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JUN :il 1910 





histobiogkaphee of the diocese of nobth carolina, 

Author of "Governok William Teyon and His Administration 

IN THE Province of North Carolina, 1765-1771," etc. 



Raleigh, North Carolina 


Copyright, 1910, 
By Alfked Williams & Company. 

presses of 
The Commercial Printing Company 
















Office of Bishop, the Anglican Church in I^obth 
Carolina During Colonial and Revolutionary Times, 
AND the Foundation of the American Episcopate . 9 

John Stark Ravenscroft 37 

First Bishop. 

Levi Silliman Ives 91 

Second Bishop. 

Thomas Atkinson 143 

Third Bishop. 

Theodore Benedict Lyman 207 

Fourth Bishop. 

Index 255 



Bishop Ravenscroft Frontispiece, 

Bishop Ives 91 

Bishop Atkinson 143 

Bishop Lyman 207 

"Patriots informed with apostolic light 

Were they, who, when their country had been freed, 
Bowing with reverence to the ancient creed, 
Fixed on the frame of England's Church their sight, 
And strove in filial love to reunite 
What force had severed." 

— William Wordsworth. 

Office of Bishop, the Anglican Church in 
North Carolina During Colonial and 
Revolutionary Times, and the Founda- 
tion of the American Episcopate. 


Were the welfare of the dead alone to be considered, history 
would be a useless study. If just men be forgotten, and "mem- 
ory o'er their tomb no trophies raise," they still have an all- 
suincient reward, and from their home on high may view with 
complacency the scant respect paid to the deeds wrought by 
them — 

"When they passed by the gateway of this world 
On their immortal quest." 

As an inspiration to the living, however, history has a noble 
use. It is an incentive to high thoughts and great efforts toward 
well-doing. This is especially true of that class of history called 
biography. The lives of the great and good in all ages may be 
studied with profit when faithfully recorded. Hence it is the 
purpose of the present work to tell something of four Bishops 
who have served God and His Church in the Diocese of North 
Carolina. Ere we enter upon a narrative of their ministerial 
work, however, it may be well to consider the authority by 
which they exercised the duties of their high and sacred office. 

Scriptural authority for the existence of the office of Bishop 
was formerly .conceded by all Christians ; and hence we find on 
that subject few, if any, arguments among the writings of the 
pre-Reformation period. The early theologians thought it use- 
less to defend a doctrine which no one in a Christian land had 
ever questioned. In later times, however, the validity of the 
office of Bishop, as a distinct order in the sacred ministry, has 
been called into question by some denominations of Christians on 
the alleged grounds that the terms "Bishop" and "Presbyter" (or 
priest) were synonymous in the days of the Apostles; and that. 

^^ Bishops of North Cabolina. 

after the twelve Apostles had all died, the Bishops who claimed 
to exercise apostolic powers were in reality only presbyters. It 
is true that the terms Bishop and Presbyter are sometimes used 
synonymously in Holy Scriptures; yet it is equally apparent, 
from the same high authority, that the Apostles filled up and 
increased their own ranks by the election of associates and suc- 
cessors in addition to those whom Christ had commissioned 
after He sent the first twelve. Trom the records of the early 
Church it also appears that the successors of the Apostles were 
later called Bishops. In his work entitled Reasons for Being a 
Churchman, the Eeverend Arthur W. Little quotes Theodoret 
a Syrian Bishop and a disciple of the great Saint Chrysostom' 
writing about the year 440, who says : "The same persons were 
m ancient times called indifferently Presbyters or Bishops, at 
which thne those who are now called Bishops were called 
Apostles." There is ample authority in the Scriptures for the 
fact that successors of the twelve Apostles were chosen to carry 
on their work. At Christ's ascension only eleven Apostles were 
present. After the ascension it was said of the traitor Judas: 
"His bishoprick [^^ e. apostleship] let another take," and Mat- 
thias was chosen by lot and thereafter numbered with the re- 
maining eleven Apostles (Acts I, 20). By force of a miracle, 
after His ascension, Christ converted Saul, and later added 
him to the band of Apostles under the name of Paul (Acts IX 
and XIII). Barnabas was also added to the Apostles by divine 
command (Acts XIII, 2-3). While Paul was before IS^ero in 
Rome the second time, he sent his Second Epistle to Timothy 
(not one of the original twelve), whom he had ordained Bishop 
of the Church at Ephesus, exhorting him to "stir up the gift of 
God ivhich is in thee hy the putting on of my hands" (II Tim- 
othy, I, 6), charging him furthermore that "the things that 
thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit 
thou to faithful men who shall he able to teach others also" 
(II Timothy, II, 2). Here, then, is the scriptural beginning 
of apostolic succession, for Christ chooses and commissions the 

Bishops of Nortii Carolina. 11 

original twelve; after His ascension into heaven He calls Paul, 
by a direct revelation, to the same apostleship; Paul ordains 
Timothy as Bishop of Ephesus, charging him that he shoiJd 
commit the teachings which he had received "to faithful men 
who should be able to teach others also." Then, too, it will be 
remembered, Paul sent Titus (who was not one of the original 
twelve) to Crete, charging him to "ordain elders" (i. e. presby- 
ters) in every city (Titus, I, 5). Of Timothy's ordination as 
Bishop of Ephesus it has been written by a former Presbyterian 
clergyman whose studies finally led him into the Anglican 
Church: "We care not by what name you call him — Priest, 
Presbyter, Bishop, Suffragan, Superintendent, Ruler, Governor, 
Evangelist, Missionary, Moderator, Primus-Presbyter, Apostle, 
Assistant of the Apostle, Messenger, Prelate, Angel, Antistes, 
Princeps, Prseses, Prsepositus, Archon, Proestos, or Prsefect 
(as Calvin styles James in the Church at Jerusalem) — call him 
hy what name you please; write it in Latin, Greek or Hebrew; 
read it forward, read it backward; it comes to the same thing: 
Timothy succeeds to the powers and prerogatives of Paul."* 

But the Apostles worked miracles, it has been said, and hence 
no Bishop can prove the apostolic origin of his office without 
demonstrating a similar power. "If that argument proves any- 
thing," says Doctor Little, "it proves too much; for the early 
Presbyters worked miracles, and the Deacons too — notably SS. 
Stephen and Philip. Ergo, nobody can be a Presbyter or a 
Deacon unless he can work miracles."t 

The American Episcopal Church, as every one knows, is a 
direct, legitimate and acknowledged descendant of the ancient 
Church of England. Concerning the early history of the 
Church of England we cannot do better than to quote the words 
of John Stark Eavenscroft, first Bishop of North Carolina, who 

* A Presbyterian Clergyman Looking for the Church, by the Rev- 
erend Flavel S. Mines, concluding volume, p. 413. 

t Reasons for Being a Churchman, by the Reverend Arthur W. 
Little (edition of 1894), p. 100, note. 

12 Bishops of ISTokth Carolina. 

says : "The Bisliop of Konie had, personally, little or nothing 
to do with it up to the seventh century. It was an independent 
apostolical church under its own Bishops. Its connection with 
the Church of Home commenced with Augustine, the monk, who 
was consecrated the first Archbishop of Canterbury, not by the 
Bishop of Eome, but by the Archbishop of Aries, in France, 
early in the seventh century. And I notice this not because 
there is any real force in the objection derived from the suc- 
cession passing through even the person of the Bishop or Pope 
of Home, but in order to remove the prejudices so studiously 
instilled into the minds of the ignorant on this subject."* The 
same writer further remarks : "Perhaps not a single Bishop 
who reformed from Popery in the sixteenth century received 
his consecration by the imposition of the Pope's hands ; perhaps 
not one in a hundred of the existing Bishops in the Latin or 
Western Church during any Pontificate, from the rise of 
Papacy, was thus consecrated. And it is not an unreasonable 
or unfounded assumption that, in the wide and extended boun- 
dary of the Western Church, the ordaining power was canoni- 
cally transmitted, in the regular succession, from Bishop to 
Bishop, without contracting any fancied contamination from 
the person of the Pope."t When it was averred that the line of 
apostolic succession in the Church of England had been broken 
at the time that the Reforming Bishops were excommunicated 
by the Pope, Bishop Pavenscroft's answer was : "That the su- 
premacy claimed by the Bishop of Rome was an usurpation, 
and no part of his original and rightful Episcopal authority, 
can require no proof to a Protestant; nor yet is it needful to 
shov/ that such of his equals, in spiritual ofiice, as had submitted 
to this usurpation in the darkness of the middle ages, were not 
thereby precluded from shaking off this lawless authority 
usurped over them, and from resuming the independence of 

* Worls of Bishop Ravenscroft (edition of 1830), Vol. I., p. 277. 
t IMd, Vol. I., pp. 276-277. 

Bishops of North Carolina. 13 

their character, and the exercise of their just and equal rights, 
as the spread of knowledge and the investigations of inquiry 
laid open and exposed the corruptions on which this anti-chris- 
tian domination was built up." * In brief, the Anglican con- 
tention is that the Church of England, having resumed its orig- 
inal rights, and no longer holding itself subject to foreign domi- 
nation, could not legally be excommunicated by the Pope and 
his Cardinals — Italians and other outsiders — any more than 
the Church of England could issue an effective bull of excom- 
munication against those self-same Italians or any other aliens 
who were not within its ecclesiastical jurisdiction. And it may 
also be mentioned that even if the apostolic succession of the 
Church of England had been broken at the time of the Keforma- 
tion, such defect would have been healed in the next century 
when the three lines of English, Irish and Italian successions 
were united in the consecration of Bishop Laud, afterwards 
Archbishop of Canterbury, from v^^hom (with his co-consecra- 
tors) are episcopally descended all the Bishops of the present 
American Church. 

The territory now embraced within the State of North Caro- 
lina holds the proud distinction of being the cradle of the Angli- 
can Church in America, its history antedating by a score of 
years that of Jamestown. In 1584, when Queen Elizabeth 
granted letters patent to the good knight Sir "Walter Ealeigh, 
authorizing him to extend her dominions throughout the New 
"World, he was expressly charged that in the lands settled by 
him no law should be passed to the disadvantage of the "true 
Christian faith now professed in the Church of England." The 
first baptism under the authority of the Church of England in 
America occurred on Hoanoke Island in what is now Dare 
County, North Carolina, when Raleigh's explorers and colonists 
made at that place the earliest English settlement in the western 
hemisphere. It was there that Manteo, the "Lord of Eoanoke," 
a friendly Hatorask Indian, was converted to Christianity and 

* Works of Bishop Ravenscroft (edition of 1830), Vol. I., p. 278. 

14 Bishops of J^orth Carolina. 

baptized in August, 1587. Another baptism, a few days later, 
was tbat of little Virginia Dare, the first child born of English 
parents in America. But shortly after this, the sturdy old Eng- 
lish sailors, who were beginning to colonize the western conti- 
nent, were called home to take the part of their country against 
the great Armada which had been sent by Spain to wipe out 
Protestantism. Then it was that Drake, Grenville, Raleigh, 
Hawkins and Erobisher, with other adventurous sea-fighters, 
were kept so busy in the waters surrounding Britain that they 
could not relieve their countrymen at Roanoke at the time prom- 
ised. When the next English voyagers came to America, Ra- 
leigh's colony had apparently disappeared from the face of the 
earth, for not one of its members was ever heard of again ; but 
the Armada had been destroyed, English vessels could now pur- 
sue their course unmolested, and Anglo-Saxon civilization pre- 
vailed in North America. It was at Jamestown, Virginia, that 
the English race and English Church gained their first perma- 
nent foothold on American soil, in 1607, but it was nearly a 
hundred years later before any effort was made to spread Angli- 
can doctrines throughout the scattered settlements of Albemarle 
in the northern division of Carolina. All of the Royal Govern- 
ors of JS^orth Carolina,* and a great majority of those who con- 
stituted the ruling classes in the province, were members of the 
Church of England, and many were the faithful missionaries 
who unselfishly labored for the moral uplift of the colonists. 
But the Church had strong prejudices to encounter, the best 
grounded of these being due to the fact that it was established 
by law. In the early charters granted by the King, the Church 
of England was legally recognized, but religious liberty was in 
every instance guaranteed. In the first charter issued by 
Charles II, March 24, 1663, that monarch authorized the Lords 
Proprietors to give to religious worship by non-conformists "full 

* This term does uot include Governors of the undivided Colony of 
Carolina, for John Archdale was a Quaker. 

Bishops of North Carolina. 15 

and free license, liberty and authority, by such legal ways and 
means as they shall think fit." * A year or more later, in 1665, 
the Lords Proprietors expressly agreed that "no person or per- 
sons . . . shall be any way molested, punished, dis- 
quieted or called into question for any difference in opinion or 
practice in matters of religious concernment, who do not actu- 
ally disturb the civil peace of the said province or counties; 
but that all and every such person or persons may, from time to 
time, and at all times, freely and fully have and enjoy his and 
their judgments and consciences, in matters of religion, through- 
out all the said province, they behaving themselves peaceably 
and quietly, and not using this liberty to licentiousness, nor to 
the civil injury or outward disturbance of others."t This 
guarantee had been authorized, in almost the same language, by 
the second charter from King Charles to the Lords Proprietors, 
also dated 1665.t In Locke's "Grand Model," or Fundamental 
Constitution of Carolina, drawn up in 1669, the ninety-seventh 
article provided that "seven or more persons, agreeing in any 
religion, shall constitute a church or profession, to which they 
shall give some name to distinguish it from others." While 
referring to Locke's constitution we may add that in the one 
hundred and seventh section of that instrument we find a pro- 
vision, illustrative of the Church's interest in slaves, as fol- 
loAvs : "Since charity obliges us to wish well to the souls of all 
men, and religion ought to alter nothing in any man's civil 
estate or right, it shall be lawful for slaves, as well as others, to 
enter themselves and be of what church or profession any of 
them shall think best, and thereof be as fully members as any 
freemen; but yet no slave shall hereby be exempted from that 
civil dominion his master hath over him, but be in all things 
in the same state and condition he was in before." 

* Colonial Records of 'S'ortfi Carolina, Vol. I., p. 32. 
t IJ)id, Vol. I., p. 80. 
^Ihid, Vol. I., p. 114. 

16 Bishops of jSTokth Carolina. 

The general liistory of the Church of England in the province 
of j^Torth Carolina, during the days of royal rule, is one of the 
greatest interest ; hut to trace all the legislative enactments 
made in its favor, and to tell of their provisions, would require 
too much space for the limits of the present work. Parishes 
were laid out in the various counties, glehes erected, and taxes 
for ecclesiastical purposes collected from all the people — Dis- 
senters as well as Churchmen — yet little progress was made. 
When a church is supported in any degree at the public expense 
and not left to its own resources, it is not likely to enjoy a 
healthy grovv^th; hut, when dependent only upon the zeal and 
devotion of its members, it will generally meet with success if it 
deserves it. Hence the work of the Church of England was 
really hindered by the well-meaning efforts of the Governor's 
Council and Colonial Assembly, while the American Church has 
made marvelous and merited progress since Church and State 
were separated during the War of the Revolution. 

From what has been said it must not be inferred that the 
colonial legislature or any other civil power absolutely controlled 
the Church in ISTorth Carolina prior to the Revolution. The 
province was under the episcopal jurisdiction of the Lord Bishop 
of London, who was materially aided by a great body of Chris- 
tian workers known as the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts. The right of advowson, or power to 
recommend a clergyman for a parochial charge, seems to have 
rested with the Governor, but it was necessary for such clergy- 
man to be licensed by the Bishop of London before he could 
officiate in the Established Church. The instructions to the 
Governor of IsTorth Carolina from the Crown contained this 
order : "You are not to prefer any minister to any ecclesiastical 
benefice in that province without a certificate from the Bight 
Reverend Father in God, the Lord Bishop of London, of his 
being conformable to the doctrine and discipline of the Church 
of England, and of good life and conversation ; and if any per- 
son, already preferred to a benefice, shall appear to you to give 

Bishops of InTorth Carolia'a. 17 

scandal, eitlier by his doctrine or manners, you are to use the 
proper and usual means for the removal of him, and to supply 
the vacancy in such manner as we have directed."* 

By a short-sighted policy the Church of England never per- 
mitted the consecration of any Bishop for work in America 
prior to the Revolution, though it is believed by many that the 
Eeverend Eichard Welton, of Pennsylvania, and the Eeverend 
John Talbot, of jSTew Jersey, received clandestine consecration 
to the Episcopate by the successors of the i^N"on-juring Bishops 
about the year 1722. The need of Bishops was deeply felt by 
both the clergy and laity of the Church of England in America. 
In a petition from the clergy of !N^ew Jersey and I^ew York to 
the Bishop of London it was said : "The expediency of Bishops 
in the English American Colonies is a point which has been, 
from the very beginning of this present century, frequently as- 
serted on the one hand and generally admitted on the other."t 
In 1738, one clergyman proposed a somewhat extensive Archi- 
episcopal See for the Bishop of London, when he wrote a letter 
from ISTew York to that dignitary, saying: "We heartily wish 
that, by the good providence of God, your Lordship may be 
appointed Archbishop of this New World, the Continent of 
America, and the Islands Adjacent, and invested with authority 
and a fullness of power to send Bishops among us."t On four 
different occasions, between 1760 and 1764, Governor Arthur 
Dobbs, of JSTorth Carolina, wrote to the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel and to the Board of Trade, begging that they 
use their influence to have Bishops sent to America, with all 
necessary episcopal powers, though the writer always took pains 
to state that he did not wish these Bishops to have civil powers 
in ecclesiastical courts, etc., such as they exercised in England. § 

* Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. V., p. 1136. 
t Early English Colonies in America, by the Bishop of Loudon, p. SI. 
% Ihid, p. 74. 

§ Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VI., pp. 222, 971, 1026, 

18 Bishops of North Carolina. 

As is well known, all of these efforts came to nauglit, and no 
Bishops could he secured for America until after the "War of the 
Revolution, when the colonies had hecome independent States. 
As there were no Bishops in America, the opportunity for con- 
firmation was limited to those who could aiford a voyage to 
Great Britain. Church members were therefore usually ad- 
mitted to the Holy Communion under the rubrical provision 
which accords that privilege to those who are "ready and de- 
sirous to be confirmed." 

In 1762 an estimate of the population of North Carolina was 
sent to the Lord Bishop of London as follows: White inhabi- 
tants, 36,000 ; negroes, 10,000—46,000 in all. In the matter of 
religious affiliations it was stated that the province contained 
18,000 adherents of the Church of England; 9,000 Presbyterians 
and Independents; and 9,000 Quakers, German and Dutch of 
various sects, Jews, Papists, etc.* As these statistics fall short, 
to the number of ten thousand, of the estimated population, 
white and black, probably only the white race was included in 
the religious tables. The population of the entire province, 
given as 46,000, was probably inaccurate and under-estimated; 
for, two years earlier. Governor Dobbs had sent a statement to 
the home government that there were within the province 80,000 
white people, exclusive of negroes. t When the first official 
census of the United States was taken in 1790, North Carolina 
had an aggregate population of 393,751 — whites, 288,204; free 
negroes, 4,975; slaves, 100,572. The heads of families then 
numbered a little upwards of 50,000. By this same census of 
1790 North Carolina had a much greater population than the 
State of New York, and this, too, after Tennessee had been 
severed from the former. 

Not only did missionaries of the Church of England labor 
for the white race but for Indians and negroes as well. Mention 

* Early English Colonies in America, by the Lord Bishop of London, 
p. 106. 

t Colonial Records of 'North Carolina. Vol. VI., p. 223. 

Bishops of North Carolina. 19 

has already been made of the baptism of Manteo, on Roanoke 
Island, North Carolina, in 1587, and also the provision by 
Locke's Constitution, concerning the christianization of slaves, 
in 1669, "Writing from Chowan Precinct on July 25, 1712, the 
Reverend Giles Rainsford said: "On June 22d, I preached at 
-Mr. Garrett's, in the upper end of Chowan, but had such num- 
bers that I was obliged to go under a large mulberry tree, where 
most of the people, to my great satisfaction, seemed very devout 
the whole part of the service and very ready in their responses, 
as also in their method of singing praises to God. Here I bap- 
tized two girls of the age of sixteen and one boy ten, children 
of one Mr. Adams ; and, by much importunity, prevailed on Mr. 
Martin to let me baptize three of his negroes — two women and 
a boy." * A few months later Mr, Rainsford wrote that on one 
of his missionary journeys he had been captured by the Indians 
but afterwards released. He adds: "On account of my late 
indisposition I have been able only to catechize children and 
baptize six negroes." We may add that this indisposition of 
Mr. Rainsford was evidently not chronic ; for, about the end of 
1714, he sums up a year's exploits in triumphant strains as fol- 
lows : "I shall only add that I have brought over to the Church 
one Patrick Lawler, on Bennett's Creek, from a rank, violent 
papist, to a sound, orthodox believer. I have baptized upwards 
of forty negroes in this and the neighboring government [Vir- 
ginia] in the past year, besides (which is almost an impossi- 
bility here) christened three children of one Peirce, a Quaker, 
by the consent of the mother, though seemingly of that persu- 
asion. In Nansemond County, bordering on Carolina, I have 
saved upwards of two hundred souls from embracing Quaker- 
ism, by my preaching and conference among them; and have 
made the ignorance of their great apostle, Joseph Gloster, in a 
dispute, appear to whole multitudes, and yet their prejudice to 
our establishment is such that I fear there is no possibility to 
win upon them. I found myself obliged, in conscience, to con- 

* Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. I., page 858. 

20 Bishops of Woktii Cakolusta. 

tinue for some time with these people by reason of their liike- 
warmness and indiff erency to our own constitution ; but, by con- 
stant catechizing and teaching they are becoming tolerable pro- 
ficients in the knowledge of the Gospel." * How long the re- 
doubtable Mr. Eainsford continued the above warfare of doc- 
trine we are not informed; nor can we speak in detail of the 
numerous other missionaries sent to Carolina by the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Of the 
character of two of these (Daniel Brett and John Urmstone) 
it is a case of "least said, soonest mended." In the way of re- 
sults, probably the greatest work done in the colonial period 
was by the Reverend Clement Hall, a native of England who 
was reared in JSTorth Carolina. He went back to England for 
holy orders and returned to ISTorth Carolina about the end of the 
year 1744 or early in 1745, He officiated at Edenton, and held 
services in the court-house before the completion of Saint Paul's 
Church. In the spring of 1752 he wrote that, though sick a 
part of the time, he had, during his ministry of seven or eight 
years, traveled 14,000 miles, delivered 675 sermons, baptized 
about 5,783 white children and 243 negro children — also ad- 
ministering adult baptism to 57 white persons and 112 negroes, 
and that he had sometimes administered the Holy Communion 
to as many as 300 persons in one journey, besides visiting the 
sick, ete.t Another indefatigable worker for the cause of Christ 
was the Reverend Alexander Stewart. He was a graduate of 
Dublin College, and held the degree of Master of Arts from that 
institution. He came to North Carolina in 1754 as chaplain 
to Governor Arthur Dobbs. Later he was placed in charge of 
Saint Thomas's Church, in the town^of Bath; but his labors 
extended far beyond the limits of that parish. He gathered 
into the Church's fold white people, Indians and negroes, in- 
fants and adults. Often, when it was desired by his converts, 

* Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. II., p. 153. 
t Il)i(l, Vol. IV., p. 1315. 

Bishops of North Cakolina. 21 

lie had occasion to avail himself of rubrical authority on that 
point and perform the office of baptism by immersion,* One 
of his parishioners was Nathaniel Blount, who later entered 
the ministry and to whom we shall have occasion to refer here- 
after as the last survivor of the colonial clergy in North 
Carolina. ♦ 

In a memorial from the Lord Bishop of London to the Lords 
of the Treasury, in 1721, it was said: ''The Bishop of London 
was by King Charles II intrusted with providing and sending 
ministers to the colonies and islands in America, and was [later] 
directed by King William to apply to the Treasury for £20 to 
each missionary to defray his passage." Schoolmasters of the 
Church of England were aided in like manner. A list of those 
who drew the cost of their passage to America, between 1690 
and 1811, has been compiled by Gerald Fothergill, and was pub- 
lished in London (1904) under the title A List of Emigrant 
Ministers to America, 1690-1811. This valuable little work 
contains the names of quite a number of missionaries to North 
Carolina, with the dates when they received their passage money, 
as follows: James Adams, 1707; John Barnett, 1765; John 
Blacknall, 1725 ; John Blair, 1703 ; Peter Blin, 1769 ; Nathaniel 
Blount, 1773; [Daniel] Brett, 1700; Robert Briggs, 1768; 
Thomas Burges, 1741; Henry John Burges, 1768; Nicholas 
Christian, 1773 ; James Cosgrove, 1766 ; John Cramp, 1767 ; 
Charles Crupples [Cupples], 1766; Eobert Cuming, 1748-1749; 
Theodoras Swaine Drage, 1769; Daniel Earle [Earl], 1756; 
William Panning, 1764; Samuel Fishe [Fiske?], 1766; Heze- 
kiah Ford, 1776; John Garzia, 1724; William Gordon, 1707; 
Clement Hall, 1744 ; William Hawson, 1756 ; Eichard Hewitt, 
1724; Francis Johnston, 1768; Walter Jones, 1724; Edward 
Jones, 1769; James Macartney, 1768; John M'Dowell, 1753; 
William Maury (school-master), 1723; George Micklejohn, 
1766; William MiUer, 1765; James Moir, 1739; Thomas New- 
man, 1701 ; Charles Pettigrew, 1775 ; John Lott Phillips, 1776 ; 

* Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VI., pp. 315-316. 

22 Bishops of ISTorth Caeolina. 

William Pow, 1748-1749; Giles Eainsford, 1716; John Eeid, 
1745; John Kowan, 1747; Alexander Stewart, 1753; Charles 
Edward Taylor, 1771; Samuel Thomas, 1702; William Toale, 

1762; John Urmstons [Urmstone], 1722; Whinston 

[Winston?], 1709; John Wills, 1769; and Charles Woodmason, 
1766. In the above list, Mr. Eainsford is credited to Maryland, 
Mr. Urmstone to Virginia, Mr. Garzia to Virginia, and Mr. 
Woodmason to South Carolina, though they are all known to 
have labored (for a while at least) in North Carolina; on the 
other hand, a few of those who are credited to l^orth Carolina, 
in this list, went to other colonies. Some of these missionaries 
had gone from North Carolina to England for ordination, and 
the above-mentioned amount of twenty pounds was paid to cover 
the cost of their return to America. Among these were Henry 
John Burges, Francis Johnston, Peter Blin, Edward Jones, 
Nathaniel Blount and Charles Pettigrew. There may have 
been others also. One of these, Henry John Burges, was a son 
of another clergyman, the Eeverend Thomas Burges, who was 
stationed for many years in Edgecombe County, North Caro- 
lina. In the Colonial Records of North Carolina may be found 
a great deal of information (letters, etc.) concerning many of 
the above missionaries and their associates in the ministry. 

Though the law creating them has been lost, it is known that 
several parishes of the Church of England were erected in North 
Carolina in 1701. These, so far as can be learned, wei'e : Cur- 
rituck Parish in Currituck Precinct, Saint John's Parish in 
Pasquotank Precinct, Berkeley Parish in Perquimans Precinct, 
Saint Paul's Parish (now of the town of Edenton) in Chowan 
Precinct, and Saint Thomas's Parish (now of the town of Bath) 
in Pamlico Precinct.* During ten or twelve years following 
several new parishes were added. At the session of the Colonial 
Assembly of 1715 (the first legislature of whose enactments we 

* This precinct should not be confused with the present county of 
Pamlico, which was not erected till 1872. Bath is now in Beaufort 

Bishops of N^ortii Carolina. 23 

have any record), the ])rovince was divided into nine parishes, 
by chapter VIII of its laAvs, as follows: Eastern Parish of 
Chowan Precinct, South-west Parish of Chov/an Precinct, Per- 
quimans Parish, South-west Parish of Pasquotank Precinct, 
North-east Parish of Pasquotank Pi'ecinct, Currituck Parish, 
Saint Thomas's Parish, Hyde Parish and Craven Parish. The 
names of those Avho were vestryniGn of these nine parishes in 
1715 are still preserved.* All earlier church records in North 
Carolina are lost, with the exception of those belonging to Saint 
Paul's Church, in Edenton, which begin in 1701. Between the 
year 1715 and the War of the Revolution numerous other colo- 
nial parishes were added to those in the list above given. t 

The Colonial Assembly of North Carolina legally recognized 
the Unitas Fratrum, or Moravian Church, and passed an act, 
chapter XIII of the Laws of 1755, authorizing the erection of 
the parish of Dobbs by members of that communion, on the 
tract of laud called Wachovia (now in Forsyth County) which 
had been settled by these Moravians. A few years earlier, on 
May 12, 174-9, the British Parliament had also passed an act 
(22 George, II, chapter XXX) giving legal recognition to the 
Unitas Fratrum, and referring to that religious body as "an 
ancient Protestant Episcopal Church which has been counte- 
nanced and relieved by the Kings of England." This parlia- 
mentary action was taken upon a unanimous recommendation 
by the Bench of Bishops. Later on in the present volume it 
will be seen that there has always been fraternization between 
Bishops of the Episcopal Church and of the Moravian Church 
in l-Torth Carolina. Of the erection of the above-mentioned 
parish of Dobbs in North Carolina, during the colonial period, 
the Moravian historian, Reverend John H. Clewell, in his His- 
tory of Wachovia, says : "In 1755 the legislature was petitioned 

* Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. II., pp. 208-209; State 
Records of North Carolina, Vol. XXIII., pp. 6-8. 

t For list of Colonial parishes, see "parishes," on p. 709, m index. 
Vol. XXV. of State Records of North Carolina. In same index the 
different parishes are classed under their own heads. 

24 Bishops of North Carolina. 

to constitute Wachovia a separate parish. This petition was 
granted. Benzien and Stauber were the representatives from 
Wachovia to present the petition. Jacob and Herman Lash 
waited on the Governor in New Bern, in December, and received 
official notice that the bill was a law. The representatives of 
the Bethabara congregation were graciously received by Gov- 
ernor Dobbs. In April, 1756, the Act of Assembly was com- 
municated to the congregation by Ranch and Angel. By this 
act twenty men were created freeholders, and each man received 
fifty acres of land.* In May, these twenty men were summoned 
to Salisbury to be invested with their new powers." Alluding 
to the experiences of this party after reaching Salisbury (the 
county-seat of Rowan, in which Dobbs Parish was then situ- 
ated), Doctor Clewell gives a translation of the original account 
in the Moravian records, which says : "They had a short dis- 
cussion and all went to the court-house to elect vestrymen. A 
herald took their names, and then made known to them their 
duties. The vote of the freeholders was taken, and the names 
of the vestrymen made known to the public. When this was 
done the Chief Justice announced to the vestrymen that they 
would have to appear at court and select two wardens. The 
sheriff said that, as it would be a task for so many to travel to 
Salisbury, he would himself come to Bethabara to qualify them." 
They were qualified accordingly, and then proceeded to elect as 
church wardens two of their number, Messrs. Lash and Wutke. 
In closing this account, the old record says : "The organization 
was now complete according to the wish of our hearts. We 
thanked the Lord that it was so." 

Saint Thomas's Church in the old town of Bath, Beaufort 
County, and Saint Paul's Church in Edenton, Chowan County, 
are the only brick buildings still used in the State of North 
Carolina which were erected by congregations of the Church of 

* The Moravian lands were owned by the community as a whole 
and there were no individual free-holders. Hence it was necessary to 
issue these grants. — M. DeL. H. 

Bishops of N^okth Carolina. 25 

England prior to the Revolution. As already mentioned, these 
parishes were laid out in 1701, many years before the churches 
were built. Some miles below Wilmington, on the Cape Fear 
River, is the site of the old town of Brunswick (of which 
scarcely a vestige now remains), and there the brick walls of 
Saint Philip's Church are in a perfect state of preservation, 
but all of the woodwork, roof included, has rotted away. As 
it may interest the reader, we shall add a few words concerning 
these ancient structures. 

The erection of Saint Thomas's Church, in Bath, was begun 
about 1734, though it was not completed until some years after 
that date. In 1841, or thereabouts, the entire roof and gable 
ends of this building were blown off by a heavy windstorm, but 
the damage was repaired through the liberality of Joseph Bon- 
ner, a gentleman of that vicinity whose family had long been 
identified with the Church in jSTorth Carolina, one of his ances- 
tors. Captain Henry Bonner, having been a vestryman in 
Chowan Precinct as early as 1715. About the year 1868 the 
woodwork of the structure fell into decay, and this was replaced 
by William Walling, an Englishman who had settled in I^orth 
Carolina, and wished to show his veneration for an ancient 
edifice by which his mother country and adopted home were so 
closely connected. All of the old records of this parish have 
been lost. Underneath the building, and also around about it, 
are many graves, but these, for the most part, are unmarked. 
The outside dimensions, etc., of this church (as given by the 
Reverend Doctor Drane in his monograph included in Colonial 
Churches in the Original Colony of Virginia) are as follows : 
Nave length, 51 feet; nave width, 31 feet; nave height, sides, 
14 feet ; thickness of bricks, 3 by 4^/^ by 9 inches ; clay tiles in 
floor, 2 by 8 by 8 inches. Saint Thomas's Church was the chief 
scene of the labors of the great colonial missionary, Reverend 
Alexander Stewart, to whose career we have already referred. 

Saint Paul's Church, in Edenton, was begun in 1736, re- 
placing a wooden building of earlier date. Like the church in 

26 Bishops of I^orth Carolina. 

Bath, it remained unfinished for quite a while after its construc- 
tion was commenced. Among the contributors towards its erec- 
tion were the Lords Proprietors of Carolina, who gave two hun- 
dred pounds sterling. This parish has had a longer unbroken 
existence than any other in the State, its history long antedating 
the erection of the present building. Its first vestrymen — who 
were also the first ever appointed in the colony — were His Ex- 
cellency Henderson Walker, Governor; the Honorable Thomas 
Pollock, President of the Provincial Council, and later Governor 
pro tempore; William Dukinfield, a Justice of the General 
Court and a brother of Sir Kobert Dukinfield, Baronet ; Nicho- 
las Crisp ; Edward Smithwick, a member of the Assembly of the 
Province; John Blount, a Justice of the General Court; James 
Long; ISTathaniel Chevin, member of the Provincial Council; 
William Benbury; Colonel William Wilkinson, an eminent at- 
torney; Captain Thomas Leuten, and Captain Thomas Blount. 
These vestrymen (who were all colonists of the first consequence 
in their day and generation) effected an organization on Decem- 
ber 15, 1701, by electing Colonel Wilkinson and Captain Leuten 
church wardens, and Mr. Chevin clerk of the vestry. Mr. 
Smithwick gave an acre of land on which to erect a house of 
worship, and the vestry at once contracted for such a structure, 
the same to be of wood and twenty-five feet in length. On De- 
cember 15, 1702, exactly one year after the first meeting of the 
vestry, we find recorded in their proceedings the fact that they 
viewed the chapel and accepted the same from the contractor. 
It was about thirty-five years later that this chapel was replaced 
by the substantial brick church (on a different site) which is 
now used by the congregation in Edenton. In the monograph 
already quoted. Doctor Drane gives the following outside meas- 
urements, with description of interior, of Saint Paul's Church: 
nave length, 60 feet ; nave width, 40 feet and 3 inches ; nave 
height, sides, 20 feet; dimensions of bricks, 2^/2 by 4 by 8V2 
inches. Saint Paul's floor was formerly tiled, and "intra-mural" 
burials were allowed. The floor is now of wood. The silver 

Bishops of North Carolina. 27 

couimunion service, which has been used in Saint Paul's Church 
for generations past, was the gift of an eminent colonial Church- 
man and statesman. Both the paten and chalice are inscribed 
as follows : "The Gift of Colonell Edward Moseley for ye use 
of xe Church in Edenton in the year 1725." In Saint Paul's 
is also a larger chalice of silver which was presented by a colon- 
ial missionary, the Reverend John Garzia, of North Carolina, 
it being inscribed as follows : "D. D. Johannes Garzia, Eccle- 
siae Anglicanae Presbyter/' So far as the present writer knows, 
these are the only communion vessels of the colonial period now 
used in North Carolina, except one in the parish of Christ 
Church, New Bern. Saint Paul's Church, in Edenton, was 
the place of worship of numerous Colonial Governors, Chief 
Justices and other high dignitaries, many of whom are now at 
rest within its burial ground, Avhich is historically one of the 
most interesting places in the Southern States. The two hun- 
dredth anniversary of the organization of Saint Paul's Parish 
fell on December 15, 1901, but the vestry decided to hold the 
celebration of that event somewhat earlier, during the session 
of the Diocesan Council of East Carolina, which convened that 
year in Edenton. The celebration was accordingly held. May 
22-24, 1901, and the proceedings on that occasion were after- 
wards printed, under the editorial supervision of Doctor Drane, 
in a pamphlet entitled The Religious and Historic Commemo- 
ration of the Two Hundred Years of St. Paul's Parish, Edeii- 
ton. North Carolina. 

Saint Philip's Church, on the Cape Fear River, in Brunswick 
County, is now in a state of ruin. Its walls, and some grave- 
stones not far distant, are about all that is now left to mark the 
site of the old borough of Brunswick, which was one of North 
Carolina's most important towns in colonial days. Even before 
this parish was established the people of that vicinity had a 
house of worship and the advantages of church services, con- 
ducted by the Reverend Richard Marsden. In a letter Avritten 
from :hat place in February, 1736, James Murray, a member 

28 Bishops of North Carolina. 

of the Council under Governor Gabriel Johnston, said: "YV^e 
have j^ best minister that I have heard in America to preach 
and read prayers to us every 2d or 3d Sunday at least ; and, on 
a cold day, a good fire in y^ church to sit by." It was in 1741, 
a few years after the date of this letter, that Saint Philip's 
Parish was laid out, and the brick church (whose walls are still 
intact) was not begun until about 1754. "We are building a 
very large brick church, which is nearly done," wrote the vestry 
in 1760. It was finished a few years later, while Governor Wil- 
liam Tryon resided at Brunswick, and that gentleman made a 
personal contribution of forty guineas to aid the work. The 
walls of this church are seventy-six feet and six inches long, 
fifty-three feet and three inches wide, and twenty-four feet and 
four inches in height. Saint Philip's Church was probably 
abandoned about the time of the Eevolution. The parish has 
never appeared on the rolls of the Conventions of the Church 
in ISTorth Carolina since the foundation of the Diocese in 1817. 
The above three churches — Saint Thomas's in Bath, Saint 
Paul's in Edenton, and Saint Philip's on the site of old Bruns- 
wick — are the only three brick church buildings of the colonial 
era now standing in North Carolina. They are all in what is 
now the Diocese of East Carolina. There are other colonial 
parishes still existing in the State, but the original buildings 
have in all instances been replaced by more modern ones. One 
of these, Christ Church, at ISTew Bern, still owns a silver com- 
munion service. Holy Bible and Book of Common Prayer, which 
came from England prior to the Revolution. The communion 
service is probably the same which King George presented to the 
"Royal Chapel" (Saint Philip's Church) at Brunswick, and was 
doubtless brought to New Bern when that place became the 
capital, thus making Christ Church the "Royal Chapel." It is 
sterling silver and consists of two large flagons, a chalice, paten 
and alms basin, these bearing the Royal arms of Great Britain 
and the King's initial letters, G. R. {Georgius Rex). The Bible 
and Book of Common Prayer are at present deposited in the 

Bishops of North Carolina. 29 

Hall of History in Raleigh. The Bible was printed at the Uni- 
versity of Oxford by John Baskett, 'Trinter to the King's Most 
Excellent Majesty," in 1716, while the Prayer Book came from 
the presses of Joseph Bentham, of Cambridge, printer to the 
University, in 1752. 

Of all the zealous clergymen of the Church of England in 
]^orth Carolina about the time of the Revolution, none ranked 
higher than the Reverend Charles Pettigrew, who built Petti- 
grew's Chapel at his own expense and for many years ministered 
there, as well as in Edenton and elsewhere throughout the prov- 
ince. He lived in a locality where the Society of Friends had 
a strong foothold; and, after the Revolution, he said: "Before 
the dissolution of the Establishment [of the Church of Eng- 
land], I absolutely forbade anything to be collected from the 
Quakers for me, as I would not receive it. Neither have I 
taken anything for visiting the sick or baptizing during .he 
course of my ministry." Mr. Pettigrew was born in Pf-.nusyl- 
vania on March 20, 1743. He was educated in North Carolina. 
In early life he was a school-teacher ; but, desiring to enter the 
ministry, he went to England in the winter of 1774-'75, and was 
duly ordained by the Bishops of London and Rochester. He 
returned to America on the last ship which sailed before the 
Revolution. After the war he and other clergymen vainly en- 
deavored to form a Diocese in North Carolina; and meetings, 
with this end in view, were held in June, 1790; November, 1790; 
October, 1791 ; November, 1793, and May, 1794.* At the time 
last named, Mr. Pettigrew was elected Bishop of North Caro- 
lina, but he died (April 8, 1807) without being consecrated, and 
it was more than a quarter of a century before the Church 
had succeeded in its efforts to establish a diocese presided over 
by a Bishop of its own. We do not include a separate biography 

* For reprints of Journals of these early Conventions, etc., see 
volume entitled Church History in North Carolina. 

30 Bishops of ISTobtk Cakolina. 

of Mr. Pettigrew in this work, as lie never was inducted into 
tlie office of Bisliop by consecration.* 

Among the workers in the earlier efforts to set up a diocese 
in ]!^orth Carolina were several clergymen who had borne an 
active part in the operations of the American army during the 
War for Independence. At the beginning of hostilties, the Rev- 
erend Adam Boyd had fought as a line officer, had entered the 
ministry while the war was in progress (first taking Presby- 
terian orders), and had risen to the rank of Brigade Chaplain; 
the Beverend Solomon Hailing had been an efficient surgeon 
in the patriot army before entering the ministry; and the Rev- 
erend Robert Johnston Miller had enlisted under the American 
standard when eighteen years old, had encountered the dangers 
of the field at Long Island, Brandywine and White Plains, re- 
ceiving a severe wound in the battle first named — also sharing 
the sufferings at Valley Forge and the triumph at Yorktown. 
ISTo clergyman of the Church of England was ever an active 
Loyalist in I^orth Carolina. Old Parson Micklejohn sympa- 
thized with the royal cause, and was taken into custody and 
paroled in the early stages of the war, but even he eventually 
swore allegiance to the Whig government and died an American 
citizen. Another loyalist in his sympathies (vhough he took 
no part against the American cause) was the Reverend James 
Reed, of ISTew Bern. 

The Reverend Charles Edward Taylor, a clergyman of the 
Church of England, was one of the chaplains who officiated in 
the ISTorth Carolina Provincial Congress, at Hillsborough in 
August, 1775. 

On April 8, 1776, the Provincial Congress of ISTorth Carolina, 
at Halifax, elected as its chaplain the Reverend Hezekiah Ford, 
a clergyman of the Church of England. This gentleman later 
was commissioned Chaplain of the Fifth ISTorth Carolina Conti- 

* A sketch of the life of Bishop-elect Fettigrew, written by me, will 
be fouud in the Biographical History of North Carolina, Vol. VI., 
p. 39G.— M. Del. H. 

Bishops of Nokth Carolina. 31 

nontal Regiment, April 20, 1777, and marched northward in the 
summer of thai year. He was Special Judge Advocate in u 
court-martial at Trenton, ISTcav Jersey, on July 22, 1777, and 
was honorably discharged a few months later, in September, 
just prior to the time when his regimental and brigade com- 
manders. Colonel Edward Buncombe and General Francis iSTash, 
were mortally wounded at the battle of Germantown. 

Another Church of England clergyman who actively sided 
with the Americans was the Reverend Charles Cupples. In the 
Revolutionary Assembly at Smithfield, in Johnston County, he 
acted as chaplain, being elected to that post on May 3, 1779, 
and serving until excused from further attendance by a joint 
resolution of the two houses. About a year later, on April 17, 
1780, he was also chaplain of the General Assembly which con- 
vened at ISTew Bern, l^ot only were most of the clergymen 
Americans of proved patriotism, but laymen of the Church of 
England in iN^orth Carolina were the foremost leaders of the 
revolt against King George. The same was true as to laymen 
in other States also. In his work, entitled The Church for 
Americans, Bishop Brown, of Arkansas, says: "Two-thirds of 
the first Continental Congress, held at Philadelphia, A. D. 1774, 
wore churchmen. The same proportion obtained in the Con- 
gress which declared our independence. Of the iifty-five actual 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, thirty-five were 
Episcopalians; twelve Gongregationalists ; four Presbyterians; 
three Quakers; one was a Baptist and one a Roman Catholic. 
* :.■: * Q£ ^]^g twelve generals appointed by Washington early 
in the war, eight vv^ere his fellow Episcopalians." * 

The above is a fairly good shoveing of the virtue of patriotism 
for one Church — and especially so for one which has sometimes 
been charged with being so much wedded to English ideals and 
institutions as to render itself un-American. 

* The Church for Americans, by the Right Reverend William Mont- 
gomery Brown (edition of 1899), pp. 378-379. 

32 Bishops of North Carolina. 

Of course a communion with so numerous a membership as 
was possessed by the Church of England in the thirteen colonies 
was not without active partisans on both sides in the Kevolu- 
tion, and one Loyalist who rose to eminence in the Church after 
the war was the Right Reverend Samuel Seabury, Bishop of 
Connecticut and first in the succession of the American Episco- 
pate. At one time he had been Chaplain of "the King's Ameri- 
can Regiment," commanded by Colonel Edmund Fanning, form- 
erly of !N"orth Carolina. Doctor Seabury was elected Bishop of 
Connecticut by the clergy of that State on March 25, 1783, and 
was directed to proceed to England for the purpose of seeking 
consecration; in the event that his mission to England should 
be unsuccessful, he was instructed to go to Scotland and ask the 
successors of the l^on-juring Bishops in that country to perform 
the^ rite. These Bishops in Scotland were of the same line of 
succession as were the Bishops of the Church of England; but 
the Scotch branch of the Church had no standing under the 
civil law because the Bishops, through whom its line came, had 
refused to swear allegiance to William and Mary after the Eng- 
lish Revolution of 1688. For this reason it was also sometimes 
called the Jacobite Church. "When Doctor Seabury appeared 
in England, the Bishops of the English Church were willing 
to comply with the wishes of their fellow-churchmen in America, 
and would have done so but for an act of Parliament which re- 
quired that a candidate for consecration to a Bishopric should 
swear allegiance to the King. Of course such an oath was out 
of the question with a citizen of an independent American State, 
even though this citizen may once have been a Loyalist ; so 
Doctor Seabury went to Scotland, where he was made a Bishop 
at Aberdeen on ISTovember 14, 1784, by Bishops Kilgour, Petrie 
and Skinner, of the above-mentioned Church of Scotland. 
Shortly after Bishop Seabury returned to his Diocese of Connec- 
ticut, Parliament passed an act authorizing the consecration of 
foreign Bishops without requiring of them the oath of allegiance. 
This left the way open for other Americans who had been 

Bishops of North Carolina. 33 

elected to Bishoprics; so the Reverend William White, of Penn- 
sylvania, and the Reverend Samuel Provoost, of New York, then 
crossed the seas to England, and in the Chapel of Lambeth 
Palace, on the 4th of February, 1787, were duly consecrated by 
the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the Bishop of Peter- 
borough, and the Bishop of Bath and Wells. A few years later, 
on September 19, 1790, in the same chapel at Lambeth, the Rev- 
erend James Madison was consecrated Bishop of Virginia by 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, and the 
Bishop of Rochester. The first consecration in America, and 
the only one at which Bishop Seabury ever officiated, was when 
the Reverend Thomas John Claggett was raised to the Episco- 
pate as Bishop of Maryland, by Bishops Seabury, White, Pro- 
voost, and Madison, on September 17, 1792. Thus the two 
temporarily divided lines of apostolic succession — the English 
through White, Provoost, and Madison, and the Scotch through 
Seabury — were united in forming the present Episcopate of the 
United States, for every Bishop in the American Church of 
to-day traces his Episcopal descent from Bishop Claggett, as 
well as from the other Bishops above enumerated. White was 
one of the consecrators of Bishop Ravenscroft, on May 22, 1823 ; 
he also aided in consecrating Bishop Ives, September 22, 1831. 
Some years later, on October 17, 1853, visiting English Bishops 
were among the consecrators of Bishop Atkinson. So the Epis- 
copate in North Carolina has a very short descent from, and 
close relationship with, the Mother Church of Old England. 


Bishop Ravenscroft. 


First Bishop of North Carolina. 

On the roll of eminent prelates whose labors have gone far 
toward upbuilding the American Episcopal Church, few names 
stand out in bolder relief than that of the Right Reverend John 
Stark Ravenscroft, S. T. D., first Bishop of Worth Carolina 
and twentieth in the succession of the American Episcopate. In 
his day and generation he was a strong power for promoting the 
spread of Christianity throughout North Carolina. Nor were 
his achievements confined to one diocese, for under his influence 
were raised up at least five future Bishops and innumerable 
other clergy whose evangelical labors bore rich fruitage in those 
earlier times, and are even now felt throughout countless locali- 
ties in the Southern and "Western States of the American Union, 
as well as elsewhere. Hence in many quarters, where the name 
of this great Bishop is comparatively unknown, his labors are 
still indirectly having their effect, and will so continue till the 
end of time. How marvelously potent, for good or evil, can the 
influence of one man be made upon future generations ! 

To gather up the remnants of the Church of England in 
North Carolina and transmit its doctrines unimpaired to future 
times was the great work of Bishop Ravenscroft's life — a life of 
heroic self-sacrifices and toilsome privations throughout his en- 
tire ministry, and one which is well worthy of study by those 
who admire the virtues he exemplified. He was born on the 
17th day of May, 1772, in Prince George County, Virginia, and 
belonged to a family of high social station and some wealth. He 
himself states (in an unfinished autobiography) that all of his 
progenitors as far back as he could trace, with the exception of 
his maternal grandfather, were natives of Virginia. In his 
work on Old Churches and Families in Virginia, Bishop Meade 
alludes to the Ravenscrofts as "an ancient Virginia family, to 
be found about Williamsburg and Petersburg, according to the 

38 Bishops of ISTorth Carolina. 

records of tlie House of Burgesses aud the vestry-books." 
Though Bishop Glreen, of Mississippi (who prepared a brief 
memoir of Bishop Ravenscroft in 1870*), believed that the 
name Ravenscroft was of Germanic origin — the contraction of a 
German surname, Ravenscrofdt — he was undoubtedly in error. 
The name Ravenscroft, just as the Bishop wrote it, is not un- 
common in Great Britain, being found in the records of Flint- 
shire, Cheshire, Lancashire and Sussex. 

Various persons of the name of Ravenscroft lived in ISTew 
England and Virginia at a very early period. The ancestors of 
Bishop Ravenscroft were residents of the Old Dominion for 
about three-quarters of a century prior to the War of the Revo- 
lution, but Massachusetts was their first home in America. 
Samuel Ravenscroft came to Boston in 1679, and almost imme- 
diately after his arrival became a member of the artillery com- 
pany, later holding a commission as Captain in the troops of 
the colony. He married Dionysia Savage, a daughter of Major 
Thomas Savage, and was the father of five children, viz., Diony- 
sia, born April 12, 1681 ; Samuel, born April 12, 1682 ; George, 
born March 20, 1683; Sarah, born November 20, 1686; and 
Thomas, born June 29, 1688. 

There being no house of worship of the Church of England 
in his new home, Captaiii Samuel Ravenscroft attended Con- 
gregational services for a Avhile in the Old South Meeting House. 
On June 15, 1686, he was one of eleven persons who took steps 
to found King's Chapel, for services of the Church of England, 
and was later one of its Wardens. He was held in high favor 
by Sir Edmund Andros, the Royal Governor, who was a ruler 
greatly hated by the Puritans. In the Spring of 1689, John 
Winslow, a young ISTew Englander, returned from a voyage to 
the Island of ISTevis, bringing with him the news that William of 
Orange had taken possession of the throne of Great Britain in 
the preceding year. Thereupon the inhabitants of Massachu- 
setts rose up on April 18tli and imprisoned Andros, Avith many 

■^American Church Rcvietv, January, 1871, Vol. XXII.. p. 52G. 

BisHors OF North Carolina. 39 

of his adherents, includiug Captain Ravenscroft. It would seem, 
however, that Ravenscroft was not a very pronounced Jacobite; 
for, in his capacity as church-warden, he afterwards united in a 
loyal address to King William. Like men of nearly all religions 
in that day, however, the New Englanders were not disposed to 
view with friendliness those who differed with them in ecclesias- 
tical matters; so Captain Ravenscroft decided to seek a new 
home. "Ravenscroft talks of removing to Virginia," wrote Jus- 
tice Francis Foxcroft, of Boston, in 1691.* Probably the Cap- 
tain was strengthened in this desire by the knowledge that his 
old friend Andros was about to be entrusted with the governor- 
ship of Virginia, to which office he was appointed in 1692. 

Thomas Ravenscroft (the youngest son of Samuel) was a resi- 
dent of Wilmington Parish, in James City County, Virginia, at 
a later period. As already stated, he was born in Boston on 
June 29, 1688. After his arrival in Virginia, he became a 
Colonel of the militia forces of that province. He was also High 
Sheriff of James City County in 1722. In the year following, 
he purchased a tract of land in Prince George County, called 
Maycock's Plantation — sometimes written Maycox — and after- 
wards removed his family to that locality. This estate took its 
name from Captain Samuel Maycock, one of its former owners, 
who had been killed by the Indians in 1622. An account of the 
place will be found in The Cradle of the Republic, by Doctor 
Lyon G. Tyler. 

The above-mentioned Colonel Thomas Ravenscroft was at one 
time a representative in the Virginia House of Burgesses, and 
died about the end of the year 1735. He had a son, John, and 
this young man he sent on a visit to Nevv^ England early in 
1735. With him young Ravenscroft carried a letter of intro- 
duction (February 20, 1735) from his friend and neighbor, 
Colonel William Byrd, of Westover, to Chief Justice Lynde, in 

* 'Nctc England Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol. XXXIII., 
p. 410. 

40 Bishops of ISTorth Carolina. 

Salem, Massachusetts, in which the writer said: "He is the son 
of one of your own countrymen, Mr. Ravenscroft, who, having 
some relatives there, has sent his son to make them a visit."* 
After returning to his home in Virginia, John Ravenscroft mar- 
ried Rebecca Stark.t In 1738 he was a Magistrate in Prince 
George County. He left a son, also named John, who became a 
physician. The descent of John Ravenscroft, the younger 
(father of Bishop Ravenscroft), from Colonel Thomas Ravens- 
croft is shown by a deed, recorded in Brunswick County, Vir- 
ginia, from "John Ravenscroft, late of the town of Petersburg, 
son and heir of John Ravenscroft, late of Prince George County, 
deceased," for a tract of land, therein described, which had been 
"patented 26 December, 1734, by Thomas Ravenscroft, grand- 
father of the said John." 

Doctor John Ravenscroft (mentioned above as the father of 
Bishop Ravenscroft) lived on Maycock's Plantation, his pater- 
nal estate, and there engaged in agricultural pursuits for a short 
while. Having determined to become a physician, he studied 
medicine in the University of Edinburgh, and graduated there 
in 1770, his thesis (on the subject of jaundice) being entitled 
De Ictera. Early in 1771, immediately after returning to his 
home in Virginia, he married his cousin, Lillias Miller.t He 

* Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Vol. IX., p. 242. 

t After the death of her first husband, Mrs. Rebecca Ravenscroft 
(born Stark) married George McMurdo, who died in Galloway, Scot- 
land, iu 1798. She left several children by her second husband, and 
one or more settled in Virginia, among these being Charles J. Mc- 
Murdo. The last named had a daughter (wife of Patrick Gibson) 
whose son, the Reverend Churchill J. Gibson, married a sister of 
Bishop Atkinson, and was father of the Right Reverend Robert Atkin- 
son Gibson, Bishop of Virginia. 

t As to degree of blood relationship between Doctor John Ravens- 
croft and his wife, Lillias Miller, he was her first cousin once removed. 
Colonel Robert Boiling (among other children) had two daughters: 
Mary Boiling, who married William Stark; and Jane Boiling, who 
married Hugh Miller. Rebecca Stark, daughter of William Stark and 
his wife, Mary Boiling, married John Ravenscroft and was mother of 
Doctor John Ravenscroft, the Bishop's father. Lillias Miller, wife of 
Doctor Ravenscroft. was a daughter of Hugh Miller and his wife, the 
aforementioned Jane Boiling. 

Bishops of Nokth Caiiolixa. 41 

did not remain in America, however, but carried his wife and 
his son John Stark Ravenscroft (the only child who had been 
born to him up to that time) to Great Britain in 1772, when the 
son was less than a year old. Doctor Ravenscroft first settled at 
Popcastle, in Cumberland County, on the northern border of 
England. After remaining there about a year, he removed his 
family to the Scottish side of the Solway Firth, and purchased 
an estate called Cairnsmore, in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 
a part of the District of Galloway. He died at Cairnsmore in 
July, 1781, while the American Revolution was in progress, and 
when his son was nine years old. In the meantime other chil- 
dren had been born to him — two sons, who died young, and sev- 
eral daughters, to whom reference will be made later on. By a 
deed of settlement, executed January 8, 1781, a few months 
before Doctor Ravenscroft's death, Cairnsmore was conveyed to 
his eldest son. In the course of a few years. Doctor Ravens- 
croft's widow married Patrick Stewart of Borness, being the 
second wife of that gentleman. About the year 1793, Mr. Stew- 
art purchased Cairnsmore from young Ravenscroft, his step-son, 
and the consideration therefor was no doubt liberal; for, in a 
letter to his mother, dated June 15, 1794, the young Virginian 
"rejoiced that the sale put it in his power to insure the independ- 
ence of his sisters." The full sisters of Bishop Ravenscroft were 
Jean, who married William McKean, and died without issue; 
and Anne, who married Alexander Craig, and left two daugh- 
ters, both of whom died unmarried. He also had two brothers, 
George and Peyton Ravenscroft, but both of these died in in- 
fancy. In addition to these, he had three half-brothers (chil- 
dren of his mother by her second husband, Patrick Stewart), as 
follows: James Stewart of Cairnsmore (born April 2, 1791 — 
died September 19, 1877), who married Elizabeth McLeod, and 
left descendants; Keith Stewart, Lieutenant-Commander in the 
Royal ISTavy, who was born October 4, 1792, and died unmarried 
February 23, 1822; and Stair Stewart, who was born in 1798 
and died at the age of seventeen. To Gilbert McLeod Stewart, 

42 Bishops of North Carolina. 

Esq., a son of the above James Stewart of Cairnsmore, the pres- 
ent writer wishes to make acknowledgments for valuable data 
relative to the maternal connections of Bishop Ravenscroft ; and 
is similarly indebted to Doctor William Scot, formerly of Edin- 
burgh and now of Cape Colony in South Africa, who is a son of 
the late Lieutenant-General Patrick George Scot and a grand- 
son of James Stewart of Cairnsmore. Among the thirteen chil- 
dren born to the aforementioned James Stewart of Cairnsmore 
have been several officers in the military and naval service of 
Great Britain, and two clergymen of the Church of England, 
viz., the Venerable Ravenscroft Stewart, Archdeacon of Bristol, 
and the Reverend Henry Holmes Stewart, Rector of Porthkerry, 
South Wales. An account of the Stewart family of Cairnsmore 
will be found in Burke's History of the Landed Gentry, edition 
of 1900, page 1503. 

Bishop Ravenscroft's maternal grandfather, Hugh Miller, of 
Greenerofts, Prince George County, Virginia, was a Scotchman 
by birth and a gentleman highly esteemed in his adopted home. 
He was a member of the Church of England, and served as a 
vestryman of Bristol Parish from August 25, 1746, until his 
removal from Virginia. On December 8, 1760, he was succeeded 
as vestryman by Roger Atkinson, grandfather of Bishop Atkin- 
son. Mr. Miller is said to have secured from the Masonic Grand 
Lodge of Scotland the charter (September 9, 1757) for Bland- 
ford Lodge, now ]STo. 3, of Petersburg, Virginia, The original 
charter of this lodge is still preserved, and shows that its first 
officers were: Peter Robertson, Worshipful Master; Samuel 
Gordon, Senior Warden ; and James Anderson, Junior Warden. 
Finally Mr. Miller went to England, and died in London on the 
13th of February, 1762. His wife was Jane Boiling, daughter 
of Colonel Robert Boiling, of Farmingdale, Prince George 
County, a member of one of the oldest families in Virginia. The 
founder of the Boiling family in America married (his first 
wife) Jane Rolfe, a granddaughter of Pocahontas, the Indian 
princess; but it was from his second wife, whose maiden name 

Bishops of I!^orth Carolina. 43 

was Anne Stilli, that Mrs. Miller was descended. Doctor John 
Ravenscroft himself was descended from the same line, as al- 
ready shown. One of Hugh Miller's daughters, Anne (an aunt 
of Bishop Ravenscroft) married Sir Peyton Skipwith, seventh 
Baronet of PrestAvould; and, after that lady died, her sister, 
Jean Miller, became the second wife of Sir Peyton. Several 
successive Baronets in the Skipwith family resided in Virginia, 
and they have many descendants noAv living in America, though 
the present Baronet is a British subject. 

The Ravenscroft estate in Virginia, owing to bad manage- 
ment by an attorney, did not result as advantageously to its 
owner as had been hoped ; and hence, while in Scotland, Doctor 
Ravenscroft was financially embarrassed for a while. N^ever- 
theless, he left his wife and children in good circumstances. 
John Stark Ravenscroft Avas given a fine academic training in 
both Scotland and the north of England, thereby laying the 
foundation of some further education which he later received 
in America. A part of his school course was the study of Holy 
Scriptures, and so Avell did he apply himself that in later years, 
when he again turned his attention to these Sacred Writings, 
after long neglect, his task was made easier by the knowledge 
he had acquired in boyhood. While at school in England young 
Ravenscroft had a strange experience which he afterwards re- 
lated to the Reverend William Mercer Green, in later years 
Bishop of Mississippi. He was living with an aunt, who was 
apparently in perfect health when he left her home one morning 
to attend school. During a recess at midday he was playing 
with some companions near a hedge, when he saw what appeared 
to be his aunt approaching, walking on top of the hedge. Struck 
with amazement at this latter circumstance, he gazed at her, and 
as she approached her form melted into air. While pondering 
on this apparition a servant came with the hurried message 
that his aunt had died a short while before. On another occa- 
sion during his school days, when only eight or nine years old, 
young Ravenscroft had a narrow escape from death, an infuri- 

44 Bishops of ISTorth Carolina. 

ated bull tossing him up in the air and attempting to gore him, 
when he was rescued by some servants. 

Toward the end of the year 1788 John Stark Ravenscroft 
(then only sixteen years old) determined to return to Virginia 
and see what could be saved from the wreck of his father's 
estate. In this he was successful to such an extent that he was 
thereby placed in affluent circumstances and so remained until 
toward the end of his life, when he met with reverses in fortune 
in consequence of having become surety for the payment of a 
friend's debts. It was on JSTew Year's day, 1789, that he again 
reached Virginia. Being under age, his business affairs were 
entrusted to the control of a guardian; but the gentleman who 
filled this position made his ward liberal allowances — too lib- 
eral, in fact, for a young man of not over-sedate habits — and 
young Ravenscroft soon became addicted to the fashionable sins 
of his day, though not more so than was usual with the gener- 
ality of young men of his station in life. Being advised to study 
law, he entered William and Mary College to obtain instruction 
from the celebrated jurist, Chancellor George Wythe, formerly 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence. In that same year 
Chancellor Wythe was succeeded as Professor of Law at Wil- 
liam and Mary by St. George Tucker. One of Mr. Tucker's 
step-sons, John Randolph, of Roanoke, knew Ravenscroft at 
this time, and afterwards said that the future Bishop was known 
among his college-mates as "Mad Jack." Mr. Randolph added 
that this sobriquet was well given, in consequence of his vehe- 
mence of temper, speech and manner. Another one of Ravens- 
croft's college-mates was John Hall, afterwards a Justice of 
the Supreme Court of l^orth Carolina at the same time that 
Ravenscroft was Bishop. We are unable to state with exactness 
how long Mr. Ravenscroft remained at William and Mary, as 
the records of that institution, together with its buildings, have 
twice been burned since 1790 — once in 1857 and once by the 
Federal troops in 1862. 

Bishops of North Carolina. 45 

After leaving college it was some time before Mr. Ravens- 
croft was moved to mend his way of living. He was not an 
infrequent attendant at horse races, then a favorite form of 
outdoor sport; and afterwards confessed to a friend, with ex- 
pressions of deep contrition, that on one occasion he had gone 
to the race-course with the determination to horsewhip a fellow- 
sportsman who had offended him; and, if resisted, to shoot him 
down. The object of his resentment was unexpectedly detained 
from the race, and his would-be assailant ever regarded this cir- 
cumstance as a merciful restraint by the hand of God upon the 
terrible purpose he had formed. But all these experiences gave 
Bishop Ravenscroft one advantage — an insight into the evil 
ways of mankind. To one of his clergy in North Carolina he 
said: "Brother Green, I have one advantage over you; while 
you were brought up in the fear of God and in ignorance of the 
great wickedness that is going on in the world, I know all about 
the ways of sinners, and can therefore track the scoundrels into 
all their dens and hiding places and strip them of their self- 
conceits and refuges of lies." 

One of the many absurd stories which went the rounds of the 
press during the lifetime of Bishop Ravenscroft was to the effect 
that his conversion was brought about by overhearing one of his 
slaves, whom he had unmercifully beaten for attending church, 
pray long and earnestly for the master who had so despitefully 
used him. Upon having this story called to his attention, the 
Bishop said there was not one word of truth in it — that while, 
in his young manhood, he had been terribly negligent of his own 
obligations to God, there never was a time w'hen he could bring 
himself to interfere with the religious rights of others. 

In his twenty-first year Mr. Ravenscroft was unifed in mar- 
riage (September 29, 1792) with his first wife, Anne Spots- 
wood Burwell. This lady belonged to an old and extensive fam- 
ily, being the daughter of Lewis Burwell, who resided on an 
estate called Stoneland, in Mecklenburg County, Virginia. Mrs. 
Ravenscroft is said to have been a woman of great personal 

46 Bishops of ISTorth Carolina. 

beauty, possessing the strongest endovrments, both mental and 
moral ; and she exerted a potent influence for good over her hus- 
band's life. Though Mr. Eavenscroft was always a man of 
honor, the vices of his day were fast gaining a hold on him when 
his union with this good woman arrested their course. In later 
years her husband sr)oke of her as follows : "She was a woman 
of high principle and of a very independent character ; what she 
did not approve of she would not smile upon, yet she never gave 
me a cross word or an ill-natured look in her life, and in the 
twenty-three years it pleased God to spare her to me, such was 
her discretion that, though I often acted otherwise than she 
could have wished me to do, and though she was faithful to re- 
prove me, there never was a quarrel or temporary estrangement 
betv/een us." Mrs. Eavenscroft died in the year 1814. To the 
second Mrs. Eavenscroft (who came with her husband to ISTorth 
Carolina and died in that State) later allusion will be made. 

About the year 1792, shortly before he became of age, Mr. 
Eavenscroft re-visited Scotland for the purpose of selling his 
paternal estate and winding up his other business affairs in that 
country, after which he came back to Virginia, having deter- 
mined to spend the remainder of his life in America. It was 
shortly after returning to Virginia that his first marriage took 
place. At the solicitation of his wife he removed to Lunenburg 
County, and there purchased an estate of about 2,500 acres, 
which was nearer her father's home in the adjacent county of 
Mecklenburg. In his new home Mr. Eavenscroft led the life of 
a country gentleman for many years — happy and contented for 
a time with a course which was then considered highly respect- 
able, yet ever neglectful of religious obligations. In after years, 
while mournfully contemplating the sins of omission which had 
marked his early manhood. Bishop Eavenscroft said he let 
eighteen years pass without once opening his Bible; and that, 
between the years 1792 and 1810, he attended public v/orship not 
more than six or seven times — and then through force of circum- 
stances instead of choice. 

Bishops of N'orth Carolijs^a. 47 

It was about the year 1810 that Mr. Ravenscroft first began to 
entertain some serious concern about judgment to come, and he 
was crossed by many trials ere he triumphed over his shortcom- 
ings. His besetting sins, he tells us, were "an impatient and 
passionate temper, with a most sinful and hateful habit of pro- 
fane swearing." On his large plantation were two mills, several 
miles apart, and on his lonely rides between these, while his 
heart communed with itself, the awakening of his soul slowly 
began. In recording his trials, temptations, failures and re- 
newed resolutions for good, he later wrote : "Again and dread- 
fully did I fall from my own steadfastness. Temptation, like 
a mighty man thai shouteth hy reason of tvine, swept my strength 
before it — carried away my resolutions as Samson did the gates 
of Gaza. I returned to the house convinced of my own helpless- 
ness, of my native depravity, and that to spiritual things I was 
incompetent. I now found of a truth that in me dwelt no good 
thing. 1 threw myself upon my bed in my private room ; I wept, 
I prayed. Then was showed unto me my folly in trusting to an 
arm of flesh. Then did it please the Lord to point my bewil- 
dered view to Him v\'ho is the Lord our righteousness. Then was 
I enabled in another strength to commit myself unto His way. 
From that moment my besetting sin of profane swearing was 
overcome, and to this moment has troubled me no more. But 
much was yet to be done, which the same gracious Friend of 
poor sinners continued to supply, and to lead me, step by step, 
to proclaim His saving name and declare His mighty power 
openly to the world." 

After casting his eyes about for a while, seeking a Christian 
denomination with which to affiliate, Mr. Ravenscroft (together 
with his wife) entered a religious body called Republican Metho- 
dists (a sect which afterwards passed out of existence), being 
strongly moved to that step by personal friendship for one of the 
preachers in that denomination, the Reverend John Robinson, of 
Charlotte County. At that time there was not a sufficient num- 
ber of these Methodists to form a congregation near Mr. Ravens- 

48 Bishops of I^orth Carolina 

croft's home, though they arranged to have sermons delivered 
monthly at a point eight miles away. At a later period a larger 
number was gotten together and a congregation formed. In this 
little flock Mr. Ravenscroft became a lay elder, and read ser- 
mons whenever one of their preachers could not be had. After 
successfully working three years as a layman he began to enter- 
tain thoughts of entering the ministry. The spiritual wants 
of the neighborhood strongly apealed to him, and yet much 
moral courage was required to take the step he contemplated. 
Scoifers at religion were not any more unknown in that day 
than they are now; and Mr. Ravenscroft, in speaking of his 
entry into the ministry, said, at a later period of his life : "Con- 
tempt for the calling itself, manifested by wealthier and better 
informed classes of society, which I once felt myself and now 
witnessed in others, was a severe stumbling-block." But it took 
more than a stumbling-block to check the purpose of a man like 
Ravenscroft. He had stumbled before, only to rise again, and 
had now learned to rely on strength from above in all his trials. 
But, in a doctrinal way, he began to entertain uneasiness and 
doubts on a question to which he had theretofore given little 
thought : this was, whether the ministry of every Christian de- 
nomination was valid and authorized by the Scriptures. Espe- 
cially was he doubtful of their right to administer the Sacra- 
ment. On stating his perplexity to the Republican Methodist 
clergyman, under whom he had so long labored as a layman, 
that gentleman — "an able and sensible, though not a learned, 
man" — was little impressed with the importance of the point 
raised. Of his deeper studies into the matter Mr. Ravenscroft 
said : "Being thus left to my own resources, and the Word of 
God, I became fully convinced that the awful deposit of the 
Word, by which we shall all be judged, could never be thrown 
out into the world to be scrambled for and picked up by whoso- 
ever pleased to take hold of it ; and, though this objection might 
in some sort be met by the manifestations of an internal call, yet 
as that internal call could not be demonstrated to others, some- 

Bishops of North Carolina. 49 

thing more was needed which could only be found in the outward 
delegation of authority from that source to which it was origi- 
nally committed." * 

In consequence of his non-belief in the validit}'^ and authority 
of the ministry under which he had theretofore served, Mr. 
Ravenseroft applied to the Republican Methodist District Meet- 
ing for a letter of dismissal; and this was granted "in the most 
friendly and affectionate manner," as he himself bears witness. 
To part with his brethren, most of them old neighbors as well as 
personal friends, was doubtless so painful that earthly considera- 
tions could never have moved him thereto. But he was now 
adrift — free from affiliation with any denomination of Chris- 
tians — and began to cast about for a religious resting-place. 
Before coming to a final decision, his most serious thought was 
given to the claims of Presbyterianism ; but that denomination's 
origin, he declared, could be traced no further back than the Ref- 
ormation. Furthermore, said he, in its lines of succession it 
even labored under the doubt as to whether it so much as had 
the authority which mere presbyters could transmit, for it did 
not satisfactorily appear that Calvin ever had received orders 
of any hind. Moved by these considerations, Mr. Ravenseroft 
determined to enter the American Episcopal Church, the suc- 
cessor of the old Church of England, and to apply for holy 
orders therein. As the reasons upon which he based his belief 
in the unbroken line of the Episcopate of the Church of England 
have already been set forth in the introductory chapter of this 
work, it is not necessary to repeat them here. 

Being resolved, as already stated, to apply for holy orders in 
the church of his ancestors, Mr. Ravenseroft repaired to Rich- 
mond, with proper credentials, and there made his wishes known 
to the Right Reverend Richard Channing Moore, Bishop of 
Virginia. As the canons of the Church required that the names 
of candidates for orders should be inscribed in the books for one 
year before advancement, Mr. Ravenseroft could not become a 

* Worlcs of Bishop Ravenseroft (edition of ISHO), Vol. I., p. 18. 

50 Bishops of jSTorth Carolina. 

deacon at once, but Bishop Moore licensed him (February 17, 
1816) as a lay reader, and he labored as such in the parishes of 
Cumberland in Lunenburg County, and Saint James in Meck- 
lenburg County. On the 25th of April, 1817, in the Monumen- 
tal Church at Richmond, he was admitted to the office of deacon. 
On the 6th of May following, while the Diocesan Convention of 
Virginia was in session at Fredericksburg, he Avas there ordained 
to the priesthood. At the time of his ordination he was much 
further advanced in age than is usually the case with candidates 
for holy orders, being forty-five years old. He had previously 
been asked by the parish of Saint James, in Mecklenburg 
County, to become its Rector, and this invitation he now ac- 
cepted. Of the zeal wdth which he performed the duties of his 
sacred office while in Virginia, it has been said: "His atten- 
tion to the duties of his calling, which he suffered nothing to 
divert, was indeed remarkable. His punctuality as a minister, 
for instance, was so exact that during the whole time he offi- 
ciated as deacon and priest he was never known to fail in keeping 
an appointment. Relying, with a confidence which ultimately 
became fatal, upon the vigor and stability of his constitution, 
he set at naught all kinds of weather, while engaged in the 
duties which called him from home. Even when the weather 
was so inclem-ent that he would not permit his servant, who 
acted as the sexton of his churches, to accompany him, he would 
himself take the keys and ride off five or ten miles to the regular 
place of worship, without, perhaps, the slightest expectation of 
meeting an individual; and sometimes, as he used to express 
himself, would 'ride around the church, when the snow was a 
foot deep, and leave his track as a testimony against his people.' " 
It is needless to say that such labors as the above soon made 
themselves felt. In his address to the Virginia Diocesan Con- 
vention of 1818, Bishop Moore said: ''I proceeded to Mecklen- 
burg and consecrated a new church, erected by the parishioners 
of the Rev. Mr. Ravenscroft. In that place, brethren, in which 
the Church was thought to be extinct, the friends of our com- 

Bishops of North Carolina. 51 

munion have awakened from tlieir slumbers. Aided by the ex- 
ertions of their faithful and laborious minister, they have raised 
a temple sacred to the living God. May that Saviour, whom 
they worship with so much ardour and sincerity of heart, accept 
their sacrifice and remember them for good." 

So effective was the work of Mr. Ilavenscroft in Ids parish 
in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, that in 1823 he was called by 
the Church in Norfolk, with an offer of greater emoluments 
(of which he was now in need, for much of his fortune had 
been lost), but this was declined. About the same time he also 
received a call from the Monumental Church in Richmond, as 
Assistant Rector. This call he accepted, for his help was needed 
by Bishop Moore, who was then filling the Episcopate and serving 
as Rector of the Monumental Church at the same time — holding 
the positions jointly, just as was the case with Mr. Ravenscroft 
himself at a later time when he was both Bishop of North Caro- 
lina and Rector of Christ Church in Raleigh. Desiring to re- 
lieve Bishop Moore, and thereby enable him to discharge the 
duties of his more important office without hindrance, Mr. 
Ravenscroft accepted the call to Richmond ; but, before he could 
remove to that city, he was summoned to a more important 
post — that of Bishop of North Carolina. In describing the 
effect upon Mr. Ravenscroft of this call to the Episcopate, the 
Reverend William Mercer Green, who bore the notification of 
his election to him, later said that he could never forget the 
solemn nature of their interview. He found him at home, with 
his wife beside him and a Bible open before him. After the 
usual salutations, the documents containing the certificate of his 
election, etc., were placed in Ravenscroft's hands. Mr. Green 
had some curiosity to witness the effect produced upon him by 
this unexpected call, and narrowly watched the workings of his 
countenance. For some moments Ravenscroft read and re-read, 
as if loath to believe the startling proposition. At length a deep 
groan relieved the awful heavings of his breast. At this sound 
his wife looked up and cast an anxious glance at both, as if to 

52 Bishops of jSToeth Cakolina. 

inquire the cause of such emotion, l^ot a word, however, was 
spoken. An impressive silence reigned throughout the chamber, 
broken only by hard and long-drawn breathings. At length, 
after pacing the floor for a few moments, as if struggling to keep 
down his emotions, Mr. Ravenscroft paused before Green and 
said, in his peculiarly emphatic manner : "Brother, it must be 
so. The hand of God is in this thing ; I see it ; and with His 
help I will endeavor to go where He calls me." Then, putting 
the papers into the hands of his wife, he endeavored to return 
to his wonted strain of cheerful and edifying conversation. Mr. 
Green (whose language we have largely used in giving this ac- 
count) adds that there was an evident weight upon Mr. Ravens- 
croft during the remainder of this visit, which might well cause 
one to wonder how the "office of Bishop" could ever be the aim 
of worldly ambition. 

It was in Saint Paul's Church, in the city of Philadelphia, on 
the 22d day of May, 1823, that the Reverend Doctor Ravens- 
croft was consecrated Bishop of JSTorth Carolina by Bishops 
William White of Pennsylvania, Alexander Viets Griswold of 
the Eastern Diocese, James Kemp of Maryland, John Croes of 
New Jersey, Nathaniel Bowen of South Carolina, and Thomas 
Church Brownell of Connecticut. Divine services were con- 
ducted on this occasion by the Reverend William Mercer Green, 
and the consecration sermon was delivered by Bishop Griswold. 
The former afterwards said of Bishop Ravenscroft's demeanor 
on that occasion : "Never, while memory retains her seat, shall 
I forget the startling effect of his responses upon the multitude 
that looked on. It was as though an earthquake was shaking the 
deep foundations of those venerable walls. A breathless silence 
reigned during the whole of the sacred ceremony; and no one, 
it is believed, left the church that day without feeling as if he 
could pledge himself for the sincerity and zeal of him who was 
then invested with the apostolic office." At the time of his con- 
secration Bishop Ravenscroft was the tenth living member of 
the House of Bishops. 

Bishops of North Carolina. 53 

When Doctor Raveuscroft Avas called to the Episcopate the 
authorities of the Church in North Carolina frankly stated to 
him the numerical weakness of the Diocese and its consequent 
poverty. Such a salary as the Diocese itself could pay would 
not alone bo sufficient for his support, but an arrangement was 
made whereby he might become Rector of the parish of Christ 
Church in Raleigh, and divide his time between the care of that 
congregation and the performance of the duties of the Episco- 
pate throughout the Diocese at large. In this way he might 
draw a small amount from each source, and thus win a modest 
living till the arrival of better days, when it was hoped that the 
Diocese could make a more liberal provision for the maintenance 
of its Bishop. 

Before proceeding further with this narrative we shall carry 
the reader back a few years in order to explain conditions which 
existed in North Carolina when Ravenscroft became Bishop. 
As already stated, several efforts had been made, just after the 
Revolution, to found a diocese — the movers in the matter even 
going so far as to elect a Bishop (the Reverend Charles Petti- 
grew), who, however, d|ed without being consecrated. After the 
failure of these early attempts no serious effort was again made 
until 1817, though several parishes had managed to preserve 
their existence throughout the trying period which intervened. 
In the meantime the older clergy had all removed from the State 
or died, and their places Avere not filled. The last surviving 
clergyman of the colonial era in North Carolina was the Rev- 
erend Nathaniel Blount, of Beaufort County, who passed to his 
reward in the Fall of 1816. This gentleman belonged to a family 
Avhich is said to have been seated in North Carolina for a longer 
period than any other which is still extant ; and its members 
have been firm friends of the Church from the earliest dawn of 
the State's colonial existence. Nathaniel Blount in early life 
was brought under the spiritual influence of that splendid 
Church of England missionary, the Reverend Alexander Stew- 
art, minister in charge of Saint Thomas's Church, in Bath, to 

54 Bishops of ISTosth Cakolina. 

whose labors we have referred on a previous page. In 1773, the 
young Churchman went to England and was duly admitted to 
holy orders in Saint Paul's Church, London. Almost immedi- 
ately after his return, he erected at his own expense a house of 
worship, afterwards known as "Parson Blount's Chapel," but 
now called Trinity Church. This church (which is in Choco- 
winity, Beaufort County) is still standing, though some addi- 
tions have been made to the original building. In the unsuccess- 
ful efforts to establish a Diocese in 1790-'94, Parson Blount Avas 
one of those engaged. V/hen he died, in 1816, there was not left 
surviving a single clergyman of the Episcopal Church in the 
entire State of North Carolina. But the Church was not dead. 
Where the earlier workers had sown, a harvest was yet to spring 
up, and hopeful children of the Church might exclaim, "The 
night is far spent, the day is at hand." And the new day da'WTied 
in 1817. On the 24th of April, in that year, a small convention 
was held at J^ew Bern, and further steps were taken to set up a 
Diocese in the State of North Carolina by drawing up a consti- 
tution for the government of the Church, and taking other meas- 
ures for its formation. The convention also appointed a Stand- 
ing Committee, and invited Bishop Moore, of Virginia, to as- 
sume Episcopal oversight of the Church in I^orth Carolina until 
the State could secure a Bishop of its own. At this first Dio- 
cesan Convention in New Bern, only three clerical and six lay 
delegates were present. The Reverend Bethel Judd, Rector of 
Saint John's Church, in Fayetteville, was president; and the 
Reverend Adam Empie, Rector of Saint James's Church, in 
Wilmington, acted as secretary. The only other clerical dele- 
gate present was the Reverend J. Curtis Clay, Rector of Christ 
Church, in New Bern, while the lay delegates present were John 
Winslow of Fayetteville, Marsden Campbell and John Ruther- 
ford London of Wilmington, John Stanly and John Spence West 
of New Bern, and Josiah Collins, Jr., of Edenton. The next 
convention was held in Fayetteville in April, 1818, with a slight 
increase in attendance. As Bishop Moore was sick, he could not 

Bishops of North Carolina. 55 

attend tlie Convontion of 1818; but was present at a convention 
(at Wilmington) held in April, 1819, being styled in tlie journal 
of that body "Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
Dioceses of Virginia and Xorth Carolina." In the months of 
April-May, 1820, Bishop Moore presided over the Diocesan Con- 
vention in Edenton ; also over the two succeeding ones (both held 
in Raleigh), April-May, 1821, and April, 1822. The secretary 
of the conventions of 1819, 1820, and 1821, was a nephew of 
Bishop Moore, the Reverend Gregory Townsend Bedell, who suc- 
ceeded the Reverend Mr. Judd as Rector of Saint John's Church, 
in Fayetteville, November 1, 1818, and there remained until the 
Spring of 1822, when he went to Philadelphia and became Rector 
of Saint Andrew's Church. He was the father of Bishop Greg- 
ory Thurston Bedell, of Ohio. While in North Carolina, the 
elder Bedell did much toward building up the Church, .and 
preached the convention sermon in 1820 on "The Desolations 
and the Restoration of Zion,*' this discourse being printed by 
order of the body before which it was delivered. Doctor Bedell's 
biography, by the Reverend Stephen H. Tyng, was published a 
year or t"wo after his death, v\'hich occui'red in 1834. 

Referring to his visit to North Carolina in 1819, Bishop 
Moore addressed the Virginia Diocesan Convention in that year 
as follows : "It will not be thought irrelevant, brethren, to notice 
at this time my late excursion through the diocess of North 
Carolina. The Church in that State is rising in all the vigor 
of youth. A new edifice has been lately erected in Fayetteville, 
an ornament to the town, and a credit to the exertion of its 
founders, which I consecrated to the service of Almighty God. 
I confirmed in that place sixty persons, and admitted the Rev. 
Mr. Shavr to the order of deacons. Among the list of worthies 
who have exerted themselves in the building of the Church 
in Fayetteville, I find the names of Cameron and Winslow, 
the sons of two of our deceased clergy. May the spirit of 
their fathers continue to animate their bosoms, and may the 
children of other ministers imitate their noble, their laudable 

56 Bishops of ISTokth Caeolina. 

example. The Chureli in Wilmington is also in a prosperous 
condition. I preached in that place to pious, crowded audito- 
ries, and confirmed one hundred and thirty-three persons. ISTew- 
bern is also rising in importance. The congregation have deter- 
mined to erect a new church upon the plan of that in Fayette- 
ville. I preached in Newbern five times in three days, confirmed 
fifty-two persons, and administered the Lord's Supper to a large 
body of pious communicants. I visited Washington, Greenville, 
and Tarborough, and preached several times in each place." 
Though his presence is recorded in the North Carolina Diocesan 
Convention Journals, we can find no record in the Virginia 
Journals of Bishop Moore's visitations to the conventions at 
Raleigh in 1821 and 1822. Of his visitation to the North Caro- 
lina Convention at Edenton, in 1820, he has this to say in his 
address to the Virginia Convention of that year: "As your 
regard for the interests of the Church must render you alive to 
ber prosperity in every section of the country, I consider it not 
irrelevant to state to you that I have attended the Convention in 
North Carolina, and that the Church in that Diocess holds up to 
your view the most encouraging prospects. In Edenton, at 
which place the Convention convened, our sittings were attended 
by great numbers of people, some of whom had come from a dis- 
tance of near fifty miles to witness our proceedings and attend 
upon our ministry. In that place I ordained two deacons, and 
admitted one gentleman to the priesthood. In that diocess, so 
late as the year 1817, there was not a single clergyman : they are 
now blessed with the labours of seven faithful men ; and, in the 
course of another year, several candidates, who are now prepar- 
ing for holy orders, will be admitted to the ministry of the 

The members of the families of Cameron and Winslow, re- 
fered to as sons of deceased clergymen in the extract first above 
quoted from Bishop Moore's journal, were Doctor Thomas N. 
Cameron and John Winslow. Doctor Cameron was a brother 
of Judge Duncan Cameron, of Orange County, North Carolina, 

Bisuops OF XoitTH Carolina. 57 

and a son of the Reverend John Cameron, who was born in 
Scotland, educated at the University of Aberdeen, and after- 
wards came to Virginia, where he attained great eminence in 
the Church. Mr. "Winslow — a scion of the historic Winslow 
family of Massachusetts — was a son of the Reverend Edward 
Winslow, who was born in Boston, graduated from Harvard in 
1741, died in 'New York during the Revolution, and was buried 
under Saint George's Chapel. John Winslow was one of the 
organizers of Saint John's Church, in Fayetteville, and its first 
senior warden. He was also one of the six lay delegates to the 
Convention of 1817, held in IN'ew Bern, which permanently 
organized the Diocese of ll^orth Carolina. One of his sons, 
Edward Lee Winslow, was also a devoted Churchman, and for 
many years was Secretary of the Diocese. Another son was the 
celebrated lawyer, Warren Winslow, Speaker of the Senate of 
North Carolina, who for a few weeks (December 11, 1854-Janu- 
ary 1, 1855) was Acting Governor of the State, and who later 
served as a member of Congress (December 3, 1855-March 3, 
1861), besides being in the diplomatic sei"vice of the United 

It was at Salisbury, in April, 1823, that the Convention was 
held which elected Doctor Ravenscroft to the Bishopric. This 
convention was visited by a body of Lutheran clergymen and 
laymen, who were welcomed with loving courtesy. Twenty-five 
parishes of the Episcopal Church were at that time reported to 
be in operation throughout the State. These were as follows : 
Saint James's, in Wilmington; Saint John's, in Fayetteville; 
Christ Church, in New Bern ; Saint Paul's, in Edenton ; Saint 
Jude's, in Orange County; Saint John's, in Williamsborough ; 
Saint Mary's, in Orange County; Emmanuel, in Warrenton; 
Christ Church, in Rowan County; Grace Chapel, in Pitt 
County; Saint Mark's, in Halifax; Calvary, in Wadesborough ; 
Christ Church, in Raleigh ; Saint Michael's, in Iredell County ; 
Saint Peter's, in Lexington ; Whitehaven, in Lincoln County ; 
Smyrna, in Lincoln County; Saint Andrew's, in Burke County; 

58 Bishops of ISToeth Carolina. 

Saint Stephen's, in Oxford; Saint Peter's, in Lincoln County; 
Saint Thomas's, in Bath ; Saint Matthew's, in Kinston ; Zion 
Church, in Beaufort County; and Trinity Chapel, in Beaufort 
County. In 1824, the churches or parishes added were Saint 
Peter's, in Washington; Saint Luke's, in Salisbury; Union 
Chapel, in Waynesboro (near where Goldsboro now stands) ; 
and Saint Paul's, in Milton. In that year Trinity Church, in 
Tarborough, passed out of existence. 

During the entire time that he filled the Episcopate, Bishop 
Kavenscroft never in a single instance failed to attend any ses- 
sion of either the General Convention or the Diocesan Conven- 
tion. The General Convention was in session three times — 1823, 
1826, and 1829 — during his term of office, its meeting place 
being in the city of Philadelphia in each instance. The six ses- 
sions of the Diocesan Convention of ISTorth Carolina, while he 
was Bishop, were held at the following places and dates: Wil- 
liamsborough in 1824, Washington in 1825, Hillsborough in 
1826, :N'ew Bern in 1827, Fayetteville in 1828, and Salisbury in 
1829. In the Convention of 1828, one of the lay delegates was 
Leonidas Polk, afterwards Bishop of Louisiana ; and Thomas F. 
Davis, Jr., later Bishop of South Carolina, was a lay delegate in 

Though he wielded a potent influence over the spiritual lives 
of many who afterwards became Bishops — Otey, Freeman, 
Green, Polk, Davis, and possibly others — Bishop Raveuscroft 
never took part in the ceremony of consecrating a Bishop ; in 
fact, only two were consecrated during his entire Episcopate, 
these being Henry Ustick Onderdonk of Pennsylvania, and Wil- 
liam Meade of Virginia. 

As Christ Church, in Raleigh, was for so many years the 
scene of Bishop Ravenscroft's labors as parish priest at the same 
time that he filled the Episcopate, and as his remains noAv rest 
beneath its chancel, we shall devote some space to a record of 
its early history before proceeding with this narrative. At the 
time of the arrival of Bishop Ravenscroft, the small congrega- 

Bishops of N'outii Cauolina. 59 

tioii in T\aleigli Avas sadlj in need of his services as pastor, 
ilany people in that to-um were descended from families which 
had been zealously attached to the Church of England before 
the Revolution ; but these, for tlie most part, had drifted into the 
several denominalions which already had houses of worship in 
the infant capital. Prior to 1817, it is said that there Avere not 
in Raleigh more than half a dozen communicants of the Episco- 
pal Church. These were occasionally ministered to by the Rev- 
erend John Phillips, whose home was then in Tarboro. In 1821 
and 1822, Bishop Moore, of Virginia, came to Raleigh to attend 
the Diocesan Conventions of the State, over which bodies he pre- 
sided by request, and baptized a number of children during his 
visits, also administering the rite of confirmation to several 
adults. The parish of Christ Church probably had some sort of 
existence before 1820, but it was not regularly organized and in 
shape to be recognized by the Diocesan Convention until 1822. 
In that year, its lay delegates were Chief Justice John Louis 
Taylor, William H. Haywood, Jr. (afterwards United States 
Senator), and Doctor A. S. H. Purges, an eminent physician of 
that day. In 1824, it was represented by Chief Justice Taylor, 
Doctor Purges, Colonel John S. Ellis, and George Washington 
Freeman — the last named taking holy orders a short time there- 
after, and eventually becoming Missionary Pishop of the South- 
west. In 1825, Gavin Hogg, an eminent la^A^yer, Avas sole dele- 
gate from the parish ; in 1826, it was represented by Mr. Hogg, 
Mr. Haywood and Judge George E. Padger, the last mentioned 
afterwards becoming United States Senator, and also Secretary 
of the 'NsLYj under Presidents Harrison and Tyler. In 1827, 
Mr. Hogg was again the sole delegate from Christ Church ; and 
in 1828, it had as its delegates Judge Padger, Gavin Hogg, and 
young Leonidas Polk, who was later to become famous alike as 
Bishop and General. In 1829 (the last time the Diocesan Con- 
vention met during the Episcopate of Pishop Ravenscroft), no 
delegate was present from Christ ChurcL 

In 1823, the members of the little congregation at Raleigh 
who had so faithfully stood by their Church throughout long 

60 Bishops of j^orth CAROLiiSTA. 

years of gloom, looked forward Avitli expectant joy to the time 
when their first Rector, in the person of the new Bishop, was to 
take up his ahode among them, and Bishop Ravenscroft paid a 
brief visit to that city in June, almost immediately after his con- 
secration; then he went back, for a short while, to wind up his 
aifairs in Virginia before repairing permanently to his new 
home. Mention of his first visit to the capital of ISTorth Caro- 
lina was made in a newspaper of that day, the Raleigh Register, 
in its issue of July 18, 1823, in these words : 

"It has already been stated in the papers that Bishop Ravenscroft 
was expected to take up his residence in this city. We are gratified 
in saying this is decided, and that he will remove to this place in 
December next. On a late visit, the Bishop occupied the Pi-esbyterian 
Church, and preached several times. He is, as every man ought to be 
who ministers in holy things for the spiritual edification of his fellow 
beings, a zealous advocate for what he conceives to be the doctrines of 
the Gospel. His style is plain, perspicious, and impressive, his voice 
clear and distinct, and his action natural and becoming. From all we 
have seen or heard, we have no doubt but the Bishop will greatly aid, 
both by his preaching and example, the cause of religion in this place. 
We have in our little city a Presbyterian, a Methodist, and a Baptist 
Church, all of which are respectably attended. It is understood that 
an Episcopal Church will be built so soon as arrangements can be 
made for the purpose." 

It was on December 20, 1823, that Bishop Ravenscroft became 
a resident of Raleigh, though he had done some work in the 
Diocese before that time. Having no house of worship in Ra- 
leigh in which to hold services, he rented, in 1824, an abandoned 
theatre called "The Museum," which stood on the north-east 
corner of Fayetteville and Martin streets, and there officiated 
for some time. Prior to the time when George "W. Freeman 
entered the ministry, that gentleman (who also taught school) 
acted as a lay reader when Bishop Ravenscroft was absent from 
Raleigh. Describing affairs in Raleigh, in his report to the 
Diocesan Convention of 1824, Bishop Ravenscroft said: "The 
services are well attended, in a building rented and fitted up for 
the purpose ; and, under all the disadvantages of frequent inter- 
ruptions in the regular duties of the Sabbath, from my other 
duties to the Diocese, it is evident that the Episcopal cause is 

Bishops of North Carolina. 61 

gaining ground; and, what is more, that the cause of religion is 
progressing. A Aveekly evening lecture, at the private houses of 
members, is respectably attended. . . . The number of 
communicants is about twenty-five, though, from various cir- 
cumstances, they have never all been present at one administra- 
tion of the holy sacrament. The number of members of the con- 
gregation, declared as such, is thirty-five." 

In 1826, the congregation in Kaleigh arranged for the erec- 
tion of a wooden building on the lot where Christ Church now 
stands. The contract therefor was awarded to Captain William 
Nichols, an architect who had come to Raleigh to re-model the 
old Capitol, which was later burned. The Raleigh Register, of 
November 1, 1826, contained this item: 

"The members of the Episcopal Church in this city have purchased 
a site on which to erect a new church, and have contracted with Mr. 
W. Nichols to build it. The land was obtained from William Boylau, 
Esq., and is situated in an elevated and central part of the citj', at 
the corner of Wilmington and Edenton streets. The church will 
front on the Capitol Square. The work will be immediately com- 
menced ; and. from the acknowledged talents of the architect, we have 
no doubt this church will be an ornament to the city. We regret that 
it will not be erected with a less perishable material. It is to be a 
frame building." 

The above quoted newspaper, on Thursday, December 24, 
1829, announced the consecration of the above building as fol- 

"On Sunday last [December 20th] the new edifice recently erected 
for the use of the Episcopal congregation in this city was consecrated 
to the service of Almightj^ God by the Right Reverend J. S. Ravens- 
croft, Bishop of the Diocese. The Reverend Mr. Goodman, of New 
Bern, and the Reverend Mr. Green, of Hillsborough, were also preseut 
on the occasion. At 11 o'clock the Bishop and Clergy appeared, 
attended by the Vestry, who repeated the 24th Psalm in alternate 
verses as they proceeded up the aisle to the chancel, where the Bishop 
and Clergy entered. A very excellent and appropriate sermon was 
delivered by the Bishop to a crowded auditoiy from I. Kings, VI., 11 
and 12, 'And the word of the Lord came to Solomon, saying : Concern- 
ing the house which thou art buildmg, if thou wilt walk in my 
statutes, and execute my judgments, and keep all my commandments 
to walk in them, then will I perform my word with thee which I 
spake unto David thy father,' " 

62 Bishops of ]!^okth Cakolina. 

The consecration sermon, just alluded to, is still preserved, 
being published in the collected sermons of Bishop Ravenscroft, 
the first edition of which was issued in 1830, just after his death. 
The above wooden church did not occupy the exact spot now 
adorned by Christ Church. It was a little to the northward, but 
on the same lot. 

Bishop Ravenscroft continued his double duties as Bishop of 
North Carolina and Rector of Christ Church until March, 1828. 
Then he removed to Granville County, and the Raleigh pas- 
torate was turned over to the Reverend Charles P. Elliott, a 
South Carolinian, who served one year and was succeeded by the 
Reverend George W. Freeman. The clergyman last named offi- 
ciated in Raleigh many years, beginning in September, 1829, 
and ending in 184-0, when he gave place to the Reverend Richard 
Sharpe Mason, who was Rector until his death, on the 21st of 
February, 1874. Doctor Mason's successor was the Reverend 
Matthias Murray Marshall, D. D., upon whose resignation, in 
1907, the Reverend Milton Augustus Barber became Rector. 

It was in 1833, during Doctor Freeman's pastorate, that an 
organ was first placed in Christ Church, and there is a tradition 
in Raleigh that this innovation was regarded by many of the 
natives as rank sacrilege. 

On December 28,* 1848 (some years after Bishop Ravens- 
croft's death), the corner-stone of the new Christ Church, a 
beautiful granite edifice, was laid; and this Avas completed in 
a few years, though it was some time before the tower was 
added. On January 5, 1854, this new church was consecrated 
by Bishop Atkinson, assisted by the Reverend Messrs. Richard 
Sharpe Mason (Rector of the parish), Joseph Blount Cheshire, 
Aldert Smedes, Fordyce Mitchell Hubbard, Aaron Frank Olm- 
sted, and Richard Henry Mason. The plan of the ne-^^- building 
was dra"um by Richard Upjohn, an eminent architect, who de- 

*Iu giving date as December 28th, I follow statement iu the Bishop's 
Journal and contemporaneous newspaper accounts, though the corner- 
stone itself is marked December 12th. It may be that after the date 
had been cut on the granite, the ceremony, for some cause, had to be 
postponed until the 28th. 

Bishops of XoKiir Cakoi.ina. 63 

signed Trinity Church, New York, nnd many other sacred edi- 
fices throughout America. 

As we have digressed far enough in telling of Christ Church, 
we shall now endeavor to speak further of the general work of 
Bishop Ravenscroft tliroughout the Diocese of North Carolina. 

Bishop Eavenscroft's journals are all printed in the early pro- 
ceedings of the Diocesan Conventions, and they recount many 
most interesting experiences during his various visitations. One 
entry says: "On the next day [April 27, 1825,] opportunity was 
taken to pay a visit to Mrs. Pettigrew, the aged widow of the 
Eeverend Mr. Pettigrew, formerly Bishop-elect of this Diocese. 
To this I was prompted as well by my own feelings as by the 
respect conceived to be due from the Diocese at large to the relict 
of one who was thought Avorthy to preside over the interests of 
this branch of the Church of Christ, and which I felt perfectly 
sure it would be pleased to manifest through its present repre- 
sentative. To this venerable lady the attention thus shown was 
most grateful, and none the less so from being altogether un- 
looked for, while to myself it was more than gratifying, because 
to the satisfaction arising from the performance of what is be- 
lieved to be a duty was added the assurance that the Church has 
yet many friends remaining in that immediate neighborhood, 
who want only the opportunity to return again to those services 
in which they were raised, but of which they have long been 
deprived. They have a neat little church, in perfect repair, 
built by Mr. Pettigrew, in which the Methodists occasionally 
officiate, and on whose ministrations the members of the Church 
are compelled by necessity to attend." In another Convention 
Journal, for October 21, 1827, we find this entry: "At the con- 
clusion of the services I administered the sacrament of holy bap- 
tism to Turner Wilson, a qualified adult, by immersion in Eden- 
ton Bay — this mode being preferred by him and readily assented 
to by me, both as Scriptural and authorized by the Rubric. The 
ceremony was witnessed by a goodly number of spectators, and 
it is greatly to be wished that such calls were more frequent 

64 Bishops of North Carolina. 

upon our clergy, whichever mode shall be preferred for its ad- 
ministration." For August 12, 1827, we find an entry by Bishop 
Ravenscroft as follows : "I embraced the opportunity, which the 
short distance from the place rendered favorable, to visit the 
sister church of the Moravian brethren at Salem. To this I was 
induced by the desire to obtain information from personal ob- 
servation and by the wish to manifest the regard for a body of 
Christian confessors, episcopally derived and constituted, which 
brethren of the same family owe to each other. These motives 
were frankly stated to their chief pastor. Bishop Benade, with 
the presbyters and deacons present, and the wish expressed that, 
as we were the only Episcopal Protestant Churches in the State, 
indeed in the United States, such Christian intercourse might be 
established between us as was calculated to extend Christian fel- 
lowship, in every way consistent with independence as distinct 
ecclesiastical bodies. This declaration was favorably received 
by the Bishop and his clergy and every attention shewed me, 
consistent with the extra services of a centenary commemoration 
of some remarkable event in their history. I was much pleased 
with the neatness, simplicity and uniformity of attire, and with 
the order and decorum, extending even to the children, which 
was exhibited by a very large congregation, and with which all 
the services were conducted; and was most favorably impressed 
with the fervent simplicity of manner and animated fluency of 
address which marked the delivery of the Bishop's sermon on 
the occasion, and I have only to regret that my ignorance of the 
German language precluded the edification I doubt not it con- 
tained. At the conclusion of the night service we took leave of 
each other, with expressions of Christian regard, and with the 
desire on my part of a more intimate acquaintance as Christian 
brethren." The Moravian centennial anniversary, alluded to by 
Bishop Ravenscroft in the above extract from his journal, was 
one which fell on August 13th; but, on this occasion, it was 
observed on the preceding day (Sunday), the reason given in 
the Moravian church diary being that "in this town [Salem] 

Bishops of Nouth Carolina. 65 

Sunday is the day most free from interniptions and Monday the 
most disturbed." The same diary says: "An additional distinc- 
tion of the day was the presence of the Governor of our State, 
Mr. Burton, and of the Bishop of the Church of England in 
N'orth Carolina, Mr. Kavenscroft, who came on a visit. Both 
attended the early service, and accepted the invitation to the 
Love-feast ; and the latter, at his OAvn request, took part in the 
celebration of the Holy Communion." As to the nature of the 
event commemorated at Salem in 1827, we quote from a mono- 
graph by Miss Adelaide L. Fries in a work entitled A Brief His- 
tory of the Moravian Church the following : "August 13th is a 
special memorial day for all the communicant congregation, 
commemorating the experiences of the Moravian settlers in 
Herrnhut, at a communion held in Berthelsdorf, August 13th, 
1727. The signal blessing there received had so great an effect 
upon them that it is considered the spiritual birthday of the 
renewed Unitas Fratrum — the Moravian Church." 

In addition to the events and personal experiences already 
mentioned as having been recorded in Bishop Ravenscroft's jour- 
nal, numerous other matters are there noted : how churches and 
chapels were consecrated, and ministers ordained; how divine 
services were held in court-houses. Masonic lodge rooms, and 
other buildings where no religious edifices could be found — and 
other matters of similar interest. In the proceedings of the 
Diocesan Convention of 1828, Bishop Kavenscroft tells of the 
ordination to the priesthood of George W. Freeman, James H. 
Otey, and Francis L. Hawks — all names afterwards famous in 
the annals of the American Church, the first two becoming 
Bishops, while Doctor Hawks was one of the greatest pulpit 
orators of the age in which ho lived, besides being a distin- 
guished historian. He was an older brother of the Right Rev- 
erend Cicero Stephens Hawks, Bishop of Missouri. Another 
brother, also in holy orders, was the Reverend William jSTassau 
Hawks, who faithfully labored for many years in JSTorth Caro- 
lina ; and, at the time of his death (just after the War Between 

66 Bishops of ISTortii Carolina. 

tlio States), was Eector of Trinity Church in Columbus, 

The people of our own generation, who are often deterred by 
a little inclemency of the weather from walking a few blocks 
over well-paved streets to attend divine service, may well look 
back with wonder and awe to the terrible hardships borne by the 
clergy of the Church in the early days of the republic. In 
activity and fiery zeal, Bishop Ravenscroft ranked second to 
none. Some mention has already been made of the habitual 
exposure to all kinds of weather — the scorching heat of August 
and the deep snows of mid-winter — to which he subjected him- 
self while in Virginia. This was repeated in ISTorth Carolina 
after his elevation to the Episcopate, with the difference that the 
scene of his labors was a much greater territory, for the single 
diocese then stretched east and west over five hundred miles. 
'Nov did he confine his labors to ISTorth Carolina. ISTot until 
after Bavenscroft's death did Tennessee have his beloved pupil, 
James H. Otey, as its first Bishop, yet that young State was not 
entirely destitute of the services of Bishops of the Church from 
several dioceses. On June 13, 1829, by the primitive modes of 
travel then the only ones available, Bishop Eavenscroft left his 
home at Williamsborough, in Granville County, and journeyed 
over the mountains into Tennessee ; thence, part of the way by 
old-fashioned steamboats, through Kentucky to a session of the 
General Convention which met in August of that year at the 
city of Philadelphia, his journey (going and returning) cover- 
ing sixteen hundred miles. At each stopping place in the scat- 
tered settlements throughout this long and tedious journey, he 
would proclaim the Gospel, baptize and confirm. His stentorian 
tones must have seemed almost literally as the voice of one cry- 
ing in the wilderness, ''Prepare ye the way of the Lord; maJce 
his paths straight." He was very favorably impressed with Ten- 
nessee, and gave it credit for having within its borders a bet- 
ter class of people than those who lived either in his native 
State of Virginia or his adopted State of ISTorth Carolina. Said 

Bisiioi's OF XoRTH Carolina. 67 

he: "The people are orderly and civil iu their deportment, and 
certainly more civilized and intelligent in their appearance and 
conversation than the same class of men in Virginia and I^orth 
Carolina. As proof of this, I met with but one drunken man in 
Tennessee. He Avas a Northern man, a mechanic, who got into 
the stage at Ne"v\T)ort for Knoxville ; and next day he took \ery 
kindly the reproof and admonition I felt it my duty to give." 

As to the nature of the "reproof and admonition" which 
Bishop Ravenscroft gave to the above-mentioned worthy, we 
find some record in the sketch of Ravenscroft 's life by Bishop 
Green. When the intoxicated passenger came into the coach 
where the other travellers Avere pleasantly conversing, he was 
very abusive and profane, whereupon Ravenscroft remonstrated 
with him in a spirit of fatherly kindness and asked him not to 
use such language. This only stirred the obstreperous individual 
into even greater profanity, when the Bishop again courteously 
requested him to desist from such speech. This second request 
brought forth language more outrageous still, when Ravenscroft 
violently brought his hand down upon the offender's shoulder 
and in his most terrific tones exclaimed : "Utter another oath, 
sir, if you dare, and I will throw you under the wheels of this 
coach !" A clap of thunder, says Green, could not more effect- 
ually have silenced the frightened creature, for he sat meekly in 
his place during the remainder of the night's journey, occasion- 
ally stealing timid side-glances at his formidable-looking neigh- 
bor "to see," as Ravenscroft himself afterwards said, "whether 
it was a human being or a grizzly bear that had so growled at 
him and laid so huge a paw upon his shoulder." At sunrise he 
left the coach, but first humbly apologized to the i)assengcrs; 
then, turning to the Bishop, he said: "Sir, I particularly ask 
your pardon, and thank you for stopping me as you did." He 
added that he was not an habitual drinker; but, on the pre- 
ceding day, had met with some old friends and made a fool of 
himself. Much affected by this apology, Ravenscroft said : "My 
friend, I freely forgive you, but remember there is One up 

68 Bishops or J^orth Caeolina. 

there," pointing heavenward, ''from wliom you must yet receive 
pardon — and strength also, if you wish to be a better man." 
Then, giving him a cordial shake of the hand in parting, he 
added : "I hope you will find all well at home." 

During his visit to Philadelphia, in the Summer of 1829, 
Bishop Ravenscroft underwent two surgical operations, and 
these caused a temporary improvement in his health. 

While sojourning in Tennessee in 1829, Bishop Ravenscroft 
aided in forming a diocese out of that State. His journal says : 
"On the first of July, deputies from the different Episcopal con- 
gregations in Tennessee met in I^ashville, according to previous 
notice, in order to frame a constitution for the Church, enact 
canons, and organize a diocese. Having succeeded in forming 
a convention, a deputation was directed to present to me a reso- 
lution of the House of Clerical and Lay Deputies, requesting me 
to preside over their deliberations, which was duly acknowledged 
and acceded to on my part, and the business conducted to a 
happy conclusion — deputies being elected to attend the ensuing 
General Convention of the Church, and to request admission for 
the newly organized diocese into the general union of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church in the United States." 

After spending some days in church work at several points in 
Tennessee with Doctor Otey, later Bishop (who had studied the- 
ology under him). Bishop Ravenscroft resumed his journey 
toward Philadelphia by way of Kentucky. On two diiferent 
occasions, less than three days apart, he administered the rite of 
confirmation to nearly a hundred persons in Lexington, Ken- 
tucky, on the 26th and 28th of July, 1829. In the following 
November, Bishop Brownell, of Connecticut, confirmed nearly 
seventy in Lexington and Louisville. In the succeeding year, 
the Right Reverend "William Meade, then Assistant Bishop of 
Virginia (and afterwards full Bishop), visited Kentucky and 
confirmed between seventy-five and a hundred. By 1832 Ken- 
tucky had a Bishop of its own, in the person of the Right Rev- 
erend Benjamin Bosworth Smith, afterwards Presiding Bishop 

Bishops of Noeth Cakolina. 69 

of the American Church. The aforementioned Bishop Brownell 
(one of the consecrators of Bishop Ravenseroft) was president 
of Trinity College, in Hartford, Connecticut, and did much mis- 
sionary work in the South, making several long tours for that 
purpose. In the "Winter of 1829-'30, he went on an extended 
journey, travelling down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to 
New Orleans, and returned by way of Raleigh, where he and 
his companion, the Reverend "William Richmond, of !N"ew York, 
paid a visit to Bishop Ravenseroft during his last illness, on 
February 25, 1830. 

North Carolina Churchmen in the days of Bishop Ravenseroft, 
as well as before and after his time, were noted for the care and 
pains which they bestowed upon the religious instruction of 
their slaves. Frequent reference to this class of work may be 
found in the journals of the Diocesan Conventions, and a few 
extracts may be of interest. In his report to the Convention of 
1825, the Reverend Richard Sharpe Mason, then Rector of 
Christ Church in 'New Bern, said : "The Rector of this Church 
still continues his chatechetical instructions and lectures on the 
Scriptures for the benefit of the coloured people." Alluding to 
work among the negroes belonging to Judge Duncan Cameron, 
in Orange County, the Reverend "William Mercer Green, in 1827, 
reported : "At Judge Cameron's the baptisms have been twenty- 
six children, only one of which was white. The chapel erected 
by Judge Cameron will soon be prepared for consecration. It 
is a neat and pleasant place of worship, and reflects much credit 
on the individual by whom it has been erected. The congrega- 
tion here consists, for the most part, of coloured people." In 
1830, the Reverend Thomas Wright, then laboring in Rowan 
and Anson counties, referred to the above class of work at Salis- 
bury in these words : "The Sunday School continues to prosper, 
and by some of its teachers a number of black people are also 
instructed." Of the later work of the Church for the betterment 
of the negroes, both before and after their emancipation, we 
shall take occasion to speak in the sketches of Bishops Ives, 
Atkinson, and Lyman. 

70 Bishops of ISTorth Carolina. 

From the indomitable energy and unflagging devotion with 
which Bishop Ravenscroft discharged the duties of his oflice, one 
might be led to suppose that he was a strong and robust man; 
and so he had been in his younger days, but years of toil and 
exposure had done him some injury even before he left Virginia. 
He was seldom a well man for any length of time after his 
arrival in North Carolina. Yet he would never let ordinary 
sickness interrupt his service to God. Often he would spend one 
day in bed, racked by painful illness; and, in less than twenty- 
four hours, would again be in the pulpit, delivering an earnest 
and forceful discourse. But there is a limit to all human endur- 
ance, and he eventually fell a sacrifice to his zeal ; yet no mur- 
mur escaped him in consequence of any pain or bereavement. 
As already stated, he resigned as Rector of Christ Church, in 
Raleigh, during the Spring of 1828. Shortly thereafter he 
removed his residence to the town of Williamsborough, in Gran- 
ville County, where he officiated as Rector of Saint John's 
Church for a short while. In the last-mentioned town his wife 
died, January 15, 1829. His first wife (born Burwell), to whom 
allusion has been made on a previous page, had died in Virginia 
in 1814. In 1818, four yeai"s later, he married Sarah Buford, of 
Lunenburg County, Virginia, and this lady accompanied him to 
JSTorth Carolina, where she was greatly beloved by all classes. 
Referring to her death, the Raleigh Register, on January 20th, a 
few days after that event, said : 

"An acquaintance of some yeai's with this estimable lady, during 
her residence in this city, enables us to bear testimony to the piety 
and virtue of the deceased. Of mild and endearing manners, and of 
a friendly disposition, Mrs. Ravenscroft was esteemed by her neigh- 
bors, and beloved in no common degree by her friends and connections. 
She had no children, but her loss will be irreparable to her kind and 
indulgent husband." 

The death of Mrs. Ravenscroft was indeed a severe blow to 
her husband— one which visibly affected the remaining months 
of his stay on earth — but it relieved his mind of one painful 

Bishops of North Carolina. 71 

thought : he might now go hence with no anxiety concerning her 
worldly welfare ; for practically all of his fortune was now gone, 
and he could have left little or nothing for her maintenance and 
support had she survived him. A touching scene occurred at her 
burial. When the officiating clergyman was performing the last 
rites, we are told, and was about to read the sentence of com- 
mittal, the Bishop insisted upon doing this himself; but, when 
he came to the words "earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to 
dust," his voice became choked, and his whole frame was so 
shaken by emotion that it was feared he would fall into the 

"Writing to his mother, in September, 1828, Bishop Ravens- 
croft said: "The effects of climate, with the fatigue, exposure, 
and mental labor inseparable from my office in the Church, have 
made an infirm old man of me in my 57th year." 

After the death of his wife, Bishop Ravenscroft disposed of 
his landed property in Williamsborough and sent the greater 
part of his personal effects to Fayetteville, v\^ith the intention of 
taking up his abode in the latter town ; but, before doing so, he 
accepted an invitation to spend a few months as the guest of a 
highly esteemed friend, Gavin Hogg, in Raleigh. There it be- 
came evident that the end of his earthly career was fast ap- 
proaching, and he met death with the same fearless faith in God 
which had so long characterized his life. Yet self -righteousness 
and over-confidence formed no part of his character. Ten days 
before his death, when Bishop Brownell and the Reverend Doc- 
tor Richmond paid him the visit already alluded to, they found 
him "humbly waiting for deliverance from pain and sin, through 
the merits of an all-sufficient Savior." He often declared that it 
was only as a pardoned sinner that he hoped for salvation. His 
tranquillity itself, in his last illness, awakened in his thoughtful 
mind the suggestion, to quote his own words, that "Satan thinks 
himself sure of me, and therefore lets me alone." In his closing 
hours he had every attention which loving hands could bestow. 
He also received much spiritual comfort from the ministrations 

72 Bishops of jSTorth Carolina. 

of the Reverend George W. Freeman. Once during his last ill- 
ness he received the Holy Communion, and had arranged to do 
so again; but, when the time appointed therefor came, he said 
that he was not in a condition to partake discerningly and hence 
must forego the privilege, as he held no superstitious ideas re- 
specting the Eucharist in itself. To those who had assembled in 
an adjoining room to partake with him, he sent the message : 
"Though I am denied the privilege of shouting the praises of 
redeeming love once more with them, around the table of our 
common Lord, yet I will commune with them in the spirit." 

Bishop Ravenscroft prepared for his departure from earth by 
a systematic arrangement of his business affairs as well as spirit- 
ual concerns. First he asked the vestry of Christ Church for a 
burial place beneath its chancel, then secured brick and person- 
ally instructed the workmen as to the proper manner of enclos- 
ing his coiSn in a small vault; he directed that the coffin itself 
should be made of plain pine wood, stained black, and without 
ornamentation of any kind; that his remains should be drawn 
to the place of burial by his old horse, "Pleasant," led by John- 
son, a faithful slave; that the burial service should be read by 
the Reverend George W. Freeman, Rector of Christ Church, and 
that no funeral sermon should be preached. These instructions 
were faithfully carried out. Bishop Ravenscroft was not quite 
fifty-eight years old at the time of his death, which occurred on 
the 5th of March, 1830. In announcing that event, the Raleigh 
Register, of March 8th, said: 

"Died : lu this city ou Friday morning last, at the residence of 
Gavin Hogg, Esq.. the Right Reverend John Staek Ravenscroft, 
D.D., Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in North Carolina, 
in the o8th year of his age. During a long illness, which from the 
first he was persuaded was a 'sickness unto death,' he manifested a 
perfect Christian resignation to the will of God, and looked forward 
to his approaching dissolution with a calmness and intrepidity in- 
spired only by an unwavering faith and a steadfast hope in the mercy 
of God, through the atonement of Christ. Retaining his confidence in 
the principles, which he had so ably maintained, unimpaired to the 
last, and exhibiting in his conversation and deportment an impressive 

Bishops of North Carolina. 73 

example of the power of the Gospel — in the full possession of his 
I'oasoii, he resigned his soul unto the hands of his Redeemer and his 
God. and thus closed his Christian course in a manner becoming the 
eminent character which he had sustained as a Minister of Jesus 
Christ. On Saturday evening his remains were attended by a very 
numerous collection of the citizens to the Episcopal Church and in- 
terred within the chancel — the burial services being performed by the 
RevenMid George W. Freeman, Rector of the Church." 

The will of Bishop Ravenscroft is now filed in the records of 
Wake County. He bequeathed his hooks and pamphlets to the 
Diocese for the commencement of a library at Raleigh for the 
use of both clergy and laity, said library to be kept in the cus- 
tody of his successors in the office of Bishop. Certain papers, 
sermons, etc., he left to the "Episcopal Bible, Common Prayer 
Book, Tract and Missionary Society of the Diocese of North 
Carolina," with instructions to publish the same if the Society 
so desired; he also named upwards of twenty clerg;yTnen and 
laymen in eight or ten dioceses to whom he wshed copies sent, 
as well as to every clergyman within the Diocese of North Caro- 
lina. Some family heirlooms (jewelry, etc.) which had be- 
longed to his father he bequeathed to his mother, Mrs. Lillias 
Stewart of Cairnsmore, near Newton Stewart, in Scotland, with 
the request that she leave them to her grand-daughter, Lillias 
Craig. To his brother-in-law, Alexander Craig, of Edinburgh, 
he directed that five copies of his works (if they should be 
printed) should be sent for distribution his relatives in 
Scotland. He also directed that a copy of the same should be sent 
to the Honorable and Right Reverend Charles James Stewart, 
Lord Bishop of Quebec, in Canada; another he bequeathed to 
the eminent American statesman, Henry Clay. Small legacies 
and keepsakes were left to numerous friends, including two 
of his adopted children, Alexander McHarg Hepburn and Ebe- 
nezer McHarg Hepburn, of Lunenburg County, Virginia, the 
latter being appointed executor, with the provision that he 
should not be required to give bond. The Bishop's slave, John- 
son, and even his horse, "Pleasant," were objects of solicitude 
in his last hours, and both of these he bequeathed to his two 

74 Bishops of E"orth Carolina. 

adopted sons above mentioned, saying: "I believe they will be 
kind to Johnson for my sake, keeping him from idleness and 
vice, but suiting his labor to his infirm condition ; and that they 
will not suffer Pleasant to be exposed to any hardship or want 
in his old age, but will allow Johnson to attend to him as he 
has been accustomed to do." 

It was also provided in the above will that should any residue 
remain after the settlement of the estate, it should go to a fund 
for the support of the Episcopate in I^orth Carolina; but it is 
not likely that the Diocese received any benefit from this pro- 
vision as Bishop Eavenscroft was in straitened circumstances 
at the time of his death. 

As already stated, the remains of Bishop Eavenscroft were 
interred beneath the chancel of Christ Church in Ealeigh. This 
church, at the time of his death, was a wooden building, but 
later was moved away to give place to the present beautiful 
granite structure. Though on the same lot, the present church 
is not on the exact spot where the old one stood, and hence it 
was necessary to disinter the Bishop's body in order to place it 
beneath the chancel where it now rests, awaiting the resurrec- 
tion — while above his mortal remains, almost daily, resound the 
sacred services which he loved so well. 

In the present Christ Church is a tablet (probably taken from 
the old building) which in memory of Bishop Eavenscroft bears 
a Latin inscription as follows : 

Bisirors of TsTouTir Cakolina. 75 


Ecclesiae Reformae 


et primus qui 

intra Carolinse Septentrionalis Diaeces in 

sumnio sacerdotio ornatus 

Res sacras Procuravit. 

Natus XVII. Maii, Anno Salutis MDCCLXXII., 


XXII. Maii, An. Sal. MDCCCXXIII., 

Obit V. Martii, An. Sal. MDCCCXXX. 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity or Doctor of Sacred Theol- 
ogy (Sacrae Theologiae Doctor) was conferred upon Bishop 
Ravenscroft by three well-known institutions of learning : Wil- 
liam and Mary College (his alma mater), in Virginia; Colum- 
bia College, in New York; and the University of North Caro- 

The death of Bishop Ravenscroft caused general sorrow; and 
solemn services were held in his memory throughout the Diocese. 
Christ Church in Raleigh was draped with black, and its con- 
gregation wore badges of mourning throughout Lent ; but, in 
accordance with his request, no funeral sermon was preached. 
Similar action, with the addition of memorial sermons, was 
taken by Saint James's Church in Wilmington and Saint John's 
Church in Fayetteville. Saint Matthew's Church in Hills- 
borough, Christ Church in New Bern, and Saint Peter's in 
Washington, were also draped, while their congregations wore 
crape badges and observed the 19th of March as a day of fast- 
ing, humiliation and prayer, on account of the great blow which 
had fallen on the Church. In May, 1830, a few months after 
the Bishop's death, a Convention of the Diocese of North Caro- 
lina was held at Wilmington. That body passed suitable me- 
morial resolutions, and directed that a committee be appointed 
to address a letter of condolence to the aged mother of the de- 

76 Bishops of North Cakolina. 

ceased, then residing in Scotland. In Ihe report of the Com- 
mittee on the State of the Church it was said : "Since the last 
meeting of the Convention, the members of this portion of the 
Church of God have been called to mourn the death of their 
beloved and venerated Diocesan. Removed from this scene of 
affliction and suffering, in which he had displayed the fearless 
and devoted zeal of an Apostle of the Lord Jesus and evidenced 
a signal union of the evangelical graces of our holy religion 
and the unshaken courage of a Champion of the Cross, he has 
been translated to that rest in heaven which is prepared for the 
Saints, and to a communion of the spirits of the just made per- 
fect in the Church Triumphant. . . . To record the bless- 
ings which his apostolic ministry has, through the divine favor, 
secured to this Diocese, is a task for which your committee con- 
fess themselves incapable. His praise is emphatically in all the 
churches. Within this Episcopate every altar has been enlarged 
and its votaries increased. Under his spiritual guidance many 
wanderers have been gathered into the fold of salvation ; and 
multitudes, who were famishing for the pure fountains, have 
drunk and been satisfied." 

In a letter of condolence addressed to the mother of Bishop 
Ravenscroft, Mrs. Gavin Hogg, of Raleigh, wrote on April 4, 
1830, saying of the deceased : "I understand from others, better 
qualified than I am to judge, that as a preacher he was without 
a rival in the United States." Mrs. Hogg adds : "The Diocese 
of ISTorth Carolina, and indeed the whole Church in the United 
States, considered his death a great public misfortune." 

In personal appearance Bishop Ravenscroft has been de- 
scribed, by one who knew him well, as a man of lofty presence, 
with an eye piercing and full of command. In his manner 
(says the same account) there was an apparent austerity, which 
sprang, for the most part, from the strength of his mental con- 
ceptions and the forcible language in which he expressed them. 
His features, however, were regular ; and, when he smiled, there 
was a transitory sweetness in his look which bore a striking 

Bishops of North Carolina. 77 

contrast to the usual appearance of severity on his countenance. 
In a letter written by him in 1806 he luentious his own weight 
as two hundred and twenty pounds. In height he was slightly 
over six feet. He had heavy, overhanging eyebrows, and was 
accustomed to call them his "dormer windows." In 1880, Mau- 
rice Q. Waddell, a venerable citizen of Pittsboro, North Caro- 
lina, spoke of Bishop Ravenscroft's personal apparel as follows : 
"His dress was plain and always made in the fashion worn by 
gentlemen of the period of the Eevolution. His coat was of 
black cloth, his knee-pants of the same material, and his stock- 
ings usually deep gray in color and ribbed. In "winter he wore 
boots, reaching above the calf of his leg; but, in summer, these 
gave place to shoes buckled over the instep. His linen was spot- 
less; he always Avore an old-fashioned stock, pleated at the neck 
and fastened at the back with a silver buckle. In his robes, his 
appearance was truly apostolic, and he looked a fit companion 
for the three hundred and eighteen Bishops of the Council of 
Nice." * 

Mr. Waddell also speaks of an occasion when Bishop Raven- 
scroft was traveling by stage in Virginia (after he had become 
a resident of North Carolina) and became involved in a doc- 
trinal controversy with two Presbyterian clergymen. Neither 
side was convinced, but they argued from 3 o'clock in the morn- 
ing till daylight. When the stage rolled into a town on the 
route their dispute had grown so heated that people stopped on 
the streets to see what the excitement in the coach was about. 
On observing that they were thus attracting attention, the elder 
of the two Presbyterians observed that the argument could bet- 
ter be concluded in a less public place, adding: "I am Joseph 
Caldwell, President of the University of North Carolina." To 
this his fellow-traveler replied: "And I, sir, am John Siark 
Ravenscroft, Bishop of the Diocese of North Carolina." It was 
the first time these distinguished gentlemen had ever met. Doc- 

* C'hiinli Messenger (Winston, N. C), June 29, 1880. 

78 Bishops of ISTorth Carolina. 

tor Caldwell liad become much prejudiced against tlie Bishop, 
Avhom he considered an intruder upon the ecclesiastical field in 
ISTorth Carolina and a proclaimer of strange doctrines. 

On another occasion, says Mr. Waddell, Bishop Ravenscroft 
was the guest of Colonel William Polk, of Baleigh; and in the 
course of a conversation the Colonel asked if it were not prob- 
able that a man of clean living and high morality would get to 
heaven by those means alone. "'No, sir," answered the Bishop, 
"he would go straight to hell." One of Colonel Polk's sons, 
Leonidas, later became one of the greatest Bishops in the Ameri- 
can Church. 

Bishop Ravenscroft's outspoken utterances were not always 
in keeping with the usages of polite society. At a dinner party, 
w^here he was present, one of the guests was telling of some re- 
markable occurrences which he claimed to have seen, and those 
who heard his assertions were courteously endeavoring to con- 
ceal their incredulity, when suddenly the company was startled 
by the Bishop's bringing his hand down upon the table and 
fiercely exclaiming : "That, sir, is a lie, and you hnoiu it !" 

Among the acquaintances made by Bishop Ravenscroft soon 
after he came to ISTorth Carolina was Judge Leonard Henderson, 
later Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. In his earlier years 
Judge Henderson was one — 

"Of whom 'twas said he scarce received 
For gospel what the church believed." 

But later his views underwent a change for the better. The 
former sentiments of the Chief Justice were known to Bishop 
Ravenscroft though he had not heard of the happy change which 
had taken place in the mind of that eminent jurist. Upon going 
to Williamsborough, in Granville County, the Bishop asked who 
composed the vestry of Saint John's Church. Among others 
Henderson's name was mentioned. Upon hearing this, Raven- 
scroft was not slow to express his indignation. "Why, sir. Judge 
Henderson is a pillar in the Church," answered his informant. 

Bishops of N^outh Cakolixa. 79 

"A pillar!" exclaimed ihe Bishop, "it would be better to have a 
caterpillar I" Judge Henderson went to hear Bishop Ravenscroft 
just once after his ministry in Williamsborough began; and, 
when asked by a friend why he had ceased his attendance at 
church, answered, with his nearest approach to an oath : "By 
blood, sir, I couldn't stand it ! Wh}^ that man poured the 
whole of his sermon right down into my pew, and didn't seem 
to have a word for anybody else." On another occasion says 
Bishop Green (who relates the last-mentioned anecdote) tliis 
same Chief Justice was called upon for a toast and responded: 
"Gentlemen, I give you Bishop Ravenscroft — the St. Paul of 
the South, except in being all things to all men." 

In his continuation of the elder Doctor Drane's Historical 
Notices of St. James's Parish, Wilmington, the late Colonel 
James G. Burr gives some personal reminiscences of Bishop 
Ravenscroft. On one occasion, says he, the Bishop made a visi- 
tation to that parish, and the Sunday School classes were ranged 
around the chancel to be catechised by him. The children stood 
trembling and abashed before his august presence; and, upon 
noticing this trepidation, he spoke to them in so kind and gentle 
a manner as not only to restore their self-possession but to com- 
pletely win their confidence. Later on in the monograph just 
quoted, it is said of Ravenscroft : "He would not tolerate the 
least irreverence in church, it made no difference who the offend- 
ing parties might be; whether high or low, male or female, the 
reproof was direct, and in language too plain to be misunder- 
stood." Irreverence in church was indeed an abomination in the 
eyes of Ravenscroft. When he was a parish priest in Virginia 
two young men of fashion once entered his church and pro- 
ceeded to entertain each other in very audible whispers. After 
bearing this for a while, Mr. Ravenscroft paused in his services 
long enough to say that he Avould be glad if there were less talk- 
ing among the congregation. This silenced the two for a few 
moments only; and, when they resumed their conversation so as 
to distract the attention of the worshippers, Ravenscroft pointed 

80 Bishops of ISTorth Carolina. 

directly at the offenders and said : "I will thank those yoimg 
men in that peAV to keep silence while the Word of God is being 
preached." Stung by this rebuke they sprang from their seats 
and angrily left the church. Outside, they held a consultation 
and determined that nothing short of a cudgelling would avenge 
the affront they had received, so each cut a heavy stick from a 
near-by thicket and waited for the object of their resentment. 
At length the congregation was dismissed, and a little later Mr. 
Ravenscroft made his appearance. One of the young men had 
posted himself behind the church and there waited for his com- 
panion to bring the offending clergyman. Upon being told by 
the other that he wished to see him back of the church, Raven- 
scroft accompanied him without question. After his arrival, 
there was an awkward pause, which was at last broken by Mr. 
Ravenscroft himself who asked what they wished. One of them 
then summoned up enough courage to say that he had insulted 
them in the presence of the whole congregation and they de- 
manded an instant apology. Upon hearing this, Ravenscroft 
drew himself up to his full height of more than six feet and 
thundered forth an "apology" in language to the following 
effect: "Boys, I am ashamed of you, and you ought to be 
ashamed of yourselves ! You are shaming your parents, too, 
for they have taught you better than this. Jim, you are the son 
of a good old Presbyterian elder, who would be grieved to know 
how you have behaved. As for you. Jack, you have had church 
training and ought to know better. "What would your mother 
think if she could see you as you are at this moment ? Go home, 
boys, go home ! — and when you come to church again try to act 
like Christians and behave like gentlemen." When Ravenscroft 
had finished this outburst the two young men cast frightened 
looks at each other, dropped their sticks, and hastily departed. 
An anecdote characteristic of Bishop Ravenscroft is given 
in the sketches by both ITorton and Green. He was once holding 
services in Virginia, and had begun saying the Creed, when he 
observed that none of the congregation seemed disposed to join 

Bishops of North Carolina. 81 

in repeating it. Turning his Prayer Book over on the desk 
before liim, he fixed a look of mingled surprise and trouble on 
the congregation, and asked : "Brethren, am I in the midst of 
heathens or Christians? Can it be possible that there is no man 
or Avoman present who 'believes in God the Father Almighty, 
Maker of heaven and earth V " Then he began the Creed over 
again, when his second rendition was fairly drowned by the 
mingled voices of every man, woman and child present. Xot 
long after this (continues Bishop Green) he endeared himself 
to the same congregation by a little act of thoughtfulness. Just 
after he had begun his sermon a black cloud appeared in the 
heavens, threatening a heavy downpour of rain. Most of the 
congregation, men and women alike, had come from a distance 
on horseback, and they began looking wistfully out of the win- 
dows at their saddles, but not one moved from a pew, so greatly 
did they stand in awe of the formidable looking man who stood 
before them. Observing the cause of their uneasiness, Raven- 
scroft said, in the kindest of tones : "My friends, I shall pause 
five minutes in my discourse to enable you to take care of your 
saddles." The saddles were tucked high and dry under the 
church, and the members of the congregation were back in their 
seats before the allotted five minutes had expired. 

Of the many anecdotes which the last quoted Avriter has re- 
corded of Ravenscroft is one of an experience which the latter 
related when asked if he had ever lost his self-possession. Such 
a misfortune had befallen him, he said, when the pulpit of Saint 
John's Church, in Washington City, had "run away with him." 
It seems that the pulpit in question had small wheels under ir, 
so that it could be moved aside on communion occasions. "When 
I was preaching there one Sunday," said Bishop Ravenscroft, 
"seeing so many 'big folks' before me, I thought that I would be 
big too, and accordingly I put a little additional powder in my 
gun. In the middle of the sermon, when all eyes were directed 
towards me, I unfortunately lifted my hand somewhat higher 
than usual, which gave the pulpit a start, and away it went, ap- 

82 Bishops of INorth Carolina. 

parently bent on settling in the midst of the foremost pews, 
crowded with ladies. It was a bare moment, however, before its 
progress was arrested by the rail of the chancel, but during that 
moment the church presented a singular scene, the women 
screaming and the men springing from their seats with hands 
uplifted to stop the strange thing." 

Just after the death of Bishop Ravenscroft a school was estab- 
lished at Fajetteville and called Ravenscroft Academy in his 
honor. It was incorporated by chapter 147 of the Laws of 
1831-'32. The board of trustees named in this act were Charles 
P. Mallett, Charles Stuart, Charles T. Haigh, John W. Wright 
and Robert Strange. How long the school lasted we are un- 
able to state. Many years afterwards there was a school for 
boys founded at Asheville and called Ravenscroft School, but 
this has discontinued operations also. Some account of it will 
be given later on in this work. At the time of the establishment 
of Saint Mary's School in Raleigh (some mention of which will 
later be made in the sketch of Bishop Ives), its campus was 
called Ravenscroft Grove — a name which may have been given 
it before that time, when the same site was occupied by the 
Episcopal School for Boys. Though the grove no longer goes 
by that name, the Bishop's house (therein situated) which was 
built in 1903, has been given the name "Ravenscroft" by Bishop 
Cheshire, its first occupant. 

While North Carolina has been thus honoring the memory 
of Bishop Ravenscroft, he has not been forgotten in Tennessee. 
In his History of the Church in the Diocese of Tennessee, the 
Reverend Arthur Howard Noll says that the first church build- 
ing erected in the Western District of that State was Raven- 
scroft Chapel, built by Mr. J. J. Alston near his residence, five 
miles east of Randolph in Tipton County. This building was 
consecrated by Bishop Otey on the 23d of October, 1836. The 
Alstons were from North Carolina and had then recently set- 
tled in Tipton County. Later on in the above-mentioned work 
Mr. Noll refers to Ravenscroft Chapel, and to Saint John's 

Bishops of North Carolina. 83 

Church in Maury County (the latter built by the Polks, an- 
other family from North Carolina), as two examples of planta- 
tion churches built with the religious needs of the negro 
slaves in view. At the Sunday morning services in these 
churches, after all the white communicants had received the 
elements, it was not an uncommon sight (says the writer last 
quoted) to see the altar-rail thronged with negroes, partaking 
with reverence of the soul-nourishing food of the Body and 
Blood of Christ. Ravenscroft Chapel was in ruins at the close 
of the war, but was later restored and is still in use. From Mr. 
Noll's work we also learn that in the Winter of 1848-'49 Bishop 
Otey established an institution near Columbia and named it 
Ravenscroft College. This was afterwards closed for lack of 
funds. , 

In the parlor of Saint Mary's School, at Raleigh, there is a 
handsome full-length oil portrait of Bishop Ravenscroft, painted 
by Jacob Eichholtz, a celebrated Philadelphia artist, who in 
his day made portraits of many famous Americans, including 
John Marshall, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States; Nicholas Biddle, President of the Bank of the 
United States, and others of scarcely less note. Another oil 
portrait of Ravenscroft (bust size) was presented by the Bishop 
to Senator Haywood ; and, after the latter's death, his children 
gave it to the Diocese. It is now in the See House at Raleigh. 
Another (probably the first which Eichholtz made of Raven- 
scroft) was o^vned by the late Bishop Green of Mississippi. 
The large portrait at Saint Mary's was painted by order of 
Charles P. Mallett, senior warden of Saint John's Church at 
Fayetteville, being begun in 1829 and finished in 1830. It was 
obtained from that gentleman some years before the War be- 
tween the States by the Rector of Saint Mary's, Reverend Aldert 

Bishop Green (before he was elevated to the Episcopate) was 
with Ravenscroft in Philadelphia when Eichholtz painted the 
above portraits. Wishing to get the best, several studios were 

84 Bishops of In'orth Cakolixa. 

visited. One artist Avas so much struck with Eavenscroft's ap- 
pearance that he told Green he would do the work free of charge. 
This offer was declined, however, and Eichholtz was engaged. 
JSTot long afterwards Bishop Ravenscroft preached (in Christ 
Church at Philadelphia) a sermon of uncommon power, which 
attracted wide and favorable comment. Returning from serv- 
ices on that occasion he asked Green, in great disgust : "Did 
you see that rascal in church?" In some surprise his companion 
asked whom he meant. "Why that fellow Eichholtz," answered 
the Bishop, "for I know he came there not so much to worship 
God as to look at me." And it was even so, for (as the artist 
himself afterwards said) he had seated himself in the center 
of the Church to get the Bishop's spirit and expression as he 
appeared in the chancel and pulpit. Those who have seen his 
work cannot doubt that he succeeded. 

In the Fall of 1830, some months after Bishop Ravenscroft 
died, a two-volume edition of his sermons was published by the 
Protestant Episcopal Press, ISTew York, the first volume con- 
taining a steel engraving from one of the Eichholtz portraits. 
This work was edited by the Reverend Jonathan Mayhew Wain- 
wright, afterwards Provisional Bishop of N^ew York. There is 
also in the first volume a memoir of Ravenscroft by Yfalker 
Anderson, in later years Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 
Florida. I^either the names of Wainwright nor Anderson, how- 
ever, appear on the title page or elsewhere in the work. A 
second edition of these sermons (without portrait) was pub- 
lished by E. J. Hale & Company, Fayetteville, N^orth Carolina, 
1856, the cost of issuing it being partly paid with money real- 
ized from a bequest in the will of John W. Wright, of Fayette- 
ville, who was for many years treasurer of the Diocese. The 
second edition is lessened in value by some of Bishop Raven- 
scroft's strongest doctrinal arguments being left out, notably 
his discourse entitled The Doctrines of the Church Vindicated, 
a reply to Doctor John H. Rice. The latter tract, though writ- 
ten in a rather fierce spirit (perhaps justified by the attacks 

Bishops of North Carolina. 85 

■which brought it forth), was one of the strongest arguments, 
if not the strongest, ever made by the Bishop in support of the 
doctrines which he proclaimed. In addition to the controversy 
with Doctor Rice, Bishop Ravenscroft had several others, in- 
cluding one with a Bible Society in Raleigh. With regard to 
the latter, it was occasioned by the Bishop's conviction that the 
Bible could not be profitably studied without a teacher. He 
delivered a sermon, upholding his views, from the text : "And 
Philip ran thither to him and heard him read the prophet 
Esaias, and said, Understandest thou what thou readest ? And 
he said, How can I, except some man should guide me?" No 
man more strongly advocated constant study of the Scriptures 
than did Bishop Ravenscroft ; but of such study, without intelli- 
gent instruction, he did not approve. 

In 1858 a small volume of 152 pages, entitled the Life of 
Bishop Ravenscroft, by the Reverend John N. Norton, was 
published in New York, this being one of a series of biographies 
of xVmerican Bishops written by that author. It is dedicated: 
"To Josiah Collins, Esq., of Somerset Place, Lake Scupper- 
noug. North Carolina, as a Tribute of Respect for his Distin- 
guished Abilities, and for his Devotion to the Cause of the 

In addition to the above-mentioned memoirs of Bishop Raven- 
scroft by Norton and Anderson, another was written many 
years later by one of Ravenscroft's former pupils. Bishop Green, 
of Mississippi, and published in the American Church Review 
of January, 1871. In the fifth volume of a work published in 
1859, and entitled Annals of the American Pulpit (the Reverend 
William B. Sprague, compiler), there is also a memoir of Bishop 
Ravenscroft, this being based upon the sketch by Anderson, a 
letter from the Reverend Henry M, Mason, and data furnished 
by Edward Lee Winslow. 

It would be a difficult task, even for a writer of ability and 
discernment, to portray the personal character of Bishop Raven- 
scroft in a few words, and it seems a particularly hopeless under- 

86 Bishops of ]^I^oktii Carolina. 

taking for the author of the present sketch; yet a few lines on 
this point cannot with propriety be omitted. He was open and 
frank in all things. To a friend in Philadelphia he declared: 
"There is not a thought in this heart of mine that I would not 
be willing to publish from the steeple of Christ Church yonder." 
The lust for gold, or for power (save power to advance the king- 
dom of Christ) found no lodgment in his breast. It was once 
hinted to him that he might be invited to a diocese much larger 
than the one of which he was Bishop, and to this he replied with 
much heat : "I would lose my right arm, sir, sooner than set 
the first example of 'translation' in the American Episcopate." 
No Bishop ever more dearly loved the clergy under him or was 
more loved by them in return. He often spoke of them as if 
they were his own children. "I wouldn't give my fourteen boys 
for your whole diocese" was his declaration to the Rector of a 
fashionable church in l^ew York. The Bishop of Mississippi, 
in his old age, nearly half a century after Ravenscroft had 
passed away, alluded to a blessing which he had received with 
almost the last breath of his beloved chief pastor, saying: "At 
this moment those hands still seem to press the writer's head; 
and whatever favor, either from God or man, may since have 
come upon him, he willingly ascribes in good part to the benedic- 
tions of that dying hour." 

Among the papers of the Honorable John H. Bryan, now 
owned by the jSTorth Carolina Historical Commission, is a letter 
to his wife, dated at Raleigh, December 26, 1824, in which he 
says : "I heard the Bishop deliver a sermon to-day which I 
wish you could have also heard. He was so much affected as 
to burst into tears and sob bitterly when he alluded to his past 
life and merciful deliverance. He cautioned parents, and par- 
ticularly mothers, about indulging their children in dress and 
frivolous pleasures, and thereby vitiating their minds and cor- 
rupting their hearts." Judge Henry Ravenscroft Bryan, of 
New Bern, Worth Carolina, is a son of the writer of the above 
letter, and was given his middle name as a compliment to Bishop 

Bishops of North Carolina. 87 

Though much tenderness dwelt in his heart, tliere never lived 
a man Avho was more fierce in the denunciation of sin than was 
Bishop Ravenscroft. He never used soft phrases with which to 
coax his hearers into the paths of righteousness. He regarded 
the authority and doctrines of the church of his choice as based 
upon the Word of God. On one occasion a young clergyman 
asked the Bishop to tell him, from personal experience, what 
course of study one should map out to pursue as best calculated 
to promote his usefulness in the ministry, when Ravenscroft 
pointed to the Bible and replied: "My dear boy, nearly all of 
my studies have been confined to that ; and there are few other 
books w^hich influence my religious beliefs." 

Bishop Ravenscroft was convinced that an Episcopate, with 
an unbroken succession, was absolutely necessary to constitute 
an apostolic church; and, as he could not accept the doctrines 
of Roman Catholicism, the Moravian Church was the only one 
then existing in America (excepting his own) whose ministry 
and teachings he considered orthodox. "On the doctrine of 
divine right in the ministry," he said : "i hold and teach that it 
can be derived only from the Apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ 
by succession in the Church, through the line of Bishops, as dis- 
tinct from presbyters; that it is essential to the validity of the 
Sacraments, and from its nature incapable of any gradation. It 
is either divine right or no right at all : I therefore know noth- 
ing of any barometrical measurement into high and low Church; 
higher than its source I attempt not to cany it — lower than its 
origin I will not degrade it, and only by its proper proofs will I 
acknowledge it."* 

Bishop Ravenscroft's fierce and sometimes ungovernable 
temper was a source of continual mortification to himself; and 
yet, with all of his seemingly imperious manner, he w^ould 
meekly receive any reproof given in good faith. To one of his 
clergy w-ho had written him a private letter in loving solicitude 
about his infirmity in the above respect, he replied : "I heartily 

* Works of Bishop Ravenscroft (edition of 1830), Vol. I., p. 308. 

88 Bishops of ISTorth Carolina. 

thaak you . . , and shall always feel obliged by every 
hint which may keep me on the watch against its injurious in- 
fluence, and by every prayer which may prevail for grace to 
enable me to direct it aright." On another occasion he said: 
"I have much to be forgiven of God, and I have many pardons 
also to ask of my fellow-men for my harshness of manner to- 
wards them" — then, striking his hand upon his breast, he added, 
"but there has been no harshness here." Indeed, the Bishop's 
love for his fellow-men was second only to his love for God. 
Had this not been true, he would have remained an opulent 
planter in Virginia, enjoying earthly pleasures and caring 
naught for endangered souls, instead of sacrificing his fortune 
and shortening his life by never-ending toils and privations in 
the holy cause of religion. But the ancient promise still holds 
good, that whosoever will lose his life for the sake of Christ 
shall find it — so when fortune, health, life itself, all were gone, 
a brighter existence and richer inheritance remained for this 
good and faithful servant, and in these he found the reward 
for which he had long struggled and prayed. 

Bishop Ives. 


Second Bishop of North Carolina. 

The family of Ives is one of the oldest in America. Its 
founder, William Ives, was born about the year 1607, and came 
to New England in the ship Truelove in 1635. As early as 
1639 we find him recorded as one of the freemen of the colony 
of New Haven, in what is now the State of Connecticut. He 
died in 1648, leaving a son John. The latter was the father of 
another John (born 1669, died 1738), who married Mary Gil- 
lette. John Ives, son of the last named, married Hannah Royce, 
and died in 1795. He left a son John (fourth of that name in 
unbroken descent), who was born in 1729 and died in 1816. 
Tliis John (fourth) was the father of Levi Ives and grand- 
father of Bishop Ives. 

Levi Ives (father of the Bishop) lived for some years in his 
native State of Connecticut, where he married Fanny Silliman, 
member of a noted New England family. Removing with his 
wife and children from Connecticut about the end of the 
eighteenth century, he settled in Lewis County, New York, and 
engaged in agricultural pursuits in the latter locality. Later he 
became insane, and committed suicide by drowning himself in 
a creek which ran through his farm. Of the ten children 
bereaved by this tragic event, Levi Silliman Ives, afterwards 
Bishop, was the eldest, and to his personal history we shall now 
confine this sketch. 

The Right Reverend Levi Silliman Ives, S. T. D., LL. D., 
second Bishop of North Carolina and twenty-fifth in the 
succession of the American Episcopate, came to his Bishop- 
ric in 1831, upon the death (in the preceding year) of the 
Right Reverend John Stark Ravenscroft. His was a strange 
and eventful life, devoted throughout to the service of God and 
humanity, yet torn by varying and conflicting doctrinal beliefs — 
in youth, a Presbyterian; in manhood, an Episcopalian; and 

92 Bishops of North Carolina. 

in age, a Roman Catholic. He was born on the 16th of Septem- 
ber, 1797, at the town of Meriden, in the State of Connecticut. 
It was when he was very young that his parents removed to 
Turin, in Lewis County, ISTew York, and there he spent his child- 
hood and youth, enjoying such educational advantages as the 
locality afforded. Later he was a student in the academy at 
Lowville, in Lewis County. Towards the close of the War of 
1812-'15, when little more than a youth, he served for a brief 
period with the troops under General Pike. Returning to the 
academy at Lovr^ille, which he had left to enter the army, he 
resumed his studies with a view to preparing himself for college. 
As already stated, he had been reared a Presbyterian, and he 
now determined to enter the ministry of that denomination. In 
1816 he became a student in Hamilton College, at Clinton, 
ISTew York, then registering from Martinsburg in the same 
State, but left this institution in less than a year, owing to 
ill health. Shortly thereafter his doctrinal views underwent 
their first change; and, in 1819, he began a course of study 
for the ministry of the Episcopal Church, in which he was 
destined to serve with marked ability until — after the lapse of 
more than thirty years — his views underwent still another 
change and he became a Roman Catholic. In 1822 he was 
ordered deacon by Bishop Hobart, of New York; and, in the 
year following, was ordained to the priesthood by Bishop White, 
of Pennsylvania. His first charge was in a missionary station 
at Batavia, New York; afterwards he served in Pennsylva- 
nia as Rector of Trinity Church, Philadelphia; and was later 
Rector of Christ Church at Lancaster, in the same State. He 
went, in 1827, to New York City to become Assistant Rector of 
Christ Church; was afterwards Rector of Saint Luke's Church, 
in the same place, and occupied that post when elected Bishop 
of North Carolina in 1831. In 1825, he had been united in 
marriage with Rebecca Hobart, a daughter of the Right Rev- 
erend John Henry Hobart, Bishop of New York. One or more 
children were born of this union, but none of them grew to 

Bishops of North Carolina. 93 

As has already been stated in tlie sketch of Bishop Raveii- 
seroft's life, contained in the present work, that great prelate 
died on the 5th of March, 1830. Two months later, in May, 
the Diocesan Convention of N'orth Carolina met, but adjourned 
without electing his successor. During the succeeding period, 
before such successor was chosen. Bishop Bowen, of South Caro- 
lina, was invited to exercise the duties of the Episcopate in 
North Carolina, and he consented to do so ; but to what extent, 
if any, he labored there, does not appear. On May 19, 1831, 
another Diocesan Convention assembled, its meeting place being 
Christ Church, in the city of Raleigh. In that body, on the 
following Saturday (May 21st), the ballot for Bishop resulted 
in the unanimous election of the Reverend Doctor Ives. There- 
upon the Reverend John Avery, Rector of Saint Paul's Church 
in Edenton and President of the Convention, the Reverend John 
R. Goodman, Rector of Christ Church in New Bern, and one 
layman, Mr. Walker Anderson (afterwards Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of Florida) were appointed a committee to pro- 
ceed to New York and formally notify Doctor Ives of his elec- 
tion. After due consideration, this call was accepted. On Sep- 
tember 22, 1831, the Bishop-elect was presented in Trinity 
Church, Southwark, Philadelphia, and there duly consecrated 
as Bishop of North Carolina by the Right Reverend William 
White, Bishop of Pennsylvania, the Right Reverend Henry 
Ustick Onderdonk, Assistant Bishop of the same Diocese, and 
the Right Reverend Benjamin Tredwell Onderdonk, Bishop of 
New York. 

Returning to New York City after his consecration. Bishop 
Ives remained until October, 1831, when he set out for North 
Carolina — arriving at Warrenton, in the latter State, just a 
week later, during the same month. From a religious, educa- 
tional and social viewpoint, in 1831, Warrenton had few, if any, 
superiors among the towns of North Carolina ; and, for a short 
while after his arrival, Bishop Ives enjoyed the hospitality for 
which that locality has always been noted. He did not tarry 

94 Bishops of ISToeth Carolina. 

long, however, but actively began the duties of his new office, 
visiting various parts of the Diocese and forming the acquaint- 
ance of the people among whom his lot had been cast. His 
home, while in ISTorth Carolina, was part of the time in Raleigh 
and part in Salisbury. He also spent a good deal of his time 
at Valle Crusis, after he had established that mountain mission. 

In February, 1832, while traveling in eastern North Caro- 
lina, Bishop Ives took occasion to pay his respects to the aged 
widow of Bishop-elect Pettigrew— doubtless being impelled to 
this courtesy by the same sentiments which had been entertained 
by Bishop Eavenscroft on a previous occasion, when visiting 
that lady, as heretofore noted. 

As has already been mentioned in the sketch of Bishop Raveu- 
scroft, the Diocese of Tennessee was organized during his visit 
to that State in 1829, and he presided over its first convention. 
It was not until 1834, however, that the first Bishop of Ten- 
nessee (the Bight Reverend James Hervey Otey) was conse- 
crated. In the meantime. Bishop Ives faithfully labored to keep 
up the work there begun by his predecessor. Recounting a visit 
paid there in the Summer of 1832, he said that he could not let 
the subject pass without expressing his great gratification at the 
daily increasing prosperity of the Church in Tennessee, at its 
being sustained by so able and devoted a band of clergymen 
(though far too small for its wants), and at the kind and 
friendly attention he had everywhere received during a visita- 
tion rendered by duty much shorter than he would have wished 
to make it. While on this tour through Tennessee, Bishop 
Ives presided over the fourth Annual Convention of that 

In October, 1832, Bishop Ives attended the General Conven- 
tion of the Church in New York City, returning to North Caro- 
lina in the month following, and stopping for a short while in 
Richmond on the way. Of his visit to the city last named he 
says: "While there, in consideration of the bad health of the 
Bishop of Virginia, I aided him in the examination of the Rev- 

Bishops ok NoRTir Carolixa. 05 

ereiicl John Burke, formerly a presbyter of the Roman Catholic 
Church, who Avas thereupon admitted to officiate in the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church." The Reverend Mr. Burke, here 
nienlioned, later came to North Carolina. After teaching school 
for a while in the town of Smithville (now called Southport), 
in Brunswick County, he was successively Rector of Christ 
Church in New Bern, and Calvary Church in "Wadesboro. He 
removed to South Carolina in 1839. xVnother acquisition from 
the Roman Catholic priesthood is mentioned by Bishop Ives 
(in his address to the Diocesan Convention of 1843) when he 
said : "The Reverend John Fielding, a priest of the Roman 
communion, who in the Spring of 1840, made ap])lication to 
me to be admitted, after the required probation, to the ministry 
of the Church, has been transferred to the Bishop of Georgia." 

In January, 1833, not long after his arrival in North Caro- 
lina, Bishoj:* Ives visited the parish of Saint James in Wilming- 
ton, the famous Orton plantation in the same vicinity, and the 
ruins of Saint Philip's Church on the site of the old town of 
Brunswick. "During m^'^ visit here," he said of Wilmington, "I 
spent a day or two at Orton, the seat of Dr. Frederick Hill, and 
visited the walls of an ante-Revolutionary Church, situated 
about two miles distant, amid the ruins of the old town of Bruns- 
wick. These walls . . . are in a state of almost entire 
preservation ; and, by being newly roofed and repaired, would 
still furnish a commodious place of public worship to the inhab- 
itants of the neighboring settlement. My intercourse with the 
congregation of St. James was most gratifying." 

As his predecessor Bishop Ravenscroft had been before him, 
and as all succeeding Bishops of the Diocese of North Caro- 
lina have since been. Bishop Ives was ever ready openly to 
concede the apostolic origin of the Moravian Church. On sev- 
eral occasions he visited the Moravian settlements in and around 
the old to\\Ti of Salem, and joined with their Bishops and other 
clergy in conducting public worship. After speaking of a visit 
to that community in the Summer of 1833, he adds: ''I did not 

96 Bishops of North Carolina. 

leave them without receiving additional strength to my former 
convictions of their great Christian simplicity, eminent devo- 
tion to the Savior, and love of all Christian people, especially 
our apostolic Church." Of another visit, nine years later, he 
remarks: "By kind invitation of the Moravian Bishop, I 
preached in his Church at Salem. I shall not soon forget the 
delightful fraternal intercourse I had with the hrethren at that 

In 1834, the degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred upon 
Bishop Ives by the University of ISTorth Carolina, he being the 
second minister of the Gospel so honored by that institution. 
Several years before that date (in 1831) he had received the 
degree of Doctor of Sacred Theology from Columbia College, 
ISTew York. 

In the Spring of 1835 Bishop Ives was attacked by "an alarm- 
ing and obstinate disease," and obtained from his Diocese a 
leave of absence which he spent in Europe. While sojourning 
in Great Britain he made the acquaintance of many high digni- 
taries of the Church of England. This tour abroad prevented 
his attendance upon the General Convention of 1835, which 
was held in the city of Philadelphia. To the Convention last 
named the report on the State of the Church in North Carolina 
said : "The Church in this Diocese has its peculiar grounds of 
anxiety, in the severe and dangerous affliction of its chief pastor. 
The Bishop is now in Europe in pursuit of health, while many 
and unceasing prayers are offered up that the Divine blessing 
may succeed this last measure in behalf of his health and con- 

The General Conventions which Bishop Ives attended during 
the course of his Episcopate were at the following places and 
dates : At Philadelphia in 1832, at the same place in 1838, at 
New York in 1841, at Philadelphia in 1844, at New York in 
1847, and at Cincinnati in 1850. He also took part in the fol- 
lowing consecrations: George Washington Doane, as Bishop 
of New Jersey, October 31, 1832 ; Stephen Elliott, as Bishop 

Bishops of Nokth Carolina. 97 

of Georgia, February 28, 1841; John Johns, as Assistant Bishop 
of Virginia, October 18, 1842 ; and Carlton Chase, as Bishop of 
^ew Hampshire, October 20, 1844. The above Bishop Elliott, 
of Georgia, was succeeded (after his death) by the Right Rev- 
erend John "Watrous Beckwith, a native of North Carolina, who 
had been ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Atkinson. 

Before a Diocese had been established in Florida, the Diocese 
of ^^Torth Carolina had a parish (Christ Church) at Pensacola, 
in that State. For many years the Rector of Christ Church, 
in Pensacola, was the Reverend Joseph H. Saunders, who regu- 
larly reported the state of his far southern parish to the Dio- 
cesan Conventions of North Carolina. In 1838, his report says 
that Bishop Kemper, of the Missionary Jurisdiction of Missouri 
and Indiana, had visited Pensacola and had consecrated Christ 
Church — adding that Kemper was the only Bishop who had 
visited the middle and western sections of Florida. "In January 
last," says Saunders, referring to the year 1838, "a meeting of 
the clergy and laity of the Church in Florida was organized, 
the primary convention thereof held, and the necessary meas- 
ures adopted to obtain admission into union with the General 
Convention." The Reverend Mr. Saunders, just mentioned, 
was father of the great North Carolina historian, William L. 
Saunders, LL.D., another one of his children being Miss Anne 
Saunders, a most estimable lady who was connected with Saint 
Mary's School in Raleigh at the time of her death in 1906, and 
for twelve years prior thereto. 

In his address to the Diocesan Convention of 1844, Bishop 
Ives stated that the Reverend R. H. Wilmer, late of Virginia, 
had become Rector of Saint James's Church in "Wilmington, 
with the Reverend George T. Wilmer, a deacon, as Assistant 
Rector. The first of these was afterwards the famous Bishop 
of Alabama, who enjoyed the distinction of being the only 
Bishop consecrated under the authority of the "Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the Confederate States of America." He was 
the author of a delightful book of reminiscences entitled The 

98 Bishops of Nohth Carolina. 

Recent Past from a Southern Standpoint, and his biograpliy 
v/as afterwards written by the Keverend Walter C. Whitaker, 
a native of l^orth Carolina. Bishop Wilmer's father was a 
noted clergyman of the American Church, as were many other 
members of his family connection, including the Right Reverend 
Joseph P. B. Wilmer, Bishop of Louisiana. The above-men- 
tioned pastorate, in Wilmington, of the Reverend Richard H. 
Wilmer was not of many months duration. 

The present writer has seen a statement that Bishop Ives did 
much religious work among the slave population of North Caro- 
lina, and that his personal popularity greatly suffered thereby. 
The first part of this statement cannot be denied, yet the second 
is far from true. It has never been the policy of the Church 
in ISTorth Carolina to withhold spiritual enlightenment from the 
negroes, either before or after their emancipation; and, instead 
of being a pioneer in the work, Bishop Ives only continued a 
course of action which had beeii followed by his Church from 
the beginning of its existence in I^Torth Carolina, as has already 
been shown. When addressing the Diocesan Convention of 
1841, concerning work among the plantation negroes, Bishop 
Ives voiced his sentiments as follows : "Lest any should misap- 
prehend the character and tendency of our efforts in this direc- 
tion, I wish it distinctly understood that everything is conducted 
with strict regard to the legal enactments on the subject and 
under the constant supervision, in each case, of the planter him- 
self. In reference also to our exertions hitherto, so far as we 
can discern it, Ave feel warranted in affirming it to be decidedly 
favorable to subordination." The wealthiest slave-holders among 
the laity of the Church in I^Torth Carolina, some owning con- 
siderably more than a thousand negroes, were almost always 
deeply impressed with the obligations resting upon them as 
masters, and among these we may enumerate the heads of such 
families as Collins, Pettigrew, Burgwyn, Skinner, Cameron, 
Smith and Bennehan. Time and again did Bishop Ives place 
on record his approbation of their labors. The Collins and 

BlSlIOI^S OF NOKTII Cakolina. 09 

Pettigi-ew families, being near neiglibors, worshiped at Petti- 
grcw's Chapel ; and another chapel was built not far distant for 
the use of the slaves, both houses of worship being under the care 
of the same clergyman. It would require too much space here 
to re-print the numerous references by Bishop Ives to the efforts 
of Josiah Collins for the betterment of the religious condition 
of the hundreds upon hundreds of slaves on his extensive planta- 
tions. In 1846, in an address to the Diocesan Convention, 
Bishop Ives described a recent visit to that gentleman in the 
following glowing language: "I Avent by the request of my 
friend Josiah Collins, Esq., directly to the estate on Lake Scup- 
pernong, which had been without stated ministerial services for 
the greater part of the year. Here, and in the neighboring 
parish of Pettigrew's Chapel, I passed the remaining part of 
the season of Lent — holding daily services, delivering lectures, 
and commencing a new course of oral catechetical instruction 
to the servants. This course is to embrace the prominent events 
and truths of the Old and 'New Testaments, as connected with 
man's fall and redemption; and is designed to follow the oral 
catechism I have already published. The services here were of 
the most gratifying and encouraging character, fully justifying 
all that has been said and anticipated of the system of religious 
training hitherto pursued on these plantations. When I saw 
master and servants standing side by side in the holy services of 
Passion Week, when I saw all secular labor on these plantations 
suspended on Good Friday, and the cleanly clad multitude 
thronging the house of prayer to pay their homage to a crucified 
Saviour, and when I saw, on the blessed Easter morn, the mas- 
ter, with his goodly company of servants, kneeling with reverent 
hearts and devout thanksgivings to take the bread of life at the 
same altar, I could not but indulge the hope that, ere long, my 
spirit might be refreshed by such scenes in every part of my 
Diocese — ^while I could not help believing that, had some of 
our brethren of other lands been present, they would have been 
induced to change tlie note of their Availing oA'er imaginary 

100 Bishops of Nokth Carolina. 

suffering into tlie heartfelt exclamation : 'Happy are the people 
that are in such a case ; yea, blessed are the people who have the 
Lord for their God.' Often, at such times, have I wished for 
the presence of my friend the good Bishop of Oxford, as I have 
felt assured that could he but once witness what it was my 
happiness to witness, though in too imperfect a state, his manly 
heart would prompt him to ask instant pardon of the American 
Church for his having spoken so harshly upon a subject which 
he so imperfectly understood, and that he would perceive his 
Christian sympathy would find a more natural vent in efforts 
to remove the cruel oppressions of the factory system in his own 
country, and his Christian indignation a much more legitimate 
object of rebuke in the English Churchmen who have helped to 
rivet that system upon their land." Of a visit in 1836 to Salem 
Chapel, in Orange County, adjoining the plantation of Judge 
Duncan Cameron (and built by that gentleman). Bishop Ives 
wrote: "I performed service and preached to a congregation, 
chiefly of colored persons, from the plantations of Judge Cam- 
eron and Mr. Bennehan." In April, 1849, after speaking of a 
visitation to Saint Paul's Church in Edenton, the Bishop says : 
"I ofliciated in St. Timothy's Chapel, on the estate of Joshua 
Skinner, Esq., whose interest in the Christian instruction of his 
slaves deserves every encouragement. Here I confirmed eleven 
persons." On the same page of the Bishop's journal he says: 
"I officiated at the house of Henry K. Burgwyn, Esq., and con- 
firmed seven colored persons. Mr. Burgwyn is making very 
laudable efforts to christianize his slaves, which thus far have 
proved eminently successful." During the Episcopate of Bishop 
Ives first began to be felt the labors of three brothers, William 
Ruffin Smith, Richard Henry Smith and James Norfleet Smith, 
of Halifax County, religious workers, church builders and in- 
structors of their slaves. ISTor was the work in the cities behind 
that in the rural districts in behalf of the religious instruction 
of the negroes. In 1832, the Reverend William D. Cairns, Rec- 
tor of Saint James's Church in Wilmington, reported that 

Bishops of North Carolina. 101 

eighteen of his communicants were negroes. To the Diocesan 
Convention of 1833 the same clergyman stated: "A colored 
congregation has been organized with more than anticipated 
success. The church edifice is relinquished to their use on the 
night of Sunday, and the average attendance has been near three 
hundi-ed. The intelligent of the community approve the effort." 
To the convention last mentioned the Eeverend John R. Good- 
man, Rector of Christ Church in ]^few Bern, reported that a 
colored congregation had been formed in the parish and weekly 
services were regularly held. Another report, at the same time, 
from the Reverend Jarvis B. Buxton, Rector of Saint John's 
Church, in Fayetteville, ran as follows : "An exemplary sobriety 
of deportment, observable within the African congregation, af- 
fords pleasing evidence of the adaptation of our Scriptural 
liturgy to the wants and apprehensions of this particular popu- 
lation." Seven years later (to the Diocesan Convention of 
1840) the last quoted clergyman said : "The colored population 
continue to manifest the liveliest interest in the visitations of the 
Bishop, and in the special services he affords them. On these 
occasions, and for their accommodation, all the pews are re- 
linquished by their proprietors." In May, 1832, a congregation 
of negroes was organized at Washington, in Beaufort County, 
by the Reverend William N. Hawks, a native of New Bern, who 
did much missionary work in the surrounding country. About 
twelve years later the free negroes of Washington built a chapel 
at their own expense, and Mr. Hawks there ministered to them. 
As heretofore stated (in the sketch of Bishop Ravenscroft), the 
Reverend Mr. Hawks was a brother of the Right Reverend 
Cicero Stephens Hawks, Bishop of Missouri, and of the Rev- 
erend Francis L. Hawks, D.D., LL.D. We cannot better close 
this account of the earlier efforts to better the religious condi- 
tion of the negro race in North Carolina, during the Episcopate 
of Bishop Ives, than by quoting from a report on the State of 
the Church, which was made to the Diocesan Convention of 
1848. This report says : "The religious wants of this part of 

102 Bishops of Nokth Carolina. 

our population claim strougly the attention of both clergy and 
laity. Our duty to our servants is not done by barely allowing 
them to receive some religious instruction in whatever quarter 
they may choose to find it. The sober piety that is inspired by 
the services of the Church — the transforming and renewing 
power of Christ's Sacraments, conveying Divine grace in and 
through the ministrations of the Church — furnish reason 
enough to induce every member of it to desire and endeavor to 
bring them into 'one fold' under the 'one Shepherd.' And surely 
the master who calls himself a Churchman falls short of his 
duty if he neglects to have his servants duly baptized and cate- 
chized, and trained in all the methods of the Church by her 
appointed ministers, for her communion. So much he may do, 
for they are especially entrusted to him — so much he must do, 
for on what he does depends the salvation of their souls." 

An account of the Episcopate of Bishop Ives would be far 
from complete if we failed to record what was done during that 
period in the interest of Christian education. The most im- 
portant of all educational work was that carried on at Saint 
Mary's School in Raleigh by the Reverend Aldert Smedes, 
D. D., formerly a resident of ISTew York, whom Bishop Ives 
had encouraged in his inclination to come South. Through 
the instrumentality of Doctor Smedes the doctrines of the 
Church were spread to thousands during the decades which 
afterwards elapsed, both under the management of himself and 
that of his no less zealous and consecrated son, the Reverend 
Bennett Smedes, D.D., together with their worthy successors, 
the Reverend Messrs. Theodore D. Bratton (now Bishop of 
Mississippi), MclSTeely DuBose, and George W. Lay. But this 
institution, which is now the Church's most prized educational 
possession in jSTorth Carolina, grew out of an unsuccessful effort 
to establish a church school for boys, and a review of the whole 
matter may be studied with both profit and interest. J^Tor shall 
we omit mention of the mountain mission of Valle Crusis; for 
(though strange doctrines may for a while have been proclaimed 

Bishops of North Carolina. 103 

therein) that, too, though on ii smaller scale, has been the means 
of extending Church doctrines. So, also, for a while, was 
Trinity School in the western section of Wake County. Ravens- 
croft School, in Asheville, was established at a later period, dur- 
ing the Episcopate of Bishop Atkinson. 

The school for boys, out of which grew the female seminary 
now famous as Saint Mary's School, was called the Episcopal 
School of North Carolina. x\lmost immediately after his 
arrival in the State, Bishop Ives began to bestir himself 
in the matter of Christian education. To the Diocesan Con- 
vention of 1832 he declared that, though the General Theologi- 
cal Seminary was cherished by the Church throughout the 
United States, it was desirable to establish within the Diocese 
of jSTorth Carolina a school for the instruction of young men 
who intended to prepare for the ministry, and also a school for 
boys, under the auspices of the Church. It Avas suggested that 
the latter should be modeled after a successful educational insti- 
tution at Flushing, Long Island, in the State of New York. On 
motion of Mr. Gavin Hogg, this recommendation was referred 
to a joint committee, composed of clergy and laity, as follows : 
the Beverend Messrs. William M. Green, George W. Ereeman, 
Jarvis B. Buxton and Joseph H. Saunders ; and Judge Duncan 
Cameron, Judge George E. Badger, Mr. Charles P. Mallett, and 
Mr. Thomas P. Devereux. This committee was instructed to 
report to the next Diocesan Convention a plan for the establish- 
ment of a Chui'ch school, to suggest a place for its location, and 
make any other recommendations which should be deemed 
advisable. On December 6, 1832, on April 3, 1833, and proba- 
bly at other times, Bishop Ives met this committee, but no im- 
portant action was taken. On May 31, 1833, while the Dio- 
cesan Convention was in session at Warrenton, a resolution was 
passed, providing that the institution should be located at Ra- 
leigh and should be called the Episcopal School of North Caro- 
lina. xVt the same time, the Convention pledged itself to fulfill 
any contracts or agreements which the above committee should 

104 Bishops of ISTorth Carolina. 

make. After these resolutions were adopted, Bishop Ives de- 
livered a special charge, of some length, on the importance of 
Christian education. In 1833, the same year in v^^hich this con- 
vention was held, the Bishop visited the school at Flushing, 
Long Island, and also one at Northampton, Massachusetts, to 
familiarize himself with the workings of those institutions. The 
Northampton school — called Round Hill Academy — was oper- 
ated by George Bancroft (afterwards so celebrated as a histo- 
rian), in partnership with Joseph G. Cogswell. The latter was 
prevailed upon to come to Raleigh as principal of the Episcopal 
School, and he accordingly arrived in Raleigh, in company with 
the Bishop, November 25, 1833. In the same year, the Reverend 
Joseph H. Saunders (then stationed in Warrenton) came to 
Raleigh to become Chaplain of the school. On Monday, June 2, 
1834, the school was opened. During the session of 1835-'36, 
Mr. Cogswell resigned the office of principal, assigning ill health 
as his reason, and was succeeded by the Reverend Adam Empie, 
then President of William and Mary College, in Virginia, but 
formerly a clergyman of the Diocese of North Carolina. He it 
was, as will be remembered, who was secretary of the Convention 
of 1817, when the Diocese was organized, and he was president 
of the Convention of 1823, which elected John Stark Ravens- 
croft to the Bishopric. The return of Doctor Empie was a 
source of great pleasure to his old associates and acquaintances, 
and the Convention of 1836 passed the following resolution rela- 
tive to his again becoming a clergyman of the Diocese : 

"Resolved, That this Convention entertain and hereby express a 
sincere satisfaction at the appointment, to the Rectorship of the 
Episcopal School, of the Reverend President Empie ; and do welcome 
his return to the Diocese and to the Convention, of which he was so 
long a zealous and efficient member." 

At the time of the arrival of Doctor Empie in Raleigh (July, 
1836), the faculty of the Episcopal School consisted of the fol- 
lowing members: John DeBerniere Hooper, Acting Principal; 
the Reverend Joseph H. Saunders, Chaplain; Nathaniel Rich- 

Bishops of N^ortii Carolixa. 105 

ardson, Instructor in Mathematics; Frederick W. Shelton, In- 
structor in Ancient Languages ; and George Hood, Writing Mas- 
ter and Instructor in Sacred Music. Through the instrument- 
ality of Bishop Ives, this school received a gift from England of 
a full set of the publications of both the Society for the Promo- 
tion of Christian Knowledge and the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

The Episcopal School was first incorporated by an act of the 
General Assembly which was deemed defective, and another 
enactment (Chaper 32 of the Laws of 1835) was passed, vesting 
the government of the school in the following Board of Trustees : 
the Eight Reverend Levi Silliman Ives, the Reverend Messrs. 
George W. Freeman, William Mercer Green, and John Single- 
tary, and Messrs. William Norwood, Jr., Duncan Cameron, 
Frederick J. Hill, M. D., Simmons J. Baker, M. D., Thomas P. 
Devereux, George E. Spruill, Edward L. Winslow, William H. 
Haywood, Jr., and Charles Manly. After remaining in Raleigh 
less than a year, the Reverend Mr. Enipie returned to his old 
home in Wilmington, and was succeeded as Rector of the Epis- 
copal School by the Reverend Moses Ashley Curtis. The latter 
gentleman not only possessed good attainments as an educator 
and theologian, but was an author of high rank on botanical sub- 

The Trustees of the Episcopal School, in 1839, reported to the 
Diocesan Convention the erection of three buildings which in 
the course of a few years became a part of the group of houses 
which, ever since 1842, has been used by Saint Mary's School. 
This report was as follows : "By the use of funds contributed by 
individuals, and other sums borrowed for the purpose (in the 
whole amounting to $30,000), the Trustees of the Episcopal 
School have purchased a beautiful site nigh to the city of Ra- 
leigh, and have erected on it one large and handsome brick 
house, three stories high; and two spacious wings of stone, two 
stories high, with all necessary out-houses, offices, &c. The 
buildings are very substantially built and are sufficient for the 

106 Bishops of j^orth Carolina, 

comfortable accommodation of two hundred students and the 
number of professors necessary for a seminary of learning of 
the highest grade." Before these buildings could be fully com- 
pleted for use as a school, a bank, to which the trustees owed 
$14,000, called for payment, and it was necessary to sell the 
property to meet the indebtedness. Mr. George W. Mordecai 
was first appointed a commissioner with power to execute the 
necessary deeds, etc., but did not succeed in effecting a sale. 
The matter was then referred to the Honorable John H. Bryan 
and the Honorable William H. Haywood, Jr., as commissioners ; 
but those gentlemen declined to serve, and were succeeded by Mr. 
Edmund B. Freeman, who closed out the property as directed, 
Judge Duncan Cameron becoming the purchaser. 

On May 25, 1839 (before the above sale took place), the Dio- 
cesan Convention of JSTorth Carolina had elected Bishop Ives, 
Judge Duncan Cameron, and the Honorable William H. Hay- 
wood, Jr., a committee to go to South Carolina and ascertain 
whether that Diocese would be willing to join jSTorth Carolina 
in establishing a Theological School in the place then occupied 
by the Episcopal School in Raleigh. In 1840, Bishop Ives 
reported that the committee had not gone on this mission, as 
affairs were unsettled in South Carolina, owing to the death of 
Bishop Bowen; furthermore, that letters had been received 
which indicated that the latter Diocese would not be likely to 
join in this educational undertaking. This movement to secure 
the co-operation of South Carolina was the final effort to save 
the school at Raleigh; and, upon its failure, nothing remained 
but to proceed with the sale of the grounds and buildings. 

Reporting the sale of the Episcopal School, Bishop Ives, as 
President of the Board of Trustees, said : "The Honorable Judge 
Cameron, making the highest bid, became the purchaser of the 
property at an amount covering the original purchase of the 
land, with the interest thereon, and also the sum loaned from 
the Episcopal fund, with the back interest. This amount having 
been paid to the said agent [Mr. Edmund B. Freeman] and ap- 

Bishops of Nokth Carolina. 107 

plied to the renioval of llie aforesaid incumbrances, the proper 
deeds were executed and the property duly conveyed to Judge 

About the year 1840, the Reverend Edwin Geer and the Rev- 
erend John A. Backhouse taught for a short while in the "East 
Rock House" of the defunct Episcopal School. 

Xot long after the sale of the land and buildings of the Epis- 
copal School, Bishop Ives was in New York, and there met the 
Reverend Aldert Smedes, a young clergyman with whom he 
already had some acquaintance, and who was seeking a location 
in tlie South for school work. Mr. Smedes had been compelled 
by bronchial trouble to abandon his work as a parish priest. 
He was not unknown to fame as an educator, having conducted 
a girls' school in 'New York; but physicians had advised him 
that a milder climate would be beneficial to his health. Bishop 
Ives eagerly seized this opportunity for securing his services in 
North Carolina, and told him of the vacant buildings of the 
Episcopal School at Raleigh which Judge Cameron wished to 
rent for educational purposes. The result was that Mr. Smedes 
came to Raleigh and opened up a school for girls, recitations 
beginning on the 12th of May, 1842. Immediately upon the 
establishment of this school, he gave it the name of Saint 
Mary's, wishing that the pure life and religious humility of 
the Blessed Virgin might be an example to its students in the 
years to come. On the first Sunday after Trinity in 1842 (May 
29th), a few weeks after Mr. Smedes began this work, it is 
recorded by Bishop Ives that he "preached to an interesting 
assemblage of young ladies at St. Mary's School, Ravenscroft 
Grove, Raleigh." As space will not permit us to trace the his- 
tory of Saint Mary's from its foundation to the period (nearly 
sixty years later) when the Church purchased it from the heirs 
of Judge Cameron, we may well close our present reference to it 
with a quotation from the Bishop's address to the Convention 
of 1844, when he said: "Its prosperity and promised benefit to 
the Church, while they call for our prayers and encouragements, 

108 Bishops of I^orth Carolina. 

go far to show that God's ways are best — that, while we were 
mourning for the Episcopal School, He designed in that failure 
a greater good to the Diocese." 

The failure of the Episcopal School did not prevent further 
efforts toward male education at Raleigh; for, in 1847, the 
Eeverend Aldert Smedes also undertook to establish a school for 
boys, in addition to the school for girls which he was then so 
successfully operating. In the Bishop's address to the Conven- 
tion of 1847, the undertaking was described as follows : "A new 
classical school for boys, under the patronage of the Diocesan, 
is about to be opened within six or seven miles of the city of 
Ealeigh; and this through the instrumentality and zeal of the 
present Eector of St. Mary's School in that city." This new 
male academy was called Trinity School. It was west of Ea- 
leigh about six miles; and, after the War Between the States, 
was purchased for agricultural uses by Major William Augus- 
tus Blount, who named his plantation Stony-lonesome. Though 
Trinity School was an educational venture financed by the 
Eeverend Aldert Smedes, it was under the immediate con- 
trol of the Eeverend Fordyce M. Hubbard, as Eector. Mr. Hub- 
bard was a native of Massachusetts, where he had been a teacher 
under Doctor Cogswell in the Eound Hill Academy at l^orth- 
ampton, heretofore alluded to. He came to Trinity School from 
Christ Church in ISTew Bern, North Carolina, of which he had 
been Eector for some time. Trinity School was recognized as a 
parish in itself, and the first report of its Eector, in 1848, stated : 
"This school was opened nearly twelve months ago, and its con- 
stant and gradual growth leaves in the minds of those who have 
charge of it no doubt of its permanence and prosperity. The 
aim of its teachers has been to combine thorough instruction 
and the highest attainments in learning, with strict discipline 
and careful training in the doctrines and duties of religion. In 
the former respects their efforts have been rewarded with all the 
success they anticipated. The religious education of those com- 

Bishops ok North Carolina. 109 

Hiitled to them has been conducted in the method jjrescribed by 
the Church. Daily prayer is said, with daily examinations in 
Holy Scripture; fasts and festivals are duly observed, with ser- 
mons and catechizing on Sundays. All the services are cheer- 
fully attended by the boys, and, we believe, with much advan- 
tage." After serving as Eector of Trinity School for about a 
year, the Reverend Mr. Hubbard left that institution in 1849 to 
accept a professorship in the University of ISTorth Carolina, and 
the Reverend P. Teller Babbitt succeeded him in his former 
post. In 1851, the Reverend Mr. Babbitt reported that there 
were nineteen students at Trinity. He removed in the following 
year to Florida. With his departure, the brief existence of 
Trinity School came to an end. 

It was in 1844r-'45 that Bishop Ives first began to take steps 
toward the establishment of a mountain mission in Watauga 
County at a place which he named Valle Crucis. Tliis was a 
noble conception for the spread of religion and education 
throughout the mountainous section of the Diocese, theretofore 
a much neglected field ; and, had he confined his religious views 
strictly to the teachings of the Holy Scriptures and Book of 
Common Prayer, the undertaking might have met with more 
success. Even with its early record, whereby it lost the confi- 
dence of the Church for a time, much good has been accom- 
plished there. In his address to the Convention of 1844, Bishop 
Ives alluded to the mountainous section of the State, saying: 
"Here the destitute begin to perceive and appreciate the eminent 
appropriateness of our Liturgy to their condition. In many 
instances they have confessed to me, with tears of gratitude, that 
its use among them has opened to their minds sources of knowl- 
edge inconceivably greater than anything which they had before 
enjoyed. Persons, unable to read, have given as a reason for 
becoming Episcopalians that so much of the Bible is read to 
them in our services. Our chants, too, have found special favor 
with them. Through the whole extent of my last visitation in 
the mountain district, I was accompanied by three of my 

110 Bishops of !N^orth Carolina. 

younger clergy, who were sufficiently skilled in clianting to 
enable them to chant the portions of our service usually per- 
formed in this way. The effect was in the highest degree favor- 
able, and the desire of the people to be instructed in this kind of 
music importunate." Later the Bishop was able to announce 
that while he was in Watauga Valley (August, 1844), a farm 
had been purchased and contracts awarded for the erection of 
buildings for a missionary station. Of this farm tract, one hun- 
dred acres were under cultivation when the land was purchased. 
A small grist-mill and tannery were already on the place. The 
first buildings erected under the auspices of Bishop Ives were a 
saw-mill, a log kitchen and dining-room, a log dwelling contain- 
ing four rooms, and a frame building (sixty by twenty feet) 
with a room at each end for teachers, together with a large hall 
for school purposes in the centre, all on the ground floor. Over 
the whole, was a dormitory for boys. All these buildings, said 
the Bishop, would be ready for use by June, 1845. The objects 
of the Valle Crusis mission, as set forth by Bishop Ives to the 
Convention of 1845, were as follows : to extend the gospel 
throughout a territory, thirty or forty miles in every direction, 
to a religiously destitute people ; to give rudimentary instruction 
to poor children of the immediate neighborhood on terms which 
their parents could afford; to receive into the institution young 
men of talent from the surrounding country, on condition that 
they should serve as teachers and catechists for a certain time 
after graduation, under the direction of the authorities of the 
mission ; to train boys of talent and merit for either the ministry 
or subordinate services to the Church ; to give theological train- 
ing to candidates for holy orders ; to conduct a general school, 
both classical and agricultural; and to maintain a model farm, 
both as an aid in supporting the mission and as a means of 
instructing the surrounding population in improved agriculture. 
This was the first school in I^orth Carolina where practical agri- 
culture was taught. The farm work was under the direction of 
a young agriculturist from the State of l^ew York. In 1846, 

Bishops of North Carolina. Ill 

much progress was reporfod at Valle Crusis. Sovpral of the old 
mills bad been replaced with new and improved buildings for 
the same uses, and a large barn and blacksmith shop had been 
added, besides other houses. In the classical and agricultural 
school, twenty-eight pupils had received instruction during the 
year, nine of these being given instruction and board free of 
charge. There were also seven candidates for holy orders re- 
siding there. Upon receipt of this report for 1847, the Com- 
mittee on the State of the Church, through its chairman, the 
Reverend Robert Brent Drane, of Wilmington, reported that it 
deeply sympathized with the Bishop in his wishes, and agreed 
with him in the expectation of its ultimately becoming a noble 
and permanent nursery of the Church. In 1846 the Valle Crusis 
mission suffered a severe blow in the death of its first Rector, 
the Reverend William Thurston. Of that faithful servant of 
God, Bishop Ives v/rote : "As a friend, a presbyter, the Rector 
of the School at Valle Crusis, and my associate in that self- 
sacrificing enterprise, his simplicity, and guilelessness, and fidel- 
ity, and unflinching toil, had not only endeared him to my heart, 
but also made his loss a severe trial to my faith in the important 
work (to which I felt myself so urgently called) of spreading 
the light of life through our mountain wilds." After the death 
of the Reverend Mr. Thurston, the Reverend Henry H. Prout 
became head of the mission and the Reverend Jarvis Buxton 
(son of the Reverend Jarvis B. Buxton) had charge of the 
school. In time, the Reverend William Glenney French suc- 
ceeded Mr. Prout as head of the mission. In addition to those 
already mentioned in connection with Valle Crusis, quite a num- 
ber of others lived there, at one time or another, who were either 
then in the sacred min'istry or later took holy orders. Among 
these may be mentioned William R. Gries, William Passmore, 
George Patterson, Frederick Fitz Gerald, Joseph W. Murphy, 
Richard Wainwright Barber, Charles T. Bland, William West 
Skiles, and Thomas F. Davis, Jr. There were probably others 
also. In the report of the Committee on the State of the Church, 

112 Bishops of North Carolina. 

for 1848, we find the announcement : "It is understood that the 
religious house at Valle Crusis will henceforth devote its ener- 
gies to the instruction of candidates, or those who desire to be- 
come candidates, for holy orders. The importance of this insti- 
tution to the Diocese is immense, as the nursery of a future min- 
istry. It appears to possess peculiar advantages for this work, 
not only in the retirement, for the time being, of its students 
from the distractions of society, and the hardy and useful dis- 
cipline to which they are inured, but also in the great economy 
with which the work can be conducted — your Committee being 
informed that $50 apiece, per annum, may be made to cover all 
necessary expenses, except those for clothing." By 1849 the mis- 
sion at Valle Crusis had begun to drift away from the teachings 
of the Church, and was fast becoming a feeble and undignified 
imitation of the monastic institutions of the Church of Eome. 
In October of that year, under the pseudonym of "A Layman of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in ISTorth Carolina," United 
States Senator George E. Badger issued a small booklet entitled 
An Examination of the Doctrines Declared and Powers Claimed 
by the Right Reverend Bishop Ives, and in this he said : 

" He [Bishop Ives] has instituted at Valle Crusis a monastic order, 
a society within the church, composed of persons bound to him by a 
vow of celibacy, poverty, and obedience, the form of which the Bishop 
does not give us in his Pastoral, though he sets out the objects of the 
society and the duties of the order. He has given to the members as 
their peculiar dress, 'a black cassock, extending from the throat to 
the ankles,' answering to that worn by members of the Romish Order 
of Jesus. He allows to be placed on the altar a pyx, in which are 
reserved the remaining consecrated elements after a communion, a 
practice used in the Romish Church, but disallowed and forbidden by 
ours. Again : there is used at Valle Crusis, with the approbation of 
the Bishop, a little manual of devotion, in which, the Bishop says, 
were some 'expressions' which, upon being objected to, were by him 
promptly altered. Now, these 'expressions' were prayers to the Virgin 
Mary and the Saints; and these prayers the Bishop does not deem 
tcrong in principle, for, in a letter to one of his presbyters, he says : 
'I feel bound, however, to say, that while I allow no prayers to the 
Virgin Mary and Saints, it is not because they are wrong in them- 
selves, but because they are liable to abuse.' " 

BisHOi's OF NoiiTH Caroi.ina. 113 

111 coniieclioii with the Vallc Crusis mission it is but just to 
the clergymen there stationed under Bishop Ives to add that 
when he abandoned his Church a few years later, not one fol- 
lowed his example. Their vow of "obedience" did not carry 
them that far. After the defection of its founder, the above mis- 
sion was almost deserted for nearly half a century, though the 
Reverend William West Skiles faithfully labored as a mission- 
ary in that vicinity until his death, December 8, 1862. The 
work there was revived, many years later, chiefly through the 
instrumentality of Bishop Cheshire; but it is at present situ- 
ated within the Missionary Jurisdiction of Asheville, under 
Bishop Horner — an enthusiast on religious education — and is 
now daily doing the work for which it was originally founded. 
An interesting account of the early work at Valle Crusis, by 
Mrs. H. H, Prout, will be found in the Messenger of Hope for 
February, 1909. 

It was in the Winter of 1848-'49 that the religious practices 
of Bishop Ives began to be at variance with the Church in 
which he held office ; but, time and again, he made point-blank 
denials when charged with fostering doctrines which he after- 
wards admitted to have held "for years" before he openly pro- 
fessed himself a Eoman Catholic. In the early Spring of 1848 
he had been prostrated by a dangerous attack of fever, and 
for many weeks he was confined to his bed at the home of 
Josiah Collins, of Edenton. This illness prevented his at- 
tendance upon the Diocesan Convention which assembled in 
Wilmington during the month of May, and he spent the Sum- 
mer recuperating, not being able (as he tells us in his journal) 
to resume his duties until the first of the following September. 
Among the papers submitted to a committee which effected a 
temporary reconciliation between the Bishop and his Diocese 
in 1850-'51 (after his retraction or denial of all past teachings 
not authorized by his Church) was a letter from an Edenton 
physician. Doctor Matthew Page, tending to show that the 
above-mentioned attack of fever had to some extent affected 

114 Bishops of Xorth Carolina. 

tlie Bisliop's mind. To the same effect was other testimony, 
including that of Mr. Collins, at whose home the Bishop's ill- 
ness had occurred. Said the committee's report to the Diocesan 
Convention of 1851 : "In addition to Dr. Page's letter, they 
[the committee] have before them statements tending to show 
that the Bishop has for several years past been in a state of 
mental excitement which has impaired his memory and rendered 
quite uncertain the determinations of his judgment. An oral 
statement, quite in detail, but which the Committee have not 
had time to reduce to writing, was also made by Josiah Col- 
lins, Esq., to show that the Bishop's mind has been, for several 
years past, from an attack of fever, singularly affected, so as to 
impair his judgment and enfeeble his memory, while other 
powers of the mind have been rather exalted — a state of mind 
well calculated to mislead its subject, and at the same time to 
expose him to gross misconceptions on the part of others." 
Accompanying this report — -indeed a part of it — was a signed 
statement by the Bishop, j-etracting about every religious 
dogma he had ever advocated which v/as not sustained by the 
teachings of the Episcopal Church. Later reference will be 
made to this paper. The denials and retractions by Bishop 
Ives of facts, which he afterwards admitted to have been true, 
began in 1848 and ended in December, 1852, when he openly 
avowed his conversion to the Church of Home. Had he made 
no concealment of his change of mind at the time it first took 
place, openly embracing the faith of his new choice, instead 
of attempting to establish usages in the Church which were 
altogether repugnant to its laws — laws he was pledged as Bishop 
to support — it would have been far better than was the vacillat- 
ing course he pursued during the last four years of his Episco- 
pate. He had as perfect a right to leave the Episcopal 
Church as he had formerly had to enter it when he aban- 
doned Presbyterianism in his youth ; indeed, it was not only a 
right but a duty, under the existing circumstances. Had he 
lived at a later period he might have profited by the advice of 

Bisifoi's OF NoKTU Carolina. IIT) 

the great Bishop of Alabama, Richard Hooker Wilmer, who 
said: "It" you don't like the 'Reformed Church' the 'unre- 
formed' Church has its doors open to receive you. Go home! 
In the name of truth, sincerity and decency, so far as in you 
lies, be what you purport to be. Use the language of the Bible, 
and of your mother the Church, and speak not in dubious and 
long since discarded phraseology of 'masses,' etc." 

We shall now give a detailed account of the various stages of 
controversy through which Bishop Ives and the Church passed 
between the years 1848 and 1852. As has already been stated, 
after some months spent in recuperating from the fever, he 
had suificiently recovered by September, 1848, to resume his 
duties. Following that time, vague rumors were afloat as to 
practices authorized and advocated by him, especially at Valle 
Crusis. By the time winter had passed and the month for 
holding the Diocesan Convention had arrived (May, 1849), the 
Committee on the State of the Church reported to that conven- 
tion, in part, as follows: "While the Committee find much 
cause of thankfulness to God for these manifestations of the 
Church's increase, they deplore the existence among its mem- 
bers of great agitation and alarm, arising from the impression 
that doctrines have been preached not in accordance with the 
Liturgy and xirticles of this Church, and that ceremonies and 
practices have been introduced, either unauthorized by the cus- 
toms of this Church or in plain violation of its rubrics." The 
Bishop was confined to his bed by sickness when this committee 
made its report, but lost no time in sending to the Convention 
a written communication, which was read before that body 
by the Reverend Cameron F. McRae, as follows: 

Bbetiikkn of the Clergy : In the report on tlie State of the Church, 
made by members of your order, reference is made to excitement in 
the Diocese, growing out of the idea that doctrines are promulged and 
practices encouraged among us, more or less repugnant to the author- 
ized doctrines and usages of our brancli of the Church. As these doc- 
trines and practices are not specified, your Bishop can address you 
only in general terms. But he does, by way of charge, hereby address 

116 Bishops of I^okth Carolina. 

you and authorize you, when you return to 3^our several parishes, to 
assure your people that no efforts shall be wanting on his part, so 
long as God may give him jurisdiction in North Carolina, to hinder 
the inculcation of any doctrine or the introduction of any practice — 
come from whatever quarter it may — not in strict accordance with 
the Liturgy of our Church, as illustrated and defined by those stand- 
ards of interpretation authorized by the Church itself. 

In respect to a particular question which has agitated the Diocese 
of late, the question of auricular confession, I may here express my 
conviction that the Book of Common Prayer, our standard of Doc- 
ti'iue. Discipline, and Worship, does not authorize any clergyman of 
this Church to teach or enforce such confession as necessary to salva- 
tion ; and that the only confession that it authorizes is the voluntary 
confession of the penitent in accordance with the exhortation in the 
office for the Holy Communion. L. Siiximan Ives, 

Bishop of North Carolina. 

This denial was explicit, to say the least, and peace reigned 
once more — but only for a while. A few months later (August 
8, 1849), while at Valle Crusis, Bishop Ives issued a pastoral 
letter of eighty pages to the Church in North Carolina, saying, 
among other things, that the disclaimer on his part, as given 
above, was dictated from a bed of sickness, his condition not 
admitting of his "writing or even thinking intensely" (italics 
in original), and he now considered it humiliating to have 
given this unnecessary assurance of his fidelity to "our branch 
of the one Catholic Church." Of the Convention's right to 
express its sentiments concerning his teachings he declared 
that : "No convention, constituted as our conventions are, has 
a right to determine what is or should be the faith, or practice 
under the faith, of a diocese. . . . Whatever man, there- 
fore, or body of men, take upon themselves the power of dic- 
tation, or control, or, under any form., the chief direction, in 
regard to the doctrine, discipline and w^orship of this diocese, 
or any part of this diocese, are guilty of arrogating powers 
committed solely to my hands, assuming a trust for which 1 
alone am made responsible, and resisting the authority of 
Christ and the functions of the Holy Ghost with which I only 
am invested. They do more than this if they be clergymen — 

Bishops of North Carolina. 117 

they violate their own solemn vows of fidelity and submission." 
He also intimates that the clergy of the former Convention 
deserved to be deposed for the "crime of conspiracy" against a 
Bishop, as the law was given for such cases by the eighteenth 
canon of the Council of Chalcedon. In the course of this pas- 
toral Bishop Ives refers to the clerical body under him at 
Yalle Crusis, the "Order of the Holy Cross," and sets forth 
extracts from the constitution of that organization. There 
was another clerical order, in New York — probably the "Ecclesi- 
ologists," though he does not so designate it — whose members, 
he said, had come to him, after the General Convention of 
1847, for Episcopal guidance, wishing to be transferred to 
North Carolina. To these youthful clergymen he had said in 
substance : "Young gentlemen, if you come to me as faithful 
sons of our branch of the Church, asking my spiritual counsel 
and guidance, I will receive you, and do all in my power to 
encourage and strengthen your Catholic views and desires, so 
far as they are in agreement with our Liturgy, fairly interpreted 
by the Creeds and Councils of the primitive Church. But if 
you have any views beyond our Church, and hope to be counte- 
nanced in them by me, I must, at once, undeceive you by de- 
clining any further interview." The Bishop adds: "They all 
declared their fidelity to our branch of the Church, and I con- 
sented to receive them." Bishop Ives dwells, in this pastoral, 
upon the doctrines of auricular confession, private absolution, 
the "real presence" in the Eucharist (some months later denying 
that he meant transubstantiation thereby), prayers for the 
dead and invocation to saints — all of which practices he ap- 
proves, fortifying his assertions with various authorities. 
Though he lived nearly a score of years longer, the Bishop 
thought his earthly career was drawing to a close when this 
letter was written for, in the course of it, he said: "This is 
my last address to a convention of this Diocese — of which, 
frequently recurring disease gives timely notice." 

118 Bishops of North Carolina. 

The doctrines declared and powers claimed by Bishop Ives, 
in the above pastoral, brought forth a shower of pamphlets in 
reply. Mention has already been made of Senator Badger's 
monograph. Another, entitled Auricular Confession, was put 
forth by the Reverend Francis L. Hawks, D.D., v/ho wrote 
under the pseudonym of "A Protestant Episcopalian," and 
who incidentally mentioned that he had studied for holy orders 
under Bishop Eavenscroft, whom Ives had cited in support of 
some of his contentions. Doctor Hawks said that he knew from 
Ravenscroft's own lips that he held in abhorrence the Romish 
contentions as to transubstantiation, auricular confession, etc. 
The learned divine and historiographer, Reverend Samuel 
Farmer Jarvis, D.D., "with the approbation of the Bishop of 
Connecticut," also answered in a pamphlet called A Voice from 
Connecticut. The Reverend John H. Hanson, of Weddington, 
'New York, issued a tract called The Doctrine of Repentance, 
in which he took issue with Bishop Ives. Another brief work, 
Puseyite Developments or Notices of the New York Ecclesiolo- 
gists, by a layman, was published about the society of ''Ecclesi- 
ologists" and "dedicated to their patron, the Right Rev. Bishop 
Ives, of North Carolina." The Reverend Richard Sharpe 
Mason, D.D., Rector of Christ Church in Raleigh, who had been 
chairman of the Committee on the State of the Church, on 
whose report the Convention at Salisbury had acted, also went 
into print with A Letter to the Bishop of North Carolina, in 
which — after defending the Convention's course, and exposing 
the past inconsistencies of Bishop Ives, and his numerous eva- 
sions — he begged him to be more open in future dealings with 
his Diocese. "Let me beseech you," he said, "to remove, if 
possible, our doubts and difficulties; to speak so clearly and 
fully that hereafter we cannot mistake you." Senator Badger 
prefaced his remarks by saying: 

"If the Protestant Episcopal Church be, as its enemies have often 
said, but a disguised form of Romanism : if our Bishop be alone 
responsible for the doctrine, discipline, and worship of his diocese. 

Bishops of North Carolina. 119 

and tliert'fore shonltl have sole authority over what he is alone 
resix)iisihle for ; if he have, as a consequence of this autliority and 
responsil)ility, a right to require from liis diocese implicit submission 
to any doctrine he may think proper to teach — a right to introduce 
amongst us ceremonies and practices not only unknown here, not only 
unknown throughout the Church in the United States, but 'wholly 
unauthorized by the customs of the church as established by the 
English reformation' ; if the clergy and laity, assembled in diocesan 
couvention. have nothing to do with the doctrines thus taught and 
the practices thus introduced — can institute no inquiry, and can ex- 
press no opinion respecting them ; if he may set forth at one time 
teachings different from and opposed to the teachings set forth by 
him at another, and the members of the church must follow all his 
fluctuations of doctrine even as the obedient vane follows the shift- 
ings of the wind ; if, in one word, our Bishop be within his diocese a 
spiritual lord and master over God's heritage, and have papal suprem- 
acy over us, then it is higli time that our actual state and condition 
should be known ; and, if these things be not so, then it is high time 
that the church at large should be disabused, and we vindicated from 
the suspicion of admitting such exorbitant claims, and bowing down 
in such degrading submission." 

In addition to the above pamphlets, one was published in 
Ifew York to uphold the views set forth by Bishop Ives, this 
being entitled The Voice of the Anglican Church on Confession, 
and it was said that the Bishop himself had a hand in its prepa- 
ration. To this came a reply called The Voice of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United States on Confession. This 
reply, speaking of the first mentioned publication, stated : ''One 
of the Bishops of our Church is reputed to be the editor, and it 
is said to be the precursor of several discourses which are soon 
to emanate from the same quarter in favor of Auricular Con- 

In a case of differences in opinion it is somewhere written : 
"Let's quarrel about these matters ; it Avill make us better friends, 
seeing that we shall know each other's thoughts and rights." 
And even so it seemed, after Bishop Ives had relieved his feel- 
ings in his pastoral letter, and after his opponents had relieved 
theirs through the numerous pamphlets above alluded to; for, 
when the Diocesan Convention of !N'orth Carolina met in Eliza- 
beth City, May 29-June 3, 1850, the Bishop, in his address, 


120 Bishops of JSTgrth Carolina. 

expressed regret over the fact that any of the expressions in his 
pastoral letter should have seemed to indicate a lack of confi- 
dence in the motives, truthfulness or faith of his clergy — further 
assuring them that he had entire confidence in their affection, 
charity and firm adherence to the faith and discipline of the 
Church. He then went on to declare that he did not hold to 
the doctrine of private confession and absolution "in the Eomish 
sense," nor did he teach that the real presence of the body and 
blood of Christ, in the Eucharist, was to be believed in the sense 
of transubstantiation, or that the bread and wine should be 
"reserved, carried about, lifted up or worshipped," and that 
he considered prayers or invocations to the Blessed Virgin, 
saints or angels "clearly derogatory to Christ and opposed to 
God's "Word." In conclusion he made the statement : "I do not 
teach or hold that our branch of the Catholic Church is, from 
any cause, either in heresy or schism, or that she is destitute 
of the sacramental system." Apparently wishing to leave no 
means unused for the purpose of a complete reconciliation, the 
Bishop also addressed the Convention in a note as follows: 

Beetheen of this Convention : Aware that tlie difficulties in the 
Diocese, to which I have alluded in my address, still threaten the 
peace of the same, and being anxious to do all in my power to 
restore harmony and good will, I hereby ask of you a Committee of 
Clergj^men and Laymen, to investigate all the circumstances connected 
therewith, and report to a future meeting of this body. 

L. SiLLiMAN Ives, 

May 31, 1850. Bishop of the Diocese of North Carolina. 

This recommendation by the Bishop was adopted, and the 
following committee was elected: the Reverend Messrs. Jarvis 
B. Buxton, Robert Brent Drane and Richard Sharpe Mason, 
of the clergy, and Messrs. Augustus Moore, Josiah Collins and 
George "W, Mordecai, of the laity. The Reverend Doctor Mason 
and Mr. Mordecai asked to be excused by the Convention from 
serving on this committee, but their request was not complied 
with. This about completed the preliminary efforts for recon- 
ciliation between the Bishop and the Diocesan Convention which 

Bishops of North Carolina. 121 

was held in the S])riug of 1S50. Some months later (in October 
of the same year) the General Convention of the Church met 
in the city of Cincinnati, Ohio, Bishop Ives being present in 
person as representative of North Carolina in the House of 
Bishops. The clerical deputies present from North Carolina 
were the Reverend Messrs. Richard Sharpe Mason, Jarvis B. 
Buxton and Alfred A. Watson. Among the lay deputies was 
only one representative from the Diocese of North Carolina, 
Mr. John S. Eaton, of the town of Henderson. In the report 
on the State of the Church in North Carolina brief reference 
was made to the appointment of the above committee at the 
request of Bishop Ives, with the further statement that its in- 
vestigations were then in progress. It was added: "The re- 
port of the Committee will be made to the next annual [dio- 
cesan] convention. In the meantime it is c6nsoling to add that, 
whatever may be the result, the Diocese, true to the Prayer 
Book as the embodiment of the Church mind, remains unshaken 
on ground hitherto occupied." 

In the spring of 1851 (May 30th) the Reverend Jarvis Barry 
Buxton, Rector of Saint John's Church in Fayetteville, passed 
from his earthly labors. During the following year a hand- 
some edition of his sermons, with portrait, was published by 
his son, the Reverend Jarvis Buxton, of Asheville. 

The North Carolina Diocesan Convention, for the year 1851, 
met in the months of May and June at the town of Fayette- 
ville; and, during the session of that body, it seemed as if a 
permanent peace with Bishop Ives could be arranged, for he 
even surpassed his own record in the way of professions of 
loyalty to the Church over which he presided as chief pastor. 
In his address, after giving an account of his usual visitations 
throughout the Diocese, and attendance upon the General Con- 
vention in Cincinnati, as well as trips to Philadelphia, New 
York and other Northern cities, he submitted two documents 
which had been transmitted to him by authorities of the Church 
of England — one from the Archbishop of Canterbury and the 

122 Bishops of J^^orth Carolina. 

other from tlie Bishop and other clergy of the Diocese of Ox- 
ford. The Archbishop's letter invited all the dioceses of the 
American Church to join with the Church of England in cele- 
brating the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the founding 
of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts. Bishop Ives signified his desire that the same should 
be accepted and that appropriate services in connection there- 
with should also be held throughout ISTorth Carolina. "We are 
unable to find any record of such action having taken place 
within the limits of the State. Elsev/here in America, however, 
the anniversary was commemorated. Doctor Atkinson (after- 
wards Bishop of ISTorth Carolina) delivered a sermon in Saint 
Peter's Church, Baltimore, on June 22, 1851, in honor of the 
anniversary. The other document, referred to above by Bishop 
Ives, was dated JSToveniber 22, 1850, and was a formal protest, 
signed by the Lord Bishop of Oxford, with more than six hun- 
dred of his clergy, and having reference to what afterwards 
came to be known among Englishmen as "the new Italian Mis- 
sion." The protest was called forth by the fact (to use, in part, 
its' own language) that : 

"Whebeas, We have seen or heard that the Bishop of Rome has 
pretended to divide this ancient Church and Realm of England into 
certain new Dioceses, and to appoint over them certain Bishops, to 
whom he, the said Bishop of Rome, pretends to commit the cure and 
government of the souls of all Christian people therein dwelling, con- 
trary to the rights of this Church, and the ancient laws of this Realm 
— Now we, the said Bishop, Priests, and Deacons, whose names are 
hereunto subscribed, do utterly protest against any such invasion of 
this Church and Realm ; and we do declare that the Church recog- 
nized by law in this land is the ancient Apostolic Church thereof, 
possessing the ancient faith, true sacraments, and a lawful ministry ; 
and that her Bishops and Clergy are the Bishops and Clergy thereof 
by unbroken descent from the Holy Apostles ; and that the mis- 
sionaries of the Bishop of Rome within this land, who are striving to 
withdraw the people from the communion of the English Church, are 
intrusive and sehismatical ; and we protest before God and His 
Church against these sehismatical claims and proceedings, as also 
against their docti-ine and teaching, as being, on many points of faith 
and practice, contrary to God's Word, and the teachings of the Univer- 

Bishops of Xorth Cakolina. 123 

sal C'lmvch. . . . And we declare that the Chuivh of England did. 
at the Reformation, make and hath for three luiiutred year.s continued 
its protest against the claim of the said Bishop of Rome to exercise 
jurisdiction over the Church Universal, and over this Church of Eng- 
land in particular, and also against the false doctrine of the Church 
of Rome, and that we do now renew and continue the same protest. 
And we do solemnly warn all Christian people, committed to our 
charge, that they yield no obedience to the so-called Bishops now 
thrust into our land, under pain of incurring all the guilt of willful 

In transmitting the above document to the Diocesan Con- 
vention of N'orth Carolina, Bishop Ives declared that this action 
by the ecclesiastical authorities of the Diocese of Oxford had 
his "full, unreserved and hearty approval and concurrence,'' 
and that it was his conscientious conviction that "our branch 
of the Church styled the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States, and standing upon the same firm basis with the 
mother Church of England, belongs to that portion of Christ's 
body which is the most scriptural, primitive and truly Catholic 
in its character; and that no one, embraced by holy baptism 
within its pale, can depart from it without the grievous sin of 
doing despite to the Holy Ghost." 

At the same Diocesan Convention of North Carolina above 
alluded to (that of 1851) the Committee, which had been ap- 
pointed for the purpose of endeavoring to reconcile the differ- 
ences between the Diocese and its Bishop, reported its findings. 
This report, followed by the Bishop's own certificate of its cor- 
rectness, was in these words : 

"The Bishop said to the Committee that it might be considered 
humiliating in him to offer to the Committee the statement he was 
now about to make, but a sense of duty, both to himself and to the 
Church, compelled him to do so. That it had been at one time a very 
favorite idea with him to bring about a union of the Roman, the 
Greek, the Anglican, and the American Churches ; and that, in his 
zeal for Catholic union, he had overlooked the difficulties in the way. 
which he was now satisfied were insuperable. That this tendency of 
his mind toward a union of the Churches had been greatly increased, 
and his ability to perceive the difficulties in the way had been dimin- 
ished, by a high state of nervous excitement arising either from bodUy 

124 Bishops of Worth Carolina. 

disease or a constitutional infirmity. That, in the pursuit of his 
favorite idea, he had been insensibly led into the adoption of opinions 
on matters of doctrine, and to a public teaching of them, of the im- 
propriety of which he was now fully satisfied ; and, upon a review of 
those opinions, wonders that he should ever have entertained them. 
That this change in his views has been brought about in part by a 
I'eturn to a more healthy condition of mind and body, but mainly 
from having perceived the tendency of those doctrines to the Church 
of Rome, as sad experience has shown in the cases of Arch-Deacon 
Manning and others. That among the effects of his desii*e to bring 
about this union of the Churches, he was induced to tolerate the 
Romish notion of the Invocation of Saints, as expressed in his letter 
to the Rev. C. F. McRae, which expressions he now retracts and 
would denounce as strongly as any one. That on the subject of auric- 
ular confession and absolution, whatever extravagancies of opinion or 
expression he may have heretofore indulged, he now holds that con- 
fession to a priest is not necessary to salvation ; and that he does not 
believe in judicial absolution, or the power of the priest to forgive 
sins. Nor does he hold that the absolution recognized by the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church is merely declaratory, but that the priest is 
thei'ein an instniment through whom pardon is transmitted to the 
penitent, while its efl5cacy does not in any degree depend upon the 
volition or intention of the priest. That absolution is not essentially 
necessary to the forgiveness of sins, but that it is important when 
practicable to obtain public absolution as contained in the ritual of 
our Church, which is the only absolution that he holds proper, except 
in those cases in which that is impracticable. That he had at one 
time, under the influences before mentioned, entertained doubts 
whether our branch of the Church was not in a state of schism. That 
he had never gone so far as to believe that it was, but merely enter- 
tained doubts. He was now satisfied, beyond a doubt, that she was 
not in schism. That he had never held the doctrine of the real pres- 
ence in the Holy Communion, as synonymous with transubstantiation, 
but, on the contrary, had always abhorred it. He admitted that, on 
a review of some of his writings, he had become satisfied that he had 
exposed himself to misconstruction by the use of the term 'real pres- 
ence,' which was in the Romish Church synonymous with transubstan- 
tiation. But in the use of the term 'real presence,' he had in mind 
only the spiritual presence of Christ. That the term spiritual pres- 
ence was the only one proper to be used, as the general expression 
'real presence' was, in the present state of the Christian world, liable 
to be understood as asserting Christ's bodily presence in the Eucha- 
rist—being used by the Romish Church to express its idea of transub- 
stantiation. And that the spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucha- 
rist is all that our Church teaches, and would recommend the use of 
that expression instead of real presence." 

Bishops of North Carolina. 125 

Under this report was a signed endorsement by the Bishop in 

the folloAving words : 

"The above is correct. L. S. Ivi:s." 

This same Committee also reported that the Bishop had dis- 
claimed having had anything to do with the authorship of the 
tract called The Voice of the Anglican Church on Confession; 
but he admitted that, while in New York, on learning that such 
a compilation had been made by two clergymen in whom he had 
entire confidence, he determined (without verifying its quota- 
tions) to publish it as an appendix to his sermons. When he 
ascertained its true character, however, he immediately counter- 
manded its publication, and regretted ever having had anything 
to do with it. As to the ''Order of the Holy Cross," that society 
had not existed in ISTorth Carolina since the Salisbury Con- 
vention, said the Bishop; and he further declared that, from 
his observation of past results upon the minds of young men, 
he was satisfied that no vows ought to be taken in the Protestant 
Episcopal Church except those expressly allowed or required 
by its ritual. Yalle Crusis, he added, was now only a mission 

After the adjournment of the Diocesan Convention of 1851, 
Bishop Ives continued in his ministry, performing the duties 
of the Episcopate as though no troubles had existed between 
him and his Church. The next Diocesan Convention met (May, 
1852) in Fayetteville, and the Bishop was there present. In 
his journal he gave the usual account of his visitations through- 
out the Diocese, prefacing the same with exhortations to the 
clergy and laity of "our branch of the Church Catholic" to be 
faithful to the teachings of the Book of Common Prayer, which 
he declared was based absolutely upon the teachings of Scrip- 
tures. He added: "But do not misapprehend me. It is far 
from my intention to teach that the Prayer Book has any truth 
or value independent of God's Word. For my conviction is 
that its truth and value are identical with that Word, and come 
solely from it, as the source of all that is necessary, either to be 

126 Bishops of ]!^orth Cakoli^sta. 

believed or practiced, for the salvation of men. And further, 
when the Prayer Book is assailed by its enemies as nnscriptural, 
I maintain that we are to go to the Scriptures for its defense." 
^Tothing of especial note happened at the above Convention, 
but some months later (September 27, 1852) Bishop Ives ad- 
dressed a communication to the Standing Committee of the 
Diocese, stating that, on account of the ill health of both Mrs. 
Ives and himself, he wished to obtain a leave of absence from 
the Diocese for six months after the 1st of October, with an 
advance of $1,000 on his salary, his intention being to spend 
that time in travel. This request being granted, he placed in 
the hands of the same committee the following communication : 

I hereby authorize the Standing Committee of Nortli Carolina, in 
my absence from the Diocese, to invite any Bishop of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United States to perform Episcopal duty in 
my place. L. Silliman Ives, 

Raleigh, September 30, 1852. Bishop of North Carolina. 

Shortly after writing the communication just quoted Bishop 
Ives embarked for Europe; and, almost immediately after his 
arrival, repaired to the city of Rome, where, on Christmas day, 
1852, he formally renounced the Church in which he was Bishop 
and made submission to the Pope. As has already been shown, 
he had assigned the ill health of himself and his wife as the 
reason for wishing to go abroad, and had secured permission 
to draw $1,000 in advance on his salary for traveling expenses ; 
yet a Eoman Catholic paper published in France, L'Univers, 
stated at the time that he had really gone to Europe v/ith the 
secret and pre-arranged purpose of taking the course which he 
did. The statement in this paper— a translation of which ap- 
peared in the Churchman and which is reproduced in Doctor 
Seabury's work The Continuity of the Church of England — 
was as follows : 

"Dr. Ives left America some weeks ago, to go and make his solemn 
abjuration of the errors of Protestantism at the feet of the Sovereign 
Pontiff. Before his departure he gave his retraction into the hands 

Bishops of North CAKOLI^'A. 127 

of the Airhliisliop of New York, and partifipatod in the sai raniriits 
of the Church ; but the veuerable convert wished this act to be kept 
secret in order to procure from Pius IX. the sweet consolation of him- 
self receiving him into liis Hock. However, considering the possibility 
that he might be lost on his voyage, Dr. Ives gave to Archbishop 
Hughes his abjuration in writing, furnished with the most incontesti- 
ble characters of authenticity, in order that this document might be 
made public in case of accident." 

Three days before formally making liis submission to the 
Pope, Bishop Ives addressed a letter to the Diocese of North 
Carolina in these words: 

Rome, December 22d, 1852. 

For the Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in the Diocese 
of North Carolina: 
Dear Brethren : Some of you. at least, are aware that, for years, 
doubts of the validity of my office as Bishop have at times harassed 
my mind and greatly enfeebled my action. At other times, it is true, 
circumstances have arisen to overrule these doubts and to bring to 
my uund temiwrary relief. But it has been only temporary, for, in 
spite of my resolutions to abandon the reading and use of Catholic 
books, in spite of earnest prayers and entreaties that God would pro- 
tect my mind the disturbing influence of Catholic tx'uth, and 
in spite of public and private professions and declarations, v.hich, in 
times of suspended doubt, I sincerely made to shield myself from 
suspicion and win back the confidence of my Diocese, which had been 
well nigh lost ; in spite of all this and of many other considerations, 
which would rise up before me as the necessary consequence of suffer- 
ing my mind to be carried forward in the direction in wiiieh my doubts 
pointed, these doubts would again return with increased and almost 
overwhelming vigor — goading me at times to the veiy borders of 
derangement. Under these doubts I desired temporary repose from 
duties that had become disquieting to me, and determined to accom- 
pany Mrs. Ives, whose health demanded a change of climate, in a 
short absence abroad. But absence has brought no relief to my mind. 
Indeed, the doubts that disturbed it have grown into clear and settled 
convictions — so clear and settled that, without a violation of con- 
science and honor and every obligation of duty to God and His 
Church, I can no longer remain in my position. I am called upon, 
therefore, to do an act of self-sacrifice, in view of which all other 
self-sacrificing acts of my life are less than nothing — called upon to 
sever the ties, which have been sti'engthened by long years of love 
and forbearance, which have bound my heart to many of you as was 
David's to that of Jonathan, and make that heart bleed as my hand 
traces the sentence which separates all pastoral relation between us 

128 Bishops of North Carolina. 

aud conveys to you the knowledge that I hereby resigti into your 
hands my office as Bishop of North Carolina ; and, further, that I am 
determined to make my submission to the Catholic Church. 

In addition, my feelings will allow me only to say that, as this act 
is earlier than any perception of my own, and antedates by some 
months the expiration of the time for which I asked leave of absence, 
and for which I so promptly received from members of your body an 
advance of salary, I hereby renounce all claim upon the same, and 
acknowledge myself bound, on an intimation of your wish, to return 
whatever you may have advanced to me beyond this 22d day of 

With continued affection and esteem, I pray you to allow me stUl 
to subscribe myself, 

Your faithful friend, L. Silliman Ives. 

In due time the above communication was laid before tbe 
Diocesan Convention v^hicli assembled in Cbrist Cburch, in the 
city of Raleigh, during the month of May, 1853. That body, 
upon receipt of the Bishop's letter, elected a successor in the 
person of the Reverend Thomas Atkinson, D. D. — Doctor At- 
kinson receiving twenty out of the twenty-seven votes cast on the 
last ballot, which occurred on May 28th. A committee was 
also appointed to report the circumstances, connected with the 
defection of Bishop Ives, to the next General Convention of the 
Church. This General Convention assembled in the city of 
l^ew York in the month of October, 1853, and received official 
notice, in due form, of the above matter. Before consecrating 
a successor to Bishop Ives — whose resignation did not fulfill, 
in its form, the requirements of the canon law of the Church — 
the General Convention proceeded formally to vacate his office 
by a sentence of deposition as follows: 

"Whereas, Levi Silliman Ives, D. D., Bishop of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church la the United States, in the Diocese of North Caro- 
lina, in a communication under his proper hand, bearing date 'Rome, 
December twenty-second, one thousand, eight hundred and fifty-two,' 
avowed his purpose to resign his 'office as Bishop of North Carolina' 
and further declared that he was 'determined to make his submission 
to the Catholic [meaning the Roman] Church' ; 

"And whereas. There is before the Bishops of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the United States, acting under the provision of 
Canon First of 1853. satisfactory evidence that the said Levi Silliman 

Bishops of North Carolina. 129 

Ives. D. D., has publicly renounced the conununiou of the Church, and 
made his sulmiission to the Bishop of Rome, as Universal Bishop of 
the Church of God and Vicar of Christ upon earth, thus acknowledg- 
ing these impious pretensions of that Bisliop, thereby violating the 
vows solennily made by him, the said Levi Silliman Ives. D. D., at his 
consecration as a Bishop of the Church of God, abandoning that por- 
tion of the floclc of Christ committed to his oversight, and binding 
himself under anathema to the anti-Christian doctrines and practices 
imposed by the Council of Trent upon all the Chuivhes of the Roman 
Obedience : 

"Be it therefore known, That on this fourteenth day of October, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand, eight hundred and fifty-three, 
I, Thomas Church Brownell, D. D., LL. D., by Divine permission. 
Bishop of the Diocese of Connecticut, and Presiding Bishop of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, with the consent 
of a majority of the members of the House of Bishops, as hereinafter 
enumerated, to-wit, William Meade, D. D., Bishop of the Diocese of 
Virginia ; John Henry Hopl^ins, D. D., Bishop of the Diocese of Ver- 
mont ; Benjamin Bosworth Smith, D. D., Bishop of the Diocese of 
Kentucky; Charles Pettit M'Uwaiue, D. D., D. C. L., Bishop of the 
Diocese of Ohio ; George Washington Doane. D. D., LL. D., Bishop of 
the Diocese of New .Jersey ; James Hervey Otey, D. D., Bishop of the 
Diocese of Tennessee ; Jackson Kemper, D. D., Missionary Bishop of 
Wisconsin and the Northwest; Samuel Allen McCoskry, D. D., 
D. C. L., Bishop of the Diocese of Michigan ; William Heathcote 
DeLancey. D. D., LL. D., D. C. L.. Bishop of the Diocese of Western 
New York; William Rollinson Whittingham, D. D., Bishpp of the 
Diocese of Maryland; Stephen Elliott, Jr., D. D., Bishop of the 
Diocese of Georgia ; Alfred Lee, D. D., Bishop of the Diocese of Dela- 
ware ; John .Johns, D. D., Assistant Bishop of the Diocese of Vir- 
ginia ; Manton Eastbum, D. D., Bishop of the Diocese of Massachu- 
setts; Carlton Chase, D. D., Bishop of the Diocese of New Hamp- 
shire; Nicholas Hanmer Cobbs. D. D., Bishop of the Diocese of 
Alabama ; Cicero Stephens Haw-ks, D. D., Bishop of the Diocese of 
Missouri ; George Washington Freeman, D. D., Missionary Bishop of 
the Southwest; Alonzo Potter, D. D., LL. D., Bishop of the Diocese 
of Pennsylvania ; George Burgess. D. D.. Bishop of the Diocese of 
Maine ; George LTpfold, D. D., Bishop of the Diocese of Indiana ; 
William Mercer Green, D. D., Bishop of the Diocese of Mississippi ; 
Francis Huger Rutledge, D. D., Bishop of the Diocese of Florida ; 
John Williams, D. D., Assistant Bishop of the Diocese of Connecticut ; 
Henry John Whitehouse, D. D.. Bishop of the Diocese of Illinois ; 
and Jonathan Mayhew Wainright, D. D., D. C. L., Provisional Bishop 
of the Diocese of New York, and in the terms of the Canon in such 
cases made and provided, do pronounce the said Levi Silliman Ives, 
D. D.. ipso facto deposed, to all intents and purposes, from the ofBce 

130 Bishops of Nokth Carolijta. 

of n Bishop of the Church of God, and from all the rights, privileges, 
powers, and dignities thereunto appertaining. 

"In the name of the Father, and of the Sou, and of the Holy- 
Ghost — Amen ! Thomas Church Bkownell, 

Bishop of the Diocese of Connecticut, and Presiding Bishop." 

Speaking, many years later, of the above action by tbe Gen- 
eral Convention in 1853, the CMirchman, in its issue of Janu- 
ary 15, 1881, said: "JSFone who witnessed it will ever forget 
the solemn scene in the House of Deputies when, with both 
Houses standing around and before him, the venerable Presid- 
ing Bishop Brownell pronounced sentence of deposition on the 
late Bishop of N'orth Carolina." Three days after the above- 
quoted sentence of deposition was pronounced, the Reverend 
Doctor Atkinson was duly consecrated Bishop of ISTorth Caro- 

When the Diocesan Convention of l^orth Carolina met at 
Wilmington in 1854, a communication was laid before that 
body from the Reverend John Murray Forbes (a convert to 
the Church of Rome, who later returned to the Anglican faith), 
wherein the writer stated that he had been authorized by Doctor 
Ives to tender a return of such money as had been advanced 
beyond the time when he relinquished his Bishopric, this being 
estimated by him as about $750. Thereupon the President of 
the Standing Committee was directed to advise Doctor Forbes 
that the Diocese made no demand upon Doctor Ives for this 
money, but left the matter for him to act upon as he might 
deem right; and that the treasurer of the Diocese, Charles T. 
Haigh, was authorized to receive any sums which might be due 
it. This seems to have closed the incident, as reports of the 
treasurer, in the several succeeding years, fail to record the 
receipt of such money. 

If, in the prime of his influence and usefulness, Doctor Ives 
had suddenly embraced the faith of Rome when no one suspected 
his fidelity to the Church wherein he held a Bishopric, it 
would have been considered a great loss to the latter com- 

Bishops of North Carolina. lol 

raunion. Coining, as it did, however, after nearly four years 
of instability and secret evasion on his part, with well-grounded 
suspicion and distnist on the part of his people, it resulted in 
benefit rather than injury to the Church from which he took 
his departure. In the report on the State of the Church in 
Xorth Carolina, made to the General Convention of 185-3, it 
was said: "It would be difficult to find a single person in 
TTorth Carolina whose allegiance to the Church has been at all 
shaken by the apostacy of her late Bishop. On the contrary, 
it is believed that all members, having been tried, have come 
forth stronger in the faith and stronger in love to the Church." 
Three years later a report of the same character, to the Gen- 
eral Convention of 1856, was made in these words: "The 
apostacy of the late Bishop produced far less disastrous results 
than might have been anticipated from the authority of his 
office and the love and influence which he once personally en- 
joyed in his Diocese. It is probable, indeed, that his open de- 
fection, as compared with his former equivocal course, was a 
relief rather than a blow to the Church, by putting an end to 
paralyzing fears and jealousies, and restoring confidence and 
affection among our own household of faith, and on the part 
of the community towards our entire body. It is not kno%vn 
that a single person in the Diocese has followed the example 
set them by one once so loved and honored." This report 
slightly errs in saying that not a single person followed the 
example of Bishop Ives when he renounced the Anglican com- 
munion and became a Roman Catholic. His wife took the same 
step, as did also Mrs. Benjamin Dickens (formerl^^ Miss Ella 
Eaton) a lady from j^orth Carolina who went to Europe v-^ith 
Bishop and Mrs. Ives. Mrs. Dickens was a half-sister of 
Attorney-General William Eaton, Jr. After staying in Italy 
a while she contracted such an aversion for Roman Catholicism 
that she returned to JSTorth Carolina, and — washing to go to 
the antipodes in religious doctrine — joined the Baptists. She 
remained a Baptist for some time, and later j*efurned to the 

132 Bishops of North Carolina. 

Episcopal Church. Her second husband was Peter Hansborough 
Bell, former Governor of the State of Texas, who spent his 
last years at Littleton, North Carolina. Mrs. Bell died m 
July, 1897, at Littleton, and her funeral services were con- 
ducted by the Keverend Girard W. Phelps, Eector of Saint 
Alban's Church. 

Mention has already been made of the statement, in 1850, 
by the physician of Bishop Ives, that his mind had been affected 
by the long attack of fever from which he had suffered, and 
the Bishop's own statement that some of his past actions were 
due to "a high state of nervous excitement, arising either from 
bodily disease or a constitutional infirmity," as well as his 
belief that he later attained "a more healthy condition of mind 
and body." In the American Church Review, of April, 1853, 
was a long account of the Bishop's various inconsistencies be- 
fore he took final leave of the Church. The editor of that peri- 
odical expressed the opinion that Bishop Ives was mentally 
unbalanced, this opinion being based not only upon the Bishop's 
own actions, but upon the fact that the affection was hereditary 
in his branch of the Ives family. After stating that the Bishop's 
own father had drowned himself in a fit of insanity, that one 
of his father's sisters had been violently insane at times, and 
other members of the family more or less affected, the editor 
submitted his article to the inspection of Bishop Ives's own 
brother (then holding the office of Probate Judge in Walling- 
ford, Connecticut), and the latter gentleman authorized the 
publication, along with the article, of a statement from himself 
as follows: 

Wallingford, Conn., Feb. 25 th, 1853. 
To the Rkv. Mr. Richardson, 

Editor of the Church Review. 
Sir: The statements which you have read to me, and which you 
propose to publish, of a constitutional tendency to mental derange- 
ment in my father's family, and also of certain facts in proof of such 
a tendency, I have no hesitation in saying are fully sustained by my 
own personal knowledge ; nor have I any doubts that the conduct of 

Bishops of North Cakoi.ina. 133 

Bishop Ives-, in liis late defection to Rome, must be attributed, at 
least iu part, to that same cause, viz. : a hereditary tendency to men- 
tal derangement, aggravated by disease and by great excitement. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Ebfnezeb H. Ives. 

How long Doctor Ives remained in Rome we are unable to 
say with certainty. He was there in February, 1854. Later 
in the same year he published a volume entitled The Trials of a 
Mind in -its Progress to Catholicism. After much argument 
and many citations to justify the course he had pursued, Doctor 
Ives says in the conclusion of this work: 

"The last year and a half of my episcopate was, I can truly say, 
the most trying, the most painful period of my life, although one of 
apparent quietness, official success, and restored confidence. After 
the immediate effects of my convention in the Spring of 1851 (which, 
as you will remember, resulted in a reconciliation between myself and 
the disaffected part of my Diocese) had passed off, and my mind, no 
longer pressed down by a weight of sore trial, had time to react, it 
came up at once, and, to my own surprise, to its former level of Catho- 
lic belief; indeed, it was like waking from a pleasant dream to a 
frightful reality. I had actually flattered myself into the belief that 
my doubts had left me, and that I could henceforward act with a 
quiet conscience on Protestant ground. But, on recovering from the 
stupefaction of overmuch sorrow. I found myself fearfully deceived ; 
found that what I had taken for permanent relief of mind was only 
the momentary insensibility of opiates or exhaustion. When I came 
again to myself, however, I was visited with reflections which no man 
need envy. The concessions I had made, in good faith at the time, for 
the peace of the Church, and, as I had falsely supposed, for my own 
peace, rose up before me as so many concessions, and cowardly ones 
too, to the god of this world. So that I can say, with the deepest 
truth, that the friendliness which greeted me, on my subsequent visi- 
tation through my diocese, was most unicelcome to my heart. Every 
kind word of those who had spoken against the truth seemed a rebuke 
to me. every warm shake of the hand to fall like ice upon my soul. 
I felt that I had shrunk publicly from the consequences of that truth 
which God had taught me — felt that I had denied that blessed Master 
who had graciously revealed Himself to me. But blessed be His name 
for that grace which moved me to 'weep bitterly.' Persecution for 
Christ's sake would then have been balm to my wounded conscience. 
And nothing, I think, but the precarious state of one whom I had 
vowed to 'keep in sickness as well as health' prevented an earlier 
avowal of my disquietude and an earlier abandonment of my diocese. 

134 Bishops of North Carolina. 

"For all this suffering, bowever, God forbid that I should blame 
any one but myself. Others may have acted according to their con- 
scientious convictions ; I resisted mine, and on grounds that would 
not bear the test of calm reflection, and how much less the light of 
Eternity ! I ought to have known myself better ; ought to have known 
the way of God's grace and truth better. 

"And now, dear brethren, I have only to add, take warning by my 
sufferings ; take courage by my blessings ; take example from Him 
'who endureth the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the 
right hand of God.' The scenes of earth will soon be past, and we 
shall then feel the true force of our Lord's words, 'He that forsaketh 
not all that he hath cannot be my disciple.' 

"I have loved you well ; I have labored for j'ou earnestly ; and now 
I feel it to be a privilege, too great for human tongue to express, to 
be able each day to plead in your behalf the sacrifice of a present God 
and Savior ; yea, to plead that He may ere long, through the riches of 
His own mercy and the power of His condescending love, make you 
partakers of the new and unutterable joy which I now feel, when I 
declare before God that 'I Believe One Catholic and Apostolic 
Church.' " 

The deatn of ex-Bishop Ives occurred in the town of Man- 
hattanville, New York, on the 13th day of October, 1867. An 
obituary notice in the New York Herald, re-printed in a Raleigh 
paper, the Daily Sentinel, several days later (October 18th), 
says of the closing years of his life: 

"After his return to America [from the city of Rome], he became 
Professor of Rhetoric in St. Joseph Theological Seminary, and lec- 
tured in the convents of the Sacred Heart and the Sisters of Charity. 
He also occasionally lectured in public, and served as an active Presi- 
dent of a Conference of St. Vincent de Paul. About ten years ago he 
conceived the idea of founding a home in this city for vagrant and 
orphan children of Catholic parentage ; and, having obtained the 
approval of Archbishop Hughes, set energetically to work to cany 
out his design. The result of his philanthropic labors was the estab- 
lishment of the Catholic Male Protectorate and the House of the Holy 
Angels, two of the most deserving charitable institutions of this State. 
They were first located in New York, but were afterwards removed to 
Westchester County, where they are now in operation. Both were 
under the charge and direction of the Society for the Protection of 
Destitute Catholic Children, of which the deceased was President 
from its incorporation till his death. Dr. Ives was a very able gentle- 
man and eloquent speaker, and his death will be much lamented by 
our Catholic community and by the public in general." 

Bishops of North Carolina. 135 

About the year 1844, the Reverend Aldert Smedes, D.D., 
Rector of Saint Mary's School at Raleigh, engaged William 
Hart to paint a full-length portrait of Bishop Ives. This por- 
trait (which still hangs in the parlor at Saint Mary's) repre- 
sents him in the act of administering the rite of confirmation 
to a class of four girls. Another oil portrait of Ives is in the 
Catholic Protectory at Westchester, New York. A very hand- 
some engraving of the Bishop, as he appeared in his younger 
days, is in the vestry room of Christ Church at Raleigh; still 
another engraved likeness (much smaller) was made after he 
renounced Anglicanism, it being labeled "Rt. Rev. L. S. Ives, 
Ex-Bishop of N. Carolina." The picture last mentioned is 
reproduced iu Bishop Perry's History of the American Episco- 
pal Church. 

One of the sons of the above-mentioned Doctor Smedes was 
named Ives Smedes in honor of Bishop Ives, and usually was 
called by the playful sobriquet of "Bish," in consequence of 
being the namesake of a Bishop. He was Adjutant of the 
Seventh North Carolina Regiment in the Confederate Army 
and fell mortally wounded at the Battle of Chancellorsville. 

Among the published works of Bishop Ives were the follow- 
ing: Humility a Ministerial Qualification (a commencement 
address, June 28, 1840, to the students of the General Theologi- 
cal Seminary), 22 pages, New York, 1840; The Introductory 
Address of the Historical Society of the University of North 
Carolina (delivered in the chapel of the University, June 5, 
1844), 18 pages, Raleigh, 1844; The Struggle of Sense Against 
Faith (sermon delivered October 2, 1844, before the General 
Convention in St. Andrew's Church, Philadelphia), 24 pages, 
Philadelphia, 1844; The Apostles' Doctrine and Fellowship, 
190 pages, New York and Philadelphia, 1844; The Obedience 
of Faith, 161 pages. New York, 1849 ; The Tiials of a Mind 
in its Progress to Catholicism, 233 pages, New York, Boston, 
Montreal and London, 1854. In addition to these works, and 
possibly others. Bishop Ives was the author of a Catechism and 

136 Bishops of J^oeth CAitOLiNA. 

a Manual of Devotion, which the present writer (not having 
seen) cannot describe in detail. 

The remains of Ex-Bishop Ives are interred in the grounds 
of the Catholic Protectory, in Westchester County, New York, 
where a monument, erected to the memory of himself and his 
wife, contains the following inscription on the face : 

Cineribus et Memorias 



quae circumspicis 

auctor instituit 

f autor f ovit 

gnaviter prasses primus rexit 

vixit an LXXI. 


In pace. 

Curatores grat. anim. posuere. 


The other inscriptions are in English, the reverse side of the 
monument containing these words : 

Here repose the remains of 


The zealous advocate and 

first President of the Society 

for the Protection of 

Destitute Catholic Children. 

In obedience to his dying request 

his body is interred near the children 

to whose welfare he devoted the 

last hours of his life. 

Bishops of North Carolina. 137 

His many sacrifices in his Master's 

service are too avcII known to need 

a special record here. 

May lie rest in peace. 

On the left side of the tomb this record appears : 


Born in Meriden, Conn., 

September 16, 1797. 

Was Bishop of the Episcopal Church 

in Worth Carolina for 21 years. 

Was received into the 

Holy Roman Catholic Church 

in the City of Rome, 

in the year 1852. 

The death of Mrs. Ives occurred a littls over four years before 
that of her husband, and on his monument are inscribed the 
following lines in memory of her : 


beloved wife of 


Born, February 6, 1803. 

Died, August 3, 1863. 

Was received into 

the H. R. C. Church 

in the City of Rome, 

in the year 1853. 

Judged by the results of his ministry, Bishop Ives should 
always be remembered with kindness by members of the Episco- 
pal Church. His labors brought hundreds into that church; 
and, when he left it, two women went with him — one his wife, 
and the other a temporary convert who afterwards came back to 
the communion she had left, after spending a while with the 
Baptists on the way. 

138 Bishops of ^Nokth Carolina. 

Ill view of the fact that it was not intended for humor, one 
of the most amusing passages which the present writer has 
ever seen in print is an account of the defection of Bishop Ives 
in a Roman Catholic history entitled Catholicity in the Caro- 
linas and Georgia, by the Reverend J, J. O'Connell, O.S.B. 
That work gravely states: "The return of Dr. Ives to the 
Church was the most stunning blow that Protestantism ever 
received in America. The manly step unsettled the faith of 
many, if they had any. The institution never recovered from 
the shock; it was the prophecy of its dissolution. When a 
man of Dr. Ives's social standing, conceded abilities, blameless 
life and learning, the pride of the aristocratic Anglican Church 
and the foremost man among its hierarchy, laid down the in- 
signia of a usurped office at the feet of the successor of St, 
Peter, a blow was dealt at the head of the decaying fabric that 
felled it to the ground like the idol in the temple of the Philis- 
tines." Overlooking the reference to the Anglican Church as 
a "decaying fabric" (as such language is hardly worth noticing) 
one may well stand appalled at "the most stunning blow that 
Protestantism ever received in America" when Bishop Ives 
"unsettled the faith of many" by carrying under his leadership 
to the Church of Rome a vast multitude consisting of his wife 
and Mrs. Dickens, the latter half of which aforementioned 
multitude afterwards returned to the Church which she had 

Though unable to make the Pope an offering in the shape of 
converts, Bishop Ives seemed determined not to take leave of the 
Vatican without depositing therein some memorial of his sub- 
mission to papal authority; so he presented to the Holy Father 
en episcopal signet-ring and his surplice. These relics of the 
former Bishop are still proudly preserved in Rome, to keep in 
remembrance the return, to the true fold, of a wanderer from 
the flock of Saint Peter. 

In conclusion we may say that out of the defection of Bishop 
Ives there grew indirectly one of the greatest blessings which 

Bishops ok JSToktii Carolina. 139 

ever came to the Diocese of Xorth Carolina — in fact, to the 
whole American Church — for to his vacated chair was elected 
Thomas Atkinson, the hest beloved Bishop who ever presided 
over the Church in ISTorth Carolina, and to whom the Church 
throughout the nation largely owes the fact that it was not rent 
in twain by the sectional controversies which grew out of the 
"War between the States. When Bishop Atkinson had reached 
the age of sixty-five, and the Diocese of North Carolina had so 
grown under his wise and benign leadership as to require the 
aid of an Assistant Bishop in carrying on his good work, the 
Reverend Doctor Lyman was chosen for that purpose in 1873 ; 
and, at his consecration, a sermon was preached by the Right 
Reverend Henry Champlin Lay, Bishop of Easton, who (during 
the course of his remarks) referred to Bishop Ives in terms 
with which we may well close this sketch: "He departed, but 
without a following, and the Diocese rallied from the blow; 
and, to its honor, gave its undiminished confidence to his suc- 
cessor in the deserted chair. None has a word or thought of 
bitterness as he thinks of the stranger grave where now repose 
the relics of one whom North Carolina would once have duti- 
fully enshrined — the bones of the man of God still honored for 
many a 'saying which he cried in the word of the Lord,' in his 
best days, against sin and folly. We respect 'the trials of a 
mind,' disordered, we know not how much, in its hidden ma- 
chinery. We forgive the attempted injury, and his good we 
bury not with his bones." 


Bishop Atkinson. 



Third Bishop of North Carolina. 

The family of Atkinson — itself one of distinction, and con- 
nected by blood and marriage with many of the South's best 
people in this and past generations — had its origin in the shire 
of Cumberland on the northern border of England. There was 
born Roger Atkinson, Avho left his native country and settled 
in Virginia about the year 1745. In 1762, when Petersburg 
was enlarged, he was one of the commissioners of that town. 
For many years he served as magistrate, then a post of high 
honor and dignity. He also filled with fidelity and zeal the posi- 
tion of vestryman of Bristol Parish from December 8, 1760, 
until his resignation on November 1, 1784. It is an interesting 
coincidence that he was elected vestryman to succeed Hugh 
Miller, maternal grand-father of Bishop Ravenscroft. The 
Atkinson family's principal place of worship was Blandford 
Church, at Petersburg, one of the most historic religious edifices 
in the Old Dominion. To Roger Atkinson personally, Bishop 
Meade refers as "an old vestryman and staunch friend of the 
Church." Another writer tells us that Roger Atkinson was a 
member of the first Revolutionary convention, held in May, 
1769, at the house of Anthony Hay, in Williamsburg, Vir- 
ginia; and, a year later, was one of the eighty-eight patriotic 
gentlemen who signed the non-importation agreement at the 
Raleigh Tavern in that town. The Atkinson estate was called 
Mansfield, and it was located in the county of Dinwiddie, not 
far from Petersburg, the county-seat. On April 21, 1753, Roger 
Atkinson was married to Anne Pleasants (a lady whose parents 
were members of the Society of Friends), and to this union 
were born six children. One of these, Robert Atkinson, was 
born on the 23d of October, 1771, and married Mary Tabb 
Mayo, a member of one of Virginia's old colonial families. 
He was the father of eleven children, one of whom was the 

144 Bishops of ISTorth Carolina. 

Right Reverend Thomas Atkinson, our present subject. Allud- 
ing to the family of Bishop Atkinson, in a memorial sermon 
delivered shortly after his death, Bishop Lay said : 

"His parents were Church of England people : they lived and died 
in our comuiunion. But in their day the Church was at its lowest 
point of coldness and indifference. There were some able and earnest 
men of the Presbyterian Church, especially Dr. John H. Rice and 
Dr. Benjamin H. Rice, who labored with much success in Southern 
Virginia in awakening men to religious earnestness. The Atkinsons, 
while they adhered to the parish church, and there frequented the 
Holy Communion three times a year, came under the Influence of 
these ministers, and were largely guided by them in their spiritual 
life. Bishop Atkinson was baptized in the Episcopal Church : some 
of the children, later born, received baptism at the hands of Presby- 
terian ministers, and thus the family became divided. The Bishop 
and two of his brothers remained in the Church of their fathers : 
while three of the brothers, of whom two survive, took Presbyterian 
orders, and have been beloved and efficient ministers in that com- 
munion. The sisters are divided in like manner in their ecclesiastical 
relations. ... It could not but be a pain and grief to all mem- 
bers of the family that, in anything which effected their religious life, 
there should be difference of opinion. But no shadow ever came, by 
reason of such difference, over the peace and happiness of their 
homes. I doubt whether in all the land could be found a large family 
of brothers and sisters so devoted to each other, so delighting in each 
other's company, so sympathizing in each other's joys and sorrows, so 
ready to seek fraternal advice, so free to utter all their minds on all 
subjects at each other's fireside, kindly and courteously but without 

The Presbyterian clergymen, to whom Bishop Lay refers in 
the above-quoted extract as brothers of Bishop Atkinson, were 
the Reverend "William Mayo Atkinson, the Reverend John 
Mayo Pleasants Atkinson (President of Hampden-Sidney Col- 
lege, who commanded a detachment of his students in the Con- 
federate Army), and the Reverend Joseph Mayo Atkinson: The 
last named gentleman settled in jSTorth Carolina and spenL his 
closing years in Raleigh, where he was greatly beloved and ven- 
erated. Lucy Fitzhugh Atkinson, sister of the Bishop, married 
the Reverend Chuchill J. Gibson, D.D., and was mother of the 
Right Reverend Robert Atkinson Gibson, Bishop of Virginia. 

Bishops ok North Carolina. 145 

The above-menfioned Bishop Lay was closely connected by 
marriage with Bishop Atkinson, having married his niece, 
Elizabeth Withers Atkinson, daughter of Roger B. Atkinson. 

For a genealogy' of the Atkinson family, more in detail than 
the limits of the present sketch will allow, we refer the reader 
to a work by the Reverend Philip Slaughter, entitled A History 
of Bristol Parish. 

The Right Reverend Thomas Atkinson, D. D., LL. D. 
{Cantah.), third Bishop of jSTorth Carolina and fifty-eighth in 
the succession of the American Episcopate, was born ou his 
father's estate, Mansfield, near Petersburg, in Dinwiddle 
County, Virginia, on the 6th of August, 1807. After due prepa- 
ration in local schools he became a student at Yale. While at 
this institution a number of his college-mates, indulging in 
boyish dissipation, went on a spree; and, becoming boisterous, 
raised some disturbance, though no mischief of a serious nature 
was perpetrated. Young Atkinson was not connected with this 
outbreak in any way, though all of the participants therein 
were known to him. On being summoned before the faculty, 
he was ordered to divulge their names, and this he respectfully 
but firmly refused to do, saying he did not deem it consistent 
with honor to act the part of a spy or informer. He was then 
given his choice between making known the names of the of- 
fenders or leaving college. He chose the latter alternative — 
which, it may be added, met with the entire approbation of his 
parents. Late in life, while referring to the matter. Bishop 
Atkinson said he had never seen cause to regret the acrion he 
took on that occasion. 

After leaving Yale, young Atkinson entered Hampden-Sidney 
College, in the State of Virginia, and graduated therefrom with 
the honors of his class, at the age of eighteen, September 28, 
1825. In selecting a profession he made choice of the law, and 
pursued his studies under Judge Henry St. George Tucker, of 
Winchester, Virginia. In 1828, he was licensed to practice. 
He remained at the bar eight years, and then decided to enter 

146 Bishops of ]^orth Carolina. 

the sacred ministry. At Christ Church, in the city of ISTorfolk, 
on i^ovember 18, 1836, he was ordered deacon by the Right 
Reverend William Meade (then Assistant Bishop), and was 
later ordained to the priesthood by the Bight Reverend Richard 
Channing Moore, Bishop of Virginia, in Saint Paul's Church, 
I^orfolk, May 7, 1837. During his diaconate he was Assistant 
Rector of Christ Church in Norfolk; and, upon his elevation 
to the priesthood, became Rector of Saint Paul's, in the same 
city, remaining in the latter station nearly two years. About 
the end of the year 1838 he accepted a call to Lynchburg, be- 
coming Rector of Saint Paul's Church in that city, and re- 
mained there until 1843. During the year last named he be- 
came Rector of Saint Peter's Church, in Baltimore, succeeding 
the Reverend John Prentiss Kewley Henshaw, who had resigned 
to become Bishop of Rhode Island. Scarcely had Mr. Atkinson 
taken up his new charge in Baltimore when he was elected 
Bishop of Indiana. This high office he declined, and remained 
in his Baltimore pastorate, daily growing in the love and esteem 
of the people of that good city, and adding to the splendid repu- 
tation he had already acquired. In 1846, he was again elected 
Bishop of Indiana, and again he declined. The reasons for the 
refusals of Doctor Atkinson to accept the Bishopric of Indiana 
are interestingly given by Bishop Cheshire in his address on 
"Bishop Atkinson and the Church in the Confederacy," de- 
livered at the laying of the corner-stone of the Church of the 
Holy Comforter (a memorial to Bishop Atkinson) in Charlotte, 
x^orth Carolina, on the Feast of the Transfiguration, August 
6, 1909. The first refusal, in 1843, says Bishop Cheshire, was 
a simple expression of his unpreparedness, he having come 
into the ministry from the bar only six years before. As to the 
renewed call, in 1846, Bishop Cheshire continues: 

"This second election seemed to carry with it a strong presumption 
of a providential call to that work, and his mind was adjusting itself 
to what seemed an inevitable duty, when he received a letter from an 

Bishops of Xorth Carolina. 147 

old Lyu(.hl)ur{? frieml, who for some years had beeu living in Indiana. 
This friend had left Virginia ht^ause his intense dislike of slavery 
had made him unwilling any longer to live in contact with it. Bishop 
Atkinson himself had a strong sense of the disadvantages and evils 
of slavery, though he was also sensible of the difficulty of finding any 
just and practicable means of abolishing it in the South. He had 
freed all his own slaves who wished to be freed and to go to the free 
States, and had kept only those who voluntarily chose to remain in 
the South. His old friend wrote expressing the pleasure he antici- 
pated in seeing him Bishop of Indiana, and begged him to bring his 
family to his house, and to make his house his home there until he 
should have leisure to make his permanent arrangements. He then 
added that the Bishop umst be prepared to live and work in a com- 
munity where the feeling against slavery and slave owners was be- 
coming so inflamed and bitter, that the writer of the letter as a 
Southern man, though opposed to slavery, found himself in a painful 
and embarrassing position. , 

"This letter caused him to decline for a second time the call to 
Indiana. Little as he was attached to the institution of slavery, and 
thankful as he could have been to see it justly and peacefully abol- 
ished, he felt quite sure that, if in Indiana his friend could not live 
in comfort on account of the state of public feeling, he could not hope 
to be happy and contented in his work, since he would probably, as 
time went on, find himself more and more out of sympathy with his 
people on the great and absorbing question of the day. 

"In the year 1853 the Diocese of South Carolina was to elect a 
Bishop. There was a strong feeling in favor of electing the Rev. Dr. 
Atkinson. But rumors had reached that State as to his feeling about 
slavery, and prominent persons in that Diocese communicated with 
him, asking for an expression of his views on the subject. He replied 
promptly in effect that he felt slavery to be a disadvantage, though 
he could not see how to get rid of it. But ho declared that if it came 
to a choice between slavery and the Union, he should say let slavery 
go, and preserve the Union of the States. That is, as I remember, 
the substance of his reply. This letter, he said, prevented his being 
elected Bishop of South Carolina ; and Bishop Davis was chosen. My 
old friend General Thomas F. Drayton, told me that he was a mem- 
ber of the South Carolina Diocesan Convention of ISoo, and well 
remembered the letter of Bishop Atkinson, which was made known to 
the members of the Convention, he himself having seen and read it; 
and he said but for that letter Bishop Atkinson would certainly have 
been their choice for Bishop." 

148 Bishops of North Carolina, 

So, as Bishop Atkinson afterwards remarked, he did not 
become Bishop of Indiana because he was not sufficiently op- 
posed to slavery; and failed of election as Bishop of South 
Carolina because he was not sufficiently in favor of it. 

In the year 1850, a controversy had arisen between some of 
the clergy in Maryland and their Bishop, the Eight Reverend 
William Rollinson "Whittingham, as to whether a Bishop, when 
making his visitation to a church, had the right to administer 
the Holy Communion and perform some other acts usually 
devolving upon the parish priest. In this absurd contention 
by the clergy, some went so far as to maintain that a proper 
respect for the just influence of the office of presbyter actually 
forbade that the communion office should be turned over to the 
Bishop. The pulpit and desk, however, they conceded might 
properly be at the Bishop's disposal through the courtesy of 
the priest in charge. "This controversy," says Bishop Lay, 
"was the burning question at the General Convention of 1850; 
and at that Convention, and in the preceding Diocesan Con- 
vention of Maryland, it fell to the lot of Dr. Atkinson, then 
Eector of St. Peter's, to vindicate the true ideal of the office 
of Bishop." Commenting upon the triumph of the Bishop of 
Maryland's contention, Bishop Lay adds in the above quoted 
discourse (his memorial sermon on Bishop Atkinson) that, if 
"Whittingham and Atkinson had no other claim upon the 
Church's gratitude they would deserve to be ever held in honor 
for averting so great a calamity as that of the degradation of 
the Episcopate. 

Shortly after the year 1850, some of Doctor Atkinson's parish- 
oners in Saint Peter's Church, Baltimore, in conjunction with 
a number of their fellow-churchmen outside of that parish, 
decided to build an additional house of worship and invite him 
to become its Rector. The erection of Grace Church, on the 
corner of Monument street and Park avenue, was the result, 
and in this beautiful edifice Doctor Atkinson was officiating 
when called to the Bishopric of JSTorth Carolina in 1853. 

Bishops of North Carolina. 149 

Soino years prior to his election to the Bishopric of North 
Carolina, Doctor Atkinson married (in January, 1828) Josepha 
Gwinn Wilder, daughter of John Wilder, of Petersburg, Vir- 
ginia. He was survived by this lady, and also by all of his 
children — three in number — as follows : 

I. Mary Mayo Atkinson, wife of the Reverend D. Hillhouse 
Buel, D.D., a clergyman who faithfully labored many years in 
and around Asheville, North Carolina, in the interests of edu- 
cation as well as religion. 

II. John Wilder Atkinson, of Wilmington, North Caro- 
lina, a Colonel in the Confederate Army, who fought through 
the war and was at one time confined in the military prison on 
Johnson's Island, in Lake Erie; he has been three times mar- 
ried and has descendants. 

III. Robert Atkinson, M.D., of Baltimore, Maryland, who 
retired in early manhood from the practice of medicine, and 
afterwards conducted a school for boys ; he has been twice mar- 
ried, and one of his children is the Reverend Thomas Atkinson, 
at present a clergyman in the Diocese of Maryland. 

In May, 1853, the Diocesan Convention of North Carolina 
met in Christ Church at Raleigh ; and before this body was laid 
the letter of December 22, 1852, whereby Bishop Ives made knovsm 
his intention of renouncing the communion of his Church and of 
becoming a Roman Catholic. While his letter did not accord with 
the formalities governing the resignation of Bishops, the Dio- 
cesan Convention resolved that his abandonment of the flock com- 
mitted to his care and renunciation of the Anglican communion, 
were circumstances which in themselves worked a deposition 
from the ministry, and that the Bishopric was therefore vacant. 
Accordingly the convention proceeded to the election of a suc- 
cessor in the Episcopate, on May 28, 1853. The total number 
of votes cast was twenty-seven — eighteen, or two-thirds, being 
necessary for a choice. Those cast on the last ballot for the 
Reverend Thomas Atkinson, D.D., were tv/enty. The votes 

150 Bishops of ISTokth Carolina. 

for the Reverend Ricliard Sharpe Mason, D.D., were three; 
those cast for the Right Reverend Horatio Southgate, D.D.,* 
two; and two votes were blank. The Reverend Doctor Atkin- 
son, having thus received the constitutional number of votes, 
was declared elected by the clergy, said election being unani- 
mously concurred in by the lay delegates. In referring to the 
earlier ballots, before an election resulted, the Semi-WeeJcly 
Raleigh Register, of June 1, 1853, said: ''The clergy divided, 
almost equally, between the Rev. Drs. Mason and Drane, the 
distinguished Rectors of Christ Church, Raleigh, and St. James' 
Church, "Wilmington. More than thirty ballotings were had 
among the clergy before two-thirds of their number (the consti- 
tutional vote) united upon the Rev. Dr. Thomas Atkinson, of 
Baltimore. Drs. Hawks and Southgate also received a respect- 
able vote." 

Upon being advised of his election. Doctor Atkinson accepted 
the call. He said that, under the peculiar circumstances of the 
case, he felt it to be the will of God that he should now accept 
the high position which he had theretofore declined, though it 
involved separation from a happy home and many dear friends 
in Baltimore. He attended the General Convention of the 
Church in the city of IsTew York, October, 1853, as a clerical 
deputy from the Diocese of Maryland, while at the same time 
his name was presented to the Convention for its consent to his 
consecration as Bishop of North Carolina. Action to this eifect 
was postponed until Bishop Ives could be formally deposed, 
after which the consecration of the new Bishop took place in due 
form, October 17, 1853, in Saint John's Chapel. As much- 
honored guests at the General Convention of 1853 were tAvo colo- 
nial dignitaries of the Mother Church of England, the Right 
Reverend George Trevor Spencer, D. D., former Bishop of Mad- 
ras, in India, and the Right Reverend George Medley, D. D., 

* Though then officiating as Rector of the Church of the Advent, in 
Boston, Doctor Southgate had formerly been Bishop over the Ameri- 
can missions in Turkey. 

Bishops of Noktu Caromxa. 151 

Bishop of Fredrictuu, in Ciiuuda, both ol' whom joined in the 
ceremony of the laying on of hands when Doctor Atkinson was 
consecrated Bishop, the American consccrators being the Right 
Reverend Thomas Church Brownell, D. T)., LL. I)., Bishop of 
Connecticut and Presiding Bishop ; the Right Reverend Charles 
Pettit Mcllvaine, D. D., Bishop of Ohio; the Right Reverend 
George Yfashington Doane, D. J)., LL. D., Bishop of I^ew Jer- 
sey; the Right Reverend Samuel Allen McCoskry, D. D., D. C. 
L., Bishop of Michigan ; and the Right Reverend James Hervey 
Otey, D. D., Bishop of Tennessee. Another Bishop who received 
his consecration dui'ing the session of the General Convention of 
1853, at the hands of both the American and English Bishops — 
though the personnel of his American consccrators slightly dif- 
fered from Atkinson's — was the Right Reverend Thomas Fred- 
erick Davis, of South Carolina, who was a native of Wilming- 
ton, JSTorth Carolina, and a brother of the eminent lawyer, Ilon- 
orable Geo:-ge Davis, afterwards Attorney-General of the Con- 
federate States. A few months after the consecration of Bishops 
.Itkinson and Davis, still another native N'orth Carolinian was 
added to the House of Bishops when the Reverend Thomas 
Fielding Scott was consecrated Missionary Bishop of the terri- 
tories of Washington and Oregon, on January 8, 1854. Bishop 
Scott's ministerial career began in Georgia, but he was born in 
Iredell County, IN'orth Carolina, March 12, 1807. He died in 
■STew York City on the 14th day of July, 1867. 

After spending a short time in bidding farewell to his parish- 
ioners and other friends in Baltimore, Bishop Atkinson set out 
for ISTorth Carolina and arrived at Raleigh on Tuesday, the 8th 
of ISTovember, 1853. He preached his first sermon in that city 
at Christ Church on the following Sunday. On the evening of 
the same day he delivered a sermon in the chapel of Saint Mary's 
School, and confirmed twelve of its pupils. After laboring for 
something more than a month in North Carolina, Bishop Atkin- 
son returned to Baltimore in December, and brought his family 
to their new home. In the following month (January, 1854) he 

152 Bishops of I^okth Carolina. 

also visited New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Richmond, 
holding services oy invitation in each of these cities. 

In May, 1854, while travelling in eastern ^STorth Carolina, 
Bishop Atkinson paid a visit to the ruins of Saint Thomas's 
Church at Bath, the oldest house of worship in the State. Of it 
he wrote : "The Church at Bath is venerable from age and asso- 
ciation, hut has become so dilapidated as to approach ruin. 
The village, once the capital of the State, and possessed of com- 
parative population and wealth, is now nearly stripped of both, 
and it will therefore be a serious effort on the part of the present 
residents to put the Church in good repair; but it is one they 
design to make, and in which they ought to be assisted by others, 
and especially by those who, though no longer residents, are con- 
nected with this interesting spot as their former home or that of 
their forefathers." It may interest the reader to know that this 
ancient edifice is now in regular use, but it was not restored 
until some years later. The walls, being made of hard brick, 
withstood the elements during the long years of neglect through 
which it passed. 

In the year above mentioned, during Bishop Atkinson's visit 
to Bath, as well as elsewhere in the same section of the State, he 
was accompanied by the Reverend Edwin Geer, Rector of Saint 
Peter's Church at Washington, in Beaufort County. Alluding 
to May 30th, the Bishop says: "That evening I parted from 
Mr. Geer, whose pleasant society as well as useful services I had 
enjoyed for a week. He returned to "Washington. I crossed the 
Pamlico River to Mr. Charles Crawford's, where, among others, 
I met with his aged mother, a venerable relict of a past era and a 
type of that class of women to whom the Church in this Diocese, 
in that of Virginia, and of Maryland, and no doubt in many 
others, is so much indebted — who, without the ordinary public 
means of grace, and amid deep discouragements, hav^e kept the 
faith and caref'illy trained up their children in it On May 
31st, at Mr. Crawford's, I baptized nine children— two white and 
seven colored." 

Bishops of I^okth Cakolina. 153 

It was the privilege of Bishop Atkinson, on Septeraher 19, 
1S54, to pay a visit to the Moravian community at Salem. He 
alluded to this town and its people in his next address to the 
Diocesan Convention, saying: "This is a very interesting place, 
because of the Moravian colony established there — a body of 
people with whom, as Protestants and at the same time Episco- 
palians, we have an especial affinity. Their large and flourish- 
ing schools have been to a considerable extent patronized by the 
members of our Church, and our kind feeling towards them 
seems to be cordially reciprocated. Withal, the flourishing vil- 
lage of Winston is growing up by the side of Salem, and the 
population of the surrounding country is increasing." About a 
year later, September 9, 1855, Bishop Atkinson again visited the 
Moravians, and was once more received with loving hospitality. 
On the latter occasion he preached in their church. Later he 
expressed great admiration for their educational system. Speak- 
ing of the Salem Academy (the oldest school for girls in North 
Carolina) he said : "It was to me also very pleasing and encour- 
aging to observe the flourishing condition of the School in which 
so many of the daughters of !Morth Carolina, and of the other 
Southern States, have received important aid in fitting them- 
selves for the discharge of the duties of life." And still another 
visit to Salem, September 1, 1858, was recorded by Bishop 
Atkinson as follows : "I preached in the Moravian Church at 
Salem, and baptized two infants. I was received by that inter- 
esting community with the kindness they have ever shown, not 
to me only, but to all the ministers of our Church who have 
visited them ; and I was gratified to learn that some of them are 
among the largest contributors to the fund now being collected 
for the purpose of building a house of worship for our own com- 
munion in or near their village." 

In March, 1854, Bishop Atkinson included Saint John's 
Church, at Williamsborough, in his visitations, and of it he said: 
"The venerable Church, in which the solemn eloquence of 
Ravenscroft had so often awed the hearts of multitudes, exhib- 

154 Bishops of North Carolina. 

ited (when I first saw it) marks of dilapidation and decay. 
'Now, not only has it been repaired and painted, but a parsonage 
has also been purchased." 

Bishop Atkinson and his family left Raleigh and became resi- 
dents of "Wilmington in December, 1855, some Churchmen in the 
latter place having procured for their use a handsome home, 
besides showing many other acts of consideration and kindness. 
In 1854 the Diocesan Convention had taken steps looking to the 
erection of a See House at Raleigh, but this plan was later aban- 
doned in consequence of the Bishop's removal. 

ISTot long after Bishop Atkinson had reached his new home in 
Wilmington he was called back to Raleigh by news of the sud- 
den death of his greatly beloved friend, Joseph B. G. Roulhac — 
a gentleman of Erench descent — of whom he says: "ISTever 
within my acquaintance has the death of a private citizen been 
more universally regretted than his. And well did he deserve 
the high place he occupied in the confidence and affection of the 
community. His flowing courtesy and delicate respect for the 
opinions and feelings of others, continually reminded those who 
knew him of the best qualities of the race from which he sprung, 
and which his name indicated, yet the bluntest of men could not 
have been more sincere, upright, and honorable than he was." 
Another death, occurring a few years after Mr. Roulhac's, was 
that of the Reverend John Haywood Parker, Rector of Saint 
Luke's Church in Salisbury, who passed to his reward on the 
15th of September, 1858. This also v/as a source of deep grief 
to Bishop Atkinson, who (in addressing the Convention of 
1859) feelingly referred to the loss thus sustained, and said of 
Mr. Parker personally: "He was peculiarly qualified to be use- 
ful as a minister, not only by piety and intelligence, but by 
warm and tender affections, by great suavity and cordiality of 
manner, and by a rare combination of zeal and discretion. It 
was said by one who well knew the town in which he lived, that 
his loss would be more deeply felt than that of any other man 
who could be taken from it." 

Bishops of North (Jakomna. 155 

For several years prior to the outbreak of the War Between 
the States a movement had been on foot looking to the establish- 
ment in some Soiithern diocese of a university under the aus- 
pices of the Church. The first steps, with this end in view, were 
taken by Bishop Polk, who, on July 1, 1856, addressed a letter 
to the other Southern Bishops, setting forth the need of such an 
institution, not only as a training school for the ministry, but 
for the general education of young men. Bishop Atkinson 
attended a meeting at Montgomery, Alabama, in November, 
1858, which decided that this institution — now knowTi as the 
University of the South — should be established at Sewanee, in 
the mountains of Tennessee. The corner-stone of the first build- 
ing of this institution was laid in 1860; but, shortly after this, 
the war swept away nearly all of its assets, amounting to about 
half a million dollars. Work was begun there anew, after the 
Avar, by Bishop Quintard of Tennessee; and, after passing 
through many trying vicissitudes, it is now one of the best 
institutions of its kind in America. The University of the South 
is the joint property of the several dioceses throughout the 
States of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, 
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Tennessee, Arkansas, and 

At a date somewhat earlier I ban that at which Bishop Polk 
conceived the idea of establishing the University of the South, 
steps had been taken in North Carolina to found an educational 
institution as a memorial to Bishop Ravenscroft. In 1854, the 
Diocesan Convention of North Carolina — not deterred by the 
failure of the Episcopal School at Raleigh fifteen years earlier — 
resolved to establish a Church school for boys. At the same time, 
for its government, it was provided that this institution should 
be under the management of a board of trustees, consisting of the 
Bishop, ex ojficio, and three laymen to be appointed by him. To 
serve on this board. Bishop Atkinson selected Messrs. Henry A. 
London, of Pittsboro, in Chatham County, Thomas Hill, of the 
same place, and George W. Mordecai, of Raleigh. It was deter- 

156 Bishops of North Carolina. 

mined by these geiitlemen to locate the school at Pittsboro, as a 
spacious lot and about two thousand dollars had been offered to. 
the trustees as an inducement to do so. The Keverend Jarvis 
Buxton, of Asheville, was elected principal, though the Bishop 
felt very reluctant to have him removed from a section where he 
was so greatly beloved and was meeting with such marked suc- 
cess in his sacred calling. Doctor Buxton at first accepted the 
principalship, but, before he could assume the duties of his new 
post, his parishioners at Asheville offered to establish a school in 
that town if he would remain. This he consented to do, first con- 
sulting the Bishop and securing his approbation of such a 
course. It was at first intended (after Doctor Buxton decided 
to remain in Asheville) to have schools in both Pittsboro and 
Asheville, but the former plan was finally given up. The insti- 
tution at Asheville — Eavenscroft School — was opened in 1856. 
The Reverend Lucian Holmes succeeded Doctor Buxton as its 
head-master, in 1861, and served until the doors of the school 
were closed in 1864. An account of this institution, written by 
Doctor Buxton himself, is given in the volume of centennial 
addresses entitled Church History in North Carolina, published 
in 1892. In that work, Doctor Buxton says: "At the close of 
the Civil War and on the restoration of peace, the Ravenscroft 
Institute was re-organized by Bishop Atkinson solely into a 
theological school — that is, a school where postulants and candi- 
dates only for the holy ministry were received and instructed." 
The Reverend George T. Wilmer was the first principal of 
Ravenscroft School after its re-organization, in 1868, but soon 
resigned to accept a professorship in "William and Mary College. 
He was succeeded by the Reverend Francis J. Murdoch, who 
later gave place to the Reverend D. Hillhouse Buel in the Fall of 
1872. Says Doctor Buxton, in the above-quoted account: "In 
1886 it was decided by the Convention to revive the plan of a 
diocesan school for boys (the proposed one, to be located at Mor- 
ganton, having miscarried) and to fit up and use for that pur- 
pose the Ravenscroft building. The erection of a separate build- 

BisHors OF N^oRTir Carolina. 157 

iug, for the training school for the iniiiistry, was postponed to a 
future day." After the above institution became a high school 
for boys, its head-masters were successively Messrs. Henry A. 
Prince, Haywood Pai'kor, and Ronald McDonald. The gentle- 
man last named undertook (with the approval of ihe Diocesan 
Convention) to run the school as a private educational enter- 
prise; but, not meeting with patronage sufficient to justify its 
continuance, he finally gave up the undertaking. In 1887, Mr. 
John H. Shoenberger, of JSTew York (formerly of Pennsylva- 
nia), gave the school a building costing over eight thousand dol- 
lars. Ravenscrof t School is not in operation at present ; but, as 
its grounds and buildings are still owned by the Church, it may 
be revived at some future day. It- is not now in the Diocese of 
I'^orth Carolina, but in the Missionary Jurisdiction of Asheville. 
In the period preceding the War Between the States, Bishop 
Atkinson had faithfully carried out the policy of his Church in 
extending spiritual enlightenment among the negroes ; and, like 
his predecessors, had the hearty co-operation of the most exten- 
sive slave-holders of his Diocese in this good work. In his 
address to the Diocesan Convention of 1854, speaking of the 
plantation of Henry K. Burgwyn, on the Roanoke River, he 
said: "At a little chapel on his estate, after evening prayer, I 
preached to his sla^'cs, who attended very numerously and with 
a gratifying appearance of interest and devotion. The Rev. Mr. 
Fitz Gerald, who lives at Mr. Burgwyn's, gives much of his time 
and labor to this important and often neglected part of our 
population; and, with the efficient aid he receives from Mr. 
Morell, now a candidate for Orders, who resides as a tutor in the 
family, and from the excellent mistress of the household, the 
good work seems to make gratifying progress." That Mr. 
Josiah Collins faithfully kept up the religious work on liis 
plantation, heretofore alluded to, appears in the same journal. 
After speaking of the incessant labors of Mr. Collins in person- 
ally instructing his negroes, the Bishop says: "Such cares and 
labors for their souls' good, accomplished, as in his case, by cor- 

158 Bishops of North Carolina. 

respondent solicit ude for their temporal welfare, seems to me 
the best answer to those who revile the entire population of the 
South, and who know so well how to do that which Burke felt to 
be so far beyond his powers — to draw up an indictment against 
a whole people. Perhaps the philanthropy, which thus rails and 
is puffed up, may be less precious in the sight of God than that 
obscure benevolence which only works and makes sacrifices," 
To the Diocesan Convention of 1856, Bishop Atkinson reported : 
"I appointed Mr. William Murphy some months ago to officiate 
here [at Wilson,] together with Rocky Mount, taking charge at 
the same time of the religious instruction of the slaves of Mr. 
Turner Battle and his sisters. He has recently, Avith my con- 
sent, agreed to serve also once a month, a new congregation at 
Marlborough, in Pitt County. ... I preached in Rocky 
Mount in the afternoon, and administered the Communion ; and, 
in the evening, preached to the slaves of Mr. Battle and his sis- 
ters. As an encouraging indication of increasing interest in the 
religious instruction of slaves, I will mention that two ministers, 
in this quarter of the Diocese, have, in the last few months, been 
employed by masiers to aid them in this part of their duty — Mr. 
Murphy by the Battle family, and Mr. Gallagher by Mr. T. P. 
Devereux. Witli Mr. Devereux, indeed, the subject has long 
been one of deep interest and practical effort." The Devereux 
family, of Avhich the above-mentioned Thomas Pollock Devereux 
was head, owned eight large plantations and about sixteen hun- 
dred negroes. An interesting account of the workings of these 
vast estates has been preserved in a volume (published in 1906) 
entitled Plantation Sketches, by Mrs. Margaret Devereux, of 
Raleigh. Even while the War Between the States was at its 
height, the religious instruction of the negroes was not neg- 
lected. In one of his addresses the Bishop speaks of a visitation 
to Christ Church in Raleigh, where, on the night of May 11, 
1862, he "preached to a crowded and very attentive congrega- 
tion of colored people." Later in the war-time, October 13, 1863, 
the Bishop made a brief stay at the plantation of Mr. Peter W. 

Bishops of Nokth Carolina. 1;">0 

Htiirston, in Davie County, and says of this visil : ''I preached 
tw'ice to a large body of his slaves, some of his family and a few 
of his neighboi's being present, and administered the Holy Com- 
munion. The care bestowed by Mr. and Mrs. Hairston on the 
religious instruction of their slaves is much to be commended." 
The Mr. Hairston, here mentioned, OAvned about two thousand 
slaves — few men in the entire South having so great a number. 
The first meeting of the Diocesan Convention of North Caro- 
lina, after the beginning of the war, was to have been held at 
New Bern; but, as hostilities had opened in that neighborhood, 
and many male members of the local congregation Avere already 
absent in the military service of the Confederacy, Bishop Atkin- 
son changed the place of meeting to Morganton, and it accord- 
ingly assembled in the latter town, July 10th-12th, 1861. In his 
annual address, the Bishop discussed at some length the political 
situation, averring that the secession of the Southern States did 
not, in itself, work a dissolution of the relations existing between 
the dioceses forming the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States. Should the dioceses in the seceded States form a 
union, however (as they later did), he intimated that the Dio- 
cese of North Carolina should join with them, and thus separate 
from the Church in the northern dioceses. Concerning some 
alterations he had authorized in forms of worship, he said that 
he had added a prayer for the people of the Confederate States 
and the soldiers gone forth to war, as well as substituting prayers 
for the civil rulers of the Confederacy, its Congress, etc., in the 
place of such civil officers of the United States, as the latter had 
ceased to hold authority over the territory in which the Diocese 
of North Carolina Avas situated. He also said: "The State is 
always entitled to our prayers and obedience unless she under- 
took to set aside the law of Christ, in which case Ave must obey 
God rather than man. But the State has a right to frame her 
own government, and the Church in that State must sustain and 
respect that government. If, then, we individually censured the 
acts by Avhich North Carolina seceded from the American Union 

160 Bishops of North Carolina. 

and established a government for herself, and afterwards adopted 
the government of the Confederate States, still, as a Church, we 
must have acknowledged, prayed for, and obeyed that govern- 
ment; for, as to us, its officers are 'the powers that be,' whom 
St. Paul bids us obey. Happily, however, for our peace of mind, 
we have had no perplexing questions of the sort to settle. By the 
time the State acted, her citizens had become nearly unanimous 
in the conviction that she must adopt the course which she has 
pursued. The duty of the Church, in this Diocese, to the State, 
is, then, clear." 

As early as July 3, 1861 (a few days before the North Caro- 
lina Diocesan Convention met at Morganton) a meeting of rep- 
resentatives of the Southern dioceses had been held at Mont- 
gomery, Alabama, being attended by Bishops Davis of South 
Carolina, Elliott of Georgia, Green of Mississippi, and Rutledge 
of Florida, together with some clerical and lay delegates. This 
meeting was held in pursuance of a call contained in a circular 
letter sent to the Southern Bishops from Sewanee, Tennessee, by 
Bishops Polk and Elliott in the Spring of 1861. To this call, 
Bishop Atkinson did not respond. Polk himself, having reluc- 
tantly laid aside his crosier and taken up the sword, was absent 
in the field. Of the other Southern Bishops, Cobbs of Alabama 
had recently died, Meade of Virginia was infirm from age, Otey 
of Tennessee was ill, and Gregg of Texas was unable to get 
through the Federal blockade. This meeting at Montgomery 
was more of a conference than a convention — the Bishops and 
the delegates, both clerical and iay, all sitting together. The 
conference agreed that it was necessary for the Church in the 
Confederate States to organize; and also resolved that a com- 
mittee (consisting of Bishops and both classes of delegates) 
should prepare a constitution to be submitted to the various 
Southern dioceses. Then the meeting adjourned to re-assemble 
at Columbia, South Carolina, October 16th-25th, 1861. At 
this Columbia meeting all the Southern Bishops were present 
except General Polk. The constitution which the committee 

Bishops of J^^ortu Carolina. 161 

had drawn up bj order of the meeting at Montgomery, and 
which had been submitted to each Southern diocese for ratifi- 
cation, was found to have been formally adopted by the Dioceses 
of Virginia, N'orth Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, 
Mississippi, and Texas — while Tennessee, Louisiana, Florida, 
and the Missionary Jurisdiction of the South-west had been 
prevented, owing to military occupation by United States troops, 
from holding conventions to consider the same. Under these 
circumstances, the Right Reverend Stephen Elliott, of Georgia, 
Presiding Bishop, officially declared that "The Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the Confederate States of America" was duly 
organized, aud issued a call for "The First General Council" of 
the same, to assemble in the city of Augusta, Georgia, ISTovem- 
ber 12, 1862. It met at the appointed time and place — remain- 
ing in session till November 22d — the Bishops present being 
Elliott of Georgia, Johns of Virginia, Atkinson of Xorth Caro- 
lina, Davis of South Carolina, Lay of the Missionary Jurisdic- 
tion of the South-west, aud Wilraer of Alabama, the last named 
being the first and only Bishop who was consecrated under the 
authority of the Church in the Confederate States. 

In the Book of Common Prayer of the newly organized 
Church, few changes were made. The words "Confederate 
States" Avere substituted for "United States" in the prayers for 
those in authority. Under the new constitution of the Church, 
the diocesan assemblies, both State and jSTational, were to be 
called "Councils" instead of Conventions. Up to and including 
the year 1862, the meetings of the clergy and laity in Xorth 
Carolina were called Conventions, as formerly. In 1863, 1864, 
and 1865, such meetings were officially designated as Councils; 
and, thereafter, they were again called Conventions. We may 
add that, in the Diocese of East Carolina, the governing body, 
from its organization, in 1883, up to the present time, has been 
called the Diocesan Council, and this is also true of many other 
dioceses throughout the United States. 

162 Bishops of North Carolina. 

The constitution of the Church in the Confederate States 
also provided that whenever a single State should contain 
more than one diocese, these dioceses might he erected into 
an Ecclesiastical Province, the governing hody of which 
should be a Provincial Council, meeting at least once every 
three years. Tins Provincial Council was to he made up 
of all the Bisliops in the State, and such representatives 
(clerical and lay) from the several dioceses, as might be deter- 
mined by the Diocesan Councils or Conventions. The senior 
Bishop, in line of consecration, should preside; and, if there 
were as many as three Bishops, they were to form a separate 
House. This "Provincial System" is now authorized by the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, and it seems 
a pity that T^orth Carolina had not adopted it, for the broad 
expanse of territory in that State has necessitated the erection 
of three separate and distinct dioceses. Could all three of these 
occasionally meet in joint council, it would bring together 
Churchmen from every quarter of the State which is the com- 
mon mother of all, and renew the happy associations which the 
necessities of Church government have heretofore severed — 
aside from giving a better idea of the full strength of the Church 
throughout the State of ]N^orth Carolina. 

In the Confederate Book of Common Prayer, printed in Lon- 
don, there Avas a curious oversight, as mentioned in the Reverend 
John Fulton's monograph in Bishop Perry's History of the 
American Episcopal Church. In the forms of prayer to be used 
at sea, the words "Confederate States" were, through inadver- 
tence, not substituted for "United States"; and hence, on the 
Confederate cruisers, if this form of worship were used, the 
ship's officers and crew must pray "that we may be a safe-guard 
unto the United States of America, and a security for such as 
pass on the seas upon their lawful occasions !" 

Prior to the war, Arkansas had been part of the Missionary 
Jurisdiction of the South-west, with the Right Reverend Henry 
Charnplin Lay as Missionary Bishop. The General Convention 

Bishops of North Cauolina. 163 

(or Council) of the Coufederale States, at its session iu Augusta, 
erected Arkansas into a separate diocese, and Doctor Lay there- 
upon took his seat in the House of Bishops as Bishop of Arkan- 
sas. Of the later fate of the Diocese of Arkansas, further men- 
tion will be made in the present work. 

In the course of his address to the House of Deputies iu the 
General Council at Augusta, its president, the Reverend Chris- 
tian Hanckel, D. D., of South Carolina, said: "We are about, 
not to detach ourselves from the Church Catholic, but to put 
forth a new bud from the parent stock ; indeed, by our proceed- 
ings thus far, we have already developed the elements of a full, 
perfect, and complete branch, which, I trust, may grov/ and 
spread till it covers the whole land, and reach, and bless by its 
precious influence, the remotest par! of our Confederate States." 

In the beginning of the war, after I^orth Carolina had se- 
ceded, but before the Diocese had by its own act withdrawn from 
the union with the northern dioceses, Bishop xitkinson incurred 
some adverse criticism in the South by officially giving his con- 
sent for the consecration, in a jSTorthern State (Pennsylvania) of 
an Assistant Bishop, the Reverend William Bacon Stevens. 
Holding that the Church and the civil government were separate 
and distinct institutions. Bishop Atkinson's contention was that 
as the Diocese of North Carolina had not, up to that time, with- 
drawn from the union of dioceses in the United States, he was 
still a Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in its old 
form ; and, as such, bound by the canon law to give his assent to, 
or dissent from, such consecration. For reasons somoAvhat simi- 
lar, he refused to join in the consecration of the Reverend Rich- 
ard Hooker Wilnier as Bishop of Alabama (March 6, 1862), 
counseling delay in the latter ceremony until a diocesan union 
could be perfected and a Church of national proportions duly 
organized within the Confederacy. Alluding to this refusal on 
his part, Bishop Atkinson addressed the Diocesan Convention of 
1862 in these words : "It was . . . painful for me to decline 
to take part in the consecration of Bishop Wilmer. The choice 

164 Bishops of TTorth Carolina. 

made by the Diocese of Alabama I believed wise and judicious ; 
and it would on personal grounds, moreover, have been very- 
gratifying to unite in the hallowed ceremonial by which the 
brother thus chosen was set apart for his new and trying duties. 
But our existing canons, providing for the consecration of a 
Bishop, could not well, if at all, have been carried out in the 
present state of the Church and the country, nor was this at- 
tempted; and our new code had not then been, and still has not 
been, ratified. I thought it right to wait until these last were 
adopted. In this I differed from some living Bishops of great 
intelligence and of unquestionable zeal for the Gospel and the 
Church, and from one, since dead, whose character I especially 
revered and by whose judgment I have been for many years 
greatly influenced — the late Bishop Meade. Since it was thought 
necessary that a Bishop should be immediately consecrated for 
Alabama, we may well rejoice that the man set apart for the 
work should be one so well qualified to perform it to the glory of 
God and the edification of His Church." 

Bishop Atkinson's worst enemy — if enemies he had — could not 
question his loyalty to the Confederate government, or his in- 
terest in the spiritual welfare of its soldiery. Time and again 
did he hold services for the Il^orth Carolina troops both in Vir- 
ginia and at home. Speaking of the year 1861, he says: ''The 
month of August I spent in Virginia, preaching to the soldiers 
in various camps, and also to congregations in several Churches 
in Eichmond. At Yorktown, August 6th, I buried a soldier 
from North Carolina." The Bishop also devoted some of his 
time to religious work among soldiers in the large garrison at 
Fort Fisher, not many miles from his home in Wilmington. 

During the course of the war, at least two iN'orth Carolina 
candidates for holy orders — Eobert Walker Anderson and 
James T. Cooke — were killed in battle. Among the Episcopa- 
lian chaplains holding commissions in the various regiments of 
ISTorth Carolina troops were the Eeverend Alfred A. Watson (in 
later years Bishop of East Carolina), of the Second Eegiment; 

Bishops of North Carolina. 165 

the Reverend Frederick Fitz Gerald, also of the Second Regi- 
ment (succeeding Mr. Watson) ; the Reverend Maurice Hamil- 
ton Vaughan, and the Reverend George Patterson, both succes- 
sively of the Third Regiment— Mr. Vaughan having been trans- 
ferred thereto from the Seventeenth; the Reverend Bennett 
Smedes, of the Fifth Regiment ; the Reverend Matthias M. Mar- 
shall, of the Seventh Regiment, and later Chaplain of Hospitals 
at Kittrell; the Reverend Aristides S. Smith, of the Eleventh 
Regiment; the Reverend Mr. Vaughan (already mentioned), 
and the Reverend Girard W. Phelps, of the Seventeenth Regi- 
ment ; the Reverend Joseph W. Murphy, of the Forty-third, and 
later of the Thirty-second Regiment ; the Reverend John Huske 
Tillinghast,of the Forty-fourth Regiment ; the Reverend Thomas 
B. Haughton,of the Fiftieth Regiment ; and the Reverend Ed^s-in 
Geer and the Reverend Francis W. Hilliard, Post Chaplains at 
Wilmington. Others there were— such as the courageous Colonel 
Edwin A. Osborne, of the Fourth North Carolina, afterwards 
Archdeacon of the Convocation of Charlotte— who entered the 
ministry after the close of hostilities. Another brave soldier of 
the same class was Major James A. Weston, of the Thirty-third 
Regiment, who was Rector of the Church of the AscensioTi at 
Hickory, North Carolina, when he died, on December 13, 1905. 
In 1880 about half a dozen ex-Confederate officers were Bishops 
in the Church throughout the United States. In Bishop Atkin- 
son's address in 1864, he refers to one of the above army chap- 
lains as follows: "I have also had the pleasure of receiving 
again into the Diocese the Rev. Bennett Smedes, who, although 
happily situated in Baltimore, felt it his duty to endure peril 
and privation in returning to his parents and his native State to 
render service to those to whom he felt most bounden. The 
Bishop of Maryland declining to give him Letters Dimissory 
for this purpose, I received him without them. He first became 
a Chaplain in the Army; but, his health failing him in a mode 
of life to which he was unaccustomed, he has since become the 
Assistant of his father, the Rev. Aldert Smedes, in charge of 

166 Bishops of jSTorth Caeolina. 

St. Mary's School, Raleigli, tlie onerous duties of which were 
pressing too heavily on the latter." Including the Reverend 
Bennett Smedes, just mentioned (himself at one time a prisoner, 
having been captured while coming South), Doctor Aldert 
Smedes had four sons in the Confederate Army, and two were 
killed in battle. 

It must not be inferred that all the courage and devotion 
displayed by the clergy during the war were confined to 
camp and field; for more unflinching bravery is hard to find 
than that which stands unappalled before the pestilence that 
walketh in darkness and the destruction that wasteth at noonday. 
Yellow fever, with all its attendant horrors, in 1862, visited the 
seaport city of Wilmington, where had long been stationed the 
Reverend Robert Brent Drane, D. D., Rector of the parish of 
Saint James. In recording Doctor Draue's devotion unto death, 
amid that terrible epidemic, we cannot do better than quote the 
account given the Diocesan Convention of 1863 by Bishop Atkin- 
son, in these words: "Remarkable as Dr. Drane had ever been 
for his attention to his flock, he became doubly assiduous in that 
distressing time, and especially, as I have reason to know, to the 
poor and friendless, carrying with his own hand, day by day, 
the nourishment and the little comforts which they needed and 
which he had it in his power to supply. In the midst of this 
career of ministerial fidelity and Christian charity, he was him- 
self stricken down ; and, after a few days' illness, borne with his 
usual fortitude and faith, he died. Wilmington has had many 
citizens v/ho are honored and respected, and some of the chief of 
these she lost in that season of pestilence, but none of the living 
and none of the dead could have been removed with deeper and 
more universal grief than followed the death of Dr. Drane. He 
had been the Rector of St. James's Church, with but a short 
intermission, for eight and twenty years — living among a people 
many of whom he had baptized, not a few of whom he had mar- 
ried, many of whom he had comforted in sickness and trouble, 
and all of whom he had instructed in the Christian faith ably 

Bishops of North Carolina. 167 

and successfully. Dislinguishod, too, as he was, lor his powers 
as a preacher, the soundness of his judgment, his unwearied dili- 
gence as a pastor, and his consistency to principle, his loss will 
be felt for years in his congregation and coninninity. jSTo suc- 
cessor, whatever his qualities may be, can adequately fill his 
place at once; for fonfidence, such as was felt towards him, is a 
plant of slow growth. In this body, we shall be very sensible of 
the loss of his counsels and his labors." A worthy son and name- 
sake of Doctor Drane is at present Rector of Saint Paul's 
Church, an old colonial house of worship, in Edenton, North 
Carolina, "where (excepting a year's service in Wilmington as 
deacon) he has been stationed during his entire ministerial life. 
Bishop Atkinson himself was Rector of the parish of Saint 
James for a short while after the elder Doctor Drane died, and 
was succeeded by the Reverend Alfred A. Watson. 

During the same year that the elder Doctor Drane died in 
Wilmington, a faithful deacon of the Church, laboring in an 
entirely different sphere, passed away. His life was spent 
among the mountains of N^orth Carolina, near the temporarily 
abandoned mission of Vallo Crusis. This was the Reverend Wil- 
liam West Skiles. Of him the Bishop said : "He was a true mis- 
sionary : humble, patient, laborious, and affectionate — not de- 
spising the day of small things, and still less despising any 
human soul, however rude, and ig-norant, and sin-stained that 
soul might be. Long will the dwellers in the valleys and forests 
of that wild mountain region miss their faithful pastor, who was 
at the same time their physician, their counsellor, and their 
familiar friend." In 1890 there was published a little volume 
entitled William West Skiles, a Sketch of Missionary Life at 
Valle Crusis, by Susan Fenimore Cooper. 

Another death among the clergy, recorded with sorrow by the 
Bishop about the time that the Reverend Messrs. Drane and 
Skiles passed away, was that of the Reverend George Benton, 
formerly a missionary to Greece, who spent the last seventeen 

168 Bishops of jSTorth Carolina. 

'years of his life in faithful lahors among the people of ^sTorth 
Carolina, chiefly at Eockfish, in Cumberland County. One of his 
sons (born in Crete), the Reverend Angelo Ames Benton, D. D., 
was for some years a clergyman in the Diocese of North Caro- 
lina and a theological writer of note, his chief work being The 
Church Cyclopaedia. The latter gentleman also attained dis- 
tinction as an educator, being Professor of Latin and Greek in 
Delaware College for a while, and afterwards Professor of Dog- 
matic Theology in the University of the South, at Sewanee, Ten- 

The whole course of the war was a sore and continued trial, 
not only to the country in general, but to the Church as well. 
A note of sorrow, yet not of despair, is found in the Bishop's 
address of 1862. "We are met together," he said, "to take coun- 
sel for the Church on a dark and anxious day, both for the 
Church and the country. The invading enemy has taken pos- 
session of a considerable part of this State, as well as of others 
of the Southern Confederacy, and is seeking to over-run and 
possess the whole. In this we suffer, not only as patriots, but as 
Churchmen. The blood of our brethren of the household of 
faith has been shed on the field of battle. Our congregations 
have been dispersed, our ministers driven from their Churches, 
public worship suspended, and the slender maintenance of the 
clergy diminished or taken away. It is a sore and grievous 
trial, necessary, we must suppose, because it comes in the provi- 
dence of God, but hard to bear without despondency, without 
secret murmurings against that providence, and without bitter 
and malignant feelings against the men who have brought these 
calamities upon us. May we, by His grace, learn thus to bear it 
and to inherit the blessing promised to those who suffer as Chris- 

During the war the Church lost by sickness many old and 
honored members — Frederick J. Hill, M. D., Edward Lee Wins- 
low (Secretary of the Diocese), Josiah Collins, and others — 
while countless numbers of her younger sons were slain fighting 

Bisuors OF iSToKTii Carolina. 169 

the battles of the Confederacy. I^or did laymen alone take up 
the sword, for one great Bishop, Lconidas Polk of Louisiana, a 
native Xorth Carolinian of heroic Revolutionary lineage, yielded 
to the pressure of the times and reluctantly laid aside pastoral 
staff to accept the command of an army corps raised to fight 
the invaders — later being killed at Pine Mountain. Several 
other Southern Bishops passed away more peacefully during the 
progress of hostilities — Cobbs of Alabama, Meade of Virginia, 
and Otey of Tennessee, all being taken at a time when their wise 
counsels were sorely needed. 

In Xorth Carolina much damage was done to Church prop- 
erty, nor were the clergymen themselves exempt from personal 
indignities. The Reverend William R. Wetmore was ejected from 
Christ Church in N'ew Bern, and a Chaplain from the Federal 
Army placed in his pulpit. Grace Church in Plymouth was 
three times struck by shells and badly damaged during a bomb- 
ardment. Saint Peter's Church in Washington, Beaufort 
County, was burned; while Saint James's Church in Wilming- 
ton, and other houses of worship throughout the State, were 
taken possession of for Federal hospitals. 

Toward the close of the war, Bishop Atkinson's family had 
been removed by him to Wadesboro, in Anson County, as it was 
thought to be a safer neighborhood than the vicinity of Wil- 
mington. Upon the advance of some of Sherman's marauders 
toward that village, the Bishop — being a non-combatant — de- 
cided to remain, thinking his age and sacred office would be 
some protection. In this he was mistaken, however; for one of 
the soldiers held a pistol at his head, while the others robbed his 
home of such possessions as could be carried away. Alluding to 
this matter later, the Bishop said : "While I do not affect to be 
indifferent, either to the outrage or to the loss I have sustained, 
T felt at the time, and still feel, that it is a weighty counter- 
balancing consideration that, partaking of the evils which the 
people of my charge have been called upon to undergo, I could 
more truly and deeply sympathize with them in their suffer- 

170 Bishops of jSTorth Carolina. 

Xever was there greater need for the people to pray for de- 
liverance from plague, pestilence, and famine; from battle and 
murder, and from sudden death, than at the time when the 
War Between the States was in progress — ^yet even then the 
energies of the Church were by no means paralyzed. Houses of 
worship were dedicated, the clergymen pursued their labors 
without murmuring at privations which were the common lot of 
all, and the Bishop went on his visitations to the congregations 
throughout the Diocese. In passing through Scotland ISTeck, in 
Halifax County, where the principal crop could not be marketed 
on account of the war. Bishop x\tkinson asked whether the con- 
gregation of Trinity Church, in view of their reverses, would be 
able to raise the usual contributions to missions and the amount 
necessary for the support of the parish, and received the answer 
that their contributions to the Church would be increased, be- 
cause there was greater need for them. One lady of that parish, 
Mrs. Martha Clark, hearing that the Church's educational inter- 
ests were suffering for lack of funds, sent two thousand dollars 
to the Bishop to aid the work. Josiah Collins gave a thousand 
dollars to finish the Church in Plymouth. The debt on Saint 
Peter's Church in Charlotte had borne heavily on the congrega- 
tion of that parish, and it was feared that it would be several 
years, at least, before it could be discharged, when one member. 
Captain John Wilkes, paid off the entire encumbrance and thus 
enabled the Bishop to proceed with its consecration. Tliese and 
hundreds of other contributions, smaller in amount, but large 
in proportion to the means of the givers, were received by the 
Church during the terrible ordeal of war through which she was 
passing, and enabled her to retain life until the coming of belter 

Peace came to the land at last, and with it came many perplex- 
ing problems and responsibilities — problems requiring ecclesias- 
tical wisdom and Christian forbearance, coupled with that self- 
respect which compels respect from others. If re-union could be 
arranged with the dioceses throughout the United States on 

Bishops of ]SroRTii Cakolina. 171 

terms honorable to botli sides, the Southern Church was ready 
to rejoin the Northern dioceses ; on the other hand, if the North 
had waited for the Southern dioceses to come back as prodigals, 
it v.ould still bo waiting — and it is greatly to the honor of both 
sections that the American Church is now undivided. Nor was 
the Southern Church in any Avay at the mercy of outsiders, as 
the American Church had been at the close of the Revolution, 
for it had a valid Episcopate within its own borders. It was not 
altogether unlike the Church of England at the time of the 
Reformation — many of the same Bishops being in office both 
before and after the change took place, and able to transmit 
their powers to successors in the Episcopate. This was the 
status of affairs at the close of the War betv»'een the States. 

As to the war which had just closed. Southern Churchmen, as 
a class, had more cause to be embittered than was the case with 
members of religious denominations which Jiad no liturgy con- 
taining a prayer for the President of the Confederate States. 
When Portsmouth, Virginia, was occupied by United States 
forces under General Be7ijamin F. Butler, the Reverend John 
H. D. Wingiield, afterAvards Bishop of Northern California, was 
sent to the chain-gang, and there clad in the garb of a convict, 
because he would not pray for the President of the United 
States when ordered to do so by the military authorities. At a 
somewhat earlier date, Butler's "exploits as an ecclesiastical dis- 
ciplinarian" had also been performed in New Orleans, when 
(among other acts in keeping with his character) he caused the 
Rectors of three Churches in that city to be arrested and sent 
North for likewise neglecting this prayer for the President of 
the United States. In North Carolina, the Reverend Cyrus 
Waters was imprisoned by some subaltern authorities in the 
United States Army during the war, "not on the ground that he 
had committed any offense, but to deter others from offending." 
Upon hearing of this case, the post commander at New Bern, 
General Palmer, ordered his release, but the cold contracted in 
prison soon developed info consumption, and Mr. Waters died 

172 Bishops of North Carolina. 

from its effects, two years after the return of peace, in his native 
State of Maryland. In Alabama, just after the war, when 
Bishop Wilmer would not obey orders which warned him not to 
omit the prayer for the President, every house of worship in his 
Diocese was closed and guarded, by direction of General George 
H. Thomas, who issued an order that "the said Richard Hooker 
"Wilmer, Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the Dio- 
cese of Alabama, and the Protestant Episcopal clergy of the 
said Diocese, be, and they are, hereby suspended from their 
functions, and forbidden to preach or perform divine service." 
Considering its source, this is probably the most remarkable de- 
cree of its kind ever framed in America — a sentence of deposi- 
tion passed upon a Bishop of the Church and all of his clergy 
by an officer of the United States Army ! This absurd order was 
later set aside by the authorities in Washington ; and, when left 
undisturbed by military interposition, Bishop Wilmer volun- 
tarily resumed the use of the prayer which he had declined to 
have forced down his throat by military power. During this 
controversy, one weak-kneed clergyman in Alabama offered to 
use this prayer "under protest" if his church were allowed to 
remain open. Well might Bishop Wilmer ask (as he did) how 
much the President would be benefited by "prayers offered under 
protest." The recollection of these, and other wrongs which 
they had suffered, was not calculated to put Churchmen at the 
South in a very amiable frame of mind at the close of the war, 
yet they remembered that the injuries done their Church and 
clergy had come from military sources and not through any 
decrees by councils of the Church in the Northern States. For- 
tunately for the cause of Church re-union after the war, many 
warm friendships, formed between the various Bishops from 
both sections in ante-helium days, still existed. Only one Gen- 
eral Convention in the North had been held during the war 
(New York, October lst-17th, 1862), and, in that body, the roll- 
call of the House of Deputies had begun, as of old, with "Ala- 
bama," first on the alphabetical list. So far as the Journals of 

Bishops of JSTokth Carolina. 173 

the two Houses showed, one might almost suppose that the 
Southern Bishops and depuiies had been delayed by late trains 
or some other commonplace cause, and were hourly expected to 
appear and take their seats. The first General Convention, after 
the war, met in Saint Andrew's Church, Philadelphia, October 
4th-24th, 1865. Prior to its assembling, the Right Reverend 
John Henry Hopkins, of Vermont, Presiding Bishop (with the 
approbation of his Northern colleagues) had addressed a letter 
to the Southern Bishops, urging them to come and resume their 
places, and to see that their dioceses were represented in the 
House of Deputies. The North Carolina Diocesan Convention 
passed a resolution favoring this re-union if it could be obtained 
upon honorable tei*ms. In response to Bishop Hopkins's invita- 
tion, Bishop Atkinson and Bishop Lay proceeded to Philadel- 
phia, their chief purpose being to confer informally with the 
members of the Convention and ascertain whether objectionable 
conditions would be imposed upon the South as pre-requisites to 
re-union. The two Southerners took their seats in the body of 
the Church at the opening of the Convention; and, when their 
presence was observed they were immediately invited to join the 
other Bishops within the chancel — but this invitation they felt it 
proper to decline. After the services, they were warmly greeted 
by many of their brother Bishops, who assured them of con- 
siderate treatment and a friendly reception, and prevailed upon 
them to take their seats. On questions involved in the action of 
the Church in the Confederacy, Bishops Atkinson and Lay 
asked to be excused from voting, being determined to let the 
responsibility rest with those who represented the Church in the 
North. After reviewing the case of Bishop Wilmer, the House 
of Bishops held that his consecration was valid, though some- 
what irregular in preliminaries (such as not obtaining consent 
of the required number of Bishops throughout the United 
States), and decided that he should be admitted to a seat in the 
House of Bishops after subscribing the usual declaration. 
Bishop Lay's own case might have raised a perplexing question. 

174 Bishops of North Carolina. 

but for liis own sensible action. Before tbe war, he bad been 
Missionary Bishop of the South-\vest, which Jurisdiction in- 
cluded Arkansas. Under the authority of the Confederate Church, 
xirkansas had been severed from that part of the Missionary 
Jurisdiction not embraced within the Southern Confederacy, 
and erected into a separate Diocese Avith Doctor Lay as Dio- 
cesan Bishop. Yet, on the rolls of the Church in the United 
States, he was still recorded as Missionary Bishop of the South- 
west. The General Convention stood ready to recognize Arkan- 
sas as a Diocese, but Bishop Lay stated, in effect, that this 
newly created diocese had been swept away by the war — that 
two priests, without parishes and laboring in secular callings 
for a livelihood, were all that remained of his clergy, while no 
lay delegates could be gathered together ; hence it was impossible 
for even the semblance of a diocesan convention to assemble 
in Arkansas to consider the situation. Under these circum- 
stances, he thought the only course open was for the State of 
Arkansas to be made a Missionary Jurisdiction. This action, 
he declared, would be no reflection upon the Church in the late 
Confederacy, since the General Convention had expressed its 
willingness to recognize him as Diocesan Bishop of Arkansas. 
He was accordingly made Missionary Bishop of Arkansas ; and, 
some years later, became Bishop of the Diocese of Easton, 
which is that part of the State of Maryland east of Chesapeake 
Bay. One of Bishop Lay's sons, the Keverend George W. Lay, 
is now a clergyman in the Diocese of North Carolina, being 
Rector of Saint Mary's School at Raleigh. 

This General Convention of 1865, at Philadelphia, however, 
was not an uninterrupted love-feast. Several resolutions vv^ere 
offered which came perilously near causing a permanent division 
of the Church. Of these matters, and Bishop Atkinson's action 
thereon, we find a full account in the History of the American 
Episcopal Church, by the Reverend Samuel D. McConnell,D.D. 
That writer says : 

BiSJIOl'S OK XoUTU C' ll't 

"The harmony caiiio near heiui; lU'stniyinl by an u.;fxi>e<.-lwl n:eaiis. 
The ITonso of P.ishoi)s proiiosed a tlianksjcivniK service for 'the resto- 
ration of peace and the re-estahlishnient of tlie National (Joverniuent 
over the whole land.' The Bisliop of North Carolina iirotested that 
his people could not say that. They acquiesced in the result of the 
war. and would aceouimodate themselves to it like good citizens ; but 
they were not thankful. They had prayed that the issue might have 
been different. They were ready to 'returu thanks for peace to the 
country, and unity to the Church.' but that was a different matter. 
Bisliop Stevens of Pennsylvania moved to substitute the Southern 
man's words for the ones in the resolution offered. His motion was 
carried by sixteen to seven. When the amended resolution was offered 
in the House of Deputies. Horace P.umey of Pennsylvania moved to 
restore the original phrase giving thanks 'for the re-establishment of 
the National Government over the whole land.' and to add to it 'and 
for the removal of the gi-eat occasion of national dissension and 
estrangement to which our late troubles were due' (referring to 
slavery K A storm of discussion at once arose, both within and without 
the Convention. The secular jn-ess of the country took up the matter; 
declared that the loyalty of the Church itself was upon trial ; that it 
dare not refuse to pass Mr. lUnney's patriotic resolution : that too much 
tenderness had already been shown to 'unreconstructed rebels.' Dr. Ker- 
foot, President of Trinity College, came to the re.scue. He had been, 
all through the war. a Union man in a place where his loyalty had 
cost him something. His college [Saint James] in Maryland had been 
well-nigh destroyed. He had tended the wounded at Antietam and 
South Mountain, battles fought at his very door. He had been seized 
a prisoner by General Early's order. His goods had been destroyed 
by the Confederate soldiei-y. He. if any one, had the right to speak. 
His own loyalty was beyond all question. He begged the Convention 
to remember that it had itself invited and urged the Southern dele- 
gates to come ; that the place to celebrate the triumph of Northern 
arms was outside of the Church ; that not only the present but the 
future peace of the Church was at stake ; that if the Church should 
be led by its passions now. future unity would be impossible ; that 
'their thanksgiving for unity and peace should ascend to the throne 
of God in such a form that all could honestly join in it.' His wise 
and earnest argument prevailed. By a vote of twenty dioceses to six, 
Mr. Binney's amendment was defeated, and the House of Bishops' 
more generous terms were carried. This action settled the question 
of reunion. The Southern Church met once more in Augusta^ closed 
out its affairs decently, and was no more." 

In reporting his attendance upon the General Convention 
of 1865 to his Diocesan Convention of 1866 Bishop Atkinson 
said that he learned (while in Philadelphia) that if no South- 

176 Bishops of ISTorth Cakolina. 

ern Bishops and deputies had there presented themselves, there 
would either have been no re-union of the Church, or it would 
have been accomplished upon terms altogether distasteful, and 
not very creditable to the South. Of the final outcome of the 
deliberations at Philadelphia, he said: "This most auspicious 
result must, under God, be ascribed mainly to the truly Chris- 
tian and magnanimous spirit displayed by the great body of the 
Bishops and other Delegates from the l^orthern Dioceses who 
attended that Convention. All of them had to expose them- 
selves to prejudice, and some of them to the danger of actual 
privation and penury for venturing to do their duty in that 
crisis of the history of the Church. But none of these things 
moved them, and they went forward and acted as became 
Bishops and ministers and members of the Church of God, 
who must give an account to Him for what they did ; and, under 
His blessing, the result has been that none, so far as I have 
heard, has suffered. And the character and position of the 
Church have been immeasurably exalted in the eyes of the 
people." When another triennial General Convention assembled 
(in the year 1868), everj'- Southern Bishop was in his place 
and harmony again prevailed in the national councils of the 

In the House of Clerical and Lay Deputies at the General 
Convention of 1865, ISTorth Carolina was well represented, only 
one lay deputy (Colonel Bobert Strange) failing to attend. 
Those present were the Keverend Doctors Richard S. Mason, 
Joseph Blount Cheshire, Sr., Fordyce M. Hubbard, and William 
Hodges, of the clergy; and Judge William H. Battle, Mr. 
Richard H. Smith, and Doctor Kemp P. Battle, of the laity. 

For the part they had taken in the General Convention of 
1865, Bishops Atkinson and Lay received a letter of congratu- 
lation from General Robert E. Lee, in which that incomparable 
soldier and devout Churchman highly commended the wisdom 
of their course. For many years General Lee and Bishop 
Atkinson were close personal friends. 

Eisiiors OF ^OKTu Carolina. 177 

From February till November, 1865, Bisbop Lay and bis 
fuiuily lived at Lincolnton, JSTortb Carolina; and, wbile tbere, 
be sometimes administered the rite of confirmation in the sur- 
rounding country, at the request of Bisbop Atkinson, in addi- 
tion to performing other offices in connection with the sacred 

During the month of October, 1865, in the lawless and de- 
moralized period immediately succeeding the war, the Church 
lost one of its most zealous and highly esteemed clergymen 
under circumstances peculiarly shocking. The Reverend Rob- 
ert A. Castleman, Rector of Saint Mark's Church in the town 
of Halifax, was then living at Gaston, in Halifax County, and 
went to take tea with one of his friends in the neighboring vil- 
lage of Summit, which was within walking distance of his 
home. Late in the evening he said good-night to his host, and 
was never again seen alive by any of his friends. His family 
becoming alarmed in the morning, a search was instituted, and 
his body was found dead from the effects of a bullet fired at 
such close range that the powder had scorched his clothing. 
Strict investigation failed to reveal the identity of his assassin, 
who, as Bishop Atkinson said, "either bore him a grudge — 
the existence of which he himself did not suspect — or who mis- 
took him for another person." The latter presumption seems 
more likely true, as a contemporaneous newspaper account of 
the tragedy, in speaking of Mr. Castleman, stated that he "was 
universally beloved in his section, had no enemies, and certainly 
no one could have slain him for the purpose of robbery." 

The honorable re-union of the dioceses which had been tempo- 
rarily separated by the war was a source of great joy to Bishop 
Atkinson. Just before the General Convention of 1865, when 
referring to the probable result of permanent separation, he 
declared : "Rival congregations will be established in the same 
town, altar will be set up against altar, and preacher inveigh 
against preacher, until, instead of the Church being as hereto- 
fore, the refuge of those who love peace and prefer religious 

178 BisMOPs OF J^oRTir Carolina. 

instruction and exhortation to political harangues, it will be- 
come a den of controversy and a fomenter of political passion. 
Similar results may be expected, in some degree, at the North, 
especially in the border States and the great cities ; for, in these, 
congregations with Southern sympathies, might well be organ- 
ized. Let us, then, endeavor to forecast the future as well as 
we can, for we are not deciding any ephemeral question. The 
conclusion to which we shall now come is one in which our chil- 
dren and our children's children have a deep interest as well 
as ourselves." In this same address, the Bishop said : ''^During 
the war, language was undoubtedly used by ministers and mem- 
bers of the Church at the I^orth which appeared to us justly 
liable to exception ; but no act has been done by the Church, as 
a body, of which we can complain." Indeed, the Church as a 
body, church societies, and church members, in more favored 
sections of the Union, were neither unmindful nor neglectful of 
the impoverished Southern parishes after the war, and it is a 
pleasure to record here their generosity — especially in view of 
the fact that truth has already impelled us to tell of so many 
wrongs coming from political and military sources. In 1866, 
Bishop Atkinson acknowledged the receipt of twelve hundred 
dollars from, the Committee on Domestic Missions; seven hun- 
dred dollars from Church members in Louisville, Kentucky; 
one hundred and fifty dollars from persons in Maryland; two 
hundred and fifty dollars from the Bureau of Relief; a box of 
clothing, for the destitute, from Cooperstown, ISTew York, and 
another box from the parish of the Reverend James A. Buck, 
in Maryland ; also gifts of many Bibles and Prayer Books from 
the Bishop White Prayer Book Society of Philadelphia, and 
the New York Bible and Prayer Book Society. Besides these 
donations to the Church, Bishop Atkinson mentioned that he 
had personally received many tokens of affection, in the shape 
of gifts, from his former parishioners in Baltimore. In 1867, 
a friend of the Bishop's in Boston (who wished his name with- 
lield) sent a hundred dollars for the relief of destitute persons 

Bishops of North Carolina. 179 

in the Diocese of N^orlli Carolina; a society of ladies in !New 
York sent four hundred dollars; for the relief of the poor of 
Wilmington, irrespective of creed, the sum of eight hundred 
dollars was sent to the Bishop from St. Louis, Missouri; one 
hundred and thirty-five dollars came from the congregation of 
the Reverend Mr. Fuller, in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, through 
Bishop Kerfoot ; and one hundred and seventy-eight dollars 
from the congregation of the Reverend Doctor Earaes at Con- 
cord, IsTew Hampshire. In 1867, reference was made by the 
Bishop to gifts (for diocesan uses) from Grace Church, in 
Baltimore, amounting to three hundred dollars; and two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars came from a North Carolina lady residing 
in the same city; fifty dollars was given by the congi'egarion 
of the Reverend Doctor Doane, in Albany, New York; and 
upwards of five hundred dollars (through Bishop Horatio Pot- 
ter) was donated by an association of gentlemen in the Diocese 
of New York. In 1870, gifts were acknowledged including ten 
shares of railroad stock from John H. Swift, of New York; 
three thousand dollars from the estate of Caleb Dorsey, of How- 
ard County, Maryland; nearly six hundred dollars from the 
congregation of Grace Church in Baltimore for Ravenscroft 
School at Asheville ; and three hundred dollars, by bequest, from 
Miss Charlotte Hicks, of Michigan, who had died in North 
Carolina and from whose estate the Bishop said that about 
twenty-five hundred dollars would later be paid to the Diocese. 
These, and many unrecorded gifts in that time, as well as in 
later years, materially aided the work of the Church, and also 
did much to allay the fire of sectional bitterness; for, though 
a large part of the above amounts were sent by Southerners 
in Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri and other border States, 
the sums of money which came from more northern localities 
were by no means inconsiderable. Nor were these gifts from 
outside confined to the Episcopal Church, for other Chris- 
tian bodies and the poor of all religious beliefs profited by 
similar liberality. That uncompromising old Confederate and 

180 Bishops of I^orth Caeolina. 

Calvinist, General Daniel Harvey Hill, wlien addressing a 
Baltimore audience some years after the war and alluding to 
the generosity formerly displayed by residents of that place 
toward more Southern localities, said: "It was at this time, 
when our whole people were shrouded with a pall of gloom and 
anguish, and absolute starvation was imminent in many places, 
that the generous heart of your city throbbed with one simul- 
taneous pulsation of pity. Then both sexes, all classes and 
conditions, friends and foes alike, forgetting political and sec- 
tional differences, vied with one another in sending relief to the 
afflicted South. In the name of my countrymen, thus rescued 
from despair and death, I invoke the blessings of Almighty God 
upon the heads of their deliverers, whatever be their religious 
creed or political faith; whatever be the skies of their nativity, 
or their opinion of the righteousness or unrighteousness of the 
Southern cause." 

Just prior to the war, the Church Intelligencer, a religious 
newspaper, had been established in Raleigh by the Reverend 
Messrs. Thomas S. W. Mott and Frederick Fitz Gerald, making 
its first appearance on March 14, 1860. Later, upon the ap- 
pointment of Mr. Fitz Gerald as Chaplain in the Confederate 
Army, Mr. Mott conducted the publication alone till the Spring 
of 1864. In the Fall of 1864, it was removed to Charlotte, and 
there editdd by the Reverend Messrs. Fordyce M. Hubbard and 
George M. Everhart, who jointly had charge until April, 1866, 
when Mr. Everhart retired, leaving Doctor Hubbard as sole 
editor. The latter continued it a few years longer and then it 
was forced to suspend. More than ten years later (May 10, 
1879), the Fteverend William S. Bynum began the publication 
of the Church Messenger in Winston-Salem. He edited it some 
months, and, in July, 1880, it was placed under a board of edi- 
tors, consisting of several clergymen; but a few weeks there- 
after (August 24, 1880), the Reverend Charles J. Curtis be- 
came editor and remained in charge of it until 1882, if not later. 
It, too, finally passed out of existence. Later a monthly publi- 

Bishops of North Carolina. 181 

cation called the Messenger of Hope was issued at the Thompson 
Orphanage in Charlotte. The last mentioned publication be- 
gan its career toward the end of the year 1887, with the Rev- 
erend Edwin A. Osborne (then superintendent of the orphanage) 
as editor. During the years 1893 and 1894, the Reverend Scott 
B. Rathbun was editor; and, after his retirement, Mr. Osborne 
again took charge. In June, 1898, when Mr. Osborne left the 
orphanage to become Chaplain of the Second Xorth Carolina 
Regiment of United States Volunteers in the "War with. Spain, 
the Reverend Walter J. Smith succeeded him as editor of the 
Messenger of Hope, as well as superintendent of the institution 
where it was published, and filled both stations for many years. 
During the session of the Convention of the Diocese of North 
Carolina in 1909, the Reverend Alfred R. Berkeley offered a 
resolution (it being a substitute for one theretofore presented 
by a committee) providing for the appointment of a special 
committee, to confer with similar committees from the Diocese 
of East Carolina and the Missionary Jurisdiction of Asheville, 
whose duty it should be to take under advisement the desir- 
ability of having one Church paper for both dioceses and the 
Jurisdiction of Asheville. The committees were accordingly ap- 
pointed; and under their recommendation the Messenger of Hope 
(North Carolina) and the Mission Herald (East Carolina) were 
consolidated under the name and title of the Carolina Church- 
man, with the Reverend Thomas P. Noe, of Wilmington, as 
editor-in-chief. The Carolina Churchman made its first appear- 
ance in October, 1909. This consolidation of papers occurred at 
a later date than the time when the present history professes to 
end, but the importance of the matter may justify this addi- 
tional paragraph on the subject. 

In the six years immediately following the war, the Church 
in North Carolina lost by death a number of her leading lay- 
men, among these being George E. Badger (May 11, 1866), 
for many years a vestryman of Christ Church at Raleigh, and 
formerly Judge, Secretary of the Navy, and United States Sen- 

182 Bishops of ]^orth Carolina. 

ator, whose reply to tlie pro-Roman pronouncements of Bishop 
Ives has already been mentioned. Another "shining mark" 
struck by the arrow of death (January 15, 1870) was Thomas 
Ruffin, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of ISTorth Caro- 
lina, a jurist of national reputation, and a vestryman of Saint 
Matthew's Church at Hillsborough. Of these two profound 
lawyers and devoted Churchmen it is needless here to speak, as 
their records are written in the history of the State and Nation. 
Yet one there was — more incessant in his labors for the Church 
than both — who died during the same period (January 8, 1868), 
and of whom a few w^ords may well be said, as he never sought 
political honors, and is not so well known to the present gen- 
eration. This was Charles T. Haigh, of Fayetteville. He 
had been a communicant of Saint John's Church, in that town, 
for nearly fifty years. As early as 1836, he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Committee on Missions, and (with one year's inter- 
mission) served thereon until his death. For many years he 
was also treasurer of the Diocese. The Diocesan Convention 
of 1868 passed formal resolutions in honor of his memory, and 
Bishop Atkinson (addressing that assemblage) said of tlie de- 
ceased: "A better officer could nov/here be found, and a better 
man scarcely, if at all. He was an excellent specimen of that 
type of human character which mankind everywhere respects, 
and which certainly seems to me deserving of great respect, the 
high-toned English gentleman — for he was thoroughly English, 
not only in birth and education, but in taste and sympathy, and 
in the best characteristics of that people." A few years after 
Mr. Haigh's death, another veteran member was lost to the 
Church when George W. Mordecai, for many years senior war- 
den of Christ Church in Raleigh, passed away on the 19th of 
February, 1871. Of the latter gentleman Bishop Atkinson said : 
"He often took part in the proceedings of this Convention, 
where no one was listened to with more respect; he was, since 
I have known this Diocese, one of its Trustees, a leading mem- 
ber of its Standing Committee, one of the most active, liberal 


and judicious vcstrvnieu of his own important parish, a wise 
and judicious counsellor to lue in my official character, and the 
friend under whose hospitahle roof I mainly spent my time when 
at Raleigh.*' 

As heretofore shown in these pages, the Church had labored 
with commendable zeal to improve the religious condition of 
slaves in ante-hellum times; and, after the war, under condi- 
tions in some respects less favorable, the work was still main- 
tained. Owing to the evils of carpet-bag rule — when self-inter- 
ested adventurers came South, advocating social equality and 
seeking to inflame the negroes against their late masters and 
best friends — the work was much retarded, yet even then pro- 
gressed to a considerable extent. In addressing the first Dio- 
cesan Convention which assembled after the close of the war. 
Bishop Atkinson referred to the old and new i-elations existing 
between the races in these words: "One of the chief cares and 
labors of a good many men, and of a still larger number of the 
women, of the South, was the welfare of the servants; and, 
under the system of slavery in these States, the African race 
made a progress, during the last hundred years, not only in 
numbers and physical comfort, but a progress from barbarism 
to civilization, from heathenism to Christianity, to which the 
history of the world offers no parallel. But the system was no 
doubt defective — better adapted to the early stage of a people's 
progress from the savage state than that which they have now 
reached; at any rate God, in his providence, has definitely set 
it aside. The future of that people is very obscure; and there 
is, in the judgment of many, great danger even of their extinc- 
tion as a race. What, then, must we do as Christian men and 
women ? We must continue our care for them ; we ought even 
to increase it. We have surely been, in some degree, delinquent 
in the past ; let us resolve, in God's strength, not to be so for 
the future." Referring to the same race, later on in this ad- 
dress, the Bishop says: "We must keep in mind their general 

184 Bishops of North Carolina. 

faithfulness in the hour of trial. We must allow for occasional 
instances of what seems to us folly, or perversity, or ingratitude. 
"We must practice towards them the apostolical injunctions 
which are so strikingly enjoined, 'be pitiful, be courteous.' 
Their distresses, in their new condition, are likely to be many 
and great. Let us be ready to relieve them accordingly as 
God has given us the means. They are, as a race, peculiarly 
sensible of courtesy, or the absence of it. They show it abimd- 
antly themselves, and they are very much wounded when it is 
denied to them. They feel contempt or rudeness more than a 
serious injury. Let us inflict none of these on them. Let us 
make them feel what is, I believe, most true — that their best 
friends are among ourselves, and that to us they must look for 
counsel, and aid, and protection. But, above all, let us remem- 
ber that part of our duty in which, I fear, we have been most 
deficient — providing for them sound religious instruction. They 
are in great danger of falling into the hands of mischievous 
and, sometimes, no doubt, malevolent fanatics, which would be 
a great calamity to them as well as to us. Let us endeavor to 
avert it by doing what is at any rate our duty — by giving them 
the true doctrine of our Lord Jesus Christ, in view of the vain 
j anglings of false teachers. Let us raise up colored congrega- 
tions in our towns, and let our clergy feel that one important 
part of their charge is to teach and to befriend the colored 
people; and especially to train, as far as they are permitted to 
do so, the children of that race." 

It would be difficult to find nobler utterances than those 
above quoted, or ones better calculated to promote kind feelings 
between the races. And, while the good Bishop thus preached 
love and forbearance, he also realized that mixed congregations 
were not to be considered, whatever might be the views of "mis- 
chievous and malevolent fanatics" on the subject. He not only 
favored separate churches for the negroes, as indicated above, 
but, to the Diocesan Convention of 1866, he recommended that 
these congregations should be placed under well-instructed 

Bishops of North Carolina. 185 

clergymen of their own race whenever possible. As to the edu- 
cation of the newly freed race, he said : "The practical ques- 
tion is not whether they shall be taught, but hy whom they shall 
be taught. Teachers they have already, and will continue to 
have. Shall they be such as will impart sound instruction, and 
be under our own direction, or shall they be such as chance or 
fanaticism may send? Who can doubt what should be our 
course in this respect, whether we regard the claims of duty or 
wisdom.'' Of the effect which he believed education would have, 
in a spiritual way, he further said: "The Word of God was 
written in order that it may be read; and to say, either by our 
action or by our refusal to act, that a large class of the com- 
munity shall not read it, seems very like profanity. If read, 
it should be, as far as possible, with the commentary which 
the Creeds and the Liturgy of the Church give, securing it 
thereby from the fatal misinterpretations which ignorant and 
fanatical persons attach to it." 

The above recommendations in the Bishop's address were re- 
ferred to a special committee consisting of the Beverend Fordyce 
M. Hubbard, the Reverend N. Collin Hughes, Sr., the Beverend 
William C. Hunter and the Beverend Joseph Blount Cheshire, 
Sr., of the clergy, together with Mr. George W. Mordecai, Gen- 
eral William B. Cox, and Mr. John H. Haughton, of the laity. 
This committee, after taking the matter into consideration, 
made their recommendations in a series of resolutions (duly 
adopted by the Convention) as follows: 

"Resolved, That this Convention comnieud the people of color to 
the continued kindness and good will of the churchmen of this Dio- 

"Resolved, That it is the sense of this Convention that separate 
houses of worship should be provided, as soon as practicable, for the 
colored people ; that there should be separate Sunday-Schools and 
separate congregations for them ; and that the attention of the Clergy 
of this Diocese be directed to the importance of seeking out suitable 
colored men for Catechists, Sunday-School teachers, aud Lay Readers ; 
and giving them, as far as they may, personal instruction to fit them 
for these positions, in the hope that, under God's providence, many of 

186 Bishops of North Carolina. 

them Diay be ultimately qualified to become the spiritual teachers and 
pastors of their race ; 

"Resolved, That we heartily approve and earnestly reebmmend the 
mental and moral training of the colored people in such a manner and 
to such degree as the conditions of affairs may justify." 

In 1868, Bishop Atkinson announced that a normal and train- 
ing school, for the education and instruction of colored teachers 
and ministers, had heen established near Raleigh, under the 
superintendence of the Reverend J. Brinton Smith, D.D. The 
institution here alluded to — Saint Augustine's School — has been 
a strong factor in the betterment of the race for which it was 
established. Up to the present time the heads of this institu- 
tion have all been white clergymen of the Church. After the 
death of Doctor Smith, in 1872, he was succeeded by the Rev- 
erend John E. C. Smedes, a gentleman of fine scholarship and 
many lovable qualities. The latter gave place, in 1884, to the 
Reverend Robert B. Sutton, who served acceptably some years 
and then resigned his charge, owing to the infirmities of age. 
In 1891 he was succeeded by the Reverend A. Burtis Hunter, 
whose personal worth and administrative ability are still demon- 
strated in the management of that excellent institution. One of 
the features of instruction at Saint Augustine's is of an indus- 
trial nature, among the courses there taught (in addition to 
religious and scholastic training) being improved agriculture, 
dairying, carpentry, brick-making, stone-masonry, weaving, 
dress-making, laundry work, cooking, etc. Many of the build- 
ings on the premises, including Saint Augustine's Chapel, Saint 
Agnes Hospital, and the Benson Library, were erected by stu- 
dents out of granite which they themselves quarried. In connec- 
tion with the hospital is also a school for training nurses which 
is doing good work. 

In 1866, owing to ill health, Bishop Atkinson spent six 
months in Europe, reaching England in June, and returning 
to America in December. He was accompanied on this tour 
by Mrs. Atkinson. In all places visited by him he was received 
with the high consideration due his office. Before taking leave 

Bishops of T'n'ortii Carolina. 187 

of ^'orth ( 'arolina, ho addressed a eoininunicatioii 1o the Dio- 
cesan Oonvcntion, asking it to take nnder consideration the 
advisability of electing an Assistant Bishop, or dividing North 
Carolina into tAvo Dioceses, but neither of these measures was 
adopted at that time. In the matter of the proposed election 
of an Assistant Bishop, the Diocesan Convention which as- 
sembled at New Bern, May 30th-June 4, 1866, decided to have 
such an election, and adjourned to meet in special session at 
Goldsborough in The following November. Before November 
came, however, a letter was received from Bishop Atkinson — 
then in England — stating that he had so far recovered his 
health and vigor as to render the election of an Assistant Bishop 
unnecessary. In consequence of this turn of affairs, the special 
meeting at Goldsborough was not held, and it was seven years 
before an Assistant Bishop was elected. 

As already stated, Bishop Atkinson was the recipient of 
many tokens of consideration while abroad. Almost immedi- 
ately upon his arrival in Europe, a communication Avas ad- 
dressed to him by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of 
All England, inviting him to take part in the consecration of 
some Colonial Bishops of the Anglican Church. This he could 
not do, being in Paris Avhen the consecration took place, but a 
similar invitation was later accepted by another American 
Bishop, then in Europe, the Right Reverend Henry John White- 
house, of Illinois. 

During Bishop Atkinson's European tour in 1866, he at- 
tended (in October of that year) a congress of the Anglican 
Church, at York, among other Americans present being Bishops 
Whitehouse, of Illinois, and Stevens, of Pennsylvania. Bishop 
Atkinson was also present when the Archbishop of Canterbury 
laid the corner-stone of the Cathedral at Inverness, and thereby 
"visibly sealed the closer union betAveen the powerful and pros- 
perous Church of England and its long oppressed sister in 

188 Bishops of ISTokth Carolina. 

While Bishop Atkinson was in Europe, Bishop Green, of 
Mississippi, who was a native of Wilmington, confirmed a few 
persons while visiting his old home; and Bishop Atkinson him- 
self, while stopping in Baltimore, administered the same rite to 
upwards of thirty, loj request of the Bishop of Maryland. 

It was on Christmas Eve, 1866, that Bishop Atkinson again 
reached his home in Wilmington, on his return from Europe. 
In addressing the Diocesan Convention of 1867, he once more 
discussed the election of an Assistant Bishop. Should it turn out 
that the Diocese could not support two Bishops, and it should 
be thought expedient that a younger man should fill the Episco- 
pate in E"orth Carolina, Bishop Atkinson expressed a willing- 
ness to resigTi. Of the latter step he said that — while he had 
been assured that this would be painful to the Diocese, and 
though it would certainly be so to himself personally — he was 
willing to make the sacrifice if the interests of the Church de- 
manded it. A sacrifice it would indeed have been thus to re- 
sign, for Bishop Atkinson was not a man of large means. The 
committee to which the address was referred unanimously re- 
ported that it could not entertain for a moment such a propo- 
sition. The report also said that a separate Diocese could not 
then be set up, as a canon of the American Church required 
each new diocese to contain a certain number of self-supporting 
parishes. In this report, the committee expressed the opinion 
that an Assistant Bishop should be chosen so soon as provision 
could be made for his support. 

In September, 1867, there was held in Lambeth Palace, the 
seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, a Council of Bishops of 
the Anglican Church throughout the world. At the request of 
his Diocesan Convention, Bishop Atkinson attended the deliber- 
ations of that august assemblage, leaving America in the Sum- 
mer and returning in December. Speaking of the personnel 
of this great body of Church dignitaries, he later said: "The 
Catholic character of the Church — its adaptation to all sorts 
and conditions of men — was made strikingly manifest when 

Bishops of x^ortii Carolina. 189 

one looked ai-ound him and saw in what mutually remote quar- 
ters of the earth, in what different states of intelligence and 
civilization, amid what varied races those men lived and labored, 
who met together for the first time in those ancient halls at 
Lambeth to consult how they might best advance the kingdom 
of Christ. There Avere those present who Avere spending their 
strength and periling their lives among the most degraded 
heathen tribes of Africa; others from among the savages of 
Borneo; others accv^s{omed to the political turmoils of the 
democracy of America; while others, again, sat in the front 
ranks of the peers of England. Some Avere of world-wide repu- 
tation as theologians; some Avere eminent for historical re- 
search; and some distinguished for brilliant eloquence. But 
all were agreed in accepting for their OAvn guidance, and for 
the instruction of others, that doctrine of Christ Avhich is plainly 
taught in Holy Scripture and was belicA^ed by the early Church." 

The above v/as the first of the great Lambeth Conferences, 
which are noAv held about every ten years. Another assemblage, 
organized in 1908, and with a time of meeting very close ro 
that of the Lambeth Conference, is knoAvn as the Pan-Anglican 
Congress. The latter body is not only composed of Bishops 
and other clergy, but also of the laity — men and women alike. 

After the close of Bishop Atkinson's duties in connection 
Avith the Lambeth Conference of 1867, two of his former parish- 
ioners from Baltimore urged him to spend the Winter as their 
guest in Italy, but a sense of duty to his Diocese forced him 
to decline. 

To the Diocesan Convention of ISTorth Carolina in 1868, 
Bishop Atkinson again recommended the election of an Assist- 
ant Bishop; and, as an appendix to the Convention Journal 
for that year, there was a lengthy report on the subject of 
Bishops of the different classes, as recognized by usages in the 
Christian Church from the earliest times down to the period 
immediately following the foundation of the Episcopate in 
America. In conclusion this report said that, Avhile the Church 

190 Bishops of T^orth Cakolina. 

was now ill need of more Bishops, the number could not then 
be increased in JSTorth Carolina without an amendment of ex- 
isting canons by the General Convention. The committee mak- 
ing this report was composed of the Rererend Messrs. Alfred 
A. Watson, Joseph Blount Cheshire, Sr., and Benjamin S. 
Bronson from the clergy; and, from the laity, Armand J. De- 
Rosset, M.D., and Mr. Eichard H. Smith. At the Diocesan 
Convention of 1871 there was submitted a committee report 
asking that the General Convention be memorialized to au- 
thorize the election of Suffragan Bishops. This report also 
learnedly dealt with precedent and usage concerning the Episco- 
pate in the earlier days of the Church. The committee which 
prepared it consisted of the Reverend Messrs. Benjamin S. 
Bronson, Joseph Blount Cheshire, Sr., and Edward M. Forbes, 
with two laymen, General James G. Martin and Mr. Richard 
H. Smith. When the next General Convention met, it refused 
to authorize the election of Suffragan Bishops, but provided 
that an Assistant Bishop might be elected in any Diocese whose 
extent of territory made it impracticable for one Bishop ade- 
quately to perform the duties of the Episcopate therein. Under 
the authority thus conferred, the Diocesan Convention, at Fay- 
etteville on May 30, 1873, elected the Reverend Theodore Bene- 
dict Lyman, D.D., to the office of Assistant Bishop. Of Bishop 
Lyman a separate sketch will later be given herein. 

At the Diocesan Convention of 1874, the Reverend Angelo 
A. Benton submitted a list of the old colonial parishes of the 
Church of England in JSTorth Carolina; and the result of his 
researches (compiled from legislative statutes) was printed 
in the Convention journal for that year. At the same time a 
committee was appointed consisting of the Reverend Matthias 
M. Marshall, the Reverend Edward R. Rich and the Honorable 
William H. Battle, LL.D., and charged with the duty of collect- 
ing "as much of the colonial history in reference to the Church 
in this Diocese as possible, and the date of the organization of 
the older parishes, and make a report to the next convention 

Bishops of Noinir (\\i{oi,ina. 191 

of a list of parishes in the order of ilieir orgjuiization." The 
same laymau who moved the appointment of this committee, 
Colonel Sewall L. Fremont, of Wilmington, later moved (mo- 
tion being carried) that the above committee "be reqnested to 
ascei-tain the date of the admission of the several existing 
parishes to representation in the Convention of this Diocese, 
and report the list, in the order of their seniority, to the next 
Convention." The report of the latter committee, through its 
chairman. Doctor Marshall, will be found in the journal of 
the Diocesan Convention of 1877. In the same report is a 
recommendation that the office of Historiographer be created. 
This recommendation being adopted, Doctor Marshall was 
unanimously elected Historiographer of the Diocese, and re- 
mained in that office until May 14, 1884, when he declined re- 
election and was succeeded by the Reverend Joseph Blount 
Cheshire, Jr. After the latter became Bishop, the Honorable 
John Steele Henderson, LL.D., was elected Historiographer. 
Mr. Henderson held this position until May 13, 1909, when he 
asked to be relieved from further service and was succeeded by 
Marshall DeLancey Ha3a\'ood, author of the present work. 

A resolution was passed by the Diocesan Convention, in 1877, 
making it the duty of the Rector of each parish throughout the 
Diocese to write or cause to be written a history of his parish 
for preservation in the archives of the Diocese. To the Con- 
vention of 1878 Doctor Marshall reported a list of the parish 
histories which had been forwarded to him, up to that date, 
together with others which had been promised. These histories, 
together Avith the ones later sent in, form a valuable manuscript 
collection. When the Diocese of East Carolina was established, 
all parish histories dealing with churches in that section were 
turned over to its Historiographer, Colonel James G. Burr. 

Some brief histories, relative to parishes in the three dioceses 
throughout the State of North Carolina, have already been 
published in pamphlet form or as articles in periodicals, and 
among them we may mention the following : 

192 Bishops of ITorth Carolina. 

Historical Notices of St. James' Parish, Wilmington, North 
Carolina, by the Eeverend Eobert Brent Drane, of Wilming- 
ton, 1843. 

Sketch of St. James's Parish, Wilmington, being the com- 
pletion of the above mentioned work of Doctor Drane, by a 
member of the vestry (Colonel James G. Burr), pamphlet 1874, 
and re-published serially in the Church Messenger (Charlotte, 
]N"orth Carolina), March 31st-May 16th, and addenda, June 
30, 1881. 

Early Church in North Carolina, written by the Reverend 
Eobert Johnstone Miller in 1830, and published in the Church 
Messenger, October 15, 1880. 

An Historical Sketch of the Church in Edgecombe County, 
by the Eeverend Joseph Blount Cheshire, Jr., but published 
anonymously. Church Messenger, August 31st-September 21st, 

A Visit to Old Brunswick and. the Ruins of St. Philip' fi 
Church, by Colonel James G. Burr, Church Messenger, Sep- 
tember 28, 1880. 

St. Philip's Parish, Smithville,* by the Eeverend Eobert B. 
Windley, Church Messenger, January 13th-20th, 1881. 

St. John's Parish, Wilmington (anonymous), Church Mes- 
senger, July 7, 1881. 

St. Paul's Parish, Wilmington, by the Eeverend Thomas M. 
Ambler, Church Messenger, July 14, 1881, 

St. Mark's Church, Wilmington (a parish made up of ne- 
groes), by the Eeverend Charles O. Brady, Church Messenger, 
July 21, 1881. 

Christ Church, Rowan County (anonymous), Church Mes- 
senger, August 4th-August 11th, 1881. 

Episcopacy in Rowan County, by the Honorable John Steele 
Henderson, in Rumple's History of Rowan County, 1881, pages 

* Smithville, near the mouth of Cape Pear River, is now called 

Bishops of Nouth Cakolina. 193 

St. James's Church. Iredell County — formerly Mills Settle- 
ment and still earlier a part of St. Mark's Parish — (anony- 
mous), Church Messenger, August 18, 1881. 

Si. Paul's Church, Edenton, by the Reverend Charles M. 
Parkman, Church Messenger, September 22d-October 6th, 1881. 

St. Thomas Church, Bath, by the Reverend Horace G. Hilton, 
Church Messenger, November 17, 1881, 

A Sermon- Sic etch of the History of St. Mattheiu's Parish, 
Hillsboro, by the Reverend Joseph W. Murphy, delivered Oc- 
tober 5, 1890, and published in pamphlet 1900. 

Religious and Historic Commemoration of the Two Hundred 
Years of St. Paul's Parish, Edenton, May 22d-May 24th, 1901, 
containing sermon by Bishop Watson, of East Carolina, and 
addresses by Richard Dillard, M.D., Mr. James R. B. Hath- 
away, the Reverend Francis W. Hilliard, the Reverend Charles 
A. Maison, and the Reverend Thomas M. IST. George. 

St. Paul's Church, Edenton, by Richard Dillard, M.D., North 
Carolina BooJclet, July, 1905. 

St. Thomas's Church, Bath — St. Paul's Church, Edenton, 
North Carolina, by the Reverend Robert Brent Drane, D.D., 
in volume entitled Colonial Churches in the Original Colony 
of Virginia. 

On April 25, 1877, occurred the death of the Reverend Aldert 
Smedes, D.D., founder and for thirty-five years the honored 
Rector of Saint Mary's School at Raleigh. In the year 1873, 
Bishop Atkinson had said of him, in an address to the Diocesan 
Convention : "If I were called upon to say what individual 
has exerted for many years, and is now exerting, the most bene- 
ficial influence upon the people of this State, I should feel bound 
to express the conviction that it is not this or that statesman, 
or this or that soldier, or this or that preacher, but the man 
who has successfully trained up so many maidens and so many 
matrons to be themselves useful and happy in their respective 
spheres and to diffuse around them the incalculable benefit of 
womanly intelligence, refinement and piety. While many ex- 

11)4 Bishops of T^okth Carolina. 

cellent persons have labored for this end, and with gratifying 
success, he who, in my judgment at least, has accomplished the 
most, is the Principal of St. Mary's School, Raleigh." At the 
time of the death of Doctor Smedes a tribute was paid his 
memory by the Bishop in these words : "I take this occasion 
to express publicly, as my deliberate judgment, that Dr. Smedes 
accomplished more for the advancement of the Church in this 
Diocese, and for the promotion of the best interests of society 
within its limits, than any other man wbo ever lived in it. 
Under his care, and very much as the result of his intelligence, 
his firmness and his tender affection for them, there went out 
from St. Mary's School, Raleigh, every year a number of young 
girls who, in culture, in refinement, and still more in elevation 
of moral and religious character, would compare favorably with 
the pupils of any other institution in this country. He knew 
not o:dy how to teach, but how to govern, and to make himself 
honored as well as loved; and to constrain his pupils to feel 
that the years spent under his care Avere at the same time the 
happiest and most useful of their lives. He has gone to his 
reward, but his work remains, and will remain from generation 
to generation." 

When Doctor Smedes died, the great work in which he had 
been engaged was taken up by his son, the Reverend Bennett 
Smedes, D.D., who had been Assistant Rector for some years. 
The whole of the latter gentleman's life was one of devoted self- 
sacrifice to the interests of religious education. Under adverse 
conditions he maintained Saint Mary's until his death, February 
22, 1899, expending his private fortune in keeping up the work 
rather than let the school suspend operations. In consequence 
of these unselfish labors, Saint Mary's was held until a time 
(just before his death) v/hen it was purchased by the Church 
and placed under the management of a board of trustees from 
all three dioceses in the State of ISTorth Carolina. It was later 
also made the diocesan school of South Carolina, which State 
likevdse has a representation in its board of irufc,tee3. This noble 

Hisiiin's OK Xoinii (\\K(ii,ixA. 195 

institution is now liee from iis original debt; luid, having sur- 
vived the vicissitudes of peace and war throughout so many 
years, without interruption, will doubtless hereafter fully meas- 
ure up to its splendid record of by-gone times. In the darkest 
days of the War between the States, its doors were never closed; 
and, at one time during that period, the family of Jefferson 
Davis found shelter within its walls, as did also one of the 
daughters of General Robert E. Lee. 

Despite the Church's ill fortune in its previous efforts toward 
establishing schools for boys, Bishop Atkinson's interest in this 
important subject never abated, "A complete education,'' said 
he, "demands the cultivation of the moral and spiritual as well 
as the intellectual faculties, and it is one of the functions of the 
Church to provide this." In his address ta the Convention of 
1874 he speaks of efforts by the Reverend Benjamin S. Bronson 
to conduct a school at Charlotte, in addition to performing his 
duties as Rector of Saint Peter's Church in that city. This 
school at Charlotte finally suspended; and, at a later period, 
Mr. Bronson agreed to have the property fitted up for use as 
an orphanage. The former school had been largely established 
by the munificence of the family of the late Lewis Thompson, 
of Bertie County, and the new institution was called the Thomp- 
son Orphanage as a memorial to him. Its doors were opened on 
May 10, 1887, with the Reverend Edwin A. Osborne as super- 
intendent. The latter gentleman had been Colonel of the Fourth. 
North Carolina Regiment in the Confederate Army, and his 
military' spirit was again awakened when the War with Spain 
came on, so he resigned his superintendeucy of the orphanage 
in June, 1898, to become Chaplain of the Second North Caro- 
lina Regiment of United States Volunteers. After the War 
with Spain closed he became Archdeacon of the Convocation 
of Charlotte, which position he now holds. Upon Mr. Osborne's 
resignation, as above, of the superintendeucy of the Thompson 
Orphanage, he was succeeded by the Reverend Walter J, Smith, 
present incumbent. Mr. Smith belongs to a Halifax County 

196 Bishops of JSTorth Cakolina. 

family noted for its devotion to the Churcli, being a son of 
"William E. Smitli, one of the three brothers whom we have 
heretofore mentioned in the sketch of Bishop Ives. The Thomp- 
son Orphanage has done, and is still doing, a splendid work in 
shielding little children from want and ruin, and training them 
up for respectable stations in the citizenship of their coun- 
try. Two other worthy institutions of the Church at Charlotte 
are Saint Peter's Hospital, for the white race, and the Good 
Samaritan Hospital, for negroes. 

A special committee on education, at the Diocesan Conven- 
tion of 1875, reported efforts, which had been made in the pre- 
ceding year, to establish an educational institution at Morgan- 
ton, in the mountain section. At that time Bishop Atkinson 
was not sufficiently strong to supervise work so far from 
his home, and requested his assistant and co-laborer. Bishop 
Lyman, to interest himself in the educational work at Morgan- 
ton. The Wilberforce School — as this institution was called, 
in honor of the great English Bishop of that name — proved a 
failure, despite the able and energetic manner in which Bishop 
Lyman sought to uphold it. Some further mention of it will 
be made in the sketch of Bishop Lyman, later on in this work. 

One Church school for boys met with some success in North 
Carolina for a while, though not with so great a measure as it 
deserved. This institution — located in what is now the Diocese 
of East Carolina — was Trinity School, at Chocowinity in the 
county of Beaufort, not far from "Washington, the county-seat. 
Its founder and first principal was the Keverend N". Collin 
Hu.o'hes. About the year 1850 he established a parochial school 
in conjunction with Trinity Parish, and it was operated in a 
house built for its use by the vestry. Good schools were scarce 
in that day, and a considerable number of students came from 
other counties. Shortly before the War between the States Mr. 
Hughes went to Pittsboro, and then Trinity School passed into 
other hands — suspending work during the progress of the war. 
In 1866, Mr. Hughes returned to Beaufort County and en- 

Bishops of Xorth C.srolina. 197 

deavored to re-open the school, but met with many discourage- 
ments. Some years later, in 1878, his son, the Reverend N". 
Collin Hughes, Jr., joined in the management of this institution, 
afterwards becoming his father's successor as principal. In- 
struction in the doctrines of the Church and general religious 
training were always given prominence in the course of study 
at Trinity; and, though it was not a training school for the 
ministry, about twenty of its former pupils have taken holy 
orders. The enrollment of students in this institution was never 
large, but its influence for good Avas by no means inconsiderable. 
In 1908 this school was closed; and, during the same year, its 
principal, the Reverend Mr. Hughes, became Archdeacon of 
the Convocation of Raleigh. 

During the lifetime of Bishop Atkinson steps were first taken 
toward dividing the Diocese of !N"orth Carolina by the erection 
of a part of the State into the Diocese of East Carolina; but, 
as this proposed measure was not carried out until two years 
after his death, we shall treat of that subject in the sketch of 
Bishop Lyman, hereafter to be given in this work. 

Though the consecration of the Reverend Doctor Lyman, as 
Assistant Bishop, greatly lightened the labors of the venerable 
Bishop Atkinson, the latter continued his good work as long as 
strength was given him to plead with mankind for a fuller reali- 
zation and performance of their duties to God. When the Dio- 
cesan Convention met at Winston, in Forsyth County, during 
the month of May, 1880, the aged prelate was too infirm to at- 
tend its sessions, but sent his annual address to be read before 
that body. This was his last message to the Church in North 
Carolina, and its closing words dealt with a phase of morality 
which long years of personal observation moved him to empha- 
size for the good of his people. This was the question of temper- 
ance. In part he said: "All the taxes, of which our people 
complain so much, are not equal to a tenth part of the burden 
they impose upon themselves by the use — frequently the ex- 
cessive use — of intoxicating liquors. To the same fruitful source 

198 Bishops of jSTorth Carolina. 

are due nine-tentlis of tlie crimes tliat come before our courts 
of justice, as we are assured by some of those who are engaged 
in the administration of justice. How much of the misery of 
private life is brought about by the same cause, none but God 
himself can tell. That it is varied, bitter, widespread, all of us 
must know, and I have reason, more and more every year, to 
believe that it, more than any other sin, causes spiritual de- 
cline, and final apostacy within the limits of the Church itself ; 
that many a young man enters upon his religious course, not 
only with sincerity but with zeal, and yet, yielding to the entice- 
ments of the cup, falls away from the faith, withdraws from 
religious ordinances, brings shame on the cause of Christ and 
the honor of His Church, and ruin on his own soul. 'Now are 
we not bound to do what we can, in order to resist this sin so 
deadly in itself and so prolific of other sins? The Church of 
England is exerting itself with great honor to its own spirit 
and principles, and with great benefit to the country, in con- 
tending with this giant adversary to all righteousness and to all 
human happiness. Can we not do something more than we 
have hitherto done in the same holy cause? I know that there 
are good men who object to societies for this special purpose on 
the ground that they interfere with the proper work of the 
Church. To me the objection seems very futile. On the same 
ground, missionary societies, tract societies, Bible and Prayer 
Book societies, associations for the relief of the poor, and indeed 
most charitable and religious organizations would have to he 

Bishop Atkinson filled the Episcopate for nearly thirty years. 
During that time he took part in the consecration of ten 
Bishops, as follows: Alexander Gregg, of Texas, October 13, 
1859 ; Henry Champlin Lay, of the Missionary Jurisdiction of 
the South-west (later translated to the Diocese of Easton in 
Maryland), October 23, 1859; Charles Todd Quintard, of Ten- 
nessee, October 11, 1865; John Watrous Beckwith, of Georgia, 
April 2, 1868; William Pinkney, of Maryland, October 6, 

Bishops of I^oeth Carolina, 199 

1870; William Bell White Howe, of South Carolina, October 8, 
1871; Theodore Benedict Lyman, of N'orth Carolina, December 
11, 1873 ; Edward Randolph Welles, of Wisconsin, October 24, 
1874 ; John Henry Ducachet Wingfield, of l^orthern California, 
December 2, 1874 ; and Charles Clifton Penick, of Cape Palmas 
in Africa, February 13, 1877. 

In 1846, Trinity College, at Hartford, Connecticut, conferred 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity upon Mr. Atkinson, then Rector 
of Saint Peter's Church in Baltimore. After he became Bishop 
he was twice honored with the degree of Doctor of Laws — by 
the University of !N'orth Carolina in 1862, and by the great 
English University of Cambridge in 1867. 

During the course of his Episcopate, Bishop Atkinson at- 
tended every General Convention which ever assembled except 
the war-time session of 1863 (when no Southern Bishops were 
present), the special session of 1875, and the session of 1880, 
being sick when the last named was held. 

Though Bishop Atkinson had been physically unable to at- 
tend the Diocesan Convention of 1880, he later rallied, and 
seemed, at times, in some measure to regain his usual strength and 
health. But this improvement was only temporary, for he later 
grew steadily weaker, and passed peacefully away at his home 
in Wilmington, surrounded by his family and friends, on the 
4th day of January, 1881. This event caused deep grief through- 
out jSTorth Carolina, and was recognized as a loss to the Church 
in general. No Bishop within the ranks of the American Epis- 
copate had served the Church more faithfully, more lovingly, 
more freely, more wisely; and few had met with so great a 
measure of success. Gentle and considerate in manner, yet firm 
of purpose and strong in action, he was an ideal Bishop — a 
Ravenscroft -vWthout his rugged exterior, an Ives without his 

A tribute both eloquent and just was paid to the memory of 
Bishop Atkinson by Bishop Strange in an address delivered at 

200 Bishops of North Carolina. 

the laying of the corner-stone of the Church of the Holy Com- 
forter (a memorial to Bishop Atkinson) in Charlotte, on August 
6, 1909.* On that occasion, when speaking of Bishop Atkinson's 
first coming to North Carolina, of his noble traits, and splendid 
career, Bishop Strange said : 

"We needed a wise and loving leader then ; and the good God gave 
him to us. How noble his presence, how gracious his manners, how 
loving his heart, how firm his will, how wise his judgment ! He knew 
what this Church of ours is and what she stands for; and this he 
taught in season and out ; and yet he could see the standpoint of the 
earnest Christians outside our communion; and he so mingled love 
and tolerance with his presentation of the truth that he disarmed 
their prejudice and won their respect and affection. Under his wise, 
loving, unselfish rule, harmony and hope settled sweetly down upon 
the Church herself, and she went forward again in her Godly work. 
He was with us, our true friend and guide, in the stormy times of 
war and in the dark days of reconstruction. To him more than to 
any single man is due the fact that the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in the Uuitel States is to-day One, knowing no North and South, no 
East and West. Two years after his death, the Church in North 
Carolina had grown too large for the administration of any one 
Bishop ; and so its territory was divided, and the General Convention 
of 1883 set apart the new Diocese of East Carolina. For nearly thirty 
years Bishop Atkinson guided the affairs of the Church in the whole 
State; and in those years the clergy had increased from thirty-six to 
seventy-sis, and the communicants from 1,778 to 5,889. To-day, my 
friends, twenty-eight years from the death of Bishop Atkinson, we 
have at work in the State three Bishops, 125 clergymen and 13,492 

The funeral of Bishop Atkinson was held in Wilmington on 
January 7th. Shortly before 11 o'clock on that day, the vestries 
of Saint James's, Saint John's, Saint Paul's, and Saint Mark's 
Churches assembled at the Bishop's residence, and formed in 
procession, going to Saint James's Church, where the funeral 
services and interment w^ere to take place. A company of forty 
young men from the above parishes, in relays of ten at a time, 
bore the casket from the late home of the deceased to the Church. 

* For copy of this address, see the Carolina Churchman for October, 

Bishops of North Cakolina. 201 

The honorary pall-bearers were the following eight clergymen, 
all clad in white surplices: the Reverend Messrs. Thomas M. 
Ambler, George Patterson, Thomas D. Pitts, Matthias M. Mar- 
shall, Bennett Smedes, Edward R. Rich, Benjamin S. Bronson, 
and J. Worrall Larmonr. Officiating at the Church were 
Bishops Lyman of North Carolina and Whittle of Virginia, 
together with the Rector of the parish, Reverend Alfred A. 
Watson. Bishop Lay, of the Diocese of Easton, was also pres- 
ent ; but, being a close connection of the Atkinson family, was 
not one of the officiating clergy. After solemn and impressive 
services, the remains of Bishop Atkinson were laid beneath the 
chancel of Saint James's Church. Within that sacred edifice 
has since been placed a tablet to his memory, and that of Mrs. 
Atkinson, bearing these words : 

To the Revered and Beloved Memory 

of The Right Reverend 

Third Bishop of North Carolina. 
Born at Mansfield, Dinwiddie Co., Va., 

Aug. 6th, A. D. 1S07. 
Consecrated Bishop of North Carolina 

Oct. 17th, A. D. 1853. 

Fell Asleep in Jesus 

at Wilmington N. C, Jan. 4th, 1881. 

His body rests beneath this Chancel 
in sure hope of a blissful resurrection. 


his beloved and devoted wife, 

fell asleep December 7th, A. D. 1887, 

and reposes by his side. 

In referring to the obsequies of Bishop Atkinson, a Wilming- 
ton newspaper, the Weekly Star, of January 14th, said: "It 

202 Bishops of North Carolina. 

was the most imposing and decorous funeral we have ever wit- 
nessed in Wilmington. All classes and denominations partici- 
pated in the ceremonies, anxious to do honor to one who was 
not only great but good — one of nature's noblemen, a very- 
prince among men." 

In Bishop Atkinson's will, he bequeathed his theological 
library and five hundred dollars in money to the Ravenscroft 
School at Asheville ; and, before that institution closed its doors, 
it was the purpose of the Diocese to endow in its faculty a chair 
to be known as "The Bishop Atkinson Professorship of the Evi- 
dences of Christianity and of Christian Doctrine." Another 
memorial to Bishop Atkinson — in course of construction at the 
present time — is a house of worship in Charlotte, which the 
Beverend Francis M. Osborne is now raising funds to have com- 
pleted. It will be known as "The Church of the Holy Com- 
forter." Its corner-stone was laid August G, 1909. The chancel 
window of Saint Paul's Church, at Wilmington, is also an 
Atkinson memorial. Some years after the War between the 
States, the Reverend David D. Van Antwerp wrote a history 
of the Church and dedicated it to Bishop Atkinson in these 
words: "To the Right Reverend Thomas Atkinson, D.D., 
LL.D., Bishop of ISTorth Carolina, whose many admirable quali- 
ties have won for him a shining fame in the American Church, 
this work is, by his permission, affectionately dedicated by his 
friend and servant. The Author." For several years prior to 
the war. Doctor Van Antwerp served as a presbyter under 
Bishop Atkinson in the Diocese of I^orth Carolina. In the 
See House at Raleigh is an oil portrait of Bishop Atkinson, 
presented to the Diocese by Mrs. A. B. Andrews. 

In an admirable memorial sermon on Bishop Atkinson, 
preached before the Diocesan Convention in Christ Church, 
Raleigh, on the 18th of May, 18S1, Bishop Lay tells us of many 
religious opinions held by the deceased, as well as of his per- 
sonal characteristics. Said he, on that occasion: "He was 
Anglican to the backbone. He was thoroughly convinced that 

Bishops of North Carolina. 203 

the Anglican Reformation was necessary and lawful, and was 
insely conducted, so that no catholic truth whatever is denied 
or ohscured in our formularies." From the same memorial dis- 
course we learn that one of Bishop Atkinson's firmest convic- 
tions, founded, as he thought, on the general consent of the 
primitive Church, was that every baptism, by whomsoever ad- 
ministered, where the matter and the form are used, is a valid 
baptism, and that a person so baptized becomes thereby a mem- 
ber of the catholic body of Christ. In Baltimore, on one occa- 
sion, says Bishop Lay, a child was presented to Doctor Atkinson 
(then a parish priest) for the sacrament of baptism. There 
being some hesitancy in reply to the question as to whether or 
not it had beei^ previously baptized, further inquiry was made, 
and it appeared that, shortly after the child's birth, its life 
appeared to be in danger, whereupon the attendant physician 
hastily applied the water and pronounced the formula. Upon 
this statement of facts, Doctor Atkinson declared that such bap- 
tism was valid, and declined to proceed. 

Love of kindred, we ai'e told, was a predominating trait in the 
character of Bishop Atkinson. After specifying the stress laid 
upon the various relationships of the Apostles and other charac- 
ters in Holy Scriptures, he said : "I can but think it is a Chris- 
tion duty to recognize and to value these bonds of kinship. 
When people boast that they do not care for their relations and 
connections more than for other people, it only proves that they 
have cold hearts and care little for anyone but themselves." 
Commenting upon these sentiments. Bishop Lay observes : 
"Surely he was right in this position. It does widen our hearts 
and broaden our sympathies thus to love our kindred. It is, 
beyond all doubt, a restraint upon the young to know that they 
bear a name which has never been dishonored, and that any mis- 
deed of theirs will carry personal mortification into an extensive 
circle of relatives and connections." 

Bishop Atkinson's domestic life was singularly free from 
affliction. The first death in his father's large family was that 

204 Bishops of ISToeth Caeolina. 

of tlie eldest sou, aged fifty; auotlier died at the age of sixty; 
and the remaining brothers and sisters of the Bishop — eight in 
number — all survived him. In all his married life, extending 
throughout a period of fifty-three years, there was never a death 
among his children; and his wife also survived him. Further- 
more, while never a man of wealth, Bishop Atkinson was blessed 
all through life with means sufficient for the needs of himself 
and family. Well might he say, with the Psalmist, "Surely 
goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life, and 
I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever." And, in the 
words of the same inspired writer, we may add : "Mark the per- 
fect man, and behold the upright, for the end of that man is 

Bishop Lyman. 



FoFRTH Bishop of North Carolina, 

The family from which sprang Bishop Lyman, of North 
Carolina, is of English descent and one of the most ancient in 
America. Richard Lyman, of High Ongar, in the county of 
Essex, England (a gentleman of distinguished ancestry in the 
mother country), was born about the year 1579 and came to 
America in the ship Lion, Avhich landed at Boston on November 
4, 1631. He became a freeman of the colony of Massachusetts 
Bay on June 11, 1633; and, in 1636, removed to Hartford, Con- 
necticut, being one of the original proprietors of that town. He 
died in August, 1640. His name is inscribed on one of the 
columns of Centre Church, in Hartford, which was erected as a 
memorial of the early settlers of that place. Before leaving 
England he married Sarah Osborne, daughter of Roger Osborne, 
of Halstead, in the county of Kent, and from this union has 
descended an honored and numerous posterity in America. One 
of their sons, Richard Lyman, was born in 1617, before his 
father left England. After his parents settled in Hartford, he 
remained there for some time, and then went to Northampton, 
where he was made one of the select-men. Later still, he took 
up his abode in Windsor, Connecticut, and was a land-owner in 
that place. His wife was Hephzibah Ford. He died on the 
3d of June, 1662. Among his children was Richard Lyman, 
third of that name in America, who was born at Windsor in 
1647. On May 26, 1675, he was married to Elizabeth Coles. 
In the famous Falls Fight (May 18, 1676) he commanded a 
detachment of Northampton colonists. In 1696 he removed 
from Northampton to Lebanon, Connecticut. Speaking of him 
in connection with the latter town, his family historian says: 
"Some of his descendants have continued to reside there until 
the present time, but others have gone out over all the land. 
They early emigrated to Vermont : from that State some passed 

208 Bishops of North Carolina. 

into Canada; others westward took their course, and onward 
still, as new territories and States have arisen, quite to the 
Pacific Ocean." The Richard Lynian, last referred to, owned 
property in Lebanon, and died j^ovember 4, 1708. Among his 
children was a son, Jonathan, who was born on January 7, 1684, 
and went with his father from ISTorthampton to Lebanon in 1696. 
This Jonathan married Lydia Loomis, and died on August 11, 
1753. He was a noted Indian fighter. His son and namesake, 
Jonathan Lyman, was born on the 23d of April, 1712, and 
resided in Lebanon also. He died July 28, 1792. His wife 
Avas Bethiah Clark, to whom he was married on October 2, 
1735. Among other children he had a son, William Lyman, 
born August 12, 1738. On February 12, 1761, William married 
Mary Parker. In his religious affiliations he was a Congrega- 
tionalist. He died April 2, 1827. One of his sons, Asa, was the 
father of Bishop Lyman, to whose history this sketch will be 

The Reverend Asa Lyman, just mentioned, was born in Leba- 
non, Connecticut, on the 24th of February, 1777. He graduated 
from Yale in 1797, one of his class-mates being the Reverend 
Bethel Judd, who afterwards, for a short while, was Rector of 
Saint John's Church in Fayetteville, ISTorth Carolina, and also 
president of the convention at New Bern which reorganized the 
Diocese of North Carolina in 1817. Mr. Lyman became a Con- 
gregational clergyman, at times being compelled by ill health to 
retire from the ministry and take up educational work. For a 
while he was also engaged in mercantile pursuits, being a dealer 
in books. A few years before his death he removed to Clinton, 
New York, for the purpose of educating his sons at Hamilton 
College in that place. He died at Clinton in the year 1836. His 
wife was Mary Benedict, daughter of Aaron Benedict, and a 
member of an old colonial family. In addition to other children 
(including Bishop Lyman) the Reverend Asa Lyman left a son, 
the Reverend Father Dwight Edwards Lyman, who was a priest 
of the Roman Catholic Church. 

BiSHors OF North Cakolina. 209 

The above facts, relative to the ancestry of Bishop Lyman, we 
have gathered from a work published iu 1872, entitled Genealogy 
of the Lyman Family in Great Britain and America, by the 
Keverend Lyman Coleman, D. D., a member of the faculty of 
Lafayette College, in Easton, Pennsylvania. 

In the account above set forth, we have spoken only of the 
direct ancestry of Bishop Lyman, as space will not permit us to 
go into the history of the widely divergent branches of the 
numerous and distinguished family to which he belonged. As 
colonists, soldiers, clergymen, scholars, philanthropists, and men 
of affairs in general, bearers of the name had exercised a whole- 
some influence in the communities wherein they dwelt, long be- 
fore his own achievements added to the honors so worthily won. 

The Right Reverend Theodore Benedict Lyman, D. D., 
LL. D., D. C. L., fourth Bishop of ISTorth Carolina and one hun- 
dred and third in the succession of the American Episcopate, 
was born in Brighton, Massachusetts, on the 27th day of No- 
vember, 1815. He graduated from Hamilton College, at Clin- 
ton, New York, in 1837, being valedictorian of his class. Hav- 
ing determined to enter the sacred ministry, he later became a 
student at the General Theological Seminary in New York City, 
and graduated from that institution in 1840. Immediately after 
his graduation he removed to Maryland, and was ordered deacon 
in Christ Church, Baltimore, September 20, 1840, by the Right 
Reverend William Rollinson Whittingham, who had been ele- 
vated to the Episcopate only three days before. At Hagerstown, 
Maryland, fifteen months later (December 19, 1841), he was 
ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Whittingham. 

Between the years 1841 and 1850, Mr. Lyman served as Rec- 
tor of Saint John's Church at Hagerstown. While there he ren- 
dered a great service to the cause of education by being the chief 
co-worker with Bishop Whittingham in founding the College of 
Saint James. In a monograph by the Reverend Hall Harrison, 
published in Doctor Bernard C. Steiner's History of Education 
in Maryland, there is some account of this movement. It seems 

210 Bishops of North Carolina. 

that Bisliop Whittingham desired to establisli an educational 
institution for boys, and opened, in October, 1842, at Hagers- 
town, a school called Saint James's Hall. Soon afterwards 
there was thrown upon the market a fine country estate called 
Fountain Eock, in "Washington County, Maryland, about six 
miles from Hagerstown, and Mr. Lyman realized that this was 
admirably suited for uses as a school. He communicated his 
views to Bishop Whittingham, who determined to buy it, and 
appointed Mr. Lyman to interest the people of Maryland (par- 
ticularly those in Washington and Frederick Counties) in the 
undertaking. It was also necessary to raise five thousand dol- 
lars to start the enterprise, and this Mr. Lyman succeeded in 
doing, after much labor. In selecting a principal for Saint 
James's Hall, Bishop Whittingham chose the Reverend John 
Barrett Kerfoot, a young clergyman who had been born in Ire- 
land and was then living on Long Island, in 'New York, where 
he was Assistant Rector of the school conducted by the Reverend 
Doctor Muhlenburg, under whom he himself had been educated. 
Mr, Kerfoot entered upon his new duties with zeal and success ; 
and, in 1843, the Legislature of Maryland passed an act of 
incorporation by which Saint James's Hall became the College 
of Saint James. Mr. Lyman was one of the trustees named in 
the act of incorporation of this college, and it conferred upon 
him the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1856, after his removal 
to Pennsylvania. Saint James's College had a good patronage 
from North Carolina, among the many students from this State 
being the Reverend Bennett Smedes, who in later years assisted 
his father as Rector of Saint Mary's School at Raleigh, and 
ultimately became his successor. As to the later history of the 
College of Saint James, it remained in operation until 1864, 
toward the close of the War Between the States, when President 
Kerfoot and his chief assistant, the Reverend Joseph Howland 
Coit, were arrested by order of General Jubal A. Early, of the 
Confederate Army, in retaliation for the seizure by Union forces 
of some clergymen in Virginia who were Southern sympathizers. 

Bisiioi's OF North Cauolina. 211 

After the release of the Revoretid Messrs. Kerfoot aud Coit, the 
former accepted the presidency of Trinity College, at Hartford, 
later becoming Bishop of Pittsburg; and Mr. Coit removed to 
JN'ew Hampshire, where he was elected Vice-Rector of Saint 
Paul's School in Concord, eventually becoming Rector as suc- 
cessor of his brother, the Reverend Henry Augustus Coit, when 
that gentleman died, in 1895. After the removal of President 
Kerfoot and Professor Coit from Maryland, the College of 
Saint James became a grammar school, and is now in operaiion 
as such. 

While priest in charge of Saint John's Church at Kagers- 
town, the Reverend Mr. Lyman declined three calls from North 
Carolina, including one from the parish of Saint James in Wil- 
mington. In the Spring of 1850 he accepted an invitation to 
become Rector of Trinity Church, in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 
and there officiated with great success for ten years, his parish 
growing to such an extent that a new one — Saint Peter's — had 
to be organized. In 1860 he resigned, wishing to spend some 
time in Europe. This resignation was not accepted, his congre- 
gation prevailing upon him to take a two years' leave of absence 
instead. At the end of the two years, however, he decided to 
remain abroad for a longer period, and insisted upon relinquish- 
ing his charge in Pittsburg, much to the regret of his parishion- 
ers. He remained in Europe ten years, and was an efficient fac- 
tor in building up missions of the American Church in Roman 
Catholic countries. He also extended his travels eastward, twice 
visiting Egypt, Syria, and the Holy Land (including Mount 
Sinai), as well as going to other localities of interest. While in 
Italy he had charge of a Church at Florence in the years 1860 
and 1861. In 1862 he went to Rome, and there officiated (con- 
jointly with another clergyman) in the household of the Ameri- 
can Ambassador, remaining until 1863. In 1864 and 1865, he 
travelled extensively in Europe and the Orient. Upon his re- 
turn to Rome in the Spring of 1865, he found a new Ambassador 
representing the United States, and was prevailed upon by that 

212 Bishops of North Carolina. 

gentleman to become Chaplain of the Embassy. This he con- 
sented to do, and the Ambassador rented the upper apartments 
of an old palace belonging to a Roman prince, one of the largest 
rooms in this building being used as a chapel. When the lease 
expired, the owner of the palace, who occupied the lower floor 
and was allied with the papal party, refused to re-rent it unless 
the religious services therein were discontinued. Doctor Lyman 
then rented a hall at his own expense, and held services in it in 
1866-1867. In the Spring of the latter year, Cardinal Antonelli 
formally notified the American Ambassador that these services 
would no longer be tolerated inside the city unless conducted 
within the privileged precincts of the Embassy. As the Pope 
then exercised temporal sovereignty, this left Doctor Lyman to 
choose between services in the Embassy or beyond the limits of 
the city. Believing that separating from the Ambassador's 
house was the surest means of rendering the services permanent, 
he organized a congregation which worshipped in a little chapel 
outside of the limits of Rome, and there he ministered till 1869, 
when he resigned. Soon after he returned to America, the 
temporal power of the Pope was abolished, and the Protestant 
congregation outside the walls (then under the Reverend Doctor 
liTevin) was no longer hindered from entering the gates. Saint 
Paul's Church, in Rome, was accordingly built, at a cost of about 
$150,000, and many years later Doctor Lyman had the pleasure, 
under happier conditions, of paying several visitations to it as 
Bishop. And there it stands at the present time, ''a witness to 
the ancient Catholic faith, as upheld by the Reformed Anglican 

So wide had Doctor Lyman's reputation as a theologian 
spread, and so well known was his interest in education, that he 
was invited, in June, 1869 (while still abroad), to return to 
America and become Dean of the General Theological Semi- 
nary, in New York City, but this high honor he declined. Upon 

Bishops of North Carolina. 213 

his non-acceptance, the Reverend John Murray Forhes, D. D., 
was made Dean.* 

After resigning his charge at Rome in 1860, Doctor Lyman 
again travelled in the far East, later spending some time in Eng- 
land. He came back to America in 1870, and accepted a call to 
become Rector of Trinity Church, in San Francisco, California, 
one of the strongest parishes on the Pacific coast. He was there 
officiating with great success and ever-growing influence when 
elected Assistant Bishop of J^orth Carolina in the Spring of 
1873. As his consecration was not to take place until December 
of that year, it gave him an opportunity to spend the Summer 
in Europe, and he returned from this tour in good health and 

In the sketch of Bishop Atkinson, heretofore presented in this 
work, there is some account of the proceedings in the Diocese of 
JSTorth Carolina which led up to the creation of the office of 
Assistant Bishop, and hence it is unnecessary to repeat the same 

It was on the 30th day of May, 1873, during a session of the 
Diocesan Convention at Fayetteville, that the Reverend Doctor 
Lyman was elected Assistant Bishop of North Carolina. Thirty- 
four ballots were taken before the constitutional majority was 

* This Doctor Forbes had been a friend of Bishop Ives, and was 
connected, to some extent, with him after Ives became a Roman Cath- 
olic. After enjoying success as a member of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church. Doctor Forbes had himself become a Roman Catholic in 1849 
(three years ahead of Ives), had entered the priesthood of the Church 
of Rome, and been placed in charge of several parishes. In 1852. the 
Right Reverend Ignatius A. Reynolds. Bishop of the Roman Catholic 
Diocese of Charleston, in South Carolina, appointed him his theolo- 
gian in the Plenary Council of Baltimore; and he received a similar 
honor from the Right Reverend .Tohn Bernard Fitzpatriek, Roman 
Catholic Bishop of Boston, when the Provincial Council of New York 
assembled in 1854. In the latter year the degree of S. T. D. was con- 
ferred upon him by a Vatican Decree of Pius IX. In 1859, Doctor 
Forbes became convinced that he had taken an erroneous step in be- 
coming a Roman Catholic, and forthwith re-entered the Church which 
he had formerly abandoned, was restored to his priestly office therein, 
and remained true to the Anglican communion throughout the remain- 
der of his life. 

214 Bishops of N'orth Caeolina. 

attained. Among other clergymen voted for were at least five who 
afterwards became Bishops, these being the Reverend Doctors 
Alfred A. "Watson, William Stevens Perry, George F. Seymour, 
Hugh Miller Thompson, and John H. D. Wingfield. On several 
of the earlier ballots, Doctor Lyman received a substantial ma- 
jority of the votes cast, but canon law required that an election 
should not result until one person should receive a majority of 
the number of clergymen who were entitled to seats in the Con- 
vention, v/hether they were present in person or not. On the 
final ballot, Doctor Lyman was lacking only one vote of having 
such majority, when the casting vote of Bishop Atkinson elected 

The consecration of Doctor Lyman as Assistant Bishop of 
l^^orth Carolina took place in Christ Church at Raleigh on the 
11th day of December, 1873, and was the first ceremonial of the 
kind which ever occurred within the Diocese — Bishops Ravens- 
croft, Ives, and Atkinson, all having been consecrated in other 
States. The presiding Bishop at the above consecration was the 
Right Reverend William Rollinson Whittingham, of Maryland, 
an aged and venerable prelate, by whom Doctor Lyman had been 
made deacon and priest, as heretofore stated. There were also 
present and participating in the impressive ceremonies on this 
occasion. Bishops Atkinson and Lay — the latter having been 
transferred from the Missionary Jurisdiction of the South-west 
and made Bishop of the Diocese of Easton, in the State of Mary- 
land. Bishop Lay delivered the consecration sermon — a dis- 
course of great power, pleading for Christian unity — this being 
afterwards published by order of the Convention. 

Bishop Lyman selected Raleigh as his place of residence, and 
purchased a large lot, with the dwelling thereon, on the north- 
east corner of ISTorth and Wilmington Streets. The dAvelling he 
beautified and enlarged, among the additions thereto being a 
handsome gallery, v/here were displayed many paintings and 
other works of art which he had gathered during his residence 
in various parts of the world. Being a man of wealth, he was 
able freely to indulge his love for the fine arts, and still have 

Bishops ok Nokth Cakolina. 215 

means left with which to help the poor and contribute to the 
cause of religion. 

At the time of Doctor Lyman's election as Assistant Bishop, 
Christ Church was the only general house of worship in Raleigh 
for the white race of the Episcopal communion, and that 
parish then labored under the disadvantage of the pews be- 
ing owned by the various families composing its congrega- 
tion — in fact, the Church was mainly built with funds raised 
through the sale of pews, though these (with few exceptions) 
have since been donated by their respective OAvners to the parish, 
thus making Christ Church a free house of worship. To supply 
the need, existing in 1874, of a church with free pews, the 
Church of the Good Shepherd was organized in Raleigh. The 
plan of the building was donated by the Reverend Johannes 
Adam Oertel, a clergyman of the Diocese who had made a study 
of ecclesiastical architecture and had planned quite a number of 
other churches throughout jSTorth Carolina, though his fame as 
an artist will be more enduring — he having made a number of 
celebrated paintings of a religious nature, some of these now 
being owned by the University of the South at Sew'anee. As the 
Church of the Good Shepherd was attended by Bishop Lyman 
and his household, a word or tw^o concerning its history may be 
of interest. It is located on the western half of a block bounded 
by Hillsborough, McDowell, Morgan, and Salisbury Streets, 
facing on the first-named thoroughfare, one block west of the 
Capitol. Its first Rector, the Reverend Edward R. Rich, in 
making his report to the Diocesan Convention of 1874, said: 
"This parish, which now makes its first parochial report and 
applies for admission into union with the Convention at its 
present session, was organized on the 25th of February, 1874, to 
meet the imperative demand of a free church in this rapidly 
growing city. The first services were held in 'Tucker Hall,' on 
Quinquagessima Sunday, 1874, and have been continued regu- 
larly ever since, with joint service during the week in Christ 

21 G Bishops of ]^orth Carolina. 

Cliurch. . . . The Easter offering of tlie congregation, 
ainoimting to $4,135.75, was a noble beginning towards the 
building fund of our free chureb, and every effort is being made 
to swell that amount, so that we may, with the aid rendered us 
by our friends, secure a lot and erect our Church at an early 
day." Upon the resignation of the Eeverend Mr. Rich as Rector 
of the Church of the Good Shepherd, he was succeeded by the 
Reverend Robert Strange, now Bishop of East Carolina. Doctor 
Strange later gave place to the Reverend William Meade Clark 
(now editor of the Southern Churchman, in Richmond) ; and, 
the latter's pastorate being relinquished, November 30, 1891, he 
was succeeded, in turn, by the Reverend I. McK. Pittenger, 
D. D., present Rector of the parish. This congregation, in 
recent years, has outgrown its original Church building (which 
will hereafter be used as a chapel and parish house), and is 
erecting a beautiful and spacious granite edifice which, when 
completed, will be one of the finest buildings of its kind in 
]!Torth Carolina. Its corner-stone (sent from the Holy Land by 
Doctor Pittenger during his travels abroad) was laid on All 
Saints Day, 1899, tv^^enty-five years after the foundation of the 

When Bishop Lyman first came to i^Torth Carolina he was 
fifty-eight years old, yet strong and vigorous in physique, and 
he set about his work with indomitable zeal and energy. JN^ot 
only did he labor for the welfare of the white race, but great 
interest was also manifested by him in the spiritual and educa- 
tional enlightenment of the negroes. Mention has already been 
made of the Church's having established Saint Augustine's 
School, for negroes, at Raleigh, duz-ing the Episcopate of Bishop 
Atkinson. After a visit paid to that institution in May, 1875, 
Bishop Lyman commented upon it as follows : "ISTo better evi- 
dence could be desired, than is furnished by this congregation, 
of the eminent adaptedness of the services of our Church to our 
colored population. The responses were full and general, the 
singing and chanting spirited, and the behavior of the congrega- 

Bisiiors OF NoKTii Cakolina. 217 

tion remarkably reverent and devotional. A liturgical service, 
where the language is plain and simple, and where its frequent 
repetition makes it most familiar, is just that which is specially 
suited to this class of people, while its sober and chastening 
spirit sei'ves to restrain those emotional excesses into Avhich they 
are otherwise so liable to be dra^vn." 

In January, 1876, Bishop Lyman visited Randolph County, 
where was then located Trinity College, a Methodist institution 
of learning which has since been removed to Durham. !N"o house 
of worship of the Episcopal Church then being near Trinity, 
the chapel of the college was graciously tendered Bishop Lyman 
by the president of the institution, who, with his faculty and 
students, attended the services in a body. Speaking of the 
reception with which he had met on that occasion, the Bishop 
said : "I very highly appreciated the kind courtesy of the Presi- 
dent, which enabled me to give the benefit of our services to 
several members of our Church, living in the immediate neigh- 
borhood, and who are quite remote from any of our places of 
worship. I was glad, too, of this opportunity for manifesting 
to our Methodist brethren how friendly are our feelings toward 
them; and that, while ecclesiastically separated from them, we 
entertain no other sentiments than those of Christian kindness 
and cordiality. I can never be brought into contact with them 
without deeply lamenting that we cannot all 'speak the same 
thing, and be perfectly joined together in the same mind and the 
same judgment.' May He Svho maketh men to be of one mind 
in an house,' in His own good time, remove all grounds of mis- 
apprehension and alienation, that so we may be drawn together 
'in the unity of the spirit and in the bond of peace.' " 

The Bishop of Tennessee, intending to be absent abroad for 
some months during the year 1876, had invited Bishop Lyman to 
visit the eastern part of that Diocese and perform the duties of 
the Episcopate in his absence. In accordance with this request. 
Bishop Lyman spent the early part of February in Tennessee, 
administering the rite of confirmation on several occasions, be- 

218 Bishops of ISTokth Caroli:s^a. 

sides holding other services. In recording that visitation, he 
remarked: ''This brief visit to a sister Diocese proved a very 
pleasant one, and I was glad of this opportunity for manifesting 
such fraternal relations." 

Returning from Tennessee in February, Bishop Lyman re- 
sumed his duties in ISTorth Carolina, in a few weeks going to the 
eastern part of the State. In the latter locality he visited Saint 
Thomas's Church in Bath — the oldest church building in ITorth 
Carolina — and expressed great gratification at the restoration 
of that venerable edifice, as well as at the care taken of the 
burial ground adjacent thereto. 

At the end of the Summer of 1876, Bishop Lyman went to his 
old home in California to arrange some private business, and 
returned to ITorth Carolina in November. He held services at 
numerous points throughout the Western States during his 
absence, and came back by way of Philadelphia, ISTew York, and 
Baltimore, also conducting religious worship on several occa- 
sions in those cities. 

Mention has already been made, in the sketch of Bishop 
Atkinson, of the conference of Bishops of the Anglican Church 
which he attended in 1867 at Lambeth Palace, the seat of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury. That conference resulted so satis- 
factorily and awakened so much interest in the cause of religion 
that it has since been held about every ten years. In 1878, 
Bishop Atkinson was too much enfeebled in health to make the 
trip again, but Bishop Lyman accepted the Archbishop's invita- 
tion. Upon hearing of this, the Diocesan Convention of 1878 
passed a resolution (offered by the Reverend Jarvis Buxton) as 
follows : 

"Resolved, That the Convention has heard with gratification of the 
intention of the Assistant Bishop to attend the Conference of Bishops 
of the Anglo-Catholic Church, called by the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, to meet at Lambeth in the month of July next ; and it would be 
a matter of additional gratification could the Bishop of the Diocese 
also make it his convenience to attend the same Conference, and con- 
tribute thereto the benefit of his wise councils." 

Bishops of XouTir Carolina. 219 

Bishop Lyman sailed from New York, June 6, 1878, on his 
jonniey to the Lambeth Conference. Among his fellow-passen- 
gers, with the same destination as his own, were Bishops Bedell 
of Ohio, Doane of Albany, and Spalding of Colorado. After a 
pleasant voyage, the vessel landed at Queenstown. From there 
Bishop Lyman went first to Cork and afterwards to Dublin. 
Going from Ireland to Oxford, he there participated in a mis- 
sionary meeting in the interest of the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. On June 24th, in Saint 
Paul's Cathedral, he participated in the consecration of the 
Bishops of Litchfield, Nassau, and Queensland. At this conse- 
cration, the Archbishop of Canterbury presided. 

Of his interesting experiences while abroad on the above mis- 
sion in 1878, Bishop Lyman's journal gives a graphic account, 
which space will not permit us to reproduce in full. Referring 
to June 28th, he says : "On the afternoon of that day, in Can- 
terbury Cathedral, there was a very impressive service, when 
the Archbishop gave a warm address of welcome to the Bishops 
from foreign lands whom he had invited to meet him on that 
occasion. The grand old Cathedral with all its memories of the 
past, the large stone chair of St. Augustine in which the Arch- 
bishop was seated and from which he gave his address, the long 
line of white-robed choristers, followed by the clergy and 
Bishops — all duly vested and passing up the venerable nave — 
combined to make this one of the most imposing, solemn, and 
impressive ceremonials which it has ever been my privilege to 
witness. On the following Tuesday, July 2d, the opening ser- 
vice of the Lambeth Conference took place in the Chapel of the 
Palace. I felt that I was standing on a very sacred spot, Avhen 
I remembered that it was in this same chapel that the first 
American Bishops, who received English consecration, were 
admitted to the Episcopate on the 4th of February, 1787. "What 
a marvelous expansion has been witnessed since that day of 
small things !" 

220 BisHors of North Carolina. 

In commenting on the probable effects of the Lambeth Con- 
ference, Bishop Lyman used this language: "Whatever serves 
to promote a better understanding, and an increase of unity, in 
all the constituent parts of the widespread Anglican Com- 
munion, must be a singular advantage. And in thus realizing 
the blessings of true unity among ourselves, we are naturally led 
to yearn more anxiously for unity, in God's good time, among 
all the branches of the One Holy, Catholic and Apostolic 
Church, and among all who profess and call themselves Chris- 
tians. Such meetings as that which took place at Lambeth last 
Summer can hardly fail to exert a powerful influence over the 
entire body, thus represented, in restraining all doctrinal and 
ritual divergencies, in awakening on every side a higher sense of 
the value of unity, and in deepening, at the same time, the love 
for those primitive and truly Catholic principles upon which 
alone any larger and more widespread unity can be effectually 

The Lambeth Conference of 1878 adjourned on July 27th in 
that year, with solemn services in Saint Paul's Cathedral. 
After that, Bishop Lyman visited Leamington, Warwick Castle, 
Stratford-on-Avon, and other places of interest. At Farnham 
Castle, the seat of the Bishop of Winchester, he met with a num- 
ber of other Bishops of the Anglican communion, and also with 
Bishop Herzog of the Old Catholic Church of Switzerland — a 
communion in close accord with the Church of England. An- 
other Old Catholic there present was the celebrated Pere Hya- 
cinth. From Farnham Castle, Bishop Lyman went to Wells 
Cathedral to attend a missionary service inaugurated by the 
Bishop of Bath and Wells; and, after that, was a guest of the 
Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. While in England he saw for 
the last time Bishop Joseph P. B. Wilmer, of Louisiana, who 
died soon after returning to America. Eeferring to this inter- 
view, and to Bishop Wilmer personally, he said: "At the rail- 
way station near Great Malvern I parted from Bishop Wilmer, 
who remained there for a day to give comfort and consolation to 

Bishops of North Carolina. 221 

a valued friend who had kilcly been sorely bereaved. Little did 
T think, when parting from my dear brother, that this would be 
our last meeting on earth. Let me only add that I cannot but 
esteem it a great privilege to have been thrown, so much as I 
was, with this pure and holy man during the time of his sojourn 
in England. It is indeed a sad loss which the Church has sus- 
tained, in what I might almost call his translation to a better 
world. His wonderful child-like simplicity of character, his 
singular purity, his large-hearted generosity, his genial loveli- 
ness, his deep devotion to the Church, and his advocacy of her 
claims, won all hearts wherever he went during his sojourn in 
England. Long shall I mourn his loss, as one of the truesfand 
dearest friends of my life." 

In August, Bishop Lyman visited the old Abbey Church of 
Saint Albans, and was later a guest at the handsome seat of 
Mr. Beresford-Hope, in the county of Kent. Afterwards he 
went to Ireland, where he was a guest at the palace of the Bishop 
of Down and Connor, by whose invitation he preached at the 
consecration of a handsome new church in the suburbs of Bel- 
fast, on August 22d. He also visited the Archbishop of Armagh, 
Primate of Ireland. From Ireland he went to Scotland as a 
guest of the Bishop of Edinburgh. On a visit, later paid, to the 
Bishop of Argyll raid the Isles, he was placed in a seat by the 
side of that Church dignitary during the progress of a Synod, 
before which he delivered an address. "While in Scotland, 
Bishop Lyman was also a guest of the Earl of Glasgow on a 
yachting party. In the course of this cruise the Earl's yacht 
touched at the Island of Cambrae, where the Bishop preached 
in the Cathedral of the Isles. Going back to England, he was 
the recipient of many more courtesies, both from Bishops and 
other clergy, besides the laity. He also, while there, had an 
opportunity of renewing his acquaintance with the Vicar of 
Adderbury, who had once been one of his travelling companions 
in Egypt and Syria many years before. Of the treatment 
accorded himself and his brethren from America, while in Great 

222 JBisHOFS OF ISToKTH Cakolina. 

Britain, Bishop Lyinaii said: "ISTearly every Sunday while I 
was in Great Britain, I was preaching in one or more of the 
parish churches, and I was greatly cheered hy the warm and 
affectionate welcome which greeted the American Bishops in 
every part of the United Kingdom. It was quite impossible for 
me to respond favorably to many of the invitations to preach, 
which I was constantly receiving, or to accept one tithe of the 
hospitality which was so generously tendered. In fact, we were 
all treated, not like strangers, but as brethren beloved, and we 
were welcomed with a heartiness and warmth which made us 
feel more like kindred than as foreigners. I am sure that we 
have all of us brought away very sweet memories of our sojourn, 
which we shall never fail to recall with the most grateful emo- 

After being joined by some members of his family during the 
month of October, Bishop Lyman left England, going to France, 
Spain, Algeria, the Island of Corsica, and Rome, which last- 
mentioned place (as heretofore stated) had once been his home. 
Recording his impressions of this scene of his earlier labors, he 
said : "This visit to Home was one of peculiar interest to me. 
It afforded me no common satisfaction to officiate in the beauti- 
ful church which has been erected there, and to witness the great 
ecclesiastical changes since the day when I was ministering in 
an humble chapel outside the gates of the city. The noble church 
which now stands in a conspicuous spot, in the very heart of 
Rome, has attracted great attention in the city; and, at all its 
services, very considerable numbers of the Roman people are 
seen, looking on with no ordinary interest. I trust it may not be 
long before arrangements can be made for conducting a regular 
Italian service within its walls, for it is only by such a service 
that the Italian people can be led to see and understand the true 
position of the Anglican Communion. And there is greater need 
of this because of the multiplied so-called Protestant services 
now held in Rome, by many varying sects, advocating, as some 
of them do, the most extreme and fanatical opinions. If the 

Bisiioi's OF XoKTH Carolina. 223 

only ideas of a Reforniecl Church are to be su[)i)lied by such 
teachers, the very name of Protestant is likely to be brought into 

Going from Rome to Paris, and thence to London, Bishop 
Lyman received a pressing invitation to spend Christmas in 
the last-mentioned place with the Reverend Doctor Tremlett. 
This invitation he accepted, and found, at the home of his host, 
Bishop and and Mrs. Lay, who had just arrived from America. 
Bishop Lay, it will be remembered, had participated in the con- 
secration of Bishop Lyman in Raleigh six years before, and had 
preached the sermon on that occasion. 

Leaving his family in Europe and embarking for Xew York 
from Liverpool on December 31, 1878, Bishop Lyman spent the 
fii-st few days of the year 1879 on the Atlantic Ocean, experi- 
encing a stormy voyage, but landing safely on xVmerican soil, 
January 11th. From Xew York he went to Baltimore, and 
reached his home in Raleigh on the 24th of January. Shortly 
thereafter he went to visit and consult with Bishop Atkinson 
in Wilmington, later setting out on his Spring visitations, which 
were brought to a successful close. 

In his journal for May 23, 1880, Bishop Lyman refers to an 
interesting branch of the Church's work, saying : "On the even- 
ing of the same day I took part in the service at the Church of 
rhe Good Shepherd, Raleigh, when the Rev, Job Turner, a deaf- 
mute, and Deacon of the Diocese of Virginia, rendered the ser- 
vice into the sign language, the pupils of the Deaf and Dumb 
Asylum being present. He also baptized a child of deaf-mute 
parents, and afterwards preached — the baptismal service and the 
sermon being also read by the Rector. I was much pleased to 
learn from Mr. Turner that he expects to spend most of his time 
in visiting the larger towns and cities of our country, holding 
services for this very interesting class of persons, and thus 
enabling them to enjoy occasionally the privileges of our public 

224 Bishops of ITorth Cakolina. 

The first official act by Bishop Lyman after the adjournment 
of the Diocesan Convention of 1880 was on May 30th, in that 
year, when he ordained to the priesthood the Reverend Joseph 
Blount, Cheshire, Jr., afterwards Assistant Bishop under him 
and eventually his successor as Bishop of N"orth Carolina, which 
office he now holds. Another deacon raised to the priesthood a 
few years later (j!^ovember 15, 1885) hy Bishop Lyman was the 
Reverend Robert Strange, now Bishop of East Carolina. Later 
still (May 24, 1891), Bishop Lyman also ordained, as priest, the 
Reverend Junius Moore Horner, at present Missionary Bishop 
of Asheville, in the State of North Carolina. 

Upon the death of Bishop Atkinson, January 4, 1881, Bishop 
Lyman succeeded to the full Bishopric of ISTorth Carolina 
without additional ceremony, and presided over the Diocesan 
Convention which assembled in Raleigh four months later, 
in May. On the latter occasion he spoke feelingly of his past 
associations with Bishop Atkinson, saying, in part: ''From 
the day of my entrance into this Diocese as his associate, he gave 
me his fullest confidence, and rejoiced in every way to aid and 
strengthen me in my work. And to me it was a great comfort to 
enjoy the benefit of his wise counsels, and that fraternal sym- 
pathy which he always manifested in the fullest measure. ISTow 
that so great a source of strength is taken from me, and I am 
left to carry on alone the burdens and responsibilities of this 
widely extended Diocese, I feel that I shall not ask in vain for 
your sympathy and prayers, your hearty and cordial co-opera- 

In 1881, while on a visit to Detroit, Michigan, Bishop Lyman 
went, by invitation of Bishop Harris, to Ann Arbor, and there 
(October 16th) preached at the ordination, as deacon, of the 
eminent author and educator, Moses Coit Tyler, afterwards Pro- 
fessor of American History in Cornell University, at which 
place he was advanced to the priesthood by Bishop Coxe. Pro- 
fessor Tyler had formerly been a Congregational clergyman. 

Bishops of Nokth Carolina. 225 

Some brief mention lias already been made (in the sketch of 
Bishop Atkinson) of the unsuccessful effort to establish an edu- 
cational institution for boys, at Morganton, in Burke County. 
This was to be called Wilbcrforce School, as a memorial of the 
Right Reverend Samuel Wilberforce, Lord Bishop successively 
of Oxford and "vYinchester, in England, who had died in 1873. 
This eminent Anglican dignitary was the same Bishop of Oxford 
of whom Bishop Ives had so often spoken in terms of admira- 
tion in years gone by. Bishop Atkinson having urged upon the 
Diocesan Convention of 1874 the desirability of providing re- 
ligious educational facilities for boys, a committee was ap- 
pointed — consisting of the Reverend Messrs. Benjamin S. Bron- 
son, Edward M. Forbes, and Robert B. Sutton, together with 
Messrs. William H. Hardin, and Claudius B. Denson — to take 
the matter under consideration. At its own request, this com- 
mittee was continued, and authorized (with the concurrence of 
Bishops Atkinson and Lyman) to determine upon a place of 
location for the school; also to take any other action by them 
deemed advisable. Having been requested by Bishop Atkinson 
to assume chief direction of the matter. Bishop Lyman person- 
ally inspected various sites, and finally (with the unanimous con- 
currence of the other members of the committee) selected a tract 
of two hundred acres — called Vine Hill — a mile or two souih- 
east of Morganton. At the Court House in the latter toAvn, on 
July 6, 1874, Bishop Lyman addressed a mass meeting of citi- 
zens of the vicinity. Afterwards a fund was raised by popular 
subscription and the Vine Hill tract purchased, besides about 
one thousand dollars being pledged to aid in erecting buildings. 
At the Diocesan Convention of 1877, a committee was ajjpointed 
to take into consideration the condition of Wilberforce School, 
this committee consisting of General William R. Cox, Colonel 
Joseph J. Erwin,* and Colonel Thomas George Walton — the two 

* As a raeniorial to Colonel Erwin and his wife, a beautiful stone 
chapel was erected at West Durham in 1907-'08 by their son William 
A. Erwiu, a never-tiring worker in the interests of the Church. 

226 Bishops of ^STorth Carolina. 

last named being citizens of Morganton and delegates from 
Grace Cliiircli in that town. This committee recommended that 
some person should be appointed to solicit funds for the erection 
of the school building; and, in accordance with this suggestion, 
Colonel Walion was chosen for that purpose. To the Diocesan 
Convention which met in May, 1878, Bishop Lyman reported 
that work on the building ^vould probably be begun by the fol- 
lowing September. The intention of the committee, he said, was 
to rent a house in Morganton for the temporary work of the 
school. Early in 1879, matters looked promising, for Bishop 
Lyman was able to announce that sufficient funds had been 
raised to pay for the erection of the building on plans gratui- 
tously drawn by an architect in Baltimore. During that year 
the erection progressed as far as the windows of the second story, 
and then ceased for lack of funds. By way of making matters 
worse, reports began to be circulated that the building was 
unsafe — in danger of collapsing — and a committee was ap- 
pointed to investigate its condition. This committee consisted 
of the Reverend Robert B. Sutton, D. D., the Honorable John S. 
Henderson, and Colonel Roger B. Atkinson. One of these gen- 
tlemen, Mr. Henderson, was detained from the investigation by 
public business, but Doctor Sutton and Colonel Atkinson found 
the building entirely safe, though unsatisfactory in some other 
respects. At a later period Bishop Lyman tried to find some 
person who Avould be willing to lease the property on easy terms, 
complete the building, and run the school as a personal enter- 
prise under the auspices of the Church. This effort was unsuc- 
cessful. The final failure of the Wilberforce School movement 
was announced to the Diocesan Convention of 1882 by Bishop 
Lyman, in these words : "On Friday, July 29th, 1881, I met the 
Trustees of Wilberforce School; and, after mature deliberation, 
and a full consideration of all the difficulties surrounding the 
enterprise, it was resolved to go no further with the work, but 
let the property be sold and the proceeds divided pro rata among 
the contributors. It was a great disappointment to see this 

Bishops of iN'oirnr Carolina. 227 

scheme prove unsuccessful, but the unsaiisfactoiy character of 
the buildiug, aud other weighty considerations, induced us to 
adopt this course. I trust that the day is not distant when a 
school for boys, under the auspices of the Church, may be suc- 
cessfully established." 

The failure of the efforts to establish Wilberforce School was 
indeed a disappointment to Bishop Lyman, who had not only 
labored for its success, but personally was a liberal contributor 
to the fund raised for its erection. Another zealous worker, who 
raised funds by personal appeals in New York, Maryland, and 
other States besides ISTorth Carolina, was the Eeverend Neilson 
Falls, Rector of Grace Church in Morgantou. This gentleman 
also personally supervised a good deal of the work. iSTor were 
efforts in behalf of the school limited to Episcopalians, as Col- 
onel Samuel McDowell Tate, and otlier public-spirited citizens 
of Morganton who belonged to different communions, nobly 
aided in the work by which it was vainly sought to build up a 
useful educational institution. The trustees of Wilberforce 
School, named in the act incorporating it (chapter 139 Private 
Laws of lS74-'75) were the Eight KeA^erend Thomas xVtkinson, 
the Right Reverend Theodore B. Lyman, the Reverend Benja- 
min S. Bronson, the Eeverend ISTeilson Falls, and Messrs. Wil- 
liam R. Myers, Thomas G. Walton, Joseph J. Erwin, Kemp P. 
Battle and Samuel McD. Tate. 

While referring to the educational work which has been car- 
ried on, from time to time, in the interests of the Church, men- 
tion should be made of the labors of the late Eeverend Francis 
J. Murdoch, D.D., of Salisbury. Though not conducting a 
divinity school, this gentleman personally instructed upwards 
of twelve candidates for orders, some of Avhom are now among 
the most useful clergy of the Diocese. A private Church school, 
for girls, under the Reverend Francis Hilliard, of Oxford, also 
did much good work. 

In 1883, the Diocese of North Carolina was divided by sever- 
ing therefrom a terriiory out of which was created the Diocese 

228 Bishops of North Carolina. 

of East Carolina. While, as early as 1866, there was some in- 
formal discussion as to the desirability of erecting a new dio- 
cese, probably the first definite action with this end in view 
had been taken at the Diocesan Convention of North Carolina 
in May, 1868, when a special committee was appointed, con- 
sisting of the Reverend Alfred A. Watson, the Reverend Joseph 
Blount Cheshire, Sr., the Reverend Benjamin S. Bronson, 
Armand J. DeRosset, M.D., and Mr. Richard H. Smith. This 
committee issued a pamphlet of thirty-seven pages, entitled An 
Address to the Several Dioceses of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in the United States on the Subject of the Division of 
Dioceses. This memorial was presented to the General Con- 
vention by the Reverend Alfred A. Watson, chairman of the 
committee, but nothing seems to have come of it. At the ISTorth 
Carolina Diocesan Convention of 1874 the Reverend Francis 
J. Murdoch, Rector of Saint Luke's Church in Salisbury, again 
brought up the matter for consideration with a resolution look- 
ing to such division. After an amendment to Mr. Murdoch's 
resolution by General James G. Martin, the question was re- 
ferred to a committee consisting of the Reverend Edward M. 
Eorbes, the Reverend Alfred A. Watson, the Reverend Joseph 
C. Huske, Armand J. DeRosset, M.D., and the Honorable 
Robert Strange. In 1875, on motion of General Martin, a 
committee was appointed to report a plan of division, and this 
committee consisted of the Reverend Aldert Smedes, the Rev- 
erend Matthias M. Marshall, the Reverend Edward R. Rich, 
General James G. Martin, and Mr. Richard H. Battle, Jr. 
This committee recommended to the Diocesan Convention of 
1876 that the State should be divided into two dioceses, to be 
known respectively as the Diocese of Raleigh and the Diocese 
of Wilmington. The chairman of this committee, Doctor 
Smedes, died in the ensuing year. At the Convention of 1877, 
the question of dividing the diocese was made a special order 
for May 31st; and, on that day, a report from a majority of 
the committee was submitted for the consideration of the Con- 

Bishops of !N"orth Carolina. 229 

vention. This report recommended tliat, with the consent of 
the Bishop, a new Diocese shonld be established (though this 
was not on the geographical lines adopted when the division 
finally took place in 1883), and another committee — Reverend 
Jarvis Buxton, Reverend Alfred A. Watson, Colonel William 
L. DeRosset, Judge Henry R. Bryan, and the Honorable John 
S. Henderson — was appointed to fix other limits of the pro- 
posed Diocese. The limits recommended by this committee 
were also different from those eventually adopted. An ad- 
journed meeting of this latter convention was held in Raleigh 
during the month of September, 1877, chiefly to consider the 
question of establishing a new Diocese. After a free discussion 
of the matter, however, the Reverend Joseph C. Huske offered 
a resolution (duly adopted) which indefinitely postponed action 
in consequence of the wide diversity of opinion existing in the 
Convention as to the wisdom of the proposed course. During 
the sittings of this body. General Martin offered a minority 
report, proposing a division on geographical lines different 
from any of those theretofore suggested. His report rec- 
ommended the establishment of a new Diocese in the eastern 
part of the State. As the central and western section of North 
Carolina would even then be too large, this minority report 
also recommended that the General Convention should be peti- 
tioned further to subdivide that part of the State by establish- 
ing the Missionary Jurisdiction of Asheville, for work still 
further west, in the mountain section. This was the course 
pursued some years later — the Diocese of East Carolina being 
established in 1883, and the Missionary Jurisdiction of Ashe- 
ville in 1898. General Martin's resolution also provided that 
all three dioceses should be under one legislative assembly, to 
be called the Synod of the Province of iN'orth Carolina, and 
that this body should be presided over by the senior Bishop 
residing within the State. This latter plan was never adopted. 
The proposition to divide the Diocese remained in abeyance 
for several years, and was brought up again at the Diocesan 

230 Bishops of I^okth Carolina. 

Convention of 1882, when the Reverend Matthias M. Marshall, 
D.D., offered a resolution setting forth that the welfare of the 
Church demanded a division of the Diocese, also specifying how 
the two separate dioceses should be bounded, and instructing 
the deputies to the ensuing General Convention to obtain that 
assembly's sanction to the proposed change. These resolutions 
were referred to a committee of seven, consisting of the Reverend 
Messrs. Joseph C. Huske, Jarvis Buxton, Matthias M. Mar- 
shall, and Benjamin S. Bronson, together with Messrs. Wil- 
liam L. DeRosset, James S. Battle and John Wilkes. A ma- 
jority of this committee made its report to the effect that "the 
welfare of the Church in ITorth Carolina demands a division 
of the Diocese," but recommending boundary lines other than 
those specified in Doctor Marshall's resolution. In the same 
report it was provided that the deputies to the next General 
Convention should apply to that body for authority to make the 
change, etc. From this report one member of the committee, 
Mr. James S. Battle, dissented on the ground that the question 
had been brought up unexpectedly, without either consulting 
the Bishop or obtaining the consent of the various parishes 
throughout the Diocese for such an important change to be 
made. Colonel William L. DeRosset, another member of the 
committee, also dissented as to the boundaries proposed, though 
he favored division. After a motion to postpone indefinitely the 
consideration of this matter had been voted down, and the minor- 
ity reports had been tabled, the report of the majority was 
adopted by the following vote : 41 clergymen for adopting report 
and 9 against adoption; 23 parishes for adopting report and 
10 against adoption. Later the following resolution was 
adopted : 

"Resoi.ved, That a committee consisting of the Rev. Edward R. 
Rich, the Rev. Joseph B. Cheshire, Jr., and the Rev. E. N. Joyner, 
with A. J. DeRosset, M. D., and R. H. Battle, Jr., Esq., be appointed 
by this Convention to confer witli the Rt. Rev. the Bishop of the 
Diocese, in reference to the division of tlie Diocese of North Carolina, 
and that they report to the next Annual Convention the result of the 
said conference." 

Bisiiors OF North Cakoi.ina. 2'31 

Upon motion, the Kevercnd Francis J. Murdoch was added 
to the above committee. This commit ice found that Bishop 
Lyman was, as he had always been, opposed to division, but 
he said that he would not withhold his consent to such division 
if a large majority of both orders in the Diocesan Convention, 
clergy and laity, should express a preference for that measure. 
At the Diocesan Convention of 1883 Bishop Lyman gave, in a 
full and strong way, the grounds of his objections to division — 
adding that his predecessor, Bishop Atkinson, had formerly 
favored division, "but later, when he realized more fully the 
many difficulties in the way, he entirely changed his opinion 
and became fully convinced that division would be likely to 
prove a disastrous experiment." When the final vote was taken 
during the latter Convention on the question of division, the 
ballot resulted as follows: 42 clergymen for division and 11 
against; 29 parishes for division and 10 against. 

The boundary between the dioceses was finally fixed in ac- 
cordance with a recommendation by a committee at the above 
Diocesan Convention of 1883. The committee at first made a 
report to which the Reverend Doctor Cheshire, Jr., offered an 
amendment. Leave was later obtained by this committee to 
alter its report, and Doctor Cheshire thereupon withdrew the 
amendment he had offered, as, in the new form, it obviated his 
objections. Amendments as to boundary were also offered by 
Colonel William L. DeRosset and the Reverend William S. 
Pettigrew, but these were voted down, after which the com- 
mittee's report was unanimously adopted. It was in these 
words : 

"The committee appointed to report a line of division between the 
proposed two dioceses, after considering several lines, and after a 
conference, with the Bishop present, recommend to the Convention 
the following line : beginning on the Virginia line at the N. E. corner 
of Northampton, and following the east line of said countj', and of 
the counties of Halifax, Edgecombe, Wilson and Johnston, thence the 
south line of Harnett and the west line of Cumberland and Robeson 
to the line of the State of South Carolina." 

232 Bishops of !N"orth Cakouna. 

Upon recommendation by the above committee, further aciiou 
was taken by the Convention by the adoption of the following 
resolution : 

"Resolved, That, the General Convention assenting, a new diocese 
be fonned out of the present Diocese of North Carolina, consisting of 
the counties of Hertford, Bertie, Martin, Pitt, Greene, Wayne, Samp- 
son, Cumberland, and Robeson, and all the counties lying between 
these counties and the Atlantic Ocean," 

The same day that the above action was taken, Bishop Lyman 
gave his formal consent to the same as follows: 

To the Convention of the Diocese of North Carolina: 

Dear Brethren : I hereby give my canonical consent to the erec- 
tion of a new Diocese within the limits of my present jurisdiction and 
with such metes and bounds as have this day been agreed upon. 

T. B. Lyman, 
Charlotte, N. C, May 26, 1883. Bishop of North Carolina. 

The General Convention gave its sanction to the above action, 
and thus the Diocese of North Carolina was divided. We may 
add that the misgivings of those good men who questioned the 
wisdom of the course have happily been proved groundless; 
for both the dioceses have prospered since the division took 
place, and are nobly fulfilling their missions. From one of 
them has also been severed the Missionary Jurisdiction of 

The preliminary convention of the above new diocese was 
held in Wilmington December 12, 1883, when it assumed as its 
title the designation Diocese of East Cakolina. Bishop Lyman 
presided over this preliminary meeting, and was invited to per- 
form Episcopal duties within the borders of the new Diocese 
until a Bishop of its own could be consecrated. On December 
13tli (his Convention elected the Eeverend Alfred Augustin Wat- 
son, D. D., an old and honored presbyter who was then Rector 
of Saint James's Church in Wilmington, to the office of Bishop. 
He was accordingly consecrated in Wilmington on April 17, 
1SS4. The Presiding Bishop at this consecration was the ven- 

Bishops of North Carolina. 233 

emble and greatly beloved "William Mereer Green of Mississippi, 
then eighty-six years old, a native of Wilmington, Avho had 
served the early years of his priesthood under John Stark 
Ravenscroft, first Bishop of North Carolina. There were also 
present at Bishop Watson's consecration (in addition to Bishops 
Green and Lyman) Bishops Neely of Maine, Howe of South 
Carolina, Seymour of Springfield, and Randolph of Virginia, 
the last named being Assistant Bishop at that time. About 
twenty years after Bishop Watson's consecration, a Bishop 
Coadjutor was given him in the person of the Reverend Robert 
Strange, D.D., who succeeded to the full Bishopric of East 
Carolina when Doctor Watson was called from his earthly 
labors, on the 21st of April, 1905. 

From the title-page of the present volume, which states that 
these biographies run "down to the division of the Diocese," 
which occurred in 1883, one might expect this work to close 
with the date when such division was accomplished by the estab- 
lishment of the Diocese of East Carolina, as above. But the 
remainder of the life of Bishop Lyman was a period of such 
marked interest that we shall now continue this narrative, and 
recount such matters of note as occurred bet.Aveen 1883 and the 
date of his death. 

Prior to 1886, the Right Reverend Abram Newkirk Little- 
john. Bishop of Long Island, had been exercising Episcopal 
oversight over American Churches on the Continent of Europe. 
In the above year he resigned this charge, and the Presiding 
Bishop appointed Bishop Lyman to succeed him. Requiring 
only an occasional visit abroad, this appointment did not seri- 
ously interfere with Bishop Lyman's duties in North Carolina, 
so he accepted the proffered post. 

Some months after the American Churches in Europe had 
been committed to his charge, Bisliop Lyman went abroad on 
an Episcopal visitation, embarking from New York on the 4th 

234 Bishops of North Carolina. 

of l^ovember, 1886. After a voyage of nine days, he landed 
in England, where he remained less than a week and then 
crossed the channel to France, spending some time among old 
friends in Paris. In the latter city, assisted by the Bishop of 
'New York, he consecrated the Church of the Holy Trinity. The 
formal request to consecrate was read by the American Am- 
bassador, Honorable Eobert M. McLane, while the sentence 
of consecration was read by the Eeverend William F. Morgan, 
D.D., Rector of the new Church. During his stay in Paris, 
Bishop Lyman frequently officiated at the Church of the Holy 
Trinity as well as elsewhere in that city. There he met his old 
friend Pere Hyacinth, the noted reformer, and paid a visit to 
his congregation on December 5th. Speaking of this occasion 
he said: "The Church was filled by a large and respectable 
congregation. I accompanied the Pere into the chancel, and 
occupied the Episcopal chair. After a very spirited service, 
the Pere entered the pulpit, and delivered a discourse of very 
great eloquence and power. At the close of the service, I as- 
cended the altar steps, and pronounced the benediction. I was 
much gratified by this opportunity to witness the work carried 
on by this zealous reformer, in the face of so much opposition 
and so many discouragements. I saw a good deal of him while 
I was in Paris, and became thoroughly convinced that his work 
has not been properly understood, nor duly appreciated. I 
can but hope that he will soon meet with a much larger measure 
of sympathy, as the valuable results of his work become more 
conspicuously apparent." 

Going from Paris to Geneva, Bishop Lyman officiated in 
the latter city on several occasions for the benefit of American 
and English families there residing. He then went to Dresden, 
where, in addition to the usual services, he confirmed a class 
of fourteen in Saint John's Church. The latter Church, which 
had been completed for some time, was consecrated by him on 
Saint John the Evangelist's Day, December 27th. In the 
latter services he was assisted by a priest of the Greek Church, 

Bishops of Nokth CAiiOLiNA. 235 

the Reverend Mr. Siuinioff and by several clergymen of the 
Church of England from the neighboring Church of All Saints, 
an English mission, -where he also held services during his stay 
in Dresden. At Xice he preached on ]!^ew Year's Day, 1887, 
and laid the corner-stone of a church ihere on January 5th. He 
then went to Florence, and there met many friends who had at- 
tended services held in that place by him twenty-five years be- 
fore, when he lived there. On going to Rome, also a former 
place of residence, so many changes were apparent that some 
neighborhoods in that city, with which he had once been famil- 
iar, were difficult to recognize. After a stay of several days 
duration in Rome, Bishop Lyman returned to England and 
there participated in a ceremony of great interest, recorded by 
him as follows: "On Friday, February 4th, it afforded me 
much gratification to be present in the Private Chapel of Lam- 
beth Palace, and take part in the interesting service, commemo- 
rative of the consecration, in that chapel, one hundred years 
before, of the first Bishops of Pennsylvania and Xew York. 
The Archbishop of Canterbury presided, and conducted the 
service, assisted by the other Bishops present. The Epistle 
was read by me, and the Gospel by the Bishop of London. A 
very fitting and appropriate address was delivered by the Bishop 
of ISTew York ; and the Bishop of Rochester assisted in the com- 
munion service. It was my privilege, while in London, to 
share the kind hospitality of the Archbishop, and to receive 
many courtesies from persons of prominence and distinction." 

On Thursday, February 10, 1887, Bishop Lyman embarked 
from Liverpool, on his return voyage, and arrived in iSTew York 
on the 19th of that month. In I^ew York and Baltimore, on 
his homeward journey, he held services, and arrived in Raleigh 
on March 3d. 

In 1888 Bishop Lyman's health was impaired temporarily, 
but he continued his labors whenever able. On May 6th, in that 
year, he ordained to the priesthood, in Trinity Church, Ashe- 
ville. a deacon with a given name calculated to recall recollec- 

236 Bishops of JSTokth Carolina. 

tions of the first Bishop of N^orth Carolina. This clergyman, the 
Beverend John Bavenscroft Harding, came of a family whose 
members have borne no small part in building up the Church 
in North Carolina, being a son of the, Beverend Israel Harding 
and a nephew of the Beverend Nathaniel Harding. Almost 
immediately after his ordination to the priesthood, the Beverend 
John Bavenscroft Harding was transferred to the Diocese of 
Missouri. He is now Bector of Trinity Church in Utica, and 
President of the Standing Committee of the Diocese of Central 
New York. 

In the Summer of 1888, Bishop Lyman attended the Third 
Lambeth Conference, this being the second gathering of the 
kind at which he was present by invitation of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury. He embarked from New York on June 20th, 
and reached Liverpool on the 29th. From the latter city, on 
the day of his arrival, he proceeded to London, reaching there 
just in time to participate in a religious service preliminary to 
the Lambeth Conference. On the day after his arrival in Lon- 
don, he went to Canterbury, there taking part in services at the 
Cathedral, and also attending a garden party in the beautiful 
grounds of the Deanery. On July 2d, in Westminster Abbey, 
there was a notable gathering of Bishops and other clergy, and 
a sermon on the objects of the Conference was preached by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury. Next day the formal opening serv- 
ices of the business sessions were held in the Chapel of Lambeth 
Palace, when the Bight Beverend Henry Benjamin Whipple, 
Bishop of Minnesota, delivered a sermon. Immediately there- 
after the business sessions began in the library of the Palace. 
Speaking of the meeting in general, Bishop Lyman said: "We 
had about one hundred and forty Bishops present from nearly 
every part of the world to participate in these meetings. . . . 
A wonderful degree of harmony and good feeling prevailed, 
and I cannot doubt that the fruits of this great gathering will 
long be seen in the manifestations, throughout the Church, of 
increased unity and zeal, of mutual forbearance, and kindly 

Bishops of North Carolina. 237 

sympathy and love. The closing service, which was one of deep 
interest and solemnity, took place in St. Paul's Cathedral, Satur- 
day, July 28th. This was the largest of all our meetings, and 
drew together also an immense concourse of the clergy and 
laity. The sermon v/as preached by the Archbishop of York, 
and the Holy Communion was administered to five or six hun- 
dred persons. Thus closed this important Conference, and the 
results of these deliberations will be felt in every part of the 
world. It gave to all who were able to be present a very high 
idea of the strength and dignity, the widespread activity and 
usefulness of the great Anglican Communion." 

During Bishop Lyman's stay in London he preached in Saint 
Paul's Cathedral, in the Royal Chapel Savoy, and in several 
important parish churches. In addition to many invitations 
accepted by him from private sources, he (with other visiting 
Bishops) was cordially received and hospitably entertained at 
Cambridge, Durham, York and Lincoln, later going to Ireland, 
where he was the guest of the Archbishops of Dublin and 
Armagh, and of the Bishops of Cushel and Cork. Eeturning 
to England, he visited the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, 
and preached in Gloucester Cathedral on September 23d. Eai-ly 
in October, he left England to enter once more upon his duties 
as Bishop of the American Churches on the Continent of 
Europe. During the months of October, November and De- 
cember, he visited the cities of Geneva, Dresden, Florence and 
Rome. On December 13th, at Nice, he consecrated the Church 
of the Holy Spirit, a beautiful edifice whose corner-stone he 
had laid during a former visit. From Nice he went to Paris, 
where he twice held confirmation services in the Church of the 
Holy Trinity, and ordained a priest. Going from Paris to 
London, and thence to Liverpool, he embarked from the city 
last named on January 2, 1889. About this time, the Bishop's 
health again gave way to some extent, sleeplessness being added 
to what he terms a "mysterious malady," but he never ceased 
work on account of the indisposition from which he sufi^ered. 

238 Bishops of N'oeth Carolina. 

After Bishop Lyman's return from Europe early in 1880, lie 
went about his visitations with his accustomed zeal. On Janu- 
ary 21st, in the folloAving year, he resigned his charge as Bishop 
of the American Churches in Europe, saying that he did this 
with reluctance owing to the deep interest he felt in foreign 
work, and the great degree of personal pleasure he had experi- 
enced in discharging the duties of that office. He believed, 
however, that, owing to his advancing years, justice to ITorth 
Carolina required the step. 

During the Diocesan Convention of 1889, the Beverend 
Joseph Blount Cheshire, Jr., offered a series of resolutions set- 
ting forth the propriety of holding the next Convention in 
May, 1890, at Tarborough, and at the same time celebrating the 
one hundredth anniversary of the first efforts to re-organize 
the Church in North Carolina at that town in 1790. The reso- 
lutions further provided that the Diocese of East Carolina 
should be invited to participate, and a committee should be 
appointed to confer with a similar committee from that Diocese 
in arranging a joint celebration. These resolutions being duly 
adopted. Bishop Lyman named, as members of the committee, 
the Reverend Messrs. Jarvis Buxton, "William S. Pettigrew, 
Matthias M. Marshall, and Joseph Blount Cheshire, Jr., to- 
gether with the Honorable Kemp P. Battle, the Honorable John 
S. Henderson, Mr. Samuel S. Nash, Judge Frederick Philips, 
and Mr. Charles E. Johnson. Mr. Nash was appointed a 
special commissioner to convey a copy of these proceedings to 
the Council of the Diocese of East Carolina. The latter body 
passed resolutions accepting the invitation, and Bishop Watson 
appointed as a committee, on the part of East Carolina, the 
Reverend Messrs. N. Collin Hughes, Robert Brent Drane, 
Robert Strange, and Nathaniel Harding, together with Colonel 
William L. DeRosset, Mr. F. R. Rose, Mr. Wilson G. Lamb, 
Colonel John Wilder Atkinson, and Mr. DuBrutz Cutlar. In 
accordance with arrangements made by the joint committee 
from the two Dioceses, the celebration at Tarborough continued 
for three days. May 16th-18th, 1890. The delegates were wel- 

Bishops of Nokth Carolina, 239 

cuiiK d oil belialf of the people of Tarborougli by Judge Frederick 
Pliilips, jtnd Bisliop Lymau presided over llic exercises. Many 
valuable historical addresses were also delivered as follows: 
"The Church in Connection with the Anglo-Saxon Kace," hy 
the Honorable Alfred Moore Waddell ; "The Church— Its Cath- 
olic Character," by the Reverend IST. Collin Hughes; "The 
Church in the Province of North Carolina," by the Reverend 
Joseph Blount Cheshire, Jr. ; "The Colonial Laymen of the 
Church of England in North Carolina," by the Honorable 
Kemp P. Battle; "Colonial Parishes and Church Schools," by 
the Reverend Robert Brent Drane; "The Conventions of 1790- 
1794 and the Bishop-elect [Charles Pettigrew]," by the Rev- 
erend William S. Pettigrew; "Decay and Revival, 1800-1830," 
by the Reverend Joseph Blount Cheshire, Jr. ; "The First Three 
Bishops — Raveuscroft, Ives and Atkinson," by the Right Rev- 
erend Alfred A. "Watson, Bishop of East Carolina ; "Missionary 
and Educational Entex'prises," by the Reverend Jarvis Bux- 
ton; "The Work of the Church in Hospitals, Homes, Sister- 
hoods, and Orphanages," by the Reverend Thomas M. N. 
George; "The Church in North Carolina — Its Present Condi- 
tion and Prospects," by the Reverend Matthias M. Marshall; 
"Duty of the Church with reference to Unity among Chris- 
tians," by the Reverend Francis J. Murdoch ; and "White Haven 
Church and the Reverend Robert Johnston Miller," by the 
Reverend Joseph Blount Cheshire, Jr. These addresses (with 
reprints of the Journals of 1790-1794) were published in book 
form in 1892, under the editorial supervision of the Reverend 
Doctor Cheshire, Jr., now Bishop, and make an interesting and 
instructive volume of 456 pages, its title being Church History 
in North Carolina. As early as 1882, Doctor Cheshire had 
published a pamphlet on the early efforts to organize a diocese 
in North Carolina, that monograph being entitled The Early 
Conventions, held at Tawborough* Anno Domini 1790, 1793 
and 179.',. 

* The name of this town is now Tarborough. 

240 Bishops of ISTokth Carolina. 

Thougli the early Bishops of the Diocese used signet rings 
which were emblematical of their office, it was not until 1890 
that the Diocesan Convention adopted an official seal, this being 
the same which is now in use. 

On January 15, 1891, Bishop Lyman sailed from 'New York 
to Bermuda, accompanied by one of his daughters, but re- 
mained only a short time, reaching New York once more on 
February 8th. Later on in that year, on May 15th, when the 
Diocesan Convention of North Carolina was in session at Ashe- 
ville, and while the Bishop was absent from the chair, Mr. 
Frank P. Hayv/ood, Jr., a delegate from Christ Church in 
Raleigh, oif ered the following resolution : 

"Resolved, That a committee, to consist of three clergymen and 
two laymen, be appointed by the President of the Convention to report 
to this Convention an appropriate service to be held by the Church in 
commemoration of the ordination of our Bishop to the priesthood, 
which took place December 19th, 1841." 

Upon the passage of this resolution the chair appointed, as 
members of the committee, the Eeverend A. Burtis Hunter, 
the Reverend Bennett Smedes, the Reverend Joseph W. Murphy, 
the Honorable Joseph B, Batchelor and Mr. Frank P. Hay- 
wood, Jr. Through its chairman, the Reverend Mr. Hunter, 
this committee later asked to be continued, with permission to 
print its report. The celebration contemplated by the above 
resolution took place in the city of Raleigh, at both the Church 
of the Good Shepherd and Christ Church on December 19th- 
20th, 1891. On Saturday, December 19th, the ceremonies were 
begun in the Church of the Good Shepherd. The choir, fol- 
lowed by the clergy with the Bishop, entered the church, singing 
a processional hymn. Then a beautiful service was held, in- 
cluding an address by Bishop Lyman, reviewing his past ex- 
periences throughout the fifty years of his ministry. The 
music was rendered jointly by the choirs of Christ Church and 
the Church of the Good Shepherd. At the conclusion of ths 

Bishops of Xortu Cakolina. 241 

ceremonies, the Reverend Doctor Mtitthias M. Marshall, Rector 
of Christ Church and President of the Standing Committee 
of the Diocese, delivered an address, and closed his remarks by 
presenting the Bishop wiih a beautiful Pastoral Staff, made of 
ebony with massive silver ornamentations, this being a gift 
from his admirers among the clergy and laity throughout the 
Diocese. This staff is now owned by the Diocese, and is still 
used on occasions of special ceremony by Bishop Cheshire, who 
succeeded Bishop Lyman in the Episcopate. During the course 
of his remarks, when presenting this staff to Bishop Lyman, 
Doctor Marshall said: 

"In an age of 'restless rationalists and self-sufficient critics,' at a 
time when tlirougliout the laud there is such a lamentable and, as we 
believe, dangerous depreciation of rightly constituted authority both 
in Church and State, we desire to bear uumistakable and visible testi- 
mony to our reverence for your apostolic authority, and of our ready 
and willing obedience to your godly admonitions and counsels as our 
chief pastor, under Christ, of which this ancient symbol is a token 
and pledge. We would have this staff first of all, Right Reverend 
Father, to mean this. 

"And again, sir — if it be not unseemly thus to speak in your hon- 
ored presence — we would have it bear witness, after some sort, of 
our gratitude to God for the zeal and fidelity and abundant labors, in 
season and out of season for the spiritual welfare of all the flock over 
which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseer, that have so conspicu- 
ously characterized all the years of your ministry in our midst. 

"We of the clergy particularly — thrown by virtue of our official 
relations into more intimate contact with our chief pastors than are 
others — know, as the public cannot know, the incessant anxieties and 
constant cares and onerous responsibilities inseparable from the 
office of a Bishop in the Church of God, especially in a Diocese so 
large and so largely missionary as this ; and we know too, both clergy 
and laity, how bravely and cheerfully, through good report and 
through evil, through stress of weather, and not infrequently in 
bodily suffering, our beloved Bishop has borne them all. 

"And if, sir, now or at any time, in the near future or in the dis- 
tant, this jubilee memorial and token of the sympathy and gi'atitude 
and affection of your Diocese shall serve to lighten, by so much as a 
feather's weight, the burden that you must needs bear to the end, we 
shall thankfully feel that this day's doings have not been altogether 
in vain. 

242 Bishops of jSToktii Carolina. 

"And as meu who have passed their 'three-score and ten' are wont 
to lean upon staves for physical support, so, when the shadows of 
life's declining day lengthen across your pathway, and you enter the 
dark valley where every earthly pilgrim, high or low, must lay his 
weary burden down, may this memorial of our love be to you the 
grateful assurance that throughout the length and breadth of your 
Diocese the prayers of your people will go up with your own to the 
Good Shepherd of all the Christian fold in the tender terms of the 
Pastoral Psalm r'Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of 
death, I will fear no evil ; for Thou art with me ; Thy i-od and Thy 
staff they comfort me.' Amen." 

On the evening of December 19tli, after tlie presentation of 
tlie above token, Bishop Lyman opened the doors of his home 
to callers, and some himdreds attended for the purpose of tender- 
ing their congratulations and good wishes. Describing this re- 
ception in its issue of December 20th, the Kaleigh N^ews mid 
Observer said: 

"Yesterday evening the elegant mansion of Bishop Lyman was 
thrown open to his friends, and became the scene of much enjoyment 
to those who attended his reception. It was the pleasant ending of a 
day that was memorable in his life, and which was marked by an 
episode that gave him rare gratification. 

"His numerous friends came in throngs to congratulate him on the 
completion of fifty years' service in the ministry. Many ladies and 
gentlemen were present, and there was a continuous stream passing 
in and out all the evening. The number who attended was estimated 
at four hundred. 

"The beautiful picture gallery, which is so much admired, was par- 
ticularly a scene of lovliness. Among the gentlemen we observed His 
Excellency the Governor, Hon. Kemp P. Battle, Attorney-General 
Davidson, Judge Davis, Mayor Badger, President Winston, and Gen- 
eral W. R. Cox. Besides these were the visiting clergy, and others 
from a distance. In the parlors the ladies were received by Mrs. 
R. S. Tucker, Mrs. Alfred W. Haywood, Mrs. R. H. Lewis, Mrs. Pit- 
tenger, Mx*s. Hunter, Mrs. Charles Root, Miss Van Rensselaer, Miss 
Hawkins, Miss Hinsdale, Miss Andrews, and Miss Hurton. 

"And after the guests had enjoyed somewhat of the social pleasures, 
they formed their way into the apartment where Mrs. Hinsdale, Mrs. 
Frank II. Cameron, Mrs. W. T. McGee, Mrs. W. J. Hawkins, Mrs. 
William T. Tucker, Mrs. Thomas Badger, Mrs. Kemp P. Battle, and 
Miss Lucy Battle took charge of them and introduced them to an 
elegant repast. 

"And so the evening wore on, until the hour when the pleasures of 
the day were brought to a close." 

BisHors OF North Carolina. 248 

On Sunday, December 20tli (being the day following the 
above ceremonies and festivities), religious services were con- 
tinued in honor of Bishop Lyman's fiftieth anniversary, these 
being held in Christ Church. The regular services were con- 
ducted by the Reverend Messrs. William Walker and I. McK. 
Pittenger, and addresses were delivered by the Honorable Kemp 
P. Battle, the Reverend Josph Blount Cheshire, Jr., and Mr. 
Frank S. Spruill. After these addresses, the choir rendered 
an anthem, and the evening's exercises were concluded with the 
apostolic benediction by Bishop Lyman. 

In the month of June, 1892, the semi-centennial of Saint 
Mary's School was celebrated in Raleigh, though Bishop Lyman 
(then being in >Tew York) could not take part in it. Saint 
Mary's was first opened on May 12, 1842 ; and, when the fiftieth 
anniversary of that event came. May 12, 1892, it was decided 
to postpone the celebration until commencement week, which 
occurred in the following month. These exercises began in 
Christ Church on June 5th with a sermon, appropriate to the 
occasion, by the Reverend Joseph Blount Cheshire, Jr. On 
Monday evening, at the school, a general reception to friends 
of the institution was tendered by its Rector, the Reverend Ben- 
nett Smedes, D.D. Tuesday evening a concert, complimentary 
to the alumnae, was given; and the annual concert took place 
on Wednesday evening. The regular commencement exercises 
occurred Thursday. At this semi-centennial celebration were 
several ladies who had been among the first pupils of the insti- 
tution in 1842. 

On June 28, 1892, Bishop Lyman (for the first time since 
his graduation in 1837) paid a visit to his alma mater, Hamil- 
ton College, at Clinton, Xew York, being the oldest alumnus 
present on that occasion. He was received with distinguished 
honors, and presided over one of the meetings of the alumni 
association. He was also chairman of another meeting, held 
in the Presbyterian Church, closing these exercises with the 
apostolic benediction. The next day the honorary degree of 

244 Bishops of JS'orth Carolina. 

Doctor of Canon Laws was conferred on him, it being tlie first 
time Hamilton College had ever given this degree. Many years 
before, in 1856 (as already mentioned) he had received the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity from the College of Saint James, 
in Maryland; and the University of North Carolina had con- 
ferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws in 1887. 

Bishop Lyman was twice married. His first wife, to whom 
he was married by Bishop Whittingham on the 24th of June, 
1845, and who was the mother of all of his children, was Anna 
Margaret Albert, a daughter of Jacob Albert, of Baltimore. 
This estimable lady came with her husband to ISTorth Caro- 
lina, and spent the latter years of her life in Raleigh, where 
she died on the 13th of April, 1889, mourned by an extensive 
circle of friends. Her remains were carried to her former 
home in Baltimore for interment. The six children of Bishop 
and Mrs. Lyman were as follows : 

I. Albert Benedict Lyman, M.D., LL.M. (Dublin), L. R. 
C. S., now deceased, who resided in Baltimore, and was a 
scholar and linguist of rare attainments, spending many years 
in study at various European universities, and serving as a 
Surgeon in the Red Cross Society on the German side during 
the Franco-Prussian "War; he married Mary Jane Buckett, of 
Oxford, England, and left two sons and two daughters. 

II. Frances Augusta Lyman, now deceased, who married 
the Honorable William Ruffin Cox, former Brigadier General 
in the Confederate Army and afterwards Judge, member of 
Congress, Grand Master of Masons, etc., by whom she left two 

III. William Whittingham Lyman, of St. Helena, California, 
who married Mrs. Sarah A. Nolan (born Amis), by whom he 
has two sons. 

IV. Theodore Benedict Lyman, of Alameda, California, who 
has been married three times and has two daughters — one by 
his first wife, Emily Cunningham ; and one by his second, Kate 

Bishops of North Carolina. 245 

V. Augustus Julian Lyman, of Asheville, North Carolina, 
who graduated from Trinity College, at Hartford, Connecticut, 
and was admitted to the bar in the lattei* city, later being 
licensed by the Supreme Court of North Carolina; he married 
Julia Ellsworth, and has one son. His wife is a daughter of 
the late Pinckmey Webster Ellsworth, M.D., an eminent physi- 
cian and Army Surgeon, who was a son of Governor Ellsworth 
of Connecticut and grandson of Chief Justice Ellsworth of the 
United States Supreme Court. 

VI. Anna Cornelia Roma Lyman, who married Robert L. 
Niles, of New York, a broker and member of the Stock Ex- 
change in that city, by whom she has three sons. 

When he was nearly seventy-eight years old, February 6, 
1893, Bishop Lyman was married to his second wife, Susan 
Boone Robertson, of Charleston, South Carolina, this lady 
being the daughter of Alexander Robertson, a zealous layman 
of the Diocese of South Carolina, and at one time senior warden 
of Saint Michael's Church in Charleston. 

At the Diocesan Convention of 1893, a committee, which 
had been appointed to take the matter into consideration, re- 
ported a resolution (duly adopted) wliicli set forth that, in 
view of the growth of the Diocese, and the additional work 
devolving upon Bishop Lyman in his old age, the office of As- 
sistant Bishop should be created. It was also resolved that, 
after dispatching business of a general nature, this Convention 
should adjourn to meet on the 27th of June, when an Assistant 
Bishop should be chosen by ballot. Accordingly, on May 19th, 
the adjournment took place, and the same body re-assembled 
in Christ Church at Raleigh on the 27th of June. The names 
presented for consideration, as qualified for the office of Assist- 
ant Bishop, were the Reverend Nathaniel Harding, the Rev- 
erend Joseph Blount Cheshire, Jr., the Reverend Thomas M. 
N. George, the Reverend Francis J. Murdoch, the Reverend 
Matthias M. Marshall, the Reverend Robert S. Barrett, and 
the Reverend Arthur S. Lloyd. On the thirty-ninth ballot, the 

246 Bishops of North Carolina. 

clergy elected the Eeverend Doctor Cheshire, Jr., and presented 
him to the lay delegates as a candidate for Assistant Bishop, 
this election being duly ratified. On October 15th, in the same 
year. Doctor Cheshire was consecrated as Assistant Bishop of 
JS'orth Carolina in Calvary Church in his native town of Tar- 
borough. His father, the Reverend Joseph Blount Cheshire, Sr., 
was then Rector Emeritus of that Church, and had actively 
served there over fifty years. Two months later, upon the 
death of Bishop Lyman, the Assistant Bishop became Bishop 
of ISTorth Carolina. Though I^orth Carolina has furnished 
many Bishops to other Dioceses, Doctor Cheshire was the first 
native North Carolinian ever elevated to the Episcopate within 
the borders of the State. He was born on March 27, 1850, and 
graduated from Trinity College, at Hartford, Connecticut. Later 
he practiced law, and then entered the sacred ministry. For 
many years he was Historiographer of the Diocese, and is now 
the highest living authority on the ecclesiastical history of 
North Carolina. Happily for the Diocese, his maturer years 
are blessed with robust health, and the Church will no doubt 
profit by his labors for many years to come. Two of his daugh- 
ters have volunteered to aid the Church's work in foreign mis- 
sion fields and are now stationed in China. 

As it has been stated above that Bishop Cheshire was the first 
native North Carolinian ever elevated to the Episcopate Avithin 
the State, it may be of interest to add that the present Bishops 
of all three North Carolina dioceses — Cheshire of North Caro- 
lina, Strange of East Carolina, and Horner of Asheville — 
are, without exception, "native and to the manner born." 

During the course of Bishop Lyman's Episcopate, he aided 
in consecrating the following Bishops : John Henry Ducachet 
Wing-field of Northern California, December 2, 1874; Samuel 
Isaac Joseph Schereschewsky of Shanghai in China, October 
31, 1877; David Buel Knickerbacker of Indiana, October 14, 
1883; Alfred Augustin Watson of East Carolina, April 17, 
1884; William Paret of Maryland, January 8, 1885; Cleland 

Bishops of North Carolina. 247 

Kinloch Nelson of Georgia (later translated to Diocese of At- 
lanta), February 24, 1892; Lemuel Henry Wells of Spokane 
in the State of "Washington, December 16, 1892 ; John McKim 
of Tokyo in Japan, June 14, 1893 ; Frederick Rogers Graves of 
Shanghai in China, June 14, 1893; Ellison Capers of South 
Carolina, July 20, 1893 ; and Joseph Blount Cheshire of North 
Carolina, October 15, 1893. 

When the labors of Bishop Lyman were lightened by the 
consecration of so zealous and untiring a co-worker as Doctor 
Cheshire as Assistant Bishop, it was hoped that this step would 
prolong the life of the aged prelate, but these hopes proved 
vain. In the month following Bishop Cheshire's consecration 
he was present with Bishop Lyman at a meeting of the Board 
of Managers of the Thompson Orphanage in Charlotte. While 
in that city, on November 30th — that being Saint Andrew's 
Day and also the time set by the President and the Governor 
for Thanksgiving Day — Bishop Lyman delivered a sermon of 
great force on the duty of the people not only to obey, but to 
honor, "the powers that be" in various departments of the civil 
governments of both State and nation. When in Charlotte, on 
this occasion, he mentioned to his friends the fact that December 
11th, less than a fortnight thereafter, would be the twentieth 
anniversary of his consecration to the Episcopate, and expressed 
the wish that special services, in commemoration of this event, 
should be held in Raleigh, where the consecration had taken 
place. Upon hearing this. Bishop Cheshire canceled several 
of his own appointments and went to Raleigh to take part in 
the ceremony. Upon his arrival he was shocked to find the 
venerable Bishop Lyman in a great state of bodily weakness, 
and perceived at once that he was not in a condition to take 
part in the approaching celebration. With his usual resolu- 
tion, however, Bishop Lyman expressed his determination to 
be present at the commemorative services, and at once set about 
preparing an address which he expected to deliver. He grew 
weaker, however, and felt forced to summon his family physi- 

248 Bishops of North Carolina. 

cian, wlio at once informed him that serious consequences might 
result if he made this effort, and advised him to take to the 
bed. The anniversary of the Bishop's consecration was cele- 
brated at 8 o'clock on the evening of December 10th (the second 
Sunday in Advent) at Christ Church, where the consecration 
had taken place in 1873. Among the Bishops and other clergy 
present were the Right Reverend Joseph Blount Cheshire, the 
Right Reverend Alfred A. "Watson, and the Reverend Doctors 
Matthias M. Marshall, Bennett Smedes, and I. McK. Pittenger. 
With the consent of Bishop Lyman, Bishop Cheshire requested 
Bishop Watson to preside. After evening prayer by Doctors 
Smedes and Pittenger, addresses were delivered by Bishop 
Cheshire, Bishop Watson, and Doctor Pittenger; and Doctor 
Marshall read a contemporaneous newspaper account of the 
consecration which was being commemorated. On the evening 
of the next day (the anniversary proper). Bishop Lyman gave a 
reception at his home; but, being still confined to his bed, was 
unable personally to receive the callers. Bishop Cheshire, hav- 
ing determined to resume his own visitations, took leave of 
him at the end of the evening. Referring to this farewell inter- 
view, he later said: "His last words to me were of kindly per- 
sonal regard and fatherly counsel, with assurances of his full 
approval of whatever I might feel that the interests of the 
Church called upon me to do when I could not consult with 
him, together with a special request that I would, so far as pos- 
sible, supply his place in one or two appointments which he 
could not fulfill in person." 

Bishop Lyman died on the 13th of December, 1893, just three 
days after the celebration of the twentieth anniversary of his 
consecration to the Episcopate. His funeral took place on De- 
cember 15th from Christ Church. The remains were borne from 
his late residence to the Church on the shoulders of eight 
students from Saint Augustine's School, "who requested the 
honor of being the bearers of the mortal remains of him who 
had so deeply at heart the interests of the negroes of his Diocese, 

Bishops of T^oktii Carolina. 249 

and especially of that institution for their education." The 
honorary pall-bearers were the following laymen : Captain 
John Wilkes, Captain William L. London, Colonel Paul B. 
Means, Doctor E. Burke Haywood, Doctor Thomas D. Hogg, 
Doctor Peter E. Hines, Captain Samuel A. Ashe, Mr. Charles 
E. Johnson, Mr. Charles G. Latta, Mr. Hugh Morson, Doctor 
Richard H. Lewis, and Mr. Richard H. Battle. Among the 
Bishops present were the Right Reverend Joseph Blount Chesh- 
ire, who had become Bishop of Worth Carolina upon Bishop 
Lyman's death, the Right Reverend Alfred Augustin Watson, 
Bishop of East Carolina, and the Right Reverend Alfred Magill 
Randolph, Bishop of Southern Virginia. The pastoral staff 
of the late Bishop was carried before the coffin by his chaplain, 
the Reverend Charles Carroll Quin. After the remains came the 
family of the deceased and many friends, including Governor 
Elias Carr and other State officers.. At the entrance to the 
church-yard, the sentences were begun by Bishop Randolph, 
who continued the services to the lesson, which was read by the 
Reverend Doctor Marshall, Rector of the Parish, and President 
of the Diocesan Convention. The Creed and prayers were said 
by Bishop Watson. The interment took place at Oakwood 
Cemetery, where the committal services were conducted by 
Bishop Cheshire. Over the grave now rests a marble slab con- 
taining this inscription : 

In Memory of 

The Right Reverend 


D.D., LL.D., D.C.L., 

Fourth Bishop of ISTorth Carolina. 

Bom 27th N"ov., 1815. 

Consecrated Bishop 11th Dec, 1873 

Died 13th Dec, 1893. 

"Well done, thou good and faithful servant/' 

250 Bishops of ISTorth Carolina. 

Upon the completion of the handsome granite house of wor- 
ship which is now being erected by the congregation of the 
Church of the Good Shepherd, it is probable that the remains 
of Bishop Lyman will be placed beneath its chancel. He and 
his family were members of that Church when in Baleigh; 
and, in his will, he left a legacy to aid in the erection of the new 
building. He also left legacies to the Thompson Orphanage at 
Charlotte, and to the Permanent Episcopal Fund of the Diocese 
of JSTorth Carolina. His private theological library was turned 
over (under the terms of his will) to the Diocese, excepting 
two hundred volumes which were bequeathed to the library of 
Saint Augustine's School, at Baleigh. 

As a true follower of the teachings of those "fishers of men" 
whose God-given doctrines he proclaimed, Bishop Lyman may be 
best described by the divine rule of conduct which bids us be "not 
slothful in business; fervent in spirit; serving the Lord." He 
cauie nearer to a literal fulfillment of the command "Go ye 
into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature" than 
any minister of God who ever lived in l^orth Carolina. South- 
ward from his native New England, and east and west from 
his California abode to far away Cape Hatteras in the Diocese 
to which he was later called as Bishop, he had traversed the 
northern continent of the New World on his sacred mission. 
Throughout the kingdoms and empires of Europe he had trav- 
eled, and had even labored at his calling in "the Eternal City" 
where then reigned as temporal sovereign the head of a hostile 
church. In Mohamedon Syria, in the ancient land of Egypt, 
and within the sacred city of Jerusalem, his voice had been 
raised to bear witness of his faith. When sojourning as an 
honored guest among the nobility of Great Britain and preach- 
ing in the stately cathedrals of that kingdom, and sitting in 
council with the Fathers of the Church from all Christendom 
in the Congress at Lambeth Palace, he was recognized as a man 
well worthy of his exalted ofiice. In the cabins of the poor and 
in the rude rural chapels of more needy parts of his own Diocese, 

Bishops of Xorth Carolina, 251 

he was a welcome visitor and trusted friend, who contributed 
in no small degree to the material as well as spiritual wants of 
the destitute and desolate. He was ever a true friend of the 
negro, often visiting the schools as well as churches provided 
for that race, and daily summoning the domestics of his own 
household to join his family in prayer. From the record of one 
of his visits to I^ew York, we learn of his preaching to con- 
gregations of Chinese, his sermons being translated by an in- 
terpreter. Nor were all of his journeys, particularly those in 
the wild mountainous regions of North Carolina, free from 
personal danger. Speaking of an experience on August 21, 
1885, he says : "When a few miles from Brevard, in descending 
the last mountain range, we were placed in great peril by en- 
countering a swarm of yellow- jackets which nearly covered our 
horses. The horses became frantic and unmanageable; and we 
feared, every moment, a plunge over the precipice at our side. 
But a kind Providence guarded us, and we escaped without 
any accident or injury." 

It is true that Bishop Lyman was sometimes more outspoken 
than tactful. He was a man of decided opinions and did not 
hesitate to say what he thought, whether his manner of expres- 
sion always seemed considerate or not. Yet he was kind-hearted, 
sympathetic, and generous with it all, and those who knew him 
most intimately were his greatest admirers. 

Though the Diocese of North Carolina had been formed in 
1817, it was not until May 22, 1823, that its first Bishop was 
consecrated. Between the latter date and Bishop Lyman's death 
about seventy years elapsed. What wonderful changes were 
wrought during that time ! When Bishop Lyman died, many 
congregations in North Carolina had larger membership rolls 
than did the whole Diocese when Ravenscroft came, seventy 
years before. The Church, too, toward the end of the Episco- 
pate of Bishop Lyman, was becoming better understood and 
more appreciated by thoughtful members of the various Chris- 
tian denominations; and a surpliced clergyman was no longer 

252 Bishops of North Carolina. 

a novelty. Concerning this change in the public mind, Bishop 
Lyman himself, in his address to the Diocesan Convention of 
1890, said: "Outside the ranks of our own communion, the 
Church is becoming better understood, and the principles which 
govern us more fully appreciated. We now very rarely hear 
the scornful charge of narrowness and bigotry. Men are more 
willing to hear what we have to say in defense of our position 
in regard to the historic continuity of the Church and its catho- 
lic and apostolic character. They see that we cling to and up- 
hold it, not because it suits our tastes and our preferences, but 
because we truly believe in its divine organization and its divine 
authority. And men are not willing to scoff at what they see 
to be deep and abiding and overwhelming convictions." 

After the erection of the See House or Episcopal Residence 
in the grove of Saint Mary's at Raleigh, an eastern wing to the 
new building was added for use as a receptacle for the library of 
the Diocese, and Bishop Cheshire gave it the name of The Bishop 
Lyman Library, as a memorial to his predecessor in office. 

During the whole course of his Episcopate, extending over a 
period of twenty years. Bishop Lyman was never absent from a 
single session of either the General Convention or the Diocesan 

Five months after the death of Bishop Lyman, the Diocesan 
Convention of North Carolina met in the "twin city" of Win- 
ston-Salem; and, in the course of its session, that body took 
appropriate action in honor of his memory. On May 20, 1894, 
prior to its adjournment, the Right Reverend Ellison Capers, 
Bishop of South Carolina, delivered a memorial sermon in 
Saint Paul's Church, at Winston, before that gathering. Re- 
ferring to the churchmanship and doctrinal views of the de- 
ceased, in the course of his remarks. Bishop Capers said : "He 
came into the Protestant Episcopal Church after a full exami- 
nation of her claims upon his conscience and his reason, and 
he was ever the champion of her history, her doctrine, her dis- 
cipline and worship. To him she stood four-square for the 

Bishops of North Cakolina. 253 

truth, as it is in Jesus — a great Scriptural structure founded on 
the Apostles and the Prophets, Jesus Christ being the corner- 
stone. For him the Prayer Book was the symbol and law of 
her doctrine and worship. Her constitution and canons ruled 
his ministry. The faith of the Church of the Apostolic Age, in 
its simplicity and fullness, was for him the ancient Catholic 
faith, and that faith he found in all its integrity in the Re- 
formed Anglican Communion, and taught in our Prayer Book." 
In person Bishop Lyman was a man of large frame and robust 
body, above middle height, with a general appearance decidedly 
patriarchal, and a countenance strong yet benign. 

"A combination and a form, indeed, 
Where every god did seem to set liis seal 
To give tlie world assurance of a man." 


Aberdeen, University of, 57. 
Adams, Rev. .Tames, 21. 

Adams. . 19. 

Advowson. Governor's right of, IG. 
Africa. 188 : see also South Africa. 
Alabama. 97. 115. 129, 155, 160- 

161, 163-164. 169, 172. 
Alameda. Cal.. 244. 
Albany. N. Y.. 219. 
Albert. Anna Margaret. 244. 
Albert. Jacob. 244. 
All Saints Church, Dresden, Ger- 
many, 235. 
Alston, J. J.. 82. 

Ambler, Rev. Thomas M., 192, 201. 
American Church Review, 85. 
Amis, Sarah, 244. 
Anderson. .James. 42. 
Anderson. Robert Walker. 165. 
Anderson. Chief Justice Walker, 

84-85, 93. 
Andrews. .^Irs. A. B., 202. 
Andrews, Miss Jane H.. 242. 
Andros, Governor Sir Edmund, 


Angel. . 24. 

Anglican Church in Colony of 

North Carolina, 11-33 ; see also 

Episcopal Church. 
Annals of thr American Pulpit, 85. 
Ann Arbor, Mich., 224. 
Anson County. N. C, 69, 169. 
Antietam. Battle of, 175. 
Antonelli, Cardinal. 212. 
Archdale, Governor .John. 14. 
Argyll and the Isles, Bishop of. 

Arkansas, 31, 15.5, 162-163, 174. 
Armada ; see Spanish Armada. 
Armagh, Archbishop of, 221, 237. 
Ascension, Church of the, Hickory, 

N. C, 165. 
Ashe. Captain Samuel A., 249. 
Asheville, N. C. 82, 103, 113, 149, 

156-157, 179, 181, 224, 229, 235, 

240, 245-246. 
Assistant Bishop, office of, 187- 

189. 213, 245-246. 
Atkinson, Elizabeth Withers, 145, 
Atkinson, Rev. John Mayo Pleas- 
ants, 144. 
Atkinson. Col. John Wilder, 149, 


Atkinson, Rev. Joseph Mayo, 144. 
Atkinson, Mrs. Josepha Gwinn 

Wilder, 149, 201. 
Atkinson. Lucy Fitzhugh, 144. 
Atkinson, Mary Mayo, 149. 
Atkinson, Robert. 143. 
Atkinson. Dr. Robert, 149. 
Atkinson. Rogei*. 143. 
Atkinson. Roger B., 145. 
Atkmson, Col. Roger P., 226. 
Atkinson. Rt. Rev. Thomas, 

third Bishop of North Carolina, 

sketch of. 143-204; see also 3.3. 

09, 97, 103, 122, 128, 139, 213- 

214, 216, 218, 223-225, 227, 231, 

Atkinson, Rev. Thomas, 149. 
Atkinson. Rev. William Mayo, 144. 
Augusta, Ga., 161, 163, 175, 247. 
Augustine, first Archbishop of 

Canterbury. 12, 219. 
Avery, Rev. John, 93. 

Babbitt, Rev. P. Teller, 109. 
Backhouse, Rev. John A., 107. 
Badger, Judge George E., 59, 103, 

112, lis. 181. 
Badger. Thomas, 242. 
Badger, Mrs. Thomas, 242. 
Baker, Dr. Simmons J., 105. 
Baltimore. Md., 122. 146, 148, 150- 

152, 178-179, 188-189, 199, 209, 

213, 218. 223. 226. 235, 244. 
Banci-oft, George, 104. 
Baptism of Manteo and Virginia 

Dare, 13-14. 
Baptisms by immersion, 21, 6.3. 
Baptists, 31, 60, 131. 
Barber, Rev. Milton Augustus, 62. 
Barber, Rev. Richard Wainwright, 

Barnett, Rev. John, 21. 
Barrett, Rev. Robert S., 245. 
Baskett, John. 29. 
Batavia, N. Y., 9.3. 
Batchelor. Joseph B., 240. 
Bath, N. C. 20, 25-26, 28, 53, 58, 

152, 193, 218. 
Bath and Wells, Bishops of, 33, 

Battle, .Tames S.. 2.30. 
Battle. Dr. Kemp P., 176, 227, 238- 

239, 242-243. 



Battle, Mrs. Kemp P., 242. 
Battle, Miss Lucv P., 242. 
Battle. Richard H., 228, 230, 249. 
Battle, Turner, 158. 
Battle, Judge William H., 176, 

Beaufort County. N. C, 22, 58, 

101. 152, 169, 196. 
Beckwith, Rt. Rev. John Watrous, 

Bishop of Georgia, 97, 198. 
Bedell, Rt. Rev. Gregory Thurs- 
ton, Bishop of Ohio, 55, 219. 
Bedell, Rev. Gregory Townsend, 

Bell. Gov. Peter Hansborough, 

Bell, Mrs. Peter Hansborough, 

Benade, Rt. Rev. Andrew, Mora- 
vian Bishop. 64. 
Benbury, William. 26. 
Benedict, Aaron, 208. 
Benedict, Mary, 208. 
Beunehan. Thomas D., 98, 100. 
Benson Library, 186. 
Beutham. Joseph, 29. 
Benton, Rev. Angelo Ames, 168, 

Benton. Rev. George, 167. 

Benzien. , 24. 

Beresford-Hope. , 221. 

Berkeley, Rev. Alfred R.. 181. 
Berkeley Parish. N. C, 22. 
Bertie County, N. C, 195, 282. 
Bethabara. N. C, 24. 
Biddle, Nicholas, 83. 
Binney, Horace. 175. 
Bishops, Apostolic origin of, 9-11. 
Bishops not sent to colonies, 17. 
Bishop's residence, or See House, 

83, 154, 202, 252. 
Blacknall, Rev. John, 21. 
Blair, Rev. John, 21. 
Bland. Rev. Charles T., 111. 
Blandford Church. Va., 143. 
Blin. Rev. Peter, 21-22. 
Blount, John, 26. 
Blount, Rev. Nathaniel, 21-22, 53- 

Blount, Capt. Thomas. 26. 
Blount, Major William Augustus, 

Blount's Chapel, Chocow^inity, 

N. C. 54. 
Boiling, Jane, 40, 42. 
Boiling, Mary. 40. 
Boiling, Col. Robert, 40, 42. 
Bonner, Capt. Henry, 25. 

Bonner, Joseph, 25. 

Borness, Scotland, 41. 

Boston, Mass., 38-39, 178, 207, 213. 

Bowen, Rt. Rev. Nathaniel. Bishop 

of South Carolina, 52, 93. 
Boyd, Rev. Adam, .30. 
Boylan. William, 61. 
Brady, Rev. Charles O., 193. 
Brandywine, Battle of, 30. 
Bratton, Rt. Rev. Theodore Du- 

Bose. Bishop of Mississippi, 102. 
Brett, Rev. Daniel, 20-21. 
Brevard, N. C, 251. 
Briggs. Rev. Robert, 21. 
Brighton, Mass., 209. 
Bristol, England, 42. 
Bristol Parish, Va., 42, 143, 145. 
Bronson. Rev. Benjamin S., 190, 

195, 201. 225. 227-228, 230. 
Brown, Rt. Rev. William Mont- 
gomery, Bishop of Arkansas. 31. 
Brownell, Rt. Rev. Thomas Church, 

Bishop of Connecticut, 68-69, 71, 

129-130, 151. 
Brunswick, N. C. 25, 95, 192. 
Brunswick County, Va., 40. 
Bryan, John H., 86. 106. 
Bryan, Judge Henry Ravenscroft, 

86. 229. 
Buck, Rev. James A.. 178. 
Buckett. Maiy Jane, 244. 
Buel. Rev. D. Hillhouse, 149, 156. 
Buford, Sarah, 70. 
Buncombe. Col. Edward, 31. 
Burges, Dr. A. S. H.. 59. 
Burges, Rev. Henry John, 21-22. 
Burges, Rev. Thomas, 21-22. 
Burgess, Rt. Rev. George, Bishop 

of Maine. 129. 
Burgwyn, Henry King, 98, 100, 

Burke County, N. C, 57, 95. 
Burr, Col. James G., 79, 192. 
Burton. Gov. Hutchins G.. 6.5. 
Burwell, Anne Spotswood, 45-46, 

Burwell, Lewis, 45. 
Butler. Gen. Benjamin F.. 171. 
Buxton, Rev. Jarvis, 111, 122, 156, 

218. 2.30, 238-239. 
Buxton. Rev. Jarvis Barry, 101, 

103. Ill, 120-122. 
Bvnum. Rev. William S., 180. 
Byrd, Col. William. 39. 

Cairns. Rev. William D., 100. 
Cairnsmore, Scotland, 41-42, 73. 
Caldwell, Rev. Joseph, 77-78. 



California. 171. 1!)!), 244. 24(;. 
Calvary Church, Tarborough, 

N. C, 240. 
Calvarj- Church, Wadesborough, 

N. C. 57. 95. 
Calviu. John. 11. 49. 
Cambridge. Eugland, 199. 
Cameron. .Judge Duncan, 5G, 69, 

98. 100. 103. 10.5-107. 
Cameron, Mrs. Francis Hawks, 

Cameron. Rev. John, 57. 
Cameron. Dr. Thomas N., 55-57. 
Campbell. Marsden. 54. 
Canada, 73, 151. 208. 
Canterbury. Archbishops of, 12, 33, 

121-122. 187, 218-219. 23.5-236. 
Cape Colony, South Africa, 42. 
Cape Fear River, 25. 192. 
Cape Palmas. South Africa. 199. 
Capei-s. Rt. Rev. EIHsoti. Bishop 

of South Carolina. 247. 252. 
Cashel and Cork. Bishop of, 237. 
CaroUna Churchman. 181. 
Carr. Gov. Ellas. 249. 
Castleman. Rev. Robert A., 177. 
Catholicity in the CaroUnas and 

Georgia, by Father O'Connell, 

Census ; see Popoulation. 
Centre Church. Hartford, Conn., 

Chaplains in Revolutionary War, 

Chaplains in Confederate Army, 

Chaplain in Spanish-American 

War. 181. 195. 
Charleston. S. C. 213. 245. 
Charlotte. N. C. 165, 170. 180. 195- 

19G. 200, 232. 247. 2.50. 
Charlotte County. Va.. 47. 
Chase. Rt. Rev. Carlton, Bishop 

of New Hampshire. 97, 129. 
Chatham County, N. C, 155. 
Chesapeake Bay, 174. 
Cheshire. Rev. .Joseph Blount, Sr.. 

62. 176. 185. 190. 228. 246-247. 
Cheshire. Rt. Rev. Joseph Blount, 

fifth Bishop of North Carolina, 

113. 146. 191-192. 224, 230-231, 

238-239. 243, 245-249. 
Chevin. Nathaniel, 26. 
China. 246-247. 
Chinese services. 251. 
Chocowinity, N. C. 54. 196. 
Chowan Precinct or County, N. C, 


Christ Church, Baltimore, Md., 

Christ Church, Lancaster, Pa., 92. 
Christ Church. New Born. N. C, 

54. 57. 69. 93. 95, 101, 108, 169. 
Christ Church. Norfolk. Va.. 146. 
Christ Church, I'ensacola, Fla., 

Christ Church. Philadelphia, Pa., 

84. '^{\. 
Christ Church, Raleigh. N. C, 51, 

53. 57-63. 70, 72. 75, 93, 118, 128. 

149-151. 158, 181-182, 214-215, 

243, 245. 248. 
Christ Church, Rowan County, 

N. C. 57, 192. 
Christian. Rev. Nicholas, 21. 
Church for Americans, by Bishop 

Brown. 31. 
Church Histori/ in North Caro- 
lina, 29. 156, 239. 
Church Intelligencer, 180. 
Church Messenger, 180. 
Church of All Saints, Dresden, 

Germany. 235. 
Church of the Ascension, Hickory, 

N. C, 165. 
Church of the Good Shepherd, 

Raleigh, N. C, 215-216, 22.3, 240, 

Church of the Holy Comforter, 

Charlotte. N. C. 140. 200, 202. 
Church of the Holy Spirit, Nice, 

Italy, 237. 
Church of the Holy Trinity, Paris, 

France. 2.34. 
Cincinnati. O.. 96. 122. 
Claggett. Rt. Rev. Thomas John, 

Bishop of Maryland. 33. 
Clark. Bethiah, 208. 
Clark, Mrs. Martha, 170. 
Clay, Henry, 73. 
Clav, Rev. J. Curtis. 54. 
Clewell, Rev. John H.. 2.3. 
Clinton. N. T., 92, 208-209. 243. 
Cobbs. Rt. Rev. Nicholas Han- 

mer. Bishop of Alabama. 129, 

160, 169. 
Cogswell. Joseph G.. 104. 108. 
Coit, Rev. Heni-y Augustus, 211. 
Coit. Rev. Joseph Howland. 210- 

Coleman. Rev. Lyman, 209. 
Coles. Elizabeth. 207. 
Collins, Josiah. .54, 85. 98-99, 113- 

114. 120. 157-158. 168, 170. 
Colonial Churches in the Original 

Colony of Virginia, 25, 193. 



Colorado, 216. 

Colored race ; see Negroes. 

Columbia, S. C, 160. 

Columbia College, N. Y., 75, 96. 

Columbus. Ga., 67. 

Commuiiiou vessels of colonial 
period, 27-28. 

Concord, N. H., 179, 211. 

Connecticut, 52, 68-69, 91-92, 118, 
129, 132, 151. 199, 207, 211. 

Confederate Cliurch, 97, 159-180. 

Confirmation impossible in colo- 
nies, 18. 

Congregationalists, 31, 208, 224. 

Continuity of the Church of Eng- 
land, by Dr. Seabury, 126. 

Cooke, James T., 165. 

Cooper, Susan Fenimore, 167. 

Cooperstown, N. Y., 178. 

Cornell University. 224. 

Cosgrove, Rev. James, 21. 

Councils, Diocesan, 161-162. 

Cox. Gen. William R., 185, 225, 
242. 244. 

Coxe, Rt. Rev. Arthur Cleveland, 
Bishop of Western New York, 

CracUc of the Repnhlic, by Dr. 
Tyler. 39. 

Craig, Alexander. 41, 73. 

Craig, Lillias, 73. 

Cramp. Rev. John, 21. 

Craven Parish. 23. 

Crawford, Charles, 152. 

Crawford, Mrs., 152. 

Crete, Island of, 168. 

Crisp, Nicholas, 26. 

Croes, Rt. Rev. John, Bishop of 
New Jersey. 52. 

Cumberland Countv, England, 143. 

Cumberland County, N. C, 108, 

Cumberland Parish, Va., 52. 

Cuming, Rev. Robert, 21. 

Cunningham, Emily, 244. 

Cupples, Rev. Charles, 21. 31. 

Currituck Parish, N. C, 22-23. 

Currituck Precinct or County, 
N. C. 22. 

Curtis, Rev. Charles J., 180. 

Curtis, Rev. Moses Ashley, 105. 

Cutlar, Du Brutz, 238. 

Dare, Virginia. 14. 
Dare County, N. C, 13. 
Davidson, Attorney-General Theo- 
dore F., 242. 
Davie County, N. C, 159. 

Davis, George, 151. 
Davis, Jefferson, 195. 
Davis, Judge Joseph J., 242. 
Davis, Rt. Rev. Thomas F., Bishop 

of South Carolina, 58, 151, 160- 

Davis, Rev. Thomas F., Jr., 111. 
Deaf-mute religious services, 223. 
Declaration of Independence, 31. 
DeLancey, Rt. Rev. William Heath- 
cote, Bishop of Western New 

York, 129. 
Delaware, 129. 
Delaware College, 168. 
Denson, Capt. Claudius B., 225. 
DeRosset, Dr. Armand J., 190, 

228. 230-231. 
DeRosset, Col. William L., 230, 

Detroit, Mich.. 224. 
Devereux, Mrs. Margaret, 158. 
Devereux, Thomas Pollock, 103, 

105, 158. 
Dickens, Mrs. Benjamin, 131, 188. 
Dillard. Dr. Richard, 193. 
Dinwiddle County, Va., 143, 145, 

Division of the Diocese, 227-233. 
Doane, Rt. Rev. George Wash- 
ington, Bishop of New Jersey, 

96, 129, 151. 
Doane, Rt. Rev. William Cros- 

well, Bishop of Albany, 179, 

Dobbs, Gov. Arthur. 18, 20, 24. 
Doctrines of the Church Vindi- 
cated, by Bishop Ravenscroft, 

Dorsey, Caleb, 179. 
Down and Connor, Bishop of, 221. 
Drage, Rev. Theodoras Swaine, 

Drake, Sir Francis. 14. 
Drane, Rev. Robert Brent (of 

Wilmington), 79, 111, 120, 150, 

106-167, 191. 
Drane. Rev. Robert Brent (of 

Edenton), 25-26, 167, 193, 238- 

Drayton, Gen. Thomas F., 147. 
Dresden, Germany, 235. 
Du Bose. Rev. McNeely, 102. 
Dublin, Archbishop of, 237. 
Dublin College, 20. 
Dukinfield. Sir Robert, 26. 
Dukinfield, William, 26. 
Durham, N. C, 217, 225. 



Eatues, Rev. Dr., 179. 

Earl. Itev. Dauiel, 21. 

Early. Gen. Jubal A., 1"), 210. 

Early Etu/Uiih Colonics in Ameri- 
ca., by the Bishop of London, 

Eastburn. Rt. Rev. ^Manturn, 
Bishop of Massachusetts, 129. 

East Carolina, Diocese of, 161, 
IGf). 181, 103. lfK)-197, 224, 228- 
2;^, 238, 24G. 240. 

Eastern Diocese, in New England, 

Eastern Parish of Chowan Pre- 
cinct, N. C, 23. 

Eastou. Diocese of, 189, 174, 198, 
201. 214. 

Easton. Pa., 209. 

Eaton. Ella, 131. 

Eatou. .John S., 121. 

Eaton. Attorney-General William. 

Edentou. X. C, 22-24, 28, 54-57, 
100. 113. 167, 193. 

Edenton Bay, 63. 

Edgecombe County, N. C, 22, 192, 

Edinburgh. Scotland. 73. 

Edinburgh, Bishop of. 221. 

Edinburgh. University of, 40. 

Eicchholtz, Jacob. 83-84. 

Elliott, Rev. Charles P.. 62. 

Elliott. Rt. Rev. Stephen. Bishop 
of Georgia. 06-97. 129, 160. 

Ellis. Col. John S.. 59. 

Ellsworth. Julia, 245. 

Ellsworth, Chief Justice Oliver, 

Ellsworth, Gov. William W., 245. 

Ellsworth, Dr. Pinckney Webster, 

Emmanuel Church, Warrenton. 
N. C, 57. 

Empie. Rev. Adam. 55. 104-105. 

England, Church of; see Angli- 
can Church ; see also Episcopal 

Episcopal Church succeeds Church 
of England in America, 11. 

Episcopal Church. Colonial his- 
tory of. 11-33. 

Episcopal Church in the Revolu- 
tion. .30-.32. 

Episcopal School of North Caro- 
Ima. 82, 10.3-107. 155. 

Envin. .Joseph J.. 225. 227. 

Erwin.' William A.. 225. 

Everhart, Rev. George M.. 180. 

Falls. Rev. Neilson, 227. 

Fanning. Col. Edmund, 32. 

Fanning. Rev. William, 21. 

Farmiiigdalo, Va.. 42. 

Fayctteville. N. C, 54-.58. 71, 75, 
101. 122. 125. 182, 190, 208. 

Fielding. Rev. John, 95. 

Fishe [Fiske?]. Rev, Samuel, 21. 

Fisher. Fort, 165. 

FitzGerald, Rev. Frederick, 111, 
157. 1(!6. 180. 

Fitzpatrick, Rt. Rev. John Ber- 
nard. Roman Catholic Bishop, 

Florence. Italy. 211, 235. 

Florida, 97. 129. 15.5, 161. 

Flushing, N. Y., 103-104. 

Forbes, Rev. Edward M., 190, 225, 

Forbes, Rev. John Murrav. 130, 

Ford. Hephzibah. 207. 

Ford. Rev. Hezekiah. 21. 30. 

Forsyth County, N. C. 23, 197. 

Fort Fisher, N. C, 165. 

Fothergill. Gerald, 21. 

Foxcroft, Francis. 39. 

Fountain Rock. Md.. 210. 

Frederick County, Md., 210. 

Fredericksburg. Va., 51. 

Fredericton. Canada, 151. 

Freeman, Edmund P.., 100. 

Freeman, Rt. Rev. George Wash- 
ington, Missionary Bishop of 
Arkansas and the Southwest, 
58-60, 62, 65, 72-73, 103. 105, 

Fremont, Col. Sewell L., 191. 

French, Rev. William Glennev, 

Friends. Society of; see Quakers. 

Fries, Miss Adelaide L., 6.5. 

Frobisher, Martin, 14. 

Fuller, Rev. Mr., 179. 

Gallagher, Rev. Mr., 158. 
Galloway. Scotland. 40. 
Garzia, Rev. John, 21-22, 27. 
Gaston, X. C. 177. 
Geer. Rev. Edwin. 107, 1.52. 165. 
General Theolo.gical Seminary, 

103. 1.36. 209. 213-214. 
Geneva, Switzerland. 2.34. 
George. Rev. Thomas M. N., 193, 

2.39, 245. 
Georgia. 66, 95-97, 129, 151, 155, 

160-161. 198. 247. 
Germantown, Battle of, 31. 



Gibson. Rev. Chureliill J.. 40, 144. 

Gibson, Patrick, 40. 

Gibson, Rt. Rev. Robert Atkin- 
son, Bishop of A^irginia. 40, 144. 

Gillette, Maiy, 91. 

Gloster, .Joseph, 19. 

Gloucester and Bristol, Bishop of, 
220, 237. 

Goldsborough, N. C, 58. 187. 

Goodman, Rev. John R., 61, 93, 

Good Samaritan Hospital, 196. 

Good Shepherd, Church of the, 
Raleigh, N. C, 215-216, 223, 240, 

Gordon, Samuel, 42. 

Gordon, Rev. William, 21. 

Govenior's right of Advowson, 16. 

Grace Chapel, Pitt County, N. C, 

Grace Church, Baltimore, Md., 
148, 179. 

Grace Church, Morganton, N. C, 

Grace Church, Plymouth. N. C, 

"Grand Model" ; see Locke's Con- 

Granville County, N. C, 66, 70, 78. 

Graves, Rt. Rev. Frederick Tem- 
ple. JNIissionary Bishop of 
Shanghai, China, 247. 

Greece, 167-168. 

Greek Church, 234. 

Green. Rt. Rev. William Mercer, 
Bishop of Mississippi. 38, 45, 
51-52. 58. 61, 67. 79-81, 85-86, 
103-105, 129. 160, 188, 233. 

Greencrofts, A^a., 42. 

Greene County. N. C, 232. 

Greenville, N. C, 56. 

Gregg, Rt. Rev. Alexander, Bishop 
of Texas, 160. 

Grenville. Sir Richard, 14. 

Gries, Rev. William R., 111. 

Griswold. Rt. Rev. Alexander 
Viets, Bishop of the Eastern 
Diocese, 52. 

Hagerstown, Md., 209-211. 
Haigh, Charles T., 82. 182. 
Hairston. Peter W.. 158-159. 
Hale & Co., Edward J., 84. 
Halifax County, N. C, 100, 170, 

195, 231. 
Halifax, town of, 30, 57, 177. 
Hall, Rev. Clement, 20-21. 
Hall, Judge John, 44. 

Hailing, Rev. Solomon, .30. 
Hamilton College, N. Y., 92, 208- 

209, 243. 
Hampden-Sidney College, Va., 

Hanckel, Rev. Christian, 163. 
Hanson, Rev. John H., 118. 
Hardiu, William FI.. 225. 
Harding, Rev. Israel, 236. 
Harding, Rev. Nathaniel, 236, 238, 

Harding, Rev. John Ravenseroft, 


Harnett County, N. C, 231. 
Harris, Rt. Rev. Samuel Smith, 

Bishop of Michigan, 224. 
Harrison. Rev. Hall, 209. 
Hart, William, 136. 
Hartford, Conn., 68-69, 199, 207, 


Harvard College, 57. 

Hathaway, James R. B., 193. 

Plaughton, John H.. 185. 

Haughton, Rev. Thomas B., 165. 

Hawkins, Sir John. 14. 

Hawkins, Miss Lucy, 242. 

Hawkins, Mrs. William J., 242. 

Hawks. Rt. Rev. Cicero Stephens, 
Bishop of Missouri, 65, 101, 129. 

Hawks. Rev. Francis Lister, 65, 
101, 118, 150. 

Hawks, Rev. William Nassau, 65, 

Plawson, Rev. William, 21. 

Hay, Anthony, 143. 

Haywood, Mrs. Alfred W., 242. 

Haywood. Dr. E. Burke, 249. 

Haywood, Frank P., Jr., 240. 

Haywood, Marshall DeLancey, 

Havwood, William H., Jr., 59, 
S3, 105-106. 

Henderson. John Steele, 191-192, 
226, 229, 238. 

Henderson. Chief Justice Leon- 
ard, 78-79. 

Henderson, N. C, 121. 

Henshaw, Rt. Rev. John Prentiss 
Kewlev, Bishop of Rhode Is- 
land, 146. 

Hepburn. Alexander McHarg, 73. 

Hepburn, Ebenezer McHarg, 73. 

Hertford County, N. C, 232. 

Herzog, Rt. Rev. , Old Catho- 
lic Bishop, 220. 

Hewett, Rev. Richard, 21. 

Hickory. N. C, 165. 



Hicks, Miss Charlotte. 170. 
Hiffh Onsar. EiiKlaml. 207. 
Hill, Oon. Daniel Harvey, 179. 
Hill, Dr. Frederick J., 95. 105, 1G8. 
Hill. Thomas, 155. 
Hillianl. Rev. Francis W., 165, 

1!).;. 227. 
Hillsborough. N. C, 30. 58, 182, 

Hilton, Rev. Horace G., 193. 
Hines, Dr. Peter E.. 249. 
Hinsdale, Mrs. .John W.. 242. 
Hinsdale, Miss Margaret D.. 242. 
Histories of Parishes in North 

Carolina. 102-193. 
Historiographer, olhce of, 101. 
History of the Church in the 

Diocese of Tennessee, by Rev. 

A. H. Noll. 83. 
Hobart, Rt. Rev. John Henry, 

Bishop of New York. 92. 
Hobart, Rebecca, 92, 137 ; see also 

Ives, Mi-s. Levi Silliman. 
Hodges. Rev. William. 176. 
Hogg, Gavin. .59. 71-72, 103. 
Hogg. Mrs. Gavin. 76. 
Hogg. Dr. Thomas D., 249. 
Holmes. Rev. Luciau, 156. 
Holv Comforter. Church of the, 

Ciiarlotte. N. C, 146, 200, 202. 
Holy Cross, Order of the, 117. 

Holv Spirit. Church of the, Nice, 

Italy. 237. 
Holy Trinity. Church of the, Paris. 

France. 234. 
Hood. George, 105. 
Hooper. .John De Berniere, 104. 
Hopkins. Rt. Rev. John Henry, 

Bishop of Vermont, 129, 173. 
Horner. Rt. Rev. Junius Moore, 

Missionarv Bishop of Ashe- 

ville. 113.' 224. 246. 
Hospitals. 180. 196. 
Howard County, Md.. 179. 
Howe. Rt. Rev. William Bell 

White. Bishop of South Caro- 
lina, 199, 233. 
Hubbard. Rev. Fordyce Mitchell. 

62. 108-109. 176. ISO. 185. 
Hughes. Most Rev. John, Roman 

Catholic Archbishop, 134. 
Hughes, Rev. N. Collin. 185, 196. 
Hughes. Rev. N. Collin, Jr., 197, 

Hunter. Rev. A. Burtis, 186, 240. 
Hunter, Mrs. A. Burtis. 242. 
Hunter. Rev. William C, 185. 

Ilurton, Miss .Tennie. 242. 
lluske. Rev. Joseph C, 228-230. 
Il.vacinth. Pere. 220, 2.34. 
Hyde I'arish, 23. 

Illinois, 129, 187. 

Inimersion ; see Baptism by im- 

India, 150. 

Indiana, 97, 129. 146-148, 246. 

Indians, Church work among, 13, 

Inverness Cathedral, 187. 

Iredell County, N. C, 57, 151, 193. 

Ireland, 218. 

Ives, p]benezer H., 1,33. 

Ives, John (first), 91. 

Ives, John (second), 91. 

Ives, ,Tohn (third). 91. 

Ives, John (fourth), 91. 

Ives, Levi, 91. 

Ives, Rt. Rev. Levi Silliman, 
second Bishop of North Caro- 
lina, sketch of, 91-139 ; see also 
33. 69. 82, 149-150, 182, 213-214, 
225, 239. 

Ives. Mrs. Levi Silliman, 92. 131, 
137-1.38; see also Hobart, Re- 

Ives, William, 91. 

".Jacobite Church," 32. 
James City County, Va., 39. 
Jamestown, Va., 14. 
Japan. 247. 

Jarvis, Rev. Samuel Farmer, 118. 
Johns. Rt. Rev. John, Assistant 
Bishop of Virginia, 97, 129, 161. 
Johnson, Charles E.. 2.38, 249. 
.Johnson, a slave, 72-74. 
Johnson's Island Prison, 149. 
Johnston. Rev. Francis, 21-22. 
Johnston County, N. C. 31, 231. 
.Jones. Rev. Edward, 21-22. 
.Jones. Rev. Walter, 21. 
Joyner. Rev. Edmund N., 230. 
Judd. Rev. Bethel, 54-55, 208. 

Kemp. Rt. Rev. James, Bishop of 
Maryland. 52. 

Kemper, Rt. Rev. Jackson, Mis- 
sionary Bishop of Missouri and 
Indiana, 97. 129. 

Kentucky, 66, 68, 120. 178-170. 

Kerfoot, Rt. Rev. John Barrett, 
Bishop of Pittsburg. 175, 170, 



Kilgour, Rt. Rev. Robert, Scotch 

Bishop, 32. 
King's Chapel, Boston, Mass., 38. 
Kinston, N. C, 58. 
Kirkcudbright, Scotland, 41. 
Kittrell, N. C, 165. 
Kuickerbacker, Rt. Rev. David 

Buel, Bishop of Indiana, 246. 
Knoxville, Tenn., 67. 

Lafayette College, Pa., 209. 
Lake Scnppernong, N. C, 85. 
Lamb, Wilson G., 238. 
Lambeth Conference (first), 188- 

Conference ( second ) , 

Conference ( third ) , 



Lambeth Palace, 33, 188, 218- 
220, 235-236, 250. 

Lancaster, Pa., 92. 

Larmour, Rev. J. Worrall, 201. 

Lash, Herman, 23. 

Lash, Jacob, 23. 

Latta, Charles G., 249. 

Laud, Archbishop, 13. 

Lawler, Patrick. 19. 

Lay, Rt. Rev. Henry Champlin, 
Missionary Bishop of the South- 
west, Missionary Bishop of 
Arkansas, and Bishop of Eas- 
ton, 139, 144-145, 148, 161-163, 
173-174, 176-177, 198, 201-203,' 
214, 223. 

Lav, Rev. George W., 102, 174. 

Lebanon, Conn., 207-208. 

Lee, Rt. Rev. Alfred, Bishop of 
Delaware, 129. 

Lee, Gen. Robert E., 176, 195. 

Leuten, Capt. Thomas, 26. 

Lewis, Dr. Richard H., 249. 

Lewis, Mrs. Richard H., 242. 

Lewis County, N. T., 91-92. 

Lexington, N. C, 57. 

Lexington, Ky., 68. 

Liberty of worship ; see Relig- 
ious liberty. 

Life of Bishop Ravenscroft, by 
Dr. Norton. 80, 85. 

Lincoln County, N. C, 57-58. 

Lincolnton, N. C, 177. 

Liquor question. 197-198. 

Litchfield, Bishop of, 219. 

Little, Rev. Arthur W., 10-11. 

Littlejohn, Rt. Rev. Abram New- 
kirk, Bishop of Long Island, 

Littleton, N. C, 132. 
Lloyd, Rev. Arthur S., 245. 
Locke's Constitution, or "Grand 

Model," 15, 19. 
London, Henry A., 155. 
London, John Rutherford, 54. 
London, William L., 249. 
London, Bishops of, 16-17, 21, 29. 
London, England, 42, 162. 
Long, James, 26. 
Long Island, N. Y., 103-104, 210, 

Long Island, Battle of, 30. 
Ix>omis, Lydia, 208. 
Louisiana, 58, 98, 155, 161, 169, 

Louisville, Ky., 68, 178. 
Lowville, N. Y., 92. 
Lunenburg County, Va., 50, 70, 73. 
Lutherans, 57. 
Lyman, Anna Cornelia Roma, 

Lyman, Dr. Albert Benedict, 244. 
Lyman, Rev. Asa, 208. 
Lyman, Augustus Julian, 244. 
Lvman, Father Dwight Edwards, 

Lyman, Frances Augusta, 242. 
Lyman, Jonathan, 208. 
Lyman, Jonathan. Jr., 208. 
Lyman, Richard (first), 207. 
Lyman. Richard (second), 207. 
Lyman, Richard (third), 207-208. 
Lyman, Susan Boone Robertson, 

Lyman, Rt. Rev. Theodore Ben- 
edict, fourth Bishop of North 

Carolina, sketch of, 207-2.53; 

see also 69, 139, 190, 196-197, 

199, 201. 
Lyman, Theodore Benedict, 244. 
Lyman, William, 208. 
Lyman, William Whittingham, 

Lyman Memorial Library, 252. 
Lynchburg, Va., 146. 
Ijynde, Chief Justice, 39. 

Macartney, Rev. James, 21. 
McConuell, Rev. Samuel D., 174. 
McCoskry. Rt. Rev. Samuel Allen, 

Bishop of Michigan, 129, 151. 
McDonald, Ronald, 157. 
^McDowell, Rev. John, 21. 
McGee, Mrs. W^illiam T., 242. 
Mcllvaine, Rt. Rev. Charles Pettit,. 

Bishop of Ohio, 129, 151. 
McKean, William, 41. 



McKini, Rt. Rev. John. Mission- 

arv liislioj) of Tokio. Japan, 247. 
McLaiio. Rol)ert M., '2:U. 
Mor>eo(l. Elizabeth. 41. 
McMurdo, Charles J.. 40. 
Mc-Murdo, George, 40. 
McRae, Rev. Cameron F.. 115, 124. 
Madison, Rt. Rev. James, Bishop 

of Virginia, 8.3. 
Madras, India, 150. 
Maine. 120, 233. 
Maison, Rev. Charles A.. 193. 
Mallett. Charles P., 82-83, 103. 
Manhattanville, N. Y., 134. 
Manly, Gov. Charles, 105. 
Mansfield plantation, 143, 145, 201. 
Manteo (an Indian), Baptism of, 

13. 19. 
Marlborough, N. C. 158. 
Marsden, Rev. Richard, 27. 
Marshall, Chief Justice, 83. 
Marshall, Rev. Matthias Murray, 

62, 1G5, 190-191. 201, 228, 230, 

2.38-239, 241, 245, 24S-249. 
Martin, Gen. James G., 190, 228- 

Martin County, N. C, 232. 
Martinsburg, N. Y., 92. 
Marvland, 33, 52, 129, 146, 148, 

150, 152, 165, 172, 174-175. 178- 

179, 188, 198, 209-211, 214, 228, 

Mason, Rev. Henry M.. 85. 
Mason, Rev. Richard Henry, 62. 
Mason, Rev. Richard Sharpe, 62, 

69, 118, 120-121, 150, 176. 
Massachusetts, 38-39, 104, 108, 

129, 207-209. 
Maurv, William, 21. 
Maury County. Tenn., 83. 
Maycock, Capt. Samuel, 39. 
Mavcock's ("Maycox") planta- 
tion, .39-40. 
Mayo, Mary Tabb, 143. 
Meade, Rt. Rev. William, Bishop 

of Virginia, 37, 58, 68, 129, 143, 

146, 160, 164, 169. 
Means. Col. Paul B., 249. 
Mecklenburg County, Va., 45, 50- 

Medley. Rt. Rev. George, Bishop 

of Fredericton. 150. 
Meriden, Conn., 92. 
Messcnfjer of Hope, 181. 
Methodists. 60. 63. 217; see also 

Republican Methodists. 
Michigan. 129. 151, 179, 224. 
Micklejohn, Rev. George, 30. 
Miller, Anne, 43. 

Aiillcr, Hugh, 40, 43, 143. 

Miller. Jean, 43. 

Miller. Lillias, 40-41, 43; see also 

Ravenscrof t, Lillias ; and Stew- 
art, Lillias. 
Miller, Rev. Robert Johnstone, 

30, 192. 
Miller, Rev. William, 21. 
^ilills Settlement, X. C, 193. 
Milton. N. C. 58. 
:.riues, Rev. Flavel S., 11. 
Minnesota, 236. 
Mission Herald, 181. 
Mississippi, ,38, 43, 86, 129, 155, 

160-161, 188, 233. 
Mississippi River. 69. 
Missouri. 97. 129, 179. 
Moir, Rev. James, 21. 
Montgomery, Ala.. 155. 160-161. 
Monumental Church, Richmond, 

Va., 50-51. 
Moore, Augustus, 120. 
Moore, Rt. Rev. Richard Chan- 

ning. Bishop of Virginia, 49-51, 

54-56. 59, 146. 
Moravian Church or Utiitas Fra- 

tnim. 2.3, 64-65. 87. 95-96. 1.53. 
Mordecai. George W., 106, 120, 

1.55. 182, 185. 

Morell, . 157. 

Morgan. Rev. William F., 2,34. 
Morganton, N. C, 150, 225-227. 
Morganton, N. C, school at ; see 

Wilberforce School. 
Morson, Hugh. 249. 
Moseley. Edward. 27. 
Mott, Rev. Thomas S. W.. 180. 
Muhlenburg, Rev. Dr., 210. 
Murdoch, Rev. Francis .J., 156, 

227-228, 231, 2.39. 245. 
Murphy, Rev. Joseph W., Ill, 165, 

193, 240, 
Murphy, Rev. William, 158. 
Murrav. James. 27. 
Myers,' William R.. 227. 

Nansemond County, Va., 19. 

Nash, Gen. Francis, 31. 

Nash, Sanuiel S.. 238. 

Nashville, Tenn., 68. 

Nassau, Bishop of, 219. 

Neely, Rt. Rev. Henry Adams, 

Bishop of Maine, 233. 
Negroes. Church work among, 18- 

20. 69. 98-102, 157-159, 183-186, 

216-217, 251. 
Nelson, Rt. Rev. Cleland Kinloch, 

Bishop successively of Georgia 

and Atlanta, 246-247. 



Nevin, Rev. Dr., 212. 

New Bern, N. C, 24, 31, 54, 56-58, 
69, 86, 93. 95. 101, 108, 159, 169, 
171, 187, 208. 

New Hampshire, 97, 129, 179. 

New Haven, Conn.. 91. 

New Jersey. 17, 31, 52, 96, 129, 

Newman, Rev. Thomas, 21. 

New Orleans. La., 171. 

Newport, Tenn., 67. 

Newton Stewart, Scotland, 73. 

New York, 17-18. 33, 57, 75, 84-86, 
91-94, 96. 103, 107, 110, 117-119, 
121, 128-129, 134-136, 150-152, 
157, 172, 178-179, 208-210, 212- 
213, 218-219, 223, 227, 235, 240, 

Nice, Italy, 235, 237. 

Nichols, William, 61. 

Niles, Robert L., 245. 

Noe, Rev. Thomas P., 181. 

Nolan, Sarah A., 244. 

Noll. Rev. Arthur Howard, 82-83. 

Non-jnring Bishops in Scotland, 
17 32-33. 

Norfolk. Va., 146. 

Northampton, Mass., 104, 108, 207. 

Northern California, 171, 199, 246. 

Norton, Rev. .Jolm N.. 80, 85. 

Norton's Life of Bishop Ravens- 
croft, 80, 85. 

Norwood, William, Jr., 105. 

O'Connell, Father J. J., 138. 

O'Donnell. Kate, 244. 

Oertel, Rev. Johannes Adam, 215. 

Ohio, 55, 121, 129, 151, 219. 

Ohio River, 69. 

Old Catholics of Switzerland, 220. 

OM CJinrehes and Families in 

Yirginia, by Bishop Meade, 37. 
Old South Meeting-House, Boston, 

Mass.. 38-39. 
Olmsted. Rev. Aaron Frank, 62. 
Onderdonk, Rt. Rev. Benjamin 

Tredwell, Bishop of New York, 

Onderdonk, Rt. Rev. Henry 

Ustick, Assistant Bishop of 

Pennsylvania, 58, 93. 
Orange County, N. C, 56-57, 69, 

Order of the Holy Cross, 117, 125. 
Orton plantation, 95. 
Osborne, Rev. Edwin Augustus, 

165, 181. 195. 
Osborne, Rev. Francis M., 202. 

Osborne, Roger, 207. 
Osborne, Sarah, 207. 
Otey, Rt. Rev. James Hervey, 

Bishop of Tennessee. 58. 65-66, 

68, 82-83, 94, 129. 151, 160. 169. 
Oxford, N. C. 58, 227. 
Oxford, England. 100, 122; see 

also Wilberforce, Rt. Rev. 


Page, Dr. Matthew, 113-114. 
Palmer, Gen.. 171. 
Pamlico Precinct, 22. 
Pamlico River, 152. 
Pan-Anglican Congress. 189. 
Paret, Rt. Rev. William, Bishop 

of Maryland, 246. 
Paris, France, 234. 
Parish histories, 192-193. , 
Parkei'. Haywood, 157. 
Parker, Rev. John Haywood, 154. 
Parker, Mai-y, 208. 
Parkman, Rev. Charles M., 193. 
Passmore, Rev. William, 111. 
Pasquotank Precinct or County, 

Pastoral staff presented to Bishop 

Lyman. 241-242. 
Patterson, Rev. George, 111, 165, 

Peuick, Rt. Rev. Charles Clifton, 

Bishop of Cape Palmas, South 

Africa, 199. 
Penusvlvania. 17, 33, 52, 92. 129, 

157, 163, 175, 179, 187, 209-211, 

Pensacola, Fla., 97. 
Perquimans Parish, 23. 
Perquimans Precinct, 22-23. 
Perry, Rt. Rev. William Stevens, 

Bishop of Iowa, 135, 162, 214. 
Peterborough, Bishop of, 33. 
Petersburg, Va., 37, 42, 143, 145, 

Petrie, Rt. Rev. Arthur, Scotch 

Bishop, 32. 
Pettigrew. Rev. Charles, first 

Bishop-elect of North Carolina, 

21-22, 29-30, 63, 94, 239. 
Pettigrew, Mrs. Charles, 63, 94. 
Pettigrew, Rev. Wiliam S., 231, 

Pettigrew family, 98-100. 
Pettigrew's Chapel. 29, 63, 99. 
Phelps, Rev. Girard W., 1.32, 165. 
Philadelphia, Pa.. 52, 58, 66-67, 

83-84. 86. 92. 96. 121. 152, 173, 

175-176 178, 218. 



riiilips. Jiulse Frederick. 2.18-239. 
I'hillips. Kev. .John, 5!). 
Phillips. Rev. John Lott. 21. 
IMke. Gen.. 92. 

Pine. Mountain. Battle of. 169. 
Pinknev. Rt. Rev. William. Bishop 

of Maryland. 198. 
Pittsburg. Pa., 179. 211. 
Pitt County. N. C. 57. 158. 232. 
Pittenger, Rev. I. McK.. 216, 243, 

Pittenger, Mrs. I. McK.. 242. 
Pitts. Rev. Thomas D.. 201. 
Pittsborough, N. C. 77, 155-156, 

Pius IX., Pope, 127, 213. 
Plautation Sketches, by Xrrs. Dev- 

ereux. 158. 
"Pleasant," a horse. 72-74. 
Pleasants. Anne. 143. 
Plymouth, N. C, 169-170. 
Pocahontas. 42. 
Polk. Rt. Rev. Leonidas. Bishop 

of Louisiana, 58-59. 78, 155, 160, 

Polk. Col. William. 78. 
Polk famil.v in Tennessee, 83. 
Pollock, Acting Governor Thomas, 


Population of the colonj- of North 

Carolina. IS. 
Porthkerry. South Wales, 42. 
Portsmouth. Va.. 171. 
Potter. Rt. Rev. Alouzo. Bishop 

of Pennsylvania. 129. 

Potter. Rt. Rev. Ploratio, Bishop 

of New York, 179. 
Pow. Rev. William. 22. 
Presbyter (or priest), office of, 


Presbyterians. 31. 49. 60. 77, 91- 

92. 114, 144. 
Presbyterian Clergyman Looking 

for the Church, by Dr. Mines, 

Priest, office of; see Presbyter. 
Prince, Heni-y A., 157. 
Prince George County, Va., 37, 

40, 42. 
Protestant Episcopal Church ; see 

Episcopal Church, and Anglican 

Prout. Rev. Heni-v H.. 111. 
Prout. Mrs. Henry H.. 113. 
"Provincial System." 162. 
Provoost, Rt. Rev. Samuel, Bishop 

of New York, 33. 

Quakers. 19, 29, 31. 
Quelx'c. Canada. 73. 
Queensland. Bishop of. 219. 
C^uin. Rev. Charles Carroll, 249. 
(Juintard. Rt. Rev. Charles Todd, 
Bishop of Tennessee, 155, 198. 

Rainsford. Rev. Giles. 19-21. 

Raleigh. Sir Walter, 13-14. 

Raleigh. N. C. 51. 55. 57, 70-71, 
75. 93-94. 118, 125, 128, 144, 149- 
151. 153, 155, 157, 166, 174, 180- 
182. 193-194. 214, 216, 223, 235, 
245, 247. 250. 

Raleigh Tavern, Williamsburg, 
Va.. 14.3. 

Randolph, Rt. Rev. Alfred Magill, 
Bishop of Southern Virginia, 
2,3.3 249. 

Randolph. .John, 44. 

Randolph County. N. C. 217. 

Randolph. Tenn.. 82. 

Rathbun, Rev. Scott B., 181. 

Ranch. . 24. 

Ravenscroft, Anne, 41. 

Ravenscroft. Anne Spotswood 
Burwell. 45-46, 70. 

Ravenscroft. Dionysia, .38. 

Ravenscroft, George (son of Sam- 
uel ) . 38. 

Ravenscroft, George (son of 
John), 41. 

Ravenscroft, Jean, 41. 

Ravenscroft. John. 38-40. 

Ravenscroft. Dr. John, 38, 41-43. 

Ravenscroft, Rt. Rev. John 
Stark, first Bishop of North 
Carolina, sketch of, 37-88 ; see 
also 11-13, 3.3. 91. 9.3-9.5, 101, 
104, 118, 153. 214. 2.33. 2.39, 251. 

Ravenscroft. Lillias. 40-41 ; see 
also Miller, Lillias, and Stew- 
art. Lillias. 

Ravenscroft, Peyton, 41. 

Ravenscroft. Capt. Samuel, 38. 

Ravenscroft. Samuel. Jr., 38. 

Ravenscroft, Sarah, .38. 

Ravenscroft, Sarah Buford, 70. 

Ravenscroft, Col. Thomas, 38-40. 

Ravenscroft (the See House), 82. 

Ravenscroft Academv, Fayette- 
ville. N. C. 82. 

Ravenscroft Chapel, Tipton 
County, Tenn., 82-83. 

Ravenscroft College, Columbia, 
Tenn.. 83. 

Ravenscroft Grove. Raleigh, N, C, 
82, 107. 



Raveuscroft School, Asheville, 
N. C, 82, 103, 155-157, 179, 202. 

Bcasons for Being a Churchman, 
by Dr. Little, 10-11. 

Recent Past, from, a Southern 
Standpoint, by Bishop Wilmer, 

Reed, Rev. James, 30. 

Reicl, Rev. John, 22. 

Religious liberty in Carolina, 14- 

Republican Methodists, 47-49 ; see 
also Methodists. 

Revolutionary War, Church's 
patriotism in, 30-32. 

Reynolds, Rt, Rev. Charles Igna- 
tius, Roman Catholic Bishop, 

Rhode Island, 143. 

Rice, Rev. Benjamin H., 144. 

Rice, Rev. John H., 84-85, 144. 

Rich, Rev. Edward R., 190, 201, 
216, 228, 230. 

Richardson, Rev. Mr., 132. 

Richardson, Nathaniel, 104. 

Richmond, Rev. William, 69, 71. 

Richmond, Va., 49-50, 94, 152, 164, 

Roanoke Island Colony, 13-14, 19. 

Roanoke River, 157. 

Robeson County, N. C, 231-232. 

Robertson, Alexander, 245. 

Robertson, Peter, 42. 

Robertson, Susan Boone, 245 ; see 
also Lyman, Susan Boone Rob- 

Robinson, Rev. John. 47. 

Rochester, Bishop of, 29, 33. 

Rockfish, N. C, 168. 

Rocky Mount, N. C, 158. 

Rolfe, Jane, 42. 

Roman Catholicism, 12-13, 31, 87, 
92, 94, 112-139, 211-213. 

Rome, Italy, 126-128, 133, 211-212, 
222-223, 235. 

Root, Mrs. Charles, 242, 

Rose, F. R., 238. 

Roulhac, Joseph B. G., 154. 

Round Hill Academy, Northamp- 
ton, Mass., 104, 108. 

Rowan, Rev. John, 22. 

Rowan County, N. C, 24. 57, 69, 

Royal Chapel, Savoy, London, 237. 

Royce, Hannah, 91. 

Ruffin, Chief Justice Thomas. 182. 

Rutledge, Rt. Rev. Francis Huger, 
Bishop of Florida. 129, 160. 

St. Agnes' Hospital, Raleigh, N. C, 

St. Alban's Abbey, England, 221. 
St. Alban's Church, Littleton, 

N. C, 132. 
St. Andrew's Church, Burke 

County, N. C, 57. 
St. Andrew's Church, Philadel- 
phia, Pa.. 135, 173. 
St. Augustine's Chapel, Raleigh, 

N. C, 186. 
St. Augustine's School, Raleigh, 

N. C. 186, 216, 248, 250. 
St. Helena, Cal., 244. 
St. James's Church, Iredell 

County, N. C, 193. 
St. James's Church, Wilmington, 

N. C, 57, 75, 79, 95, 97, 100, 

150, 166-167, 169, 191, 200-201, 
211, 232. 

St. James's College, Maryland, 

175, 209-211, 244. 
St. John's Chapel, New York, 150. 
St. John's Church, Dresden, Ger- 
many, 234. 
St. John's Church, Fayetteville, 

N. C, 54-55, 57, 75, 101, 122, 182, 

St. John's Church, Hagerstown, 

Md., 209. 
St. John's Church, Maury County, 

Tenn., 82-83. 
St. John's Church, Washington, 

D. C, 81. 
St. John's Church, Williamsbor- 

ough, N. C, 57, 70, 153. 
St. John's Church, Wilmington, 

N. C, 192, 200. 
St. John's Parish, Pasquotank 

Precinct. N. C, 22. 
St. Jude's Church, Orange County, 

N. C, 57. 
St. Louis, Mo., 179. 
St. Luke's Church, Salisbury, 

N. C, 58, 154, 228. 
St. Mark's Church, Halifax, N. C, 

57, 177. 
St. Mark's Church, Iredell County, 

N. C, 193. 
St. Mark's Church, Wilmington, 

N. C, 182, 200. 
St. Mary's Church, Orange 

County, N. C, 57. 
St. Mary's School, Raleigh. N. C, 

82-83, 102-103, 105, 107-108. 135, 

151, 166, 174, 193-195, 210, 243. 



St. Matthew's Church, Hillsbor- 
ough. N. C. 182, 19."?. 
St. Matthew's Church, Kinston, 

N. C. 58. 
St. Michael's Church, Charleston, 

S. C. 2-15. 
St. Michael's Church, Iredell 

County. X. C, 57. 
St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 

210-220, 237. 
St. Paul's Church. Edenton. N. C, 

22-23, 25-28, 57, 1)3, 100, 1G7, 103. 
St. Paul's Church, Lynchburg, Va., 

St. Paul's Church. Norfolk, Va., 

St. Paul's Church, Milton. N. C, 

St. Paul's Church, Philadelphia, 

Pa., 52. 
St. Paul's Church, Rome. Italy, 

St. Paul's Church. Wilmington, 

N. C. 102, 200. 202. 
St. Paul's School. Concord, N. H., 


St. Peter's Church. Baltimore, 

Md.. 122. 146. 148, 109. 
St. Peter's Church, Charlotte, 

N. C. 170, 195. 
St. Peter's Church, Lexington, 

N. C, 57. 
St. Peter's Church, Lincoln 

County, N. C, 58. 

St. Peter's Church, Pittsburg, Pa., 

St. Peter's Church, Washington, 

N. C, 58, 152, 169. 
St. Peter's Hospital, Charlotte, 

N. C, 196. 
St. Philip's Church. Brunswick, 

N. C. 25, 27-28, 95, 192. , 
St. Philip's Church. Smithvllle 

(now Southport), N. C, 192. 
St. Stephen's Church, Oxford, 

N. C, 58. 
St. Thomas's Church, Bath. N. C, 

20, 22-25, 28, 53, 58, 152, 193, 


St. Timothy's Chapel, near Eden- 
ton, X. C, 100. 

Salem, Mass., 40. 

Salem, N. C. 23, 63-64, 95-96, 153. 

Salem Academy, Salem, N. C, 

Salem Chapel, Orange County, 
N. C, 100. 

Salisbury. N. C, 24, 57-58, 60, 94, 

154, 227-228. 
Sampson County. N. C. 2.32. 
San FrancLsco, Cal., 213. 
Saunders, Miss Anne, 97. 
Saunders. Rev. .Joseph Hubbard, 

97, 103-104. 
Saunders. William L., 97. 
Savage, Dionysia, .38. 
Savage, Thomas, .38. 
Schereschewsky, Rt. Rev. Samuel 
Isaac .Joseph. Missionary Bish- 
op of Shanghai, China, 24(!. 
Scot. Gen. Patrick George, 42. 
Scot. Dr. William, 42. 
Scotland Neck, N. C, 170. 
Scott. Rt. Rev. Thomas Fielding, 
Missionary of Washing- 
ton and Oregon, 151. 
Seabury, Rt. Rev. Samuel, Bishop 

of Coiuiecticut, .32-33. 
Seabury. Rev. Samuel. 126. 
Seal of the Diocese, 8. 240. 
See House ; see Bishop's resi- 
Sewanee, 160 ; see also University 

of the South. 
Seymour, Rt. Rev. George Frank- 
lin, Bishop of Springfield, 214, 
Shanghai, China, 246-247. 
Shaw, Rev. Mr., 55. 
Sheltou, Frederick W., 105. 
Sherman's Army, 169. 
Shoenberger, John H., 157. 
Sillinian. Fanny, 91. 
Singletary, Rev. .John. 105. 
Skiles, Rev. William West, 111, 

11.3, 167. 
Skinner, Rt. Rev. John, Scotch 

Bishop, 32. 
Skinner. Joshua, 98. 100. 
Skipwith. Sir Peyton, 43. 
Slaughter. Rev. Philip, 145. 
Slaves ; see Negroes. 
Smedes. Rev. Aldert. 62, 83, 102. 
107-108, 135, 165-166, 193-194, 
Smedes. Rev. Bennett. 102. 165- 
166, 194, 202, 210, 240, 243, 248. 
Smedes, Ives, 13.5. 
Smedes. Rev. John E. C, 186. 
Smirnoff. Rev. Mr.. 235. 
Smith, Rev. Aristides S.. 165. 
Smith. Rt. Rev. Benjamin Bo.s- 
worth. Bishop of Kentucky, 69, 
Smith, Rev. J. Brinton, 186. 



Smith, James Norfleet, 100. 
Smith, Richard H., 100, 176, 190, 

Smith. Rev. Walter J., 181, 195. 
Smith, William Riiffin, 100, 196. 
Smithfield, N. C 31. 
Smithville (now Southport), N. C, 

95, 192. 
Smithwick, Edward. 26. 
Smyrna Church, Lincoln County, 

N. C, 57. 
Society for the Promotion of 

Christian Knowledge. 105. 
Society for the Propagation of 

the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 3, 

le, 20, 105, 122. 219. 
Somerset plantation. 85. 
South Africa, 42, 199. 
South Carolina, 22. 52. 58. 93, 95, 

106, 147-148. 151, 155, 160-161, 

163. 194, 199, 213, 231. 233, 245, 

247, 252. 

Southern ChnrcJiman, 216. 

Southern Virginia, 249. 

Southgate, Rt. Rev. Horatio, re- 
tired Bishop, 150. 

South Mountain, 175. 

Southport (formerly Smithville), 
N. C. 95, 192. 

South Wales. 42. 

Southwark, Pa., 93. 

Southwest, Missionary Jurisdic- 
tion of the, 129, 161-163, 174, 
198, 214. 

Southwest Parish of Chowan 
Precinct, 23. 

Southwest Parish of Pasquotank 
Precinct. 23. 

Spalding, Rt. Rev. John Franklin, 
Bishop of Colorado, 219. 

Spanish Armada, 14. 

Spencer, Rt. Rev. George Trevor, 
Bishop of INIadras, India, 150. 

Spokane, Wash., 247. 

Sprague, Rev. William B., 85. 

Springfleld, 111., 233. 

Spruill. Frank S., 243. 

Spruill, George E., 105. 

Stanly, John, 54. 

Stark, Rebecca, 40. 

Stark, William. 40. 

Stauber, , 23. 

Steiner, Dr. Bernard C. 209. 

Stevens. Rt. Rev. William Bacon, 
Assistant Bishop of Pennsyl- 
vania, 163, 175. 187. 

Stewart, Rev. Alexander, 20-22, 
25, 58. 

Stewart, Rt. Rev. Charles James, 
Bishop of Quebec, 73. 

Stewart, Gilbert McLeod. 41. 

Stewart, Rev. Henry Holmes, 41. 

Stewart, James, 41-42. 

Stewart, Keith, 41. 

Stewart, Lillias, 73, 75-76 ; see also 
Miller, Lillias ; and Ravens- 
croft, Lillias. 

Stewart, Patrick, 41. 

Stewai't, Rev. Ravenscroft, 41. 

Stewart, Stair, 41. 

(See also Stuart.) 

Stith, Anne, 43. 

Stoneland plantation, 4.5. 

Stony-lonesome plantation, 108. 

Strange, Judge Robert, 82. 

Strange, Col. Robert, 176, 228. 

Strange. Rt. Rev. Robert. Bishop 
of Bast Carolina, 199, 216, 224, 
233, 238, 246. 

Stuart. Charles, 82. 

( See also Stewart. ) 

Suffragan Bishop, office of, 190. 

Summit, N. C, 177. 

Sutton, Rev. Robert B., 186, 225- 

Swift, John H., 179. 

Talbot, Rev. John, 17. 
Tarborough, N. C, 56, 58, 238- 

239. 246. 
Tate, Col. Samuel McDowell, 227. 
Tavlor, Rev. Charles Edward, 22, 

Taylor, Chief Justice John Louis, 

Tennessee, 18. 66-67. 82-83, 94, 

129, 151. 155, 160-161, 169, 198, 

Texas, 132, 155. 160-161. 
Thomas, Gen. George H., 172. 
Thomas, Rev. Samuel. 22. 
Thompson, Rt. Rev. Hugh Miller, 

Bishop of Mississippi, 214. 
Thompson. Lewis, 195. 
Thompson Orphanage, Charlotte, 

N. C, 195-196, 247. 250. , 
Thurston, Rev. William. 111. 
Tillinghast, Rev. John Huske, 165. 
Tipton County. Tenn., 82. 
Toale, Rev. William, 22. 
Tokio. Japan, 247. 
Tremlett, Rev. Dr., 223. 
Trenton, N. J., 31. 
Trials of a Mind in Its Progress 
to Catholicism, by ex-Bishop 

Ives, 133, 135. 



Trinity Church. Asheville. N. C, 

Trinity Church. Choeowinity, 

Beaufort County. X. C. 54, 58. 
Trinity Church. Columbus, Ga., 

Trinity Church. New York, 63. 
Trinity Church. Phihulelphia, Pa., 

!)2. !)4. 
Trinity Church. Pitt.'^burg, Pa., 

Trinity Church. San Francisco, 

Cal.. 213. 
Trinity Church. Scotland Neck, 

N. C, 170. 
Trinity Church, Tarborough, N. C, 

Trinity College. Hartford, Conn., 

69. 175. 199, 211, 245-246. 
Trinity College, North Carolina, 

Trinity School. Choeowinity, 

Beaufort County. X. C. 196. 
Trinity School. Wake County, N. C, 

103, 108-109. 
Tucker, Judge Henrv St. George, 

Tucker, Mrs. Rufus S.. 242. 
Tucker, St. George. 145. 
Tucker. Mrs. William T.. 242. 
Turner. Rev. Job, 223. 
Tyler, Dr. Lyon G., 39. 
Tyler. Dr. Moses Coit. 224. 
Tyng. Rev. Stephen H., 55. 

Unit as Fratum; see Moravian 

University of Aberdeen, 57. 
University of Edinburgh. 40. 
University of North Carolina, 75, 

96. 109. 135. 199, 244. 
University of the South, at Se- 

wanee. Tenn.. 1.55, 168. 215. 
University of Virginia, 75, 143- 

Union Chapel, Wayne County, 

N. C, 58. 
Upfold, Rt. Rev. George, Bishop 

of Indiana, 129. 
Upjohn, Richard. 62. 
Urmstone, Rev. John, 20-22. 

Valle Crusis Mission. Watauga 
County. N. C. 94, 102, 109-113, 
115-116, 125, 167. 

Valley Forge, 30. 

Van Antwerp. David D., 202. 

Van Rensselaer, Miss Marie An- 
toinette, 242. 

Vaughan. Rev. Maurice Hamilton, 

Vermont. 129. 173. 207. 
Vine Hill i)Iantation. 225. 
Virginia, 14. 19, 22. 3.3. 37-52, 55- 

57, 66, 68. 70. 73, '.)4. 97, 104, 

129, 152, 160-161. 165, 169. 171, 

201, 210, 223, 233. 249. 
Viifjinia Magazine of History and 

Biography, 40. 

Wachovia, N. C, 23. 
Waddell. Alfred Moore, 239. 
Waddell, Maurice Q., 77-78. 
Wadesborough. N. C, 57. 95, 169. 
Wainwright. Rt. Rev. Jonathan 

Mayhew. Px-ovisional Bishop of 

New York. 84. 129. 
Wake County, N. C, 73. 
Walker. Gov. Henderson. 26. 
Walker, Rev. William 243. 
Walling. William, 25. 
Wallingford, Conn., 132. 
Walton, Col. Thomas George, 225- 


Warrenton, N. C, 57, 93, 103-104. 

Washington, George, 31. 

Washington State, 247. 

Washington, D. C, 81. 

Washington. N. C, 56, 58, 101, 
169, 196-197. 

Washington County, Md.. 210. 

Watauga County, N. C, 109. 

Watauga Valley, N. C. 110. 

V\'aters, Rev. Cyrus, 171. 

Watson. Rt. Rev. Alfred Augus- 
tin. Bishop of East Carolina, 
121. 165-167. 190, 193. 201, 214, 
228-229, 232-233, 238-239, 246, 

Wayne County, N. C, 232. 

Waynesborough, N. C, 58. 

Weddington. X. Y., 118. 

Welles. Rt. Rev. Edward Ran- 
dolph. Bishop of Wisconsin, 199. 

Wells. Rt. Rev. Lemuel Henry, 
Bishop of Spokane, 247. 

Wei ton. Rev. Richard, 17. 

West, John Spence, 54. 

Westchester County. N. Y., 134- 

West Durham, N. C, 225. 
Western New York. 129. 
Weston. Rev. James A.. 165. 
Wetmore, Rev. William R.. 169. 
Whinstou [Winston?]. Rev. , 



Whipple, Rt. Rev. Henry Benja- 
min, Bishop of Minnesota, 236. 

Whitaker, Rev. Walter C, 98. 

White, Rt. Rev. William, Bishop 
of Pennsylvania, 33, 52, 92-93. 

Whitehaven Church, Lincoln 
County, N. C, 57. 

Whitehouse, Rt. Rev. Henry John, 
Bishop of Illinios, 129, 187. 

White Plains, Battle of, 30. 

Whittingham, Rt. Rev. William 
Rollinsou, Bishop of Maryland, 
129, 148, 209-210, 214. 

Whittle, Rt. Rev. Francis Mc- 
Neece, Bishop of Virginia, 201. 

Wilberforce, Rt. Rev. Samuel, 
Bishop of Oxford, 196, 225 ; see 
also Oxford. Bishop of. 

Wilberforce School, Morganton, 
N. C, 156, 196, 225-227. 

Wilder, John, 149. 

Wilder, Josepha Gwinn, 149; see 
also Atkinson, Josepha Gwinn. 

Wilkes, Capt. John, 170, 230, 249. 

Wilkinson, Col. William, 26. 

William and Mary College, Wil- 
liamsburg, Va., 44, 75, 104, 156. 

Williams, Rt. Rev. John, Assist- 
ant Bishop of Connecticut, 129, 

Williamsborough. N. C, 57-58, 66, 
70-71, 78-79, 153. 

Williamsburg, Va., 37, 143; see 
also William and Mary College. 

Wills, Rev. John, 22. 

Wilmer, Rev. George T., 97, 156. 

Wilmer, Rt. Rev. Joseph Pere 
Bell. Bishop of Louisiana, 98, 

Wilmer. Rt. Rev. Richard Hooker, 
Bishop of Alabama, 97-98, 115, 
161, 163-164, 172-173. 

^Vilmington, N. C, 25, 54-57, 75, 

79, 95, 100, 105, 111, 150, 153, 

165-167, 169, 179, 188, 191-192, 

199-202, 223, 228, 232. 
Wilson, Turaer, 63. 
Wilson, N. C, 158. 
Wilson County, N. C, 231. 
Winchester, Va., 145. 
Winchester (England), Bishop of, 

Wmdley, Rev. Robert B., 192. 
Windsor, Conn., 207. 
Wiugfield, Rt. Rev. John Henry 

Duchachet, Bishop of Northern 

California, 171, 199, 214, 246. 
Winslow, Rev. Edward, 57. 
Winslow, Edward Lee, 57, 85, 105, 

Winslow, John (Boston, Mass.), 

Winslow, John (Fayetteville, N. 

C), 54, 56-57. 
Winslow, Warren, 57. 
Winston, Dr. George T., 242. 
Winston (?) ; see Whinston. 
Winston. N. C, 153, 197. 
Winston-Salem, N. C, 180, 252; 

see Salem, N. C. 
Wisconsin, 129, 199. 
Woodmason, Rev. Charles, 22. 
Wright, John W., 82, 84. 
Wright, Rev. Thomas, 69. 

Wutke, , 24. 

Wythe, George, 44. 

Yale University, 145. 208. 
Yellow fever epidemic, 166-167. 
York. Archbishops of, 33, 237. 
York, England, 187. 
Yorktown, Va., 30, 165. 

[the end.] 

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