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if 6 53 


v. 3 


jftrgt Bag of September. 

SeccnD ©ag of .September, 


Article I. — St. /Egidius or Giles, Abbot of Gillks, France. [Seventh and 
Eighth Centuries], 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Writers of Lives of St. /Egidius — 
His Origin, Birth and Early Dispositions— Educa- 
tion and Emigration from Greece — He arrives at 
Marseilles — Afterwards he »oes to Aries — He then 
seeks a Place for Retreat near the River Gard — 
Lives with the Hermit Ferodemos and afterwards 
parts with him for a Situation of still greater Retire- 
ment — Nimes and its Gothic Kings — St. ^Egidius 
is urged to the Erection of a Religious House ... I 

Chap. II. — Writings attributed to St. ^Egidius — His Life of 
Solitude— Accidental Discovery of the Saint's Her- 
mitage — Foundation of his Monastery and its 
Endowment — 1 1 is Rul-^ of Discipline — His Visit to 
King Charles Martel at Orleans — His hospitable 
Reception— His Miracles and Prophetic Spirit — 
His Visit to the Sovereign Pontiff, Benedict II. — 
The Saracens invade Southern Gaul, and destroy 
the Monastery of St. Gilles — The holy Abbot and 
his Monks fly for Protection to Charles Martel at 
Orleans ... ... .. 1 1 

Chap. III. — Expulsion of the Saracens — Rebuilding of his 
Monastery by St. <Egi<iius — His Death — The 
Church, Monastery, and Shrine at Saint-Gilles — 
Veneration for the Holy Abbot in France and on 
the Continent of Europe — Veneration for his 
Memory in the British Islands and Chuiches dedi- 
cated to St. Giles — Commemoration of his Festival 
in the Ca endars — Conclusion .. ... 15 

Article II. — St. Neman, Bishop of Cill Bia ... ... . 25 

Article III. — St. Cnimmen, Son of Cuanna, 01 Cuanach, probably Abbot of 

Druim-Snechta, now Drumsnat, County of Monaghan ... 26 

Article IV. — St. Sceallan, the Leper, of Armagh, County of Armagh ... 26 

Article V. — Reputed Feast of St. Sebaldus, or Sew alius ... ... 27 

Article VI. — St. Failbhe, Son of Ronan, or Cluain Airbealaigh ... 27 

Article VII. — Translation of the Relics of St. Anatolius, at Salins, France ... 27 

Article VIII.— The Sons of Caimene ... ... ... 28 

Article IX. — Feast of St. Cecilia, with other Companions ... ... 28 

Article X — Reputed Feast of St. Muredach, Bishop of Killala ... .. 29 

Article X I.— Reputed Festival of St. Sarbile of Fochard ... ... 29 

Article XII. — Reputed Festival of St. Fiachrach ... ... 30 

Article XIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Ultan Mac Ua Conchobair of Ardbraccain 30 

Article XIV. — Reputed Feast of St. Senain ... ... ... 30 

Article XV. — Reputed Festival of Cornwall of Both Conais ... ... 30 

Article XVI.— Reputed Feast for a Translation of St. Columban's Relics at Bobbio 30 

Article I. — St. Seanan, of Laithrkch-Briuin, now Laragh Brine, 

County of Kildare. [Sixth Century.'] ... ... 30 

Article II. — St. Maine, Son of Coechan, Bishop of Tyroilill. [Fifti or Sixth 

Century] ... ... ... ... 32 



Article III.— St. Geinten, Priest, of Tir-Guaire ... •■• 33 

Article IV.— St. Colum, Son of Blann ... ••• 34 

Article V.—Sr. Enan, Mac Ua M ... •• 34 

Article VI.— Reputed Festival for Saints Loman, Colman and Macmsus ... 34 

Article VII— St. Adomnanus or Adomnan, Abbot ... 34 

Artici e VIII.— Feast of St. Muredach, BUbop of Killala ... ... 34 

Article IX— Re; uted Feast of St. Teothotha .. ... - 34 

Article X.— Reputed Festival of St. Mansuetus, Bishop of Toul, France ... 35 

Artici I XI.— Reputed Feast of a St Colman, Avignon, France... ... 35 

Article XII— Reputed Festival of a St. Molotha ... ••■ 35 

Article XIII.— Reputed Feasts for Gallan, Abbot, and Oronius, surnamed 

Modestus, Bishop of Carpentras, France ... ... 3 6 

Etjirti ©ag of September, 

Article I.— Si. Mansuetus, Mansuet, Mansuy, or Maunsey, first Bishop 
of Toul, France. [Fourth Century.] 

Chap. I. —Introduction— Writers of St. Mansuet's Acts— The 
Period when he flourished — The Country of his 
liirth — Hi^ Parentage and Mission from Rome to 
Toul— The Leuci or Leques— Want of Success at 
the Commencement of St. Maunsey's Mission — 
Courteously received by the Governor's Wife — 
Mir.iculou.- Restoration of her Son to Life — The 
Governor and his Family, with the People of Toul, 
embiace Christianity ... ... j<> 

Chap. II. — The Virtues and miraculous Gifts of St. Mansuetus 
— He builds various Churches and ordains many 
Priests — His Death — Veneration of the People at 
Toul for his Memory — Pilgrimages to his Shrine, 
where several Miracles are wrought — Destruction 
of his Church and the charitable Foundations at 
Toul by the Vandals — Restorations by the Bishops 
( ..iuzlin and Gerard ... ... 43 

Chap. III. -State of Toul during the Middle Ages— Reputed 
nization of St. Maunsey by Pope Leo IX. — 
Various Translations of his Relics — The Cathedral 
of St. Stephen, at Toul, and its Shrines — Destruc- 
tion of St. Maunsey's Ancient Church in the Six- 
teenth Century — Festivals and Memorials of St. 
Maunsey - Commemorations in Calendars and Mar- 
tyrologies — Conclusion ... ... 54 

Article II— Sr. Macnessius, or Mac Nissi, Bishop of Connor, County 

Fifth and Sixth Centuries. ] 

• hap. I.— Introduction— Authors on St. Macnessius' Life — 

BftpUsm by St Patrick— Educated under Bishop 

11— Becomes a Disciple of St. Patrick — His 

•cration as Bishop — Pilgrimage to Jerusalem — 

Return to Rome, where he is treated with great 

Respect— Joyfully received on his Return to Ireland 

— His Missionary Labours— Gifts of Miracles and of 

Prophesy— He rescue-. St. Colman from Death — 

from St. Brigid — St Macnessius the 1' 'irst 

poi Connor — Monastery and Church at Connor 62 

CHAP. II. — St. Macnc . mn-cla in Company with St. 

Patrick and St. Brigid— Advises St. Colman to 

found a Monastery at Diomore St. Macnessius is 

said to have established a Monastery at Kebs near 

Connoi — Hi-. Miracles and Prophecies — His Death 

—Festival and Commemorations— Conclusion ... 70 


Article III. — St. Lon, or Loman,also called Lon-garadh, of Disert-Caradh, or of 

Magh Tuathat, Queen's County. [Sixth Centuty.] ... 77 

Article IV.— Translation of St. Krentrude's Relics, at Salzburg ' ... 81 

Article V. — Translation of the Relics of St. Foillan ... ... 82 

Article VI.— St. Balm or Balloin, of Tech-Saxon ... ... 82 

Article VII. — St. Colman, of Cluain or Druim Ferta Mughaine, now Kilclonfert, 

Kings County ... ... .. 83 

tfourtf) ©ag t«f September. 

Article I. — St. Ultan, said to have been Bishop, or more probably 
Abbot, of Ardbraccan, County of Meath. [Fifth and 

Sixth Centuries'] ... ... ... 83 

Article II. — Translation of St. Cuthbert's Relics ... ... 91 

Article III. — St. Ness, Nessa, or Munessa, of Ernaidh, said to have been Urney, 

in the County of Tyrone. [Fifth Century] ... ... 94 

Article IV. — St. Comhgall, of Both-Conais, County of Donegal. [Seventh 

Century] ... ... ... .. 96 

Article V. — St. Cummein, Abbot of Drumsnat, County of Monaghan ... 97 

Article VI. — St. Senan ... ... ... ... 97 

Article VII. — St. Sarbile, Virgin of Fochart, County of Louth ... ... 98 

Article VIII. — St. Peneux. [Sixth Century] ... ... ... 98 

Article IX — St. Aedhan Amlonn, possibly at Clontarf, County of Dublin ... 98 

Article X. — St. Failbhe ... ... ... ... 99 

ARTICLE XI. — Reputed Feast of St. Erentrudis, or Erentrude, Abbess of Salzburg 99 

Article XII.— St. Fiachrach ... ... ... ... 99 

Article XIII. — Reputed Commemoration or Canonization of St. Swibert, or Suit- 

bert, Bishop and Apostle of the Frisons and of the Boructuarians 99 
Article XIV.— Reputed Feast of St. Veran, Confessor, at Rheims, France. [Sixth 

Century] ... ... ... ... 99 

Article XV.— Reputed Festival of St. Anatolius, Bishop of Salins, France ... 100 

Jtftij ©ag of September. 

Article I. — St. Alto, Founder and Abbot of Altmunster, in Bavaria. 

[Eighth Century] ... ... ... 100 

Article II. — St. Faithleann, possibly of Innisfallen, County of Kerry ... 104 

Article III. — St. Eolang, said to have been of Aghaboe, Queen's County, yet 

prol>ably of Aghabollogue, County of Cork ... ... 105 

Article IV. — St. Brecc-buaid or Bncin, said to have been of Tuaim-Dreacain, 

now Toomregan, County of Cavan ... ... 106 

Article V. — St. Dubhscuile ... ... ••• ••• io 7 

Article VI.— St. Elacha . ... ... ••• io 7 

article VII. — St. Eolog, Anchoret ... . ••• io 7 

Article VIII. — St. Indeacht, Deacon ... ... • •• i°7 

Article IX.— Reputed Feast of St. Ultan ... ... ... 108 

Stxti) Bap of Srptember. 

Article I.— St. Brga or Bees. Virgin, of Cofeland, England. [Snjcnth 
Century ] 

CHAP. I.— Introdu tion— v\ ri'ers of St. Bega's Acts-Her 
Birtli m Ireland and reputed Parentage— Her 



Virtues during the Period of Youth— She declines a 
proposed Marriage — Abandons Hjmeand Friends 
to live a Religious Life in Anglia — Settles on the 
Western Shore of Cumberland — Description of St. 
Bees— The Miracles of St. Bega and her Manner of 
Life while there— She receives the Habit and Veil 
from St. Aidan — She founds a Convent at Heriet- 
seu, or Heruteu, and gathers a Religious Com 
munity around her ... ... 108 

Chap. II.— St. Heru deemed to be identical with St. Bees- 
She resigns Heretu to the Government of St. 
Hilda — Afterwards Heru retires to Calcaria — 
Friendship between St Hilda and St. Beghu — 
Vision regarding St. Hilda's Death —Death of St. 
Bees and Translation of her Relics — Subsequent 
Miracles — Festivals and Commemorations of the 
Holy Virgin — Conclusion ... ... 115 

Article II. — St. Magnus, Magobai.uus. Magnoald, or Magnobaldus, 
Apostle of Suabia. [Sixth and Seventh Centuries'] 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Writers of the Actsof St. Magnoaldus 
or Magnus — Ireland the Country of his Birth — 
Period of his Nativity — He becomes a Disciple of 
St. Columban— Saints Magnoald and Gall remain 
in Switzerland — Admonition to Magnoald of St. 
Columban nn<l Prophecy before setting out for Italy 124 
Chap. II. — St. Magnus becomes the Attendant of St. Gall — 
He is sent by tne latter to Bobbio— He brings back 
an Account of St. Columban's Death, as also his 
Epistle and Staff, to St Gall— Magnus asidsts at the 
Obsequies of St. Gall— Outrages offered to the 
Remains, and Restoration of his Tomb by St. 
Magnus and the Monks — St. Magnus and Theodore 
leave St. Gall's Monastery and journey eastwards 
— They visit Kempten, where a Dragon is des- 
troyed by a Miracle — St. Magnus goes to Fussen, 
whence Demons are expelled — There he founds a 
Monastery ... ... ... 134 

Chap. 1 1 1. — St. Magnus is patronised by King Pippin — Ordained 
Priest by Bishop Wictherp — Miracles wrought at 
Fussen — Bishop Tozso visited St. Magnus at the 
the Time of his Death — Interment by Theodore — A 
Memoir placed in his Coffin — Re>toration of his 
Church by Charlemagne — Translation of St. Mag- 
noald's Remains to a new Shrine — Miracles then 
and afterwards wrought — Commemorations and 
Festivals — Conclusion ... ... 148 

ARTICLE III. — St. Mac Cuilinn, Maculinus or Maculind. Bishop and Patron of 

Lusk, County of Dublin. [Fifth or Sixth Century'] ... 165 

ARTICLE IV.— St. Sciath, Virgin, of Fert-Sceithe, now Ardskeagh, in Muskerry of 

the Three Plains, County of Cork ... _ 174 

Article V. — ->t. Coluin, of Rosglan, or Domhnach-mor-Mai^he-Imchlain, now 

Donaghmore, near Dun^annon, County of Tyrone. [Fifth * 

Century] ... m • •■ '75 

Article VI— St. Colman, Son of Eochaidh, probably of Kilclief* County Down 178 

Article VII.— St. Caencomrac, said to have been Abbot and Bishop of Derry, 

County of Londonderry .. ... ... 178 

Article VIII.— St. Dochonna ... ... ... 179 

Article IX.— Reputed Feast for the Daughter of Meachar ... 179 

Article X.— St. Giallan ... I7 o 

Article XI.— Reputed Feast of St. ^gidius ... ... 179 

Srbentft $Bag of September. 

Article I.— St. Madelberga, Medalberta, Amalbertk, or Madelberta, 
Abbkss, at Maubeuge, BELGIUM. [Seventh and Eighth 
Centuries'] ... .„ ... ... 180 


Article II. — St. Elarius or Helair, Patron, Anchoret and Scribe of Monahincha, 
near Roscrea, County of Tipperary. {Eighth and Ninth Cen- 
turies] ... ... ... ... 186 

Article III.— St. Sillan <»r Siollan, Bishop ... ... ... 191 

Article IV. — Reputed Feast ot St. 1 oit, of Church Island, Lough Beg, County of 

Londonderry ... ... ... ... 191 

Article V. — Reputed Feast of Siott ... ... ... 191 

Article VI.— St Molaissi ... ... ... ... 191 

Article VII. — St. Ultan ... ... ... ... 191 

Article VIII. — St. Boetius ... ... ... ... 192 

Article IX. — Reputed Festival of St. Modocus ... ... 192 

Article X. — St Grellan of Craobh-Grellain .. .. ... 192 

Article XI. — Reputed Feast of St. Adamnan, or Eunan, Abbot of Iona ... 192 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of St. Queranus, Abbot ... ... 192 

Article XIII. — Festival of St. Summiva or Sunnifa, Patroness of Bergen, Norway 193 

Article XIV. — Festival of St. Sinotus, Martyr .. ... ... 193 

Article XV. — Festival of St. Anastasius, at Salona, Dalmatia, Martyr ... 193 

(jBtrjt)t|) ©ag of Sqjtemtor, 

Article I. — Festival of St. Disibod, Bishop ani> Confessor, Rhenish 

Bavaria. [Seventh Century].. ... ... 194 

Article II.— St. Fintai\ or Fionntan, of Ard-Caoin ... ... 196 

Article III. — St. Ferghus, the Pict ... ... ... 196 

Aktici.e IV. — St. Maelccasni or Maeloisne ... .. ... 197 

Article V.— St Cruimther Catha, son of Aengus, of Cluain Eossain ... 197 

Article VI. — Fea-t ol the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary... ... 198 

Article VII. — Festival of St. Timothy and Three Hundred Martyrs ... 198 

Article VIII. — The Son or Sons of Talarg ... ... ... 198 

i&tntt) ©ag of <&rpttmber* 

Article I. — St. Kierain, Ciaran or Kyran, Abbot of Clonmacnoisf. 
[Sixth Century.] 

Chap. I.— Introduction— Materials for the Acts of St. Kierain 
— Prophecies regarding his Bir.h — His Family and 
Pedigree — Place and Time of his Birth— His 
Baptism by St. Justus — He studies under St. 
Finian, Abbot of Clonard ... ... 199 

Chap. II.— St. Kieran leaves Clonard for the School of St. 
Ninnidius — Miiacl s recorded — He goes to Endeus, 
on the Island of Aran — His Acts while there — His 
visit to St. Senan of Iniscathy — Admonished in a 
Vision to become the Founder of a great Monastery 210 
Chap. III. — St. Kieran leaves Inis Aingin and proceeds to Clon- 
macnoise — Tuathal and Diermit, Kings of Ireland 
— Foundation of the great Monastery of Clonmac- 
noise — St. Kieran's Prediction — His Virtues and 
Miracles— Growth of an Episcopal City at Clon- 
macnoise — St. Kieran the first Aobot there ... 218 

Chap. IV. -Various poetical Pieces stated to have been the 
Compositions of St. Kieran — He was Author of a 
special Religious Rule — The Year ot St. Kieran's 
Death- His Burial and Relics at < lonmacnoise — 
Composition in Praise of its Founder attributed to 
St. Columba — Commemorations and Celebrations 
of St. Kieran — Memorials — Conclusion ... 227 



Article II. — St. Osmana, or St. Osmanna, Virgin, Abbey of St. Denis, Fiance ... 237 
Article III.— St. Cera, Virgin, ol Kiliahear, Parish of Aghnamullen, County of 

Monaghan. [Sixth Century] ... . . .. 242 

Article IV.— St. Bertellinus or Bettehn. Hermit, and Patron of Stafford, England. 

[ In the £i, hth Ceiuu ... ... ... 244 

Artici ; Stoctean, Abbot o. Clonard. \Pr*bably in the Tenth Century]... 248 

Article VI.— St. Aithgein or Maclaithgem, Bishop of Movilie, County ol Down 248 

Article VIL — St. Finduarr or Fionnbharr, ol Cill-Cunga ... ... 249 

Article VIII. 1 be I ):mghter or Daughters of Enach. [Supposed to be of the 

Fifth Cent my] ... . ... 249 

Article IX.— St Teiccess or i'ecce, Tcga or Teg;«n, said to have been of Kil- 

tegan, County of Wick low. [Possibly Fifth and Sixth Century] 250 

Article X.— St. Coi.all, Son ol /Engus ... ... ... 251 

Article XL— St. Ferdaci ichor Fer-da-chrioch ... ... 252 

Article XII.— St. Eialan, Fcrtach ... ... ... 252 

Article XIII. — Reputed Festival of St. Babolen, Abbot of Fossey ... 252 

Article XIV.— St. Dareca ... ... ... ... 253 

Article XV.— Sl Diomman ... ... ... 253 

Article XVI. — St. Cainchomrach, Abbot of Iona. [Tenth Century] ... 253 

Articli XVIL— St. Boisil, Prior of Melrose, Scotland ... ... 253 

&euuj ©ag of September 

Article L— St. Finian, Finnia, Finnen, Finnbarr, or Finnian, Bishop 
of M<>\ 11.1.K, County of Down. [Sixth Century.] 

Chap. I. — Intiouuction~-Writers on St. Finian's Acts — His 
Family I 'cscent— Early Instructors — Said to have 
been in Scotland, and a Disciple of Nennio or 
Nei.nius — Recorded Visit to Rome, where he had 
been ordained — Return to Ireland ... 253 

CHAP. II. — Time when St. Finian flourished — His Miracles — 
Founder of Ma^hbile and Druim-Fionn Monasteries 
— His Relation as Master to some distinguished 
Irish Saints— His last Illness and Death — His 
Festivals and Commemorations — Conclusion ... 257 
ARTICLE II.— St. Otger or Odgtr, Deacon, at Rurimond, Belgium. [tiqhth 

Century] ... ... ... 263 

Artici.i III. — m. Senach, son of Buidi. [Possibly in the Fifth Century] ... 267 

ARTICLE IV. — St. Segen or Sughin, son ol Ua Luinn, Abbot of Bangor, Coun'y 

Down. [Seventh Century] .. ... ... 268 

ARTICLE V.— St. Finnbar Aiac Bincli or i-ionnbharr ... ... 269 

Akiici.e YL— St. Ferghus, son ol Guaire ... .. ... 269 

;• IE VIL— St. Odian or CMhran ... 269 

Article V1IL— St. Dachuimmne ... ... 269 

Articlk IX.— St. Ailbe Imligh or Elbe ... ... ... 269 

Article X. -St. I.ucill or Luiceall ... ... 269 

Article XI. — Reputed Feast of St. Egiditu ... ... ... 269* 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of Gisuarius, a Priest ... ... 270 

ArticleXIIL— Reputed Festival of St. Bertellinus ... ... 270 

(Elebenuj ©ag of September. 

Article L— St. Loarn or Loarnn, Bishop of Bright, County of Down. 

[ Fifth Century] ... ... 270 

Article II.— St. Silian or biollan,of Imleach Cassain, in Cuailgne, or of Imleach- 

caoin, in the Tir-Aedha ... ... ... 273 

ARTICLE II —Reputed Festival for the Transfer of St. Bathen's Relics, and the 

Miracle of St. Duthac's Arm ... .. ... 274 



Article IV. — Reputed Festival of a St. Batheneus ... ... 275 

Article V.— St. Daniel, Bishop of Bangor, County of Down ... ... 275 

Article VI. — St. C<>namhail, son of Failbhe, Abbot of lona. [Seventh and Eighth 

Centuries] ... ... ... ... 276 

Article VII. — Reputes Festival of a St. Queranus, Abbot of Foilen, in Scotia ... 276 

Article VIII. — St. Colman, Bishop ... ... ... 277 

Article IX. — St. Mosinu or Moshinu ... ... ... 277 

Article X. — Reputed Feast of St. Columbanus, Abbot of Luxeu ... 277 

Article XI. — Festival of St. Eata, Bishop of Lindis'arne ... ... 278 

&toelft{) ©ag of September, 

Article I.— St. Albeus or Ailbe, Patron and Bishop of Emly. [Fifth ana 
Sixth Centuries.] 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Manuscript and printed Accounts of 
St. Ailbe — His Descent and Parentage — Probable 
Date ot Birth — Legends regarding his Infancy — 
said to have visited Rome, and to have been sent 
by the Sovereign Pontiff to preach the Gospel in 
Ireland — His Arrival there and Success of his 
Mission ... ... ... 278 

CHAP. II. — St. Palladius and St. Patrick recognised as the first 
Apostles of the Irish Church — St. Ailbe a Disciple 
of St. Patrick — First Meeting of St. Patrick and 
St. Ailbe — The Irish Apostle and King iEngus fix 
the See of St. Ailbe at Emly — Description of the 
Locality — The Ruie of St. Ailbe—Missionary Inci* 
dents of his Career — His Death and Place of 
Burial — Festivals and Commemorations — Con- 
clusion ... ... ... 286 

Article II St. Molaissi, or Laisren, of Devenish Island, County of 

Fermanagh. [Sixth Century.] 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Manuscript and printed Lives of St. 
Molaissi or i.aisren — His Family and Birth — His 
early Training — He selects Devenish as a Place for 
his Religious Foundation — Description of the 
Isl.nd and of its Antiquities ... ... 298 

Chap. II. — Period of St. Molaissi's Settlement in Devenish — 
Rute drawn up by him ior the Regulation of that 
Monastery — His Miracles — Virtues and Learning 
of the Saint — His Deaih and Burial at Devenish — 
Commemorations — Conclusion ... ... 305 

Article III. — St. Mac Lasre or Maclaisre, Archbishop and Abbot of Armagh, 

County of Armagh. [Sixth and .seventh Centuries] ... 311 

Article IV.— St. Fbdh, Virgin, of Tech-Fleidhe, County of Wicklow ... 312 

Article V.— St. Coiman, Bishop of Abhla ... ... ... 312 

Article VI.— St. Kenan, surnamed Colledoc, Bishop. [Fifth Century] ... 313 

ftijuteenti) ©ag of September. 

Article I.— St. Dagan, Bishop of Achad-Dagain, or, 

County ok W icklow. [S xth and Seventh Centuries] ... 315 

Article II. — The Daughters of Colum, of Tech-inghen-Coluim, in Cremhthann 325 
Article III. — St. Neman or Naemhann Mac Ua Duibh. [Probably in the 

Seventh Century] .. ... ... 327 

Article IV. — St. Maeltolaigh, of Drumbeg Parish, County of Down ... 327 

Article V.— Reputed Festival of St. Batheneus, Confessor ... 327 


Article VI. — Reputed Festival of St. Columban, Abbot of Lure ... 328 

Article VII. — St. Caemnach ... ... ... 328 

Article VIII. — Reputed Festival of Twenty-two Holy Martyrs ... 328 

JFomteentlj 3@ag of* September. 

AETICLK 1. — St. Cormac Mac Culllnan, King Of Munster and Bishop 
OK Cashel. iJVinl/i ana Tenth CeuturicS.\ 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Sources for St. Cormac Mac 
Cullenan's Biography — His Birth and Education 
— He becomes Bishop of Cashel — Description 
and early History of Cashel — Cormac is 
elevated to the Throne of South Munster — His 
\ wt to Lorcan, King of Thomond ... 328 

CHAP. II. — The Invasion of Thomond by Flann Sionna, 
Monarch of Ireland — His Defeat — Cormac 
supposed to have been Author of the Psalter 
of Cashel — 'Compositions attributed to 
St. Cormac Mac Cuillenan — Cormac's Chapel 
on the Rock of Cashel — Visit of King Lorcan 
to Cormac — The Sanas Chormaic — Cormac's 
Celebration of Easter at Cashel — Hostilities 
between the People of -Munster and those of 
Leinster ... ... ... 336 

Chap. III.— Contests between Eoghan Mor, King of 
Munster, and Conn of the Hundred Battles, 
Monarch of Ireland — Division of the Island 
into Leath Cuinn or Conn's Half and Leath 
Modha or Modha's Half — A Council of the 
Munster Chiefs convened by King Cormac at 
Mungret — Resolution to declare War against 
Leinster — His Will and Presentiment of a 
fatal Result — The Battle of Ballaghmoon — 
Defeat and Death of King Cormac — Place of 
Interment — Festivals — Erection of Cashel into 
a See — Memorials — Conclusion ... 352 

Article II. — St. Caemhan Brec, Bishop of Ross-each, now Russagh, County 

of Westmeath ... ... ... 372 

ARTICLE III.— St. Celcdabhaill, Abbot of Bangor, County of Do'.mi ... 373 

Article IV. — The Daughters of Colum, in Cremtannaibh ... 373 

ARTICLE V. — Reputed Feast of a St. Faghna ... ... 374 

Article VI. — Maeltolaig of Droma Faindle ... 374 

Article VII. — Festival of St. Cyprian, Bishop, Doctor and Martyr ... 374 

Article VIII.— Feast of St." Cornelius, Pope and Martyr ... 375 

Article IX. — Festival of One-and-Twenty Martyr ... 375 

Ar 1 icle X.— The Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross ... ... 376 

JHfteentt) ©ag of September. 

Article I.— St. Mirinus or Meadhran, Patron of Paisley, Scotland 

\SixthCentmy\ ... .. ... 377 

Article II. — St. Anmeir or Ainmire, of Cluain-fodn ... ... 381 

Article HI.— St. La-sa <>i Ctonmore ... ... 382 

Article IV.— The Sons of Tadhg ... ... ... 382 

Article V. — St. Cyrinus and his Companions, Ifftrtjm ... 383 

Article VI.— Octave of the Nativity of the Blessed' Virgin Mary ... 383 

Article VII.— Reputed Feast of St. Muredac ... ... 584 

Article VIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Cormac, of Munster ... ... 384 

Article IX.— Feast of Nicomedes, Martyr .. ... ... 384 


Sixteenth ©ag of September. 


Article I. — St. Monenn or Maoineann, Bishop of Cloncurrv, County 
of klldare, and supposed to have been identical 
with St. Ninian, Apostle of the Southern Picts. 
[Fourth ana Fifth Centuries. J 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Writers of St. Ninian's Acts — 
Supposed Identity of Ninian with Moneen or 
Maoinean — Birth and early Years of Ninian — 
His Journeys to Gaul, on his Way to Rome — 
His Studies there — His Ordination as Priest 
and his Consecration as Bishop — His Visit to 
St. Martin, Bishop of Tours — His Return to 
Scotland ... ... ... j&5 

Chap. II.— The Roman Province of Valentia — Withern and 
Candida Casa — Monastic Institute there estab- 
lished by St. Ninian — His Apostolate to the 
Picts — Its Success — Miracles of the Saint ... 393 
Chap. III. — St. Ninian is said to have sought a Retreat in 
Ireland towards the Close of his Life — The 
Place was called Cloneonrie-Tomayne, now 
Cloncurry, in the County of Kildare — Death 
and Burial of St. Ninian — Pilgrimages to his 
Shrine and Miracles there wrought — Religious 
Memorials — Conclusion ... ... 398 

Article II. — St. Laisren, Abbot of Iona [Sixth and Seventh Centiuies] ... 410 
Article III. — St. Laisren, of Menadrehid, Queen's County. [Sixth and 

Seventh Centuries] ... ... ... 412 

Article IV. — St. Criotan, or Critan Certronnach of Bangor, County of 

Down. [Seventh Century] ... ... ... 415 

Article V. — St. Anfadan ... ... ... ... 415 

Article VI.— Reputed Feast of a St. Golan ... ... 415 

Article VII. — St. Senan ... ... ... 416 

Article VIII. —St. Saran ... ... ... 416 

Article IX. — St. Caemhan or Coeman ... ... 416 

Article X. — St. Colman ... ... ... 416 

Article XL — St. Cathbhadh, or Cathbad ... ... 416 

Article XII. — St. Airen ... ... ... 417 

Article XIIL— St. Auxilius ... ... ... 417 

Article XIV.— Death of St. Cormac Mac Cullinan, King and Bishop of 

Cashel ... ... ... ... 417 

Article XV.— Reputed Feast of St. Miodu, Son of Mael ... ... 417 

Article XVI.— Festival of St. Euphemia, Virgin and Martyr ... 418 

Article XVII. — Festival of Saints Lucia and Geminianus, Martyrs ... 418 

Sebenteentt) Bag of September. 

Article I. — St. Grellan, Patron of Hy-Maine, Counties of Galway 
and Roscommon. [Fifth or .\txih Centuries.] 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Hy-Maine, its Boundaries and 
original Inhabitants — The Firbolgs — Maine 
Mor succeeds and gives name to the Territory 
— Afterwards occupied by the O'Kellys — 
Authorities for the Acts of St. Grellan — His 
Descent and Birth — Said to have been a 
Disciple of St. Patrick — A Great Miracle 
wrought by St. Grellan at Achadh Fionnabrach 419 
Chap. II.— A Tract of Land bestowed on St. Grellan by 
Duach Gallach, and afterwards known ar 
Craobh Greallain — War between the Firbolg.' 


and Maine Mor — St. Grellan settles at Kil- 
clooney — Destruction of the Firbolg Host — The 
I ly- Maine occupy their Territory, and bind them- 
selves to pay an annual Tribute to St. Grellan 
— Festival — His Crozier preserved by the 
O'Cronellys — Fortunes of the O'Kellys, or 
House of Hy-Maine — Conclusion ... 425 

Article II.— St. Roding or St. Rouin, Abbot of Beaulieu, France ... 431 

Article III. — St. Brogan Cloen, Abbot of Rostuirc, in Ossory. [Seventh 

Centu y] . ... .. ... 435 

Article IV. — St. Riagail, Patron of Tyrella Parish ... ... 440 

Article V. St. Earc, or Eric, Bishop of Donoghmore, of Magh Cobha, 

or of Maighe Damhairne, Counties of Down and Antrim ... 441 
Article VI.— St. Feme, Daughter of Cairell, Virgin and Martyr ... 442 

Article VII. — St. Cuimmen, Abbot of Bangor, County of Down. \&venth 

Century] ... ... ... ... 443 

Article VIII.— St. Coindere, of Cuil-liag ... ... 443 

Article IX. — Monachus ... ... • •• 444 

Article X. — St. Sanctin ... ... ... 444 

Article XI. — Anniversary of the Birth of St. Cornelius, Archbishop of 

Armagh ... ... ... 445 

Article XII.— Feast of the Translation of St. Fursey's Relics ... 445 

Article XIII. — St. Justin or Justus ... ... ... 446 

Article XIV.— St. Laureint ' ... ... ... 447 

Article XV.— St. Lambeirt ... ... ... 447 

Article XVI.— Reputed Festival of St. Pantaleon ... ... 447 

(fBigtjtcentt) ©ap. of .September. 

Akiicle I.— St. Endeus, Abbot of Emlaghfad, County of Sligo. [Sixth 

Century] ... ... ... ... 448 

Article II.— St. Fergna, Priest ... ... ... 448 

Article III. — St. Edain, of Droma Rath, most probably Drumrath, or 

Drumrany, County of Westmeath ... ... 449 

Amu i.e IV. — Feast of St. Richarde or Richardis, Empress and Virgin ... 450 

Article V. — St. Foendelach or Faoindelach ... ... 451 

Article VI. — St. Gema, Virgin of Riacc Innse ... ... 451 

Article VII.— St. Greallan Lainne ... ... ... 451 

Article VIII. — St. Maelcanaigh, of Rusgach, in the County of Louth ... 451 

Article IX. — St. Meno, a Deacon and Martyr ... ... 451 

Article X. — One Hundted and Seven Thousand ... ... 451 

Article XI. — Dedication of a Basilica ... ... ... 452 

Article XII.— Reputed Festival of Columban, Bishop ... ... 452 

Article XIII.- Reputed Feast of St. Ninian of Candida Casa ... 452 

\rii< i.e XIV. — Festival for Saints Piala and Hia, Virgins and Martyrs ... 452 

Article XV.— Festival of St. Eutroip or Eutropius ... ... 452 

Article XVI.— Feast of St. Meiteit or Medetus ... ... 452 

Article XVIT. -Festival of St. Methoit or Methodius ... ... 453 

jfrtneteenti) UBap of September. 

Article I. — St. Fionutain, Abbot, thought to have been the Son of 

Ainu Kimni.iaih. [Sixth Century] ... ... 453 

Article II.— Reputed Feast of St. Saran Mac Trenaich ... ... 454 

Article III.— St. Mac Oigi, Priest ... ... ... 455 

Article IV.— St. Fergus, Cruithnech, or the Pict 455 

Article V.— Reputed Feast of St. Faendalech ... ... 455 



Article VI. — St. Seachan ... ... ... 455 

Article VII.— St. Comgell or Caomhgheall, Virgin ... ... 455 

Article VIII. — St. Anci or Ainchi ... ... ... 456 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Sezin, Abbot in Amu ... 456 

Article X. — Reputed Feast of St. Kortila ... ... 456 

Articik XI — R< puled Festival ol a ( oliunban in Scotland ... 456 

Article XII.— St. Egbinus, a Levite ... ... ... 457 

Article XIII.— St. Zephanus ... ... ... 457 

Article XIV. — Feast of St. Januarius, Bishop of Beneventum and Martyr 457 

Article XV. — Achuit or Acutus ... ... ••• 45 8 

Article XVI.— St. Festus ... ... ••• 45 8 

Article XVII. — Procul or Proculus ... ... ••• 45 8 

Article XVIII.— Eutic ... ... ... 45 8 

Article XIX. — Felix and His Companions, Martyrs, at Nuceria, Italy ... 458 

Article XX. — St. Constaint or Constantia ... ... 459 

Article XXL— Pilip or Philippus ... ... ... 459 

&toentietf) JBag of .September. 

Article I. — St. Moghaidh, Priest ... ... "... 459 

Article II. — St. Aedhan, Son of Oissin ... ... 459 

Article III. — Festival of Doroma ... ... ... 460 

Article IV. — Privatus ... ... ... 460 

Article V. — Dionysius ... ... ... ... 460 

Article VI. — Fausta, Martyr ... ... ... 460 

Article VII. — Evilasius and Eulogius ... ... ... 461 

Article VIII. — Elevation of the Relics of St. Landalin ... ... 461 

Article IX. — Reputed Festival of St. Cuthbert, Bishop of Lindisfarne ... 461 

Article X. — Vigil of St. Matthew the Apostle ... ... 461 

CtonUp4irst JDap. of September. 

Article I. — St. Edilhun, Monk in Ireland. [Seventh Century] ... 461 

Article II. — St. Landelinus, Solitary and Martyr ... ... 462 

Article III. — St. Saran mac Tiagharnaigh of Lesan, on Mount Callan, and 

of Cluain da-acra in Cheachair ... ... 465 

Article IV. — Feast of St. Caidoc, Abbot of Lanncarvan, in Wales ... 465 

Article V. — St. Maninius, or Naninus, Confessor ... ... 465 

Article VI. — St. Pampil or Pamphilus, Martyr at Rome ... ... 466 

Article VII. — St. Alexander, Bishop and Martvr ... ... 466 

Article VIII. — St. Clemeint or Clemens ..." ... ... 466 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of Ciricc, or Cyricus ... ... 466 

Article X.— Claudus ... ... ... ... 467 

Article XI. — Laudus ... ... ... ... 467 

Article XII. — St. Matthew, Apostle ... ... ... 467 

Ctoent^seeonti jsag f September. 

Article I. — St. Colum, or Colomb Crag, Priest at Enach, County 

of Londonderry. [Sixth Cen'ury\ ... ... 468 

Article II. — St. Colman, Son of Cathbhadh, of Midhe-iseal ... 47° 

Article III. — St. Barrfhinn, said to have been a Son of Ernin ... 47° 

Article IV.— St. Aedh, or Aidus, Son of Senach ... ... 47 1 



Article V. — Martyrdom of St. Maurice and his Companions ... 471 

Article VI. — St. Hygbald, Abbot ... ... ... 472 

Article VII. — St. Lolan, Bishop and Confessor, of Kincardine, Scotland 473 
Article VIII. — The Sons of Krnin, of Imis-mac-n-Ernin, of Loch Ce, 

now Lough Key, County of Roscommon ... ... 474 

Article IX. — Festival of St. Ladelin, a Scot, Diocese of Fribourg ... 475 


fttoent^ttjirti $a]3 ot September. 

Article I. — St. Adamnan, ABBOT of Iona. [Seventh and Eighth Centuries. \ 

CHAP. I. — Introduction. — Writers of St. Adamnan's Acts 

— Changes of his Name — His Parentage and 

Descent — Place ol his Birth — Early Life 

spent in Ireland — Becomes a Monk at Iona 

— Occupations in that Capacity — Reign of 

Finnachta Fleadhach or the Festive over 

Ireland — Foundations attributed to Adamnan 

in Ireland — Adamnan elected Abbot of Iona — 

Alfrid's Exile in Ireland and subsequent Return 

to Northumbria — Invasion of Ireland by the 

Saxons — Adamnan at the Request of his 

Countrymen undertakes an Embassy to the 

Court of King Aldfrid — He procures the 

Release of the Captives ... ... 476 

Chap. II. — The Vision of Adamnan — His Sojourn in 
Ireland — Raphoe and its Church dedicated 
to the Patron Saint — The Shrine of Adamnan 
—Virtual and Accomplishments 01 the Saint — 
Bishop Arculf's Visit to Iona — Adamnan 
writes the Tract De Locis Sanctis — His Life 
of St. Columba — Adamnan's genuine Writings 
and those attributed to him ... 
Chap. III.— The Visit of Adamnan to Ireland during the 
Reign of Finnachta Fledach, and his Return to 
Iona — Again he re-visits Ireland — Remission 
of the Boromean Tribute — Adamnan's Temp- 
tations — Death of King Bruide, and Legend 
of his Resuscitation from Death by Adamnan 
— The Life of St. Columba written in Iona — 
Supposed Sojourn of our Saint inDerry — The 
great Synod at which Flann Febhla, Abbot 
of Armagh, presided, and at which Adamnan 
assisted — His disciplinary Recommendations 
to the Irish Clergy and Laity ... 504 

I map. IV. — Return of Adamnan to Iona — He again sails for 
Ireland in 696 or 697, and convenes a Mordail 
or general Convocation — The Synod at Tara 
and Promulgation of the Law of the Innocents 
with other Enactments — Return to Iona — 
Another Embassy to King Aldfrid's Court — 
Adamnan is there converted to the Adoption 
of the Roman Usages — He fails in his Effort 
to introduce them at Iona, but visits Ireland 
once more, where he succeeds — His reputed 
Connection with Mayo — His Return to Iona 
and Death — Festivals — Commemorations in 
Ireland and Scotland — St. Eunan's Catholic 
Cathedral in Letterkenny — Relics of Adamnan 
pre»^rve<l at Iona — Their Removal to Ireland 
— Return to Iona — Once more removed tn 
Ireland — Conclusion ... . . $\2 

Arthif. II. Si. Tonaing, or Oonnioh Mic Luachain ... ... 533 



Article III. — St. Comnat or Coirnnatain ... ... 534 

Article IV. — St. Saran ... ... ... ... 534 

Article V. — St. Teck, Virgin and Martyr ... ... ... 534 

Article VI.— Reputed Festival of St. Lolan, Scottish Bishop ... 535 

Article VII.— Reputed Festival of St. Hildulph ... ... 535 

Article VIII. — Reputed Festival of St. Kynnera or Canera, Virgin, at 

Inis Cathaigh ... ... ... 535 

Cfomip-fourijj -§an oi Sbtyhmbtx. 

Article I. — Saints Chunibaldus ur Cunialdus and Gislarius, 
Priests and Missionaries in Bavaria. {Seventh and Eighth 

Centuries} ... .. ... ... 536 

Article II. — St. Foelchu, of Finglas, County of Dublin ... .. 541 

Article III. — St. Ceallachan, of Clontibret, County of Monaghan ... 542 

ARTICLE IV.— The Daughters 01 Cainnceh, of Maghlocha, County i>l 

Tipperary. [Sixth. Century] ... ... ... 543 

Article V. — St. Cailcon or Caolchu, of Cluana Airthir or Lui-Airthir ... 544 

Article VI.— Festival of Felix ... ... ... 545 

Article VII. — Festival of Androchius ... ... ... 545 

Article VIII. — Festival of Thyrsus ... ... ... 545 

Article IX. — Festival of the Conception of St. John the Baptist ... 545 

Article X.— Feast of the Translation of St. Rupert's Relics ... 546 

Articlk XT. — Reputed Feast of St. Lolan ... ... ... 547 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast for Barrea, Bishop and Confessor ... 547 

Cfaenig -fifty $aij ai September. 

Article I. — St. Bairre or Finbar, First Bishop, and Patron of Cork. 
[Sixth and Seventh Centuries. \ 

Chap. I. -Introduction — Materials for the Acts of St. 
Bairre or Finbar — His Race and Birth- 
Miracles recorded — His early Instructors — 
His Acts while remaining in Leinster — His 
Return to Munster — Miracles while there— 
St. Finbar's Contemporaries — Said to have 
visited Rome ... ... 547 

Chap. II. — St. Bairre founds a School for Religious at 
Gougane Barra — Names of his Disciples, Men 
and Women — He is admonished by an Angel 
to leave for Cloyne — Afterwards he goes to 
Cork, where he establishes a famous School 
and Monastery — Names of his Cork Scholars 
— Period of his Episcopacy and See in that City 
— Legends regarding his Consecration as 
Bishop — Death and Burial of Bairre's Master 
Maccuirp — Origin of Cork Citv ... 558 

Chap. III.— Period of St. Finbarr's Sojourn at Cork- 
Death of his Master, Bishop Maccuirp, and 
his Burial there — Finbarr's Selection of a 
Spiritual Director — He visits Fiama at Desert- 
more to obtain Relics — Finbarr's Visit to 
Cloyne, where his Death takes place — His 
Interment at Cork — Ecclesiastical Traditions 
of the See — Calendar Celebrations of St. 
Finbarr's Feast — Memorials — Conclusion ... 570 

Article II. — St. Colman, of Comhruire, now Kilcomreragh, at Uisneach 

Hill, County of Westmeath. [Seventh Century] .... 585 


Article III.- Reputed St. Colman, Sci ... ... ... 586 

Article IV.— St. Iomchaidh, of Kill Drochoid, County of Down 586 

Article V. — St. Coelan or Caelan, of Echinis ... 586 

Article VI.— St. Ainmire, of Ross-na-Chonna, in Mughdhorna 587 

Article VII. — St. Sineall, of Pniim-Broan ... 5 8 7 

Article VIII. — St. Seanan or Senan, Bishop of Cork ... 587 

Article IX. — St. Modain or Modoe, in Ailbhe ... ... 588 

ARTICLE X. — Feast of Firmin or Firminus, First Bishop of Amiens, by some 

writers reputed an Irish Saint ... ... 588 

Article XL— St. Ruine ... ... 59 2 

Article XII.— Reputed Feast of St. Adamnan, Abbot of Iona ... 592 

Article XIII.— Cleophas ... ... ••• 59 2 

Article XIV.— St. Lupus ... ••• ••• 593 

Article XV.— St. Eusebius ... ... 593 

cTnuntn-SH-tb Bag of Sipfemfeer, 

Akime I. — St. Colman Eala, or Elo, Abbot of Lann Elo, now 
Lynally, King's County. [Sixth and Seventh Centuries.'] 
I 11 IP. I. — Introduction — Family arul Biuh of St. Colman Eala 
— Hi* Early Instruction imder St. Caeman of 
Sliabh Bloom — Miracles — Colman is said to 
have spent some Time at Connor — Confounded 
with St. Colm-in of Dromore ... ... 503 

t hat. II. — Return of St. Colman Eala to his ancestral Pro- 
vince — His Visits to St.Columbainlona — Escape;- 
the Dangers of Courebrecain Whirlpool — Con- 
vention at which St. Colman obtains a Grant 
of Land to found his Monastery and Church 
at Lynally — Record of various Miracles — Fore- 
knowledge of his Death — His Visit to Clonard 
in Anticipation of it — His Return to Lynally 
and Departure from Life — St. Colman Eala's 
Commemoration and Memorials — Conclusion 598 
Article II.— St. Colman, of Ros Branduibh ... ... 607 

Article III.— Feast of St. Natalis, at Kinnawley ... ... 607 

Article IV. — St. Justina, Martyr, near Nicomedia, in Bithynia ... 607 

Article V. — St. Cyprian, Bishop and Martyr, near Nicomedia, in Bithinia 608 
Article VI.— St. Faustinus, Martyr ... ... 608 

Article VII.— Eusebius ... ... ... ... 608 

AlTICLI VIII. —Translation of the Relics of St. David, Patron of Wales 608 
Article IX.— Translation of the Relics of St. Virgilius, Bishop of Saltzbmg 609 
Article X. — Reputed Anniversary of the Death of St. Raban Maur ... 6oq 

Jtoentij-sebentl) Dap, of September. 

Article I. — St. Lupait or Lupita, also thought to have 
Liamain or Liemania, Sister of St. Patrick. 

Article II. — St. Fionntain, or Fintan 

Article III. — St. Columm or Columban ... 

AlTICLI TV. — St. Suibni, or Suibhne 

Article V. — St. Finnen or Finnian, Bishop 

AlTICLI VI. — St. Finnanie Mac Coppain ... 

Article VII.— Festival for the Translation of St. Gibrian'i Relics 

AlTICLI VIII.— St. Ernin Ua Briuin 

Article IX. — Si. Orannus or Oranus, Bishop 


[ Fifth 











Article X. — Reputed Feast of Marcellus, Scottish 

Balbulus, St. Gall, Switzerland 
Article XL — Festival of St. Barry, in Scotland 

Tutor of Notker 

Article XII. — Festival of 
Article XIII. — Leoint or 
Article XIV.— Antim or 
Article XV. — Adulf 
Article XVI.— Petar 
Article XVII.— Eupreip 

Saints Cosmas and Damian 





Article I. — St. Sinach Mac Dara, of Inis Cruach Mac Dara County 

of Galway ... ... ... 621 

Article II. — Feast of St. Fursey ... ... ... 624 

Article III. — St. Fiachrach or Fiachra, Bishop of Cuil Eachtrann, now 

Culfeightrin Parish, County of Antrim ... ... 628 

ARTICLE IV. — St. Diarmait, Bishop of Cluain, Finn-Aighne ... 629 

Article V. — The Two Findias and Lobhar ... ... 629 

Article VI. — Reputed Feast for St. Junill or Junaill, Infirmus ... 630 

Article VII. — St. Dairi, a Holy Widow ... ... 630 

Article VIII. — St. Machan, Bishop and Confessor ... ... 630 

Article IX. — Festival of St. Conval ... ... ... 63 x 

Article X. — Faust or Faustus ... ... ... 631 

Article XI. — Ianair or Januarius ... ... ... 632 

Article XII. — Martial or Martialis ... ... ... 632 

Article XIII.— Exuperius ... ... ... 632 

Article XIV.— Solon ... ... ... 633 

Article XV.— Reputed Feast of a Marcellus ... ... 633 

Article XVT.-Zaeheus ... ... ... 633 

Article XVII.— Reputed Feast of St. Gilda ... ... 633 

Article XVITT.— Translation of St. Dvsibod's Relics ... ... 633 

Ctomtg-nintfr §ap of jJcpfemlxer. 

Article I. — St. Murghal, Abbot of Rathlin, County of Antrim. 

[Eio/ifh Century} 
Article II. — St. Oolumba, or Columm 
Article III. — St. Ciaran, Son of Iar, Bishop 
Article IV.— St. Nessan, of Uladh 
Article V. — St. Sedrach, Bishop 
Article VI. — St. Caiman 
Article VII.— St. Comgill or Comghall 
Article VIII.— Feast of St. Michael the Archangel 
Article IX.— Eutic or Eutvchius 
Article X. — Reputed Feast for St. Barr 

Article XI.— Feast of Goganus, Abbot ... "... 

Article XII.— Festival of St. Disibod 
Article XIII.— Reputed Feast for St. Firminns, Bishop of Amiens 


@t!rtrfot(r gag erf S*ptemfor. 

Article I.— St. Mochonna, of Cluain Airdne. [Seventh and Eighth 

Article II.— Reputed Feast of a St. Conna 



Article III. — St. Brigid, of Cluainfidhe, or perhaps of Kilbreedy, Queen's 

County ... ••• ••• 640 

Article IV.— St. Mobi, Nun, of Domhnach Broc, Donnybrook, County of 

Dublin ... ... •• 642 

Article V.— St. Ainner or Airinne. the Pious, of Breachmhagh ... 643 

Article VI.— St. Faolan, of Rath-aine, in Dal Araidhe 644 

Article VII.— St. Faelan ... 644 

Article VIII.— St. Daighre, of Cluain Accair, in Ardgail ... ... 644 

Article IX. — St. Lassar, Daughter of Lochain ... 645 

Article X.— St. Lugaid or Lughaidh, of Airther-Acbadh ... ... 645 

Article XI. — St. Laeghaire, Bishop of Lough Conn, County of Mayo ... 645 

Article XII.— St. Corcan, the Pilgrim, Bishop ... ... 645 

Article XIII.— Reputed Feast of Ailithir, a Bishop ... ... 645 

Article XIV. — St. Comesd or Coimsigh, Priest, of Domhnach Airis ... 646 

Article XV.— St. Coininn, Virgin ... ... ... 646 

Article XVI.— St. Rodan or Rotan ... ... ... 646 

Article XVII. — St. Broncein or Bronchan, of Lethet corcraidhe ... 646 

Article XVIII.— St. Bresal, of Derthaig ... ... ... 646 

Article XIX. — St. Seanan, or Senan ... ... ... 647 

Article XX.— St. Creber ... ... 647 

Article XXI. — St. Colman, of Cluain-tioprat, now Clontibret, County of 

Monaghan ... ... ... 647 

Article XXII. — Reputed Festival for St. Machanus ... ... 647 

Article XXIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Coganus Abbot ... ... 648 

Article XXIV.— Reputed Feast of St. Malchus, Bishop of Sodor, Scotland 648 

Article XXV. — St Victor «>f the Tbeban Leeion. Martyr ... ... 64S 

Article XXVI. — Ursus, of the Theban Legion, Martyr ... ... 648 

Article XXVII. — St. Jerome, Priest at Bethlehem, and Doctor of the 

Church ... ... 64* 


Carbray, Felix, Esq., Portuguese Consulate 
Quebec, Canada. 

Chadwick. J"hn, Esq., Jun., 18 Patrick- 
street, Kilkenny. 

Begley, Rev. John, C.C., Tournafulla, New 

Library of the Monastery, Pantasaph, Holy 

Well, North Wales. 
McKeefy, Rev. Joseph, C.C., Waterside, 

O'Boylan, Very Rev. B. M., Catholic 

castle West, Countv Limerick. Rector, Newark, State of Ohio, U.S.A. 

Doherty, Rev. William, C.C , St. Coluroba's 

Presbytery, Derry. 
Gibney, Most Rev. Matthew. D.D., Bishop 

of Perth, Western Australia. 
Gilbert, Henry March, Esq., 26 Above Bar, 

O'Reilly, Patrick J., Esq., 7 North Earl- 
s' reet, Dublin. 

Ormond, Rev. William, C.C, Grange 
Mockler, Callan, County Kilkenny. 

Robh, Mrs. Alice G., Sauaymount, Ough- 

Southampton, England. (Two Copies.) terard, County Galway 


flr The Binder will please prefix the Frontispiece and Title Page, contained in Part 90. 
and first of Vol. IX. to the present Table of Contents, which, in order of binding, should 
precede the various Parts to 99, which Part closes the present Volume. 


jftrst IBajj of September. 






NOTHING afforded the saints more pleasure and happiness than to 
understand the will of God in their regard. Only to learn what was 
required of them was sufficient to engage all their desires. The prompting 
of duty became the rule which governed their lives. It mattered not how 
great was the sacrifice demanded, or how continuous the exertion ; all labours 
were lightened by that complacency taken in their performance, and by the 
testimony of a good conscience, which guided their motives. Such ready 
submission to the Divine will was the secret of their strength, and it pro- 
cured that love of things heavenly, which served to lessen their love for 
worldly objects. Men willingly perform those actions, which but accord 
with their tastes and enjoyments. These latter are too frequently depraved 
and sinful ; hence it happens, that in following the bent of evil inclinations, 
folly and vice will bring many to the depths of infamy and misery. But, the 
holy ones of God have learned to control evil desires, and to practise good 
works ; thus, virtue grew into a habit, while their consciences, sensitive and 
responding only to the calls of grace, formed those holy resolutions, which 
exalt and crown the supernatural life. Moreover, as in their respective spheres 
of duty, they were only solicitous to learn and fulfil their various avocations 
in the service of their Divine Master; so were they solely devoted to Him, 
seeking in their pilgrimage here the Kingdom of Heaven as their reward, and 
disregarding in comparison with it as mere illusions the passing comforts 
and ambitions of those who are bent on procuring earthly enjoyments. 

The principle on which the present work has been compiled only restricts 
the writer to include the lives of saints, connected with Ireland by birth, 
missionary career, or death, with occasionally the introduction of some Celtic 

Vol. IX.— No. i. a 


forms of name, and more especially confined to Scotland or Wales, while 
owing to want of record it seems doubtful if they be not of Irish birth, as 
undoubtedly they were of Irish parentage or descent. In the present 
instance, however, it seems allowable to enter an exception, in the case of 
St. iEgidius — better known in the British Islands as St. Giles — because he 
is not only specially commemorated in our national Calendars, but because 
he was likewise specially venerated in Ireland, as in other countries on the 
Continent of Europe. The life and actions of the present saint have been 
greatly confused by an old writer of his Acts, and as there was an earlier 
abbot, bearing the same name, and who lived near the city of Aries in the 
sixth century, the memorials collected for his biography introduced matters 
referable to both holy men. 1 

Our St. ^Egidius is said to have flourished in the south of France, 
according to some, at a time when St. Caesarius was bishop over the See of 
Aries. 3 This, however, is a mistake, and he is not to be confounded with 
/Egidius, an abbot near that city, and who had been sent to Rome with 
Messianus,3 in 514, to Pope Symmachus.* The circumstances of time and 
place are sufficient to disprove any such supposition.* The present St. 
Giles, a Greek by birth, lived only in the seventh, and in the beginning of 
the eighth, century. 6 

The praises of St. Egidius have been sung by St. Fulbert of Chartres, 
in an office, which he composed to honour that holy Abbot.? Franciscus 
Haraeus, 8 Petrus de Natalibus, and Florarius, have accounts of ^Egidius, 
taken chiefly from his ancient incorrect Acts, to which they have added 
errors of their own, according to the statement of Father John Stilting. An 
anonymous Life of this saint has been published in the " Acta Sanctorum "9 
of the Bollandists. Again, at the present date, they have given another 
Life of this holy man in three chapters, 10 with notes appended and a 
Preface." This latter Life has been edited by Father John Stilting. How- 
ever, besides the evident anachronism of confounding him with an Egidius, 

Article 1.— ' See Mabillon's "Annales 
Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus i., lib. iv., 
sect, xxvii., pp. 99, 100. 

a The old writer of St. Giles' acts makes 
him a contemporary with St. Caesarius, who 
died a.o. 542, and with Charles Martel, 
King of France, who died A.D. 751 ; this 
shows how inaccurate such record is, at 
least in its earlier statements. 

1 Secretary to St. Caesarius. This bishop 
desired to obtain a confirmation of the 
privileges of the metropolitical church of 
Aries, as a result of their embassy. See 
Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the Fathers, 
Martyrs and other principal Saints," vol. 
ix., September i. 

4 He ruled over the Church, from a.d. 
498 to A.D. 514. 

5 He lived at Aries but for a short time, 
so that he probably knew little concerning 
the statutes of that church, or may not have 
been well versed in the Latin language, nor 
as a stranger likely to have been selected as 
an envoy to Rome by St. Caesarius. More- 
over, his love of solitude, and the fact that 
as abbot afterwards, he was a resident of 
the diocese of Nimes, rather than that of 

Aries, show that an earlier /Egidius had 
been charged with such a mission. 

6 Yet owing to the confusion of statements 
made, some writers have not hesitated to 
style our saint Abbot of Aries. 

7 Mabillon adds, "sed nullo pcene relato 
historico facto, nisi quod eum Graicum 
fuisse, et in Galliam accessisse dicit." — 
Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti, tomus i., 
lib. iv., sect, xxvii., p. 100. 

8 See " Vitae Sanctorum ex probatissimis 
Authoribus, et potissimum ex Rmo. D. 
Aloysio Lipomano et R. P. Laur. Sin io, 
brevi compendio summa fide collectae," p. 


9 See tomus i., Junii, pp. 284 to 304. 

10 Containing 25 paragraphs and a previous 
commentary in six sections and 65 para- 
graphs. See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Septembris i. De Sanclo <Egidio Abbate 
in Fano S. ^Egidii Occitaniae, pp. 284 to 304. 

11 This Preface is contained in four 
different copies of our saint's Acts, but in 
other copies it is omitted. However, from 
the words, " Sanctus igitur /Egidius," with 
which the Life opens, we may infer, that 
it belonged to the original composition. 


who lived contemporaneously with St. Caesarius, Bishop of Aries, there are 
other objections to its entire accuracy of statement. 12 

The Acts or notices of St. Egidius or St. Giles have been published by 
Andrew Sausay, J 3 by Joannes Trithemius, 1 * by Mabillon/s by the Maurist 
Fathers, 16 in the " Histoire Generale de Languedoc, 1 ? by Rev. Alban Butler, 18 
by Rev. S. Baring-Gould, *' and by Les Petits Bollandistes. 20 

St. Egidius is supposed to have been of Greek origin, and born, about 
the year 640, of noble parents, who lived at Athens. 21 His father was named 
Theodore, and his mother was Pelagia. Distinguished for innocence and 
holiness of life from his early years, he well profited by the example and 
advice of pious parents. He at length resolved to leave his native country, 
that he might more securely and religiously live in solitude. Already, he 
had been placed under the charge of the most illustrious teachers of his 
period and nation ; 22 while he soon manifested those great natural scintilla- 
tions of intellect by the progress he made in humanities. However, he pre- 
ferred the study of sacred literature, and it served still more to foster in his 
soul the love of God, and to cause his estrangement from earthly ambition 
and worldly pleasures. 

When Egidius had attained the twenty-fourth year, his father first died, 
and soon afterwards his mother. The pious young man was most sensibly 
afflicted at this double privation ; but he resolved to make account of it, by 
reflecting on the transitory nature of all earthly things. Falling on his knees, 
he invoked the Supreme Consoler, and asked for light and grace to conduct 
him on the path to Heaven. Nor was he long left in ignorance of a course 
to take, for he had resolved on making generous sacrifices, which were 
destined to gain for him the eternal crown. His charity towards the poor 
was remarkable. One day, while going to the church to practise his cus- 
tomary devotions, he met a poor man who was ill and miserably clad. Asking 
alms from the pious young man, the latter took off his own outer garment, 
which was even necessary for the preservation of his health. 

Soon, Egidius became distinguished for the gift of miracles. When 
leaving the church, on a certain occasion, seeing a person who had been 
bitten by a serpent, and whose wound was of a deadly nature, the interven- 
tion of our saint procured his recovery. Another time, while in the church, 
a possessed man disturbed the congregation by his cries and howlings. 
However, Egidius expelled the demon from the body of that unhappy 

12 This appears to have come under the tines de la Congregation deS. Maur. Tome 
notice of Mabillon, with two other Lives, i., liv. v., pp. 257, 258, and note lxv., pp. 
and they are characterised by him as faulty. 666, 667. A Paris, 1730 to 1745, fol. 

See " Acta Sanctorum Ordinis S. Benedicti," lS See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and 

tomus i. in Catalogo Prsetermissorum. other principal Saints," vol. ix., Sept. i. 

13 In his " Martyrologium Gallicanum," I9 See "Lives of the Saints," vol. ix., 
at the 1st of September. September i., pp. 8 to 10. 

14 See "De Viris Illustribus Ordinis S. 20 "Les Vies des Saints," tome x., premier 
Benedicti," lib. it,- cap. xxii., lib. iii., cap. jour de Septembre, pp. 401 to 406. 

clxii. 2I The present account of our saint is 

15 See " Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," drawn chiefly from the Vita auctore anonymo, 
tomus i., lib. iv., sect, xxvii., pp. 99, 100. as published by the Bollandists. The time 
Also, in the " Acta Sanctorum Ordinis S. when he lived has not been determined, but 
Benedicti," s<ec. iii., in Prolegomena. it is thought to have been written before the 

16 In " Histoire Literaire de la France," ninth or tenth century. 

tome iii., pp. 243, 244. 22 One of the Manuscript Codices of the 

■7 Avec des Notes et les Pieces justifica- Life of St. ^Egidius by the anonymous 

tives, &c„ par. Fr. Claude de Vic, et Fr. author has " Spiritus sancti gratia perlus- 

Joseph Vaissete, c deux Religieux Benedic- tratus ;" another reads, " prse scientiargratia 


creature. 23 His reputation for sanctity then spread abroad through his own 
country, and turned the regards of all its inhabitants towards him. This 
approval alarmed his humility, nor could he bear to remain longer in his 
native land. Having sold all his effects, and distributed the proceeds among 
the poor, he went on board a vessel bound for the Western parts of Europe. 
During that voyage, a great tempest arose, and to the terror of all on board, 
their ship was likely to be submerged, when Egidius prayed for deliverance 
from shipwreck. Immediately the storm was appeased. Then his fellow- 
passengers were profuse in their protestations of gratitude, and rendered him 
unbounded thanks for their deliverance. Yet, fearful of having his praises 
further proclaimed, Egidius asked to be disembarked on the first island, 
where they might anchor, nor could his request be refused. 

Having landed on its shores, 2 * one of the first objects noticed was the 
track of a man's feet in the sand. Resolving to pursue this track farther, 
the print of footsteps led him to a small grotto. This was hidden among a 
thick jungle of thorns, and in a very lonely place. There he found a vener- 
able old man, who for twelve years passed a solitary life in that wilderness, 
where he lived only on herbs and roots. Casting himself at the hermit's 
feet, Egidius besought his benediction. For three days he remained there, 
united in prayer and fasting with the recluse. The youthful pilgrim thought 
he had then discovered a spot conformable to the design he had entertained of 
separating himself entirely from the world. 

As the island was not very remote from his native country, 2 * the idea ot 
Egidius was, that his retreat might be discovered by some of the surviving 
members of his family, who would be likely to press for his return. 
Accordingly, he again sought a vessel, which might bear him away to a more 
distant country. 

After a voyage, which lasted for some days, he arrived at the port of 
Marseilles, 26 anciently called Massilia, a city situated at the mouths of the 
River Rhone. It is at present the most important seaport in France, with 
a large and constantly increasing population. It is also a city of great 
antiquity. 2 ? According to French historians, 28 a colony from Phoccea, on the 
Ionian coast, had settled at a very early period in the southland the founda- 
tion of Marseilles by the Phocceans 3° dates back to the Forty- fifth 

perlustrans ; while the text published by 2 ? Herodotus is the earliest historian, that 

ilandists runs: " Pnedictus vero gives an account of its settlement by the 

iEpdius xvo tener ad liberalia rudimenta Greeks. 

dispositus.doctoressumniosSpiritusscientioe a8 See L. P. Anquetil's " Histoire de 

fratia perlustratus brevi aequiparavit." France," sect, ii., p. 4. 
'ather Stilting had six different copies of «9 Rather than submit to Cyrus, King of 
that Life to collate, and these contained Persia, the Phocoeans left their native 
various verbal changes. country, Asia Minor, with their wives and 
'i See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des children, and sought for liberty on the 
Saints, tome x., premier jour de Septem- barbarous coasts of Gaul. To this emigra- 
te, Saint Gilles, &c, p. 401. tion allusion is made by Horace : 
3 * According to Father Stilting, this mail « Phocceorum 
have happened ftboot a.d. 665 or 666. Velut profuget execrata civitas, 

■ b\y one of that group of Agros atque lares patrios, habitandaque 

Is, known as the Cyclades, in the rura 

Gr l ci ™ A'cMpe!- 1 Apris reliquit et rapacibus lupis : 

lne accompanying engraving of the Ire pedes quocunque ferent, quocun- 

former old Port of Marseilles, copied from que per undas 

an approved engraving, and represent- Notus vocabit, aut protervus Africus." 

ing its present state, has been transferred *> Herodotus gives an account of their 

to the wood and engraved by Mr. Gregor spirit of freedom, and of their prowess in 

° rey ' navigation, in his history, book i. 


Olympiad, 31 or the year 599, before the birth of Christ.3 3 It is likely enough 
their descendants had been there, and had received through their ancestors 
the Grecian learning and culture, 33 which survived to the time when Egidius 

Old Port of Marseilles, France, 
landed on the Gaulish coast. The distinction of Marseilles 34 was maintained 
during the time of the Roman Republic, 35 and it was continued during the 
middle ages, as head of an independent State. 36 

At first, Egidius chose a place for retreat, near the mouth of the Rhone. 3 ? 
There he made every effort possible to conceal his spiritual gifts, but it was 
the Almighty's design, that the virtues of his servant should be discovered. 
Thence as a pilgrim begging his way, Egidius proceeded to Aries, 38 then the 

31 According to the historian, Solinus. In 
the first instance the Phocceans took refuge 
in the Island of Cymus — so called by Pliny, 
lib. hi., 12. — now Corsica. However, the 
ruin of Phoccea took place about twenty 
years before the foundation of Marseilles. 

32 The settlers were favourably received 
by the inhabitants in that part of Gaul, while 
their colony soon increased and prospered. 
They became great proficients in commerce 
and navigation. 

33 In his oration for Flaccus, Cicero 
declares that Greece alone could compete 
with Marseilles as a seat of learning. Taci- 
tus likewise calls her " magistram studio- 

34 The Romans sought and esteemed the 
Massilians as allies. 

3 5 The Massilians wished to remain neutral 
in the wars between Caesar and Pompey. 
However, they finally sided with the latter. 
Afterwards, Massilia was besieged, reduced 
to great distress, and taken by the former. 

Csesar records, that he preserved it, "magis 
pro nomine et vetustate quam pro mentis 
in se." 

36 She elected her own magistrates, and 
formed alliances with other states. Alone 
she furnished all the galleys required by St. 
Louis, to transport his army to Palestine. 
See Jean Sire de Joinville's " Histoire de 
Saint Louis," &c, par M. Natalis de 
Wailly, Membre de PInstitut, chap, xxvii., 
xxviii., pp. 68 to 71. Paris, seconde 
edition, 1874, Imp. 8vo. 

3 ? Fr. Claude de Vic and Fr. Joseph 
Vaissete place the coming of St. Gilles into 
France at A.D. 514, in their " Histoire 
Generale de Languedoc," tome i., liv. v., 
p. 257. His coming there, however, was 
more than a century later. 

38 Aries is one of the most ancient cities of 
France, and Ausonius calls it the Rome of 
Gaul, " Gallula Roma Arelas." It was for- 
merly the residence of a Roman Prefect. It 
is rich in ancient remains of the Roman 


metropolis of southern Gaul, and a city of great celebrity. He sought to 
live a retired life, but the fame of his virtues spread abroad, and such was 
the impression it made on the minds of men, that a person, who had long 
suffered from a fever, recommended himself to the fervent prayers of the 
servant of God, and recovered his health. 39 This miracle greatly increased 
his popularity, and that whole neighbourhood became anxious to learn his 
name and that of the country from which he came, so that due honour should 
be paid him in the land of his adoption. But, these demonstrations of affec- 
tion and respect only alarmed his humility the more ; and to avoid human 
applause, he again resolved on seeking a place more suitable for perfect 
retirement. 40 Afterwards, he crossed the Rhone, and sought a desert near the 

Old Roman Bridge near Nimes. 

River Gardon, 4 ' now known as the Gard, where steep rocks arose, and in a 
place little resorted to by men. One of the most remarkable specimens of 
Roman grandeur extant is the Pont du Gard, 42 about twelve miles distant from 



period. After the fall of the Roman Empire, 
a.i>., 876, it became the capital of the 
Kingdom of Aries, or of Trans-Jurane Bur- 
undy. See Murray's M Hand-book for 
Travellers in France," sect, vi., Route 127, 
pp. 51610523. 

39 Probably relying on the authority of his 
life, by the anonymous author, or from some 
other sources, St. ,Kgidius is stated, to have 
spent this period of his career in Aries, while 
St. CWMHUI had been its Bishop. Such 
are the statements by Vicentius Bellova- 
censis, Petrus de Natalibus, John of Tritten- 

nd other celebrated writers. Father 
Stilting proves the falsity of such supposition. 

40 TheMaurists, in "Histoirc Literaire de 

ce," state: " Ce qu'il y a de plus 
certain, e'est qu'il passa quelque temps sous 
la discipline de Saint Cesaire, qui le deputa 

a Rome en 514 avec Messien. — Tome hi., 
p. 244. This, however, is a mistake, our 
saint having been confounded with a l'Abbe 
Gilles, who lived a century previous to his time. 

41 In some instances, Latin writers have 
styled it Vardum or Wardum. 

42 It consists of three tiers of arches : the 
lowest of six arches supporting eleven of 
equal span in the central tier, surmounted 
by thirty- five of smaller size in the upper 
ranges. The whole is in a simple style of 
architecture, but especially wonderful for the 
enormous blocks of stone and skill employed 
in its construction. It was formerly used as 
an aqueduct for conveying water to Nimes, 
and the highest range of arches still carries a 
covered canal, about five feet high, and two 
feet wide, yet retaining a coating of Roman 
cement. See Murray's " Handbook for 


Nimes. The River Gardon, or Gard, gives name to a modern French 
Department on the right bank of the Rhone, and it runs through the central 
part of that districts 

There lived in that region a holy solitary, named Ferodemos, or Vere- 
demus, 44 a Greek like himself, and who, inspired by a pious motive of like 
sort, had quitted his native country, to seek repose in a strange land. In this 
place, he had formed a hermitage in a cave, the entrance to which was closed 
from observation by brambles and thickets. Nor was St. Giles — as he was 
afterwards called — long in that quarter, until Divine Providence brought him 
into the presence of the pious solitary ; and great indeed were their transports 
of joy to find, that not only were they fellow-countrymen, speaking the same 
noble language, but having their souls inflamed with like devout sentiments, 
and filled with the love of God. 4 * Soon they became mutual and ardent 
admirers of each other's virtues, and their hearts were united by an indissoluble 

For two years they remained together \ still, Egidius longed for that per- 
fect abstraction, which held possession of his soul, as so many of the neigh- 
bouring people, led through pious motives, came to visit them. At length 
he ventured to open his mind to Ferodemos,* 6 by stating, that the crowd of 
people, who flocked thither was a cause of great disquiet to him, and that 
often he had desired to seek greater solitude. " Then," replied Ferodemos, 
" let us invoke the Divine Spirit together, and hesitate not to follow His 

Travellers in France," sect, vi., Route 126, 
p. 507. The annexed illustration, from an 
approved view, was drawn on the wood and 
engraved by Mr. Gregor Grey. 

43 For a description of its features, history, 
and resources, the reader is referred to 
Elisee Reclus' "Nouvelle Geographie Uni- 
verselle," tome ii., liv. ii., chap, iii., sect, 
vi., pp. 285 to 293. 

44 Writers have been divided in opinion 
regarding his identity. Some think there 
were two, bearing the same name, but dis- 
tinct persons : one who, from having been 
an eremite, became Bishop of Avignon ; and 
the other, an eremite, who lived in the 
country, known as Uzeta, in Languedoc. 
Others maintain that the latter had been pro- 
moted to the See of Avignon, and that he was 
identical with the former. See Benedictus 
Gononus, in "Vitee Patrum Occidentis," lib. 
iii. At p. 160, and subsequently, he gives the 
Life of Veredemus, Bishop of Avignon, taken 
partly from archives of that church, and partly 
from Raulin, a learned monk of Cluny. 

45 The church of Usez has placed Vere- 
deme in the Catalogue of its saints. See 
"Histoire Generate de Languedoc," tome i., 
liv. v., p. 257. 

46 Cointe contends, that there were two 
distinct persons, named Ferodemos or Vere- 
demus ; and he thinks, that the one, who 
lived with St. /Egidius in the desert, was the 
hermit venerated in the church of Uzeta, or 
Uzes. The chief reason assigned for this 
opinion is a supposition, that as /Egidius 
lived contemporaneously with St. Coesarius, 
Bishop of Aries, he must have flourished 

nearly two centuries before the time of Vere- 
demus, Bishop of Avignon. See "Annates 
Francorum," ad Annum 531, num. xi. The 
Bollandist writers have treated on this sub- 
ject, at the 23rd of August, where Pinius 
seems to favour Cointe's opinion as probable. 
However, Father Stilting holds the contrary 
one, and with good reason ; although, as 
Gononus states, in the Breviary of Uzeta 
church, there is a festival for Veredemus, 
the hermit, Confessor, and not Pontiff, on 
the 23rd of August, and his body is said to 
rest there, while there is a feast for Vere- 
demus, Bishop of Avignon, at the 17th of 
June. Now, the hermit, Veredemus, lived 
in the village of Uzeta, and he was after- 
wards bishop, according to Gononus, and the 
diocese of Uzes extends from the Gard to the 
Rhone. The other objection of one Vere- 
demus being venerated as Pontifex^ and the 
other as non Ponlifex, is thought to arise from 
the circumstance, that Veredemus having 
lived at Uzes as a hermit, so only in that 
capacity had he been regarded as non Ponli- 
fex, while the difference of festival may be 
assigned to some special cause. Moreover, 
Claude Castellan, writing to the Bollandists, 
states, at the 23rd of August, that although 
there are two distinct festivals, yet Dom 
Sanguin, a Canon of Avignon, believed them 
to refer only to the same saint, and that some 
of his relics had been preserved in the church 
at Uzes. See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Septembris i. De Sancto /Egidio Abbate in 
Fano S. /Egidii Occitanix. Commentary's 
proevius, sect, vi., num. 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 
pp. 297, 298. 


inspired counsels, however distressing they may prove for our mutual affection. " 
Accordingly the advice was followed, and having ascertained the Divine Will 
in their regard, they gave each other the kiss of peace, and thus separated. 4 ? 
Afterwards, Egidius treaded his difficult journey through devious bye-paths, 
and at the close of a long day's march, he came to the borders of a deep and 
thick forest. He rested for the morning's light, and then entered it, forcing 
his way through gigantic trees, and tangled brakes, quite pleased to think this 
must afford a safe retirement from all worldly intrusion. At length he found 
a cave, which was shaded by four enormous oak-trees, and near it flowed a 
rivulet of pure water, which disappeared under a verdant covering. This 
stream is still traditionally shown between the city of St. Gilles and the wood 
of Ribasse. 

The holy hermit desired to be entirely disengaged from all earthly con- 
cerns, so that he might devote himself altogether to religious contemplation. t 8 
Thus was his soul perfectly purified, so that with ardent desires and constancy 
of purpose his thoughts were ever fixed on heavenly things. In fine, St. Giles 
took up his abode in that forest within the Diocese of Nismes,49 and there he 
resolved on that contemplative and penitential course of life he had practised 
with Ferodemos. The wild roots and herbs of the forest furnished his sole 
support, and the stream served to appease his thirst. A hind of the forest 
gave him milk, and shared his caresses with gentleness, whenever she saw him 
rise from his devotions. That innocent animal excited the more his gratitude 
towards the Almighty, who rewards His servants with unexpected and extra- 
ordinary succours. 

It is said, that in the country about Nimes, the local deity, adored by the 
native Celts, Iberiens or Ligures, was named Namaous, Nemausos, or 
Nemausus. To him the Greeks, and afterwards the Romans, erected altars, 
some of which still remain. 5 ° Nimes is supposed to have been built by a 
Greek colony ; and afterwards, for about 500 years, it was in possession of 
the Romans. 51 After Marseilles and Toulon, Nimes is still the largest city 
of southern France adjoining the Mediterranean Sea; 52 but, it has the dis- 
advantage of being separated from any water-course. 53 With the falling 
fortunes of the Roman Empire, the Goths 54 extended their incursions to 

47 According to Father Stilting, this event tions Lexicon," vol. v., p. 237. 

took place about A.D. 670 or 671. SJ The Maison Carrce, now converted into 

48 The Religious Benedictines of the Con- a Museum, the old Roman Amphitheatre, 
gregation of St. Maur state " l'amour de la the Temple of Diana, and other antiquities 
solitude le portat a se retirer pres du Rhone of Nismes, have been pleasingly described in 
auK extremites de Diocese de Nimes." — the Countess of Blessington's "Idler in 
" Histoire Literaire de la France," tome iii., France," vol. i., chap, i., pp. I to 25. Lon- 
p. 244. don, 1 84 1, 8vo. 

4 » The Latin name, Nemausum or Nemau- s3 See Elisee Reclus' " Nouvelle Geogra- 

sus, was applied to the present ancient city phie Universelle," tome ii., liv. ii., chap. 

of Xismes, the head of that See, by Strabo, iii., sect, vi., p. 288. 

Pomponius Mela, and Ptolemy. See Bau- 54 They were first kown to the Romans 

drand's •• Novum Lexicon Geographicum," under this name, about the commencement 

tomus i., p. 515. of the third century. In a.d. 249 and 250, 

s See Menard's " Histoire des Antiquities they ravaged Thrace, and took Philippopolis ; 

de Nimes," Em. Desjardins, Notes Manu- A.D. 255, 256, they invaded Illyricum ; A.D. 

scrites, 8vo, 1822. 259, they penetrated into Bithynia ; A.D. 

51 Next to Rome, Nimes and its vicinity 262, they entered Thrace, and devastated 

contain the most remarkable and greatest Macedonia ; A.D. 267, they ravaged Asia, 

number of Roman antiquities. Very fine After various wars with the Romans, under 

Mosaics have been found there, besides their famous King, Alaric, elected A.D. 382, 

numerous fragments of ancient buildings, Greece was plundered A.D. 395, 396, and 

with Greek and Roman inscriptions. See Alaric entered Italy A.D. 402; but he was 

the " Popular Encyclopedia ; or Conversa- defeated in the battle of Pollentia, fought 


Gaul,55 and over-ran that country, under Adolphus, the brother-in-law of 
Alaric, in the beginning of the fifth century. His troops occupied the cities 
of Narbonne, Toulouse and Bordeaux, with the whole country surrounding 
them.s 6 The successors of Alaric fixed their royal residence at Toulouse ; 
and the Gothic limits contained the territories of seven cities, namely, 
Bordeaux, Perigueux, Angouleme, Agen, Saintes, Poitiers and Toulouse. 
Hence, their Kingdom is said to have obtained the name of Septimania.57 
The Goths then in possession were generally professors of Arianism, and an 
edict of the Emperor Honorius appointed an annual assembly for the seven 
Provinces at Aries, to consist of the Praetorian prefect of the Gauls, of seven 
provincial governors, one consular and six presidents, of the magistrates, and 
perhaps the bishops of about sixty cities; as also of a competent, although 
an indefinite, number of the most opulent possessors of land, who might 
justly be considered as representatives of their country.s 8 This order pre- 
vailed, until the Franks, 5 9 having made incursions from Germany into Gaul 
so early as the fourth century, established their domination over Roman Gaul 
under Clovis the Great, 60 in 486, by the celebrated victory of Soissons. This 
monarch, crowned at Rheims, a.d. 496, reduced the Allemannion both banks 
of the Rhine, 61 the Bretons in Armorica, 62 and the Visigoths in Aquitania. 6 3 
The Goths 6 * or Visigoths 6s had possession of the country about Nismes, but 

about the Easter of A.D. 403, and he re- 
crossed the Po during the summer season. 
After the death of the celebrated Roman 
general, Stilicho, Alaric moved from Nori- 
cuin, and marched upon Rome, A.D. 408, 
which he besieged, but withdrew upon terms 
into Tuscany. Again his demands having 
been rejected by the Emperor Honorius, 
a.d. 409, Alaric advanced to Ravenna, A.D. 
410, and afterwards to Rome, winch he 
besieged and captured in August, but he 
died before the close of that year. See 
Henry Fynes Clinton's "Fasti Romani." 
The Civil and Literary Chronology of Rome 
and Constantinople, from the death of 
Augustus to the death of Justin II., vol. i., 
pp. 268, 278, 282, 288, 294, 302, 492, 502, 
534, 536, 548, 550, 554, 57o, 572, 574, 576, 

55 Already had the Vandals invaded this 
Roman province, A.D. 406. They entered 
Spain a.d. 409. A war was waged by the 
Goths against them, and they were routed, 
A.D. 417, by King Wallia. He was re- 
warded by the Roman Emperor Constantius 
with a donation of the Gallic district of 
Aquitain, which extended from Toulouse to 
the Mediterranean Sea. See ibid., pp.564, 
576, 582, 594. 

56 At that time the Romanized provincials 
had introduced the laws, manners, and 
learning of the Roman Empire. 

57 This name was first given to it by Sido- 
nius Apollinaris, ad Avitum, lib. iii., 
epist. 1. The Gaulish, however, is not to 
be confounded with the Roman Septimania. 
The writers of "Historian Occitanise " give 
us various opinions concerning the origin of 
that name. 

s 8 ** They were empowered to interpret 

and communicate the laws of their sove- 
reign ; to expose the grievances and wishes 
of their constituents ; to moderate the ex- 
cessive or unequal weight of taxes ; and to 
deliberate on every subject of local or 
national importance that could tend to the 
restoration of the peace and prosperity of the 
seven provinces." — Edward Gibbon's " His- 
tory of the Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Empire," vol. iv., chap, xxxi., p. 135. 

59 Originally a German tribe, who were 
known in 284, a.d., as living between the 
Weser and the Lower Rhine. 

60 Of the Merovingian race. 

61 After the battle of Zulpich. 

62 a.d. 507. 

63 The maritime district, extending from 
the Garonne to the Pyrenees. 

64 The origin oi this people is lost in 
obscurity, yet they are generally supposed 
to have inhabited the northern parts of 
Germany, before their incursions were made 
on the Roman provinces. Their native 
name, as we learn from Bishop Ulphilas, 
who lived in the fourth century, was Gut- 
thiuda, rendered by the Greek and Roman 
writers Gotones, Gothones, Guttones, Guthse, 
and, last of all, Gothi. Cassiodorus, the 
Roman Chief Minister of Theodoric the Great, 
wrote a History of the Goths, which, un- 
fortunately, is now lost. He lived during 
the first half of the sixth century. Jornan- 
des, a Goth, and Secretary to the King of 
the Alani, in the time of Justinian, also 
wrote a work, "De Getarum Origine et 
Rebus Gestis." He became a Christian, 
and held a bishopric in Italy. 

65 At a time, when the Goths became more 
numerous and rapacious, they were divided 
into two great branches, called Austrogothi, 


relinquished it, when the Franks captured Aries, a.d. 541. 66 Afterwards, 
the Goths succeeded in obtaining possession of that territory, in which St. 
Giles lived. According to the old writer of his Acts, Flavius was their con- 
temporaneous King. However, this was a common name for all the Gothic 
Kings, nor is it easy to authenticate some of the matters thus related. 6 7 The 
identity of this Flavius has been contested. 68 That a potentate thus designated 
was the real founder of a monastery for St. u^Egidius has been unquestionably 
established. 6 ^ The writers of the " Historian Occitanise," however, have too 
hastily assumed, that Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths in Italy, was the 
founder, because he is known to have been styled Flavius. Nevertheless, 
their calculations are based on the error of supposing, that an ^Egidius, sent 
by Csesarius as a representative to Rome, a.d. 514, was identical with our 
saint. But, it seems most probable, that one of the principal seigneurs of 
the Visigoths, named Vamba or Wamba,7° who had been elected as their 
thirtieth King, had been his generous patron.7 1 Following the spirit of 
that age, Vamba had impoliticly banished the Jews from his Kingdom, and 
these were accorded protection by Hilderic, Count of Nimes, by the Bishop 
of Maguelonne, and by other seigneurs of the Septimania. While the pro- 
vinces of Biscay and Navarre were in revolt against the Visigoth King,7 2 
those discontented nobles entered into a league to subvert his authority over 
them. However, Vamba raised an army which he led through Catalonia 
against his traitorous chieftain, the Duke Paul, who had proclaimed himself 
King of Gothic Gaul. On Vamba's approach to Narbonne, Paul retired to 
Nimes. There, after an obstinate resistance, and horrible in its details, the 
besieged surrendered and besought the conqueror's clemency. There was 
a King of the Goths in Spain, named Flavius Ervigius, who succeeded Flavius 
Wamba, when the latter abdicated his rule a.d. 680, He was contempo- 
raneous with Pope Benedict II., who only presided over the Church a.d. 684 
and 685 for the short term of ten months and twelve days.73 Although it is 
established, that ^Egidius presented to that Pontiff his monastery,74 it is not 
therefore to be inferred, that the latter had not been erected many years 
previous to his rule. Wherefore, to Wamba must be referred the pious 
inspiration, that urged him to press upon ^Egidius the erection of a religious 

or Ostrogoths, inhabiting the sandy steppes Reccared, who ruled towards the close of 

of the East, and Wesegothi, or Visigoths, the sixth century. After Adrian Valesius, 

occupying the more fertile and wooded this is stated by the writers of " 1 listeria: 

countries of the West. See Philip Smith's Occitania," tomus i., p. 64. Also consult 

" Ancient History from the Earliest Records " Rerum Francicaium," lib. xiv., p. 351. 

to the Fall of the Western Empire," vol. iii., * This is stated in the Acts of Tope John 

chap, xlii., pp 620, 621, and notes. VIII., in these words : "Quam vallem Fla« 

60 This was the year previous to the death vius quondam rex B. ^Egidio donavit." 

of St. Casarius, as stated by Messanius and 7 ° He is said to have reigned from 672 to 

Stephen, in the Life of that holy Abbot. 680. See the chief events of Wamba's life and 

67 Mabillon states : ** Dicebantur quidem reign in " I Iistona General de Espana, : 'com- 
Flavii omnei Gotthorum reyes : se<l cum puesta,emendaday anadida por eljPadreJuan 
omnes Ariana: secte addieti fuerint, quis putet de Mariana de la Compania de Jesus," tomo 
Amalarictim, qui tempore Casarii Septima- primero, lib. vi.,cap.xii.,xiii.,xiv.,xv.,xvi.,pp. 
main oblinuit, ant quemvis aliuin de con- 24610259. Valencia, CID.,I3CC.,XC1 v., 4K). 
dendo monasterio fflfffftttr? Ad haec, '' lie succeeded Recesvind, \. i>. 672. 
monasteiium istud mulio post tempore con- 72 The Spanish historians, as also the 
ditum dici debet, quam ./Kgidius, transmisso writers of " Historic Occitaniae," treat about 
Rliodano, dicessit a Cacsario ; nee /Egidius the wars of Wamba, in the Septimania, 
ante condituin monasterium abbas fuit." — under the year 673. 

"Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus i., 73 See Abbe Fleury's " Histoire Ecclesi- 

bb. iv., sect, xxvii., p. 100. astique,"tome ix., liv. xl., sect, xxxiii., p. 78. 

68 The first Visigoth King in the south of 74 Such is a statement in the Acts of Pope 
France to assume the title of Flavius was John VIII. 






It has been stated, that the Abbot ^Egidius, a Greek by birth, was profoundly 
versed in scriptural and secular learning, 1 but apparently without sufficiently 
ancient authority ; that being a philosopher, poet, and distinguished " medi- 
cus," 2 excelling in prose and metrical composition, he wrote in verse a 
remarkable work, "De Pulsibus," One Book, and another," De Venis," also in 
verse, and in One Book. 3 Yet, it does not seem probable, although ascribed 
to our saint, that such treatises, if they exist, had been composed by him.4 

For many years, St. ^gidius lived in close solitude, in the Flavian valley,* 
and conversing only with God. However, owing to a strange adventure, the 
place of his concealment became known. 6 At one time, certain magnates of 
King Vamba's court, who loved the sport of hunting through the woods, dis- 
covered that hind, which nourished the saint with her milk. This animal 
they pursued to the hermitage of St. Giles, where the affrighted creature 
sought a refuge.? From her peculiar and unusual hinning, the saint ran from 
his cell, and soon found the dogs and hunters in full chase, while the hind's 
tongue protruded from her open mouth, as if gasping for breath. Then pray- 
ing to the Almighty to save his favourite hind from her pursuers, she sank at 
his feet, and ceased her hardly drawn respiration. The dogs could not 
approach within a stone's-throw of the cave ; but, with disappointed bowlings, 
they returned to the hunters. These being wearied with the chase, and night 
coming on, they resolved on seeking rest in their own dwellings. Next morn- 
ing, they resolved on chasing that beautiful hind, but again their designs were 

Chapter ii. — J Joannes Jacobus Hof- sanctus iEgidius ante conversioneur suam 

mann, when treating of vEgidius Atheniensis, philosophise ac medicinse operam dederit. 

states, that he lived under Tiberius II., A.D. Claruit circa annum Domini dccx." — " De 

700, and states " multa scripta posteritati Viris Illustribus Ordinis S. Benedicti," lib. 

reliquit, ut de Pulsibus librum unum, de ii., cap. xxii. 

Venenis (forsitan Venis) unum." — "Lexicon 4 See Father Stilting, in "Acta Sanc- 

Universale." torum," tomus i., Septembris i., in Commen- 

2 Jacobus Philippus Bergomensis writes at tario prsevio, sect, vi., num. 65, pp, 298, 299. 
the year 714 : " Egidius philosophus, Grse- s The Vallis Flaviana received its name 
cus monachus per hos dies scientia et from the Visigoth Kings, who ruled there, 
religione clarus fuit : qui praeter ccetera a se and who assumed the title of Flavius as a 
edita etiam in medecinis librum de Pulsu prefix to their names. 

metrice composuit, cujus principium est : 6 According to Fr. Claude de Vic and Fr. 

Ingenii vires modicis conatibus impar." Joseph Vaissete, the discovery of St. Gilles 

Item alium de venis, qui incipit : " Dicitur was made by the officers of the King "sans 

{fort} dicetur) vena, quandofit renibusuna." doute le meme que Theodoric, roi d'ltalie, 

— " Chronicorum," lib. x., in supplemento. lequel possedoit alors ce pays." — " Histoire 

3 Trithemius adds: "Si quid amplius Generate de Languedoc," tome i., liv., v., 
edidit, ad notitiam meam non pervenit. p. 257, This latter statement, however, is 
Hunc nonnulli sestimant sanctum ilium incorrect. 

fuisse abba tern, cujus festum Kalend. Sep- 7 According to some, the anecdote here 

tembris colitur : quod an ita sit, non satis related has reference to the Gothic King 

perspicuum habeo. Hoc autem scio, quod Wamba ; while others refer it to Childebert, 

tempus et patria in eum consentiunt, nee duo King of the Franks. See Rev. S. Baring- 

hujus nominis monachi in Chronicis reperi- Gould's "Lives of the Saints," vol. ix. 

untur, sed unus. Et verisimile est quod September i., p. 9. 


frustrated, as on the former occasion. These circumstances, having been 
related to the King, 8 urged him to inform the bishop of Nismes. Both agreed 
to join a hunting party on the following day ; and with such intent, they pro- 
ceeded to the forest, and found the hind, that was once more chased to the 
cave of her protector. Again, the dogs found no entrance there, but one of 
the hunters, drawing an arrow and fitting it to his bow, shot through the thicket 
of thorns surrounding the cave of ^Egidius, who happened to be without, and 
it inflicted on him a grievous wound.9 The soldiers present insisted on 
cutting a way through the brushwood, until they reached his hermitage. 
There the venerable saint was found bleeding, and dressed in a monk's habit, 
while the hind lay at his feet. Then the King and bishop, having directed 
the others to leave, approached and enquired who he was, why he took up 
his abode in so solitary a spot, and by whom he had been wounded. To all 
these enquiries the saint candidly replied. They proposed to send for phy- 
sicians to heal his wound, and to compensate him for it so far as they could; 
but he would hear of no such offers, and mindful of the scriptural maxim, 
that virtue is rendered perfect in infirmity, he prayed that henceforth, he 
might bear the pain to his death. Charmed and edified, by such a living 
exampleof abstinence,humility,courage and magnanimity, the King and bishop 
took their leave, while commending themselves to the prayers of ^Egidius. 10 
This incident has been assigned to the year 673. 11 

Afterwards, the aforesaid King paid him frequent visits, 12 desirous of pro- 
filing by the holy hermit's conversations and counsels. However, the saint 
refused to accept any personal gift. Still, he advised the monarch to found 
there a monastery, to which a community of regular monks should be attached, 
and who might serve God by day and night. This the King promised to do, 
provided ^gidius himself would become their spiritual superior. For a long 
time, he resisted such a proposal, urging as reasons, that he had not capacity 
or inclination for such a charge. At length, he yielded assent to the King's 
importunate wishes, and having fixed on a site near his cave, two churches 
were built ; one in honour of St. Peter and of all the Apostles,^ the other to 
the memory of St. Privatus the Martyr.'* In his cave, the holy hermit lived 
alone. There he spent whole days and nights in prayer and vigils. The 
Visigoth King conceived a very high esteem for St. Giles, but on no account 

8 The anonymous author of our saint's sanorum " supposes, that the palace of the 
Acts calls him Flavius. However, in an Gothic King was near to the hermitage of 
ottice of St. /Egidius, recited in the Diocese St. /Egidius, and with many others, the 
of Antwerp, Charles Martel is stated to have writers of " I [iftorise Occitanise " think, that 
been the King who discovered the holy the Gothic Kings resided there, so as to 
hermit on the occasion of hunting in that enjoy the pursuits of hunting in the adjoin- 
forest. Such an opinion has been adopted ing forest. See tomus i., p. 257. These 
in many other offices of particular churches, references to the Gothic palace are based 
and it has been followed by Saussay in his on the authority of Godefrid Viterbiensis 
'• Maitytologium Gallicanum." and Otho of Frisengen. 

9 This incident la represented in a figure ,3 Originally the Monastery of the holy 
— supposed to be of our saint — on a tomb Abbot was called Monasteriuin S. Petri in 
in the church of St. Serum of Toulouse. Valle Flaviana, and afterwards it was known 
See "Histoire Generale de Languedoc," as Monasterium S- /Kgidii in Valle Flaviana. 
tome ii., liv. xiii., p. 173. Catellus relates, that he saw ancient docu- 

10 See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," ments of the Abbey of St. /Kgidius, in which 
tomus i., Septembris i. Vita S. /Egidii, the wood of that monastery was titled La 
auctore pnonymo, cap. ii., sect. 12, 13, 14, Selva Gotesca, meaning the Gothic wood. 
15, p. 301. See "Historia Comitum Tolosanorum," 

" SeeMichaudV'BiographieUniverselle, p. 5. 
Ancienne et Moderne, tome xvi., Art. u Probably, the Bishop of Mende, a 

Gilles (Saint), p. 458. Martyr of the third century, and whose feast 

" Catellus in " Historia Comitum Tolo- is kept on the 2ist of August. 

September i. 



could the holy man be induced to leave his solitude. There, however, was 
founded a monastery, to which he admitted several disciples, and these lived 
under the rules which he established. 15 By some writers, it was thought, St. 
Gilles had been abbot over that institution, so early as the beginning of the 
sixtli century ; l6 whereas, in reality, it only dates from the close of the seventh. »» 
According to the learned Father Stilting, the building was begun in the year 
673 or 674. 

That religious house is said to have been endowed with an ambit of land 
extending for five miles. 18 It would appear, that hitherto, ^Egidius had not 
been raised previously to the priesthood ; but now, at the special request of 
the King, J 9 the monks, the nobles and people of all that place — afterwards 
named from him — such a dignity he attained. 20 The position of St. Gilles 
lies west of the Petit Rhone, after this branch of the River separates from the 
main channel at the city of Aries. 21 It is said to have been a town of great 
antiquity, and to have formerly taken the name of Rhoda Rodiorum." 
From the Phocean period, Saint-Gilles was a sea-port much frequented ; and 
in the twelfth century, it was the southern provencal harbour, whence pilgrims 
set out on their voyage to Palestine.^ 

Although their rule of discipline was very rigorous, yet the religious under 
St. yEgidius, moved by his example and precepts, were cheerful and obedient 
to all its requirements. The anonymous writer of his Acts states, that 
Charles Martel, 2 * King of France, who then lived at Orleans, 25 sent an earnest 

15 Having vainly attempted to solve un- 
certain historic statements in the old acts 
regarding this foundation, Mabillon writes : 
" Utcumque sit, antiquum est sancti ^Egidii 
monasterium in valle Flaviana, quod inter 
Septimanioe monasteria, quae regi solas ora- 
tiones debebant, primum nominatur in Con- 
stituto Ludovici augusti, cognomento Pii, 
de monasteriis regni Francorum. Haec 
abbatia ex ordine sancti Benedicti ad secu- 
lares canonicos translata est." — "Annales 
Ordinis S. Benedicti." tomus i., lib. iv., sect. 
xxvii., p. 100. 

16 Thus, according to Fr. Claude de Vic 
and Fr. Joseph Vaissete, the Abbey of St. 
Gilles was founded so early as A.D. 514. 
See " Histoire Generale de Languedoc," 
avec des Notes et les Pieces justificatives, 
&c, tome i., liv. v., p. 257, and note Ixv., 
p. 667. 

17 According to some writers the situation 
of Heraclea Gallise was identical with that 
of St. Gilles in Occitania. But Pliny, who 
described it as destroyed, states that its site 
was at the mouth of the Rhone and the 
Fossas Marianas. The latter denomination 
corresponds with the village called Les 
Saintes Maries. See Baudrand's "Novum 
Lexicon Geographicum, " tomus i., p. 346. 

18 According to the anonymous author of 
our saint's acts, " eo quod tantundem spatii 
Sanctus /Egidius, a spelunca sua quadum 
yice digressus, occurrenti sibi regi Flavio 
collocuturus, ut fertur, obviavit." 

'9 This must have happened after King 
Wamba had established his authority in the 
south of France, and before his return to 

Spain. See an interesting tract on this 
subject, Historia Wamba Regis Toletani, in 
Du Chesne's Historic Francorum Scriptores 
Coaetanei," tomus i, appendix i., pp. 821 to 

20 The anonymous author adds: " Cujus 
honoris, sed sibi, ut verius dicatur, impne- 
sentiarum oneris, apice sublimatus, noctumis 
vigiliis, diurnis jejuniis, assiduisque orationi- 
bus ccepit adeo corpus jam diu satis absti- 
nentia tenuatum affligere, ut, si cceptam 
modo illius vitam attenderes, transactam 
dixisses voluptuosam fuisse." 

21 See the elegantly delineated and 
coloured map, Delta du Rhone, in Elisee 
Reclus' "Nouvelle Geographie Universelle," 
tome ii., liv. ii., chap, iii., sect, ii., pp. 240, 

22 Said by Pliny to have been a colony 
founded by the Rhodians. 

2 3 See Elisee Reclus' " Nouvelle Geo- 
graphie Universelle," tome ii., liv. ii., chap, 
iii., sect ii., p. 247. 

24 This warlike monarch is particularly 
distinguished in the history of the second or 
Carlovingian race. See Michelet's " His- 
toire de France," tome i., liv. ii., chap, ii., 
pp. 287 to 302. Deuxieme edition, Paris, 
1835, 8vo - 

2 5 Having twice conquered Chilperic, 
King of Neustria and Burgundy, Charles 
Martel came to Orleans, a.d. 719, according 
to Pagius and other writers. That very 
same year, Zama, General of the Saracens in 
Spain, invaded the Septimania with a great 
army, and subjugated it, a.d. 720. See 
" Historic Occitanise," tomus i., p. 390. 

i 4 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September i. 

request by special messengers, that their Abbot should visit his Court. To 
this royal mandate he yielded assent, having first regulated monastic affairs 
during his temporary absence. 26 Taking with him some necessaries, he set 
out for Orleans. When arrived there, he paid a first visit to the Church of 
the Holy Cross, where he healed a paralytic, in the presence of numbers, 
who admired his miraculous gifts, and who spread the report far and wide. 
At this time, the Franks of Anstrasia were united under the sway of a 
renowned monarch, who was recognized as all-powerful in Gaul. 3 ? 

Then our saint went to the King's palace, where he was honourably 
received, and hospitably treated. He remained there for many days, and 
held several colloquies with the monarch on spiritual topics. The monarch 
asked his prayers, stating, also, he had committed a crime, so revolting in 
its nature, that he was ashamed to confess it. 28 The following Sunday, while 
celebrating the Holy Sacrifice of Mass, and praying in the Canon for the 
King, 2 9 an Angel appeared, and laid a scroll on the Altar. In this was fully 
revealed to him the nature of the monarch's crime, and it was told y£gidius 
it should be pardoned, if only the criminal would desist from it in the future. 
Moreover, it was added, that whosoever would invoke St, yEgidius on account 
of a sin committed, should obtain pardon from the Almighty, provided the 
person should abstain from repeating such a crime. On seeing this, the 
servant of God gave thanks for that favour, and having celebrated the holy 
function, he laid the scroll before the King, who then acknowledged that 
crime. Falling at the saint's feet, he asked prayers to be offered. The 
holy Abbot then admonished him never to relapse into the same crime, and 
prayed the Almighty fervently on behalf of his royal client. 

After a considerable time spent in Orleans, the saint obtained permission 
from King Charles Martel for a return to Provence. Loaded with various 
royal gifts, he reached Nimes.3° There the governor's son had died, but once 
more through the Abbot's prayers, he was restored to life. Thence directing 
his course to the monastery, he abode with his monks. The holy Abbot 
had prophetic warnings, that enemies would invade that province in which 
his monastery was situated, and violate many of its sanctuaries. Wherefore, 
he resolved with a few of his brethren to visit Rome, and place it under the 
protection of the Holy See, so that it might be spared from the violence of 
laics, then too ruthlessly exercised. In 685, 3 r he laid at the feet of Pope 
Benedict II. an authentic act of donation of his monastery. This the Vicar 

26 It seems very probable, that the fame of at the age of fifty-one, and he was buried in 
his virtues, and a desire for his security, the Church of St. Denis. See Henri Mar- 
impelled the French monarch to extend that tin's " Histoire de France," tome ii., pre- 
invitation to St. .^gidius, and that it took miere partie, liv. xi., p. 217. 
place in the year 719 or 720. 29 This was probably a formula in the 

a ? Mons. Guizot further remarks : " Dans old Gallic Missal, 

les expeditions de Charles-Martel, ils avaint 3 ° This was probably in the year 721 or 

parcouru, a so. suite, la Gaule toute entire : 722, when Eudes, Duke of Aquitain, had 

la France romaine cecla a l'ascendant de la routed the Saracens with great slaughter, in 

France germaine ; les rois de la France a battle fought near Toulouse, when a part 

romaine nc purent se soutenir en face deces of the Septimania was recovered from them, 

chefs de guerriers venus encore des rives du See Michelet's" Histoire de France," tomei., 

Rhin. — " Essaissur l'Histoire de France." liv. ii., chap, ii., pp. 301, 302. 

Troisiemc Essai. Des Causes de la Chute 3I Natalis Alexander has placed theacces- 

des Meiovingiens et des Carlovingiens, p. 77. sion to the Pontificate of Benedict II. at the 

28 The earlier part of Charles Martel's 20th of August, 684, and after a term of only 

career was stained with many and grievous eight months and seventeen days he died 

crimes, for which he made amends towards the year following. See " Historia Eccle- 

the close of his life. I laving subjected many siastlca Veteris Novique Testamenti," tomus 

States to the Empire of the Franks, he died xii. Saeculi Septimi Synopsis, cap. i., 

of fever on the 22nd of October, A.D. 741, art. vi., p. 10. 

September i.l LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 15 

of Christ accepted, and declared exempt for the future from all episcopal 
jurisdiction that property which he possessed. 32 

The immunities thus sought were obtained from the Sovereign Pontiff, 
and the holy Abbot returned to Gaul. The troubles foreseen afterwards fell 
on its southern territories. The Saracens 33 had entered Europe in 711, 34 
and had extended their conquests over Spain. In 712 and succeeding years, 
with great fury their hordes had crossed the Pyrenees into Gaul.35 The 
people in alarm saw their towns, castles and monasteries demolished and 
plundered, while they were powerless to prevent such ravages. Among the 
rest, who fled for their safety, was St. ^Egidius with his band of religious. 
Taking with them their relics and sacred vessels, they set out for Orleans, 
and placed themselves under the protection of Charles Martel. However, 
their exile was of short duration. Eudes, Duke of Aquitaine, took upon 
himself to oppose the fanatical invaders, and his efforts were crowned with 



When the Saracens had been driven beyond the Pyrenees, 1 St. Gilles and 
his monks returned, but only to find their monastery in ruins. At this doleful 
sight, the holy Abbot was greatly distressed, but he prayed the Almighty to 
give him courage for the work of restoration. Soon the church, cloister, and 
monastery were raised to their former noble proportions. 

The saint had now attained a very advanced age, and the term for his 
sojourn on earth was drawing rapidly to a close. With Holy Simeon, he 
could repeat the canticle, " Nunc dimittis servum timm." 2 Having regulated 
the monastic affairs, and receiving a heavenly admonition regarding his 
approaching dissolution, he asked the monks to pray for him. Towards 
midnight, and on a Sunday, the 1st day of September, about a.d. 720,3 his 

32 The Bull of Benedict II. is to be found Mahammed and his Successors, to the Death 
in the parochial archives of Saint-Gilles. of Abdulmelic, the Eleventh Caliph. The 
Pope John VIII., in a Bull, addressed to author did not live to complete — as he had 
Leo, Abbot of St. Gilles' Monastery, and intended — their European invasions, 
dated July 21st, 878, affirms moreover he 35 See an account of this invasion of El 
found that act of donation in the Vatican Frandjat, as the Mussulmans denominated 
archives. See " Les Petits Bollandistes," France, in Henri Martin's "Histoire de 
Vies des Saints," tome x., premier jour de France," tome ii., premiere partie, liv. xi., 
Septembre, p. 404 and n. 1. pp. 191 to 217. 

33 An interesting, but abridged account of Chapter hi. — * The first invasion of 
Mahomet, his career, and doctrines, is to be France by the Saracens was that conducted 
found in Natalis Alexander's " Historia by Alhorr, a.d. 718. Eudes, Duke of 
Ecclesiastica Veteris Novique Testamenti," Aquitain, had then usurped the authority, 
tomus xii. Sseculi Septimi Synopsis, cap. and even the title, of King, in the southern 
ii., Art. ii., pp. 31 to 38. provinces of France, and he repelled their 

34 Their previous conquests in Asia and first invasion, when Zama, lieutenant of the 
Africa are very lucidly set forth in that most caliph, lost his army and his life, under the 
instructive and readable work of Washington walls of Toulouse. See Edward Gibbon's 
Irving, "Mahomet and his Successors," in "History of the Decline and Fall of the 
two handsome illustrated volumes, published Roman Empire," vol. vi., chap, lii., p. 385. 
by Putnam, New York and in London, 188 1, 2 St. Luke ii., 29. 

sm. 410. Also, in Simon Ockley's " History 3 Father Stilting considers his death should 

of the Saracens," comprising the Lives of be before the second invasion of the Saracens, 



soul was received into Heaven, and the faithful then heard a choir of angels 
welcome him to their happy company. He is reputed to have been eighty- 
three years old at the time of his departure. 4 Other writers, who have 
incorrectly assigned him to the time of St. Caesarius, have placed his death 
about the middle of the sixth century.s 

The body of St. Giles was buried in a plain stone coffin, and soon his place 
became the object of frequent pilgrimages. 6 However, in or about a.d. 925,7 
while some of his bones and a portion of iron— supposed to have been the 
arrow-head that pierced his hand — were left in the original sarcophagus, it is 
stated his remains were translated, on the 15th of June, to a shrine, artistically 
wrought. 8 Reverence for his memory, and the establishment of his monastic 
institute, drew numbers to St. Gilles, and it soon grew into a considerable 
city. 9 Notwithstanding the traditional exemption of the abbey from episcopal 
jurisdiction ; yet, at different times this had been assumed, and a Diploma of 
Ludovicus Pius exists, 10 in which he grants to Christianus, Bishop of Nimes, 
such exercise of right over it. Even Pope Nicholas confirmed this to that 
bishop's successor, Isnardus." Hence arose a controversy between Gilbert, 
Bishop of Nimes, and Leo, Abbot of St. ^Egidius, before the Sovereign Pontiff 
in 878, when Pope John VIII. 12 came into Gaul, and remained for some 
time at Aries. This cause was decided in favour of the Abbot. x 3 So early 
as 1044, the pilgrimage to the Shrine of Saint-Gilles was regarded as one of 
the most celebrated in the world. In 1066, the Abbey was subjected to the 
Congregation, or Order of Cluny, 1 * which caused great contention between 
the respective abbots; but Pope Innocent II. decided in 1 132, that such 
dependence should cease, and that thenceforth the religious of St. Giles 
should have liberty to elect their own abbots. 15 

The great abbey church of St. Gilles — designated the Lower Church, on a 

who took possession of all Septimania in the 
year 725. 

* See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 
Saints," tome x., premier jour de Septem- 
bre, pp. 404, 405. 

5 The Maurists, in " Histoire Literaire de la 
France," state that he died about the year 
547. See tome iii., p. 244. 

6 Before the ninth century, his veneration 
as Patron was recognised in the Monastery 
of Saint-Gilles, as we read from a Council 
of Aix-la-Chapelle, held A.D. 817 : " Monas- 
terium Sancti ^Egidii in Valle Flaviana."— 
Labbe, "Concilia," tomus vii., col. 1514. 
This veneration probably extended at that 
time over the whole of Nismes diocese, and 
through the adjoining districts of Languedoc. 

7 According to the writer in " Gallia Chris- 
tiana," tomus vi , col. 483, during the year 
mentioned in the text, one Autulphus, or 
Antulphus, was Abbot at Saint-Gilles, and 
while he was incumbent, the sacred relics of 
the Patron were raised from the earth. For 
this account, Saxius is quoted, " in Pontificio 
Arelatensi." while he cites a Breviarium S. 

Iii, for such statement. 

her John Stilting suspects, that besides 
the church dedicated to St. Peter, there must 
have been at the time another still larger, 
and dedicated to the Patron at Saint-Gilles. 
To this latter the translation probably took 

place. In 1 1 16, a new church was dedicated 
to him. This beautiful structure was among 
the greatest in France, until in 1562 and 
1622, when it was reduced to a heap of 
ruins, during the Calvinist wars. It seems 
to have been in that church, the body of St. 
^igidius had been kept to the time of those 

9 In old documents it is called Fanum S. 
/Egidii, and at the present time, in France, 
it is named Saint-Gilles. 

10 See "Gallia Christiana," tomus vi., col. 

l6 5- . „ 

" See "Historian Occitanioe, tomus 11., 

inter Probationes, col. 10. 

M He reigned from a.d. 872 to 882. 

1 ' These matters may be found in Baiuzius' 
" Miscellaneorum," tomus vii., p. 349. De 
Gestis Joannis VIII. However, the bishop 
still refused to accept this decision ; but the 
Pope wrote, that he should be mindful of 
his duty, and if he refused to do so, he must 
be excommunicated. See Labbeus, " Con- 
ciliorum," tomus ix., col. 124. 

14 In a provincial assembly held in the 
Monastery of St. Bausile, Nimes. See 
"Histoire Generale de Languedoc," tome 
ii., liv. xiv., sect, lvii., p. 21 1. 

«S However, the abbey of St. Gilles had 
to pay the costs of this process. See ibid. , 
liv,, xvii. sect. xx. 


level with the cloister — is thought to have been built in the eleventh century, 
having been consecrated by Pope Urban II., in 1096, The west front is a 
master-piece of the Romanesque style, upon which every species of ornamental 
decoration and rich sculpture seems to have been lavished. 16 In 1074, Pope 
Gregory VII. 17 reprehends Froterius II., Bishop of Nimes, because he had 
assumed too much authority over the Abbey of St. ^Egidius. To many other 
vicissitudes was this venerable institute subjected. 18 The upper church was 
begun on a scale of great magnificence by Alphonso,^ son to Raymond IV., 20 
Count of St. Gilles, 21 in the year n 16. In 1 1 59, Pope Adrian IV., 22 granted 
indulgences in favour of the church and monastery of Saint Gilles ; as did 
also Pope Gregory IX., 2 3 in 1233. However, the rights and privileges of that 
abbey were frequently infringed upon by the Counts of Toulouse. An age 
later the usages of the pilgrimage to Saint-Gilles were somewhat modified, as 
the Albigenses, 2 4 ill the thirteenth century, 25 disturbed the country around. 26 
It is not well known, at what particular date the remains of ^Egidius had been 
translated to Toulouse. 2 * In 1326, during the month of September, one 
hundred Belgian pilgrims arrived at St. Gilles, to ratify a clause in the treaty 
between Charles the Fair and the Flemish. In the year 1423, the head of 
St. iEgidius was kept within his church in a silver-gilt shrine. 28 What has 
become of this relic is unknown ; but Father Stilting thinks, it may not have 

16 See Murray's " Handbook for Travellers 
n France," sect, vi., Route 126, p. 508. 

*l His Pontificate lasted from a.d. 1073 
to 1085. An admirable narrative of his Ponti- 
ficate may be found in J. Voigt's History of 
Gregory VII., published at Weimar in 1813. 
It has been translated into French, under 
the title, " Histoire du Pape Gregoire VII. 
et de son Siecle," issued in two octavo 
volumes, at Paris, in 1839. 

18 See in Catalogo Abbatum S. iEgidii, 
in u Gallia Christiana," tomus vi., at col. 482. 

'9 He was called Alphonse-Jourdain, 
because he had been baptized in the River 
Jordan. He died in the middle of April, 
a.d. 1 148, at the age of forty-five years. 
See "Histoire Generale de Languedoc," 
tome ii., liv. xvii., sect, lxxx., p. 452. 

20 He was son to Pons, Count of Toulouse, 
who died towards the end of 1060, or the 
commencement of the following year. See 
ibid., notes, xxxii., col. 2, p. 609. 

21 This title he assumed, because this 
portion of the diocese of Nimes was his first 
inheritance, and on account of his devotion 
to the holy patron. See ibid., liv. xiv., 
sect, ii., p. 179. 

22 He presided in the Chair of St. Peter, 
from a.d. 1 1 54 to 1 159. 

2 3 He ruled from a.d. 1227 to 1241. 

24 These heretics of the twelfth century 
were so called, because their first assemblies 
were held in the town of Albi. They held 
that God had first created Lucifer and his 
angels ; that having revolted against God, 
Lucifer was banished from Heaven, and pro- 
duced the visible world, with evils then 
prevailing ; while to establish order in it, 
God created a second son, Jesus Christ, who 

was to be the spirit of good, as Lucifer had 
been the spirit of evil. They rejected the 
Old Testament and the history of the Crea- 
tion, as given by Moses. They inveighed 
against the authority of the Church and its 
ministers, as also, they rejected the Sacra- 
ments. See L'Abbe Pluquet's " Diction- 
naire des Heresies." 

25 See an impartial account of the war 
waged against the Albigenses, in Pere 
Vaissette's "Histoire du Languedoc," tome i. 

26 Saussay remarks, that at this time, the 
relics of St. ^Egidius, that had been pre- 
served for many ages in his own monastery, 
were raised from the earth, and were found 
to be incorrupt. Thence, they were trans- 
ferred to Toulouse, and deposited in the 
Church of St. Saturninus, with those of many 
holy Apostles, Martyrs and Confessors. 
Saussay adds, " condigno cultu hue usque in 
ara sui nominis arcaque preciosa obser- 

2 ? Although Saussay refers this Translation 
to the time of the Albigensian heresy — in 
the twelfth or thirteenth century — yet, the 
writers of "Gallia Christiana" state, it 
must have been so late as the sixteenth cen- 
tury or somewhat before, since Nicholas Ber- 
trand, who wrote in the beginning of that 
century, records as being in the possession 
of Toulouse, "corpus beati Egidii abbatis." 
For this account De Gestis Tolosanorum, fol. 
5, is quoted. 

* 8 In a Manuscript Kalendar, brought to 
light by Chifilet, at the 2nd of July, there is 
an entry: "S. ./Egidii inventio Capitis." 
But, nothing more seems to be known 
regarding that head, or the festival associated 
with it. 


1 8 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September i. 

escaped destruction with other holy relics, and even the church itself, when 
the Calvinists were in possession of Saint-Gilles, during the year i562. a 9 At 
Grado, a town in the Venicean province, and in the Collegiate Church of the 
Blessed Virgin, Gelenius states, that the head of the Abbot yEgidius was 
kept ;3° but, whether this is the head to which allusion has been made, or only 
a portion of it, is not known. 

In the year 1538, the Abbey of St. Gilles, with many other houses, 
became secularized.3 1 During the religious wars in France of the sixteenth 
century,3 2 in 1562, the Huguenots33 converted this church into a fortress. 
The Marechal de Damville34 besieged St. Gilles on the 2nd of June, 1570, 
however, and took possession of it in three days.35 Again, in 1575, the 
Duke of Usez attacked and occupied that city.3 6 In 162 1, the canons and 
religious were obliged to seek refuge in Provence. An expedition that parted 
from Lyons, July 2nd, 1622, under the Duke d'Hallwin, on arriving in Lower 
Languedoc, again took possession of St. Gilles, from which the Reformers 
were then driven. 37 

When no longer tenable as a fortress, the Church of Saint-Gilles was 
demolished by the Due de Rohan, in 1622. Some time afterwards, the wars 
between the Huguenots and Catholics ceased under Louis XIII., King of 
France, and peace was established. 38 

The old abbey was destroyed in the sixteenth century ; but a detached 
pile of the ruin remains. It contains a spiral staircase, called le Vis de St. 
Gilles,^ and it is remarkable as a fine specimen of masonry. The ancient 
church has been replaced by a structure of late date, but of greatly inferior 

The relics of the holy Abbot were preserved at St. Sernin, in Toulouse, 40 
a.d. 1562. There the Canons of the Collegiate Church of Saint-Gilles 
concealed them, while the disturbances and wars of that period prevailed. 
In 1865, the shrine of the saint, with his relics, had been discovered, 41 and 
on the 22nd of October, 1867, that event was celebrated in a public manner, 
and with a religious ceremony, at which a great number of the faithful assisted. 
Since that time the pilgrimages, which had so long been interrupted, were 
resumed by the clergy, religious and others, whole parishes sending numerous 

39 According to the writers of "Gallia toire de France," tome ix., cinquieme 

Christiana," col. 506. partie, liv. li., p. 28. n. 2. 

30 See " De Admiranda Colonise Magni- 34 Appointed to the government of Lan- 
tudine," p. 311. Cologne, 1634, 4to. guedoc in 1563. See Pere G. Daniel's 

31 See " Histoire Generate de Languedoc," '* Histoire de France," tome viii.. Charles 
tome v., lib. xxxvii.. sect, lxxii., p. 159. IX., p. 484. 

38 These disturbances commenced in 1559, 3S See " Histoire Generate de Languedoc," 

during the reign of Francis II. tome v., liv. xxxix., sect, lxvii., p. 305. 

33 This was the term employed to designate 36 See ibid., liv. xl., sect, xiii., p. 341. 

the Calvinists as distinguished from the 3 ? See ibid., liv. xlii., sect, lxii., p. 530, 

Lutherans. According to Henri Martin the and sect. Ixxiv., p. 538. 

word Huguenot, for which many bizarre 38 See Pere G. Daniel's " Histoire de 

derivations have been given, is traceable to France," tome x., Journal Ilistorique de 

the German eidgenossen, meaning "allies " Louis XIII., p. xxvii. 

or "confederates." The Genevan reformers 39 It was saved from destruction at the 

were named eigtiots, when they were allied period of the Revolution, through the in- 

with a part of the German Swiss, who fluence of M. Michel, a lawyer of St. 

desired to render themselves independent Gilles. 

from the Duke of Savoy. " Lescatholiques A ° See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of 

firent de ce nom une injure : les protestants the Saints," vol. ix., September I, p. 10. 

en firent un titre de gloire et voulurent que 4I An account of this may be seen in a 

huguenots signifiat ddfenseurs de la race de work of M. l'Abbc Trichaud. " Histoire de 

Hugues Capet contre les Lorrains." — " His- ['Invention du Tombeau de Saint-Gilles." 

September i.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. r 9 

bands to St. Gilles' shrine. His church had also attracted the attention and 
admiration of tourists and archaeologists.'* 2 

In a very remarkable manner, veneration for St. ^Egidius was introduced 
at Leodium, a.d. 976,43 while Notger was its prelate. One Gorderan, from 
Gallia Narbonensis, was accustomed to traverse the country with a bear and 
an ape, with which he gave popular exhibitions. 44 However, in his old agt;, 
having selected a place among the woods, and Latinized Publicus Mons,45 for a 
station ; he then erected houses and cottages, where he received the poor 
with hospitable care. Even robbers, who infested that country, flocked 
thither to receive the devout man's exhortations, and frequently were they 
thus induced to reform their lives. But, his work was not deemed to be 
complete, until he had there erected a church to his patron, St. ./Egidius, for 
the stranger had been a native of Saint-Gilles. Moreover, that humble man 
had contrived to gather pious women,* 6 to form a religious society, in those 
houses he had built near the church.*? In that place, Goderan closed his 
earthly career, and departed this life, venerated as a saint in popular 
estimation.4 8 

So great was the veneration of the French for St. Gilles, that besides the 
chief city in the Isle of Reunion, and which took its name from him, no less 
than eighteen other towns have a similar name throughout France. Between 
Peronne and Abbeville, in Picardy, a beautiful Gothic church has been 
erected to Saint-Gilles, near the ruins of Mount Saint-Quentin, which formerly 
had an oratory and altar dedicated to him.49 In the forest of Ardennes, St. 
Theodore, Abbot over the monastery of St. Hubert, constructed a church in 
honour of St. ^Egidius, after the middle of the eleventh century.5° With a 
desire to obtain some relic of the holy Abbot, Theodore made a pilgrimage to 
his tomb, and took Troy es on his way. He returned, having obtained the desired 
relics.s 1 From the Church of Saint-Gilles, divers relics of its holy patron 
have been procured, and they were preserved in various churches and cities. 
Among these may be mentioned the cathedral city of Strigonia,* 2 St. 
Saviour's," at Antwerp, in Lisbon, in Saint-Gilles of Bruges, Saint-Gilles of 
Paris, Saint-Gilles of Bamberg,s* Saint-Gilles-sur-Vic, Saint-Gilles of Noir- 
moutiers, Saint-Gilles of Vannes, Saint-Gilles of Saint-Omer,ss Avesne, 

42 See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des ad S. /Egidii quotannis susceperunt cereum, 
Saints," tome x., premier jour de Septembre, proximo Mercurii die post S. Joannis Bap- 
pp. 405, 406. tistae natalem. Hodieque post tot saecula 

43 See at this year, Fisenius, in " Historiae antiquum tenent. Ista sunt ^Egidiani ccenobii 
Ecclesire Leodiensis," lib. vii. incunabula." — " Historia Ecclesiastica Leo- 

44 As in so many other instances recorded diensis," lib. vii. 

in the Acts of the Saints, we are here 49 This is to be gleaned from the monk 

furnished with an illustration of customs Nicholas' Vita S. Godefridi, Ambianensis 

prevailing in the Middle Ages. Episcopi, as introduced by Surius, at the 8th 

43 This may be rendered in English " the day of November, 

public Mount," probably in relation to the 3 ° This is related by Mabillon in his Acts 

civitas Leodii which was near it. of St. Theodoric in the " Acta Sanctorum," 

45 Among these one Judila was especially srec vi., Benedict, pars ii., pp. 573, 574. 
distinguished for her sanctity. 3I These he divided into two parts : one 

"7 In the twelfth century, the Church of of them he reserved for his own monastery, 

St. yEgidius was served by Canons Regular, the other he gave to the Church of St. 

while the succession of Abbots and Priors yEgidius, over which he placed a priest, 

is enumerated by Dionysius Sammarthann, 52 In Hungary, 

in "Gallia Christiana," tomus hi., a col. 1009. 53 Belonging to the Cistercians. 

48 He was buried in front of the altar 54 In the twelfth century, St. Otho, Bishop 

dedicated to Saints Dionysius and Lambert. of Bamberg, obtained the thumb of St. 

Fisenius adds : " Histriones, et citharaedi, qui yEgidius, which was kept with other relics 

sodalem a pio instituto primum revocare ten- on an altar dedicated to him. 

tarant, Jn demortui memoriam deferendum 55 In the English Jesuits' College there 


Tournai, 56 Walcourt,57 Cambrai,s s Cologne^ Prague, 60 Bologne, 6 ' and in 
Rome, where they were preserved in the church of St. Agatha. Having 
thus parted with so many portions, the city and church of Saint-Gilles only 
possesses, at present, some parcels of the patron's relics. However, Monsig- 
neur Plantier obtained from Toulouse a considerable part ; and, on the 27 th 
of July, 1862, a translation to the parent church took place with solemn 
ceremonies. 63 Although the Festival of St. ^Egidius had been previously 
celebrated in the Church Aniciensis, yet would Raymund, Count of Toulouse, 
have it commemorated, in a more solemn manner, a.d. 1096 ; and, as an 
expiation for his sins, he endowed it with certain possessions. This appears 
from a charter still extant and published. 63 

After the death of St. Gilles, the reputation of this holy Abbot for working 
miracles rendered him celebrated, not alone throughout France, but also in 
the Low Countries, throughout Germany, Poland, and all over the European 
Continent, as also in Great Britain and in Ireland. From these countries, 
also, crowds of pilgrims resorted to his shrine, imploring the saint's 
intercession. In 1115, Gertrude, Countess of Northeim, wife of Henry, 
founded the monastery of St. ^gidius, without Brunswick, 6 * and this was 
known as the " ccenobium Bursfeldense." About the same time, a noble con- 
vent for nuns, and dedicated to St. ^Egidius, was built in Munster, Westphalia. 
Another monastery, also dedicated to the holy abbot, was erected in the 
diocese of Halberstad. Also at Bamberg, in the twelfth century, St. Otho, 
Bishop over that See, resolved on founding a monastery dedicated to St. 
^Egidius, at a certain eligible place, called Lugenhubel, 65 without the city. 
It was levelled at that spot, and there he built the church. A domicile for 
the poor and pilgrims was attached ; so that, what had been heretofore a 
disreputable locality, might become thenceforward a source of relief for the 
destitute, of salvation for souls, and of praise to the Lord. 66 Again, at 
Nuremburg, a.d. 1140, having entertained an exalted opinion of the services 
rendered to religion in Germany by the Irish — then called Scottish — monks 
on the Continent, the Emperor Conrad III. built a magnificent monastery, 
dedicated to St. iEgidius, and he placed them in charge of it. This was 

was a bone of St. /Egidius. France in the year 1356, "teste Phosphoro 

s 6 The Abbey of St. Nicholas de Pratis, Pragensi," p. 517. 

belonging to the Canons Regulars, preserved a 6l These relics were kept in the Church 

considerableportionofthearmofSt/Egidius. ot St. Stephen, and in the Jesuits' Church 

" In the Collegiate Church of the Blessed of St. Ignatius, according to Masinus in 

Virgin, Rayssius relates, that in a large " Bononia perlustrata," p. 439. 

Cross, adorned with gems and precious 6l See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 

stones, in which are kept relics of various Saints," tome x., Septembre i., p. 405. 

saints, among those are included relics 6i By the writers of " Historic Occitania\" 

of St. /Egidius — incorrectly styled Abbot of tomus ii., inter Instrumenta, col. 343. 

Aries. See " Hierogazophylacium Belgicum," 64 See an account of this city, in the 

p. 330. " Gazetteer of the world," vol. iii., pp. 92,93. 

s 8 In the Abbey Church of the Holy 6s In Latin its translation is rendered, 

Sepulchre was kept a small portion of the " collis mendacii." 

arm of St. /Egidius. 6j And roes, who describes what is in the 

59 Gelenius assigns relics of St. y£gidius text, adds : "Eo tempore canonicus quidam 
to various churches of that city : viz., to the eccleske S. Jacobi, Wichodo nomine, Orttio- 
Collegiate Church of St. Gereon, to the nis causa, beatum vi«itam;/Egidium, reliquias 
Collegiate of St. Cunibert, to the Church of magnificas, id est, pollicem ejus, comparavit ; 
St. Pantaleon, and to the parochial Church quern pius Otto, ab eodem sagaciler impetra- 
of St. Lupus. See " De Admiranda Colonise turn, altario S. /Egidii cum aliis multiplici- 
Magnitudine," pp. 264, 289, 372, 412. bus reliquiis inclusit, ecclesiamque solenniter 

60 A pait of the arm and two other small dedicans, memoriam ejus per omnem locum 
portions w«re deposited in the Metropolitan celebriorem, quam eatenus fuisset. instituit." 
Church of St. Vitus, when brought from — " Vita S. Ottonis," num. 3. 

September i.l LIVES 01 THE IRISH SAINTS. 

governed and regulated by monks from Ireland, until a.d. 1418, when the 
succession from Ireland failing, German monks of the Benedictine Order 
were substituted. 67 In Germany, St. Giles is reckoned as one of the Vierzehn 
Noth-halfer. 6S Towards the end of the eleventh century, the veneration of 
St. /Egidius extended in Hungary, while the saintly King Ladislaus, son of 
the Champion Bela, ruled there. He founded a monastery and church 
dedicated to the holy abbot, at Semichen, and this religious house was 
subjected to the parent one, 6 ? already established in the Flavian Valley. 
In that, also, only French monks were to be received. 70 To the discretion 
of the Hungarian monarch was left certain affairs connected with that 
monastery. 71 Besides, at Rome itself, were churches and religious places 
connected with a veneration for the Blessed Abbot ^Egidius. 72 

On the 1 st of September, the feast of their patron, at Saint-Gilles-Vieux- 
Marche, at Saint-Gilles-Pligneaux, and at Saint-Gilles du Mene, in Bretagne, 
a great number of pilgrims annually assemble to invoke his intercession. 

After the middle of the thirteenth century, Pope Urban IV." ordered an 
Office of Nine Lessons for St. yEgidius to be inserted in the Roman Breviary, 
and it was to be recited as a semi-double. 7 * But, about the middle of the 
sixteenth century, that office was reduced to a simplex?* and as thus regulated 
by Pope St. Pius V., it has since been observed. However, in many 
dioceses, especially in France and Belgium, the office of our saint has had a 
higher position. Hence, the Lessons recited on the Festival of St. ^Egidius 
are varied according to the circumstances of churches and provinces. In 
Ireland, it is a simplex, the third Lesson of which is a proper one, 76 dealing 
with the acts of St. /Egidius and having a special prayer. With fifteen other 
saints, for many ages in various churches of Western Christendom, he was 
invoked by the special title of " Auxiliator." 77 This must be attributed to 
the confidence felt by the faithful in the efficacy of his intercession. 78 

67 Bucelin, who records these facts, adds ; statement, <; Arelatem ad beatum Ccesarium 

" Patet hodie magistratui, extinctis post contendit." 

mutatam religionem in urbe monachis, cele- 77 Father Papebroke, when treating of St. 

braturque summopere amplissimce basilicce George in the " Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 

architectura, egregium prisci splendoris argu- for April, and at p. 149, investigates the 

mentum." — '* Germania Sacra," parsii.,p. 3. reasons for such a title ; but he has only a 

63 See Rev. S. Baring- Gould's "Lives of conjecture to offer, that such appellation had 

the Saints," vol. ix., September I, p. 10. been given, because each of those saints was 

69 This is to be seen in the Letter of Pope venerated and invoked for some special 
Paschal II., in 1106, and directed to Hugh, necessity. In certain Missals is the Mass, 
Abbot of St. /Egidius in Septimania. See De Quindecim Sanctissimis Auxiliatoribus. 
Baluzius, in " Miscellaneorum," tomusii., p. In some old Missals, there is a Mass thus 
183. intituled, Missa de Quinque Sanctis Privile- 

70 This is stated by the monk Albericus, in giatis. In the Collect for both these Masses, 
his Chronicle, at A.D. 1078. St. /Egidius is specially numbered. 

71 See Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S. ? 8 To the prayers offered for his interces- 
Benedicti," tomus v., lib lxv., num. xlviii., sion, by Judith Wladislai, wife of the King 
p. 137. of Poland, she is believed to have given birth 

71 See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," to a son, afterwards known as Boleslaus, 

tomus i., Septembris i. De Sancto ^Lgidio King of Poland, in the beginning of the 

Abbate in Fano S. ^Egidii Occitaniae. Com- twelfth century. When the latter grew up, 

mentaiius Praevius, sect. i. Veneratio Sancti with a few priests and other pious men, that 

longe lateque propagata, pp. 284 to 287. prince made a pilgrimage in a plain habit to 

73 He ruled from a.d. 1261 to a.d. 1264. the tomb of St. yFgidius. A great part of 

74 Father Stilting adds, " ut ex Gavanto this journey he accomplished in his bare feet, 
scribit Bailletus ad I. Septembris in S. and on the way, he bestowed liberal alms on 
yEgidio." the churches, monasteries and poor. He 

75 He presided over the Church from a.d. remained in fastings and prayers fifteen days 
1566 to a.d. 1572. before the tomb of the holy Abbot, as 

76 In this single Lesson is inserted the related by Joannes Herburtus. See Bene- 


In art, St. Giles is represented as wearing a monastic habit, with his 
beloved hind?9 beside him, the saint's hand pierced with an arrow and resting 
on its head. When his festival takes place at Valencia, it is customary to 
bless a sprig of fennel. 80 His devout clients invoke his intercession, more- 
over, to avert fire, the falling sickness, weakness of mind, and fear. 

Jn England, in Ireland, and also in Scotland, for many ages past, St. Giles 
has been held in great veneration ; while in those countries many elegant 
and noble churches have been erected in his honour. 8 ' About the year 
1090, Alfime, the first master of St. Bartholomew's. Hospital, London, 
founded the old church, dedicated to St. Giles, in Cripplegate, anciently a 
fen or moor, the houses and gardens of which were counted a village, called 
Mora, without the walls of that city. 82 The patronage of this church was 
formerly in private hands, until one Alemund, a priest, granted the same to 
the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul. In the year 1545, the old Church of 
St. Giles was destroyed by fire. Afterwards, a fine Gothic church was 
erected, 114 feet in length, by 63 in breadth, 33 feet high to the roof, and 
122 feet to the top of the tower. It is one of the few London churches that 
escaped the dreadful conflagration in 1666. The monuments of several 
celebrated persons are to be found within this church. 8 3 Fragments of the 
old Roman wall may still be seen in the churchyard of St. Giles', Cripple- 
gate. 8 '* A village, called from a church standing there a.d. 1222, St. Giles 
in the Fields — to distinguish it from St. Giles, Cripplegate — was made 
parochial, in the year 1547. 85 The Church and village of St. Giles in the 
Fields are supposed to have sprung from an hospital for Lepers founded 
there, by Matilda, wife of Henry I., about the year 1117. 86 In 1354, 87 King 
Edward III. granted that hospital to the Master and Brethren ot the Order 
of Burton St. Lazar of Jerusalem, in Leicestershire. 

Especially was St. Giles honoured in Edinburgh, where a celebrated 
church was built and dedicated to him. 88 The original church on its site 
was erected before a.d. 854, 8q but by whom is not known. 00 A new church, 
in lieu of the original one, was erected by King David I., in the early part 

diet Gononus,in "Vitis Patruum Occidentis," iii., p. 251. 

lib. iii., p. 155. 84 See Ward and Lock's "Pictorial Guide 

79 The hind is represented, likewise, as to London," p. 19. 

the armorial bearing of the city of Saint- 8s See Walter Harrison's "New and 

Gilles. See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies Universal History, Description and Survey 

des Saints," tome x., premier jour de Sep- of the Cities of London and Westminster," 

tembre, p. 405. &c, book v., chap, i., p. 536. 

80 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's "Lives of 86 See "London," edited by Charles 
the Saints," vol. ix., September 1, pp. 9, 10. Knight, vol. iii., sect. Ixvi., St. Giles's, Past 

81 See "Les Petits Bollandistes," tome x., and Present, p. 258. 

ic jour de Septembre, p. 405. 8? See a plan of St. Giles in the Fields and 

1 In process of time, the village increased its connexion with the First St. Giles' Church. 

so considerably in buildings, that it was con- when both were regarded as in a suburban 

Stitttted a prebend of St. Paul's Cathedral, position outside the walls in London, in the 

by the appellation of Mora. This preben- work just quoted, Hid., p. 272. 

dary has the ninth stall on the right side of 88 See " Registrum Cartarum Ecclesia' 

the choir in St. Paul's Cathedral. See Sancti Egidii de Edinburgh," edited by the 

Walter Harrison's "New and Universal Bannatine Club. 

Hi>tory, Description and Survey of the 8 ' See Francis 11. Groome's "Ordnance 

Cities of London and Westminster, the Gazetteer of Scotland : a Survey of Scottish 

Borough of Southwark, and their adjacent Topography, Statistical, Biographical, and 

Parts," book ii., chap, xvi., p. 468, and n. Historical," vol. ii., p. 515. 

ibid. 9° The original building was probably of 

Si Milton was buried, where his father had small dimensions, but the parish Church of 

been buried before him, in the Church of St. Edinburgh. See Rev. Mackenzie E. C. 

Giles, Cripplegate. See Charles Knight's Walcott's " Scoti-Monasticon : the Ancient 

"Old England," vol. ii., book vi., chap. Church of Scotland," p. 363. 


of the twelfth century. Additions of aisles, transepts, chapels and a choir, 
were subsequently made to it; but, in 1385, it was destroyed by the Duke 

of Gloucester and the 

St. Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh. 

English who invaded 
Scotland, during the 
reign of King Richard 

II. In 1387, the re- 
construction of St. 
Giles' Church was 
commenced, and for 
the most part it was 
carried out in the Early 
Gothic style, which dis- 
tinguished that period, 
although much of the 
old masonry remained.9 1 
In 1393, King Robert 

III. annexed it to Scone, 
the Crown and Municipal 
Council granting sums 
for its restoration, at 
various times. The 
church had been a cell 
to Dumfermline, until 
refounded out of consoli- 
dated chapelries as a 
collegiate church, in 
1446, by the Provost 
and Magistrates. In 
1454, the arm-bone of 
St. Giles was obtained 
for it as a relic. 9 2 Again, 
on the 22nd of February, 
1466, King James III. 

confirmed its privileges to St. Giles' by charter.93 It contained several 
chapels,94 all of which were destroyed in 1559, by the Earls of Argyle and 
Glencairn. After episcopacy had been abolished, looms were erected within 
the aisles, 1560-7,95 and in different ways was St. Giles' afterwards dese- 

9t See the history of St. Giles's Church, 
with illustrations, in Daniel Wilson's 
"Memorials of Edinburgh in the Olden 
Time," vol. ii., chap, xi., pp. 157 to 176. 

92 Through the intervention of the King 
of France, after long entreaty on the part of 
the clergy and people of Edinburgh. This 
relic, embossed in silver, was kept among 
the Church treasures, until the Reformation. 
See Arnot's " History of Edinburgh," p. 268. 

93 See Maitland's ''History of Edin- 
burgh," p. 272. 

94 _ When the rage of the Scottish Reformers 
against images was prevalent, on the 1st of 
September, 1558, a wooden image of St. 
Giles was destroyed by a mob, when borne 
in procession through Edinburgh. John 
Knox relates that images were stolen away 

from the churches in all parts of Scotland, 
"and in Edinburgh was that great idole, 
Sanct Geyle, first drowned in the North 
Loch, after burned, which raised no small 
trouble in the town." He afterwards gives 
an account of the tumult, to which allusion 
has been made, in his " History of the Refor- 
mation in Scotland," book i., pp. 256 to 261. 
See " The Works of John Knox ;" collected 
and edited by David Laing, vol. i., Edin- 
burgh, 1864, 8vo. 

« See Rev. Dr. Mackenzie E. C. Walcott's 
"Scoti-Monasticon," Edinburgh, pp. 133, 


96 There is an interesting ground plan of 
St. Giles's Church, with description and 
references illustrating its various compart- 
ments, previous to 1829, in Daniel Wilson's 


crated. 00 Formerly it had the ordinary cathedral cruciform outline; but, 
owing to additions, alterations and curtailments, it lost nearly all trace of its 
original form. ? In 1829 to 1832, under the direction of Mr. Burn, it under- 
went a very tasteless so-called renovation ;° 8 but, in the year 1867, it 
was proposed to restore the interior,? and in 1872, under the direction of Mr. 
\V. Hay, the work was commenced, owing chiefly to the public spirit and 
generous liberality of the eminent publisher, Dr. William Chambers. 100 
When the ecclesiastical changes, consequent on the establishment of 
Protestantism in the sixteenth century, had put an end to the old Catholic 
ritual in Edinburgh, and St. Giles' had become a place for plain 
Presbyterian worship, its long drawn aisles were not thought to be advan- 
tageous for the preachers of the day, and the interior of the edifice was 
consequently partitioned into a number of separate places for worship. The 
choir was first restored in 1873 ; but, owing to various obstacles, great delay 
was occasioned before the renovation was finally accomplished in 1883. 
St. Giles was also venerated in Fintray, 101 in Moffat, and in Elgin, where 
fairs were held in his honour. 102 

This holy servant of God is commemorated in several Martyrologies and 
Calendars ; as in some additions to those of Ado and of the Venerable Bede, 
as, also, in the Gallican 10 3 and Anglican 10 * Kalendars. He is commemorated, 
in an ancient Franco-Gallic Martyrology, edited by Labbe, 105 at the 1st of 
September ; IO ° in a Codex of Corbie ; 10 7 and in an ancient manuscript 
belonging to the Monastery of Lerins. 108 In the genuine copies of Usuard's 
original work, the name of Saint ^Egidius does not occur, but it is to be 
found in many of the more modern additions to Usuard. Through the 
Kalendar of Sarum, St. Egidius, or Giles, finds his place in the Scottish 
Kalendar. In the Scottish Kalendar of Hyrdmanistoun, at the 1st of 
September, St. Egidius, Abbot, 100 is commemorated. In Scotland he is 

"Memorials of Edinburgh in the Olden disfigured in like manner. The side chapels 

Time," vol. ii., appendix, sect, xviii., pp. were either demolished, or blocked up with 

221 to 223. the unadorned wood- work of galleries and 

97 On Sunday, July 23rd, 1637, when the pews, as was the case with the historic 
Protestant Bishop of Edinburgh ascended Albany Aisle. 

the pulpit of St. Giles to introduce the " The accompanying illustration, drawn 

English Liturgy upon the Presbyterians of on the wood and engraved by Gregor Grey, 

Scotland, he was violently assailed by the has been copied from an approved etching 

congregation assembled. Riot after riot of St. Giles' Church, before the late restora- 

followed, until the great National Covenant tions had been commenced. 

nned, and Rebellion succeeded. See I0 ° See that most instructive and interesting 
Charles Knight's "Old England," vol. ii., "Memoir of William and Robert Cham- 
book vi., chap, i., pp. 174, 175. bers," by William Chambers, LL.D., sup- 

98 The exterior of the building was then plementary chapter, 1865— 1883, pp. 357 to 
newly encased in stone, which only served 371, Edinburgh and London, 1893, sm - 4 l o. 
still further to obliterate its historic features ; ,01 See Keith's " View of the Diocese of 
the stately old tower, surmounted by its Aberdeen," p. 245. 

finely proportioned mural crown being at IOS See " RegistrumEpiscopatusMoravien- 

1 resent the only characteristic of its external sis," p. 313. 

aspect, which can really be regarded as ,o3 Especially in that of Andrew Saussay. 

ancient. At the same time, the interior 10 * As in those of York and Sarum. 

underwent other changes for the worse. The ,os See " Bibliothecas MSS," tomus ii., 

massive octagonal pillars in the nave were p. 702. 

sliced down into narrow fluted shafts, alto- ,u6 There we read : " Eodem die depositio 

gether out of keeping with the general beati Egidii Abbatis." 

eiiaracter of the architecture. In order that I0 ? Published by D'Achery in " Spici- 

room might be made for the galleries — a legium," tomus ii., p. 17. 

rather modern innovation— arches and capi- ,o8 This has been edited by Martene, in 

tals were ruthlessly cut into, and the whole " Thesauri Anecdotorum," col. 1613. 

building made as unlike its former state as ,0 ? See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 

possible. The transepts and choir were Scottish Saints," p. 45. 

September i;] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 25 

known as St. Giles. Also, in the Kalendars of Culenros 110 and De Nova 
Farina 111 there is a like entry. Again, it is in the Kalendar of Arbuthnot," 2 
while in that of Aberdeen, the feast is noted as a minor duplex, 1 *3 and entered 
likewise in the Martyrology of Aberdeen, "* on the same day. In his 
" Menologium Scoticum," Thomas Dempster has this saint also entered, at 
the 1st of September, 1 ^ as Patron of Edinburgh. 116 For this, he quotes 
" Joannes Molanus, Theologus Lovaniensis." As Giles, he is entered at the 
same date, in the Scottish Kalendar. 11 ? In the old Martyrology of Tallagh — 
compiled from various ancient church calendars — there is noticed a festival 
for the Abbot Egidius," 8 at the 1st of September ; and, at the same date, 
it is entered 1 x 9 in the Liber Sancte Trinitatis, Dublin. 

Although spending their lives with religious ardour and steady perseverance 
in love and veneration, walking ever in the way of God's Commandments, 
animated by His graces and the grateful recollection of His supernatural 
favours ; yet, had the saints found time and opportunity to discharge all 
necessary obligations and charitable offices towards their fellow-creatures. 
Thus they merited that love and veneration, which was bestowed on them 
by men of good will while they lived, and which transmitted to posterity the 
names of so many holy persons, who were eminently deserving respect and 
honour from succeeding generations. 

Article II. — St. Neman, Bishop of Cill Bia. There are no entries 
made in the published Martyrology of Tallagh, from 31st of August until the 
4th of September ; and therefore, the present saint's name, with that of other 
holy persons, is not there found recorded. However, in the copy contained 
in the Book of Leinster, although entries are given for the missing days, the 
name of Neman is not mentioned, at the present date. The Martyrology of 
Donegal 1 registers a festival, at the 1st of September, in honour of Neman, 
Bishop, of Cill-Bia, which seems to have been one of the early small sees in 
Ireland. In the table which follows this record, a commentator observes, 
that if by him, Nemhan be understood, this name may fairly be interpreted 
CcdesHtms? In the Introduction to the Martyrology, it is stated, that Cill 
Bhi is in Connaught ;3 but, this is by no means certain. At present, it seems 
no easy matter to discover this place/ among the existing parish or townland 
denominations of Ireland. However, there is a reasonable conjecture, as 
Cill-Bia and Cill-mbian are not distinct denominations, and while the latter 
place is said to have been founded by St. Fearghus,* Bishop of Druim-Leath- 

1.0 See ibid., p. 61. "9 Thus, " Eodem die ; sancti Egidii, 

1.1 See ibid., p. 75. abbatis et confessoris. " — "The Book of 

112 See ibid., p. 104. Obits and Martyrology of the Cathedral 

113 See ibid., p. 120. Church of the Holy Trinity," edited by 

114 The Martyrology of Aberdeen states at John Clarke Crosthwaite, and Rev. Dr. 
the Kl\ Septembris. — "In pago Neuma- James Henthorn Todd, p. 152. 

censi Sancti Egidii abbatis."—" Proceedings Article 11.— l Edited by Drs- Todd and 

of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland," Reeves, pp. 232, 233. 

vol. ii., p. 267. 2 Dr. Reeves appends the following mar- 

115 See Bishop Forbes 5 "Kalendars of ginal note to this passage: " As ruotfi-an, 
Scottish Saints," p. 210. from viAorh, holy, is Latinized Sanctanus, so 

116 Adam King, in his Kalendar, gives tl email, from nerh, 'heaven,' is rendered 
this distinction at the 1st of September to Ccclestinus" See ibid., pp. 458, 459. 

" S. Geles, abot of Arls in Prouance, patron 3 See ibid., p. xxxix. 

of Edinbourge, under Charles ye greit" 4 Cill Bia has not been hitherto clearly 

See ibid, p. 161. identified. 

"7 See ibid., p. 255. 5 His feast occurs on the 30th March, at 

118 Thus entered e^itm ab. which date notices of him may be seen, in 

26 LIVES OE THE IRISH SAINTS. [September i. 

giaise, more commonly called Dun-da-leath-ghlas, or Down ; an ancient 
graveyard called Killyman, in the townland of Barnamaghery and parish of 
Kilmore, in the Diocese of Down, may represent the site of the once impor- 
tant church of Cill-mbian, mentioned in several of our annals. In that 
graveyard, at present, there are no remains of a church ; 6 but, a great quantity 
of stones had been removed from it, to build a bridge over the Glasswater. 
It might well be expected, that Cill-mBian? — pronounced Killmian — as 
having been founded by one of the bishops of Down, should remain closely 
connected with the See ; and, as Killyman was a chapel in the mensal parish 
of Kilmore, and probably one of seven mentioned as having belonged to it, 
not unreasonably it may be regarded as the ancient Cill m-Bian. 8 If such 
identification be correct, as the founder, St. Fearghus, Bishop of Downpatrick, 
died a.d. 583,9 the present St. Neman flourished hardly at an earlier date 
than the seventh century. How long Cill m-Bian or Cill-Bia continued to 
be the see of a bishop does not seem to be known ; for we cannot find farther 
allusion to it in our Irish Annals or Calendars. Neither is the name of 
Neman one often to be met with, 10 and certainly not in a form, to furnish 
probable identity with the saint there venerated. Under the head of Cill- 
Bia, Duald Mac Ferbis enters Nemhan, bishop of Cill-Bia, at the 1st day of 

Article III. — St. Cuimmen, Son of Cuanna, or Cuanach, probably 
Abbot of Druim-Snechta, now Drumsnat, County of Monaghan. To 
us it seems very probable, that the present holy man was not distinct from 
a saint bearing the same appellation, and said to have been venerated on 
the 4th of this month, 1 at Drumsnat, County of Monaghan. The name of 
Cuimmen, son of Cuana, or Cuanach, occurs in the Martyrologies of Tal- 
lagh, 2 of Marianus 0'Gorman,3 and of Donegal,* at the 1st of* September. 

Article IV. — St. Sceallan, the Leper, of Armagh, County of 
Armagh. On this day, the feast of St. Sceallan occurs in some of our native 
Martyrologies. 1 His memory is recorded in the Calendar of Marianus 
O'Gorman. Also, we find entered in the Martyrology of Donegal, 2 that 

the Third Volume of this work, Art. ii. I0 A Neman, Abbot of Lismore, died, A.D. 

The graveyard is exclusively used by 610. 

Catholics, and mostly by persons of the name "See " Proceedings of the Royal Irish 

of Murray. It is now in the Catholic parish Academy," Irish MSS. Series, vol. i-, part 

of Saintfield. i> PP- 94> 95- 

7 In his tract, De Quibtisdam Episcopis, Article in.— x See "The Martyrology 

Duald MacFirbis— apparently referring to of Tallagh," edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. 

this Church— has it, "Cill-Sqanduil no Cill- xxxiii. 

bi.ui. Fergus epscop Cille-Sganduil no 2 In that copy as found in the Book of 

bian; agus is nor sin." Translated : Kill- Leinster, at the Kalends of this month— 

Sgandail or Kill-Bian: Fergus, bishop of September 1st— is entered the festival 

Kill-Sgandail or Kill-Bian, and that is true." Comem Ab TJnom SneccAi. 

denominations may be anglicised into * See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Iliber- 

Kilscannel and Kilbcan or Kilmean. nke," xii. Januarii, n. 6, p. $9- 

1 See Very Rev. James O'Laverty's "His- * Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
toncal Account of the Dioceses of Down and 232, 233. 

Connor, Ancient and Modern," vol. v., pp. Article iv.— 1 See Colgan's "Acta Sanc- 

39> 4°- torum Ilibernke," xvi. Martii, n. 2, p. 628. 

9 SeeDr.O'Donovan's"AnnalsoftheFour » Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

Masters," vol. i., pp. 210, 211, and nn. (c. d.) 232, 233. 

September i.] LIVES OF 1HE IRISH SAINTS. 27 

veneration was given to Sceallan, the Leper, of Ard-Macha, or Armagh. 
The Irish Calendar, belonging to the Ordnance Survey Records, has a 
similar entry.3 By the Bollandists, his festival is noticed, at the 1st of Sep- 
tember/ This holy man seems to have borne patiently the loathsome 
disease, once so common in Ireland, and from which his appellation was 
derived. When he lived does not seem to be known, bat it was probably 
in the ninth or tenth century. The name of Sceallan, the Leper, of Armagh, 
is not found in the Martyrology of Tallagh, contained in the Book of 

Article V. — Reputed Feast of St. Sebaldus, or Sewallus. It 
would appear, from the posthumous list of Manuscripts published by Charles 
Mac Donnell, that Colgan had intended the issue of St. Sebaldus' Acts, 1 at the 
1st day of September. Making allusion to a St. Sewall, Bishop of York, in 
England, at this date, as said to have been noted by the English Martyr- 
ology, 2 and by Ferrarias,3 as also mentioned by Matthew of Westminster, at 
a.d. 1256,4 the Bollandists state, 5 that he was a different person from Sewall, 
an Irish bishop, venerated at the 18th of May. 

Article VI. — St. Failbhe, Son of Ronan, of Cluain Airbealaigh. 
In that copy of the Martyrology of Tallagh, contained in the Book of 
Leinster, at the Kalends of September, there is an entry of Failbe Mac 
Ronain in Cluain Arbelaig. 1 According to the Martyrology of Donegal, 2 a 
festival was celebrated at the 1st of September in honour of Failbhe, son of 
Ronan, of Cluain Airbealaigh. He is recorded in the published Martyrology 
of Tallagh, 3 at the 4th of September, as Failbe Mac Ronain, in Cluain 
Airbelaig. This shows, that there must have been some error of insertion in 
the latter Calendar, owing perhaps to the ignorance of a scribe. 

Article VII. — Translation of the Relics of St. Anatolius, at 
Salins, France. Besides the festival of St. Anatolius, on the 3rd of 
February, 1 another is kept on the 1st of September. This latter com- 
memorates a translation of his remains, at Salins. During the eleventh 
century, the body of St, Anatolius was removed from the original tomb, in 
which it had been deposed. It was placed in the principal church, at Salins. 
About 200 years later, Nicholas, who was Bishop of Besancon, from a.d. 
1229 to 1235, had it moved on a 1st of September, An elegant shrine, in 
the same church, was destined for the reception of his remains. These were 
greatly venerated, by the faithful. Thus 200 years, after the first exhumation 

3 Sge-AllxMi lobA]\ 6 -Arvomaca. Sec his episcopacy, and not to his cultus : " Se- 
" Common Place Book, F.," now in the wallus electus Eborum, in archiepiscopum 
Royal Irish Academy's Library, p. 74. consecratur ab episcopo Wigornirc." — 

4 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Sep- " Flores Historiarum." 

tembris i. Among the pretermitted Saints, 3 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Sep- 

p- 3- tembris i. Among the pretermitted Saints, p.4, 

Article v. — * See " Catalogus Actuum Article vi.— ' Thus: Vailbe mac 

Sanctorum quae MS. habentur, ordine Men- 1lon.ain 1 cluAin ^ipbetaij;. 

sium et Dierum." 2 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

2 However, the Bollandists could not find 232, 233. 

such notice in any edition of Wilson's English 3 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxxiii. 

Martyrology. Article vii. — ' See at this date, in the 

3 In ■*' Catalogus Generalis Sanctorum." Second Volume of this work, some notices 

4 Matthew of Westminster only alludes to of the present saint, Art. i. 

28 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September t. 

and deposition of St. Anatolius' relics, by Hugo, Archbishop of BesancOD, 
in a magnificent tomb, at which various illustrious miracles had been 
wrought; Nicholas, Archbishop of Besancon, in the thirteenth century, had 
them removed, on the Kalends of September, and placed in a precious 
shrine, prepared for their reception. 2 Through the aid and merits of this 
saint, blind, lame, mute, deaf, crippled, weak and infirm persons, were 
frequently restored to health. Once, when St. Anatolius' salt spring sud- 
denly went dry, on bringing his sacred head thither, the water immediately 
sprang forth again. Fires were extinguished, through his intercession ; 
demoniacs were cured ; cities were relieved from siege, and victories were 
obtained over enemies of the French j rain and fine weather were alike 
obtained ; while numbers, placed in imminent danger, were saved through 
his invocation. Well may we deem this holy Confessor to be inscribed in 
the Company of the elect,3 regarding whom the Royal Prophet sung, " To 
me, Thy friends, O God, are exceedingly honourable j their principality is 
exceedingly strengthened." 4 

Article VIII. — The Sons of Caimene. A festival to honour the Sons 
of Caimene is set down, in the Martyrology of Donegal, 1 at the ist of Sep- 
tember. It seems probable, those holy brothers flourished, after the eighth 
century, as they are not contained, in that copy of the Martyrology of 
Tallaght in the Book of Leinster, at the Kalends of September, nor in that 
published by the Rev. Dr. Kelly, for which day entries are missing. Their 
particular names do not seem to be ascertainable. 

Article IX. — Feast of St. Cecilia, with other Companions. In 
the ancient Irish Church, at the ist of September, we find a festival set down 
for St. Cecilia, with a great number of other saints, in the " Feilire M of St. 
^Kngus. 1 To this entry, a commentator has added some remarks, 2 intended 
to be explanatory. The Bollandists have no mention of this festival, at the 
ist of September. Among the martyrs, who suffered a.d. 303,3 at Abytina, 
in Africa, under the Emperor Diocletian, is named a Cecilia. 4 Their festival 

a An account of this solemnity is con- ginity, thirty and three thousand." — " Trans- 

tained in Jean Jaques Chifflet's " Veson- actions of the Royal Irish Academy," Irish 

lionis," pars ii., p. 268. See the Bollandists' Manuscript Series, vol. i, part i. On the 

"Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Septembris i., Calendar of Oengus, p. exxxvi. 
among the Prretermissi, et in alios dies relati, 2 These are : " Decimus mensis apud 

p. 2. Graecos Sgorpeos, Cen Kalne, cennona, 

3 See ibid., tomus i., Februarii hi., De S. cen idu icgrecaib agus icegeptacdaib. Solifl 
Anatolio Episcopo, Salinis in Burgundia. xxx., luna; xxx., Sextus ebreorum mensis 
Alia Vita, ex Schedis Pet. Franc. Chiffletii, elul." The first sentence is thus translated : 
Soc. Jesu, sect. 3, p. 360. "With the Greeks the tenth month is 

4 Psalms exxxviii., 17. Yopmaios. Without Kalends, without nones. 
Article viii.— 1 Edited by Drs. Todd without ides, were the Greeks and the Egyp- 

and Reeves, pp. 232, 233. tians." Again : "Cicilia i., uirgo et niartir. 

Article ix. — ' In that copy found in the i., cccc. xx. et ihu. naue."- The comment u 

Leabhar Breac, the entry thus appears : — added in Greek, " 'ItjsoOs Navrj." — See ibid., 

fflop Sepcimber* kt p. cxli. 

CiciliA cotToijvcje 3 At this year, there is an account of them 

.cccc. conuaige in Baronius' " Annales Ecclesiastici," tomus 

.xxx. lAceop mile. hi., sect, lviii., p. 392, edition of the Celes- 

Thus translated into English by Dr. Whitley tines, Bar-le-Duc. 

Stokes : — " On September's Kalends Cecilia 4 See " Les Petits Bollandistes," tome ii., 

with righteousness : four hundred with vir- xi e jour do Fevrier, p. 444. 

September i.] LIVES OF THK IRISH SAINTS. 29 

occurs on the nth of February. Again, among the martyrs, who suffered at 
Constantinople, in the same year and under the same Emperor, a Cecilia is 
also mentioned. Their feast is observed on the 8th of May.s Another 
Cecilia, recorded in the Martyrology of St. Jerome, suffered for the Faith of 
Christ at Sirmium, 6 in Panonia, with the Martyrs Ostratus or Sostratus, Spire, 
Eracle, and Eperence, their festival being observed on the 8th of July.? 
Another still more celebrated Virgin and Martyr was Cecilia, of a noble 
Roman family, and who, with her spouse Valerian, her brother Tiburtius, 
and Maximin, 8 were executed in the year of our Lord 230, while Alexander 
Severus was Emperor. Her festival is celebrated on the 22nd of November. 9 
As four hundred persons are said to have received with her the grace of 
Baptism, at the hands of the Pontiff, St. Urban, it seems most probable, this 
wis the virgin, whose memory was celebrated in the ancient Irish Church, 
and who is commemorated in the Feilire of St. ^Engus, at the present date. 
Also, in the Kalendarium Drummondiense, 10 the feast of a holy Virgin, 
Cecilia, is entered. 

Article X. — Reputed Feast of St. Muredach, Bishop of Killala. 
According to Castellan, a feast in honour of St. Muredach, Bishop of Killala, 
was observed on this day by the Irish. The Bollandists, who note this 
account, observe at the 1st of September, that Ferrarius alludes to Muredach 
at the 5th of October, when they give promise of treating again about him. 1 
They remark, also, that among the Masses assigned for the holy patrons and 
titulars of France and Ireland, printed at Paris in 1734, a Mass is set down 
at the nth of July, with the title, "in festo sancti Muredaci Ep. et Conf. 
Alladensis patroni generalis." His festival, however, is observed as a greater 
Double, on the 12th of August, 2 in the Irish Church. 

Article XI. — Reputed Festival of St. Sarbile of Fochard. In that 
copy of the Tallagh Martyrology, in the Book of Leinster, there is an entry 
of Sarbile of Fochard, with other unintelligible words, 1 at the Kalends of 
September. These probably mean, that he was a man belonging to 
Muirtheimhne, 2 the present County of Louth. 3 His feast seems referable to 
the 4th of this month. 

5 See ibid,, tome v., viiie jour de Mai, p. ■ See the Eighth Volume of this work, at 

393. that date, for some notices concerning him, 

Now Sirmich or Mitrewitz. Art. i. 

7 See ibid., tome viii., viii. jour de Juillet, Article xi.— t Thus entered :— Sarbile 
p. 163. uir\ -pocriAirvoe tnup. 

8 See zfotf., tome xiii., xxii e jour de Novem- 2 This ancient district was called Magh 
bre, pp. 541 to 561. Muirtheimhne and Conaille Muirtheimhne, 

9 See R. P. Dom Prosper Gueranger's from the descendants of Conall Cearnach of 
•' Histoire de Saint Cecile. " the Clanna Rudhraighe race, who flourished 

10 In Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- there for many centuries. In Ussher's time 
tish Saints," at Kalend, Sept. " Item eodem it was still known as Maghery-Conall. See 
die Ceciliam Sanctam Virginem quidam " Primordia," pp. 705, 706. 

ferunt esse coronatam." See p. 23. 3 Its situation is thus pointed out by 

Article x.— * See "Acta Sanctorum," Colgan, in his "Trias Thaumaturga," St. 

tomus i., Septembiis i. Among the preter- Fiach's Hymn, or Prima Vita S. Patricii, n. 

mitted Saints, p. 5. 16, p. 8. 

3o LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 2. 

Article XII. — Reputed Festival of St. Fiachrach. At the Kalends 
of September, in that copy of the Tallagh Martyrology found in the Book of 
Leinster, there is an entry of Fiachrach. 1 

Article XIII. — Reputed Feast of St. Ultan Mac Ua Conchobair 
of Ardbraccain. In that copy of the Martyrology of Tallagh contained in 
the Book of Leinster, a feast is set down for St. Ultan Mac Ua Conchobair of 
Ardbraccan, at the Kalends of September. 1 This seems to have been the 
mistake of a scribe, as his festival belongs to the 4th of this month, where he 
is more fully noticed. 

Article XIV. — Reputed Feast of St. Senain. At the Kalends of 
September, there is a Feast for Senain, 1 in that copy of the Tallagh Martyr- 
ology contained in the Book of Leinster. It is probably a misplaced entry 
for the day following. 

Article XV. — Reputed Festival of Comgall of Both Conais. At 
the Kalends of September, in that copy of the Martyrology of Tallagh, found 
in the Book of Leinster, there is an entry of Comgall of Both Conais ; x but 
elsewhere, his name is not noticed at this date. His festival is more probably 
referable to the 4th day of this month. 

Article XVI. — Reputed Feast for a Translation of St.Columban's 
Relics at Bobbio. — In the Calendar of Ferrnrius 1 is mentioned a Translation 
of the Relics of St. Columban, Abbot, at Bobbio, on the 1st day of September. 
The Bollandists also record this entry. 2 His chief festival belongs to the 21st 
of November. 

£>eamti fflap of September. 



WE have frequently to lament the loss of records, which might preserve 
the particular virtues and actions of individuals for the edification 
and emulation of all true Christians. As noticeable throughout all the 
previous volumes of this work, with the most earnest desire to render its 
several articles, more complete, documentary or traditional materials are not 
accessible, to rescue from obscurity the earthly career of so many among the 
children of light. Merely to learn their names — sometimes also those of 
their old places — and to know that they had lived, are all that can now be 

Article xil— ' Thus s pAchnAch. Article xvi.— ' " Translatio S. Colum- 

Article xiii.— « Thus entered : Ulcan bani abbatis Bobii."— " Catalogus Generalis 

rriAc h. ConcViobhair* 1 <Xirvobr»ec.An. Sanctorum." 

Article xiv.— ' Thus: Senain. 2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Sep- 

Artici.e xv.— 1 Thus : Comgell boch tembris i. Among the pretermitted Saints, 

Conair. p. 5. 

September 2.] LIVES OE THE IRISH SAINTS. 31 

According to the Feilire-Aenguis, 1 the Feast of St. Senan was celebrated 
in Lathrach Briuin, or Laraghbrine, in Ui-Foelain, 2 on the 2nd of September.3 
In conjunction with two other holy persons, Molotha and Theodota, the saint 
is praised for his noble qualities, and for their reward through Christ. The 
commentator identifies the present saint as connected with a well-known 
place. According to the Calendar of the O'Clerys,* he belonged to the 
race of Eochaidh, son of Muireadh, who descended from the seed of 
Heremon. We are told, likewise, that Deidi, daughter to Trian, son of 
Dubhthach, was his mother.* The pedigree of St. Senan of Laraghbrine is 
contained in the M Sanctilogic Genealogy." 6 There he is called the son of 
Fintan, son to Strened, son of Glinder, son to Core, son of Conned, son to 
iEngus, son of Fieg, son to Mail, son of Carthage, &cJ His genealogy is 
then carried back to Heremon for fifty generations, or for about 1600 years. 8 
Marianus O'Gorman has noted this saint, in his Martyrology, at the present 
date. 9 St. Senan must have flourished in the sixth century, and been a 
contemporary of the great St. Columbkille, TO for he is named as one of 
those ecclesiastics who attended the great Synod, held at Dromcreat in 580. JI 
On the 2nd of September, a festival is entered in the Martyrology of Donegal, 12 
to honour Seanan, of Laithrech Briuin, in the territory of Hy-Faelain. This 
place is also written Lathrach-Briuin. At present it is known as Laraghbrine, 
or Laraghbryan, x 3 where there is an old church and a cemetery, near 
Maynooth, in the Barony of North Salt, and County of Kildare. 

The mediaeval church ruins of Laraghbrien are to be seen embowered 
with stately lime trees, and within a squarely-formed grave-yard, surrounded 
by a quadrangular wall. A gravel walk runs parallel with the walls on the 
interior. The church ruins measure 87 feet in length, exteriorly: they are 19 
feet, 8 inches, in breadth. The walls are nearly 3 feet in thickness. There 
is a square tower, 13 feet by 15 feet, on the outside ; and, it is entered by a 
low, arched door-way from the interior. Several square-headed opes are 
inside of it, and a ruined spiral stairway occupies one angle. This leads to 
a broken part of the wall, and showing that it ran much higher. There is a 

Article I. — * In the Leabhar Breac " The clause within brackets is in the more 

copy of the Feilire of Oengus, is the following recent hand." — Ibid., n. I. That means the 

stanza, at this date : — last sentence in the text. 

molocliA CeochocAm 6 Chapter xxii. In this record, Colgan 

La Sen An icf Aenf Am states his Life is to be found. 

La Cmfc cAm AmbuATopnm 7 See Colgan 's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

Con<5cnLein iccoenifAm nioe," Martii viii. Appendix ad Vitam S. 

Thus rendered into English : — " Molotha, Senani, cap. i., p. 541, recte 537. 

Theodota (Theotimus?) with Senan — they 8 In the "Leabhar Breac," and in the 

are noble : with fair Christ is their guerdon : " Book of Leinster," fol. 35, col. 2, line 3. 

to his train they are dear." — "Transactions 9 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

of the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manu- nice," Vita S. Farannani, n. 26, p. 339. 

script Series, vol. i., part i. On the I0 See his Life, at the 9th of June, in the 

Calendar of Oengus, by Whitley Stokes, Sixth Volume of this work, Art i. 

LL.D., p. exxxvi. " See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

2 In a note to La Senan, a gloss on the nire," XV. Februarii. Vita S. Farannani, 
Feilire has " i. e. lathrach briuin iniiib foe- sect, vii., p. 337, and n. 26, p. 339. 

lain." It is thus translated, "'with Senan,' " Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

i. e. of Lathrach Briuin in Ui-Foelain." — 232, 233. 

ibid., p. cxli. ' 3 It is the head of an ancient parish, and 

3 See Dr. O'Doaovan's "Annals of the it contains the two to wnlands of Laraghbryan 
Four Masters," vol. i., n. (b), pp. 365, 366. East — containing 273^. \r. \p.— and Laragh- 

4 See the "Martyrology of Donegal," bryan West — containing 119a. or. 4p. — in 
edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. the Barony of North Salt. Both are described 
232, 233. on the " Ordnance Survey Townland Maps 

15 A note by Dr. Todd states at Mother : for the County of Kildare," Sheet 5. 

3 2 


large breach in either side wall. Some ruined windows remain. Two of 
them have elegantly dressed heading and side stones, and in these formerly 
were iron bars. The building materials are of excellent limestone and 
mortar. There was a door in the north side-wall, parallel with the road from 

Laraghbrine, County Kildare. 

Maynooth to Kilcock. Circularly-arched door-ways and windows splayed are 
still to be seen in the walls. Traces of plaster are inside and outside the 
building, 1 * showing that it had been used for purposes of worship, and at no 
very remote date. 

Article II.— St. Maine, Son of Coechan, Bishop of Tyroilill. 
[Fifth or Sixth Century.'] This holy bishop is said to have lived in Ireland, 
during the period of St. Patrick's mission. According to a commentary on 
the Felire of ^Engus, 1 it is stated, that veneration was given to St. Maine. 
However, we do not find such statement verified on examination of that 
copy, published by the Royal Irish Academy, 2 neither in the text or notes. 
It is related, that St. Maine 3 was son to Coechan, son of Ere, son to Ross, 
son of Oilioll, 4 son to Eochaidh Muighmedhoin, Monarch of Ireland. He 
sprung from the seed of Heremon. From Oilioll the district Tyroilioll 
was named. Already have we alluded to him, in treating the Life of 
St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland, at the 17th of March. s Maine appears to 

14 These observations and measurements 
were taken on the spot by the writer, 
in July, 1873. On that occasion, also, a 
sketch of the ruined church was obtained, 
which has been drawn, as here represented, 
on the wood and engraved by Gregor 

Article 11.— ' See Colgan's " Acta Sanc- 
torum Iliherniiv, " xxiii. Febrnarii, nn. 30, 

3». P- 399- 
2 Edited by Whitley Stokes, LL.D. 

3 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum IIUkt- 
nia:," xv. Februarii. Vita S. Farannani, 
sect, vii., p. 337. 

* Such is his pedigree as cot down in the 
" Sanctilogiuni Genenlogicum." See n. 20, 

p. 339, ' h 'J- 

s In the Third Volume of this work, Art. 
i., chap. xiii. There he is called the Son of 
Eochaidh Muighmedhoin ; but, tins must be 
understood, as in the remote degree of a fifth 

September 2.] LIVES Ob THE IRISH SAINTS. 33 

have been baptized by St. Patrick, when the Irish Apostle visited Connaught. 
Afterwards, the neophyte was ordained by Bishop Bron, 6 of Cassel-Irra.? He is 
consequently reckoned among the disciples of St. Patrick. 8 Wherefore, it 
may be inferred, that he flourished towards the middle of the fifth century. 
He is commemorated by the Bollandists,9 at this date ; although they are 
unable to furnish further details of his history When St. Patrick travelled 
through Magh-Luirg, the Cenel-Mic-Erca 10 stole his horses, and greatly 
incurred his displeasure. But owing to Bishop Maine's intercession, the 
censure pronounced against them was afterwards modified, and the stolen 
horses were restored. Then St. Patrick declared, a great portion of that 
district should afterwards belong to his jurisdiction. 11 However, be it 
observed, that he must have lived to a very old age, if he were the Manius, 
Bishop of Tyroilioll, who assisted at the Synod of Dromceat, a.d. 580, as 
Colgan seems to suppose. 12 The same writer tells us, that Maine is 
commemorated at this date in the Martyrology of Tallaght,^ and by 
Maguire, or the enlarger of ^Engus. At the 2nd of September, this holy 
man is recorded in the Martyrology of Marianus O'Gorman. 1 * Also, in the 
Martyrology of Donegal, 1 * on the same day, and in that copy of the Irish 
Calendar, belonging to the Ordnance Survey Records, 16 his feast occurs. 

Article III. — St. Geinten, Priest, of Tir-Guaire. This holy man's 
name is to be found in the Martyrology of Marianus O'Gorman. Little 
seems to be known regarding his family or descent ; although he probably 
was born in that part of Ireland, where, in a spirit of prophecy, St. Patrick 
declared he should rule over a church. 1 As allusion has been already made 
to this incident of the Irish Apostle's career, in the previous account of St. 
Maine, we are to assume the place of his nativity must have been in Magh 
Luirg ; but, we cannot infer from that narrative, at what particular time he 
lived. In the Tripartite Life of St. -Patrick, allusion is made to the present 
saint. There he is called Genthenn of Each-ainech, in the territory of 
Tiroilell. 2 This latter is now represented by the present Barony of Tirerill, 
in the County of Sligo. 3 Among the townland denominations of Ireland, 
we are unable to identify the locality of Each-ainech. In the Martyrology 

6 See the Sixth Volume of this work, for ainech in regione de Tiroilella." — Colgan's 
notices of him, at the 8th of June, the day " Trias Thaumaturga," Septima Vita S. 
for his festival, Art. i. Patricii, pars ii., cap. cii., p. 143. 

7 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," "See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernice," xv. 
Septima Vita S. Patricii, lib. ii., cap. xxxv., Februarii. Vita S. Farannani, n. 20, p. 339. 
p. 134, andnn. 71, 72, p. 176. J 3 However, this statement I have not 

8 See ibid. Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. been able to verify, by referring to that copy 
Patricii, cap. xxiii., p. 267. in the Book of Leinster. It is also omitted, 

9 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Sep- in Rev. Dr. Kelly's edition, 
tembris ii. Among the pretermitted Feasts, I4 See ibid. 

p. 338. *5 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

10 This tribe and territory were in the north 232, 233. 

part of Roscommon County. See Miss M. l6 There we find the entry maine, without 

F. Cusack's " Life of Saint Patrick, Apostle any other addition. See " Common Place 

of Ireland," part ii., n. 9, p. 431. Book," F. p. 74. 

11 It is difficult to interpret the confused Article hi. — ' See Colgan's "Trias 
narrative which here ensues in the Tripartite Thaumaturga," Septima Vita S. Patricii, 
Life: " Prsedixit tuncmagnam illius regionis pars ii., cap. cii., p. 143, and n. 149, p. 180. 
partem olim ad jus suarum Ecclesiarum 2 In the text of Colgan, his name is 
devoluendam : quod impletum est mAideno written Gemthenn. 

de Coch-uamach. Item in Episcopo Manio 3 See Roderick O'Flaherty's "Ogygia,*' 

discipulo Patricii, et Gemthenno de Each* pars Hi., cap. lxxix., p. 374. 


34 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September *. 

of Donegal,-* at the 2nd of September, we find inserted the name Gentenn, 
or Geinten, Priest, of Tir Guaire. This latter denomination remains to be 

Article IV. — St. Colum, Son of Blann. The name of Colum, son of 
Blann, is inserted, and he was venerated, at the 2nd of September, as recorded 
in the Martyrology of Donegal. 1 

Article V.— St. Enan, Mac Ua Mago. We read, in the Martyrology 
of Donegal, 1 that a festival in honour of Enan, Mac Ua Mago, was celebrated 
at the 2nd of September. 

Article VI. — Reputed Festival for Saints Loman, Colman and 
Macnisus. We find a festival entered for these saints at the iv of the Nones, 
or 2nd day of September, in the ancient Martyrology of the Cathedral Church 
of the Holy Trinity, Dublin ; although in the calendar prefixed, there is no 
corresponding insertion. Dr. Todd remarks, that in the Martyrology of St. 
vEngus, they are noted — not at this day — but on the 3rd of September ; 
while instead of Loman, the first is called Longarad, Lon being the original 
name. 1 It is evidently a mistake of entry, on the part of the scribe. 2 

Article VII. — St. Adomnanus or Adomnan, Abbot. Henry Fitzsimon 1 
appears to assign a second festival for St. Adomnanus, Abbot, at the present 
date, 2nd of September. He has been already commemorated at the 31st of 
January, as St. Adamnan of Coldingham. 2 He is called Adamnan at this 
date, as also in the anonymous list of Irish Saints, published by O'Sullivan 
Beare. 3 

Article VIII.— Feast of St. Mured ach, Bishop of Killala. A 
Feast of St. Muredach, Bishop and Patron of Killala, in Tyrawley, was held 
on the 2nd of September. 1 We have already treated about him at the 12th 
of August, 2 the date for his principal festival. He assisted at the Synod of 
Dromceat, a.d. 580. 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Teothotha. At the 2nd of 
September, St. Teothotha is commemorated in the Feilire of St. ^ngus ;' 
and by a scholiast on that copy in the Leabhar Brear, she is reputed to have 

* Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. nnd apparently for this statement. See 

2 3 2 > 2 33- " Historic Catholica- Iberniiv Compendium,* 

Article iv.— x Edited by Drs. Todd and tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xii., p. 52. 

Reeves, pp. 232, 233. 2 See the First Volume of this work, at 

Article v.— 1 Edited by Drs. Todd and that date, Art. iii. 

Reeves, pp. 232, 233. 3 See ibid., cap. xi., p. 50. 

Article vi. — l See "The Book of Obits Article viii— ' See Colgan's "Acta 

and Martyrology of the Cathedral Church of Sanctorum Hibernise," xv. Februarii. Vita 

the Holy Trinity," Introduction, p.lxw, and S. Farannani, n. 21, p. 339. 

p. 152. 2 In the Eighth Volume of this work, Art. i. 

2 See Ibid., p. lxxiv. Article ix. — ' See "Transactions of the 

Article vil— ' See " Catalogus aliquo- Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 

rum Sanctorum Hibernice," where he Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of 

cites the Anglican Martyrology as authority, Oengus. by Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. exxxvi. 

Seftrmbrr 2.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 35 

been a virgin. 2 In the General Church Calendars of Saints, we cannot find 
any other name, more closely resembling what has been attributed to her, 
than that of Theodora, wife of the Tribune, St. Paternus. Both of these 
endured martyrdom in Nicomedia, with many other companions. 3 This 
happened under the Emperor Julian, the Apostate, and during the fourth 

Article X. — Reputed Festival of St. Mansuetus, Bishop of Toul, 
France. — In the additions to Usuard, edited by the Bollandists, a feast for 
the bishop, St. Mansuetus, is inserted at the and of September. This the 
Bollandists notice, at the present date. 1 It can only have been that of his 
Vigil, as the chief festival occurs on the day succeeding, to which the reader 
is referred for his Acts. 

Article XL — Reputed Feast of a St. Colman, Avignon, France. 
At the 2nd of September, according to a Florarium Manuscript, belonging to 
their library, the Bollandists 1 enter a Festival for Colmann and Agricolus, 
stated to have been Bishops of Avignon, 2 a celebrated city in the south of 
France. While presenting the Acts of the latter at considerable length, as 
Bishop and Patron of thatcity,3 they state that, among the prelates of Avignon, 
no Colmann appears. However, it does not follow from this want of record, 
that such may not have been the case — as in so many other instances — 
where the Fasti of a Church are not quite complete. It seems likely enough, 
there had been some earlier authority or tradition for inserting such a Feast 
of St. Colmann in the Florarium. The name is Irish in form, and the list of 
our national saints bearing it is more numerous than that of any other 
denomination. Agricolus flourished in the seventh century, as is well known, 
while many Irish missionaries had entered France before and during that age. 
It is possible, St. Colmann may have been one of them, and connected, as 
stated, with the See of Avignon, and perhaps he was an assistant bishop. 
However this may be, it seems likely, that he must be distinguished from the 
Colman, noted at this day, in the ancient Martyrology of the Cathedral 
Church of the Holy Trinity, Dublin. 

Article XII.— Reputed Festival of a St. Molotha. In the Felire 
of St. .^Engus, at the 2nd of September, the Feast of St. Molotha is entered ; z 

2 See ibid., p. cxli. Cavarum by the Romans. In it was a 

3 Their Acts are given by the Bollandists metropolitan church of great antiquity, and 
in " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Septembris one was rebuilt by Charlemagne. From 1307 
ii. De Sanctis Martyribus Nicomedienstbus to 1377, Avignon became a papal residence, 
Zenone, Concordio, Theodoro, Filiis ejus, and in 1348, it was bought from Joanna, 
Paterno Tribuno, Theodote Uxore ejus, Queen of Sicily and Countess of Provence, 
Militibus lxviii., Matre cum duobus Filiis, for 80,000 florins. The papal sovereignty 
Serapione cum clxxii. Militibus. Item de was retained until 1791, when it was re- 
SS. Cuscono, Monolappo, Josepho," pp. united to France. See " Gazetteer of the 
360 to 365. world," vol. ii., p. 487. 

Article x.— ■ See "Acta Sanctorum," 3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Sep- 

tomus i., Septembris ii. Among the preter- tembris ii. De Sancto Agricolo Episcopo 

mitted Feasts, p. 338. et Patrono Avenionensi. A historic com- 

Articlk xi.— £ See " Acta Sanctorum," mentary precedes in three sections and 28 

tomus i., Septembris ii. Among the preter- paragraphs, and then a Life by some anony- 

mitted Feasts, p. 338. mous writer, in two chapters, containing 14 

2 This is a place of great antiquity, on the paragraphs, with illustrative notes, pp. 444 

River Rhone, and formerly the capital of a to 456. 

Gaulish tiibe, seated in the present Depart- Article xii.— ' See "Transactions of 

ment of Vaucluse. It was called Avenio the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 

36 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 3. 

but, elsewhere, we cannot find mention of any saint so called. However, 
the scholiast makes Molotha a virgin, without further attempt at identification. 2 

Article XIII. — Reputed Feasts for Gallan, Abbot, and Oronius, 
surnamed Modestus, Bishop of Carpentras, France. In his Scottish 
Menology, 1 at the 2nd of September, Dempster has entered such a festival. 2 
The Carpentoracte of Pliny is now known as Carpentras, a city of Provence, in 
France. Again, in his enumeration of Scottish writers, St. Oronius is 
mentioned as having been a bishop at the date cdxlv. In " Gallia 
Christiana," there is a notice of such an Oronius Modestus, with the title of 
saint, at the same year, where the Bishops of Carpentras are introduced. 3 
The Bollandists have entered such particulars, at the 2nd of September. ■* 

Cfttrtr JBap of September* 




GREAT saints generally learn to serve God in the religious life under 
celebrated masters. Thus are reproduced those virtuous traits of 
character, which survive for generations, and which serve to perpetuate 
seminaries of sanctity. Popular tradition lias made the present holy man a 
contemporary of the Apostles of Christ, or of their early disciples. However, 
the Diocese of Toul, in France, has always regarded St. Mansuy as the 
apostolic man, to whom it is indebted for the iight of the Gospel. With 
many other places in Gaul, the original records of that city were probably 
destroyed or lost during the persecutions of the pagans, or afterwards in the 
invasions of the barbarians from beyond the Rhine. Nevertheless, the 
people of Toul still preserve with religious veneration the memory of their 
holy patron. 

Series, vol. i., part- i. On the Calendar of Gilberti Bruni, Henrici Sinclari, &C We 

Oengus, by Whitley Stokes, p. cxxxvi. are unable to consult such works to verify 

2 See ibid., p. cxli. Dempster's statements. 

Article xiil— * See Bishop Forbes' 3 See tomus i., col. 895. Yet the writers 

Kalendars of Scottish Saints," Menologium remark, they know not on what authority his 

Scoticum, p. 210. name has been there placed. 

1 For the insertion of Gallan's name, he 4 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Sep- 

quotes Breviarium Scoticum, maxime Aber- tembris ii. Among the pretermitted Feasts, 

donense, and tor Oronius, Collectanea p. 337. 



As no contemporaneous documents regarding St. Maunsey remain, nor 
do any appear to have issued for some centuries after his death, his career is 
involved in great obscurity. Those biographies we now possess seem to be 
founded chiefly on popular traditions. Certain Acts are referred to, as 
existing in the tenth century, and which are alluded to by the monk, Adso ; l 
while Martene 2 has published a short Life of St. Mansuetus, drawn probably 
from some previously existing records,3 belonging to the Cathedral Church of 
Toul. Some doubts regarding the relative antiquity of the two latter sources 
for our saint's history have been expressed.* The short Life of St. Mansuetus, 
by an unknown writer, has first place, in the great Bollandist collection.? A 
biography was written by an abbot named Adso 6 , who lived in the tenth 
century. He was urged by St. Gerard,? Bishop of Toul, to gather all the 
traditions of that See, which he deemed to be most reliable, and to compose 
a life of St. Mansuy from them. It was to be read on the day of his Festival, 
in all the churches of that diocese. This biography has been composed in a 
diffuse and rhetorical manner : partly, we may suppose, for want of reliable 
materials, and partly, to serve the purposes of a panegyric. 8 Both of the 
foregoing lives have been edited by Father John Limpen, S.J., in the great 
collection of the Bollandists.9 To these Acts he has prefixed a commentary, 10 
and added notes ; while from different copies, both in manuscript" and in 
print, 12 he has carefully collated them. In the Life by Adso is a preface or 

Article i.— Chapter i. — ' The history 
of Adso — also called Adson, Azon, or Asson 
— and of his writings, are very fully set forth 
in the " Histoire Literaire de la France," 
tome vi. , pp. 471 to 492. 

2 See Martene "Thesaurus Novus Anec- 
dotorum," tomus hi., col. 991. This has 
been given, likewise, in Augustine Calmet's 
" Histoire Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lor- 
raine," tome i., in Monumentis, col. 83. The 
Bollandists have published the text, found in 
the latter work ; and, in the margin, they 
have given some emendations from the text 
as published by Martene. 

3 These are short memoirs of the Bishops 
of Toul, and are to be found in different 
Codices. One of these ends in the eleventh 
century, with an account of St. Leo IX., 
afterwards Pope. Another Camberonensis 
Manuscript isextended to thetwelfth century, 
and it ends with a notice of Bishop Pibon. 

4 See the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus i., Septembris iii. De S. Mansueto 
Episc. et Conf. Tulli Levcorvm in Gallia. 
Commentarius Praevius, sect, i., num. 12, 
13, pp. 618, 619. 

5 Henceforth it shall be quoted, as the 
Vita Brevior. 

6 Afterwards Abbot of Montier-en-Der. 
This Vita S. Mansueti was written not later 
than a.d. 969. It was originally divided 
into two books. From these, however, the 
Bollandist editor chose to make a new dis- 
tribution. The first Book he divided into 
four chapters, and three of these are devoted 
to the discursive Acts of the Saint — the 
fourth chapter referring to traditionary 
miracles. The second Book is divided into 
four chapters, and these chiefly relate to 

miracles wrought long after the death of St. 

7 His term in the episcopacy lasted from 
a.d. 963, to a.d. 994. His festival is 
observed on the 23rd of April. 

8 In succeeding pages, it is quoted as the 
Vita Prolixior. 

9 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Sep- 
tembris iii. De S. Mansueto Episc. et Conf. 
Tulli Levcorvm in Gallia," pp. 615 to 658. 

10 In six Sections and 80 paragraphs. 

" Three of these copies in manuscript are 
taken from Ochsenhusan, Dilingen, and St. 
Maximinian Codices. 

12 Those printed copies had been published 
by Bosquet, in "Ecclesiae Gallicanae His- 
toriarum," pars, ii., from p. 23 ; by Martene, 
in " Thesaurus Novus Anecdotorum," tomus 
iii., from col. 1013 ; and by Calmet, in 
" Histoire Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lor- 
raine," tome i., in Historia Episcoporum 
Tullensium, from col. 86. All these copies 
were traced from two Codices, belonging to 
the Abbey of St. Mansuet, Toul, one of 
which had been written in the eleventh, and 
the other in the twelfth century. The 
Bollandist editor wishes to admonish his 
readers, that as none of those mentioned had 
given the Life by Adso complete, except the 
Codex Ochsenhusan, and as the latter most 
abounded in errors, he rejected it, and 
adopted the Dilingen text, as least faulty, 
while he selected emendations from other 
copies. In the more ancient Mansuetian 
copy, the Preface was wanting, but it was 
found in the more recent. Thence it was 
transcribed in the Ochsenhusan and Dilingen 
manuscripts. Martene drew his text from ft 
Codex in the Colbert Library. 


dedication to the most blessed prelate, Gerard. Again, two Latin poems are 
postfixed to the preface : the first of these contains twenty-two distichs, while 
the latter is an acrostic of eight hexameter lines, having the letters of the 
name Mansuete distributed in the usual order. The first of those poems 
follows the tradition of St. Maunsay having been a native of Ireland, and a 
disciple of the Apostle St. Peter. The latter is silent on both these points. 
The Bollandist editor concludes his Acts of this holy man, with an account 
of miracles wrought through his merits and intercession, as drawn from 
various sources. 

Acts or notices of St. Mansuetus have been published by Francis 
Bosquet,^ by Edmund Martene and Ursin Durand, 1 * as also by Augustin 
Calmet, x 5 in twenty-two special chapters, besides many subsequent records of 
miracles wrought through his intercession, in the History of the Bishops of 
Toul. Colgan intended the publication of St. Mansuet's Acts, at this date. 16 
Archbishop Ussher has an account of St. Mansuetus, commonly called Saint 
Mansu, in the country around Toul. 1 ? Also, Thomas Dempster 18 introduces 
notices of St. Mansuetus-at this day. Notices of St. Mansuetus are contained 
in the Acts of Blessed Marianus and Murcheratus ; x 9 the anonymous writer 
having lived about the middle of the twelfth century. Aventinus, 20 and the 
author of a tract, De Fundatione Ecclesise extra Muros Civitatis Ratis- 
bonensis, have reference to St. Mansuetus. 21 Notices of this saint are to 
be found in Mabillon, 22 in Le P. Benoit, 2 * in Harris' Ware, 2 * by Baillet, 2 * by 
Rev. Alban Butler, 26 by Rev. Dr. Lanigan, 2 ? by Ad. Thiery, 28 by M. l'Abbe 
Guillaume, 2 9 in the Les Petits Bollandistes,3° and in Rev. S. Baring-Gould's* 1 

The most ancient records of the Church of Toul, and the more general 
accounts of his life, declare this saint to have been a Scot, or in other words, 
a native of Ireland.3 2 The Vita Brevior, written by an anonymous author, 
states this to have been the tradition of those, who preceded himself in point 
of time." Also, the Vita Prolixior, by the Abbot Adso, contains a like 

13 See "EcclesireGallicanwHistoiiarum," 24 See vol. iii., "Writers of Ireland.'' 
lib. i., pars, ii,, p. 23, Paris, A.D. 1633, 8vo. book i., p. 4. 

14 See "Thesaurus Novus Anecdotorum," 2S See " Les Vies des Saints," tome iii., 
tomus iii., a col. 1013, published A,D. 1717. pp. 28, 29, at the 3rd of September. Also, 

15 See "Histoire Ecclesiastique et Civile in the edition of 1701, tome ix., pp. 60, 61. 
de Lorraine," tome i. Preuves de l'Histoire " 6 See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, 
de Lorraine. HistoriaEpiscoporumTullen- and other principal Saints," vol. ix., Sep- 
sium, col. 86 to 107. tember iii. 

16 See "Catalogus Actuum Sanctorum quae * 7 See " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 
MS. habentur, ordine Mensium et Dierum." vol. i., chap, i., sect, ii., pp. 3 to 5. 

17 See "Britannicarum Ecclesiarum An- a8 See "Histoire de la Ville de Toul et 
tiquitates," cap. xvi., pp. 389 to 392. des ses Eveques," in two vols. Toul, 1841, 

18 See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis 8vo. 

Scotorum," tomus ii., lib. xii., num. 838, pp. 29 See "Histoire da Diocfese de Toul." 

447, 448. This admirable work has been published in 

19 See an account of both in the Second five volumes, 8vo. 

Volume of this work, at the 9th of February, so •* Vies des Saints," tome x., iii e jour de 

Art. i. September, pp. 431 to 435. 

20 In " Annalium Boiorum,'' lib. vi., p. 3' "Lives of the Saints," vol. ix., Sep- 
307. tember 3, pp. 35, 36. 

21 See Ussher in "Britannicarum Ecclesia- 3' See D. Petro Lombardo, " De Regno 
rum Antiquiiates," p. 1038. Hibernise, Sanctorum Insula, Comnien- 

** See •' Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," tarius," cap. xiii., p. 60, Dr. Moran's edition, 

tomus iv., lib. liii., sect, xxv., pp. 209, 210. 33 He writes : " Fuit enim idem veneran- 

23 See " Histoire ecclesiastique et politique dus Pater, sicut relatu majorum didicimus, 

de la ville et du Diocese du Toul," 1707, nobili Scottorum sanguine oriundus."— 

4 l °- Num. 2. 



statement. 34 From both ot these sources, nearly all the more modern lives of our 
saint have drawn their accounts.35 In the metrical lines prefixed to his life by 
Adso, he is said to have been descended from parents of gentle birth, and 
possibly, at a time when Christianity had been propagated in Ireland. 3° It is 
stated, 37 also, in an edition of Mansuetus' Life, published by Bosquet, and 
written by the Abbot Adso, in the tenth century, that some verses are wanting, 
which Adso prefixed to his work, and of which, in order to make him a Scot 
of Albafiy, Dempster cites a passage. 38 But, he disingenuously suppresses the 
Tetrastich^ which demonstrates him to have been a Scot of Ireland, as the 
learned Archbishop Ussher takes care to remark/ In Harris's edition 
of Ware 41 many mistakes occur, when narrating the particulars of our saint's 
life, as founded on the authority of Archbishop Ussher, and especially in 
assigning Maunsey to the first or second century. Also by Thomas Dempster, 
whose audacity and ignorance are found united in a similar statement.* 2 

It must be admitted, although an ancient tradition of Toul has been 
followed by many writers, regarding his living in the time of the Apostles, 
that the days of the present holy bishop cannot date back to that early 
period/3 It seems most probable, that St. Mansuetus — rendered by the 
French St. Mansey or Maunsey — was born about the beginning of the fourth 

34 In this we read : " ut scriptime docu- 
mento percepimus, quidam sanctse indolis 
fuerit adolescens, nomine Mansuetus, trans- 
marinis partibus nobilium quidem Scotorum 
clara progenie genitus ; sed mentis egregiae 
nobilitate multo preciosius insignitus." — lib. 
i., cap. i., num. 2. 

35 The learned Uom Augustine Calmet, 
Abbot of St. Leopold, Nancy, in his admir- 
able and very complete provincial history, 
follows their authority, when alluding to the 
time of St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, he 
introduces there a tract with the title, Incipit 
Catalogus Pontificum Ttdlcnsium, a B. 
Mansueto, et deinceps. In it is written : 
" Ea tempestate, ut scripturae documento 
percepimus, quidam sanctae indolis fuerat 
adolescens nomine Mansuetus transmarinis 
partibus, nobilium quidem Scothorum clara 
progenie genitus ; sed mentis egregiae nobili- 
tate multo pretiosius insignitus. Quo videli- 
cet tenere adhuc aetatis progressu consistente, 
cum praesagio nominis provehebatur culmine 
sanctitatis, moribus vocabulo consonantibus 
se semper sublimior studebat fieri augmento 
pietatis." — "Histoire Ecclesiastique et Civile 
de Lorraine," tome i. Preuvesde 1' Histoire 
de Lorraine. Vitse et Actuum B. Mansueti, 
Primi Leuchorum Urbis Pontificis, lib. i., 
cap. ii., col. 87. 

36 There, too, it is stated : " Insula Christi- 
colas gestabat Hibernia gentes ;" although 
we cannot pronounce with certainty, that 
this line may not have referred to the Island 
of Maunsey's birth, at some period subsequent 
to his death, and before the verses in which 
it is included had been composed. 

37 In Harris' Ware, vol. ii. " Writers of 
Ireland," book L, p. 4. 

38 Thus given : " Protulerat quendam 
generosum Scotia natum Mansuetuw." It 

is rendered into English : " Scotia gave 
birth to her noble son, Mansuetus." 
39 The following are the Latin lines :— 
" Inclyta Mansueti claris natalibus orti 
Progenies titulis fulget in orbe suis, 
Insula Christicolas gestabat Hibernia 

Unde genus traxit, et satus inde fuit." 
Thus rendered into English : — 
"Though great by blood, Mansuetus 
bears his name, 
Yet he on real worth supports his fame, 
Wide o'er the world Religion deigned 

to smile, 
And spread her Harvest through Hiber- 

nia's Isle, 
Hence the long series of his high-born 

And hence the glories of his birth we 
Harris' Ware, vol. iii. " Writers of Ireland," 
book i., p. 4. 

40 See " Britannicarum Ecclesiaruni Anti- 
quitates," cap. xvi., p. 391. 

41 See vol. iii. " Writers of Ireland," 
book i., p. 4. 

42 In his " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentig 
Scotorum," where he pretends, that the 
term Scotus applied to St. Mansuetus 
should class him among the Saints of Scot- 
land. He also amusingly states : " Hiberni 
impudenter civem sutun faciunt, sed tabulae 
Ecclesiae Tullensis, Guil. Eisengrinus C. I., 
part I., dist. ill., Franc. Roziers, torn. 11., 
Stemmatis Lotharingae, Hist. Capital. xxn. t 
et Constantinus Ghinius in Natalib, SS 
Canonic, pro nobis contra mendicorum im- 
potentiam stant graviter ; et Adso abbas, 
qui vitam ejus scripsit, cap. 11." — Lib. xii., 
num. 838, p. 448. 

43 See Adrien Baillet's " Les Vies des 



century.** If, as has been stated, he was a native of Ireland, it is likely he 
had an original Celtic name, the form of which may have been different, but 
it cannot now be known. In the little poem prefixed to the life above 
mentioned is a distich, in which allusion is made to Ausonius. 45 If by the 
word Auso?iii is to be understood the poet Ausonius, 46 master of St. 
Paulinus, 4 ? we should be inclined to place Mansuetus at a later period than 
the fourth century, charging Adso, however, with a huge anacronism. But, it 
is more probable, that by Ausom'i he meant Italic particularly as in another 
verse, he has Ausonias Italas.** 

St. Maunsey appears to have journeyed abroad, and to have visited Rome, 
where he probably received the light of Faith, and embraced the Christian 
religion. This happened, however, at a much later period, than has been 
traditionally held, or than has been recorded by several uncritical and over- 
credulous writers ; for he is said to have come to the knowledge of the 
Christian religion, through St. James the Apostle. 4 ? This account must be 
relegated to the cloud of fables, that have covered the early career of St. 
Mansuetus ; nor can even such assertion be traced to any well-known 
authority. He is said, likewise, to have been a disciple of St. Peter the 
Apostle. 50 Although such unreliable tradition may have been reproduced in 
the Vita Brevior- 1 and Vita Prolixior^ as also in the prefixed poem;" 
there is sufficient evidence to prove, that it must be dismissed as unworthy of 
credence. So far as his life has been transmitted to us, chronology has been 
departed from, and probability has been little observed in many particulars. 54 
Quoting Constantinus Ghinius, 55 Thomas Dempster maintains, 56 that St. 
Mansuetus was a disciple of St, Peter, and that he was ordained in Rome. 

Saints," tome ix., p. 60. Paris 1701, 8vo. 

44 Dom Augustin Calmet writes: " S. 
Mansuy premier Evequede Toul, fut envoye 
apparemment par le S. Siege dans la Belgique, 
pour y precher l'Evangile, vers le milieu 
du quatneme siecle. Nous ne croyons pas 
que Ton puisse ni l'avancer, ni le reculer 
beaucoup davantage." — "Histoire Ecclesias- 
tique et Civile de Lorraine," tome i. Dis- 
sertation sur les Premiers Eveques de 
l'Eglise de Toul, col. xxvii. 

4 * In the following connexion : " Sedulus 
Ausonii^zi tempora, longa magistri obsequis 
Petri hcesit amore sui." 

46 A Latin poet, born at Bourdeaux in the 
beginning of the fourth century. He died 
a.d. 394. 

47 He was born at Bourdeaux, in 353. 
Afterwards he became bishop of Nola. He 
lived to the year 431, and his festival is 
celebrated on the 22nd of June. 

48 See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 
Hisiory of Ireland," vol. i., chap, i., sect, ii., 
No. II, p. 5. 

« 9 According to the statement of Convaeus. 
See O'Sullivan Beare's " Historic Hiberniae 
Catholics; Compendium," tomus i., lib. iv., 
cap. x., p. 47. 

s° See Molanus, also Baronius, in his notes 
on the Roman Martyrology, at the 3rd of 
September. Likewise O'Sullivan Beare's 
" Historic Hiberniae Catholica: Compen- 
dium," tomus i., lib. iv. Catalogus Anony- 

mous, cap. xi., p. 50. And Henry Fitz- 
simon's "Catalogus aliquorum Sanctorum 
Hiberniae," cap. xii., p. 55. 
5' See Num. 3. 

52 See lib. i., cap. i., num. 3. 

53 In these lines : — 

"Petrus Apostolicae pollebat culmine 
Roma: ; 
Huncque sequutus amans, expetit ipse 
b'uscipit ardentem Petrus pietatis Alum- 
Et facit expertem sancta secreta Virum : 
Cujus ab ore piis attrectans dogmata 
Ebiberat stabilem fonte salutis opem. 
Sedulus Ausonii per tempora longa 
Obsequio Petri haesit amore sui. 
Quern Petrus ad summon provexit cul- 
minis arcem, 
Et dat gavisus pontificale decus. " 

54 " Nous remarquerons seulment que »'il 
n'y a eu que six eveques a Toul entre lui et 
Saint Auspice qui vivoit sur la fin du cin- 
quieme siecle, il y a grande apparence qu'il 
n'a paru que durant la paix de l'Eylisc, et au 
plutot sous le regne des emans du grand 
Constantin." — Adrien Baillet's " Les Vies 
des Saints," tome ix., p. 61. 

55 Page LX. 

56 See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Sco- 
torum," tomus ii., lib. xii., num. 838, p. 447. 



Bishop Rothe admits the uncertainty of St. Mansuetus having been a 
disciple of St. Peter.57 Although St. Mansuet is said to have received his 
first mission from the Prince of the Apostles ; s8 there are too many historical 
contradictions and objections to oppose those statements, and the best critics 
have disproved such groundless assertions. Among these may be mentioned 
Mabillon, Martene', and Durand. 5 ? It seems most probable, that St. Mansey 
was consecrated Bishop in Rome, about the time when Constantine 60 the 
Great was Emperor, 61 or possibly when his three sons, 62 Constantine II., 6 3 
Constantius II., 6 * and Constans 65 had succeeded to the Empire, which was 
partitioned between them. Although we may not accept as literally correct 
the statement, that St. Mansuetus had been placed by St. Peter over the 
bishopric of Toul ; 66 still, it is most probable, that he was commissioned by 
the Sovereign Pontiff of the Roman See to undertake such a mission. 
Moreover, when we read of Mansuetus having been sent by St. Peter, it is 
easily reconciled with the truth of history, by referring to the well-known 
idiom of using the founder's name for that of the church over which he had 
presided. 6 ? 

The Leuci, or Leques, 68 formerly inhabited that province of ancient Gaul, 

57 See his work, Hibernia resurgens," 
P^ 197. 

58 The following short notice of Maunsue- 
tus is taken from a tract by Philip O'Sullivan, 
"S. Mansuetus primus qui fidem suscepisse 
per D, Jacobum creditur; pastea a S. Petro 
ad Thulos transmissus quos ad fidem con- 
vertit, quorumque Apostolicus, patronus 
habetur. Festus illius dies celebratur, 3 Sep- 
tembris." — " Historic Catholics; Hibernice 
Compendium," tomus i., lib. iv., chap, x., 
p. 47. 

59 See " Thesaurus Novus Anecdotorum," 
tomus iii., col. 1021. Also, Amplissima 
Collectio Veterum Scriptorum," tomus vi., 
P. 637- 

60 He was born about A.D. 273 or 274 at 
Nissa, a town of Upper Mcesia, and he was 
the son of Constantinus and Helena. On 
the death of his father in Britain, A.D. 306, 
the Roman soldiers there proclaimed him 
Emperor. He then waged war against the 
Franks, Alemanni and other Germans. 
Having embraced the Christian religion, he 
became sole Emperor, A.D. 324, after the 
death of Licinius. He died at the age of 
sixty-four, on the 22nd of May, a.d. 337, 
at his palace, in the suburbs of Nicomedia. 
See Philip Smith's " Ancient History," vol. 
iii., chap. xliv. 

61 See the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus i., Septembris iii. De S. Mansueto 
Episc. et Conf. Commentarius Proevius, sect, 
ii., pp. 620 to 623. 

62 By Faustsu 

63 He was regarded as Emperor over Gaul 
and the Western Empire, and had attained 
only his twenty-first year, when his father 
died, A.D. 337. But, dissatisfied with his 
share of the Empire, Constantine required 
his brother Constans to give up Africa. 
War ensued between them, when having 

crossed the Julian Alps, Constantine fell 
into an ambush and was slain, A.D. 340. 
See Henry Fynes Clinton's "Fasti Romani," 
vol. i., tables, p. 400. 

64 He succeeded, at twenty years, to Thrace 
and the East. His reign was greatly dis- 
turbed by wars, which he waged with 
different rivals. On the death of Constans, 
A.D. 350, he was recognised as sole Emperor, 
but he died at Mopsucrene, in Cilicia, on 
the third of November, A.D. 361. See ibid., 
p. 444. 

65 Constans, who was only seventeen, held 
the Italian prefecture, and the province of 
Greece, as also Africa. On the death of 
his brother Constantine II., A.D. 340, he 
assumed the government of the Western 
Empire for ten years. He was put to death 
by Magnentius, an ignorant barbarian, at the 
foot of the Pyrenees, a.d. 350. Magnentius 
then usurped the prefectures of Gaul and 
Italy. See Baronius' "Annates Ecclesias- 
tici," tomus iii., p. 504. 

66 Such appears to have been the tradition 
in Ireland, at an early period, for it is asserted 
as a recognised fact, by the 12th century 
biographer of the Blessed Marianus Scotus. 
See the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus ii., Februarii ix. Vita Beati Mariani, 
cap, i., p. 365. 

67 The Rev. Dr. Lanigan justly observes : 
" thus ad Set Petrutn, for or to the Church of 
Rome ; a S. Petro, from or by the said 
Church ; ad S. Martinum to the Church of 
Tours ; and what was very common amongst 
ourselves, ad S. Patricium, a S. Patrilio, 
to or by the See of Armagh." — " Ecclesias- 
tical History of Ireland," vol. i., chap, i., 
sect, ii., n. II. 

68 See J. Clement's " Antiquites de la 
Ville et du Siege episcopal de Toul," 1702, 


known to the Romans as Belgica prima, and their chief city was Toul. 6 ^ To 
this Ptolemy has added another, which he names Nasion.? The Leuci 
occupied the southern part of the present Department of the Meuse, the 
greater part of the Meurthe Department, and the Vosges Department, in 
France. 7 l Before the time of our saint, Toul had been a city of some 
importance,' 2 and it was surrounded with walls for defence. During the 
Middle Ages, the Dukes of Lotharingia, or Lorraine, ruled over that territory, 
between the Meuse and Moselle ; and ecclesiastically the See of Toul was 
under the Metropolitan City of Triers, or Treves. From Rome, St. Mansuetus 
was sent to Toul, having been invested with the episcopal character, and he 
was appointed its first pastor. This took place, not before the middle of the 
fourth century, 73 or perhaps even later. In his history of the Gallic Church, 
Bosquet remarks?* that Mansuet must not be confounded with a Bishop of 
the Armorican Britons bearing a like name, and who was present at the first 
Council of Tours. 7 5 The people to whom St. Maunsuy had been sent were 
then addicted to idolatry, and involved in the darkness of pagan superstition. 
It is said, that they had a king named Leon, who was an idolater, and a man 
of barbarous manners.' 6 When their first missionary entered Toul, and began 
to announce the truths of the Gospel, he found the magistrates and chiefs of 
the people indisposed to hear his preaching. This conduct influenced greatly 
the opposition and indifference of the humbler classes, so that for some time 
his doctrine and teaching were disregarded. 

The holy missionary built for his dwelling in the woods an humble cabin 
of twigs interwoven ;77 and, in that he lived, devoted to the exercises of prayer 
and meditation. While there, numbers resorted to him. Having received 
instruction, they renounced idolatrous worship, and embraced the true 
religion. Even, the governor's wife, having heard so many rumours about 
the strange missionary, desired to learn more about his race, the doctrines he 
taught, and the places whence he came ; but, it was only during the absence 
of her pagan husband, she could venture, through her domestics, to arrange 
for a private interview with the holy man. When he had expounded to her, 
the chief mysteries of the Christian religion, and the truths of Divine Faith, 
that lady believed in his doctrine and teaching, but still deferred her profes- 

69 It is situated on the River Moselle, about the middle of the fourth century. To 
surrounded by a chain of hills covered with omit other arguments, he endeavours to prove 

vineyards. See Gazetteer of the World, vol. this from the recorded succession of the 

xiii., p. 141. bishops of Toul : thus, 1. S. Mansuet, or 

70 In the Second Book of his Geography, Mansuy ; 2, S. Anion ; 3, S. Alchas ; 4, S. 
on account of the similarity of name to the Celsin ; 5, S. Auspice, vers ban 450; 6, S. 
Latin Nanceium, it is thought by many to Ours, or Urse, sous (Jlovis, vers Tan 4S8 ; 
have represented the present City of Nancy 7, S. Apre, or Evre, vers l'an 500, &c. — 
in Lorraine. See " Recueil des Ilistoriens '' Ilistoire Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lor- 
ues Gaules et de la France," par Dora Martin raine," tome i., col. xxxiii. 

Bouquet, Pretre et Religious Benedictin 7 * See '* Eccleste Gallicanse Historiamm," 

de la Congregation de Saint Maur, tome i., T. C. Evangelis in Callus inque ad datam a 

p. 77, n. (i). Constantino Imperatore ecclesioe pacem, 

71 See " Ilistoire de Jules C£sar," par lib. i., cap. xx. 
Napoleon III., Empereur, tome ii., liv. iii., ?5 This was held a.d. 461. 

chap, ii., p. 22, n. 3. ? 6 See Calmet's " Ilistoire Ecclesiastique 

72 See Bataille's "Notice historique surla et Civile de Lorraine," tome i., Dissertation 
Ville de Toul et ses Antiquites," with plates, sur les Premier! Evesques de l'Eglise de 
1 84 1, 8vo. Toul, col. xxvii. 

7i In a Dissertation sur les Ev&jtus de 7 ? The Vita Prolixior states, " propc 

Toul, prefixed to the first volume of his meenia civitatis exiguie habitations sil.i 

History of Lorraine, Calmet maintains, that rectptorium pneparavit," lib. i., cap. i., n. 

Mansuetus was sent bom Rome to Toul, 6, p. 640. 


sion of faith, lest it should cause some trouble between herself and husband. 78 
However, when he happened to be absent on public business, the missionary 
was encouraged to visit her house, and still afford her the satisfaction of 
learning those messages of salvation he was so well qualified to convey. 

It happened on a certain day, observed as a local festival, and while un- 
people of Toul were bent on enjoyment, the only son of their governor fell by 
accident from the city ramparts into the Moselle, which flowed beneath. 
The river was very deep at that place. Public rejoicings were at once dis- 
continued, and in common with his parents, the inhabitants shared their 
sorrow on account of the youth who had been drowned. Every effort was 
made to recover the dead body. In vain were the pagan gods invoked for 
that purpose. However, during the night, the governor's wife had a dream, 
in which she saw St. Mansuy, who promised to restore her son, if she would 
become a convert to Christianity. On awaking, she related that vision to her 
husband. Thereupon, he sent a message to the saint, and promised, if his 
son's corpse were recovered through means of the stranger, that he would 
receive baptism, and influence all his people to embrace the doctrines of the 
foreign missionary. Our saint then went to that spot, where the boy had 
fallen into the river, and betook himself to prayer. Soon the body arose to 
the surface, and it was drawn up on the river bank. Then addressing the 
governor, Mansuy said : " Behold the corpse of your son, and if you are 
resolved to observe the promise made to me, the goodness of God is great, 
and you shall obtain from Him a still more signal favour." Immediately the 
governor and all who were present declared, that if the boy were brought to 
life, they would abandon the worship of false gods, and embrace the Christian 
religion. Then the bishop fell on his knees and implored the Divine 
Majesty, while some of his newly converted disciples imitated his example. 
Their fervent prayers were rewarded by signs of life coming to re-invigorate 
the body, which was cold and stiff when recovered from the water. Never- 
theless, at a word from the minister of Jesus Christ, the boy arose to life, and 
cast himself into the arms of his overjoyed parents. This miraculous restora- 
tion filled all who were present with transports of delight and admiration. 79 
The governor and his family, with all his people, conformed to Christianity, 
and thenceforth recognised St. Mansuy as their pastor. 80 



We are told, that St. Maunsey's character was distinguished for an admixture 
of firmness in episcopal administration, with clemency and piety combined in 
a remarkable degree, while he spent days and nights in prayer. He was ever 
attentive to the wants of his flock, and those, who came to visit him with 

78 See Dom Augustin Calmet's " Histoire related what he had seen, before bis resusci- 
Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lorraine," tome tation, regarding those torments prepared for 
i. Dissertation sur les Premiers Evesques the wicked in hell, and to which his parents 
de l'Eglise de Toul, col. xxviii. and himself should be consigned, unless they 

79 In the Vita Prolixior it is stated, that the became Christians.— Lib. i., cap. ii., num. 16. 
boy, on being restored to life, and alter lying 8o See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des 
in the water for three days and three nights, Saints," tome x.,iii e Jour deSeptembre, p. 432 


hearts bowed down, left him with consolation even in their miseries, so mild 
and gentle were his admonitions. His miraculous gifts of healing the sick 
caused him to be regarded as the true physician of his people. Soon was 
idolatry extirpated from the land : and then, he deemed it necessary to 
raise temples in honour of the true and living God. From very ancient 
acts of his, that have now perished, we are told by the writer of his longer life, 
how, within the walls of Toul, he built two churches. One of these was 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary and to St. Stephen, 1 the primitive 
Martyr; 2 the other was dedicated to St. John the Baptist. 3 Both of these 
lay on the southern side of the city.* In those churches, 5 he zealously and 
profitably exercised the episcopal functions each day j but, he desired 
moments of retreat for spiritual exercises, and these occupied a great part of 
the night. Near his dwelling, he raised an oratory, 6 which was dedicated to 
St. Peter, for whom he entertained a special veneration. There, in retirement, 
he communed with God in prayer ; and moreover, in it, he frequently 
preached to the faithful, who flocked to hear his instructions. In fine, the 
influence of St. Mansuy was so great, that he succeeded in rooting out the 
practices of paganism, and the worship of idols from the city, and from all its 
surrounding territory. Numbers of persons he brought within the pale of 
Christ's Church. 7 He likewise ordained a great number of priests and 
deacons for the work of the ministry. 

The Church of St. Stephen became the Cathedral of Toul, but during 
the lapse of time it fell into decay, when St. Gerard, a pious successor of St. 
Mansuy in the See, rebuilt it from the foundations. 8 The illustrious Abbot, 
St. Bernard,? assisted at its dedication by Pope Eugenius III. 10 After various 
vicissitudes, it was deemed necessary to erect a more modern structure. The 
present fine Cathedral of St. Stephen, in Toul, was designed and built in the 
fifteenth century. Its portal and western front, the conception of Jacquemin 
de Commercy, in 1447, are greatly admired. The ornate facade is 227 feet 
in height, and twin towers give it a most imposing effect. 11 It is a triapsal 
church, with short transepts, and having no triforium. 12 This edifice has 

CHAPTKR ii.— ! His festival occurs on the read : " multitudines fidelium in Christ! fide 

26th of December. colligens, ad consortium priemisit Augelo- 

2 The writer of the Vita Prolixior adds, rum," cap. xiii.. col. 94. 

" ubi dicitur ad Fontes." It was so called 8 See Dom Augustin Calmct's "Histoire 

apparently, because it had been set apart a? Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lorraine,'' tome 

an ancient baptistery. i. Preuves, &c. Historia Episcoporum 

s His feast is held on the 24th of June. Tullensium, cap. xxxviii., col. 138. 

4 See Dom Augustin Calmet's "Histoire 9 His feast occurs on the 20th of August. 
Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lorraine," tome i. He was born A.D. 1091, and he died on the 
Preuves de l'Hisloire de Lorraine. Historia 20ih of August, A.D. 11 53. 
Episcopoium Tullensium, cap. xi., col. 93. 10 See Dom Augustin Calmet's work, tome 

5 The position of these churches — during ii., liv. xxi., num. xxxiii., col. 24. Bertrand 
the last century within the cloister of the de la Tour dAuvergne, who was nomi- 
canons — is shown on a map of Toul, in the nated Bishop of Toul by Pope Innocent VI., 
work already quoted. See tome i. Also, in 1353, published a Synodal decree, l>y 
Dissertation sur les premiers Evesques de which the Abbot of St. Mansuy was to a-sist 

-e de Toul, col. xxviii. on the left of the Bishop, who faced the 

6 Father Limpen supposes the local tradi- choir before the grand altar in the Cathedral, 
tion may well be credited, that St. Mansuy See ibid.^ tome ii., liv. xxvi., num. exxxvi., 
built a church to St. Peter, in the northern col. 633, and num. exxxvii., col. 634. 
suburb of Toul, and that he had been there " At present the city contains about 7,000 
interred. Allusion is made to that ancient inhabitants. See Elisee Reclus' " Nouvelle 
church, having become ruinous, in a charter Geographie Universelle, tome ii., liv. ii„ 
of Otho I., A.D. 965, and one of St. Gerard, chap, xv., sect, iv., pp. 837, 838. 

a.i>. 982. " See Balthasar's " Notice historique de- 

" In the History of the Bishops of Toul we scriptivesurlaCathedraledeToul,"l848,8vo. 



peculiar features, but it is mainly in an architectural Gothic flamboyant style. x 3 
'J 'he history and a fine copper plate engraving of it are presented in the 
learned work of Augustin Calmer. 1 * From the latter, the accompanying 

illustration has been 
copied. 15 In a more 
recent local work, than 
that of Calmet, there are 
also views of St. Ste- 
phen s Cathedral. 16 The 
principal shrine in the 
Cathedral of Toul was 
shaped as a sort of tomb, 
coloured in vermillion, 
with a coffin-like cover- 
ing, about one metre in 
length, fifty centimetres 
in width, and seventy 
centimetres in height. 
This contained the relics 
of St. Mansuy and of 
fourteen other bishops 
of Toul, venerated as 
saints. Exteriorly, it was 
ornamented with red 
statues, separated from 
each other, and forming 
supposed representa- 
tions of persons whose 
relics were deposited in 
the shrine. Those 
images rested on pedes- 
tals, which were at the 
Cathedral of Toul, France. base of the shrine, and 

they reached to the height of its covering. At the respective ends of the 
shrine's length were medallion-shaped glasses, through which the relics within 
could be seen. In various places throughout his diocese St. Maunsey built 
churches, so that the people might be enabled in them to adore and supplicate 
the Giver of all good gifts. 

Were we to credit the very doubtful authority of Dempster, 1 ? our saint 
wrote a book, having for its title, " De Apostolicis Traditionibus," lib. i., 
and which he tells us the people of Toul religiously preserve. This assertion, 
however, is treated with merited disregard and contempt by Archbishop 
Ussher, 18 as are other groundless statements of the same writer relating to 

He is thought to have lived for many years, zealously engaged in the 
prosecution of apostolic labours, and to have attained a great age, before his 

13 See A. Hugo's " France Pi Moresque," 
ome ii., p. 246. 

14 See y Histoire Ecclesiastique et Civile 
de Lorraine," tome iii. 

15 It has been drawn on the wood and en- 
graved by Gregor Grey. 

16 See Ad. Thiery's " Histoire de la Ville 
de Toul et de ces Eveques," suivies d'une 

Notice sur la Cathedrale," avec 14 lithogra- 
phies et 2 plans, two volumes, published in 
Toul, 1841, 8vo. 

17 See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis 
Scotorum," tomus ii., lib. xii., num. 838, p. 

18 See " Britannicarum Ecciesiarum Anti- 
quitates," cap. xvi., p. 392. 

46 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [Srptbmbrr 3. 

term of life had expired.'^ His virtues and merits, added to his labours and 
austerities, had thus purified his soul for heaven. When his term on earth 
closed his years of exile, it seems probable, he had been long estranged from 
social intercourse with those, that were early known to him in his native land. 20 
Those writers, who have supposed St. Maunsey a disciple of St. Peter, place 
his death in the early part of the second century. 21 But, as we have already 
seen, that was long before the period of his birth. He died on the 3rd of 
September, and about the year 375, according to most accounts. His people 
were greatly afflicted when they knew of his demise, and manifested their 
respect and love while celebrating his funeral obsequies. The body of St. 
Mansuy was buried in that oratory of St. Peter, which he is said to have 
built. 22 

His memory has been highly revered at Toul, from the time of his death 
to the present day. His immediate successor in that See was Amon, a 3 also 
distinguished for great virtues and miraculous gifts. He was interred, 
likewise, in the ancient Church of St. Peter ; and from those early times, the 
faithful were accustomed to revere both prelates, and to resort for succour to 
them in their various infirmities. Among those pious pilgrims to their tombs 
were persons of the highest distinction — even kings and princes — who arrived 
with the poor, and who manifested their trusting confidence in, and devout 
reverence for, those holy patrons ; thus affording examples of religious 
observance and veneration towards the saints, during the Ages of Faith. a < 
Even hospitals were erected in Toul for the reception of poor pilgrims, who 
flocked thither to be healed. Those houses of hospitality, likewise, were 
liberally endowed and maintained. 25 Among others, who are said to have 
visited Toul for the purpose of praying in the oratory of St. Mansuetus, was 
St. Martin, 26 the holy Bishop of Tours, 2 ? who is supposed to have had 

19 In the History of the Bishops of Toul, more ancient date, declares, that miracles 

it is thus stated : ** Cumque jam Dei athleta had been wrought there ; but, that in his day, 

electu.s plenus esset dierum, et proved re for want of writers, or through the ravages 

rctatis carnis onere de- of the barbarians, several interesting records 

posito iii. nonarnm Septembrium spiritum had perished. 

urlo reddidit, &c." — Calmet's " Histoire 26 St. Gregory of Tours places his birth in 

Kcclesiastique et Civile de Lorraine," tome the year 316, or before Easter in 317, during 

i., cap. xiii., col. 94. the eleventh year of Constantine the Great's 

70 To him might be applied the poet's reign. He became Bishop of Tours about 

lines :— the year 375. He is said to have attained 

" Before him from the earth have passed the eighty-fourth year, and to have departed 

Friends, kinsmen, comrades, true and this life on the 8th of November, a.d. 400. 

brave ; His chief feast, however, is kept on the nth 

And well he knows he nears, at last, of that month. St. Sulpicius Severus has 

His place of rest — a foreign grave !" written his life in elegant Latin, and eight 

— "Green Leaves." A volume of Irish years after the death of his illustrious master, 

verses, byT. D. Sullivan, p. 85. he wrote three dialogues to supply previous 

21 Thus Ussher records his demise under omissions. The Chronology of St. Martin's 

the year of Christ 105, in these words : Life is very intricate. See " Memoires de 

" Mansuetus Ilibernus, primus Tullensium Trevoux," ad annum 1765, pp. 1238, 1239. 

Kpiscopus, anno ministerii sui (jaadragesimo 2 ? In the church of the Abbey of St. 

mortem obiisse dicitur." — " Britannicarum Maunsey at Toul had long been preserved 

Kcclesiarum Antiquitates," Index Chronolo a stone, on which St. Martin is said to have 

gicus, p. 508. knelt, when he came thither as a pilgrim. 

"Seethe Pita ProKxior t VSx i.,cap. iii. , However, when the Emperor Charles V., 

num. 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, pp. 642, 643. in 1552, had taken Metz, Toul and Verdun 

23 His feast is celebrated at Toul, on the from the French, the old Church of St. 

23rd of October. Maunsey was destroyed, and that stone was 

34 See the Vita Brevior, sect. 5, 6, and removed to the cloister of St. Gengulph's 

f'ita Prolixior, lib. i., cap. iv., sect. 25, 26. Collegiate Church in Toul. Long afterwards, 

2 5 Adso, who quotes from documents ot that stone might be seen bearing an inscrip 



frequent pious colloquies with St. Maximinus, 28 Bishop of Triers or 

From an early period, the Irish Scots, who had a great veneration for 
their compatriot, St. Maunsey, were accustomed to frequent his church and 
to offer their devotions at his shrine. Among those were to be found many 
poor pilgrims, who were obliged to lodge in the hospice, while waiting some 
favours through the saint's intercession. One case in particular is related by 
Adso, regarding a poor Irishman and his wife, who while there had a pig 
stolen from them, which they needed for their common support. Their 
prayers for its recovery were offered to St. Maunsey in his church.^ The lost 
animal is stated to have been miraculously restored to them, but in a fashion 
too legendary to merit credence^ 

Years had passed away after the death of St. Maunsey, and the Vandals^ 1 
having taken possession of Toul, subjected his church to their devastations. 
In the commencement of the fifth century, witli other German tribes, they 
had crossed the Rhine, and spread like a torrent over Gaul, which had then 
experienced the benefits of Roman civilization. The flourishing city of 
Mentz was surprised and destroyed, while many thousand Christians were 
inhumanly massacred in the church. In like manner, Strasburg, Spiers, 
Rheims, Tournay, Arras, and Amiens, experienced the oppression of the 
German invaders ; houses and churches were despoiled of their valuables ; 
while the clergy and laity were obliged to flee for their lives before the 
merciless and rapacious barbarians.3 2 The charitable foundations for pilgrims 
experienced also the natural results of wars that embroiled the people living 
in and around Toul. Wherefore,, those endowments were dissipated, and the 

tion to the effect, it was the one on which St. 
Martin prayed at the tomb of St. Maunsey, 
when he visited Toul. In the beginning of 
the last century, that old church had not 
been repaired, and the Benedictines, who 
were in possession of the site, having con- 
verted the former refectory into a chapel, 
also celebrated the Divine Office in it. 
There, likewise, according to the two Bene- 
dictines of the Congregation of St. Maur, 
the body of St. Maunsey had been preserved. 
See Dom Augustin Calmet's " Histoire 
Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lorraine," in his 
Dissertation on the early Bishops of Toul, 
lib. v., num. 21, and tome iii., lib. xxxiii., 
num. 66. Also, the Literary Itinerary of two 
Benedictines, part ii., p. 130, published in 
Paris, 1 7 17. 

28 He was born at Monterre-Silly, in 
Foitou, towards the end of the third or the 
beginning of the fourth century. Upon the 
death of St. Agritius, Bishop of Triers, he 
was chosen successor, A.n. 332. He was one 
of the most illustrious defenders of the 
Catholic faith in the Council of Sardica, held 
in 347. He died on a visit to his relations* 
in Poitou, a.d. 349. His feast is celebrated 
at Poitiers, on the 29th of May. See Les 
Petits Bollandistes, "Viesdes Saints," tome 
vi., xxixe Jour de Mai, pp. 292 to 294. 
Hence, it can be inferred, that Adso's state- 
ment of the familiarity passing between St. 
Martin of Tours, and St. Maximinus of 
Treves, and their journey to Rome in com- 
pany, cannot be admitted. The latter had 

been dead several years before St. Martin 
became Bishop of Tours. 

2 9 The matter is thus related by Adso : 
" Furantis autem personam cum nusquam 
deprehenderet ; dampni sui non ferens dis- 
pendium, ad sacram sedem tendit, et effertis, 
ut Scotorum natura est, animis tumulo Sancti 
se msestum injecit et plenum querimoniis, et 
ut rustici verbis eloquar ; O Sancte Dei, 
Scottum, inquam, te Scottum et me, genti 
Scottigenae propitius miserere. Me eminus 
positum forte juvare debueras : ecce peregre 
constitutum quid aporiari pateris, quid rebus 
destitui permittis ? Redde, obsecro, quod 
perdidi : redde, quod fur impius forte jam 
absumit. Hsec et his similia multa prosequens 
pauper ille, tristis recipitur hospicio." 

30 Adso intimates, that such a popular 
story need not be trusted, nor does it merit 
his own approval, neither does it that of his 
editor, Father John Limpen. In Calmet's 
edition of Adso's Life of our Saint, the 
narrative above noticed is ended thus : 
"Vitseet actuum beati Mansueti pontificis 
liber primus explicit/' See " Ac:a Sancto- 
rum," tomus i., Septembris iii. Vita Pro- 
lixior, lib. i., cap. iv., nums. 25, 26, 27, 28, 
29, with notes, pp. 644, 645. 

31 These people were spread along the 
banks of the Oder, and on the sea-coast of 
Pomerania and Mecklenburgh, at an early 
period. Originally, they are supposed to 
have been a Slavonic and not a German 

3J See Edward Gibbon's *' History of the 

4 8 LIVES OE THE IRISH SAIATS. [September 3. 

church, as likewise the hospice, fell into ruin. Frequently, too, those 
establishments and their possessions were seized by seculars and treated with 
small regard, even in the mediaeval times. When Garibalde, Bishop of Toul, 
died about the year 735, he was succeeded by Godon, who presided over the 
See for about twenty years; and during that period the city was burned, when 
the archives of his church were reduced to ashes.33 

Nevertheless, the veneration of the faithful for our saint continued, and 
through the whole diocese of Toul, his feast was solemnly celebrated, so that 
it became a matter of sacred obligation to cease from servile work on that 
day ; while it seems probable, that although ruinous, the Church of St. Peter 
had not been wholly deserted, nor had the religious services there been 
discontinued, although shorn much of their early splendour. However, 
in the southern suburbs, where an ancient Abbey of the Benedictines stood, 
one Archembald 3 * ruled as Abbot, between the years 936 and 948. To him, 
St. Gauzlin,35 Bishop of Toul, committed the Church of St. Peter, and the 
care for its restoration, on condition that he should send some of the religious 
of St. Afre3 6 to dwell there, and to sing the Divine office, at the tomb of 
St. Maunsay. During the lifetime of St. Gauzlin, the work of repairing St. 
Peter's was commenced, but it was not completed, at the time of his death, 
a.d. 962. During his pontificate, a woman, blind for seven years, and who 
lived in the villa of Count Widon,3? was led on the vigil of St. Maunsey's 
feast to his church, where she desired to remain for that night. However, 
her request was not granted. Then taking her place with others before the 
closed doors, and praying with great fervour to the saint in the middle of 
the night, burning lights suddenly appeared to her restored vision. She gave 
thanks to God and to his saint in loud ejaculations of gratitude. Another 
miracle was wrought in favour of a soldier's daughter^ 8 who lived on a farm 
not far from Toul. She was regarded as a possessed person, and in a state of 
mental derangement, wherefore she was bound with cords and left in charge 
of keepers. However, her parents brought the girl to the oratory of St. Maun- 
sey. There she was allowed to remain within the church that whole night, 
with a single guardian. She returned to her home restored to a sound state 
of mind. Another poor person, whose body was covered with a leprosy, 
called Elephantiasis,39 approached the church, and as having lived on alms, 
he humbly presented a portion of salt at the saint's shrine, and prayed there 

Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," place after that date, since the ruined church 

vol. iv., chap, xxx., p. 52. Dr. William in which the body of St. Maunsey had been 

Smith's edition. deposed was not at that time given by Bishop 

33 See Dom. Aug. Calmet's "Histoire Gauzlin to the Abbey of St. Apre. 
Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lorraine," tome 38 Her father was named Stephen. 

i., liv. xi., sect, lxvii. » " A disease affecting chiefly the legs and 

34 By Adso, he is styled Ilerchemboldus. feet, which, becoming rough, scaly, and 
In two charters, dated a.d. 941 and 942, his swollen, have been compared to an elephant : 
name is written Archembaldus, as found in the skin gets thick, unctuous, and insensi- 
Augustine Calmet's " Histoire Ecclesias- ble, and the limb occasionally attains an 
tique et Civile de Lorraine, "tome i. Preuves enormous size." — " Dictionary of Science, 
de l'Histoire de Lorraine, col. 348 and 350. 'Literature, and Art," by W. T. Brande and 

35 His feast is celebrated on the 7th of Rev. George W. Cox, vol. i., p. 764. 
September. *° One of these was wrought in favour of 

3 6 His festival is held on the 5th of August. a distinguished cleric, who had been brought 
* In a document which bears date 5 Idus to the last extremity through fever ; while 

Octobris, a.d. 936, ihe signature of this another named Drogo, who was a soldier, 

Count Wido is found. See Calmet's " His- and a native of Dulmensis, in the circle of 

toire Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lorraine," Westphalia, was in like manner restored, 

tome i. Preuves de L'Histoire de Lorraine, owing to his faith in the merits of St. Maun- 

col. 344. The miracle here recorded took sey. 

September 3.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 49 

with great fervour. • Soon he experienced some impression on his back — for 
he had prostrated himself on the floor — and then suddenly arising, he found 
a new vigour in his limbs, the leprosy entirely disappearing. It seems to 
have been the mediaeval custom for those affected with fevers or other 
maladies to be carried to the shrine of St. Maunsey, where they devoutly 
sought his intercession on their behalf; and various instances are recorded 
by Adso of cures thus effected,* while he declares, it should be impossible 
to remember all that came to his knowledge, or that were related in reference 
to the holy patron of Toul.* 1 

The people of Toul were always accustomed to celebrate St. Maunsey's 
festival as -a special Holyday, and they regarded it as one to be observed by 
abstaining from servile works or unnecessary travelling. Indeed, the con- 
trary custom was regarded as bringing with it some such danger as had 
nearly happened to certain waggoners of Barrois,* 2 who continued to travel 
with loads of salt through Gondreville on that festival day, and who made 
light of the popular veneration. Having journeyed towards the Moselle 
River, which they desired to cross, the oxen yoked to their waggons became 
restive, and could not be controlled by the drivers, who had nearly been 
carried over a precipice. Seeing the danger that threatened, those peasants 
felt a sudden remorse for having violated St. Mansuy's day. They then 
implored his pardon, and solemnly vowed thenceforward to observe it 
religiously. Suddenly they were delivered from a danger, which was likely 
to have been attended with the forfeit of their lives.43 A venerable man — 
Grimaldus by name — had been appointed Abbot over the monastery of St. 
Afre, chiefly through the instrumentality of St. Gauzlin. On one occasion, a 
cow belonging to the community had been stolen, nor was there a prospect 
of her recovery. But, having prayed to St. Maunsey, on the following day, 
most unexpectedly and to the great admiration of all the monks, that animal 
returned to her proper stall. Soon after this account, Adso records the 
happy demise of St. Gauzlin,44 who was interred at Bouxieres-aux-dames, in 
the church of that religious community of Benedictine nuns founded by 
himself. He died in the year 962. 

Born in the city of Cologne, and highly educated, especially in all 
branches of ecclesiastical learning, on the death of Gauzlin, Bruno, Arch- 
bishop of Cologne and Duke of Lorraine, appointed Gerard 45 in 963, to 
succeed, with the approbation of the Emperor Otho I.,* 6 of the clergy and 
people of Toul, and he was consecrated at Treves. One of his earliest cares 

41 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Simple, King of Fiance, proves, dated on the 
Septembris iii., Vita Prolixior, lib. ii., cap. same year and day. See Calmet's " Histoire 
i., ii., pp. 645 to 647. Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lorraine," tome i. 

42 So called from Bar-le-Duc, its capital, Preuves de l'Histoire de Lorraine, col. 335, 
and it lies between the Marneand the Moselle 336. 

in Lorraine. See M. Vivien de Saint-Mar- 45 See a very complete account of this dis- 

tin, " Nouveau Dictionnaire de Geographie tinguished prelate in Les Petits Bollandistes, 

Universelle," tome i., p. 351. "Vies des Saints," tome iv., Jour xxiii e 

43 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des d'Avril, pp. 623 to 632. 

Saints," tome x., Jour iiie de Septembre, p. 46 Surnamed the Great. He became 

433* Emperor of Germany, a.d. 936. He was of 

44 Adso states : " Cujus dies depositions the Saxon line, and had inherited a prepon- 
vii Idus Septembris agitur." See the Vita derating power in the north of Germany, 
Prolixior, lib. ii., cap. ii., pp. 647, 648. which he greatly increased by his own 
Adso is mistaken in the account that St. success in war. He died on the 25th of 
Gauzlin was in the forty-fourth year of his con- December, A.D. 967. See Dean Henry 
secration as bishop, since his predecessor, Hart Milman's " History of Latin Chris- 
Drogon, died on the iv. of the March Nones, tianity," vol. iii., book v., chap, xii., pp. 
A.d. 922, which a Charter of Charles the 305 to 316. 


5o LIVES Of THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 3 

was to visit the church in which reposed the body of St. Maunsey. There 
he prayed with great devotion, and took a vow, that he would endeavour to 
effect its entire renovation. He resolved on seeking aid from a powerful 
patron. With such a view he obtained a charter from the Emperor Otho I., 4 ? 
dated in the year 965, on the iv. of the June Nones. This confirmed the 
possessions, privileges and rules of the monks therein living, and who were 
under the Order of St. Benedict.* 8 He not only completed that foundation, 
but he liberally endowed it. 4 ^ Moreover, he advanced the Prior over St. Peter's 
monastery to the dignity of an Abbot. On the site of St. Peter's oratory, a 
celebrated Benedictine Abbey was built, and it was dedicated to St. Mansuy.s° 
The choir of the Abbey Church was erected over the saint's tomb. 

Various translations of the holy Bishop's relics are on record. It is said, 
that about the year 971, St. Gerard, Bishop of Toul, repaired that church 
dedicated to St. Maunsey's memory, and that afterwards, he solemnly 
translated the relics of the holy patron from the place of their deposition, to 
one more suitable for their reception. The relics were placed in a wooden 
shrine within the church, and before it the monks sang their office, with their 
accustomed rites, while the faithful frequenting the sanctuary to pray received 
many benefits through the saint's intercession. Moreover, it is related of 
this pious prelate, that a band of Greeks and Scots having arrived in Toul, 
he maintained them at his own expense.* 1 In an oratory they had separate 
altars, at which they offered prayers to God, according to the manner of their 
respective nations. 52 It is supposed, that the disturbances of the time in 
their own countries 5 * brought those strangers to seek an asylum in his city 
from the charitable bishop. 54 

During times ot great drought, and when a loss of the growing crops was 
feared, the clergy and people of Toul sought the saint's shrine in solemn 
procession, and devoutly trusted that the prayers of their Patron should 
procure for them fertilizing showers. This was illustrated in a miraculous 
manner, during the period of St. Gerard's incumbency in the see of Toul. 55 
An unusually dry season had visited the country all around ; the earth cracked 
open, and vegetation was burned up, through excessive heat ; the labours of 
the husbandman seemed destined to produce nothing of value from the land; 
even the sky presented very extraordinary phenomena. Deeming these to 

4 ? See an account of this celebrated Em- side of the ancient walls of the city, in the 

peror in Jules Zeller's " Histoire d'Alle- Faubourg de St. Mansuis. 

magne," tome ii., chap, xiii., pp. 250 to 385. 5I " Hie cation Gnvcorum ac Scotto- 

4 ® The feast of this illustrious Abbot falls rum congregasse, ac propriis stipendiis 

on the 21st of March. See an account of St. aluisse dicitur, divisis inter illos altaribus in 

Benedict and of his Order in " Histoire oratorio, ubi Deo supplices laiules peisolvcrent 

Complete et Costumes des Ordres Monas- more patriot — Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis 

tiques, Religieux et Militaires, et des Con- S. Benedicti," tomus iv., lib. I, num. cii., 

gregations Seculieres des deux Sexes," par p. 90. 

le R. P. He'lyot, avec Notice, Annotations sa This account seems to indicate, that both 

et Complement, par V. Phillipon de la the Greeks and Irish, who are here alluded 

Madelaine, tome iv., Premiere Partie, pp. 5 to, prayed in their own language, and used 

et seq. their own peculiar rites of worship, differing 

49 See Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S. from those of Gaul. 

Benedicti," at A.D. 982. Tomus iv., lib. 53 Especially in Ireland the Danes and 

xlix., num. xiii., pp. 8, 9. Norwegians committed great devastations 

50 Besides a fine copper-plate engraving of during the ninth and tenth centuries, as 
a map, representing the former Diocese of noticed in our Annals. 

Toul, in Dom Augustin Calmet's " Histoire 54 See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des 

Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lorraine," tome i. , Saints," tome iv., Jour xxiii c d'Avril, p. 625. 

there is another Plan de la Villede Toul, on ss See Dom Calmet's Histoire Ecclesias- 

which its position is shown near the northern tique et Civile de Lorraine," tome i. 

September 3.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 51 

be indications of the Divine displeasure for the sins of his people, and at 
their request, the holy Bishop Gerard instituted a fast for three days, at the 
end of which time, the shrine of St. Maunsey, containing his blessed body, 
was to be borne in solemn procession over the parched fields. While 
litanies and hymns were sung by the clergy and a vast number of the laity 
assembled, and while they thus moved to the church of St. Apri or Epvre, 
which was a stage to be reached by the processionists ; suddenly the clouds 
lowered, the lightnings flashed, and loud peals of thunder followed. Then 
came torrents of rain, which drenched the multitude present, but which 
brought refreshing showers on the fields, the object so earnestly sought. Nor 
was this the only remarkable occurrence to be related. Sindebard, Count 
of Toul, was about to have his hand cauterized, because it had withered and 
caused him great agony \ yet, remembering the merits of the Patron saint, 
he most earnestly desired leave for carrying that shrine, in which the sacred 
remains were deposed. This permission he readily obtained, and with 
Immon, a noble officer in the bishop's service, he walked in that procession. 
When the shrine was returned to the place in which it usually had been 
deposited, Mass was commenced, and at its conclusion, the Count found all 
pain removed from his hand. This he raised up before all those who were 
present, as a manifestation of St. Maunsey's merits and intercession^ 6 
Immediately after these occurrences, and having placed the sacred remains 
in the church, 5 ? after vigils and devotions of the previous night, it was 
solemnly dedicated in honour of the Holy Mother of the Man-God and 
of St. Maunsey. Thenceforward, several remarkable miracles were wrought 
in it through their intercession, and numbers of devout worshippers were 
favoured with remission of their sins. Another miracle is related regarding 
a boy, who had long been a cripple, owing to some spinal contraction. His 
father, a rustic, had conveyed him in his arms for ten successive years to the 
tomb of St. Maunsey, but without any alleviation of his son's sufferings. 
One day, a certain Jew reproached the poor man for his credulity ; when 
suddenly, the boy who had been laid on the pavement before the shrine felt 
himself able to arise and walk, to the great admiration of the devout persons 
who were present. 58 Moreover, on another occasion, and on a Saturday 
night, while the monks were engaged reciting the Divine Office, and preparing 
for the Sunday's services on the morrow, St. Gerard, happening to sleep in 
their monastery at that time,s° had an apparition of St. Maunsey, 60 who 
seemed to enter the chamber with an effulgence of light. Approaching the 
bed on which the bishop lay, the latter found a hand laid on his body, and 
heard a voice calling out, " Why sleep you ? while others keep their pious 
vigils, why are you buried in so deep a slumber ? for the kingdom of Heaven 
comes not to those sleeping, but to the wakeful.'' At once the bishop arose, 
and not without some shameful feeling and excitement, he hastened to the 
church and joined the choir, although not in good time, as the office had 
long before commenced. 67 

Preuves de l'Histoire de Lorraine, Historia then maintained at the charges of the church. 

Episcoporum Tullensium, cap. xx., col. 101. 59 It is stated, the bishop had been much 

56 The old writer, who records the foregoing fatigued, owing to previous labours . 
miracle, adds : " Cujus rei adhuc est ipse 6o He seemed of large stature, and of a 
testis certus, si a quolibet fuerit requisitus." venerable aspect, his habit being of a white 
— Ibid. colour. 

57 This Bishop Gerard had previously 6l This narrative Adso had from St. Gerard 
raised from its foundations. himself, and he adds in conclusion : " Cujus 

s 8 In continuation the chronicler remarks, rei testis non sine sui pudore refert, quid in 

that when he wrote, that boy was living and illo sit passus secreto cubiculi virtute prae- 

52 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 3. 

On several occasions, when the plague prevailed in the city and country 
around Toul, the people offered prayers to St. Mansuy, and bore the shrine 
containing his body in public and solemn procession. We have an account 
of that deadly plague, 62 which visited the city during the pontificate of St. 
Gerard, when great numbers of all classes and of both sexes were stricken 
with the pest. This usually proved mortal after an illness of three days. 
Whereupon, St. Gerard resolved on proclaiming a fast for three days, at the 
end of which time, he intended removing the saint's shrine from the place in 
which it had been deposited not long before, and having called the people 
together, a procession was formed to the church of the Blessed Virgin at 
Ecrouves, 6 3 near Toul. From that time forward, the plague was known to 
have decreased in virulence. Yet, public apprehensions were not wholly 
allayed, when a second and much greater procession took place to the Bene- 
dictine Convent, 6 * at Buxeria, 6 * where the nuns were prepared to receive the 
precious remains. In that place, also, Bishop Gerard spent the night. 
Multitudes assembled to join the procession from the villages and farms 
along the route, both going and returning ; nor was the River Meurte an 
obstacle to their pious zeal, for many persons forded it, although swollen 
with a night's rain. On the return to St. Maunsey's church, the sun shone 
out with remarkable brightness, while the enthusiasm of the people was mani- 
fested in tears of joy, shared even by their saintly bishop. Although abating, 
the plague had not altogether ceased, and a third procession was ordered, 
when the bodies of St. Maunsey and of St. Epvre were brought in their 
respective shrines through the streets of Toul. Afterwards, the pest entirely 
disappeared to the great relief and joy of the people. 66 

St. Gerard had granted the villages of Angeria and Molesiac to the 
monastery of St. Maunsey, as dependencies for its maintenance ; but, he 
afterwards revoked this grant, and then he remarked a sudden failure of his 
strength and health. He became so spare and debilitated, that, he had no 
appetite, nor could he sleep, Especially for three weeks did he continue in 
this state, and had abandoned all hope of recovery. Despite the objections 
raised by members of his household, he expressed a wish to be conveyed to 
the monastery of St. Maunsey. This happened in the year 974, when he 
was afflicted with that severe malady, which his physicians were unable to 
heal through the ordinary courses prescribed. The bishop was restored, 
however, by invoking the aid of St. Maunsey, and by making a visit to the 
holy Patron's shrine and monastery. 

A remarkable miracle, wrought in favour of an English girl through the 
merits of St. Maunsey, took place in the year iooq. 6 ? She had been accessory 

stanti beati Mansueti." — Vita prolixior, lib. by no religious vow. 

ii., cap. iii., p. 649. 6s The modern French name for it is 

63 The old chronicler in relation to Toul Bouxieres-aux- dames. It is situated on the 

and St. Gerard, adds : " Ilanc urbem clades River Meurte, and near its junction with 

ita superveniens irruperat, ut ad unum the Moselle, about five hours' journey from 

quemlibet, exceptis aliis diversarum eccle- Toul. 

siarum, locum, sicut idem pontifex non sine ^ In certain Latin hexameter lines, written 
gemitu memorabat, denos vel septenos mor- . in praise of St. Gerard, we read, that he saved 

fuorum loculos sub oculis aspiceret inferri the Monastery of St. Mansuy from fire : — 

tumulandos." " Ccenobium Sancti conservat ab igne 

63 The chronicler remarks that, the place voraci." — See Dom Augustin Calmet's 
was remarkable, also, for the many miracles " Histoire Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lor- 
there wrought. raine," tome i. Preuves, &c. ; Ilistoiia Epis- 

64 This had been founded by St. Gauzlin, coporum Tullensium, cap. xxxv., col. 133. 
and it was tenanted originally by Benedictine 67 See Mabillon's " Annates Ordinis S. 
nuns. In the last century, an abbess and Benedicti," tomus iv., lib. lib., sect, xxv., 
canonesses were the occupants, but bound pp. 209, 210. 



to her mother's death, in conjunction with her brother, a cleric, who had 
resolved on avenging a family injury. 68 For this crime, they were both con- 
demned to a punishment common at the period, which was, to have iron 
bands fastened about their arm and body. 6 ^ They were also obliged to 
undertake a pilgrimage, so that while visiting Jerusalem, they might expiate 
in some measure, their matricide by prayer at the holy places. 7° On return- 
ing, the guilty brother died, but his sister Godelinde visited Toul, to obtain 
relief through the intercession of St. Maunsey. This in part was experienced, 
as one of the bands loosened on her arm, the other remaining fast. She was 
accompanied through a motive of charity, by an innocent brother, named 
Rodulf ; and they next resolved on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Oldericus,? 1 
the patron of Augsburg.? 2 However, when they had come to the forest of 
the Vosges mountains, where the monastery known as Vallis-Gaiilese had 
been founded by St. Deodatus,73 Godelinde had a vision of St. Maunsey in her 
sleep, and she was recommended by him to return. This warning she would 
not take, but continued her journey towards the city of Strasburg. Again 
the vision was repeated during her sleep ; yet notwithstanding the dangers 
of the journey represented to her, she would persevere in her resolution. 
The sufferings and privations endured by the pilgrims were great 
beyond expression ; but, she at length returned to Toul, in the extremity 
of misery, and offered up her prayers with vigils at the tomb of St. Maunsey. 
When she despaired of relief, the moment of mercy came. The iron band 
burst asunder, and fell from her arm. Astonished at such a result, she 
fainted on the spot ; but soon her senses were restored, and she returned 
full of joy and gratitude to the country of her birth. 74 

68 These were of noble birth both on the 
father's and mother's side. When about to 
die, the father commended his children to 
the care of his wife ; but, after his death, 
unmindful of the trust committed to her, she 
again married, and her second husband, 
while retaining the daughter in her paternal 
castle, most inhumanly cast out her brothers, 
and deprived them of their natural inherit- 
ance. Stung to frenzy by this conduct, the 
cleric, with an armed band, and in the dead 
hour of the night, entered the castle, with 
the aid of his sister. Proceeding to the bed- 
chamber of his mother and step-father, he 
endeavoured to kill the latter, but the deadly 
weapon transfixed the body of the former. 

69 It would seem the provocation had been 
so great, and probably the parricide having 
been unintentional, the culprits escaped 
capital punishment ; but, they were obliged 
to bear iron bands or chains, closely bound 
on the naked body or limbs. In this case, 
the brother had " toto trunco corporis artatur 
strictis circulis," while the sister " accepit 
duos in sinistro brachio." During the ninth, 
tenth, and eleventh centuries, such a punish- 
ment was frequently inflicted on parricides, 
or those who murdered relations in blood, 
sometimes for a term of years, and sometimes 
for a life-time ; while they were enjoined as 
an expiatory penance to visit Jerusalem, 
Rome, or some other place, where saints were 
held in particular veneration. Examples of 
this kind are to be found, in Mabillon's 

" Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus i., 
lib. iv., sect, vii., pp. 87, 88. 

70 Certain abuses seem to have arisen from 
this usage. Thus, in a Council, held at Aix- 
la-Chapelle, in the time of Charlemagne, it 
was decreed, " non sinantur vagari et decep- 
tiones hominibus agere . . . isti nudi 
cum ferro, qui dicunt se data sibi 
poenitentia ire vagantes. Melius videtur, ut, 
si aliquid inconsuetum et capitale crimen 
commiserint, uno in loco permaneant labo- 
rantes et servientes et pcenitentiam agentes, 
secundum quod sibi canonice impositum 
sit." — Sirmond, " Conciliorum," tomus ii., 

p. 154- 

71 St. Oldericus or Uldaricus is venerated 
on the 4th day of July. 

72 Formerly called Augusta Vindelicorum. 

73 Bishop of Nevers and Apostle of the 
Vosges territory. His feast is held on the 
19th of June. 

74 The more circumstantial details of this 
miracle, as given in the Bollandists' "Acta 
Sanctorum," thus concludes : " Praedicti 
tamen circuli pendent ad pedes crucifixi 
Domini, quorum prior Kalendis Januarii 
proruit, necnon alter XIII. Kalendas Junii 
cecidit anno ab Incarnatione Domini nono 
et milessimo, pontificante Tullense ecclesiam 
domne Bertoldo episcopo, Indictione vii." — 
Tomus i., Septembris iii. De S. Mansueto 
Epis. et Conf. Miraculum quod contigit 
anno Mix., auctore anonymo, pp. 651 to 





During the Middle Ages, Toul maintained a sort of independence, 1 under 
the nominal control of a long line of bishops, and as a free city of the German 
Empire. 2 The prelates were sovereigns, who regulated its government, and 
appointed its guards and officials, while they sat as magistrates to administer 
justice in cases of litigation among their peopled 

The public veneration for St. Maunsey continued to increase, when St. 
Bruno* was consecrated bishop of Toul, a.d. 1027.5 He entertained the 
greatest devotion towards the holy patron, whose intercession procured relief 
for many sufferers, during the period when he presided over that see, and 
until he was called upon to rule over the universal Church in 1048, under the 
designation St. Leo IX. 6 Among the afflicted was a person of distinction, 
named Odelric de Novo-villari,? who had experienced so many benefits from 
St. Maunsey's prayers, that he desired to be buried in the church, with his 
wife, and he left certain farms of land to the monastery. This donation 
bishop Bruno confirmed by his authority, in the year 1034. After his 
elevation to the chair of St. Peter, 8 and while still in the city of Toul, with a 
certain Deacon Peter of the Roman Church, another miracles is recorded to 
have occurred during the month of September, a.d. 1049. Li tnis > the 
eleventh century, St. Maunsey was canonized, as we are told, by Pope Leo 
the Ninth, 10 He also confirmed the rights and privileges of the Chapter of 

Chapter hi.— 1 The French kings from 
the Merovingian period, and afterwards the 
German Emperors, left the bishops of Toul 
temporary lords of the city and of its surround- 
ing territory. The inhabitants of the former 
had municipal institutions, while the latter 
was held in fief by the Dukes of Lorraine. 
See " Nouveau Dictionnaire de Geographie 
Universelle," tome vi., p. 758. 

2 See Murray's " Handbook for Travellers 
in France," sect, ix., Route 165, p. 618. 

3 Even at the present time, a stone seat on 
which those judgments were delivered is 
shown in Toul. See Les Petits Bollandistes, 
"Vies des Saints," tome iv., Jour xxiii e 
d'Avril, p, 623. 

* He was son to Hughes, Count of 
Egisheim, cousin-german of the Emperor 
Conrad le Salique, and he was born in Alsace, 
June 21st, a.d. 1002. His mother, Heilvige, 
was the only daughter and heiress of Louis, 
Count of Dachsbourg or Dagsbourg, also 
known as Dabo. His career in the Church 
was distinguished. See ibid., Jour xix e 
dAvril, pp. 491 to 520. 

s He was elected by the clergy and people 
on the death of his predecessor, Bishop Ber- 
thold. See Michaud, "Biographie Univer- 
selle, Ancienne et Moderne," tome xxiv., p. 


6 He died on the 19th of April, a.d. 1054. 
See an account of his life and pontificate, in 

R. P. Natalis Alexandri Ordinis FF. Prredi- 
catorum, in Sacra Facultate Parisiensi Doc- 
toris et Emeriti Professoris " Historia 
Ecclesiastica Veteris Novique Testamenti," 
tomus xiv., cap. i., art. vi., pp. 12 to 18. 

7 He was a man of substance, who before 
his death bequeathed two Mansi, and other 
farms, to the Monastery of St. Mansuetus, 
on the xvii. of the September Kalends, A.D. 
1034, while Hunald was Abbot, and this 
donation was confirmed in due legal form, 
with the seal of Bruno, Bishop of Toul. See 
Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S- Benedicti," 
tomus iv., lib. lvii., num. xxxvii., pp. 392, 393. 
The term Mansus, Mama or Mansum has 
various significations, according as it may 
happen to be employed, as explained in Du 
Cange's "Glossarium ad Scriptores Mediae 
et Infimae Latinitatis," tomus iv., sub voce, 
col. 432 to 435, Ediiio 1733. 

8 The Life of this celebrated Pontiff was 
written originally by three contemporaneous 
authors : Wibert, Archdeacon of the Church 
of Toul, Anselm, monk ot Saint-Remi, and 
Bruno, Bishop of Segni. 

9 It is to be found very circumstantially 
related, in M. l'Abbe Guillaume's " Histoire 
de l'Eglise de Toul." 

10 See Archbishop Ussher's " Britannica- 
rum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," cap. xvi., 
pp. 389, 390. Also, Harris' Ware, vol. ii. 
" Writers of Ireland," book i., chap, i., p. 4. 



Canons, attached to Toul Cathedral in 1051." We have already seen, that 
this Sovereign Pontiff is said to have canonized St. Erard or Erhard" of 
Ratisbon, in Bavaria — another Irish missionary — and at a time when he was 
a visitor to that city. 1 * 

While Dodo 14 ruled over the monastery of St. Maunsey, he laid the 
foundations of a tower, which was carried up to the roof of the church. 
During the time his successor Abbot Grimbaldus 1 ^ presided over the mon- 
astery of St. Maunsey, he completed that work, which was one of great 
architectural beauty, while it was surmounted with a gilt cross, and an eagle 
with out-spread wings. Moreover, while he built the church exteriorly, he 
added ornamental features within, having decorated the altar of Saints Peter 
and Paul with a silver tablet, shining with gems and gold. He was succeeded 
by Albricus, 16 whose eloquence and learning brought a large concourse of 
persons to the sacred mysteries and ceremonies of the church, so that he 
was obliged to undertake its enlargement. Albricus therefore raised an 
ambit of wall, and by a circuit it was brought to the curvature of the arches. 
In the crypt of this building, the remains of that Abbot were afterwards 
deposed. *? Next to Albricus came Theomarus. 18 He resumed the work of 
his predecessor, who had elevated the walls to the vaulted arches, which 
were to support two towers. These were built very speedily, and it being 
necessary to continue the work of restoration, the old altars were destroyed, 
and gave place to new ones. Afterwards, the relics of the Holy Apostles, 
with a portion of the wood of the True Cross, 1 ? were removed, with a three 

11 See this decree in Dom Augustin Cal- 
met's " Histoire Ecclesiastique et Civile de 
Lorraine," and thus dated : "Datum Tulli 
in majora Ecclesia per manus Udonis Tul- 
lensis Ecclesise primicerii, cancellarii et 
bibliothecarii Sanctse Apostolicae Sedis xj. 
Kalend. Novembris, anno Dominica? Incar- 
nationis milessimo quinquagesimo primo, 
Indictione iv. anno apostolatus Domini 
Leon is IX., Papse ij." — Tome i. Preuves 
de 1' Histoire de Lorraine, cols. 435 to 437. 

12 See his Life, in the First Volume of this 
work, at the 8th of January, Art. ii., chap, 

13 Probably in the year 1052. See L'Abbe 
Fleury's " Histoire Ecclesiastique," tome 
xii., liv. lix., sect, lxxix., p. 594. 

14 Dodo was the nineteenth Bishop of 
Toul in the order of succession. See Dom 
Aug. Calmet's " Histoire Ecclesiastique et 
Civile de Lorraine," tome i. Preuves de 
l'Histoire de Lorraine, cols. 127, 170. 

'5 He nourished about the middle of the 
eleventh century, and his signature is found 
appended as witness to a document of Udo, 
Bishop of Toul, and dated a.d. 1065. 

16 He ruled over the monastery of St. 
Maunsey, after the middle of the eleventh 
century. In 1076, his signature is found in 
a concession of Pibo, who succeeded Udo as 
Bishop of Toul. Grimbaldus had died not 
long before that date, and Albricus departed 
this life, A.D. 1092 or 1093. 

** In the crypt of that ancient church in 
which he had been buried, Calmet states, 
that an epitaph had been found inscribed 

with these lines : — 

"Abbas Albricus sapiens, pius atque pudi* 

" Hanc fabricam statuit, causa caputque 

The same writer has it, that the crypt built 
by the Abbot Albricus was consecrated — he 
does not give the patron's title— on the 5th 
of September, a.d. 1090, by Pipo, Bishop of 
Toul. Father Limpen supposes it likely to 
have been consecrated to St. Maunsey, and 
that his remains had been there deposited. 

18 Also, his name is written Thiemarus. 
He seems to have been Abbot for a consider- 
able length of time, extending from A.D. 
1092 or 1093 to A.D. 1125 or 1 126, when, 
according to the old chronicler, " plenus 
dierum felici exitu migravit ad Dominum, in 
ecclesia eadem II. Kal. Febr. xxxni. ordi- 
nationis sua? anno cum digno honore sepul- 

19 These relics were found on the right 
side, in the foremost part of the old high 
alta'r, and in a stone repository, having on it 
this inscription: " In hoc conditorio shoe 
sunt reliquiae Sanctorum Apostolorum Petri 
et Pauli, insuper etiam de ligno Domini." 
On opening the repository, the assistants 
found eleven bones of the head, and dust 
mingled with blood, seven teeth, and sixteen 
pieces of squared dies, portions of the True 
Cross. This account is taken from a Manu- 
script of the twelfth century, but written by 
an unknown author. Wherefore, it seems 
likely, that ancient church had been dedi- 
cated to the Apostles, Saints Peter and Paul. 

56 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 'Septkmiskr 3. 

days' fast and solemn ceremonies. However, rumours spread in Ton], that 
in the time of St. Gerard, the head of St. Maunsey was separated from the 
body on the occasion of that translation of his remains to which allusion has 
been already made ; and those reports naturally caused great anxiety and 
uneasiness among the people there, especially to Theomarus and his com- 
munity of monks. To resolve such a doubt, as the old wooden shrine of 
St. Maunsey was unornamented and showing signs of decay, the abbot pro- 
posed to Bishop Pibo, 20 who then ruled over the See of Toul, that a new 
shrine should be prepared, and that the remains should be again transferred 
to it. This process was calculated to remove all ambiguity, as it should 
include an exposure and examination of their actual state. Accordingly, the 
bishop convened a meeting of the leading ecclesiastics and chief laics of the 
city ; then with their counsel and approval, it was resolved to avail of 
the week after Pentecost, when a general synod was to be held in Toul, as a 
time most suitable for such a purpose. An announcement was made by the 
bishop regarding the intended translation. This drew a great assemblage of 
clergy and laity, even from places very remote, to witness the solemn cere- 
monies. Wherefore, in the year 1104, a new wooden shrine, ornamented 
with gold, silver and precious stones, was procured. Bishop Pibo officiated 
at that translation, 21 attended by the Abbot Theomarus, the Abbot Widric of 
St. Aper,-the Abbot Stephen of Besuensis, the Abbot Odelric of St. Urban, 
with a great number of religious, and a vast crowd of people, among them 
some of the most distinguished persons. The old shrine was raised to a 
position in the church where it could be seen by all within the sacred build- 
ing. The lid was removed, and to the great joy of all, the head of St. 
Maunsey was found joined to the other members of his body, covered over 
with a long garment. As the church was unable to contain the enormous 
multitude of visitors to Toul on this occasion, the shrine was brought out 
into the adjoining field, the sun shining with uncommon brightness. There 
all had an opportunity for seeing, that the head and other members of St. 
Maunsey had been preserved, so that occasion for doubt on the subject no 
longer remained. As described — and probably by an eye-witness — psalms 
were sung, great enthusiasm pervaded the multitude assembled, the shrine 
was carried back in procession to the church, and votive offerings were made. 
With suitable and reverent ceremonial, the saints' remains were elevated from 
the old shrine, 22 and transferred to the new and more costly one prepared to 
receive them. 2 3 

Again, in 1106, and during the reign of the Emperor of Germany 
Henry IV., a « the church was solemnly consecrated, Pibo the Bishop of Toul 
officiating. Theobald was the Abbot immediately succeeding Theomarus, 
in the year 1125 or 1126, and during his presidency at Toul, several miracles 

20 He was the thirty-eighth bishop in "Nova ergo archa miro opere fabricata 
succession over the See of Toul, and he came subiit, et pra:sentem thesaurum, corpus scili- 
immediately after Udo. He died, the thirty- cet sanctissimum ferro undique obserata ser- 
eighth year after his ordination, on the 8ih vandum suscepit." 

of December, a. D. 1107. See Dom Aug. = 3 See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," 

Calmet's " Histoire Ecclesiastique et Civile tomus i., Septembris iii. I)e S. Mansueto 

de Lorraine," tome i. Preuvesdel'IIistoire Epis. et Conf. Elevatio Corporis facta an. 

de Lorraine ; HistoriaEpiscoporum Tullen- MCI v., auctore anonymo, pp. 655, 656. 

sium, col. 178. 24 He reigned from a.d. 1056 to the 7th 

21 See Guillaume's "Notice historique et of August, a.d. 1 106, when he died at Liege, 
archeologique sur l'Abbaye de Saint-Man- See Kohlrausch, " Histoire d'Allemagne, 
suy," 1879, 8vo. depuis les Temps les plus recutes jusqu'a 

22 The account of the old and anonymous l'Annee, 1838," traduit de l'Allemand, par 
chronicler, as given in Martene, states: A. Guinefolle. Quatrieme Epoque, p. 135. 

September 3.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 57 

were wrought, through the intercession of St. Maunsey. At this time, also, 
some troubles had arisen in consequence of a neighbouring tyrannical Count 
of Sanctensis having destroyed some property belonging to the Canons. As 
a protest, and to obtain their intercession against such an unjust invasion of 
secular power, the shrines of St. Maunsey, St. Aper and St. Gerard were 
elevated in the cathedral church — that of St. Maunsey, as being the principal 
patron of the city, having been raised highest in position. There the faith- 
ful assembled in united prayers and special devotions. Among them was a 
woman, whose nerves had been so contracted that she was obliged to use 
crutches, but who miraculously recovered the use of her limbs in presence of 
many worshippers. In like manner, the faith of two other women and of a 
young girl, who had been similarly afflicted, was rewarded by miraculous 
restorations. A boy recovered from paralysis, and another relieved from a 
swollen tongue and face, with a blind woman restored to sight, are recorded 
in the list of miracles. Another person quite disabled and mute, named 
Bruno, owed his recovery to the saint's intercession. Still more wonderful 
was the restoration to his parents and to life of a son, who was thought to be 
dead, and who was bewailed as such, preparations having been made for his 
interment. However, he revived before such a fate had overtaken him, and 
to his mother lamenting cried out: " O devout mother, immediately entreat 
the saint of God, whom you promise to invoke, and bring me with you, since 
through his bounty I revive, having scarcely escaped the bonds of death with 
my approaching funeral." 25 This happened at Rogeville, about five French 
leagues from Toul, and on the iii. of the September Nones, while the faithful 
were engaged celebrating the Natalis of St. Maunsey. Furthermore are 
mentioned instances of a soldier miraculously escaping from his enemies, who 
had made him a prisoner, and of a young man who was released, through 
prayers to the saint, from the power of a robber, who had bound him in 
chains. 26 In the time of Theomarus' successor, Rainald, Simon I., Duke of 
Lotharingia, and his wife, the Duchess Adelaide, granted the farm of Monces 
in perpetuity to the monastery. This was done in a solemn and public 
manner, their sons, Mathew and Baldwin, consenting, while before a great 
congregation of clerics and laics, the charter of donation, duly signed by 
witnesses, was laid on the altar of St. Maunsey. 2 ? 

The last public translation of St. Maunsey's relics took place in the year 
1506. 28 The bishops of Toul had granted charters at various periods to the 
citizens, which enlarged their privileges ; but, they experienced more difficulty 
in preserving their suzerainty over the Dukes of Lorraine. These disputes 
were not wholly settled, until in the middle of the sixteenth century, when 
the territory was placed under French protection, 2 ^ as down to the year 1552, 

Bruxelles, 1839, sm. fol. ^ See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum,'' 

23 The writer of the foregoing account tomus i., Septembris iii. De S. Mansueto 

adds: " Talia redevivum perorasse filium, Epis. et Conf. Commentarius Proevius, sect, 

seriatim tandem nobis mater ipsa reiulit ; v., pp. 631 to 633. 

cum eundem puerum altari sancto mancipa- 2B See Les Peiits Bollandistes, "Vies des 

turn obiulit, et ad fletum circumstantes ipsa Saints," iii e Jour de Septembre, p. 433. 

gemens impulit. Testabatur jam id ipsum 2 9 " D'accord avec i'autorite ecclesiastique 

denigrata fades, cute partim depilata jam et s'administrant eux-memes, les Toulois 

rara canaries, squalens vultus, pallens color se firent respecter des seigneurs du voisinage 

et rugosa macies ; a vivente fere dispar, ut et prirent sur eux, in 1545, de se mettre sous 

ab igne glacies." la protection des rois de Fiance, prehulaut 

20 See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum,'' ainsi a 1'annexion des Trois-Eveches, con- 

tomus i., Septembris iii. De S. Mansueto summee en 1552." — Nouveau Dictionnaire 

Epis. et Conf. Miracula ab anno circiter de Geographie Universelle," tome vi., p. 

mdcxxv. usque ad mcxxxvi. , pp. 656 to 658. 758. 

5 8 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 3. 

Toul had been a free city of the German Empire.3° At that time, having 
formed an alliance with Prince Maurice of Saxony, the King of France, 
Henry II., took the field against the Emperor Charles V. Marching into 
Lorraine, he gained possession of Toul, Verdun and Metz,3 J These impor- 
tant conquests, he annexed to the French monarchy. However, the 
Emperor could not brook such a dishonour as to allow a territory of especial 
consequence to be dismembered from the German Empire. Accordingly, 
he approached Metz* 2 with a great army in 1552. The French then 
destroyed the ancient Church of St. Maunsey, in the suburbs of Toul. 33 This 
was done, doubtless, to defend better the old fortifications3* of that place. 
In the church of the former Abbey had been long preserved a stone, on 
which, according to a tradition current among the people, the impression of 
the knees of St. Martin of Tours could be seen, and which indicated their 
belief, that he had frequently visited the city of their patron,35 At the 
period of invasion, that stone had been brought within the walls, and 
deposited in the Church of St. Gengulph. Afterwards, for many years, it 
was to be seen with an inscription, which purported, that St. Martin had 
visited Toul, and prayed at the tomb of St. Mansuetus. However, this stone 
can no longer be discovered. 3 6 Still, on the northern side of the city are to 
be seen the monastery and church of the Benedictines, occupying the site 
of that ancient temple, dedicated to the Prince of the Apostles, and over- 
turned in 1552. The sepulchral stone, which covered the saints' vault, 
represents him in pontifical habiliments, and removing the emblems of 
paganism, with an infant engaged in prayer by his side. At the present 
time, this object of interest is to be seen ; but, it is now on the property of 
a lay possessor. Again, there is an image of an infant carved on a stone in 
the rampart of St. Mansuy's bastion ; and doubtless, this is intended to 
represent the governor's son, who had been brought to life, through the 
miraculous interposition of the holy bishop. It is furthermore confirmatory 
of the ancient tradition of the Toulois, in reference to their venerated Patron. 37 
Toul was definitely added to France, after the middle of the sixteenth century. 
The vast diocese of Toul was dismembered in the eighteenth century,3 8 and 
suppressed in 1790, to create the dioceses of Nancy and Saint Die. The 
Cathedral of Nancy39 is a large modern edifice, of fine proportions.* Nancy 

30 See Murray's " Handbook for Travellers church destroyed in 1552 had not been 
in France," sect, ix., Route 165, p. 618. restored ; but, the Benedictine monks had 

31 See Jac. Augusti Thuani " Historiarum converted the old refectory of the monastery 
sui Temporis," tomus i., lib. x., num. vi., p. into a chapel, in which they recited the 
347. Londini, 1733, fol. Divine Office. There, too, is supposed to 

32 See Rev. Dr. Wm. Robertson's " His- remain the body of St. Maunsey, according 
tory of the Reign of Charles the Fifth," to the statement of the two Benedictines, in 
book xi. the "Itinerarium Literarium," pars ii., p. 

33 See Dom Aug. Calmet's " Histoire 130, Paris 1717. 

Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lorraine," tome 36 See Augustine Calmet's "Histoire 

iii., liv. xxxiii., num. Ixvi., col. 80. Ecclesiastique et Civile de Lorraine," tome 

34 These were levelled in 1700. The place iii., liv. xxxiii., num. 66. 

was considerably improved and enlarged 37 See Les Petits Bollandistes' " Vies des 

afterwards, by the construction of a new Saints," iii e Jour de Septembre, p. 433. 

rampart, flanked with bastions. " Toul a 38 See Guillaume's " Histoire des Dioceses 

&e tr&s-souvent asstegee, prise, devastee ; de Toul et Nancy."— Nancy, 1867, 8vo. 

en 1870, elle a tres-energiquement resiste 39 This city, situated on a beautiful plain, 

aux armees prussienns et les a longtemps is on the left bank of the Meurthe, and it is 

forcees & se detourner de leur route dans leur the capital of the Department of the 

marche sur Paris." — Elisee Reclus' "Nou- Meurthe. It contains many handsome public 

velle Geographie Universelle," liv. ii., chap, buildings. See " Gazetteer of the World," 

xiii., sect, iv., p. 837. vol. x., p. 446. 

35 In the early part of the last century, the 4 ° From an approved point of view, and 



was the ancient capital of Lorraine, and since the seventeenth century it has 
become one of the most beautiful and improved cities. 4I Many fine public 

Cathedral of Nancy, 
buildings are there, and the Cathedral of Notre Dame, built in a classic style,* 2 
possesses several beautiful paintings and statues. 

That they might be preserved from the fury of the revolutionists, the 
relics of St. Mansuy, with those of other saints belonging to the Cathedral, 
were divided among the Canons. This occurred on the 1 ith of July, 1790, 
when ruin seemed to threaten all the ecclesiastical foundations in France. 
An inventory was then taken of the church treasures, by commissioners 
appointed for that purpose. A proces-verbal designated the portions of our 
saints' relics distributed to each individual canon for safe keeping.* 3 In due 
course of time, most of those relics were restored. The former Cathedral 
Church of Toul now possesses the head, the Church of St. Gengolf the shoulder- 
blade, and that of St. Nicholas-de-Port a rib of St. Mansay." After the 
French Revolution, the Canons of Toul and M. Aubry, Cure of St. Gengoult, 
examined most of those relics, preserved in the Cathedral, and assisted by M. 
Le Docteur Godron, Dean of the Faculty of Science at Nancy, they distributed 
several portions of them. The cathedral of Nancy obtained part of St. 
Mansuy's shoulder-blade, and the chapel of the Christian Doctrine there 
procured some fragments of his relics. The red cape of the saint, with gold 
braid, had been preserved in a shrine of the Abbey, beneath the walls of 
Toul. A portion of that relic is kept in the shrine of St. Gauzlin, in the 
Cathedral of Nancy. 45 

from a correct engraving, the accompanying 
illustration has been reproduced on the wood 
and engraved by Gregor Grey. 

41 The old town had crooked and irregular 
streets, until Stanislaus, father-in-law to 
Louis XV., undertook the work of erecting 
many imposing structures, and of laying out 
several handsome faubourgs. See Elisee 
Reclus' " Nouvelle Geographic Universelle," 
tomeii., chap, xiii., sect, iv., p. 835. 

42 Ed. Auguin has issued " Monagraphie de 
la Cathedrale de Nancy," in 4to. 

43 A detailed account of this transfer may 
be found in the Petits Bollandistes' "Vies 
des Saints," tome x., Jour iii e de Septembre, 

PP- 434, 435- 

44 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of 
the Saints," vol. ix., p. 36. 

45 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 
Saints,"tomex.Jouriii e de Septembre, p. 435. 

6o LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 3. 

In art, St. Mansuy is represented as bringing to life a child that had been 
killed by a hand-ball. Also, lie is represented as a bishop preaching in a 
wood to a great crowd/ 6 He is figured with a pelerine or tippet, denominated 
a superhiwicral or rathfial, which was the ordinary characteristic garment of 
the Toul prelates and of other bishops, and it indicates a sort of metropolitan 
distinction. Moreover, he appears as raising a young nobleman to life. 4 ? 

At the 3rd of September, the office of St. Maunsey has been recited, not 
alone in the diocese of Toul, but even in more distant places. It is con- 
tained in several old Breviaries, but the Lessons — taken mostly from Adso — 
include some historical inaccuracies. The Bollandists had in their Library 
a MS. Pars ^Estiva of an office belonging to the Church of Toul, in the 
calendar of which St. Mansuetus was distinguished from other saints, owing 
to the rubrical character of its lettering ;* 8 they had also another Breviary of 
Toul diocese, printed at Paris, in the year 1530/9 In both Breviaries, an 
office for St. Maunsey of Nine Lessons was to be found, but these were taken 
lrom the incorrect Life written by Adso. Likewise, in the Missal printed at 
Mayence, a.d. 1493, at the 3rd of September, are the Collects, secret prayer 
and complementary prayer or Post-Communion of Saints Mansuetus and 
Remaclus. 50 In the Breviary of Soissons, printed a.d. 1590, there is a 
commemoration of St. Mansuetus. In a Breviary printed a.d. 1600 for the 
use of the three monasteries of St. Maximums and of St. Willibrordus. in 
Treves, and of St. Narbor, in the diocese ot Metz, the feast of St. Remaclus 
and of St. Mansuetus is noted. 51 In the Breviary, printed at Langres a.d. 
1604, there is an office for St. Maunsey ; 52 and also, in that printed at Wurtz- 
burgh, a.d. 1625.53 Moreover, there is a Proper Office for him, in the 
Breviary 5 ** of the Collegiate Church of St. Maximus, at Chinon ; 55 and in that 
of Verdun, 56 printed a.d. 1625 ; likewise, in that of St. Peter's Church, 
Remiremont, Lorraine, printed in 1657. 5 ? 

Besides this day for our saint's chief feast, he is commemorated on the 
25th of April, 58 on the 14th of June, 5 ? as also on the 2nd of Septem- 

46 See Rev. Dr. F. C. Husenbeth's " Em- 54 Thus noticed : " Sancti Mansueti epis- 

blems of Saints," p. 137. Third edition, copi et confess. Duplex Solenne propter 

Norwich, 1882, 8vo. sacras ejus reliquias, qux sunt in basilica 

4 ? Probably the son of the ancient governor Sancti Maximi." What relics of our saint 

of the City of Toul. See ibid. had been there venerated is now unknown. 

48 This must have been written at an eariy ss A town in the province of Tours, 

date, since no entry of St. Louis, King of 56 Celebrated with St. Remaclus in an 

France, nor of the Patriarchal religious foun- office thus noticed : " Fiunt de ipsis Novem 

ders, St. Francis or St. Dominick, nor of Lectiones, et omnia sumunturde communi 

saints living at a later period, could be found plurimorum confessorum pontificum. 

in it. 57 i n it we read : " In festo S. Mansueti 

4 ' The prescribed prayer for Lauds and episcopi et confessoris. Duplex. Omnia 

Vespers in it reads thus : " Majestatis tuse, de communi confessoris pontificis proeter 

Domine, potentiam humiliter imploramus, lectiones IL Nocturni." 

ut sicut per beatum Mansuetum confessorem s8 According to extracts from an ancient 

tuum atque pontificem nos dedisti verse fidei Martyrology of Luxeu, which Father Peter 

esse cultores, ita ejus mentis facias vitoe Francis Chifflet procured for the Bollandists. 

ccelestis esse consortes. Per Dominum." Therein, at the 25th of April, was read : 

50 Bishop of Maestricht and Confessor. " Translatio sancti Mansueti episcopi et 

His feast and office are also assigned to the confessoris." It may be, this festival refers 

same date. to the first translation of St. Maunsey's relics ; 

s 1 Thus : " Remacli et Mansueti. Omnia or perhaps, to that made by Bishop Gerard, 

in communi de pluribus confessoriis." when he presided over the See of Toul. 

s 2 Noticed " De Sancto Mansueto ferial." However, regarding this ascribed feast, 

s 3 In the proper offices are mentioned : nothing appears to have survived in the 

" S. Remacli et Mansueti confess, pontificum. traditions of the clergy or people. 

Omnia de communi conf. pontif." 59 This festival was a commemoration of 

September 3.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 61 

ber/° Through some mistake, it would appear, that the people of Treves had a 
St. Maunsey in veneration, as their seventh Bishop, and they celebrated his 
festival on the 18th of February. As no certain traces of such a distinctive 
saint can be found, in any authentic record ; it has been surmised, that it 
is possible St. Maunsey of Toul may have been selected to fill that position 
of reverence in the metropolitan church, for some reason not now known. 
However, Father Limpen adduces argument sufficient to prove that our 
saint had no special connexion with the church of Treves. 61 

Several churches, monasteries and chapels have been built and dedicated 
in honour of St. Maunsey, and his relics have been distributed in various 
places. Besides the parent church and monastery of Toul without the walls, 
St. Gerard erected one within the city, and it was dedicated in honour of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary and of St. Mansuetus. At Furentela, or Vourentel — 
not far from Aix-la-Chapelle — was a church consecrated by Pope Leo IX., 62 
to the holy martyrs Laurence and Vincent, and to the holy confessors, Man- 
suetus and Apri. In a place called Sisseium — supposed to be identical with 
Sexey aux bois or Sexey aux Forges — there was a chapel dedicated to St. 
Mansuetus. Also, in the Vosges mountains, a ca?icellum was erected under 
the patronage of this holy bishop. Moreover, we read, that in the time of 
Pibo, bishop of Toul, and towards the close of the eleventh century, he 
consecrated various churches in honour of St. Maunsey. At Dijon an altar 
was dedicated to him, in a crypt of the Church of St. Benignus. Again, at 
Liverdun, there was an altar dedicated to Saints Maunsey and Gerard, con- 
fessors, and it was placed at the right-hand side of the choir. In the Metro- 
politan Church of Prague, and in the chapel there dedicated to St. Winceslaus, 
a part of St. Maunsey's arm was preserved, with other relics, 6 3 in a magnificent 
shrine on the high altar. 6 * According to Dempster, 6 5 in Argadia was venerated 
Mansuet, bishop, who promoted Christianity at the first Council of Tours in 
Gaul, a companion of St. Perpetuus of Tours, of Guyaxus of Rheims, of 
Thalaussius of Andegavensis, of Victurius Cenomanensis. We can find no 
authority whatever for such statements, and can only wonder at the shameless 
audacity of any writer to perpetrate such a forgery. 66 

The chief festival of St. Mansuy is noticed in nearly all the chief Calen- 
dars and Martyrologies, at the 3rd of September. However, in the pure 
text of Usuard, which Father Soller has edited, at such date the name of our 
saint does not occur; but, in the additions to that martyrologist, he is 
mentioned. 67 Likewise, his feast is entered in the Martyrologies of Mauro- 
lycus, Felicius, Galesinius and Castellan. The announcement in the Roman 

the Translation of our saint's relics by Bishop the neighbourhood. 

Pibo, and which took place on the xviii. of 63 These were collected through the pious 

the July Kalends, a.d. 1104. This is noted care of King Charles IV., and a printed 

by Greven, and in the Kalendar prefixed to catalogue of them was issued in the year 1679. 

an old Manuscript Breviary of Toul, as also 64 See the Bcllandists' •' Acta Sanctorum," 

in that printed a.d. 1530. tomus i., Septembris iii. De S. Mansueto 

60 However, this seems to have been an Epis. et Conf. Commentarius Praevius, 

error of entry in a Manuscript Copy of sect, vi., pp. 633 to 636. 

Usuard, found in the Benedictine Monastery 6 s See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 

of Anchin, near Douay : unless indeed the Scottish Saints."' Menologium Scoticum, 

vigil of our saint's chief festival had been p. 195. 

intended. ^ To ignorance alone do we attribute the 

6 ' See "Acta Sane tu rum," tomus i., Sep- statement referring to our saint : •' Sedebat 

tembris iii. De S. Mansueto Epis. et Conf. anno lxii. die III. Septembris."—" Historia 

Commentarius Prrevius, sect, vi., num. 76, Ecclesiastica Gentis Scotorum," tomus ii., 

77, pp. 634, 635. lib. xii., num. 838, p. 448. 

62 This happened in 1049, according to 6? Thus, in the manuscript versions of 
Hermannus Contractus, a contemporaneous Usuard at Antwerp, Utrecht, Leyden, Lou- 
writer, and when that Pope was on a visit to vain, Antverpiensis Maximus, Albergensis, 

62 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 3. 

Martyrology, at the 3rd of September, "TulU in Gallia, sancti Mansueti 
episcopi et confessoris," 68 embraces what is found in the additions to Usuard 
and in the Martyrologies previously cited. 6 9 In some Martyrologies, such as 
in certain Usuardine editions, in a Florarian MS. of the Saints, belonging 
to the Bollandists, in the German Martyrology of Canisius, in Wilson's 
Martyrologium Anglicanum, and in Saussay's Martyrologium Gallicanum, 
while entering the holy Bishop's festival at the 3rd of September, they con- 
sider him to have been a disciple of St. Peter, which supposition more recent 
investigations have entirely disproved. In the Martyrology of the Church of 
the Holy Trinity, Dublin, the feast of St. Mansuetus has been recorded, at 
the 3rd of September.? The feast of S. Mansu, at Septembre 3., is entered 
in a Kalendar, prefixed to " Heures de Nostre-Dame a l'usage du Mans." 
September 3rd, in the Annals of the Cistercian Monks,"? 1 is dedicated to St. 
Mansuet, first Bishop of Toul, in Lorraine. In Baillet's M Les Vies des 
Saints,"? 2 St. Maunsey or St. Mause, first Bishop of Toul, in Lorraine, is 
recorded at this same date. 

A French writer has remarked, that the zeal and learning of Scottish 
preachers made such an impression on their contemporaries, that Ireland 
was known as the Holy Island of Christians, even as the Phoenicians had 
formerly called it, in Pagan times, the Sacred Isle.?3 In the case of St. 
Maunsey, who lived in the primitive ages, he had become a missionary 
of Christ, and had spread the light of Faith in a region of France, that 
had not then heard the truths of the Gospel proclaimed. Moreover, 
it is remarkable, that even in his own Island, the standard of the cross 
had not been erected by its great Apostle St. Patrick, at that period, when 
the grace of conversion was vouchsafed to one of its emigrants, who visited 
Rome, the centre of Christianity, and who received from the Sovereign 
Pontiff his commission to gain numbers of converts in France to the One, 
Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. 






Notwithstanding his reception of baptismal graces, and the care taken 
of his early religious education, the present holy bishop is stated 

Danicus, Bruxelles, Ughellianus, Florence, seems possible to arrive. 
Paris St.Victor; also in the Queen of Sweden's 7 ° Thus, atiii. Non. Septembris : "Ciuitate 

MS., No. 130, printed at Lubeck, and as Tullensi ; festiuitas sancti Mansueti, episcopi 

edited by Belin and Molanus. et confessoris." — "The Book of Obits and 

68 See " Martyrologium Romanum Gre- Martyrology of the Cathedral Church of the 

gorii XIII.," &c. Editio novissima, p. 131, Holy Trinity, commonly called Christ 

Romae, 1878, fol. Church, Dublin," edited by John Clarke 

^ In a Martyrology, published in Paris, Crosthwaite, A.M., and by James Henthorn 

1727, are these words: " Tulli Leucorum, Todd, D.D., p. 152. 
sancti Mansueti primi ejusdem urbis epis- 7 ' See vol. ix., pp. 394, 395. 

copi." In the margin is added, that he 72 See tome iii,, pp. 28, 29. 

flourished in the fourth century, and such is 73 See Elias Regnault's " Histoire de 

the most probable conclusion at which it l'lrlande," liv. i., chap, v., p. 54* 

September 3.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 63 

to have been not exempt from temptation, and a lapse into grievous sin. 
Even his great master, St. Patrick, accuses himself of ingratitude towards God, 
when he had attained the use of reason ; while, in later times, the angelic 
St. Aloysius often spoke of lapses during his youth, although unsullied by 
any grievous fault. Still he deemed it the period of his sinfulness, and when 
he knew not the proper service of his Creator. This neglect of the Divine 
commandments was in time most fully repaired. In the case of Macnessius, 
as he advanced in years, he was distinguished for his great virtues, and by 
the performance of miracles, which fully attested his great sanctity. 

In the " Feilire " of St. ^Engus, 1 yet in a very enigmatical form, the feast 
of St. Mac Nisse is entered at the 3rd of September. A gloss on the Leabhar 
Breac copy professes to give the name and family of both his father and 
mother. 2 There are some incidental but unreliable notices of our saint, in 
St. Patrick's Tripartite Life,3 which had been published by Father John 
Colgan. From these sources, a part of the following memoir of St. Macnes- 
sius has been gleaned. Moreover, Colgan had intended to publish the acts 
of St. Macnessius, at the 3rd day of September.* Some account of this holy 
bishop is to be found in Porter.s In the first volume of the Bollandists' 
" Acta Sanctorum " for September, and at 3rd day of this month, the Acts of 
St. Macnessius are published, under the editorial supervision of Father John 
Veldius. They consist of a short Life — rather it is a panegyric of our saint — 
taken from one belonging to the Irish College of the Jesuits at Salamanca. 6 
The author of this tract is unknown, but it furnishes intrinsic evidence of 
having been written before a.d. 1442, when the See of Connor was united to 
that of^Down, by Pope Eugenius IV. The eulogium in question is annotated 
by the editor, and a previous or preceding commentary is given, in which 
nine distinct paragraphs are occupied by a dissertation on that veneration paid 
to the saint. It treats, also, on his being distinct from other homonymous saints ; 
on the place and time of his episcopacy ; as also regarding the year of his 
death, and on his acts, which were then extant. More recently still, other 
writers have given notices of St. Mac Nissi, and among those may be men- 
tioned Rev. Alban Butler,7 Rev. Dr. Lanigan, 8 Rev, M. J. Brenan,9 Rev. P. 
J. Carew, 10 Rev. S. Baring-Gould," and Very Rev. James O'Laverty. 12 

1 Article ii. — Chapter i. — In the is comprised in thirteen chapters, and 
Leabhar Breac copy is the following numbered P. Ms. xi., in the Bollandist 
rann : — Library. It is added that it had the follow- 

ColtnAn "OpotriA jrepcA ing title : — " hi. Nonas Septembris. In- 

Lons-AjvA-o groan alaib cipit Vita Sancti Macnissi episcopi : 

true mrre cormbib coronidem vero hanc : Explicit Vita S. 

O Chotroervib ma^A-ib. Engula, qui & Macnessi dicitur, seddemorte 

Thus rendered in Dr. Whitley Stokes' ejus nihil exprimunt prceterquam diem." — 

English translation : — " Colman of "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Septembris 

Druim Ferta : Longarad a delightful sun ; hi., Acta S. Macnescii. Commentarius 

Mac Nisse with thousands, from great Prsevius, sect. 9, p. 664. 

Conderi."— " Transactions of the Royal 7 See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and 

Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, other principal Saints,'' vol. ix., September 

vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of Oengus, iii. 

p. exxxvi. 8 See " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 

2 See ibid., p. cxlii. vol. i., chap, ix., sect, i., p. 432, and vol. ii., 

3 See Colgan's "Trias Thauraaturga," chap, xiv., sect, ii., n. 26, p. 308. 
Septima Vita S. Paiiicii, pars ii., cap. 9 See " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 
exxix., p. 146, cap. exxxiv., p. 147. chap, iii., p. 49. 

4 See " Catalogus Actuum Sanctorum quae I0 See " Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
MS. habentur, ordine Mensium et Dierum." land," Appendix, p. 410. 

s See << Compendium Annalium Ecclesi- "See "Lives of the Saints," vol. ix., 

asticorum Regni Hibernke," cap. vii., p. 173. September 3, pp. 36, 37. 

6 Of this life, the editor remarks, that it I2 In his "Historical Account of the 

6 4 


The birth of Macnessius is said to have been manifested to St. Patrick, 
and long before the time of its occurrence. St. Macnessius, also written 
Mac Nissi'3, or Nisa 1 *, was the son of Fobrec or Fobreach, 1 * as stated in the 
Annals of Tigernach. 16 Such is the statement of the commentator on the 
Feilire of Oengus, who calls his father Fobrece, but rather confuses his 
genealogy, by the manner in which it is given. "J As such, it is to be found 
in the Leabhar Breac copy, and at the 3rd of September. 18 His mother was 
named Cnes,^ a daughter to Conchaid or Conchaide of Dal Cethern. 
According to the Life of our saint, as published by the Bollandists, his 
mother was called Ness. 20 The original name of this saint is said to have 
been ^Engus. We are told, likewise, that he was called Caeman Breac, 
pronounced Kev-awn Brak, 21 the latter word having the meaning "maculosus" 
or " spotted." 22 

In a fountain of water, which miraculously sprung from the earth, 23 it is 

Diocese of Down and Connor, Ancient and 
Modem,'' vol. iii., pp. 271 to 273. 

13 By Colgan, St. Macnessius or Ccemanus 
is said to have been the son of Fabricius, 
son to Fieg, son of Mail, &c. Thence is the 
line transferred to that of St. Maccarthen. 
See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernise," xxiv. 
Martii. Appendix ad Acta S- Maccarthenni, 
cap. ii., iii., pp. 740, 741. 

14 The Bollandist editor states in a note : 
"Alibi rectius Nisa : unde Sanctus mac 
(Latins Alius) Nisa; sive Macnissius dictus 
est." See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
.-• eptembi is iii. Vila S. Macnescii. n. (b), 
p. 665. 

'5 For further particulars regarding the 
family descent, the reader is referred to the 
Life of St. Maccarthen, Bishop of Clogher, 
chap, i., at the 15th day of August, in the 
Fighth Volume of this work, Art. i. 

i6 Yet, according to the Annals of Tigher- 
naoh, as published by Dr. O'Conor, 
Fobrach was his brother. This, however, 
is probably a mistake, which arose from the 
editor having confounded ^op with pp in the 
Manuscript. In the Dublin copy of Tigher- 
nach and in the " Chronicon Scotorum," 
where the same entry occurs verbatim, the 
word is manifestly pp pater, not frater See 
" The Book of Obits and the Martyrology of 
the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity," 
edited by John Clarke Crosthwaite and Rev. 
Dr. Todd. Introduction, pp. lxxiii., lxxiv. 

17 Thus : " CAemAn Opecc, mac nip, 
nuc nertiAinoip, mic eipc, nuc echaic 
munt)pein<vip. Ocuf JTobpecc auim a 
Ach<My\. •Aenjjur' T>oni a cec anim." Its 
English Translation is: "Caeman Brec, 
Mac Misi, son of Nemaindir, son of Eric, 
son of EchaidhMundremair. And Fobrece 
was the name of his father. But Aengus 
was his first name." From this it might be 
inferred, that Caeman Breac or Mac Nisse 
had for his father Nemainder ; whereas the 
writer's meaning appears to have been, that 
the latter was father of Fobrece. 

18 In alluding to the Cathedral Church of 

Connor, Porter observes: — " .Engus Mac- 
nisius primus fait hujus Ecclesia: Epi copus 
et Fundator. Is cognomentum a matre, 
more insolito, trahens, vulgo S. Macnisa, 
vel Macnisius, sine aliqua alia additione, 
dictus est. Patris autem nomen Fobreiv fuit, 
ut tarn e Tigerjiaci annalibus quam ex 
antiquo Aengusiani Mart)iologii Scoliaste, 
ad diem tertium Septembris. intelligimus." 
— " Compendium Annalium Ecclesiasti- 
coruni Regni Hibernian," cap vii., p. 173. 

19 In a gloss on the Martyrology of 
/Engus the Culdee, at the 3rd of September, 
the following remarks occur : — 

".1. Cnef mgen Chonch<\i-oe x>o X)aI 
Ceclupn a uiAcip tleb iiiac Cnif p<\cp<Mc 
h-e ap if oc p^cpAic 110 aLca .1. 110 

It is thus translated: — "i.e., Cnes, 
daughter of Conchaid of Dal Cetherin, 
was his mother, or Mac [son] Cnis Patraic 
[of Patrick's skin] because it was with 
Patrick he was fostered, 7.e.,heused to sleep." 

20 In a note, the editor adds : — " Alibi 
rectius Nisa : unde sanctus mac {Latins 

filius) Nisce sive Macnissius dictus est." 
See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Septembris 
iii. Vita S. Macnisii, n. (b), p. 655. 

21 See the Rev. James O Eaverty's " His- 
torical Account of the Diocese of Down and 
Connor,Ancient and Modern," vol. iii., p. 270. 

22 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. i., n. (n), p. 168. In 
the same work, we find recorded the death 
of a St. Caemhan Breac, of Ros-each, who 
departed this life on the 14th of September, 
a.d. 614. — Ibid., pp. 238, 2}Q, and n. (z). 
Notices of this latter saint will be found, at 
the 14th of September, in a subsequent part 
of this volume. It is probable, our saint 
had been incorrectly confounded with him. 

23 " Fabulosum id prorsus est: idem 
suspicor de vivo fonte, fortassis hue deri- 
vato e Vita S. Comgalii citanda ad lit. ;;/." 
— "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Sep- 
tembris iii. Vita S. Macnissii, auctore 
incerto, n. (c), p. 665. 


stated, that our saint was baptised by the Apostle of the Irish nation. After- 
wards, he was known as Mac Cneise or the son of Cnes. 2 * The Christian 
name bestowed on him was ^Engus, 2 s and his surname was derived from his 
mother. This is a more likely derivation than that one given, 26 where he is 
said to have been fostered and accustomed to sleep with St. Patrick. Where- 
fore, he was named, as we find reported, Mac Cnes Patraic, i.e., " son of 
Patrick's skin." Yet, as it was not unusual among the Irish to derive a 
surname from the mother, we might probably suppose her to have been of 
a more distinguished family than that of her husband, or to have been more 
remarkable for her mental endowments. 

He was placed under the charge of Bishop Bolcan 2 ? — a disciple of St. 
Patrick — while he was still very young. To him, the son of Ness was 
entrusted as a foster-child, and from that holy bishop his education had been 
received. When young, he was sent to take charge of certain cows and 
their calves. A deep slumber then oppressed him. Meantime, the calves 
took advantage of their youthful herdsman's sleep to approach the cows, 
and to draw the accustomed sustenance from them. We are told, that the 
Bishop's mother — also the nurse of our saint — felt displeased at his neglect, 
and struck the child. This, however, she did not with impunity; for that 
hand, with which she chastised the youth, became powerless. Whereupon, the 
Bishop required his foster-son to pray for her. Immediately on complying 
with such request, the offending member was again restored to its former 
strength. From such a circumstance, and owing to other .miracles of a 
similar nature, the fame of this youthful soldier of Christ was greatly extended. 

Our saint was a most docile pupil to his master, while going through the 
course of elementary studies. When St. Patrick was on a journey through 
Dalaradia, 28 having met Bolcan with our saint, 2 9 he thus addressed the 
former : " You and your successors shall always be subject to the rule of 
this your companion and to his successors." The Apostle's allusion, in this 
prophetic declaration, referred to the Bishopric subsequently obtained. 30 

24 Yet, in the Scholion to the Calendar of mento Aradii, regis Ultonice, in ea olim 
yEngus, in the Leabhar Breac, we have the principatum tenente." — "Trias Thauma- 
confusing and ridiculous statement, that she turga," Prima Vita S. Patricii, n. 18, 
was son of Nemainder, son to Ere, son of p. 8. 

Eochaid Mundremar. See the translation in 29 In a comment on this narrative, the 

Very Rev. James O'Laverty's "Historical Bollandist editor remarks : " Id forte de- 

Account of the Diocese of Down and Connor, sumptum est ex interpolatione Vitce Tripar- 

Ancient and Modern," vol. iii., p. 271. titce 8. Patricii num. 134, ubi puer aliquis 

25 Latinized /Eneus, and probably given Maccnissius et Sanctus noster perperam 
when he had been baptised. On it is a note confounduntur ; cum hie secundum 
by the Bollandist editor : " Post Vitam Wareeum, qui diliqenter anliquitates patrias 
scribitur Engula, quod forte diminutivum scrutatus est, primus fuerit ecclesice Conner- 
est ab Engus." — "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ensis episcopus et tundator : nee veteris 
i., Septembris iii. Vita auctore incerto, n. Ecclesise simplicitas tulerit, ut ab uno 
(2), p. 665. episcopatu quis transiret ad alterum ; quod 

26 In a gloss on the Festilogy of St. tamen factum oportuisset, si, qui prius 
/Engus. Connerensis erat, factus Arth-mugiensis 

2 ? See an account of this holy bishop, in fuisset, uii observat Papebrochtus citatus. 

the Second Volume of this work, at the Prceterea Olcanus discipulos non habuit 

20th of February. Art. ii. ante annum 450, into ex Gallia non rediit 

28 The words in the Saint's Life are, "in ante 460 vel forte 470, ut putat Colganus: 

terra Aradensium." The editor in a note si ergo Sanctus noster post medium seculi 5 

(e) here quotes the words of Colgan : puer erat, quandonam a S. Patiicio 

" Dal-aradia est maritima et orientalis ordinatus est ? " See "Acta Sanctorum," 

Tjitonice regio, ab oppido Ivorio usque tomus i., Septembris iii. Vita auctore in- 

montem Mis versus Aquilonem protensa. certo, n. (f), p. 665. 

Nomen desumpsit a stiipe Fiachi, cogno- 3 ° See ibid., sect 2, p. 664. 

Vol. IX.— No. 2. e 

66 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 3. 

The latter illustrious man gave certain particular charges, regarding the 
education and training of the child. These trusts, on being assumed, were 
faithfully observed and fulfilled. It would appear, from some remarks in the 
Irish Apostle's life, that the saint, when a boy, carried his master's books in 
a leather case ; v that he had been entrusted with the care of those articles 
necessary for Divine service ; and that he probably attended the Bishop in 
the capacity of servitor at his different episcopal ministrations. That the 
ancient Irish were accustomed to have their books thus preserved may be 
still proved from the specimens of ecclesiastical Manuscripts preserved to our 
time. Among these may be mentioned the celebrated Book of Armagh, the 
history of which is a curious one. 32 

Already have we mentioned in the Life of St. Patrick, 33 the opposition 
he met with from Saran, a tyrannical chief in the northern part of Ireland. 
This man pretended to repent, for the many acts of rapine and violence he 
had committed, and too readily did Bishop Olcan absolve him from those 
crimes. Having thus incurred St. Patrick's displeasure, the Apostle pre- 
dicted, that St. Olcan's possessions should afterwards be transferred to the 
boy Macnessius.34 Then taking our saint under his own immediate charge, 
the Apostle instructed his youthful disciple in the principles of religion, and 
in those studies necessary for exercising the sacred ministry.35 The disciple, 
it is stated, had the misfortune to lapse into grievous sin, and he suffered a 
visible punishment in consequence, according to that relation given in St. 
Patrick's Tripartite Life.3 6 However, the Bollandist editor very justly 
characterizes this as a foolish fable, and he states, that there can be no doubt 
of our saint's sanctity, and that it would be utterly improbable he could 
have been ordained priest and afterwards consecrated bishop, when deprived 
of one of his hands, in the manner related. The anonymous writer of St. 
Macnessius' Acts does not mention this incident, although he introduces 
other fabulous accounts. 37 

Having proved himself perfect in every good work, according to tradition, 
St. Macnessius had been raised to the episcopal dignity by St. Patrick. We 
know not the year of St. Macnissius' ordination ; Ware informs us, however, 

31 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," cipulum, tunc prsesentem, ejusque in 
Septima Vita S. Patricii, pars ii., chap. quadam pellicea pera codices gestantem, 
cxxxiv., p. 147. nempe ad S. Macnessium, postea Episco- 

32 Before the lamented death of Bishop pum Conderensem : et ad quendam alium 
William Reeves of Down and Connor, that virum sanctum nondem natum, Sanctum 
learned man had undertaken the task of scilicet Senamim de Inis Altich. Sic 
preparing the Book of Armagh for publica- delicta Sarani sunt ejus spirituali Patri, et 
tion. As it was in a case, to which a strap regeneratori imputata, et in eo severe 
for hanging on a wall had been appended, punita." — Pars ii., cap. cxxxiv., p. 
Dr. Reeves was accustomed to carry it sus- 147. 

pended frorn his neck, and it was placed 3S In the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick we 

under his vest, while travelling. Seethe read of St. Macnessius, " in pietate et bonis 

Memoir by Norman Moore, in Sydney disciplinis apud Patricium educaretur." See 

Lee's "National Biography." ibid., cap. exxix., p. 146. That our saint 

33 See the Third Volume of this work, at had been educated by the Irish Apostle is 
the 17th of March, Art. i. The Life of St. not stated in the Acts, as published by the 
Patrick, chap xv. Bollamlists. 

34 Such is the account given in the Acts 36 See ibid. 

of our saint written by the unknown 37 It is added : Quales occurrunt apud 

author, and as published by the Bolland- multos sctiptores Hibernicos, prodigia 

ists. However, this matter is differently narrantes stupenda ?nagis quam vera, vel qua 

stated in Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," ab uno Sancto semel sunt facta, pluribus 

Vita Tripartita S. Patricii: " Adjecit vir tribucntes aliter atque aliier composita: 

sanctus et possessiones ejus esse devolendas potius opinor, quant falleudi voluntate 

ad quendam puerum, ipsius S. Olcani dis- * * * Numero 3. . 

September 3.] LIVES OE THE IRISH SAINTS. 67 

that he was advanced to the episcopal dignity in the fifth century. 3 8 St. 
Macnessius is said to have made a pilgrimage to the seat of the Apostles, 
and to Jerusalem, visiting also other remarkable places in the Holy Land. 
In the panegyric of our saint, as published by the Bollandists, we are told 
during the pilgrimage, that he frequently offered up his prayers to God, and 
that he brought several relics with him, on his return from the Holy Land. 
Among these are enumerated a stone taken from our Lord's Sepulchre, a 
portion of the Blessed Virgin Mary's hair, a bone of the Apostle St. Thomas, 
portions of the garments belonging to the Apostles, and one of the bowls 
belonging to the great altar at Jerusalem. He returned by way of Rome, 
and lodged in the Apostolic curia, where he remained for some 
days. There he had been treated with marked distinction. We are 
informed, moreover, that on a certain day, in Rome, Macnisius consecrated 
and ordained Bishops, Priests and Deacons, the Roman clergy acting 
as his assistants. On this same occasion, the poverty of the Irish mission 
was taken into consideration by certain Roman magnates, who bestowed on 
him many valuable gifts, among which were to be found several gold, silver, 
and brazen vessels. During his residence at Rome, through the efficacy of 
his prayers, a leper was cleansed from his foul disease. Having visited the 
shrines of various saints, and received the Sovereign Pontiff's benediction 
and prayers, he returned to his native country, bringing with him the many 
presents he had received. And we are told, that not only the people of his 
own country, but those of surrounding nations, received him with great 
rejoicing.39 When Mac Nessius, with his remarkable relics,-* left Rome for 
Ireland, the people went forth to meet him, from the churches, towns, villages, 
woods and mountains. They received him with most affectionate demon- 
strations of joy, nor were any found absent on these occasions but evil doers, 
to whom the presence of our saint was a standing reproach. 

Soon the seed of Divine wisdom was planted in every direction, the 
trumpet of the Gospel was sounded, and churches were founded by our saint. 
The holy Bishop was distinguished for the performance of miracles, He 
was inebriated, also, with a spirit of prophesy, and illuminated with Divine 
Revelations. Among the many miracles which he wrought, St. Macnesius 
healed two men, one of whom was blind, and the other was a leper. They 
presented themselves to him in full confidence of being relieved from their 
infirmities ; and having first washed themselves, in a fountain of clear water, 
one of them received the gift of sight, and his companion was cleansed from 
his leprosy, through the prayers of our saint. He also delivered a boy, named 
Colman, 41 from a violent death. A certain wicked man, who killed the father 
of this boy, had seized upon the youth, who was under the guardianship of 
his friends. The tyrant had resolved upon putting him to death. However, 
our saint interfered to preserve his life. Finding the cruel man inexorable, 

38 " Perhibetur S. Cailanus, S. Macnisii 4T The Bollandist editor cites the follow- 
episcopi Connorensis equalis, sed in episco- ing passage from a Ms. of Ward, in a 
patu posterior, ex Nendrumenai abbate previous Commentary on our saint's Acts, 
factus Dunensis ecclesiae episcopus sub which thus reads : " S. Colmannus, quern 
exitum seculi post Christum natum quinti." is miraculo liberavit a morte, fuit episcopus 
— Ware, p. 52. Kill-ruadhensis, quae nunc obsoleta sedes 

39 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Sep- est in Aradeorum regione sita ; ad oram 
tembris iii. Vita auctore incerto, sect. 3, stagni juvenci vulgo Loch-Laodh in Ultonia, 
4, pp. 664, 665. ubi ejus festum tanquam patroni colitur xvi. 

40 See Very Rev. James O'Laverty's Octobris." — "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i.. 
" Bishops of Down and Connor," vol. v., p. Septembris iii. De Sancto Macniscio. Com- 
222. mentarius prsevius, sect. 3, p. 662. 



Macnessius asked as a favour, that the boy should not be slain until brought 
to a pile of stones,* 8 which was conspicuous at some distance. This request 
he obtained, and afterwards our saint went to the place. There he engaged 
in prayer. The youth was thrown into the air, so that his body might be 
received on the points of his executioners' spears. Immediately, however, 
he was conveyed away by Angels, and deposited on the holy Bishop's bosom 
free from all injury. Our saint afterwards nurtured, and diligently taught 
him the rudiments of Religion, and a knowledge of the Sacred Scriptures. 
He afterwards founded the church of Killruaird, 4 3 now Kilroot, 44 on the north 
side of Belfast Lough. In the townland so named, 45 there is a large grave- 
yard, containing some portions of an old church, which was about sixty-six 
feet in length, by twenty-four in width/ 6 The spot is rendered memorable, 


Templecorran Church Ruins, 
not alone by its having become the primitive see of St. Colman, 4 ? but owing 
to other interesting circumstances/ 8 In mediaeval times, Kilroot^ and 

43 "Ad acervum lapidum," &c. Perhaps 
such a pile as is now known under the name 
of a cromlech, or it may be one of those large 
cairns, so frequently met with, on eminences. 
in different places throughout Ireland. 

43 Colgan, in his notes on the Life of St. 
Corbmac, states, that Kilruaidh is within the 
bounds of the former territory of Dal-aradia, 
and near Lochlaodh. See "Acta Sanc- 
torum Hibernise," xxvi. Martii, n. 36, p. 

44 This parish contains 2,418a. op. i^r., 
in the barony of Lower Belfast. It is shown 
on the " Ordnance Survey Townland Maps 
for the County of Antrim," sheets 47, 53. 

45 It contains 625 acres, 3 roods, 7 perches. 
See ibid., sheet 53. 

4 *The south-east and south-west angles 
are all that remain standing. 

47 His festival occurs on the 16th of 

48 Here, in the year 161 1, the first Presby- 
terian congregat ion in 1 reland was est ablished, 
and in the cemetery adjoiningthe little village 
of Ballycarry, in Kilroot parish, is interred 
the Rev. Edward Brice, M.A., who emi- 
grated from Scotland, and the first Presby- 
terian minister who settled in Ireland. He 
was promoted by the Protestant bishop to be 
prebendary of Kilroot, in 1613. According 
to the inscription on his tombstone, he died 
at the age of 67, in the year 1636. See the 
" Dublin Penny Journal," vol. iii., No. 120, 
p. 121, and Rev. Dr. James Seaton Reid's 
" History of the Presbyterian Church in 
Ireland," vol. i., chap, i., p. 98, and chap, 
iv., p. 203. New edition, Belfast, 1867. 

49 This parish was a vicarage, and part of 

Skptkmbkr 3 j LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 69 

Templecorran parishes constituted the Tuogh or District of Braden or Broad 
Island, now known as Island Magee. The unroofed ruins of Templecorran 
Church s° are still to be seen near the Antrim coast. It is remarkable as 
having been the church of the first prebendal benefice of Kilroot, to which 
Jonathan Swifts 1 — afterwards the celebrated Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin — 
had been appointed ; but, he held it only for the short term ot two years, 
when he resigned it,s 2 and went to reside with Sir William Temple, as his 
secretary, at Moor-park, in England. The parish of Templecorran was a 
vicarage and part of the benefice of Kilroot or Ballinure. It is traversed by 
the roads from Carrickfergus to Island Magee and Lame, having Belfast 
Lough for its southern boundary. 53 

In that Life of our saint, contained in the Salamancan Manuscript, we read, 
that when Macnessius returned to his native country, he miraculously changed 
the current of a river named Curi. 5 * This he did, in order that the murmuring 
of its waters should not disturb infirm persons in a monastery, which he built at 
a place called Disart, or The waters afterwards took a distant course 
from that spot. On a certain day, when he laboured there with his monks, 
he had a revelation, that in company with other holy persons, St. Brigid 56 
was on the way to his house, in order to confer with him on religious subjects. 
Being greatly rejoiced at this interior admonition, he addressed his com- 
munity with these words: "Brethren, let us give over this work and retire to 
the monastery; we must prepare whatever may be necessary for the holy 
guests, who are journeying hither, and who shall arrive during this week."57 

St. yEngus Macnessius is reputed to have been the first founder, and to 
have presided as Bishop over the Church of Connor.s 8 Its establishment is 
thus referred to the latter half of the fifth century. The present See59 com- 

the benefice of Ballinure. The surface suspects it might have been a small stream, 

comes down from the basaltic uplands, a little noted on some maps, as passing near Connor 

east of Lough Mourne, to the margin of towards the North. See " Acta Sanctorum," 

Belfast Lough. See " Parliamentary tomus i., Septembris hi. Acta S. Macniseii, 

Gazetteer of Ireland," vol. ii., p. 531. n. (k), p. 666. 

s° The annexed illustration, copied from ss Hibernice, " Disert." "St. MacNissi 

that in the " Dublin Penny Journal," has sought in the vicinity of his Church of 

been drawn on the wood, and engraved by Connor a place of holy retirement, where he 

Mr. Gregor Gray. might enjoy undisturbed meditation." — Very 

5 1 See the Life of Jonathan Swift, pre- Rev. James O'Laverty's " Historical 

fixed to Thomas Roscoe's edition ot his Account of the Diocese of Down and 

works, vol. i., pp. xvi., xvii. Connor, Ancient and Modern," p. 271. 

s 2 The pathetic story, told by Sheridan, s« See her Life, in the Second Volume of 

and repeated by Sir Walter Scott, in his this work, at the 1st of February, Art. i. 
Memoirs of Swift, prefixed to the volumi- 57 This miracle is recorded in the Acts of 

nous collection of the Dean's works, about our Saint, published by the Bollandists, at 

his having procured that poor clergyman the 3rd of September. See "Acta Sanc- 

who lent his horse to obtain it, has no foun- torum," tomus i., Septtmbris. iii. Acta S. 

dation in fact, as proved by that ingenuous Macnissii, sect. 8, p. 665. 
and learned writer, William Monck Mason, s8 The See of Down was united to that of 

in his admirable and most researchful work, Connor by Pope Eugenius IV. Henry VI. 

11 The History and Antiquities of the Col- approved of this union, as appears by his 

legiate and Cathedral Church of St. Patrick's, diploma, given in the sixteenth year of his 

near Dublin," book ii., chap, v., sect, i., n. reign, A.D., 1438. See Dubourdieu's 
(x) p. 235. His account of that extraordi- " Statistical Survey of the County Antrim," 

nary genius is one of the most exact and chap, i., sect, i., p. 15. 

authentic biographies of the Dean hitherto 59 i n Irish records the name Connor 

written. generally appears in the forms Convene, 

53 See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ire- Conoipe, Cotvoeine, Comxvipe, which 
land," vol. ii., pp. 324, 325. Colgan occasionally Latinizes by Condoria. 

54 The Bollandist editor remarks, that he See "Trias Thaumaturga," p. 146, col. 2 ; 
cannot find a river called Curi : although he p. 272, c. 1 ; p. 502, c. I. The tvo in the 



prises several churches, which on one or more occasions had been formerly 
episcopal seats, and had conferred a title on their respective bishops. 60 
Those churches within the limits whicli formerly enjoyed cathedral honours 
were Connor, 61 Arthirmuigh, Killanardh, Cuilraithen, Rechrann, and Rath- 
sithe. 62 

It would seem, from the Bollandist Acts of our Saint, that a monastery 6 3 
was founded at Connor, after the arrival of our saint in Ireland, and on his 
return from Rome. The episcopal See of Connor appears, also, to have had 
a separate and an independent existence, at a time when his short Acts were 
written. 6 -* The union of Connor with the See of Down has been referred to 
the year 1442. In 1458, Patrick Olynnan was vicar of the cathedral church 
of Connor. 6 s The old cathedral of St, Saviour at Connor had been partly 
destroyed in the rebellion of 164 1. A portion of this having been re-roofed, 
and thatched with straw, was afterwards used for Protestant service. 66 The 
subsequent rectory church was built in 18 18, on the site of the old cathedral. 



In his Acts, it is stated, that in company with St. Patrick and St. Brigid, 1 
the holy bishop had been journeying through Momonia, 2 and he passed 
through a place, called Lann-ela.3 While his companions passed on, our saint 

middle of the word subsequently passed into 
«n., as Mr. O'Donovan observes : " In the 
antient Irish manuscripts we find tro almost 
invariably written for tin of the modern Irish 
orthography." — "Irish Grammar," p. 34. 

t0 The orign of the name is thus explained 
in a marginal gloss on the word Chon , oer\ib 
(Connor) in the Martyrology of .^Engus, at 
the 3rd of September: .1. T>Aine ha con .1. 
•OAine Ambicir com aIIca pnuif ec m eo 
lupe Via [bicaOAUc], i.e., " Daire-na-conn, 
i.e., the oak wood, in which were wild dogs 
formerly, and she-wolves used to dwell there- 
in." This etymology per metathesim was 
common with the Irish, as Colgan observes. 
He conjectures that Dercon, the Church of 
St. Olcan, was identical with Connor, 
adding : " Derechon, seu rectius Dorechon, 
per transpositionem nostratibus frequentem, 
idem sit quod Condere seu Condore." — 
" Acta Sanctorum Hibernire," xx. Februarii. 
Vita S. Olcani seu Bolcani, n. 8, recte 9, p. 

61 By the country people the name is pro- 
nounced as if it was written Con-yer. 

62 See Rev. Wm. Reeves' " Ecclesiastical 
Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dromore," 
note T, p. 237. 

6J In a note at this place, the Bollandist 
editor states, that he could not find a 
Ccenobium bearing such a name, but that 
near Conner there was a monastery named 

Camber, which Ware, in " De Hibernia et 

Antiquitatibus ejus," calls Comerer, al 
Comber, which had been founded A.D. 1199. 
See cap. xxvi., p. 180. 

64 After alluding to the foundation of 
'* Connerense monasterium," it is added, 
" in quo usque hodie sedes episcopalis 
habetur." In a comment on this latter 
passage, the Bollandist editor infers, that 
the Life of St. Macnessius must have been 
written before a.d., 1442, when the See of 
Connor was united to that of Down, by 
Eugenius IV. See "Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus i., Septembris iii. De Sancio Moc- 
nescio, nn. (g, h), p. 666. 

65 According to Prene's Registry, fol. 4. 

66 This portion was probably the transept 
of a larger building, for it is described by 
those who have attended it, as having stood 
north and south. See Ecclesiastical Report 
of 1806, p. 97. 

Chapter II. — ' In their several Lives, as 
published by Colgan, we find no allusion 
to the circumstances here narrated. 

2 The Bollandist editor remarks, that by 
the native Irish it is pronounced Moun, and 
by the English called Mounster. 

3 Now known as Lynally, in the present 
King's County, and formerly within the 
ancient territory of Meath. The term Lann, 
or Lan, was applied by the Britons to note 
a sacred place. See Colgan's " Trias Thau- 


remained there, and perceiving this, St. Patrick sent for St. Macnessius. 
When this latter came up, he was asked the cause for his stopping. Our 
saint then said to St. Patrick : " Over that place in which I stood, I saw the 
Heavens opened, and the Angels of God ascending and descending."* St. 
Patrick hereupon said : "It therefore behoves us to leave religious men 
here to serve God." Our saint replied : " Holy Father, if it please you, do 
not thus determine. For a child of my family, who shall be born sixty years 
from this day, and whose name is to be Colman Ela, 5 shall there found a 
celebrated monastery." And, as the Divine Spirit had revealed this to the 
man of God, so his prophecy was afterwards duly fulfilled. It is said, while 
performing his journeys, through reverence for the Gospels, this holy man 
was accustomed to bear books containing its text, on his stooped shoulders, 
they being secured by no kind of fastening. These, with such like virtues, 
and also miracles, distinguished our holy bishop, during his sojourn upon 
earth. 6 

We are told, that St. Colman of Dromore,? after the year 500, established 
a noble monastery, by advice of St. Macnessius, Bishop of Connor. It was 
situated on the banks of the river Locha, 8 a former name for the Lagan, 
which flows through Dromore.9 This place was also called Druim 
Mocholmog, 10 after the patron saint. It must have been erected, before a.d. 
514, when, at the very latest, Macnessius died. 11 Most incorrectly has 
Archbishop Ussher, by a mere conjecture, assigned the erection of Dromore 
monastery to the year 550. I2 In doing so, he has fallen into the prevalent 

maturga," Septima Vita S. Patricii, pars, ii., 
n. 219, p. 183. In Wales, at the present 
time, many local denominations have Lann 
in composition. 

4 The Bollandist editor remarks in a note, 
that a nearly similar vision of St. Patrick is 
related by Joceline, in which it is stated, 
in a place where he saw much light and 
heard the canticles of an angelic choir, the 
Irish Apostle predicted that a Son of Life 
named Colmanellus should there build a 
church, and gather many Sons of Light, to 
be companions of the Angels. See Colgan's 
"Trias Thaumaturga," Sexta Vita S. 
Patricii, cap. xcvi., p. 87. Father Veldius 
suspects, that the vision there related had 
been transferred to St. Macniscius, with the 
addition of the sixty years term elapsing in 
the case of Colman Ela. A doubt has been 
expressed by Colgan, as to whether St. 
Patrick alluded to St. Colman, the future 
bishop of Dromore, or to St. Colman Ela 
of Lynally — often styled Colmanellus. Both 
are said to have been disciples of Mac- 
niscius, while both flourished at the same 
time, and in that part ot Ulster called 
Dalnardia, or more properly Dal-aradia. 
Seeidid., n. 106, p. 113. 

5 The feast of St. Colman, of Lynally, is 
kept on the 26th of September, at which 
day notices of him may be found, in the 
present volume. 

6 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Septembris hi. De Sancto Macniscio 
Episcopo, Vita auctore incerto, sect. 9, p. 665. 

7 See his Acts, in the Sixth Volume of 

this work, at the 7th of June, Art i. 

8 " The River Locha, which was also 
called CAfAri-l/me, is the modern La°an, 
upon which Dromore is built." — Rev. Wm. 
Reeves' " Ecclesiastical Antiquities of 
Down, Connor and Dromore," n. (c), pp. 
104, 105. 

9 In the Ecclesiastical Taxation of the 
Diocese of Dromore, compiled A.D. 1306, 
the Church of Drummore is rated at three 
marks, the Tenth amounting to 2s. and 8d. 
The church of the parish — also the 
cathedral of the diocese — was antiently 
styled ''Ecclesia Sancti Colmani," or 
"Colmoci;" but under the charter of 
James I., in 1609, " Ecclesia Christi Re- 
demptoris de Drumore." It was originally 
attached to a monastic institution, and it 
was founded by St. Colman or Colmac, its 
first bishop and abbot. 

10 In the calendar of the Four Masters, he 
is mentioned at the 7th of June, where his 
church is called "Dmum mocoltnoS, "the 
ridge or hill of Mocholmeg," instead of 
"0|unm mop, "the great ridge or hill." The 
word "orvuim is cognate to the Latin 
dorsum; thus, Adamnan Latinizes Drium- 
cheat by Dorsum Cete. In the present 
instance, it refers either to the rising ground 
over the town, or to the " Great Fort," 
which is near the town on the east side. 

11 See Rev Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland," vol i., chap, ix., sect i,, 
p. 432, and vol ii., cap. xiv., sect., ii., n. 26, 
p. 308. 

12 See " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum 



error of confounding Colman-Eala, of Lynally and Muckamore, with Colaian 
or Colmanellus of Dromore.^ He seems to have paid no attention to the 
date of Macnessius's death, although he had before him the Annals of Innis- 
fallen. These records assign it to as early as the year 506. He also 
confounded ** the monastery near the Locha, viz., of Dromore, with that of 
Muckmore, a place in the County of Antrim. 15 

It has been stated, that St. Macnessius became the superior of a religious 
community, which he established at Connor, and that he continued to govern 
it until his death.' 6 Although we do not find any ancient authority, in 
confirmation of such a statement ; yet, considering the usual customs in the 
foundation of early missions in this country, we may regard the account as 
fairly probable. There is reason also for a supposition, that the original 
establishment of St. Macnessius was not situated at Connor, but at a place 
not far distant, and formerly known as the Desert of Connor. 1 ? It is now 
called Kells, 18 in the parish, and about one half mile west from the church, 
of Connor. There is some foundation for the supposition, that this monas- 
tery,^ and not Connor, 20 is the representative of those churches founded by 

Antiquitates," Index Chonologicus, ad 
annum dl., p. 531. Also cap. xvii., pp. 

45 ! » 497- 

13 In the Life of St. Colman, published by 
the Bollandists, at the 7th of June, several 
clues are given to the discovery of the real 
date, for the foundation of Dromore, and 
about the year 500 may be assigned. That 
it took place before 513, the following 
passage proves, because St. MacNissi died 
in that year : " Deinde saepe venerabilem 
Macnyseum Conderensem Episcopum petit. 
— Illuc perveniens, in omni hilaritate sus- 
ceptus est : ibique paucis diebus mansit. 
Deinde inito consilio, venerabilem senem, 
ubi locum, serviendi Deo fundare deberet 
consulit. Qui respondit : Voluntas Dei est, 
ut in finibus campi Coda tibi construas 
monasterium. Beatus igitur Colmanus 
secundum verbum Sancti Fontificis, fines 
illas adiit : ibique in valle, sancto Patricio 
quondumprseostensa super fluvium vocabulo 
Locha, sedem sibi constituit, in qua sibi 
discipulorum multitude brevi exeravit.'"' — 
" Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Junii, p. 26. 
The Campus Coba here mentioned is called 
rtiAJ Cooa in the Irish Annals, and it 
belonged to a district of Iveagh, which ex- 
tended to the neighbourhood of Newry, 
according to the taxation of the Diocese of 
Dromore, at Domnachmore. 

14 At a.d. 550, compared -with a.d. 456, 
in Index Chronologicus. See pp. 521, 531. 

15 Harris very wisely, and after him 
Archdall, assign the foundation of Muck- 
more to about 550. See Rev. Dr. Lani- 
gan's " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 
vol. i., chap, ix., sect, i., n. io, pp. 
433, 434- 

16 See Rev. Wm. Reeves' " Ecclesiastical 
Antiquities of Down and Connor and 
Dromore," Appendix n. (T), p. 238. That 
a succession of Abbots, after the death of 
St. Macnessius, continued in the Monastery 

of Connor, appears from the Annals of that 
place, in the same work. — Ibid., pp. 239 to 
243. The first recorded death of an Abbot 
over Connor occurs at a.d. 773 [778], more 
than 200 years after the death of St. Mac- 

17 According to the Ecclesiastical Taxa- 
tion of the Diocese of Connor, compiled in 
the year 1306, temporalities belonging to 
the Abbot of the Desert of Connor are set 
down at £8 6s. 8d. The tenth of this was 
1 6s. 8d. 

18 It is shown on the " Ordnance Survey 
Townland Maps for the County of Down," 
sheet 38. 

19 It is called Ecclesia Beatae Marias de 
Deserto " in the old Terrier. 

20 At the Dissolution, Connor benefice 
was but a vicarage, the rectory and advow- 
son being vested in the Abbot of Kells. St. 
Mac Nissi's Church was a conventual 
one, like most of the early episcopal seats 
of the primitive Irish Church ; and it is a 
very curious fact, which cannot be easily 
accounted for, otherwise than by supposing 
the episcopal and abbatial offices to have 
been early combined in the persons of St. 
Mac Nissi's successors, that the rectories 
and advowsons of the principal parishes of 
Connor diocese, wherein the bishop had 
property, belonged, at the Dissolution, to the 
Abbot of Kells. Such an arrangement 
would naturally follow from a partition of 
the two functions, and the appointment of 
two officers to discharge the duties and en-. 
joy the privileges hitherto combined in one. 
Thus, while the Bishop of Connor was seised 
of the temporalities ot the sixteen towns of 
Connor, the eight towns of Glynn, the four 
towns of Duneane, the four towns of Drum- 
maul, the four towns of Kilroote, and the 
manor of Kilkenan, the Abbot of Kells en- 
joyed the advowsons of the churches built 
on these lands, and the rectorial tithes of 


St. MacNissi, the first bishop. Its ancient church appears to have been 
attached to the monastery," at this spot, 22 while the founder of the See 
fulfilled in person the united offices of abbot and bishop. From undoubted 
annalistic records, the junction of both these dignities in the same person can 
be traced down to the eleventh century. A well-informed writer, 2 3 dis- 
tinguished for his great erudition and research on the subject of Irish 
Ecclesiastical History, is unable to pronounce when those offices became 
permanently separated. He thinks it likely, however, such a partition took 
place during the twelfth century. 

Beside a river, called Curi, St. MacNissi established a religious house, 
and it may be inferred from a passage of his Latin Life, 2 * that some asylum 
for aged and infirm persons was near it. At present, it flows through the 
valley, called Glenwherry, 2 s and in the Ulster inquisitions it is noticed as the 
(i rivus Glan-curry." It enters the parish of Connor, and leaving its church 
on the south, it winds round what is locally styled the Abbey of Kells, on 
the north. There are still considerable remains of an ancient building, at 
the spot. 26 Under the name of the Kells Water, that stream falls into the 
River Main, at a place called Ballyandraid. It is related, that in order to 
save those who were infirm at that place from the sound of murmuring water, 
St. Mac Nissi removed the current from his abode. 2 ? Still are traces of an 
earlier river-bed visible, 28 and which are nearer to the site of the ancient 
church. 2 9 The Rev. William Reeves supposes, that about the period of the 
twelfth century, the Abbey de Deserto Connerice^ or Kells, became an 
independent establishment, when another church had been founded for 
cathedral or parochial purposes. Subsequently, it was called the Church of 
Connor.3° Thus we find, that the foundation of what is called Disertum or 

the parishes which contained them. To the infirmos loci molestaret, per ulteriorem viam 

same origin may be traced, also, the economy currere prsecepit : quod continuo, ut ei 

of the Cathedral of Down, where the Bishop imperatum est, fecit." — "Acta Sanctorum," 

was Abbot, and the Dean was Prior. tomus i., Septembris iii. Vita auctore in- 

21 According to Sir James Ware, a house certo, sect. 7, p. 665. 

of Regular Augustine Canons, called Kells, 25 Shown on the " Ordnance Survey 

or Disert, was here dedicated to the Blessed Townland Maps for the County of Down," 

Virgin Mary. See " De Hibernia et sheets 38, 39. 

Antiquitatibus ejus Disquisitiones," cap. 2<5 The accompanying illustration, from a 

xxvi., p. 183. photograph of Mr. T. C. Erwin, Pho- 

22 It was founded here, before the year tographer, Ballymena, taken June, 1897, 
828, by Kelloch, an anchorite, according to has been reproduced on the wood, and en- 
Harris' Ware, vol. ii, " Antiquities of Ire- graved by Gregor Grey. 

land," chap, xxxviii., p. 265. This state- s7 The Rev. William Reeves conjectures 

ment is gathered from the following entry that the rationale for such change may have 

in the "Annals of the Four Masters," at been, that he shifted his monastery — no 

the year 828: " Ce^llac mc Cont>tfiAi5 difficult matter for a house built more 

•Anjcoi|\e t)ifi]\c CeAlUvij." See Dr. Scotorum — or that he deepened the bed of 

O'Donovan's edition, vol. i., p. 442. The the River. 

learned editor omitted the translation of 28 In the Bleach Green. 

this passage into English. It may be 29 This information was communicated by 

objected, however, that such refers, not to Mr. Robert Brown, of Kildrum, to Rev. 

this place, but to Isertkelly, in the county of James O'Laverty. See " Historical Account 

Galway, and diocese of Kilmacduach. It is of the Diocese of Down and Connor, 

marked "Oir-ervc Cellaij on Mr. O'Dono- Ancient and Modern," vol. iii., p. 272, 

van's exquisite map of Hy-Many, prefixed note. 

to " The Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many, 3 ° He adds : " This Church, which is now 

commonly called O'Kelly's Country." only parochial, is situate half an English 

23 The Rev. Dr. Reeves. mile S.E. of the Abbey of Kells. It is 

24 As published by the Bollandists : probable, also, that about the same time 
"Fluvio nomine Curi, monasterium ejus that arrangement was entered into whereby 
quod Latine Desertum dicitur, praeterfluenti, the Abbot became seised of the rectorial 
ne sonitus ejus tarn prope transeuntis tithes and ad vowsons of all the neighbouring 



Kells, in mediaeval times,3 x must be relegated to the very earliest ages of 
Christianity, and it had a succession of abbots to the period of its dissolution. 3' 
During the reign of King Charles I. the mediaeval abbey was still to be seen 
under roof ;33 but, at present, the west gable is almost the only part of the 

The Abbey of Kells, County Antrim. 

building which remains. It stands at the entrance of the burial ground, 
which is entirely used by the Roman Catholics of that neighbourhood. It is 
commonly called Templemurry or Templemoyle.34 

It is related, in the Bollandists' Acts of our saint, that through the effect 
of his prayers, St. Macnessius obtained the birth of a son for a woman 
advanced in age, and who for fifteen years previously had not given birth 

parishes wherein the bishop had property. 
The Church of Connor stands on see 
land, yet the advowson of the vicarage and 
the rectorial tithes of the bishop's sixteen 
towns of Connor belonged to the Abbot of 
Kells. The Church of Glynn stands on see 
land, and yet the advowson of the vicarage 
and the rectorial tithes were vested in the 
Abbot of Kells. So also with respect to the 
parishes and bishop's lands of Drurnmaul, 
Dunean, Killroot, and Kilkenan, in Island 
Magee. The Castle and certain land at 
Glenarm were antiently held under the 
Bishop of Connor ; and, accordingly, the 
advowson of the vicarage of Templeoughter, 
with the rectory, was appendant on the 
abbacy of Kells." — Rev. Wm. Reeves' 
" Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, Con- 
nor and Dromore.'' Appendix n. (T), 
p. 261. 

31 The ancient name of this Abbey is in 
a deed of confirmation from the Primate to 

the Prior of Neddrum [circiter A.D. 1190]. 
This is attested by "F. Abbas de Dissert." 
— Cotton Charters, No. 40, in the British 

32 Murtogh Mac Annullowe, the last 
Abbot, was seised in 1542 of eight adjacent 
townlands in temporals and spirituals, of 
the tithes of ten other townlands, and the 
rectories and advowsons of nine churches. 

33 In 1808, a bill was filed by Lord 
Mountcashell for the recovery of the im- 
propriate tithes of Kells, in which was the 
deposition of Daniel Monaghan, who de- 
clared that he recollected to have heard his 
maternal grandfather, Murtogh Dillon, say, 
that he was eleven years at the wars of Ire- 
land, namely, the rebellion of 164 1, and 
that he had seen the Monastery of Kells 
after its dissolution, and before it was 
entirely unroofed. 

34 See Rev. Wm. Reeves' "Ecclesiastical 
Antiquities of Down, Connor, and 



to any offspring. Again, we are told, the father to the great St. Comgall of 
Bangor,35 who was named Setna, had been on a journey, accompanied by his 
wife Brig, occupying a seat in a chariot. Seeing our saint travelling on foot, 
Setna said to his wife : 4C woman, descend that the Bishop may take a 
place in this chariot." But, on hearing these words, our saint replied : " Do 
not disturb her, for she shall give birth to a king, who will rule over many."* 6 
This was a prediction referring to St. Comgall's future eminence. n As it is 
probable, that St. Comgall of Bangor had been born, in the year 510,3 s and 
as it is said our saint delivered a prophecy regarding him the day before his 
birth, we may most probably conclude, St. Macniscius, Bishop of Connor, 
had been living in that year. Our saint did not survive the birth of St. 
Comgall for many years. Other miracles are recorded in his Acts. A town 
that refused hospitality to our saint was immediately consumed, as a punish- 
ment from on high. 39 

St. Macnessius is said to have been advanced in years, when the time of 
his death arrived. This was in the early part of the sixth century, although 
the exact date has not been ascertained. 40 However, he departed this life, 
on the 3rd day of September, 41 and in the year 514, 42 according to the most 
probable accounts ; 43 although the Annals of Innisfallen name the year 506, 
as a date for his death, with the words, " Quies Macnisse Condire." The 
"Chronicum Scotorum" places his death at a.d. 508.44 Others have it during 
the year 507 ; 45 the Annals of Tigernach at a.d. 510 j and Colgan, on the 
3rd of November,* 6 a.d. 513. The Annals of the Four Masters state, that 
in a.c. 5T3, the tenth year of Muircheartach's reign, St. Macnisi, i.e., Aengus, 

Dromore, : ' Appendix, n. (f), pp. 95 to 97. 

35 See his Life, in the Fifth Volume of 
this work, at the 10th of May, the date for 
his festival, Art. i. 

36 For a fuller account of this incident, the 
reader is referred by the Bollandist editor to 
the Acts of St. Comgall, published at the 
10th of May, in their great collection. 

37 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Septembris, iii. Acta S. Macnescii, sect. 7, 
8, p. 665. 

38 In his previous Commentary, to the 
Acts of St. Macnescius, the Bollandist 
editor observes, regarding St. Comgall, " ut 
habent ejus Acta, torn, ii., Maii, pag. 583." 

39 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Sep- 
tembris iii. Acta S. Macnescii, sect. 6, p. 665. 

40 Porter states : " Evivis hie cessit senex 
venerabilis, 3 Septembris, Anno Domini 
507: vel secundum alios, 514." — "Com- 
pendium Annalium Ecclesiasticorum Regni 
Hiberniae," cap. vii., p. 173. 

41 He died on the 3rd day of September, 
and under this day of the month his festival 
is placed in the Martyrology of -dingus the 
Culdee : — 

"nuc msse co rmli-o 
o chotiDetub m<\n<\ib." 

" Mac Nisse with thousands 
From the great Condere." 

42 His death is recorded in the Annals of 
Tigernach as follows :— " 5 10 [recte 514]. 
Kl iiii. true mr-p. .1. <\enj;ur< erpuc 
Conx>er\e <juieuic ; cuiuf j?r\4cer* [recte 

p.&cen] iTobrvaech -oiccurerc, cuiurtnacep 
Cnerr ittge-n, C homcAi'oe -oe -oaiL Cecepen, 
A <\u& normriAcuf ere mac Cneirre." — 
" 514 s Kal iiii. Mac Nissi, i.e., ^Engus, 
Bishop of Connor, rested ; whose father was 
called Fobraech ; whose mother, Cness, 
was daughter of Comchaide of the Dal 
Ceteren, from whom he was named Mac 

43 See "Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 
vol. i., chap, viii., sect, ix., p. 403, and 
sect, xiv., p. 422, ibid. 

44 See William M. Hennessy's edition, 

PP- 36, 37- 

45 •« Ware, following these Annals, has 
(Ant., cap. 29) the year 507. Harris, with 
his usual sagacity, observes (Bishops at 
Connor), that this date does not agree with 
that of the Innisfallen Annals, which have 
506. But," writes Rev. Dr. Lanigan, 
"Ware knew what Harris did not, viz., 
that said 506 was the same as our 507. 
Archdall (at Conner) left a.d. 506, as he 
found it. But Ware (in Bishops) adds that, 
according to some, Macnisse died A.D. 
514. He alluded to the Four Masters and 
Colgan, who have (A.A.S.S. p. 190) a.d. 
513, 514." See "Ecclesiastical History 
of Ireland," vol. i., chap, ix., sect, ii., p. 
435, and n. 31, p. 439. 

46 This is an error of the printer, as Sep- 
tember was evidently intended. See "Acta 
Sanctorum Hiberniae," Januarii xxix. Vita 
S. Gildse Badonici, n. 13, p. 190. 



Bishop of Coinnere, or Connor, departed on the 3rd day of November. 4 * 
The insertion of November for September is an error, on the part of those 
annalists. 48 The Bollandists inform us, that Castellanus refers the death of 
St. Macniscius, Bishop over Connor, to about the year 600, or 589. But, 
they state, that by protracting his life to either of these years, Castellanus *9 
appears to have confounded our saint with the Abbot Macniscius. The 
holy Bishop and founder of the see was buried in the city of Connor.5° 

The festival of St. Macnessius was celebrated on the 3rd of September, 
according to the Martyrology of Aengus, and all the Irish Calendars. In 
the Kalendar. of Drummond, he is recorded at the same date. 51 Also, 
Castellanus, 52 and the more recent Marty rologists place it at the 3rd of 
September. In the Diocese of Connor, his festival is celebrated with a 
Double Office of the first-class, and with an Octave; in conjunction with St. 
Malachy O'Morgair, he is esteemed as the principal patron over that 
ecclesiastical division of Ireland. Nicholas Anthony O' Kenny, the Protono- 
tary Apostolic, published Proper Masses for the Patron Saints of France and 
of Ireland, in the year 1734. 53 Those were edited and printed by order of 
Clement XII. 54 Among them is to be found a Mass, at the 3rd day of 
September, 55 and proper for the feast of St, Macnessius, Bishop and Con- 
fessor, as likewise general Patron over the Church and Diocese. The 
Bollandist editor has inserted this Mass ; or at least the proper portions of 
it, in a previous commentary. 56 

47 See Dr. O'Donovan's Edition, vol. i., 
pp. 168, 169. 

48 Dr. Lanigan is at fault, in his conjecture, 
as not having examined, probably, a copy of 
the Annals of the Four Masters. After 
citing Ware's Antiquities, cap. 2g, and 
Bishops, he says, " Here again Harris comes 
forward with a correction of Ware, and quotes 
Colgan as saying, that Macnisse died on the 
3rd of November, 513. As to 513, it was 
the same as Ware's 514 ; but the variation 
November for September was owing to a mere 
error of the press \2\ A.A.S.S.p. 190), z. cir- 
cumstance quite common in Colgan's work. 
Elsewhere, he has third of September {ib. p. 
377), which day he refers for the Acts of Mac- 
nisse." See " Ecclesiastical History of 
Ireland," vol. i., chap, ix., sect, ii., n. 32, 
P- 439- 

49 1 hey say, that Castellanus, at page 968, 
most probably makes the Abbot Macniseus 
a different person from the Bishop of Connor. 
The Bollandist editor also remarks, "abbas 
enim Me obiit anno jSg, non circa D C, ut 
Castellanus vull." 

50 " Sanctus Mac Cneisi episcopus, qui 
jacet in sua civitate nomine Connyre, quae 
est in regione Dalnaraidhe." — Vita S. 
Comgalli, in Liber Kilkenniensis, fol. 90 /;, 
col. 2 ; and also Fleming's " Collectanea 
Sacra," p. 304. 

51 At iii. Nonas. " Apud Hiberniam 
Natale Sanctorum Confessorum Luin 
Colman et Meic Nissi." — Bishop Forbes' 
" Kalendar of Scottish Saints," p. 23. 

53 In Martyrologio Universali, at the 3rd 
of September, he states : " In Ultonia, pro- 

vincia Hiberniae, S. Magnissius episcopus 
Connerensis." In the supplement to ids 
work, he more rightly adds : ".Macniseus, 
id est filius Nisae, quod erat nomen matris 
ejus-'' See p. 705. 

53 Bishop de Burgo has unaccountably 
omitted St. Macnessius, in the " Officia 
Propria Sanctorum Hibernise," published in 
Dublin, 1751. 

54 See, also, the Rev. Alban Butler's "Lives 
of the Fathers, Martyrs, and other principal 
Saints," vol. ix., iii. September. 

55 The Bollandist editor of our Saints' 
Acts declares, that the memory of St. Mac- 
is ascribed to the same day in some 

MSS. Catalogues of the Saints of Ireland, 
" quos habemus sub involucio *%* MS.167. " 
He thinks it strange, however, this saint 
had been omitted by Henry Fitzsimon, the 
Irish Jesuit, who names other holy men 
much less distinguished, and by Father 
Hugh Ward, belonging to the Order of 
Friars Minor, in his catalogue of the Irish 
Saints, which he sent to Rosweyde in the 
year 1627. However, in a MS. forwarded 
by Ward to Rosweyde or to Bollandus, 
there are some notices of St. Macnessius 
which have been already given, partly in a 
previous note, and extracted from the 
learned work of Dr. Reeves. See "Acta 
Sanctorum," tomus i., Septembris, iii. 
Commentaiius prasvius, sect. 3, p. 662. 

56 I have inserted here the proper portions 
of this Mass taken from the same work : — 
" Introitus. Cogitavi dies antiquos, & 
annos aeternos in mente habui : & meditafus 
sum nocte cum cordo meo ; & exercitabar 

September 3.] LIVES OE THE IRISH SAINTS. 77 

There was another Saint Macnessius,57 in Ireland, who also bore the 
name Oena -<4Engus, in Latin ^Eneas or ^Engussius. He was Abbot over 
Clonmacnoise, situated on the banks of the Shannon, and on the Western 
Meathian boundaries. Although, there was an accidental concordance of 
names, between our saint and this Abbot just mentioned ; yet, the circum- 
stances of their separate places, 58 festival days/9 and the years of their 
respective deaths, 60 fully suffice to discriminate them. 

The Church of Annatrim in the parish of Offerlane, at the foot of Slieve 
Bloom Mountain and in the Diocese of Ossory, is said to have been dedicated 
to the memory of this saint. Such, however, we believe to be a mistake, as the 
present holy Bishop, Mac Nissi, has been called Caeman Breac, and he has 
been confounded with Caemhan, the Patron of Eanach-Truim, venerated on 
the 3rd of November. 61 Doubtless, many misconceptions have tended to 
obscure St. Mac Nissi's Acts, but our Christian traditions — generally so 
respectable in the Irish Church — have preserved his virtues and merits, as 
the Patriarch of one among our most ancient dioceses, and as a Patron 
whose memory is deserving the veneration of his devout clients. 

Article III. — St. Lon, or Loman, also called Lon-garadh, of 
Disert-Garadh, or of Magh Tuathat, Queen's County. [Sixth 
Century. ~\ In the ancient monastic schools of Ireland, learning and piety 
were admirably combined ; and this too at a very early period, as we can 
learn from the traditional and written accounts regarding the present devout 
scholar. In the Feilire of St. y£ngus, at the 3rd of September, Longarad, 
" a delightful sun," 1 is mentioned, as having had his commemoration. We 
find a festival recorded, also, in the Martyrology of Donegal, 2 at the same 
date, and in honour of Lon-garadh. In the manuscript copy of that calendar, 

& scopebam spiritum meum. Psalmus. Vitali cibo recreati gratias tibi, Domine, 

Voce mea ad Dominum clamavi, voce mea agimus & rogamus, ut quod ad gloriam 

ad Dominum clamavi, voce mea ad Deum, sumpsimus sancti tui praesulis Macniscii, 

& intendit mihi. Gloria Patris, &c. Cogitavi, ejus precibus sit nobis contra hostiles impetus 

&c. Oratio. Sancti Macniscii, Domine, auxilium. Per Dominum, &c." After the 

confessoris tui & pontificis, merito ad- insertion of the foregoing the Bollandist 

juvemur; ut sicut te in illo mirabilem editor remarks: "Haec publicam &solennem 

praedicamus, ita in nos misericordum fuisse hujus sancti Episcopi venerationem satis 

gloriemur. Per Dominum, &c. Lectio superque probant. " 

Epistol^e beati Pauli Apostoli ad Hebi aeos ; 57 See notices of him in the Sixth Volume 

Fratres. Plures facti sunt sacerdotes, &c, of this work at the 13th of June, Art. ii. 

usque adfinem capitis. Gradual. Beatus 58 Connor and Clonmacnois are more than 

vir, qui timet Dominum, in mandatis ejus eighty Irish miles apart, 

cupit nimis. ~f. Potens in terra erit semen S9 Mac Nissi of Clonmacnois is venerated 

ejus, generatio rectorum benedicetur. on the 13th of Jun**, while Mac Nissi of 

Alleluia, alleluia. ~ft. Gloria & divitiae in Connor's feast occurs on the 3rd of Sep- 

domo ejus, & justitia ejus manet in saeculum tember. 

seculi. A Sequentia sancti Evangelii ^ While the death of Mac Nessius, Bishop 

secundum Matthreum ; Homo quidam of Connor, is assigned to the early part of 

peraegre proficiscens, &c. Credo. Offer- the sixth century, that of Mac Nessius, 

torium. Meditabor in mandatis tuis, quae Abbot of Clonmacnois, is placed towards its 

dilexi valde ; & servavi manus meas ad close. 

mandata tua, quaedilexi. Secreta. Sucri- 6l See an account of him, at that date, in 

ficium nostrum, Domine, beatus Macniscius the Eleventh Voiume of this work, 

sacerdos magnus majestatis tuae occulis Article hi.— 1 See translations of the 

reddat acceptum, qui se tibi dum vixit, Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 

sanctam & placentem hostiam immolavit. Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of 

Per Dominum, &c. Communis. Laetabitur Oengus. By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. 

Justus in Domino, & sperabit in eo : & lauda- cxxxvi. 

buntur omnes recti corde. Postcommunio. a Edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, 

78 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 3. 

a space had been left after the insertion of his name, to fill in the title of his 
dignity, the O'Clerys being uncertain as to whether they should style him 
11 priest," " abbot," or " bishop." 3 His original name seems to have been 
Lon, or Loman, to which the name of his place was afterwards added. It is 
possible, that he may be the same as Lon or Lonn of Cill Gobhra, who is 
venerated on the 24th of June.* The present Lon-garadh is said to have 
belonged to Sliabh Mairge, or to have been of Magh Tuathat.s He is called 
Lon-garadh Coisfinn, 6 of Disert Garadh, in the north of Osraighe. He was 
surnamed Garadh, from Disert Garadh, in the Queen's County, where he 
probably had a cell.? Sliabh Mairge is a denomination still preserved in 
Slievemargy, now a barony in the Queen's County, and a district that formerly 
extended very near to the present city of Kilkenny. Towards the south, it 
continued between the courses of the Nore and Barrow, forming the eastern 
boundary of the principality of Ossory. This latter ridge is now better 
known as the Johnswell Mountains. 8 The tribe Ui-Fairchellaigh or Ui- 
Foircheallain gave name to a district, now known as a large parish called 
OrTerrilan, west of Mountrath, in the Barony of Upper Ossory, Queen's 
County. The ancient name of the plain, in which this tribe was seated, was 
Magh-Tuathat.9 The parish of OrTerlane, contains the interesting ruins of Ana- 
trim, and only at present the site of the monastery of Mondrehid, I0 but, it seems 
not certain, that Disert Geradh, or Cill Gabhra, can be identified. Near Castle- 
town," in this same parish, there is an old cemetery, enclosing the ruins of 
an interesting and a mediaeval church, now called Churchtown, and of con- 
siderable dimensions. Old toghers or bohers are yet traceable, and leading 
from it in different directions. The original Irish name for this church seems 
to be lost. Within the memory of a middle-aged man, 12 the ruins were much 
more perfect, and a very beautiful east-end window remained in the gable, 
now destroyed. 13 An old stone font lay out under the canopy of heaven in 
the graveyard. 14 Lon-garadh was denominated " of the White Legs," either 
because they were covered with a whitish hair, or because they were smooth 
and very white. 15 Lon is said to have been a doctor in teaching, in history, 

pp. 234, 235. son-in-law to Peter, Earl of Ormonde, took 

3 See the appended note of Rev. Dr. Todd, forcible possession of this castle. He then 
p. 234, n. 1. — Ibid. garrisoned and held it for some time in war- 

4 See an account of him, at that date, in like opposition to the Fitzpatricks. Subse- 
the Sixth Volume of this work, Art. iv. quently, he resigned it to the ancient pro- 

s Of Magh Garadh, in Ui Fairchellaigh, prietors, and accepted in lieu of it the manor 
and of Cill Gabhra, in Sliabh Mairge, he is and lands of Grantstown. See the " Par- 
called, in old documents. liamentary Gazetteer of Ireland," vol. i., p 

6 Coisfinn ; i.e., of the white foot. See 374. 
" Martyology of Donegal," edited by " In May, 1870, Mr. Daniel F. Dowling, 

Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves. Note by Dr. then living in Castletown, and certainly not 

O'Donovan, p. 234. much over 40 years of age. 

i See " Book of Obits and Martyrology I3 With many other details of an interest - 

of the Cathedral Church of the Holy ing character, which he promised to put on 

Trinity," edited by John Clarke Crosthwaite record, and he related the facts embodied 

and Rev. Dr. Todd. Introduction, p. lxxii. in the text to the writer. Some fine sped- 

* See John Hogan's " Kilkenny : the mens of its carved lime-stones were at the 

Ancient City of Ossory," &c, parti., p. 30. heads of graves, and others were placed in 

9 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the positions to preserve them from similar uses, 
Four Masters," vol. i., n. (o), p. 560. by that respectable and highly intelligent 

10 Lewis' "Topographical Dictionary of man. 

Ireland," vol. ii., pp. 446, 447. 14 The country people often resort to it, 

11 Evidently so called from an old castle, and they use water, found in its cavity, as a 
the ruins of which are still to be seen on the lotion for the cure of warts. 

southern banks of the River Nore. Early j s Such is the statement of the glosso- 

in the sixteenth century, Sir Oliver Morres, grapher on /Engus, contained in the " Lea- 

September 3.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 79 

in laws and in poetry. This saint was regarded, likewise, as the Augustine 
of Ireland; such was the depth and range of his ecclesiastical knowledge. 16 
He was passionately addicted to a love of literature; but, it would seem, he 
was not remarkable for lending his much-prized books to others who desired 
their use or possession. '? The most valuable codices — especially the copies 
of Gospels and ritual Books — were often kept in polaire or leathern cases 
and in tiaga^ or satchels. '9 These latter 20 usually hung from pegs fastened 
in the walls of the old Irish monasteries. In the time of St. Patrick, a legend 
is related, that the Irish Apostle 21 desired a skin on which he slept and stood, 
while celebrating the holy sacrifice of the Mass, to be converted into a sack 
or satchel, which might serve to hold books. These were then fastened to 
the girdles of six attendant boys, who accompanied six Irish clerics, on a 
Roman pilgrimage. 22 This saint is said, likewise, to have been a great lover 
and collector of books. St. Columkille 2 3once paid him a visit ; but, accord- 
ing to the legend, Lon-garad hid his books, and his visitor predicted that 
after Longarad's death, no man would be able to read the works which were 
in his possession, 2 * and which were so inhospitably withheld, from one who 
could so thoroughly appreciate their value. It is a curious remark, how 
many similar ancient customs have prevailed, and in countries so very far 
remote, when we undertake the task of making antiquarian comparisons. 
At the present time, in the Abyssinian monasteries — and notably in that of 
Souriani — the disposition of the monks' manuscripts is to Europeans very 
original. Those manuscripts are usually hung in leather cases or satchels, 
tied with leather thongs, and having straps attached to the cases. By these, 
the books contained in them depend from long wooden pegs, fastened in the 
walls. 2 5 Those wooden pegs project underneath a shelf, carried in the 
Egyptian style around the walls, and at the height of the door-top. 26 Three 
or four manuscripts are hung on one peg, or even on more, if the Cordices 

bhar Breac " copy of his " Feilire." Art. i. 

16 An ancient vellum book, which we have 22 See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," 

mentioned under St. Brigid's life, at 1st ot Vita Septima S. Patricii, pars ii„ cap. ix., 

February, and under St. Patrick's, at the p. 130. 

17th March, states, that Lon-garadh, in his 23 See his Life at the 9th of June, in the 

habits and life, was like to Augustine, who Sixth Volume of this work, Art. i. 

was very wise. 24 See " Transactions of the Royal Irish 

*f It is probable, like most literary men, Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 

he had found from experience, how difficult part i. On the Calendar of Oengus. By 

it was to recover or recall them when lent ; Whitley Stokes, LL.D., pp. cxl., cxli. 

and, at a time when copies of tracts had not 2S See the Hon. Robert Curzon's "Visit 

been sufficiently multiplied, their absence to Monasteries in the Levant," part i., chap, 

might have much retarded his pursuit of viii., p. 93. There is also an illustrative 

knowledge, under difficulties of the period. wood-cut, representing this singular arrange- 

18 Called in Irish ciaja, in the legend of ment, and the interior of the library. It 

Longaradh. serves to revive in our imagination some 

'9 In Latin usually called scetha, or sceta, very probable scenes of our ancient Irish 

squesa or cetha, meaning in English, "a monastic community or library rooms, 

sheath." 26 The Library room at Souriani was 

20 The Book of Armagh has also the about twenty-six feet long, twenty wide, and 
significant term of scetha, at fol. 191, a.a. twelve in height ; its roof was formed of the 
It is worthy of notice, also, that in Sulp'crps trunks of palm trees, across which reeds were 
Severus' Preface to his Vita S. Mcuuu., l.c laid. These supported a mass of earth and 
printed text reads: " Libellum quern de plaster, of which the terrace roof was corn- 
vita S. Martini scripseram scheda sua posed. The windows, at a good height from 
premere." See at p. 483, in George Horn's the ground, were unglazed ; but, they were 
very complete edition of the works of that defended with bars of iron-wood, or some 
writer, published at Amsterdam, in 1665, 8vo. hard kind of wood. The door opened into 

21 See the Life of St. Patrick in the Third the garden, and its lock was of wood, also, 
Volume of this work, at the 17th of March, according to the peculiar construction used 


be small. The usual size of these books is that of a small and very thick 
quarto. The books of Abyssinia are bound in the ordinary way ; sometimes 
in wooden boards, which occasionally are elaborately carved in rude and 
coarse devices. The straps, attached to the book cases, were intended also 
to support these, and the manuscripts were carried over the shoulders. 
A very interesting account is given about the manner in which Abyssinian 
manuscripts are written; most usually on skins or vellum, but occasionally, 
too, on charta bombycina. The ink used by the scribes is a compound of 
gum, lampblack and water. It is jet black, and it keeps the colour for ever ; 
while it is not corrosive or injurious, either to the pen or paper. The scribes 
use a reed pen. The ink-horn is the small end of a cow's horn, stuck into 
the ground, at the feet of the scribe. The Abyssinian manuscripts are 
adorned with the quaintest and griraest illuminations conceivable. The 
colours are composed of various ochres, and laid over the outlines of figures, 
first drawn with the pen.*? The foregoing recorded facts may probably throw 
considerable light on the preservation of the ancient books of Erinn, and 
especially as relating to the legendary account of St. Longaradh's death. It 
is said, that the book satchels of Erin, and the gospels, and the lesson books 
of the students,' 8 fell from their racks, on the night of Lon-garadh's death. a 9 
Another account states, that this happened in an apartment where St. Colum- 
kille and others dwelt. St. Columkille then announced to Baethin the death 
of Lon, of Garadh, in Ossory.3° It was believed, also, that no person had 
such a knowledge of books as Lon-garadh ; for, it is related, he used to 
understand them in a most perfect manner. Universal regret for Lon-garadh's 
death was felt in all the monasteries and schools of Ireland,3 T and we have 
still some Irish poems extant which give expression to it. 32 There is still 
extant in an old Treatise some notices of this St. Longard, of Dysart Lon- 
gard, whose death brought such confusion to the Libraries of Ireland, in his 

in Egypt from time immemorial. That " Lon died, [Lon died] 

library contained perhaps nearly fifty Garad was unfortunate ; 

volumes, while the entire literature of He is a loss to learning and schools, 

Abyssinia did not include more than double Of Erin's isle to its extremities. " 

such a number of works. Some old Coptic — See ibid., p. lxxii. , where a somewhat 

and Syiiac manuscripts were found, also, and different version is given, and where the 

purchased by the Hon. Mr. Curzon, while lines are ascribed to St. Columkille. 

at Souriani. 3 * In the gloss to the "Feilire" in the Leab- 

27 Many other curious particulars are to har Breac copy are the two following Irish 

be gleaned concerning the art of writing in stanzas, with their literal English translation : 
that country from the book, already quoted, If manb ton 

of the Hon. Robert Curzon. See part i., i)o clulL gapA-o mop itvooti 

chap, vii., viii. "O Opitvo coniL&p AcnpeAb 

3 *This allusion preserves the tradition of Icoich legitvo Agur fcoi. 

the multiplicity of schools, which had been -oxbach Lou 

established in Ireland, during the sixth 1 C1IL 5Ap<vo mop moon 

century. 1)"oich le^mo Agur fcol 

29 This account is also to be found in the urop Openn x>&]\& hop. 
MS. Book of Fermoy. See " Proceedings Dead is Lon 

of the Royal Irish Academy," vol. i., part i., Of Cell garad — great the evil ! 

Irish MSS. Series, pp. 35, 36. To Erin with her many homesteads 

30 See this curious legend in " The Book It is ruin of learning and schools. 
of Obits and Martyrology of the Cathedral Died hath Lon 

Church of the Holy Trinity," edited by In Cell garad— great the evil ! 

John Clarke Crosthwaite and Rev. Dr. It is ruin of the learning and schools 

Todd. Introduction, pp. lxxi., lxxii. Of Erin's island over her border." 

3' It was said in an Irish stanza given by — "Transactionsof the Royal Irish Academy," 

the O'Clerys— thus translated into English— Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., part i. On 

and regarding the incident of our saint's the Calendar of Oengus, by Whitley Stokes, 

departure: — LL.D., p. cxlii. 



time.33 Also, an abridged version of this same story is found in a copy of 
the Felire /Engusa, at the 3rd of September, in the Leabhar Breac version. 
It is told more at length in the notes. His private collection of books 
included a curriculum of all the sciences. 34 His learning was greatly 
extolled. It is said, although illegible — owing to long keeping, injury, damp, 
or probably to bad ink — his books were preserved for ages after his time.35 
The date for Lon-garadh's departure from this life is not recorded ; but, as 
being a contemporary of St. Columbkille, he must have lived in the sixth 

Article IV. — Translation of St. Erentrude's Relics, at Salzburg. 
Already at the 30th June — the day for her principal feast 1 — we have given 
the Acts of this holy Abbess of Nunberg, 2 near Salzburg, in Upper Austria. 
As there stated, the 3rd of September, a.d. 1305, was regarded as the date 
for the translation of her relics 3 to the crypt at Salzburg, where at present 

The Cathedral and City of Salzburg. 

they are preserved.* The district around it in Roman times formed a part 
of Noricum, and the city itself was called Juvavia,s where her brother, or, 
according to most writers, her uncle, St. Rupert, 6 built a celebrated monastery, 

33 In the Ten Folia of the " Book of 
Leinster," belonging to the Franciscan 
Community, Merchants'-quay, Dublin, page 
17, column 3. 

34 Thus expressed in a note. 

35 See Professor Eugene O'Curry's "Lec- 
tures on the Manusciipt Materials of Ancient 
Irish History," lect. i., pp. 17, 18, and 
Appendix No. xvn., pp. 501, 502. 

Article iv.— ' See the Sixth Volume of 
this work, at that date, Art. i. 

2 Latinized " Nonnarummontis Monas- 

3 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nian," Martii xxvii. De S. Erentrude 
Abbatissa Nunbergensi, p. 770. 

4 Seethe Bollandist's " Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus v., Junii xxx. De S. Erendrude Virg. 
Abbatissa Salisburgi in Bavaria. Commen- 
tarius Prsevius, num. 6, 9, pp. 5^ ! » 5^ 2 « 

s See Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S. 
Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xviii., sect, li., 
p. 611. 

6 See his Acts, in the Third Volume 
of this work, at the 27th of March, Art. 

82 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 3. 

and became its first bishop. On the northern side of the Carinthian moun- 
tain-chain, it commands a most extensive view of the Bavarian plain stretching 
northwards. In due course, Salzburg became an archiepiscopal see, while its 
archbishop was recognised as Primate of Germany, and an Elector of 
Germany. He possessed many large domains in Austria, Styria and 
Carinthia.7 The archbishops adorned the city 8 with many splendid buildings, 
and its situation — one of the most picturesque in Germany — presents a noble 
amphitheatre of Alpine mountains as a background towards the south. The 
streets are narrow and crooked, and the squares are small but regular. The 
present cathedral was built in the seventeenth century.9 On the 3rd of 
September, the feast of a translation of St. Erentrude's relics is commemorated 
by Arturus a Monasterio, 10 Dorganus," Wion, 12 Menard, '3 and Ferrarius. 1 * 
The Bollandists, 1 * likewise, have references to it at this date. 

Article V. — Translation of the Relics of St. Foillan. The 
translation of St. Foillan's body is commemorated at this date, according to 
Molanus, 1 Dorgan, Wion, Menard, Ferrarius, in "Catalogus generalis 
Sanctorum," and Wilson, in " Martyrologium Anglicanum." On this day, 
the remains of St. Foillen, Martyr, were removed from Nivelles, in Belgium, 
at the instance of the Abbot of Fosse. The chief feast of St. Foillan is held 
on the 31st of October, where further notices of him may be found. 2 The 
present feast is noticed by the Bollandists.3 Three principal feasts are 
instituted in honour of St. Foillan — that of his death, on the 3 1 st of October ; 
that of the discovery of his body, on the 16th of January; and that of its 
translation, on the 3rd of September. 

Article VI. — St. Balin or Balloin, of Tech-Saxon. The present 
holy man was a brother to St. Gerald, or Garalt, whose life has been given, 
at the 13th of March. 1 The Martyrologies of Marianus O'Gorman, of Cathal 
Maguire, and of Donegal, 2 record the festival of St. Balan or Balloin, at the 
3rd of September.3 It is stated, that he came from England to Ireland, with 
his brothers, Gerald, Berikert* and Hubritan,s after the middle of the seventh 
century. He lived at a place, called Tech-Saxan, or the House of the 

i See James Bell's System of Geography, Septembris iii. Among the pretermitted 

Popular and Scientific," vol. i., part ii. Feasts, p. 598. 

Austria, chap, v., sect, i., p. 436. Article v. — 'In his additions to 

8 The accompanying illustration, from a Usuard, issued A. n. 1573. 

local photograph, has been drawn on the a In the Tenth Volume of this work, 

wood, and engraved by Mr. Gregor Grey. 3 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

Another view of Salzburg, but taken from a Septembris iii. Among the pretermitted 

different direction, may be seen at the 30th Saints, p. 601. 

of June— feast of St. Erentrude — in the Article vi. — ' In the Third Volume of 

Sixth Volume of this work, Art. i. this work. See Art. iii. 

9 From 1614 to 1668, by the architect, 2 In the edition, published by Rev. Drs. 
Santino Solari of Como. See Charles Todd and Reeves, at the 3rd of September, 
Knight's " Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society such an entry seems to have been acciden- 
for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge," tally omitted ; however, in the Table 
vol. xx. , p. 374. appended, it is supplied. See pp. 232 to 

10 In his *' Gynseceum " is noticed : S. 235, 362, 363. 

Erentrudis (al Erendrudis) abbatissa Bene- J See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

dictinse translatio Salisburgi in Bavaria." niae," Martii xiii. Vita S. Giraldi Abbatis 

" In his Benedictine Menology, Elitherensis et Magionensis, n. 5, p. 602. 

"In " Lignum Vitse." * He is also said to have been called Nem. 

13 In his Benedictine Martyrology. See notices of him, at the 18th of February, 

14 In " Catalogus Generalis Sanctorum." and at the 6th of December. 

■s See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., s As Uuilbrithi or Hulbriten, his name is 

September 4 ] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 83 

Saxons, most probably because it had been founded or occupied by himself, 
or by his brothers, or by some of his countrymen, who accompanied him from 
England. This place is said to have been in Athenry Parish, in the Diocese 
of Tuam, and County of Gal way. A house of Franciscans of the Third 
Order was there in the time of Colgan. Castellan places this St. Balo in the 
province of Connaught, and his feast at the present day, as noted by the 
Bollandists. 6 

Article VII. — St. Colman, of Cluain or Druim Ferta Mughaine, 
now Kilclonfert, King's County. In the Feilire of St. Aligns, at the 
3rd day of September, we have an entry for the feast of Colman of Druim 
Ferta. 1 A commentator, on that copy contained in the Leabhar Breac, 
states, that the place is to be identified with Cluain Ferta Mugaine in 
OfTaly. 2 It is at present known as Kilclonfert, a parish 3 in the Barony of 
Lower Philipstown, and King's County. Some ruins of the old Church are 
still visible. Near them may be found the well of St. Colman, but corruptly 
called St. Cloman's welU It is probable, Archdall thought this Kilclonfert 
was identical with Clonfert Mulloe, 5 which he incorrectly places in the 
King's County. 6 There is an allusion to a Colman and his companions in 
the Martyrology of Christ Church, but not in its prefixed Calendar, at the 
iii. of the September Nones, the present day. Most likely it is this saint's 
festival which is commemorated ; but, it seems difficult to account for the 
introduction of his companions. ? According to the Martyrology of Donegal, 8 
veneration was given at the 3rd of September to Colman, of Cluain-Ferta or 
Druim9-Ferta. This place is also called Mughaine, in Ui Failghe, I0 or Offaly, 
a district in Leinster." 

Jfourtb 2Bap of September 



DISTINGUISHED for his sanctity and learning at an early period, St. 
Ultan is said to have been the founder of an ancient Irish See, at 
present merged in the Diocese of Meath. He is commemorated in the 

set down, in the Irish Calendar, at the 24th s See a letter of P. O'Keeffe, from Mount - 

of April. rath, and dated December 1st, 1838. "Letters 

6 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Sep- containing information relative to the 

tembris iii. Among the pretermitted Saints, Antiquities of the Queen's County, collected 

p. 600. during the progress of the Ordnance Survey 

Article VII.— *See "Transactions of the in 1838," vol. i., pp. 119, 120. 

Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 6 See " Monasticon Hibernicum," p. 379. 

Series, vol. ii., part i. On the Calendar 7 See the edition of John Clarke Crosth- 

of Oengus, by Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. waite and Rev. Dr. Todd. Introduction, 

cxxxvi. p. )xx. and p. 153. 

3 See ibid. , p. cxli. 8 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 233, 

3 This parish contains 10,266a. 3r. I5p., 234. 

and it is marked on the "Ordnance Survey 9 A note by Dr. Todd, at Druim, states : 
Townland Maps for the King's County," " The word Droma is written as a gloss over 
sheets 9, 10, 18, 19. Th townland proper C uain, meaning that we should read Drum- 
is on sheet 10. fert, not Clonfert, here. 

4 See Dr. O'Donova " Annals of the I0 In the Table appended to this Martyr- 
Four Masters," vol. ii., n. (r), p. 914. ology, we have an Irish entry thus rendered 

8 4 


Felire of ^Engus, at this date, 1 and with allusion to what must have been 
a more ancient legend regarding him. We have already partially treated 
about St. Ultan and his writings, in connection with the life of St. Brigid, Virgin 
and first Abbess of Kildare. 2 At the 4th of September, likewise, in the 
published Marty rology of Tallagh,3 we find a festival recorded in honour of 
Ultan Mac Hua Conchobar. He was therefore held to be of the O'Connor 
family. 4 An entry is to be found in that copy, contained in the Book of 
Leinster,s and somewhat different. The words " in Ardbrec w are added, as 
if to intimate, that he belonged to Ardbraccan. He is also noticed by various 
writers, and among these are Archbishop Ussher, 6 Sir James Ware,? Father 
John Colgan, 8 Bishop Challenor,9 and the Bollandists. 10 The Rev. Alban 
Butler," gives some account of St. Ultan, thought to have been first Bishop 
of Ardbraccan, in Meath. 

He was descended from the race of Irial, son to Connel Cearnach, 
according to the O'Clerys." He is said to have been related to the great 
St. Brigid, 13 on the maternal side. 1 * Her mother, as we have already seen, 
was Brodsecha, daughter to Dalbronaigh. St. Ultan is said to have been 
the brother of Broicsech, daughter of Dallbronach, i.e., they were both of 
the Dal Conchubhair. 

His birth is related to have taken place so early as a.d. 467. j s However, 
it seems most probable— if we take into account the Acts of St. Ultan and 
the year assigned for his death— that his birtli must be referred to a date long 
subsequent to the period already stated. In a table appended to the 
Martyrology of Donegal, 16 and within brackets, it is laid down, that Ultan of 
Ard-Brecain, 17 was a disciple of St. Declan. 18 Here, again, there seems to 

into English : " Colman of Cluain-ferta 
[Drom-forta in the Felire of ^Engus] 
Mugaine [in Ui Failghe]. See ibid., pp. 
382, 383. 

"See "The Battle of Magh Rath," 
edited by Dr. O'Donovan, p. 243, n. (v). 

Article i— ' In the " Leabhar Breac" 
copy is the following rann : — 

1n mon plAich cenecAil, 
1n ■OAcblaiche becam 
<*5<mc mor* mm m^ccam 
1m U Lie an <Mrvo bneccAm. 

Thus rendered into English, by Dr. Whitley 
Stokes:— "The great sinless prince, in 
whom the little ones are flourishing, greatly 
play the children round Ultan of Aid 
Breccain." — "Transactions of the Royal 
Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, 
vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of Oengus, 
p. exxxvi. 

9 See the Second Volume of this work, 
at Feb. 1, Art. i., chap. i. 

3 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxxiii. 

4 According to Ussher " Ex eodem enim 
; Conchubarensium sive Counoreorum fami- 

lia." — " De Primordiis Britannicarum Ec- 
clesiarum,'' cap. xvii., p. 965. 

5 Thus entered, UlriAn m<vc h Conchoban 
m Arvobnec. 

6 See " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Anti- 
quitates," cap. xvii., pp. 426, 499. 

? See "De Scriptoribus Hibernise," lib. i., 

cap. 3, pp. 22, 23. 

5 In "Trias Thaumaturga. " See Tertia 
Vita S. Brigidae, p. 527, Prologus, and n. I, 
p. 542 ; Sexta Vita S. Brigida? Prologus, 
p. 582, and nn. 3, 5, pp. 597, 598. 

9 See " Britannia Sancta," part ii. , p. 119. 

10 See " Acta Sanctorum Septembris," 
tomus ii. Among the pretermitted Feasts, 
PP- 3. 4 

11 See "Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs 
and other principal Saints," vol. ix. Sep- 
tember iv. 

12 See the " Martyrology of Donegal," 
edited by Rev, Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
234, 235. 

13 See her Life, at the 1st of February, 
in the Second Volume of this work, Art. i. 

14 According to the old Scholiast, on the 
Irish Hymn, composed in Praise of St. 

' s Such is the entry in a more recent hand, 
as found in the O'Clerys' Calendar; "467 
natus." Note of Rev. Dr. Todd. See 
"Martyrology of Donegal," edited by Drs. 
Todd and Reeves, p. 235. 

16 See the edition of Rev. Drs. Todd and 
Reeves, pp. 478, 479. 

17 To him has been ascribed the miracle 
of a sunk fleet. 

18 His life has been already given, at the 
24th of July, in the Seventh Volume of this 
work, Art i. See chap. iii. for the miracle 
to which allusion has been made in the pre- 
ceding note. 



be an anachronism, and Ultan has probably been confounded with that holy 
man, his namesake, who is called the son of Erc. x 9 No connected biogra- 
phical account remains of St. Ultan. Colgan is of opinion, however, that he 
was bishop over the ancient See of Ardbraccan, 20 in the County of Meath. 
Yet, in the Kalendar of Drummond. this saint is only distinguished as a 
Priest and Confessor, remarkable for his exemplary life and for holiness*. 

According to very ancient legend, 21 one of his usages was to feed, with 
his own hands, every child who had no support in Erin. 22 Another account 
states, that he he had a most charitable care for the infants of those women, 
who died of the Buidhe Chonaill or yellow plague. The first mention of the 
Bolgach or Small Pox, 2 3 appears in the Annals of lnnisfallen, at a.d. 569 ; 
but, this is supposed 2 * to have been a mistake for the leprosy, which was an 
epidemic about that time ; whereas, only about a.d. 675, 2 s or 67a, 26 did the 
Bolgach first prevail in Ireland. However, the first outbreak of another 
pestilence, known as the Buidhe-Chonnaill is said to have taken place in 
Magh-Itha, 2 ? in Fotherta of Leinster, in 663 ; 28 while it seems to have 
culminated in a still greater mortality the following year. A remarkable 
eclipse of the sun preceded this public calamity in the month of May, a.d. 
664. 2 9 According to Venerable Bede, it happened on the 3rd of May, the 
same year, and about ten o'clock in the morning ; while, besides the ravages 
produced throughout Ireland, that pestilence depopulated the southern 
coasts of Britain, and afterwards extending into the province of Northumbria, 

J 9 He is said to have immediately suc- 
ceeded St. Declan, as Abbot, at Ardmore. 
See notices of him, in the Third Volume of 
this work, at the 14th of March, Art. hi. 

20 See " Trias Thaumaturga," Quarta Ap- 
pendix ad Acta S. Patricii, pars iii. De 
Scriptoribus Actorum Sancti Patricii, p. 

21 See the Book of Obits and Martyrology 
of the Cathedral Church of the Holy 
Trinity." Edited by John Clarke Crosth- 
waite and Rev. Dr. Todd. Introduction, 
pp. xxv., xxvi. 

22 The curious mode, by which he fed the 
children playing around him, is to be found 
in a note appended to the Leabhar Breac 
copy of the Feilire, and there too are some 
Irish verses quoted in his praise, although 
their meaning is not wholly intelligible. 
See "Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 
part i. On the Calendar of Oengus, by 
Whitly Stokes, LL.D., pp. cxlii., cxliii. 

2 3 This loathsome and dangerous form of 
disease had prevailed in China and Hindos- 
tan from remote antiquity, and it is supposed 
to have originated at Mecca, about a.d. 569, 
before the birth of Mahomet. Afterwards, 
it extended over Africa, and reached Europe. 
See Moore's " History of the Small Pox," 
p. no. 

2 *By William Robert Wilde, M.D., in 
his historical Report on the Diseases of Ire- 
land, to be found in the volumes of the Census 
Commissioners of Ireland for a.d. 1851. 

25 According to the Annals of Clonmac- 

26 At this year we read : "Lepra gravissima 
in Hibernia que vocatur Bolgach." — Rev. 
Dr. O'Conor's " Rerum Hibernicarum Scrip- 
tores," tomus iv., Annales Ultonienses. 

27 A plain in the Barony of Forth, and 
County of Wexford. 

38 According to the Annals of Clonmac- 
noise, this plague happened A.D. 660, but 
this account is incorrect. The Annals of 
Ulster state at a.d. 633 : " Tenebre in 
Kalendis Mair in ix hora, et in eadem estate 
celum ardescere visum est. Mortalitas in 
Hibernia pervenit in Kalendis Augusti . . . 
In campo Ito in Fothart exarsit mortalitas 
primo in Hibernia. A morte Patricii cciii. 
Prima mortalitas cxii." — Rev. Dr. O'Conor's 
"Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores," tomus 
iv., Annales Ultonienses. 

2 9 Dr. William Robert Wilde writes : 
" The second outbreak of the Buidhe Chon- 
nail, or yellow plague, commenced about 
the middle of the seventh century. Tigher- 
nach, whose annals are more chronologically 
correct than most others, dates its com- 
mencement at a.d. 664, but the Annals of 
lnnisfallen, and the Obits of Christ's Church, 
Dublin, have assigned a date so early as 656. 
Allowing for the chronological discrepancy 
among early annalists, there appears every 
reason to believe that this great pestilential 
period was also affected by the same law 
which has so frequently appeared to influence 
the progress of epidemic constitutions, and 
lasted ten years ; Tighernach himself gives 
two entries relating to it, with an interval of 
three years between. The Welsh annaals 
would make it twenty." 

36 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 4. 

it wasted the country far and near, destroying a great multitude of persons. 30 
Among those who died of the Buidhe Chonnaill this year in Ireland is 
mentioned St. Ultan Mac h Ui-Cunga, Abbot of Cluain-Iraird or Clonard ; 31 
and, it is not improbable, he may have been confounded with the St. Ultan, 
who wrote St. Brigid's Acts. For the exercise of his great charity, when 
Fursa 32 had been removed from the abbacy of old Mochta of Louth, Ultan 
was elected. It is stated, he often had fifty, and thrice fifty children, with 
him together, although it was difficult for him to feed them all. To St. 
Bracan or Brecain33 has been attributed the foundation of Ardbraccan 
Monastery, and from him the place has been named. 34 It seems probable, 
that Ultan was for some time under his rule in that place. 35 

We find it stated, that after St. Bracan 36 had departed for the Arran 
Islands, our saint became Abbot of Ardbraccan Monastery, in the County 
of Meath. Ussher supposes Ultan to have been a Bishop at Ardbraccan. 3 ? 
He belonged to the Third Class of Irish Saints. 38 In the parish of Burry, 3 ? 
in the Deanery of Kells, County of Meath, there was a well, 40 dedicated to 
a St. Ultan— probably the present saint. That spring was called Tobar- 
Ultan, but it no longer exists. 41 This holy man is said to have lived on 
terms of great intimacy with St. Fechin of Fore. 43 From the latter, it is 
stated he asked a request. 43 His habit of penitence was accompanied by 
great austerity. Cuimin of Coindeire remarked, that St. Ultan had a prison 
of stone, or of boards against his side ; and that he used to bathe in cold 
water, during the prevalence of a sharp wind. 44 

Among the Irish writers, St. Ultan of Ardbraccan has been classed. To 
him is attributed an Irish Hymn, in praise of St. Brigid. 45 It has been 
published of late in the u Liber Hymnorum." We are informed, moreover, 
that it was he, who made the Latin verse at the end of it. The Latin poem 

30 See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Britannicavum Ecclesiarum," cap. xvii., p. 
Anglorum," lib. iii., cap. xxvii. 965. 

31 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 38 See Ussher's "Britannicarum Ecclesia- 
Four Masters," vol. i., and nn. (p,q, x), pp. rum Antiquitates," chap, xvii., p. 474. 

274 to 277. 39 Described on the "Ordnance Survey 

32 As we have said in the Life of St. Townland Maps for the County of Meath," 
Fursey, in the First Volume of this work, sheets 16, 17, 23. 

Art. i., at the 1 6th of January, another saint *° It is noticed in the Ordnance Survey 

of the name seems to have been commemo- papers relating to the County of Meath, and 

rated in our Calendars. But, this is inferred now preserved in the Royal Irish Academy, 

rather than proved, from a difference in * l See Rev. A. Cogan's " Diocese of Meath, 

genealogical accounts. Ancient and Modern," vol. ii., chap, xvi., p. 

33 His feast was held on the 16th of July, 311, n. 

at which date some accounts of him may be 42 See his Life at the 20th of January, in 

found in the Seventh Volume of this work, the First Volume of this work," Art. ii. 

Art. i. 43 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Ili- 

34 See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiberni- bernise," xx. Januarii. Secunda Vita S. 
cum," p. 511. Fechini, cap. xxix., p. 136. 

35 From him Ardbreccan was sometimes ** Thus runs the English translation of 
called Tobar Ultain or Ultan's Well. See his quatrain : — 

Edward O'Reilly's M Chronological Account ., , .. .... 

of nearly Four Hundred Irish Writers," &c, " Ullan lov r es *! 1S children ; 

p x i v# A prison for his lean side, 

' 3<5 His death has been assigned to about And a bath in cold water 

AD 650. In the sharp wind he loved. 

3 ? Ussher writes : " Unde colligimus eun- « Martyrology of Donegal," 

dem hunc Episcopum Ultanum ratione J^ " Rey Drs / Tod J y and Reeves, pp. 

quidem origims Conchubarensem fuisse die- CU,LC " "j x ^ y - ■"•*« rr 

tum ; Ardbrechanensem vero, respectu ad 2 $f' ?$$' . . , 

sedem habito, quod hodiernum Miden.sis II begins Wllh : ~ 

Prsesulis est domicilium."— " De Primordiis Dpigic be bio c maic. 



which comes after the Life of St. Brigid 46 by Cogitosus, was written by 
him. It begins with " Cogitis me Fratres." Its style is similar to that in 
the Book of Kilkenny ; yet, it is not the same production. In the time 
when the two sons of Aodh Slaine were Kings, - *? Ultan is said to have com- 
posed the Life, as also the Latin and Gaedhlic Poems.'* 8 Others think St. 
Columba 4 ? was the author of the Hymn. 

The Third Life of St. Brigid, as published by Colgan,s° is assigned to 
the authorship of St. Ultan, Bishop of Ardbraccan. This Manuscript Life 
was received from the learned Father Stephen White,* 1 an Irish Jesuit, who was 
well versed in the antiquities of his native country. The author does not 
publish his name, says White ; he nevertheless, reveals himself, as being from 
the Island of Hibernia,* 2 and as being of Irish origin.53 After the last words, 
in a life of the sainted Virgin, the author first places her proper Latin 

46 The author of the above memorandum 
seems to allude to the Latin verses at the 
end of St. Brigid's Third Life, in " Trias 
Thaumathurga." Colgan endeavours to show 
it had been written by St. Ultan. See n. I, 
p. 542. 

47 These were named Diarmaid and Blath- 
mac, who reigned jointly for seven years — 
from a.d, 657 to A.D. 664 — and who died 
of the great plague, known as the Bruidhe 
Connail in the year 664. See Dr. O'Dono- 
van's "Annals of the Four Masters," vol. i. 
Vet, as St. Ultan Mac-Ui-Conchobhair, 
according to the same authority, died A.D. 
656, the statement in the text seems to be 
inaccurate as to the date. See pp. 268 to 

48 See Introduction to the " Calendar of 
the Saints of Ireland," edited by Drs. Todd 
and Reeves, p. xxv. 

49 His Life is given at the 9th of June, in 
the Sixth Volume of this work, Art i. 

so From an old codex, belonging to the 
monastery of St. Magnus, at Ratisbonn, in 
Bavaria. This was accompanied with 
various marginal annotations, partly taken 
from a MS. belonging to the monastery of 
St. Autbertus, at Cambray, and partly from 
a MS. preserved at the Island of All Saints, 
in Ireland. The Cambray MS. had been 
furnished by Dr. Georgius Colvenerius, who 
was distinguished for his research and love 
of antiquities. Besides the All Saints MS., 
received from Longford County, Colgan 
obtained another MS. from the Carthusian 
Collection at Cologne. The Ratisbonn MS. , 
we are told, had been written in Irish 
characters, and, as supposed, six or seven 
hundred years, before Colgan's time, that is 
to say, in the tenth or eleventh century. A 
fifth MS. was in Colgan's possession, and 
he received it from Dunensis monastery, in 

st He thought that the author of this third 
life must have been, either St. Virgil or St. 
Erard, Irishmen, who flourished in Bavaria 
in the eighth century. However, Colgan 
could not agree with White, that its author- 
ship was attributable, to either of those saints 

named by him ; since no writer or authority, 
had heretofore stated their having compiled 
St. Brigid's biography. 

52 This is indicated in the first line. Col- 
gan says, the Hymn which he published was 
found in the Irish MS., commonly called 
the Leabhar Iomaun ; in Latin, Liber 
Hymnorum, by our national antiquaries. 
In this MS. were contained, also, many 
hymns, composed by different Irish saints. 
From it, Colgan obtained the last line, which 
was wanting in the St Magnus MS. 

53 In the Leabhar Iomaun, an old scholiast 
prefixed the following proemium, or argu- 
ment, to this Hymn : " Sanctus Nemidius 
Laimhoidhain, id est, Mundimanus, com- 
posuit hunc Hymnum in laudem S. Brigida? 
vel sanctus Fiegus Sleptensis, Audite 
Virginis laudes, est ejus initium : vel S. 
Ultanus de Ardbrecain composuit in S. 
Brigidse laudem : ipse enim comprehendit 
miracula S. Brigidse in uno libro : Ordo 
alphebeticus in eo servatur et ad imita- 
tionem rithmi Noscarii compositus est. 
Quatuor sunt in eo capitula et quator lineae 
in singulis capitulis et sedecim syllabae in 
qualibet linea." Three points must here be 
noted, as Colgan remarks. I. In the Hymn, 
published by him, the number of sixteen 
syllables, in each line, is not preserved, as 
he says may be instanced in the fourth and 
fifth lines. But, the Latin reader may find, 
on investigation, that there are sixteen 
syllables in the lines mentioned, as in most 
of the other stanzas. There are, however, 
five lines that either fall short, or exceed 
that number of syllables. 2. As published, 
by Colgan, the Hymn consists of five in- 
stead of four strophes. 3. If what the 
scholiast states be true, that the words, 
Audite Virginis laudes, commenced the 
hymn, and that there were four divisions or 
parts in it, two of the last must be wanting, 
and three other strophes, which are placed 
before these lines, must have been intended 
as a preface. Or, if we can be sure, that 
absolutely speaking, there were only four 
cantos in it, the fifth, which is not found in 
the St. Magnus MS., must be an addition to 



Hymn, and then, having completed the Latin lines, he pours forth prayers 
to St. Brigid, piously invoking her intercession, in the Irish idiom and 
character — a circumstance somewhat remarkable. 54 There are two various 
readings appended to the Hymnus de Brigida Virgine. 55 That St. Ultan 
was the author of this Hymn, and consequently of the Third Life, would 
seem to be established, in Colgan's opinion, from certain remarks of an old 
Scholiast, on the same Hymn. Those comments are given in a note. 
Even, although the Scholiast doubts, whether St. Nennidius, St. Fiech, or 
St. Ultan be its author, his very words are thought to be conclusive, in 
showing this latter, to have been the writer, both of the Life and Hymn j 
since he is said to have composed both one and the other, in praise of St. 
Brigid, and both were contained in one book. The Scholiast even cites a 
portion of a line, from this Hymn, which agrees -with what has been 
published, by Colgan. Now, it is not known, that St. Nennidius or St. 
Fiech wrote a Life of St. Brigid, whether in one tract, or in more than one 

Such a supposition of St. Ultan having been the author of St. Brigid's 
Third Life, however, has been contravened by various judicious critics. 
The Rev. Dr. Lanigan will not allow St. Ultan, or any other writer of the 
seventh century, to have written the many strange fables, with which the 
Third Life of St. Brigid has been crammed.* 6 It differs from the two first 
Lives, in many material points. Comparing this biography, with the First, 
Second, Fourth and Fifth Lives of St. Brigid, in Colgan's work, it will be 
found, that many particulars, there related concerning her, are not contained 
in those tracts alluded to; while, the number of divisions it contains is said 

the original number. Colgan then con- 
cludes, that as no authority states St. 
Nennidius or St. Fiech to have written St. 
Brigid's Acts in a book, and as it could be 
shown from this writer, and from other 
sources, that St. Ultan wrote her Acts, in one 
book, and also a Hymn in her praise; it 
would seem, this latter must have been the 
author of St. Brigid's third life, published 
by Colgan, with the metrical lines post- 
fixed, and that he was composer, both of 
the prose life and of the Hymn. See Colgan's 
" Trias Thaumaturga," Tertia Vita S. 
Brigidae, n. 80, p. 545. 

5+ This metrical composition is headed, 
Hymnus de Brigida Virgine. The lines run 
as follow : 

Christus in nostra Insula, qua; vocatur 

Ostensus est hominibus, maximis mirabi- 

libus ; 
Quie perfecit per felicem ccelestis vitse vir- 

Praecellentem pro merito magno in mundi 

Hymnus iste, angelica summaeque Sanctae 

Fari non valet omnia virtutum mirabilia, 
Quae nostris nunquam auribus, si suit facta, 

Nisi per istam Viiginem, Maria; Sanche 


Zona sanctre militae sanctos lumbos pre- 

Consuevit diurno, noclurno quoque studio : 
Consummato certamine sumpsit palman 

Refulgens magno splendore, ut sol in cceli 

Andite Virginis laudes, sancta quoque merita. 
Perfectionem, quam promisit, viri liter adim- 

Christi Matrem se spopondit, diclo atque 

factis fecit. 
Brigida automata veri Dei Regina. 
Brigida Sancta sedulo sit nostro in auxilio, 
Ut mereamur coronam habere, ac lauitiam. 
In conspectu Angelorum in saecula ssecn- 

Christe Jesu author bonorum miserere, 

obsecro omnium. 

55 In a note, attaching to these words in 
the Hymn, Brigida automata, Colgan re- 
marks, that in the Irish MS. Automata was 
found, which should be changed for his 
emendation. The Greek word avro^arov 
signifies self-moving, or a mechanical in- 
strument, so curiously and ingeniously 
constructed, that it seems to act of its own 
accord, and without any apparent cause or 
motor. See ibid, p. 542, and n. 81, p. 545- 

56 See " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 
vol. i., chap, viii., sect, ii., n. 18, p. 380. 



to exceed those in the Fourth Life, by about twenty-three chapters.57 That 
St. Ultan wrote the Acts of St. Brigid, is asserted by an author of her Life 
in Irish, by a certain Scholiast, as also by Archbishop Ussher 58 and by Sir 
James Ware.59 From the probability of some metrical lines appended 
having been composed, by the same author, in the opinion of White, 
Colvenerius and Ward, Colgan maintains, that the Life written was 
identical with that published by him. This conclusion is supposed to be 
further warranted, by the usual clause, " Explicit Vita S. Brigidae," postfixed 
to the life of a Saint, coming after, and not before, that Hymn, as found in 
the St. Magnus MS., and written many ages before Colgan's time. In the 
St. Autbert MS., it comes after a Carmen, to which follows the Hymn. 61 
To St. Ultan has been attributed the spirit of prophecy. It is said his 
prophecies remain in metre, and in the Irish language. 62 A prophetic 
Poem 6 3 extant is ascribed to St. Ultan of Ardbraccan. He is said to have 
foretold the arrival of the English in Ireland, and that they should annex it 
to the Kingdom of England. He is stated also to have been the teacher of 
Tirechan, who wrote from the dictation of Ultan, 6 * two Books, on the Acts 
of St. Patrick. These Books are yet in manuscript, and Archbishop Usher 
frequently quotes passages from them, so that we may conclude, he had 
them in his possession. 6 s These Annotations are in the Book of Armagh. 
Ultan is said to have written a Life of St. Patrick, 66 but this is uncertain. 6 ? 
It was he, as we are told, 68 that collected the miracles of St. Brigid, into one 

s ? This is Colgan's statement. Yet, it 
must refer, not to the relative numerical 
divisions of Chapters, but to additional 
matter, in the Third Life. Colgan's di- 
visions of the six lives are as follows : viz. 
First, metrical Life, 53 stanzas of four lines 
each, Irish with Latin translation ; Second 
Life, 36 chapters, with prologue ; Third 
Life, 131 chapters prose, with supple- 
mentary metrical lines ; Fourth Liie, divided 
into two books, the first book containing 
52 chapters, while the last, having 100, is 
prefaced by a prologue ; the Fifth Life 
comprises 58 chapters ; while the Sixth 
metrical Life contains 68 sections, more or 
less imperfect, with prefatory and supple- 
mental lines. To these several biographies 
are appended learned notes by the editor. 

58 See " De Primordiis Ecclesiarum Bri- 
tannicarum," cap. xvii., p. 1067. 

59 See "De Scriptoribus Hibernise," lib. i., 
cap. iii., pp. 22, 23. 

60 This piece is headed, " Carmen de 
eadem (Scil. S. Brigida.) MSS. Autberti :" 
its lines are as follows : — 

Brigida nomen habet, gemino et diademate 
Quam colimus fratres, Brigida nomen 
Virgo fuit Domini, mundo et crncifixa 
Intus et exterius, Virgo fuit Domini. 
Despiciebat ovans instantis gaudia Vitae, 

Et falsos fastus despiciebat ovans. 
Horruit et fragiles mundi fallentis honores ; 

Divitias, pompas horruit et fragiles 
Gaudia perpetuae spectaus et prcemia vita; 
Suscepit, certse gaudia perpetuae . 

E superis resonat intus cum sedibus Echo 
Tubarum sublimis e superis resonat. 

Mitte beata preces pro nobis Virgo benigna : 
Ad Dominum semper mitte beata preces. 

61 Colgan remarks, that he found some 
words, appended to this Carmen. These 
showed it had been composed by the author 
of St. Brigid's Life, and of the Hymn, which 
preceded it. He also thinks, that the words 
" cum tuba sublimis," should be substituted 
for "Tubarum .Sublimis." The writer's 
meaning appears to be, that he had a hope 
of obtaining Holy Brigid's intercession, 
when the trumpet should sound, on the day 
of General Judgment. See Colgan's "Trias 
Thaumaturga," Tertia Vita S. Brigidae, p. 
542, and nn. 82, 83, p. 545, ibid. 

62 Edward O'Reilly possessed copies of 
these ascribed prophecies. See "Chrono- 
logical Account of nearly Four Hundred 
Writers," &c, p. xlv. 

63 It is found in Messrs. Hodges and 
Smith's collection, and in the R. I. A.marked 
No. 221. This is a folio paper MS. 

64 Harris' Ware, vol. iii. " The Writers 
of Ireland," book i., chap, iv., p. 30. 

6 5 Fol. xvi., Book of Armagh. 

66 See Sir James Ware, " De Scriptoribus 
Hiberniae," lib. i., cap. iii., p. 23. 

. °? Edward O'Reilly writes : " The copy 
of the Life of our Apostle, that we have 
seen attributed to Ultan, is certainly the 
production of a more modern pen." — 
"Chronological Account of nearly Four 
Hundred Writers," &c, p. xlv. 

68 By the O'Clerys in the " Martyrology 
of Donegal," edition of Rev. Drs. Todd and 
Reeves, pp. 236, 237. . 

9 o LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 4. 

book, and he gave them to Brogan Claen, 6 ^ his disciple. It is said, likewise, 
that Ultan commanded him to turn them into verse, so that it was the latter 
that composed, " The victorious Brighit loved not," as it is found in the 
Book of Hymns.? St. Ultan died at Ardbraccan, about three miles from 
Navan, in the present County of Meath. 7 1 He is said to have completed 
the extraordinary age of one hundred and eighty years. The O'CIerys' 
Irish Calendar even adds, that he was one hundred and eight-nine years old, 
when he resigned his spirit to heaven. This does not seem, however, to 
rest on any sure basis of calculation. He died on the 4th day of September. 
According to the Annals of Clonmacnoise, his death occurred, a.d. 653 ; 
Ware has it at the date 655 ;? 2 but according to the Annals of Ulster, those 
of the Four Masters, and most other authorities, it happened a.d. 656.73 
The Annals of Ulster again note his death, under the year 662 ; and, as they 
state, according to another Book,?* which had been in possession of the 

In the Martyrology of Christ Church he is recorded as a Bishop and 
Confessor, at the ii. Nones of September.? 5 He is not noticed, however, in the 
Calendar prefixed. By Greven he is set down as Vultan, at the 4th day of 
September, and as an Abbot in Ireland ; while a similar entry is given in 
the Florarium Manuscript, in possession of the Bollandists.? 6 The Martyr- 
ology of Donegal?? registers him as Ultan, Bishop? 8 of Ard-Brecain, at the 4th 
day of September. At this same date, he has been commemorated in 
Scotland. 79 Thus, in the Kalendar of Drummond, 80 he is mentioned with 
special eulogy. 

The feast of this Saint had been celebrated with an office in former 
times, as we learn from various manuscripts still preserved. 8 ' Even 
local traditions regarding him exist. In the demesne of the Protestant 
bishop of Meath, near Ardbraccan, St. Ultan's well is still shown. It is 
circular, and in diameter it measures nine feet and a half. It is reputed 
sacred, and to a period not far distant, stations were there made on the vigil 
of St. Ultan's feast. Several other holy wells and stone crosses, bearing his 

** Abbot of Rostuirc, in Osory. His could have fallen into the error of writing : 

feast falls on the 17th of September. See "Non novimus hunc Vultanum aut Ulta- 

Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," Prima num abbatem, nisi forsan, idem sit cum 

Vita S. Brigidoe, nn. I, 2, p. 518. Ultano abbate Hiberno, sed in Belgio 

70 The Irish title for which is leabAp defuncto, de quo actum est I Maii." Seep, 

lomann. 3. It is sufficiently plain, that the entiy 

1* "Obiit apud Ardbrechain in Midia refers to St Ultan, Abbot of Ardbraccan. 

pridie Nonas Septembris anno salutis 77 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

dclv., aliis DCLVi." — Sir James Ware, " De 234, 235. 

Scriptoribus Hibemiae," lib. i., cap. iii., ? 8 In a note by Dr. Todd, he remarks at 

p. 23. this notice: "The word eappcop, bishop, 

73 Colgan has his death at a.d. 656, or is inserted by the more recent hand, and the 

657. See " Trias Thaumaturga," Prsefacio word ' Episcopus Midensis ' is written in the 

ad Lectorem, p. 515. margin." Ardbraccan is now united in the 

73 So state ths O'CIerys. diocese of Meath withsome other ancientsees. 

7* Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the Four 79 See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 

Masters," vol. I., pp. 268, 269, and note (d). Scottish Saints." 

" See " The Books of Obits and Martyr- 8o Thus : "In Hibernia Natale Sancti 

ology of the Cathedral Church of the Holy Presbyteri et Confessoris Ultani admirande 

Trinity," edited by John Clarke Crosthwaite vitae ac sanclitatis viri." — Ibid., p. 23. 

and Rev. James Henthorn Todd, p. 153. 8l A MS. in T.C.D., classed B, 3, 1, con- 

7 6 See " Acta Sanctorum Septembris," tains at September the 4th, Nones ii. Ultain, 

tomus ii. Die Quarta Septembris. Among Conf. ix. Lect. A MS. in T.C.D., 

the pretermitted Feasts. It seems strange — classed B, 3,12, contains at September the 

especially after the entry which follows at 4th, Nones ii., Ultain, Archiepis. et Primas 

the end of next column— that the editors Hiberniae, ix. Lect. 

September 4.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 91 

name, exist in the County of Meath. 82 Long after St. Ultan's time, a.d. 
784, we read of a Translation of his relics at Ardbraccan. 8 * The monastery 
and its abbots appear in our annals ; but the ravages of the Danes are often 
recorded, during the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries. At length, the 
abbey of Ardbraccan fell into dissolution, and the town into obscurity, after 
the English Invasion. 8 * However, although denuded of all ancient 
buildings, which in rimes past had their own religious interest and beauty ; 
still survive the memorials of St. Ultan's charitable labours for the orphan 
children and the poor, united with the graces of literary endowment, and 
reverence for those who were renowned as saints in the earlier eras of 

Article II. — Translation of St. Cuthbert's Relics. We are told 
that in the Sarum, York and Durham Kalendars, at this date, the com- 
memoration of a feast was held for a Translation of St. Cuthbert's relics. 1 
We find, that on this day, also, in the Irish Church a festival was kept to 
honour that Translation, made by order of Bishop Aldhune, a.d. 999. 2 For 
a fuller account of the original transfer, we are referred to Simeon of Durham, 
and to Mabillon. The holy founder of Lindisfame had a heavenly 
prescience, that after his death, England should be over-run with a host of 
invading infidels; and, before his death, he took care to admonish his 
disciples, that when such calamity should be imminent, to chose some other 
abode, and to fly from their ravages. They were also to take his remains 
with them, and to seek some safer place for their repose. None of those 
monks survived, to witness the fulfilment of that tradition in such scenes of 
depredation ; and, as we have already narrated,3 over one hundred years 
passed away after his death, before the Danish pirates made their inroads on 
the coasts of England. Towards the close of the eighth century, the exposed 
situation of Lindisfame recalled St. Cuthbert's monition to the memory of its 
inmates. In the year 793,4 the Danes made their first descent on that island, 
when the monastery was plundered, and almost totally destroyed. s The 
treasures of the church were borne away, and many of the monks were slain, 
while others were made captives. 6 Such of the religious as escaped to the 
main shore returned again to the island, and set about repairing those 
damages. The bishops and other pious persons afterwards re-edified and 
restored the monastery, which flourished until the year 867.7 In 875, 
North umbria was dreadfully infested with the Danish pirates ; while the 
churches and monasteries were especially devoted to destruction. Then 
Eardulph, the Bishop of Lindisfame, who led a community life, Eadred the 
abbot, and the community of monks, resolved upon leaving their place, and 

8a See Rev. A. Cogan's " Diocese of 3 See the Life of St. Cuthbert, Bishop of 

Meath, Ancient and Modern," vol. i., chap. Lindisfame, at the 20th March, in the Third 

vii., p. 52. Volume of this work, Art. i., chap. iv. 

8 3 See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiberni- 4 On the seventh of the Ides of June, 
cum," p. 511. s See Mabillon's "Annales Ordinis S. 

84 See Rev. A. Cogan's " Diocese of Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxvi., sect, xxiv., 
Meath, Ancient and Modern," vol. i., chap. p. 308. 

vii., pp. 53, 54. 6 This was doubtless to obtain sums of 

Article 11. — * See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's money for their ransom. Symeon Dunel- 

" Lives of the Saints," vol. ix., September mensis gives an account of this depredation, 

4th, p. 50. and of the vistole judgments, which after- 

2 See Rev. John Lingard's " Antiquities wards befel the spoilers, 
of the Anglo-Saxon Church," chap, viii., n. 7 See Walter Scott's " Border Antiquities 

44, p. 163. of England and Scotland," vol. ii., p. 144. 

9 2 


on carrying with them the sacred depository of the founder's relics, before 
which so many and such great miracles had been wrought. In the meantime, 
coming to the Island of Lindisfarne, the barbarous Danes again burned down 
the church and monastery, leaving the ruins in that wrecked condition in 
which they are now presented to us. 8 Still are they venerable monuments 
of the grand Irish-Romanesque style of the eighth and ninth centuries ;° and 
those ruins left a model for the still more majestic and glorious edifice of 
Durham Cathedral. The monks wandered as did the Jews of old in the 

Castle and Priory Ruins of Lindisfarne. 

desert, with the Ark of the Covenant, and for seven years they had no secure 
rest for St. Cuthbert's bones. Having ranged throughout all that country to 
escape from the hands of their savage enemies, and being quite spent with 
fatigue, Eandulf and Eadred resolved to pass over into Ireland, which even 
at this time had become a prey to the Scandinavian invasions. At the mouth 
of the River Derwent.they embarked, but a prodigious storm arising, they 
were obliged to return to the port they had left. This was deemed a Divine 
monition, which they were obliged to obey ; and accordingly, it was deter- 
mined to remain in England. 10 For want of food and other necessaries, 

8 In the Fourth Volume of Sir William 
Dugdale's *■* Monasticon Anglicanum," there 
is a fine copperplate engraving of the ruined 
abbey on Lindisfarne Island, with a view of 
the ruined castle on its steep crag seen 
through the arch in the distance. See p. 

9 Already have we furnished an illustration 
of the ruins of Lindisfarne Priory, in the 
Third Volume of this work, at the 13th day 
of March, under our notices of St. Gerald or 
Garalt, Abbot of Eliterid and Bishop of 
Mayo, Art. iii. ; but, the accompanying 
illustration presents another view of the 

remnants of that Priory, with the isolated 
castle on the steep, out at sea, and in the 
distance. Copied from an approved original, 
it has been reduced, drawn on the wood, 
and engraved by Gregor Grey. 

10 According to William of Malmesbury, 
after this failure to reach Ireland, St. Cuth- 
body was honourably interred at 
Ubbenford, now Norham, near the River 
Tweed, where it lay for many years, until 
the coming of King Ethelred. See "I)e 
Gestis Pontificum Anglorum," lib. iii., 
sect. 129, p. 268. Edition of N. E. S. A. 

September 4.] LIVES OE THE IRISH SAINTS. 93 

many of their followers then deserted them, so that none were left with St. 
Cuthbert's remains but the bishop, the abbot, and seven other persons, who 
had devoted themselves to his service. After they had shifted about for seven 
years, and when Haldena, the Danish tyrant, had fled from the Tyne, the 
body of St. Cuthbert was brought to the Monastery of Crec, where the 
monks were lovingly received and hospitably entertained for four months." 
At length, King Guthred was received as King at Oswiesdune, both by the 
Danes and Northumbrians, and he gave protection to the monks. In 882, 
the relics of St. Cuthbert rested at Cunecasestre or Conchester, a small town 
a few miles from the Roman Wall, and now known as Chester upon the 
street. There the Bishop's see continued for one hundred and thirteen 
years. King Alfred and the Danish leader gave to that church all the land 
lying between the Tyne and the Tees, with protection for a month to all 
persons that fled to the saint's shrine. 12 In 995, Bishop Aldune conveyed 
St. Cuthbert's remains to Ripon for greater security from the Danes. Four 
months afterwards, they were brought to Durham. Then a chapel had been 
constructed on a grand elevation over the River Tyne, and a monastery had 
been established near it, owing to the willing labour of the country people. 
Like many of the ancient religious houses in those troublesome times, the 
site was fortified as a protection against unscrupulous aggressors. In fine, 
on the 4th of September, a.d. 999, Bishop Aldune had St. Cuthbert's remains 
encased in a shrine, and there they were solemnly exposed for the veneration 
of pious pilgrims. The Bollandists have an entry of the translation of St. 
Cuthbert's relics at the 4th of September,^ as found in many ancient 
Martyrologies. On the annual recurrence of this anniversary, we find it 
called the Feast of the Translation of St. Cuthbert x * in various Irish 
Kalendars. In the Annals of the Cistercian Monks, its commemoration 
is likewise recorded. 15 In the Irish Church, to celebrate this event, an 
office had been instituted. 16 It was comprised in Nine Lessons. 1 ? It 
would seem, however, to have been introduced into our Island by the Anglo- 
Normans. 18 In the Scottish Kalendars,'9 this Festival of the Translation 
of St. Cuthbert's relics, is to be found, and with a concurrence that shows it 
to have been one of particular devotion. Thus, at the 4th of September, it 
occurs in the Kalendars of Hyrdmanistoun, 20 of Culenros, 21 of Arbuthnott, 22 
of the Aberdeen Breviary, 2 3 and of Thomas Dempster.^ 

11 See Sir William DugdaleVMonasticon latio Sancti Cuthberti, ix. Lect. 
Anglicanum," &c., edition of John Caley, l8 In T.C.D., a MS., classed B, 3, 18, 19 
Esq., Henry Ellis, LL.B., and Rev. Bulkeley (the Sarum Breviary, England), records at 
Bandinel, M.A., vol. i., pp. 221, 222. Nones ii. September(Septeniber 4th),Trans- 

12 See Rev. S. Baring Gould's "Lives of latio S. Cuthberti, Lect. iii. 

the Saints," vol. ix., September 4U1, p. 51. I9 See "Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of 

13 See "Acta Sanctorum Septembris," Scottish Saints." 

tomus ii. Die Quarta Septembris. Among 20 Thus : "Translatio Sancti Cuthberti 

the pretermitted Feasts, p. 2. Episcopi." — Ibid., p. 45. 

14 In T.C.D. a MS. classed B, 3, 9, records 2I Thus : " Translatio Sancti Cuthberti." 
at September 4th, Nonas ii., Visitatio Sancti — Ibid. p. 61. 

Cuthberti Epis. et Conf. aa Thus : "Translatio Sancti Cuthberti 

*S The Translation of St, Cuthbert there Episcopi. "—Ibid. , p. 104. 

occurs, at the 4th of September, p. 398. 23 Thus : " Translations Cuthberti Epis- 

16 At September the 4th, Nones ii., copi et Confessoris, ix. Lect. nisi factum 

Translatio Sancti Cuthberti Episcopi et fuerit in quorundum." — Ibid., p. 120. The 

Confessoris, ix. Lect., is found in the latter words we apprehend to mean, unless 

Calendar list of the MS. Culdee Antiphon- the office interfere with one of a superior 

arium of Armagh Metropolitan Church, and rite. 

classed B.I.I., T.C.D. 24 See " Menologium Scoticum," where we 

* A MS. in T.C.D., classed B, 3,13, con- read : " Dunelmice Cuthberti praesulis, 

tains at September the 4th, Nones ii., Trans- monachi Maelrosiensis. M A."— Ibid., p. 210. 



Article III. — St. Ness, Nessa, or Munessa, of Ernaidh, said to 
have been Urney, in the County of Tyrone. [Fifth Century.] Those, 
who treat about the bountiful designs of the Almighty in reference to the 
present holy virgin, have remarked, that she was possessed with the graces 
of the Holy Spirit, through the virtues which are innate in a good disposi- 
tion; and from the divers species of all created things, she understood the 
Creator ; J and He being thus understood, she loved Him with all her heart, 
and with all her soul. For the love and desire of such affection, she looked 
down with disregard on all the riches, the delights, the splendours, and the 
charms of this world's glory, while she despised them in her heart. At this 
date there is a brief notice of St. Monessa, Virgin, in Rev. S, Baring- 
Gould's " Lives of the Saints." 2 In the opinion of Colgan, this was the 
holy virgin mentioned in the various lives of St. Patrick, as having been 
bora in Britain of royal parentage.3 The Bollandists have acts of St. 
Munessa or Monessa, Virgin, at the 4th day of September.* Those acts are 
chiefly extracted from the various Lives of St. Patrick, as published by 
Colgan. There is a prefixed commentary. 5 - They had also a Manuscript 6 
formerly sent by the Jesuit Father Stephen White to Father Rosweyd, which 
referred to St. Muneria or Munessa, daughter to a King of the Britons, 
baptised by St. Patrick, and who died in Ireland. Munessa,? Momessa, or 
Memessa, 8 as she has been variedly called, was a noble and beautiful 
damsel, said to have been the daughter of a prince, who reigned in a certain 
part of Britain. By Probus she has been called Muneria.9 She is also 
denominated Ness and Nessa. This virgin was of royal birth, and she is 
generally supposed to have been the daughter of a British king. 10 Without 
telling us in what country the baptism of Memessa took place, Jocelyn 
would fain make us believe, that St. Patrick went to Great Britain after his 
mission had commenced." The saint's authority, 12 however, is vastly 
preferable to that of a writer, who in the same chapter has so many apparent 

Article hi. — * Scotus and other theolo- 
gians have taught, that from the promptings 
of the natural law and reason, God may be 
known and loved by the human creature, 
not, however, with a love to ensure salva- 
tion. In the case of the present holy virgin, 
said to have known God through the natural 
law, yet the concurrence ofDivine Grace 
assisting her is not excluded in the words of 
the writer of St. Patrick's Third Life, where 
he writes, "per illas creaturas cognovit 
Creatorem earum, et per auxilium Sancti 

* See vol. ix., September 4, pp. 47, 48. 

3 See " Trias Thaumaturga," Tertia Vita 
S. Patricii, cap. Ixxviii., and nn. 74, 75, pp. 
27, 34. QuaitaVitaS. Patricii, cnp. lxxxviii., 
p. 46. 

4 See "Acta Sanctorum Septembris," 
tomus ii. Die Quarta Septembris. De S. 
Munessa seu Monessa, Virg. in Hibernia, 
pp. 225 to 228. Edited by Father Con- 
stantine Suysken. 

s In eight paragraphs. 

6 Marked with this title *J« MS. 167, D. 
Nomina Sanctarum Faminarum quarumdam 
ex Prosapia Regum Scotorum Hibernia;. 

7 1 hus is this pious virgin called in 
Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," by the 

author of Tertia Vita S. Patricii, cap. Ixxviii. 
p. 27. See also n. 74, p. 34, ibid. 

8 Thus styled by Jocelyn. See Vita Sexta 
S. Patricii, cap. clix., p. 100. 

9 See Probus or Quinta Vita S. Patricii, 
lib. ii., cap. xxv., p. 59. Colgan states, that 
this writer wrongly calls her Muneria, and 
that Joceline is also incorrect in writing her 
name Memessa. See n. 74, p. 34. 

10 This is expressly stated in various Lives 
of St. Patrick ; and owing to the context, in 
which allusion is made to her, it may also 
be inferred from the life by Probus. 

11 See Colgan's ''Trias Thaumaturga," 
Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. clix., p. ioo, and 
cap. xcii., p. 86. 

12 It is generally allowed, that St. Patrick 
did not write his Confession, until he had 
established his see at Armagh, and towards 
the close of his life. In it, he declares, that 
he would be afraid to be out of Ireland, 
even for so short a time as should enable 
him to visit his relatives, lest he should 
disobey the commands of Christ our Lord, 
who had ordered him to come among the 
Irish, and to remain with them for the rest 
of his life. See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's "Eccle- 
siastical History of Ireland," vol. i., cap. vii., 
sect. 1, p. 319. 



misstatements. 1 * In the Triparite Life of St. Patrick, it is said, that the 
daughter of a British king — seemingly this Munessa or Muneria — came into 
Ireland. She went to Kill-na-ningen, near Armagh, to be instructed by the 
saint, x 4 according to the same account. As the spring-time of her youth 
made her beautiful, writes Jocelyn, and the elegance of her form made her 
lovely, while in her countenance the lilies and the roses of the garden were 
mingled together ; very many princes of royal lineage desired her in marriage. 
However, in nowise could she be persuaded or compelled to give her consent. 
She had early formed the desire of becoming a Christian. Yet, had she not 
been washed in the holy font, though in her manners she represented the 
purity of Christian faith. Her parents being Heathens, endeavoured with 
words and with stripes, to frustrate her resolution ; but the firmness of her 
virgin purpose being built on the rock of Christ, could neither be subverted 
by their persuasions, nor by force. Nor could she, through any of their evil 
doings, be moved from her fixed determination. 1 * Having a long time thus 
vainly laboured, by united consent, her parents brought her to St. Patrick,' 6 
the fame ot whose holiness was proved and published through all that country, 
by many signs and miracles. Then, they unfolded to him the purpose ol 
their daughter, earnestly entreating him, that he would bring her to the sight 
of that God, whom she so loved, and towards whom her heart had yearned.' 7 
The saint hearing this rejoiced in the Lord, giving thanks to Him, whose 

13 As for instance, concerning thirty British 
bishops who are said to have been in Ireland. 
He also states the Isle of Man had been then 
subject to Britain ; not to mention the fall of 
Merlin, the magician, and other absurd 
narratives. See Colgan's " Trias Thauma- 
turga," Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. xc, 
p. 86. 

14 See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," 
Septima Vita S. Patricii, lib. iii., cap. 
lxxiii., p. 163. 

'5 The following account of the incidents 
contained in the text varies considerably in 
detail, yet referring apparently to the same 
subject matter. "One time there came 
nine daughters of the King of the Long- 
bards, and the daughter of the King of 
Britain, on a pilgrimage to Patrick ; they 
stopped at the east side of Ard-Macha, 
where Coll-na-ningean is to-day. There 
came messengers from them to Patrick, to 
know if they should proceed to him. Patrick 
said to the messengers that three of the 
maidens would go to heaven, and in that 
place (i.e. Coll-na-ningean) their sepulchre 
is. 'And let the other maidens go to 
Druim-fenneda, and let one of them proceed 
as far as that hill in the east.' And so it 
was done. Cruimthir went afterwards, and 
occupied Cengoba ; and Benen used to 
carry fragments of food to her every night 
from Patrick. And Patrick planted an 
apple tree in Achadh-na-elti, which he took 
from the fort, in the north of the place, i.e. 
Cengoba ; and hence the place is called 
Abhall- Patrick, in Cengoba. It was the 
milk of this doe, moreover, that used to be 
given to the lap-dog that was near the 
maiden, i.e. Cruimthir." — Miss M. F. 
Cusack'b " Life of St. Patrick, Apostle of 

Ireland." William M. Hennessy's transla- 
tion of the Irish Tripartite Life of St. 
Patrick, part iii., pp. 485, 486. Coll-na- 
ningean is rendered "the hazel tree of the 
virgins," but the denomination is now obso- 
lete. Druim-fenneda is rendered " the ridge 
of the declivity," but the name is also obso- 
lete. Cengoba is explained by the Rev. 
Dr. Reeves as " the hill of grief ; " and he 
states, that the tradition of the country con- 
nected the memory of the nine pilgrim 
virgins with Armagh Breague, in Upper 
Fews. Somewhat similar to the foregoing 
account is that in the Latin Tripartite Life, 
as published by Colgan, part iii., chapters 
lxxiii., lxxiv. In notes appended, he seems 
to regard Cruimthir, or Crumtheris, as a 
different person from the King of Britain's 
daughter, Munessa. 

16 Following the context of the Third 
Life of St. Patrick, it may be supposed the 
baptism of Munessa must have been per- 
formed in Ireland. It is there stated, that 
her parents, hearing about the great reputa- 
tion of St. Patrick, brought her to him. See 
Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," Tertia Vita 
S. Patricii, cap. lxxviii. , p. 27. 

•7 The author of St. Patrick's Fourth Life 
states, that nine daughters of a King of the 
Lombards were received, with the daughter 
of a King of Britain, at this time, and that 
all were recommended by the Irish Apostle 
to places where they might serve God for 
the rest of their lives. See Colgan's "Trias 
Thaumaturga," Quarta Vita S. Patricii, 
cap. lxxxviii., p. 46. Colgan thinks those 
daughters of the King of Britain are pro- 
bably not different from the daughters of 
Enoch, venerated on the 9th of September. 
See ibid., note 69, p. 50. 

96 LIVES OE THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 4. 

breath doth blow even whither and how he listeth ; and who oftentimes calleth 
to Himself, without any preaching, those whom he had predestined for eternal 
life. Afterwards, having expounded to the damsel the rules of Christian Faith, 
he catechised and baptised her, while confessing her belief in the true Faith. 
He also strengthened her with the Sacrament of the body and blood of Christ. 
St. Ness, or Munessa, is classed among the holy virgins, who received the veil 
from St. Patrick. 18 The chief incidents of her life must be referred to between 
the year 432, when St. Patrick came to open his mission in Ireland, and to 
about the year 460, when he is thought to have departed this life, in the 
opinion of Fathers Papebroke and Suyskens. The latter supposed, that the 
baptism and reception of St. Munessa happened during the last five years of 
the life of Ireland's great Apostle. J 9 Having received the Holy Viaticum, 
Munessa fell to the ground in the midst of her prayers, and breathed forth 
her spirit. Thus she ascended from the font, spotless and washed from all 
sin, led by angels to the sight of her fair and beautiful beloved. Then did 
St. Patrick, and all who were present, glorify God. With honourable 
sepulture, they committed Munessa's holy remains to the earth. 20 The 
various Lives of St. Patrick do not name the place of this interment, nor 
where, in aftertime, the community of holy women was established, as he 
had then predicted. 21 Probus, or the author of the Apostle's Fifth Life, only 
tells us, that in his own day, the memory of St. Muneria had been observed 
in that same place, 22 which appears to have been known to him by tradition. 
The death of this holy virgin has been assigned to a.d. 450, in one of the 
Manuscripts, 2 3 sent by Father Stephen White 2 * to Father Rosweyde. The 
Martyrology of Donegal 2S states, that veneration was given at the 4th of 
September, to Ness of Ernaidh. According to William M. Hennessy, this 
place is to be identified with Urney, in the County of Tyrone. 26 If the 
present Munissa be identical with the King of Britain's daughter, who with 
nine daughters of the Lombard King, lived or died at Coll-na-ningean, near 
Armagh, or at another place, called Druim-Fennedha, the foregoing statement 
of Mr. Hennessy cannot be admitted. Nor can the distinction between that 
foregoing daughter of the British King and the present St. Munessa be 
regarded as properly established. 2 7 

Article IV. — St. Comhgall, of Both-Conais, County of Donegal. 
^'eve?tth Century, ,] At the 4th of September, we find entered in the 

18 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," in ipsa vetere Scotia seu Hiberniaaut mortui 
Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. sunt, aut post mortem eo translati. Ex 
xxiii., p. 269. quorum plurimis pauciorum, qui sequuntur, 

19 See "Acta Sanctorum Septembris," nomina nic (sell. Dilingen, as seams) ubi 
tomus ii. Die Quarta Septembris. De S. dego, reperta dabo." 

Munessa seu Monessa, Virg. in Hibernia. =•» Thus written: " Muneria, quae et Me- 

Commentarius prrcvius, sect. 6, p. 226. messa virg<>, filia regis, baptisata a S- 

: ° See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," Patricio, qui ejus aniinam in coelum ascen- 

Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. clix., p. 100. dentem viderat circa annum salutis CCCCL." 

21 See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum = 5 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

Septembris," tomus ii. Die Quarta Sep- 2 t,6 237, 

tembris. De S. Munessa seu Monessa, =6 See where mention is made of this place, 

Virg. in Hiberma. Commentanus proevius, at lhe IIth of February, as also at the 1st 

sect 2, p. 226. and 3rd of August. 

"See Colgan's 'Trias Thaumaturga,' « 7 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

Quinta Vita S. Patricii, lib. 11., cap. xxvi., Q uarta Vita S. Patricii, cap. lxxxviii., p. 46, 

P- 59- and nn. 70, 71, p. 50, and Septima Vita S. 

•3 Marked ^ MS. 167 F , and having the Patricii, lib. iii., cap. lxxiii., p. 163, and nn. 

title: "Octavus Catalogus Sanctorum, qui 100, IOI, p. 187. 

September 4 ] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 97 

Martyrology of Tallagh 1 the name Comgall of Boith Conais, a as having been 
venerated. He is said to have been the brother of St. Cele-Christ, or 
Christicola, whose family and parentage have been already noticed in his 
Acts, which occur at the 3rd of March. 3 It is said, he descended from the 
race of Eoghan, son to Niall. This saint must have been born sometime 
about, or after, the middle of the seventh century. We read, that his place 
was situated in Glean Daoile, in Inis Eoghain,* or Inishowen, and it seems 
likely that he was a native of that part of Ireland. Both-Chonais, mentioned 
in our Annals in the middle of the ninth century and at a still later period, 
is rendered into English by " Conas' booth," " tent," or " hut." At first, 
Dr. O'Donovan thought — although the former name was obsolete — it must 
have been Templemoyle, in the parish of Culdaff, and barony of Inishowen. 5 
But, he afterwards discovered better evidence 6 for correcting his opinion ; 
and he states, it is obviously the old grave yard, in the townland of Binnion,? 
parish of Clonmany, barony of Inishowen, and County of Donegal. 8 This 
saint is recorded in the Martyrology of Donegal,9 at the same date, as 
Comhgall, son to Eochaidh, of Both-Conais. According to Rev. John Francis 
Shearman, Cella Comgalli, 10 or Kilcomgall, now Shankhill," in the County 
of Dublin, was called after this saint, 12 who was the patron, and perhaps its 

Article V. — St. Cummein, Abbot of Drumsnat, County of Mona- 
ghan. From what has been already stated at the istof this month, it seems 
probable, that the present saint may be identified with St. Cuimmen, son of 
Cuanna or Cuanach. The published Martyrology of Tallagh 1 inserts a 
festival at the the 4th of September, in honour of Comen, Abbot of Droma 
Sneachta. That copy of it in the Book of Leinster contains a nearly similar 
insertion. 2 This place is probably identical with Drumsnat, in Farney.3 
Fearnmhagh was the ancient name of this district. It is said to mean " the 
Alder Plain ;" and, it was the old Irish denomination for the barony of Farney, 
in the County of Monaghan.* The Martyrology of Donegal 5 likewise 
registers Cummein, as Abbot of Druim Sneachta, and at this date. 

Article VI. — St. Senan. No account remains, whereby we may 
determine the time in which this saint lived, the place he inhabited, or the 

Article iv. — * In the copy contained in Four Masters," vol. ii., n. (q), p. 722. 

the Book of Leinster, at this date, we find 9 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

Com^elli .1. Ooch ConAir\ 236, 237. 

2 See edition of Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxxiii. I0 So called in the "Concessio," dated 

3 See an account of him at that date, in 1198. 

the Third Volume of this work, Ait. iii. " Near Bray. 

♦The Rev. Dr. Todd states in a note, " See " Loca Patriciana, " part x., p. 258. 

that this inserted clause and identification Article v.— 1 Edited by Rev. Dr. 

are added by a second hand in the O'Clerys' Kelly, p. xxxiii. 

Manuscript. 2 In this form, Commein 4b "Orvomm 

5 See "Annals of the Four Masters," SneccAi. 

vol. i., n. (d), p. 483. 3 See the notices in the Eighth Volume of 

6 See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," this work, concerning St. Molua, at the 4th 
Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. day of August, Art. i., Life, chap, ii., and 
iv., p. 231. nn. 15, 16, ibid. 

7 Marked on the "Ordnance Survey Town- 4 See " Dr. O'Donovan 's "Annals of the 
land Maps for the County of Donegal," Four Masters," vol. i., n. (x). p. 36. 
sheets 3, 10. s Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

8 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the 236, 237. 


9 8 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. September 4. 

rank to which he attained. This is unhappily the case regarding many other 
Irish saints. A festival in honour of Senan appears in the published 
Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 at the 4th of September. Colgan omits the name 
of this holy man, by passing over the same date, 2 where he enumerates those 
saints bearing the same name in our Irish Calendars. In the Martyrology 
of Donegal, 3 an identical diurnal entry is to be found. 

Article VII. — St. Sarbile, Virgin of Fochart, County of Louth. 
As Mary, mentioned in the Gospel, loved to sit at the feet of Jesus, so do 
holy virgins desire that calm and rest, in which His voice is best heard 
speaking to their hearts. We find set down in the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 
at the 4th of September, that veneration was given to Sarbile, Virgin of 
Fochairde, or Fochart, in the old district of Murtheimhne. 2 This is now a 
level country in the present County of Louth. It extends from the River 
Boyne to the Mountains of Cuilgne, or Carlingford. 3 The Martyrology of 
Donegal* simply records the name Sarbile, of Fochard, at the same date. 
This may have been the St. Orbilia, Virgin, whose Acts Colgan had intended 
to produce at the present day, as we have gathered from the list of his 
unpublished manuscripts. 5 

Article VIII. — St. Peneux. {Sixth Century.] In the sixth century 
flourished a holy abbot, who is known in Bretagne, as St. Peneux, 1 His 
feast is assigned to June 4th, and to September 4th. 

Article IX.— St. Aedhan Amlonn, possibly at Clontarf, County 
of Dublin. The name, Aedhan Amlonn, is the simple entry found in the 
Martyrology of Donegal, 1 at the 4th of September. The Genealogic 
Sanctilogy 2 records a saint of this name, belonging to St. Brigid's race, and 
he is said to have been the son of Lugar, son to Ernin, son of Coel, son to 
Aid, son of Sanius, son to Arturus Corb, son of Cairbre Niadh, son to Cormac, 
son of ^Engus Menn, son of Eochadh Finn, son to Fethlimid Reachtmair, 
King of Ireland. This saint was venerated at Cluain Tarbh — now possibly 
Clontarf, County of Dublin— either on the 27th of August, 3 or on the 4th of 

Article vi. — 'Edited by Rev. Dr. "Annals of The Four Musters," vol. i., n. 

Kelly, p. xxxiii. It is also in that copy (u), p. 10. 

contained in the Book of Leinster, thus, 4 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

Senam. 236, 237. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," viii. s See " Catalogus Actuum Sanctorum 

Martii. Vita S. Senani, Appendix, cap. i., quae MS. habentur, ordine Mensium et 

p. 541, {recU) 537. Dierum." 

3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. Article viil— ' His Acts are to be found 

2 36, 237. So he is simply named Senan, in Lobineau's " Vies des Saints de la Bre- 

in the Irish Ordnance Survey MS. copy of tagne," tome i., pp. 248 to 250. 

this Calendar, p. 75. Article IX.— x Edited by Drs. Todd and 

Article vn. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. Reeves, pp. 236, 237. 

Kelly, p. xxxiii. a Chap. xiv. 

a In the copy of theTallaght Martyrology, 3 See notices of St. Aedhan or Aidan, at 

found in the Book of Leinster, we read that day, in the Eighth Volume of this work, 

Sainbile Uin. £och<yirvoe muin. Art. iii. 

3 Dundalk, Louth, Druimiskin, Faughard * See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga." 

and Monasterboice are mentioned as having Appendix Quarta ad Acta S. Brigidae, cap. 3, 

been in this place. See Dr. O'Donovan's p. 613. 

September 4.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 99 

Article X.— St. Failbhe. In the published Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 
at the 4th of September, there is a Feast for Failbe Mac Ronain, of Cluain 
Airbelaig. 2 We have already seen, that in the Martyrology of Donegal, 3 this 
saint's feast occurs on the 1st day of this month j and again at the 4th, there 
is a festival for Failbhe. Some mistake or misplacement appears to have 
occurred ; yet, perhaps, it may be, that this same saint had two different 
festivals — one occurring on the 1st, and the other having been held on the 
4th of September. 

Article XI. — Reputed Feast of St. Erentrudis, or Erentrude, 
Abbess of Salzburg. In the Martyrology of Greven, and also in one 
belonging to the Church of St. Martin in Treves, there is commemoration of 
St. Herentrude, Virgin, at the 4th of September. In their notice of this entry, 
the Bollandists state, 1 that if she be identical with St. Erentrude, or Erendrude, 
Abbess, and whose Translation had been recorded on the previous day, the 
reader may consult her Acts, at the 30th of June, which was her chief festival. 
At the same day, an account of her will be found in this work. 2 

Article XII.— St. Fiachrach. In that copy of the Martyrology of 
Tallagh, to be found in the Book of Leinster, there is the simple entry of 
Fiachruch, 1 at this date. This name is omitted, however, in the published 
copy.* Moreover, Fiachrach, without any further designation, is set down in 
the Martyrology of Donegal,* at the 4th of September. 

Article XIII. — Reputed Commemoration or Canonization of St. 
Swibert, or Suitbert, Bishop and Apostle of the Frisons and of the 
Boructuarians. The supposed Canonization of St. Swibert, or Suitbert, 
Bishop of Verden, is placed by Greven, at the 4th of September. 1 However, 
it is called the commemoration — and by a better title — in the German 
Martyrology of Canisius. Allusion is made to this reputed Feast, by the 
Bollandists, at this date. 2 The Life of St. Swibert, or Suitbert, has been 
already given, at the 1st of March, 3 the day for his chief Festival. 

Article XIV. — Reputed Feast of St. Veran, Confessor, at Rheims, 
France. \ Sixth Century]. Already have we mentioned Veran as one of 
the holy brothers, that accompanied St. Gibrian 1 from Ireland, when he went 

Article x. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, taken place, in the year 803 ; Pope Leo III. 

p. xxxiii. being Pontiff, and in the presence of Charle- 

2 Also in that copy contained in the Book magne, according to Wion, Dorgan and 
of Leinster is the entry of polbe niAc Konin, Menard. This relation, however, is proved 

■ at this date. to be apocryphal, by the Bollandists, as may 

3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. be seen in the commentary prefixed to the 
2 36» 2 37- Life of St. Luger, first Bishop of Minister, 

Article xi.— x See "Acta Sanctorum in Westphalia, at the 26th day of March, 

Septembris," tomus ii. Among the preter- sect. 7, 8. 

mittcd saints, p. 3. 2 See "Acta Sanctorum Septembris." 

2 See the Sixth Volume, Art. i. tomus ii. Die Quarta Septembris. Among 

Article xii. — « Thus : pAchraicri the pretermitted Feasts, p. 2. 

2 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly. 3 See the Third Volume of this work, Art. ii. 

3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. Article xiv. — l See his Life, at the 8th 
2 36, 237. of May, in the Fifth Volume of this work, 

Article xiil— « This is stated to have Art. ii. 

ioo LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 5. 

to preach the Gospel in France. He was buried at a village called Matusgum, 
and there his relics were greatly venerated. 2 According to Camerarius, 3 he 
had a Feast, on the 4th of September, as the Bollandists observe, at this same 
day.* However, his festival is placed, at the 3rd of December, by Ferrarius 
and Saussay. 

Article XV. — Reputed Festival of St. Anatolius, Bishop of 
Salins, France. According to Ferrarius, 1 the memory of St. Anatolius was 
observed in the Diocese of Besangon, in France, on the 4th of September. 2 
We have already treated about him, at the 3rd of February, the day for his 
chief Feast. 3 

jftftf) 2Bap of September. 




LIKE the sun, which sends forth many bright and burning rays to light 
and warm the land and water of his most distant and subjective 
planets, so as there to spread and spend their force ; so has Ireland, as a 
centre of spiritual effulgence and vitality, despatched her missionaries through 
the early Christian ages, to kindle and inflame the cold and unregenerate 
souls of benighted heathens and sinful men, in countries far removed from 
her own shores ; while that spirit has been preserved and extended in after 
times, and even to our own day, in the multitude of holy men and women, 
who have parted from their country and family ties, to diffuse glad tidings and 
blessings in other climes, where their bodies now repose, and whence they 
shall arise glorified on the Day of General Judgment. 

Already, at the 9th day of February, a Feast of St. Alto, Bishop and 
Founder of Altmunster, in Bavaria, has been commemorated in the Second 
Volume of this work, 1 and there a reference for fuller particulars regarding 
him has been deferred to the 5th day of September. Again, we record at the 
5th of August, some notices of festivals, referred by Thomas Dempster 2 to 
the 7th of February, as also to the 5th of August, together with a fabled 
account of writings attributed to him. 3 Nearly all the later accounts 
regarding St. Alto have been taken from a Life, written in the tenth century 
by an anonymous author. The Acts of St. Alto, said to have existed in 

2 A remarkable miracle, as already related, "Acta Sanctorum Septembris," tomus ii. 
took place at his tomb, and it is likewise Die Quarta Septembris. Among the preter- 
vecorded in Flodoard's " Historia Rhemen- mitted Saints, p. 2. 

sis," lib. iv., cap. ix. 3 See the Second Volume of this work, 

3 See at this date, in his work, " De Art. i. 

Scotorum Pietate," lib. iii. Article i. — ' See Article xiii. 

4 See "Acta Sanctorum Septembris," 2 See "Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis 
tomus ii. Die Quarta Septembris. Among Scotorum," tomus i., lib. i., num. ii., pp. n, 
the pretermitted Saints, p. 3. .12. 

Article xv. — ■ In " Catalogus Generalis 3 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

Sanctorum." nia?," Februarii ix. De S. Altone Abbate. 

2 The Bollandists notice this entry in n. 6, p. 302. 


Bavaria,* especially in Lessons of his office as Patron of Altmunster, were not 
accessible to Colgan, who has compiled from other authorities illustrations 
of his life, at the 9th of February. 5 This holy /nan is found classed among 
the Benedictine saints. 6 His Acts are written, with previous observation, in 
eleven paragraphs, 7 and illustrated with notes. 8 It is there stated, that he 
lived about the year 770. On the 5th of September, the Annals of the 
Cistercian Monks, 9 and divers other chronicles, commemorate St. Alto. In 
the "Antiquae Lectiones," Henricus Canisius has special reference to St. 
Alto. 10 The Bollandists 11 have given his Acts, 13 with a previous commentary, 1 ' 
at the 9th day of February, reputed to have been his principal feast. The 
Petits Bollandistes I4 notice his festival, at this date, as a Scot venerated in 
England ; although generally honoured in Germany, on the 9th of February. 15 

He is called a Scot, by all the German Martyrologists and Chroniclers, 
and, therefore, reputed to have been an Irishman by birth, like many other 
saints thus designated, at the period when he flourished. He was born in 
Scotia, a little before or possibly soon after the commencement of the eighth 
century; and, as the English Martyrology states, he descended from a noble 
stock in that country. The anonymous writer of his Acts states, that his 
name Alto, in the German language, has been derived from the circumstance 
of his having been born of an ancient family ; so that his original Celtic name 
— now unknown to us — may have been altogether a different one. However, 
from earliest youth, he was accustomed to observe the Law of God, and to 
meditate on it, both by day and night. The ancient records of Bavaria 
relate, that like the ancient Patriarch Abraham, a voice from heaven came 
to admonish him that he should leave his own country, and seek that. of the 
Boii, 16 over which Pepin, the King of the Franks, is. said to have ruled. x ? 
This celebrated man, having established a supremacy over Germany, began 
his reign, a.d. 750, and having died on the 23rd of September, a.d. 768, 18 
he was succeeded by his still more celebrated son, Charles, better known as 

For the scene of his future exercises, on arriving in Bavaria, 10 St. Alto 
sought a wood, 20 near the present city of Augsburg. 21 There, without 

4 The anonymous writer of St. Alto's Life * 3 In two sections, and in eleven para - 

lived in the tenth century. See Mabillon's graphs. 

"Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus ii., I4 See "Les Vies des Saints," tome x., 

lib. xxi., num. Ixxvii., p. 122. Jour v? de Septembre, p. 488. 

s See "Acta Sanctorum Hibemiae," l5 At this date, the Petits Bollandistes have 

Februarii ix. De S. Altone Abbate Alto- noted : "En Baviere, Saint Alton, AbbeV' — 

Monasterii in Bavaria, pp. 301, 302. Ibid, tome ii., Jour ix, de Fevrier, p. 404. 

6 See "Acta Sanctorum Ordinis S. Bene- l6 " Ita cordi mere Numine semper Boii." 
dicti," seculum iii. Pars ii. Ab. A.D. 700 — Mattheus Rader's " Bavaria Sancta," lib. 
to 800. Tomus iv. ii., p. 115. 

7 See pp. 217 to 220. I? However, by some it has been supposed 

8 They are headed, Vita Sancti Altonis that Alto arrived in Germany, before Pepin 
Abbatis in Bajoaria Superiore, Auctore had commenced his reign there. 
Monacho Altomonasteriensi Anonymo, sse- ,8 For the particulars of his reign, see 
culo ix., ex num. 9 and II. Ex tomo 2. " The Modern Part of an Universal History, 
Metrop. Salisb. et Februario Bollandiano. from the earliest Accounts to the present 

9 See this work, at the 5th of September, Time," vol. xix. The History of France, 
p. 408. chap, lxviii., sect, ii., pp. 274 to 286, London, 

10 See vol. i., pp. 181 and 183. 1782, 8vo. 

11 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii. I9 The anonymous writer of St. Alto's Life 
Februarii ix. De S. Altone Abbate in states, that this province was " infra Austra 
Bavaria Superiore, pp. 358 to 361. lem plagam Germanise positam." 

12 From the Life, by an anonymous writer, 20 " Ubi syluam ingressus pari fere in- 
who lived over 600 years before their time. teruallo Augusta Vindelicorum et Monachio 
It is in eleven paragraphs, with notes. distantem, propriorem tamen Augusts, et ad 


requiring any thing from others, he laboured to supply the necessaries of 
life with his own hands. 22 His spirit of disinterestedness and piety caused 
him to be greatly reverenced by the inhabitants. The religious, also, felt a 
great interest regarding the objects he had in view, and failed not often to 
visit and assist him. Alto had embraced an eremitical life, and lived as a 
pilgrim near a fountain.^ This he is said to have miraculously produced 
from the earth. 2 * 

It is stated , 2 s that moved with the fame of his sanctity, King Pipin gave 
him a great part of that forest, in which he dwelt. According to Mabillon, 26 
this was rather the gift of Charlemagne, and he places the coming of our saint 
to Bavaria, under the year 743. Cutting down a great part of the trees, 
Alto founded his church and monastery, some time about the middle of the 
eighth century. 2 ? To effect these works, the neighbouring inhabitants, who 
admired the sanctity of his life, generously aided, and freely bestowed gifts. 28 
Alto soon collected around him a number of religious, and he became their 
spiritual director. His religious ccenobium had the honour of being 
consecrated, and his fountain was blessed, 2 ? by the holy and illustrious 
Archbishop St. Boniface,* the Apostle of Germany.* 1 It is related, that he 
had a Divine revelation to perform this religious ceremony. He desired, 
moreover, to impose an obligation on St. Alto, that women should be 
excluded the precincts of his church and monastery. To this our saint 
objected, and offered such reasons as induced St. Boniface to yield assent 
to his prayer ; although he interdicted women from all approach to the 
holy well. This religious establishment took its name, Alt-munster,* 2 from 
the founder. Ferrarius has made this saint Abbot of Salzburg,33 but this 
statement does not appear to be elsewhere substantiated. 

The holy anchorite lived in the forest of Bavaria, and near his favourite 
fountain, where now stands the monastery of Altmunster. Contemporaneous 
or nearly such with St. Alto were many of the illustrious Irish missionaries, 
that spread the Gospel throughout Germany, and among those are enumerated, 
St. Boniface^ St. Virgil,3S St. Rupert^ 6 St. Erentrude,37 St. Trudbert,3 8 St. 

sinistram Monachium petcnti, sitam." — Mat- 740 and 760. See " Annales Boicorum," 

thaeus Rader's "Bavaria Sancla," lib. ii., pars i., lib. v., num. 10. 

p. 115. a8 The old writer of his Acts states, "ex 

21 Formerly known as Augusta Vindeli- oblatione fidelium quotidie ad eum confluen- 
corum. It is now the Capital of the Bava- tium substantia rerum victualium feliciter 
rian circle of the Upper Danube. For a excrevisset, &c."— " Acta Sanctorum Ordinis 
historical and descriptive account of this S. Benedicti," tomus iv., pars ii., p. 218. 
city, the reader is referred to the '* Penny 29 According to the English Marty tology 
Cyclopaedia " of Charles Knight, vol. iii., and Rader. 

pp. 86, 87. 30 See his Life, at the 5th of June, in the 

22 See '* Acta Sanctorum Ordinis Sancti Sixth Volume of this work, Art. i. 
Benedicti," tomus iv., pars ii. Vita Sancti 3I " Basilicam dedicaturus Bonifacius, earn 
Altonis, num. 1, p. 218. more solito feminis interdictam volebat : at 

23 According to Wiguleus Hundius, in repugnanti Altoni, assensit ea conditione, 
" Metropolis Salisburgensis,'' p. 185. ut ad fontem quemdam basilicas proximum 

24 In Rader's " Bavaria Sancta," tomus i., nulli mulieri accedere liceret."— Mabillon's 
there is a picture of St. Alto, and the follow- " Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus ii., 
ing distich announces the manner, in which lib. xxi., num. lxxvii., p. 122. 

the miracle had been wrought : — 3 * Rendered Alto's Monastery. 

» Cui pulsata pedo sitienti praebuit vndam nf ^Ju^K!?. GeneraHS Sanct0rum '" 

Etfluxit largo flumine dura silex." at the 9 th of February. 

s 34 Apostle of Germany, and whose feast is 

2 s By Rader. held on the 5th of June. 

26 See "Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," 3S Bishop of Saltzburgh, venerated at the 
tomus ii., lib. xxi., num. lxxvii., p. 122. 27th of November. 

27 According to Andreas Brunner, this 36 Venerated at the 27th of March, 
foundation was effected between the years 37 Venerated at the 30th of June. 

Septkmber 5.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 103 

Vitalis,39 St. Cuniald, 40 St. Gizilar,<n St. Marianus and St. Anianus,* 2 St. 
Erard,« St. Albert," St. Martinus and St. Declan.* 5 It is probable, that with 
several of the foregoing, St. Alto had been linked in bonds of Christian 
brotherhood/ 6 At Altmunster he resided, and he became illustrious for the 
miracles there wrought.*? Many of these were committed to writing at an 
early period, but they had been taken away furtively, so that the anonymous 
writer of his Acts in the tenth century remarks, his readers should not 
wonder if so few of the saint's miracles were unrecorded in his own tract. 
According to the English Martyrology, Alto is thought to have died, about 
the year of Christ, 760. In Altmunster, and in Frisingen, St. Alto is 
honoured with a public office, on the 9th of February. This is supposed to 
have been the day of his dying upon earth/ 8 to be born in heaven/s One 
of the chief benefactors of St. Alto's foundation is said to have been Etico, 
Count of the Licatii, 50 a tribe of the Vindelici, dwelling on the River Licias 
or Licus, 51 from which their name has been derived. 52 There he is said to 
have placed a community of religious men. He flourished about one 
hundred years after the time of St. Alto, and he was brother to Judith, the 
wife of Louis the Pious, King of France. 

During the lapse of time, the rapine of various dynasts brought ruin on 
the foundation of St. Alto, which was nearly destroyed, until Guelph,s3 Duke 
of Bavaria, restored it once more, 5 * and brought a colony of Benedictine 
religious to settle there. 55 Again, the buildings fell into decay, when in the 
year 1487, George, Duke of Bavaria, rebuilt the establishment, and introduced 
a community of nuns, who observed the strict rule of St. Brigid. 56 The 
anonymous list of Irish Saints, published by O'Sullevan Beare records Alpho, 
at the 5th of September. Also in the " Menologium Scoticum " of Thomas 
Dempster, this festival is entered. 5 ? It has been conjectured, that this must 

38 His feast occurs on the 27th of April. s3 Also called Welf, or Welpho, from the 

39 Venerated on the 20th or 24th of Octo- Teutonic word Welf, rendered into Latin by 
ber. the word " Catulus," and pronounced by the 

40 Venerated at Saltzburgh, on the 24th of Belgians Welp, or Wulp. Various opinions 
September. have been held regarding the origin of that 

41 Venerated at Saltzburgh, on the 24th of name. In later ages, the Guelphs sustained 
September. the rights of the Apostolic See in Italy, 

42 Venerated on the 24th of November. against the powerful faction of the Gibel 

43 Venerated on the 8th of January. lines. Weingarten has written a work, " De 

44 Venerated on the 8th of January. Guelfis Principibus. " 

4 s Venerated on the 1st of December. 54 A curious tradition is given by the 

46 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- anonymous writer of our Saint's Acts regard- 

nise," Februarii ix. De S. Altone Abbate ing the apparition of Alto to enforce the 

Alto-Monasterii in Bavaria," and nn. 3, 4, necessity for this restoration. 

5, pp. 301, 302. 5S Mabillon states : ** Direptum a quodam 

4 ? This account, Rader obtained from the Alamannise seu Sueviae comite monasterium, 

monastery itself. See " Bavaria Sancta," seculo decimo instauratum est, traditumque 

lib. ii., p. 115. aliquanto post tempore Altorfiensibus sancti- 

48 It is noted in the dyptics of Altmunster, monialibus Benedictinis, quae coenobium 
according to Rader. suum. Alto-monasteriensibus monachis ces- 

49 See Bishop Challoner's " Brittania serunt Altorfio deinde in paraecialem 
Sancta," part ii., pp. 1 19, 120. ecclesiam commutato, Altorfienses in no- 

s° Pliny calls them Licates, and enumerates vum Weingartense Monasterium translati : 

them among the Alpine tribes subdued by ac demum saeculo quinto-decimo Altonis 

Augustus. See "HistoriaNaturalis,"lib. iii., monasterium Brigittanis concessum est." — 

cap. 24. "Annates Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus ii., 

s 1 Now the River Lech. Strabo calls their lib. xxi., num. lxxvii., p. 122. 
town Damasia, and he mentions them as 56 At the time when Rader wrote, that 

being the most audacious of the Videlicean community was in a flourishing state. See 

tribes. Lib. iv. "Bavaria Sancta," lib. ii., p. 115. 

s 2 See Dr. William Smith's " Dictionary of 57 See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of 

Greek and Roman Geography," vol. ii.,p. 182. Scottish Saints," p. 210. 



have been a festival to commemorate some translation of his relics.* 8 The 
English Martyrology and Henry Fitzsimons, at this same date, enter a feast 
for St. Altho.59 The Bollandists also notice this festival, 60 in their great work. 

Article II. — St. Faithleann, possibly of Innisfallen, County of 
Kerry. At the 5th of September, the name of St. Faithleann occurs in the 
Irish Calendars. 1 The name Faithlenn Deochoin, or Deacon, without further 
designation, appears in the published Martyrology of Tallagh, 2 at 5th of 
September.3 From this we can only infer, that he flourished, at an early 
period. It has been suggested,* that he may be Faithlenn, Deacon, son to 

[nnisfallen Oratory, Lower Lake of Killarney. 
Aedh Domhain, of Munster, and sprung from the race of Core, son to 
Lughaidh, son of Oilill Flannbeg, who was son of Fiacha Muilleathan, son to 
Eoghan Mor, son of Oilill Olum. Yet, it would seem, the later calendarists 
had some doubt regarding Faithleen having been correctly identified as 
Deacon, son of Aedh Damhain. Inis-Faithlenn,s now known as Innisfallen, 
on the Lower Lake of Killarney, is thought to have been named from him. 6 
There are still the remains of an ancient oratory 1 to be seen on the margin 

58 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nise," Februarii ix. De S. Altone Abbate 
Alto-Monasterii in Bavaria, n. 8, p. 302. 

59 See O'Sullevan Beare's " Historic Catho- 
licse Ibemiae Compendium," tomus i., lib. iv., 
cap. xi., xii., pp. 50, 52. 

°° See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Sep- 
tembris v. Among the pretermitted feasts, 
p. 486. 

Article ii.-— 1 At this date, his feast is set 
down in a MS. Calendar of Professor Eugene 

3 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxxiii. 

3 In that copy contained in the Book of 
Leinster is found £41 ch lean 'Oechoin. 

4 By the O'Clerys. 

5 Pronounced Inish-Fah-len. 

6 The reader is referred to what has been 
already written regarding it, at the 7th of 
April, in the Fourth Volume of this work, 
Art. i., where the Acts of St. Finan, Patron 
and Abbot of Kinnety, King's County, are 
written, chap. ii. 

7 With the Acts of St. Finan, there is an 
illustration of the ancient oratory of Innis- 
fallen given. From a different point of view, 

September 5.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 105 

of that beautiful and fertile island. 8 In the beginning of the present century, 
the ruins of an abbey, situated at the north-eastern extremity of Innisfallen, 
were much more extensive. The church, which consisted of a single aisle, 
was seventy feet in length, by twenty wide. The architecture of the cloister, 
and what seemed to have been the apartments of the monks, were rude, 
without sculptured ornaments, lofty arches or spacious windows. The 
cloister was only thirty-eight feet square, and though its walls were very much 
dilapidated, the limits of its covered walk and the apertures to the interior 
area might be distinctly traced. 9 By a monk of this abbey, the Annals of 
Innisfallen are said to have been written, about the year 1216. However, 
there seems to be good reason for supposing, they had been commenced, at 
least two centuries before that period ; and a tradition has always existed in 
the South of Ireland, that a learned man, named Maelsuthain O'Cearbhaill, 10 
had originally composed those Annals. 11 The Four Masters assign his death 
to a.d. 1009. I2 The foundation of a religious house at Innisfallen is usually 
attributed to St. Finan Lobhar,^ in the latter part of the sixth century. The 
present saint is mentioned in the Martyrology of Donegal ** as simply 
Faithlenn, at the 5th day of September. 

Article III. — St. Eolang, said to have been of Aghaboe, Queen's 
County, yet probably of Aghabollogue, County of Cork. This holy 
man must have lived during an early century of Christianity in the Irish 
Church, since his name has been entered in the Calendar of Oengus, where 
he is designated a "fair pillar " and a "victory of piety." 1 The published 
Martyrology of Tallagh 2 mentions, and also the copy in the Book of Leinster,3 
that, at the 5th of September, veneration was given to Eolang, of Achaid-bo. 
This is the celebrated Aghaboe, a parish in the barony of Clarmallagh, and 
in the southern part of the Queen's County. In the Martyrology of Donegal ,« 
at the same date, he is recorded as Eolang, of Achadh-bo-Cainnigh, in 

and taken from a photograph, Mr. Gregor the Manuscript Materials of Ancient Irish 

Grey has drawn the present illustration on History," Lect. iv., p. 79, 

the wood, also engraved by him. " At this year is entered : " Maelsuthain 

8 Isaac Weld thus writes: "This little Ua Cearbhaill [one] of the family of Inis- 
building has, within a few years, been fitted Faithleann, chief doctor of the western world 
up as a place of entertainment,, under the in his time, and lord of Eoghanacht of Loch- 
pompous appellation of the banqueting- Lein, died after a good life."— Dr. O'Dono- 
house. The walls at the inside have been van's " Annals of the Four Masters," vol. ii., 
smoothly plastered and whitened ; two p. 761. 

modern bow- windows have been opened to 13 See his Life, already given at the 1 6th 

the north and south, and the floor has been of March, in the Third Volume of this work, 

boarded. One cannot but deplore the frivolity Art j There, likewise, may be found two 

of that taste which has thus injudiciously diflferent views of the ruined oratory on Innis- 

metamorphosed it. The changes which are f a n en . See chap i 

effected by time command our reverence and M ^^ , Drs Todd and ReeveSf pp . 

dispose the soul to contemplation ; but those g _ J 

discordant alterations of the works of ancient article III.— 1 See " Transactions of the 

days untune the mind and interrupt that R , Irish Acade m y ," Irish Manuscript 

course of thought which the remains of anti- Se / ies yoL • t L Qn the Calendar of 

quity are calculated to inspire. — " Illustra- Q b Whitley Stokes, LL.D.. p. cxxxvi. 

tions of the Scenery of Killarney and the The b Scho i iast m the Leabhar Breac adds, 

Surrounding Country, sect, ii., pp. 128, 129. that he belonged to Ac had Bo, of Cainnech, 

London, 1812, 8vo in Ossory. See ibid., p. cxliii. 

4leltwa?d0 2 S "Chronological - ' Edited by the Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxxiii- 

Account of nearly Four Hundred Irish 3 Thus inserted, eoUn 5 AcAvobo. 

Writers," p. lxx. 4 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

11 See Professor O'Curry's " Lectures on 236, 237. 

io6 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 5. 

Osraighe. The O'Clerys state, that he was descended from the race of 
Conaire, son to Moghlamha, Monarch of Erin, according to the poem 
beginning, "The Saint-History of the Saints of Inis Fail." After the entry 
of this holy man's name in the last-mentioned calendar, a space is left, as if 
to supply a notice of his ecclesiastical rank, when that might have been 
better ascertained. However, such identification of his locality seems to be 
more than doubtful, since Mr. William M. Hennessy states : s " There is a 
Tober Eolang, near Aghabollogue, 6 County of Cork, where Eolang' s name 
is venerated at the 5th of September." In the table appended to the 
Martyrology of Donegal, 7 this saint's name is Latinised Eulogius. Among 
the abbots or religious of Aghaboe, as entered in the Irish Annals, the name 
of Eolang does not occur. 

Article IV. — St. Brecc-buaid or Bricin, said to have been ofTuaim- 
Dreacain, now Toomregan, County of Cavan. In the Calendar of St. 
^ngus, 1 there is a commemoration of Brecc-buaid, who was called forth from 
Ireland. It occurs at this date. A comment is found affixed, 2 which very 
fairly gives us to understand, that the scholiast had no precise knowledge 
regarding the saint there recorded. It may be observed here — once for ail- 
that the O'Clerys are too apt, in following the authority of this scribe, to 
suppose that he is always reliable, and frequently they assume, that his 
conjectures in notes on the Calendar of ^Engus may be resolved into state- 
ments to be accepted. Accordingly, in the Martyrology of Donegal,3 we find 
set down at the 5th of September, a festival in honour of Bricin. A space is 

left there for an insertion , the compiler of the Calendar having been 

uncertain whether Bricin should be classed as a bishop or as a priest/ 
It is remarkable, that in the Scottish Kalendar of Dru,mmond, he is 
noticed as a Confessor, and belonging to Ireland. s According to the 
calendarist, Bricin is said to have been of Tuaim Dreacain, in Breifne of 
Connaught. But, immediately afterwards, he adds, it is in Breifne Ui 
Raghallaigh. 6 The place of this saint has been anglicised as Toomregan. 
In the County of Cavan, there is a parish so called,? and a part of which 

s In a MS. note to his copy of the Mar- 2 The Irish is thus rendered into English 

tyrology of Donegal, lent to the writer. by Dr. Whitley Stokes : " Briccine of Tuaim 

A parish in the Barony of East Mus- Drecoin, in Brefne of Connaught, I reckon, 

kerry, in the West Riding of Cork. It is Or 'with Breccbuaid,' i.e., various victory, 

described on the " Ordnance Survey Town- i c, men and women giving him victory, 

land Maps for the County of Cork," sheets namely, in undergoing Martyrdom together 

49, 60, 61, 71, 72. with him, for thai is a victory to him, since 

^ Edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, he it is that preached unto them God's 

pp. 410,411. word." — Ibid., p. cxliii. 

Article iv.— ' In that copy found in the 3 Edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, 

Leabhar Breac we find :— pp. 136, 137- 

* Note by Rev. Dr. Todd. 

La br*ecbu4it> ■oopiume 5 See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 

UorxogpAX) ahero Scottish Saints," p. 23. 

eoUng caro cam Ai$e ° A note by Dr. Reeves states at Ui 

dchATo bo buaiT> ler\i. Raghalliagh, "or East Breifne, as distin- 
guished from bneipne 111 Uuai^c, or West 

Thus iranslated by Whitley Stokes, LL.D. : Mreifne." 

"With Breccbuaid, who was called forth 7 It lies within the barony of Lower 

from Ireland, I reckon Eolang, holy, fair Loughouter, containing 2,256a. I r. 22p., and 

pillar of Achad Bo, a victory of piety." — the barony of Tullyhaw, containing 5,221a. 

"Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy," or. 12/). See " Ordnance Survey Townland 

Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., part i. On Maps for the County of Cavan," sheets 9, 

the Calendar of OZngu?, p. cxxxvi. 10, 14. 

September 5.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 107 

extends within the adjoining County of Fermanagh. 8 Another conjectural 
emendation for his locality, and reference to the designation Brecc-Buaid — 
rendered ( various reward,'9 and applied to him — is given by the scholiast on 
the Calendar of Oengus. So that Briccin seems to have been his real name. 
According to the O'Clerys, this saint belonged to the race of Tadhg, son to 
Cian, son of Oilill Olum. We cannot rely, however, on the accuracy of this 
statement ; nor can we at all find materials, to disclose any reliable facts in 
relation to him. Neither in the Martyrology of Tallagh, published by the 
Rev. Dr. Matthew Kelly, nor in that contained in the Book of Leinster, is 
there any entry of Brecc-buaid or Bricin, at this date. If we are to accept 
the statement, that Brecc-buaid was called forth from Ireland ; perhaps he 
was one of the many missionaries who left our country to spread the Gospel 
in more distant lands. The names of numerous Irish saints are endeared to 
grateful Catholic memories ; but, the record of a still greater number of 
worthies is now wholly forgotten. 

Article V. — St. Dubhscuile. At the 5th of September, veneration was 
given, according to the published Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 to Duibsuile. 
That copy in the Book of Leinster has the name written Duibscuili. 2 The 
Martyrology of Donegal, 3 at the same date, simply registers the name 

Article VI. — St. Elacha. A saint, named Elacha, is registered in the 
published Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 at this date. In that copy contained in 
the Book of Leinster, the name is written Elacho. 2 

Article VII. — St. Eolog, Anchoret. Even where certain names are 
found unrecognised, the merits or genius of worthy persons who have perished 
on earth, are still most likely to be registered in heaven. A festival in 
honour of Eolog, an Anchoret, is found entered in the published Martyrology 
of Tallagh, 1 at this date, as distinct from Eolang of Achaidh-bo. The same 
notice occurs in the copy of that calendar in the Book of Leinster. 3 The 
Kalendar of Drurnmond3 also enters a festival, at the 5th of June for a 
Confessor Eulaig — probably identical with the present holy man. 

Article VIII. — St. Indeacht, Deacon. In the Church of God, there 
have been pious ministers and noble saints, who have even wrought wonderful 
miracles ; yet, these have never been called to the trust of an episcopal 

8 This portion of it is in the barony of Article v.— 1 Edited by Rev. Dr, Kelly, 
Knockninny, and it contains 3,200a. 27.30/. p. xxxiii- 

See " Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for 2 Thus, Otnbfctnli. 

the County Fermanagh," sheets, 38, 41. 3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

9 The note in Irish is thus translated : 236. 237. 

" *.<?., folk of every age he brought to Christ, Article vl— * Edited by the Rev. Dr. 

or he won a victory from divers champions, Kelly, p. xxxiii. 

i.e. , Briccin of Disert, Briccin in Ui-Drona, or 2 Thus, et&c ho. 

Briccin of Tuaim-Drecain, in Brefne of Article vii.-' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

Connaught." — "Transactions of the Royal Kelly, p. xxxiii. 

Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, 2 Thus, elog -Anchor*. 

vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of CEngus. 3 See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- 

By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. cxliii- tish Saints," p. 23. 


station, nor have they even attained the grade of sacerdotal rank. We find, 
in the Martyrology of Donegal, 1 the name of Indeacht, Deacon, recorded at 
the 5th of September. More regarding him is not known. 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Ultan. In the Townland and 
Parish of Killanny, 1 County of Louth, the patron saint is known as Ultan, 
whose feast falls on the 5th of September. By the inhabitants of the place 2 
it is called Ultan's Day.3 There is also a welH named after him. Most 
probably, the saint here venerated is not distinct from St. Ultan of Ardbraccan, 
about whom we have treated on the day preceding.* 

*fjrtb 2>ap of September. 





IT is much to be regretted, that obscurities and uncertainties have involved 
the few early records, regarding St. Bega or Bees, in the Manuscript 
Lives and Acts of this holy woman, which are still extant. 1 In his Ecclesias- 
tical History, the Venerable Bede is supposed to have called her by the 
name of Heiu. 2 Again, the various forms of name Bega, Beda, Vega, Heyna, 
Heiu, and Hieu are supposed by some 3 to stand for this holy virgin ; while 

Article viii. — l Edited by Drs. Todd S. Begse, Virginis, in Provincia Northum- 

and Reeves, pp. 236, 237. broruni, M.S. Cott. Faust. B. iv. ff. 122-131, 

Article ix. — 1 The townland and a por- veil., small folio, dbl. cols. xii. cent, 

tion of the palish are noted on the "Ord- MiraculaS. Begae, Virginis. — Ibid., ff. 131 to 

nance Survey Townland Maps for the 138^. 

County of Louth," sheet 10. The greater a See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis 

part of this parish is within the Barony of Anglorum," lib. iv., cap. xxiii. 

Farney, County of Monaghan, and it is 3 Among these maybe mentioned R. P. 

shown on the M Ordnance Survey Townland Michaelis Alfordus (alias Griffith, an English 

Maps for the County of Monaghan," sheets Jesuit, writing under that assumed name), 

31, 32, 34. M Fides Regia Brilannica, siv6 Annales 

1 See Thomas O'Conor's Letter, dated Ecclesia; Britannicae," in Annalibus Anglo- 

Louth, Feb. 12th, 1836, in the County of Saxonicis, tomus ii., p. 294. lie argues, that 

Louth Antiquarian Letters of the Irish to the Virgin Heyna — by Rede called Heiu, 

Ordnance Survey, vol. i., p. 253. and by others more commonly Bega — are 

3 In Irish written L& I UlcAin. attributed coincidences of historic incidents, 

4 In Irish it is written Cobar\ Ulcam. even although different festival days be 
s In the present volume, Art. i. assigned them in the English Martyrology. 
Article l— • Thus do we find them The Bollandist editor of St. Bega's Acts 

described by Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy : Vita adopts a like opinion. 



others hold the opinion, that those forms refer to more than a single individual.'* 
To these denominations, also, Bishop Forbes s adds the names Begha, 
Begagh and Bez. 

St. Bega is commemorated in the Aberdeen Breviary, 6 in the Anglican 
Martyrology of John Wilson, 7 and by Thomas Dempster, in his Scottish 
Menology. 8 At the 6th of September, the Bollandists have published the 
Acts of St. Bega, Abbess,^ taken from the Proper Lessons IO of the Breviary 
of Aberdeen, 11 in Scotland. To these they have prefixed a previous com- 
mentary, 12 and added notes. *3 She is also commemorated by Dean Cressy, 14 
by Mabillon/s and by Bishop Challoner. 16 Some brief notices of her may be 
found in the learned and valuable work of the Rev. Alban Butler. 1 ? In the 
First Volume of Lives of the English Saints, a Life of St. Bega is to be 
found. 18 At the 6th of September, in the Petits Bollandistes, 1 ? there is a 
commemoration of St. Beges, Bees, Vdgue or V£e, an Irish virgin. The Acts 
of St. Bega, in English and Latin, have been published by G. C. Tomlinson, 
F.S.A., at Carlisle, in 1842. 2 ° This is a very elegantly compiled work, and 
of small compass. The English Life, 21 a free version of the Latin Acts " 
which follow, is annotated, with an Appendix closing the volume. The 
ancient writer appears to have lived in the twelfth or thirteenth century, and 
although too far removed in point of time from the age of St. Bega to have 
had a very accurate account of biographical incidents regarding her, a 3 still 
the narrative he gives of miracles nearer his own era is made all the more 

4 Among these is Castellanus, who in his 
Universal Martyrology has a commemoration 
at the 6th of September for St. Bega, an 
Irish Virgin, and Patroness of the Kingdom 
of Norway, near Egremond, in the County 
of Cumberland, England ; while, at the 
31st of October, he notices St. Bega, Virgin, 
in the County of Northumberland, and in a 
marginal note, he observes, that she is to be 
distinguished from the St. Bega of Egre- 

5 See " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," p. 

6 The lessons referring to our saint in this 
Breviary are evidently taken from the Vita 
S. Begse, contained in the Cottonian Manu- 
script, Faust. B. iv. 

7 Published a.d. 1608. 

8 There he absurdly introduces a pure 
fiction of his own, and writes, " Bega virginis 
magnorum operum, quae Norvegiam labo- 
ribus suis Christo lucrata dicitur, unde 
Norvegia, quasi Norbegia." — Bishop Forbes' 
"Kalendars of Scottish Saints," p. 210. 

9 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Sep- 
tembris vi. De Sancta Bega Abbatissa in 
Cumbria, Anglise Provincia, pp. 694 to 700. 

10 The I., 11., in., vii., viii., ix. 

11 Printed in Edinburgh, A.D. 1509. In 
it, at the 31st of October, an Office of Nine 
Lessons, for St. Bega, Virgin, and St. Quin- 
tin, Martyr, is proposed for recitation. The 
three first, and three last, refer to St. Bega ; 
the iv., V. and VI. relate to St. Quintin. To 
this office is attached a prayer : " Deus, qui 
cunctarum virginum castitatis es custos, 
beatce virginis tuce Beghre precibus aures pro 

nobis supplicantis tuas conferre dignare et 
tibi fideliter servientibus omnem extingue 
libidinis flammam. Per Dominum, &c. 

12 In 2 sections, and 24 paragraphs. 

13 The editor is Father Constantine Suys- 
ken, SJ. 

14 See " The Church-History of Brittany," 
part ii., book xv., chap xxi., p. 373. 

j s See "Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," 
tomus i., lib. xiv., sect, xxxix., pp. 435, 436. 

16 See " Memorials of Ancient British 
Piety," pp. 125, 126. 

*? See Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and 
other principal Saints," vol. ix., September 6. 

18 Written by Father Faber, in 1844, and 
before his conversion to the Catholic faith. 

19 See " Vies des Saints, " tome x., Jour vie 
de Septembre, p. 529. 

20 It is intituled, " The Life and Miracles 
of Sancta Bega, Patroness of the Priory of 
St. Bees, in the County of Cumberland." 
Written by a Monkish Historian. To which 
are appended a List of the St. Bees' Priors, 
and some Explanatory Notes : by G. C. 
Tomlinson, F.S.A., &c.,pp. i. toxii.,and I 
to 80, small 8vo. 

21 It is quoted afterwards as Tomlinson's 
" Life and Miracles of Sancta Bega." 

22 This has been taken from the Cottonian 
Manuscript, Faust. B. iv., beginning folio 
122 and ending folio 139. In the margin of 
folio 124, there is a rude sketch of a female 
bust, which is presumed to be intended for 
a representation of St. Bega. This MS. 
life is afterwards quoted as " Vita S. Begoe." 

23 By some it has been thought that the 
Legend of St. Bega has been composed from 


interesting, because of the historic lights it affords regarding social manners 
and customs now little known. Among those who have lately written 
about St. Bega or St. Bees may be enumerated Bishop Challoner, 2 * Le 
Comte de Montalembert, 25 Rev. S. Baring-Gould, 36 and the Rt. Rev. Patrick 
F. Moran, 2 ? D.D., Bishop of Ossory. 28 

This holy virgin, of a noble parentage, 5 ^ was born in Ireland. 3° According 
to the Legend of her life, St. Bega's father was a powerful king in Ireland.3 1 
He excelled the kings his predecessors in riches and glory. He served 
Christ, and therefore ruled the more happily. 3 2 His daughter Bega was 
early instructed in Mysteries of the Christian Faith, and discreetly she lived 
with a wisdom beyond her years. As she grew up, the more she increased in 
holiness. She is said to have flourished about the middle of the seventh 
century. From girlhood, Bega was remarkable for circumspection, being 
pure in thought, word and action. Notwithstanding her high station, she 
was humble, and imbued with a love for industry. She spent much time in 
study of the sacred writings, and when this exercise was remitted, her hands 
were exercised with the spindle and scissors, especially in weaving and 
fashioning beautiful textile fabrics and ornaments for the Church. With 
skilled and wonderful art, she interwove gems and gold through the sacred 
vestments. Levity and childish sports she disdained ; a hatred of vice and 
a love of virtue she sedulously cultivated ; contemning the world and its false 
pleasures, altogether she was devoted to pious meditation and religious 
practices. According to change of time and place, while living in a royal 
palace, sometimes she was richly clothed, as her parents would have it, 
although in true poverty of spirit, she wished for retirement from public gaze, 
where she could best commune with Christ. But, above all the daughters of 
that region in which she lived, Bega was beautiful in face and figure : so that 
she was greatly admired by the sons of princes and chiefs — foreign as well as 
native born — who desired to engage her in marriage, and who sent her 
bracelets, ear-rings, rings, robes woven with gold, ornaments and precious 
gifts. The poorer and middling class of people were likewise charmed 
with her courtesy and affability, especially as her charities were chiefly 
extended to them. 

While Bega advanced in years, she meditated much on the law of the 
Lord, and felt a most earnest resolve to lead a life of celibacy. She bound 
herself by vow, that she would not contract the bonds of marriage with any 
but her Heavenly Bridegroom. While determining thus, a man with comely 
face and a venerable habit appeared standing before her, and he seemed to 
know all her secret inclinations. He approved her design and highly 

portions of the Lives of Various Saints, who mencement of the seventh century. 

do not seem to be very dissimilar in name. 31 According to the " Annals of the Four 

24 See " Britannia Sancta," part ii., p. Masters," the Monarch of Ireland, Suibhne 
120. Meann, began to reign a.d. 6ii, and after a 

25 See " Les Moines d'Occident," tome v., term of thirteen years, he was succeeded in 
liv. xvii.,chap. i., sect, ii., pp. 262 to 267. the sovereignty by Domhnall, son of Aedh, 

26 See "Lives of the Saints," vol. ix., son of Ainmire, a.d. 624, and he died A.D. 
September 6, pp. 92 to 94. 639, after a reign of sixteen years. See Dr. 

27 At present Cardinal Archbishop of O'Donovan's edition, vol. i., pp. 236 to 257. 
Sydney, Australia. " This eulogy should favourably apply to 

28 See " Irish Saints in Great Britain," King Domhnall, who is said to have received 
chap, v., pp. 159 to 162. the Body of Christ every Sunday, and who, 

29 According to the English Martyrology. after a year passed in mortal sickness, died 

30 No clue to ascertain the exact year of St. " after the victory of penance." However, 
Bees' birth remains ; but, it seems to have there are no Irish records left, that make 
taken place a little before or at the com- him the father of Bega. 


commended her vow, admonishing her to clothe herself in a garment 
reaching down to her ancles. To confirm and strengthen her vow of celibacy, 
he discoursed with her on many subjects, and he gave her a bracelet, 33 having 
a sign of the holy cross clearly stamped on its surface. He then added : 
M Receive this mark of favour, sent to thee by the Lord God, since thou 
acknowledgest thyself to be ordained to His service, and that He has become 
thy bridegroom. Place it, therefore, as a token upon thy heart, and upon 
thine arm, that thou mayest admit no suitor but Him." Saying these words 
he disappeare 1 j but whether that person was an angel, or whether he was 
some saint, is held to be uncertain. Rendering manifold thanks, the virgin 
did as she had been taught, and almost ever afterwards bore that bracelet. 34 

Not consulting her own inclinations, her parents had resolved on giving 
her in marriage. A romantic story is told regarding a son of the King of 
Norvvay,35 and an illustrious youth, who had heard of her beauty and 
accomplishments. Having taken counsel with the nobles and friends of his 
country, it was resolved, that messengers should be sent to her father's court 
to ascertain the correctness of such reports, and if so, to interest themselves 
in obtaining the king's and his daughter's consent for a marriage, which 
should cement an union of hearts, with an alliance between their respective 
nations. s 6 Accordingly, they proceeded to Ireland, and soon found that fame 
had not exaggerated the personal attractions and virtues of Bega.37 Her 
father and his chieftains, on hearing the proposals made, judged favourably 
of them, and sending back suitable royal presents, he invited the young 
prince to visit Ireland in person. Having reported the successful commence- 
ment of their embassy, the royal suitor had vessels and mariners soon ready 
for the voyage. After a prosperous sail, they reached their destined port. 
The visitors were hospitably received by the king and his council, and the 
people had public rejoicings to welcome them. Soon after their arrival, a 
banquet had been prepared, in advance of the negotiation relative to the 
anticipated approaching nuptials. In accordance with the customs of that 
age, the drinking cups passed round among the guests, and in a state of 
ebriety, when the night was much spent, they all retired to rest. 38 

Meantime, the holy virgin was greatly disquieted and irresolute, as to how 
she might escape from the projected marriage, and difficulties beset her on 
every side. She knew not how to resist the wishes or command of her 
father, nor how to escape the intended nuptials. Still placing her trust in 

33 A somewhat similar incident is related time Harold Harrfagar united them under 
of St. Germanus, when he met the youthful his sway. He was born about a.d. 853 or 
St. Genevieve, passing by Nanterre, on his 854, and he lived to a.d. 931. There are said 
journey to Britain. Foreseeing what she to have been no fixed points of history in the 
would one day become, he blessed her, and North before his time. See "The Heims 
presented a piece of brass money, on which kringla ; or Chronicle of the Kings of Nor- 
he impressed a figure of the cross. He ad- way," translated from the Icelandic of Snorro 
monished her to wear it continually, as a Sturleson, with a preliminary Dissertation, 
memento of her religious engagement. by Samuel Laing, vol. i., Preliminary Dis- 
" Sainte Genevieve Patrone de Paris se sertation, chap, ii., p. 74. London, 1844. 8vo. 
faisoit gloire d'avoir eu notre Saint (scil. S. 36 No such incident is to be found in our 
Germain) pour maitre." — " Histoire Lite- Irish Annals. 

raire de la France," tome ii., p. 260. 3 ? In a.d. 620, about the period when 

34 Having given this account contained in St. Bees had been sought in marriage by a 
the text, the writer of her Latin acts states : Norwegian prince, Solvegia is said to have 
" Sed tamen quod per armillam illam crebra reigned, and to have been succeeded by 
miracula facta sint, et adhuc fiunt, satis est Eyskin Hardrade, A.D. 630. 
compertum."— " Vita S. Begse," p. 48. 38 This whole account savours much of 

3 5 Previous to a.d. 875, several petty that romance, with which several of the 
sovereignties were in Norway, and at that saints' acts abound 

ii2 LIVES OF 7 HE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

the Lord, she poured forth her soul in fervent prayer to the Son of God and 
to the Virgin, that she would deign to preserve her chastity, through which 
so many great saints had triumphed, and by which His own graces had been 
magnified. Therefore to His blessed keeping she commended her virginity, 
and sought His direction for her future guidance. In the silence of night, 
and when all were asleep in her parental mansion, St. Bega had a heavenly 
admonition, which urged her to seek in exile the destination to which she 
had been called. She heard a voice from heaven, and it directed her to 
leave her father's house, to go from kingdom to kingdom, and from Ireland 
to Britain, where her days were to end, when she should be taken into the 
fellowship of angels. It was added : " Arise, therefore, and take the 
bracelet by which thou art pledged to me, and descending to the sea, thou 
shalt find a ship ready prepared, and which shall transport thee into Britain. "39 

She obeyed the Divine monition, and resolved to remove clandestinely 
from her parents and their home. At that moment, not alone the inmates 
of the castle were asleep, but even the outer guards who were appointed to 
keep watch, and " the key of David, at the touch of the bracelet, opened all 
the doors to the beautiful virgin going forth." Directing her course to the 
seashore, and coming to a port, she found a ship destined for her departure.* 

St. Bega or Beia thus left her worldly friends and native country, for the 
sake of her Heavenly Spouse. She passed over to Britain,* 1 with favouring 
winds and a prosperous voyage, which she obtained through prayer.* 2 She 
had heard, that the faith of Christ was being propagated in the province of 
Northumbria, owing to the zealous ministrations of its Apostle, the holy 
Bishop Aiden.*3 She resolved on leading an anchoretical life, and for this 
purpose, she sought the shores of Anglia, and landed in Cumbria,** in the 
province called Copeland, 4 ^ and settled on the coast in the western division 
of Cumberland.* 6 Having disembarked, she explored the maritime district, 
which she found covered with dense woods, and very suitable for a solitary 
habitation. Desirous of devoting herself to God alone, she constructed a 
cell, or perhaps appropriated to herself one of the caverns placed at a spot 
sufficiently woody, and near the seashore. There she passed many years in 
strict seclusion,*? conversing only with the Lord. There freed from all 
worldly cares and ambitious desires, she dwelt in peace, drawn to Him 
in the odour of His ointments, and altogether absorbed in His love.* 8 

39 See Tomlinson's " Life and Miracles of 43 See his Acts, in the Eighth Volume of 

Sancta Bega," pp. 6 to io. this Work, at the 31st August, Art. i. 

*° See her Acts, in the Aberdeen Breviary, 44 << Nomen ab incolis traxit, qui veri et 

l ect - *• Germani Britanni fuerunt et se sua lingua 

41 See Bishop Challoner's " Britannnia Kutnbri et Kambri indigitarunt"— William 

Sancta," part ii., p. 120. Camden's " Britannia,** p. 325. Editio 

** " When Bega sought of yore the Cum- Amstelodami, ANNO clD Idclix. fol. 

brian coast, *s See " Vita S. Begre," p. 53. William 

Tempestuous winds her holy errand Camden writes: " Cope land et Coupland 

crossed : dicitur, eo quod acuminatis montibus, quos 

She knelt in prayer — the waves their Kopa Britanni vocant, caput suum exerit, 

wrath appease ; vel, ut aliis placet Copdand quasi Copper- 

And, from her vow well weighed in land ob opulenta neris vena." — "Britannia," 

Heaven's decrees, p. 325. 

Rose, when she touched the strand, 46 See Rt< Rev# p atr i c k F. Moran's "Early 

the Chantry of St. Bees." Irish Missions," No. i., p. 17. 

— "Poetical Works of William Words- 47 The Aberdeen Breviary adds: "In 

worth," edited by William Knight, LL.D., jejuniis et vigiliis et orationibus continuis 

vol. vii. Stanzas suggested in a steamboat corpus suum castigando," lect. ii. 

off St. Bees' Heads, on the coast of Cumber- *s gee Tomlinson's " Life and Miracles of 

land, p. 343. St. Bega," p. 12. 

September 6.] LIVES 01* THK IRISH SAINTS. 


The monastery was situated in a narrow dell, with low and marshy lands 
towards the east ; while the west is exposed to storms from the Irish Channel. 
The site was about four miles from the present Whitehaven. 

From her the place was called St. Bega's or Bees/9 This is now a parish, 
comprising the town of Whitehaven, and the townships of St. Bees, Ennerdale, 
Eskdale, Wasdale-Head, Hensingham, Kinneyside, Lowside Quarter, Nether 
Wasdale, Preston Quarter, Rottington, Sandwith and Weddiker. The 
parish now extends for about ten miles along the coast, which in some places 
is rocky and precipitous. 50 The parish church is said to have been built on 
the site of that conventual church, belonging to the Monastery of St. Bega, 
or Begogh, an Irish female. The latter was founded about the year 650.5' 
The present church is cruciform, and has a strong tower of early Norman 
architecture ; the rest of the edifice is in the early English style.* 2 It is 

Copeland Priory, England. 

built of red free-stone, and it consists of a nave, transept, and chancel only, 
without side-aisles. The nave is used as the Protestant parish church, and 
the transept as a place of sepulture j the east end is unroofed and in ruins. 53 
The great west door seems a part of the founder's building : it is ornamented 
with grotesque heads and chevron mouldings. 54 The east end of the chancel, 
with three long narrow windows, enriched with double mouldings and 

4 * See Rt. Rev. Patrick F. Moran's " Early 
Irish Missions," No. i., p. 17. 

50 " A lighthouse erected in 1717, and 
subsequently destroyed by fire, was rebuilt 
in 1822, on a promontory called St. Bees' 
Head." — Samuel Lewis' "Topographical 
Dictionary of England," vol. i., p. 199. 

51 See Bishop Tanner's " Notitia Mon- 
astica," with additions by Rev. James 
Naswith, M.A. , Cumberland, ii. St. Bees'. 
Cambridge, 1787, fol. 

s * There is a beautiful copper- plate en- 

graving of the Priory of St. Bees, Cumber- 
land, N.W. view, presenting an ancient 
door-way, of a markedly Irish- Romanesque 
character in the " Monasticon Anglicanum," 
published originally in Latin by Sir William 
Dugdale, Kt. New edition by John Calev, 
Esq., F.R.S. ; Henry Ellis, LL.B. ; and the 
Rev. Bulkeley Bandinel, M . A., vol. iii. , p. 5 74. 

53 See ibid., p. 576. 

54 The accompanying illustration of this 
church has been drawn on the wool And 
engraved by Gregor Grey. 

ii 4 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

pilasters, is apparently of the thirteenth century. Considerable remains of 
monastic buildings are to be seen on the south side. 

There St. Bega lived, and became illustrious on account of the many 
miracles she wrought. Said to have been skilled in the use of herbs and 
simples, wonderful cures were effected by her in favour of those who sought 
that place of retreat. The holy virgin thus wished to soothe and comfort the 
afflicted. Moreover, tradition has it, that the sea-mews brought food from 
the ocean, and even the wolves abounding in that region crouched at her 
sainted feet and ceased to roar, becoming also purveyors of sustenance to 
the pious and solitary virgin. 55 About the period of St. Bega's arrival, the 
inhabitants who lived on the islands near Cumberland, held frequent inter- 
course with Ireland. 56 Many of them were originally Irish, while others took 
wives from our Island. 5 ? When she had lived there for a considerable time 
in justice and holiness, the shores»of that region were infested by pirates, who 
committed great depredations on the inhabitants. Feeling how lonely and 
unprotected she was, and how dissolute were the morals of such sea-rovers, 
Bega resolved to withdraw from their power, to preserve her honour and 
virtue from their assaults. Moreover, she was guided by a Divine monition 
to seek elsewhere a place for settlement. In leaving, however, she forgot to 
bring with her the bracelet, which remained there as a sacred relic, and 
which in after time was held in great popular estimation. 

At this time, the illustrious Christian king, St. Oswald, 58 ruled over the 
Kingdom of Northumbria. He was delighted to second all the efforts of St. 
Aidan in the promotion of religion throughout his dominions. To the latter, 
Bega directed her course, so that she might reveal to him the secrets of her 
heart, as also to seek his advice and direction for her future guidance. He 
enjoined her to doff the dress she had heretofore worn, and to assume the 
religious habit. With this advice she complied. She therefore received the 
habit and veil from St. Aidan. She was the first nun in Northumbria, according 
to the testimony of Venerable Bede, 5 9 and she established the first nunnery in 
Northumbria. It was consecrated by St. Aidan, and it is said to have been 
called Heriteseia, 60 which has been interpreted Hartlepool, 61 and in her Latin 
life " Insula Cervi." 62 This place was found to be in every respect suitable 
for a monastic institute, and it was asked from the religious King Oswald, 
through Bishop Aidan. Soon was she joined by a number of pious virgins, 
who desired to consecrate themselves to Christ under her direction. Even 
many left the conjugal state to embrace a life of seclusion, and several 

55 See Tomlinson's " Life and Miracles of city. It is situated on a bold and nearly 
Saint Bega, "p. 12, insulated promontory, which forms the 

56 See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the north horn of a fine bay. At present, its 
Fathers, Martyrs, and other Principal import and export trade is very considerable. 
Saints," vol. ix., September vi., note. Sec "Gazetteer of the World," vol. vi., 

57 Similar remarks are applicable to this pp, 821,822. 

English locality, even at the present day, 62 The Aberdeen Breviary calls it : "in 

s 8 He is honoured with a festival, on the insula quadam deserta," which the Bol- 

5th of August. See his Acts, in the Eighth landist editor states to have been the place 

Volume of this work, at that date, Art. ii. where the Monastery of Heorthensis had 

59 Called by him Heru, and the nunnery been founded ; although he wonders, why 
which she built is designated Heruteu. See it had been established on a desert island, 
"Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum," and adds, "an forte prima S. Begae cella, 
lib. iv., cap. xxiii. quam num. 13 Commentarii Camdenus 

60 See Tomlinson's " Life and Miracles of collocat in promontoriolo oceani, cum 
Sancta Bega," p. 14. Heorthensi confunditur, et quia in mare 

61 Now a sea-port and parish in the procurrebat, insula appellatur ? " — I-ect. iii., 
Palatine of Durham, 18 miles E.S.E. of that and n. (d). 


penitents were known to have visited her, and to have remained in her 
community . 6 3 

Over all these Bega presided with a mother's care and tenderness, and 
she acted the part of a servant rather than of a mistress ; by example rather 
than by precept, she enforced discipline and study. She ministered as a 
cook in the kitchen, and prepared food, which she served to the workmen. 
She taught her disciples to avoid idleness, and with them engaged in washing, 
making and mending the church vestments, and in supplying altar decora- 
tions. With such offices were combined fasts and vigils, the singing of 
psalms, hymns and canticles, the assiduous reading of the Sacred Scriptures 
and other books of devotion. Thus, she united the busy works of Martha 
with the contemplative life of Mary; she charmed all with her humility ; and 
she was an object of love and admiration to the Almighty and to her fellow- 
creatures. It pleased not only King Oswald, but also his successor, Oswin, 6 * 
to bestow gifts and possessions on St. Bega's Monastery. 



It is stated, that Heru, 1 having founded the Monastery of Heruteu, 3 wished 
to relinquish its government, and to seek elsewhere a place for her pious exer- 
cises. Heiu is also a name given to her, yet whether she is to be confounded 
with St. Begu or Bees has yet to be clearly determined. 3 The celebrated 
St. Hilda,* having resolved on a religious life, spent some time in the province 
of the East Angles. Thence she was called by Bishop Aidan, to found a 
monastery on the north side of the River Wire, and there she led a monastic 
life with very few companions. So charmed was St. Bees with her virtues 
and capacity for government, that she visited St. Aidan, and procured from 
him the favour of retiring from her own charge, and of devoting herself in 
subjection to the tranquillity of a contemplative life. 5 Hilda was then set 
over the monastery of Hereteu, while Heru left for the city of Calcaria, 6 

63 " Sic sponsa Christi quae in amore founded by Heru, identical with St. Bees, 
sponsi languebat, hujusmodi fulciri floribus See his "Church History of Brittany," 
stipari malis ardenter satagebat." — Vita S. part ii., book xv., chap, xxi., p. 373. 
Begse, p. 55. However, Leland makes them different, in 

64 He was king of Deira, the brother of his M De Rebus Britannicis Collectanea," 
St. Oswald, and he began to reign a.d. 642. tomus hi., p. 39. Both Leland and Camden 
He was slain in 651, by Oswio, the seventh think Heortu to have been Hartlepool. 
Bietwalda. After a reign of twenty-eight 3 See Le Comte de Montalembert, M Les 
vears, the latter died a.d. 670. See Lingard's Moines d'Occident," tome v., liv. xvii., 
" History of England," vol. i., chap, ii., chap, i., sect, ii., pp. 264, 265. 

pp. 93 to 103. 4 Her festival occurs on the 18th of 

Chapter ii. — ■ St. Bees, it is thought, November. See an account of her, at that 

has been alluded to under this name by date, in the Eleventh Volume of this 

Venerable Bede, and on his authority follows work. Other festivals have been assigned 

a similar statement in the Manuscript Latin her, at the 5th of March, and at the 25th of 

Life of that holy virgin. According to August. 

Alford and Suysken, she was also known as 5 See the Aberdeen Breviary, lect. vii. 

Heyne. 6 See Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S. 

2 Sometimes written Heorthu. Dean Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xiv., sect, xxxix., 

Cressy thinks this place to have been p. 435. 

1 6 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

called by the Angles Kalcacestir,? and there fixed her dwelling. 8 There, for 
many years, she passed a life of great perfection^ and her house was under 
the government of the Abbess Hilda. According to some writers, she 
retired to Tadcaster ; 10 yet, it is not certain, that such had been the place 
denoted in her Acts. Others state, that Newton Kyme" and Aberford" — 
both in Yorkshire — are the places to which reference has been made. Again, 
it has been stated, 1 * that St. Bees visited Beal, 1 * alias Beag Hall, a parish in 
the township of Killington, near Pontefract, x s in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire. 16 

Meanwhile, St. Hilda had been invited to found a noble monastery, at a 
place then known as Streneshalch, now called Whitby. Between the Abbess 
Hilda and Beghu a firm friendship and intimacy existed ; for although they 
severally lived a distance from each other, this did not prevent a frequent 
exchange of visits, which were mostly employed in consultations and 
conversations relating to the sanctification of their own and the souls of 
others. However, a mortal distemper had seized on the Abbess, and she 
bore with great resignation and patience this malady. Towards the close of 
her life, a St. Bega had visited a convent of nuns at some distance from her 
own. 1 ? According to Venerable Bede, this place of habitation was called 
Hacanos, now Hackness' 8 — about thirteen miles distant from Whitby — and 
it seems to have been founded by St. Hilda, the very year of her death, which 
happened A.D. 680. While Begu 1 ? slept in the dormitory of those sisters, 
suddenly she heard the well-known sound of a bell in the air, and which 
used to awake and call to prayers, when any of them had been taken out of 
the world. On awaking, she saw the top of the house to open, and a strong 
light to pour in from above. Then looking intently on that light, she beheld 
there the soul of St. Hilda, attended and conducted to Heaven by angels. 
After awaking, finding all the sisters lying around her, Begu perceived, that 
what she experienced had been either a dream or a vision. In a great fright, 
she arose and awoke Frigyth, a virgin who then presided in the nunnery, and 

I By some of the Saxons styled Hel- bridge, on the south side of the river Aire, 
cacester. See Samuel Lewis' "Topographical Dic- 

8 See Venerable Bede's " Historia Ecclesi- tionary of England," vol. i., p. 182 

astica Gentis Anglorum," lib. iv., cap. xxiii. ' 5 This considerable town appears to have 

9 Although Bede only states "ibique risen from the ruins of Legeolium, a Roman 
mansionem sibi instituit," yet, it is reason- station in the neighbourhood, now called 
able to suppose, that St. Bega had there a Castleford. By the Saxons it was known as 
cell or small nunnery, in which in solitude, Kirkby, and after the Conquest, it was 
or, with some nuns, she spent the rest of denominated Pontefrete by the Normans, 
her life. See ibid., vol. iii., pp. 587 to 589. 

10 Now a market-town and parish in the ,6 See Tomlinson's " Life and Miracles of 
West Riding of Yorkshire. It formed the Sancta Bega," pp. 17, 18 and notes. 
Roman station Calcaria, and so called, ' 7 According to Rev. Alban Butler, the 
because the soil abounded in calx, or lime- Bega, whom Venerable Bede places at 
stone. Roman coins have been here found, Hacanos upon the death of St. Hilda, and 
at different times. The town is situated on who then had served God in the monastic 
the navigable river Wharfe. See Samuel state for more than thirty years, seems to 
Lewis' "Topographical Dictionary of Eng- have been different from St. Bees, as St. 
land," vol. iv., pp. 294, 295. Aiden died one hundred years before her. 

II A parish, in the West Riding of York- See "Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and other 
shire, about two miles from Tadcaster, Principal Saints," vol. ix., September vi. 
towards the west. See ibid., vol. iii., p. 41 1. l8 Now a parish, in the Liberty of Whitby - 

" A parish, in the West Riding of York- Strand, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, 

shire. The town is built near the small The village is romantically situated in a 

river Cock. See ibid., vol. i., p. 4. valley, through which the Uerwent flows. 

13 By Strype, in his Life of Archbishop See Samuel Lewis' " Topographical Die- 

Grindall. tionary of England," vol. ii., p. 364, 

1 * It is four miles eastwards from Ferry- »9 According to some statements, Frigyth. 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 117 

who represented the Abbess. With many sighs and tears she announced, 
that the Abbess Hilda, the mother of them all, had departed this life, and 
that in her sight, with a great light and with angels accompanying, she had 
ascended to eternal bliss. Having heard such statement, Frigyth awoke the 
other sisters, and called them to the church, where she admonished them to 
pray and sing psalms for Hilda's happy repose. This they did during the 
remainder of that night. When morning came, the brothers arrived from 
Whitby with a message announcing her death. The nuns then related the 
vision, which had already assured it to them, and also at that very hour 
which the messengers had reported. Thus, adds Venerable Bcde, while 
some witnessed her departure out of this world, others became acquainted 
with her admittance into the spiritual and eternal life. 20 

According to the Legend of her Life, and to local tradition, St. Bega 21 
remained in that monastery of Acconos, 22 in which she had such a vision. 
We are told, the day of her death happened on that before the November 
Kalends. 2 3 There, too, it is said, she was interred. However, some suppose 
St. Bega had not been buried at Hackness, but rather at Calcaria, and that 
probably her remains had been removed to Heorthu for interment. 24 But 
the ravages of the Danes 25 effaced all recollection of the exact place of her 
sepulture. Four hundred and sixty years had elapsed after her decease, 
before it had been resolved to seek that spot in the cemetery of Hackness, 
so that her remains might be transferred to Whitby. 26 At length, in the 
twelfth century, having unearthed a sarcophagus, the workmen found 
engraved on its lid : " Hoc est sepulchrum Begu." Having removed that 
covering, they found within the tomb the dust of her sacred body, with the 
veil upon her skull almost whole. A most agreeable odour proceeded from 
the remains. Then a procession was formed, and with hymns and canticles, 
they were borne to Whitby, and reverently placed in a suitable position. 2 ? 
It is possible, that this Translation of St. Bega's relics may have taken place, 
on the 6th day of September. The holy Irish virgin is thought by many to 
have died at Calcaria, about the year 680. 28 Father Suysken places it 
after that year. 20 If, however, she had been identical with that virgin, 3° 

20 See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis translatum est in monasterio de Witbe in 
Anglorum," lib. iv., cap. xxiii. magno habetur pretio, languidis in praesens 

21 As already remarked, it seems not so sanitatem prsebens," lect. viii. 

probable, that she had been identical with *7 The writer of St. Bega's Life then 

the Irish St. Bega, the first nun in North- declares, that as he had not sufficient know- 

umberland. ledge of the miracles wrought and particulars 

22 Mabillon, who calls her ' ' Heru, alias of that tranlation, he should leave the task 
Bega," states " obiit apud Hacanos monas- of writing to those who were witnesses and 
terium virginum, tertio apud Scardoburgo who were present. But, the miracles per- 
millaria." — " Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," formed at Kirkebibeghoc (St. Bees), in 
tomus i., lib. xiv., sect, xxxix., pp. 435, 436. Coupland, where first she led a solitary life, 

23 See the Aberdeen Breviary, lect. viii. and where her memory was held in great 
The Bollandist editor is at a loss to know veneration by the people, he would attempt 
whence the compiler of those Lessons had to record for the instruction of posterity, 
his authority for such statement. However, and regarding which he had a more accurate 
it agrees with what is related in the Latin knowledge. See "Vita S. Begse," pp. 59, 
Manuscript " Vita S. Bega?." 60. 

34 Seethe Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," 28 See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the 

tomus ii., Septembris vi. De Sancta Bega Fathers, Martyrs and other Principal Saints," 

Abbatissa, Commentarius Praevius, sect. ii. , vol. ix., September vi. 

num. 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, pp. 697, 698. 3 » Or after the middle of the seventh 

<S See at a.d. 869, R. P. Michaelis Alfordi, century. See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

"Fides Regise Britannica, sive Annales Septembris vi. De Sancta Bega Abbatissa, 

Ecclesiae Britannicse," tomus iii. Commentarius Praevius, sect, i., num.24, 

26 The Aberdeen Breviary states, "quod p. 698. 

divinitus revelatum nunc digno cum honore 3o Called Frigyth by Venerable Bede. 

n8 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

who had a revelation regarding the death of St. Hilda, St. Bega must have 
survived beyond the year 680.3 1 She is said likewise, to have died, at St. 
Bees, and to have been buried in the Church of her own founding ;3* yet 
this statement is at variance with all her ancient Acts. 

The religious establishment, formed by Bega at St. Bees, was subse- 
quently destroyed by the Danes. 33 From remote times, and long popular 
among them, 34 the north-western inhabitants of England, used frequently 
resort to St. Bees as pilgrims. Many miracles were wrought through the 
Saint's intercession. After her death, as the Legend of her Life declares, 
that bracelet, which had been left at the place where she lived in solitude at 
Copeland, was preserved as a precious relic. This was held to be a 
guarantee for the peace preservation of that place. It was customary to 
swear on it in trial cases, and those who foreswore themselves, were believed 
to incur the heaviest penalty of perjury and come to a speedy death. It is 
related about a certain Galwaither, or native of Galloway,^ how his mother 
warned him, setting out on a predatory expedition towards Copeland, that he 
should not commit any theft or depredation on the land of St. Bees. This 
admonition he contemptuously rejected, 36 and joined by other freebooters, 
he took a horse from her territory, on which he was mounted, when certain 
young men, called together by the blowing of horns, pursued the robbers. 
The culprit in question was shot by an arrow, when he fell immediately from 
his horse and expired. This account soon spread throughout Galwathia, and 
thenceforward the people of that country feared to commit any offence 
against St. Bees' sanctuary, or to break the peace of her church. After 
the Norman conquest, William de Meschines, 3 ? Lord of Coupland, 38 
gave St. Bees to the monks of St. Mary, in York.39 There, too, 
the founder built a monastery for these religious men. 4° But, after- 
wards, certain envious persons persuaded him, that the monks had 
extended their possessions, and had unjustly encroached on his lands. 
This caused a dispute to arise, regarding the lawful bounds of their 
monastery. The monks were summoned to defend their cause, which they 
did by producing their title deeds. After much dispute, a day was named 
for a final decision. The monks betook themselves to prayer, meantime, 
and on the day appointed, a vast number of people assembled to learn what 
should be the result. Then was witnessed a most extraordinary spectacle. 

» This is the date assigned for the de- 36 See Le Comte de Montalembert, " Les 

parture of St. Hilda. Moines d'Occident," tome v., liv. xvii., 

32 See Bishop Challoner's "Britannia chap, i., sect, ii., pp. 266, 267. 

Sa " 3 C ?'"?, ar { 1 ii, 'f 12 °: „ Wf . t . M 37 According to the Legend of St. Bees' 

33 bee Bishop Tanners * Notitia Mon- Li f e , R anu i p h, surnamed Meschines, gave 
astica Cumberland, 11. St. Bees lhe town of Rirkebi-oth.rwise written 

<f, • ^ Cc i mte 5 . de Monta ! embert s Kirkby Begog, now St. Bees -with all its 
•'Moines d Occident tome v., hv. xvii., appurtenances and other things to" God and 

SV^' T e V lM 5. 5 ' f .1 ™ mi a the Blessed Vir g in > free 'y and Hberally to 

35 The Latin writers of the Middle Ages tne monks, 

called it Gallwallia and Gallovidia, from the , 8 •- . __ „ . n . - /, , . . 

Irish, who formerly occupied it, and who . 3 He is called Earl of Cumberland, and 

styled themselves Gael, in their own Ian- ^ , i'" u , T °, f "u^ 7 k Kl " g - °i 

guagc. In the tenth century, the Britons ^"fi '?? * dau - h f te u r ' who ! n * med r 

called it Galwydel, and in the Gaelic it was ^ il ! an \' son of Duncan ' of the r °y al lme of 

Gallgaedhel. Of late, a most learned and ^ coUand - 

interesting work, the " History of the Lands 39 See Bishop Challenor's "Britannia 

and their Owners in Galloway," has been Sancta," part ii., p. 120. 

written by P. H. McKerlie, F.S.A. Scot., in <° They were constituted as a Benedictine 

five 8vo volumes, Edinburgh, 1870 to 1879. prior and six monks. See Bishop Tanner's 

It is profusely illustrated with woodcuts of "Notitia Monastica," Cumberland, ii. St. 

notable localities and objects. Bees. 

September 6. J LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 119 

A deep snow* 1 fell and covered all the ground adjacent to the bounds, 
attached by the monks to the church of St. Bega, and for which they were 
contending, while within them not a single flake was visible.* 2 This was a 
matter of great rejoicing among the multitude who had assembled. 

Another remarkable miracle is related concerning certain horses 
belonging to a knight, named Godard.*3 They had trespassed on a field 
belonging to the monks, in which barley had been sown and reaped. But 
when the keepers of the horses were appealed to by one of the brotherhood 
to drive them out of the field, and to make good the damage done, he was 
derided by the foolish boys. Then said he, looking towards the Church of 
the Holy Patroness of St. Bees : " Oh, St. Bega, do justice to thy servants, 
suffering under injuries, and avenge us on those animals." Then a wonder- 
ful miracle was wrought; for the hoofs separated from the horses' feet. 
Among them was a steed, on which Godard, who was Castellan of Egre- 
mont, had set a special value. Moved by this incident, he gave the meadow, 
from which the horses broke loose, to the monastery of St. Bega, and he 
confirmed that grant in perpetuity by charter. 4 * 

A nobleman of England, named Walter de Spec,** instigated by the 
advice and importunity of Roger, his son and heir, went to law with the 
monks of St. Mary, York, respecting certain lands, which had been claimed 
in right of their monastery. He was one of the chief barons of the King ; 
and on that account, the judges appointed to try the case were his unjust 
partisans.* 6 Still was it necessary to swear witnesses on the trial. How- 
ever, the monks had a concession from the Supreme Pontiff, that in any 
question touching their rights, the adversary should be obliged to swear on 
any of St. Bega's relics, which the monks of her church were inclined to 
prefer. Wherefore, her bracelet was produced, and Walter perjured 
himself, in the judgment of impartial and learned persons, through the 
allegations he made. To him was then awarded that possession, which of 
right belonged to the church. However, only a short time elapsed after the 
trial, when rejoicing at the result, and returning home with their friends, 
his son Roger, who had instigated Walter to commit perjury, fell with a 
restive horse on the earth, when both horse and rider were killed. Grieving 
for the loss of his son, William deemed it a punishment that had been 
inflicted for his crime. In atonement and becoming penitent, Walter 
restored that land unjustly taken from the monastery, in perpetual alms. 

41 Alluding to St. Bega, William Camden vol. iii. Cartae ad St. Begae Coenobium in 
writes : " Cujus sanctitate miiacula adscri- Agro Cumbrensi, Ceilam Sanctae Mariae 
buntur de tauro cicurato, copiosissima nive, Eboraci, spectantes, num. iii. iv. , v., vi., 
quae Solstitiali die, ilia precante, valles et pp. 577. 578. 

montium summitates alte intexerat." — 44 The account thus concludes : 4 * Ungula: 

u Britannia," p. 325. vero ordeo plenae ad ecclesiam sanctae vir- 

42 The old chronicler concludes the account ginis sunt deportatae, et ad judicium et testi- 
in these words : " Stupent igitur qui con- monium miraculi hujus diebus multis ibidem 
venerant ad tarn stupendum miraculum ; reservatae. Ut licet omnes fere patriot* 
laudes efferunt in ccelum ; omniumque illud signum insigne praedicent et clamant, 
judicio et favore remanserunt termini terri- specialiter tamen illud protestantur pratum 
torii ecclesioe sanctae Begae usque in presens, ecclesiae collatum quod monachi in present i 
sicut eos designaverat descriptum celeste possident, et carta inde facta quam habent," 
prodigium." — " Vita et Miracula S. Begae," — "Vita S. Begae," p. 67. 

p. 65. 4 s He fought under William le Gros, Earl 

43 This Godardus is witness to the founda- of Albemarl and Holderness, in the battle of 
tion of St. Bees' Priory, as also to other the Standard, a.d. 1 138. Some accounts 
early grants. He appears to have given give him the command. See Young's 
Whittingham and Bothale parish churches, " History of Whitby," p. 95. 

and their respective tithes, to the Priory of 4<5 The old chronicler has it " judices 

St. Bees. See " Monasticum Anglicanum," parti impire propitios, et injusta proclives." 


This he confirmed by a charter, Thenceforward, he endeavoured to make 
satisfaction for his past transgressions. Having lost his son and heir, he 
now resolved to dispose of his possessions for the service of Almighty God. 
He founded two splendid monasteries for monks of the Cistercian Order — 
one at Rievaulx, 4 ? in the North Riding of the County of York, and another 
at Wardeu,* 8 in the County of Bedford. He founded a third for Canons at 
Kirkham,49 a small extra-parochial township, near Malton, in the East 
Riding of Yorkshire. The rest of his days were spent in doing good. 

A custom had existed from time immemorial, between those who 
governed the territory of Copeland and the people there, that oxen should 
be taxed by the lords ;5° but, in many cases, men were sued and adjudged 
to pay more than they ought, and when long contested, it was at length 
settled, that the case should be tried by the oaths of certain persons. A man 
of respectability, named Adam, the son of Ailsus, was deemed to be an 
impartial lover and a follower of truth. By agreement on the side of 
plaintiffs and defendants, he was appointed umpire, to state upon oath, what 
had been the custom from olden times, to regulate cases between the lords 
and their tenants. The bracelet ot St. Bees was procured, and touching it, 
Adam foreswore, that the lords had only demanded what was just, while the 
people should render it by ancient custom. By such perjury, he conferred 
a great gain on the nobles, while he inflicted a great injury on the poorer 
people. However, he was visibly punished soon afterwards, having lost his 
senses, and becoming a furious maniac for nine whole years. Although 
unwilling and resisting, his friends brought him by force the tenth year to 
the Church of the Virgin. There they watched and prayed to St. Bees for 
a considerable time. Meanwhile, the maniac fell into a placid trance. 
Awakening from sleep, his senses were restored, and having come to himself 
he shed tears in abundance, giving thanks to God and St. Bega for his 
restoration. For the rest of his life he was freed from that sad condition, 
and continually repented of his perjury, frequently confessing to the people, 
how he had so grievously sinned. s 1 

A precious covering for the bracelet had been presented by a pious 
woman. At a time when the relic was exposed in public, a perverse man 
sought his opportunity, and stole the precious cloth, which he thought to 
have concealed in his boot. This caused great excitement, as when sought 
for, the cover could not be found. However, the leg of that thief, who had 
stolen it, contracted to such a degree, that it became completely paralysed. 
This obliged him to reveal his crime before all, and restore the coverlet to 
its proper place. He was then carried to the Church of St. Bega, and with 
lighted torches, the whole night was there spent by himself and friends in 
prayer to the holy virgin. She was ever merciful to the prayers of the 
penitent, and that man's lirnb was restored to its former soundness. The 
people who knew of it gave praise to God, who had glorified his saint by 
such a manifest sign. 

47 This Abbey was founded A. i>. 113 1. Latin is interpreted Persoliitio Bourn, in 

48 Otherwise called De Sartis Abbey. It English, a Tribute of Oxen. William, Ear] 
was founded A.D. 1135. It was furnished of Albemarle, appears to have claimed this 
with monks from the then recently estab- tribute in the district of Copeland, and out 
lished Abbey at Rievaulx. of the returns, he gave six cattle to the 

49 This Priory for Augustine Friars was monks of St. Bees. 

founded A.D. 1121. It was situated in a »' The chronicler adds: "nee tamen 

vale, on the east bank of the Derwent. ejus confessio, licet publica, plebem potuit 

50 In the Anglo-Saxon language, this absolveie ab imposit^ pensionis gravi 
custom was known as Neutgeld, which in jugo.'' 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 12 

At Workington,5 3 a town in Copeland, near the Derwent, three men were 
returning home from a booth on a certain Sunday. They had their daily 
potation, and a quarrel arose among them. From angry words they came 
to blows, and those three, setting on a fourth person, dragged him to a little 
house, designated a torrel, 53 where holding him down with their hands about 
his throat, they strangled or smothered him. This villainy being soon 
discovered, the villagers flocked from all parts, but taking away the dead 
body, they found no wounds upon it. According to their custom there, 
they sounded horns to raise the alarm, and all collected to seize the 
culprits. These were captured, bound and led by officials, appointed for 
such occasions, to the Castle of Egremont, in which they were committed to 
prison. Their dungeon was dark and filthy; they were bound with fetters, 
and in daily expectation of being condemned to death, when overpowered 
by the misery of their situation, humbling their souls before the Lord, and 
with falling tears, they often invoked St. Bega to effect their liberation. 
When they had thus prayed daily, and with great contrition of soul, a vener- 
able and beautiful female apparition addressed them in these words : 
" Looking, I saw your affliction, and I heard your groans in the darkness 
and shadow of death, and I have come to free you." They replied : " Who 
art thou, lady, who cometh to visit us unworthy sinners ? " She replied : 
u I am the servant of Christ, Bega, whom you have diligently called upon 
in the day of your trouble ; I will wholly release you and free your lives from 
the hands of those who complain against you. Arise, go forth and come 
after me in safety ; I will bring you to my asylum." Giving thanks, and 
finding their chains loosed, they followed her without molestation from the 
keepers, and came to the domain of St. Bega. When they approached her 
Church, their fetters snapped asunder, and the vision of the walking saint 
vanished. Being thus free, with hurried steps they entered that sacred 
edifice, and poured forth their souls in praise and thanksgiving. There, too, 
in testimony of their liberation, they left their fetters, as a memorial and 
offering to God and to St. Bega. 

A certain wicked man, named John, having vainly endeavoured to seduce 
Beatrice, the wife of William, surnamed the Hare, at length took occasion 
with a confederate to carry her off by force on a festival day, held on the 
Sabbath before Pentecost. 54 Returning home with her mother, and after 
the usual devotions were over, the ruffians seized on Beatrice, bore her on a 

52 This is now a sea-port town, and the tuted to honour St. Bega, as the writer of 
head of a parish in the West Division of her Life and Miracles states : " homines illius 
Cumberland. The monks of St. Bees, by terrse ob quaedam insignia sanctitatis sanctse 
charter of Ranulf Meschines, possessed a yirginis tunc illic inventa, et signa ibidem 
mill at this place. The town is situated on perpetrata solent solempnizare ; et ecclesiam 
the south bank of the Derwent, and near its illius visitando orationum et oblationum 
influx to the sea. After her escape from the hostiis honorare." There can hardly be a 
field of Langside, Maiy Queen of Scots doubt, that Whitsuntide, and probably 
landed here in 1568, and sought an asylum in Christmas and Easter, were formerly seasons 
Workington Hall. The Curwens hospitably when the faithful frequented the church of 
entertained her, and the room in which she St. Bees in great numbers. It seems, that 
slept is still known as the Queen's Chamber. among the Anglicans, communicants still 
Afterwards, Queen Elizabeth gave directions resort to the church of St. Bees, at the 
for her removal to Carlisle Castle. festival of Easter, and they come from con- 

53 This term applies to " a kiln." In the siderable distances, when their Eucharist is 
" Leges Burgaium Scoticorum," there is administered so early as eight o'clock in the 
allusion to it as " ane kill ghair comes are morning. Then the village presents an 
dryed." That torrel, the scene of this unwonted appearance from the influx of 
homicide, was undoubtedly connected with visitors. See G. C. Tomlinson's " Life and 
(lie monks' mill at Workington. Miracles of Sancta Bega," p. 73, and 

54 This was evidently some festival insti- appendix, note, p. 80. 

122 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

horse ready prepared, outraged, and carried her away. She could not resist 
by struggling, but calling upon the protection of God and St. Bega, she pro- 
hibited the ruffians from doing her violence. Meanwhile the mother of 
Beatrice quickly raised the alarm with loud cries and lamentations. The 
brothers of the ill-used woman heard of this transaction, and quickly 
arming themselves, set out in pursuit of the fugitives. The accomplice was 
soon seized, and the woman's brothers cut off his head. The chief mis- 
creant, flying for his life, concealed himself in a thick wood. But, he could 
not escape the wrath of the Almighty. An evil spirit seized upon him, and 
ceased not to worry him, even to the close of his miserable existence. He 
wandered about a vagabond and an outlaw through various parts ; his clothes 
hung about him in rags, and his flesh was torn off piecemeal among the 
thickets and briars. A pitiable spectacle he became ; at length he died, and 
his body was interred at Holm Cultram," in Cumberland. 

Another miracle is recorded, regarding a native of Chartres, in France, 
and who, having had a vision to encourage him, brought two sons to Eng- 
land. One of them was a paralytic and dumb from his birth ; while the 
other was afflicted with a fistula. 56 In a sort of small cart, which the father 
drew after him, both boys were placed, and brought through the land to 
divers saints' shrines. Having reached Tynemouth, in the north of 
England, the poor man was excessively wearied. In despair, he was about 
to return and seek his own country, when a beautiful person appeared in a 
night-vision, and directed him to visit the Church of St. Bega, in Copeland. 
Accordingly he went thither, and passed the night in her church. When 
the morning brightened into day, the elder son, palsied and dumb, felt a 
glorified virgin touch him j when suddenly, and with renewed strength, he 
stood upright, and for the first time his tongue was loosed, to give utterance 
to a few words in his native Gallic tongue, and even he spoke in English, to 
him a foreign language. He then went to the altar, returning thanks with 
all who were present to God and to St. Bega. In the next place, vigils and 
prayers for the younger son were continued. After some time, the fistula 
disappeared, the boy being restored to perfect health and vigour. Again 
were the praises of God and His holy servant Bega proclaimed. After some 
days had elapsed, that pious father, with his two sons, returned to France, 
leaving the little car which had brought them to St. Bees in the place, and 
as a testimony of that remarkable miracle.57 

St. Bega is thought to have founded a nunnery in the territory of Coup- 
land, near Carlisle. There, also, she is said to have erected a small church. s 8 
This appears to have been no other than St. Bees, her chiefest foundation, 
and it lay within the kingdom of Strathclyde.^ Moreover, in the " Monasticon 
Anglicanum," compiled by Roger Dodsworth and Sir William Dugdale, 
St. Bega is stated to have founded four monasteries. 60 However, there seems 
to be no certainty that she founded more than three, viz. : those of Copeland, 
Heorthu, and Hartlepool. 61 During an incursion from Scotland in 1315, 

55 A Cistercian abbey had been founded 57 See Tomlinson's " Life and Miracles of 

here by Henry, son to David, king of Scot- Sancta Bega," pp. 40 to 43. 

land, a.d. 1 150, according to Dugdale's 5» See Bishop Challenor's "Britannia 

"Monasticon Anglicanum," vol. v., p. 593. Sancta," part ii., p. 120. 

New edition. However, from an old MS., 59 According to Bishop Forbes, this 

Leland has " Alanus, films Waldeff primus foundation took place in 656. See 

fuit fundator." — " De Rebus Britannicis "Kalendars of Scottish Saints," p. 278. 

Collectanea," vol. i., p. 38. 6o See tomus i., p. 395. 

s 6 This miracle is alluded to, in the Ninth 6l See " Les Fetits Hollandistes, " Vies des 

Lesson of the Saint's Office, as contained in Saints," vol. x., Jour vi e Saptembre, p. 

the Aberdeen Breviary. 529. 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 123 

the church and possessions of St. Bees sustained considerable injury. 62 This 
account has been left in Manuscript,^ by an unknown monk of St. Mary's 
Monastery, at York. 

At the 6th of September, St. Bega is venerated, according to the 
11 Martyrologium Anglicanum" of John Wilson, 6 * Ferrarius, 6 s Arthurus, 66 and 
Wion. 6 ? In the anonymous Calendar of Irish Saints, 68 St. Bega is mentioned 
at the same day. She is likewise commemorated in the Circle of -the 
Seasons, at this date/9 If we are to credit Dempster's statement^ St. Bega 
was venerated in Scotland, on this day, and at a place called Kilbeg. Also 
is she commemorated by David Camerarius,? 1 at the 8th September. In 
Scotland, she was honoured at Kilbucho,? 2 and at Kilbagie.73 There is a 
glebe likewise at Kilbegie ;?4 and probably Kilbagie, 75 in Clackmannan is 
named after her. Throughout England and Scotland, also, a feast has been 
assigned to St. Bees, on the 31st of October.? 6 This is the date given for 
her chief festival, in the Breviary of Aberdeen, and also by Greven, in his 
additions to Usuard. Under the name of St. Bees, it is said that she was 
likewise honoured on the 22nd of November.77 Again, Gabriel Bucelin? 8 
has referred her feast to the 28th of December. Besides the Natalis for her 
death — generally supposed to have been the 31st of October — the foregoing 
festivals must have reference to the translation of her relics, or to some 
special commemoration intended to increase popular devotion for her. Yet, 
perhaps it is more probable, especially in latter times, that some errors of 
date may have crept into the kalendars, or some confusion of correct identi- 
fication has probably occurred. 

Assuming a gifted Irish pilgrim's visit to the Shrine of St. Bees, and 
enquiries there made, to be incidents of real life,?9 it would appear, that the 
natives of Cumberland, in the present century, know little regarding this 
stranger virgin, who had once been held by their ancestors in distinguished 
honour. 80 It was otherwise in those middle ages, when the chronicler of her 
fame and miracles could only relate what was most clear, coming from the 
evidence of many Cumbrians, and what most deserved belief. There could 

62 Anno Di. 1315. Robertus Brus obsi- 73 See Statistical Account of Scotland," 

debat Carleolum. Quo tempore Jacobus vol. viii., p. 605, and vol xiv., p. 623. 

Duglas multa mala fecit apud Egremont, et 74 See " Origines Parochiales Scotia," 

spoliavit eccl. S. Begae, ac maneria de part ii., p. 822. 

Cletter et Stainebume prions S. Begoe 75 See "New Statistical Account of Scot- 

combusserunt." — Leland, " De Rebus land " vol viii pp 3 128 

Br i!T f ni fi^?nll e H tane ^n° me A i M P ;K 4, > 76See Rt - " Rev - ' Patri ' ck F - Koran's 

K<Z^^L™ ^ AbbatlbuSCt "In* Saints in Great Britain," chap v., 

6 <t Edition of 1608. 

p. 160. 

*-> In « Catalogus Generalis Sanctorum. " Jl {^ t0 S5. f ? ngli ? A Mart y rol °gy 

66 In Sacro Gynoeceo. of John Wllson ' Edltlon of l6 4°- 

6 7 In " Lignum Vita," lib. iii. Appendix. 1% In the " Menologium Benedictinum." 

68 Published by O'Sullivan Beare, in 79 See the verses headed " Saint Bees," 
" Historise Catholics Ibernice Com- m the admirably edited Poems of Thomas 
pendium," tomus i., lib iv., cap. xi., p. ci. D'Arcy M'Gee, with copious notes. Also 

°' See p. 250. an Introduction and Biographical Sketch, 

70 See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of bv Ml 's- J. Sadlier, — "Historical and 

Scottish Saints," Menologium Scoticum, Legendary Poems," pp. 360, 361, New 

p. 210. York, 1869, 8vo. 

7' See ibid. Scottish Entries in the 8o He says :— 
Kalendar of David Camerarius, p. 240. 

7* See Chalmers' " Caledonia," vol. ii., p. " I stood within the fontless porch, 

958; "Statistical Account of Scotland," I paced the empty nave, 

vol. iv., p. 344 ; and " Origines Parochiales The very verger of the church 

Scotiae, ' part 1.. p. 177. A false tradition gave."— Ibid. 

i2 4 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

be no end to his narrative, states the compiler of her Acts, were all such 
signs of her sanctity and miracles to be written, regarding the Virgin Bega, 
who now reigns in endless glory, and with Him, who is infinite and eternal. 





While abundant light has been thrown on the incidents of modern 
history, as also on the life and actions of celebrated characters who have 
lived in our own times, owing to the issue of printed works, and the recorded 
memoranda or correspondence of contemporaneous writers ; far different are 
the old manuscript memorials of doubtful authenticity, or whose authors and 
sources for information are not sufficiently accredited, when we seek to establish 
facts relating to many of our old-world saints. Such, it must be admitted, 
is often the case, with regard to acts, conveying to us the most remote 
traditions, in reference to the present holy man. The only ancient authority 
for his life is, unfortunately, not altogether trustworthy. This is a memoir, 
which it is stated had been written by his companion and disciple Theodore, 1 
and who laid it under the abbot's head, when he had been buried. Then 
the account runs, that when the body was disinterred, and on the stone 
coffin being opened, in the ninth century, the book had been taken out, and 
when greatly decayed by age, it was delivered to Ermenric, of Elwangen, 2 to 
re-edit. However, it is supposed — at least in great part — to have been a 
forgery of the tenth or twelfth century.3 This Life is made up of long 
extracts from Jonas, the monk of Bobbio, who wrote the Acts of St. 
Columban, and from Walafridus Strabo,* who wrote the Acts of St. Gall. 
Events related of others are transferred to Magnoald.s Where the composer 
of this Life had genuine lives to manipulate, and convert to a memoir of St. 
Magnoald, his book is interesting ; but, when he brings the abbot to that 
ground where his abbey had been founded, and for which the lives of St. 
Columban and St. Gall furnished no data, frequently he lapses into foolish 

Article ii. — Chapter i. — ' Called by cujusdam impostoris." 

Latin writers, Theodorus Campedonensis, * Pere Charles le Cointe holds the writer 

from the place where he passed a part of his to have been a synchronus of St. Magnus, 

life as an abbot. He was a monk of St. and to have thus flourished prior to 

Gall and of St. Magnus. It is stated, that Walafridus Strabo. See "Annates Eccle- 

by command of Bishop Tozzo, he wrote the siastici Francorum," tomus ii., at A.D. 

lifeof his master, St. Magnus. He flourished 614. 

A.D. 680. See Rev. Dr. William Cave's s Thus, the incidents told of St. Cagnoald, 

" Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Historia Bishop of Laon, who flourished in the seventh 

Literaria," volumen i. Sseculum Monothe- century, are related verbatim of Magnoald, 

leticum, p. 595. the writer only changing the letter C into 

2 He died a.d. 866. M. See Benkert's " Athanasia," vol. xi. 

3 Thus Basnage states : " Nee Theodori Kritische Priifung d, Lebensgesch der Heil. 
nee Ermenrici illud est opusculum, sed Magnus, p. 414. Wurzburg, 1832. 



legend. 6 This scepticism about the bona fides of Theodore's Acts has been 
drawn in a great measure from an opinion of the learned Father Mabillon, 
that they were composed by some impostor i under such a shadowy title. 
This, however, is too sweeping a charge, and it seems far more probable that 
the writer's errors are owing to ignorance rather than to deliberate forgery. 
The Bollandists have very fully treated about St. Magnoaldus, or Magnus, 
at the 6th of September. 8 There is a previous commentary,9 and then 
follows the unauthentic life of the saint, 10 attributed to the monk Theodore, 
of Kempten, as taken from a manuscript " of St. Maximinus of Treves. 
Afterwards succeeds an account of miracles, 12 attributed to the saint's inter- 
cession.^ This holy abbot's Acts have been edited by Father Constantine 
Suysken, S.J., who has laboured much to investigate or unravel the obscure 
and often contradictory materials that are left for enquiry. In the first 
place the original life, as stated, if written by Theodorus, 14 and buried with 
the saint, was almost defaced and scarcely legible, when discovered in the 
ninth century, and at present it is not known to exist. Again, by four 
persons, that copy is said to have been given to a certain Ermenric, 1 ^ a 
monk and levite of Elewanga, to revise and restore. Neither is that 
particular manuscript to be found, and we know not if the task committed to 
him had been reliably executed. But, in the third place, that same work 
appears to have fallen into other hands ; l6 while in the process of emendation, 
the Acts of St. Magnus have become vitiated, in point of historic accuracy — 
whether through ignorance or fraud remains to be solved. When and where 

6 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of 
the Saints," vol. ix., September 6, p. 94. 

7 He adds : " Qui Magnum appellat 
Magnoaldum, ut Chagnoaldi sancti Colum- 
bani discipuli facta personato suo M agnoaldo 
affingat. Non immoror fabulis illius impos- 
toris observandis, quas in actis sanctorum 
nostrorum manifeste detexi. Nihil itaque 
certi sive de Magno, sive de Theodoro nobis 
succurrit, nisi quod eos non Columbani, sed 
Galli discipulos, non Scotto-Hibernos, sed 
Alamanos fuisse constat ex Walafiido 
Strabone, qui eos Willimari presbyteri 
clericos extitisse ait, antequam in sancti 
Galli disciplinam cooptarentur." — " Annales 
Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xiii., 
sect, xxxiii., p. 393. 

8 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Sep- 
tembris vi. De Sancto Magno Monasterii 
Faucensis, Abbate Primo Fussse in Sueria, 
pp. 700 to 78 x. 

9 In thirteen sections, and one hundred 
and seventy-five paragraphs. 

10 In eight chapters, and seventy-eight 
paragraphs, with accompanying notes. 

11 Collated with the editions of Henricus 
Canisius and of Melchior Goldast, together 
with six other manuscripts- 

12 Miracula auctore P. Ludovico Babens- 
tuber Benedictino Ettalensi. 

13 These miracles are contained in seven 
chapters, and in one hundred and fifty-six 
paragraphs, with illustrative notes. 

M Said to have been a monk or eremite of 
Campidonum or Kempten. This Theodore 
is represented as the companion, or rather 

disciple, of St. Magnus in his apostolic 
labours, to have been witness of nearly all 
the miracles he relates, and to have been a 
friend, at the hour of his death. 

15 By some, he is also named Ermenold, 
who lived in the time of the Blessed Raban 
Maur, whose life may be found in the 
second volume of this work, at the 4th of 
February, Art. iv. Ermenric became the 
seventh Abbot of the monastery of Elewan- 
gen, in the diocese of Augustana, a.d. 845, 
according to Mabillon. In his epistles to 
Gundramnus and Ruodolfus, he speaks very 
modestly of his abilities. " An vero S. 
Magni Vitam, qualis typis edita est exara- 
verit, certo pronunciare non licet." "Acta 
Sanctorum Ordinis S. Benedicti," ssec. ii. 

16 The third revisor or interpolator, in 
reference to Ermenric, states, that the latter, 
compelled by obedience, and not willing to 
contemn the order of a pontiff, undertook 
the patch-work, according to the best of his 
ability, although little learned to amend and 
insert what should be proper. However, he 
accomplished the task, through Divine 
assistance, renewing the writing and correct- 
ing what he found in a confused state, and 
making the text clearer by means of chapters. 
To his emendations or possibly corruptions 
of the original text, Father Suysken justly 
objects, and naturally preferred he had 
assumed only the role of amanuensis, and not 
that of interpolator. The Bollandist editor 
adds: "utinam, inquam, ipsa Theodori 
verba, confusa utcumque gestorum serie, 
integre fideliterque posteritate tradidisset." 



the errors have crept in cannot well be determined j 1 ? but, a suspicion remains, 
that many of the mis-statements occurring are attributed to a compiler of the 
eleventh century,' 8 who appears to have had access to the Acts of St. 
Magnus, said to have been written by the monk, Theodore, and restored by 
Ermenric. Under such specious mask, not a few have been deceived, who 
imagined that the Acts still preserved must have had their origin on a 
respectable and trustworthy ancient authority. J 9 Of the later interpolated 
Acts, various manuscript copies have reached our time, and some of these 
have been already printed. In the Bollandist Library there were various 
copies. Among these were four distinct ones, 20 taken from a Manuscript 
Vita S. Magni, belonging to the Library of St. Maximinius of Treves. This 
latter the Bollandist editor selected as a text for publication. 21 Besides 
these, the Jesuit Father Gamans had formerly sent a double copy ; one 
taken from the library of Saints Udalric 22 and Afra, 2 3 Augsburg, and the 
other from a monastery at Ratisbon. 2 * Among all of these might be found 
some differences of statement. a $ 

From the interpolated Acts of St. Magnus, all subsequent published 
accounts are chiefly drawn. Those Acts have been printed by Henricus 
Canisius, 26 and by Melchior de Haiminsfeld Goldast, 2 ? while Surius 28 has 

1 Mabillon supposed, that the Acts of St. 
Magnus, as manipulated by Ermenric, had 
been temerariously enlarged by a later writer. 
Father Suysken has a suspicion of another 
interpolation in the original of Ermenric, 
from a reading found in one manuscript 
copy, regarding a miracle related in sub- 
stance, but in different words, from those 
found in other codices. And that the evident 
introduction of passages, from Walafrid 
Strabo's Life of St. Gall, into that of St. 
Magnus, should not be attributed to Ermen- 
ric, seems sufficiently established. 

18 There exists a copy ot the interpolated 
Acts of St. Magnus, and written by an anony- 
mous monk of Ratisbon. It bears the 
following title : " Ex pergam. antiquiss. 
codice MS. Augustae ad SS. Udalr. et 
Afram ab an. 700 conscripto, in 4 Tit. 
Legendae aliquot SS. lit. z. n. 36-" In his 
M Vetara Analecta," Mabillon inserts a tract, 
written by a certain monk, of Ratisbon, 
whose name is not given, and in reference to 
his own temptations. After returning from 
Fulda to Ratisbon, alluding to his labours by 
candlelight, the monk writes : " Postquam 
vero redii Vitam S. Magni scripsi, compul- 
sus fratrum duorum precihus intimis et assi- 
duis, Wilhelmi scilicet ex congregatione 
nostra, et alterius qui ad nos discendi causa 
ex Monasterio S. Magni \enit Adalham d ic- 
tus, qui nunc in S. Alfrre ccenobio abbas est 
constitutus." — Pars ii. This unknown writer 
had already premised, that he left the Monas- 
tery of St. Einmeram at Ratisbon, A.D. 1062, 
so that he must have written the Acts of St. 
Magnus, after the middle of the eleventh 
century. This is further established, from 
certain passages to be found in a Prologue, 
attached to those Acts. 

*' Whether weight or consideration might 
be attributable to the earliest versions, the 

additions made are so faulty in chronological 
accuracy, in several places, that even those 
Acts are rendered self-contradictory. 

20 One has for title these words : " Vita S. 
Magnoaldi, qui et Magnus, discipuli S. 
Columbani et Galli." The second has this 
heading : " Vita Sancti Magni seu Magno- 
aldi, ex Monacho Luxoviensi, abbatis monas- 
terii Faucium, in dicecesi Augustana, a 
Theodoro ejus socio primum conscripta, 
deinde ab Hermenrico, Elewangensi mona- 
cho, recensita et aucta." The other two 
properly add after the foregoing announce- 
ment, " denique ab anonymo recentiore 
digesta et aucta." 

21 By him and by Mabillon allusion is 
made to the Tract, as the Acta or Vita 
Pseudo-Theodori, a title by which it shall 
be subsequently designated. 

22 Or Waldric, Bishop of Augsburg, His 
festival occurs on the 4th of July. 

23 Or Afre, Martyr at Augsburg. His 
feast is held on the 5th of August. 

24 " Ratisbon is one of the oldest cities of 
central Europe. Some of its buildings date 
from the time when it was fortified by the 
Romans and called Castra Regince" — 
" Picturesque Europe," vol. v., p. 274. 

25 See Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Sep- 
tembris vi. De Sancto Magno, &c, Com- 
mentarius Praevius, sect, i., pp. 700 to 702. 

26 In " Antiquae Lectiones," tomus v., 
Ingolstad, a.d. 1604. This has been taken 
from a vellum manuscript belonging to the 
Monastery of St. Magnus, near the bridge at 
Ratisbon. In the year 1725, this work, re- 
printed and put into greater order by James 
Basnage, was published in seven folio 
volumes, at Amsterdam, under the title, 
' ' Thesaurus Monumentorum Ecclesiasti- 
corum." It contains prefaces and valuable 
notes by the editor. 



likewise the Life of St. Magnus. In 1621, Martin, Abbot of Fussen, edited 
the Acts of St. Magnus in Latin. Mathew Rader 2 9 wrote a Life of the 
saint, from the same compilation in "Bavaria Pia."3° Again, Father 
Ludovicus Babenstuber composed the Acts of St. Magnus, in Latin, and to 
these he has added the particulars of many miracles wrought through the 
merits of the holy abbot. Father John Colgan had intended to issue the 
Acts of St. Magnus at the present date, as we find from the posthumous 
list of his Manuscripts.3 1 Notices of him are in the work of Father Stephen 
White, S.J.3 2 The Benedictines 33 have the Acts of St. Magnus, in sixteen 
paragraphs. In the Annals of his Order, Mabillon also has allusion to him. 34 
In the year 1729, a Life of St. Magnus appeared in German, and by some 
anonymous writer belonging to the Monastery at Fussen. In this are 
inscribed many miracles, ascribed to the virtues of the Patron. Notices 
of this holy abbot are to be found in Les Petits Bollandistes,35 under the 
name of Magne or Mang, and by R«v. S. Baring-Gould. 3 * 5 

According to the old Acts, attributed to Theodorus Campodunensis — 
meaning Kempten — St. Magnoald, or Magnus, was born in Hibemia.37 
Such account has been followed by nearly all subsequent writers who have 
treated about him. We may here observe that Magnoaldus was the name by 
which he is first introduced to our notice — Magnus was a title afterwards given 
him to designate his eminence and virtues. That statement of his having 
been a native of Ireland, however, has been questioned by Father Suysken, 
who thinks it more probable that he was born in Germany. Not believing 
St. Magnus to have been a disciple of St. Columbanus, as Jonas,3 8 who 
wrote a life of him, does not introduce such a person to the reader^ and 

2 ? In ' ' Almanicarum Rerum Scriptores," 
tomus i., Francfort, 1606. This is intro- 
duced with the following epigraph, which 
Father Suysken had not discovered in any 
other copy of the life: " S. Theodori ere- 
mitae de Vita S. Magni Confessoris, sodalis 
sui, ab Ermenrico Elewangensi monacho 
emendatus et distinctus." After chapter the 
xiii. is another heading, which indicates a 
continuation of the work: " Ermenrici 
Elewangensis monachi supplementum." On 
comparing this with the edition of Canisius, 
whole periods and even chapters are wanting 
in the latter, not to speak of many minor 

28 See "De Probatis Sanctorum Vitis," 
vol. v., vi. Septembris, pp. 73 to 81. The 
Life is comprised in thirty-three paragraphs. 
In the third edition of Surius, the Acts of 
St. Magnus, as published by Canisius, are to 
be found. 

29 Born in Inichingen in the Tyrol, A. P. 
1 561. At the age of twenty, he entered the 
Jesuit Order. This learned man died at 
Munich, on the 22nd of December, a.d. 
1634. See Michaud's " Biographie Univer- 
selle, Ancienne et Moderne," tome xxxv., 
P- 59. 

30 The well-known work, "Bavaria 
Sancta "appeared in three folio volumes, 
1615-1624-1627. "Bavaria Pia " was a 
supplementary volume published in 1628, 
and enriched by Sadeler's beautiful en- 

31 See " Catalogus Actuum Sanctorum 
quae MS. habentur, ordine Mensium et 

32 See " Apologia pro Hibernia," cap. iv., 
p. 44. 

33 See " Acta Sanctorum Ordinis S. Bene- 
dicti," tomus ii., sec. ii., pp. 505 to 510. 

34 See " Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," 
tomus i., lib. xi., sect, xvii., p. 309 ; lib. xii., 
sect, xxix., p. 355 ; lib. xiii., sect, xxxiii., pp. 

392, 393- 

35 See "Les Vies des Saints," tome x., 
vi e Jour de Septembre, p. 528. 

& See " Lives of the Saints," vol. ix., Sep- 
tember 6, pp. 94, 95. 

3 ? See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus ii., Septembris vi. De Sancto Magno 
Monasterii Faucensis Abbate Prime Fuessse 
in Suevia. Vita auctore, ut fertur, Theodoro 
monacho Campodunensi, ab Ermenrico 
Elewangensi aucta," et ab alio interpolata, 
cap. i., p. 735. 

38 Jonas, born about A.D. 599, " gente 
Hibernus," was an alumnus of St. Colum- 
ban, both at Luxeu and at Bobbio. Among 
other works, he wrote " Vita S. Columbani." 
He flourished about A. D. 630, and he was 
living in A.D. 665. See Dr. William Cave's 
" Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Historia Li- 
teraria," volumen i. Saeculum Monothele- 
ticum, p. 580. 

39 Father Suysken, referring to the Pseudo- 
Theoderici Vita S. Magni, remarks, that the 
interpolator has plagiarized that portion of 


that Walafridus Strabo 4 ° is the mostreliable authority for making Magnoald 
and Theodore disciples of St. Gall, without allusion to the country of their 
birth ; such are thought to be reasons sufficient for doubting Magnus to have 
been born in Ireland. In addition, Father Suysken remarks, that Notker 
Balbulus, 41 in his Martyrology, at this day, only regards St. Magnus as a 
disciple of St. Gall.* 2 The foregoing are but negative and very inconclusive 
arguments, nevertheless, to counteract what seems to have been an ancient 
and a prevalent tradition. In his list of saints, Convceus calls Magnus, 
Abbot and Brother of St. Gallus.*3 If so, both may be classed as nephews 
of St. Columban, 44 according to the old Acts of our saint, attributed to 
Theodore and his continuators. However involved and confused may be 
the earliest records, which relate for us the Acts of St. Magnus, yet there 
appears to be a very general consensus that his birth took place in Ireland. 45 
In what particular district is not known, and doubts regarding his family or 
early life may well be entertained. According to other accounts, he was of 
royal birth, 46 his father being named Severus, and his mother Theoclea. 4 ? 

it, referring to our saint having been a dis- 
ciple of St. Columban, from Jonas, by his 
substituting the name of Magnoaldus for 
Autiernus, which is deemed to have been in 
the original, and again by his changing the 
name of Chagnoaldus for Magnoaldus. 
Then Father Suysken proceeds to show, how 
the Pseudo-Theoderic Life blunders in 
chronology, and is contradictory to fact, in 
making Magnoaldus die a.d. 655, in the 
seventy-fourth year of his age ; as in such 
case, if it be alleged, he left Ireland with 
Columban, who went to France, in A.D. 568, 
according to Le Cointe, this latter date 
should reach back to thirteen or fourteen 
years before Magnoaldus could have been 
born, or if the calculation of Mabillon be 
adopted, that Columban parted for Gaul, 
a.d. 590, then St. Magnoald must have been 
too young to have accompanied him in a 
missionary enterprise. However, if we allow 
for very probable chronological and other 
mistakes, occurring in the Tract to which 
allusion has been made, to suppose that St. 
Magnus had not been an Irishman and a 
disciple of St. Columban, should involve 
Father Suysken simply in a paralogism. 

40 Walafridus Strabo, or Strabus, a Ger- 
man by birth, and a disciple of Kaban 
Maur, at Fulda, was Dean over St. Gall's, 
a.d. 842. Me wrote many learned works, 
and among others, " Vita et Miracula Sancti 
Galli Abbatis," in two books. lie died 
a.d. 849. See Dr. William Cave's "Scrip- 
torum Ecclesiasticorum Ilistoiia Literaria," 
volamen ii. Sseculum Photianum, p. 31. 

41 St. Notker, surnamed the stammerer, 
was born about a.d. 830, at Elgau, in 
Thurgovia. At an early age he entered 
the Monastery of St. Gall, where he made 
great progress in sacred and profane litera- 
ture. Several elegant treatises in prose and 
verse were composed by him. He died on 
the 16th of April — the day for his feast — A.D. 
912. See M. Le Dr. Hoefer's " Nouvelle 
BiographieGenerale,"tome xxxviii.,col. 300. 

42 This is his notice : " Nativitas S. Magni 
Confessoris, discipuli et comitis beati Galli." 

« The feast of St. Gallus is held on the 
16th of October. See his Life at that date, 
in the Tenth Volume of this work. 

44 The Festival of St. Columban has been 
assigned to the 21st of November. His 
Life is given at that date, in the Eleventh 
Volume of this work. 

45 Henricus, Abbot of Fiissen, has left 
some Manuscript Notes illustrative of monas- 
tic and local tradition. " Notandam. quoad 
historicos constare, S. Magnum fuisse Sco- 
tum ex provincia Hybernise oriundum : sed 
quo sanguine, nobili vel ignobili, sit ortus, 
Legenda ejus non manifestat. Attamen ex 
traditione jam inolita dicitur progenitus ex 
regio Scotorum genere, cujus paler fuerit 
Severus, mater Theoclea. Hoc docuit anno 
MDXV, tempore abbatis Benedicti, quidam 
orator regis Francioe, nomine Petrus Cordier, 
episcopus Parisiensis, decretorum doctor, qui 
tunc temporis ambassiator praefati regis apud 
imperatorum Maximilianum aliquo tempore 
hie in Fuessen propter quzedam negotia 
moram trahebat, et erat abbati Benedicto 
valde familiaris et homo in historiis antiquis 
multum versatus. Hie ergo reliquit in 
scriptis abbati Benedicto, quod S. Magnus 
de pnefatis parentibus ex regio Scotia? 
sanguine sit progenitus. Quod didicisse se, 
ajebat, in ipsa Hybernia, quam tanquam 
Francorum ambastator peragraverat." 

46 This is mentioned, also, in the German 
Life of St. Magnus, written by a monk of the 
Monastery of Fussen, and in confirmation of 
it, the writer refers to a very old picture he 
had seen, in which St. Magnus is represented 
in the garb of a young prince taking leave of 
his parents — his father sitting on a royal 
throne, and his mother as a queen being near 
him. This statement is in chap, i., sect. 2. 
Father Ludovicus Babenstuber has a similar 
account, in his Acts of the Saint, lib. i., 
cap. i. 

v Whde the royal descent of St. Magnus 



So far as he could form an opinion from the materials available for the 
Life, Father Suysken thinks St. Magnus was born about the year 582. If he 
lived not previous to that date, it does not seem probable he accompanied 
St. Columban, when the latter left Ireland for France, about a.d. 590. Nor 
do we find any record to give us an account of his early training and acts. 
Even his original name may have been Celtic, and different from Magnoaldus, 
or Magnus, which he bore in after life. He became the disciple of St. 
Columbanus, according to the old Acts, but it must be allowed there are 
mistakes and obscurities of statement to be corrected or explained, in 
reference to matters as related/ 8 It seems probable enough, about the time 
when the holy Abbot of Luxeu had resolved on leaving France, and had 
taken his voyage from Nantes for Ireland, a.d. 610, or soon after he had 
been driven back by contrary winds, and then went to Clotaire II. ,49 King ot 
Neustria, that Magnoaldus preferred his petition to St. Gall, to be received 
among the company of the religious subject to so great a master of the 
spiritual life. For his probation as a postulant,' Columban sent St. Gall, 
with another young man, named Sonarius or Soniarius, 51 and our saint, 52 into 
a desert place, with only a single loaf to refresh them. At the end of the 
third day, not a morsel of it remained, and then St. Gall despatched his 
companions through the wilds to search for food. This was found most 
providentially in a river called Ligno, or Lignona 5 3 — now the Loignon or 
Lougnon — in Burgundy, There they found a great many fishes. These 
were brought to their superior, and gratefully partaking of this most 
seasonable food, which had been so miraculously provided, they again 
returned thanks to God. Then repairing to St. Columban, our saint made 
his vows of obedience, and heard in return these words : " Magnus te faciat 

is contended for by various writers, their 
arguments are examined by Father Suysken, 
who supposes it probable, that oUr saint had 
been confounded with a St. Magnus, Prince 
of the Orkney Islands, who is mentioned by 
the Scottish writers, Hector Boetius, John 
Lesley, and Thomas Dempster. In the 
Fourth Volume of this work, we have in- 
serted his Acts, at the 16th of April, Art. 

48 After the title of Vita Auctore, ut 
iertur, Theodoro Monacho Campodunensi, 
ab Ermenrico Elewangensi aucta, et ab alia 
interpolata, the Acts open with the follow- 
ing sentence : "Tempore illo, cumbeatissi- 
mus simul cum beato Gallo nepote suo 
diversa loca perlustrarent, et ad diffamandum 
verbum Dei, et peregrinandi causa in Hiber- 
niam pervenirent, quidam frater, nomine 
Magnoaldus ex proefata patria Hibernia pro- 
creatus, pulsare ccepir aures beati Galli, 
discipuli sanctissimi Columbani, ita allo- 
quens " : &c. This passage, however, has 
been thus emended by the anonymous monk 
of St. Emmeiam. Katisbon : "In tempore 
illo quo beatus Columbanus sanctusque Gal- 
lus virtutibus magnificis pollentes, in Hiber- 
nia clarissiini habebantur, frater quidam, 
nomine Magnoaldus, ex eadem Hibernia 
oriundus, ad beatum Galium accedans, ita 
eum alloquiter," &c. 

4 ' He was born in 583, and on the death 
of his father, Childeric, in 584, he was under 

Vol. IX.— No. 3. 

the tutelage of his mother, Fredegonde, who 
placed him under the protection ofGontran, 
King of Burgundy. In 613, profiting by 
the dissensions of the sons of Childebert, 
and by their death, he next overcame Brune- 
haut and the Austrasians, in 614, when he 
became King of Neustria and Austrasia. He 
waged war against the Saxons, who invaded 
his territories, and he died A.D. 628, leaving 
his throne to Dagobert I. 

50 Father Suysken remarks, that the phrase 
in this narrative, " utrum propositum animi 
arripias, an non, : ' isbonowed from a passage 
in Jonas : " Pergentes in eremum voluntatem 
Dei probemus, utrum desideratum iter arri- 
pias, an in ccetu Fratrum permaneas." — Vita 
Sancti Columbani." 

51 The Bollandist editor remarks, that 
treating about this incident, Jonas in his Vita 
S. Columbani calls him Soniarius. 

52 Father Suysken supposes, that to one 
Autiernus, a monk of Luxeu, should be 
attributed what is here related of Magnoaldus. 
Autiernus had asked permission from St. 
Columban to visit Ireland, and had been 
brought into the desert, that he might learn 
the will of God in his regard. 

53 The Bollandist editor assumes, that the 
interpolator of our saint's Acts had absurdly 
placed this river in Ireland ; whereas the 
proper inference to be drawn from the con- 
text is, that he wrote concerning the country 
near Luxeu. 

130 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

Dominus in sapientia et astutia, a cujus magno nomine Magnoaldus 
vocaris."54 Again he added : " Cognita tibi sint omnia ministeria monastica, 
a quibus cognomen habes Magnoaldus. "ss Then having become a monk, he 
was entrusted by St. Columban with care of the monastic cellar, or in other 
words, he became the bursar or econome of the entire establishment at 

Again, the accounts of St. Magnoald state, that while acting in that 
capacity, his assistant, having brought a vessel, 56 and tapped a cask of beer to 
serve for the refectory, Soniarius heard the Master's voice calling him. In 
the spirit of ready obedience, he ran with the bung in his hand, forgetting 
to close the vent, and appeared before Columban, Gall and Magnoald. 
Reminded of his neglect, Soniarius ran back to the cellar, thinking that no 
liquor could have remained in the flowing cask. However, it was otherwise, 
and a miracle caused its stoppage, to reward the cellarer's and assistant's exact 
observance of monastic discipline. 57 On returning, Soniarius related what 
happened to Magnoaldus, and the latter asking a priest, named Winigozus,* 8 
to accompany him to the cellar, both saw the wonder, and agreed that it 
should be reported to St. Columban, A contest of humility ensued between 
Soniarius and Magnoald, each seeking to ascribe the miracle to the other's 
merits. 5 9 However, it was ended by Columban declaring, that he had seen 
the angel of the Lord making a sign over the vessel, and preceding Magnoald, 
when he had called the boy Soniarius. 60 

There are legendary accounts in his Acts, of how St. Magnoald sought 
apples in the wilderness, for the refreshment of Saints Colunibanus and 
Gallus, and of how a bear allowed him to take a share of what had been 
found. 61 Again, it is told, that while the community had been in want of 
food, by an order from the holy abbot, Magnoaldus procured a number of 
birds, which allowed themselves to be taken by him and by the monks. 62 

54 Thus rendered into English: "The 59 The Bbllandist editor observes, that this 

Lord make you great in wisdom and pru- contest is not to be found in the account o$ 

dence, from whose great name you shall be Jonas, from whom he supposes it to have 

called Magnoaldus." The Goldast edition been borrowed, nor does he mention Mag* 

of the Acts, and another MS. has "voceris." noald in connexion with the narrative. In 

ss Thus translated : " To thee be entrusted Fleming's " Collectanea Sacra " is the fol- 

all the monastic services, from which you lowing: " Hujusmodi olim in monasterio 

have the name Magnoaldus." Sancti-gallensi exemplum contigit ; cujus rei 

56 It is called a Typrus or a Tybrus, by testes usque in nunc diem remanent versus 
ancient monastic writers ; the exact form or aliqui in porta capituli, ubi turn loci cella 
capacity of which does not now seem to be vinaiia fuerat, appensi. I'erfecta obedientia 
we'll understood. Compare the account sua imperfecta relinquit." 

given in the text with what is related in 6o The writer of our Saint's Acts then 

Fleming's " Collectanea Sacra.'.' Vita S. continues ; " O magnum divinss potential 

Columbani, Abbatis, cap. xv., p. 227. donuin, qui adhuc neophitO SUO Servo tantam 

57 Thus is the event related : "At ille, gratiam conferre dignatus est, ut jam Magnus 
viso seraculo, recordatus negligentiae, velo- inter fratres voceris. Ad hate conticuit beat us 
citer ad cellarium rediit, a>timans nihil in Magnoaldus, giatias agens Deo in corde suo 
vase, de quocerevisiadecurrebat,remansisse. de tanta miseiecordia sua." 

Intuitu* ergo vidit, supra tiprum cerevisiam 6l It has been observed that this miracle, 

crevisse, quatinus, qualis et quanta rotun- related in the Life of St. Magnus, iias been 

ditas infra tipri inerat coronam, talis in ascribed to Chagnoaldus, and a.-, having 

ahum crevisse urna videretur, et ne mini- occurred near Brtgantium in Rhsetia, after 

mam stillam foras cecidisse." St. Columban had been expelled from Luxeu 

s 8 Goldast's version and that of another in6lo. Mabillon states : '• Incautus lectores 

manuscript read Winiachus, while Canisius fefellit Pseudo-Theodorus in Vita Magno* 

has the name Winniacus. In Jonas' " Vita aldi, cum Chagnoaldi facta Magnoaldo tri- 

S. Columbani," he mentions a " Winnocus buit." — "Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," 

presbyter," who was a familiar of St. tomus i., lib. xii., sect, xxix., p. 355. 

Columban. Perhaps he was identical with 62 In the " Vita S. Columbani " of Jonas, 

the priest mentioned in the text. he relates this miracle before the former one, 



This supply was sufficient for three days ; at the end of which time, those 
good people 6 3 who lived in the adjoining cities brought food to St. 
Columban's Monastery, through the ngency of Saints Gall and Magnoald. 6 * 

At one time, a thought possessed the mind of St. Columban, 6 5 that he 
should open a mission among the Sclaves 66 and Veniti/7 j n order to 
withdraw them from paganism 68 and open their minds to a knowledge of 
the true and living God. Wherefore he consulted St. Gallus and St. 
Magnoald. The former said to the latter : "Brother, what think you of this 
journey for our abbot?" Magnoald answered : "Master Superior, first ask 
for Divine direction ; and afterwards, if you deem it proper to set out, let us 
depart." On hearing this, Columban ordered a fast for three days, imploring 
light from above on that subject. The third night, an angel appeared to all 
three, and showed them a small tracing of the world's map, saying : " You 
see, that the whole world is a void ; say ye to Columban, go to the right and 
left, that you may reap the fruit of vour labours, but it is not expedient for 
you to go thither." Tin's admonition was enough for the holy abbot, that 
he was not to be the apostle of those nations ; and. therefore, he resolved 
on resting where he was, content with the services of Magnoald alone, until 
the way was opened for his departure to Italy. 6 9 

To the rule of St. Columban, Masnoald seems to have conformed, while 
he was under the protection of King Theodebert,? and engaged on 
missionary labours near the Lake of Zurich.? 1 While in Switzerland, war 
had been declared between the brothers Theoderic ? 2 and Theodobert, with 

and states, that it happened during a time of ' 
famine, "cumque jam triduo jejunio fessa 
corpora essent." Here, however, there is 
no mention of Magnoaldus. 

63 Differently related from that in the 
"Vita S. Columbani" of Jonas is the 
account contained in the text: "Quarto 
deinde die quidam pontifex ex vicinis urbi- 
bus frumenti copiam, divina admonitus 
aspiratione, ad B. Cohmibanum direxit ; sed 
mox Omnipotens, qui y.enuriam patientibus 
aligeros prxbuerat cibos, ut farris adeps 
advenit, alitum phalanges imperavit abire." 

64 In Fleming's "Collectanea Sacra," Vita 
S. Columbani Abbatis, we find the name of 
Magnoaldus introduced into the text, and in 
the margin Chagoald is a different reading. 
See cap. xxvi., p. 239. 

65 Thus stated by Jonas, in his " Vita S. 
Columbani :" " Interea cogitatio in mentem 
ruit, ut Venetiorum, qui et Sclavi dicuntur, 
terminos adiret," &c. See ibid., pp. 239, 

66 For a very complete account of the 
Sclaves, their origin, tribal division, and 
history, the reader is referred to the Articles 
headed Slavonia and Slavonians, in Charles 
Knight's "Penny Cyclopaedia," vol. xxii., 
pp. 100 to 128. 

6 7 See Dean Millman's " History of Latin 
Christianity," vol. ii., book iv., chap, v., p. 

68 According to the early Christian mis- 
sionaries among the Sclaves, they worshipped 
various idols. It is said, that those who 
lived on the shores of the Baltic admitted 
two different principles — one for good and 

the other for evil. The former was known 
as Biel Bog, or the "white god," from whom 
all benefits proceeded, and the latter was 
called Chemi Bog, or the " black god," who 
caused all sorrows, and misfortunes. How- 
ever, the Sixth Synod of Constantinople 
(a. i). 680) enumerates Slavonians among the 
Christian nations. 

69 The foregoing account varies from that 
given by Jonas, in his " Vita S. Columbani.' 

70 Known as Theodebert II., son ot 
Childebert, King of Austrasia, and who 
succeeded to this Kingdom of Austrasia, a.d. 
596, after his father's death. His brother 
Theoderic II. was assigned the Kingdom 
of Burgundy. Both were left under the 
tutelage of their grandmother Brunehaut. 
See " Abrege de l'Histoire de France," liv. 
i. CEuvres Completes de Bossuet, Eveque 
de Meaux, tome x., col. 1 1 77. Edition de 
l'Abbe Migne. 

7 1 "The situation of the Lake of Zurich in 
many respects resembles that of Con-tance ; 
no part of it can be said to be within the 
mountain zone, though the neighbourhood 
is almost everywhere hilly, and the moun- 
tains are not far from its eastern end. The 
scenery is diversified, bright and sunny, 
rather than grand. Its shores in many parts 
are richly cultivated, and studded with 
goodly houses and thriving villages." — 
"Picturesque Europe," vol. v. Eastern 
Switzerland, pp. 87, 88. 

f Known as Theoderic II., son of the 
aforementioned Childebert, who succeeded 
to his father's Kingdom of Burgundy, A.D. 



varied fortune j*3 and, at that very time, when the decisive battle of Tolbiac i*> 
was fought, both Coluniban and Magnoald had a revelation regarding its 
results. 75 This they communicated to each other.7 6 Theodobert being 
defeated was treacherously delivered up by his own men to his brother, who 
sent him to their grandmother, the wicked Bt unehault.?? Having sided with 
Theodoric, she obliged the vanquished prince to receive holy orders, and 
not many days afterwards, she put him to death. Finding his enemy, 
Theodoric, to have become master of that country in which he then lived, 
Columban resolved on leaving it, and with many disciples, he went into the 
territories of Agilulf,? 8 King of the Lombards. However, his disciples, 
Gall and Magnoald, remained behind, and after some time settled near Lake 
Constance.?' Being seized with a fever, St. Gall could not prosecute his 
purpose of accompanying St. Columban into Italy. Thinking his desire was 
to remain in that country, and to avoid further missionary labours in a far-off 
region, the latter said reproachfully, " I know, brother, it will be disagreeable 
for you to be fatigued with other duties on account of me ; however, now 
that we are about to part, I pronounce on you a prohibition to celebrate 
Mass, so long as I live." On hearing this, Magnoald, who was present, 
threw himself at the feet of the holy abbot, and cried out, " My father 

73 According to Fredegarius, in his chroni- 
cle, A.D. 6l2, the first battle fought between 
Theoderic and Theodobert was at Toul, 
where the latter was defeated with great 
slaughter. Having collected fresh forces, 
Theodobert attacked his brother at Tolbiac, . 
where the issue was still more unfortunate for 
him, as he was there thoroughly defeated. 

' 4 Tulpiacum, or Tolbracum, formerly a 
town of the Ubii, a people of Germany, who 
in the time of Claudius Caesar lived beyond 
the Rhine, but who mo\ ed to the left bank, 
in the succeeding reign. It is now known 
as Zulch "x mil. pass, a Colonia Agrippina 
in Occasum, uti xvi a Bonna, Aquisgranum 
versus xviii." — Bodrand's "Novum Lexi- 

75 In a copy of Jonas' Life, Chagnoald is 
substituted for Magnoald, in this narrative : 
" Eo igitur tempore vir Dei in eremo mora- 
batur, contentus tantum unius ministri Chag- 
noaldi famulatu." — "Vita S. Columbani." 

7 6 In the Acts of St. Magnus is the follow- 
ing narrative of the vision, which is not to 
be found in the Life of St. Columban by 
Jonas : " Expergefactus ministrum vocat 
Magnoaldum qui et Magnus, cruentamque 
regum pugnam indicat, et humanum Ban* 
guinem multum fundi suspirat. Respondit 
Magnoaldus, qui et Magnus prostratus ad 
pedes ejus : Et ego pater domine, sopore 
oppiessus jacebam subter unam arborem 
abietis, et videbatur mihi, simul eos conflic- 
tum inter se habere ; arreptoque baculo, 
volebam percutere Theodericus, et liberare 
Theodebertum : sed prohibuit me species 
quondam dicens: Non est tibi necesse emu 
percutere, quoniam Dominus cito vindicabit 
magistrum tuum Columbanum de eo in 
interritu ignis. Illico evigilans festinabam 
hue ad vos venire, et narrare hanc visionem, 

vos me interim vocantem audivi." Then is 
introduced the name of one Eunuchus, for 
Chagnoaldus, as given by Jonas, and for 
what in substance refers to the same incident, 
in his " Vita S. Columbani." 

77 Also called Brunechild, daughter to 
Athanagild, a King of the Spaniards, and 
wife to Sigebert I., King of Austrasia. She 
was an ambitious and unprincipled woman, 
who met her fate in the year 613, by orders 
of Clotaire. " She was tied by the leg and 
the arm to the tail of an untamed hone, 
which, running full speed, quickly dashed 
out her brains." — "The Modern Part of 
Universal History," vol. xix. The History 
of France, chap, lxviii., sect, i., p. 238. 

7 8 At first he was Duke of Turin, but on 
the death of Aniharis, the third King of the 
Lombards, at Pavia, A.D. 590, his widow, 
Theodelinde, married Agilulf. At first he 
was an Arian, but afterwards he embraced 
the Catholic Faith. This warlike prince 
reigned twenty-five years, and he died, a. d. 
615 or 616. See Michaud, " Biographie 
Universelle, Ancienneet Moderne," tome i., 
pp. 225, 226. 

79 Also known as the Boden See, dividing 
the north-eastern corner of Switzerland from 
Wirtemberg and Baden. At its lower ex- 
tremity is the town of Constance, at the head 
of the Unter See. It" has declined in popu- 
lation since the Middle Ages, and also in 
commercial importance, when its linen stuffs 
were known all over Europe. Although on 
the left bank of the Rhine, it forms part of 
the Duchy of Baden. About the beginning 
of the Christian Era, a fortress, called 
Valeria, had been built on that site, and it 
was rebuilt by Constantius Chlorus, in the 
days of Imperial Rome. See " Picturesque 
Europe," vol. v. Eastern Switzerland, p. 82. 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 133 

superior, what will you that I do? If I leave Gallus without attendance, he 
shall be forlorn and perish ; nevertheless, if you require me, him I shall 
leave, as Peter followed our Lord, having parted with his nets." Whereupon, 
Columban answered : " I know Magnoald, that a great future is open for you, 
and that you shall gain many of the Eastern people to to God. Therefore, I 
am not willing you should come with me, but I leave you and our faithful 
Theodore to obey Gallus in all his requirements, and endeavour by all 
means to restore his health. Moreover, Magnoald, I tell you what I desire, 
and how you should dwell with him. Having spent some days, you shall 
receive the order of Deaconship from the Bishop of Constance. So I decide, 
that you remain with Gallus, until the time comes when I am about to die. 
Then, if it happen, that the Holy Spirit reveal to thee the fact of my last 
illness, I shall feel grateful, should you come to me ; otherwise, if I die, and 
that you are divinely admonished, hasten to my tomb, and to my religious. 
Then shall you receive my Epistle and my Cambuta, 81 which you shall bear 
to Gallus, and which shall release him from my interdict. But, I tell you, 
that three years 8a after the death of Gallus, 83 you and Theodore shall witness 
his tomb destroyed by spoilers ; and this being done, with his tomb restored, 
hasten to a place, where we have heard the holy bishop Narcissus 84 
commanded the devil to kill a dragon, and there with Almighty aid, you 
shall convert many to the Faith, and gain their souls to the Lord. 85 There, 
too, shall you bear the name of Magnus, 86 imposed on you by God, as He 
desires to exalt you; and received by the people of that region, because of 
the doctrines you shall preach, you shall convert them from the folly and 
worship of demons to the faith of Christ. For the demons shall bring upon 
you many calamities ; but do you be comforted in the Lord, who hath destined 
you there to dwell and remain." 8 ? Saying these words, St. Columban set 
out on his journey to Italy. 

80 By these are to be understood the 84 His festival has been assigned to the 
Suevi. i8tb of March, and to the 29th of October. 

81 In his "VitaS. Galli," WalafridusStrabo 85 St. Narcissus, Bishop of Girone, in 
calls it " cambotta ;" Goldast's version has Catalonia, during the persecution raised by 
it " camboca ;" while Babenstiiber writes it Diocletian in the commencementof the fourth 
" cambatta." The meaning is " a staff," but century, accompanied by his Deacon, Felix, 
whether a pastoral or a walking staff has not passed the Pyrenees into Gaul, and arrived 
been determined. The former, however, at Augsburg, where he baptized Afra, 
seems the more probable, as seen under the Hilary and their servants. He conferred 
words " Cambuta, Cambutta, Cambuca, orders on Denis, and returned to Spain, at 
Gambutta," in Du Cange, where it is the end of nine months. There he governed 
rendered : " Baculus incurvatus, virga pas- his church for about three years, and with 
toralis Episcoporum. Adrevaldus de Mira- his Deacon, Felix, was crowned with martyr- 
cul. S. Benedicti, lib. i., c. 22. Baculo, dom, about the year 306 or 307. See Les 
quod gestabat, incurvo, more veterum Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des Saints," tome 
Antistitum." — " Glossarium ad Scriptores xiii., p. 11. 

Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis," tomus ii., • ^ The Bollandist editor, Father Suysken, 

col. 72. notices here the contradictions of statement 

fa This is to be found in all the known by the writer of St. Magnus' Acts, who first 

Acts of St. Magnus, whether printed or in introduces him as bearing originally the name 

manuscript. Magnoaldus, and then having had the name 

Hi In the "Vita S. Galli" of VValafridus of Magnus bestowed on him,by Columbanus, 

Strabo, this desecration of the holy abbot's the same holy abbot now proclaiming in the 

tomb is said to have occurred forty years spirit of prophecy, that the people of his 

after the time of his death. Mabillon writes : future mission should bestow on him such a 

" Quamquam nee Walafridum erroris immu- name. 

nem hoc loco esse viri docti existimant." — B? See the Vita Pseudo-Theodori — Boilan- 

" Annales Ordinis Sancti Benedicti/' tomus dist version — chap. i. and ii., with accom- 

i., lib. xiii., sect, xxxiii., p. 393. panying notes. 





Thus had St. Columban prophesied, that St. Magnoald should convert the 
people of the Julian Alps ' to the faith of Christ j and, full of tenderness for 
the helpless condition of his new superior, after the departure of St. Columban 
into Italy, Magnoald attached himself to St. Gall. 2 At this time, a very 
holy priest, named Willimar,3 lived at a place called Arbon, of which he had 
pastoral charge and direction. About the year 612, and during the summer 
or autumn season, St. Gall appears to have sought his protection. 4 Magnoald 
and Theodore s had then become the faithful disciples and servants of St. 
Gall, so that their cares were employed with those of Willimar, to procure 
their beloved superior's restoration to health. This was happily effected 
after some time, when St. Gall resumed his apostolic labours among the 
people, and by his preaching to them the words of truth, he also brought 

Chapter ii. — * The Alps are well known 
as the dominant chain of European moun- 
tains. The highest of those is Mont Blanc, 
15,732 feet above the sea-level. From tiie 
knot or culmi. ating points, in which meet 
the St. Gothard, the Vogelsberg, the 
Bernardine, the Splugen and the Sep- 
timer — that group known to the ancients 
under the name of Mom Adtila—a.?, in a 
common centre, branches are divergent, 
and by which a connection is established 
with the Apennines, the Pyrenees, the • 
Vosges, the Hartz, the Sudetes, the Car- 
pathians, and the Balkans. The highest 
summits are in Switzerland. The Julian, 
or Panonian, Alps send one branch north- 
wards into Sclavonia, separating the basins 
of the Save and of the Drave ; while the 
other branches or southern Alps form a 
range of bare and rocky mountains, rising 
almost perpendicularly on the north-wc^i 
shores of the Adriatic, and stretching thence 
to the confines of Servia and Macedonia. 
The course of the Julian Alps is very sinuous, 
in many cases ; but, it lies generally to the 
south east, and along the shores of the 
Adriaiic. See " Gazetteer of the World," 
vol. i., pp. 180 to 185. 

"Mud] o! what here follows is omitted from 
the Acts of St. Magnus, as given by Gokiast, 
and the substance appears to have been taken 
from Walafridus Strabo's Liie of St. Gall. 
However, in Georgius Heinricus Pertz's 
"Monumenta Germanise Historica," tomus 
ii., Udephonsus von Arx, Librarian of St. 

Gall, has edited, in 1829, a Vita S. Galli, and 
for nearly 900 years previous, it had been 
noted as a codex, in the Catalogue of St. 
Gall's books, as "VilaSS. patrumColumbani 
et Galli, in vol. II. antiquitus dicata." This 
is much more ancient than the Life of St. 
Gall by Walafridus Strabo, who describes it 
as rude in style, as wanting a division into 
chapters, as incorrectly writing Alamanniam 
by the term Altimaniam, and as not having 
the Miracles which he added in the Second 
Book of St. Gall's life. Nevertheless, as 
Walafridus Strabo evidently used the more 
ancient Life in compiling his Vita S. Galli, 
it has an authenticity for particulars, superior 
to his own biography. 

3 So is he called in the Vita S. Galli, by 
Walafridus Strabo. By Canisius he is named 

4 In the excess of his zeal to extirpate 
idolatry, St. Gall had thrown the offerings 
of the pagans to their idols into the Lake of 
Zuric, and by even burning their temples, 
the indignation of the idolaters was so 
excited, that the missionaries were expelled 
from that neighbourhood. See Dr. Dun- 
ham's " Europe during the Middle Ages," 
vol. ii., chap, ii., p. 185. London, 1833, 

5 According to Walafridus Strabo, at first, 
they had been clerics of Willimarus. In the 
more ancient Vita S. Galli, they are 
designated Maginoldus or Maginaldus and 
Theodorus. See Pertz's " Monumenta Ger- 
maniae Historica," tomus ii., pp. 5, 13, 14. 

September 6.) LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 135 

salvation to their souls. A certain deacon, named Hiltibold, 6 knew all the 
passes of that rough country, and in the wilderness he selected an open and 
a spacious plain, with a circle of mountains around, and a river running 
through it — most beautiful and suitable for a religious establishment. But, 
it was infested with wild beasts and serpents, as also by demons who haunted 
the place. Thither St. Gall brought his disciples, Magnoald and Theodore, 
to a mountain called Himiiinberg.? Through their united exertions and 
prayers, the noxious animals were banished. Then a cell was there built. 

While they were living in that place, a messenger came to the priest, 
announcing the death of the Bishop of Constance, 8 named Gaudentius,? and 
this caused them great sorrow, but they unitedly offered up prayers for the 
repose of his soul. After a short time, a letter was sent from a magnate 
named Gunzon, 10 who besought St. Gall to visit his only daughter " possessed 
by a malignant spirit, and to release her from such an evil. The holy 
superior, thinking very humbly of his own powers, refused to go ; but, pressed 
repeatedly by the noble, and on being told, that for three days his daughter 
could not take food, St. Gall betook himself to earnest prayer. Trusting in 
God's mercy and goodness, he set. out with the Duke's messengers for his 
house, 12 having Magnoald and Theodore as his companions. The prayer 
of Magnoald and the order of St. Gall caused the energumen's restoration to 
a sound state of mind, to the great joy of her parents. The father then 
offered St. Gall rich presents, and also prayed him to accept episcopal conse- 
cration.^ Whereupon, the holy man answered : " Behold my witness of 
this incident here, for my beloved Magnoald is aware that my blessed 
superior Columban has interdicted my offering at the altar while he lives, 
and I dare not accept such an office without his permission. Wherefore, I 
cannot assume the weight of such government. But, if you greatly desire 
this to be accomplished, wait awhile, until I shall have sent my present 
companion with a letter to my abbot the blessed Columban, and if I learn 
his will, and have his permission, then shall I undertake the burden of 
pastoral care urged by you." Whereupon Gunzon replied : u Be it then as 
you have said." Accepting the gifts offered by the Duke, St. Gall took a 
courteous leave. 

6 According to Walafridus Strabo, he was . she is named Fridiburga. At that time, she 
a deacon subject to Willimar. is said to have been espoused to Sigebert, the 

7 In his glosses to the Vita S. Galli, son of Theodoric ; but, after her cure by St. 
Goldast writes regarding this mountain : Gall, she embraced a religious life, and 
"Mons Coelius nonnumquam a monachis, by Sigebert himself, she was installed as 
interdum Mons Cceli, olim Monkelen, nunc Superioress of the Parthenon of St. Peter, 
Menkelen, dictus." According to Matthaeus in Metz. However, several particulars 
Merianus, this mountain was not far from recounted in this narrative are regarded as 
the city of St. Gall. See "Topographia fabulous. See Pere Charles le Cointe's 
Helvetia?,'' P» 59- "Annales Ecclesiastici Francorum," tomu s 

8 See an interesting account of the Lake ii., at A.D. 614. 

and Town of Constance, in Rev. William 12 In the " Vita S. Galli " of Walafridus 

Cox's " Travels in Switzerland, and in the Strabo, "ad Iburningas villam." To this 

Country of the Grisons," vol. i., letter 3, pp. passage, Goldast has appended this note: 

14 to 23. " In dextro litore lacus Pontamici, turn Ala- 

9 He died ah. 614, according to Pere mannise ac Sueviae ducum sedes, nunc libera 
Charles le Cointe. See "Annales Ecclesias- imperii Romani urbs, Uberlingen." In X<>. 
tici Francorum, toraui ii., at a.d. 614. S.SMj among the Burgundian Library 

10 " Scilicet Alamanniae seu Sueviae, .Manuscripts, Bruxelles, vol. xviii., there 
auctoris illorum nummorum, qui hodieque are extracts, from the " Annales Suevici," 
a Snevis, vocantur Gunsenpfenning, de of Martinus Crucis, concerning Ireland, 
quibus in libro De Nummis German- ' 3 Namely, for the See of Constance, 
orum."— Goldast. then vacant owing to the death of Bishop 

" In Walafridus Strabo's " Vita S. Galli," Gaudentius. 

i 3 6 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

Magnoald assumed charge of these gifts presented, and with the aid of his 
helpmates, Theodore and Othmar, 1 * he brought them to the vessel on Lake 
Constance. St. Gall had obtained from the Duke, that the Prefect of Arbon '5 
should aid as desired in building his monastery. When he had come to the 
fort, at that place, St. Gall desired Magnoald to collect all the poor he could 
find, and distribute among them the gilts of Duke Gunzon. Then replied 
Magnoald : " Father, all you have commanded I shall willingly do ; but I 
have a precious silver vessel, and are you pieased I should keep it, to serve 
as a sacred objeci ?" St. Gall answered : " Son, take heed to give that vessel 
you possess with other valuables to the poor, lest you be in contradiction to 
a salutary example, remembering what St. Peter said to the paralytic asking 
for alms, 'Silver and gold I have none.' " l6 On hearing this, Magnoald gave 
thanks to God for such an order, and distributed all to the poor. These 
things accomplished, they retired to that chosen place in the wilderness, 
where with prudent design they commenced building their religious cell. 1 ? 

Not long afterwards, 18 St. Gall sent a letter to a certain deacon John x 9 — 
one of his disciples — requesting him to come, and when lie complied, the holy 
Abbot gave him a course of instruction in the Sacred Scriptures. At length, 
of approved virtue and learning, John was presented to the Duke as a man 
eminently deserving episcopal promotion. Whereupon, with the approval of 
other bishops and of all the people, the patron selected him for the vacant 
See of Constance, and with tne customary solemn rites, he was duly 
consecrated. i0 St. Gall preached a remarkable discourse on this occasion,-" 
which the newly-consecrated bisiiop explained to the people in their own 
vernacular language. About the year 614, with the concurrence of St. Gall, 
and in the thirty-second or thirty-third year ol his age, St. Magnus, who had 
lived with the priest named Wnlimar, at Aruon, near Bregentz, 2 -' is said to 
have been ordained deacon, 2 3 by Bishop John of Constance. Atter receiving 
that grade of Holy Orders, and with the bishop's benediction, he returned to 
the ceil of his spiritual lather, St. Gall, who aitcrwards gave name to the well- 
known town m and Canton 2 5 of Switzerland. Aided by the munificence of 
King Sigibert and Duke Gunzon, St. Gali and St. Magnoald are said to have 

M To this statement, Father Saysken takes 2I "Canisius est le premier qui a tire ce 

exception, as the well-known Abbot discours de la poussiere. On le trove dans 

Othmar could not have been a disciple to le cinquieme volume de ses Legons antiques, 

St. Gall. Perhaps, however, the present qui parut a Ingolstast en 1604, et dans le 

Othmar may have been quite a different premier tome cie la nouvelle edition qu'en a 

person. public^ M. Basnage." — " Histoire Lheraire 

15 An ancient town of Switzerland on the de la France," tome iii., vii. Siecle, p. 563. 
south bank of Lake Constance, about 8 "Anciently called Brigantium by the 
miles N.E. from St. Gall. See " Gazetteer of Romans, "opp. Rhoetise, in Suevia, ad 
the World," vol. 1., p. 318. Brigantinum iacum, comitat. olim, urbs 

16 See Acts, iii, 6. Rhcetioeprimaria,"&c.— Baudrand's" Novum 
' 7 There subsequently arose the celebrated Lexicon Geographicum," tomus i., p. 131. 

monastery of St. Gali, called by the people JJ However, in a note, Father Suysnen 

of that country St. Gallen, in the canton of points out what seems to him connecting 

Switzerland so named, and near the southern statements, between what is to be found in 

shore ol Lake Constance. the .lets of St. Magnus and those of St. Gall, 

" The previous portion of the Acts of as related by Walalridus Strabo. 

St. Magnus are omitted in tiiat veision pub- * 4 An interesting account of it may be 

lishett by Goldast. found in Rev. William Coxes "' Travels in 

* The writers of "Gallia Chi istiana" have Switzerland and in the Country ol the 

dignified him with tne title of Beatus, and Griaons," vol. L, letter 4, pp. 24 to 30. 

style him the tenth bishop of Windisch and ,J 1 lie borders of Lake Zurich "embrace 

Constance, in Switzerland. See tomus v., the three Cantons of Zurich, Sehwytz, and 

col. 893. St. Gall."— J. S. Buckingham's " Belgium, 

80 See Canisius, " Antiqu* Lectiones," the Rhine, Switzerland, and Holland," 

tomus v., p. 896. vol. ii., chap, ii., p. 26. 



set about the construction of a magnificent monastery and church. 26 Both 

of these have long since 
disappeared. 3 ? To 
them was added a 
school, based on the 
regulations introduced 
by St.Columban, in his 
former house at Luxeu. 
The former monastery 
has now been con verted 
into a gymnasium, and 
the old Abbey Library 
still contains over 
1,000 manuscripts, 28 
many of these being 
most rare and valu- 
able.^ The former 
Abbey Church 3° of 
later erection is one of 
the finest in Switzer- 
land; and the facade 
especially, with its 
magnificent towers on 
either angle, has been 
greatly admired. 31 I n 
the old monastic 
school , a pious G erman 
youth, Othmar,3 2 re- 
ceived his early educa- 
tion. By some, it has 
been supposed, he had 
been an early Abbot of 
St. Gall,33 and to be 
distinguished from the 
St. Gall's Church. celebrated Abbot of 

that name who governed the monastery there during the eighth century.34 

26 However, this seems t o be an exaggeration, 
as it was only in the eighth century the 
monastery of St. Gall began to assume its 
truly noble proportions, under the rule of 
Abbot Othmar. At present, according to 
local tradition, a chapel is shown, as standing 
on the very site of St. Gall's original church. 

21 The monastery has been suppressed. 
The last Abbot of St. Gall, Pancratius, 
having lost all his domains and revenues, 
and having vainly endeavoured to interest 
the Allied Powers in his favour, refused a 
pension offered to him, in 1814, and claimed 
the restoration of his former rights, lie 
afterwards retired to the Convent of Mtiri, 
in the Canton of Lucerne. 

28 Among these, Poggio Bracciolini and 
other learned men discovered in the Middle 
Ages copies of several classic works, which 
had been considered until then, as having 

been lost. See Charles Knight's "Penny 
Cyclopaedia/' vol. xi., p. 48. 

2 9 A great number of Irish manuscripts are 
still pre.-eived in that library, several of 
which have been brought under the writer's 
personal inspection, by the learned and 
courteous sub-librarian, on the occasion of a 
visit to St. Gallen, in September, 1886. 
The Chevalier Constantino Nigra, in his 
" Reliquie Celtiche," has examined and 
particularly described those Irish manu- 
scripts in the Library of St. Gall, in his 
valuable and learned work. Firenze, Torino, 
Roma, 1872, 4to. 

3° Now the Cathedral of St. Gall. 

31 An illustration of it, from a local photo- 
graph, drawn on the wood and engraved by 
Gregor Grey, is here presented as an illus- 

3 2 According to the Acts of St. Magnus, 

i 3 8 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [Septkmkkr (>. 

After the recital of the midnight office, and when the monks hud retired 
to their beds for a little rest, on a certain morning at day-break, St. Gall 
arose. Calling the Deacon Magnoald, he said : " Prepare what is requisite 
for the holy oblation, that without delay, I may celebrate the Divine 
Mysteries." Magnoald asked if he were then about to offer up the holy 
Mass. The Abbot answered : " After the vigils of this night, I learned from 
a vision, that my Abbot and Father Columbanus has passed from the troubles 
of this life to the joys of Paradise, 35 and for his eternal repose I must 
immolate the Victim of Propitiation." The usual sign being given, on 
entering the oratory, they prayed ; then Mass commenced, and an offering 
was made for the repose of St. Columban. 36 Having concluded the Holy 
Sacrifice, the Venerable Gallus said to his Deacon Magnoald : " My son, let 
not the weight of my request be too great for you, but set out for Italy to the 
Monastery of Bobbio, and bring me an exact account of what has happened 
to my Abbot. Note also the day and the hour, so that if you find him to be 
dead, you may know whether or not my vision has been truly fulfilled. 
Learning all those circumstances, and with careful enquiries, bring the account 
back to me." Casting himself at the feet of his superior, the deacon declared 
the way was unknown to him. But, the venerable Abbot addressed him in 
gentle tones of comfort and assurance, that the Lord would guide his steps. 
Then recollecting the prophetic words of St. Columban, that he should go 
into Italy, and to his tomb, as also to bring back the Cambuta, for a token 
of St. Gall's absolution, Magnoald asked the abbot's benediction, and 
immediately he prepared for the journey. Thus, in the year 615, St. Magnus 
is said to have been sent by St. Gall to the Monastery of Bobbio,37 in Italy, 
so that he might make exact enquiries, regarding the death of St. Columban. 

In token of reconciliation with the great Abbot of Bobbio, St. Magnus, 
after one night's stay, brought a letter and his staff back to St. Gall. This 
latter was known as the Cambutta, 38 and it was to serve as a token of his 
reconciliation and absolution. This seems to have been a walking-stick, 
used by the venerable Abbot, and the original material was wood of an 

he and St. Gall in conjunction "juxta olympiade." — " Histoire Literaire de la 

doctrinam magistri Columbani, disciplinam France,'' tome iii., vii. Siecle, p. 509. 
Grammatical artis, seu ceterorum librorum 36 See Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S. 

divinorum, eum erudientes, magistrum Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xi., sect, xvii., 

scola? constituerunt." p. 309. 

33 Such is the opinion of Pere Charles 37 It was built near the River Trebbia, 
le Cointe, who thinks that there had been at the foot of the Apennines, and about 
two Othmars : the first a disciple of St. forty-five miles N.E. from Genoa. In 
Gall and St. Magnus, and who flourished in course of time, a town grew around it, and 
the seventh century ; the other renowned as it became the see of a bishop. See 
the holy Abbot of St. Gall, who lived in the ** Gazetteer of the World," vol. ii., p. 787. 
eighth century. See "Annales Ecclesiastici 38 Also written cambutla and cambolia. 
Francorum," tomus iii., at A.D. 661, num. 2. Du Cange derives it from " cam-bot " or 

34 This opinion is rejected by Father " bot-cam," used by the Armorican Britons 
Suysken, who admits, however, that some to express a crooked-stick. See "Glossanum 
Othmar — about whom little can now be ad Scriptores Medise ct infimae Latinitatis," 
known — had received his education from tomus ii., col. 72. But, it has other 
St. Gall and St. Magnus. significations. It is used to denote an 

35 St. Columbanus is thought to have episcopal or abbatial crozier, while 
departed this life on the xi. of the December sometimes it seems to be distinguished from 
Kalends, A.D. 615. "II est neanmoins either, although ornamented with gold and 
certain qu'il avoit attaint l'age de soixante- silver, as we read, in Gestis Gaufredi 
douze-ans, lorsqu'il ^crivit son poeme a Episcopi Cenoman : "Cambutam argenteam 
Fedolius, qui paroit avoir et6 fait pendant magni pondeiisdeauratam et opere decoram 
sa derniere maladie. II dit expressement cum baculo pastorali." — Mabillon's " Ana- 
qu'il etait a la fin de sa dix-huiiieme lecta," tomus iii., p. 390. 



unknown species, which, at a later period, had been covered with silver- 
plating^ partly intended for ornament, and partly to preserve it from the 
decay of time, especially as it was liable to be frequently used, and it bore 
other relics enclosed/ It was ornamented with a carved figure/ 1 supposed 
to represent St. Magnus, with curious figures and designs. The staff is about 
three feet, Antwerp measure, in height; whether originally curved is not 
known, but at present it presents a straight appearance. This was long 
afterwards preserved at St. Gall/ 2 and at a later time, as a relic in Fiissen.43 
With all possible speed the messenger returned homewards, but it took him 
eight days to accomplish that journey through a rough and mountainous 
country. When the Epistle of Columban had been presented to St. Gall 
and read by him, tenderly recollecting their mutual love and former relation- 
ship, he shed tears. Calling the monks together, he manifested the greatness 
of his sorrow, and all joined in prayer and sacrifice for the beatitude of their 
illustrious Patriarch. 

For ten years after this Italian visit, St. Magnus remained with St. Gall.* 4 
At the end of that period, seeing his superior begin to fail in strength, and 
when he had contracted a fever, a message was sent to John, Bishop ot 
Constance. Hearing of that illness, the devoted prelate immediately set out, 
bearing with him delicacies of food and drink 4 $ for his venerable friend ; 
but, when he approached the town of Arbon, 46 news reached him, that St. 

3 9 A description of this staff, furnished by 
the Rev. Father Columban Zeiller, a 
professed religious of the monastery at 
Fiiessen, to the Rev. Father Maurice 
Chardon, Rector ot the Jesuit College of 
Constance, had been communicated to 
Father Suysken, and from his details, we 
have incorporated the particulars in our 
text. To make the description stilt more 
intelligible to the student of ecclesiastical 
antiquities, Father Suysken has introduced 
an interesting copperplate engraving of the 
subject, and which runs the length of a 
column on page 725. 

40 Whether this be of gold, or silver-gilt, 
is not stated. 

41 The Abbot Henry, writing on the 14th 
of August, a.d. 1607, causeu the case in 
whien they had been kept to be opened, in 
the presence of Father Abraham Hayl, 
sub-prior, Father Caspar Weber, sacristan, 
and some seculars. Then were disclosed 
seven particles— in German siven penggelin 
— elegantly arranged ; yet no papers were 
to be found, or if such had been there 
placed, they were then destroyed through 
lapse of time- He adds : " liac occasione 
et bacuhun S. iMagni, aperire curavi, ubi, 
inveni, rehquias divae Vnginis, S. Benedicti, 
S. Magni, S. Galb, S. Udalrici, 
S. Seba.stiani, S. Eustachi et Mauritii, cum 
schedis suis, nomina contimntibus. Item 
aliam particulam absque scheda legibili." 

42 Among tiie sacred treasures of this 
church, we are informed, that the staff of 
St. Columban had been preserved at the 
altar dedicated to St. Gall, and on a certain 
occasion had been brought thence by the 

Blessed Abbot Notker Balbulus, who 
flourished there in the ninth and beginning 
01 the tenth century. At this time it sus- 
tained a fracture. The account is contained 
in the tract of Ekkehardus Junior — a writer 
of the eleventh century — "De Casibus 
Monasteiii S. Galli, 1 ' cap. iii. This is also 
stated by another Ekkehardus, Dean of St. 
Gall, in a Life of the same Notker, and a 
writer of the thirteenth century, as found 
in the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus i., Aprilis vi., the date assigned for 
his testival. 

43 At what time it had been transferred to 
this place does not appear ; but, in the 
process of Notker Balbulus' Canonization, 
begun on the 2nd of July, A.D. 1513, 
Ulricus Herr, a professed religious of the 
monastery of St. Gall, testifies, that a very 
ancient staff, having a fracture, and of which 
mention had been made in the Twenty- 
sixth chapter of "Vita B. Notkeri,'' was 
produced, "qui dicitur baculus S. Colum- 
bani, cum quo idem B. Notkerus dacmonem 
verberasse asseritur." However, we do not 
find any statement to inform us, as to whether 
the staff had been brought at that time from 
the monastery of St. Gall, or from that of 

44 In Goldast's edition we read : " Com- 
moratus est autem B. Magnoaldus cum S. 
Galio fere annos decern post perpetratum 
iter ab Italia ; decimo vero anno defunctus 
est B. Gallus." 

45 These refreshments are not mentioned 
in the Acts of our saint as published by 

46 In it, St. Gall departed this life. 

t46 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

Gall had peacefully expired in the ninety-fifth year of his age. 4 ? In tears and 
sorrow, Bishop John proceeded to the place where the body of the holy 
Abbot lay. The usual requiem offices were religiously celebrated. Afterwards, 
with prayer and benediction, the Bishop and Magnoald 48 placed the coffin on 
a chariot drawn by two untamed horses, who, without driver or rein, 
proceeded leisurely and in a direct course to the cell which St. Gall had 
previously erected. There they came to a stand, when Magnoald and 
Theodore, lifting the coffin, brought the sacred remains into the church, where 
they were placed before the altar. Having, with the Bishop, finished the 
prayers, in accordance with the funeral rites, St. Gall was religiously buried. 
When Bishop John returned to his place, Magnoald and Theodore, with 
Othmar and other monks, were left to guard the relics as a sacred deposit. 
Three years alter St. Gall's death, and in fulfilment of St. Columban's 
prophecy, it is related, that a certain Otwin/9 and his prefect Erchonald, 50 
who were men of abandoned lives, collected a multitude of spoilers, and 
attacked the monastery of St. Gall. They broke in the gates, and not only 
rifled the ccenobium of its gold, silver, and other precious treasures, but 
destroyed the tomb of St. Gall, thinking to find therein something of value. 
All those whom they met to oppose them were killed, while they left 
Magnoaldus and Theodorus beaten and lying wounded in the atrium. 
Hearing of these outrages, Bishop Boso, 51 who then ruled over the See of 
Constance, hastened to the scene of violence, and found both of those holy 
servants disabled, and incapacitated from repairing their master's tomb, much 
as they desired. However, the compassionate prelate consoled them as best 
he could, and the comiminity of monks being assembled, chaunting psalms 
and hymns, with prayers, the body of St. Gall was again buried in the former 
grave, which was then filled with earth.* 2 Bestowing his benediction on the 
two religious brothers, Magnoald and Theodore, Boso presented his own 
vestments to them, and furnishing other necessaries, he gave them permission 
on the restoration of their strength, to seek whatever place of living the Lord 
had destined for them. 

Recollecting the monition and prophecy of St. Columban regarding the 
eastern mission of Magnoald, he and his companion Theodore betook 
themselves to prayer.53 The following night, Magnoald had a vision, which 
indicated, that he should have confidence in the Divine assistance which 
would be afforded him ; and on the following morning, both companions 
prayed with all the greater fervour, that the Lord would guide their way as He 
willed, and show them how their destination could be accomplished. At 

47 His death has been generally assigned think him to be identical with a Huso, Buffo, 
to the year 625. Obihardus or Obbaldus. 

48 In Walafridus Strabo's "Vila S. Galli." 5 s Walafridus Strabo thus describes the 
it is stated, that the Bishop, with Wilhniar, bishop's action : "Sumens loculum, in quo 
Magnoald and Theodore had desired, in sanctum corpus erat, posuit super terram, 
the first instance, to inter St. Gall at inter parietem et altare, et desuper, ul 
Arbon. nioris est, arcam altiorem construxit, fossam 

49 Who he was seems to be unknown. vero terra replevit." — " Vita S. Galli." 

In the "Vita S. Galli," the spoiler is de- bi Father Suy.skcn remarks, that the 

scribed as '* praifectus et partium earumdem preceding narrative in the Acta Pseudo- 

potestate" Theodon, seems to have been taken from 

50 He is also designated Erchanoldus and the lives of Saints Columban and Gall, and 
Erwinus, but in any form of the name, he that what follows appears to be the product 
has no historic celebrity. of the compiler or compilers. In the edition 

5 ' Except from what is stated of him in of Goldast, Liber Secundus is prefixed, at 

the Lives of St. Gall and St. Magnus, little the beginning of the sentence substantially 

more appears to be known. Some writers translated in the text. 


noon, a certain priest, named Tozzo 54 or Tosso, arrived from a distant 
country to pay his devotions at the tomb of St. Gall — the fame of whose 
holiness had spread abroad — and it was revealed to him, that he should make 
that pilgrimage, and meet those willing to set out for the east, and whom he 
should conduct thither until they reached the place desired. He brought 
with him a lighted candle in his hand, which the wind did not extinguish 
during the darkness of night, but which at day-break went out of its own 
accord.55 After the death of St. Gall, St. Magnus and Theodore had 
resolved on travelling eastwards, and now they met that stranger pilgrim. On 
enquiry, they learned the nature and purport of his journey. Hearing the 
circumstance related by him, they recognised the guide of their course, 
promised by the Almighty, to whom they gave thanks. Having saluted 
Tozzo with the kiss of peace, they brought him into the Church of St. Gall, 
and to the holy patron's tomb. Afterwards, he was conducted to the guest- 
house, where he was hospitably entertained, and there he spent that night. 
Next morning, the two missionaries, having prayed before the tomb of St. 
Gall, parted from their brother monks with a blessing, and travelled onwards 
with Tozzo, leaving the Lake of Bregentz or Constance on their left. 
At length, they reached Bregentz s 6 itself, where they remained for 
two days. While there, Magnoald cured a poor blind man, who, filled with 
admiration and gratitude for the restoration of his sight, expressed a desire to 
follow Magnoald wherever he went. Having obtained that permission, he 
desired to serve the Lord. Conscious of the miracle wrought in this case, 
the people of Bregentz are said then to have bestowed on him the title and 
name of Magnus. With Tozzo for their guide, Magnoald and Theodore 
resumed their journey, the poor man restored to sight following in their train. 
After some days of travel, they came to a beautiful town which they 
found to be altogether deserted. Magnoald enquired its name, and that of 
the river running by it, and Tozzo answered : " This place, often visited by 
the country-people, is called Campidona ;57 but, they dare not remain here a 
single night, it is so infested with different species of serpents. The river is 
called Hilara ;5 8 not because it disturbs many persons, on account of its swift 
course, for rather it causes them sorrow than joy. It behoves us, however, 
to hasten onwards, lest the serpents find us to be here, and make an onset 
to devour us. For many men who have come hither to hunt, they have 
devoured, not permitting them to remain even for one night." The blessed 
Magnoald then answered : " Truly, our Lord Jesus Christ hath power to drive 
those serpents from this place, as He had in casting out bears, wolves and 
other wild beasts, nay even serpents and demons, through the prayers of our 

54 The festival of St. Tozzo is held on the in Tyrol, on the Bregenzer-see, a gulf of 
16th of January. The theatre of his apos- Lake Constance. In the Middle Ages, it 
tolic labours was Algau, in Suabia, between belonged, with the surrounding territory, to 
Lake Constance and the Tyrolean Alps. the powerful house of Montfort. In 145 1, 
Afterwards he became Bishop of Augsburg. it was obtained by purchase and ceded to 
See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des the Dukes of Austria. See " Gazetteer of 
Saints," tome i., xvi e Jour de Janvier, the World," vol. iii., p. 24. 

pp. 412, 413. 57 Also called Campodunum, now Kemp- 

55 Hence he is represented in art, with a ten, a German city in Bavaria. Here dwelt 
lighted flambeau in his hand, and a rosary, in a fortress the dukes of Suabia, from whom 
to denote a pilgrim. See Rev. Ur. F. C. descended Hiltegardis, the wife of Charle- 
Husenbeth's "Emblems of Saints," p. magne. See Martinus Crusius, "Annates 
205. Suevici," tomus i., lib. ix., cap. 3. 

56 This town is of great antiquity, being s8 The present Iller, which rises in the 
the Brigantia of the Romans. It is now the Tyrol, and flowing northwards by Kempten, 
capital of the circle of Brigenz or Vorarlberg, joins the Danube at Ulm. 

142 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

Superior and Master Gallus", and from that place where he choose to build 
his cell, and to have his sacred body buried. Therefore, with God's 
assistance, it will be expedient for us to remain here during the night." The 
Legend of our Saint's Acts then proceeds to state, that Magnus said to his 
companion : " Brother Theodore, pray and implore God's mercy, that He 
aid us to banish the dragon and demons that dwell in this place, since by 
thee is it designed to be built up and restored ; wherefore let us pray 
unitedly, that the Lord shall be willing to hear us and purify a spot rendered 
uninhabitable for man." Then both prostrated themselves in prayer, and 
while so engaged, a hideous monster, called a Boas,59 from the sound of its 
voice, 60 rushed upon them out of the town. In terror at the sight, the priest 
Tozzo and the man restored to vision ran to save themselves by climbing up 
a tree. Confiding in the Divine assistance, and while Theodore prayed, 
Magnoald arose. Making a sign of the cross, he took the Cambuta and a 
crucifix he bore, to meet the dragon, and crying out: "In the name of my 
Lord Jesus Christ, I command that there you remain, and that the demon 
you contain kill you, through the power of the true and living God." He 
then struck the Boas on the head with the Cambuta, and immediately 
bursting asunder the monster expired. The other vermin in and around the 
town immediately fled, and never afterwards returned. 

When Theodore saw the wonderful miracle wrought, he arose from his 
kneeling posture, and raising his hand towards Heaven exclaimed : " Lord 
God Almighty, who hath created heaven and earth, the sea, and all things in 
them, I give Thee thanks, I invoke Thee, I adore Thee, I sing Thy praises, 
who hath deigned to fr>ee us from such a danger, and from such a pest of 
vermin." He then fell down, and kissed the knees, hands and face of 
Magnoald, and in a transport of joy exclaimed, "Truly, no longer shall you 
be called Magnoald, but Magnus, since the Lord hath granted such graces as 
to free this place not alone from monsters but even from demons." 
Whereupon Magnoald replied : " Do not so express yourself, brother, I am 
not great, but the least of God's servants. He alone has freed us from such 
dangers. Your own prayers were heard by the Lord, and therefore not to 
my merits, but by order of the Almighty, those monsters have departed. 
Now call our fellow-travellers, and let us remain here, since the Lord wills us 
to build a cell in it for His greater glory. Remember how our most holy 
Superior and Father Gallus came to the place he had chosen for his dwelling ; 
so through his merits is it ordained by God, for there can be no doubt, he 
desires this spot to be consecrated to him." 61 Seeing all danger thus 
removed, Tozzo and the man who had recovered sight descended from the 
tree, and prostrated themselves before Magnoald and Theodore. Tozzo then 
cried out: "Truly the Lord is in this place, who hath given such power to 
the holy Magnus, who with his Cambuta hath wrought such a miracle : 
therefore I shall now boldly conduct both of you through the deserts and 

s» Pliny thus writes regarding such a (hat a similar monster was destroyed by St. 

monster: '"Faciunt his ndem in Italia Ililarion, near Epidaurus, a town of 

appellatae boae, in tantam amplitudinem Dalmatia : "Draco mine magnitudinis 

exeuntes, ut, divo Claudio principe, oceisa. (quos gentili sermone boas vocant ab eo, 

in Vaticano solidus in alvo speciatus sit qu<»d tarn grand efl sint, ut boves glutire 

infans. Aluntur primo bubuli lactis succo, soleant) omnem late vastabat provincial!) ; 

unde nomenhabet." — "Historia Naturalis," nee solum armenta et pecudes, Bed agricolas 

HI), viii., cap. 14. quoque et pastores, tractosque ad se vi 

60 In the editions of our saint's Acts by gpiritus sui absorbebat." — "Vita S. 

Canisius and Goldast, such derivation is not Hilarionis." 

given. One very different is to be found in 6l This latter sentence is not in the edition 

the works of St. Jerome, when he relates, of St. Magnus' Acts as published by Canisius. 

September 6.1 LIVES 0* THE IRISH SAINTS. 143 

passes, to wherever you shall chose to dwell. I see such power is bestowed 
bv the Almighty for your merits, because the various localities of this region 
are purified and rendered habitable." Magnoald answered : u Here shall we 
remain for the present week, and build a small oratory, 62 that the people of 
this district may know God's mercy to them, in this very place." During the 
short time of their stay there, Tozzo visited all the neighbouring places 
familiar to him, and made known to the inhabitants the great miracle 
wrought. Many flocked thither, and admired the power of God. St. 
Magnus preached His Word, while still a deacon, and numbers converted to 
the true Faith were baptised by the priest Tozzo. They brought more than 
sufficient food for the missioners' wants, and giving thanks to God, the 
country people willingly aided Magnus and Theodore in the work of building 
their cell. For three days they continued working, and spent the nights in 
prayer. After the matutinal office on the third dawning of day, the demons 
were seen flying through the air, and screaming. Suddenly they set upon 
Tozzo, crying out : " Thou, hostile to our leader 6 3 and to us, why hast thou 
brought this man and his companion to our place, who hath chased us from 
where we and our confederates have subjected many souls ? Their Master 
always conquers us with his agencies, as he does also those who invoke the 
name of the Lord. Yet, he has not alone vanquished and expelled us, but also 
our members by the awe-inspiring name of Adonai." Hearing this, the aforesaid 
priest made a sign cf the cross on himself, and went to the holy man to tell 
him what he had seen and heard. Then the brave athlete and elect of God, 
with Theodore, prostrate in prayer, addressed the Omnipotent in these words : 
" O powerful God, ineffable goodness, inestimable piety, who, according to 
Thy mercy and not through our merits, hast deigned to save us from those 
monsters and demons, graciously hear our prayers as You have those of our 
Superior Gall, and banish the demons from this place, that it may be sanctified 
in Thy name, by daily orisons." 64 Then rising from prayer and going out 
from the oratory, they heard evil spirits howling and crying out: "You, 
Magnus, bear three names on your forehead, and with the Trinity cause 
such ills to us, and you, Theodore, what do you to us? The day must come 
when Magnus shall not be with you, and then we can assail you, and excite 
the various passions of the inhabitants of this region against you." Magnus 
then replied : " Miserable beings, acknowledge if you can the Trinity of 
God." They answered : " We know it to be ineffable and immense." Then 
said the blessed Magnus : " Now that you have acknowledged the Holy 
Trinity, I command you, not in my own poor capacity, but through the 
immense power of the Holy Trinity, that you quit this place, and go into 
mountain deserts wherever the Lord permits you, and that you no longer have 
permission to return." On this sentence being pronounced, the demons cried 
out: "Alas! what shall we do ? Here have we met another Gallus: nay 
more, this Gallus is worse than the former, who with his morning canticles 6 s 

62 In the Latin Acts, "aedificemus ora- shall daily resound at cock-crowing with 
culum parvulum." Thy praises." 

63 In the Latin Acts, "senioris nostri " 6 s The text of the saint's Acts reads thus : 
has many observations regarding the " Heu ! quid faciemus? alium Galium hie 
signification, by Goidast, in a lengthy habemus : imo iste Gallus pejor est priori, 
note. quia cum suis galliciniis nos et membra 

64 The Latin phrase in the Acts of St. nostra pariter ejicit : sed nee in heremo 
Magnus is, " cottidie cantantibus gallis." manere permittit." The demons are here 
Goidast omits it, and Father Suysken under- allowed to have a play on the proper name 
stands it to mean : " Locus iste quotidie sub of Gallus, the master of St. Magnus. Thus : 
gallicinium laudibus tuis resonet." It may "gallus gallinaceus." See also Cicero pro 
thus be rendered in English : " This place Murana, 29. 



drives away us and our companions, not even permitting us to remain in the 
wilderness." From that day forward the demons disappeared, and never 
returned ; for, as the evil ones left, through the prayers of Magnus, so did 
the poison of error depart from many souls there, holiness taking its place. 
Thenceforth the inhabitants enjoyed peace in their dwellings. 66 

Magnus stayed a short time at Campidonum 6 7 or Campodunum, 68 now 
Kempten, 6 9 as he was obliged to accomplish the prediction of his master, St. 
Columban.? That is now a town in Bavaria, and in the circle of Suabia, on 
the left bank of the Uler. Having recommended Theodore to build a church 
in that place,? 1 and leaving the man who had recovered sight with him, 
Magnus gave him the kiss of peace and bade farewell, taking with himself 
the priest Tozzo as a companion. About the year 629, St. Magnus is said 
to have thus journeyed ad Fauces Julias, 1 * where he intended to select a site, 
on which to build a monastery. On the way, a river was passed, before they 
came to a place called Eptaticus,?3 where they found a bishop belonging to 
the renowned Church of Augsburg,"* in Germany. He was named 
Wictherpus.75 Tozzo was intimate with that prelate, and went in advance of 
Magnus, to relate all he knew about the holy man, and the object of his 
visit, which was to seek that spot which Providence had designed for him. 
The bishop asked Tozzo from what country the stranger had come, and he 
received for answer : " My lord, as I have heard from 'Theodore, who has 
been left at Campidona, he was born in the province of Ireland." Having 
heard the report of his virtues and miracles, the Bishop cordially received 
Magnus, who remained with him a few days, and related all he knew regarding 
Saints Columban and Gall, their characters, conversation, wanderings, 
miracles and lives. Then Wictherp enquired about the place to which he 
was going. Then Deacon Magnus replied : " The Lord willing it, I am 
directed to a locality denominated Fauces,? 6 near springs of the Julian Alps, 
and where was a dragon killed by a demon, according to a command of 
Bishop Narcissus, and there, with God's assistance, I shall do all the good 

66 This sentence is omitted in the editions 
of Canisius and Goldast. 

67 At A..D. 752, Mabillon writes : 
" Positus est hie locus in Sueviee finibus ad 
Hilarem amnem, a quo inditum pago 
Hilergovse noraen. Nobile in primis cceno- 
bium, nobilium Suevorum seminarium, ac 
totius Suevise monasterium facile princeps 
cujus abbas inter principes imperii quatuor- 
viros locum habet." — " Annales Ordinis 
Sancti Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxii., sect, 
lxv., pp. 159, 160. 

68 It lies 61 miles W.S.W. from Munich. 
It consists of two parts : the old town and 
the Stifts-Siadt, having close upon 8,000 
inhabitants, with a fine collegiate church, 
library, and manufactures of cottonand linen. 
See "Gazetteer of the World," vol. viii., 
p. 473- 

69 See Baudrand's "Novum Lexicon Geo- 
graphicum," tomus i., p. 154. 

70 The Benedictine writers state of 
Theodore : " 6 qui on rapporte la premiere 
origine de la celebre Abbaie de Kempten." 
— Histoire l.iteraire de la France," tome 
iii., vii. Siecle, p. 635. 

71 Theodore is called by Canisius the first 

Abbot of Kempten. However, Hermann 
states, that Audegarius was the first founder 
and abbot there, A.D. 752. Sec Mabillon's 
" Annales Ordinis Sancti Benedicti," tomus 
ii., lib. xxii., sect, lxv., p. 159. 

72 Mabillon states "ad Fauces alpiutn 
Juliarum accessi-se," &c. — Ibid., tomus i., 
lib. xiii., sect, xxxiii.. p. 392. 

73 Rader calls it Heptaticus, a village in 
Boica, between Land-perg and Schongavie, 
near the River Lich. See " Bavaria Sacra." 

74 Bearing the Latin denomination of 
Augusta Vindelicensis. 

75 lie i- venerated as a saint, on the 18th 
of April, the day for his feast. He was 
bishop of Augsburg about the year 654. 
See Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des 
Saints," tome iv., xviik- Jour d'Avril, p. 

76 Baud rand has the following description 
of the place : " Abusiacum, seu Abodiacus, 
Fuessen.oppidum alias Vindeliceae in Rhxnia, 
nunc Suevise, provinciae Germanise, in ipse 
limiie Bavaria:. in ditione episcopiAugustani. 
Distal xii. milliaribus Germanicis ab 
Augusta Vindelicorum in Meridiem." — 
" Novum Lexicon-Geographicum." 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 145 

within my power. Now let your reverence prescribe for me, how I shall 
obey you, as I desire to become your subject, and receive the Lord's com- 
mand from your mouth. I am now an old man, and I desire in my closing 
years, if it be your pleasure, to see that place, and prepare in it to serve God, 
following the rule of my most blessed superiors, Columban and Gall." The 
Bishop replied : "The place you seek is very rugged and deserted by man, 
and various wild animals, such as deer, boars and bears abound there, so 
that my Lord the King Pipin 77 has reserved it as a hunting-ground for his 
own use. Serpents of various kinds are also to be met with." Then Magnus 
said : " Father, such grace had my masters Columban and Gall, that when 
they came to places where they desired to dwell, our Lord Jesus Christ 
through their prayers banished the wild animals and vermin. In like manner, 
through His mercies, I believe, He will not allow such pests to remain there 
when I come." Giving his assent, and spreading before them some food, the 
Bishop sent attendants with Magnus and Tozzo to that spot, known to the 
inhabitants as Rosshaupten,? 8 rendered Head of the Horse,79 where a fierce 
dragon lurked in a crevice, and would not permit any man nor horse to 
approach that way. 

When there arrived, the Deacon Magnus said to the Priest Tozzo : 
u Brother, let us set up our tent here for the night, and pray to the Lord, 
that He would expe.1 the present demoniac subject from this spot, and permit 
us to advance." Accordingly, they rested there, but during that night, 
Magnus prayed and invoked the Divine assistance to overcome the dragon. 
At midnight, however, he said to Tozzo : " Give me a man, who will lead me 
to the den where that dragon lies." Tozzo replied, that he feared the monster 
should devour him, but Magnus answered : " If the Lord be with us, who shall 
be against us, let us therefore go in confidence, since he who released Daniel 
from the lion's den 8o can also snatch me from this wicked monster's power." 
Saying these words, Magnus placed some bread that had been blessed, in his 
satchel, hanging a small crucifix from his neck. He took some pitch and 
rosin, and the Cambuta of St. Gall, in his hands ; then he prayed, " O Almighty 
Lord, who hath brought me into a distant country, send Thy angel with me, 
as in the case of Thy servant Tobias, 81 deliver me from the power of this 
dragon, and show me the place destined for our most ardent desires." Then 
having a little of the blessed bread and water in his mouth, and taking with 
him a single guide, leaving all his other companions in the tent, Magnus set 
out for the place where the dragon lay in wait. Immediately he arose to 
attack the holy Deacon, who threw burning pitch and rosin into the monster's 
mouth, with a prayer to God for the result. The dragon burst asunder, and 
died on the instant. 82 The man who had accompanied him, on seeing that 
miracle, ran back to the tent, and brought those who remained behind to 
witness it. They found Magnus engaged in prayer and thanksgiving, in 

" As Pepin, surnamed the Short, did not from the town of Fussen, and in the direction 

begin to reign until A. D. 750 ; no other of Augsburg. 

prince of the name can here be intended, if ? 9 The author of our saint's Acts remarks, 

not Pippin the Senior, Major-domus of " idcirco vocatus est iste locus Caput Equi, 

Dagobert I., and Sigebert, Kings of quia omnes venatores reliquerunt ibi cabal los 

Austrasia. suos, et pedestres ibant, quocumque poterant 

7 8 By the Germans ros means "horse," ad venandum." 

and haupt "head." Hence Rader gives it *° See Daniel, c. vi. 

the Greek rendering, Hippocephalum. In 8l See Tobias, c. v. 

the map, prefixed to the " Commentarius 82 Father Suysken believes, that this 

Rerum Augustinarum " of F. Charles account is taken from what is related 

Stengel, the spot is shown at the River in a nearly similar manner in Daniel, xiv. 

Lech, and a little more than a German mile 26. 


i 4 6 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

which Tozzo devoutly joined. Afterwards, they left that rugged place, and 
went to the River Lech. From the neck of Magnus depended a crucifix or 
case, 8 3 containing relics of the Holy Cross, of the Blessed Virgin Mary, of the 
holy Martyrs, Maurice and his companions, as also of the Blessed Confessors 
Columban and Gall. 8 * Near the banks of the River Lech was found a 
spacious and beautiful plain, 8 s where a large apple-tree grew, 86 and on its 
branches Magnus hung the reliquary, and called Tozzo to him. Both 
engaged in prayer, and Magnus exclaimed: " Lord Jesus Christ, who hast 
deigned to be born of the Virgin and to die for our salvation, despise not the 
contrition for my sins, but allow us to construct an oratory here in honour of 
Thy holy Mother, and prepare also a dwelling for Thy servants." 

Whereupon, they began to dig the foundations and to build a church 
there. Afterwards, they invited Bishop Wictherp to come and consecrate it 
to our Lord and to Holy Mary. 8 7 Their request he complied with, and it 
was dedicated to the Mother of God and to St. Florianus. 88 In it, the Divine 
Mysteries were soon celebrated. Hearing of the great miracle wrought through 
his merits, the people flocked far and near to the cell of St. Magnus — for 
such they chose to call it, on account of his virtues and miraculous powers. 
It was also enriched with gifts by the faith ful. 8 9 Leaving Tozzo there to 
minister for their spiritual welfare, and commending him to the congregation,^ 
Magnus knew that another place not far removed was destined for his own 

Thence he went to Fauces — the present Fiissen — situated on the River 
Leek, in the circle of the Upper Danube, Bavaria.9 1 There, too, the evil spirits 
are said to have had previous possession of the locality, and while some were 
buried in the depths of the River Leek, others held possession of the 
mountains near it.9 2 They were heard mutually to lament the arrival of 

83 This was afterwards kept in the monas- ecclesia non in honorem divse Virginis et S. 
tery of Fiissen. The Abbot Henry, in Floriani, sed in honorem Salvatoris nostri 
1607, opened this case, and found within it est dedicata." 

seven different objects, but without any 88 The Benedictine Father Charles Stengel 

inscription. In German they are called understood this dedication, as referring to 

siven penggelin, but Father Suysken states, the monastery of Fiissen, in his " Monas- 

he could not anywhere find the interpretation teriologia, in qua insignium Monasteriorum 

of the words. Faniiliae Sancti Benedicti in Germanin, 

84 Father Suysken rather supposes the Origines, Fundatores. Claiique Viii, &c. , 
narrative in the text to have been drawn by reri iacbae occulis subjiciuntur." Augsburg, 
the interpolator from an incident of a nearly 1619, 1638, two tomes in one folio volume, 
similar character related by Walafridus However, in this he was mistaken, as 
Strabo in his " Vita S. Galli." Waltenhofen was really the place destined 

85 Rader states, that in his day it was for St. Tozzo, as the Bollandist Father 
called Waltenhofen. See "Bavaria pia," Henschenn shows in his Acts, at the 16th 
p. 1S6. of January. See " Acta Sanctorum," 

80 Father Babenstuber, in his "Vita S. 'tomus ii., at that same day. 

Magni," relates, that in his day it was *» In the edition of our saint's Acts by 

staled this apple-tree grew in the garden of Goldast, much of what follows in the text is 

a certain Adam Mayr of Waltenhofen, near omitted. 

the parish church. Although from time 9° The Vita S. Magni states :" relinquens 

to time that tree had been imprudently prsefatum pnvsbyterum Tozzouem in ecclesia 

mutilated, still it recovered growth, and sanctze Mariae ad populum illis venturum 

many strangers came from a distance to custodiendum vocavitque ipsum locum 

obtain its leaves and branches, which were Synagoga, id est Congregatio populorum." 

thought to drive away mice from their 9 l See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 

meadows and fields. See lib. ii., cap. 5. Saints," tome x., Jour vi e Septembre, 

87 The Abbot Henry, in annotations to p. 528. 

his manuscript, writes : "Collige falli eos, 92 The Bollandist editor invites the reader 

qui hanc ecclesioe dedicationem attribuunt to compare this account, with what is related 

ecclesiie Faucensi : nostra enim prima regarding St. Gall, by Walafridus Strabo; 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 147 

Magnus in the district, when signing himself with the cross, he said : " In the 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and not through my merits, but those of the 
blessed Gallus, his confessor, and through his glorious deposition, I adjure 
you to depart from this place and return not, nor retiring presume to injure 
anv person." Soon afterwards, the holy deacon crossed over the river 93 to the 
Church of St. Mary, which he had built for Tozzo, and related all he had 
heard and seen.** When the hour for vespers came, with its sacred song, 
were heard the loud howls of the demons from the mountain tops, as if 
terrified on departing. The servants of God gave thanks in prayer for this 
victory over the wicked spirits. On the next day, Magnus and Tozzo 
returned to the place already described, and there, with the assistance of the 
people, a small oratory was erected. It was dedicated to our Saviour,95 by 
Bishop Wictherpus. 

This chapel had a ccenobium attached to it, but in the lapse of time, 
both were more than once destroyed and again reconstructed ; until in the 
ninth century, the bishops of Augsburg 9 6 — and especially Lanto97 — took 
care that a larger church should be erected. This was dedicated to our 
Saviour and to St. Magnus. It was also regarded as a parish church. In 
the year 1 701, the Most Rev. Dom. Gerard, the fifty-second Abbot of Fiissen, 
had the church and monastery magnificently renovated, and in the year 171 7, 
on the 15th of February, the consecration took place, by the Most Rev. and 
Serene Lord Bishop of Augsburg, Alexander Sigismund, Count Palatine. 
According to the description given of this church, it was built in magnificent 
proportions, being of noble design, while the materials were superior, and the 
workmanship was most elaborate.9 8 The structure was cruciform, two 
hundred feet in length, by sixty in height, whence a roof arose to the apex of 
forty additional feet. The transepts were eighty-four feet in width, elsewhere 
the breadth was sixty feet. Twelve columns supported the roof within, and 
on each of these was the beautiful and artistic figure of an apostle carved in 
fine marble ; while sixty triple windows, oblong, rounded and lunated, threw 
light into the building. Within the church were four oratories ; the two 
larger devoted to the choristers, and the other two fitted for the practice of 
devotion. The choir was rounded off and elongated for accommodation of 
the religious, who used it both by day and night, and the stalls were 
elegantly carved in mottled wood. Moreover, within the church were 

and, he must find, that what has been ^ Of it, the Abbot Henry writes, that in 

attributed to the latter saint at Bregentz is his opinion, it rested on a rock above the 

also ascribed by the interpolator to St. great church of his time, and that it was 

Magnus at Fussen. Wherefore, lie deems near their conventual garden, " ubi jam 

the story in the text worthy only to be re- constructa manet ecclesia nostra major." 
ganled as a fable. 96 Much chronological uncertainty pre- 

93 Waltenhofen and Fussen were on vails regarding the order of succession and 
opposite banks of the River Lech. dates for the episcopacy of Augsburg during 

94 The Abbot Henry alludes to a spot the Middle Ages, as shown by Father 
near the Lech, called S. Mangen schritt. Suysken, in the " Acta Sanctorum," tomus 
Regarding it, Father Ludovicus Babenstuber ii., Septembris vi. De Sancto Magno, &c, 
states: "Extra suburbicen Fuessense, ubi Commentarius Przevius, sect, viii., pp. 716 
est fullonia, in utraque ripa Lyci notantur to 720. 

partes petra; depressiores cateris, quas vulgus 97 This prelate— also called Hanto — is said 

S. Magni vestigia (S. Mangen schritt) to have presided over his see for seven years, 

nominat ; quae Divusdestituerit ibiimpressa, and to have been present at the Synod of 

quando omnem superavit, seu vado, seu Mayence, held A.n. 847. 
portatus ab angelo. Non tamen referunt 98 We have here abridged a detailed descrip- 

ea, ut satis agnosci queat, figuram plantarum tion of this grand chinch, dedicated to St. 

humanarum : in causa ajunt esse vetustatem, Magnus, from that given by the Rev. Father 

quae madore imbrium, niveumque adjuta, Chardon, Rector of the Jesuit College of 

manifestiora lineamenta exederit." Constance, to the Bollandists. 



admirably pictured incidents in his life, and representations of some miracles 
wrought by St. Magnus. The high altar, magnificently and skilfully carved 
from precious marble, closed the choir, and the pavement of the choir was of 
black and white marble, in a varied and harmonizing pattern. There are 
eight chapels within the church : two larger ones within the transepts ; and 
six smaller ones — all of their altars being marble ; also, a large organ, and 
two smaller ones. A few steps conduct to the entrance of two subterranean 
chapels: one of these is dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and there is the 
baptismal font, enclosed within a marble baptistery. But, the chapel of St. 
Magnus, which adjoins, is still more ornate ; for not alone is the altar of 
marble, but the walls and pavement are exquisitely adorned with varied 
coloured marbles, and arranged with great artistic taste. Tradition maintains, 
that this latter chapel stands on the original site of the cell of St. Magnus.?? 



Some religious clerics were soon found to place themselves under the rule 
of St. Magnus, 1 and they were recommended to his care by the good prelate, 
who also furnished the means necessary for their support. He is said, like- 
wise, to have furnished a recommendation in person to the renowned King 
Peppin 2 or Pippin d'H£ristall,3 who then ruled over Germany and Gaul,* 

» Father Chardon adds : " Sacellum S. 
Magni ab initio et prima monasteni funda- 
tione ereclum, antiquissime documenta 
dicunt fuisse habitaculum et ipsissimam 
cellam, in qua S. Magnus primus fundator 
et patronus noster habitavit in vivis ; et ideo 
semper in summo honore habitual, ssepius 
cum monasterio et ecclesia, partim incendi, 
partim devastationibus destructum, sed 
semper iterum innovatum, cum ecclesia et 
monasterio anno MDCCI. noviter et fundo 
erecto et hoc sacellum e fundo noviter ex- 
tructum et pulcherrime exornaium fuit, 
ut hodie visitur ; ita tamen ut eumdem 
semper locum servaverit, quern habuit, 
vivente S. Magno, postcujus obitum postliac 
in sacellum mutatum est. ' 

Chapter hi. — ' The Acts of St. Magnus, 
as published by the Boilandists, state, that 
he ruled over them for thirty years ; but this 
account does not accord with other versions 
of his Acts, which give him only twenty- 
live years, as a superior. Even the aforesaid 
Acts are inconsistent with their subsequent 
relation of the death of St. Magnus, " ex- 
pletis viginti sex annis commorationis suae 
in illo ccenobio," &c. 

2 He. was grandson, through his mother, 

Begga, of Pepin le Vieux, or of Landen, 
mayor of the palace under Sigebert III., 
son of Dagobert, who died A. I). 638, and 
whom lie survived only one year. In concert 
with his brother Martin, Pepin dTIeristal 
declared war against the King of Neustria, 
or rather against the mayor or his house, 
the able minister, Ebroin. Their career 
commenced by getting rid of the Merovin- 
gian King Dagobert II., who then ruled in 
Austrasia. However, having levied a 
powerful army, they marched against Ebroin 
and the Neustrian>, but were signally de- 
feated near Laon, in 680, when Martin was 
killed, and Pepin saved himself by flight. 
Not long afterwards, Ebroin Was assas- 
sinated, and. his successors gave such 
offence, that many of the Neustnan leudes 
sought refuge in the dominions of Pepin. 
The latter then levied a confederacy of those 
malcontents, together with the Saxons, 
Prisons, Cattes, Hessians, Thuringians and 
other Germans ; and with these he fought a 
decisive and bloody battle near Testri on 
the Somme, in 687. Afterwards, Thierry 
III. being made prisoner, Pepin consoli- 
dated his authority over all provinces 
occupied by the Erancs. See Le Dr. 



while he presented also an epistle of St. Columban s directed to Lothaire, 6 
in favour of the holy men, Gallus and Magnus, 7 who had settled in his 
kingdom. Whereupon, moved by that epistle, Peppin 8 enquired from some 
of his German chiefs about that place, for which Bishop Witcherp preferred 
his petition. Then Gungo,9 Duke of Augsburg and Rhetia, told him about 
its desert character, and of its being only a haunt for wild animals and 
serpents. Extolling the virtues of Magnus, Wictherp stated, so marvellous 
had been his\ sanctity, while in that country, that like the first man, Adam, he 
exercised an absolute power over the savage animals, 10 and how in that 
vicinity was a stronghold occupied by a frightful demon, which assumed 
the figure of a dragon, and who, under such form, usurped the supreme 
honour, due to God alone, among the poor and ignorant mountaineers. 

However, St. Magnus resolved to encounter that demon, and fortified by 
prayer, he touched the monster on the neck, with the end of St. Columban's 
staff. Immediately, the demon's wrath was excited, but swelling up in fury, 
he expired on the spot, and with him disappeared all the other demons, 
that were thought to infest those mountainous regions. While there, it was 
stated, that he also freed the neighbourhood from serpents. 

On hearing such accounts, King Pippin declared, that as wonderful 
miracles had been already wrought where the body of St. Gallus was deposed, 
so should that wild district have its fame diffused abroad in after times. He 
then asked Gunzon if there could be found tax-payers to the royal treasury 
in that neighbourhood, who might have their tributary returns sent to St. 
Magnus, instead of to the royal fisc. The king learned, that there was a 
village, called Geltenstein, 11 that might serve for that purpose. Whereupon, 
he bestowed by charter I2 a large tract of woodland, with the village in 

Hoefer's " Nouvelle Biographie Generate," 
tome xxxix., cols. 540, 54 1. 

3 So designated from a celebrated villa, 
in which he dwelt on the banks of the 
Meuse, near Liege. See Henri Martin's 
" Ilistoire de France," tome ii., liv. xi., 
p. 160. 

4 In ihe year 700 he was Mayor of the 
Palace for the whole of the French Empire, 
" tant en Neustrie qu'en Austrasie." — 
Kohlrausch's " Histoire d'Allemagne," 
traduite de l'Allemand, par A. Guinefolle, 
Deuxieme Epoque, p. 77. 

5 In his " Vita S. Columbani," Jonas 
states, that when King Clothaire earnestly 
besought the holy Abbot to return and again 
preside over Luxeu, St. Columban wrote to 
Eustasius — then Superior over Luxeu — that 
he would excuse him to the King for not 
undertaking such a charge, but only to ask 
lor the assistance and protection of the 
monarch on behalf of his community, that 
then lived in the monastery at Luxeu. 

6 Jonas adds : " Litteras castigationem 
affamine plenas regi dirigit gratissimum 
munus," &c. 

? Jonas makes no mention of Gallus and 
Magnus, and Father Suysken observes, 
" non dubito taman, quin hasce litteras 
interpolator noster designet." 

8 " Gros et court comme son surnom le 
portait, il etoit d'unc taille a n'imprimer 

pas beaucoup de respect ; mais il y supleoit 
par une grande force, et par un certain air 
de fierte, qui reparoit en lui ce defaut de la 
nature." — M. de Limiers' " Annates de la 
Monarchic Francoise, depuis son Etab- 
lissement jusques a Present." Premiere 
Partie. Seconde Race, Pepin dit le Bref, 
pp. 49, 50. Amsterdam, 1 724, fol. 

9 Goldast has the name written Cuntzo. 
He seems to have been the magnate, from 
whose daughter, Frideburga, St. Gall is 
stated to have expelled the evil spirit. 

10 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 
Saints," tome x., Jour vi e Septembre, p. 
528, n. 1. 

11 So written in the Acts, as published by 
the Bollandists. In the edition of Canisius, 
it is written Geltinstein ; in that of Goldast, 
Keltinstein, and called by the Abbot Henry 
Geltenstain. The latter writer notices, that 
no longer was it known by such a name, 
bub he supposed it to have been in the 
Tyrol. Mabillon quotes a charter of Ludo- 
vicus Augustus, in favour of Kempten, and 
in which mention of it is thus made, "in 
pago Keltenstein." See "Annate-; Ordinis 
S. Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxxii., sect, 
xiv., p. 609. 

12 In the Acts as published by Goldast we 
read : " Dedit ei totum ipsum saltum cum 
marcha, firmitatemque in epistola," &c. At 
this passage Goldast remarks, that by 



question, x 3 and a yearly payment of one hundred and twenty-three pounds 1 * 
of silver. This was to be binding on himself and his successors for ever/s 
That grant was placed, also, under the jurisdiction of Bishop Wictherp and 
all his episcopal successors. Receiving some royal present for Magnus, the 
bishop returned with great satisfaction to urge him there to supplement the 
religious services of St. Mary and of St. Afra, 16 as also to regulate and 
institute all canonical observances. There accordingly St. Magnus founded 
his chief monastic institution, and during the life-time of King Pepin x i 
enjoyed his friendship and patronage. The latter monarch was viitual 
sovereign, as Major Domus, in the palace of the French kings, and he died 
December 1 6th, 714, 18 while Dagobert III. '9 was under his tutelage. 

No sooner had he been well settled in Fiissen, than his former com- 
panion, Theodore of Kempen, paid him a visit, and after the usual 
religious salutations had passed between them, Magnus was informed 
and consulted about the persecutions and injuries Theodore had suffered 
from the people around him, 20 and how he had built a small church 
on the banks of the Iller. He was desirous of having it consecrated 
in honour of the Holy Mother of God, Mary, by Bishop Wictherp. 
Both of those attached friends then went to see the bishop at Eptaticus, 21 
where he then resided, and preferred their request. He was then 
sitting and at prayer in his oratory. On learning the object of their 
interview, the venerable prelate said: "I will first tell you what I had in my 
mind before you came, and then at a proper time, in the name of God, I 
shall go with you. Indeed, my most dear Father Magnus, as the Lord hath 

marcha he means the village, previously 
called Keltinstein, and that such term has 
the modern signification of a territory or 

13 Henry, Abbot of Fiissen, gives the 
following interpretation : " Nota saltum 
ilium, quen. Pippinus S. Magno donasse 
dicitur, fuisse totum ilium districtum et 
fund urn, magnum et spatiosum desertum, 
quod se extendit ab Hornbach et parochia 
Aschauer usque ad Erspach, et quo spatio 
pnecipue continetur tota parochia Aschaver, 
Saxenriedt, Hohenfurch, bona in Nider- 
hoffen ei Altenstat, Dienhausen, Weyssensee 
et Fiiessen," &c. 

14 In the Acts as published by the Bol- 
landists, the text reads, " vectigalia centum 
viginti tria," but in other copies "centum 
et tredecim." The Abbot Henry notes: 
" Si conjecturari licet, puto esse centum et 
tredecim libra* argenti, qose quotannis 
pendenda; erant ex Aschawensi S. Magni 
ecclesia : nam centum et tredecim librae 
faciunt sexaginta quatuor Morenos, triginta 
crucigeros et tinum halerum. Sic hodie 
dttm nobis etiamnum pendunt 
quotannis pro censu sexaginta quatuor 
florenos. Quod ego pro ratione conjecturce 
meas assertum volo." 

'5 Father Suysken, in a note, points out cer- 
tain coincidences of statement and phrase- 
ology, between what is given in the Acts of 
St. Magnus, and in the text of Walafridus 
Strabo, in " De Miraculis S. Galli," 
cap. xi. 

16 In Goldast's edition of St. Magnus' 
Acts, there is no mention of St. Afra. 

l ? By his wife, Plectrude, he had two sons, 
Drogon and Grimoald, who pie-deceased 
their father. Her he repudiated, and after- 
wards cohabited with Alpaide, by whom he 
had two illegitimate sons, Charles and 
Childebrand. However, repenting his illicit 
connexion, he recalled Plectrude to the 
position his religious obligation and her 
virtues so justly merited. Grimoald left a 
son named Theudoalis or Theobaldus, who 
was styled Major Domus while still a youth ; 
but, (luring his minority, Plectrude, the 
wife of Pepin, took upon herself the chief 
administration of public affairs in the king- 
dom, which afterwards became the prey of 
great disorders. See Natalis Alexander's 
" Historia Ecclesiastica Veteris Novique 
Testamenti," tomus xii., scec. vii., cap. vi., 
art. vi., p. 102, and saec. viii., cap. vii., art. 
i., ii., iii., iv., v., pp. 382 to 388. 

,8 See Georgius Heinricus Pertz's "Monu- 
menta Germanise J listorica," tomus v., 
Bernoldi Chronicon, p. 417. 

"SonofChildebert III., who died A.D. 711. 
See J. (J. L. Simonde de Sismondi's " His- 
toire Francois," tome ii., chap, xii., p. 104. 

20 The Acts have it, " narravit ei Theodo- 
rus diversa et innumerabilia, qua? passus est 
a pagensibus Hilargaugensibus," &c. This 
means either the people living near the Iller, 
or in the village situated on its banks. In 
the Ratisbon Manuscript is substituted " ab 
incolis Canipidonensibus." 


exalted you in this place by His great miracles, I had intended to send for 
and ordain you a priest through Divine assistance, on the coming fast of 
the seventh month." 22 However, the humble Magnus declared himself to 
be unworthy of such an exalted dignity, on account of his many sins. Still, 
if on their meditated journey, the Almighty should manifest His approval of 
that intention, Magnus declared, as an obedient servant, he would oppose no 
further obstacle to the prelate's desire. On making that statement, Wictherp 
and Theodore saw a brilliant crown of glory encircling his head. The prelate, 
then rising, embraced Magnus, and cried out: "Almighty Lord, who hath 
deigned in the plenitude of Thy power to show such virtues in you, who 
have left your country to observe His precepts, may He cause you to 
magnify and guard the place destined for you, through the grace of Thy Holy 
Spirit." Theodore devoutly answered, " Amen." Again the Bishop said : 
" Well has this place been called Eptaticus, 2 3 because it lies midway 2 * 
between the monastery of the Blessed Afra 2 s and your own cell. Therefore 
shall you know, that after my departure, I desire this possession to belong to 
the Blessed Virgin and to St. Afra, 26 as if this place is destined to be a 
mediator between thy monastery and my church of Augsburg." All three 
then came to Kempten, and on the day of the church's consecration, 
Wictherp preached an impressive sermon before a great number of people. 
About the same time, Magnus was duly ordained a priest. 2 ? There they 
remained for two days. Leaving Theodore in charge of Kempten, Magnus 
set out for Fiissen, and the venerable prelate, Wictherp, went to his own place 
of residence. 

St. Magnus spent six-and-twenty years of his life, at Fassen. 28 The 

31 Father Charles Stengel supposes he had 
discovered the site of this place, not far from 
the River Lech, and an hour's journey from 
the village of Eppach. There in a lonely 
and uncultivated situation was a small 
chapel, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and 
to St. Laurence. This information he re- 
ceived from a rustic. " Quo responso in 
earn omnino deveni sententiam, at mihi 
persuaded paterer, hanc ipse esse ecclesiam, 
qua delectatum fuisse B. Wicterpum legi- 
nms, ubi et postea Herluca vitam egerit." — 
" Monasteriologia." 

22 By this is understood the fast of Quatuor 
Tense, in the month of September. It was 
called the seventh month, because it is held, 
that Romulus had ordered the year to com- 
mence from March ; and although Numa 
Pompilius placed January and February 
before March, nevertheless the previous 
numerical order of the months continued in 
the writings of the ancients and ecclesiastical 
authors. " That the year originally began 
with March is shown by the names of 
several of the months ; as Quintilis, Sextilis, 
September, &c. : for Quintilis, afterwards 
Julius, was the fifth month from Marcli ; 
Sextilis, afterwards Augustus, the Sixth, 
&c. : January and February were added to 
the end of the year." — Thomas Henry 
Dyer's History of the Kings of Rome," &c 
Prefatory Dissertation, p. cxxvii. 

23 The anonymous writer of the saint's 
Ratisbon Acts thus finds fault with the deri- 

vation of the name as given in the text, 
"quasi idem vocabulum (Eptaticum) inter- 
pretetur medium, et non potius numerum 
sonet Septenarium, qui Grsec£ dicitur 

24 To the objection in the previous note, 
Father Suysken replies : "Recte : sed quidsi 
locus ille septem circiter leucis utrimque 
dissitus fuerit, inter Augustam scilicet et 
Fauces medius ? Turn sane nihil erit, quod 
improbet anonymus." 

25 Unless this be an interpolation of the 
more recen r . writer, according to Father 
Suysken, by the monastery of St. Afra, we 
are to understand a community of Regular 
Canons, that occupied it before A. D. 1012, 
when the Benedictines succeeded them, as 
Bernard Hertfelder states. However, 
Father Suysken would hesitate to place the 
Regular Canons there in the age of St. 

26 The festival of St. Afra and Companions, 
Martyrs, is celebrated on the 5th of August. 

2 ? St. Gelasius, who flourished towards 
the end of the fifth century, thus writes : 
•' Ordinationes etiam presbyterorum et 
diaconorum, nisi certis temporibus et diebus 
exerceri non debent ; id est, quarti mensis 
jejunio, septimi et decimi/'&c. — Epistola ix. 

2b This town of Bavaria is about 90 kilo- 
metres, south from Augsbourg, and 33 
kilometres south-east from Kempten. At 
present it contains about 2,000 inhabitants. 
On the 18th of April, 1745, a treaty was 

152 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

miracles he wrought there caused the conversion of numberless infidels, so 
that he was afterwards regarded as the Apostle of Suabia. 2 9 It is related, in 
the Legend of his Life, that when he travelled through the mountains and 
valleys in different places, the bears remarkable for their ferocity, through the 
efficacy of his prayers, lost all their wildness, and went before him tamely as 
did oxen before the herdsman. At one lime, having ascended a high moun- 
tain, called Suilinc,3° through a miracle, veins of iron were discovered by him, 
in that district of country where h» dwelt. 31 These were afterwards worked 
to great advantage by the inhabitants.3 2 He is said to have founded many 
monasteries, in the diocese of Augsburg. It may here be observed, that Joannes 
Tamayus Salazar 33 has converted this saint into a bishop and abbot of Spain ; 
but, this is a ridiculous statement, and not deserving the slightest attention. 
He also absurdly places Fauces in Spain, and states, that the saint had been 
canonized by Benton or Lanthon of Caesar Augusta, the classic name for the 
present city of Saragossa. 

After the death of Bishop Wictherp, it is stated, that through the recom- 
mendation of the Blessed Magnus, Tozzo was elected to succeed him in the 
see of Augsburg. In the twenty-sixth year of his incumbency,3< the holy 
Abbot took ill of a fever, and then Tozzo sent word to his most faithful 
friend, Theodore, at Kempten, to hasten and comfort him. Immediately he 
sorrowfully set out, taking with him what he supposed requisite for the aged 
patient. He found the holy Abbot of Fussen in the last extremity, and then 
Theodore sent a message for the Bishop to hasten with all speed. Tozzo 
lost no time in coming to his bed-side, and seeing the Blessed Magnus near 
death, said in tears : " Alas ! beloved Father, alas ! illustrious teacher, do 
you leave me as an orphan in the midst of my dangers!" To these exclama- 
tions, Magnus was able to reply : " Weep not, venerable prelate, because you 
see me struggling in the storms of worldly adversity, since I have faith in 
God's mercies, and that my soul shall re joice in the freedom of immortality ; 
however, I entreat you, not to withhold your pious prayers for me a sinner, 
nor cease to afford the aid of your intercession." 

The Life of St. Magnus states, that he departed on a Sunday, about the 
ninth hour, and on the viii. Ides of September^ which correspond with the 
6th of this month. While Bishop Tozzo and Theodore stood weeping, they 
heard a voice from Heaven saying: " Come, Magnus, come, and receive the 
crown prepared for you !" Then Tozzo said to Theodore ; " Brother, let us 
cease weeping, for rather should we rejoice than grieve, on hearing such 

there concluded between Bavaria and 32 In his " Vita S. Magni," Babenstuber 

Austria. See Pierre Larousse's " Grand states, that they had been deserted in his 

Dictionnaire Universel du XIX. Steele," day, "sed cum ferritin habeant notae non 

tome viii., p. 895. adeo bona-, at aliucl. quod ut vicinis nego- 

29 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des ciatorilms importatur, venditurque tolerabili 
Saints," tome x., Jour vi e Septembre, p. pretio, piidum desectae sunt.' — Lib. iii., 
528, n. 1. cap. iii. 

30 In the edition of Goldast, it is written 31 In his Spanish Martyrology. He wri'.es : 
Swilinjr, and in the German Life of our "Ad Fauces, oppidum in Vettonia His- 
saint Seyling. Under the latter form, it is paniae, sancti Magni, qui cum Hispanias 
noted by Merianus, in " Topographia cum S. Columbano venisset, et monas- 
Suevise," as being near the town of Fuessen, terium S. Martini in Placentinae urbis 
on the other side of the Lech River. territorio abbas inclytus construxisset, et 

*" In the Manuscript of our saint's Acts, alia plura contra haereticos machinasset, 

used by the anonymous writer of Ratisbon, post hujus vitas excursum miraculis Celebris 

about the middle of the eleventh century, is et sanctitate aeternam quietem 

read: " ab illo igitur diversae ferri venae confessor properavit strenuus." 

inveniebantur in ipso loco, usque in praesen- 3* Others have it the twenty-fifth, 

tern diem. " 3 s Such is the statement in the Acta 



words, since his soul is taken to immortal bliss ; but let us go to the church, 
that we may prepare to immolate the Sacred Victim for our dearly loved 

St. Magnus died in the seventy-fourth year of his age, and a.d. 655, 
according to the best computation. The exact date for his death, 
however, has divided the opinions of various writers; 36 some placing 
it, at 654, 655,37 665,38 670,39 673, 683, 689, and 691. <° After the 
departure of the holy servant of God^his friends, Bishop Tozzo and 
Theodore, found a beautifully-formed stone coffin, fashioned in ancient 
times by a magnate named Abuzac,* 1 who also gave the name Abuzacum* 2 
to a fort he had erected. In that coffin, no corpse had been previously 
deposited. Having carefully prepared the interior, the body of our 
saint was then placed in it, and buried in that place, where he had built 
an oratory. Moreover, in the tomb was deposited a Memoir of his virtues, 
written by Theodore. With this was placed a certificate in the Latin 
language, and which may thus be rendered into English : " Wherefore I, 
Theodorus, monk from the monastery of St. Gall, by order of Bishop Tozzo, 
as I have learned from Theodegisilus,*3 monk ot St. Columban, from conver- 
sations with him, as also with the Blessed Columban,** and from what I have 
seen with my own eyes and heard with mine own ears, either after he left me 
in the cell at Kempten, and as afterwards from the aforesaid venerable Bishop 
Tozzo, I have learned about his virtues many things ; but, not all have I cared 
to write in my tract,*s and I have placed at his head within the coffin for futuie 
times, when the Lord revealing it, then those who shall be pastors and 
rectors of the church, may rind it to be just and right ; so that those things 
that should be corrected they may Correct, and what should be emended 
they may emend ; moreover, may they not forget to pray for me to the 
servant of Christ, so that supported by the suffrages of such a Patron, my 
soul may obtain eternal rest." * 6 

Pseudo-Theodori. In the Goldast edition 
is the reading, " in die S. Dominici." This 
seems to be the error of a copyist ; for if 
allusion be made to the founder of the 
Dominican Order, he expired on the 6th of 
August, A.D., 1 22 1. Moreover, in the 
Ratisbonand other copies of the saint's Acts 
we read, " in die Dominico." 

36 See Matthew Rader's "Bavaria Pia," 
p. 188. 

3 7 Father Constantine Suysken supposes 
from the Chronotaxis of his Acts, that this 
is the most probable date for the death of 
St. Magnus. Moreover, he calculates, that 
in 655, the viii. of the September Ides fell 
upon Sunday, which the ancient life of St. 
Magnus states to have coincided with the 
day he died. 

< 8 Mabillon thinks he departed about this 

3 ' Bernard Hertfelder, in Basilica SS. 
Udalrici et Afrae, pars Hi., in Chronico, has 
this date. 

40 Carolus Stengelius states, that the death 
of St. Magnus occurred in a.d. 689 or in 
691. See " Commentarium Rerum Augus- 
tanum, pars ii., cap. iii. 

41 About this chief, nothing more seems 
to be known. 

42 By others called Abodiacuin or Abu- 
diacum. It is supposed to have been on 
the site of the present town, named Ftissen. 
See Philipus Cluverius, " Germanke An- 
tiquae, Libri Tres, necnon Vindelicia et 
Noricum," Leyde, 1616, folio. 

43 He was probably the same as Theude- 
gisilus, mentioned by Jonas, in ** Vita S. 
Columbani," cap. xxiii. 

44 This passage in the "Acta Pseudo- 
Theodori," "de tanti viri conversationibus 
simul cum 15. Columbano comperi," is 
rightly omitted from the copies in Goldast, 
and in another anonymous manuscript, 
according to Father Suysken, who will not 
allow St. Magnus or Theodore to have lived 
under the rule of St. Columban. 

4 5 The Acts have it, " in pitatione mea." 
Canisiushas " in epitatiomeo," and Goldast 
" in pictatio meo." According to Du Cange, 
" pittacium," " pitacium," and "pietacium" 
can be variously interpreted, and have been 
by the various authors quoted, but they 
have generally the signification of tablets, 
papers, epistles, briefs, parchments, and 
tracts. See "Glossarium ad Scriptores 
mediae et infirmoe Latinitatis," tomus v., 
col. 511. 

44 In the edition of Goldast, the fore- 



In art, St. Magnus or Magnoald is represented with a dragon,*? trans- 
fixed by his pastoral staff, or with a bear at his side,* 8 in allusion to 
legends contained in his Acts. 

After the death of Magnus, 4 ? Bishop Tozzo — so far as was within his 
power — gave protection to the monastery and its inmates, guarding their 
rights very carefully. To the last day of his life, also, the sacred remains of 
the Patron were preserved with honour, lights being placed around his shrine, 
and clerics reciting the Divine Of%e. Bishop Tozzo survived the death of 
his friend for five years, and four months, departing this life on the xvii. of 
the February Kalends. s° He had previously bequeathed some property for 
maintenance of the shrine of Blessed Magnus, according to a bond and 
stipulation of the German laws. 51 Subsequent to the death of the glorious 
King Pippin, s 2 however, his sons 53 began to quarrel among themselves.54 
Utilo or Odiloss became Duke of Bavaria, and Godefredusor Godefrit s6 was 
King over the Germans. Their wars caused great devastation throughout 
those districts where. they were waged. No longer was Theodore and his 
monks able to bear the persecutions and losses he sustained 5 ? at the hands 
of the spoilers around Kempten. Wherefore, he left the place, and sought 
refuge at St. Gall, where he found the Blessed Othmar,s 8 then oppressed with 
the weight of ^ears. Theodore told him all about St. Magnus, as also what 

going account in the text is considerably 

47 He is held to have banished such a 
monster from the neighbourhood of Ffissen. 

48 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of 
the Saints," vol. ix., September 6, p. 95. 

49 What follows purports to have been a 
subsequent addition to the narrative of 
Theodore. In Goldast's edition it is headed, 
" Ermenrici Elewangensis monachi Supple- 
mentum." The Bollandist editor considers, 
that it has been improperly interpolated by 
a later writer. 

50 St. Tozzo died about the year 66 1. The 
"Vita Pseudo-Theodori " inserted " tres 
menses," instead of " menses quatuor," for 
such was the difference between the 6th of 
September, the day of Magnus' death, and 
the 16th of January, that assigned for the 
death of Tozzo. The Ratisbon Acts have : 
14 Post obitum B. Magni in pontificatu 
annos v. et menses VI. gerens, xvn. Kal. 
Feb. vitam praesentem finiit." 

51 See Goldast's " Alamanicarum Rerum 
Scriptores," tomus ii., pars i. The writer 
of our saint's Acts adds: " sepultusque a 
clero suo Augustensi sub testimonio in eadem 
hatred itate." 

5-! His death has been assigned to Sep- 
tember 24th, A.D. 768. He ruled over 
France very gloriously for forty-seven years, 
having carried his arms against the Saracens, 
and his conquests into Italy and Germany. 
Before his death, which was caused by 
dropsy, at the age of fifty-three, he divided 
his dominions between his two sons, Charles 
and Carloman ; a third son, Gilles, having 
been educated in a monastery, became a 
religious. See Henri Martin's " Ilistoirede 
France," tome ii., liv. xii., pp. 250, 251. 

5 3 Namely, Charles, who, when twenty- 
four or twenty-five years of age, had been 
crowned at Noyon, King of Burgundy and 
Neustria ; and Carloman at the age of 
eighteen was crowned, at Soissons, King of 
Austrasia, which included a large part of 
Germany. The latter died after a brief 
reign of four years, and the Austrasian 
nobles, disregarding his two infant sons, 
offered the crown to Charles, who then 
became sole monarch of France. Sec an 
account of these events in Capefigue's 
" Charlemagne," chap, vii., pp. 117 to 142. 

54 Their mother, Bertha, or Bertrada, had 
much difficulty in trying to reconcile then- 
differences. See L. — P. Anquetil's" Hisloire 
de France," Deuxieme Race dite des Carlo* 
vingiens, sect, i., p. 60. 

55 He died about the year 747. He was 
in rebellion against Carloman and Pepin, 
Majors-domi to the Kings of F ranee, but he 
was conquered by them. See John George 
Eckhart's " Commentarius de Rebus 
Francise Orientalis et Episcopatus Virce- 
burgensis," tomus i., lib. xxiii., num. 102, 
Wurtzburg, 1727, fob 

5(5 According to a fragment of Erchanbert, 
he shook off the French yoke, and died A.D. 
709. See Duchesne's " Historic Francorum 
Scriptores," tomus i., p. 780, and tomus ii., 

P- 3- 

57 Certain anachronisms are pointed out 
by Father Suysken, in the Acta Pseudo- 
Theodori, at this portion of the narrative. 

58 This must have been intended for St. 
Othmar, whose feast is held on the 16th of 
November, and who became Abbot of St. 
Gall, A.D. 720, and who presided over it for 
nearly forty years, having died A.D. 759. 
However, this statement in the text cannot 



he and his community suffered from the pagans and bad Christians. In 
turn, Othmar informed him about the losses himself had endured, 5 ? owing to 
the action of the wicked Counts Ruadhard and Warin, the tyrants of 
Germany. Then Othmar selected a good and prudent member of his com- 
munity, named Peretgothus, 6 ° and four other monks, to take charge of 
Kempten, until peace should be restored. He permitted Theodore to 
remain at St. Gall, to the day of his death. 

Affairs remained in this state of collision, until the great monarch, 
Charlemagne, 6 ' subdued the petty dynasts of Germany and the Saxons. 62 
Then hearing, that the religious establishments at Augsburg, Kempten, as 
also the monasteries of St. Afra and of Magnus, had been utterly ruined, 
that great monarch resolved on restoring them. He procured the election 
of Sintpert 6 3 for the see of Augsburg. Afterwards, Sintpert ruled that church 
for nearly thirty years. That prelate restored the monasteries of St. Afra 
and St. Magnus ; 6 * he also enlarged the limits of his diocese, 65 so as to make . 
it extend, 66 on both banks of the River Lech. 6 ? 

be historically accurate, as Theodore could 
not have survived even to the first year of 
Othmar 's incumbency. 

59 See in Mabillon the " Acta S. Othmari, 
at the 1 8th of November. He died A.D. 
761. See J. C. L. Simonde de Sismondi's 
" Histoire de Francais," tome ii., Seconde 
Panie, chap, i., p. 212. 

60 Canisius has the name Berthgozus ; 
Goldast Perechtgozus ; and the Ratisbon 
Acts have Pertgozus. 

61 On the death of his brother Carloman 
A.D. 771, Charles — better known as Char- 
lemagne — became sole ruler of France, 
having taken possession of Burgundy and 
South Gaul. See Eginhard's " Vita Caroli 
Magni." After Charlemagne had forced 
the Saxon chiefs to give hostages for their 
future obedience, "so far from observing 
the treaty, they poured their wild hordes 
into Franconia, burnt every church and 
monastery that fell in their way, and put 
every creature to the sword." — A. S. Dun- 
ham's " History of the Germanic Empire," 
vol. L, book i., chap, i., p. 28. 

62 The Saxons, under their brave and able 
leader, Witikind, had given him a strenuous 
opposition from a.d. 772 to 780. After 
several sanguinary campaigns, Witikind was 
at length obliged to submit. Having re- 
ceived baptism, his days were afterwards 
ended in peace on his domains in the north 
of Germany. Charlemagne had occasion to 
wage war against Tassilo, Duke of Bavaria, 
a feudatory of the Frankish monarchs, who 
had assisted or connived at Witikind's in- 
cursions. He was subdued and taken 
prisoner, but his life was spared by Char- 
lemagne, who had him confined in a 
convent A.D. 794. In the year 800, this 
renowned monarch was everywhere vic- 
torious and master of the best part of the 
European Continent. In January, 814, 
Charlemagne died of pleurisy at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, after a reign of forty-seven years. 
He was buried with great pomp in the 

cathedral of that city. See Charles Knight's 
"English Cyclopaedia of Biography," vol. 
ii., col. 169. It is strange, that no tradition 
remains, regarding the spot .where this great 
Emperor's remains had been deposited in 
that venerable cathedral, although the 
marble sarcophagus, brought from Rome, 
and in which he desired to be buried, is 
there preserved. 

63 He is called Simpertus, by Matthew 
Rader, in " Bavaria Sancta," vol. iii. 

64 See Mabillon's '• Annales Ordinis S. 
Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxv., sect, xiii., 
p. 255. 

63 The following Latin verses commemo- 
rate Simpertus, together with other religious 
founders : 

" Ccenobium Fuessen regali dote Pipinus 
Fundavit, sancti permotus numine Magni : 
Vastatum Caesar reparavit Carolus idem, 
Atque Augustana Simpertus praesul in 

urbe : 
Austriacae posthaec Leopoldus marchio 

Guelpho Suevorum dux ampliter augmen- 


66 In the Acts of St. Magnus, " parochia" 
is the word used for " dioecesis." This is 
stated by Abbot Henry, in certain notes 
appended to the manuscript Life of our 
saint. Also, Velserus relates, that Char- 
lemagne made that extension in favour of 
Bishop Simpertus. He adds : " In vetusto 
manuscripto codice legere memini, Simper- 
turn Augustanam dioecesim Novicorum 
finibus auxisse : antiquum Noricum * * * 
ad Oenum tantum, posterius ad Lycum 
usque pertingit.'' — " Rerum Augustanarum 
Vindelicarum," lib. iv. 

67 In the editions of our saint's Acts by 
Canisius and Goldast, it is stated that Leo 
III., whose pontificate began a.d. 795, 
authorised that extension of the diocese of 
Augsburg, and that it was confirmed by 



After the death of Sintpert, 68 it is stated ^ that he was succeeded by 
Bishop Hatto,? who ruled for seven years, and who acquired much property 
for the church through his family connexions^ 1 but who was not able to 
effect any improvements in it during so short a term. ? a However, his successor, 
Nittarius," it is said, first commenced the building of a large church in 
honour of St. Magnus. A consultation had been held with the Archbishop 
of Mayence, named Otgar,?4 and his other suffragan Bishops, to know if it 
should be desirable, that the sac^pd remains might be translated to a more 
ornate and conspicuous shrine. This project was approved of by all, and 
the permission of King Ludovicus was also obtained. 75 The work of church 
building was prosecuted by other prelates, and especially by Lanto,' 6 who 
finished the nave, in the fifth year of his episcopacy, through the aid afforded 
by the renowned King Ludovicus I.,?7 third son of the illustrious Emperor 
Ludovicus, surnamed Le Debonnaire.? 8 That elegantly appointed church" 
was built over the spot, where the body of Magnus had been consigned to 
the tomb. 

68 He is stated to have died about A.D. 

^ There is much uncertainty regarding 
the order of succession of Bishops over the 
see of Augsburg, especially in the ninth 
century, and owing chiefly to the miscon- 
ceptions and opinions of writers in after 
years. Their varying statements are pointed 
out and critically examined by Father 
Suysken in " Acta Sanctorum, ' tomus ii., 
Septembris vi., De S. Magno, &c, Com- 
mentarius Praevius, sect, viii., pp. 716 to 

70 Besides the " Acta Pseudo-Theodori" 
of our saint, two other manuscript copies 
have Hatto, as in the text ; while the Ratis- 
bon and another copy have the name written 
Hanto ; Canisius and Goldast read Lanto. 
Hatto or Hauto is said to have belonged to 
the noble family of the Andecensian Counts. 

71 In the Ratisbon manuscript : " Verum- 
tamen ex parentela, quam in Bagoaria 
habuit, quiedam bona ad episcopatum 

7 '-' The saint's Acts stale, " minime quivit 
in hiis rebus sublimari." 

73 He is also named Nitcarius, Nidgarius, 
and Nitkerus ; he is also called Witgarius 
and Nitger. 

74 The Ratisbon copy ofour saint's Acts 
writes the name Otkerus, and Goldast has 
it Otkarius. He ruled over the sec of 
Mayence, from A.D. 825 or 826 to A.D. 827. 

7 = Henry, Abbot of Fuessan, states, that 
this work undertaken in the year 870, 
with the consent and order of Pope Adrian 
II. He filled the chair of St. Peter from 
a.d. 867 to 872. However, in none of the 
other manuscript accounts of St. Magnus is 
such a statement to be found ; and, it is only 
necessary to observe, that Otgai , the Arch- 
bishop of Mayence, had died twenty years 
before Pope Adrian II. had been set over 
the Universal Church. 

76 The various writers, such as Bruschius, 
Bucelin, Demochares, Stengel, Joannes 

Krueger, Corbinian Khamm and others, 
who have allusion to Lanto, place the com- 
mencement of his episcopacy over the see of 
Augsberg at different dates : some have it at 
869; others at 870 ; others again so late as 
A.D. 878, while none of those historic writers 
connect him in any way with Otmar, Arch- 
bishop of Mayence. The latter date is 
inconsistent with Lanto having received aid 
towards the church of St. Magnus from 
Ludovicus I., King of Germany, during the 
life-time of that monarch, who died at 
Frankfort, August 28th, A.D. 876. 

77 He bears the surname of Le Pieu.\ or I.c 
Vieil. He was born A.D. 806, and was 
brother to Lothaire and Pepin of Aquitaine. 
His father, known as Louis le Dibonnaire, 
had three sons by his first wife, Ermengarde. 
After her death, he espoused Judith of 
Bavaria, by whom he had a fourth son, 
known under the designation of Charles U 
Chavce. The reign of that monarch was 
remarkable for many and great disorders. 
Among these were unnatural rebellions of 
his sons against his authority, and sub- 
sequently of divisions among themselves. 
Fearing the designs and ambition of 
Lothaire, Ludovicus, in league with his 
step-brother, Charles le Chauve, raised an 
army, and in 841, a memorable battle was 
gained at Fontenoy over Lothaire and the 
Francs. This gave Ludovicus supremacy 
over Fiance and Germany. 

1 of the Emperor Charlemagne, by 
his second wife, Hildegarde. From this 
father, by his first wife, Ermengarde, the 
kingdom of Bavaria was obtained in the 
year 817, by Ludovicus, and he had posses- 
sion of all Germany to the Rhine, A.D. 843, 
according to the Annalist of Metz. He died 
in the seventieth year of his age, leaving 
three sons, viz., Carloman, Louis, and 
Charles, known under the designation of Lc 
Gros. These divided the vast Empire of 
Charlemagne between them. See Michaud's 
" Biographie Universelle, Ancienne et 



At that time, a poor student, 80 the son of respectable parents belonging to 
the village of Durach, 81 happened to be in the monastery, and in exchange 
for his manual labour, he acquired learning and a maintenance. He had 
been attacked with some kind of evil, which caused sores to break out over 
one side of his body, and he was so afflicted as to become almost lame. 
Touched with his misfortunes, Bishop Lanto asked many of the priests in his 
diocese to institute a Triduum, so that the Almighty would mercifully hear 
their prayers for his recovery. At the end of three days, when the physicians 
had tried their skill in vain, and all had cflspaired of the patient's cure; in 
his sleep, a venerable man appeared to him, and with a benign look and 
gentle tone of voice inquired the nature of his infirmity. This having been 
explained to him, the senior said : M My son, ask from the Bishop, when 
to-day he shall have found my body, and taken it from the crypt in which it 
lies, that he would permit you to kiss that crypt, and when you shall have 
done so, that you take some dust from the place, mixing it with blessed 
water and oil. 82 Ask, that before the new altar you be allowed to prostrate 
yourself, and moreover, that your sores be anointed. If all this you do, 
the Lord will restore you to former health." Immediately awaking, the 
patient at early dawn went to the church, and told the care-taker what had 
happened during his sleep. Afterwards, as advised by the guardian, both 
went on their knees, relating what had occurred to the Bishop, whose assent 
was obtained to fulfil what had been directed in the vision. 

The next process was that of unearthing the remains, and soon the workers 
reached that beautiful stone coffin, in which lay the relics of St. Magnus. 
On opening it, the body was found to be undecayed, but with the colour 
somewhat changed. 8 s Placed at the head was found that Life, written by 
Theodore, with some faded linen. In fulfilment of the permission given, the 
patient to whom allusion has been already made was brought to the tomb, 

Moderne," tome xxv., 148 to 150, and pp. 
294, 295- 

79 Thus Father Stengel writes : " Cum 
Lanto episcopus templum restauraret et 
ornaret, sacrum D. Magni corpus in medio 
eccleske requiescere sinens, sicut prius posi- 
tum fuerat, donee cum omni diligentia ac 
reverentia consensum ab Hadriano summo 
Pontifice expetisset : deinde venerabilis 
proesul Lanto, Othgarium seu Otgerum S. 
Moguntinaeecclesias archiepiscopum accessit, 
suumque illi affectum aperuit. Turn Metro- 
politanus omnes fratres suos episcopos ac 
suffraganeos convocavit, quatenus cum eis 
consultaret, si eum ausus esset ab illo loco 
in alium transferre. Concluserunt autem, 
dignum fore, pretiosum ac sanctum corpus 
in meliorem atque subiimiorum locum, si 
Deus vellet, transponere. Sicque revevsus 
est cum licentia piissimi regis Ludovici ad 
propria, - ' &c. — " Monasteriologia," &c. 
Rerum Augustanarum, pars ii., cap. 14, 
num. 2. This account, however, seems to 
be inconsistent with comparative chron- 

-"Although styled " frater," in our saint's 
Acts, Father Suysken understands the word 
rather to be interpreted " discipulus," or 
scholar, in the house, and which is manifest 
from the tenor of this narrative. 

81 The anonymous writer of the German 
Life of St. Magnus thus identifies it — 
although in the text written Duria — and he 
states, that the place is in the district, near 
Kempten. Book iii., chap, v., sect. 2. 

82 The use of oil — regarded as a symbol of 
Divine Grace — had been blessed to cure 
diseases, in former ages of the Church ; and 
the practice was derived from that of the 
disciples of Christ, who "cast out many 
devils, and anointed with oil many that 
were sick, and healed them " — St. Mark. vi. 
13. Sometimes oil had been taken from the 
lamps which burned before the shrines of 
saints for the same purpose, as Mabillon 
shows, in his Prrefacio ad Sceeulum Bene- 
dictinum piimum, sect, ix., num. 101. 

8i In the saint's Acts we read : " Pars vero 
corporis in vestimento corrupta apparebat, 
corpus vero tantum quasi colore mutato 
jacebat candidum." This removal of the 
relics must have been at least one hundred 
and seventy years after the saint's death. 
How long the remains afterwards continued 
whole is not known ; but, the Abbot Henry 
believed, that while John Hesse was Abbot 
of Kussen, a skeleton was found, supposed 
to have been that of St. Magnus. According 
to Bucelin, John Hess was Abbot there to 
the year 1480. 



which he was permitted to kiss, and the church guardian taking some dust 
from the coffin mixed it with water and oil, which were applied to the boy's 
sores. Next day, the Bishop asked the care-taker to inform him regarding 
the result, and on going to where the boy lodged, he Was able to report, that 
scarcely a trace of the sores remained. Then having been brought by the 
Bishop before the new altar of St. Magnus, the patient returned home quite 
healed. As a manifestation of his gratitude, for the rest of his life, the youth 
devoted himself as watchman in that monastery. The Bishop returned 
thanks to God for the performandfe of such a remarkable miracle. 8 * 

When the translation of the body of St. Magnus had thus been accom- 
plished, the next care of Bishop Lanto was to examine the Life which had 
been taken from his tomb. The tract was found to be almost decayed, 
through the effects of damp and age; yet, was it legible for the most part. 
To one Ermenricus, 8 * of the monastery of Elwanga, 86 was afterwards com- 
mitted the task of reading and emending it, although protesting his 
inability and want of skill for the competent performance of that duty. 
After the translation of our saint's remains to the new shrine, many and 
great were the miracles wrought through his intercession. According to some 
accounts, Magnus was canonized by Pope Adrian II. ; 8 7 others have it by 
Pope John VIII. ; 88 while others state that Pope John IX. 8 9 officiated on that 

8 * Father Suysken is of opinion, that this 
translation should most probably be referred 
to between the years 825 and 847 under 
Bishop Lanto, who within the latter year is 
thought to have assisted at the Council of 
Mayence in September or October, as con- 
vened by kaban Manr. In the first place, a 
Bishop Lanto was present, but his see is not 
named. Again, that he was Bishop of 
Augsburg seems most probable, because 
none of the other bishops — eleven in 
number — is styled bishop of that see, 
although it cannot be doubted such a 
prelate had been present. Moreover, 
because among the other sees, that of Augs- 
burg seems most likely to have been Bishop 
Lanto's, and to him it has been attributed by 
Eccard, in "Francia Orientalis," tomus ii., 
P- 394- 

85 In the saint's Acts we read : "Accer- 
sivit quemdam monachum prudentem et 
industrium ex monasterio Elewanga, nomine 
Ermenricum," &e. This passage betrays 
the interpolator's work, as Ermenricus 
would not be likely to indulge in such self- 
glorification. Ermenricus became Abbot 
over the monastery of Elawangen, A.i>. S45. 
and held this position to A.D. .S62, according 
to the catalogue of the Abbots of Elewan- 
gen. as given by Corbiuian Khamm, in 
" Hierarchia Augustana, " pais i., in 
Auctario. An account of his Life and 
Writings may be seen in " Histoire Literaire 
de la France,'' tome v., siecle ix. Ermcnric, 
Abbe d'Elwangen, pp. 324 to 326. 

86 From the foregoing dates, it may be 
seen, that the Emperor Ludovicus, Otger, 
Archbishop of Mayence, and Ermenricus of 
Elwangen, could have been contempora- 
neous, yet not with Lanto, Bishop of 

Augsburg, the term of whose episcopacy, at 
the earliest, is placed at A.D. 869, This 
must invalidate the accuracy of chronology 
for the statement in the text. However, it 
is stated by the Benedictine writer: " Lanton 
Ev&que d'Ausbourg chargea Ermenrtc de 
retoucher, et de chatier les actes de vS. 
Magne premier Abbe de Fuessen au merne 
diocese. * * * Ermenric executa sans doute ce 
dessein en homme d'esprit et de scavoir, 
tel qu'il etoit. Mais il est arrive, ou que 
les actes qu'il avoit revus et corriges, sont 
perdus, ou qu'une main etrangere bien 
diffe' rente de la sienne, les a entierement 
corrum pus dans la suite." — Ibid., p. 326. 

8 7 He filled the chair of St. Peter from 
A.D. 867 to 872. In his Vita S. Magni, 
Martinus, under the title, De Translatione 
et Canonizatione S. Magni, ascribes the 
latter process to Tope Hadrian II., probably 
because he had ivad in the Manuscript Life, 
that Lanto, Bishop of Augsburg, had ob- 
tained permission from that Pontiff to have 
the saint's relics transferred. I lenry, Abbot 
of Pausen, also. Beems to be of opinion that 
the translation and canonization occurred 
during the episcopacy of bishop Lanto. 

ruled from S72 to 882. The Bol- 
landisl Jesuits had in their Library a little 
Italian book, edited at Rome, A.D. 1726, on 
occasion Of the Canonization ol Saints 
Aloysius and Stanislaus; and the anony- 
mous writer gives a double catalogue of 
saints canonized by the Sovereign Pontiffs, 
There he states, that St. Ampelius, Bishop, 
and St. Magnus, Abbot, were canonized 
A.D. 873. by Pope John VIII. However, 
this statement does not appear to be sub- 

89 I Ie was Pope only from A.D. 898 to 900. 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 159 

occasion.? But great uncertainty attends the supposition, and it does not 
appear to rest on any reliable or very ancient authority. 9 1 Nevertheless, the 
saint's cultus was well established— especially throughout Germany — in the 
ninth century. In Suabia, the commemorative Translation of Magnoald's 
remains is held on the 21st of March, as a festival. In concluding the 
account of St. Magnus, the Acta Pseudo-Theodori states, that his solemnity — 
by which we are to understand the principal one — was held on the viii. of the 
September Ides,9* which corresponds with the 6th of this month. 

Many of those miracles recorded, and several seemingly well authenticated, 
as having occurred, owing to the merits and intercession of our saint, have 
been enumerated by Father Ludovicus Babenstuber. The dates and details 
of those may be found, on referring to his work. Those records have also 
been re-produced by the Bollandists,»3 but must here be omitted ; the 
narrative of St. Magnus having been already so much extended. They refer 
to cases of Phrenesis, Rabies, Parturition, Plague among people and cattle, 
Demoniac Possession, Punishment for Irreverence, Expulsion of Vermin 
from Houses and Fields, Inundations suppressed, Healing from Dangerous 
Diseases, Evils averted from Men and Cattle, &c. Many of these benefits 
were obtained by the use of St. Magnus' staff and of his other relics. In the 
church of Fiissen, the staff of St. Magnoald is still preserved, and through its 
instrumentality several wonderful miracles have been wrought. It is carried 
about by the people, to chase destructive vermin from their fields. Through 
prayers and invocations offered to the saint, various benefits of a spiritual 
and temporal character have been obtained In latter times, the once 
celebrated Abbey of Fiissen has been sequestrated. 94 

Towards the end of the ninth century, a nobleman, named Salomon 
Ramschwagius, who as a boy had been educated in the monastery of St. 
Gall, afterwards living near it as a.fraler conscriptus,^ and entering there as a 
monk, at length he became Abbot over the monastery. As 2, f rater conscriptus, 
he had exchanged a property of his own for one near the monastery of St. 
Gall. This was a pleasant site on a hill, and on the opposite bank of the 
river, formerly called Ira — at present known as the Steinach, an affluent of 
the Sitter.^ 6 There he erected a church, in shape and honour of the Holy 

An Office of St. Magnus which his Emi- 92 In the saint's Acts, as published by 

nence the Cardinal Bishop Andreas of Goldast, the text runs : " Celebratur autem 

Austria caused to be printed A.D. 1599, solemnitas S. Magni confessoris Christi 

states in one of the Lessons : " Quern atque abbatis, quarto Idus Septembris ad 

miraculis clarum Joannes IX. Pont. Max., laudem et gloriam nominis Domini." How- 

qui creatus legitur anno Christi octingen- ever, the phrase "quarto Idus Septembris" 

tessimo septuagessimo, Dantonis Augustani is clearly an error lor " octavo Idus Septem- 

episcopi precibus in Sanctos adscripsit." bris." 

It seems evident from the date, John VIII. 93 See Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Sep- 

must have been intended. An Office, issued tembris vi. Miracula, auctore P. Ludovico 

A.D. 1671, and again printed a.d. 1687, Babenstuber Benedictino Ettalensi, pp. 759 

ascribes the saint's canonization to Tope to 781. 

John IX. The Proper Office of St. Magnus 94 At present, if is the property of the 

for the Diocese of Constance, printed a.d. Freiherr von Poniskau. See Rev. S. Baring- 

1725, and re-issued a.d. 1739, reads : Gould's " Lives of the Saints," vol. ix., 

"Quern miraculis clarum Joannes IX., September 6, p. 95. 

Pontifex Maximus, in Sanctos adscripsit." — 95 A /rater conscriptus meant one who was 

Noct. ii., Lect. 3. allowed to be an honorary member of a 

90 The earliest Manuscript and Printed religious community, without being bound 
Offices of St Magnus do not mention his to observe its udes, except as a matter of 
canonization. choice; but, being permitted to join in the 

91 See the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," devotions, and many of the religious services, 
tomus ii., Septembris vi. De Sancto Magno, therein practised. 

&c, Commentarius Prrevius, sect. ix.. num. & See "Gazetteer of the World," vol. vi., 

112 to 115, p. 722. p. 508. 

i6o LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

Cross, and richly endowed it.97 Afterwards, Adalbert, Bishop of Augsburgh, 
dedicated this church in a solemn manner. Through the influence of 
Salomon, an arm of St. Magnus was obtained from Fiissen, and brought with 
solemn ceremonies to that church, in which it was deposited.? 8 This Trans- 
lation of the Relic took place between the years 887 and 889.99 In the 
archives of St. Gall's monastery are Latin Hymns, apparently of contempora- 
neous date, and written to commemorate this event. 100 Some of these have 
been published by Canisius Iot and by other writers. To that church, also, 
Salomon attached Canons, who were there obliged to sing the Divine praises. 
When he had been created Abbot of St. Gall, and afterwards when he had 
been advanced as Bishop to the see of Constance, he enriched the endow- 
ment with additional possessions. Thenceforth, the church was regarded as 
specially dedicaied to St. Magnus. The annual festival celebrations at St. 
Gall's to commemorate his Translation were observed with peculiar 
ceremonies and rejoicing. Beside the church another institute of Recluse 
Virgins of St. Benedict's Order had been established. The Bishop of Con- 
stance blessed a cell in which St. Guiborat or Viborade I02 lived an enclosed 
life, and where she obtained the crown of martyrdom, at the hands of the 
Hungarians,'°3 on the 2nd of May, 10 * a.d. 925, when these barbarians 
brought devastation on Suabia, and on all the adjoining countries. At this 
time, likewise, they burned the church of St. Magnus. This, however, was 
soon restored, and the body of St. Viborade, having been in the first instance 
deposited in St. Gall's monastery, was subsequently removed to the oratory 
of her cell, and finally it was translated. There too were deposited the 
remains of her companion, St. Rachilde, who survived her for twenty-one 
years. Both were held in the greatest veneration by the faithful. In fine, 
the church and cemetery of St. Magnus — which originally extended beyond 

97 An interesting account of this pious Gall's monastery, has the following heading 

nobleman may be found in Mabil Ion's and opening verse : — 
" Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus Hi., 

lib. xxxvii., num. xl., pp. 178, 179. Versus Ratperti de S. Magno. 

Such is the account given by Kkkehard " Mire cunctorum Deus et creator, 

Junior in his bonk, De Cassibus S. C.alli, milis et fort is solidator orbis, 

cap. i. vota servorum tibi subditoruni 

9? This inference is drawn from the cir- accipe Clemens/' 

cumstances, that Adalbert commenced his 

episcopacy in the former year, while the x ™ See an account of her life, and that of 

monastic life of Saloman began in the latter her companion, St. Rachilde, in the Les 

year, as the authors of " Gallia Christiana" Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des Saints," 

state See tomus v., col. 901. tome v., ii ,; Jour de Mai, pp. 268 to 273. 

100 One of these hymns is published by ,03 In the commencement of the tenth 

Henricus Canisius, and it was written appa- century, these barbarous people began to 

rently by one of the monks of St. Gall. It extend their ravages into Germany. " L'an 

seems to have been intended a> a Festival 912, ils pillerent sans resistance la Franconie 

Carmen, inviting our saint to return anil be et la Turinge ; I'annee suivante ils ravage- 

the patron of the monastery, where he rent l'Allemagne, e'est adire, le haut Rhin ; 

formerly lived with St. Gall. The following e» il y en eut grand nomine de tues sur la 

are the heading and opening Sapphic riviere d'In. par les Allemands et les Hava- 

verses :— rois. En 915. ils desolerent toute Allemagne 

Invitatio S. Magni. par le fer et par le feu, coururent la Turinge 

"Miles, ad castrum poperes novellum, et la Saxe, et vinrent en 916 au monastere 

pridem et notos repetas locellos, de Fulde. L'annee suivante par l'Allemagne 

posside terrain tibi prseperatam, et I'Alsace, ill penetrerent jusqu'en Lor« 

jam comes Galli, social e sibi.*' raine.'' — Abbe Fleury's " Histoire Fccl£- 

— " Antique Lectiones," tomus v., siastique," tome xi., liv. liv., sect, liii., p. 

pp. 750 et seq. 596. 

104 This is the day assigned iot her fes- 

' OI One of those hymns, by Ratpert, of St. tival. 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS 161 

the town of St. Gallen — were subsequently embraced within the circuit of its 

Besides the religious establishments at Fiiessan and at St. (Jail, dedicated 
to St. Magnus, and to which allusion has been already made, a parochial 
church had been erected to his memory, at a remote period, near the ancient 
fortification of Sorethanum, called by the natives Schussenreidi, now a town ol 
Wiirtemberg, in the circle of the Danube, about eight miles N.E. of Waldsee, 
near the source of the Schussen. 105 About a.d. ii88, 106 Beringerua and 
Conradus, in favour with the Emperor Frederick I., rarnamed Barbarossa, 
and having no sons as heirs for their possessions, resolved on founding a 
monastery to the glory of God and to the Blessed Virgin, lo 7 near the church 
of St. Magnus, and on the site of the old castle. 108 This foundation w;i, 
given in charge to monks of the Premonstratensian Order, '°9 to whom also 
was transferred in perpetuity the aforesaid parochial church of St. Magnus, 
with the care of souls. In course of time, that monastery was endowed with 
many privileges, and it became a free and an Imperial Abbey, in the Germanic 
Confederation. It was secularised in 1803, when the Municipal and 
Ecclesiastical Sovereignties were swept away, 110 and Austria lost the position, 
which had given her a natural authority and pre-eminence in the Empire. 

Another church and monastery, dedicated to St. Magnus, 111 had been 
erected at Ratisbon, in Bavaria, near the bridge which spans the Danube, 112 
and as stated in the year 1 138. There many miracles were wrought through the 
saint's intercession. 1 ^ That coenobium is said to have been an establishment 
created by the efforts of the venerable Gebehard, a priest and canon of 
Ratisbon church, and through the patronage of King Conrad and his brother 
Henry, Duke of Bavaria. It was destroyed by the Swedes, in 1633, when 
they obtained possession of Ratisbon, but afterwards it was restored. 1 ' 4 The 
site now belongs to the Canons Regular of the Augustinian Order. Another 
note-worthy circumstance, connected with this monastery of St. Magnus, was 

I0 SSee "Gazetteer of the World," vol. xii., Magnus, which was afterwards joined to the 

p. 489. church and convent of St. Andrew, belong- 

106 According to a Manuscript Chronicle, ing to the Augustinians. For authority, 

of nearly contemporaneous date. Father Francis Grienwald, a Carthusian of 

'°7 This was endowed with all the landed the monastery of St. Vitus, without the city 

property of the founders. of Ratisbon, is cited, and also Martin, Abbot 

108 The endowment took place, during the of Fiiessen, a.d. 1624. 
Pontificate of Clement III., who ruled from U2 This celebrated bridge of cut-stone 

a.d. 1187101191. facings, and which joins the suburb Statt- 

uv See " Annales Ordinis Pramion- am-hoff to Ratisbon, was commenced a.d. 

stratensis," tomus ii., p. 820. 1 1 35, according to the chronicle of Andieas, 

,l0 See an impartial account of these a priest of Ratisbon, as published by the 

transactions, in that admirable work of learned Benedictine, Dom Bernard Fez, in 

Professor J. R. Seeley's " Life and Times of " Thesaurus Anecdotorum novissimus, sen 

Stein, or Germany and Prussia in the Veterum Monumentorum collectio recentis- 

Napoleonic Age," vol. i., part ii., chap, iii., sima," tomus iv. This valuable historical 

pp. 199 to 217 Cambridge : 1878, 8vo. work, in six folio volumes, appeared from 

111 Father Babenstuber relates a legend re- 1721 to 1729. In the year 1 1 4.6, the bridge 

garding St. Michael the Archangel, in the was finished, according to Matthew Meiian, 

shape of a beautiful young man, and also in his "Topographia Bavaria.'' 
respecting St. Magnus, as a venerable old " 3 See " Miracula," auctore P. Ludovico 

pilgrim, appearing to the ferryman, before a Babenstuber, Benedictino Fttalensi, cap. 

bridge had been there built over the Danube. vii. 

I hi being passed freely over the river by the " 4 In the year 1634, and on the 6th of 

charitable man, they promised Heaven to September — St. Magnus' day — the § 

him as a reward. This is regarded by experienced a crushing defeat at Nordling.e, 

Father Suysken as only a popular tradition ; and their disaster was attributed to the 

but it is held, that to commemorate that saint, whose chapel had been so sacrilegiously 

legend, a chapel was there dedicated to St. violated during the previous year. 


[62 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

its containing Irish manuscripts,"* and referable to a very remote date. 
Other places had erections in honour ot our saint : viz., at Chiebach or 
Kuebach, in Bavaria, there was a nunnery of pious virgins ;" 6 at Steinbach, 
in Suevia, a chapel ; and at Huglfingan, in Bavaria, there was a parochial 

Besides the staff of Columban, which had fallen successively into the 
keeping of St. Gall and St. Magnus, and which had been preserved in later 
ages at Fiissen ; the Canons Regular or Praemonstratensian Fathers, at 
Schussenreidt, IX 7 procured a portion of that relic, which was kept in their 
convent, but at what time is now unknown. This was inserted in a beautiful 
and an artistic staff, fashioned of silver, adorned with gold workmanship and 
various precious stones. 1 ' 8 It was four feet, four inches, in length — according 
to the local measurement — from the top, surmounted with a figure of St. 
Magnus, at the end. "9 On the breast of the silver figure is a cavity, con- 
taining a particle of the cambula, and it has a crystal covering, about two 
inches in length, by one inch in breadth. 120 As in the case of the staff at 
Fiissen, this artificial staff is held in great veneration by the people at 
Sorethan, who carry it about the fields and gardens, for the destruction of 
noxious insects. 121 Another small particle of the staff had been obtained by 
the Rev. Cistercian Abbot, Stephen Jung, ol the Salemitan monastery, in 
Suevia, and Vicar General of his Order, when on a visitation of his houses, 
he came to Fiissen. He then had a staff, fashioned like that at Fiissen, and 
in it he enclosed the relic presented to him. This staff was used, likewise, to 
drive away worms and other noxions insects from lands subject to the 
Cistercian monastery. 132 In the sacristy at Fiiessen were to be seen the 
ornamented cowl, 12 3 stole and maniple, 12 '* which St. Magnus used while he 
celebrated Mass. Moreover, the silver chalice, which served him at that 
time, was drank from by infirm persons, and they recovered health. ,a s 
Another prized memorial of St. Magnus was the cross, which hung from his 
neck, while he was a Deacon, and which contained various sacred relics. 

"5 Among these was an old codex Vita S. ^. Magni abbatis baculum preciosis acclusit 

Brigidae, attributed to St. Ultan of Ard- hpsanis," tomus ii., col. 833. 
braccan as author. He lived in the fifth 121 This was called in Latin, " prodigiosus 

and sixth centuries. See his Acts, in the baculus S. Magni," because of the many 

present volume, at the 4th of September, miracles attributed to its use. 
Art. i., and especially n. 50, ibid. '"In a letter to Father Chardon, in 1744, 

116 Hundius thinks this had been founded he writes on this subject : " Ante annos 

in the beginning of the eleventh century. autem quatuor, scilicet mdccxl, die S. 

See in •' Metropolis Salisburgensis," tome Joannis Baptists?, obtuli Reverendissimo 

ii., p. 246. DD. nostro praesuli Constantino Muller 

"'Schussenried is a town of Wurtemberg, partem de cuculla S. Magni, quam ab 

in the circle of the Danube, near the source ejusdem monasterii abbate, cum sigili abba- 

of the river Schussen, which flows into Lake tialis impressione obtinui supplex." 
Constance. It had formerly an Imperial ,23 The lappet of this hood is said to have 

Benedictine Abbey, founded in 1183, audit been applied to the sick, in former ages, 

was suppresed in 1803. See " Gazetteer of and usually with the result of a happy 

the World," vol. xii., pp. 488, 489. recovery. 

1,8 The account here inserted had been "« Although applied to the sick, we have 

received from Very Rev. Father Evermod no account of cures effected through them. 

Lorinzer, of the Prsemonstratensian Order, They were woven from green silk, 
by Father Suysken. I2 5 Father Babenstuber adds : " Illi quidem 

119 A copper-plate engraving, given by the crebrius, quibus aut febris, aut venenum, aut 
Bollandists, at p. 726, represents this artistic magica maleficentia perniciem conscivcrat : 
staff. sed et aliis inde hausisse, multoscies remedio 

120 The Annalist of the Praemonstratensian fuit praesenti, qui vertigine rotabantur, dolore 
Order states, that this particle had been in- dentium cruciabantur, syncopen patiabantur, 
serted by Didacus Strobele, who was elected aut aliis quibusdam a-gritudinibus conflicta- 
Abbot at Sorethan, in 17 19 : '* Prodigissum bantur," lib. iii., cap. 5. 



At Schussenreidt, not only the Pnemonstratensian Fathers, hut the people 
surrounding their monastery, were accustomed, from times very remote, 136 to 
celebrate the chief feast of their Patron, St. Magnus, with the obligation of 
hearing Mass and abstaining from servile works. "7 Even a special Office 
had been composed for him, the Lessons of which were chiefly taken from 
his ancient Life. In like manner, the Hymns for the first Vespers of his 
Festival 128 were Proper; likewise those for Matins"? and Lauds, 1 ?? as also the 
Responses for the Nocturns, and the Antiphons for all the Hours. More- 
over, in the great diocese of Constance, the feast of St. Magnus was celebrated 
yearly on the 6th of September, while he was venerated and invoked as 
the Thaumaturgus, and Apostle, as also the Common Father and Auxiliator 
of all those suffering and in affliction. He is thus numbered among the 
Sancti Auxiliatores '3 1 of the Germans, and they were so designated and 
invoked as being their special Patrons before God, either for averting or 
^removing calamities, or for obtaining particular benefits. In the old Missal '3 2 
of the Diocese of Mayence, 1 " and in an old Missal 1 ?* of Utrecht, '35 in 

125 Father Evermod Lorinzer of that 
Order testifies, that for about two hundred 
years, in the middle ages, the special Office 
lor St Magnus was sung on the day of his 
Festival and during the Octave ; but, after 
that lapse of time, the practice fell into 
desuetude, in the year 1632, when the 
fathers were obliged to fly, and their monas- 
tery was burned, during the Swedish war, 
waged by Gustavus Adolphus. See R. de 
Prade, M L'Histoire de Gustave-Adolphe, 
dit le Grand," Paris, 1686, 8vo, 

,2 7 On the saint's chief feast, September 
6th, a great concourse of people and clergy 
flocked to the Prsemonstratensian church at 
Schussenreidt, not only from the neighbour- 
hood, but also from the churches apart, and 
they formed in religious procession. The 
large statue of St. Magnus, adorned wgh 
rich vestments, was set up in the middle of 
the church, and it was an object of great 
popular veneration. A solemn High Mass 
was sung by the Abbot, in pontificals, with 
his assistant ministers, or by some bishop, 
who had been specially invited to officiate. 
A select choir was chosen for the occasion, 
and usually a distinguished and an eloquent 
preacher was selected to eulogise the saint's 
merits and virtues. Such devotion extended 
also to those cities, towns and parishes, 
where benefits had been obtained through 
the intercession of St. Magnus. 

118 The first strophe thus commences : 
11 Sydus refulget jam novum, 
Magni clarum solemniis, 
Germaniam et Galliam 
Novo beat Apostolo." 

129 The Hymn for Matins is taken from that 
ascribed to Ratpert, as given by Henricus 
Canisius in "Antiqux Lectiones," tomos v. 

The first verse runs as follows : 

" Mire cunctorum Dens et Creator, 
Mitis et fortis solidator orbis, 
Vota servorum tibi subditorum 
Accipe clemens." 

130 The following is the first verse of the 
Hymn at Lauds" : 

" Vos clara laudes resonet 
Noctis quieto tempore, 
Magni patris encomiis 
Miscens devotosjubilos." 

131 In the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, the Very Rev. Father Abbot Thomas, 
of the Cistercian Order, wrote a work in 
Germany, on the Holy Helpers, who were 
invoked at Lanchem, in the Diocese of 
Bamberg, under that title. He only names 
fourteen, from which list St. Magnus is 
excluded. Nor in the Mass peculiar to their 
festival is his name to be found. 

132 Printed A.D. 1493. 

133 In it is a Mass, with the title, De 
Quatuordecim Adjutoribus Sanctis, although 
fifteen names are included in the Collect, 
thus : " Omnipotens ac mitissime Deus, qui 
electos sanctos tuos, Georgium, Blasium, 
Herasmum, Fantaleonem, Vitum, Christo- 
ferum, Dionisium, Ciriacum, Achatium, 
Eustachium, Magnum, Egidium, Mar- 
garetam, Barbaram, et Katherinam, 
specialibus privilegiis decorasti ; quivsumus, 
ut omnes, qui in necessitatibus eorurn 
imploramus auxilium, secundum tuoe pro- 
missions gratiam,petitionis nostra; salutarem 
consequamur effectum. Da nobis, Domine, 
veniam peccatorum, et ipsorum interceden- 
tibus meritis, ab omnibus adversitatibus 
libera, et deprecationes nostras benignus 
exaudi. Per Dominum, &C. In like 
manner, the name of St. Magnus is to be 
found in the Missal of the Dominicans 
printed A.I). 1550. 

' I Printed at Leida, A.I>. 1514. 

,3 5 Among the Masses for averting various 
calamities, is one healed, De Ouindecim 
Auxiliatoribus, and having the name of St. 
Magnus included, with a Collect agreeing 
with that in the previous note. In the 
Secrets and Postcommunio, the same names 

164 LIVES Ofi THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

Holland, the name of St. Magnus is found added as a fifteenth '3 6 to the 
fourteen Helpers most generally enumerated. By the German writers, 
Babenstuber T 37 and Francis Peter, J 3 8 Canon Regular of St. Augustine, St. 
Magnus is called Auxiliator. 

Although not mentioned in the Roman Martyrology, yet Notker Bal- 
bulus '39 and many German Martyrologists commemorate this saint, at the 
6th of September. Thus, in the Martyrologies of Rheinau, 140 of Augsburg, 1 -* 1 
and of Treves, 142 he is entered. At the same date, he is noticed by Galesi- 
nius, I4 3 and by Bucelin. 144 The Bollandists had in their Library a number 
of German Diocesan Missals and Breviaries, which proved that veneration 
for St. Magnus obtained not alone in Suevia, but also in Bavaria, the circle 
of the Rhine, Franconia, Alsace, and Belgium. No less than sixteen of those 
Breviaries are named, viz., Mayence, and its suffragan Sees, Augsburg, 
Argentinensis, Saltzburg, Constance, Eistad, Spire, Worms ; also Vienna, in 
Austria, Pataviensis and Ratisbon, in Bavaria ; Wratislaviensis, in Silesia* 
Minden, in Westphalia, and Cologne, on the Rhine. To these may be added 
the two Belgian Breviaries of Tongres and Utrecht. There can hardly be a 
doubt, but that in other dioceses his cultus had spread, as to him was 
given the title "Auxiliator Germanise." Among the Kalendars which 
Dominicus Geqrgius edited at Rome, in 1745, together with the Martyrology 
of Ado, two especially note this festival ; one of these called the Kalen- 
darium Palatino-Vaticanum, prefixed to a Sacramentary of St. Gregory, 
belonging to the twelfth century ; the other called Kalendariuin Mediola- 
nense II. Both, at the present day, enter " Sanctus Magnus Confessoris." 
Not less frequent are entries in the Additions to Usuard, as Father Soller 
shows. Father Henry Fitz-simon '45 inscribes St. Magnus or Magdobaldus 
on his List of the Irish Saints, and ascribes his feast to the 6th of September. 
At the same date, he is in the Calendar of Conveus, and in that Anonymous 
one, published by O'Sullevan Beare. 146 

A secondary festival was held on the 22nd of March, which was that for 
the Translation of his relics. At Schussenreidt, the same Office, as that on 
■ i 

136 In his additions to Usuard, Greven at church of Treves, or perhaps of Belgium, 
the 8lh of August prefixes the name of the In it is found, at the viii. Ides of September : 
glorious Mother of God, to the fourteen "Ad Fauces, Magni confessoris." 
Helpers ; but among these, he has not in- **3 He writes : " Ad Fauces, sancti Magni 
eluded the name of Magnus. confessoris : qui sancti Galli discipulos, 

137 He thus describes our saint in his divino proedicandi munere multorum animos 
work, " Sanctus Magnus Algoiorum Apos- ad pie agendum inflammavit, miraculorum 
tolus, Germanorum communis Auxiliator." que ac vita: religiose' arte l.uide nobilis in 

138 He writes: " Etiam apud longe (lis- sanctos suinini Pontificis auctoritate ab 
sitas et exteras nationes S. Magnus honoie, episcopo Augustano adscriptus est." 
festoque die solemniter colitur, interque eos ' * 4 lie writes: " Decessit, ut annis, sic 
Divos, quos ob speciales quasdam proeroga- meritis cumulatissimus, in SUO, quod con- 
tivas Auxiliatores vocamus, prresentissimus diderat, ad Fauces Julias (vulgo Fiiessen) 
patronus habetur." — "Suevia Ecclesiastica," coenobio tumulatus ; cujus memoria apud 
p. 326. Germanos longe est celeberrima : ita ut 

139 He states: " Nativitas sancti Magni propter continua miracula, quae per ejus 
confessoris, discipuli beati Galli, mirabiliset veneramlas reliquias, tarn in agris, quam in 
sanctissimi viri. j amends et hominibus, passim patrantur, 

140 Thus: "VIII. Id. Sept. Natale sancti quatuordecim Sanctis, ut vocant Auxilia- 

Magni confess." TORIBUS, memorabili sane meritorum com- 

141 Thus, at the same day, that of the mendatione, decimus quintoa ipse adjunctus 
monastery of Uldaricus records "Magni sit." — "Martyrologium Benedictinum." 
conf." ' 4 5See " Catalogus Aliquorum Sanctorum 

142 The Martyrology of St. Martin, which Hibcrnia:." 

Father Soller places among the Hierony- I46 See" Historic Catholics IbernneCom- 

mian ones. This he suspects to have been pendium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. x., xi., pp. 
originally compiled for the use of some 48, 51, 55. 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 165 

the 6th of September, was recited ; except that in the Lessons of the Second 
Nocturn, the Sermo Venerabilis Eedae presbyteri in Natali S. Benedicti «4> 
was substituted, and a few minor changes took place. Nor was this the only 
honour paid to the memory of St. Magnus, as on every Thursday throughout 
the year, not engaged for a double Office, a special Antiphon '* 8 and 
Prayer x «9 were prescribed, at Lauds and Vespers. Moreover, on every 
Tuesday, on which there was no proper Office, the Missa Major or Con- 
ventual Mass was sung in honour of St. Magnus, excepting the common 
suffrage occurring in Lauds and Vespers. '5° 

The Acts of many early saints, and those even of gr?at celebrity in the 
Church, are occasionally obscure and defective, so that a critical writer must 
hesitate to assert as facts, what may prove at best to be only probable or 
possible conjectures. However, nearly all ancient history or biography, 
even that of the Pagan writers most admired, abounds in fallacies, with the 
flow of eloquent narrative. Nor would we be willing to lose the trend of 
those facts preserved, even though wreathed with their unsubstantial, 
imaginary and florid adornments. We have still more than enough of 
interesting material interwoven with the acts of St. Magnus, to illustrate the 
manners of his own and of subsequent ages ; nor should we permit to remain 
uncared for and unnoticed those traditionary and ancient documents, that 
have come down to our time, and that serve to perpetuate his virtues and 

Article III. — St. Mac Cuilinn, Maculinus or Maculind, Bishop 
and Patron of Lusk, County of Dublin. [Fifth or Sixth Century.'] 
Much confusion exists in the documents and traditions which remain, 
regarding the time when the patron saint of Lusk flourished, and as to how far 
we can have reliance on his rather modernly transcribed Proper Office, still 
preserved in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. 1 The original from 
which it had been transcribed seems to have been lost. Wherefore, we have 
deemed it well to present the Latin Version, 2 now published, as we believe, 
. » 

147 " Audiensa Domino Petrus," &c. viueret : in opes alere : pauperes recreare : 

l & Antiphon : " Laudemus virum glorio- nudis vestimenta triburere : esurientcs 

sum et parentem nostrum sanctum Magnum pascere : peregrinis et viduis, caeteraque 

in generatione sua, cujus intuentes exitum, opera miserecordiaelargiresolebat. Deuiantes 

conversationis ejus sequamur vestigia." V. etiam et a via veritatis declinantes ; adspem 

Justum deduxit Dominus per vias rectas. fiduciae verbo suae predicationis reuocabat. 

ft. Et ostendit i 11 i regnum Dei. In Dei templo quasi Lucifer aparuit Macu- 

'* 9 Oratio: Sancti Magni confessoris tui, linus : Quicquid enim erat in eo Dei virtute 

quaesumus, Domine, mentis adjuvemur, ut atque potentia mirabiliter refulcit. In Dei 

quod possibilitas nostra non obtinet, ejus seruitio in ecclesia iugiter existebat, turn 

nobis intercessione donetur. Per Christum, stando, turn orando : turn legendo : turn 

&c. genua flectendo : continue laborando cor- 

150 Father Evermod Lorinzer, who sup- pusque suum vigiliis jeiuniisque macerabat. 

plied the foregoing information to the Insistent itaque diuino operi pietatis ; 

Hollandists, adds: " Et haec de cultu S. ecclesias : monasteria etoratoria iugiter con- 

Patroni nostri tarn antiquo quam moderno." tinueque fabricando. Quid plura referam ? 

Article hi. — ■ In the Manuscript Tantas per eum Deus operatus est vitutes, 

classed E., Tab. 3, No. 8, fol. 128, 129. quas praesens libellus nequeat continere : 

"On the margin of this transcript are the nee hominum linguae enucleare valeant. Tu 

words Vita S. Macttlini, in a different hand- autem Domine miserere nostri. 
writing. The following are the Lessons : Lfctio 2DA 

Lectio ima. 

Igitur de beatissimi militis Maculini vita 

Venerabilem hujus diei sanctissimam admirabili, pauca reuocemusad memoriam : 

memoriam recolentes quo gloriosus Christi qui multo iam tempore priusquam terris 

pontifex Maculinus, deposito carnis onere, innotuit virtutibus admirandum claruit. 

ad gaudia transmigravit aeterna. Qui dum Rex etenim quidem nobilissimus (brumen- 



for the first time, in the phraseology, and order here given ; but, lengthening 
the contraction of words, which occasionally occurs, and including within 
brackets those words which appear to be meaningless, or which probably 
are mistakes of the scribe. This narrative of the saint's Acts is ill-digested 
and frequently obscure, even were the statements it contains to be relied 

cium ?) ortus ad Loth similitudem : ebrietate 
repletus : nefando scelere sororem premendo 
violauit : quae mox coYicepit in vtero : ac 
duos genuit filios. Ille autem sceleris 
iniquitatem celare est conatus ; inuentis illis 
nequitiis grauioribus : unum ex illis dimisit : 
alium mater arripuit : quem nutriuit ac 
baptizari fecit, Maculinumque vocauit : qui 
literarum studhs est traditus: cepit moribus 
florere, virtutibus et miraculis corruscare. 
Quotidie sedulo insistendo orationibus et 
vigiliis : corpusque suum jeiunijs macerando 
non desistit. Sicque fama sancti perad- 
jacentes circumquaque prouincias aduolavit. 
Quid plura. Defuncto illius regionis episcopo 
Maculinus ab omni clero et populo elegitur, 
et infula pontificali sublimatur. Tu autem 
Domine miserere nostri. 

Lectio 3TRA. 

In diebus illis erat quidam rex Rath- 
lunensis Tugerna nomine, qui quidam 
virgunculam habuit forma et vultu pul- 
cherimam : a quo etiam edictum exiit : ut 
nemo thorum illius virgunculae violaret. 
Vnus autem ex ejus militibus Amargen 
nomine : optimus scil : faber ferrarius illam 
cognouit. Quae mox concepit in vtero. Rex 
autem cum illam partui proximam, inter- 
rogans earn de quo concepisset. At ilia 
statim confessa est. Tunc Rex valde iratus : 
iussit alligari ambos, et in ignem mitti 
nudos. Sed qui cuncta condidit, hoc non 
permisit. Fulmina enim et toniirui 
pluuiaeque de coelis, precibus sancti Macu- 
lini facta sunt in ilia hora. Elementa inter 
se (muicein?) repugnauere : atque edax ignis 
parcendo lignis, vim negauit naturae. 
Interea infans de matris vtero nouam 
protulit loquelam : claraque voce dixit ad 
regem. <> Rex impie, imo crude] issime 
tyranne ! nequissimum sacrilegumque scelus 
agere disponis. Nam ut dicam acceptabilior 
fueris si hoc non consummaueris. Ac si 
manifestius diceret, cur illos qui me feceruut 
ad vitam, detrudis ad mortem ? Rex autem 
perteritus, valdeque ad ineffabilem admi- 
ratus allocutionem, ait : quid sibi vult hoc 
novum prodigium ? Tunc Rex jussit fabrum 
ferrarium, cum virguncula praegnante, 
honorabiliter custodiri. Quae peperit (ilium 
sanctitate et vita laudabilem : in bonis cepit 
operibusvigere, etin Dei ecclesia mirabiliter 

Lectio 4TA. 
Post haec autem praedicti tresviri, beatum 
puerum ad fines Laginencium perduxerunt. 
Vbi inter ccetera,quae ibidem gessit miracula; 

quamdiu ipse psalmos didicit : tamdiu 
domum nine vestitam respexerit. Ac si de 
intus crebris ardentibus flammis videretur : 
nee non et de foris ardoribus solis feruen- 
tibus, eodem omnino habitu permanere 
fecit. Post ea vero monasterium illis 
signauit : ibi aliquando tempore permansit. 
Denique Laginencium relinquendo partes 
Carbrinum adiuit, sancti Gregorii disci- 
pulum, per cuius magisterium, evangelium 
et epistolam legit. Eodem tempore Rex 
quidam Acchoreus nomine sanctum Macu- 
linum rogauit vt orbatum luminibus filium, 
necnon et filiam, videlicet, linguae ex parte 
curaret. Protinus autem orante beato 
Maculino : vnus illorum munera luminum, 
altera linguae, facundiam loquendi recepit. 
In eodem temporis momento, ejusdem regis 
coniugem diaboli sagitta subito percussam ; 
idem gloriosus Dei famulus reuocauit ad 
vitam. Eodem quoque die Rex nu-moratus ; 
Maculinum quum postulando de miraculis 
amplius faciendis rogauit. Erat enim vemale 
tempus, et illius dicto nonduin finito : c:>rylus 
sub cuius vmbra positi fuerant, priusquam 
flores extulisset, maturos fructus protulit : 
eiusque sinus vernali tempore autumnalibus 
repleuerat nucibus. Tunc Rex glorihcauit 
beatum Maculinum, eique partem terra.' sine 

Lectio 51A. 

Post haec venerabilis Christi miles Macu- 
linus Albaniam petiit ; ibique aliquanti 
temporis spatio permanens innurneris 
coruscauit miraculis. Erat autem eo tempore 
qusedara immeusee magnitudinis, ac tantae 
ferocitatis bestia, quod omnes Albaniensium 
fines inuasit, ac totam prouinciam pene 
euacuauit. Tunc omnes Albannnses se in 
vnum congregati, ad sancti Maculini pedes 
cateruatim prouoluu'ntur; qui omnes quasi ex 
vno ore dixerunt, Salua nos : at) ilia etiam 
die euacuata est terra, nee vsquam comparuit 
Sancti Maculini meritis liberati sunt. 

Lectio 6ta. 

Post haec autem et alia plura miracula quae 
beatus Maculinus operatus est. reliquit Al- 
baniam, et ut proposuit Roman adiit. 
Gregorius autem tunc Apostolicam rexerat 
arcem. Cum vir Dei Maculinus peruenit 
ad illam, qui cum episcopali diademate 
sanctum sublimate cepisset Maculinum, 
flamma cadens de ccelo intersit. Tunc 
Gregorius de coelis per angelum admonitus, 
sancto ait Maculino, Reuertcre ad prouinciam 
tuam, et in loco quo reserecturus fueris ; a 
summo pontifici pontificali infula sublima- 



upon ; while the persons and places named appear not in Irish history or 
topography — at least in their present form. Vague tradition and popular 
legends seem to have furnished, to a considerable extent, the materials for 
St. Maculin's Office ; nor have we any notification of special Matins, 1 
Hours, Vespers, or Psalms, Hymns, Antiphons, Versicles or Responses, as 

beris. Angelico igitur ductu peruenit beatus 
Maculinus ad prouinciam de Durpconylc, 
opidum videlicet in quo protinussanctificauit 
monasterium. Deindeagitatus motu angelico; 
Albamense monasterium fundauit ; in quo 
tanto tempore permansit. Duodecim monas- 
teria fundauit, ac pro suae claritatis et nomine 
opere, suis proximis ea concessit. 
Lectio 7 ma. 

Orante autem Maculino cum turba justo- 
rum in eadem ciuitate dominus noster 
Ihesus C tus angelicis ministrantibus choris; 
ilium pontificali diademate, ut beatus 
Gregorius iam ante predixerat infulauit : 
atque in eius officio fons olei largus de terra 
emanauit. Huius autem ordine pontificii 
completo ; coemeterii spatium angeli sig- 
nauerunt. Tunc ergo sermo exiit, quod si 
quis fidelium poenitentiam agentium in illo 
quiesceret coemeterio inferni cruciatibus 
caret et in futuro. Corpore autem ipsius 
Maculini magistri primus in illo dormire 
sacro-sancto promeruit coemeterio. Post 
h;vc autem gloriose ac honorabiliter beautus 
Maculinus ia sua ciuitate sanctorum nimia 
multitudine illius ministerio prout doctrinae 
salutaris norma fuerant informati permansit. 
Ac inde semetipsos cum suis monasteriis in 
aeternum obtulerunt. Sanctus autem Macu- 
linus desiderans subesse plusquam praeesse, 
venerabilem virum Eolangum adiit, quern 
presulem elegit. Igitur ad praefati senioris 
beato Maculino cum suis praeueniente 
monasterium, idem lcetus ineorum aduentu ; 
quos antea ad suum hospitium venturos esse 
pramidit in spiritu. Sic rem, tantamque 
cur Maculinus aduenisset ille cognosceret ; 
ministris suis ait. Hospites sancti bene 
reficiantur, et in crastina die vnde venerunt 
reuertantur. Ego enim non alloquar illos, 
donee post septem dies ad Luske peruenero 
villam. Ministris haec verba magistri 
Maculino narrantibus ; ipse crastina die 
sicut venerabilis senex praecepit ad suam 
perrexit villam, 

Lectio 8va. 

Igitur cum septem transacti essent dies, 
beatus Eolangus sicut praedixit Luske 
peruenit villam : ac protinus ad sancti pedes 
Maculini pronus procidit, dicens, Tibi, 
Deoque offero memetipsum, meumque 
monasterium. Tunc Maculinus amare flevit, 
et dixit, non hoc ego proposui, sic ut semper 
tibi subditus essem. Ille respondit, sic et 
ego a te inde remunerari expostulo ; vt in 
loco vno simul resurrectionem expectemus. 
Cui Maculinus dixit, hoc tibi Deus prsestabit. 

Si adhuc multum mouet me, quum praepo- 
situm siue idoneum non habeo praesulem : 
cui non dedignatus semper subditus atque 
subiectus essem. Tunc Eolangus dixit, 
hodie te summo committam pontifici : cui 
cuncti prepositi famulantur. Sicut enim a 
nullo mortalium nisi a semetipso te pontificio 
concessit sublimari : ita et nemini nisi 
semetipso et vult famulari. In eodem ergo 
loco dominus noster I ; C stu& cum angelorum 
agmine aparuit eis : cui Eolangus dixit. 
Deus meus suscipe a me hunc hominem 
iustum. Qui continuo manum illius beati 
Maculini contingens dexteram ; eleuauit 
eum in sublime. Tunc Eolangus quasi 
penitus perteritus dixit. O rex gloriose et 
qui dominaris in ccelis, adhuc modicum con- 
cedere digeris ilium in terris. Tunc dominus 
remisit ilium, et ab ilia die nemo praepositus 
nimiam claritatem illius manus cernere 
potuit ; atque circa illam manicam conti- 
nebat accinctam. Hinc igitur completum 
est, quod Veritas protulit, qui se humiliat 
exaltabitur. Quantocunque enim Maculinus 
se humilem atque subiectum vniuersis 
praeferrebat, tanto ilium excelsum ac per- 
latum cunctis Deus dirigebat. Nemo enim 
multitudinem virtutum eius enarrare potuit, 
nisi qui cuncta creauit. Nam si temporum 
curricula non preterirent : signa autem eius 

Lectio 9NA. 
Cum dies exitus eius imminent monas- 
terium de Luske adiit, quo sanctus Kuadam 
discipulos antea reliquit. Ibique postquam 
eisdem benedixit, acceptis tarn salutiferis 
pacis muneribus. corporalem deposuit 
glebam ; «edem promeruit adire supernam. 
Tunc plurimus Hiberniencium chorus col- 
lectus est ad Maculini corpus sanctissimum 
sepeliendum : qui angelorum noua cantica 
modulantium permixtus erat exercitus, 
quorum numerum nouerat Deus. Sol autem 
illius diei protelando spatium, perquindenos 
non cognouit occasum. Postea vero sanctum 
illud corpusculum, cum hymnis et canticis ad 
Luske translatum erat villam ; quo cum 
honore maximo in sarculo seruatur dignis- 
simo : quo etiam plures sanctorum Hiber- 
niencium venerandae requiescunt reliquiae ; 
ab ipso Maculino priraum congregate, nec- 
non hactenus venerabili successore postremo 
recollects. Quam igitur veneranda est 
fratres charissimi ista dies per orbem ; qua 
post victoria felix Maculinus concendit ad 
arcem ? Et quamuis mirabilis fulgebat in 
terris, nunc multo mirabilus resplendit in 
coelis. Nos autem ut sufficiant timeamus 

1 68 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

connected with the Proper Lessons. A brief allusion to the particulars 
furnished can only be introduced in the following account, as collated or 
contrasted with notices found" in our Martyrologies and Annals. That the 
present saint lived at an ancient period does not a<Jmit of dispute ; but, 
whether it dates back to the fifth century is very questionable. In the 
Feilire of St. /Engus.3 St. MacCuilinn of Lusk is commemorated, at the 6th 
of September. Also, the Martyrology of Tallagh* registers a festival, at the 
6th of September, in honour of MacCuilinn, Bishop of Luscca, now Lusk, in 
the County of Dublin. 5 This place was also written Lusga. 6 This holy 
bishop, styled St. Macculindus, is commemorated at this date by Rev. Alban 
Butler.? Bishop Forbes has a notice of him, likewise, in his u Kalendars of 
Scottish Saints." 8 By some writers, this saint is called the son of Cathmoga, 
and by others of Cathbad. But, MacCuilind or MacCullin is the name by 
which he is generally known, and hence we are allowed to assume, that he 
was son to a man named Cullin. We are well inclined to disbelieve the 
story of his descent horn an unknown King, and the circumstance related 
regarding his origin, as found in the Second Lesson of his Office. The 
O'Clerys state, that Cuinnigh was his first name,s> and that he belonged to 
the race of Tadhg, son to Cian, son of Oihll Olum. 10 This of course over- 
leaps his genealogy for many generations. Under the head of Lusca, Duald 
Mac Firbis enters Mac Cuilinn, bishop of Lusca. 11 We are told, that Luachan 
Moc Cuilinn was his proper name, and that Cainnigh, Caindigh, or Caindedh, 
was his first name. This Saint is likewise called Cinneadh, Cuindedhe, Cuin- 
nigh and Cainnech. According to the Office, from his mother when baptised 
he received the name of Maculinus, and he was carefully instructed in a 
course of studies. As he advanced in years, his morals were exemplary, and 
his religious dispositions were manifested in prayer, vigils, and fasting. Even 
while a youth, miracles are attributed to him, and his fame for sanctity was 
very generally diffused. We can well afford to pass over what is vague and 
obscure in his office, with the names of unknown persons and reported 

verba quibus sancti Presulis congrua laude Stokes : " With Mac Cuilinn of Lusk a fair 

enerramus gesta. Erat enim aspectu pair of champions divides (this clay), the 

angelicus : in sermone verax et nitidus : in feast of Sciath here we have : Colomb of 

iudicio iustus. Nulli odibilis ; cunctis fair Ross Glandae." — " Transactions of the 

amabilis. Hie erat stabilis, et constans in Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 

fide: ut Petrus doctor egregius, et vas elec- Series, vol. i., part i. On the calendar of 

tionis ut Paulus : virilis ut Andreas, diuina Oengus, p. cxxxvi. 
gratia plenus ut Joannes. Quid moror in 4 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxxiii. 

verbis ? nam omnibus Apostolis erat con- 5 In that copy found in the Book of Lein- 

similis ; per omnia illorum stquens vestigia, ster, we read at this date, ttlACCulin-o epf 

Qui felici commercio, caduca pro seternis. LurcA. 

peritura commutauit mansuris. Vbi inter * See "Extracts for the County of Dublin." 

cetcmos Dei sanctos et electos, in regno Ordnance Survey Records, p. 131. 
patris sui fulget tanquam sol, et tanquam ^ See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, 

scintilla in arundineto discurret : nationes and other Principal Saints," vol ix., Sep- 

judicabit : et cum vero justitia? sole electos tember 6. 
congregabit. Qui cum patre, et spiritu 8 See p. 379. 

sancto viuit in secula saeculorum. Amen. 9 See " Martyrology of Donegal," edited 

3 In the Leabhar Breac copy, we find the by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 236, 

following rami : — 237. 

10 Oilill Olum, King of Munster, died 

LufCAi la TTUcc Cuilirro a.D 234, according to Dr. O'Donovan's 

Cam -oecheng Acr\enx)Ai " Annals of the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 

peil ScecVu func Im-oi 112,113. 

Colum rtuirf 51L 5I&1V041. " See "Transactions of the Royal Irish 

Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 

Thus translated into English by Dr. Whitley part i., pp. 120, 131. 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 169 

acts, that have no authentication in other historic documents. We may 
accept, however, the traditions regarding his charity and kindness towards 
the poor and strangers ; that his preaching effected the conversion of many 
sinners and led them on to the path of salvation ; that he was assiduous in 
study, and in his devotions. It is stated, moreover, that he laboured much, 
in founding churches and monasteries ; and that he left the province of 
Leinster, to become a disciple of a St. Gregory, 12 who dwelt in the district 
written Carbrinum ; J 3 and under such direction, he read the Gospel and 
Epistle, by which we are probably to understand a curriculum of theology 
and of Sacred Scripture. While there, it is related, that he procured the 
restoration of sight to the blind son, and the use of speech to the dumb 
daughter* of a certain Regulus, named Acchoreus. 1 * Other miracles of his 
are also reported. Next we are told, that Maculin went over to Scotland, 
where he wrought many celebrated prodigies, such as that of delivering the 
country from the ravages of a monstrous beast, and for which he received 
the thanks and gratitude of all the Albanians. Thence he is said to have 
undertaken a journey to Rome, where Pope Gregory then presided, and 
where by him, through angelic monition, Maculin was promoted to the epis- 
copal dignity. On that occasion, a remarkable light from Heaven seemed 
to be diffused around them. Afterwards, Pope Gregory directed him to 
return to his own province, and to seek the place where his resurrection was 
to be. An angel led him to a province and town called Durpconyle, 1 * where 
he erected a monastery. Again, by angelic inspiration, it is said, he founded 
a monastery designated Albamense, 16 and in it he remained for some time. 
He is stated, likewise, to have founded twelve monasteries, but in what 
particular places, we do not find mentioned in St. Maculin's Proper 
Office. An ancient Life of St. Ciaran, of Clonmacnois, states, that it 
was Mac Cuilinn and Odhran of Lettrech, 1 ? who told Ciaran, 18 that his 
life should be a short one. As he died towards the middle of the sixth 
century, if the Mac Cuilinn alluded to be identical — as would seem — with the 
present holy man, our saint must have lived before that time ! St. Maculinus 
became Bishop of Lusk, x 9 but under what circumstances, and at what 
time, we are not creditably informed. In one particular Manuscript, he is 
styled an Archbishop ; but this is likely to be an error. The village of Lusk, 

12 This was probably the locally celebrated •' His feast occurs, on the 2nd of October. 
Gregory of the Golden month, who has been ,8 His festival occurs, at the 9th of Sep- 
from time immemorial venerated along the tember. See at that date, his Acts in the 
south-western and western shores of Ireland, present volume, Art. i. 

although his name is not to be found in our I9 The commentator, on that copy of the 

calendars. Feilire of St. /Engus in the Leabhar Breac 

13 No district in Ireland is known to have Manuscript, thus attempts in an Irish note — 
borne such a denomination ; but, probably translated by Whitley Stokes, LL.D. — to 
it is a transcriber's error for Carbreum, and account for the origin of this name : " A 
for which, in the form of Carbry, there are house of lustoc, i.e., of ragweed (?). i.e.. a 
equivalents in the south and west of house and weed diustoic (?), for he had no 
Ireland. house prius. A house was made of weeds 

14 Such a personage does not turn up in prius, et ab eo uominatur lusca quasi weed- 
our annals. house, because what is now called ttch used 

15 No such name is known in Irish topo- formerly to he called ca. Whence ulcha 
graphy ; but, it seems to have been incor- ' beard' quasi ol-cha cheek-house'), whence 
rectly written or altered, from the original also cerd-cha (' artisan-house,' ' forge '). 
by the scribe who copied our Saint's Proper Lnsca, then i.e. ca. lalamlusca, i.e. house of 
Office, and who was evidently unacquainted earth."--" Transactions of the Royal Irish 
with the Iri>h language and history. Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. 

16 Such local denomination in Ireland is i., part i. On the Calendar of Oengus, by 
unknown. Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. cxliii. 



in the parish of the same denomination, is situated in the Barony of Bal- 
rothery East, and County of Dublin. It is a place of undoubted antiquity, 
and the present cemetery and Protestant Church occupy the site of the more 
primitive monastic establishment. The church there is of medieval erection. 
Before the latest alterations, the interior consisted of two aisles, divided by 
a range of seven arches, which had been built up, the east end only having 
been used as a place for worship. 20 Except in the eastern part, the windows 
had been closed with masonry, and the whole body of the fabric wore a chill 
and neglected air. The north aisle was 150 feet in length. In the west end 
is a square embattled turret, and attached to three of its angles are rounded 
towers, finishing with the graduated parapets, so often observable in the 

Church and Round Tower of Lusk. 

ecclesiastical and medieval edifices of Ireland. 21 On the fourth angle there 
is a fine round tower, attached to the embattled turret, and it rises near the 
site of the more ancient church. 22 It is of greater altitude than the other 
towers, and it seems to be the most ancient part of the structure. It is of 
greater diameter than is usual in most of those curious fabrics, although the 
height is not equal to many of the same class throughout Ireland. 2 3 A very 
learned authority, on subjects connected with the civil and ecclesiasttcal 
History of Ireland, says, that St. Maccullinn, as he was its first bishop, is 
undoubtedly the patron Saint of Lusk. The terms found in his Proper 
Office lead to an inference, that when settled at Lusk, Macalin was surrounded 

20 There is a spirited wood-engraving of a 
sketch by Samuel Lover, Esq., R.I LA., 
showing the church of Lusk, its eastern 
window, and a portion of the turret, in the 
" Irish Penny Magazine," vol. i-, No. 19, 
Saturday, May nth, 1832, p. 145. 

21 The present illustration of Lusk church 
and Round Tower is drawn from a photo- 
graph on the wood, engraved by Gregor 

Grey. It represents the church as lately 
restored, and differing from that presented 
in a previous engraving, in the Second 
Volume of this work, at the 20th of February, 
Art. i. 

"See Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall's "Ireland : 
its Scenery, Character," &c, vol. ii., p. 347. 

23 See J. N. Brewer's " Beauties of Ire- 
land," voli., pp. 253, 254- 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 171 

with numbers of just men, who probably lived in a community life under his 
direction. Moreover, it is asserted, that when he had there exercised ponti- 
fical functions, Angels appeared, and marked out the boundaries for a ceme- 
tery ; and therefore an impression went among the people, that whoesoever 
might be interred there should escape the punishment of Hell in the future 
life. At that place St. Maculin afterwards lived, while many flocked to him 
as a master of the spiritual life, and others presented themselves to him with 
their monasteries for his guidance. However, Maculin desired rather to be 
a subject himself, than to rule ; and, he selected a venerable man, named 
Eolangus, 24 whom he wished to serve and select as his superior. This latter 
had a presentiment of his intention, and was rejoiced to receive Maculin and 
his companions. At that time, Eolang said to his disciples ; " Let our 
religious guests be hospitably entertained, but on to-morrow, let them return 
whence they came. I shall not address them until after seven days, when I 
shall go to the village of Lusk." When this had been reported by the 
ministers to Maculin, he set out the next day, and, as Eolang had directed, 
towards his own habitation. Wherefore, when seven days had elapsed, 
according to his promise, Eolang went to Lusk,where, falling at the feet of its 
holy superior, he said : " To thee and to God, I offer both myself and my 
monastery." Then, in tears, Maculin replied : " This I did not expect, as I 
would desire always to be your subject." Eolang answered : " And thus I 
expostulate, in demanding from you a reward, that in the same place our 
resurrection shall be." Maculin replied : " This request the Lord will grant 
you. If hitherto it has greatly troubled me, that I have not had a suitable 
superior or prelate — to whom should I always be a subject and subjected, 
without being deemed unworthy ?" Then returned Eolang : tk To-day I 
commit you to the care of that Sovereign Ruler, whom all superiors obey. 
For, as to no one but Himself has been given an ecclesiastical superiority 
over you, so to none but Himself does He wish you to be a servant." Soon, in 
the same place, our Lord Jesus Christ, with a choir of Angels, appeared to 
them. Then cried out Eolang : " My God, receive from me this just man." 
Immediately, taking Maculin by the right hand, our Lord raised him aloft. 
Wholly astonished and filled with anxiety lest his friend was about to be 
removed from this life, Eolang cried out with emotion : " O glorious King, 
who reigneth in Heaven, deign to leave him for some time longer on earth !" 
Then the Lord released him, and a wonderful effulgence shone about Macu- 
lin's hand, which could not even be seen on account of that very brightness. 
Through humility, the saint afterwards wore a glove on the hand so honoured ; 
but in proportion to the great exercise of that virtue, so much the more was 
he exalted in the sight of God and man. It is stated, 2 * that Maculin of Lusk 
visited Scotland twice, and that there he was held in repute. So far as we 
can understand an evidently faulty construction in the Office, St. Maculin left 
the Monastery of Lusk to one Kuda and the disciples. But when the day of 
his departure approached, the holy Bishop went to his former place which 
he blessed ; and there having received the Sacraments for the dying, he 
closed this life, while the Angels were heard singing canticles of praise. 
Moreover, it is related, that on the day of his death, the sun did not set for the 
fifteen days succeeding. This, doubtless, is chiefly the exaggeration of popular 

24 We find two holy men of this name day ; and the other, Eolaing, of Lecan, in 

mentioned in our Calendars : the one, Meath, whose festival was held, on the 29th 

Eolang of Achadh-bo, whose feast occurs of December. 

on the 5th of September, where we have 2S According to the Acts, preserved in the 

already treated about him, on the previous Library of Trinity College, Dublin. 

i7* LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

tradition. His funeral obsequies were celebrated with great solemnity, by a 
multitude of Irish clergy and laity. At first, his remains seem to have been 
conveyed to the cemetery, where so many of his congregation and where 
other saints repose. We are unable to state, because of the involved and 
imperfect composition in the account, whether the becoming coffin or shrine, 
in which his body had been laid, and to which allusion is made, was 
deposited in the grave-yard, or placed within the church of Lusk, owing to 
a translation of the saint's body. According to tradition, 26 however, it is 
said his remains were deposited in a vault, 2 ? which being termed " Luska "in 
the Irish language, is supposed to have given name to the present Village of 
Lusk, in Balruddery Barony, County of Dublin. In the parish of Lusk there 
is a well, called Tubbercalleen, and it is supposed to have been originally a 
holy well, being so called from St. Calleen, or Caillin, a former saint of the 
primitive Irish Church. 28 It used to be visited by people, on the 6th Sep- 
tember, the day of our Saint's festival, and stations were then performed at it : 
but, for over one hundred years, preceding the year 1843, these practices had 
been discontinued. The water of this well was used for curing the ague ; it 
is to be presumed, at a period, when that disease was more prevalent in 
Ireland, than it is at present. We are told, that at this well, there were two 
stones, which according to popular tradition bore the impress — one of our 
Saint's hand, and the other of his foot. Other legends, connected with the 
memory of this saint, were then current in the neighbourhood of Lusk. 2 9 
From certain criteria, Dr. Todd shows that the year of this saint's death 
occurred in a.d. 496.3° Yet, the Annals of Ulster and the Chronicon 
Scotorum have entered the death of Chinneadha or Mic Cuilind at a.d. 497. 3I 
The latter authority states, that an eclipse of the sun happened on the same 
year; but Roderick O'Flaherty has rightly added in the margin of the MS. 
496. Again, in the corresponding entry in the Annals of Tighemach, and in 
the same Codex, a similar correction has been made. Archdall mistook 
Mageoghegan's translation of the Annals of Clonmacnoise, and has made 
St. Macculind to have died, a.d. 497, while Cuynea M'Cathmoa is made to 
die in a.d. 498. 3 2 These are only two forms, however, of our present saint's 
name. This statement of Archdall seems to have led Dr Lanigan to think, 
two several persons were constituted bishops of Lusk, in the fifth century, 
but on no respectable authority he could discover.33 Elsewhere he enquires, 
if a certain Culeneus could have been identical with St. MacCulindus, Bishop 
of Lusk, and whose feast was held on the present day. 34 The reader must 
at once perceive how utterly irreconcilable are the statements, that St. 

26 See the " Irish Penny Magazine," vol. Thomas Campbell, 25th August, 1843, an( l 
i., No. 19, p. 146. It must be remarked, are entered in the " Dublin Memorandums," 
that the valuable " Illustrations of Irish p. 273. 

Topography," in this excellent periodical, ^ See " The Book of Obits and Martyr- 
are from the pen of John D'Alton — a name ology of the Cathedral Church of the Holy 
honourably connected with Irish history Trinity." Edited by John Clarke Crosthwaite 
and antiquities. and Rev. Dr. Todd. Introduction, n. (e) 

27 At present, under the square tower, p. xlviii. 

attached to the church, is a crypt or vaulted " Butler assigns his death to this year. See 

chapel ; and, it may be, that within it the '• Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and other 

body of St. Macculind had been formerly Principal Saints," vol. ix., September 6th. 

deposited. He quotes Colgan's MSS., to which he 

28 Notes by Mr. O'Donovan, in the volume appears to have, had access. 

entitled, " Dublin Memorandums," pp. 278, 32 See "Monasticum Ilibernicum," p. 251. 

279, belonging to the Irish Ordnance Sur- 3! lie remarks that Colgan makes no men- 

vey Office, now in the Royal Irish Academy. tion of them. 

* 9 The foregoing particulars in the text 34 See "Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, 

are derived from a communication signed vol i., chap vii., sect, v., n. 36, p. 338. 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 173 

Maculind died towards the close of the fifth century — as stated by our Irish 
annalists — and that he had been consecrated bishop at Rome by Pope 
Gregory. The first Sovereign Pontiff bearing that name filled the chair of 
St. Peter, from a.d. 590 to a.d. 604.35 The death of St. Maculind is 
recorded at a.d. 497, in the Annals of Innisfallen,3 6 and by the Four Masters. 37 
He went to his rest in the same year, according to Diuild Mac Firbis.3 8 How- 
ever, in the "Chronicum Scotorum," at this date, we find no such entry; 
but, at a.d. 544, there is notice of the "Quies" of Mac Cuilind and of 
Odhran from Lethracha.39 In the Martyrology of Tallagh, at the iii. of the 
Nones, or 6th of September, his feast is entered. 40 What Mac Firbis says is, 
"quies Cuindid son of Cathbadh, i.e. Mac Cuilind, Bishop of Lusca, &c, 
September 6." At the same date, his name appears in the Martyrology of 
Donegal, 41 as Mac Cuilinn, Bishop, of Lusc. In the Irish Calendar belonging 
to the Irish Ordnance Survey, and now transferred to the Royal Irish 
Academy Library, his commemoration is at this date. 43 At the 6th of 
September, the Bollandists remark,^ how Greven announces the feast of a 
bishop, called Mastulinus, in Ireland j while he is named in like manner, in 
their Manuscript Florarium Sanctorum, but without giving him a place. Not 
finding such a name in any Catalogue of Irish Saints, nor in any other 
authority, they pass him over, at this date; apparently not reflecting, that 
such an entry had been the error of a scribe for the name of Macculindus. 
This holy man is specially commemorated among the Cistercians. 44 At the 
6th of September, St. Mac Cuillinn was venerated in Scotland, and his feast 
is entered in the Kalendar of Drummond. 45 This holy man had an office, 40 
specially to commemorate his virtues, and to distinguish him among our 
Saints. 4 ? This office of nine lessons is assigned to him as a Bishop and Con- 
fessor. 48 In Scotland, the parish of Macalen or Macallan, now annexed to 
Knockandhu, or Knockando, 40 has been called after MacCallan, and dedi- 

35 This was the year of his death. 4<5 According to a MS. in T.C.D., classed 

36 See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's "Rerum Hiber- B. 1-4, which records at September the 6th, 
nicarum Scriptores," tomus ii. Annales Ides viii., Sancti Maculini Epis. et Conf., ix. 
Inisfallensis, p. 4. . Lect., &c. This is entered in a compara- 

37 See Dr, O'Donovan's edition, vol i., p. tively recent hand. In T.C.D., a MS. 
404, note (k). classed B. 3. I. records at September the 

38 See " Proceedings of the Royal Irish 6th, Ides viii., Maculini Epis. et Conf. ix. 
Academy," Irish MSS. Series, vol. i., part Lect. In a MS. classed B. 3. 13. in T.C.D., 
i., pp. 120, 121. we find at September the 6th, Ides viii., 

39 Thus : Quier true Cuilmt) ocur O-onan Sancti Maculini Epis. non. Lect. In T.C.D., 
O lecrvacViA. See William M. Hennessy's a MS. classed B. 3. 10. records at Septem- 
edition, pp. 48, 49. ber 6th, Ides viii., Sancti Maculini Epis. et 

40 Thus: "Mac Cuilinn Esp. Luscca." Conf. ix. Lect. A MS. in T.C.D., and 
See Rev. Dr. Kelly's " Calendar of Irish classed B. 3. 12., contains at September 
Saints," p. xxxiii. 6th, Ides viii., Sancti Maculini, Archiepis., 

41 Edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, ix. Lect. A MS. in T.C.D., classed B. 1.2., 
pp. 236, 237. has at September 6th, Ides viii., Sancti 

42 See the viii. of the Ides of September Maculini Epis. et Conf., Duplex fin per 
(September 6th). We find, "mac Cml/m constit. 

erp lurga cdinij-aceT) airim aoir cr\iofC 47 This office is denominated Vita S. 

An can x>o cua-it) an ceppoj; fo t>o Maculini. It is in Nine Lessons, and classed 

cumeintrie. 407." — Ordnance Survey Office among the Trinity College, Dublin, Manu- 

Copy, Common Place Book F., p. 75. scripts, E, 3. 8. This is elegantly and 

43 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., legibly written, or rather letter-traced. 
Septembris \i. Among the pretermitted 48 See " The Book of Obits and Martyr- 
Saints, p. 654. ology of the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity. 

44 At September the 6th, in the Annals Dublin," edited by John Clarke Crosthwaite 
of the Cistercian Monks is found, St. and Rev. Dr. Todd, Introduction, p. xlviii., 
Macuilindus, Bishop of Lusk, at p. 410. and n. (e), lxxvi., pp. 69, 154. 

45 See Bishop Forbes' '* Kalendars of 49 Of this parish, a very complete account 
Scottish Saints, p. 23. has been given by the Rev. George Gordon, 

174 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

cated to St. Macalin. In the churchyard of Macallan, a sequestered rural 
burial-ground, in the wood of Easter Elchies, there is a ruined church, but fast 
crumbling to decay. s° In the year 1839, the old church of Anglo-Norman 
erection at Lusk had been unroofed by a storm, and the building was allowed 
to become almost a ruin. Its ancient monuments were broken, covered with 
rubbish, and exposed to every indignity. Its singular square belfry, co-eval 
with the Anglo-Norman Church, and its ancient round tower, supposed to 
have been co-eval with the original church of St. Mac Culind, were rapidly 
going to decay. Since that time, the Ecclesiastical Commissioners undertook 
the work of reparation. It cannot be called restoration, as the original 
church style has been changed. The Rev. William Reeves, M.R.I. A., to 
whom Irish Ecclesiastical History owes so much, was Rector of Lusk for 
some years ; where he laboured nobly to repair the damages of time and 
accident during the period of his incumbency. In our annals are several 
allusions to Lusk, and from an early age. Thus in a.d. 695, Casson, a 
learned Chronographer, died, and the same year St. Adamnan held a Synod 
in its monastery, at which were present all the principal prelates and clerics 
of the Kingdom. In 731 died Crunnmael, son to Colman, Abbot of Lusk. 
Whether the office of Bishop and Abbot had been kept distinct in this place, 
we have no means left for ascertaining, owing to the very brief mention of 
persons in connexion with their obits. The mortal wounding of Colman, 
Bishop of Lusca, by the Hy Tuirtre, happened in 739 ; and in 784, the death 
of Conall, son to Crunnmhael, Abbot of Lusk, took place; in 787, that of 
Colga, son to Crnnnmhael, Abbot of Lusk ; and, in 791, that of Muireadhach, 
son to Aenghus, Abbot of Lusk. In 795, Ferghil Ua Taidhg, scribe of Lusk, 
died, and in 796, Maenach, son to Aenghus, Prior of Lusk. In 804, Cormac, 
son to Conall, (Economus of Lusk, died, and in 805, Maenach, son to 
Colgan, Abbot of Lusk. Subsequently, during this century, the Abbey was 
pillaged and destroyed, by the Northmen, in 825, and again the Oratory of 
Lusk was burned by them.s 1 Nevertheless, in our annals, during the ninth 
and tenth centuries are frequent entries of obits both of Bishops and Abbots 
connected with this place. 52 Tradition has preserved for us a beautiful 
portraiture of St. Maculind ; viz., that he was angelic in appearance, truthful 
and brilliant in discourse, just in his judgment, amiable to all, and had no 
enemy. He was firm and constant in faith, an illustrious doctor like St. Peter, 
a vessel of election like St. Paul, courageous as St. Andrew, full of Divine 
grace like St. John ; «n fine, he was comparable to all the Apostles, since in 
all things he followed their example. Thus was he admirable, both in word 
and in work ; having the favours of God to guide him through life, he deserved 
to change its transitory course for the company of the saints in Heaven. 
There he shines as the sun, and with the Angels he rejoices for ever before 
the true Sun of Justice and of Judgment. 

Article IV. — St. Sciath, Virgin, of Fert-Sceithe, now Ardskeagh, 
in Muskerry of the Three Plains, County of Cork. Veneration was 

Minister, in the "New Statistical Account the Chronicuni Scotonim, and of the Four 

of Scotland," vol. xiii., Elgin, pp. 60 Masters. 

to 82. 52 For the mediaeval history of Lusk, as 

s ° See ibid., p. 68. also for an account of its local characteristics 

s ' Although there are differences as to and antiquities, the reader is referred to 

dates, the foregoing instances are taken John D'Alton's "History of the County of 

from the Annals of Tighernach, of Ulster, of Dublin," pp. 414 to 425. 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 175 

given, at the 6th of September, according to the Manuscript copy, 1 as also in 
the published Martyrology of Tallagh, 3 to Scieth of Fiort Sceith, in 
Muscraithe tre Maighi.3 Immediately afterwards is mentioned, The Arrival 
of the Relics of Scethi, daughter of Mechi, at Tamlachta, or Tallagh. 4 
Although in a separate line, we can hardly believe it is intended to comme- 
morate a different feast from the former celebration. The festival of Sciath 
is to be found in the Feilire of St. ^ngus, at the 6th of September.* 
Already we have noticed a feast for this holy virgin, at the 1st of January. 6 
She descended from the race of Conaire, monarch of Erinn, who sprung from 
the seed of Heremon. Eilhue, daughter of Concraidh, was her mother, accord- 
ing to the O'Clerys.7 The Muscraighe Tri Maighe, or Muskerry of the Three 
Plains, in whi< h the saint's place was situated, had been regarded as the terri- 
tory of the O' Donnegan's. 8 The Church of Fiort Sceithe, which is placed by 
the Calendars of Marianus and the O'Clerys at September 6th, in Muscraighe- 
tri-maighe, is known at present by the name of Ardskeagh.9 This is a small 
parish, in that part of the barony of Fermoy, bordering on the baronies of 
Orrery and Kilmore. In the ancient taxation of the diocese of Cloyne, there 
is a rural deanery, called Muscry-donnegan. It contains the parishes now 
comprehended in the baronies of Orrery and Kilmore, with small adjacent 
portions of Duhallow and Fermoy. Among the Churches in this deanery, 
Orwerg, (i.e. Orbraidhe or Orrery) and Fersket/i, {i.e. Feart Skeithe,) called 
Ardskagh™ are two. This latter is now known as Ardskeagh. Thus, the 
identity of Muscraighe-tri-maighe and the barony of Orrery is proved to a 
demonstration." Ardskeagh is now a parish, in the barony of Condons and 
Clongibbons, in the County of Cork. This Parish, also called Ardskreagh, 
is separated from the main body of the barony in which it is included, by the 
intervention of the northern part of the barony of Fermoy. Some remains of 
its old Church yet exist in the burial ground. 12 In the Martyrology of 
Donegal,^ at this same date, the patroness is recorded as Sciath, Virgin, of 
Fert Sceithe, in Museraighe of the Three Plains, in Munster. This saint was 
venerated, likewise, in Scotland, and at the 6th of September, she is entered 
as Scetthe, in the Calendar of Drummond. 14 

Article V. — St. Colum, of Rosglan, or Domhnach-mor-Maighe- 

Imchlain, now Donaghmore, near Dungannon, County of Tyrone. 

Article iv. — » In that copy of the 9 It is described $n the " Ordnance Sur- 

Tallagh Martyrology, found in the Book of vey Townland Maps for the County of 

Leiuster, we read : Sciafc o pj\c Sceiui m Cork," sheets 3, 8. 

niurqvge cru tTUij;i. ,0 In 1615. 

2 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxxiii. " O'Brian's statement, in his " Irish 

3 See what is said about this holy virgin, Dictionary," voce Muscraighe, has been 
at the 1st and 15th day of January, on whuch fully established: notwithstanding the op- 
days she is also commemorated. posite opinion of Dr. O'Donovan, in the 

4 In the Tallagh Martyrology at this day, " Leabhar na-g Ceart," who treats it as wild 
in the Book of Leinster, we find noticed, and conjectural. See n. (v), pp. 44, 45, 
^■ouencuf lleliquiA|\um Sceci \Xe nieclu Dr Reeves has proved the contrary, in a 
-a-o CAtnLa6. note furnished to Dr. O'Donovan, for his 

s See " Transactions of the Royal Irish edition of " The Topographical Poems of 

Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., John O'Dubhagain and Giolla na Naomh 

parti. On the Calendar of Oengus. By O'Huidhrin." See n. 605, pp. lxix., lxx. 

Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. cxxxvi. '-' See Lewis' "Topographical Dictionary 

6 See the First Volume of this work, at of Ireland," vol. i., p. 57. 

that date, Art. vii. '3 Edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, 

7 See " Martyrology of Donegal," edited pp. 238, 239. 

by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 238, 239. ,4 See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 

8 See O'Donovan's %< Leabhar-na-g Ceart, Scottish Saints," p. 23. 

or Book of Rights," n. (v.), p. 42. Article v. — ■ See " Transactions of the 



{Fifth Century?) The present St. Columb of Ross Glandae and St. Sciath, 
are denominated a fair pair of champions, by St. ^Engus the Culdee in his 
Feilire, at the 6th day of September. 1 In the Martyrology of Tallagh, 2 at 
the 6th of September, there is a festival to honour Colum of Rosnossaire {i.e. 
Col um Midisil). This is also noted as a feast, in that copy contained in the 
Book of Leinster.3 The present Colum was descended from the race of 
Laeghaire, son of Niall, according to the O'Clerys.4 We find, that when 
St. Patricks had been repelled by the people of Fera-Gaura, he visited the 
district of Imchlair. This saint was placed over the Church founded at 
Donoughmore, in the present barony of Dungannon, by the Irish Apostle, 6 
when he had brought the people there to embrace Christianity. In the 
Martyrology of Donegal,? at the same date, this saint is named Colum, of 
Ros Glanda. 8 We are told, that Glan is the name of a well, which was there 
before St. Patrick's time, while Domhnoch mor Maighe Imchlair was after- 
wards the name of that place. 10 The old church stood a little to the north- 
east of the present village. The only traces of its venerable antiquity now 
remaining is a large and elegant cross of freestone ; on which numerous 
carvings, representing various passages of Scripture, are seen. 11 The people 
about here, baptised by St. Patrick, were blessed by him, as also was that 
well, in which they received regeneration. 12 At Domnach mor, St. Patrick 
founded a Monastery, over which it is said he placed St. Colum, '3 or 
Columbanus. His church soon acquired grants of land and other valuable 
possessions; and it continued to flourish until after the Invasion of Ireland 
by Henry II. 1 * The parochial surface extends from the rich champaign 
ground in the vicinity of Dungannon, to the bleak and dismal moorish 
tableau in the neighbourhood of Pomeroy ; and, it embraces every variety 
of soil, from the most fertile arable land to the spongy bog and the sterile 

Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 
Series, vol. i., parti. On the Calendar of 
Oengus, p. cxxxvi. In an Irish comment 
attached, Sciath is described as of Muscraige 
Tri-maige in Mumain. In another note, it 
is stated, that Ross Glanda was formerly the 
name of the stead, i.e., Glan (" pure"), the 
name of the well that is there, and Domnach 
Mor was its name, whe#the scholiast wrote. 
It is stated, likewise, since Patrick sent 
Colomb Croxaire of Ross GialMn in Ui- 
Liathain in Munster, or Colomb of Domnach 
Maige Imchlair in Tyrone ; and Glan (is) 
the name of a well that is in the stead. See 
ibid., p. cxliii. 

'Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxxiii. 

3 Thus: CoUnm o nuer*onoepMr\e ix> 
■Ajjuf Coltnan mi-oiril. 

4 See the "Martyrology of Donegal," 
edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
238, 239. 

5 See his Life, in the Third Volume of 
this work, at 17th of March, Art. i. 

6 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. iii., n. (p), pp. 116 to 

7 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
238, 239. 

8 The following MS. note is found in 
William M. Hennessy's Copy of this 

Martyrology, at this word: "Glen aium 
tiobraid boi and ria Patrick agus Domhnach 
mor maighe Iomchlair (Donaghmore, near 
Dungannon), a ainm anin : Thir Eog-hain 

9 There is yet a fine old sculptured cross, 
at the Catholic church here, and it is 
adorned with Scriptural subjects. See Miss 
Cusack's "Life of St, Patrick, Apostle of 
Ireland," p. 446, n. (4). 

10 At present identical with Donaghmore, 
near Dungannon, in the county of Tyrone, 
according to William M. Hennessy's Copy. 

"This was thrown down and mutilated in 
the war of 1641. It remained in a neglected 
state until Richard Vincent, Esq., caused it 
to be removed and placed where it now 
stands, at the head of the village, in 1776. 
It is 16 feet in height, and it consists of a 
plinth, a shaft and a cross. See Lewis' 
" Topographical Dictionary of Ireland," vol. 
i., p. 469. 

'•' See Colgan's " Trias Thaumnturga." 
Septima Vita S. Patricii, lib. ii., cap. excii., 
p. 148, and nn. 239, 240. 

13 He is classed among the Disciples of 
St. Patrick. See ibid., Quinta Appendix 
ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. xxiii., p. 267. 

14 See Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary 
of Ireland," vol. i., p. 469. 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 177 

mountain. 's In 1 195, the monastery here was plundered and wasted by 
Rughraidhe, son of Dunsleibhe, assisted by the FLnglish.' 6 In the Taxation 
of Pope Nicholas, a.d. 1291, the church of Donaghmore is described as con- 
taining many costly shrines. It appears to have been possessed by the 
Colidei or Culdees of Armagh, in the sixteenth century. By an Inquisition 
taken in the 33rd year of Henry VIII., the Colidei had their rectory and tithes, 
which, with many townlands in the adjoining parishes, were granted to the 
Archbishop of Armagh after the Reformation. *' We are inclined to believe, 
that the Columb of St. Patrick's time must have been a different person 
from St. Colum of Slanore. It seems likely enough, this latter was the 
Colman, son of Eochad, who had been restored to sight at Slanore' 8 by 
St. Feichan, Abbot of Fore. ! 9 Colman's festival is assignable to the present 
day, ao and it would appear, that he must have lived in the seventh century. 
But, this Saint appears to have had five holy brothers, and one sister, all the 
children of one father, but by two different wives. His pedigree is set down 
in the Genealogies of the saints. From it we learn, that his father was 
Eochaidh, and his mother Aigleand, the daughter of Lenin. Their children 
were St. Fintan, 21 St. Lughaidh, 22 St. Coluim, or Columbanus, and a daughter 
St. Comaigh. 2 3 The father of these children was the son of Ailill ; son to 
Guaire, son of Lughaidh, son of Laeghaire, monarch of Ireland, in the time 
of St. Patrick. By another wife, Ligach Bredmainech, or Ligan Bregmuinech, 
he had St. Nanidh, 24 and St. Muiredhach. 2 * St. Fursa 26 was also her son, 
according to some accounts. 2 ? This however must have been a Fursa, dis- 
tinct from him venerated on the 16th of January, whose mother is stated to 
have been Gelgesia or Gelges. The present saint is introduced, also, in the Acts 
of St. Columba, as driving his chariot, and this probably took place when the 
former was a young man. Afterwards, he probably founded the Monastery 
of Snamluther, now Slanore, a little to the south of Lough Oughter, and 
nearly opposite to Trinity Island, on the west side of the parisli of Kilmore, 
County of Cavan. The Abbey field there represents the effaced site of this 
monastic establishment. 28 Here at least the saint lived, and he was visited 
there by St. Fechin of Fore. 2 9 It is probable, himself and his sister, St. 
Comaigh, were joint occupants of that place ; for, both are venerated there — 
the present saint, as has been supposed, at this day, and his sister on the 
27th of May. Again, is stated, that a Columba Crossaire was patron of the 
parisli of Kilrush, according to the Martyrology of Tallagh,3° and also patron 
of the Church of Myshall, in the parish of St. Mary, TDounty of Wexford. 3 1 

'5 See the " Parliamentary Gazetteer of 23 Venerated at the 27th of May. See the 

Ireland," vol. ii., p. 28. Fifth Volume of this work, at that date, Art. ii. 

16 See ArchdalPs " Monasticon Hiberni- 24 Venerated at the 13th of November, 

cum," p. 682. where notices of him may be found. 

'7 See Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary 2S Venerated at the 12th of August. See 

of Ireland," vol. i., p. 469. the Eighth Volume of this work, at that 

18 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- date, Art. i. 

niae," xx. Januarii. Secunda Vita S. Fechini, a6 Venerated at the 16th of January. See 

cap. xxx., p. 136. the First Volume of this work, at that date, 

19 See his Life, at the 20th of January, in Art. i. 

the First Volume of this work, Art. ii. 27 As will be seen (ibid.) at the 1st of 

20 Colgan thinks the present saint is iden- January, there was a St. Colman, son of 
tical with the Colman, son of Eochad, Eochaich, venerated. See Art. xvi. 
venerated at the 27th of October. See 28 See Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's " Life of 
Secunda Vita S. Fechini, n. 19, p. 141. St. Columba," nn. (e,f), pp. 172 to 174. 

21 Venerated at the 1st of January. See ^ See ibid., n. (e)» p. 172. 

the First Volume of this work, at that date, ^ This, however, we are unable to find, 

Art. xiii. in the copies now accessible. 

32 Venerated at the 31st of January. See 3I See County of Wexford Irish Ordnance 

ibid-, January 31st, Art. xv. Survey Records, k vol. i. 


178 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 6. 

In Scotland, also, the saint whose festival is held on this day was venerated ; 
and, in the Kalendar of Drummond, 32 the name of Colombe, without further 
description, is solely entered, at the 6th of September. This entry seems to 
make it doubtful, if he be not rather of St. Columkille's than of St. Patrick's 

Article VI. — St. Colman, Son of Eochaidh, probably of Kilclief, 
County Down. We read in the Marty rology of Donegal, 1 that at the 6th 
of September veneration was given to Colman, son of Eochaidh. This may 
be Colman, of Cill Cleitigh, says the writer, and son of Eochaidh, who 
descended from the seed of Aenghus, son to Nadfraech, King of Minister and 
of Caisel. 2 Cill-Cleitigh, to which allusion is here made, is identical with 
Kilclief, a parish in the County of Down, and where another St. Colman 
Finn is said to have been venerated on the 2nd of June.3 This church is 
supposed to have derived its name from having been at first built of hurdles ; 
although a Doimliacc or stone church had been built at Kilclief, before the 
year 935, when it was plundered and burned, by the Son of Barith.* 

Article VII. — St. Caencomrac, said to have been Abbot and 
Bishop of Derry, County of Londonderry. In the Martyrology of 
Donegal, 1 at the 6th of September, occurs the simple entry of this name, 
Caencomrac. -This holy man, called the Son of Maoluidhir, was descended 
in the twelfth degree from Connal Gulban, as appears from the Genealogies 
of the Irish Saints. Colgan thinks he should be identified with the present 
Saint. 2 Under the head of Cluain-eois, now Clones, County of Monaghan, 
Duald Mac Firbis and the Four Masters 3 enter Caencomrac, son of Carran, or 
Curan, and an eminent bishop and abbot of Cluain-eois. He died in 69 1. 4 
It appears, therefore, that the preceding Caencomrac lived at a time long 
anterior to a distinguished bishop so called, and who flourished in the tenth 
century. The authority of the O'Clerys has been wrongly quoted for the 
statement, that the saint of this day had been a bishop of Derry.s However, 
under the head of Daire Calgaigh — the ancient name for Derry — Duald Mac 
Firbis enters, Caincomhrac, Son of Maoluidhir, bishop and abbot of Daire 
Calgaigh. 6 He died in 927.? He is called the Steward of Adamnan's Law. 8 

32 See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- p. 503, and sect. 3, p. 506. Elsewhere, Colgan 

tish Saints," p. 23. places the death of a Coencomrac, son of 

Article vi.— 1 Edited by Drs. Todd Sedulius, and an economeof Kildare, at a.u. 

and Reeves, pp. 238, 239. 834. He adds : " Vide 6, Septem." Ibid,, 

' In a note Dr. Reeves adds : Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. Brigidae, cap. 

" Under Mac Teil, at June 1 1, p. 166, supra. ii., p. 629. 

The Saint's Genealogies give the Mac Tail 3 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 

of Cill Cuiliun, and Colman, of Cill clethi, Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 682, 683. 
two sons of Eochaidh, son of Dargan, son 4 See "Proceedings of the Royal Irish 

of Columba, son of Cronan, son of Aengus, Academy," Irish MSS. Series, vol. i„ part i., 

son of Nadfraech. Book of Lecan, fol. 43., pp. 100, 101. 
b-e." s See "Memoir of the City and North- 

3 See notices at that date, in the Sixth Western Liberties of Londonderry," part ii., 
Volume of this work, Art. ii. sect. 2, pp. 27, 28. 

4 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 6 See "Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 632 to 635, and Academy," Irish MSS. Series, vol. i., part i., 
n. (k), ibid. pp. 104,' 105. 

Article vil— ' Edited by Drs. Todd 7 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 

and Reeves, pp. 238, 239. Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 620, 621. 

1 See " Trias Thaumalurga," Quinta Ap- 8 See Dr. Petrie's " History and Anti- 

pendix ad Acta S. Columbae, cap. iii., sect. 2, quities of Tara Hill," pp. 147 to 150. 

September 6.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 179 

Article VIII. — St. Dochonna. God is the fountain-head of all that is 
good. This truth the Saints recognised, and, therefore, learned to practise 
His holy law and obey His precepts. In the Martyrologies of Tallagh, 1 of 
Marianus O'Gorman and of Donegal, 2 a festival in honour of Dochonna is 
set down, at the 6th of September. He is called the son ofOran or Odran.3 
In the former of these calendars, however, the name is entered as Tochunnus. 
There is a female Saint, bearing the appellation of Dachonna, likewise, and 
mentioned in the Life of St. Attracta,* as patron of a church in the diocese 
of Clonfert. The Bollandists allude once more 3 to their having placed St. 
Dachonna or Machonna among the pretermitted Saints, at the 17th of Feb- 
ruary 6 , and stating, that more might be related about him, at the 6th of Sep- 
tember or at the 16th of November. They merely refer, at the later date, 
to a notice of Colgan,? regarding a certain Dochuma, a hermit, whose feast 
has been referred to the 6th of September, or to the 30th of October. Still 
ignorant of his identity, a further consideration of this saint has been deferred 
to the x. (? xxx.) of October or the 16th of November. 8 

Article IX.— Reputed Feast for the Daughter of Meachar. It 
will be found a matter of no ordinary difficulty exactly to identify the correct 
name of this holy woman. A festival in honour of the Daughter of Meachar, 
is registered, however, in the Martyrology of Donegal, 1 at the 6th of Sep- 
tember. But, in the Martyrology of Tallagh, 2 at the same date, we are 
informed, that on this day, the arrival of the Relics of Scethi, the daughter of 
Mechi, at Tamlachta,3 had been commemorated. Hence it would seem, 
such entry must be regarded as a repetition of one already set down at this 
date, or as an additional festival, in commemoration of the Virgin Sciath, 
whose name and pedigree have been already recorded. 

Article X. — St, Giallan. In the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 we read, 
that veneration was given to Giallan, at the 6th of September. In that copy 
contained in the Book of Leinster, his name is to be found at the same date. 2 
Nothing more seems to be known regarding him. 

Article XI. — Reputed Feast of St ^gidius. In the Martyrology 
of the Dominicans, there is notice at the 6th of September, regarding a 
festival for St. ^gidius, as the Bollandists 1 record, and at this date. Already* 
his Acts have been given, at the 1st of September. 2 

Article viii.— 1 Edited by Rev. Dr. * See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Sep- 

Kelly, p. xxxiii. In the Book of Leinster tembris vi. Among the pretermitted feasts, 

copy we read Cochtmm. p. 654. 

2 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. Article ix.— ' Edited byDrs. Todd and 
238, 239. Reeves, pp. 238, 239. In a table super- 

3 See »he Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," added to this Martyrology, the commentator 
tomus iii., Februarii xvii. Among the pre- bestows on her the name Eucharide. See 
termitted saints, p. 3. ibid., pp. 430, 431. 

4 See notices of her, at the 9th of February. 3 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxxiii. 

in the Second Volume of this work, Art. viii., 3 The entry is thus made : " Adventus Reli- 

and at the nth of August, in the Eighth quiarum Scethi filioe Mechi ad Tamlachta." 

Volume, Art i. Article x. — ■ Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, 

s See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Sep- p. xxxiii. 

tembris vi. Among the pretermitted saints, 2 Thus : 51AIIA111. 

p. 654. Article xi. — 'See " Acta Sanctorum," 

6 See ibid., tomus iii., Februarii xvii. tomus ii., Septembris vi. Among the pre- 
Among the pretermitted saints, p. 3. termitted feasts, p. 653. 

7 See "Trias Thaumaturga," Appendix " See at that day, in the present volume, 
Septima ad Acta S. Patricii, pars iii., p. 294. Art. i. 

180 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 7 

£>ebentl) 2Bai> of September. 



ALTHOUGH the place of this holy virgin's nativity has not been 
distinctly ascertained ; yet, she has been classed among our Irish 
Saints, because her religious father is held to have sought from Ireland the 
shores of France, where he was renowned as a warrior, and where he attained 
the distinction of being known as Count of Hannonia, or Hainault, in reward 
for his services, as also because with his religious wife, Waldetrude, he visited 
Ireland, on a mission entrusted to him, by Dagobert I., 1 King of France. 
Moreover, on her father's side, St. Madelberta. had Irish blood in her veins, 
and doubtless she inherited many of those happy dispositions, that rendered 
her worthy to rank with so many other members of a truly noble and holy 

The ancient Acts of St. Madelberta are to be found in a Brabantine 
Hagiological Manuscript of Rubea Vallis Monastery f and collated with two 
other Manuscript Lives, 3 they have been published by the Bollandists,* in 
fourteen paragraphs, illustrated with notes. A previous commentary5 has 
been prefixed by Father John Perier, S.J. The Acts found in the Utrecht 
Manuscript 6 do not differ from the substance of those others, which have 
been collated by the editor ; yet, the sentences are expressed in a different 
substitution of \vords and order-form, so that he deemed it but a needless 
iteration to have published them separately.? The name of the author is 
not known, nor the period when he wrote ,' yet, it may be suspected, he 
lived not contemporaneously with the subject of his biography, although his 
time of writing it was undoubtedly very remote. 8 Several chronological and 
other obscurities are presented, which render the life of our saint very 

Article i. — • Born probably soon after M Incipit prologus in Vita S. Madalbertae 

A.n. 600, he died at Epinay a.d. 638, at the virginis." However, as no mention of our 

age of about 36, and he was interred at Saint's name there occurs, and as it abounds 

Saint-Denis, which he had founded six years chiefly in Scripture phrases, reduced to the 

previously. See " Encyclopedic Catho- form of a sermon, which could be rendered 

lique," &c, par M. L'Abb£ Glaire et M. Le applicable to any other holy virgin, the 

yte Walsh, tome x., p. 6. editor omitted printing it. 

7 This religious house is near Bruxelles. 7 Nor was it necessary to multiply Anno- 

3 One of these belonged to the monastery tations for mere differences of words, where 
of Bethleem, near Louvain. The other is the reader should find what was worthy of 
supposed to have belonged to the house of allusion to it brought under his notice by the 
St. Saviour, at Utrecht. Such are the editor. 

statements of Fathers Bollandus and Pape- 8 He remarks that the Saint's body had 

brochius, as handed down for the information been interred at Malbod, where miracles 

of their successors. were wrought through her intercession. 

4 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Sep- However, he is silent, regarding the trans- 
tembris vii. De S. Madelberta Virgine et lation of her remains to Liege. Still, 
Abbatissa Malbodii in Hannonia, pp. 103 to it cannot be inferred from such silence, that 
III. the writer lived before the latter date ; as he 

5 In three sections, and twenty-nine para- may have been either ignorant regarding such 
graphs. translation, or knowing of it, he may have 

' To it is found prefixed, as a title : deemed it beyond the scope of his narrative. 

September 7.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 181 

difficult for solution ; but, the Bollandist editor has probably given the most 
reasonable conjectures to serve for elucidation. This saint is briefly noticed 
by Joannes Molanus, at the 7th of September. 9 His observations are taken 
chiefly from the offices, in the churches of Malbod and Liege. Alludii 
the other saints of her family, St. Waldetrude, Abbess, 10 and St. Aldetrude, 
Abbess of Malbod, 11 Colgan had intended to give the Acts of St. Madelberta, 
at the 7th of September. The Petits Bollandistes, 12 at the 7th day of 
September, have notices of Sainte Madelberte or Amalberte, Abbess of 
Monastery of Maubeuge, in the Diocese of Cambray. Some notices of her 
are contained in the work of Rev. S. Baring-Gould. '3 

St. Madelberga 1 * or Madelberta was the daughter of Saints Maelceadar or 
Vincentius 15 and Waldetrude. 16 Already have we alluded to them and to 
their sainted connections. Their children were Landric or Landry, 1 ? after- 
wards Bishop of Meaux, or of Metz, Aldetrude, 18 and Malberta, their 
daughters, and Dentelin, 19 who was the youngest of that family. Surrounded 
by such a happy circle, we can scarcely wonder, that Madelberta, or 
Amalberte — as she is also called — grew up in the most happy dispositions. 
Born — as seems most probable. — a short time before the death of Dagobert I., 
King of France, which happened about a.d. 638 ; from childhood, Madel- 
berta loved to pray constantly, and to profit by the teaching and example of 
her holy parents. It has been thought by some, that she and her sister 
Aldetrudis had been twins, and born about the year 637 ; or if they were born 
at different periods, one saw the light about a.d. 636, and the other a.d. 637. 
Her aunt, St. Aldegundis, 20 who could not have been many years older, 2 ' was 
the first foundress of a convent at Malbod, 22 also known as Maubeuge. It 
was then a solitary place, on the River Sambre ; and, it is now a town and 
canton of France, in the Department of the North. 23 There she had built 
three churches, on the death of her parents. One of those was dedicated in 
honour of the Queen of Angels j another to honour St. Quintin, 2 * Martyr ; 
and the third was dedicated to the chiefs of the Apostles, Saints Peter and 

9 See "Natales Sanctorum Belgii," Sep- 20 0r Aldegonde. Her festival is observed 
tima Septembris, p. 193 £. on the 30tk of January at Maubeuge. She 

10 See " Acta Sanctorum Hibernian, " was born a.d. 630, in the town of Hainault, 
Februarii iii., n. 5, p. 249. in the Low Countries, and she was the 

11 See ibid,, Februarii xxv., n. 5, p. 412. younger sister of St. Waldetrude, whom slfc 
"See Vies des Saints," tome x., vii e Jour preceded in a religious profession. She died 

de Septembre, pp. 553 to 555. about the year 689. 

13 See " Lives of the Saints," vol. ix., 2l In her Life ascribed to Hucbaldus, a 
September 7, p. 109. monk of St. Amand's, who lived in the 

14 This seems to have been the more ninth century, he states : — "Anno Dominicae 
ancient form of her name. Incarnationis circiter evoluto sexcentesimo 

15 See his Life, at the 14th of July, in the tricesimo, in Francia regnante Dagoberto 
Seventh Volume of this work, Art. i. filio Clotharii, orta est in pago Hainoensi 

16 See her Acts, at the 9th of April, in the Virgo Aldegundis ex regali prosapia, patre 
Fourth Volume of this work, Art. i. She Walberto, matre Bertilia." Her Acts have 
and her sister A ldegond is were the daughters been published by Bolandus, in the "Acta 
of Prince Walbert, descended in a direct line Sanctorum," at January 30th, from three 
from the former French Kings, and the different sources. 

Princess Berthille, an Anglo-Saxon. " See Joannes Molanus' " Natales Sanc- 

17 See notices of him at April 17th — the torum Belgii," Septima Septembris, p. 
day for his feast — in the Fourth Volume of 193 b. 

this work, Art. vii. 2? Here there was a strong for t r 

18 See an account of her, at the 25th of guard the northern borders of France. See 
February, in the Second Volume of this " Gazetteer of the World," vol. ix., pp. 161, 
work, Art. ii. 162. 

'' See his life, at the 14th of July, in the 34 He was also the Apostle of Amiens. 

Seventh Volume of this work, Art. ix. His feast is held on the 31st of October. 

i82 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 7. 

Paul. 2 * Her sister Waldetrude retired from the world, 26 having collected 
around her a fervent and religious community. At that time, Aldegonde was 
placed under her charge, at the age of eleven years, by Bertilia, as seems 
likely for purposes of religious and secular instruction ; the younger children 
of Waldetrude remaining in care of their maternal aunt. The parents of 
Aldegonde withdrew their daughter after a brief sojourn in the monastery, 
fearing that she also should take the veil, and because they had intended her 
to marry a man of rank -equal to their own. However, their efforts were 
unavailing ; for she soon took an opportunity to escape from the paternal 
mansion, and while still very young, she had found that place of solitude, 
where her religious house was afterwards established. 2 ? 

Meanwhile, Aldetrude and Madelberta felt a growing desire to conse- 
crate their lives solely to the service of Christ. At an early age, 28 they had 
been consigned by their pious mother to the convent founded at Maubeuge, 
where they were placed for education and direction under their aunt. Thus, 
it may be said, that almost from their cradle, they were familiarised with all 
the monastic rules and practices. Being — as supposed — the youngest of the 
daughters of St. Mauger or Vincent, and Vaudrue, or Waldetrude, Madel- 
berta sought a retreat from the world with St. Aldegonde ; 2 9 while it would 
seem, that her sister Aldetrude also devoted herself to a religious life, in the 
same monastery. There indeed was a union of 'souls engaged in all the 
practical virtues of their state. Their chastity and humility were exercised 
with vigils and largesses to the poor. From St. Amand 3 ° and other holy 
bishops, they heard frequent exhortations, and were comforted against the 
trials and temptations, which fail not to test the fortitude of even the most 
virtuous persons. On one of those occasions, while our saint was in great 
distress, bright rays of light came through the windows of her oratory, and 
seemed to cover her, as if the Divine influence had been poured on her for 
a protection from the snares of the enemy. 

For a long time, the holy Abbess Aldegonde ruled over her community, 
on the banks of the Sambre. She was favoured in an eminent degree with 
the gift of fervent prayer, and with many revelations. Under such a 
superioress, we may well suppose, her nieces were schooled in all the virtues 
and discipline of their religious state. The closing years of Aldegonde were 
a continual martyrdom j for a cancer in the right breast was the cause of 
jntense pain. This she bore, not only with exemplary patience, but with 
rejoicing that she was deemed worthy to suffer for the name of Christ. 
When her term on earth was arrived, a globe of fire was seen coming from 
Heaven and settling over the house, in which her spirit so happily departed, 
and as generally supposed on the 30th of January, a.d. 684. We have 
already seen, the parents of St. Madelberta separated by mutual consent to 
spend the rest of their days in religious retirement, about the year 653 ;3» 
Madelgarius, or Vincent, to take up his abode in that monastery he had 

25 Venerated on the 29th of June. l8 They were probably not more than nine 

26 About ihe year 641. or ten years, at the time. 

^ " The act of this foundation, published * See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des 

by Miraeus, is spurious, as mention is made Saints," tome x., vii e Jour de Septembre, 

therein of persons who were not living at p. 553. 

that time ; neither could it have been made 30 St. Amand, Bishop of Maestricht, 

in the twentieth year of Dagobert, as it con- whose feast occurs on the 6th of February, 

tains facts, which cannot be reconciled with He died A.D. 684, in the ninetieth year of 

the history of that prince." — Rev. Alban his age. 

Butler's "Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, 3t See the Life of St. Maelceadar or Mal- 

and other principal Saints," vol. i., January degarius, surnamed Vincent, at the 14th of 

xxx., n. July. 

September 7.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 183 

previously founded, at Hautmont, near Maubeuge, on the River Sambre, 
and his wife Waldetrude, or Vaudru,3 2 at Castrilocus, or Castrilos, subse- 
quently designated Mons, in the year 656. The Blessed Aldetrudis, or 
Adeltrude, succeeded her aunt in the government of this religious establish- 
ment. 33 For twelve years she presided over it with great virtue and wisdom, 
when she was also called away to taste the fruits of life everlasting, about the 
year 696. 

After the death of her sainted sister, Madelberta was selected to govern 
the monastery.34 Nor was she less careful to set an excellent example to the 
nuns under her charge, and to foster the good seed already sown, so that 
daily were pious females brought to the sanctuary, and directed by her in the 
paths that led to Heaven. She ruled over her religious community for the 
term of nine years. Madelberta had thus become the third abbess of 
Malbod,35 and now in turn she was called to receive the eternal reward. In 
the most admirable sentiments of piety she died about the year 684, or 685 
according to some writers.3 6 However, more recent and exact researches, 
by Carolus le Cointe 37 and others,3 8 have ascertained by certain historic 
comparisons of data^ that her life had been prolonged to about a.d. 705. 
Her body was deposited in the Church of St. Peter, the Apostle, with solemn 
funeral rites; a great number of priests with the religious entoning the 
psalms and canticles appropriate for the occasion. 

Soon after the Saint's death, a remarkable miracle took place, which soon 
caused the people of all that surrounding country to venerate her as their 
special patroness. A very religious man, living near Maubeuge, had a deaf- 
ness in the right ear, and he had often prayed to God for the gilt of sound 
hearing. One night in his sleep, a voice came to him, saying: "Arise, go 
to the monastery of Maubeuge and to the Church of St. Peter, where the 
body of St. Madelberte, Virgin, reposes, and there you shall be healed at her 
tomb." When morning had come, he arose and hastened to the monastery 
as directed. He assisted at Mass with profound devotion, offering up his 
prayers most fervently. Suddenly, when the priest commenced chaunting 
the Gospel, the man had an extraordinary sensation. His limbs began to 
tremble, his face grew pale, and some aqueous humour distilled from the ear 
affected. At the same moment, he felt relieved from his infirmity, which 
never afterwards returned. Another miracle is recorded regarding a certain 
girl, whose lower limbs had been crooked and paralysed from the time of 
birth ; but, her parents had brought her to the tomb of our saint, where she 
was suddenly restored to their use. At the time of the evening office, she 

32 See the Life of St. Waldetrude or Vau- 38 Such as, P. Michael Delewarde, in 
trude, at the 9th of April. " Historia Generalis Harmonise," tomus i. 

33 See Joannes Molanus' " Natales Sane- 39 Thus it has been conclusively proved 
torum Belgii,"SeptimaSeptembris, p. 193 £. in the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 

34 See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des tomus i., Februarii, in a previous corn- 
Saints," tome x., vii e Jour de Septembre, mentary to the Acts of St. Amand, that this 
p. 554. holy Bishop most probably died after a.d. 

35 See Joannes Molanus' " Natales Sane- 679. After his death, St. Aldegundis sur- 
torum Belgii," Septima Septembris, p. 193 b. vived him lor 'some years, and died most 

36 Among these are Bartholomeus Fisen, probably in the year 684, according to the 
in Floribus Leodiensibus, Arturus in Gynae- calculations of Mabillon and the Bollandists. 
ceo, i-Egidius Bucherius in Chronico Epis- It is stated, likewise, that afterwards Alde- 
coporum Trajectensium, as seen in an Ap- trude succeeded her aunt as abbess, ruling 
pendix to " De Rebus Gestis Episcoporum for twelve years in that capacity, and depar't- 
Leodiensium," by Joannes Chapeavillus, ing this life about the year 696 or 697. Her 
tomus i. sister Madelberta then became third abbess 

3 ?See " Annales Ecclesiastici Francorum," of that religious house, and governed it for 
tomus iv., A.D. 684, num. 1. nine years. 

84 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 7. 

was seen by the nuns, walking through the middle of the Church, and giving 
thanks to God. This caused great rejoicing and admiration to all who had 
known her previous condition, and who had witnessed her perfect restoration. 
These are only a few of those miracles, which were wrought, at the place of 
her first sepulture.* 

St. Hubert, 41 who had succeeded St. Lambert** as Bishop of Maestricht, 
removed the episcopal see in 721 to Liege,*3 of which city he then became 
the first bishop. To honour his martyred predecessor, he had built a stately 
church, which he designated the cathedral,** and thither he conveyed the 
relics of St. Lambert.*s He is still venerated as chief patron of Liege. Until 
the year 722, the relics of St. Madelbert reposed at Maubeuge. The fame of 
her sanctity and miracles was so great, that about the same time, St. Hubert 
had her body transported to Liege, with solemn ceremonies. Having encased 
her relics in a shrine, in which were also enclosed the relics of St. Theodard,* 6 
they were placed in the cathedral church. There several miracles were after- 
wards wrought through our saint's intercession. During the middle ages, 
likewise, frequent broils arose among the powerful and opulent families that 
disturbed the peace of Liege ; when public prayers and visitations to the 
shrines of the local patrons took place, to avert those disorders. On such 
occasions, the relics were exhibited for veneration to the faithful. *? In the 
year 1489, those relics were well preserved, when a commission had been 
appointed to examine into their state. On the 14th of April, with solemn 
religious ceremonies, a number of representative ecclesiastics, deputed by the 
Dean and Chapter oi Liege Cathedral, began the work of examination, which 
was continued on the 18th and 19th of the same month. In that compart- 
ment, in which the remains of St. Magdelberta reposed, they found her bones, 
with her hood and veil, as also a black cincture remarkably wrought ; more- 
over, they saw her robe and another veil, with two large portions 'of her habit, 
and two small scissors, which she was doubtless accustomed to use, together 
with some other ornaments — whether belonging to her or placed there by 
others is not known. After this examination, the inner and outer coverings 
were locked, when the keys were placed in the sacristy of the church, and in 
an upper drawer, which was lettered Mechlinia.* 8 

40 See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," 43 The capital of an important province in 
tomus iii., Septembris vii. Acta auctoie Belgium so named, and situated on the 
anonymo, ex Hagiologio Brabantino MS. River Maese or Meuse. At that period, it 
Rubea? Vallis, collata cum duobus aliis was only an insignificant village- Near it 
MSS., pp. no, in. lived Pepin, in the castle of Herstal or 

41 He was passionately fond of hunting, Heristal. 

when a young man of the world, and hence 44 This Gothic edifice was destroyed by 

he has been regarded as the patron of the French, in 1794. 

hunters. He departed this life, on the 30th *5 The beautiful shrine in gilt bronze, a gift, 

of May, A.D. 727. His chief festival, how- in 1508, of Erarde de la Marck, Bishop of 

ever, is kept on the 3rd of November — pro- Liege, was torn to pieces by the revolutionary 

bably on account of some translation of his mob, in 1794! The head of St. Lambert, 

relics. however, has been recovered, and it is still 

42 He was assassinated, at the instigation preserved in Liege. 

of Alpais, a concubine to Pepin of Heirstal, * 6 St. Lambert's predecessor in the See of 

because he had reproved their crimes. He Maestricht. His martyrdom took place a. n. 

suffered martyrdom September 17th, the 668, arid his feast is celebrated at Liege on 

day afterwards appointed for his festival. the loth of September. 

The year of his death has been variedly 4 ?An account of those transactions may 

stated: according to a tradition of the Church be found in Joannes Chapeavillus' work, 

at Liege, A.D. 696; while the Bollandists " Gesta Pontificum Leodiertsium." 

have it, at a.d. 708, or 709. See an account 48 From the Report of this investigation, 

of him in Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des and from the accounts of Bartholomoeus 

Saints, '' tome xi., xvii e Jour de Septembre, Fisen, S.J., in his " Historia Ecclesise 

pp. 172 to 179. Leodiensis," and of Anselmus, Canon of 



The name of this holy virgin is to be found in a great number of calendars 
and martyrologies. Although not contained in the oldest versions of Ado 
and Usuard ; yet, from her own time has Madalberta been venerated in the 
Low Countries, and mentioned in various additions to Usuard. 4 ? At the 7th 
of September, she is recorded in the Florarian Manuscript, by Castellan,s° 
by CanisiiiSjS 1 by Saussay.s 2 and in the Parisian Martyrology.S3 Besides these, 
Arnold Wion,s* Menard,ss Dorgan,s 6 Bucelin,57 Molanus^ 8 Miraeus,59 Con- 
stantine Ghinius, 60 Arturus, 61 and a host of other hagiographers, have inserted 
the name and festival of this holy virgin in their writings. On the 7th of 
September, she was venerated at Malbod, 62 according to the list of Irish 
saints compiled by Convseus. 

The Churches of Liege and Mons had an Office and a Mass proper for 
St. Madelbert, on the day of her festival. In a Breviary of Liege, printed 
a.d. 15 14, at Paris, there is a Duplex Office, as also in the edition of 1520, 
there printed. All the parts are from the common office of a virgin, except 
the nine Lessons — comprising her Life, as found in the ancient anonymous 
Acts to which allusion has been already made, only omitting those passages 
that do not appertain immediately to her— and the Prayer, which may thus be 
translated from the Latin : — " O God, the Creator of innocence and the lover 
of charity, who hath translated to Heaven on this day, thy beatified virgin 
Madelberta, grant to us Thy servants celebrating her sacred festival pardon 
of our sins through her pious intercession." The ancient Breviary of Mons, 
belonging to the noble collegiate Church of St. Waldetrude, contains the 
office of our saint, but having only Three Lessons 6 3— also taken chiefly from 
the old Acts referred to ; while the Proper Missal of the Church . of Liege, 
printed at Paris, jl.d. 1509, has a special Mass prescribed for St. Madelberta's 
feast. 6 * These notices show the veneration in which this holy virgin had 

Liege, in •' Gesta Pontificum Trajectensium 
et Leodiensium," we learn, that the relics 
of St. Madalbert, St. Lambert, and of other 
saints, although enclosed in one and the 
same great loculus, yet were placed apart in 
three distinct and lesser compartments. 

49 At the 7th of September, in Greven's 
edition, are the words " Madelbertae vir- 
ginis ;" Hagenoyensis, " Item S. Madel- 
bertae Virginis ;" the Carthusian MS. at 
Utrecht, "Madelbergis Virginis :" and with 
these may be mentioned the Lubeck- 
Cologne and Molanus additions. The 
author of the Bruxelles Usuard mentions 
her at somewhat greater length, in these 
words: "Item depositio S. Madelbertae 
virginis, quae Leodii quiescit, filiae scilicet 
S. Waldetrudis et beatse Gudilse neptis." 
However, the latter relationship is not so 
certain, and it has been rejected by Father 
Soller in his previous commentary on the 
Acts of St. Amalberga, widow, and mother 
of St. Gudila, at the 10th of July. 

50 In Martyrologio Universali. 

51 In his German Martyrology. 

52 In his Gallican Martyrology. 

53 Thus; "Apud Malbodium in Dicecesi 
Cameracensi S. Madelbertae virginis tertiae 
hujus Parthenonis^Abbatissae, cujus corpus 
post aliquot annos Leodium, S. Hucberto 
procurante, translatum est." In the margin 
is noted "circa A. DCCV." 

54 In his " Lignum Vita." 

ss In his ' ' Martyrologium Benedictinum." 

56 In his Martyrology. 

57 In his Menology. However, he errs 
greatly in the statement, that Maldeberta 
flourished in the year of Christ 612. It is 
certain she had not been born at that date. 
Moreover, he makes a still greater mistake, 
at the 25th of February, in stating, that her 
sister Aldetrude flourished about the year of 
Christ 840 — or more than two centuries 
later ! For this statement, he incorrectly 
quotes Joannes Molanus and Autbertus 
Miraeus, with other Belgian writers. 

58 j n « Natalibus Sanctorum Belgii." 

59 In " Fastis Belgicis et Burgundicis." 

60 In "Natalibus Sanctorum Canoni- 

61 In Gynaeceo. 

62 See O'Sullevan Beare's " Historiae 
Catholicae Ibemiae Compendium," tomus 
i., lib. iv., cap. x., p. 49. 

63 To these are prefixed the following 
Prayer or Collect : "Beatissimae Madelbergae 
virginis solempnitatem praevenientes, tuam 
deprecamur Domine clementiam, ut per ejus 
preces assiduas a cunciis criminibus nos 
absolvas." After the Lessons follows this 
Prayer : " Praesta, quaesumus Uomine, mem- 
bris nostris cum exultatione proventum, ut 
beatae Madelbergae, cujus diem depositionis 
recolimus ejus fidei constantiam subsequa- 
mur. Per/' &c. 

64 From this, in the Bollandist account of 

186 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 7. 

been held in times remote ; and in the Propria Festorum, printed a.d. 1623, 
and the Breviarium, printed a.d. 1636, at Liege, her festival is celebrated 
annually as one of a Double Rite, throughout all that diocese. About the 
beginning of that century, likewise, some change appears to have been made 
in her Liege Office, to render it more comformable to the Roman Rite ; 65 and 
much about the same time, a similar change was introduced, and for a like 
reason, in the Mons and Maubeuge Offices, celebrated in their noble 
collegiate churches. 66 In the Low Countries, they represent St. Madelbert 
in a group, with her father, St. Vincent of Soignies, and her mother St. Wal- 
detrude, St. Aldetrude her sister, as also her brothers, St. Landry, Bishop of 
Meaux, and St. Dentlin. 6 ? 

While the Church is irreformable in her doctrine and conservative in her 
moral teaching, she always finds abuses in the world that require reformation. 
To preserve evils because they are old and customary would be a great 
omission of duty and a crime. Wherefore, several of her noblest children, 
men and women, have from time to time figured in her annals, as reformers 
of lax discipline and negligence in religious practices. Others again have 
shone as exemplars of piety and fervour, transmitting holiness and constancy 
of purpose in their respective states of life, preserving happy traditions, for the 
edification and encouragement of numbers who desire to follow in their foot- 
steps. Such were the members of St. Madelberta's holy family in their age, 
and they have been lights for all succeeding ages. 

Article II. — St. Elarius or Helair, Patron, Anchoret and 
Scribe of Monahincha, near Roscrea, County of Tipperary. 
{Eighth and Ninth Centuries.^ The published Martyrology of Tallaght 1 
records a festival in honour of Elair of Locha Cre, at the 7th of September. 
This, however, does not accord with the ii. of Nones for this month — 
although thus set down — and as found in the Book of Leinster copy. 2 The 
situation of Lough Crea is said first to have attracted the notice of the 
celebrated St. Cronan3 before he commenced the erection of his chief 
religious establishment at Roscrea. In the midst of this " Stagnum Cree" 
there was an " insula modica," or moderately-sized Island — now known as 
Monahincha— and here St. Cronan,it is said, first built a cell. Monahincha 
lies towards the left, on the high road leading from Borris-in-Ossory to 
Roscrea ; but, the old church is hidden from view, owing to ornamental 
plantations which surround it in various directions. The greater religious 
establishment, however, seems to have been fixed at Roscrea* — even in the 

our Saint, certain extracts are given to Abbatissa Malbtdii in llannonia. Corn- 
indicate the Collects, Prayers, Gradual, mentarius Proevius, sect, iii., num. 20 to 23, 
Gospel, Offertory, Communion, and Post pp. 107, 108. 
Communion. 6 ? See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 

6 s This is inferred by Father John Perier, Saints," tome x., vii e Jour de Septembre, 

S.J., from the Decree of a Diocesan Synod, p. 554. 

held at Liege, a.d. 1618, by Monseigneur Article ii. — ■ Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, 

Ferdinand, Elector of Cologne, Bishop and p. xxxiii. 

Prince of Liege, at Tit. x., cap. v. These 2 Thus at ii. Hon : — elaip locha Cne. 

Decrees are to be found in "Spicilegium 'See his Life at the 28th of April— 

Ecclesiasticum Germanise," tomus vi„ pp. the day for his feast— in the Fourth Volume 

771 et seq. of this work, Art. i., chap. ii. 

66 In their Proper Offices, printed at * In the grave-yard adjoining it, the tomb 

Douai, a.d. 1624, 1625, the Office of St. of St. Cronan used to be Dointed out, and a 

Madelberga in Nine Lessons differed little mutilated stone cross with a figure carved on 

from that of Liege, in the last century. it, but nearly effaced, is represented in the 

See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Sep- " Dublin Penny Journal," vol. ii., No. 86, 

tembris vii. De S. Madelberta Virgine et p. 270. 



time of St. Cronan — when it is probable Monahincha became a dependent on 
it, about the beginning of the seventh century. Already have we referred to 
some remains of antiquity in this tovvn,s formerly a place of considerable 
historic importance, especially in our ecclesiastical annals. 6 After St. 
Cronan, the earliest saint recorded as having connexion with Inis Loch-Cre, 



Roscrea Church Ruins and Round Tower. 

is Coluim or Colum? — resolvable into Columba. His period, however, has 
not been determined ; but, it is probable, he preceded the present holy 
superior in point of time. St. Elarius or Helair is called the son of Fintan, 
sprung from the race of Kein, 8 and his brothers are said to have been Saints 
Aidan and Conrach.9 His mother is called Sinacha, third sister to the great 
St. Columbkille. 10 This latter statement of Colgan must be rejected, if we 
take into account the date assigned for the death of Elarius. While Sinacha 
must have been born in the earlier part of the sixth century, the birth of this 

5 In the Life of St. Cronan are views of 
the Round Tower at Roscrea, and also of 
the exterior of St. Cronan's dismantled 
church, as it faces the public highway. The 
view here presented of the interior faces the 
grave-yard within and the modern Protes- 
tant church. It was sketched by the writer 
on the spot, May 1870, and drawn on the 
-wood ; it has been since engraved by 

Gregor Grey. 

6 In a very interesting and learned lecture, 
delivered in the Catholic Club Hall of 
Roscrea, January 8th, 1888, by Rev. James 
Halpin, C.C., the lecturer thus summarises 
them: "In the long line of twenty- five 
Abbots, extending for four hundred years, we 
find men who must have been very dis- 

tinguished in their times, for one was called 
1 the Philosopher of Roscrea, ' in 827 ; 
another ' the Venerable Elder of Roscrea,' 
in 1 1 19 ; and another was styled ' Bishop of 
Roscrea,' in 1161." — "St. Cronan, Patron 
of Roscrea," p. 12. 

? His feast was held on the 15th of May, 
and in the Fifth Volume of this work, at that 
date, some notices of him may be found, at 
Art. vi. 

8 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 
Quarta Appendix ad Acta S. Columbae, cap. 
ii., num. 5, 6, 23, pp. 478, 479. 

9 According to the Sanctilogium Genealo- 
gicum, cap. 36. 

10 See his Life, at the 9th of June, in the 
Sixth Volume of this work, Art. i. 

188 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 7. 

present Elarius took place, it is probable, at least two hundred years later. The 
feast of St. Hilair is found in the Martyrology of Marianus O'Gorman, at the 
7th of September. In one place, Colgan notes a St. Hilarius Mocukein, a monk 
of Durrow, to whom he assigns a feast at the 7th of September. 11 We cannot 
be assured, however, that he was identical with the present Elarius or Helair.' 2 
On the contrary, he and his brothers, St. Aidant and St. Conry or 
Conrachus 1 * — stated to have been of Kein's race 1 * — must have lived in the 
sixth century, if their mother was Sinecha, the sister of St. Columkille. The 
present saint was undoubtedly of a different family, and he was principally 
venerated at the place, now known as Monahincha, which the neighbouring 
people still call The Holy Island. It lies in the parish of Corbally, barony 
of Ikerrin, and County of Tipperary. 16 The lough is now for the most part 
dried up, but a bog occupies its former site. The old ruins of Monahincha 
are remarkably beautiful in their architectural peculiarities. 1 ? Moory soil 
still extends around, notwithstanding that the waters of the lake have been 
completely drawn off; while the land is thoroughly drained and reclaimed 
into fine pasturage, and meadow. Rich grass grows over the soil. 18 Its 
remarkable old church is covered with a luxuriant growth of ivy, around the 
whole exterior ; but this has been removed from the interior, where all the 
wall surfaces may be seen. There are two most beautiful doors yet 
remaining, and almost entire ; one of these enters the nave, and the other a 
small choir. They are semi-circularly headed and elegantly jointed along 
the jamb-stones, with zig-zag carving around the arches. The fluted columns 
are surmounted by curious old sculptured heads. Through the ivy on the 
exterior corners of the nave may be traced projecting columns of rounded 
and chiselled stones. '9 The ruins stand in a tolerably well preserved state, 
in the centre of a grave-yard, overcrowded with human remains. 20 The 
interior of the old church nave is occupied by a family tomb, and around it 
the floor has been levelled and gravelled ; while the landed proprietor of the 
estate, on which the ruins are situated, seems to have taken special pains to 
preserve the existing remains. 21 Beside the old Church of Monahincha are 

"See "Trias Thaumaturga." Quinta ,8 Water-drains, however, appear along 

Appendix ad Acta S. Columboe, cap. iv., the surface, and the old togher or raised road 

sect, ii., p. 507. is yet traceable over the approaches to the 

12 Although styled in the Sanctilogium " Holy Island." 

Genealogicum, cap. 36, " S. Hilarius In- ' 9 This is a peculiarity the writer never 

isensis," this island is not to be confounded observed in any Irish Church of the same 

with Inis-Loch-Cre. age, although hehas minutely inspected some 

13 Colgan assigns him a feast at the 27th hundreds, in various parts of Ireland. Mona- 
of August, or at the 12th of October. He hincha was visited in May, 1870, and the 
is stated to have been buried at Cuil-Voke, description here supplied is furnished from 
and to have been venerated at Both, in the notes then made on the spot. 

Diocese of Meath. 20 A stone wall, nearly circular, surrounds 

14 He is said to have been buried in the the cemetery, which rises on a level with the 
monastery of Durrow in Meath, and to have topmost ledge on this enclosure, and partly 
been venerated, on the 23rd of February. in- the shape of a flattened cone. A flight of 

,s Another brother St. Cucumue is said to steps leads to the graveyard, from the outside 

have been buried in Hy. All three are made pasture. A curious old cross, dismounted 

brothers of St. Hilarius of Inis-Locha-Cre, from its pedestal, lies on the right side of the 

by Colgan. See ibid. Quarta Appendix ad nuns, as the cemetery is entered. 

Acta S. Columbae, cap. ii., num. 5, 21, 22, 2I In the last century, these had been much 

23, 24, pp. 478, 479. neglected, at the time when Arehdall pre- 

16 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the pared his " Monasticon. Hibernicum," for 
Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 412, 413, and publication. For the history and other par- 
n. (t), ibid. ticulars referring to Monahincha, and not 

17 Some of the local features have been here noticed, the reader is referred to that 
already described in the Life of St Cronan. work, pp. 667 to 669. 

September 7.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 189 

some ruins of an ancient monastery. 22 Not far from the ruins, some portion 
of the former extensive lake may be seen ; but the inhabitants of the sur- 
rounding country have a tradition, that all the vast tract of bog, now 
extending for several miles towards a range of distant hills, was formerly 
covered with water, which circled the M Holy Island." 2 ^ 

The Church of Inis Lough Cre was dedicated to the St. Helair or 
Hilarius, whose festival is celebrated on this day, as we are informed. The 
terms by which he is distinguished in our records indicate, that while he led 
a life of strict observance and asceticism, he was also the writer of some 
works, which at present seem to be unknown. Perhaps, he belonged to that 
band of Ccelicoli or Culdees, that lived on the smaller island 2 < — as distin- 
guished from the greater 2 * — and of which no clear traces now remain ; yet, 
it is recorded, that the passage from one island to the other, in the twelfth 
century, was made by means of a boat. 26 Helair flourished after the middle 
of the eighth, and beginning of the ninth century. The death of this 
Elarius, Anchoret and Scribe, of Lough Crea, is entered in the Annals of the 
Four Masters, at 802 ; 2 ? in those of Clonmacnoise, at 804 ; in those of 
Ulster, at 806 ; but, as we are told by Dr. O' Donovan, rede, it should be 
807. His age at the time of his departure is not known. His name and 
festival are entered on this day, in the Martyrology of Donegal. 28 In the 
table appended to this latter work, the name of our saint has been Latinised, 
Helarius.^ Although Inis-Loch-Cre does not figure very prominently in 
our Irish Annals,3° the " Holy Island " appears to have obtained celebrity as 
a place of pilgrimage^ 1 and to have had a resident superior^ 2 in the twelfth 
century. After the death of St. Cronan, the religious institute he. established 
at Roscrea appears to have flourished in piety and learning, for centuries 
succeeding his period. A copy of the Four Gospels, called Glass-Kennic, or 
the Chain of St. Canice,33 is said to have been there preserved to the time of 
Archbishop Ussher. Also at Roscrea was recovered -the Book of Dimma,34 

22 A large chamber, arched with stone, is 27 See Dr. O'Donovan's edition, vol. i., 
now used for a private vault, and there is pp. 412,413, and n. (t), ibid. 

a flight of winding stone steps ascending to 28 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

the top of this vault, now covered over with 238, 239. 

soil and rank grass. Traces of a mere ele- * 9 See ibid,, pp. 426, 427. 

vated story may be seen, and evidently con- 3 ° In A.D. 921, Flaithbheartach, son of 

structed for domestic purposes. Ivy surrounds Inmainen, was taken by the foreigners, and 

this portion of the ruins. The whole struc- conveyed to Limerick. See Dr. O'Dono- 

ture had been well and solidly built. van's "Annals of the Four Masters," vol. 

23 The writer was told, at the time of his ii., pp. 610, 611, and n. (b), ibid. 

visit, that English invaders crossed over this 3I On the 2nd of January, A.D. 1 1 38, 

lake in tin boats, and despoiled Monahincha Maelpadraig Ua Duigain, paragon of the 

of its former treasures.. The monks there wisdom of the Irish, chief lector of Ard- 

were killed by Cromwell's soldiers, it was Macha, head of council of the West of Europe 

stated; bub we find no such accc unt in any in piety and devotion, died on his pil- 

authentic record. grimage at the Island of Loch Cre. See 

24 Known as Inchenabo, in Irish, and in ibid., pp. 1058, 1059, and nn. (o, p), ibid. 
Latin, " Insula Viventium." Probably be- 32 In a.d. 1 143, Macraith Ua Fidan, 
cause the celebrities, who lived there, were head of the Island of Loch-Cre, died. See 
removed to the other island to die. when ibid., pp. 1070, 1071. 

overtaken by a mortal illness. 33 His festival is held on the nth of Octo- 

25 See Giraldi Cambrensis' " Opera," vol. ber, where his life is given in the succeeding 
v., edited by James F. Dimock, M.A., volume of this work. 

Topographia Hibernica, dist. ii., cap. iv., 34 The Rev. Philip Meagher, formerly 

pp. 80, 81. parish priest of Birr, found it among the 

• 6 It should still be possible for antiquaries books of an uncle, who had been a clergy- 

to discover some traces of the minor island, man in Roscrea, and gave it to a Dr. Har- 

in a portion of the lake or morass adjoining rison of Nenagh, who sold it to Henry 

Monahincha. Joseph Monck Mason, esq., Librarian to 



a scribe, the son of i£ngus, the son of Carthin. Another work, known as the 
Annals of Roscrea, was probably composed in the monastery there estab- 
lished^ 5 A succession of Roscrea Abbots, sometimes styled Bishops, in 

our Annals, is recorded 
from a.d. 800 to 1174, 
when the parent insti- 
tution seems to have 
gradually declined, and 
little account is had re- 
garding it, when its an- 
cient bishopric merged 
into that of Killaloe. 
King John built a castle 
in the town, a.d. 1213. 36 
A Franciscan Friary37 
was founded there a.d. 
1490, by Mulruany na 
Feasoige O'Carrol, who 
was married to Bibiana, 
the daughter of 
O'Dempsey. Accord- 
ing to other accounts, 
she was the foundress, 
when she had become 
a widow.3 8 The church 
was parochial, in 1 568,39 
when to it was attached 
a third part of the rec- 
tory of Rosscuro and 
the alterages thereof, 
with the tithes of above 
thirty acres belonging 
to it.* The precincts 
of the Franciscan 
Friary contained two 
acres, in which was a 
house where the friars dwelt, with a dormitory, hall, the prior's chamber, a 
chapel, a cemetery, a garden and two orchards, besides reprises, and in the 
lands ot Roscrea thirty acres of arable and pasture land. The whole was 
granted to Thomas, Earl of Ormond. 41 The Franciscan Friary was situated 
on the small stream which passes through Roscrea. The remains are still in 
a good state of preservation. 

Franciscan Church Ruins, Roscrea. 

the King's Inns Society. In turn he parted 
with it to Sir William Betham. It had been 
long preserved in Roscrea in a most curiously 
wrought and ornamented box. An account 
of it may be found in the "Transactions of 
the Royal Irish Academy," by Henry Joseph 
Monck Mason, as also in Sir William 
Betham's " Irish Antiquarian Researches." 
35 Among the Burgundian Library Manu- 
scripts,. Bruxelles, vol. xviii., No. 5304, there 
isa verylong alphabetical Index of the Annals 
of Roscrea, made by " Frater Brendanus 
Conorus," and accompanied by marginal 
references to the Annals of Donegal. 

36 See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiberni- 
cum," pp. 672 to 674. 

37 The ruins of this building, taken from a 
photograph, have been drawn on the wood 
and engraved, as here presented, by Gregor 

38 According to the Ware Manuscripts, 
vol. 34, p. 160, as quoted by Archdall. 

39 According to an Inquisition, taken on 
the 27th of December, in this year. 

40 According to a document in the Chief 
Remembrancer's Office. 

41 Here he built a large square castle, ad- 
joining the military barracks of Roscrea, 

September 7.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 191 

Article III. — St. Sillan or Siollan, Bishop. In the published 
Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 at the 7th of September, we find a festival entered 
in honour of Sillan, Bishop. 2 In that copy contained in the Book of Leinster, 
at the ii. day or before the Nones of this month, we find a similar record. 3 
The Martyrology of Donegal/ also, at the 7th of September, simply registers 
the name Siollan, Bishop. 5 In the Irish Calendar, belonging to the Ordnance 
Survey Records, 6 we find a like notice. 

Article IV. — Reputed Feast of St. Toit, of Church Island, 
Lough Beg, County of Londonderry. The published Martyrology of 
Tallaght 1 places Toit of Loch Eachach, at the 7th of September, in its list 
of holy men ; yet in such a manner, as apparently to connect the name with 
that of Sillan, Bishop. In that copy contained in the Book of Leinster, at 
the ii. Nones of this month, a like arrangement seems to be intended. 2 This 
Saint's place is now denominated Church Island, Lough beg, County of 
Londonderry.3 We read in the Martyrology of Donegal/ also, that venera- 
tion was given at the 7th of September, to Toit, of Inis Toite, in Loch Bee, 
in Ui Tuitre. 

Article V. — Reputed Feast of Siott. We find the name, Siott, set 
down in the Martyrology of Donegal, 1 as having been venerated at the 7th of 
September. Indeed, we may doubt, if this be not some false insertion for 
the name Toit, already entered at this date. 

Article VI. — St. Molaissi. According to the published Martyrology of 
Tallagh, 1 we find it stated, that Molasi 2 had a festival, at the 7th of Septem- 
ber. In that copy, contained in the Book of Leinster, this entry is at ii. of 
the Nones for this month. 3 It is thought, he may have been the same as 
St. Lasreus, or Lazarus/ the son of Ronan, son of Loam, son to Fergus, son 
to Conal Gulban, venerated at the 7th of September, or at the 16th of 
December. 5 In the Martyrology of Donegal, 6 there appears a simple entry, 
Molaissi, at the 7th of September. 

Article VII. — St. Ultan. At the 7th of September, we find the name 
of Ultan, without any further designation, registered in the published Mar- 

and in latter times, it served as a store-house another place, he writes, " Inis toide, 

for the soldiers' use. An engraving of it Church Island, in Lough beg, Derry, 

may be seen, in the "Dublin Penny Jour- (Ui Tuiitre)." 

nal," vol. ii., No. 86, p. 269. 4 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

Article hi. — » Edited by Rev. Dr. 238, 239. 

Kelly, p. xxxiii. Article v.—' Edited by Drs. Todd 

2 To this we find added : ".i. Toitre for and Reeves, pp. 238, 239. 

Loch Eachach." From such an entry, his Article vi. — 'Edited by Rev. Dr. 

place should be near Lough Neagh. Kelly, p. xxxiii. 

3 Thus : SiLLain epi .1. Coicae pop Loch 2 " S. vel hie Mac Culind," appears to be 
ecrtAch. added through some mistake of the copyist. 

4 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. ' Thus : nioLarfi pa uel hie mac 
238, 239. Cubnt). 

s See also Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum 4 See notices of him, at the 26th of 

Hibernise," xv. Februarii, n. 6, p. 348. December, in the present work. 

6 Common Place Book, F., p. 75. sSee Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

Article 1 v.— 'Edited by the Rev. Quarta Appendix ad Acta S. Columbae, 

Dr. Kelly, p. xxxiii. cap iii., num. 26, p. 481, and cap. x., num. 

2 Thus : Sillam epi .1. Coicae pop 70, p. 491. 

Loch echach. 6 Edited by Drs, Todd and Reeves, pp. 

3 William M. Hennessey's note. In 238, 239. 

1 92 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 7. 

tyrology of Tallagh. 1 In that copy, contained in the Book of Leinster, at 
the ii. of the Nones, there is a similar entry. 2 A like notice is in the 
Martyrology of Donegal,3 at the 7th of this month. 

Article VIII. — St. Boetius. In the anonymous Calendar of Irish 
Saints, published by O'Sullevan Beare, 1 a St. Boetius is named, at the 7th of 

Article IX. — Reputed Festival of St. Modocus. It is stated by 
Ferarius, that on the 7th of September in Scotia, the Bishop, St. 
Modocus, who lived about the year 534, had been venerated.' He is 
supposed by the Bollandists to have been identical with St. Aidanus, Bishop 
of Ferns, 2 and whose festival is held on the 31st of January. 3 

Article X.- St. Grellan of Craobh-Grellain. Under the head 
of Craebh Grellain, Duald Mac Firbis records, Bishop Greallan, 1 at the 7th 
of September. 2 Mr. William M. Hennessy conjectures, that this place Craobh 
GreUain, may be probably Creeve, 3 in the Barony of Ballymoe, County 
Roscommon. There are two Cill Greallans, in Tir Fichra of the Moy. 4 
This territory is comprised within the present barony of Tireragh, in the 
County of Sligo. 

Article XI. — Reputed Feast of St. Adamnan, or Eunan, Abbot 
of Iona. Sir Harris Nicholas places the festival of St. Eunan, whom he 
makes Bishop of Raphoe, at the 7th of September. 1 He was identical with 
St. Adamnan, Abbot of Iona. At the 23rd of this month, the date for his 
chief festival, his acts may be seen, in the present volume. 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of St. Queranus, Abbot. On the 
authority of Floratius and the English Martyrology, the name of St. Queranus, 
Abbot, is entered at the 7th of September, in the Calendar of Henry 
Fitzsimon. 1 He was Abbot of Clonmacnoise. In another place, Kieranus 
is entered, and by Henry Fitzsimon, he is thought to be the same as 

Queranus. His proper festival is at the 9th of this month, where his Acts 
may be found in the present volume. 

Article vii. — "Edited by Rev. Dr. 2 See "Proceedings of the Royal Irish 

Kelly, p. xxxiii. Academy," Irish MSS. Series, vol. i., part i.. 

2 Thus: UlcAti. pp. 102, 103. 

3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 3 It is in the parish of Oran, and de- 

238,239. scribed on the "Ordnance Survey Town- 

Article viii.- ' See u Historise Catho- land Maps for the County of Roscommon " 

licae Ibernise Compendium," tomus i., Sheet 34. 

lib. iv., cap. xi., p.51. * See ''Proceedings of the Royal Irish 

Article ix. — 'See the Bollandists' Academy," Irish MSS. Series, vol. i., 

" Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., xxxi. Janu- part i., pp. 96, 97. 

arii. Vita S- Aidani. Prcemium, sect. 4, Article xi. — 'See "Chronology of 

p. IIII. History." Alphabetical Calendar of Saints, 

2 See ibid., tomus iii., vii. Septembris. and other Festivals, etc., p. 147. 

Among the pretermitted saints, p. 2. Article XII. — See O'Sullevan Beare's 

3 See his Life, at that date, in the First " Historise Catholicae Ibernise Compen- 

Volume of this work, Art. i. dium," tomus i., Iii). iv., cap. xii., p. 56. 

Article x. — '" St. Greallan's festival is 2 Allusion is made to Jocelyn's Vita S. 

set down in the Martyrology of Donegal, Patricii, cap. cxiii., p- 55. See Colgan's 

at Nov. 10th." — William M. Hennessey's "Trias Thaumaturga," Sexta Vita S. 

note. Patricii, cap. cxiii, pp. 90, 91. 



Article XIII. — Festival of St. Summiva or Sunn i fa, Patroness of 
Bergen, Norway. Already at the 8th day of July, 1 we have recorded what 
has been told regarding this holy Irish Virgin and Martyr, who is said to 
have lived in the time of the Emperor Otho I., 2 and with other virgins 
devoted to her, in the Island of Selja or Selia, Norway. She there suffered 
martyrdom^ and probably before the period when Harold VI.* reigned in 
Denmark. The translation of her body from the Island of Selja to the 
Cathedral of Bergen took place, on the 7th of September, a.d. ii/o.s At 
the same day, the Bollandists enter her festival. 6 

Article XIV. — Festival of St. Sinotus, Martyr. In the Feiire, at 
the 7th of September, there is a festival for Sinotus. 1 To this, the 
glossographer has added a comment, which has a dubious meaning. 2 He 
is thought to have been Bishop of Capua, in Campania, Italy. Little is 
known about him, or the time when he suffered martyrdom ; but, at this date, 
some entries from ancient calendars, and notices regarding him, are to be 
found in the Bollandist collection.3 

Article XV. — Festival of St. Anastasius, at Salona, Dalmatia, 
Martyr. In the Irish Church, at this day, the martyrdom of St. Anastasius 
was commemorated, as we learn from the Feilire of St. iEngus. 1 The 

Article xiii. — 'See at that date, in the 
Seventh Volume of this work, Art. iv. 

2 Called the Great. He was the eldest 
son of Henry the Fowler. He was born 
a.d. 912, and he was crowned at Aix-la- 
Chapelle in 936. He engaged in several 
wars, and when victorious over the neigh- 
bouring barbarian states, he took every 
means to spread Christianity among the 
pagans. Especially the Danes were sub- 
jected to his laws, and he conquered the 
Bohemians in 950, after their obstinate re- 
sistance. He also established his authority 
in Italy, and marching to Rome, he was 
crowned Emperor by Pope John XXII. in 
962. He died a.d. 973. See " Encyclo- 
pedic Catholique," par M. L'Abbe Glaire 
et de M. Le V tc Walsh, tome xv., pp. 
194, 195- 

3 The Acts and Office of this Virgin and 
Martyr are to be found in the work of 
Thormodus Torfaeus, " Historia Norvegica,' 
pars ii., lib. ix., cap. 2 and 3. 

4 See an account of his reign in Joannis 
Mevrsi, " Historise Danicse," lib. Hi., pp. 
47 to 50. Amstelodami cId Iccxxxvm. 

5 The Bollandists notice this translation 
festival at September 7th, and advert to a 
statement found in a comment on a tract, 
" De Profectione Danorum in Terram 
Sanctum," edited by Joannes Kirchmann, of 
the City of Bergen, from a manuscript of 
Lubeck. It states: "Ibi Sancta Sunnif 
toto corpore in ecclesia cathedrali exaltata 

'As the Acts and Office of this saint came 

Vol. IX —No. 4. 

to light, after Father Soller had briefly 
written about her at the 8th of July, their 
notice thus concludes : u Poterunt Acta dari 
in aliquo Supplemento ad diem Vlll Julii." — 
" Acta Sanctorum " tomus iii., Septembris. 
vii. Among the pretermitted feasts, p. 2. 

Article xiv. — 'In the '* Leabhar 
Breac " copy we find : — 

SLanchepvo Senocn 
-Acdruillre rlechcAi 
' SLU415 Anachapf or\CA 
Comlun AfervcAi. 

Thus rendered into English by Whitley 
Stokes, LL.D. "Sinotus' pure suffering, 
whose tracks are shining. Anastasius' 
hosts were slain with the multitude of their 
virtues." — " Transactions of the Royal Irfsh 
Academy." Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 
part i On the Calendar of Oengus, p. 
exxxvi. Dr. Stokes adds a note: "The 
scholiast regards senotii as = synodi and 
slehtai as a verb meaning occisi sunt."— 

a Thus: " glanchesad senotii .i. senad 
nece [leg. Niceae ?] vel zenoti martir .i. in 
[i] erusalem." — ibid, p- cxliii. 

'See "Acta Sanctorum." tonuis iii., Sep- 
tembris vii. De S. Sinoto Martyre, et 
verisimiliter Episcopo Caputs in Campania, 
Italia;, pp, 5, 6. 

Article xr.— ' See " Transactions of the 
Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 
Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of 
Oengus, by Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. 


i 9 4 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 8. 

Bollandists» have given his Acts, edited by Father John Stilting, S.J., 
who adds a Previous Commentary, in two sections, and in sixteen paragraphs, 
with notes. 2 As a Christian, he suffered in the persecution of Diocletian, and 
he was condemned by the judge to be drowned, with a stone suspended 
from his neck. 

<g(gf)tl) 2Baj) of September 



WHILE most men are filled with the ambition of acquiring distinction, 
ease and wealth in this life ; those true Christians, leading 
apostolic lives, seek for different enjoyments, and suffer neither undue 
elation nor depression during their mortal career. Their chief desire is to 
serve men, to save souls, and aspire only to secure the first prize of a happy 
end here, and hereafter a crown in Heaven. 

St. Disibod, Bishop and Confessor, was one of the many Irish 
missionaries that laboured in the valley of the Rhine. His life has been 
already given, at the 8th day of July, which is his chief festival. But, in 
some Martyrologies, he has been assigned a feast, likewise, at the present 
date. The Bollandists, in their "Acta Sanctorum," 1 and the Petit 
Bollandistes 2 have notices of this commemoration. As we have already 
seen, Disibod was a holy missionary from Ireland. He lived in or before 
the reign of the Emperor Mauricius,3 according to some accounts ; but, it is 
most probable, that he flourished after that Emperor's rule. In the legends 
into which his history has been transformed, through veneration accorded 
him by succeeding ages, Disibod wandered about for ten years without any 
fixed place of abode, before he settled at Disibodenberg. By some, he is 
said to have been here so early as a.d. 590 j thi.-, however, is not the 
prevailing opinion of most writers. He is commonly represented as the 
first, who preached Christianity to the Frankish tribes of the Nahegau, and 
the people of this region have a special regard for his memory. By different 
writers, he is variedly called Disibod, Disibodus, or Disiboduus. He has 
been always regarded as the founder of that monastery, at Disibodenberg/ and 
which has been so named after him. This celebrated abbey in former times 
was within the diocese of Treves. The place is situated at the confluence of 
the Nahe and the Glan, near Kreuznach, and not far from the west bank of 
the Rhine. Elsewhere we have seen what vicissitudes the original religious 
establishment underwent. Archbishop Willigis repaired the damage which 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus Hi., Sep- viii c . Jour de Septembre, p. 564. 

tembrisvii., De Anastasio Martyre, Saloncc 3 Who reigned from 582 to 610. 

in Dalmatia, pp. 19 to 24, 4 An interesting account of this saint and 

Article I. — 'See tomus hi., Septem- of his place has been given by the writer of 

bris viii. Among the pretermitted saints, " Letters from Kreuznach," No. vi., in 

p. 204. •« The Glasgow Herald " of Thursday, Sep- 

2 See " Les Vies des Saints," tome x., tember 2nd, 1875. 



had been done by the wars of centuries; while, in n 12, Ruthard of 
Mayence entirely rebuilt the church and cloister. However, there was to be 
no lasting peace for the pious inmates ; for Siegfried III., of Mayence, and 
the Wildgrave of Kirburg, again "destroyed the restored monastery and drove 
out the monks. After this, the Cistercians once more restored the buildings, 
and took up their abode in the year 1470 ; but again, the monastery was very 
harshly treated, and in 1504, it was plundered by the Prince Palatine, 
Philip V. The Cistercians again returned, and remained, until Gustavus 
Adolphus finally drove them away. 5 It is not surprising, therefore, that nothing 
but ruins 6 now remain to mark the site. It is stated, in the Martyrology of 

Ruins of Disenbodenburg Monastery. 

Raban,7 that the holy Irish missionary, Disibod, ended his pilgrimage in the 
eighty-first year of his age on the festival of the birth of the Virgin. The 
date for his death is unknown ; but, it occurred, probably, towards the close 
of the seventh or the beginning of the eighth century. He was buried 
beneath the hut in which he had lived, on the slope of the hill. The names 
of his companions, whose bones seem to have lain beside his own near the 
altar, tradition has preserved as Giswald, Clemens, and Sallust. They are 
M the men " mentioned in the inscription who fed with heavenly bread " the 
dwellers by the Glan." 8 Twelve years after the death of Disibod, the com- 

5 See " The Rhine from its Source to the 
Sea," translated from the German, by G. C. 
T. Bartley, M.P., chap, xx., pp. 206, 207. 
London, 1888, 4to. 

6 These are shown in their present state, 
on the annexed illustration, copied from an 
engraving of the scene, drawn and engraved 
on wood, by Gregor Grey. 

7 Thus : " Natale Sancti Disibothi con- 
fessoris celebrari vi. idus Septembris in 
suburbanis Magontiacensis ecclesise." 

8 At the beginning of this century, under 
the ruins of the church, there was found a 
stone bearing an inscription in elegiac verses, 
commencing — 

" Hac Disibodi corpus tumulatur in urna : 
Propius hie extans ara dicata Deo 
Servat, ad seterni spent Judicis, ossa 

Qui pavere sacris Glanicolas dapibus," 

&c, &c. 

i 9 6 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 8. 

munity numbered fifty monks. After his departure, the memory of his life 
and works wrought so powerfully, and for so long, that gentle and simple 
emulated each other to the extent of their powers in endowing the cloisters 
of Disibodenberg with whole villages and farms, lands, forest rights, teinds, 
ground rents, and the like. It became, in course of time, far the wealthiest 
and best endowed religious establishment in the Rhineland country. The 
memory of Disibod and his companions has remained in quite a peculiar 
way, sweet and sacred, for more than iooo years in the valleys of the Nahe 
and the Glan. The day of his death — 8th September, when he is said to 
have died at the age of eighty-one — is kept still as a holy day throughout 
that whole district. 

Article II. — St. Fintan or Fionntan, of Ard-Caoin. At the 8th 
day or Nones of September, a festival is entered in the Martyrology of 
Tallagh, 1 to honour St. Fintann of Airdcain. There is a parish of Ardkecn, 2 
in the diocese and County of Down \ and its church was formerly styled the 
Church of Holy Mary of Ardkene,3 In addition to the Ardkeen already 
mentioned, there is another place bearing the same name in the parish of 
Kilmeena, 4 barony of Burrishoole, and County of Mayo. Burrishoole 
Monastery, now in ruins, near Burrishoole lake, is a very picturesque object. 
There is an engraving and a description of it in Mr. and Mrs. Hall's M Ire- 
land : its Scenery, Character, &c," vol. iii., pp. 389, 390. There is -likewise 
a townland so called, in the parish of Droom, barony of Eliogarty, and in 
the north Riding of Tipperary County. 5 Colgan also notices this saint, his 
place, and his feast, 6 but without throwing much light on his history. John 
Capgrave notes this saint as a Bishop and Confessor, at the fifth of the 
September Ides.? In the Martyrology of Donegal, 8 at this same date, the 
name is merely entered as Fionntain of Ardcaoin. 

Article III. — St. Ferghus, the Pict. The Martyrology of Tallagh 
records, that at the 8th of September, veneration was given to Ferghus 
Cruithneach,' or the Pict. We may refer to the notices of St. Fergus, pre- 
served in the Breviary of Aberdeen, in illustration of the witness sometimes 
borne to the traditionary accounts, by facts otherwise well established. 
According to the Breviary of Aberdeen, Fergus came on a mission, with 
other clerics, from Ireland, to Alba. He settled near Strageath. 2 He and 

Article ii. — * Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, 6 See " Acta Sanctorum Hiberni*," xvii. 

p. xxxiii. In that copy, found in the Book Februarii, Appendix, cap. i , p. 355. 

of Leinster, at this same date, we have 7 See M Nova Legenda Anglice," fol. 

pnean Airvocam. cxlviii., cxlix. 

2 See more concerning its history, in Rev. 8 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
William Reeves' " Ecclesiastical Antiquities 238, 239. A similar entry is found in the 
of Down, Connorand Dromore," n.(n). p.21. copy of the Calendar among the Irish 

3 Ardkeen and its Islands, in the Barony Ordnance Survey Records, " Common Place 
of Upper Ards, is shown on the " Ordnance Book," F., p. 76. 

Survey Townland Maps for the County of Article ml— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

Down," sheets 17, 18, 24, 25. Kelly, p. xxxiii. In the copy of this Mar- 

4 It is described on the " Ordnance Survey tyrology, found in the Book of Leinster, we 
Townland Maps for the County of Mayo," read, £ e P5 u r Cmichnech. 

sheets 76, 77, 87, 88. 2 At this place, in the present parish of 

s See "General Alphabetical Index to Upper Straihearn, in central Perthshire, 

the Townlands and Towns, Parishes and there was a Roman road and camp, on the 

Baronies of Ireland," p. 26. left bank of the Earn. See Francis H. 

September 8.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 197 

his friends erected three churches in that district. Fergus afterwards went 
to Caithness, where he preached to the heathens. After a time, he crossed 
from Caithness to the opposite country of Buchan.3 There he founded a 
church, at Lungley. Lastly, he came to Glammis, where he made another 
ecclesiastical settlement. This, at present, is a parish, in the southern part 
of the Strathmore and Sidlaw districts of Forfarshire. Glammis burn rises in 
the hill of Auchterhouse, at the extreme southern boundary, and traverses 
the whole length of Glen-Ogilvie. It cuts its way through the central hilly 
ridge, and joins the Dean river on the demesne of Glammis Castle, thus 
intersecting the parish over nearly six miles of its length, and cutting it 
lengthwise into two not very unequal parts.* In that place, he departed this 
Life. At Glammis, the memory of St. Fergus was held in such reverence, 
all through the middle ages, that his relics came to be coveted by the neigh- 
bouring people. One of the Abbots over Scone carried off the saint's head, 
and placed it in his church, for the veneration of the faithful.* We find, 
that the three neighbouring churches of Strageath, Blackford, and Dolpatrick, 
in Perthshire, were all dedicated to St. Patrick. This devotion, we might 
well expect, in the acts of a missionary, fresh from Ireland. The church of 
Wick, in Caithness, the church of Lungley, in Buchan, and the church of 
Glammis, all own St. Fergus as their patron. The festival of St. Fergus is 
recorded" in the Martyrology of Donegal 6 at this date. 

Article IV. — St. Maelecasni or Maeloisne. The heroic saints of 
the Church have ever been foremost to vindicate the rights of oppressed men 
and women. These latter especially, as the weaker sex, should ever engage 
the Christian chivalry of men to assert their true dignity, and to free them 
from every degrading law. -The Martyrology of Tallagh 1 has a festival for a 
St. Maelecasni, at this date. The Law of Adamnan states, that Maelcoisne 
was one of the sureties whom Adamnan found to free the women from every 
slavery and bondage that was on them. Besides the present St. Maelecaisni, 
there is a Maelcoisne, at the 15th of October, and a Maelcoisne of Ros- 
Brennaibh, at the 28th of December. It is not known, however, which of all 
these the Law speaks of, in reference to this matter. According to the 
Martyrology of Donegal, 2 also, veneration was given at the 8th of September, 
to Maelcoisne. 

Article V. — St. Cruimther Catha, son of Aengus, of Cluain 
Eossain. Upon the heads of many, this holy priest must have poured the 
cleansing waters of baptism, and afterwards he must have grounded them 
well in sound doctrine and holiness. At the 8th of September, a festival is 

Groome's " Ordnance Gazetteer of Scot- treasurer of King James IV., which shows, 

land," vol. v., p. 90. that, in October, 1503, that monarch made 

3 A district of Aberdeenshire, extending an " offerand of 13 shillings to Sanct. 
along the coast, from the Ythan, nearly to Fergus' heide in Scone." 

the Deveron, a distance of about 40 miles. 6 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

The reader will find a good account of this 238, 239. A note by O'Donovan says, 

district in the Third Volume of " Prize " Cruithneach, i.e., the Pict." 

Essays of the Highland Society." Article iv. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

4 See "The Topographical, Statistical, Kelly, p. xxxiii. In that copy, contained 
and Historical Gazetteer of Scotland," vol. i., in the Book of Leinster, the entry is niaeli- 
pp. 619 to 621. CAipi. 

s The removal of the saint's head to Scone 3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

is proved by an entry, in the accounts of the 240, 241. 

i 9 8 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 8. 

found entered in the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 in honour of Cruimther Catha, 
son of Aengus, of Cluain Eorainne. Nothing further seems to be known 
regarding him. The Martyrology of Donegal, 2 which has a like feast for this 
day, yet denominates his locality Cluain Eossain. 

Article VI. — Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 
In the ancient Irish Church, the Festival of the Birth of our Divine Lord's 
Mother was celebrated on the eighth day of September, as we learn from the 
Feilire of Aengus. 1 On this there is a short comment. 2 About the year 695, 
this feast was appointed by Pope Servius. In various parts of Ireland, this 
festival was celebrated formerly with very special devotion, as parishes, 
churches and chapels had been dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and 
this was a favoured festival day. The patrons or patterns that until of Lite 
were yearly celebrated very conclusively attest it. In Kilnenor parish,3 
County of Wexford, there is a holy well, at which a patron was formerly held 
on the 8th of September. *> According to a pious tradition, a concert of 
angels is said to have been heard in the air to solemnize the Nativity or 
Birthday of the Blessed Virgin Mary.s 

Article VII. — Festival of St. Timothy and Three Hundred 
Martyrs. In the Irish Church at this date was a commemoration of 
St. Timothy, and Three Hundred Martyrs, as stated in the Feilire of 
Aengus. 1 It seems likely that allusion is made to the festival of St. Timothy, 
who with St. Faustus suffered Martyrdom at Antioch ; but, under what cir- 
cumstances, or at what particular time, cannot be discovered. Their festival, 
however, falls on the 8th of September, and the Bollandists 2 find it noted in 
various ancient calendars. To these, Maurolycus adds three other Martyrs, 
Amphion, Severus and Severianus. 3 The other ancient Marty rologies quoted 
have no mention of the Three Hundred Martyrs alluded to in the Feilire. 

Article VIII. — The Son or Sons of Talarg. The published Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh, 1 at this day, has a festival to honour Mac Talaraigh, or the 

Article v. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, popAichmencap put)," translated, "i.e., 

p. xxxiii. In the Book of Leinster copy we Mary's nativity is commemorated here." — 

read Cpumchip Cacha mac Oengur'-A 1 Ibid., p, cxliii. 

CluAin eopamne. 3 It is in the Barony of Gorey, and de- 

2 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. scribed on the " Ordnance Survey Town- 

2 38, 239. land Maps for the County of Wexford," 

Article vi. — ' From that copy contained sheets I, 2, 3. 

in the " Leabhar Breac," we find the follow- 4 See the County of Wexford Letters, 

ing Irish stanza : — vol. i., LO.S.R. 

5 See " The Calendar of the Prayer-Book 

£op4icrimeric4p muipe Illustrated," p. 86. London and Oxford, 

mcmardyoAi popcepcpic i2mo, 1888. 

La CiAmt)Ai lapfecAib Article vii. — ■ See " Transactions of the 

Co. ccc. 41b mapcip. Royal Irish Academy." Irish Manuscript 

Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of 

Thus translated into English by Dr. Whitley Aengus, pp. cxxxvi., cxxxvii. 

Stokes:— "Mary is commemorated (to-day); 2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 

they are not dead on a scanty meal : with Septembris viii. De SS. Timotheo et 

Timothy after (the world's) ways and three Fausto, MM., Antiochioe, ex Martyrologiis, 

hundred martyrs." — "Transactions of the pp. 255, 256. 

Royal Irish Academy." Irish Manuscript 3 The Bollandists think these names to have 

Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of been incorrectly taken from the list of 

Aengus, by Whitley Stokes, LL.D., pp. martyrs, who suffered on this day at Alex- 

cxxxvi., cxxxvii. andria in Egypt. 

3 The scholiast adds : " .1. gem muipe Article viii.—' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

September 9.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 199 

Son of Talaraigh. Who Talaraigh or his unnamed son had been, or when 
and where they lived, seems to be unknown. Differently do we find an entry 
in the Martyrology of Donegal,' that the Sons of Talarg had a festival cele- 
brated in their honour, at the 8th of September. Whether one or more than 
one brother had been venerated also appears to admit of question ; but, wt 
are inclined to accept the authority of the more ancient calendar. 

&intb 2B^p of September. 




THIS celebrated archimandrite of the Irish Church has left behind him 
a national fame, because it was founded on a variety of holy enterprises, 
tending to the edification of his disciples, and to the increase of piety among 
the faithful. " Being made perfect in a short space, he fulfilled a long time." 1 
This should teach us, that length of years is not always the condition attaching 
to a well-spent life ; but God regards all great acts of virtue practised in the 
briefest run of time, and multiplies His rewards for them, until they are finally 
crowned. Even the more pleasing man's soul is to the Almighty, we 
ought to regard that as a favour in being drawn away to rest, which worldlings 
are slow to understand, and unwise enough not to weigh in their consideration. 
Such a happy soul is removed from cares and iniquities, while the mercy of 
God is thus manifested by His special graces to the saint, and by His true 
respect or real favours for the elect. 2 Life soon ended, and a career, unsullied 
by the vagaries and vices of a careless disposition, render the saint's early 
death the best increase of his anticipated heir-loom in a life beyond the grave. 
Long before any regular Lives of St. Kieran had been composed, popularity 
and tradition ascribed to him many wonderful miracles; but these, for the 
most part, are so extravagant and incredible, that all should not be received 
as authentic. Several bardic compositions were in circulation, likewise, and 
with a licence peculiar to these, the true facts of St. Kieran's biography have 
been stained and obscured. They obtained too wide a circulation, and 
unfortunately the strange taste of the middle ages too often seized upon the 
marvellous and imaginary rather than on the prosaic and authentic accounts of 
history and biography. Various Manuscript Lives of this Saint Kieran are 
extant j yet, are they very unreliable materials for authentic narrative. In the 
Felire of St. ^ngus, our saint is commemorated at this date, and to that copy 
of it contained in the " Leabhar Breac " are additions in the shape of notes, 
all in the Irish characters and language. 3 Several of St. Kieran's Manuscript 

Kelly, p. xxxiii. Also in the Book of Article I. — ' Wisdom iv., 13. 

Leinster copy we find mac CaIaj\<m5. 2 Ibid., 14, 15. 

3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 3 See "Transactions of the Royal Irish 

240, 241. Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 


Lives are preserved in the Royal Irish Academy/ Among the Halliday 
collection of manuscripts there is a copy of St. Kieran's Life, and a translation 
into English, by J. O'Beirne Crowe.* There is an Irish Life of St. Ciarain 
of Clonmacnoise 6 in the Book of Lismore.? Of late, among the other Irish 
Texts containing Lives of Irish Saints, published from this manuscript, 8 
is the panegyric on Betha Chiarain Guana meic Nois, edited with a Preface, 
an English Translation, Notes, and Indices, by Whitley Stokes, D.C.L. In 
the published tract — rendered from the original Irish text into equivalent 
English lettering — there are eighteen closely printed pages ;9 the English 
translation is comprised within nineteen pages. 10 This Life, contained in the 
Book of Lismore, has been copied from a still more ancient manuscript." 
The Book of Lismore had been compiled from the lost Book of Monasterboice, 
and from other manuscripts, in the latter half of the fifteenth century, for 
Finghin Mac Carthaigh Riabhach, and his wife, Catherine, daughter to 
Thomas, Eighth Earl of Desmond. Hence, it is sometimes and more 
properly called the Book of MacCarthy Reagh. ia It had been preserved in 
Timoleague Abbey, in the beginning of the seventeenth century. 1 * Afterwards, 
it was conveyed to Lismore Castle, where it long remained concealed, and at 
length it was there accidentally found, in 18 14, by some workmen engaged in 
repairing the castle. It was found lying, along with an antique crozier, in a 
wooden box, taken from a walled-up passage. The manuscript had suffered 
much from damp, while the back, front, and top margin was theji gnawed in 
several places by rats or mice. It is now the property of the Duke of 
Devonshire. The reputed Codex Kilkenniensis I4 has a Life of St. Kyaranus 

part i. On the Calendar of Oengus. By 
Whitley Stokes, LL.D., pp. cxxxvii. and 
cxliii., cxliv. 

4 Among them are the following : In the 
collection of Messrs. Hodges and Smith, 
there is a small 4to paper MS., No. 12, in 
the K.I.A.; it contains a Life of St. Kieran. 
The viii. vol. of O'Longan MSS., in the 
R.I. A., contains The Life of St. Ciaran of 
Clonmacnois, p. 171. In the same vol. 
there is an ancient prose Legend of St. 
Ciaran of Cluain Mac Nois and of Cairbre 
Crom, pp. 93, 94. The first volume of the 
O'Longan Manuscripts in the Royal Irish 
Academy contains a curious Legend of St. 
Ciaran of Clonmacnois, and two of his 
clerics. It is entitled eaccrvA leifcin, or 
The Adventures of Leithin, and it contains 
some curious topographical references, pp. 
378 to 385. 

5 This translation is dated, August 12th, 

6 This is a panegyric or sermon, but it is 
very legendary. However, it is curious, 
owing to allusions that serve to elucidate 
some old customs. It appears to have been 
a discourse prepared for delivery on occasion 
of St. Ciaran's festival, and apparently pro- 
nounced at Clonmacnoise. 

7 Among the O'Longan MSS., vol. vi., 
in the Royal Irish Academy, there are some 
few notices regarding the birth and death of 
several of the old Irish saints, taken from 
Keating, with a note to this effect : " The 

Life of Ciaran of Cluain is in the great illus- 
trious book, wbich Donogh Ban O'Flinn has 
lately brought from Lismore, after having 
coaxed it out of the hands of the Heretics, 
and that by his own superior dexterity, and 
with the help of God ; and he has it in Cork, 
at this time, 181 5." See pp. 35, 36. This 
Manuscript was written by Michael Oge 
O'Longan, between the years i8ioand 1822. 

8 In the " Anecdota Oxoniensia," Lives 
of •Saints from the Book of Lismore. Ox- 
ford, at the Clarendon Press, 1890, 4to. 

9 From p. 117 to p. 134. 

10 From p. 262 to p. 280. 

11 This is stated in the transcriber's note, 
at the Colophon, where he asserts, that he 
was not answerable for the meaningless 
words to be found in it, but they were owiug 
to the injured or faded condition of that 
copy from which he had traced it. 

12 It is written in double columns on 197 
leaves of vellum, 15^ inches by ieV% inches. 
On an average, 40 lines are on each column. 
The initial letters, with which some of the 
pieces commence, have the Celtic interlace- 
ment. In it, the handwriting of three diffe- 
rent scribes can be distinguished : one of 
these was a Friar named O'Buagachain, 
while another calls himself Aonghus O'Cal- 

"3 On the 20th of June, 1629, Michael 
O Clary, one of the Four Masters, used it in 
that religious house. 

14 In Archbishop Marsh's Library, Dublin. 



of Clonmacnois. 1 * His Acts as found there are probably copied from a still 
more ancient source. A Life of St. Kieran was compiled byAugustin Magraidin, 
from two older ones. 16 Owing to an imperfect description, it is not possible to 
state, without a close investigation, whether the Manuscript Acts of St. Kieran, 
and the ,l S. Kierani Confessio," to be found in the Burgundian Library at 
Bruxelles,'? have reference to the present saint, or to another bearing his name.* 8 
In the University City of Oxford are two copies of this saint's Acts.'? They 
appear to be taken from the same source. 20 It was Colgan's intention, to 
have issued the Acts of St. Kieranus, Abbot, at the 9th of September. 
This we find from the posthumous list of his Manuscripts,* 1 as also from the 
Vita S. Kierani Cluana, in the u Vitae Sanctorum," ex Cod. Inisensi, yet 
preserved in the Franciscan Convent, Dublin. 22 We learn, that other Acts 
of Saint Kieran were extant in Colgan's time ; and, he frequently alludes 
to them 3 3 with satisfaction, promising to publish such compilation, as might 
serve for a biography. This promise, however, has not been hitherto 
fulfilled. In the Bollandist Collection "Acta Sanctorum," 2 * Father Con- 
stantine Suyskens gives a Historic Commentary 2 s on St. Kyran or Queran, 
Abbot of Clonmacnoise, in Meath province, Ireland. The Bollandists had 
a Life of this saint, in their collection, 26 and by some anonymous writer. 2 ? 
In it, scarcely anything was to be found except prodigies, and these partly 
borrowed from other Lives, with some original matter, but related in such a 
silly manner,.that those accounts deserved little credence from the learned, 
unless receiving confirmation from a more skilled and erudite author than 
the writer. 28 This latter Manuscript may have been identical with an Irish 
Life, cited by Sirin 20 or O'Sheeran, and said to have been compiled by our 

«s At fol, 145 to 148. 

16 As stated, by Father Papebroke, in his 
Fourth Commentary on the Acts of St. En- 
deus, at the 2lst of March. 

17 In the Catalogue they are classed vol. 
iv., Nos. 2324-2340, fol. 86, 69. 

18 There is an Irish Life of St. Kieranus 
Cluanensis, in the Royal Burgundiun Li- 
brary of Brussels. It was transcribed, in 
the Franciscan convent, Athlone, by Brother 
Michael O'Clery, from the Book of Aodh 
Og Ua Dalachain of Les Cluaine in Meath, 
vol. xi. (4190-4200), fol. 149a. 

'9 In MSS. :— Vita S. Kiarani seu Querani 
Junioris primi Abbatis Clonmacnoisensis. 
MS. Bodl. Rawl. B. 505, pp. 81-86, veil, 
fol. xiv. cent. MS. Bodl. Rawl. B. 485, 
fol. 167, veil. 4 t0 xiv. cent. 

20 Incipit. — " Vir gloriosus et vita sanctis- 
simus Abbas Queranus ex patre Boetio 
matre Darercha, ortus fuit." — Thomas 
Duffus Hardy's " Descriptive Catalogue of 
Materials Relating to the History of Great 
Britain and Ireland," vol. i., part i., p. 126. 

21 See ." Catalogus Actuum Sanctorum 
quae MS. habentur, Ordine Mensium et 

22 At pp. 104 to in. 

23 Both in the "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
niae" and in " Trias Thaumaturga." 

24 See tomus iii., Septembris ix., De S. 
Kierano seu Querano Abbate Cluain-mic- 
Noisensi in Media Hibernian Provincia, pp. 
37o to 383. 

25 Contained in six sections and sixty-nine 

26 Noticed in the Old Bollandist Catalogue, 
and marked Salamancan Manuscript, P., 
MS. 11. 

27 In " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Feb- 
ruarii vi., sect, iii., num. 19, in his Historic 
Commentary on the Holy Mel, Melcho, 
Munis, and Rioch, Bolandus tells us, it was 
foolishly and negligently written. See p. 
780. Suyskens considered it not worth 

28 That his life differed from one, possessed 
by the Bollandists, appears in passages, cited 
by Colgan and Ussher. Such extracts are 
not found in the Bollandist copy. 

29 In these words: " De S. Kierano 
Cluanensi Abbate et instituta ab ipso 
monastica socictate plenissimam exhibcnt 
fidem Acta ipsius MS. quae cum aliis 
habentur in illo codice Ardmacano, ab 
ipsius sancti viri antiquis discipulis accepta, 
in quibus legitur S. Finnianus, sancti viri 
magister, propter institute ab ipso Con- 
gregations amplitudinem Leath Nereann, id 
est. dimidium Hiberniae nomen imposuisse." 
— R. P. F. Patricii Flemingi Hiberni 
Ordinis Fratrum Minorum Strictioris obser- 
vantioe olim Sacrae Theologise Lectoris, 
"Collectanea Sacra seu S. Columbani 
Hiberni Abbatis," &c. Dissertatio de 
Monastica S. Columbani Luxoviensis et 
Bobiensis Abbatis Professione, Art. iii., sect, 
ii., num. 84, p. 433. 



saint's disciples. However, the want of a copy prevented Suyskens from 
investigating this matter at length. The Bollandist editor regrets not being 
able to find any old Life of this saint, which should be found worthy of 
presentation to a studious reader. But for want of ancient satisfactory Acts 
relating to St. Kieran, Father Suyskens was obliged to compile his Life from 
various other sources. Especially was he obliged to make, reference to the 
Lives of other Irish Saints, which were extant. Thus did he collect such 
scattered notices together, and combine them in a narrative, referring to this 
Abbot of Clonmacnoise and to his time.? The first dissertation treats on 
various evidences regarding this saint, as drawn from the Martyrologies and 
other writings. John Wilson ** has a notice concerning our saint, who was 
descended, as he tells us, from a noble family? 2 in the Scottish Kingdom, 
where this holy Queran, abbot and confessor, had been buried. In a subse- 
quent edition 33 of his Martyrology, and treating the same subject, we are 
informed, that St. Queran 34 first became monk, and afterwards abbot over 
St. Columba's monastery, in Ireland, and that his holy life and miracles have 
been greatly lauded by posterity.35 Wion,3° Menard,37 and Bucelinus 3 8 rank 
St. Kieran among saints of the Benedictine Order. However, both in his 
Acts and in the Annals of this Order, Mabillon takes no notice regarding the 
present saint. In the Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs 
and other principal Saints," at the 9th of September^ there are some brief 
notices regarding St. Kiaran, Abbot. 

Long before Kieran entered the world, his birth had been predicted by 
St. Patrick,* the great Apostle of Ireland, who then dwelt on the top of the 
mountain, Cruachan Aighle, 41 where he was engaged in heavenly contem- 
plation. Moreover, St. Patrick told his disciple, St. Munis,* 2 that where 
relics had been found at Clonmacnoise, this place should remain for a holy 
man, named Kieran, the son of a smith, according to the decrees of Divine 
Providence ; that our saint should be born after thirty years ; that there he 

30 The writer adds: "At priusquam id 
agam, lectorem duo universim monitum 
velim ; primum est, quod Hibernorum 
Sanctorum Acta passim dubiat sint fidei, et 
a Scriptoribus minime accuratis ac setate 
longe posterioribus conscripta. Alterum 
est, quod in iisdem frequens occurrat rerum 
similimarum narratio, quas variis Sanctis 
adscribunt ; ita ut nescias, cui tuto adscribi 

31 In the " Martyrologium Anglicanum," 
published in 1 608. 

33 We may wonder why our saint should 
be represented as belonging to a noble 
family, when in various other accounts con- 
cerning him, he is called a " son of the 
carpenter," or artificer. 

33 Published in 1640. 

■ u He died, it is there incorrectly re- 
corded, about the year of Christ, 650, and 
he was buried In Scotia. 

35 It cannot be admitted, that he was a 
Benedictine monk, or still less could he have 
been a disciple to St. Columba, or an Abbot, 
in the same monastery. The first assertion 
is hazarded without the least foundation, 
and the second is altogether removed from 
truth ; because St. Columba survived St. 
Kieran more than fifty years, and it is not 

correct to say, that this latter died A. i>. 650. 
These conclusions must be established, on 
the slightest examination of this subject. 

36 In "Lignum Vitse." 

37 In " Martyrologium Benedictinum." 

38 In " Menologium Benedictinum." 

39 See vol. ix. 

40 See his Life, at the 17th of March, in 
the Third Volume of this work, Art. i. 

41 Papebroke tells us, that in the year 453, 
or thereabouts, St. Patrick spent his Lent 
of forty fasting days on Mount Cruachan 
Aichle, and predicted that St. Kieran 
would become the founder of Clonmacnoise. 
Whether we agree with a statement made 
in some old acts, quoted by Colgan, and to 
which allusion has been made, that our saint 
should be born thirty years after that date, 
or as another Life of Kieran has it, fifty 
years afterwards, we must set down these 
respective periods to a.d., 483 and 503. 
To reconcile either date, as the" year of his 
birih, with the year of his death in 549, 
should give our saint a life extending to 
sixty-six or to forty-six years. This alto- 
gether conflicts with the chronology of 
Archbishop Ussher. 

42 Venerated at the 6th of February, and 
at the 18th of December. 



should erect a church ; and that he should be celebrated throughout 
Hibernia and Albania.** This prediction was duly accomplished in course 
of time. 44 An account, somewhat different from the foregoing, 4 * informs us, 
that his birth had been predicted by the Apostle of Ireland, and fifty years 
before the accomplishment of such event. There is likewise mention 
respecting a certain magician's prophecy, and immediately before our saint's 
'birth ; but, this narrative appears to have been borrowed from the Acts of 
St. Comgall, 46 Abbot of Bangor, and it is coloured according to the writer's 
fancy. These statements evidently abound in fable. 47 Moreover, as we are 
told, St. Brigid 48 prophesied regarding him, when she beheld the flame and 
the angel fifty years before Ciardn. 49 Bee Mac D6 S ° also prophesied of him, 
when he said: "There, O son of the wright, in thy beautiful chasuble, 
with thy choirs, with thy melodies, with thy chariots, with thy songs." 
Again, it is stated, that St. Columkille 51 prophesied of him to Aed, son 
of Brandub or Brenainn, on Ard Abla. 52 

The name of this saint has been variously written by different 
authors. Some style him Ciarain and Queranus ;53 others, Kieranus ;* 4 whilst Keranus s 6 and Cheranus 5 ? are likewise names applied to him. 
The reasons for this variation are adduced by Colgan, in his Acts of St. 
Kieran, Abbot of Saigir and Bishop. s 8 Suyskens adheres to Colgan's usual 
mode of spelling our saint's name, viz., Kieranus. Among more recent 
writers, Castellan and the author of the Parisian Martyrology, call this saint 
Kiaranus. There are many saints bearing the name Ciarain or Kiarain in 
our Irish Calendars. 59 

« The matter is thus related. When St. 
Munis returned from Rome, and had been 
overtaken by night at the present site of 
Clonmacnoise, he was astonished to behold 
a vision of angels, hovering around the spot, 
where St. Patrick had formerly buried a 
leper's body. Munia had deposited a 
casket, containing certain relics, in the 
hollow of an adjoining tree. When morning 
dawned, the substance and bark of that tree 
were found to have grown around the 
precious deposit, so as entirely to conceal 
it. Then Munis said: "There is some 
man of God here interred, for there I be- 
hold a service rendered by Angels." As- 
tonished at such occurrences, axes and other 
implements were procured to cut down that 
tree. However, little progress was made 
at the labour. It was then resolved to refer 
this whole matter to St. Patrick, and his 
pronouncement is above recorded. 

44 Joceline adds to this account : " Est 
enim locus ille inter Midiam et Connactiam 
in quo sita est civitas Cluanensis, in qua 
habetur hodie sedes episcopalis." " Trias 
Thaumaturga " Sexta Vita S. Patricii, 
cap. cxiii. p. 91. See also Septima Vita or 
Tripartita S. Patricii, Pars, ii., cap. xxv. p. 
132, ibid. Likewise, "Acta Sanctorum 
Hibernise," vi. Februarii, Acta S. Munis, 
cap. ix., p. 266. 

«S In the apocryphal Acts of St. Kiarain. 

46 See his Acts at the 10th of May, in the 
Fifth Volume of this work, Art. i. 

4 ? As the Bollandist editor remarks. 

48 See her Life, in the Second Volume of 
this work, at the 1st of February, Art, i. 

49 This is stated in that sermon on our saint, 
contained in the Book of Lismore, and the 
prophecy was in the place whereon Brigid's 
crosses stood — we may presume at Clonmac- 
noise — on that particular feast-day of its 

s° He is venerated as a saint, on the 12th 
of October. 

*' See the Life of St. Columkille, at the 
9th of June, in the Sixth Volume of this 
work, Art. i. 

52 Where this place was has not been dis- 
covered. See the " Anecdota Oxoniensia." 
Dr. Whitley Stokes' Lives of Saints from 
the Book of Lismore, pp. 118, 264. 

53 See, Usuard, Baronius and others. 

54 In Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nian," Vita S. Munis Episcopi, p. 266, and 
Vita S. Aidi, p. 420. Also, in "Trias 
Thaumaturya," Vita S. Patricii, p. 136, and 
Vita S. Columbae, p. 392, &c. 

ss In the Acts of St. Finnian, at the 23rd 
of February, p. 395, and in the Life of St. 
Senan, at p. 610, recte 520. 

s 6 In Vita S. Endei, p. 708. 

57 In Aleninus, carm. 246. 

s 8 See his Life, at the 5th of March, in 
the third volume of this work, Art. i. 

59 Father Sirin or O'Sheet an states, " Che- 
ranos seu Kieranos viginti-sex,ejusdem stirpis 
multos." — u Sancti Rumoldi Martyris In- 
clyti," &c. Dissertatio Historica, &c, sect. 
10, num. 21, p. 198. 



Beoaidh was the name of his father, who was a carpenter, according to 
ancient accounts. 60 Darerca was his mother's name. She was daughter of 
Earcan, son to Buachall, son to Glas, 6 ' the poet of the Ciarraighe, 62 of 
Irluachair. 6 * The unknown author of Kieran's Acts calls his father Beord or 
Boeo. 6 * That he descended from the race of Core, son to Fergus, son of 
Ross, son to Rudhraighe, is the general account. We are informed, by Colgan, 
that our saint's father was called Beoanus or Beoadus. 6 * He is represented^ 
as having been an artificer or a smith. 66 He is said, likewise, to have been 
of noble and religious descent, although a .chariot-maker, while the mother 
of Kieran is called Darerca. 6 ? Whatever may be thought about the nobility 
of St. Kieran's descent, nearly all accounts left us agree in considering his 
father as a mechanic. 68 Yet, the commentator on the " Feilire" of Oengus, 6 9 
calls our saint the son of Nos. However, Colgan states, that his parents 
belonged to the race of Roderick 7° in Ultonia. St. Kiaran had four brothers, 
and three holy sisters -J 1 viz., Cronan the Deacon, Donnan the Deacon, 
Luachall the Priest, and Odhran the Priest ; Lughbet, Pata, and Raithbeo 
were the three sisters.? 2 

60 As we are informed, our saint was called 
" Kyeranus filius artificis," or Kieran son of 
the artificer, which is also interpreted " Mac- 
an-tsair," in the Acts of St. Finian of Clo- 

61 Contrary to his own pedigree, which is 
identical with that in the text, the Life in 
the Book of Lismore states incorrectly, that 
Glas was Darerca's grandfather. 

6 * Glasraige was the particular spot in that 
territory to which she belonged. 

63 See the " Martyrology of Donegal," 
edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
240, 241. 

64 The parental genealogy of our saint — 
as understood at Clonmacnoise many centu- 
ries back — is the following : Ciaran, son of 
Beoit, son to Olchan, son of Dichu, son to 
Core, son of Cuindiu, son of Cuinnid, son to 
Fiac, son of Maelcatrach, son to Laise, son 
of Lairne, son to Cuiltre, son of Gluinech, 
son to Coirpre, son of Lug, son of Meidle, 
son of Dub, son of Lugna, son to Feidlimid, 
son of Eochu, son to Bresal, son of Degha, 
son of Reo-soirche, son to Tigernmas, son 
of Follach, son of Eithrial, son to Irial the 
prophet, son of Eremon, son to Mil of Spain. 

° 5 The genealogy of St. Ciaran of Cluain- 
macnois is contained in the ,k Leabhar 
Breac," at page 16, col. I, line 26. 

66 See " Acta Sanctorum Iliberniae, ' xv. 
Januarii. Vita S. Itae, n. 15. 

67 In that Life of our saint contained in 
the Book of Lismore, we are told, that this 
was the manner of their courtship : " When 
Beoit went to visit his brothers, who dwelt 
in the district of CeneM Fiacha, and when lie 
saw the girl Darerca before them, he asked 
her relations and her parents to give her to 
him, and sooth she was given to him." 

6H Thus, when allusion is made to our 
saint, in the Fifth Life of St. Columba, at 
lib. i., cap. lxxxi , as published by Colgan, 
we find this note subjoined by the latter 

writer, " Est hie sanctus Kieranus abbas de 
Cluain-muc-nois, qui agnomine patronimico 
filius saoir, id est, fabri, appellatur, ut con- 
stat ex ejus vita exhibenda ad ix. Septem- 
bris." See " Trias Thaumaturga," p. 402, 
and n. 75, p. 451. 

69 In the " Leabhar Breac " copy. See 
u Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy." 
Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., part i. On 
the Calendar of Aengus, by Whitley Stokes, 
LL.D., n. p. cxliii. 

7° Or Rudhraighe Mor, from the line of 
Ir, son of Mileadh. The princes who occu- 
pied Emania, the Ultonian seat of royalty, 
were, with few exceptions, of the Clanna 
Rudhraighe descent. The Dal Fiatach 
family, descended from Heremon, at an 
early date, had been engrafted into the 
Clanna Rudraighe, and had attained con- 
siderable power at A.D. 332, when it shared 
their fortunes in the joint limitations of their 
circumscribed territory of Uladh. See Rev. 
William Reeves' " Ecclesiastical Antiquities 
of Down, Connor and Dromore." Appen- 
dix II., pp. 252 to 369. 

'■ The Life in the Book of Lismore states, 
five brothers, and •' this is the order in which 
they were born, to wit, Lucholl, her first 
born, Donnan, the second, Ciaran, the third, 
Odian, the fourth, Cronan, the fifth, and he 
was a deacon, but the other four sons were 
archpresbyters. Then she bore three 
daughters to him, and two of them were 
virgins, even Lugbec and Rathbeo. Now, 
Pata was the third daughter, and she was a 
piolis widow. These are the graveyards in 
which are the relics of those saints, to wit, 
Lucholl and Odran in Isel Ciarain. 
Donnan and Ciaran in Clonmacnois. 
Deacon Cronan and Beoit, and the three 
daughters in Tech Meic int-saeir." 

? 2 See the " Martyrology of Donegal," 
edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
242, 243. 



Some controversy has been excited in reference to the exact place of this 
St. KTaran's birth. Although he is said to have been of Ultonian descent ; 
yet, St. Patrick is represented, in one place, as prophesying, that St. Kieran 
should be born in the southern parts of Ireland. 73 Such account is thought 
reconcilable, however, with a statement, that he was a native of Media ter- 
ritory, as mentioned in the beginning of his acts.?* This mensal territory of 
Media or Midia was anciently regarded as a kingdom, 75 or the supreme 
^Monarch's portion, and one among the five divisions of Ireland or ancient 
Scotia. In our Saint's Manuscript Life, possessed by the Bollandists, he is 
related to have been born in the Connaught province, as an impious king, 
named Ainmire, the son of Colgan, ruled over the territory of Hiii Neill, and 
he imposed a very heavy tribute on its tribes and kindred. St. Kieran's 
father is said to have been oppressed by that tribute which Ainmire 76 exacted, 
and that he had been obliged in consequence to retire beyond the Shannon. 
In this province, where Crimthann, son of Lugaid, son of Dalian, reigned, 
and in the plain of Ri, Queranus is stated to have been born. However, 
Rath Cremthainn in Magh Ai is the reading to be found in our saint's Life, 
as contained in the Book of Lismore. 77 According to the account found in 
the Annals of Innisfallen, 78 St. Kieran was born in the year 506. Another 
learned writer declares, that the most probable account should assign his 
birth to a.d. 507. In this case, he should have lived to the age of forty-two, 
supposed to have been sufficient for the various transactions of his life, and still 
not long enough for ranking him among persons much advanced in years. 7 ' 
In the Annals of Ulster, his birth is set down, under a.d. 511, 8o in which 

" See " Trias Thaumaturga." Vita Tri- 
partita S. Patricii, lib. ii., cap. cxxiii., p. 145. 

74 Referring to St. Patrick's reputed pro- 
phesy, Dr. Lanigan writes: "Whether it 
was pronounced or not is of little conse- 
quence ; but the denomination of Southern 
parts seems to show, that Kieran's birth- 
place was not only in Meath, but in a dis- 
trict of it far to the south of Armagh ; and, 
it is very probable, that it was somewhere 
in the neighbourhood of where he afterwards 
established his great monastery of Clon- 
macnoise. This tract was comprised in the 
ancient Meath. Ware and Harris (Bishops 
at Clonmacnois) say, that he was of the 
sept of the Arads, or of a /amily from the 
part of Ulster called Dalaradia. This, how- 
ever, does not prevent his having been born 
in Meath. — " Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land," vol. ii., chap, x., § xi., n. 165, p. 53. 

75 Afterwards the English divided this 
territory into Meath proper and West Meath. 

76 Regarding this King, the Bollandist 
editor observes, that Anmereus or Anmire 
seems to have been identical with him 
named in the Vila S. Columbae, in "the 
M Trias Thaumaturga," and in the Acts of 
St. Gildas Badonicus, and who is denomi- 
nated Anmericus. However, he was not 
King of Ireland before St. Kieran's birth, as 
may be collected from the aforesaid Vita S. 
Columbse, and from Colgan's annotations at 
page 374, and nn. 39, 40. 

77 In it is stated, that Ciaran was conceived 

on the sixth of the calends of June, and that 
he was born on the sixth of the calends of 
March. It is also said, that his birth was 
foretold by Lugbrann, who was the wizard 
of King Crimthann, as it is recorded in Irish 
verse. "On a certain day, when the wizard 
heard the noise of the chariot, he said this, 
' Look,' saith he, ' my lads, who there is in 
the chariot ; for here is a noise of chariot 
under king.' When the gillies went out, 
they saw nothing save Beoit and Darerca in 
the chariot. When the lads laughed at the 
wizard, he said this : ' The child that lies in 
the woman's womb,' saith he, ' will be a 
mighty king ; and as the sun shineth among 
the stars of heaven, so will he shine on earth 
in miracles and marvels that cannot be 
told.' " 

78 Thus : u A. D. 506. Nativitas Ciarani 
filii artificis." 

79 See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's u Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, 
xi., p. 50, and n. 166, pp. 53, 54. 

80 See Extracts from the Annals of Ulster, 
in Johnstone's " Antiquitates Celto-Xor- 
manicse," p. 57. "This date," says Dr. 
Lanigan, "would give us 37 years for the 
whole life of Kieran, which number of years 
is little enough to enable us to account for 
his various transactions, and for the extra- 
ordinary estimation in which he wa§ held 
before his death." — "Ecclesiastical History 
of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, xi., n. 
1 66, pp. 53, 54. 



year an eclipse of the sun is also recorded. 81 It is referred to the year 5.1 6, 82 
by Ussher, who appears to have calculated such date from the Book of 
Navan, 8 ^ which states, that our saint only lived thirty-three years. 8 * If this 
account were true, Ussher's calculation should be right, because it is well 
known that Kieran died in 549. In the apocryphal Life of our saint, pos- 
sessed by the Bollandists, there is mention made of his captivity under a 
King Turbithus. 8 5 

According to report, 86 Kieran was baptized by a certain man named 
Justus. 8 ? This title also accurately determined his character. 88 Whether 
or not, he be the person alluded to in the Vita Tripartita S. Patricii, and 
in connexion with our saint, can hardly be determined. The word used 
seems to indicate, only a popular report or tradition, and afterwards com- 
mitted to writing ; however, we may naturally suspect, that his years could 
have been so prolonged, as to confer baptism on St. Kieran. 8 9 Moreover, 
much doubt has been thrown9° on the story of St. Patrick moving down to 
the district of Hy-maine, and placing a deacon, named Justus,? 1 over a 
church he founded, at a place called Fidhart.* 2 He was a disciple of St. 
Patrick, distinguished as well for his prolonged years, as for his great sanc- 
tity.93 He is said to have baptised St. Kieran, in the one hundred and 
fortieth year of his age ; and to have read the form and rite of baptism, from 
a Ritual book, left him by St. Patrick.94 But, in the doubtful Acts of our 

81 See the annals uLvoh or Annals of 
Ulster, edited by William M. Hennessy, 
M.R.I. A., vol. i., pp. 36, 37. 

82 See Ussher's " Index Chronologicus " 
at A. u. dvi., and Rev. Dr. Lanigan's 
" Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. i., 
chap, v., § x., n. 91, and chap, viii., § xiii., 
pp. 246, 419. 

83 The Annala Ul<voh or Annals of 
Ulster, also state, that according to another 
book, the birth of Ciaran happened in 516. 
See vol. i., pp. 38, 39, edition of William 
M. Hennessy. 

84 " The authority, however, of that book 
is of little weight, and it is more than pro- 
bable, that those 33 years were merely 
guessed at to make his life the same length 
with that of our Saviour, as is observed in 
said book. In Kieran *s Life it was remarked 
that he died rather young ; and hence a 
conjecture was started that his age might 
have been 33." — See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's 
M Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. ii., 
chap, x., § xi., n. 166, p. 53. 

85 Probably a misprint for " Furbithus." 

86 The word used is " fertur," in the 
account of this circumstance. See Colgan's 
'"Trias Thaumaturga," Septima Vita S. 
Patricii., lib. ii., cap. xlix., p. 136. 

8 ? In the Acts of St. Patrick, edited by 
Papebroke at the 17th day of March, 
Suyskens observes, that a certain holy 
hermit, named Justus, is said to have been 
kindly received by St. Patrick, the Apostle 
of Ireland. 

88 The Life of St. Kiaran, in the Book of 
Lismore, calls him Deacon Justus. 

89 The Bollandist editor adds : " Ut tamen 

admittamus, sanctum Abbatem ab aliquo a 
Patricii discipulis eo Sacramento initiatum 
fuisse, non propterea necesse est tarn singu- 
larem in eo longe vitam adstruire ; quippe 
cum magnus ille Hibernorum apostolus 
anno 460, ut in ipsius Actis ostendit Pape- 
brochius, ad supros emigraverit, sanctus 
vero Kieranus anno 516 natus perhibeatur, ut 
intelligitur, hanc baptizari potuisse ab illius 
discipulo, qui octogenario non esset major." 

»° By Rev. Dr. Lanigan. 

91 See " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 
vol. i., chap, v., sect, x., p. 244. 

91 In his usual manner, Archdall gives us 
an abbey of Fidhart, "and to make the 
story better, places it both in Roscommon 
and Galway ; founded, he says, by St. 
Patrick, who consigned it to Justus. Besides 
the incorrectness of the latter part of this 
statement, Archdall was mistaken also in 
calling it an abbey ; for the church of 
Fidhart, according to even the Tripartite, 
was no more than a deaconry, although 
afterwards it became a parochial church, in 
the diocese of Elphin, as Colgan says it was 
in his time." — Ibid., n. 91 pp. 246, 247. 

91 In reference to this saint, Dr. Lanigan 
remarks, that what has been ridiculously said 
about the 140th year is more than sufficient 
to show Justus could not have been placed 
over a church so early as the Tripartite- 
states. It is also to be observed, that in 
Kieran's Life, Justus is said not only to 
have baptised Kieran, but likewise to have 
instructed him. 

94 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 
Vita Tripartita S. Patricii, lib. ii., cap. xlix., 
p. 136. 

September 9.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 207 

saint, possessed by the Bollandists, it is related, that Kieran of Clonmacnoise 
was baptised and brought up, by a very holy man, Dermitius by name.95 
Which of these accounts — if either statement be accepted — is more correct, 
it would prove a difficult matter to decide. 

As usual in the Acts of all our most celebrated Irish saints, where no 
authentic accounts have been preserved of their youth, the legend-mongers 
are quite ready to supply incredible fictions. So in the Life of St. Ciaran, 
many of these are thoroughly ridiculous j and it may even be questioned, if 
some allusions in such narratives tend to exhibit the social customs and 
habits of his time, or whether they serve to elucidate matters connected with 
contemporaneous history. Only in such cases do we regard them as worthy 
of enumeration, and most certainly requiring much abridgment of circum- 
stantial details. Thus, for bringing to life a horse belonging to Oengus, the 
son of Cremthann, our saint received a tract of land denominated Tir-na- 
Gabra, or the Land of the Steed ; honey, which he miraculously procured 
for his mother, was given as a fee to Justus for baptizing him ; when a hound 
attacked him, he chaunted this verse, " Ne tradas bestiis animam confitentem 
mihi," and the hound fell dead; after the manner of Jacob, of David son of 
Jesse, and of other patriarchs,9 6 his parents set him over herds, and the 
Almighty knew that in future times he would be a faithful herdsman over the 
faithful j he also kept the herds of his foster-father, the Deacon Justus, at 
Fidarta ; likewise, allusion is made to the preparation of blue dye-stuff, as a 
practice of his mother j moreover, while herding kine, a wolf came and 
devoured a calf, which the saint brought once more to life ; besides, on a certain 
day, robbers from Offaly raided the district of Cenel Fiachrach, and among 
others, they attempted to kill St. Ciaran, but they were struck with blindness 
and could not move, until after repentance they were released ; again, his 
father sent him with the present of a caldron to king Furban, but he bestowed 
it on some poor men he met on the way, so that he incurred the king's dis- 
pleasure, and was condemned to grind at a quern, when lo ! it began to turn 
of its own accord, and the angels of the Lord were supposed to have been 
the agents ; not long afterwards, smiths came from Munster bearing three 
caldrons as a present for Ciaran, and these he presented to the king, who 
released him from slavery.^? 

In the Monastery of Clonard, on the confines of Leinster and Meath, it 
is stated, that St. Kieran received his early education. 9 8 Another legend 
relates, that when about to proceed thither, Ciaran asked his parents for a 
cow as a present for his master, but this was refused ; yet the cow99 with her 
calf followed the youthful scholar to Clonard, where she gave milk to twelve 

95 The Bollandist editor remarks, that in cap. xix., p. 395. The Bollandists deferred 
the Acts of St. Columba, Abbot of Iona, and giving the Acts of Saint Finian to the 12th 
published at the 9th day of June, there is a of December ; but, in their previous corn- 
certain " Diermitius " mentioned, and he mentary on the Life of St. Kyran of Saigir, 
was a disciple to that Abbot. But, as St. and published at the 5th of March, sect. 2, 
Columba is said to have died A.D. 597, and it is shown, that no chronological objection 
St. Kieran is supposed to have been born can fairly be offered to the statement, that 
A.D. 516, this last-named must have St. Kieran of Clonmacnoise could have been 
been a junior to the "Diermitius" in a disciple to St. Finian of Clonard. 
question. 9 ' St. Ciaran blessed this cow, and after- 

96 As found in the Book of Lismore. wards it bore the name of Odar Ciarain, or 
9 ? See " Anecdota Oxoniensia," edited Ciaran's Dun. In the narrator's day, the 

by Whitley Stokes, D.C.L., pp. 265 to hide of that cow was said to have beer* pre- 

267. served in Clonmacnoise, and whatever soul 

98 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- separated from its body on that hide was 

nige." Februarii xxiii. Vita S, Finiani. thought to possess eteinal life. 



bishops and other guests, who lived in St. Finian's establishment. 100 By 
others, it is said he received from St. Justus his first lessons. 101 In case we 
admit Ussher's chronology regarding his birth, Kieran of Clonmacnoise could 
not have been advanced beyond his years of early infancy, when he entered 
the school of St. Finian at Clonard. However, it is generally admitted, that 
our saint was a disciple of St. Finian, Abbot of Clonard, 103 and contempo- 
raneously with him were his namesake Kieran of Saigre, 10 ^ Columkille, 10 * 
Columba mac Crimthaind, 10 * Brendan son of Finlog, 106 Brendan of Birr, 10 ? 
Laistrian 108 son of Nathfraich, Sinell son of Maenac, 100 Cainec of Daland's 
posterity, 110 Ruadan of Lothra," 1 Nannyd Lamdere," 2 Mugenoc Killicu- 
mulus,"3 Bishop Sennach,"* and many others." 5 These were all holy men, 
and highly distinguished for their great virtues. We are told, that St. Kieran 
gave certain possessions to Finian, his teacher, and to his successors, as like- 
wise to Clonard he left much of its landed property." 6 This statement" 7 is 
supposed to have reference to our own St. Kieran, known as the younger," 8 
and who became a respectable abbot, both in Clonmacnoise and in Aingen. 110 
But, as St. Finian lived to a.d. 565, "° and according to the Acts of St. 
Columba, as he exceeded the one hundred and tenth year of his age, Pape- 
broke thinks, that Ussher's authority may be disputed, and that there can 
be some reasons assigned for a different opinion. Suyskens considers, if this 
donation were made by either of the Kierans, it should seem rather referable 

100 An Irish verse alluding to this legend, 
is thus translated into English :— 

" Full fifty and a hundred 
Ciaran's Dun used to feed, 
Both guests, and weaklings, 
And folk of the refectory and upper 

,01 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nise," xviii. Januarii, Vita S. Nennidhii, cap. 
vii., p. 113- 

102 His festival occurs on the 12th of De- 
cember, at which date his Acts may be found. 

103 His feast is held on the 5th of March. 
See his Life, at that date, in the Third 
Volume of this work, Art. i. 

104 See the Life of St. Columba or Colum- 
kille, at the 9th of June, in the Sixth 
Volume of this work, Art, i. 

105 Otherwise Colum Mac Ui Cremhthan- 
nain of Tir-da-glas, whose feast is held on 
13th of December. 

106 His feast occurs on the 16th of May. 
See at that date his Life in the Fifth Volume 
of this work, Art. i. 

107 His festival occurs on the 29th of 

108 His feast-day has not been ascertained. 

109 His festival is held on the 12th of 

1,0 His feast occurs on the I ith of October. 
111 See his Life, at the 15th of April, in 
the Fourth Volume of this work, Art. i. 
1,2 Not identified. 
" 3 Not identified. 
"« Not identified, 
"s In the Life of St. Ciaran of Clonmac- 

noise, as found in the Book of Lismore, they 
are enumerated from an Irish poem, and the 
account is thus translated into English : 
11 Now the twelve bishops of Ireland abode 
in Findian's school at Clonard, as (a poet) 
said : 

1 Two Findians, two chaste Colombs, 
Ciaran, Camnach, fair Comgall, 
Two Brenainns, Ruadan with beauty, 
Ninnid, Mobi, Nat-fraich's son.' " 
i.e. t Molaisi of Devenish. 

1,6 See " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Anti- 
quitates," cap. xvii., p. 471. See also p. 


"7 Taken from certain documents belong- 
ing to the Diocese of Meath. 

1,8 Papebroke, also, seems inclining to 
the same opinion. He remarks that it 
suffices for such a state of things, if Finan 
returned to Ireland, before the end of the 
fifth and in the beginning of the sixth cen- 
tury, and then admitted scholars to his 
school. Thus both of the Saints Kyran 
could have attended his lessons, although 
not in Clonard monastery. 

"9 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Martii 
v. Commentarius Praevius, § ii., num. 12. 
Papebroke adds to the foregoing account, 
" tantum liberalitate principum profecisset 
ut de eo, quod sibi abundabat, tain amplos 
fundos possit magistro suo, velut pro miner- 
uali, rependere." 

120 Uasher, however, places his death at 
a.d. 552, on the authority of the Innisfallen 
Annals, See " Britanicarum Ecclesiarum 
Antiquitates," Index Chronologicus, p. 531. 

September 9.] LIVES OE THE IRISH SAINTS. 209 

to Kieran of Saigir than to him of Clonmacnoise. For, although the opinion 
be not admitted, that our Kieran died in the thirty-third year of his age, 
whilst Papebroke thinks, Kieran of Saigir died in 520; this latter cannot 
have frequented Clonard school with the former. The record cited by 
Ussher does not determine this point satisfactorily," 1 since it fails to dis- 
tinguish which of the Kierans is there mentioned, 123 Manual labour is said 
to have been practised at this school of Clonard, and each of the bishops 
there had his task assigned alternately to grind a day at the quern. "3 But, 
when our saint's day came, angels u$ed to grind at the quern for Ciaran. ,24 
While he war, there, and having dedicated her maidenhood to God, the king 
of Cualann's daughter was entrusted to the care of Findian, who brought her 
to Ciaran, and with him she used to read the psalms. So long as he was 
engaged in teaching her, he would not look at the face of the young lady, 
and he saw only her feet. So great an opinion had Findian of the disciple's 
sanctity, that when twelve lepers came to be healed by him, the abbot sent 
them to Ciaran, v/ho, taking a sod from the earth, caused water to flow, and 
pouring three waves of it over each of the men, they were immediately 
cleansed from their leprosy. Again, it is related, that while Ninnid Slant-eye 
of Locha Eime #as a student with him at Clonard, he had no book, and was 
directed by Findian to borrow from some one among the scholars. They 
refused to lend him, and this he stated to the abbot, who said, " Hast thou 
gone to the tender youth who is in the north of the green?" Ninnid said 
he had not, but that he should then go, and meantime Ciaran had arrived 
at the middle text of St. Matthew's Gospel : " Omnia quaecumque vultis at 
faciant homines vobis ita et vos faciatis illis." I2 5 Ninnid then said, " I have 
come to borrow a book." "Mercy come to us !" replied Ciaran, "it is for 
this I read, and this the text saith to me, that I should do unto everyone 
what I desire should be done unto me." He then gave that book. On the 
morrow, his companions asked Ninnid regarding his procuring of the book, 
and they were told the circumstances already related. One of the class then 
said, " Let Ciaran Half-Matthew 126 be his name." " Nay," replied Findian, 
" but Ciaran Half-Ireland, 12 ? for half of Ireland shall be his, and ours shall 
be the other half." 128 Other legendary accounts are given regarding his 

121 Notwithstanding the foregoing state- says, he could not determine the particular 

ment, Ussher distinctly lays it down from the St. Kyran here meant. But, he suspects, 

old Life of St. Finian, that the two Kierans, also, that this account must have been trans- 

" Kieranus filius Artificis qui iriAcicAein ferred from the acts of other saints. As for 

dicitur, et Kieranus Saigre " attended his instance, an angel is said to have worked a 

school at Clonard. And the Kieran, who mill for St. Senan, as recorded in the " Acta 

bestowed Clonard and its possessions on his Sanctorum," tomus i., Martii viii., nn. 13 

master, has been identified with him of et seq., p. 771. 

Clonmacnoise. See TJssher's " Britanni- ,2 s Somewhat similar to this account is one 

carum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," cap. xvii., related in the Life of St. Gildas Badonicus. 

p. 471' There reference is made to some ancient 

133 However, TJssher's conjecture seems Life of St. Finnian, who was the master of 

far more probable, taking into account the Kieran. 

dates, position and circumstances of these ,2<5 In Latin " Dimidium Matthaei." The 

early events. Irish words are Leth Matha. 

123 This account— substituting mill for ,2 7 The Irish words used were Leth 
quern — is given by Colgan, from the biogra- nErionn. Having been honoured and en- 
pherof St. Kyran, whom he cites, in u Trias dowed by Irish princes, many farms, cells 
Thaumaturga." Vita S. Columbia, n. 12, and monasteries became subject to him ; so 
p. 457* that Kieran and his succes*ors might be re- 

124 Again we are informed, this same pro- garded, as having the half of Ireland subject 
digy had taken place, during his captivity to them. 

under King Furbithus. Not having seen ,28 To this the writer of St. Ciaran's Life 

the document cited by Colgan, Suyskens in the Book of Lismore adds, and with an 


2io LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 9. 

miracles and spirit of prophecy, while at Clonard j but, we shall only refer 
to them as introducing the domestic and social usages of wheat and oats 
being carried to a mill, loaves of wheat, bacon, flesh, vessels of ale, mead, 
nocturns and prime, reaping and reapers, being mentioned. Certain of the 
clerics asked Findian, who would give out the prayer, when himself should 
be no longer on earth. " Yonder youth," replied Findian, pointing to 
Ciaran. 1S 9 " Thou givest the abbacy to him," saith Brenainn, M in preference 
to everyone." Findian replied : " It hath been given, it is given, and it shall 
be given." This saying caused Ciaran to # be envied by all the saints, except 
Columkille. Then one of those present asked Ciaran, which of the saints 
should have the greatest reward in Heaven. " Mercy come to us !" returned 
Ciaran, " it shall be known in our convents on earth." Then Brenain of 
Birr prophesied for him : '* We will take two convents on two streams 
between chief cities, and the difference that shall be between them in size 
must be the difference between both rivers." 



We are told, that having obtained permission 1 from his former master, St. 
Kieran went to St. Ninnidius, 2 the abbot of a monastery built in a wood, 
near Lough Erne. Other accounts have it, on an Island, 3 called Inis- 
muigh-samh.4 This permission he obtained in 530, according to Archbishop 
Ussher. The Irish Life, contained in the Book of Lismore, states, that ■ 
after learning reading and wisdom at Clonard, he left the Dun with holy 
Ninnid, but said that her hide should come to him afterwards, and he 
declared, that although numbers might be nourished by her milk, still there 
must be many more to whom her hide should give help. 5 In referring to 
Ussher's statement, that our saint left St. Finian's School in 530, Dr. 
Lanigan observes, that the date ill accords with that assigned for the birth 
of Kieran, as, according to such hypothesis, Kieran should have been then 
only fourteen years of age. 6 However, it is generally supposed, that the 

Irish verse commemorating it ; from that xi., n. 170, p. 54. A similar passage is 

the famous word was taken to Rome to quoted by Ussher, from a somewhat different 

Alexander, " Non legam Marcum quo Life. See ** Britannicarum Ecclesiarum 

usque compleveram Mattheum." Antiquitates," cap. xvii., p. 495. 

129 The Irish Life of our saint in the Book 2 Saint Ninnid's Life has been compiled 

of Lismore states, that before taking leave from the acts of other saints, and published 

of his pupil, Finian offered his monastery to by Colgan, at the 18th of January. He is 

Kiaran. This offer was refused, but thence- there called Ninnidius, Nennidhuis or 

forward a unity of friendship was estab- Nennius, abbot and bishop. See " Acta 

lished between them. Sanctorum Hiberniae," xviii. Januarii, num. 

Chapter ii.— ' "Accepta magistri sui 8, p. 113. 

licentia et benedictione " occurs in a life of 3 On Lough Erne. 

St. Kieran, cap. 7. These words accepta 4 See notices of this saint, at the 1 8th of 

licentia, in Dr. Lanigan's estimation, alluded January, the day for his feast, in the First 

to a certificate or testimonial for learning Volume of this work, Art. ii. 

and good conduct, such as was often given s H e said " Every soul that shall go out 

in universities to deserving students, who are of its body on the hide of the Dun "—a cow 

thence named liceticiates. See " Ecclesiasti- so called—" shall not be punished in hell." 

cal History of Ireland, "vol. ii., chap, x., sect. 6 The Rev. Dr. Lanigan adds: "Who 

September 9.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAIATS. 211 

school at Clonard could not have been established much earlier than about 
such a date.? But, that our saint had spent three or four years there, the 
year for his departure most probably may have been about 534, which can 
fairly well accord with the time necessary for the completion of his theolo- 
gical studies at the age of twenty-six or twenty-seven. 8 His new master is 
said to have been surnamed Laobh-dearc, and to have been a fellow-disciple, 
probably with St. Kieran, in the school of Clonard.9 

In his Life, we are told, that St. Kieran of Clonmacnoise, a great Ii^ht 
of Ireland, appeared among other distinguished scholars, like the moon 
amid less luminous orbs. Finian had a vision of him and of Cclumkille, 
and of two moons in the air, with a hue of gold upon them. One of the 
twain went by sea towards the north-east, and this was Columkille to Iona, 
with the radiance of his nobleness and high birth ; the other went west- 
wards to the Shannon, and shone over the middle of Ireland, with the 
radiance of his charity and mercy. This latter was Ciaran of Clonmacnoise. 
Again, from the Life of our saint, compiled by Augustin Graidin 10 or Mac 
Graidin, 11 we are informed, that having spent some time at Clonard, he 
obtained his master's blessing and leave to depart, and he was afterwards 
received with great joy and kindness by St. Ninnidius. Whilst here, it was 
customary for three monks, with their senior, to cut and remove wood, for 
the use of their monastery. These duties recurred to them at stated times. 
In accordance with that rule, our saint and his attendant brethren were 
sent to an adjoining wood, during a period his course of religious discipline 
continued. However, while the monks were prosecuting their labours on 
an island, our saint retired to pray, in a more distant place. Meantime, 
some robbers passed over in a boat. Rushing on the monks, these outcasts, 
as we are told, killed them, and took away their heads. After some time, 
Kieran wondered why he did not hear the sound of axes. He went to 
ascertain the cause for this cessation in their labours. On witnessing the sad 
spectacle presented of bodies decapitated, he felt grievously afflicted. 
Following closely on the traces of their murderers, he found them 
endeavouring to launch their vessels from the haven into the water. This, 
however, they were unable to effect, by any effort. Experiencing such a 
striking and miraculous manifestation of the Almighty's displeasure, they 
penitently besought pardon from our saint. Mindful of his Heavenly 
Master's great example, in praying for the Jews that crucified Him, Kyran 

will believe that he was so young at a time Ussher states, he should have been only 

when he had completed his theological seventeen or eighteen — an age too premature 

studies, and was probably already a monk? for the attainment of such an object. 

In what is said of him on his arrival at the 9 See Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical His- 

monastery of Nennidius he appears as such. tory of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, xi., 

He was, I dare say, much more than 14 p. 51, and nn. 171, 172, p. 55, ibid. 

years old, when he first went to Finian's ,0 This writer is mentioned by Sir James 

school ; whereas, besides its being related Ware, as an Augustinian Canon, as also a 

that he was then grown up, adultioris cetatis, learned and prudent man, who died A.D. 

it can scarcely be supposed, that he was less 1405. Among his principal works we find 

than 18 or 20 when properly qualified for enumerated, Vita Sanctorum Hibern'uc. 

the biblical and theological studies cultivated See " De Scriptoribus Hibernice," lib. i., 

at Clonard." — " Ecclesiastical History of cap. xi., p. 75. 

Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, xi., n. 170, " Although Mac Graidin is praised for 

p. 54. his judgment and learning, by Sir James 

7 See ibid. vol. i., chap, ix., sect, viii., and Ware ; yet, Papebroke seems to have formed 
notes, pp. 464 to 469. a far different opinion in "Acta Sanctorum," 

8 This too should coincide with the date tomus iii., Martii xxi. De S. Endeo Abbate 
for his birth, as given in the Annals of Innis- Araniensi in Hibernia. Commentarius 
fallen, but, had he been born in 516, as praevius, num. 5, p. 268. 



was also ready to offer his prayers for those wicked robbers. He demanded 
the heads which had been carried away. Having obtained such restoration, 
their vessel then floated Out on the water. Our saint returned with the 
heads to where their bodies lay. Then praying the Almighty to manifest 
His great mercy, by the restoration to life of his slain brethren, Kieran placed 
the heads near their bodies. Owing to the efficacy of his prayers, those 
monks were once more restored to life. They afterwards carried the wood 
cut down towards their monastery ; and, so long as those religious lived, 
marks of decapitation were traceable around their necks.' 2 

It is related in the Irish Life, 1 * that while Tuathal Mael-garbh 1 * ruled over 
Ireland, Kieran went to request the manumission of a slave-girl, and he 
offered to place his hand on the quern to supply her place. Whereupon, 
the King not only released that slave, but bestowed his royal raiment on 
Ciaran. This gift our saint afterwards parted with, in favour of the poor. It is 
said, likewise, that he went to King Furbaide 15 to ask for another slave-girl, 
when one man brought him a cow as his offering, another man bestowed on 
him a mantle, and another brought a kettle ; but, these he gave to the poor, 
on that same day he received them. However, to reward his charity, the 
Almighty gave three offerings that were better ; viz., a cauldron in lieu of 
his kettle, twelve mantles in lieu of his single mantle, and twelve cows 
instead of his one cow. Seeing this, the King released the slave-girl, in favour 
of St Ciaran's interposition. 

After remaining with St. Nennidius for some time, our Saint 16 went to 
St. Endeus of Aran. 1 ? According to one account, 18 our Saint paid two 
distinct visits to him, and at* different times. We may suppose, that after 
the first of those visits, Kyran went to St. Senan,'9 and that after some 
experience of Iniscathy, he desired to return again to St. Endeus of Aran, in 
order to become one of his professed monks, and to close his life under 
such discipline. With him for some years, Kyran faithfully served in 
threshing out grain. 20 Archbishop Ussher states, that Kieran passed seven 
years under the direction of St. Endeus, Abbot of Aran. Such were the 
diligence and industry of Kieran, during that period he spent in Aran, that 
no roof could be constructed to cover all the grain, which he had threshed. 21 

12 Remarking on the unusual character of 
this prodigy, Suyskens considered it might 
appear more authentic if found in an earlier 
record. lie observes, also, that Macgraidin 
as in the instance of St. Endeus' acts, had 
possibly in his possession still older acts of 
our Saint, from which the foregoing prodigy 
might have been taken ; yet, using his dis- 
cretion as a compiler with such little judg- 
ment, it is to be feared, he considered un- 
authentic or very recent acts as trustworthy 
documents. Suyskens adds : " Nolim tamen 
hinc inferre, hax aut quoecumque alia ad 
fahulas certo esse rejicienda, cum antiquis 
monumentis revera hinc inde potuerit usus 

13 As found in the Book of Lismore. 

'* The O'Clerys place the accession of 
Tuathal Maelgarbh, whose name has been 
Latinised Tutlialius Calvoasper, at A.D. 528, 
allowing him a leign of eleven years, and 
placing his death at A.D. 538. See Dr. 
Q'Donovan's ''Annals of the Four Masters," 

vol. i., pp. 176 to 181. However, Roderick 
O'Flaherty places the accession of Tutlialius 
Calvoasper in the year 533, which agrees 
with the computation in the Annals of Ulster. 
These latter assign his death to A.l>. 543. 
See " Ogygia," pars iii., cap. xciii., p. 430. 

15 No Ard-Righ, bearing this name, is to 
be found among the monarchs of Ireland. 

16 Called " filius fabri." 

17 See his Life, at the 21st of March, in 
the Third Volume of this work, Art. i. 

18 That of Augustin Magraidin. 

'9 See his Life, at the 8th of March, in the 
Third Volume of this work, Art. i. 

20 In the old Life, we find, "in monas- 
terii territorio." The Bollandist editor 
suggests, u forte teritorio.'' It may be 
observed, that this term seems to imply, a 

21 In the old Acts of St. Endeus by 
Magraidin, we are told, that the walls of 
this threshing place might be seen in Aran 
Island, at the time of their composition. 



After the lapse of his term, St. Kyran had a dream, which was thus related 
to his Master. One night he saw a tree, which grew near a large river called 
the Shannon, and it seemed so large, leafy and spreading, that it covered the 
whole of Ireland. Endeus said, that Kyran himself was that flourishing tree ; 
that before God and man should he grow great and fruitful in good works ; 
and, that he would be honoured throughout the whole of Ireland. Endeus 
added, M Now therefore approach, and fulfilling the will of God, build there 
a monastery." 22 Having lived for some time under the religious discipline 
of St. Senan of Iniscathy, St. Kieran founded his establishment at Inis 

Aingin, during the life- 
time of the former. A 
good deal of conjec- 
ture has been expended 
on an attempt to locate 
exactly this monastery 
of Aingin or Angina. 
However, it appears to 
have been situated on 
an Island, 2 3now known 
as Hare Island, and 
anciently called Inis- 
Aingin or Inchinneen, 
in the lower region of 
Lough Ree, on the 
River Shannon. It 
consists of 1 10 acres — 
at present altogether 
grown over with large 
torest trees, and thickly 
tangled brakes of 
brush-wood, in the 
parish of Bunown, 
barony of Kilkenny 
West and County of 
Westmeath. On it are 
to be seen the ruins of 
an old church, built of 
solid masonry blocks, 
and exhibiting in its 
lonely and sylvan sur- 
roundings all the ap- 
remote erection. 2 * It lies near the south-east shore of 
It is thought, 26 that in MacGraidin's account, he probably 

Old Chur 

pearances of 
Lcugh Ree. a s 

Aingen, Lough Ree. 

23 It will naturally be supposed, that the 
religious foundation alluded to must have 
been that of Clonmacnoise, Latinized, 
Cluanense. But, the reference was to a 
more remote period, as Papebroke states, in 
editing his Acts of St. Endeus. 

23 See Rev. A. Cogan's " Diocese of 
Meath, Ancient and Modern," vol. hi., 
chap, lxxiv., p. 570. 

24 The accompanying illustration of the 
ruined gable and window of this primitive 
church was sketched on the spot by William 

F. Wakeraan, and tiansferred to the wood, 
engraved by Mrs. Millard. 

25 Some improvements of a modern cha- 
racter have been there introduced by a 
former proprietor, Viscount Casilemaine. 
See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ireland,'' 
vol. ii., p. 295. 

26 Suy^ken supposes it to be very likely, 
that, finding the same vision differently 
described in both copies of St. Kyran's 
Acts, which he possessed, and conjecturing 
that they were different visions, MacGraidin 

2i 4 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 9. 

confounded a double visit of St. Kieran to St. Endeus ; and there- 
fore, that his prophesy might be referred to the later one. The 
purpose of St. Kyran to remain as a monk on Aran Island was probably 
frustrated by the vision known to St. Endeus. Owing to its occurrence, our 
Saint was directed to establish his monastery near that place on the River 
Shannon, and specially pointed out by Heaven's decree. Whether this was 
on the Island of Aingen or at Clonmacnois may be questioned : if the former 
be meant, the account must appear to be more in the order of narrative ; 
but, the latter site is generally supposed to be intended, since it became the 
place for his more celebrated establishment. 2 ? While under St. Endeus, we 
have accounts of the charity, spirit of prophecy, and miracles of St. Ciaran ; 
while allusion is made to a place called Isel, which a certain Cobthach 
granted to God and Ciaran. 28 We are informed, that it was near a lake, 2 9 
but further identification seems to be wanting. Nor does there appear to be 
order or sequence in the narrative of his acts, as they have come down to 
us, so that it is impossible to state when or where many of them occurred. 3° 

In a Life of our Saint, 3 1 we are told, that St. Kyran left the Island of 
Aran,3 2 and visited St. Senan, bishop and abbot of Iniscathy.33 When Kieran 
obtained leave to depart from Aran, its holy abbot saw in a vision all the 
guardian angels that attended on the saints of his community accompanying 
him. Hereupon, St. Endeus felt depressed in mind, lest these blessed 
spirits" should not again return. 34 Having fasted and prayed with devoted 
fervour, an angel of the Lord appeared to him and said, " O man of God, 
for what reason do you feel sad and so greatly afflicted ?" Endeus replied, 
" Tiie reason for my grieving <s because all the angels have left us and have 
gone with Kieran." The angel thus returned : " As Kieran is most dear to 
God, therefore He hath sent those angels to accompany that Saint. Do not 
in consequence be afflicted, for they shall again return to thee; then, in the 
Lord's name, cease from fasting." These testimonies seem indications of St. 
Kieran's extraordinary sanctity ; but, on what original authority they rest 
has not been sufficiently manifested. Thus accompanied, Kieran reached 
the shore, and foretold the unhappy state to which that spot and the neigh- 
bouring islands should be reduced at a future time. Endeus returned to 
the monastery.35 There, after recommending his soul to Almighty God, 
Enda happily departed this life.3 6 

The arrival of St. Kieran at Inniscathy, after his departure from St. 
Endeus of Aran, is placed at the year 538,37 by Archbishop Ussher. How- 
ever, this date is probably conjectural, and it cannot be reconciled with other 
dates, particularly with those laid down by himself. Thus, it is more than 

might have thus referred them to distinct St. Enda of Avian may be assigned, to about 

periods. It this latter conjecture hold good, the year 542. He died, not long after 

the difficulty can easily be solved. Kieran of Clonmacnoise left his monastery. 

27 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 33 Regarding the site and history of Inis- 
Septembris ix., Acta St. Kierani, sec. iii., cathy, we have already treated, at the 8th 
pp. 374 to 376. of March. 

28 Afterwards, it was known as Isel Ciaran. 5* According to Augustine Magraidin's 
■9 This would seem to make it identical Life of St. Endeus. 

with Inis Aingen, which was situated on » This is stated in the last chapter of St. 

Lough Kee, an extension of the River Enda's Acts. 

Shannon. 36 §ee Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 

30 Allusion is here made to the Life of History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect. 
Ciaran of Clonmacnoise, as found in the xiii., and n. 213, pp. 69, 71. 

Book of Lismore . 3 ? According to this computation, he 

31 As mentioned by Ussher. should have remained but one year with 

32 According to Dr. Lanigan, the death of Nennidh. 

September y.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 215 

probable, that Kieran did not go to the monastery of Ninnidh so early as 
530. Again, we can hardly account for the time between 538 and 544 ; this 
latter being the year to which Ussher assigns the foundation for Kieran's 
first monastery. Also admitting that Kieran went from Aran to Inniscathy, 
it is plain, from the account given of what occurred in this latter place, that 
he remained there only a short time. 38 It is thought, that Ussher's motive 
for making these occurrences earlier than he ought was a wish to reconcile 
them with the wrong date,39 which he had assigned for Enda's foundation in 
Aran. 4° Such computation only gives us eight years for the period of time 
our Saint spent, both with St. Ninnidh and St. Endeus. From St. Senan, 
he received a position in the monastery of Inniscathy,'* 1 which was that of 
guest-master. We may rest satisfied, that he exercised great liberality, so 
soon as he had acquired such authority. It would seem, that Kieran was 
usually considered St. Senan's most intimate companion and confidant, from 
what we find related in the metrical Life of this latter holy man.* 2 Such 
intimacy not only endured, it is stated, while Kiernan was a disciple of 
Inniscathy's abbot, but even after he had been released from that jurisdic- 
tion/ 3 In the opinion of Dr. Lanigan, half a year had not elapsed, until he 
incurred the displeasure of its monks.** However, it must be observed, 
that in neither of St. Senan's Lives, as published by Colgan, do we find any 
record concerning Kieran having belonged to the house of Inniscathy, 
although he is mentioned more than once ; for, in the Metrical Life^ it is 
said, Kieran and Brendan** waited on St. Senan to make their confessions 
to him. In one Life, we read, that they called on this Saint to request him 
to become their director, as he was older and-a superior in rank, he being 
a bishop, whilst they were only priests.* 6 Although Papebroke considers *? 
that our saint founded the monastery of Aingin, before a.d. 540; yet, 
Ussher thinks this event did not happen until after Senan's death, which is 
generally assigned to the year 544. * 8 But, it is evident, from both of St. Senan's 

38 In the Life of Enda, Kieran is repre- Acts relating to the same saint, written after 
sented, when leaving Aran, as bent upon the twelfth century. It is said, that Colman, 
erecting a monastery for himself. It seems son to Lenin, wrote St. Senan's Acts in 
strange, that Ussher fixed upon the year 538 verse, before the end of the sixth century, 
for his leaving Aran, having placed Kieran's 43 We have no very certain account, 
birth in 516; whereas he must have sup- regarding the exact date or length of time 
posed, that Kieran arrived in Aran seven Kieran remained on Inniscathy. Hut a 
years before, that is, in 531, when he was cause assigned for his departure therefrom 
only fifteen years old. We can hardly shows, that he did not continue there for any 
imagine, that St, Enda would have ordered considerable period. 

a boy of that age to employ himself in 44 See " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 

threshing corn. vol. ii.,chap. x., sec. xi., n. 176, p. 57. 

39 Namely, A.D. 449. See " Britannicarum 4S Whether St. Brendan of Clonfert, or St. 
Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," cap. xvii., p. 451, Brendan of Birr, be here meant, cannot well 
and Index Chronologicus, p. 519. be determined. 

40 Thus reasons Dr. Lanigan, who states, 46 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
that Ussher drew back, so far as he thought nice," Martii viii. Secunda Vita S. Senani, 
advisable, the transactions of Kieran with cap. xxxvi., p. 53s {rede 531). As Colgan 
Enda, lest he should be obliged to consider, observes, it was usual with the holy men of 
that the latter attained an extreme old age. that period to seek an Anmchara, i.e., a 
See "Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," spiritual friend or ^father, as a particular 
vol. ii., chap x., sect, xi., n. 175, pp. director of conscience. 

56, 57« * 7 See his previous commentary, prefixed 

41 See Ussher's " Britannicarum Ecclesi- to the Acts of St. Senan, at the 8th of March, 
arum Antiquitates," Index Chronologicus, "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Martii viii., 
a.d. dxxxviii., p. 529. sect, iii., p. 760. 

42 This Metrical Life of St. Senan is sup- 4B See Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Anti- 
posed to have been written in the twelfth or quitates, cap. xvii., p. 454, and Index 
thirteenth century ; and, there are prosaic Chronologicus, p. 530. 

216 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 9. 

published Lives, that during his time, Kieran had a monastery and disciples 
under his own rule. Therefore, it may naturally be conjectured, that religious 
establishment was no other than Aingin. On another occasion, it is related, 
that on Kieran's way to visit St. Senan, he gave his cloak to a poor man, 
whom almost naked, he met when on the banks of the river near Inniscathy.«9 
Then, Senan sent a boat to carry him over, and ran forward to welcome him, 
bringing a cloak instead of that one he had given away.s° Notwithstanding 
the silence observed in the Lives of St. Senan, still Kieran might have lived 
for some time at Inniscathy in the above-mentioned capacity. 51 To avoid 
the envy of the monks at Inniscathy, and while Senan was still living, Kyran 
went away from this island, about a.d. 540 ; s 2 and again he visited St. 
Endeus, on the Island of Aran. In doing so, it was his intention to become 
a monk by profession, there hoping to end his life. St. Finian, Abbot of 
Clonard, was then on that island. At the time when our saint was coming, 
Endeus had a vision, in which he saw a tree growing in the middle of Aran, 
and its branches extended even to the sea. Then, he beheld several men 
approaching, and having taken it up by the roots, these raised it in air, and 
brought it to the wide-spreading Shannon's banks, where, having set it down, 
they planted it a second time. Again, the same tree grew to a very 
unusual height, and extended its branches out towards the sea. This 
remarkable vision Endeus related to the Senior, St. Finian, and to other 
persons, worthy of trust. He also said, " Dearly beloved, this vision, which 
I have described to you, has reference to our brother Kieran, who shall 
become a father over many monks. Wherefore, he ought hasten towards 
the place divinely indicated with our blessing, and found a monastery on the 
aforesaid river's banks, so that many other monasteries may extend from it, 
like branches sprouting from a flourishing tree." On hearing these words of 
St. Endeus, Kieran and many others, who were present, shed tears. 

Accordingly, he was resolved on leaving Aran. Endeus and Finian, with a 
great number of monks, accompanied him to the port,S3 where a vessel had 
been prepared for his departure. 54 Having recommended himself to the 
prayers of those holy men living on Aran, in the presence of all assembled, 
our saint said to Endeus, " O Father, receive me with my place of habitation 
under thy care, that all my disciples may be recognized as thine own." ' To 

49 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Iliher- ' Go to the sea, and you shall find a guest 
nice," Martii viii. Secunda Vita S. Senani, there, and bring it with you with honour 
cap. xxxviii., p. 536 (recle 532). and veneration.' When the monks went 

50 The matter is thus related in the Life out, they found that robe on the sea. It was 
of ^t. Ciarah, as found in the Book of dry, as they carried it to Senan, who gave 
Lismore : " When Ciaran went out of Aran, thanks to the Lord. " At the time of the lore- 
a poor man meets him on the path. Ciaran going narrative, that robe was preserved, and 
gives his linen chasuble to him, and goes to it was called Cassal Senain, or Senan 's Robe. 
Inis Cathaig to bid farewell to Senan. Since SI In the metrical Life of Senan, in the 
he had nothing on but his one mantle, that twenty-first strophe, we find Kieran is called 
was revealed to Senan : and so he went to a companion of Senan, thus, "comes 
meet him with a linen robe under his armpit, semper et socius ;" still, these words seem 
and he said to Ciaran : ' Is it not a shame for to mean nothing more than that they were 
a priest to go about without a robe ?' constant friends. 

'Mercy come to us!' saith Ciaran, 'God 52 According to Suysken. 

will take pity on my nakedness. My elder S1 This is stated, in the Acts of St. Endeus, 

hath a robe for me in keeping.' When "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Martii xxi., 

Ciaran came to Clonmacnois, he desired to p. 273. 

send another robe to Senan. This he sent 54 It is probable, that Magraidin alludes 

down the stream of the Shannon, and it to this same departure, after having 1 elated 

floated without getting wet to the harbour a nearly similar vision, which our saint is 

of Inis Cathaig. Senan said to his monks, said to have had on Aran Island. 

September 9.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 217 

this petition, Endeus replied ; " The Almighty hath not thus decreed, that 
all in that small island should live under my discipline, but our Lord Jesus 
Christ shall give the half of Ireland as a lot for your inheritance, on account 
of your wonderful humility and perfect charity." When they had thus 
mutually conferred with each other, as a sign of that perfect fraternity they 
contracted between themselves and their disciples, a cross was then erected. 
They afterwards said, " Whoever shall interrupt our fraternal union on earth, 
even after our time, may he want our fraternity and society in Heaven." 
Then St. Endeus went to a place, called Medraighe, 55 and to a part desig- 
nated Luaban.s 6 Here, we are told, St. Endeus besought Kieran to visit 
an adjoining place named Acadh-Draighnich,57 whence he was requested to 
expel a certain beast, which had devastated all the adjoing country. One of 
St. Endeus' disciples, named Gigneus.s 8 lived there. The beast having been 
expelled, a hermitage, in which that monk and our saint resided, was no 
more disturbed.^ 

It is said, that having obtained the benediction of Endeus, our Saint 
afterwards prepared to found Clonmacnoise monastery ; although it may be 
questioned, if the writer did not intend to mean Aingin or Anginense for the 
place mentioned. 60 A conjecture has been offered by Sir James Ware that 
this islet, Aingin or Inis-Aingin, was identical with the Island of All Saints, 
in the River Shannon. 61 This conjecture has been accepted as a positive 
statement of fact, by his editor, Harris, 62 and after him by Archdall. 6 ^ 
Grounding his opinion on that of Colgan , 6 * the Bollandist editor thinks 
Aingin was situated in the tract Breaghmuid, called by Colgan Breghmuine, 6 * 
in Westmeath. We are informed, 66 that from Diermot King of Ireland, our 
Saint obtained Clonmacnoise and Inis-Aingin, an Island, together with one 
hundred churches or cells, situated in Midia and Breaghmuid. 6 ? This must 
have been a little district, in that part of the country, bordering on Lough 
Ree. 68 While the Bollandist editor Suysken places the foundation at Inis 
Aingen about the year 540, the Rev. Dr. Lanigan prefers the date of 542 ; 
as, in this case, we might account for the seven years he ruled as abbot, 

55 Colgan tells us, that this was a maritime century; because he thinks their founder, 

district in the County ol Galway, and that St. Kieran, had been born in the Island of 

it lay towards the southern part of Con- Clear, A.D. 352. But, here it is evident, 

naught. See " Acta Sanctorum Hibemiae," that Alemand confounded our Saint with 

Martii xxi. Vita S. Endei, cap. xxii., xxiii., St. Kieran, bishop and abbot of Saigir, ai- 

xxiv., p. 709, and nn. 40, 41, p. 711. though elsewhere, he clearly distinguishes 

s° Neither of these localities, however, has both of these persons, 
been correctly identified. 6l See " De Hibernia et Antiquitatibus 
57 It has not been identified. ejus," cap. xxvi., p. 172. 
58 Nothing more is known concerning 62 See Harris' Ware, vol. ii., "Antiquities 
him. of Ireland," chap, xxxviii. County of Long- 
s' But the Bollandist editor of St. Kieran 's ford, p. 265. 
Acts justly rejects this narrative as fabulous, 63 See " Monasticon Hibernicum," p. 441. 
and clearly borrowed from that occurring in 6i See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernia?," 
St. Senan's Acts. It has parallel relation- Januarii xvi. Vita S. Dunchadi, sect, v., 
ship with many other fictions, unhappily and n. 20, pp. 105, 108. 
disfiguring recorded and traditionary inci- 65 In the Latin Topographical Index, it is 
dents, told about our Irish saints. denominated Bregmania. 

60 In his "Histoire Monastique d'Irlande," w By Archbishop Ussher, who takes his 

L. Aug. Alemand fell into a great error, account from the Book of Navan. 

when he says that Aingen and Clonmacnoise 6? See " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Anti- 

were founded in the fifth century. See pp. quitates," cap. xvii., p. 495. 

40, 48, 49. He endeavours to convict 68 Here also Louis Aug. Alemand places 

Ussher of an anachronism, when ascribing this foundation. See " Histoire Monas- 

their erection to the middle of the sixth tique d'Irlande," pp. 48, 49. 

2i8 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 9. 

according to the best authorities. 6 ? He considers that Deirmit might have 
given the grant, before he became King of all Ireland,? if, as seems probable, 
Inis-Aingin was a part of his patrimonial inheritance, and formed one of the 
Lough Ree Islands,? 1 which afforded him a place of security, when persecuted, 
by King Tuathal, his predecessor. However, it does not even appear to be 
certain, that Kieran obtained Inis-Aingin from King Diarmit ; since another 
authority — quite as reliable as Ussher's Book of Navan — tells us, that a priest 
named Daniel,? 2 filled with God's grace, presented for ever to the Almighty 
and to St. Kieran Angin Island, which belonged to him.?3 According to 
Ussher, this first establishment of our Saint had its foundation in the year 
544,74 and this statement apparently is made on the supposition, as Diermit's 
reign over Ireland did not begin until that year, Kieran could not have 
obtained his grant from him before such date. 



While residing in Aingin, our Saint is said to have visited the Abbot Senan 
of Iniscathy, which shows, that it had been founded before the death of the 
latter. This we find related, in the metrical and prose Lives of St. Senan, 
where Kyran's miracles and virtues are specially recorded ; and from those 
accounts it would appear, that he was not then subject to Senan's spiritual 
jurisdiction, although he was received by the latter as a guest. Probably 

** Thus, Tigernach states in his Annals, " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. ii., 

that Kieran, having founded the monastery chap, x., sect, xi., n. 179, p. 58. See, also, 

of Clonmacnoise, was abbot for seven yeaes. sect, xiii., n. 213, pp. 71, 72. 
According to every other account, however, 72 This latter account is contained in a 

he founded it only one year before his death. Life of St. Kieran, as quoted by Colgan, in 

It seems probable, that Tigernach must be "Trias Thaumaturga," Septima Vita S. 

understood as referring to the whole time, Patricii, pars, ii., n. 55, p. 175. 
during which he governed, both at Inis- ?3 The Life of St. Ciardn, in the Book of 

aingin, and afterwards at Clonmacnoise. Lismore, states the mode of his coming to 

7° He reigned from a.d. 539 to 559, ac- Inis Aingin, a pet stag carrying his books, 
cording to Sylvester O'llalloran, who gives and the saint following behind until he 
the particulars of his reign in the " General came to the island. Therein dwelt an arch- 
History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, iv., pp. presbyter, named Daniel, and a Briton. At 
69 to 75. first, he did not wish to receive Kieran, but 

7* " The name and recollection of Inis- as our saint presented him with a royal cup 

aingin were in course of time swallowed up of great value, the priest wondered greatly 

in the greatness of Clonmacnois, insomuch and asked forgiveness. He then prostrated 

that in some documents, ex c. the Acts of himself before our saint, and gave the island 

Knda, Kieran is spoken of as setting about up to him. 

the establishment of the latter very soon ? 4 In the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 

after his departure from Arran, without any tomus iii., Martii xxi., Papebroke. in his 

mention being made of Inis-aingin. As to Annotations to the Life of St. Endeus, at 

the whole period of Kieran 's abbotship, cat). 4, n. (b.), also recognizes our saint to 

Tighernach is a respectable witness, having have been abbot and founder of Aingin 

lived at Clonmacnois, where he was an monastery. Suyskens says he probably 

Erenach, or as others say, abbot in the stated these things, on the authority of 

eleventh century." — Rev. Dr. Lanigan's Ussher, and on that of St. Kieran's Life, 

September 9.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 219 

they held many spiritual conferences together, on the occasion of each visit. 1 
While he dwelt in Inis-Aingin, Ciaran one day heard a noise in the harbour. 
He then said to the brethren there, " Go to meet your future abbot." When 
reaching the harbour, however, they only found a heathen youth, and this 
they reported to Ciaran. " Nevertheless," he replied, "go again for him, 
since it is manifest to me from his voice, that he shall be your abbot after 
me." Then the youth was brought to Ciaran. His name was Enna Mac- 
Hui-Laigsi, and having received Tonsure, he read under Ciaran. He was a 
holy man, admirable in the Lord's sight, and he succeeded Ciaran as abbot 
in Inis Aingin. 

It so happened, that Ciaran's Book of Gospels was dropped into the lake 
by a careless brother. There it remained for a long time. On a certain day 
in summer, cows went into the water, and the strap of that Book stuck to 
the foot of one animal, who brought it quite dry to the landing place. When 
opened, not a single letter was defaced, and afterwards the landing place was 
called Port in Sosceoil, or Harbour of the Gospel. A certain man, named 
Donnan, 2 came from Corco-Baiscin to St. Ciaran. He was son to a brother 
of Senan, son of Gergenn, while he and Senan had the same mother. Senan 
said to him, u What dost thou wish or why dost thou come ? ' He replied : 
" To seek a place wherein I may abide and serve God." When Ciaran had 
resolved on leaving Aingin, after a residence of three years and three months, 
he intended Donnan should there succeed him. He also left with him as 
reliquaries, that Book of Gospels which had been recovered from the lake, 
his bell, and his bearer Mael Odran. Afterwards, Ciaran went to Ard 
Manntain, beside the Shannon. When he saw how delightful was that 
situation, he said to his monks : M If we tarry here, we shall have abundant 
wealth of this world, but few souls shall go hence to Heaven." 

Before Diermit became the supreme ruler over Ireland, 3 he had been 
persecuted by King Tuathal.4 In consequence, he was obliged to seek 
safety by concealing himself en Lough Ree, and on the Lough Derg Islands, 
in the River Shannon. At this time, St. Kieran desired a site for the 
erection of his religious establishment. The ground on which Clonmacnoise 
now stands, then belonged to Diermit. One day, while passing near the 
place in a boat, he met St. Kieran, who sought an interview with the prince. 
Then he was endeavouring to escape from one island to another. Our Saint 
thus addressed the prince, " Thou art descended from a kingly family, the 
son of a king and queen ; this place is rightly thine, therefore grant a site for 
building a church, as the house of God ; mark out its dimensions, and begin 
its first foundation." Diermit replied that he was not a king. Then said 
Kieran, " Thou shalt be a king to-morrow." While this conversation took 
place, finding that his rival Diermit sought refuge in the place, King Tuathal 

which he praises. In the time of Suyskens, Hare Island, in the First Volume of this 

this life was not to be found in the Bol'landist work, and at that date, Art. xi. 

Library. 3 Among the contemporaneous saints of 

Chapter hi. — • In the Life of St. Kieran, his reign— the beginning of which is placed 

which Ussher had seen, at cap. iii., num. 20 at A.u. 536 — is mentioned " Sanctus 

and 21, "dicuntur quinquaginta monachi in Kieranus Episcopus," by R. P. F. Anthony 

Hiberniam appulisse, quorum aliqui, at in Bruodin, in " Propragnaculum Catholics 

votis habebant, a S. Senano ad S. Kieranum, Veritatis, Libris X. Coiistructum," lib. v., 

jam utique Anginensium abbatem, dimissi cap. xii., I)e Reg: qui post Christum reg- 

sunt." — "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., narunt, pp. 892 to 894, Pragce, 1669, sm. 4to. 

Septembris ix. Acta S- Kierani, sect, iv., 4 This is mentioned by the writer, in the 

p. 277. Tripartite Life of St. Patrick. See Colgan's 

2 His feast is held on the 7th of January. u Trias Thaumaturga," lib. ii., cap. xxviii., 

See notices of him and of Inis Aingin or pp. 132, 133. 



came against him, with a great force. A battle ensued, in which Tuathal 
fell. 5 After his rival's death, Diermit succeeded him in the kingdom. 6 So 
far as we can follow the order of narrative, after St. Kiarain left Ard Mann- 
tain, he went to a place, then called Ard Tiprat, or the Height of the Well. 
" Here then will we stay," he said to his monks, " for many souls shall go 
hence to Heaven, and there shall be a visit from God and men for ever 
on this place." It was the site chosen for his future great monastery of 
Clonmacnoise. We are told, that King Diermit laid the foundations of 
Clonmacnoise church. This appears to have been at first a small one. 
While, returning to Temoria, the king alighted from his horse three different 
times; and wherever he alighted, Diermit assigned a tract of land in each 
place, as an endowment for the new religious establishment.? He also 
bestowed the state of Druim-raithe on God and on St. Kieran. 8 

As Irish historians differ, regarding the year when King Diermit I. 
reached the throne of Ireland, we are in doubt, as to the exact date for this 
foundation at Clonmacnoise. According to the Annals of the Four Masters, 
a.d. 538,9 and to the Ulster Annals, a.d. 544, originated the earliest year of 
his reign : the latest assigned being 565. IO Although Ussher would assign 
the donation of Diermit" and his accession to a.d. 544 ; nevertheless, he 
thinks Kieran did not found his monastery at Clonmacnoise, until a.d. 448." 
This is inferred, from what is stated, that our saint lived only one year at 
Clonmacnoise, he having died in 549. I3 For certain reasons assigned, the 

5 He was pierced with a deadly wound, 
inflicted by Maelmorus, a relative of Dier- 
mit. " Et hinc natum proverbium en 
Moelmori palma ; quando facinus aliquod 
brevis lsetitia? et gloriae, ad quod mox 
tristitia, vel adversitas subsequitur, deno- 
tare volumus." — Ibid. 

6 Dr. Charles O'Conor, who has published 
the Irish Poem attributed to Gildas Modu- 
dius of Arcibraccan, and beginning Eire 
ogh Inis na Noimh, with a literal Latin 
translation, has at the xii. strophe these 
lines : — 

Diarmitius bis decern annorum, 

Filius Cearballi cum mansuetis Legibus, 

Aodhus Niger armis eum jugulavit, cruci- 

Occidit, combussit, in cinerem redegit. 

In a note on this passage, the editor adds : 
" Ecclesia? Cluanmocnoisensis prima funda- 
menta jecit, et agros monti Usnacha: 
contiguos, antea Druidicos, S. Kierano, 
istius Monasterii primo Abbati, contulit." 
O'Duvegani Codex MS., fol. 132. Evinus In 
Vita Patr., p. 3, c. 28. — " Rerum Hiberni- 
caruni Scriptores Veteres,'' tomus i. Epistola 
Nuncupatoria, pp. cxlvii. to clxviii. 

7 There is an interesting Legend regarding 
St. Ciarain of Clonmacnoise and two of his 
clerics in vol. i. of the Betham Manuscript 
Collection, belonging to the Royal Irish 
Academy. It is entitled, eaccpa leifjin, 
or the Adventures of Leithin, and it contains 
some curious topographical references. See 
pp. 378 to 385. This Manuscript of 401 

numbered folio pages was written by 
Michael Oge O'Longan, between the years 
1 791 and 1799, in various parts of Munster. 

8 See Septima Vita, seu Tripartita, S. 
Patricii, pars ii., cap. xxviii., pp. 132, 133, 
in Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," and nn. 
63, 64, ibid., pp. 175, 176. 

9 See Dr. O' Donovan's edition, vol. i., pp. 
180, 181. These authors place the death of 
Tuathal at a.d. 538; while allowing Diermit 
a reign of twenty years, from A.D. 539, his 
demise occurring under the year 558. — Ibid., 
pp. 200, 201. 

IO This was the year of King Diermit's 
death, according to Ussher. See " Primordia 
Ecclesiarum Britannicarum," cap. xvii., p. 
94 7 f and Index Chronologicus ad ann, Dl.xv. 

11 Under this Monarch occurred two 
celebrated events in Irish history ; viz., the 
foundation of the great Monastery of Clon- 
macnoise by St. Kieran, and the desertion of 
the palace of Tara. — Wright's " History of 
Ireland," vol. i., book i., chap, iv., p. 30. 

" In a note to the Acts of St. Cronan of 
Roscrea, at the 28th of April, the Bollandist 
editor promised, at the 9th of September, it 
should be proved, that the monastery of 
Clonmacnoise had been founded so early as 
about A.D. 519, and that St. Kieran lived 
there until 570, or even later. It may be 
observed, that this promise has not been 
fulfilled, as indeed it would have been 
absurd to make such an attempt in the face 
of so many contradictory authorities. 

M The Bollandist editor remarks, that 
there are certain difficulties connected with 
this account, which render such a statement 

September 9.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 221 

Bollandist editor of our Saint's acts refuses to accept the computation of the 
Four Masters, in reference to those circumstances, which appear to determine 
the date of Kieran's foundation. This he seems desirous of placing at a.d. 
544. 14 If it could be established, that Eogain Bel I5 died in 537 ;' 6 it must 
seem, that St. Kellach was then living at Clonmacnoise, and consequently, 
that St. Kieran had founded his establishment there, at or before such a 
date. 17 This grant was probably made, after the death of King Tuathal, 
while Diermit reigned, and about the year 540, when Finian was ninety years 
of age. It could not have occurred much sooner, unless we wish to assert, 
against the opinion of Ussher and other authorities cited by him, that St. 
Finian owed his possessions, not to the liberality of St. Kyran of Clonmacnoise, 
but to that of St. Kyran of Saigir. 

In the Life of St. Kellach, 18 son to Eogain Bel, King of Connaught, we 
are informed, that this holy man spent some time at Clonmacnoise, under 
St. Kieran's spiritual guidance. While aspiring to the monastic state, news 
arrived regarding the death of Eogain Bel. His son was induced by certain 
chiefs to leave Clonmacnoise in a private manner. This was done without 
the consent of St. Kieran. Then Kellach hoped to succeed as ruler in his 
father's kingdom. That dignity he enjoyed only for a short time, when he 
felt a desire to abandon objects of worldly ambition to seek the solitude of 
a wood, where he appears to have led an eremitical life. After a year 
penitently spent in this manner, and with some degree of self-reproach, he 
returned to St. Kieran at Clonmacnoise. There Kellach was kindly received. 
Being initiated to the priesthood, he afterwards lived a holy life, under our 
saint's rule. 1 ^ 

It is said, that Diermit had a great esteem for our saint. But, it is 
scarcely probable, that Kieran obtained one hundred churches or cells from 
him. 20 Such an account most likely became current, long after the time of 
our saint, when his rule and institute had been embraced in a great number 
of religious houses. During the course of ages, these communities gradually 
multiplied ; yet, with the exception of Inis-aingin and Clonmacnoise, we 
cannot find reliable testimony concerning any other houses of his order, 
which existed during the life-time of Kieran. 31 From occasional illustrations, 
contained in other saints' lives, we learn that Clonmacnoise was the head of 
other flourishing houses throughout Ireland, and that it was richly endowed. 

improbable. He thinks it can be estab- l8 See the Life of Ceallach, bishop of 

lished, from the Life of St. Kellac, bishop Killala, at the 1st of May, in the Fifth 

in Ireland, and which in tomus i., Maii i., Volume of this work, Art. i. 

at p. 104, is to be found in their great collec- I9 Suyskens thinks the foregoing cir- 

tion, that St. Kiaran presided for more than cumstances, if reliable, should require at 

a year over Clonmacnoise, '" cum nihil vetet, least more than one year of incidence, 

quominus ejusdem mors in annum 549 aut and should represent at least two or three 

forte 548 incidisse dicatur, necesse pariter years. 

est, ut Cluain-mic-noisia prius condita 20 This is stated, in the Book of Navan. 

fuisse credatur." — "Acta Sanctorum," tomus See " De Primordiis Ecclesiarum Britanni- 

iii., Septembris ix., sect, v., num. 48, p. 379. carum," at p. 957, and Index Chronologicus, 

14 This is the year given by Ussher, for St. ad A.D- 544. 

Kieran's foundation at Inis Aingin. 2I Indeed, it is not probable, that our 

'5 King of Connaught. saint would have accepted very rich endow- 

16 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- ments, even if offered by Diermit. The 
nioe," xxvi. Martii, n. 10, p. 755. grants usually given in those primitive 

17 But, in Suysken's opinion, as the Four times were such tracts of lands, as the 
Masters, who assign such year for his death, monks could conveniently till by the 
had antedated the reigns of Tuathal and labour of their own hands. See Dr. 
Diermit by five years, so these same authori- Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
ties may have committed a like mistake in land," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, xi., n. 181, 
this present instance. pp. 58, 59. 



Whatever credit we may be disposed to give such accounts, one thing appears 
certain, our ancestors considered this establishment to have been one of 
great extent and importance. This is shown, from the vision and prophecy 
of St. Endeus, to which allusion has been already made. Again, we find it 
recorded, that while St. Columba had been engaged transcribing a book of 
Gospels, he asked St. Kieran to aid him in writing some middle portion of 
this work. 22 Assenting to such a proposal, St. Columba predicted : " On 
the part of God, I also promise and pronounce, that the central parts of 
Ireland shall be connected with your name, and become tributaries for the 
future to your monastery." 2 3 

When leaving for Clonmacnoise, St. Ciaran is said to have previously 
resigned Aingin Monastery 2 * to the care of Adomnan or Domnan, a native of 
Munster. He took with him eight disciples: viz., Ciaran, Oengus, Mac-nisse, 

Inis Aingin Ruins, Lough Ree. 

Cael-colomb, Mobeoc, Mo-lioc, Lugna Mac-hui Moga-Laim, and Colman, son 
of Nun. After they had come from the waves of the water, all are compared to 
Noah, son of Lamech, who took possession of the world with his octad, when 
coming from the waves of the Deluge. According to Archbishop Ussher, 
Kieran went to Clonmacnoise in 544. The Irish Life of our saint, as found 
in the Book of Lismore, mentions the eighth of the Calends of February, on 
the tenth of the moon, on the tenth of the lunar month, and on a Saturday, 
as the data for his setting up the first stake there, but the year is not men- 
tioned. At that time Diarmait, son of Cerball, is said to have been along 
with him.'s Anciently Clonmacnoise is said to have been called Druim- 

" This seems to be only another version 
of an anecdote already related, but in a 
different form. 

33 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 
Vita Quinta S. Columbx, n. 88, p. 403. 

24 Already we have presented an illustra- 
tion of the ancient church on Inis Aingin 
or Hare Island. To the kindness of the 

Very Rev. Thomas Langan, D.D., Admin- 
istrator of St. Mary's Church, Athlone, we 
have been presented with a photograph of 
the ruins there remaining, and from an en- 
tirely different point of view. This repre- 
sentation has been drawn and engraved on 
the wood by Gregor Grey. 

25 The narrative thus continues : Said 



tiprad, 26 and it has been thought to have got its present name from a 
Connaught prince. 2 ? The first establishment of St. Kieran here is referred 
by Ware, to a.d. 548. a8 That Clonmacnoise monastery had been founded 
in the year just mentioned appears from the general testimony of our old 
writers. 2 ? 

Regarding the arrival of Kieran, at Clonmacnoise, we are told, 30 that our 
Saint predicted as follows : M Here shall I dwell, in this place many souls 
shall go to the Kingdom of God, and in this place shall my resurrection be." 
Then, we are informed, that with his disciples, St. Kieran dwelt there, and 
began the foundation of a great monastery. Many flocked to him, when his 
monastery had been founded at Clonmacnoise. His district embraced a 
wide circuit. Soon his fame became celebrated throughout the whole ot 
Ireland. 3 1 A very ancient old vellum book states, that Ciaran of Cluain was in 
his habits and life like unto John the Apostle. His great virtues and 
miracles made him be known as a remarkable saint, both at home and 
abroad. His love for chastity and truth is thus traditionally recorded by 
Cuimin of Coindeire, 3 ' who states, in the poem which begins, u Patrick of 
the fort of Macha loves," etc., that Ciaran never looked upon a woman, from 
the time he was born, and that he never told a lie. 33 Nor indeed is it to 
be a subject for wonder, that brief as had been his rule at Clonmacnois, 3 * he 

Cianin to Diarmait when setting the stake, 
"Let, O warrior, thy hand be over my 
hand, and thou shalt be in sovereignty over 
the men of Ireland." " I agree," saith 
Diarmait, "provided thou givest a sign to 
me in confirmation." " I will say it then," 
replied Ciaran, " though thou art alone to- 
day, thou wilt be king of Ireland at this 
hour to-morrow." That promise was real- 
ized, for Tiiathal Maelgarb, King of Ire- 
land, was killed on that night, and Diarmait 
took the kingdom of Ireland on the morrow, 
and offered a hundred churches to Ciaran. 
This is followed by confirmatory verses, 
taken from an Irish poem. 

26 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nian," Februarii vi. De S. Mune Episcopo 
Forgnagiensi, cap. ix., p. 266. 

27 The Annals of Innisfallen have : " A.D. 
547 (548) Fundata est Clonmacnois, i.e., 
Nois Muccaid regis Connacie a quo nomina- 
tur Cluain." The meaning of this seems to 
be that it was so called from a son of Nois 
Muccaid, King of Connaught. Perhaps 
his name was Tiprad. I find this name 
among these of the ancient princes of that 
province."— Rev. Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesi- 
astical History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., 
sect, xi., n. 180, p. 58. Reference is there 
made to Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nian," p. 346. 

28 " S. Kieranus, sive Ciaranus junior, ex 
Aradensium familia ortus, sed Boe'tii, alias 
Beonandi fabri lignarii filius, unde et vulgo 
dictus est Maciteir, sive filius artificis, cceno- 
bium condidit Clonmacnoisan prius Tipraic 
dictae, in ipso quasi Hibernian umbilici) sive 
meditullio, anno Domini dxlviii., locum 
concedente Dermitio Cervalli fdio, rege 
Hibernian. Huic ccenobio secundum pluri- 

mos Kieranus unico solum anno, secundum 
nonnullus (perperam opinor) annis septem 
prsefuit abbas, morte ibi ereptus v. Idus 
Septembris, anno salutis per Christum 
dxlix., in ipso aetatis flore, cum annos 
vixisset solum triginta ties." See " Com- 
mentarius de Prsesulibus Hiberniae," p. 95. 

29 These state, moreover, that Kieran died 
the year immediately succeeding its founda- 

30 By O'Sheerin, in "Collectanea Sacra." 
Dissertatione de S. Columbani Monachatu, 
art. hi., sect, ii., num. 84, pp. 433, 434. 

31 O'Sheerin adds: "Clara civitas et 
sancta in ipso loco in honore S. Kiarani crevit, 
cujus nomen Cluainmicnois vocatur, quae est 
in Occidentali plaga regionis nepotum Neill, 
super ripam Orientalem fluminis Sinna, con- 
tra provinciam Connachtorum, in qua sive 
reges sive duces nepotum Neill et Connach- 
torum apud S. Kiaranum sepeliuntur." 

32 See the " Martyrology of Donegal," 
edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 240, 

33 The Irish verse is thus rendered into 
English :— 

" The holy Ciaran, of Cluain, loves 
Humility, from which he did not rashly 

swerve ; 
He never uttered a word that was false, 
Nor looked upon woman from his birth." 
—Ibid., p. 243. 

34 Alemand writes : '* A Cluain-Mac-nois % 
autrement Chines ou Kilcom, il y a eu une 
ancienne Abbaye que les Annales d'Ultonie 
appellent noiiUssimum Afotmsterttim^ &c. 
— " Histoire Monastique il'Irlande," p. 40. 
Alemand has some mistakes in his short 

224 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 9. 

was ranked among the foremost Patriarchs of Irish monks.* 5 On a certain 
day, as Ciaran was sowing seed at Iseal Chiarain, a poor man came to ask 
alms from him. Ciaran threw a handful of the grain into his breast, and it 
was immediately turned into gold. At this time the king, i.e. Aenghus, son 
of Crimthann, sent two horses and a chariot to Ciaran. Our saint gave those 
horses to the poor man for the gold, and the gold was turned into grain 
immediately, while the field was sown with it afterwards, so that there was 
not in the whole territory corn better than what grew there.* 6 We are 
informed, 3 ? that on a certain occasion this holy man visited some female 
religious, who were under the guardianship of our Saint Kieran. For the 
latter holy abbot, according to this legend, a meal had been prepared, 
but of this St. Aedus partook. Knowing the poverty of those nuns, when 
their patrons arrived near the place, Aedus said, " Lay your vessels of 
meat and drink as before, and they shall be replenished." 38 This being 
done, the prediction was fulfilled, and St. Kieran was suitably entertained by 
his religious sisters.39 

The chief foundation of St. Kieran, as mentioned in old Latin 
documents, is usually written Cluanense. In our times, it is better known 
as Clonmacnoise, and after St. Kiarain's monastery had been there estab- 
lished, it grew to the dimensions of a considerable city or town. In due 
course, it became an episcopal see. Yet, Sir James Ware confesses himself 
uninformed, regarding the exact period, when St. Kieran's foundation was 
merged into a Cathedral Church. The ruins of this establishment are yet 
traceable on the Shannon's eastern banks, and on the western borders of the 
old Meathian province. From the ancient name Ath-Luain,* the present town 
of Athlone,* 1 situated chiefly on the Connaught side of the river, is about eight 
or nine miles northwards from Clonmacnoise. It is the most central town 
in Ireland ; and although from the denomination regarded as a ford on the old 
Shannon, it had a bridge which spanned the river, at a very early period, and 
afforded a means of communication between the provinces of Leinster and 
Connaught. 4 2 A strong castle, to command the passage of the Shannon, 
was built at Athlone, so early as the reign of King John. Walls around the 

paragraph relating to St. Kieran. Thus he 4 ° However, we are told, that the original 

seems to confound Clunes or Clones with denomination was Ath-more, or "the great 

Clonmacnoise, and where he found Kilcom ford." It was afterwards changed to Ath- 

as an alterative does not appear. Also he Luain, or the " ford of Luan," a man's name, 

remarks of St. Kieran, " encore Evesque de formerly very common. In an old Irish 

Clunes, est appelle par des Historiens tale, known as the " Fate of the Children of 

Episcopus Coloniensis, ce qui a donne oc- Tuireann," the place is called Ath-Luain- 

casion de croire qu'il avoit este Evesque et mic-Luighdheach, or the "Ford of Luan 

Archevesque de Cologne en Allemagne, mais the son of Lewy." See Dr. Patrick W. 

il n'a este appelle Coloniensis que par erreur Joyce's "Origin and History of Irish 

au lieu de Cloniensis." Names of Places," part iii., chap, v., p. 

35 See " Collectanea Sacra." Dissertatio 342. 

de Monasiica S. Columbani Luxoviensis et 4I Athlone has two parishes, viz. : St. 

Bobiensis Abbatis Professionc, art. iii., Mary's, in the barony of Brawny, containing 

sect, ii., num. 84, p. 434. 37-a. ir. 3p., and it is marked on the 

36 See the " Martyrology of Donegal," "Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for 
edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. the County of Westmeath," sheet 29 ; 
240. 241. and St. Peter's, containing ilia. 2r. 3p., 

37 In the Acts of St. Aedus, Bishop of in the barony of Athlone, is noted 
Killare, at the 28th of February. on the " Ordnance Survey Townland 

3S See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- Maps for the County of Roscommon," 

nice," Vita S. Aedi,cap.xix., and n. 18, p. 420. sheet 52. 

39 Yet this account is so patently fabulous, ** A very complete and an interesting 

in Suysken's opinion, that it is placed on re- account of Athlone may be read in the 

cord, merely to satisfy the curiosity of some " Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ireland," vol. 

readers. i., pp. 95 to 101. 



land sides of the two divisions of the town were probably soon afterwards 
constructed : and they appear to have been either enlarged, or at least 
repaired and strengthened, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The castle 
and a portion of the fortifications still remain.** Here, too, were former 
religious foundations; but of these no traces at present remain. The bridge 

North Gate, Athlone. 

which spanned the Shannon at the close of the seventeenth century, has long 
since been removed.** With lapse of time, nine churches, besides the original 
foundation, are said *s to have stood within the cemetery,* 6 at Clonmacnoise. 
This contained less than two Irish acres.*? Eastwards from the cemetery 
enclosure certain episcopal buildings had been erected. Formerly Clonmac- 
noise See had been enriched with abundant revenues. However, the former 
episcopal city lias now dwindled to an insignificant village/ 8 After the 
introduction of the Reformation to Ireland, by an Act of Parliament, the 
independent See of Clonmacnoise had been added to that of Meath, a.d. 
i568.' 4 9 At the present time, some curious ancient inscriptions still remain. 
The claim of St. Kieran to be considered first Abbot of Clonmacnoise has 
been invariably admitted. By others, he has been regarded as its first bishop. It 

43 The accompanying illustration, drawn 
on the wood and engraved by Gregor Grey, 
represents the North Gate of Athlone. 

** In allusion to Athlone, Father Francis 
Porter writes, "quod suum habet Castrum 
et Pontem e vivo saxo pulcherrimum.'.' — 
" Compendium Annalium Ecclesiasticorum 
Regni Hibernia\" Sectio Prima, cap. iii., 
P- 44- 

45 By Sir James Ware. 

46 There are three exquisite steel engrav- 
ings of the Antiquities at Clonmacnoise to 

be seen in Bartlett's "Scenery and Anti- 
quities of Ireland," vol. i. Letterpress 
descriptions serve to illustrate them. See 
chap, xiv., pp. lot to 105. 

v See Mr. and Mrs. Hall's " Ireland : its 
scenery, character," &c, vol. ii., pp. 1 9 1, 192. 

48 This had occurred over two hundred 
years ago, as we find in a note of Colgan, 
appended to St. Molagga's Life. See " Acta 
Sanctorum Ilibernire," Januarii xx. Vita S. 
Molagg.x, n. 26, p. 150. 

49 According to Sir James Ware. 




seems to be more than doubtful, however, if Clonmacnoise had been erected 
into an episcopal See during the life-time of our saint. Neither Archbishop 
Ussher nor Colgan favour any idea, that he ever rose above the rank of Abbot. 
The latter writer gives St. Kieran this title only, while distinguishing 
Ailbeus,s° as archbishop and bishop of Emly, in Munster,$ x In one of the 
old Irish Epistles,s»published by Ussher,53 nothing seems clearly demonstrable, 
regarding the rank held by our saint, in the Irish Church. 54 When treating 
of the monastery at this place, Sir James Ware leaves us doubtful, about the 
time when a cathedra! church had been there erected. 55 It is observed, by 
him, 56 that a certain Baitan, first noted as abbot and bishop of the place, died 
on the 1st March, 663. 5 ? Allemand, 58 who flourished at a period still later 
than Sir James Ware, does not hesitate to make our Saint a bishop, citing the 
authority both of Ussher and Colgan. 59 Harris seems to make our Saint bishop 
of Clonmacnoise, owing to an obvious mistake he has committed, by placing 
Tighernach there, as immediate successor of Kieran. 60 This latter mistake of 
Harris has been followed by Archdall, 61 whilst adding another, when he intro- 
duces Oedhlugh, abbot of this place, as having died on the 26th day of Feb- 
ruary, a.d. 551. However, noting the silence of all ancient Irish Martyrologists 
and writers on the subject of Kieran having been bishop of Clonmacnoise; also, 
the prose Life of St. Senan describing when this holy man had been visited 
by Kieran, the latter being represented only as a priest, nor, do we learn 
elsewhere, that he became bishop : wherefore, we must probably regard him 
as having been simply an abbot over Clonmacnoise. This seems to be most 
likely, as he is generally allowed to have lived there only for one year, which 
could scarcely suffice for its growth and consolidation, to require its erection 
into a See, or as the chief seat for a diocesan district. It has been supposed, 
that the idea of St. Kyran having been the first bishop over Clonmacnoise, 
arose, either from an erroneous opinion of his namesake, St. Kieran, abbot 
and bishop of Saigir, having been confounded with the abbot of Clonmac- 
noise, 62 or that Kieran of Saigir had been reputed first founder of 

s° His feast occurs on the 12th September. 
See his life at that date, in the present 
volume, Art. i. 

51 "Successor Queraini Coloniensis, vel 
rectius . . . Kierani Clonensis seu Cluan- 
ensis, abbas de Cluain, alias Cluain-mic-nois, 
in limite Mediae." — " Acta Sanctorum 
Hibernise," Februarii xxiv. Vita S.Cuminwi, 
n. 16, p. 41 1. 

52 This is attributed to Cummian, who 
wrote to Segienus, abbot of Iona, in the 
seventh century, regarding the Paschal 
controversy ; and, it has a great historic 
value, as referring to individual Irish saints 
oi an earlier period, and to the traditions of 
the ancient Irish Church. 

s* Cummian says : " Juxta Duteronomion, 
interrogavi patres meos, ut annunciarent 
nnlii. successores videlicet nostrorum patrum 
priorum, Abbei episcopi, Querani Coloni- 
ensis, Brendini, Neesani, Lugidi," &c. — 
•• Sylloge Yeterum Epistolarum Hiberni- 
carum, num. xi. 

54 In the Epistle of Cummian, it must be 
remarked, that where Albeus is styled a 
bishop, no such distinctive title follows for 
St. Queran, whose connection with Clon- 
macnoise is simply stated. 

55 " Hujus ccenobii ecclesia postea, sed quo 
tempore, me latet, in ecclesiam cathedralem 
commutata est. Non desunt quidem, qui S. 
Kieranum episcopum fuisse Cloinmac- 
noisensem, diserte tra:lunt. Hoc si vetum, 
de ecclesioc cathedralis initio, non est quod 
ulterius disquiramus." — " Commentarius de 
Prsesulibus Hibernian," p. 95. 

s * " Ultrum recte, non inquiro ; ut velim, 
saltern paucis recensuisset scriptoris, a 
quibus sancti episcopatum Cluain-mic- 
noisensem diserte traditum repent." 

57 In Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters," while his death is placed at 
this date, he is only styled Baetan Mac-Ua- 
Cormaic, Abbot of Cluain-mic-Nois. See 
vol. i., pp. 274, 275. 

58 See his "Histoire Monastique d'Irlande," 
p. 40, 

5 9 However, neither of these authors posi- 
tively assert such a statement. 

60 See Harris' Ware, vol. i. "Bishops of 
Clonmacnoise," p. 167. But Tigernach was 
bishop at Clones, and not at Clonmacnoise. 

61 See "Monasticon Ilibernicum," p. 380. 

62 This seems to have been done by Sir 
James Ware, who in treating about the 
Ossorian bishops says, that Kieran of 

September 9.] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 227 

Clonmacnoise episcopal See, and this for no better reason, than because its 
precise erection as such can be referred to no exact date. 63 



To St. Kiaran have been ascribed the gifts of a poetic genius ; and even 
various compositions attributed to him are handed down to our time. It 
was Ciaran, we are told, that composed the celebrated poetical lay which 
begins : " An rim a ri an richid rain," &c, asking of God a prolongation of 
his life, that he might perform more labour and service to Him. There is a 
Poem attributed to St. Kiarain, among the Manuscripts of Trinity College, 
Dublin. 1 The Kierain intended is probably the Patron of Clonmacnoise. 
Among the Poems, ascribed to St. Ciaran of Clonmacnoise, there is one, 
" On the two Daughters of the Priest Isacar, Anna and Mary." 2 There is 
a supposed Poem of Ciaran, invoking the protection of an Angel or an 
Archangel, for each day of the week; 3 and another Poem, invoking the 
Saints of the Four Seasons of the Year.* A Poem of St. Ciaran, containing 
32 verses, is to be found among the O'Longan Manuscripts. 5 He is made 
the author of certain prophecies by Sir James Ware. 6 An ancient prophetic 
poem, ascribed to St. Ciaran, is to be met with among the O'Longan 
Manuscripts? preserved in the Royal Irish Academy. 

From various passages in Colgan, it would appear, that Kiaran had been 
regarded as one among the principal Irish Saints. We are told, that in some 
Manuscripts, he is called one of the Twelve Apostles of Ireland. 8 Some 
doubt seems to exist about our Saint being the Cieran, mentioned in 
Ussher's Catalogue^ as belonging to the Second Class of Irish Saints, rather 
than the less celebrated St. Kieran of Saigir. 10 When setting forth the old 
catalogue of Irish Saints, among those of the second order, who observed 
different rules, we find the name of St. Kieran, St. Ciaran, or St. Queran, 

Saighir died- in 549, thus making him iden- 8 See "Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," Notes 

tical with Kieran of Clonmacnoise. to the Life of St. Finian, at the 23rd of 

63 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., February, p. 398. Also, see n. 4, p. 402. 

Septembris ix. Acta S. Kieranii, sect, vi., 9 According to Rev. Dr. Lanigan. " It is 

num. 66, 67, 68, 69, p. 383. proper to caution the reader against an error 

Chapter iv. — ' It is classed H. I. II. of the press in the London or folio edition, 

2 It consists of 36 verses, and it is to be p. 474 of Ussher's Primordia, where in the 
found among the O'Longan MSS., of the list of the Second Class, Ceranus occurs 
Royal Irish Academy, vol. iv., p. 281, paper instead of Cemanus. This erratum might 
folio. induce a person at first sight to think, that 

3 It is in 32 verses, and found in a folio Kiaran of Saigir was mentioned in that list, 
paper Manuscript, written by Michael Oge The sequel, however, shows, that the name 
O'Longan, in and after the year 1799. This was Cemanus.' 1 '' — " Ecclesiastical History of 
is in vol. iv. of the O'Longan collection, Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, xi., n. 164, 
in the Royal Irish Academy, pp. 40, 41. pp. 52, 53. 

4 It is in 30 Stanzas, p. 42, ibid. I0 This latter was omitted, by Ussher's 

5 In vol. xiv., p. 1S4. authority, as also many other saints of the 

6 See " De Scriptoribus Hibernine," lib. i., period; for the author of the catalogue 
cap. 2. only named holy persons most generally 

In vol. Li v., p. 173. celebrated. 

228 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [September 9. 

mentioned by Ussher. And quoting the Book of Navan, we are further 
informed, that this Saint wrote a monastic Rule." This was called the Law 
of Kieran. Nearly all our ancient and modern authors are agreed, that 
St. Kieran of Clonmacnoise, who was also known as son of the Artificer, 
must be reckoned amongst the eight principal Irish Saints, who wrote special 
monastic rules, for the government of religious houses 12 Moreover, he is 
enumerated among the eight principal founders of regular monasteries in our 
Island. x 3 Among these institutions, the following gradation brings us to our 
abbot : viz., the first rule was that of St. Patrick ; the second that of 
St. Brigid ; the third that of St. Brendan j the fourth that of St. Kieran, &C. 1 * 
Thomas Siring with various Irish writers, mentions this Special Rule of our 
Saint. At the year 743, Archbishop Ussher remark's, that the monastic 
Rules of St. Kieran, son to the artificer, and those of St. Brendan, son to 
Finlog, were propagated in Ireland. 16 Again, another testimony is produced 
from a Hymn, attributed to his holy fellow- Apostle, Columba. In this, our 
Saint's eulogy is pronounced ; he has been regarded as one of Ireland's 
principal sons, and justly considered one of its great Apostles. 1 ? In 
O'Donnell's Life of St. Columba, we are told, that when the holy abbot of 
Iona visited Clonmacnoise, he showed St. Kieran, abbot of this monastery, 
a hymn which he had before composed in praise of God. 18 This he wished 
Kieran to read. 1 ^ It is said that contemning this world's vanities and 
entering a monastery, he became a venerable monk of the Benedictine Order, 
and afterwards an Abbot. 20 However, it must be observed, that the special 
Rule of St. Benedict had not been brought into Ireland, until many centuries 
after the death of our saint. It is stated, in a silly legend, that the saints of 
Ireland fasted to cut short Ciaran's life, when he drew nigh unto death, and 
because he alone had the half of Ireland. 21 However, their petition was not 

"He adds: " Neque alia est ilia lex j s See " Collectanea Sacra-" Dissertatione 

Ciarini, * * * cujus amplificatum usum ad de Monachatu S. Columbani, sect. 2. 

annum dccxliii., in Annalibus Ultonien- l6 See Index Chronologicus ad annum, 

sibus observavimus." — " Britannicarum Ec- lxxii, p. 1170. 

clesiarum Antiquitates," Addenda quaedam l i The following verse is quoted : — 
et emendanda, p. 1050 

12 Edward O Reilly states : " He wrote Quantum Christe 6 Apostolum 
a Rule for Monks, in Irish metre, said Mundo missiti hominem ; 

to be amongst the MSS. of Trinity Lucerna hujus insulse, 

College Library ; but in the present im- Lucens lucerna mirabilis, &c. 

perfect state of the Catalogue of MSS. in 

that library, we have not been able to See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga,'' 

discover it." — " Chronological Account of Tertia Appendix ad Acta S. Columbse, 

nearly Four Hundred Irish Writers," pp. secunda pars., pp. 471 et seq. 

xxxv., xxxvi. ,8 See ibid., Vita Quinta S. Columbw, 

13 In this same sense, Thomas Sirin, an Lib. lxx., pp. 400, 401. 

Irish Minori