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Full text of "The lives of the bishops of Winchester : from Birinius, the first bishop of the West Saxons, to the present time"

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THE LIVES 

OF THE 



FROM 

BIRINUS, 

THE FIRST BISHOP OF THE WEST SAXONS, 
TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



f 




BV 



THE REV. STEPHEN HYDE CASSAN, A.M. 

Curate of Mere and West Knoyle, Wilts ; Chaplain to the Earl ot 

Caledon, K. P. Author of the Lives of the Bishops of 

Salisbury, aud Sermous oa vaiious subjects. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 

VOL. I. 

CONTAINING THE LIVES OF 

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED BY C. AND J. FaVINGTON ; 

JACOS AND JOHNSON, WINCHESTER ; BRODIE AND DOWDING, SALISBURY ; 
, PARKEK, OXFORD ; AND DEIGHTON, CAMBRIDGE. 
€rockerS( S'rinters, Frome. 

1827. 



V 



-v 



O 



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To Him, who has rendered the Episcopal station doubly venerable .-—To 
Him, the polished Scholar— the sound Divine — the steady and uncom- 
promising Patriot — the courteous and condescending, the amiable and 
unaffectedly, pious Christian Prelate ;— To Him, who has most essentially 
promoted the best interests of true Religion, and con/erred on theological 
Students, the Clergy, and Society in general, a lasting service by his 
admirable publications, " Tlie Elements of Christian Knowledge," and 
"Tlie Refutation of CaMnism," and thereby transmitted his name with 
imperishable glory to posterity as an orthodox and fostering FATHER OF 
THE CHURCH : To Him, who by rearing the towering mind and giving 
direction to the splendid talents of The Immortal Pitt, and who, by thus 
mainly contributing to raise Great Britain to its present proud pre-eminence, 
and to secure its happiness on the principles of an enlightened and rational 
Polity, has entitled himself, with equal justice, to be hailed as a FATHER 
OF HIS COUNTRY : To Him, the Right Reverend 

SIR GEORGE PRETYMAN TOMLINE, Bart, D.D. F.R.S. 

LORD BISHOP OF WINCHESTER, 
PRELATE OF THE MOST NOBLE ORDER OF THE GARTER, 

These Memoirs of his predecessors in the See of TVinchester, of whom, 
great as they are, he has, by the happy union of Protestantism in the 
Church, and Toryism in the State, proved himself " THEIPOXOS 
EMMENAI AAAiiN," 

Are inscribed as an humble tribute of respect. 
By his Lorship's 
Most devoted and faithful Servant, 

THE AUTHOR, 

Vicarage, Mete, Wilts, Julj 1827. 



178211 



Previously to entering at large upon the 
Lives of the Bishops of Winchester, I shall 
lay before the Reader the promised re-print 
of Gale's " History of the Antiquities of the 
Cathedral Church of Winchester," which will 
both serve as an introduction to the Memoirs 
of the Prelates, and tend to illustrate several 
passages of the main work. Although this 
may be considered as a faithful re-print, it 
will be found that many, both of Gale's and 
Lord Clarendon's inaccuracies have been 
corrected. 



THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES 

OF THE 

€at][jctiral €i[)urc|) of Wint^t^tttf 

Coiitaiuing all the Ini5criiitions upon the Tombs and IMonuments ; with an 

account of all the Bishops, Priors, Deans, and Prebendaries; 

also, the History and Antiquities of Hyde-Abbey. 



BEGUN BY THE RIGHT HONOURABLE HENRY LATE EARL OF 

CLARENDON, AND CONTINUED TO THIS TIME 

BY SAMUEL GALE, GENT. 



London: printed for E. Curll, at the Dial and Bible against St. Dunstan's 
Church in Fleet-Street. M.DCC.XV. 



PREFACE. 

The following Book owes its present foundation to a 
small manuscript preserved amongst other papers of the 
late Hemy Earl of Clarendon, beaiing this title : — 

Some Account of the Tombs and Monuments in the 
Cathedral Church q/' Winchester, Jinished this 17 th. day 
of February, 1683. Byrne H. Clarendon. 

To which there is now added, a continuation of all the 
inscriptions in the Church to this time, and the succession 
of the Bishops, Priors, Deans, and other Dignitaries, 
from the Registers of this Church, with the History of 
the Abbey of Hyde, writ by a very learned antiquary. 

The work being thus far advanced, I very readily con- 
tributed such historical collections as I had by me, 
relating to the Church of Winton, and which I hope may 
give some light into the antiquity of the fabric. The 
Charters belonging to this Church, kept in the Tower of 
London, being large and numerous, it would have been a 
tedious undertaking to transcribe them ; therefore I have 
here given such a methodical catalogue of them, that they 
may be resorted to with the greatest facility in the Record 
Office. For these I am obliged to the favour of Mr. G. 
Holmes, Deputy Record- Keeper of the Tower ; as I am 
also for the draughts of several of the monuments, &.C. to 
others my very good friends. 
VOL. I. B 



I must now take occasion to mention the aniient story 
of l.ucius, the first Clnistian King of the Britians, his 
tomidmg and largely endowing the Church of Winton by 
his turnmg a heathen 'l^eiuple into a Christian Church 
«'ind substitutmg a Bishop and Monks in the room of a 
I'Jamen and Pagan Priests, about the year I69, which 
bemg a matter of much uncertainty, and to give it the 
lanest plea, only a tradition, I have omitted, in the 
subsequent history; rather chusing to pass it over in 
silence, than to build on so weak a basis. For as to the 
time of King Lucius's conversion, bv the Mission from 
-LIutherius the 12th. Bishop of Rome, at that King's 
desire, there is no agreement amongst our historians. 
Venerable Bede placeth it about the year I06, but he writ 
his history above five hundred years after the time when 
King Lucius IS said to have lived : and Gildas, the most 
antient of all the British historians, who writ near two 
hundred years before Bede, (and one would think, should 
know more of the affairs of his own country than those 
who m other matters write after him) hath not one word 
of any such person as Lucius, but on tlu contrary makes 
It appear that Christianity was received in this islaiid more 
early; and even in the reign of the Emperor Nero. 
Indeed Geffrey of Monmouth, and others after him, 
make King Lucius to have done so many things, to have 
founded and endowed so many Churches (besides this of 
Winton) and with such improbable circumstances, that 
they render this part of tiie British History very doubtful 
and suspicious. 

The following passage from the Annals of Winton, I 
thought more proper to insert here, than in the history. 
^ ''Anno 12()4, 4o- Nonas Maii W^intoniensis contra 
^^ Prioram & Conventum S. Swithuni insurrexerunt, & 
portam Priora.tus, & portam quae vocatur Kingate, cum 
^^ Lcclesia S. Swithuni supra, & universis aedificiis & 
redditibus Prioris & Conventus prope Murum com- 
*' busserunt." 

This accident of the burnhig the church of St. Swithun, 
as here described, I think cannot be taken to comprehend 
the total devastation of the fabric, but only the roof or 
upper part of timber; for so the word supra signifies. 
And there are several antient monuments entire to this 
day in and about the east part of the church or choir (the 
antiquity of which 1 would vindicate) that were erected 






3 

long before the date of this conflagration. Nor do I find 
the least notice taken of any reparations in this part of 
the Church, from the time of its foundation in the reign 
of the Conqueror, till Richard Fox, Bishop of this 
see, in the reign of King Henry the seventh, beautified 
and covered the old choir and side aisles, with a fair arch 
of stone, and other ciuious workmanship ; and where his 
arms are still to be seen carved in several places. As for 
the repairing the timber roof that was burned, we may 
easily suppose that to have been soon done, it being but 
an inconsiderable business, when compared to the vast 
works of those times, and not worth nientionino;. But to 
put this matter out of dispute, the above cited annals 
relate, that in 1268, which is but four years after the fire, 
Nicholas de Ely, the new Bishop of Winton, was received 
there, with a solemn procession inthroned, and that 
Missam solenniter ce/ebravit, which I think could not 
well have been done, had not the roof of the fabric been 
already repaired; much less if the whole was in ruins; 
neither can it be supposed, that such a stately fabric 
could be built from the ground, and finished in so short 
a time. The building of the north and south cross of the 
church may very probably have arisen from the repar- 
ations made by Godfrey de Lucy, Bishop of this See, a 
little after the year 1202, or by his next successor, who 
was a great benefactor. 

The copies of Rudborue, and the Annals of Winton, 
which I ha\e cited, are those published by Mr. Wharton, 
in his Anglia Sacra. 

If the following remarks upon this antient and famous 
cathedral prove acceptable to the curious, it will be a 
satisfaction to me, that the leisure time I have thus 
employed, hath not been altogether mis-spent. 

S. G[ale]. 
London, Sept. 8> 1715. 



B 2 



THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES, Sec. 



Whoever rettjins a chic veneration for sacred antiquity, 
or desires to honour the memory of our renowned ances- 
tors ; niay yet trace out their magnificence, their love to 
tlieir country, their immense charity, their piety, and 
devotion, in those stupendous and no less beautiful 
structures, which they erected and dedicated to the 
service of God and religion, in which no nation exceeds 
us. And which neither various revolutions, nor wars, 
nor time itself (ever injurious to monuments) has yet 
been able to demolish, but they still remain to us, rather 
to be admired than possibly imitated. And whether 
we consider their architecture, or their number, it is to 
be lamented, that in so copious a subject, so few writers 
have been employed, that to this day many of our 
cathedral churches have lain in such obscurity, as to 
have had no particular notice taken of them, and should 
this incurious humour prevail, posterity might justly 
deplore our negligence and the want of those antiquities 
■we so slightly esteem. Much time has been already lost, 
and their beauty extremely diminished, as well as 
numberless records of their foundation and endowments, 
perished beyond retrieve, both by the Reformation, 
and the unhappy civil wars. And if timely care is not 
taken, the remains both of one and the other, may 
undergo the same fate. Amongst all the sacred temples 
of our country, the Cathedral Church of \\ inchester 
presents itself with a most surprizing grandeur. It rises 
with such a venerable aspect that one no sooner sees it, 
but he is struck with a religious awe. 

But before 1 come to treat particularly of this Church, 
it may not be amiss to give tMO or three remarks 
concerning the city of Winchester, where our church to 
this day Hourisheth. This city is undoubtedly one of 
the most antient in Britain. * Ptolemy mentions it by 
the name of Ousvra, Venta. The Romans whWe they 



* Gtogra. lib. ii. cap. Ill 



d 

govenied here, more distinctly Venta Belgarum, af5 
appears by the Itinerary, and that this was one of their 
stations ([)robably a city) the Roman coins and ruins of 
baths, discovered not long since in repairing the castle, 
do sufficiently evince. 

Upon the decay of the Roman empire in Britain, the 
Saxons took possession of it, and made it the royal seat 
of the West Saxon Kings, and called it FinranceayTejT; 
■svhich names are easily derived from the British Caei- 
Gweut, i.e. White City, it being situated in a white 
chalky soil. The learned Camden has so accurately 
described this city, that I shall only further mention that 
it is honoured with a royal palace, begun by King Charles 
the lid. of a regular architecture, consisting of a mag- 
nificent front, with pavilions in brick, adorned with co- 
lumns of the Corinthian order. Which by its situation 
on a f very high hill, and the ruins of the old castle, 
enjoys a fine air, and a glorious prospect over the city, 
and adjacent country. May we not hope, his iSIajesty 
King George, will finish this house, and make it again 
the royal residence of the Saxon Kings. 

Descending from the palace, I now revisit the church, 
in order to take a nearer view of it. 

As to its origin, our historians agree, that Christianity 
flourished here in the time of the Romans, and that there 
were several churches and monasteries erected to the 
honour and service of God by the British converts who 
lived under them. Accordingly we find mention of a 
college of monks at Winton, from whence Constans 
was taken, and declared Emperor by his father Con- 
stantin, who merely from the hopes of his name, was 
saluted Emperor, and successfully opposed Honorius, 
A. C. 408. And 'tis not improbable, that those vast 
*ruins of old walls, in which are several windows still 
to be seen at the west end of the cathedral, are the re- 
mains of this very college. How long this monastery 
and churcli might have cofttinued ift splendour, under 
the Christian Britains, is impossible to determine, but I 
look upon it to be a right conjecture, that it was reduced 



t Antoaini. Itiiier T. G. p. 104. 

* Bmtou'B Coiuuieut. on Antouin. Itinerary, p. 221, and Camden's Brit, 
in Wiut. 



to its fatal catastrophe by Cenlic, the first Pagan King 
of the West Saxons, who arrived in Britain, A. C * 
495 : who after several battles fought with the Britains 
in these parts, in which they were overthrown and van- 
quished, f began his reign A.C. 519: at which time 
he either slew or expelled all the Monks at Winchester, 
and set up his own idolatrous worship. 

The church of Winchester being thus miserably 
eclipsed by Pagan darkness, continued in that state 
during the reign of Cerdic, and his four successors, 
Cynric his son, Ceawlin, Ceol, and Ceolwulf, till the 
time of King Kynegils Avho began his reign A. C. 611, 
and was at length converted to the Christian faith, by the 
preaching of the holy Birinus, by whom he was baptized, 
and Oswald King of the Northumbrians being present, 
was;]: godfather to the King, A. C. 635. After this 
King Kynegils gave to Birinus the city of Dorchester, 
for his episcopal see. King Oswald confirming the 
donation. This was done by the King for the present, 
he intending to found the principal church in the royal 
city of Winchester, and to that end had prepared all 
materials for the fabric, §and gave all the land within 
seven miles round that city, to the maintenance of its 
ministers. 

^But the King was not able to perform his religious 
design, being seized by a fatal sickness. He however 
called his son to him, and made him swear before 
Birinus, that he would build a church fit for an episcopal 
See, and offer to God, and confirm for ever, the land 
he had measured out and allotted to the support of the 
said church. 

**Cenwalch succeeding him in the kingdom, A. C. 
643, commanded a noble church to be builded, and 
gave and confirmed to it, all the land which his father 
had before vowed to bestow upon it. This sacred struc- 
ture was finished six years afterward, and dedicated to St^ 



* Chron. Sax. Gibs, p. 25. 

t Tho. Rudborne Hist. Maj. Wint. lib. II. c 1. 

t Bedae Hist. Eccl. lib. 3. c. 7. 

§ R. Higd. Polyc. 

•I Annal. Eccl. Wint. p. 288. •* Cliro. Sax. p. 31. 



Peter, says the Saxon Chronicle. But *Rudborne, 
the Monk of Winton, to the Holy Trinity, byBirinus the 
Bishop and Apostle of the West Saxons. The King 
gave the new See to Wina, after the departure of Agil- 
bert, successor of Birinus, having removed it from 
Dorchester, A. C. 660. 

And as a farther mark of his royal affection fas his 
own proper gift, added three manors to the Church of 
Winton, viz. Duntun, Alresford, and AVorthy. King 
Cenwalch+ died A. C 672, and was honourably interred, 
m the church he had finished. There is very little 
mention in our historians concernins; the fabric, from 
tins period, till the Norman conquest, but all agree it 
continued in a flourishing condition ; being enriched 
and endowed by the Saxon and Danish Kings, and other 
Princes, with rich presents and large donation of lands. 
Amongst others Queen Emma, in gratitude for her de- 
livery from the fiery trial df ,the nine burning plough- 
shares, by which her innocence was vindicated, as to her 
crime with Bishop Alwyu,§ gave nine manors, viz, Bran- 
desbury, Bergcfield, Fyffhyde, Hoghtone, Mychel- 
meryshe, Joyngeho, AVycombe, Weregravys, and Halynge. 
Bishop Alwyn also at the same time gave nine manors 
more, viz. Stoneham, Estmeone, Westmeone, Hentone, 
Wytneye, Yelynge, Mylbroke, Polhamptone, and Ho- 
dyngtone. And King Edward three, viz. Portlond,Wyk- 
helewelle, and Waymuthe. This, as our Chronicles relate, 
happened about the year 1043. The present church 
M'liich ^^as built at several times, had its foundation laid 
m the reign of William the Conqueror, by Walkelyn, 
Bishop of Winton^, a Norman and the King's relation, 
A. C. 1079. The work was carried on with so much 
application, that we find the monks, in the presence of 
almost all the Bishops and Abbots of England, came in 
great joy and triumph from the old monastery to the new 
one, A. C. 1093, and at the feast of St. Swithun, the 
shrine of that saint w as in solemn procession, translated 
from the old to the new church, and there with much 
devotion placed. The next day Bishop Walkelyn's men 



• Hist. Maj. P. 190. 

t Annales Eccl. Wiiit. p. 232. t Chro. Sax. 

^ Tho, Rud. Hist. Maj. p. 235. If Annal. Wiut. 



8 

began to demolish the old monastery, wlilcliM'as all pulled 
down that year, excepting one porch, and the great tower 
in the middle of the church, are doubtless the work of 
Bishop Walkelyn, for thus Rudborne, speaking of this 
great Prelate, says, Fieri fecit Turrim Ecdesia, Wintoni- 
ettsis, ut modo cernitur. And in the choir we see to this 
day the tomb of William llufus, who was slain in the 
New Forest, A. C. 1 100, and interred here before the 
high altar ; but two years after the death of Bishop 
Walkelyn, which was A. C. 1098, he having continued 
Bishop nineteen years since his laying the foundation 
of this church, and from his election twenty-seven. The 
work of the fabric was promoted by several Bishops his 
successors. In the year *1'200, I find mentioned also, a 
tower of the church of Winton, said to be then began and 
finished during the pontifical of Godfrey de Lucy, and 
that the same Bishop, A. C. 1202, instituted a confrater- 
nity to collect alms, for five years and no longer, towards 
the repair of the church. The next Bishop who appears 
to have done any thing to the church, by his benefactions, 
is William de Edyndon, ordained A. C. 1345, being then 
^treasurer, and twelve years after made ;|:chancellor of 
England. § He began the nave of the church, but living 
not to finish it, he commanded by his last will, that part of 
the money arising from his goods, should be applied to 
the perfecting of that work, and the maintenance of a 
chantry by him founded at Edyndon. The rest he left to 
several religious houses, and his servants. He died 7th. 
October, 1366, and lies interred under a magnificent tomb 
on the south side of the nave, near the entrance into the 
choii-, on which we have this monkish epitaph. 

Edindon hiatus Willmus hie est tiimulatus, &c.^ 

The next Bishop that succeeded was William Wickham, 
[Wykeham] at that time keeper of the privy seal to King 
Edward HI. being unanimously chosen by the Prior and 
Convent of Winton** A. C. 1369- To the liberality 



* Annal. Wint. Ecc. p. 304 and 305. 

t Rot. Pat. 18 Ed. 3. pt. m. 22. Will, de Edington constitutus Thesaurar. 
10 Apiil 1345. X Claus. in doiso raenib. 4. Will, de lidington, 

Winton Episcopu.s, constitutus Cancellarius, liabult magnum Sigillum 
sibi tiaditum, 19 Feb. 1357, $ Cont. Hist. Wint. p. 317. 

\ See hereafter. »* Hist, Univ, O.xon, Wood. p. 121. 



and munificence of this great prelate we owe the building 
and finishino- of the nave, and the west front of the 
Cathedral, where his statue is placed m a niche, standing 
above the great window, on the height of the Church ; 
the whole work being by him completed about the year 
1394. The many honours and preferments that King 
Edward conferred upon this great and good man, are 
plain indications of the high esteem he had of his excellent 
parts, industry, and fidelity. The first employment which 
he executed under the King was that of surveyor of Dover, 
Windsor, and Hadley Castles, and several of his Manors; 
and to his direction was the building of Windsor Castle 
committed. In the year 1361, he went into holy orders 
by the King's command, and was soon after made Rector 
of St. Martin in the Fields, and Dean of St. Martin le 
Grand in London, and Arch-deacon of Lincoln, North- 
ampton, and Buckingham. He was also Dean of Wells, 
and had twelve Prebends in several Churches. The King 
still, as a farther reward to his merit, made him (as is 
afore-mentioned) keeper of the privy seal. Bishop of 
Whiton, and* soon after Lord High Chancellor of 
England. And now our Bishop endowed with a mind 
not inferior to his fortune, began to think of employing 
his vast treasure to the honour of God, by some noble 
act of charity ,• to this end he founded the magnificent 
structure of new college in Oxford, the first stone being- 
laid A. C. 1379, which being finished in 1386, the 
warden and fello\^'s had possession given them, after a 
solemn procession and prayers made the 14th of ^^pril, 
about three o'clock in the morning, the same year. This 
college was no sooner built but that he began another 
near VVolveseye (the Bishop's Palace) at Winton, laying 
the first stone A. C. 1387, which being finished in six 
years, he designed it as a nursery for his other college at 
Oxon. One hundred and five persons being maintained 
tlierein, besides servants, viz. One warden, ten fellow- 
priests, one school-master, one usher, three chaplains, 
fceventy scholars, sixteen choristers, and three clerks ;-j- 
besides the vast expences of these two stately foundations, 

* In Officio Canccllatus confirmatus 17<> Sept. Cart. 41. Ed. III. Pat. 
12. R. II. pt. 2. m. 7ma itcrum constitutus Caucellarius 4 Mail. 

t Hist. & Antiq. Uuiv. Vid. Autiq. Eccl. Brit, per Parker, in vita Sim. 
Sudbury. 



10 

and that of the Churcli. He procured to his See many 
privileges ancj/ innnunities; he gave farther, twenty 
thousand marks to the reparation of his houses ; the debts 
of tliose who were imprisoned on that account he paid, 
amounting to two thousand pounds. He repaired all the 
high ways between London and Winton. He gave two 
hundred pounds, to the Church of Windsor. He 
ordained a chauntry of live Priests at Southwyke. He 
supported continually in his house twenty-four almsmen. 
He maintained at the university fifty scholars for seven 
years before the building of his college ; and did many 
other charitable acts. He also provided for himself ten 
years before his death, a magnificent monument in the 
body of the Church, representing him in his pontificalibus, 
two angels kneeling at his head, and three monks at his 
feet praying devoutly for his soul, very exquisitely 
performed. After all these expences, he lelt legacies in 
money above six thousand pounds, to his heir, one 
hmidred pounds in land a year, and all his houses richly 
furnished. He died A.C. 1404, and was interred in the 
monument which he built for himself, upon the verge of 
which is this Inscription : 

AVilbelmus dictus Wykeham Jace^ hie nece yictus, &c.* 

The church being thus finished by the munificence of 
Bishop Wykeham, appears to be one of tlie largest in 
England, and regular, after the Gothic manner, the 
arches being all angled, and supported by several small 
columns of the same diameter at the base as at the chapiter 
set together, which way of building, though not to be 
compared w ith the Roman architecture, yet has something 
in it solemn and magnificent; and the windows being 
generally of antient painted glass, add much to the beauty 
of the prospect ; as our countryman, Milton, hath happily 
described it. 

But let my due feet never fall 
To walk the studious cloysters pale, 
And love the high embowed roof; 
JVith antique pillars massy proof ; 
And storied ivindows richly dig'ht 
Casting a dim religious light : 



• See hereafter. 



11 

There let the pealing organ blow. 

To the full voic'd choir below. 

In service high and anthems clear 

As may with siveetness through mine ear 

Dissolve vie into extasies, 

And bring all heave7i before mine eyes. 

IL Penseroso. 

The great tower, vhich stands in the middle of the 
fabric is somewhat too Iom-, but would admit of a super- 
structure, which is all that seems wanting to render it more 
august. 

If we take a more particular view of the inside, we shall 
find it handsomely ornamented, and not without several 
curiosities, as well as a great number of noble and autient 
monuments. 

On the north side of the nave of the church there stands 
a veiy antique font. 'Tis a large square stone, a sort of 
black marble, in which is cut a circular basin for the 
water, and is supported by a plain stone pedestal, being 
three foot three inches over. The sides of the square are 
set off with bass-relieves, representing probably the 
miracles of some saint belonging to this church. T\\& 
work I esteem not later than tlie Saxon times, and might 
probably have been removed hither from the old monas- 
tery ; the different views of which I have here inserted, for 
the satisfaction of the curious. 

In the south cross there is an old tomb of William de 
Basynge, some time Prior of this church ; an indulgence 
is granted for three years and fifty days, to all who shall 
pray for his soul, as is mentioned upon his tomb. There 
were two Priors successively of this name ; the first died* 
A. C. 1288, the second 1295. 

Under the stairs leading up to the organ, there is a bust 
(by tradition) of Ethelmarus the Bishop, who died A. C. 
1261 ; who nevertheless, seems to have been interred in 
anotherf place ; for I find his heart was buried in the 
south wall of the presbyteiy, where this inscription is still 
visible. 

Ohiit Anno Domini 1261. 

Corpus Ethelmari cujus Cor nunc tenet istud Saxum Parisiis 

morte datur Tumulo. 

* Registr. de Poutoys. Ep. Wint. 

ft He was bmied at St. Genevieve, Edit.J 



12 

We are now approaching to the choir, to which from 
the nave of the churcli, there is a handsome ascent of 
steps ; it is separated from the rest of the clnirch by a 
beautiful frontispiece of stone, built between tlie two 
great piUars ol the arch of the tower, 'Tis of the Com- 
posite order, and on each side of the gate, which is 
arched, there is a niche ; in that on the north, is placed a 
statue of King Charles 1. in the other on the south side, 
that of King James 1. both in brass, and well performed. 
These statues, during the civil wars, lay concealed, and 
by that means escaped the fury of the rebels, who com- 
mitted many outrages on this church, too long to be here 
related. This structure was erected by King Charles I. 
who was a great benefactor to this and many other 
churches. As soon as you enter you see the seats and 
stalls of the Dean and Prebendaries, which are very neat, 
but antieut, and adorned with spire-work gilded. In the 
middle of the choir there is an eagle standing on a high 
pedestal all of brass, on which the lessons are read at 
divine service. 

At the upper end, on the south side, there is a new 
throne, which was built for the present Bishop, the Right 
Reverend Father in God, Sir Jonathan Trelawny. 
The pediment, which is adorned with a mitre, and the 
arms of the See, impaling those of his family, is 
supported by fluted columns of the Corinthian order. 

*in the area the ascent to the altar is a raised monu- 
ment of greyish marble, in which lay interred William 
Rufus, before it was broke open, and rifled in the late 
Rebellion, 

On each side of the altar there is a fine partition-wall 
curiously wrought in stone, which composes the two sides 
of the presbytery that separate it from the north and south 
aisles ; on the top of each wall, which is of a considerable 
height, are placed three shrines or chests finely caned, 
painted and gilded, with a crown upon each ; in which 
are deposited the bones of several of the West Saxon 
Kings, Bishops, and some later Princes ; which had been 
buried in divers parts of the Church, and were thus 
carefully collected and preserved \^'ith honourable mention 
of their names on each shrine in letters of gold, by 



Annales Waverleieuies p. 141. 



13 

Richard Fox, Bishop of Winton, who died A.C. 1528, 
and lies interred under a fair monument, on the south side 
of the high altar, now called Fox's Chapel. It was this 
Bishop who covered the choir of \Vinton, the presbyteiy, 
and the aisles adjoining with a fair vault of stone, in \\ hich 
his arms are cut in several places ; and new glazed all 
the windows of this part of the Church, and gave it that 
beauty in which it appears at this time, and was also the 
founder of Corpus Christi College in Oxford, A. C. 
1516'.* 

The ascent to the altar, of marble steps, and the 
pavement are very curious, being inlaid with different 
coloured marbles in various figures. The altar piece is 
a very handsome design of wood-work, which forms a 
lofty canopy, projecting over the table, with vast festoons 
hangins down from it, and all over beautified with 
exquisite foliage. Behind this, there is a very high 
skreen or partition of stone, the work of Bishop Fox, full 
of antique carving and niches, where formerly were statues, 
but they being demolished, the vacancies are filled with 
large vases or urns, which add an extraordinary grandeur 
to the whole. This ornament was the gift of W illiam 
Harris, D.D. who by his will bequeathed eight hundred 
pounds towards it, A.C. 1700. 

Leaving the choir, and passing by Bishop Fox's 
oratorv, we ascend the great area at the east end of tiie 
Chuirh, which place in antient times was esteemed very 
sacred, for under it was the Ko/^7]T7;6j&i/, or resting place, 
of the Saints and Kings, who were interred there, with 
great honours ; at present, behind the high altar there is 
a transverse wall, against which we see the marks where 
several statues, being very small, were placed, with their 
names under each pedestal, being in a row. 

Kinigilsiis Rex. Sanct. Biiinus Ep. Kinwald Rex. Egbertus 
R, Adulphus R. Elured R. Fil. ejus. Edward R. Junior. 
Adhelstanus R. Fil. ejus. Sta. Maria. D. Jesns. Edredus 
R. Ethgarus R. Emma Reg. Aluynus Ep. Ethelred R. 
Sta. Edward R. Fil. ejus. Cuutus Rex. Hardecanutus R. 
Fil. ejus. 



• Hist. &. Autiq. Univ. Ox. lib. 2. p. 230. 



u 

Underneath^ upon a fillet, are these verses : 

COxMPORA SANCTORUM HIC SUNT IN 

PACE SEPULTA. 

EX MERITIS QUORUM FULGENT 

MIRACULA MULTA. 

At tlie foot of these a little eastwards, is a large flat 
grave-stone, which had the effigies of a Bishop in brass, 
said to be that of St. Swithun, and near this last an old 
tomb erected by tradition for King Lucius. 

On the north side of the last is a magnificent tomb of 
William Waiufleet, Bishop of \V inton, *lord chancellor, 
and founder of Magdalen College in Oxford, he is repre- 
sented in his pontificalibus, and died A. C. 1486. 

On the south side is another fair and stately monument 
of Henry Beaufort, son to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lan- 
caster, Bishop of this see, Cardinal of St. Eusebius, and 
several t times lord chancellor of England. He is in his 
cardinal's habit. 

At the east end of the north side aisle, is a fine statue of 
brass, in a cumbent posture, of the lord treasurer Weston, 
and at the east end of the south aisle, an antient chapel and 
tomb of Thomas Langton, Bishop, who died A. C. 1500. 

The great east window is very remarkable for the anti- 
quity and fineness of its painted glass, which contains the 
portraits of several Saints and Bishops of this church, and 
is very entire, as well as that at the west front, being in 
like manner curiously painted ; which art is now almost 
extinguished. All that may be further added to the 
description of the church, I shall conclude, in its dimen- 
.sions ; which being already taken by the Earl of Claren- 
don, are in the following work. 

This cathedral was at first dedicated to St. Peter, after- 
wards,;]: A. C. 980, to St. Swithun, and a third time to the 
Holy Trinity, by King Henry VIH. at the reformation, 
A. C. 1540. 

The Bishops of Wlnton had formerly an antient castle 
or palace in the city, called Wolveseye, which was §built 



* Coustitutns Cancell. 11 Oct. 1457. Clau. 35. H. 6. M 10. in dorso. 

t Hen. Ep. Whit. Constitut. Cancell. and habuit mag. Sigilhim Regni 
Custodiend. anno. 1404. 5 H. 4. 1414. 1 H. 5. 1417. 4 H. 5. 1424. 2 H. 

<i. RISS. i)eues me. 

t Tho Rudbonie Hist. Majoj- Wiut. p. 223. § lb. p. 284. 



15 

by Henry de Bloys, Bishop of this See, nephew to King 
Henry I. and brother to King Stephen, A.C. 1138. This 
Palace being demolished during the late civil wars, and 
nothing left but the high walls of the old chapel ; Bishop 
Morley, alter the restoration, built a fair and convenient 
house for his successors, that which we now see near the 
ruins of the old one, and to which the present Bishop, 
Sir Jonathan Trelawny, hath added very great improve- 
ments. 

About a mile south of the city, there is a very noble 
hospital, which contains two squares of building, to which 
you enter by very magnificent gates. In the innermost 
court is the great Church belonging to it, bviilt like a 
Cathedral, which also was* founded and endowed, A. C. 
1138, by the above mentioned Henry de Bloys, by the 
name of St. Cross, for the relief of thirteen brothers, and 
all poor travellers for ever. The habit is a black gown, 
with a silver cross on the breast. The structure is in 
good repair, and its revenue well managed. 

This Bishop also began to build the stately -f-castle and 
palace at Farnham, in Surry ; the castles of Merdon, 
Waltham, Dunton, and Taunton, the same year. 

Another antient palace belonging to the See, was that 
of Winchester-House in Southwark, built by William 
Gyflfard, Bishop, in the reign of King Henry I. It is 
situated on the bank of the Thames, near the west end 
of St. Mary Overy's Church, but is now gone to decay, 
and divided into several tenements. j:This Bishop also 
founded the said Church of St. Mary of Southwark, for 
canons regular, A. C. 1106. 



* Tho. Rudborne, Hist. Major Wint. p. 284. 
t Annalcs Eccl. Wiut. p.2S9. 
t Hist. Maj. p. 276. 



^Donationc^ OTccraram 

ECCLESIJE WIN TON. 



* K. Inegylsus VI. Rex West Sax. incessit fundare 
Ecclesiam VVinton quinto Conversionis suae anno ; sed 
morte praeventus miuime coinplere potuit. Sepultus est 
in eadem Ecclesia. Dedit Deo ibidem servientibus 
€\)iltitcumht. 

Successit Kinewaldus Fratri, Ecclesiam Wint, ab eo 
inceptam complevit. Deditque eidem tria maneria, 
Sounton, ^rc^foiD, and 2Bort(if)am. Regnavit annis 32 
& regnum Sexburgze relignit. Sepultus est in Ecclesia 
Wint. sub summo altari, anno Dom. 671. 

Egbertus primus jVIonarcha regnare c^epit anno Dom. 
800. regnavit 37 annis, sepultus est in Ecclesia Cathedrali 
Winton, cui dedit quatuor maneria, 23rofeen!Sfovtl, U^QXf 
iitl;am, Stlucltotui, & JSttiljainptoiT. 

Atlielwulfus tilius Egberti, regnavit annis 20. 8c sepultus 
est in Ecclesia Winton. anno 857. Hie restituit manerium 
de CI) ittfcumbt ablatum. 

Edwardus senior Rex Angllae dedit E. Winton. quatuor 
maneria, (©bcrtont, f^albornt, ^tofet, & WL\)ittd)uvcih 

Ethelstanus Rex dedit Wint. tria maneria, Cljilboltoun, 
iHncfortJc, & lijamtri^hjoiljf. 

Edredus Rex dedit Wint. duo maneria, Souiitonc, & 

Edgarus Rex monachos qui per Danos destructi erant 
iterum in Wint. instituit &, dedit eis unum manerium, 
scilicet !3fbingtonr. 

Ethelrcdus Rex lil. Edgari dedit E. Wint. manerium 
de f^abontc (forsan ?l?al)ant.) 

Canutus Rex dedit magna signa E. Wint. & f terram 
trium hidarum quie vocatur l^tllc, anno 1035. 

Hardecanutus Rex dedit E. Wint. duo maneria, 
iSippc^mtnstic & MtiStluotJf. 



* Lelandi Coll. vol. p. 613. Vid. iMon. Aug. vol. 1. 
t Aunal. Wint. 



1? 

Sanctus Edwardus Rex & Confessor, dedit quatuoi* 
maneria E. Wint. i9ortlant(t, ^ifee,f§otlucn,&®!3ai?mittIje* 

Astanus Dux, fil. Ethelredi, dedit E. VViut. duo 
maneria, iHcilJfne tt iEggrbwn. 

Agelwynus Dux dedit Cleram E. Wint. 

Elphegus Prsefectus dedit E. Wint. nianerium de 
CruutJalf. 

Athelwoldus Dux contulit tSB[i?lfee E. Wint. 

Tunbertus Ep. Wint. tertius a Swithuno dedit suae Ecc, 
ad Fabricam ejusdem manerium de ^usirijcltng;. 

Alvvynus Ep. Wint. dedit eidem Eccl. novem maneria 
^tond^im, duas iHcones, J^rutoii, Wiitmw, fitting, iilcl* 
broil, ^olljampton, & ^^oliingtou. 

Henricus Blessensis, frater Regis Stephani, Ep. 
Winton* dedit eidem Eccl. Ctibc & maxima ornamenta. 

Richardus Tochliv, Ep. ,Wint. iiJamnu redemit, & 
3£nocl emit^ & suae Eccl. Wint. dedit. 

Wotwynus monachus Winton, dedit E. Wint. manerium 
de 33utermfrf. 

Dominus Simon de Wint. Miles, contulit ^inl;alc 
E. Winton. 

Eritheswitha Regina, mater Sanctae Frethelwithoe Vir- 
ginis dedit E. Wint. manerium de Cauntone in qua re- 
quiescit humata. 

Emma mater Edwardi ConfesSoris dedit novem maneria 
Winton. Eccl. ?3vanUf Sbuvi, JScici^cfeltif, f^olDtI)tont,dr»ftUt, 
iBccl)tlmtid)t, ^utiigco, tiSatcombt, Mcrcgrabc, & f^anlingr. 

Getha, uxor Godwini Ducis, dedit E. Wint. JSXelJonc 
et Craucumbc. 

Alwara dedit SHluartJc^tofec, 3£xton, & l^iOti)am, pro 
anima Leowini viri sui. 

Edgyva dedit iSoiliingljam. 



J-V THE TOWER OF LONDON, 

Relating to the Church of Winton, several Religious 
Houses, Chapels, Colleges and Hospilals, in and about 
that Citi/. ' 



Ecclesia sive Episcopus Winton. 

W inton. Ep. Conflrmatio amplissinia cartarum 8c 
libertatum. Pat. 2. E. 4. p. G. ni. 12. 

Winton. Ecclesiae confnmationis, carte anno 9. E. 3. 
num. 40. 

Ep. & Prior confirmationis carte ann. 2. H. 5. ps. 1. 
No. 13. & aim. 21. H. 6. No. 12. & ann. 1. H.4. ps.2. 
No. 9. Sc ann. 4. Rich. 2. num. 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, & ann. , 
23. E. 3. No. 2. & ann. 10. E. 2. num. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, Sc6. 
Winton. Ep. carte ann. 12. E. 1. num. 30, 31, 32, 33, 
34, 35, 8c ann. 13, num. 47, 98, & 99. 

Winton. Ep. & Prior S. Swithuni explanatio & conflr- 
matio libertatum, &c, carte ann. 24. H. 6. No. 12. m. 14. 
Winton. Ep. & Prior S. Swithani conflrmatio amplis- 
sima concessionum Franchesiarum, &c. Pat. ann. 2. H 6. 
ps. 2. m. II. & ann. 3. E. 3. pars 2. m. 12. Recorda 
ann. 8. R. 2. pro libertatibus allocatis in Southwerk. 

Ep. de manerio de Menes & ecclesia de Menestoke, & 
hospitali Sancti Johaunis Baptiste de Portsmouth con- 
cessis, &, quod homines &c. Maneriorum suorum de 
Bitterne, Falele, Ore, & Stanham, intendant & respon- 
deant, hundredo ipsius Episcopi de Wantham, &c» 
Pat. a. 12 Ed. I. m. II. 

Ep. quod liospitale Sancti Johannis apud Portsmouth 
pertinet eidem. Claus. a. 7. Ric 2. dors. m. ( •) 
Inquisitio de Feria apud montem Sancti Egidii per 
ipsum singulis annis tenenda, & de amplissimis liber- 
tatibus &, privilegiis eidem pertinentibus, tam in civitate 
Winton. 8c Southampton, quam per spatium 7 leucarum 
proxime adjacentium. Esch. an. 23. E. 3. pars. 2. m. 42. 
i!v pat. an, 2 H. G. conflrmatio pro eodem Episcopo, 



19 

Ep. de libertate su-A, viz. quod habeat Chaceas suas in 
Dominicis suis ik. Feodorum suorum & hoiriinum suorum, 
& in terris & feodis Prions Sancti Swithuni ibidem, cum 
allocatione coram Justiciariis itinerantibus ad placita 
foreste in forestis de Beckholt, Clarendon, Grovele, & 
Melchet. Brevia Regis anno 2 Ric. 2. No. 27. pars I. 

Ep. Quod ipse & Ministri in boscis & chaceis suis 
pro voluntate sua venationem capere & boscos suos 
assartare poterit secundum formaui carte Regis pridem 
facte, 8cc. Lib. Parliam, anno. IB Ed. I. fol. 7. &^ fol. 8. 
Placitum inter dictum Episcopum 8c Custodem Castri de 
Porcestria. 

Pro venatione in forestis Regis, Pat. 16. H. 3. M.6. 
Breve de allocatione libertatis de Quietancia Theolonii, 
&c. pro se 8c tenentibus suis per totum Regnum Claus. 
ann. I. H. 4. pars I. Vide anno 38. E. 3. claus. m. 17. 

De 12d. annui redditus concessis sibi 8c successoribus 
exeuntibus de tenemento Bernardi Brocas, in Eldstoke, 
de feodo pra^fati Episcopi, dors. Claus. anno 8. Ric. 2. 
m. 8. 

Inquisitio de quodam annuo redditu exeunte de diversis 
tenementis in warda de Dowgate, London. Inquisit 
anno L H. 4. No. 27. 

A\inton. Ep. Dominus ville de Gaunton habet Visum 
Franci Plegii. 

Exemplilicatio Recordi, 8cc. 8c Conventionis inter 
ipsum 8c Abbatem de Hida, Pat. anno 23, E. 3. pars 3» 
m. 16\ 

Exemplificatio certificationis ^ libro de Doomsday, pro 
maneriis de Monesto 8c Menes, in comitatu Southamp- 
tonie, 8cc. Pat. anno 17. Ed. 3. pars I. m. 23. 

Pro tenementis in Northwood m parochiis de Conham 
Sc in Esshere 8c Watervile. Pat. anno 47. E. 3. pars L 
m. 28. 

Exemplificatio Recordi, &c. & pro redditibus exeuntibus 
de Archidiaconatu Surriae. Pat. anno. 21. Ed. pars L 
m. 9. 8c pars 2. m. 12. 

Pro Staun perpetuo ibidem. Pat. anno 5. Ed. 3. 
pars 3. m. 3. 

Pro 81 acris terrae in Farnham. Pat. anno I. Ric. 2. 
pars 2. m. 36. 

Pro xl /. redditus exeuntibus annuatim de maneriis de 
Jenington 8c Heghton, (Sussex). Pat. anno. l^. Ric. 2. 
pars 1. m, 1 0^ 

c2 



20 

AVintou, Eplscopalus temporalia ejustlem in niani- 
bus Ivcgis certis de causis e\i.stentia extendebaiitur 
DCCCCXLVHI/. Xlllls. VW. ub. preter ly Quar- 
tena Aveue iiou appieciata, Pat. anno. 5. E. 3. pars 1. 
m. 30. 

Ep. pro. quibiisdam terris in Essliere & alibi, in recom- 
pensationeni tcnaiiun ix ccclesiarum collegio Oxon. in 
Wiulon. Pat. anno 13. ilic. '2, ps. 3. m. 1. 

De uno messuagio cum cnrtiiagio vocato Hall-place, 4 
\ irgatis terras, &, 1 molendino aquatico in Hanunby, 
coucessis per eundeni Episcopum.i. Barber, & ha^rodibus 
reddendo per annum XLlili. 1111;:/. l^ rcleviuni, Pat. 
anno 22. Jl. 6. pars 2. m. 17. confirm. 

Pro tenemento in Sutton Episcopo accepto in excambio, 
Pat. I. Flic. 2. pars 2. m. 18. 

RexmisitVV. L, venatorem suuni ad currendum cum 
canibus suis in warenna pia;dicti Episcopi ad capiendum 
7-vel 8 capreolas ad opus Regis, &.c, Claus. anno, 14. 
H. 3. m. 14. 

Winton, Ep. & ecclesia Sancti Switlumi, confirmatio 
donationis & tenementorum in Northwood bL Teruchcroft 
in parochia de Covenham, & manerii de Esshere, & 
molendini vocati molendiaum Vicecomitis, &c. Pat. 
anno 10. Ed. 2. pars 2. m. L in Cedula. 

Ep. de manerio de Norton, perquirendo de Ricardo 
Harwedon, 8cc. in manum mortuam, Pat. anno II. Ed. 
pars 2. m. 13. 

Ep. habet feriam apud montem Sancti Egidii, extra 
civitatem Winton. per \6 dies duraturam in vigilia Sancti 
Egidii, & de nonnullis libertatibus & privilegiis, Pat. anno 
1?. Ed. 3. pars L m. l6. dors. 

Quod ecclesiaj de Estmanes &, Hamedon annexantur 
Episcopatui pra;dicto ut res spirituals, Pat. anno I. Ed. 
3. pars I. m. o. 

Ep. de finibus & amerciamentis tenentium suorum 
licentia concordandi anno die &. vasto & nonnullis aliis 
libertatibus concessis olim A Episcopo ibidem anno 8. 
Ed. 3. modo allocandis Willielmo Wickham Episcopo, 
Claus. a. 44. Ed. 3. m. 12. & 17. 

Winton. Ep. habet chaseam de Whitteney Infra 
forestam Regis de Whichwood, & libertatem Venationis 
8v assart, ibidem dieto Episcopo pertinentes. Pat. anno 
18. Ed. I. m. 17. & 18. 

Chacea 8c Warenna in omnitus terris & boscis suis infra 



<?1 

Mietas foreste, & placita intra Johannem Episcopitm 
Winton. & Johannem Gifford, an. ". R. 2. 

Ep. concessit Thomae Boteler camerario sno I 
messiiagium & I virgatum terrae cnm pertinentiis in 
Forewell, qu^ ad manus pra^dicti Episcopi devenerunt 
per felouiam Johannis Baret, hahenda dicto Thomje 
Boteler pro termino vitte, reddendo per annum Vis. & 
3 bushels & 3 pecks frumenti pro Chershot. Pat. anno 
12. Ed. 2. pars 2. m. 12. 

Ep. concessit Willielmo Parcar custodiam serjancia^ 
hundredoruni suorum de Farnham & Crundaie habendam 
sibi & hieredibus cum feodis, mortuo bosco, & aliis proti- 
cuispertinentibus, &c. Pat. anno 14. Ed. 2. pars I. 
m. 15. 

Ep. concessit Waltero de Abberbury, & Ricardo filio 
suo I messuagium 96 acras terras cum pertinentiis in 
Abberbury, habenda sibi & ha^redibus per servitiuni 
homagium & XXX Vis. per annum solvendos sibi & 
subcessoribus suis, &c. Pat. anno 17. Ed.. 2. pars I. 
ui. 23. 

Ep. confirmatio quarundam donationum per ipsiim 
facturum ^Viilielnio de Overton, de certis parcellis terra? 
& communia pastur^e, in la lioyhey Sutton Episcopi in 
loco vocato Mnlcroft, &c. Pitt, anno 17- Ed. 2. pars 2. 
m. 32. 

. Ep. de tenementis suis in Crundaie vocatis Danceslond 
concessis Johanni Clere, ik, hatred ibus in Excambio pro 
tenementis ejusdem Johannis ibidem vocatis Rumbaldes- 
field, reddendo dicto Episcopo &, successoribus suis 3s. 
Dors. Claus. anno 44. E. 3. m. 21. 

De redditu annuo XI If/, concesso per Bernardum 
Brocas exeunte de Tenement, in Eldestoke concesso per 
dictum Bernardum cantariie per ipsum fundandae in 
ecclesia parochiali de Cleware. Dorso Clausarum anno 
8. Ric. 2. m. 8. ^ 

Johannis de Pontisera nuper Episcopus ibidem con- 
cessit Willielmo de Leech, valletto suo XI acras terras 
arabilis de dominicis suis in Abberbury, vocati Aldstones- 
crolt, cum quadum pastura adjacente habend' sibi & 
ha^redibus reddendo per annum dicto episcopo & succes- 
soribus suis XIIIIs. ad quatuor terminos, nunc contirmat 
per Regem. Pat. anno 3. Ed. 3. pars I. m. 38. 

^Vinton. Episcopatus in manus Regis scisitus Principi 
AVallije conuuissus, extendcns MDLXXXVlll , 



22 

XIIIIs. VI(f. ob. praeter avenas. Pat. aiino51.Ed. 3. 
m. 30. 

Ep. confirmatio & explanatio libcrtatis, quod sit 
quietus de escapiis prisonaiium non vokuitaiiis. Pat. 
anno 35. H. 6. pars 2. ni. (I) & pat. 6. Ed. 4. pars C. 
m. 15. 

Prior Sancti Sivithuni. 

Winton. pro Priore Sancti Switliuni ibidem confir- 
matio amplissima & antiquissiuia cartaruni, douationuni & 
libertatum. Pat. anno 2. Ed. 4. p. 6. m. (i. vel. 12. 
& anno 9. Ed. 3. pars. 2. m. 30. & an. 4. H. 4. pars 2. 
m. 15. 

Prior Sancti Switliuni confirniationis charte anno 5. 
Ed. 3. No. 85. & anno 10. Ed. 2. num. 7, 9- 

Prior S. S. exemplificatio conventionis inter ipsum & 
Episcopum ibidem, & de consuetudinibus predicto 
Episcopo debitis de peuitentiariis ipsorum, Pat. anno 13. 
Ric. 2. pars 3. m. 6. 

Prior & Ep. confirniationis carte, anno 13. Ed. 1. 
num. 97, 98, & 99- & 18. Ed. 1. num. 23. & 28. & 27. 
Ed. I. No. 19. quatenus teueautur ad reparationem 
murorum civitatis predicte Brevia Regis, anno 17. Ric. 2. 
• Prior S. S. pro tenementis in Worton, & Church 
Akelegh. Pat. anno 12. H. 4. m. 18. 

Vs inchester monastrv confinnatio cartarum, &c. Carte 
an. 1. H. 4. pars 1. No. 9. Episcopus & Prior ibidem. 
Carte anno 2. H. 5. pars I. No. 13. 

Prior S. S. pro tenemento in eadem Civitate & Soca. 
Pat. anno 40. Ed. 3. pars 2. m. 15. 

Pro quibusdam terris pratis & Boscis in 

Westmeon. Pat. anao 6. Ric. 2. pars 3. ra. 7. 

Pro manerio de Lenington & manerio de Drayton, &c. 
concessis. Pat. anno 2. H, 5. pars 3. m. 27. (Southton.) 

Pro manerio de Upsuuburne. Pat. anno 8. Ric. 2. 
pars 2. m. 32. 

Exemplificatio libertatum & privilegiorum in hundredo 
de Ellestubbe coram Solomone de Roifa & sociis ejus 
tempore, Ed. 1. Pat. anno 20. H. 6. pars 3. m. S3. 

Pro 3, messuagiis & 3. curtilagiis ibidem. Pat. anno 
Ric. 2. pars 3. m. 14. 

^\ inton. Prior de via publica pro clausura ipsorimi 
divertenda. Pat. anno 48. Ed. 3. pars I. m. 5. vel. 8. 

Prior S. S. assisa versus eum per. H. de Ospringe dc 
tenementis in Crundale. Pat. 2. Ed. I. ra. I. dorso. 



23 

Prior S. S. assisa versus eum per Johannem Everly de 
tenementis in Brokhampton. Pat. anno 3. Ed. I. m. 30. 
dorso & m. 29. de tenementis in Alwarstoke, & in 27. de 
tenementis in Winton, de fossato Regis extra portam bor- 
ealem ibidem custodiendo & piscibus instaurandis ad 
commodiim Regis. Pat. anno 4. Ed. I. m. 31. 

De 60 acris terre, 4 acris prati, 5 acris bosci in West- 
wode, perquirendis de Jolianne Westpray. Pat. anno 4. 
Ed. 3. pars 2. m. 22. 

De sex acris prati in Winchelesmersh perquirendis, de 
Thoma Whitney. Pat. anno 7. Ed. 2. pars I. m. 7- 

De XXX niarcis percipiendis de redditu feria? Sancti 
Egidii juxta Wiutouiam a thesaurario Episcopi ibidem de 
Woivesey confirmatio. Pat. anno 10. Ed. 2.pars2. m. 23. 

Prior S. S. confirmatio terraram & donationum in villa 
& manerio de Bledune Westwood, & confirmatio pasture 
vocate Somerlese in villa de Wuluricheston. Pat. anno 
10. Ed. 2. pars 2. m. 25. 

Prior ibidem, percipere debet singulis annis. XLs. de 
exitibus nundinarum Sancti Egidii extra Winton. Claus. 
pars unica anno 10 Ed. 2. m, 26. 

De 1 messuagio 5 virgatis terre & 6 acris prati in Ariur 
ton tentis de ipso in villenageo & sibi liberandis, &c. 
Claus. anno il. Ed. 2. m. 25. 

De 1 messuagio, duobus virgatis terre, 3 parte unius 
virgate terre &.X.d. redditus in Winemanston perquirendis 
de Willielmo Batisford. Pat. anno 13. Ed. 2. m. 25. 

De maneriis de Bradisberry, & .... perquirendis de 
W illiehno Yeleburne, qui ilia tenuit de predicto Priore ad 
feod. finnam, reddendo per aimum XIX marcas. Pat. 
anno 14. Ed. 2. m. 10. 

De 1 messuagio uno molendino 2 acris prati in Overton 
Prior, & 3 acris terre in Husborne perquirendis de Jo. 
Shirfeld. Pat. anno 15. Ed. 2. pars I. m. 22. 

Prior S. S de uno messuagio, 1 carrucata & dimid. 
terre in Sparkeford, Horseley & Compton, juxta Hinton, 
perquirendis de Nicholas de Maidston. Pat. anno l6. 
Ed. 2. pars 2. m. 10. 

De 1 messuagio ibidem perquirendo de Pliilippo Mody. 
Pat. anno 19. Ed. 2. pars 1. m.22. 

Confij-matio terraram & donationum. Pat. anno 10. 
Ed. 2. pars. 2. m. 5. 

Prior S. S. contra eum de Amensuratione pasture in 
Hamme. Claus, anno 13. H. 3. m. 14, dorso. 



24 

Colk'gium B. Mfiria, Wlnton. 

Winton. Collegium beatte Marie ibidem vocatum Saint 
Mary's College, coiiflrmatio Caitarum & Donationum. 
Pat. aimo I. Ed. 4. pars 7. m. 31. & Pat. amio 6. H. 6. 
pars 2. m. 4. & Pat. 14. Jlic. 2. pars 2. m. 10, 11, 12. 

De nonnullis libertatibus & privilegiis concessis. 
Carte anno 22. H. 6. No. 26. 

Carte anno 1 H. 4. pars I. No, II. & anno I, H. 5, 
pars I. No. II. & anno 2. H, G. No. 20. & anno 18. 
Ric, 2. No. 8. & anno I. Ed. 3. No. 60. 

De seisina, &c. liberanda de nonnuliis terris & tene- 
mentis in Hermondseworth, Sibston, Southcoteron, & 
Longford. Dors, clans, anno 8 H, 0, m. 10. vcl. 20. 

Pro Priore de Audone alienigena & aliis conlirmatlo. 
Pat. 2. ft. 5. pars 3. in. 27. 

Pro manerio de Shawe in comitatu Berks. Pat. anno 
6. H. 4. pars I. m. 22. 

Pro maneriis de Hamele Herniondesworth, Priore de 
Blj^he, & aliis nonnullis. Pat, anno 14. Ric. 2. pars 2. 
m, I. & 10, 11, & 32. 

Pro tenementis in Hermondesworth, Sibston, South- 
coteron, & Longforth, Pat. anno 8. H. 6. pars 2. m.25. 

Pro maneriis de Farnhall & Aldington. Pat. anno 23. 
H. 6. pars. 2. m. 3. & pro manerio de Burton in insula 
Vpctis & tenementis in Southcoteron. Pat. anno 17. H.(i, 
pars 2, m. 25. 

De licentia perquirendi centum marcas terre ratione 
deperditornm suoruni in combustione villarum de An- 
dover & nova Alreford. Pat. anno 21 . H. 6. pars I. m, 8, 

Pro tenementis in Otterton & Andover. Pat. anno 24. 
H. 6. pais 2. m. 19. & ibidem qro manerio de Farnhall & 
medietate manerii de Aldington, 

Pro tenementis in Wippingham, &Careshrok, in insula 
Vectis Rornesey, Stanbridge, Okley, Mayhenston, Welles, 
& Ashfield, Huniel in the Rise, & in civitate & soca 
Winton. & Wyhale. Pat. 33. H. 6. pars 2, m. 4. Et 
pro tenementis in Meonestoke, Roppele, Sutton, Drai- 
ton, Wynhale, & Medestoke, in nova Alresford, &c. Pat. 
anno 15. Ric. 2. pars 2, m. 9. & pro tenementis in Ces- 
treton, m. 14. (Cantebr.) 

Pro manerio de Djrington appropriato. Pat. anno. 3. 
Ric, 2. pars 3, m. 22 

Pro manerio de Meonestoke in comitatu Southamp- 
toni*, &■ manerio d(? Eling, & manerio de Windsore, m 



25 

codem comitatu, & Combe Basset in comitatu Wiltesiie, 
Pat. anno 8. Ric. 2. pars 2. m. 4. Et pro maneriis de 
Aulton & Shaw in comitatu Berks, Wheton in comitatu 
Bucks, &c. m. 6. Et Ecclesia de Dounton. 

De manerio de Burton, alias Berton in insula Vectis 
concesso per W. T. Archipresbiterum oratorii sancte 
Trinitatis ibidem. Dors. Clausar. anno 19. H. 6. 
m. So. 

Fratres Ordinis Angustini. 

Winton. Fratres ordinis Sancti Augustini. Exempli- 
ficatio ampla Inquisitionis de tenementis ipsorum ibidem 
& redditibus inde exeuntibus. Dors. Claus. anno l6. 
JLd. 3. pro situ Domus, &c. m. 20. 

De processu &judicio redditis in cancellaria contra 
ipsos de tenementis perquisitis infra civitatem praedictam 
in deceptionem, domini Regis de terris ville, &c. Dors. 
Claus. anno 22. Ed. 3. m. 20. 

De 1 messuagio & 12 perticis terre in longitudine, & 6 
perticis in latitudiue in suburbio Winton. concessis per 
Hugonem Tripacy pro manso suo elargando. Pat. anno 
7, Ed. 2. pars J. m. 8. 

Abbatissa Beatcc- Maria Winton. 

Winton. Abbatia. conlirmationis carte, anno 12. Ed. 2. 

No. 36. ! . .. . 

Winton, abbatissa De libertatibus & privilegiis infra 
jnanerium de Gretford. Pat. anno G. Ed. 4. pars 2. 
m. 14. 

De 1 virgata terre & 1 parva pastura in Froile tentis 
de Abbatissa predicta per servitium, VIIs. Hid. & secte 
curie dicte Abbatisse de Froile. Esch. anno 41. Ed. 3. 
post mortem Richardi de Windsore. No. 7. 

De 2 messuagiis, uno molendino, 3 virgatis dimid. 
terre, & Yis. Wild, redditus perquisitis de Editha uxore 
Roberti Dreux, &c. Claus. anno 6. Ed. 3. m. 33. 

Pro visu Franci Plegii, & aliis privilegiis habendis in 
maneriis de Erchefford & Caninges. Pat. anno 21. H. 
C. pars 2. m. 26. 

Winton. priorissa Sancti Marie Magdalene, Confir- 
mationis Carte, anno II. Ed. 3, No. 62. 

Pro tenementis in Erchefonte. Pat. anno 2. Ed. 3. 
pars t. m. II. 

De visu Franci Plegii & allis libertatibus infra villas de 
Erchesfout & Caninges. Pat. anno 8. Ed. pars 3. m. 3. 
^ de libertatibus & privilegiis in villis predictis & iufra 



25 

Hundredum Regis de Stodfield alias Swanburgli. Pat. 
16. Ed. 4. pars I. m. 20. 

Contirmatio libertatum concessarum tenentibus suis in 
Villa de Gretford. Pat. anno 2. H. 5. pars 2. m. 3. & 
anno 45. Ed, 3. pars 2. m. 38. 

Will ton. Abbatissa, B. M. pro tenementis in eadem 
villa. Pat. anno 35. Ed. 3. pars I. m. 16. 

Winton. Priorissa arraniavit assisam versus Jo. de C. 
in Minchen Cheverell. Pat. anno 2. Ed. I. ni, 23. 

Assisa versus earn de communia pasture Alhekaning. 
Pat. anno 4. Ed. I. m. 34. Dors. 

Abbatissa B. M. de uno inessuagio, 24 acris terre, 8 
acris prati, XXs. redditus in Gretford, perquirendis de 
Nicholao Stanford. Placita anno 5. Ed. 2. pars 2. m. 7. 

De 9 niessuagiis cum pertinentiis in Winton. & in 
guburtiis perquirendis de Rogero Inkepenne. 

De IXs. id. reddit in Erchesfont, perquirendis de Jo. 
Shene. Pat. anno 9. Ed. 2. pars I. m. 13. 
Capella S. Trinitatis. 

Winton. capella Sancte Trinitatis in Cimitorio Beate 
Marie, fundata per Ricardum Inkepenne, civem civitatis 
predicte, ConlinTiatio ordinationuni factarum per Epis- 
copum Wintoniensem. Pat. anno 12. Ed. 2. pars I. m. 13. 

Pro Cantaria in capella Sancte Trinitatis in cimiterio 
nionasterii ibidem & tenementis ibidem & in Southton, & 
Sarum. Pat. 26. Ed. 3. pars I. m. 24. 

Gustos capelle Sancte Trinitatis ibidem De 9 messua- 
giis in suburtiis concessis per Johannem Inkepenne. Pat. 
anno II. Ed. 2. pars I. m. I. 

De VII marcis, redditus annui concessis per Rogerum 
Inkepenne in Winton. pro cantaria ibidem facienda. 
Pat. anno 19. Ed. 2. pars I. m. 18. 

Collegium W. de Wickham. 

Winton. de CoUegio in soca ibidem fundando per 
Willielmum de Wickham, Episcopum Wintoniensem. 
Pat. anno 6. Ric. 2. pars I. m. 9- 

Ecclesia St. Georgii. 

Winton. Parsona ecclesie Sancti Georgii ibidem, de 
uno messuagio ibidem sibi concesso pro anniversario 
tenendo. Pat. 8. H. 4. pars 2. m. 4. 

Ecclesia Omnium Scnictorum. 

Winton. Parsona ecclesie omnium Sanctorum ibidem. 
Pro uno messuagio iu.£adem villa. Pat. anno 3. H. 5. 
pars 2. m. Q. 



o 



27 

Ahbatia B. Petri. 
Winton. juxta, Abbatia beati Petri. Pro ecclesia de 
CoUington appropriata. Pat. auno 26. H. 6. pars I. 
m. 10. 

Prior & fratres frateniitatis Sancti Petri in ecclesia, 
Sancli Manricii & Collegio beate Marie de Kalendis 
ibidem inquisitio ampla de tenementis shopis, &c. 
pertinentibus in civitate predicta Esch. anno 2(j. Ed. 
3. No. 44. 

Capella St. EUzabethec juxta Winton. 

Winton. juxta, Capella Sancte Elizabethe tilie quondam 
Regis Hungarie fundata ante portani castri de Wolvesey 
de statutis & ordinationibus ejusdem. Pat. anno 13. Ed. 
2. &. ibidem iterum pro nianerio de Norton Sancti 
Wallerici, vide pro eadem capella. Pat. 33. Ed. I. pars 
I. m. ] '2. 

Capella Sancte Elizabethe pro manerio de Botele & 
advocatione ecclesie ejusdem ville, Sc uno messuagio & 2 
carrucatis terre in Kings Clere, &, manerio de Culmeston' 
Gymmings, & I messuagio, & I carrucata terre in Shides- 
field, & XX?. Redditus in Molendino in Tichefeld con- 
cessis per diversos, & de fundatione ejusdem. Pat. anno 
I. Ed. 2. pars I. m. 9. De parva Warrenna in parte 
orientali ville ejusdem, & de Metis & Bundis ejusdem, 
exemplificatio inquisitionis, &c. Pat. anno 2. Ed. 4. pars 
6. ni. 4. Et confirmatio pro priore Sancti Swithuni 
Winton. Pat. anno 2. H. 6. pars 2. m. II. 

Capelle Sancte Elizabethe iilie quondam Regis Hun- 
garie confirmatio ampla. Pat. 13. Ed. 2. m. 13. & auno 
14. Ed. 2. m. 25. 

De maneriis de Norton Sancti Wallerici, Pat. anno 
— . Ed. 2. pars I. m. I. 

Confirmatio niercati & ferie & libere Wanenne in 
manerio de Bottele. Pat. anno 25. H. 6. pars I. m. 13. 
& pro manerio de Norton Sancti Wallerici, mutatio 
servitii. Pat. anno 29. Ed. 3. pars 3. m. II. 

De manerio de Norton Sancti Wallerici perquirendo 
de Willielmo Staunford. Pat. anno 6. Ed. 2, pars I. ni. I. 
& pars 2. m. II. & 15. 

De Ecclesia de Crundale perquirenda & approprianda. 
Pat. anno 12. Ed. 2. pars I. m. 20. 

Prior St. Mauritii. 

Winton. Prior Sancti Mauritii & Sancte Marie de 
Kalend. ibidem, Pat. anno 20. Ed. 3. pars 3. m. 9. 



28 

Ilospitalc S. MarifC Mngdalencr. 

Wintonian jiixta, Gustos Hospilalis Saiicte Marie 
Magdelene, pro tenomentis ibidem. Pat. anno 35. Ed. ?j 
pars 3. m. G'2. 

Hospitnle S. Criins. 

Winton. juxta, de rundatione & Dotatione Hospitalis 
vSancte Crucis olim per H. Cardinalem* factis ik similiter 
de Fundatione & Donatione Hospitalis sivi Domus Ele- 
mosinarie nobilis paupertatis H. Cyrdinahs & Kpiscopi 
Vymtonup, Fdii nobilis memorie Johannis Ducis Lancas- 
tne. Pat. anno 33. H. 6. pars 2. m. 3. & 18. amplissinia 
carta. 

De hcentia perquirendi quingentas lil>ras terre de H. 
Cardniah Anglie. Pat. 21. II. 6. pars 2. m. 31. 

Custodia domfis Sancte Crucis ibidem concessa per 
regem G. Walesford ad vitam, & mandatum est fratribus 
& sororibus ibidem, quod, &c. Pat. anno 13. Ed. 2. 
m. 25. 

Hospitale S. Crucis ad collationem Episcopi ibidem 
pertmens. Pat. anno l6. Ed. 2. pars 2. m. 3. 
Abbatia de Hida. 

Winton. juxta, Abbatia de Hida pro Ecclesiis de Pidde 
Trenthide, Chiseldon, & Stanham, appropriandis. Rot. 
Home, anno 4. Ed. 3, m. 4. & anno 20. Ed. 3. m. I. 
Preposiius Ecclesia Co/legiafce Winton. 

Wmton. prepositus ecclesie collegiate ibidem. De I 
messuagio & terris cum pertinentiis in Overlond juxta 
Wmgliam, perquiiendis de Nicholao BradM-as. Pat. anno 
11. Ed. 2. pars 1. m. 5. 

Winton Civilas. 
Wmton. civitas, concessio ipsis facta domorun & place- 
arum ibidem pcrquisitarum per fratres Sancti Augustini, 
wne hceutia regis. Pat. anno 16. Ed. 3. pars I. m. 26. 



...E* .^^'V'l'^''"^*^'"*' 'Cardinal of England,' the lJ)th. Bishop ofWinches,- 
-EdT ^^"^l"*^*'— ^t-e his life in u subsequent jjart of this work. 



An Account of the Sale of the Church Lands belonging to 
this See, during the time of the Civil Wars, commu- 
nicated by Thomas Rawlinson, of the Middle Temple, 
Esq. from a valuable Manuscript of his, containing 
likewise the Sale of the Lands of all the rest oj the 
Cathedrals in En <y land 



September 27, 1646. The manor of £. «. d 
Waltham in Hants, was sold to Robert 
Reynolds, Esq. for the sum of 7999 14 iql 

The Manor of Droxford, in the same * 

county, sold to Francis i\llen, Esq. for 7675 13 7 

October 21, 1646. Catwavis Farm, in 
Berkshire, sold to Richard Elderlicld, for 120 4 

January 14, 1647. The Park in South- 
M'ark in Surry, sold to George Thompson, 
^^^~ 1191 3 4 

A Brew-House, the Bear-Garden, &c. 
on the Bank-side in Suny, sold to Sarah 

^tT'&' 1783 15 

IheJVJanorofBishops-Stoke, in Hamp- 
shne, sold to Thomas Cox and Malachi 
Dudley, for IgOl 4 g 

January 19, 1647. Lollingdon Farm, in 
Berkshire, sold to Richard Hutchingson for 720 

February 4, 1647. Curbridge Farm, 
parcel of the Manor of Witney in Oxford- 
shire, sold to William Wells and Robert 
^']!ti",for 259 5 

February 7, 1647. Downeton-MiUs, &c. 
in Hampshire, sold to William Eyre, for 257 5 

February 21, 1647. The Manor of 
Havant, sold to William Wolgar, for l662 

February 28, 1647. Rympton Farm in 
Berkshne, sold to John Payne, for 179 

March 1, 1647. Sotwell Farm, sold to 
William Leaver, for j 00 

March 18, 1647. The ' *Manor * o'f 
Rympton in Somersetshire, sold to John 
Payne, Thomas laylor, and Thomas 
Uothier, for ^ 4^5 7 ^ 



5 4 



12 



50 

March 20, l647. The Castle and £, «. </. 
Manor of Taunton in Somersetshire, sold 
to Brampton Gurdon and Jolni Hill, for.. 9210 17 Oi 

March 22, 1647. The Manor of Bishops 
Sutton in Hampshire, sold to Sir John 
Evelyn, for 2727 13 9 

March 24, l647. The Scite of the Manor 
of Han^ell in Berkshire, sold to Edmund 
Wiseman, for , 542 

March 24, l647. The Manor of Adder- 
bury in Hampshire, sold to Edw. Ashe, for 2905 11 4 

March 24, l647. Honnycroft Mead, 
parcel of the Manor of Taunton in Somer- 
setshire, sold to Roger Hill, for 44 

March 24, 1647. The Falcon on the 
Stewes Bankside, Surry, sold to Thomas 
Rollinson, for 484 

April 12, 1648. The Scite of the Manor 
of Bishop's Sutton in Wiltshire, sold to 
Lawrence Lambard, for 53 

May 10, 1648. Several Parcels of the 
Manor of Taunton-Dean in Somersetshire, 
soldtoBramptonGurdonand John Hill for 345 3 

June 14, l648. Parcel of the Manor 
of East-Meon in Hampshire, sold to Na- 
thaniel Hallows, for 848 15 

June 23, l648. The Manor of Alresford 
in Hampshire, sold to Thomas Hussey, for 2683 9 1|: 

June 26, 1648. Longwood AVarren in 
Hampshire, sold to Thomas Hussev, for. . 351 3 4 

July 5, 1648. The Manor of' North- 
Walton in Hampshire, sold to George 
Wither, Thomas xVllen, & al. for 964 13 6 

July 20, 1648. The Borough of 
Taunton in Somersetshire, sold to George 
Searl and Samuel Whetcombe, for 868 14 7 

August 11, l648. The Borough and 
Farm of Fareham in Hampshire, sold to 
Peter Wilkins, for 909 14 8 

August 18, 1648. Willersley- Warren in 
Hampshire, sold to Thomas Hussey, for. . 226 9 

September 22, l648. The Manors of 
Newton and Widhay in Hampshire, sold to 
James Storey, for 8^3 4 6 



Q 



1 



September 25, l648. The Manor of £. s. d. 
Bentley and Alverstock, and Borough of 
Gosport in Hampshire, sold to George 
Wither and Elizabeth his [wife] for 11 85 4 5i 

July 14, 1648. South Fann in Hamp- 
shire, sold to Richard Dannald, for IIGI 5 2 

September 25, 1648. The Manor and 
Castle of Farnham in Hampshire, sold to 
John Farwell and James Gold, for 8145 8 

September 28, 1648. The Manor of 
Itchinswell and Northampton Farm, sold 
to Nicholas Love and George Wither, for 1756 9 1 

September 28, 1648. The Scite and 
Demesnes of the Manor of Woodhay in 
Hampshire, sold to Lislibone Long and 
John Goddard, for 527 4 

September 28, 1648. The Manor of 
Beaworth in Hampshire, sold to Stephen 
Estwicke, for 748 6 6| 

December 15 1 648 The Manor of 
Droyse-Court and Macknage Farm in 
Gloucestershire and Hampshire, belonging 
partly to Gloucester, and partly to Win- 
chester Cathedral, sold to Robert Gale, 
for ]76 10 » 

December 28, 1648. The Manor of 
Brightwell in Berkshire, sold to Robert 
Gale, for 1780 12 10 

January 10, 1649. The Manor, Town, 
and Borough of Witney, in Oxfordshire, 
sold to William Bassitt and Edward War- 
cupp, for 4916 18 11| 

January 12, 1649. The Manors of 
Trotiscliffe, West-Courte, and Fareham, in 
Kent and Hampshire, belonging to this See, 
and that of Rochester, sold to Nicholas 
Bond, for 1632 12 7| 

February 7, 1649. The Manor of 
Fountell in Hampshire, sold to John Dove, 
Esq.for 609 11 4 

March 12, 1649. Pepper Poundisford 
Farm in Somersetshire, sold to Sir John 
Seymer, Thomas Hodges, sen. and Thomas 
Hodges, jim. for 292 15 2 



o^ 



March 12, 1649. The Manor of Craw- £. s. d, 
lev in Hampshire, sold to John Pigeon, for 836 11 6 

' iMarch 21,1 649, The Manor of Morton 
in Hampshire, sold to Richard Hunt, for.. 1175 

June 20, 1649. The Manor of Bkterne 
in Hampshire, sold to John Baikstecd, for 1716 6 8 

J uly 13,1 649. The Manor of Ashmers- 
Morth in Hampshire, sold to Ohadiah Sedg- 

wicke, for 655 4 7 

Augnst 1, 1649. The Manor of Milland 
in Hampshire, sold to Nich. Love, Esq. for 2949 10 7 

Augusts, 1649. The Manor of Overton 
in Hampshire, sold to Thos. Andrews for 2195 3 1 

August 8, 1649. Several Lands in ihj 
Manor ot Sutton in Hampshire, sold to Sir 

John Evelyn, for 1717 7 6 

August 24, 1 649. Stoke Park in Hamp- 
shire, sold to Thomas Cox and Malachi 

Dudley, for 221 18 4 

September 19, 1 649. The Manor of East 
Meon in Hampshire, sold to Eras. Allen, 

Esq. for 3114 6 5 

September 26, 1649. The Manor of 
Southwark and W inchester House, sold to 

Thomas Walker, for 4380 8 3 

September 29, 1649. The Manor of 
Bishop's Hanwell in Berkshire, sold to 

Daniel Blagrave, for 333 

Jar.uary 15, 1650. The Manor of Withy- 
ton in Downetou, sold to Thomas Andrews 

and Francis Warner, for 1491 5 

February 1, 1650. The Manor and 
Fann of Cold Henbeigh, sold to Thomas 

Hussey, for 130 12 

February 22, 1650. The Manors of 
Knoyle & Upton, and Borough of Hindon, 
sold to Edmund Ludlowe, Esq. for .... 4668 12 7r 

March 20, 1650. The Manor and Farm 
of Easton, sold to Adoniram Byfeild, for 352 5 

March 23, 1650. The Manor of Haul- 
den, sold to George Wither, for 3796 IS 1 1 

March 23, 1 650. The Scite of the Manor 
of Bishop's Stoke, and other Lands, sold to 
Thomas Cox, for 479 3 4 



+ 



33 

September 27, 1650. Stallage-Croff, £. s. d. 
and other Lands, parcel of the Manor of 
Brightwell in Berkshire, sold to Robert 
Gale, for 50 10 

March 12, 1651. Several Lands, 
Tenements, Houses, and Buildings, be- 
longing to the Manor of Southwark, in 
Surr}-, sold to Thomas Walker, for 465 13 4 



Sum total, i'101,188 10 9? 



The Dimensions of the Cathedral Church of Winchester. 

The length, from east to west, is 545 feet, whereof our 
Lady's Chapel at the east end, is 54 feet. From that 
chapel to the iron door above the steps, near the entrance 
into the choir, is 1 60 feet. From that iron door to the 
porch at the west end, is 35 1 feet. The full breadth of 
the church is 87 feet. The choir is in length 136 feet, 
and in breadth 40 feet. 



The Tombs and Monuments in this Cathedral. 

From the altar, on the top of the wall are now six 
chests, three on either side ; wherein are the bones of 
some Saxon and Danish Kings, as also of some Bishops. 

On the south side, the first chest hath this inscription : 

iE"BrttJu;S 3^tx, obiit anno 955. 
Wc ptug in tumulo Btx 1Etlrt"DuS requic^cit 
(Qui i;ag Scitonum ttxxni rextrat cg-rcgvit. 

The second chest hath this inscription : 

iStJmuntJuiS Btx, obiit *** 

(Qutm tijeca ]^ac rttinct i£t(munl>um siu^ctpe Cl^rtiStc 

(Qui bibtnU ^atrt rcgia gteptra tulit. 



34 

The third chest did formerly contain the bones of 
Canutus and William Rufus. The tomb for the latter, 
of grey marble, is raised about two feet from the pave- 
ment in the middle of the upper part of the choir, before 
the high altar, and the bones being chested, were set up 
over the door on the top of the wall, on the south side as you 
come into the choir. On that chest was formerly this 
inscription : 

^ff jaccnt o^^a CitutoniJi ft Mtllitlmi 3£lufi. 
And lately this inscription is put thereon : 

In hac et altera t regione cista reliqiim sunt ossium 
Caniiti et Riiji Regum ; Emmcs liegince, WincE et 
Alwini EpiscopoTum. 

In the tomb of William Rufus, which was broke open 
by the rebels in the time of the civil wars, was found the 
dust of that king, some relics of cloth of gold, a large 
gold ring, and a small silver chalice. 

On the north side are likewise three chests on the top of 
the Mall ; the first from the altar hath this inscription on it : 

lacx Hmgulgus oftiit 641. 

On the choir side of the same chest : 

atJuIp]^tig aaex obtit 857. 

Bingtl^i t« ciiU \)ac ^imul osi^a jacmt tt ^tJuIpl^i (untfator, 

i)ic hniffactor trat. 

The second chest hath this inscription : 

jKcniilpJjusi i^tx oiiit 754. 

On the choir side : 

iSsbntu^ obitt 837. 
Wc Bfx iEgbntuiS pausiat cum S^cge 5KnTuIp]^o 
i^obii tgrcflu murcra utcrq ; tultt. 

The third chest contained formerly the bones of Bishop 
Wina, w ith this inscription : 

^ic jactnt (f^iSn W^ina iSpigfopt. 

With Bishop Wina's, was enclosed the body of Stigand, 
first Bishop of W inchester, then Archbishop of Canter- 
bury ; and ou the north side of the coffin was this in- 
scription : 



35 

^M jactt ^tigaiitJug ^rdjiepi^copu^. 

But now this inscription is upon it : 

In hac cistdA. D. I66I. promiscue recondita sunt Ossa 
Priitcipirm Sf Fmlatorum, Sacnlegd barbarie dispersa, 
A. D. 1642. 

Under the second chest on the south wall, is this 
inscription : 

fntug f^t corpus; lairavtii Millitlmi Conque^torisi filti et 

?3corntae tjuct^. 

On the same wall is entombed the heart of Ethelmarus, 
Bishop of Winchester, with this inscription : 

©tilt anno 1261. 

Corpus iEtljtImari, fujug cor nunc tenet i5tu^ ^ariim, 

^ari^it^ mortc tfatur tumulo. 

From the westward in the same wall is this inscription : 

Jhxtu5 tit cor. ^icTjoIai oltm Clinton iSpiscopi c\x)Mi 
corpug c^t aput( Ma&crXw. 

In the south wall, eastward, lies the body of Richard 
Fox, Bishop of Winchester, by whose care the bones of 
the Saxon Kings were chested. He was the founder of 
Corpus Christi College in Oxford, and a great benefactor 
in repairing the upper part of this choir. 

Near unto this monument is a small private oratory, 
which he usually frequented for his devotion, and which 
is still called Bishop Fox's study. 

On the north side of the wall was formerly a fourth 
chest, containing the bones of Bishop Elmstan and 
Bishop Kynulphus, with this inscription : 

^onttficcs fjacc cap^a Uuosi tenet incincratoiS primus i£Im)Sta;f 
nuiS, l)uic iSuccesi^orq ; 35DnuIpf)u:S. 

Bishop Alfimus's monument was on the same wall 
eastward from Bishop Elmston, with this inscription : 

^fimug plumljo pre^iil requiesicit in ijito. 

Under Kingulstus's chest in the same wall, is this 
inscription : 

(Qui jacet l)ic 2^egni ^ceptrum tulit l^artJi^camitu^ 

3£minac Cnutoni^ gnatuiS et ip^c fuit. 

©bitt ^. S. IIIIo. 

d2 



SQ 



In the same wall, this 



mioinug oMt, ^. S. 1047. 
Wc jarct !Hlli3hu corpuiS, quimiiufra tvdbii 
Contulit SSgvegia, pavctto CijviStc pio. 



In the same wall, within the choir, is this inscriptioB 
for Queen Eniina : 

^ic 3Smmam fiiSta ifltcjiuam ronttnet i^U Mmit ^ti)eVtivetiui 

2iUx Ijauc, tt po^tca Cnuitusi ; 

lEtJluaitlum parit ijaer, ac ^avtst^fanutum (Quatuor 'i)o^%tQti 

\)^tc Wait ^reptra tcncntc^ ; 

^nglorum 3degcm fuit Ijacc ^ic mater ft uxor. 

In the same wall, without the choir, eastward, lieth the 
body of Stephen Gai diner, sometime Bishop of Win- 
chester. 

This monument was much abused in the times of the 
late rebellion. 

Under the monument of Bishop Alfimus, on the north 
side, was this inscription : 

Mt functi corpus tuiiuiIuS tcntt i^te 3)oIjanni5 ^Potntesf, 

OTiutontac iBrafi^uIig eximii. 

(©biit amto 1304. 

In the wall on the north side, under the chest of Wina, 
is the monument of Bishop Toclive, with this inscription : 

Prac^itltg tgvcgif pau^ant l^ic mtmlbra iiicarUi 

CoUj)iK, cni gumtiit gautJia iSunto poXi. 

(BUit amto 1189. 

Behind the choir on the north side, lieth a warlike 
person, whose figure is much defaced, with this inscription : 

flic jacct MtlUclimiS ComtJi Kc ir\Mn 
mam alias Mincall. 

On the north side, under the stairs which lead to the 
organ, was found some few years since, the heart (as is 
supposed) of Hugh le Brune, some time Prior of St. 
Swithin's, in a box of tin. His effigies in stone is now 
upon the place where the heart was deposited. 

In the utmost wall of the choir eastward, was the 
entrance into the vault in which the Saxon Kings were 
first buried. Over it is this inscription : 

S^ancta Plaria, (t l^ominu^ 3t&us, 



37 

On one side of the entrance are these names : 
Bpngul^tug J.Ux ^. ?Stnmi£J iSpiiSfopug 

3£titDar'Du5 iitx ^miot. ^tl)cy tanujsi i^cx ftliusi fjii^. 

On the other side the entrance, are these names : 

lElirelius il^ci. lEtigatMci. IHmma Kectina.'glltDinuslEptscopu? 
?£ti)£HircDu&Kci. ^.IHDtoacDusJflex fiUusi cjU9. CTanutusiJlEX. 

Underneath is this inscription : 

Corpora <Santoium gunt \)ic in pare scpulta, 
laxmecitig quorum fulgent mtiacula multa. 

In the middle of the space above the choir, is a monu- 
ment raised somewhat higher than the pavement, said tQ 
be that of Lucius tlie first Christian King ; but there is no 
inscription upon it. 

On the south side of that space behind the high altar, 
is erected to the memory of Henry Beaufort, Cardinal of 
St. Eusebius, and Bishop of Winchester, a fair and stately 
exalted monument, with his effigies in his habit ; the 
inscription is now wholly obliterated, this being all that 
appeared legible above one hundred years ago. 

Cribularcr jSi nfsfftvfm nu'siericovtiiaS tua;S. 

He deceased upon the 11th. day of April, anno 1447, 
having been Bishop of Winchester 43 years, and from the 
time of his first consecration 50 years. 

Among other good deeds, it is to be remembered that 
he built an hospital in Winchester, near St. Crosse's, 
which he presently endowed with land to the value of 
^158. 13s. 4d. yearly rent; and, moreover, gave unto it 
the Hospital of St. John de Fordingbridge. in it was to 
be maintained a master, two chaplains, thirty-five poor 
men, and three women. 

On the north side is a fair monument of William AYain- 
fleet. Bishop of Winchester, holdmg his heart between 
his hands : he was founder of Magdalen College in Ox- 
ford ; but it has no inscription upon it. 

At the east end of this Church, are three Chapels. In 
the midst is that of the blessed Virgin : in it Queen Mary 
was married to King Philip. The chair in which she »at 
is still there. 



35 

On the north side is a small Chapel, wherein is the 
monument of Kichard late Earl of Portland, vith this 
inscription : 

Dcpositum 

Ricardi Westou, Comitis Portland, 

Magui Angliae Thesaurarii 

quo inunere fungi 

cocpit 

Anno Regis Caroli quarto, 

Idq; simul cum vita exult 

Anno praedicti Domini Regis 

Decimo, 

Annoq ; Domini Rederaptoris 1634. 

Decimo tertio die Martii. 

On the south side is a little Chapel, in which is a mon- 
ument of Thomas Langton, Bishop of Winchester. 

Near the door of the Chapel, is a fair black marble, 
raised a little above the pavement, under which lyetli 
Frances, late Countess Dowager of Exeter, with this 
inscription : 

Honoralissima Domina 

Francesca 

Thomse Comitis Exon. relicta, 

Bonorum operum, pariter ac dierum 

plena, 

Obdormivit in Domino 

. /Domini MDCLXIII. 

-^^"^liEtatis suae LXXXVII. 

Going down from the south door of the choir, at the 
bottom of the steps, on the left hand, are two old monu- 
ii'ients ; the one hath no inscription, the other has this 
about it: 

l^ic jacct 22aiUteImug tc 23as(ng, quonliam ^rtor tsitiug 
^fcksiac, cujus antmat propttietur IBem, ct qui pro anima 
C5US ocabctit, tres annog et quinquaginta Dies Unliulgcntiae 
ycrciptft. 

At the end of the cross aisle, southwards, is the chapter- 
house ; above stairs are the library and audit-house, built 
in 1668. 

At the entrance into the choir, at the great door, on one 
side, is the statue of King James, in brass ; oh the other 
side, is that of King Charles the first, in whose time 
this screen was erected. 



39 

In the body of the church, near the pulpit, is a stone 
with this inscription : 

MillUImus ItinggmeU, i^tiot uUimug, Uecanus 

printug &cc\eiiae 

©bitt 1548 

Likewise upon a flat marble stone, near the pulpit, is 
this inscription : 

J^obcrtug ^OKtit '^l)eo\o^iat doctor 
ntmtus, quontJam C|)rtstt causa 
txnl, DcinDe Ck'piscopus fiJainton : 
pic obilt in 33omino %\xn. I, 1580. 
lEpigcopatug gut anno 19. 

Upon another marble stone, opposite to the former, is 
this inscription : 

13. gjoannca Mat^nn ]^ujug CEccIcgtae S^Iinton : 
^SraebcnDaritig. SStcanug, ac DeinDc ^pigtopug, 
^tulicnti$55imus ^ater, bit optimum, 
^raetipue erga inopes mtgeticorg. 
C^biit in SBomino 3)anuat : 23. 
Slnno aftatig guac 63, €Fptscopatug 4, 

1583. 

Below the steps towards the choir, on the south side, 
is the tomb of Bishop Edyndon, with this epitaph ; 

(CflgnDon natits a!2ailf)elmti;Ei !)ic est titntulatugi 
Prae^iil praegr.Uu^, in aiSlintonia Catlj£Dratu;e(, 
€lut pet tran;5iti£(, ejus m:morare ijelitis 
JDroijiDus £t mitiji, ausit mm milk perittsi 
PertJigil 3inglonim fuit, anjutoc poputorum 
£)ulci3 egmomm P't^f, ^f Protector eomm 
^, C. tribus functum post %% ml punctitm 
SDctaba sanctum notat ijuuc SDctobpi^ inunctum. 
1366. 

Near the little south door in the body of the Church, is 
the tomb of William Wyckham, Bishop of Winchester, 
founder of Winchester College, and of New College in 
Oxford ; and repairer of the west part of this Church. 
With this epitaph : 

Saill^elmus cictw^ tmitiSjsm facet bic nece bictu^ 
3l0tiii5 ©celesta praesul ; rzparabit catnque 
iLargus erat, tjapifer, probat boc cum flitJit? pauper, 
Congibis paritjr rsgni fuerat bciu oeicter. 



40 

0\\nc Dotet mt piiim fimtiatfo coflcgtorum 
iSDjconia: primum st.U, aEHiutoniaq; emmBum, 
Jugitcr orcti<5, tiinmlum (i»in»"f! 5 vjiBJtisi 
^0 tantis raeriti^, qiioD sit sibi Vita percnniA 

Next to the Countess of Exeter's monument, on the 
south side of the upper part of the Cathedral Church, 
under a black marble stone, lies buried the Lord Henry 
Powlett, with these arms ; viz. Three daggers with the 
points downwards. The crest, is a falcon with a coronet 
round his neck, and a bell on each leg, with a mantling 
round the coat, and a half-moon between two of the 
daggers, and the following inscription : 

Hie Conditum sub hoc 
Marmore est corpus 
Ornatissimi Domini 

Heurici 

Powlett. Evocati ex 

Hac Vita IIo die Mali 

Anno Dom. 1672. 

Next to him lies Sir Thomas Higgons, under a large 
stone, with these arms ; viz. Three eagles' heads erased 
in the field, and this inscription : 

Here lieth the Body of 

Sir Thomas Higgons, 

who died the 24th. 

of November, 

1692. 

And on the south side, lies the Countess of Essex, under 
a grey marble, with two coats of arms, viz, Essex's im- 
paling Powlett's, and this inscription : 

Quicquid Reliquum est 
Eliz. Essexiae Comitissse 

Hie Deponitur, 

Filia fuit Gul. Pawlett Mil 

& Robert! Essexiae Com. Conjux 

I ost cujus obitum transiit 

in alias Nuptias. 

Cum Thoma Higgons Mil. 

Obiit Penult. Augusti A. D. 1656. 

& hie Sepulta, Oratione 

Funebri a Marito ipso. 

More Prisco Laudata Tuit. 



41 

Next to the Countess of Essex's monument and adjoin- 
ing to the south wall, under a large marble stone enclosed 
with iron rails, lies Bishop Leving, with the arms of the See 
of the Bishopric of the isle of Man, and three escollop 
shells between two bendlets ; with this inscription : 

Baptista Leving 
S. T. P. 

Episcopus Sodorensis & Imjus Ecclesiae Praebendarius 

Patre Gulielmo Leving de Eventia in Comit. Nortbarapt. 

Armigero Ortus 

Oxonij in Collegio B. M. Magdalenae Edncatus 

Patriae suae, Academiae, Ecclesiae, & baeculi Ornamentura 

ob integritatem, & sanctimoniam vitoe, morum gravitatem, 

Et candorum & virtutes vere Christianus 

olim spectabilis, semper memorandus, 

naturae & Gratiae Dotibus illustris. 

Corporis elegantis, ^'u]tus decori. Mentis eximiae 

(Nusqaam splendidius habitavit Philosophia) 

Literaturae, qua humance qua Divinae, oiuni 

genere Instructus ; 

Theodoxae Religionis Praeco atq ; propuguator 

Validissimus, Deo probatus operarius ainwa'anvlos- 

Episcopale muuus modeste 

Admisit, prudenter, & Benefice adininistravit, 

Primaevos & Apostolicos Pastures imitatus, & 

Qualem posteri imitentur. 

Vixit 

Multis Idoneus ; Omnibus Dilectus ; 

Bene de aliis merendi studiosus, & apprime Gnarus ; 

Erga Egenos li'oeralis, simulq ; Kei familiaris providus j 

Hospitalis sine Luxu, & inter Lautitias abstemius. 

In templo, juxta ac privatis in yEdibus Deum 

assidue & sincere Veneratus j 

In precibns & jejuniis frequens, C'oali appetens, 

Febre Correptus, bonus servus & fidelis 

Domini, sui Gaudium ingressus est 

Die XXXI January 

An. Dora. MDCXCH. 

^tat. Suae 49. 

Viro optimo Desideratissimoqj 

Maria uxor Delectissima 

H. M. M. P. 

On a flat stone, northward, adjoining to the middle of 
the former, are two coats of arms, viz. the Powletts' and 
the Napers', with this inscription : 



42 

Francisca 

Nath. Naper Equitis Aurati filia 

Essexlj Powlett Armigeri Conjux 

Exuvias Mortalitatis 

(Heu quara Pulchras !) 

Hie deposuit 

Pridie Cal. Sextil. 

^rse Christianae 

MDCLXVII. 

On the north side, adjoining to the same, on a flat 
stone, is the following inscription, with the Powletts' 
coat of arms, and a half-moon between two of the daggers : 

Here lyeth the body 

of Essex Powlett, Esq ; 

who died the 17th 

of September, 

1682. 

Under the south wall, a little below Bishop Leving's 
monument, is a spacious monument, with the statue, of 
Sir John Clobery, and on the pedestal. 

Sir John Clobery, was born at 
Broadston, in Devon. 

Under the same, is the follow ing inscription : 

M. S. 
Johannis Clobery Militis, 
Vir in omni re eximius, 

Artem Bellicam 

Non tantum optime novit, 

Sed ubiq ; Faelissiine exercuit 

Ruentis patriae simul & Stuartorum Domus 

Stator Auspicatissimus 

Quod Monchius & ipse 

Prius in Scotiae Animo agitaverant 

Ad Londin'-.m Venientes 

Facile effectum dabant j 

Unde 

Pacem Angliae, Carolura Secundum Solio, 

(Universo populo plaudente) 

Restituerunt. 

Inter Armorum negotiorumq ; Strepitum 

(Res raro militibus usitata) 

Hunianioribus literis sedulo incubuit 

Et Singulares animi Do^es 



43 

Tam exqulsita eruditione expolivit 

Ut Athenis potius quam Castris j 

Semisse videretur 

Sed corpore demum morbo languescente 

Se tacite AJundi motibus subduxit 

ut Coelo, quod per totam vitam 

Ardentius anhelaverat unicil vacaret 

r\i.'-^ A { Salutis, 1687. 

Obut Anno, ■{ x?,. 4.- „ co 

' I Atatis suae, 63. 

Hoc Monumentum Charissima Defuucti 

Relicta ceu ultinum Araoris 

Indicium poni curavit. 

Northward of the said monument, lie buried three of 
his children, John his only son, Frances and Elizabeth 
two of his daughters. 

Between Sir John Clobery's monument, and his three 
children, under a black marble stone, lies buried the Earl 
of Castlehaven, with this coat of arms, quarterly ; viz. 
first, in the field a chevron between nine ermines ; second- 
ly, a frett ; the third, as the second ; the fourth, as the 
first. The crest is a swan in a coronet, with a baron's 
coronet over his neck, and crowned with another coronet, 
with this inscription ; 

Here lieth the Body of 

The Right Honourable James 

Touchett, Barou Audley, 

and Earl of Castlehaven, 

in the kingdom of Ireland, 

Obiit Aug. 12. 

1700. 

Below Sir John Clobery's monument, is buried the wife 
of Dr. Fulham, Archdeacon • of Winchester, and Pre- 
bendary of the Church ; and on his grave, lies a square 
black marble, with the following inscription : 

S. I. 

Catharina Conjux 

Georgij Fulham 

S. T. P. 

hujus Ecclesiaa 

Praebendarij, 

1699. 

Against the south wall is a mural monument, with this 
inscription ; 

M.S. 
Catharinse filiae primogenitae 
ac Cohseredis Georgii Evelyn 



44 

de WottoTi in Comitatu Surria? Arinigeri 

Conjugis Georgii Fulhain, S. T. P. 

liujus Ecclesiae Praebeudarij 

Exoptatissima haec Facmina 

Eximiutu a teneris Annis pietatem, 

Singularem Vlrtutem, Prudentiam, Benignitatem 

ac Moruin Candorem prae se ferens 

Summa cum Gratia Vitam excoluit ; 

Amicis Carissima, Omnium Laudem promerita 

Circiter quatriduum a PartuNati secundi 

Morbo Ceplialico perculsa, ex imraaturo occubuit. 

Semper lugenda ; Nisi Paratissiraa vixisset. 

Obiit vicesirao tertio Die Octobris, 

Anno MDCXCIX. 

Juxta Matrem recubit Gulielmus Fulliam 

lufans Bimestris. 

On the north side of the Church, and at the east end 
in the Lord Treasurer Weston's vault, is buried Bishop 
Mews ; and on liis grave is a small square stone, with this 
inscription : 

Petrus Mews 

Winton : Epus. 

Obiit 9no. Novembris 

1706. 

This Bishop's death is said to have been foretold by a 
youth of Winchester school, who also foretold the time 
of his own. 

On the same side, below the Lord Treasurer's monu- 
ment, on a black Hat marble stone, are these arms ; viz. 
three crescents in tiie field, and a crescent for a difference, 
w ith this inscription : 

Hie jacet Henricus Perin 

E. Coll. S. Stae- Trin. Apud 

Oxoniensis M. B. Denatus 

4to die Junij Anno iEtatis 32. 

Dom: 1694. 

Marmor hoc in Memoriam Norainis 

posuit maereus Uxor. 

Near the wall of the south side of the upper part of 
the Church, under a large stone, lies buried the Lady 
Mason ; with these coats of arms, viz. a lion with two 
heads. Mason, empal. in a field lozengie on a bend, three 
goats' heads erased. The crest is a raermaid, and this 
inscription ; 



45 

Lector 
Exuviae heic sunt cultisslraae 
Catliarioa 
r Joan. Vaux. Med. Dns 
Relicta < Tho. Husey Armig. 

iRob. Masou Equ, Aurati 

(A quo nee in morte separata est) 

Pia^ Chasta, Pulchra, Munifica, 

Bonoruin opeium quam dierum senior 

Decessit Idib. Octob. 

Ano. ^tatis LXII. 

Saiutis CI^^^CLxxv. 

On her right hand lies her son, with the Masons' coat 
of arms, and this inscription : 

HSE 

Robertus Mason Armiger 

Roberti Mason Militis 

& Catharinse 

(juxta depositorum) 

Filius 

Valiolarum Morbus 

Cum vitae, turn Genti suae 

Finem dectit 

vv V 1 r K A o /Dni MDCLXXXI. 
XV.Kal. Feb. Ano. I ^^^^.^^^jj^ 

On a plain stone on the south side of Bishop Wain- 
fleet's monument, is this inscription, the long way of the 
stone : 

Cui dedit Oxonium Mammas, Vigornia Cunas, 

Hie sua Christopherus Busta Perinus habet. 
Sacra Dei docuit Triginta sednlus Annos, 

Dignus, in hac illo quern tulit aede, loco. 
Angelus in terris vita fuit, Angelus Ore, 

Pars est Angelici nunc quoq ; magna Chori. 
Conjugio Foelix, Bis sena prole Beatus, 

Hanc illi Conjux Elizabetba tulit. 
Obiit 13 Die Octobris, Anno Dni. 1612. 

Near the same place, on the south side, with the 
Symonds's amis, viz. a crescent between three trefoils, 
and on the chevron a crescent for a difference, with this 
inscription : 

Here lyeth William Syraonds, Gentleman, 
Of Winchester twice Mavor and Alderman. 



46 

Alice his wife lies buried by his side ; 
The one in June, in July th' other died ; 
On the 18th day 1601 Shee, 
On the 27th day 1606 Hee. 
His Merit doth inherit Life and Fame ; 
For whilst this City stands, Symonds his name. 
In poor men's hearts shall never be forgotten ; 
For poore's prayers rise, when flesh lies rotten. 

At the head of Bishop Wainfleet's monument, on the 
same side, under a black marble stone, lies buried Dr. 
Taylor, and these arms, viz. a chevron charged, three 
roundels, between as many griffins' heads erased. The 
crest, a dragon's head, with this inscription : 

H S E 

Arthurus Taylor Medicinae Dr. 
Ecclesiae Anglicanae Filius 
Qui 
Ultra Annos Triginta 
Arti suae operam 
Hac in urbe felicitur impendit 
Et 
Cum vivere ; amplius docere non posset 
jam tandem hie docet niori 

Obiit Xo die Augusti 
. fDni MDCLXXIV. 
^""n^tatisLXI. 

Opposite to the last, under the south wall, is a black 
marble stone, with these coats of arms per pale ; the first 
is the field, with a bordure round engrailled, a bend with 
three leopard's heads ; the second is a bordure round the 
field, with eight cinquefoils, and two crosses in the field, 
with this inscription : 

H S E 
Gulielmus Coker 
Generosa prosapia satus 
In Agro Dorset ; 
Per viginti sex Annos Medicinae Professor, 
Ac is erat qui Deum supra naturam 
Et agnovit & sanctissime coluit : 
Quod si lapis iste siluerit 
Ennarabunt Te fere pietatis Monumenta 
Quot in hac Urbe vagantur Pauperes 

Quos sibi scilicet devinxit 

Gravitate turn valetudinis, turn inopiae, 

Et (quod majus erat) inscientiae levando. 

Obiit Jan. XIII. MDCCIV^ 

iEtatis suae 50. 



47 

In the south aisle of the church, opposite to the choir, 
under a large stone, lies buried Prebend Mews, witli the 
arms of the family, viz. paly of six, and three cross cross- 
lets in chief, with this inscription : 

TT G p 

Sam. Mews. STB 
Hujusce et Ecclesiee VVellensis Praebendarius 
Parochiae de Estington ia Agro 

Gloucestriensi Rector, 
Pius, Doctus, Comis, Facetus, 
Et quodcunq ; alii videre voliint 
Revera fuit. 
Heu ! fuit. 
Obiit IXo Die Junii 
. /DniMDCCVI 
^"''^'liEtatissuaiLXXV. 

A little farther southward, on a black marble stone^, 
lies Dr. Hawkins ; his arms are sab. on a point wavee, a 
lion pass, or, in chief, three roundels on a canton gold, 
an escallop between two daggers, with this inscription : 

HSE 

Guliehnus Hawkins 

S T P 

Hugis Ecclesiffi Praebendarius, 

Qui obiit Jul. 17o 

Anno Domini 1691. 

j^Etatis suaj 58. 

Southward, next adjoining to the same, on a large 
black marble stone, with these arms, viz. three boars' 
heads couped, empaling a chevron in a lozenge, and this 
inscription : 

Here lietli the body of Madam Mary Davies, daughter of Sir 
Jonathan Trelawney, of Trelawuey in the County of Cornwall, 
Baronet. A Lady of excellent endowments and exemplary 
virtue, of courage and resolution above her sex, and equal to 
the generous stock whence she sprang. She was Maid of 
Honour to Mary Princess of Orange, and Relict of Lieut. 
Coll. Davies, wlio, at the siege of Naraur, mounting the 
trenches at the head of the grenadiers of the first Regiment 
of Guards, was the first that threw the fascines, (which others 
used to cover themselves with in their attack) over the ditch, 
and with his men past it, beating the French out of their 
works ; which was a gallant action, and greatly contributed 
towards the taking of the tovvn. In performing of which, he 



48 

received the wound, of which he died ; and gained so just an 
esteem for the boldness and success of it, with the King, that 
he designed him tlie great honour of a visit the morning on 
■which lie died ; and being informed of his death, in kind and 
honourable terms expressed his concern and sorrow for the 
loss of so brave and deserving an officer. 

She died the xxiiiith of September^ in the year MDCCVII. 

A little distance from the south wall of the church, on 
a black marble stone, are these arms, viz. on a chief, two 
griffins' heads erased. In the field, three stags' heads 
couped. The crest is a griffin's head, with this in- 
scription : 

HSE 

Shadrach Lyne Gen. 

Vir Pius 

Subdidus Fidelis, 

Plurimis charus, 

Obiit Octob. XXIV. 

. f Salutis MDCCI. 

'^'^''^t^tatisLXXVI. 

In a small chapel in the douth aisle, on a black marble 
stone, is this coat of arms, viz. a mullet between two 
roundels on a chief, empaling five crescents in the fonn of 
a cross, and in a canton an ostrich's feather. The crest 
is a griffin's head, with this inscription : 

Here is layd 

The precious Body 

of Elizabeth 

The intirely beloved AVife 

of Cliarles Dingley, Esq j 

Son of Sir .John Dingley 

of Woolverton, 

In the Isle of Wight. 

She dyed February the 5th, 1 683. 

In the same chapel, near the former, on a black square 
marble stone, is this inscription : 

Here 

lieth the Body 

of Charles Dingley, Esq ; 

Husband of Elizabeth Dingley, 

who also lieth buried near this 

Place, who departed this 

Life September the 

Twenty eighth 

1700. 



49 

In the same chapel, near the same place, under a large 
black marble stone, with these arms, three piles in pale, 
points downward, charged with as many annulets impal- 
ing a cross, on which is a leopard's head, is this in- 
scription : 

Here lyetli the Body of 

Mrs. Mary Young, the Wife 

of James Young, Esq ; who 

was a Gentleman of the 

Privie Chamber unto 

King Charles the First, 

And dyed a Collonell 

In his sayd Mat't^s Service. 

She was the Daughter of 

W™ Bridges, the Son of 

Thomas Bridges, Baron 

Chandris of Sudley. She 

dyed the 1 4th Day of December 

1687. Aged 80. 

In a chapel in the south aisle, (next adjoining to the 
last) called Prior Silksteed's chapel, on a large black flat 
marble stone, is this inscription : 

Here resteth the Body of 
Mr. Isaac Watton 
who dyed the 15th of December 
1683. 
Alas ! He's gone before. 
Gone to return no more. 
Our pauting Breasts aspire 

After their aged Sire, 
Whose well-spent Life did last 
Full ninety Yeares and past. 

But now he hath begun 
That which will ne'er be done, 
Crown'd with eternal Bliss 
We wish our Soids with his. 

Votis modestis sic flerunt liberi 

Under the south wall of the same chapel, on a black 
marble stone, are these arms, viz. three Cornish choughs 
between a bar, impaling five ermines checquy, calthorpes, 
the crest is a castle, on the top a Cornish chough dis- 
played, with this inscription : 

£ 



5a 

H. S.E. 

Johannes Nicholas 

S.T. P. 

Collegij BeatK Marise Wlntoa 

Prope VVinton 

Custos, 

Hujus Ecclesiffi & Sarisburiensis 

Prfebendarius. 

Obiit Feb. 27. 

. rSabitis^i 1711. 

^°"n.^tatis| 74. 

On the south corner of the wall is a monument of 
marble erected, with this inscription : 

H. S. E. 

Johannes Nicholas, S. T. P, 

Hujus Ecclesiae Pra-bendarius zvi^riTris 

Utrumq ; Collegij Wiccamici 

Scholaris, & Socius, & Custos, 

In utroq ; reliquit perennia 

MunificentifE suae Monumenta, 

Collegia discipline excoluit, 

ifEdificiis auxit, & exornavit, 

Scholam suis pene sumptibus extruxit, 

Wiccamo suo sanii dignissiniam. 

Inter baec omnia Pauperibus 

Largus Bonorura Erogator 

Et Praesentissimum Levamen. 

Haec opera verfe magna 

Magnum loquuntur Authorem 

Et serse Posteritati enarrabunt 

Diem suum Obiit Feb. 27. 



. fDom, ■) 1711. 
^^"n^tat./ 74. 



Next to Dr. Nicholas's, on a large flat black marbl6 
stone, the arms the same as the last, with this in- 
scriptiou : 

H. S. E. 

Henrietta Maria Nicholas, 

Filia Jacobi Calthorp de Arapton, 

In Agro Suffolciensi, Armigeri, 

Uxor Johannis Nicholas, SS. KP. 

Coll. Bt«. Maria? Winton, Custodis, 

Qus8 



51 

Unico superstlte filio 

secundo puerperio obiit 

A rSalutis MDCLXXXIII. 

^"""^l^tatisXXXVI. 

Adeo a laudibus abliorruit posthumis 

Ut ipsius moriturse votis dandum est 

Quod virtutes alias atq ; alias 

Relligio sit silere. 

Next adjoining to the last, on a large black flat marble 
stone, are these arms, viz. a lion rampant, impaling three 
Cornish choughs, with the following inscription : 

H, S. E. 

EHzabetha Morapesson, 
Thomae Mompesson (de Sarum) Equitis Aurati 
Relicta, 
Matthcei Nicholas (Divi Pauli 
Apud Londinenses Decani) 
Filia, natu maxima, 
quae 
Postquam totam pietati, castis moribus, 
Et multifariis^ quotidianisq ; pauperam beneficiis 
Vitam impendisset, 
Senectutis maturae finem implevit, 
Nov. XXIX. 
.„„^ /DniMDCCIX. 
-^""""liEtatisLXXV. 

Under the east wall of the north aisle, on a plain grey 
marble stone, is this inscription; 

H. S. E. 

Etheldreda 

Filia CI. Edw. Pocock 

S. T.D. 

Linguas Hebraicae 

In Academia Oxon 

Professoris Regij 

Linguae Arabicae ibidem 

Praelectoris Primi, 

Conjux charissima 

Gulielmi Emes 

CoUegij prope Winton Socii 

Quae obiit 5to Die Novembris 

A n ("1698. 
Anno Dom.< ^ct. *• An 

Ciiitatis suae A9. 

e2 



52 

Near the south w^all of the same aisle, on a black marble 

stone, with these arms, viz. in the field, a chevron ermine 

bet\\een three urchins, is this inscription : 

H. S.E. 

Richardus Harris Eques Auratus 

Reverendi admodum Johannis Harris, S, T, P, 

(Collegij VVintoniensis Custodis) Filius ; 

Qui Tali Conjugem amore coluit, 

Qualem ab ilia sperabat, quali fruebatur 

Numerosae Prolis Felix ; & Pius Pater, 

Nectamen Pauperuin minus, quam suorura meraor. 

Dies ac noctes Clientum negotiis vacabat, 

Quietem alienam semper anteponeus suae. 

Regis Idem Patriaeq ; fidelissimns servus ; 

Honores, quibus erat cumulatus. 

Nemo minus ambiit, nemo meruit magis. 

Quantae erat in Deum pietatis, 

Vel exhinc licet auspicari . 

Precibus publicis 

(Paucissimas ante mortem horas) 

luterfuit 

In Ecclesia vovens anlmam Deo 

Ad quem illico erat abiturus. 

r^u", A VTT A rDniMDCXCVIII. 
Obut Aug. XII. Anno < j.. . • » yo 

'=> I iLtatis suae LX^ 

Near the steps, in the same aisle, on a plain flat stone, 

is this inscription ; 

H. S. E. 

Randolph Jewett 

Generosus. 

Ob. Jul. 3. An. Mt. 72. Dom. 

1675. 

And next adjoining to the same, on the like stone, is 

this inscription : 

D. 

Anna Jewett 

Quae quondam Uxor, Rand. Jewett. 

Hujus Ecclesiae Organistae 

9^ Liberorura mater, 

Olim marito, & pluribus 

Tandem Ben. tunc Unico Orbata 

Uitam senio & lucta confectam 

Lubentiss. exhalavit 

Margabergae V^I. Id. Aug. 

An. D. MDCXCII. 

iEtat. XC. 

Jaxta Fil. Benj. 

In eodera recubat sepulchro] 



5S 

In the same aisle, on the other side of Mr. Jewett, on 
a large black marble stone, is this coat of arms, viz. in the 
iield, five flower-de-luces in a cross, the crest a dove; and 
this inscription : 

Deborah 

Uxor Gulielmi Over Med, 

Randolphi & Annae Jewett Filia 

Obiit Puerpera Aug. 9. A. D. 1G86. 

Mtat 33. 

Gulielmus Randolplms 

Filius ejus Primogenitus 

Variolarum Tabe Correptus. 

Interiit Jan. 23. A. D. 1685. 

iEtat. 1. 

Gulielmus 

Filius natu secundus 

25<^ Die a Nativitate sua 

Fatis concessit, Aug. 28o 1686. 

In the same aisle, southward, even with the last, on a. 
plain stone, is this inscription : 

Exuvife 

Benjamimi Jewett. A. M. 

Rectoris de Mildenhall 

In Com. Wilt. 

Qui post XLV Annos 

Pie & honeste 

Exactos. 

Obiit Margabergaj VI Decern. 

Annee Mree Christianas 

MDCXCI. 

In the same north aisle, on a plain stone, is this 
inscription : 

Heie lyeth the Body of 

Mr. William Taylour,' bred 

In the College, near Winton, and 

Chaplain there 20 years. 

Petty Cannon of this 

Cathedral 46 years, 

Chantor 34 years 

who died 

Febru. 2^ Ao Dom, 1667. ' 

Aged 69. 

Awake and sing, ye that 

Dwell in the Dust. 



54 

Next to the last, on a plain narrow stone, is this in- 
scription : 

H.S.E. 

Kadulphus 

Taylor Clericus 

Ecelesiaj S S Trinitatis * 

Canonicus minor. 

Rector de Winhali, 

Qui obiit 

Calendis Apiilis 

Salutis MDCLXXXVII. 

.^tatis LXXVII. 



Anno < '^ 



Near the north wall of the said north aisle, on a plain 
stone, the long way of the stone, is this inscription : 

Marthae Brexton Filiae raaximae natu Thoraae 

Et Marise Brexton Tumulus. 

Consurgunt Foliis Candentia Lilia Quinis 

Spirant Purpureis intus Amcena Crocis 

flinc Crocus est Pietas Foliis Circundata Quinis 

Justitia Cura Pace Lepore Fide. 

Sept. 1673. 

At the side of the steps before the ascent into the choir, 
between the pillars opposite to Bishop Edington's mon- 
ument, is a large vault erected, about four feet high, 
wherein is buried Bishop Morley, and Dr. Morley his 
nephew : and on the middle of the said vault is a large 
black marble stone, (inclosed round with iron rails) 
whereon is Bishop Morley 's coat of arms, with the arms 
of the See of the Bishopric of Winchester, and his pater- 
nal coat, inclosed in a mitred garter, viz. in the field two 
lions rampant ; with this inscription, made by himself, in 
the 80th vear of his as:e. 



•o^ 



In spe Resurrectionis ad ^'^itam iEternam 
Georgius Episcopus Wiiitouiensis hie jacet. 
Qui Postquaro pro Rege & Martyre Carolo primo 
Et cum Rege & Exile Carolo secundo, 
Exiiium in partibus transmarinis hie, illic, 
Duodecim plus minus annorum exegisset, 
Redux cum Rege tandem in Patriam suam, 
Munificeiitia niagis Kegia, quctm illo sui ipsius 
(Tam in sublimimus in Ecclesia gradibus) patri merit* 
Priinum ex Uuo Canonicorum, Ecclesiae Christ! 
Oxoniensis factus est Decanus ; breviq j postea 
la iicclesite Vigorniensis Preesulatum est 



53 

Evectus ; taudemq ; (sic volente Deo & Rege) 
In Imjus inclytse Wiutoniensis Ecclesise 
Episcopatuin est Transtatus : et jam plus 
Quam OctogenariuSj hoc sibi Epitaphium 
Scripsit, & huic siii deposito apponi iussit. 
Obiit vero Anno Domini MDCLXXXIV. 
Mensis Octobris die XXIXo- Anno 
-^tatis suae LXXXVIIo; postquam 
In liac Episcopali Cathedra 
Sederat Annos XXII, Menses quinq. 

Against the pillar, at the head of Bishop Morley's 
tomb, is an oval mural monume-iit erected, of white 
marble, with the same coat of arms as the last, and this 
inscription thereon : 

Franciscus Morley Georgii Episcopi Pronepos 

S. Th. Pr. Hujus Eccle^iae Praebendarius 

Fracta valetudine admonitus vitse corruentis 

Et mortis V'icinium infracta pace contemplans 

Juxta venerabiles Praepatrui Reliquias 

Suas hie subtus deponi curavit 

Beatam una peraus efava.-ao-fv 

ObiitloOctob.{i"/^''"^-^^96. 

l^^t. suae. 41. 

In the same north aisle, northward of the lower part of 
Bishop IVIorley's vault, on a laige black marble stone, are 
these arms, viz. two lions passant between a bar, the crest 
a lion's head erased, with this inscription : 

H. S. E. 

Gulielmus Pain S. T. P. 

Istlus Ecclesise XXIIII. per Annos 

Prcebendarius 

Rector de Martyr Worthy 

Qui vitam. 
(Divinis ministeriis deditara 
Ad humaniora officia paratam) 
Cum morte Foiliciter commutavit 
Sept. 26- 
, f.Etatis LXXIIL 
^^^'^ X Salutis MDCLXXXIX. 

Next adjoining to the last, northward, on the like stone, 
nyith these arms, viz. those of Pain, as before, impaled 
■«'ith his wife's, viz. a chevron between three dogs' heads 
erased; is this inscriptiou : 



Maria 

Uxor Gulielnii Paj-nc, 

S. T. P. 

Et hujus Ecclesiae 

Praebenclarii 

Obiit XXo die Mali 

AoDni 1093. 

In the same north aisle, northward of the upper part of 
Bishop Morley's vault, on a plain flat stone, is this 
inscription : 

Hie jacet Thomas Garrard 

Ambiens in Sepultura Vicinum 

Reverendlssimi Patris Georgii 

Cui per quinqtie 

Lustra astitit ;\ secretis 

Pomino diguissimo servus dignus. 

Obiit 140 Decembris Anno 

1697. 

Next adjoining, northward, on a black marble stone, 

with these arms, viz. three lions passant between ten 

ermines in this field, impaling tive ermines in a chevron 

engrailed, is this inscription : 

H S E 

Christiana 

Uxor Matthaei Combe;, M. D. 

Optiinc merita 

Quae postquani precibus publicis 

privatisqj assidoo invigilando 

Rem familiareni prudenter 

Administrando 

Pauperes sabievando 

Omnibus se Comem & benignam prsebendo 

Sibi ac suis, Vicinia) & Ecclesiaj 

Utilissima vixerat 

Variolarum morbu tandem correpta 

Mortem, quam 

Nee Mariti Ars et assiduitas 

Nee Filise Unicse pietas 

Nee utriusq ; Amor, vota, & lachrymae 

avertere valuereut. 

Obiit 

Av, Yirr A n fDniMDCCXII. 
Apr. XVI. Ano < ^, .. . .r.jx 

'■ I /fhtatis suae Lv III. 

Next adjoining, northward, on a black marble stone, 
with these arms, viz. three lions passant, between twenty- 
four eimuies in a lozenge, is this inscription: 



57 

H S E 

Flnetta Catharina 

Filia Mattliaei Combe, M. D. 

Quae inorte obiit repentina 

Et sibi uni non immatura, 

J"^> 31- An^J^tatissuee XVIII. 

Matri optimse adjacet 

Filia Don degener j 

Viveutis Comes individua 

VitcE imitatrix sedula 

In morte etiam heu ! nimis propinqua 

Filiee carissimse 

Quod contra ab ilia sibi 

et decuit et in votis fuit 

Hoc Amoris pariter et doloris 

Monumentum Pater 

M. P. 

A little farther westward, in the same north aisle, on a 
black marble stone, are th^se aims, viz. a chief ermine, a 
chevron in the field between three choughs. The crest 
a hand holding a dragon's head, with this inscription : 

H S E 

Thomas Sayer 
S T P 

Arcbidiaconus Surriae 

Et 

Hujus Ecclesiae Prcebendavius 

Qui obiit Jun. 3. 

Anno Domini 1710. 

iEtatis suae 58. 

Near the north wall of the same aisle, a little farther 
westward, on a black marble stone, with these arms, viz. 
the field ermine, three griffins in a chief rampant ; the 
crest, a griffin passant, and this inscription : 

Robertas Pescod Armiger 

Prothonotarius Curiae 

Cancellaria? Dni i'egis 

Obiit 27o die Februa'iii 

Anno Dni 1633. 

iEtatis suae 67** 

A little distance farther in the same aisle, on a long 
plain stone, is this inscription : 

Spe Resurgendi. 
Here lyeth the Body of 
George Pemerton Gent. 



58 

Who was twice Mayor 

Of this Citie, 

And here well knovvne 

to be a good Magistrate, 

and a liberal Benefactor 

Both to his Friends and Allie 

And also the Poore 

of divers Places, 

Which can truly testifie 

To Posteritie 

His well devoted 

And pious Charitie, 

The best Badge of a good 

Christian's Synceritie, 

February Ao Do 1 640. 

Here also lyeth 

Ann his Wife, 

Who departed this Life 

The 28th of February 

Anno Domini 1627. 

At the south east side of the pillar at the head of 
Bishop Morley's vault, on a square piece of brass, (fixed 
against the pillar) is this inscription : 

A Memoriall 
For this Renowned Martialist Richard Boles, of the Right 
Worshipful Family of the Bolses in Linckhorne Sheire, 
Collonell of a Ridgraent of Foot of 1300, who for his gracious 
King Charles the First did Wounders at the Battle of Edge- 
hill. His last Action, to omit all others, was at Alton, in 
this County of Southampton, was surprized by five or six 
thousand of the Rebels ; which caused him, there quartered, 
to fly to the Church with near fourscore of his men, who 
there fought them six or seaven Hours ; and then the Rebells 
breaking in upon him. He slew with his sword six or seaven 
of them, and then was slain himself, with sixty of his Men 
about him. His gracious Sovereign hearing of his death 
gave him his high Commendation, in that passionate 
expression. 

Bring me a Moorning Scarf, I have lost 
One of the best Commanders in the Kingdorae. 

Alton will tell you of tliat famous Fight 

Which this Man made, and bade this World good nightj 

His vertuous Life fear'd not Mortalyty j 

His Body niust^ his vertues cannot die 



59 

Becaiise his Blood was there so nobly spent ; 
This is his Tombe, that Church his Monument. 

Richardus Boles Wiltoniensis in Art, Mag. 

Coinposuit posnitq ; Dolens 

An. Dni. 1689. 

Near the same pillar, southward, in the middle or 
body of the church, on a large stone, are these anns, viz. 
six ciuquefoils, with a mullet between them. The crest 
is a goat's head, with the following inscription : 

H. S. E. 

Walterus Dayrell S. T. P. Archidiaconus Winton. 

& hujus Ecclesiae PraebendariuSj 

Qui obiit 29 Die Martii, 

. fiEtatis 74. 

^""nSalutis 1G84. 

Near the same place, a little farther southward, on a 
large black marble stone, are these aims. Two coats 
impaled ; the first is three escoUop shells in bend ; the 
second a chevron, with three cinquetoils between three 
pelicans ; the crest a stag issuing ; with this inscription : 

Here lyet.h the Body 

of Jacob Webb, Gent. 

Merchant Adventurer 

of England, 

And Citizen of London, 

Who died the 13th of March 1684. 

Aged 74 Years. 

Near the north side of Bishop Edington's monument, 
en a plain stone, is this inscription : 

Joannes Harfell Gen. 

Clericus Scriba, ac Registrarius 

Capituli hujus Ecclesise 

Et Barbara ejusdeni Uxor 

Postquam Annos in hac Vita 71 

Conjugio 47 Numerassent 

Divortium Ultra Quatriduura 

Haud sustinentes 

Ultimum hie Cubile 

Simul posuerunt. 

Ilia 24 In f K rkk /A. D. 

Ipse 29/ ^'^"^•^^•11680. 



60 

A little distance westward of the last, on a pkin stone, 
is tliis inscription : 

M. M. S. 
Abigail Uxoris Edvaidi Harfell Gen. 
& Johannis eoruadem Filii qui pia 
(Uti speramus) 
Occubuerunt 
Holocausta Deo. 
Obiit 
Hie J 2" Aug.^ x-Illa 22o Sept. 
Anno # V Dni 
16 W35. 
JEt \ f atis 
16 -'^47. 
Corripuit Febris natum minorem 
Abstnlit Hydrops 
Igne Prior Fatls 
Altera Cessit Aqna. 

A little farther northward of the last, on a black marble 
stone, are these arms, viz. two coats impaled ; the first is 
three lions rampant crowned ; the second in a chief in- 
dented, are three stags' heads cabossed, in the field three 
eagles' legs erased ; the crest is a lion rampant crowned ; 
with this inscription : 

Here lieth the Body of 

John Forde, Esq ; Son of Sir 

"William Forde, Kt. of Harting ia 

Sussex, who died the 2cl Day 

of December, in the Year of 

our Lord, 1G81. in the 76 

Year of bis Age. 

And near him, lies buried 

his Wife, and several of his 

Children. 

A little farther northward, on a black marble stone, is 
this coat of arms, viz. in the field are two stags' heads in 
a chief, cabossed with a mullet ; the crest a stag's head 
erased ; with the following inscription : 

In spe Resurrectionis 

ad vitam JEteruam 
H S E 

Georgius Popham 
De Barwicke Basset,. 



6l 

iu Comitatu Wilts, 
Generosus 
Qui obiit XXIV Die Januarij 
A /Domini MDCLXXXVII. 
^""'^liEtatis suffi XXVIII. 

A little farther westward, in the same middle aisle or 
body of the church, on a plain stone, is this iuscriptioa : 

Gulielmus Downes, Gent, 
postquam Vitara 
Relatis >. /- Indulgentem 
Amicus # V Gratum 
Pauperibus > < Liberam 
Sibi V # Sobriam 
Omnibus-' ^lunocuam. 
lustituisset ; 
(Ne dicam Peregisset) medeo 
Javentutis Curriculo anima 
Variolarum rabie 
Intempestive discussa 
Reliquas mortalitatis Suae 
Exuvias huic repositorio 
dicavit 
Obiit7o Aug. 1678. 
iEtatis 23. 

A little farther southward, iu the same aisle, on a 
plain stone, is this inscription : 

H J 

Myrth AVafferer, S. T. P. 

& Hujus Ecclesiae 

Praebendarius 

Obnt Anno ■< ^. . -j j-NoFemb. 5. 

In the same aisle, near the stone pulpll, on a grey 
stone, are these arms, viz. in the field three crosses patee 
fitched ; in the foot between two bendlets engrailed ; 
with this inscription : 

H S E 

Edward Traffics Gen. 
Huic Sanctae Ecclesiae 

(Dum vixit) Auditor 

Computorum & Dno. 
Archidiacono Winton. 
Regristrarius 

Qui Laboriosissitoo 



62 

Vitffi stadeo fidellter 
Emenso, raetam obtinuit 
& (uti spes est) Coronam 

40 Die Novembris. 

.„„^ rSalutis 1675. 
Anno i 37. , . „- 

l/fcitatis suae 63. 

Next to him lies buried his Wife 
Catherine. 

In the middle of the same aisle, a little below the stone 
pulpit, on a plain stone, is this inscription : 

Here resteth the Body 

Of Thomas Gumble, 

D. D. Chaplain to his 

Majesties Life Guard, 

and Prebend of this 

Cathedral, 

Who departed this 

Life September the 9th 

1676. 

Aged 50 Years. 

In the same aisle, a little farther westward, on a large 
black marble stone, is this inscription : 

Albiit non obiit, praeiit non periit. 

In meraoriam Dilectiss. Mariti sui 

Gulielmi Say Collegij Omnium 

Animarum in Academia Oxon. quondam 

Socij utriusq ; Juris Baccalaurci 

Hujus Ecclesise Canonici nee non 

Reverendorum in Christo patrum 

Johannis Watsoni & Thomas Cooperi 

Hujus Dioceseos Episcoporum Cancellarij, 

Integerrimi, posuit Conjux pia Margareta 

Hoc Amoris sui Monuraentum. 

Excessit e vivis, 10 Die Julij Ao Salutis 

Humanse 1613. iEtatis suae 71. 

Near the same place in the same aisle, a little towards 
the south west, on a plain black marble stone, is thia 
inscription : 

Here lyeth the Body of 

John Haslewood, Doctor 

Of Divinity, and Rector of St. 

Olaves Parish in Southwark, 

Who dyed in this City August 16th 

1708^ in the 61st year of his Age. 



63 

Near the east part of William of Wickham's monument, 
on a black marble stone, are these arms : in the tield two 
bendlets ; with the following inscription : 

H S E 

Henricus Bradshaw 

S TP 

Hujus Ecclesiae 

Praebendarius 

i-wu-i. A r Domini 16901 . ,„ ' 
• ObntAQno{^t^tj3 74 j Apr. 13. 

Near the west end of William of Wickham's monu- 
ment, in the same aisle, on a whitish stone, the arms thus, 
in the field three flower-de-luces in a fess, engrailed 
between three lions passant ; the crest is a flower-de-luce, 
with this inscription : 

Here lyeth the Body of Mr. 
William Smith, of this Citty, 

Who departed this Life 
The 14th of October, Ao Dni 

1671, being aged 63. . 

Near him lies buried, Anne his Wife. 

Betsveen William of Wickham's monument and the 
south wall of the south aisle of the church, on a plain 
black marble stone, is the following inscription : 

H S E 

Godson Penton, Wintoniae 

Civis Patricius Civitatisque 

Prsefectura Honorifice ter 

Functus Est 

Obiit August! XVo 

. JiEtatis, 64. 

'^°°*'\Salutis, 1700. 

Near the west end of William of Wickham's monu- 
ment, in the same south aisle, on a little square white 
marble stoue, is this inscription : 

Hie 

Sepultus est 

Guliclmus Harris 

S. T. P. 



64 

And on the pillar at the head of the said stone, is a 
mural monument erected of white marble, whereon is 
this inscription : 

M. S. 

Gulielmi Harris, S. T. P. Hujus Ecclesiae 

Prsebendarij, & Collegij Bte M^'ae Winton prope fuudati 

Scholaris, Socij, Archidasculi 

Viri inter Prima Gentis Wicchamica? 

Nomina memorandi, & Fundatori Optimo 

Cum Tumulo, tum pietate & Munificentia 

Conjunctissirai. 

Utpote Qui in hac Ecclesia Orientalem 

Chori partem (legatis in id unum Octingentis 

libris) Adornandum Curavit. Collegiis 

Wiccharaicis, saepius utriq j beuefactionem 

libras ultra Quingentas dedit, & Colerniae 

Suae Natalis in Agro Wilts pauperitus in perpetuum 

Sublevandis trecentas libras irapendit. 

Caetera quse Clam erogavit plurima 

Palam aliquando rependit Deus. 

Obllt 9"o Die Novembris Anno { ^"'at^i^^sL 52. 

Near the west end of the south aisle, on a black marble 
stone, are three arms, viz. in the field, three eagles' legs 
erased, and three stags' heads cabossed in a chief in- 
dented ; the crest is an eagle's head, holding in his mouth 
an eagle's leg erased j with this inscription : 

H. S. E. 

Nicholaus Stanley, M. D. 

Quid cum plures Annos summa 

Fide MediciniE praxi Operara 

Navasset morbo iueluctabili 

Oppressus fate succubit 12o 

Septembris Anno Dni. 1687. 

iEtatis 58. 

Vita'- integritate inter Homines 

Suae Professionis nulli secundus. 

Near him lies buried his Wife Cecilia. 

On the south side of the choir, near the Bishop's seat,, 
is this inscription, on a brass plate^ round a stone ; 



> 



65 

Wc I'afct Cljomag Cooptr oli'm Etncolnwnsisf, 

{^uprr 2;2aiutoutnTgi!S iEpi^toptis' fHuniftccntisi^imujf 

Soctt^^imug, Ttgtlanti£i^tmu5, pvcfiulq; c^ui 

i^tligiosiigsimc in Bomino obiit flpiiliiS 

29. ^n. Mom. 1594. 

On the middle of the marble are these verses : 

Cijf^aiu'uiS CJ^roniforttm, Coopcri rattra gcrtpta 
Sum remanent, fflebvi^ Coopcri fama manebit. 
©xonicn^i^ erat, ©locc^trcn^i^qut SfcamtiS 
Conttnmtg prima Vict Canccllariu^ mbii, 
Cum itincolnimsii^ fit pra^ul, tt intic mobetur 
©jaintoniam, "Dcno^ iiU ^ctJit 3£pigfopu5 anno^, 
^ummc "Doftug fvat, Summtquf bcnignu^ tgcni^, 
3Et gummo ^tutlio Uibina oracula panUit 
Ccrra tcgit forpusi, s'fU ^ptrituiS f£it ^upcr aiStva 
Ctele^te^ animae ctelc^ti pac« fruentur. 

A little lower, this : 

in obitmx S. Cijoma Cooprrt Macrae Cijcolosis 
^rofcsigorig Wi. ^. aix^^-'x^k 

And near the same place, lies buried Nicholas, son of 
the aforesaid Nicholas Stanley, under a black marble 
stone, with the same arms as the last, and this inscription : 

Nicholaus Stanley 

M. D. 

Obiit 50 Septembris, 

Anno Dora. 1710. 

& Suae iEtatis 52. 

Abi Lector, 

Hoc breve mihi suflficit Epitaphium 

& placet si legas, nee tui jam 

sis Immemor Sepulcbri 

Near the west door of the south aisle, on a black 
marble stone, are these anns, viz. in the field a lion 
rampant, between ten flower-de-luces ; the crest is a lien 
passant J with this inscription : 

H. S. E. 

Georgius Beaumont 
S. T. P. 
Hujus Ecclesiffi Prsebendarius 
Obiit Aug. 50 
Anno Dora, 1687. iEtatis suae 83. 



60 

Near the last, a little farther east^vard, on a black 

marble stone, the same arms and crest with the last, i» 

tins inscription : 

H S E 

Georgiiis Beaumont. A.M. 

CoUegij Bia; M"3e VVintou. 

Proj)e Wintou 

Socius 

Filius Natu Maxiraus 

Georgij Beaumont, S. T. P. 

juxta 6epulti 

rn'-i. 1 -r. rk- c h.u A f Domini 1688, 
Ubnt lao Die Sepoii=> Anuo-J t-. ,. .,^ 

* lu^Titatis suae o6. 

Near the west door of the same aisle, on a plain grey 
marble stone, is this inscription : 

Johannes Warner 

A. M. 

Hujus Eccl. Prsebendarius 

Et 

Uxor ejus Margarita. 

H. I. 

^^»^{lllalOmo}0^t°- 
A. D. 1704. 

In St. Mary's Chapel, at the east end of the church, is 
the following inscription, engraven on a large stone on the 
left side of the altar, erected in memory of the Rev. Dr. 
Laylield, who paved the altar-place with a sort of grey 
stone, brought from Sussex, called heath stone, very 
much resembling grey marble. 

. f Sal. Humanae, 1705. 
C^-Etatis suae 58. 

Carolus hunc posuit lapidem Layfieldus inanem 
Praesenti Exequias dura parat ipse sibi 

Si taraen hie nolit Deus illius ossa jacere 
Dura teneat vacuus Nomen inane Lapis. 

Opposite to this stone is another of the same form, 
left blank. 

Near the west end of the middle aisle, is (just laid) a 
plain black marble stone, with this inscription ; 

Siste, Viator, 
Et dura splendida miraris Sepulchra 
HuQiile hoc ne pratereas marmor j 



67 



Sub quo ponuntur Exuviae 
Thomao Fletcher, S. T. P. 
Quo vix alium Sublimiorem invenles. 
Hie cum foBCundissimam Indolem, 
Humanioribus exercitatam studiis, 
Divinarum rerum ditasset scientia 
Teiiera Gregis Wicchamici Ingenia 
In pietate, bonisque instituit Literis ; 
Et CTiin diserte fari, ('oelestia sapere docuit. 
Laudem quain in Juventute Instituenda meruit 
Ista, quas loqui fecit efferant LingufE, 
Quam fidelis S. Scripturarum Interpres, 
Quam foelix & potens earundem Praeco, 
lieec Silente Auditore, testentur Msenia. 

Riiras hasce Irigenii sui dotes 

Nee pra>sens, nee ventnra celabit dies : 

Eruditionis enim & Pietatis Insolentiarn 

Snavissimus adco temperavit Moribus, 

Ut maloriiin decliuavit Invidiam, 

Bonorum Benevolentiam attraxerit. 

Hunc omnibus ranneris absolutum^ 

lustructorem Scholares ; 

Amicum Propinqui ; 

Patrem Nati ; 

Marituni Uxor j 

Decus Collegium j 

Columen Ecclesia j 

Diu plorabunt. 

Natus AvintonifE Prope Winton. 
Ecclesiae Wellensis Prebendarius , ^ 
Scholae Winton. Didascalus. 
Obiit 




F 2 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE 



25i30f]j0p^, 5^cior^, HDcaitjSf, aiiti JDrclJentianej^ 



OF THE SEE OF ^V1^XHESTER. 



BISHOPS. 



Birlnus was made Bishop of this See about the year 
635, and died about the year 650. 

Agilbertus about the year 650 was made Bishop here, 
by King Kynewaldus. Upon the expulsion of this Bisliop, 
who was drove into France, his own country, where he 
was afterwards made Archbishop of Paris, 

Wina, a monk of this place succeeded in 662, or, accord- 
ing to CardmfU Beaufort's Register, in 650, and being 
drove hence, he became the first instance of a Simoniac, 
in England, by purchasing the Bishopric of Loudon 
from VVulphere King of the Mercians. 

Klutherius, after a vacancy of four vears, Mas consecrated 
Bishop of this See, byTheodorus, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, at the request of the late expelled Bishop Agilbert : 
he continued here about seven years, and died in 674. 

Headda, or Hedda, in (SI'S. He translated the body 
of St. Birinus, and the See, hither in 676, and died 
about 703. 

Daniel, succeeded in 704, sat 42 years, and by reason 
of his old age, finding his inability to govern, he resigned 
his Bishopric in 741, and became a Monk of Malms bury 
in Wiltshire, where he died in 745. 

Humfridus, succeeded in 744, and governed here eight 
years, and died anno 756. 

Kinebard, succeeded in 754, or 756, according to 
Cardinal Beaufort's Register. 

Athelard, Abbot of Malmsbury, translated to Canter- 
bury, anno, 790, or, according to Beaufort's Register, 
in 794. 

Egbaldus. 

Dudda. 

Kynebirthus, anno 799, went to Rome, with Athe- 
lardus, then Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Almund, was Bishop here in 803, he sitting iu that 
capacity in the council of Clives-Ho, 



G9 

Wigthenlus, sat in the council of Clives-Ho in 824, 
and died before 829, 

Herefiidus was killed in a Battle against the Danes, 
together with Sigelni Bishop of Sherburn, anno 833, 
tho' Beaufort's Register says, 834. 

Edmund, was Bishop here in 836, for a very short 
time, and died in 852. 

Helmstan succeeded, and was tutor to Ethelwolf, 
youngest Son of King Egbert. He was a Monk of 
Winchester, and recommended his royal pupil to St. 
Swithun, then Prior here ; from whom he received the 
habit of a monk, and was afterwards admitted into the 
order of Sub-deacons, by him. He died anno 837, 

Ethelwolf succeeded his tutor here, for about seven 
years, was a great benefactor to the Church and 
Monastery, and by the dispensation of Pope Leo, was 
taken hence to be crowned King of England, after the 
death of his father, whose place he tilled two and 
twenty years. 

Swithun succeeded in 852, and died in 862. He is 
said to have been Chancellor of England, and has many 
trifling miracles recorded as performed by him, from 
Matthew Westminster. 

Adferthus succeeded in 862, or (according to Beaufort's 
Register) in 863, and was translated to Canterbury. 

Dumbertus succeeded, and gave the Manor of Stushe- 
ling to the building of this Church, and died in 879. 

Denewulph, a swine-herd, who lived in the place where 
the celebrated Abbey of Athelney in Somersetshire after- 
wards stood. 1 he story runs, that he preserved for some 
time. King Alfred in a disguise, whom the victorious 
Danes had forced to great streights. In this concealment 
the Kmg is pretended to have been his tutor, and to have 
then fitted him for what he afterwards promoted him to, 
viz. this See, which he did after a great victory obtained 
over the Danes, and re-settlement in his throne, as a piece 
of gratitude to him for his late favours. The ridiculous- 
ness of this fable, will easily appear to any the least skilled 
in chronology. He governed this diocese twenty-four 
years, and at his death, was buried in his own Church. 

Athelmus succeeded in 880, and in anno 888 went to 
Rome, to carry a present from King Alfred. 

Bertulphus in 897, he is said to have been, with many 
more, constituted a guardian of the kingdom, by King 
Alfred, against the Danes. 



70 

Biitliestane was consecrated in 905, sat many years 
here, resigned anno 9'31, and died in 93'2. 

Brinstan was Bishop in 931, and died 934. 

Elphegus Calvus, a Monk of Glastonbury, to the great 
satisfaction of the clergy, king, and people, succeeded in 
934, and died in 951, (or according to Beaufort's register, 
946.) 

Kllinus, or Alfinus, succeeded in 946, afterwards, by 
bribes and simony, removed himself to Canterbury. 

Brithelmus succeeded in 958, and died anno 963. 

Ethelwald, consecrated on St. Andrew's Eve, 963, by 
St. Dunstan, then Archbishop of Canterbury ; under 
whose government he was then a monk of Glastonbury, 
from whence he became Abbot of Abingdon, and after 
nineteen years' government here, he died Aug. 1,984, and 
was buried here, on the north side of the high altar. 

Elphege, Abbot of Bath, consecrated November 984, 
and installed on St. Simon and Jude's day following, 
translated to Canterbury in 1006. 

Kenulphus, alias Elfius, in 1006, who dying, was 
buried in this Cathedral in 1008. 

Brithwold, alias Ethelwold, succeeded in 1008, who 
dying in 1013, was buried in this Cathedral. 

Alsimus, Chaplain to King Harrold, by whom he was 
advanced to this See in 1015, where he sat twenty-two 
years, and was translated to Canterbury. 

Alwyn, a monk of ^V^inchester, was consecrated in 1038, 
died, and was buried here, 1047. 

Stigand, Chaplain to Edward the Confessor, made 
Bisliop of Elmham, then removed to Norwich, where a 
powerful rival displaced him, from whom he shortly after 
recovered it again ; from thence he was translated hither 
in 1047, which be held with Canterbury in 1052. These 
two Sees were deemed incompatible to be held together, 
and the tenure of them judged illegal ; so that this Arch' 
bishop and Bishop being deprived in 1069, he died a 
prisoner in the castle belonging to this city, and was buried 
with one of his predecessors. Bishop Wina. 

Walkelin, Cliaplain and relation to William the Con- 
queror, a Norman by birth, (on the deprivation of Stigand) 
was nominated on Whitsunday 1070, and consecrated the 
Sunday following by Armenfrid, the Pope's Legate : he 
died Jan, 3, 1098; and was esteemed a man of very great 
learning. 



71 

William Glffard, nominated 1100, (the See being kept 
in the King's hands from lO.yS) but not consecrated upon 
accoimt of a quarrel between the King and Anselm, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, till 1 107. Here he sat twenty-one 
years, during which he built a house, formerly the seat of 
the Bishops of this See, in Southwark, near London, in 
Surry, which being now converted into streets of dwelling- 
houses, is a revenue appropriated to this See : he died 
Jan. 25, 1 128, and was buried in his own Cathedral. 

Henry de Blois, brother of King Stephen, first Abbot 
of Bermondsey, then of Glastonbury, and nominated to 
this Bishopric in October 1 129, and consecrated here by 
William, Archbishop of Canterbury, on Nov, 17, follow- 
ing. He was a firm friend to his brother, and, 1 141, made 
use of the Church's thunder against the Empress, the true 
heiress of the crown. The burning of the city, monastery, 
and twenty other churches, is laid to his charge, the spoils 
of which he is said to have put in his own pocket. The 
Hospital of St. Crosse, near this place, once destroyed by 
the Danes, was new founded and endowed by him in 1 132, 
(or, according to Rudborne's Hist, Maj. Wint. in 1136.) 
He built Farnham Castle in Surry, afterwaids destroyed 
by King Henry III : he died Aug. 6, 1171, and was 
buried in this Church, before the high altar. [Here is 
added in the Errata, — He was a very good man, and an 
extraordinary character is given of him in the Annales 
V\ int. and Godwin : the former speaks that he had a de- 
sign to make Winchester an Archbishopric, and convert 
Hyde Abbey into a Cathedral, and subject that and 
Chichester to it; he forsook his brother King Stephen, and 
was the means of mediating peace between him and the 
Empress. He was not buried at Winchester, but 'tis 
thought rather at Ivinghoe in Bucks, in which parish he 
founded a Nunnery. There is a statue in that church, 
which the inhabitants have a tradition is his; and, he 
having a palace there, might probably decease there.] 

Richard Toclyv, Archdeacon of Poictiers, (after three 
years' vacancy) was chosen Bishop here, 1 1 73 ; and, con- 
trary to all precedents, installed before his consecration, at 
Lambeth, anno 1 174, He died Dec. 22, 1 187, or rather, 
according to the inscription on his chest wherein his bones 
are, in 1 189- 

Godfrey de Lucy, son of Rich. Lucy, Chief Justice of 
England, consecrated Bishop here Nov. IIBQ, and. 



7^. 

dying anno 1204, he was interred in our Lady's-Chapel 
here. 

Peter de Rupibus, a knight, was consecrated Bishop of 
this See, at Rome, anno 1204; afterwards made Chief 
Justice of England by King John, and no less in repute 
was he during the minority of King Henry III. being 
Protector on the demise of William Earl Marshall : he 
died at Farnham, June 9, 1238. 

Will, de Raley, Bp. of Norwich, elected by the monks, 
anno 1238, contrary to the King's command, in favour of 
the Bishop elect of Valentia, which so much incensed him 
that after much trouble and confusion, the election was 
nulled at Rome ; and, when upon a new one, the monks 
renewed their former election, 13 Sept. 1243, there fol- 
lowed much disturbance, tho' at last he was confirmed by 
the King in April 1244, and installed Nov. 20, following, 
where he continued to his death in 1250. 

Ethelmarus, son of Hugh Earl of March, at the King's 
desire, elected Bishop here, but in nine years' time never 
consecrated : he afterwards, having by his large prefer- 
ments, amassed a great sum of money, left the nation, 
and dying at Paris, was there buried. 

John Gerncey, (on the modest refusal of Henry de 
AVingham, then Chancellor ol England, elected Bishop 
here in 1259) was consecrated at Rome in 1265, after- 
wards suspended by Ottobonus, the Pope's Legate, for 
siding with the Barons in their rebellion against King 
Henry III : he afterwards died at Viterbo, near Rome, 
20 Jan. 1268, 

Nicholas de Ely, Bishop of Worcester, translated hither 
the last day of April, and installed in June on the Whit- 
sunday following, 1268, and dying in 1280, his body was 
buried at Waverley, and his heart in this Church, 

John de Pointes, placed here by the arbitrary power of 
the Pope, being elected Juu. 9, 1282, and died Dec. 3, 
1304. 

Henry Woodlock, Prior of Winchester, elected by the 
monks Bishop, in the beginning of Febr. 1305, had the 
temporalities given him by the King, March 12, was con- 
secrated by the Archbishop in the Cathedral of Canter- 
bury May 30, and installed Oct. 10, 1305. He died at 
Farnham' 28 or 29 Jun. 1316. 

John de Sandale, admitted Canon of York, May 6, 
1314, Chancellor of England 1315, and iu August 1316, 



/J 



elected Bishop of this See, where he continued 'till his 
death at his seat in Southwaik, 2 Nov. 1319, and buried 
in the church of St. Mary Overy. 

Reginald de Asserio, Canon of the Church of Orleans, 
and the Pope's Legate, was, by his master's usurped au- 
thority, consecrated at St. Alban's, on the Archbishop's 
refusal, by the Bishops of London, Ely, and Rochester, 
Nov. 16, 1320: he died at Avignon April 20, 1323. 

John de Stratford, Archdeacon of Lincoln, and Canon 
of York, Mas consecrated for this See 26 Jun. 1323. On 
Jun. 1333, he was translated to Canterbury, and made 
Chancellor of England. 

Adam de Orleton, Bishop of Hereford, translated to 
Worcester in Nov. 1327, thence hither Dec. 1, 1333. 
He is remarbable for making those ambiguous verses 
which destroyed his prince King Edward II. and died 
blind July 18, 1345. 

William de Edyngdon, Treasurer of England, elected 
to this See April 10, 1345, was made Chancellor of Eng- 
land Feb. 19, 1357, elected Archbishop of Canterbury 
May 10, 1366, which he refused, saying, '* Tho' Canter- 
bury had the highest Rack, yet Winchester had the deep- 
est Manger." He was a great benefactor to this Church, 
and died Oct. 8, 1366. 

WiUiam Wykham, elected Bishop Jul. 12, 1367. 
Afterwards Chancellor of England, a noble benefactor to 
this Church, and founder of two Colleges, dedicated to 
St. Mary ; one near this place, and another at Oxford : 
he died Sept. 27, 1404. 

Henry Beaufort, natural-son of John Duke of Lan- 
caster, made Bishop of Lincoln in 1397, translated hither 
1405, made Cardinal of St. Eusebius by Pope Martin, 
Jun. 23, 1426. He was a person of great frugality, very 
rich, and no less charitable : he died April 11, 1447, 
and left legacies of plate and jewels to almost all our 
English Cathedrals, more particularly to that of Wells. 

William Waynfleet, bred at Winchester, chosen school- 
master of Eton School, afterwards made provost of that 
College by the Founder King Henry- VL consecrated 
July 30, 1447, to this See. He was a firm friend to his 
master King Hemy VL and suffered not a little for his 
loyalty from his master's rival Edward IV. He was 
founder of St. Mary Magdalen College, and the Hall 
adjoining, iq Oxford, which he endowed liberally, and 



74 

lived to see the line of Lancaster reviving in the person of 
King Henry VII. to his great satisfaction : he died Aug. 
t), 1486, and was buried in this Catlicdral. 

Peter Courtney, Bishop of Exeter, translated hither by 
the Pope's bull, dated 1487, Jan. CQ ; elected by the 
monks in the Febr. following, and died September 149'2. 
Thomas Langton, Bishop of Salisbury, (after a year's 
vacancy) translated hither 24 Jun. 1493. This worthy 
prelate erected a fair chapel on the south side of that 
dedicated to the blessed virgin ; in the middle of which his 
body, in 1504, was laid in a noble tomb. He was de- 
signed for the See of Canterbury, vacant by the death of 
John Morton, but his deadi put a stop to the translation. 
Richard Fox, D. 1). lirst, Bishop of Exeter, then of 
Bath and Wells, afterwards of Durham, and at last tran- 
slated hither ; a liberal benefactor to this Church, a great 
assistant to Henry the seventh's advancement to the crown, 
and a particular favorite of that wise king : he died here 
14 Sept. 1528, and was buried in a chapel erected for 
himself in this church. 

Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, held this See in 
commendam, as he did several other ecclesiastical and 
secular preferments. He was installed here by proxy, 1 1 
. April 1529, and died Nov. 29. 1530. 

Stephen Gardiner, L. L. D. (after a vacancy of four 
years) was consecrated to this See 1534, deprived by King 
Edward VI. Feb. 14, 1550, restored and made Lord 
Chancellor of England in Aug. 1553, and died Nov. 13, 
1555. 

John Poynet, D, D. succeeded upon the deprivation of 
Bishop Gardiner. He was Bishop of Rochester in 1549, 
and translated hither afterwards. On Queen Mary's 
accession to the throne, he left the nation, and lived and 
died an exile at Strasburg in Germany, April 11, 1556. 

John White, D. D. Master of Winchester School, 
then Warden of that College, elected Bishop of Lincoln, 
on the deprivation of Dr. John Tayler, and soon after, 
in May 1557, translated hither. At length he was 
deprived of his Bishopric by Queen Elizabeth, in Juiie 
1559, whence he retired to South-Warnborough in 
Hampshire, and dying Jan. 11. 1559, he was buried in 
this Cathedral. 

Robert Home, Dean of Durham, consecrated in 1561. 
He died Jun. 1, 1580; and left this Character behind 



75 

him ; given in a book intituled, the ancient rites and 
monuments of the Cathedral Church of Durham, Lond. 
1672. 8vo. pag. 122, wrote by one belonging to that 
Church, who (speaking of his demolishing several antieut 
monuments of that Church during the time of his Deanery) 
acquaints ns, " that he could never abide any antient 
monuments, acts, or deeds, that gave any light of, or to 
Godly Religion. " 

John Watson, made Bishop of this See much against 
his inclinations, and consecrated September 18, 1580: 
he was a liberal benefactor to several public places, and 
died January 23, 1583, and was buried opposite to his 
predecessor, in this Church. 

Thomas Cooper, D.D. Bishop of Lincoln, translated 
to Winchester in 1584 : he was the author of the book 
intituled * Thesaurus Linguae Romanae Britannicae,' folio, 
London, 1565, which was so much esteemed by Queen 
Elizabeth, that ever after she made it her business to 
advance the author as high in the church as she could : 
he died 29th. April, 1594, and was buried here. 

William Wickham, bred at Eton School, was succes- 
sively fellow of the colleges of King's in Cambridge, and 
Eton in Bucks, 1556, Pra^bend of Westminster, anno 
1570, Canon of Windsor, 1571, Dean of Lincoln, 1557, 
afterwards Bishop of the same See, from whence he was 
translated hither about the latter end of March, 1595, 
where he continued till his death at Winchester-House in 
Southwark, which happened on June the 12th. following, 
and was buried in St. Mary Ovei^'s church. 

AV^illiam Day, elected Provost of Eton College, June 
5, 156l, and installed Dean of Windsor, August 31, 
1572, advanced to this See in 1595, and died in 1596. 

Thomas Bilson, consecrated Bishop of Worcester, 
June 13, 1596, and translated hither in 1597, and made 
one of the Privy Council to King James I.: he died June 
18, l6l6, and was buried on the south side of West- 
minster-Abbey, near the monument of King Richard IL 
not far from the entrance into St. Edmund's Chapel. 

James Montague, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
translated hither in 16 1 7, and dying July 20, l6l8, he 
was buried on the north side of the body of the Church 
dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul at Bath, where, over 
his grave, between two pillars, is a high altar monument 
with his propoi tion lying on it. 



76 

Lancelot Andrews. D. D. BIsliop of Chichester, then 
of Ely, and at last translated hither 22 of February, I6I8, 
where he continued 'till death overtaking him in Win- 
chester-House in Southwark, 26 of September, I626 : 
he was buried in St. Saviour's near that place, and has a 
noble monument erected there to his memory. 

Richard Neile, successively Dean of Westmmster, 
Bishop of Rochester, I6O8 ; Litchfield and Coventry, 
1610 ; Lincoln, l6l3 ; Durham, l6l7 ; came hither in 
1628; and left this place for the Archbishopric of York, 
in 1631 ; where he died 31 of October, 1641, and 
was interred in Westminster Abbey. 

Walter Curie, D.D. became Chaplain to King James L 
Dean of Lichfield in June, 1621, Bishop of Rochester in 
1627, was translated thence to Bath and Wells in 1629, 
thence to Winchester in 1637. He was Lord Almoner to 
lung Charles I. and died about the year 1647, having 
been a great sufferer for his loyalty to King Charles the 
martyr. 

Brian Duppa, D.D. Bishop of Chichester, removed to 
Salisbury in l64], and hither September 24, I66O. He 
died March 26, 1662, and was buried in the arch of 
Westminster Abbey, on the north side of King Edward 
the Confessor's Chapel. 

George Morley, D.D, Dean of Christ-Church, in 
Oxford, consecrated Bishop of Worcester, October 28, 
1660, was translated hither, and confirmed May 14, 1662 : 
he died 29 Oct. 1684, and was interred in this church. 

Peter Mews, L. L. D. was born at Purscandle in Dor- 
setshire, March 2,5, I6IB, educated in Merchant-Taylors' 
School, London, thence elected scholar, and afterwards 
fellow of St. John- Baptist's College, Oxford; after which 
he was an officer in the army of King Charles I. during 
the whole rebellion, 'till the murder of that prince in l648, 
thence he went to Holland, and lived in exile in King 
Charles H's. service 'till the Restoration, and then returned 
to his college, by whose favor he became Rector of South 
Warnborough in Hants, afterwards of St. Mary's in Read- 
ing, Canon of Windsor, and Prebendary of St. David's, 
Archdeacon of Berks, and President of his College, Aug. 
5, 1667 : he was nominated Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, 
Sept. 1669, was some time Dean of Rochester, and on 
Feb. 2, ](J72-3, during the time of his Vice-Chancellor- 
ship, made Bishop of Bath and Wells ; upon which he 



77 

resigned his Presidentship in October 1663. In this 
diocese lie \vas much beloved by all the loyal gentlemen, 
much esteemed for his generous hospitality, and very 
much lamented when he was removed, though to their 
loss, yet to his own benefit, hither, November 22, 1684. 
In June following he did signal service against the rebel- 
lious Duke of Monmouth, then in arms in the west. To 
conclude, after having sat here 22 years, he died at Farn- 
ham Castle in Surry, November 9, in the 89th, year of his 
age, and was buried in his own cathedral. 

Sir Jonathan Trelawny, created D.D. by diploma, 
from the University of Oxford, consecrated Bishop of 
Bristol, November 8, l68o, removed to Exeter, and 
thence translated hither in 1 706. 

This Bishopric was formerly valued in the King's, 
books, at 388o£. 3s, 3d. now at 2793o£'. 4s. 2d. though, 
according to another account, it is said to be rated at 
249 lo£. 9s. 8d. and before the reformation, paid to the 
Pope, for the first-fruits, 12000 Ducats. This Diocese 
contained the Counties of Surry, and Southampton, and 
the Isle of Wight, to which Queen Elizabeth added the 
Isles of Jersey, Guernsey, Sark, and Aldeniey, once 
appendages of the Bishopric of Constance in Normandy. 
The Bishops of this See are Chancellors of the See of 
Canterbury, and Prelates of the most noble Order of 
the Garter; which last was vested in them, at its first 
institution, by King Edward, 

PFtlORS. 

Brithonus, Abbot of Ely, Prior here about 970. 

Elsicus, translated to York in 1023. 

Wulfsigius, died in t06o. 

Simon, brother of Bishop Walkelin, succeeded in 
1065, and afterwards by his brother's interest, was made 
Abbot of Ely, 1082. 

Godfrey, a monk of this place, born in Cambray, suc- 
ceeded in 1382: he was esteemed a good scholar, wrote 
a book of epistles, some satirical epigrams, and other 
pieces of poetry. In the Cotton library is a book of 
epigrams, wrote by him, under Vitellius's head, A. 12 : 
he died 1 107. 

Gaufridus, a monk here, succeeded anno 1107, and 
was deposed by Bishop William Giffard, an. 1111, 

Gaufridus II. put into the place of the last mentioned, 



78 

by Bishop Giffard, IIII. made Abbot of Bruton in 1114, 
and died August 2, ] 151. 

Eustachius, died in the year 1 120. 

Hugh, succeeded in 1120. 

Gaufridus II. died in 1 126. 

Robert, afterwards elected Abbot of Glastonbury in 1 1 71 

AV'alter, aftenvards lemoved to the Abbey of Westmin- 
ster, in the year 11/5 or 11/6. 

John, died 1187. 

Robert II. succeeded in 1187, afterwards elected Abbot 
of Bruton, and confirmed by the King there, Jan, 23, 1214. 

Roger, a Norman, in 1215. 

Walter II. died November 10, 1231;. 

Andrew, forced upon the monks by the King, in 1239, 
that he might influence the approaching election of a 
bishop, in favour of the Bishop of V alentia : he died in 1 243 . 

Walter III. placed here in 1243 ; he was excom- 
municated by Bishop Raley, resigned his office April 3. 

1247. 

John de Chauce, succeeded in 1247, made afterwards 
in 1249, Abbot of Peterborough. 

William de Tanton, put in the room of Chauce, anno 
1249; chose Abbot of Middleton, in the middle of the 
year 1256, and afterwards, by the monks here, elected 
Bishop of this See, 3 of Februarj^, 1261, but being 
rejected by the Pope, he let fall his plea. 

Andrew de Loudonia, put in here, against the incli- 
nations of the Convent m 1256, by Bishop Ethelmar, 
afterwards an expensive suit given against the monks, 
and another prior they had elected, by the Pope, who 
liad been corrupted by Ethelmar's Golden Arguments. 
Upon the banishment of Ethelmar, his patron, he resigned 
his office, 12 of July 1258, and was the same day 
re-elected by those monks who had formerly refused him, 
and unwillingly accepted of it, being again forced to 
resign, by Boniface, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1261. 

Ralph Russell, succeeded, and died July 8, 1265. 

Valentine, succeeded July 21, 1265, and resigned about 
the middle of the year 1267. Re-elected in July 1268, 
and resigned again 1276, afterwards restored once more, 
by Nicholas de Ely, then Bishop, August 1, and in the 
very same year, on December 3, deprived by the same 
Prelate. 

John de Durevillc; put in against the consent of the 



79 

Convent, by Bishop Ely, in 1 2/6, and died December 
3, 1278. 

Adam de Farnham, succeeded in 1279, who, durinw" 
the vacancy of this See, refiismg to submit to the visi- 
tation of John, Archbishop of Canterbury, was, for dis- 
obedience, excommunicated July 10, 1282, but was 
pardoned, upon his submission, August 31, 1282, and died 
in 1284. 

William de Basynge, succeeded, resigned 1284, and 
died April 3, 1288. 

William de B.isynge II. elected by the Convent, and 
confirmed August 25, 1284, by the Archbishop of Can- 
bury: he died in May 1295. 

Henry Wodelock, elected here January 6, 1295, and 
afterwards elected Bishop of this See, in 1305. 

Nicholas de Tarente, confirmed here by Bishop Wode- 
lock, July 29, 1305, and died in July 1309. 

Richard de Enford, confirmed by Bishop W^odelock, 
August 25, 1309. 

Alexander was Prior here in 1332 and 1346. 

Hugh de Basynge was Prior here in 1366 and 1382. 

Robert Roddeburne was Prior here 1385, and 1393. 

Thomas Nevyle m as Prior of this place at the Metro- 
political Visitation of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
October 17, 1404. 

Thomas Shyrebourne. 

William Aulton was Prior here 1444 and 1447. 

Richard Marlborough succeeded in 1447. 

Thomas Huuton. 

Henry Berle, 1457. 

Thomas Silkested, in this person's time, there beino- a 
vacancy in the Sees of Canterbury and Winchester, the 
convent of Canterbury, made a Visitation of this place, 2 
of February, 1501 ; at which time here were 35 monks, 
and a revenue of lOOOof. per annum belonging to them. 

Henry Brooke. 

William Kingesmyll was Prior here at the dissolution, 
and delivered up his trust November 15, 1539, to Kino- 
Henry VIII. who procured an act of parliament to 
dissolve all the religious houses in this nation : he after- 
wards, on March 28, in the thirty-second year of his 
reign, founded this Church, and instituted a Dean and 
Chapter, of twelve Prebendaries, and dedicated the same 
to the holy and undivided Trinity. 



80 

DEANS. 

William Kingesmyll, the last Prior, was made the first 
Dean on the new foundation. 

Sir John Mason, Knt. made Dean, and installed Oct. 
9, 1549. He being a Lay-man, and yet eating the bread 
of Clergymen, was very justly termed by our learned 
antiquary, a great intruder into ecclesiastical livings : he 
resigned in 1553. 

Edmund Steward, L.L.D. installed March 22, 1553, 
and continued here to 1559. 

John Warmer, M.D. Prebend of Ulfcomb, in the 
church of Sarum, and in this church too ; made Dean 
here, October 15, 1559, and died March 21, 1564. 

Francis Newton, S. T. P. admitted March 21, 1565, 
and died 1572. 

John Watson, M.D. admitted Feb. 14, 1572, and after- 
wards made Bishop of this See, in 1580. 

Lawrence Humphrey, D.D. admitted October 24, 
1580. 

Martin Heton, S. T. P. Vice-Chancellor of the 
University of Oxford, nominated to this Deanery, and 
installed March 20, 1588, afterwards being removed to 
the See of Ely, (which had lain void for above 20 years, 
and its Revenues applied to secular uses) he was conse- 
crated February 3, 1599, where he died July 14, 1609. 

George Abbot, S. T. P. admitted March 6. 1599, 
consecrated Bishop of Litchfield and Coventry, Dec. 3, 
1609, translated to London, at the latter end of January 
followhig, in 1610, thence translated to Canterbury. 

Thomas Morton, S. T. P. admitted January 3, 1609, 
afterwards translated to Litchtield and Coventry, 1618, 
and thence to Durham, July 12, 1632. 

John Young, S. T. P. installed July 8. 1616. 
Alexander Hyde, L.L.D. Sub- Dean of Salisbury, in 
May 1637. Upon the restoration of King Charles I[. by 
the interest of Sir Edward Hyde, then Lord Chancellor 
of England, he was not only made Dean of this church, 
and installed August 8, 1660, but consecrated to the See 
of Salisbury Dec. 31, 1665, where he died, and was buried 
in 1667. 

William Clark, S. T. P. succeeded in 1665, and was 
installed February 1 : he was also Canon of Windsor, and 
Rector of St. Olave's, Soulhwark. 



SI 

Richard Meggott, D.D. Canon of Windsor, Rector of 
St. Olave's, Southwark, and Vicar of Twickenham in 
Middlesex, was installed here October 9, 1679, on the 
death of Dr. Clark. 

John Wickart, D.D. the present Dean, installed here 
Jan. 14, 1692, on the death of Dr. Meggott: he is also 
Canon of Windsor. 

PREBENDARIES 

Of the Cathedral, v:ho take place according to the times of 
their installatioti in this Church, have been as follows: 

Edmund Steward, L.L.D. about the year 1541, after- 
wards Dean here. 

John Crayford, S.T.P. Arch-deacon of Berks, about 
the vear 1541. 

John Dean, S.T.P. 

John Draper, Clerk. 

Henry Milles, Clerk. 

Thomas Runcorne, M.D. made ona of the first Pre- 
bendaries by King Heniy VIII. 

V^'^illiam Medowe, Presbyter. 

Richard Ryder, Presbyter. 

Peter Langrick, M.A. made one of the first Pre- 
bendaries. 

Thomas White, L.L.D. Arch-deacon of Berks and 
Chancellor of Salisbury, about 1541. 

Anthony Barker, Presbyter. 

John White. 

The before mentioned twelve, I take to be those who 
were at first put in upon the new foundation, by the King, 
and were succeeded by the persons following, upon their 
promotions or deaths, 

Cuthbert Oxley, L.L.B. installed June 17, 37 Henry 
VIII. ^ 

Richard Vernon, clerk, installed October 9, 1547. 

John Warner, M.D. installed March 15, 1549, and 
afterwards made Dean here. 

Leonard Bdson, M.A. installed July 7, 1551 
John Rudd, S.T.B. installed September 7, 1551. 

John Watson, M. A. Arch-deacon of Surry, and 
Chancellor of St. Paul's made Prebendary here after- 
wards, December 14, 1551, successively Dean and Bishop 
of this See, 

6 



&2 

John Seyton,S.T.P. March 19, 1553. 
Stephen Cheston, Iv.L.D. Aicl-.-citucon of Winchester, 
mstalled April II, 1 jo4, died in 1j7I. 

Richard iulon, S.T.13. installed June 21, lao4. 
Richard Martiall, S. l\P. Dean of Christ Church, in 
Oxford, installe'l liere Julv '2, 1554. 

Thomas White, L.L.D. Arch-deacon of Berks, Chan- 
cellor of Sarum, and ni-italled Jidy 21, 1554, Prebendary, 
Thomas Hardyng, S, r.P. installed July 25, 1554. 
Edmund Marvm, M.A. Arch-deacon of Surry, ejected 
fey Queen Elizabeth, and ni-italled here Sept, 20, 1554. 
Thomas Hyde, M.A. installed June 23, 1556, 
John Watson, M.xV. installed August 2(), 1559. 
Thomas Eanglie, S. P. B. installed Oct, 15, 1559. 
William Overton, S.T.B. installed Dec. 20, 1559- 
Walter W^right, L.L.D. Arch-deacon of Oxford, 
installed January II, 1559. 

Edward Haydon, M.A. Rector of Crawley, near 
Winchester, installed in the year 1559, the Register 
mentions not the month or day. 

Michael Renniger, installed August 3, 1560 
Thomas Odyl, xVLA. installed June 8, 1561. 
Thomas Stemp, L.L.D. 

James Turbervyle, S.T.P. elected hence, and conse- 
crated to the see of Exeter, September 8, 1555, was 
deprived by Queen Elizabeth, in 1559. 

Robert Hill, Clerk. The installations of the three last 
mentioned, are not entered into the register. 

Robert Reynolds, L.L.D. installed November 25, 
1558. 

Robert Ryve, L.L.B. installed September 7, 1559. 
John Ebden, S.T.P. Arch-deacon of Winchester, 
installed December 7, 1562 

David Padye, M.A. no date specified in the register. 
John Bridges, S.T.P. August 19, 1565. 
"William Cole, S.T.P. installed May 31, 1572. 
John Sprint, S.T.P. Arch-deacon of Wiltshire, and 
Dean of Bristol, installed March 4, 1572, in the room of 
Dr. John Watson, promoted to this see. 

John Chaundler, S.T.P. installed Sept. 3, 1574, upon 
the resignation of Dr, White. 

., Thomas Bilson, S.T.P. installed Jan. 12, 1576, after- 
wards Bishop of this see. 

Henry Cotton, D,D. installed April 12, 1577, on the 



> 



as 

de^hof Mr. Padye, afterwards on Nov. 12, 1598^, con- 
secrated Bishop of Salisbury. 

John Constantine, M.A. installed February 12, 1579, 
on the resionation of Mr. William Cole. 

Michael Renniger, S.T.P. installed April 9, 1581, on 
the death of Mr. Edward Haydon, Rector of Crawley, 
and Arch-deacon of Winchester. 

Abraham Browne, S.T.B. installed April 10, 1581, 
on the death of jMr. Thomas Stemp. 

AVilliam Barlow, B.A. installed April 11, 1581, on the 
resignation of Mr. Michael Renniger, Arch-deacon of 
Salisbury. 

William Harward, M.A. installed December 3], 1581, 
on the death of Mr. Thomas Langlie. 

Christopher Perrin, M.A. installed October 4, 1583, 
on the resignation of M r. J ohn Sprint. 

William Say, L.L.B. installed October 29, 1583, on 
the death of Mr. John Constantine. 

John Harmer, L.L.B. Warden of Winchester College, 
installed January 10, 1594, on the death of Mr. John 
Chaundler. 

Robert Bennet, S.T.P, installed here August 1 5, 1595, 
on the death of Dr. Robert Reynolds; was, after many 
great preferments, made Bishop of Hereford. 

Theodore Price, S.T.P. installed Sept. 9, 1596, on the 
promotion of Dr. Bilson to the see of Worcester. He 
M as master of the hospital of St. Crosse, and sub-dean of 
W^estminster. 

George Ryyes, S.T.P. installed November 17, 1598, 
on the promotion of Dr. Henry Cotton to the Bishopric 
of Salisbury. 

Robert ivercher, S.T.B. installed February 27, 1602, 
on the promotion of Dr. Robert Bennet to the see of 
Hereford. 

Ralph Barlow, S.T.P. installed Jan. 12, l6lO. on the 
resignation of Dr. John Bridges, Bishop of Oxford. He 
was Arch-deacon of Winchester, and made Dean of Wells 
in September 16'21. 

Nicholas Love, D.D. installed Oct. 15, l6lO, on the 
death of Mr. Christopher Penn. He was Warden of 
Winchester College. 

Robert Moore, S.T.P. installed June 4, l6l3, on the 
death of Dr. George Ryves, and died Feb. 20, 1639. 

Francis Alexander, L.L.D. installed Oct. 14, l6l3, 
on the death of Dr. John Harmer. 

g2 



86 

George Beaumont, D.D. rector of Alresford, installed 
Sept, C9, 1666, on the death of Dr. Richard Hyde. 

Thomas Kenn, D.D. installed April 20. I669, on the 
death of Dr. Gulston, afterwards Bishop of Bath and 
Wells. 

Thomas Sutton, D.D. rector of Wolverton, installed 
Jan, \5, 1672, on the death of Mr. Hugh Haswell. 

Seth Ward, M.A. Sept. 15, I676, on the death of Dr. 
Thomas Gumble, also arch-deacon of Wiltshire, chancellor 
of Sarum, and rector of Brightwell, Berkshire, installed 
here, and resigned in I68I. 

I. Abraham Markland S.T.P. now master of the 
hosj)ital of St. Crosse, rector of Meon-Stoke, installed here 
July 4, 1679, on the death of Dr. William Burt. 

Samuel Woodford, D.D. rector of Hartly Maurdit, 
installed November 8, I68O, on the death of Dr. Myrth 
Wafferer. 

William Harrison, D.D. rector of Ch^rrington, master 
of the hospital of St. Crosse, installed prebendary here 
Kovember 3, I68I, on the resignation of Mr Ward. 

John Nicholas, D.D. warden of Winchester College, 
installed prebendary here April 2, l684, on the death of 
Dr. Day re 11. 

Francis Morley D.D. installed prebendary here, April 
5, 1684, (on the resignation of Dr. George Beaumont^ 
by his Uncle, Bishop Morley. He was also rector of 
Bishop's- W^iltham. 

Samuel Palmer, !M.A. on the death of Dr. Sharrock, 
was installed July 14, 1684, and was rector of Crawley. 

Gyles Thornburgh, M.A. rector of Cranley, in Surry, 
installed March 6, 1684, on the promotion of Dr. Kenn 
to the see of Bath and Wells. 

II. Charles Laytield, S.T.P. rector of Chilbolton, 
installed Dec. 23, l687, on the death of Dr. Thornburgh. 

Samuel Mews, B.D. canon of Wells, installed October 
5, 1689, on the death of Dr. Paine. 

Edward Waple, B.D. mstalled prebendary here, April 
29, 1690, on the death of Dr. Bradshaw. He was also 
installed prebendary of Kilverton Prima, viz. the golden 
prebend or the church of Wells, m May 1680. Installed 
arch-deacon of Taunton, April 22, 1682, and on the death 
of Dr. Bell, July 26, 1683, he was made vicar of St. 
Sepulchie's, London, where he continued to his death, on 
June 8, 1712, from whence being brought from London, 



87 

he was on the 11th. of the same month interred in a neat 
brick grave in the outer chapel of St. Jolm's College, in 
Oxford, over which against the west wall, is erected a fair 
marble tablet, by his executor, Mr. Robert Waple, with a 
peculiarly modest and humble inscription on it, composed 
by himself, as appears by his last will* in the Prerogative 
Court of Canterbuiy, in which are mentioned several 
benefactions, which deserve not to be passed over in 
obscurity, viz. a legacy of o£'700. to this college, the place 
of his education and patrons of his living, beside a gift of 
c£500. in his life-time. He also gave to the beautifying 
of St. Sepulchre's Church „£'200. and an excellent and 
most judicious, as well as numerous collection of books, 
to the library belonging to Siou-College, for the use of the 
clergy of London. 

Baptista Levinz, D.D, canon of Wells, installed here, 
August 5, 1691, on the death of Dr. Hawkins. H^e was 
afterwards made Bisop of the Isle of Man. 

George Fulham, D.D. arch-deacon of Winchester, 
rector of St. Mary's, near Southampton, installed here 
February 5, 1692, on the death of Bishop Levinz. 

John Warner, M.A. rector of , in Co- Bucks, was 

installed here August \S, 1694, on the "eath of Dr. 
William Harrison. 

William Harris, D.D. installed here, January 8, 1695, 
on the resignation of Dr. Beeston. He was school- 
master of Winchester-College, and a generous benefactor 
to this church, to which he gave ^'800. to the beautifying 
the high altar. 

in. William Louth, S.T,B. rector of Buriton, Hants, 
installed October 8, I696, on the death of Dr. Morley. 

Welbore Ellis, D.D. installed November 7, I696, on 

the death of Dr. Sutton, now Bishop of Kildare in Ireland. 

Thomas Sayer, D.D. rector of Wonston, installed 

November 13, 1700, on the death of Dr. William Harris. 



* Hie jacet Edvardus Waple, 
Hujus CoUeffii quondam Socius, 
Chribti Minister indignissimus, 
Suo merito Ptccatorum niaximus, 
Dei gratia Pcenitentium minimus, 
Inveniat JVIisericordiam in illo die, 
Stet Lector Poeuiteutialis haec Tabella, 
Obiit octavo die Mensis Junii, 
Anno Dora. MDCXII. 

Aimoque /Etatis suse Sexagcsimo primo, 



IV Robert Eyre, S.T.P. rector of Avington and 
Martyr Worthy, installed January 15, 1700, on the 
death of Dr. Woodford. 

V, William Delaune, S.T.P. lately for four years 
together successively vice-chancellor of the University of 
Oxford, installed here March 4, 1701, on the death of 
Mr. Samuel Palmer. He is at present president of St. 
John Baptist's College in Oxford, and rector of Long- 
Hanhorough, in Oxtordshiie. 

VI. Ihomas Rivers, L.L.D. fellow of All-Souls 
College, in Oxford, installed Dec. 8, 1702, on the death 
of Dr. Fulham. 

Alexander Forbes, D.D. rector of Compton, near 
Guilford in Surry, and Havant in Hampshire, installed 
October 7, 1704, on the death of Mr. Warner, and was 
unfortunately drowned in the river near Guilford, in the 
time of a great tiood in 1712. 

VII. Charles Woodroff, L.L.D. rector of Upham, 
installed June 12, 1706, on the death of Mr. Samuel 
Palmer. 

VIII. Richard West, S.T.P. piesented by the crown on 
the promotion of Dr. Ellis to the see of Kildare, Ireland, 

IX. Mainwairing Hamond, S.T.P. rector of Duck- 
lington in Oxfordshire, installed here J une 12, 1713, on 
the death of Dr. Sayer. 

X. Thomas Sprat, A.M. installed here November 18, 
1712, on the death of Dr. Nicholas. He is arch-deacon 
of Rochester, and prebendary of Westminster. 

XI. Thomas Newy, S.'I.P. chanter of the cathe- 
dral of Exeter, rector of Wonston in Hampshire, installed 
here June 23, 1712, on the death of Mr. Waple. 

XI I. John Cook, M.A, rector of the Sine-Cure of 
Overton in Hampshne, installed November 17, 1712, on 
the decease of Dr. Forbes. 

The Names of CHANCELLORS or VICARS- 
GENERAL oj this ISee, mentioned in the Church 

Registers. 

John Dowman, L.L.D. anno 1501. 
Nicholas Harpsheld, L.L.D. 1533. 
Edmund Steward, L.L.D. 1537. 
Robert Reynolds, L.L.D. 1556, 
John Kingsmill, M.A. 1576. 
William Say, L.L.B. 1580» 



m 

Sir Robert Ridley, Knt. L.L.D. admitted September 

7, 1596. 

Sir Robert Mason, Knt. L.L.D. admitted April 30, 

1628. 

Sir Moundeford Bramston, Knt. L.L.D. admitted 

July 15, 1662. 

Sir Charles Morley, Knt. L.L.B. admitted October 

15, 1679. 

Sir Peter Mews, Knt. L.L.B. admitted August 20, 

1698, the present chancellor. 

ARCR'BEACONS of Winchester. 

Vincent Clement, died in 1474. 

John Morton, afterwards arch-bishop of Canterbury, 
succeeded in 1474. 

Robert Frost resigned in 1502 

John Frost succeeded and resigned in 1511 

Hugh Asheton succeeded and resigned in 1519. 

John Fox, L.L.B, succeeded and resigned in 1526. 

Richard Pates, A.M. succeeded in 1526, and resigned 

in 1528 

William Bolen succeeded in 1528. 

John Philpot, temp. Edward VI, and was burned for 
religion, December 18, 1555, 

Stephen Cheston, L.L.B. succeeded and died in 1571. 

Dr. John Ebden resigned in 1575. 

Michael Renniger, D.D. succeeded in 1575, and died 
August 26, 1609. 

Ralph Barlow, S.T.B. installed October 3, I609. 

Edward Burbey, D.D. installed Sept. 24, 1631. 

George Roberts, D.D. installed August 9, \660, on 
the death of Dr. Burbey, and died March 1 7, 1661. 

Dr. Thomas Gorges, installed March l*;, l661,on the 
death of Dr. George Roberts. 

Walter Day rell, D.D. installed May 3, 1666, by the 
resignation of Dr. Ihomas Gorges, and died March 29, 
1684. 

Robert Sharrock, L.L.D. installed April 2l, 1684, on 
the death of Dr. Dayrell. 

Thomas Clutterbuck, D.D. installed July — , 1684, on 
the death of Dr. Sharrock. 

George Fulham, D.D, installed Nov. l7, 1700, on the 
death of Dr. Clutteibuck. 

Ralph Bridecake, M.A. Dec. 1, 1702, on the death 



90 

of Dr. Fulham. He is the present arch-deacon, and 
rector of St. Mark's, near Southampton. 

ARCH-DEACONS of Surry. 

William Smyth, arch-deacon of Surry, installed about 
1460, afterwards made Bishop of Litchfield and Coventry, 
from thence translated to the see of Lincoln in 1495. He 
was alsochief founder of Brasen- Nose College in Oxford. 

John Stokeslie, chaplain to Ric. Fox, Bishop of 
Winchester, was by him made arch-deacon of Surry. 

John Watson, was arch-deacon of Suny, about the 
time of Queen Elizabeth's accession to the crown. 

John Fox was about 1523, arch-deacon of Surry. 

James Cottington, D.D. died at the latter end of the 
year l605. 

Arthur Lake, D.D. installed October IQ, l605. 

George Hakewill, D.D. installed February 7, l6l6. 

John Pearson, D.D. installed September 26, l660, 
afterwards made Bishop of Chester. 

Richard Oliver, B.D. admitted July 30, l686, on the 
death of Bishop Pearson. 

Thomas Sayer, D.V). admitted Sept. 28, l689, on the 
death of Mr. Oliver. 

Edmund Gibson, S.T.P. rector of Lambeth in Surry, 
installed June 9> 1740, on the Archbishop ofCanterbui-y's 
option upon the death of Dr. Sayer, and is the present 
arch-deacon. 



At the foundation of this Cathedral Church by King 
Henry VIIL anno regni sui S'2P- there was given to the 
Dean and Chapter, and their successors, for ever, a 
schochen [escutcheon] with signs and tokens in manner and 
form following, that is to say, a minster or church silver 
masoned table. In the gate of the church the holy image 
of the blessed Trinity, gold and silver, crowned imperial 
with a diadem gokl of the most high and mighty prince the 
king their founder, a canton partie per pale gules and silver 
with a rose, with the sun beams celestial counter-changed 
of the field, the seed pomely gold, with these words of 
poesy : 



91 
ADDENDA. 

ARCU-BEACOlSiS of Winchester, from 1231 to \459. 

Rogenis Archidiaconus Winton. ob. 1231, 

Bartholomeus Archidiac. Wiut, Temp. Hen. III. circ. 
1240. 

Hugo de Rupibus Archidiac. Wint. ob. A.D. 1253. 

Richardus de la Moore Archidiac. Wint, A.D. 1280. 
Robertas Wikeford, L.L.D. Archidiac. Wint. temp, 
Ed. HI. postea archiepiscopus Dublin, Hibern. 1375. 

Rogerus de Walden resignavit A.D. 1395, postea Epus 
Lond, et Arpus Cant. 

Willielmus Danyell accolitus, Archidiac.Wint. February 
1395. 

Johannes Pakenham, L.L.B. Archidiac. Wint, Resig. 
3439. 

ARCH-DEACONS of Surry. 

R arch-deacon in the reign of Hen. II. or Rich. I. 

Walter Bronescombe arch-deacon, A.D. 1257. 
afterwards Bishop of Exeter. 

Lucas, arch-deacon about the year 1260. 

Mr. Peter de Sancto Mario, ob. ante A.D. 1297. 

Philip de Barton about the year 1300. ob. circ. 1320. 

Oliver Dynham, brother to the last Lord Dynham, 
arch-deacon in King Henry VI I. 's time, died May 1500. 

Christopher Baynbrigge, arch-deacon January 25, 1500, 
afterwards Bishop of Durham and Archbishop of York. 

Edmund Marvyn, M.A. arch-deacon of Suny, was in 
Queen Mary's time, an. 1554, Sept. 20, installed a so 
prebendary of Winchester, but was ejected on Queen 
Elizabeth's accession to the crown. 



€8e l^i^torp of J^pbc %hUp. 

Next to the Cathedral Church of Whichester, the 
Abbey of Hyde deserves an especial remembrance, on 
account of its being originally founded within the precincts 
of the cathedral cemitery, where it continued for 200 
years, till it was from thence transplanted to Hyde. 

The tirst denomination this monastery had, was 
Newminster, to distinguish it from the cathedral called in 
those days Oldminster after the building of this ; which 
name it lost on its removal, which was occasioned by 
the differences the too near neighbourhood these great 
churches bred. 

This foundation was begun by King Edward the elder, 
in pursuance of his father King Alfred's will, in which at 
the finishing and consecration of the same, anno 903, he 
placed secular canons, designing to appoint S. Giimbald 
to preside over them, but his death prevented it. These, 
after 60 years continuance, were turned out to give place 
to monks, anno 9^4, by Athehvold, Bishop of Winchester, 
and the college changed into a monastery; the abbots of 
which stiled of Newminsler, before the translation of it to 
Hyde, as before obsei-ved, (which was done by King 
Henry I. and William Giffard, Bishop of Winchester) 
had large privileges, as being honoured with a mitre, and 
having place in parliament as peers of the realm, &c. 
Neither were their revenues less considerable, for a little 
before the dissolution, anno 26. Hen. VHI. the lands of 
tliis monastery were rated at =£865. 18s, per annum. 
• — But besides the founder, King Athelsan, King 
Edmund, King Edred, King Edgar, King Edmund 
Ironside, King Edward the Confessor, King William the 
Conqueror, and particularly KingHemy I. and Q. Maud, 
(as appears by the charters in the Monasticon) were great 
benefactors. However, this house was not without its 
misfortunes; for William the Conqueror at his coming, 
finding the abbot and twelve of his monks in arms against 
him, seized upon their estate, and held it above two years; 
and in the reign of King Stephen, Henry de Blois his 
brother, then Bishop of Winchester, was so oppressive, 
that he got from the monks almost all their church plate, 
and dispersed them so, that of 40 monks there remained 
but ten. 



In this abbey were buried, before the removal of it to 
Ityde, King Edward, and his son Prince Alfred, and S. 
Eadburga, daughter of King Edward the founder, and 
Alfred son of King Edulf, whose remains were, no doubt, 
translated to Hyde. But of all these and divers other 
memorable persons interred there, viz, at Hyde, are not 
the least remains ; and of the grandeur of this magnificent 
abbey, is nothing left but the name, the very ruins being 
as it were perished, and not so much as the walls standing 
of this goodly church, which stood just without the City- 
Gate, and was dedicated to the Holy Trinity, S. Peter, and 
S. Grimbald. 

Touching the names of those who have been abbots 
hereof, I shall in like manner as done before of the 
Bishops, &c. of Winchester, subjoin a catalogue, which 
because they sat at Newminster, before at Hyde, I shall 
divide the series into two parts, viz, of Newminster and 
Hyde. 

Abbots of Newmi7ister, 

1. Athelgarus, anno 964, was made by Bishop Athel- 
vvold, the first abbot ; he was promoted to the bishopric 
of Selsey, anno 980, and 8 years after removed to the 
arch-bishopric of Canterbury, but 2 years before his 
translation to Selsey. 

2. Alsinus, anno 978, became abbot ; he sat till the 
year 99-5, when 

3. Brightwoldus was instituted, which he held till 
loos, in which year 

4. Brithmerus occurs ; after whom 

5. Alnothus, anno l02i, to whom succeeded 

6. Alwynus, anno 1035, and 

7. Alfnotus, anno 1057 ; upon whose death or 
resignation 

8. Alwynus, anno l0G3, called in the Monasticon : — ■ 
Godwin, uncle to Harold, after\vards King of England, 
was preferred to the abbey. This person, anno 1066, 
appearing in behalf of his nephew King Harold in arms 
against the Norman invasion, with twelve of his monks 
was slain in the field of battle, which so enraged the 
Conqueror, that he for some time held this abbey in his 
hands, but at length restoring it, 

9. Wlfric or Wlvric, anno 1069, was constituted 
abbot who being deposed, anno 107l, 



94 

10. Rualdus called in the An. Wint. Revelanus, anna 
1071, succeeded; he occurs abbot, anno 1071, after 
whom I find 

1 1 . Radulphus said to be abbot, upon whose death, 
which happened anno 1087, as the Annales Wint. inform 
us, King William Kufus committed this abbey to Ralph 
Passefiabere his chaplain for some time ; but not long after, 
viz. anno lOQl, this abbey was bought of the King by 
Herbert, first Bishop of Norwich, for his father. 

12. Robert de Losinga, which occasioned this verse, 

Filius est PrcBsul, Pater Ahhas, Simon uterque ; 

alluding to the simony, how long he held it I find not, or 
whether on his death, which is likely, but Passeflabere, 
to whom the King committed all vacant preferments for 
his use, obtained the custody of it a second time ; and 
held it anno 1100, when, upon the accession of Henry I. 
to the crown, this Ralph Passeflabere, for several illegal 
practices, was thrown into prison ; and 

13. Hugh, monk of this place, was appointed abbot, 
after whom, anno J 206, 

14. Galfridus occurs abbot in whose time, anno 
1121, this abbey was as aforesaid, removed to Hyde, aud 
the abbots from henceforth entituled, 

Abbots of Hyde. 

15. The first of which, after the death of Galfridus, 
was Osbertus, anno 1124, who succeeded three years 
after the removal, took care of compleating what his 
predecessor had begun. He died anno 1135, the first of 
King Stephen. After his death, this monastery was 
much oppressed by Henry de Blois, Bishop of Winchester, 
as aforesaid, who appointed, says the Monasticon, 

16. Hugh Schorcheoyleyn abbot hereof. This Hugh, 
called in the annals of VVinton, Hugh de Lens, was much 
accused and appealed against, as was the Bishop who 
endeavoured to pervert the state of the abbey ; and about 
the year 1 143, tried to prevail with the Pope to make his 
see an arch-bishopric, and this abbey a bishopric, and 
subject that and Chichester to it. These controversies 
against the bishop and abbot, ended in deposing abbot 
Hugh, anno 1 149. after whom 

17- Salidus was abbot ; after ^Yhose death, which is 
said to happen 1171, 



95 

18. Thomas, Prior of Montacute, was elected abbot, 
though I have not seen that he was consecrated so before 
the year 1174 ; he resigned anno 1180, and 

19. John, Prior of Cluny, succeeded, who dyin^ anno 
1222, ° 

20. Walter de Astone was made abbot ; he died anno 
1249, and 

21. Roger de S. Waleric the same year was elected 
abbot; upon whose death, anno 1263, 

22. William de Wigornia succeeded: he died anno 
1282, and 

23. Robert de Popham became abbot, as did 

24. Simon de Caninges, anno 1292: upon whose 
death, anno 1304, 

25. GefFry de Ferynges succeeded ; and on his surren- 
der or resignation, anno 1317, 

26. William de Odiham was elected abbot ; but he 
held It not long, for anno 1319, 

27. Walter de Fifhyde succeeded him ; how long he 
held It I have not seen, but 

28. Thomas Peithy, anno 1362, occurs abbot, on 
whose death or surrender, 

29. John Eynesham, about the year 1381, was made 
abbot; he died anno 1394, and 

30. John Letcombe or Lattecombe, succeeded, after 
whom 

3 1 . John London, anno 1407 occurs abbot, who dvino- 
anno 1413, ^ ° 

32. Nicholas Strode was elected abbot next, after 
whom I lind 

33. Thomas Bromele, anno 1440, to occur abbot, 
which he held till about the year 1460, when 

34. Henry Bonvile occurs abbot, who was succeeded by 

35. Thomas Wyrscetur, anno 1471, on the first of 
December; when he died I find not, but anno 1480, he 
occurs abbot, and so probably did till the year 148 j, when 

36. Thomas Forte was elected abbot, which he held 
not long ; for anno 1 489, 

37. Richard Hall was elected abbot; he occurs abbot 
anno loOO, and probably continued so for near 40 years ; 
for after him I find no other abbot before the year 1528 • 
about which time, ' 

38. John Salcot, alias Capon, D.D. of Cambrid^^e, 
was translated from the abbey of Holme in Norfolk, °to 



96 

tliis place. He was the last abbot ; and (as a reward for 
having been very instrumental in procuring in his own 
university the passing the king's divorce) anno 1534, 
April I9, he obtained to hold with this abbacy incommen- 
dam the bishopric of Bangor ; and for his good services at 
the dissolution, anno 1539, and readily yielding his abbey 
to the king, in the surrender of which he procured his 
monks, 21 in number, to join, he was promoted to the 
bishopric of Salisbury, which he held for 20 years, not 
dying, it seems, till the year 1559.* 

The Arms of Hyde Abbey were argent, a lion rampant 
sable, on a chief of the second 2 keys indorsed argent. 



{Here terminates the Reprint of Calebs History of 

Winchester.l 



* See memoirs of him in Cassan's Lives of the Bishops of Salisbury, 



ijcforc t^t Conque.at, 
BISHOPS OF DORCHESTER. 

I. BIRINUS. 

Appointed A.D. 634 or 635. — Died before A.D. 650. 

The accounts of the first introduction of Christianity 
into this island, are so involved in obscurity and mixed 
up \Aith fable, as to render it impossible to make any 
statements on the subject with any degree of historical 
accuracy. I shall therefore pass over the very question- 
able traditions respecting King Lucius* and others, and 
proceed to the narrative of Venerable Bede, ^vho informs 
us that Christianity was published among the Geviss^f 
or West-Saxons, by Birin, " dubium unde oriundus" 
(Ma/m. (k Ponfif. lib. 2.;—" natus Rom^," (Leland. 
If in. 1. p. 93.) who visited Britain for the express 
purpose, under the auspices of Pope Ilonorius, havincr 
received episcopal consecration at the hands of Asterius° 
Bishop of Genoa. The precise period of Bishop Birin's 
arrival is not fixed, but may be correctly ascertained by 
reference to the Saxon Chronicle, ^^hose author, as 
\V harton justly observes, is entitled to especial credit 
m all that relates to the West-Saxons, from his connexion 
Mith that district of Britain. That work places the 
arrival of Bishop Birin at the year 634.1 



maufj fnti^B.-r'^-^"^^ supposed to have introduced the great liglit (lever 

+ Gevissae is synonymous with Western. The Gevissje means the 
C^tuf^""'.^ ^''"' V.si-(Jotl.s, the Western Goths. The Saxo.> particle 
oe being in the former case prehxed. The Sa.^ous were so called from 
StUXt, a crooked sword. 

J Radulphus Dicetensis says 633, X Script, p. 438, I invariably prefer 
the authority of the Sa.\ou Chronicle and ilede, which I concelv* 
paramount. •""»• 

H 



98 BIRIN. 

The narrative of Birin's ministry is thus given by Bede 
(lib. 3. cap. 7.) *' Eo tempore (Jccidentahum Saxonum 
qui antiquitus Geviss* vocabantur, regnante *Cynrgilsa 
fidem Christi suscepit, prvedicante illis verbum Birino 
Episcopo, qui cum consilio Pap* Honorii venerat Brit- 
taniam ; promitteus quidem se illo praesente in intimis 
ultro Anglorum partibus quo nuUus Doctor praicessisset, 
sancta; tider semina esse sparsurum. Unde et jussu 
ejusdem Pontificis per Asterium Genuensem Episcopum 
in Episcopatus consecratus est gradum. Sed Brittaniam 
pei-venieus, ac primum Gevissorum gentem ingrediens, 
cum omnes ibidem Paganissimos inveniret, utilius esse 
ratus est ibi potius verbum praedicare, quam ultra progi'e- 
diens, eos quibus praedicaie deberet, inquirere. 

** Itaque evangelizante illo in praefata provincia, cum 
Rex ipse catechizatus, fonte Baptismi cum sua gente 
ablueretur contigit tunc temporis sanctissimum ac victori- 
osissimum Regem Nordanhymbrorum (Northumbrians) 
Osualdum adfuisse, eumque de lavacro exeuntem suscep- 
isse, ac pulcherrimo prorsus et Deo digno consortio, 
cujus erat filiam accepturus in conjugem ipsum prius 
secunda generatione Deo dicatum sibi accepit in filium." 
With regard to the episcopal see assigned to Bishop 
Birin, Bede thus proceeds : — 

" Dbnaverunt autem ambo reges eidem Epo civitatem 
quae vocatur Dorcic,t ad faciendum inibi sedem episco- 
palem, ubi factis dedicatisque ecclesiis, multisque ad 
Dominum pio ejus labore populis advocatis, migravit ad 
Dominum, sepultusque est in eadem civitate." 

Here we must express our regret that the historian did 
not more particularly define the place of the episcopal see, 
for it has been doubted whether Dorchester in Dorset, or 
Dorchester in Oxfordshire, be intended. The learned 
editor of Bede explains it as referring to the latter. 

I have already alluded to the dubious traditions of the 
early existence of Christianity in West-Saxony. The 
Saxon Chronicle by the adoption of one word, overthrows 
the opinion at once, that the Christian faith had an earlier 



* Cvnegils beean to reign 611, and filled the throne 31 years, being the 
6th. from Cerdic, who founded the kingdom of the Visi-Saxons in 519. 

t " Iste dedit S. Birino, civitatem Dorcacestriam ut sederet interim m 
ea, donee conderet ecclesiam tanto pontifice dignam lu regia civitatc . 
Annales Ecc. fVint.—Angl. Sac. 1. 288. 



AGILBERT. 99 

date in those parts than A.D. 634. For the benefit of 
those who do not understand Saxon, I shall quote the 
words of the English translation : " This year Bishop 
Birinus^Vs^ preaciied baptism to the A^'est-Saxons under 
King Cynegils." Now baptism being the initiatory 
sacrament of Christianity, the *< first preaching of 
baptism is equivalent to the tirst introduction of the 
Gospel." 

But little more at this distant period can be gleaned 
respecting Birin. The events with which he was con- 
nected are thus stated by the Saxon Chronicle: — ''Birinus 
was sent hither by the command of Pope tlonorius, and 
he was Bishop there to the end of his life." 

A.D. 635. This year King Cynegils was baptized by 
Bishop Birinus, at Dorchester. 

A.D. 639, This year Birinus baptized King Cuthred, 
at Dorchester, and received him as his son. 

After this date 1 tind nothing more of him. His day 
in the Roman Catholic Calendar, is kept December 3. 
Preferring contemporaiy to posthumous accounts of 
miracles (for the reasons given by the excellent Paley) I 
pass over the wretched fictions related by Malmesbury, 
which Bede widi more sense and taste has omitted. The 
reader, however, who may have a relish for such absur- 
dities, may find the detail lib. 2. p. 241. De Pontif. and 
in Capg/ave's Legenda Sanct. Angl. Bishop Birin 
must have died anterior to 650, as we then tind him 
succeeded in that year. ''Birinus sepultus Dorcasteriaj." 
Leland. It in. 1. p. 93. 



II. AGILBERT. 

Succeeded A. D. 650.— Ejected A. D. 6Q0. — Died 
Bishop of Paris. 

"A. D. 650. This year, Egelbert from Gaul, after 
Birinus the Romish Bishop, obtained the Bishopric of 
the West-Saxons." — Saxon Chron. 

King Cynegils was succeeded by his Son Coinualch in 
C43. This Coiimalch, who at first declined embracing 
the Christian Faith, was driven from his dominions by 
Penda, King of the Mercians, whose sister he had man ied 

h2 



100 AGILBERT. 

and repudiated. Having taken refuge with the King 
of the East-Angles, he through his medium, as it would 
appear from Bede, was brought to a better way of 
thinking, and at length, in 650, at once recovered his 
Kingdom and embraced Christianity ; and so great was 
his attachment to the sacred cause, as to induce him to 
order that the Old* Church, or rather Pagan Temple, at 
Winchester, should be re-built in the name of St. Peter. 
By him we find Agilbert appointed to the Bishopric. 

Agilbert was by birth a Frenchman, but had latterly 
come to this country from Ireland, where he had been 
studying the Scriptures. It seems he had of his owa 
accord attached himself to the King, in the quality of 
Chaplain or Confessor, and the latter observing his 
learning, industry, and talents, promoted him to the 
Prelacy. 

<S^ Thus early we may observe, en passant, that 

though the Church of England derives from that of Rome 

a genuine episcopal succession from the apostolic source, 

yet the latter did not, at this early period, intermeddle at 

all with, much less claim as a right peculiar to the 

" apostolic see," the nomination to vacant Bishoprics, 

but left the concerns of the Church, quoad hoc, in the 

power of the King : thus tacitly recognizing the orthodox 

and constitutional principle, that the latter is the Head of 

the Church in these dominions. For had any other idea 

then prevailed at Rome, doubtless, so accurate an historian 

and conscientious an individual as Bede, would not have 

failed to have recorded the fact. But here, without the 

smallest reservation of any power elsewhere, he candidly 

says, " Rex rogavit eum, accepta ibi sede episcopali, suae 

genti manere Pontificem:" and adds that the Bishop on 

his part, "precibus ejus adnuens eidem sacerdotali juri 

prffifuit:" Not a syllable of sending to Rome for the 

papal consent, or even confirmation. So entirely and 

absolutely were these matters left where they now are and 

ever ought to be. 

But to return. The King who spoke only the Saxon 
language, at length it seems, grew tired of Bishop 



• This epithet (' old') says the Translator of the Saxou Chronicle, 
appears to have been inserted in some copies of the Saxon Chronicle, so 
early as the 10th. Century, to distinguish the old church or minster at 
Wiutou from the new, consecrated A.D. 903. 



AGILBERT. 101 

Agilbert's frenchified pronunciation of the Saxon tongue, 
(pertaesus barbarae loquclae, as Bede has it) and being 
determined to have a more polished preacher for his royal 
city, he appointed in his place Vini or Wina. The King 
now divided the Bishopric into two portions, and 
nominated Wina to the portion called Winchester! In 
consequence of this partition of the Diocese, Agilbert 
mdicrnantly retired to France, where he became Bishop of 
Paris and attained to a considerable age. 

Bede thus relates the foregoing circumstances : 

*' Tandem Rex subintroduxit in provinciam alium suae 
linguae episcopum vocabulo Wini et ipsum in Gallia 
ordinatum, dividensque in duas parochias, provinciam, 
huic in civitate Venta, qua agente Saxonum Vintancaestri 
appellatur, sedem episcopalem tribuit : unde offensus 
graviter Agilberctus, quod hoc, ipso inconsulto ageret 
Rex, rediit Galliam et accepto Episcopatu Parislacae 
civitatis ibidem senex ac plenum dierum obiit." 

<^ The word 'ipso/ in the foregoing passage is stront^. 
His indignation arose not, as some modern Romall 
Catholic writers would have us imagine, from his 
ejectment being effected by the King on his own 
authority, and without the consent or approbation of the 
holy see. Had the Pope arrogated to himself, at this 
period, the jurisdiction to which in after times he set up a 
claim, Bede, the accurate and Catholic Bede, would not 
have said merely ' ipso inconsulto,' thus making it a matter 
of mdividual feeling, but *' Sede apostolicd inconmltd,'* 
as an insult to and infringement of the divine rio^hts of the 
Papal dominion. But Bede understood the consti- 
tution of the Romish Church better than it has since 
been understood by the aspiring and encroaching members 
of that communion. 

It is really amusing to read the obiter observations of 
Bishop Milner on Agilbert's retirement to France, and to 
observe the gravity with which he insinuates the claims of 
the holy see : " Being well acquainted with the irre<'u- 
larity and invalidity of this measure," (i. e. the Kin^g's 
division of the diocese, which " he ventured to do on his 
own authority") he resigned his see entirely, and 
returned to liis native country," &c. 



BISHOPS OF WINCHESTER. 



I. WIN A or VINI. 

Appointed A. D. 660.— Ejected 663.— Died Bishop 

OF London. 

The Editor of Bede is in error when he places 664 in 
the margin as the period of Agilbert's loss of the royal 
favor, and the substitution of Wina in his room, for the 
Saxon Chronicle thus records those events under the 
year 660 : " This year Bishop Egelbert departed from 
kemval, and Wina held the Bishopiic three years." 

This Prelate, in his turn, lost the Bishopric (pulsus 
est Vini ab eodem rege de Episcopatu. Bede.) and 
going over to Wulfere, King of the Mercians, is recorded 
by Bede to have bought the Bishopric of London, where 
he sat till his death. Thus the diocese of West-Saxony 
must have been without a Bishop for some years, viz. from 
663 to 670. 

Bede (lib. 3. p. 137) has a remarkable passage relative 
to this Bishop. Speaking of Ceadda, Archbishop of 
York, he says, " Unde diverterunt ad provinciam occi- 
dentalium Saxonum ubi erat Uini Epus et ab illo est yir 
praifatus (Ceadda) consecratus antistes," &c. ^ow enim 
erat tunc ullus excepto illo Vine in tola Britannia canonice 
ordinatus Epus. 

Rudborne in his Hist. Maj. Wint. in Angl. Sacra. 
vol. 1. p. 192, writes, " Expulso Agilberto, Wynus, 
natione Anglus ac monachus Wyntoniensis ecclesiae suc- 
cessit in episcop. A. D. 662*' et anno regis Kynewaldi 
14 ut habetur per vigilantiam in libro de Basilica Petri. 
Qui Winus post bienniumf per regem Kynewaldum simi- 



» 660. Sax. Chr. ut. sup. 



t The discrepancy iu the chronological statements of the monkish 
historians is unaccountable. The Sax. Chr, says three years. 



LEUTHERIUS. 103 

liter expulsus emit a lege Merciorum Wilfero, (Here, 
again, Rudborne, a thorough paced Catholic, in naming 
the appointment by the King, says not a word of the 
regal usurpation of the Papal right) sedem London : 
civitatis; ubi longo tempore cathedram tenuit Pontifi- 
cialem. Sed triennio ante mortem suam peenitenti^ 
ductus pro Symonia,* (not,<i3p propeccato ejus, auctoritate 
Papae despecta, as he would have said had the right, at 
that time, been deemed to belong to the Pope) episco- 
patum deserens, reliquam partem vitae suai in Wyntoniensi 
ecclesia, ubi et primo iufulatus est, sub monastica conver- 
satione peregit, in qua corpus ejus decentissime traditur 
sepulturJe, ut scribit Florentius in Florario Historiali 
lib. 3. cap. 6, semper apud semet ipsum haec verba 
ruininabat, Erravimm juvenes , emendemus senes. 

Misfortunes, those best correctives of our faults, seem 
to have brought Kins Coinualch to his senses. When he 
denied Christianity, his enemies were permitted to take 
his kingdom. When he wantonly deposed the Prelates 
of the Church, or caused them, by his arbitrary conduct, 
to become self-exiled, his enemies were again permitted 
to have the ascendant. Ingenuous enough, however, to 
perceive that this was the finger of God, and that when 
his kingdom was destitute of its Bishop, it was also 
destitute of the divine presence, he sent an embassy to the 
exiled Agilbert, in France, soliciting his return. The 
venerable and injured Bishop, pleading his connexion 
with his present Bishopric, declined returning to 
England, but recommended to the notice of the King, 
his (Agilbert's) nephew, who accordingly received 
consecration from Theodore, Archbishop of Dover, in tiie 
year 670. 



II. I^EUTHERIUS. 

Succeeded A. D. 670. — Died A. D. 676 

The see had been vacant seven years, if the chronology 
of the Saxon Chronicle is correct, or four years if Rud- 
borne is correct, p. 192. 

• Bishop Wina was the first whom historical writers brand with the 
criaie, that by a strange misaomer is called Simony. 



104 ST. IIEADDA. 

The Saxon Chronicle, under the year 670, observe* 
that Lothere, the nephew of Bishop Egelbert, succeeded 
to the Bishopric over the land of the W est-Saxons, and 
held it seven years. There must be some mistake here iri' 
the Saxon Chronicle. This assertion is contradicted under 
the year 676, which is the year fixed for Headda's 
succession. He appears to have been consecrated at 
Winton ('in ipsa civitate consecratus/ Bede.) 

Bede (lib. 4. cap. 12. p. 154.) records " Qwartus occi- 
dentalium Saxouum Antistes Leutherius fuit. Siquidem 
primus Birinus, secundus Agilberctus, tertius exstitit 
Vini. Cumque mortuus esset Coinvalch, quo regnante 
idem Leutherius Epus factus est, acceperunt subreguli 
regnum gentis et divisum inter se tenuerunt annis circiter 
decern : ipsisque regnantibus defunctus est ille, ex- 
episcopatu functus est Headdi pro eo. Rudborne adds 
from Will, of Malm. ** Hie cum S. Adelmo fundavit 
caenobuim Meldunense." This was formerly the hermitage 
of St. Aldhelra's master, Maydulph, and subsequently the 
famous Abbey of Malmesbury. See article of Bishop 
Aldhelm in the Lives of the Bishops of Salisbtiry. 
Bede gives his character thus; "sediilo moderamine epis- 
eopatum gessit." 



in. ST. HEADDA. 

Succeeded A.D. 676. — Died A. D. 703, Sax. Chron. 

or 705, UT al: 

" A. D. 676. This year Hedda succeeded to his 
Bishopric,"* Sax. Ch. He was consecrated by Arch- 
bishop Theodore, in London. Bede, lib. 4. cap. 12. 
p. 154. 

He had before been a Monk and Abbot. William of 
Malmesbury de gest. Pontif. lib. 2. De Epis. occi. 
Bede's editor says he had been Abbot of Streaneshalch, 
but quotes no authority. He should have quoted Rud- 
borne, who in A/igl. Sac. 1. p. 192. says, **Prius fuit 



* We were before told by the Sax. Chr. that Headda's predecessor suc- 
ceeded in 670 (see that year,) and held the bishopric seven years. How 
tliea could the successor come in iu the year 676, as here stated ? 



ST. HEADDA. 105 

monachus et Abbas in monasterio quod tunc Streneshalce 
sed nunc Whyteby nuncupatur." (Whitby.) 

His character is thus drawn by Bede : — " Bonus 
quippe erat vir et Justus, et episcopalem vitam, sive 
doctrinam magis insito sibi virtutum amore quam lectioni- 
bus institutus exercebat." — Lib. 5. cap. 18. 

William of Malmesbury declares that his letters which 
he had seen in the monastery there, addressed to Aldhelm, 
prove him to have been no contemptible scholar. (De 
gest, Pont. lib. Q,.) 

It appears that Bishop Headda both translated the see 
from Dorchester and also the body of Bishop Birin, 
<Bede, lib. 3. cap. 7. Gul. Malm, and Rudb. Leland. 
Itin, 1. p. 93. " Hedda Epus transtulit corpus Birini ad 
Ventanam civitatem,) where the former was also buried, 
according to Rudborne, himself a Wintonian. What 
seems to have determined Bishop Headda in removing 
the see, was that the kingdom of the Mercians in which 
his predecessors had hitherto maintained an authority 
being now converted, four several Bishoprics were by 
the authority of the metropolitan erected, so that the 
West-Saxon Bishop having no longer any authority 
there, had no occasion to reside at Dorchester. Headda 
departed this life in 703, if we follow the Saxon Chron. 
though Bede and others after him, have fixed his decease 
at 705. The fonner authority in noticing his death, adds, 
** having held the see of Winchester twenty-seven winters,'* 
while Malmesbury, " he held the see above thirty years," 
and after him Butler in his Saints, makes the same 
record. The latter also adds that he was a Monk of St. 
Hilda, but quotes no authority. 

Richardson, the editor of Bishop Godwin, adopts a 
curious but ve)y confused mode of quotation, by mixing 
up two authorities, as to two separate facts under the 
quotation of one author. Thus, for instance, he says, 
" Sedit (Headda) annos '27 et obiit Wintonia?, A.D. 
703 ;" for both which facts he quotes Chron-Sax. Now 
that work says nothing of his dying at Winchester. 

Headda's day in the Roman Calendar, is kept July 7. 
Miracles are said to have been performed at his tomb. 
See Bede, lib. 5. cap. 19- though Bede himself does not 
say so. Bishop Godwin is wrong in saying that Bede 
mentions the performance of miracles during Headda's 
prelacy. ** Deus praesuhitum ejus miraculis non paucis 



106 DANIEL. 

illustravit." Bede asserts no such thing. He only quotes 
Pecthelm as having asserted it. — Bede, lib. 5. cap. 18. 

Headda's prelacy was rendered memorable, chiefly for 
the translation of the see, though the precise period seems 
not to be settled. The Anna les breves Winton: record, 
*' Sedes Episcoporum W. Saxonum in Ecclesia de 
Dorcestria mansit per spatium 42 annorum, usque ad 
tempora Heddee, qui quinto loco S. Birino in Epispm 
successit; qui sedem transtulit de Dorcestria una cum 
corpore sand"'' patris nostri Birini in Ecclih Summae 
Triuitatis tunc, modo Apostolorum Petri et Pauli VVin- 
toniae anno gratiae 683, anno Pontiticatus suiX,anno vero 
Escuini Regis W. Saxonum III." 

On this, Wharton remarks — " Verius Hedda Episco- 
patum sortitus est triennio post Kynewaldi Regis obitum, 
anno ultimo Escuini Regis, X'" vero 676, consecratus 
Londonize a Theodoro Epo. Annum exhibet Chron. Sax. 
locum Beda, 1. 4. c, 12. Sedit annos 27. Obiit Win- 
toniae, anno 703, teste eadem Chronologia cui fidem 
astruit Beda, 1. 5, c. 19." — No, not exactly. Bede 
would rather lead us to suppose he died in 705, as the 
following passage would shew : — ''Anno dominica^ incar- 
nationis 705 Aldfrid Rex Nordanhymbrorum defunctus 
est, anno regni sui 20 necdum impleto ; cui succedens in 
imperium filius suus Osred regnavit annis 11. Hujus 
regni principio (viz. 705). Antistes Occid. Sax. Haeddi 
ca-lestem migravit ad vitam." — Lib. 5 c. n8 

Bishop Headda appears to have stood high in the 
estimation of King Ina, since the exordium of nine of Ina's 
Statutes, as recorded in Wilkins's Concilia, vol. 1. p. 58, 
under the year 693, states that they were formed by the 
advice and assistance of that Prelate. 

To the foregoing we have only to add from Archbishop 
Usher's Antiquities, p. 59 ; " Haeddi Epus in superiore 
coemiterio monachorum in Pyramide saxea quondam 
nobiliter exsculpta adhuc requiescit. 



IV. DANIEL. 

Succeeded A. D^, 703. — Resigned A. D. 744. — Died 

A. D. 745. 

On Headda's death, the diocese of Winchester wati 



DANIEL. 107 

divided into two portions. The one retaining its fonner 
name and the other receiving that of Sherborne, and 
which, in process of time, became known as the diocese 
of Salisbury. 

^' Quo defuncto (Headda) Episcopatus provinciae 
illius in duas parochias divisus est, Una data Daniheli, 
quam usque hodie regit, altera Aldhehno." — Bede, lib. 5. 
c. 18. 

" Remanserunt antem EpoWint. duae provincias tantuni, 
Hamptonensis sc. et Suthriensis, alteri vero provinciai, 
Wiltunensis, Dorsetensis, Berucensis, Somersetensis, 
Devoniensis, Cornubiensis." — Matt. Westm. a°" 704. 

** Synodali concilio, diocaesis, ultra modum protensa, 
in duas sedes divisa." — Will. Malm, in Vt. S. Aldhelm. 
Aiigl. Sax. vol. 2. p. 20. 

'j'o both the Bishoprics of Winton and Sherborne, 
were appointed men of the greatest character in the 
kingdom for learning and pietj', who were also both of 
them monks of the new monastery and school of Malmes- 
bury. Daniel had such a reputation for sacred literature, 
that Ven. Bede did not think it beneath him to receive 
literary assistance from him, which he acknowledges in 
Pnejat. Eccl. Hist. Vossius, de histoiicis Latinis, 
lib. 2. cap. 28. records the follovnng works of this 
Prelate : — ''Condidit Historian! su£e provinciae. — Austra- 
lium Saxonum gesta. — Res insulae Vectae. — VitamCeddae 
EpT. — Historian! de obitu Adhelmi, et alia." — The last 
writer adds, ''Epistola ejus catechetica, de ratione institu- 
endi infideles, ad S. Bonifacium, Anglorum Apostolunj 
missa, apud Baronium legitur." 

His prelacy is rendered remarkable by a devout pil- 
grimage to Rome, which is thus noticed by Cressy. 
Church Hist, of Brittany, vol. 2. p. oQo : — " The same 
year, 721, is recorded the devout pilgrimage of Daniel, 
Bishop of Winchester, to Rome, who is supposed by 
some to have subscribed to a synod, about this time 
assembled there, in which a heavy anathema is pronounced 
against all such as presume to associate to themselves in 
marriage any virgins or other women consecrated to God, 
or those [women] whose matrimonial society, men being 
promoted to such orders have, according to the church's 
discipline, been obliged to forsake." — Ste Bk.Q,Q.. ch. 11. 

In 744, Bishop Daniel resigned the see and became a 
monk, which circumstances, together with his death shortly 



lOS DANIEL. 

after, are thus noticed by Cressy: — " The year following 
(744) the Reverend and Holy Bishop of Winchester, 
Daniel, having spent foity-three years in the adminis- 
tration of that diocese, to the end he might conclude his 
long lasting age in quiet repose, surrendered his Bishopric 
and became a monk of Malmesbury, from the ancient 
tradition of his own monastery. But his repose on earth 
continued a short time, for the year following he happily 
attained to an eternal repose in heaven. Though by his 
great virtues he well deserved a name among our saints, 
yet we do not find him recorded in our calendar.'* 
^Bk. 23. ch. 13. p. 601. 

There is the usual discrepancy among the old writers 
as to chronology, respecting Daniel. The Saxon Chron. 
says, '^ Forty-three winters had then elapsed (viz. in 744) 
since he received the episcopal function." Rudborne 
has these words: — " Daniel qui post beatissimum Patrem 
Heddam in Wyntoniensi Ecclesia annis 34 (probably a 
mis-print for 43) strenue pontificavit, senio confectus 
Meldunum rediit, cujus monasterii monachus fuerat : ubi 
residuum vitae sub monastica religione consumpsit et 
sanctus reputatur." These latter words are directly 
conflicting with the assertion of the accurate Cressy on 
that subject. Vid. sup. Vossius says> " Decessit sub 
Sigeberto Visi Saxonum rege, anno episcopatus sui 42." 
Malmesbui-y asserts that this prelate was buried at 
Malmesbury, which seems probable, although he admits 
that the Wintonians claim him ; but he adds they are 
unable to shew any tomb to his memory, whether real of 
fictitious. 

Wharton thus sums up the dates with which Daniel 
was connected : — ** Daniel sedem Wint. adeptus post 
Heddae mortem, anno 703, tenuit annis 42, anno 721 
Roman adiit; anno 731 Tatwinum Arpuin consecravit; 
anno 744 Episcopatu cessit ; anno 745 defunctus est. 
Ista tradit Chronologia Saxonica ; cui de cessione con- 
venit Florentius, de obitu, Huntindoniensis. Obitum 
tamen in anno 746. Mailrosensis cum Floiilego coUo- 
cavit ; et unum plus justo annum Malmsburiensis Ponti- 
ficatui dedit.' 



HUMFERTH, &c. 109 

V. HUMFERTH, HUMFRID, or 
HUMPHREY. 

Succeeded A. D. 744. — Died A. D. 754. 

The Saxon Chronicle states the dates of his succession 
and death, but nothing more. Rudborne tacet. Mahnes- 
bury merely says, " Cujus, memoria fit in concilio Cuth- 
berti ArchpT." Cressy says, *'His (Daniel's) successor 
was Humfrid, whose name we find among the subscrip- 
tions to a synod assembled at Cloveshoe, the second time, 
shortly after." — Cressy ut. sup. 

Of this prelate and several of his successors, nothing 
whatever is to be gleaned beyond the dates of their suc- 
cession and death. 



VI. CYNCARD. 

Succeeded A. D. 754. — Sax. Chron. 



VH. ATHELARD. 

Succeeded A. D. 754. Wharton. — Translated 
A. D. 790 TO Dover. 

Rudborne records that he had been a monk of 
Malmesbury. 



VIH. EGBLADUS or EGBALDUS. 

I find nothing of him except his subscription to a 
charter given by King Offa to Croyland, in 793. — See 
Jngulphus. 



IX. DUDDA or CUD. 



no CYNBERT, &c. 

X. CYNBERT. 

The Saxon Chronicle records his journey to Rome 
uith Archbishop Ethelbert, in 799- In 806, he appears 
signing a charter of King Kenulph to Croyland, in 
Ingulph, but the monastic charters are so frequently not 
genuine, that we can place but little reliance on them in 
a chronological point of view. 



XI. ALMUND. 

Succeeded A. D. SOS- 
He was at the Council of Cliff in that year. He is 
also said to have been at that of Bapchild, in 79B. — 
Wilkins's Concil. 



XII. WIGBERT, WIGHTIN, or WYDERGIN. 

Had been a monk of Glaston. He went to Rome with 
Wilfred, in Q\<2..—Sax. CAr.— Died before 8'29. 



XIII. HEREFRID. 

Succeeded in or before A. D. 8G9. — Died A. D. 835. 

I have thus placed his succession, because he made his 
profession to Archbishop Wilfred, who died in that year. 
He was killed in battle with the Danes, together with 
Sigelm, Bishop of Sherborne, in SSS.— Saxon C/non.— 
Bishop Godwin erroneously has it 834. 



XIV. EDMUND. 

The three first of these, says Richardson, are buried in 
the cr>-pt and the four last 'in the nave of the church. 
Edmund near the entrance of the choir, as says Vigilantius. 
— MS. Barloxc, 



HELMSTAN, &c. ill 

XV. HELMSTAN. 

Succeeded A. D. 833. — Died 852. 

He appears signing a charter to Croyland, in Ingulph, 
in 833. Rudborne says, that he had been a monk of 
Winchester, and that King Egbert entrusted to him as a 
pupil, his son Atulph, p. 199- Godwin places his death 
at A. D. 837, but Rudborne says 852. He was buried 
according to a MS. of Barlow, quoted by Richardson, in 
his own church before the high altar. He adds, " Sed 
modo in locello plumbeo positus, ex boreali plaga altaris 
supra tumulum Ric. Toclivii EpT." Godwin says he lies 
buried with Kenulph, who succeeded him at the distance 
of 200 years, and quotes the following lines : — 

Pontificis hcEC capsa duos tenet incinerates. 
Primus Helmstanua, huic successurq^ue Kenulphus. 



XVI. ST. SV\ ITHUN. 
Succeeded A. D. 852.— Died A. D. 861. 

Of the imbriferous St. Swithun, who has not heard? 
But it is perhaps not so generally known that the esta- 
blishment of Tithes in this country was eflFected during 
his prelacy by his pupil King Ethelwolf, the father of the 
illustrious Alfred, in which there can be but little doubt 
that St. Swithun bore a part. See Wilkins's Concilia, 
vol. 1. page 183. A.D. 855. Concilium Wintoniense. 

Bishop Swithun was born at Winchester (in pago 
Wintoniensi. Higdeu) the 26th. of King Egbert. He 
became a monk* and afterwards a prior of the old 
monastery there. His learning and piety induced King 
Egbert to take especial notice of him, and to place under 
his care his son Ethelwolf, as well as to make use of his 
counsels in the government of his kingdom. Upon the 
death of Bishop Helmstan, Ethelwolf appointed him to 
this see, to which he was consecrated by Ceolnoth, 



* Early in life he took the religious habit amonest the regular clergy of 
the cathedral. — Citpgrave, Leg. SancC. fol. cclxsviii. 



112 ST. SWITHUN. 

Archbishop of Canterbury, in 852. His profession oi 
faith may be read in Rudborne, p. 203. 

He appears to have been indefatigable in promotnig 
the good of the whole kingdom, but particularly of the 
city and diocese of Winchester, insomuch that a great part 
of the merit in whatever was well or wisely done by his 
pupil, was justly ascribed to him. (Will. Malm, de Pont.) 
He built many churches in those parishes where none 
had before existed, (Capgrave iti life of Switlimi,) and 
he also, as the same author records in his Legenda 
Sanctorum, built the bridge at the east end of Winchester. 
This fact is recorded in the very ancient lives of the 
Saints, in verse, quoted by the Rev. Thomas Wharton. 
— Hist. Engl. Poet?!/, vol. I. 

Se™t Swithan his bushopiicke to al goodnesse droiigli 
The towne also of Wynchestre he amended inough 
Ffor he lette the stronge bruge withoute the towne arere 
Aud foud thereto lym & stou & the workmen that there were. 

[f. 93. MS, Venion.) 

William of Malmesburj, Capgrave, and other early 
writers, represent him as a treasury of virtues, but those 
by which he was most distinguished were his mildness 
and humility. ("Solitariae sanctitatis amator, nulla 
pompa bona sua prostituebat"). When called on to 
consecrate any new church, however distant, it was his 
custom to go to it on foot, (not '* bare-foot," as Butler 
in his lives of the Saints ornamentally tells the stor}) and 
that he might neither be exposed to ridicule or eulogy, he 
always travelled to it by night. His affection for 
humility he carried, as Bishop Milner has it, beyond the 
grave, giving orders in his last sickness, that his body 
should not be buried with marks of distinction in the 
cathedral itself, but among the common people m the 
church-yard ; where it lay at the north-west end of it for 
more than a centuiy. 

It is recorded of Bishop Swithun, by Rudborne, that 
Ethelbald (son of Ethelwolf and brother of Alfred) having 
contracted an incestuous marriage with Judith, the late 
Kintr's widow, such was the effect of St. Swithun's 
eloquence and sanctity, that he not only induced the 
young monarch to dissolve this unnatural connexion, but 
also publicly to repair the scandal he had given by his 
licentious conduct, and perceiving how much the city of 
Winchester, aud particularly the cathedral was exposed 



ST. SWITHUN. 113 

to the violence and cruelty of the Pagans in any sudden 
invasion, St. Swithun further persuaded him to secure 
the Church and Cloisters by fortifications. — Hist. Maj. 
lib. 3. cap. 3. 

^SS" The institution of tithes during Swithun's prelacy 
must not be omitted. 7^he following is from Ingulphus: 
"Inclytus Rex Ethel wulph us, omnium prjelatorum ac 
principum suorum qui sub ipso variis provinciis totius 
Angliae praserant, gratuito consensu, tunc prinio, cum 
DiiCiMis omnium terrarum ac bonorum aliorum sive 
catallorum universam dotaverat ecclesiam Anslicanam." 
This important act took place in Winchester as appears 
by the charter to this effect which is extant in most of our 
histories. (Matt. Westm. Ingulph. Rudb.) Rudborne 
erroneously dates the charter 844, but the other historians 
concur in 854 or 835. This charter was subscribed by 
Ethelwolph himself, in the Cathedral Church at VV inches- 
ter, before the high altar, after which it was placed by the 
King on the altar. — 117//. Malm. 

Swithun died according to the Saxon Chronicle in 864, 
Rudborne and Malmesbury say 863. He was buried, as 
was before noticed, according to his own desire, outside 
the north gate of the cathedral, where afterwards a small 
chapel was built. 

Matthew of Westminster records many of his miracles. 
Much trash of this sort may also be found in the other 
chroniclers respecting him. The following is rather too 
choice a morceau to be omitted. Malmesbury gravely 
tells us, that w hile the Bishop was building the bridge 1 1 
the east end of Winchester, the labourers happened to 
overthrow and smash all the eggs which a woman was 
carrying in a basket to market. The holy man vouchsafed 
immediately to restore the said eggs to their due shape and 
consistency ! 

His bones were removed into the Church by Bishop 
Ethelwold. Lantfred, in 980, wrote an account of this 
event, but not a life of the Saint as Rudborne, Pits, ai d 
Bale erroneously state. — See Leland de Scriptoribus and 
Sim. Dunelm. X. Script, col. 157. Rudborne says, this 
disinteiTOent took place 110 years after the Prelate's death. 
On this occasion many miracles are said to have been 
performed in the presence of an immense concourse of 
people, his ashes never having condescended to display 
their miraculous powers till after the expulsion of the 
seculars by Ethelwolf. — See Aug. Sac. vol. 1. p. 223. 



1J4 ST. SWITHUN. 

Archbishop Nicolson observes, that "St. Swithun^Ji 
miracles were recorded by Lamfrid or Lantfred, a bene- 
dictiue monk of Winchester, about the year 980, of whose 
book we are told there was a MS. copy in the Lord 
Lumley's library, (Pits, p. 178) and we are sure there no\T 
is one in Cotton's. (Nero. E. 1. Vid, et Galba. A. 13.) 
This treats only of the great things he did after his death, 
but it is probable there was a former part of the discourse 
Avhich seems also to have been translated (Preface to 
Ang. Sac. 1. pp. 29, 30.) into the Anglo-Saxon. The 
like, says Pits, (p. 181) was penned by Wolstan, the 
same famous monk of Winchester, who about the year 
1000, did as much for St. Ethelwald. — Historical 
Library, p. 106. 

St. Swithun is commemorated in the Romish Calendar 
on the 2nd. of July, which was the day of his death, but 
his chief festival in England was the loth, of that month. 
—See the Sarum Bi^eviary and Missal. 

The following passage from Brand's Popular Anti- 
quities, p. 271, may not be uninteresting : — " St. 
Swithun 's Day. Blount tells us, that St. Swithun, a 
holy Bishop of Winchester, about the year 860, was called 
the weeping St. Swithun, for that, about his feast, Prsesepe 
and Aselli, rainy constellations arise cosmically and 
commonly cause rain. The following is said to be the 
origin of the old adage : "If it rain on St. Swithuu's day, 
there will be rain more or less forty succeeding days." 
St. Swithun, Bishop of Winton, dying, was canonized by 
the then Pope. He was singular for his desire to be 
buried in the open church-yard, and not in the chancel of 
the minster, as was usual with other Bishops, which request 
was complied with ; but the monks, on his being canonized, 
taking it into their heads that it was disgraceful for the 
saint to lie in the open church-yard, resolved to remove his 
body into the choir, which was to have been done with 
solemn procession on the 15th. of July. It rained, how- 
ever, so violently on that day, and for forty days succeed- 
ing, as had hardly ever been known, which made them set 
aside their design, as heretical and blasphemous ; and 
instead, they erected a chapel over his grave, at which 
many miracles are said to have been wrought." 

In Mr. Douce's interleaved copy of the Popular Anti- 
quities, is the following note: — "I have heard these lines 
on St. Swithun's day ; 



ALFRITH, 8cc. X15 

St. Swithun's day, if thou dost tain. 
For forty days it will remain : 
St. Swithuii's day, if thou be fair. 
For forty days 'twill rain ua uiair. 

This is an old saying, that when it rains on St. Swithun's 
day, it is the saint christening his apples," Sic. 



XVII. ALFRITH. 

Succeeded between A.D. 861. and 863. — Trans, to 
Canterbury A.D. 871— Died A.D. 889. 

'A Prelate,' as Matthew of Westminster says, ^of 
great learning.' Florilegus calls him *vir in rebus eccle- 
siasticis sufficienter eruclitus, qui vices antecessoris 
aliquanto tempore prudenter exegit.' He is said to have 
been translated to Canterbury in 87 1 , where he had been 
a monk, and where he was buried 



XVIII. TUNBERT,or DUNBERT. 

Succeeded A.D. 871.— Died A. D. 879. 

He is only known by having given the manor of Stu- 
sheling to the church ; Rudb. p. 0.06, and as having 
crowned King Alfred. Florence of Worcester places his 
death at 879- 



XIX. DENEWLF. 
Succeeded A.D. 879.— Died A,D. 909. 

Said to have been the herdsman tliat sheltered Alfred. 
But, with Wharton, I should be sceptical on this point. 

Rudborne plainly asserts, ''Alfredus quendam subul- 
cum nomine Denewlphum inveniens, ad scholas misit 
qui postmodum Doctor in Theologia Oxoniis factus, per 
ipsuni Alfredum Regem in Eputn Wintoniensem ordi- 
natus est." William of Malmesbury qualifies a similar 
assertion with **Si fama creditur." This fable, has 



1 ^ 

1 -M 



316 FRITHSTAN. 

been copied by all our historians. For that it is a fable 
is evident from chronology, for Alfred did not quit 
Athelney (in Somerset) where the herdsman entertained 
him, before 8/8, and in the following year Denewlph was 
appointed Bishop. Bishop Godwin was so far imposed 
on by this story as to repeat it, though he conjectures that 
the heidsman's wife, who it will be remembered found 
fault with Alfred's skill in cookery, was dead at the period 
of the monarch's promotion of his quondam host, to the 
purple. 

In 897, he was appointed to the important post of 
Governor of the royal city of Winchester. — Matt. Westm. 
ad. an. 897. 

Rudborne adds that Denewlph sat here twenty-four 
years ; and was buried in his own cathedral. But he 
must have sat thirty years, according to the date assigned 
for his death by Florentius and the Saxon Chronicle. 



XX. FRITHSTAN.* 

Succeeded A. D. 910. — Resigned A. D. 9321. — Diei> 

A. D. 933. 

After the death of King Alfred, the Pope being 
informed that there was no Bishop in the western parts of 
England, interdicted both the King and the kingdom. 

But Plegmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, hastened to 
Rome, and informed the Pope that King Edward had, in 
a late synod, (Wilkins's Concilia, vol. 1. p. 199.) held in 
904, founded some new and supplied all the vacant 
Bishoprics. The Pope was satisfied, and the Archbishop 
consecrated on one day at Canterbury seven new Bishops, 
among whom was Frithstau, to Winchester. 

The chronology of these circumstances is very conflict- 
ing : for it had been represented that the Sees in West- 
Saxony had been vacant seven years, which was not the 
fact. In the next place Formosus is called Pope at that 



* Between Denewlph and Frithstan, William of Malmesbury inserts 
Athelm, and others Bertulph, but as there seems no sufficient authority 
for so doing, aud nothing but their bare names recorded, I have omitted 
them. 



FRITHSTAN. 11?^ 

time, whereas the then Pope was Sergiiis III. (See 
Wilkins's Cone. vol. 1. p. 199, note ]) and thirdly, the 
letter attributed to Forniosus, is proved by Wharton to 
have been a fiction. That seven Bishops were consecrated 
on one day has been stated by so many historians, that I 
should be unwilling to doubt the circumstance. The 
question is as to the year in which those consecrations 
took place. Most writers erroneously fix the event at 
904. Ralph Dicetensis alone says 909, and he probably 
is correct. For if the Bishops of the new dioceses were 
consecrated in 904, there could not have been seven at 
OHce consecrated, since Denewlph at AVinton and Asser 
at Sherborne were not then dead ; but if seven were con- 
secrated together, then the consecration could not have 
taken place in 904. 

These discrepancies may be thus adjusted. King 
Edward and Archbishop Plegmund convened a synod in 
904, and in it, decreed upon the erection of three new 
Bishoprics in West-Saxony. Tliose Bishoprics were to 
be taken out of the dioceses of Winchester and Sherborne ; 
but they thought it unjust to make a spoliation of those 
dioceses during the incumbency of the respective Pre- 
lates, especially as each deserved well of the King and the 
nation at large. They therefore decreed that the matter 
should be carried into execution whenever their demise 
might take place. Now, in the year 909, it happened 
conveniently that Winchester and Sherborne both were 
destitute of their Prelates, as also Mercia Australis and 
South-Saxony ; the three new Bishoprics therefore being 
constituted, and new Bishops appointed to them, Pleg- 
mund consecrated the seven Prelates at once in 909. 

Bishop Godwin places Frithstan's succession at 905, 
and says he was consecrated to Winchester with six other 
Bishops by Archbishop Plegmund ; but that date we have 
shewn to be impossible. Of the remarkable anachronism 
to which the spurious letter attributed by some monk to 
Forniosus, gave rise, I have treated fully in the Lives of 
the Bishops of Salisbury/, part I. pp. 68-73. 

The SaJfon Chronicle, which in most similar cases, I 
hold to be instar omnium, fixes Frithstan's succession at 
910, "An. DCCCCX. Hoc anno capessit Frithe, 
stanus Episcopatum in Wintecester." 

Richardson, the editor of Bishop Godwin, at p. 209, 
in a note, correctly observes; — ** I)e his episcopis, i?j 



118 BRYNSTAN. 

aulhore IVIS. inceito de Ep. Wiiit. sic scriptum legimus." 
*' later S. Swythunuin et Fiitlistanum lapsum 49 anno- 
rum ties fueiunt EpT: viz. Alfrithus, cujus tempore 
Canonici venerunt in vetus mouasteriuni Wyntow : 
Trumbertus (Dumbert) qui manerium de Mestelying 
huic contulit ecclesiae : Denewlphus, deinde S. Frith- 
etanus qui sedit 21 annis. Cui successit Brinstanus qui 
sedit 4 annis."* Swythun died 86 1, to which add 49 
years, and we are brought to 9 1 0, the year fixed by the 
Sax. Chr. for the succession of Frithstan. 

Rudborne thus notices our Prelate : — " Iste Frithe- 
stanus discipulus fuit Si. Grimbaldi, et ab eo suscepit 
habitum monachaleni : fuit enim primitus unus ex clericis 
sascularibus, qui videns monachorum sanctissiman con- 
versationem, saeculum reliquit etad religionem convolavit: 
ut scribit Vigilancius in libro de basilica Petri, cap. 9. 
Hie beatus Frithestanus ob eximiam sanctitatem factus 
est Episcopus ; et 22 annis in onini sanctitate pontificavit, 
sed postea amore divinae contemplationis, curam deserens 
pastoralem, ordinavit Sanctinn Brynstanum loco sui, 
Episcopum, ac ipse pauperem et monasticam vitam usque 
in iineni transegit," &c. Hist. Maj. Wint. lib, 3. cap. 7, 
and in the following chapter he adds, " Sanctus Frithe- 
stanus Wyntoniensis Ecclesiae Praesulpontificabat XVII. 
aonis temp. Edw. senioris et V. temp. Regis Athelstani : 
mortuus vero sepultus est in ecclesia cathedrali Wynto- 
niensi." 

Placing his succession, therefore, as above, at 910, 
his resignation must have taken place in the year 932. 
But Godwin incorrectly has it 931, and his death in 932; 
whereas his death did not take place till 933. The 
Sax. Ckwn. thus records it: "An. DCCCCXXXIII. 
Hoc anno decessit Frithestanus Episcopus." 



XXI. BRYNSTAN. 
Succeeded A. D. 932. — Died A. D. 934. 
He also had been Grimbald's disciple, and a secular. 



• This is incorrect. He sat Biishop only two years and a half. Saxan 
Chron. Vid. Brinstan infra. 



BRYNSTAN. 119 

The Saxon Chronicle thus notices his succession : " An. 
DCCCCXXXIl. Hoc anno consecratus est Byra- 
stanus [this metathesis is very common] ad VVintanceaster, 
IV. Kal. Junii et tenuit episcopatum duobus annis cum 
dimidio." — But Rudborne says, ** quatuor annis regens 
episcopatum." Wharton, in a note subjoined, observes, 
** Brinstanum episcopatum anno 932 iniisse Rudburnus 
in Hist: minori recte tradit. Obiit autem anno 934, 
ad festum Omnium Sanctorum juxta chronologiam 
Saxonicam, Florentium, Hovedenum aliosque ; ideoque 
biennio et quinque mensibus tantum sedit." 

This prelate had a singular custom of going round the 
burial places near Winchester, nightly, saying, Placebo et 
Dirige. On one of these nocturnal perambulations, the 
holy man is recorded to have met with, not a ghost, but 
a singular adventure. Having concluded his prayers for 
the souls of the departed, M'ith " requiescant in pace/* 
a multitude of voices, as his biographer Rudborne gravely 
assures us, exclaimed — * Amen' ! How could a church 
stoop so low as to invent, or any individual be so infatuated 
as to propagate, or give credence to such monstrous and 
palpable absurdities ! 

Brynstan having distinguished himself in the mistaken 
piety of the times, has had the honour of fathering divers 
miracles. 

William of Malmesbury thus draws his character : — 
'' Hie Dominici exempli ardentissimus executor, pedes 
egenis omui die, semotis arbitris lavabat, mensam et cibos 
apponens, nee minus pro disciplina famulantium reliquias 
abstergens. Obsequio consummato, pauperibusque di- 
missis, ad multas ibi remanebat horas, oratiouibus, ut 
creditur, vacans, Quadam ergo die pro consuetudine 
ingressus, nulla antea interpellatus molestia segritudinis, 
subito clam omnibus spiritu vitali caruit. — De Pontif. 
lib. Q. fol. 138. 

" An. DCCCCXXXIV. Byrnstanus Epus deces- 
sit in Wintanceaster ad festum omn. sanct." — Sax. Chron. 

Bishop Tanner, on the authority of Leland (Itin. vol. 
3. p. Gl.vita S. Brinstani) observes, "an hospital was 
founded near one of the gates of this city (Winchester) 
by Brinstan, Bishop here, who died A.D. 935, [read 
934,] but his editor queries whether this was not St. 
John's hospital, wherein was the image of this St, 
Brinstan. — See Leland Itin. vol, 3. p. J 00. ami Notitm 
Monastica under Winchester. 



120 ELPHEGE 

XXII. ELPHEGE, (the Bald). 
Succeeded A. D. 935. — Died A.D. 951. 



« 



'An. DCCCCXXXV. Hoc anno capessit jElfea- 
gus Epus episcopatum in Winceastre." Chron. Sax. 
He liad been a monk of Glaston. Rudborne, Hist. Maj. 
lib. 3. cap. 8. It appears that he ordamed St. Dunstan 
and Bishop Ethelwold, one of his own successors in the 
see of Winton, Priests. — ibid. The monkish chroniclers, 
according to the foolish fancies of those times, assert that 
he was gifted with the prophetic spirit, and Rudborne, 
William of Malmesbury, Cressy, Capgrave and Matt. 
Westm. under the year 946, record some absurd stories 
respecting him He was uncle of the celebrated St. 
Dunstan, "by whom he was much promoted in the ways 
of piety." — Cressy' s Ch: Hist: vol. 2. p. 822, or Book 31. 
ch. 2. 

This Bishop is not to be confounded with Elphege, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, tho' Cressy seems to identify 
them in the Index or Table at the end of vol. 2. but not 
so in the place there cited 

The latter historian thus records the death of the 
Bishop. *'But a more considerable losse came to the 
Kingdom by the death of the holy Bishop Elpheg, 
surnamed the Bald, Bishop of Winchester, and uncle to 
St. Dunstan. In the annals of the church of Winchester 
there is recorded a copy of the will made by him before 
his death, by which he disposed of his hereditary lands to 
the benefit of certain persons, men and woman of kindred, 
who were to enjoy the fruits of them during their lives 
only, after which they were to remain to several churches 
and monasteries in the citty of Winchester." — Ch. Hist, 
p. 847. 

The date of his death is variously assigned. Matt. 
Westm. p. 188 says 946. But Maiiros and the Saxon 
Chronicle more correctly 951 The latter thus notices 
that event. *^ An. DCCCCLI. Hoc anno decessit 
iElfeagus, Wint. Epus in festo S. Gregorii." And the 
former, thus: "Anno DCCCCLI Sanctus Elphegus 
Wint. Epiis huic mundo ereptus est." — Chronicain Gale 
Script, vol. l.p. ] 48. 

"In propria ecclesia Cathedrali corpus ejus traditur 
sepu\turi£."'^Jiudb. Hist. Maj. lib. 3, cap. 10. 



ELFSIN. 121 

XXIII. ELFSIN or ALFSY. 

Succeeded A. D. 951. — Translated to Cakterbury 
•A.D. 961.— Died A.D. 961. 

Rudborne calls this Prelate " Vir regalis prosapiae et 
egregiaj literaturet.' — Hist. Maj. lib. 3. cap. X. 

1 can find no authority for the assertion made by 
Bishop Milner in his Hist. Winckest. that this see was 
offered to Dunstan, and on his refusal of it, fell a prey to 
Elfsin. For it happens that it was Canterbury, and not 
Winchester that was offered to and rejected by Dunstan, 
though the former was afterwards accepted by him. What 
he means by a Bishopric 'falling a prei/,' I know not, 
as I hear of no spoliation of either Winchester or Canter- 
bury by Elfsin. It is indeed said, but neither do I find 
any sufficient evidence of that fact, that Canterbury was 
simoniacally obtained by our Prelate ; such charges 
must be received with caution, since it is much easier to 
traduce and vilify than to make out a case against the 
accused. Consult Osbernus de vit: S. Dunstani ap: 
Wharton Ang. Sac. 2. 109. 

Being anxious to procure the papal confirmation to 
Canterbury and the archiepiscopal pall, without which, in 
Roman Catholic times, the archiepiscopal power Avas 
imperfect, he hastened to Rome in very unseasonable 
weather, for the accomplishment of those objects, when 
in crossing the Alps he experienced such intense cold as 
induced him to cause the bodies of the horses on which he 
and his retinue rode, to be cut open in order to preserve 
his own vital heat by plunging his feet into them ; but this 
expedient failing, he died amidst the snow, and his body 
was brought home for interment. Rudborne arid Will, 
Malms. The former tells a long and ridiculous story 
about the apparition of Archbishop Odo, his predecessor 
at Canterbury, 8cc. Mhich the reader who has a relish for 
such Romish puerilities may find at p. 215 of the 2nd. 
volume of Wharton's Ang. Sacra. 

In a note respecting the Pall (for an account of which 
see the Lives of the Bishops of Sarnm, Ft. I. p. 93.) 
Bishop jSIilner in his Hist. Winton observes that the 
pallium is still " quartered" in the Arms of the See of 
Canterbury, He should have said is still " retained." 
It never was and never could, by possibility, be 



123 BRITHELM; &c. 

quartered: for quarterings come by heiresses, as every 
one knows. 

Bishop Godwin says he was translated to Canterbury 
in 958. But this is at variance with the Sax. Chron. 
which fixes Archbishop Odo's death at 96 1. This, 
therefore must be tlie earliest date we can assign to Bishop 
Elfsy's translation. A note in Bishop Gibson's edition 
of the ■S'cf.r, Chron. p. 117 observes, "Post Odonem, 
Archpus factus est Alfsinus, (alii Elsinus) qui tamen a 
plerisque historicis omittitur, quippe baud niulto postea, 
dum Roman ad Pallium petendum proficisceretur, in 
Alpinis montibus gelu constrictus periit." 



XXIV. BRITHELM. 
Succeeded A. D. 961. — Died A. D. 963. 

Some writers have incorrectly placed this Prelate's 
succession at 958. But if Archbishop Odo died in 96I, 
it follows, as Elfsin was his immediate successor, that 
this See could not have been vacated till that year. But 
little is recorded of this Bishop, and that little partakes of 
considerable uncertainty. Bishop Godwin says he sat 
here five years, and died in 963. This is evidently a 
confusion of chronology. The date he appears to have 
copied from Matt. Westm. but the Saxon Chronicle by 
stating that Bishop Althelwold succeeded here in 963, 
virtually places his demise at least at, if not anterior to 
that year. 



XXV. ETHELWALD. 

Succeeded A. D. 963. — Died A. D. 984, 

*' An. DCCCCLXIII. Eodem anno capessit 
Athehvoldus Abbas, Episcopatum in Wintanceaster, et 
consecratus est in vigilia S'- Andreas quae dies fuit 
domiuica." — Sax. Chr. 

This Prelate, who was decidedly the most distinguished 
and munificent yet recorded, was a native of Winchester 



ETHELWALD. 123 

and born of respectable parents * His holy orders he 
received from Bishop Elphege. 

*' Now began," says the accurate and intelligent Cressy, 
'< the great contention long continued and sharply prose- 
cuted between the secular clergy and monks, about the 
right of possessing monasteries and several cathedral 
churches. The first place where it was set on foot was 
the church of Winchester, and the first person who gave 
occasion thereto was St. Ethelwold, this year [963] made 
Bishop of that See." The historian then proceeds to give 
the following sketch of this Prelate's life : " St. Ethelwold, 
when he was grown up, being of a sharp wit, was delivered 
to masters to be instructed in sacred learning, wherein he 
made such progress that King Athelstan hearing a good 
report of him sent for him to court, and took care to have 
him ordained Priest by Elphegus, who at the same time 
also ordained St. Dunstan," &c. After this, Ethelwald 
•went to Glastonbury [Brompton says ut sup. " Glastoniae 
educatus est"] where St. Dunstan gave him the monastical 
habit [cucullatus.] He was for his humility and other 
virtues beloved of all, and constituted by the abbot, Dean 
of the monastery [this preferment is omitted by Bishop 
Godwin, &c.] in which office his humility received no 
diminution ; for he would oft labour in the garden, and 
prepare roots and fruit for his brethren. 

The odour of his sanctity was so far spread, that it came 
to King Edred, who by the recommendation of his mother 
Edgiva, gave to him a certain place called Abendon,-}- 
where anciently had been a monastery, then neglected and 
desolate, for the repairing of which the King furnished 
him out of his own treasure, and his mother more liberally. 
Being made therefore Abbot;}: of that place, he assem- 
bled a congregation of monks, whom he governed with 
great sanctity, &c. After fifteen years, St. Ethelwold 
was made Bishop of Winchester, where he found horrible 
disorder among the canons of the church ; for they, avoid- 
ing the laborious office of the choir, appointed Vicars in 
their places with slender pensions, whilst they consumed 

• Capgiave, Legencla. fol. cxliii. and Brompton A'. Scriptores. p. 877. 

t He continued Abbot of Abingdon till his elevation to the mitre.— See 
Hist. Ccenob. Abcndon. in Aug- Hac. I. p. ICC. 

; See Rudborne Hist. Maj. JVint. lib. 3. cap. 12. 



124 ETHELWALD. 

the revenues of the church in their pleasures. Yea, 
moreover, contrary to the custom and laws of the church, 
they took to themselves wives, which they as easily dis- 
carded again for new ones : and when upon the admo- 
nitions of King Edgar, S. Dunstan, Archbishop, and 
their own Bishop, they would not be corrected, the King 
bestowed their Prebends upon their Vicars ; but they also 
being become rich, appointed other Vicars to perform 
their duties, and became worse than the former. The 
Bishop did not cease to exhort and reprehend them ; but 
all his admonitions and reprehensions were in vain upon 
hearts insensible to all goodness. Yea, such a deep 
hatred they conceived against him for his charitable care 
of their souls, that they prepared poison which he un- 
awares drank down, but the power of his faith hindered 
any ill effect. Hereupon seeing them incorrigible, he 
received power from Kmg Edgar to leave it to their last 
choice, either to reform their lives or to depart ; they chose 
the latter as less grievous to their corrupt natures, and 
thereupon were thrust out of the church, and a congre- 
gation of monks introduced in their place.* Notwith" 
standing, in great compassion and kindness to the said 
disorderly canons, S. Ethelwold assigned for their main- 
tenance many lands belonging to the church, and those 
the nearest to the city and richest for revenue;." Church 
Hist, of Engl, book 32, ch. 12. 1 have omitted some 
nonsense about miracles, as not worth repetition. 

Bishop Godwin records an anecdote very honourable to 
this Prelate, which has been overlooked by some of the 
old historians. In a time of great scarcity he sold all the 
plate of his church, to procure food for the poor ; saying 
that if the church was reduced to poverty, it might again 
be enriched, but that if the poor were starved, it was not 
in the power of man to recall them to life. 

" On the second year after he was consecrated," says 
the Sax. Chron. " he made many minsters (confecit multa 
mouasteria) and drove out the clerks from the bishopric, 
because they would hold no rule, and set monks therein. 
He made there two abbacies ; one of monks, another of 
nuns. That was all within Winchester. Then came he 



, Of the order of St. Benedict, brought from Abingdon.— Tanner, 
liotitia Monastka. Art. Winchester. 



ETHELWALD. 125 

afterwards to King Edgar, and requested he would give 
him all the minsters that heathen men [the Danes] had 
before destroyed, for that he would renew them. This 
the King cheerfully granted, and the Bishop then came 
first to Ely, where St. Etheldritha lies, and ordered the 
minster to be repaired," &c. 

For a remarkable charter given by Edgar, conferring 
freedom to St. Peter's minster, at M edhamsted ( Peter- 
borough) &c. See Gibson's Sax. Chron. Oxon. l692, 
or the new translation, 4to, 1823, p. 153. 

Among other public works for the benefit of Winchester, 
one ought not to be forgotton, the benefit of which is still 
feltby its inhabitants. These experiencing great inconve- 
nience for want of water, which then only flowed in one 
current at the east end of the city, St. Ethelwold made 
different canals, one of which begins near the village of 
Worthy, and thus distributed the water at great toil and 
expense throughout the greater part of the city." The above 
is recorded by Bishop Milner in his Hist, Wint. and by 
Richardson, the editor of Bishop Godwin, on the authority 
of a MS. which it is to be wished they had more parti- 
cularly designated. Richardson adds (p. 210,) from 
Wood's Ms. " Ecclesiam banc de novo renovavit et in 
honorem apostolorum Petri et Pauli dedicavit anno \^^^' 
Etheldredi Regis, ipso rege et pr^esulibus et proceribus 
praesentibus, anno gratia^ 980 sub die 24 Octobris, S. 
Dunstano Ecclesiam dedicante." Po these particulars, 
says Bishop Milner. it must be added, that the cathedral 
was conjointly with the said Saints dedicated also to St. 
Swithun, and that the fame of this our native Saint, soon 
caused the church and monastery to be called by his name 
alone. On this occasion he built the crypts under the 
east end of the church, which still remain as he left them, 
W'olstan in his Epistle to St. Elphege thus alludes to this 
fact: *'insuper occultis studuisti atque addere cryptas." 
The same writer, in the same epistle, speaking of the 
advantage of that part of the river called " the Loch pond," 
which one Bishop brought into the monastery of St. 
Swithun, and which still runs through the close, says, 

hucque 



Dulcia piscosse fluniina traxit aquae 
Secessusque laci peiietraut secieta domonim 
Mundantes totum murmure coeuobium. 

He likewise new modelled and enlarged the benedictine 



126 ETHELWALD. 

nunnery began by King Alfred, or Alswitha his Queen, 
and finished by their soil King Edward the elder, in this 
city. ( Will. Malm, de Fontif. Tanner, Not. Mon.) Tanner 
says nothing of the assistance which Milner says Bishop 
Ethelwolf gave to King Edgar in re-establishing a monas- 
tery at Romsey. 

This Bishop collected and placed in a magnificent 
shrine the remains of Bishop Birin and placed them in 
the new Cathedral. He also translated the remains of 
Bishops Frithstan, Brynstan and Elphege. Rudb. p. 
223 He dedicated the church with eight assistant 
Bishops, in the presence of King Etheldred, XIII. Kal. 
Nov. 980. 

He died in the year 984. The Sax. Chr. thus notices 
the event. "An. DCCCCLXXXIV, Hoc anno 
decessit benevolus Epus de Winceaster, Athelwoldus, 
MoNACHOEUM Pater." — " Kalendis Augusti. Hist. 
Canoh. Abend. Ang. Sac. 1 . l66. 

Bishop Godwin, by his own shewing^ is clearly wrong 
in saying that he sat Bishop only nineteen years. He says 
he succeeded in 963 and died in 984, and yet states 
" sedit annos novendecim," whereas he must have filled 
the see twenty-one years. Richardson, on the authority of 
a MS. adds, *' sepultus est in cripta ex australi plaga 
summi altaris infra propriam ecclesiam." Rudborne says 
nothing of the crypt, but barely "sepultus est infra pro- 
priam ecclesiam ex australi parte magni altaris." 

More may be read of this eminent Prelate in the 
copious Latin Life by Malmesbury, in his book de PontiJ'. 
I shall only subjoin the passages in Bishop Tanner's 
Notitia Monastica, that record the religious foundations 
that Bishop Ethelwold patronized: — 

Berks. " The Benedictine Abbey at Abingdon being 
destroyed in the Danish wars, was, A. D. 9-55 restored by 
Ethelwold its Abbot, afterwards Bishop of Winton, and 
the bounty of King Edred and King Edgar. The site of 
this Abbey was granted 1 Edw. I. to Sir Thos. Seymour, 
and 5 Edw. VI. to Sir Thos. Worth. 

Cambridgeshire. IX. Ely. In 970, Ethelwold, 
Bishop of Winchester, introduced an Abbat and regulars, 
nobly re-edified the monastery, and amply endowed the 
same, partly by his own purchases and partly by the 
munificence of King Edgar and other benefactors. 

Thorney. XXVI. This house having been destroyed 



ETHELWALD. 127 

by the Danes, Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, A.D. 
972, re-founded it tor Benedictine Monks, to the honour 
of the blessed Virgin Mary. 

Hants. XXXV. Nunnaminster. This house was 
also new modelled and enlarged by Bishop Ethelwold. 
[Not founded by him as Capgrave says, f. 144, and Leland 
Coll. I. 26.] 

Hmits. St. Neot's. If credit may be given to the 
Ely historian, St. Neot first placed Monks here, who 
being dispersed by the Danes, were afterwards restored, 
and the monastery again bestowed by the bounty and 
piety of one Leofric and his wife Leofleda, upon the 
encouragement of Ethelwold, Bishop of VVinton. 

Norts. Peterburgh. After it (scil. the Benedictine 
Abbey there) had flourished about two hundred years, it 
was destroyed by the Danes A.D. 870, and lay in ruins 
till A,D. 970, when Ethelwold, Bishop of Winton, 
assisted by King Edgar and his chancellor Adulf, re-built 
it in a more stately and magnificent manner. 

Surrey. Chertsey. Beocca the Abbot and ninety 
Monks having been killed, and the Abbey burnt to the 
ground, during the Danish wars, it was re-founded by 
King Edgar and Bishop Ethelwold to the honour of St. 
Peter. — See Chronkon Evesham. Leland Coll. I. 70. 



XXVI. ELPHEGE II, 

Succeeded A. D. 984. — Translated to Canterbury 
1005.— Died A.D. 1012. 

The Saxon Chronicle under the year 984, writes this 
Prelate's name with an alias, viz. Godwin. His conse- 
cration took place the 14th. day before the calends of 
November, and he took his seat on the episcopal bench 
on the mass day of the two apostles Simon and Jude, at 
Vi'^inchester. Vid. ut sup. Bishop Elpheg or Elfeah 
sat here twenty-one years, and in 1005 was chosen Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, being consecrated the following 
year. — lb. See Ingram's Trans, p. 178. 

His life occupying twenty folio pages, is written in 
Latin by Osborne, and may be found in the Anglia Sacra, 
vol. 2. p. 122. 



128 ELPHEGE II. 

The following memoirs compiled chiefly from Osborne, 
by Bishop Miluer, will be found preferable to the dull 
and tedious recital of the monkish biographer : 

" In the same year that St. Ethelwold died, viz. in 984, 
St. Elpheg II. or the martyr, was consecrated in his 
place, by St. Dunstan, Bishop of Winchester. He was 
of a good family and well educated, and in his early youth 
became a monk at Deerhurst [in caenobio *Hirstensi.] in 
Gloucestershire ( Wm. Malm, de Pont.). Thence remov- 
ing to Bath,-|- many persons resorted to him, who forming 
a monastery thus gave a beginning to what afterwards be- 
came the cathedral of that city. [^Godwin int. Archpos. Cant, 
p. 54.] In this situation, his virtues shone out so 
resplendently that he was judged worthy to succeed the 
great S. Ethelwolf in this See. His elevation made no 
alteration in his devotions or austerities. He continued 
both in winter and summer to rise at midnight, in order to 
perform the divine office, and prolonged his prayers till it 
was broad day, [^Osherne and Malmesb.] and he never eat 
flesh meat except when sickness rendered it necessary, and 
was otherwise so abstemious that his body seemed to be 
reduced to a skeleton. {ib.~\ In his public charge he 
was indefatigable, particularly in his attention to the poor, 
■which was so exemplary and well conducted that there 
were no beggars in his diocese during the time that he 
governed it His zeal was also conspicious for the due 
performance of the public service of the church, (SS^ and he 
is recorded for having introduced the use of organs into 
Winchester cathedral. [ili.S. note by Baker in Richard- 
son's notes p. 211.] Having governed this See in the 
most exemplai-y" manner during the space of 22 years, he 
was, on the death of Alfric the Archbishop, much against 
his own inclinations, removed to the See of Canterbury in 
1006, whither he took with him part of the relics of St. 
Swithun. In this exalted station his zeal and piety were 
no less conspicuous than they had been at Winchester 



* See Tanner, Notit. Monast. art. Derehurste. "Elphege, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, was about that time [9801 a monk l>ere. — Leland Col. 1. 
19. ii. 249. 

t Milner has omitted Elpheg's first perferment. He was Prior of 
Glastonbury before he was Abbot of Batn.— See fVill. Malm, lib, 2. cap. 
XI. (rfe reg.) 



ELPHEGE It. 129 

In conclusion, being resei-ved by God to witness the heavy 
calamity which befel his metropolitical cit}', in 1013, from 
the vide wasting Danes, he acted the part of the good 
shepherd, in its utmost extent, exhorting, comforthig, and 
assisting his flock, and opposing himself to the fury of the 
barbarians. He was seen to rush between the murderers 
and their helpless victims, crying out to the former, " If 
you are men, spare at least the innocent and the unresist- 
ing ; or if you w ant a victim, turn your swords upon me ; 
it is I that have so often reproached you with your crimes^ 
that have supported and redeemed the prisoners whom 
you ha\'e made, and have deprived you of many of your 
soldiers, by converting them to Christianity." The person 
and the merit of St. Elphege were well known to the 
Danes, he having been sent upon different embassies to 
them, and rendered them many charitable offices.—^ 
[Matt. West.] — Hence they did not dare to strike him, 
but satisfied themselves with seizing upon him, and com- 
mitting him to close custody, intending to extort ati 
enormous sum for his ransom. During his confinement 
of seven months, these Pagans being alarmed at an epi- 
demical distemper which afflicted them, were upon the 
point of releasing him without any ransom. At length, 
however, their avarice prevailing, they sent for him td 
Greenwich, where their fleet then lay, and put the question 
finally to him, whether he was prepared to pay 3000 marks 
of gold which they had imposed as his fine. His answer 
was that all the money which he could command had been 
spent upon the poor, and that if he had more it would be 
their property : in a word that he had no gold to bestow 
upon those, in whose presence he stood, except that of 
true wisdom which consisted in the knowledge of the living 
God. Being provoked at this answer, they beat him to 
the ground, and began to overwhelm him with stones and 
the horns of slaughtered oxen, [Matt. West.Ji whilst he^ 
raising up his eyes to heaven, thus addressed himself t& 
his divine master : ' O good shepherd, do thott watch Ove* 
the children of thy church, whom, with my last breath, t 
recommend to thee.' Our saint having pronounced this 
prayer, and continuing to suffer, a Dane, byname ThrUm, 
whom he had the day before baptized, moved by a cruel 
kind of pity, struck him on the head with his battle-axe, 
and completed his martyrdom. 

K 



130 EENULF, Scci 

Osborne, as above, gives a long account, which ir 
annexed to the life, of the translation of the martyr's body 
from Loudon to Canterbury. — See also Rudborne, Hist. 
Maj. p. 223. 

Matt. Paris records him as subscribing a charter in 
996. Vol. 11. p. 241. 



XXVII. KENULF. 

Succeeded A. D. 1006. — Died eod. an. 

He Is sometimes written with an alias, viz. Elsiusr. 
Bishop Godwin accuses him of having obtained the 
bishopric simoniacally, but on wiiat ground does not 
appear, as he quotes no authority. 

Rudborne thus records him : " Elphego in Episcopatu 
Wyntoniae eodem anno [1006] successit Kenulphus, 
ejusdem ecclesiae monachus, ut scribit Vigilancius, in 
libro de Basilica Petri. Rudborne erroneously adds, 
that Kenulph sat Bishop here not quite three years. He 
did not sit Bishop one year. Florentius properly says he 
died the same year he was consecrated. — See Wharton's 
Ang. Sac. vol. I. p. 226. 

He was buried in Winton Cathedral. — Rudbornef 
ut sup. ' 

XXVIII. BRITHWOLD or ETHELWOLD II. 

Succeeded A. D. 1006. — Died A.D. 1015. 

Rudborne calls him Ethel wold, and says he sat here six 
years, and that he was buried in the Cathedral. Hist. Maj. 
p. 227. Wharton's dates in this part of the history, are 
preferable to those of Rudborne, who is frequently erro- 
neous, and adds much of his own, without authority, to 
the older writers. He is often well corrected by 
Wharton. 



ELSIN. 131 

XXIX. ELSIN,* or ELFSY. 
Succeeded A. D. 1015.— Died A. D. 1032. 

Rudboine, and the other chroniclers, are so con- 
fused in their dates in this part of the history, and the 
former so repeatedly contradicts himself, that it is quite 
impossible to arrive at any degree of chronological ex- 
actness. 

Bishop Godwin calls this Prelate, Chaplain to King 
Harold ; and says, the latter appointed him Bishop of 
Winchester: but this is impossible, as Harold was not 
King 'till 1036 : and, moreover, the Bishop died in 1032. 
Yet the same author, in defiance of chronology, says he 
was translated to Canterbury in 1038, which was six 
years after his decease. The Eadsin, therefore, who was 
Archbishop of Canterbury, was a different person. 

The Saxon Chronicle thus records the death of this 
Prelate, and the succession of the next : — *' A. D. 
MXXXII. The same year died Elfsy, Bishop of Win- 
chester, and Elfwin, the King's priest, succeeded him."'j' 
The same fact is also asserted in the Annal. Petrob. &c. 



XXX. ELFWIN, or ALWIN. 
Succeeded A. D. 1032.— Died A. D. 1047. 

*' King Canute," says Rudborne, "in the 18th. year of 
his reign, and A. D. 1033, appointed Alwyn Bishop after 
the death of Ethelwold." This is evidently a mistake, the 
name Ethelwold having been inserted instead of Elsin. 
The authority of the Saxon Chronicle is far preferable to 
that of Rudborne. The fonner, both places the succes- 
sion of our Prelate a year earlier, and calls his prede- 
cessor by his right name. 

Alwyn was a man of family, and related to Queen Em- 
ma, who was committed to his care by Richard, Duke of 
Normandy, when he sent her into England to be espou- 
sed to King Etheldred. He was a warrior, and had been 



• Written also, Alsin and Eadsin. t Ingram's transl. p. 206. 

K 2 



ISt ELF WIN. 

appointed to preside over the province of Southampton, 
and fought bravely against tlie Danes. Rudborne, (Hist. 
Maj. Wint. Aug. Sac. vol. 1. p. 233.) says, he was created 
Earl of Southampton. But this creation is not noticed 
by Diigdale (Baronage, vol. 1, p. l6) who only names, 
under the old Earls of Southampton, Osric, who enjoyed 
that honor so early as 860; iElfegus, who died 981 ; and 
Alfelme, in the reign of Canute, who married the Earl's 
daughter Ailiva, mother of King Harold. 

Preferring an ecclesiastical to a military life, Ahvyn 
exchanged the sword for the cowl, at the conclusion of 
the peace between Edmund Ironside and Canute, and 
became a Monk of St. Swithun's. Bishop Ethelwold 
himself, from respect to his connexions, investing him 
with the cowl of St. Benedict. He afterwards became 
Sacristan, and in the nineteenth year of his Monkhood, 
he was appointed, as Rudbome expressly states, by the 
King himselj* and at the desire of Queen Emma, to the 
Bishopric of Winchester. — A fact, particularly worthy of 
observation, as incontestibly furnishmg another instance, 
and that on the authority of a Roman Catholic Historian, 
that the ** Holy See," as yet, laid no claim to the right 
of appointing to vacant English Bishoprics, by " papal 
provision." 

For some political reason, with which the old Histo- 
rians do not condescend to make us acquainted, Robert, 
aftei-wards Archbishop of Canterbury, the then favorite 
of the monarch, published a calumnious report against 
Emma, the mother Queen; charging her with a criminal 
connexion with our Prelate, as well as being accessary to 
the death of her Son Alfred, and throwing impediments 
m the way of the succession of Edward the Confessor. 
The ground work of the base insinuation which formed 
the first charge, was, no doubt the great friendship and 
regard which subsisted between the Bishop and his 
royal ward. The Archbishop, at the order of the King 
(' przecipiente rege') convened a Synod, and it was de- 
termined (adds my author, though the older historians are 
silent on the point,) that the Queen should undergo the 
test, so usual in that superstitious age, of the fiery f ordeal. 

* "Per Knutonem Regem in Episcopatum ordinatus est." 

+ The word ordeal is derived from or great, and deal judgment. Or- 
deal was of four kinds. 1st, By red hot iron, either held iu tlie band 



ELF WIN. 133 

To this test she gladly assented, and walked ovfer nine 
red-hot plough shares, which were placed on the pave- 
ment in the nave of Winchester Cathedral, without 
suffering the least injury from them. Malmesbury, 
Huntingdon, Hovedon, and Simeon of Durham, have 
not recorded this extraordinary event. But Ralph Higden, 
a writer of the 14th Century, in his Polychronicon, relates 
it at length ; and it is also transmitted by the more recent 
historians. The Saxon Chronicle, though it speaks of 
the harsh conduct of the Confessor, towards his mother 
Emma, (see A. D. 1043) says nothing of the ordeal. 

Wharton in his Hist. Engl. Poetry, vol. 1 . p. 89, says, 
that in the year 1338, (about three centuries after the 
fact) when Adam de Orleton, Bishop of Winton, visited 
his Cathedral Priory of St. Swithun in that city, a min- 
strel, named Herbert was introduced, who sung the tale 
of • Queen Emma delivered from the ploughshares^ in 
the hall of the prior. Alex, de Herriard. He cites 
as his authority MSS. in Archiv. Wolvesei/. Wint. 
The event, if it took place at all, must have taken 
place between 1043 and 1047, the former being the 
period of Edward's Consecration as King ; (Sax. 
Chron. A. D. 1043) and the latter, the time of the 
demise of Bishop Alwyn, who was present at the 
ordeal. This delivery of Queen Emma was, it seems, 
the fortunate means of enriching Winchester Cathedral 
with no less than t^venty-one manors. The King having 
conferred on it three. Queen Emma nine, and the Bishop 
nine. Rudborne thus particularizes their several donations : 
The King (Edwaid the Confessor) gave Portland, 
Wykhelewelle, [Wyke Regis.] and Waymuthe. Queen 
Emma gave Brandesbury, Bergefeld, FyfFhide, Hoghtone, 



er walked upon with the feet, bare. 2nd, By boiling water, into which 
the person accused was to plunge his arm. 3rd, By cold water, into 
which the suspected party was thrown. 4th, By duel. These several 
modes of impiously tempting God, were repeatedly sanctioned by the 
laws of the Kingdom, as may be seen in Bromptnn's Collections! sncli 
was the blind superstition of that age. Bisliop Milner makes a remark 
upon this unchristian judgment, which if it did not proceed from a 
Boman Catholic, one must suppose emanated from one not sound in the 
intellect. " Being practised with an upright mind and lively faith, there 
is no doubt , but the Almighty did frequejitly interpose in behalf of inno- 
cence." But of this, I beg to doubt, nor does " the authentic histoiy" 
to which the learned Historian of Winchester alludes, at all remove my 
scepticism. King James I., who as a Protestant Monarch, ought to liavff 
kfiowD better, revived some of these foolish and impious practices. 



134 ELFWIN. 

Mychelmenshe, Ivyngeho, Wycombe, Weregravys, and 
Haylynge. The Bishop gave Stouehani, East and West 
Meone, Hentone, Wytneye, Yelynge, My 1 broke, Pol- 
hamptone, and Hodyngtone. As for the plonghshares, 
they received an exemption from future duty, being 
buried in the West Cloister of the Cathedral. The 
whole of this ridiculous story, is treated by Bishop 
Godwin, with merited contempt. " Quoe de Emmae 
purgcitione referuntur fabul<e (ne dicam aniles) mona- 
chales," p. 57. 

I find nothing else in the ancient memorials of this Bishop 
except that he gave c£l500 sterling to the Cathedral. 
He died in the year 1047, having sat Bishop here 15 years. 

" A. D. MXLVII. "This year died Elfwine, Bishop 
of Winchester, on the 4th day before the calends of 
September," Sax. Chron. 

Bishop Godwin thus speaks of his burial place : " Se- 
pultus -acet supra parielem presbyterii, ubi tumulo ejus 
epitapliium vidimus adscriptum hujusmodi, 

Hie jacet Alwini corpus qui munera nobis 
ContuHt egregia, parcito Christe rogamus." 

His Editor, Richardson, adds in a note " Sepultus fuit 
primitus in crypta ex parte australi summi altaris, nunc 
vero positus in Sacrifago plumbeo super osteuin illiu* 
pryptie." 



XXXI. STIGAND. 

Succeeded A. D. 1047. — Translated to Canterbury 
A. D. 1052. — Deprived and Died 1070. 

The Saxon Chronicle (Ingram's Translation) thus 
records Stigaud. "A. D. 1043, (p. 213) Stigand the 
Priest was consecrated Bishop over the East Angles;" 
and (eod: an: p. 19), "Soon after this, Stigand was 
deprived of his Bishopric." " 1044, (p. 215), Stigand 
returned to his Bishopric." " 1047, (p. 2l6) This year, 
died Elfwine, Bishop of Winchester, on the 4th day be- 
fore the Calends of September; and Stigand, Bishop 
of Norfolk, was raised to this See." " 1052,- (p. 239) 
Stigand succeeded to the Archbishopric of Canterbury." 
** 1058, (p. 249) Pope Benedict sent him the Pall." 



STIGAND. 135 

The Sax. Chron. is silent as to Gryncetel's procuring by 
means of bribing the Judges, the ejection of Stigand 
from Elmham, as will afterwards be noticed. 

This Prelate was first chaplain to Queen Emma, (Dart. 
Hist. Cant. fo. 115) and afterwards to King Harold 
Harefoot. He gained the Bishopric of Elmham, by 
simony* in 1038 according to Matthew Westm. (p. 210) 
and Florentius, though Godivin (p. 212) erroneously 
says 1043. 

For having sided with the King, he was subsequently, 
when Hardicnute obtained the crown, ejected from his 
Bishopric, in 1040, by Grimketel, (Matt. Westm.) who 
held it with the See of the South Saxons. Hardicnute, 
who succeeded his brother Harold in that year, turned 
out most of his brother's friends, but dying in two years 
time, the scene was changed, Hardicnute's friends were 
ejected and Harold's restored; when Grimketel being in 
his turn ejected, our Prelate was restored, and made 
chaplain to Edward the Confessor : for in a register of 
Bury, as Blometield the Historian of Norfolk observes, 
it is said that Edward the Confessor, in the first year of 
his reign came to Buiy, and then gave Mildenhall manor 
to that Monastery. Soon after which, Stigand his 
chaplain, was made Bishop of the East Angles, to whom 
they granted that manor for life : and he held it all the 
time he was Bishop, and after he was Archbishop of 
Canterbury. He by way of retaliation, got the Bishopric 
of the South Saxons to be taken away from Grimketel, 
and the administration of it committed to himself: and so 
governed both Sees to 1047. And then at the death of 
Alwin, Bishop of Winchester, he took that See, leaving 
this to his brother Egelmare. Rudb. His. Maj. p. 239. 
He sat at Winchester five years ; and then Robert, Arch-p 
bishop of Canterbury being banished, he seized that See 
in 1052, Robert being alive, and not deposed ; and 
held it with Winchester, Godwin says he was a man 
of very great spirit, though very illiterate, and exceedingly 
covetous ; for after Robert's death, he held both Sees 
till William the Conqueror conquered all the land except 
Kent : the people of which county, by Stigand's advice. 



• Qui prius, data pecunia, faerat Epus Helmhamensis ac deinceps 
JVintoniensis.— //««. Paris, vol. 1. p. 7. 



m STIGAND. 

aseeinbled together, and every man taking a bough in hig 
hand, in order to prevent their being distinguished by 
the royal party, surprized the King at Swauscomb, as 
lie passed through that county, and forced him to promise 
them that they should be governed by their ancient lawg 
and customs, which he performed,* dissembled his anger 
at the time, and seemed to be his friend ; he first shewed 
his resentment by being crowned by Aldred, Archbishop 
of York, instead of Stigand ; and when he came into 
Normandy, mider pretence of doing him the greater 
honour, he took him with him, but the truth was he was 
afraid to leave him at home, and after he had settled every 
thing in Normandy, and had returned home, he thought 
of nothing more than to degrade him ; and for this end he 
sent privately to the Pope, who dispatched three Cardinal* 
into England, to examine, place, or displace the Archbishop 
and the rest of the English clergy ; upon which Stigand 
fled into Scotland, and after that hid in Ely monastery. 

At length a general synod of thef clergy being called 
at Winchester,! anno 1070, he was not only deprived but 
degraded of all his orders and condemned to perpetual 
imprisonment for these three crimes or rather pretences, 
first because he held two bishoprics, which was no more 
than Dunstan and Oswald two of the Pope's saints had 
done before. The second was because he took the arch- 
bishopric of Canterbury unjustly, while Robert was alive, 
who could not enjoy it when he was banished, neither 
could he have kept it against the King's will. The third 
and true reason why the §Pope was so unmerciful to him, 
was, because he received not the pall at tlie hands of 
Pope Benedict the Vlllth. whom the Cardinals had de- 
posed, and would not take it again of Leo the IXth, or 
any other lawful Pope. From the time of his deprivation 
he was kept his whole life a close prisoner in Winchester,^ 



• Biady m his Hist. p. 189, &c. says that Stigand took part with the 
Eails Echv7n and xMoicar and others of the nobility who had designed 
Edgar AUieliug their King, but repented, and followed Duke William to 
Walhngford, and there made peace with him. But this was not for- 
gotten. 

t Brady's Hist. 213. Holingshead p. 829. and Godwin, p. 58. 
t Accoiding to Godwin, 1069 

$ He was under excommtmication v/hen the Conqueror was crowned, 
which tliat King made use. of, as a pretence for not being crowned by him. 
% Tirel's Hist. p. 29. 



STIGAXD. 137 

where he lived very meanly, wanting even common food, 
being so covetous that he would advance no money out of 
his vast treasures, wliich at his death were found under 

f round, and seized by the King and carried to the treasury.* 
le was buried at Winchester, in a leaden coffin, placed 
on the top of the wall on the north side of the presbytery, 
tluis inscribed : 

Hie jacet Stigandus Archteopiscopus. 

He died the year he was deprived, [1070] " not with- 
out suspicion," as Bloniefield adds, **of bad usage in his 
life." Hist. Norfolk, vol. 2, p. 327. I have followed 
Mathew of Westminster's date instead of that assigned bj 
Godwin, viz. 10b"9. The former says, " A. D. 1070, 
Pascham, apud Wintoniam celebravit ecclesia tota Angli- 
cana, rege procurante. Ibi Stigandus Archiepiscopus 
degradatus est et Ailmarus frater ejus." 

Bishop Godwin defends Stigand. Ordericus and 
Matthew Paris speak of him in strong terms of censure. 
The former, at p. ol6 says, " perjurii et homicidii in- 
quinatus erat,nec per ostium, archipraesulatum introierat." 
The latter has these words : " Prim6 Stigandum perpetuo 
carceri mancipavit [Gul. Conq. scil.] et merito, quia &c." 
*' Ipse similis arundini ventis agitatie nunc Regi nunc 
Anglis videbatur inclinare." Vol. 2, p. 47, line 50. Paris 
in vol. 1, p. 7, calls him Apostata. Matthew of West- 
minster distinctly accuses him of Simony : " Stigandus 
ut avaritiae propriae satisfaceret Cantuariensem et Winton- 
iensem data pecuuia thronos ascendit." See under the 
year 1038, and also Flores Hist. p. 210, under the same 
year. 

Richardson, in a note on Godwin respecting the mon- 
umental inscription above recorded by the latter, adds, 
*' Nunc vero hoc raodo inscribitur. In hac cista A.D. 
1 66 1 promiscue recondita sunt ossa Principum et Pragla- 
torum, sacrilega barbaric dispersa, A.D. 1642." 

The following are the notices of this Prelate by William 
of Malmesbury (Post Bedam de Pont. lib. 1.). 

Tunc Stigandus quidam, qui quondam dimisso orienta- 
1mm Anglorum Episcopatu, sublimiorem gradum medi- 
tatus Wintoniensem mvaserat, rapuit occasionem desidera- 
tam ut innocentis regis simplicitatem circumveniens Archi- 

• Gedwin, p. 84. Willis'* Hist, of Convent. L pt. 286. 



138 STIGAND. 

?piscopatum septendecim annis tantis honoribus adjunge- 
ret: alias sane nee imprudens, nee ineffieax. Cceterum 
adversus ambitum nihil dignitati suae consulens, quzecun- 
que posset aliis praeripere sibi abscondere, nunquam avar- 
itiam suara moderari : sacros honores Ecclesiarum hos sibi 
pecunia coniparans, istos aliis lingua vendicans : prorsus 
publicas nundinas en Episcopatibus et Abbatiis faciens, 
et ibi cupiendi modestiam admittens, ubi quod cuperet 
deesset. Nonne illud belluinae rapacitatis dices, quod 
Wintoniae episcopatum et Cantuariae Archiepiscopatum,*' 
praeterea multas Abbatias solus ipse possidebat, quae sin- 
gula satis superque sufficirent alicui probo viro ? Sed 
ego conjicio ilium non judicio sed errore peccasse, quod 
homo illiteratus (sicuti plerique et pene omnes tunc temp- 
oris Angliae Episcopi, nesciret quantum delinqueret, rem 
ecclesiasticorum negotiorum sicut-publicorum actitari ex- 
istnnans. Quare nunquam pallium a Roma meruit, 
quamvis et ibi venalitas multum operetur, nisi quod qui^ 
dam Benedictus apostolicae sedis persuasor ipsi misit gra- 
tulatus, quod eum quem alii Archiepiscopi ducebant ludi- 
brio, ipse Papam appellasset. Sed illo non multum de- 
jecto, omnia ejus facta evacuata, decretumque consilio 
salubri non potuisse eum dare legitime pallium qui juste 
non habuisset Papatum. Non resipuit super his Stigan- 
dus sed perstitit, parum cogitans de anirnaruni salute, tan-j 
tum forensi frueretur honore. Interea VVillielmus Comes 
Normanniae Angliam veniens armis Provinciam perdo- 
muit cum et Dei permissio suflfragaretur et nonnullae causae 
suppeterent, quas non infirmas ipse arbitraretur. Qui cum 
et belli Hastingensis victoria et castelli Dofrensis deditione 
terrorem sui nominis sparsisset, Londoniam venit, venienti 
Stigandus cum potentissimis Anglis processu et favore sue 
applausit: consertisque loquelis VVillielmus eum in patrena 
et Archiepiscopum, ipse Williehnum in regem recepit et 
filium. Veruntamen coronam regni de manu ejus Rex 
detractavit suscipere, astutia qua consueverat, prohibitores 
ex parte Apostolici subornans. Nee multo post in Nor- 
manmian navigans sub velamine honoris ilium renitentem 
secum traxit, ne quid perfidie se absente per ejus authori-r 
tatem in Anglia pullularet. Inter quze difficile dictu est, 
quantis eum exceperit officiis dignanter ubicunque loco^ 

• What would he have said of Wolsey, had he lived in hi« time? 



STIGAND. 139 

rum assurgendo et contra eum in omnibus Episcopatibus 
Normanniae et Abbatiis longa seiie pompae procedi faci- 
endo. Sed quicquid his tegebatur involucris, erupit in 
clarum veniente in Angliam Ermenfredo, Seduense Epis- 
copo, Legato Alexandri Papue, qui ad voluntatem regis, 
coacto concilio Stigandum deposuit, fidem Williehni ap- 
pellantem et violeatiam reclamantem. Et quamvis ille se 
blande excusans preaeceptum Papze objectaret, non tamen 
in opinionem aftectatae depositionis exclusit, quod eum 
toto cevo in vinculis Wintoniee habuerit, Ibi ergo Sti- 
gandus tenui victu vitam toleravit, quod ei parum de fisco 
ferebatur, et ipse ingenita mentis duritia nihil de suo in- 
ferri pateretur. Quin et hortantibus amicis et praecipere 
regina Edgitha Edwardi regis relicta, ut se delecatius ve- 
stiret et pasceret, per omne sanctum pejerabat non se ha- 
bere nummum nee valens. Sed huic sacramento solida- 
tem veri abfuisse probavit ingens vis opum post mortem 
ejus in subterraneis specubus inventarum. Ad quarum 
indicium ut veniretur, auxiUo fuit clavicula collo exanimati 
dependens, quis familiaris scrinii esset custos. Ea serae 
immissa, manifestavit per cartas inventas et qualitatem 
metallorum et quaiititatem ponderum. 

The same writer (Gul. Malm, de gestis reg. lib. 2, p. 
82, 1, 28) thus expresses himself: " Invasit continuo illo 
vivente [Roberto] Stigandus qui erat Epiis Wintoniensis 
Archiepiscopatum Cantuariae ; infamis ambitus poutifex 
et bonorum ultra debitum appetitor, qui spe throni excel- 
sioris Episcopatum Saxonum Australium deserens Win- 
toniam insedit, illam quoque eum Archiepiscopatu tenu- 
erit. Quapropter ab Apostolica sede nunquam pallium 
meruit, nisi quod Benedictus quidam persuasor Apostol- 
atus misit, pecunia scilicet ad persuadendum corruptus 
vel quod mali gratificantur similibus. Sed ille mox a 
Nicholao, qui ex Epo Florentiae legitime Papatum sus- 
ceperat, expulsus zelo fidelium, indebitum nomen exuit. 
Stigandus quoque temp. R. Willielmi Conquestoris per 
Cardinales Romanos degradatus perpetuisque viaculis 
~ innodatus, inexplebilis aviditatis nee moriens fecit finem." 

Rudborne contradicts the assertion of VVdliam of 
Malmesbury above quoted, as to Stigand's bemg held in 
chains by King William, and quotes the author De Con- 
cordantiis (sub litera S.) as saymg that Malmesbury was 
napping when he said this. William, he says, havi hmi 
in custody in the castle at Winchester, but within it he 
had full liberty of person. 



25tief|jop^ of It^intfjc^ter, ^intt tfjc Conquest* 

; I. WALKELIN. 

Succeeded A. D. 1070.— Died A. D. 1098. 



This Prelate, who was a Norman by birth, and a cousin 
of William the Conqueror, had taken his degree of D. D. 
at Paris, (Rudb.) and was appointed Stigand's successor 
in 1070, on the day of Pentecost, (Hoveden) being con- 
secrated by Bishop Amienfride the Pope's Legate. 

Malmesbury informs us that at his first entering on the 
See, he conceived a violent disgust towards the monks, 
whose situations he meant to supply with secular canons ; 
but that afterwards, being induced to alter his opinion, he 
cherished them as sons, &c. " Deinceps fovens eos ut 
filios, diligens ut fratres, honorans ut Dominos." Instead 
of dislodging them, he set about reforming them, through 
the means of his brother Simeon, who was chosen their 
Prior. This Simeon, and his successor Godfrey, as the 
Annaks Wintoniemis record under the year 1082, p. 294, 
succeeded in inducing them to abstain from flesh meat, 
and to be content with fish; "Datae sunt autem eis pisces 
et abstinuerant a carnibus." 

But not to dwell on these silly reformations and fond 
conceits, we will now pass on to a splendid act of our 
Pielate, which deservedly immortalizes his name. I 
allude to the rebuilding of Winchester Cathedral in a 
noble style of architecture, entirely at his own expence, a 
work which he commenced in 1079 [" Anno MLXXIX 
Walkelinus Epus a fundamentis Wintoniensem coepit re- 
oedificare ecclesiam." AnnaL Wint. p. 294. "Anno 
gratiae 1079 Incipitur renovari ecclesia episcopatus Win- 
toni*.^' Matt. West. p. 228. J The reader will recollect 
that this re-building of the Cathedral is just 99 years since 
it had been built by Bishop Ethelwold, for soon after the 
former erection had been completed, the city fell into the 



WALKELIN. 141 

hands of the Pagan Danes under Swayne, and doubtless 
the Cathedral must have suffered greatly under their sa- 
crilegious and rapacious devastation. 

The author of the Annafes Wint. under the 1080, 
p. 295, relates a circumstance which occurred during 
the course of this work. William permitted Walkelin 
to take from his wood called Henipage, about three 
miles from Winchester on the Alresford road, as much 
timber as he could cut and carry away in four days and 
nights, (not three, as Bishop Milner says). The cunning 
Bishop accordingly collected an immense number of car- 
penters, and actually removed the whole wood to Win- 
chester. The King happening to go that way, looked 
about with astonishment, and exclaimed, ' Am I fascina- 
ted? Have I lost my senses? Where am I? Had I not 
a delightful Mood here close to Winchester?' Being in- 
formed of the fact, he was much enraged ; but the Bishop 
gaining admittance, under a disguise, threw himself at the 
monarch's feet, and offered to resign his bishopric, so that 
he could but retain the friendship which the King had en- 
tertained for him while in the more humble capacity of his 
chaplain. The generous monarch, disarmed of his resent- 
ment, restored him to his favor ; saying, ' Walkelin, I was 
too liberal in my grant, and you too avaricious in the use 
you made of it.' 

This affair happened in the last year of WiUiam's life : 
after which the building was continued seven years longer, 
and at the end of fourteen years, viz. in 1093, the new 
church was rendered fit for divine service , and the con- 
ventual offices for the reception of the monks ; almost all 
the Prelates and Abbots of England attending the dedica- 
tion, which took place July \6, being the festival of St. 
Swithun. The next day, the Bishop's workmen began to 
demolish the old monastery. Annales Wint. 1093, p. 295. 

The Saxon Chronicle records none of these circum- 
stances, nor does even the name of Walkelin occur in the 
index annexed to Ingram's Translation, excepting once 
where his death is recorded, at p. 317; but Malmesbury, 
a contemporary historian, (reg. lib. 3, and de Pont. 1. 2,) 
speaks fully on the point. 

William Rufus being in Normandy, and in want of 
money, sent an order to Walkelin to send him, without 
delay, ^£200. a large sum in those days, which the Bishop 
being unable to raise, M'ithout either selling the valuables 



142 VVALKELTN. 

of the Church or stinting the poor, prayed that he might 
be dehv( red from the ujisenes of life ; an event which took 
place within ten days. A/males Wiiit. ut sup. 

He was buried in the nave of his Cathedral, at the foot 
of the steps leading into the choir. (liudOorne, Hist. 
Maj. lib. 3, cap. 1. p. 256.) 

His character is thus drawn by Malmesbury ; Cujus 
bona opera famam vincentia senium a se vetustatis repel- 
lent quamdiu inibi sedes Episcopales durabit. Una in re 
multum peccavit, niniiruin quod ad centum libratas terras 
Monachis auferens, suis et successorum usibus applicuit. 

Godwin, in a culpable manner, passes over the impor- 
tant fact of his being the refounder of our Cathedral. He 
merely says, " lUo sedente, anni nimirum 1079 Ecclesia; 
Cathedralis fabrica quam nunc cenninus, primum erigi 
ccepta." p. 213. 

The following sketch is from Rudborne, p. 255. 
Post Stigandum, qui contra decreta Canonum ambas 
sedes occupaverat Cantuariensem viz. et VVyntoniensem, 
in sede Wyntoniensi, Stigando deposito, successit in Epis- 
copatum Wentanae civitatis Walkelinus, vir magnae liter- 
aturae, doctor in Theologia egregius, in studio Parisiacensi 
cathedram ascendit magistralem, consanguineus enim erat 
Willielmi Conquaestoris et natione Normannus. Hie pri- 
mis temporibus suee consecrationis Monachos Ordines S. 
Benedicti supra modum exosos habebat ; ut habetur in 
Gest. Pontif. lib. 2." Unde et 300 libratas terrae Monachis 
Ecclesise suae auferans, suis et successorum suorum usibus 
implicuit. Iste Walkelimus incitavit omnes Epos Anglias 
ad expellendum Monachos a Cathedralibus Ecclesiis iu 
Anglia, ut habetur in Gestis Pont. lib. 1 , cap. 7. 

Walkelinus Epus fieri fecit turrim Ecclesiae Wintoni- 
ensis, ut modo cernitur; coetum Monachorum in ipsa 
Ecclesia augmentavit ; et postquam strenue rexisset Wyn- 
toniensem Ecclesiam 27 annis, quievit in Domino ; ilium 
nempe 

Atropus occurrit, Lachesis traxit, reparavit 

Clotho colum dire ; patriie flos coepit abire. 
O Walklyne pater salveris, quod locus ater 

Nunquam te violet, qui male semper olet. 
Sed plausu plena cuncto Paradisus amaena 

His animam teneat atq fovere queat, 
Sitq ; pater tibi dux, sit rector, sit tibi vita. 
Eilius et sua crux lux tibi fiat ita. 



WALKELIN. 143 

Sicq ; viam universae carnis Walkelyno ingresso, in pro- 
pria Ecclesia sepultus est idem Prtesul benignissimus, ut 
ita dicam. Sed et quamvis monachos omnes in Anglia et 
ecclesiam suam in principiis deliciarum exosos habuisset ; 
infra breve tamen paenituit et quod per prius inordinate 
in aninio concesserat, religiosissniie corripuit, et restitii- 
tioneni de malefactis ordini Monachorum illatis cum om- 
ni humilitate fecit. Et hoc mihi et omnibus in testimo- 
nium suae satisfactionis devenit ; quia obitum suum tarn 
solemniter celebrat VV'yntoniensis Ecclesia, tanquam pro 
speciali benefactore suo ; quod non faceret, si ingratus 
eidem Ecclesiae minimum exstitisset. Jacet enim ejus- 
dem Praesulis venerabile corpus humatum in navi ecclesiae 
ad gradus sub Pulpito, in quo erigitur crux argentea 
magna Stigandi Arpi cum duabus imaginibus argenteis 
magnis, ad pedes, viz. Wil. Gyftard quondam Wynt. 
Epiis ; et in lapide marmoreo superposito sculpuntur hi 
versus ; 

Praesul Walklynus istic reqniescit humatus 
Tempore W ilhelmi Conquestoris cathedratus 

Rudborne, p. 255. 

Bishop Walkelin's death is thus recorded in the Sax. 
Chron: — "A. D. 1098, In this year, Walkelin, Bishop 
of Winchester, within this* tide departed;" p. 3i7./Ai- 
gram's Trans. 

II. WILLIAM GIFFARD. 

Succeeded A. D. 1100.— Died A. D. 1128 9. 

After the death of Walkelin, W^illiam Rufus kept the 
See in his own hands till the period of his death in 1 100. 

On the accession of Henry I. Pope Gregory the Vllth. 
watchful for the interests of his church, set up a claim in 
opposition to the King of England to the right of appoint- 
ing to the vacant Sees by capitular election, which Henry 
vigorously resisted. Accordingly on the latter appointing 



• That is, within the 12 days after Christmas or the interval between 
Christmas day, properly called the Nativity and the Epiphany ; the whole 
of which was called Cnristmas tide or Yule tide, and was dedicated to 
feasting and mirth. 



144 WILLIAM GIFFARD 

GifFard, who had been Chancellor of England, temp. 
Gul. 1. (A. D. 1073 & 1788, orig. Jiirid. Cfiron. Ser. p. 
I. Dugdale) to the diocese of Winchester, Anselm, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, refused him consecration. In this 
dilemma the King applied to Girard, Archbishop of York, 
who, with becoming loyalty, consented to his Sovereign's 
will : but such was the blind awe in which Giffard stood 
of the authority of Anselm* and the Papal See, that he 
was actually weak enough to refusef the proferred con- 
secration. The natural consequence of this contempt 
was, his banishment,;]: which took place in 1102. (Malm, 
de pontif. &- Hoveden lib. 1, fol. 269.) The matter how* 
ever, was at last arranged, the Pope consenting that An- 
selm should consecrate the Bishops already nominated, 
and the King, on his part, agreeing not to interfere in 
future with canonical election. The King was to possess 
the right of recommending the future Bishops — the 
Church, that of investing them with the spiritual insignia : 
but the Bishop elect was to do homage to the King, for 
his temporalties and barony. See M. Paris and Malm. 

The consecration of this Prelate, after much alterca- 
tion, took place in the year 1107. Dunelm. Paris, 
Hoveden, &;c. 

Bishop GifFard was not a native of this country (Rudb.) 
Probably a Frenchman, as he had been high in the favor 
of the Conqueror. He sat at Winton 28 years. Rud- 
borne adds, (Hist. Maj. Wint. Aug. Sacra. \) " Pente- 
costalia huic ecclesiae contulit." He has left several 
monuments of his liberality and piety. He founded the 
Monastery of St. Mary Ovei-y (i. e. St. Mary over the 
Rie — Rie meaning water), at Southwark, now called St. 
Saviour's. He built the§ body of the Church in 1 106, 
7. H. I. Matthew of Westminster says, that Canons 
regular then newly come into England were placed here, 
and. by Bishop Giffard, according to the Hist. Maj. Win.; 
but Bishop Tanner observes, that this account is incon- 



* " Rigorem timens S. Anselmi." t W. Malmesbury, M. ParU, 

Tol. 1, p. 58, 1. 56, and Rudborne and the rest of the Romanists who have 
recorded these events, are not content with saying he refused this conse- 
cration, but use the word " sprevit." 

t For the real causes of the enmity which subsisted between the King 
and Anselm, see Turner's Hist. Engl, under Will. 2. ch. 5. 

§ Stow's survey of London, 1. p. 10. 



WILLIAM GIFFARD. 145 

sistenl with what had been said (in the 1 ast page) that 
Bishop Giflfard was then in exile, which in truth, he then 
was, and had been for some years, for refosing to be 
consecrated by the Archbishop of York. Tanner under 
the article Overy, Hospital of St. Thomas, Surry, XX. 
2., speaks of the burning of St. Mary Overy, A. D. 1207, 
which was rebuilt, but in 1228, was removed to the other 
side of the Borough, with the consent of Peter de Rupibus, 
then Bishop of Winchester, and dedicated to St. Thomas 
the Martyr. He adds, it was accounted of the foundation 
of the predecessors of the Bishops of Winchester, and 
they had the patronage of it. " Bishop Godwin deprives 
Giffard of the honour of being sole founder. He merely 
says, *' ad fundationem magnam contulit pecuniam ;" but 
Rudborne distinctly attributes the foundation to our 
Bishop. His words are, " Obiit Algodus Prior Mariae 
de Southwerk quod Monasterium fundavit Willelmus 
Giffard, Wintoniensis Episcopus." — p. 282. 

He established in 1128 an Abbey of Cistercian Monks, 
at Waverly, near Farnham, Annates Waverl. being the 
first house which that order possessed in England. Bishop 
Tanner notices this in his Notitia under Surry XXIII. 
It was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and had 
in it about the time of the dissolution, thirteen religious, 
and was endowed with of 174. 8s. Sd. It was granted 
with all the estates belonging thereunto to Sir William 
Fitz Williams.— 28 Henry VIII. 

He also founded a Priory of Black Canons at Taunton, 
Rymer, Feed. vol. XIV, p. 635. which Tanner thus 
notices under Somerset : — On the East part of this 
town (Taunton) was a Priory of Black Canons, erected 
by William Giffard, Bishop of Winton, temp. Henry I., 
to the honour of St. Peter and St. Paul. It was valued 
26 Henry VIII. at ^"286. 85. iOd. and granted 36 Henry 
VIII. to Matthew Colehurst. 

But the most important work of a religious character 
that Bishop Giffard executed was, the removal of the 
new Minster, or St. Grimbald's Abbey, founded by 
Alfred, from the North side of the Cathedral to Hyde 
Meadow in 1110, Annul Wint. p. 297, where, through 
his influence with King Henry I. he procured the foun- 
dation of a stately Abbey. See Tanner, Notitia. Hants. 
XXXV. 3. and the authorities there quoted. At the 
dissolution, Hyde Abbey was valued at o£'865 1 8s. p. an. 



145 WILLIAM GIFFARD. 

DugrJale. The site was granted 37 Henry VIII. {» 
Richard Bethell. 

The reason assigned for this removal by Tanner, and 
the authors he cites, was, that tlie Churches and habita- 
tions of the two societies were so near together, that 
difierences arose to a great height, occasioned by singing, 
the ringing of bells and other matters. Milner, quoting 
Trussel's MSS. attributes it to the unhealthiness of the 
situation, from the waters which issued from the new 
made castle ditches passing through a great part of the 
city, and at last, settling round the Abbey. This seems 
confirmed by Malmesbuiy's remark on the newly erected 
^Monastery at Hyde, viz — <*sanius incolitur." De Pontif, 
In addition to these acts of muniticence, the Bishop 
built a spacious Palace at Southwark, near Londoa 
bridge, for the town residence of the Winchester Prelates. 
Gale, as has been observed in our reprint of his work, 
observes, that this Palace is now converted into streets of 
dwelling-houses, the rent of which is appropriated to the 
See. 

A plate of Winchester house, bank side, Southwark, 
is engraved in the Gent. Mag. 1791, p. 1 1 69, accompanied 
by the following account: — ''Winchester House was 
built by William Giffard, Bishop of that See, about the 
year 1 107, 7. Henry 1 , upon a plot of ground belonging 
to the Prior of Bermondsey, as appears by a writ directed 
to the barons of the Exchequer, 1366, 41. Edward III. 
and was undoubtedly one of the most magnificent of its 
kind in the city, or suburbs, of London. We find the 
Bishop of Winchester in the reign of Henry VL, on his 
being made Cardinal of St. Eusebius in France, was, on 
his approach to London, met by the Mayor, Aldermen, 
and many chief citizens on horseback, and conducted by 
them in great state to his palace at Southwark. To judge 
of the original grandeur of this place, an intelligent 
spectator need only visit it in its present state of ruin. 
Time has not yet been able to extinguish the marks of 
venerable antiquity ; though perhaps from its commercial 
situation, few places have been more exposed to the 
attacks of violence." 

It appears from the AnnaksWint. under the year 1122, 
that great disorder arose between the Cathedral Monks 
and the Bishop, on account of the latter's alienation of 
some of the revenues. Their disagreements were at length 
settled by the interference of the King ; and under the 



HENRY DE BLOIS. 147 

year 1128, we find the Bishop living in the greatest 
harmony among the monks, and at length he even took, 
the monastic habit. 

After having sat Bishop here 21 years, reckoning from 
his actual consecration, Giftard died according to the 
Annal. Wirit. p. 299, and Matt. Paris, vol. 1. p. 71, 1. 47, 
in 1128; but according to Florentius's Continuation, and 
the Sax. Chron. in 1129- The latter adds, that he was 
buried at AVinchester the 8th day before the Calends of 
February, See Ingram's Trans, p. 359- 

The following is his Epitaph, engraved on a stone, 
placed just above the tomb of his predecessor: — 

Wilhelmus Giffard, Proesul jacet hie tumulatus. 
Qui suscepit adhuc vivens habitum Monachatus. 

Rudb. 1. 5. c. 3, 



III. HENRY DE BLOIS. 
Succeeded A. D. 1129.— Died A. D. 1171. 

This Prelate was nephew of King Henry I., being a 
son of his sister Adela, and son of the Earl of Blois, and 
brother of King Stephen. He was previously to his 
elevation to the purple. Abbot of Glastonbury. *' A. D. 
1129, The King (Heniy I.) gave the Bishopric after Mi- 
chaelmas to the Abbot Henry, of Glastonbury, his nephew, 
and he was consecrated Bishop by the Archbishop, Wil- 
liam of Canterbury, on the 15th day before the Calends 
of December." — Sax. Chron. p. 359. 

He had been a Monk at Clugny. " Cluniacensis 
a puerilibus annis monachus existens." Girald. Camb. 
de vitis. 6 Epis. coat. p. 421. Gale and others, call him 
Abbot of Bermondsey. Giraldus does not mention that 
preferment. In 1134 he was appointed the Pope's legate. 
— Annal. Wint. p. 299. 

I have endeavoured in this work, as much as possible, 
to keep biography and History, distinct : but in the 
present instance, so involved was this Prelate with the 
measures of the Court, in consequence of his near affinity 
to the reigning monarch, that the history of the man, 
will in a great measure, necessarily be the history of 
the times. 

l2 



148 HENRY DE BLOIS. 

King Henry I. called Beauclerk, dying in Normandy 
at the end of 1 135, his nephew Stephen hastened to 
London, and used such diligence, that he procured him- 
self to be crowned on the ensuing festival of the saint 
of his name, only 22 days after his predecessor's demise. 
Our Prelate, whether from natural affection or ambitious 
views, took part with his brother. 

At this period the Prelates, like the lay nobles, built 
their Palaces in the form of castles, and Bishop Blois 
in 1138 {Rudb.An.Wint.) erected the Castle of Wolve^.ey, 
at the east end of the city of Winchester, as likewise 
others at his principal manors Merden, Farnham, Walt- 
ham, Downton, and Taunton. (Amial.) The King, 
suspicious of the fidelity of his more potent subjects, and 
impelled by avarice, seized upon several of the castles 
belonging to the Prelates, and appropriated their treasures 
to his own use. His barbarity towards Roger, Bishop 
of Salisbury, we have already had occasion to notice in 
the History of the hives of the Bishops oj Salisbury. 
The ingratitude of King Stephen towards that Prelate, 
and the violence offered to the Church in the person of 
some of its most distinguished members, alienated in 
some degree, though as the sequel shows, not irretrieva- 
bly, even his own brother the Bishop of Winchester, 
who employed his authority as papal legate to convene 
a Synod at Winchester, before which, he cited the King 
to answer to the outrages he had committed ; but the 
arguments of Aubrey de Vere, an able lawyer on the 
King's side, disconcerted the assembly : in consequence 
of this, the Prelates had recourse to supplications which 
the King treated with indifference, and he thereby alienated 
the affections both of the Prelates and Citizens. 

In this situation of affairs the Empress Matilda (or 
Maud, as she is frequently called), landed with her 
brother Robert, Earl of Gloucester, on the coast of 
Sussex, {Prid. Cal. Oct. an. 1139, W. Malm.) and 
the flames of civil war were soon lighted up throughout 
the Kingdom. The Empress was apprized of the fa- 
vourable dispositions of the people of Wmchester towards 
her, ( W. Malm. Hist. Novel) and she even hoped that her 
cousin, (our Bishop,) who had lately as well as on many 
other occasions opposed the unjust pretensions of his 
brother the King, would assist her cause. But he had 
marshalled himself on his brother's side, and to support 
his cause, put in practice a most unjust and base stratagem 



HENRY DE BLOIS. H9 

towards her. He invited a great number of the Nobility 
and chief men in the interest of Matilda, to an hospitable 
entertainment at his new Castle of VVolvesey, and causing 
the gates to be shut upon them, he then endeavoured, 
partly by persuasion and partly by constraint, to induce 
them to give up the strong holds they were in possession 
of to his brother. {Matt. Paris, ad. an. 1139.) The 
scheme, however, failed in the most important article of 
it, which was to secure the Castle of Winchester : for 
the chief magistrate of the city, who was the commanding 
officer of that fortress, suspecting what was intended 
against him, escaped in time from Wolvesey, and flying 
to the citadel, secured it for the Empress. 

The war continuing with encreasing fui-y and ravages, 
Stephen at length, after performing prodigies of valour, 
was taken prisoner under the walls of Lincoln, and almost 
the whole Kingdom declared in favour of Maud. In 
these extremities, our Bishop found it necessary to enter 
into a negociation with the Empress and Earl Robert; 
{Will. Malm.) the terms of which being settled, he went 
out as far as Magdalen Hill in solemn procession, accom- 
panied by the Nobility, Bishops, Abbots, Citizens, Priests, 
the Monks of both Universities, and even the Nuns of the 
Abbey,* in order to receive her and her brother, together 
"with the Nobility that attended her. Dismounting from 
her horse, she was accordingly conducted by her cousin, 
the Bishop on her right hand, and the Bishop of St. 
David's on her left, with four other Bishops, and the 
company above described, through the principal street 
of the City, amidst unbounded acclamations and joy, to 
the Cathedral. {Will. Malm.) Tlie service being con- 
cluded, she retired to the Castle, when both the City of 
Winchester and the Kingdom in general, flattered them- 
selves they had seen an end of their calamities, which in 
fact were only then beginning. The cause of their 
recommencement as we are informed by William of 
Malmesbury, who, as himself, informs us, was present 
at the Synod which was held at Winchester, he ac- 
knowledging Matilda's title. The Bishop who was 



• " Ih patenti planitie camporum juxta Winton." fVill. Malm, " On 
Madg. Hill." — Trusiel. For an account of these transactions see Chron. 
Cervas. an. 1141. 



150 HENRY DE BLOIS. 

desirous of establisliing a peace upon secure grounds, and 
who probably knew what would satisfy his family under 
existing circumstances, proposed to Matilda that the 
paternal estates on the Continent of the captive King, 
should be settled upon his son Eustace. The Empress, who 
had already lost the Citizens of London by her haughti- 
ness, {Gul. Newbrig. Her. Aiigl.) treated this proposal 
with the utmost contempt. {Will. Malm.) This conduct 
disgusting the Bishop, made him neglect to pay court to 
her in the manner he had done since the late pacification. 
Matilda on her part, growing suspicious, came from 
Oxford where she had spent some time, to Winchester, 
with a considerable force, under pretence of taking up 
her residence in the Royal Castle ; but, evidently for the 
purpose of securing the Bishop and his Castle at Wol- 
vesey. Accordingly as he had neglected to wait upon 
her, she sent him a summons to attend her, to which he 
returned the following ambiguous answer : — * I will 
prepare myself.' {Will. Malm.) And so he did, by 
putting his Castle in fit condition to stand a seige, which 
was speedily laid to it by the Empress's partizans, Robert 
her brother, and David King of Scotland her uncle. This 
event was a signal of insurrection to Stephen's Queen, also 
named ^latilda, to his General, William of Ipres, and to 
his partizans in general, who Mere numerous in London. 
(^ Will. Malm.) They accordingly marched in all haste 
to the relief of the besieged Prelate, upon whose arrival 
the tables were turned, and those who had made the 
attack were now forced to stand on their defence. The 
armies were great and warlike on both sides, and they 
carried on their military operations seven weeks {Gervas. 
Chron.) in the heart of the city : {Annal. Wint.)—2L calamity 
almost unparalleled in the history of other cities. The 
party of the Empress had possession of whatever was to 
the north side of the High-street, where the houses of the 
citizens stood in general together with the Royal Castle. 
The King's party held the Bishop's Palace, the Cathedral, 
and whatever else was to the south of the High-street. By 
degrees, also, they forced their enemies from all the other 
quarters of the city, and confined them to the Castle ; 
but in effecting this, they made use of a most barbarous 
stratagem. Tiiey threw fire balls from Wolvesey upon 
the houses possessed by the opposite party: {^^llL 
Malm.) a destructive measure in which the Earl of 



HENRY DE BLOIS. 151 

Gloucester disdained to imitate them. (Will. Malm, de 
Novel.) The havoc thus occasioned was dreadful. The 
Abbey of St. Mary, 20 Churches, the Royal Palace, the 
Suburb of Hyde, and the Monastery of St. Grimbald, 
formed but a part of the wreck. Gervase distinctly ascribes 
the guilt of burning Winchester to the Bishop ; but 
William of Malmesbury, who dedicated his work to 
Robert, Earl of Gloucester, and who, therefore, cannot 
be accused of partiality for the Bishop, as Milner justly 
observes, by his silence acquits him of being instrumental 
in this savage destruction. Even Gervase admits that the 
Bishop withdrew from the Cit)', and Milner quotes 
Trussel for the place of his retreat — Waltham. 

The war continued with various success ten years 
longer; a measure originated at Winchester with our 
Prelate, which tended greatly to diminish its general 
horrors. By his legantine authority he held a Synod here, 
in which it was resolved that ploughs should have the 
same privileges of sanctuary with churches, and a sentence 
of excommunication was pronounced by the whole as- 
sembly against all who should attack or injure any person 
engaged in the agricultural employments. {Matt. Paris, 
ad. an. \ 142.) 

At length, King Stephen having lost his only son 
Eustace, his Brother, and his Queen, was induced by 
Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, and our Prelate 
{Henry Huntingdon,) to enter into pacific views, and at 
length a final conclusion was put to the war : terms of 
pacification being agreed upon between Stephen and 
Henry at the seige of Wallingford Castle, and publicly 
ratified at Winchester. — {Gervase.) 

Character, Benefactions, Sfc. — His character is thus 
drawn by Milner: — " He was certainly a man of great 
talents, and many virtues, though with a mixture of some 
failings or vices ; but having taken the unpopular side 
in the civil war, which was that of his brother, the formei 
have been too much depressed by most ancient writers, 
and the latter toe much magnified. From this censure 
must be excepted one contemporary writer, and fellovjf 
Bishop of his, {Giraldus Cambrensis de vilis sex Episcop. 
cocetaneorum. Ang. Sac. vol. II. p. 421) who enlarges 
m the highest strains, not only upon his talents, birth, and 
power, but also upon his piety, regularity, and episcopal 
;feal. Speaking of the works which he constructed for 



152 HENRY DE BLOIS. 

the benefit of his See, he says, that besides building the 
Castles above mentioned, he made vast lakes, and con- 
structed aqueducts, that were in the beginning conceived 
to be impracticable ; and, that he collected all the most 
rare and wonderful productions of nature that could be 
met with : some of which, surpassing all belief, are specified 
by authors of credit.* He was a watchful guardian of 
his Cathedral Church and Monastery, having recovered 
much property that had been unjustly alienated from 
them, andencreased it by many presents ot his own. He. 
likewise improved the fabric of his Cathedral ; and in par- 
ticular, he collected together the remains of the illustrious 
personages who had been there interred, into mortuary 
chests, which he disposed in the most honourable manner 
round the sanctuar}. {Rudborne.) He was no less liberal 
to the Convent of Taunton, founded by his predecessor ; 
(^Godwin and Harpsjield Hist. Ecc. Ang.) and by a 
singular expedient, he became the benefactor of all the 
poor parishes of his diocese. It had been decreed in a 
Synod at which he presided, that no chalices of tin or 
other metal, except gold or silver, should be used at 
the altar; {Brompton and Gervase) and whereas, many 
Priests in the country neglected to furnish their Churches 
with such chalices, under the pretext of poverty : the next 
time a free gift or tax from the Clergy was required, he 
ordered that each rector of a parish should for his 
share, contribute one silver chalice of a weight pre- 
scribed. These being brought in, he ordered them to be 
returned to the several parishes, and there made use of, 
undertaking himself to raise the sum necessary for the 
wants of the state.^ — {Girald. Camb.) 

His principal work, however, and that which has most 
contributed to perpetuate his memory at Winchester, was 
the foundation of the church and hospital of St. Cross, at 
a place where, in the time of the Saxons, a small convent 
had stood. Here 13 poor men were decently provided 
for with necessaries in every respect; and 100 others, the 
most indigent belonging to Winchester, were each day 
furnished with a plentiful meal. In the famous contro- 



* Gul. Newbrig. Rer. Ang. 1. 2. c. 28, says, that he kept in his house a 
living dog, which was found in a mass of solid stone wheu sawn asunder. 
•^Credat JudceusI 



HENRY DE BLOIS. 153 

versy which took place between the King (Henry II.) 
and the metropoUtan (Thomas Becket,) he disdained to 
barter the rights of his order and of religion itself, for the 
smiles of the court, and in the end he was applauded by 
the King himself for the conscientious part which he acted 
in this important business. {Godwin.) In the early part 
of his episcopacy, being already possessed of legantine 
power which placed him in a rank above all the other 
prelates, wliether Bishops or Archbishops in the kingdom, 
he had formed a plan which was approved of and nearly 
executed for raising the see of Winchester to the metro- 
political rank, (Matt. West, ad an. 1 142, Ritdb. and 
Walsingh.) by subjecting to it all the six sees (viz. Salis- 
bury, Exeter, Wells, Chichester, Hereford and Worcester) 
which had been taken out of it, making a seventh of 
Hyde Abbey, by which means this would have been far 
the most considerable of the three Archbishoprics. 
However the civil war in England, and the death of Pope 
Lucius, at Rome, frustrated this project. In his old age 
this prelate increased his charities to such a degree as 
hardly to leave himself and his servants the means of 
procuring one slender meal in the day. {Girald. Camb.) 
In addition to the loss of sight which he suffered with 
great resignation, (Harpsfield) he added voluntary mor- 
tifications, in the practice of which, and of constant prayer, 
he died," ut sup. Pope Eugenius used to say of this 
Prelate, — Hie ille est qui potuit lingua sua duo regna 
corrumpere : m cujus erat potestate ad nutum creare 
potentes et evertere. — Giraldus de vitis sex Epis. 

Benefactions, — Thus noticed by Tanner : — '■ " A Be- 
nedictine Nunnery was founded by him at Meuresly, 
alias St. Margaret's, alias Ivingho, about A. D. Il60, to 
the honour of St. Margaret. Herein were nine religious 
women ; yet their possessions were valued 26 Henry 
VIII. but at £\4. 3s. \d. per ann. Dugd. £22. 6s. Id. 
— Speed. They were granted 29 Henry VIII. to Sir 
John Dance." — See Iceland's Collectanea, I. 83, MS. 
Catalogue of Monasteries in th^ Ashmolean, and Tannery 
Not.— Bucks. XVII. *'MerewellorMar\el\ Park. College. 
• — A College of four Priests, founded by Henry of Blois, 
and augmented by Peter Roche and Henry Woodlock, 
two of his successors. In the chapel in the park, was a 
chantry, till the dissolution, which, with the lands there- 
unto belonging, was granted to Sir Henry Seymour, 



154 HENRY DE BLOIS. 

5 Edward VI." Speaking of St. Cross, Leland merely 
says, ** Donius St. Crucis prope Winton. Henricus 
Blesensis Epiis VVint : fundator 1132. 33 Henry I. qui 
obiit, 1171." — Collectanea. I. 08. 

The following interesting detail of this celebrated 
spot, so dear to the Antiquary for its fine specimen of 
early architecture, is from Bishop Lowth's Life of 
Wykeham, p. 63-72. 

The ^hospital of St. Cross at Sparkford, near Win- 
chester, was founded by Bishop Blois, in 1 132,f for the 
health of his own soul and the souls of his predecessors, 
and those of the kings of England. The founder's 
institution requires, that 13 poor men, so decayed and 
past their strength, that without charitable assistance they 
cannot maintain themselves, shall abide continually in the 
hospital, who shall be provided with proper clothing and 
beds suitable to their infirmities; and shall have an allow- 
ance daily of good wheat bread, good beer, three messes 
each for dinner and one for supper. If any one of these 
shall happen to recover his health and strength, he shall 
be respectfully discharged, and another admitted in his 
place. That beside these 13 poor, 100 other poor of 
modest behaviour, and the most indigent that can be 
found, shall be received daily at dinner time, and shall 
have each a loaf of coarser bread, one mess, and a proper 
allowance of beer, with leave to carry away with them 
whatever remains of their meat and drink after dinner. 
The founder also ordered other charities to be distributed 
to the poor in general, as the revenues of the hospital 
shall be able to bear ; the whole of which was to be 
applied to such uses. The endowment of the hospital 
consisted chiefly in a donation of several considerable 
rectories, '^iox the most part belonging to the diocese of 



* The account of St. Cross is collected from Regist. Wykeham, and 
MS. Coll. Nob. 

t MS. penes Dom. Episcopum Wint. fol. 22. 

t The churches of Ferreham, [with the manor of AshtonJ Nuttessel- 
lyuge. Mellebrock, Twyford, Hentou, Alwarestock, Exton, Husseborne, 
Wytcnerche, Chilbaltoii, Wodeliay, Avvelton for Aulton in Canyngniersh, 
Com. Wilts] Wynkney [or Wyteney, Com. Oxon.J Stocton, [Com. 
WiltsJ Ovyngton, with their apperteuancies and dependencies ; and the 
tythes of the lordship of Waltham, and other rents assigned in the city of 



HENRY DE BLOIS.. 155 

Winchester, and of the Bishop's patronage ; the greatest 
part o£ which, though granted to the hospital by the terms 
of the charter of foundation, were, from the hrst, only 
subject to the payment of certain annual pensions to it ; 
the rest were appropriated to the hospital. The revenues 
of the hospital appear, by an old record of inquisition, 
produced in Wykeham's time by the Prior of Winchester, 
from the archives of his monastery, without date, to have 
amounted to £'-150. per annum; they are said by Wyke- 
ham in his letters to the Pope, to be above o£300. per 
annum, and are proved by the testimony of one who had 
been long steward of the hospital, and many others, to 
have been, at that time above of 400. per annum. The 
whole revenues of the hospital were free from all taxes, 
both to the King and Pope, as being wholly appropriated 
to the poor, except £l. As. Qd. (called elsewhere c£8.) 
per annum, which was the valuation of the prior's or 
master's portion. 

The particular allowances to the poor, with their 
valuations according to the above mentioned record of 
inquisition, were as follows ; each of the 13 secular 
brethren had daily one loaf of good wheaten bread, of 5 
marks weight, (or 2!b. lOoz.) ; one gallon and half of good 
small beer ; a sufficient quantity of pottage ; three messes 
at dinner, namely one mess called jftcrtrfU,* made of milk 



Winchester. These by the charter of foundation. To these were added 
by the founder, the churches of Waltham Upham, and Baghurst ; and by 
the same or some other benefactor, that of tarle. " Licet in ista charta 
[Fundationis] contineantur diverse donationis ecclesiarum fact, domui 
Ste. Crucis predicte, nihilominus dicta douius nuUas earum habet sibi 
appropriatas proeter eeclesias dc Husborne, Whitcherche, Fareham, and 
Twyford, cum capellis, sed habet ex eis certas pensiones, ui superius 
dictum est. De ecclesia vero de Wyttenye nihil omnino percipit." MS. 
penes Dom. Episc. Wint. fol. 2. 

* The Glossaries give us no very satisfactory account of these w^ords : 
the njeaning of the first is better determined by the description here given, 
than from any other explication that I can lind of it. tVustel bred was a 
better sort of bread ; so called from Wastell, the visseil, or bast.et, in 
which it was made, carried, or weighed; as it seems probable from 
the foilowiug passage; " Octo panes in H'astellis, pouderis cujusiibet 
IVastelli unius michc conventualis." Regist. U'ykeham part 3. (>. foi. 177. 
The word Wastel seems to answer to tlic French galea i, a caiie. It 
appears from the prologue of Ctiaucers' CauVerbury tales, that it was bread 
of a finer sort : for the Prioress, who is represented as a very delicate 
lady, fed her lap-dogs with it : 

" Of smale hounds hadde she, that she fedde 
With rested flesh, and milk, and waste! brcde." 



156 HENRY DE BLOIS. 

and WLaittl brttJ, one mess of flesh or fish, and one pittance 
^s the day should require ; and one mess for supp«r ; the 
whole valued at 17d. a week; in Wykeham's time at 3d. 
a day On six holidays in the year they had white bread 
and ale in the same quantities ; and one of their messes 
was roast-meat, or fish of a better sort ; and on the Eves 
of those holidays, and that of the founder's obit, they had 
an extraordinary allowance of 4 gallons of ale among them. 
The 1 00 poor were fed in a place called 1^unUrelJmm«{j)an : 
each of them had a loaf of coarser bread of 5 marks weight, 
3 quarts of small beer, a sufficient quantity of pottage, 
or a mess of pulse, one herring, or two pilchards, or two 
eggs, or one farthing's worth of cheese ; value 3d. a 
week: of which 100 poor were always 13 of the poorer 
scholars of the great grammar school of Winchester, sent 
by the school-master. On the anniversary of the founder's 
obit, Aug. 9, being the eve of St. Lawrence, 300 poor 
were received at the hospital ; to each of the first 100, 
were given one loaf, and one mess of the same sort with 
those of the brethren's ordinary allowance and three 
quarts of beer : to the second 100, was given the usual 
100 men's allowance ; and to each of the third 100, half 
a loaf of the brethren's bread. On six hohdays in the 
year the 100 men had each a loaf of the better sort of 
iread, and a double mess. There were besides, main- 
tained in the hospital, a steward, with his clerk, two 
sei-vants, and two horses; a porter; nine servants; two 
teams of six horses each, and three carters. 

The founder had in the year 1157,* constituted the 
master and brethren of the hospital of St. John of 
Jerusalem, guardians and administrators of his hospital 
of St. Cross, saving to the Bishop of Winchester his 
canonical jurisdiction. A dispute arising between 
Richard Toclive, Bishop of Winchester, immediate 
successor to Henry de Blois, and the master and brethren 
of St. John of Jerusalem, concerning the administration 
of the hospital. King Henry II. interposed, and by his 
mediation an agreement was made between them. The 
master and brethren ceded to the Bishop of Winchester 
and his successors the administration of the Hospital, the 
Bishop giving tliem the impropriation of the churches of 



• MS, penes Dom. Episc. Wiut. fol 23. 



HENRY DE BLOIS. 157 

TMordon and Hanniton for the payment of 53 marks per 
annum, and procuring them a discharge from the pension 
of 10 marks, two wax candles, and lOlbs. of wax, paid to 
the Monks of St. Swythun for the house of St. Cross, by 
composition between them and the brethren of St, Cross, 
made in the time of the Founder and the Bishop, more- 
over out of regard to God, and for the health of the King's 
soul and his own, (and because the revenues of the Hos- 
pital were sufficient for the maintenance of many more 
poor, and ought not to be converted to other uses as 
Wykeham represents to the Pope), orders, that beside 
the number instituted by the Founder, 100 additional 
poor should also be fed every day in the same manner at 
the Hospital. This agreement is dated April 10, 1185, 
and was made at Dover in the presence of the King and 
attested by him. This new institution of feeding 100 
additional poor was not of long continuance, it had 
ceased long before Wykeham's time; and instead of it, 
by what authority I cannot say, was introduced the 
establishment of 4 Priests, 13 secular Clerks, and 7 
Choristers, who were maintained in the Hospital for the 
performance of divine service in the Church. The 
4 Priests dined at the ^Master's table and had each a 
stipend of 13s. 4d. and the whole allowance to each was 
valued at £3. 6s. 8d. per annum, the 13 clerks had each 
daily a loaf of wheat bread, weight 6l shillings and 8 
pence, (i. e. 2lb. T^oz. nearly, *or almost 2^1b.) 3 quarts 
of beer, and one mess of flesh or fish of the brethren was 
allotted to two of them, value 10c?. a week ; the 7 
choristers had each one loaf of the common family bread, 
and one mess, or the fragments of the Master's table and 
common hall, so as to have a sufficient provision value 
5d. a week, and were taught at the school in the 
Hospital." — LowtlCs Life of Wykeham, p. 65-72, 

Bishop Blois sat at ^Vinton between 42 and 43 years. 



* "Constat qiioelibet Libra ex xxv. solidis. Et sriendum, quod quoelibet 
libra de denariis et speciebus, utpote in Electuariis, consistit solummodo 
ex pondere xx. s. Libra vero omnium aliarum rerum consistit ex xxv. 
solidis.y Tractat. De Pond, et Mensuris, 31 Ed. L in Ca^'s statutes at large. 
' Quoelibet libra ex pondere xxv. solid. Libra vero auri, argenti, electuari- 
orum et hujusmodi Apothecar. Confectorum, consistit solummodo ex pon- 
dere 20 solid. Sterlingonini." Fleta lib. 2, cap. 12. " Una libra ponderat 
pondus xxv. solidorura legalium Sterlingorum." MS. 54 Hen. 111. 

From the Report of the Committee of the House of Commons to inquire 
into weights and measures, 1758. 



158 RICHARD OF ILCHESTER. 

He died in 1171, and was buried in the Cathedral before 
the high altar. Riidb. Hisf. Maj. Wint. Ang. Sac. I. 

The Bishop left certain writings behind him : one con- 
cerning the discovery of King Arthur's monument at 
Glastonbury, which took place while he was Abbot there; 
another concerning the state of his Cathedral. These 
MSS. appear to have been extant in the time of Harpsfield. 



IV. RICHARD of ILCHESTER*, aliasTOCLIVE, 

alias MORE. 

Succeeded A. D. 1 174.— Died A. D. 1 188-9. 

King Henry, after having kept this see vacant for some 
years, as he also had others, at length, at the request, as 
Bishop Godwin says, of certain Cardinals, permitted in 
1 1 73 the Monks of Winton to elect Richard of Ilchester, 
andhe was accordingly, as LeNeve records, elected May 1. 
This Bishop was born in the diocese of Bath, (Radulph de 
Dicet, col. 540,) at Sok or Sock,i- (Regist. Drokensf. 
Ep. B. ^ W.) and became Archdeacon of Poictiers. 
He was confirmed October 1 , and consecrated at Lambeth 
the 6th, 1174, ('ordinatus et consecratus,' Annales Wint. 
See also Lg Neve's Fasti, p. 285,) by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, together with Robert, Bishop of Hereford, and 
GeofFry Bishop of Ely. (Benedict. Abbas. Petr, in Vit, 
Hen. II. p. 93.) 

Bishop Toclive had pursued a different conduct from 
his predecessor, in the famous controversy between the 
King and Thomas a Becket, and had taken so active a 
part against the persecuted Prelate, as to draw on himself 
the sentence of excommunication. Radulph Dicet Ymag. 
But the death of the latter brought about that peace and 
uniformity of sentiment in ecclesiastical matters which he 
could not procure in his life time. 

Toclive, after his promotion to the see, was constituted 
in 1176 justiciary of Normandy, in the room of William 
de Traco, Bromt. col. 1 1 1 6, and in the parliament held 

* It was under this name that he was excommuuicated, 
t About three Miles from Yeovil, Somerset. 



KICHARD OF ILCHEStER. 159 

at Windsor, in 1179, 25 H. II. he was constituted one of 
the itinerant justices for Hants, Wilts, Gloucester, Dorset, 
Somerset, Devon, Cornwall, Berks, and Oxon, and after- 
wards by the same king chief justice of England. Dugdale 
records that he was justice itinerant for Hants and Devon, 
1179, 25 H. II. Orig. Jurid. Chron. Scr, p. 3, and 
HovedeHyfol. SSI. 

He endeavoured to improve the charitable institution 
of his predecessor at Sparkford, viz. the hospital of St. 
Cross, (Lowth's Life of Wykeham) but afterwards seems 
to have founded another upon a similar plan at an equal 
distance from the city, on the opposite side of it, dedicated 
to St. Mary Magdalen. See Milner's Hist. Wint. vol. 
I. p. 226. 

Gale, in his MS. records that he gave to the church of 
Winton the manors of Ham and Groel, as Richardson, 
p. 217 quotes. Rudborne says, "qui maimerium de 
Hamme redemit et de Cnoel emit et suje contulit ecclesiae." 
The latter adds, '* Sedit annis 17." This is incorrect; 
he sat but 14 years ; for there is no question as to his 
succession in 1 1 74, and the only discrepancy as to the 
period of his death is whether it took place in 1187-8, 
or 9. 

He died according to Gervase and Ralph Dicetensis, 
Jan. ^2, 1188. Westminster and Florentius say 1187. 
His epitaph 1189. He was buried in the north side of 
the high altar near the choir. M.S. Gale. ' Infra 
Winam,' Godwin. The following is the inscription : 

^' PrtEsiilis egregii pausant hie membra Ricardi 
Toclif, cui summi gaudia sunto poli." 

Bishop Toclive is mentioned in the will of Henry II. 
Testamenta vetusta. I. p. 2. vis h p, S. 

Richard de Gravenell having given to the Priory of St. 
Mary Overy the tithes of the manor of Tooting, Surry, 
and the advovvson of the church, the grant was confirmed 
by Richard [Toclive] Bishop of Winton. — Manning and 
Bray's Hist. Surry, III. 373. 



160 GODFREY DE LUCY. 

V. GODFREY DE LUCY. 

Succeeded A. D. 1189.— Died A. D. 1204. 

Son of Richard de Lucy, chief justice of England, 
Had been Dean of St. Martin's, London, ( R. deDtceto.) 
Archdeacon of Derby, ( Gervase Chron. f. 1459,) Canon 
of York, (Brow^/. 1156,) and Justice Itinerant. {Hoved. 
f. 337.) He was nominated by the King at Pipewell, 
Sept. 15, 1189, {Dicet Ymag.) consecrated at West- 
minster, in St. Catherine's Chapel, Oct. 22. (ib. and 

Hoved.) . T 5 ♦ 

The most important and useful of Bishop Lucy s acts 
to the city of Winchester and the neighbouring country, 
was his restoring the navigation of the river Itchen, not 
only from the port of Northam, the old Southampton, as 
far as Winchester, but also to the very head of the river, 
{Trussel's MS.) in the neighbourhood of Alresford, where, 
by raising a vast mole or head, he formed a great lake,, 
now called Alresford Pond, by which means a large tract 
of marshy land thereabouts was drained, and a reservoir 
of water provided for supplying the navigation. This 
expensive work, M'hich shews the greatness of Bishop 
Lucy's genius, as well as of his beneficence, was not 
finished till the beginning of the following reign, when he 
obtained for himself and his successors the royalty of the 
said river from the above-mentioned lake down to the sea, 
which the latter still enjoy : also a charter for collecting 
certain duties on this navigation. He likewise purchased 
of the King the manors of VVargrave and Meiies, for the 
benefit of his cathedral, which had belonged to it before 
they were alienated by the Conqueror, (Moved.) and for 
himself and the future Bishops of this See, the custody of 
the royal castle, with the dignity and rights of Earl of 
AViNCHESTER. (lb.) Of these, however, he was subse- 
quently dispossessed by the King. " Dissaisivit Godefri- 
dum Wintonienstm Episcopum de Castello et comitatu 
Wintoniae." lb. 

Bishop Lucy however did not neglect the duties that 
more immediately belonged to his station. He completed 
and greatly enlarged the Priory of Lesne or Westwood, 
in Kent, which had been established by his father, and he 
performed such repairs and works in his cathedral here, as 
to merit being enrolled among its principal founders. 



GODFREY DE LUCY. I6l 

The east end of the church, which was of Saxon work- 
manship, and had been left remaining by Walkelin {Ann. 
Wint. an. 1093,) by this time stood in need of repairs. 
Our prelate accordingly determined to rebuilo! this portion 
of the church, in what is now called the Gothic style, 
beginning with a towerf which seems to have stood over 
the present chancel, and continuing his work to what was 
then the extremity of the Lady Chapel. (See Rudborne.) 
For completing this great work he entered into a contract 
with a society of M'orkmen, who were bound to execute 
their undertaking within the space of five years. (D. 
Wintoniensis G. de Lucy constituit confratriam pro 
reparatione ecclesiae Wint. duraturam usque ad quinque 
annos completos." — Annal. Wint, A.D. 1202.) 

He died in 1204, Matt. Westm. Sept. 12. " Died 
1204, Sept. 1 1 ," says another. " He was buried in hisown 
cathedral." Weaver Funeral Mon. p. 337, and Le Neve 
Fasti.p.QSd, *' Godefridus EpusWinton (Lucy) moritur 
1204." Leland Collect. 2, 34 1 . 

"Ad altare B. Marias extra capellam B. Virginis 
humatus." Rudborne Hist. Maj. Wint. Ang. Sac. 

Manning, speaking of the grant of the manor of Lam- 
beth to the Archbishop of Canterbury, observes, ** Con- 
firmations were obtained from King Richard L and the 
Prior and Convent of Canterbury in the same year, and 
by Godefred, Bishop of Winchester, in whose diocese 
Lambeth is situate." {Hist. Surry, 3. 470.) Bp. Godfrey 
it seems possessed the power of mstitution to the rectory 
of Lambeth after the alienation of the manor, for in 1 197> 
we find him instituting Bishop Gilbert de Flanville to it, 
on the petition of Archbishop Hubert. Denne. I69. See 
more on this subject in Manning's Hist. ofSurrj/, 3.473. 



VL PETER ROCK, or DE LA ROCHE, or 
DE RUPIBUS. 

Succeeded A.D. 1204-5. — Died A.D. 1238. 

About the end of this year, Peter de la Roche, a native 



+ " An. 1200. Hoc anno inclioata est et perfecta turris Wint. Ecd." 

M 



1G2 PETER ROCK. 

of Poictiers, who had served in France under Kin^ 
Richard, by whom he had been knighted, (Matth. Paris) 
was consecrated Bishop of Winchester, at Rome, on "the 
25th of September, 1205" as Matthew of Westminster 
has it. He had been Archdeacon of Poictiers, {An/ml. 
Margaii,), treasurer of the same, {Pat 6. John) and also 
precentor of LincoUi {Pat, 6. John. m. 3. n. 11.) 

The following remarkable discrepancies respecting this 
Prelate's preferments occur in Willis: "1205, Arch- 
deacon of Staft'ord, and in 1213 made Bishop of Winton." 
Cathed. 1. 417, and again, "instituted in 1203 or 4, 
precentor of Lincoln, and in 1206, Bishop of Winchester." 
Cath. 2. 83. 

This Prelate was of great authority under King John 
and Henry IH. He, with two other Bishops, viz^ Philip, 
Bishop of Durham his countryman (a Pictavian) and John 
Gray Bishop of Norwich, instigated King John, to 
"withstand the Pope's excommunication, but, says Bishop 
Godwin, "they were all feign to cry'peccavi' (rather 
*peccavimus') at last." 

In 1214, King John appointed him chief justice of 
England. Rex in Pictaviam transfretaturus, dominum P. 
Winton Episc. (sc. Petrum de Rupe) Justic. Angliae 
constituit loco suo ad pacem regni Angl. tuendam. T. R. 
apud Portesmuth, 1. Feb. Pat. 15. J oh. m. 4. i)C. m. 3. 
and Dugdale Orig. Jurid. Chron. Ser.p. 7. 

After the death of King John, during the minority 
of Henry, this Kingdom was long governed by Bishop 
Roche. On the decease of William Earl Marshal, he 
was chosen in his room protector of the King and realm, 
and afterwards, the King, when arrived at years of 
discretion, relied implicity on the -Bishop's judgment. 
Envy however procured the latter many enemies. Poly- 
dore Virgil says, that a large supply of money being 
lequisite for the purposes of the state, the Bishop advised 
his royal pupil instead of extorting money from the poor, 
to resume a great number of valuable grants which he 
had inconsiderately distributed among his courtiers. This 
act, of course did not lessen the number of his opponents, 
among the most active of which was the famous Roger 
Bacon, then one of the King's chaplains, but afterwards 
a Franciscan friar and distinguished mathematician. This 
able man endeavoured to prejudice the royal youth against 
his guardian and minister. On one occassiou he asked 



PETER ROCK. 16^ 

tlie King what things he thought a prudent pilot in steering 
a ship was most afraid of? The King replied, that Roger 
himself, who had made many voyages, could best answer 
that question. " They are," said Bacon, " Stones and 
Rocks," alluding to the two names of our Prelate, — Peter 
Rock. {M. Paris.) His enemies, at length, and 
principally the chief justice Hugo de Burgo, succeeded in 
supplanting him in Henry's favour. The consequence 
was his retirement to the holy land in 1226. Here he 
continued about live years, and on his return home, as 
M. Paris records, he was received in his Church with a 
solemn procession by the monks and clergy. Being 
shortly after visited by his royal pupil at VV^inton, he soon 
regained his former influence over him, {Matth. Westm.) 
which he held about two years, when the royal indignation 
was so powerfully excited against him and his principal 
agents Peter de llivallis or Dorival, treasurer of England 
(his nephew, or as some say, natural son) and Stephen 
Segrave, that the two former found it necessary to fly for 
protection to the Cathedral, and the latter to the Church 
of St. Clary's Nuns in Winton. — (id.) The Bishop, 
however, once more recovered the King's favor, and 
being sent for from abroad by the Pope, he, with his 
usual talent, extricated himself from his difficulties, and 
obtained the contidence of the Emperor and other Princes 
on the Continent. — (id.) 

This Prelate crowned King Henry II f. October 28, 
12lG, at Gloucester, (Banks's Stem. Ang. 321) and 
was one of the executors of the will of King John t 
(Testamenta Velnsta.\o\.I.p. 5.) where he is erroneously 
said to have sat Bishop of Winchester till 1243 : read 1238. 

After an Episcopate of 34 years, he died at Farnham 
Castle, June 9, 1238, (Malt. Paris) and according to 
his own desire, was buried without the least parade in 
his Cathedral. 

Character. — Matthew of Paris, p. 399, says of him, 
that " In his death, England, both in Church and State, 
received a great wound. Whatever good happened to 
the Church, either by peace or war, in the holy land, at 
the coming of the Emperor Frederic, is especially 
to be ascribed to the wisdom of this Bishop ; and when 
discord between the Pope and the Emperor threatened 
the destruction of the whole Church, he was especially 
the means of compounding the peace between them." 

M 2 



164 PETER ROCK. 

Matthew Paris calls him " vir equestris ordinis/' — 
Hence, as Matthew of Westminster observes, he was 
thought " in negotiis plus bellicis quam scholasticis 
eruditus:" 

Benefactions, — He augmented the College at Mere- 
well, founded by Bishop Blois.^ — Tanner, Hants. XX. 
Vide in Mon. Angl. torn. iii. p. ii. p. 65 pat. ; 18 Ed. 

II. p. 2. m. 14. recit. Cartam fundatioms et ordinationes 
stabilitas per Petrum de Rupibus, A. D. 1226. He 
founded at Portmouth, temp. John, a famous hospital, 
called * God's house,' which was dedicated to St. John 
the Baptist and St. Nicholas ; and valued 26 Henry VIII. 
ati'33. 19s. 5rf.— See Matt. Paris, A. D. 1238. "In 
the west-south-west part of the town." — Leland. Itin. 

III. 13. " At Seleburne, Hants. — Austin Canons: a 
Priory of Black Canons, founded by Peter de Rupibus, 
A. D. 1233, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary: 
but it was suppressed, and granted to William W aynflet, 
Bishop of Winton, who made it part of the endowment of 
St. Mary Magdalen College, Oxon. The Bishops of Win- 
ton were patrons of it." — Tanner. Hants. XXIX. King 
John, in the l6th year of his reign, gave the manor and 
advowson of the Church at Seiburn to the Bishop, for 
the purpose of this foundation. At Titchfield (called 
by Bishop Godwin, Tickford), the Bishop having ob- 
tained of King Heni7 III. a grant of that manor, built an 
Abbey there for Premonstratensian Canons, to the 
honour of the V'irgin Mary, A. D. 1231. It was granted 
at the dissolution, 29 Henry VIII. to Sir Thos. Wrio- 
thesley, ' who built there a right stately house.' — Leland. 
Itin. HI. p. 3. Collect. I. 8o and 114, and Tanner ^ 
Hants. XXXIII. 

He first placed the Dominican or Preaching Freres at 
Winchester, after A. D. 1221, The House or College 
stood somewhat north within the town, says Tanner. 
Godwin says, near the east gate : it was granted in 
exchange, 35 Henry VIII. to the warden and fellows of 
Wykeham's College here. — Leland Itin. III. p. 100, and 
Tanner, Hants. XXXV. 14. Speed in his Mag. Brit. 
Antiq. makes these Freres to have been founded (temp. 
It. Johti,) in whose reign this order was not known in 
England, whither they were brought in 1221 by this 
Prelate. 

Under Hales, or Halesoweyne, Salop. (XIII.) Tanner 



PETER ROCK. i65 

©bser\-es, "King John, anno regni l6, gave the manor 
and advowson of the Church here to P. de Rupibus, 
Bishop of Winchester, for the endowment of an Abbey 
for Canons of the Premonstratensian order, which seems 
to have been begun and finished at the charge of the 
crown, though the Bishops of Winchester had the 
patronage. It was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary 
and St. John the Baptist. The site and most of the 
lands belonging to this Monastery, were granted 30th 
Henry VIU. to Sir John Dudley." 

Bishop Godwin most strangely identifies, by means of 
an alius, Bishop Roche's foundation at Halesowen, Salop, 
and Selborne, Hants. — " Halisowen, alias Saleburn," 
mentioning at the same time ( Richardson'' s edit. 1743. 
fol, p. — and English edit. p. — ) a Premonstratensian 
foundation at Hales, wthout further designation as to 
county, &c. Richardson adds, ut supra (note) *' Seleboum 
prioratus, qui jam ad Coll. Madg. Oxon. pertinet m 
cujus archivis occurrit liber istius prioratus. MS. Barloiv. 
Richardson notices not this confusion of two distinct 
places and endowments. The Vicarage of Selborne, near 
Liphook, Hants, is in the patronage of Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

He is said by Bishop Godwin to have founded Ed- 
wardstow, i. e. Nettley Abbey, near Southampton. But 
this must be erroneous. Roche died in 123S, and this 
Abbey was not founded till the following year. King 
Henry IH. was the founder. Iceland has fallen into the 
same error. Collect. 1. 69. To this assertion Bishop 
Tanner properly observes, ' He might intend or perhaps 
begin this Monasteiy.' Nettley was for Cistercian Monks 
from Beaulieu, and was dedicated to St. Mai-y and St, 
Edward. — See Tanner, Notitia, Hants. XXII. 

Leland enumerates among the benefactions of Chertsey 
Abbey, * Petrus de Rupibus Epus Wint.' Collect. 1. 70. 
"Ao/1238, 23 Henry in. Peter de la Roach, Lord 
Chief Justice, and Bishop of Winchester, founded the 
Chapel on the south side of the Church, dedicating it to 
the honour of God and St. Maiy ^lagdalen." — Concaur- 
nen's Hist, of St. Saviour's, Sonthwark 1775, p. 74. 

** The Priory of St. Mary- Overy having been burnt 
about 1207, the Canons founded an Hospital near their 
Prior), where they celebrated, till the Priory was repaired. 
This Hospital afterwards, by consent of Peter de la 



106 PETER ROCK. 

Roche, Bishop of Winchester, was removed Into the land 
of Anicius, Archdeacon of Siiriy, in 1228." — Stow's 
London, II. p. 11. 

"This Bishop founded a large Chapel of St. Mary 
Magd. in the said Church of St. Mary Overy: which 
Chapel was afterwards appointed to be the parish Church 
for the inhabitants near adjoining." — Stow. ib. 

Matthew Paris adds, that while in the holy land, he 
removed the Church of St. Thomas the Martyr fiom a 
very unfit to a fit situation, and reformed the statutes of the 
company belonging to that church, causing the patriarchs 
of Jerusalem to take orders, that whereas they were here- 
tofore lay-men, they should now be under the templars 
and their society. He fortified also Joppa, a well known 
refuge of the Christians, and made a remarkable will, 
giving to each of the said places a large sum of money. 
To the house of St. Thomas of Aeon, he gave 500 marks, 
the least of any of the sums he bequeathed. Notwith- 
standing all this he left his bishopric veiy rich, and well 
conditioned for his successor. 

Among the benefactions to his Cathedral it would be 
unpardonable to omit one recorded by Rudborne, with 
true Roman Catholic absurdity. This was no other than the 
foot of St. Philip, but how the Bishop met with it, nor 
by what means it had been preserved for so many cen- 
turies, he condescendeth not to inform us. ** Petrus de 
Rupibus Ecclesiae Wint. exstitit in omnibus specialis 
pater et amicus. Qui pedem S. Philippi suae ecclesiae 
contulit cum plurimis aliis oi'namentis." Hist. Maj. 
Wint. Ang. Sac. How could any human being be so 
infatuated as to call such a thing an ornament ? and, 
or how could such delusions ever obtain credence or 
currency? 



VII. WILLIAM DE RAYLEIGH, 

Succeeded A. D. 1243. — Died A.D. 1249. 

The Bishop had been a favorite Chaplain of King 
Henry IIL, Prebendary of Kentish Town, (Netccourt, 
Ilepertor. I. l60,) Treasurer of Exeter Cathedral, and 
Prebendary of Lichfield. Coptrary to the knowledge of 



WILLIAM DE RAYLEIGH. l(H^* 

the Monks he had been elected Bishop of Chester, upon 
which the King gave him his option, and he accordingly 
chose the See of Norwich, and was consecrated to it by 
Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, in St. Paul's, 
September 25, 1239- (ib.) 

On the death of Hock, the King was anxious to appoint 
to the vacant See of Winton, William, Bishop elect of 
Valentia,* the uncle of his lately espoused Queen. But 
tlie Monks taking it into their heads that he was a " saiv- 
guinary man," (M. Paris) persisted in refusing to elect 
him, and instead of so doing they successively elected two 
of the King's ministers and favorites, William defRaleigh, 
then Bishop of Norwich, and Ralph Nevill, Bishop of 
Chichester, {ib.) 

These attempts, however, equally discordant to the 
discipline of the Church, and subversive of the prerogative 
of the King, effected the exclusion of both those Prelates 
from the sunshine of the royal favor. This dispute, so 
discreditable to the rebellious Monks, and so subversive 
of the unity of the Church, continued five years ; durmg 
■which time, the diocese was destitute of a Bishop, not- 
withstanding that William, Bishop of Valentia, the inno- 
cent cause of this contention, had died in the first year 
of its commencement. The Monks most deservedly felt 
the weight of the royal resentment, their temporalties 
being seized, and themselves imprisoned. Nevertheless, 
so incorrigible were they, and so inflexible in their lawless 
opposition to their King, that they re-elected Raleigh, 
their former elections having been invalidated at Rome, 
tlu-ough the King's means. ;|; 

Raleigh, at length, A. D. 1243, haviug procured his 
translation to be ratified by the Pope, repaired to Winton 
to take possession, but he found the gates shut against 
him, the mayor being ordered by the King to refuse him 



• He vas elected Bishop of Valentia A. D. 122-1. Id I23G he accom- 
panied his neice into this country, and died l?o9. See Guichon's Hist, dt 
Saaoy, 1 . 256. 

t Whartop in the y^/j?/. Sac. vol. I. p. 307 says, he was elected in 1238, 
prior to his proauotion to Norwich. 

t There are extant two Papal Bulles directed to the King and others, 
enjoining that no one should be elected to the See of Wiutnn, who might 
be in the sliglit€st degree objectionable to the King. The one dated 
Lateran, 2, Id. Jan. The other Lateran, 0', Id. lu-b. 13tl), ot tlie Pontificate 
.*•! C«tiory, that is, A. D. 123'J. See Rymer's Fcedera, Lpp. 337-§. 



1G| WILLIAM DE RAYLEIGH. 

admission. In vain did the holy man, as Paris andj 
Westminster record, go barefooted round the walls, preach- 
ing to the civic powers and clergy, who heard his harangues 
from the upper ])arts of their houses with perfect sang- 
froid. Finding these means useless, he consoled himself 
with fulminating an interdict on all the parties, and having 
so done betook himself to France. 

The following year by the intercession of Boniface, the 
Archbishop, and the Pope's earnest letters to the King 
and Queen, peace was restored, and Raleigh took pos- 
session of his diocese, the interdict being removed. The 
King, (says Paris,) even condescended to dine with him, 
and to give him the kiss of peace. He was enthroned 
Nov. CO, 1244. 

Two years after this, viz. in 1246, the Bishop per- 
formed in the King's presence the magnificent ceremony 
of dedicating the royal Abbey in the New Forest, called 
Beaulieu (de bello loco). — M. Paris. 

From feelings of gratitude for the fatherly concern the 
Pope had taken in getting him peaceable possession of 
the bishopric, Raleigh sent him a present of 6000 marks, 
doubtless expecting that a part of the present would be 
declined. Vain hope ! His Holiness good-naturedly ac- 
cepted the whole, not returning him a single penny. 
The payment of this money, adds Godwin, and the 
anxiety he had experienced, preyed upon his mind, and 
hastened his dissolution, which took place Sept. 20, 
1249, atTurenne, whither he had withdrawn with a small 
retinue a year before. 

Bishop Milner, vol. I. p. 245, says, he died at Tours 
in 1250 : but this appears to be neither the place nor the 
date. That writer observes, that Bishop Raleigh received 
the last rites of his Church with circumstances of the 
most " edifying demotion." I was curious to ascertain 
what these circumstances of edifying devotion might be, 
and on referring to Matthew Paris, I find them to have 
consisted chieiiy in his unscriptural and puerile mistake 
of the bread and wine for the real body of Christ, {i, e.) 
confounding the signum with the significatum, and by 
inevitable consequence admitting the absurdity that Christ 
held himself in his hand, when he uttered the words 
** Take, eat, this is my body," &c. Being near death, 
observes Milner, he had the Sacrament brought to him, 
[i, e. the vicarious elements of bread and wine,] and 



WILLIAM DE RAYLEIGH. m 

perceiving the priest entering his chamber with it, he 
cried out — ' Stay, my friend, let the Lord come no 
nearer unto me, it is more iit that I be drawn unto him 
like a traitor, that in many things have been a traitor 
xmto him !' His servants, therefore, by his desire, drew 
him out of bis bed to the place where the Priest was, and 
there with tears he received the sacrament, and spending 
much time in prayer, afterwards ended this life, 8lc." 
Though we cannot but admire the fervour of Roman 
Catholic piety, our admiration is ever mingled with pity 
for the vain conceits and erroneous doctrmes which a 
distorted zeal and blind superstition, have appended to 
the faith of a true church.* 

He died, says Paris, '' anno 1250, circa festum 
Matthoei," p. 692 — "circa festum S. ^gidii." — WiJas 
Chron. p. 48. " Die primo Sept. Obitiiar. Wint. and 
was buried in the Cathedral Church of St. Martin at 
Turenne. Amml. Wint. His anniversary was celebrated 
in Nor\\'ich Cathedral, July 20, being St. Margaret's 
day. Reg. VII. EccL Cath. Norv.fo.pemilt. 

Arms. Gules, a bend lozengy. argt. Blomefield. 
Hist. Noyfolk. edit. 1806, vol. III. p. 485, on the au- 
thority of collections of P. Le Neve. A few more 
particulars of him as Bishop of Norwich may be found 
in Blomefield. 

Rudborne, Hist. M. Wint. records him thus : — 
" Willelmus Rale, qui sedit annos X." This is evidently 
wrong. — vide supra. 

Leland, Collect. 2. 341 thus, ''Qui: de Radelege, 
ex Epo Norwic : fit Epus Wint : A. D. 1242, obiit 1250.- 
Ds. Adamarus de Luzingnano frater Henry III. regis 
Angl. successit." 

Vin.ETHELMAR,aliasAYMERDE VALENCE, 
or VALENCIA, abas ALDOMAR.f 

Succeeded A.D. 1250. — Died A. D. 1261. 

This Prelate, by birth a Pictavian, was uterine 
brother of King Henry HI., being 4th sou of Isabella, 

• When I apply the ex])ression "a true Church" to that ot the Ca- 
tholics, I would be utiderstooil to mean true in its essential coustitution, 
i. e. au lipiscopacy and Priesthood of Apostolic oiigia. 

t Sic in Lib, Tax. fmnt. Annul, fFinton, 



170 ETHELMAR. 

relict of tlie preceding King, by her second husband 
Hugh Le Brun, Earl of March,f (in the confines of 
France and Poitou.) 

Ethelmar's earlier preferments were the living of Ded- 
dingtou, County of Oxford in 1 247. ( llegist. Grosthead.) 
That of Kyrkehayn (sic) in the diocese of York. Pat, 
31 Hen?-!/ III. To this Church the King presented 
(postulatione ejus a Papa confirmata), 3 Aug. Pat. 
S5 Henry III. He had the Church of Wermuth (qy. 
Warmsworth) before his election, and held it after through 
the Pope's indulgence. Pat. 37 Henry III. m. H . Ita. 
MS. Hutton. He was also Rector of Compton, County 
of Warwick. — Dudg. p. 407. 

The King was so anxious for the appointment of his 
uterine brother to the See of Winton, that he went down to 
that city, and having assembled the Monks in the chapter- 
house, addressed them in a long speech, the purport of 
which was to induce them to elect Ethelmar. In his 
address, though he used the language of a suppliant, yet- 
he backed his requisition by no obscure threats of ven- 
geance in the event of non-compliance ; — [** stricto sup- 
plicabet ense."] The Monks retiring, and being shut up 
together in a chamber, with heavy hearts began to reflect 
on what they had heard, and the present posture of affairs. 
These contumacious persons discovered, or fancied that 
they had discovered, that Ethelmar was destitute of all the 
necessary qualifications for the Prelacy. He had, as they 
deemed, neither moials, nor literature, nor previous 
orders, nor even a canonical age to recommend him, as 
Matthew Paris states, (A. D. 1250, p. 693.) But on 
the other hand, the evils that had befallen them by their 
late rebellious obstinacy to the commands of their sove» 
reign, and being fully aware that the King possessed 
far more ample means than themselves of making an 
impression on tlie Papal mind in a pecuniary way, they 
prudently gave up the point, voting in compliance with 
the King's directions ; {kxcov uixovri yz ^uixu).) The 
election was confirmed, and Ethelmar became possessed 



t Isabel's issue hy the Earl was as follows : 1st. Hugh, Earl of March. 
2d. Guido of Lusignan. 3d. William of Valencia, a distinguished baron, 
temp. Henry III. and afterwards Earl of Pembroke. 4th. Audomak, 
Bishop of Winchester. And 5th. Gexlfry of Lusignan, Lord Hastings, 
■— Lusiguan is 12 niiks from Ppictiers, the Bishop's uative pl^ce, 



ETHELMAR. 171 

of the bishopric : though, as it should seem, without con- 
secration. He had, says Godwin, at that time other 
spiritual preferment equivalent to the revenue of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, (non constat) in order to 
keep which, and yet receive the income of Winton, he 
determined not to be consecrated at all, but to hold it 
by his election only, which it appears he did nine years. 

M. Paris records, that the Bishop conducted himself 
with much severity towards the Monks. Once he shut 
them up for three whole days in the Church without food, 
which caused them to exclaim, ' It is with justice we 
jsuffer this, because fearing the wrath of man more than 
of God, we raised this unworthy youth to the power 
which he so much abuses !' But in all probability the 
Bishop found himself obliged to resort to severe measures 
to keep in order such untractable beings. 

The Prior, William of Taunton, repaired to Rome to 
accuse the Bishop, particularly for turning him out of 
his office, and substituting Andrew of London. Annales. 
Wint, and M. Paris. The Prior prevailed; and in an 
assembly of the nobility, held at Winchester, Ethelmar 
and three of his brothers, who had all conducted them- 
selves with perhaps too high a hand, and being foreigners, 
had excited the jealousy of an English faction, were 
sent into banishment. A7m. Wint. A. D. 1258, and 
Pat. 42 Henri/ III. m. 15. Certain nobles were ap- 
pointed for the safe conduct of Audomar, Bishop elect 
of Winton, viz : Guido of Lusignan, Geoffry of Lusignan, 
and William of Valencia, brothers of the King, to Dover, 
and thence to * parts beyond the sea,' in 1258. Letters 
were also dispatched to the Pope praying him to remove 
the Bishop from the administration of the diocese, because 
he had troubled it many years, and protesting that the 
writers would not receive him if he designed returning to 
England. — Pymefs Fadera, vol. I. p. 060. 

In consequence of Ethelmar's non-consecration, the 
Monks were permitted to proceed to a new election. 
The King overawed probably by the party formed against 
his brothers, did not oppose the course adopted. i'he 
Bishop went abroad in 1258, and Henry Wengham the 
Chancellor was elected, but he alleging as an excuse his 
want of learning, very honorably refused to accept of the 
bishopric under such circumstances, and was soon after 
pjade Bishop of London. Meanwhile in 1260, Ethelmar 



172 ETHELMAR. 

succeeded in procuring his consecration at Rome: which 
fact, M. Westminster thus distinctly states : (though 
Godwin raises a doubt respecting it.) — -^thelmarus, 
Winton electus, cum per tres ferme annos in Curia 
Romana stetisset, tandem Papali obtenta benedictione, 
ab eodem, ut dicitur, in Episcopum consecratus." The 
author of the Chronicle of Osney states the same fact. 
— " Anno 1260, ad festum ascensionis domini, Adomarus 
electus Wintoniensis frater Regis Henrici consecratus est 
in Episcopum a domino Papa Alexandro quarto, cassatis 
in curia Romana omnibus sibi objectis a Baronibus Angliae 
et Monachis Winton, cum magno apparatu Angliam adire 
disponebat, proemisso D. Vincentio Turonensi Archiepis- 
copoetsedis Apostolicce Legato eum plena potestate totam 
Angliam interdicto subjicere, nisi eum pacifice terram 
intrare et Episcopatum Wintoniensera plenius sinerent 
obtinere." The King's and the Bishop's triumph therefore 
was complete. The Bishop was on the point of returning 
to resume his bishopric, when his death took place at 
Paris. He was buried (M. Wesmt. p. 377) in the Church 
of St. Genevieve ; his heart being, according to his own 
desire, conveyed to Winton Cathedral, where a monument 
in the south wall of the choir is to be seen with this 
inscription : — 

Obiit A. D. 1261, 

Corpus Ethelmari (cujus cor nunc tenet istud 
Saxum) Parisiis morte datur tumulo. 

The Annal. Wint. say, * Obiit in vigilia St. Nicholai 
sc. pridie nonas Decenibris 1260.' 

Rudborne gives a different account from Westminster 
of the burial of Ethelmar. But the former is often very 
erroneous. " Audomarus frater Henrici IH. qui sedem 
occupavit annis 12 (only 11) cujus corpus ad aquilonarem 
plagam altaris reconditum est." — Hist. Maj. M/int. Ang. 
Sac. 

The Bishop was an executor of the will of King Henry 
III. Test. Vetust. vol. I. p. 7. 



JOHN GERVASE. 173 

IX. JOHN GERVASE, 
(Called also JOHN of OXFORD, of EXON, and of 

GUERNSEY.) 

Succeeded A. D. 1262.— Died A. D. 1267-8. 

Godwin erroneously places this Prelate's succession at 
1265, (edit. 16\5, p. 230) which would have left the See 
vacant four years. He was appointed by papal pro- 
vision in 1262, (M. Westm.) and consecrated at Rome, 
a little before the festival of St. Michael the same year ; 
( Wharton ex Jide Chron. Dovorensis) though Godwin 
says, on his own authority, that he was consecrated in 
1265, a mistake which his editor Richardson has rectified 
at p. 22 1 . He had been Chancellor of York. (ill. Westm.) 
One of his first concerns in taking possession of his 
Bishopric, was to infiict punishment on Andrew of 
London, the Prior whom his predecessor Ethelmar had 
appointed in the room of William of Taunton. Not 
content with deposing him, he caused him to be confined 
at Hyde Abbey, from whence he effected his escape. 
{M, West7n.) Bishop Godwin relates a circumstance of 
this prelate, only however on an on dit, respecting which 
Bishop Milner has obsei-ved a profound silence, viz. hi& 
payment of 6000 marks to the Pope for his consecration, 
and a like sum to Jordan, the Pope's Chancellor, 
Bishop Gervase taking part with the barons then in arms 
against the king, was on this account deservedly sus- 
pended by Ottobone, the Pope's legate. This occasioned 
him to take a journey to Rome, where he died at the 
papal court, Jan. 20, 126? or 8, {Annul. Waverl. Wint. 
and Wigorn.) and was buried at Viterbo. {Annal. Wint.y 
Westminster says 1265. Godwin (edit l6l5) says 126l, 
which is four years before the time at which he has fixed 
his succession. If the events and dates were transposed, 
he would be nearer the truth. He sat six years, says the 
Chron. Dovor. and Rudborne. His death is also fixed a» 
above by Leland, Collect. II. 341, who calls him " Dq 
Exonia." 



174 KICHOLAS OF ELY* 

X. NICHOLAS OF ELY. 
Succeeded A. D. 1268.— Died A. D. 1280. 

Bishop Nicholas was appointed to Wintoii from 
Worcester, by papal provision, Feb. 24, 1267-8. 

He had been Archdeacon of Ely, whence his name, 
and was appointed Lord Chancellor in 1260, and again 
in 1263. Godwin says he had been Lord High Treasurer 
'about 1260.' He occurs Treasurer from 1263, while 
Archdeacon of Ely, to 1266, having been so constituted, 
as it would appear, a second time Dec. 18, 1263. Pat. 
47 H. in. m. 1, See Catalogue of Chancellors ap- 
pended to Dugdale, p. 12. Chron. Series. 

On the 19th. Sept. 1266, he was lirst elevated to the 
purple as Bishop of Worcester, where he sat scarcely a 
year. Godwin says, p. 222, fol. edit. int. Ep5s Wint. 
"anno vix integro," & inter Wigornienses, p. 46l, he 
erroneously fixes his consecration to Worcester at 1268, 
thus contradicting himself, but it should have been 1266. 

He was translated from Worcester hither by papal 
provision, Feb. 24, 1267, scilicet, anno exeunte, and was 
confirmed by the papal legate April 23, 1268, sc. anno 
ineunte, being inthroned at Winton May 27, 1268. 

He Avas one of the twelve appointed by the King and 
Nobles at Kenilworth to settle the peace of the kingdom. 

The Cistercian Abbey of Waverly near Farnham, which 
we have already noticed, found in Bishop Nicholas a 
friend and benefactor, and the church being in his prelacy 
rebuilt, he performed the dedication of it in 1278 with 
great solemnity, and entertaiiied entirely at his own cost, 
the numerous company that resorted to it during the 
octave of that festivity. On the day of dedication the 
number of guests, among whom were many persons of 
distinction, consisted of between 7 and 8000. (Annul 
ffigom.) 

The Bishop sat here twelve vears and died " circa natale 
Domini 1279," MS. Wood. "Ob. 12 February," 
Annal\ fFaverl: zndfFigorn. He was living July 26, 
1269. See Pat. 7- E. 1. m. 11. and his bishopric was 
vacant February 15, 1270. Pat. 8. E, 1. m. 28. 
Therefore his death is easily fixed within those seven 
months. 

According to his own desire his body was buried in the 



JOHN SAWBRIDGE. 1^5 

Church at Waverly and his heart deposited in his Cathe- 
dral in the south side of the presbytery, with this inscription : 

*' Intus est cor Nicholai Episcopi cujus corpus estapud 
Waverly." 

This Bishop is commemorated says Richardson, among 
the benefactors of Cambridge. He gave by will 60 marks 
for the re-building the tower of Worcester Cathedral. 
(ireen's fVorcest. I. \S7 . Rudborne calls him, ''hujus 
Ecclesia (Wint.) specialis Patrouus." — Hist. Maj. JVint. 



XI. JOHN SAWBRIDGE,* alias PONTISERRA, 

or PONTYS. 

Succeeded A. D. 1282.— Died A. D. 1304. 

After the death of Bishop Nicholas in 1280, licence for 
election was granted Feb. 18, (Pat. 8. Edward I. m. 23 :) 
whereupon the Monks of the Cathedral gave their votes 
in favor of Robert Burnel, Bishop of Bath, but Arch- 
bishop Peckham successfully opposed his appointment 
at Rome, on the ground of his being a pluralist. — 
( Wharton's Aug. Sac. vol. 1. p. 315.) The Monks then 
chose, N ov. 6, 1280, {Aiinal. Wigorn.) Richard de la More 
S.T.P. Archdeacon of Winton and Sub-dean of Lincoln, 
( H.fFhartoit. Ang. Sac. /.) whowas accordingly admitted 
by the King to the possession of his temporal ties ; but 
when the election was notified to Archbishop Peckham, 
he positively refused to continn it on the same ground as 
before, alleging the Canon lately enacted in the council 
of Lyons (** virtute canonis a concilio Lugdunensi anno 
1271, lati." id.) against pluralists, in which situation 
the elect stood. {Aug. Sac. ut sup.) Richard went in 
person to Rome the following year to prosecute his 
appeal, and to obtain a dispensation from the aforesaid 
impediment. On the other hand, the Archbishop sent 
letters to the same place, in which, among other things, 

• Tliis Prelate's real name, Anglice, was doubtless as I have put it. 
Sawbridge has been latinized by Pons, a bridge and Serra, a saAV. Per- 
haps the most absurd of these latinized English names is that of Andrew 
Borde, which as Granger somewhere says, was trausformed into Audreaa 
Perforatus. 



176 SAWBRIDGE. 

he declared that if the canons were allowed to be in- 
fringed, the English Church was ruined, and he was 
determined to resign his dignity. (^>«g. Sac. 1. 315.) 
These representations had their due weight with the 
Pope, who, setting aside Richard, in the plenitude of 
his power took upon himself to appoint John de Pontoys, 
or de Pontissera, who had been Chancellor of Oxford, and 
Archdeacon of Exeter, but who at that time was P..C.L. 
in the city of Modena, to be Bishop of Winton, and 
caused him to be consecrated in the city of Rome, before 
the end of May 1282. Rimer's Fad. vol. II. p. 204. 
The lemporalties were restored Aug. 11. Pat. 10 
Edward I. m. 6. The Bishop immediately after returned 
to England, and to the possession of his See. His own 
register proves that he was elected June 9, 1282. 

Being a man of learning and experience, he discovered 
the best mode of terminating those dissentions, which had 
frequently taken place between his predecessors and the 
monks of his cathedral. Tlie convent gave up to the 
Bishop and his successors the advowson of a great many 
Churches in the Diocese, to which they before had 
claimed a right of presenting ; the Bishop on his part, 
resigning to the convent, for himself and those who were 
to succeed him, all his right to various manors ; as 
likewise the custody of the convent itself, upon the death 
of its priors, whom he ordained should be henceforward 
perpetual, and not moveable at the pleasure of the dio- 
cesan as they had hitherto been ; reserving to himself, 
the right of patronage, with certain other rights spe- 
cified in the original register.* The most important 
act, however, of his episcopal government, and that which 
was afterwards successfully copied by his most illustrious 
successors, was the establishment of a Collegef for the 
propagation of piety and literature among his Clergy. 
This College, which was dedicated under the name of St. 
Elizabeth of Hungary,! was situated opposite to Wolvesey 
Castle, to the south east of the present College. 



* Registrum de Poutoys. Epit. Ang. Sac. Hen, Wharton. Notae ap. 
Godwin. 

T "Coll. S. Eliz. iu Winton. Joannes de Pontii?sera Epus Wint; 
fundator primus." Leland, Collect. 1. 85. 

X This lady was daughter of the King of Hungaiy. For some account 
of this foundation, see Pat. 'X6, Edw. I. par. 1. m, 12, and Pat, 1. E. 2. 



HENRY WOODLOCK. 177 

The statutes which the founder made for the government 
of this College, prove his zeal for the advancement of 
piety according to the mistaken notions of those times. 
This foundation was completed in 1301, three years 
before his death. 

The Bishop was at Rome in the beginning of the year 
1304, with highly recommendatory letters from the King. 
See Rymer. Fend. vol. II. p. 946. He died the 3d. or 
4th. of December of the same year at Wolvesey Castle, 
and was buried on the north side of the high altar in 
Winton Cathedral. — Rudborne. 

Westminster says, he died in 1305. The following is 
the inscription on his tomb : 

Defuncti corpus tumulus tenet iste Joannis 
PouNTES Wintoniae proesulis eximii. 

Rudborne is erroneous in saying he sat 24 years. He 
should have said 22, because, though Nicholas Ely died 
in 1280 J the disputes caused the See to be vacant two 
years. 



XII. HENRY WOODLOCK. 
Succeeded A. D. 1305. — Died A. D. 1316. 

This Prelate, also called De Merewell, from the 
place of his nativity, an episcopal manor near Winchester, 
had been Prior of St. Swithun's. The licence for his 
flection was dated Dec. 23, 1305. The royal assent 
Mas given Jan. 29, and restitution of the temporalties 
Mar. 12, Pat. 33 Edward I. He was conriimed by the 
Archbishop in the beginning of Lent, (Regist. Cant.) 
and consecrated in Canterbury Cathedral May 30, 1305, 
(Regist. Winchelsea) and enthroned Oct. 10. 

When his Metropolitan, Robert of Winchelsea, labored 
imder the royal displeasure, Bishop Woodlock interposed 
in his behalf. The consequences were, that he himself 
was outlawed by the King, and his effects seized upon 
and confiscated. See Stephen de Birchington, vit. Aip. 
Cant. &;c. King Edward dying soon after, his son, the 
young King, restored both Prelates to their former rights. 

This Bishop crowned King Edward II. and his Queen 
Isabella, He was not umnindful of the place of his 



178 • JOHN SANDALL. 

nativity, having considerably increased the foundation 
which had been made there by Bishop Blois in 1226.— 
Tanner. Not. Mon. Hants. XX. The lands at the dis- 
solution were granted to Sir Henry Seymour. He is also 
recorded as having bestowed many rich ornaments on his 
own Cathedral. — Ang. Sac. 

He died at Faruhani Castle on the Vigil of S. S. 
Peter and Paul, A. D. 131(), (28th or 29th of June) and 
was buried at the entrance of the choir of the Cathedral 
of Winchester. — (ib.) 



Xni. JOHN SANDALL. 
• Succeeded A. D. 13l6.— Died A. D. 1319. 

Our next Bishop was John Sandall, or de Sandale, 
called by Walsingham de Kendal, a Canon of York, 
who had been successively Treasurer and Chancellor of 
England. 

The licence for electing was dated July 8, 1 Pat. 10 
E. II, m. 38 ; his election took place before August 5 ; 
restitution of the temporalties was made Sept. 23. 1 Pat, 

10 E. 2. He had been constituted locum-tenens of the 
treasurer, in the Exchequer, Oct. 4, 1312, Pat. 6 E. II. 
p. 1. m. 14, and next year treasurer, canon of York, 6th. 
of May, 1314, (Whaj'ton) lord chancellor before July 7, 
A. D. 1315, Pat 8 E. II. p. 2. m. 21.* and held it after 
his appointment to the Bishopric till Oct. 1317, 1 Pat. 

1 1 E. II. Harpsfield, Hist. Eccl. Size. xiv. records that 
he neglected his diocese, and that he suffered the episcopal 
houses to get out of repair. He is also said to have per- 
mitted a convent of nuns at Witney, to be dissolved for 
want of timely assistance, for which he was called to 
account by his metropolitan, W^alter. 

He died at the end of October, 1319, at his palace of 
Southwark, and was buried in the church of St. Mary 
Overy. {Southwark Register.) John Kokermouth and 
John Heydon being his executors. {MS, Wren.) 

A reconimendatoiy letter of the King to the Pope, 



* See Dugdale. Orig. Jurid. Chr. Ser. p. Sff. 



REGINALD ASSER. 179 

in behalf of Henry Burghersh, after Sandall's death, is 
extant, bearnig date Nov. 2, in Rymer's Fcedera, vol. 3, 
p. 793. 'J ^ » 



XIV. REGINALD ASSER. 
Succeeded A. D. 1320.— Died A. D. 1323. 

The next was a contested election. The King recom- 
mended a favorite clerk, for whose promotion he was 
solicitous, Henry de Burghersh, or as Milner calls him 
■tJurghwash ; but the Monks chose one of their own 
coriimunity, whose name was Adam, and whom Harpsfield 
calls a man of extraordinary learning. The Pope, how- 
ever, to ^vhom the matter was referred, appointed, by 
way of provision, as it was tenned in the canon law, his 
own legate in England, Reginald deAsserioto be Bishop: 
thus realizing the fable of Justice and the Oyster. Re- 
gmald was accordingly consecrated by the Bishops of 
London, Ely, and Rochester ; the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, ^V alter, rightly deeming the appointment an 
irregularity, refused performing the ceremony. 

Asser's episcopacy was but short. He died in 1323, 
iNov. 12, at Avignon, as AVharton says, where the Pope's 
court was then held.— Co;^^ Hht. Whit. But Walsino-- 
ham, p. 90, says, at St. Alban's, on the l6th. St. Ed- 
mund s day. 

He is thus noticed by Wharton :—" Post Johannis 
obitum MonachiWinton Adamum Commonachum Suum 
die 30th. Nov. elegerunt. Verum ante hac audita Jo- 
hannis morte. Papa piovisionem Episcopates Winton, 
sibi reseryavit, eidemque invito Rege proefecit Rigaudmn 
de Asserio, nuncium suum in Anglia per plures anuos 
et Canomcum Aurelianensem. Consecratus is fuit ex 
mandato Paps ab Ep5 Londinensi, Eliensi, et Roifensi, 
in Coenobio S Albani 1320, l6th. Nov. et professionem 
obedientiae Waltero Archp5. apud Cantuariam renovavit 
lo-l, 36th. Jan. Obiit apud Avinionem in Curia 
Romana 1323, 12th. April. Nuncius mortis ejus ad 
Archiepiscopum delatus est 1323, 25th. April, Male 
Jtaque Chiomcon breve Winton obitum ejus in diem 11. 
Maitiiretulit."_il;,o-. ^cc. 1. 3 IG. ^ 



N 2 



180 JOHN DE STRATFORD. 

XV, JOHN DE STRATFORD, L.L.D. 

Succeeded A. D, 1323. — Translated to Canterbury* 
A.D. 1333.— Died A, D. 1348. 

This Prelate, whom Godwin, (Eng. edit. \6\ 5. p. 136) 
calls a native of Stratford-on-Avon^ was, as appears 
from a note by Richardson, p. 106 of Merton. Coll. 
Oxford, J. CD. 1314. In 1317, he became Prebendary 
of Lincoln (CWo;) Willis. Cath. 2. l62; was admitted 
Sept. 13th. 1319, Archdeacon of Lincoln, {id. 2. 101); 
and 2nd. Non. June. 1320 Prebendary of Tachbrook in 
the diocese of Lichfield (id. 1. 464.) Wharton also calls 
him Canon of York. 

The following list of his high political appointments 
w\\\ shew how eminent a Statesman he must have been 
considered, and how high he stood in the estimation of 
his sovereign. 

He was appointed Treasurer of the Exchequer, l6th. 
Nov. 1319, Pat. 12, Edward H. p. 1. m. ]&.~-Dudg. 
Orig. Jurid. Chron. Ser. p. 38. — Constituted locum 
tenens of the Treasurer 6th. Nov. 1327, 20 Edw. II. 
Dudg. Orig. Jurid. Chron. Ser. p. 38. — Habuit magnum 
Sigillum sibi a rege ad custodiendum traditum 28th, 
Nov. 1331, 4 Edward III. claus. 4 Edward III. in dorso 
in. 16. 

Magister Rob. de Stratford, frater Joh. Winton Epi, 
habuit custodian! Sigilli dum frater suus quibusdam 
iiegotiis regis intendebat, 23 Junii 1333, 6 Edward III. 
Claus. 6 Edward III. in dorso. m. 22.. 

Cantuar. electus confirmatus Cancellarius 6 April, et 
liberavit magnum sigillum magistro Rob. de Stratford, 
fratri suo custodiendum. Clau. 8 Edward III. m. 27 
in dorso. 

The reigning Pontiff, John XXII. at the recommenda- 
tion of Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, appointed 
him to the vacant See. He was accordingly consecrated 
June the 26th. 1323, at Avignon, being then Ambassador 
at the Papal Court. The King had been desirous that 



"• " Johannes Stratford sedit 10 an ; et postmodum ArchieplscopiU 
Cantuariee ordiuatus ^st,"-'Jiudborne, 



JOHN DE STRATFORD. 181 

his Chancellor, Robert Baldock, Archdeacon of Mid- 
dlesex, should have been appointed. He therefore, at 
first shewed his resentment against the new Bishop, by 
outlawing him, and seizing his temporalties. (S.Birching- 
ton.) This obliged the Bishop to keep himself concealed 
for above a year amongst his friends, till at length he was 
restored to the favour of his sovereign, to whom he 
proved an able and faithful friend and minister, in the 
turbulent times that succeeded. His temporalties were 
restored June 28th. 1324. Ri/?ner. Feed. 4. 46l. He 
made his profession to the Archbishop, at Mortlake, 
Pec. 1. (Arig. Sac. 1. 3l6.) In the 20th. year of the 
same King, William Melton, Archbishop of York, being 
promoted to the Treasurership of the Exchequer, July, 
30th, 1325, (2 Pat. 18. Edward II. m. 5) at Stratford; 
while the Bishop of Winton was constituted Deputy 
Treasurer, Nov. 6. {Com de Term. Michael. 20 Edward 
n. A.D. 1327.) 

At length the affairs of King Edward 11. becoming 
desperate, our Bishop was one of the persons deputed to 
induce that ill-fated monarch to sign his own abdication. 
— {Polydore Virgil.) The King was murdered in 1327. 
The Bishop falling afterwards into disgrace with the 
haughty Mortimer, whose power was then the greatest 
that was known in England, he, with great difficulty, 
escaped the fate of the loyal Bishop of Exeter, who had 
been beheaded for his fidelity to the late King. In 1329 
he was hunted by the said Mortimer, who thirsted after 
his blood, from place to place, being at different times 
concealed at the Abbey of Wilton, in the woods about 
Waltham, and with individuals in Winchester. Having 
escaped this danger, by the subsequent disgrace and 
punishment of his adversary, he was afterwards honoured 
with different preferments. In the 4th. of Edward III. 
A.D. 1331, he had the great seal committed to his 
charge, Nov. 28th. After two years, his brother Robert, 
subsequently Bishop of Chichester, was made keeper of 
the great seal, while our Bishop was engaged in some of 
the royal concerns, June 23rd, 1333. — {Chus. 6 Edwaid 
III. m. 22 in dors.) 

In 1333 he was translated to Canterbury.* In 1341 

* " Papa providit de Arch. Cant. Imo. die Dec. 1333, non virtute 
postulationis Capituli sed proprio motu," says Walsingham, p. 115. 
V Nihilomiiius a capitulo prius fuerat electus ante iSth. Nov. —See 
'JR^raer. fwU. vol. 4, 5B2. 



182 JOHN DE STRATFORD. 

14 Edward III. he was constituted Chancellor and Lord 
Keeper: but in a short time supplicated to be relieved 
from the burthen of those offices. This he obtained on 
the Festival of St. Andrew the Apostle, when he resigned 
the great seal. — Clans. 14 Edward III. par. 2, m. 12.) 
He was succeeded in the Chancellorship by Rob. de 
Burgherk. — {Claus. 14 Edioard III. par.Q. m. \5 indors.) 
For a further account of him as Archbishop of Cant- 
terbury, see Stephen Birchington de Vif. Arc/ipm. Cant. 
and Godwin de Praes. ap. Richardson, p. 107. or Eng- 
lished it, 1 6 1 .5, p. 1 32. He died at Mayfeld on the vigil of 
St. Bartholomew A.D. 1348, and the 15th. of his trans- 
lation. — Birchington, p. 41. He was buried under an 
alabaster tomb on the south of the high altar of Canter- 
bury Cathedral. He gave his mitre and various other 
things to that Church, and built and endowed a College 
at Stratford-on-Avon, thus noticed by Tanner, Warwick- 
shire. XXVH. ** The large Chantry or College was 
founded 5 Edward HI. by John de Stratford, then Bishop 
of Winton, and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, 
for a Warden, 4 Priests, 3 Clerks, and 4 Choristers, who 
were to celebrate divine service at the altar of St. Thomas, 
in the south aisle (by him then newly built) of the parish 
Church of the holy Trinity. The site of this College 
was granted 4 Edward VI. to John Earl of Warwick." 

The whole of his property he bequeathed to his do- 
mestics. He is thus recorded in " Canonici Lichfeld- 
ensis Indiculus de Successione Archiep. Cant." — 

** Electus est [sc. ad sedem Cant.] anno 1333, die 3, 
nonas Novembr. election! consensit 16- Calend. Decemb. 
die 6. Calend. Decemb. Papa, dissimulata Monachorum 
electione, ilium de sede Wintoniensi ad Cantuariensem 
transferendum decrevit. Anno sequente Nonis Febr. 
dato Regis fidelitatis juramento, admissus est ad Tem- 
poralia. Die 9- Calend. Maii, Pallium accepit : introni- 
zatus die 7. Id. Octobr. Obiit anno 1348. in vigilia 
S. Bartholom^ei, die Sabbati. Sic habet Regictrum 
Cant. MS. Electionem eo die factam esse confirmat 
Birchingtonus et Willelmus Thorn ; inthronizationem 
Birchingtonus et Walsingham obitum Birchingtonus 
et Obituarium Cantuariense MS. provisionem Papa- 
lem, admissionem ad Temporalia, et Pallii receptionem 
idem Birchingtonus. Addit is BuUas Translationis pa- 
pales receptas a Johanne fuisse anno 1333. Calendis 
Febr. publicatas in Ecclesia Cant, die 11. Febr. Sedit 



ADAM DE ORLTON. 183 

annos 13. menses 6. septimanas 4. dies 4. juxta Catalo- 
gum Ussurianum MS. Recte quidem, si pro annis 13. 
substitutas 14 " — See Wharton. Aug. Sac. vol. I. pp. 89 
and 31 6. 



XVI. ADAM DE ORLTON, LLD. 
Succeeded A. D. 1333. — Died 1345. 

This Prelate was a native of Hereford, of which See 
he became Bishop, September 22, 1317. Thence he was 
translated in October 1327 to Worcester, where he sat six 
years, and in 1333 to Winchester. 

Amongst those who had shared in the guilt of Morti- 
mer, yet who escaped partaking in his punishment, was 
this Bishop ; who had been one of the most active agents 
of the Barons in the first war, which they raised against 
the King in order to oblige him to banish the Earl of 
Winchester and his son Hugh Despencer the younger, 
Earl of Gloster. ( Walsingham. Upodig.) For this, Avhile 
Bishop of Hereford, he was, contrary to all law, and ia 
defiance to all precedent, tried by the ordinary secular 
tribunal. Usher, (Aniiq. Britan.J thus records his speech 
on this occasion to the King. *' Domine Rex, vestra 
regia majestate semper salva. Ego sanctge ecclesize Dei 
minister humilis ac membrum, et Episcopus consecratus, 
licet indignus, ad tam ardua nequeo respondere, nee debeo 
absque J^omini Cant. ArpT, post summum Pontificem 
mei immediati judicis, et aliorum patrum Eporum, me- 
orum parium, conniventia vel conscensu. 

The same author, speaking of this irregular transaction, 
proceeds in these words ; Quo dicto, ArpT et EpT, qui 
interfuerunt, assurgentes regi pro coUega suo intercesse- 
runt : cumque rex exorari noluit, totus Clerus Epum a 
Regis judicio subeundo, tanquam ecclesije membrum, 
vindicavit. Quorum actus clamoribus Rex cum Cantua- 
riensi Arp5 custodiendum, alias de criminibus responsu- 
rura, tradidit. Sed paulo post, regio jussu, iterum captus 
et ad regium tribunal ductus est. Qua re Episcopis, qui 
Londini fuerant nunciata. Cant. Ebor. et Dublinensis 
ArpT, crucibus erectis, decem aliis EpTs magnaque hujus 
modi caterva comitati, ad locum judicii magna celeritate 
contendunt. Quorum adventu, fugatis ministris regiis^ 
coufratrem et co-episcopum suum a cunctis derelictum ac 



184 ADAM DE ORLTON. 

solum in custodiam suam susceperunt : Eoque abducto, 
illico sub anathematis paena indixerunt, ne quis ei manug 
violentas adferre pra;suinat. Rex hac Cleri audacia com- 
motus, eo absente, inquisitionem de suis perpetratis legi- 
timam instituit. Ita convocatis laicis (nam Cleri soecular- 
ibus, praesertim capitalibus, judiciis adesse turn ne regia 
authoiitate adduci aut cogi poterant, proposuit crimina, 
quae ceitis jam distincta forraulis et articulis ante Here- 
fordensi Epo objecta fuerant : eos jurejurando astiictos 
jussit, ut inquisitione per legitimas conjecturas factique 
evidentiam ex juris praescripto habita reque tota mter se 
perpensa et communicata, quia de articulorum ventate 
crederent, communi response referrent. IHi sive rnetu 
regis, sive EpT odio, sive rei veritate aut probabilitate 
ducti, respondent. Epum Herefordensem omnium crimi- 
num in articulis comprehensorum proscripsit, praedia 
et terras in suam custodiam ccepit, bonis omnibus 
spoliavit. 

In consequence of this treatment, a revengeful and 
treasonable feeling seems immediately to have taken 
entire possession of the Bishop's heart ; for when Isabella 
raised the standard of civil war against her hiisband, she 
"was immediately joined byOrlton, who marchingwith her 
adherents, urged them on to the utmost lengths of rebel- 
lion. Being at Oxford, he is said to have preached upon 
these words : " my head, my head acheth," (2nd. Kings, 
ch. 4, verse 19) endeavouring to prove that, as the head of 
the kingdom was disordered, it was the duty of the mem- 
bers, independently of him, to provide for their welfare. 
(Walsingham.) The Bishop is also accused of having 
been a principal instrument not only in deposing, but in 
murdering the unhappy Edward II. and in proof of this 
participation, the following story is related. (See 
Camden, Glocestersh. I. p. 262, Cough's edit. — S^c.) 

When application was made to him on the subject of 
the King's murder, by the Governors of Berkeley Castle, 
he is said to have returned this reply, full of oracular 
ambiguity : Edwardum occidere nolite timere bonum est. 
The words, if a comma is placed after timere, would 
convey assent to the murder, but if after nolite, they 
would be dissuadatory. Now, unquestionably treasonable 
as the doctrine contained in the Bishop's sermon was, 
and heinous as his conduct under any circumstances of 
aggravation would have been towards his King, still I 



ADAM DE ORLTON. 185 

must contend that he had no participation in the murder, 
and mv opinion is formed on these pomts ;— first, would 
King "Edward HI. when representmg to the Pope the 
Bishop's various crimes, in order to supersede his trans- 
lation to Winton, especially the treasonable sermon and 
his overt acts of rebellion, have omitted so weighty a 
charge as the murder of his royal predecessor and father, 
Edward II. if the Bishop had been instrumental m it. 
Now not even an insinuation to that effect occurs. 
Secondly, the story respecting the ambiguous reply above 
noticed, turns out on investigation to have been borrowed, 
and that the words were used upivards of a century bejore 
Orlton's time, by an Archbishop of Strigomum, with 
reference to Queen Gertrude, wife of Andrew, King of 
Hungary ; {Alberici Chr. p. 473,) and lastly, which I think 
must clear the memory of the Bishop from this foul 
aspersion, he left England in 1327, to solicit the P^^e s 
dispensation, in order to the marriage of the young King 
with his cousin Philippa of Hainault, and was at Avignon 
with the Pope in September, where the Pontift promoted 
him to the See of Worcester. Thus he was beyond sea 
all the time of the King's confinement in Berkeley Castle, 
who was brought thither April 3, and murdered Sept. 21, 
in the same year 1327. 

The Queen's cause was triumphant, and Orlton was by 
her interest. In 1327, translated to Worcester. 

Having escaped all punishment, and even enquiry into 
the seditious line of conduct he had adopted, he appears 
afterwards to have gained the favour of Edward III. so 
far as to be employed by him as his ambassador at the 
court of France. Here he evinced so much address as 
to induce Philip to interest himself warmly with the Pope 
in order to get him translated a second time, viz. from 
Worcester, which he then held, to Winton, {WalsingL 
Ypodig.) which at that time (1333) became vacant by the 
promotion of Bishop Stratford to Canterbury. Orlton is 
noted for being the third English Bishop (Stigand and 
Richard Poore of Sarum, being the others) that had yet 
been translated a second time. This gave occasion to the 
following verses, in the style of the age : 

Thomam despexit; Wulstanum non bene rexit: 
Swithunum maluit.— Cur ?— Quia plus valuit. 
{Ex Archiv. Castr, Belv. Aug. Sac, vol. L p. 534.) 



186 WILLIAM DE EDYNGDON. 

The three patron saints, Thomas of Hereford, Wulstan 
of Worcester, and Swithun of Winton, are here put to 
denote the Churches themselves. 

King Edward 111. who intended the See for Simon 
Montague, (Cant. Hist. Wigorn.) in vain opposed the 
appointment of Orlton, representing to the Papal Court 
the enormities of which he had been guilty. The Bishop 
however eluded the charges brought against him by an 
ingenious and well-penned apology. ( Twt/sd. ap, \0 Scrip.) 
In short, he carried his point at Rome, though Edward 
refused to admit him to the possession of his temporalties 
till the next year, when he granted this favour at the 
request of the other Prelates, in a parliament held at 
London. (Godwin, p. £25, and Whart. Ang. Sac. I. 
SI7.) He now took possession of his See in triumph; 
some time after which, making a visit to the Prior of the 
Cathedral, Alexander, he was entertained by him in the 
great hall of the priory, with the performances of Herbert, 
a celebrated minstrel of these times, who sung to him the 
popular songs of Winchester, how Gui/, Earl of Wartoick, 
overthrew and killed Colbrand, the Danish Champion, 
under the walls of this city ; and how Queen Emma walked 
unhurt over the glowing plough-shares in this cathedral, 
(MSS. IVolvesey. ap. Tho. Warton's Hist. Eng. Poetry, 
vol. I. p. 89.) This prelate losing his eye-sight some 
years before his death, (Cont. Hist. Wint.) was thereby 
incapacitated from mingling any more in the busy scenes 
of life, and died at Farnham, July 18, 1345. {Ang. Sac.) 
He was buried in a chapel which he seems to have pre- 
pared for himself in the cathedral. (See Richardso?i, 
Notes, p. 225.) 



XVn. WILLIAM DE EDYNGDON. 
Succeeded A. D. 1345. — Died A. D. 1366. 

This Prelate was a native of Eddington, Wilts, and had 
been Prebendary of Leighton-Manor, in the Cathedral of 
Lincoln. — Willis Cath. 11. 208. 

Upon the decease of Adam de Orlton, the Monks chose 
one of their own community, John de Devenishe (Thome. 
Chron, de Abbat. Cant.) who seems to have been son of 
the worthy and charitable magistrate of the city of Winton, 



WILLIAM DE EDYNGDON. 187 

the founder of St. John's house. The King, however, 
designed the See of Winton for an ecclesiastic of great 
talents and merit, whom he had lately constituted his 
treasurer, (1345, April 10, Pat. 18 £. [II. m. 22.) viz. 
William de Edyngdon, who was accordingly consecrated, 
and John de Devenishe was, by way of compromise, con- 
stituted Abbot of Canterbury. — {Wharton. Arig. Sac.) 

In addition to the dignity of this See, our Bishop being 
in such high favour, we are not surprized that he should 
have been appointed by the King, Prelate or Chancellor 
of the newly-mstituted order of the Garter, in 1350; an 
honour which was to descend and has ever since been held 
by his successors the Bishops of Winchester. In 1357, 
lie also had the Great Seal delivered to him, {Feb. 19, 
Claus. 30 Edio. III. in dors. m. 4.) In this difficult 
post he conducted himself with great approbation, {Contin. 
Jrlist.Maj, Wint. Aug. Sac.) and is only reproached with 
having coined certain kinds of money, viz. groats and half 
groats, of less weight than they had hitherto been, by 
which means the price of labour and the commodities of 
life rose beyond their foraier nominal value, and could 
never afterwards be brought back to it. — Contin. Polj/ch. 
Walsingh. Ypodyg. p. 122. 

On the death of Archbishop Islip, he was elected May 
10, 1366, to the See of Canterbury. This however he 
positively refused to accept, though authors are divided, 
as to the motives of his refusal. One ascribes it to his 
humility, {Harpsfield. Hist. Eccl. Sac. XIV. C. XIX.) 
another to his advanced age, {Hen. Wharton. Cant. Hist. 
Wint.) whilst a third attributes it to a motive of avarice, 
putting into his mouth the following expression : — 
"Though Canterbury is the higher rack, yet Winchester 
is the richer manger." (Goc?«;w<.) But how little he was 
then under the influence of avarice, appears from his 
works of piety and charity, and from his distributing 
almost all his remaining unappropriated money amongst 
the poor, during his life time. {Chronic, Anonym. Cont. 
Hist. Win.) He was the founder of a college of secular 
clergy, at his native place of Edington {Ex Uteris J undat. 
ap. Harpsfield) which at the request of the Black Prince, 
who was an admirer of a certain order of hermits, called 
Bon-Hommes, he changed into a Convent of that order. 
iMonasticon. Stevens snh. Jin.) Of this, Leland records, 
** Gul. Edington Epus Wint. fundavit prim6 banc domum 



188 WILLIAM DE EDYNGDON. 

pro Canon : regul : et postea ex concensu regio transtu- 
lit in religiosos hujus ordinis. "Co//ec^, 1. 66 

He died October 8, 1366, and was buried in his 
Cathedral, (Rvdborne,) where his chantry, tomb, and 
epitaph are still to be seen. The Historian of Winton 
thus describes the chantry: Within the 10th arch from 
the west end, adjoining to the steps leading towards the 
choir is an ancient chantry, by no means to be compared 
with that of Wykeham, but in the same style of architec- 
ture. This contains the monument and the figure of 
William of Edington. The following epitaph in 
[wretched] Leonine verse may still be discovered. 

Edyndon natus Wilhelmus hie est tumulatus 

Praesul praegratus in Wintonia cathedratus 

Qui pertransitis ejus memorare velitis. 

Providus et mitis ausit cum mille peritis. 

Pervigil Anglorum fuit adjutor populorum 

Dulcis egenorum pater et protector eorum 

M. C. tribus junctum post, L. X.V. sit I junctum 

Octava sanctum totat hunc Octobris inunctum 

" William, born at Edington, is here interred ; 

He was a well-beloved Prelate ; and Winchester was his See, 

You, who pass by his tomb, remember him in your prayers ; [sagacity. 

He was discreet, and mild, yet a match for thousands in knowledge and 

He was a watchful guardian of the English nation ; 

A tender father of the poor, and the defender of their rights. 

To one thousand add three hundred and fifty, ten, five, and one, — 

Then the eighth of October will mark the time when he became a saint." 

Wharton quotes an anonymous chronicle which he 
terms * insigne,' as stating that he was buried " apud 
Edyngton in loco quoem ipse fundaverat. — {Ang. Sac, 
1. 317). But this must be erroneous, as the Epitaph 
above recorded, says, " hie est tumulatus;" words of 
course that could have no place on a Cenotaph. 

The same author has the following remarks respecting 
the Bishop's will: — " Eodem anno (1366) die 11th. 
Testamento condito proecepit, ut de bonis suis expende- 
retur ad perfectionem navis* Ecclesiae Cathedralis Wint. 



* There is a singular propriety and much beauty in tliis word navis, as 
applied to the church ; which is, in truth, the ship, — the ark of salvation 
in which we sail over the turbulent waves of the world to the haven of 
peace. The origin of the word aisles, is evidently from alee wings, being 
puildings appeuiied, like wings, to the Oodi/, or nave of the Chuich. 



WILLIAM DE EDYNGDON. 189 

a se inchoatae, et ad subsidium domus sive Cantuariae de 
Edyngdon a se fundatae. Reliqua domibus religiosis 
quamplurimis et famulis siiis legavit. Astipulatur enim 
Chronicon Anonymum insigne, additque ipsum omnem 
fere thesaurum suum seipso vivente pauperibus erogasse/' 

A few more brief notices may be found of this Prelate 
in Lelarid. Collect, vol. IV. 

Benefactions. — The Bishop thus occurs in Tanner, 
under Wilts xiv. "Bonhommes. The Church and manor 
here were anciently a prebend of the Abbey of Rumsey, 
in Hants, said to be worth 100 marks p. annum or more. 
William de Edindon, Bishop of Winton, built a new 
church at this his native place, and therein founded to the 
honor of the blessed virgin St. Katherine, and All Saints, 
a large chantry or college of a dean, and 12 ministers, 
whereof part were prebendaries, about the year 1347. 
These were afterward, at the desire of the Black Prince, 
changed into a reformed sort of Friers of the order of St. 
Austin,called Bonhommes, who were settled here under the 
government of a Rector A.D. 1358. Its yearly revenues 
at the suppression, amounted to £442. 9s. Id. Dudg. 
The site was granted to Sir Thomas Seymour, 33 Henry 
VIII. , and to William Pawlet and Lord St. John, 3 
Edward VI." Clopton, a tithing in the parish of Mich- 
leton, county of Gloucester, belonged to this priory of 
Bonhommes. — Atkins's Glo. 556. 

He also founded a Chantry in the Chapel of Farnham 
Castle, {temp. Edward III.) for which he had various 
patents from the King, authorizing him to grant for its 
maintenance a tenement at Lestnes in Southwark, a rent 
of 8 marks out of the manor there, and a messuage, 3 
acres of land, and a rent of 8 marks out of the manor of 
Farnham. And accordingly he granted to John Castrie, 
his Chaplain, and his successors perfomiing divine service 
in the Chapel of his Castle of Farnham, 1 messuage, 
and 3 acres of land in Farnham, and 8 marks out of the 
manor. — Manning and Bray. Hist. Surry. 3, 137. 

Nor must we forget the words of his will above quoted, 
*' ad perfectionem navis ecclesia;," &c. For these afford 
evidence that he actually begun that great work, the 
whole credit of which is ascribed to his successor. 

Rudborne adds, " Hie multa omamenta et jocalia 
(jewels) suae ecclesiae coutiilit," — Hist, Maj, Wint. 



XVIII. WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 
Succeeded A.D. 1366-7.— Died A.D. 1404. 



THE LIFE OF 

WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM, 

BISHOP OF WINCHESTOR. 

Collected fiom Records, Registers, Manuscripts, and other Authentic 

Evidences : by Robekt Lowth, D.D. Prebendary of Durham, 

and Chaplain in Ordinary to His Majesty. 

Quique sui memores alios fecere merendo. — Virg. 

London : Printed for A. Millar, in the Strand ; &R.& J. Dodsley, Pall-Malh 

MDCCLVIII. 

SECTION I. 

From the Birth of TVyheham to his being made Bishop of 

Winchester. 

That natural curiosity, which leads us to inquire into 
the particular circumstances of the lives of such as have 
in any way made themselves greatly eminent, cannot be 
more properly or laudably employed, than in reviving 
the memory of those illustrious persons, who have more 
especially distinguished themselves by their beneficence 
and public spirit ; by their endeavours to do good to their 
own age, and to posterity ; to their country-, and to 
mankind. In this case at least, it is not merely the 
effect of an idly inquisitive disposition, nor does it pro- 
pose to itself only an empty amusement : it partakes in 
some measure, of the same generous principle which 
engages its attention; perhaps it arises from a mind 
possessed with a sense of benefits received, and is no 
improper exertion of that love, respect, and gratitude, 
which is due to the author of them. The subject of the 
following pages, may, I presume, in this respect, merit 
the attention of such as have a due regard for the memory 
of a man, who, besides his high station and great 
abilities in public affairs, was an eminent example of 
generosity and munificence \ and much more of those. 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 191 

who have felt the beneficial influence of his liberality, 
who have been, or actually are, partakers of his bounty. 
It is, indeed, principally for the sake of these latter that 
the present inquiry has been undertaken : it will be 
pursued with that care and fidelity and strict regard 
to truth, which is due to the public in general ; and, 
for the satisfaction of these in particular, even with 
what may perhaps be esteemed by others a minute 
and scrupulous exactness ; in confidence that their 
veneration for the name of Wykeham, their generous 
benefactor, will make every thing that relates to him 
interesting, a<nd will not suffer them to think any par- 
ticularities jejune, trifling, or insignificant, that in any 
wise tend to rescue his memory from oblivion, to verify 
his history, or to vindicate his character. 

William Wykeham, or Of Wykeham, (for *he uses both 
ways of expressing his name, but commonly the latter,) 
was born at Wykeham, Hants, in the year 1324, the 
18th Edw. II: consequently after the 7th July, from 
which the years of Edw. II. begin ; and before the 27th 
Sept. of the same year ; for on that day of the year 
1404, on which he died, he is said to have been fully, 
or above 80 years old. 

It is commonly supposed that he took his name from 
the place of his birth, according to a custom much in use 
in those times, when surnames-j- were not so appropriated 
to families as to descend regularly from father to son as 
they now do. There are however some circumstances, 
which at first seem to afford us sufficient reason to doubt 
of this. X We meet with several of his kindred, living at 
the same time with him, who bore the same name : 
Nicholas Wykeham, Archdeacon of Winchester, and 
Warden of New Coll. whom he expressly calls his 
kinsman. Richard de Wykekam, Warden of St. 
Nicholas's Hospital, Portsmouth ; the same probably 
with Richard Wykeham, called likewise his kinsman in 



* He calls himself William Wykeham, not de Wykeham, in his will ; 
as also sometimes in his own Register : he is so called in Registr. 
Edyndon. 

+ One is surprized that so accurate a scholar as Lowth should fall into 
this vulgar error. Surname conveys no idea. He meaus no doubt sire- 
name or sirname, that is, the appellation of one's sire. To write siruame 
with the letter u in conformity to the prouunciatiou, would be like 
writing burd for bird.— [Ed.J 



192 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

the rolls of accompt of New Coll. 1377: John Wyke- 
ham, rector of Mapleclurhani, (diocese of Winchester ;) 
who is mentioned ni his will among his kindred, and 
•was admitted as such, fellow of his College. Add to 
these William, Thomas, and John Wykeham, admitted 
likewise fellows of his College in the years 1387, 1390, 
and 1395, respectively ; who were his great nephews, 
the sons of his niece Alice, the wife of William Perot, 
and took his sirname instead of their father's. His 
kinsman John Fyvyan paid him the same compliment, 
and relinquished his own name for that of Wykeham. 
Both these instances seem to make it still more probable, 
that it was something more than a casual name taken 
from the place of his birth. He mentions his father and 
mother only by their christian names, John and Sybill : 
if their sirname had been different from that which he 
bore himself, it would have been natural, if not necessary, 
to have mentioned it ; if the same, there was plainly no 
occasion of expressing it, as implied of course. 

I meet with a note in the first register of New College 
which if it does not confimi this opinion, that Wykeham 
was properly his family-name, yet shevA s at least that it 
is not altogether new and unprecedented. It is in the 
following terms : " flyt^g U)cU« to U proobtlJ ti^at tDPlluam 
l»»fec]^am l)|)^^i)opt off iownton fa)a«i borne in a tolune in 
f^ampdjere caXIctJ topfec^am, autJ tijat Ijgjs graunt fatijn'sf 
name toa^ tupfeei^am, altijongi) ti;rrc '^ijatljc tin ;Somt 
iJoute of l)M fati^er'si name." The hand-writing as well as 
the expression of this note carries with it evident marks 
of age : and yet upon due consideration I do not think 
it to be of sufficient antiquity to give it any great weight 
in detennining the present question. 

And after all, we must have a care, lest, being pre- 
possessed with notions taken from our own usages, we 
should be led into error in our reasonings upon those of 
former times. If we consider the uncertain state of 
family-names at the time of the birth of Wykeham, we 
shall not think it strange that there should be such doubt^ 
with regard to the sirname of his family, or even if it 
should appear that he had properly no family-name at all. 
Surnames [sirenames] were introduced into England by 
the Normans at the Conquest; "But certain it is, says 
Camden, that as the better sort, even from the Conquest, 
by little and little, took surnames ; so they were not 
settled among the common people fully imtil about the 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 193 

time of Edw. IL" As we must allow Wykeliam to have 
been what the Romans called novus homo, so with regard 
to his sirname, he might perhaps be strictly and literally 
the tirst of his family. Upon the whole, therefore, I 
cannot help giving credit to the testimony of a *pedigree 
of \V ykeham's family, preserved in an ancient register of 
Wint. Coll. which mentions his father by the name of 
John Longe ; which, whether it was the proper sirname 
of the family, or a personal bye-name given him on 
account of his stature, (in which case his true sirname 
might be Aas, the same that was borne by his brother 
Hem-y) 'tis neither material nor possible to determine. 
This pedigree must be allowed to be of good authority. 



r*Here I have thought it riglit for the sake of juxta-position, to reprint 
this Pedigree, found in the Appendix, No. I. Edit.J 

" E. Veteri Registro Coll. fVinton. 

Alicia, quae fuit soror Johannis Longe patris Domini Wilhelmi 
Wykehani Episcopi Wynton & fimdatoris istius Collegii. desponsata fuit 
Jolianni Archemore, ex quibus processerunt tredecim filia;, quarum una 
vocabatur Emma mater Johanna; Warner & Wilhelmi Carpenter. 

Altera vocabatur Margeria, mater Edithae Ryngeborue & Isabellae 
Mavyle & Johannis Rokle. 

Altera vocabatur Alicia, mater Roberti Mavyle de Strata Hyde Wynt. 

Altera vocabatur Matilda, ex qua processit Agnes adhuc vivens in 
West-Stratton, ex qua processit Johanna desponsata Johanni Bolne in 
Com. Sussex. 

Altera vocabatur Johanna, mater Zelotae quae morabatur apud West- 
meone. 

Agnes Chawmpeneys, soror Domini Wilhelmi Wykeham fundatoris 
nostri, fuit mater Aliciae Perott, quae Alicia fuit mater Thomae Wykehani 
Militis 

Item secundum qnosdam Wilhelmus Stratton procreavit de Amicia 
Stratton, filia Domini de Stratton juxta Selborne, quatuor filios Ricar- 
dum, Stephanum, Robertum, & Johannem, qui obierunt sine liberis ; 
ac etiam tres filias, scil. Aliciamj Julianam, & Alienoram. 

Aiiciam duxit Wilhelmus Bowade in uxorem, de qua habuit filiam 
nomine Sibillani, quam Johannes Longe duxit in uxorem, ex qua 
procreavit filium nomine Wilhelmum Episcopum Wint. & filiam nomine 
Agnetem, qua; Agnes habuit filiam nomine Aiiciam quam Wilhelmus 
Perott duxit in uxorem, ex qua procreavit tres filios, Wilhelmum, 
Johannem, at Thoniam, mortuos nunc; qui Thomas vocabatur Wykeham 
Miles, & duxit in uxorem filiam Wilhelmi Wylkecys Armig. de qua 
procreavit filios & filias. 

Julianam Amitam niatris Fundatoris duxit Ricardus Botesle in uxorem, 
de qua habuit filiam nomine Emmam, quam Ricardus Benet duxit in 
uxorem, de qua habuit filium nomine Ricardum. 

Alienoram Amitam matris Fundatoris duxit in uxorem Ricardus Kers- 
well de Stokebrigg, de qua procreavit filiam nomine Elizabetham, quam 
Rog. Goryng de Sarum duxit in uxorem, de qua habuit filiam nomine 
Johannam. 

Item secundum alios Johan'ncs Longe pater Fundatoris habuit fratrem 
nomine Henricum Aas, qui Henricus Aas habuit tres filios, Wilhelmum, 
Ricardum, & Radnlphum : Radulnhus iste habuit filium nomine Wilhel- 
muffl, & tres filias, s. Feliciam olim Abbatis.sam de Romeseye.'* 



194. WILLIAM WYKEHAM.; 

as it was drawn up in the next age to that of Wykeham 
himself, as it is in many particulars contirmed by collateral 
evidence, and as there does not appear any reason to 
question the truth and exactness of any part of it. What- 
ever else has been alleged on this subject ought to be of 
little account : it is a point that must be determined by 
authority and evidence ; and the authority of this pedigree 
seems sufficient to maintain itself against all arguments 
whatsoever, that are only founded on probable suppo- 
sition and conjecture. His parents were persons of good 
reputation and character, but in mean circumstances. It 
has been said, that he himself, or some of his ancestors 
were of servile condition : that is, had been tenants in 
villenage, or had held lands by certain customs and 
semces owed to the lord ; which is considered as a kind 
of servitude or bondage by our laws, and which was at 
that time, for the most part, the state and condition of 
the bulk of the common people of England. However, 
of his mother, we are particularly informed, that she was 
Mell-born, and of a gentleman's family : which is more- 
over confirmed by the pedigree before mentioned. The 
number of his contemporary relations which we meet with 
occasionally mentioned, and upon undoubted authority, 
is surprisingly great, considering the distance of time and 
the obscurity in which this part of his history lies ; and 
seems to prove, that he was not of such very low extraction 
as some authors have represented him. They appear in 
general to have been persons of reputable condition, and 
of a middle station in life. On the other hand, I see no 
reason for rating his family higher : I am even inclined 
to think that he himself disclaimed all further pretensions. 
The celebrated motto which he added to his Arms, (of 
which, *probably, he might have received a grant whea 
he began to rise in the world) I imagine was intended by 

* "The said Bishoppe bare his Arms diversly at two sondry tymes, 
as the seals thereof, shewed by Sir Richard Fyues, testify. Before he 
was Bishoppe, when as yet he was but Archdeacon of Lincolnc, he- 
sealed but with one cheveron in his Armes between three roses : but 
after, when he was advanced to the Bishoppricke, he sealed with two- 
cheverons between three roses : and so ar generally known to this day to 

be his without contradiction. It hath been deiuauuded of me by the 

sayd learned nienne, whether the Armes which the said Bishoppe used 
were gyven unto him in respect of his dignity Episcopall, or were boren 
by him before, as recey\ed from his auncestry and race. Whereunto I 
coulde not answer affirmatyvely, because I had never seen matter of the 
first allowance of them. But havynge read certyne learned wryters* 
opinions of the sayd Bishoppe, which do agree ia this, that he was humilis 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 195 

liim to intimate something of this kind : JHanncrS ma^pt]^ 
JHan: the true meaning of which, as he designed it, I 
presume to be, though it has commonly been understood 
otherwise. That a man's real woith is to be estimated, 
not from the outward and accidental advantages of birth, 
rank, and fortune, but from the endowments of his mind, 
and his moral qualifications. In this sense it bears a 
proper relation to his arms, and contains a just apology 
for those ensigns of his newly acquired dignity. Con- 
scious to himself that his claim to honour is unexcep- 
tionable, as founded upon truth and reason, he, in a 
manner, makes his appeal to the world ; alleging, that 
neither high birth, to which he makes no pretensions, 
nor high station, upon which he does not value himself, 
but '' Virtue alone is true nobility." It seems to be 
agreed on all hands, that his parents were in such narrow 
circumstances, that they could not alFord to give their son 
a liberal education. However, this deficiency was sup- 
plied by some generous patron, who maintained him at 
school at Winchester, where he was instructed in gram- 
matical learning. Here he gave early proofs of his piety 
and his diligence. It has alw^s been supposed, rather 
from a common tradition than from any authentic account 
that I can meet with, that VVykeham's first and great 
benefactor was Nicholas Uvedale, lord of the manor of 
Wykeham, and governor of Winchester castle, an officer 
of great note in those days. After he had gone through 
his school education, he was taken into his patron's 
family, and became his secretary. That he was secretaiy 
to the constable of Winchester castle, is all that we find 



conditionis, and that he Avas called Wykeham, a loco tinde natus est S^non 
a purentibus : as it i.s also affirmed in the chapter of his lyf before al- 
Icadged, wherein also his father called John is sayd to be progenitorum 
libertate dotatus : and he himself, by Ranulph Monke, of Chestre, being 
noted to be libertinus, vel a patre libertino natus : I was moved to thiuke, 
as I told them, that those Armes came not to him by descent. And 
agayue, beiiouldinge the Armes sometyme with one and then after with 
two cheverons, quae quit/em signa per Carpentarios 8c domorum factoret 
olim portabantur, as Nicholas Upton wryteth, and comparing them to the 
quality of the berar, who is sayd to have had his chiefe preferment for 
his skill in Architecture, Erat enim regi Edwardo III. in principio a 
fabricis eo quod erat ingeniosusHf architectura delectatus, as Dr. Caius 
maketh mention in his bookes de antiquitate Cantabrigiensis AcademicB : 
1 was also induced to thinke per coujecturam Heraldicam, that the 
Bishop himself was the first berar of them." Report of Robert Glover, 
Somersett Herald, to Lord Treasurer Burghley, concerning the dispute 
between Sir Richard Fieniics and Humphrey Wickham Esq. ; dated 
March, 1572. MS.Aut,Wood.No. XXVllI. in Musaeo Ashniokauo Oxon. 

O 2 



596 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

mentioned in the most ancient writers. He is said to 
have been afterwards recommended byUvedale to Edyng- 
don, Bishop of Winchester, and by both to have been 
made known to King Edward III. 

The latter writers of Wykeham's life, have generally 
mentioned his removing from Winchester to Oxford to 
prosecute his studies, and that he continued there almost 
six years. They seem to have no sufficient authority for 
what they say. Writers nearest his time make no mention 
of his being at Oxford at all, or rather suppose the 
contrary. I must here give the reader what Chaundeler 
says to this purpose in his own words : " Ilium Specu- 
lativa (Sapientia) minime forsan occupavit: perhibetur 
enim nee Artium, nee Theologia?, sed nee utrorumque 
Jurium scholas exercuisse — quomodo potuit ab inopi 8c 
pauperrima ductus parentela sine exhibitione scholas aut 
literarum exercitasse studium 1 — de Practica vero — vir 
summe sapiens." Which I think is as much as to say in 
express terms, that he never studied in any university. 
Chaundeler, who within about 50 years after the death of 
Wykeham, was warden of New College and chancellor 
of Oxford, might at that time have easily known whether 
he had ever studied there or not, by consulting the 
university registers. Besides it does not appear that he 
ever had any academical degree, nor is there the least 
tradition of his having belonged to any particular society 
there. The above passage of Chaundeler gives us the 
real character of Wykeham with respect to his learning ; 
and lays open to us the true and only foundation of that 
tradition, which has been delivered down from early times, 
and has received many additional circumstances from the 
invention of latter writers ; that Wykeham was an illiterate 
person. One that after having been chiefly employed 
for several years in secular aftairs, and without having 
ever gone through the usual course of academical learning, 
should become a Clergyman, however furnished with 
most parts of truly useful knowledge, yet such as the 
schools were then entirely unacquainted with, would of 
course be looked upon as deficient in a principal part of 
a clerical, that is, according to the opinion of those times, 
of a learned education. But whoever considers the 
miserable state of learning in general, and in particular 
in the university of Oxford, in that age, will not think it 
any disadvantage to him to have been led into a differei^ 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 197 

eourse of studies. 'Twas just at the time Mhen Wykeham 
must have been at tlie university of Oxford, if he had 
ever been there at all, that certain logical contentions 
turning merely upon words so far prevailed, as to divide 
the scholars into perpetual factions, and to become 
almost the only object of their studies and attention. 
The nominals listed themselves under the standard of 
Occham the invincible Doctor, in opposition to ttie reals, 
the followers of Duns Scotus, entitled the subtile Doctor. 
This occasioned the revival of the old quarrels between 
the northern and southern men : the former, for want of a 
better reason as it seems, joining themselves to the party 
of their countryman Scotus ; and consequently the latter, 
out of mere spirit of opposition, siding with Occham. 
The consequence of these disputes was not only the 
establishing in the schools an unintelligil'e jargon, (the 
thing that is chiefly meant at this lime when they talk of 
knowledge and learning) but the introducing a scandalous 
barbarity and brutality of manners into the place appro- 
priated to the studies of humanity and politeness. The 
parties in their madness soon transgressed the bounds of 
academical disputation, and came to blows : they had 
frequent battles, which generally ended in bloodshed. 
Six years spent at the university just at this time, and in 
that part of life in which prejudices of all kinds take 
the fastest hold aud make the most lasting impression, 
might have unhappily given a wrong turn to a person of 
as great genius, as extensive knowledge, and as sound 
judgment, as any which that age produced. As he had. 
a capacity that would probably have carried him to the 
top of any profession into which he might have chanced 
to have been thrown, he might indeed have become an 
eminent schoolman, an irrefragable perhaps, or even a 
a seraphic Doctor : but we should have absolutely lost 
the great statesman, and the generous patron and pro- 
moter of true learning. 'Twas certainly for abilities very 
different from what were commonly attained at that time 
in the university, that Wykeham was recommended to 
Edward HI. He is said to have been brought to court, 
and placed there in the King's service, when he was 
about 22 or 23 years of age. What employment he had 
there at this time, (if he was really employed by the King 
so soon) 1 cannot say: for the first office which he appears 
upon record to have borne was that of clerk of all the 



198 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

King's works in his manors of Henle and Yeshampsted. 
The patent conferring this ofHce upon him is dated May 
10, 1356. The 30th. Oct. following he was made sur- 
veyor of the King's works at the castle and in the park of 
Windsor. By this patent he had powers given him to 
press all sorts of artificers, and to provide stone, timber, 
and all other materials, and carriages. He had Is. a day 
while he staved at Windsor, 2s. when he went elsewhere 
on his employment, and 3s. a week for his clerk. Nov. 
14th. 1357, he received a grant from the King of Is, a 
day payable at the exchequer over and above his former 
wages and salary. <13^ It was by the advice and per- 
suasion of Wykeham that the King was induced to pull 
down great part of the castle of Windsor, and to rebuild 
it in the magnificent manner in which it now appears ; 
and the execution of this great work he committed entirely 
to him. Wykeham had likewise the sole direction of the 
building of Queenborough castle : the difficulties arising 
from the nature of the ground, and the lowness of the 
situation, did not discourage him from advising and 
undertaking this work ; and in the event they only served 
to display more evidently the skill and abilities of the 
architect. Wykeham acquitted himself so much to the 
King's satisfaction in the execution of these employments, 
that he gained a considerable place in his master's favour, 
and grew daily in his affections : for from henceforth we 
find the King continually heaping upon him preferments 
both civil and ecclesiastical. It seems to have been all 
along his design to take holy orders : he is styled ' clericus* 
in all the above-mentioned patents ; I find him called so 
as early as 1352. He had as yet only the clerical tonsure, 
or some of the lower orders. The first ecclesiastical 
benefice w hich was 'conferred upon him, was the rectory 
of Pulham in Norfolk, by the King's presentation : it is 
dated the 30th. Nov. 1357. He met with some difficulties 
with regard to this preferment, from the court of Rome ; 
wherefore he received from the King, April l6th, 1359, 
a grant of o£'200 a year over and above his former ap" 
pointments, until he should get quiet possession of the 
Church of Pulham, or some other benefice to the value 
of 100 marks. This dispute, whatever it was, was not 
settled till 2 years after^-ard ; when on 10th. of July, 1361, 
he had from the King a new presentation to Pulham, 
On March 1st. 1358-9; he was presented by the King to 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 199 

the prebend of Flixton in the Church of Lichfield : this he 
exchanged for some other benefice with John de VValtham, 
in Nov, 136l. July 10, 1359, he was constituted chief 
warden and surveyor of the King's castles of W^indsor, 
JLeeds, Dover, and Hadlam; and of the manors of Old and 
New Windsor, Wichemer, and several other castles, 
manors, and houses, and of the parks belonging to them : 
v'ith power to appoint all workmen, to provide materials, 
and to order every thing with regard to building and 
repairs; and in those manors to hold leets, and other 
courts, pleas of trespass and misdemeanors, and to 
enquire of the King's liberties and rights. The King 
seems at this time to have been very intent upon carrying 
on his buildings at Windsor : for we find next year work- 
men were imprest in London, and out of several counties 
by writs directed to the sheriffs, who were to take security 
of them, that they should not leave Windsor without 
licence from Wykeham. May 5th. 1360, he had the 
King's grant of the Deanery of the royal free Chapel, 
or collegiate Church of St. Martin Le Grand, London^ 
He exchanged this deanery for the prebend of Iwerne- 
minstre, in the Diocese of Sarum, Oct. 3, 136l. Yet as 
he is styled the year after dean of St. Martin's, we must 
conclude that he was presented to it again tlie second 
time : and as he was admitted again to the prebend of 
Iwerne in the monastery of Shaftesbury, (the same I sup- 
pose with the former) by presentation from tlie King in 
the vacancy of the abbacy, (July 2d. 1362) he probably 
had exchanged it before for some other benefice. He 
held the deanery of St. Martin's about 3 years : during 
which time he generously rebuilt, in a very handsome 
manner, and at a very great expeuce, the cloister of the 
chapter-house and the body of the Church. Wykeham 
attended upon the King in Oct. 1360, at Calais, when the 
treaty of Bretigny was solemnly ratified, and confirmed 
by the reciprocal oaths of the Kings of England and 
France, in person. In what character or office he waited 
on the King there I cannot say ; but he assisted at this 
ceremony as a witness, and, as it seems, in quality of 
public notary. To proceed with the list of his ecclesi- 
asticaj prefeiments : he received from the King grants of 
the following dignities, which I set down in the order of 
time, with the date of each presentation. A Prebend in 
the Church of Hereford, July 12th, 1361. A Prebend 
in tlie Collegiate Chruch of Abergwilly, July l6th; and 



200 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

the same day, a Prebend in the Collegiate Church of 
Llandewy Breys, both in St. David's Diocese. A 
Prebend in the Collegiate Church of Bromyard, Hereford 
Diocese, July 24th. : this he quitted in Oct. following. 
The Prebend of Oxgate in the Cathedral Church of St, 
Paul, London, Oct. 1st. A Prebend in the Monastery 
of Whervvell, Winton Diocese, Dec. 20th. All these 
in the same year: in which likewise by presentation from 
other hands he was admitted to the following dignities. 
The Prebend of Yatmenster Overbury in the Church of 
Sarum, Aug. l6th. ; the Prebend of Fordington and 
Writhlington in the same, by exchange of the former, 
Oct. yth. ; the Prebend of Bedminster and RatcliflF in 
the same, Oct. ] oth. The Prebend of Totenhall in the 
Church of St. Paul, London, Dec. 10th : which he 
resigned a few days after, and was again presented to it 
by the King in April following. He was Canon of 
Lincoln in June, 1362 : it was the Prebend of Sutton 
which he held in that Church. He had the Rectories of 
Aswardby, Wodeland, and Gosberkirk, Lincoln Diocese ; 
the latter of which he exchanged for the Prebend of 
Langtoft in the Cathedral Church of York, this same 
year : w hich he also quitted the next year for the Prebend 
of Laughton m the same Church. The King gave him 
moreover, a Prebend in the Collegiate Church of Hast- 
ings, Chichester Diocese, Feb. 17th. 1362-3; a Prebend 
in St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, April 21st. 1363; 
the Archdeaconry of Northampton, April 26th. ; the 
Archdeaconry of Lincoln, May 23rd. ; on accepting 
which he resigned the fonner ; and the Prepositure of 
Wells with the Prebend annexed, Dec. 15th. the same 
year. Some of the foregoing dignities he was possessed 
of before he was in holy orders. He was admitted to 
the inferior order of Accolite, Dec. 5th. 1361 ; to the 
order of Subdeacon, a superior and holy order in the 
Church of Rome's account, March 12th. following; 
both by Edyngdon Bishop of Winchester, in his Chapel 
at Southwark ; and was there likewise ordained Priest by 
the same, June 12th. 1362. It does not appear when 
or by whom he was ordained deacon. His advancement in 
the State still kept pace w ith his preferment in the Church. 
In June, 1363, he was warden and justiciary of the King's 
forests on this side Trent. March 14th. following, the 
King granted him an assigrmient of 20s, a day out of the 



WILLIAM W YKEHAxM, 201 

exchequer. He was made keeper of the privy seal On May 
11th. 1364. And within 2 years after he was made 
secretary to the King. In May 1365, he was commis- 
sioned by the King to treat of the ransom of the King of 
Scotland, and the prolonging of the truce M'ith the Scots, 
together with the chancellor, treasurer, and the Earl of 
Arundel. Not long after this, he is called chief of the 
privy council and governor of the great council : 
which teniis however, I suppose, are not titles of 
office, but express the great influence and authority 
which he had in those assemblies. There are several 
other prefeiments both ecclesiastical and civil, which 
he is said to have held ; but I do not mention them, 
because the authorities produced for them, are such 
as I cannot entirely depend upon. And as to his 
ecclesiastical benefices already mentioned, the practice 
of exchanging them was then so common, that 'tis hard 
to determine precisely which of them he held all together 
at any one time. However, we have a very exact account 
of this matter as it stood in 1366, when the sum of his 
Church preferments were at the highest, given by Wyke- 
ham himself on occasion of Urban Vs. bull against 
pluralities : the practice of which prevailed greatly in the 
Church at this time ; so that there were some in England 
who, by the Pope's authority, possessed at once twenty 
ecclesiastical benefices and dignities, with dispensation 
moreover for holding as many more as they could lawfully 
procure, without limitation of number. This bull was 
published May 1365, and orders all ecclesiastical persons 
whatsoever possessed of more benefices than one, either 
with or without cure, to deliver to the ordinary of the 
place where they commonly reside, a distinct and par- 
ticular account of such their benefices, with the sum 
which each is taxed at in the King's books, to be trans- 
mitted to the metropolitan, and by him to the Pope. 
The certificate of the Bishop of London, made to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, of the account exhibited to 
him by William Wykeham of his benefices, is as follows. 
" In the same year and month [Oct. 1366.] Sir William 
of Wykeham, Clerk, Archdeacon of Lincoln, and Se- 
cretary of our Lord the illustrious King of England, and 
Keeper of his Privy Seal, by reason of his said oftice 
residing and commonly dwelling in the City and Diocese 
of London, intimated and in writing exhibited to us 
Simon, Bishop of Loudou; clearly, particularly, and 



202 WILLIAM WYKEIIAM. 

distinctly, as lie affirmed, that he holdeth the Archdeaconry 
of Lincoln, having no ecclesiastical benefice nor manse 
annexed unto the same, which is reputed to be a dignity 
in the Church of Lincoln, and is a benefice with cure, 
and incompatible with another cure ; not taxed ; the 
true and common annual value of the same, if the 
Archdeacon visiteth all the Churches of his Archdeaconry, 
and receiveth the whole procurations every where in 
ready money, extendeth to £350. sterling. Item, the 
Canonry and Prebend of Sutton in the said Church of 
Lincoln ; it is a benefice without cure, and compatible 
with a benefice with cure : the tax of the same is 260 
marks sterling. Item, the Canonry and Prebend of 
Laughton in the Church of York ; it is a benefice without 
cure, and compatible with a cure, and is so held and 
reputed ; the tax of the same is 110 marks sterling. 
Item, the Canonry and Prebend of Bonham in the 
Collegiate Church of Southwell, York Diocese ; it is a 
benefice without cure, and compatible with a cure : the 
tax of the same is 55 marks sterling. Item, the Canonry 
and Prebend of the Altar of St. Mary in the Colle- 
giate Church of Beverly, York Diocese : it is a benefice 
without cure, and compatible with a cure : the tax of 
the same is £\6. sterling. Item, the Canonry and Pre- 
bend of Totenhale in the Church of London ; a benefice 
likewise without cure, and compatible with a cure : the 
tax of the same is l6 marks sterling. Item, the Canonry 
and Prebend of Fordington in the Church of Sarum ; a 
benefice also without cure, and compatible with a cure : 
the tax of the same is 25 marks sterling. Item, the 
Canonry and Prebend of Wherwell in the Monastery of 
the nuns of Wherwell, Wynton Diocese ; it a benefice 
without cure, and compatilDle with a cure ; the tax of the 
same is 60 marks. Item, the Canonry and Prebend of 
Iwerne in the Monasteiy of the nuns of Shafton, Sarum 
Diocese ; a benefice likewise without cure, and compati- 
ble with a cure, and so held and reputed : the tax of the 
same is 30 marks sterling. Item, the Canonry and 
Prebend of Swerdes in the Church of Dublin in Ireland : 
it is a benefice without cure, and compatible with a cure : 
the tax of. the same is 90 marks sterling. Item, the 
Prepositure of Wells with a Prebend in the Church of 
Wells, annexed to the same : the aforesaid prepositure is 
a simple office, and without cure, and compatible with 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 203 

another benefice with cure, and so it is held and reputed : 
the tax of the Prepositure with the Prebend annexed to 
it is G8 marks sterling ; and out of the fruits and produce 
of the said Prepositure are paid to 14 Canons for their 
Prebends, and to the Vicars and other ministers of that 
Church, yearly 175 marks sterling. Item, the aforesaid 
Sir William of Wykeham did hold at the time of the date 
of the aforesaid monition, by collation of our Lord the 
illustrious King of England, the Canonry and Prebend of 
Alnethle, in the aforesaid our Lord tiie King's free 
Chapel of Bruggenorth, Coventry and Lichfield Diocese; 
it is a benefice without cure, and compatible with a cure ; 
and the same, being of the King's patronage, he hath 
wholly resigned and simply quitted in form of law as well 
really as verbally : and that the tax of the same, the 
episcopal registers, as well as those of our Lord the 
King, and those of our Lord the Pope's Nuncio 
in England, having being searched, and all requisite 
diligence by him used in the same, could not be 
made appear, nor doth appear ; wherefore the true and 
common value of the said Prebend, he hath exhibited 
unto us, Simon, Bishop of London aforesaid, that it 
extendeth annually to £l3. 6s. Sd. Item, the said Sir 
William did hold, by virtue of apostolical dispensation 
ynto him in this behalf sufficiently made and granted, at 
the time of the date of the monition aforesaid and since, 
the parish Church of Manyhynet, Exon Diocese, at that 
time of lay patronage : it is a benefice with cure, not 
compatible with another cure ; but the same Church he 
hath wholly resigned and simply quitted in form of law 
as well really as verbally : the tax of the same is £8 
sterling. Item, he did obtain a rescript or bull apos- 
tolical in the time of our Lord Pope Innocent VI. 
of happy memory, directed to the Bishop elect of St. 
David's, to examine the said William personally, and if he 
should be found duly qualified, to grant unto him by 
provision, the Canonry and Prebend of the Church of 
St. Andrew of Aukelond, Durham Diocese, which, 
formerly, Thomas de Brydekylt, Abbot of Karlelis, held 
in the said Church during his life ; but, by virtue of the 
same, he neither hath since had collation, nor the said 
Canonry and Prebend hath he possession of, nor hath in 
any wise had, nor intendeth to have for the future, 
»or ja any manner to m^ke use of the rescript or bull 



204 WILLIAM VVYKEHAM. 

apostolical : the tax or value is not known." By this 
instrument it appears, that the yearly value, partly taxed 
and partly real, of the benefices which VVykeham had for 
some few years, altogether, was £S73. 6s. Sd. and 
of those which he still remained in possession of, and 
continued to hold till he became Bishop of Winchester, 
was „f842. It is needless to observe, in what a high 
degree of favour Wykeham stood with the King, after 
having given so many substantial proofs of it. But the 
testimony of Froissart, a contemporary historian, per- 
sonally acquainted with the affairs of the English court, 
and at* this very time residing there, and employed in 
the sei'vice of both the King and Queen, is too remarkable 
to be omitted. ''At this time," says he, ''reigned a 
Priest called William of Wykeham. ThisWilliam of Wyke- 
ham was so much in favour with the King of England, that 
every thing was done by him, and nothing was done without 
him." The King had raised him to some of the highest 
offices in the state, and intended to carry him still higher : 
it was in a manner necessary that his station in the 
Church should be proportionable. The King might 
easily have procured him a Bishopric before this time : 
but as Bishoprics were not absolutely in his disposal, 
nor translations from one Bishopric to another become 
the common steps of advancement in the Church, he 
seems to have reserved Wykeham for the Bishopric of 
Winchester, which in point of honour and revenue 
would be a proper station for his favourite minister, and 
which in the course of nature must shortly become vacant. 
He probably had it in his power to place him in the See 
of Canterbury, which became vacant about half-a-year 
before that of Winchester; but Edyngdon was now 
declining apace, and Wykeham, perhaps, was desirous of 
being settled in his native country ; that this, rather than 
any other, might be the nearest and most immediate 
object of his care and beneficence. In the mean time, 
the King conferred upon him as many ecclesiastical 
preferments, of a lower degree, as he could legally be 
possessed of, as marks of royal favour, and supports of 
his state and dignity, while this great expectative was 
depending. _ 



f See Froissart, Vol.4. Chap. 61, & U9. 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 205 

SECTION IT. 

prom, the time of his being made Bishop of PFinchester to 
the last year of Edward III. 

William de Edyngdon, Bishop of Winchester died 8th. 
Oct. 1366. Upon the King's earnest recommendation, 
Wykeham was immediately and unanimonsly elected by 
the Prior and Convent to succeed him. The conge d' 
elire is dated Oct. 13. The King approved the election 
on the 24th. of the same month. The Pope constitutes 
him administrator of the spiritualties and temporalties 
of the vacant See, by his bull dated Dec. 1 1 the same 
year ; and he was admitted to the administration of the 
spiritualties by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Feb. 22nd. 
following. By his bull of July 14, 1367, the Pope 
gives him leave to be consecrated, referring in it to the 
bull of provision of the same date, by which he confers 
on him the Bishopric. He was consecrated in St. 
Paul's, London, Oct. 10, 1367, by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, assisted by the Bishops of London and 
Sarum. The same day the Archbishop celebrated 
the feast of consecration with great magnificence at his 
palace of Lambeth. Two days after, Wykeham received 
from the King the grant of the temporalties of the 
Bishopric. Thus was it a whole year from the time of 
the vacancy, and even from the time of his election, 
before he could get into full possession of his new dignity. 
The delay which this aft'air met with, has been taken 
notice of by many authors ; some of whom have assigned 
no reason for it; others, chiefly the latter writers, have 
given a false one. Some say, that the King was very 
unwilling to promote to so high a station in the Church, 
a person who was very deficient in point of learning : this 
is not at all probable ; Wykeham was recommended by 
the King, the election was made, and was approved by 
him, all within sixteen days after the vacancy happened ; 
with as much dispatch as was possible in an affair of this 
nature. Others pretend that the Pope made the same 
objection : the contrary to this appears from the words of 
the bull above-mentioned, dated Dec. 11, 1366, in 
which the Pope speaks of Wykeham " as recommended 
to him, by the testimony of many persons worthy of 
credit, for his knowledge of letters, his probity of life 
and manners^ and his prudence and circumspection in 



£06 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

affairs both spiritual and temporal." Which testimony 
of his learning is the more to be insisted upon, as it ap- 
pears on examining all the bulls of this kind that occur 
in Rymer's Collection of public Records through this 
century, that this part of the bull, in which the character 
of the person preferred is given, for the most part runs 
in more general terms, and has more frequently than 
otherwise no mention of learning at all. The Pope was 
so far from making the objection, that he seems fully 
persuaded that there was really no room for it : for we 
may be sure the court of Rome had more address than 
to go out of its way, and depart from a common form, to 
compliment a person for the very quality in which he was 
notoriously deficient. But the true state of the case, and 
the reason of this delay on the side of the Pope, seems 
to be this. Since the time of Henry III. the Kings and 
Parliaments of England had resolutely opposed the 
usurpations of the See of Rome : one considerable article 
of which, among many, was the Pope's assuming to 
himself the disposal of all Church preferments by way 
of provision and reservation. The pretence was, that the 
holy Father, out of his great care for the welfare of the 
Church in general, and of such a Diocese in j)articular, 
had provided for it a proper and useful person to preside 
over it, lest in case of a vacancy it might suffer detriment, 
by being long destitute of a pastor ; for which reason, 
out of the plenitude of his authority, he reserved to 
himself for this turn the disposal of the Bishopric, 
decreeing from that time forward all interposition or 
attempts to the contrary of all persons whatsoever null 
and void. I^he most effectual method of putting an end 
to these encroachments on the rights of the King, Chap- 
ters, and Patrons, seemed to have been taken under 
Edv»'ard IlL, by the statutes of provisors and premunire : 
however, the Pope still continued his pretensions, and 
his provisions in reality took place ; only the person so 
preferred, was obliged to renounce in form, all manner 
of right to the temporalties which might be derived to 
him from the bull of provision, and all words contained 
in it prejudical to the rights of the crown. This was the 
occasion of perpetual disputes between the King and the 
Pope, and of the delay in the present case. Wykeham was 
probably a person very agreeable to the Pope, who had se- 
veral times made use of his interest to the King j and we see 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 207 

that at this very time he made no difficulty of granting to 
him as to the presumptive successor, ihe administration of 
the vacant See. The point in question was not, whether 
Wykeham should have the Bishopric of Winchester or 
not ; but by what title, and by whom it should be confer- 
red on him. The Pope's right of provision was not to be 
dropt in the disposal of so great a preferment, and when 
he had an opportunity by it of making a merit with the 
first minister of the greatest prince in Europe. The King 
defended the right of election ; the Pope pretended that 
election in this case gave no right to the Bishopric, and 
would have it acknowledged as a favour from himself. 

The King had so great a regard for Wykeham, that he 
condescended at last to form an interest with the Pope to 
induce him to recede a little from his pretensions. He 
wrote to the Duke of Bourbon, one of his hostages for 
the King of France, to whom he had granted leave of ab- 
sence about a year before, and had lately prolonged it at 
the Pope's request, desiring him to prevail with the Pope 
to confirm Wykeham's election. The Duke went to Avig- 
non, where the Pope then resided, and solicited the affair 
in person. He was glad of this opportunity of laying the 
King and his minister under an obligation to him. And 
'tis probable, that in consideration of this service, the 
King the more readily granted him his liberty the year 
following, on his paying 40,000 crowns for his ransom. 
The Pope was as well pleased to receive a petition from 
the King of England ; 'twas the very thing he proposed to 
himself by all this delay. He so far complied with it, as 
to end the dispute without determining the merits of the 
cause ; according to the general maxim of the court of 
Rome, never to give up its pretensions in any case what- 
ever ; but rather to yield to the desire of an opponent too 
powerful to be resisted, as out of mere grace and favour, 
without admitting his claim. However, in the present 
case, it seems to have been agreed that each party should 
in some measure allow the pretensions of the other. Ac- 
cordingly the Pope's bull of July 14, 1367, before men- 
tioned, in which he refers to the bull of provision, is never- 
theless directed to William, Bishop elect of Winchester : 
and, on the other hand, the King in his letters patent of 
October 12, 1367, by which he grants him the temporal- 
ties of the Bishopric, acknowledges him Bishop of'Win- 
chester by the Pope's provision, without mentioning his 



208 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

election He was inthroned* in the Cathedral Church 
of Winchester, by William de Askeby, Archdeacon of 
Northampton, by' commission from the Cardinal, Arch- 
deacon of Canterbury's Procurator General, July 9, 
1368; who acknowledges him to be Bishop ofWuichester 
by election, confirmation, and consecration, without any 
mention at all of the Pope's provision. As soon as the 
dispute between the King and the Pope, which was m 
eflect no other than a contention which of them should be 
the author of Wykeham's promotion, was accommodated ; 
beino- now qualified by his advancement in the Church, 
to receive the highest dignity in the state, he was con- 
stituted Chancellor of England. He was even possessed 
of this great office while he was only Bishop elect ; tor 
he was confirmed in it Sept. 17, 1367. We need not be 
surprised to find, that the Parliament of the next year 
was opened by Langham, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
thou<Th Wykeham was then Chancellor : for the part ot 
addressing the Parliament by the King's command, or 



* Thp ridit of iuthrouing all the suffragan Bishops of the pro v nee. s 
» The y^S " °' "Vh"" ^uliar priviWe of the Archdeacon of Canterbui-y. 
by ancient custom the i^etuliaip g ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ iatbrnied of some 
It may not, Peih^i s be tlispieasi^g particulars of the Arch- 

parts of the ceremony toimeiiy u.ea, wu" t i . , , ^j ^ j,. 

Ileacon's fees x^on this occasion, ^.f » e B^^^Jf |> w- ^ palfrev 

deacon ^t his e"tiance into tn^^^ s.^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ,^^^ 

and the A»''hdeacou nun ediatL y n^ )^,^ ^^^^^^ ^^^.^.^^. ^^ ^.^^ 

thefurniy; and faithei tl.^^ ^^^^ Archdeacon was to 

the cover of the »aaaie, ine ^u i, ..,. ^s in h s bountv he 

T',H^£k"„'rtS ^T ,e B r„p'uifc4ed him,eif |„ some church or 

dance upon this ofcce '"^'i™^. "wo great torches of wax during hi* 
four gallons ot wme at ^^ s^ppej ^ two ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^,^^ 

son, and at last established the pi acticeoi perioi mo q^ ^ome equi- 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 209 

of speaker of the House of Lords, was not yet by custom 
appropriated to the office of Chancellor. 

Considering the infinite multiplicity of affairs which 
Wykeham had transacted for the King, in the several 
employments with which he had been entrusted, it was 
impossible for the most upright or prudent man to have 
acted in every particular with so much exactness and 
caution, as to guard against the envy and malice of those 
enemies, which high station in a court is sure to create. 
As therefore, he had now quitted some of those employ- 
ments, no more to be engaged in them, and m as to act 
from henceforth in a new sphere, he thought it proper to 
secure himself with regard to the past, by obtaining a 
full acquittance and discharge from the King. This the 
King granted him in the fullest and amplest manner, by 
his letters patent, dated May 22, 1368. 

A Parliament was summoned to be held at West- 
minster, May 27, 1369- The King, Lords and Commons 
being assembled in the painted chamber, the Bishop of 
Winchester, Lord Chancellor, declared the cause of 
their meeting.* The King summoned a Parliament to 
meet Feb. 24, 1370-1, which the Lord Chancellor 
[Wykeham] opened with a speech. -f- In this Parliament 
the Lords and Commons represented to the King, that 
the government of the realm had been for a long time in 
the hands of men of the Church, by which many mischiefs 
had in times past happened, and more might happen in 
times to come, to the disherison of the crown, and great 
prejudice of the kingdom : they petitioned, therefore, 
that secular men only might be principal officers of the 
King's courts and household, and none of the Clergy: 
saving unto the King his prerogative of choosing and 
removing officers, provided they be of the laity. The 
King's answer to this petition was only, That he would 
do therein by advice of his council. Though he declined 
granting their request, so as to make a law in consequence 
of it for the future ; yet he soon resolved to comply with 
their desire for the present. Accordingly, we tind that 
on March 14, the Bishop delivered the great seal to the 



* In a speech which maybe found in Rot. Pari. 43 Edward IH. and 
Loteth. p. 51. 

t For the speech— see Rof. Pari. 45 Edward III. 

P 



210 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

King, which the King two days after gave to Sir Robert 
de I'liorp. Tlie Bishop was present at the ceremony of 
constituting the new Chancellor, and afterwards at that 
of his iirst opening the great seal in Westminster Hall. 
From which circumstances, as well as from the state of 
the case itself, we may conclude, that he was neither 
dismissed with any marks of the King's displeasure, nor 
was himself dissatisfied with his removal. To the same 
purpose it may be observed, that the two great and two 
privy seals, one of each of which was made the year 
before, on the King's resuming the title and arms of 
France, remained by commission from the King in his 
custody till the 28th. of the same month, when he de- 
livered them to the King ; and that soon after he received 
the King's writ of summons to attend the great council 
which was held at Winchester, to consider of a proper 
method of levying the ^£"50,000. granted by Parliament. 
To this great council only 3 other Bishaps, 4 Abbots, 
and 13 temporal Lords, were summoned, with whom 
w^ere joined some of the Commons named by the King, 
Neither have we any reason to imagine, that the Bishop, 
in particular, was in any degree of disfavour with the 
Commons, or was at all sunk in their esteem and con- 
fidence. We find that in the year 1373, the Commons 
name him with 7 other Lords, whom they petition to 
have appointed as a committee, to confer with them on 
the supplies to be granted to the King. It has been 
said, that the removal of the Clergy from offices of state 
was owing to the influence of the Duke of Lancaster, 
who was not their friend. I know not with what founda- 
tion this is said, with regard to the Duke's mclination 
towards the Clergy in general, at this time; as to the 
Bishop of Winchester in particular, he seems on the 
contrary to have continued hitherto very much in the 
Duke's good graces, who both before, and not long after 
this, honoured him with singular marks of his friendship 
and confidence. The Duke, before his setting out on 
his expeditions to France in the years 1369 and 1373, 
obtained of the King a grant to certain trustees named by 
him, of the custody and intire administration of the revenues 
of all his castles, manors, and estates, for one year after his 
decease, in order to the payment of his debts, and for other 
uses as he should direct. He appointed the Bishop of 
Winchester one of his trustees for both these grants. In 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM, 211 

the beginning of the year 1.375, he likeAvise constituted 
him his attorney, together with the Earl of Arundel, to 
appear and act for him in any of the courts of England, 
during his absence at the Congress of Bruges. 



SECTION III. 
Ecclesiastical affairs during the same time. 

Though Wykeham was so deeply engaged in affairs of 
state, and so much taken up in his personal attendance 
upon the King, yet he was not in the mean time wanting 
to his episcopal function, or remiss in the care of his dio- 
cese. While he was administrator of the See, he acted 
only by his commissary-general, John de \A ormenhale. 
W hen he was in full possession of the bishopric, one of 
the first things that required his attention, was the care of 
the episcopal houses and buildings of all sorts, which his 
predecessor had left very much out of repair in general, 
and many of them in a ruinous condition. The buildings 
belonging to the Bishops of Winchester, were at this time 
very large and numerous : besides a great many granges, 
parks, warrens, and the like, they had ten or t\\ elve differ- 
ent castles, manor-houses, or palaces of residence, pi"o- 
perly accommodated for the reception of themselves and 
their retinue ; to all which, in their turns, they usually re- 
sorted, living according to the custom of those times, 
chiefly upon the produce of their own estates. So great 
a demand as the Bishop had upon his predecessor's ex- 
ecutors for delapidations, could not very soon or very 
easily be brought to an accommodation : however, the ac- 
count was at last settled between them without proceding 
on either side to law . In the first place, they delivered 
to him the standing stock of the Bishpric, due to him by 
right and custom: namely, 127 draught-horses, 1556 head 
of black cattle, 3876 wethers, 4777 ewes, 3521 lambs: 
and afterwards for delapidations, in cattle, corn, and other 
goods, to the value of £l662. 10s. sterling. The Bishop 
made a further demand of 70C) marks, as still due to him, 
and allowed upon account ; which Edyngdon's executors 
acknowledged and promised to pay. This matter was 

finally settled Feb. 6, 1371-2. The Bishop immediately 
set about this great work of repairing all the episcopal 
buildings, in sucii a manner as might have been expected 

P 2 



212 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

from one of his generous spirit, and of his skill and expe- 
rience in architecture. To supply himself with the best 
stone in sufticient quantity, he purchased the use of the 
stone quarries of Quarrer Abbey in the isle of Wight, 
which were formerly much in repute, though now, for 
many ages, disused and neglected. The Abbot engaged 
to assist him as general director and surveyor of these pre- 
parations ; and the Bishop wrote circular letters to all the 
ecclesiastics of the island, both regular and secular, to de- 
sire them to send in as many workmen, carriages, and 
other necessaries for the work, as they could supply him 
with, at the demand and according to the direction of the 
Abbot ; all to be defrayed at his own expence. In these 
repairs of the episcopal houses, together with several new 
buildings raised by him upon the estates of the Bishop- 
ric, he expended in the whole above 20,000 marks. In 
the year 1373, the Bishop held a visitation of his whole 
diocese ; not only of the secular clergy through the sever- 
al deaneries, but also of the monasteries and religious 
houses of all sorts, all m hich he visited in person. The 
next year he sent his commissioners, with powers to cor- 
rect and reform the several irregularities and abuses which 
he had discovered in the course of his visitation. Some 
years afterward, the Bishop having visited three several 
times all the religious houses throughout his diocese, and 
being well informed of the state and condition of each, 
and of the particular abuses which required correction and 
reformation, beside the orders which he had already given, 
and the remedies which he had occasionally applied by 
his commissioners, now issued his injunctions to each of 
them. They were accommodated to their several exigen- 
cies, and intended to correct the abuses introduced, and to 
recal them all to a strict observation of the rules of their 
respective order's. Many of these injunctions are still ex- 
tant, and are evident monuments of the care and attention 
with which he discharged this part of his episcopal duty.* 
The Bishop was warned by the great abuses which he 



[* Lowth here gives a long and very minute account of the foundation 
and constitution of the Hospital of St. Cross, near Winchester ; but as 
this does not come within the scope of the present work, and is a total 
dig^ression from Lowth's subject, though valuable in itself, I have been 
obliged to omit it. The curious reader may refer to Lowth, p. 72, or to 
the Regist. Wykehanj and ftlS. in New CoU, whence the account is com- 
piled.— Edit.J 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 213 

had seen at St. Cross, to keep a more watchful eye upon 
other charities of the same nature. While he had that 

affair upon his hands, he held a visitation of the hospital 
of St. Thomas, Southwark ; still proceeding upon the 
constitution of Clement V. Afterwards he visited the 
hospital of Sandon in the county of Surry. Whatever 
irregularities he might find there, he met with no resist- 
ance to his authority. At the same time that Wykeham 
was thus engaged in the reformation of these charitable 
institutions, he was forming the plan of a much more noble 
and extensive foundation of his own, and taking his mea- 
sures for putting it in execution. He had long resolved 
to dispose of the wealth which the Divine Providence had 
so abundantly bestowed upon him, to some charitable use 
and for the public good ; but was greatly embarrassed 
when he came to fix his choice upon some design that was 
like to prove most- beneficial, and least liable to abuse. 
He tells us himself, that upon this occasion he diligently 
examined and considered the various rules of the religious 
orders, and compared with them the lives of their several 
professore ; but was obliged with grief to declare, that he 
could not any where find that the ordinances of their 
founders, according to their true design and intention, 
were at present observed by any of them. This reflection 
affected him greatly, and inclined him to take the resolu- 
tion of distributing his riches to the poor with his own 
hands, rather than to employ them in establishing an in- 
stitution, which might become a snare and an occasion of 
guilt to those for whose benefit it should be designed. 
After much deliberation, and devout invocation of the 
Divine assistance, considering how greatly the number of 
the clergy had been of late reduced by continual wars and 
frequent pestilences, he determined at last to endeavour to 
remedy, as far as he was able, this desolation of the Church, 
by relieving poor scholars in their clerical education ; and 
to establish two colleges of students for the honour of God, 
and increase of his worship, for the support and exaltation 
of the Christian faith, and for the improvement of the 
liberal arts and sciences ; hoping and trusting that men of 
letters and various knowledge, and bred up m the fear of 
God, would see more clearly, and attend more strictly to 
the obligation lying upon them, to observe the rules and 
directions which he should give them. Wykeham seems to 
have come to this resolution, and in some measure to hav» 



214 WILLIAM V\ YKEHAM. 

formed in his mind his general plan, as early as his becom- 
ing Bishop of Winchester : for we tind, that in little more 
than two years alter, he had made purchases of several 
parcels of ground in the city of Oxford, which make the 
chief part of the site of his college there. His college of 
Winchester, intended as a nursery for that of Oxford, was 
part of his Original plan : for as early as 1373, before he 
proceeded any further in his design for the latter, he estab- 
lished a school at Winchester, of the same kind with the 
former, and for the same purpose. He agreed with Rich, 
de Herton, that for ten years, beginning from Michaelmas 
of the year above-mentioned, he should diligently 
instruct in grammatical learning, as many poor scholars 
as the Bishop should send to him, and no others without 
his leave ; that the Bishop should provide and allow him 
a proper assistant ; and that Herton, in case of his own 
illness, or necessary absence, should substitute a proper 
master. Wykeham's munificence proceeded always from 
a constant generous principle, a true spirit of liberality. 
It was not owing to a casual impulse, or a sudden emo- 
tion, but was the eft'ect of mature deliberation and prudent 
choice. His enjoyment of riches consisted in employing 
them in acts of beneficence ; and Mhile they were increa- 
sing upon him, he was continually devising proper means 
of disposing of them for the good of the public : not de- 
laying it till the time of his death, when he could keep 
them no longer, nor leaving to the care of others what he 
could better execute himself; but forming his good designs 
early, and as soon as he had the ability, putting them in 
execution, that he might have the satisfaction of seeing 
the beneficial effects of them ; and that, by constant ob- 
servation and due experience, he might from time to time 
improve and perfect them, so as to render them yet more 
beneficial. 



SECTION IV. 
His troubles in the last year of Edward III. 

While Wykeham was pursuing these generous designs, 
and was now prepared to carry them into execution, he 
was on a sudden attacked by a party formed against him 
at court, in such a manner, as not only obliged him to 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 215 

lay ihem aside for the present, but might have reduced 
him to an inabiUty of ever resuming them.* 

Upon the return of the Duke of Lancaster to power, 
after the death of the Prince of Wales, he procured 
articles of accusation to be brought against the Bishop, 
by certain persons whose names are not transmitted down 
to us, for divers crimes committed by him during his 
administration of affairs : these were exhibited against 
him about the beginning of the next Michaelmas term j 
and are in substance as follows. I. That after the peace 
was made with France, the Bishop had the disposal and 
management of all the King's revenues, both at home 
and beyond sea, with all the subsidies granted by 
Parliament, and the sums received for the ransoms of 
the King of France, of the country of Burgundy, and of 
the King of Scotland : which receipts, reckoning for 8 
years, during the whole time that Simon Langham, late 
Archbishop of Canteibury, and John Barnard, Bishop 
of Ely, were treasurers of England, (namely, from Nov. 
26, 1361, to the year 1369,) amouut to i: 1,109,600. 
sterling; besides 100,000 francs received from Galeazzo, 
Duke of Milan, and all the King's goods ; which for the 
most part have not been applied to the profit of the King 
and kingdom. And when the peace had lasted 10 years, 
and the second war began, the King's treasury was found 
almost empty, and the King in great straits, was 
forced to burthen then his subjects with subsidies and 
loans : and all this was owing to the bad management of 
the Bishop., II. That the said Bishop, without regard 
to God, or equity, or the laws of the realm, caused 
Matthew de Gourney, Thomas Fog, John Seyntlowe, 
Degory Lees, Robert D'Eues, and many others, who 
in the King's wars had behaved well against the enemy, 
to be fined and ransomed, to the inestimable damage of 
the King and kingdom, in that all the soldiers, when they 
heard of this misprision, entered into companies, and 



[* Here Lnwth has indulged in a long iiistorial and political narrative, 
wholly unnecessary, except in reference to the art of book-making .—The 
object of his narrative, seems to be to connect Wykehain with the history 
of the period. But as every reader of English history is already conver- 
sant vyitli the events of that period, I liave with the less reluctance 
omitted the digression, and have passed on from p. 1)6 to p. 109, as it 
ought to be numbered, for there is a typographical error here in the 
paging of JLowth :~wliat should be p. lOy purports to be DS.—Edit.] 



216 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

made war in France, which occasioned tlie renewing of 
the war, and other bad consequences. III. That the 
said Bishop, being keeper of the privy seal, chief of the 
privy council, and governor of the great council, caused 
the hostages of the King of France, and particularly the 
Dukes of Orleans, Berry, Anjou, and Bourbon, and 
many others, to be released and set at liberty, for his 
own profit ; though the late Prince of Wales had often 
written both to the King and the said Bishop to have 
them kept carefully and securely ; which if it had been 
done, the war would not have happened. IV. That 
when the governors of Ponthieu had given timely notice 
of the necessity of sending succours into that country to 
prevent the loss of it, the said Bishop put off the mes- 
sengers with words, and took no care about it ; so that 
by his negligence, in not ordering a proper remedy, that 
country was lost. V. That in the year 1369, John, the 
son of John Boulewas, having been guilty of acquiring 
lands without licence, was fined in c£'100. to the King 
for his pardon : and the said Bishop caused the fine to 
be lessened by £0.0., as appears by the memorandum of 
its enrolment. VI. That it having appeared by an 
inquisition, that John de Kirketon had intruded himself 
into the castle of Tateshale, the manor of Tomby, and 
other lands, of which John de Dryby died possessed, and 
had held the said castle and lands for so long a time that 
the rents and profits of them amounted to above 8,000 
marks, which ought to have been placed to the King's 
account, as the said castle was held of him in chief ; the 
said Bishop caused the King to remit all the said rents 
and profits, for his own private advantage, without taking 
or receiving any thing on that account from the said John 
de Kirketon for the King's benefit. VII. That when 
John de Barnet, Bishop of Ely, was treasurer of England, 
the said Bishop, by his own authority, and without 
warrant, caused to be taken out of the King's treasury 
the sum of 10,000 marks for buying of the King's tallies, 
as he affirmed ; which sum remained in his hands 2 years 
and more, and then he returned into the treasury, for the 
said sum, tallies, amounting to 12,500 marks, or there- 
abouts, which advantage of 2,500 marks did not answer 
to the King, as he bought every ^100. for o£'25., so that 
the increase and profit to the King ought to have been 
27,000 marks. VIII, That the said Bishop, when he 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 217 

was Chancellor, by his own authority, often caused fines, 
after they were enrolled, to be lessened, and the rolls to 
be rased ; and in particular, that of John Grey of 
Retherfeld, who made a fine with the King, in the 41st. 
year of his reign, of o£'80. for licence of feoffment of 
certain lands and tenements; which was paid into the 
hanaper: but the said Bishop, on pretence of some 
bargain between him and the said John Grey, caused 
the first writing to be cancelled, by making another 
writing of the same tenor and date, for a fine of of 40., 
and made the clerk of the hanaper repay the other ,£40. 
to the said John Grey, to the defrauding of the King.* 
The Bishop was heard upon these articles before a certain 
number of Bishops and Lords, and others of the privy 
council, assigned by the King for this purpose, about 
the middle of Nov. And in consequence of the judg- 
ment given by them upon the last article alone, writs 
were issued from the exchequer, dated the 17th. of the 
same month, to the sheriffs of the several counties con- 
cerned, ordering them to seize into the King's hands the 
temporalties of the Bishopric of Winchester. The 
Bishop was ordered to attend again at Westminster, for 
a further examination on Jan. 20th. following : but this 
was afterwards prorogued to an uncertain day, at the 
King's pie asure ; nor was he ever after brought to a 
hearing on the occasion. To mortify the Bishop still 
further, he was forbidden in the King's name, to come 
within 20 miles of the court. The Buhop received this 
prohibition about the middle of Dec, and upon it im- 
mediately left his palace at Southwark. He retired to 
the Monastery of Merton, where, for the most part, he 
continued during the next month, and afterwarcl passed 
some time in the Abbey of Waverly near i/arnham. I 
find, indeed, that he was at Southwark again Jan. 4th., 
but he made no stay there. Possibly he might have leave 
to go thither, in order to make some necessary preparation 
for his defence at his second hearing : for it was not till 
three or four days after this that he received the King's 
letters, by which it was prorogued to a further day. In 



• [HereLowth euters into a long and tedious defence of the Bishop, 
but as this is of a forensic and not biographical nature, I have 
omitted the passage aad passed ou to p. 124.— Edit.] 



218 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

this situation were the Bishop's affairs when the Parliament 
was opened Jan. 27th. His great adversary the Duke of 
Lancaster, had re-established his power at court beyond 
all opposition. 

The commons having granted the subsidies, petitioned 
the King, that in consideration of the year of his jubilee, 
the 50th of his reign just now completed, he would be 
graciously pleased to grant an act of general pardon to his 
subjects, of all crimes committed before the beginning of 
the .said year, as he had done at the 50th year of his age. 
To this petition the King gave his consent. The only 
person excepted out of this general pardon was the Bishop 
of Winchester, in the following words of the statute: 
'* But always it is the Kynge's mind, that Sir* William 
Wikham Byshop of Winchester, shall nothing enjoye of 
the said graces, graunts, and pardons, nor in no wise be 
comprised within the sanie.f" 

Though the Bishop had received no writ of summons 
to parliament from the King, yet he was regularly sum- 
moned to convocation by the Archbishop of Canterbury's 
mandate, executed by the Bishop of London. The Cler- 
gy met in Convocation Feb. 3. As soon as the King's 
message was delivered to the house, setting forth the ne- 
cessity of his affairs, and desiring a suitable subsidy, Wil- 
liam Courtney, Bishop of London, stood up and made a 
grievous complaint of many injuries done to himself and 
the Bishop of Winchester, of which he exhibited to the 
house a particular account in writing ; and begged them 
not to consent to any subsidy, till satisfation was made to 
the parties injured. The whole house, in a manner, 
seconded the Bishop of London's motion, as far as it re- 
garded the Bishop of Winchester; and addressing them- 
selves to the Archbishop of Canterbury as their head, de- 
clared, that they looked upon the proceedings against 
the Bishop of Winchester, as an injury done to the ^yhole 
body of the clergy, and an infringement of the liberties of 
the Church ; that they would in no wise enter upon the 



» A common title eiven formerly to Clergymen of all degrees. See 
Rvm. Foed. vol. 6. p. 586. aud the Dramatis Personae of mauy of Shak- 
Se-fplays. It is in the Original Record, Sire Wiilm. deWykeham. 
Rot. Pari. 51. Ed. 3. tit. 24. 

t Statute 51. Ed. 3. intitled by mistaUe in all the printed Statute Books 
50. Ed. 3. 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 219 

business proposed to them till all the members of the clergj' 
Mere united ; that as it concerned ali, it ought to be ap- 
proved of all. The Archbishop, being of the Duke of 
Lancaster's party, or afraid of offending him, would have 
declined meddling with their suit : but they persisted so 
iinnly in their lesolution, that he was obliged to prorogue 
the Convocation, and wait upon the King with a represen- 
tation of their grievances. The King took time to con- 
sider more particularly of their petitions, and dismissed 
the Archbishop witli a promise, in general terms, that- all 
the matters complained of should be redressed. Among 
these petitions of the Convocation, that which relates to the 
Bishop of Winchester is expressed in the following terms : 
*' As to what concerns the Bishop of Winchester, that the 
things under-written, which are attempted against him, 
may be duly redressed. In the tirst place, that the tempor- 
alties of his Church, without sufficient consent and assent 
of those to whom it pertaineth, and whose assent is requi- 
red in this behalf, have been taken into the hands of tlie 
King : and moreover, besides that he hath no where to lay 
his head in the temporal manors of his Church, he hath 
been forbidden, as by command of our lord the King, so 
he was informed, to make his abode in several monasteries, 
priories, and other places of his diocese, foundation, and 
patronage ; by which causes the said Bishop suffereth 
great grievances, the jurisdiction of holy Church is in- 
fringed, and the execution of his pastoral office in divers 
manners interrupted." This petition is the only one of 
them to which the King, after having considered of them, 
did not vouchsafe to give any answer. However, the Con- 
vocation maintained their resolution with such steadiness 
that the Archbishop could get nothing done in the Kmg's 
business, without sending for the Bishop of Wmchester. 
He returned to Southwark on this occasion, about the 
middle of February. He took his place in Convocation, 
and was received by the whole assembly with all possible 
marks of respect and reverence. The session of Parlia- 
ment ended February 23, and that of Convocation about 
a week after. The Bishop still continued at Southwark, 
though the late remonstrances of the clergy seem to have 
had but little effect in bringing his affairs nearer to an ac- 
commodation with the court. The King, instead of re- 
storing his temporalties, soon after made a grant of them 
to his graudsoa Kichard^ iu part of payment of 4;00c) 



220 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

marks a year, which he had settled on him at the time of 
his creating him Prince of Wales, and declaring him heir 
apparent of the crown. This was supposed to have been 
done by the Duke of Lancaster, with a design of taking 
oflf something of the odiousness of his proceedings against 
the Bishop, and to make himself a little more popular 
in the nation, by this instance of good will towards the 
young prince. Nothing more was done in the Bishop's 
aflfair till June 18th following, when the King restored to 
him his temporalties, in consideration of his having under- 
taken, in the presence of the Prince of Wales, the Duke 
of Lancaster, and others of the privy council, certain bur- 
thens in relief of the King, and for the defence of his 
kingdom : namely, he was to fit out upon the sea, three 
ships of war, in each ship fifty men at arms and fifty arch- 
ers, for one quarter of a year, at such wages as were 
usually paid by the King, but the King was to pay the 
wages of the mariners : and in case such voyage should 
not take place, he was to pay to the King the sum to 
which the wages of the said 300 men by reasonable com- 
putation should amount. His sponsors for the due per- 
formance of these articles, were Edmund de Mortnner 
earl of March, Richard earl of Arundel, and Thomas de 
Beauchamp earl of Warwick, then present in council. 
These were three of the most considerable lords in the 
kingdom ; and it is highly probable, that it was by their 
powerful intercession that the Bishop obtained tbe resti- 
tution of his temporalties. It has been said, that he pro- 
cured this grant by purchasing Alice Perrers's good offices 
with the King in his favor, by a large sum of money in 
hand, and larger promises of future services ; and that she 
gained this point for him very much against the inclinations 
of her friend the Duke of Lancaster. This has been ad- 
vanced without any other foundation of proof, or colour 
of probability, than the supposed influence of this lady 
with the King, by some late writers, at a time when, as it 
could not possibly be verified, so neither could it easily 
be confuted. 

OnJune21,1377, died Edward III. And thus the Bishop 
had the satisfaction of being, in some measure, restored to 
the favour of this excellent prince, his great patron and be- 
nefactor, a few days before his death : if he may be supposed 
ever to iiave forfeited it, which he certainly did not, 'till 
the King himself had, in a manner, lost his own liberty. 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 221 

Upon the accession of Richard II. to the throne, all 
difficulties Mith regard to the Bishop's affairs ceased 
immediately ; which gives us a further presumption, that 
Alice Ferrers had no hand in removing them, for her 
power was now at an end. He was summoned to attend 
at the King's coronation, by the King's writ, dated June 
26th., and accordingly assisted at that ceremony July 15. 
His pardon passed the privy seal on the 31st. of the same 
month, as soon as a thing of this nature, at such a time, 
could well be dispatched. It is conceived in the fullest 
and most extensive terms possible, as* Lord Coke has 
particularly obsei'ved. 

SECTION V. 

Civil affairs during the former part of the reign of Richard II. 

[As this section is merely political and historical, and the substance of 
it may be read in the History of England, I have passed on to section VI., 
p. 176, where the Biography, properly so called, is resumed.— Edit.J 

SECTION VI. 
Ecclesiastical affairs during the reign of Richard II. 

Upon the accession of Richard II. to the throne, 
Wykeham, now delivered from the persecution of the 
Duke of Lancaster, and disengaged, as far as his high 
station and great authority M'ould permit, from his former 
constant attendance on public affairs, was resolved to 
make use of the opportunity and leisure which these cir- 
<!umstances afforded him, and applied himself to the great 
w-ork of executing his design for his two Colleges, upon 
which he had long before been detemiined, and for 
which he had many years been making preparations. 
His whole plan, was formed at once ; and the design was 
noble, uniform, and complete. It was no less than to 
provide for the perpetual maintenance and instruction of 
200 scholars, to afford them a liberal support, and to 
lead them through a perfect course of education -, from the 
first elements of letters, through the whole circle of the 



* " The most large and beneficial pardons by letters patents, which we 
have read and do remember, were that to William Wykeham, Bishop of 
Winchester, (for good men will never refuse God and the King's pardon, 
because every man doth often offend both of them ;) and that other to 
Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal i wliich are learnedly and largely penned.", 
III. Instit. chap. 105. 



222 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

sciences It properly and naturally consisted of two parts, 
rightly forniiug two establishments, the one subordinate 
to the other. The design of the one was to lay the 
foundations of science, that of the other, to raise and 
compkte the superstructure ; the former was to supply 
the latter with proper subjects, and the latter was to 
improve the advantages received in the former. The 
plan was truly great, and an original in its kind : as 
Wykehamhad no example to follow in it, so no person has 
yet been found, who has had the ability or the generosity 
to follow his example, except one, and that a King of 
England, who has done him the honour to adopt and to 
copy his whole design. The work which demanded his 
attention at this time, was to erect his college at Oxford ; 
the society of which he had already completed and 
established, and that, some years before he began to raise 
the building. For he proceeded herein the same method, 
which, as 1 have already shewn, he took at Winchester; 
as he began there with forming a private grammar school, 
provided with proper masters, and maintained and sup- 
ported in it the full number of scholars, which he after- 
wards established in his college ; so at Oxfoid, in the first 
place, he formed his society, appointed them a governor, 
allowed them a liberal maintenance, provided them with 
lodgings, and gave them rules and directions for their be- 
haviour ; not only that his beneficence might not seem to lie 
fruitless and ineti'ectual while it was only employed in mak- 
ing his purchases of lands, and raising his building, which 
would take up a considerable time ; but that he might be- 
stow his earliest attention, and his greatest care in forming 
and perfecting the principal part of his design, and that the 
life and soul, as it were, might be ready to inform and 
animate the body of his college as soon as it could be 
finished, and so the whole system be at once completed 
in every part of it. This preparatory establislmient, I 
imagine, took place about the same time with that at 
Winchester, that is, in 1373 : which agrees with the 
account that some authors give, that it was 7 vears before 
the foundation of the building was laid : but they are 
mistaken, in supposing that there were only 50 scholars 
maintained by him in this manner ; for it appears by the 
rolls of accompts of New College, that m 1376, the 
society consisted of a warden and 70 fellows, called 
Pauperes Scholares Venerabilis Domini Domini Willielmi 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 223 

c7e Wi/kekam Winton Episcopi; and that i had been 
established, probably to the same number, at least as 
early as Sept. 137>3. Richard Toneworth, fellow of 
Merton College, was appointed by him goveraor of this 
society, with the title of warden, and a salary of £20. per 
annum. The fellows were lodged in Blakehall, Herthal, 
Shulehall, Maydenhall, and Hamerhall; the expence of 
their logding amounted to o£'lO. 13s. 4d. per annum. 
They Mere allowed each of them Is. 6d. per week for 
their commons : and they had proper servants to attend 
them, who had suitable stipends. 

In 1379, the Bishop completed his several purchases 
of lands for the site of his college, and immediately took 
his measures for erecting his building. In the first place, 
he obtained the King's patent, granting him licence to 
found his college: it is dated June 30, 1379- He pro- 
cured likewise the Pope's bull to the same effect. He 
published his Charter of foundation Nov. 26, following ; 
by which he entitled his college, ^cttttc ;^larie €o\hqt of 
Wimd)titxt in (©xmfortJ. It was then vulgarly called the 
New College, which became in time a sort of proper 
name for it, and in common use continues to be so to this 
day. At the same time, upon the resignation of Tone- 
worth, he constituted his kinsman, Nicholas Wykeham, 
warden, with a salary of <£40. per annum. On the 5th. 
of March following, at 8 o'clock in the morning, the 
foundation stone was laid : the building was finished in 
6 years, and the society made their public entrance into 
it with much solemnit}' and devotion, singing litanies, 
and marching in procession, with the cross borne before 
them, at 9 o'clock in the morning, April 14, 1386. The 
society consists of a warden and 70 poor scholars, clerks, 
students in theology, canon and civil law, and philosophy ; 
20 are appointed to the study of laws, 10 of them to that 
of the canon, and 10 to that of the civil law ; the remain- 
ing 50 are to apply themselves to philosophy (or arts) and 
theology; two of them, however, are permitted to apply 
themselves to the study of medicine, and two likewise to that 
of astronomy ; all of whom are obliged to be in priets' 
orders within a certain time, except in case of lawful 
impediment. Besides these there are 10 priests, 3 clerks, 
and 16 boys or choristers, to minister in the service of 
the chapel. 



224 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

The body of statutes, which Wykeham gave to his col- 
lege, was a work upon v,'hich he bestowed much time and 
constant attention. It was the result of great meditation 
and study, assisted, confirmed, and brought to maturity 
by long observation and experience. He began it with 
the first establishment of his society, and he was continu- 
ally improving and perfecting it, almost as long as he lived : 
and accordingly, it has been always considered as the most 
judicious and the most complete performance in its kind, 
and as the best model which the founders of colleges in 
succeeding times had to follow, and which indeed most of 
them have either copied or closely imitated. 

That the first draught of his statutes was made as 
early as I have mentioned, appears from a letter of Wyke- 
ham himself, which he wrote to the warden of his college 
soon after the society had made their first entrance into ft. 
In this letter he speaks of his statutes, as duly published 
and promulged, and in times past frequently made known 
unto them. The great care and attention which he em- 
ployed m revising his statutes, from time to time, and in 
improving them continually, appears very evidently from 
an ancient draught of them still extant, and in which the 
many alterations, corrections, and additions, made in the 
margm, shew plainly how much pains he bestowed upon 
this important work ; with how much deliberation, and 
with what great exactness he weighed every the most 
minute particular belonging to it. The text of these 
statutes appears, by some circumstances which it is need- 
less here to enlarge upon, to have been drawn up about 
1386 ; and therefore they cannot be the first which he ever 
made, since at that time he speaks of his statutes as often 
and long before published. At the end of 1389, he ap- 
pointed commissaries to receive the oaths of the warden and 
scholars of his college, to observe the statutes M'hich he 
then transmitted to them, sealed with his seal : this was a 
new edition of them, much corrected and improved ; for 
I suppose it contained all the marginal alterations and 
additions above mentioned. He gave a third edition of 
his statutes, reckoning from the time when his college was 
finished, still much enlarged and corrected, an ancient 
copy of which likewise is yet remaining : it was probably 
of the year 1393. In 1400, he appointed another com- 
mission for the same purpose, and in the same form with 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 225 

that of ] 389 ' with that he sent to his college a new edition 
likewise of his statutes, still revised and enlarged : it is the 
last which he gave, and is the same with that now in force. 

The manner of election into his college at Oxford, 
seems to have been unhappily altered for the worse. The 
method which he established at the first, and which was 
accordingly obsened, I believe, till 1393, was to fill up 
the vacancies of the preceding year by an annual election, 
and that in case before nine or ten months of the current 
year were passed, there should happen six or more vacan- 
cies, they were to be filled up by an inter-election. The 
only inconvenience of this method was, that the society 
would very often want its full compliment of menibers ; 
and Wykeham was very unwilling that any part of his 
bounty should ever lie dormant and inactive. By making 
it a pre-election to supply the vacancies immediately, each 
as they should fall in the year ensuing, he effectually pre- 
vented this inconvenience; but, at the same time opened a 
door to much greater inconveniencies, to which the new 
method has been found liable ; to the greatest possible 
perversion of his charity, a shameful traffic between the 
fellow of the college that begins to sit loose to the society, 
and the presumptive successor ; an abuse of which he was 
not aware, the simplicity and probity of that age perhaps 
affording no example of the like. The laws of the realm 
have since endeavoured to remedy all abuses of this kind, 
but in vain ; nor is it perhaps in the power of those, who 
are most concerned to do it, to prevent them in every 
instance : but it behoves all such to exert their utmost 
diligence and resolution in putting an effectual stop to so 
scandalous a practice, if they have any regard for the honor 
of their society, or for their own reputation. 

Wykeham endowed his college with lands and estates, 
whose revenues, at that time, were fully sufficient for the 
support of it, and amply supplied all the uses and pur- 
poses for which he designed it ; he procured a bull of the 
Pope, confirming his statutes, and exempting his college 
from all archi-episcopal and episcopal jurisdiction, except 
that of the Bishop of Winchester ; for by his statutes he 
had appointed his successors the Bishops of Winchester 
to be the sole visitors of it, recommending it to their pro- 
tection and patronage. He himself, as long as he lived, 
cherished his young society with all the care and affection 
of a tender parent. He assisted them with his directions 



226 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 



in the management of all their aflfairs : he held several 
visitations of his college by his commissaries ; namely, in 
1385, 1392, and 1400. And thence he supplied himself 
with men of learning and abilities, whom he admitted to a 
more intimate attendance upon him, and by \vhom he 
transacted all his business : such were Nicholas VVyke- 
ham, John Elmer, John and Robert Ketou, Walter A ude, 
Simon Membury, and others ; M'hom he rewarded with 
ample preferments. 

While the Bishop was engaged in building his college 
at Oxford, he established, in proper form, his society at 
Winchester. His charter of foundation bears date Oct. 20, 
1382, by which he nominates Thomas de Cranle warden, 
admits the scholars, and gives his college the same name 
of ^tintt jHarle Collr gc oC Wlm(l)t^tvt. The next year 
after he had finished his building at Oxford, lie began 
that at Winchester, for which he had obtained both the 
Pope's and the King's licence long before. A natural 
affection and prejudice for the very place which he had 
frequented in his early days, seems to have had its weight 
in determining the situation of it : the school which Wyke- 
ham went to when he was a boy, was where his college 
now stands. The first stone was laid March 26, 1387, 
at nine o'clock in the morning : it took up six years in 
building, and the warden and society made their solemn 
entrance into it, chanting in procession, at nine o'clock 
in the morning of March 28, 1393. The school bad now 
subsisted near 20 years, having been opened at Michael- 
mas 1373. It was completely established from the first 
to its full number of seventy scholars, and to all other in- 
tents and purposes ; and continued all along to furnish 
the society at Oxford with proper subjects by election. 
It was at first committed to the care of a master and 
under-master only: in 1382, it was placed under the su- 
perior government of a warden. This was the whole so- 
ciety that made their formal entrance into it as above- 
mentioned. Till the college was erected, they were pro- 
vided with lodgings in the parish of St. John upon the 
hill. The first nomination of fellows, was made by the 
founder, Dec. 20, 1394. He nominated five only, tho' 
he had at that time determined the number to be ten ; but 
the chapel was not yet quite finished, nor was it dedicated 
and consecrated till the middle of the next year : soon 
after which we may suppose that the full number of 



WILLIAM WYKEHAxM. 227 

fellows, and of all other members designed to bear a more 
particular relation to the service of it, was completed by 
him. The whole society consists of a warden, seventy 
poor scholars, to be instructed in grammatical learning, 
ten secular priests perpetual fellows, three priests chap- 
lains, three clerks, and sixteen choristers ; and for the in- 
struction of the scholars, a schoolmaster, and an under- 
master or usher. 

The statutes which he gave to his college at Winchester, 
and which are referred to in the charter of foundation, are 
as it were the counterpart of those of his college at 
Oxford: he amended, improved, and enlarged the former 
by the same steps as he had done the latter ; and he gave 
the last edition, and received the oaths of the several 
members of the society to the observance of them, by 
his commissaries appointed for that purpose, Sept. 9, 
3400. In this case he had no occasion to make a par- 
ticular provision in constituting a visitor of his college ; 
the situation of it coincided with his design, and he left 
it under the ordinary jurisdiction of the Diocesan, the 
Bishop of Winchester. 

Wykeham enjoyed for many years the pleasure, — a 
pleasure the greatest to a good and generous heart that 
can be enjoyed, — of seeing the good eft'ects of his own 
beneficence, and receiving in them the proper revAard of 
his pious labours ; of observing his colleges growing up 
under his eye, and continually bringing forth those fruits 
of virtue, piety, and learning, which he had reason to 
expect from them. They continued still to rise in repu- 
tation, and furnished the church and state with many 
eminent and able men in all professions. Not long after 
his death, one of his own scholars, whom he had hmiself 
seen educated in both his societies, and raised under his 
inspection, and probably with his favour and assistance 
in conjunction with his own great merits, to a considerable 
degree of eminence, became an illustrious follower of his 
great example. This was Henry Chicheley, Archbishop 
of Canterbury; who, besides a chantry and hospital, 
which he built at Higham- Ferrers, the place of his birth ; 
founded likewise All Souls' College in Oxford.* 



, * [Here much irrelevant matter about All Souls, Eton, Cambridge, &c. 
IS omitted,- and [ have passed ou to the biography in hand, at p, 201, of 
Lowth,— Edit.] 

Q 2 



228 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

The Archbishops of Canterbury and the Abbots of St. 
Austin's in the same city, interfered very much with one 
another in their situation and privileges ; and it was not 
to be expected, that two such great personages, in such 
circumstances, should ever be good neighbours. The 
constant jealousy that arose from hence, was in effect the 
cause of frequent disputes between them: the Archbishops 
watched every opportunity of establishing a disputed 
power: and the Abbots were always upon their guard 
against all attempts from that quarter. In 1S80, Sudbury, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, had a mind to assert his 
authority over the abbey, as legate by office of the holy 
See, though it was exempt from his Archi-episcopal 
jurisdiction : he pretended to make a visit of devotion to 
the bodies of the saints buried there, and coming thither 
robed in his pontificals, and with the cross carried before 
him. Michael Peckham the Abbot, alleging, in defence 
of the privilege and exemption of his abbey, that he had 
no right to come thither in such form and without per- 
mission, shut the gates against him, and placed a guard 
of armed men there to resist him, if he should attempt to 
enter by force. Here was matter enough for a long and 
violent contention: the Archbishop made his complaint 
to the Pope of the injury and affront offered him, and the 
Abbot on the other hand, pleaded the rights and immu- 
nities of his abbey. The Pope refened the whole matter 
to Wykeham, and by his bull gave him full powers to 
judge in the cause, to cite all persons, however privileged 
and exempted, and to give sentence in it, which was to 
be final and without appeal, Wykeham seems to have 
been very properly chosen upon this occasion, as one to 
whom neither party was like to have any exception : the 
Archbishop could have no distrust of one of his brethren ; 
and no Bishop would probably have been more agreeable 
to the Abbot than the person from whose hands, by the 
Pope's permission, and at his own request, he had 
received the solemn benediction, on his promotion to that 
great dignity. But he had too much experience and 
caution to be over-hasty in proceeding in so delicate an 
affair, in which the most prudent and upright arbitrator 
could only expect to reap offence and ill-will from one 
or other, or perhaps both the parties. However, the 
miserable fate of the poor Archbishop, who about the 
middle cf the next year was murdered by the rebels oa 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 229 

Tower-hill, prevented all difficulties of this kind, and 
put an end to the whole dispute for the present. 

In 1382, the Bishops and Clergy began to be greatly 
alarmed at the progress which Wickliff 's principles and 
doctrines were daily making, and especially in the uni- 
versity of Oxford. Several professors and doctors of the 
first distinction for learning there, began to defend and 
maintain them in the schools, and to preach them pub- 
licly ; and in so doing, were openly encouraged and 
supported by the countenance of the magistrates of the 
university, and particularly by the authority of the chan- 
cellor, Dr. Robert Rygge. 

A great quarrel happened this year between the priory 
of St. Frideswyd and the university of Oxford, on occasion 
of the latter's encroaching upon certain rights and privi- 
leges of the former. The King, upon frequent complaints 
made to him by the priory, interposed more than once 
w ith his authority, by writs directed to the university, 
forbidding all such encroachments, but without effect. 
Upon which he gave a commission to our Bishop and 6 
■others, to enquire into the merits of the cause, and to 
determine it finally. The commissioners gave judgment 
in favour of the priory, and the university submitted to 
their decision. 

Our Bishop was likewise one of four commissioners 
appointed by the King to judge in a dispute that had 
arisen among the fellows of Oriel College, on occasion 
of the election of a provost in 1385, which was happily 
composed by their interposition. 

Wykeham had no sooner finished his college atWinton, 
than he was looking out for some new subject upon 
which he might employ his munificence : and he imme- 
diately entered upon the design of repairing, and in 
great part rebuilding, his Cathedral Church in the same 
city, which was much decayed. The whole fabric then 
standing was erected by Bishop Walkelin, who began it 
in 1079. It was of the Saxon architecture, not greatly 
differing from the RcTian ; with round pillars much 
stronger than Doric or Tuscan, or square piers, adorned 
with small pillars ; round-headed arches and windows ; 
and plain walls on the outside, without buttresses : as 
appears by the cross-aisle and tower, which remain of 
It to this day. The nave of the Church had been for 
some time in a bad condition : Bishop Edyngdon under" 



£30 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

took to repair it in tlie latter part of his time, and by his 
M'ill ordered his executors to tiiiish \vhat he had begun, 
And whether in pursuance of his design and by his 
benefaction, or otherwise, it appears, that in 1371, some 
Mork of this kind was carrying on at a great expence. 
However, Wykeham, upon due consideration and survey, 
found it either so decayed and infirm, or else so mean in 
its appearance, and so nun li below the dignity of one of 
the iirst episcopal Sees in the kingdom, that he determined 
to take down the whole from the tower westward, and to 
rebuild it both in a stronger and more magnificent manner. 
This great work he undertook in 1394, and entered upon 
it the beginning of the next year, upon the following 
conditions stipulated between him, and the prior, and 
convent, who acquit the Bishop of all obligation to it, and 
acknov ledge it as proceeding from his mere liberality, and 
zeal for the honour of God ; they agree to find the whole 
scaftolding necessary for the work ; they give the Bishop 
free leave to dig and to carry away chalk and sand from 
any of their lands, as he shall think most convenient and 
useful for the same purpose ; and they allow the whole 
materials of the old building to be applied to the use of 
the new. He employed William Winford as architect; 
Simon Membury w as appointed suneyor of the work on 
the Bishop's part, and John VVayte, one of the monks, 
comptroller on the part of the convent. As the Church of 
Winchester is situated in low ground, which without 
great precaution and expence, aftords no very sure foun- 
dation for so weighty a structure, Wykeham thought it 
safest to confine himself to the plan of the former build- 
ing, and to make use of a foundation already tried, and 
subject to no hazard. He even chose to apply to his 
purpose some part of the lower order of pillars of the old 
cliurch, thougii his design was in a different style of 
arcliitecture ; that which we commonly call Gothic, w ith 
pointed arches and windows, without key-stones, and 
pillars consistmg of an assemblage of many small ones 
closely connected together ; but which is more properly 
Saracen, for such was its origin : the crusades gave us 
an idea of this form of architecture, which afterwards 
prevailed throughout Europe. The pillars or piers of 
the old building, which he made use of, were about l6 
feet in heigiit ; of the same form as those in the east side 
of the northern cross-aisle : these he carried up higher. 



WILLIAM WYKEIIAM. 231 

according to the new design, altering their form, but 
retaining their strength, and adopting them as a firm 
basis for his own work. Tlie new pillars are nearly 
equal in bulk to the old ones; and the intercolumnation 
remains much the same. These circumstances, in which 
stability and security were very wisely in the tirst place 
consulted, have been attended however with some incon- 
venience, as it seems owing to them, that this building 
has not that lightness and freedom, and that elegance of 
proportion, which might have been expected from \\ yke- 
ham's known taste in architecture, and from the style and 
manner of his other works in this kind ; of which we 
have evident examples in the chapels of both his colleges, 
especially in the western part of that of New College iu 
Oxford, which is remarkably beautiful. To the further 
disadvantage of its present appearance, an alteration 
which could not then be foreseen has since happened. 
At that time the buildings of the monastery covered the 
whole south side of the church, so that it seemed needless 
to be at a great expence upon ornaments in that part 
•which was like to be for ever concealed. By the demo- 
lition of the monasteiy this side is now laid open, and 
discovers a defect of buttresses and pinnacles, with which 
the north side, which was then the only one in view, is 
properly furnished. Another alteration of the same kind 
has been made in the inside, and with the like effect : 
immediately before the entrance of the choir stood the 
vestry, which extending from side to side of the nave, 
prevented the entire conformity with the new design, but 
at the same time concealed the irregularity : in the time 
of Charles I. this was pulled down, and the present 
beautiful screen, the work of Inigo Jones, was erected ; 
but no care was taken, by an easy and obvious alteration, 
to correct a deformity, which was then uncovered, and 
still continues to disgrace the building, in a part which, 
of all others, is the most frequently exposed to observa- 
tion. However, with all its defects, which appear thus 
to be OM ing partly to an accidental and unforeseen change 
of circumstances, partly to the care of avoiding greater 
inconveniences, there is no fabric of its kind in England, 
after those of York and Lincoln, which excels this part 
of the Cathedral Church of Winchester, in greatness, 
etateliness, and majesty. This great pile took up about 
iO years iu erecting, and was but just finished when the 



232 WILLIAM VVYKEHAM. 

Bishop died. He bad provided in his will for the entire 
completion of his design by his executors in case of 
death ; and allotted 2500 marks for what then remained 
to be done, besides 500 marks for the glass windows : 
this was about a year and half before it was finished ; by 
which some sort of estimate may be made of the whole 
expence. 

SECTION VII. 

Civil affairs during the latter part of the reign of Richard II, 

f rhis section is omitted for the reasons assigned at section V. ; and 
I have passed on to section VIII. p. 266. — Edit.J 

SECTION VIII. ' 

From the beginning of Henry IV. ^s reign to the death of 

fFykeham. 

Wykeham was now very far advanced in years, and had 
from his youth been constantly engaged in a multiplicity 
of business, of the greatest importance, both public and. 
private, which he had attended with infinite assiduity and 
application : 'tis not to be wondered that old age and con- 
tinued labour, in conjunction, should bring upon him those 
infirmities which are the usual consequences of each of 
them separate ; and that he should be obliged, at last, to 
have recourse to ease and retirement. He had been blest 
with an excellent constitution, and had enjoyed an uncom- 
mon share of health. He had now been Bishop of Win- 
chester above thirty years, and in all that time had never 
been interrupted by illness in the attendance upon his 
duty in every capacity, except once. He was somewhat 
out of order at Merewell about the middle of February 
1392-3 ; as I find by a procuration which he sent to Con- 
vocation, excusing his absence on that account. However 
his disorder, whatever it was, seems not to have been such 
as to hinder his attendance on common business at that 
time ; and within a fortnight he was able to remove to 
Farnham, and to celebrate an ordination there. About 
the beginning of November he retired to High-Clere, and 
continued there near four months ; where he was still able to 
transact business of all sorts ; and, among the rest, to go 
through the ceremony of delivering the pall to Roger 
Walden the new Archbishop of Canterbury. During the 
two first years of Henry IV. I find him from time to time 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 233 

removing from one to another of his palaces in the coun- 
try, as he used to do. The first remarkable indication of 
his weakness and inability of body, appears in May 1401, 
when he was not enabled to undergo the fatigue of ad- 
ministering ordination ; but, though present himself, he 
procured another Bishop to ordain for him : and he was ever 
after obliged to continue the same method of supplying 
that part of his office. At the end of this year he retired 
to South-Waltham ; nor did he ever remove from thence, 
except once or twice on occasion of some particular busi- 
ness, and that no further than to Winchester. 

The Bishop, with his usual precaution and care, had 
duly weighed and prepared for this contingency. To se- 
cure to himelf his own freedom of action, and to prevent 
all disagreeable interpositions of authority, which however 
proper and necessary in such cases, may perhaps be attend- 
ed with much inconvenience, and tend to aggravate rather 
than relieve the infirmities of age, he had above ten years 
before procured a bull from the Pope, by which he gave 
him leave and authority, in consideration of his age and 
ill health, to assume to himself one or more coadjutors, 
without the advice and consent of the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, or of the Chapter of Winchester, and as often as 
it should please him, to remove them, and in the place of 
the removed to depute another or others, as he should 
think proper. The Bishop did not find himself under a 
necessity of making use of this faculty before the two last 
vears of his life. January 4, 1402-3, he procured the 
Pope's bull, and having ordered it to be read and published 
he, in virtue of it, then deputed in proper form Dr. 
Nicholas Wykeham and Dr. John Elmer, to be his coad- 
jutors: and from that time forward all business proceeded 
with their express consent, and by their authority. 

Being thus relieved, in a great measure, from the con- 
stant personal attendance on the duties of his charge, he 
devoted his whole time and application to the disposal of 
his temporal goods, and to the care of his spiritual concerns. 
He finished and signed his will July 4, 1403. The large- 
ness and multiplicity of his legacies, and the great exact- 
ness with which every thing relating to them is ordeied, 
must have required much attention, and evidently shews 
in what strength and perfection he still enjoyed all the 
faculties of his mind. That extensive, and almost bound- 
less generosity, which peculiarly distinguished his whole 



234 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

life, is here fully displayed : it comprehends all orders and 
degrees of men from the highest to the lowest, and answers 
every possible demand of piety, gratitude, affection, and 
charity. He still maintained the same principle upon 
which he had always acted, and which is perhaps the most 
certain and indubitable test of true liberality : as he had 
always made it a rule to himself never to defer a generous 
and munificent action to another day, when he had the 
present ability and the immediate opportunity of perform- 
ing it ; so now he was no sooner come to a final determi- 
nation with regard to the disposal of his riches, than he 
began himself to fulfil his own intentions ; and in a great 
many instances in which his present liberality would en- 
hance the benefit which he designed to confer, he distri- 
buted his legacies with his own hands, and became execu- 
tor of his own will. This made it necessary for him, 
some time afterwards, to add a codicil to it, by which 
he declares these articles fully discharged, and acquits 
his executors of all demands on account of them and all 
others, in which he should for the future in like manner 
anticipate their office. 

Wykeham by disposition, by education, by principle, 
and by habit, had a deep tincture of piety and devotion. 
He was persuaded of the truth of all parts of the religion 
in which he had been instructed in his childhood ; but he 
seems to have been particularly possessed with the notion 
of the reasonableness and efficacy of prayers for the dead. 
It is recorded of him, that he always performed this part 
of the public service of the Church with peculiar intense- 
ness and fervor, even to the abundant effusion of tears. 
It is not to be wondered, therefore, if we find him more 
especially careful in procuring the intercession of the 
faithful in behalf of himself, his parents, and benefactors.* 
Beside the provisions which he made for this purpose in 
both his colleges by his statutes, he had long before 
founded a chantry of 3 priests, to pray for the souls of 



• [Who, on reading this passage, would not suppose tliat Lovvth, if not 
anappiover of, at least was not inimical to the Romish doctrine of praying 
for the dead ? However amiable it may be in LowTHto soften, or thiow 
into shade, tlie erroneous faith of that patron, of whose collegiate bounty 
be partook, yet, surely, this sentiment ought, in a sound Protestant, to bQ 
so regulated and evinced as to Ijar even the appearance of coincidence 
with (loctrines, which his reformed Church does and he as a member of 
it ought to, reprobate and condemn, — Edit.] 



WILLIAM WYKEIIAM. 235 

his father and mother only, in the priory of Suthwyk. 
He likewise paid to the chapter of Windsor c£200. for 
the purchase of 20 marks a year, to make a perpetual 
endowment for one additional chaplain, on condition that 
his obit should be annually celebrated, and his soul, and 
the souls of Edward IIL, of his own parents, and of his 
benefactors, be daily recommended in their praters. 
But he thought it also more particularly expedient to 
establish a constant service of this kind in his own church, 
in that part of it which he had rebuilt, and where he had 
chosen the place of his burial. Accordingly he had 
designed from the first, and had now finished, in that 
part, a chapel or oratory, which was to be his sepulchre 
and his chantry. The situation of this chapel seems not 
at all well chosen, if we consider it with respect to the 
whole building ; in which it has no good effect, but 
creates an irregularity and an embarrassment, which it 
had been better to have avoided. But Wykeham was 
determined to the choice of this particular place, by a 
consideration of a very different kind ; by an early pre- 
judice, and a strong religious impression, which had 
been stamped on his mind in his childhood. In this 
part of the old church there had been an altar dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin, with her image standing above it; 
at this altar a mass used to be celebrated every morning, 
vhich seems to have been a favourite one, and much 
frequented at the time when Wykeham was a boy, and 
at school at Winchester; for it had gotten a particular 
name among the people, and was called ^cfeigma^Sc, 
from the name of a monk of the convent, who usually 
officiated in it. Young Wykeham was constant in his 
daily attendance, and fervent in his devotions, at this 
mass. He seems even then to have chosen the Blessed 
Virgin as his peculiar patroness, to have placed himself 
under her protection, and in a manner to have dedicated 
himself to her service ; and probably he might ever after 
imagine himself indebted to her especial favour for the 
various successes which he was blessed with through life. 
This seems to have been the reason of his dedicating to 
her his two colleges, and calling them by her name; 
over all the principal gates of which he has been careful 
to have himself represented as her votary, in the act of 
adoration to the Blessed Virgin, as his and their common 
guardian. And this it was that determined the situation 



236 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

of his chantry. He erected his Chapel in the very place 
where he had been used to perform his daily devotions in 
his younger days; between the two pillars, against one 
of which stood the altar above mentioned. He dedicated 
the chapel to the Blessed Virgin ; the altar was continued 
m the same place as before, and probably the very same 
image was erected above it : which with the other orna- 
ments of the same kind, both within the chapel and 
without, was destroyed in the last century, by the zeal of 
modern enthusiasm, exerting itself with a blind and 
indiscreet rage against all the venerable and beautiful 
monuments, whether of ancient piety or superstition. 

The Bishop ordered his body to be deposited in the 
middle of this chapel ; and a little before his death, he 
himself, by agreement with the prior and convent, directed 
the services which were to be perpetually performed in 
it, in the following manner. 

The prior and convent, in consideration of a benefac- 
tion made to them by the Bishop of about the yearly value 
of 20 marks ; and likewise in consideration of his having 
at a great expence, in a most decent and handsome manner, 
rebuilt from the foundations his and their Cathedral 
Church of Winchester, and given to it a great number 
of vestments and other ornaments ; as also in gratitude 
ior many other favours and benefits most generously 
conferred upon them by him ; being desirous, to the 
utmost of their ability, to compensate with spiritual goods 
the many benefits both temporal and spiritual received 
from him, engage for themselves and their successors to 
perform for ever the following services for the health of 
his soul, and of the souls of his parents, and benefactors. 
In the first place, in the chapel in the nave of the church, 
where the Bishop has chosen to be buried, three masses 
shall be celebrated daily, for him and his benefactors 
particularly, by the monks of the convent : the first mass 
De Sancta Maria, early in the morning throughout the 
year; the two other masses, later in the morning, at 
tierce or at sixth hour, either De Sanctis, or De temporali, 
as the devotion of the persons officiating shall incline them ; 
in each of which masses the collect liege qiuesiimus shall 
be said during the Bishop's life for his good estate, and 
the prayer Dens ciii proprium, for the souls of his parents 
and benefactors. After the Bishop's decease, instead of 
the collect Rege quasumus, shall be said the prayer. 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 237 

Deus cui inter Apostolkos. for the Bishop and for him 
only. The prior is to pay to each of these monks every 
day one penny. The sacrist is to provide for them bread, 
wine, book, chalice, vestjnents, candles for the altar, 
palls, and all other necessaries and ornaments. They 
moreover engage, that the charity boys of the priory shall 
every night for ever sing at the said chapel in honour of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, the anthem Salve Regina, or 
Aye Regina, and after it say the psalm, De profundis, 
Avith the prayer Fidelium, or Indina, for the souls of the 
father and mother of the Bishop, and for his soul after 
his decease, and for the souls of all the faithful deceased : 
for which the prior is to pay the almoner yearly on the 
feast of the annunciation of the Blessed Virgin 6s. 8rf. 
/or the use of the said boys. It is further ordered, that 
the monks of the convent in priest's orders shall be ap- 
pointed weekly to the performance of these services in a 
table by course; and that if any one so appointed shall 
by sudden infirmity or otherwise be hindered from offi- 
ciating, he shall give notice to the prior or his substitute, 
who shall nominate another to supply his place. This 
engagement of the prior and convent is dated Auo-ust 
16, 1404. ° 

Thus Wykeham having finally settled all his temporal 
and spiritual concerns, and being about this time full 80 
years of age, \yith much piety and resignation waited the 
hour of his dissolution. He seems to have sunk by a 
gentle and gradual decay. Though weak in body, he 
retained all the faculties of his mind to the last. Even 
since he had taken his coadjutors to his assistance, he had 
still personally attended to and directed his affairs both 
public and private, as he used to do before ; admittino- 
all persons that had business to transact with him to his 
upper chamber. This practice he was able to continue 
at least till within four days of his death. He died at 
South Waltham on Saturday Sept. 27th. about 8 o'clock 
in the morning, in the year 1404. 

He was buried according to his directions in his own 
oratory, in the Cathedral Church of Winchester. His 
funeral was attended by a great concourse of people of 
all sorts; many, as we may well suppose, being drawn 
thither by their affection to him, and regard for his 
memory ; and great numbers, as we may be fully assured, 
of the poorer sort coming to partake of the alms still 



238 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

extended to them by the same munilicent hand, that 
had so long been continually open to relieve their wants. 
For he had ordered by his will that in whatever place 
he should happen to die, and through whatever places 
his body should be carried, between the place of his 
death and the Cathedral Church of Winchester, in all 
these places to every poor tenant that had held of him 
there as Bishop of \\ inchester, should be given, to pray 
for his soul, 4d. ; and to every other poor person asking 
alms, ^2d. or \d. at least, according to the discretion of 
his executors : and that on the day of his burial, to every 
poor person coming to Winchester, and asking alms for 
the love of God and for the health of his soul, should be 
given 4t/. 

I shall here proceed to give a summary account of thft 
other legacies, benefactions, and charities bequeathed by 
him in his will. To the poor in the prisons of Newgate, 
London, the ]Marshalsey, Wolvesey, Winchester, Oxford, 
Berkshire, Guilford, Old and iSew Sarum, he ordered 
to be distributed the sum of ofSOO. This was one of 
those charitable bequests which he anticipated in his life- 
time. He likewise lived to see his building of the Church 
of Winchester in a manner finished, for which he had also 
made provision by his will. To the King he bequeaths 
a pair of silver basins gilt, and remits to him a debt of 
£oOO. To the Archbishop of Canterbury, (Thomas 
Arundel), and to his successor in the Bishopric of Win- 
chester, several legacies in jewels, plate, and books. 
To the Bishop of London, (Robert Braybroke,) his large 
silk bed and furniture in the best chamber of his palace 
at Winchester, w ith the whole suit of tapestry hangings 
in the same apartment. To the Church of \N inchester, 
his new rich vestment of blue cloth, embroidered with 
gold, with 30 copes of the same with gold fringes ; a 
pyx of beryl for the host, and a cross of gold with relics 
of the true cross. To the Prior of Winchester, plate to 
the value of £^0., and to every Monk of the Convent, 
being priests, 5 marks, and to every one of them in lower 
orders, 40s. to pray for his soul. To his College in 
Oxford, his mitre, crosier, dalmatics, and sandals. To 
his College at Winchester, another mitre, the bible 
which he commonly used, and several other books. To 
each of the Wardens of his Colleges, 10 marks ; and 
plate to the value of 20 marks ; the latter to be traos- 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 239 

mltted to their successors. To every Fellow, Chaplain, 
and Scholar, of his College in Oxford, from 135. 4d. to 
cfl. 6s. Sd. according to their orders and degrees; and 
c£'10. to be divided between the Clerks, Choristers, and 
ser\ants. To the Schoolmaster of Winchester College, 
JCo. ; to each of the Fellows, 265. Sd. ; to the L sher and 
each of the Chaplains, c£l- ; to each of the Scholars, 
6s, Sd. ; and 10 marks to be divided between the Clerks, 
Choristers, and servants. To the fabric of the Church of 
Sarum, £0,0. for the celebration of his exequies on the 
day of his obit, and on the SOth. day after his death, by 
the Canons and Ministers of the said Church. To the 
Abbot of Hyde, a piece of gilt plate, value £L0.; to 
every one of the Monks of the same Monastery, being 
Priests, 40s. ; and to every one of them in lower orders, 
20.S. to pray for his soul. To the Abbess of the Monas- 
tery of St. Mary, Winton, 5 marks ; and to every one of 
the Nuns, 13s. 4c?. To the Prior and Convent of St. 
Mary Overy, Southwark, for the repair of their Church, 
and to pray for his soul, ^40. being a debt remitted. To 
the Abbot and Convent of Waverly, of 10. to pray for his 
soul. ^ To the Abbey of Tichtield one pair of vestments, 
and a chalice. To the Prior and Convent of Taunton 
100 marks, to pray for his soul. To the Abbess of the 
Monastery of Nuns at Romsey, 5 marks ; to Felicia 
Aas, a Nun of the same Monastery, jCo., and to each 
of the other Nuns 13s. 4d. To the Abbess and Convent 
of the same Monastery, for the repair of their Church 
and Cloister, a debt of o£'40. remitted. To the fa- 
bric of the parish Church of Romsey, 20 marks. 
To the Abbess and Convent of Wherewell, to pray for 
his soul, 20 marks. To the Prior and Convent of St. 
Dennis, Southampton, for the repair of their Church, 20 
marks. To the Prioress and Convent of Wyuteney, to 
pray for his soul, o£'10. To the Prior and Convent of 
Taurigge, to pray for his soul, £o. To be distributed 
among the brethren and sisters and poor, of the Hospital 
of St. Thomas, Southwark, to pray for his soul, 10 marks. 
To the Hospital of St. Cross, near Winchester, one pair 
of vestments, with a chalice, and one pair of silver basins. 
To the Hospital of St. Nicholas, at Portsmouth, one pair 
of vestments with a chalice. To the Church of St. Mary, 
Southampton, one pair of vestments with a chalice. To 
the College of St. Elizabeth, Wiutou, a pair of silver 



240 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

basins and two silver cups, for the use of the high altar. 
To the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, near Winchester, 
for the repair of the Church and houses belonging to it, 
o£'5. To the Sisters of the Hospital of the Almonry of 
the Church of St. Swithun 40s. to be equally divided 
between them, to pray for his soul. To each of the 
Churches of Hameldon and Eastmcon, one service-book 
with notes, of those belonging to his own chapel, and one 
chalice. To each of 5 Churches of his patronage, one 
entire vestment, namely for Priest, Deacon, and Sub- 
deacon, with a cope and one chalice, To each of 5 
others likewise, one cope of those belonging to his chapel, 
and one chalice. To each of the Convents of the four 
orders of mendicant Friars in the city of Winchester, 10 
marks, to pray for his soul. To 15 of his kindred, for 
themselves and for the children of some of them, from 
i^lOO. to £20. a piece, in the whole £S2o. 6s. Sd. To 
Selote Purbyk oflO. To each of the Chief Justices a 
ring value £5. To Mr. William Hengford a ring of 
gold, or one table diamond, to the value of £5. To 
Mr. Robert Faryngton, a psalter and a pair of beads. To 
John Uvedale and Henry Popham, Esqrs. each of them 
a silver cup or jewel, to the value of 10 marks. To John 
Chamflour, Nicholas Bray, and Stephen Carre, each of 
them a cup or jewel, to the value oi £5. To Mr. Wm. 
Savage, rector of Overton, ofSO. To Dr. John Keton, 
precentor of the Church of Southampton, £20. And 
other legacies in plate or money to be distributed to the 
persons named in a roll annexed to the will, and sealed 
with his seal, according to the directions therein con- 
tained. The number of the persons, being others of his 
friends, and his officers and servants of all degrees what- 
soever, is above 150, and the value of these legacies in 
the whole amounts to near oflOOO. All these he dis- 
charged in his life-time, and had the pleasure of distri- 
buting with his own hands. He appoints Robert 
(Braybroke) Bishop of London, Dr. Nicholas Wyke- 
ham (Archdeacon of Wilts,) Dr. John Elmere (his 
official General,) Dr. John Campeden (Archdeacon of 
Surry,) Thomas Chelrey, steward of the lands of the 
Bishopric, Thomas Wykeham his great-nephew and heir, 
and Dr. Thomas Ayleward, rector of Havant, to be his 
executors. To whom he bequeaths c£lOOO. in recom- 
pence for their trouble in the administration of his will, to 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 241 

be equally divided among those of them only who should 
take upon them that charge. The residue of his goods 
he leaves to be disposed of by his executors for the health 
and remedy of his soul, (that is, to pious and charitable 
uses) faithfully and conscientiously, as they shall answer 
it at the last day, The whole value of the bequests of his 
will amounts to between 6 and £l,(X)0, the intermediate 
condition of several articles making it impossible to reduce 
it to an exact estimation. He had before put Sir Thomas 
Wykeham his heir into possession of manors and estates 
to the value of 600 marks a year ; and he deposited in 
the hands of the Warden and Scholars of New College 
c£lOO. for the defence of his title to the said estates, to 
be kept by them, and to be applied to no other use 
whatever, for 20 years after the Bishop's decease ; after 
which term, the whole or remainder, not so applied, was 
to be freely delivered to Sir Thomas Wykeham, or his 
heirs. As there are several Other instances of Wykeham's 
munificence and charity, which I have not had occasion 
to mention before, I shall recite them here in the order 
in which they happen to occur. At his first entrance 
upon the Bishopric of Winchester he remitted to his poor 
tenants certain acknowledgments, usually paid and due 
by custom, to the amount of i;'502. Is. Id. To several 
Officers of the Bishopric, who were grown poor and 
become objects of his liberality, he at different times 
remitted sums due to him, to the amount of 2,000 marks. 
He paid for his tenants three several times tlie subsidies 
granted to the King by Parliament. In 1377, out of 
his mere good will and liberality he discharged the whole 
debts of the Prior and Convent of Selborne, to the 
amount of 110 marks, lis. Qd.: and a few years before 
he died he made a free gift to the same Priory of ] 00 
marks. On which accounts the Prior and Convent 
voluntarily engaged for the celebration of two masses a 
day, by two Canons of the Convent for 10 years, for 
the Bishop's welfare, if he should live so long, and for 
his soul, if he should die before the expiration of that 
term. From the time of his being made Bishop of 
Winchester he abundantly provided for a certain number 
of poor, 24 at the least, every day; not only feeding 
them, but also distributing money among them to supply 
their necessities of ever}' kind. He continually employed 
his friendS; and those that attended upon him, to seek 



242 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

out the properest objects of his charity ; to search after 
those whose modesty would not yield to their distresses, 
nor suifer them to apply for relief; to go to the houses of 
the sick and needy, and to inform themselves par- 
ticularly of their several calamities : and his beneficence 
administered largely to all their wants. He supported the 
infirm, he relieved the distressed, he fed the hungry, 
and he clothed the naked. To the poor Friars of the 
orders subsisting on charity he was always very liberal. 
His hospitality was large, constant, and universal ^ his 
house was open to all, and frequented by the rich and 
great in proportion as it was crowded by the poor and 
indigent. He was ever attentive and compassionate to 
such as were imprisoned for debt : he inquired into their 
circumstances, compounded with their creditors, and 
procured their release. In this article of charity he 
expended 3,000 marks. The roads between London 
and Winchester, and in many other places, when they 
were very bad, and almost impassable, he repaired and 
amended, making causeways, and building bridges at a 
vast expence^ He repaired a great number of Churches 
of his diocese which were gone to decay ; and moreover 
furnished them, not only in a decent, but even in a 
splendid manner, with books, vestments, chalices, and 
other ornaments. In this way he bestowed 1 13 silver 
chalices, and 100 pair of vestments : so that the articles 
of this kind, few in comparison, v/hich we find in his 
will, were only intended by way of supplement to M'hat 
he had done in his life time ; that those Churches 
of his patronage, which he had not had occasion to 
consider before as objects of his liberality, might not 
however seem to be wholly neglected by him. Besides 
all this, he purchased estates to the value of 200 marks 
a year in addition to the demesne lands of the Bishop of 
Winchester, that he might leave there memorials of his 
munificence of every kind. Though the other ornaments 
of his oratory are destroyed, yet his monument remains 
there intire and unhurt to this day. It is of white marble, 
of elegant workmanship, with his effigies in his pontifical 
robes lying along upon it; and on a plate of brass, 
running round the edge of the upper table of it, is the 
following inscription in Latin verse, of the style of that 
age. 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 243 

^itl;fTmu^ tJiftuS ?Sauferf;am jactt \)ic nm bictni : 
fotius «£cXtSia pxtiwlf 'vcpavabit camquc. 
HarguS nat, Uaptfcr ; probat i)oc cum TJtbitc pauper: 
Con^iliiJi paiiter rcgni futrat bene tfcxtcr. 
?^uiu Uotet c^iSe ptum funtlatio Collegiorum : 
<©xonie primum fitat, ^iSKtntomeque siecuntJunt. 
Sugiter ovttis, tumulum quicimque ftiTJetiJJ, 
Sro tmitis mtvitii ut slit 5ibi bita peiennisi.* 

iHere terminates the re-print of Lowth's Life of ^Fy\eham.'\ 



ADDENDA. 

For the convenience of those who do not possess Bishop 
Tanner's Notitia Moriastica, I shall transcribe all the 
authorities quoted by that correct and indefatigable writer, 
with reference to Wykeham's foundations. 1 shall adopt 
the same plan at the end of Waynflet's life. 

His foundation at Winton is thus recorded by Tanner, 
Hants. XXXV. 8. " That munificent Prelate, William 
of Wykeham, about the year 1387, began to build in 
the south suburb of this city a new and noble College 
to the honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which was to 
consist of a warden, 10 perpetual chaplains or fellows, 
and 70 scholars in grammar, besides conducts, clerks, 
choristers, &c. It was 26 Henry VIII. endowed with 
lands worth ^"628. 13s. 6d. per ann. (Dudg. £639. 8s. Id. 
speed) and being particularly exempted in the Act 1 
Edward VI. c. 14, for the dissolution of Colleges, it 
flourisheth to this day, and is an excellent seminary for 
that other noble foundation of the said Bishop, commonly 
called New College in the university of Oxford. 

For the reason above stated, I shall also subjoin all 
the references made by Bishop Tanner to the various 
authorities treating of the Bishop's foundation at Winton 
and Oxford. 

Winton. — Vide in Mon. Angl. tom. III. p. 11. p. 
106. pat. 6 Richard II. p. 1. m. 9. pro fundatione. 



* [There is one section more in Lowth's book, but as that is of & forensic 
and not of a biographical nature, it is omitted. It is thus entitled, — An 
Examination and Confutation of several things that have been published 
to his discredit.— Edit.] 

R 2 



244 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

Ibid, p. 133. pat. 1 Edward IV. p. 7. m. 31. recitantem 
cartani itichard II. dat. 28 Sept- 19 regni pro fundatione 
ct dotatione. 

In Wilkins's Concilia, vol. IV. p. 8. injunctions given 
to Winchester College by the visitors of King Edward VI. 
A. D. 1347, p. 434. Archbishop Bancroft's orders to 
be observed by the warden and scholars of Winchester 
College, A.D. l608, p. 517. Archbishop Laud's orders 
to be observed by the master, warden, fellows, &c. of 
Winchester Coikge, A. D, l635. 

In Newcourt's Repertorium, vol. I. of the impropria- 
tions and advowsons of the Vicarages formerly belonging 
to this College, viz. p. 622. of Hampton : p. 644. of 
Heston : p. 675. of Isleworth : p. 757. of Twickenham. 

Lelandi. Collect, vol. I. p. 69. ejusdem Itin. vol. Ill, 
p. 100. 

Cartas, Registra, rotulos Curiarum, rcntalia, et alia 
munimenta, penes R. V. V. custodem et socios hujus 
Collegii. 

Rot. pat. 3 Richard II. p. 3.m. 22 pro Ecc,de Down- 
ton appropriand : Pat. 8 Richard II. p. 2. m. 4. pro 
maner. de Meanstoke, Eling, et W^indsore, et Coombe 
Basset (Wilts.) Ibid. m. 6. pro maner de Aulton, Shaw 
(Berks.) Wheton (Bucks), Pat. 14 Richard II. p. 2.ra. 
l.etm. 10, U, 12. Pat. 15 Richard II. p. 2. m. 9. 
pro tenem. in Meonstoke, Roppele, Sutton, Biketon, 
Draiton, Wynhale, et in Nova Alresford : Ibid. m. 14. 
pro ten. in Cestreton: Cart. 18 Richard II. n. 8. Pat. 
22 Richard II. p. 2. m. 14. pro m. de Dyrinton et med. 
m. de Fernham. 

Cart. 1 Henry IV. p. 1. n. 11. Fin. dio. com. 2 Henry 
IV. n. 28. de manerio de Derynton [Wilt]. Fernham 
(Southant,) &c. Pat. 3 Henry IV. p. 2. m. 7. vol. VIII. 
Pat. 4 Henry IV. p. 2. m. 15. Pat. 6 Henry IV. p. 1. 
m. 22. pro manerio de Shaw. 

Pat. 1 Henry V. p. 1. n. 11. Pat. 2 Henry V. p. 3. m. 
27 Cart 2 Henry VI. n. 26. Pat. 6 Henry VI. p. 1. vol. 
II. m. 4. Claus. 8 Henry 6. m. 10 dors, de terris in 
Herniondesworth, Sibston, Longford, 8cc. Pat. 8 Henry 
VI. p. 2 m. 25. Rec. in Scacc. I6 Henry VI. Mich. rot. 
80, 81, 82. Pat. I6 Henry 6. p. 1. m. 2. Pat. 17 Henry 
VI. p. 2 m. 25. Claus. 19 Henry VI. m. 35 dorso, pro 
maner. de Burton (Wight.) Rec. in Scacc. 21 Henry VI. 
Pasch. rot. 18. Pat. 21 Henry VI. p. 1. m. 8. de licentia 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 245 

perquirendi c. marc. ann. terr. ratione deperditorum 
suorum in coinbustione villarum de Andover et Nov. 
Alresford: Cart: 21. &c. Henry VI. n. 9.6. Pat. 23 
Henry VI. p. 2. m. 3. pro maner de Farnhall et Alding- 
ton: Pat. 24 Henry VI. p. 2. m. 19- Pat. 33 Henry VI. 
p. 2. m. 4. pro ten. in AVippingham et Caresbrook (Wight) 
Romsey, Stanbridge, Okley, Mayhenston, Wells, Hamel- 
rise, Wynnale, et in civit. Wint. 

Pat. 1 Edward IV, p. 1. m. 1. et p. 7- m. ult. vel 
penult. Rec. in Scacc. 3 Edw. IV. Pasc. rot, 23. Rec, 
in Scacc. 22 Edward IV. Trin. rot. 10. 

Pat. 35 Henry VIII. p. 8. (12 Jul)' pro maner de 
Moundesmore, Stubbinton, Woodniancote, &c. in con- 
sideratione pro maner. de Hermondesworth, &c. 

OxFOED.— Oxfordshire XXIII. 19. New College 
or Winchester College. William of Wykeham, Bishop 
of Winton, in the year 1379 obtained licence of the 
King to found a College for a warden and seventy 
scholars, upon several parcels of ground which he had 
purchased in the parish of St. Peter, in the East in Oxon, 
towards Smithgate. Within 7 years next ensuing, that 
munificent Prelate carried on and finished his design 
with strong and stately buildings, and ample endowments, 
not only for the warden, and the above-mentioned number 
of scholars, but also for 10 chaplains, 3 clerks, and l6 
choristers. It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and its 
revenues were valued 26 Henry VIII. at o£'487. 7s. Sd. 
per annum. 

Authorities quoted by Tanner. Vide Hist, et Antq. 
Unio. Oxon. lib. ii. p. 126, &c. Life of William of 
Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, by Robert Lowth, 
D.D. (now Lord Bishop of London) %^- London, 1758, 
[here re-prinled.] 

In Newcourt's Repertor,vol. ii. p. 6l. of the advowson 
of Birchanger, R.Essex: p. 336, of the manor, impro- 
priation and advowson of the Vicarage of Hornchurch, 
and the ordinary jurisdiction there, p. 687, of the like at 
Writtle, belonging to their College. 

Le Neve's Easti, &c. p. 489-490, an account of the 
wardens of tiiis College. 

In Itin. Will, de Worcestre, p. 297, dimensiones ec- 
clesiae. 

In Leland's Itin. vol. iii. p. 103, of the Priory of 
Hamelrise, 



246 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

In Hutchins's Dorset, vol. i. p. 257, of the advowson 
of the rectory of Stoke-Abbas. 

Ill Blonjfielcl's Norfolk, vol.i. p. 592, of the advowson 
of the rectory of Saham Tony ; vol. ii. p. 69 1, of the 
advowson of the rectory of St. John of Maddermarket, 
in Norwich; vol. iii. p. 131, of the advowson of the 
rectory of Stiatton, St. Michael ; vol. iv. p. 432, of the 
manor and advowson of the rectory of Weston; p. 441, 
of the manor of Wickingham, and the impropriate rectory 
and advowson of the Vicarage ol Wickingham Magna, 
and of the advowson of the rectory of Wickingham Parva. 

In Willis's Buckingham, p. 256, of the manor and 
advowson of the rectory of Radcliff, p. 315, of the same 
at Tingwick. 

In appendice ad Adamum de Domerham,edit. Hearne, 
p. lix. e statutis Coll. Nov. de libris CoUegii conser- 
vandis et non alienandis, et de portis et ostiis dicti Coll. 
claudendis et serrandis. 

Catalogum 323. codd. MSS. in Bibl.Coll. Nov.Oxon. 
in catal. MSS. Angl. et Hib. Oxon. l697. fol. tom. i. 
p. ii. p. 31. 

Registra, cartas, rentalia, rotulos curiarura &c. penes 
R. VV. custodem et socios hujus Coll. 

Papers relating to the Controversy about the Kindred 
of Fynes, and Wickbam of Swaclift to the Founder. 

Custodes et viri illustres et benefactores hujus Coll. 
MSS. in Bibl. Ashmol. Oxford, Wood, vol. xxviii. f. 
102. vol. 1. f. 244.278. 

Descriptionem exemplarem Coll. B. Mariae Wint. 
in Oxon. 100-que clericorum in eodem, MS. in Bibl. 
Coll. n. 288. 

Statnta Coll. Nov. Oxon. MSS. penes Radulphum 
Thoresby de Leeds, arm. et in Bibl. Harl. 1343. 

Registrum Soc. Coll. Nov. Ox. ab A.D. 1386, ad 
l640, in quo loci nativitatem, gradus, dignitates et tem- 
pora mortis iionnuUorum specificantur, MS. penes Ric. 
Parson, L.L.D. dioce. Glocestr. cancell. l695. 

Pat. 3 Richard II. p. 1. m. 5. pro eccl. de Stepil- 
morclen (Cant), Raddive (Bucks), &c. Ibid. m. 32 et 
33 licent. pro fundatione ; Pat. 4 Richard II. p,2. m. 4. 
pro eccl. de Abberbury approprianda ; Pat. 5 Richard 
II. p. 1. m. 5 vol. 6 ; Pat. 6 Richard II. p. 2. m. ; Pat. 
8 Richard II. p. 2. m. 6 ; Pat. 10 Richard II. p. 1. m. 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 247 

29 pro maner. de Russels in Herdwicke (Bucks); Pat. 
1 1 Richard 11. p. 1. m. 9- p'o maner. de Stert et Colern 
(Wilts.); Pat. 12 Richard II. p. 2. m. 5. 10. et 24 ; 
Pat. 14 Richard II. p. 2. m. 1. 10 & 11. pro maner. de 
Anebury, &c, (Wilt.): Ibid. m. 27. pro eccl. de Writele ; 
Pat. 15 Richard II. p. 2. ni. Set, 9 pro mess, in VVedon, 
Wergrave, &c. ; Pat. 16 Richard II. p. 1. m. 5. pro 
molindino apud Writele (Essex), Cart. 18. et 19 Richard 

II. n.9. 

Pat. 1 Henry IV. p. 4. m. 2. Cart. 1 Henry IV. p. 
J. n. 10. 

Pat. 1 Henry V. p. 2. m. 12. Ibid. p. 5. m. 12. 

Pat. 2 Henry Vh p. 2. m. 32 ; Pat. 19 Henry VI. 
p. 2. m. 18 confirm, pro maner. de Newenton; Ibid, 
p. 3. m. 1. vol. 2. et m. 17 vol. 18 ; Pat. 21 Henry VI. 
p. 2. m. 12. Cart. 25, et, 26 Henry VI. n. 40 pro mercat. 
et feria apud Horwode Magna (Bucks.) et apud Colern 
(Wilt.) 

Pat. 1 Edward IV. p. 1. m. p. 2. m. Ij.; Pat. 2 
Edward IV. p. 3. m. 27. Rec in Scacc. 3 Edward IV. 
Hill. rot. 77 pro maner. de Newenton Longavile. 

Pat. 1 and 2 Phil, et Mar. p. 4. m. 21 Mart, pro 
rector, de Marshfield (Glouc.) in considerat. Maner. de 
Stipinglee, &c. in C**- Bedford & Essex. 

Dugdale thus notices some of the Bishop's civil ap- 
pointments, in the Chronica Series, at the end of his work. 

Wint. Ep. in officio Cancellarii confirmatus, 17 Sept. 
1368. 41 Edward III.; Cart. 41 Edward III. iterum 
constit. Cancellarius et habuit magnum Sigillum sibi 
traditum 4 Maii. 1389. 12 Richard II. ; Pat. 22 Richard 
II. p. 2. m. 7. 

Constit. Cancel. 11 Oct. 1457, 35 Henry VI. Claus. 
35 Henry VI. m. 10. in dorso. 

Bishop Nicolson treating of the writers of the lives of 
some particular Bishops, thus notices those of Wykeham; 

" William of Wykeham, the great founder of two 
famous Colleges in Oxford and Winchester, could not 
avoid the having his benefits carefully registered by some 
of those that daily tasted of the sweets of them: and 
indeed, there have been several of those who have thus 
paid their grateful acknowledgments to his memory. 
The first of them, I think, was Thomas Chaundler, 
some time warden of New College, who wrote the 
founder's life (MS. in Coll. Novo, Oxon) by way of 



248 WILLIAM WYKEHAM. 

dialogue, in a florid and good style. This is contracted, 
(by the author himself, as is supposed,) (Aug. Sac. II. p. 
355) ; together with which, is published a piece of his 
larger Colloquy, Mheicin he touches upon the life of his 
patron, Thomas Beckinton, Bishop of Bath and Wells. 
The next writer of Wykcham's life was (4to. Loudon, 
1597 and Oxou, 1690), Dr. Martyn, Chancellor of 
Winchester, under Bishop Gardiner; who had the greatest 
part of his materials out of Chaundler's book. After 
him, Dr. Johnson, some time fellow of New College, 
as well as the two former, and aftcnvards master of Win- 
chester school, gave a short view of their founder in Latin 
verse : Avhich being a small thing of itself, has been 
several times (Vid. Ath. Oxon, vol. I. p. 251) printed 
with other tracts. Bishop Godwin is (Prccf, ad Aji^I, 
Sac. vol. I, p. 19) censured for having a little unfairly 
borrowed the account he gives us of this Prelate's life, 
one of the best in his book, from Mr. Josseline : without 
taking any notice of his benefactor." — Historical Librari/, 
part II. ch. 6. ;>. 140. 

Rudborne thus speaks of our Prelate : — *' Willelmus 
de VA'^ykeham qui navem ecclesiie cum alis prout nunc 
cernitur renovari et voltari fecit, aliaque quamplurima 
Leneficia suse ecclesiae contulit, seditque annis 37 et in 
ecclesia sua, in opere quod fecit, honoritice in capella ad 
australem plagani tumulatus est." — Hint. MaJ. Wint. in 
Angl. Sac. 

The accurate Wharton gives us the following summary 
or outline of the Bishop's career : — " Post Edindoni 
obitum Monachi Wintonienses sub ejusdem amii finem 
Willelmum Wickbam, Privati Sigilli regii custodem, 
rege sic volente, concorditer elegerunt. Natus is apud 
Wickham in agio Hantonensi, ex infima sorte ad summam 
dignitatem mira industria et felicitate emersit ; favore et 
beneliciis ecclesiasticis ab Edwardo rege, cui diutius 
lideliter inservierat, adeo cumulatus, ut anno 1 366, mense 
Junio Praeter Archidiaconatum Lincoln, valoris annui 350 
Jib, 13. Priebendas e pinguioribus in variis ecclesiis 
Cathedralibus et ecclesiam de Manyhynet in Diocesi 
Exon tenuisse memoretur. Electionenem ejus, nescio quam 
ob causam, Papa diu coniirmare distulit ; a rege tamen 
iuterpellatus administrationem episcopatus eidem con- 
tulit 1366. 11. Dec. quo nomine spiritualia sedis Wint. 
AVilleliuus ab Apo Cant, accepit 1367, 22 Feb. Post 



WILLIAM WYKEHAM. S49 

integrum annum Urbanus Papa electione dissimulata 
Episcopatum illi provisionis titulo donavit 1367, 12 Julii. 
Consecratus est Londini in Eccl. S. Pauli a Simone 
Arp5 1367, 10 Oct, Cancellaiius Anglize circa eadem 
tempora die 17 Sept. renunciatus, anno 1376 Johannis 
Lancastr. Ducis insidiis favore regio, quem hactenus 
illaesum expertus fuerat, excidit, et diguitate sua pariter 
ac possessiouibus spoliatus est. Causam Godwinus sibi 
notam data opera reticere voluit. Scire autem volentibus 
monachus Eveshaniensis, qui Ranulphi Cestrensis Poly- 
chronicon continuavit, dabit. Refert is Willelmum 
de regiae prolis successioue sollicitum Edw. regi suggesisse, 
quod Philippa regina quondam uxor ipsius dictum Ducem 
in utero suo nunquam portavit, sed supposuit cum pro 
filio, quod ob timorem regis celavit, sed ante mortem 
suam, ut idem Epus asseruisse dicitui', ut debuit, sibi 
fatebatur; et ei injunxit, ut hoc domino suo, cum videret 
opportunum, mandaret. Propter quod idem Dux fingens 
colorem eum persequendi, imposuit sibi, quod falsus fuit 
patri suo diversis modis, quando ipsius exstitit Cancel- 
larius. Uude erat Regi in magna summa pecuniae con- 
demnatus. Pro qua condemnatione in manus regis 
omnia ejus temporalia erant capta anno 1376, uec sibi 
ante mortem regis (quae medio anno sequenti contigit) 
fuerant restituta. Et licet totus clerus et tota communitas 
preces funderent pro eisdem, non tamen fuerant exauditi. 
Post Johannis obitum rebus iterum gerendis admotus, 
Cancellarius Angliae constitutus est 1389, 4Maii. Obiit 
anno 1404, 27 Sept. — Ang. Sac. I. 318. 

" Wilhelmus Wickham (Leland has here adopted as 
he frequently does in his sireuames, a wrong spelling) 
fundavit occiduam ecclesiae partem a choro eleganti opere 
et magno sumptu, in cujus medio inter duas columnas 
cernitur ipsius tumulus." — Lelaud's Collectanea, vol 1 , 
f. 76. 

** The glass at the west end of the Cathedral was pro- 
vided by Wykeham." — Milner. Hist. Winch, vol. II. p. 43. 

"In 1356, 30 Edward III. William of Wykeham, 
who was afterwards promoted to the See of Winchester, 
&c. was constituted surveyor or clerk of the works at 
Windsor with ample powers, which afterwards in 1359 
were greatly enlarged." — Hakeicill's Windsor, p. 91. 

The Bishop was executor to the wills of the following 
personages : — Edward Prince of Wales, proved 4 id. 



250 HENRY BEAUFORT. 

June, 1376, 10th. June. Testamenta Vetusta. 1. p. 13; 
Joan, Princess of Wales, proved Dec. 9, 1385. lest. 
Vet. 1. p. 14 ; King Richard II. T.V.]. p. l6; Edmund, 
Duke of York, proved Oct. 6, 1402, T. F. 1. p. 151 ; 
and also of John, Earl of Pembroke, proved Aug. 17, 
1376, T. F. 1. p. 88. 

His own will may be seen in Nicolas's Testamenta 
Vetusta. vol. 2. p. 703, dated 1402. 

It is worthy of note, that William Wykeham the first, 
and his two immediate successors, in the See of Win- 
chester, viz. Cardinal Henry Beaufort and William 
Waynflete held the See 120 years. Wykeham succeeded 
in 1366, and Waynflete died Bishop of Winton in I486. 

Portraits. Granger thus notices the portraits of this 
Prelate : — ''Houbraken sc. large h. sh. From a picture 
at Winchester College. Illast. Head. Gulielmus de 
Wykeham. Episc. Winton et totius Anglia Cancell. 
Fund/- Coll. B. Maria Wint. vulgo vocat. New Colt. 
1379; et paulo post (1387) Coll. B. Maria Wint.prope 
Winton. J. Faher.f. large '^to. William of Wykeham. 
Taken from a most ancient picture of him, preserved in 
Winchester Coll. Grignion sc. whole length, sh.'' — Biog, 
Hist. Engl. vol. I. p. 48. 



XIX. HENRY BEAUFORT, 

(A Cardinal,) 
Succeeded A.D. 1404. — Died A. D. 1447. 

Henry Beaufort was next brother of King Henry 
IV. being second son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancas- 
ter by his third wife Catherine Swinford. He with his 
brother and sister were fully legitimated by Act of Par- 
liament, 20 Richard II. " excepta dignitate regali." 

Godwin says, (edit. l605, p. 241) that he was brought 
up for the most part at Aken in Germany, where he 
studied the civil and canon law many years; branches 
of literature most necessary in that age for a statesman. 
He adds, that he spent much time also at Oxford. In 
Richardson's Latin edition, p. 231 Godwin says, anno 
1397, Oxoniae literarumstudiisincubuit,verat*Aquisgrani 
plerumque educatus est. Bishop Milner has it that he 
was chiefly educated at Aix in France ; while Richardson 



HENRY BEAUFORT. 251 

in his notes claims him as a Cantab, on the authority of 
M.S. Wren, " Cantabrigiae literis incubuit in domo S. 
Petri, ibique anno 1388, solvit 201, pro pensione camerae." 

Having entered into holy orders, his connexion with 
the blood royal produced his early elevation to the 
episcopal dignity. His great prudence and frugality 
rendered him an important personage of his times ; the 
latter, producing him that influence which immense wealth 
never fails to ci eate ; and the former, securing him from 
the dangerous consequences generally attendant upon an 
elevated station. 

Si/nopsis of Preferments. He was Prebendary of 
Thame in Lincoln Cathedral, Jan. 7, 1389. Willis. 
Cathedr. IE. 251. The same year he quitted Thame for 
the Prebend of Sutton cum Buckington, alias Bucks, in 
the same Cathedral, but it seems he parted with it again 
the same year. Willis. Cath. II. 246. He became 
Prebendary of Riccall, in York Cathedral, August 22, 
1390. Willis. Cath. L 158. Prebendary of Horton, in 
Salisbury Cathedral, Dec. 20, 1397- Hist. 8f Antiq. of 
Sariim ^ Bath, p. 326. Bishop of Lincoln the same 
year. Chancellor of Oxford in 1399- A. Wood. From 
Lincoln he m as, in 1404, by the favour of his half-brother 
King Henry IV. translated to Winton, being, as Willis 
observes, the first Bishop of Lincoln that chose to leave 
it for any other Bishopric. He became Chancellor and 
Custos Sigilli 1414, Claus. 1. H. V. Had the great seal 
again 1417, Oct. 12, 4 H. V. ib. in which year he assisted 
at the council of Constance. He was again constituted 
Chancellor and Keeper, l6 Jul. 1424, 2 H. VL Claus. 
2. H. VL in dors. m. 2. and was, moreover, June 23, 
1426, created by Pope Martin V. Cardinal of St. 
Eusebius. (See an attempt in 1431, to deprive him of 
the Bishopric of Winton on this promotion, Rymer Fad. 
X. pp. 497 516.) He was known under the title of 
* Cardinal of England,' by which title he calls himself in 
his will. 

Pope Martin appointed him his legate or rather general 
of his forces against Bohemia. (See the Cardinal's 
petition to the King for leave to levy and carry over these 
troops, and the King's answer, the Cardinal's commission, 
&c. 1429, 1431. Rymer, X. 419, 427, 491.) He m- 
•vaded Bohemia in 1429, with 4000 men raised by the 
€ontribjutions of the English clergy, and who under him 



2o2 HENRY BEAUFORT. 

served in Fiance before, on the loss of the battle of 
Patay. 

In the decline of his life he applied himself sedulously 
to the care of his diocese, and performed many acts of 
munificence. 

He was a prelate of excessive frugality, whereby he 
amassed so much wealth, that when Henry V. a little 
before his death, proposed to convert the revenues of the 
clergy into supplies for his foreign wars, the Bishop, his 
uncle, lent him o6'20,000 out of his own coffers, on the 
security of the crown jewels. The influence which his 
wealth gave him, and a good share of political prudence, 
soon gave him an ascendancy over his nephew the Duke 
of Gloucester, Protector in the absence of the Duke of 
Bedford. The Duke of Gloucester came at last to an 
open rupture with him, and brought him to a trial, in 
which he was acquitted, but the great seal was taken from 
him. As Henry \T. grew up, the Bishop gained great 
authority over him, and obtained several pardons, 1437 
and 1442. He had just turned the tables on his rival the 
Duke of Gloucester, who was found dead in his bed at 
Bury, a month before the Bishop died. 

In his youthful days, before he took holy orders, he 
had by Alice, daughter of Richard, Earl of Arundel, 
sister of the Archbishop of Canterbury, a daughter Jane, 
M'hom he married to Sir Edward Stradling Knight, of 
Glamorganshire. 

It is remarkable of this Bishop that he, as well as his 
immediate predecessor and successor in this See, held the 
episcopal dignity longer than any other of our prelates 
except Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Beaufort's immediate predecessor, Wykeham, enjoyed the 
See of Winchester from 1366 to 1404, Cardinal Beau- 
fort from 1404 to 1447, and his successor Waynflete, 
from 1447 to I486, making 120 years, and each of them 
about 40. If we add the time that Beaufort held Lincoln, 
he will have been a Bishop half a centur}'. 

He is thus noticed by Wharton, A7ig. Sac. 1. p. 318. 

** Henricus Johannis Lancastrise Ducis ex Catharina** 
Swinforda filius, Epus Lincolniensis, Henrici Regis 
fratris sui opera Willelmo successor per Papalem pro- 
visionem datus, Spiritualia Episcopatus Wint. accepit ab 
Arpo Cant, in Palatio Epi Londinensis, 1405, 18, 
Martii, Quater Angliie Cancellarius factus est : primum 



HENRY BEAUFORT. 253 

anno 1404, dein anno 1414. exin anno 1417. 12. Oct. 
munus deposuit 1418. 23 Jul. anno denique 1424. 16 
Julii magni Sigilli custodiam accepit. A^- 1426. Cardi- 
nalis Ecclesiae Romanae titulo S. Eusebii a Martino 
Papa die 23 Junii renunciatus, galeruni accepit die 25 
Martii sequentis. Obiit 1447, H. Apr. annis non minus 
quam divitiis gravis. Testamento ante biduum condito, 
singulis fere totius Angliae Ecclesiis Cathedralibus et 
Coenobiis vasa argentea gemmasque ingentis pretii et 
nominatim Ecclesize Wellensi vasa argentea deaurata 
ponderis 283 unciatum, et sunimam 148 lib, legavit." 

Under St. Mary Overy, Manning says, " In 1423, 2 
Henry VI. James I. King of Scotland was married to 
Joan, eldest daughter of John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, 
brother to the Cardinal, by whom the match was made 
to supp6rt his family by an alliance with that kingdom. 
This was on the release of James from the prison, where 
he had remained 18 years, having been taken by Henry 
IV. as he was ffoing to the court of France, which was 

• • • • mi 

perhaps part of the price paid for his ransom. The 
marriage feast was kept at the Bishop's house here." — 
Hist. Siirrj/. vol. 3. p. 560. 

It is, perhaps, not generally known, that the borough 
of Wilton once belonged to Bishop Beaufort. Jaquetta, 
widow of John, Duke of Bedford, re-married to Sir 
Richard Wydville, Knight, retained a life interest in the 
borough of Wilton, which the Bishop purchased of her 
by fine levied that same year ; (Pedes Finium in Dom: 
Cap. Westm.) and the year following, viz. 20 Henry 
VI. obtained a patent to hold this borough (inter 
alia) per fidelitatem tantum pro omnibus serviciis, (Rot. 
Patent.) and in 25 Henry VI. by the name of Henry, 
Cardinal of England and Bishop of Winchester, gave 
his borough of Wilton to the master and brethren of the 
hospital of St. Cross, near Winton, towards their main- 
tenance for ever. — Dudg. Mon. 2. 180. 

Bishop Beaufort was executor of the will of John 
Beaufort, Earl of Somerset: proved April 5, 1410 j 
(Test. Vetust. 1. 174.) also, of that of John, Duke of 
Bedford : proved Oct. 7. 1441.— lb. p. 242. 

Beaufort died at Wolvesey Castle, Winchester, April 
11, 1447. Rapin says in despair, that his riches could 
not exempt him from death. Shakspeare has beautifully 
improved the thought {9,nd.part Hen. VI, Act. 3,sc. tdt.) 



254 HENRY BEAUFORT. 

"If thou be'cst death, 1*11 give the England's treasure 
" Enough to purchase such another island, 
" So thou wilt let me live and feel no pain." 

Hence it is evident that an unusual attachment of life 
had been handed down as a characteristic of this cele- 
brated Prelate. 

He lies buried under a noble monument in the pres- 
bytery behind the high altar of his Cathedral. His figure 
in his Cardinal's habit, lies on an altar tomb, on the verge 
of which remained of his epitaph in Bishop Godwin's 
time only these words : Tribularer si nescirem misericordias 
tuas. A draught of the monument may be seen in 
Sandford's Geneal. Hist, of the Kings of Engl. See 
Willis. Cath. 2.53. 

Character. " Had he continued a Layman, it is 
probable," says Bishop Milner, {Hist. Wint.) " that 
his character would have descended to posterity in the 
brightest colours. Certain it is, that he was a sage 
councellor of the state, an able politician, an intrepid 
general, and a true friend to his country. {Poli/dore 
Virgil. Stow's Annals. 1448J. Hence it is not sur- 
prizmg that his influence should have been great in the 
cabinets of his brother and of his nephew, and that 
during the early part of his little [read grandj nephew 
and god-son's reign, viz. Hen. VI.* he should have been 
considered as the main prop of the state." 

Being involved in the vortex of worldly politics, it is 
true, he gave too much scope to the passions of the great, 
and did not allow himself sufficient leisure to attend to the 
spiritual concerns of his diocese. Nevertheless, there is 
no solid ground in history for representing him as that 
ambitious, covetous, and reprobate character which he has 
been drawn by an immortal painter of human manners, 
who has robbed his memory in order to enrich that of his 
adversary, termed by popular prejudice the good Duke 
Humphrey of Gloucester. If he was rich, it must be 
allowed that he did not squander away his money upon 
unworthy pursuits, but chiefly employed it in the public 
service, to the great relief of the subjects, (see an account 

* Hen. VI. came to Winton in 1440 at which time being weai7 of the 
vassalage in which his uncle the Duke of Gloster had kept him, he threw 
himself under the protection of his great uncle Cardinal Beaufoit by 
whose advice he released the Duke of Orleans, long a Prisoner in 
England, and sent over Commissioners to France, of whom the Cardinal 
was one, to make peace with that Country. 



HENRY BEAUFORT. 255 

of the sums lent by him to the state, or expended upon it, 
in Vetust. Momtm, vol. II. 45.) as likewise in furnishing 
his cathedral, which was left incomplete by his prede- 
cessor, in repairing Hyde Abbey, relieving prisoners, 
and other works of piety and charity, (Godivin, Collie)', 
Ecc. Hist.) But what has chiefly redeemed the injured 
character of Cardinal Beaufort in the city of Winton and 
its neighbourhood, is the new foundation which he made 
of the celebrated hospital of St. Cross. It was admitted 
by those who are not very favourable to his memory, that, 
towards the end of his life, he directed his thoughts 
chiefly towards the welfare of his diocese, (Collier.) 
It appears also that he prepared himself with resignation 
and contrition for his end, and the collected, judicious, 
and pious dispositions made in his testament,* the codicil 
of which was signed but two days before his death, (viz. 
April 9, 1447,) may justly bring into discredit the opinion 
that he died in despair.. — " He dies and makes no sign.'* 
S/iaksp. 

Benefactions. He founded near St. Cross's Hospital, 
another hospital for a master, 2 chaplains, 35 poor men, 
and 3 nurses, by the name of the * almshouse of noble 
poverty,' whose annual revenue amounted to o£l88. 
Leland, in the Collectanea, I. 1 16, says, under * Hospitale 
de Winchester.' " Hen Beaufort Epiis Wint. primus fun- 
dator, dotavitque annuis redditibus valoris £l5S. 13s. 4d. 

Tanner observes in the Notitia, under Hants XXXV. 
10, " A considerable addition was made temp. H. VI. 
to the Hospital of St. Cross, to the yearly value of 
o£*I58. 13s. 4d. by the Cardinal or his Executors, for a 
Rector, 2 Chaplains, 35 poor Men," &c. 

Willis, in his Cathedrals, II. 53, says, " In his will he 
§2L\e £200. to the fabric of Lincoln Cathedral, and of 100. 
to Ashridge College, Bucks, with which the five cloisters 
now remaining there seems to have been built. He was 
also a benefactor to the University of Oxford," &c. 

Concannen, in the Hist, of St. Saviour's, has the fol- 
lowing passage : " Ao- 1400, 2 Hen. IV. The whole 
Church was new built about this time. Henry Beaufort, 
Cardinal of St. Eusebius and Bishop of Winchester, 
from 1405 to the time of his death in 1447, might have 

r* 1 have transcribed his will, which will be found very interesting.— 
Editor.] 



Qo6 HENRY BEAUFORT. 

contributed towards the building, being a man of great 
wealth, for which he was called the rich Cardinal, as the 
arms of Beaufort are carved in stone, on a pillar in the 
south cross aisle, and by the remaining sculpture on each 
side, it appears to be done for strings pendant and platted 
in a true lover's knot from a Cardinal's hat placed over 
them. The arms* are quarterly France and England, a 
border compone ar. and az." p. 74. The same remark is 
made in Matniing's Hist. Surrij, III. 560. 

Will. — I, Henry, commonly called Cardinal of England, 
Bishop of Winchester. My body to be buried in my 
Church of Winchester in the place I have appointed. 
I will that every day three masses be celebrated for my 
soul by three Monks of that Church in the chapel of my 
Sepulture. And that the name of Henry Cardinal be 
pronounced, and that in celebrating, the souls of John 
Duke of Lancaster, and Kathei ine his wife, my parents, 
the souls of Hen. IV. and Hen.V. Kings of England, .John 
Earl of Somerset, Thomas Duke of Exeter, my brothers, 
Johanna Countess of Westmorland, my sister, and John 
Duke of Bedford, be specially remembered, I will that 
my funeral be not celebrated in too pompous a manner, 
but according to the state in which God shall be pleased 
that I shall die and according to the discretion of my 
executors. I will that 10,000 masses be said for my soul 
as soon as possible after my decease viz. 3,000 of requiem, 
S,000 " de rorate cali desuper," 3,000 of the Holy 
Ghost and 1,000 of the Trinity. I will that the Prior 
of my said Church of Winchester, and the convent of the 
same have ofSOO. and my better cup and patten, and my 
vestment embroidered, which I bought of Hugh Dyke, 
on condition that none should use the vestment but the 
Bishop of Winton, or whoever may officiate in presence 
of the King, Queen, and King's eldest son. I remit to 
the Abbey and convent of St. Augustine, beyond Canter- 
bury, £3o6. 13s. Ad. which they owe me, on condition 
that they cause my name to be inserted in three masses 
daily. I will that o£'400. be distributed among the 
prisoners, whether for crimes or for debts, in both compters 
of London, in Newgate, Ludgate, Fleet, Marshalsea, 



* The arms are painted on the pillar with a border gold, though de- 
signed in the sculpture for compone. 



HENRY BEAUFORT. 257 

King's Bench, and in confinement within my manor of 
Southwai k, for their liberation, by the hands of some con- 
scientious men selected and appointed by my executors. 
Item, I will that 2,000 marks be distributed among my 
poor tenants in Counties Hants, Wilts, Surry, Somerset, 
Berks and Bucks, and I desire that this distribution be 
made either in money or other things which may be con- 
sidered more useful to them, in the manner expressed in 
the preceding article, viz. by the hands of some men of 
good conscience, according to the nomination and discret 
tion of my executors ; which persons so appointed shall 
receive for their trouble what to my executors may 
appear reasonable. Item, I bequeath to my Lord Henry, 
a tablet with relics, which is called the tablet of 
Bourbon, and a cup of gold, with a ewer, which belonged 
to the illustrious prince his father, and offered by him 
on Easter eve, and out of which cup he usually drank, 
and for the last time drunk, humbly praying him to, and 
my executors in whatever can tend to the good of my soul ; 
as God knows I have always been faithful and zealous in 
him in all which related to his prosperity, wishing to 
effect whatever could tend to his welfare in soul and body. 
Item, I bequeath to Johanna* wife of Edw. Stradlyng, 
Knt. 2 dozen dishes, 4 charges, 12 salt cellars, &c. and 
cflOO. in gold. Item, I bequeath to Hans NuUes 
<£40. I will that the Clerks of my Chapel in my 
service at the time of' my decease, and attending my 
body to the place of burial, be rewarded with 100 
marks between them, according to the discretion of my 
executors. I will that my debts be paid before any other 
thing. I will that ot'2,000. be distributed according to 
the discretion of my executors, among my domestic 
servants, according to their degrees ; but 1 desire, never- 
theless, that Hans Nulles be contented with what I have 
bequeathed him, and that he be not mcluded in the 
distribution among my other servants. I will that the 
residue of my goods not disposed of be applied to works 
of charity and pious uses, according to the discretions 
and consciences of my executors, such as relieving poor 



* Said to have been his natural daughter by Alice, daughter of Richard. 
Earl of Arundel, and sister of Thomas Fitz -Alan, alias Arundel 
Archbishop of Canterbury : she married Sir Kdward Stradlvng of Gl*- 
morgacshire, Knt. 

J5 



258 HENRY BEAUFORT. 

religious houses, marrying poor maidens, succouring the 
poor and needy, and in odier similar works of piety, such 
as they may most deem will tend to the health of my soul. 
And of this my will, I constitute and appoint the Rev. 
Father in Christ, the Cardinal and Archbishop of York, 
[John Kemp], my nephew the Marquess of Dorset, 
[Edmund Beaufort, K.G. who was created Duke of 
Somerset, 26 Henry VI. and was slain at St. Alban's 
22 May, 1455;] brother Richard Vyall, Prior of the 
Church of Witham, of the Carthusian order ; Master 
Stephen Wilton, Archdeacon of Winchester, my Chan- 
cellor ; Richard Waller, Esq. master of my household ; 
William Whaplode, steward of the lands of my bishopric ; 
William Mareys, my treasurer of Wolvesey; William 
Toley ; and William Port my executors. And for the 
trouble which I shall occasion my said executors, I be- 
queath to the said Rev. Father .£200. and a cup of gold 
to the value of ^£40. ; to my said nephew, the Marquess, 
£"200. and a cup of gold worth £40. ; and to each of my 
executors aforesaid <£'I00. Dated in my palace of Wol- 
vesey, Jan. 20, 1440. 

First Codicil. — I, Henry, Cardinal of England, Bishop 
of Winchester, after my will signed and sealed, dated, 
20th. Jan. 1446, wishing to make a certain distribution 
of my goods, which did not occur to my mind when I 
made the said will, now add this codicil- — First, I bequeath 
to the Prior and Convent of Christ-Church, Canterbur}-, 
^1,000., of which sum I will that V^- marks be applied 
*'ad solucionem faciend' pro manerio & dominio de 
■ Bekesbourne," near Canterbury, and the remainder of 
the said sum of £"1,000. to the fabric of the said Church. 
Also, I will that the said Prior and Convent give security 
to my executors, named in my said will, that they will 
cause three masses to be daily celebrated for ever, by 
three Monks of the said Church, for my soul, in my 
Church of Winchester, as is expressed in my said will ^ 
and also, that they solemnly observe my obit every year. 
I bequeath to the work and fabric of the Church of 
Lincoln £"200. ; and I desire that the Dean and Canons 
of the said Church, observe the day of my obit every year 
for ever, &c. Item, I bequeath to my Lord the King 
my dish or plate of gold for spices, and my cup of gold 
enamelled with images. Item, some other jewels and 
vessels of silver and gold which were pledged by the 



HENRY BEAUFORT. 259 

King and Parliament for certain sums lent, &c.* Also, 
I bequeath to my old servant, Richard Petteworth, 
c£lOO, that he may pray for my soul. Dated at .my 
palace of Wolvesey, 7th. April, 1447. 

Second Codicil. — I, Henry, Cardinal of England and 
Bishop of VVinton, make this codicil to niy former will 
and codicil. Whereas I have in the said codicil disposed 
of certain jewels and vases pledged to me by the par- 
liament, &c. Item, I bequeath to my lady the Queen, 
"lectum bloduim de panno aureo de Damasco," which 
hung in her chamber in my manor of VValtham, in which 
niy said lady the Queen lay when she was at the said manor. 
I bequeath and remit to Lord Tiptoft the £333, 6s. 8d. 
^vhich the said Lord by his writing is bound to me. In 
tlie same manner, I bequeath and remit to VVm. Stafford 
all which he oweth me, which is the sum of c£lOO, pro- 
vided that the said William, by his deed sufficiently 
executed, acquits as Mell my executors as Master Thomas 
Forest, master or keeper of the hospital of the Holy Cross 
near Winchester, and his colleagues, of the sum of o£40. 
which I am bound to him by reason of an annuity of £20. 
granted to him with power to distrain for the same in the 
manor of Heynsbrigge, now appropriated to the said hos- 
pital. Item, I bequeath to John, Bastard of Somerset,-!- 

* The following note explanatory of this passage is taken from Royal 
fFilts, p.334.— " The Bishop lent the Kina; at one time " pour I'esploit de 
v're present voyage vers les parties de France & Noimandie. a v're tres 
grand besoigne & necessite 8c ])0ur I'aise de v're povre communalte de 
Engleterre" £'14,000. and jfS.SOt;. I85. 8t/. and was then due " a sa auuciea 
creance a vons fait, come piert par vos honurables letters pateiitz a luy 
eut taitz, et a vous ditz communes ministres," say the Commons in their 
petition 9 Henry V. 1414, desiring to have it confirmed, and the letters 
patent enrolled in Parliament. For the jgl4,000. the King made over in 
the 5th. year of his reign, the duties and customs of a certain import at 
Southampton; and when the Bishop had reimbursed him -elf to the 
amount of £■'8,306. \%s 8d. he lent the King another £14,000., for which 
the said customs were again mortgaged to him, and the cocket of the 
said port and its dependencies ; wliich grant was confirmed in the above 
Parliament.— /?or. Pari. IV. p. 132, 135. But a good deal of the loan re- 
mained at the time of the Bishop's death, as appears by this codicil. The 
King redeemed in 1432 the sword of Si)ain and other jewels, which had 
been pledged to the Cardinal for £493. 6s. %d."—Rymer. vol. X. p. 502. 

t There is much difficulty in ascertaining wlio was the person so 
described : the Editor of Roya'l Wills supposes him to have been John, elder 
brother of the testator, but this conjecture is decidedly erroneous, for the 
said John died many years before, and for whose soul the Cardinal in hi.s 
will orders prayers to' be said. This " John, bastard of Somerset," was 
most probably a natural sou of the said John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset j 
or of John Beaufort, his eldest son, who was created Duke of Somerset, 
2lst. Henry VI. and who died in the following year. This noble family 
now reverses the old name and title; the name bting Homerset, and the 
title Beau/ort.—hDiT. 

H 2 



260 HENRY BEAUFORT. 

o£4,000. with a certain quantity of vessels of silver, accord- 
ing to the discretion of my executors. Item, I bequeath 
in a like manner to William Swynford, my nephew,* 
^400. with a certain quantity of silver vessels. Item, I 
bequeath to Thos. Burneby, page to my lady the Queen, 
^20. and a cup of silver gilt. Item, 1 bequeath to Edw. 
Stradlyng, Knt.-f- a certain portion of silver vessels, accord- 
ing to the discretion of my executors. Item, I bequeath 
to John Yend, senior, 12 dishes of silver. Dated in my 
palace of Wolvesey,J the 9th. of April, 1447. Proved 
the 2nd. of September, 1447. — The above will is from 
Nicolas's Testamenta Vetusta, 1826, vol. 1. p. 249. 



* This bequest satisfactorily proves that Sir Thomas Sw'ynford, the son 
of Sir Hugh Swynford, by Katlieriiie, daughter and co-heir of Sir Payne 
de Roet, 7which Kathenne was first the concubine and aftenvards the 
wife of John of Gaunt, Dulce of Lancaster, and by him mother of Cardinal 
Beaufort) had issue the above-mentioned William Swynford ; for as the 
Cardinal and Sir Thomas Swynford were brothers of the half blood, he 
would of course call the son of the said Sir Thomas his nephew. This 
circumstance is thus particularly mentioned, from so little being knowu 
of the issue of Katherine, Duchess of Lancaster, by her first husband : for 
Godwin, in his laboured and valuable life of Chaucer, states his inability 
to give any account of her son, the said Sir Thomas Swynford. William 
Swynford here mentioned was the first cousin once removed of Thomas 
Chaucer, the eldest son of the Poet, Geoffrey Chaucer, aud second cousio 
to Alice, his daughter aud heiress. 

t Husband of his natural daughter. t Wolvesey-House or Castle, 



XX- WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

Succeeded A. D. 1447. — Died A. D. I486. 

lu the following re-print I have omitted all historic^ 
matter introduced in the original, which appeared irrele- 
vant, and a good deal of what was exclusively collegiate 
history, as swelling unnecessarily a work which purports 
to be only the Biography of the Winton Prelates. 

THE LIFE OF 

WILLIAM WAYNFLETE, 

BISHOP OF WINCHESTER, 

Lord High Ctiancellor of England in the Reign of Henry VI., and Founder 

of Magdalen College, Oxford : collected from Records, Registers, 

Manuscripts, and other Authentic Evidences, by Richard 

Chaundlek, D.D. formerly Fellow of that College. 

London : Printed for White and Cochrane, Horace's Head, Fleet-Stree$, 
by Richard Taylor and Co., Shoe-Lane. 

MUCCCXI. 

CHAPTER I. 

Of IVill'iam Patten, alias Barbour, to the time of his assuming 
the name of fVaynJlete. 

WiLLtAM Waynflete, was son of Richard Patten, 
alias Barbour, of Waynflete, a market-town on the sea- 
coast of Lincolnshire. He was descended of a worshipful 
family, ancient, and in good condition ; less celebrated 
says Budden, than respectable. Writers of the best 
authority agree that his father was a gentleman; and 
Fuller in the same sentence styles him an esquire and a 
knight. He married a lady also descended from an 
ancient family, and whose father, William Brereton, 
possessed an ample estate in Cheshire. This country, 
in consequence of its Norman territories, the patrimony 
of William the Conqueror, and of Anjou with its ap- 
pendages, the inheritance of King Henry IL, sustained 
in that age almost perpetual warfare in France. Breretoa 
was enrolled among the candidates for military fame 
there, obtained by his valour the honour of knighthood. 



262 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

was appointed governor of Caen in Normandy, routed 
under the auspices of Lon! Scales a numerous army of 
the French near Mount St. Michael, and returned honte 
with glory and increase of fortune. Richard Patten and 
Margery iJrereton had issue two sons, William and 
John.* The year when either was born is not known. 
It is agreed by writers in general, that William Patten 
after receiving the rudiments of instruction in Lincoln- 
shire, was removed to Wykeham's school at Winchester, 
The register of admissions on the foundation has been 
carefully examined, and his name is not in it ; but he 
might still be educated there, as Wykeham both intro- 
duced to his school, and to commons in the hall, several 
extraneous boys ; and in bis statutes permits sons of 
gentlemen (gentilkcm), a limited number, to enjoy the 
same privilege : but of these no mention occurs, except 
of the descendants of Uvedale his great patron, whose 
names appear in the account-books of the bursars of his 
time. Budden tells us (p. 06.) he had been diligent in 
his endeavours to ascertain the College in Oxford to 
which William had belonged, but without success ; that 
Holinshed, who has had his followers, departed from the 
conmion belief in ascribing him to Merton, where, as he 
relates, he was fellow, while Nele and Harpsfield contend 
for his having been a Wykehamist. He declares he 
would not willingly recede from this opinion, which had 
the consenting voice of the multitude on its side, and 
argues in favour of it. A. Wood, asserts that the Album 
of Merton College does not allow his having been of it, 
unless he was one of the chaplains or postmasters. As 
to New College, he could not be fellow, not having been 
a scholar on the foundation at Winchester. In his 
statutes Wykeham does not admit of independent mem- 
bers ; neither were there accommodations for them 
before the buildings next the garden were erected. 
Moreover, Lowth has affirmed, that he never was of 
that College to which he is so generally given. We 
shall leave the reader to collect the presumptive arguments 
vhich may be urged from this narrative to fix William at 
New College. But besides these, an evidence deserving 
particular attention is on record, John Longland, fellow 



t* Dean of Chichester in 1425.— Edit.] 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 263 

of Magdalen, bursar there in 1515, and Bishop of 
Lincohi in 1521, (only 25 years after the death of the 
founder, whom, it is therefore probable, he remembered,) 
informed Leland, that William was of New College; and 
his testimony, corroborated, as it will be, by other circum- 
stances, must have appeared decisive, had it been con- 
tradicted in a manner less positive, or by a writer of 
inferior authority to the biographer of Wykeham. Buddea 
has represented William, while an academic, endowed 
with intense application to the studies of humanity and 
eloquence. 

His literary attainments, which may be supposed not 
inconsiderable for the age he lived in, did not qualify hini 
for an ecclesiastic more than his disposition to piety, I 
have endeavoured to trace his progress in the orders of the 
Romish Church, not wholly without success ; and in par- 
ticular am enabled to fix the time of his assuming the 
name of VV aynflete in lieu of Barbour, under which, if I 
mistake not, he is found in the episcopal register of the see 
of Lincoln. The ordinations were held in the parish 
church of Spalding, by Bishop Fleming; and 1420^ 
April 21st. Easter Sunday, among the unbeneficed 
acolytes occurs William Barbour. 1420, Jamiary 21st. 
William Barbour became a Sub-deacon by the stile of 
William Waynflete, of Spalding. 1420, March 18th, 
William Waynfietc, of Spalding, was ordained Deacon ; 
and 1426, January 21st. Presbyter, on the title of the 
house of Spalding. *' It was a fashion in those days 
from a learned spirituall man to take awaie the father's 
sirname, (were it never so worshipfuU or ancient) and 
give him for it the name of the tovvne he was borne in." 
Holinshed, after producing several instances, obsei-ves, 
that this in like manner happened to William Waynflete, 
" a matter right proveable." The episcopal registers 
furnish many instances of the name of Waynflete taken 
by, or imposed on, ecclesiastics, and it is often difficult 
to ascertain the identity of the persons. Both Waynflete 
and Patten were also common sirnames. I have noted 
17 modes of spelling the name adopted by VVilliam. In 
the episcopal register at Winchester, it is commonly 
Waynflete ; but there also occurs Wayneflete, and Wayn- 
flett. The first was constantly used, if I mistake not^ by 
the Bishop. 



264 WILLIAM WAYNPLETE. 

CHAPTER II. 

Of William Waynfiete to the time of his advancement to the 
See oj fFinehester by King Henry VI. 

The Warden of Winton, Robert Thurbern, with the 
Fellows of the College, appointed VVaynflete to fill the 
station of Master of the School at AVinchester, on its 
being vacated by Thomas Aluin, and he began to teach 
in 1429, the year after the decease of Leilont, whose new 
granunar he probably introduced there, and afterwards at 
Eton. In 1430, a William VVayntiete, as appears from 
the episcopal register of Lincoln, was presented by the 
convent of Bardney to the vicarage of Skendleby, in that 
county, void by resignation ; and among the Monks there, 
about the same time, was one named John VVaynflete, 
who became Abbot in 1435. This person Willis " pre- 
sumes was a near relation of the founder of Magdalen 
College," and that the living was obtained by his interest. 
** This 1 mention," he continues, " because it may per- 
haps intimate the rise of this great man, and what was 
probably his ^rs^ preferment." From the coincidence 
of names it is likely that this William and John Waynflete 
were townsmen ; but the identity of this William and our 
Bishop is at least problematical ; and the author seems 
not apprized that the founder of Magdalen College already 
occupied a post not consistent with the duties of a remote 
vicarage, and on which, as on its basis, the fabric of his 
future fortune was about to be raised. The Bishop of 
W'inchester was now Henry Beaufort, uncle and some 
time preceptor of King Henry VI. who had been trans- 
latea troni Lincoln to this see on the vacancy made ia 
3404 by Wykeham. From him Waynflete received the 
only ecclesiastical preferment he ever enjoyed, or that has 
been hitherto discovered with certainty, excepting Sken- 
dleby, (if he was indeed vicar there,) and his bishopric. 
It happens that only one volume of Bishop Beaufort's 
Register,* comprising the first 8 years of his presidency 
over this diocese, is extant at Winchester ; so that we are 
unable to fix the time when the mastership and chantry of 
St. Mary Magilalen hospital, near Winton, were conferred 



» 



It commences in 1405. At the end is written, in a contemporary 
ijaiid, ♦' Prima pars. ii<i« cum Duo Rege." 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 265 

on Waynflete ; but it appears, from other evidence,* that 
he was in possession ni 1438. He continued, it seems, 
to hold it until Ins own advancement to that see ; for he 
collated to it soon after (Feb. \2, 1447), and gave the 
new Warden, when he had taken an oath to observe the 
statutes, canonical institution at his palace of I'^oathwaik.-j* 
It has been surmised, and not without probability, that 
Waynflete was led to adopt Mary Magdalen as his patron 
saint in consequence of this preferment. 

The College at Eton, as that near Winchester, was 
established chiefly on account of the school. In the 
charter of foundation, [of the College] which passed the 
great seal in 1 44 1 , Waynflete is named to be one of the 
6 fellows under provost Sever. He removed in 1442, 
with 5 of the fellows and 35 scholars : and assumed at 
Eton the station which he had already fllled with so much 
honour to himself and advantage to the public at Win- 
chester. When Waynflete had been master about 3 
years, he was promoted by the King to be provost of 
Eton. The day fixed for his admission, and for the 
introduction of the statutes, was the festival of St.Thomas, 
Dec. '21, 1443, The commissaries, who were Bishop 
Bekyngton and W illiam de la Pole, afterwards Duke of 
Suffolk, with two notaries public, met in the choir of 
the collegiate church; and the prelate declared their 
business to be, to receive the oath of the provost, to 
observe the statutes, and to see him administer a like oath 
to the other members of the College. Waynflete then 
appeared ; and, after the reading of a dispensation, which 
the insufficiency of the buildings, and certain articles not 
yet fully arranged, had rendered necessary in some par- 
ticulars, looked into and touched the holy Gospels, and, 
kneeling deliberately and reverently, took the oath. He 
was then placed in the chief seat on the right hand of the 
choir, and there tendered the oath prescribed to the 
persons concerned, each in his turn, in the presence of 
the commissaries. The arms;!: of the family of Patten 



* Hist, and Antiq. of Winton, vol. II. pp. 177-8. 

t Registr. Waynflete, f. 3. 

t Budden does not set forth properly the arms of provost Waynflete, 
when he says he quartered the Eton lilies, they being added in a cMe/, 
Hugget. Dr. Wilson. Le Neve has lozengy for fiisily, p. 4^3, 



C66 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

alias Barbour were a field fusily ermine and sable. 
AVaynlleto, as provost, inserted oo a chief of the second, 
three lilies slipped argent ; being the arms of the College. 
This addition was made as a token of gratitude to the 
King, because from Eton he derived honour and dignity;* 
not to acknowledge his education there, as Guillimf most 
absurdly supposes. His example was followed by provost 
Lupton in 1525. He retained this bearing after his 
removal to the See of Winchester, caused it to be en- 
graved on the public seal of his hall, and transmitted it 
to his College. Much stress has been laid on it, as a 
variation from the Patten arms, by those who have contend- 
ed that his name was originally \Vaynflete. His arms are 
noticed as remaining at Eton in 1763, cut in stone in 
two places ; in the ante-chapel over the north door, in 
the north-west corner, with the lilies on a chief; and 
over the font, w ithout the lilies ; the latter, I suppose, 
placed in the roof before he was provost. If they were 
painted, both have been falsified about 20 years since ; 
azure and or, having been substituted in the room of sable 
and ermine ; and to those over the font a chief is added, 
unless Hugget was mistaken, with lilies argent, but unlike 
the other, and differing from their common representation. 
The glass in the chapel windows stained lozengy argent, 
or rather ermine, and sable, mentioned by him, is no 
longer visible there. 

It it related of Henry VI. that he was circumspect in 
ecclesiastical matters, and particularly cautious neither 
to bestow preferment on undeserving persons, nor in a 
manner unworthy of, his own dignity. It was said that 
he called Waynflete, and addressing him familiarly, as 
was his custom, by the title of Master William, asked 
whether, if he should obtain a certain benefice by his 
favour, he should be able to retain it. On his answering 
in the affirmative, and that he \Vould with diligence when- 
ever his majesty ordered ; Henry replied, he then willed 
and commanded him to be Bishop of Winchester. 

It was perhaps necessary to use uncommon expe- 
dition to secure this promotion to Waynflete, and 
to preclude embarrassment from papal interposition 
or the application of potent and factious noblemen. 



* Budden, p. 54. Le Neve, p. 493. t Guillim, 408. 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 267 

Henry, without waiting the customary forms, on the 
day his uncle died, sent leave to tlie Church ot V'V iiichesttr 
to proceed to an election, and strongly recoinmtnaed \u$ 
** right trustie and vvel beloved clarke and counstllour, 
Master William V\ aynflete, piovost of iiton," to be his 
successor. He committed to 1 im, by letters patent of 
the same date, the custody of the temporaliies ; and ia 
virtue of them, Waynhete on the 14th. was piesented to 
the Church of Witney. 

At Winchester, April 12, 1447, the day after the 
decease of the Cardinal [Beaufort,] and perhaps bt fore 
the arrival of the letter from the King, the Monks of the 
Convent of St. Swithun, assembled in their chapter-house, 
and deputed the Sub-Prior with one of the brethten 
to notify the vacancy by an instrument unuer their 
common seal, and to desire the royal permission to elect a 
Bishop. The King answered them on the 13th, and 
renewed his solicitations that they would choose VV ayn- 
flete without delay. H is letter was received on the 14th 
by William Aulton the Prior, Master Stephen Wilton 
Doctor of decrees and Archdeacon of Winchester, and 
the whole brotherhood; when they determined not to 
postpone their compliance even to the time named by the 
King, but were unanimous in fixing on tiie 15th, which 
was Saturday, for the election. The conge d' tlire or 
licence under the privy seal is dated the same day at 
Canterbury. After the mass de Spiritu Sancto had been 
solemnly performed at the high altar in the Church of St. 
Swythun, and a bell tolled according to custom, the 
Prior, the Sub-Prior, the Archdeacon of Winchester, and 
that of Surry by his proxy, with 37 brethren, all professed 
Monks and in holy orders, excepts, who were young, met 
in the chapter-house. The word of God was then pro- 
pounded, and they implored devoutly the divine grace by 
singing the hymn ^' Veni, Creator Spiritus." A protes- 
tation against the presence or voting of any unqualified 
person was read by the Prior, and the constitution 
general " Quia propter" by Dr. Wilton. Immediately 
when this was done, they all without any debate, on a 
sudden, with one accord, the Holy Ghost, as they firmly 
believed, inspiring them, directed their suftrages to 
Waynflete, and elected him, as it were with one voice and 
ojie spirit, for their Bishop and Pastor; and instantly 
singing Te Deum, and causing the bells to ring merrily, 



268 WILLIAM WAYNFETE. 

they went in procession to the high altar of the Church, 
M'ere Dr. Wilton, by their order, published the trans- 
action in the vulgar tongue to a numerous congregation of 
the clergy and people. The Sub-Prior and another 
monk were deputed to wait on Waynflete at Eton 
College with the news of his election. From sincere 
reluctance, or a decent compliance with the fashion of 
the times, he protested often and with tears, and could 
not be prevailed on to undertake the important office to 
which he was called, until they found him, about sunset, 
in the Church of St. Mary ; when he consented, saying, 
he would no longer resist the divine will. The King was 
formally apprised of all these proceedings by an instru- 
ment under the common seal of the convent dated the 
17th., and the sub-prior attended as before, with an 
humble request that he would vouchsafe to confirm their 
election. The chapter sent likewise to Rome a narrative 
of the steps they had taken after the delivery of the body 
of the deceased Cardinal, as was fitting, to ecclesiastical 
sepulture ; and the prior declares, in his own name and 
that of the whole convent, that, their unanimous suf- 
frages having fallen on Waynfiete, he elects and provides 
him to be Bishop and Pastor of their Church. They 
request his holiness to confirm their choice, and impart 
to their new Bishop his free gift of consecration. On 
the l6th. June Waynflete made profession of obedience 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth. He was 
consecrated at Eton on July 13th. The College at 
Winchester presented him on the occasion with a horse, 
which cost £6. 13s. 4d.; and gave money (135. 4c?.) to 
the boys at Eton. The warden, with other members 
attended the solemnity ; and on the 18th. Waynflete 
received the spiritualties ; he held his first general ordi- 
nation on Sunday the 23rd. of December following at 
Eton, by special licence from the Bishop of Lincoln. 
The Bishop, soon after he was confirmed in the posession 
of his See, leceived a most honourable testimony of the 
confidence reposed in him by his royal* patron. King 
Henry, possibly foreseeing the troubles about to over- 
whelm the nation, was solicitous to insure the completion 



* Henry VI. nominated him one of the 14 trustees of his will to 
succeed the first nominees in case ol" death. Sepulchral Mon. 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 269 

of his two Colleges. He now made a testamentary 
provision for it ; and, " in consideration of the great 
discretion, the high truth, and the fervent zeal for his 
welfare, which he had proved" in the Bishop of Win- 
chester, constituted him by his will, dated at Eton 
March 12, 1447, his surveyor, executor, and director; 
as also sole arbiter of any variance which might happen 
with his feoffees. The desire to accomplish this measure, 
was perhaps the particular motive of his impatience to 
secure the advancement of Wavnflete to the mitre. A 
popular preacher of reformation (Reginald Pecock) about 
this time enlarged on the riches, luxury, and pride of the 
superior clergy ; and by his eloquence [quere declamation'] 
rendered the grandeur annexed to episcopacy in parti- 
cular, a subject of public clamour and indignation. The 
spiritual lords were then served on the knee, and had 
pompous retinues ; some, it is related, appearing abroad 
with as many as fourscore attendants, their horses all 
bedecked with silver trappings. So splendid was the mitre 
w hen conferred on Wayntlete ; whose approved modera- 
tion, with the worthy uses to which he destined his 
revenue, was well adapted to conciliate the temper of his 
adversaries. He persevered in his wonted, unaffected 
humility ; and, we are told, was accustomed to repeat 
often that verse of the Magnificat, Luke i. 49, " Qui 
potens est fecit pro me magna, et sanctum nomen ejus ;" 
which also he added to his arms as his motto. 

CHAPTER III. 

Transactions at Oxford and Jfinchester, loith the Founding 
of Magdalen Hall by Bishop fFaynflete. 

In 1448, the year after his advancement to the mitre, 
he obtained the royal grant, dated May 6, impowering 
him to found a hall, to be called after the blessed St. 
Mary Magdalen, for the study of divinity and philosophy, 
at Oxford ; to consist of a president and oO poor scholars, 
graduates ; the number to be augmented or diminished 
in proportion to their revenues ; and to confer on them a 
right to use a common seal. This was accompanied with 
a licence for <£lOO. a-year in mortmain. 

The foundation of Magdalen hall preceded the in- 
stallation of the Bishop in his Cathedral of Winchester. 



270 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

This ceremony was deferred to the feast of St. Wolstan, 
August 30, 1448, above a year after his consecration, 
\\hen it was honoured with the royal presence. It is 
related of King Henry, that he was unable to suppress 
the emotions of his regard in bidding him receive i»- 
thronization in his See, that he might be in it even as the 
prelates his predecessors ; and wishing that he might 
be long-lived upon earth, and increase and profit in the 
way of righteousness. Waynflete, we are told, made 
the Archbishop a present of tiie professional cope, or that 
used at the solemnity, which was commonly of great 
value; as also of ^£100. in money. He redeemed with 
generosity his vestments, and the pieces of tapestry which 
were claimed as perquisites. He distributed largely to 
the various attendants ; and, in the entertainment pro- 
vided for the company, displayed a liberality and mag- 
nificence suited to the occasion, and worthy of his See. 

We find the Bishop again at Winchester in the 
beginning of May, 1 449, "when he gave the benediction 
in the Church of the Monastery of St. Mary Wynton, 
between the masses, to !Mrs. Agnes Buriton, who had 
been elected and confirmed of that society ; and, the 
same day, solemnized in his pontificals the profession of 
several Nuns of that Convent. The invasion of Nor- 
mandy by the French King, after a truce, which had 
given leisure to the turbulent warriors from the continent 
to exercise intrigue and mutual animosities at home, 
occasioned the holding of a Parliament at Winchester, 
l6th. June, 1449. The Bishop, to whom the royal 
favour imparted political consequence, was present at 
the council previous to its meeting, 11th. June; and 
appointed proxies to attend the convocation of the clergy 
at London, " being personally detained at \V olvesey- 
palace on various and arduous business, in the other 
assembly, for the good and advantage of the King and 
the whole realm."* The King at this time resided above 
a month at Winchester. The college-chapel was often 
honoured with his presence, and filled with the nobles 
and prelates of his suite, at vespers, matins, and mass. 
The services were then commonly performed by Wayn- 
flete, and, it is related, with great devotion. The Kmg 



Registr. Wayuflete. Wilkiiis's Concilia, vol. iii. p. 556. 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 271 

also attended mass at the Cathedral on the feast of St. 
Peter and St. Paul, two of its patron-saints, on which 
day the college was sumptuously entertained by Bishop 
Bekyngton. On his return to London in July, the 
Bishop issued a mandate for his visitation of the college 
as Ordinai7, in Sept. ; perhaps not because he was aware 
of any thing amiss in the society, but from respect for 
the founder, and in compliance with his desire, which 
he observes had been, that it might not long continue 
destitute of this solace. He was probably again at 
Winchester with the King toward the end of Nov. 1449. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Of Bishop IVaynflete to the time of his being made Lord 
High Chancellor of England. 

A pretended heir of the house of York, an Irishman, 
whose name was Cade, headed about this time an in- 
surrection in Kent; and after defeating the King's general, 
%vho was slain, encamped on Blackheath, declaring he 
was come to assist the Parliament at Westminster in 
reforming the administration, and removing Somerset and 
other persons from the royal presence. The citizens of 
London admitted him within the walls in the day-time ; 
but the insolence of his followers and their outrages 
becoming mtolerable, they shut the gates on his marching 
into the fields in the evening, as usual, and resolved to 
attack him in the night. Lord Scales, governor of the 
Tower, sent them a detachment of the garrison; and 
Cade, after a bloody conflict on the bridge, was driven 
beyond the Stoop in Southwark. The Bishop of Win- 
chester, who was shut up in Halywell castle, being- 
summoned to attend a council in the Tower, where 
Archbishop Stafford, lord high chancellor, had taken 
refuge, was of opinion, they might win over by hopes of 
pardon, those whom they could not easily subdue by- 
force of arms ; and that to avoid lighting would be the 
most effectual way to defeat the traitor. The two prelates, 
with other lords, on the following day crossed the water, 
and held in St. Margaret's Church a conference with 
Cade and his principal officers. A general pardon under 
the great seal proved, as the Bishop had forseen, so 
welcome, that the dispersion began the same night. 



•-/a WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 



n*ro 



The King, who had repaired for safety to Kenilworth, 
was respectfully received by the Archbishop and Wayn- 
flete at Canterbury, where a council ordered a proclama- 
tion to be issued (15th. of July, 1450,) for apprehending 
Cade. The real heir of York was suspected of abetting 
this rebellion, to try the bias of the people. The justice 
of his claim to the crown became, on his return from 
Ireland, a topic of popular discussion ; and the fierce 
contest between the two houses, distinguished by red 
and white roses, was evidently about to commence. 

The favour of King Henry, as it conferred on Waynflete 
an active part in the previous measures of administration, 
so it was likely to entail on him a large portion in the conse- 
quences of civil discord. That he hadearly experience of the 
animosity of the Yorkists, or was jealous of their designs, 
and uneasy in his situation, may be collected from an 
instrument dated* May 7th. 1451, which sets forth, that 
in a certain lofty room, commonly called Le peynted 
chambie, in his manor house of Southwark,f and in the 
presence of a notary public, and of the Bishops of Bangor 
and Achonry (the latter the suffragan of Bishop Bekyng- 
ton),J who were desired to be witnesses, he appeared, 
holding in his hands a writing, which he read before 
them, and in which he alleged that his Bishopric was 
obtained canonically; that he had peaceable possession 
of it ; that his reputation was without blemish ; that he 
laboured under no disqualitication, and was ever ready to 
obey the law; but that probable causes and conjectures 
made him fear some grievous attempt to the prejudice of 
himself and see ; and to prevent any person from giving him 
disturbance in the premises, in any manner, on any 
pretext, he appealed to the apostolic see, and to the 
Pope, and claimed the protection of the court of Can- 
terbury ; putting himself, his bishopric, and all his 
adherents, under their defence, and protesting in the 



* Registr. Waynflete, t. i. p. 2. f, 11. 

t The episcopal palace of Winchester was in Southwark, on the bank 
of the Thames, near the west end of St. Mary Overie's Church. South- 
wark park, otherwise Winchester park, comprises about 60 acres of 
ground, and is covered (1783) witli several thousand houses, many 
extensive factories, and a variety of other buildings ; the ground or quit 
rents annually ^£'450. 

i Registr. Bi'kyngton. 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 273 

usual form. The next day he appointed 19 proctors to 
manage, jointly or separately, any business respecting 
himself or his See, at Rome or elsewhere. In the awful 
interval between the preparations for an open rupture and 
its commencement, religion was inteiposed, by the piety 
of the prelates, to soften the minds of the two parties, 
and direct their councils to public concord. Waynflete 
issued his mandate July 2, (1451), at the requisition of 
the Archbishop, for suppUcations to be made in his 
Diocese, with litanies on certain days, for the peace 
and tranquillity of the Church, the King, and realm of 
England. In Sept. we find Waynflete at St. Alban's, 
from whence he issued a commission for the visitation of 
his Diocese, not being able to attend in person, as he 
had purposed, on account of various arduous and un- 
expected business concerning the King and the realm. 
The Parliament meeting in Nov., an address of the 
Commons, for the removal of Somerset and other coun- 
sellors, was enforced by a letter of remonstrance from 
the Duke of York, who approached London with aH 
army raised in Wales ; and, finding the gates shut, en- 
camped on Burnt-heath near Dartford in Kent. The 
King, with a superior force, pitched his tents on Black- 
heath. The two armies were arrayed for battle, when 
Henry, who was ever adverse to the shedding of blood, 
sent Waynflete, with the Bishop of Ely, Lord Rivers, 
and the keeper of the privy seal, to inquue the occasion 
of this commotion; and, if the demands of the *Duke 
were not unreasonable, to propose a reconciliation. 
York surrendered, and swore solemnly to bear true al- 
legiance to Henry, on their consenting that Someiset 
should be taken into custody and tried. Waynflete, whose 
sage advice and temperate conduct are said to have 
contributed in no small degree to the restoration of the 
public tranquillity, stood by, with other lords of the privy 
council, while he, and the principal noblemen his abettors^ 
did homage to the King. 

The next year an expedition into France again mis- 
carried, though conducted by the most valorous Earl of 
Shrewsbury. In vain had Waynflete orderetl the clergy 
of Southwark to be assembled (March 16, 1432) at 8 
in the morning, and go in solemn procession through the 
public street, by the doors of St. Margaret and St. Olave, 
as far as the Monastery of Bermondsey, with litanies and 



274 WILLIAM AVAYNFLETE. 

apt suflFiagcs, supplicating for the defence and increase 
of the Cliristian faith, for the prosperous estate of the 
King and his dominions, and especially for a happy issue 
to this undertaking, and for all who should combat the 
enemies of their country, under the illustrious earl. He 
was killed in battle, and the revolted province was re- 
covered by the French King. The pregnancy of the 
queen was now regarded as matter of joy to the Lancas- 
tiian party, rather than to the nation. The prince of 
whom she was delivered at Westminster, Oct. 1 3, 1 453, was 
baptized the day following by Waynflete, and named 
Edward, having been born on the feast of St. Edward, 
King and Confessor. The Archbishop of Canterbury, 
the Duke of Somerset, and the Duchess of Bokyngham 
were then sponsors ; and Waynflete wa.s sponsor when he 
was confirmed by the Archbishop.* He was also one of 
the tutors appointed for him in 1457. He was then Lord 
High Chancellor, and is named next after the Arch- 
bishop of York in the writ,"!" which sets forth, that the 
King knew the industry of each of the persons as approved 
in arduous affairs, his discretion, and tried fidelity. 

King Heniy had already endeavoured to secure the 
completion of the buildings, and the endowment of the 
two Colleges he had founded at Eton and Cambridge, 
when, alarmed perhaps at his recent illness and his 
present situation, he resolved, with similar wisdom and 
foresight, to provide for their future good government. 
The statutes accepted by the visitors in July 1446, had 
been found, on carrying them into execution, to be in- 
complete, and to need reformation. He therefore deem- 
ed it expedient to delegate persons in whom he could 
confide, a privilege hitherto reserved ; and by letters 
patent, dated July 12, 1455, setting forth, that the many 
and great concerns of his kingdom rendered him unable 
to attend continually on the lemedying of the defects, as 
they were noted, empowered the Bishop of Winchester 
and the Bishop of Lincoln to correct, alter, and improve 
their statutes, with the advice of the provosts, as they 
should think proper, during his lifetime. So highly did the 
King esteem the merit and services of Waynflete, as to 



* MSS. C. C. C.C. No.417. Budden, p. 70. Sandford. Stow. 
t Rymer, t. xiip.385. 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 27> 

oidain that both his Colleges should yearl}', within the 
iS days preceding the feast of the Nativity, celebrate 
solemn exequies for his soul after his decease, with 
commendations and a morrow mass : a distinction not 
conferred on any person besides, except Henry V., Queen 
Katherine his wife, and his own Queen Margaret, for 
whom obits are decreed ; with one quarterly for the 
founder. 

About this time (Jan. 1455) died Ralph Lord Crum- 
welljOne of the executors of the famous Duke of Bedford, 
the regent; whom he succeeded as master of the mews, 
and falconer to the King. He had married Margaret, 
daughter of Lord Dayncourt ; who dying without issue 
in Sept. 1454, he then enfeoffed Bishop Waynflete in 
his manors of Candlesby and Boston, and in some in 
other counties ; one of which, that of East Bridgeford, 
Notts., was disputed by Francis, liOrd Lovelj, husband 
of the co-heiress ; the remainder being left between the 
two sisters ; and it was agreed to refer their title to arbi- 
trators, whose award should be tinal. He was buried 
with his lady in the chancel at Tateshale, Lincoln, where 
he had a castle, and where he founded and endowed u 
College, (17 Henry VI.) for a master or warden, 7 
chaplains, 6 secular clerks, and 6 choristers ; with an 
alms-house by the churchyard for 13 poor persons; and 
their monument is still in being, but, thq windows having 
been demolished, is exposed to the weather. He likewise 
erected the Church of Ranby in the same county. His 
buildings were adorned with figures of purses, in reference 
to his office of Lord High Treasurer of England. His 
executors were the Bishop, the learned Sir John Fortescue, 
chief justice of the King's Bench, and Portington a 
justice of the Common Pleas. At his Church at Tate- 
shale an antiquary remarked in l(i29, arms Lozengy, S. 
^ Erm. on a chief S. 3 lilies Arg., the bearing of Way ntlete 
after he was provost of Eton, on each side in the windows 
over the north and south doors, and also cut in stone 
over each portico. If the former are now missing, the 
reason probably is, that a great quantity of painted glass 
has been taken away, to adorn a Chapel at Burleigh 
Hall near Stamford. The Church is exempt from eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction. 

The Queen with her Lancastrians was reinstated in 
power, after various struggles, in 145G. The court was 

T 2 



«76 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

at Coventry; and in the priory there, the Lord Chancellor 
Bourchier, in the presence of the Duke of York, who, 
with the Earls of Salisbury and Warwick, had* been 
invited to attend, and of many Lords spiritual and tem- 
poral, produced to the King in his chamber the three 
royal seals : a large one of gold ; another ; and one smaller, 
of silver, in three leather bags under his own seal ; and 
caused them to be opened. The King received the seals 
from his hands, and delivered them to the Bishop of 
Winchester, whom he appointed his successor. Waynflete, 
after taking the usual oath and setting the large silver seal 
to a pardon prepared for the Archbishop, ordered the 
seals to be replaced, and the bags to be sealed with his 
own signet by a clerk of chanceiy. It is mentioned that 
his salary was c£200. a year. The prudence of the 
Bishop was now to be " made eminent in warilie wield- 
ing the weight of his office" of Lord High Chancellor. 
His advancement to it seems to have been a conciliatory 
measure, and enforced by, or agreeable to, both parties. 

CHAPTER V. 

Of Bishop JVaynfiete while Chancellor, with the Founding of 
Magdalen College, Oxford. 

In the preceding century had lived the renowned 
Wickliff, the first asserter of religious liberty, and author 
of the heresy, as it was then deemed, called Lollardism. 
This had been nurtured in the University of Oxford, its 
birth-place, where Bishop Flemmyng founded Lincoln 
College, to oppose its increase and progress. Reginald 
Pecock, whom he ordained at the same time with Wayn- 
flete,* was a convert to the tenets of the reformer, which he 
propagated with success ; and had become exceedingly 
famous by a sermon preached at St. Paul's Cross in 1447, 
the year of Waynflete's advancement to the mitre, which 
occasioned a most violent controversy. The populace, 
inflamed by his invectives against the higher clergy, com- 
Hjitted many enormities ; and the commotion thus ex- 



* Pecock was ordained acolite and sub-deacon when Waynflete was 
made sub-deacon. The); became deacons together ; Pecock, on the title 
of Oriel College, to which he belonged. He was ordaiued presbyter the 
20th. ottEaunary, 1421. Registr. Flemmyng. 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 277 

cited, had hitherto continued to accompany the civil 
broils under King Henry. But Pecock, on the loss of 
his patron the Duke of Suffolk, had declined in public 
favour. He had been already ordered to quit London ; 
and, soon after Waynflete entered on his high station of 
Chancellor, it was resolved to proceed to a review of 
his writings, and to decide on their orthodoxy.* He 
Mas cited Oct. 22, 1457, by the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, to produce his works in the chapel of Lambeth, to 
be there examined by certain doctors, whose report was 
to be made to him and his assessors. These were the 
Bishop of Winchester Lord Chancellor, and the Bishops 
of Lincoln and Rochester. Pecock was sentenced to sit 
in his pontificals, as Bishop of Chichester, at the feet of 
ihe Archbishop, and to see his books delivered to the 
flames in St. Paul's Church-yard; besides undergoing 
other disgrace. He died of chagrin, at an Abbey to 
which he was permitted to retire on a pension. It would 
be unfair to appreciate, according to our present ideas, 
the conduct of the associates in humbling and punishing 
this learned person. If Waynflete concurred with them, 
as apparently he did, it must be owned as not unlikely, 
that his temper, naturally mild, might be warped on such 
an occasion, by zeal to preserve the church from inno- 
vation or danger. Perhaps too his influence was used, 
to procure from the University of Oxford, which was 
suspected of favouring the delinquent, a decree of con- 
vocation for burning his books ; which was done at Carfax 
in the presence of the chancellor. Dr. Chaundler, warden 
of New College, and a letter of apology sent to the 
Bishop for then- delay. The Bishop, however, engaged 
by other important duties or concerns, had been unifohnly 
attentive to the poor scholars, whose patronage he had so 
generously undertaken. The Hall which he founded at 
Oxford, as soon as he was raised to the mitre, had me^ 
with an early benefactress, Joan Danvers, relict of Wm. 
Danvers, Esq. To this lady the manor of Wike, alias 



[* This would have been to prejudge the matter, Chaundler probably 
meant ' as to' instead of ' on.' The object, I apprehend of this review wa^ 
to decide whether the writings were orthodox or heterodox : and not to 
decide on their orthodoxif , for this would have beett to assume the objtcV 
pt" the enquiry, EpiT.J 



278 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

Eswyke, with its appurtenances at Ashbury in Berks, had 
descended. She granted it July 17, 1453, to WaynHete 
and others. It was conveyed by W aynflete to his College 
in 1476. In 1456, the King granted a licence for the 
yielding up of the Priory of Luffield, with its appur- 
tenances, to the president of the hall. The president and 
scholars had purchased, but not in perpetuity, 4 tenements 
belonging to University College ; 2 standing on the east 
side of their hall, the other two between Horse-mull-lane 
and the college. They had likewise hired the Saracen's 
Head of the trustees of a chapel of the Virgin in St. 
Peter's Church, at the yearly rent of £2, These build- 
ings Waynflete was about to demolish to enlarge the site, 
>vhen the recovery of the King and the re-instatement of 
the Lancastrians in power, with the high degree of royal 
favour he enjoyed, enabled him to extend his designs in 
behalf of the needy student and of learning in general. 

Waynflete, weighing the disadvantages of a confined 
spot within the city-walls, where land could not be acquired 
but with great difliculty, and unwilling to leave his foun- 
dation subject to the inconveniences of a limited tenure, 
had conceived a desire of obtaining the Hospital of St. 
John Baptist; meaning, as it afforded a most eligible 
situation, to convert his hall into a college. On his 
explaining his intentions, and the obstacles in his way, the 
King, it IS related, after a gracious hearing, persuaded 
him to give the preference to Cambridge, where he had 
erected his own college, as wishing to amplify that Uni- 
versity. Waynflete reminded him that he had promised 
his permission to convert this hospital to the uses of 
j-eligion and learning ; when, it is said, he replied that 
his piet)' was acceptable to him, and he would contribute 
ds far as was in his power to the forwarding of his plan. 
The necessary steps having been previously taken, the 
master' and brethren directed their attorney, July 5, 1456, 
to deliver seisin of the hospital and its appurtenances to 
the president and scholars of Magdalen Hall. A licence 
■was issued Sept. 27, to yield up the hospital in perpetuity 
to the society of Magdalen Hall ; and Oct. 27, to transfer 
the advowsorj to Waynflete, to whom the King, by letters 
patent of the same date, gives it with the patronage for 
ever. They were also empowered to deliver up the site, 
with all their possessions, to the president and scholars 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 279 

©f the Hall. The royal grant, dated July 18, 1456, 
|)ermitted Waynflete to found a College on certain 
land without East-gate, Oxford, bounded on the east by 
tiie river Cherwill ; on the south by the way leading from 
East-gate to East-bridge ; on the west by that leading 
from East-gate to the fosse called Canditch ; and on the 
north by certain grounds belonging to the parish of Haly- 
well : and also to endow it with of 100. a 3 ear in mortmain. 
The charter of foundation passed the seal in 1457, with 
licences; one for the building of the College, another 
for its being governed by statutes to be provided by 
Waynflete. The permission of the Pope was notified by 
a bull. The Bishop appointed Simon Godmanston and 
others, in Sept. to receive possession of the site of the 
hospital from the president of his hall. He named Will. 
Tybarde, B.D. (principal of Haberdashers' Hall in the 
University of Oxford,) to be president of his College. 
Hornley ceded to him the hospital and hall, and retired 
to Dartford in Kent, where he died and was buried in 
1477. The Bishop made over the site of the hospital to 
Tybarde ; Vyse the master consenting to its union with 
the College, and accepting a yearly pension of £40. To 
each of the chaplains, on -t^ieir quitting, a pension of 
of 10. was assigned. The hospitallers were provided, as 
before, with lodging and diet ; and one of them, John 
Selam, is mentioned as resigning in 1485, Thus the 
new institution was engrafted on the old, and the poor 
were no sufterers. Pilgrims were still entitled to refresh- 
ment, and charity-boys fed with the relics of [rectius from] 
the tables. The foundation and union being confirmed 
by the Pope, Waynflete, June 12, 1458, converted the 
Hospital into a College, The new president was autho-^ 
rized, with 6 fellows, 3 masters of arts, and 3 bachelors, to 
admit other fellows ; and the society of Magdalen Hall 
delivered it up within three days to the College, into 
which the scholars were incorporated by election. 

While the Yorkists renewed their effprts to ruin the 
Lancastrian power, and the two parties continued to 
exercise mutual animosity, the peaceful King found 
consolation in his Chancellor. From kindness, or policy 
perhaps, to withdraw his fruitlesss ©position, or unwil- 
ling assent, to measuies which neither of them approved, 
he sometimes, it is related, would bid the other lords 
attend the council; but detain him to be the companion 



280 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

of his private devotions ; to oflfer up with him, in his 
closet, prayers to God for the common weal,* 

Nov. G, 1459> the illustrious hero Sir John FastolfF, 
who had been long infirm, died of an asthma and fever, 
aged fourscore, at Castre in Norfolk. f His last will, 
dated the day preceding his death, is in the archives of 
Magdalen College.! The Bishop is named first of his 
executors. 

Mistakes have been made respecting the time when 
Waynflete became and ceased to be Chancellor.^ Bud- 
den relates,^ it was the common belief that he was ap- 
pointed as soon as he was a Bishop ; and some have 
continued him near 9 years in office. We have ^een that 
he held the seals only from Oct. 11th. 1456, (35 Henry 
VI.) the 10th year of his consecration, to July 7th. 
1460, about 3 f years. || His conduct in resigning at so 
critical a juncture exposed him to suspicion, calumny, 
and censure. Disloyalty or languor in the cause of Henry 
was imputed to him, or he Mas represented as balancing 
between the two parties, and waiting the issue. He was 
comforted, however, by the entire approbation of his 
royal patron, who in a letter to Pope Pius II., written 
in Nov. following, while he was in custody of the Yorkists, 
bore ample testimony to his innocence, his meritorious 



* " Saepius ob exiniiam ganctimoulam in penetrale regium adhibitiis, 
caeteroque seiiatu super arduis regiii negotiis consilium inituro — Quia 
abite, (inquit pnnceps,)<'g'o interim et cancellarius mens pro-salute reipub" 
4ic£B vola Deo uuiicupabimus. Buddeu, p. 86. 

t See Biog. Brit. Fastolff. Rjiner Acta, printed and MSS. Letters of 
Mr. Anstis in St. James's Chronicle, Oct. 14th, 1780, and Gent.Mag. Jan, 
1781, p. 27. b. 

X The pyxis, or box, inscribed Norfolk et SuJ'olk in genre, contains 
eeveral paj)ers worthy to be consulted. 

§ Budden confutes Polydore Vergil, who says he was a long while ia 
the office : " Is etenim homo propter justitiam'prudentiamque diu Angliae 
cancellarius fuit." Verg. Hist. 1. xxiii. p. 493, fol. Basil. 1570. Buddeu, 

f. 78. Godwin, p. 232, (and Ayliffe,) makes him Chancellor from 1449 to 
458. Wharton, Augl. S. vol. i. p. 318, remarks this mistake of Godwin. 
Spelmau in v. Cancell. sets hira down as Chancellor according to some 28 
Heni-y VF., but with a qucere ; and afterwards 35 Hen. VI. ; and Nevyll 
38 Hen. VI., which is right. Collier s.ays he was several years Chancellor. 
Gale, Hist, and Antiq. of the Cathedral at Winchester, cites the Close 
Rolls, .35 Henry VI. and gives the year 1457. Dugdale makes him Chan- 
cellor from Oct. 11, 1457, to 25th. July, Uf.O. Orig. Jurid. Wharton, as 
also Richardson on Godwin, continue him Chancellor to 25th. July, 1460, 

^ Budden, p. 75. || He was succeeded as Chancellor by Nevyll, 

Eishop of Escter, youngest brother of the Eaii of Warwick. 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 281 

services, and unblemished reputation ; at once furnishing 
a striking instance of his own justice and generosity, and 
of his regard for Waynfiete, who could not fail, on his 
part, to be deeply penetrated with a lively sense of the 
kindness, and the affliction, of so condescending, so be- 
nevolent a master, 

CHAPTER VI. 

Of Bishop fVaynJlete under King Edward IV. during the 

Confinement of King Henry. 

Bishop Longland* related, that Waynfiete " was in 
great dedignation with King Edward, and fled for fere of 
him into secrete corners, but at last was restorid to his 
goodes and the Kinges favour." We are likewise told-j- 
that he suffered much for his loyalty to King Henry ; 
that, by his persuasion, the citizens of Winchester re- 
fused to proclaim Edward or acknowledge him for their 
sovereign ; and that he and they were sentenced to severe 
chastisement; also, that Edward was ever aveise to him. J 
But Budden§ dissents from Leland and Cooper respect- 
ing this conduct of Edward, and affirms that his clemency 
consoled the affliction of Waynflete, who seems rather to 
have changed, than to have lost, his royal patron. That 
a prelate who had enjoyed the friendship and confidence 
of Henry in so eminent a degree as Waynflete, and had 
been so closely connected with the Lancastrian chieftains, 
should be immediately countenanced and favoured by 
Edward, seems more than could be reasonably expected. 
That he should not be persecuted, may appear a tribute 
due to his personal merit and high reputation, as well as 
consonant with the generosity and justice for which the 
youthful conqueror has been celebrated. A dispute had 
subsisted between the Bishop and some of his tenants in 
Hants, especially of the manor of East-raeon, concerning 
certain services, customs, and duties claimed by him. 
The King being in his progress in that country, in Aug, 
146l, was beset by a multitude of them, beseeching him 
to remedy their grievances. Not having leisure then to 



* Leland. Itin. iv. p. 1. 50. 

t Hist, and Antiq. of Winchester, vol. ii. p. 93. Gale, p. 103. 
i Godwin. J ¥■ 81. 



282 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

examine into the matter, &c. he referred the business to 
lawyers, wlio were ordered to make their report to him- 
self and the peers. I'he three sergeants and his attorney 
gave a copious detail of particulars before the Lords 
spiritual and temporal, in the Parliament chamber, Dec. 
14. The Lord Chancellor asking their advice, it was 
determined, that, considering the clear evidence produced 
to establish the claims of the Bishop, he ought not to 
meet with any trouble or contradiction from the tenants, 
■who had failed of showing sufficient cause for the exemp- 
tions which they solicited. The enemies of Waynflete 
were eager, it should seem, as soon as the revolution 
was effected, to stir up complaints against him, and to 
procure him disgrace or mortitication. But we can dis- 
cover no symptom of an hostile disposition in Edward 
toward Waynflete in this transaction. His behaviour is 
wise and temperate, and, with the Peers of that very 
Parliament which attainted HeniT, he forbears to gratify 
any private distaste to his friend by public partiality and 
injustice in a decision on his property. In the following 
year he ratified and confirmed to him and his successors 
the charters and privileges of his See. 

CHAPTER VII. 

Of Bishop JVaynfiete during the Remainder of the Relgii of 

King Edivard IV. 

The extirpation of the Lancastrian party had been 
nearly effected by battles, murders, attainders, exile, and 
the scaffold, when Edward was destined in his turn to be 
for a time m ith Henry, the sport of inconstant fortune. 

The heavens at this sera of public confusion and discord 
seem to have been subject to disorder, as well as the minds 
of men, and to have shed a malign influence on the land. 
Waynflete, regarding physical calamity as a punishment 
of sins calling for repentance, ordered in 1464 (Feb. 8,) 
processions and litanies in his Diocese, to obtain a whole- 
some temperature of the air, with a kindly season for the 
cattle and fruits of the earth, and to avert the reigning 
mortality and pestilence : also in 1467 (Oct. 9,) to 
procure the cessation of a fatal distemper which raged in 
the borough of Southwark and its vicinity, among inno- 
cents and children who had scarcely attained to the use 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 283 

of reason ; on account, it was feared, of the iniquities 
of their fathers : also in 1470, when the country was 
afflicted in an uncommon degree by various kinds of 
disturbances, and by bad air and tempests. Edward was 
then in arms against the Scots, and one suffrage was for 
the prosperity and success of his expedition. Tiie 
Bishop until he was [had been] made Chancellor, had 
held frequent general ordinations, excepting in a few 
instances, in person, at various places in his Diocese ; 
in the Chapels of his manors of Merwell, of Southwark, 
of Waltham, of Esher, of his palace at Wolvesey, in the 
Collegiate Church of St. Elizabeth by Winton, and in 
his Cathedral. But he was then prevented from con- 
tinuing them in the same manner, by multiplicity of 
business, and a constant attendance on the court. It 
appears from his Register that he held four ordinations in 
1457, the year after he was made Lord Chancellor ; one 
at the conventual Church of Mottesfont in April, and 
one at Rumsey in Sept, 1458 ; and in the Chapel of his 
>nanor of South Waltham in Sept. 1480. During the 
above intei-val, and afterwards, his suffragan, William, 
Bishop of Sidon, a Monk of the order of St. Aitstin, 
(who was appointed to the same office by the Archbishop 
of Canterbury in 1468,) perfonned that duty for him 
almost uninterruptedly, for the last time May 20, I486. 
The whole Diocese had experienced the diligence of 
their Bishop in spiritual matters, and especially the 
religious houses, which abounded. His paternal care 
was exerted to reform their abuses, and to restore them, 
if possible, to their primitive purity. When the civil 
tempest was abated, he resumed his wonted attention to 
these affairs. In particular, he had begun an inquisition 
into the state, the morals, life, and conversation of the 
abbot and regulars of the Monastery of St. Peter de 
Hyde near Winchester ; which he continued by commis- 
sions in 1469, a variety of arduous business not pennitting 
his personal presence ; and concluded in 1471 by giving 
the society a set of injunctions for their guidance, and 
by the banishment of the abbot with a pension of ^£'50. a 
year. Waynflete was among the Lords spiritual and 
temporal assembled with other persons of quality in July 
1471, when Edward exacted from them an oath of fealty* 

f Ryraer, t. si. p. 714. 



eS4 WILLIAM WAYNFETE. 

to his infant son, born during his short exile, whom he 
soon after created Prince of Wales as heir-apparent, la 
1472 Pope Sixtus IV. notified to King Edward the send-r 
ing of the red hat designed for the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury (Bourchier) by his predecessor Paul II., who 
had declared him a Cardinal. It was delivered May 31, 
at Lambeth, in the presence of Bishop Stillyngton, Lord 
Chancellor, three other prelates, the suftragan of the 
Archbishop, the prior of Christ-Church, London, the 
Archdeacon of Canterbury, and of many barons, knights, 
and nobles, citizens of London, and venerable persons, 
no solemnity or ceremony being omitted. The mass 
De Sancio Spirilii was celebrated by the Bishop of 
Winchester, who also placed the hat tinged with the 
blood of Christ on the head of the new Cardinal ! ! The 
Bishop, who was always assiduous in the discharge of 
his religious functions, commonly attended the solemnities 
of the order of the Garter. In particular, he was present 
io 1476 (Feb. 27,) when King Edward held a grand 
festival at Windsor in the most royal manner. The 
sovereign with the knights, " being all mounted on horse- 
backe in their habits of blew, rode to the chapiter; from 
thence they went to the quire on foote," and when even- 
song was over, up again to the castle. Waynflete, as 
prelate of the order, performed the service of the day, 
St. George the Martyr, in the Chapel, 

The Bishop continued his attendance on the court. 
He was present with many Lords of the council at Staun- 
ford in 1473, when the great seal was delivered (27th 
July) to the Bishop of Durham, and was frequently with 
the King at other times and places. We havq reason to 
believe that he was well received and in favour, as Edward 
confirmed by charter the grants made to his College by 
King Henry, and added licences of mortmain, with 
other tokens of good will, which met with a grateful 
return on the part of the founder. But this distinction 
was enjoyed without his losing the regard of the Lan- 
castrian party ; and the respect they showed him, prove^ 
that they did not consider it as gained by temporizing 
and by servility. If he suffered not as some other prelates, 
if he was neither imprisoned, exiled, nor attainted for 
his attachment to King Henry, candour will pronounce 
that he was withheld by the natural mildness of his dis- 
position from taking so bold and active a part ; and that 



WILLIAM VVAYNFLETE. 285 

his subsequent security was the result of his age, and of 
a character, in which the virtues of the truly Christian 
Bishop were unmixed and unsullied by the ferocity of 
the warrior and the turbulence of the politician. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Proceedings at Oxford, with the Building and Settling of 
Magdalen College, to the end of tjie Reign of Edio. IV. 

Though public confusion was unfriendly to thp 
designs of Waynflete at Oxford, yet even in this period 
his college had met with benefactors. Thomas Ingledew, 
one of his chaplains of the diocese of York, had given 
M'ith his own hands to the president and perpetual fellows, 
in October J46l, the sum of 763 marks (i'aOS. 13s. 4t/.) 
with which they purchased land and rents to the yearly 
amount of o£'24. sterling, for the augmentation of two 
fellowships, to be filled for ever by clerks born in the 
dioceses ot York and Durham rather than elsewhere ; 
who, within six months after his decease, were to celebrate 
mass for his soul and for that of John Bowyke, clerk ; 
for the souls of his parents, of Elionare Aske and others 
to whom he was obliged ; and the society engaged to pray 
for his soul and that of Bowyke, as benefactors and aiders 
of the college. He gave also certain jewels and books, 
and directed a small distribution of money (one of Id. and 
one ofod.) to the poor, on some paJticular festivals, to be 
made at the college gate. About the same time John 
Forman, one of the bachelor fellows named in the charter 
of Magdalen Hall, and perpetual vicar of Ruston by 
Wakefield in Yorkshire, delivered to the president and 
fellows 100 marks (£66. 13s. 4d.) for the use of the 
college, to be employed on fit, lawful, and honest occa- 
sions ; on condition that they should always have a fellow 
a native of that county ; to be elected by him while living ; 
to be of his family, that is, descended from John his 
father ; or, no such candidate appearing, to be born in or 
near the parishes of Rothwell and Ruston, one his birth- 
place, the other his benefice, to be a priest ; to say mass 
for his soul, and to go several times yearly to sow the 
word about that neighbourhood. The same person gave, 
the year before Waynflete died, (Aug. 13, 1485,) a sum 
of money for a chest, to be called Mutuum Forman, and 



286 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

af-O. for the buying of a parcel of land in Colder. Tlic 
founder had continued his attention to the endowment of 
his college. William de Braiosa had given in 1075 the 
churches of St. Peter at Sele, St. Nicholas at Bramber 
and at Shoreham, with some others in Sussex, to the 
Abbey of St. Florence at Salmur in France. A Convent 
of Benedictine Monks from that Monastery was soon 
after fixed at Sele. This alien priory was made denizen 
in 1396 ; when the charter describes it as founded by the 
ancestors of Thomas Lord Mareschal and Nottingham. 
The grant of it to Waynflete was ratified by John Duke of 
Norfolk, and also by his son, in October, 1451 ; who 
relinquished to him the patronage and advowson. In the 
process for the annexion and appropriation, before the 
delegates of the Bishop of Chichester, in 1469, and of the 
Pope in 1471, John Waynflete was examined as Dean 
and as Arch-deacon, to prove the seals of his chapter and 
of the Bishops of Chichester and Winchester ; and it is 
remarkable, that Dr. William Gyftbrd deposed that the 
founder had admitted several persons to be presidents of 
his college, and that he had been of the number. Pre- 
sident Tybarde and the society made Gyfford, with others, 
their attorney in July, 1474, to take possession. As the 
buildings of the Hospital of St. John were dispersed and 
irregular, and far too small for the reception of the new 
society, Waynflete had resolved to alter and enjarge them, 
to render their form more commodious, and to make the 
additions requisite for the comfort and convenience of a 
collegiate body. His progress had been suspended or 
retarded by his private troubles and the calamities of the 
nation. The return of public tranquillity afforded him 
leisure for a review of his plans : and the valuable See 
which he possessed, with his personal fortune, enabled 
him to carry them into execution. The foundation-stone 
of the college was sanctified May 5, 1474, by the venerable 
father, Robert Toly, Bishop of St. David's, in his pontifi- 
cals, and respectfully deposited in its place, the middle of 
the high altar, by President Tybard. The quarry of 
Hedington, which had been discovered in the reign of 
Henry III. was now in higher repute than that of Hinxey, 
and from it the stone for the edifice was taken. We find 
Waynflete contracting with William Orchyerd, the prin- 
cipal mason, in 1475, 1478, and the following year, for 
finishing the tower over the gate-way with a pyramid I6 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 287 

feet high above the level of the gutter ; for crowning the 
walls of the chapel and halt with niched battlements; for 
a coping to these and the library ; for completing the 
chambers, cloisters, and other imperfect portions of the 
fabric ; -and for fashioning the great window of the cha}>el, 
with the windows of the chambers, after the model of All 
Souls. King Edward was now building his chapel at 
Windsor. Some friends of the University of Oxford 
made an offer to finish the divinity-school, which had been 
founded by the munificence of Duke Humphrey, but 
from want of money was not completed. In JSIarch, 
1475, the Chancellor (Dr. Chaundler) and convocation 
represented to the King in an humble address, that they 
could not proceed on this important business, which had 
been suspended near 60 years, because all the stone- 
masons were engaged for his magnificent works ; that, if 
it was deferred, they were apprehensive of losing by death 
those liberal patrons who had undertaken to defray the 
expense ; that, seeing his ardour in erecting a fabric to 
the glory of God, they did not dare to request him for any 
of his men ; but, as he had granted some to the Bishop 
of Winchester, asked only the royal permission to use such 
as they could prevail on him to spare. The King, as 
also Waynflete, whom they solicited by letter, complied 
with the desire of the University, Some writere have 
mentioned Waynflete as Chancellor of Oxford, and 
Budden agrees with them as to the fact, but is unable to 
ascertain the time when, the public records being dissipated 
through the neglect of certain persons. Others have made 
him fill the office about the year of his advancement to 
the prelacy ; but that it was not occupied by him then, has 
been proved by A. Wood ; and it seems to have escaped 
observation, that letters are addressed to him by the 
chancellor. The post at this period was commonly pos- 
sessed by some academic resident in the university. Dr# 
Chaundler continued Chancellor from 1457 to 146l, 
when he was succeeded by Bishop Nevyll. He was 
Chancellor again in 1472, and remained until 1479, 
when he resigned on account of his age. 

The scholars which had remained in Magdalen Hall 
removed with the president to the College, before the 
Chapel was finished ; and the society made use of the 
oratory of the hospital for their place of worship. The 
Hall Oil their quitting it resumed its old name of Bostar 



2S8 . WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

Hall ; was for a while inhabited by academics ; then let 
to a tailor; and in 1482 granted by the College, with 
the garden, on lease to a vintner and another tenant for 
81 years, at the annual rent of '26s. 8d. The society 
had before celebrated divine service in the parish Church 
of St. Peter's in tbe East. On their translation to the 
hospital, the vicar and patron of Merton College laid 
claim to tithes, to the privilege of administering tho> 
sacramental and funeral rites, and of receiving dues and 
oblations withm its precincts, as being in that parish ; 
and, after some demur, it was agreed to settle (April 
10, 1480) a yearly pension of 26a-. Sd. on the vicar for 
ever, in lieu of all demands. It was the ciesire of Wayn- 
flete, that his College, founded at a great expense, might 
be exempted with the inclosure from the jurisdiction of 
the Bishop of Lincoln, and in future be subject to. 
that of the Bishop of Winchester. The Bishop com- 
plied with his request (6th July 1480,) after carefully 
treating with the dean and chapter ; considering his 
devout intention in it as useful to Mother Church, and 
expedient for the quiet study of the president and scholars. 
A. bull of approbation was obtained from the Pope, 
which also confirmed the proceedings under his prede- 
cessor. Waynflete soon after constituted his successors 
in his See the visitors of his College and interpreters of 
his statutes; and the Pope by a decree rendered the 
office of president compatible with any other ecclesiastical 
benefices with and without cure, and with any dignities ; 
their emoluments to be enjoyed without obligation to 
residence. The society of Magdalen College had been 
governed 21 years without statutes in an honourable and 
laudable manner by president Tybarde. The scattered 
members being collected into one body, the founder 
resolved to furnish it with a code of laws, the ground- 
work taken, as for King Henry's Colleges, from the in- 
stitutes of Wykeham. Master Richard Mayew, S.T.P. 
then lately fellow of New College, whom WaynHete had 
appointed to be his first sworn president, arrived at 
Magdalen College Aug. 23, 1480. The venerable 
Tybarde received him most politely, with Mil love, honour, 
and respect, and the same day resigned his office. The 
next day Dr. Mayew delivered, in the great hall of the 
College, a short oration exhorting to unity and peace, 
grounded on Gal, vi. 2 : " Alter alterius onera portate ;" 



WILLIAM WAYNELETE. • 289 

and took the oath prescribed by the founder, in the 
l)resence of all the masters and bachelors of the College 
then in the University. After this ceremony, he produced 
letters mandatory for the receiving and humbly obeying 
him as president ; aud also certain statutes concerning 
the state of the College, and the good government of the 
scholars. At the same time, Mr. Richard Bernys, who 
had been previously admitted perpetual fellow by the 
founder, was received as vice president ; and Mr. Will. 
Colett as bursar ; being the first to whom the oath of 
their offices was administered. 

The baneful effects of civil discord had been severely 
felt by the liberal sciences in general. Grammar-learning 
in particular had languished to such a degree, that the 
University of Oxford, apprehensive of its total extinction, 
and of the consequent invasion of barbarism, had solicited 
the Bishop of Lincoln, their Diocesan, to interpose in 
its behalf, and to afford it encouragement. Waynflete 
had already appeared as a patron of this study. He 
knew it was idle to provide for the nurture of the plant, 
and to expect the produce, if the seed was not sown. 
From the Easter preceding the arrival of his new presi- 
dent, he had employed a master and usher to teach 
gt'atis, at his expense, in a certain low hall within the 
College, on the south side of the chapel ; part of the 
old building or hospital ; and, it should seem, under the 
Chapel of St. John, to which was an ascent by stairs. 
It was his design to erect an edifice nearth^ College-gate, 
with certain chambers and lodghigs for a master and 
usher over it, and with a kitchen adjoining for its use ; 
which was begun Aug. 1480, in the first month and year 
of president Mayew ; Mr. Bernys being appointed prefect 
or overseer. The grammar-school was translated to it 
when finished ; and the low hall, then unoccupied, was 
converted into an alms-house. Sept. 20, 1481, the 
Bishop repaired to Oxford, to supervise the state of his 
society and the new buildings ; taking with him the deeds 
or writings of several manors and estates belonging to it. 
He was respectfully received into his College with a 
procession by the president and scholars, not only as 
founder, but as their ordinary and visitor. The president, 
after his entry, addressed to him a thesis or proposition, 
and short congratulatory oration on his arrival, to the 
praise, honour, and glory, of Almighty God, and on tlie 

u 



290 . WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

magnificence of his name and works. On the 22nd, 
W aynflete set out for Woodstock, where King Edward, 
of his own accord and of his special favour, promised 
him to visit his new College in the evening, and to pass 
the night there. After sunset he entered the parish; of 
St. Giles with a multitude of men, innumerable torches 
burning before him. The Chancellor, Mr. *Lionel 
Wydevyle, brother to the Queen, and successor of Dr. 
Chaundler, with the masters regent and non-regent, 
received him honourably without the University, and 
escorted him to Magdalen College. He was there 
received in like manner, and introduced by Waynflete, 
the president and scholars in procession. With him 
came the Bishops of Chichester, Ely, and Rochester, 
the Earl of Lincoln, Lord High Treasurer, Lord Stanley, 
Lord Dacre of Sussex, Sir Thomas Barowyg, Knt. and 
many other nobles ; who all met with an honourable 
reception from the founder, and passed the night in the 
College. This year (1481) the union of a Hospital OF 
Chantry at Roniney in Kent with the College was com- 
pleted. The Hospital had been foundedfor lepers by 
Adam de Cherring, in the time of Baldwin, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, or between the years 1184 and llQl, in 
honour of St. Stephen and St. Thomas Becket. In 
1363, it being decayed and forsaken, John Frauncys-, 
then patron, re-established there a master and one priest. 
Waynflete possessed half of the right to present to the 
Chapel, with all lands, tenements, meadows, and appur- 
tenances of the moiety, as long before as 1459; and 
also of the whole right of John Fraes, Thomas Hoo^ 
and Alexander Altham in the Hospital. He probably 
became the sole proprietor by purchase. It is related 
by Leland, that he had been informed on testimony 
deserving credit, that ** a good part of the buildings of 
Eton College accrued by means and at the expense of 
Waynflete ; for he was a very great favourer of the work 
begun by King Henry, but left very onperfect and rauly." 
We have evidence to corroborate the assertion. He 
appears an annual contributor to the fabric as early as 
the year 1449. He agreed with Orgard, or Orchyerd, 



[* Afterwards Bishop of Salisbury. — See Cassan's Lives of the Bishops 
of that See, Pt. 1. 260. p.J 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 291 

for the digging of a sufficient quantity of stone at Hed- 
ington, to be delivered within a limited time, for the 
use of Eton and of his own College. He also contracted 
for lead for Eton in 1482. The same year (25th July) 
Mr, Berne, his vice-president, paid by his order for the 
carriage of stone for the Chapel there from the revenue 
of Magdalen. It was probable that the stone-work of 
both Colleges was nearly finished, as the quarry at 
Hedington Mas let to a mason in 1482. Dr. Mayew 
returned from the founder July 18, 1482, with certain 
ordinances and statutes ; particularly the statute concern- 
ing the election of scholars to a year of probation and 
admission to be actual fellows ; on M'hich the scholars, 
to whom he confided them, deliberated during the 19th. 
On the next day he admitted 20 actual and perpetual 
fellows. Then also the first deans were elected, with 
the unanimous consent of all the seniors of the College ; 
Mr. William Rydall, dean of divinity ; Mr. Thomas 
Kerver and Mr. William Fell, deans of the faculty of 
arts. The president, vice-president, and three deans 
next proceeded, as the founder and the statutes had 
directed, to the election of middle commoners, vulgarly 
called demies, which lasted three days. On the 26th. 
the president and all the fellows proceeded to elect 
scholars to a year of probation. An oath, as the statute 
enjoined, was required from all who were chosen. The 
restriction of fellowships and demyships to particular 
counties and dioceses took place, it is apprehended, at 
this time. The only qualifications before required for a 
demyship were, to be versed in grammar, in logic, and 
in plain chant. The number of fellows and demys was 
not yet fixed. Sixteen masters and 5 bachelors of arts 
were elected probationers. At the admission of demies, 
July 28, 18 who had attained to their l6th year were 
sworn ; and all these had been of the College before, 
in commons, without the oaths and statutes. Their counties 
are specified. The first sworn was Nicholas Tycheborn 
of Hants. Seven were admitted but not sworn, being 
under age; and 4 nominated but not admitted. The 
same year (1482) was remarkable for a disturbance, 
created at the election of proctors for the University by 
the regent masters of Magdalen College. Waynflete, 
whose interposition was required, directed that the smaller 
should be directed by the larger party. Those who 

2u 



292 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

refused to submit to the majority and their decision, were, 
after due deliberation, dismissed from the society in 
consequence of his letter ; and the Register adds, that 
this conduct of the president and masters was highly 
agreeable to the founder. The same letter, with the 
statute which directs how dissensions should be pacified, 
was again taken into consideration by the president, 
officers, and 6 seniors assembled in the hall, in 1488; 
when they made a decree, that in future no fellow or 
scholar should labour, or be in any way concerned, in 
obtaining the proctorship for himself or another without 
the consent of the president, or, in his absence, of the 
vice-president, and a majority of the masters : under the 
penalty of immediate expulsion, in case of perseverance 
after an admonition to desist. In the following year. 
King Edward distressed by the situation of his affairs 
foreign and domestic, fell into a deep melancholy. He 
died April Qth, 1482, and was buried the 19th. His 
body was conveyed from Westminster to Eton, where it 
was received by the procession of Windsor. It was 
censed at the castle-gate by the Archbishop of York, 
and by the Bishop of Winchester, who was also present, 
with divers great persons, when his eifects were seques- 
tered by the Archbishop of Canterbury, his executors 
not administering to his will. The body was discovered 
in March 1 789, in repairing the choir of St. George's 
Chapel at Windsor. 

CHAPTER IX. 

Proceedings at Oxford in the time of King Richard III.} 
tvith the Building of the Chapel and School-house at 
IVaynfletCy Lincolnshire. 

It was affirmed and believed of King Richard III,, 
by the multitude, that he had stabbed Prince Edward 
after the battle of Tewksbury, had assassinated King Henry 
in his bed, and had compassed the destruction of the 
Duke of Clarence, his own brother. He had besides 
recently usurped the throne, not without bloodshed ; and 
had shut up the young King Edward V. and the Prince, 
his nephews, in the Tower. He was, however, as yet 
guiltless of their murder, when he resolved to visit 
Magdalen College on his way to Gloucester. The 
Bishop repaired to Oxford July 22, to provide for the 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 293 

entertainment of King Richard III., and to supervise 
the state of his College and its buildings. The Chan- 
cellor, Wyd^vyle, now Bishop of Salisbury,* with the 
masters regent and non-regent, respectfully met the King 
Avithout the University on his approach from Windsor, 
July 24. He was afterwards honourably received and 
conducted in procession into Magdalen College by the 
founder, his president, and scholars ; and there passed 
the night, as also that of the day following. The founder 
tarried at his College after the departure of the King, 
and delivered to the society his statutes in a body, still 
subject to his revisal, additions, and alterations. The 
original book was deposited by his order in a chest, in 
the upper room of a tower which he had constructed as 
a place of security. Copies were provided for the 
president and for the officers, who were to receive them 
yearly on their admission, with certain keys, from him. 
One, probably that reserved by Waynflete for his own 
use, was transmitted to his successors in the See of 
Winchester until the vacancy made by Bishop Home ; 
when, it being lost through negligence, president Bond 
in 1596 provided a new transcript to replace it ; which 
has been superseded by another of more recent date, 
being attested by the officers of the College Aug. 20, 
1720. Of the control exercised by the founder over 
the statutes an instance occurs in the same year. He 
had ordained that any fellow, obtaining peaceably an 
ecclesiastical benefice more than ]2 marks in value, 
should be obliged either to relinquish it or to quit the 
College at the end of a year from the time. A kind 
regard to the merits of master Williajn Fell, and to the 
entreaties of his friends, induced Irim to permit his 
retaining a benefice to which he had been promoted, 
together with the College, for jone year more after 
resignation, a new presentation, and real peaceable 
possession ; declaring, however, that, according to the 
statute and his intention, he could have, and had, no 
right to hold it with the College, even after a resignation 
and new presentation made within the year : and this 
exposition of the statute he directs to be observed in 



• He was made Bishop while at Curaiior in 1482. A Wood, p. 4U5. 
ISee his Life iu Cassaii's Lives of the Bi«hops of Salls<btii y.J 



'i94 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

future. The public seal was occasionally set to ihstru- 
ments by his mandate. 

The Bishop possessed certain lands and tenements 
at Waynflete, which William Aulekar and Richard Ben- 
nington had devised to him by will, May 19, 1475, (15 
Edw. IV.) He was desirous, by planting grammar 
learning in the place of his nativity, to extend it in the 
northern provinces of the kingdom ; and resolved to erect 
there a school and chapel, as he had done near his 
College. He employed master John Gigur, warden of 
Merton College, Oxford, and of the College atTateshale, 
Lincolnshire, to procure a site and to contract with 
workmen for the building; and the indenture for the 
carpentry is dated April 25, 1484, (1 Ric. III.) He 
conveyed to the same person the properly before men- 
tioned, to be made over by him to the president and 
scholars of Magdalen for the endowment. This amounted 
to c£lO. a year in land, as we are told by Leland ; the 
sum assigned to the head-master for his salary, by Wyke- 
ham at Winchester, &c. In 1484 the advowson of the 
parsonage of Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, and of Fin- 
don, Sussex, was vested in Waynflete by the Earl of 
Notyngham, on condition that he and Johanna his wife 
should, while living, have daily participation of all the 
prayers and suffrages to be used in the Chapel of the 
College ; that intercession should be made for ever for 
their souls, for that of Thomas, late Lord Berkeley, and 
those of James and Isabella his parents ; also, that on 
the decease of the Earl, or his wife, the president and 
scholars should, at a convenient time after the knowledge 
of it, keep solenmly on the morrow an Obit De placebo 
and Dirige and mass De requiem, per notam. Learning 
had long been chiefly in the possession of ecclesiastics, 
and the lay lawyers, it should seem, still laboured under 
the imputation of ignorance ; for the margin of the 
College Register informs us that this agreement was not 
drawn by the lawyers of the founder, but of the Earl ; 
and adds, " Igitur noli miraride Latinitate." Waynflete, 
as Bishop of Winchester, was patron of the priory of 
Selebmn, Hants, founded by Peter de Rupibus in 1233 
for canons regular of the order of St. Austin.* Wykeham 



[See p. 161 of this work for the Life of Bisliop Rock.— Edit.] 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 295 

in 1387 had endeavoured to make these monks conform 
to their institution; but they neglected his ordinances, 
relapsed into their former bad conduct, were again re- 
duced in number, and had suflrefed such manifest uiin 
and notorious dilapidation on their premises, that in 1462 
Waynflete sequestered the revenues to repair the priory and 
its appurtenar>ces. He continued to labour, after the ex- 
ample of Wykeham,to restore and uphold the convents but 
the society dwindled away ; no prior or other canon 
regular, incorporated, was resident there ; the neglect of 
the rules of the order and of religion had occasioned great 
scandal ; and in a multitude of instances the rents and 
profits were applied to the uses of laymen. The Bishop, 
full of pastoral solicitude, and of pious compassion for 
the founder Peter de Rupibus, had been diligent, as he 
tells us, in his own person and by his officers to remedy 
the evil. He had punished the mal-adrainistration of 
some priors by removing them, and had appointed 
governors iu whose care and circumspection he could, 
confide. His exertions had produced so little effect, that, 
considering the badness of the times, as he informs us, 
and from what was passed, fearing and anticipating the 
future, he was led utterly to despair of the possibility of 
establishing there again, either the order of St. Austin 
or any other, so as to answer the intention of Peter de 
Rupibus. Such being the situation of the convent and 
its visitor, it was resolved, on a petition of the president 
and scholars of Magdalen representing the insufficiency 
of their revenues for their maintenance, to annex the 
foundation to the College. The Bishop, with the con- 
currence of the chapter of Winton, directed commissaries 
in Sept. 1484 to confirm the appropriation to them, so 
that, on the cession or vacancy of the priorship, they 
might enter on the premises, by their attorney. The 
process, probably from some flaw, was repeated in 1485, 
when the society of Magdalen consisted of a president, 
80 scholars, l6 choristers, and 13 servitors. It remained 
to obtain the sanction of the Pope ; and the agent at 
Rome met with difficulty, from a plea, that the ordinary 
not having power to unite a regular with a secular 
benefice, the College had not been entitled to receive 
the income of the priory, but nuist refund it into the 
apostolic chamber. The same demand was made for 
tiie Chapel of Wanborough. The business was pro- 



296 WILLIAM WxVYNFLETE. 

traded till June I486', a few weeks before the death of 
Wayutiete, when the buUe was issued. The society 
afterwards maintained iheie a chantry-priest, to say 
masses for the souls of all the benefactors of the Priory 
and College, and of all the faithful defunct. He was 
allowed two chambers adjoining to the chapel, w ith con- 
veniences for his residence, and a clerk to assist at the 
altar and in the superintendency of their possessions. A 
transaction which met with no opposition at home, and 
was generally approved of at the time, has been men- 
tioned by a writer or two of this age in a manner that 
conveys on oblique censure on the Bishop. We are 
told that he got the priory settled on his College, though 
the founder had carefully forbidden such alienation : but 
we are not told, what is equally true, that the institution 
of Peter de Rupibus, after languishing for a long period, 
had finally expired ; and tiiat the revenues of his priory, 
if they had not been appropriated to a college, must 
have been diverted to some other, probably to a more 
unworthy purpose. Add too, that his principal end in. 
the endowment, which was to have the benefit of masses 
and prayers for his soul, and which had been frustrated 
at Seleburn, was better answered and secured by the 
transfer to Magdalen College, where they continued to 
be celebrated until the Reformation, and where Peter 
de Rupibus is still commemorated. We may further 
remark here, that it has been asked, [by A. Wood.] " who 
has ever blamed Chicheley, Waynfete, and other excellent 
men and munificent founders, for erecting and endowing 
their colleges on the ruins, and with the spoils of the 
alien monasteries which had been confiscated ?" Wayn- 
flete, it is apprehended, is introduced without reason, not 
having been, as far as I have discovered, of that number. 

CHAPTER X. 
Of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

The scandalous lives of the monastic clergy, were a 
topic largely insisted on by Wickliffe and his followers. 
The visitations of his diocese by Waynflete as ordinary, 
had furnished him with evidence of their bad conduct, and 
its influence on his mind is explained by his own pen. 
(Lib. Statut. in fine.) He relates, that he had carefully 
inspected the traditions of the ancient fathers, and the 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. S97 

various approved rules of the saints ; and that he had been 
grieved, on a survey of their numerous professors, to find 
the institutions were no longer observed, as formerly, 
according to the intention of the founders ; that, dis- 
turbed on this account, he had seen clearly, it were better 
for him to dispense his temporal goods with his own hands 
to the poor, than to appropriate and coniirm them in 
perpetuity to the uses of the imprudent, bringing danger 
on the souls of many by their violating his ordinances : 
but after long wavering, and most devoutly invoking the 
divine assistance, he resolved to establish, by royal and 
apostolic authority, one perpetual College, to be called 
St. Mary Magdalen College, in the University of Oxford, 
for poor and needy scholars, clerks ; who should be 
required to study, and make proficiency in divers sciences 
and faculties ; to the praise and glory and honour of 
Christ, his virgin-mother, the blessed St. Mary Magdalen, 
St. John Baptist, the apostles Peter and Paul, St. 
Swithun the Confessor, and the other saints, patrons of the 
Cathedral of Winchester, and of all saints ; for the main- 
tenance and exaltation of the Christian faith, &c. Wayn». 
flete expended a considerable sum on the embattled wall 
now inclosing the grove, the alterations of the hospital, 
and the fabric of his college ; which has undergone some 
changes in a long series of years, not to mention the 
additional buildings ; but still exists a curious monument 
of the age in which it was erected. The portal or grand 
entrance of the quadrangle is decorated with the statues 
of the two founders of the hospital and college ; and of 
their patron-saints : Waynflete kneeling in prayer ; King 
Henry III. ; Mary Magdalen ; and St. John Baptist. 
These all again occur, in small but elegant figures, over 
the great or western door of the chapel ; Wayntiete kneel- 
ing as before, and as he is represented on the seals of the 
hall and college ; with Bishop Wykeham on his right 
hand, (which is remarkable,) and Mary Magdalen in the 
middle. On each side of the chapel-door, near the 
cloister, is an angel carved in relievo, holding a scroll, 
with characters painted and gilded ; one with the motto of 
tile founder, 

fiecit mihi magna qui potens est! 
the other with a passage from Gen. xxviii. 17. 
Hie est domus Dei et porta celij 



298 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

which was formerly exhibited by an angel in like manner 
near the entrance of the chapel at New College. In the 
centre of the arch of the stone-roof by this door is a small 
figure of an aged Bishop in his pontificals, with a cross 
raised in his left hand, the fingers of his right disposed 
according to the usage of the Romish church in giving the 
benediction. He is between two angels with wings, such 
as may be seen supporting the arms of Waynflete in the 
cloister, by the library, and in various other places. 
Portraits or busts of Kings and Bishops, now disregarded 
and without a name, adorn the inside of the chapel and 
hall. Grotesque or emblematical figures are disposed 
round the quadrangle. The spouts, roofs, windows, and 
doors, have their carved work. Towards the street is a 
monk in a cowl. Among the armorial bearings are the 
royal, the rose with a radiated sun or star, the plume of 
ostrich feathers, the portcullis, and those of the See of 
Winchester and of the founder. The initials of his name 
(W.W.^ occur in cypher; and his favourite lilies are 
frequently introduced. The magnificence as well as the 
piety of Waynflete was displayed in the chapel. The 
windows, after the fashion which had prevailed from 
the time of Henry IV., were adorned with portraits and 
painting on the glass. It was rich in missals, manuals, 
martyrologies, antiphonaries, and books of devotion, 
some finely ornamented ; in crosses gilded or set with 
precious stones, some inclosing a portion of the real 
wood ; \risum teneaiis ?] in chalices, of which one was 
given by president Mayew, and another by T. Ker\'er; and 
in all sorts of sacred utensils, many valuable for the 
materials and of curious workmanship ; in copes and 
sacerdotal vestments, some of damask, velvet, and gold 
tissue, of various colours, decorated with pearls, and 
embroidered, some with the arms of Waynflete, some with 
lilies and other flowers, with birds, animals, [beasts] and 
devices; with images representing angels and holy persons, 
the crucifixion, and scriptural stories ; besides canopies, 
curtains, standards, streamers, linen, and a multiplicity 
of articles used by the Romish Church in great abun- 
dance for the high altar, and the altars in the nave of 
the chapel, in all six ; and for the chapel of the president, 
Tvv'o inventories of these sacred eff"ects are extant ; an(J 
mention is made of oblations before the image of St, 
Mary Magdalen, which probably graced the high altar. 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 299 

The society was finally fixed to consist of a president ; 
40 scholars, clerks, including the 3 stipulated for by 
Ingledew and Forman ; 30 scholars, commonly called 
Demies, because they were originally admitted to half- 
commons; 4 presbyters, chaplains; 8 clerks, and l6 
choristers ; besides servants and other dependants. The 
schoolmaster and usher were to be allowed each a yearly 
stipend of lOOs., besides chambers and weekly commons. 
A person was to be hired to teach the choristers. A 
clerk of accounts was to be provided and agreed with by 
the president and bursars. Bailiffs were to be appointed 
who lived on the manors, and had frequent opportunities 
of seeing the lands and tenements. The two porters 
were to be likewise barbers, and to shave diligently the 
president and the other members of the college ; and in 
the old account-books charges occur for the necessary 
implements. To perpetuate the number of 40, VVaynflete 
directed the vacancies to be filled annually with bachelors 
or masters of arts, competently skilled in plain chant, 
having the first clerical tonsure, fit and disposed for the 
priesthood; to which every master, if not S.C.L. or M., 
was to proceed within the year after the completion of 
his regency, unless some legal impediment subsisted. 
The masters promoted to the priesthood were speedily to 
be instructed in tlie devout celebration of mass. They 
were forbidden, while coUegiates, to perform it elsewhere 
by way of annual service, or to accept of any stipend ; 
but with permission, to serve the cure of Horspath near 
Oxford, and to receive for officiating at it in tire chapel. 
The succession of 40 he annexed to certain dioceses and 
counties, from which the candidates were to be chosen 
to a year of probation before they could be admitted real 
fellows. From the diocese of Winton, 5 ; county of 
Lincoln, 7 ; ditto Oxford, 4 ; ditto Berks, 3; diocese of 
Norwich, 4; ditto Chichester, 2 ; county of Gloucester, 
2 ; ditto VV arwick, 2 ; from London and from the 
counties of Bucks, Kent, Nottingham, Essex, Somerset, 
Northampton, Wilts, each 1; from the county of York 
1, and from the diocese of York and Durham, 2. The 
30 scholars or demies, were to be chosen not under 12 
years of age, with a preference first to the parishes and 
piaces, and next to the counties, in which the college 
should have possessions acquired in his lifetime. 



300 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

CHAPTER XI. 
To the Death of JVaynfiete. 

The life of Waynflete, and the miseries arising from 
civil discord, were now hastening to a conclusion. He 
had been employed in establishing and watching over his 
favourite institution at Oxford above 37 years. He had 
settled his society under a governor whose conduct he 
approved ; and had given it statutes which he knew to be 
calculated for the advancement of its welfare and reputa- 
tion, and for the increase of religion and learning, to 
the praise and glory of God. He was now far stricken 
in years, and unwilling or unable to attend to public 
business. As was the custom of the Bishops of Win- 
chester, and of other great persons, he had hitherto 
frequently changed the places of his residence ; removing 
with his numerous retainers, to his various castles or 
mansions, as suited with the season, their stores of 
provision, his convenience, or inclination, until Dec. 
1485 ; when he repaired from Southwark to South- 
Waltham, where he did not survive to the fullilling the 
treaty cf marriage between the two houses, which diffused 
joy and consolation over the whole realm. An epistle 
addressed to him in this year, is prefixed to a book 
entitled ''Triumphus Amoris D. N. Jesu Christi." now 
among the unprinted MSS. in the library at Lambeth. 
The author was Lawrence William de Savona, one of 
the friars minors in London, and D.D., who compiled a 
a new rhetoric at Cambridge in 1478, which was printed 
at St. Alban's in 1480. It contains an eulogy on Wayn- 
flete and on his college. The writer expatiates particularly 
on his bounty, of which he tells us the poor had daily 
and large experience at divers places, at his splendid 
mansions and at churches ; and affirms, that his prudence 
and wisdom, generosity, clemency, and compassion, were 
every where and generally extolled by the people. 
Mention is made of the venerable grey hair of the Bishop. 

Waynflete prepared for his departure out of this life, 
with the dignity and calm composure of integrity and 
a good conscience. Among his worldly concerns, his 
college still occupied a principal portion of his care ; 
and Dr. Mayew was often with him, as he had been 
before he finally left London. In various matters, which 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE, 30i 

for some reason or othe,r were postponed, he declared 
his mind and pleasure to him, to be fulfilled by the 
society after his decease. The M^ar between the houses 
of York and Lancaster had produced 1^ pitched battles, 
in which 80 peisons of royal lineage, and 90,000 men 
had perished. Many had been the noble sutferers by 
attainder, confiscation, exile, and tlie scaffold ; many 
the tragical incidents and vicissitudes of fortune, witnessed 
during a long life by Waynflete. Even the recent and 
grateful triumph of King Henry, was attended with 
sorrow for the bloodshed, for the slain, for the captured, 
or the fugitive acquaintance and friend. We cannot 
wonder if, worn with affliction and age, he wished for a 
speedy release from the burthen. April 27, I486, he 
received, says Budden, something as it were of a divine 
impression or admonition, not unlike that of the Prophet 
Hezekiah, 2 Kings, v. ]. " Set thine house in order, 
for thou shall die, and not live." His will is dated on 
that day at South-Waltham. Will. — In the preamble 
he declares, that he was panting for the life to come, 
and perceived the day of his expectation in this 
valley of tears arrived as it were at its eve, and the time 
of his dissolution near at hand. He bequeaths his soul 
to Almighty God, the Virgin, Mary Magdalen, and the 
patron-saints of his Cathedral ; and directs that his body 
should be buried in the tomb which he had provided for 
it, in a Chapel of the Blessed Mary Magdalen, in his 
Church of Winchester. He then leaves for the celebra- 
tion of his exequies, on the day of his sepulture, and 
on the trental of his obit, as follows, the money to be 
distributed by equal portions, viz. To the Prior of the 
Convent of Winchester, besides a cup and cover gilded, 
40s. ; to each of the Monks, if a priest, 13s. 4c?. : if not, 
3s. 4d. To the Abbot of Hyde, J 3s. 4d.; to each of 
the Monks, if a priest, 6s. 8d. : if not, 3s. 4c?. To the 
Abbess of the Monastery of St. Mary Wynton, 13s. 4c?. ; 
to each Nun, if professed, 2s. : if not, Is. 4d. To the 
Warden of the College at Winchester, 6s. 8c?. ; to each 
Priest, 2s.; to each clerk. Is. 4c?. ; to each boy, 4c?. ; and 
for two pittances* for the fellows and boys, 20s. To 



• Pittances : allowauces on particular occasions over and above the 
common provisions. 



302 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

the Master of the Hospital of St. Cross, 6s. Sd,; to 
each Priest, 2s. ; to each Clerk of the Chapel, Is. 4rf, 
To the religious of the order of St. Austin at Wynton, of 
minors, of predicants, and to the Carmelites, to each 
26s. Sd. To each Priest, with or without cure, belonging 
to the city and soke, 2s. ; and to each Clerk of a parish. 
Is. The place where these should celebrate his exequies 
to be appointed by his executors. To the President of 
his College, 6s. 8c?. ; to each Fellow, Scholar, and 
Chaplain, 2s.; to each Clerk of the Chapel, Is. 4d.; to 
each Chorister, Is. The same to New College, Oxford. 
He bequeaths to Joan Welby, widow of Richard Welby, 
a handsome silver cup and cover, gilded. To be dis- 
tributed among the poor on the day of his burial, and on 
the trental of his obit, at least .£160. 13s. 4d. His 
executors to cause 5,000 masses, in honour of the five 
wounds of Christ, and the five joys of the Virgin Mary, 
to be celebrated on the day of his burial, the trental of 
his obit, and other days, for his soul, and the souls of 
his parents and friends. A distribution of money to be 
made among his domestics according to the codicil. All 
his manors, lands, and tenements, not belonging to his 
Church, but obtained otherwise, to be given by his 
feoffees, and applied entirely to the perpetual use of his 
College; the manor of Sparsholt only excepted. He 
beseeches his executors, and requires them in the bowels 
of Christ, to consider favourably the necessity of his 
College, and to relieve it from his effects according to 
their ability. He appoints John Catesby, justice of the 
King's Bench, Master William Gyfford,* Rector of 
Cheryton, Mychael Cleve, doctor of decrees, Master 
John JNele, Master Stephen Tyler, Rector of Alverstoke, 
William H olden. Rector of DrokynfFord, and Richard 
Burton of Taunton, his executors. To the first he 
bequeaths, in recompence of his trouble, £0,6. 13s. 4c?.; 
to the others, each £l3. 6s. 8d. He directs the residue 
of his goods to be disposed of by his executors, with the 
consent of the majority, among the poor ; in pious and 
devout uses ; and, especially, in aid of the necessities of 
his College ; in masses and in alms-deeds for the salvation 



* W. Gyfford and W. Holden to take possession by letter of attorney 
for the College of all donations, 6ic. of triends!, benetactors, and of the 
founder. 1 Henry VII. 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. SOS 

of his soul, and of the souls of his parents and friends. 
The codicil comprises his Chaplains, Officers, and 
servants of every denomination, in all 125 persons; and 
the amount of his bequeaths to them is considerable. 
This year, (I486,) which was the last of his life, affords 
an instance of his attention to merit, and of his dispens- 
ing with his statutes to reward it. He had noticed, when 
at his College, the good and virtuous disposition of a 
chaplain who had been long there, and was of a county 
and diocese from which scholars could not be chosen. 
In obedience to a letter from him, Hewster was admitted 
at the ensuing election to a year of probation, and on 
the same day to be perpetual fellow. 

The Bishop appears to have possessed a robust con- 
stitution, and to have long enjoyed almost uninterrupted 
health. He now fell suddenly into a grievous disease, 
which, in the figurative language of Dr. Budden, creep- 
ing and stealing through his limbs and marrow, got into 
the citadel of his heart, and so entirely overcame him as 
to bring on a speedy dissolution. He died on Friday the 
] 1th. of August, I486, at 4 p.m. His disorder, of which 
the account is obscure, seems to have begun in the ex- 
tremities. Its inroad was gradual, and it seized on his 
vitals by insensible degrees, as we are told ; for he was 
able, as is proved by his Register, to give institution to a 
living on the same day. The body was removed to Win- 
chester with great funeral pomp, and, after the usual 
solemnity, deposited in the tomb within the chapel of 
St. Mary Magdalen in the cathedral, according to the 
directions in his will. It has been observed that three 
successive Prelates held this Bishopric 1 19 years, the 
time between the consecration of Wykeham and the death 
of Waynflete. The last had it 38 years, ( I year less than 
Wykeham, and 3 than Beaufort,) according to Budden, 
who computes from his installation, which was on August 
SO, 1448; or 39 years, if we follow Godwin. He was 
elected, we have seen, on April 15, 1447, and consecrated 
July 13 following. The See continued vacant until Jan. 
29, 1487, when Courtney, Bishop of Exeter, was trans- 
lated to it by a bulle of Pope Innocent. 

Character. — Humane and benevolent in an uncommon 
degree, he appears to have had no enemies but from 
party, and to have disarmed even these of their malice. 
His devotion was fervent without hypocrisy ; his bounty 



304 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

unlimited, except by his income. As a Bishop, he was 
as a kind father revered by his children ; as a founder, he 
was magnilicent and mnnihcent. He was ever intent on 
alleviating distress and misery. He dispensed largely by 
his almoner to the poor. He enfranchised several of his 
vassals from the legal bondage to which they were con- 
signed by the feudal system. He abounded in %yorks of 
charity and mercy. Amiable and affable in his whole 
deportment, he was as generally beloved as respected. 
The prudence, fidelity, and innocence, which preserved 
him when tossed about on the variable waves of inconstant 
fortune, during the long and mighty tempest of the civil 
war, was justly a subject of wonder to his biographer. Dr. 
Budden. ' It is remarkable, that he conciHated the 
favour of successive sovereigns of opposite principles and 
characters ; and that, as this author tells us, the Kings his 
benefactors were, by his address in conferring obligations 
on them in his turn, converted from being his creditors 
into his debtors. 

CHAPTER XII. 
Of the Chapel and Tomb erected by JFaxjnfiete at JV'mchester , 
with a further Jccount of his Family. \_Also a description 
of the Tomb in All Saints Church, nearWaynJlete, Lincoln- 
shire, of Richard Patten and his two Sons, John and our 
Bishop. — Ed.] 

The fashion of placing images oi\ tombs standing in 
small chapels or sepulchres in churches, is said to have 
been invented or introduced into England by an iVbbot of 
Evesham, called Thomas of Marlebergh, who died in 
1236. Wykeham and Beaufort, with various royal, 
noble, and eminent persons, had, by preparing their own 
tombs, rendered the usage familiar ; and Waynflete, if we 
may conjecture from the statue [at Winton Cathedral] 
which represents him of a middle age, began his soon 
after he became a Bishop. The sepulchre of Bishop 
Wykeham in the Cathedral of Winchester, is inclosed in 
a Chapel of the Virgin Mary ; that of Bishop Beaufort 
in a Chapel of the Salutation, as may be inferred from his 
will ; and that of Bishop Waynflete in one dedicated to 
St. Mary Magdalen. The open sides of all these 
Chapels afforded a view of the priest officiating at the 
altar within, while the people were kneeling on the step 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 303 

T>n the outside, or on the area round about them. The 
two last are opposite each other, on the east side of the 
traverse wall behind the choir. The architecture of the 
Chapel of St. Mary Magdalen is of a species which has 
been denominated the Jiorid Gothic. The specimens 
extant in the Cathedral at Winchester, exhibit its gradual 
progress from comparative simplicity to its consummation. 
The Chapel of Wykeham is plainer than those of his two 
successors. These resemble each other; but that of 
Waynllete is much lighter and richer in the variegation of 
its roof, and the profusion of the spire-work ; and for the 
execution of its masonry, we are told, has not been ex- 
ceeded, if equalled, anywhere in England. The beauty, 
genius, and invention discovered in these and many like 
monuments, should have rescued the names of the artists 
from oblivion. The tomb of Waynflete within the 
chapel is of grey marble. On a blue slab lies the 
figure of the Bishop, his head supported by a couple 
of pillows, his eyes raised to heaven, his hands closed 
as in prayer, with a heart between them, probably in 
allusion to the sursum corda of the liturgies, or to what 
gave rise to the form, namely. Lament, iii. 41. *' Leveinus 
corda nostra cum manibus in calos." It exhibits him in 
much humbler attire than Wykeham, who perhaps is 
arrayed in the pontificals of his consecration-day. At the 
feet, an angel clothed in white, with wings, holds on his 
breast a shield of his arms ; as also, in the centre of the 
middle compartment of the roof; and often at his college, 
where, by the library, are two angels as supporters. The 
same bearing was used, it seems, by the Bishops of Win- 
chester, as it occurs before and after Waynflete, on the 
tombs of Beaufort and Fox. Formerly a fillet of brass, 
with an inscription, it may be conjectured his favourite verse 
of the Magnificat, was fixed along the edge of the slab : 
but this has been purloined, it is likely, for the sake of 
the metal ; and some vestiges of it only were visible 
when about a century had elapsed. The effigy may be 
considered as affording an exact and authentic represen- 
tation of the person of Waynflete ; as alike descriptive 
,of his appearance in his pontificals, and of the piety 
which was so principal an ingredient in his character. 
^ I have endeavoured, but hitherto unsuccessfully, to 
obtain more particular information respecting Sir Wm, 
Brereton, the maternal grandfather of William aud 



306 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

John Waynflete. Lord Scales was sent to forage with 
3,CXX) men, while the Earl of Warwick besieged Pont- 
orson in 1425, and on his return was encountered by 
double the number of the enemy : whom he defeated 
with great slaughter, and then triumphantly re-entered 
the English camp, with provisions and a long train of 
captives. It was, I apprehend, in this once famous 
action, Brereton served under that renowned commander. 
He was then advanced beyond middle life, as John 
Waynflete at that time was dean of Chichester. In June 
1474 (14 June, 14 Edw. IV.) Sir William Brereton 
made over to the Bishop and dean, jointly with Robert 
Brereton, Rector of Brereton in Cheshire, and to their 
heirs and assigns for ever, all his possessions in Lin- 
colnshire. He must then have attained to extreme old age. 

In the act of resumption, which passed in the 3rd. 
year of King Edward, provision was made, that it should 
not extend nor be prejudical to Mr. John Waynflete, dean, 
and the chapter of Chichester. He diedin 1481. Richard 
Patten, alias Barbour, survived perhaps Sir Wm. Brereton, 
and, it is probable, died before his son John Waynflete. 
He was buried in the Church of All Saints, which now 
stands above a mile distant from Waynflete, to the north- 
west, in the rich meadows surrounding the town on the 
land-side. His monument is still extant there, at the 
east end of the south aisle, close by the wall that divides 
it from the middle aisle. The arms of the Bishop are 
mentioned by Stukeley as remaining in his time in the 
windows of the same Church ; yet they are not noticed by 
the diligent antiquary who preceded him in 1629 J who 
observed his family arms, Lozengy sable and ermine, in 
a window of the church of Croyland ; and the same aims 
with the lilies in chief, as at Tateshale, in the south 
window near the door of the chancel at Bennington ; 
where also was his portrait with the legend, Effigies 
Willi. Wahijiet Epi. Winton. 

* Richard Patten is recumbent in effigy on the slab of 
a fair altar-tomb of alabaster, within a strong moveable 
enclosure of wooden palisades designed to defend it from 
injury. He is represented as a tall, well-made person. 



* [Here Chaundler begins his description of the tomb of Richard 
Patten and his 2 sous, John, and our Bishop.— Edit.] 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 307 

not aged, of a comely pleasing countenance, without a 
beard, his eyes open and turned upwards, his hands 
closed as in prayer. He is bare-headed ; his hair regu- 
larly divided in wavy locks from the centre of the crown, 
and cut round, reaching only to the ears. He has a 
large figured ring, which seems to have had a stone or 
seal set in it, ou the forefinger of the right hand ; and, a 
narrow plain ring on the little finger of the left. He 
wears a gown or robe with wide puffed sleeves and with 
plaits, reaching from the breast to the feet ; a broad hem 
or border at the bottom, and underneath, a vest or waist- 
coat, of which the sleeves are tied at the wrists with 
double strings. The two standing collars of these 
garments are round, and closed at the neck. The inner 
garment appears at the opening of the sleeves. A belt 
is fastened about the waist with a buckle ; the strap 
falling to the knee. It is studded with roses of stones, 
and the whole breadth near the end, decorated with a 
wrought ornament terminating in a single stone. From 
the belt hangs by the middle a rosary ; the ends, at which 
are two tassels, falling parallel ; the beads roughly cut, 
and near an inch diameter : also, by a double string, a 
pvuse with two small cords, to open and shut it, ending 
in tassels reaching almost to the bottom, which has a 
tassel at each corner. A whittle or knife was likewise 
suspended to it ; the string yet remaining with a portion 
of the handle, and the entire sheath under his right side. 
His feet rest on scattered lilies or other flowers, and his 
shoes have pointed toes. His head lies on a pillow 
placed on a cushion, with two large tassels at the cor- 
ners; and is supported on his left side by John, and on his 
light by William Waynflete. John Waynflete is repre- 
sented as sitting with his feet drawn up, his right hand 
beneath the pillow, his left holding a large open book 
lying on his left knee, under which his right foot is 
placed. He has the clerical tonsure, and his hair is cut 
short and even. His features are strong and masculine,, 
his aspect venerable, his air solemn, and his eyes lifted 
up as in prayer. His dress is a hood; that, it is likely, 
of a bachelor of canon law, reaching to his loins, deeply 
indented or scallopped at the extremity ; with a cowl 
behind, like the cloak of a Capuchin friar. Under it is 
a full flowing garment with open sleeves, probably a 
surplice, as he appears to be attending on the last 

■X o 



308 WILLIAM WAYNFLETK 

moments of his father in the character of a priest. Wm, 
Waynflete, [the Bishop] is in a similar posture, his left 
foot placed under the bending of the right knee, his left 
hand supporting the pillow. He is represented as a 
Bishop, and that hand has a glove on it from which 
hang some small beads. The mitre on his head is set 
with precious stones, and richly adorned with broad 
figured lace ; some traces of the painting and gilding still 
visible. The middle part of the staff of the crosier, with 
his right ami and the hand, which held it, and, it i» 
probable, had likewise a glove on, is gone ; but the 
lower end remains under the shoulder of the large statue j 
and the upper, reposing on his own shoulder and touch- 
ing the mitre, has above it some imperfect traces of the 
pastoral crook. His robes are loose, flowing to his feet, 
and spreading on the marble behind. His countenance 
is amiable and benevolent, but serious and expressive of 
sorrow. His face resembles that of his father, but is 
younger ; and is neither so broad nor so aged as that of 
his brother. The sides of the tomb are ornamented with 
compartments car\ed in fret-work, alternately of unequal 
width. In two at the head are angels, slender figures, 
with curling hair and pentagonal caps, their wings ex- 
panded, and robes flowing to their feet ; holding each on, 
his breast an armorial shield, encircled with the garter, 
once painted and gilded, tied in a knot below. Traces 
remain of letters, probably of the usual motto. The 
shield on the dexter side has the bearing of William 
Waynflete, Lozengy three lilies in chief. The other is 
now plain ; time, it is likely, having obliterated the arms 
of the See of Winchester, for which, perhaps, it was 
intended. The wooden fence approaches the head of 
the tomb, so as not to admit of a passage within it, 
probably because the inscription was placed in that part, 
and not on a fillet round the rim ; one side being close 
to the wall. At that end the cornice is of freestone, and 
loose; and, on removing it, light enters through the 
transparent alabaster. The middle is filled up with 
solid masonry. A remnant of the inscription was copied 
in 1629: 

novissima memorare. . . . credo videre bona 

Dni in terra viventium 

and celebrates the pious confidence of the deceased, if 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 509 

I mistake not, by recording his last words: "I believe 
verily to see the goodness of the liord in the land of the 
living." Ps. xxvii. io. In the Bishop ended, if I mis- 
take not, the descendants of Richard Patten. Guillim, 
after mentioning the family of that naaie bearing " Fasilif 
ermine and sable, a canton or" as of good note and 
antiquity, has given to William and John, a brother 
named "■ Richard, that lived and died at Baslowe, Derby- 
shire ;" and being a layman, had issue Humphrey, who 
seated himself in Lancashire, where his descendants then 
lived at Warrington ; from whom, continues he, Thomas 
Patten of Thornley, in the said county, gentleman, is 
descended. But the canton or would have been retained 
by V\ illiam when he added the lilies, and would have 
appeared in the arms without them at Eton, and in the 
window at Croyland, if it had belonged to his family. 
Holinshed is silent as to the offspring of this Richard; 
though Godwin tells us he left children at Baslowe, 
whose posterity, as he heard, were still found in those 
parts. He and his descendants are met with perhaps in 
other authors ; but it was Guillim, I apprehend, who 
first introduced him and them to the public. Patten, 
was a sirname not uncommon. Families distinguished 
by it, may have subsisted at the same time in Derbyshire, 
Lancashire, and Lincolnshire, and may yet subsist, each 
as distinct and separate from the other as the counties. 
But supposing Thomas Patten of Thornley to be derived 
from Richard of Baslowe, we have reason to believe his 
pedigree wrongly deduced from the father of William 
and John Waynflete. Why are these two only repre- 
sented on his tomb ? Why did Sir William Brereton, in 
the assignment of his estates, omit this third brother? 
But further, if this Richard survived William and John, 
or left children, would not he or they have been heir 
to the Bishop? Yet another claimant is on record, 
Juliana Churchstile, who, wanting to alienate a farm, 
which she asserted to belong to her as his relation, and 
proving her affinity as required by law, declares herself 
** widow and late wife of Richard Churchstile, deceased, 
kinswoman and heir of Master William de Waynflete, 
late Bishop of Winchester ; to wit, sole daughter and 
heir of Robert Patten, brother and heir of Richard 
Patten, otherwise called Barbour, of Waynflete, father of 
the Bishop." The authority of Guillim appears to have 



310 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

been a pedigree given in by Thomas Patten of Thornley, 
and signed by ^ orroy, king at arms, at the visitation at 
Ormskirk, Lancashire, April 8, I660. Thomas Patten, or 
the herald employed by hmi, seems first to have connected 
Richard Patteli of Baslowe, Derbyshire, if such a person 
ever existed, with Richard Patten of Waynflete, Lincoln, 
and then to have removed his son Humphrey into Lan- 
cashire, to provide the family established in this county 
with an ancestor of eminence. Waynflete, v\'e may re- 
member, has declared that he had demurred whether to 
found a College, or distribute his goods to the poor in 
his lifetime. The enriching of his family is not an alter- 
native. No preference is given to, nor provision made 
for, kinsmen at his College, as by Wykehara ; neither is 
there mention of any relation in his will. Perhaps Juliana 
Churchstile was the only one remaining, was in affluence, 
and without children, 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Contains Proceedings at Magdalen College after the Death 
f>f JVaynJlete, with an Account of some Benefactors and 
Members of the Society, particularly fp'ulcy ; and Chapter 
HIV. is termed the conclusion. Both which .are omitted as 
quite irrelevant to the plan of this work. 

[Here terminates the re-print of Chaundlefs Life of Waynflete^ 



ADDENDA. 

Bishop Tanner thus notices his foundation of MagdaJen 
College: " Oxfordshire, XXIII. article Magdalen 
College, 16. William Patten, alias Wainflet, Bishop of 
Winton, A.D. 1448, founded without the east gate a 
Hall for students, and contiguous to it, in or near the 
place where the old Hospital of St. John stood, he built 
A. D. 1458, a fine College for a president, 40 fellows, 
30 scholars called demies, 4 chaplains, 8 clerks, I6 
choristers, &c. to the honour of St. Mary Magdalen, St. 
John the Baptist, St. Peter, St. Paul, and St, Swithun. 
By the valuation of 26 Henry VIII. it seems to have been 
better endowed than any other College in the University, 
being rated highest, viz. at ^f 1076. 5s, Q.d. per aim," 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 311 

Vide Hist, and Antiq. Univ. Ox. lib. ii. p. 187, &c. 
Fuller's Ch. Hist, book iv. p. 188. 

List of the Presidents in Le Neve's Fasti, p. 493-4. 

Inltin.Will. de Worcestre, p. l66, dimensiones Eccles. 

Year Books, 1 1 Henry VH. Mich. rot. 30, de Capella 
S. Kath. de Wanburgh (Wilt.) In Atkins's Glouc. p. 
165 of the manor of Queinton. 

In Bloomfield's Norfolk, vol. iii. p. 542 of lands in 
Boton Salle and Causton ; vol. iv. p. 369 of the manor 
of Gaton in Branderton, and the advowson of the rectory ; 
p. 861 of lands in Hickling ; p. 1329 of the manor of 
Tickwell ; p. 1464 of a manor in Boy ton. 

In Bridges's Northants, vol. i. p. l66 of the impropriate 
rectory and advowson of the Vic. of Evenle. 

In Thoroton's Notts, p. 151-2 of the alternate pre- 
sentation to the rectory of east Bridgeford, belonging to 
this College. 

In Dugdale's Warwicksliir*, p. 281-2, of the advowsoa 
of Willoughby rectorv. 

Catalogum librorum MSS. p. 239, Coll. S. Mar. 
Magd. in Oxon. in Catalogo MSS. Angliae et Hibernia 
Oxon. 1697, fol. tom. 1. p. ii. p. 71, &c. 

Cartas originales, registra, rotulos, et alia mujaimenta 
in Scaccario CoUegii. 

Statuta CollegiiMSS. in Bibl. Harleiana, 1235,6282. 
Regist,ofthe Records of Magd, Coll. ibid, MS. 4240, n. 1. 

Collectanea ex evidentiis Coll. p. Anth, Wood, MS. 
in bibl. musei Ashmol. Oxon. Wood, vol. xxviii, p. 148, 
vol. Ii. p. 15I-I6I. For the right of the College to pre- 
sent a principal to Magd. Hall, ibid. Wood, vol. ci f. 47. 

In Bibl. C. C. C.C. MS. 127, Papers relating to the 
controversy between Dr. Oglethorp, President, and the 
College. 

De exemptione hujus Collegii a juris dictione Ep- 
Linco. per cartumThomae Ep. Linco. 6, Jul. A.D. 1480. 
Videlibrummemorand,Thomae Rotheram Ep. Linco. f. 15. 

Pat. 26 Henry VI. p. 2. m. 33. licentiam pro funda- 
tioae, et perquirendi terras ad annuum valorem cK ; Pat. 
35 Henry VI. p. L m. 1. pro hospitale S.Joan, extra 
portam Orient. Oxon. Ibid, m. I6, licent. perquirendi 
«itum prioratus de Luffield. 

Pat. 7 Edw. IV. p. 3. m. 12, confirm, pro hosp. S. 
Joannis, Oxon.; Pat. 15 Edw. IV. p. 3. m. 15, pro 
maner. de Dodington juxta Wakerle : Rec. in Scacc. ; 



312 WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 

26 Edw. IV. Trin. rot. 19.; Pat. 17 Edw. IV. p. 1. m. 
]. pro manor, de Candelesby . Ibid, p. 2. m. 31. pro 
maner. de Multon Hall in Frampton, et de Salfletby, et 
pro advoc. eccl. de Somercot et Basingham Escaet. 
Norf. 18 Edw. IV. n. 53. pro maner. et lerris in Titch- 
well, Brancaster, Holme, Branderton, Beyton, Salle, 
Causton, Acle, Birlingham, Hickling, Ermingland, 
(Norfo.), Caldecot in Fritton, Spilling in Gorleston, et 
Akethorp ni Lowestoft (Suff.) Pat. 18 Edw. IV. p. 2, 
m, 3. pro maner. de Titchwell, Brandeston, &c. Escaet; 
Linco. 19 Edw. IV. n. 78. 

Pat. 1 Richard III. p. 2. m. pro iii. virgat tense in 
Westcote (Warw.) 

The learned Archbishop Nicolson thus notices 
Waynjiete : — 

" William of Wainfleet was bred in Wykham's Col- 
leges, and did his founder the honour to write very fairly 
after his copy. His JVIagdalen may vye with the other's 
two, St. Maries being (modestly) one of the richest 
seminaries of learning in the whole world ; and, his 
magniticent charity has been celebrated by the eloquent 
pen of Dr. Budden, (the writer of Archbishop Morton's 
life ;) who was a while reader of philosophy in that 
College. His book bears the title of (4to. Oxon, l682, 
and Lond. l681, inter Collect, D. Bates) Gnlielmi 
Patein, cui Wayrifleti Agnomen fuit, Wintoniensis Ec- 
clesicc PrcBsulis, et ColLBeata Maria, Magd. apud Oxon. 
Fundatoris, Vita Obitusque. A treatise much applauded 
by Godwin ; who, nevertheless, seems not to have perused 
it : for he calls the author William Budden, though his 
name was certainly J olm."*— Historical Library/, Part 
II. ch. vi. p. 140. 

" Willelmus Waynflet, Canonicus Wellensis ab anno 
3433, et CoUegii Regalis Etonensis Prajpositus a Nicolao 
Papa ad Winton, sedem provisus, 1447, 10 Maii pro- 
fessionem obedientize Apo. Cant, fecit in aedibus Lam- 
bethanis 1447, l6 Junii, consecratus die 30 Julii, seq. 
Cancellarius Angliae constitutus est 1457, Oct. 11, et in 
eo munere Georgium Nevil Epns Exon. successiorem 
habuit 1460, 23 Julii. Erravit Godwinus qui ilium ab 



[* With deference, I do not think this any proof of the Bishop's not 
having perused the work. — Edit.J 



WILLIAM WAYNFLETE. 31S 

anno 1449 ad 1458, cancelariatum teiiuisse sciibit. la 
illo siquidem temporis intervallo Cancellani online 
fuerunt Johannes Stafford, Apus Kemp Ajjus Ebor 
1450. Ricardus Comes Sarum 1454, et Thomas Bour- 
chier Apus Cant, cui successit Willelmus tioster anno 
1457. Obiit iste I486, 11 Aug." — Anglia Sacra, vol. 
1. p. 318. 

Will. VV^aynflete by his letters patent dated at Esher on the 
5th of the ides of Feb., in the 5th year of his tiauslation 
A.D. 1452, granted and demised to the burgesses of Farn- 
ham the whole burgh of Farnham, with the vill adjacent and 
their appurtenances, except only the privilege ot Hue i;nd 
Cry for murder ; the persons and chattels of felons, die 
escheats of their lands and tenements, together with the 
services of Will, le Parker, and two others, who held 
of the Bishop in Capite. He conhrmed to theui the 
liberties and free customs which they had anciently and 
to that time enjoyed, particularly, I. A fair on All Saints' 
Day (Nov. 2) yearly. II. The right of electing and 
removing their bailiffs without any hindrance on the 
Bishop's part. III. The assize of ale and bread, with 
power of punishing defaulters by fine, but not otherwise. 
IV. All manner of tolls. V. Exemption from suit and 
service at the Bishop's court, except only what belonged 
to the lord of the hundred at law day, at the Cattle of 
F'arnham. VI. Power to issue attachments, summonses, 
and distresses within the burgh and vill not belonging to 
the bailiff" of the Bishop's liberty. For these privileges 
they were to pay to the Bishop and his successors by the 
hands of his bailiff at Farnham, 12 pounds of silver 
annually, by 2 equal portions, in lieu of £9- which had 
hitherto been usually paid. By this charter it appears, 
that there had been more anciently certain burgesses of 
the town who enjoyed various privileges, which were now 
partly confirmed and partly augmented, in consideration 
of their paying annually to the Bishop <£ 12. instead of 
^9., as they used to do," — Manning and Bray. Hist. 
Surry, vol. iii. p. 131. 

Bishop Waynflete was executor to the will of Ralph, 
Lord Cromwell, (Test. Vet. i. p. 276) proved F'eb. 19, 
1455. He is also named in the will of King Henry VI,, 
T. V. i. p. 23. 

Portraits. The engravings of the Bishop are thus 
policed by Granger : " William Wayn fleet. Bishop 



314 PETER COURTENAY. 

of Winchester, Houbraken, sc. 1742. — From a picture at 
Madg. Coll. Ox fold, Illnst. Head, large h. sh. Guliel- 
Mus Patten alias Waynfleet ; totius Anglite Cancel, 
epus, Wihton Coll. B. Marice Madg. Oxori. et Aulcf 
adjtmct(B Furidr. A, D. 1459- J- Faberf. large 4to, mezz» 
William Wykeharn who had been 12 years school-master 
of Winchester, was afterwards successively school-master 
and provost of Eton ; and in April 1447, he succeeded 
Cardinal Beaufort in the Bishopric of Winchester. He 
was made Lord Chancellor of England, in the room of 
Archbishop Bourchier. — Ob. 11, August, I486. His 
magnificent tomb and that of the Cardinal are still in 
good presei'vation, in the Cathedral to which they be- 
longed." — Biogr. Hist. Engl. vol. i. p. 52. 



XXI. PETER COURTENAY, L.L.D. 
Succeeded A.D. 1486-7. Died A.D. 1492. 

This Prelate was born at Powderham, Devonshire, 
(Fuller's Worthies, vol. I. p. 279, edit. 1811,) being a 
younger son of Sir Philip Courtenay of that place, Knt. 
by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Walter Lord Hunger- 
ford, by Joan his wife, widow of Sir James Chudleigh, 
Knt. and daughter of Alexander Champernown, of Bere 
Ferrers, son of Sir John Courtenay, of Powderham- 
Castle, Knt. and he, by Anne his wife, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Wake, Knt, was the son of Sir Philip Courtenay, 
fourth son of Hugh, the second of this name, Earl of 
Devon and Margaret his wife, who settled Powderham 
upon him and his posterity, in the days of King Edward 
HI. where they have continued ever since. See Sir W. 
Pole's Desc. of Devon, in Powderh. Godwin de Prcssul 
int. Epos. Exon. and Prince's Worthies of Devon, p. 258, 
edit. 1810. 

Our Prelate having spent some time in laying a good 
foundation of learning in the University of Oxford, for his 
further improvement in knowledge and science, vent to 
travel. He took the degree of D. C. L. at Padua. 
(Godw. De Frees. Wint.) How long he staid there is 
uncertain. On his return to England he went once more 
to Oxford, where he was incorporated, says Prince 



PETER COURTENAY. 315 

(Worth, of Devon, ut sup. edit. 1810) and after him 
Godwin, D.C.L. from Padua, though F find no record 
of it in the Athenze or Fasti. He successively became 
Archdeacon and Dean of Exeter, says Isaacke ; who 
adds, that a controversy happening between the mayor 
and citizens of Exeter and the coirpany of tailors, afier 
great charges it came to be determined by King Edward 
IV. whose final order therein was sent to Dr. P. Cour- 
tenay, ' then Dean of that Church,' to be delivered to 
both parties. 

About two years after this, viz. A.D. 1477 or 1478, he 
was promoted to the See of Exeter, and consecrated in 
St. Stephen's Chapel, at Westminster, by Archbishop 
Bourchier, in Nov. of the same year. On his coming to 
Exeter, he found the north tower of his Cathedral unfin- 
ished, ''for however," says Prince, p. 259, "there be two 
towers distinguished by their site, wherein is a cage often 
"very sweet and tuneable bells, and the north, in which is 
the great Peter bell ; yet, at the time of this honourable 
Prelate's instalment, the north towerwas not far advanced; 
whereupon he forthwith undertook and sat about the work, 
and in the short time he remained Bishop, at his own 
charges and expenses, he brought the same to perfection: 
and it is now a very noble and stately piece of building. 
Which, having thus finished, that it might not remain an 
empty and useless steeple. Bishop Courtenay was pleased 
further at his own cost, to furnish with one bell, of an 
immense magnitude, weighing, as we are told, 12,500lbs." 
(Isaacke, p. 2.) So that from its weight and size it can- 
not be rung without the help of many men, which, that it 
may be better done, it has a double wheel and two ropes 
fastened to them, by means of which the ringing it is 
effected. (See Godwin.) It still retains the founder's 
name, being to this day called. ' Peter's bell.' (See an 
account of Exon Cath. accojnpanying Carter's excellent 
plates.) To this famous bell. Bishop Courtenay added a 
clock, and to the clock a dial of very curious invention/ 
especially at that age. 

Having presided at Exeter Avith honour to himself and 
advantage to the church for about 9 years, he was, on the 
death of Waynflete, translated to Winton, through the 
favour of King Henry VH. to whose cause and interest 
he had shewn himself very faithful against King Richard 
in. The bull of Pope Innocent was dated January 



Slo PETER COURTENAY. 

27, I486, as Richardson, p. 234, quotes Regisfr. Morton, 
but 1487 as Wharton has it. He had been elected in 
Februaiv, by the monks who were not aware of the papal 
provision. Ang. Sac. I. p. 318. His temporalties 
were restored April 2, 1287. 

At W niton he sat about five years, and died September 
22, 1492, as Wharton states, and as Godwin on the 
authority of Isaacke also records, and is said to have been 
buried in Winton Cathedral. Neither Godwin, nor 
Fuller, Issacke, or Prince, are able to ascertain the place 
of his interment. The last named, with great probability, 
conjectures that he was buried at Powderham, in the 
church of which place is a " monument on which may 
be seen something of the effigies of a Prelate in pontifi- 
calibus, which has been accounted to be the Bishop's." 

"It does not appear," says Bishop Milner, "that 
he was otherwise liberal to the Cathedral of Winton, 
except in concurring with the Prior and Monks in carry- 
ing on the inteiior decorations, which seem never to 
have been suspended from the death of Wykeham until a 
later period than the one in question." The same writer 
adds, that " the exact situation of Bishop Courtenay's 
grave is almost the only one belonging to any of our 
Prelates since the conquest which is left to conjecture, 
and can not absolutely be ascertained." But quare. — 
It appears from the following passage in Wood, that he had 
been, in addition to the prefennents above-named, Arch- 
deacon of Wilts. *' He [Bainbridge] was made [about 
1490] Archdeacon of Wilts (in the place of one Hugh 
Pavy, who had succeeded in that dignity Peter Courtenay, 
upon his promotion to the See of Exeter in the beginning 
of Feb. 1478.") Ath. Ox. II. 703, edit. Bliss. Peter 
Courtenay had been appointed Archdeacon of Wilts, 
Oct. 7, 1464, as appears from Antiq. of Salisb. <Sf Bath, 
p. 299- He was, while Archdeacon of Wilts, appointed 
Prebendary of Cherminster and Bere, in Sarum Ca- 
thedral, {ib. p. 318) in which he was succeeded by 
Lionel Woodville, (afterwards Bishop of Salisbury*) on 
' his promotion to the See of Exeter. Richardson, on the 
authority of MS, notes of T. Tanner, calls him master of 
St. Anthony's Hospital, London. 

* See Bishop Woodville's Life in Cassan's Lives of the Bishops of 
Salisbury, part 1. p. 260. 



THOMAS LANGTON. 317 

XXII. THOMAS LANGTON,* L.L.D. 

"Succeeded A.D. 1493.— Died A.D. 1500. 

This Prelate, says Wood, (Ath. Oi\ edit. Bliss 2. 
col. 688) "was born at Appleby in Westmoreland, where 
being educated in religion and grammar learning among 
the Carmelites, was sent to Queen's College, Oxford: 
bat a pest breaking out in the University soon after, he 
went to Cambridge, and became a member of Clare 
Hall, (one saith of Pembroke,) [Godwin, who is right, 
vid. infi] took the degrees in the canon law, in which, 
afterwards, he was incorporated at Oxford, and had con- 
siderable dignities in the Church bestowed on him ; 
among which, was the Prebend of S. Decuman in 
the Church of Wells, 1478. In 1483, he being about that 
time Provost of Queen's College, Oxon, [VV^ood is in 
error here, vid, infra.'\ and Master of St. Julian's Hos- 
pital, Southampton, was consecrated Bishop of St. 
David's ; whence being translated to the See of Sarum on 
the death of Lionel Woodville,-!- had restitution of the 
temporalties May 4, 1484. In a writing in Queen's 
College treasury, dated Aug. 19, 1489, (4 Hen. VII.) 
he occurs by the titles of L.L.D. , Bishop of Sarum, 
and Provost of Queen's. Whence we may conclude that 
he kept the Provostship in commendam with Sarum, as 
probably he had done with St. David's. In 1493, he 
was translated to the See of Winton, and had restitution 
of the temporalties thereof 27th June ; where, being 
settled, he put in practice his good deeds, which he had 
done at Sarum, viz. by shewing himself a Maecenas of 
learning, for which I find he had so great respect, that 
he took care to have youths trained up at bis own charge 
in grammar and music, (the last of which he infinitely 
delighted in,) in a school which he set apart in the 
precincts of his house. It was usual with him to make 
his scholars repeat at night, before him, such dictates as 
they in the day-time had learned from their master : and, 
such as could give a laudable account, he either en- 
couraged with good words or small rewards, saying to* 
those about him that, ' the way to encrease virtue was to 

• His Life occurs in Cassan's Lives of the Sarum Prelates, Pt. I. p. 263. 
t See Cassau'8 Lives of the Bishops of Sarum, Pt. L p. 260. 



"318 THOMAS LANGTON. 

praise it,' &c. In his episcopal office he behaved him- 
self so well, that he was in great authority with 3 Kings, 
especially for his learning and experience in civil affairs ; 
and had not death snatched him untimely away, would 
have succeeded Moreton in the See of Canterbury. He 
died in the beginning of 1501 ; and was buried in the 
Cathedral at Winton, near the tomb and shrine of St. 
Swithun. By his will he gave to the Priests of Clare 
Hall, Cambridge, considerable sums of money and ^40. 
to the chest of that house. To every fellow of Queen's 
College, Oxon, 6s. Sd., and 40 marks to the eleemosynary 
chest thereof, besides a suit of vestments for a priest, 
deacon, and sub-dean, and 4 capes. He gave mainte- 
nance also to a chaplain, that should celebrate service for 
him and his parents, and all faithful deceased for the 
space of 100 years, in Appleby Church : which chaplain 
Mas to receive for his labour 8 marks yearly. To the 
Friars (the Carmelites) in Appleby 20 marks, to pray 
for him ; besides several sums to the Friars of Oxon and 
Cambridge ; and to Rowland Machel and Eliz, his wife, 
(sister to the said Bishop,) he gave several lands in West- 
moreland, besides 200 marks. He built also the little 
room (which is now a large bay-window in the provost's 
dining room in Queen's College), with curious vaulting 
under it: which vault is now no other than a portico 
to the College-Chapel. Over the said bay-window is 
carved in stone a musical note called a Long on a tiui, 
which is the rebus for his sir-name ; and out of the bung- 
hole of the tii7i springs a vine tree, which, without doubt, 
was put for Vinton or Vinchester, he being then Bishop 
of that place." 

" He left behind him a nephew named Robt. Langton, 
born also in Appleby, and educated in Queen's College, 
of where he was L.L.D. He died at London in June, 
1524, and buried before the image of St. Michael, in 
the body of the church belonging to the charter-house, 
(now Sutton's hospital) near London. By his will (in 
offic. praerog. Cant, in Reg. Bodjield qu. 21.) he be- 
queathed to Queen's College £^00. to purchase lands 
and make a school in Appleby, and what his benefactioa 
was besides, as also that of Bishop Langton, you majr 
see in Hist, and Antiq. Univ. Oxon. lib. 2. p. 123, sq." 

In the notes to Bliss's edition of Wood we have the 
following : " Thomas Langton was of Pembroke Hall, 



THOMAS LANGTON. 3\0 

of which see enough in Wren's MS. de Custod et Sociis 
Femhrock. Anno 1454, Thomas Langton, Carliolen. 
dioc. per, li. di. ordinatus Acolitus per Will. Dunkalden, 
ep'm, vice Will'i ep'i Elien. Regr. Eden. Thomas 
Langton procurator Senior Acad Cant. Anno 14(J2, 
Lib. Proc. Baker." 

" Langton was admitted to the rectory of AUhallows, 
Bread-street, London, July 1, 1480, and to that of AU- 
hallows, Lombard-street, May 14, 1482. IVewcourt 
Hep. I. 245. He had also the prebend of North Kelsey, 
in Lincoln Cathedral, which he resigned 1483, on his 
promotion to the See of St. David's. Willis. Ca^A. Line, 
p. 229." Buss. 

In Wood's Hist. Antiq. Ox. edit. Gutch, p. 147, ap- 
pears the following note, which is directly at variance 
with AVood's assertion above : " Tho. Langton Epus 
Sar' confirmatus erat Proepositus Coll. Reg. [Ox.] p. 
Archiii Ebor. 6 Dec. 1487, p. resig. Hen. Bost." ex 
auth. Regr. Rotherarji. Now Wood has stated (vid. sup.) 
*' In 1483, he being about that time provost of Queen's, 
was consecrated Bishop of St. David's ;" wheieas, it 
appears, he even had the Bishopric of Sarum before he 
became provost of Queen's. Richardson in a note to 
Godwin, p. 234, has the following remark, but quotes 
no authority : — " Post translationem ad Episcopatum 
Sarum, fit Praepositus Collegii Reginensis, Oxon. A. 
1489." In the list of the provosts of Queen's Coll. I 
also find the date of his succession placed at 1489, his 
predecessor being Henry Bost. The Athenae therefore 
must, I conclude, be wrong. 

Godwin, under the Bishops of St. David's, thus 
records him: " 74. Thomas Langton consecratus 1483. 
Sarisburiam primum translatus est anno 1485, ac Winto- 
niam postea." To this his editor adds, Provisus a Papa 
Jul. 4, 1483, Registr. Bourch. T. et J. C. D. licentiam 
habet consecrat. Aug. 23, 1483, Registr. Eccl. Cant." 
Under the Bishops of Sarum, thus: "30. Thomas 
Langton, L.L.D,in Menevensem EpiTi consecratus 1483, 
hue fertur translatus 1485, et huic Wintoniam 1493." 
His editor adds, " Hue translatus Papali authoritate 9 
Feb. 1484. Professionem fecit apud Knott 25 April, 
1485. Registr, Morton." Under Winton thus : " 56. 
Quando annum jam integrum sedes vacasset, transfertur 
hue ab Ecclesia Sarisburiensi T. L. qui anno 1483, ia 



S20 THOMAS LANGTON. 

Ep'm Menev' consecratus, post biennium Sarrsb' migra-' 
veiat Wintoniai sedit annos 1 ; et Cantuariensis designatus 
Arpus, aute traiifelationem perfectam, peste correptus 
interiit, anno 1500. Capellam construxit ab australi 
parte Ecc. sute Wint. ; in cujus medio conditus jacet sub 
marmorco tumulo elegantissimo. Socius hie olim fuit 
Aulae Pemb. Cantab., ac in ejus rei menioriam crateiem 
argenteum deauiatum pendens 67 unc. Aulae dedit 
praedicttE, hie verbis insculptum. Thomas Langton Wint. 
Epus, Aulcz PemhrochiancB olim socius, dedit hanc tassiam 
coopertam eidem AuIce 1497. Qui alienarit anathema sit." 
His editor adds, p. 234, " In MS. D. Hutton sic scrip- 
turn legimus; 22 Jan. Postulatio in Capitulo Cant, pro 
T. Langton Ep5 in Cant. Arpd. qui ob. 27 die ejusdem 
mensis, Regist. Ecc. Cant. 

Wharton, in the Ang. Sac. 1.319, adds. ''Thomas 
Epus Sarum,Winton. translatus jurisdictionem spiritualem 
sedis Winton. ab Apo Cant, sibi commissam accessit 
1493, 24 Junii. Obiit anno 1500, paulo ante 10 Oct. 
quo die spiritualia episcopatus Winton. a monachis 
Ecclesiae. Cant. Sede Archiepiscopali vacante, in manus 
suas accepta sunt. Faucis ante obitum diebus ad Archi- 
episcopatum Cant. Johannis Morton morte nuperavacan- 
tem electus est teste Chronico Londinensi ; quod quidem 
obitum ejus mense Januario contigisse refert, , errore 
manifesto. 

Leland makes an observation which I have not met 
with elsewhere : — " One Bishop Langton made of late tyme 
a new peace of work and lodging of stone at the west 
end of the Haul," (i. e.) of Sherborne Castle. — liin. 2. 
88. The same writer in the Collectanea 1. p. Il6, adds, 
'^Tho. Langton, Epus Wint. fundavit capellam B. 
Mariag in australi latere templi in cujus medio jacet 
sepultus." 

*' He lies buried," says Bishop Milner, *' in Winton 
Cathedral, in the chantry he built at the east end, still 
called after him, under an altar tomb which was originally 
exceedingly elegant, but which is now stripped of every 
brass or other ornament for which money could be ob- 
tained." Hist. Wint. 2. p. 63. The last quoted writer 
has made a mistake in giving 1499 as the date of Bishop 
Langton's translation to Winchester. See his Hist. Wint. 
1. 317. He should have said 1493. 



RICHi\RD FOX. 321 

; XXIII. RICHARD FOX. 

Succeeded A.D. 1500, Wood ; 1502, Godwin. — Died 

A.D. 1528. 

The indefatigable Oxford antiquary has rescued from 
oblivion the following particulars, which may be found in 
his Ath. Oxon. 

"He was born at Ropesley near Grantham, Lincoln- 
shire ; educated in grammar learning at Boston, in aca- 
demical, for a time, in Magdalen College, Oxford, whence 
being transplanted to Cambridge, he became at length 
Master of Pembroke Hall there. Prebendary of Bishop- 
ston in the Church of Sarum, [after 1473, resigned 1485. 
— Hist, and Antiq. Sarum and Bath, p. 315.] and in 
Feb. 1485, of South Grantham in the same Church, on 
the resignation of Dr. Christopher Bainbridge.* Having 
been a constant adherent to Henry, Earl of Richmond, 
against King Richard III., he was by him, when King 
of England by the name of Henry VII., made in the 
beginning of his reign one of his privy council, [being 
then L. L.D.J and nominated Bishop of Exeter in Feb. 
I486. On the 24th of the same month, he had the 
custody of the privy seal conferred on him, and being 
elected to the said See, the King restored (Pat. 7 Henry 
VII. p. 2, m. 5.) to him the temporalties April 2, 1487. 
July 5th following, he had by the King's command (ib.) 
205. per diem allowed to him, to commence from 24th 
Feb. before mentioned ; which was allowed to him, I 
suppose, as keeper of the said seal, and being elected 
afterwards to the See of Bath and Wells, had restitution 
of its temporalties made (Pat. 7 Henry VII. m. 14.) to 
him by the King, May 4, 1492. In 1494 he was trans- 
lated to Durham, and afterwards was elected Chancellor 
of the University of Cambridge ; and being settled at 
Durham, he forthwith, out of a great hall in the castle 
there, took as much away as made a fair buttery and a 
pantry, even to the pulpits or galleries on each side of 
the hall, wherein the trumpeters or wind music [ians] 



• 1485, Feb. 7, ep'iis contulit Ric'o Fox L.L.D. preb. de Grantham 
australis, vacant, per resign. Xtopheri Bainbridge, et preb de Cherdestoke 
tidem Christophcro. Jles;. Lani^loii, ep'i Sarum.— Kiys net. 



322 RICHARD FOX. 

used to stand to play, while the meat was ushered in j 
and on the Mall uhich parted the said buttery from the 
hall, was a great pelican set up, to shew that it was done 
by him, because he gave the pelican to his arms. At 
lengtii upon the death of Dr. Thomas Langton, he was 
elected Bishop of Winchester ; the temporalties of which 
being restored to him (Fat. l6 Henri/ VII. p. 2, m. 13.^ 
by the King Oct, 17, 1500, [he] was soon after installed 
with great solemnity. After he was settled there, he 
performed many acts of piety and charity, among which, 
was the foundation and establishment of Corpus Christi 
College; and dying in 15'28, he was buried in the 
Cathedral Church at Winchester, on the south-side of the 
high altar." — Wood's Aih. Ox. vol. 2 col. 730, edit. Bliss. 

The learned editor adds the following notes : [" Ric. 
Fox, L.B. admiss. ad Vic. de Stepney 30 Oct. 1485, per 
mortem Ric'i Luke. Reg. Rennet. — Ric. Fox, L. B. 
secretar. Hen. reg. VII. Coll. ad preh. de Brounswode 
26 Oct. 1485, per mort. Joh. Davison, quam resign, 
ante 11 April, 1487. — Dominus Ricardus Fox presbiter 
pres. per mag. Joh. Lylly prebendarium de N. Kelsey, 
ad vicariam de N. Kelsey, per resign, d'ni Joh. Sigrave, 
23 Sept. 1504,* Heg. Smith, ep'i Line. — Vide plura de 
Ric. Fox custode Aulze Pembrochianae apud Cantabrig. 
in Ricardi Parkeri Xxs'kslu) Cantab. MS. Collect. D. 
300, p. 6. — Litera Fraternitatia per priorem et capit. 
Cant, concessa Ric'o Fox ep'o, 1503, 29 Aug. Reg. Cant. 
M. S. Kexnet. — The best heads of Fox are a folio by 
Vertue, 1723 ; a mezzotinto, in 4to. by Faber."] 

Anthony Wood, in his Hist. 8)^ Antiq. Coll. by Gutch, 
p. 382, tells us he was bornf in an obscure village in Lin- 
cohishire, called Ropesley, four miles distant from Gran- 
tham, in an ancient house known to some by the name of 
Pullock's Manor. He was son of Thomas Fox and 
Helena his wife, both well esteemed for their honest life 
and conversation. Others also there were of his name 
and alliance in and about the same place, who were either 



[* This Richard Fox could not have been the Bishop, for in 1504, he 
had been four years Bishop of Winchester, when it is not to be supposed 
he accepted a living. — Edit.] 

t Ut in quibusdam notis de Vita Rich. Fox, hujus Coll. Fundatoris, 
per Thorn. Green way ejusdem Coll. presideatem. an. 1566. 



RICHARD FOX. 323 

his brethren or uncles, afterwards citizens of London, 
some of whose children were preferred to this college, 
as in particular Thomas Fox (his nephew as it seems) 
of whom he took especial care, in letters* written to Mr. 
John Claymond, the first president, to have him settled 
among the original scholars, as he did also for John Fox, 
another Londoner, then Archdeacon of Surry. The said 
place where the founder was born, being well known to 
the ancient fellows of this house, according to the tradition 
they had received of Jt, were wont when they went their 
progress to keep courts at their respective manors, to visit 
and do their devotions to it, as the very place where their 
father and great patron had received his first breath. To 
the said manor-house did anciently belong-f- land, worth, 
beyond all reprises, j£Q.d. yearly, which, whether it 
belonged as an inheritance to the Foxes, could not be 
learned by them. It came afterward into the hands, as 
it seems, of Richard Kelham, father of Ralph Kelham, 
living in the reign of King James. From him it came 
into the hands of Rich. Hickson, who built a new house 
upon it, and the old house where the founder was born, 
he sold to one Thos. Raskall of the same town. In the latter 
end of [the reign of] Queen Elizabeth, lived in part of the 
said old house, a widow well stricken in years, who with 
the most ancient of the town were wont to tell the said 
fellows, * that their founder was born at that place,' and 
one among the rest told them, as he had received it from 
his father, that Richard Fox went away very meanly from 
his parents into France when he was young, and after 
some time spent there, returned to his parents in very good 
sort, and when they would have had him stay with them, 
he refused, saying, he must over sea again, and if one 
thing hit out right, all Ropesley should not serve him for his 
kitchen." His parents perceiving him to be of a towardly 
wit, intended, according to their abilities, to bestow that 
upon him, which should prove a comfort to them in their 
old age, and to himself in the future a livelihood, where- 
fore they sent him to be trained up in grammar at Boston, 
till such time that he might prove capable of the Univer- 
sity. Thence they sent him to Magdalen College, in 



* In Thesaur. hujus. Coll. 
t Inter Collectanea B. Twyni in Bibl. bujus. Coll. 

y 2 



324 RICHARD FOX. 

Oxford,* where, for the time he continued, he profited so 
much in literature, that he went beyond most of his 
contemporaries. From thence, because of a plague that 
broke out in Oxford, he went to Cambridge, where, as 
several authors report, he became master or head of 
Pembroke Hall, lo07 : but long there neither did he 
abide, for obser\ing that lortgf continuance in an Univer- 
sity/ was a sig7i either of lack of friends or of learning, and 
that it was sacrilege for a man to tarry longer there than 
he had a desire to profit, took a resolution to travel and 
see the fashions of other nurseries of learning; and this 
the rather he did, because at that time Kiag Richard III. 
usurped the government, and that the state thereupon was 
in an unsettled condition. To Paris therefore ^: he jour- 
neys, where, to complete that divinity which he had 
already obtained, he studied the canon law, without which 
divinity was esteegied in those days imperfect. From 
thence he thought to have travelled to other parts ; but 
happily meeting somewhere with John Morton, Bishop of 
Ely, some time an Oxford man, who had fled the king- 
dom because of the said usurpation, his intentions were at 
that time stopped : and whether his learning and policy 
were so much perceived by this Bishop as to make use of 
him as an instrument to establish Henry Earl of Rich- 
mond in the throne, (to whom Bishop Morton faithfully 
adhered) or whether the Earl himself, who was then at 
Paris, had acquaintance with him, or before had known 
him to be a man of wisdom, I am in doubt. Howbeit, 
an author that§ lived a few years after tells us, that as 
soon as the Earl had knowledge of him, he received him 
as a man of great wit and no less learning, into his 
familiarity, and in brief time advanced him to high dig- 
nities, as it shall anon be shewed. 

But howsoever the matter was, I shall not now dispute 
it ; sure I am that at what time the Earl of Vannec in 
Little Bretagne, contriving to furnish himself for his 
setting forth to obtain the crown of England, determined 
to crave aid of the French King; and, so coming to 

* In notis T. Greenway ut supra, 
t Will. Harrison in Descript. Angl. lib. 2. cap. 3. 
t Chron. Edv. Hall. edit. Lond. 1550, in Ric. III. 
§ D. Tho. More in Vit. Ric. III. 



RICHARD FOX. 325 

Paris to prosecute his design, left the whole* manage- 
ment thereof to the said Richard Fox, then L.L.D., who 
according to the trust reposed upon him followed the 
matter with so great diligence, that in a short time, all 
things were accomplished to the Earl's pleasure. So 
that soon after the said Henry obtained the crown upon 
the victory gotten in Bosworth field, [he] was not un- 
mindful of Dr. Fox, for he not only made him one of 
his council, and keeper of his privy seal, but also,*!- 
employed him with Sir Richard Edgcombe, knight, 
(1487) as ambassador to King James III, of Scotland. 
In which employment shewing himself to be a person of 
great prudence, for that he obtained a truce between 
the two kingdoms for the space of 7 years,J made the 
King have so great respect for him, that the Bishopric 
of Exeter falling void before his return from Scotl^rd, 
as I conceive, immediately conferred it on him, anno 
1486-7. 

Being now settled in that See, he behaved himself ia 
all respects befitting a true Prelate as well in office as 
life, and conversation. The effects of whose deeds there, 
being partly mentioned by another^ pen, I shall now 
pass by them and proceed. In the year 1491-2, when 
Robert Stiilington, Bishop of Bath and Wells, deceased, 
the King gave that Bishopric to him ; and he was trans- 
lated thereto by the authority of the buUe^f of Pope 
Innocent VIII., dated 6th id. Feb. the same year. In 
all which time none was in more favour with tlie King 
than he, and none whose counsel was more relied on than 
his: especially in those matters relating to the privilege 
and interest, that King Henry VII. challenged in the 
kingdom of Scotland. And that he might advantage 
himself in the knowledge of them, he left no history or 
chronicle of this nation uuconsulted ; and particularly one 
of John Rowse, the Warwick antiquary: of which, and 



* GodAvin in Comment, de proesul. Angl. in Winton. 

t Hall ut sup. in H. VII. 

t This wa» only a prolougation of the truce to Sept. 1, 1489.^ In 1497, 
however, the Bishop signed another truce tor 7 years. Rymer. Feed. Vol. 
J2. p. 330-673. 

§ Per John Vowell, alia.s HooUer, in Cat. suo, Episcop. Exon. 

\ Reg. Morton, Fol. 23. 



326 RICHARD FOX. 

the lending it out to Dr. Fox, he maketh mention in his 
book* (le Regibus Atii^l. with an excuse concerning the 
omission of some particulars therein — " hie multa alia 
inseruissem (saith he.)siquendam librum nieumhabuissem 
plenarie banc materiam tructantem, quem mutuo pro 
tempore traddi Reo' in X^- Patri et Dom^- Dom. R. 
Fox, in decretis D. Epo Excestriae, Custodi privati tunc 
Sigilli sub metuendissimo Principe Henry VII. rege 
Angliae, &c." 

But to return. — After he had continued in the See of 
Bath and Wells for the space of 3 years or thereabouts, 
he was preferred by the same hand to that of Durham 
in 1494 ; and, as he still ascended from a poorer to a 
richer, or from a worse to a better Bishopric, so he 
made the places themselves in relation to their edifices : 
for hef made several alterations in the hall or public 
refectory of the castle of Durham, that is to say, that 
whereas there were but two seats of regality, one in the 
upper and another in the lower part of the said hall, he 
left the upper only, and in the place of the lower he made 
a store-house or pantiy for provisions ; and over the said 
work made two seats or pews for the musicians in the 
time of services or refection. He built there also an 
account or checquer chamber, a large kitchen, and all 
houses of office over it ; as also, all the new work on the 
west side of the hall and kitchen. Furthermore, he 
began to build a hall, kitchen, and other edifices in the 
high tower to the said castle, but before they were per- 
fected, he was translated to Winton, by reason of the 
controversy that sprang between him and the Earl of 
Cumberland, concerning the right of Hertlepool. — "The 
said Castlelle of Durham stondith (as Leland± saith,) 
stately on the north-east side of the minster, and Were 
rennith under it. The kepe stondith aloft, and is stately 
builded of VIII. square fascion, and 4 highes (or stories) 
of logginges. Bishop Fox did much reparation of this 
dungeon; and he made beside in the castelle a new 
kychen with the offices, and many praty chaumbers, &c." 

What were his actions while he sat in this See, either 



* MS. in Bib. Cotton, p. 234. 

t Hist. Eccl. Duiiel. MS. in Bib. Bodl. Cap, 202. 

t Fol. i. Itin. MS. in Bib. Bodl. fol. 82. 



RICHARD FOX. 327 

in relation to his government or transactions between the 
clergy and gentry of his Diocese, I know not: for 
Durham hath been so ungrateful in that respect, that she 
iiath not endeavoured to preserve any monument or 
writing (except that before mentioned) in her registers, 
or public records, or acts done by this worthy Prelate. 

While he was Bishop of the said place, the Scots, it 
elsewhere* appears, had like to have broken the truce, 
and revived the wars between the two nations ; for they 
coming to Norham Castle, the Bishop's habitation, in- 
tended, if possible, to surprise it ; to which end, they 
came several times in private to view it, but the soldiery 
therein suspecting some evil meaning, sallied out and 
made them fly. The Scottish King being advertised of 
Ihis matter, was highly displeased, and in all haste sig- 
nified to the English King, how his soldiers who had no 
intentions for a reprisal, were treated, and therefore he 
had violated the truce. The King, to excuse the matter, 
relied upon Bishop Fox, owner of the castle, to perform 
what seemed good in such a matter. He thereupon, by 
letters written to him, interwoven witli expressions tending 
to a reconcilement, did at length appease his displeasure, 
and brought all things to such a pass, that the Scottish 
King wrote courteously to the Bishop again, signifying, 
that besides the matter then in hand, he had certain 
secrets to impart unto hun, and desired forthwith that he 
would come unto him. The Bishop, therefore, with his 
retinue journeyed into Scotland, where he was kindly 
received by the King in the Abbey of Mailross; and after 
much talk concerning the truce that was violated, the 
King at length told him, that all things would never go 
right until a firmer bond of peace was made ; and for 
the accomplishment thereof, he thought of no better 
remedy than that he should match himself to the lady 
Margaret, the King of England's eldest daughter, which 
he would the sooner do if he knew of the Bishop's mind 
therein.* After this communication was ended, the 
Bishop returned into England, and going forthwith to 
the court, declared to the King all the discourse that 



• Hall ut. sup. et in Holiush. in H. VII. 

+ This matter wa<i first nut into his head by one Peter Hialas, 9 Spanislj 
ambii5sador, then iu Englaad. 



328 RICHARD FOX. 

had passed between them. The King, therefore, seeming 
to like well of it, conceded at length to the match. Af- 
terward, to the great joy of both nations, they were 
married ; and upon their issue, King James VI. of 
Scotland and I. in England, took his lineal descent, and 
by virtue thereof obtained the English crown after the 
death of Queen Elizabeth : confirming thereby both 
kingdoms with an everlasting peace. 

Having had a happy success in this match, he was 
advised in the making up that between Prince Arthur 
and the lady Catherine, 4th daughter of Ferdinando and 
Isabella, King and Queen of Spain, anno 1502. Which 
being concluded, her entry into London, and the celebrity 
of the marriage was ordered and contrived by our Bishop; 
* who was not only a grave counsellor for war or peace, 
(as one* saith), but also a good surveyor of works, and a 
good master of ceremonies, and any thing else that was 
fit the active part belonging to the service of court or 
state of a great King.' Farther, also, I am to tell you, 
(which is a matter of observance), that the last act of 
state that concluded the temporal felicity of our King 
Henry VII. was the glorious match between his daughter 
Mary, and Charles, Prince of Castile, afterwards the 
great Emperor. Which treaty was perfected by Bishop 
Fox, and other commissioners at Calais, the year before 
the death of the King. And this with other things, I 
thought fit to let you know, because thence you might 
understand what great trust the King reposed on the said 
Bishop ; what love he had for him ; and how ready the 
Bishop always was to serve his lord and master to the 
utmost. 

It was now the l6th year of the reign of King Henry 
VII., (1500) at which time Thomas Langton, Bishop 
of Winton, deceased, in whose room the King imme- 
diately put Richard Fox ;* where being settled, spent 
the remainder of his time in great prosperity and plenty ; 



* Bacon in Life of King Henry VII. 

t Bishop Milner thus satisfactorily accounts for the Bishop's translatioB 
from Durham to Winchester, which is not a usual move : — " The King, 
finding that the Bishop's frequent absence at so great a distance as 
Durham from the Court, whilst he attended the affairs of his Diocese, was 
prejudicial to his service, and wishing to have his advice on all affairs of 
consequence, he in the same year that Langton died removed him to the 
See of Winton."— i/w/. PFint. 



RICHARD FOX. 329 

bestowing^ much money in buildings, reparations, and 
charitable uses : witness, besides his College at Oxford, 
his new chapel in the Cathedral of Winchester, (wherein 
he was afterwards buried j, appointing* that daily mass 
should be celebrated for his soul. Then his erection 
of a free school at Taunton castle, and convenient lodg- 
ings near it for the school master to dwell in. The like, 
he performed at Grantham : although his intentions were 
at one time to have* built the same at Ropesley, in a 
little grove joining to the house where he was born, but 
that place being but a village, and therefore unfre- 
quented, he altered his mind, and built it at Grantham 
aforesaid : which w as then, as now, a place of commerce 
and trading. 

As for this charity in giving exhibitions to several poor 
scholars, it was while he was Bishop of this See, very 
great.;}: Among them were those under the tuition of 
Richard Stubbles and Leonard Hutchinson of Balliol 
College ; the lirst afterwards master of the said College, 
and the other of that University, and both favoured by 
the same Bishop, Then, to Anthony Wilkins of New, 
and several of Magdalen College, besides others in the 
University; committing the charge of them to Mr. J. 
Claymond of Magdalen College ; who for the great love 
and amity which the Bishop had for him, saluted him in 
his letters directed to him, ' Brother,' and * dear brother.' 
He extended his charity in a large manner to the Abbot 
and Monks of Glastonbury ; for when John, the Abbot, 
in a letter to him complained much of the miserable and 
poor estate that he and his convent were in, (as indeed 
they were), he voluntarily^ lent, or rather as it should 
seem, gave them c£lOO. : which was paid to them by Mr. 
Claymond. Futhermore, also, it must not be forgotten 
that in the 3rd Henry VH,, when R. Fox sat Bishop of 
Exeter, he gave very largely towards the re-edification of 
St. Mary's Church in Oxford, then ready with age to 
fall to the ground ; for the chancellor and scholars then 
undertaking that matter, sent divers epistles for that 
purpose to all those Bishops and great men that were 
their ' old friends,' (as they then|| styled tliem), and such 

* Hist. Ecc. Dunel. ut sup. cap. 202. 

t Collect. B.TwyniMS. % Ibid- 

§ Collect. R. 'fwyni MS. || lu lib. Epistol, Uuiv. Ox. F. Bp. 2-10. 



530 RICHARD FOX. 

that had been students of this University ; among which, 
I find an* epistle to the said reverend Prelate for his 
benefaction, who, if he had been a stranger to them, 
and not bred up in that University, would never have 
had the confidence to be petitioners to him for a boon. 

What further is worthy of observation is, that after he 
had sat some years in the See of Winton, and before 
several books were dedicated to him as a worthy patron 
of learning ; among which, is, thalf entitled * De casu 
animae,' written by Aubrey Mantuan, a student of the 
University of Paris, whose epistle dedicatory being dated 
at Paris, on the kalends of Jan. 1509: hath several 
matters therein in commendation of this venerable Prelate: 
all which for brevity sake, I now pass by. One Richard 
CoUingwood, also, who wrote an arithmetical treatise, 
did dedicate it to him ; the original whereof being in MS. 
was given to this library on Mr. Twyne's desire, by Mr, 
Thos. Allen of Gloucester Hall. 

In one only mischance he was unfortunate, and that 
' was that he lived divers years blind before he died ;'\. so 
that finding thereby his end to approach, he considered 
how he might bestow his riches, as well for the public 
good as continuance of his memory. At length, after 
all things had been well considered and cast up, he pro- 
ceeded to perform his bounty at Oxford, to the end that 
some place there might be erected, wherein for the future 
might be educated persons in academical learning ; and 
having before had a promise of certain tenements whereon 
this work might be erected, and particularly from the 
warden and scholars of Merton College, (to whom he 
paid several^ sums of money by the hands of the said 
Mr. ClaymondJ, he began to build, employing in that 
work one Willam Vertue, Free-Mason, and Humphrey 
Cook, carpenter, masters of his works. 

In a short time after, being in considerable forwardness, 
an indenture'[[ dated the last day of June, 5 Hen, VIII., 
A.D. 1513, drawn between R. Fox, Bishop of Winton, 



• lb. Ep.363. t MS. in Bib. Thorn. Ep, Line. 

t He was blind about 10 years before his decease; however he attended 
the Parliament, 1523.— (Fulnian.) He died in 1528; and was buried in 
his New Chapel before mentioned. — (Ath. Ox. V. 1. 665.) 

$ Ut in Thesaur. hujus Coll. in py.\. A. 4. 2. % Ut in Tbes. &c. A. 4. 2. 



RICHARD FOX. 331 

on the one part, and Thomas Silkstede, Prior and the 
Convent of the Cathedral Church of St. Swythim, in 
Wiuton, on the other: whereby it was covenanted that 
in consideration of certain gifts of the said Bishop made 
to the said Prior and Convent, viz. several parcels and 
pieces of silk, cloths of gold, parcels of plate, altar cloths, 
copes, vestments, and books for the chon-, crosses, images, 
chalices, candlesticks for the. altar, ornaments, jewels, 
stuffs, &c. that they permit and grant to the said Bishop, 
that the said Prior and Convent or their successors shall 
obtain and purchase for them and their successors certain 
places and parcels of ground in Oxford, of Merton Coll. 
Nunnery of Godstow, Priory of St. Frideswvde, &c. 
Avherein also, it is further said, that the Bishopnad began 
to build on the said parcels a College for a warden, and 
a certain number of monks, and secular scholars ; that 
also, he intended to give and appropriate tenements, rents, 
and pensions, to the yearly value of jE\60. to the said 
Prior and Convent, for the use of the said College ; of 
which c£28. yearly revenues were then purchased by virtue 
of the King's licence contained in his letters patent ; that 
the said Prior and Convent were to maintain 4 monks 
from the said revenues, to be called the Bishop's scholar? ; 
every one of them professed within the said Monastery of 
St. Swythun ; and every of them also, being of conveni- 
ent age to learn and study in the sciences and faculties 
ensuing, viz. at 18 years of age at the least, to study and 
profit successively in sophistry, logic, philosophy, and 
divinity. Thai one of the said four should be warden of 
the said college ; that four Monks more also be nominated 
there by the said Prior and Convent, one to be called the 
Prior's Scholar, and the other tin-ee the Convent's 
Scholars, and all four to come from the said Monastery 
of St. Swythun. That also they were to give certain 
maintenance to officers or servants of the said college, as 
a manciple, two cooks, panller, lavender or laundress, 
barber, or servant that should serve the monks at the table 
in times of refection ; and stipends to the readers of logic, 
sophistry, and philosophy ; to a bible clerk that should 
read in the hall at times of refection, and a cleik that 
should serve in the chapel. 

Thus far the contents of the said indenture, by which 
we are given to understand that Bishop Fox did intend 
to make this college a nursery for the Moxiks of the Fiiory 



330, RICHARD FOX. 

or Cathedial of St. Swythun, in Wincliester, as Canter- 
bury anci Durham College were for the like use, namely, 
one for the novices of the Priory of Canterbury, and the 
other for those of Durham. And so it was, and for that 
purpose he had, on the I2th. of March, 4 Henry VHI. 
obtained* licence of the King to give to the Prior and 
Monks of Winton revenues to the yearly value of of 100. 
beyond all reprises, conditionally, that they maintain the 
number of Monks before expressed. But before his 
college was a quarter finished, his mind was altered, and 
upon conference had with Hugh Oldham, Bishop of 
Exeter, concerning his proposals of being a benefactor, 
conditionally, that he would make the said college a place 
for secular students, (as other colleges of Oxford were,) 
caused the said licence of settling .£100. per annum on 
the said Priory of St. Swythun, to be brought into chan- 
cery and cancelled. Afterward he proceeded in his 
buildings which he had began : the which, had the foun- 
dation intended at first been equal to his second thoughts, 
it had been larger, but being begun, it could not well be 
altered, which, in all probability, was the reason why he 
enlarged it afterwards by building the cloistei^chambers. 

This being done, therefore, partly upon the proposals 
of Oldham, but chiefly by his persuasions, who often 
answered the-f- founder when they discoursed of making 
this work a College for Monks, " what, my lord, shall we 
build houses and provide livelihoods for a company of 
bussing monks, whose end and fall we ourselves may live 
to see '? No, no, it is more meet a great deal that we 
should have care to provide for the increase of learning, 
and for such as by their learning shall do good to the 
Church and Commonwealth." The design was utterly 
lejected ; though he was much solicited to the contrary. 
And being now fully convinced, he proceeded to obtain 
the site of this college, which he before had bargained for, 
and had paid some of the money for the purchase. The 
first part which he, as it seems procured, was a tenement J 
with a garden called Corner Hall; and another with a 



* Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. part 2. 

t Holinshed in Chron. Sue 
7. Harrison, lib. 2. cap. 3. 

J Thesaur. huj. Coll. in pyx. A. 4. 3. 



t Holinshed in Chron. Suo. sub an. 1518. Vide in Descript. Ang. per 
W. Harrison, lib. 2. cap. 3. 



RICHARD FOX. 333 

garden called Nevyll's Inn. Also about the same time a 
garden which belonged to the bachelor fellows of Meiton 
College, called Bachelor's Garden, which before was 
included within the limits of the said college, containing 
now the most part of the gardens or walks belonging to 
the masters and bachelors of this college, granted Feb. 
10, 7 Hen. VIII. dom. 1515; for which ground Merton 
College was always to receive jE4. 6s. Sd, per ann. from 
Witney church, Oxfordshire ; of w hich church the founder 
as Bishop of Winton, was patron. 

After this was done, the Bishop obtained* licence of 
King Henry VIII. dated Nov. 26, an. reg. 8 dom. 1516: 
whereby it was granted to him that he might found a 
perpetual college for the learning of the sciences of 
divinity, philosophy, and good arts, for one president and 
thirty scholars, graduate and not graduate, or more or less 
according to the faculties of the place, on a pertain ground 
between the house or college of Merton on the east side, 
a lane near Canterbury college and a garden of the priory 
of St. Frideswyde on the west, a street or lane of the 
house or college of Oriel on the north, and the town-hall 
on the south, and withal that he might endow the said 
college with £350. yearly. 

The same year, January 15, he purchased-t another 
tenement of the nunnery of Godstow, called Nun Hall, 
for which the college was to pay to the said nunnery 4s. 
per ann. as a quit rent; and Feb. 12 following, he made 
a purchase of t Urban Hall and Bekes Inn of the Priory 
of St. Frideswyde, for which also the founder covenanted 
and granted that ^'l. 6s. 8d. per ann. should be paid to 
the said priory out of the rectory of Wroughton, Wilts. 

So that now all the site being clearly obtained, issued 
forth the foundation;^ charter of the college, dated at 
Wolvesey castle, Winton, Cal. Mar. 1516; whereby the 
pious founder doth to the praise and honour of God 
Almighty, the most holy body of Christ, and the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, as also of the apostles Peter, Paul, and 
Andrew, and of St. Cuthbert, St. Swythun, and St. 
Birin, patrons of the churches of Exeter, Bath and Wells, 

* lb, in eadeni Thes. in quadam cista ubi sigUlura CoUegii repoaitur. 

t lb. in ead. Thes. A. 4. 

t lb. § lb, t;t in ead,. Ci^it. ut iup. 



334 RICHARD FOX. 

Durham, and Winchester, (of which places he was suc- 
cessively Bishop) found and appoint this college (always 
to be called Corpus Christi College) for one president 
and thirty scholars, or more or less according to the ordi- 
nations and statutes to be made and composed. In the 
said charter the founder appoints Mr. John Claymond, 
B D. (one that had been intimately acquainted with him 
for 30 years) the president, Thomas Fox, his kinsman, 
scholar of arts, of the diocese of London, John Garth, 
M.A. of the diocese of Durham, Rich. Clarkson, M.A. 
of Co- York, Robert Tregvilian, B.A. of the diocese of 
Exeter, Thomas Welshe, sophister of the diocese of 
Winton, and Robert Hoole, sophister of C^- Lincoln, to 
be scholars and fellows of the said college, by him 
elected. 

As for the rest that were scholars and fellows (among 
whom Ludovicus Vives,* Nicholas Cratcher, a Bavarian, 
Edward Wotton,'t Richard Pates, afterwards Bishop of 
Worcester, and Reginald Pole, afterwards Archbisliop of 
Canterbury, were of the number) were taken in by the 
founder at the entreaty of noble persons, even till July 2, 
1524, being hi all, besides those mentioned ill the foun- 
dation charter 46. 

The next year following, viz. 1517, the founder gave 
his scholars statutes, which, on 20th. June the same year, 
were read, and then approved of by him in the church or 
chapel of the hospital of St. Cross, near Winton, in the 
presence of clerical and laical people. 

In them he appoints in this his new foundation, that 
there should always be 1 president, 20 fellows, 2 chap- 
lains, 2 clerks, and 2 choristers. The fellows are, accord- 
ing to the countries of their nativity to be thus distin- 
guished : four of the diocese of Winchester, viz. three of 
the county of Southampton, and one of the county of 
Surry :j: ; the diocese of Durham 1 ; Bath and Wells 2 ; 



* [LudovicusVives lodged in this College ; and, by tradition, was aftei- 
wards Humanity Reader to the same; but not mentioned in the register, 
nor did he stay long at Oxford. (Mr. William Fulmau's Animadversions 
and Notes on the Hist, and Antiq. of Oxou. Edit. Lat. 1674, among our 
Author's MSS. in the Ashra. Mus. D. y.)] 

t Edw. Wottou was first fellow of Magdalen, and put into tliis College, 
sociis compar, by the founder, with leave to travel into Italy for 3 years, 
Jan. 2, 1720-1. 

t The Oxford Uuiv. Calendar under C. C. C says 20 Hants and 3 Surry. 



RICHARD FOX. ^B5 

Exeter 2 ; of the county of Lincoln 2 ; Gloucester 2 ; 
Wilts 1 J Kent 2 ; Lancashire, where Hugh Oldham was 
born, 1 ; Bedford 1 ; and Oxon and Berks 1. 

As for the scholars they were according to the said 
Dioceses and counties, in like manner, to be distin- 
guished ; only that, whereas, there were to be 2 fellows 
of Kent, he appointed but 1 scholar of that place, and 
2 of Lancashire : but these were somewhat altered before 
the founder's death. 

He instituted also, three lectures to be performed by 
three of the said fellows, every week in the college hall, 
according as the statutes required. To which lectures 
the students of the University, as also, strangers were 
wont to repair. One was for humanity, which Lud. 
Vives before mentioned, read; the second for Greek; 
and the third for divinity. As for the two last, by whom, 
at first, they were performed, I find not, unless by John 
Clement, or Edward Wotton, or Robert Morwent, the 
vice-president. Howsoever it was, sure I am, that 
they were much frequented by the academics, as were 
the lectures about the same time of Cardinal Wolsey. 

In such an admirable condition was this College 
finished, endowed with plentiful revenues, settled with 
good government, and replenished with able men, that 
the fame thereof extended far and near, Erasmus, in 
an epistle of his, as I remember, written to John Clay- 
mond, the first president speaks very honourably of it 
thus: — *' Egregiam illam prudentiam suam, qua semper 
publicae famae prasconio commeudatus fuit Ric. Epus 
Winton. nuUo certiore argumento nobis declaravit quam 
quod Collegium magnificum suis impendiis extructum, 
tribus praecipuis linguis, ac melioribus Uteris vetustisque 
authoribus proprie consecravit," &c. 

Bishop Fox's grammar-school at Grantham is copiously 
treated of by Turnor. — He observes : — ** A spacious 
handsome stone building, 75 ft. by 30, and a commodious 
house, and offices for the master were erected on the 
north side of the church-yard, by Richard Fox, Bishop 
of Winchester. The foundation was augmented in 1553, 
by Edward VI. There is a tolerable portrait of the 
founder in the school-house. Sir Isaac Newton was of 
this school. For a copious account of this institution, 
see Tumor's CoUectiomfor the Hist, of the Town and Soke 
of Grantham, 4to. 1806, p. 39, illustrated by a plate 
representing the school. 



336 RICHARD FOX. 

Godwin thus notices this Prelate under his four 
Sees respectively. Edit, Richardson, p. 414. — Exeter. 
" XXVI. Successit Ricardus Foxus [1487, Henry VII. 
2] qui postquam hie loci sex annos sedisset, ad Ecclesiam 
Bathonensem et Wellensem translatus est, ac inde postea 
Wintoniam." — His editor adds in the notes that his tem- 
poralties were restored April 2, 1487. Rymer. XII. p. 
322. The Pope's bulle for his translation to Wells was 
dated Feb. 8, 1491. Registr. Morton. Therefore he 
could not have sat at Exeter as Godwin says, 6, but 4 
years. 

Bath and Wells. P. 384. "XL. Sufficitur Ri- 
cardus Foxus, Epus Oxon. qui hue translatus est mense 
Feb. 1491, [Hen. VII. 7.] et posttrienniumDunelmum." 

Durham, (p. 753.) '' XXXI. Ricardus Foxius in 
Episcopum Exoniensem, consecratus, 1486, [Here is a 
year's discrepancy, vide supra] ad sedem Bathonensem 
translatus 1491, [Bishop Godwin is therefore wrong, by 
his own shewing, in saying as above, 'sex annos;"] inde 
Dunelmum migravit 1494, ac Wintoniae tandem consedit 
1502. In castro interim Dunelmensi multa immutavit. 
Cum in aula ibidem duo antiquitus throni regales fuissent 
coUocati (sic appellatos invenio) in superior!, (viz. parte) 
unus atque ab inferiori itidem alius : inferiorem sustulit, 
et ibidem edifice quaedam excitavit. Novam porro aulam 
exorsus construere, et coquinam in magna turri ejusdem 
castri, Wintoniam translatus est, antequam opus ad 
umbilicum potuerit perducere. Vivarium denique am- 
plissimum prope Dunelnumi ad feras includendas muro 
satis excelso circumdedit. Sed de hoc inter Wintonienses 
habebis plura." His editor adds in the note, from Rymer' s 
Fcedera XII. 5QQ, that his temporalties were restored 
Dec. 8 ; and also a note froni Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 
P- 779, respecting the border difterences, and the Bishop's 
intervention in the procurement of the marriage between 
the Princess Margaret and King James of Scotland, 
Vide supra. 

Winchester. From the English edition of l6l5, p. 
245. "57 Richard Foxe, (1502, Henry VII. 18) at 
what time Henry, Earl of Richmond, abiding at VenicCj 
was requested by letters from many of the English 
Mobility to deliver his country from the tyranny of that 
wicked parricide Richard III., and to take on him the 
kingdom ; he, willing to furnish himself as well as he 
might for the setting forth of so great an enterprise, 



RICHARD FOX. 337 

detennined to crave aid of the French King. Coming 
therefore to Paris, he only recommended his suit to the 
King, and having manifold business elsewhere, he left 
the farther prosecution of this matter unto Richard Fox, 
(L.L.D., proceeded in Oxford, but incorporate in Cam- 
bridge, Nvhere he became Master of Pembroke Hall), 
that chanced to live a student in Paris at that time. 
Whether the Earl knew him before, or else discerned at 
the tirst sight as it were, his excellent wisdom, certain it 
is, he deemed him a fit man for the managing of this 
great affair. Neither was he any thing at all deceived in 
him : for the matter was followed with so great diligence 
and industry, as in a very short time all things were dis- 
patched according to the Earl's desire, who soon after 
obtaining the kingdom, mindful of the good service done 
him by Dr. Fox, preferred him immediately unto the 
keeping of the privy seal, made him secretary, and one 
of his counsel ; and laid upon him what spiritual living 
might possibly be procured him. In the meantime, he 
employed him continually either in matters of counsel at 
home, or in ambassages of great importance abroad. 
The 2nd year of King Henry's reign, he was sent into 
Scotland for the establishing of a peace with the King 
there; whence he wars scarcely returned when the Bishopric 
of Exeter falling void, it was bestowed upon hirn. He held 
it not past 6 years, [not so long]; but he was removed 
to Bath and VVells, and thence within 3 years after to 
Durham. There he staid 3 years ; and the year 1502 
was once more translated, viz. to Winton, where he spent 
the rest of his life in great prosperity. For jsuch was his 
favour with the King, as no man could evei' do so much 
with him : no man there was upon whose counsel he so 
much relied. Amongst other honours done unto him, it 
was not the least, that he made him godfather* unto his 
Cud son, afterwards King Henry VIII. In one only 
mischance he was unfortunate. He lived many years 
blind before he died. Whereby guessing his end not be 



* fin the account of this Prelate, f^etust. Monum. vol. II. this fact is 
denied ; and it is asserted that Fox was only the baptizing Prelate. The 
authority however there referred to, cannot be compared with that of 
the contemporary historian Harpsfield. Hist. Aug. Sac. XV. c. 20. 
Besides, Greenwich being out of the Diocese of Winton, it would not 
have been strictly regular our Prelate's performing the solemn rite 
which there took plijce.— Edit.] 



338 RICHARD FOX. 

far off, he determined to make unto himself friends of 
the unrighteous mammon, bestowing weH his goods 
while he lived. And first, he purposed to have bmilt a 
Monastery, until, that confening with Hugh Oldham, 
Bishop ot Oxon, a very wise man, he was advised by 
him rather to bestow his money upon the foundation of 
some College in one of the Universities, which should 
be more profitable unto the commonwealth, and more 
available to the preservation of his memory. As for 
Monasteries, quoth he, they have more already than they 
are like long to keep. So by the counsel of this wise 
Prelate, whose purse also was a great help to the 
finishing thereof, the College of Corpus Christi in 
Oxford, was built A.D. 15 16, and endowed by the 
said founder with possessions to the yearly value of 
£401. 8s. \]d. Afterward, in the year 1522, he be- 
stowed the cost of building a fair free-school by the 
castle in Taunton, (where the Bishop of Winton has a 
goodly lordship), and convenient housing near it for the 
school-master to dwell in ; the like he performed at Gran- 
tham also : in which place it is probable he mighi have 
been born ; lastly it is to be remembered that he covered 
the choir of Winton, the presbvtei;y and aisles adjoining 
with a goodly vault, and new glazed all the windows of 
that part of the church. It is said also that he built 
the partition between the presbytery and the said aisle, 
causing the bones of such Princes and Prelates as had 
been buried here and there, dispersed about the church, 
to be removed and placed in seemly monuments upon 
the top of the new partition. Many other notable things 
no doubt he did, which have not come unto my know- 
ledge. He was brought up in Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 
(unto which house he gave certain hangings) ; and died 
a very old man A.D. 1528, [Sept. 14, Richardson] when 
he had worthily governed the Church of Winton 27 years. 
He lieth intombed upon the south side of the high altar, 
in a monument rather sumptuous than stately, of the 
same building with the partition." 

Richardson in his notes to the Latin edition of 1 743, 
[int. Epos. Wint.] p. 235, adds that the Bishop was 
Master of Pembroke Hall a little before 8th of the ides 
of Aug. 1507, while Bishop of Winton. He resigned 
the headship in May 1519. He was Chancellor of Cam- 
bridge for 2 years, viz. in 1500 and 1501. He had the 



RICHARD FOX. 339 

•Winton temporalties restored Oct. 17, 1500. Pat. l6 
Henry VII. p. 2, m. 13. The Bishop, adds Richardson, 
was remarkable for 3 things. I. He recommended to 
King Henry his marrying his brother's widow. II. He 
contended with other Bishops concerning the prerogative 
of Canterbury, against Archbishop Warham, and to the 
prejudice of the See. III. When about to take his 
farewell of the court, he recommended Wolsey, his 
chaplain, afterwards Bishop, Archbishop, and Cardinal ; 
and Wra. Paulet, steward of the estates belonging to the 
See of Winton, afterwards lord high treasurer, and first 
Marquess of Winchester, &,c. [The present Marquess 
-is 8th in descent from this William, the lirst peer brought 
into notice by Bishop Fox. — Edit.] 

Wharton (Aug. Sac. 1. 319,) observes, " De Ricardo 
Foxo a sede Dunelmensi ad VVintoniensem post Langtoni 
obitum translate rebusque ab illo Wintoniae gestis nil habeo 
quod adjiciam Godvini dictis, nisi quod anno 1528, 14th 
Sept. obierit. 

He is thus noticed by Fuller, Wo7ihies, vol. II. p. 11. 
edit. 1811: — "Richard Fox was born at Granthani, 
[Ropesley near] Lincolnshire, as the fellows of his foun- 
dation in Oxford have informed me. Such who make it 
their only argument to prove his birth at Grantham, 
because he therein erected a fair free school, may, on the 
same reason conclude him born at Taunton, in Somerset, 
where he also founded a goodly grammar-school. But 
what shall I say ? ' Ubique nascitur qui orbi nascitur' ; 
he may be said to be born every where, who, with I'ox, 
was born for the public and general good. He was very 
instrumental in bringing King Henry VII. to the crown, 
who afterwards well rewarded him for the same. That 
politic prince, (though he could go alone as well as any 
King in Europe yet) for the more state, in matters of 
moment, leaned principally on the shoulders of two priny? 
Prelates, having Archbishop Morton for his right, and 
this Fox for his left supporter, whom at last he made 
Bishop of Winton. He was bred first in Cambridge 
[incorrect] where he was president of Pembroke-Hall, 
(and gave hangings thereunto with a Fox woven therein) 
and afterwards in Oxford. [Fuller is wrong in this ; it 
was exactly vice versa. He was first of Oxford, after- 
wards of Cambridge,] where [at Oxford] he founded 
the fair college of C. C. (allowing per annum to it 

z2 



540 RICHARD FOX. 

J!40\. Si', lid.) which hath since been the nursery of so 
many eminent scholars. He expended much money in 
beautifying his Cathedral in Winton, and methodically 
disposed the bodies of the Saxon Kings and Bishops 
(dispersedly buried in this church) in decent tombs 
erected by him on the walls on each side the choir; 
which some soldiers (to shew their spleen at once against 
crowns and mitres) valiantly fighting against the dust of 
the dead, have since barbarously den^olished. Twenty- 
seven years he sat Bishop of this See, 'till he was stark 
blind with age. All thought him to die too soon: one 
only excepted, who conceived him to live too long, viz. 
Thomas Wolsey, who gaped for his Bishopric, and en- 
deavoured to render him [obnoxious] to the displeasure 
of King Henry VHI., whose malice this Bishop, though 
blind, discovered, and in some measure defeated. He 
died A. D. 1528; and lies buried in his own Cathedral." 

Tanner in his Notitia records, under Oxfordshire 
XXIII.9: "Corpus Christi College. Richard Fox, 
Bishop of Winton, in the year 1513 began a College, 
which he at first designed for student black monks, as a 
seminary to the Cathedral Priory of Winton, but was 
dissuaded from settling it so by Hugh Oldham, Bishop 
of Exon, who became a great benefactor to the buildings 
of this house, which was finished in the year 1516, and 
dedicated to the honour of the most holy body of Christ, 
of St. Peter, and St. Paul, St. Andrew, St. Cuthbert, 
and St. Swithun, the patron saints of his four Bishoprics, 
Exeter, Wells, Durham, and Winchester," 

Here we may subjoin from Leland's Winchester Ecc. 
Cath : Richardus Foxe, Epus Wint. fecit testitudines 
chori, templi et presbyterii, invitreavit omnes fenestras 
ejusdem partis templi, fecit particionem inter presby- 
terium et insulas abjacentes, in cacumine cujus posuit 
ossa principum &, preesulum ibi sepultorum in novis 
sarcophagis." — Coll. 1. 11(3. 

Sir Robert Atkyns in his Hist. Gloucestershire, under 
Guiting Temple, observes, that the manor was purchased 
by Dr. Richard Fox, Bishop of Winton, and by him 
given to Corpus Christi College, Oxon : the president 
and fellows of which are the present lords of the manor, 
and keep a court-leet, p. 449. The author takes the 
opportunity of extolling the character of the Bishop, ^nd 
gives an outline of his career. 



RICHARD FOX. 341 

The following observations by Bishop Milner, as they 
refer to some circumstances not noticed by the foregoing- 
authorities, must not be omitted : — " At length, either 
mortiiied at finding himself supplanted by Wolsey, whom 
he had introduced to the Kmg's service, or else being 
desirous of consecrating the latter end of his life to the 
concerns of religion, certain it is, that he retired to hjs 
Cathedral city, [Harpsfield] and applied himself ex- 
clusively to this object. He was unbounded in his 
charities to the poor, whom he assisted with food, clothes, 
and money: at the same time exercising hospitality and 
promoting the trade of the city, by a large establishment 
which he kept up at Wolvesey of 220 servants, being 
all men. He was also indefatigable in preaching the 
word of God to his people, and in exciting his clergy to 
Jhe performance of the same duty. The public works 
which he is known to have left behind him, suffice to 
prove the greatness both of his genius and his beneficence. 
The most celebrated of these is C. C. C. Oxford, which 
he built and founded, endowing it, not with ecclesiastical 
property, as had frequently been done in similar instances, 
but with estates which he purchased for this express 
purpose. Having finished this seminary, he industriously 
drew to it some of the most celebrated scholars of the 
age : such as Ludovicus Vivez, the divine ; Nicholas 
Crucher, the mathematician ; Clement Edwards and 
Nicholas Utten, professors of Greek ; likewise, Thomas 
Lupset, Richard Pace, and Reginald Pole, who was 
afterwards Cardinal: [Harpsfield] men of the greatest 
distinction for learning and talents. He extended his 
charity and munificence to many other foundations, par^ 
ticularly within his own Diocese ; amongst others, the 
enchanting ruins of Netley Abbey, still attest that he 
was a benefactor to that monastery. But the monuments 
which tend chiefly to embalm his memory in the city of 
Winton, are those great and beautiful works, both withiu 
its Cathedral and on the outside of it, which have hardly 
been equalled in their kind, and never surpassed.* 

** During the last 10 years of his life it pleased the 



• Harpsfield and Godwin mention only Fox's decorations within the 
Church ; yet, that he was the author of the outsfde work here ascribed to 
bim, is evideutly proved by his image and devices in various parts of it. 



342 RICHARD FOX. 

Almighty to deprive him of sight. Far however, from 
siukJnof under this trial or relaxing in his zealous efforts, 
the only use he made of this deprivation was to apply 
himself more assiduously to prayer and meditation, which 
at length became almost uninterrupted, both day and 
night. [Harpsfield.] In 1528 he finished his pious 
couise ; and was buried in that exquisite chantry which 
he had prepared amongst his other works for that purpose, 
immediately behind the high altar, on the south side."* 

Portraits. — The portraits of the Bishop are thus 
noticed by Grainger: '' Richardus Fox,episcopusWinton. 
Henrico septimo et octavo a secret ioribus, et privati sigilli 
ciislos. Coll. Corp. Christi Oion. Fundator, A'^- £)"'• 
1516. Johannes Corvus Flandrus J'aciebat ; Vertue sc. 
1723. In Fiddes's Life of Cardinal Wolsei/." 

He is represented blind, which calamity befel him at 
the latter end of his life. The original picture is at 
C. C. C. Oxon. 

Richardus Fox; ^t. 70; G. Glover, sc. Richardus 
Fox ; JEt. 70 ; Start, sc. Richardus Fox ; a small 
oval. — Another for Dr. Knight's " Life of Erasmus." 
Richardus Fox, &c. J. Faber f. large 4to. mezz. one 
of the set of founders. 

This Prelate who was successively Bishop of Exeter, 
Bath and Wells, Durham and Winchester, was employed 
by Henry VII. in his most important negociations at 
home and abroad; and was in his last illness appointed 
one of his executors. He was also at the head of affairs 
in the beginning of this reign, Henry VIII. ; but about 
the year 1515 retired from court, disgusted at the insolence 
of Wolsey, whom he had helped to raise. Ob. 14, Sept. 
1528."— Biog. Hist. Eng. vol. i, p. 95. 

S>/7iopsis of Preferments : 
Prebendary of Bishopston, Sarum Cathedral after 1473 ; 
resigned 1485. 

Prebendary of South Grantham, in Sarum Cathed."^ 
Vicar of Stepney. j 



Secretary to King Henry VII. )>1485. 

Prebendary of Brounswode. | 

Privy Councellor to Henry VII. J 



* The last quoted author who enlarges with so much unction on the 
merits of Bishop Fox, testifies that he was present at his funeral, being 
then a student in Wintou College. 



OAO 



RICHARD FOX. 34 

Bishop of Exeter 1486-7. 

Keeper of the Privy Seal I486. 

Ambassador to King James III. King of Scotland 1487. 

Bishop of Bath and Wells 1491-2. 

Bishop of Durham 1494. 

Chancellor of the University of Cambridge 1500-1. 

Bishop of Winton. 1500, (Wood) who is right. (Sic 

Patent Rolls.) Godwin says 1502. 

Master of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 1507 res. 1519. 

The following extract from the History of Durham, 
by Mr. Surtees, though comprising several circumstances 
already detailed, well deserves a place in this sketch : — 
** Richard Fox was translated to Durham from Bath and 
Wells Dec. 7, 1494, and received the temporalties next 
day. He was born at Ropesley, in the county of 
Lincoln, and was the son of Thos. Fox, a person of mean 
circumstances. He was educated as a scholar on the 
foundation of Magdalen College, Oxford : but the plague 
breaking out there, he retired to Cambridge, and became 
a member of Pembroke Hall. He afterward studied iu 
divinity and the canon law at Paris, where he received 
the degree of L.L.D. It does not appear whether his 
leaving England was at first prompted by any political 
reason ; but in France he became acquainted with 
Morton, Bishop of Ely, a deep and subtle politician, 
who was one of the main springs in the revolution that 
effected the fall of Richard III,, and raised the Earl of 
Richmond to the crown. — Morton saw how serviceable 
Fox's talents might prove to any party in which he could 
be brought to engage ; he introduced him to the secret 
counsels of Richmond, and he was soon after entrusted 
with the delicate charge of negociating with Charles 
VIII. of France, for a supply of troops and money for 
the projected invasion of England. He conducted the 
business with admirable secrecy and success. Immediately 
after the battle of Bosworth, Fox's services were re- 
warded by his being raised to the rank of a privy coun- 
sellor." Leiand thus notices these transactions : — 
* Quem rex summo favore complexus est, quia illius 
solummoda gratia Carolus VHI. Gallorum rex ilium 
adhuc comitem Richmondije idq ; exulantem ad reguum 
contra Richardum tyrannum repetendum auxiliaribus 
copiis relevabat. Hinc sub eodem rege fuit custos privati 
sigUU, Secretarius, et a sanctioribus conciliis legatus iu 



344 RICHARD FOX. 

Scotiam.' *'He was soon after collated to the prebend 
of Bishopston, in the Cathedral of Sarum; and in the 
following year to that of South Grantham, in the same 
Church. In 1487 he was consecrated Bishop of Exeter, 
and made keeper of the privy seal. In 1491 he was 
translated to Bath and Wells, and from thence to Dur- 
ham in 1494. Whilst Bishop of Bath and Wells he 
was one of the sponsors for Prince Henry, afterwards 
Henry VIII. From the See of Rome he had the title 
of apostolical legate in the realm of Scotland ; and 
in 1500 the University of Cambridge elected him their 
chancellor. He was also secretary of state ; master of 
the hospital of St. Cross near Winchester ; and in 1505 
accepted the mastership of Pembroke College in Cam- 
bridge. From the time of Bishop Fox's promotion to 
Durham, the whole management of the north and of 
the Scottish border was committed to his charge. Under 
all the changes of both governments, peace betwixt the 
two nations had been preserved by repeated treaties ; 
(Ri/mer. Fadera. XII. 554-5) and in 1494, the Bishop 
of Durham met the Scotch commissioners at Coldstream, 
to treat of a renewal of the truce and of a mutual repara- 
tion for the damages inflicted by the borderers, whose 
incursions no public treaties could restrain. ( Fader a, 
ib. p. 568.) The attempt to negociate proved fruitless j 
and in 1495, Henry was alarmed by the favourable re- 
ception of Warbeck at the Scotch court. The northern 
powers from Trent to Tweed were called out under 
the Earl of Surry, lieutenant for the infant Duke of 
York, and the Bishop of Durham received a commission 
of array, not only for his own province but for Nor- 
thumberland, Tyndale, Redesdale, and the east marches. 
The names of the Earl of Surry and of some of the 
northern nobles were added to grace the commission, 
but the King's private confidence was entirely reposed 
in the Bishop, who had secret instructions empowering 
him to act alone. (Fcedera.) 

At the same time Henry, who never took up arms 
without an attempt to negotiate, and whose favourite 
project was to preclude assistance to Warbeck, and 
secure the future peace of the north by a matrimonial 
alliance with the Scotch monarch, commissioned the 
Bishop of Durham to treat of peace, and to propose to 
King James the acceptance of the Princess Margaret of 



RICHARD FOX. 345 

England in marriage. The project was at that time 
unsuccessful : King James crossed the borders and plun- 
dered part of Northumberland, but retired on the ap- 
proach of Surry's army. In the following summer King 
James laid seige to Norhani in person, whilst divisions 
of his troops scattered themselves over the adjacent 
country. The Bishop who had foreseen the storm had 
repaired the works, and stationed a brave garrison in 
the place well armed and provided; and as soon as he 
heard of the attack, hastened to the borders, and eluding 
the vigilance of the besiegers entered the fortress at the 
head of a small but determined band of followers. His 
precaution did not end here ; his power and influence 
liad prevailed on the borderers to place all their strong 
holds in a slate of defence ; their cattle and effects were 
drawn within the walls, and the marauding invaders were 
disappointed of their spoil. Norham Castle, meanwhile, 
resisted several hot assaults, and after a gallant defence 
of 16 days, the shattered fortress, after most of its out- 
works were beaten down, was relieved by the Earl of 
Surry, who pursued the retreating Scots across the Tweed. 
(Uolinshed.) Bishop Fox's peculiar attention to the 
border service is evinced by the unerring testimony of 
records still extant. He fulminated a sentence of ex- 
communication against the robbers of Tynedale and 
Redesdale, and ni particular against the vagrant priests 
who accompanied these lawless hordes from place to 
place, amidst the wilds of Northumberland, partaking 
in their plunder, and mingling reliques of barbarism with 
the rites and sacraments of the christian Church. In 1498 
appears an absolution dated at Norhani Sept. 25, granted 
by name to several of these free-booters who had accepted 
the Bishop's mercy. The latter instrument bears date 
at Norham Castle, and the reclaiming of these borderers 
may be fairly attributed to the Bishop's personal presence 
and influence.* 

In 1497 a truce for seven years was concluded with Scot- 
land under the mediation of Peter D' Ayala, the Spanish 
envoy at the court of England. (Fadera XII, 677.^ 



* The wiiole record printed from Bishop Fox's register may be seen ia 
the introduction to the iMinstrelsy of the Scotch Border. Appendix No. 
7 of Surtees'^ Durham. — And see a practical illustration iu the Life of 
Gilpin. Part ii, p. 66, 



346 RICHARD FOX. 

The Bishop of Durham, Walsham, Master of the Rolls, 
and John Cartington, sergeant at law, were the English 
commissioners ; and the Bishop's name stands also at the 
bead of the English list of conservators, who were ap- 
pointed with full powers to redress injuries and punish 
offenders on the marches. The truce was afterwards 
prolonged for the joint lives of the two sovereigns, and 
ratified in Stirling Castle July 20, 1499. But the in- 
strument was scarcely executed when an accidental quarrel 
between some young Scotchmen whom curiosity had 
drawn to visit Norham, and the soldiers of the garrison, 
threatened a renewal of hostilities. (Holimhed.) Several 
lives were lost; and the Scotch King indignant at the 
delays which he experienced from the English wardens, 
sent his herald to Henry to demand instant satisfaction 
for the insult or to denounce war. The Bishop, with 
admirable policy, took upon himself the whole charge of 
tendering reparation for the outrage which had occurred 
within the walls of his own fortress. His mild and con- 
ciliatory offers softened the fiery spirit of James, who 
requested a personal interview. They met at the Abbey 
of Melrose, and not only were all existing differences 
terminated, but the Bishop succeeded in awakening 
James to a sense of his true interest ; he consented to a 
permanent alliance between the two kingdoms, and 
requested the Bishop's favourable intercession in obtain- 
ing for him the Princess Margaret of England. ( Fa'dera 
Xll. 729-) The peace was finally concluded in ]502; 
and in June, the young bride gallantly attended, com- 
menced her progress to the north. Siie was received 
on the borders of the Bishopric by the high sheriff, and 
was entertained for three days at Durham, where a splen- 
did feast was given in the hall of the Castle July 23, the 
anniversary of Fox's installation.* 

The Bishop had already been translated to Winton 
on the festival of St. Faith Oct. 6, ]501. 

* The Princess rested at Northallerton in the Bishop's manor house, 
and it seems that there Bishop Fox met her. At Neoham she was 
received on crossing the Tees, by Sir Ralph Bowes, Sir William Hilton, 
&c. See '' the Fiancells of the Princciss Margaret, byYounge, Somerset 
Herald." Leland. Collect, iii, 258-297.— Bishop Fox was not less dis- 
tinguished for conducting a pageant than a uegociation : for a little 
before, " Bishop Fox, who was not only a grave counsellor for warreov 
peace, but also a good surveyor of workes, and a good master of cere- 
luonyes," was enjployed to superintend the reception of the Princess 
Catherine of Spain.— iJaco«. See Leland Collect, v. 



RICHARD FOX. 347 

It seems difficult to account for the King's removal of 
so faithful a servant from the important post which he 
had occupied with so much fidelity; but the peace of 
the north seemed in consequence of the late alliance, 
more secure than at any fornier period, and the Bishop 
might desire in advancing years, a residence in a country 
of milder manners, and in a southern climate. Chambre 
adds, that his Ioniser residence at Durham was rendered 
irksome by a violent dispute which had arisen between 
tlie See of Durham and the Earl of Cumberland, for the 
])Ossession of Hartlepool. 

The Bishop was one of the Executors of Henry VII. 
A new race of favorites arose under his son, a Sovereign 
of a very different character; yet, in 1510, the Bishop, 
with the Earl of Surry and Bishop Ruthall of Durham, 
concluded a short-lived peace with Lewis XII. of France ; 
and in 1513, he attended the King in his expedition to 
France, and was present at the taking of Terouenne. 
His last public employment was the negociation of a 
treaty with the Emperor Maximilian. The rising 
fortunes of Wolsey, whom Fox had himself introduced to 
the royal favor, bore no competitor; and in 1515, the 
Bishop resigned the privy seal and retired to his diocese. 
His attention was fixed in his latter years on the foundation 
of some religious or academic institution ; and being 
deeply offended with the conduct of the members of his 
own College (Pembroke Hall,) of which he resigned the 
headship in 1518, he became the munificent founder of 
the College of Corpus Christi in Oxford, where scholar- 
ships are appropriated to natives of the diocese of Durham. 
He was also the Founder of the Free Grammar Schools 
of Taunton and Grantham. 

Bishop Fox was afflicted with blindness for many years 
before his death ; but under the pressure of age and 
infirmity, his spirit remained unbroken ; and he replied 
to Wolsey, who wislied him to resign his bishopric of 
AV'inton for a pension, " that though he could no longer 
distinguish white from black, yet could he discriminate 
right from wrong, truth from falsehoodj and could well 
discern the malice of an ungrateful man, he warned the 
proud favorite to beware, lest ambition should render him 
blind to his approaching ruin ; bade him attend clo^ier to 
the King's business, and leave Winchester to the care of 
her Bishop." 



348 RICHARD FOX. 

The good Prelate died in 1 528, and was interred in 
his own chapel in Winton Cathedral, where his tomb still 
exhibits an exquisite specimen of the richest style of 
Gothic sepulchral architecture. Chambre, p. 779, thus 
describes it: " Capellam apud Winton magnificis sumpti- 
bus constructam erexit, et ibidem honoratissime sepultus 
jacet ; cujus imago cum artificio in lapide efformata 
ibidem conspicitur." The effigy is a skeleton. See 
Cough's Sepulchral Monuments and Milnet's Winton. 

Bishop Fox's public works within the diocese of 
Durham were not numerous. He made some alterations 
*in the great hall of the castle of Durham, to which he 
added a music gallery, and removing a seat of state from 
the lower end, converted the space into offices. He built 
also a kitchen and steward's room to the west of the hall. 
He had conceived the design of restoring the great tower 
of Durham Castle, but left the work unfinished on his 
translation to Winton. He is said to have enclosed the 
deer park at Auckland. Bishop Fox appears to have 
been extremely jealous of any diminution of the Palatine 
rights ; and in his 5th. year he issued a writ of Quo 
Warranto directed to the sheriff of Durham, summoning 
all persons claiming court-leet, court-baron, or other 
liberty or franchise within the regalities of the Bishop of 
Durham, to produce and justify their titles. It is 
probable the writ was never carried into execution, for no 
return appears on the rolls. 

I shall close my memoir of this Prelate with the follow- 
ing extract from Harpsfield, his contemporary. Sac 
X V^. c. 20. p. 643. 

" Natus ees Richardus in Comitatu Lincolniae apud 
Grantoniam. Cum in literis egregie profecisset, sacer- 
dotio jam initiatus Lvitetiam Parisiorum, ad majorem 
doctrinae accessionem profectus est. Tbi dum versatur, 
Henricus Comes Richemundiai illuc venit, suppetias 
petitum a Carolo Rege adversus Regem Richardum, qui 
Richard um ob ingenium et probitatem, sibi inter intimos 
adjunxit, et ab eo tempore magis ac magis indies coluit et 
observavit: deturbatoque deinde Richardo, ad intimum, 
consilium Richardum ascivit ; et secretarii ut appellant, 
munus illi mandavit. Exoniensi primum Episcopatu 
honestatus est. Legavit eum Henricus alias in Scotiam, 
alias in Galliam, in Scotiam quidem, ut inducias cum 
Jacobo Rege pacisceretur, quas et pactus est. In Galliam 



RICHARD FOX. 349 

vero, ut foedus cum Carolo iniietur, quod et initum est. 
Bathoniensi atque Wellensi deinde, atque postea Dunel- 
nensi Episcopatu auctus est. Dum Dunelmi versatur, et 
rixa quadam inter Anglos et Scotos oita, quidanj ex 
Scotis coesi sunt. Et cum periculum esset, ne inducioe 
antea initae, ea occasione rescinderentur, missus est Rich- 
ardus in Scotiam ad rem omnem pacificandam. Quo 
tempore Jacobus cupide se nuptias Margaritas majoris 
iiatu Henrici filiae appetere ostendit, nee ita multo post, 
desideratis nuptiis potitus est. Sed cum Rex Richardi 
desiderium, et tarn longe dissitam absentiam zequo animo 
non ferret, curavit, ut mortuo, sicat dictum est, Thoma 
Langtono, Wintoniam accerseretur, ut frequientiore ejus 
opera et consilio uteretur. Quem deinde secretiori sue 
consilio praefecit et in ejus potissimum fide et prudentia 
acquiescebat, adeo ut cum octennio postea in fata conce- 
deret, nuUius magis fidei adolescenten filium Henricum 
atque successorem, quam Ricardi commendavit cujus erat 
patrinus, at * appellamus, et sponsor pro eo, cum sacro 
baptismate expiaretur ; eique etiam permultis postea 
annis a consiliis fuit, donee obrepens senectus, hujus 
modi cum solicitudinibus renunciare et sibi suaeque 
parochicB atque diocesi accuratius intendere admoneret. 

Wintoniam itaque venit et longa absentiae suae damna, 
accurata quadam, exquisitaque omnis Episcopalis numeris 
diligentia, famelias animas sacris, per se et suos, con- 
cionibus et tenuiores homines alimentis, ceterisque rebus 
vitae necessariis destitutos, cibis, vestitu, pecuniis, fovens 
resarcivit. C unique decennio ante obitum ad patientiam 
illius exerceudam, ut olim Tobize, oculorum ei usum 
Deus ademisset, eo copiosius et intensius auimae illius, 
quod exterius oculis deerat, lumen benigne adauxit, 
Quare omni jam quasi impedimento abrupto, totus die 
noctuque orationibus, et sacris meditationibus affigitur ; 
de pauperibus prolixius etiam solito meretur. Multa 
etiam, eaque praeclara atque illustria pietatis suae, etiam 
post obitum reliquit monumenta. In Comitatu Somer- 
seti apud oppidum Tantoniam grammatices Scholam 
construxit, et ludimagistro de idoneo aunuatim stipendio 
prospexit. Nee difficile beneficium in eo oppido, ubi 
natus est, posuit. Chorun principis suai ecclesiae mag- 
nis impensis ornavit, in qua et sacellum, ut ibi humaretur, 
construxit. Cavitque ut duo sacerdotes eo loci suam et 
omnium in Christi fide obeuntium, animas perpetuis 



350 RICHARD FOX. 

precibus Deo commendarent, singulis decern anniia* 
libras attiibuens. Numerosam et amplissimam quotidie 
familiam riucentorum videlicet et viginti hominum aluit. 
Keque quisquam ex lUis erat, eui minus^ yigenti aureis 
praeter unius anni commeatum, post obitum in testamento 
legavit. Ceteris vero, pro singulorum meritis et con- 
ditione, prolixius consuluit. Pecuniam autem quam 
singulis assignavit, in totidem crumenis, ascriptis singu- 
lorum, quibus ilia attribuebatur nominibus reposuit. Sed 
cajtera illuis beneficia, quamvis magnifica et ampla, 
insigne illud, quos Oxonii posuit, collegium longe supe- 
ravit. In quo tres ille publicas prajlectiones, unam sacrae 
Theologize, secundam Latinae, tertiam vero Grecae linguae 
instltuit. Et ne deessent, qui in hoc quasi opinio quodam, 
et foecuudo bonarum artium agio optima semina screrent, 
celebrem ilium Ludovicum Vivem Hispanum hue advo- 
cavit, qui Theologiam magna cum laude, magnoque totius 
Academise fructu professus est, ob res vero mathematicas, 
insignem ilium Nicolaum Crucherum ; prima vero linguae 
Grec2e semina jacta sunt per Clemeutem, Dayidem, Ed- 
uardes, et Nicholaum Utton medicos. Cujus ibiluculenter 
ejit professorem, cum ego primum ad academiam advent- 
abam, Nicolaus Schreprevus. In banc societatem, pi-ae- 
ter alios, allecti sunt Tiiomas Lupsetus egregie eruditus, 
Ricardus Paceus, Wigorniensis deinde Epus, et lumen 
non nostrae modo Britanniae, sed et totius nostri saeculi 
Reginaldus Polus Cardinalis, et Cant. Arpns. Praesidem 
vero societati suae dedit Joannem Claimundum, in quo 
sin^ularis pietas cum pari doctrina certabat; et huic 
prolcimum locum Roberto Morwento qui et prajfecturam 
post obitum Joannis ut prius Epus praescripserat, suscepit. 
lUud vero ex magna prudentia Epi profectum est, quod 
nuUas Ecclesiasticas possessiones, sed profanas solum ; 
illudque etiam ex pari in sacro-sanctam eucharistiam pie- 
tate et reverentia manavit, quod Collegio suo Corporis 
Christi nomen attribuit. Commutavit tandem pius vir 
iste mortal em banc et caducam cum ccelesti et im- 
mortali vita, ad annum nostrae redemptionis CIO. 10. 
XXVIII. Quo ego tempore, me admodum puerum 
exequiis et funeri ejus interfuisse memini, ad prima 
literarum elementa illic haurienda, a parentibus Wm- 
toniam Londino missum." 

Some notices of Bishop Fox may be found in Chaund- 
ler's Wayntlete. The index thus refers to him:— "Fox 



WOLSEY. 351 

Richard, joins the party of the Earl of Richmond, p. 
213 — made a Bishop and Lord Privy Seal, 214 — was a 
benefactor to Magdalen College. lb. Obtains for that 
college a license of mortmain, 26l. — Intimacy between 
him and president Claymond, 262." 



XXIV. THOMAS WOLSEY. 

Succeeded A. D. 1528.— Died A.D. 1530. 

"Speak thou, whose thoughts at humble peace repine, 
" Shall Wolsey's wealth with Wolsey's end be thine ? 

Johnson. 

The following life was written by the Cardinal's Gen- 
tleman Usher, Cavendish, but whether he were George 
Cavendish of Glemsford, orSirWm. Cavendish* does not 
yet appear to be decided. The christian name in the 
superscription to some of the MS. copies is George. 
Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Wanley, and Douce, in his 
illustrations of Shakspeare, attribute the work to George, 
while Bishop Kennet in his memoirs of the family of 
Cavendish, Collins in his Peerage, Birch (No. 4233, 
Ayscough's Catalogue, British Museum) and Campbell, 
ascribe it to Sir William ; to this ascription, however, 
Dugdale and Margaret Duchess of Newcastle do not 
assent. The reader who is curious on this point may 
consult a little work published a few years since by Mr. 
Jos. Hunter, of Bath, entituled " Who wrote Cavendish's 
Life of Wolsei/ ?" in which this point is gravely discussed. 

The work itself was known only by MSS. and by 
extracts inserted in Stow's annals, from the reign of Queen 
Mary, in which it was composed, till the year 1641, when 
it was first printed in 4to. under the title of The negotiations 
of Thomas Wolset/, containing his life and death, &,c. 

The chief object of the publication was to draw a 
parallel between the Cardinal and Archbishop Laud, in 
order to reconcile the public to the murder of that orthodox 
prelate. That this unworthy object might be the better 

* Sir William was father of the first Earl of Devonshire, whose great 
grandson was the first Duke of Devonshire, so created in 1694. Sir 
William tlie supposed autlior of the life of Wolsey, was founder of the 
ducal family ot Cavendish, and from him the present Duke is ninth in 
direct lineal descent. 



353 WOLSEY. 

accomplished, the MS. was mutilated and interpolated 
without shame or scruple : and the work passed for 
genuine above a century : no pains having been taken to 
compare the printed edition with the original. 

The present may be considered a faithful reprint, with 
the exception of some little matter chiefly consisting of 
historical disgressions and frivolously minute details, 
wholly unconnected with the subject of the memoirs. I 
have availed myself of some of Dr. Wordsworth's notes. 
No apology, I presume, is necessary for having divested 
Cavendish's narrative of much of its quaintness and 
tautology: nor for having modernized his spelling and 
corrected his numerous grammatical errors, which is done 
without the parade of a note. 

I have endeavoured to supply, in a synopsis at the end 
of this reprint, the deficiencies of Cavendish, as to dates, 
and have recorded some preferments and leading cii cum- 
stances of VVolsey's life omitted by his Biographer. The 
Cardinal's life has been written also by Fiddes, Grove, 
Gait, &c. 

A very good sketch may be read in Chalmers's 
Biographical Dictionary, vol. 32. 



"Truth it is that this Cardinal Wolsey was an honest 
poor man's son, of Ipswich, in the county of Suffolk, and 
there born ; and being but a child, was very apt to be 
learned ; wherefore by the means of his parents, or of his 
good friends, and masters, he was conveyed to the 
University of Oxford, where he shortly prospered so in 
learning, as he told me by his own mouth, that he was 
made Bachelor of Arts, when not fifteen years of age, in 
so much that for the rareness of his age, he was called 
most commonly through the University, the Boy Bachelor. 

Thus prospering and increasing in learning he was 
made fellow of Magdalen College, and afterwards elected 
and appointed Master of Magdalen School, at which 
time the Marquis of Dorset had three of his sons there, 
committing as well to him their education, as their 
instruction and learning. 



* He was born in 1471. SeeFiddes's Life of fFolsey, p. 2. edit. 2. A.D. 
1726. 



WOLSEY. 353 

It pleased the Marquis against a Christmas season, to 
send as well for the school-master as for the children, 
home to his house, for their recreation. While there, 
their father perceived them to be right well employed in 
learning, for their time : which contented him so well, 
that he, having a benefice* in his gift, being then void, 
gave the same to the school-master, in reward of his 
diligence, at his departing after Christmas to the Univer- 
sity. And having the presentation thereof, he repaired to 
the ordinary for his institution and ' induction ; and being 
furnished there with all his ordinary instruments at the 
Oidinary's hands, for his preferment, he made speed to 
the said benefice to take possession. And being there fop 
that intent, one Sir Amias Pawlet, Knt. dwelling in the 
country thereabout, took occasion of displeasure against 
him, upon what ground I know not: but he was so bold 
to set the school-master by the feet during his pleasure ; 
which after was neither forgotten nor forgiven. For 
when the school-master became chancellor of England, 
he was not forgetful of his old displeasure cruelly minis- 
tered upon him by Mr. Pawlet, but sent for him, and 
after many sharp words enjoined him to attend until he 
was dismissed, and not to depart out of London without 
licence obtained : so that he continued there within the 
Middle Temple the space of five or six years. He lay 
then in the gate-house next the street, which he re-edified 
very sumptuously, garnishing it all over the outside with 
the Cardinal's arms, with his hat and cognizance, badges, 
and other devices, in so glorious a sort, that he thought 
thereby to have appeased his old displeasure. 

As all living things must of necessity pay the debt of 
nature, it chanced my said Lord Marquis to depart out 
of this preserit life. After whose death this school-master, 
then considering with himself that he was but a simple 
beneficed man, and had lost his fellowship in the college, 
and perceiving himself also to be destitute of his singular 
good lord, and also of his fellowship, which was much to 
his relief, thought not to be long unprovided with some 
other help, or mastership, to defend him from all such 
storms, as he lightly was vexed with. 

la this his travail thereabout, he fell into acquaintance 



* Liinmin^ton, near Ilchester, Somerset. WolseV was instituted 
Octob-ir 10, 1500. Fiddes, p. 5. 

AA 



So4 WOLSEY. 

with one Sir John Manphant, a very grave and anclenf 
knight, who had a great room [post] in Calais, under 
King Henry VII. This knight, he served, and behaved 
himself so discreetly and wisely, that he obtained the 
especial favour of his said master, insomuch, that for his 
wit and gravity, he committed all the charge of his office 
unto his chaplain. As I understand the office was the 
treasurership of Calais. The knight was in consideration 
of his great age, discharged of his chargeable room, 
and returned again into England, intending to live more 
at quiet. And through his instant labour and good favour 
his chaplain was promoted to be the King's chaplain. 
And when he had once cast anchor in the port of pro- 
motion, how he wrought, I shall declare. 

He having then a just occasion to be in the sight of 
the King daily, by reason he attended upon him, and 
said mass before his grace in his closet, that done, he 
spent not the rest of the day in idleness, but would 
attend upon those whom he thought to bear most rule in 
the council, and to be most in favour with the King : 
who at that time were Dr. Fox, Bishop of Winton, 
secretary, and lord privy seal ; and also Sir Thomas 
Lovell, knight, a very sage councellor, a witty man, who 
was master of the wards, and constable of the Tower. 

These ancient arid grave counsellors, in process of 
time, perceiving this chaplain to have a very fine wit, 
thought him a fit person to be preferred. 

It chanced at a certain season that the King had an 
urgent occasion to send an ambassador to the Emperor 
Maximilian, who lay at that time in the Low Country of 
Flanders, not far from Calais. The Bishop of Winton 
and Sir Thomas Lovell, whom the King most esteemed 
as chief of his council, (the King, one day counselling 
and debating with them upon this ambassage) saw they 
had now a convenient occasion to prefer the King's 
chaplain, whose excellent wit, eloquence, and learning, 
they highly commended to the King. The King, giving 
ear unto them, and being a prince of an excellent judg- 
ment and modesty, commanded them to bring his chap- 
lain, whom they so much commended, before his grace's 
presence. And to prove the wit of his chaplain, he fell 
into communication with him in great matters, and per- 
ceiving his wit to be very fine, thought him sufficient to 
be put in trust with this ambassage } commanding him 



WOLSEY. ' 35^ 

thereupon to prepare himself for his journey, and for his 
despatch to repair to his grace and Ins counsel, of whom 
he should receive his commission and instructions. By 
means whereof, he had then a due occasion to repair from 
time to time into the King's presence, who perceived 
him more and more to be a very wise man, and of a good 
intendment. And having his despatch, he took leave of 
the King at Richmond about noon, and so came to 
London about 4 o'clock, where the barge of Gravesend 
was ready to launch forth, both with a prosperous tide 
and wind. Without any farther abode [delay] he entered 
the barge, and so passed forth. His happy speed was 
such that he arrived at Gravesend within little more than 
3 hours, where he tarried no longer than his post horses 
were provided, and travelled so speedily with them that he 
came to Dover the next morning, where the passengers 
were under sail to proceed to Calais. He sailed forth 
with them, so that long before noon he arrived at Calais ; 
and having post horses in readiness, departed thence 
without tarrying, and made such speed that he was that 
night with the Emperor, who having understanding of 
the coming of the King of England's ambassador, would 
in no wise delay the time, but sent for him incontinent, 
(for his affection to King Henry VU. was such, that he 
was glad when he had any occasion to shew him plea- 
sure). The ambassador disclosed the whole sum of his 
ambassage unto the Emperor, of whom he required 
expedition, which was granted him by the Emperor ; sa 
that the next day, he was clearly despatched with all 
the King's requests fully accomplished and granted. 
He made no further delay, but took post horses that 
night, and rode incontinent toward Calais again, con- 
ducted thither with such persons as the Emperor had 
appointed. And at the opening of the gates at Calais, 
he came thither, where the passengers were as ready 
to return into England as they were before at his journey 
forward, insomuch that he arrived at Dover by 10 or 1 1 
o'clock before noon ; and having post horses in readiness, 
came to the court at Richmond that same night. Where, 
he taking some rest until the morning, repaired to the 
King at his first coming out of his bed-chamber, to his 
closet to mass, whom, (when he saw), he checked him 
for that he was not on his journey. *' Sir," quoth he, 
** if it may please your highness, I have already been 



Aa a 



356 WOLSEY. 

with the Emperor, and despatched your affairs, I trust, 
with your grace's content." And with that he presented 
the King his letters of credence from the Emperor. The 
King wondering at his speed and return with such furm- 
ture'^of all his proceedings, dissembled all his wonder 
and imagination in the matter, and demanded of hnn 
whether he encountered not his pursuivant, M'hom he sent 
unto him (supposing him to be scarcely out of London,) 
with letters concerning a very necessary matter, neglected 
in their consultation, which the King much desned to 
have despatched among the other matters of ambassage. 
"Yes forsooth," quoth he, *' 1 metwith him yesterday by the 
way ; and having no understanding by your grace's letters 
of your pleasure, notwithstanding 1 have been so bold 
upon mine own discretion, (perceiving that matter to be 
very necessary in that behalf), to despatch the same. 
And for as much as 1 have exceeded your grace's com- 
mission, I most humbly require your grace's remission 
and pardon." The King, rejoicing inwardly not a little, 
said again, " we do not only pardon you thereof, but 
also give you our own princely thanks both for your 
proceedings therein, and also for your good and speedy 
exploit:" commanding him for that time to take his rest, 
and to repair again to him after dinner, for the farther 
relation of his ambassage. The King then went to mass ; 
and afterwards, at convenient time, he went to dinner. 

The King gave him for his diligent service the Deanery 
of Lincoln,* which was at that time one of the worthiest 
promotions under the degree of a Bishopric. And thus, 
from thenceforth, he grew more and more into estirnation 
and authority, and after was promoted by the King to 
be his almoner. 

When death (that favoureth none estate. King ne 
keiser) had taken the wise and sage King Henry VII. 
out of this present life, who for his wisdom was called 
the second Solomon, it was wonderful to see what 
practices and compasses were then used about young 
King Henry VIII., and the great provision made for 
the funeral of the one, and the costly devices for the 
coronation of the other, with the nevv Queen (Catherine,) 
mother afterwards of the Queen's Highness. 



He was collated Feb. 2, A,D. 1508. Le Neve's Fasti, p. 146. 



WOLSEY. 357 

After the finishing of all these solemnizations, our 
prince and sovereign lord King Henry VIII. entering 
into the flower of youth, took upon him the regal sceptre 
and the imperial diadem of this fertile and fruitful realm, 
which at that time flourished in all abundance and riches, 
called then the golden world, such grace reigned then 
within this realm. Now the almoner (of whom I have 
taken upon me to write,) having a head full of subtile 
wit, perceiving a plain path to walk in towards his journey 
to promotion, conducted himself so polilicly, that he 
found the means to be made one of the King's counsel, and 
to grow in favour and good estimation with the King, to 
whom the latter gave a house at Bridewell in Fleet-street, 
sometime Sir Richard Empson's, where he kept house 
for his family, and so daily attended upon the King, and 
was in his especial favour, having great suit made unto 
him, as counsellors in favour most commonly have. His 
sentences and witty persuasions amongst the counsellors 
in the council chamber were always so pithy, that they, as 
occasion moved them, continually assigned him for his 
filed tongue and excellent eloquence, to be the expositor 
to the King in all their proceedings. In whom, the 
King, conceived such a loving fancy, and in especial, 
for that he was most earnest and ready in all the council 
to advance the King's only will and pleasure, having no 
respect to the cause ; the King, therefore, perceiving him 
to be a meet instrument for the accomplishment of his 
devised pleasures, called him nearer to him, and esteemed 
him so highly, that the estimation and favour of him put 
all other ancient counsellors out the high favour that they 
before were in: insomuch that the King committed all 
his will unto his disposition and order. Who wrought so 
all his matters, that his endeavour was always only to 
satisfy the King's pleasure, knowing right well, that it 
was the very vein and right course to bring him to high 
promotion. The King was young and lusty, and disposed 
all to pleasure, and to follow his appetite and desire, 
nothing minding to travail in the aflairs of the realm ; 
which the almoner perceiving very well, took upon him 
therefore to discharge the King of the burthen of so 
weighty and troublesome business, putting the King in 
comfort that he should not not need to spare any time of 
his pleasure for any business that should happen in the 
council, as long as he being there and having his grace's 



358 WOLSEY. 

authority, and by his commandment doubted not to see 
all things well and sufficiently perfected : makmg his 
grace privy first, to all such matters before he would 
proceed to the accomplishment of the same, whose mind 
and pleasure he would have, and follow to the uttermost 
of his power: wherewith the King was wonderfully 
pleased. And whereas the other ancient counsellors 
would, according to the office of good counsellors, some- 
times persuade the King to have recourse to the counci , 
there to hear what was done in weighty matters, whicli 
pleased not the King at all, for he loved nothing worse 
than to be constrained to do any thing contrary to his 
pleasure; that knew the almoner very well, having a 
secret intelligence of the King's natural inclination, and 
so fast as the other counsellors counselled the King to 
leave his pleasure, and to attend to his affairs, so busily 
did the almoner persuade him to the contrary ; which 
delighted him very much, and caused him to have the 
greater affection and love to the almoner. Ihus the 
almoner ruled all them that before ruled him : such was 
his policy and wit ; and so he brought things to pass, that 
who was now in high favour but Mr. Almoner ? who 
had all the suit but Mr. Almoner'? and who ruled all 
under the King but Mr. Almoner ? Thus he pei-severed 
still in favour, until at last, in came presents, g^^ts, and 
rewards, so plentifully, that I dare say he lacked nothing 
that might either please his fancy or enrich his coffers ; 
fortune smiled so favourably upon him. But to what end 
she brought him, you shall hear hereafter. ^ 

This almoner (climbing thus hastily upon fortune s 
wheels, and so far mountmg that no man was of that 
estimation with the King as he was, for hi«/>f «'«^,^;i^ 
other witty qualities,) had such a special gift of natuial 
eloquence, and such a filed tongue to Pjonounce the 
same, that he was able to persuade and allure all men 
to his purpose. Proceeding thus m fortune's bhssfdness 
it chanced that the wars between the realms of England 
and France were open, but upon what ground or occasion 
i know not. Th^King was fully resolved in peison to 
invade his foreign enemies with a puissant army. 

It was thought necessary that his enterprise should be 
speedily furnished in all things convenient for it, for the 
expedition whereof, the King thought no i«^« J!^/"^ 
policy so meet as his almoner's, to whom theiefoie he 



WOLSEY. 359 

committed his whole affiance and trust therein. And he 
being nothing scrupulous in any thing that the King 
would command him to do, although it seemed to others 
very difficult, took upon him the whole charge of the 
business, and proceeded so therein, that he brought all 
things to good pass in a decent order, as all manner o. 
victuals, provisions, and other necessaries, convenient for 
so noble a voyage and army. 

The King passed the sea between Dover and Calais, 
at which latter place he prosperously arrived, and marched 
forward in good order of battle till he came to the strong 
town of Turin, to which he laid seige, and assaulted it 
so strongly that within a short space it yeilded to him. 
When the King had obtained this fort, and taken possession 
thereof, and set all things there in due order, for its defence 
and preservation to his highness's use, he departed thence, ' 
and marched toward the city of Touruay, and there laid 
siege in like manner; to the which he gave so fierce and 
sharp assaults, that they were constrained to render the 
town to his victorious majesty. At which time the King 
gave to the Almoner the Bishopric of Tournay for his 
pains. And when the King had established (after posses- 
sion taken there) all things agreeable to his princely mil 
and pleasure, and furnished the same with noble captains 
and men of war for the safeguard of the town, he returned 
into England, taking with him divers noble personages of 
France, being prisoners, as the Duke Longueville and 
Viscount Clermont, with others, who were taken there in 
a skirmish. After his return immediately, the See of 
Lincoln fell void by the death of Dr. Smith, late Bishop 
there, which benefice his grace gave to the Almoner,* late 
Pishop elect of Touruay, who was not negligent to take 
possession thereof, and made all the speed he could for 
his consecration ; the solemnization whereof ended, he 
found means to get possession of all his predecessor's 
goods, whereof I have divers times seen some part that 
furnished his house. It was not long after that Dr. 
Bainbridge, x\rchbishop of York, died at Rome, being 
there the King's ambassador, unto which See [York] the 
King immediately presented his late new Bishop of Liu^ 



' He was consecrated Bishop of Lincoln March 26, A,D. 1514. Le 
Neve's Fasti, p. 141. 



360 WOLSEY. 

coin , so that he had three Bishoprics in his hands* in 
one year given him. Then prepared he again as fast for 
his transhition from the See of Lincohi unto the See of 
York, as he did before for his instalhition. After which 
solemnization done, and being then an Archbishop and 
Primas Af/gfm, he thought himself sufficient to compare 
with Canterbury, (Warham was at this time Archbishop 
of Canterbury; see the article ' Warham' in Chalmers's 
Siog. Did. vol. 31.) and thereupon erected his cross in 
the court; and every other place, as well within the 
precinct and jurisdiction of Canterbuiy, as in any other 
place. And forasmuch as Canterbury claims a supe-!- 
riority over York, as of all other Bishoprics within 
England, and for that cause claims of York as a recog- 
nition of an ancient obedience, to abate the advancing 
of his cross, in presence of the cross of Canterbury; 
notwithstanding, York nothing minding to desist from 
bearing thereof, caused his cross to be advanced^- and 
borne before him, as well in the presence of Canterbury 
as elsewhere. Wherefore Canterbury being moved there- 



* Dr. Robert Barnes preached a Sermon Dec. 24, 1525, at St. Edward's 
Cliurch, Cambridge, from wliich Sermon certain Articles were drawn 
out upon which he was soon after called to make answer before the 
Cardhial. Barnes has left behind him a desciiptiou of this examination. 
The sixth of the Articles Avas as follows ; — "I wyll never beleeve that one 
man may be, by the lawe of God, a Byshop of two or three cities, yea of 
an whole couiitrey, for it is contrarye to St. Paule, which seigth, / have 
left thee hehynde to set in every Citye a Byshop." 

" I was brought afore my Lorde Cardinall into liis Gallery," (continues 
Dr. BarnesJ "and there hee reade all niyne articles, tyll hee came to this, 
and there he stopped, and sayd, that this touched him, and therefore hee 
asked me, if I thought it wrong, that ont; byshop shoulde have so many 
cityes underneath hyni ; unto whom I answered, that I could uo farther 
go, than to St. Panic's texte, v^hych sat in every citye a byslioj). Then 
asked he mee, if I thought it now unright (seeing the ordinauuce of the 
Church) that one byshop should have so many cities. I answered that 
I knew none ordinaunce of the Church, as concerning this thing, but St.' 
Panic's saying onelye. Nevertheless I did see a contrarye custom and 
practise in the world, but I know not the originall thereof. Then sayde 
hee, that in the Apostles tyme, there were dyvers cities, sopie seven 
myle, some six mile long, and over them was there set but one byshop, 
and of thei/ suburbs also : so likewise now, a byshop liath but one citye 
to his cathedrall churche, and the country about is as suburbs unto it. 
Me thought this was farre fetched, but I durst not denye it," — Barnes's 
If^orks' p. 210, A.D. 1573. 

t This was not the first time in which this point of precedency had been 
contested. Edward HI. in the sixth year of his reign, at a time Avhen a 
similar debate was in agitation, having summoned a Parliament at York, 
the Archbishop of Canterbury and all the other Prelates of his Province, 
declined giving their attendance, that the Metropolitan of all England 
might not be obliged to submit his Cross to that of York, in the Province 
of the latter. Fox, p. 387. 388.— [Wordswokth.] 



WOLSEY. 361 

with, gave unto York a certain check for his presumption, 
by reason whereof there engendered some grudge between 
tliem. York perceiving the obedience that Canterbury 
claimed of him, intended to provide some such means 
that he would be rather superior in dignity to Canterbury, 
than to be either obedient or equal to him. Whereupon 
he obtained first to be made Priest-Cardinal and Legatus 
de latere, and the Pope sent him a Cardinal's hat with 
certain bulles for his authority in that behalf. 

Yet the Pope sent him the hat of dignity as a jewel 
of his honour and authority, conveyed in a varlet's 
budget, who seemed to all men to be but a person of 
small estimation. Whereof York being advertised of 
the baseness of this messenger, and of the people's 
opinion, thought it not meet for the honour of so high 
a message, that this jewel should be conveyed by so 
simple a person ; wherefore he caused him to be stopped 
by the way, immediately after his arrival in England, 
where he was newly furnished with all manner of apparel, 
and all kinds of costly silks, which seemed decent for 
such an high ambassador. And that done, he was re- 
ceived on Blackheath by a great assembly of prelates 
and gentlemen, and thence conducted through London 
with great triumph. Then was speedy preparation made 
in Westminster Abbey for the confirmation and accept- 
ance of this dignity, which was executed by all the 
Bishops and Abbots about or nigh London, in then* rich 
mitres, and copes, and other ornaments, which was done 
in so solemn a wise, as 1 have not seen the like, unless it 
had been at the coronation of a King. 

Obtaining this dignity, he thought himself meet to 
encounter with Canterbury, in high jurisdiction before 
expressed ; and that also, he was as meet to bear autho- 
rity among the temporal powers, as among the spiritual. 
W^herefore remembering as well the taunts before sus- 
tained from Canterbury, which he intended to redress, as 
having a respect to the advancement of worldly honour, 
and promotion ; he found means with the King to be 
made Lord Chancellor of England ; and Canterbury, 
[Warham] who was then Chancellor, dismissed, who 
had continued in that honourable room since long before 
the death of King Henry VII. 

Now he being in possession of the Chancellorship, and 
endowed with the promotions of an Archbishop, and 



562 WOLSEY. 

Cardinal de latere, thought himself fully furnished with 
such authorities, and dignities, that he was able to sur- 
mount Canterbury in all jurisdictions and ecclesiastical 
powers, having power to convocate the Archbishop, and 
all other Bishops, and spiritual persons, wherever he 
would assign ; and he took upon him the correction of 
matters in all their jurisdictions, and visited all the 
spiritual houses, having also in every Diocese through 
this reahn all manner of spiritual ministers, as commis- 
saries, scribes, apparitors, and all other necessary officers 
to furnish his courts ; and presented by prevention, whom 
he pleased to all benifices throughout the realm. And 
to the advancing further of his legantiue jurisdiction and 
honours, he had masters of his faculties, masters cere^ 
moniarum, and such other like persons, to the glorifying 
of his dignity. Then had he two great crosses of silver, 
whereof one was of his Archbishopric, and the other of 
his Legateship, borne before him whithersoever he \\ent, 
or rode, by two of the tallest priests that he could get 
within the realm. And to the increase of his gains, he 
had also the Bishopric of Durham, [1523] and the Abbey 
of St. Alban's [1521] in commendam ; and afterwards, 
when Fox, Bishop of Winchester died, [1528] he sur- 
rendered Durham into the King's hands, and took to 
him Winchester, [1528].* Then had he in his hands 
the Bishoprics of Bath, Worcester, and Hereford, for as 
much as the incumbents of them were strangers, and 
made their abode continually beyond the seas, in their 
own countries, or else in Rome, from whence they were 
sent in legation to this realm to the King. And for 
their reward, at their departure, the wise King Henry VH. 
thought it better to give them that which he himself 
could not keep, than to disburse. And they being but 
strangers, thought it then more meet for their assurance, 
to suffer the Cardinal to have tlieir benefices for a con- 
venient sum of money paid them yearly, than to be 
troubled with the charges of them, or to be yearly 
burdened with the conveyance of their revenues to them : 
so that all the spiritual promotions, and presentations 



* Temporalties committed to him Oct. 2D. 1528, Rymer Fcedera, vol. 
14. 2fi8. and the care of the Bishopric, by Papal provision. The bulle is 
dated 6 Id. Feb. 1528. Rvmer, ib. p. 287. Installed at Wintou by 
pro?y " non ante uodesimniu April, 1529," Wharton.— [Edit.J 



VVOLSEY. 363 

to these Bishoprics were wholly and fully in his dis- 
posal, to prefer whom he listed. 

He had a great number daily attending upon him, both of 
noblemen and worthy gentlemen of great estimation and 
possessions,, with no small number of the tallest yeomen 
that he could get in all the realm, insomuch that well was 
that nobleman and gentleman that could prefer a tall 
yeoman into his service. 

At meals he kept in his great chamber a continual 
board for the chamberlains and gentlemen officers, havmg 
with them a mess for the young lords.* 

The Cardinal was sent twice on an embassy to the 
Emperor Charles V. and also to King Philip. For- 
asmuch as the old Emperor Maximilian was dead, and for 
divers urgent causes touching the King's majesty, it was 
thought that in so weighty an affair, and to so noble a 
prince, the Cardinal was most meet to be sent on this 
ambassage. Wherefore he being ready to take upon hira 
the charge thereof, was furnished in all degrees and pur- 
poses most like a great prince, which was much to the 
high honour of the King's majesty and of his realm. For 
first he proceeded forth furnished like a Cardinal of high 



* Among whoiti, as we shall see below, was the eldest son of the Earl 
of Noithumberland. This wa^ according to a practise much more 
ancient than the time of Wolsey; agieeably to which young men of the 
most exalted rank resided in the families of distinguished ecclesiastics, 
under the denomination of pages, but more probably, for the purposes 
of education, than of sei-vice. In this way Sir Thomas More was 
brought up under Cardinal IMorton, Archbishop of Canterbury ; of whom 
he has given a very interesting character in his Utopia. From Fiddes's 
Appendix to the Life of Wolsey, p. 19, it appears, that the custom was at 
least as old as the time of Grosthead, Bishop oi Lincoln, in the reign of 
Henry III. and that it continued for some time duiiiig the 17tli century. 
In a paper, written by the Earl of Arundel, in tlie year 1620, audintitled ; 
Instructions for pou my son ff^illiam, how to behave yourself at Aorwich, 
the Earl charges him, " you shall in all things reverence, honour, and 
obey my Lord Bishop of Norwich, as you would do any of your parents; 
esteeming whatsoever he shall tell or "command you, as if your grand- 
mother of Ai"undel, your mother, or myself should say it; and in all 
things esteem yourself as my Lord's page : a breeding, which youths of 
my liouse, fer superior to you, were accustomed unto ; as my grandfather 
of Norfolk, and his brother, my good uncle of Northampton, were both 
bred as pages with Bishops." See also Paul's Life of Archbishop 
fVhitgift, p. 97. It is not out of place to mention, what we are told by 
Sir George Wheler in his Protestant Monastery, p. 158. A. D. 1698. " I 
have heard say, in the times no longer ago than King Charles I. that 
many Noblemen's and Gentlemen's houses in the cour.try, were like 
academies, where the Gentlemen and Women of lesser fortunes came 
for education with those of the family; among which number was the 
famous Sir Beville Granville and his lady, Father and Mother of ouf 
present Lordof Bath-"— [Wordsworth.] 



364 WOLSEV. 

estimation, having all things accordingly. His gentlemen, 
being very many in number, were clothed in livery coats 
of crimson velvet of the best, with chains of gold about 
their necks; and his yeomen and all his mean officers 
were in coats of fine scarlet, guarded v\ith black velvet an 
hand broad. Thus furnished he was twice in this manner 
sent to the Emperor into Flanders, the latter being then 
in Bruges, -f where he entertained the Cardinal and all his 
train for the time of his ambassage there. That done, he 
returned to England with great triumph, being no less in 
estimation with the King than he was before, but rather 
much better. 

Now will I declare unto you the Cardinal's order in 
going to Westminster-Hall daily in the term season. 
First, 'e're he came out of his privy-chamber, he heard 
most commonly every day two masses in his closet ; and 
as I heard one of his chaplain's say, (who was a man of 
credibility and of excellent learning) the Cardinal, what 
business or weighty matters soever he had in the day, 
never went to bed with any part of his divine service 
unsaid, not so much as one collect, wherein I doubt not 
but that he deceived the opinion of divers persons. Then 
going again to his privy-chamber, he would demand of 
some of his said chamber, if his servants were in readi- 
ness, and had furnished his chamber of presence and 
waiting chamber. He being thereof then advertised, 
came out of his privy-chamber about eight o'clock, appa- 
relled all in red, that is to say, his upper garment was 
either of fine scarlet or taiFety, but most commonly of fine 
crimson satin, grained ; his pillion of fine scarlet, with a 
neck set in the inner side with black velvet, and a tippet 
of sables about his neck ; holding in his hand an orange, 
whereof the meat or substance within was taken out and 
filled up again with part of a sponge, wherein was vinsgar 
and other confections against the pestilent airs ; whic'i he 
most commonly held to his nose when he came among 
any press, or else that he was pestered with any suitors. 
And before him was borne first the broad seal of England, 
and his Cardinal's iiat by a lord or some gentleman of 



t At Bruges, "he was received with great solemnity, as belongeth unto 
.so mighty a pillar of Christ's Church, and was saluted at the entering into 
the town by a merry fellow, who said, Salve rex regis tui, alque regni 
sui," Hail both King of thy King, and also of his realm.— Tindal's 
/f'orks, p. 370, A.D. 1572. 



W^OLSEY. 365 

worship, light solemnly. And as soon as he was entered 
into his chamber of presence, (where there were daily at- 
tending upon him, as well noblemen of this realm, and 
other worthy gentlemen, as gentlemen of his own family,) 
his two great crosses were there attending to be borne 
before him. Then cried the gentlemen ushers, going 
before him, bare headed, " On before, my lords and 
masters, on before; and make way for mylord Cardinal." 
Then went he down through the hall with a sergeant of 
arms before him bearing a great mace of silver ; and 
when he came to the hall door, there his mule stood 
trapped all in crimson velvet, with a saddle of the same, 
and gilt stirrups. Then was there attending upon him, 
when he was mounted, his two cross bearers, and his 
pillar bearers,* in like case, upon great horses trapped 
all in fine scarlet. Then marched he forward with a 
train of noblemen and gentlemen, having his footmen, 
four in number about him, bearing each of them a gilt 
poll-axe in their hands : and thus passed he forth until 
he came to Westminster Hall door. And there he 
alighted, and went after this manner up the chancery^ 
or into the star chamber; howbeit most commonly he 



* The pillar, as well as the cross, was emblematical, and designed to 
imply that the dignitary before whom it was carried was a pillur of the 
church. Dr. Barnes, who had good reason why these pillars should be 
uppermost in his thoughts, glances at this emblem, in the case of the 
Cardinal, in the following words : " and yet it must be true, because a 
pUlar of the church hath spoken it. Barnes's fVorks, p. 210. A.D. 1572. 
See also Tiudal's fVorks, p. 370. 

Skelton, Poet -laureate of that time, indulged in some gross scurrility 
and abuse against the Cardinal, and ui)on its publication fled to the 
sanctuary of Westminster for protection. In his poetry, if we may misapply 
the word to such trash, he thus alludes to the crosses and pillars : — 

With worldly pompe incredible 

Before him rydeth two prestes stronge, 

And they bear two crosses right longe, 

Gapynge in every man's face. 

After them folowe two layemen, secular, 

And cache of theym holdying a pillar 

In their hondes, steade of a mace. 

Then foloweth my lorde on his mule 

Trapped with gf)ld. ^ 

Then hath he servants five or six score. 

Some behyud and some before. 

Almost every action of Wolsey has been interpreted as an instance of 
pomp, ambition, or insolence; notwithstanding probably, upon a strict 
examination, most of them will be found to be strictly precedented. 
Anstis's Letter to Dr. Fiddes, in Fiddes's Life of fVols'ey, p. 89. Ap- 
pendix. 



366 WOLSEY. 

would go into the cliancei-y, aud stay a while at a baf 
made for him beneath the chancery, on the right hand, 
and there converse sometimes with the judges, and some- 
times with other persons. Tliat done, he would repair 
into the chancery, sitting there till 1 1 o'clock, hearing 
sliits and determining other matters. And from thence, he 
would divers times go into the star chamber, as occasion 
would serve. There he spared neither high nor low, but 
judged evei-y estate according to its merits and deserts. 

He used also every Sunday to resort to the court, then 
being for the most part of all the year at Greenwich, 
with his former triumphs, taking his barge at his own 
stairs, furnished with yeomen standing upon the bayles, 
and his gentlemen being within a boat; and landed 
again at the Three Cranes in the Vintrey, And thence 
he rode upon his mule with his crosses, his pillars, his 
hat, and the broad seal carried before him on horseback 
through Thames-street, until he came to Billingsgate; 
and there took his barge again, and so rowed to Green- 
wich, where he was nobly received of the lords and 
chief officers of the King's house, bearing their white 
staves as the treasurer and comptroller, with many others : 
and so they conveyed him to the King's chamber; his 
crosses, for the time of his- tarrying, standing there in a 
corner, on the one side of the King's cloth of estate. 
Then he being there, the court was fully furnished with 
noblemen and gentlemen, which was, before his coming, 
but slenderly furnished. And after dinner among the 
lords, having some consultation with the King, or with 
his council, he would depart home with like triumph:* 



* We have already seen that the Cardinal's pomp did not escape 
animadversion. But it was exposed to other censures than tliose which 
flowed merely from the pen of scurrility. Sir Thomas More, when 
Spealier of the House of Commons, noticing a complaint which had been 
made by tlie Cardinal, that nothing could be said or done in that House, 
but it was presently spread abroad, and became the talk of every tavern 
or alehouse, " Masters (says he) forasmuch as my Lord Cardinal lately 
laid to our charge the lightness of our tongues for things uttered out of 
this House, it will not in my mind be amiss to receive him with all his 
pomp, with his maces, his piliars, poll-axes, his crosses, his hat, aud the 
great seal too ; to the intent, that if he find the like fault with us hereafter 
we may be the bolder, from ourselves to lay the blame on those that hi» 
grace bringeth hither with him." Roper's Life of Sir T. More, p. 38. 
edit. 1729. [Moke would have done himself greater credit by abstaining 
from this silly taunt. — Edit.] 

The pulpit also, sometimes [most reprehensiblyj raised its voice 
against him. Dr. Barnes, who was burnt in .Smithfield in 1541, 
preached at Cambiidge a sermon, for which he was cited before 



WOLSEY. 367 

and this order he used continually, as opportunity did 
serve. 

Thus in great honour, triumph, and glory, he reigned 
a long season, ruling all things within this realm apper- 
taining unto the King, by his wisdom ; and also in all 
other weighty matters in foreign regions, with which the 
King of this realm had any occasion to intermeddle. All 
ambassadors of foreign potentates were always despatched 
by his wisdom, having continual access to him. His 
house was always resorted to like a King's house, by 
noblemen and gentlemen, coming and going in and out, 
feasting and banquetting. 

And when it pleased the King's Majesty for his re- 
creation to repair to the Cardinal's house, as he did 
divers times in the year, there wanted no preparation or 
goodly furniture, with viands of the tinest sort that could 
be gotten for money or friendship. Such pleasures 
were then devised for the King's comfort, as might be 
invented or imagined. Banquets were set forth, masks, 
and mummeries, in so gorgeous a sort, and costly a man- 
ner, that it was a heaven to behold. There wanted no 
dames, nor damsels, meet or apt to dance with the 



the Cardinal. This was a part of their dialogue, as it is relat'?d 
in Fox; "What? Master Doctor ( said the" Cardiual ) had you 
not a sufficient scope in the scriptures to teach the people, but 
that my golden shues, my poll-axes, my pillows, my golden 
cushions, ray cross did so sore offend you, that you must make us ridicu- 
lum caput amongst the people ? We were jollily that day laughed to scorn. 
Verily it was a sermon more fit to be preached on a stage than in a pulpit ; 
for at the last you said I wear a pair of red gloves, I should say bloudie 
gloves (quoth you) that I should not be cold in the midst of my ceremo- 
nies." And Barnes answered, " I spake nothing but the truth out of the 
scriptures, according to my conscience, and according to the old doctors." 
Fox's Acts, p. 1088. Barnes himself diew up an account of this inter- 
view, in which he opens to us some part of the philosophy upon which 
the Cardinal defended the fitness of that pomp and state which he main- 
tained. *' Then sayd hee, how thinke you, were it better for me, being 
in the honour and dignitie that I am, to coyue my pyllers, and poll-axes, 
and to give the money to five or six beggars, then for to mayntaine the 
common-wealth by them, as I doe ? Do you not reckon (quoth hee) the 
common-wealth better than five or six beggars ? To this 1 did answere, 
that 1 reckoned it more to the honour of God, and to the salvation oihis 
soule, and also to the comfort of his poore brethren, that they were 
coyned, and given in almes." Banies's JVorks, p. 215. A.D. 1572, 
compare Fox's Acts, p. 956. — [W^ordsworth.J 

Remarks such as those made by Dr. Barnes, under however liberal and 
imposing a garb they meet our view, deserve the severest animadversion, 
as partaking of that anti-hierarchical and dissenting spirit which, un- 
happily for the union of Christians, has ever been busily at work in 
impugning Episcopacy, whether Catholic or Protestant.— ['Edit.] 



S6S WOLSEY. 

• 

maskers, or to garnish the place for that time, m ith other 
goodly disports. Then was there all kinds of music 
and harmony set forth, with excellent fine voices both of 
men and children, &c. 

Thus passed the Cardinal his time forth from day 
to day, arid year to year, in such great wealth and joy, 
having always on his side the King's especial favour ; 
until fortune, of whose favour no man is longer assured 
than she is disposed, began to wax something wrath with 
his prosperous estate. And for the better mean to bring 
him low, she procured him Venus, the insatiate goddess, 
to be her instrument ; who brought the King in love with 
a gentlewoman, M'ho, (after she perceived and felt the 
King's goodwill towards her, how glad he was to please 
her, and grant all her requests), wrought the Cardinal 
much displeasure : as hereafter shall be more at large 
declared. This gentlewoman was the daughter of Sir 
Thos. BuUeine, knight, being at that time but a bachelor 
knight, and who afterwards, for the love of his daughter, 
was promoted to high dignities. He bare at divers 
several times all the great posts of the King's household, 
as comptroller, and treasurer, and the like. Then was 
he made Viscount Rochford ; and at last. Earl of Wilt- 
shire, and K.G. ; and, for his greater increase of honour 
and gain, lord keeper of the privy seal, and one of the 
chief of the King's council. Thus continued he until 
his son and daughter began to fall into the King's high 
indignation and displeasure. The King during his favour 
fancied so much his daughter, that almost all things 
began to grow out of frame. This gentlewoman was 
commonly called Mrs. Anne Bulleine. She being but 
very young,* was sent into the realm of France, and 
there made one of the French Queen's women, continu- 
ing there until the French Queen died. And then was 
she sent for home again ; and being with her father, he 
made such means that she was admitted one of the Queen 
Katherine's women ; among whom, for her excellent 
gesture and behaviour, she did excel all other, in so 



* " Not above seven years of age, anno 1514." M. S. Twysd. The 
;ibove is taken from a small fragment of this Life, which has been very 
recently printed from a MS. in the hand writing of Sir Roger Twysden, 
Bart. ; in the margin of which fragment a few notes occur, from the pen 
of the same eminent Antiquarian." [Antiquan'.J — Wordsworth. 



WOLSEY. 369 

much, that the King began to grow enamoured with 
her, which was not known to any person, not even to 
herself. 

Now at that time the Lord Percy, son and heir of the 
Earl of Northumberland, was attending upon my lord 
Cardinal, and was his servant ; and when it chanced the 
said lord Cardinal at any time to repair to the couit, the 
Lord Percy would resort then for his pastime into Queen 
Katherine's chamber, and there would he fall in dalliance 
among the maids, being at the last more conversant with 
Mr, Anne Bulleine than with any other, so that there 
grew such a secret love between them, that at length they 
were insured together, [bethrothed or engaged] intending 
to marry. With which, when it came to the Kmg's know- 
ledge, he was mightily olfended. Wherefore he could no 
longer hide his secret affection, but revealed his whole 
displeasure and secret to the Cardinal, and willed hini 
to infringe the assurance made then between the said 
Lord Percy and Mrs. Anne Bulleine : insomuch as the 
Cardinal after his return home from the court to his 
house in Westminster, being in his gallery, not forgetting 
the King's commandment, called then Lord Percy unto 
his presence, and before us his servants then attending 
upon him, said to him, '' I marvel not a little at thy folly 
that thou wouldest thus entangle and ensuie thyself with 
a foolish girl yonder in the court, Anne Bulleine. Dost 
thou not consider the estate that God hath called thee 
unto in this world ? For after thy father's death thou 
art most likely to inherit one of the noblest earldoms of 
this region : therefore it had been most meet and con- 
venient for thee to have sued for the consent of thy father 
in that case, and to have also made the King's highness 
privy thereof, requiring his princely favour, submitting 
thy proceeding in all such matters unto his highness, who 
would not only thankfully have accepted thy submission, 
but would, I am assured, have provided so far for thy 
purpose therein, that he would have advanced thee muclx 
more nobly, and have matched thee according to thine 
estate and honour, whereby thou mightest have grown so 
by thy wise behaviour in the King's high estimation that 
it should have been for thy advancement. But now see 
what ye have done through your wilfulness. You have 
not only oft'ended your father, but also your loving sovereign 

Bb 



370 WOLSEY. 

lord, and matched yourself with one sucfj as neither the 
King, nor your father will be agreeable to. And hereof 
I put thee out of doubt that I will send for thy father, 
and at his coining he shall either break this unadvised 
bargain or else disinherit thee for ever, &c. 

After long consultation and debating respecting Lord 
Percy's late assurance, it was devised that it should be 
dissolved, and that Lord Percy should marry one of the 
Earl of Shrewsbury's daughters. And so he did : by means 
whereof the former contract was dissolved ; whereat Mrs. 
Anne BuUeine was greatly offended, promising if it ever 
lay in her power she would work much displeasure to 
the Cardinal, as after she did indeed. And yet was he 
not in blame altogether, for he did nothing but by the 
King's command. And even as my Lord Percy was com- 
manded to avoid her company, so she was discharged 
of the court, and sent home to her father for a season ; 
■whereat she smoked : [was indignant] for all this while 
she knew nothing of the King's intended purpose. 

After these my Lord Percy's troublesome matters were 
brought into a good stay, and all things done that before 
were devised, Mrs. Anne Bulleine was revoked unto the 
court, where she flourished after in great estimation and 
favour ; having always a privy grudge against my lord 
Cardinal for breaking oft' the contract made between 
Lord Percy and her, supposing that it had been his 
devised will and none other, nor yet knowing the King's 
secret mind thoroughly, who had a great affection unto 
her more than she knew\ But after she knew it then 
she began to look very haughtily, lacking no manner of 
jewels or rich apparel that might be gotten for money. 
It was therefore judged by and by, through the court, 
by every man, that she being in such favour might work 
masteries with the King, and obtain any suite of him 
for a friend. 

All this while she being in this estimation in all places, 
it is no doubt but good Queen Katherine having this 
gentlewoman daily attending upon her, both heard by 
report and saw with her eyes how it framed against her 
good ladyship, although she shewed neither to Mrs. 
Anne Bulleine, nor to the King, any kind or spark of 
displeasure, but accepted all things in good part, and 
with wisdom, and great patience dissembled the same. 



WOLSEY. 371 

having Mrs. Anne in more estimation for the King's sake 
than she was with her before, declaring herself to be a 
very perfect Grisell.* 

The King waxed so far enamoured \vith this gentle- 
woman that he knew not how much he might advance 
her. This perceiving the great lords of the council, who 
bearing a secret grudge against the Cardinal for that they 
could not rule for him as they would, because he bare 
all the stroke with the King, and ruled as well the great 
lords as all other mean subjects, they took an occasion 
to invent a mean to bring him out of the King's estima- 
tion, and themselves into more authority. After long 
and secret consultation how to bring this malice towards 
the Cardinal to effect, they knew well that it was very 
difficult for them to do it directly of themselves. Where- 
fore they perceiving the great affection and love that the 
King bare to Anne Bulleine, supposing that she would 
be a fit instrument to bring their long desired intents to 
pass, consulted often \\ith her in this matter. And she 
having both a very good wit, and also an inward grudge 
and displeasure to my lord Caidinal, was always 
agreeable to their requests. Wherefore there was no 
more to do but to imagine any occasion to work their 
malice by some presented circumstance. Then were 
there daily invented among them divers imaginations and 
subtle devices how the matter should be brought about. 
The enterprise thereof was so dangerous that, though 
they would fain have attempted the matter with the 
King, yet they durst not ; for they knew the great zeal 
that he bore to the Cardinal, and also they feared 
the wonderful wit of the latter. For this they knew very 
well, that if the matter that they should propose against 
him were not grounded upon a just and urgent cause, 
the King's favour was such towards him, and his wit 
such withal, that he would with policy vanquish all their 
purpose and travail, and then lie in wait to work their 
utter destruction. They were compelled, all things con- 
sidered, to forbear the enterprise until they might espy u 
more convenient time and occasion. 

And yet the Cardinal espying the great zeal that the 
King had conceived in this gentlewoman, ordered him- 
self to please as well the King as her, dissembling the 

* [Perfect Grisell.^ See Chaucer's Clerk of O.venford's Tale. 

Eb2 



372 WOLSEY. 

matter that lay hid in his breast, and prepared great 
banquets and high feasts to entertain the King and her 
at his own house. 

Then began a grudge to break out between the French 
King and the Duke of Bourbon, insomuch as the Duke 
being a vassal to the house of France, was compelled tor 
the safeguard of his life to flee, and forsake the country, 
expecting the King's malice and indignation. The 
Cardinal, having intelligence of the case, compassed in 
his head that if the King [of England] could obtain the 
Duke of Bourbon to be his general in the wars against 
the French King, (with whom the King of England had 
an occasion of war), and considering further that the 
Duke of Bourbon was fled to the Emperor, to invite him 
to like purpose ; wherefore he having this imagination in 
his head thousiht it aiood to move the King in the matter. 
And after the King was once advertised hereof, and 
conceived the Cardinal's invention, he dreamed more 
and more of it, until at last it came to a consultation 
amongst the council, so that it was concluded that an 
embassy should be sent to the Emperor about this 
matter ; with whom it was concluded that the King and 
the Emperor should join in those wars against the French 
King, and that the Duke of Bourbon should be our 
sovereign lord's champion and general in the field, who 
had a great number of good soldiers, over and besides 
the Emperor's army, which was not small ; and that the 
King should pay unto the Duke monthly wages, both 
for himself and his retinue. Insomuch that Sir John 
Russel, (afterwards Earl of Bedford), lay continually 
beyond the seas, in a secret place, both to receive money 
of the King, and to pay the same monthly to the Duke. 
So that the Duke began the wars with the French King 
in his own territory and dukedom, which the King had 
confided in his own hands ; it being not perfectly known 
to the Duke's enemies, that he had any aid of our sovereign 
lord. And thus he wrought the French King much dis- 
pleasure and trouble, insomuch that the French King 
was constrained to prepare a puissant army, and in his 
own person to resist the Duke's power. And with force 
the King drave him to take Pavia, a strong town in Italy, 
with his host, for their security; whereas the King en- 
camped him wonderously strong intending to enclose the 
Duke within this town, that he should not issue forth. 



WOLSEY. 373 

Now let us leave the King in his camp before Pavia, 
and return to the lord Cardinal, who seemed to be more 
French than Imperial. But how it came to pass, I 
cannot declare unto you. The French King lying in his 
camp, sent secretly into England a privy person, a very 
witty man, to treat of a peace between him and our 
sovereign lord. This person was named John Jokin, 
who was kept as secretly as might be, no man having 
intelligence of his repair; for he was no Frenchman 
born, but an Italian, a man of no great estimation in 
France, or known to be much in his master's favour, 
but to be a merchant-man, and for his subtle wit elected 
to such embassy as the French King had given Jiun. 
This Jokin v/as secretly conveyed to Richmond, and 
there remained 'till the Cardinal resorted thither to him, 
where, after Easter term, he kept his feast of Whitsuntide. 
In which season my lord Cardinal caused divers times 
this Jokin to dine with him, who seemed to be both wittv, 
and of good behaviour. Thus continued this Jokin in 
Engl?md long after, until at last, he brought to pass the 
matter ke had in commission. After this, there was sent out 
immediately an order to Sir John Russell, that he should 
retain that month's wages still in his hands, (until the 
King's pleasure was known to him), which should have 
been paid to the Duke of Bourbon, being then with his re- 
tinue encamped within the town of Pavia ; for want Vv'her-eof 
at this day, the Duke and his men were sore dismayed 
when they saw there was not money brought as it was wont 
to be. And being in so dangerous a case, and where victuals 
began to be scant, and very dear, they imagined many 
ways what should be the best. Some said this, and 
some that ; so that they mistrusted nothing less than 
the very cause thereof. Insomuch as at the last, what 
for want of victuals and other necessaries, which they 
could not get within the town, the soldiers and captains 
began to grudge and mutter ; and at the last, for lack of 
victuals, were like all to perish. The soldieis being in 
this extremity came before the captain the Duke of 
Bourbon : — [Here follows their speech, and the reply 
of the Duke, who intimated his intention of sallying out 
by night and attacking the enemy's camp. This was 
successfully accomplished : the French King was takea 
prisoner ; and in searching the coffers of the latter iu 
liis tent,] the Duke found the league, under the great 



374 WOLSEY. 

seal of England, newly made between the King of 
England and the French King : which once perceived by 
liim, he began to smell the impediment of his money, 
which shoidd have come to him Irom the King. Having 
upon the due search of the matter further intelligence, 
that all the matter was devised by the Cardinal of 
England, the Duke conceived such an indignation here- 
upon against the Cardinal, that he went incontinent into 
Rome, and there intended to sack the town, and to have 
taken the Pope : where, at the first assault of the walls, 
the Duke was the first man that was there slain. Yet, 
notwithstanding, his captains continued their assault, 
and at the last the town was taken, and the Pope fled to 
the castle of Angell, where he continued long in calamity. 

I have written this history more at large, because it was 
thought the Cardinal was the chiefest occasion of all this 
mischief. Upon the taking of the French King, many 
consultations and divers opinions were then devised 
among the council. Some held opinion that if the King 
[of England] would invade France, he might easily 
conquer it, insomuch as the King of F^rance with the 
most part of the nobility were in captivity. Some said 
again that the King our master ought to have had the 
Frencii King prisoner, for as much as he was taken by 
the King's champion and general captain, the Duke of 
Bourbon, and not by the Flmperor. So that the same 
moved the King to take an occasion of war against the 
Emperor, because he kept the French King out of his 
possession, with divers other imaginations and devices, 
even as their fancies served them, which were too long 
here to be rehearsed. 

Thus were they in long consultation, wherein every man 
in the court had talked as his fancy served him ; until at 
the last it was devised, by means of divers ambassadors 
sent from F'rance unto the King [of England] to take 
order Mith the Emperor for the French King's deliver- 
ance, as his high wisdom could think best, wherein my 
lord Cardinal bare a great stroke, so that after long deli- 
beration and advice in this matter, it was thought good by 
my lord Cardinal, that the Emperor should deliver the 
French King out of his ward upon sufticient pledges. 
Then was it, upon his advice, thought meet that the 
King's two sons, that is to say, the Dauphin and the 
Duke of Orleans, should be delivered in hostage for the 



WOLSEY. 375 

King tlieir father, which was in conclusion brought 
to pass. 

The Cardinal, lamenting the French King's calamity, 
and the Pope's great adversity, who yet remained in the 
castle Angell, travailed all that he could* with the King 
and his council, to take some order for the quietness of 
them both. At last, as divers of the great estates and 
lords of the counsel, with my lady Anne lay in wait to 
espy a convenient time and occasion to take the Cardinal 
in a brake, they thought it now a necessary time to cause 
him to take upon him the King's commission to travail 
beyond the seas in this matter, and by his high vvit to 
compass a perfect peace among these great princes and 
potentates ; and encouraging him thereunto, alleged, that 
it was more meet for his high wit, discretion, and authority, 
to bring so weighty a matter to pass, than any other man 
within this realm. Their intent was none other than to 
get him from the King out of the realm ; then might they 
sufficiently adventure, by the help of their chief mistress, 
to deprave him unto the King's highness, and so in his 
absence to bring him into displeasure with the King, 
or at the least to be of less estimation. This matter was 
so handled, that the Cardinal was commanded to prepare 
himself for this journey, which he took upon him ; but 
whether it were with his good M'ill or not, 1 am not able 
to tell you. This I know, that he made but a short 
abode, after the resolution thereof, and caused all things 
to be prepared onward toward his journey. And every 
one of his servants was appointed to attend upon him in 
the same. 

When all things were concluded, and for this noble 
ambassage provided, then was there no more to do but to 
advance in the name of God. My lord had with him such 
of the lords and bishops and other worthy persons as were 
not of the counsel or conspiracy. 

Then n^arched he forward from his own house at West- 



* Tliese intrigues, in which the Cardinal bore so large a part did not 
redound to the glory of his country. Our merry neighbours even then 
had begun to make our diplomatic inferiority the subject of their ridicule. 
William Tiudall, in his Practice of Popish Prelates, referring to these 
events, tells us, " the Frenchmen of late days made a play or a disguising 
at Paris, in which the Emperor danced vv'ith the Pope and the French 
King, and wearied them, the King of England sitting on a high bencli, and 
looking on. And when it was asked why he danced not, it was ajiswereds 
that he sat tlierc only to pay th.e minstrels their wages. 



376 WOLSEY. 

minster through all London, over London Bridge, having 
before hini a great number of gentlemen, three in a rank 
with velvet coats, and the most part of them with great 
chains of gold about their necks. And all his yeomen 
followed him, with noblemen's and gentlemen's servants, 
all in orange-tawny coats, with the Cardinal's hat, and a 
T. and C. for Thomas Cardinal, embroidered upon all 
the coats, as well of his own servants, as of all the rest of 
his gentlemen's; and his sumpter mules, which were €0 
oi more in number. And when all his carriages and carts 
and other of his train had passed before, he rode like a 
Cardinal very sumptuously with the rest of his train, on 
his own mule, with his spare mule and spare horse, 
trapped in crimson velvet, upon velvet, and gilt stirrups, 
following him. And before him he had his two great 
crosses of silver, his two great pillars of silver, the King's 
broad seal of England, and his Cardinal's hat, and a gen- 
tleman carrying his cloak-bag, which was made of fine 
scarlet, altogether embroidered very richly with gold, 
having in it a cloak. Thus passed he forth through 
London ; and every day on his journey he was thus fur- 
nished, having his harbingers in every place, which pre- 
pared lodging for him and his train. 

[The Cardinal on his return to England from France] 
caused to be assembled in the star-chamber all the noble- 
men, judges, and justices of the peace of every shire 
throughout England that were in Westminster-Hall at 
that present, and there made to them a long oration, 
declaring to them the cause of the ambassage into France, 
and his proceeding there; amongst which he said, "he 
had concluded such an amity and friendship as never was 
heard of in this realm before, as well between the King 
our sovereign lord and the French Kmg, with a perpetual 
peace, which shall be confirmed in writing eternally, sealed 
with the broad seals of both the realms graven in fine 
gold ; affirming further, that the King shall receive yearly 
his tribute by that name out of the Duchy of Normandy, 
with all the costs which he hath sustained in the wars. 
And also, whereas there was restraint made in France of 
the French Queen's dowry, whom the Duke of Suffolk 
had married, for divers years during the wars, it was 
fuliy concluded that she should not only receive the same 
again, according to her just right, but also the arrears 
which were unpaid during the restraint. All which things 



WOLSEY. 377 

shall be perfected shortly at the resort of the ambassadors 
out of France. In which shall be such a great number 
of noblemen and gentlemen to conclude the same, as 
hath not been seen heretofore repair thither out of one 
realm. This peace thus concluded, there shall be such 
an amity between the gentlemen of each realm, and 
intercourse of merchandise, that it shall seem to all men, 
as if both territories were but one monarchy. Gentlemen 
may travel from one country to another for their recrea- 
tion and pastime; then merchants, bemg in either country 
arrived, shall be assured to travel about their affairs in 
peace and tranquillity : so that this realm shall joy and 
prosper for ever. Therefore it shall be well done of all 
true Englishmen to rejoice, and to set forth the same, 
at the resort of this great ambassage, both in gesture and 
entertainment, that it may be an occasion unto them, 
both to accept the same in good part, and also to use you 
with the semblable, and make of the same a noble report 
in their countries. JSow, my masters, I beseech you, 
and require you on the King's behalf, that you shew 
yourselves herein as loving and obedient subjects, wherein 
the King will much rejoice at your towardness." And 
here he ended his oration, and brake up the court, and 
so every man departed his several way. 

This great long looked for ambassage was now come 
over with a great retinue, which were in number 80 
persons or above of die most noblest and worthiest gen- 
tlemen in all France, who were right honourably received 
from place to place after their arrival, and so conveyed 
through London Oct, 20, \527, to the Bishop's palace 
there in Paul's churchyard, where they were lodged, or 
thereabouts, for the time of their abode. To whom 
divers noblemen resorted, and gave them divers goodly 
presents ; and in especial the mayor and city of London, 
as wine, sugar, wax, capons, wild fowl, beasts, muttons, 
and other necessary things in great abundance, for the 
expenses of their house. Then resorted they on the 
Sunday unto the court being at Greenwich, and were 
there received by the King's majesty, by whom they were 
highly entertained. They had a commission to establish 
the Kins's highness in the order of France; for whom 
they brought, for that intent, a collar of line gold, with 
the Michael hanging thereat, and robes to the said order 
appurtenant, which were very comely, of blue velvet, 



378 WOLSEY. 

and richly embroidered : wherein I saw the King pas*i 
into his closet, and after in the same apparel at mass 
beneath in his chapel. And to gratify the French King 
for his great honour with the semblable, he sent in- 
continent a nobleman of the order here in England with 
Garter the Herald into France unto the French King, 
to establish him in the Order of the Garter, with a 
semblable collar, with a garter and robes according to 
the same ; the ambassadors remaining here until their 
return. 

All things being then concluded concerning the per- 
petual peace, it was determined that there should be 
solemn mass sung in the Cathedral Church of St. Paul's 
by the Cardinal, the King being present at the same in 
his traverse. To the performance of their determination 
and to the preparation thereof, there was made a gallery 
from the west door of St. Paul's Church, through the 
body of the same, up to the choir door, railed on every 
side, upon which rails stood sweet burning perfumes. 
Then the King and my lord Cardinal, with their whole 
train . of noblemen and gentlemen, went upon the said 
gallery into the choir, and so to the high altar unto the 
traverse, my lord Cardinal preparing himself to sing the 
mass, associated with 24 Bishops and Abbots, who 
attended and served him, in such ceremonies as to him 
were then due, by reason of his legatine prerogative. 

And after the last ^agnus, the King rose out of his 
traverse and kneeled upon a carpet and cushions before 
the high altar j and the like did the Grand Master of 
France : the chief ambassador that represented the French 
King, between whom my lord Cardinal divided the blessed 
sacrament, as a perfect oath, and bond of security of the 
said covenant of perpetual peace. That done, the King- 
resorted asrain to his traverse, and the Grand Master to 
his. This mass being ended, which was solemnly sung 
both with the choir of the same church, and with the 



* The boolc of ceremonies (compiled under the influence of the Bishops 
Gardiner and Tonstallj about the year 1540, describing the different parts 
of the Canon of the Mass, observes : "Then saith the Priest l/irice, ^gnus 
Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, &c. advertising us of three effects of Christ's 
passion ; whereof the first is, deliverance from the misery of sin ; the 
second is, from pain of everlasting damnation : whereof he saith twice 
Miserere nobis, that is to say. Have mercy on us ; and the third is, giving 
everlasting peace, consisting in the glorious fruition of God," Strype's 
£ccksiast. Memorials, vol. i. p. 289. 



WOLSEY. ^ 379 

King's chapel, my lord Cardinal read the instrument of 
peace openly before the King and all other both French 
and English, and there in the sight of all the people the 
King put his hand to the seal of gold, and subscribed 
the same with his own hand, and delivered the same to 
the Grand Master as his deed, who did the like; and 
that done they departed. 

And the King rode home with my lord Cardinal to 
Westminster, and there dined with the Frenchmen, pass- 
ing all the day after in consultation about weighty matters 
as to the conclusion of the articles of perpetual peace. 
The King then departed by water to Greenwich. 

The long hid and secret love that was between the 
King and Mrs. Bulleine broke out now, and the matter 
was disclosed by him to the Cardmal, whose persuasion 
on his knees long before to the King to the contrary 
would not serve ; the King was so affectioned that inclina- 
tion bare place, and discretion was banished for the time. 
My lord being provoked to declare his opinion in the 
advancement of his desired purpose, thought it not meet 
to wade too fa alone, or to give his hasty judgment or 
advice in so weighty a matter, but desired of the Kmg 
licence to ask counsel of men of learning, both in the 
divine and civil laws. That obtained, he, by his legantine 
authority, sent his commission out for all the Bisliops of 
this realm, that were learned in either of the said laws, 
or held in high estimation for their prudent counsel and 
judgment in princely affairs of long experience. 

Then assembled these noble Prelates at Westminster 
before my lord Cardinal, as well ancient, famous, and 
notable clerks of both Universities of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, as also of divers Cathedral Colleges of this realm, 
reckoned learned in the determination of doubtful matters. 
Then was the King's case so debated from day to day, 
tliat it was to the learned a goodly hearing, but in the 
conclusion as it seemed to me, and others, the ancient 
fathers of both the laws, that they departed with a judg- 
ment contrary to the general expectation. I heard then 
the opinion of some of the most famous persons among 
that sort, that die King's case was too obscuie for any 
learned man to discuss, (the points therein were so doabt- 
ful) so as to have any true understanding of it. And 
therefore they departed without any resolution or judg- 
ment. Then in this assembly of Bishops it was thought 



380 WOLSEY. 

most expedient, that the King should first send out his 
commissioners into all the Universities of Christendom, 
as well here in England, as into foreign regions, to have 
among them his grace's case argued substantially, and 
to bring with theni thence the very definition of their 
opinions in the same, under the seals of every University. 
That for this time was their determination, and so allowed, 
that divers commissioners were immediately appointed to 
this matter, who were divided, some to Oxford, some to 
Cambridge, some to Lovaine, some to Paris, some to 
Orleans, some to Bononye, and some to Padua, and so 
forth. Although these commissioners had the travail, 
yet were the costs and charges the King's : which were 
no less than great and notable sums of money. For as I 
heard reported (and as it seemed in deed) besides the 
charges of the embassy, the famous and most notable 
persons, and in especial such as had any rule, or had the 
custody of their University seals, were choked by the 
commissioners with such notable sums of money, that 
they were the more glad to agree to their requests, and to 
grant to all that they desired ; by means whereof all the 
commissioners returned home with their purpose finished 
according to their commission, under the particular seal 
of every several University, whereat there was no small 
joy conceived of the principal persons : insomuch as the 
conuTiissioners were not only ever after in great estimation, 
but also most liberally advanced and rewarded far beyond 
their deserts. Notwithstanding they prospered, and the 
matter went still forward, having now (as they thought) 
a sure staff to stand by. 

These proceedings declared to my lord Cardinal, he 
sent again for the Bishops, to whom he declared the effect 
and travail of these commissioners, and for affirmance 
thereof, shewed them the instruments of every University* 
under the several seals. Then this matter brought to 
pass, they went once again to consultation, how it should 
be ordered for the purpose. It was then thought gqod 
and concluded, that the King should send unto the Pope, 
declaring the opinions of tliose Universities, which were 
manifestly authorized by their common seals ; to the 



* See Burnet's Hist, of the Reformation, vol, HI. p. 401. Appendix. 
Harmei's Specimen of Errors, p. 7. Fiddes's Life of fVolsey, p. 420. 
Poll Epistoia, vol. I. p. 238. A.D. 1744. 



WOLSEY. 381 

which it was thought that the consent of these Prelates of 
this realm should be necessary to be sent also thither, 
altogether comprised in an instrument, sealed with all their 
seals annexed to the instrument, which was not long in 
doing; nor was long after, but the ambassadors were 
assigned to travail in this matter, and to take upon them 
this journey accordingly, having furthermore ceifcain in- 
structions, among which, one was this : that if the Pope 
would not hereupon agree to give judgment definitive in 
the King's case, then to require another commission from 
his holinesss to be granted under hade to establish a court 
to be kept in England for that purpose, only directed to 
my lord Cardinal and Legate of England, and to the 
Cardinal Campaigne [Campegio] (who was then, although 
he were a stranger. Bishop of Bath,* the which the King 
gave him at a certain time, being an ambassador from the 
Pope,) to determine and justly to judge according to their 
conscience and discretions. To the which after long suit 
made, and the good will of the said Cardinal by fair 
promises obtained to travel into England, the Pope 
granted their suit. This done, they returned to the King, 
relating to him, that now his grace's pleasure and purpose 
should be brought substantially to pass, being never more 
likely, considering the state of both the judges. 

Long was the expectation on all sides for the coming 
of this legate from Rome, with his commission. After 
very long desire this legate arrived in England, and being 
sore vexed with the disease of the gout, was constrained 
by force thereof to make a long journey 'or'ever he came 
to London; who would have been most solemnly received 
at Blackheath, and so with triumph conveyed to London, 
but his desire was such, that he would not so be enter- 
tained with pomp and vain glory ; and therefore suddenly 
came to his house without Temple-Bar, called then Bath- 
place, where he was lodged, which was furnished with all 
manner of stutlf and implements of my lord's provision. 

So tiien after some deliberation in the ordering of the 
King's matters, and his commission and the articles of his 
embassage seen, read, and digested, it was determined 



* I very much doubt Campegio, as he is usually called, or Campaigne 
as Cavendish calls him, having ever been Bishop of Bath. He was Bishop 
of Salisbury. See a memoir of him iu Cassan's Lives of the Bishops of 
that See, part I. p. 283.— Edit. 



382 WOLSEY. 

that the King and the Queen, his just wife, should hr 
lodged at Bridewell, And then in the Black-Fiiars, a 
certain place was there appointed most convenient for the 
King and Queen's repair to the court, there to be kept for 
the disputation and determination of the case, whereat 
these two legates sat judges ; before whom the King and 
Queen were summoned to appear, which w'as a strange 
sight, and the newest device that ever was read or heard 
of before, in any region, story, or chronicle, a King and 
a Queen to be constrained by process compellatory to 
appear in any court as common persons, to abide the 
judgments and decrees of their own subjects. 

There was a court erected in Black- Friars in London, 
whereat sat these two Cardinals for judges. Now I will 
set you out the manner and order of the said court. First, 
there was a court planted with tables and benches, in 
manner of a consistory, one seat raised higher (for the 
judges to sit in) than the other were. Then as it were in 
the midst of the said judges, aloft above them three 
degrees high, was a cloth of state hanged, with a chair 
royal under the same, wherein sat the King ; and beside 
him, some distance from him, sat the Queen ; and under 
the judges feet sat the scribes, and other necessary officers, 
for the execution of the process, and other things apper- 
taining to such a court. The chief scribe was Dr. Stevens, 
[Stephen Gardiner] after Bishop of Winchester ;* and the 
apparitor, who was called Doctor of the coiut, was one 
Cooke, most commonly called Cooke of Winchester. 
Then before the King and judges, within the court, sat the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Warham, and all the other 
Bishops. Then stood at both ends within, the counsellors 
learned in the spiritual laws, as well the King's as the 



* See his Life in a subsequent part of this work. Bishop Gardiner 
was next in succession in the See of Winchester to Wolsey. Edit. — 
He was at this time in great estimation witli Wolsey. In letters and 
'other documents of this period he is often called Dr. Stevens. Grani^t-r 
in vol. iii. of Burnet's Hist, of the Reformation, p. 335, Appendix, inti- 
mates that ihis was a colloquial vulgarism ; " as Stephen Gardener 
wa.s vulgarly Mr. Stevyns, in Wolscy's Letter." The Bishop himself, 
in his declaration of his Articles again.?t George Joye, A.D. 1546, fol. 3, 
6. of the 4to. edition, thus spealcs of it : "a book, wherein lie wrote, 
how Dr. Stevens (by uiJtkh name 1 was then called) had deceyved hym." 
And Cavendish, as will be seen in a subsequent page of this reprint, 
adverts to this appellation in very similar terms. " To this ambassagu 
was appointed Dr. Stephen Gardener, then called hy the nome of Dr, 
Stephens, and Secretary to the King." 



WOLSEY. S8S 

Queen's. The doctors of law for the King were Dr. Samp- 
son, after Bishop of Chichester, and Bell, after Bishop of 
Worcester, with divers others : and procurators in the 
same law, on that side, was Dr. Peter, after chief Seae- 
tary, and Dr. Tregonwell, with divers others. 

Now on the other side there was a counsel for the 
Queen standing there ; that is to say. Dr. Fisher, Bishop 
of Rochester, and Dr. Standishe, Bishop of St. Asaph, 
two notable divines, and in especial the Bishop of Ro- 
chester, a very godly man ; for whose death many noble 
clerks and good men lamented, who lost his head for this 
cause, 'e're it was ended on Tower-Hill. There was also 
another ancient Doctor called Ridley, a very small person 
of stature, but a great and an excellent clerk in divinity. 
Thus was the court ordered and furnished. 

The judges commanded the crier to proclaim silence, 
whilst their commission was read both to the court and to 
the people assembled. That done, then the scribes com- 
manded the crier to call the King by the name of " King 
Henry of England, come into the court," and with that 
the King answered and said, " Here." Then called he 
the Queen, " Katherine Queen of England, come into 
the court," who made no answer thereto, but rose incon- 
tinent out of her chair wherein she sat^ and because she 
could not come to the King directly, for the distance 
severed between them, she took pains to go about the 
court, and came to the King, kneeling down at his feet 
in the sight of all the court and people, and said in eftect 
these words, &:c. [Here follows her speech, but as it 
belongs to history rather than biography, it is here 
omitted.] 

This strange case went forward from court to court, 
until it came to the judgment, so that everv man expected 
it would be given the next court day. At which day the 
King came thither, and sat down in a chair within a door 
in the end of the gallery which opened directly against the 
judgment seat, to hear the judgment given ; at which 
time all their proceedings were openly read in latin. 
That done, the King's counsel at the bar called for judg- 
ment. With that quoth Cardinal Campaigne, ** 1 will 
not give judgment till 1 have made relation to the Pope 
ol all our proceedings, whose counsel and commandment 
m this case I will observe. The matter is too hio;h for us 
to give any hasty judgment, considering the highness of 



384 WOLSEY. 

the persons, and the doubtful occasions alleged, and also 
whose commissioners we be, under whose authority we 
sit, &c. Wherefore, I will adjourn this court, for this 
time, according to the order of the court of Rome, 
whence our jurisdiction is derived, &c. 

This matter continued thus a long season, and my lord 
Cardinal was in displeasure with the King, for that 
the matter in his suit took no better success to his pur- 
pose : notwithstanding, my lord excused himself by his 
commission, which gave him no authority to proceed to 
judgment without knowledge of the Pope, who reserved 
the same to himself. 

At last they were advertised by their post, that the 
Pope would take deliberation in the matter, until his 
courts opened, which should not be before Bartholomew- 
tide next. The King considering the same too long 
before it should be determined, thought it good to send 
an ambassador to the Pope, to persuade witii him to 
shew such honourable favour to his majesty, that the 
matter might sooner be ended than it was like to be, or 
else at the next court to rule the matter over, according 
to his request. 

To this embassy was appointed Dr. Stephen Gardiner, 
then called Dr. Stephens, secretary to the King, after- 
wards Bishop of Winchester. This Dr. Stephens went 
thither, and there tarried till the latter end of summer, as 
ye shall hear hereafter. 

Then the King commanded the Queen to be removed 
out of the court, and sent to another place ; and his 
highness rode in progress with Mrs. Anne BuUeine in his 
company all that season. 

It was so that the Cardinal Campaigne made suit to 
be discharged, that he might return to Rome. Then it 
chanced that Mr. Secretary was returned home thence ; 
whereupon it was concluded that Cardinal Campaigne 
should come to the King at Grafton, Norts., and be 
conducted by my lord Cardinal. And so they took their 
journey from the moor thitherward, and were lodged the 
lirst night at a town in Bedfordshire, called Leighton- 
Bussard, in the parsonage there, being Dr. Chamber's 
benefice, the King's physician. And thence they rode 
the next day, which was Sunday, to Grafton ; before whose 
coming, there rose divers opinions in the court, that the 
King would not speak with my lord Cardinal ; whereupon 
were laid many great wager^^. 



WOLSEY. SS3 

These two Prelates being come to the gates of the 
court, alighted from their horses, supposing they should 
have been received by the head officers of the household ; 
howbeit it fell out nothing so. Nevertheless, for as 
much as Caidinal Campaigne was but a stranger, the 
said officers met him, with their white staves in their 
hands, in the base court, and so conveyed him to his 
lodging prepared for him only. And after my lord had 
brought him to his lodging, he departed thinking to have 
gone likewise directly to his chamber, as he was wont to 
do. Then it was told him, that he had no chamber 
nor lodging appointed him in the court. Bemg astonished 
with this news. Sir Henry N orris, then groom of the 
stole to the King, came unto him, desiring his grace to 
take his chamber for the time, until another might be 
provided for him. *' For Sir, 1 assure you," quoth he, 
" here is very little room in this house for the King, 
therefore I beseecii your grace to accept mine for the 
season." And therewith my lord, thanking him for his 
gentleness, went straight to Mr. Noiris's chamber, where 
he shifted his riding apparel ; and in the mean while, 
bemg thus in his chamber, divers of the noblemen and 
gentlemen, being his loving friends, came to welcome 
him to the court, by whom my lord was advertised of all 
things touching the King's favour or displeasure towards 
him ; which did him no small pleasure ; for being 
astonished of the cause of the King's displeasure, he 
was the more ready to make his excuse against the same. 

Then was my lord advertised that he should prepare 
himself to go into the chamber of presence, there to 
attend the King's coming, who was disposed there to 
talk with him. The other Cardinal came into my lord's 
chamber, and both together went into the said chamber 
of presence, where the lords of the council stood all in 
row in order along the chamber. My lord Cardinal 
putting off his cap, spake to every of them most gently, and 
so did they no less to him : at which time the chamber 
was furnished with noblemen and gentlemen, and others, 
that expected the meeting, countenance, and entertain- 
ment of the King towards my lord Cardinal. 

Then innnediately after the King came into the 
chamber of presence ; and standing under the cloth of 
state, my lord Cardinal took Cardinal Campaigne by the 
hand, and kneeled down before the King, but what he 

cc 



386 WOLSEY. 

said unto him I know not : nevertheless the King, as 
amiably as ever he did before, stooped down, and with 
both his hands took him up, and after took him aside by 
the hand, and led him to the window, where he talked 
with him, 

Then, to behold the countenance of the noblemen and 
others that had made their wagers, it would have made 
you smile ; and especially of those that laid their money, 
that the King would not speak with him. Thus were they 
deceived. The King was in earnest and long commu- 
nication with him, in so much that I might hear the King 
say, " How can that be ; is not this your own hana V* 
and pulled a letter or writing out of his bosom, and 
shewed the same to my lord : and as I perceived my lord 
answered the same, that the King had no more to say, but 
said to him, " My lord go to dinner, and call my lords 
here to keep you company ; and after dinner I will come 
to you again ; and then we will commune further with 
you ;" and so departed, and dined himself that day, with 
Mrs. Anne Bulleine in her chamber. 

Then was there set up in the chamber of presence a 
table for my lord, and other lords of the counsel, where 
they dined together, sitting at dinner and communing of 
divers matters. " The King should do well," quoth my 
lord Cardinal, " to send his Bishops and Chaplains home 
to their cures and benefices." " Yea, Mary," quoth my 
Lord of Norfolk, " and so it were meet for you to do 
also." " 1 should be well content therewith," quoth my 
Lord, " if it were the King's pleasure to licence me 
with his grace's favour, to go to my benefice at Win- 
chester." " Nay," quoth my Lord of Norfolk, ** to 
your benefice at York, whereat is your greatest honour 
and charge." " Even as it shall please the King," quoth 
my lord Cardinal, and so fell into other matters. For 
the lords were loath he should be so near the King as to 
continue at Winchester. Immediately after dinner they 
fell to counsel until the waiters had dined. 

And as I heard it reported by them that waited on the 
King at dinner, Mrs. Anne Bulleine was much offended, 
as far as she durst, that the King so gently entertained 
the Cardinal, saying, as she sat with the King at dinner, 
in communication of my lord, " Sir," quoth she, " is it 
not a marvellous thing to see what debt and danger he 
hath brought you in with all your subjects?" '* How so 



WOLSEY. 387 

sv^'eetheart?" quoth the King. "Forsooth," quoth she, 
" there is not a man within all your realm Morth £5. :" 
(meaning a loan which the King had of his subjects.) 
*' Well," quoth the King, "as for that, there was m him 
no blame; for I know that matter better than you, or 
any other." *' Nay, Sir," quoth she, "besides that 
what things hath he wrought within this realm to your 
great slander ? There is never a nobleman but if he 
had done half so much as he hath done, he were well 
worthy to lose his head. Yea, if my lord of Norfolk, 
my lord of Suffolk, my lord my father, or any other 
nobleman within your realm, had done much less than he 
hath done, they should have lost their heads 'ere this." 

" Then I perceive," quoth the King, "you are not the 
Cardinal's friend?" " Why, Sir," saith she, " I have no 
cause nor any that loveth you ; no more has your grace 
if you consider well his doings." 

.By that time the waiters took up the table, and so 
ended their communication. Now ye may perceive how 
the old malice began to kindle, and to be set on fire, 
which was as much provoked by his ancient enemies. 

After Cardinal Campaigne was departed, Michaelmas 
term drew on, against which time my lord Cardinal re- 
sorted unto his house at Westminster;* and when the 
term began he went into the hall in such like sort and 
gesture as he accustomed most commonly to do, and sat 
in the chancery, being than chancellor. After tohich day 
he never sat more! The next day he tarried at home, 
expecting the coming of the Dukes of Suftolk and Nor- 
folk, who came not that day; but the next day they 
came thither unto him, and declared the King's pleasure, 
which was that he should surrender and deliver up 
the great seal into their hands, and depart unto Esher ; 
which was, an house situate nigh Hampton court, be- 
longing to the Bishopric of Winchester. The Cardinal 
demanded of them their commission that gave them such 
authority so to do; they answered him that they were 
sufficient commissioners, and had authority to do no less 
by the King's mouth. Notwithstanding he would in no 
wise agree to their saying in that behalf without further 



[This house was called York-place, and had been for some centuries 
the residence of the Archbishops ot York. It thenceforth became a royal 
residence under the name of Whitehall.— Edit.J 

C C 2 



oSS VVOLSEY. 

knowledge of their authority, saying, that as for the great 
seal it was delivered hirn by the King's person to enjoy 
the ministration thereof, with the post of chancellor, for 
the term of his life, iivhereof for his surety he had the 
King's letters patent to shew. Which matter was greatly 
debated between him and the Dukes, with maily great 
and heinous words, all which he took in patience, inso- 
mucl: that the Dukes were fain to depart again without 
their purpose at that time, and rode to Windsor to the 
King from whence they came. And what report they 
made I am uncertain ; howbeit the next day they returned 
from Windsor from the King, bringing with them the 
King's letters. 

Then my lord delivered unto them the great seal, and 
was content to obey the King's command, and to depart, 
simply taking with him nothing but only certain provision 
for his house; saying, that the King intended to come 
thither within two or three days. 

And after long talk between him and the Dukes they 
departed with the great seal of England unto Windsor, 
and brought the same unto the King. Then went my 
lord Cardinal, and called his officers before him, and 
took account of them for all such stuff and things whereof 
they had charge. 

Then he prepared to depart by water. And before 
his going. Sir William Gascoigne his treasurer, came unto 
him, to whom he gave among other the charge of the 
delivery of his goods to the King ,* Sir William said to 
the Cardinal, then being his lord and master, ** Sir, I am 
sorry for your grace, for ye shall go straightway to the 
Tower, as I heard say." " Is this the good counsel and 
comfort," quoth my lord Cardinal unto him, *' that you 
can give your master in adversity ? It has always been 
yowr natural inclination to be very light of credit, and 
much more light of reporting lies. 1 would you should 
know, Sir William, and all these reporters that it is 
untrue, for I never deserved to come there; although it 
hath pleased the King to take my house ready furnished 
for his pleasure at this time. I would all the world knew 
that I have nothing, but it is his of right, for by him, and 
of him I have received all that I have ; therefore it is of 
convenience and reason that I render unto his majesty 
the same again with all my heart. Therefore go your 
ways, and attend well to your charge." And there withal 



WOLSEY. 389 

he made him ready to ride ; and then with his train of 
gentlemen and yeomen, which was no small number, he 
took his barge at his privy stairs, and so went by water 
to Putney. At tlie taking whereof there were on the 
Thames, boats filled with people of London, expecting the 
Cardinal's departing by water, supposing that he should 
have gone to the Tower, whereat they joyed very much. 
When he was with all his train arrived at Putney, being 
iipon the land, he took his mule, and every man to their 
horses. And riding not past a pair of butt lengths he 
espied a gentlemen come riding in post down the hill in 
the town of Putney, and demanding of his gentlemen 
about him who he was that came riding down so fast, 
" Forsooth Sir," quoth they, " it is Mr. Norris as it 
seemeth to us." And by and by he came to my lord 
saluting him, and said, " Sir, the King's majesty com- 
mendeth him unto you, and commanded me to shew you 
that you be as much in his favour as ever .you were, 
and so shall be. Therefore he would that you should be 
of good cheer, and take no thought for ye shall not lack. 
And although he hath done thus unkindly towards you^ 
it is more for the satisfying of some than for any indigna- 
tion : and yet you know well he is able to recompence 
you again, and to restore you to twice so much ; and 
thus he bade me that I sliould shew you, and willed me 
to bid you to take all this matter in patience. And, Sir, 
for my part I trust to see you in better estate than ever 
you were." But when he had heard Mr. Norris report 
the good and comfortable words of the King, he quickly 
lighted off his mule, all alone, as tho' he had been the 
youngest amongst us, and innnediately kneeled down in 
the dirt upon both his knees, holding up his hands for 
joy of the King's most comfortable message. Mr, Norris 
alighted also espying him so soon on his knees, and 
kneeled by him, and took him in his arms, and asked 
how he did, calling upon him to credit his message. 
*' Mr. Norris," quoth he, " when I consider the joyful 
news you have brought to me I could do no less than 
greatly jejoice. Your words pierced my heart, that the 
sudden joy surmounted my memory, having no regard or 
respect to the place, but I thought it my duty in the 
same place where I received this comfort, to land and 
praise God upon my knees, and most humbly to render 
to my sovreign lord my thanks for the same." 



.'390 WOLSEY. 

And as he was thus talking upon his knees to Mr. 
Nonis, he would have pulled olf a velvet night cap 
which he wore under his black hat, and scarlet cap, but 
he could not undo the knot under his chin ; wherefore 
with violence he rent the laces of his cap, and pulled his 
said cap from his head, and kneeled bare headed. And 
this done he rose up and mounted his nude, and so rode 
fortli up the high way in the town talking with Mr. 
Norris. And when he came unto Putney Heath, where 
Mr. Norris should depart from him, Mr Norris gave 
him a ring of gold with a stone, and said unto him that 
the King sent him the same for a token of good will, 
" which ring," quoth he, " the King saith you know 
very well." It was the privy token between the King 
and him when the King would have any especial thing 
sped at his hands.* Then said he to Mr. Morris, *' If 
1 were lord of a realm the one half were too small a 
reward to give you for your pains, and good news. But, 
good Mr. Norris, consider with me that I have nothing 
left me but my clothes upon my back. Therefore 1 
shall desire you to take this small reward at my hands ;" 
which was a little chain of gold made like a bottle chain, 
with a cjoss of gold, wherein was a piece of the Holy 
Cross, which he continually wore about his neck next 
his body; and said futhermore, *' Master Norris, 1 assure 
you when 1 was in prosperity, although it seem but small 
in value, yet 1 would not gladly have departed with the 
same for o£ 1,000. Therefore 1 shall require you to take 
it in good worth, and to wear it about your neck con- 
tinually for my sake, and to remember me to the King 
when ye shall see opportunity, unto whose highness 1 
shall most instantly require you to have me most humbly 
commended ; for whose charitable disposition to me I 
can but pray for the preservation of his royal estate. 



* [The design of this ciuel mockery is not to be easily conjectured. 
It is probable that it was suggested by some of the envious courtiers to 
Ann Boleyn, and by her infused into the King's mind as a trick to lull 
the Cardinal with hopes of restoration to the roj al favor, and thus to 
pievent his pieparing his defence in the prosecution instituted against 
him. Had the Cardinal not been thus inspired with fallacious hopes, he 
conld have readily defended himself by the production of the King's 
letteis patent aut/torizing him to accept the Pope's bull. — The pretext 
alleged for pulling down the Caidinal was, his having violated the 
statiite 16 hicliard 11., by which he exposed himself to the penalties of a 
premunire by procuring a bull appointing him Legate. — Edit.J 



WOLSEY. 391 

I am his obedient subject, his poor chaplain, and bead- 
man, and so will be during my life ; accounting myself 
nothing, nor to have any thing but only of him and by 
him; whom I have justly and truly served to the best ot 
my gross wit." And with that he took Master Norris by 
the hand bare headed, and so departed. And when he 
was gone but a small distance he returned again, and 
caused Mr. Norris to be called to him. When Mr. 
Norris was returned he said unto him, *' I am sorry that 
1 have no token to send unto the King. But if you will 
at my request present the King with this poor fool, I 
trust he will accept him, for he is for a nobleman's 
pleasure, forsooth, worth ^1,000." 

So Mr. Norris took the fool ; with whom my lord was 
fain to send six of his tallest yeomen to help him to 
convey the fool to the court ; for the poor fool took on 
like a tyrant rather than he would have departed from my 
lord. Notwithstanding they conveyed him away, and so 
brought him to the court, where the King received him 
very gladly. x\fter departure of Master Norris with his 
token to the King my lord rode straight to Esher, where 
my lord and his family continued the space of three or 
four weeks tvithout either beds, sheets, table clothes, or 
dishes to eat their meat in, or tvhereioith to buy any. 
Howbeit there was good provision of all kinds of victuals, 
and of drink, as beer and wine, \^ hereof there was plenty. 
My lord was compelled of necessity to borrow of Mr. 
Arundel and of the Bishop of Carlisle plate and dishes, 
both to drink in, and to eat his meat in. Thus my lord 
with his family continued in this strange state until after 
All-hallow's tide. 

Upon All-hallow's day after my lord had supped, and 
all men were gone to bed, about midnight, one of the 
porters came to my chamber door, and knocked there to 
wake me. And being once awake, and perceiving who 
was there, I asked him what he would have at that time 
of the night? ** Sir," quoth he, ''there be a great 
number of horsemen at the gate that Mould come m, 
saying that it is Sir John Russel, and so it appears by 
his voice ; and what is your pleasure that I should do ?" 
** Mary," quoth I, " go down again, and make a great 
fire in your lodge until 1 come to dry them ;" for it rained 
all that night most vehemently. Then I arose, and made 
me ready, and put on my night gown, and came to the 



392 WOLSEY. 

gates, and asked who was there. With that Mr, Russel 
spake to me, whom 1 knew right well, and caused the 
gates to be set open, and let them all come in, who 
were wet to the very skin. I caused Mr. Russel to go 
into the porter's lodge to the fire to dry him ; and he 
shewed me that he was come from the King unto my lord 
in message, with whom he required me to speak. ** Sir," 
quoth I, " 1 trust your news be good." " Yea, and so 
1 promise you on my fidelity ; and to tell him that I 
have brought him such news as will please him right 
well." " Well then 1 will go," quoth I, " and wake 
him, and cause him to rise." J went incontinent to my 
lord's chamber door, and knocked there, so that my lord 
spake to me, and asked me what I would have. I told 
him of the coming of Sir John Russel; and then he 
called up to him one of his grooms to let me in ; and 
when I was come to him, 1 told him again of the journey 
that Sir John Russel had taken that troublesome night. 
" I pray God all be for the best," quoth he. " Yes, 
Sir," quoth I, '' he shewed me, and so bade me tell you 
that he had brought such news as you would greatly 
rejoice ^t." " Well then," quoth he, *' God be praised ; 
and welcome be his grace ! Go ye and fetch him to me, 
and by that time I will be ready to talk with him." 

Then I returned into the lodge, and brought Mr. 
Russel thence unto my lord, who had cast about him his 
night gown And when Mr. Russel was come before 
him, he most humbly reverenced him upon his knees ; 
whom my lord stooped unto and took him up, and bade 
him welcome. ** Sir," quoth he, " the King com- 
mendetli him unto you," and delivered him a great ring 
of gold with a turquois for a token; " and willed me to 
bid you be of good cheer, for he loveth you as well as 
ever he did, and is sorry for your trouble, and his mind 
runneth much upon you. Insomuch that before his grace 
sat down to supper he called me unto him, and desired 
me to take the pains secretly to visit you, and to comfort 
you to the best of my power. And, Sir, I have had the 
sorest journey for so little a way that ever I had to my 
remembrance." 

My lord thanked him for his pains and good news, and 
demanded of him if he had supped ; and he said " JMay." 
** Well then," quoth my lord, *' cause the cooks to pro- 
vide some meat for him, and cause a chamber to be 



WOLSEY. 3^3 

provided for him, that he may take his rest awhile upon 
a bed." AH which command I fultilled, and in the 
mean time my lord, and Master Russel were in secret 
communication ; and in the end, Master Russel went to 
his chamber, taking his leave of my lord, and said he 
would tarry but a while for he would be at the court of 
Greenwich again before day; and would not for anything 
that it were known that he had been with my lord that 
night. And so being in his chamber having a small 
repast, he rested him a while upon a bed, while his 
servants supped and dried themselves, and that done, 
mcontineut he rode away again with speed to the court. 
And after this within a while my lord was restored to 
plate vessels, and household stuff, of every thing necessary 
some part, so that he was better furnished than before. 

The case stood so that the Parliament should begin 
crastmo animariim, or there abouts ; and [he, Thomas 
Cromwell] being within London, devised with himself to 
be one of the burgesses of the Parliament, and chanced 
to meet with one Sir Thomas Rush, Knt., a special friend 
of his, whose son was appointed to be a burgess, of 
whom he obtained his room, and so put his feet into the 
Parliament house ; so that within two or three days after 
his departure from my lord he came again to Esher, with 
a pleasant countenance, and said to me that he had once 
adventured to put in his feet, where he would be better 
regarded, or ever the Parliament were hnished. Then 
talked with my lord, and after his talk he rode again 
to London, because he would not be absent from the 
Parliament. There was nothing done against him in 
the Parliament house, but he sent to my lord to know 
what answer he might make in his behalf; insomuch 
that there was nothing alleged against my lord but that 
he was ready to make answer thereto; insomuch that at 
the length his honest estimation and earnest behaviour 
111 his master's cause grew so in every man's opinion, 
that he was reputed the most faittiful servant to his 
master of all other, wherein he was greatly of all men 
commended. 

Then was there brought in a bill of articles into the 
Parliament house to have my lord condemned of treason; 
against which bill Mr. Cromwell inveightd so discreetly, 
with such witty persuasions, ana deep reasons, that the 
same could take no eliect. Then were his enemies con- 



394 WOLSEY. 

strained to indict him in a premunire, and all was to 
entitle the King to his goods and possessions, which he 
had obtained and purchased for the maintenance of his 
Colleges in Oxford and Ipswich, which he was then 
building in the most sumptuous wise. Wherein when 
my lord was demanded by the judges sent to him to know 
his mind, and to take his answer therein, he answered 
them in this wise, " My lords, judges," quoth he, "the 
King knoiceth whether I have offended his majesty 
or not in using my prerogative legantine, for 
xohich I am indicted. I have the King's licence in my 
coffers under his hand and broad seal for the exercising 
and using thereof, in the largest wise ; which now are in 
the hands of my enemies. Therefore because I will 
not stand in question with the King* in his own cause, 
I will here presently confess before you the indictment, 
and put me wholly into the mercy and grace of the King, 
trusting that he hath a conscience and a discretion to 
consider the truth, and my humble submission and 
obedience : wherein I might right well stand to the trial 
thereof by justice. But thus much ye may say to his 
highness, that 1 am wholly under his obedience, and will ; 
and do submit myself to all things that shall be his 
princely pleasure, whose will and command I never 
disobeyed, but was always contented and glad to please 
him before God, whom I ought most chiefly to have 
obeyed ; the which now me repents. Notwithstanding 
J most heartily require you to have me unto his royal majesty 
commended, for whom 1 do and will during my life pray 
to God to send him much prosperity, honour, and victory 
over his enemies." And therewith they took their leave 
and departed. 

Shortly after the King sent the Duke of Norfolk unto 
him in message : but what it was I am not certain ; 
therefore I omit to speak thereof. But my lord being 
advertised, that my lord of Norfolk was coming, iind even 
at hand, he caused all his gentlemen to wait upon him 
down through the hall into the base court, to receive the 
Duke at the gates, and commanded all his yeomen to 



* [One cannot but admire the unshaken loyalty of the Cardinal. Fox 
Jiiy own part, traduced as Wolsey has been, I see much in his character 
to admire. Amidst all his sufferings and indignities not a word escaped 
kiiD to the prejudice of his sovereign.— Edit.] 



WOLSEY. 595 

stand in order still in the hall. And he himself with all 
his gentlemen went to the gates, where he received my 
lord of Norfolk bareheaded, who embraced each other ; 
and so led him by the arm through the hall into his 
chamber. And when the Duke had passed through to the 
upper end of the hall, regardnig the number of tall 
yeomen that stood on each side thereof, he turned again 
to the yeomen, and said, " Sns, your diligent and faithful 
service unto your master in this his calamity, hath pur- 
chased you of all men, noble and ignoble, much honesty; 
insomuch that the King commanded me to say to you 
in his name, that for your true and loving service that ye 
have done to your master, his highness will see you all 
at any time furnished M'ith services, accoiding to your 
merits." With that my lord put oft' his cap, and said 
to my lord of Norfolk, **Sir, these men be all approved 
men, wherefore it were pity they should want any service ; 
and being sorry that 1 am not able to do for them 
as iny heart wisheth, I will therefore require you, 
my good lord, to be good lord unto them, and extend 
your charity among them, where and when ye shall see 
occasion at any time hereafter; and, tl)at ye will prefer 
their dihgence and faithful service unto the King," 
''Doubt you not my lord," quoth my lord of Norfolk, 
" but 1 will do for them the best in my power, and as 
I shall see cause, I will be an earnest suitor for them 
to the King; and some of you I will retain myself in 
service for right honest men. And as ye have begun, so 
continue, until ye hear more of the King's pleasure. 
God's blessing and mine be with you!" And so went 
up into the great chamber to dinner; whom my lord 
Cardinal thanked, and said to him, " Yet, my lord, of 
all other noblemen I have most cause to thank you for 
your noble and gentle part, which you have shewed me 
behind my back, as my servant, Thomas Cromwell, well 
hath reported unto me. But even as ye be a noble-man 
in deed, so have you shewed yourself no less to all men 
in calamity, and especially to me, whom ye have brought 
down from my high estate, but now again being in this 
my miserable estate, you have extended your favour most 
honourably with great chanty. Ye do nghr. well de.^ene 
to bear in your arms the noble and gentle lion, whose 
natural property is, when he hath vanquisiied a cruel beast, 
and seeth him yielded, lying prostrate before him undep 



S96 WOLSEY. 

his feet, then will he be merciful unto him, and do him 
no more hurt, nor suffer any ravenous beast to devour 
him: al! whose natural inclination ye have; where I may 
say these verses in your connnendation, — 

Parcere prostrafis scU nobilis ira leonis : 

Tu quoque Jac simile, quisquis regnabis in orbe.^' 

With these words the water was brought them to wash ; 
to which my lord called my lord of Norfolk to wash with 
him, but he refused so to do of courtesy; and said, "that 
it became him no more to presume to wash with him 
now than it did before." *' Yes," quoth my lord, " for 
my legacy [office of Legate from the Pope] is gone, 
wherein stood all my high honour." *' A straw," quoth 
my lord of JSorfolk, " for your legacy. 1 never esteemed 
your honour the higher for that. But I esteemed your 
honour for that ye were Archbishop of York, and a 
Cardinal, whose estate and honour surmounteth any Duke 
within this realm ; and even so will I honour you, and 
acknowledge the same in doing you reverence and honour 
accordingly. Therefore content you, I will not presume 
to wash with you ; and therefore I pray you hold me 
excused," Then was my lord compelled to wash alone ; 
and when he had done, then my lord of Norfolk washed 
by himself. That done, my lord Cardinal would have 
had him sit down on the chair in the inner side of the 
table, but he refused the same with much humbleness. 
Then was there another chair set for my lord of Norfolk 
over against my lord Cardinal, on the outside of the 
table, which he caused to be based something beneath, 
and would not sit directly against my lord; having all 
their communication of the diligent service of the gen- 
tlemen who waited upon him there at dinner, and how 
much the King and all the other lords did esteem and 
commend them in so doins:; and how little thev are 
regarded in the court that are come to the Kmg's service, 
and have forsaken their master in this time of necessity ; 
whereof some he blamed by name. And thus their dinner 
and conversation ended, they rose and went into my 
lord's privy chamber, where they continued in consultation. 

And being there, it chanced Mr. Shelly, the judge, 
came thither, who was sent from the King. Who, after 
due salutation, declared unto him the King's pleasure 
was to have my lord's house called York place, near 



WOLSEY. 397 

Westminster, belonging to the Archbisliopric of York, and 
to possess the same according to the laws of his realm. 
** His highness has sent for all the judges, and all the 
learned counsel, to know their opinions for the assurance 
thereof; whose opinions be fully resolved, that your 
grace must make a recognizance, and before a judge 
acknowledge and confess the right thereof to belong 
to the King and his successors ; and so his highness 
shall be assured thereof. Wherefore it hath pleased the 
King to appoint and send me hither to take of you the 
same recognizance, having in your grace such affiance as 
that ye will not refuse so to do. Therefore I shall desire 
your grace to know your pleasure therein." " Master 
Shelly," quodi my lord, " I know that the King of his 
own nature is of a royal stomach, not willing more than 
justice shall lead him unto by the law. And, therefore, 
1 counsel you and all other judges and learned men of 
his counsel to put no more into his head than law, that 
may stand with conscience ; for when ye tell him this is 
the law, it were well done ye should tell him also that 
although this be the law, yet tJiis is conscience ; for law 
without conscience is not meet to be given to a King 
by his counsel, to be ministered by him, nor by any of 
his ministers ; for every counsellor to a King ought to. 
have a respect to conscience before the rigour of the 
law, for laus est facere quod decet, nou quod licet. The 
King ought for his royal dignity and prerogative to 
mitigate the rigour of the law, where conscience hath 
the more force ; and therefore in his princely place he 
hath constituted a chancellor to order for him the same. 
And therefore the court of chancery hath been commonly 
called the court of conscience ; because it hath jurisdic- 
tion to command the law in every case to desist from 
the execution of the rigour of the same, whereas con- 
science hath most effect. Therefore I say unto you in 
this case, although you and other of your profession 
perceive by the orders of the law, that the King may 
lawfully do the thing which ye require of me ; how say 
you Mr. Shelley, may I do it with conscience to give that 
away which is none of mine, from me and my successors ? 
If this be the law and conscience, I pray you shew me 
your opinion." " Forsooth, my lord," quoth he, " there 
is no great conscience. But having regard to the King's 
high power, and to a better purpose, it may the better 



398 WOLSEY. 

stand with conscience ; who is sufficient to recompense the 
Church of York with double the value." " That 1 kuoNV 
well, but there is no such condition," quoth my lord, 
*' but only a bare and simple departure with, another's 
right. For if every Bishop should so do, then might they 
give away the patrimony of their Churches, and so in 
process leave nothing for their successors to maintain 
their dignity ; which should be but little to the King's 
honour. Well, I will not stand long with you in this 
matter, let me see your commission." To whom Mr. 
Shelly shewed the same, and that seen, *' Mr. Shelly," 
quoth he, " he shall shew the King's highness that I am 
his most faitliful subject, obediencer, and headman, whose 
royal command and request I will in no wise disobey, 
but fulfil his pleasure in all such things, wherein ye 
fathers of the law say I may lawfully do. Therefore I 
charge your conscience to discharge me. Howbeit, shew 
his highness from me that I most humbly desiie his 
majesty to call to his most gracious remembrance, that 
there is both a heaven and a hell." And herewithal the 
clerk took and wrote the recognizance ; and after some 
secret talk, they departed. Then rose my lord of Norfolk 
from his repose, and after some communication with my 
lord, he likewise departed. 

Thus continued my lord at Esher, and received daily 
messages from the court, some good and some as evil, 
but more evil than good. 

At Christmas he fell very sick, most likely to die. 
Whereof the King being advertised, was very sorry, and 
sent Dr. Butts, his physician to him, to see in what state 
he was. Dr. Butts came to him, finding him lying very 
sick in his bed, and perceiving the danger, returned to 
the King. Of whom the King demanded, saying, *' Have 
you seen yonder man ?" '' Yea, Sir," quoth he. "How 
do you like him," quoth the King. *' Sir," quoth he, 
" if you will have him dead, I warrant him he will be 
dead within these four days if he receive no comfort from 
you shortly, and Mrs. Anne." " Mary," quoth the 
King, ** God forbid that he should die. I pray you, 
Master Butts, go again unto him, and do your care unto 
him ; for I would iiot lose him for ^"20,000." '' Then 
must your grace," quoth Master Butts, " send him first 
some comfortable message as shortly as ye can." " Even 
so 1 will," quoth the King, " by you. And therefore 



WOLSEY. 399 

make speed to him again, and ye shall deliver him this 

ring from me for a token;" (in the which ring was the 

King's image engraved within a ruby, as like the King 

as could be devised.) " This ring he knoweth right 

well : for he gave me the same ; and tell him that I am 

not offended with him in my heart, and that shall he 

know shortly. Therefore bid him pluck up his heart, 

and be of good comfort. And I charge you come not 

from him until ye have brought him out of the danger of 

death." Then spake the King to Mrs. Anne Bulleine, 

saying, '' Good sweet heart, I pray you as ye love me, 

send the Cardinal a token at my desire, with comfortable 

words; and in so doing ye shall deserve our thanks." 

She not being disposed to offend the King would not 

disobey his loving request, whatsoever in her heart she 

intended towards the Cardinal ; but took incontinent her 

tablet of gold that hung at her girdle, and delivered it tc 

Master Butts, with very gentle and comfortable words. 

And so Master Butts departed with speed to Esher ; 

after whom the King sent Dr. Cromer the Sect, Dr. 

Clement, and Dr. Wotton, to consult with blaster Butts 

for my lord's recovery. 

After Master Butts had been with my lord, and de- 
livered the King's and Mrs. Anne's tokens unto him, 
with the most comfortable words that he could devise on 
the King's and Mrs. Anne's behalf, he rejoiced not a 
little, and advanced himself on his bed, and received the 
tokens most joyfully ; thanking Master Butts for his 
pains and good comfort. Master Butts told him further- 
more, that the King's pleasure was that he should minister 
unto him for his health: and to join with him for the 
better and most assured ways, he has sent hither Drs. 
Clement, Cromer, and Wotton. " Therefore, my lord, 
quoth he, " it were well done they were called in to visit 
you, and to consult with them, and to have their opinions 
of your disease, trusting to Almighty God that we shall, 
through his grace and help, ease you of your pains, and 
rid you of your infirmities." To this motion my lord 
was contented to hear their judgments; for he trusted 
more to Dr. Cromer than to all the rest, because he was 
the very mean to bring him from Paris into England, and 
gave him partly his exhibition in Paris. Then when they 
■were come into his chamber, and had talked with him, 
he took upon him to debate his disease learnedly, so that 



400 WOLSEY. 

tliey might perceive that he was seen in that art. After 
they had taken order for their ministration, it was not 
long ere they brought hiui out of danger ; and within 
four days they set him on his feet, and got him a stomach 
to meat. All this done, and he in a right good way of 
amendment, they took their leave, to whom my lord 
offered to eacli of them his reward ; which they refused, 
saying, that the King had given them a special command, 
that they should take of him nothing for their pains and 
ministration, for at their return he himself would suffi- 
ciently reward them of his own costs ; and with great 
thanks they departed, and left my lord in good state of 
recovery. 

After this time my lord amended daily ; and continued 
atEsher until Candlemas; before and against which feast, 
the King caused to be sent unto my lord three or four 
cart loads of stuff: and most thereof, except beds and 
kitchen stuff, w as loaded in great standards, wherein was 
both plate and rich hangings, and chapel stuff. Then 
my lord being thus furnished, was therewith contented ; 
although they whom the King assigned did not deliver 
him so good, nor so rich stuff, as the King's pleasure was, 
yet was he well contented, and rendered most humble 
thanks to the King, and thanked them that appointed the 
same for him, saying to us his Servants when those ap- 
pointed persons were gone, at the opening of the said 
standards, that he thought it might have been better 
appointed. *' But, Sirs," quoth my lord, " he that hath 
nothing is glad of somewhat : and though it be not in 
comparison so much, nor yet in value so good as we had 
before of all the great abundance that then we had, yet 
we give the King our most humble thanks, trusting after 
this to attain to more. Therefore let us rejoice, and be 
glad that God and the King hath so graciously favoured 
us to restore us to something to maintain our estate like 
a noble person." 

Then commanded he Master Cromwell to make earnest 
suit to the King, that he might remove thence to some 
other house, for he was weary of the house of Esher, 
for which continual usage the house waxed unsavoury ; 
supposing that if he might remove he should much sooner 
recover his health. And also the counsel had put in the 
King's head, that the new gallery which my lord had 
lately builded before his fall, should be very necessary 



WOLSEY. 401 



for the King to take it down and set it at Westminster ; 
which standeth at this day there from the old gallery next 
the King's lodging unto the first gate-house. The taking 
away whereof was a great course that his enemies daily 
invented of new to torment him, which discouraged him 
any longer to continue there. 

Now Master Cromwell thought it but folly and vain 
to move any of the King's counsel who were my lord's 
enemies, to help his suit to the King for my lord's re- 
moving, for they would rather have removed him further 
from the King, than to have holpen him to come nearer 
unto him ; wherefore he made suit to the King's person 
only ; whose suit the King graciously heard, and thought 
it very convenient to be granted ; and therewith, through 
the motion of Master Cromwell, the King was contented 
he should remove to Richmond ; which place my lord had 
a little before repaired to his great cost : for the King 
had made an exchange thereof with him for Hampton- 
court. All this was done without knowledge of the 
King's counsel ; for if they might have had understanding 
thereof before, then would they have persuaded the King 
to the contrary : but when they knew of the King's grant 
and licence, although they dissembled their minds in 
the King's presence, yet were they afraid of him, lest 
his nigh resort to the King might move the King at some 
braide [season] to have resorted unto him, and to have 
called him home again, considering the great loving affec- 
tion that the King daily shewed unto him ; wherefore ihey 
doubted his rising up again, if they found not the means 
shortly to remove' him further from the King. Insomuch, 
that they thought it convenient for their purpose to move 
the King upon considerations which they invented, that 
it were very necessary that my lord should go down into 
the North unto his benefice, where he should be a good 
stay for the country ; to which the King condescended, 
thinking no less than all had been true as they had made 
relation. Their suggestion was forced so with wonderful 
imaginations of deep considerations, that the King was 
straitways persuaded to their conclusion. Whereupon 
my lord of Norfolk bade Master Cromwell, who daily 
resorted to my lord to say to him, that he must go home 
to his benefice, and there look to his charge : who at his 
next repair to my lord, then lying at Richmond, declared 
unto him how it was determined that he should go home 

Dd 



403 WOLSEY. 

to his benefice. " Well, then, Thomas," quoth my lord'/ 
*' we will go to Winchester." ** I will," quoth Master 
Cromwell, *' shew my lord of Norfolk what ye say." 
And so he did at his next meeting with him. " What 
should he do there?" quoth the Duke. ** Nay, let him 
go to his rich Bishopric of York, where his honours 
and more charge lie; and so shew him." The lords 
who were not his friends, perceiving that my lord was 
disposed to plant himself so nigh the King, thought then' 
to withdraw his appetite from Winchester ; and, then 
moved the King to give my lord a pension of 4,000 marks 
out of Winchester, and all the rest to distribute among 
his nobility and servants ; and so likewise to divide 
the revenues of St. Alban's : whereof some had 300 marks, 
and some ^flOO. : and, so some more and some less; 
and all the revenues of the lands belonging to the Colleges 
of Oxford and Ipswich, the King took into his own 
hands; whereof Master Cromwell had the receipt and 
government before by my lord's assignment, wherefore it 
was thought very necessai-y that he should so have still, 
who executed all things thereof so exactly and wittily, 
that he was had in great estimation for his behaviour 
therein, and also for the true and faithful demeanour 
towards his lord and master. 

My lord having licence of the King, which Master 
Cromwell obtained for him, to repair to Richmond, he 
made haste all that he could to prepare thitherward ; and 
so he came and lodged there within the lodge of the great 
park, which was a very pretty house and neat, lacking no 
rooms that be convenient for so small a house ; where 
was also a very fair garden. There my lord lay from 
the time of his coming from Esher, unto Lent, with a 
pretty number of servants, because the house was very 
small for his whole family; and the rest of his servants 
went to board wages. 

I will tell you a pretty tale by the way of communication. 
As my lord was accustomed to walk towards the evening 
in his garden there, and to say his even-song, and other 
of his divine service with his chaplain, it was my chance 
to wait upon him there ; and standing in an alley whilst 
he in another alley walked with his chaplain, saying his 
service as is aforesaid ; as I stood, I espied certain images 
of beasts counterfeited in timber, standing in a corner 
under the lodge, to which I repaired to behold. Among 



WOLSEY. 403 ^ 

which I saw stand there a dun cow, whereon I most 
mused, because of the likely entailing* thereof. My 
lord being in the further side of the garden espied me 
how I viewed those beasts ; and having tinished his 
service, came suddenly upon me 'or' I was aware, and 
speaking unto me, said, ** What have you espied here, 
that you look so attentively upon?" "Forsooth, if it 
please your grace," quoth I, " here I behold these images; 
which I suppose were ordained to be set np within some 
place about the King's palace : howbeit. Sir, among 
them all I have most considered this cow, in which (as 
me seemeth) the workman has most lively shewed his 
cunning." " Yea, Mary," quoth he, " upon this cow 
hangeth a certain prophecy, which is this ; because, 
peradventure, you never heard it before, as I will shew 
you. There is a saying, 

* When the cow rideth the bull. 
Then priest, beware thy skull.' 

Of which prophecy neither my lord that declared it, nor 
yet I that heard it, vmderstood the etfect ; although the 
compassing thereof was at that present a-working, and 
about to be brought to pass. 'I'his cow the King gave 
by reason of the earldom of Richmond, which was his 
inheritance ; and this prophecy was afterwards expounded 
in this wise. The dun cow, because it was the King's 
beast, betokened the King ; and the bull betokened 
Mrs. Anne Bulieine, afterwards Queen, because that, 
her father gave a black bull's head in his cognizance, 
and that was his beast. So that when the King had married 
Queen Anne, which was then unknown to my lord, or 
to any other that he woukl do, then was this prophecy 
thought of all men to be fulfilled. For, what number 
of priests, religious and seculars, lost their heads for 
offending such laws as were made to bring this marriage 
to effect, is not unknown to all the world. Therefore it 
may well be judged that this prophecy is fulfilled upon 
this occasion. 

When Cromwell repaired next to my lord, he shewed 
him the words that my lord of Norfolk had commanded 



* j. e. from the carving being so like life j— entailing is from the Italian 
Intagliare, to cut, carve, &c. 

Dd2 



404 WOLSEY. 

him to say. " Mary, Thomas," quoth my lord, " then it 
is lime to be going if he take it so. Therefore I pray 
you to go to the King, and ye may say that I would go to 
my benefice at York but for lack of money ; desiring his 
grace to help me with some. For ye may say the last 
money I received from his grace hath been too little to 
pay my old debts ; and to compel me to the payment of 
the rest of my debts hath been too much extremity ; both 
to take from me all my goods, and to put me to the 
payment of my debts also ; wherein I trust his grace will 
have a charitable respect. Ye may also shew my lord of 
Norfolk, and other of the counsel, that I would depart 
if I had money." " Sir," quoth Master Cromwell, " I 
shall do my best." And after other communication, he 
departed again, and went to London. 

When Cromwell came to the court, he shewed my lord 
of Norfolk that my lord would most gladly go northward 
but for lack of money, wherein he desired his help to the 
King. Then was the King moved therein, as well by 
Master Cjomwell, as by the counsel ; which matter the 
King referred to determine and assign to the counsel ; 
who were in divers opinions. Some would he should 
have none, some would he should have enough, and some 
would have him to have but a small sum ; and some 
thought it should be much against the King's dignity and 
honour, and also very much against the counsellors 
honour to see him want, who had been in such estimation 
with the King, and in great authority in this realm ; yea, 
and it should rather be a slander to the King and his 
whole realm among foreign potentates, to see him want 
that had so much, and now so little. *' Therefore," 
quoth one of them, " rather than he should lack (although 
he never did me a pleasure), yet would I lay all my plate 
to gage for him for of 1,000., rather than he should 
depart northward so bare and simply as some would have 
him do. Let us do to him as we would be done unto ; 
considering the lightness of his offence, and the great 
inestimable substance that he hath parted withal only for 
the King's pleasure, rather then he would disobey his 
grace's will." So after long debate in this matter, it was 
concluded that he should have by the way of a prest* 



i. e. a loan. Pret, Sorame pretee. Fr. A sum lent. 



WOLSEY. 405 

1,000 marks of his pension out of Winchester : which 
[pension] the King had granted him, because he [the 
King] had resumed the Bishopric wholly into his hands ; 
and yet out of the same he had granted divers other great 
pensions to many of the noblemen and other of his 
counsel, so that I suppose, all things accounted, the least 
part was his. The King commanded Cromwell to resort 
to him again when he had received the same sum. And 
according to the same command, when he had received the 
money he repaired again to the King ; to whom the King 
said, "Shew my lord although our counsel have assigned 
no sum of money to bear his charge, yet ye shall shew 
him in my behalf that I have sent £ 1 ,000. of my benevo- 
lence, and tell him that he shall not lack, and bid him be 
of good cheer." Cromwell most humbly on my lord's 
behalf thanked the King for his noble heart and great 
liberality towards my lord, "whose comfortable words 
of your grace," quoth he, ''shall rejoice him more than 
three times the value of the money." And therewith 
departed, and came directly unto my lord to Richmond ; 
to whom he delivered the money, and shewed him of all 
the debate and progress of all the matter in counsel, and 
what money and whereof it was levied that they sent him ; 
and of the money which the King sent ; adding thereto 
the King's comfortable message, wherein my lord did 
not a little rejoice, but took thereof great pleasure and 
comfort. Then did Cromwell counsel with him for the 
furniture of his journey into the North. All things 
being furnished towards his journey, he took the same 
in the beginning ' of the Passion Week before Easter ; 
and so rode from Richmond to a place which was the 
Abbots' of Westminster, called Hendon ; and the next 
day he removed to a place where my lady Parrey lay, 
called the Rye ; the next day he rode to Royston, where 
he was lodged in the Priory there ; then went he the next 
day to Huntingdon, and there lodged within the Abbey ; 
and the next day he rode to Peterborough, and there 
lodged in the Abbey, making there his abode all the 
next week: where he kept tlie solemn feast of Easter, 
with all his train, (save a few in number which were 
continually attending on him,) who were lodged in the 
town, and had board w ages ; his train was in number 
160 persons, having with him 12 carts to carryr his stuff 



406 WOLSEY. 

of his own, which he sent for from his College of Oxford, 
that were there provided, besides 60 other carts of his 
daily carriage of necessaries for his buildings. Upon 
Palm Sunday he bare his palm, and went in procession 
with the Monks, setting forth the divine service right 
honourably, with such singing men as he then had there 
of his own. And upon Maunday Thursday he made 
his Maunday there in our lady's chapel, having *59 poor 
men whose feet he washed, and kissed ; and after he 
liad wiped them he gave every of the said poor men 
Is., 3 ells of good canvass to make them shirts, a pair of 
new shoes, a cast of red herrings, and three white her- 
rings, and one of them had 2s. Upon Easter day he 
rose to the resurrection ;f and that day he went in pro- 
cession in his cardinal's vesture, having his hat on his 
head, and sung the high mass there he himself, solemnly. 
After his mass he gave his benediction to all the hearers 
with clean remission; and there continued he 'till Thursday. 
My lord continuing there at Peterborough after this 
manner, intending to remove thence shortly, commanded 
me to ride to Sir William Fitzwilliam's, Knt., who dwelt 
within three or four miles of Peterborough, to provide 
him there a lodging for three or four days in his journey 
northwards. ^nd being with this Sir William Fitz- 
william, 1 did my message accordingly ; whereof he 
was, as it appeared by his word and deed, the gladdest 
man alive that my lord would so lovingly take his house 
in his way ; saying, that he should be most heartily wel- 
come of any man, the King his sovereign except ; saying 



* Tliis number denotes that he was now fifty-nine years old. 

t He rose to the resurrection. The book of Ceremonies compiled in the 
reign of Henry VIII. observes: "Upon Easter day in the morning the 
ceremonies of the resurrection put us in rera(.mbran(.e of Christ's resur- 
rection, which is the cause of our justification." Strype's £fc/^j. Memo- 
rials, V. 1. p. 294. Records. What these ceremonies were we may 
collect from the Rubrics upon tliat day, in the Processi-7iule secundum 
usum Sarum, fol. 72. edit. lo53., which are to this effect : Un Kaster day 
before mass, and before the ringing of the bells, let the clerks assemble, 
and all tue tapers in the Church be lighted. Then two persons shall 
draw nigli to the sepulchre, and after it is censed, let them take the 



cross out of the sepulchre, and one of them begin ' Christus resurgens.' 
Then let the procession commence After tnis the; 
(Adorent; the cross, lis this idolatry or nut ?1 ' 



WOLSEY. 407 

furthermore, that my lord should not need to dislode or 
discharge any part of his stuiF and carriage for his own 
use during his abode there, but should have all necessary 
2tuff of his own, unless it were my lord's bed for his own 
person. This upon report made to my lord at my return 
rejoiced him not a little ; and he commanded me to give 
Avarning unto all his officers and servants to prepare 
them to remove from Peterborough upon Thursday next, 
which was in Easter week. Then made every man 
himself, and all things in such readiness as was con- 
venient, paying in the town for all such things as they 
had taken ; for which cause my lord caused proclamation 
to be made in the town^ that if any person or persons were 
grieved by any of his sejvants they should resort to his 
officers, and there they should be answered, and have 
due remedy; so that, all things ready furnished, my lord 
took his journey from the Abbey of Peterborough on the 
Thursday in Easter week to Mr. Fitzwilliam's, where he 
was joyously received, and had worthy and honourable 
entertainment at the sole cost of the said Mr. Fitzwilliam 
all the time of my lord's being there with him. 

Thus my lord continued there from Thursday in Easter 
week at Mr. Fitzwilliam's cost, until the Monday next 
following; at which time he removed thence to Stamford, 
where he lay all night at the sign of the Bull. And the 
next day lie removed thence to Grantham, and was 
lodged in a gentleman's place, whose name was Hall. 
And the next day he rode to Newark, and lodged in the 
castle all that night, and the next day also ; which is 
within 4 miles of Southwell, whither my lord intended 
to ride, and there to continue. 

I cannot but declare to you a notable communication 
had at Mr. Fitzwilliam's house between my lord and 
me, which was this : my lord walking in the garden there 
saying his evening song with his chaplain, and I being 
attending upon him, after he had finished his prayers he 
commanded his chaplain, who bore up his gown train, to 
deliver the same, and to go aside ; and after the chaplain 
was gone, he spake to me in this wise, calling me by my 
name, " Ye have been lately at London," quoth he. 
" Forsooth, my Lord," quoth I, " not since I was there 
to buy your liveries for your servants." " And what news 
was there then:" quoth he, ** heard you no communica- 
tion of me ? I pray you tell me." Then perceiving that 



408 WOLSEY. 

I had a good occasion to speak my mind unto him, I 
said, ** Sir, if it please your grace, it was my chance to 
be at dinner in a certain place, where I also supped, 
and many honest worshipful gentlemen, who were for the 
most part of mine old acquaintance, and therefore durst 
the bolder participate with me in conversation of your 
grace, knowing diat 1 w as still your servant ; and they asking 
of me how ye did, and how you accepted your adversity 
and trouble, I answered that you did well, and accepted 
all things in good part; and as it seemed to me they 
were your indifferent friends, of whom they said none evil, 
but lamented your decay and fall very sore; doubting 
much the sequel not to be good for the commonwealth. 
Also, they marvelled much that you being of such excel- 
lent wit, and of such high discretion, would so simply 
confess yourself guilty unto the King as you did. For, 
as they understood by report of some of the King's 
counsel, your case being well considered, you have great 
wrong : to which I could make no direct answer." " Is 
this," quoth he, " the opinion of wise men ?" " Yea, 
forsooth, my lord," quoth I, " and commonly of all men 
else." " Well, then," quoth he, " for all their wisdom 
they perceived not so much as I. For I considered that 
mine enemies had brought the matter so to pass against 
nie, that they conveyed and made it the Kmg's matter 
and case, and caused the King to take the matter into 
his own hands ; and after he had once the possession of 
all my goods, rather than he would have delivered me 
my goods again, without doubt he would not have missed 
(by the setting forth and procurement of my evil-willers) 
to have imagined my undoing and destruction therein, or 
the danger of my life. I had rather confess the matter 
as 1 did, and to live at large like a poor vicar, than 
to live in prison with all the goods and honours I then 
had. And therefore it was for me the better way to 
yield me unto the King's mercy and clemency, than to 
stand stiff against him in trial of the wrong which I 
sustained ; wherein the King would have been both to 
have been noted, and in my submission the King, I doubt 
not, had a conscience, wherein he would rather pity me 
than malign me. And also there was the night crow 
that cried ever in his ears against me ; and if she might 
have perceived any obstinacy in me, she would not have 
failed to have set it forth with such vehemence, that 



WOLSEY. 409 

I should rather have obtained the King's indignation than 
his lawful favour : and his favour once lost (which I then 
knew that I had done) would never have been by nie 
recovered. Therefore 1 thought it better to keep still in 
his favour with loss of goods and dignity, than to win 
his indignation with all my wit, truth, and policy. And 
this was the cause (which all men know not) that I 
yielded myself so soon guilty to the premunire ; wherein 
the King hath since conceived a conscience ; for he 
knoweth and always did more the effect thereof than any 
other person living, and whether I offended him therein 
or not to whose conscience I commit the truth of my 
cause." And thus we left the substance of our commu- 
nication in this matter; although we had much more talk: 
yet this is sufficient to make you understand as well both 
the cause of his confession in the premunire, as also the 
occasion of the loss of his goods. 

Now let us return where we left my lord, being now at 
the Castle of Newark, intending to ride to Southwell. 
He took his journey thither against supper, where for 
lack of reparation of the Bishop's palace which belongs 
to the See of York, he was compelled to lie in a Pre- 
bendary's house over against the Bishop's palace, and 
there kept house until Wiiitsuntide ; against which time 
he removed into the palace, being then newly repaired, 
and there continued ail the most part of that summer, 
not without great resort of the most worshipful of the 
country. And divers noblemen having occasion to repair 
into the same country there, thought it good to visit my 
lord as they travelled through the country, of whom 
they were most gladly entertained, and had right good 
cheer ; whose noble and gentle behaviour caused him to 
have much love in the country of all kind of people. 
He kept there a noble house, where was both plenty of 
meat and drink for all comers; and also much alms 
given at the gate to the poor of the town and country. 
He used much charity and clemency among his tenants, 
and other of the King's subjects. Although the heaung 
thereof was not pleasant in the ears of such as bare him 
no good will, yet the country and common people will 
say as they lind cause ; for now he was very fauiiiiar 
among all persons who then accustomably kept him 
company, and glad at any time when he might do them 
any good. He made many agreements and concords 



410 WOLSEY. 

between gentlemen and gentlemen, and between some 
gentlemen and their wives, and other mean persons, the 
which had been long before asunder in great trouble ; 
making for every of them as occasion did serve, great 
assemblies and feasts, not sparing his purse where he 
might make peace and amity; which gat him much love 
and friendship in the country. 

After this manner my lord lay at Southwell until 
about the latter end of grass time; at vvhich time he 
intended to remove to Scroby, which is another house 
and lordship of the Bishopric of York. And against the 
day of his removing he caused his officers to prepare all 
things, as well provision to be made for him there, as 
also for his carriage thither, and other matters concerning 
lire same. His removing was not so secret but that it 
was abroad known in the country ; which was not so 
much sorrow to all his neighbours there about Southwell, 
but it was as joyful to all the country about Scroby. 

At Scroby he continued till after Michaelmas exer- 
cising many deeds of charity. And most commonly every 
Sunday (if the weather served) he would travel to 
some poor parish Church there-about, and there would 
say his divine service, and either say or hear mass, and 
caused one of his chaplains to preach the word of God 
to the people. And that done, he would dine in some 
honest house in the town, where should be distributed 
to the people a great alms of meat and drink, or of money 
to supply the want of meat if the number of poor did so 
exceed in necessity. And thus with other good deeds 
practising and exercising himself during his abode there, 
as making of love days and agreements between party 
and party being at variance, he daily frequented himself 
thereabouts. 

Then about the feast of St. Michael next after he took 
his journey to Cawood Castle, within 7 miles of York ; 
and passing thither he lay two nights and a day at St. 
Oswald's Abbey, where he in proper person the next 
day confirmed children in the Church, from the hours of 
8 till 12 at noon. And making a short dinner, resorted 
thither again soon after 1 o'clock, and for weariness at 
the last was constrained to call for a chair ; and there 
confirmed more children from the said hour to 6 o'clock 
towards night 'or' ever he could finish, the number of the 
children was such. That done, he went to his supper, 



WOLSEY. 411 

and rested him there all that night. And the next morn- 
ing he applied himself to depart towards Cavvood ; and 
'or' ever he went he confirmed almost 100 children more ; 
and then rode his way from thence. And in his journey 
at a plain green a little beyond Ferrybridge, within a 
quarter of a mile, there was assembled at a great cross 
made of stone many more children, accounted by 
estimation to be about the number of 500 ; where he was 
fain to alight, and thence never removed until he had fully 
confirmed them every one ; and then took his mule and 
rode to Cawood ; where he lay long after with much 
honour and love of the country, both of the worshipful 
and of the simple, doing good deeds of charity, and held 
there an honourable and plentiful household for all 
comers ; and also built and repaired the castle, which 
was greatly in decay, having a gi eat multitude of artificers 
and labourers, about the number of 300 persons daily in 
wages. 

It is not to be doubted but that the worshipful persons, 
as Doctors, and Prebendaries of the close of York, would 
resort unto my lord according to their duties, as unto the 
chief head, father and patron of their spiritual dignity, 
at his first coming into the country so nigh their Church, 
which was but bare 6 miles. Wherefore ye shall under- 
stand that J)r. Hickden, then Doctor [Dean] of the 
Church of York, a worshipful man and a divine, with 
the treasurer, and divers other officers of the same Col- 
lege repaired to my lord, and most joyfully welcomed 
him into those parts ; saying, that it was to them no 
small comfort to see their head among them who hath 
been so long absent from them, being all the while like 
fatherless and comfortless children ; but they trusted 
shortlv to see him among them in his own Church. To 
whom he answered that it was the special cause of his 
coming not only to be among them for a time, but also 
to continue his life among them as a father and as a 
natural brother. '"Sir, then," quoth they, " ye must 
understand the ordinances and rules of our cliurch, 
whereof although ye be head and governor, yet ye 
be not therewith so well acquainted as we be. There- 
fore, if it please your grace, we shall open unto 
you some part of the ancient laws anil customs of 
our Church. Sir, where ye do intend to repair 
unto us, the old law and custom hath evennore 



412 WOLSEY. 

been such, that our head prelate and pastor as ye now be, 
could, nor ever niioht, come above our choir door, nor 
have ajiy stall in the choir, until ye by due order were 
there stalled. Nor if you should happen to die before 
your installation, ye shall not be buried above in the 
choir, but in the nether part of the body of the Church. 
Therefore we shall heartily desire in the name of all our 
brethren, that ye would vouchsafe to do herein as our 
honourable fathers your predecessors have done ; and 
that ye will break no laudable custom of our Church, to 
the which we be obliged by oath at our first admittance 
to observe that, and divers others, which in our chapter 
remain in record." '* Those records," quoth my lord, 
" would I fain see ; and this seen and digested, 1 shall 
then shew you further of my mind." And thus in this 
matter they ceased communication, and passed the time 
with other matters ; so that a day -was assigned to bring in 
their records to my lord. At which day they resorted 
unto him with their register and book of records, wherein 
were written their constitutions and rules, which all the 
ministers of their Church were bound to observe on their 
behalf, and to see them kept inviolable. And when my 
lord had seen and read those records, and debated the 
same substantially with them that brought these books, 
he determined to be installed there at York Minster the 
next Monday after All-hallow's day. Against which time 
due preparation was made for the same, but not in so 
sumptuous a wise as were his predecessors before him ; 
nor yet in such sort as the fame and common report was 
afterwards made of him to his great slander, and to the 
reporters' no small dishonesty, to report such lies as I am 
persuaded they did, to which I was made privy. I was 
sent by my lord to York to foresee things there that 
should be ordered and provided for the solemnity, which 
should have been as mean as could be, considering the 
former decent honours of the worthy Minister of York. 

It came to pass that upon All-hallow's day, one of 
the head officers of the Church which should have the 
most doing in all this installation, was with my lord at 
dinner at his house at Cawood, and sitting at dinner they 
fell into communication of this matter, and of the order 
thereof, saying, that my lord should go on foot from a 
Chapel (which standeth without the gates of the city, 
called St. James's Chapel) unto the Minster upon cloth, 



WOLSEY. 413 

which should be distributed to the poor after his passage. 
My lord hearing this, made answer to the same in this 
wise. " Although that our predecessors did go upon 
cloth, so we intend to go on foot thence without any such 
glory, in the vaumpes of our hosen. For I take God to 
my judge I do not intend to go thither for any triumph or 
glory, but only to perform the rules of the Church to 
which I am bound. And therefore I will desire you all 
and will command other of my servants to go as humbly 
thither, without any sumptuous or gorgeous apparel, 
otherwise than in decent manner. For 1 do purpose to 
come unto York upon Sunday next against night, and to 
lodge in the Dean's house, and upon Monday to be 
installed ; and there to make but one dinner for you all of 
the close, and for other worshipful gentlemen that shall 
chance to come thither to the same ; and to sup with 
some of the residentiaries, and the next day to dine with 
the mayor, and then to repair home hither again ; and sx> 
to tinish the same, whereby I may at all times resort to 
York." 

The day being once known unto all the country, which 
could not be hid, the worshipful gentlemen and others, 
as Abbots and Priors, having notice of the day of my 
lord's installation, sent in such provision of victual that it is 
almost incredible ; wherefore 1 omit to declare unto you 
the certainty thereof. But there wanted no store of great 
and fat beasts and muttons, wild fowl, and venison, both 
red and fallow, and other dainty things such as would 
have plentifully furnished his feast ; all which things were 
unknown to my lord : forasmuch as he being disappointed 
of his purpose by reason that he was arrested of high- 
treason, as ye shall hereafter hear; so that most part of this 
summer provision that I spake of before, was sent unto 
York the same day of his arrest, and the next day- 
following ; for his arrest was kept as close and secret 
from the country as might be, because they doubted the 
common people, which had him in great estimation and 
love for his great charity and liberality which he used 
daily among them, with familiar gesture and behaviour, 
which be the very means to attain the love of the people 
of the north parts. 

My lord's enemies being then in the court about the 
King in good estimation and honourable dignity, having 
now my lord in more fear and doubt than they had before 



414 WOLSEY. 

liis fall, considering the perfect zeal and secret favour 
that the King bare always towards him, thought at length 
tlie King might call him home again ; and then if he 
so did, they supposed that he would rather imagine 
vengeance than remit and forget the cruelty which they 
wrought against him. Wherefore they compassed in their 
heads either by some means to dispatch him by accusa- 
tion of sinister treason, or to bring him in the King's 
high indignation by some other means. This was daily 
their study and consultation, having for their espials as 
many vigilant eyes attendant upon him as the poet feigned 
Argus to have ; so that he could neither work or do any 
thing but that his enemies had knowledge thereof shortly 
after. Now at the last they espied a time wherein they 
caught an occasion to bring their purpose to pass, think- 
ing thereby to have of him a great advantage, for the 
matter being once disclosed unto the King in such 
vehemency as they purposed, they thought the King 
would be against him. And that done and by them 
executed, the King, upon other complaints moved with 
great displeasure, thought it good that he should come 
up and stand to his tiial : which they liked nothing at 
all ; notwithstanding hereupon he was sent for after this 
sort. First, they devised that Sir Walter Walsh, Knt., 
one of the King's privy chamber, should be sent down 
with a commission into the north unto the Earl of Nor- 
thumberland, (who was sometime brought up in house 
with my lord Cardinal,) and they twain being jointly iu 
commission to arrest my lord of high treason. This 
conclusion fully resolved, they caused Mr. W^alsh to 
prepare him to his journey with this commission, and 
certain instructions annexed to the same ; who made 
him ready to ride, and took his hoise at the court gate 
about noon of All-hallow's day, toward my lord of 
Northumberland. Now 1 am come to the place where 
I will declare that which I promised in the latter end of 
the last chapter, of a certain sign or token of this my 
lord's trouble ; which thing was this. 

My lord sitting at dinner upon All-hallow's day, having 
at his board-end* divers of his worshipful Chaplains 



* " 111 the houses of our ancient nobility they dined at long^ tables. 
The lord and his principal guests sat at the upper end of the first table, 
iu the great chamber, which was therefore called the lord's board-end. 



WOLSEY. 415 

sitting at dinner to keep him company, for lack of 
strangers, ye shall understand that accustomably my 
lord's great cross stood in a corner at the table's esid^ 
leaning against the tappet or hanging. And when the 
board's end was taken up, and a convenient time for the 
Chaplains to arise, they forced themselves to rise from 
the table ; and even as they rose, one Dr. Augustine, a 
Venetian, and physician to my lord, rising from the table 
with the other, having upon him a great gown of bois- 
terous velvet, overthrew my lord's great cross which stood 
in the way of the board's end : and trailing down along 
the tappet it fell upon Dr. Bonner's head, who stood by 
the tappet ; and the point brake his head a little, that the 
blood ran down. The company there standing according 
to their duty ready to give thanks to my lord for their 
dinner, were greatly astonished with the chance. My 
lord sitting in his chair, and perceiving the same, de- 
manded of those next him what the matter meant of their 
sudden amaze. I shewed him of the fall of his cross 
upon Dr. Bonner's head. " Hath it," quoth he, " drawn 
any blood." '* Yea, forsooth, my lord," quoth I. With 
that he cast his head aside, looking soberly upon me a 
certain space, and said unto me (shaking his head), 
*' malum omen ;"* and therewith said grace, and rose up 
from the table, and went into his bed-chamber ; but what 
he did there I know not. 

Now mark the signification how my lord expounded 
this matter unto me at Pomfret, after his fall. First, ye 
shall understand that tlie cross, which he bare as Arch- 
bishop of York, signified himself ; and Augustine the 
physician, who oveithrew tiie cross was, he that accused 
my lord-, whereby his enemies caught an occasion to over- 
throw him. It fell upon Dr. Bonner's head, who was 
master of my lord's faculties and spiritual jurisdictions. 



The officers of his household, and inferior guests, at long tables below in 
the hall. In the middle of each table stood a great salt-cellar; and aa 
particular care was taken to place the guests according to their rank. 
It became a mark of distinction whether a person sat above or below 
the salt." Notes on the Northumberland Household, book, p. 419. — 

[WohDSVVORTH.J 

• The enemies of Archbishop Laud, particularly in the time of his 
troubles, were fond of comparing him with Cardinal Wolsey : and there 
is reason to think, that his life was first printed in the year 1641, for 
the purpose of prejudicing that great Prelate in the minds of the people, 
by insinuating a parallel between him and the Cardinal. However thi« 



416 



WOLSEY. 



and was then damnified by the overthrow of the cross : 
yea, and moreover, drawing of the blood of him betokened 
death; which shortly after did ensue. About which time 
of this mischance, the same very day and season, Mr. 
Walsh took his horse at the court gate as nigh as it could 
be judged. 

Now the appointed time drew near of his installation ; 
and sitting at dinner upon the Friday next before the 
Monday on the which he intended to be installed at York, 
the Earl of Northumberland and Mr. Walsh, with a 
great company of gentlemen of the Earl's house, and of 
the country, whom be gathered together in the King's 
name to accompany them, not knowing to what intent, 
came into the hall at Cawood,the officers being at dinner, 
and my lord not fully dined being then in his fruits, not 
knowing of the Earl's being in the hall. At last one 
came up and shewed my lord that the Earl of Northum- 
berland was in the hall ; whereat my lord marvelled, and 
would not believe him at the first, but commanded a 
gentleman Usher to look and bring him the truth whether 
it were he or no. Who going down the stairs where was 
a loop with a lattice, Mhere through he looked into the 



may have been, the expiession in the text recals to memory an anecdote 
respecting Laud, which the reader will not be displeased to find in this 
place. 

The year 1639, we all know, was big with events calamitous to Laud, 
and to the church, and monirchi!. In the Lambeth Library is presened a 
small pane of glass, in which is written with a diamond pencil the 
following words : 



Memorand : Ecclesia de 
Mitcham,Clieam et .Stone,. cum aliis 
fulgure combusts sunt 
Januar : 14, 163- 
Omen advertat Deus 



On a piece of paper of the same size with the glass, and kept in the same 
case with it, is written by the hand of Archbishop Wake (as mv friend 
Mr. Todd, MS. librarian to his grace, the present Archbishop, 'informs 
me) as follows : " This glasse was taken out of the west winnow of the 
gallery at Croydon before I new built it: and is, as J take it, the writiivg 
of Archbishop Laud's own hand." — [Wordsworth.] 



WOLSEY. 417 

hall, he saw my Lord of Northumberland : and went no 
farther, but returned, and shewed my lord it was very he. 
*' Then," quoth my Lord, " I am sorry that we have 
dined ; for I fear that our officers be not provided of any 
store of good lish, to make him some honourable cheer, 
according to his estate, notwithstanding he shall have such 
as we have, with a right good will." ** Let the table 
stand," quoth he, *'aud we will go down and meet him, 
and bring him up ; and then shall he see how far forth we 
be at our dinner," With that he put the table from him 
and rose up; and going down the stairs he encountered 
the Earl, whom he met upon the midst of the stairs coming 
up, with all his men at his tail. And as soon as my Lord 
espied the Earl, he put off his cap, and said, *' My Lord, 
ye are most heartily welcome;" (and so they embraced 
each other.) My lord Cardinal said, " Although I have 
often desired and wished in my heart to see you in my 
house, yet if ye had loved me well, ye would have sent me 
word before of your coming ; to the intent I might have 
received you according to your honour. Notwithstanding 
ye shall have such cheer as I can make you with a right 
good will ; trusting that ye will accept the same of me as 
of your very loving friend, hoping hereafter to see you 
oftener, when I shall be more able to entertain you with 
better fare." And this said, my Lord took the Earl by 
the hand, and had him up into the chamber ; whom 
followed all the number of the Earl's servants. And 
when my Lord came into the chamber, he led the Earl to 
the fire, and said, " Sir, my Lord, ye shall go into my 
bed-chamber, where ye shall have a good lire, until your 
chamber be made ready for you; and let my Lord's meal 
be brought up: and 'or'ever I go, 1 pray you give me 
leave to take these gentlemen, your servants, by the hands." 
And when he had taken them all by the hands, he returned 
to the Earl, saying, " I perceive well, my Lord, that ye 
have not altogether forgot my old precepts and counsel, 
which I gave you when you were with me in your youth, 
to cherish my Lord your father's old servants, which 1 see 
here present with you. Surely, my Lord, ye do therein 
very well and nobly, like a wise gentleman. For these 
be they who will not only love you, but also live and die 
with you, and be true to you, and glad to see you prosper 
in honour, which I beseech God to send you with long 

EC 



418 WOLSEY. 

life." This said, he took the Earl by the hand, and \ed 
him into his bed-chamber. 

And they being there all alone, save only I, who kept 
the door, according to my duty, being gentleman-usher ; 
these two Lords standing at a window by the chimney, 
the Earl trembling said unto my Lord with a soft voice, 
(laying his hand upon his arm) " My Lord, I arrest you 
of high treason !" With which words my Lord was mar- 
vellously astonished, standing both still without any more 
words a good space. But at the last, quoth my Lord, 
*' What authority have you to arrest me?" "Forsooth, 
my Lord," quoth the Earl, " 1 have a commission so to 
do." ** Where is your commission," quoth my Lord, 
** that T may see it?" " Nay, Sir, that you may not," 
said the Earl. " Well, then," quoth my Lord, " hold 
you contented ; then will I not obey your arrest : for 
there hath been between yonr ancestors and my pi^ede- 
cessors great contentions and debate of an ancient 
grudge, which may succeed in you and grow unto the 
like inconvenience, as it hath done between your ancestors 
and my predecessors. Therefore without I see your 
authority from above, I will not obey you." Even as 
they were debating this matter between them in the 
chamber, so busy was Mr. Walsh in arresting of Dr. 
Augustine at the door in the palace, saying unto him, 
** Go in traitor, or I shall make thee." And with that, 
I opened tlte portal door, perceiving them both there. 
Mr. Walsh thrust Dr. Augustine in before him with 
violence. These matters on bath sides astonished me 
very much, musing what all this should mean ; until at 
the last, Mr. Walsh having entered my lord's chamber, 
began to pluck off his hood, which he had made him 
of the same cloth whereof his coat was ; which was of 
Shrewsbury cotton, to the intent he wouM not be known. 
And after he had plucked off his hood, he kneeled down 
to my lord ; to whom my lord said, " Come hither 
gentleman, and let me speak with you," commanding 
him to stand up, saying thus : " Sir, here my lord of 
Northumberland hath arrested me : but by whose autho- 
rity or commission, he sheweth me not ; but saith, he hath 
one. If ye be privy thereto, or be joined with him 
therein, 1 pray you shew me." " Indeed, my lord, if 
it please your grace," quoth Mr. Walsh, " he sheweth 



WOLSEY. 419 

you the truth." " Well, then," quoth my lord, " I pray 
you let ms sec it." " Sir, I beseech you." quoth Mr. 
Walsh, ** hold us excused. There is annexed to our 
commission certain instructions which ye may not see, 
nor yet be privy to the same." " Why," quoth my lord, 
"be your instructions such that I may not see them? 
peradventure if 1 might be privy to them, I could help 
you the better to perform them. It is not unknown but 
I have been privy and of counsel in as weighty matters 
as these be : and I doubt not for my part, but I shall 
prove myself a true man, against the expectation of all 
my cruel enemies. I see the matter whereupon it groweth. 
Well, there is no more to do. I trow ye are one of the 
King's privy chamber ; your name is Walsh. I am 
content to yield to you, but not to my lord of Northum- 
berland, without I see his commission. And also you 
are a sufficient commissioner in that behalf, inasmuch as 
ye be one of the King's privy chamber ; for the worst, 
there is a sufficient warrant to arrest the greatest peer in 
this realm by the King's only command, without any 
commission. Therefore I am at your will to order and 
dispose : put therefore your commission and authority 
in execution : spare not, and I will obey the King's will. 
I fear more the malice and cruelty of my mortal enemies, 
than I do the untruth of my allegiance ; wherein 1 take 
God to be my judge, I never offended the King in word 
or deed ; and therein I dare stand face to face with any 
man alive, having indifferency, without partiality." 

Then came my lord of Northumberland unto me, 
standing at the portal door, and commanded me to avoid 
the chamber : and being loath to depart from my master 
I stood still, and would not remove ; to whom he spake 
again, and said unto me, *' There is no remedy, ye must 
depart." With that I looked upon my lord, (as who 
would say ' shall I go?') upon whom my lord looked very 
heavily, and shook ai me his head. And perceiving 
by his countenance it booted me not to abide, I departed 
the chamber, and went into the next chamber, where 
abode many gentlemen of my fellows and others to learn 
of me some news; to whom I made report what 1 saw 
and heard; which was great heaviness unto them all. 

Then the Earl called into the chamber divers gentle- 
men of his own servants ; and after that he and Mr. 
Walsh had taken my lord's keys from him, they gave the 

Ee 2 



420 WOLSEY. 

charge and custody of my lord unto five gentlemen. And 
then they went about the house to set all things in order, 
intending to depart thence the next day (being Saturday) 
•with my lord ; howbeit it was Sunday towards night 'or' 
ever they could bring all things to pass to depart. Then 
went they busily about to convey Dr. Augustine away to 
London, with as much speed as they coidd, sending with 
him divers persons to conduct him, who was bound unto 
his horse like a traitor. And this done, when it came to 
night, the commissioners assigned two grooms of my 
lord's to attend upon him in the chamber where he lay that 
night, and all the rest of my lord of Northumberland's 
gentlemen watched in the next chamber ; and so was all 
the house watched, and the gates surely kept, that no 
man could either pass or repass in or out until the next 
morning. At which time my lord rose up about 8 o'clock, 
and made him ready to ride ; where he was kept still 
close in his chamber, expecting his departing thence. 

Then the Earl sent for me into his chamber, and being 
there, he commanded me to go to my lord, and give 
attendance on him, and charged me with an oath upon 
certain articles to observe about him. And going my 
way toward my lord, 1 met with Mr. Walsh in the court, 
who called me unto him, and led me into his chamber, 
and there shewed me how the King's majesty bare towards 
me his princely favour, for my diligent and true service 
that I ministered daily to my lord and master. " Where- 
fore," quoth he, ** the King's pleasure is, that ye shall 
be about him as most chief in whom his highness putteth 
great confidence and trust ; and whose pleasure is there- 
fore, that ye shall be sworn unto him to observe certain 
articles, which you shall have delivered you in writing." 
And so he gave me an oath ; and then I resorted unto 
my lord, where he was sitting in a chair, the tables being 
spread for him to go to dinner. But as soon as he 
perceived me come in, he fell out into such a woeful 
lamentation, with such ruthful tears and watery eyes, 
that would have caused a flinty heart to mourn with him. 
And as I could, I with others comforted him ; but it 
would not be. " For," quoth he, **now T lament that 
I see this gentleman," (meaning me) " how faithfully, how 
diligently, and how painfully he hath served me, abandoning 
his own country, wife, and children, his house and family, 
his rest and quietness, only to serve me, and I have 



WOLSEY. 421 

Kothmg to reward him for his high merits. And also the 
sight of him causeth me to call to my remembrance the 
number of faithful servants that I have here with me ; 
Avhom I did intend to prefer and advance to the best 
of my power from time to time, as occasion should serve. 
But now, alas! I am prevented, and have nothing here 
to reward them ; all is deprived me, and I am left here 
their miserable and M'retched master." " Howbeit," quoth 
he to me (calling me by my name), ** I am a true man, 
and ye shall never have shame of me for your service. 
If I may come to my answer, I fear no man alive ; for 
he liveth not that shall look upon this face" (pointing to 
his own face), **that shall be able to accuse me of any 
untruth ; and that know well mine enemies, which will 
be an occasion that they will not suffer me to have in- 
different justice, but seek some sinister means to dispatch 
me." " Sir," quoth I, '* ye need not therein doubt, the 
King being so much your good lord,, as he hath always 
shewed himself to be in all your troubles." With that 
came up my lord's meat ; and so we left our former 
communication, and I gave my lord water, and set him 
down to dinner ; who did eat very little meat, but very 
many times suddenly he would burst out in tears, with 
the most sorrowful words that have been heard of any 
woeful creature. i\nd at the last he fetched a great sigh, 
and said this text of Scripture :* " Oconstantia Martyrum 
laudabilis ! O charitas inextinguibilis ! O patientia in- 
vincibilis, qitce licet inter pressuras persequentium visa sit 
despicabilis, invenietur in laudem et gloriam ac honorem 
in tempore tribulationis." And thus passed he forth his 
dinner in great lamentation and heaviness, who was fed 
more with weeping tears than with any delicate meats 
that were set before him. I suppose there was not a dry 
eye among all the gentlemen that were tliere attending 
upon him. And when the table was taken up, we ex^- 
pected continually our removing, until it drew to night ; 



* The words vvhicli follow, I apprehend, are part of some ecclesiastica,! 
hymn. It was net unusual to attribute the name of Scripture to all such 
compositions ; and to whatever was read in Churclies. " Also I said 
and affirmed" (the words are part of the recantation of a Wickliffite), 
*' that 1 held no Scripture Catholic nor holy, but only that is contained 
in the Bible. For the legends and lives of saints I held them nought; 
and the miracles written of them I lield uutrwe." Fox's ^cts, p. 591, 

[WOBDSWOKTH.J 



422 WOLSEY. 

and then it was shewed my lord, that he could not go 
away that night, but on the morrow, by God's grace he 
should depart. " Even then," quoth he, " when my 
lord of Northumberland shall be pleased." Wherefore 
it was concluded, that he should tarry until the next day, 
being Sunday. 

On which day my lord rose in the morning, and pre- 
pared him ready to ride, after he had heard mass ; and 
by that time he had said all his divine service it was 
dinner time ; and after dinner the Earl appointed all 
things how it should be ordered ; and by that time it was 
near night. There were appointed to wait upon him 
divers persons, among whom, I myself, and four more of 
his own servants were assigned unto him. First, his 
chaplain, two grooms, and his barber : and as we were 
going down out of the great chamber, my lord demanded 
where his servants were gone ; which the Earl and Mr. 
Walsh had inclosed within the chapel there, because they 
should not trouble his passage. Notwithstanding my 
lord would not go down until he had a sight of his 
servants ; to whom it was answered that he might not see 
them. " Why, so ?" then quoth my lord, ** 1 will not 
out of this house but I will see my servants, and take my 
leave of them before I will go any further." And his 
servants being in the chapel, having understanding that 
my lord was going away, and that they should not see 
him before his departure, they began to grudge, and to 
make such a ruthful noise, that the conmiissioners were 
in doubt of a tumult to tarry among them ; wherefore 
they were let out, and suffered to repair to my lord in the 
great chamber; where they kneeled down before him; 
among whom was not one dry eye, but earnestly lamented 
their master's fall and trouble. To whom my lord gave 
comfortable words, and worthy praises for their diligence, 
honesty, and truth, done to him heretofore ; assuring them 
that what chance soever should happen him, he was a 
very true and a just man to his sovereign lord. And thus 
with a lamentable manner he shook every of them by the 
hand. 

Then Avas he constrained to depart, the night drew so 
fast on. And so my lord's horse and our's were ready 
brought into the inner court, where we mounted, and 
coming to the gate to ride out, which was shut, the porter 
opening the same to let us pass, there was ready attending 



WOLSEY. 423^ 

•d great number of gentlemen with their servants, such as 
the earl had appointed for that purpose, to attend and 
conduct my lord to Pomfret that night, and so forth, as 
ye shall hereafter hear. But to tell you of the number of 
the people of the country that were assembled at the gate 
to lament his departing, I suppose they were in number 
above 3,000 people ; which, at the opening of the gates, 
after they had a sight of him, cried with a loud voice, 
" God save your grace, God save your grace I The foul 
evil take them that have thus taken you from us ! We 
pray God that a very vengeance may light upon them !" 
Thus they lan after him, crying through the town of 
Cawood, they loved him so well. Surely they had a great 
loss of him, both rich and poor : for the poor had by him 
great relief, and the rich lacked not his counsel and help 
in all their troubles, which caused him to have such love 
among the people of the country. 

Furtheraiore, as he rode toward Pomfret, he demanded 
of me whither they would lead him that night. *' Mary, 
Sir," quoth I, "to Pomfret." "Alas!" quoth he, 
*' shall I go to the castle, and lie there and die like a 
beast 1" " Sir, I can tell you no more," quoth I, " what 
they intend to doj but. Sir, I will inquire of a secret 
friend of mine in this company, who is chief of all their 
counsels." 

With that I repaired unto the said Roger Lassels, [Las- 
celles] and desired him as earnestly as I could, that he would 
vouchsafe to shew me whither my lord should go to be 
lodged that night ; who answered me again that my lord 
should be lodged in the abbey of Pomfret, and in none 
other place ; the which I reported to my lord, who was 
glad thereof ; so that within night w§ came to Pomfret, 
and there lodged within the abbey as is aforesaid. 

The next day my lord removed towards Doncaster, and 
came into the town by torch-lightj'whjch was liis desire, 
because of the people. Yea notwithstanding the people 
were assembled, and cried out upon him, *' God save your 
grace, God save your grace, my good lord Cardinal!" 
running before him with candles in their hands; who 
caused me to ride by his side to shadow him from the 
people ; and yet they perceived him and lamented his 
misfortune, cursing his accusers. And thus they brought 
him to the Black-friars, within which he was lodged. 
. And the next day we removed and rode to Sheffield-^ 



4'24 WOLSEY. 

park, where my lord of Shrewsbury lay v ithin the lodge, 
the people all the way thitherward still lamenting him, 
cr)ing as they did before. And when we came into the 
park of Sheffield nigh to the lodge, my lord of Shrewsbury, 
with my lady and a train of gentlewomen, and all other his 
gentlemen and servants, stood without the gates, to attend 
my lord's coming, to receive him ; at whose alighting the 
earl received him with much honour, and embraced my 
lord, saying these words, " My lord, your grace is most 
heartily welcome unto me, and I am glad to see you here 
in my poor lodge, where 1 have long desired to see you, 
and should have been much more glad if you had come 
after an other sort." " Aye, my gentle lord of Shrews- 
bury," quoth my lord, '' I heartily thank you : and although 
I have cause to lament, yet, as a faithful heart may, 1 do 
rejoice, that my chance is to come unto the custody of so 
noble a person, whose approved honour and wisdom hath 
always been right well known to all estates. And, Sir, 
however my accusers have used their accusations against 
me, this 1 know, and so before your lordship, and all the 
world, I do protest, that my demeanour and proceedings 
have always been both just and loyal towards my sovereign 
and liege lord ; of whose usage in his grace's affairs, your 
lordship hath had right good experience, and even accord- 
ing to my truth, so 1 beseech God to help me !" " I doubt 
not," quoth my lord of Shrewsbury, ** of your truth. 
Therefore, my lord, be of good cheer, and fear not ; for 
I am nothing sorry, but that I have not wherewith to 
entertain you, according to my good will and your honour; 
but such as I have ye shall be welcome to : for I will not 
receive you as a prisoner, but as my good lord, and the 
King's true and loving subject ; and. Sir, here is my wife 
come to salute you." Whom my lord kissed, with his 
cap in his hand, bareheaded, and all the other gentlemen; 
and took all the Earl's servants by the hands, as well 
gentlemen as yeornen. This done these two lords went 
into the lodge arm m arm, and so conducted my lord into 
a fair gallery, where was in the further end thereof a 
goodly tower with lodgings, where my lord was lodged. 
There was al^o in the midst of the same gallery a traverse 
of sarcenet drawn ; so that the one end thereof was pre- 
served for my loid, and the other for the earl. 

Then departed from my lord all the great number of 
gentlemen and other that conducted him thither. And 



WOLSEY. 425 

my lord, being thus with my lord of Shrewsbury, con- 
tinued there eighteen days after ; upon whom my lord of 
Shrewsbury appointed divers worthy gentlemen to attend 
continually, to foresee that he should lack nothing that 
he would desire, being served in his own chamber at 
dinner, and supper, as honourably, and with as many 
dainty dishes, as he had in his own house commonly being 
at liberty. And once every day my lord of Shrewsbury 
would repair unto him, and commune with him, sitting 
upon a bench in a great window in the gallery. 

Remaining there thus with my lord the space of a 
fortnight, having goodly entertainment, and often desired 
by the earl to kill a doe or hart in his park there, who 
always refused to take any pleasure either in hunting or 
otherwise, but applied his prayers continually with great 
devotion ; so that it came to pass at a certain time as he 
sat at dinner in his own chamber, having at his board's- 
end the same day, as he accustomably had every day, a 
mess of gentlemen and chaplains to keep him company, 
towards the end of his dinner, when he came to the eating 
of his fruits, I perceived his colour often to change, 
whereby I judged him not to be in good health. With 
that I leaned ever the table, and speaking softly unto 
him, said, ** Sir^ me seemeth your grace is not well at 
ease." To whom he answered with a loud voice, *' For- 
sooth, no more I am ; for I am," quoth he, " taken 
suddenly with a thing about my stomach, that lieth there- 
along, as cold as a whetstone : which is no more than 
wind ; therefore I pray you take up the table, and make 
a short dinner, and that done resort shortly again." And 
after the meat was carried out of the chamber into the 
gallery, where all the waiters dined, and every man set, 
I rose up and forsook my dinner, and came into the 
chamber unto my lord, where 1 found him still sitting 
verj- ill at ease ; notwithstanding he was communing with 
them at the board's-end, whom he had commanded to 
sit still. And as soon as 1 entered the chamber, he 
desired me to go to the apothecary, and enquire of him 
if he had any thing that would make him break wind 
upward. Then went 1 to the earl, and shewed him 
what state my lord was in, and what he desired. With 
that my lord of Shrewsbury caused incontinent the 
apothecary to be called before him ; and at his coming, 
he demanded of him if he had anv thing that would 



426 WOLSEY. 

break wind upward in a man's body; and he answered 
that he had such gear. " Then," quoth the earl, '* fetch 
me some." Then departed the apothecary, and brought 
with him a white confection to my lord, who commanded 
me to give the save thereof before him, and so I did. 
And I took the same and brought it to my lord, whereof 
also I took the saye myself, and then delivered it to my 
lord, who received it up all at once into his mouth. 
But immediately after he had received the same^ surely 
he avoided much wind exceedingly, upward. '^ Lo," 
quoth he, " you may see it was but wind ; and now am 
1 well eased, I thank Godj" and so rose from the table, 
and went to his prayers, as he used every day after 
dinner. And that done, there came upon him such a laske, 
[looseness] that it caused him to go to stool ; and being there, 
my lord of Shrewsbury sent for me, and at my repair to 
him, he said : ** For as much as I have always perceived 
you to be a man, in whom my lord your master hath 
gjeat affiance ; and also knowing you to be an honest 
man, &c. it is so, that my lord your master hath often 
desired me to write to the King, that he might come 
before his presence to answer to his accusations : and 
even so have I done ; and this day have I received letters 
from the King's grace, by Sir William Kingston, whereby 
I perceive that the King hath in him a good opinion ; 
and by my request he hath sent for him, by the same Sir 
AVilliam, to come unto him ; who is in his chamber. 
Wherefore now is the time come that my lord hath often 
desired to try himself, I trust, much to his honour ; and 
it shall be the best journey that ever he made in his life. 
Therefore now would 1 have you play the part of a wise 
man, to break this matter wittily to him, in such sort, 
that he may take it quietly, and in good part : for he is 
ever so full of sorrow and heaviness at my being with 
him, that I fear he will take it in evil part, and then 
doeth he not well ; for I assure you, and so shew him, 
that the King is his good lord, and hath given me most 
worthy thanks for his entertainment, desiring me so to 
continue, not doubting but that he will right nobly acquit 
himself towards his highness. Therefore, go to him, 
and persuade with him that I may lind him in good quiet 
at my coming, for I will not tarry long after you." 
" Sir," quoth I, ** if it please your lordship, I shall 
endeavour to the best of my power to accomplish your 



WOLSEY. 427 

lordship's command. But, Sir, I doubt, that when I 
shall name Sir William Kingston to him, he will mistrust 
that all is not well ; because Mr. Kingston is constable 
of the tower, and captain of the guard, having with him, 
as I understand, 24 of the guard to attend upon him." 
*' Mary, it is truth," quoth the earl, " what though he 
be constable of the tower ? he is the meetest man for his 
wisdom and discretion to be sent about any such message. 
And for the guard, it is for none other purpose but only 
to defend him against them that would intend him any 
evil, either in word or deed ; and they be all, or for the 
most part, such of his old servants as the King took of 
late into his service, to the intent that they should attend 
upon him most justly, knowing best how to serve him." 
" Well, Sir," said I, " I shall do what 1 can;" and so 
departed from him towards my lord. 

And as I repaired unto him, I found him sitting at the 
upper end of the gallery, upon a chest, with his staff and 
his beads in his hands. And espying me coming from 
the earl, demanded of me what news. " Forsooth, Sir," 
quoth I, ** the best news that ever came to you : if your 
grace can take it well." " I pray God it be ;" quoth he, 
*' what is it?" " Forsoodi, Sir," said I, "my lord of 
Shrewsbury, perceiving by your often communication 
with him, that ye were always desirous to come before 
the King's majesty, he as your most assured friend hath 
wrought so with his letters to the King, that he hath sent 
for you by Mr. Kingston and 24 ot the guard, to conduct 
you to his highness." ** Mr. Kingston," quoth he, re- 
hearsing his name* once or twice ; and with that clapped 
his hand on his thigh, and gave a great sigh, and therewith 
he rose up, and went into his chamber ; and when he 
came out again, immediately my lord of Shrewsbury came 
into the gallery unto him, whom my lord met, and then 
sitting down there upon a bench in a great bay window, 
the earl asked him how he did, and he most lamentably, 
as he was accustomed to do, answered him, and thanked 



* Wolsey.in his life-time, was informed by some fortune-tellers, that he 
should have his end at Kini^slon. 'fliis he interpreted of Kingston- 
on-Tliames, which made him always avoid riding through that town, 
though the nearest way from his house to the court. Afterwards, under- 
standing that he was to be committed by the King's express orders to the 
charge of Sir Anthony Kingston, it struck to hisfieart. 



428 WOLSEY. 

him for his gentle entertainment. '' Sir," quoth the ear!, 
if ye remember ye have often wished to come before the 
King to make your answer: and, I perceiving your often 
desire and earnest request, as one that beareth you good 
will, have written especially unto the King in that behalf; 
making him privy also of your lamentable sorrow, that 
ye inwardly have received of his displeasure ; who ac- 
cepteth all your doings therein, as friends be accustomed 
to do in such cases. Wherefore I would advise you to 
pluck up your heart, and be not aghast of your enemies, 
who I assure you be more in doubt of you, than you 
would think, perceiving that the King is minded to have 
the hearing of your case before his own person. Now, 
Sir, if you can be of good cheer, I doubt not but this 
journey which you shall take to his highness shall be much 
to your advancement, and an overthrow to your enemies. 
The King hath sent for you by the worshipful knight, 
Mr. Kingston, and with him 24 of your old servants, 
now of the guard, to defend you against your enemies, 
to the intent that ye may safely come unto his majesty." 
**Sir," quoth my lord, ''I trow that Mr. Kingston is 
constable of the tower." " Yea, what of that?" quoth 
the earl, " I assure you he is elected of the King for 
one of your friends, and for a discreet gentleman, most 
worthy to take upon him the safeguard and conduct of your 
person ; which without fail the King much esteemeth, 
and secretly beareth you special favour, far otherwise 
than ye do take it." ** Well, Sir," quoth my lord, " as 
God will, so be it. I am subject to fortune, and to 
fortune I submit myself, being a true man, ready to accept 
such chances as shall follow, and there's an end ; Sir, I 
pray you, where is Mr. Kingston^" "Mary," quoth 
the earl, " if you will, I will send for him, who would 
most gladly see you." " I pray you then," quotli my 
lord, " send for him." At whose message he came, and 
as soon as my lord espied him coming at the gallery end, 
he made haste to encounter him. Mr. Kingston came 
towards him with much reverence ; and at his coming he 
kneeled down unto him, and saluted him in the King's 
behalf; whom my lord bire-headed offered to take up, 
but he still refused. Then quoth my lord, " Mr. King- 
ston, 1 pray you stand up, and leave your kneeling unto 
me ; for 1 am but a wretch replete with misery, not 
esteeming myself, but as a vile object utterly cast away, 



WOLSEY. 429 

without desert, as God knoweth. And therefore, good 
Mr. Kingston stand up, or I will kneel down by you ;" 
whom he would not leave until he stood up. Then spake 
Mr. Kingston, and said, with humble reverence, " Sir, 
the King's majesty hath him commended unto you." 
**I thank his highness," quoth my lord ; " I trust he is 
in health, and merry." " Yea, without doubt," quoth 
Mr. Kingston; "and he commanded me to say unto 
you that you should assure yourself, that he beareth unto 
you as nmch good will and favour as ever he did; and 
willeth you to be of good cheer. And where report hath 
been made unto him, that you should commit against his 
royal majesty certain heinous crimes, which he thinketh 
perfectly to be untrue, yet for the ministration of justice, 
in such cases requisite, he can do no less than send for 
you to your trial, mistrusting nothing your truth nor 
wisdom, but that ye shall be able to requite yourself of 
all complaints and accusations exhibited against you ; and 
to take your journey to him at your own pleasure, com- 
manding me to attend upon you with ministration of due 
reverence, and to see your person preserved against all 
inconveniences that may ensue ; and to elect all such 
your old servants, now his, to seiTe you by the way, who 
have most experience of your diet. Therefore, Sir, I 
beseech you be of good cheer ; and when it shall be your 
own pleasure to take your journey, I shall be ready to 
give attendance upon you." " Mr. Kingston," quoth 
my lord, ** 1 thank yon for your good news ; and. Sir, 
hereof assure yourself, that if I were as able and lusty as 
I have been but of late, I would not fail to ride with you 
in post : but. Sir, I am diseased with a flux* that maketh 



* In the j)i inted editions the passage stands thus ; " But, alas ! I am 3 
diseased man, having a tlux : (at which time it was apparent that he had 
poisoned himself) it hath made me very weak." p. 190, edit. 1706. " It is 
highly probable (says Fiddes in his Lite of Wolsey, p. 499) that this ex- 
pression ought to be taken in a softer sense than the words strictly im- 
port, and that Cavendish only intended by it, that he was poisoned by 
taking something prepared forliim by other hands." Dr. F. then j)roceeds 
to invalidate by reasoning the absurd story of the Cardinal having ha.stened 
his own death. It is more important to observe, adds Dr. Woidsworth 
that it admits of great question, whether the words in the parenthesis ure 
not altogether an interpolation. '1 hey do not occur in any MS. which the 
Rev. Doctor hrd seen. The charge of his having poisoned himself, was 
most ungenerously reported by contemporary writers. This false and 
ridiculous idea is now exploded. It was ably refuted by Dr. Sam. Pegge, 
the learned autiquaiy. See Gent. Mag. vol. xxv. p. 25, and two excellent 
articles on the Cardinal's iinpcachnient, p. 229, 345.— Ed.] 



430 WOLSEY. 

me very weak. But, Mr. Kingston, all the comfortable 
words which ye have spoken unto me, be spoken but for 
a purpose to bring me into a fool's paradise : I know 
what is provided for me. Notwithstanding, I thank you 
for your good will, and pains taken about me ; and I 
shall with ail speed make me ready to ride with you 
to-morrow." And thus they fell into other communica- 
tion, both the earl and Mr. Kingston with my lord ; 
who commanded me to foresee and provide that all things 
might be made ready to depart the morrow after. Then 
caused I all things to be trussed up, and made in readi- 
ness as fast as they could conveniently. 

When night came that we should go to bed, my lord 
waxed very sick with the laske, which caused him still con- 
tinually from time to time to go to stool, all that night ; 
insomuch that from the time that it took him, until the 
next morning, he had fifty stools, so that he was that day 
very weak. His matter that he voided was wonderous 
black, which the physician called " coller adustine ;" and 
when he perceived it, he said to me, that if he had not 
some help shortly he should die. With that I caused one 
Dr. Nicholas, M.D. being with my lord of Shrewsbury, 
to look upon the gross matter tb.at he voided ; upon sight 
whereof he determined he should not live four or live days ; 
yet, notwithstanding, he would have ridden with Mr. 
Kingston that same day, if my lord of Shrewsbury had 
not been there. Therefore, in consideration of his infir- 
mity, they caused him to tarry all that day. 

After the next day he took his journey with Mr. King-r 
ston, and then of the guard. And as soon as they espied 
him, considering that he was their old master, and in such 
estate, they lamented his misfortune with weeping eyes. 
Whom my lord took by the hand, and many times, as he 
rode by the way, he would talk, now with one, then with 
another, until he came to an house of my lord of Shrews- 
bury's, called Hardwicke-hall, where he lay all that night 
very ill at ease. The next day he rode to Nottingham, 
and there lodged that night, more sick, and the next day 
lie rode to Leicester abbey ; and by the way he waxed so 
sick, that he was almost fallen from his mule; so that it 
was night before we came to the abbey of Leicester, 
where, at his coming in at the gate, the Abbot with all his 
Convent, met him with divers torch-lights; whom they 
light hononrablv received and welcomed with great 



WOLSEY. 431 

reverence. To whom my lord said, " Father Abbot, 1 
am come hithei' to leave my bones among you" riding so 
still until he came to the stairs of his chamber, where he 
alighted from his mule, and then Master Kingston took 
him by the arm, and led him up the stairs ; who told me 
afterwards, he never felt so heavy a burden in all his life. 
And as soon as he was in his chamber, he went incontinent 
to his bed, very sick. This was upon Saturday at night ; 
and then continued he sicker and sicker. 

Upon the Monday, in the morning, as I stood by his bed- 
side, about 8 o'clock, the windows being close shut, and 
having wax lights burning upon the cupboard, 1 beheld 
him, as me seemed, drawing fast towards death. He 
perceiving my shadow upon the wall by the bed-side, 
asked who was there ? "Sir," quoth I, "1 am here." 
"How do you?" quoth he to me. " Very well, Sir," 
quoth I, "if I might see your grace well." " What is it 
o'clock?" said he to me. " Sir," said I, " it is past eight 
in the morning." "Eight o'clock?" quoth he, "that 
cannot be," rehearsing divers times "eight o'clock — eight 
o'clock." " Nay, nay," quoth he at last, " it cannot be 
eight o'clock : for eight o'clock shall you lose your master, 
for my time draweth near that I must depart this world." 
With that one Dr. Palmes, a worshipful gentleman, being 
his chaplain and ghostly father, standing by, bade me 
secretly demand of him if he would be shriven, and to be 
in readiness towards God, whatsoever should chance. At 
whose desire I asked him that question. " What have ye 
to do to ask me any such question ?" quolh he, and began 
to be very angry with me for my presumption ; until at the 
last the Doctor took my part,, and talked with him in 
Latin, and so pacified him. Howbeit my lord waxed 
very sick, most likely to die that night, and often swooned, 
and as me thought drew on fast to his end, until it was 
four o'clock, a. m. at which time I spake to him, and 
asked him how he did. " Well," quoth he, " if 1 had any 
meat, I pray you give me some." " Sir, there is none 
ready," said i, " 1 wist," quolh he, "ye be the more to 
blame : for you should have always meat for me in 
readiness, to eat when my stomach serveth me; therefore 
I pray you get me some, for I intend this day to make me 
strong, to the intent that 1 may occupy myself in con- 
fession, and make me ready to God." After he had eaten 
of a cullace made of chicken, a spoonful or two, at the 



43a WOLSEY. 

last quoth he, " Whereof was this cullace made?*' 
" Forsooth, Sir," quoth I, " of a chicken." " Why," 
quoth I, *' it is fasting day," (being St. Andrew's even.) 
" What, though it be," quoth Dr. Pahnes, " ye be ex- 
cused by reason of your sickness?" " Yea," quoth he, 
*' what though ? I will eat no more." 

Then was he in confession the space of an hour. And 
when he had ended his confession. Master Kingston came 
to him, and bade him good morrow ; for it was about six 
o'clock, and asked him how he did. " Sir," quoth he, ** I 
tarry but the pleasure of God, to render up my poor soul 
into his hands." *' Not so, Sir," quoth Master Kingston, 
*' with the grace of God, ye shall live, and do very well ; 
if ye will be of good cheer." " Nay, in good sooth, 
Master Kingston, my disease is such that I cannot live ; 
for I have had some experience in physic. Thus it is : I 
have a flux with a continual fever; the nature whereof is, 
that if there be no alteration of the same within eight days, 
either must ensue excorrition of the entrails, or phrensy, 
or else present death; and the best of these three, is death. 
And as I suppose, this is the eighth day : and if ye see no 
alteration in me, there is no remedv, save that I mav live 
a day or two after, but death, which is the best of these 
three, must follow." " Sir," said Master Kingston, 
"you be in such pensiveness, doubting that thing that in 
good faith ye need not." " Well, well, Master Kingston," 
quoth my lord, *' I see the matter maketh you much 
worse than you should be against me ; how it is framed J 
know not. But if I had served God as diligently as I 
have done the King, he %uould not have given me over in 
my grey hairs .'* But this is the just rew ard that I must 
receive for my diligent pains and study, that I have had, to 
do him service, not regarding my service to God, but only 
to satisfy his pleasure. 1 pray you have me most humbly 
commended unto his royal majesty ; and beseech him in 
my behalf, to call to his princely remembrance all matters 
proceeding between him and me from the beginning of the 
world, and the progress of the same ; and most especially 
in his weighty matter;" (meaning the matter between 
Queen Katherine and him) " and then shall his grace's 
conscience know whether I have oftended him or not. 
He is a prince of royal courage, and hath a princely heart ; 

* See the fine passage in Sliakspeare. 



WOLSEY. 433 

and rather than he will miss or want any part of his will or- 
pleasiire, he will endanger the loss of one half of his realm. 
For I assure you, I have often kneeled before him, the 
space sometimes of three hours, to persuade him from his 
will and appetite : but I could never dissuade him there- 
from. Therefore, Mr. Kingston, I warn you, if it chance 
you hereafter to be of his privy council, as for your wis- 
dom, ye are very meet, be well assured and advised, what 
ye put in his head, for ye shall never put it out again. 

" And say, furthermore, that 1 request his grace, on 
God's name, that he have a vigilant eye to depress this new 
sort of Lutherans, that it do not increase, through his neg- 
ligence, in such sort, as he be at length compelled to put 
on harness upon his back to subdue them, &,c. Master 
Kingston, farewell. I can no more say, but I wish, ere I 
die, all things to have good success. My time dravveth on 
fast. I may not tarry with you. And forget not what [ 
have said and charged you withal : for when I am dead, 
ye shall peradventure remember my words better." And 
even with those words he began to draw his speech at 
length, and his tongue to fail ; his eyes being presently set 
in his head, and his sight failed him. Then began we to 
put him in remembrance of Christ's passion ; and caused 
the yeomen of the guard to stand by secretly to see him 
die, and to be witnesses of his words at his departure ; 
who heard all his said communication : and, incontinent, 
the clock struck eight, and then gave he up the ghost, and 
thus departed this present life.* And calling to remem- 
brance how he said the day before, that at 8 o'clock we 
should lose our master, as it is before rehearsed, one of 
us looking upon another, supposing that either he knew 
or prophesied of his departure, yet before his departure 
we sent for the Abbot of the house to annoyle him,'|- who 
made all the speed he could, and came to his departure, 
and so said certain prayers before the breath was fully 
out of his body. 

After that he was thus departed, Mr. Kingston sent a 
post to the King, advertising him of the departure of the 
Cardinal, by one of the guard, that saw and heard him 
die. And then Mr. Kingston and the Abbot calling me 



He died Nov, 29, 1530. Le Neve's Fasti, p. 310. 
t {LE.) To dk&mm\ster extreme vuction. 
Ff 



434 WOLSEY. 

unto tliem went to consultation of the order of his burial* 
It was thought good that he should be buried the next 
day following; for Mr. Kingston Mould not tarry the 
return of the post. And it was further thought good, that 
the mayor of Leicester and his brethren should be sent 
for, to see him personally dead, to avoid false rumours 
that might happen to say that he was still alive^. Then 
was the mayor and his brethren sent for; and in the 
mean time, the body was taken out of die bed where he 
lay dead ; he had upon him next his body, a shirt of 
liair, besides his other shirt, which was very j&ne holland ; 
which was not known to any of his servants being con- 
tinually about him in his chamber, saving to his ghostly 
father : which shirts were laid in a coffin made for him of 
boards ; having upon his corpse all such ornaments as he 
was possessed in when he Mas made Bishop and Arch- 
bishop : as mitre, cross, ring, and pall, with all other 
things due to his order and dignity. And lying thus all 
day in his coffin open and barefaced, every man that 
would might see him there dead, as the mayor, his 
brethren, and other did. 

Lying thus until 4 or 5 o'clock at night, he was carried 
down into the Church with great solemnity by the Abbot, 
and conducted with much torch-light, and service sung 
due for such funerals. And Tseing in the Church the 
corpse was set in our Lady Chapel, with divers tapers of 
wax, and divers poor men sitting about the same, holding 
torches in their hands, who watched about the corpse all 
night, while the canons sang ' dirige,' and other devout 
orisons. And about 4 o'clock in the morning, Mr. King- 
ston, and we his servants, came into the Church and there 
tarried the executing of divers ceremonies in such cases 
used, about the corpse of a Bishop. Then went they to 
mass, at which mass the Abbot and divers other did 
offer. And that done, they went about to bury the 
corpse in the midst of the said Chapel, M'here was made 
for him a grave. And by the time that he was buried, 
and all ceremonies ended, it was 6 o'clock in the morning. 
And thus ended the life of the right triumphant Cardinal 
of England : on whose soul Jesus have mercy ! Amen. 

Who list to read and consider with a clear eye this 
history, may behold the mutability of vain honours, and 
brittle assurance of abundance ; the uncertainty of digni- 
ties, the flattering of feigned friends, and the fickle favour 



WOLSEY. 435^ 

of worldly princes. Whereof this lord Cardinal hath felt 
and tasted both of the sweet and sour in each degree ; as 
fleeting from honours, losing of riches, deposed from 
dignities, forsaken of friends, and the mutability of 
princes' favour ; of all which things he had in this world 
the full felicity, as long as fortune smiled upon him : but 
when she began to frown, how soon was he deprived of 
all these mundane joys, and vain pleasures. 

That which in twenty years with great travail and study 
he obtained, was in one year and less, with great care 
and sorrow lost and consumed ! O madness ! O fond 
desire I O foolish hope ! O greedy desire of vain honors, 
dignities, and riches ! Oh what inconstant hope and 
trust is it in the false feigned countenance and promise 
of fortune ! Wherefore the prophet saith full well, The- 
saurizat, et ignorat, cui congregabit ea. Who is certain 
that he shall leave his riches which he hath gathered in 
this world unto them whom he hath purposed? The 
■wise man saith. That another, whom peradventure he 
hated in his life, shall spend it out, and consume it P' 

{Here terminates the re-print of Cavendish's Life oflFolsey-l 



ADDENDA. 



The enemies of the Cardinal have alleged that his 
foundation of Christ Church, Oxford, was effected by 
spoliation and rapine. It is easier to bring charges than 
to substantiate them. The truth is, that the immense 
V riches which he derived from the various preferments 
bestowed on him by the partiality of his sovereign, were 
the means of his founding that magnificent edifice, which 
has so deservedly immortalized his genius and spirit; 
and in the midst of luxurious pleasures and pompous 
revellings, he was meditating the advancement of science 
by a munificent use of those riches, which he seemed to 
accumulate only for selfish purposes. 

With respect to his seizing the property and revenues 
of many priories and nunneries, which are alleged to 
have served as a fund for building and endowment, we are 
to remember that the Cardinal did not alienate the 

Ffe 



436 WOLSEY. 

revenues from religious service, but only made a change 
in the application of them ; and again, he merely abolished 
unnecessai7 monasteries, that necessary Colleges might 
be erected. Nor did he do this without precedent, as 
the reader, versed iu ecclesiastical history, will instantly 
perceive when he refers to the cases in point, of Arch- 
bishop Chichele and Bishop Waynfiete, and the suppres- 
sion of the Templars. And to this list of precedents 
we may safely add on the authority of Bishop Tanner, 
Bishops Fisher, Alcock, and Beckington, 

Wolsey had too strong a mind and too much good 
sense to be overawed in the performance of what he 
deemed right, by the unpopularity of the measure : a 
weaker man might have been deterred from his purpose 
by the lampoons which in all directions assailed his 
laudable undertaking. Amongst these were — *' Egregium 
opus ! Cardinalis iste instituit Collegium, et absolvit 
popinam, in allusion to the kitchen having been first 
completed ; and another ran thus : — 

" Non stabit ilia domus, aliis fundata rapinis, 
" Aut ruet, aut alter raptor habebit earn:" 

which lines would have come with a better grace had it 
not unfortunately happened for the writer, that in his 
zeal to abuse the Cardinal he has betrayed his ignorance 
of Latin by a false quantity, the penult of stabit being 
long. 



Synopsis of Dates connected with Wolsey^s Life, com^ 
prehending his Preferments, and some of the principal 
matters with which he was connected^ mostly unnoticed 
by Cavendish, 

Born March, 1471. 

B.A. Magdalen College, Oxford, 1486. 

Fellow of the same soon after. 

M.A. and Master of Magdalen School. 
. Bursar of Magdalen College, 1498, about which time 
he built the tower. 

Rector of Limmington, near Ilchester, Somerset, 1 500. 

Domestic Chaplain to Henry Dean, Archbishop of 
Canterbury. This must have been about 1501 or 2. 



WOLSEY. 43? 

Bishop Dean was translated from Salisbury to Canterbury 
in 1501, and died 1502-3.* 

Chaplain to Sir John Nanfan, Treasurer of Calais, 
1503. Calais then belonged to us. 

Chaplain to King Henry VII. shortly after. 

Rector of Redgrave, Suffolk, by dispensation from 
Pope Julius II. this being his 3rd living. This dispen- 
sation bears date 1508. He had before had a dispensation 
from Pope Alexander in 1503, to hold two, but the name 
of the second I find not, unless it were Torrington. 

Dean of Lincoln, Feb. 1508. The same year the King 
also gave him two Prebends in the same Chuich. 

B.D. 1510. Wood's Fasti, Ox. 1.29. 

Almoner to King Henry VIII. 

Bishop of Tournay, (Ep. Tornacensis) in Flanders, 
about 1513. 

Privy Counsellor and Reporter of the Proceedings in 
the Star Chamber. 

Rector of Torrington, in the diocese of Exeter ; quaere 
which Torrington ? The place is called by Chalmer, 
Turrington. 

Canon of Windsor (Chalmer.) He does not so occur 
in Le Neve's Fasti. 

Registrar of the Order of the Garter. 

Prebendary of Bugthorp, in the Cathedral of York, 
Ja^l. 16, 1512. Willis's Cathedrals, I. 127. 

Dean of York, Feb. 19, 1512. Willis's Cath. I, 69, 
and Drake's Hist. York, p. 559- He is there called 
Wolsie, and styled D.D. His name is frequently written 
Wulcie. 

Dean of Hereford, 1512, resigned the same year, Le 
"Neve's Fasti, p. 114. 

Precentor of St. Paul's, 1513, collated July 8. 

Bishop of Lincoln, 1514, and Chancellor of the 
University of Cambridge. 

Chancellor of the Order of the Garter. 

Archbishop of York, and Cardinal of St. Cecilia, 
1514. 

Pope's Legate, 1516, 

Lord High Chancellor, on the resignation of Archbishop 
Warham, 1516. 



* A memoir of Archbishop Dean, as Bishop of Sarum, may be found iu 
Cassau's Lives of the Bishops of Salisbury, part I. p. 273. 



438 WOLSEY. 

Bishop of Bath and Wells, Worcester, and Hereford, 
1518, (Cavendish) i. e. he had the administration of those 
dioceses and their temporalties, but 1 find no authority 
for his having been consecrated to them. They were 
filled by foreigners, who were allowed non-residence, and 
received pensions. Cardinal Julius de Medicis was made 
administrator of W^orcester, by the Pope's bull, July 31, 
1521, and so continued a year. Silvester Gigles, his 
predecessor, died at Rome, 1521. It is therefore hard to 
reconcile Cavendish's date. Wolsey does not occur 
Bishop of Hereford in Le Neve's Fasti. 

Candidate for the Papacy on the demise of Leo X. 

Bishop of Durham, 1523; resign'ed Bath and Wells. 

Candidate for the Papacy on the demise of Adrian. 

Commenced his College at Oxford, 1 524 or 5. 

Ditto Ipswich School, 1526 or 7. 

Finished his Palace at Hampton-Court, 1528, which 
he had begun in 1514. 

Bishop of Winchester, 1528, when he resigned 
Durham. 

Havnig mcurred 2L pra^mtimre,hy procuring, contrary to 
statute, iG Richard II. a bull from Rome, appointing 
him Legate, he was indicted by tlie Attorney-General in 
the Court of King's Bench, Oct. 9, 1529. 

Received a free pardon Feb. 12, 1530; restored to the 
Archbishopric of York, and allowed 1000 marks per 
annum out of W inchester. 

Died 1530, aged 59. 

Portraits. — The portraits, &c. of Wolsey, are thus 
noticed by Granger : — '' 1. Thomas Wolszeus, Card, et 
Archiep. Eborac. &c. Holbein p. Faber s. one oj the 
founders, 4to. mezz. — 2. Thomas Wolsey, &c. a label 
proceeding from his month, inscribed,'^ Ego, mens etrex;" 
4to. — 3. Thomas Wolsey, &c. Elstracke sc- 4to. There 
are two copies of the same, one of them with aims. The 
original print is, as I am informed, before his life, by Mr. 
. Cavendish, the founder of the Devonshire familif , who was 
his gentleman-usher. Perhaps this has been copied froin a 
later edition of that book. Ifnd in a large MS. catalogue 
of English Beads, byVertue, in my possession, that there 
is a head of him by Loggan. — 4. In Holland's " Heroo- 
logia;' 8vo.— 5. IF. M. (Marshall) sc. small; in Fuller's 
" Holy State."'— 6, Fourdrinier sc. h. kn. h, sh. in his Life 



WOLSEY. 439 

hy Fiddes, fol. — 7. Houhraken, sc. Illust, Head. In 
the possession of Mr. Kingsletj. — 8. Desrochers. sc. 4to.— 
9. Inscribed C. W. Vertue, sea small oval.— There is no 
head of Wolsey which is not in profile. That which is 
carved in wood, in the central board of the gateway which 
leads to the Butchery of Ipswich, lias such an appearance 
of antiquity, that it is supposed to have been done when 
he was living ; by the side of it is a butclier's knife. It is 
said that his portraits v/ere done in profile, because he had 
but one eye." — Biog. Hist. Engl. I. p. Q]. 

There is also a portrait of him at Knole, (the Duke 
of Dorset's). See Biographical Sketches of Persons 
whose Portraits are at Knole, &,c. p. 141. — Ed. 

His Character as Lord High Chancellor has been thus 
drawn by Hume : — 

" If this new accumulation of dignity increased his 
enemies, it also served to exalt his personal character, 
and prove the extent of his capacity. A strict adminis- 
tration of justice took place during his enjoyment of this 
high office : and no chancellor ever discovered greater 
impartiality in his decisions, deeper penetration of judg- 
ment, or more enlarged knowledge of law or equity." 

Shakspeare has drawn a more just and comprehensive 
sketch of Wolsey's perfections and failings than is to be 
found in any other writer; — and v/ith this I shall close 
the memoirs of this celebrated and ill-used Ecclesiastic. 



This Cardinal, 



Though from an humble stock, undoubtedly 

Was tashion'd to mucli honour, f'rom his cradle. 

He was a scholar, and a ripe and good one : 

Exceeding wise, fair spoken, and persuading : 

Lofty ana sour, to them that lov'd him not ; 

But, to those men that sought him, sweet as summer. 

And though he were unsatisfied in getting, 

(Which was a sin) yet in bestowing, 

He was most princely ; ever witness for him 

Those twins of learning, that he rais'd in you, ^ 

Ipswich, and Oxford ! one of which fell with hiiiij 

Unwilling to out-live the good he did it ; 

The other, though unfinish'd, yet so famous, 

So excellent i» art, and still so rising, 

That Christendom shall ever speak his virtue. 

His overthrow heap'd happiness upon him j 

For then, and not 'till then, he felt himself. 

And found the blessedness of being little ; 

And, to add greater honours to his age 

Thau man could give him, he died, fearing Cod. 



440 GARDINER. 

XXV. STEPHEN GARDINER, L.L.D. 

Succeeded A.D. 1531.— Died A.D. 1555. 

This able Lawyer, learned Divine, and shrewd States- 
man, who was Bishop of Wnichester, and Lord High 
Chancellor of England, in the l6th Century, is said by 
some to have been the natural Son of Bishop Widville, 
.of Salisbury, and consequently grandson of the Earl of 
Kivers, whose daughter Elizabeth was consort of King 
Edward IV. : whde others call him a younger Son of 
Sn Ihomas Gardnier, of Lancashire. He was born at 
Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk, (Fox, Acts and Mon. 3, 524) 
in 1483. 

*Few have risen higher by mere dint of abilities, few 
suffered greater changes of fortune, few have been more 
magnified or commended, few more invidiously and 
outrageously treated, tiian this famous Prelate, in his 
life-time and since his decease ; yet, for any tolerable 
account of him there is none. We find no article of him 
in any collection of this kind, very little amongst the 
compiitjs of historical memoirs, and, though there is 
more in our literary and other biographical historians, it 
IS so intermixed with other matter, or so visibly tinctured 
\vith party resentment, that it is almost impossible to 
know what to think, or whom to trust. In this case, the 
collecting his memoirs with caution, care, and candour, 
and reporting them fairly to posterity, is a work of equal 
Jabour and difficulty; but what then? It is necessaiy, 
useful, conducive to the bringing much truth to light, 
and exposing many errors which have been so often, and 
elegantly repeated, by those who took them to be truths, 
that v^'e may reasonably hope a kind and favourable 
reading of what particulars are here digested concernin<r 
this great man's life, which are as copious, as exact, and 
as free f^om bias of any kind as we were able to make 
them. It IS also to be hoped, that they will be perused 
with the same equal spirit, and tiiat the reader will bring 
an inclination to be intoimed how things really happened, 
what were, and what were not, the actions of this tainous 



flW/l^„l?"T'"? ™e?io''- 's from the old edition of the Biographia 



GARDINER. 441 

man, who had many failings, and some vices ; but, withal, 
had fine parts, general knowledge, and abilities eveiy way 
equal to the posts he gradually tilled, and even to those 
high employments to which he at length attained. Ac- 
cording to Bale* this Bishop of Winchester was a devil 
incarnate ; but then, according to Pitts,t he was a very 
angel of light. John Fox J asserts, that this prelate was 
of a most fierce and sanguinary disposition ; and the 
principal author of all the cruelties in the reign of Queen 
Mary, Father Persons^ on the other hand, assures us, 
that such as will speak truth, must acknowledge Bishop 
Gardiner to have been not only of a mild, but of a most 
compassionate nature ; and that it was chiefly owing to 
him, the principal Protestants in that reign escaped. At 
the very entrance of our labours we meet with nothing 
but doubts and uncertainties. Most authors of his age 
tell us he was born of obscure parents at Bury St. Ed- 
mund, Suffolk.^ As to the place, indeed, there is no 
dispute at all ; but for the obscurity of his parentage, if 
we may trust to some very good authorities, it arose from 
hence, that he was the illegitimate son of a prelate nobly 
descended and royally allied, who took pains to conceal 
that so much discrediting circumstance to himself, by 
bestowing his concubine on one of his meaner servants, 
whose name, being born in wedlock, this infant bore.j| 
Fuller, who is not always an enemy to secret history, 
rejects this story, as invidious and ill contrived ;** but 
many, as like to be well informed, and not at all more 
credulous, admit the truth of it ; and Sir William Dug- 
dale, ff whose knowledge in such points can hardly be 
disputed, sets it down as a fact. We cannot, indeed, go 
quite so far ; but laying all circumstances together, there 
appears to be the greatest probability that this was really 
the case. The plain fact, in respect to his birth, was 
this. He is said to have been the son of Dr. Lionel 
Wydvisle, Dean of Exeter, and Bishop of Salisbury, 



* Script. Brit. p. 685. t De illustr. Angl. Script, p. 748. 

t In his Martyrology throughout. § Warn- Word, p. 34. 

% Bal. Script. 685, p. 748. 

II 2x6\eTof Cantabrigiensis, a Rich. Parkero, conscript, p. 26. 

•• Worthies, Suffolk, p. GO. tt Baronasc, Vol. II, p. 231. 



442 GARDINER. 

brother to Elizabeth, Queen Consort to Edward IV., 
who died in 1484.* Dr. FuUerf objects to this, that 
Salisbury is at a great distance from Bury, where 
Gardiner was born, which is, in reality, no objection at 
all, for, since that prelate was so cautious as to oblige his 
mistress to marry an inferior servant of his, whose name 
was Gardiner, the better to conceal the transaction, he 
might therefore be well supposed to have been as careful 
in sending her far enough off to lie in. Another objec- 
tion he makes, has somewhat more weight, he thinks 
Bishop Widville must have had this son in his youth ; 
and if so, the age of Gardiner, at his death, would not 
agree with the story. But those who relate it, say that he 
w as born while his father was Bishop of Salisbury ; and 
he did not hold that dignity above two years, which takes 
away the force of this objection. In the satirical writings 
against him and Bonner,J it was objected to them, that 
it was not strange they were against the marriage of 
priests, since they were both born in adultery. Now 
Bonner was the bastard of one Savage, a clergyman, 
who was himself the bastard of Sir John Savage, Knight 
of the Garter. Bonner's was precisely the same case 
with Gardiner's, for his mother was married before he 
was born, to the person whose name he bore ; and it 
is very remarkable, that both of them, until they were 
Bishops, declined using their sirenames, the one being 
called Dr. Stephens, and the other Dr. Edmunds. But 
Gardiner seems to have been better reconciled to his 
name afterwards, since he assumed the arms of the 
Gardiners of Glemsford in Suffolk,^ with a distinction 
of a border ; and afterwards, either through the mistake 
of the painter, or by his own direction, they were impaled 
with the arms of the See of Winchester, without any such 
distinction.^ Bishop Burnet plainly proves, that this 

* Godwin, de Prsesul. p. 236. t Worthies, Suffolk, p. 60. 

i Burnet's Reformat. Vol. II, p. 320. § Strype's Memorials, Vol. III. 

^ Were it not for the two circumstances of his having first gone by the 
appellation of Dr. Stephens, (see p. 382 of this work, in Cavendish's 
Wolsey,) and second his accepting the border round his arms, a mark of 
bastardy, I should be disposed to discredit altogether, the alleged fact of 
Bishop Gardiner's being a natural son of Bishop Widville, and the more 
so, as one of Rawliuson's MSS. in the Bodleian Library, quoted by Lodge 
in his lllustratktns, p. 102, makes him the younger son of Sir Thomas 
Gardiner, Knt. the representative of a very ancient family in the county of 
Lancaster. — Edit. Some memoirs of Bishop Widville, his reputed father, 
may be found la Cassau's Lives of the Salisbury Bishops, pt, I. p, 260. Ib. 



GARDINER. 443 

fitojy was believed in our Prelate's life-time, for he tells 
us, that he had seen a letter written by Sir Edward Hobby, 
to one of the exiles abroad, for religion, immediately upon 
Gardiner's death, in which it was said, that he was a man 
of higher descent than he was commonly reputed; and 
in the margin of the letter it was noted, that he was 
nephew to a Queen of England ;* but though this might 
be true, and though he was, by this means, second cousin 
by the King's mother to Henry VIH., Bishop Burnet's 
conjecture is not at all probable, that this might be the 
cause he was so suddenly advanced to the Bishopric of 
Winchester ; for as the reader will see there was another 
cause, which is assigned by Gardiner himself; neither is 
it at all likely, that the King knew this piece of secret 
history, or would take any notice of it if he did. Had it 
been otherwise, amongst the many private papers relating 
to that reign (from whence it's public history is best col- 
lected) which, in process of tmie, have come to light, 
something of that kind would have appeared. As to the 
year of his birth, that has been hitherto as great a secret 
as his descent ; and very likely the design of concealing 
the one, might occasion so piofound a silence in respect 
to the other; however, from an original picture of his, still 
preserved, (painted by Hans Holbein,) we have good 
grounds to conclude that it ought to be lixed to 1483. 
We know nothing of his education, or the manner in 
which he passed his youth, until he was sent to the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, where he studied in Trinity-Hall 
with great diligence and success.. He was distinguished 
there by his quick parts, his correct pen, his elegance in 
writing and speaking Latin, and for his extraordinary skill 
in Greek, which procured him very high compliments, as 
to his acquisitions in literature, when he was in no 
condition to reward flatterers. f In process of time he 
applied himself entirely to the civil and canon law, for 
which that learned foundation was very famous. Amongst 
other poems of the famous antiquary, John Leland, there 
is one addressed to Stephen Gardiner, when he wore no 
higher title ; and in the close of which, he fortels him, 
that his brow would be honoured with a mitre. In this 



* Burnet's Hist, of the Refoimaiiou, Vol. II. p. 320. 
t Leland's Encom. illustr. viror. p. 48-49. 



444 GARDINER. 

poem he compliments him on his great progress in polite 
literature, on his fine taste, and just respect for the 
ancients ; and the desire he had shewn of promoting the 
study of their valuable writings in the university.* His 
own writings shew how much he had studied Cicero; and 
the critics of those times reproached him with affectation 
in that respect. As to severer studies, he is allowed to 
have excelled in the civil and canon law ; and in respect 
to the latter, he was so able, that Bishop Burnet tells us. 
King Henry, as eager as he was for promoting his divorce, 
would not suffer the proceedings to be begun before the 
two Cardinals, until the return of Dr. Gardiner from 
Rome, so much he relied upon his judgment and abilities. 
Both that Bishop, and Jeremy Collier, who seldom 
thought the same way of men or things, agree that he was 
but moderately skilled in divinity; and therefore, it is 
reasonable to acquiesce in their decision. But then it is 
to be considered, that they ground their sentiments upon 
his book of 'True Obedience,' which they confess he wrote 
to please his sovereign, and againt his own sentiments. 
It IS no great wonder, therefore, that his arguments are 
not very strong, and that he does not reason so closely and 
convincingly as he might have done ; but notwithstanding 
this, whoever reads that book with attention and impar- 
tiality, will not be able to deny, that he has overturned 
the Pope's supremacy effectually; and though it is not 
penned, at least the greater part of it, with that heat and 
vehemence, visible in the writings of Protestant Divines, 
yet there is enough in it to shew learned men, that he had 
thoroughly considered the point, and was able to have said 
much more if he had been so inclined. All this learning 
he must have brought with him from the University, for 
from the time that he first came into business, to his being 
committed to the Tower, he was continually employed in 
matters of such high importance, that it was impossible he 
should have much leisure for study. That his parts and 
learning indeed were very extraordinary, must be con- 
fessed; but if what one of his greatest enemies said of him 
was true, we must have still an higher idea of them, since 
there is nothing harder, than for a man of a disagreeable, 
and even forbidding aspect, to make his way iu a Court, 



* Eiicoin. illustr. viior. p. 48-49. 



GARDINER. 445 

and insinuate himself into the good graces of all sorts of 
people, which it is confessed he did. But we will tran- 
scribe the passage, which is very curious, and the book 
from which it is taken very scarce, for the reader's satis- 
faction.* " Albeit, this Doctor be now but too late 
thoroughly known, yet it shall be requisite, that our pos- 
terity know what he was ; and, by his description, see how 
nature hath shaped the outward parts, to declare what was 
within. This Doctor hath a swart colour, hanging look, 
frowning brows, eyes an inch within his head, a nose 
hooked like a buzzard, nostrils like a horse, ever snuffing 
into the wind, a sparrow mouth, gieat paws, like the 
devil's talons, on his feet, like a gripe, two inches longer 
than the natural toes, and so tied to with sinews, that he 
cannot abide to be touched, nor scarce suffer them to 
touch the stones. And nature having thus shaped the 
form of an old monster, it gave him a vengeable wit, 
which, at Cambridge, by labour and diligence, he had 
made a great deal worse, and brought up many in that 
faculty." The author who wrote this was Dr. Ponet, 
advanced to the Bishopric of Winchester upon the depri- 
vation of Gardiner, in the reign of Edward VI. and at the 
time he wrote this book, an exile in Germany, where 
he died. 

The reputation he attained at Cambridge, soon opened 
him a passage into the favour and confidence of several of 
tlie greatest men of that age. First, as some report, he 
was taken under the protection of that generous and potent 
peer Thomas Duke of Norfolk,f and afterwards received 
into the family of the still more potent Cardinal Wolsey, 
in quality of his secretary.;}; But whatever hopes he 
might entertain of rising at Court, he had still academical 
honours in view ; and in 1 520, he received the degree of 
Doctor of Civil Law,§ and was the year following made 
Doctor of Canon Law also ; but whereas the learned 
Bishop Tanner, not without authority, makes him Master 
or Guardian of Trinity-Hall the same year,^ there seems 
to be good reason to suppose he did not attain that pre- 
ferment till some years after. There is no question, that, 



* Treatise of Political Power. t Lloyd's State Worthies, p, 451. 

X Polyd. Virg, Hist. Angl. lib. xxvii. p. 84. § Regist, Acad. Cantab. 

% Biblioth, Britannico-Hibcrnica, p.303. 



U6 GARDINER. 

as Cardinal Wolsey's Secretary/' he had a good provision 
made for him ; but this must have been by way of pension 
or salary, for preferment, so far as we find as yet, he 
liad none. 

There is nothing more entertaining, as well as more 
useful and satisfactory, than to be thoroughly and cer- 
tainly informed, of the first steps by which those who 
have made a figure in the world, have risen to greatness. 
That of Gardiner, as of many others, was owing purely 
to accident, to speak according to the common sense of 
mankind. In the year 1525, his master VVolsey thought 
fit to change sides; and from being most violently attached 
to the Emperor Charles V., became as warm a friend to 
the French King, Francis I., then a prisoner in Spain. 
Humanity and compassion, one would think, must have 
been the motives to this change ; and they might be so, 
but a very grave Italian historian, has suggested causes 
of another kind.-f- He says, that before the battle of 
Pavi, in which the French King was made prisoner, the 
Emperor used to write to Wolsey with his own hand, and 
subscribe * your son and cousin Charles ;' but after that 
victory, the letters to Wolsey, like those to other persons, 
were written by his secretary, until the Cardinal taught 
him to resume his old manner of writing. It was the 
penning this lesson for his imperial majesty, that brought 
Gardiner to the knowledge, or at least introduced him to 
the favour of Henry \ III. ; the Cardinal had projected a 
treaty, which was to change the face of aifairs in Europe, 
as indeed it did ; and the King coming to his house at 
More-Park, in Hertfordshire, found Gardiner, then the 
Cardinal's secretary, busy in framing that alliance. Few 
Princes understood business, or could transact it better, 
than Henry; and therefore, it is no wonder that from 
such a specimen, he should make a true judgment of Dr. 
Gardiner's abilities. He liked his performance extremely, 
his conversation better, and that fertility he had in the 
invention of expedients, best of all.J He did not disguise 
his sentiments from Wolsey, there was no need of it, the 



* The writer of this article in the Biograpliia Britannica calls Wolsey 
here and elsewhere, very incorrectly. Cardinal of York. Wolsey was a 
Cardinal and Archbishop of York, but lie was not therefore Cardinal of 
York. He was Cardinal of St. Cecilia, Ed. 

t Guicchard, Hist, lib. XTX. :f Lloyd's Worthies, p, 4.51. 



GARDINER. 447 

Cardinal was truly great in this particular, that he feared 
no man's parts, but was proud of bringing to the royal 
notice, able and active men ; and even under his mis- 
fortunes, as will be hereafter shewn, he had no reason to 
repent that the new ministers, Cromwell and Gardiner, 
were taken out of his house, because, in their highest pros- 
perity, they did not forget that they had been once his 
domestics. This treaty, (which was the foundation of 
Gardiner's fortunes) or at least the substance of it, may 
be found in that great work of the noble historian,* who 
has done so much honour to the reign of Henry VIII. and 
placed that important period of time, in a much better 
point of light, than almost any other, relating to the affairs 
of this kingdom. It was from this time, that Dr. Gardiner 
was admitted into the secret of affairs, and equally em- 
ployed and trusted by the King and his Minister, though 
we have no particular account of the matters which exer- 
cised his care, till he came to be employed in the trouble- 
some business of the King's divorce, which was about 
three years afterward. All we know is, that he and his 
friend Dr. Fox, were the persons upon whom the Cardinal 
chiefly relied, for directing his line buildings, and for 
laying the plan of those magnificent foundations, which, 
however they might excite the envy of the times in which 
he lived, have very justly recommended his memory to 
posterity. 

At this juncture, the King's affairs at Rome were but 
in an untoward situation, the Roman Pontiff, Clement 
VII., having address enough to feed the King's agents 
with fair promises, according to the standing maxim of 
that court; but, in effect, making no progress at all 
towards the King's point, which was the obtaining a 
divorce from his Queen Katherine of Arragon. His 
majesty therefore resolved to send some person thither, in 
whom he could entirely confide, and of whose abilities 
and attachment he had a like opinion. After much 
consideration, he fixed upon our Doctor, now become 
Master of Trinity-Hall, and, as Bishop Burnet remarks, 
esteemed at that time the best civil lawyer in England ;f 
to whom he joined Edward Fox, Provost of King's 
College in Cambridge. At the time of his departure, 



'^ Herbert's Life of Henry VHI. t Hist, of the Reformat. Vol. I. p. 52. 



448 GARDINER 

in February 152S, there is nothing clearer, or more certain^ 
than that he had the most entire confidence reposed in 
him, both by the King and his Minister, who hoped all 
things from his diligence and dexterity ; and who, if 
there be any credit due either to their verbal or written 
declarations, were equally sincere and in earnest in this 
matter. 

Our historians are most of them dark and divided in 
their sentiments, as to the sincerity of Cardinal Wolsey, in 
the business of the divorce. Yet this may be observed, 
that those who were best informed, and took most pains 
to look into original papers, are very clear with respect to 
the Cardinal's real intention, to carry that point for the 
King, as the only one that could preserve his power and 
secure him against all his enemies. Dr. Ponet, however, 
who made no scruple of laying every thing to Gardiner's 
charge that might render him odious, tells us plainly, that, 
in order to his own advancement, he betrayed the Cardinal 
in this embassy, and pushed, with the greatest vigour, 
what his master wished might be spun out, in order to gain 
time. But let us hear what the industrious and impartial 
Mr. John Strype says upon this subject, from better 
authorities than any of our historians, except Fox, had 
ever seen, which will effectually clear up this affair.* 
*' Gardiner," says he, " the Cardinal's secretary, and Fox, 
the King's servant, provost of King's College, Cambridge, 
were despatched to the Pope to effect this, in February, 
1527, according to the computation of the Church of 
England. Of whom, Gardiner was the chief, having 
been admitted into the King's and Cardinal's cabinet 
council for this affair, and stiled in the Cardinal's cre- 
dential letters to the F ope;, primary secretari/ of the most 
secret counsels. He was grovin into extraordinary request 
with the Cardinal, in so much, that in his said letters, he 
called Gardiner the half of himself,t than whom none^ 
was dearer to him. He writ, that he should unlock his 
breast to the Pope ; and that in hearing him speak, he 
might think he heard the Cardinal himself'. The par- 
ticulars of this embassy, of which I have the very minutes, 
in divers letters sent to the King and Cardinal, 1 will give 

* Strype*s Memorials, vol. I. p. 89. 

[t Wolsey no doubt had in liits remembrance Horace's ' Et serves aniiuiB 
dimidlum moae.' — Eorr.J 



GARDINER. 449 

some account of, especially of such things, as the Lord 
Herbert, or the Right Reverend Author of the History 
of the Reformation, have made no mention of, or but 
briefly and imperfectly." He proceeds then to shew from 
these papers, that when the Pope intimated to Dr. Gar- 
diner, that he understood this proceeding was not managed 
with Cardinal Wolsey's consent ; and that he had likewise 
heard some strange things of the lady intended for the 
King's bed ; the Doctor thereupon, in the name, and by 
the authority of the Cardinal, who had been acquainted 
with this before he left England, demonstrated to him the 
falsity of those suggestions, and what the Cardinal's real 
sentiments were in both points ;* and that the reader may 
have no doubts as to the relator's capacity in stating these 
matters, he has printed several letters from the originals, 
which very fully justify all that is said of them : and shew 
the Cardinal was, hitherto at least, disposed to serve his 
master as far as he could. 

In their journey towards Italy, Gardiner and Fox 
executed a commission at the court of Paris, where, by 
warm and vigorous representations of what their master 
had done, and might do, for King Francis, they obtained 
that monarch's letter to the Pope, in as strong terms as 
could be desired, in support of King Henry's demands. 
When they came to Orvieto, where the Pope then was, 
Dr. Gardiner used very free language with his Holiness, 
shewed him the danger he was in of losing the King by 
playing a double game, and how much injury he would 
do the Cardinal if he failed in his expectations. By these 
measures all was obtained which his instructions required, 
and a new commission directed to the Cardinals VVolsey 
and Compegius was issued.-f- In the course of this long 
embassy, the Pope, whose mind was continually per- 
plexed, and to whom the Imperial, French, and F/nglish 
Ministers allowed no quiet, fell dangerously ill, the dis- 
orders of his aft'ections operating upon the humours of his 
body ; and this, as might be expected, gave a new turn to 
the intrigues of Rome. Dr. Gardiner had as large a 
share in these as any Minister, for he laboured the cause 
of Wolsey, in case the Pope's death made way for a new 



* So in the ambassador's dispatches. 
t Hollinshed's Chron. vol. II. p. 907. 



450 GARDINER. 

election.*' He had the French King's letters also to 
support this design ; for by soliciting the Popedom, he 
thought to make VV^olsey more than amends for the Arch- 
bishopric of Toledo, which was once tendered him by the 
Emperor ; it may be with the same sincerity, or, in other 
words, with none at all. Yet so much was Wolsey^ set 
upon having, at least for a time, the title of Pope, that, 
having intelligence, the King's agents, and his own, had 
procured for him the suftrages of one third-part of the 
Cardinals, orders were sent them immediately, to cause 
those Cardinals to withdraw to a place of safety, in case 
the conclave appeared more inclined to any other, and 
there to declare him Pope, assuring them they should be 
most vigorously sustained by King Henry and his allies. 
No doubt the pains taken in this business must have been 
highly pleasing to the Cardinal, though, after all, the 
design came to nothing ; for when Wolsey had shewn his 
utmost strength, and procured from the King very liberal 
marks of esteem for the Cardinals of his faction, Clement 
VII. recovered, and things once more returned to their 
old state.'!' AH imaginable care was taken to have the 
new commission penned to the King's mind, which, not 
without much difficulty, was obtained ; and then it was 
to be carried from Orvieto to Rome, to pass through the 
necessary forms requisite to render it authentic. This 
being also an affair of nicety, and the disposing Cardinal 
Campegio to make i tour to England with a good will, 
requning some extraordinary management, Dr. Gardiner 
took it upon himself, after having procured whatever was 
requisite for his negotiation, and put every thing necessary 
to set this in a proper light at home into the hands of his 
colleague. J Upon this. Provost Fox was sent home with 
a full account of their negotiation, with which the King, 
the Cardinal, and Mrs. Anne Bulleine, were equally 
pleased, and unanimously joined in applauding the in- 
dustry, intrepidity, and ingenuity, of this new minister, as 
is incontestably proved from the authentic minutes of this 
negotiation, which are, or at least very lately were, still 
preserved and in being. 



* Burnet's History of the Reformation, vol. I. p. 64. 

t These passages are from Gardiner's instructions and other dispatches. 

J From his dispatches. 



GARDINER. 451 

We leurn from the same author, and from the same 
authorities, that Fox was most joyfully received upon his 
return, which was in the beginning of the month of 
May, 1529 ; it was evening when he came to court, when 
he was directed to go to Mrs. Anne's, that is, Anne 
BuUeine's chamber, where he first made a recital to her, of 
such points as were fittest for that lady's ear ; soon after 
the King came thither, and the lady being withdrawn, he 
delivered his majesty the letters he had brought, and run 
into a large and particular detail of the several steps they 
had taken ; all of which he entirely approved and highly 
admired. After some time, he sent for Mrs. Anne back 
again, and directed some passages to be repeated in her 
presence ; then Fox went to the Cardinal, who was no 
less pleased with every thing he heard, and particularly 
with the accounts given him of Dr. Gardiner's justifying 
his colleges to the Pope's satisfaction, and making his 
Holiness sensible, that the revenues of the monasteries 
granted for their endowment, were fairly applied. Al- 
together made such an impression on the Cardinal's mind, 
that speaking of Gardiner, he cried out, O inestimable 
treasure, and jewel of this realm ! which exclamation he 
desired Fox to remark, and to insert in his letter.*' As 
for Mrs. Anne Bulleine, she thought herself under such 
obligations to this able negotiator, that even before Fox's 
coming she wrote him the following letter,^- which is not 
amongst the papers collected by Strype. 

" Mr. Stephens, I thank you for my letter, wherein I 
perceive the willing and faithful mind that you have to do 
me pleasure, not doubting, but as much as is possible for 
man's wit to imagine, you will do ; I pray God to send 
you well to speed in all your matters, so that you would 
put me to the study how to reward your high service. T 
do trust in God, you shall not repent it : and that the 
end of this journey shall be more pleasant to me than 
your first, for that was but a rejoicing hope, which ceas- 
ing, the lack of it does put me to the more pain, and they 
that are partakers with me, as you do know; and therefore 
I do trust, that this hard beginning shall have the better 
ending. 



* Extracted from Dr. Fox's long letter. 

t Copied from the original in the Paper Office. 
Gg2 



452 GARDINER. 

" Mr. Stephens, I send you here cramp rings, for you 
and Mr. Gregory, and Mr. Peter, praying you to dis- 
tribute them as you think best. And have me recom- 
mended heartily to them both, as she that, you may 
assure them, will be glad to do them any pleasure which 
shall lie in my power. And thus I make an end, praying 
God send you good health. Written at Greenwich, tlie 
4th day of April." 

The first part of this letter seems to refer to the journey 
made by Dr. Gardiner, from the Pope's court at Orvieto 
to Rome, in order to quicken the departure of Cardinal 
Campegio. It is indeed very difficult to settle the dates 
of many letters written about that time, because some- 
times they have only the month, without either day or 
year ; but more frequently the day and month without the 
year, which can only be recovered from circumstances. 

The King, indeed, had the best reason to be satisfied, 
since Dr. Gardiner dealt clearly with him, and shewed 
him plainly there was nothing to be obtained by soliciting 
at Rome ; that the Pope might probably be induced to 
approve any thing the King could persuade the Legates to 
do, but, without question, would never be prevailed on, 
by hopes or fears, to do any thing himself, which, in his 
judgment, was the final issue of all this trouble and 
solicitation.* Bishop Burnet is offended with Gardiner 
for desiring the King not to shew this epistle to the 
Cardinalj-f- which, however, might be very consistent with 
his attachment and regard for his old master, since, from 
this caution, it appears he had no settled private corres- 
pondence with the King ; for then it would have been 
needless, and some of the contents, as he was to sit in 
judgment in the cause, were exceedingly improper for 
him to have seen. When the King had considered this 
advice sufficiently, and saw how well it corresponded with 
events, he recalled Dr. Gardiner from Rome, in order to 
make use of him in the management of his cause before 
the legantine court. Upon his return he had the Arch- 
deaconry of Norfolk bestowed on him by Bishop Nyx, 
of Norwich, for whom he had obtained some favours from 
the Pope. He was installed March 1, 1529,:{: and this, 
so far as appears, was his first preferment in the Church ; 

* See his Letter to the King. t Hist, of the Reformat. Vol. II. p. 321. 

t Registr. Norwich. 



GARDINER. 453 

feut in the State his growth was quicker, for the King 
having constant need of his service, and not esteeming it 
proper to use it while he belonged to another, took hira 
from his old master, Wolsey, and declared him Secretary 
of State.* In this situation he was considered as having 
a large share in the management of all affairs, and was 
particularly advised with by the King, when Cardinal 
Campegio declared that the cause was avoked to Rome, 
and that himself and his colleague could proceed no 
further. f An accident furnished the King with the 
means of extricating himself out of the many difficulties 
into which this behaviour of. the Pope's had thrown him, 
for which he was indebted to the shrewd advice given 
by Dr. (afterwards Archbishop) Cranmer,J as he was 
indebted for that to Dr. Gardiner, who introduced him ; 
and by this, and this only, contributed to his old patron's 
ruin. As soon as the King saw a way open for the 
conclusion of his business, without the assistance of the 
Cardinal, he delayed no longer making himself sensible 
of his displeasure. Whence it arose, is variously and 
inconsistently related by our historians ; but, without 
recurring to deep and uncertain motives, we may be 
satisfied with this, that when Henry saw his Minister had 
either concurred with the court of Rome in duping him, 
or was in reality duped most ungratefully and egregiously 
by that court himself, he determined to trust him no 
longer, but to make him in some measure the victim 
that might satiate popular resentment, and stifle those 
clamours raised amongst his subjects in different parts of 
the kingdom.^ This tempest broke with such fury on 
the head of this devoted minister, that his misery became 
as much the subject of amazement, as his prosperity had 
ever been. In this distress he had recourse to his old 
servant the secretary, and, though some have insinuated 
the contrary, he met witli as sincere returns of gratitude 
and friendship as he could desire or expect. The year 
ensuing opened with the most important service, at least 
as his master conceived it, that had been as yet rendered 



* Herbert's Life of Henry VHI. 
t Burnet's Hist, of the Reformat. Vol. I, p. 71. 
t Strype's Life of Archbisliop Cranmer, p. 4, 
§ HoUioshed, Stowe, Baker. 



454 GARDINER. 

him by Dr. Gardiner, and which nevertheless does more 
honour to his abilities than his virtue ; and this was to 
manage the University of Cambridge, so as to procure 
their declaration in the King's cause, after Dr. Cranmer's 
book should appear in support of it.* This, in conjunc- 
tion with Dr. Fox, he accomplished, though not without 
much artitice and address. After this great exploit, as 
it w as then thought, his ascent in the Church was marvel- 
lously quickened. In the spring of 1531, he was installed 
in the Archdeaconry of Leicester,-!- resigning that of Nor- 
folk, which he held before ; and, towards the close of Sept. 
ensuing, he also resigned thaj in favour of his coadjutor. 
Dr. Edward Fox, who became afterwards Bishop of 
Hereford.;*: In October he was incorporated at the 
tJniversity of Oxford ;§ and Nov. 27, 1531, he was con- 
secrated Bishop of V\ inchester :% contrary to what many 
w riters assert, that he was not promoted to this See until 
about three years after. || Dec. 5, following, the tempo- 
ralties were restored,** which is a sufficient proof that the 
former is the right date. Dr. Gardiner, it seems, was not 
apprised of the King's intentions, who would sometimes 
rate him soundly, and at the instant he bestowed it put 
him in mind of it. / have, said he, often squared 
tvith you, Gardiner, (a word he used for those kind of 
rebukes), but 1 love you never the worse, as the Bishopric 
J give will convince you.ff He sat with Dr. Cranmer, 
Aichbishop of Canterbury, when that prelate pionounced 
the sentence of divorce against Queen Katherine, or 
rather declared her marriage with the King null and void, 
May 23, 1533.1;|: The same year he was sent over to 
Marseilles, that he might have an eye to the interview 
between tlie French King and the Pope, from whence 
his master suspected some detriment might spring ; and 
there he intimated the appeal of Henry VIII, to a general 



* Memorials of Archbibhop Cranmer, p. 5-6. 

t Tanner. Biblioth. Britanico-Hiberuica, p. 308. 

t Athen. Oxon. Vol. I. col. 158. § Fast. Uxon. VoJ. I. col. 50. 

^ MS. Lowth. e Registr. Cantuar. \\ Godwin, Wharton, Tanner. 

** Rymer. Foedera, Tom. xiv. p. 429. 

tt In his own letter to the Duke of Somerset. 

X\ Burnet's Reforniat.Vol. I. p. 131. 



GARDINER. 455 

touncll, in case the Pope should pretend to proceed in 
his cause;* and he did the like on the' behalf of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, who made a particular appli- 
cation to him for that purpose. Upon his return to 
England, he was called upon, as other Bishops were, 
not only to acknowledge and yield obedience to the King 
as Supreme Head of the Church, but to defend it; which 
he did, and this defence, or court sermon, he published ; 
and this is that celebrated piece of his, intituled. Of 
true Obedience. His pen was made use of upon other 
occasions, and never declined vindicating the King's 
proceedings in the business of the divorce, the subsequent 
marriage, or throwing oif the dominion of the See of 
Rome, which writings of his then acquired him the 
highest reputation.-)- In the next year, ^oSoy he had 
some dispute with Archbishop Cranmer on account of 
his visiting his diocese ; upon which occasion there ap- 
peared a good deal of heat on both sides. J When he 
went over again to France to resume his embassy, he had 
the ill luck to differ with another Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, as he afterwards became. Dr. Reginald Pole, then 
Dean of Exeter, whom, as King Henry's bitterest enemy, 
he prevailed on the Fjench King to remove out of his 
dominions, whence those distates grew which afterwards 
became public. § While he was thus employed, Cromwell 
demanded his opinion about a religious league with the 
Princes of Germany; which, on that bottom, he dissuaded, 
and advised making an alliance grounded on political 
motives, and strengthened by subsidies, which he thought 
would last longer, and answer the King's ends better.^ 
In 1538, he was sent ambassador, with Sir Henry Knevit, 
to the German Diet, where he is allowed to have ac- 
quitted himself well in regard to his commission ; but 
either fell into some suspicion, or was in danger of having 
something fastened on him, in respect to his secret cor- 
respondence with the Pope, which at that juncture might 



* Herbert's Life of Henry VIII. 

t Tanner's Biblioth. Britanico-Hibeniica, p. 308. 

X Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer, p. 33. 

$ Strype's Memorials, Vol. III. p. 275. 

% As appears from his own letter, preserved by Collier, 



45() GARDINER. 

have been Tiis ruin.* His being so often and so much 
absent from the court, as it gave him a great knowledge 
of foreign aftairs, so it kept hmr from having any hand in 
several transactions which did no great honour to that 
reign, such as the divorce and death of Queen Anne 
BuUeine, the prosecution of Sir Thomas More, and 
brmging Bishop Fisher to the block. It is however 
asserted, that though he was clear of these, yet he insti- 
gated other severities, and was the principal author of all 
the cruelties committed upon Heretics, as they were 
then called ; which being a matter of great consequence, 
the reader may expect should be more clearly discussed. 
The only way of doing this, will be to consider a few of 
those sanguinary proceedings, in which he is said to have 
had the chief hand : for this will shew" us what credit is 
due to the general suggestion, that persecution was the 
great object of his counsels. Amongst these, the first 
that occurs is the case of Lambert,-]- who was burnt for 
denying the Real Presence in the Sacrament, and which 
is commonly attributed to the virulent spirit of Bishop 
Gai diner. 

The statute commonly called the Six Articles, and which 
it must be owned was the law on which many were put to 
death, is attributed to his contrivance, and said to have 
been passed by his influence, having been warmly opposed 
both by the Archbishop, and the Vicegerent Cromwell ;J 
but those who allege he had no credit with the King, 
and was little beloved by the people, cannot expect an 
implicit faith to attend such an assertion. That he was 
principally concerned in drawing it, and that he was very 
earnest in promoting it in the house of lords, in conjunc- 
tion ^^ith the Duke of Norfolk, and other lords spiritual 
and temporal, those must have but little knowlege in 
English iiistory who will attempt to deny. It was not 
long alter this, that Robert Barnes^ fell under persecu- 
tion, and, m the issue, was condemned to be burnt; who, 
because he shewed particular spleen against Bishop 
Gardiner, and was first committed to prison for want of 
respect to him in a sermon, he is surmised to have been 
the author of all his suttermgs, and the person by whose 



* Strype's Wcmoiials, Vol. III. p. 274. 
t Bale, Fox. Burnet. | Fuller, Burnet, Collier. $ See his article in Bayle. 



GARDINER. 467 

power that unfortunate friar was at length brought to the 
stake, which is mentioned as a second instance of his 
good will to persecution. There is no doubt that, in 
the course of this reign, the Bishop of Winchester must 
have done many things against his mclination, and several 
against his conscience. He was obliged to take a share 
in the divorce of Anne of Cleves, which was none of the 
most honourable ; and he was likewise obliged to bear a 
part in that of Queen Katherine Howaid, which, consi- 
dering his attachment to that most noble family, could be 
no very pleasing employment.* But in these, and other 
compliances, he had many companions, -f- and the excuses 
made for them by some great pens, may serve for him ; 
or the reader will pass sentence as he pleases, since we 
have no intention to disguise faults, but to disclose truths. 
Upon the death of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, he 
was elected Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, 
1540, which preferment was very acceptable to hini.j 
He still preserved his Mastership of Tnnit}'-Hall ; and 
it was well he did preserve it, since, in the next reign, 
this in most people's opinion pieserved the foundation. 
As he was elected Chancellor of the University without 
influence, he was very assiduous in his office, that he 
might conciliate the affections of it's members, and did 
all he could to assist them with his interest at court, 
which, when he had done any great service, was very 
good. Certain it is, that whatever power oi preferments 
his compliances obtained under his monarch were dearly 
purchased, since they were held in continual hazard, and 
embittered with violent storms of royal resentment ; which 
though, as this Prelate himself says, he knew how to 
sustain without sinking, must nevertheless be exceedingly 
distasteful. In some conjunctures too we are satisfied 
they hlled him with many apprehensions, and, though he 
might be dexterous in sometimes shifting offtlie King's ill 
humours, yet at others, how great or how alert soever his 
spirit might be, he was forced to bear slights with patience. 



* Strype, Fuller, Burnet. 

t The iutroduction of this remark, with a ' but' would seem as if the 
writer thought, that having many asssociates in siu in some degree took 
away from its sinfulness. — Edit. 

X Fuller's History of Cambridge, p. 119. 



458 GARDINER. 

and even to submit to very disagreeable supplications and 
expressions of deep humilit}-, and great sense of his own 
failings, directly contrary to the conviction of his own 
conscience and understanding. The Bishop himself tells 
us, that the King could be very angry, and would then 
talk very loud, very probably too his language vcas but 
coarse, since many samples there are of that sort in his 
history; this had a great effect upon those that were 
about him, and kept them ever in a state of deep humility, 
in which, without doubt, Gardiner differed but very little 
from the rest ; but the King letting him into the secret, 
that he could look sour and talk rough without meaning 
much harm, he ever after bore those sallies with much 
less anxiety. The thing happened thus, the Earl of 
Wiltshire and Dr. Gardmer had been joined in some 
affair of consequence, which had not been managed so 
as to give the King satisfaction, upon which he treated 
Gardiner, in the presence of the Earl, with such a storm 
of words as quite confounded him; but before they parted, 
the King took him into his chamber, and told him, that 
he was indeed very angry, yet not particularly with him, 
though he had used him so, because he could not take 
quite so much liberty with the Earl. Bishop Gardiner 
thenceforward could stand a royal rattling pretty well, or, 
to use his own words to the Duke of Somerset, He folded 
it up in the matter,* and bore it patiently. The King 
had another practice, which he called whetting, and this 
in effect was scolding with pen and ink; the Bishop says, 
that when some of the courtiers saw letters to him in this 
style, they looked upon him as undone, while himself was 
under no such apprehensions, knowing the King to be a 
wise prince, and who, after thus venting his anger, would 
remember past services, and be inore ready to do an old 
servant a good than an ill turn, after giving him such 
correction. 

Strype,i- who has preser\'ed the following letter, thinks 
it was written about 1535, and he gives us this account of 
the occasion of it. The King, it seems, was desirous 
that the Clergy of all ranks should acknowledge, that 
all the powers they had were derived from him, as the 
supreme head of the Christian Church in his dominions. 



Not " sua virtute se" involvebat.— Edit. t Memorials, Vol. I, p. 215. 



GARDINER. 459 

Against this doctrine somebody had written a book, with 
which the King was offended; and, as the Bishop of 
Winchester had both preached and written much to his 
satisfaction, in the support of his supremacy, hejent him 
this book, with orders to answer it. But, upon the 
perusal of it, this Bishop, whom we tind often represented 
as one so complaisant that the King could require nothing 
from him which he was not ready to perform, not only 
declined writing such an answer as was expected, but 
professed himself of the same opinion with the author of 
that book. It is no wonder at all, that, to a monarch of 
Henry's disposition, this disappointment should appear 
in a very bad light, or that he should testify his dislike in 
very strong terms. This it seems he did, and sent the 
Bishop of Winchester word of it by his Almoner, Dr. 
Fox, as Strype conceives. The Bishop knowing his 
master's temper well, and not caring to meet the tempest 
cf his anger by a personal apology, thought fit to write 
him the following letter, which is produced to shew the 
real sentiments of the man, and that he was not always so 
servile or so willing an instrument of the King's will, as 
we find him sometimes represented. In stating this fact 
without the letter, we must have left the reader in much 
uncertainty ; but now having that before hnn, he may 
judge for himself, and form a true decision of the fitness, 
or unfitness, of this Prelate's behaviour upon so important 
an occasion. 

*" My duty remembered to your majesty, with all lowly 
humility and reverend honour. For as much as letted 
by disease of body, 1 cannot personally repair to your 
highness' presence, having heard of your grace's Almoner 
to my great discomfort, what opinion your highness hath 
conceived of me. 1 am compelled by these letters to 
represent me unto the same, lamenting and wailing my 
chance and fortune, to have lost, beside my desert, as 
much reputation in your grace's heart, as your highness, 
without my merit, hath conferred unto me, in estimation 
of the world. And if I comforted not myself with re- 
membrance of your grace's goodness, with whom Veritas 
semper vincit, si. sortis taederet & vitae. I know in myself, 
and can never forget your grace's benefits, your highness' 



« Cotton Library, Cleopatra, E. 6. 



460 GARDINER. 

notable affection toward me. I know my duty and bond 
to your highness. How much I desire to declare, in 
outward deeds, my inward knowledge, God knoweth, 
and I trust your highness shall know. But, in the mean- 
time, for want thereof, thus I suffer, and know no remedy 
but your highness' goodness, to expend what I have done, 
what I should have done, and what I may do ; and not 
to be miscontent, though, in correcting the answer made, 
I believed, so great a number of learned men affirming it 
so precisely to be true, that was in the answer alleged con- 
cerning God's law. Especially, considering your highness' 
book against Luther, in mine understanding, most plainly 
approveth it. The book written in your grace's cause, 
and translated into English, seemeth to allow it. And 
the council of Constance, condemning the articles of 
Wicklif, manifestly decreeth it. The contrary whereof 
of your grace can now prove, yet I, not learned in divinity, 
nor knowing any part of your grace's proves, am, I trust, 
without cau