoral staff, he gave these instructions : "I entreat you, by the com- 
mon Lord of all, as you have undertaken so great a burden, that you give 
equal attention to your flock, and as much as I have hitherto borne, and 
intend to bear, for their souls."^ 

Besides the wars ^7 which Charles Martel had been obliged to wage 

been founded by St. Rupert, whose Life is ** In the twenty-third year of the Emperor 

given — in the Third Volume of this work — Leon's reign, and in the Eighth Indiction. 

at the 27th of March, Art. ii. '* Supposed to have been at Ratisbon. 

5* He is set down as the seventh bishop of See **A Dictionary of Christian Biography," 

Saltzburg, and he is said to have been vene- vol. i., p. 325. 

rated, at the 9th of May. *^ See Rev. John Alzog's " Manual of 

55 He was brother and successor to St. Universal Church History," vol. ii., Period 

Corbinian, appointed by Pope St. Gregory 2, Epoch i., Part i., chap. i.,p. 86. English 

II., and whose feast is held, on the 8th of translation. 

September. '^ See Pertz's "Monumenta Germanise 

5* Also called Reginae Civitas and Regens- Historica,*' tomus v. Bemold in his ** Chro- 

burg. nicon " has the date 746, at p. 41 7* 

^ Also called Gaibald. After giving the *^ In St. Ludger's •* Vita S. Gregorii, Pas- 
names of ten bishops, Wiguleus Hundius toris Ultrajectini," it is designated " Epis- 
places him as the first, who commenced the copatum quod nuncupatur in Hehstedi, in 
ordinary succession of bishops at Ratis- parte proxima nobis Baguariorum." 
bon. *5 About the year 741. ^"-'^ 

5* This is said to have been erected, by de- ^ See Supplement to the Life of St. Boni- 

sire of Odilo or Utilo. face, by Willibald, chap, ii., num. 5. 

» At first, he was bishop of Laureacensis, ^ See an account of these, in Henn 

whichcity was destroyed. Martin's "Histoire de France,' tcme ii., 

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with the Prisons and Saxons, whom he had subdued, the Saracens began 
to invade France.^^ They ascended the mouth of the Rhine and took 
Avignon.^ After a little time, it was retaken, and they were repulsed ; 
but, returning two years subsequently, they got possession of Aries, 
Avignon, Marseilles, and many other cities, in the south of France. Abderame, 
who commanded the invading host, traversed Poitou, and marched against 
Tours, when Charles advanced to meet him. A sanguinary engagement en- 
sued, in which the Saracen leader was killed-T^ Luitprand, King of the 
Lombards, also marched with his whole army to assist the Franks, so that 
the Saracens were obliged to relinquish all their southern conquests, and to 
retreat from that country. The signal victory of Charles Martel over the 
Saracens saved France, and probably Europe, from the Mahometan yoke.'* 
When St Willibrord had been Bishop of Utrecht for fifty vears, he passed out 
of this life, in the monastery of Eptemac, which he had founded, and at a vene- 
rable old age. The year of his death has been variedly computed at 739,^ 
740,73 741, and 745.7* This was a matter that caused great sorrow to Boniface, 
who tenderly loved his former co-labourer in the vineyard. Dadan was 
appointed to succeed, in the See of Utrecht. No great interval elapsed, when 
in brief succession Pope Gregory III.75 — succeeded by Pope 2^chary t^ — 
and Charles Martel,77 Maire of the French Palace, had been called out of life. 
The latter left three sons, viz. : Prince Carloman, who was appointed King of 
Austrasia,78 Prince Pepin, who was set over Neustria,79 and another son 
Grifon,^ or Grippo, but to him was demised a small appanage.®' The religious 
Prince Carloman, recognised as Maire of Austrasia, was obliged to wage war 
with the Dukes of Bavaria and of Saxony, soon after his elevation to the 
throne. His brother Pepin was united with him in policy, and always acted 
in concert, to repress their enemies.®* Successful in his campaign, Carloman 
was most anxious to second the zeal of Boniface, in his efforts to spread the 
Gospel, though these regions.®^ No sooner did St Boniface learn, that Zachary 
had been elevated to the Chair of St Peter, than he wrote a letter of respect 
and of submission to the newly-appointed Sovereign Pontiff. In this was he in- 
formed, about the establishment of Wurtzburg, as the head See for Franconia^ 
or Eastern France, of Bouraburg for Hesse, and of Erfortfor Thuringia,®* He 

liv. zi., pp. 179 to 186, and pp. 207, 208. 
. ** See an account of this invasion in P^re 
G. Daniel's " Hisloire de France," tome L, 
Thieri III., pp. 472 to 477. 

*? See Andrea du Chcsne's " Historiae 
Francorum Scriptores Coaetanei," &c., 
tomus i., Fredegarii Scholastici Chxonicum, 
sect, cix., p. 771. 

'"SceBossuct's " QEuvres Completes, " tome 
X. Abr^^ de THistoire de France, col. 1 185. 

7' See Gibbon's " History of the Decline 
and Fall of the Roman Empire," vol. vi., 
chap, xlix., p. 154, Smith's edition. 

7' Accordmg to Pagi, in his ** CriticaHis- 
torico-Chronologica," tomus iii., sect, xi., 
pp. 237, 238, onBaronius' " AnnaJes Ecdesi- 

73 According to Mabillon. 

7* According to Smith's edition of Vene- 
rable Bede's ** Historia Ecclesiaslica Gentb 
Anglorum,*' lib. v., cap. xii. 

75 He died on the loth of November, A.D. 

1^ He was created Pope on the 19th of 
November, a.d. 741, and his nde over the 

Church lasted to A,D. 752. See Sir Harris* 
Nicholas ** Chronology of Hbtory," p. 21 1. 

77 His death occurred on the 22nd of 
October, A.D. 741, in the fifty-third year of 
his age. SeeL. — P. Anquetil's "Histoire 
de France," Premiere Race dite des Mero- 
vingiens, sect, vi., p. 56. 

7^ This division included Allemannie or 
Suabia, and France beyond the Rhine or 

7' This division included, also. Burgundy 
and Provence. 

*> According to M. Capefigue, he was the 
son of a second wife, named Sonnichilde. 
See "Charlemagne," tome i., chap, v., p. 88. 

^' It was formed from portions of Neustria, 
of Burcundy, and of Provence, See Henri 
Martin's ** Histoire de France," tome ii., 
liv. xi.,p. 216. 

*» See " Portraite des Rois de France," p. 
41. A Paris, 8vo, no date. 

®3 See Michaud, ** Biographic Universelle 
Ancienne ct Modeme," &c, tome v.. Art. 
Boniface (saint), p. 5. 

*♦ See " Histoire literaire dc la France," 

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prayed the Pope to confirm by decree the erection of these various Sees, and to 
assign their proper limits as dioceses. He declares, that Prince Carloman 
urged convoke a council, in that country subject to himself; and he 
promised to aid in the re-establishment of canonical discipline, which had 
been deplorably infringed, through the action of several abandoned clerics 
and avaricious laics. He complains regarding the disuse of synods, in that part 
of the Lord's vineyard ; and to revive a salutary practice, he desires to have in 
his possession the Pope's letters and the Canons. He consults the Holy 
Father on various points of discipline, which he reduces to five principal 
articles, and he also specifies some small presents transmitted to him. Zachary 
replied, that he approved of the three new Sees established ; but, he signified 
to Boniface, that the Canons did not allow of bishoprics to be set up in small 
places. He also decreed, that following out the desire of Prince Carloman, 
a council might be convened, as it was a great means for discovering what 
sort of prelates the bishops were, and the chief opportunity afforded to know 
the priesthood. The Pope recommended, likewise, that in the council to be 
held, bishops, priests or deacons, guilty of immorality, or who Had shed the 
blood of Christians or of pagans, or who had in any other way acted contrary 
to the Canons, should be deprived of ecclesiastical faculties. Meantime, the 
the Pope wrote to the three newly-appointed bishops, confirming their autho- 
rity. That Epistle to St. Burchard, Bishop of Wurlzburg, is yet extant, and it 
forbids any but the Sovereign Pontiffs vicar to consecrate bishops. He wrote 
a letter, also, to Prince Carloman, but this has not been recovered. 

By the authority of Pope Zachary, and with the assistance of the Princes 
Carloman andPipin, St. Boniface held divers synods, to establish church discip- 
line. He reformed various abuses, as well in Germany, as in France. Over this 
latter kingdom, his influence likewise extended ; for, he was allowed to firame 
laws and institutes, which provided for the establishment of morality among the 
clergy and laity. Prince Carloman issued an invitation, dated April 21st, a.d, 
742, for the bishops of Germany to assemble in council. The place where it 
was held is not known. ^5 However, the following bishops of his kingdom 
responded to that invitation, viz. : St. Boniface Archbishop, as also the 
bishops Burchard,^ Reginfrid,^7 Vitta,^* Willibald,^^ Dadan^o and Eddan,9» 
with their priests. They were asked for counsel, as to how God's holy laws 
could best be established, and ecclesiastical discipline be enforced ; while 
measures were to be taken, so that the people should not be led astray, as in 
times past, through the artifices of false priests. At this council. Canons were 
fi'amed, to preserve morality among the clergy and laity, while various ques- 
tions of discipline were discussed and regulated. Boniface wrote an account 
of what took place at the council to the Pope, when Zachary in turn addressed 
all the Francs, in approval of what had been there decreed ; and, he promised, 
if they should observe all that their illustrious bishop urged on them, the 
pagan people must yield to them in this life, and that after victories here, 
they should have hereafter a happy and an endless reward.^" 

Much about the same time, a.d. 743, Cuthbert, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
sent letters and presents to Boniface, through a deacon, named Cunebert. In re- 
turn, our saint gave an account of what had been decreed in the council.93 He 

tome IT., p. 94. ^ Bishop of Eichstadt 

•5 Sec '* A Dictionary of ChristTan Biogra- 9° Bishop of Utrecht 

^fj" by Dr. William Smith and Henry >' He was Bishop of Strasbtu^. 

Wace, voL i., p. 325. »* See TAbbe Fleuiy's "Histoire Eccle- 

*^ Bishop of Wurtzburg. siastique," tome ix., hv. xlii., sect, xxxiv., 

•y Bishop of Cologne. pp. 281 to2S4. 

" Bishop of Banibuig. *' xhis is marked 105, in the Serarias 

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adds, likewise, that resolving to guard the Catholic Faith to the end of their lives, 
as also union and submission to the Roman Church, the metropolitans had 
asked for the Pallium from the Holy See. This declaration forwarded to 
Rome was graciously received by the Pope and by the clergy. It had been 
decreed, that these Canons should be read each year in a council, and that the 
metropolitans should watch over the other bishops, so that they might care for 
the people's salvation. They were also to assemble the priests and abbots of 
their diocese, to recommend the observance of those decrees ; while they 
were to report each one to the council whatever abuse they found it difficult 
to correct, as Boniface himself was obhged to do, for the whole province, in 
virtue of his oath to the Pope. He encourages Cuthbert, zealously to acquit 
himself of his religious obligations, as afflictions had come upon the Church, 
and to be ready if necessary to die in defence of its interests. He alludes to 
sad abuses prevailing, in consequence of the great number of religious women, 
travelling as pilgrims from England to Rome, and he complains of the crimes 
or scandals which resulted in the cities of Lombardy and France, as a conse- 
quence.94 Boniface also alludes to certain vanities of dress and luxurious 
ornaments, which began to appear in the monasteries ; while the violence of 
kings and rulers had invaded the rights and possessions of religious, and 
required from all pastors vigilance and reclamation, in bringing them to a 
sense of their duty.^s 

It is stated, that Pope Gregory III. had permitted Boniface to appoint 
a certain priest as his successor. Afterwards, the brother of this priest had 
killed an uncle of the Prankish Duke. According to the barbarous laws 
prevailing, all the relatives of the slain were permitted to take a like ven- 
geance on the murderer. Regarding this matter, our saint took care to consult 
Pope Zachary, who replied, that so long as Boniface lived, a bishop could 
not be chosen to fill his place, and that such a procedure should be contrary 
to all just rules. The Pope counsels him during his lifetime, to pray for a 
worthy successor, while at the hour of his approaching death, he might desig- 
nate in the presence of all the man chosen by him to succeed, so that he 
might visit Rome to be consecrated. However, the Pope remarks, that this 
favour, which should not be granted to any other bishop, was accorded to 
his extraordinary merits. A layman possessing great authority presented 
himself before Boniface, and he stated, that he had obtained from Pope 
Gregory permission to marry the widow of his uncle, who was besides related 
to him in the third degree of kindred, while even before her marriage, she 
had made a vow of chastity, and had taken the veil. Complaining to the 
Pope, in reference to this case, Boniface says, ** In my country, such a mar- 
riage should be regarded as an abominable incest, but those ignorant and 
gross people, Germans, Bavarians and Franks, if they find any of these things 
we forbid practised at Rome, they state it is lawful, and they take advantage 
of such excuse, to scandalize our ministry." The Pope replies to this, in the 
following words : " God forbid we could believe our predecessor ever granted 
such a permission, since nothing comes from the Holy See, but what is con- 
formable to the sacred Canons." With regard to certain superstitions, which 
were practised on the ist day of January, even near the Church of St. Peter, at 
Rome, the Sovereign Pontiff declares, that they should be regarded as detestable, 
in the eyes of all Christians; that Pope Gregory his predecessor had condemned 

collection Epistolae Bonifacianse. menacing attitude of the Saracens against the 

^ St. Boniface had been consulted on the Romans had been removed, 

jnatterof undertaking a pilgrimage to Rome, w See I'Abb^ Pleura's "Histoire Eccle- 

by the Abbess Bugga. However, he re- siastiaue," tome ix., Uv. xlii., sect xxxv., 

commends her to wait, at least until the pp. 284 to 286. 

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them in a decree, of which a copy had been sent to him ; and that, when it 
was sought to renew them on the day of his inauguration, he had also 
vigorously suppressed them. Boniface complained of certain immoral bishops 
and priests among the Franks, who had been in Rome, and who reported, 
that the Pope had permitted them to exercise ecclesiastical functions, a 
matter which he could not suppose possible, as the Canons of the Church con- 
demned them. In this opinion, he was strengthened by Zachary, who desires 
him to apply the canonical laws for their correction ; as he had learned, that 
the Apostolic See always traditionally observed the Church laws, and the 
maxims of the Fathers. If any new difficulties should arise, St. Boniface was 
encouraged to report these, and the Pope promised, he should endeavour to 
resolve them. He is recommended, to be courageous and to labour for 
God's sake, as a great reward awaited him, that prayers should be offered by 
the Pope for his success, that St. Peter should co-operate with him, while 
Boniface himself was dear to the heart of Zachary, who each day desired to 
see him. This letter was written, on the ist of April, a.d. 743.^^ 

In conformity with the first Canon of that German council, Prince Carloman 
called another to meet at his palace of Liptina or Liftina— now Lestines in 
Heinault — in either the year 743 or 745.97 St, Boniface there presided, with a 
bishop named George, and John Sacellaire, both of these representing the Pope. 
Four canons only were enacted in this council. The first of these confirms the 
former council, the decrees of which, the bishops, counts and governors pro- 
mised to observe ; all the clergy receiving the ancient canons, the 
abbots and monks preserving the rule of St. Benedict. The second 
canon had reference to ecclesiastical goods, and it modified certain 
directions given, regarding the restoration which laics were bound to 
make.9* The third canon prohibits adulterous, incestuous and illicit 
maniages, and any sale of Christian slaves to the pagans. The fourth canon for- 
bids the practice of pagan superstitions, which then prevailed throughout 
Germany. As the end of those canons are certain formulas, in the old Tudes- 
que language, regarding renunciations made in baptism, and a profession of 
the Faith. These specimens show the differences between the ancient and 
the modem German languages.^^ The pious Prince Pepin was desirous to 
have a council convened, for that part of France, which was subject to him. 
Accordingly, on the 3rd day of March, a.d. 744,*®** it assembled at Soissons.'*** 
It is supposed, that St. Boniface presided over it Twenty-three bishops were 
present, with many priests and clerics. Prince Pepin and his nobles also 
assisted. Ten canons were there enacted. The first of these enjoins the 
profession of the Nicene Creed, and upholds the decrees of various councils. 
The renovation of discipline, which had declined under previous rulers, was 
now restored. The other canons have rules similar to those enacted in the 
councils held under Carloman, such as the order to assemble in council each 
year, the prohibition of monks to engage in warfare, for the clergy not to 
wear secular habits, nor to practise hunting, nor to lodge with women. 
Unknown bishops or priests should not be entertained ; the laity were to 

9* It was the twenty-fourth year after the ** c}ue I'^lise et la maison de Dieu soient re- 
crowning of Constantine, the second of his m'ses en pleine possession de leurs biens." — 
reign, after his father's death, and during Guizot*s " Essais sur THistoire de France/* 
the Eleventh Indictiom Quatrieme Essai, pp. 137, 138. 

97 See Rev. John Alzog's "Manual of w Seel'Abbe Fleury's **Histoire Eccle- 

Universal Church History, vol. ii., Period siastiaue," tome ix., liv. xlii., sect, xxxv., 

2, Epoch i., Part i., chap, i., p. 86. " pp. 286 to 288. 

«■ In reference to the levying and main- *<*° The second year of King Childeric's 

tenance of war, certain exactions were reign. 

allowed from ecclesiastical property, which **»* See "Histoire Literaire dela France,' 

were to be refunded in proper proportion, tome iv., viii. Siecle, p. 94. 

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abstain from unlawful marriages, from debauchery, and from perjury, while 
they should defend the Church possessions. The bishops were charged to 
root out all pagan superstitions. 

Many serious abuses, which greatly deranged and damaged the purity 
of social relations, prevailed at this time. Dangers affecting Faith were also 
to be guarded against We find one named Elbercht or Aldebert, an im- 
postor, and another called Clemens,'*" charged with being addicted to abase 
love for money, and with seducing many of the people from the ways of 
truth.'<*3 The former of these pretended to have miraculous gifts for healing 
the sick and infirm. He had certain abandoned persons hired, to pretend 
they were blind, lame, or feeble, and when these strangers were brought 
before the public, he blasphemously pronounced the name of the Holy 
Trinity, and those reprobates affected to have been suddenly healed. To 
seduce the people, he had crosses erected in various places. At the council of 
Soissons, these were ordered to be burned, and Adalbert was condemned as 
a heretic."* Even the pious King Karoloman was almost persuaded, that 
the impostor had miraculous powers. With some difficulty, he yielded to the 
advice of St. Boniface, who wished him to distrust altogether and to avoid the 
man, who was so dangerously anxious to ingratiate himself at court The 
king appointed a day for both to dispute together, in his presence, so that he 
might judge between their opposite arguments. The night before this meet- 
ing took place, Boniface seemed, in a dream, to have wrestled with a bull, whose 
horns were broken off in the contest This dream seemed to him an augury 
of victory. However, his disciples Lul, Sturm, and Megingaud thought it de- 
rogatory to the dignity of the holy bishop, to engage in dispute with such a 
charlatan. Boniface replied : ** Greater is he who rules over us, than he who 
possesses that man." In the meeting which followed, Aldebert was confused 
and confuted. "5 The subsequent fate of this unhappy man — who appears 
to have caused great trouble and scandal to the Church in Germany— does 
not seem to be clearly ascertained.'*^ The same council provided for the 
establishment of two great metropolitan centres, viz., one at Rheims,"^ 
over which Abel was placed as Archbishop, and another at Sens,'°^ for which 
Ardobert was appointed. It may be supposed, that several Sees had been 
vacant, in these two provinces, or some may have been held by usurpers. The 
last provision of this council decrees, that whoever disobeyed its canons should 
be judged and punished by the Prince and by his nobles, as well as by the 

*«' He belonged to the Hibernian nation, he met some swineherds, who murdered him. 

See "Hlstoire Literairede la France," tome Some memorial of this event afterwards 

iv., viii. Siecle, p. 105. hung over the church door of St. Alban, 

"3 During the Pontificate of Zachary, they which was situated on a mount, and sur- 

were condemned for adding the names of rounded by a valley, at the south side of the 

unknown spirits to the Ecclesiastical prayers, city. It was afterwards known as the New 

and those angels were called Uriel, Raguol, Tower, but, the church had disappeared. 

Tubuel, Inias, Tubuas, Sabaoth and Simiel. The Bollandist editor tells us, however, that 

See Bcrti's " Ecclesiasticae Hi-^toriae Br^via- a chapel dedicated to St. Boniface had been 

rium,*' Pars Prima, Octavum Ecclesise Secu- there erected by the Dean of Mayence, who 

lum, cap. iii., p. 193. owned a vineyard near it. 

'*>^See TAbbe Fleury's *' Histoire Eccle- *•>* See Supplement to Willibald, cap. i., 

siastique," tome ix., liv. xlii., sect, xxxvii., sect 3, p. 474, and nn. (m, n, o, p). 

p. 285. **^ For thirty-five years, this See had been 

'°s It is stated, furthermore, that the king afficted, owing to the expulsion of St. Rigo- 

delivered him to the judgment of Boniface, bert, and the mtrusion of Milo, Archbishop 

who had him degraded at Mayence ; he was of Treves. The latter was probably de- 

afterwards taken to Fulda and cast into a posed in this council. 

dark prison of the monastenr. At last, the "* St. Ebbon ruled here as Archbishop, 

wretcned man escaped, and only brought who probably resigned the See at this time, 

with him a single covering, when wandering to lead a solitary life at Arce. He died A.D. 

about the windings of the river near Fulda, 750. 

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Junk 5.] 



bishops.'^ Moreover, Boniface took care to inform Pope Zachary, about 
4he proceedings of this council, while praising the zeal of Carloman and Pepin, 
in the interests of religion. He asks, that the pallium be sent to the Arch- 
bishops Abel and Ardobert, as also to Grimont, who was Archbishop of 
Rouen. He refers to the condemnation of Adalbert and of Clement, both 
of whom had been cast into prison. The Pope wrote in reply a letter, dated 
November 5th, 744, asking a reason, as to why Boniface only pressed for the 
pallium in the case of Grimont He then takes occasion to refute a 
calumny, that had been circulated against himself. He also alludes to a pre- 
tended bishop in Bavaria, who falsely stated, he had been consecrated by the 
Pope. Boniface refused to believe him, and he is commended for this dis- 
trust. Asking for faculties to preach in Bavaria, as given by the former Pope ; 
Zachary not only confirms but augments such powers for that province, and 
moreover, for the whole of Gaul, with the further instruction, that Boniface 
should correct all persons perverting the Faith or the Church Canons. 



In the meantime, about the year 742,* or 744 ' — some accounts have 746 3 — 
St Boniface commenced * the foundation of the famous Abbey of Fulda,5 
near a river so called, in the midst of a vast forest ; and, ably seconded by a 
young Bavarian disciple, named Sturm,^ he soon brought the work to a 
satisfactory state of completion. The monastery was situated, about sixty- 
three miles, east-north-east from Maintz or Mentz, in a wood or village, called 
Grapfeld,7 in Buchonia. Soon, this place was destined to become a centre 
of religious life for Germany.^ It constituted the head of a bishopric, and 

'^ As the assembly had been composed 
of ecclesiastical and lay representatives, so 
were temporal added to the spiritual penal- 
ties. See r Abb^ Fleur/s " Histoire Eccle- 
siastique," tome ix., liv. xlii., sect, xxxvii., 
pp. 288,289. 

Chapter iv. — * See Rev. John Alzog's 
"Manned of Universal Church History," 
voL ii., Period 2, Epoch i., Part i., chap, i., 
sect 159, p. 87. 

^According to Mabillon, its foundations 
were laid daring this year. See " Annales 
Ordinis S. Benedicti/' tomos iL, lib. xxii., 
sect, i., p. 125. 

5 S^ Michaud's " Biographic Universelle 
Ancienne et Modeme/* tome v., p. 5. 

< According to the " Chronicon " of Maria- 
nus Scottt^ in 744. 

*The dty, which has here grown up 
around it, contains at present over 8^000 in- 

habitants. It was the capital of a Grand 
Duchy, now incorporated with the Empire 
of Germany. It was in the circle of the 
Upper Rhine, and a bishopric in the old 
arrangement, until the secularization of the 
ecclesiastical principalities of the German 
Empire took place, when it was ceded to 
Orange Nassau, and afterwards to the Grand 
Duke of Frankfort. In 18 14, the principality 
was divided ; a district, containing 27,000 
inhabitants being annexed to Saxe Weimar, 
while the rest was transferred to the king- 
dom of Prussia. Afterwards, Prussia ceded 
her portion to Hesse-Cassel, this Grand 
Duchy now belonging to the North German 

* He had previously lived for nine years, 
with a few companions, in a desert place, 
known as Hersfelden. 

7 It lay between Hesse and Thuringia. 

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XlUNE 5. 

it grew to be the capital of a principality. The situation on^ the Hivef of 
Fulda, which flows into the Weser, is a very delightful one ; woods, moiun- 
tains, and rich arable lands, surrounding it, with some salt and medical 
springs.9 Sturm was appointed Abbot, over the newly-established monastery 
of Fulda. There, Boniface placed a few monks," who followed the Rule of 
St. Benedict." One of the most eloquent Prelates of the Church has set forth 
the career and the institute of this great Father of Western. Monasticism, in 
those glowing phrases, which distinguish the productions of that renowned 
orator." The Patriarch of regular discipline, recognising how difficult it was 
to guide souls, and yet to accommodate rule according to the various disposi- 
tions of individuals, regards his Institute, as only a commencement towards 
perfecting the spiritual hfe ; while in reality, it is a learned and mysterious 
abridgment of the Gospel and of Christanity, as also of the maxims and 
counsels of the Holy Fathers, tending to perfection.'3 The history of St. 
Benedict and of his foundation on Monte Casino is most interesting.^ The 
monks of St. Boniface laboured with their own hands, and did not avail them- 
selves of servants ; they lived in strict abstinence, using neither flesh, nor 
wine, nor beer. Owing to the generosity of Carloman,*s King of the Franks, 
and other pious persons, the property at Fulda had been acquired. St. Boniface 
dedicated that place to our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ A large Catholic 
population was settled near the house. It was the custom of Boniface to visit 
his monastery each year, and to spend there a few days of relaxation and of 
rest, from his great labours.*^ 

Presiding over the council of Soissons, St. Boniface re-established the 
authority of metropolitans,*? weakened in many instances, owing to the con- 
duct of public disturbers. About this time, a Scot by nationality, named 
Clemens, was charged by St. Boniface with delivering false doctrine, by rejecting 

' It has four Catholic churches and a Fran- 
ciscan Convent, with three hospitals and a 
eymnasium. A Catholic University was 
K>unded here in 1734. This has now been 
converted into a lyceum, with six pro- 

9 See the " Popular Encyclopedia ; or 
Conversations Lexicon," vol. iii., Art. Fulda, 

p. 333. 

" Before the death of Abbot Sturm, it is 
stated by Mabillon, that his monks were four 
hundred in number. 

" For an admirable explanation of the 
Regie de Saint Benoity the reader has only to 
consult Le Comte de Montalembert's ** Les 
Moines d'Occident," tome ii., liv. iv., chap, 
i., pp. 42 to 67. 

" See ** OEuvres Completes " de Bossuet, 
tome vii., Panegyrique de Saint Benolt, cols. 
9x2 to 923. 

'3 Elsewhere, Bossuet declares, in the 
" Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti." he finds all 
that is most beautiful in the History of the 
Church. See, amonghis "Lettres Di verses,** 
that addressed to Dom Mabillon, who had 
presented the Bishop of Meaux, with a copy 
of his immortal work. Lettre cccxxv., 
writen from Versailles, August 22nd, 1703, 
ibid,^ tome xi., col. 1 221. 

'♦ This is most admirably set forth, in the 
Benedictine Father Dom. Luigi Tosti's 
" Storia della Badia di Monte Cassino divisa 

in Libri Nove ed illustrata di Note e Docu- 
menti." This admirable work, illustrated 
with fine copper-plates, was published at 
Naples, in Imperial 8vo or small Folio, A.D. 
184J2. The writer had an opportunity 
afforded him, on the night of the 26th of 
October, 18S6, of reading a considerable 
portion of this work, during a visit to Moute 
Casino. Father Tosti, after writing many 
celebrated works there, has been called by 
Pope Leo XIII. to the Vatican, where he is 
entrusted with the chaige of supervising the 
printing and publication of the Vatican 
Archives. At the date of our visit, he had 
been spending his vacation as a guest of the 
Abbot- Bishop of Monte Casino, in the Epis- 
copal Palace of San Germano, at the toot of 
the great Monastery. 

'5 Mabillon states, that he bestowed this 
property and place: "ad quatuor circum 
millia [)assuum Bonifacio dedtt, et diplomati 
hac de re facto subscripsit." — **Annales 
S. Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxii., sect, i., 
pp. 125, 126. 

'*See Rev. John Al«>g*s "Manual of 
Universal Church Histonr, vol. ii.. Period 
2, Epoch L, Part i., chap, i., sect. 1591, 
p. 87. 

*7 See " Les Petits Bollandistes, Vies des 
Saints,'* tome vi., v® Jour de Juin, p. 462. • 

'«See Mabillon's ** Annales Ordinis S. 
Benedicti,*' tomus ii., lib. xxii., sect ii., p. I37« 

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the canons and councils, as also, impugning the teaching of St. Jerome, of St. 
Augustine and of St. Gregory.'^ He maintained, that it was permissible for a 
Christian to espose the widow of his deceased brother, thus introducing Judaism 
into the Church. He had declared, likewise, that when Jesus Christ descended 
into hell, he delivered danmed souls, even those of unbelievers and idolaters. 
Many other errors he held, touching the doctrine of predestination. He openly 
declared, that he could continue as a bishop, having grievously sinned against 
morality and public decency. At this Synod of Soissons were condemned 
the errors of Clement. Accordingly, in a letter to Pope Zachary, containing 
those several charges, Boniface requested him to entreat of King Carloman, 
to have Adalbert and Clement apprehended and cast into prison, so that no 
person should either speak to or communicate with them. Accompanied 
by the proofs of his charge, a priest named Dencard was instructed to convey 
that letter to Rome. He brought another, likewise, for Gemmulus, arch- 
deacon of the Roman Church, and a friend of St. Boniface. The archdeacon 
reported the contents of the letter and documents to the Pope, and urged 
him to convoke a council, contrary to the expectations of Boniface.'^ With 
full approval of the Princes Karoloman and Pippin, Adalbert and Clement 
were excommunicated by St. Boniface, following the Apostolic precept, ** to 
deliver such a one to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may 
be saved in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ."" 

In the year 745, and on the 31st of October, Pope Zachary had written to our 
saint, after the death of Ragenfred, Bishop of Cologne, and suggesting, that it 
might be converted into a Metropolitan Seat, to which he should be raised, as that 
city afforded ready access to those nations, where he had preached the Gospel. 
A commission was given him, at the same time, to seek restitution of ecclesias- 
tical property, now that the Saracens, Saxons, and Frisians, had been subdued 
by.lhe Franks. The Pope signifies, also, he had written to the Princes of that 
people, to urge on them the necessity of curbing the extravagance, pecula- 
tion and other crimes of wicked men, who had presumed to encroach on 
church rights. It does not seem to be established, that Boniface became 
Archbishop of Cologne, even for a short time, as soon afterwards, circum- 
stances transpired, tochange what had been proposed.'* A man of nobleextrac- 
tion, named Agilulf, had been promoted to the vacant See of Cologne, and he 
was conspicuous for his piety and merits. In early times, Mayence — a city 
supposed to have been originally founded by Dmsus and the Romans '" — ^was 
constituted a Metropolitan See, for the first Roman province of Germany ; 
afterwards, it had been subjected to Cologne, which became the Metropolitan 
Seat for the two Germanics. In turn. Worms was created a Metropolitan 
See, for these two provinces, and Mayence was made a suflragan See to it. In 
the time of Karoloman and of his brother Pippin, a bishop, named Geroldus, 
or Ghewileib,»3 ruled over the See of Mayence. When the Saxons had dis- 
turbed the peace of Thuringia, and when its people were obliged to appeal 
for aid against their foes, Geroldus was required — according to established 
usage — to furnish a contingent for military service, and with this, he appeared 
in the field, about a.d. 743.** During the heat of conflict, the Saxons rushed 

»9 See TAbW Fleury's " Histoire Ecclesi- France," tome ii., liv. «., pp. 224, 225. 

astique,'* tome ix., liv. xlii., sect. xlix.,p. 309. ■* Such is the date given for this war, in 

* ** I Corinthians, v. 5. *' Annalibus Francorum.** 

« See Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S. •« Serarius has this Distich, in reference to 

Benedict!," tomus ii., lib. xxii., sect, vi., him: — 

p. 128. *• Ense Geroldus obit Praesul, dum de- 

" See " Gazetteer of the World," vol. ix., micat ense : 

p. 171. Perplacet ergo chorum, non adiisse 

•3 See Henri Martinis «* Histoire dc forum." 

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in great force upon him, and Geroldus was slain.'S After death, he left a 
son, called Gewelib,"^ or Gervilio, who undertook to rule in his place, over the 
Church of Mayence. He is said to have lived a moral life, yet was he obliged, 
also, to take military service, and march against the Saxons.'^ Under the 
leadership of Karoloman, both armies met on the banks of the Weser.*^ Here 
Gewelib learned, that the murderer of his father was on the opposite side. 
He then invited that man, to enter the river, and to hold a conference with 
him. This offer was accepted, when, upbraiding him with the former crime, 
Gewelib rushed upon that man with a drawn sword, and he fell dead in the 
water. This treacherous action roused the Saxons to commence the conflict 
immediately, but they were conquered by Karoloman. Soon afterwards, St. 
Boniface entered the city of Mayence. There he was made acquainted, with 
what had happened. He then appealed to the king, and to other bishops, 
about those scandals that had been permitted to prevaiL 

Before the middle of the eighth century, the fame of this wonderful shepherd 
of Christ's flock was spread over Christendom.*? A synod was held at Mentz, 
in the year 745, or 746, and over this St. Boniface was called upon to preside, 
by Pope Zachary, in quality of Legate 3® of the Apostolic and Roman See.3' At 
this wereassembledBishops, Priests, Deacons and Clericsof every grade, called 
together by Karoloman. Influenced by the example of Boniface, the German 
Bishops had bound themselves by an express vow, that they would remain 
imto their life's end subject to the Roman Church, to St Peter, and to his 
successors.3* In this council, many salutary laws were framed, for the extir- 
pation of prevailing errors and disorders, as also for the promotion of religion 
and discipline, among ecclesiastics and laics. Gervilio or Gevilieb, recognised 
as bishop of Mayence, had been deposed from the episcopate, not alone 
because of irregularities permitted at the time of his promotion, but also on 
account of the homicide he had committed* This was charged home against 
him, at the council, by Boniface, who added, that he had witnessed the 
frivolous habits of Gevileib's life, by amusing himself with birds and dogs,33 
while the duties of his station should claim a bishop's chief care. When the 
sentence was pronounced, at first, Gewelib threatened an appeal to Rome; 
Jbut, finding the authority of the council had also the support of the secular 
arm, he submitted.34 This Gewelib made the best atonement he could, for 
past irregiilarities. Being admonished by St Boniface, he consented to lead 
a regular life. As an earnest of this intention* Geweleib bestowed his pater- 
nal property on the church of St. Martin.35 He received as a benefice, how- 
ever, the village and church — noticed as Caput-montis — at Spanesheim. He 
resigned the See and parish of Mayence, into the hands of him,3^ from whom 

adiisse forum." *• In his " Menologium Scotorum," Thomas 

■* He is called Gawielibis, by Othlo, and Dempster's words are ** Apostolid a latere 

Gerulio, by Serarius. Legati.'* 

*7 This expedition is assigned to A.D. 745, 3> This Papal Epi&tle xi, among those col- 

in " Annalibus Francorum."' lected, is addressed to the different Bishops 

'" Such is the interpretation put on the of Gaul and Germany, 

word Wisuralia, in the Supplement to Willi- ^ See Leopold Ranke's ** Ecclesiastical 

bald's Life of St. Boniface, by the Bollan- and Political History of the Popes of Rome," 

dist editor. It b probably intended for translated by Sarah Austin, vol. i., chap, i., 

Visurgis, which rising in Franconia flows p. i6. 

through Saxony, receiving many other rivers 33 This is stated by Othlo. 

on its course to the ocean. 3* See I'Abb^ Fleuiy's " Histoire Eccle- 

»9 Thus do we find in the "Chronicon" siastique," tome ix., hv. xlii., sect, xlviii., 

of Marianus Scotus, at A.D. 743 : " Sanctus pp. 305, 306. 

Bonifatius Moguntinus Archiepiscojpus clarus ^s This church seems to have been at 

habetur." — Pertz's " Monumenta Germaniae Mayence. 

Historica," tomas v., p. 547. Waltz's edi- s* We mav interpret this person to have 

Uon. been King lUroloman. 

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June 5.] 



he received them. The circumstances of that time had thus brought May- 
ence into greater prominence. The deposition of Gevilieb likewise, had 
directed attention to Boniface. By the election of the clergy and people, he 
was called to preside over that See. He was appointed Archbishop of Mayence, 
by Pope Zachary, in the year 747, according to John of Trittenheim,37 and this 
date agrees pretty fairly with the computation of the Benedictines.^^ After- 
wards, Gewileib lived in great retirement, at his own house, where he exercised 
hospitality; nor did he assist at any synod nor conference in public, save to 
appear occasionally at the washing of feet on Holy Thursday. His devotions 
in the church were quietly conducted. Thus, he lived for fourteen years, 
after his resignation of the bishopric.39 

Nor did Boniface persuade the Germans alone, 
dience and reverence, towards the Holy See. The 
had hitherto maintained a certain independence of 
became the influence of Boniface to counteract.^ 
the day before the Nones of November, Pope Zachary confirmed the 
election of our saint, in accordance with the Prankish request preferred 
to him.**' Mayence or Mentz was created an Archiepiscopal See, having five 
suffragan Sees subject to it, these representing all the German nations. 
Boniface was also ranked as the Primate of all Germany. His jurisdiction 
was extended, it is said, over thirteen bishoprics, viz., Strasburg, Spire, 
Worms, Cologne, Liege, Utrecht, Ausbourg, Wirtzburg, Buraburg, afterwards 
transferred to Paderbom, Erfort, Eichstat, Constance and Coire.** 

The city of Mainz — as the Germans write it — is delightfully situated, at the con- 
fluence of the Rivers Rhine and Maine. It has been considered always an im- 
portant military position, and it is regarded, as one of the strongest towns in Ger- 

to acts of obe- 

Bishops of Gaul 

Rome, which it 

In the year 751, 

37 He states, that this appointment was 
received from Pope Gregory. See " Catalo- 
gus ScriptorumEcclesiasticonim/'fol. 11., b. 

3* See " Histoire Literaire de la France," 
tome iv., viii. Siecle, p. 94. 

39 Such is the account given, in the Supple- 
ment to Willibald's Life of St. Boniface, 
cap. i.. sect, i, 2, p. 473. 

*** See Leopold Kanke*s ** Ecclesiastical 
and Political History of the Popes of Rome," 
translated by Sarah Austin, vol. i., chap, i., 
p. 16. 

** See Labbe's and Cossart*s "Sacrosancta 

Concilia," tomus vi., Epistola xiii., col. 1527. 

/"See TAbb^ Fleury's ''Histoire Eccle- 

siastique,'' tome ix., liv. xlii., sect, lii., 

p. 314. 

*^ See James Bell's "System of Geography, 
Popular and Scientific, &c., vol. i., part ii., 
chap. XV., j>. 373. 

*♦ See Klis^ Reclus* " Nouvelle Geogra- 
phic Universelle," tome iii., liv. iii., chap, iii., 
sect, iii, p. 593. 

*5 The exterior — but only the upper por- 
tion — of this choir is presented, in the affixed 
illustration, taken from a local photograph ; 
the view has been drawn on the wwxl, by 
William F. Wakeman. The engraving is by 
Mrs. Millard. 

^ See «• Lcs Petits BoUandistes, Vies des 
Saints," tome vi., v* Jour de Juin, p. 462. 

*' He is called ** Scotus genere," by 
MabilloD, and bis feast occurs, on the 5th of 

^ See Mabillon's "Annales Ordinis S. 
Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxii., sect, iv., pp. 
127, 128. 

*» See Leopold Ranke's " Ecclesiastical 
and Political History of the Popes of Rome," 
translated by Sarah Austin, vol. i., chap. L, 
p. 17. 

^ His feast occurs, at the 26th of Octo- 

5' Such is the accoimt given in the Supple- 
ment to the Life of St Boniface, by Willi- 
bald, chap, ii, num. 4. 

^ Her feast occurs, at the 28th of Septem- 
ber. She presided over a convent at Bis- 
choftheim, on the River Tauber, a town in 
the district of Baden, about 16 miles south- 
west of Wurzburg. 

53 Also called Hadeloga, and she is vene- 
rated at the 15th of October. Her nunnery 
was near the River Maine, at a place called 
Chizzingim, or Kitzinga. 

5* She is venerated at the 1st of May, and 
she is said to have been a niece of St. Boni- 
face. She presided over a nunnery at Heiden* 

55 See Bishop Challenor*s "Britannia 
Sancta, " part i., p. 342. 

5* This is classed 19, among the collected 
Epistles of St. Bon ii ace, and it is placed 
under the year indicated, by Mabillon, in 
''Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus ii, 
lib. xii, sect, xvii., p. 135. 

57 These bbhops were eight in number, 
and among them are named Wera, Borchar* 

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[June 5. 

many. The cathedral occupiesa centralplace in thecity, butgood exteriorviews 
of it can hardly be obtained, owing to narrow streets and passages blocking 
the approaches. The building itself is of majestic and extensive proportions,43 
standing on the remains of a more ancient diurch of the tenth century. The 
general featuresof the present structure— completed about the year 1340 — are 

Byzantine in style.^ 
The cathedral of May- 
ence has within many 
high and narrow 
shaped arches of 
Norman style, on 
either side of the 
nave and side aisles. 
These are terminated, 
by a fine choir, ex- 
tending behind the 
high altar.45 The 
aisles are filled with 
the tombs of former 
bishops and persons 
of great distinction. 
Several altars are 
within the cathedral. 
Already St. Boni- 
face had converted in 
Germany a hundred 
thousand souls.*^ 
The love and service 
of Christ were thus 
greatly promoted, 
and Boniface desired 
to advance, not only 
the spiritual interests 
of his own subjects, 
but even to provide 
for the wants of its 
people in the future. To this end, wise statutes were promulgated. On some 
occasions, as Boniface presided at Synods, he availed himself of such oppor- 
tunities to bring this western portion of the Frankish Church into religious 
obedience. In that Synodat Soissons, a.d. 744, he had sought the Pallium from 
Pope Zachary, for three Gallic Archbishops, Grimon of Rouen, Abel,^' of 
Rheims, and Harbert of Sens. In reply, the Pope observes, that Boniface 
had only sought one Pallium for Grimon, the others named having been passed 
over, owing probably to a change of circumstances.^® The submissiveness 
of the ecclesiastical authority, which had characterized the Anglo-Saxons, ex- 
tended itself likewise over the whole Frankish empire.^9 Boniface had charge 

Choir of Maintz Cathedral. 

dus, Warberthus, Abel and Willibald. They 
had shortly before assembled together, 
in a Synod — the place where it was held 
being unknown. 

^ At A.D. 716, there is an account of the 
death of both, in '•The Saxon Chronicle," 
^ited by Rev. J. Ingram, p. 62. 

59 «« What eflfect this letter had upon King 
Ethelbald, we know not ; certain it is, that 

some years after, he also came to an unhappy 
end." — Bishop Challoner*s " Britannia 
Sancta," part i., p. 343. 

^ This is numbered Epistola viii. in a 
collection of his Epistles. 

^* See a very complete account of him, in 
Capefigue's *' Charlemagne,'' tome i, chap. 
vi.,pp. 91 to 116. 

^ Eginhard's <' Vita Caroli Imperatoris * 

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of the eastern Franks, of the Bavarians, of the Saxons, and of the Sclaves \ 
so that, like a good shepherd of souls, he resolved to select for them the best 
guides. Age had now told on the holy man, and knowing that he should 
provide a pastoral magistracy for his extensive jurisdiction, whether during 
his lifetime, or after his death; he seriously turned his attention to this matter, 
so that he might select duly qualified bishops. Boniface consecrated St 
Witta,5o an Irishman, and appointed him to be Bishop of Buriburg or Bura- 
burg, near Paderborn, in Westphalia. Beyond the Weser, and towards the 
east of it, at that time, there was only one missionary, named Winfrid, son to 
Wart, a relation of our saint, on the father's side, and whose mother belonged 
to a Thuringian family.s* Wherefore, also, Boniface had sent for some conse- 
crated virgins, fi-om the famous monastery of Winbum, in England, to train up 
his female converts, in religious discipline. This, St. Lioba,5« St. Tecla,53 and 
St. Walburgh,54 happily effected. 55 About the year 747,5^ St. Boniface, with 
his fellow-Bishops,S7 wrote a letter yet extant, to Ethelbald, King of the Mer- 
cians. In this, the king was praised for his generosity, for his love for order, 
peace and justice, in the state ; but, he was charitably admonished, regarding 
the irregularities of his life; and that, while abstaining from lawful marriage, he 
was defiled with unlawful lusts ; not sparing even virgins consecrated to God. 
He threatens Divine judgments, while he cites pagan laws, to restrain the 
monafch. His bad example was followed by too many of the Mercian nobles, 
to the great dishonour of God, and causing a great destruction of souls. The 
English nation had a bad repute, as a consequence, in France and Italy. 
Wherefore, the letter earnestly exhorts him to repentance and amendment, lest 
otherwise the justice of God might overtake him unrepenting, as it had done 
his predecessor. King Ceolred, as also, Osred,58 King of the Northumbrians ; 
as both were hurried away by a violent death in the midst of their sins.sp In 
a letter ^ written to Ecbert, Archbishop of York, Boniface sent to England 
for the works of Venerable Bede, whom he calls the Lamp of the Church, 
while he thanks that prelate for other books, which had been forwarded to 
him. He entreats the archbishop, to read over and to correct, whatever he 
finds defective, in his Epistle to Ethelbald. 

Meantime, Prince Carloman having retired from the world, a.d, 747, to 
the monastery of Monte Casino, Pepin his brother was chosen by the nobles 
as King of France.^' At this time, he had a son named Charles, destined 
in aiter time to be known as Charlemagne,^ and to become a great honour 
to that country. Notwithstanding Childeric III. having been nominal king, 
and that the nobles had a natural regard for this scion of the house of 
Clovis ; yet, his foolishness became so apparent, that Pepin, whose courage 
in war and whose wisdom as an administrator were highly esteemed, was 
desired by the people as their real ruler. He proposed, that they should con- 
sult Pope 2^chary, as to whether their oath of fealty was binding or not, 
under the existing circumstances. The Pontiff replied, by counselling them 
to abandon their fatuous king, and to elect him who exercised royal func- 
tions, with the power so manifestly proved to discharge them. Wherefore, 
Pepin was unanimously accepted as king, and with his election closed the 
the Merovingian rule. The commencement of the second race of kings, 
designated the Carlovingian,^3 was then established. The circumstances of 
dethroning Childeric, and of Pepin's election, are so variously related by 

was the earliest written biography of this re- liv. i., col. 1 186. 

nowned Monarch, and that on which nearly ^ This is stated, and with great appear- 
all succeeding Lives of him have been ance of truth, byEckhard, inhis "Commen* 
based. taria de Rebus Franciae Orientalis et Episco- 
*3See Bossuet's "(Euvres Completes," patusWirceburgensis,*'tomusii. Wirceburgi, 
tome x«, Abr^^ de THistoire de France, 1729. 


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different writers, that the true history is very obscure. However, it seems, 
that St. Boniface had no share in this revolution, nor was he even pleased 
with it.^ Like his brother, Pepin was anxious to serve the Church, and to 
enforce her decrees within his sovereignty. This knowledge having reached 
Pope 2^chary, he resolved on paying a special mark of his regard, by a decree, 
that elevation to the sovereignty of France, should be signalized by a func- 
tion of a very public and solemn character.^5 At a national Assembly con- 
voked at Soissons, a.d. 752, Pepin had been elected King of France.^ How- 
ever, having various and powerful enemies to contend against, his great valour 
was equal to the opposition he had to encounter, while his judgment as a 
statesman afforded better resources and assured his success. 

In the year 751, Boniface had sent the priest Lullus, with a letter to Pope 
Zachary describing Fulda, and his own action in reference to it. He intended 
this as a place — ^with the Sovereign Pontiff's permission — ^which should become 
his home, when retiring from the world in his old age. He also declared, he 
wished to repose there after his death.^7 in retiun, Zachary wrote to him, accord- 
ing the usual privileges of a monastery to Fulda ; while, in another letter, the 
Pope exempted it from the jurisdiction of every other bishop, save him who 
governed the Universal Church.^ This Pope did not long survive, for he 
died on the 14th of March, a.d. 752; when the Roman people elected as 
his successor one Stephen, who was brought to the Lateran palace, but having 
departed this life three days afterwards,^ without being duly constituted 
Sovereign Pontiff, he is not usually classed among the Popes. However, 
Stephen 11.'° succeeded, in the same year, and his government of the Church 
continued to a.d. 757.'* When Boniface had been recognised as Archbishop, 
his fame for sanctity and learning soon spread abroad. As Primate of all Ger- 
many, and as Papal Legate for Gaul and Germany, by direction of the Sovereign 
Pontiff, Boniface consecrated Pepin leBref,King of the Franks, in 751 or 752.^ 
This was the three hundred and thirty-second year, after the establishment of 
the French monarchy. The ceremony was performed at Soissons,^ with great 
rejoicing, several nobles and bishops assisting. Although opposed by Grifon 
and Astolphe, King of the Lombards, as also by the revolted Saxons, Pepin's 
authority was soon respected, and his power was recognised. Marching 
against the latter foes, he vanquished them,* and they were compelled to pay 
him an annual tribute in horses.74 Grifon was killed, in 752,7* or 753 t* 
among the Alps, which he desired to cross over, on his way to join Astolfe, 
King of the Lombards. The latter had marched against Rome, and this 
city, being invested by his army, was summoned to acknowledge him as 

*5At A.D. 750, in the **Chronicon'* of toire Ecclcsiastiquc," tome ix., liv. xliL, 

Marianus Scotus, we read : " Pipinus de- sect Ivii., p. 323. 

creto Zacharise a Bonifatio Moguntino Archie- ^ Accoraing to Anastasius. 

Siscopo unguitur (sic) in imperatorem, et '^ By some writers he is called Stephen III. 

einde ob id post Papam secundus habetur See Sir Harris Nicolas' ** Chronology of 

episcopus Moguntinus." — Peru's "Monu- History," p. 211. 

menta Germanise Historica," tomus v., p. '' See Berti's '' Ecclesiasticae Historiae 

547. Wait**s edition. Breviarium," Seculum viii., cap. i., p. 189. 

*• See Guirot's " Essais sur THistoire de ^ See " Histoire Literaire de la France,** 

France," Troisieme Essai, p. 78. tome iv., viii. Siecle, p. 94. 

^ See Epistles of St. Boniface, Epist. ^J See Les Petits Bollandist^ " Vies des 

xii. Also, the account of Browerus, regarding Saints,*' tome vi., v« Jour de Juin, p. 462. 

the foundation of this monastery, in ** Fvl- 7* See Bossuet*s CEuvres Completes," 

densivm Antiqvitatvm," lib. i., cap. i. to iv., tome x., Abr^ de THistoire de France^" 

pp. I to 19. liv. ii., coL 1 187. 

^No priest could then celebrate Mass ^^ See "Chronicon** Marian! Scotti 

without tne express permission of the abbot. Waitz*s edition. Pertr's " Monumenta Ger- 

This is the first example of such an exemp- maniae Historica,*' tomtis v., p. C47. 

tion, known to the AbMFleury. See "His- ^ See Henri Martin's *^Histoire de 

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lawful sovereign. However, Pope Stephen II., failing to mollify the rapacity 
of this opponent, travelled onwards to France in 753,^7 and had recourse for 
protection to his friend, King Pepin, who remained master of the situation. 
He soon crossed the Alps, and compelled the Lombard king, after a weak 
resistance, to sue for an ignominious peace.7* The treacherous Astolph, how- 
ever, again took arms, and once more invested Rome. But, a second expedi- 
tion of Pepin was not less fortimate than the first ; Rome was again saved, 
while Astolphus was taught lessons of justice and smcerity, through the 
scourge of a foreign monarch.79 



Under the direction of Boniface, several indefatigable bishops and priests 
laboured, in spreading the Gospel seed throughout Germany. Among them 
may be reckoned St. Virgilius' — afterwards Bishop of Saltzbourg and Apostle 
of Carinthia — and Sidonius." These found in Bavaria a priest, wl*o had but an 
imperfect knowledge of Latin, and who was accustomed to use in Baptism this 
form of words : *'Baptiso te in nomine Patria et Filia et Spiritua sancta." When 
this matter had been brought under the notice of St. Boniface, he deemed 
that the Sacrament of Baptism, so administered, had been invalid, and that it 
should be iterated, with the words correctly pronounced. However, those 
missionaries held a different opinion, and they appealed to Pope Zachary, for 
his declaration on the point The latter wrote to Boniface,3 a.d. 744,* and 
expressed his surprise, at that decision he had given, adding, it could not be 
admitted, because the priest had so baptized persons, simply through igno- 
rance of the Latin tongue, that such neophytes could be again baptized, with- 
out introducing a serious error of practice, since even those who received 
baptism at the hands of heretics — provided it had been administered in the 
name of the Holy Trinity — could not be re-baptized.5 

Notwithstanding the opposition he encountered, Boniface imposed extra- 
ordinary obedience to the Holy See, on the German Church which he 
founded.^ He held, at least, eight Councils or Synods in Bavaria, Thuringia^ 

France, ' tome ii., liv. xii., p. 233. Ireland. 

"" See Rev. Alban Butler's "Lives of the 3 See "Sancti Bonifadi Archiepiscopi et 

Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," Martyris Opera quae extant omnia,'* &c., 

▼oL vi., June V. edited by Rev. J. A. Giles, LL.D., vol. i., 

"^ During this expedition, the death of his Epist Ivl, Zacharias Bonifacio, pp. 1 19, 120. 

brother Carloman occurred. See Capefigue*s * See Baronius* * * Annalcs Ecclesiastid," 

"Charlemagne," tome i., cap. vi. p. 108. tomus ix., A.D. 744, sect, i., ii., pp. I39» 140. 

» See Edward Gibbon's " History of the s See I'Abb^ Fleury's " Histoire Ecclesi- 

Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," astique," tome ix., liv. xlii., sect, xlvii., 

vol. vL, chap, xlix., pp. 153 to 155. p. 305. 

Chapter v.— * See his Life, at the 27th ® See Leopold Ranke's "Ecclesiastical 

of November, in this work. and Political History of the Popes of Rome," 

' He, as well as his companion, was a translated by Sarah Austin, voL i., chap, i., 

priest at this time, and both were natives of p. i6. 

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i8o UVES Oli THE IRISH SAINTS. [June 5. 

Austrasia, and Neustria.7 He also assisted at another council held in Tivoli.' 
Always a strict observer of rule and discipline himself, Boniface manifests a 
great desire to have Canons for the good government of his Church introduced 
and enforced. He often represents his personal trouble of mind, with the 
state of his pastoral charge to the Pope, from whom he receives aid and 
encouragement. Especially does he complain of those disorders, caused by 
Adalbert and Clement.9 In consequence of such complaints, a council was 
convened at Rome, in the patriarchal house of Lateran, on the 2Sth of Octo- 
ber, A.D. 745.'° It was presided over by Pope Zachary, in person ; while 
seven bishops, living near the city, seventeen priests, besides deacons and 
other clerics, were present. As the messenger of Boniface, a priest named 
Deneard had been bearer of documents from him, addressed to Pope 
Zachary, while he brought also a letter for Gemmulus, Archdeacon of the 
Roman Church." When that council had assembled, Deneard was intro- 
duced, and he related, how his master St. Boniface had convoked a synod of 
the Prankish clergy and nobles, where Adelbert and Clement had been con- 
demned, deposed, and put into prison, by the princes, while those impostors 
still remained impenitent. Then were exposed the impious inventions and 
blasphemies of Adalbert, as set forth in the communications of St. Boniface. 
Accordingly, having examined the acts and writings of Adalbert and Clement, 
the council pronounced them to have been guilty of grievous errors" and crimes. 
Their deposition from the priesthood was decreed, with an anathema pro- 
nounced against themselves and their followers, if they persisted in those 
errors. The Pope, with all the bishops and priests at the council, subscribed 
its decrees. The three sessions of this council bear the same date, as if these 
had been all held on the same day.'3 Afterwards, the Pope sent the decrees 
of this council to Bonface, with a long letter, which formed the reply to three 
letters he had already written. »4 This was dated on the 31st of October, a.d. 
745, and in it, our saint's actions are approved, while he is encouraged to bear 
with fortitude the opposition he has had to encounter. 

A letter written by St. Boniface to Cuthbert, Archbishop of Canterbury, proved 
theoccasionfor assemblinganational council at Cloveshoe,'5orCliff,in£ngland9 
about the commencement of September, a.d. 747.'^ Twelve bishops, many 
priests, and other clergy, with Ethelbald and several of his nobles, were present. 
The Acts of this council are comprised in thirty Canons, having relation chiefly 
to reforms and to ecclesiastical discipline.'^ It also issued a general direction, 

7 According to the "Concilia Germaniae," xxviii.. pp. 152 to 155. 

edited by D. Joan Fred. Schannat, and P. " One of these was the introduction of the 

Jos. Hartzeim, S.J., tomusi., Sseculum viii. names of unknown Angels, such as Uriel, 

Colonia, A.D. 1759. Raguel, Tubuel, Inias, Tubuas, Sabaoth, 

•There, making allusion to the irregular and Simiel, into their forms of prayer. See 

lives of certain priests of his time, Boniface Berti's**Ecclesiastic8e Historise Breviarium," 

stated, that formerly, the priests were of Seculum viii., cap. iii., p. 193. 

gold, and the chalices they used were of '3 See TAbb^ Fleury*s " Histoire Eccle- 

wood, while then those priests were of wood, siastique," tome ix., liv. xliL, sect 1., li., pp. 

and served themselves with golden chalices, 309 to 312. 

See "Les Petits Bollandistes, Vies des '* See Abb^ Rohrbacher's " Histoire Uni- 

Saints," tome vi., v« Jour de Juin, p. 463. verselle de TEglise Catholique," tome xi, 

9 See ** Sancti Bonifacii Archiepiscopi et liv. lii., p. 23. 

Martyris Opera quai extant omnia," edited »s Latinized Cloveshoviense, and it is 

by Rev. Dr. Giles, vol. i., Epist. Ivii., pp. sometimes called the Council of Abing- 

120 to 123. don. 

"See Sir Harris Nicolas* "Chronology '* See Sir Harris Nicolas' "Chronology 

of History," p. 225. of History,'* p. 225. 

" The proceedings of this council are set *' A very excellent rendering of the pro- 

forth bv Baronius, in his " Annates Ecclesi- ceedings will be found, in Dean Cressy's 

astici,'^ tomus ix., a.d. 745, sect xxi., to "Church History of Brittany," book xxiu.. 

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June 5.] 



as to how the Bishops were to discharge their duties. Soon afterwards, Arch- 
bishop Cuthbert, through one of his deacons, sent the Acts of this council to 
St. Boniface.'^ The latter felicitated him, on what had been accomplishedi 
in a courteous letter. The Bishop of Wurtzburg, St. Burchard, was engaged 
by St Boniface to complain in Rome of his countryman St. Virgil, *9 who was 
accused of fostering enmity between himself and Duke Odilon of Bavaria, 
besides propagating dangerous errors in theology and philosophy. These 
charges were contained in a letter, now lost; but, the response of Pope 
Zachary, and very cautiously guarded in terms,has been preserved.*** Itappears, 
from the context, that this Pope rather distrusted the too fervid dispositions 
of Boniface and his over hasty statements. He wrote another letter to our 
saint,*' and in it he was recommended to convoke a council, in which the 
Canons of the Apostles, of Nice, of Antioch, and of other Councils, should 
be read, with the Decretals of the Popes. To it, Adalbert, Godolsace " and 
Clement were to be cited, so that their cause might be judged on the spot, 
and if they persisted in asserting their innocence, with two or three of the 
most virtuous and wise Bishops, they were to appear at Rome, where their 
affair should be most thoroughly investigated and terminated before the Holy 
See.*3 As the accused had not been present or properly represented at the 
Roman Council, it seems probable, that the Pope considered, they had been 
judged too hastily, and condemned without being afforded an opportunity for 
defence. Several letters of St. Boniface appear to have been written, during the 
years 747 or 748,** when Pope Zachary replies to them in a letter, touching on 
the several topics to which allusion had been made.'s These were the last 
letters, which passed between St. Boniface and St. Zachary the Pope ; for, 
soon afterwards, the latter was called out of this life. 

Notwithstanding the incessant active labours of St. Boniface, he contrived 
to devote some time to studious pursuits, and he procured various books, 
chiefly of a spiritual character. His writings ^ which remain have been col- 
lected and published in various forms.*' In them, the reader will find clear- 
ness, simplicity and unction ; but, the style is neither pure nor elegant** 
A collection of Canons, drawn up for the direction of his clergy, has been 
published.'^ It is probable, that the most complete collection of these de- 
crees, with historical notices of the various councils held during the lifetime 
of St. Boniface, is that published by the Rev. Dr. J. A. Giles.30 Several 

chap, xix., pp. 606 to 608. 

" From a very ancient Manuscript in 
Saxon characters — which were precisely 
similar to the Irish — Sir Henry Spelman has 
published the Actsand Decrees of this Synod. 
See "Concilia, Decreta Leges Ecclesise 
Anglise,'* tomus i. 

*» His feast occurs, at the 27th of Novem- 
ber, where more on this subject may be 

*> In the collection of St Boniface's 
Letters, it is numbered Epistola xi. 

" lliis is dated January sth, 747, or during 
the twenty-eighth year of Constantine's 

** Little more is known about him, or the 
nature of his errors. 

■'See ** Sancti Bonifacii Archiepiscopi et 
Martyris Opera quse extant omnia,'' &c., 
edited by Rev. J. A Giles, LL.D., vol. i., 
Epbt hav., pp. 147 to 149. 

•♦See I'Abb^ Rohrbacher's " Histoire 
Universelle de I'Eglise Catholique," tome 
xi., liv. lii., pp. 37 to 43. 

■3 See an excellent rendering of them into 
English, in Dean Cressy's " Church History 
of Brittany," book xxiii., chap, xxiv., pp. 
612, 613. 

■* Of these, John ofTrittenhem only could 
collect Epistles to different persons, and the 
Lives of certain Saints, making two distinct 

^ The Rev. Dr. J. A. Giles has published 
" Sancti Bonifacii Archiepiscopi et Martyris 
Opera quae extant omnia nunc primum in 
Anglia, ope Codicum Manuscriptorum Edi- 
tionumaue optimarum," in two 8vo vols. 
Londini, 1844. 

"* See Michaud, " Biographie Universelle 
Ancienne et Modeme," tome v., Art. Boni- 
face (saint), pp. 5. 6. . 

^ In D'Acher)rs " Spicilegmm, tomus ix. 

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[June 5. 

Epistles of this holy man are extant ;3» and with these have been published a 
still greater number ,3» addressed by Popes, Princes, Bishops, and others to 
him. However, those letters have not been chronologically arranged, espe- 
cially in the earlier editions that have been printed. They are all written in 
Latin, although the language of the English Saxons, and that of most parts 
throughout Germany, in his time, were almost identical.33 Even St. Boniface 
and his Anglo-Saxon missionaries there hardly stood in need of interpreters. 
Another collection of his Epistles has been published.34 These most clearly 
set forth the unselfishness and piety of the saint ; all his actions and designs 
being evidently designed to promote God's glory and service. Dom. Martene 
and Dom. Durand have preserved for us highly interesting letters of St. 
Boniface. 35 After a careful revision these were again republished by Wiird- 
twein.36 However, additional letters were taken from two other Manuscripts, 
preserved respectively at Mayence and Karlsruhe.37 The Rev. Dr. Giles has 
devoted the whole of his first volume to the Epistles of St. Boniface and of his 
correspondents ;38 while he has introduced letters referring to the saint, and 
placed chronologically, so far as could be accomplished, in a most satisfactory 
and scholarly manner. This correspondence affords the mostprecious historical 
evidences, regarding the civil and ecclesiastical state of Germany and of 
England, during his time ; while, we receive from it correct lights, regarding 
the inner life of religious houses and the works of their inmates.39 In this 
correspondence, he frequently manifests a desire to obtain books — especially 
of a religious character — from England. Among others, he entreated <** the 
Epistles of St. Peter, written in letters of gold, to be sent him, by the Abbess 
Edburge. These were intended to inspire carnal men with great respect for 
the succours of Heaven. Besides, as St. Peter was the special patron of his 
mission, Boniface greatly desired to satisfy his devotion towards that illus- 
trious Apostle. Another Tract, intituled "Juramentum Bonifacii quo se 
Gregorio II. Papae adstrinxit," is classed among the works of St. Boniface.^* 
It is said, that our saint edited another Tract, " De Pcenitentia.''^* St. Boni- 
face was an earnest and an eloquent preacher, and he has left behind him, 
besides his Epistles, nineteen « very excellent Sermons,** or Homilies.^ 

^ See Sancti Bonifacii " Opera quae ex- 
tant omnia," &c, vol. ii., Section Three, pp. 
II to 49. 

3' Serarius published a collection of them, 
at Mayence, A. D. 1605, in 4to. Thirty-nine of 
these were written by St. Boniface himself. 

*» One Hundred and Thirteen. The 
edition of Serrarius was compiled from two 
manuscripts, found respectively at Ingold- 
stadt and at Vienna. 

^3 This has been observed by Verstegan. 

3* These numbered 152, in "Bibliotheca 
Patruum,'* and they have been copied from 
the previous edition of Serarius. 

35 See *' Thesaunis Anecdotum," tomus ix. 
Also, in Duchesne's "Scriptores," and in 
other large publications, there are many in- 
dividual letters of St. Boniface. 

^ A.D. 1789, Magontiaci, in folio. 

37 The four Manuscripts used by the two 
editors were the only ancient copies of St. 
Boniface's letters known to be in existence. 

3^ In many instances, he has corrected the 
text of St. Boniface and given various read- 
ings, by aid of a Manuscript, No. 3285 in the 
Catalogue of the National Library, Paris. 

39 See Le Comte de Montalembert*s " Lcs 
Moines d 'Occident," tome v., liv. xvii., 
Chapitre Unique, sect, v., pp. 332 to 334. 

*** See Epistola ix. in the collection of 

*» See Rev. Dr. Giles Edition, vol. ii., 
Second Section, pp. 9, 10. 

** This was first printed in D'Achery's 
** Spicilegium." It has been compared, with 
a Manuscript of the twelfth century belong- 
ing to the National Library, Paris, and re- 
prmted by Rev. Dr. Giles, in his "Sancti 
Bonifacii, Opera quae extant omnia," vol. ii.. 
Fourth Section, p. 51. 

*3 However, in Ceillier's " Histoire Gene- 
ral des Auteurs Sacres," &c., there are only 
fifteen sermons, and a summary of their con- 
tents is there given. See, also, on this subject, 
Mre. L. Ellies Du Pin's *« Nouvelle Biblio- 
theque des Auteurs Ecclesiastiques," tome 
vi.. pp. 90 to 94. 

^ These are published by Dom. Martene 
and Durand in their " Thesaurus Anecdoto- 
rum," tomus ix. A great number of St. 
Boniface's Letters previously unedited are 
here to be found, 

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These are remarkable for their directness and simplicity, forming a happy con- 
trast, with too many laboured compositions of the kind, and they are always full 
of downright instruction. One of these discourses has reference to the neces- 
sity of candidly revealing our sins to the priest, in the tribunal of confession. 
Another, injplain language, insists on what his rude and paganized auditors 
had to believe and practice.*** The series of St. Boniface's sermons, given by 
the Rev. Dr. Giles, in the Second Volume of his collected works, contains 
but fifteen.47 To St. Boniface's hand <^ has been ascribed that copy of the 
Gospels,*^ written in the cursive Saxon characters, and which is preserved in 
the public Library at Fulda. Besides these, " Vita et Martyrium S. Livini 
Episcopi et Martyris,"*© and a Latin Grammar are said to have been con^posed 
by him ;5« as also a grand poem.s* These latter, however, cannot be regarded 
with certainty, as the works of St. Boniface, and they must, in all probability, 
be attributed to some different writer or writers. 

The French and German nobles entrusted this illustrious teacher with the 
education of their sons. To this task, he devoted himself with great care 
and zeal, regarding these pupils as his adopted children. Even several of 
these he trained to become useful ecclesiastics for the Church of Christ. So 
early as the year 689, the holy Irish missionaries, St. Kilian, formerly Bishop 
of Wurtzburg, St Colman, a Priest, and St. Totnan, a Deacon,s3 suflfered 
martyrdom, after they had preached the Gospel in Germany. The lady 
Geilena had procured their death, and she wished to conceal it, by having 
their bodies buried in a secret place. These, however, were miraculously 
discovered, and in the year 752, St. Boniface desired to have them removed 
to a more honourable place. He ordered them to be disinterred, and he had 
the sacred remains exposed for the veneration of devout Christians, before 
they were enshrined in a new sepulchre.^ 

It so happened, that the holy Archbishop now felt himself imable from 
debility to attend synods and clerical conferences. Wherefore, having con- 
sulted the illustrious King Pepin, he was advised to select an auxiliary bishop, 

^ A sermon of St. Boniface, on the 
Renunciation made of one's self in Baptism, 
occurs, in the "Thesaurus Anecdotorum 
Novissimus," of D. Bernard Fez, tome iii., 
pars it. Augsbourg, 1729. 

^ See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of 
the Saints,'* vol. vi., June 5, pp. 47, 48. 

^1 These form the Fifth section of his edi- 

tion, pp. 53 to 107, 

'^ This is stated, in letters of gold on the 
last page of this Codex, and these are of a 
date, more recent than the Manuscript 

^ In i2mo size. 

** This interesting Tract has a Prologue, 
commencing with the words, " Bonifacius 
homo peccaior." It forms the Seventh Sec- 
tion of Rev. Dr. Giles' edition of St. Boni- 
face's works, vol. ii., pp. 117 to 141. How- 
ever, it may be doubted, if this be a genuine 
work of our {)resent St. Boniface. See Pre- 
face, p. 7, ibid. According to Dempster, 
the author of this work, published by Surius, 
in his tomus vi., at Nov. xii., was thought to 
have been '* Ilucbaldum monachum Elmon- 
ensem." — "Historia Ecclesiastica Gentls 
Scotorum,*' tomus ii., lib. xix., num. 1157, 

p. 639. 
5' bee "Lcs Peiits Bollandistes, Vies des 

Saints," tome vi., v« Jour de Juin, p. 464. 

5* This forms the Section Sixth of Rev. 
Dr. Giles' edition. It is headed, "iEnigmata 
de Virtutibus quae misit Bonifacius ad Soro* 
rem suam." Then follow sub-headings : 
Fides Catholica, Spes fatur, Justitia dixit, 
Veritas ait, Misericordia ait, Patientia ait, 
Pax vere Christiana, Humilitas Christiana 
fatetur, Virginitas ait. These are all in Latin 
Hexameters. See vol. ii., pp. 109 to 115. 
This has been published for tne first time, 
and from a Manuscript, kept in the British 
Museum. This Poem is imperfect at the 
end, but most probably only a few of the 
lines are wantmg, as the addresses of nine 
out of the ten virtues are remaining, while 
those lines missing may possibly be re- 
covered. See Preface, p. 7. ihid. 

s^ Their chief Festival is on the 8th of 

^ See Dean Cressy's " Church History of 
Brittany," book xxiii., chap, xxv., pp. 613 
to 615. 

ss His feast is celebrated, on the 13th of 
August. At this date, some notices regard- 
ing him will be found, in a subsequent volume 
of this work. 

5"^ His festival is kept, on the 14th of 

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to share with him the duties of ministration. Chiefest among the disciples 
of Boniface were Wigbert 's or Wictbercht, Burchard,5* and Lullus.57 All were 
eminent for sanctity,5* and therefore, he desired to hold a conference of 
bishops and other clergy, to determine on the election of his successor.59 
Accordingly, he chose LuUus — formerly a monk of Malmesbury — who was 
advanced to the episcopal grade. Already as a priest, he had been sent to 
Rome by St. Boniface, with a letter to the Pope, in which an intimation had 
been conveyed, that the Apostle of Germany desired to spend the evening of 
his life, in the monastery at Fulda, where he wished also to be interred. 
Zachary replied to this letter, by giving extraordinary privileges to that 
establishment As LuUus had presented a memorial to the Pope, on behalf 
of Boniface, so was it answered in detail, and certain recommendations were 
set forth for direction.^ The permission of King Pepin was conceded, by 
the Pope, to effect this arrangement, and it was cheerfully granted.*' About 
A.D. 751 or 752, St. Lulle was appointed Archbishop of Mayence, in succes- 
sion to St. Boniface.** Others state, however, he was appointed Archbishop of 
that city, so late as 754.*^ He began to instruct and labour among the 
numerous flock confided to his charge. Thus, he shared St. Boniface's 
tribulations and consolations, while he was a companion and a witness of the 
daily life led by his illustrious patron.** After the election of Stephen II., 
he was obliged to visit France in person, a.d. 753, to implore the assistance 
of King Pepin against Aistolphe, King of the Lombards.** The Pope was 
received most honourably by the monarch, at his royal palace of Pontyon, 
near Langres, and he passed that winter, in the monastery of St. Denys, where 
he fell dangerously sick, so that his life was despaired of by his physicians. 
However, he was suddenly and miraculously restored to health, having been 
favoured by a vision of Saints Peter, Paul and Dionysius.** Boniface wrote in 
the year 754, to Pope Stephen II., signifying that he was in communion with 
the Holy See, and to ask advice and protection, such as had been accorded 
by the two Gregories and Zachary, his predecessors. In this, he declares, 
that for thirtv-six years he had been Apostolic Legate.*^ At the request of 
Caroloman,*^ it is stated,*^ although unwilling to do so, and after St. Willi- 
brord had passed out of this life, St. Boniface consented to take charge of the 
See of Utrecht.70 However, it was placed for a time, under the charge of an 
assistant bishop. Notwithstanding, it having been asserted, byHildebert, 
Bishopof Cologne,^' that King Dagobert bestowed on his See thecity of Utrecht, 
with a small church, which had been there dedicated to St Martin, that pre- 
fix His feast, occurs, at the i6th of Breviarium," Pars Prima, Seculum viii., 
October. cap. i., p. 189. 

58 See Bishop Challenor's " Britannia *" See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the 
Sancta,'' part i., p. 342. Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," 

59 See the Third Life of St. Boniface, vol. vi., June v. 

sect. 5. ^^ Hence, we may date at 718, the 

^ This was dated November 4th, a. d. beginning of this honourable office. 
751. . •* He retired to a monastery, a.d. 746. 

«' See I'Abb^ Fleury*s " Histoire Eccle- See R. Chambers' " Book of Days," vol. L, 
siastique,*' tome ix., liv. xliii., sect, xx., June 5, p. 737. 
p. 355. ^ Mabillon is of opinion, that after the 

*»See ** Histoire Literaire de la France,'* death of Dadan, who became Bishop of 
tome iv., viii. Siecle, p. 94. Utrecht — succeeding on the death of WilU- 

*3 See Michaud, *' Biographic Universelle brord— St. Boniface had appointed St. 
Ancienne et Modeme," tome v.. Art. Boni- Eoban as his assistant Bishop. See^Annales 
face (saint), p. 5. Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxii., 

«♦ See Willibald's Life of St. Boniface, sect. Ixviii., p. 161. 
chap, iii., sect. 28 to 47, and nn. (a to r), ^ See Iieda's " Historia Ultrajecten- 

pp. 466 to 470. sis." 

^ See Berti's " Ecclesiasticse Historise 7' The early history of this interesting city 

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late desired to suppress Utrecht, as an independentbishopric, and then to annex 
the place as a dependency of Cologne. On this question, Boniface wrote to Pope 
Stephen II. in 754, to represent, that one of those conditions annexed to the 
donation required the Bishop of Cologne, that he should preach to the Prisons. 
This had not been observed, while the Church's interest in that part of the 
country had been completely neglected. He then prays the decision of the 
Pope on this subject, when he had examined the archives in Rome, and the 
letter of Pope Sergius to Bishop Willibrord, relating to that commission actually 
given.ya It was necessary to convoke a synod,73 and as a consequence, an invi- 
tation was forwarded by King Pippin for Bishops and ecclesiastics of every grade 
to assemble, so that affairs should be wisely regulated, and that the illustrious 
Apostle of Germany should be enabled to proceed once more for Frisia. 
Accordingly, St. Boniface sailed down the Rhine to Utrecht for such a pur- 
pose. There, it is said, he built a monastery, in 754.^^ For a considerable time, 
it is thought, St. Boniface governed that church, until he deemed it best to set 
over it St. Eoban as bishop. A short time before St. Boniface's martyrdom, 
he sent his disciple St. Gregory to govern a monastery lately founded there. 7S 
However, the guidance of Utrecht See was afterwards committed to this 
worthy disciple, who seems to have acted only in the capacity of administra- 
tor, during and even after the lifetime of St. Boniface. 

The time at last drawing near, that was to put a period to his labours, 
Boniface undertook a last holy expedition among the Frisons. This happened, 
as generally supposed, in the year 755.7^ The spiritual welfare of these people 
never escaped from his thoughts. The illustrious Apostle of Germany seemed 
to have had an inspiration, that his death was then fast approaching. He now 
selected Sturim to become Abbot of Fulda, Willibald to rule over Eichstad, Bur- 
chard to be bishop of Wurtzburg, and Wigbert to govern the monastery of Hers- 
feld.77 Having sought permission from Pope Stephen, who willingly accorded 
it to him, that he might depart for Frisia ; St. Boniface then wrote to Fulrade, 
Abbot of St. Denis, first chaplain to King Pepin, and entreating him, to 
obtain the great monarch's authority and influence, for his meditated enter- 
prise. He asked, also, that some of his disciples, dispersed over a large dis- 
trict, and in the lowest state of indigence, might have relief,^^ and that after 
his death, they should not be left scattered and destitute, as sheep without a 
shepherd. First of all, having obtained the sanction of the Pope and the 
royal permission of Pepin,79 he resigned the Archbishopric of Mentz into the 
hands of his disciple Lullus. Then, signifying to him the proposed journey, 
which he desired to accomplish, and from which he could not recede, as he 
was about to leave the prison of the body, and as he hoped for the eternal 

b well set forth in TAbW G. Becteme*s ^6 Among the writers, who place his 

** Samte Ursule et ses onze mille Vierges," mart3rrdom, at A.D. 754, are Eginhard, 

&c., translated from the German of Rev. Dr. Hincmar, the Abbot Egil, as also the Fulda 

J. H.Kessel. Seconde Partie, chap, ii., pp. Metz and Bertinian Annals ; among those, 

loi to 130. who state A.D. 755 to be the year for his 

7»See TAbb^ Fleur/s ** Histoire Eccle- death, ar^ Willibald, the writer of hL<? life, 

siastique," tome ix., liv. xliii.,sect. xix.,pp. while he is followed by Adam of Bremen, 

353» 354* Lambert of Scafnaburg:, and most of the 

w This assembled, A. D. 752 or 753, and modern writers. See Mabillon's VAnnales 

in it, LuUuswas nominated for a successor Ordinis S. Benedict!,*' tomus ii., lib. xxiii., 

to Boniface, in the city of Mayence. See sect, x., p. 171. 

Sir Harris Nicolas' "Chronology of His- 77 According to the Third Life of St 

tory,"p. 225. Boniface, sect. 5. 

'« Sec R. Chambers* " Book of Days,** y« See «« Les Petits Bollandistes, Vies des 

►L i., June 5, p. 737- Saints," tome vi., v« Joui 

n See Rev. Alban Butler*s "Lives of the ''See Rev. S. Baring-( 

voL i., June 5, p. 737- Saints," tome vi., v« Jour de Juin, p. 463. 

n See Rev. Alban Butler*s "Lives of the ''See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's ** Lives of 

Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints,'* the Saints,'* vol. vi., June 5, pp. 52, 53. 
ToL viii., August xxr. ^ With this, also, was packed up a Trca- 

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reward ; to his assistant and successor Boniface commended the finishing of 
churches in Thuringia, and especially that of Fulda, which he desired should 
receive his mortal remains after death. He recommended, also, that the people 
should be reclaimed from the error of their ways. He closed his parting 
words with these : *' My son, take careful measures to provide what shall be 
necessary for this journey ; but, especially, in the case containing my books 
put the shroud, which must be wrapped around this decrepid body of mine."^ 
Bishop Lullus was moved to tears, while Boniface made all preparations for 
his immediate departure. 

He embarked on board a boat, which descended the Rhine, and with great 
secrecy beginning his voyage during the night. He was to be accompanied 
by St. Eoban,^* whom he ordained a Bishop for the Church of Utrecht, and 
by other holy men, who were selected as his companions, for a distant expe- 
dition he had arranged, through the more uncivilized parts of Frisia.*' When 
he reached Utrecht, he appointed the blessed Gregory,*^ who had been his 
former missionary companion, to take pastoral charge of that See, before him- 
self and his companions should proceed to more northern regions. In Frisia, 
Boniface converted and baptized many thousand pagans ; and, while he de- 
stroyed their temples, he erected churches in their stead.^* Having reached 
the water-abounding region of Frisia,^5 they came to a vast Lake or Sea, called 
Elmere,*^ in the language of that country ; but which is now better known as 
the Zuyder zee. Around it were various villages of Gentiles, who had never 
yet heard the voice of God's true servants. The last stage of his journey was 
at places, respectively called Ostroche and Westroche.^7 He had already 
passed through several districts of the Frisons. He preached, and he con- 
verted many from idolatry, while he baptized many thousands of men and 
women, as also of children.^ His fellow-labourer Eoban, with several others 
who accompanied him, aided zealously in this apostolic work. As these were 
of one heart and soul, associated in merits here, so were they destined to gain 
together the crowning laurel for their labours. Coming to the River Bordne ^ 
or Bortna,9o on the confines of East and West Friesland, the illustrious Arch- 
bishop there pitched his tent,9' designing to give confirmation, in that place, 
to a great number of his late converts. These lived at distances wide apart. 
The spot where the missionaries were encamped is now called Docko,^ 
Dorkum,93 or Dockum.94 It lay within the territory of East Friesland. Some 
intimation reached St. Boniface and his company, that the infidels in that 

tise of St. Ambrose, ** On the Advantage of "* See Bishop Challenor's " Britannia 

Death.'* Sancta,*' part i., p. 343. 

*' His feast occurs, on this day. ^ The name of this river appears to have 

** See Baronius '* Annales Ecclesiastic!,*' become obsolete ; but, the denomination 

tomus ix., at A.D. 755, sect. xxx. to xxxviii., has now been changed, probably to Bom- 

pp. 202 to 204. wert and Bomwerthusen. 

'3 He seems only to have ruled this See ^ It is called the Burda, in the " Petits 

as a Vicar-General, never having been con- Bollandistes, Vies des Saints," tome vL, 

secrated bishop. ve Jour de Juin, p. 463. 

** See rAbb6 Fleury's ** Histoire Ecclesi- »' About six leagues from Lewarden. See 

astique/* tome ix., liv. xliii., sect.xxi., p. 356. Michaud*s ** Biographie Universelle," tome 

«5 Utrecht was the capital city of this v.. Art. Boniface (saint), p. 5. 
region — formerly much more extended in ^ In his "Menologium Scotorum," 
denomination than at present. The accurate Thomas Dempster says : " Docko Frisiae 
topographer Schotanus a Sterringa dfvides oppido passio Bonifacii Archiepiscopi Mo- 
it into Ostergoa, or Eastern, Westergoa, or guntini Germanianim Apostoli." — Bishop 
Western, and Sevewoldia, or the Seven Forbes* "Kalendars of Scottish Saints,^' 
Forests. p. 202. 

^ Said to mean in Latin, Mare nobile, or »' This considerable town of Holland in 

"the great sea.*' the Province of Friesland, near the German 

•7 According to the Third Life of St. Ocean, retains iU old fortification of an 

Boniface, sect. 6. earthen mound all round the town and a 

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district were laying plots to take away their lives. Wherefore, they kept 
watch, and during the night, a celestial radiance appeared over the tent in which 
they were, while that light continued the greater part of the ensuing day.9S 
The Apostle cheered his disciples, exhorting them to fortitude, so that, as the 
time of trial approached, they should not be found unprepared.^^^ On the day 
designed for administering the Sacrament of Confirmation, instead of coming 
to receive the Holy Ghost, a multitude of the barbarians approached, armed 
with divers weapons, while brandishing spears and swords, in order to destroy 
the saint and his companions.97 Certain youths — probably his servants »* — that 
were with him in the camp would have eagerly fought in defence of their 
teachers, and ran to meet their enemies. Following the example of his Divine 
Master, Boniface would not permit them. He declared, this was to him the long- 
wished for day, which was to bring him to the eternal joys of his Lord, that 
they should follow the Gospel precepts, not to return evil for evil, but rather 
good for evil, that they should be comforted in the Lord, and allow His holy 
will to be done, while he promised for their trust in him, that their souls 
should be saved. His Priests and Deacons, with others, stood ready for the 
sacrifice. Then, encouraging all his companions to resolution and constancy 
in their sufferings, as knowing that those who kill the body cannot destroy 
the soul, he called upon them rather to rejoice in the Lord, and to place their 
hopes on Him, as on a sure foundation. He would instantly give them a re- 
ward, and place them on thrones with the Angels who were in Heaven, so 
that far from living on the sufferance of the Gentiles or sharing the deceits of 
this world, by an immediate death they were assuredly to reign with Christ 
for ever. All promised to die with fortitude, as St. Willibrord had often ex- 
horted his disciples to shed their blood if necessary for the faith of Christ. 
They even rejoiced and praised God, for the favour about to be granted them, 
of entering that very day into Paradise.99 Then, a tumult arose among the 
pagans, thirsting for the blood of innocent persons, while with arms uplifted, 
they rushed furiously against the unarmed band. At this moment, Hyltibrant, 
who served at the table of St. Boniface, had hardly put on his shoes, when he 
was the first to suffer death. Then, his brother Habmunt, who was a Deacon, on 
going out from his tent, shared the same fate. Thus, one by one fell those 
who were present : — Eoban, the Bishop, Wintrung, Walter and Adelhere, 
Priests,'** Hamund, Scirbald or Strichald, and Bosa, Deacons, Waccar, Gun- 
derhar or Gundwaccar, Williker or Illeshere, and Hadulph, or Barthowlf, 
monks, besides some others of the laity ; in all, fifty-two persons,***' shared in 
this glorious martyrdom.'®" Some accounts have it fifty-three martyrs, inclu- 
ding of course St. Boniface.**'^ Last of all, St. Boniface with true Christian 
courage faced his assailants, and held between his hands a Book of the Gos 
pels, lifted towards Heaven.**** Other accounts state, he placed it as a pillow 

ditch. See " Gazetteer of the World," '«» See the Third Life of St. Boniface, 

vol. v., p. 36. sect. 7. 

9* The writers of the First and Second «'»' Thomas Dempster in his" Menologium 

Lives of St. Boniface call it Dockinga. Scotorum :" *' qui indomitae genti pradicans, 

95 See Supplement to the Life by Willi- peremptus est cum Lll. sociis, qui omnes 

bald, cap. iii., sect 12. Scoti aut Angliet instituti Benedictini fuisse 

9*Sce Baronius, **AnnalesEcclesiastici," produntur. V. M. W.'*— Bishop Forbes* 

tomus ix., at a.d. 755, sect, xxxix., p. 204. " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," p. 202. 

•^See Bishop Challenor's "Britannia *" See Bishop Challenor's "Britannia 

Sancta,** part i„ p. 343. Sancta,*' part i., p. 343. 

^ See Baronius, " Annalcs Fxclesiastici/* *<^ M. le Dr. Hoefer's "Nouvelle Biogra- 

tomus ix., at a.d. 755, sect, xxxix., p. 204. phie Universelle," tome vi., col. 577. 

» According to the Third Life of St. "* In thb attitude, the saint is often reprc- 

Boniface, sect 7. sented by painters. 

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under his head and neck.^s He met with a temporal death, on the sth day of 
June."^ Although his murderers cut the Book, with their swords, still not one of 
its letters was destroyed,^^ and this has been considered as little less than mira- 

The merciless and uncivilized crowd of barbarians, after this wholesale mas- 
sacre, rushed towards the deserted tents in quest of plunder. '**9 Some food was 
there, for the refreshment of God's servants, and this they speedily devoured ; 
they also opened some vessels containing wine, of which they partook to ex- 
cess."** This strong drink inflamed all the more their unnatural ferocity. These 
murderers soon fell out among themselves, about a coveted booty, which 
they expected to find in the boxes and coffers of the slain.'" Many of them 
were killed in this ignoble quarrel. Instead of gold and silver treasures, which 
they looked for, the base assassins found nothing but books and relics in 
their respective cases. So enraged and disappointed were they, that taking 
those out of their covers, they were plunged in the adjacent loughs and 
marshes or were strown in neglected places."* However, in course of time, 
several of those precious relics were recovered, by the Christians, and they 
were brought away for more reverential use. Divine chastisement followed, 
also, and that rabble did not escape punishment. They received quickly from 
Christians of the neighbouring provinces the just retribution for their crime, 
when intelligence regarding the martyrdom of so many holy persons spread 
through all the siu'rounding villages. A large force was collected, and it 
marched onwards to find the barbarians, who were assailed and put to flight. 
Many were slain, and their houses were demolished. Their families were re- 
duced to the condition of slaves. Thus humbled, that perverse people entered 
upon a consideration of their crime and dreaded the punishments inflicted 
upon them. In fine, hostile as they had proved to the devoted missionaries 
and to the Faith these had preached, now they resolved on becoming Chris- 
tians, to make atonement for their previous infidelities. 

The administrator of Utrecht and his clergy — as very reasonable at the 
time — were mostanxious to obtain for their city the relics of the holy Martyrs."^ 
Accordingly, the bodies of those already named, with thirteen other 
massacred persons, were placed on board a vessel, and sailing over the sea of 
Elmere,"* with favouring winds, they were reverently carried to Utrecht by 
the sailors. There, they were honourably received, and brought to the Church 
of the Holy Trinity, Psalms and Canticles being sung. Among the rest, the 
body of St. Boniface was treated with special veneration. All the relics were 
interred within the same church. The remains of others less distmguished 
were collected by the Christians, at Docum, and they were biuried together 
in one spot. Afterwards, when the Faith was well established in those 

«°5 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of *°s> See MabiUon*s " Annales Ordinis S. 

the Saints," vol. vi., June 5, p. 54. Benedict!," tomus iL, lib. xxiii., secL x,, 

*°* Marianus Scot us commemorating his p. 171. 

martyrdom, in his ** Chronicon," states at "° See Dean Cressy's " Church History 

A.D. 755: **Sanctus Bonifatius Archiepis- of Brittany," book xxiii., chap, xxix., pp. 

copus adnuntians verbum Dei in Fresia 619, 620. 

fassus est cum aliis martyribus, nonas '"See Bishop Challenor's "Britannia 

unii." — Periz' "Monumenta Germaniae Sancta," part i., p. 344. 

Historica," tomus v., p. 547. »" See T Abbe Fleury's ** Histoire Eccle- 

'°7 On this account, as we are told, the siastique,'* tome ix., liv. xliii., sect, xxi., 

tailors, who require their scissors to cut surely pp. 357, 358. 

and correctly, have chosen St. Boniface as "3 see the Supplement to Willibald*s life 

their patron. of St. Boniface, cap. iii, sect. 10, p. 476. 

»o8See "Les Petits Bollandistes Vies "* See Mabillon*s "Annales Ordinis S. 

dcs Saints,'* tome vi., v« Jour de Juin, pp. Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxilL, sect, x., 

463, 464. p. 171. 

Digitized by 


June 5.] 



Northern regions, a church was built there, to commemorate their glorious 
Martyrdom."^ ft is related,"* that when the people of Docum resolved to 
raise a inound,"^ where the blood of the holy martyr had been shed, and on 
which they intended afterwards to build a church in his honour, some difficul- 
ties arose among the labourers, and which required the presence of the Pre- 
fect set over that town by King Pepin. He was named Abbo, and he seems 
to have been entrusted with a general superintendence of the work. Taking 
others with him, he mounted a horse, and rode to the place ; he passed 
around the tumulus to inspect it, when another horse, belonging to a youth 
who was present, sunk with its forefeet deeply into the earth, on which he 
plunged and struggled. Then, those young men, who saw this accident, 
hastened to draw the animal from out that swamp. A great difficulty expe- 
rienced in Holland is, to find a spring without a saltish taste; but, wonderful to 
relate 1 a clear well of sweet water rose from that spot, and it flowed onwards 
as a considerable stream."* Those who saw this miraculous sign were wholly 
astonished."^ However, the manifestation was received with great joy, and 
on returning to their homes, the people spread the news of it far and wide. 
This glorious death to St. Boniface and to his companions was the gate, which 
led to everlasting life.'*** His martyrdom occurred, on the eve of the great Fes- 
tival of Pentecost."' The year has been variously stated ;"* Sigebert, and 
following him Matthew of Paris, place the martyrdom of St. Boniface with 
fifty-three companions at a.d. 753,"^ Simeon has it at 754, and this is also 
given as the date, by Matthew of Paris."* However, it is generally allowed 
to have occurred a.d. 7 5 5. "5 St. Boniface is said to have been seventy-five 
years of age, at the time of his death."^ A part of the Life attributed to St 
Boniface,"? by Willibald, assigns to him thirty-six years, six months, and six 
days, of an episcopate ; however, the exactness of this chronology has been 
denied, by the Bollandist editor."* It is certain, that the hair of St. Boniface 
was white, and he was in a decrepid state owing to age,"^ before he was called 
out of this life. 

"S See the Third Lifeof St. Bonifaccsect. 8. 

"* In copies of \Villibald*s Life of St. 
Boniface belonging to the Church of St. 
Maximin, at Treves, and to Ingoldstadt, this 
account^K>mitted from other copies — is to be 
found, and the Bollandist editor thinks it to 
be the genuine writing of WiUibald. 

««7 According to the custom of the Hol- 
landers, to prevent the rising tides affecting 
the stability of their buildings. 

**' This was on the south side of the town, 
and on the Island of Dockum. It went by 
the name of St. Boniface's Well. Using its 
waters, tbe townspeople prepare their &er. 
It was near the place called Morewold, or 
Moorwaude, interpreted "the wood of 
slaughter,** in reference to the martyrdom 
which there happened. 

»*»The writer states, he had this account 
from the venerable Bishop LulL 

»*° It happened, according to John of Trit- 
tenham, during the Eighth Indiction, and in 
the thirty-sixth year of his episcopacy. See 
'*Catalogus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum," 
foL liiL, a. 

*** Sec Michaad*8 ** Biographic Univer- 
scllc,** tome v., p. 5. 

"■ According to John of Trittenham, while 
engaged in missionary labours, hb life was 

crowned by martyrdom, in Frisia, during 
the reign ol King Pippan, A.D. 754, on the 
Nones of June. See ** Catalogus Scripto- 
rum Ecclesiasticorum,'* fol. lii., a. 

''3 His mart3rrdom is set down, at this 
year, by Matthew of Westminster, and again 
at A.D. 744. See "Flores Historiarum," 
p. 274. 

*»♦ See "Chronica Majora," edited by 
Henry Richards Luard, vol. i., P* 34i* 

"5 See Joannes Laurentius Berti, ** Eccle- 
siasticse Historioe Breviarium,*' Pars Prima, 
Seculum viii., cap. v., p. 199. 

»* See Michaud*s "Biographic Univer- 
selle,** tome v., p. 5. 

^"^ See First Life of St. Boniface, chap. 
iv., num. 59, p. 472. 

*^ He states : " Abundant anni quinque, 
forsan ut supra diximus ab Apostolatu seu 
primo itinere Romano sumpta epochd, quod 
ab alio potius quam a Willibaldo factum cre- 
deremus, nisi etiam num. 27 simile sphalma 
memoriale notassemus." — "Acta Sancto- 
rum,** tomus L, Junii v., De S. Boni&cio 
Martyre, n. (f), p. 473. 

'^ Such is the description of him, as given 
by St. Ludger, who states, "occulis meis 
ipse vidi."— Vita S. Gregorii, Fastoris Ultra* 
jectini, ibid,^ num. 16, p. 487. 

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190 LIVES OF THE Il^ISff SAINTS. [June s^ 

It was natural to suppose, that the Christian people of Utrecht should 
desire most earnestly to guard the relics of those holy martyrs. But, 
the people of Mayence had resolved on sending thither a respectable de- 
putation, to assert their claims, so far at least as the body of St Boniface 
was concerned. Wherefore, Bishop Lul called together a great and respec- 
table number of Eastern people, or Franconians, clerics, monks, and laics, to 
take measures for procuring those relics. '3o The direction of this expedition 
was entrusted to a man of exemplary life, who was named Hadda. Those 
persons comprising it united fasting, with the recital of Psalms and prayers, to 
succeed in their object. However, King Pepin,'3* or the Prefect of that city, 
had issued an edict, to preserve the remains, and a great number of the citizens 
had assembled to enforce it. But, a miraculous sign was manifested,'3« which 
convinced them, that Utrecht was not destined to be the ultimate place of rest 
for the body of St. Boniface. Thence, it was then translated, especially at the 
instigation of Bishop Lullus, who was mindful of the holy Martyr's parting 
directions. With a cortege of religious monks and of several laymen, the 
remains were conveyed by boat, along the Rhine, to Mentz. Hymns and 
canticles were sung during the voyage, and Psalms were recited, by the pious 
voyagers ; so that, on the thirtieth day after his departure from life, the body 
of St. Boniface reached that city, over which he presided as Archbishop. 
It so happened, and with out any preconcerted arrangement, that the deputies re- 
turning from Utrecht, and numbers of people coming to celebrate the obsequies 
of St. Boniface from the most distant places of France and Germany, arrived 
at Mayence about the same time. Moreover, Bishop Lullus, who had been 
on a visit at the royal palace, and who had no exact knowledge of when the 
body might arrive, came to Mayence, at that very moment, when theboat was 
ready to touch the shore. Sorrow was felt by all the citizens, that their illus- 
trious Archbishop was no more, and that his lifeless remains only reached 
them ; but, they were consoled, as they hoped those relics should be enshritfed, 
where he must become their future great patron. Preparations for embalm- 
ing the body seem to have been made, at Mayence ; and^ when the disem- 
bowelling took place, blood flowed as if from recent wounds. The parts 
removed were preserved within a covered vessel, and buried in the ground, 
where a church was afterwards erected, in honour of St. Boniface.'33 Many 
miracles then attested the holy Martyr's merits before God, and the citizens of 
Mayence felt a special veneration, for their great patron and benefactor. 

However, the remains of St. Boniface had not yet reached their final place of 
deposition. Bishop Lul recollected, that the holy prelate had bound him in a 
most solemn manner, to have his body buried at Fulda; still was he reluctant to 
part with the sacred deposit, until warned by the saint himself. It is said, that 
Boniface appeared to a certain holy Deacon, named Otpercht,'^^ and thus ad- 
dressed him : "Tell Lullus, that he shall transfer my body to my place of rest." 
Notwithstanding, no general credence was given to this statement; but, the 
Archbishop, collecting a number of relics, obliged that Deacon to swear on 
them, that the vision he related had truly happened. Then, extending his hands 

'^ See Dean Cressy's '* Church His- sist the removal of the saint's remains. See 

tory of Brittany," book xxiii., chap, xxix., chap, iv., num. 57. 

p. 620. '33The writer of the Supplement to Willi- 

^y At this time, it is supposed, that Pippin bald's Life of St. Boniface states, that it was 

the King had marched with an army to situated northwards, from the church of the 

Italy, where Aistulf, King of the Lombards, Baptistery of St. John. In his time, those 

had besieged Rome. garments which the saint wore at the time 

'3» The Life of St. Boniface, by WiUibald, of his martyrdom were kept, according to 

has it, that the bell of the church was moved tradition, within a wooden chest, in that 

by no human hand, and that this terrified church dedicated to St. Boniface, 

the townspeople, who were inclined to re- '^4 3y Qthlo he is called Otpertus* 

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on the altar and on the relics, Otpercht prayed the Lord and his saint, whose 
remains were present, to witness that what he asserted was true. Induced by 
this avowal, as also recollecting the mandate of Boniface, Lullus now resolved 
to transport his relics to that place the saint had designated. His body was 
decently wrapped in fine linen, and it was then placed in a coffin. The occa- 
sion was one of great ceremony and solemnity. All the people, clergy and 
laity, on either bank of the Rhine, were assembled. The coffin was found to 
be much lighter when borne to the vessel, than when it had been taken 
thence ; but, with mingled feelings of resignation to the Divine will, and 
sorrow for removal of the remains from Mayence, the body was conveyed to 
Fulda. We may infer, that the remains were brought on board a vessel, 
beyond the present city of Frankfort, which lies on the River Maine. Hymns 
and Psalms were chaunted, while a vast number of people, including many 
of the Eastern nobles, their wives and children, awaited at a spot situated on 
the bank, for the ensuing solemnities. Then disembarking. Archbishop Lullus 
and his companions left the vessel, and raising the coffin, it was transferred 
to the charge to those appointed to receive it.'ss The city of Fulda was 
situated in Buco,nia,'36and thither the funeral procession must have proceeded 
for some miles by land. When the body of St. Boniface had reached the entrance 
to the forest of Bochonia, the women returned to their homes, while the men 
accompanied the remains to that place, where they are believed to await the 
Day of General Judgment. At a time this funeral cortege was expected to 
arrive, a monk named Ritant, whose brother Wolfmar was a fisherman,'^? 
had been sent by his Abbot Sturmion, to fish in a certain lake, where wild 
geese abounded. Besides milk, butter and cheese, few articles of food were 
in the monastery, to provide for the wants of a great number of expected 
guests. Wherefore, Ritant brought his fishing apparatus to the lake, and 
while preparing to cast his nets near to a place, called Aucarium Domus, 
suddenly a vast number of fish arose to the surface of the water. Chaunts of 
the processionists were heard, at this moment, in the distance, as the sacred 
remains were carried on their bier. The monk had no further trouble, than 
in making one vast haul, which filled his boat with fishes. These amply 
sufficed as food for the large number of guests, who were entertained in the 
monastery, on that occasion.'ss The blessed Lullus, whom Boniface had 
consecrated as bishop, took care to have his body honourably buried, in the 
monastery at Fulda.'39 In the church there, a sarcophagus was prepared, and 
in that very place, indicated by the saint. A great number of every ecclesiasti- 
cal grade attended during the burial. Afterwards, at his tomb, numbers of per- 
sons, labouring under various disorders, came to receive health of mind and 
body. The blind were restored to sight, while those in an extreme state of weak- 
ness and almost at the point of death recovered. Several who were insane or 
possessed became rational and pious, praising God for His mercies, and recog- 
nising the wonders thkt had been effected, through the intercession of his 
glorious servant. 

^— — — # ' 

'35 The Supplement to Willibald*s Life of Scriptorum Ekrclesiasticorum,'* fol. Hi., a. 
St Boniface afterwards adds : ** Citeriores *37 To this occupatioD, Ritant had also 

autem transvadato amne Rheni redierunt in been accustomed. 

sua ; sic quoque prospere per omnia, '^s xhe writer of the Supplement to the 

Domino dirigente necnon ^bemante, agen- Life of St. Boniface, by Willibald, adds : 
tes : ut in omnibus locis m quibus contigtt " Hoc signorum, de multisquae per sanctum 
meridiare sive noctare, signa crucis impri- martyrem Bonifacium divina virtus dignaba- 
merint Triumphatori omnmm in suo agono- tur ostendere, post martyrium ejus, in eodem 
theta triumphantes. Sed et in quibusdam loco initium erat." — Cap. iii., sect. 13, 
eorum locis, nunc ecdesise constructte cer- p. 476. 

nuntur." '» See Baronius, ** Annales Ecclesiastid," 

«3» See John of Trittenham*s " Catalogus tomus ix., at A.D. 755, sect, xliii, p. 205. 

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[June j. 

A new church, in honour of Our Lord and Saviour and of All His 
Saints, was built atFulda. Thither, on the First of November, a.d. Siq.'*© 
the remains of St. Boniface were brought,'^* and the church was con- 
secrated by Archbishop Hecstulf, with great ceremony and rejoicing.'** When 
the news of St. Boniface's martyrdom arrived in England, Cuthbert, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, took care by decree of a public Synod,'« to have an 
annual festival instituted, in honour of that Martyrdom of him and of his 
companions.'^ Moreover, Bishop Milred wrote to LuUus, Archbishop of 
Maintz, expressing his grief, '^5 on account of the death of Boniface, but con- 
soled, likewise, that his blood had been shed for the sake of Christ, and that 
he reflected so great an honour on the country to which he belonged,'** The 
Bollandists have published an account '^7 of very remarkable miracles, wrought 
through the relics and intercession of St. Boniface, from the year 1588 down 
even to their days — a.d. 1695. Several interesting memorials of St. Boniface 
are extant, even some of these professing to represent the efiigies of the holy 
Archbishop, with his costume— episcopal and abbatial — of that age in which 
he flourished.'*^ The most precious are those representations, taken from 
an ancient stone tablet, belonging to Mount St. Peter, near the city of Fulda.'** 
In one of these, St. Boniface is represented in monastic habit, and bestowing 
his benediction on the monks ; while, in another, he is clothed and furnished 
with episcopal insignta,^^^ The ecclesiastical antiquary, no doubt, might 
glean a considerable amount of information, from a careful study of these 
illustrations. '5' Throughout Germany — as may be expected — many noble 
churches have been consecrated and dedicated to honour the memory of its 
illustrious Apostle. Among these, the Cathedral of Mayence — as already 
stated — is the most historically and architectually interesting. At Docum, 
likewise, where his martyrdom took place, a noble church was erected to the 
Martyr.' 5* A magnificent Basilica, dedicated in honour of St Boniface, has 
been erected at Munich. The interior consists of a nave, supported by fine 
columns on either side,'53 and in compartments over these are splendid fresco 
paintings, representing the chief incidents of the saint's eventful career.'54 
In England, several churches and chapels were formerly dedicated to St 

'** According to the ** Annales Fuldae.'* 

**' See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Junii 
V. De S. Bonifacio Martyre, &c. Analecta 
Bonifaciana, cap. ii., num. 13, p. 490. 

**' In his Vita i^ilis, Candidus has cele- 
brated this ceremonial, in some Latin Hexa- 
meter verses. 

**3 This was held in the year 756. See 
Sir Harris Nicolas' ** Chronology of His- 
tory,'* p. 225. 

'*♦ See the Collection of Boniface's Epis- 
tles, by Serarius, Epist Ixx. 

'« See ibid.y Epist. Ixxviii. 

^ See Mabillon's "AnnalesOrdmis S. Be- 
nedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxiii.,sect. x., p. 171. 

**7 Under the title of Analecta Bonifaciana, 
cap. vii., num. 52 to 76, in ** Acta Sancto- 
rum," tomus i., Junii v. De S. Bonifacio 
Martyre, &c., pp. 500 to 504. 

«*' After the death of Father Henschen, 
S.J., his co-labourer Father Daniel Pape- 
broke supplied a Fourth Section to thepre- 
vious Commentary on the Acts of St 
Boniface, and he brings fourteen separate 
illustrations on copper, to aid in explaining 
his description. AJl of these are exceedingly 

interesting, and they serve to exhibit faithful 
pictures of monuments and seals, said to 
have been sculptured or modelled so 
early as the beginning of the ninth century. 

*** In that exact and esteemed work of the 
Jesuit Christopher Brower "Fvldensivm 
Aniiqvitatvm Libri iv.,'* engravings of St 
Boniface and of his church are given. See 
lib. ii., cap. ii., p. 108, and cap. zv., pp. 163 
to 165. 

*5o A plan of the old Basilica of Fulda is 
also highly interesting, it having been de- 
stroyed by fire A.D. 1387, according to 
Brower. In addition to these are sculptures 
and seals of Charlemagne and of his brother 

'5» See the Bollandists' "AcU Sancto- 
rum," tomus i., Junii v. De S. Bonifacio 
Martrye, &c. Commentarius Prasvius, sect 
iv. EfBgies S. Bonifacii, ex vetusto lapide 
et sigillis, nee non Monastici tunc habitus 
formae ex picturis seculi ix. ; Regum item 
Francorum eodem spectantium, pp. 458 to 

'5« According to the Second Life of St 
Boniface, cap. ii., sect. 14. 

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June 5.] 



Boniface. At present, we can only discover the Cathedral Church of Ply- 
mouth to be dedicated to St. Mary and St. Boniface.^55 in Ireland, also,. 
we have scarcely any doubt, but that several churches or religious institu- 
tions had been dedicated to St. Boniface. In the New World, likewise, and 
especially in the United States,*56 ^^ German immigrants have not forgotten 
to erect churches and to found religious institutions, in many of the dioceses 
there, in honour of their great Apostle. Several personal relics of St. Boni- 
face have been preserved. At Fulda is kept that copy of the Gospels, which 
was stained with the Martyr's blood. '57 Also, his blood-stained copy of that 

Basilica of St. Boniface, Munich. 

Treatise of St. Ambrose, " On the Advantage of Death," was long preserved 
in the Monastery at Fulda, and shown to hosts of devout pilgrims. There, 
too was retained a fragment of his skulL'^s A portion of his bones was to 
be seen atLouvain. At Mechlin, at Cologne, and at Prague, some of St. 
Boniface's relics have been preserved.^59 At Bruges, some portions of the 
relics of St, Boniface and of his companions were kept in an ivory shrine, 
obtained from Godebald, Bishop of Utrecht, a.d. 1115, by Reifrid, second 
Dean of that Chapter. In the year 1471, these were transferred to a new 
Shrine, on the loth of March, the Second Sunday of Lent. On the base of 
that shrine, certain Latin hexameter verses were inscribed, in praise of St. 
Boniface. In 1624, those relics were solemnly placed in a new shrine. They 

«$J It is represented on the accompanying 
illustration, faithfully drawn on the wood, 
and copied from a local photograph. The 
engraving is by Mrs. Millard. 

'« In September. 1886, the writer had an 
opportunity of visiting it, and taking these 

*MSce the "Catholic Directory, Eccle- 
liastical Rq^ster, and Almanac." 

'9* See Sadlier's ''Catholic Directory, 

Vol. VI.— No, 4. 

Almanac and Ordo," where may be found 
the designation of St. Boniface, attached to 
various missionary establishments. 

*57 See Michaud's- '*Bii>graphie Univer- 
selle," tome v., Art. Boniface (Saint), 

p. 5- 

'5« See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's "Lives of 
the Saints," vol. vi., June 5, p. 54. 

*5' See Rev. S. Baring-Gould*s '* Lives of 
the Saints," vol. vi., June 5, p. 54. 


Digitized by 




[June 5. 

were periodically exposed for veneration, by the faithful. At Erfurt, likewise, 
some portions of his relics have been preserved. The collegiate church of 
St. Quentin, in the department of Aisne, is said to keep a part of St. Boniface's 
skull. It seems difficult to discover, at what time, it became possessed of that 
relic.*^ The cope and chasuble of St. Boniface, with a part of his skull, were 
long shown at Docum.'^' A considerable portion of St. Boniface's arm is at 
Eichfeld, and it was bestowed by the Rev. and illustrious Prince Joachim, 
Abbot of Fulda, in 1670, There, too, the Feast of our saint was devoutly 
celebrated. That office for St. Boniface, read in the Church of Utrecht,*** has 
been chiefly taken from the Second Life of the holy Martyr, as published by 
the Bollandists.'*3 

Both ancient and modern Calendars and Martyrologies record the chief 
Festival of the illustrious Apostle of Germany and of his faithful companions 
in suffering. Although Venerable Bede departed this Hfe, a.d. 735, twenty 
years before the death of St. Boniface ; still in some of the best and most 
authentic versions of his Martyrology, we find the introduction of that Festi- 
val, which commemorates the Martyrdom of St. Boniface and of his com- 
panions,'^* Also, Raban,'*5 the sixth Abbot of Fulda, Usuard and Ado — draw- 
ing their accounts most probably from more ancient Calendars — have notices 
of St. Boniface's Martyrdom.'^ Those copies of St Jerome's Martyrology, 
belonging to Corbie and Lucca,'^ have the Festival of St. Boniface, Bishop 
and Martyr, postfixed, through the care of those who had such copies trans- 
cribed. In an ancient Martyrology *^ belonging to the Collegiate Church of 
St. Mary, at Utrecht, the Feast of St. Boniface is also entered.'^ In a 
Manuscript belonging to St. Martin's at Treves, this Festival occurs.*?** In a 
Martyrology, which belonged to the Queen of Sweden, there is a lengthened 
encomium on St. Boniface, which is indeed an abbreviation of his Life. The 
BoUandist Father Henschen deems '?* this to have formerly belonged to the 
Monastery of Fulda. Also, a compendium of this eulogy is to be found, in a 
Manuscript Martyrology, belonging to the Monaster}' of St. Cyriacus.*?" In 

»*» See «« Lcs FctiU Bollandbtes, Vies 
des Saints," tome vi., v* Jour de Juin, 
p. 463, note. 

»** See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's ** Lives of 
the Saints," vol. vi., June 5. p. 54. 

'•» Printed a.d. 1608, and 1618. 

**J See **Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Junii iv. De S. Bonifacio Martyre, &c. 
Commentarius Praevius, sect, i., num. 5, 

P- 453- 

**^ At the «h of June, we read: "S. 
Bonifadi, Arcniepi:»copi in Fresonis, martyrii 
passio |>eracta est, et Eobani Coepiscopi ejus, 
cum ahis servis Dei sociis eorum." 

'^ His Martyrology states : " Nonas 
Junii, Bonifacii Archiepiscopi, cujus in Fre- 
sonis martyrii passio peracta est, et Eobani 
Coepiscopi ejus, cum servis De Wintrunge 
et Walthore, Scirbalde et Bosan, Hamunde 
iEthelhere, Wancare et Gundacare, WiUe- 
here et Hadavolfe." 

***In these words: "Item S. Bonifacii 
Episcopi, qui de Britanniis veniens, et fidem 
Cnristi gentibus Euangelizans, cum maxi- 
mum muititudinem in Frisia Christianae reli- 
gion! subjugasset, novissime a Paganis, qui 
supererant, gladio peremptus mart3rrium con- 
summavit, cum Eobano Coepiscopo et aliis 
servis Dei." 

^ *^ In this particular copy, the saint is as- 
signed to Austria, i.«., Franconia or Eastern 
France, in which Fulda is situated, in the 
diocese of Wurtzburg. 

«** Transcribed about A.D. 1138. 

»*• In these terms : " Trajecti, B. Bonifacii 
Archiepiscopi et Martyris. Qui de Britan- 
niis veniens Trajcctum, tempore S. Willi- 
brordi Archiepiscopi primi Trajectensittm 
Doctoris, cum eo moratus est Post transi- 
tum vero sanctissimi Prsesulis Willibrordi, 
jam dictus Bonifacius Dei gratia ejusdem 
Archiepiscopatus honore sublimatus est. 
Qui cum fidem Christi in Frisia constanter 
euangenlizaret, et maximam muititudinem 
Christiani religioni sul)jugasset, novissime 
2i Frigis gladio peremptus, nuurtyrium con- 
summavit, cum cooperatoribus Eobano et 
Adelario Prsesbyteris et aliis quinquaginta 

*^ Thus is it recorded : «* In Frisia S. 
Bonifacii Episoopi et Martyris cum sociis suis 
Ek>bano Coepiscopo Athalario Presbytero, 
et aliis quinquaginta tribus." 

'y« See "Acto Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Junii V. De S. Boni&cio Martyre, &c. Com* 
mentarius Praevius, sect iii., num. 11, 16, 
17, 18, pp. 456. 457. 

Digitized by 



the Roman Martyrology, the Festival of St. Boniface is set down, at the 5th 
day of June.'73 This holy martyr was greatly venerated in Scotland. The 
feast of St. Boniface, Bishop and Martyr is entered, at the 5th of June, in the 
Kalendar of Hyrdmanistoun ;»74 the Calendar of Arbuthnott,*75 and that 
in the Breviary of Aberdeen,'^^ commemorate him and his companions in 
martyrdom ; also, in Adam King's Kalendar,'77 in Dempster's " Menologium 
Scotorum/*'7^ and in the Scottish Kalendar,*79 there are notices of him, at 
this date. 

As if by enchantment, over the entire surface of Europe, under the trans- 
forming genius of Catholic Ireland, great labours were undertaken, while 
innumerable convents and schools were founded,*^ under its auspices 
and inspiration. Pious retreats were afforded, by Christian missionaries from 
our Island, as places where religious and monks, the ancient tutelary masters 
of learning, should watch and wait during evil times, preserving science in 
their solitudes, and spreading the hallowed remembrance of Christian heroic 
efforts in the Church of Christ, with that love of home and of native country, 
which preserves the sacred fire of national independence.'*' Long before the 
time of St. Boniface, Ireland had effected such hallowed results, and contem- 
poraneous with him were labourers in the Lord's vineyard, who undoubtedly 
were natives of our Green Island, associated in his mission and works. Their 
record still survives, in the grateful memory of many a distant community, 
and their festivals are even yet celebrated in divers places, where the Faith 
and those good fruits it naturally produces are on a safe foundation, and where 
they seems to flourish after the lapse of long ages. 

Article IL— St. Eoban, Martyr, and Assistant Bishop of Utrecht, 
Holland. {Eighth Century.'] This holy man, who is claimed to have been 
an Irishman,' was a companion of St. Boniface, Apostle of Germany, in 
preaching the Gospel, especially to the Frisons. As we have already seen, 
he was set over the See of Utrecht, by St Boniface, to administer its affairs, 
as an assistant Bishop or Chorepiscopus.' The duties of this office, he dis- 
charged with great fidelity and fruit. When St. Boniface arrived at Utrecht, 
in the summer of 755, he brought St. Eoban with him to the more northern 
parts of Frisia, the circumstances and results of which expedition are 
recorded in the preceding Article. St. Eoban shared in the martyr- 
dom of St. Boniface, and therefore his festival is to be assigned 

*'* Baronius highly esteems this Martyr- *** Among the Burgundian Library 

ology. Manuscripts, Bruxelles, vol. xxviii., No. 

'7^ In these terms: ''Eodem die sancti 5314, there is an interesting collection upon 

Bonifacii Episcopi Moguntini, qui de Anglia the •* Irish Apostles," with their labours in 

Romam veniens, et a Gregorio Secundo in Belgium and Geimany. To the historical 

Germaniam missus, at fidem Christi illis student, who wishes to pursue his researches 

gentibus evangelizaret ; cum maximam mul- in reference to the seminaries established on 

titudinem, praeserttm Frisonum, Christianae the Continent, this volume and its contents 

reltgioni subjugasset, Geimanorum Aposto- must be of great value. In it, are the names 

las meruit appellari : novissime in Frisia a of many almost unknown authors, with re- 

furentibus Gentilibus gladio peremptus, ferences to their writings, 

martyrium consummavit cum Eobano et *®* See Sindaret's ** Synchronisme des 

quibusdam aliis servis Dei." — ** Martyrolo- Litteratures depuis leur origine, jusqu' a nos 

gium Romanum Gregorii XIII.," p. 80. Jours," &c. Cmqui^me Epoque, sect, xiii., 

>74See Bishop Forbes* **KAlendars of pp. 285, 286. 

Scottish Saints,'' p. 41. Article ii.— » See the communication 

'» Sec i^/V/., p. loi . of the Most Rev. Dr. Moran, " Wai 

«'*Scei^., p, 117. St Boniface an Irishman?'* in the "Irish 

«n Sec iifid., p. 154, Ecclesiastical Record,'* Third Series, vol. v., 

*^ Sec ibicL^ p. 2Q2, No. 3, p. 183, 

^ See iM»^ p. 253. ■ According to Ducangc, at the word, 

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[June 5^ 

to this day. He is recorded as foremost, among those persons whose names 
have been preserved, in the accounts given of that trial, which procured for 
him an eternal crown. In the first instance, the remains of the Bishop St. 
Eoban with those of the Priest Adalarius were conveyed to the Monastery in 
Utrecht.3 There, they were honourably enshrined, and these were regarded 
as most distinguished among the martyred companions of St. Boniface. It 
has been asserted,* Hkewise, that the bodies of St. Eoban, the Assistant 
Bishop of St Boniface, and of the Priest Adalarius,s were elevated in coffins, 
with those of other saints, in the Church of Our Saviour, and which formerly 
had been called the Church of the Holy Trinity. Their names had been 
formerly invoked, in the Litanies of the Church of Utrecht* However, after 
the lapse of some years, those remains were brought to Fulda. There, they 
were placed in a shrine, near the body of the holy Martyr, and Pastor* of 
Souls, St. Boniface. Again, it is stated, that the bodies of St Eoban and of 
St. Adalarius were brought to Erfurt, where they were honourably enshrined, in 
the Monastery of St Mary, the Blessed Virgin.7 Eoban's remains werfe placed 
towards the south, within the church, and those of Adelarius towards the 
north. This Monastery had been founded by St. Boniface ; however, after 
the lapse of ages, it became ruinous, and fell down, but without injury to any 
person. In the year 11 54, it became necessary to rebuild it; when, on the 
Twelfth of the May Kalends, the bones of St. Adalarius were translated, and 
on the Seventh of the August Kalends, those of St Eoban were removed. 
At the time of this Translation, a wonderful fragrance seemed to issue from 
their remains, and to the great admiration of all who were present Nay 
more, several blind, lame, mute, deaf, insane, leprous and epileptic persons, 
who were there, miraculously recovered. The fame of these cures attracted 
infirm persons, who lived even at a great distance. Wherefore, Amoldus,* 
Archbishop of Mayence, decreed, that the clergy and people of Erfurt should 
annually and devoutly observe the Festival of this Translation.^ The vene- 
ration of St. Adelarius, Bishop '** and Martyr, is prescribed as a Double, at 
the 2oth day of April, in the Breviary of Erfurt; while that of St. Eoban, 
Bishop and Martyr, is assigned to the 26th of July. In the year 1633, and 
on the 28th of October, a public examination " of those relics took place 
before the Dean and Chapter " of Erfurt.'^ When the relics had been taken 

Chorepiscopi, it has the meaning of an Epis- 
copal Vicar. See "Glossarium Mediae et 
Infimae Latinitatis," tomus ii., pp. 335, 336. 
3 This is stated, in the Manuscript Martyr- 
ology, which belonged to the Queen of 
Sweden, and which Father Henschen sup- 
posed to have been previously in the Monas- 
tery of Fulda. See "Acta Sanclorum," 
tomus i., Junii v. De S. Bonifacio Martyre. 
&c. Commentarius Prsvius, sect, iii., num. 
17, 18, pp. 456, 457. 

* See Molanus, in '*Natalibus Sanctorum 
Bclgii," at the 5th of June. 

5 Molanus tells us, that the body of St. 
Athalarius rested in a portable shrine, in the 
Church of Our Saviour, at Utrecht. 

• In a Collect of this Chureh, we have the 
following prayer : ** Deus qui multitudinem 
populorum, devota Sanctorum tuorum Boni- 
ncii, Eobani atque Athalarii, et Sociorum 
ejus instantia, ad agnitionem tui nominis 
vocare dignatus es ; concede propitius, ut 
quorum solennia colimus, eorum apud te 
pAtrocinia sentiamus." 

' See Serrarius' "Rcrum Mogimtiacarum,'* 

* He was the twenty-ninth Archbishop of 
this See, but he is incorrectly called Chris- 
tianus, in the History of this Translation, 
taken from a Manuscript belonging to the 
Monastery Bodecenis in Westphalia, de- 
scribed by Joannes Gamansius. 

9 These matters are related, likevrise, in 
the ** Breviarium Erphordiense," printed in 
the year 1513. 

*° This dignity of Bishop is supposed to be 
an assumption, still to be proved ; although 
Serrarius thinks it to be probable, that the 
people of Erfurt held such a tradition. 

" Occasion was given to it, owing to the 
circumstance of observing, that a portion o\ 
one foot had been made of wood, so that it was 
deemed desirable to inspect the relics more 
minutely to ascertain their authenticity. 

" Several members of Religious Orders 
were present, as also a Notary and witnesses, 
to establish the facts elicited on investiga- 

Digitized by 


June 5.] 



down and exposed, with all due reverence, in the tombs were found two 
wooden effigies, in the shape of human bodies. One of these contained the 
remains of St. Adelarius, and the other these of St. Eoban. The front of those 
cases only presented the carved shape, while the back was found to have 
been hollowed out ; and, within the hollow were the various bones of each 
body, covered in with linens, and fastened down with pieces of wood and 
nails. '4 At the sth of June, David Camerarius 's has an entry of St. Eoban, 
Martyr,'^ as a Scottish Saint. The Bollandist editor of the Acts of St. Boniface 
takes an unwarrantable liberty with his text,'7 in making him identical with 
Alubertus,'* who is stated to have come from Britain and from the nation of 
the Angles.'? 

Article III. — Reputed Feast of St. Adelarius, Martyr, in 
Frisia. {Eighth Century^ According to Thomas Dempster, St. Adelarius 
was born in Scotia, and while a boy, in company with St. Boniface,' he left 
his native country for England, where he embraced the monastic state. He 
is said to have taken priestly orders, in the monastery of Muschella.* He is 
accounted to have been the first inaugurated Bishop of Hertford. He followed 
St. Boniface to Germany, and there wished to aid him in converting the Gentiles. 
Adelarius lived a very holy life. He was one of the fifty-two companions, who, 
with St. Boniface, laid down their lives for the faith, on the 5 th of June, a.d. 
754 — more correctly 755. The foregoing particulars are stated to rest on the 
authority of Scotichronicon, or rather on Magnus MacuUoch, its continuator.' 
If we are to credit Dempster, Adelarius wrote two Treatises : one Ad Infide- 
les, lib. i., and another Ad Pontifices, lib. i.* A feast has been assigned to 
him, likewise, at the 20th of April. 5 

Article IV. — Translation of the Relics of St. PRiECORDius of 
Velia to Corbie, in Picardy, France. A very interesting account 
of this saint ' has been published by Colgan,* and by the Bollandists.3 It 
relates to Praecordius, regarding whom a few notices have been gleaned, at 
the ist of February. After his death, which is thought to have occurred in 

'3 This examination took place, in the 
chapel of the Sacred Blood. 

^ A more detailed account of this examina- 
tion, at which a surgeon assisted, was given 
by Father Peter Richart, of the Society of 
Jesus, who was probably present on the 
occasion. See the BoUandists' "Acta 
Sanctorum," tomus i., Juniiv. De S. Boni- 
facio Marty re, &c. Analecta Bonifaciana, 
cap. iv., pp. 494, 495. 

*s In the Scottish Entries to his Kalen- 

»« Thus : " Sanctus Eobanus Martyr.*'— 
Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scottish 
Saints," p. 238. 

*^ Drawn from the Vita S. Gregorii, Pas- 
toris Ullrajectini, in these words, alluding to 
St. Boniface, **populum irradiavit simul cum 
Chorepiscopo et adjutore suo Aluberto, qui 
de Britannia et gente Anglorum veniebat," 
&c., num. 16. 

** Wc think him to have been the same as 
Adelhere — otherwise called Adalarius or 

Adelarius — and who was also a companion of 
St. Boniface in martyrdom. In the text of 
St. Ludger, it is probable, he is to be dis- 
tinguished from the Chorepiscopus, who was 
St. Eoban. 

*9 See "Acta Sanctonim," tomus i.,Junii 
V. De S. Bonifacio Marty re, &c., p. 487, 
and n. (r). 

Article hi. — * Also venerated on this 

» Probably Nutchelle is meant. 

3 To the foregoing Dempster adds : 
"Scotum probant communio vitoe, laborum, 
martyriique cum S. Bonifacio acta, auctori- 
tas Scoticlironici, sedlonge valentiusmonas- 
tcriiim Herefordije, Scotis in perpetuum 
ercctum, Scotiae asseiit civem." 

♦ See ** Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis 
Scotorum," tomus i., lib. i., num. 33, 
p. 28. 

5 See volume iv. of this work, at that date. 
Art. viii. 

Article iv. — « RccoiJcd by Nicholas 

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[June 5. 

the sixth century, at Velia, or Villiacus, in Picardy, the relics of this holy man 
were placed in a rich shrine. Corbie is a small town in Picardy, on the River 
Somme. It is four leagues distant from Amiens,* an episcopal city which was 
a suffragan See to the Archbishopric of Rheims. Formerly Amiens was known 
to the Romans as Ambianum,5 and Samarobiva was another name for it 
Corbie is distant about eight leagues from Perrone.* A celebrated Benedic- 
tine Abbey was formerly founded at Corbie by Queen Bathilde, during her 
regency. This happened during the year 657 or 662. It was dedicated to 
Saints Peter and Paul7 After its establishment, the Kings of France and the 
Sovereign Pontiffs conferred many honours and favours on that Abbey. In 
16 18, it embraced the reforms of the Religious Congregation of St. Maur.* 
This Abbey was suppressed, at the period of the French Revolution.9 It is 
stated, that about the year 940, Corbie monastery" obtained the relics of-St 
Prsecordius, a Scottish priest, which for four hundred years had lain in the 
tomb at Valliacus, or Vasliacus, near the River Axona or the Aisne. At that 
time Berengarius was Abbot." In a copy of St. Jerome's Martyrology, this 
Translation of his body is recorded, at the 5th of June; and, the event has 
been commemorated, in an Office of Twelve Lessons, as noticed by the 

Article V. — Saints Niadh and Berchan, of Cluain Aodh Aith- 
METH, in Luighne. The 5th of June is dedicated to the memory of St. 
Niadh and of St. Berchan. Both were connected with Cluain Aodh Aithmeth, 
in Luigline.* The Luaighni of Teamhair were a people in Meath, and the 
position of their district seems determined, by a passage in one of St. Patrick's 
Lives.' The Church of Domhnach-mor-Muighe Echenach is placed within 
the territory.3 It lay upon the banks of the Boyne/ The identification of a 
modern designation for the ancient Cluain Aedha Aithmet proves a more 
difficult matter, for the topographer and historian. 

Belfort, from an old Manuscript. 

"See *'Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," 
Februarii i. De. S. Praecordii Traiislatione, 
pp. 330 to 333. 

3 See ** Acta Sanctorum, toraus i., Feb- 
ruarii i. De S. Prsecordio Presbytero Cor- 
beise et Valliaci in Gallia, pp. 196 to 198. 

* It is said to have been founded by the 
Macedonians, under Alexander the Great, 
and to have been surrounded by water. 

5 The country around was distinguished as 
**tractus Ambianensis." 

* See Bandrand's Ferrarius, ** Novum 
Lexicon Geographicum," tomus i., p. 218. 

^ 'J'here were three churches at Corbie, 
typical of tlie Trinity ; the first had St. 
Peter the fisherman as patron, the second the 
Evange'ist John '*piscatis," and ilie third 
St. Siephen, Protomartyr. See the Bollan- 
dists "Acta Sanctorum," n. (i), p. 198. 
Fnira a preface to the miracles of Adelard, 
and in their Second Tome for February. 

* See the Series of seventy-eight abbots, 
in the "Gallia Christiana," tomus x., col. 

* See I'Abb^ Migne's "Dictionnaire des 
Abbayes et Monasteres, ou Histoire des 
Establissements Rcligieux ^rig^s en tout 

Temps et en tous Lieux," &c, cols. 222, 223. 

"* A very complete account of this very 
celebrated house will be found, in the Bol- 
landists* **Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Januarii, pp. 95 to 123, in the various Acts 
of St. Adelard, one of its Abbots, as also in 
those of St. Bathilde, the Queen of France, 
at Januarii xxvi., tomus ii., pp. 732 to 749. 

" The Bollandists add, in their Preface to 
the Acts of St. Prsecordius : " qui, ut scribit 
Claudius Robertus, Walberto, ad Noviomen- 
sem Cathedram an. DCCCCXXXII. cvecto, 
suffectus. an. DCCCCXLII. xiii. Novemb. de- 
cessit. Facta est ea Translatio v. Junii ; quo 
die in quodam MS. Martyrol. ha?c leguntur : 
Mona-terio Corr>ei8e Kxcepiio corporis S. 
Praecordii Confessoris." 

" See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Junii V. Among the pretermitted Saints, 
p. 417. 

Article v.— « According to a MS. 
Calendar of Professor Eugene O'Curry. 

•See Colgan's "Trias Thaumalurga," 
Vita Tripartita S. Patricii, lib. ii., cap. x. 

' See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. i., n. (i), p. 102. 

* See ibid,y pp. 118, 119. 

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June 5.] 



Article VI. — Saints Fionnlugh, and Brogan, of Cluain-mic- 
Feig. In the Martyrology of Tallaght,* the name of Finnloga is written. 
To it we find appended, " ocus Leoin i Cill gobuil, and Brocan, Cluana mic 
roiad/' at the same date. This writing must be owing to some want of skill 
and knowledge, on the part of a scribe. This day, the Martyrology of Done- 
gal* registers, that veneration was due to Fionnlugh and Brogan, of Cluain- 
mic-Feig. This locality cannot be discovered by the writer. 

Article VII. — St. Leain or Lean, of Cill Gabhail, or Cill 
Gobuil. At the 5th of June, the Tallagh Martyrology » enters Leain i Cill 
Gobuil, We have, however, the farther task of identifying this locality. 
Veneration was given on this day, as we read in the Martyrology of Donegal,* 
to Lean, of Cill Gabhail. There is a Cill Gabhail, between ^s-Ruaidh and 
Dun-na-nGall,3 in Tir Aedha; but, there is no church in that place now, says 
the p'Clery, who compiled this latter record. An Irish Poet* well acquainted 
with the locality observes, that the territory in which Dun-na-nGall stood was 
called Tir Conall, *' The Land of Conal," />., Conal Gulban, who lived in 
the fifth century, and the son of King Nial.s 

Article VIII. — Feast of St. Marcian, and Companions, Martyrs. 
In the " Leabhar Breac" copy of the Feilire* of St. iEngus, there is a festival 
for St. Marcian and his companions set down at this day. A commentary 
on the text states, that this martyrdom took place in Egypt; while the 
"virginal maidens" alluded to are Agatha with other virgins.* The Bollan- 
dists 3 have extracted notices, regarding St. Marcian and his fellow-martyrs,* 
at the 5th of June, while those Acts have been drawn from Greek and Latin 

Article IX.— Reputed Festival of St. Bathen, Abbot. At the 5th 
of June, Thomas Dempster has recorded a festival * for Bathen, Abbot, in the 

Edited by Rev. Dr. LL.D. , records this entry : — 

Article vi.— 
Kdly, p. xxvi. 

* Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
146, 147. 

Article vii.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxvi. 

* Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
146, 147. 

3 Now Donegal. There are some illustra- 
tions and a description of this place in J. B. 
Doyle's " Tours in Ulster,** chap, xviii., pp. 
344 to 351. 

* William Allingham. 

* Of this territory, says Mr. Allingham, 
the chieftainship came into the O'Donnell 
family in the twelfth century, and The 
O'Donnell built, circa 1474, ^ stone castle on 
the site of the ancient rath or fort. This was 
mined in 1601 by Red Hugh, before he 
marched oflfto Kiusale to join the Spaniards, 
lest it should strengthen the hands of the 

Article viii. — ' The following stanza, 
rendered into English, by Whitley Stokes, 

WonfUf hitA|\ inbuAt>Ai 
Aitt fn\ nioi|\ WAich 'Dine 
^itt ingetiA UAjA. 

**Marcianus* martyrdom: a multitude of 
gifted ones greatened it : some mighty men, 
a goodly number, others virginal maidens." 
— "Calendar of Oengus." ** Transactions 
of the Royal Irish Academy,'* Irish Manu- 
script Series, vol. i., p. xcii. 

• Stt ibtd,, nn. 5, 6, "Aglahe," in Ob. and 
Mari.t p. xcix. 

3 In " Acta Sanctorum,** tomus i., Junii v. 
De Sanctis Decem Martyribus Egyptiis, Mar- 
ciano, Nicandro, Apollonio, Leonide, Ario, 
Gorgio, Hyperechio, Selleniade, Irene, 
Pambone.** Ancient Martyrologies, and 
Greek Acts of these Martyrs, taken from a 
Vatican Manuscript and translated into 
Latin by William Sirlet, are piven, in which 
many diversities statement are to be 

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Island of Himba, in Scotland. He is said, to have been the secretary of St 
•Columba,' and to have written ''Acta Columbae Magistri,"3 with other works. 
He was the most familiar disciple < and immediate successor 5 of that Abbot, 
in the Monastery at lona. On such authority, the BoUandists^ rather doubt- 
ingly record his feast, at this date ; but, they defer to the 9th of June his 
Acts, to be noticed with those of his great master. 

Article X. — Reputed Festival of St. Branan, Bishop and Martyr. 
The Kalendar of Drummond enters a St. Branan, Bishop and Martyr, at the 
5th of June.' We cannot discover any other reference to him, so that we are 
not able to find his place in Irish hagiology. 

Article XI. — St. Kevinus, Abbot. Father Henry Fitzsimon,* who 
enters this saint at the 5th of June, tells us, that he is identical with Coem- 
genus,* whose Life has been given already, at the 3rd day of this month. 

JS>i):t!) IBaj) of 3une* 





WE have reason to regret the loss or destruction of many ancient 
records, which should serve, doubtless, to throw light on several 
transactions, connected with our native hagiology. Many of the Acts of our 
principal saints are known to have perished, and especially, in the present 
case, we are at a loss for materials to construct a satisfactory biography of a 
saint, so greatly venerated as the present holy Patron. The following memo- 
found. See pp. 419 to 421. * Ileisso styled, by Notker, at v. idus JuniL 

* Among these, however, we find no men- * Special allusion is made to him, in Rev. 

tion of Agatha, nor in any other record, at Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's ** Life of St. 
this date. Columba," lib. i., cap. 2, p. 19, cap. 20, p. 

Article ix. — ' In his "Menologium 49, lib. ii., cap. 45, p. 182, lib. iii., cap. 23, 
Scotorum," he writes: "Insula; Himba and Appendix. 

Batheni abbatis, qui S. Columbae Secreta- * See '^ Acta Sanctorum/' toraus L, Junii 

rius fuit. N." — Bishop Forbes* "Kalendars v. Among the pretermitted Saints, p. 418. 
of Scottish Saints,*' p. 202. Article x. — ' See Bishop Forbes* 

' See his Life in the present volume, at " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," p. 15. 
the 9th of June, Art. i. Article xi.— ' In '*Catalogus aliquo- 

3 See Dempster*s *' Historia Ecclesiastica rum Sanctorum Ibemiac." 
Gentis Scotorum,** tomus i., lib. ii., num. * See 0*Suncvan Beare's "Historiae 

123, p. 66. Catholicse Ibernia^ Compendium,'* tomus i., 

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JimB 6.] 



rbils are all we can glean to elucidate his obscure history. Our greatest 
hagiographer ^ was imable to procure the Acts of this celebrated saint, and 
he laments that they had either perished, or had not been published in liis 
time ; nevertheless, he introduces a short biography of St. Jarlath, compiled 
from Acts of other Irish Saints, and from various sources.* The Bollandists^ 
have a brief notice of him at this date, which they deem to have been a Feast 
for the Translation of his relics.* He is recorded, likewise, in the Ecclesias- 
. tical Histories of Rev. Dr. John Lanigan, and of Rev. M. J. Brenan, O.S.F. 
• This holy man was of noble birth, being the son of Loga or Lughir,5 accord- 
ing to some accounts.^ This genealogy is stated to be in part rather that of 
St. Jarlath, who was Archbishop of Annagh,7 and who is distinguished from 
the subject of our Memoir. In the Sanctilogium Genealogicum, our saint is 
said to have been descended immediately from Denius, son of Modhorn, son 
of Duban, son of Fraich, son of Kect, son of Fricus, son of Erdal, &c. 
Hence, the author of the Irish Life of St. Brendan ® is thought to have been in 
error, when he calls our saint's father, Loga, son of Trien, son to Fieg, son 
of Moclseus, &c. He was descended by the father's side from a noble family, 
known as the Conmacnie,? who probably had been possessors of the tract, 
denominated Conmacne de Kinel Dubhain.'^ Afterwards, it was called Con- 
macne de Dunmor," now Dunmore barony, in the county of Gal way. This sup- 
pK>sition is the more probable, as the greater part of Tuam Parish " is situated, 
within that tract and barony. *3 Several districts in the western parts of Ire- 
land went under the name of Conmacnie.** The mother of our saint was 

lib. iv., cap. xii.,p. 5$. 

Article i.— Chapter i.— ' Colgan. 

'See **Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," xi. 
Februarii. Acta S. Hierlatii, n. L» and pp. 
308 to 310, with notes. 

3 Sec "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Junii vi. Among the pretermitted saints, 
p. 618. 

* References are afterwards given, to the 
Eleventh Day of February, and to the 
Twenty-sixth Day of December. 

5 See Ussher's ** Britannicarum Ecclesia- 
mm Antiquitates," cap. xvii., p. 494, as also 

• his ** Index Chronologicus," p. 524. 

• See Harris* Ware, " Writers of Ire- 

• land," book i., p. 14, vol. iii., and ** Arch- 

• bbhops of Tuam," vol. i., p. 602. 

^SceColgan's "Acta Sanctontm Hiber- 
niie,"xi. Februarii. Acta S. Hierlatii, n. 4, 
p 310. 

« At Chapter ix. 

9 Sec Rev. M.J. Brenan's " Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland," Sixth Century, chap, 
ii.. p. 74. 

'** In Mr. O'Donovan's Ancient Maps of 
Galway County, preserved in the Irish 
Ordnance Survey Office, Phoenix Park, this 
territory is designated ConniAicne Cineil 
■OubAin. It is made to correspond with the 
limits of the present Dunmore barony, county 
of Galway. 

• "It means "the large Fort" Here there 
is an ancient Abbey, about eight miles, north 
of Tuam. Sec Dr. O'Donnvan's ** Trilies 
and Customs of Hy-Many, commonly called 
the O'Kellys Country." Additional Notes, 
Note A. p. 128. 

" According to the Irish "Ordnance 
Survey Townland Maps for the County of 
Galway,** that part of Tuam Parish in Dun- 
more Barony consistsof 16,879 acres, 3 roods, 
and 21 perches, including 40 acres, 2 roods, 
and 32 perches, under water, and a detached 
portion comprising 7 acr^s and 4 perches. 
The remainder of Tuam Parish is situated 
within the bounds of the baronies of Clare 
and Ballymoe, in the same county. I'hat 
portion comprised within the barony of 
Clare includes 5,819 acres, 3 roods and 3 
perches ; of which the waters of Clonkeen 
Lough form an area of 153 acres, and 22 
perches. The part of this parish in Bally- 
moe barony consists of 2,316 acres, and 31 
perches ; of which 93 acres I rood, and 22 
perches, are under water. 

'3 See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland,'* vol. ii., chap, x., sect, 
ix., n. 135, pp. 41, 42. 

*^See ibid, 

'5 By Very Rev. Canon Ulick J. Bourke, 

- in a communication appearing in the Tuam 
News of February 4th, 1887. He adds : 
"In Pagan times in Eire, there were not a 
few daughters of princes who bore this re- 
markable name. She may have been so 
called on account of some of the ladies 
amongst her kindred having borne that name 
of an earlier period ; or, that which is most 
likely, the name was a special soubriquet ap- 
plied to herself on account of the abundant 

- fair hair which flowed in clustering ringlets 
a-down her neck and shoulders. This idea 

. is contained in the Irish term *mong,' which, 
even to this hour, sijjnifies amongst Iri>h' 

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[June 6. 

named Mongfinn — rendered " Lady of fair Tresses "'s— daughter of Kirdub- 
han, of the Cenneann family,'^ according to iEngus' attributed Treatise '^ on 
the Mothers of Irish Saints,** in the seventy-fifth paragraph. '9 

While some writers are of opinion, that Jarlath had come into the world 
so early as a.d. 425,*^ others place his birth at a somewhat later period, while 
the learned Irish ecclesiastical historian, Dr. Lanigan, thinks it quite irrecon- 
cilable with his computation to suppose, that Jarlath was bom at, or before, 
A.D. 438. Yet, almost every circumstance related, in connection with his life, 
tends to confirm us in the impression, that his birth cannot be far removed, 
from this year. From all concurrent testimonies, however, it is thought to be 
most probable, that Jarlath was born — it is said at Tuam '» — ^in the earlier part 
of the fifth century, and even that he flourished towards its close. Yet, one 

speaking natives, long, thick, flowing hair. 
Mong is applied to one who has abundant 
flowing hair, commonly applied to the hair 
flowing from the mane of a horse, or the 
* mane itself. From the second part of the 
name ' fionn,' which signifies 'fair ' in contra- 
distinction to black or red, one is made aware 
that she was of the Milesian stock, and not 
one of the common people of Connacht, at 
that time the * Firbolg,' who were, as a race, 
black and swarthy." 

" In that communication just cited, the 
same writer adds : '* The special sept of the 
Kenneans in the sixth century in the terri- 
tory known in after times as County Gal way, 
was deemed illustrious, and amongst the 
nobles of the period. It is quite natural to 
think, that some of the descendants of this 
sept adopted ' Kinnean, ' as a family name. 
It is a well-known and not uncommon sur- 
name in County Galway to this day. In like 
manner the ' Kiorduban,' or Kirwan, may 
have been adopted by those known to this 
hour as Kirwan. There are names, for in- 
stance, that of Lynch, which are at the same 
time JVIilesian or native, and also foreign. 
The name can be traced to one of two dis- 
tinct surnames. The same may be said of 
the Kirwan family — that all the branches of 
that distinguished race did not come from 
one of the Galws^ tribes, but that Kirduban, 
father of Mongfinnia, may have had his 
patronymic adopied in the twelfth century 
by some of his descendants." 

*' The present writer has a copy of this 
Tract Transcribed from the Leabhar Lecain, 
an ancient Manuscript belonging to the Royal 
Irish Academy. In it is the following para> 
graph: moingt^nt) ingeti Ci|\T>ubAin t>o 
Chenet cViinent) m^cei^ lA^L^chi Uhu^m^ 

»' See Colgan*s "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
mx* xi. Februarii. Vita S. Hierlatii, cap. 
i.,p. 308. 

'9 There he states, that Mongfinnia was 
the daughter of Kirdubhan, " de stirpe Cen- 
neann," and that she was ** mater S. Hier- 
latii filii Loga de Tuaim da guadann.*'-* 

•» Thus writes the Very Rev. Canon Ulick 
J. Bourke : *' The child Jarlath was born 

about the year A.D. 425, that is seven years 
before St. Patrick came as Bishop to preach 
the faith of Christ to the Irish. We shall 
further on show fully how this opinion has 
been arrived at. A few words here will 
suffice for the present. In about the year 
A.D. 443, the Apostle Patrick came to Kil- 
binin, near Tuam. He was accompanied by 
St. Benin, who baptized Jarlath, and his 
father and mother, and the boy's cousins 
german. Benignus was appointed Bishop 
of the district around Kilbinin, and the 
youthful Jarlath, and others, became his dis* 
ciples and pupils, and in due time, Jarlath 
was raised to the dignity of priest, abbot, 
and bishop. I'hese promotions of Jarlath 
required time, and must be considered not 
alone in relation to the youth of Clonmacne, 
but also to St. Benignus himself, who after- 
wards succeeded in due course the Apostle 
Patrick as Primate of All Ireland in the See 
of Armagh even while the great Apostle 
himself was still alive. These points fuUy 
considered will lead one to the conclusion 
that Jarlath must have been at least seven 
years when Patrick, Bibhop, received the 
apostolic authority from Pope St. Celes- 
tine, to preach the Faith of Christ to the 

** Thus writes, Veiy Rev. Ulick J Canon 
Bourke, in the article already quoted : 
" Now Jarlath*s father must have lived near 
Tuam, which was not then a town, but a 
collection of a few huts and houses, and 
amongst them the chieftain's residence ; for 
he is styled Louis of Tuaim, as if it had 
been said that Tuam was his dwelling-place. 
This opinion has been formed firom the 
words in Father John Colgan's narrative re- 
garxiing the saint's father and mother: 
'Mater Sancti larlaihi filii Logha de Tuaim 
dd uarleann,* that is, mother of Jarlath, son 
of Louis of Tuam da-uarleann. Hence, one 
can infer that Louis, with his family, dwelt 
at Tuam, and that consequently ' Tuam' can 
claim the honour to have been the birth- 
place of Jarlath, his son. This view is con- 
firmed by the fact that in after Hfe, when 
Jarlath was consecrated Abbot and first 
Bishop of that territory, he erected a church 
on the lands belonging to his tribe, at 

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of our most learned historians seems to have arrived at the conclusion, that 
our saint was probably born, about the commencement of the sixth century. 
In the supposition, that Jarlath received Holy Orders from St. Benignus, we 
should admit, that he was born at the latest,' in 438,?according to a conjecture 
of Rev. Dr. Lanigan." As Jarlath was a native of Conmacne, in the opinion 
of that historian,'3 it was thought not wrong, to throw him into the num- 
ber of the disciples of St. Benignus. But, granting St. Jarlath had attained 
his twentieth year» and that St. Benignus died, shortly after this installation ; 
we shall endeavour to make it appear, that all succeeding events of our holy 
bishop's life are perfectly reconcilable, with such a supposition. 

The early training of St. Jarlath is said to have been under a holy man, named 
Benignus.'* He is thought to have been the successor of St. Patrick,'* in the 
See of Armagh. Now, as this Benignus ^ died, in the year 468, and as 
Jarlath belonged to the Second Class of Irish Saints, who did not become 
distinguished until about 540, it has been assumed,'^ likewise, that the idea 
of our saint having been his disciple is purely gratuitous. Yet, it is expressly 
asserted, in the Life of that holy man, that besides others, St. Jarlath, son of 
Loga, received literary instruction and was first initiated to the rudiments of 
literature through his care.^^ It is stated, that Benignus promoted our saint 
to Holy Orders, with his cousin Callian, and afterwards, he is said to have 
consecrated their churches.*^ There is nothing more usual, however, nor at 
the same time more perplexing, in many of the acts of our saints, than their 
authors making them either masters or pupils of certain eminent men, despite 
the clearest chronological data. All of those actions, previously related, must 
have taken place, before the year 468, when the death of Benignus, Prelate 
of Armagh, took place.3** It has been contended,^* that our saint must have 
been at least thirty years of age when ordained, and before he was appointed 
to the charge of a congregation. To this it may be replied, that at a much 
later period, in the Irish Church, and when in all likelihood, a demand for 
ministerial labour was not so urgent, St Malachy O'Morgair received Priest's 
orders in the twenty-fifth year of his age, and almost immediately afterwards, 
he appears to have been called upon to discharge important trusts in the 

No sooner had St. Jarlath been released from the supervision of his 
former master, than he appears to have returned to his own country ; where 
having selected a site for the erection of a monastery, in Conmacnie, he 

* Cluain-fois,' or the retreat of rest, or mea- '* See ** Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 

dow of rest, situated about two statute miles vol. ii., chap, x., sect, ix., n. 137, p. 42. 

south-west from the present town of Tuam. "^ See Colgan's '* Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

The old church — the only remnant of the nia,** xi. Februarii. Vita S. Hierlatii, 

monastery — is to be seen to this day." cap. ii., p. 308. 

•• However, he deems the statement to ** At A.D. CCCCLXVIII., Ussher writes: 
have been a fable, and built upon its having "Benignus£piscopus(quiActaPairiciiadhuc 
been recorded, that Benignus had preached viventis scripsisse dicitur) mortuus est ; et 
in Conmacne, and in other parts of the west, ut alii quidem volunt, Glastonise, ut alii 
See '* Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," Arm ichise sepulius est : (p. 426, 448, 455), 
vol. i., chap, viii., sect, i., anci accompanying quanquam Annales Inisfallenses Ruaise mor- 
notes, pp 374 to 377, and ibid,, vol. ii., luum eum fuis.-te notent." — '* Britannicarum 
chap. X., sect, ix., n. 137, p. 42. Ecclesiaium Antiquitates.*' See Index 
'i See ibid, Chronologicus, p. 522. 
*4 It seems to be a matter of doubt, as to 3* By Rev. Dr. Lanigan. 
whether or not, his identity can be exactly "^ See his Life, already separately pub- 
ascertained, lished by the author, and also to be found re- 
's hee his Life, in the Third Volume of vised, at the 3rd of November, 
this work, at the 17th of March, Art. i. 33 Colgan tells us, that this church, in his 
■* His festival occurs, at the 9th of Novem- day, became a chapel, not far from Tuam, 
ber. and belonging to the Cathedral Parish, ac- 
'^ By Rev. Dr. Lanigan. cording to a Catalogue of Churches in the 

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[June 6. 

built one at a place, called Cluainfois,33 not far from Tuam.34 Here, in due 
course of time, a school was attached to the Monastery.35 Cluainfois is now 
the name of a townland, Anglicized Cioonfush ;36 and, in the north end of this 
townland, a short distance from the river of Clare, to the east, is remaining a 
portion of an old church, called Teampul Jarlaithe;37 at which children were 
lately interred, although the place around, at present, does not present the 
appearance of a burial-place.3^ The west gable remained, in 1838, being 
then three yards broad and retaining nearly its original height The actual 
height was then between nine and ten feet ; while two yards of the length, on 

Cluainfois, near Tuam, County of Galway. 

the north side wall, attached to this gable, were standing. Its highest part 
was then about 7^ feet. The west gable appeared to have had a window or 
opening, on or near, its top. The original length of the building inside, so 
far as was definable by the foundation, which could then be traced, was 13 

Tuam Diocese, which thus names it : 
" Capella de Cluainfois in parochia 
Tuamensi. ** Fos has the Latin signification, 
** commoratio," and Cluainfois is Latinized, 
''recessuscommorationis." Thus,it appears to 
have been named, from the circumstance of 
our saint having dwelt there with his disci- 
ples, befpre he removed to Tuam. See 
" Acta Sanctorum Hil)cmi3e," xi. Februarii, 
n. 10, p. 310. 

3* In Irish the place is CtuAin poif. 
Although in the Acts of St. Jarlath, as pub- 
lished by Colgan, it is said that Cluainfois is 
situated in the territory of Conmacnie ; yet, 
in Mr. 0*Donovan*s Ancient Map of Galway, 
it is placed a little to the south of Conm^icne 
CineilDubAin territory, and in the northern 

part of the territory designated Ui b|MUin 
Se^tA, in the same country. 

35 See Rev. M. J. Brenan*s "Ecclesiasti- 
cal History of Ireland," Sixth Century, 
chap, ii., p. 74. 

3* It is bounded on the north, by the 
Parishes of Belclare and Kilbannon ; on the 
south and west by the Parish of Killoir, and 
by the townland of Kilmore; and on the 
east, by Killaloonty townland. 

37 In Irish CeAUipAlt lA]>lAide, and in 
Latin Templum S. Jarlaithe. 

3* The accompanying illustration is from 
a sketch made by the writer on the spot 
This has been transferred to the wood, by 
William F. Wakeman, and it was engraved 
by Mrs. Millard. 

Digitized by 


JtTNE 6.] 



yardsy by 4 yards.39 The cement was composed of lime and sand. At the 
distance of 6 or 7 yards from the south-east corner lies a stone *® — ^having a 
circular cavity nearly central in it, which is about one foot in diameter, and 
which narrows gradually to the bottom, where it does not exceed three inches 
in diameter.*' 

Over the monastery and school at Cluainfois, our saint presided, with 
a great reputation for piety and learning. Among other disciples, who 
placed themselves under St. Jarlath's direction, was the celebrated St. 
Brendan of Clonfert.** He was a pupil, about the beginning of the sixth 
century, when Jarlath had already become old and infirm .<3 This could hardly 
be said of our saint, if he were not at least approaching the seventieth year of 
his age. On his way to St. Jarlath, Brendan is said to have met with Colman** 
son of Lenin, whom he induced to quit the pursuit of worldly things.^ There 
is no reason, why we should suppose Colman,*^ to be otherwise than a very 
young man, at this time, and if at all, little older than Brendan. Now, as 
Colman afterwards became a disciple of St. Jarlath, and died in the year 606/ 
according to the Annals of the Four Masters,*^ but according to Colgan,*^ 
and according to Ware, in tlie year 604 ;*9 Dr. Lanigan asserts, that it ia 
unlikely he was St. Jarlath's pupil, before the middle of the sixth century, he 
being a grown man,^^ when frequenting this school.** Jarlath must have 
flourished in the year 500,5* it is supposed, if Brendan, in youth, had been his 
scholar. The period, when our saint flourished, has been more generally 
assigned to the middle of the sixth century. However this may be, St. Jarlath 
of Tuam is reckoned among Irish Saints of the Second Class ; and accordingly, 
it is assumed, he began to be distinguished after the year 540. This is the 

» When the writer of this place visited 
Cluftin-fois, in i860, only a small fragment 
of this ruin surmounted the lonely graveyard, 
where the old establishment had been 

^ This stone it is said, was originally a 
holy water font ; and people, who go on the 
occasion of attending a child's funeral to the 
place, spinkled themselves with the water 
found in it. The common phrase was, that 
they blessed themselves with it. See the 
'* Letters containing Information relative to 
the County of Galway, belonging to the 
Ordnance Survey of 1838," vol. i., pp. 44, 
45. Thomas 0'Conor*s Letter, dated Tuam, 
September 3rd, 1838. 

** Its depth varies with the unevcnness of 
the stone, being six inches in the deepest 
part, and gradually lessening on another 
side to two or three inches. 

** Hb feast is celebrated, on the i6th of 
May, and his Life will be found in the 
FifUi Volume of this work, at that date. 
Art i. 

*5 These circumstances are alluded to in 
the Life of St. Brendan of Clonfert, to be 
found at the i6th of May, in the Fifth 
Volume of this work. Art. i. 

** If it be true that St. Colman studied 
Qpder Jarlath, we must bring down that 
school to, at least, 550, the vear in which 
Ware says that Jarlath flourished. See " De 
Scriptonbtts Hibemise," lib. L, cap. ii.,p. 1 1. 

<» Sec Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
mm" zL FebruariL Vita S. Hierlatii, cap. 
iii-rpp* 308, 309. 

4^ He is sumamed Mitine, also, and he is 
the reputed founder of Clojrne. See Rev. 
M. J. Brenan's "Ecclesiastical History of 
Ireland,'' Sixth Century, chap, ii., pp, 

74. 75- 

*y See Dr. 0'Donovan*s "Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 222 to 225, 
and n. (d). 

^ See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
niaf," viii. Martii, n. 1$, p. 339 {recte) 535. 

^ Ware places his death at thb year, and 
on the 4th of November, through inadver- 
tence. Hence, Harris* conjecture is correct : 
" One Coleman, the son of Lenin, is said to 
have written the Life of St. Senan in Metre, 
and to have died in the year 600. I will not 
be positive whether he was the same person 
with this Bishop ; but, hb Festival b cele- 
brated at Cloyne, on the 24th of November." 
— Harris Ware, "Bishops of Cloyne," vol. 

i.» PP; 573. 574. 

^ The assertion, that Colman could not 
have been a grown up man, commenc- 
ing the sixth century, and have afterwards 
lived to its close, may admit of question. 
The age which he attained b not Icnown ; 
but, if we are willing to allow, in the absence 
of positive testimony, that he reached the 
age of one hundred and ten or twelve years, 
the account of hb being Jarkth's scholar 
could not be fairly controverted. 

5» Sec " Ecclesiastical Hbtory of Ireland, 
voL ii., chap, x., sect. 7, p. 29, and 1^., n. 

99. P* 32* 
s» See U8sher*s *• Index Chronologicus." 
M Se« Rev. P. J. Ciurew't " Eccledattioal 

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[June 6. 

period, to which his episcopacy over the See of Tuam has been ascribed, by 
various writers. 53 Moreover, Sir James Ware states, that he flourished, in the 
year 550,54 as his Latin original has it ;55 and, this, it seems to US| to be a 
very probable computation.5s 



The situation of St. Jarlath's religious establishment was beside the Clare 
River, which rises in the southern parts of Mayo County, flowing southwardly 
until it falls into Lough Corrib. Such was the humility of St. Jarlath, that he 
wished to become, at Cluain-fois, a disciple rather than the master of Brendan, 
for whose sanctity and gifts of prophecy, he entertained an extraordinary 
veneration. Already, it is said, that St. Benignus, the disciple and companion 
of St. Patrick, became the first Apostle of all that country, extending from 
Dunmore to Cong,' and that, about the year 440 to 444, he built a church at 
Kilbannon, or Killbenin. *' the Church of Benin," situated about two miles 
north-west of Tuam.* Being desirous of knowing, when it should please God 
to call him away, from the prison of this body ; our saint requested his scholar 
Brendan, to indicate the place of his resurrection. Brendan desired him to 
ascend his chariot, he being then old and infirm ;3 and, wherever it might 
break down on the way, there Jarlath should depart this life, and thence also, 
he declared, that many would arise with him, on the day of General Judg- 
ment. Our saint obeyed these directions.^ He had not proceeded far, from 
that place, when the wheels of his chariot are said to have been broken,' at 
Tuam Dagualand.^ This incident, which must have occurred in the begin- 
ning of the sixth century, gave occasion to erecting a church, on that spot 

History of Ireland,'* Appendix, p. 420. 

S4 The English translation of Harris places 
him at 540— probably this is an error of the 

« See "De Scriptoribus Hibemiae," 
lib. i., cap. ii^p. 11. 

Chapter il— ' See an account of this 
place, with woodcut illustrations of its ruins, 
in "Handbook of the Midland Great 
Western Railway and Guide to Connemara 
and the West of Ireland/' pp. 61 to 64. 
Dublin, no date, i2mo. 

■ Sec Very Rev. Ulick J. Canon Bourke's 
*• Life and Times of the Most Rev. John 
MacHale, Archbishop of Tuam and Metro- 
politan," chap, xxi., p. ao2. Dublin, 1882, 

3 « Erat enim Episcopus, et senex ante- 
quam Ecclesia Tuamensis esset exstructa." 
— Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hibemise/' 
XL Februarii. Vita S. Hierlatii, n. 16, 
p. 310. 

< See ihid^ cap, iv., p. 309. 

5 Tradition pointed out that spot, in John 
Costello's garden, who was a merchant hvine 
in Shop-street, Tuam, in 1838. It was called 
the Chair of Tuam, in which sat after his 
elevation, the njember formerly returned to 
Parliament by Tuam, as a borough. See 
" Letters containing Information relative to 
the Antiquities of the County of Galway, 
collected during the Progress of the Ord- 
nance Survey m 1838," vol. L Thomas 
0'Conor*s Letter, dated Tuam, September 
3rd, 1838, p. 31. 

^ The signification of Uu^itn x)^ gu^tAiti, is 
not locally explained. It has been rendered 
"mound of the two shoulders," by Very 
Rev. Ulick J. Canon Bourke, who admits 
this to have no special meaning. It is his 
opinion, that such form has been substituted 
for ' da ualann,' another phonetic attempt 
for 'da uladhain,' or *da ulainn,' f>., 
" Mound of the two altar tombs.** Tuaim 
being prefixed. See " Life and Times of 
Most Kev. John MacHale, Archbishop of 

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June 6.] 



Over it, St. Jarlath afterwards presided as Bishop ;7 but, it must be added, 
that great obscurity involves the period of his consecration and installation.^ 
Whether St. Jarlath was consecrated before, or after the foundation, of Tuam 
church 9 is unknown. St. Benignus is said to have blessed this church.'® The 
boundaries of Tuam Parish are now of very irregular outline." The present 
parish of Tuam was heretofore divided into two parishes, one of which was called 
" the parish of the shrine,"" from Team pall na Serine. *3 The other part was 
known as St. Jarlath's Parish,H while its church was called the Temple of St. 
Jarlath.'* The former was the eastern part of the present parish, and the 
latter the western portion.'^ Tuam afterwards became an Archiepiscopal city, 
and the church founded there was dedicated in the name of St. Jarlath.'7 The 
See of Tuam is said to have been founded, about the beginning of the sixth 
century. Its prelates are sometimes called by the Irish annalists, bishops, or 
archbishops, of Connaught.'^ In the year 1324, the ancient See of Enach- 
dune or Annaghdown was annexed to it; while, in 1559, the bishopric of 
Mayo was also united.'' It is certain, St. Jarlath was the first bishop over 
the See of Tuam; but, whether he had been consecrated, so early as a.d. 
4SSf*** >May well be questioned During the exercise of his episcopal func- 
tions, Jarlath continued his former practices of penitential works and constant 
prayer.*' Notwithstanding his great age and growing infirmities, he suffered 
no day to elapse, without making three hundred pious genuflections, and as 
many during each night" St Jarlath was said, also, to have been distin- 

Toam and Metropolitan/' chap, xxx., pp. 
207, 208. 

7 It is somewhat remarkable, that after St. 
Patrick, Benin, son of Seisgnen, succeeded 
in the See of Armagh, and died A.D. 467, 
when St Jarlaitlie, son of Treana immedi- 
ately followed, and died A.D. 481. See Rev. 
Robert King's " Memoir introductory to the 
Early History of the Primacy of Armagh,*' p. 
68. We fear there may be some confusion 
between the holy men thus named, in con- 
nection with Armagh, and those similarly 
named as connected with Tuam. 
I .'Some writers place it so early as A.D. 
501. See Hdy Dution's "Statistical and 
Agricultural Survey of the County of 
Galway,** chap, v., sect, xxv., p. 479. 

9 On the authority of Conry, Archdall 
states, that an Abbey was founded here, and 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, so 
early as A.D. 487, and that St. Jarlath con- 
verted it into a Cathedral Church, in the 
beginning of the sixth century. See 
^'Monasticon Hibcmicum," p. 297. 

"• This may be seen, by referring to the 
Eleventh Chapter of his Life. See CoIgan*s 
" Acta Sanctorum Hibemiae," xi. Februarii, 

n. 17. P- 310- 

" Tney mav be thus described, as dis- 
played on the Index County Map of Galway. 
The Parish of Tuam is skirted on the norUi 
and east bv the parishes of Liskeevy, Dunmore 
and Qonbem ; on the south, by Killererin 
and Cnmmer parishes; and, on the west, 
by Beldare, Killower and Kilbennan 

** In Irish p^fAifce ha Serine. 

•9 This name is written Ce4mf>4ilt nA 

Serine, in the Irish. 

*♦ In Irish pA|\Ai]pce Ia^L&^a. 

'^ In- Irish wntten Ce<dmp<ditt lA|t* 

'* See ** Letters containing Information 
relative to the Antiquities of the Countv of 
Galway, collected during the Progress of the 
Ordnance Survey in 1838, vol. i. Thomas 
O'Conor's Letter, dated Tuam, September 
3rd, 1838, p. 31. 

•' See Colgan's ** Acta Sanctorum Hil)er- 
niae,'* xi. Februarii. Vita S. Hierlatii, 
cap. v., p. 309. 

»* See James Godkin's "Ireland and 
her Churches,*' part second, chap. xxx.« 

P- 363- 

»9 See Hely Button's " Statistical and 
Agricultural Survey of the County of Gal- 
way," chap, v., sect, xxv., p. 478. 

^ This is the date assigned for his election, 
in Very Rev. Ulick J. Bourke's List of Tuam 
Bishops and Archbishops, appended to his 
"Life and Times of the Most Rev. John 
Mac Hale, Archbishop of Tuam and Metro* 
politan," chap, xxi., p. 205. 

" See "Colgans "Acta Sanctorum 
Hibemise,** xi. Februarii. Vita S. Hierlatii, 
cap. vi., p. 309. 

"This is sUted by St. Cumineus of 
Connor, in his work, on the Virtues of the 
Irbh Saints : — 

Cpi Ufo fleA6otiin 5A6 n 01^660, 
Citi t4fo f LeAfrouin 5^6 f e^Lfs^ifU 

—Rev. Dr. Matthew KcU/s " Calendar of 
Irish Saints," pp. 168, 169. 

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guished, for the spirit of prophecy ; and to have predicted the names, order of 
succession, and good and bad qualities of his successors in the See of Tuam. 
Colgan tells us, he had a copy of these prophecies ; yet, he would not under- 
take to vouch for its antiquity and genuineness.'^ He supposes they were 
not free frora the suspicion of novelty. A copy of these pretended prophe- 
cies Sir James Ware had in his custody. He thinks, however, that they were 
fedsely ascribed to Jarlath, and he rather looks on them to be the fictions of a 
much later age.** 

The exact year of our saint's death is not very well known.!^ Be- 
cause it is recorded, in the Catalogue of the three orders of Irish Saints, 
that Jarlath belonged to the second order, and is said to have lived about the 
end of King Tuathal's reign, who died about the year 538, 543, or 547, 
according to some accounts,'* or a.d. 544,*' according to Ussher ;«* .Colgan 
is of opinion our saint lived, after the year 535, and that he probably died 
before, or about, a.d. 540.*9 This latter year has been pretty generally 
accepted, as not far from the true date of his release from this world, admit: 
ting that he attained a great age.3<» It is supposed,3» however, that Jarlath 
died before that year, since it is stated, he old man, in the commence- 
ment of the sixth century, when his disciple Brendan left him, and returned 
to his former instructor, the Bishop Eric or Erc.3» The Martyrology of Tallagh 
places his Natalis, at the 25th of December ; the Calendar of Cashel, and the 
Martyrologies of Maguire and Donegal record it, on the following day. It 
has been supposed,33 that the great festivals of the Nativity of our Lord, and 
of St Stephen, observed on either of these days, caused a transference of St 
Jarlath's feast to the 6th of June.34 On this latter day, he is commemorated in 
Tuam Archdiocese, of which he is the principal patron. But, there appears 
to have been no better reason, for Colgan placing his Acts at the nth of 
February, than the circumstance of an undetermined St. Jarlath then occur- 
ring, in some of our Martyrologies. 3S It is ahnost evident, this can be no other 
than that St Jarlath, Archbishop of Armagh, whose Acts are set down by 
Golgan, on the same day. In the copy of the Irish Calendar, preserved among 
the Irish Ordnance Survey Records, we find no mention whatever of a St. 
Jarlath, at the iii. of the Ides, or nth of February. The observation will 
apply to the entries at the viii. of the Ides or 6th of Jime, as also at the 25th 
6f December. However, his festival is there noticed, with some lengthened 
observations, on the day immediately following.3* St. Jarlath's day is still 
remembered in Tuam Parish, and it is observed with great devotion, by the 

•3 See "Acta Sanctorum Hibemiae," xi, pp. 309,310. 

FebruariL Vita S. Hierlatii, cap. vii., ** See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's " Fasti 

p. 309. Ecclesiae Hibemise," vol. iv., p. 4. 

^ See Harris Ware, " Writers of Ireland," »' B;^ Colgan. 

book i., vol. iii., p. 14, and ''Archbishops ^aHjs death has been assigned to a.d. 

of Tuam," vol. i., p. 603. 512, supposing him to have been the first 

«s See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's "Fasti bishop of Slane. 

Ecdesise Hibemise," vol. iv. The Province » By Colgan. 

of Connaught, p. 4. ^ See " Acta Sanctorum Hibemise," xi. 

■* See Dr. O'Donovan's *' Annals of the Februarii, n. 23, p. 310. 

Four Masters,^' vol. i., pp. 180 to 182, S5 in the Rev. Dr. Kelly's edition of the 

andn. (z). Martyrology of Tallagh, we discover the 

•^ See A.D. DXLIV., "Tuathalo Mslgarb simple entiy, "Jarlaithi" at the iii. of the 

jugulato successit in regno Hibemiae Dermi- Ides, or nth of February. There is no nor 

tins I. Cervailli filius."— Ussher's Index tice of a St. Jarlath, at the viii. of the Ides 

ChronQlogicus, p. 530. or 6th of June. See ** Calendar of Irish 

^ See " Britannicarum £A:clesiarum Anti- Saints," pp. xv., xxvi. 

quitates," cap. xvii. pp. 490^ 494. * See, in the Twelfth Volume of this 

*» See Colgan's *' Acta Sanctorum Hiber- work, at the 26th of December, 

nise," xi. Februarii, Vita S. Hierlatii, viu., ^ See Rev, C. P. Meehan's ** Rise and 

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Jyjie 6.|i tiVES bF THE IRISH SAlNfS. 209 

Catholic inhabitants. The relics of St. Jarlath 37 were religiously preserved 
after his death, in a certain chapel, called Temple na Scrin,38 where his body 
is said to have been buried. 39 This appears to have been included, within 
the parochial bounds of Tuam city.^ Its position was pointed out in 1838, 
as standing in Bishop-street, Tuam, and where Mr. Alexander O'Conor, ^ 
saddler, then kept a shop. To the rerc of this house is Curraghskreen town- 
land ;*' and, at the distance of 40 perches, in the same direction, the fine 
Catholic Cathedral of Tuam now stands. The old Irish inhabitants called a' 
street in Tuam Bothar na Serine,*' or, " the Street of the Shrine." There was 
an Abbey, in this ancient city, at an early period ; and, in the ninth century; 
we find the names of its Abbots recorded.'^s The tradition was, that the Danes 
of Limerick and of Cork plundered Tuam, and carried off the silver shrine from 
Tearapall na Serine, in which the remains of St. Jarlath were deposited.** The 
relics of other saints were also preserved, in this same chapel, while they 
were held in great respect and veneration.** 

Many interesting remains of antiquity are to be found in Tuam, and 
especially are these to be met with, in connection with the old cathedral, 
now used for Protestant service. By -the clergy and people of this 
ancient city, it appears, that the Cathedral of Tuam was formerly called 
Tempull Jariaith,** or the *' Church of Jarlath.** The local name for the 
present Protestant Cathedral of Tuam is St. Mary's ; because, according to 
the general impression, it formerly belonged to St. Mary's Abbey. At the east 
end of the cathedral *' was placed a stone cross, the shaft of which had been 
broken off, nearly as far as the arms.*^ On the side of it, now facing the east, 
is the figure of a bishop, in relief, holding a crosier. It was probably in- 
tended to represent St. Jarlath. The crook of the crosier in his left hand 
has been destroyed. The figure wears a cap of nearly a conical shape. Two 
figures are placed, one on either side of the Bishop. The crucifixion is repre- 
sented on the back of this cross.*' The entrance to the cathedral is sin- 
gularly magnificent. It is a perfectly circular arch, built with red grit stone. 
It is 22^ feet broad at the base, and no less than 16 feet high, from the 
ground to the key-stone. The door inside this is likewise perfectly circular* 
On each side of it, there is a window of similar form. It exhibits a beautifully 
ornamented construction. Inside the church a pointed arch, springing from 
the ground, is to be seen, arising over the organ. These are said to be rem- 
nants of the original establishment, adapted to the work of the present 

Fall of the Irish Franciscan Monastenes," on which the old and new Catholic College 

&c. "The Irish Hierarchy of the Seven- of St. Jarlath now stands. A local tradition 

teenth Century," chap, iii., pp. 125, 126, to this effect prevails, 

foid Appendix, p. 310. ** Colgan quotes the following from the 

^ 5* Sec ArchdaU's ** Monasticon Hibemi- Catalogue of the Churches of Tuam Dio- 

cum/* p. 298. cese: ** Ecclesia Cathedralis Tuamensis,' 

39 According to an account in the Catalogue sita Tuamiae vocatur Tempull Jarlaithe : 

of Churches; ^longing to the Archdiocese of dicata S. Hierlatio primo Episcopo 

Tuam, which had been furnished to Colgan. Tuamensi, antequam hxc sedes Archiepis- 

** See **Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae, xi. copalem erigiretur. Dies festus ejus cele- 

Februarii, n. 22, p. 310. bratur 6 Junii." — "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

*» In Irish Cut\]v&6 fc^Mti. nise," xi. Februarii, n. 21, p. 310. 

** In Irish written DoeAj\ riA fqvine. ♦' Near the wail enclosing the ground 

^ See Archdall's " Monasticon Hibemi- about it, lay the body of this cross, 

cum,'* p. 298. ** It is as large as a moderate-sixed tomb- ' 

44 See " Letters containing Information re- stone, and has a tenant on one end, indica- 

ktive to the Antiquities of the Coumy of ting its having been heretofore placed on a 

Galway, collected during the Progress of the pedestal. 

Ordnance Survey in 1838," vol. i. Thomas ^ It was for a long time used as a market 

0*Conor*s Letter, dated Tuam, September cross in the town, being set up at the market- 

3rd, 1838, p. 50. house gate ; and it was removed thence 

^ It is thought to have occupied the site, by the mob, to mark the grave of Bishop 

Digitized by 




[June 6. 

-T £^rr- - ->. 

building. Standing against the west gable, close to the entrance, and on the 
north side of it, is the shaft of a cross,5o which is 4^ feet high, 11 inches 
broad, and 8 inches on the sides, exhibiting inscriptions, in Irish characters, 
on the north 5« and south »« sides. In can be ascertained from the inscrip- 
tion, that it had been erected in memory of a former Archbishop of Tuam, 
Hugh 0'Hoissein,53 who departed this life, in the year 1161.54 It should be 
well worthy of enquiry, to ascertain upon what memorable occasion this 
cross 55 had been erected as a testimonial to that Archbishop, and to the 
King Toirdelbuch or Turlogh O'Conor. The Protestant cathedral of Tuam 
had been somewhat dilapidated.s^ until it lately underwent restoration. 

The fine cross of 

Tuam has been set 

up under the window 
— on the outside — 
of the choir, and it is 
an object greatly ad- 
mired by all visitors, 
on account of the in- 
tricate lacings of its 
Celtic ornamenta- 
tion. 57 In a church- 
yard, close to the 
north-east of this 
cathedral, there was 
an ancient abbey. 
The ruins of a church, 
it is said, which had 
formerly been a paro- 
chial one, were still 
to be seen there, in 
1838. The people 
applied the Irish 
name, Teampul Jar- 
latha,58 "the Church 
of St. Jarlath," to 
this building. These 
manifestations of 
honour were subor- 
dinated to adevotioti, 
with which the inha- 

Old Cross at Tuam. 

were accus- 

tomed to regard the memory of their principal patron.59 

The new Catholic cathedral of St. Jarlath, cruciform in shape, is an im- 

Sing, who was well liked by them. 

^ The cross was found sunk underneath, 
where the communion table is now, inside 
the church. 

s' The north side exhibits an interesting 
inscription, in Irish characters, but partially 

s> On the south side, as it stands at present 
is the following Irish inscription : OR DO 
cbom-AUbA i^uUxiche t>o ^xex) u 
ossin (effaced) moenn^io in cbnoss^. 

The meaning is : A Prayer for the Comar- 
ban or successor of Jarlaithe Aed 0*Ossin, 

through whom this cross has been made. 

53 See the following notice at A.D. Ii6l : 
" Hugh (Aedh) O'Hoissein, Archbishop of 
Tuam, head of the pietyand chastity of Leith- 
cuinn, died.'* — Dr. 0*Donovan*s "Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 140, 141. 

5* The O'Hoissins are still living in the 
neighbourhood of Tuam. 

55 It probably belonged to the Priory of 
St. John the Baptist, of which, according to 
Archdall, Tordebac O'Conor, King of Ire- 
land, was the founder, about the year 1 140. 
See •' Monasticon Hibemicuro," p. 298, 

Digitized by 


JONB 6.] 



posing building,^ in size and situation ; but, while Gothic in design, its style 
is none of the purest or most perfect At the time of its erection, however, 
it was deemed to be a bold undertaking, and a vast improvement on the 
wretched chapels, that then existed throughout Ireland.^' Commenced by the 
Most Rev. Archbishop Oliver Kelly, in 1827,** it is dedicated to the local 
Patron.*3 However, it remained for the Most Rev. John MacHale, his distin- 
guished successor in the See of Tuam, to carry out and complete this monument 
of zeal and piety, on which large sums of money must have been expended. 
Not only durable and choice materials from the adjoining quarries have been 
used ; but, even some blocks of marble have been brought from Italy, to serve 
for its adomment,^4 It is ribbed with graduated buttresses, pierced with 
mullioned windows, and it bristles on the summit with carved pinnacles, in a 
Saracenic fashion, which has its grandest ecclesiastical development in the 
great Cathedral of Milan. A (]^uadrangular tower, from the intersection of the 
nave and transepts, surrounds it, and that, too, is terminated with parapets 
and pinnacles. The Catholic College, dedicated to this saint, has been erected 
beside the cathedral. Both are convenient to the town, and a fine park ex- 
tends around them ; while other religious institutions are grouped together, 
and they are approached from the grounds. The 6th of June is annually 
enjoyed as a holy day, by the students of the college ; and, it is observed with 
suitable devotions in the cathedral, as also among the various religious com- 
munities. St Jarlath's well lies about one-half mile from the town of Tuam, 
in a south-eastern direction, being situated about a quarter of a mile from the 
Dublin road, and to the south-western side of it.^^ in the year 1838, people 
frequented it, on the festival day of St. Jarlath. At that date, this spring was 
nearly dried up, while around it some white thorn bushes and briars grew. It 
was situated in the comer of a field, at the north end of Tobar Jarlatha town- 
land, to which it gave name.^ 

^ On the east side of the tower of the 
CAthedral, is inscribed externally : 

" Tac», 2». Rcge 

Archiepiscopo Tuamensi 

9f The annexed illustration — faithfully 
copied from a photograph, by Frederick 
Mares — has been drawn on the wood, by 
William F. Wakeman, and it was engraved 
by Mrs. Millard. 

*■ Written in Irish, CeAwpAtt I^T^r^. 

? See Colgan*s "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
Di9er"xi.Febnuurii. Vita S.Hierlatii, cap. ix., 
p. 310. 

^The plan and architectural details of 
Tuam Cathedral had been formulated by 
Peter Madden, Architect, and a native of 
the county of Galway. See Very Rev. 
UUck T. Canon Bourke*s " Life and Times 
of the Most Rev. John MacHale, Archbishop 
of Tuam," chap, x., p. 89. 

^' Even in times long subsequent, the 
well-known writer (Rev. Caesar Otway) of 
the ** Tour in Connaught," observes : •* The 
whole Established Church, with its tithes and 
cfanrch-lands, with all the machinery of its 
ecclesiastical boards, nay more, with all the 
private and public influence of its valuable 
detgy, could not raise such a splendid edi- 

fece as this." — Chap, viii., p. 179. 

*• See a portrait and the brief bi(^raphy of 
this distinguished prelate, in the ** Catholic 
Penny Magazine," vol. i.. No. 17, pp. 165 
to 167. 

*3 An engraving and a correct architec- 
tural description — so far as completed in 
1834 — will be found in the same periodical. 
See vol. i., No. 20, pp. 201 to 203. 

^ See the '• Parhamentary Gazetteer of 
Ireland," vol, iii., p. 401. 

*s In a Letter received from a distinguished 
Irish scholar, and dear friend, the Very Rev. 
Canon Ulick J. Bourke of Tuam, he writes 
under date of August 3rd, 1863: "There 
is a holy well, sacred to St. Jarlath, just at 
the outskirts of the town. Many miracles . 
are reported^ to have been wrought there, 
through the intercession of the saint. Un- 
fortunately, the field in which it is situate 
has fallen into Dr. Plunkett's hands, and 
these 15 years the place has been stopped , 
up. I trust that spot shall soon again be 
available to the public, and that the well 
shall be re-opened," 

** See " Letters containing Information 
relative to the Antiquities of the County of 
Galway, collected during the Progress of - 
the Ordnance Survey in 1838." Thomas 
0*Conor*s Letter, dated Tuam, September 
3rd, 1838, p. 46. 

^ Sec Very Rev. Michael Caaty's *« Put- 

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Having thus brought together those few records bearing on the life of the 
holy Patron, so greatly venerated where he lived, and where he is so regularly 
invoked ; we agree with the observation of a learned writer, that it is not 
unusual for historians to draw moral conclusions from those facts they relate, 
for the instruction or imitation of their readers.^7 Our inferences must be, 
that holy servants of God, while specially commemorated in their several 
localities, deserve to be held in great respect elsewhere, on accoimt of their 
virtues and the services they have rendered to religion, while on earth ; nor 
can diey prove unmindful of that devout veneration, which exalts them in 
the esteem of individuals, living remote from the scene of their labours, and 
who, as Catholics invoking them, share in the communion of saints now glori- 
fied in Heaven. 

Article II. — St. Colman, or Colmoc, or Colmus, Bishop of the 
Orkney Islands, Scotland. [Said to have been of the Tenth and Eleventh 
Centt/ries.] Off the extreme northern mainland of Scotland, and separated 
from Caithness by the Pentland Frith, lies that group of Islands, known as the 
Orkneys, of which Pomona * is the chief, and where Kirkwall the capital is 
situated. At an early period, the Faith was established in these bleak, barren 
and desolate Islands,' where, however, some thousands of people manage to 
live, chiefly through the fisheries, and partly by means of tillage and pasturage. 
Already, at the 9th of March ,3 allusion has been made to a St, Colman, or 
Colmus, or Colmoc, who is stated to have been a Bishop in the Orkney Islands 
of Scotland. Again, at the 4th of May,* a St. Colmoc, called Bishop of 
Banff, is venerated.s It is said, that a St. Sylvester was Patron of the Orkney 
Islands, and that he was honoured there, on the 5th day of February.* We 
are doubtful, whether the present Bishop be a native of Ireland or of Scot- 
land; but, he is thought to have lived, during theTenth and Eleventh Centuries. 
It is stated, that St. Palladius 7 appointed St. Serf or Servanus ^ to be his coad- . 
jutor or assistant Bishop, so early as a.d. 443,^ and then to have sent him to the 
Orkneys to convert the heathens living there. This was many centuries be- 
fore the time of St. Colman or Colmoc. Some account of this Orkney Bishop 
is to be found in Dempster;" but, it is given by an untrustworthy writer, 
and in a fashion, which leaves it open to the suspicion of doubt. The Bol- 
landists have notices " of a St. CoUnoc, or Colmus, at this date;" but, they 

gatory, Dogmatic and Scholastic ; the van- * See the Fifth Volume of this work, 

ous Questions connected with it considered Art. v. 

and proved/' chap, iv., p. 10. Dublin, s By Dempster, hit translation is assigned 

1886. M. H. Gill and Son, O'Connell* to the 5th of February, a.d. 67a See 

street, i2mo. " Historia Eccledastica G^ntis Scotorum," 

Article ii. — * The other chief Islands tomus i., lib.iii., num. 255, p. 153. 

here are Westray, Papa Westray, Hoy, * See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the 

Stronsa, Sanda, North and South Ronald- Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," 

sha, Egleshay, Rousay, Eda, Shapinsha, vol. ii., February xiv. Account of St. 

and Burra. Conran, Bishop of the Orkneys, and Con- 

* In these islands, wherever you wander, fessor. 

if you enter a cottage and ask for a glass of ' See his Life, at the 6th of July, volume 

water, they would think it inhospitable to vii. of this work. Art. i. 

bring you anything but milk. As a rule ' His feast occurs, at the 1st of July, 

thejr will accept nothing in payment. Such » See Rev. Dr. J. F. S. Gordon's " Scot!- 

is the account given in an article, " The chronicon," &c, voL i., p. 42. 

Orkney and Shetland Islands," which '<> See <* Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis 

apoeared in the " Argosy" for the Month Scotorum," tomus i., lib, iii., num. 255, p. 

of March, 1883. 153, and num. 267, p. 159. 

^ In the Third Volume of this work, " In four paragraphs. 

Art. vii. " See '* Acta Sanctorum," tomus i^ vi 

Digitized by 


June 6.] 



^ure chiefly extracted from Scottish Calendars. They express grave doubts, 

-however, regarding what has been said of him, in the Breviary.of Aberdeen. '3 It 
is supposed, he flourished, during the reign of Kenneth III.,'* and that he lived 
contemporaneously with the holy Bishops Moveanus, Medanus, Blaan, and 

. Englatius.'s Now, Kenneth, son of Dubh, was a distinguished warrior, who 
reigned from a.d, 997 to a.d. 1004 or 1005,** when he was slain in a war of 

.succession by Malcolm, s6n of Kenneth, at Moeghavard or Monzievaird, in 
Stratherne.'' If we are to believe Dempster,'^ St. Colmus was renowned for 
his integrity of life ; he was familiar with Pope Benedict VII ;»» he was con- 
secrated at Rome ; he became a most learned Bishop over the Orkneys ; 
while he flourished in the year loio. However, it seems, that Dempster has 
confounded him with another St. Colmoc,*** said to have been venerated at the 

. 4th of May — if, indeed, it may not be thought they had been distinct persons. 
In Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," he has notices of St, 
Colmoc,'* and of St. Colmus,*' at the 6ih day of June, as also of a St. Colmaig 
or Colman »3 at the 6th and 7th of the same month. We know not, if he be 
identical with a St. Colmach or a St. Colman, mentioned in a Manuscript 
Scotichronicon by Prior Brockieof St. James, Riuisbon, as invoked in a Pro- 
cessional Litany of Dunkeld Monastery.'* In the Kalendar of the Ai>er. 
deen Breviary ,»5 and also in the Marty rology of Aberdeen,** the Feast of St, 
Colmoc, Bishop and Confessor, occurs at the 6th of June. In Adam King*s 
Kalendar, we find noticed : '* S. Colme biscliop and confess, in Scotland 
vnder King Kennethe 3,*^ and Thomas Dempster"* has another allusion to 
him. We find an entry in the Marty rology of Tallagh,'» at this date, 
regarding a Bishop Colman, without any further notice ; and, again, on this 
day is registered, in the Martyrology of Donegal,^* a festival in honour of 
Colman, Bishop. 

Article III. — St. Cocca, Cucca, Cuach, Cuaca, or Coc, Patroness 
OP KiLCOCK Parish, Countv or Kildare. That the present holy woman 
flourished, at an early period, can hardly be doubted ; although it is difticult, 
for want of satisfactory proofs, to furnish authentic statements, even regarding 
her identity; What seems certain is, that she lived — most probably long — 

Junii. De S. Colmoco sea Colmo, Episcopo 
in Scolia, p. 761. 

*3 In hac enim ipse Sanctus, transmittitur 
ad Epi-scopatum Ultoniae Dromorensem, ubi 
apud Jacobum Warseum Episcopus Col- 
manns dicttur ; et a velusto yfengusiani 
Martyrologii Scholiaste appeUatur Mocol- 
moc ; affingunturque stupenda miracula, ex 
Viu S. Colmani Episcopi : sed cum hie 
dicatur sexto Christi seculo flourisse, a S. Col- 
moco sea Colmo. de quo hie agimus, debuit 
diversas aestimaii." — /did. 

»*See John Lesley, "De Rebus GesUs 
Scotorum." lib. v., en p. Ixxx. 

•5 See Hector Boetius' " Historiae Scoto- 
rum," lib. ix. 

»* According to the ** Annales Ultonien- 
ses," in Rev. Dr. 0*Conor's •* Rerum 
Hibemicarum Scriptores,'* tomus iv. 

•' See William F.Skene's " Celtic Scot- 
land : a Histor? of Ancient Albaii/' vol. i., 
chap, vii., pp. 382, 383. 

** See '* Hbtoria Ecclesiastica Geniis 

Scotorum/* tomus i., lib. iii., num. 267, 
p. 159. 

*> He ruled from A.D. 975 to A.D. 983. See 
Sir Harris Nicolas* ** Chronology of His- 
tory/' p. 208. 

^ Said to l>e of Banff. See an account of 
him, in the Fifth Volume of this work, at 
the 4th of May, Art. v. 

" See p. 304.. 

" See p. 306. 

•^ See p. 294. 

»* See Rev. Dr. J. F. S. Gordon's " Scoti- 
chronicon," &c., vol. i., p. 68. 

»5See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of 
Scottish Saints,'* p. 117. 

** SeeMt.f p. 131. 

»7 See«^/V/., p. 154. 

" Thus, in Menologium Scotorum, at the 
6th of June, we read : •• Kirkuae Colmi Or- 
cadum Aj^stoli. K."— /^., p. 202. 

^ Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxvi. 

^ Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
146, 147. 

Digitized by 




[June 6. 

before the eighth century, when we have a passing record of the place-^ 
named Kilcock * after her — in our Irish Annals.* It means " the Church of 
St. Coc," or as Latinized EccUsia S. Coaea, Its locality gave name to a 
parish,3 within the present barony of Ikeathy and Oughterany, in the county 
of Kildare. Incidentally, Father John Colgan introduces a St. Cocca, as the 
nurse of St. Kieran,^ Bishop of Saigir ; but, it cannot be ascertained, that she 
was the same as that holy woman, whose festival is recorded, at this date. 
Assuming the Patroness of Kilcock to have been in early years the nurse of 
St. Kieran, a gentleman 5 well versed in Irish ecclesiastical and profane his- 
tory has furnished the writer with elaborate notes, referring to St. Cocha and 
to Kilcock. He suggests, that as she acted in that capacity, St Cocca may 
have accompanied St. Kieran to Rome, where he received from the Supreme 
Pontiff permission to preach the Gospel in Ireland, even before the coming of 
.St. Patrick, its great Apostle. The Bollandists ^ have a notice of this holy 
virgin, at the 6th of June, but they express only a desire to learn more regard- 
ing her, than has been stated by Colgan.7 The name and feast of St. Choca, 
virgin, in the province of Meath, Ireland, is commemorated, at the 6th of 
June, by Chastelain,^ and also, in Right Rev. Bishop Challenor's " Memorial 
of Ancient British Piety."» Already, at the 8th day of January, *<* we have 
.given some notices of a St. Cocca, Cucca, Cuach, or Cuaca, who is called a 
Virgin of Cill-Cuaiche — said to have been in Cairbre-na-Ciardha — identical 
with Kilcock, in the north-western part of Kildare County. However, her 
chief festival seems referable to this date. Again, there was a St Cuach, or 
Coiningean, a Virgin, of Fionnmagh Church, and said to have been of Kil- 
leen Cormac, county of Kildare, whose feast occurs, at the 29th of April." 
She flourished, in the fifth or sucth century ; and, it has been supposed, she 
was identical with the Patroness of Kilcock. Indeed, the time, place, and 
circumstances, concerning her, render it possible enough ; however, this is 
still only a matter for vague conjecture. An Irish comment " is added in the 
table subjoined to the Martyrology of Donegal ;'3 and, the writer of it sup- 
poses this present saint to have been the nurse of St Kieran, Bishop of 

Article hi. — ' A battle was fought 
there A.D. 774. 

« See Dr. John 0*Donovan's " Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. i., and n. (u), pp. 

378, 379. 

3 It is shown, on the " Ordnance Survev 
Townland Maps for the County of Kildare, 
sheets 5, 10. On the former of these is 
to be found the Town and Townland of Kil- 

< See his Life, published in the Third 
Volume of this work, at the 5th of March — 
the date for his Festival — Art. i. 

s Shackleton Hallett, Esq., I Hare Court, 
Temple, London. He had also communi- 
cated the substance of these notes to Very 
Rev. Thomas Geoghecan, V.G., of the Dio- 
cese of Kildare and Leighlin, and P.P. of 

• See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Junii vi., Among the pretermitted saints, p. 

' In "Acta Sanctorum Hibemiae," 
Martii v. Vita S. Kierani, n.29. 

* See ** Martyrologe Universel, traduit in 
Fran9ais du Martyrologe Romain, ofifrant 

pour chac^ue Jour de I'Ann^ la S^rfe des 
Saints, Samtes, etc., honor^ dans toutes les 
Eglises de la Chr^tient^, avec un Diction- 
naire Universel des ces Saints,*' ouvrage 
r^i^^ sur celui de Tabb^ de Chastelain, et 
consid^rablement augment^, par de St. 
AUais, Paris, 1823, 8vo. 

9 See A Supplement or Additions and 
Amendments to the British Martyrology, 
p. 17. 

" See Volume the First of this work, Art. 
v., with notes. 

*' See an account of her in Volume the 
Fourth of thb work. Art. ii., with notes. 

" The following is an English translation : 
** There is a Cill-Chocain Midhe, a day's 
journey from Ath-Cliath. She seems to be 
the nurse of Ciaran of Saighir. But see. 
There is a fair, holiday, and church here.*' 
To the original Irish of the foregoing com- 
ment. Dr. Todd has appended this note : 
** The word left in its original contracted 
state by Mr. Curry isoi^CAct, ///. *a night's 
lodging. ' Oi*eA6c lAe, ' the first da^'s sleep- 
ing place on the journey from Dublin.'" 

»3 See Rev. Drs. Todd's and Reeves' 

Digitized by 



Saigir. However, he advances such an opinion with doubt. Now, as St. Kieran 
was born in the Island of Cape Clear, off the remote southern coast of Ire- 
land, it seems likely his nurse Cochoea belonged to the same region ; but, at 
all events, she was afterwards placed over the monastic institute of Ross- 
Bennchoir, near the western sea of Ireland, which was very far removed from 
Saigir. The present holy woman, we suspect, must be distinguished from that 
St. Cocha or Cocca^'* of Ros-Bennchair, who was nurse to St. Kiaran of the 
former place. This is also the opinion of Father John Colgan.'S We can only 
observe, that the present holy virgin is recognised and distinguished as 
patroness of Kilcock, on the borders of the county of Meath. The localities 
already alluded to are far distant from each other, having apparently no con- 
nexion. In the Introduction '^ to the O'Clerys' Calendar, we are informed, 
that Cill-Choca is in Meath. When tiiis holy virgin settled there is unknown ; 
but, it is thought, that she presided at Kilcock over a community of nuns, in 
quality of Abbess, and local tradition has it, that a religious house formerly 
stood on the spot, lately occupied there by the National School. The Parish 
Register styles this locality Parochia Sanctse Cogae, while the former church 
was called Ecclesia Assumptae Virginis de Kilcock. '? That ground, on which 
the Protestant church until lately stood, is pointed out by tradition, as having 
been in past times the site of the former Catholic church.'^ The remains of 
that Protestant church have been carted away, while the enclosure is now 
used exdustvely as a public cemetery. Preparations having been made for 
building a fine parochial church to be dedicated to St. Coca, the Virgin 
Patroness at Kilcock, a former parish priest. Very Rev. William Treacy, com- 
menced its erection in 1862 ;*9 and, having expended j^^ijooo on the work, he 
was called to his reward.^** After his demise, the Very Rev. Thomas 
Geoghegan was appointed Pastor. He proceeded with great zeal and ener^, 
in the successful prosecution of the building, which was placed under the m- 
vocation of St. Coca, in 1867. The architect was J. J. MacCarthy. The 
plan of Kilcock Catholic Church consists of nave and sanctuary ; the aisles 
terminate in chapels ; a tower *» is at the west end of the nave ; and the 
sacristy is at the north side of the sanctuary. The nave is separated from 
the aisles, by six bays of arches at each side, and resting on granite pillars.'* 
These arches support a clerestory containing couplets of foliated circles on 
each bay. The east window of the sanctuary is a triplet of lancets, filled with 

** Martyrology of Donegal," pp. 378, 379. and Leighlin/* vol. ii., p. 155. 

»* See an account of her, in this volume, ^ " He left, partly of his own means, and 

at the 29th of June — the day for her feast — partly the result of subacriptions received. 

Art. i. J63»ooo towards its completion, to effect 

'5 See "Acta Sancloram Hiberniae," which cost some ;f 6,000 more.'* — Ibid» 

Martii v. Vila S. Kierani Episcopi et Con- '* The tower and spire, when complete, 

fessoris, cap. xxiv., p. 461, and n. 29, shall rise tea height of 170 feet, 

p. 465. •" The roof linings are panelled in wood. 

'* See Rev. Dbb. Todd's and Reeves* "3 The frontal of the high Altar, containing 

" Martyrology of Donegal,'' p. xxxix. the Agnus Dei in the centre, has groups of 

*' See Very Rev. Michael Comerford*s kings adoring in the side panels. The great 

" Collections relating to the Dioceses of Kil- reredos contains under canopied arches, in 

dare and Leighlin," vol. ii., p. 156. the centre, the monograms of the sacred 

»® From the Very Rev. Thomas Geoghe- name, surrounded by seraphim, and at the 

can, V.G., of the Diocese of Kildare and base garlands of vine leaves, grapes and 

Leighlin, and P.P. of Kilcock, in a letter heads of wheat. At the Gospel side of the 

dated March 28th, 1886, the writer has been monogram is a figure of St. Augustine, and 

supplied w^ththeinformaiion here given, and on the Epistle side is that of St. Teresa. In 

with that which immediately follows in the the remaining niches are sculptured groups, 

text. representing the sacrifices of Abel, Nonh, 

'» See Rev. Michael Comerford's ** Col- Melchisedech and Abraham, with figures of 

Actions relating to the Dioceses of Kildare Si. Clare and of St. Mar^ Magdalen. 

Digitized by 




[June & 

stained glass. The clear dimensions of the church are 131 feet in length, in- 
cluding tower, and the width is 60 feet The style is of early Gothic architec- 
ture. The Altars '3 are made of marble and Caen stone, while a rertdos com- 
pletes the accessories of the choir. The reredos is supported by marble 
shafts,'* while it is ornamented with devotional panels and crystal bulbs. 
This church is truly a very solid and an elegant structure.'^ Although the me- 
mory of St. Coca was displaced, in former times, to introduce that of St. Gall,** 
still there were local memorials, such as Tubbermohocca, or the Holy Well 
of Chocca, to perpetuate her celebrity. It sprang as a stream, in what is now 

St. Coca*s Catholic Church, Kilcock. 

an enclosed yard of the town.*' Kilcock also extends as a townland into the 
adjoining parish of Rodanstown, in the barony of Upper Deece and county of 
Meath.«8 In the county of Kerry, (there is a townland of Kilcock,'* divided 

■* The pedestal of reredos is filled in 
panels with diaper, containing harps, round 
towers, and oilier national emblems. The 
lesser rere«los consists of arched panels, 
illuminated in pold and colours. The chapel 
of I he Blessed Virgin contains an Altar, ihe 
frontal of which is filled with a sculptured 
panel in the centre, and representing the 
Coronation of the Blessed Virgin, with 
and adoring angels at the sides. 

'5 The accompanying photographic illus- 
tration, kindly procured for the writer, by 
Very Rev. Thomas Geoghegan, P.P., Kil- 
cock, and V.G., has been transferred to the 
wood, by William F. Wakcman, and it has 
been engraved, by Mrs. Millard. 

"* This was the case, in the time of Colgan, 

according to the List of Churches furnished 
to him, by the Bishop of Kildare. 

*7 " About forty years ago, it was shut up 
by the occupant of the premises, and the 
stream diverte<l to what was considereil a 
more convenient situation."— Very Rev. 
Michael Comerford's ** Collections relating 
to the Diocese of Kildare and Lcighlin," 
vol. ii., p. 155. 

"® This townland is described, on the 
** Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for the 
County of Meath," sheet 49. 

*9 In the parish of Lis.selton, and barony 
of Iraghticonnor. It is described, on the 
" Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for the 
County of Kerry," sheet 5. 

^ It is in the parish of KiUnore, and 

Digitized by 


June 6.] 



into the distinct denominations of Upper and Lower. A townland is called 
Kilcock,3o jn the county of Roscommon, as also a Kilcoke,^' in the Queen's 
County, and in the North Riding of Tipperary ;3a but, we cannot state if any 
of these were called after this holy virgin. With regard to the present saint, 
an entry is found in the Martyrology of Tallagli,'3 at the 6th of June. More- 
over, a feast in honour of Cocca was celebrated, on this day, as we read, like- 
wise, in the Martyrology of Donegal.3* Her festival is noticed by Archdall,3S 
at the same date ; but, we find it impossible to throw further light on her his- 
tory or period. 

Article IV. — ^St. Qurvall, Bishoi? of Aleth, in Armo^ica, France^ 
\Sixth and Seventh Centuries J\ Evidently, the. history of this holy personage 
is surrounded with several obscurities, and tradition has been confused, by 
tlie compilers of his Acts. The* ancient Breviary of St. Malo contains three 
Lessons, giving an abridgment of Gurval's Life. These Lessons have been 
reproduced, in Proper ones of the same church.' Lobineau has an account 
of St. Gurval." Again, Albert le Grand,3 Augustine de Paz,* Jean Chenu, 
Claude Robert, the Sammarthani, as also Andrew Saussay,^ refer to our saint. 
His name is found variedly written Gurvall, Gudwall, Gudnal,^ and Guidgal,? 
An article has been written, by le Pfere Alain Le Large,® on St. Gurval ; but, 
this is now probably lost, since the period of the French Revolution,' although 
the substance may have been preserved.'** The Bollandists have an account 
pf this British saint, at the 6th of June," giving a historic commentary " on 
his veneration, acts, age and religious institute. The Rev. Alban Butler »3 
presents his Life, und^r the heading of St. Gudwall — the corruption of a letter 
- — and he maintains the present holy man is not distinct from that Bishop and 
.Confessor.'* This seems probable enough, although some differences of state- 
jnent make it difficult to reconcile both narratives. There is an account of 

barony of Ballintober Norih, described on 
the " Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for 
the County of Roscommon," sheet 1 8. 

5' In the parish of Rathdowney and barony 
of Cloudonagh, shown on the '* Ordnance 
Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's 
County,** sheets 22, 28. 
• ^ In the parish ol Loug^moe East, and 
barony of Eliogarly. See ** Ordnance Sur- 
-rey Townland Maps for the County of Tip- 
pcrary,'* sheet 35. 

« Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxvi. 

34 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
146, 147. 

. M See "Monasticon Hibemicum,** p. 

Article iv. — ' These were published 
A.i>. 1768. 

* In his ** Vies dcs Saints de la Brelagne,** 
p. 131. 

3 In his Lives of the Saints of British 
Armorica. This work appeared A.D. 1636. 

* In * * Historia Chronologica Episcoporum 
Britannise Armoric«.*' 

5 In his " Martyrologium Gallicanum.*' 

* In an ancient Calendar of the Diocese of 
St. Malo. 

' In a Calendar belonginj; to the Abbey of 
St. Mecn, Diocese of St. Malo. 
• 'In his Manuscript History of the Bishops 

of St. Malo. See Les Petits Bollandistes, 
**Vies des Saints,** tome vi., vi^Jour de 
Juin, p. 504. 

9 After it, the Manuscript History of Le- 
large was brought to England by a refugee 
Religious, who was charged to continue that 
very learned work, the ** Gallia Chris- 

'° After the death of Lelarge, 29th of 
June, 1705, his Manuscripts were put into 
order for publication under this title : " His- 
toire des E\ eques de St. Malo, par Pierre 
Deshayes, Chanoine Regulier de la Congre- 
gation <le France, sur les Memoires recueil- 
lis d 'Alain Lelarge, de la nieme Congrega- 
tion.'* See Michaud's ** Biographic Univer- 
selle, Ancienneet Moderne," tome xxiv., pp. 

5^' 52. 

"See "Acta Sanctorum,* tomus 1., 
Junii vi. De Sancto Gurvallo EpiscopO 
Alethensi in Armoricis, pp. 727, 728. 

" In the eight paragraphs, compiled by 
Father Godefrid Henschen. 

*3 See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs 
and other principal Saints,*' vol. vi., June vi. 

** The Bollandists have a distinct saint, 
at this date. See **Acta Sanctorum,** 
tomus i., Junii vi. De Sancto Gudwalo, 
Episcopo Britanno, Gaudavi in Flandria. 
There is a previous commentary, in six 

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[June £• 

St Gurwall, Bishop, in the work of Rev. S. Baring-Gould.'* The Petits 
Bollandistes »^ have special notices of this holy Bishop, at the 6th of June. 
St Gurval is said to have been a native of Great Britain.'^ In his early youth, 
he became addicted to study, and with his letters, he learned the rules of an 
ecclesiastical life. His love of prayer was very remarkable, while he was 
accustomed to give alms liberally. While young, he loved morti6cation. 
Also, by watching and fasting, he sought to subdue all mortal frailties. He 
was accustomed to assemble daily the young clergy of his own age, and to 
exliort them. This caused many to entertain a great desire, to lead very holy 
and perfect lives. To show how entirely he renounced the world, Gurval re- 
solved, that Christ should be his sole inheritance ; so that he employed ail 
his worldly substance, which was very considerable, to found a monastery* 
At this time, the illustrious St Brendan,'^ the Navigator and Bishop of Clou- 
fert, was the master over many holy disciples : and to him St Gurval is 
thought to have repaired for direction and teaching. However, there was a 
different St. Brendan, Abbot of Birr,*» and he may have been under this ex- 
perienced master.*® St. Gurval studied with fruit, and he embraced also the 
monastic state. Whether the first-named St Brendan lived in Ireland, or in 
British Armorica, at this time, does not seem to have transpired. However, 
as this celebrated man died about a.d. 577, we should naturally suppose, that 
if St. Ginrvall were his pupil, it must have been in Ireland.^' Afterwards, as we 
are told, St. Gurval became Abbot, over that monastery of which he was the 
founder. St. Gurval had a revelation, which assured him of becoming Bishop 
over the church of Alet or Aleth, otherwise known as Quid Alet, or Guich 
Alet.*' When St. Malo retired to Saintonge, and when he knew that death 
was approaching, he began to consider well the spiritual necessities of his 
people, and he felt most desirous of selecting a worthy successor, to whom he 
might conscientiously resign the See of Aleth.'J He therefore called his 
brethren to him, and recommended, that they should induce St Gurval to 
come, he being so distinguished through his miracles and virtues. When St 
Malo was called away to Heaven,*^ some of his disciples went over to Great 
Britain. There they prayed St Gurval, to become their Bishop, as their holy 
master had requested. Overcome by their persuasions, Gurval at last yielded 
assent. He then passed over the sea with them.*5 With consent of the 

para^phs, with Vita, having seven chap- 
ters, in 74 paragraphs, and notes, edited by 
Father Godefrid Henschen, pp. 728 to 

*5 See ** Lives of the Saints,'* vol. vi., June 
6, p. 56. 

** See * * Vies des Saints," tome vi., vi* Jour 
dejuin, pp. 471, 504. 

'7 Supposing him to be identical with the 
St. Gudwall — separately mentioned by the 
Bollandists — the Rev. Alban Butler places 
his birth in Wales, and states, that he be- 
came Abbot over a numerous monastery in 
the little isle of Plecit, that he afterwards 
passed by sea to Cornwall, and then travelled 
into Devonshire, where he built himself a 
hermitage. This is said to have grown into 
a monastery, on account of the number of 
disciples who flocked to the place. ^ He 
flourished at the close of the sixth or in the 
seventh century. See ** Lives of the Fathere, 
Martyrs and other principal Saints," vol. vi.. 
Tune vi. 

«* See his Life* in the Fifth Volume of this 
work, at the i6th of May, Art. L 

'9 His feast occurs, on the 29lh of Novem* 
ber, where notices of him may be found. 

*° His death is placed, at the 29th of 
Noveml)er, a.d. 571. See Rev. Dr.Lanigan*s 
'* £cclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. iL, 
chap. X., sect, viii., p. 39, and n. 131, 
p. 40. 

'' This account is questioned in Rev. S. 
Baring-Gould's *' Lives of the Saints,*' vol. 
vi., June 6th, p. 56. 

" See L*Abb^ Tresvaux's "Eglise de 

•3 See ••Gallia Christiana," tome xiv., 
col. 995. 

*4 This event is assigned to a.d. 612 or 
627. See M. Le Dr. Hoefer's ••Nou- 
veUe Biographic G^u^rale," tome xxxiii., 
col. 89. 

*s See the ancient Lessons, published In 
the •* Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Tunii vi. 
De Sancto Gurvallo Episcopo Aletbensi in 

Digitized by 



metropolitan and the neighbouring bishops, he was consecrated Bishop of 
Aleth. He applied himself immediately, to know the wants of his diocese 
and to supply them. His character for holiness, and his exalted position, 
caused him to be greatly loved and admired by his people. He worked much 
for God's glory and for the salvation of souls. So long as his brief term of 
rule lasted, he was the source of great consolation to his flock, who would 
have desired him to continue long among them as their bishop. He governed 
this See, however, only a year and few months, according to some writers ; 
others have it, that he ruled over it for two whole years. During this term, 
Gurval had still a longing desire to abandon the world wholly, and to fulfil 
this piupose, he caused his Archdeacon named Coalfinit or Colfineth to 
accept the charge of souls, in the See of Aleth.«* Then, Gurval sought a 
place in his diocese, known as Ar-Guem ^^ or Guer,*^ in Morbihan. There, 
a monastery had been established,*' and it was deemed a fitting place for 
him to commune solely with his Creator, and to prepare for the rewards of 
eternal life. Encouraged by his example, and animated by the love of God, 
several of his priests relinquishing their worldly goods followed their bishop 
to his place of retirement. Notwithstanding, the holy recluse could not there 
find retreat ;" for, numbers of the faithful, attracted by the reputation of his 
sanctity, came frequently to visit him. At length, selecting a grotto, and 
screened from all knowledge of his diocesans, Gurval wished to lead the life 
of a hermit. Taking with him twelve of his priests, as companions, he re- 
treated to that remote place, and there he lived until about the end of the 
sixth or beginning of the seventh century. 3® Full of years as of merits, he 
there finished his life, in calm repose.3* He lived in a cavern above the sea.3« 
He departed from this world, according to one account, a.d. 623,33 or about 
the year 640, as is more generally supposed. A part of his head was formerly 
kept, in the treasury of St. Magloire, belonging to the Fathers of the Oratory, 
at Paris.34 During those inroads, made by the Normans on the coast of 
France, certain monks carried away the treasure of his relics. At first, these 
were deposited at Gatinois, where at Yevre-le-Chatel an old shrine was sliown, 
and which contained them. One of the bones, wliich was left, afterwards 
might be seen in the parish church of Petiviers or Pluviers.35 Some time 
after their first translation, the relics of our saint were brought to Montreuil 
in Picardy, then a place of strength. There they remained, until the tenth 
century, when Arnold I. or the Great, Count of Flanders, 3^ caused them to 
be transferred to the great monastery of St. Peter, of Blandine, at Gant.37 
There his memory is specially revered. At Guer, or Guern, in the diocese of 
St. Malo, St. Gurval, second bishop of Aleth, was also greatly venerated,38 and 

Annorica, num. 8, p. 728. Saints," tome vi., vi* Jour de Juin, pp. 471, 

^ See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of 504. 
the Saints," voL vi., June 6th, p. 56. 3' See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of 

•y This Breton word signifies TAunaie, in the Saints," vol. vi., Tune 6, p. 56. 
English ** a grove of alder trees.** 33 Xiiat of Albert le Grand. 

■* It is near St. Malo's of Baignon, and in *♦ See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 

the diocese of St. Malo. Saints,*' tome vL, vi* Jour de June, p. 471. 

*» It is thought, by St. Malo, and that it ^ According to Chnstelain. 

first had been conducted under the Scottish ^ He carri^ on a long war against the 

Rule, although afterwards it embrnceil the Normans. 

Benedictine. See "Acta Sanctorum,** ^7 See Rev. Alban Butler*s '* Lives of fhe 

tomus i, Junii vi. De Sancto Gurvallo, &c., Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints,'* 

num. 5. p. 727, vol. vi., June vL 

*» See Rev. Alban Butler*s" Lives of the 3«See I^ Petils BoUandbtes, "Vies 

Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints,'* des Saints,*' tome vi., vi* Jour de Juin, 

vol. vi , June vi. P» 47i« 

'• Sec Les Petits Bollandistes, ** Vies des » See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the 

Digitized by 



of that place he is titular patron. In the British Calendars, the 6th of June 
is the date for St. Gurvall's or Gudwall's feast. In several churches of 
Gatinois, and at Montreuil sur Mer, he is honoured ; in the parish of St, 
Gouail, Diocese of Vannes, he is patron, whilst St. Gudwall bears this name. 
There was an island priory, depending on the abbey of Redon, in the same 
diocese.39 Chiefs and prelates, as also the commonalty, crowded probably to 
this saint's place of abode, during his lifetime. There he was honoured more 
than others, exalted in the enjoyment of rank and wealth, although he liad 
been living in absolute poverty. 

. Article V. — St. Maelaithghen, op Tech Maeilaithohin, pro- 


QF Kildare, or in Meath. The Martyrology of Tallagh * merely registers 
the name Maelathgean, at the 6th of June. That Moelaithgen lived at an 
early period is proved, from the fact of his feast having been inserted in the 
Feiiire of St. ^ngiis,* at this date. The commentator has a note, to identify 
his locality.3 According to the Martyrology of Donegal,* on this day was 
venerated Maelaithghen, said to have been of Tigh Maelaithghen,5 in Cairbre- 
Ua-Ciardha,^ or in Maghlacha, in the west of Bregia. This territory extended 
from the River Liffey to the River Boyne, and it took in a great part of the 
present county of Meath.7 Tlie place of this saint must be sought for, within 
the ancient territory of Cairbre-Ui-Chiardha.® This now forms the barony 
of Carbury, in the north-western part of the present county of Kildare.' In 
Scotland, this Natalis of the Holy Confessor Maclaithchen was commemo- 
rated, on the 6th of June, as noticed in the Kalendar of Drummond, 

Article VI, — St. Medhran, or Medrain, Bishop. Medrain appears 
in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 6th of June, and he is styled Bishop. 
In the table, superadded to the Donegal Martyrology, he is said to have been 
brother ofOdhran, according to the Life of St. Ciaran of Saighir." If so, both 
belonged to the town of I>othre in Musgraidhe Tire, and Meadhran, although 
at first coming to consult St. Kieran 3 about going on a pilgrimage, afterwards 
expressed a wish to remain with him as a disciple. We are told, that both the 
brothers were children from ten to fourteen years of age about this time when 
they visited Kieran, which was just before the return of St, Cartachfrom the 

Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints,*' i Cairpre Ua Ciaidha." 

vol. vi., Jiinii vi. i See Dr. 0*Donovan*s ** Leabhar na 

Article v. — » Edited by Rev. Dr. g-Ceart or Book of Rights," n. (z), pp. 

Kelly, p. xxvi. ii, 12. 

» See llie " Leabhar Breac " copy in * The family name of O'Ciardha b now 

"Transactions of the Royal Irish Aca- Anglicized Keary and Carey, 

demy," Iri>h Manuscript Series, vol. i., » See Dr. 0*Donovan's ** Annals of the 

p. xcii. Four Masters," vol. ii., n. (y), p. 670. 

3 The Irish note is thus translated, by ^^ See Bishop Forbes' ** Kalendars of 

Whiiley Stokes, LL.D. : "/>., of Tech Scottish Saints.'' p. 15. 

Moelaithdn in Cairpre Hua-Ciardai. Or in Article vl — * Edited by Rev. Dr. 

Mag Locha in the west of Bregia." — Ibid,^ Kelly, p. xxvi. 

p. xcix. " At this passage, Rev. Dr. Reeves has the 

< Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. following note : " In the marmn of the MS., 

146, 147. opposite this, is written, 8 luti. t>0|\eip 

s This local denomination has not been ^eog^if, *8 of June Aonghus says.' See 

discovered. above at 8th June."— /AiV/., pp. 444, 445. 

* William M. Hennessy annexes the follow- 3 See his Life, in vol. iii. of this work, at 

ing Manuscript note : ** Tech Maeilaithglin 5th of March, Art. i. 

Digitized by 


JUNB 6.] 



Continent, placed at a.d. 462 or 463.* According to O'Clery, it was said, that he 
may have been Medhrdn of Saighir, who descended from the race of Conaire, 
son to Moghlamha, monarch of Erin. He belonged to the race of Hereraon,5» 
in that supposition. Under the head of Saighh", Duald Mac Firbis enters, 
Medran, bishop, at June the 6th.^ Thc-Martyrology of Donegal ^ mentions, 
on this day, the veneration of Medhran. At this date, as also at the 8th of 
the present month, the Scotch have a St. Medran, and also a Madrine, entered 
in their Calendars.^ This latter name is supposed to have been a corruption- 
of Medan,9 while there was a parish in Wigtonshire, called Kirkmadrine, and 
also another called Kirkmadin. Chalmers supposed, that two churches in the 
locality were dedicated to St. Medan j*® and, in the recent Ordnance Survey 
Maps of Scotland, the old churches there are given under the name of Kirk- 
madrine." Formerly, one seems to have been distinguished as Kirk-Maiden 
on the Sea, and the other as Kirk Madin." The churchyard of Kirkmadrine, 
in the parish of Stoneykirk, Wigtonshire, is still preserved as a burial-ground, 
while some ancient remains and inscriptions '3 are to be found in that 

Article VII. — St. Claireneach, of Cluain-Caoin. . An entry, in 
the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 6th of June, is Clarainech, Cluana Caoin. 
There is a Clonkeehan, a parish in the barony of Louth, and another Clon- 
keen, a parish in the barony of Ardee ; both of these are in the county of 
Louth. Old ruins exist in both of these parishes.' However, it may not be 
positively asserted, that either of these parishes were connected with the pre- 
sent saint. There are many similar names, in different counties of Ireland. 
Hence, it will not be an easy matter to identify the present locality. On this 
day was venerated Claireneach, of Cluain-caoin, as we find set down, in the 
Martyrology of Donegal,3 

Article VIII. — St. Lonan. The name Lonan is entered, in the 
Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 6th of June. His time and locality are alike ' 
unknown. It is recorded, likewise, in the Martyrology of Donegal," that 
veneration was given to Lonan, on this day. 

< Sec John Hogan's " St.Ciaran, Patron of 
Ossory : a Memoir of his Life and Times,'' 
chap. XX., pp. 163, 164. 

5 In a note, Dr. Todd says at Heremon : 
"The more recent hand adds here, 'Est 
potius 81 hujus.' Meaning that the S. 
Medran, here mentioned, is more probably 
the same, who is commemorated on the 8th 
of this month." 

• Sec ** Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy/' Irish Manuscript Series, vol.i., 
parti., pp. 126, 127. 

f Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

14^ 149- 

•See Bishop Forbes* "Kalendars of 
Scottish Saints,^* p. 382. 

* See Chalmers' " Caledonia," vol. iii., 

p. 439. 

^ See ibid,^ p. 429. 

" There are two neighbouring churches 
dedicated to St. Medan. One of these is in 
the parish of Glasserton, known as Kirk- 
maiden in Femes, while the other is called 

Kirkmaiden in Rinns. 

" On Blean's Atlas. 

'3 These are probably referred to, in the 
"New Statistical Account of Scotland," 
Wigtonshire, p. 164. 

'* See John Stuart's "Sculptured Stones 
of Scotland," for an interesting Plate and 
description of these objects, at pp. 35, 36, 
and Plate Ixxi. He supposes the inscrip- 
tion, as having reference to St. Mathurinus, 
who was honoured in the diocese of Sens, 
and whose feast was celebrated on the 9th of 

Article vii.— -' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxvi. 

" A description of both parishes is given, 
in Lewis' "Topographical Dictionary of • 
Ireland," vol. i., pp. J05, 366. 

3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
146, 147. 

Article viii.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxvi. 

• Edited by D . Todd and Reeves, pp* 

Digitized by 



Article IX. — St. Faolan. The Martyrology of Tallagh » inserts the 
name, Faelan, at the 6th of June. Nothing seems to be known of his place 
or period. We find entered, again, in the Martyrology of Donegal," that 
Faolan was venerated on this day. 

Article X. — St. Deocharus. At the 6th of June, Colgan had intended 
the publication of St. Deocharus* Acts, as we find from the posthumous list.* 
We cannot even surmise who was this personage, from any entries we find in 
the Calendars, at the 6th day of June. 

Article XI. — Reputed Feast of a St. Columba, Confessor and 
Priest. Among the Entries of Camerarius, in the Scottish Kalendar,* for 
the 6th day of June, there is notice of a St Columba, a Confessor and a 
Priest.' He is said to have been a different person from a holy man, named 
Colom.krag,3 who is mentioned in the Acts of the great St. Columkille.* On 
the foregoing authority, St. Columba is entered by the Bollandists,^ at this 
same date. It is said, that ^monia is dedicated to St. Columba, a presbyter, 
venerated on this day f but, nothing more definite about him has come under 
our observation. 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of St. Finnbar, Bishop and Con- 
FESSOR. At the 6th of June, among the Entries of Camerarius,* there is a 
Saint Finnbar, a Bishop and Confessor .« The Bollandists'3 copy this state- 
ment, at the same day ; but, they observe, that there is neither mention of 
his period or See.* The Martyrology of Aberdeen distinguishes wrongly 
between St Fimbamis of Caithness — who is said to have died there — and St 
Barr, Bishop of Cork, who is venerated in Ireland, on the asth of Septera- 

Article XIII. — Feast of St. Kilianus, Confessor. On the authority 
of Greven's additions to Usuard, where there is notice of Kilianus, Confessor, 
at the 6th of June, the Bollandists * have an entry to'the same effect, on this 
day. They seem to consider, he may have been that Scottish Bishop Kilian, 
whose feast is commemorated at Artois, in the northern parts of France, on 
the 13th of November." 

146, 147. dars as follows : " Hoc eodem die Sanctus 

Article ix.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. Fimbarus Episcopus ct Confessor." 

Kelly, p. xxvi. • See Bishop Forbes* " Kalendars of Scot- 

» Edited by Drs, Todd and Reeves, pp. tish Saints," p. 238. 

146, 147. 3 See "AcU Sanctorum," tomus i, 

Article x. — * "Catalogus Actuum Junii vi. Among the pretermitted saints, 

Sanctorum quae MS. habentur, ordine Men- pp. 617, 618. 

sium et Diermn." < They remark, that in the Life of St. 

Article xi. — ' Thus: "Sanctus Co- Mochoemoc, at the 13th of March,nttm. 15, 

lumba Confessor et Presbyter.** and at letter e, they have treated about 

" See Bishop Forbes * * Kalendars of various saints, called F'innbarr ; while, in the 

Scottish Saints," p. 238. Scottish Menology of Dempster, he has a 

* In ** Vita S. Columbae,'* num. v. Bishop Barrus or Fundbarrus, in Cathenes, 

< See his Life, in this volume, at June 9th, at the 25th of September. See iHd. 

Art. i. s See Bishop Forbes* " Kalendars of Scot- 

« See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., tish Saints," p. 275. 

JiUiii vL Amongthepretermitted feasts, p. Article xiii.— ' See "Acta Sancto- 

617. . rum,** tomus i., Junii vi. Among the pre- 

f See Bishop Forbes* "Kalendars of Scot- termitted saints, p. 618. 

tish Saints,*' p. 306. » See notices of him, at that date, in this 

Article xii.— « To the Scottish Kalcn- work. 

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Article XIV. — Feast of Amantius, Martyr. In the Feilire* of 
St. -^ngus, the Festival of St. Amantius' is recorded, at the 6th day of June. 
This holy Martyr and his Companions are treated of, by Father Godefrid 
Henschen,3 on this same day. He endeavours to elucidate their Acts, from 
various ancient Martyrologies. 

Article XV. — Reputed Feast of St. Eata, Abbot of Melrose, 
AND Bishop of Lindisfarne, England. Among the Cistercian Saints has 
been classed Eata,» Bishop of Lindisfarne, who departed this life a.d. dZZ, 
He had been Abbot of Melrose, which in its earlier times is said to have been 
a Benedictine Institute, and afterwards a Cistercian, according to Claude 
Chalemot* For this, he cites the Roman Martyrology, Baronius and 
Molanus ; but, the Bollandists 3 — who note what he states at the 6th of June 
— cannot find such references supported by the authors quoted. However, 
as they remark, Eata, incorrectly written Rata, will be found, at the 26th of 
October, according to the English Martyrology. 

Article XVI. — Reputed Feast of St. Colman, Bishop of Dromore. 
In our opinion, there must have been some misplacement of a Festival, for this 
saint, m the Scottish Kalendars. At the 6th of June, and for a.d. 500, Bishop 
Forbes has a notice of St. Colmoc — said to have been the same as Colman 
with the honorific suffix oioc oxog — Bishop of Dromore, in Ireland. Although 
buried in the city of Dromore, a monastery was erected and solemnly dedi- 
cated in his honour at Inchemaholmoch, in the diocese of Dunblane.' How- 
ever, the Martyrology of Aberdeen gives the place of his sepulture, as Inch- 
macome, where in after times there was a monastery of Canons Regular, be- 
longing to the Order of St. Augustine.* In the burial-ground of Kirriemuir,3 
there was a " Capella Sancti Colmoci." However, at the day succeeding, as 
the Festival of St. Colman, Bishop of Dromore, is observed in Ireland, we 
shall have more to state regarding him. 

Article XVII. — Reputed Festival of St. Viuianus, Bishop. A 
St. Viuianus is set down by Camerarius * as a Bishop, who was venerated on 

Article xiv. — * In the "Lcabhar at the 26th of October, which is the day for 

Breac " copy, the following stanza occurs, his Feast. 

and it b translated into English, by Dr. 'He was a Cistercian, and he wrote 

Whitley Stokes: — "Series Sanctorum et Beatorum ac Illus- 

trium Vironim Ordinis Cisterciensis," which 

huA5 cef Ax> ^m^nci appeared at Paris A.D. 1670, in 4to. See M. 

Woixcnini niAt) foolu^^ Le Dr. Hoefer's **Nouvelle Biograpbie 

moeUAich^en conjtAiibAil G^erale," tome ix., col. 56?. 

tttit) fOch^tmAin cubA. ^See "Acta Sanctorum,'* tomus i., Junii 

vi. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 

** Amantius* perfect suffering, an over great 618, 

deed if thou conceal it: Moelaithgen with Article xvi. — ' According to the 

pure goodness went under ground to a Aberdeen Breviary, Pars Hyemalis, fol. ci., 

shelter." — " Transactions of the Royal Irish cii. 

Academy,*' Irish Manuscript Series, vol. L, " See Bishop Forbes* " Kalendars of Scot- 

p. xciL tish Saints,** pp. 304, 305. 

' On his name is the Scholion, " nescio ubi ^ Retours, Forfar, No. 557. 

tst"— /Jtt/., p. xdx. Article xvil— ' In his Entries to the 

3 See *^ Acta Sanctorum,'* tomus i., Junii Scottish Kalendar: "Hoc eodem die sanc- 

vL De Sanctis MartjfribusNivedunensibus, tus Viuianus Episcopus.** 

Amantio, Ludo, Alexandro, Andrea, Do- * See Bishop Forbes* " Kalendars of Scot- 

nato, Peregriua» p. 62S. tish Saints,** p. 338. 
Article xv. — ' See an account of him, . 

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the 6th of June.* As we can find no other account of him, under the fore- 
going designation ; it may not be an improbable conjecture to surmise, that 
the substitution of the letter u for n has uken place in \iTiting his name. In 
such case, Vinianus can readily be resolved into the Finianus, already men- 
tioned, at the present date. 

Jl^ebentt) Bap of %m\t. 





SO uncertain are all references made to this holy man, that with the 
exception of prevailing traditions, and the honour so long paid his 
memory, we can affirm few personal traits, relating to him, and of a perfectly 
reliable nature. However, popular traditions — and especially these coming 
down to us from a remote age and in reference to a venerated bishop — have 
a force and trustworthiness of peculiar importance, even where the incidents 
of his biography are obscured, in the memory of his mere personality. The 
virtues of every saint stand out in Christian reverence, with a peculiar and 
surpassing beauty. As years advance, these only serve to brighten the glory 
of saintliness, and to intensify that affection, with which beatific memories are 
cherished in millions of households. Throughout the Christian world, there 
is need of no words, to tell how much and how deeply each holy one has 
endeared himself to the members of Christ's Church. 

Among many Irish saints, bearing the name of Colman, and numbering at 
least one hundred and twenty, much difficulty arises, in assigning tp the* 
patron of Dromore diocese distinctive acts, which bear a sole reference to 
him. However, there are Manuscript Lives of him still preserved. Some of 
these are kept, in the Bodleian Library, at Oxford.* Among the Burgundian 
Libraiy Manuscripts, at Bnixelles, there is a Latin Vita S. Colmani, E. Drum.' 
On this day, Colgan intended to have published Acts of this saint.3 A Manu-^ 
script Life of this holy bishop^ was in possession of the Bollandists, towards, 
the close of the seventeenth century. This has been edited,' in the volume 

CHAPTER I.— Article i.— ' They are other Irish Saints, in what had formerly 

classed : I. Rawl. B 505. f. 245, veil, folio : been known as the Salamancan Manuscript, 

and, 2. Rawl. B. 485. f. 170-176. b. veil. 410 Having been the property of a Jesuit CoU 

xiv. cent. lege, this Codex had been transferred to the 

' In voL xxii., fol. 201. Bollandists' museum or library, then estab- ' 

3 As may be ^seen in the posthumous liohed at Antwerp. 

list. s With a previous commentary of seven 

4 It was included, with certain acts of paragraphs with notes. 

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June 7.] 



of their great serial work, which was published, a.d. 1698.^ According to the 
editor, Father Francis Baert, this Manuscript 7 had been written three 
hundred years before the date of its publication.* He justly considers it, as 
abounding in many unreliable accounts,? which could not fail to displease 
any judicious reader. However, as in the case of certain Acts of the Irish saints, 
finding none others extant or more reliable ; and, in the present instance, 
if he did not use those materials prepared — hitherto inedited and perhaps 
likely to remain so— Baert proposed to set them before the curious reader,'** 
although many might suppose it better, to withdraw such Acts from their great 
collection. Another reason he assigns, that as Irish historians were accus- 
tomed to refer to Lives of their Saints as historic authorities," he considered 
it just as well to produce such accounts, even when silly and fabulous. In 
reference to the present holy man, it is to be suspected, that accounts 
relating to him have confounded our Colman with other saints bearing a 
similar name. There are notices of this holy bishop, at the 7 th of June, in 
Rev. Alban Butler." The Rev. Dr. Lanigan '3 and the Petits Bollandistes »* 
have his commemoration, at this same date. Also, in the *' Circle of the 
Seasons,"'^ in the works of Bishop Forbes,** and of Rev. S. Baring-Gould, '7 
is he noted. 

Before his birth, predictions announced Colman's advent to the Irish. On 
a certain occasion,*® whilst our great Apostle '? journeyed from Armagh towards 
the monastery of Saul,*> he was hospitably entertained by a bishop, who pre- 
sented himself and his establishment to the venerable guest, at his departure. 
We are informed, however, that St Patrick refused to accept of that bishop's 
offer, but he predicted : " Thou art not assigned to me, but, after sixty 
years, one must be bom, who shall found his monastery in an adjoining 
valley. There, a little while ago, whilst engaged in singing Mass, I saw through 
the church window a great multitude of angels assembled." St. Patrick is 

• See ** Acta Sanctorum,** tomus ii., Junii 
yii. Dc S. Cplmano seu Colmoco, Epis- 
copo Dromorensi in Hibemia, pp. 24 to 29. 

^' The Life appears in two chapters, con- 
taining 14 paragraphs. 

^ An Appendix follows, in 7 paragraphs. 

• He supposed it to have been wntten, for 
the purpose of illustrating by recitation the 
acts of those Irish Saints, whose festivals 
had been observed in Ireland, during the 
fourteenth century. On the yearly recurrence 
of their special feasts, or as a portion of the 
Divine Office, or during the hours for reflec- 
tion in religious houses, such biographies 
were usually read. 

*° He adds: "prsesertim cum Breviarii 
Aberdonensis collector, ex iis Lectiones pro 
Divino officio desumpserit,'* &c. 

" Unacquainted with the vast store of 
Irish historical manuscripts, existing in Ire- 
land and in Great Britain, as also on the 
Continent, in his day, Baert rather thought- 
lessly appends a general statement, which 
then as now is altogether incorrect, in refer- 
ence to our Island : ^ vix alia suppetunt 
rerum p>atriarum monumenta." 

"See "Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs 
and other principal Saints," vol. vi., June 

" See " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 
ToL L, chap, U., sect i., pp. 431 to 434. 

'* See "Vies des Saints," tome vi., 
vii* Jour de Juin, p. 506. 

'5 At p. 159. 

'« See his "Kalendars of Scottish Saints," 
pp. 304, 305. 

*^ See his ** Lives of the Saints," vol. vi., 
June 7, p. 71. However, it is evident that 
this biography has relation altogether to a 
different St. Colman, of Derrymore, vene- 
rated at May the 20th. See an account of 
him in vol. v. of this work. Art. i., at that 

'• See ** Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Junii 
vii. De S Colmano seu Colmoco, &c Acta 
Fabulosa, cap. i., num. I, p. 25. 

'9 St. Patrick. See his Life, in the Third 
Volume of this work, at March 17th, 
Art i. 

■• As there were two places, called Saul, 
in the province of Ulster ; one very near 
Armagh, and the other about two miles from 
Down, it may fairly be conjectured, this 
latter was the place referred to ; first, be- 
cause had that Saul to which the Apostle 
travelled been in the neighbourhood of 
Armagh, there could be no reason, why he 
should seek accommodation from any bishop 
on his journey, and secondly, because the 
Sabhall Palric, or Bam of St. Patrick, was 
his principal establishment, and his 5ivoorite 
place of resort* 

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[June 7. 

said, also, to have repeated the foregoing prophecy to another bishop, 
ordained by himself in those parts, and who wished to become a subject him- 
self, with all his possessions, of the Irish Apostle.** This prediction has been 
referred, however, to Colmanelo,** of Muckmore.*? Still, it cannot be ascer- 
tained, that there had been any Colman, or Colmanellus, a Legate of all Ire- 
land.*« We are further assured, that in lapse of time, all these predictions 
regarding place and person were fulfilled, as they had been declared from the 
lips of St. Patrick."5 Again, we are told, that whilst the holy abbot St. Colum- 
kille '* was in the plain of Conall *7 — a rural tract in southern Ulster ** — he 
spoke in prophetic spirit regarding our saint, to a certain nobleman named 
Mongan, who wished to dedicate himself and his posterity to Columba : 
** Trust me, 1 cannot receive you, because God has destined you for a certain 
holy man, who will build his monastery, on the northern bank of a river, called 
Locha.'9 He shall be venerable, in tlie sight of God and man." Whatever 
credit may be given to an assertion, that St. Colman's birth had been predicted 
long before its occurrence, by St. Patrick, we cannot admit, that St. Colum- 
kille had also foretold an event, which must have happened, probably before 
his own birth.3** Neither is the latter prophecy contained in any of St 
Columba's authentic Acts, as published by Colgan, nor in other ancient works ; 
neither do we find the name of Mongan, as there introduced. However, 

** The preceding account cannot be found 
in any of St. Patrick's Lives, as edited by 
Coli;an ; however, there is a something 
similar, in his sixth Life, as written by 
Jocelin. It inns nearly as follows : At a 
certain time, whilst St. Patrick visited that 
part of Ulster, which is called Dalaradia, 
he passed through a place, named Mucco- 
mur. One of his disciples, Benignus, stopped 
here, a.^ ifcontcniplatiDg some extraordinary 
celestial vision. He saw a bright choir of 
Angels, difTubing a heavenly radiance around 
that place, and he heard the praise of the 
Creator sung with a ravishmg melody. 
Wrapt in admiration, at this miracle, Benig- 
nus was filled with a thrill of delight. But, 
he wondered especially, what this Aneelic 
presence, great effulgence and celestial har- 
mony portended, in connection with that 
place. However, after a short interval, this 
wonderful vision altogether disappeared, 
from the eyes of Benignus, and with accele- 
rated pace, he followed in the track of St. 
Patrick to overtake him. The holy Pontiff, 
wibhed to learn the caure of his delay, and 
Benignus described that heavenly vbion he 
had witnessed. St. Patrick had a divine in> 
timation of the meaning to be drawn from 
this brilliancy, effulgence, and angelic chant. 
Thereupon, he expounded its meaning in 
the presence of his companions, as fol> 
lows : " Know, my dearly l>eloved children, 
that in this place, a certain son of life, 
name Colmanellus, shall build a church, and 
shall gather many sons of light and future 
aiigelic companions. He shall be Praesul 
and Legate of all Ireland, distinguished for 
his virtues and miracles. After the darkness 
of life shall overtake him, he shall be trans- 
ferred to eternal light and rest, by the 

Angels of God." 

»' He is venerated, on the 26th of Septem- 

*^ Jocelin says nothing about the number 
of years to elapse, between the prophecy 
concerning Colmanel and his birth. See 
Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga,"Scxta Vita 
S. Patricii, cap. xcvi., p. 87. 

»♦ See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's ** Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland," vol. i., chap, ix., n. 5, 

PP- 432, 433. 

'5 See Colon's "Trias Thaumaturga." 
Vita S. Patricii, cap. xcvi., p. 87. 

^ See his Life, at the 9th of June, Art. i. 

*J The " Campus Conalleorum," to which 
allusion is here made, appears to have been 
that region, known as Conallia Murthem- 
neusis. It is mentioned, in the First Life of 
St. Patrick, edited by Colgan, in the "Trias 
Thaumaturga,*' at p. 8. 

'® Now known as the county of Louth. It 
extended from Breagh Mountain, near a city 
called Pontana — now Drogheda — to an in- 
dentation of the sea, Dundelgania, or Dun 
Delgan, at present commonly called. Dun- 
dalk. See Mr. D'Alton's •* History of Dro- 
gheda with its Environs," vol. i., p. I. Also, 
Messrs. D* Alton's and 0*Flanagan*s ** His- 
tory of Dundalk and its Environs," chap, i., 
pp. 5 to 7. 

=• The River Locha it was supposed could 
not be clearly identified, and this was 
thought by Rev. Dr. Lanigan to have been 
some lake, usually called a Loch or Lough, 
in Ireland, where many of such are found. 

** According to the received account, our 
saint was born A.D. 516, and St. Columkille 
came into this world four years later, or 
about A.D. 52a 

'' Again, as we happen to know, that St« 

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June 7.] 



unless we are to reject what is related of his education under Caylan and 
Ailbe, and of his connection with Macnisse, Colman was prior to Columkille 
by many years.3» 

Our saint is usually invoked as Colman, in his offices. Yet, there are 
other forms of this name. He appears to have been denominated Colmoc, 
in the Aberdeen Breviary. Colmus, Mocolmoc, and Colmanelus, are names 
applied to this saint A scholiast on the ^ngussian Martyrology styles him 
Mocolmus.3« In former instances, a variation of name will find its illustration, 
in the case of other Irish saints, to whom diminutives and terms of endear- 
raent have been accorded, by the people inhabiting this island. It has been 
asserted, that St Colman of Dromore was born at an earlier period, than has 
been generally supposed ; for, it is evident,33 that St. Finian of Maghbile was 
first instructed by our saint, who was eminent in the early part of the sixth 
century.34 Colgan 35 reckons Colman of Dromore, among the disciples of St 
Patrick ;^ and, if we admit this statement, the birth of this Irish patriarch should 
be placed early, and in or about the middle of the fifth century. The birth 
of our saint is assigned by Sir James Ware and by his editor Walter Harris 37 — 
quoting tJssher as authority — to 516.3* It is a very general opinion, also, that 
St. Colman flourished in the sixth century. 3^ However, it has been incorrectly 
stated, that when treating on the Writers of Ireland, Ware asserts that Colman 
of Dromore flourished to the seventh century ; but, this accurate writer 
makes no such statement there, unless we are to apply his account respecting 
St. Colman, Bishop of Lindisfame,^ to the saint of whom we are now treating. 
Because there is an account of St Gregory the Great having consecrated a 
Colman,4» at Rome, it has been thought, he can have been no other than the 
first bishop and patron of Dromore, so named. But, the Rev. Dr. Lanigan 
tells us,*» that through a mistake of Ussher, Colman of Dromore has been 
confounded with a Colmanel of Muckmore. They are distinguished, how- 
ever, by Father John Colgan,43 who, on the authority of Jocelyn,*^ calls the 
latter an Apostolic Legate.'**5 Through a sort of negligence very usual with 

Columkille had some transactions with Col- 
manelo, the Rev. Dr. Lanigan believes, that 
the misuke has proceeded from such circum- 
sUnce. See *• Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land/' vol. i., chap, ix., sect, i., n. 11, 
p. 434- 

'^ In the ** Leabhar Breac " copy we find 
after Colaim, 1. e. mocholwog "Of otna tnoi|\ 
in huib echAch uIat> : rendered into 
English, **!>., My Colmoc of Druim-Mor 
in Ui-Echach of Ulster."—** Transactions 
of the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manu- 
script Series, vol. i. On the Calendar of 
Oengus, by Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. 

^ From documents referred to by 

^ See Dr. Laniean's " Ecclesiastical His- 
tory of Ireland," vol. i., chap. ix.,sect.i.,p.43i. 

» See "Trias Thaumaturga," Quinta 
Appendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. xxiii., 
p. 269. 

3* For this statement, reference is made to 
St Finnian of Maghbile or Moville, whose 
feast occurs at the loth of September. 

» Sec Harris' Ware, voL t, " Bishops of 
Ireland," p. 257. 

38 But it would seem, that Ussher refers 
not to him, but to St. Colman Elo. See 
Index Chronologicus, '' Britannicarum Ec- 
desiarum Antiquitates," a.d. dxvi., p. 

» See Harris* Ware, vol. ii., ** Antiqui- 
ties of Ireland," chap, xxxviii., p. 265. 

^ See **De Scriptoribus Hibemise," 
lib. i., cap. iii., pp. 27 to 29. 

** This latter person must have been the 
Colmanus Ela or Colmanellus, alluded to in 
St. Patrick's prophecy, as given by Jocelin, 
and who, it was said, in due course, should 
become Apostolic Legate in Ireland. Colgan 
distinguishes him by that title, and assigns 
his death to a.d. 610. See '* AcU Sancto- 
rum Hibemix," Februarii iii. De S. Col- 
mano, vulgo Macduach, n. 2. Also, *' Trias 
Thaumaturga," Index Tertius. 

^ See ** Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land," vol. i., chap, ix., sect, i., and nn. 3 to 
6, pp. 43^ 432. 

♦3 See " Trias Thaumaturga," Vita Sexta 
S. Patridi, cap. xcvi., p. 87, and n. 106, p. 

44 He states : '' Ipse Prsesnl atque totiui 
Hibemise Lc^tus emdtur." 

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[June 7. 

Colgan, he quotes/^ and without any observation, a passage/' in which 
Colman of Dromore,*^ is confounded with Colmanel Harris has the same 
confusion at Bishops and Writers, but he distinguishes them at Monasteries.^ 
The Rev. Mervyn Archdall has jumbled them together,'® when treating about 
Muck-a-more.5» Yet, we have no certain data for these statements. 

The Acts of this saint, as preserved, must have been falsified, at least in some 
particulars ; for, various anachronisms are detected in them, if we accept the 
foregoing accounts. However, those Acts of his as taken from the Salamancan 
MS. assure us, that St. Colman, Bishop of Dromore,5» derived his descent from 
the Dalriads of Ards territory. This district is also called Dalaradia,'^ mean- 
ing the people or offspring of Araidhe.** A local tradition, however, connects 
his birth with The O'Clerys apply to St, Colman the patronymic 
Mac-Ua-Arta,5* and they state, that he belonged to the race of Conall Cear- 
nach. Dalaradia 57 is the Ultonian and eastern district, stretching from