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LIVES OF THE MOST EMINENT 
PAINTERS SCULPTORS AND 
ARCHITECTS BY GIORGIO VASARI 
VOLUME X. BRONZING TO 
VASARI & GENERAL INDEX 

1915 



IVES OF THE MOST 
EMINENT PAINTERS 

SCULPTORS & ARCHITECTS 

BY GIORGIO VAS ARI : 

NEWLY TRANSLATED BY GASTON 
Du C. DE VERB. WITH FIVE HUNDRED 
ILLUSTRATIONS: IN TEN VOLUMES 





1511-1574 




PHILIP LEE WARNER, PUBLISHER 
TO THE MEDICI SOCIETY, LIMITED 
7 GRAFTON ST. LONDON, W. 1912-15 



II 4 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

and so sweet, that there were seen drawn from the eyes of more than 
one person tears that were not feigned. Which finished, and each figure 
having taken her serpent on her shoulders, there was seen, with no less 
terror among the spectators, a new and very large opening appearing 
in the floor, from which issued a thick and continuous stream of flame 
and smoke, and an awful barking was heard, and there was seen to issue 
from the hole the infernal Cerberus with his three heads, to whom, in 
accordance with the fable, Psyche was seen to throw one of the two flat 
cakes that she had in her hand; and shortly afterwards there was seen 
likewise to appear, together with various monsters, old Charon with 
his customary barque, into which the despairing Psyche having entered, 
the four tormentors described above kept her unwelcome and displeasing 

company. 

Fuggi, speme mia, fuggi, 

E fuggi per non far piii mai ritorno; 

Sola tu, che distruggi 

Ogni mia pace, a far vienne soggiorno, 

Invidia, Gelosia, Pensiero e Scorno 

Meco nel cieco Inferno 

Ove 1* aspro martir mio viva eterno. 

LAST INTERLUDE. 

The sixth and last interlude was all joyous, for the reason that, the 
comedy being finished, there was seen to issue in an instant from the floor 
of the stage a verdant mound all adorned with laurels and different 
flowers, which, having on the summit the winged horse Pegasus, was 
soon recognized to be the Mount of Helicon, from which were seen de- 
scending one by one that most pleasing company of little Cupids already 
described, and with them Zephyr, Music, and Cupid, all joining hands, 
and Psyche also, all joyful and merry now that she was safe returned 
from Hell, and that by the prayers of her husband Cupid, at the inter- 
cession of Jove, after such mighty wrath in Venus, there had been won for 
her grace and pardon. With these were Pan and nine other Satyrs, 
with various pastoral instruments in their hands, under which other 
musical instruments were concealed; and all descending from the mound 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 115 

described above, they were seen bringing with them Hymen, God of 
nuptials, in whose praise they sang and played, as in the following 
canzonets, and performed in the second a novel, most merry and most 
graceful dance, giving a gracious conclusion to the festival: 

Dal bel monte Elicona 

Ecco Imeneo che scende, 

E gia la face accende, e s' incorona; 
Di persa s' incorona, 

Odorata e soave, 

Onde il mondo ogni grave cura scaccia. 
Dunque e tu, Psiche, scaccia 

L' aspra tua fera doglia, 

E sol gioia s' accoglia entro al tuo seno. 
Amor dentro al suo seno 

Pur lieto albergo datti, 

E con mille dolci atti ti consola. 
Ne men Giove consola 

II tuo passato pianto, 

Ma con riso e con canto al Ciel ti chiede. 
Imeneo dunque ognun chiede, 

Imeneo vago ed adorno, 

Deh che lieto e chiaro giorno, 

Imeneo, teco oggi riede ! 
Imeneo, per T alma e diva 

Sua Giovanna ogn' or si sente 

Del gran Ren ciascuna riva 

Risonar soavemente ; 

E non men T Arno lucente 

Pel gratioso, inclito e pio 

Suo Francesco aver desio 

D' Imeneo lodar si vede. 

Imeneo ecc. 
Flora lieta, Arno beato, 

Arno umil, Flora cortese, 

Deh qual piu felice stato 

Mai si vide, mai s' intese ? 

Fortunate almo paese, 

Terra in Ciel gradita e cara, 

A cui coppia cosi rara 

Imeneo benigno diede. 
Imeneo ecc. 



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A/ 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME X 

PAGE 

ACADEMICIANS OF DESIGN, PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, AND ARCHI- 

TECTS ........ ... 3 

DESCRIPTION OF THE FESTIVE PREPARATIONS FOR THE NUPTIALS 

OF THE PRINCE DON FRANCESCO OF TUSCANY ... 37 

GIORGIO VASARI .......... 171 

TO lrt CRAP*? 'Alt' A/ f ? &&/&*> j 2 \ 



INDEX OF NAMES ... ...... .227 

GENERAL INDEX, VOLUMES I TO X ...... 233 



ILLUSTRATIONS TO VOLUME X 



PLATES IN MONOCHROME 



AGNOLO BRONZING 
AGNOLO BRONZING 

AGNOLO BRONZING 
ALESSANDRO ALLORI 
BENVENUTO CELLINI 
GIOVANNI BOLOGNA 
GIOVANNI BOLOGNA 
VINCENZIO DANTI 
VINCENZIO DANTI 
GIORGIO VASARI 

GIORGIO VASARI- 



Bartolommeo Panciatichi 

Eleanora de Toledo and 
her Son 

Christ in Limbo 

Giuliano de' Medici - 

Perseus 

Fountain of Neptune 

Mercury - 

The Brazen Serpent 

Bronze Relief - 

Lorenzo the Magnificent 
and the Ambassadors 

Fresco in the Hall of 
Lorenzo the Magnificent 



Florence: Uffizi, 159 
Florence: Uffizi, 172 



FACING PAGE 

4 
6 



Florence: Uffizi, 1271 8 

Florence: Uffizi, 193 12 

Florence: Loggia de' Lanzi 22 

Bologna 24 

Florence : Museo Nazionale 26 

Florence: Museo Nazionale 28 

Florence: Museo Nazionale 30 

Florence : Palazzo Vecchio 208 

Florence : Palazzo Vecchio 214 



vn 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS OF 
DESIGN, PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, 
AND ARCHITECTS, AND OF 
THEIR WORKS, AND FIRST OF 
BRONZING 



X. 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS OF DESIGN, PAINTERS, 
SCULPTORS, AND ARCHITECTS, AND OF THEIR WORKS, AND 

FIRST OF BRONZING 

HAVING written hitherto of the lives and works of the most excellent 
painters, sculptors, and architects, from Cimabue down to the present 
day, who have passed to a better life, and having spoken with the oppor- 
tunities that came to me of many still living, it now remains that I say 
something of the craftsmen of our Academy of Florence, of whom up 
to this point I have not had occasion to speak at sufficient length. And 
beginning with the oldest and most important, I shall speak first of 
Agnolo, called Bronzino, a Florentine painter truly most rare and worthy 
of all praise. 

Agnolo, then, having been many years with Pontormo, as has been 
told, caught his manner so well, and so imitated his works, that their 
pictures have been taken very often one for the other, so similar they 
were for a time. And certainly it is a marvel how Bronzino learned the 
manner of Pontormo so well, for the reason that Jacopo was rather 
strange and shy than otherwise even with his dearest disciples, being 
such that he would never let anyone see his works save when completely 
finished. But notwithstanding this, so great were the patience and 
lovingness of Agnolo towards Pontormo, that he was forced always to 
look kindly upon him, and to love him as a son. The first works of 
account that Bronzino executed, while still a young man, were in the 
Certosa of Florence, over a door that leads from the great cloister into 
the chapter-house, on two arches, one within and the other without. On 
that without is a Piet, with two Angels, in fresco, and on that within is 
a nude S. Laurence upon the gridiron, painted in oil-colours on the wall; 

3 



4 AGNOLO BRONZING 

which works were a good earnest of the excellence that has been seen 
since in the works of this painter in his mature years. In the Chapel of 
Lodovico Capponi, in S. Felicita at Florence, Bronzino, as has been said 
in another place, painted two Evangelists in two round pictures in oils, 
and on the vaulting he executed some figures in colour. In the Abbey 
of the Black Friars at Florence, in the upper cloister, he painted in fresco 
a story from the life of S. Benedict, when he throws himself naked on the 
thorns, which is a very good picture. In the garden of the Sisters called 
the Poverine, he painted in fresco a most beautiful tabernacle, wherein 
is Christ appearing to the Magdalene in the form of a gardener. And 
in S. Trinita, likewise in Florence, may be seen a picture in oils by the 
same hand, on the first pilaster at the right hand, of the Dead Christ, 
Our Lady, S. John, and S. Mary Magdalene, executed with much diligence 
and in a beautiful manner. And during that time when he executed these 
works, he also painted many portraits of various persons, and other 
pictures, which gave him a great name. 

Then, the siege of Florence being ended and the settlement made, he 
went, as has been told elsewhere, to Pesaro, where under the protection 
of Guidobaldo, Duke of Urbino, besides the above-mentioned harpsichord- 
case full of figures, which was a rare thing, he executed the portrait of 
that lord and one of a daughter of Matteo Sofferoni, which was a truly 
beautiful picture and much extolled. He also executed at the Imperiale, 
a villa of the said Duke, some figures in oils on the spandrels of a vault; 
and more of these he would have done if he had not been recalled to 
Florence by his master, Jacopo Pontormo, that he might assist him to 
finish the Hall of Poggio a Caiano. And having arrived in Florence, he 
painted as it were by way of pastime, for Messer Giovanni de Statis, 
Auditor to Duke Alessandro, a little picture of Our Lady which was a 
much extolled work, and shortly afterwards, for Monsignor Giovio, his 
friend, the portrait of Andrea Doria; and for Bartolommeo Bettini, to 
fill certain lunettes in a chamber, the portraits of Dante, Petrarca, and 
Boccaccio, half-length figures of great beauty. Which pictures finished, 
he made portraits of Bonaccorso Pinadori, Ugolino Martelli, Messer 
Lorenzo Lenzi, now Bishop of Fermo, and Pier Antonio Bandini and 




Alinari 



BARTOLOMMEO PANCIATICHI 

(After the painting by Angelo Bronzino. Florence: Uffizi, IS9) 



AGNOLO BRONZING 5 

his wife, with so many others, that it would be a long work to seek to 
make mention of them all; let it suffice that they were all very natural, 
executed with incredible diligence, and finished so well, that nothing more 
could be desired. For Bartolommeo Panciatichi he painted two large 
pictures of Our Lady, with other figures, beautiful to a marvel and exe- 
cuted with infinite diligence, and, besides these, portraits of him and his 
wife, so natural that they seem truly alive, and nothing is wanting in 
them save breath. For the same man he has painted a picture of Christ 
on the Cross, which is executed with much study and pains, insomuch 
that it is clearly evident that he copied it from a real dead body fixed on 
a cross, such is the supreme excellence and perfection of every part. 
For Matteo Strozzi he painted in fresco, in a tabernacle at his villa of 
S. Casciano, a Pieta with some Angels, which was a very beautiful work. 
For Filippo d'Averardo Salviati he executed a Nativity of Christ in a 
small picture with little figures, of such beauty that it has no equal, 
as everyone knows, that work being now in engraving; and for Maestro 
Francesco Montevarchi, a most excellent physicist, he painted a very 
beautiful picture of Our Lady and some other little pictures full of grace. 
And he assisted his master Pontormo, as was said above, to execute the 
work of Careggi, where on the spandrels of the vaults he painted with his 
own hand five figures, Fortune, Fame, Peace, Justice, and Prudence, 
with some children, all wrought excellently well. 

Duke Alessandro being then dead and Cosimo elected, Bronzino 
assisted the same Pontormo in the work of the Loggia of Castello. For 
the nuptials of the most illustrious Lady, Leonora di Toledo, the wife of 
Duke Cosimo, he painted two scenes in chiaroscuro in the court of the 
Medici Palace, and on the base that supported the horse made by Tribolo, 
as was related, some stories of the actions of Signor Giovanni de' Medici, 
in imitation of bronze; all which were the best pictures that were executed 
in those festive preparations. Wherefore the Duke, having recognized 
the ability of this man, caused him to set his hand to adorning a chapel 
of no great size in the Ducal Palace for the said Lady Duchess, a woman 
of true worth, if ever any woman was, and for her infinite merits worthy 
of eternal praise. In that chapel Bronzino made on the vault some com- 



6 AGNOLO BRONZING 

partments with very beautiful children and four figures, each of which has 
the feet turned towards the walls S. Francis, S. Jerome, S. Michelagnolo, 
and S. John; all executed with the greatest diligence and lovingness. 
And on the three walls, two of which are broken by the door and the 
window, he painted three stories of Moses, one on each wall. Where the 
door is, he painted the story of the snakes or serpents raining down upon 
the people, with many beautiful considerations in figures bitten by them, 
some of whom are dying, some are dead, and others, gazing on the 
Brazen Serpent, are being healed. On another wall, that of the window, 
is the Rain of Manna; and on the unbroken wall the Passing of the Red 
Sea, and the Submersion of Pharaoh; which scene has been printed in 
engraving at Antwerp. In a word, this work, executed as it is in fresco, 
has no equal, and is painted with the greatest possible diligence and 
study. In the altar-picture of this chapel, painted in oils, which was 
placed over the altar, was Christ taken down from the Cross, in the lap 
of His Mother; but it was removed from there by Duke Cosimo for sending 
as a present, as a very rare work, to Granvella, who was once the greatest 
man about the person of the Emperor Charles V. In place of that altar- 
piece the same master has painted another like it, which was set over 
the altar between two pictures not less beautiful than the altar-piece, 
in which pictures are the Angel Gabriel and the Virgin receiving from 
him the Annunciation; but instead of these, when the first altar-picture 
was removed, there were a S. John the Baptist and a S. Cosimo, which 
were placed in the guardaroba when the Lady Duchess, having changed 
her mind, caused the other two to be painted. 

The Lord Duke, having seen from these and other works the excellence 
of this painter, and that it was his particular and peculiar field to portray 
from life with the greatest diligence that could be imagined, caused him 
to paint a portrait of himself, at that time a young man, fully clad in 
bright armour, and with one hand upon his helmet; in another picture 
the Lady Duchess, his consort, and in yet another picture the Lord Don 
Francesco, their son and Prince of Florence. And no long time passed 
before he portrayed the same Lady Duchess once again, to do her pleasure, 
in a different manner from the first, with the Lord Don Giovanni, her son, 




ELEANORA DE TOLEDO AND HER SON 
(After the painting by Angelo Bronzino. Florence: Uffizi, 172) 



AGNOLO BRONZING 7 

beside her. He also made a portrait of La Bia, a young girl, the natural 
daughter of the Duke; and afterwards all the Duke's children, some for 
the first time and others for the second the Lady Donna Maria, a very 
tall and truly beautiful girl, the Prince Don Francesco, the Lord Don 
Giovanni, Don Garzia, and Don Ernando, in a number of pictures which 
are all in the guardaroba of his Excellency, together with the portraits 
of Don Francesco di Toledo, Signora Maria, mother of the Duke, and 
Ercole II, Duke of Ferrara, with many others. About the same time, 
also, he executed in the Palace for the Carnival, two years in suc- 
cession, two scenic settings and prospect- views for comedies, which were 
held to be very beautiful. And he painted a picture of singular beauty 
that was sent to King Francis in France, wherein was a nude Venus, with 
a Cupid who was kissing her, and Pleasure on one side with Play and 
other Loves, and on the other side Fraud and Jealousy and other passions 
of love. The Lord Duke had caused to be begun by Pontormo the 
cartoons of the tapestries in silk and gold for the Sala del Consiglio de' 
Dugento; and, having had two stories of the Hebrew Joseph executed by 
the said Pontormo, and one by Salviati, he gave orders that Bronzino 
should do the rest. Whereupon he executed fourteen pieces with the 
excellence and perfection which everyone knows who has seen them; 
but since this was an excessive labour for Bronzino, who was losing too 
much time thereby, he availed himself in the greater part of these cartoons, 
himself making the designs, of Raffaello dal Colle, the painter of Borgo a 
San Sepolcro, who acquitted himself excellently well. 

Now Giovanni Zanchini had built a chapel very rich in carved stone, 
with his family tombs in marble, opposite to the Chapel of the Dini in 
S. Croce at Florence, on the front wall, on the left hand as one enters the 
church by the central door; and he allotted the altar-piece to Bronzino, 
to the end that he might paint in it Christ descended into the Limbo of 
Hell in order to deliver the Holy Fathers. Agnolo, then, having set his 
hand to it, executed that work with the utmost possible diligence that 
one can use who desires to acquire glory by such a labour; wherefore there 
are in it most beautiful nudes, men, women, and children, young and old, 
with different features and attitudes, and portraits of men that are very 



8 AGNOLO BRONZING 

natural, among which are Jacopo da Pontormo, Giovan Battista Gello, 
a passing famous Academician of Florence, and the painter Bacchiacca, of 
whom we have spoken above. And among the women he portrayed 
there two noble and truly most beautiful young women of Florence, 
worthy of eternal praise and memory for their incredible beauty and 
virtue, Madonna Costanza da Sommaia, wife of Giovan Battista Doni, 
who is still living, and Madonna Camilla Tedaldi del Corno, who has now 
passed to a better life. Not long afterwards he executed another large 
and very beautiful altar-picture of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ, 
which was placed in the Chapel of Jacopo and Filippo Guadagni beside 
the choir in the Church of the Servites that is, the Nunziata. And at 
this same time he painted the altar-piece that was placed in the chapel 
of the Palace, whence there had been removed that which was sent to 
Granvella; which altar-piece is certainly a most beautiful picture, and 
worthy of that place. Bronzino then painted for Signor Alamanno 
Salviati a Venus with a Satyr beside her, so beautiful as to appear in truth 
Venus Goddess of Beauty. 

Having then gone to Pisa, whither he was summoned by the Duke, 
he executed some portraits for his Excellency; and for Luca Martini, who 
was very much his friend, and not of him only, but also attached with 
true affection to all men of talent, he painted a very beautiful picture of 
Our Lady, in which he portrayed that Luca with a basket of fruits, from 
his having been the minister and proveditor for the said Lord Duke in the 
draining of the marshes and other waters that rendered unhealthy the 
country round Pisa, and for having made it in consequence fertile and 
abundant in fruits. Nor did Bronzino depart from Pisa before there was 
allotted to him at the instance of Martini, by Raffaello del Setaiuolo, 
the Warden of Works of the Duomo, the altar-picture for one of the 
chapels in that Duomo, wherein he painted a nude Christ with the Cross, 
and about Him many Saints, among whom is a S. Bartholomew flayed, 
which has the appearance of a true anatomical subject and of a man 
flayed in reality, so natural it is and imitated with such diligence from 
an anatomical subject. That altar-picture, which is beautiful in every 
part, was placed, as I have said, in a chapel from which they removed 




A nderson 

CHRIST IN LIMBO 
(After the panel by Angelo Bronzino. Florence : Uffizi, I2JI) 



AGNOLO BRONZING 9 

another by the hand of Benedetto da Pescia, a disciple of Giulio Romano. 
Bronzino then made for Duke Cosimo a full-length portrait of the dwarf 
Morgante, nude, and in two ways namely, on one side of the picture 
the front, and on the other the back, with the bizarre and monstrous 
members which that dwarf has; which picture, of its kind, is beautiful and 
marvellous. For Ser Carlo Gherardi of Pistoia, who from his youth was 
a friend of Bronzino, he executed at various times, besides the portrait 
of Ser Carlo himself, a very beautiful Judith placing the head of Holo- 
fernes in a basket, and on the cover that protects that picture, in the 
manner of a mirror, a Prudence looking at herself; and for the same man 
a picture of Our Lady, which is one of the most beautiful things that he 
has ever done, because it has extraordinary design and relief. And the 
same Bronzino executed the portrait of the Duke when his Excellency 
was come to the age of forty, and also that of the Lady Duchess, both 
of which are as good likenesses as could be. After Giovan Battista 
Cavalcanti had caused a chapel to be built in S. Spirito, at Florence, with 
most beautiful variegated marbles conveyed from beyond the sea at very 
great cost, and had laid there the remains of his father Tommaso, he 
had the head and bust of the father executed by Fra Giovanni Agnolo 
Montorsoli, and the altar-piece Bronzino painted, depicting in it Christ 
appearing to Mary Magdalene in the form of a gardener, and more distant 
two other Maries, all figures executed with incredible diligence. 

Jacopo da Pontormo having left unfinished at his death the chapel 
in S. Lorenzo, and the Lord Duke having ordained that Bronzino should 
complete it, he finished in the part where the Deluge is many nudes that 
were wanting at the foot, and gave perfection to that part, and in the 
other, where at the foot of the Resurrection of the Dead many figures 
were wanting over a space about one braccio in height and as wide as 
the whole wall, he painted them all in the manner wherein they are to 
be seen, very beautiful; and between the windows, at the foot, in a space 
that remained there unpainted, he depicted a nude S. Laurence upon 
a gridiron, with some little Angels about him. In that whole work he 
demonstrated that he had executed his paintings in that place with much 
better judgment than his master Pontormo had shown in his pictures 

x. 2 



io AGNOLO BRONZING 

in the work; the portrait of which Pontormo Bronzino painted with his 
own hand in a corner of that chapel, on the right hand of the S. Laurence. 
The Duke then gave orders to Bronzino that he should execute two large 
altar-pictures, one containing a Deposition of Christ from the Cross with 
a good number of figures, for sending to Porto Ferraio in the Island of 
Elba, for the Convent of the Frati Zoccolanti, built by his Excellency in 
the city of Cosmopolis; and another altar-piece, in which Bronzino 
painted the Nativity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, for the new Church of the. 
Knights of S. Stephen, which has since been built in Pisa, together with 
their Palace and Hospital, after the designs and directions of Giorgio 
Vasari. Both these pictures have been finished with such art, diligence, 
design, invention, and supreme loveliness of colouring, that it would not 
be possible to go further; and no less, indeed, was required in a church 
erected by so great a Prince, who has founded and endowed that Order 
of Knights. 

On some little panels made of sheet-tin, and all of one same size, 
the same Bronzino has painted all the great men of the House of Medici, 
beginning with Giovanni di Bicci and the elder Cosimo down to the 
Queen of France, in that line, and in the other from Lorenzo, the brother 
of the elder Cosimo, down to Duke Cosimo and his children; all which 
portraits are set in order behind the door of a little study that Vasari 
has caused to be made in the apartment of new rooms in the Ducal 
Palace, wherein is a great number of antique statues of marble and 
bronzes and little modern pictures, the rarest miniatures, and an infinity 
of medals in gold, silver, and bronze, arranged in very beautiful order. 
These^gortraits of the illustrious men of the House of Medici are all natural 
and vivacious, and most faithful likenesses. 

It is a notable thing that whereas many are wont in their last years 
to do less well than they have done in the past, Bronzino does as well and 
even better now than when he was in the flower of his manhood, as the 
works demonstrate that he is executing every day. Not long ago he 
painted for Don Silvano Razzi, a Camaldolite monk in the Monastery of 
the Angeli at Florence, who is much his friend, a picture about one braccio 
and a half high of a S. Catharine, so beautiful and well executed, that it is 



AGNOLO BRONZING n 

not inferior to any other picture by the hand of this noble craftsman; 
insomuch that nothing seems to be wanting in her save the spirit and 
that voice which confounded the tyrant and confessed Christ her well- 
beloved spouse even to the last breath; and that father, like the truly 
gentle spirit that he is, has nothing that he esteems and holds in price 
more than that picture. Agnolo made a portrait of the Cardinal, Don 
Giovanni de' Medici, the son of Duke Cosimo, which was sent to the 
Court of the Emperor for Queen Joanna; and afterwards that of the Lord 
Don Francesco, Prince of Florence, which was a picture very^like the 
reality, and executed with such diligence that it has the appearance of a 
miniature. For the nuptials of Queen Joanna of Austria, wife of that 
Prince, he painted in three large canvases which were placed at the Ponte 
alia Carraia, as will be described at the end, some scenes of the Nuptials 
of Hymen, of such beauty that they appeared not things for a festival, 
but worthy to be set in some honourable place for ever, so finished they 
were and executed with such diligence. For the same Lord Prince he 
painted a few months ago a small picture with little figures which has 
no equal, and it may be said that it is truly a miniature. And since at 
this his present age of sixty-five he is no less enamoured of the matters 
of art than he was as a young man, he has undertaken recently, according 
to the wishes of the Duke, to execute two scenes in fresco on the wall 
beside the organ in the Church of S. Lorenzo, in which there is not a 
doubt that he will prove the excellent Bronzino that he has always been. 
This master has delighted much, and still delights, in poetry; where- 
fore he has written many capitoli and sonnets, part of which have been 
printed. But above all, with regard to poetry, he is marvellous in the 
style of his capitoli after the manner of Berni, insomuch that at the 
present day there is no one who writes better in that kind of verse, nor 
things more fanciful and bizarre, as will be seen one day if all his works, 
as is believed and hoped, come to be printed. Bronzino has been and 
still is^most gentle and a very courteous friend, agreeable in his con- 
versation and in all his affairs, and much honoured; and as loving and 
liberal with his possessions as a noble craftsman such as he is could well 
be. He has been peaceful by nature, and has never done an injury to 



12 ALESSANDRO ALLORI 

any man, and he has always loved all able men in his profession, as I 
know, who have maintained a strait friendship with him for three-and- 
forty years, that is, from 1524 down to the present year, ever since I 
began to know and to love him in that year of 1524, when he was working 
at the Certosa with Pontormo, whose works I used as a youth to go to 
draw in that place. 

Many have been the pupils and disciples of Bronzino, but the first 
(to speak now of our Academicians) is Alessandro Allori, who has been 
loved always by his master, not as a disciple, but as his own son, and they 
have lived and still live together with the same love, one for another, that 
there is between a good father and his son. Alessandro has shown in 
many pictures and portraits that he has executed up to his present age 
of thirty, that he is a worthy disciple of so great a master, and that he is 
seeking by diligence and continual study to arrive at that rarest perfection 
which is desired by beautiful and exalted intellects. He has painted and 
executed all with his own hand the Chapel of the Montaguti in the Church 
of the Nunziata namely, the altar-piece in oils, and the walls and vaulting 
in fresco. In the altar-piece is Christ on high, and the Madonna, in the 
act of judging, with many figures in various attitudes and executed very 
, well, copied from the Judgment of Michelagnolo Buonarroti. About 
that altar-piece, on the same wall, are four large figures in the forms of 
Prophets, or rather, Evangelists, two above and two below; and on the 
vaulting are some Sibyls and Prophets executed with great pains, study, 
and diligence, he having sought in the nudes to imitate Michelagnolo. 
On the wall which is at the left hand looking towards the altar, is Christ 
as a boy disputing in the midst of the Doctors in the Temple; which boy 
is seen in a fine attitude answering their questions, and the Doctors, and 
others who are there listening attentively to him, are all different in 
features, attitudes, and vestments, and among them are portraits from 
life of many of Alessandro's friends, which are good likenesses. Opposite 
to that, on the other wall, is Christ driving from the Temple those who 
with their buying and selling were making it a house of traffic and a 
market-place; with many things worthy of consideration and praise. 
Over those two scenes are some stories of the Madonna, and on the 




Alinari 



GIULIANO DE' MEDICI 

(After the painting by Alessandro Allori. Florence : Uffizi, 



ALESSANDRO ALLORI AND OTHERS 13 

vaulting figures that are of no great size, but passing graceful; with some 
buildings and landscapes, which in their essence show the love that he 
bears to art, and how he seeks the perfection of design and invention. 
And opposite to the altar-piece, on high, is a story of Ezekiel, when he saw 
a great multitude of bones reclothe themselves with flesh and take to 
themselves their members; in which this young man has demonstrated 
how much he desires to master the anatomy of the human body, and how 
he has studied it and given it his attention. And, in truth, in this his first 
work of importance, as also in the nuptials of his Highness, with figures 
in relief and stories in painting, he has proved himself and given great 
signs and promise, as he continues to do, that he is like to become an 
excellent painter; and not in this only, but in some other smaller works, 
and recently in a small picture full of little figures in the manner of 
miniature, which he has executed for Don Francesco, Prince of Florence, 
a much-extolled work; and other pictures and portraits he has painted 
with great study and diligence, in order to become practised and to acquire 
ajprand manner. 

Another young man, likewise a pupil of Bronzino and one of our 
Academicians, called Giovan Maria Butteri, has shown good mastery 
and much dexterity in what he did, besides many other smaller pictures 
and other works, for the obsequies of Michelagnolo and for the coming of 
the above-named most illustrious Queen Joanna to Florence. 

And another disciple, first of Pontormo and then of Bronzino, has 
been Cristofano deir Altissimo, a painter, who, after having executed in 
his youth many pictures in oils and some portraits, was sent by the Lord 
Duke Cosimo to Como, to copy many pictures of illustrious persons in 
the Museum of Monsignor Giovio, out of the vast number which that 
man, so distinguished in our times, collected in that place. Many others, 
also, the Lord Duke has obtained by the labours of Vasari; and of all these 
portraits a list * will be made in the index of this book, in order not to 
occupy too much space in this discourse. In the work of these portraits 
Cristofano has exerted himself with such diligence and pains, that those 
which he has copied up to the present day, and which are in three friezes 

* Given in the original Italian edition of 1568. 



14 BATTISTA NALD1NI AND OTHERS 

in a guardaroba of the said Lord Duke, as will be described elsewhere in 
speaking of the decorations of that place, are more than two hundred and 
eighty in number, what with Pontiffs, Emperors, Kings, Princes, Captains 
of armies, men of letters, and, in short, all men for some reason illustrious 
and renowned. And, to tell the truth, we owe a great obligation to this 
zeal and diligence of Giovio and of the Duke, for the reason that not only 
the apartments of Princes, but also those of many private persons, are 
now being adorned with portraits of one or other of those illustrious men, 
according to the country, family, and particular affection of each person. 
Cristofano, then, having established himself in this manner of painting, 
which is suited to his genius, or rather, inclination, has done little else, 
as one who is certain to derive from it honour and profit in abundance. 

Pupils of Bronzino, also, are Stefano Pieri and Lorenzo della Sciorina, 
who have so acquitted themselves, both the one and the other, in the 
obsequies of Michelagnolo and in the nuptials of his Highness, that they 
have been admitted among the number of our Academicians. 

From the same school of Pontormo and Bronzino has issued also 

Battista Naldini, of whom we have spoken in another place. This 

Battista, after the death of Pontormo, having been some time in Rome and 

having applied himself with much study to art, has made much pro- 

ficience and become a bold and well-practised painter, as many works 

demonstrate that he has executed for the very reverend Don Vincenzio 

Borghini, who has made great use of him and assisted him, together with 

Francesco da Poppi, a young man of great promise and one of our 

Academicians, who has acquitted himself well in the nuptials of his 

Highness, and other young men, whom Don Vincenzio is continually 

employing and assisting. Of this Battista, Vasari has made use for more 

than two years, as he still does, in the works of the Ducal Palace of 

Florence, where, by the emulation of many others who were working in 

the same place, he has made much progress, insomuch that at the present 

day he is equal to any other young man of our Academy; and that which 

much pleases those who are good judges is that he is expeditious, and 

does his work without effort. Battista has painted in an altar-picture 

in oils that is in a chapel of the Black Friars' Abbey of Florence, a Christ 



MASO MANZUOLI AND OTHERS 15 

who is bearing the Cross, in which work are many good figures; and he 
has other works constantly in hand, which will make him known as an 
able man. 

Not inferior to any of these named above in talent, art, and merit, 
is Maso Manzuoli, called Maso da San Friano, a young man of about 
thirty or thirty- two years, who had his first principles from Pier Francesco 
di Jacopo di Sandro, one of our Academicians, of whom we have spoken 
in another place. This Maso, I say, besides having shown how much he 
knows and how much may be expected of him in many pictures and 
smaller paintings, has demonstrated this recently in two altar-pictures 
with much honour to himself and full satisfaction to everyone, having 
displayed in them invention, design, manner, grace, and unity in the 
colouring. In one of these altar-pieces, which is in the Church of S. 
Apostolo at Florence, is the Nativity of Jesus Christ, and in the other, 
which is placed in the Church of S. Pietro Maggiore, and is as beautiful 
as an old and well-practised master could have made it, is the Visitation 
of Our Lady to S. Elizabeth, executed with judgment and with many 
fine considerations, insomuch that the heads, the draperies, the attitudes, 
the buildings, and all the other parts are full of loveliness and grace. 
This man acquitted himself with no ordinary excellence in the obsequies 
of Buonarroti, as an Academician and very loving, and then in some 
scenes for the nuptials of Queen Joanna. 

Now, since not only in the Life of Ridolfo Ghirlandajo I have spoken 
of his disciple Michele and of Carlo da Loro, but also in other places, I 
shall say nothing more of them here, although they are of our Academy, 
enough having been said of them. But I will not omit to tell that other 
disciples and pupils of Ghirlandajo have been Andrea del Minga, like- 
wise one of our Academicians, who has executed many works, as he still 
does; Girolamo di Francesco Crocifissaio, a young man of twenty-six, 
and Mirabello di Salincorno, both painters, who have done and continue 
to do such works of painting in oils and in fresco, and also portraits, that 
a most honourable result may be expected from them. These two 
executed together, now several years ago, some pictures in fresco in the 
Church of the Capuchins without Florence, which are passing good; and 



16 FEDERIGO DI LAMBERTO AND OTHERS 

in the obsequies of Michelagnolo and the above-mentioned nuptials, also 
they did themselves much honour. Mirabello has painted many portraits, 
and in particular that of the most illustrious Prince more than once, and 
many others that are in the hands of various gentlemen of Florence. 

Another, also, who has done much honour to our Academy and to 
himself, is Federigo di Lamberto of Amsterdam, a Fleming, the son-in- 
law of the Paduan Cartaro, working in the said obsequies and in the festive 
preparations for the nuptials of the Prince, and besides this he has shown 
in many pictures painted in oils, both large and small, and in other works 
that he has executed, a good manner and good design and judgment. 
And if he has merited praise up to the present, he will merit even more 
in the future, for he is labouring constantly with much advantage in 
Florence, which he appears to have chosen as his country, that city being 
one where young men derive much benefit from competition and 
emulation. 

A beautiful genius, also, universal and abundant in fine fantasies, 
has been shown by Bernardo Timante Buontalenti, who had his first 
principles of painting in his youth from Vasari, and then, continuing, has 
made so much proficiency that he has now served for many years, and 
still serves with much favour, the most illustrious Lord Don Francesco de' 
Medici, Prince of Florence. That lord has kept him continually at work; 
and he has executed for his Excellency many works in miniature after 
the manner of Don Giulio Clovio, such as many portraits and scenes with 
little figures, painted with much diligence. The same Bernardo has 
made with a beautiful architectural design, by order of the said Prince, 
a cabinet with compartments of ebony and columns of heliotrope, oriental 
jasper, and lapis-lazuli, which have bases and capitals of chased silver; 
and besides this he has filled the whole surface of the work with jewels 
and most lovely ornaments of silver and beautiful little figures, within 
which ornaments are to be miniatures, and, between terminals placed in 
pairs, figures of silver and gold in the round, separated by other com- 
partments of agate, jasper, heliotrope, sardonyx, cornelian, and others 
of the finest stones, to describe all which here would make a very long 
story. It is enough that in this work, which is near completion, Bernardo 



BERNARDO TIMANTE BUONTALENTI AND OTHERS 17 

has displayed a most beautiful genius, equal to any work. Thus that 
lord makes use of him for many ingenious fantasies of his own of cords 
for drawing weights, of windlasses, and of lines; besides that he has 
discovered a method of fusing rock-crystal with ease and of purifying it, 
and has made with it scenes and vases of several colours; for Bernardo 
occupies himself with everything. This, also, will be seen in a short time 
in the making of vases of porcelain with all the perfection of the most 
ancient and most perfect; in which at the present day a most excellent 
master is Giulio da Urbino, who is in the service of the most illustrious 
Duke Alfonso II of Ferrara, and does stupendous things in the way of 
vases with several kinds of clay, and to those in porcelain he gives the 
most beautiful shapes, besides fashioning with the same earth little 
squares, octagons, and rounds, hard and with an extraordinary polish, 
for making pavements counterfeiting the appearance of variegated 
marbles; of all which things our Prince has the methods of making them. 
His Excellency has also caused a beginning to be made with the executing 
of a study-table with precious stones, richly adorned, as an accompani- 
ment to another belonging to his father, Duke Cosimo. And not long 
ago he had one finished after the design of Vasari, which is a rare work, 
being of oriental alabaster all inlaid with great pieces of jasper, heliotrope, 
cornelian, lapis-lazuli, and agate, with other stones and jewels of price 
that are worth twenty thousand crowns. This study-table has been 
executed by Bernardino di Porfirio of Leccio in the neighbourhood of 
Florence, who is excellent in such work, and who made for Messer Bindo 
Altoviti an octagon of ebony and ivory inlaid likewise with jaspers, after 
the design of the same Vasari; which Bernardino is now in the service of 
their Excellencies. But to return to Bernardo : in painting, also, beyond 
the expectation of many, he showed that he is able to execute large figures 
no less well than the small, when he painted for the obsequies of Michel- 
agnolo that great canvas of which we have spoken. Bernardo was 
employed, also, with much credit to him, for the nuptials of his and our 
Prince, in certain masquerades, in the Triumph of Dreams, as will be told, 
and in the interludes of the comedy that was performed in the Palace, 
has been described exhaustively by others. And if this man, when he 
* 3 



i8 GIOVANNI BELLA STRADA 

was a youth (although even now he is not past thirty), had given his 
attention to the studies of art as he gave it to the methods of fortification, 
in which he spent no little time, he would be perchance now at such a 
height of excellence as would astonish everyone; none the less, it is 
believed that he is bound for all that to achieve the same end, although 
something later, for the reason that he is all genius and art, to which is 
added this also, that he is continually employed and exercised by his 
sovereign, and in the most honourable works. 

Of our Academy, also, is Giovanni della Strada, a Fleming, who has 
good design, the finest fantasy, much invention, and a good manner of 
colouring; and, having made much proficience during the ten years that 
he has worked in the Palace in distemper, fresco, and oils, after the designs 
and directions of Giorgio Vasari, he can bear comparison with any of the 
many painters that the said Lord Duke has in his service. But at the 
present day the principal task of this man is to make cartoons for various 
arras- tapestries that the Duke and the Prince are having executed, 
likewise under the direction of Vasari, of divers kinds in accordance with 
the stories in painting that are on high in the rooms and chambers 
painted by Vasari in the Palace, for the adornment of which they are 
being made, to the end that the embellishment of tapestries below may 
correspond to the pictures above. For the chambers of Saturn, Ops, 
Ceres, Jove, and Hercules, he has made most lovely cartoons for about 
thirty pieces of tapestry; and for the upper chambers where the Princess 
has her habitation, which are four, dedicated to the virtues of woman, 
with stories of Roman, Hebrew, Greek, and Tuscan women (namely, the 
Sabines, Esther, Penelope, and Gualdrada), he has made, likewise, very 
beautiful cartoons for tapestries. In like manner, he has done the same 
for ten pieces of tapestry in a hall, in which is the Life of Man; and also 
for the five lower rooms where the Prince dwells, dedicated to David, 
Solomon, Cyrus, and others. And for twenty rooms in the Palace of 
Poggio a Caiano, for which the tapestries are even now being woven, he 
has made after the inventions of the Duke cartoons of the hunting of 
every kind of animal, and the methods of fowling and fishing, with the 
strangest and most beautiful inventions in the world; in which variety 



GIOVANNI BELLA STRADA AND OTHERS 19 

of animals, birds, fishes, landscapes, and vestments, with huntsmen on 
foot and on horseback, fowlers in various habits, and nude fishermen, 
he has shown and still shows that he is a truly able man, and that he has 
learned well the Italian manner, being minded to live and die in Florence 
in the service of his most illustrious lords, in company with Vasari and 
the other Academicians. 

Another pupil of Vasari, likewise, and also an Academician, is 
Jacopo di Maestro Piero Zucca, a young Florentine of twenty-five or 
twenty-six years, who, having assisted Vasari to execute the greater part 
of the works in the Palace, and in particular the ceiling of the Great Hall, 
has made so much proficience in design and in the handling of colours, 
labouring with much industry, study, and assiduity, that he can now be 
numbered among the first of the young painters in our Academy. And 
the works that he has done by himself alone in the obsequies of Michel- 
agnolo, in the nuptials of the most illustrious Lord Prince, and at other 
times for various friends, in which he has shown intelligence, boldness, 
diligence, grace, and good judgment, have made him known as a gifted 
youth and an able painter; but even more will those make him known 
that may be expected from him in the future, doing as much honour to 
his country as has been done to her by any painter at any time. 

In like manner, among other young painters of the Academy, Santi 
Titi may be called ingenious and able, who, as has been told in other 
places, after having practised for many years in Rome, has returned 
finally to enjoy Florence, which he regards as his country, although his 
elders are of Borgo a San Sepolcro and of a passing good family in that city. 
This Santi acquitted himself truly excellently in the works that he 
executed for the obsequies of Buonarroti and the above-mentioned 
nuptials of the most illustrious Princess, but even more, after great and 
almost incredible labours, in the scenes that he painted in the theatre 
which he made for the same nuptials on the Piazza di S. Lorenzo, for the 
most illustrious Lord Paolo Giordano Orsino, Duke of Bracciano; wherein 
he painted in chiaroscuro, on several immense pieces of canvas, stories of 
the actions of various illustrious men of the Orsini family. But how able 
he is can be perceived best from two altar-pieces by his hand that are to 



20 SANTI TITI AND OTHERS 

be seen, one of which is in Ognissanti, or rather, S. Salvadore di Fiorenza 
(as it is now called), once the church of the Padri Umiliati, and now of the 
Zoccolanti, and contains the Madonna on high and at the foot S. John, 
S. Jerome, and other Saints; and in the other, which is in S. Giuseppe, 
behind S. Croce, in the Chapel of the Guardi, is a Nativity of Our Lord 
executed with much diligence, with many portraits from life. Not to 
speak of many pictures of Our Lady and various portraits that he has 
painted in Rome and in Florence, and pictures executed in the Vatican, 
as has been related above. 

There are also certain other young painters of the same Academy 
who have been employed in the above-mentioned decorations, some of 
Florence and some of the Florentine States. Alessandro del Barbiere, a 
young Florentine of twenty-five, besides many other works, painted for 
the said nuptials in the Palace, after the designs and directions of Vasari, 
the canvases of the walls in the Great Hall, wherein were depicted the 
squares of all the cities in the dominion of the Lord Duke; in which he 
certainly acquitted himself very well, and proved himself a young man 
of judgment and likely to achieve any success. In like manner, Vasari 
has been assisted in these and other works by many other disciples 
and friends; Domenico Benci, Alessandro Fortori of Arezzo, his cousin 
Stefano Veltroni, and Orazio Porta, both of Monte Sansovino, and Tom- 
maso del Verrocchio. 

In the same Academy there are also many excellent craftsmen who 
are strangers, of whom we have spoken at length in various places above; 
and therefore it shall suffice here to make known their names, to the end 
that they may be numbered in this part among the other Academicians. 
These, then, are Federigo Zucchero; Prospero Fontana and Lorenzo 
Sabatini, of Bologna; Marco da Faenza, Tiziano Vecelli, Paolo Veronese, 
Giuseppe Salviati, Tintoretto, Alessandro Vittoria, the sculptor Danese, 
the painter Battista Farinato of Verona, and the architect Andrea 
PaUadio. 

Now, to say something also of the sculptors in our Academy and of 
their works, although I do not intend to speak of them at any length, 
because they are alive and for the most part most illustrious in name and 



BENVENUTO CELLINI 21 

fame, I say that BenvgnutojC^ a citizen of Florence, who is now a 
sculptor (to begin with the oldest and most honoured), had no peer in 
his youth when he was a goldsmith, nor perhaps had he for many years 
any equal in that profession and in making most beautiful figures in the 
round and in low-relief, and all the other works of that craft. He set 
jewels, and adorned them with marvellous collets and with little figures 
so well wrought, and at times so bizarre and fantastic, that it is not 
possible to imagine anything finer or better. And the medals that he 
made in his youth, of silver and gold, were executed with incredible 
diligence, nor can they ever be praised enough. He made in Rome for 
Pope Clement VII a very beautiful morse for a pluvial, setting in it 
excellently well a pointed diamond surrounded by some children made 
of gold plate, and a God the Father marvellously wrought; wherefore, 
besides his payment, he received as a gift from that Pope an office of 
mace-bearer. Being then commissioned by the same Pontiff to make a 
chalice of gold, the cup of which was to be supported by figures representing 
the Theological Virtues, he carried it near completion with most mar- 
vellous artistry. In these same times there was no one who made the 
medals of that Pope better than he did, among the many who essayed it, 
as those well know who saw his medals and possess them; and since for 
these reasons he received the charge of making the dies for the Mint of 
Rome, no more beautiful coins have ever been seen than were struck in 
Rome at that time. Wherefore Benvenuto, after the death of Clement, 
having returned to Florence, likewise made dies with the head of Duke 
Alessandro for the coins of the Mint of Florence, so beautiful and wrought 
with such diligence, that some of them are now preserved as if they were 
most beautiful antique medals, and that rightly, for the reason that in 
these he surpassed himself. Having finally given himself to sculpture 
and to the work of casting, Benvenuto executed in France many works 
in bronze, silver, and gold, while he was in the service of King Francis in 
that kingdom. Then, having returned to his own country and entered 
the service of Duke Cosimo, he was first employed in some goldsmiths' 
work, and in the end was given some works of sculpture; whereupon he 
executed in metal the statue of the Perseus that has cut off the head of 



22 BENVENUTO CELLINI AND FRANCESCO DA SAN GALLO 

Medusa, which is in the Piazza del Duca, near the door of the Ducal 
Palace, upon a base of marble with some very beautiful figures in bronze, 
each about one braccio and a third in height. This whole work was 
carried to perfection with the greatest possible study and diligence, and 
set up in the above-named place as a worthy companion to the Judith 
by the hand of Donato, that famous and celebrated sculptor. And 
certainly it was a marvel that Benvenuto, after being occupied for so 
many years in making little figures, executed so great a statue with such 
excellence. The same master has made a Crucifix of marble, in the round 
and large as life, which of its kind is the rarest and most beautiful piece 
of sculpture that there is to be seen. Wherefore the Lord Duke keeps 
it, as a thing most dear to him, in the Pitti Palace, intending to place it 
in the chapel, or rather, little church, that he is building in that place; 
which little church could not have in these times anything more worthy 
of itself and of so great a Prince. In short, it is not possible to praise 
this work so much as would be sufficient. Now, although I could enlarge 
at much greater length on the works of Benvenuto, who has been in his 
every action spirited, proud, vigorous, most resolute, and truly terrible, 
and a person who has been only too well able to speak for himself with 
Princes, no less than to employ his hand and brain in matters of art, I 
shall say nothing more of him here, seeing that he has written of his own 
life and works, and a treatise on the goldsmith's arts, and on founding 
and casting in metal, with other things pertaining to such arts, and also 
of sculpture, with much more eloquence and order than I perchance 
would be able to use here; as for him, therefore, I must be content with 
this short summary of the rarest of his principal works. 

Francesco di Giuliano da San Gallo, sculptor, architect, and Acade- 
mician, and now a man seventy years of age, has executed many works 
of sculpture, as has been related in the Life of his father and elsewhere; 
the three figures of marble, somewhat larger than life, which are over the 
altar of the Church of Orsanmichele, S.,Anne, the Virgin, and the Child 
Christ, figures which are much extolled; certain other statues, also in 
marble, for the tomb of Piero de' Medici at Monte Cassino; the tomb of 
Bishop de' Marzi, which is in the Nunziata, and that of Monsignor Giovio, 




Brogi 

PERSEUS 

(After the bronze by Benvenuto Cellini. Florence: Loggia de* Lanzi) 



FRANCESCO DA SAN GALLO AND OTHERS 23 

the writer of the history of his own times. In architecture, likewise, the 
same Francesco has executed many good and beautiful works in Florence 
and elsewhere; and he has well deserved, both for his own good qualities 
and for the services of his father Giuliano, to be always favoured by the 
house of Medici as their protege, on which account Duke Cosimo, after 
the death of Baccio d'Agnolo, gave him the place which that master had 
held as architect to the Duomo of Florence. 

Of Ammanati, who is also among the first of our Academicians, 
enough having been said of him in the description of the works of Jacopo 
Sansovino, there is no need to speak further here. But I will record that 
disciples of his, and also Academicians, are Andrea Calamech of Carrara, 
a well-practised sculptor, who executed many figures under Ammanati, 
and was invited to Messina after the death of the above-named Martino 
to take the position which Fra Giovanni Agnolo had once held, in which 
place he died; and Battista di Benedetto, a young man who has given 
promise of becoming, as he will, an excellent master, having demon- 
strated already by many works that he is not inferior to the above-named 
Andrea or to any other of the young sculptors of our Academy, in beauty 
of genius and judgment. 

Vincenzio de' Rossi of Fiesole, likewise a sculptor, architect, and 
Academician of Florence, is worthy to have some record made of him 
in this place, in addition to what has been said of him in the Life of 
Baccio Bandinelli, whose disciple he was. After he had taken leave of 
Baccio, then, he gave a great proof of his powers in Rome, although he 
was young enough, in the statue that he made for the Ritonda, of a S. 
Joseph with Christ as a boy of ten years, both figures wrought with good 
mastery and a beautiful manner. He then executed two tombs in the 
Church of S. Maria della Pace, with the effigies of those who are within 
them on the sarcophagi, and on the front without some Prophets of 
marble in half-relief and large as life, which acquired for him the name of 
an excellent sculptor. Whereupon there was allotted to him by the 
Roman people the statue of Pope Paul IV, which was placed on the 
Campidoglio; and he executed it excellently well. But that work had 
a short life, for the reason that after the death of the Pope it was thrown 



24 VINCENZIO DE' ROSSI AND OTHERS 

to the ground and destroyed by the populace, which persecutes fiercely 
one day the very men whom it has exalted to the heavens the day before. 
After that figure Vincenzio made from one block of marble two statues a 
little larger than life, a Theseus, King of Athens, who has carried off 
Helen and holds her in his arms in the act of knowing her, with a Troy 
beneath his feet; than which figures it is not possible to make any with 
more diligence, study, labour, and grace. Wherefore when Duke Cosimo 
de' Medici, having journeyed to Rome, and going to see the modern works 
worthy to be seen no less than the antiques, saw those statues, Vincenzio 
himself showing them to him, he extolled them very highly, as they 
deserved ; and then Vincenzio, who is a gentle spirit, courteously presented 
them to him, and at the same time freely offered him his services. But 
his Excellency, having conveyed them not long afterwards to his Palace 
of the Pitti in Florence, paid him a good price for them; and, having 
taken Vincenzio himself with him, he commissioned him after no long 
time to execute the Labours of Hercules in figures of marble larger than 
life and in the round. On these Vincenzio is now spending his time, and 
already he has carried to completion the Slaying of Cacus and the Combat 
with the Centaur; which whole work, even as it is most exalted in subject 
and also laborious, so it is hoped that it will prove excellent in artistry, 
Vincenzio being a man of very beautiful genius and much judgment, and 
prodigal of thought in all his works of importance. 

Nor must I omit to say that under his discipline Ilarione Ruspoli, 
a young citizen of Florence, gives his attention with much credit to 
sculpture; which Ilarione, no less than his peers in our Academy, showed 
that he had knowledge, design, and a good mastery in the making of 
statues, when he had occasion together with the others in the obsequies 
of Michelagnolo and in the festive preparations for the nuptials named 
above. 

Francesco Camilliani, a sculptor and Academician of Florence, who 
was a disciple of Baccio Bandinelli, after having given in many works 
proof of being a good sculptor, has consumed fifteen years in making orna- 
ments for fountains; and of such there is one most stupendous, which the 
Lord Don Luigi di Toledo has caused to be executed for his garden in 



JUlil 




A I in art 



FOUNTAIN OF NEPTUNE 
(After Giovanni Bologna. Bologna) 



FRANCESCO CAMILLIANI AND GIOVAN BOLOGNA 25 

Florence. The ornaments about that garden are various statues of men 
and animals in divers manners, all rich and truly regal, and wrought 
without sparing of expense; and among other statues that Francesco has 
made for that place, two larger than life, which represent the Rivers Arno 
and Mugnone, are of supreme beauty, and particularly the Mugnone, 
which can bear comparison with no matter what statue by an excellent 
master. In short, all the architecture and ornamentation of that garden 
are the work of Francesco, who by the richness of the various fountains 
has made it such, that it has no equal in Florence, and perhaps not in 
Italy. And the principal fountain, which is even now being carried to 
completion, will be the richest and most sumptuous to be seen in any 
place, with its wealth of the richest and finest ornaments that can be 
imagined, and the great abundance of waters that will be there, flowing 
without fail at every season. 

Also an Academician, and much in favour with our Princes for his 
talents, is Giovan Bologna of Douai, a Flemish sculptor and a young 
man truly of the rarest, who has executed with most beautiful ornaments 
of metal the fountain that has been made recently on the Piazza di S. 
Petronio in Bologna, opposite to the Palazzo de' Signori, in which there 
are, besides other ornaments, four very beautiful Sirens at the corners, 
with various children all around, and masks bizarre and extraordinary. 
But the most notable thing is a figure that he has made and placed over 
the centre of that fountain, a Neptune of six braccia, which is a most 
beautiful casting and a statue studied and wrought to perfection. The 
same master not to speak at present of all the works that he has executed 
in clay, terracotta, wax, and other mixtures has made a very beautiful 
Venus in marble, and has carried almost to completion for the Lord 
Prince a Samson large as life, who is combating on foot with two Philis- 
tines. And in bronze he has made a statue of Bacchus, larger than life 
and in the round, and a Mercury in the act of flying, a very ingenious 
figure, the whole weight resting on one leg and on the point of the foot, 
which has been sent to the Emperor Maximilian, as a thing that is indeed 
most rare. But if up to the present he has executed many works, he will 
do many more in the future, and most beautiful, for recently the Lord 
x. 4 



26 GIOVAN BOLOGNA AND VINCENZIO DANTI 

Prince has had him provided with rooms in the Palace, and has com- 
missioned him to make a statue of a Victory of five braccia, with a captive, 
which is going into the Great Hall, opposite another by the hand of 
Michelagnolo ; and he will execute for that Prince large and important 
works, in which he will have an ample field to show his worth. Many 
works by his hand, and very beautiful models of various things, are in 
the possession of M. Bernardo Vecchietti, a gentleman of Florence, and 
Maestro Bernardo di Mona Mattea, builder to the Duke, who has con- 
structed with great excellence all the fabrics designed by Vasari. 

Not less than this Giovan Bologna and his friends and other sculptors 
of our Academy, Vincenzio Danti of Perugia, who under the protection 
of Duke Cosimo has adopted Florence as his country, is a young man truly 
rare and of fine genius. Vincenzio, when a youth, worked as a goldsmith, 
and executed in that profession things beyond belief; and afterwards, 
having applied himself to the work of casting, he had the courage at 
the age of twenty to cast in bronze a statue of Pope Julius III, four 
braccia high, seated and giving the Benediction; which statue, a very 
creditable work, is now in the Piazza of Perugia. Then, having come to 
Florence to serve Duke Cosimo, he made a very beautiful model in wax, 
larger than life, of a Hercules crushing Antaeus, in order to cast from it a 
figure in bronze, which was to be placed over the principal fountain in the 
garden of Castello, a villa of the said Lord Duke. But, having made the 
mould upon that model, in seeking to cast it in bronze it did not succeed, 
although he returned twice to the work ; either by bad fortune, or because 
the metal was burnt, or for some other reason. Having then turned, in 
order not to subject his labours to the whim of chance, to working in 
marble, he executed in a short time from one single piece of marble two 
figures, Honour with Deceit beneath it, and with such diligence, that it 
seemed as if he had never done anything but handle the hammer and 
chisels; and on the head of Honour, which is beautiful, he made the hair 
curling and so well pierced through, that it seems real and natural, besides 
displaying a very good knowledge of the nude. That statue is now in the 
courtyard of the house of Signor Sforza Almeni in the Via de' Servi. And 
at Fiesole, for the same Signor Sforza, he made many ornaments in his 







Anderson 

MERCURY 

(After the bronze by Giovanni Bologna. Florence: Museo Nazionale) 



VINCENZIO DANTI 27 

garden and around certain fountains. Afterwards he executed for the 
Lord Duke some low-reliefs in marble and in bronze, which were held to 
be very beautiful, for in that manner of sculpture he is perhaps not 
inferior to any other master. He then cast, also in bronze, the grating 
of the chapel built in the new apartments of the Palace, which were 
painted by Giorgio Vasari, and with it a panel with many figures in low- 
relief, which serves to close a press wherein the Duke keeps writings of 
importance; and another panel one braccio and a half in height and two 
and a half in breadth, representing how Moses, in order to heal the 
Hebrew people from the bites of the serpents, placed one upon a pole. 
All these things are in the possession of that lord, by order of whom he 
made the door of the sacristy in the Pieve of Prato, and over it a sarco- 
phagus of marble, with a Madonna three braccia and a half high, and 
beside her the Child nude, and two little children that are one on either 
side of a head in low-relief of Messer Carlo de' Medici, the natural son 
of the elder Cosimo, and once Provost of Prato, whose bones, after having 
long been in a tomb of brick, Duke Cosimo has caused to be laid in the 
above-named sarcophagus, thus giving him honourable sepulture; 
although it is true that the said Madonna and the head in low-relief 
(which is very beautiful), being in a bad light, do not show up by a great 
measure as they should. The same Vincenzio has since made, in order 
to adorn the residence of the Magistrates of the Mint, on the head-wall 
over the loggia that is on the River Arno, an escutcheon of the Duke with 
two nude figures, larger than life, on either side of it, one representing 
Equity and the other Rigour; and from hour to hour he is expecting the 
marble to make the statue of the Lord Duke himself, considerably larger 
than life, of which he has made a model; and that statue is to be placed 
seated over the escutcheon, as a completion to the work, which is to be 
built shortly, together with the rest of the fa$ade, which Vasari, who is 
the architect of that fabric, is even now superintending. He has also in 
hand, and has carried very near completion, a Madonna of marble larger 
than life, standing with Jesus, a Child of three months, in her arms; 
which will be a very beautiful work. All these works, together with 
others, he is executing in the Monastery of the Angeli in Florence, where 



28 VINCENZIO AhD IGNAZIO DANTI 

he lives quietly in company with these monks, who are much his friends, 
in the rooms that were once occupied there by Messer Benedetto Varchi, 
of whom the same Vincenzio is making a portrait in low-relief, which 
will be very beautiful. 

Vincenzio has a brother in the Order of Preaching Friars, called Fra 
Ignazio Danti, who is very excellent in matters of cosmography, and of a 
rare genius, insomuch that Duke Cosimo de' Medici is causing him to 
execute a work than which none greater or more perfect has ever been done 
at any time in that profession; which is as follows. His Excellency, under 
the direction of Vasari, has built a new hall of some size expressly as an 
addition to the guardaroba, on the second floor of the apartments in the 
Ducal Palace; and this he has furnished all around with presses seven 
braccia high, with rich carvings of walnut- wood, in order to deposit in 
them the most important, precious, and beautiful things that he possesses. 
Over the doors of those presses, within their ornaments, Fra Ignazio has 
distributed fifty-seven pictures about two braccia high and wide in pro- 
portion, in which are painted in oils on the wood with the greatest dili- 
gence, after the manner of miniatures, the Tables of Ptolemy, all measured 
with perfect accuracy and corrected after the most recent authorities, 
with exact charts of navigation and their scales for measuring and 
degrees, done with supreme diligence; and with these are all the names, 
both ancient and modern. His distribution of these pictures is on this 
wise. At the principal entrance of the hall, on the transverse surfaces 
of the thickness of the presses, in four pictures, are four half-spheres in 
perspective; in the two below is the Universe of the Earth, and in the 
two above is the Universe of the Heavens, with its signs and celestial 
figures. Then as one enters, on the right hand, there is all Europe in 
fourteen tables and pictures, one after another, as far as the centre of 
the wall that is at the head, opposite to the principal door; in which 
centre is placed the clock with the wheels and with the spheres of the 
planets that every day go through their motions, which is that clock, so 
famous and renowned, made by the Florentine Lorenzo della Volpaia. 
Above these tables is Africa in eleven tables, as far as the said clock; and 
then, beyond that clock, Asia in the lower range, which continues likewise 



IGNAZIO DAMTI 29 

in fourteen tables as far as the principal door. Above these tables of 
Asia, in fourteen other tables, there follow the West Indies, beginning 
like the others from the clock, and continuing as far as the same principal 
door; and thus there are in all fifty-seven tables. In the base at the 
foot, in an equal number of pictures running right round, which will be 
exactly in line with those tables, are to be all the plants and all the 
animals copied from nature, according to the kinds that those countries 
produce. Over the cornice of the presses, which is the crown of the whole, 
there are to be some projections separating the pictures, and upon these 
are to be placed such of the antique heads in marble as are in existence of 
the Emperors and Princes who have possessed those lands; and on the 
plain walls up to the cornice of the ceiling, which is all of carved wood 
and painted in twelve great pictures, each with four celestial signs, 
making in all forty-eight, and little less than life-size, with their stars 
there are beneath, as I have said, on those walls, three hundred portraits 
from life of distinguished persons for the last five hundred years or more, 
painted in pictures in oils (and a note will be made of them in the table of 
portraits, in order not to make too long a story here with their names), 
all of one size, and with one and the same ornament of carved walnut- 
wood a very rare effect. In the two compartments in the centre of the 
ceiling, each four braccia wide, where there are the celestial signs, which 
open with ease without revealing the secret of the hiding-place, in a part 
after the manner of a heaven, will be accommodated two large globes, 
each three braccia and a half in height. In one of them will be the whole 
earth, marked distinctly, and this will be let down by a windlass that will 
not be seen, down to the floor, and will rest on a balanced pedestal, so 
that, when fixed, there will be seen reflected all the tables that are right 
round in the pictures of the presses, and they will have a countermark in 
the globe wherewith to find them with ease. In the other globe will be 
the forty-eight celestial signs arranged in such a manner, that it will be 
possible with it to perform all the operations of the Astrolabe to per- 
fection. This fanciful invention came from Duke Cosimo, who wished 
to put together once and for all these things both of heaven and of earth, 
absolutely exact and without errors, so that it might be possible to see 



30 ANTONIO DI GINO LORENZI AND OTHERS 

and measure them separately and all together, according to the pleasure 
of those who delight in this most beautiful profession and study it; of 
which, as a thing worthy to be recorded, it has seemed to me my duty 
to make mention in this place on account of the art of Fra Ignazio and 
the greatness of the Prince, who holds us worthy to enjoy such honourable 
labours, and also to the end that it may be known throughout the whole 
world. 

And now to return to the men of our Academy; although I have 
spoken in the Life of Tribolo of Antonio di Gino Lorenzi, a sculptor of 
Settignano, I must record here with better order, as in the proper place, 
that he executed under his master Tribolo the statue of ^sculapius 
described above, which is at Castello, and four children that are in the 
great fountain of that place; and since then he has made some heads and 
ornaments that are about the new fish-pond of Castello, which is high 
up there in the midst of various kinds of trees of perpetual verdure. 
Recently he has made in the lovely garden of the stables, near S. Marco, 
most beautiful ornaments for an isolated fountain, with many very fine 
aquatic animals of white and variegated marble; and in Pisa he once 
executed under the direction of the above-named Tribolo the tomb of 
Corte, a most excellent philosopher and physician, with his statue and 
two very beautiful children of marble. In addition to these, he is even 
now executing new works for the Duke, of animals and birds in variegated 
marble for fountains, works of the greatest difficulty, which make him 
well worthy to be in the number of these our Academicians. 

In like manner, a brother of Antonio, called Stoldo di Gino Lorenzi, a 
young man thirty years of age, has acquitted himself in such a manner up 
to the present in many works of sculpture, that he may now be numbered 
with justice among the first of the young men in his profession, and set 
in the most honourable place in their midst. At Pisa he has executed in 
marble a Madonna receiving the Annunciation from the Angel, which has 
made him known as a young man of beautiful judgment and genius; and 
Luca Martini caused him to make another very lovely statue in Pisa, 
which was presented afterwards by the Lady Duchess Leonora to the 
Lord Don Garzia di Toledo, her brother, who has placed it in his garden 




Alinari 



BRONZE RELIEF 

(After Vincenzo Danti. Florence: Museo Nazionale) 



STOLDO DI GINO LORENZI AND OTHERS 31 

on the Chiaia at Naples. The same Stoldo has made, under the direction 
of Vasari, in the centre of the facade of the Palace of the Knights of 
S. Stephen at Pisa, over the principal door, a very large escutcheon in 
marble of the Lord Duke, their Grand Master, between two statues in the 
round, Religion and Justice, which are truly most beautiful and highly 
extolled by all those who are good judges. The same lord has since 
caused him to execute a fountain for his garden of the Pitti, after the 
likeness of the beautiful Triumph of Neptune that was seen in the superb 
masquerade which his Excellency held for the above-mentioned nuptials 
of the most illustrious Lord Prince. And let this suffice for Stoldo 
Lorenzi, who is young and is constantly working and acquiring more and 
more fame and honour among his companions of the Academy. 

Of the same family of the Lorenzi of Settignano is Battista, called 
Battista del Cavaliere from his having been a disciple of the Chevalier 
Baccio Bandinelli; who has executed in marble three statues of the size 
of life, which Bastiano del Pace, a citizen of Florence, has caused him 
to make for the Guadagni, who live in France, and who have placed them 
in a garden that belongs to them. These are a nude Spring, a Summer, 
and a Winter, which are to be accompanied by an Autumn; which 
statues have been held by many who have seen them, to be beautiful 
and executed with no ordinary excellence. Wherefore Battista has well 
deserved to be chosen by the Lord Duke to make the sarcophagus, 
with the ornaments, and one of the three statues that are to be on the 
tomb of Michelagnolo Buonarroti, which his Excellency and Leonardo 
Buonarroti are carrying out after the design of Giorgio Vasari; which 
work, as may be seen, Battista is carrying to completion excellently 
well, with certain little boys, and the figure of Buonarroti himself from 
the breast upwards. 

The second of these three figures that are to be on that sepulchre, 
which are to be Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, has been allotted 
to Giovanni di Benedetto of Castello, a disciple of Baccio Bandinelli and 
an Academician, who is executing for the Wardens of S. Maria del Fiore 
the works in low-relief that are going round the choir, which is now near 
completion. In these he is closely imitating his master, and acquitting 



32 VALERIC CIOLI AND OTHERS 

himself in such a manner that an excellent result is expected of him; nor 
will it fall out otherwise, seeing that he is very assiduous in his work and 
in the studies of his profession. 

The third figure has been allotted to Valerio Cioli of Settignano, a 
sculptor and Academician, for the reason that the other works that he 
has executed up to the present have been such, that it is thought that the 
said figure must prove to be so good as to be not otherwise than worthy 
to be placed on the tomb of so great a man. Valerio, who is a young man 
twenty-six years of age, has restored many antique statues of marble 
in the garden of the Cardinal of Ferrara at Monte Cavallo in Rome, 
making for some of them new arms, for some new feet, and for others 
other parts that were wanting; and he has since done the same for many 
statues in the Pitti Palace, which the Duke has conveyed there for the 
adornment of a great hall. The Duke has also caused the same Valerio 
to make a nude statue of the dwarf Morgante in marble, which has proved 
so beautiful and so like the reality, that probably there has never been 
seen another monster so well wrought, nor one executed with such dili- 
gence, lifelike and faithful to nature. In like manner, he has caused him 
to execute the statue of Pietro, called Barbino, a gifted dwarf, well- 
lettered and a very gentle spirit, and a favourite of our Duke. For all 
these reasons, I say, Valerio has well deserved that there should be allotted 
to him by his Excellency the statue that is to adorn the tomb of Buonar- 
roti, the one master of all these able men of the Academy. 

As for Francesco Moschino, a sculptor of Florence, enough having 
been spoken of him in another place, it suffices here to say that he also is 
an Academician, that under the protection of Duke Cosimo he is constantly 
at work in the Duomo of Pisa, and that among the festive preparations 
for the nuptials he acquitted himself excellently well in the decorations 
of the principal door of the Ducal Palace. 

Of Domenico Poggini, likewise, having said above that he is an able 
sculptor and that he has executed an infinity of medals very faithful to 
the reality, and some works in marble and in casting, I shall say nothing 
more of him here, save that he is deservedly one of our Academicians, 
that for the above-named nuptials he made some very beautiful statues, 



GIOVANNI FANCELLI AND OTHERS 33 

which were placed upon the Arch of Religion at the Canto della Paglia, 
and that recently he has executed a new medal of the Duke, very true to 
the life and most beautiful; and he is still continually at work. 

Giovanni Fancelli, or rather, as others call him, Giovanni di Stocco, 
an Academician, has executed many works in marble and stone, which 
have proved good sculptures ; among others, much extolled is an escutcheon 
of balls with two children and other ornaments, placed on high over the 
two knee-shaped windows of the f agade of Ser Giovanni Conti in Florence. 
And the same I say of Zanobi Lastricati, who, as a good and able sculptor, 
has executed and is still executing many works in marble and in casting, 
which have made him well worthy to be in the Academy in company with 
those named above; and, among his works, much praised is a Mercury of 
bronze that is in the court of the Palace of M. Lorenzo Ridolfi, for it is a 
figure wrought with all the considerations that are requisite. 

Finally, there have been accepted into the Academy some young 
sculptors who executed honourable and praiseworthy works in the above- 
named preparations for the nuptials of his Highness; and these were Fra 
Giovanni Vincenzio of the Servites, a disciple of Fra Giovanni Agnolo; 
Ottaviano del Collettaio, a pupil of Zanobi Lastricati, and Pompilio 
Lancia, the 'son of Baldassarre da Urbino, architect and pupil of Girolamo 
Genga; which Pompilio, in the masquerade called the Genealogy of the 
Gods, arranged for the most part, and particularly the mechanical con- 
trivances, by the said Baldassarre, his father, acquitted himself in certain 
things excellently well. 

In these last pages we have shown at some length what kind of men, 
and how many and how able, have been gathered together to form so 
noble an Academy, and we have touched in part on the many and honour- 
able occasions obtained by them from their most liberal lords, wherein 
to display their capacity and ability. Nevertheless, to the end that this 
may be the better understood, although those first learned writers, in 
their descriptions of the arches and of the various spectacles represented 
in those splendid nuptials, made it very well known, yet, since there has 
been given into my hands the following little work, written by way of 
exercise by a person of leisure who delights not a little in our profession, 
x. 5 



34 THE ACADEMICIANS OF DESIGN 

to a dear and close friend who was not able to see those festivities, forming 
the most brief account and comprising everything in one, it has seemed 
to me my duty, for the satisfaction of my brother-craftsmen, to insert it 
in this volume, adding to it a few words, to the end that it may be more 
easy, by thus uniting rather than separating it, to preserve an honourable 
record of their noble labours. 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 
DESCRIPTION OF THE FESTIVE PREPARATIONS FOR THE NUPTIALS 

OF THE PRINCE DON FRANCESCO OF TUSCANY 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PORTA AL PRATO 

WE will describe, then, with the greatest clearness and brevity that may 
be permitted by the abundance of our material, how the intention in all 
these decorations was to represent by the vast number of pictures and 
sculptures, as if in life, all those ceremonies, effects, and pomps that 
appeared to be proper to the reception and the nuptials of so great a 
Princess, forming of them poetically and ingeniously a whole so well 
proportioned, that with judgment and grace it might achieve the result 
designed. First of all, therefore, at the Gate that is called the Porta al 
Prato, by which her Highness was to enter the city, there was built with 
dimensions truly heroic, which well showed ancient Rome risen again in 
her beloved daughter Florence, a vast, most ornate, and very ingeniously 
composed ante-port of Ionic architecture, which, surpassing by a good 
measure the height of the walls, which are there very lofty, presented a 
marvellous and most superb view not only to those entering the city, but 
even at a distance of several miles. And this arch was dedicated to 
Florence, who standing between two figures, as it were her beloved 
companions, of Fidelity and Affection, virtues which she has always shown 
towards her Lords in the form of a young and most beautiful woman, 
smiling and all adorned with flowers, had been set, as was her due, in the 
most important and most honourable place, nearest to the Gate, as if 
she sought to receive, introduce, and accompany her new Lady; having 
brought with her, as it were as her minister and companion, and as the 
symbol of those of her sons who in the art of war, among other arts, have 

37 



38 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

rendered her illustrious, Mars, their leader and master, and in a certain 
sense the first father of Florence herself, in that under his auspices and 
by martial men, who were descended from Mars, was made her first 
foundation. His statue, dread and terrible, could be seen on the right 
in the part farthest from her, sword in hand, as if he sought to use it in 
the service of his new Lady; he likewise having as it were brought with 
him to accompany his Florence, in a very large and very beautiful canvas 
painted in chiaroscuro that was beneath his feet (very similar to the 
whitest marble, as were all the other works that were in these decorations), 
some of the men of that invincible Martian Legion so dear to the first 
and second Caesar, her first founders, and some of those born from her, 
who afterwards followed her discipline so gloriously. Many of these 
could be seen issuing full of gladness from his temple, which is now 
dedicated to S. John in the name of the Christian religion; and in the 
farthest distance were placed those who were thought to have had a name 
only for bodily valour, in the central space those others who had become 
famous by their counsel and industry, such as commissaries or proveditors 
(to call them by their Venetian name), and in the front part nearest to 
the eye, in the most honourable places, as being the most worthy of 
honour, were painted the captains of armies and those who had acquired 
illustrious renown and immortal fame by valour of the body and mind 
together. Among these, as the first and perhaps the most honourable, 
could be seen on horseback, like many others, the glorious Signor Giovanni 
de' Medici portrayed from life, that rare master of Italian military dis- 
cipline, and the illustrious father of the great Cosimo whom we honour 
as our excellent and most valorous Duke; and with him Filippo Spano, 
terror of the barbarous Turks, and M. Farinata degli Uberti, great- 
hearted saviour of his native Florence. There, also, was M. Buonaguisa 
della Pressa, who, at the head of the valiant youth of Florence, winning 
the first and glorious mural crown at Damiata, acquired so great a name; 
and the Admiral Federigo Folchi, Knight of Rhodes, who with his two 
sons and eight nephews performed so many deeds of prowess against the 
Saracens. There were M. Nanni Strozzi, M. Manno Donati, Meo Altoviti, 
and Bernardo Ubaldini, called Della Carda, father of Federigo, Duke of 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 39 

Urbino, that most excellent captain of our times. There, likewise, was 
the Great Constable, M. Niccola Acciaiuoli, he who it may be said pre- 
served for Queen Joanna and King Louis, his Sovereigns, the troubled 
kingdom of Naples, and who always bore himself both there and in Sicily 
with such loyalty and valour. There were another Giovanni de' Medici 
and Giovanni Bisdomini, most illustrious in the wars with the Visconti, 
and the unfortunate but valorous Francesco Ferrucci; and among those 
more ancient were M. Forese Adimari, M. Corso Donati, M. Vieri de' 
Cerchi, M. Bindaccio da Ricasoli, and M. Luca da Panzano. Among the 
commissaries, not less faithfully portrayed from life, could be seen there 
Gino Capponi, with Neri his son, and Piero his grand-nephew, he who, 
tearing so boldly the insolent proposals of Charles VIII, King of France, 
to his immortal honour, caused the voice of a Capon (Cappon), as the witty 
poet said so well, to sound so nobly among so many Cocks (Galli). There 
were Bernardetto de' Medici, Luca di Maso degli Albizzi, Tomrnaso di 
M. Guido, now called Del Palagio, Piero Vettori, so celebrated in the wars 
with the Aragonese, and the so greatly and so rightly renowned Antonio 
Giacomini, with M. Antonio Ridolfi and many others of this and other 
orders, who would make too long a story. All these appeared to be filled 
with joy that they had raised their country to such a height, auguring for 
her, in the coming of that new Lady, increase, felicity, and greatness; 
which was expressed excellently well in the four verses that were to be 
seen written on the architrave above: 

Hanc peperere suo patriam qui sanguine nobis 
Aspice magnanimos heroas ; nunc et ovantes 
Et laeti incedant, felicem terque quaterque 
Certatimque vocent tali sub Principe Floram. 

Not less gladness could be seen in the beautiful statue of one of the 
nine Muses, which was placed as a complement opposite to that of Mars, 
nor less, again, in the figures of the men of science in the painted canvas 
that was to be seen at her feet, of the same size and likewise as the comple- 
ment of the men of Mars opposite, by which it was sought to signify that 
even as the men of war, so also the men of learning, of whom Florence 
had always a great abundance and in no way less renowned (in that, as 



40 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

all men admit, it was there that learning began to revive), had likewise 
been brought by Florence under the guidance of their Muse to receive 
and honour the noble bride. Which Muse, clad in a womanly, graceful, 
and seemly habit, with a book in the right hand and a flute in the left, 
seemed with a certain loving expression to wish to invite all beholders to 
apply their minds to true virtue; and on the canvas beneath her, executed, 
like all the others, in chiaroscuro, could be seen painted a great and rich 
Temple of Minerva, whose statue crowned with olive, with the shield of 
the Gorgon (as is customary), was placed without; and before the temple 
and at the sides, within an enclosure of balusters made as it were for a 
promenade, could be seen a great throng of grave and solemn men, who, 
although all rejoicing and making merry, yet retained in their aspect a 
certain something of the venerable, and these, also, were portrayed from 
life. For Theology and Sanctity there was the famous Fra Antonino, 
Archbishop of Florence, for whom a little Angel was holding the episcopal 
mitre, and with him was seen Giovanni Domenici, first Friar and then 
Cardinal; and with them Don Ambrogio, General of Camaldoli, and M. 
Ruberto de' Bardi, Maestro Luigi Marsili, Maestro Leonardo Dati, and 
many others. Even so, in another part and these were the Philosophers 
were seen the Platonist M. Marsilio Ficino, M. Francesco Cattani da 
Diacceto, M. Francesco Verini the elder, and M. Donato Acciaiuoli; and 
for Law there were, with the great Accursio, Francesco his son, M. 
Lorenzo Ridolfi, M. Dino Rossoni di Mugello, and M. Forese da Rabatta. 
The Physicians, also, had their portraits; and among them Maestro 
Taddeo Dino and Tommaso del Garbo, with Maestro Torrigian Valori and 
Maestro Niccolo Falcucci, had the first places. Nor did the Mathema- 
ticians, likewise, fail to be painted there; and of these, besides the ancient 
Guido Bonatto, were seen Maestro Paolo del Pozzo and the very acute, 
ingenious, and noble Leon Batista Alberti, and with them Antonio 
Manetti and Lorenzo della Volpaia, he by whose hand we have that first 
and marvellous clock of the planets, the wonder of our age, which is now 
to be seen in the guardaroba of our most excellent Duke. For Naviga- 
tion, also, there was Amerigo Vespucci, most experienced and most fortu- 
nate of men, in that so great a part of the world, having been discovered 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 41 

by him, retains because of him the name of America. For Learning, 
various and elegant, there was Messer Agnolo Poliziano, to whom how 
much is owed by the Latin and Tuscan tongues, which began to revive 
in him, I believe is sufficiently well known to all the world. With him 
were Pietro Crinito, Giannozzo Manetti, Francesco Pucci, Bartolommeo 
Fonzio, Alessandro de' Pazzi, and Messer Marcello Vergilio Adriani, 
father of the most ingenious and most learned M. Giovan Battista, now 
called II Marcellino, who is still living and giving public lectures with so 
much honour in our Florentine University, and who at the commission 
of their illustrious Excellencies has been writing anew the History of 
Florence; and there were also M. Cristofano Landini, M. Coluccio Salutati, 
and Ser Brunetto Latini, the master of Dante. Nor were there wanting 
certain Poets who had written in Latin, such as Claudian, and among the 
more modern Carlo Marsuppini and Zanobi Strada. Of the Historians, 
then, were seen M. Francesco Guicciardini, Niccolo Macchiavelli, M. 
Leonardo Bruni, M. Poggio, Matteo Palmieri, and, among the earliest, 
Giovanni and Matteo Villani and the very ancient Ricordano Malespini. 
All these, or the greater part, for the satisfaction of all beholders, had 
each his name or that of his most famous works marked on the scrolls or 
on the covers of the books that they held, placed there as if by chance; 
and with all of them, as with the men of war, to demonstrate what they 
were come there to do, the four verses that were painted on the architrave, 
as with the others, made it clearly manifest, saying : 

Artibus egregiis Latiae Graiaeque Minervas 

Florentes semper quis non miretur Etruscos ? 
Sed magis hoc illos aevo florere necesse est 
Et Cosmo genitore et Cosmi prole fa vent e. 

Next, beside the statue of Mars, and somewhat nearer to that of 
Florence and here it must be noted with what singular art and judgment 
every least thing was distributed, in that, the intention being to accom- 
pany Florence with six Deities, so to speak, for the potency of whom she 
could right well vaunt herself, the two hitherto described, Mars and the 
Muse, because other cities could perhaps no less than she lay claim to 
them, as being the least peculiar to her, were placed less near to her than 
x. 6 



42 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

the others; and so for the spacious vestibule or passage, as it were, 
formed before the gate by the four statues to follow, the two already 
described were used as wings or head-pieces, being placed at the entrance, 
one turned towards the Castle and the other towards the Arno, but the 
next two, which formed the beginning of the vestibule, for the reason 
that they are shared by her with few other cities, came to be placed some- 
what nearer to her, even as the last two, because they are entirely peculiar 
to her and shared with no other city, or, to speak more exactly, because 
no other can compare with her in them (and may this be said without 
offence to any other Tuscan people, which, when it shall have a Dante, a 
Petrarca, and a Boccaccio to put forward, may perchance be able to come 
into dispute with her), were placed in close proximity to her, and nearer 
than any of the others now, to go back, I say that beside the statue 
of Mars had been placed a Ceres, Goddess of Cultivation and of the fields, 
not less beautiful and good to look upon than the others; which pursuit, 
how useful it is and how worthy of honour for a well-ordered city, was 
taught in ancient times by Rome, who had enrolled all her nobility 
among the rustic tribes, as Cato testifies, besides many others, calling it 
the nerve of that most puissant Republic, and as Pliny affirms no less 
strongly when he says that the fields had been tilled by the hands of 
Imperatores, and that it may be believed that earth rej oiced to be ploughed 
by the laureate share and by the triumphant ploughman. That Ceres 
was crowned, as is customary, with ears of various kinds of corn, having 
in the right hand a sickle and in the left a bunch of similar ears. Now, 
how much Florence can vaunt herself in this respect, whoever may be in 
any doubt of it may enlighten himself by regarding her most ornate and 
highly cultivated neighbourhood, for, leaving on one side the vast number 
of most superb and commodious palaces that may be seen dispersed over 
its surface, it is such that Florence, although among the most beautiful 
cities of which we have any knowledge she might be said to carry off the 
palm, yet remains by a great measure vanquished and surpassed by it, 
insomuch that it may rightly claim the title of the garden of Europe; 
not to speak of its fertility, as to which, although it is for the most part 
mountainous and not very large, nevertheless the diligence that is used 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 43 

in it is such, that it not only feeds bountifully its own vast population 
and the infinite multitude of strangers who flock to it, but very often 
gives courteous succour to other lands both near and far. In the canvas 
(to return to our subject) which was to be seen in like fashion beneath her 
statue, in the same manner and of the same size, the excellent painter had 
figured a most beautiful little landscape adorned with an infinite variety 
of trees, in the most distant part of which was seen an ancient and very 
ornate little temple dedicated to Ceres, in which, since it was open and 
raised upon colonnades, could be perceived many who were offering 
religious sacrifices. On the other side, in a part somewhat more solitary, 
Nymphs of the chase could be seen standing about a shady and most 
limpid fount, gazing as it were in marvel and offering to the new bride of 
those pleasures and delights that are found in their pursuits, in which 
Tuscany is perhaps not inferior to any other part of Italy. In another 
part, with many countrymen bringing various animals both wild and 
domestic, were seen also many country-girls, young and beautiful, and 
adorned in a thousand rustic but graceful manners, and likewise come 
weaving the while garlands of flowers and bearing various fruits to see 
and honour their Lady. And the verses which were over this scene as 
with the others, taken from Virgil, to the great glory of Tuscany, ran thus : 

Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini, 

Hanc Remus et frater, sic fortis Etruria crevit, 
Scilicet et rerum facta est pulcherrima Flora, 
Urbs antiqua, potens armis atque ubere glebae. 

Next, opposite to the above-described statue of Ceres, was seen that 
of Industry; and I do not speak merely of that industry which is seen 
used by many in many places in matters of commerce, but of a certain 
particular excellence and ingenious virtue which the men of Florence 
employ in everything to which they deign to apply themselves, on which 
account many, and in particular the Poet of supreme judgment (and 
rightly, as is evident), give them the title of Industrious. How great a 
benefit this industry has been to Florence, and in what great account it 
has always been held by her, is seen from this, that upon it she formed her 
body corporate, decreeing that none could become one of her citizens 



44 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

who was not entered under the name of some Guild, and thus recognizing 
that by that industry she had risen to no small power and greatness. 
Now Industry was figured as a woman in a light and easy habit, holding 
a sceptre, at the head of which was a hand with an eye in the centre of 
the palm, and with two little wings, whereby with the sceptre there was 
achieved a certain sort of resemblance to the Caduceus of Mercury; and 
in the canvas that was beneath her, as with the other statues, was seen a 
vast and most ornate portico or forum, very similar to the place where 
our merchants resort to transact their business, called the Mercato Nuovo, 
which was made even clearer by the boy that was to be seen striking the 
hours on one of the walls. And on one side, their particular Gods having 
been ingeniously placed there (in one part, namely, the statue of Fortune 
seated on a wheel, and in another part Mercury with the Caduceus and 
with a purse in the hand), were seen assembled many of the most noble 
artificers, those, namely, who exercise their arts with perhaps greater 
excellence in Florence than in any other place; and of such, with their 
wares in their hands, as if they were seeking to offer them to the incoming 
Princess, some were to be seen with cloth of gold or of silk, some with 
the finest draperies, and others with most beautiful and marvellous 
embroideries, and all with expressions of joy. Even so, in another part, 
some were seen in various costumes trafficking as they walked, and others 
of lower degree with various most beautiful wood-carvings and works in 
tarsia, and some again with balls, masks, and rattles, and other childish 
things, all in the same manner showing the same gladness and content- 
ment. All which, and the advantage of these things, and the profit and 
glory that have come from them to Florence, was made manifest by the 
four verses that were placed above them, as with the others, saying : 

Quas artes pariat solertia, nutriat usus, 

Aurea monstravit quondam Florentia cunctis. 
Pandere namque acri ingenio atque enixa labore est 
Prsestanti, unde paret vitam sibi quisque beatam. 

Of the two last Deities or Virtues, seeing that, as we have said, by 
reason of the number and excellence in them of her sons they are so 






OF THE ACADEMICIANS 45 

peculiar to Florence that she may well consider herself glorious in them 
beyond any other city, there was placed on the right hand, next to the 
statue of Ceres, that of Apollo, representing that Tuscan Apollo who 
infuses Tuscan verse in Tuscan poets. Under his feet, as in the other 
canvases, there was painted on the summit of a most lovely mountain, 
recognized as that of Helicon by the horse Pegasus, a very spacious and 
beautiful meadow, in the centre of which rose the sacred Fount of 
Aganippe, likewise recognized by the nine Muses, who stood around it 
in pleasant converse, and with them, and in the shade of the verdant 
laurels with which the whole mount was covered, were seen various 
poets in various guise seated or discoursing as they walked, or singing to 
the sound of the lyre, while a multitude of little Loves were playing 
above the laurels, some of them shooting arrows, and some appeared to 
be throwing down crowns of laurel. Of these poets, in the most honour- 
able place were seen the profound Dante, the gracious Petrarca, and 
the fecund Boccaccio, who with smiling aspect appeared to be promising 
to the incoming Lady, since a subject so noble had not fallen to them, 
to infuse in the intellects of Florence such virtue that they would be 
able to sing worthily of her; to which with the exemplar of their writings, 
if only there may be found one able to imitate them, they have opened 
a broad and easy way. Near them, as if discoursing with them, and all, 
like the rest, portrayed from life, were seen M. Cino da Pistoia, Monte- 
magno, Guido Cavalcanti, Guittone d'Arezzo, and Dante da Maiano, 
who lived in the same age and were poets passing gracious for those 
times. In another part were Monsignor Giovanni della Casa, Luigi 
Alamanni, and Lodovico Martelli, with Vincenzio at some distance from 
him, and with them Messer Giovanni Rucellai, the writer of the tragedies, 
and Girolamo Benivieni; among whom, if he had not been living at that 
time, a well-merited place would have been given also to the portrait of 
M. Benedetto Varchi, who shortly afterwards made his way to a better 
life. In another part, again, were seen Franco Sacchetti, who wrote the 
three hundred Novelle, and other men, who, although at the present day 
they have no great renown, yet, because in their times they made no 
small advance in romances, were judged to be not unworthy of that 



46 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

place Luigi Pulci, with his ^brothers Bernardo and Luca, and also Ceo 
and Altissimo. Berni, also, the inventor and father (and excellent 
father) of Tuscan burlesque poetry, with Burchiello, with Antonio Ala- 
manni, and with Unico Accolti (who were standing apart), appeared to 
be showing no less joy than any of the others; while Arno, leaning in his 
usual manner on his Lion, with two children that were crowning him with 
laurel, and Mugnone, known by the Nymph that stood over him crowned 
with stars, with the moon on her brow, in allusion to the daughters of 
Atlas, and representing Fiesole, appeared likewise to be expressing the 
same gladness and contentment. All which conception described above 
was explained excellently well by the four verses that were placed in the 
architrave, as with the others, which ran thus : 

Musaram hie regnat chorus, atque Helicone virente 
Posthabito, venere tibi Florentia vates 
Eximii, quoniam celebrare haec regia digno 
Non potuere suo et connubia carmine sacro. 

Opposite to this, placed on the left hand, and perhaps not less peculiar 
to the Florentine genius than the last-named, was seen the statue of 
Design, the father of painting, sculpture, and Architecture, who, if not 
born in Florence, as may be seen in the past writings, may be said to 
have been born again there, and nourished and grown as in his own nest. 
He was figured by a statue wholly nude, with three similar heads for 
the three arts that he embraces, each holding in the hand some instru- 
ment, but without any distinction; and in the canvas that was beneath 
him was seen painted a vast courtyard, for the adornment of which were 
placed in various manners a great quantity of statues and of pictures in 
painting, both ancient and modern, which could be seen in process of 
being designed and copied by divers masters in divers ways. In one 
part was being prepared an anatomical study, and many could be seen 
observing it, and likewise drawing, very intently. Others, again, con- 
sidering tjie fabric and rules of architecture, appeared to be seeking to 
measure certain things with great minuteness, the while that the divine 
Michelagnolo Buonarroti, prince and monarch of them all, with the three 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 47 

circlets in his hand (his ancient device), making signs to Andrea del Sarto, 
Leonardo da Vinci, Pontormo, Rosso, Perino del Vaga, Francesco Sal- 
viati, Antonio da San Gallo, and Rustici, who were gathered with great 
reverence about him, was pointing out with supreme gladness the pom- 
pous entrance of the noble Lady. The ancient Cimabue, standing in 
another part, was doing as it were the same service to certain others, 
at whom Giotto appeared to be smiling, having taken from him, as Dante 
said so well, the field of painting which he thought to hold; and Giotto 
had with him, besides the Gaddi, Buffalmacco and Benozzo, with many 
others of that age. In another part, again, placed in another fashion 
and all rejoicing as they conversed, were seen those who conferred such 
benefits on art, and to whom these new masters owed so much ; the great 
Donatello, Filippo di Ser Brunellesco, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Fra Filippo, 
the excellent Masaccio, Desiderio, and Verrocchio, with many others, 
portrayed from life, whom, since I have spoken of them in the previous 
books, I will pass by without saying more about them, thus avoiding 
the tedium that might come upon my readers by repetition. Who they 
were, and what they were come thither to do, was explained, as with 
the others, by four verses written above them : 

Non pictura satis, non possunt marmora et aera 
Tuscaque non arcus testari ingentia facta, 
Atque ea praecipue quae mox ventura trahuntur; 
Quis nunc Praxiteles caelet, quis pingat Apelles ? 

Now in the base of all these six vast and most beautiful canvases 
was seen painted a gracious throng of children, each occupying himself in 
the profession appropriate to the canvas placed above, who, besides the 
adornment, were seen to be demonstrating with great accuracy with 
what beginnings one arrived at the perfection of the men painted above; 
even as with much judgment and singular art the same canvases were 
also divided and adorned by round and very tall columns and by pilasters, 
and by various ornaments of trophies all in keeping with the subjects to 
which they were near. But, above all, graceful and lovely in appearance 
were the ten devices, or, to speak more precisely, the ten reverses (as it 



48 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

were) of medals, partly long established in the city and partly newly intro- 
duced, which were painted in the compartments over the columns, serving 
to divide the statues already described, and accompanying very appro- 
priately their inventions; the first of which was the Deduction of a 
Colony, represented by a bull and a cow together in a yoke, and behind 
them the ploughman with the head veiled, as the ancient Augurs are 
depicted, with the crooked lituus in the hand, and with a motto, which 
said: COL. JUL. FLORENTIA. The second and this is very ancient in 
the city, and the one wherewith public papers are generally sealed was 
Hercules with the Club and with the skin of the Nemaean Lion, but 
without any motto. The third was the horse Pegasus, which with the 
hind feet was smiting the urn held by Arno, in the manner that is told 
of the Fount of Helicon ; whence were issuing waters in abundance, which 
formed a river, crystal-clear, that was all covered with swans; but this, 
also, was without any motto. So, likewise, was the fourth, which was 
composed of a Mercury with the Caduceus in the hand, the purse, and the 
cock, such as is seen in many ancient cornelians. But the fifth, in accord 
with that Affection which, as was said at the beginning, was given to 
Florence as a companion, was a young woman receiving a crown of 
laurel from two figures, one on either side of her, which, clad in the 
military paludament and likewise crowned with laurel, appeared to be 
Consuls or Imperatores; with words that ran: GLORIA POP. FLOREN. So 
also the sixth, in like manner in accord with Fidelity, likewise the com- 
panion of Florence, was also figured by a woman seated, with an altar 
near her, upon which she was seen to be laying one of her hands, and 
with the other uplifted, holding the second finger raised in the manner 
wherein one generally sees an oath taken, she was seen to declare her 
intention with the inscription: FIDES. POP. FLOR. This, also, did the 
picture of the seventh, without any inscription; which was the two 
horns of plenty filled with ears of corn intertwined together. And the 
eighth, likewise without any inscription, did the same with the three 
Arts of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, which, after the manner 
of the three Graces, with hands linked to denote the interdependence of 
one art with another, were placed no less gracefully than the others upon 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 49 

a base in which was seen carved a Capricorn. And so, also, did the ninth 
(placed more towards the Arno), which was the usual Florence with her 
Lion beside her, to whom various boughs of laurel were offered by certain 
persons standing around her, as it were showing themselves grateful for 
the benefits received from her, in that there, as has been told, letters began 
to revive. And the tenth and last did the same with its inscription 
that ran thus, TRIBU SCAPTIA, written upon a shield held by a Lion; 
which tribe was that of Augustus, her founder, and the one in which in 
ancient times Florence used to be enrolled. 

But the finest ornament besides the beautiful shields on which were 
the arms of their Excellencies, both the one and the other, and of the 
most illustrious Princess, and the device of the city, and besides the great 
Ducal crown of gold, which Florence was in the act of presenting was 
the principal device, set over all the shields, and placed there in allusion 
to the city; which was composed of two halcyons making their nest in the 
sea at the beginning of winter. This was made clear by the part of the 
Zodiac that was painted there, wherein the Sun was seen at the point of 
entering into the Sign of Capricorn, with a motto that said, HOC FIDUNT, 
signifying that even as the halcyons, by the grace of Nature, at the time 
when the Sun is entering into the said Sign of Capricorn, which renders 
the sea smooth and tranquil, are able to make their nests there in security 
(whence such days are called " halcyon days "), so also Florence, with 
Capricorn in the ascendant, which is therefore the ancient and most 
honourable device of her excellent Duke, is able in whatever season the 
world may bring her to flourish in the greatest felicity and peace, as she 
does right well. And all this, with all the other conceptions given 
above, was declared in great part by the inscription which, addressed 
to the exalted bride, was written appropriately in a most ornate and 
beautiful place, saying: 

INGREDERE URBEM FELICISSIMO CONJUGIO FACTAM TUAM, AUGUSTISSIMA 
VIRGO, FIDE, INGENIIS, ET OMNI LAUDE PR^ESTANTEM; OPTATAQUE PRJE- 
SENTIA TUA, ET EXIMIA VIRTUTE, SPERATAQUE FECUNDITATE, OPTIMORUM 
PRINCIPUM PATERNAM ET AVITAM CLARITATEM, FIDELISSIMORUM CIVIUM 
L^TITIAM, FLORENTIS URBIS GLORIAM ET FELICITATEM AUGE. 

X. 7 



50 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

OF THE ENTRANCE TO BORG' OGNISSANTI. 

Proceeding, then, towards Borg' Ognissanti, a street, as everyone 
knows, most beautiful, spacious, and straight, there were at the entrance 
two very large colossal figures, one representing Austria, as a young woman 
in full armour after the antique, with a sceptre in the hand, signifying her 
military power as embodied in the Imperial dignity, which now has its 
residence in that nation and appears to be entirely concentrated there; 
and the other representing Tuscany, apparelled in religious vestments 
and with the sacerdotal lituus in the hand, which in like manner demon- 
strated the excellence that the Tuscan nation has always displayed from 
the most ancient times in the Divine cult, insomuch that even at the 
present day it is seen that the Pontiffs and the Holy Roman Church have 
chosen to establish their principal seat in Tuscany. Each of these had 
at her side a nude and gracious little Angel, one of whom was seen guarding 
the Imperial crown, and the other the crown that the Pontiffs are wont 
to use; and one figure was shown offering her hand most lovingly to the 
other, almost as if Austria, with her most noble cities (which were depicted 
under various images in the vast canvas that was as an ornament and 
head-piece, at the entrance to that street, facing towards the Porta al 
Prato), wished to signify that she was come parentally to take part in the 
rejoicings and festivities in honour of the illustrious bridal pair, and to 
meet and embrace her beloved Tuscany, thus in a certain sort uniting 
together the two most mighty powers, the spiritual and the temporal. 
All which was declared excellently well in the six verses that were written 
in a suitable place, saying : 

Augustse en adsum sponsae comes Austria; magni 

Caesaris haec nata est, Caesaris atque soror. 
Carolus est patruus, gens et faecunda triumphis, 

Imperio fulget, regibus et proa vis. 
Laetitiam et pacem adferimus dulcesque Hymeneos 

Et placidam requiem, Tuscia clara, tibi. 

Even as on the other side Tuscany, having yielded the first plac< 
at the first Gate to Florence, her Lady and her Queen, was seen with an 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 51 

aspect all full of joy at receiving so great a Princess; having likewise in 
company with her, in a similar painted canvas beside her, Fiesole, Pisa, 
Siena, and Arezzo, with the most famous of her other cities, and with the 
Ombrone, the Arbia, the Serchio, and the Chiana, all depicted in various 
forms according to custom; and expressing her contentment in the six 
following verses, written in a way similar to the others, and in a suitable 

place: 

Ominibus faustis et laetor imagine reram, 

Virginis aspectu Caesareaeque fraor. 
Hae nostrae insignes urbes, haec oppida et agri, 

Haec tua sunt ; illis tu dare jura potes. 
Audis ut resonet laetis clamoribus aether, 

Et plausu et hidis Austria cuncta fremat ? 

OF THE PONTE ALLA CARRAIA. 

And to the end that the splendid nuptials might be celebrated with 
all the most favourable auspices, at the Palazzo de' Ricasoli, which, as 
everyone knows, is situated at the beginning of the Ponte alia Carraia, 
there was erected in the Doric Order of composition the third ornament, 
dedicated to Hymen, their God; and this consisted in addition to a 
head-piece of singular beauty, on which the eyes of all who came through 
Borg'Ognissanti feasted with marvellous delight of two very lofty and 
most magnificent portals, between which it stood, and over one of these, 
which gave access to those passing into the street called La Vigna, was 
placed with much judgment the statue of Venus Genetrix, perhaps 
alluding to the House of the Caesars, which had its origin from Venus, 
or perchance auguring generation and fecundity for the bridal pair; with 
a motto taken from the Epithalamium of Theocritus, saying : 



Se, ea Kvrrpis, Icroi> tpacrOcu a\\d\a>v. 

And over the other, giving access along the bank of the Arno, through 
which the procession passed, was the statue of the Nurse Latona, per- 
chance to ward off sterility or the jealous interference of Juno, and like- 
wise with a motto that ran : 

Aaro> //,*> 80117, ACLTOJ 



52 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

As a complement to these, executed with singular artistry, upon a 
great base attached to one of the portals, there was seen on one side, 
as it were newly issued from the water, and in the form of a most beautiful 
giant with a garland of lilies, the River Arno, who, as if he wished to give 
an example of nuptial bliss, was locked in embrace with his Sieve, who 
had likewise a garland of leaves and apples ; which apples, alluding to the 
balls of the Medici, of which they were the origin, would have been rosy, 
if the colour had been in keeping with the white marble. And Arno, all 
rejoicing, was shown speaking to his new Lady in the manner expressed 
by the following verses : 

In mare nunc auro flaventes Arnus arenas 

Volvam, atque argento purior unda fluet. 
Etruscos nunc invictis comitantibus armis 

Caesareis, tollam sidera ad alta caput. 
Nunc mihi fama etiam Tibrim fulgoreque rerum 

Tantarum longe vincere fata dabunt. 

And on the other side, as a complement to Arno, on a similar base 
attached in a similar way to the other portal (the two being turned, as 
it were, like wings one towards the other), and almost in the same form, 
were seen the Danube and the Drava likewise in a close embrace, and, 
even as the others had the Lion, so they had the Eagle as emblem and 
support; and these, crowned also with roses and with a thousand varieties 
of little flowers, were shown speaking to Florence, even as the others were 
speaking to themselves, the following verses: 

Quamvis Flora tuis celeberrima finibus errem, 

Sum septemgeminus Danubiusque ferox; 
Virginis Augustas comes, et vestigia lustro, 

Ut reor, et si quod flumina numen habent, 
Conjugium faustum et foecundum et Nestoris annos, 

Tuscorum et late nuntio regna tibi. 

Then at the summit of the head-piece, in the place of honour, and 
with a close resemblance to the whitest marble, was seen the statue 
of the young Hymen, with a garland of flowering marjoram and the 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 53 

torch and veil, and at his feet this inscription: BONI CONJUGATOR AMORIS. 
On one side of him was Love, who lay all languid under one of his flanks ; 
and on the other side was Conjugal Fidelity, who was holding one arm 
supported under the other; which was all so pleasing, so full of charm, 
so beautiful, and so well distributed before the eyes of all beholders, 
that in truth it is not to be expressed in words. As the principal crown 
of that ornament for on them all there was placed a principal crown 
and a principal device there were formed in the hands of the Hymen 
described above two garlands of the same marjoram that crowned his 
head, which, as he held them, he appeared to be about to present to the 
happy pair. But most lovely and beautiful of all, and best executed, 
were the three spacious pictures, separated by double columns, into 
which the whole of that vast fagade was divided, placed with supreme 
beauty at the feet of Hymen ; for in them were depicted all the advantages, 
all the delights, and all the desirable things that are generally found in 
nuptials; those displeasing and vexatious being driven away from them 
with a certain subtle grace. And thus in one of these, that in the centre 
namely, were seen the Three Graces painted in the manner that is cus- 
tomary, all full of joy and gladness, who appeared to be singing with a 
certain soft harmony the verses written over them, saying: 

Quae tarn praeclara nascetur stirpe parentum 

Inclita progenies, digna atavisque suis ? 
Etrusca attollet se quantis gloria rebus 

Conjugio Austriacae Mediceaeque Domus ? 
Vivite f elices ; non est spes irrita, namque 

Divina Charites talia voce canunt. 

These had on one side, forming as it were a choir about them, and 
coupled becomingly together, Youth and Delight, and Beauty with 
Contentment in her embrace, and on the other side, in like fashion, 
Gladness with Play, and Fecundity with Repose, all in attitudes most 
graceful and in keeping with their characters, and so well distinguished by 
the able painter, that they could be recognized with ease. In the picture 
that was on the right of that one, there were seen, besides Love and 
Fidelity, the same Gladness, Contentment, Delight, and Repose, with 



54 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

lighted torches in their hands, who were chasing from the world and 
banishing to the nethermost abyss Jealousy, Contention, Affliction, 
Sorrow, Lamentation, Deceit, Sterility, and other vexatious and dis- 
pleasing things of that kind, which are wont so often to disturb the minds 
of human creatures. And in the other, on the left hand, were seen the 
same Graces in company with Juno, Venus, Concord, Love, Fecundity, 
Sleep, Pasithea, and Thalassius, setting the genial bed in order with those 
ancient religious ceremonies of torches, incense, garlands, and flowers, 
which were customary; of which last a number of little Loves, playing in 
their flight, were scattering no small quantity over the bed. Above these, 
then, were two other pictures distributed in very beautiful compartments, 
one on either side of the statue of Hymen, and somewhat smaller than 
those described; in one of which, in imitation of the ancient custom so 
well described by Catullus, was seen the illustrious Princess portrayed 
from life in the midst of a gracious little company of most beautiful 
maidens in virginal dress, all crowned with flowers, and with lighted 
torches in their hands, who were pointing towards the Evening Star, 
which was seen appearing, and, as if set in motion by them, seemed in a 
certain gracious manner to move and to advance towards Hymen; with 
the motto : o DIGNA CONJUNCTA VIRO. Even as in the other picture, on 
the other side, was seen the excellent Prince in the midst of many young 
men likewise crowned with garlands and burning with love, not less eager 
than the maidens in lighting the nuptial torches, and pointing no less 
towards the newly-appeared star, and giving signs, in advancing towards 
it, of equal or even greater desire; likewise with a motto that said: 
o T^DIS FELICIBUS AUCTE. Above these, arranged in a very graceful 
manner, there was seen as the principal device, which, as has been told, 
was placed over all the arches, a gilded chain all composed of marriage- 
rings with their stones, which, hanging down from Heaven, appeared to be 
sustaining this terrestrial World; alluding in a certain sense to the 
Homeric Chain of Jove, and signifying that by virtue of nuptials, the 
heavenly causes being wedded with terrestrial matter, Nature and the 
aforesaid terrestrial World are preserved and rendered as it were eternal ; 
with a motto that said: NATURA SEQUITUR CUPIDE. And then a quantity 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 55 

of little Angels and Loves, all gracious and merry, and all set in fitting- 
places, were seen dispersed among the bases, the pilasters, the festoons, 
and the other ornaments, which were without number; and all, with a 
certain gladness, appeared to be either scattering flowers and garlands, 
or sweetly singing the following ode, from among the spaces between the 
double columns that divided, as has been told, the great pictures and 
the great f agade, which was arranged in a lovely and gracious manner : 

August! soboles regia Csesaris, 

Summo nupta viro Principi Etruriae, 
Faustis auspiciis deseruit vagum 
1st rum regnaque patria. 

Cui frater, genitor, patruus, atque avi 
Fulgent innumeri stemmate nobiles 
Prseclaro Imperil, prisca ab origine 
Digno nomine Caesares. 

Ergo magnanimse virgini et inclytae 

Jam nunc Arne pater suppliciter manus 
Libes, et violis versicoloribus 
Pulchram Flora premas comam. 

Assurgant proceres, ac velut aureum 
Et caeleste jubar rite colant earn. 
Omnes accumulent templa Deum, et piis 
Aras muneribus sacras. 

Tali conjugio Pax hilaris redit, 

Fruges alma Ceres porrigit uberes, 
Saturni remeant aurea saecula, 
Orbis laetitia fremit. 

Quin dirse Eumenides monstraque Tartari 
His longe duce te finibus exulant. 
Bellorum rabies hinc abit effera, 
Mavors sanguineus fugit. 

Sed jam nox ruit et sidera concidunt; 

Et nymphae adveniunt, Junoque pronuba 
Arridet pariter, blandaque Gratia 
Nudis juncta sororibus. 



56 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

Msec cingit niveis tempora liliis, 

Haec e purpureis serta gerit rosis, 
Huic molles violae et suavis amaracus 
Nectunt virgineum caput. 

Lusus, laeta Quies cernitur et Decor ; 

Quos circum volitat turba Cupidinum, 
Et plaudens recinit haec Hymeneus ad 
Regalis thalami fores. 

Quid statis juvenes tarn genialibus 

Indulgere toris immemores ? Joci 
Cessent et choreae ; ludere vos simul 
Poscunt tempora mollius. 

Non vincant hederae bracchia flexiles, 
Conchae non superent oscula dulcia, 
Emanet pariter sudor et ossibus 
Grato murmure ab intimis. 

Det summum imperium regnaque Juppiter, 
Det Latona parem progeniem patri; 
Ardorem unanimem det Venus, atque Amor 
Aspirans face mutua. 

OF THE PALAZZO DEGLI SPINI. 

And to the end that no part of either dominion might be left without 
being present at those happy nuptials, at the Ponte a S. Trinita and 
also at the Palazzo degli Spini, which is to be seen at the beginning of 
that bridge, there was the fourth ornament, of an architecture not less 
magnificent in composition, and consisting of a head-piece with three 
facades, one of which, turning to face towards the Ponte alia Carraia, 
became joined to that in the centre, which was somewhat bent and 
likewise attached to that which in like manner turned to face towards 
the Palazzo degli Spini and S. Trinita; whence it appeared to have been 
contrived principally for the point of view both from the one street and 
from the other, insomuch that both from the one and from the other it 
presented itself complete to the eyes of all beholders a thing of singular 
artifice for him who well considers it, which rendered that street, which 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 57 

is in itself as imposing and magnificent as any other that is to be found 
in Florence, even more imposing and more beautiful than could be 
believed. In the fagade that came in the centre, there had been formed 
upon a great base two Giants, immense and most superb to behold, 
supported by two great monsters and by other extravagant fishes that 
appeared to be swimming in the sea, and accompanied by two sea-nymphs. 
These represented, one the great Ocean and the other the Tyrrhenian 
Sea, and, half reclining, they appeared to be seeking to present to the 
most illustrious pair, with a certain affectionate liberality, not only many 
most beautiful branches of coral and immense shells of mother-of-pearl, 
and others of their sea-riches that they held in their hands, but also new 
islands, new lands, and new dominions, which were seen led thither in 
their train. Behind them, making that whole ornament lovely and 
imposing, were seen rising little by little, from their socles that rested 
upon the base, two vast half-columns, upon which rested cornice, frieze, 
and architrave, leaving behind the Sea-Gods already described, almost 
in the form of a triumphal arch, a very spacious square; and over the 
two columns and the architrave rose two very well-formed pilasters 
covered with creepers, from which sprang two cornices, forming at the 
summit a superb and very bold frontispiece, at the top of which, and 
above the creepers of the pilasters already described, were seen placed 
three very large vases of gold, all filled to overflowing with thousands and 
thousands of different riches of the sea; and in the space that remained 

itween the architrave and the point of the frontispiece, there was seen 
lying with rare dignity a masterly figure of a Nymph, representing 
'ethys, or Amphitrite, Goddess and Queen of the Sea, who with a very 

:ave gesture was presenting as the principal crown of that place a 
rostral crown, such as was generally given to the victors in naval battles, 
with her motto, VINCE MARI, and as it were adding that which follows: 
JAM TERRA TUA EST. Even as in the picture and the facade behind the 
Giants, in a very large niche that had the appearance of a real and natural 
cavern or grotto, there was painted among many other monsters of the 
sea the Proteus of Virgil's Georgics, bound by Aristaeus, who, pointing 
with his finger towards the verses written above him, appeared to wish 
x. 8 



58 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

to announce in prophecy to the well-united pair good fortune, victories, 
and triumphs in maritime affairs, saying : 

Germana adveniet felici cum alite virgo, 

Flora, tibi, adveniet soboles Augusta, Hymenei 
Cui pulcher Juvenis jungatur fcedere certo 
Regius Italiae columen, bona quanta sequentur 
Conjugium ? Pater Arne tibi, et tibi Florida Mater, 
Gloria quanta aderit ? Protheum nil postera fallunt. 

And since, as has been told, this facade of the cavern stood between 
the two other fagades, one of which was turned towards S. Trinita and 
the other towards the Ponte alia Carraia, both these, which were of the 
same size and height, were likewise bordered in a similar manner by two 
similar half-columns, which in like manner supported their architrave, 
frieze, and cornice in a quarter-round, upon which, both on the one side 
and on the other, were seen three statues of boys on three pedestals, 
who were upholding certain very rich festoons of gold, composed 
in a most masterly fashion of conches, shells, coral, sword-grass, 
and sea-weed, by which a no less graceful finish was given to the whole 
structure. 

But to return to the space of the fagade which, turning from the 
straight, was supported against the Palazzo degli Spini. In it was seen, 
painted in chiaroscuro, a Nymph all unadorned and little less than nude, 
placed between many new kinds of animals, who stood for the new land 
of Peru, with the other new West Indies, discovered and ruled for the 
most part under the auspices of the most fortunate House of Austria. 
She was turned towards a figure of Jesus Christ Our Lord, who, painted 
all luminous in a Cross in the air (alluding to the four exceeding bright 
stars which form the semblance of a Cross, newly discovered among those 
peoples), appeared in the manner of a Sun piercing some thick clouds 
with most resplendent rays, for which she seemed in a certain sense to 
be rendering much thanks to that house, in that by their means she was 
seen converted to the Divine worship and to the true Christian Religion, 
with the verses written below : 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 59 

Di tibi pro meritis tantis, Augusta propago, 

Praemia digna ferant, quae vinctam mille catenis 
Heu duris solvis, quae clarum cernere solem 
E tenebris tantis et Christum noscere donas. 

Even as on the base which supported that whole facade, and which, 
although on a level with that of the Giants, yet did not like that one 
project outwards, there was seen, painted as it were by way of allegory, 
the fable of Andromeda delivered by Perseus from the cruel Monster of 
the sea. And in that which, turning, faced towards the Arno and the 
Ponte alia Carraia, there was seen in like manner painted the small but 
famous Island of Elba, in the form of an armed warrior seated upon a 
great rock, with the Trident in her right hand, having on one side of her 
a little boy who was seen sporting playfully with a dolphin, and on the 
other side another like him, who was upholding an anchor, with many 
galleys that were shown circling about her port, which was painted 
iere. At her feet, on her base, and corresponding in like manner to 
te fagade painted above, was seen likewise the fable that is given by 
Strabo, when he relates that the Argonauts, returning from the acquisition 
of the Golden Fleece, and arriving with Medea in Elba, raised altars there 
and made sacrifice to Jove upon them; perhaps foreseeing or auguring 
that at another time our present glorious Duke, being as it were of 
their company by virtue of the Order of the Golden Fleece, was to fortify 
tat island and to safeguard distressed mariners, thus reviving their 
icient and glorious memory. Which was expressed excellently well by 
the four verses written there in a suitable place, saying: 

Evenere olim Heroes qui littore in isto 

Magnanimi votis petiere. En Ilva potentis 
Auspiciis Cosmi multa munita opera ac vi ; 
Pacatum pelagus securi currite nautae. 

But the most beautiful effect, the most bizarre, the most fantastic, 
and the most ornate besides the various devices and trophies, and Arion, 
who was riding pleasantly through the sea on the back of the swimming 
dolphin came from an innumerable quantity of extravagant fishes of 



60 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

the sea, Nereids, and Tritons, which were distributed among the friezes, 
pedestals, and bases, and wherever a space or the beauty of the place 
required them. Even as at the foot of the great base of the Giants there 
was another gracious effect in the form of a most beautiful Siren seated 
upon the head of a very large fish, from whose mouth at times, at the 
turning of a key, not without laughter among the expectant bystanders, 
a rushing jet of water was seen pouring upon such as were too eager to 
drink the white and red wine that flowed in abundance from the breasts 
of the Siren into a very capacious and most ornate basin. And since 
the bend of the facade where Elba was painted was the first thing to strike 
the eyes of those who came, as did the procession, from the Ponte alia 
Carraia along the Arno towards the Palazzo degli Spini, it seemed good 
to the inventor to hide the ugliness of the scaffolding and woodwork 
that were necessarily placed behind, by raising to the same height 
another new fagade similar to the three described, which might, as it 
did, render that whole vista most festive and ornate. And in it, within 
a large oval, it appeared to him that it was well to'place the principal 
device, embracing the whole conception of the structure; and to that 
end, therefore, there was seen figured a great Neptune on his usual Car, 
with the usual Trident, as he is described by Virgil, chasing away the 
troublesome winds, and using as a motto the very same words, MATURATE 
FUGAM ; as if he wished to promise to the fortunate pair happiness, peace, 
and tranquillity in his realm. 

OF THE COLUMN. 

Opposite to the graceful Palace of the Bartolini there had been 
erected a short time before, as a more stable and enduring ornament, 
not without singular ingenuity, that ancient and immense column of 
oriental granite which had been taken from the Baths of Antoninus in 
Rome, and granted by Pius IV to our glorious Duke, and by him con- 
veyed, although at no little expense, to Florence, and magnanimously 
presented to her as a courteous gift for her public adornment. Upon 
that column, over its beautiful capital, which had, like the base, the 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 61 

appearance of bronze, and which is now being made of real bronze, there 
was placed a statue (of clay, indeed, but in the colour of porphyry, 
because even so it is to be), very large and very excellent, of a woman in 
full armour, with a helmet on the head, and representing, by the sword 
in the right hand and by the scales in the left, an incorruptible and 
most valorous Justice. 

OF THE CANTO DE' TORNAQUINCI. 

The sixth ornament was erected at the Canto de' Tornaquinci; and 
here I must note a thing which would appear incredible to one who had 
not seen it namely, that this ornament was so magnificent, so rich in 
pomp, and fashioned with so much art and grandeur, that, although it 
was conjoined with the superb Palace of the Strozzi, which is such as to 
make the greatest things appear as nothing, and although on a site 
altogether disastrous by reason of the uneven ends of the streets that run 
together there, and certain other inconvenient circumstances, neverthe- 
less such was the excellence of the craftsman, and so well conceived the 
manner of the work, that it seemed as if all those difficulties had been 
brought together there for the purpose of rendering it the more admirable 
and the more beautiful; that most lovely palace being so well accom- 
panied by the richness of the ornaments, the height of the arches, the 
grandeur of the columns, all intertwined with arms and trophies, and 
the great statues that towered over the summit of the whole structure, 
that anyone would have judged that neither that ornament required 
any other accompaniment than that of such a palace, nor such a palace 
required any other ornament. And to the end that all may be the better 
understood, and in order to show more clearly and distinctly in what 
manner the work was constructed, it is necessary that some measure of 
pardon should be granted to us by those who are not of our arts, if for the 
sake of those who delight in them we proceed, more minutely than might 
appear proper to the others, to describe the nature of the sites and the 
forms of the arches ; and this in order to demonstrate how noble intellects 
accommodate ornaments to places and inventions to sites with grace 
and beauty. We must relate, then, that since the street which runs 



62 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

from the Column to the Tornaquinci is, as everyone knows, very wide, 
and since it was necessary to pass from there into the street of the Torna- 
buoni, which by its narrowness brought it about that the eyes of those 
thus passing fell for the most part on the not very ornate Tower of the 
Tornaquinci, which occupies more than half the street, it was thought 
expedient, in order to obviate that difficulty and to make the effect 
more pleasing, to construct in the width of the above-named street, 
in a Composite Order, two arches divided by a most ornate column, one 
of which gave free passage to the procession, which proceeded through 
the said street of the Tornabuoni, and the other, concealing the view 
of the tower, appeared, by virtue of an ingenious prospect-scene that 
was painted there, to lead into another street similar to the said street 
of the Tornabuoni, wherein with most pleasing illusion were seen not 
only the houses and windows adorned with tapestries and full of men and 
women who were all intent on gazing at the spectacle, but also the 
gracious sight of a most lovely maiden on a white palfrey, accompanied 
by certain grooms, who appeared to be coming from there towards those 
approaching, insomuch that both on the day of the procession and all 
the time afterwards that she remained there, she roused in more than 
one person, by a gracious deception, a desire either to go to meet her or 
to wait until she should have passed. These two arches, besides the 
above-mentioned column that divided them, were bordered by other 
columns of the same size, which supported architraves, friezes, and 
cornices; and over each arch was seen a lovely ornament in the form 
of a most beautiful picture, in which were seen painted, likewise in 
chiaroscuro, the stories of which we shall speak in a short time. The 
whole work was crowned above by an immense cornice with ornaments 
corresponding to the loveliness, grandeur, and magnificence of the rest, 
upon which, then, stood the statues, which, although they were at a 
height of a good twenty-five braccia from the level of the ground, never- 
theless were wrought with such proportion that the height did not take 
away any of their grace, nor the distance any of the effect of any detail 
of their adornment and beauty. There stood in the same manner, as it 
were as wings to those two main arches, on the one side and on the 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 63 

other, two other arches, one of which, attached to the Palace of the 
Strozzi, and leading to the above-mentioned Tower of the Tornaquinci, 
gave passage to those who wished to turn towards the Mercato Vecchio, 
even as the other, placed on the other side, did the same service 
to those who might desire to go towards the street called La Vigna; 
wherefore the Via di S. Trinita, which, as has been told, is so broad, 
terminating thus in the four arches described, came to present such 
loveliness and a view so beautiful and so heroic, that it appeared impos- 
sible to afford greater satisfaction to the eyes of the spectators. And 
this was the front part, composed, as has been described, of four arches; 
of two main arches, namely, one false, and one real, which led into the 
Via de' Tornabuoni, and of two others at the sides, in the manner of 
wings, which were turned towards the two cross-streets. Now since, 
entering into the said street of the Tornabuoni on the left side, beside the 
Vigna, there debouches (as everyone knows) the Strada di S. Sisto, which 
likewise of necessity strikes the flank of the same Tower of the Torna- 
quinci, it was made to appear, in order to hide the same ugliness in a 
similar manner with the same illusion of a similar prospect-scene, that 
that side also passed into a similar street of various houses placed in the 
same way, with an ingenious view of a very ornate fountain overflowing 
with crystal-clear waters, from which a woman with a child was repre- 
sented as drawing some, so that one who was at no great distance would 
certainly have declared that she was real and by no means simulated. 
Now these four arches to return to those in front were supported and 
divided by five columns adorned in the manner described, forming as it 
were a rectangular piazza; and in a line with each of those columns, above 
the final cornice and the summit of the edifice, there was a most beautiful 
seat, while in the same manner four others were placed over the centre 
of each arch, which in all came to the number of nine. In eight of these 
was seen seated in each a statue of most imposing appearance, some 
shown in armour, some in the garb of peace, and others in the imperator's 
paludament, according to the characters of those who were portrayed in 
them; and in place of the ninth seat and the ninth statue, above the 
column in the centre, was seen placed an immense escutcheon, supported 



64 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

by two great Victories with the Imperial Crown of the House of Austria, 
to which that structure was dedicated; which was made manifest by a 
very large epitaph, which was seen placed with much grace and beauty 
below the escutcheon, saying: 

VIRTUTI FELICITATIQUE INVICTISSIM^ DOMUS AUSTRIA, MAJESTATIQUE 

TOT ET TANTORUM IMPERATORUM AC REGUM, QUI IN IPSA FLORUERUNT 

ET NUNC MAXIME FLORENT, FLORENTIA AUGUSTO CONJUGIO PARTICEPS 

ILLIUS FELICITATIS, GRATO PIOQUE ANIMO DICAT. 

The intention had been, after bringing to those most splendid 
nuptials the Province of Austria, with her cities and rivers and with her 
ocean-sea, and after having caused her to be received by Tuscany with 
her cities, the Arno, and the Tyrrhenian Sea, as has been related, to 
bring then her great and glorious Caesars, all magnificent in adornment 
and pomp, as is the general custom in taking part in nuptials; as if they, 
having conducted thither with them the illustrious bride, were come 
before to have the first meeting of kinsmen with the House of Medici, 
and to prove of what stock, and how glorious, was the noble virgin that 
they sought to present to them. And so, of the eight above-mentioned 
statues placed upon the eight seats, representing eight Emperors of that 
august house, there was seen on the right hand of the above-named 
escutcheon, over the arch through which the procession passed, that of 
Maximilian II, the present magnanimous and excellent Emperor, and 
brother of the bride; below whom, in a very spacious picture, there was 
seen painted with most beautiful invention his marvellous assumption 
to the Empire, himself being seated in the midst of the Electors, both 
spiritual and temporal, the first being recognized besides their long 
vestments by a Faith that was to be seen at their feet, and the others 
by a Hope in a like position. In the air, also, over his head, were seen 
certain little Angels that seemed to be chasing many malign spirits out 
of certain thick and dark clouds ; these being intended either to suggest 
the hope which is felt that at some time, in that all-conquering and most 
constant nation, men will contrive to dissipate and clear away the clouds 
of those many disturbances that have occurred there in matters of 
religion, and restore her to her pristine purity and serenity of tranquil 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 65 

concord; or rather, that in that act all dissensions had flown away, and 
showing how marvellously, and with what unanimous consent of all 
Germany, amid that great variety of minds and religions, that assumption 
had taken place, which was explained by the words that were placed 
above, saying: 

MAXIMILIANUS II SALUTATUR IMP. MAGNO CONSENSU GERMANORUM, 
ATQUE INGENTI L^ETITIA BONORUM OMNIUM, ET CHRISTIANA PIETATIS 

FELICITATE. 

Then, next to the statue of the said Maximilian, in a place corre- 
sponding to the column at the corner, was seen that of the truly invincible 
Charles V; even as over the arch of that wing, which commanded the 
Via della Vigna, there was that of the second Albert, a man of most 
resolute valour, although he reigned but a short time. Above the column 
at the head was placed that of the great Rudolph, who, the first of that 
name, was also the first to introduce into that most noble house the 
Imperial dignity, and the first to enrich her with the great Archduchy 
of Austria; when, having reverted to the Empire for lack of a successor, 
he invested with it the first Albert, his son, whence the House of Austria 
has since taken its name. All which, in memory of an event so important, 
was seen painted in a most beautiful manner in the frieze above that 
arch, with an inscription at the foot that said: 

RODULPHUS PRIMUS EX HAG FAMILIA IMP. ALBERTUM PRIMUM AUSTRIA 

PRINCIPATU DONAT. 

But to return to the part on the left, beginning with the same place 
in the centre; beside the escutcheon, and over the false arch that covered 
the Tower of the Tornaquinci, was seen the statue of the most devout 
Ferdinand, father of the bride, beneath whose feet was seen painted the 
valorous resistance made by his efforts in the year 1529 in the defence 
of Vienna against the terrible assault of the Turks ; demonstrated by the 
inscription written above, which said: 

FERDINANDUS PRIMUS IMP., INGENTIBUS COPIIS TURCORUM CUM REGE 
IPSORUM PULSIS, VIENNAM NOBILEM URBEM FORTISSIME FELICISSIMEQUE 

DEFENDIT. 
X. 



66 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

Even as at the corner there was the statue of the first and most 
renowned Maximilian, and over the arch that inclined towards the Palace 
of the Strozzi that of the pacific Frederick, father of that same Maximilian, 
leaning against an olive- trunk. Above the last column, which was 
attached to the above-named Palace of the Strozzi, was seen that of the 
first Albert mentioned above, who, as has been told, was first invested by 
his father Rudolph with the sovereignty of Austria, and gave to that 
most noble house the arms that are still to be seen at the present day. 
Those arms used formerly to be five little larks on a gold ground, whereas 
the new arms, which, as everyone may see, are all red with a white band 
that divides them, are said to have been introduced by him in that form 
because, as was seen painted there in a great picture beneath his feet, 
he found himself not otherwise in that most bloody battle fought by him 
with Adolf, who had been first deposed from the Imperial throne, when 
the said Albert was seen to slay Adolf valorously with his own hand and 
to win from him the Spolia Opima; and since, save for the middle of 
his person, which was white on account of his armour, over all the rest he 
found himself on that day all stained and dabbled with blood, he ordained 
that in memory of that his arms should be painted in the same manner 
both of form and colour, and that they should be preserved gloriously 
after him by his successors in that house; and beneath the picture, as 
with the others, there was to be read a similar inscription that said : 

ALBERTUS I IMP. ADOLPHUM, CUI LEGIBUS IMPERIUM ABROGATUM FUERAT, 
MAGNO PROBLIO VINCIT ET SPOLIA OPIMA REFERT. 

And since each of the eight above-mentioned Emperors, besides the 
arms common to their whole house, also used during his lifetime arms 
private and peculiar to himself, for that reason, in order to make it more 
manifest to the beholders which Emperor each of the statues represented, 
there were also placed beneath their feet, on most beautiful shields, the 
particular arms that each, as has been told, had borne. All which, 
together with some pleasing and well-accommodated little scenes that 
were painted on the pedestals, made a magnificent, heroic, and very 
ornate effect; even as not less was done, on the columns and in all the 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 67 

parts where ornaments could be suitably placed, in addition to trophies 
and the arms, by the Crosses of S. Andrew, the Fusils, and the Pillars of 
Hercules, with the motto, PLUS ULTRA, the principal device of that 
arch, and many others like it used by the men of that Imperial family. 

Such, then, was the principal view which presented itself to those 
who chose to pass by the direct way with the procession; but for those 
who came from the opposite direction, from the Via de' Tornabuoni 
towards the Tornaquinci, there appeared, with an ornamentation perhaps 
not less lovely, in so far as the narrowness of the street permitted, a 
similar spectacle arranged in due proportion. For on that side, which 
we will call the back, there was formed, as it were, another structure 
similar to that already described, save that on account of the narrowness 
of the street, whereas the first was seen composed of four arches, the 
other was of three only; one of which being joined with friezes and 
cornices to that upon which, as has been told, was placed the statue of 
the second Maximilian, now Emperor, and thus making it double, and 
another likewise attached to the above-described prospect-scene which 
concealed the tower, brought it about that the third, leaving also behind 
it a little quadrangular piazza, remained as the last for one coming with 
the procession, and appeared as the first for one approaching, on the 
contrary, from the street of the Tornabuoni ; and upon that last, which 
was in the same form as those described, even as upon them were the 
Emperors, so upon it were seen towering, but standing on their feet, 
the two Kings Philip, one the father and the other the son of the great 
Charles V, the first Philip, namely, and also the second, so filled with 
liberality and justice, whom at the present day we honour as the great 
and puissant King of so many most noble realms. Between him and 
the statue of his grandfather there was seen painted in the circumambient 
frieze that same Philip II seated in majesty, and standing before him a 
tall woman in armour, recognized by the white cross that she had on 
the breast as being Malta, delivered by him through the valour of the 
most illustrious Lord Don Garzia di Toledo, who was portrayed there, 
from the siege of the Turks; and she appeared to be seeking, as one 
grateful for that great service, to offer to him the obsidional crown of 



68 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

dog's grass, which was made manifest by the inscription written beneath, 
which said: 

MELITA, EREPTA E FAUCIBUS IMMANISSIMORUM HOSTIUM STUDIO ET 
AUXILIIS PIISSIMI REGIS PHILIPPI, CONSERVATOREM SUUM CORONA 

GRAMINEA DONAT. 

And to the end that the part turned towards the Strada della Vigna 
might have likewise some adornment, it was thought a fitting thing to 
declare the conception of the whole vast structure by a great inscription 
between the final cornice, where the statues stood, and the arch, which 
was a large space, saying : 

IMPERIO LATE FULGENTES ASPICE REGESJ 

AUSTRIACA HOS OMNES EDIDIT ALTA DOMUS. 

HIS INVICTA FUIT VIRTUS, HIS CUNCTA SUBACTA, 

HIS DOMITA EST TELLUS, SERVIT ET OCEANUS. 

Even as was done in the same manner and for the same reason towards 
the Mercato Vecchio, in another inscription, saying : 

IMPERIIS GENS NATA BONIS ET NATA TRIUMPHIS, 

QUAM GENUS E CCELO DUCERE NEMO NEGET; 
TUQUE NITENS GERMEN DIVINE STIRPIS ETRUSCIS 

TRADITUM AGRIS NITIDIS, UT SOLA CULTA BEES; 
SI MIHI CONTINGAT VESTRO DE SEMINE FRUCTUM 

CARPERE ET IN NATIS CERNERE DETUR AVOS, 
O FORTUNATAM ! VERO TUNC NOMINE FLORENS 

URBS FERAR, IN QUAM FORS CONGERAT OMNE BONUM. 



OF THE CANTO DE' CARNESECCHI. 

Now it appeared a fitting thing, having brought the triumphant 
Caesars to the place described above, to bring the magnanimous Medici, 
also, with all their pomp, to the corner that is called the Canto de' Carne- 
secchi, which is not far distant from it; as if, reverently receiving the 
Caesars, as is the custom, they were come to hold high revel and to do 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 69 

honour to the new-come bride, so much desired. And here, no less than 
in some of the passages to follow, it will be necessary that I should be 
pardoned by those who are not of our arts for describing minutely the 
nature of the site and the form of the arches and other ornaments, for 
the reason that it is my intention to demonstrate not less the excellence of 
the hands and brushes of the craftsmen who executed the works, than 
the fertility and acuteness of brain of him who was the author of the 
stories and of the whole invention; and particularly because the site in 
that place was perhaps more disastrous and more difficult to accom- 
modate than any of the others described or about to be described. For 
there the street turns towards S. Maria del Fiore, inclining to somewhat 
greater breadth, and comes to form the angle that by those of our arts 
is called obtuse; and that was the side on the right. Opposite, and on 
the left-hand side, there is a little piazza into which two streets lead, 
one that comes from the great Piazza di S. Maria Novella, and the other 
likewise from another piazza called the Piazza Vecchia. In that little 
piazza, which is in truth very ill proportioned, there was built over all 
the lower part a structure in the form of an octagonal theatre, the doors 
of which were rectangular and in the Tuscan Order; and over each of 
them was seen a niche between two columns, with cornices, architraves, 
and other ornaments, rich and imposing, of Doric architecture, and then, 
rising higher, there was formed the third range, wherein was seen above 
the niches, in each space, a compartment with most beautiful ornaments 
in painting. Now it is but proper to remark that although it has been 
said that the doors below were rectangular and Tuscan, nevertheless the 
two by which the principal road entered and issued forth, and by which 
the procession was to pass, were made in the semblance of arches, and 
projected for no small distance in the manner of vestibules, one towards 
the entrance and the other towards the exit, both the one and the other 
having been made as rich and ornate on the outer fa$ade as was required 
for the sake of proportion. 

Having thus described the general form of the whole edifice, let us 
come down to the details, beginning with the front part, which presented 
itself first to the eyes of passers-by and was after the manner of a 



70 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

triumphal arch, as has been told, in the Corinthian Order. That arch was 
seen bordered on one side and on the other by two most warlike statues 
in armour, each of which, resting upon a graceful little door, was seen 
likewise coming forth from the middle of a niche placed between two well- 
proportioned columns. Of these statues, that which was to be seen on 
the right hand represented Duke Alessandro, the son-in-law of the most 
illustrious Charles V, a Prince spirited and bold, and of most gracious 
manners, holding in one hand his sword, and in the other the Ducal 
baton, with a motto placed at his feet, which said, on account of his 
untimely death: si FATA ASPERA RUMPAS, ALEXANDER ERIS. On the left 
hand was seen, portrayed like all the others from life, the most valorous 
Signor Giovanni, with the butt of a broken lance in the hand, and like- 
wise with his motto at his feet: ITALUM FORTISS. DUCTOR. And since 
over the architraves of those four columns already described there were 
placed very spacious friezes in due proportion, in the width covered by 
the niches there was seen above each of the statues a compartment 
between two pilasters; in that above Duke Alessandro was seen in 
painting the device of a rhinoceros, used by him, with the motto :NON 
BUELVO SIN VENCER; and above the statue of Signor Giovanni, in the 
same fashion, his flaming thunderbolt. Above the arch in the centre, 
which, being more than seven braccia in width and more than two 
squares in height, gave ample room for the procession to pass, and above 
the cornice and the frontispieces, there was seen seated in majestic beauty 
that of the wise and valorous Duke Cosimo, the excellent father of the 
fortunate bridegroom, likewise with his motto at his feet, which said: 
PIETATE INSIGNIS ET ARMIS ; and with a She-Wolf and a Lion on either 
side of him, representing Siena and Florence, which, supported and 
regarded lovingly by him, seemed to be reposing affectionately together. 
That statue was seen set in the frieze, exactly in a line with the arch, 
and between the pictures with the devices described; and in that same 
width, above the crowning cornice, there rose on high another painted 
compartment, with pilasters in due proportion, cornice, and other embel- 
lishments, wherein with great fitness, alluding to the election of the 
above-named Duke Cosimo, was seen represented the story of the young 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 71 

David when he was anointed King by Samuel, with his motto : A DOMINO 
FACTUM EST isxuD. And then, above that last cornice, which was raised 
a very great distance from the ground, was seen the escutcheon of that 
most adventuresome family, which, large and magnificent as was fitting, 
was likewise supported, with the Ducal Crown, by two Victories also in 
imitation of marble; and over the principal entrance of the arch, in the 
most becoming place, was the inscription, which said: 

VIRTUTI FELICITATIQUE ILLUSTRISSIM2E MEDICE^E FAMILY, QILE FLOS 

ITALLE, LUMEN ETRURLE, DECUS PATRLE SEMPER FUIT, NUNC ASCITA 

SIBI (wESAREA SOBOLE CIVIBUS SECURITATEM ET OMNI SUO IMPERIO 

DIGNITATEM AUXIT, GRATA PATRIA DICAT. 

Entering within that arch, one found a kind of loggia, passing 
spacious and long, with the vaulting above all painted and embellished 
with the most bizarre and beautiful ornaments and with various devices. 
After which, in two pilasters over which curved an arch, through which 
was the entrance into the above-mentioned theatre, there were seen 
opposite to one another two most graceful niches, as it were conjoined 
with that second arch; between which niches and the arch first described 
there were seen on the counterfeit walls that supported the loggia two 
spacious painted compartments, the stories of which accompanied 
becomingly each its statue. Of these statues, that on the right hand was 
made to represent the great Cosimo, called the Elder, who, although there 
had been previously in the family of the Medici many men noble and dis- 
tinguished in arms and in civil actions, was nevertheless the first founder 
of its extraordinary greatness, and as it were the root of that plant which 
has since grown so happily to such magnificence. In his picture was 
seen painted the supreme honour conferred upon him by his native 
Florence, when he was acclaimed by the public Senate as Pater Patriae; 
which was declared excellently well in the inscription that was seen 
below, saying: 






COSMUS MEDICES, VETERE HONESTISSIMO OMNIUM SENATUS CONSULTO 
RENOVATO, PARENS PATRICE APPELLATUR. 



72 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

In the upper part of the same pilaster in which was placed the niche, 
there was a little picture in due proportion wherein was portrayed his 
son, the magnificent Piero, father of the glorious Lorenzo, likewise called 
the Elder, the one and true Maecenas of his times, and the magnanimous 
preserver of the peace of Italy, whose statue was seen in the other above- 
mentioned niche, corresponding to that of the Elder Cosimo. In the 
little picture, which he in like manner had over his head, was painted the 
portrait of his brother, the magnificent Giuliano, the father of Pope 
Clement; and in the large picture, corresponding to that of Cosimo, was 
the public council held by all the Italian Princes, wherein was seen 
formed, by the advice of Lorenzo, that so stable and so prudent union 
by which, as long as he was alive and it endured, Italy was seen brought 
to the height of felicity, whereas afterwards, Lorenzo dying and that 
union perishing, she was seen precipitated into such conflagrations, 
calamities, and ruin; which was demonstrated no less clearly by the 
inscription that was beneath, saying : 

LAURENTIUS MEDICES, BELLI ET PACIS ARTIBUS EXCELLENS, DIVING SUO 

CONSILIO CONJUNCTIS ANIMIS ET OPIBUS PRINCIPUM ITALORUM ET INGENTI 

ITALLE TRANQUILLITATE PARTA, PARENS OPTIMI S^ECULI APPELLATUR. 

Now, coming to the little piazza in which, as has been told, was 
placed the octagonal theatre, as I shall call it, and beginning from that 
first entrance to go round on the right hand, let me say that the first 
part was occupied by that arch of the entrance, above which, in a frieze 
corresponding in height to the third and last range of the theatre, were 
seen in four ovals the portrait of Giovanni di Bicci, father of Cosimo the 
Elder, and that of his son Lorenzo, brother of the same Cosimo, from 
whom this fortunate branch of the Medici now reigning had its origin; 
with that of Pier Francesco, son of the above-named Lorenzo, and like- 
wise that of another Giovanni, father of the warlike Signor Giovanni 
mentioned above. In the second fagade of the octagon, which was 
joined to the entrance, there was seen between two most ornate columns, 
seated in a great niche, with the royal staff in the hand, a figure in marble, 
like all the other statues, of Caterina, the valorous Queen of France, 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 73 

with all the other ornaments that are required in architecture both lovely 
and heroic. And in the third range above, where, as has been said, the 
painted compartments came, there was figured for her scene the same 
Queen seated in majesty, who had before her two most beautiful women 
in armour, one of whom, representing France, and kneeling before her, 
was shown presenting to her a handsome boy adorned with a royal crown, 
even as the other, who was Spain, standing, was shown in like manner 
presenting to her a most lovely girl ; the boy being intended for the most 
Christian Charles IX, who is now revered as King of France, and the girl 
the most noble Queen of Spain, wife of the excellent King Philip. Then, 
about the same Caterina, were seen standing with much reverence some 
other smaller boys, representing her other most gracious little children, 
for whom a Fortune appeared to be holding sceptres, crowns, and realms. 
And since between that niche and the arch of the entrance, on account 
of the disproportion of the site, there was some space left over, caused 
by the desire to make the arch not ungracefully awry, but well-propor- 
tioned and straight, for that reason there was placed there, as it were in 
a niche, a painted picture wherein by means of a Prudence and a Liber- 
ality, who stood clasped in a close embrace, it was shown very ingeniously 
with what guides the House of Medici had come to such a height; having 
above them, painted in a little picture equal in breadth to the others of 
the third range, a Piety humble and devout, recognized by the stork that 
was beside her, round whom were seen many little Angels that were 
showing to her various designs and models of the many churches, monas- 
teries, and convents built by that magnificent and religious family. 
Now, proceeding to the third side of the octagon, where there was the 
arch by which one issued from the theatre, over the frontispiece of that 
arch was placed, as the heart of so many noble members, the statue of 
the most excellent and amiable Prince and Spouse, and at his feet the 
motto: SPES ALTERA FLOR^. In the frieze above meaning, as before, 
that this came to the height of the third range to correspond to the 
other arch, where, as has been told, four portraits had been placed, in 
that part, also, were four other similar portraits of his illustrious brothers, 
accommodated in a similar manner; those, namely, of the two very 
x. 10 



74 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

reverend Cardinals, Giovanni of revered memory and the most gracious 
Ferdinando, and those of the handsome Signor Don Garzia and the 
amiable Signor Don Pietro. Then, to go on to the fourth face, since the 
corner of the houses that are there, not giving room for the hollow of 
any recess, did not permit of the usual niche being made there, in its 
stead was seen accommodated with beautiful artifice, corresponding to 
the niches, a very large inscription that said : 

HI, QUOS SACRA VIDES REDIMITOS TEMPORA MITRA 
PONTIFICES TRIPLICI, ROMAM TOTUMQUE PIORUM 
CONCILIUM REXERE PIi; SED QUI PROPE FULGENT 
ILLUSTRI E GENTE INSIGNES SAGULISVE TOGISVE 
HEROES, CLARAM PATRIAM POPULUMQUE POTENTEM 
IMPERIIS AUXERE SUIS CERTAQUE SALUTE. 
NAM SEMEL ITALIAM DONARUNT AUREA S^ECLA, 
CONJUGIO AUGUSTO DECORANT NUNC ET MAGE FIRMANT. 

Above it, in place of scene and picture, there were painted in two ovals 

the two devices, one of the fortunate Duke, the Capricorn with the seven 

Stars and with the motto, FIDUCIA FATI ; and the other of the excellent 

Prince, the Weasel, with the motto, AMAT VICTORIA CURAM. Then in the 

three niches that came in the three following facades were the statues 

of the three Supreme Pontiffs who have come from that family; all 

rejoicing, likewise, to lend their honourable presence to so great a 

festival, as if every favour human and divine, every excellence in arms, 

letters, wisdom, and religion, and every kind of sovereignty, were 

assembled together to vie in rendering those splendid nuptials august 

and happy. Of those Pontiffs one was Pius IV, departed a short time 

before to a better life, over whose head, in his picture, was seen painted 

how, after the intricate disputes were ended at Trent and the sacrosanct 

Council was finished, the two Cardinal Legates presented to him its 

inviolable decrees; even as in that of Leo X was seen the conference 

held by him with Francis I, King of France, whereby with prudent 

counsel he bridled the vehemence of that bellicose and victorious Prince, 

so that he did not turn all Italy upside down, as he might perchance have 

done, and as he was certainly able to do; and in that of Clement VII 






OF THE ACADEMICIANS 75 

was the Coronation, performed by him in Bologna, of the great Charles V. 
But in the last fagade, which hit against the acute angle of the houses 
of the Carnesecchi, by which the straight line of that facade of the octagon 
was no little interrupted, nevertheless there was made with gracious and 
pleasing artifice another masterly inscription, after the likeness of the 
other, but curving somewhat outwards, which said: 

PONTIFICES SUMMOS MEDICUM DOMUS ALTA LEONEM, 

CLEMENTEM DEINCEPS, EDIDIT INDE PIUM. . 

QUID TOT NUNC REFERAM INSIGNES PIETATE VEL ARMIS 
MAGNANIMOSQUE DUCES EGREGIOSQUE VIROS ? 

GALLORUM INTER QUOS LATE REGINA REFULGET, 
H^EC REGIS CONJUNX, ILEC EADEM GENITRIX. 

Such, as a whole, was the interior of the theatre described above; 
but although it may appear to have been described minutely enough, 
it is none the less true that an infinity of other ornaments, pictures, 
devices, and a thousand most bizarre and most beautiful fantasies 
which were placed throughout the Doric cornices and many spaces 
according to opportunity, making a very rich and gracious effect, 
have been omitted as not being essential, in order not to weary the 
perhaps already tired reader; and anyone who delights in such things 
may imagine that no part was left without being finished with supreme 
mastery, consummate judgment, and infinite loveliness. And a most 
pleasing and beautiful finish was given to the highest range by the 
many arms that were seen distributed there in due proportion, which 
were Medici and Austria for the illustrious Prince, the bridegroom, 
and her Highness; Medici and Toledo for the Duke, his father; Medici 
and Austria again, recognized by the three feathers as belonging to his 
predecessor Alessandro; Medici and Boulogne in Picardy for Lorenzo, 
Duke of Urbino; Medici and Savoy for Duke Giuliano; Medici and Orsini 
for the double kinship of the Elder Lorenzo and his son Piero; Medici 
and the Viper for the above-named Giovanni, husband of Caterina 
Sforza; Medici and Salviati for the glorious Signor Giovanni, his son; 
France and Medici for her most serene Highness the Queen; Ferraraand 
Medici for the Duke, with one of the sisters of the most excellent bride- 



76 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

groom; and Orsini and Medici for the other most gentle sister, married to 
the illustrious Signor Paolo Giordano, Duke of Bracciano. 

It now remains for us to describe the last part of the theatre and 
the exit, which, corresponding in size, in proportion, and in every other 
respect to the entrance already described, there will be little labour, I 
believe, in making known to the intelligent reader; save only that the 
arch which formed the facade there, facing towards S. Maria del Fiore, 
had "been constructed, as a part less important, without statues and 
with somewhat less magnificence, and in their stead there had been 
placed over that arch a very large inscription, which said: 

VIRTUS KARA TIBI, STIRPS ILLUSTRISSIMA, QUONDAM 

CLARUM TUSCORUM DETULIT IMPERIUM; 
QUOD COSMUS FORTI PR^EFUNCTUS MUNERE MARTIS 

PROTULIT ET JUSTA CUM DITIONE REGIT* 
NUNC EADEM MAJOR DIVINA E GENTE JOANNAM 

ALLICIT IN REGNUM CONCILIATQUE TORO. 
QU-E SI CRESCET ITEM VENTURA IN PROLE NEPOTES, 

AUREA GENS TUSCIS EXORIETUR AGRIS. 

In the two pilasters that were at the beginning of the passage, or 
vestibule, as we have called it (over which pilasters rose the arch of the 
exit, upon which was the statue of the illustrious bridegroom), were seen 
two niches, in one of which was placed the statue of the most gentle 
Giuliano, Duke of Nemours, the younger brother of Leo and Gonfalonier 
of Holy Church, who had likewise in the little picture that was above him 
the portrait of the magnanimous Cardinal Ippolito, his son, and, in the 
picture that stretched towards the exit, the scene of the Capitoline 
Theatre, dedicated to him by the Roman people in the year 1513, with 
an inscription to make this known, which said: 

JULIANUS MEDICES EXIMLE VIRTUTIS ET PROBITATIS ERGO SUMMIS A POP. 
ROM. HONORIBUS DECORATUR, RENOVATA SPECIE ANTIQU2E DIGNITATIS 

AC L.ETITLE. 

In the other niche, corresponding to the first statue, and, like it, standing 
and in armour, was seen the statue of Lorenzo the Younger, Duke of 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 77 

Urbino, with a sword in the hand; and in the little picture above him he 
had the portrait of his father Piero, and in the other picture the scene 
when the general's baton was given to him with such happy augury by 
his native Florence, likewise with an inscription to explain it, which said : 

LAURENTIUS MED. JUNIOR MAXIMA INVICT^ VIRTUTIS INDOLE, SUMMUM 
IN RE MILITARI IMPERIUM MAXIMO SUORUM CIVIUM AMORE ET SPE ADI- 

PISCITUR. 

OF THE CANTO ALLA PAGLIA. 

At the corner which from the straw that is constantly sold there is 
called the Canto alia Paglia, there was made another arch of great beauty 
and not less rich and imposing than any of the others. Now it may 
perchance appear to some, for the reason that all or the greater part of 
those ornaments have been extolled by us as in the highest rank of 
beauty and excellence of artistry, pomp, and richness, that this has been 
done by reason of a certain manner of writing inclined to overmuch 
praise and exaggeration. But everyone may take it as very certain that 
those works, besides leaving a long way behind them all things of that 
kind as were ever executed in that city, and perhaps in any other place, 
were also such, and ordained with such grandeur, magnificence, and 
liberality by those magnanimous Lords, and executed in such a manner 
by the craftsmen, that they surpassed by a great measure every expecta- 
tion, and took away from no matter what writer all force and power to 
attain with the pen to the excellence of the reality. 

Now, to return, I say that in that place in that part, namely, 
where the street that leads from the Archbishop's Palace into the Borgo 
S. Lorenzo, dividing the above-named Strada della Paglia, forms a 
perfect crossing of the ways, was made the ornament already mentioned, 
much after the likeness of the ancient four-fronted Temple of Janus; 
and, for the reason that from there the Cathedral Church could be seen, 
it was ordained by those truly religious Princes that it should be dedicated 
to sacrosanct Religion, in which how eminent all Tuscany, and Florence 
in particular, has been at all times, I do not believe that it is necessary 
for me to take much pains to demonstrate. And therein the intention 



78 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

was that since Florence had brought with her, as was told at the beginning, 
as her hand-maids and companions, to give the first welcome to the new 
bride, some of the virtues or attributes that had raised her to greatness, 
and in which she could well vaunt herself, the intention, I say, was to 
show that there also, for a no less necessary office, she had left Religion, 
that she, awaiting the bride, might in a certain manner introduce her 
into the vast and most ornate church so near at hand. That arch, then, 
which was in a very broad street, as has been told, was seen formed of four 
very ornate f agades, the first of which presented itself to the eyes of one 
going in the direction of the Carnesecchi, and another, following the 
limb of the cross, faced towards S. Giovanni and the Duomo of S. Maria 
del Fiore, leaving two other fagades on the cross-limb of the cross, one 
of which looked towards S. Lorenzo and the other towards the Arch- 
bishop's Palace. And now, to describe in order and with as much 
clearness as may be possible the composition and the beauty of the 
whole, I say beginning again with the front part, to which that at the 
back was wholly similar in the composition of the ornaments, without 
failing in any point that in the centre of the wide street was seen the 
very broad entrance of the arch, which rose to a beautifully proportioned 
height, and on either side of it were seen two immense niches bordered by 
two similar Corinthian columns, all painted with sacred books, mitres, 
thuribles, chalices, and other sacerdotal instruments, in place of trophies 
and spoils. Above these, and above the regular cornices and friezes, 
which projected somewhat further outwards than those which came 
over the arch in the centre, but were exactly equal to them in height, 
was seen another cornice, as of a door or window, curving between the 
one column and the other in a quarter-round, which, seeming to form a 
separate niche, made an effect as graceful and lovely as could well be 
imagined. Above that last cornice, then, rose a frieze of a height and 
magnificence in accord with the proportions of so great a beginning, with 
certain great consoles, carved and overlaid with gold, which came exactly 
in perpendicular lines with the columns already described; and upon 
them rested another magnificent and very ornate cornice, with four very 
large candelabra likewise overlaid with gold and, like all the columns, 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 



79 



bases, capitals, cornices, architraves, and every other thing, picked out 
with various carvings and colours, and also standing in line with the great 
consoles and the columns above described. Now in the centre, springing 
above the said consoles, two cornices were seen rising, and little by little 
forming an angle, and finally uniting as a frontispiece, over which, upon 
a very rich and beautiful base, was seated an immense statue with a Cross 
in the hand, representing the most holy Christian Religion, at whose feet, 
one on either side of her, were seen two other similar statues which 
seemed to be lying upon the cornice of the above-named frontispiece, 
one of which, that on the right hand, with three children about her, 
represented Charity, and the other Hope. Then in the space, or, to speak 
more precisely, in the angle of the frontispiece, there was seen as the 
principal device of that arch the ancient Labarum with the Cross, and 
with the motto, IN HOC VINCES, sent to Constantine; beneath which was 
seen set with beautiful grace a very large escutcheon of the Medici with 
three Papal crowns, in keeping with the idea of Religion, for the three 
Pontiffs whom she has had from that house. And on the first level 
cornice, on either side, was seen a statue corresponding to the niche 
already described which came between the two columns; one of which, 
that on the right hand, was a most beautiful young woman in full armour, 
with the spear and shield, such as Minerva used to be represented in 
ancient times, save that in place of the head of Medusa there was seen 
a great red cross on her breast, which caused her to be recognized with 
ease as the new Order of S. Stephen, founded so devoutly by our glorious 
and magnanimous Duke. The other on the left hand was seen all adorned 
with sacerdotal and civil vestments in place of arms, and with a great 
:ross in the hand in place of a spear; and these, towering over the whole 
structure in most beautiful accord with the others, made a very imposing 
and marvellous effect. Next, in the frieze that came between that last 
cornice and the architrave that rested upon the columns, where according 
to the order of the composition there came three compartments, were 
m painted the three kinds of true religion that have been from the 
creation of the world down to the present day. In the first of these, 
came on the right hand beneath the armed statue, was seen painted 



80 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

that kind of religion which reigned in the time of natural law, in those 
few who had it true and good, although they had not a perfect knowledge 
of God, wherefore there was seen figured Melchizedek offering bread and 
wine and other fruits of the earth. Even so, in the picture on the left 
hand, which came in like manner beneath the statue of peaceful Religion, 
was seen the other religion, ordained by God through the hands of Moses, 
and more perfect than the first, but all so veiled with images and figures, 
that these did not permit the final and perfect clearness of Divine worship 
to be fully revealed; to signify which there were seen Moses and Aaron 
sacrificing the Paschal Lamb to God. But in the central picture, which 
came exactly beneath the large and above-described statues of Religion, 
Charity, and Hope, and over the principal arch, and which in proportion 
with the greater space was much larger, there was seen figured an altar, 
and upon it a Chalice with the Host, which is the true and evangelic 
Sacrifice; about which were seen some figures kneeling, and over it a 
Holy Spirit in the midst of many little Angels, who were holding 
in their hands a scroll in which was written, IN SPIRITU ET VERITATE; 
so that it appeared that they were repeating those words in song, 
Spiritus meaning all that concerns the sacrifice natural and corporeal, 
and Veritas all that appertains to the legal; which was all by way of 
image and figure. Beneath the whole scene was a most beautiful in- 
scription, which, supported by two other Angels, rested on the cornice 
of the central arch, saying: 

VERJB RELIGIONI, QILE VIRTUTUM OMNIUM FUNDAMENTUM, PUBLICARUM 
RERUM FIRMAMENTUM, PRIVATARUM ORNAMENTUM, ET HUMANE TOTIUS 
VIT2E LUMEN CONTINET, ETRURIA SEMPER DUX ET MAGISTRA ILLIUS 
HABITA, ET EADEM NUNC ANTIQUA ET SUA PROPRIA LAUDE MAXIME 
FLORENS, LIBENTISSIME CONSECRAVIT. 

But coming to the lower part, and returning to the niche which came 
on the right hand, between the two columns and beneath the armed 
Religion, and which, although in painting, by reason of the chiaroscuro 
appeared as if in relief; there, I say, was seen the statue of our present 
most pious Duke in the habit of a Knight of S. Stephen, with the cross 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 81 

in his hand, and with the following inscription, which had the appearance 
of real carving, over his head and above the niche, saying : 



COSMUS MEDIC. FLOREN. ET SENAR. DUX II, SACRAM D. STEPHANI MILI- 
TIAM CHRISTIANA PIETATIS ET BELLICjE VIRTUTIS DOMICILIUM FUNDAVIT, 

ANNO MDLXI. 

Even as on the base of the same niche, between the two pedestals 
of the columns, which were fashioned in the Corinthian proportions, 
there was seen painted the Taking of Damiata, achieved by the prowess 
of the valiant knights of Florence; as it were auguring for those his 
new knights similar glory and valour. And in the lunette or semi- 
circle which came above the two columns, there was seen his private and 
particular escutcheon of balls, which, by the red cross that was added 
to it with beautiful grace, made it clearly manifest that it was that of 
the Grand Master and Chief of the Order. 

Now, for the public and universal satisfaction, and in order to 
revive the memory of those who, born in that city or that province, 
became illustrious for integrity of character and for sanctity of life, and 
founders of some revered Order, and also to kindle the minds of all be- 
holders to imitation of their goodness and perfection, it was thought 
right and proper, since there had been placed on the right hand, as has 
been related, the statue of the Duke, founder of the holy military Order 
of S. Stephen, to set on the other side that of S. Giovanni Gualberto, who 
was likewise a knight of the household, according to the custom of those 
times, and the first founder and father of the Order of Vallombrosa. 
Most fittingly, even as the Duke was beneath the armed statue, in like 
manner he was seen standing beneath the sacerdotal statue of Religion, 
in the habit of a knight, pardoning his enemy; having in the frontispiece 
over the niche a similar escutcheon of the Medici, with three Cardinal's 
hats, and on the base the story of the miracle that took place at Badia di 
Settimo, when the friar, by the command of the above-named S. Giovanni 
Gualberto, to the confusion of the heretics and simonists, passed with 
his benediction and with a cross in his hand through the midst of a raging 
x. ii 



82 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

fire; with the inscription likewise in a little tablet above him, which made 
all that manifest, saying : 

JOANNES GUALBERTUS, EQUES NOBILISS. FLOREN., VALLIS UMBROS^ 
FAMILY AUCTOR FUIT, ANNO MLXI. 

With which was terminated that most ornate and beautiful principal 
fa$ade. 

Entering beneath the arch, one saw there a passing spacious loggia, 
or passage, or vestibule, whichever we may choose to call it; and in 
exactly the same manner were seen formed the three other entrances, 
which, being joined together at the intersection of the two streets, left 
in the centre a space about eight braccia square. There the four arches 
rose to the height of those without, and the pendentives curved in the 
manner of a vault as if a little cupola were to spring over them; but 
when these had reached the cornice curving right round, at the point 
where the vault of the cupola would have had to begin to rise, there 
sprang a gallery of gilded balusters, above which was seen a choir of 
most beautiful Angels, dancing most gracefully in a ring and singing in 
sweetest harmony; while for greater grace, and to the end that there 
might be light everywhere beneath the arch, in place of a cupola there 
was left the free and open sky. And in the spaces or spandrels, which- 
ever they may be called, of the four angles, which of necessity, narrow 
at their springing, opened out as they rose nearer to the cornice in accord- 
ance with the curve of the arch, were painted with no less grace in four 
rounds the four beasts mystically imagined by Ezekiel and by John the 
Divine for the four writers of the holy Evangel. But to return to the 
first of those four loggie or vestibules, as we have called them; the vaults ! 
there were seen distributed with very graceful and lovely divisions, and 
all adorned and painted with various little scenes and with the arms and 
devices of those religious Orders which were above or beside them, and ' 
in whose service, principally, they were there. Thus on the fa9ade of , 
that first one on the right hand, which was joined to the Duke's niche, j 
there was seen painted in a spacious picture the same Duke giving the 
habit to his knights, with those observances and ceremonies that are 
customary with them; in the most distant part, which represented Pisa, 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 83 

could be perceived the noble building of their palace, church, and hos- 
>ital, and on the base, in an inscription for the explanation of the scene, 
could be read these words: 

COSMUS MED. FLOR. ET SENAR. DUX II, EQUITIBUS SUIS DIVINO CONSILIO 
CREATIS MAGNIFICE PIEQUE INSIGNIA ET SEDEM PR^EBET LARGEQUE REBUS 

OMNIBUS INSTRUIT. 

Even as in the other on the opposite side, attached to the niche of S. Gio- 
r anni Gualberto, was seen how that same Saint founded his first and 
>rincipal monastery in the midst of the wildest forests; with an inscription 
:ewise on the base, which said: 

S. JO. GUALBERTUS IN VALLOMBROSIANO MONTE, AB INTERVENTORIBUS ET 
ILLECEBRIS OMNIBUS REMOTO LOCO, DOMICILIUM PONIT SACRIS SUIS 

SODALIBUS. 

Now, having despatched the front fagade, and passing to that at the 
>ack, and describing it in the same manner, the less to hinder a clear 
understanding, we shall say, as has also been said before, that in height, 
in size, in the compartments, in the columns, and, finally, in every other 
ornament, it corresponded completely to that already described, save 
that whereas the first had on the highest summit in the centre the three 
great statues described above, Religion, Charity, and Hope, the other had 
in place of these only a most beautiful altar all composed and adorned after 
the ancient use, upon which, even as one reads of Vesta, was seen burning 
a very bright flame. On the right hand, towards S. Giovanni, there was 
seen standing a great statue in becoming vestments and gazing intently 
on Heaven, representing the Contemplative Life, which came exactly 
in a perpendicular line over the great niche between the two columns, 
as has been described in the other fagade; and on the other side another 
great statue like it, but very active, with the arms bare and with the head 
crowned with flowers, representing the Active Life; in which statues 
were comprised very fittingly all the qualities that appertain to the 
Christian Religion. In the frieze between the one cornice and the 
other, which corresponded to that of the other part, and which was like- 
wise divided into three compartments, there were seen in the largest, 



84 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

which was in the centre, three men in Roman dress presenting twelve 
little children to some old and venerable Tuscans, to the end that these, 
being instructed by them in their religion, might demonstrate in what 
repute the Tuscan religion was held in ancient times among the Romans 
and all other nations: with a motto to explain this, taken from that per- 
fect law of Cicero, which said: ETRURIA PRINCIPES DISCIPLINAM DOCETO. 
Beneath which was the inscription, similar and corresponding to that 
already given from the other f agade, which said : 

FRUGIBUS INVENTIS DOCTyE CELEBRANTUR ATHENE, 

ROMA FEROX ARMIS IMPERIOQUE POTENS. 
AT NOSTRA tf;EC MITIS PROVINCIA ETRURIA RITU 

DIVING ET CULTU NOBILIORE DEI, 
UNAM QUAM PERHIBENT ARTES TENUISSE PIANDI 

NUMINIS, ET RITUS EDOCUISSE SACROS; 
NUNC EADEM SEDES VER.E EST PIETATIS, ET ILLI 

HOS NUMQUAM TITULOS AUFERET ULLA DIES. 

In one of the two smaller pictures, that which came on the right hand, 
since it is thought that the ancient religion of the Gentiles (which not 
without reason was placed on the west) is divided into two parts, and 
consists, above all, of augury and sacrifice, there was seen painted 
according to that use an ancient priest who with marvellous solicitude 
was standing all intent on considering the entrails of the animals sacri- 
ficed, which were placed before him in a great basin by the ministeis of 
the sacrifice; and in the other picture an augur like him with the crooked 
lituus in the hand, drawing in the sky the regions proper for taking 
auguries from certain birds that were shown flying above. 

Now, descending lower, and coming to the niches; in that, I say, 
which was on the right hand, was seen S. Romualdo, who in this our 
country, a land set apart, as it were, by Nature for religion and sanctity, 
founded on the wild Apennine mountains the holy Hermitage of Camal- 
doli, whence that Order had its origin and name; with the inscription 
over the niche, which said: 

ROMUALDUS IN HAC NOSTRA PLENA SANCTITATIS TERRA, CAMALDULENSIUM 
ORDINEM COLLOCAVIT ANNO MXII. 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 85 

And on the base the story of the sleeping hermit who saw in a dream 
the staircase similar to that of Jacob, which, passing beyond the clouds, 
ascended even to Heaven. On the fagade which was joined to the niche, 
and which passed, as was said of the other, under the vestibule, was seen 
painted the building of the above-named hermitage in that wild place, 
carried out with marvellous care and magnificence; with the inscription, 
which in explanation said: 

SANCTUS ROMUALDUS IN CAMALDULENSI SYLVESTRI LOCO, DIVINITUS 

SIBI OSTENSO ET DIVIN^E CONTEMPLATION! APTISSIMO, SUO GRAVISSIMO 

COLLEGIO SEDES QUIETISSIMAS EXTRUIT. 

In the niche on the left hand was seen the Blessed Filippo Benizi, 
one of our citizens, who was little less than the founder of the Servite 
Order, and without a doubt its first ordinator; and he, although he was 
accompanied by seven other noble Florentines, the one niche not being 
large enough to contain them all, was placed therein alone, as the most 
worthy; with the inscription above, which said: 

PHILIPPUS BENITIUS CIVIS NOSTER INSTITUIT ET REBUS OMNIBUS ORNAVIT 
SERVORUM FAMILIAM, ANNO MCCLXXXV. 

With the story of the Annunciation, likewise, on the base, wherein was 
the Virgin supported by many little Angels, with one among them who 
was shown scattering a beautiful vase of flowers over a vast multitude 
that stood there in supplication; representing the innumerable graces 
that are seen bestowed daily by her intercession on the faithful who 
with devout zeal commend themselves to her. In the other scene, in 
the great picture that came in the passage below, were the same S. Filippo 
and the seven above-mentioned noble citizens throwing off the civil habit 
of Florence and assuming that of the Servite Order, and shown all 
occupied with directing the building of their beautiful monastery, which 
is now to be seen in Florence, but was then without the city, and the 
venerable and most ornate Church of the Annunziata, so celebrated 
throughout the whole world for innumerable miracles, which has been 
since the head of that Order; with the inscription, which said: 

SEPTEM NOBILES GIVES NOSTRI IN SACELLO NOSTR^E URBIS, TOTO NUNC 

ORBE RELIGIONIS ET SANCTITATIS FAMA CLARISSIMO, SE TOTOS RELIGIONI 

DEDUNT ET SEMINA JACIUNT ORDINIS SERVORUM D. MARLE VIRG. 




86 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

There remain the two fagades which formed as it were arms, as 
has been told, to the straight limb of the cross. These were smaller 
than those already described, which was caused by the narrowness of 
the two streets that begin there; wherefore, since less space came to be 
left for the magnificence of the work, in order consequently not to depart 
from the due proportion of height in their much smaller size, with much 
judgment the arch which gave passage there had on either side not a 
niche but a single column; over which rose a frieze in due proportion, in 
the centre of which was a painted picture that crowned the ornamentation 
of that fagade, but not without an infinity of such other embellishments, 
devices, and pictures as were thought to be proper in such a place. Now, 
that whole structure being dedicated to the glory and power of the true 
Religion and to the memory of her glorious victories, they chose the two 
most noble and most important victories, won over two most powerful 
and particular adversaries, human wisdom namely, under which are 
comprised philosophers and heretics, and worldly power: and on the 
part facing towards the Archbishop's Palace was seen depicted how 
S. Peter and S. Paul and the other Apostles, filled with the divine spirit, 
disputed with a great number of philosophers and many others full of 
human wisdom, some of whom, those most confused, were seen throwing 
away or tearing up the books that they held in their hands, and others, 
such as Dionysius the Areopagite, Justinus, Pantaenus, and the like, 
were coming towards them, all humble and devout, in token of having 
recognized and accepted the Evangelic truth ; with the motto in explana- 
tion of this, which said: NON EST SAPIENTIA, NON EST PRUDENTIA. In the 
other scene towards the Archbishop's Palace, on the other side from the 
first, were seen the same S. Peter and S. Paul and the others in the presence 
of Nero and many of his armed satellites, boldly and freely preaching 
the truth of the Evangel; with the motto NON EST FORTITUDO, NON EST 
POTENTIA, referring to that which follows in Solomon, whence the motto 
is taken CONTRA DOMINUM. Of the fagades which came under the 
two vaults of those two arches, in one, on the side towards the Arch- 
bishop's Palace, was seen the Blessed Giovanni Colombini, an honoured 
citizen of Siena, making a beginning with the Company of the Ingesuati 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 87 

by throwing off the citizen's habit on the Campo di Siena and assuming 
that of a miserable beggar, and giving the same habit to many who 
with great zeal were demanding it from him; with the inscription, 
which said: 

ORIGO COLLEGII PAUPERUM, QUI AB JESU COGNOMEN ACCEPERUNT; 
CUJUS ORDINIS PRINCEPS FUIT JOANNES COLOMBINUS, DOMO SENENSIS, 

ANNO MCCCLI. 

And in the other, on the opposite side, were seen other gentlemen, like- 
wise of Siena, before Guido Pietramalesco, Bishop of Arezzo, to whom a 
commission had been given by the Pope that he should inquire into their 
lives; and they were all intent on making manifest to him the wish and 
desire that they had to create the Order of Monte Oliveto, which was 
seen approved by that Bishop, exhorting them to put into execution the 
building of that vast and most holy monastery, which they erected 
afterwards at Monte Oliveto in the district of Siena, and of which 
they were shown to have brought thither a model ; with the inscription, 
which said: 

INSTITUITUR SACER ORDO MONACORUM QUI AB OLIVETO MONTE NOMIN- 
ATUR, AUCTORIBUS NOBILIBUS CIVIBUS SENENSIBUS, ANNO MCCCXIX. 

On the side towards S. Lorenzo was seen the building of the most 
famous Oratory of La Vernia, at the expense in great part of the devout 
Counts Guidi, at that time lords of that country, and by the agency of 
the glorious S. Francis, who, moved by the solitude of the place, made 
his way thither, and was visited there by Our Lord the Crucified Jesus 
Christ and marked with the Stigmata; with the inscription that explained 
all this, saying: 

ASPERRIMUM AGRI NOSTRI MONTEM DIVUS FRANCISCUS ELEGIT, IN QUO 
SUMMO ARDORE DOMINI NOSTRI SALUTAREM NECEM CONTEMPLARETUR, 
ISQUE NOTIS PLAGARUM IN CORPORE IPSIUS EXPRESSIS DIVINITUS 

CONSERVATUR. 

Even as on the opposite side was seen the Celebration held in Florence 
of the Council under Eugenius IV, when the Greek Church, so long at 
discord with the Latin, was reunited with her, and the true Faith, it may 



88 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

be said, was restored to her pristine clearness and purity; which was 
likewise made manifest by the inscription, saying : 

NUMINE DEI OPTIMI MAX. ET SINGULARI CIVIUM NOSTRORUM RELIGIONIS 
STUDIO, ELIGITUR URBS NOSTRA IN QUA GR/ECIA, AMPLISSIMUM MEM- 
BRUM A CHRISTIANA PIETATE DISJUNCTUM, RELIQUO ECCLESLE CORPORI 

CONJUNGERETUR. 

OF S. MARIA DEL FIORE. 

As for the Cathedral Church, the central Duomo of the city, although 
it is in itself stupendous and most ornate, nevertheless, since the new 
Lady was to halt there, met by all the clergy, as she did, it was thought 
well to embellish it with all possible pomp and show of religion, and with 
lights, festoons, shields, and a vast and very well distributed quantity 
of banners. At the principal door, in particular, there was made in the 
Ionic Order of composition a marvellous and most graceful ornament, 
in which, in addition to the rest, which was in truth excellently well 
conceived, rich and rare beyond all else appeared ten little stories of the 
actions of the glorious Mother of Our Lord Jesus Christ, executed in 
low-relief, which, since they were judged by all who saw them to be of 
admirable artistry, it is hoped that some day they may be seen in bronze 
in competition with the marvellous and stupendous gates of the Temple 
of S. Giovanni, and even, as in a more favoured age, more pleasing and 
more beautiful; but at that time, although of clay, they were seen all 
overlaid with gold, and were let in a graceful pattern of compartments 
into the wooden door, which likewise had the appearance of gold. Above 
which, besides an immense escutcheon of the Medici with the Papal 
Keys and Crown, supported by Operation and Grace, were seen painted 
in a very beautiful canvas all the tutelary Saints of the city, who, turned 
towards a Madonna and the Child that she was holding in her arms, 
appeared to be praying to her for the welfare and felicity of Florence; 
even as over all, as the principal device, and with most lovely invention, 
was seen a little ship which, with the aid of a favourable wind, appeared 
to be speeding with full sail towards a most tranquil port, signifying 
that Christian actions are in need of the divine grace, but that it is also 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 89 

necessary on our part to add to them, as not being passive, good dispo- 
sition and activity. Which was likewise made clearly manifest by the 
motto, which said, ^vv @eoJ; and even more by the very short inscrip- 
tion that was seen beneath, saying: 

CONFIRMA HOC DEUS QUOD OPERATUS ES IN NOBIS. 



OF THE HORSE. 

On the Piazza di S. Pulinari, not in connection with the tribunal 
that was near there, but to the end that the great space between the 
Duomo and the next arch might not remain empty, although the street 
is very beautiful, there was made with marvellous artistry and subtle 
invention the figure of an immense, very excellent, very fiery and well- 
executed horse, more than nine braccia in height, which was rearing up 
on the hind-legs; and upon it was seen a young hero in full armour and 
in aspect all filled with valour, who had just wounded to death with his 
spear, the butt of which was seen at his feet, a vast monster that was 
stretched all limp beneath his horse, and already he had laid his hand on 
a glittering sword, as if about to smite him again, and seemed to marvel 
to what straits the monster had been reduced by the first blow. That 
hero represented the true Herculean Virtue, which, as Dante said so well, 
chased through every town and banished to Hell the dissipatrix of 
kingdoms and republics, the mother of discord, injury, rapine, and in- 
justice, that evil power, finally, that is commonly called Vice or Fraud, 
hidden under the form of a woman young and fair, but with a great scor- 
pion's tail ; and, slaying her, he seemed to have restored the city to the 
tranquillity and peace in which she is seen at the present day, thanks 
to her excellent Lords, reposing and flourishing so happily. Which was 
demonstrated in a manner no less masterly by the device, placed fittingly 
on the great base, in which, in the centre of an open temple supported by 
many columns, upon a sacred altar, was seen the Egyptian Ibis, which 
was shown tearing with the beak and with the claws some serpents that 
were wound round its legs; with a motto that said aptly: 

DIGNA. 

x. 12 



go OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

OF THE BORGO DE' GRECI. 

Even so, also, at the corner of the Borgo de' Greci, to the end that 
in the turn that was made in going towards the Dogana, the eyes might 
have something on which to feast with delight, it was thought well to 
form a little closed arch of Doric architecture, dedicating it to Public 
Merriment; which was demonstrated by the statue of a woman crowned 
with a garland and all joyous and smiling, which was in the principal 
place, with a motto in explanation, saying: HILARITAS P.P. FLORENT. 
Below her, in the midst of many grotesques and many graceful little 
stories of Bacchus, were seen two most charming little Satyrs, which 
with two skins that they held on their shoulders were pouring into a 
very beautiful fountain, as was done in the other, white and red wine; 
and as in the other the fish, so in this one two swans that were under the 
boys, played a trick on him who drank too much by means of jets of 
water that at times spurted with force from the vase; with a graceful 
motto that said: ABITE LYMPHS VINI PERNICIES. Above and around 
the large statue were seen many others, both Satyrs and Bacchanals, 
who, shown in a thousand pleasing ways drinking, dancing, singing, 
and playing all those pranks that the drunken are wont to play, seemed 
as if chanting the motto written above them : 

NUNC EST BIBENDUM, NUNC PEDE LIBERO PULSANDA TELLUS. 

OF THE ARCH OF THE DOGANA. 

It appeared, among the many prerogatives, excellences, and graces 
with which fair Florence adorned herself, distributing them over various 
places, as has been shown, to receive and accompany her illustrious 
Princess, it appeared, I say, that the sole sovereign and head of them all, 
Civil Virtue or Prudence, queen and mistress of the art of ruling and 
governing well peoples and states, had been passed over up to this point 
without receiving any attention; as to which Prudence, although to the 
great praise and glory of Florence it could be demonstrated amply in 
many of her children in past times, nevertheless, having at the present 






OF THE ACADEMICIANS 91 

time in her most excellent Lords the most recent, the most true, and 
without a doubt the most splendid example that has ever been seen in 
her up to our own day, it was thought that their magnanimous actions 
were best fitted to express and demonstrate that virtue. And with what 
good reason, and how clearly without any taint of adulation, but only 
by the grateful minds of the best citizens, this honour was paid to them, 
anyone who is not possessed by blind envy (by whose venomous bite 
whoever has ruled at any time has always been molested), may judge 
with ease, looking not only at the pure and upright government of their 
happily adventuresome State and at its preservation among difficulties, 
but also at its memorable, ample, and glorious increase, brought about 
certainly not less by the infinite fortitude, constancy, patience, and vigil- 
ance of its most prudent Duke, than by the benign favour of prosperous 
Fortune. All which came to be expressed excellently well in the inscrip- 
tion set with most beautiful grace in a fitting place, embracing the whole 
conception of the whole ornament, and saying: 

REBUS URBANIS CONSTITUTIS, FINIB. IMPERII PROPAGATIS, RE MILITARI 
ORNATA, PACE UBIQUE PARTA, CIVITATIS IMPERIIQUE DIGNITATE AUCTA, 
MEMOR TANTORUM BENEFICIORUM PATRIA PRUDENTLE DUCIS OPT. 

DEDICAVIT. 

At the entrance of the public and ducal Piazza, then, and attached on 
one side to the public and ducal Palace, and on the other to those buildings 
in which salt is distributed to the people, there was dedicated well and 
fittingly to that same Civil Virtue or Prudence an arch marvellous and 
grand beyond all the others, similar and conforming in every part, 
although more lofty and more magnificent, to that of Religion already 
described, which was placed on the Canto alia Paglia. In that arch, 
above four vast Corinthian columns, in the midst of which space was 
left for the procession to pass, and above the usual architrave, cornice, 
and frieze of projections as was said of the other divided into three 
compartments, and upon a second great cornice that crowned the whole 
work, there was seen in grave and heroic majesty, seated in the semblance 
of a Queen with a sceptre in the right hand and resting the left on a great 
globe, an immense woman adorned with a royal crown, who could be 



92 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

recognized with ease as being that Civil Virtue. There remained below, 
between one column and another, as much space as accommodated with- 
out difficulty a deep and spacious niche, in each of which was demon- 
strated very aptly of what other virtues that Civil Virtue is composed; 
and, rightly giving the first place to the military virtues, there was seen 
in the niche on the right hand, with heroic and most beautiful compo- 
sition, the statue of Fortitude, the first principle of all magnanimous and 
generous actions, even as on the left hand in like manner was seen placed 
that of Constancy, who best guides and executes them. And since 
between the frontispieces of the two niches and the cornice that went 
right round there was left some space, to the end that the whole might 
be adorned, there were counterfeited there two rounds in the colour of 
bronze, in one of which was depicted with a fine fleet of galleys and other 
ships the diligence and solicitude of our most shrewd Duke in maritime 
affairs, and in the other, as is often found in ancient medals, was seen 
the same Duke going around on horseback to visit his fortunate States 
and to provide for their wants. Next, over the crowning cornice, where, 
as has been told, the masterly statue of Civil Prudence was seated, con- 
tinuing to show of what parts she is composed, and exactly in a line with 
the Fortitude already described, and separated from her by some mag- 
nificent vases, was seen Vigilance, so necessary in every human action; 
even as above Constancy was seen in like manner Patience, and I do not 
speak of that patience to which meek minds, tolerating injuries, have 
given the name of virtue, but of that which won so much honour for the 
ancient Fabius Maximus, and which, awaiting opportune moments with 
prudence and mature reflection, and void of all rash vehemence, executes 
every action with reason and advantage. In the three pictures, then, 
into which, as was said, the frieze was divided, and which were separated 
by medallions and pilasters that sprang in a line with the columns and 
extended with supreme beauty as far as the great cornice; in that in the 
centre, which came above the portal of the arch and beneath the Sovereign 
Prudence, was seen painted the generous Duke with prudent and loving 
counsel handing over to the worthy Prince the whole government of his 
spacious States, which was expressed by a sceptre upon a stork, which 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 93 

he was shown offering to his son, and it was being accepted with great 
reverence by the obedient Prince; with a motto that said: REGET PATRIIS 
VIRTUTIBUS. Even as in that on the right hand was seen the same most 
valiant Duke with courageous resolution sending forth his people, and 
the first fort of Siena occupied by them no slight cause, probably, of 
their victory in that war. And in that on the left hand, in like manner, 
was painted his joyful entry into that most noble city after the winning 
of the victory. But behind the great statue of Sovereign Prudence 
and in this alone was that front part dissimilar to the Arch of Religion 
was seen raised on high a base beautifully twined with cartouches and 
square, although at the foot, not without infinite grace, it was something 
wider than at the top; upon which, reviving the ancient use, was seen a 
most beautiful triumphal chariot drawn by four marvellous coursers, not 
inferior, perchance, to any of the ancient in beauty and grandeur. In 
that chariot was seen held suspended in the air by two lovely little Angels 
the principal crown of the arch, composed of civic oak, and, in the like- 
ness of that of the first Augustus, attached to two tails of Capricorns; 
with the same motto that was once used with it by him, saying: OB 
GIVES SERVATOS. And in the spaces that remained between the pictures, 
statues, columns, and niches, all was filled up with richness and grace 
by an infinite wealth of Victories, Anchors, Tortoises with the Sail, 
Diamonds, Capricorns, and other suchlike devices of those magnanimous 
Lords. 

Now, passing to the part at the back, facing towards the Piazza, 
which we must describe as being in every way similar to the front, ex- 
cepting that in place of the statue of Sovereign Prudence, there was seen 
in a large oval corresponding to the great pedestal that supported the 
great chariot described above, which, with ingenious artifice, after the 
passing of the procession, was turned in a moment towards the Piazza; 
there was seen, I say, as the principal device of the arch, a celestial 
Capricorn with its stars, which was shown holding with the paws a royal 
sceptre with an eye at the top, such as it is said that the ancient and most 
just Osiris used once to carry, with the ancient motto about it, saying: 
NULLUM NUMEN ABEST; as if adding, as the first author said: si SIT PRU- 



94 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

DENTIA. In the lower part, we have to relate as a beginning because 
that fagade was made to represent the actions of peace, which are perhaps 
no less necessary to the human race that in the niche on the right hand, 
as with those of the other fagade already described, there was seen 
placed a statue of a woman, representing Reward or Remuneration, and 
called Grace, such as wise Princes are wont to confer for meritorious 
works upon men of excellence and worth, even as on the left hand, in 
a threatening aspect, with a sword in the hand, in the figure of Nemesis, 
was seen Punishment, for the vicious and criminal; with which figures 
were comprised the two principal pillars of Justice, without both which 
no State ever had stability or firmness, or was anything but imperfect 
and maimed. In the two ovals, then, always corresponding to those 
of the other fa$ade, and like them also counterfeited in bronze, in one 
were seen the fortifications executed with much forethought in many 
places by the prudent Duke, and in the other his marvellous care and 
diligence in achieving the common peace of Italy, as has been seen in 
many of his actions, but particularly at that moment when by his agency 
was extinguished the terrible and so dangerous conflagration fanned 
with little prudence by one who should rather have assured the public 
welfare of the Christian people; which was represented by various Fetiales, 
altars, and other suchlike instruments of peace, and by the words custo- 
mary in medals placed over them, saying: PAX AUGUSTA. Over these, 
and over the two above-described statues of the niches, similar to those 
of the other side, were seen on the right hand Facility and on the left 
Temperance or Goodness, as we would rather call her; signifying by the 
first an external courtesy and affability in deigning to listen and hearken 
and answer graciously to everyone, which keeps the people marvellously 
well contented, and by the other that temperate and benign nature 
which renders the Prince amiable and loving with his confidants and 
intimates, and with his subjects easy and gracious. In the frieze, cor- 
responding to that of the front part, and like it divided into three pic- 
tures, was likewise seen in that of the centre, as the thing of most import- 
ance, the conclusion of the happy marriage contracted between the most 
illustrious Prince and the most serene Queen Joanna of Austria, with so 






OF THE ACADEMICIANS 95 

much satisfaction and benefit to his fortunate people, and bringing peace 
and repose to everyone; with a motto saying: FAUSTO CUM SIDERE. 
Even as in another, on the right hand, was seen the loving Duke holding 
by the hand the excellent Duchess Leonora, his consort, a woman of 
virile and admirable worth and wisdom, with whom while she was alive 
he was joined by such a love, that they could well be called the bright 
mirror of conjugal fidelity. On the left hand was seen the same gracious 
Duke listening with marvellous courtesy, as he has been wont always to 
do, to many who were shown seeking to speak with him. And such was 
all that part which faced towards the Piazza. 

Beneath the spacious arch and within the wide passage through 
which the procession passed, on one of the walls that supported the 
vaulting, was seen painted the glorious Duke in the midst of many vener- 
able old men, with whom he was taking counsel, and he appeared to be 
giving to many various laws and statutes written on divers sheets, signi- 
fying the innumerable laws so wisely amended or newly decreed by him; 
with the motto: LEGIBUS EMENDES. Even as in the other, demonstrating 
his most useful resolve to set in order and increase his valorous militia, 
was seen the same valiant Duke standing upon a military tribune and 
engaged in addressing a great multitude of soldiers who stood around 
him, as we see in many ancient medals; with a motto above him that 
said: ARMIS TUTERIS. And so on the great vault, which was divided into 
six compartments, there was seen in each of these, in place of the rosettes 
that are generally put there, a device, or, to speak more correctly, the 
reverse of a medal in keeping with the two above-described scenes of 
the walls. In one of these were painted various curule chairs with 
various consular fasces, and in another a woman with the balance, repre- 
senting Equity; these two being intended to signify that just laws must 
always unite with the severity of the supreme power the equity of the 
discerning judge. The next two were concerned with military life, 
demonstrating the virtues of soldiers and the fidelity incumbent on them ; 
for the first of these things there was seen painted a woman armed in 
:he ancient fashion, and for the other many soldiers who, laying one hand 
upon an altar, were shown presenting the other to their captain. In 



96 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

the two that remained, representing the just and desired fruits of all 
these fatigues, namely, Victory, the whole was seen fully expressed, 
as is customary, by the figures of two women, one standing in one of the 
pictures upon a great chariot, and the other in the other picture upon a 
great ship's beak; and both were seen holding in one of the hands a 
branch of glorious palm, and in the other a verdant crown of triumphal 
laurel. And in the encircling frieze that ran right round the vaulting, 
the front and the back, there followed the third part of the motto already 
begun, saying: MORIBUS ORNES. 



OF THE PIAZZA, AND OF THE NEPTUNE. 

Next, all the most noble magistrates of the city, distributing them- 
selves one by one over the whole circuit of the great Piazza, each with 
his customary devices and with very rich tapestries divided evenly by 
most graceful pilasters, had rendered it all magnificently imposing and 
ornate; and there in those days great care and diligence were devoted 
to hastening the erecting in its place, at the beginning of the Ringhiera, 
of that Giant in the finest white marble, so marvellous and so stupendous 
in grandeur, in beauty, and in every part, which is still to be seen there 
at the present day; although it had been ordained as a permanent and 
enduring ornament. That Giant is known by the trident that he has in 
the hand, by the crown of pine, and by the Tritons that are at his feet, 
sounding their trumpets, to be Neptune, God of the sea; and, riding in 
a graceful car adorned with various products of the sea and two ascendant 
Signs, Capricorn for the Duke and Aries for the Prince, and drawn by 
four Sea-horses, he appears in the guise of a benign protector to be promis- 
ing tranquillity, felicity, and victory in the affairs of the sea. At the 
foot of this, in order to establish it more securely and more richly, there 
was made at that time in a no less beautiful manner an immense and most 
lovely octagonal fountain, gracefully supported by some Satyrs, who, 
holding in their hands little baskets of various wild fruits and prickly 
shells of chestnuts, and divided by some little scenes in low-relief and by 
some festoons in which were interspersed sea-shells, crabs, and other 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 97 

suchlike things, seemed as they danced to be expressing great j oy in their 
new Lady; even as with no less joy and no less grace there were seen 
lying on the sides of the four principal faces of the fountain, likewise 
with certain great shells in their hands and with some children in their 
arms, two nude women and two most beautiful youths, who in a certain 
gracious attitude, as if they were on the sea-shore, appeared to be playing 
and sporting gracefully with some dolphins that were there, likewise in 
low-relief. 

OF THE DOOR OF THE PALACE. 

Now, having caused the serene Princess to be received, as has been 
told in the beginning of this description, by Florence, accompanied by 
the followers of Mars, of the Muses, of Ceres, of Industry, and of Tuscan 
Poetry and Design, and then triumphant Austria by Tuscany, and the 
Drava by Arno, and Ocean by the Tyrrhenian Sea, with Hymen promising 
her happy and prosperous nuptials, and the parental meeting of her 
august and glorious Emperors with the illustrious Medici, and then all 
passing through the Arch of Sacrosanct Religion and fulfilling and accom- 
plishing their vows at the Cathedral Church, and having seen Heroic Virtue 
in triumph over Vice, and with what public rejoicing her entry was 
celebrated by Civil Virtue, and how, finally, she was welcomed by the 
magistrates of the city, with Neptune promising her a tranquil sea, it 
was determined judiciously to bring her at the last into the port of peaceful 
Security, who was seen figured over the door of the Ducal Palace, in a 
place marvellously appropriate, in the form of a very tall, most beautiful, 
and most joyous woman crowned with laurel and olive, who was shown 
seated in an easy attitude upon a stable pedestal and leaning against a 
great column; demonstrating by means of her the desired end of all 
human affairs, deservedly acquired for Florence, and in consequence for 
the happy bride, by the sciences, arts, and virtues of which we have 
spoken above, but particularly by her most prudent and most fortunate 
Lords, who had prepared to receive and accommodate her there as in a 
place secure beyond all others, wherein she might enjoy unceasingly in 
glory and splendour the benefits human and divine displayed before her 

x. 13 



g8 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

in the ornaments that she had passed; which was explained very aptly 
both by the inscription that came with most beautiful grace over the 
door, saying: 

INGREDERE OPTIMIS AUSPICIIS FORTUNATAS ^DES TUAS AUGUSTA VIRGO, 
ET PR^STANTISSIMI SPONSI AMORE, CLARISS. DUCIS SAPIENTIA, CUM 
BONIS OMNIBUS DELICIISQUE SUMMA ANIMI SECURITATE DIU FELIX ET 
L^ETA PERFRUERE, ET DIVINE TU^E VIRTUTIS, SUAVITATIS, FECUNDITATIS 
FRUCTIBUS PUBLICAM HILARITATEM CONFIRMA. 

And also by the principal device, which was seen painted in a great oval 
in the highest part, over the statue of Security already described; and 
this was the military Eagle of the Roman Legions upon a laureate staff, 
which was shown to have been planted firmly in the earth by the hand 
of the standard-bearer; with the motto of such happy augury from Livy, 
from whom the whole device is taken, saying : me MANEBIMUS OPTUME. 
The ornament of the door, which was attached to the wall, was con- 
trived in such a manner, and conceived so well, that it would serve ex- 
cellently well if at any time, in order to adorn the simple but magnificent 
roughness of past ages, it were determined to build it in marble or some 
other finer stone as more stable and enduring, and more in keeping with 
our more cultured age. Beginning with the lowest part, I say, upon two 
great pedestals that rested on the level of the ground and stood one on 
either side of the true door of the Palace, were seen two immense captives, 
one male, representing Fury, and one female, with vipers and horned 
snakes for hair, representing Discord, his companion; which, as it were 
vanquished, subjugated, and bound with chains, and held down by the 
Ionic capital and by the architrave, frieze, and cornice that pressed 
upon them from above, seemed in a certain sort to be unable to breathe 
by reason of the great weight, revealing only too well in their faces, which 
were most beautiful in their ugliness, Anger, Rage, Venom, Violence, 
and Fraud, their peculiar and natural passions. Above that cornice was 
seen formed a frontispiece, in which was placed a very rich and very 
large escutcheon of the Duke, bordered by the usual Fleece, with the 
Ducal Mazzocchio supported by two very beautiful boys. And lest this 
single ornament, which exactly covered the jambs of the true door, might 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 99 

have a poor effect in so great a palace, it was thought right to place on 
either side of it four half-columns set two on one side and two on the 
other, which, coming to the same height, and furnished with the same 
cornice and architrave, should form a quarter-round which the other 
frontispiece, pointed but rectilinear, might embrace, with its projections 
and with all its appurtenances set in the proper places. And above this 
was formed a very beautiful base, where there was seen the above- 
described statue of Security, set in position, as has been told, with most 
beautiful grace. But to return to the four half-columns below; for the 
sake of greater magnificence, beauty, and proportion, I say, there had 
been left so much space at either side, between column and column, that 
there was ample room for a large and beautiful picture painted there in 
place of a niche. In one of these, that which was placed nearest to the 
divine statue of the gentle David, were seen in the forms of three women, 
who were shown full of joy advancing to meet their desired Lady, Nature, 
with her towers on her head, as is customary, and with her many breasts, 
signifying the happy multitude of her inhabitants, and Concord with the 
Caduceus in her hand, even as in the third was seen figured Minerva, 
the inventress and mistress of the liberal arts and of civil and refined 
customs. In the other, which faced towards the proud statue of Hercules, 
was seen Amaltheia, with the usual horn of plenty, overflowing with fruits 
and flowers, in her arms, and at her feet the corn-measure brimming and 
adorned with ears of corn, signifying the abundance and fertility of the 
earth; there, also, was Peace crowned with flowered and fruitful olive, 
with a branch of the same in the hand, and finally there was seen, with 
an aspect grave and venerable, Majesty or Reputation; demonstrating 
ingeniously with all these things how in well-ordered cities, abundant in 
men, copious in riches, adorned by arts, filled with sciences, and illustrious 
in majesty and reputation, one lives happily and in peace, quietness, and 
contentment. Then in line with the four half -columns already described, 
above the cornice and frieze of each, was seen fixed in a manner no less 
beautiful a socle with a pedestal in proportion, upon which rested some 
statues; and since the two in the centre embraced also the width of the 
two terminals described, upon each of these were placed two statues 



ioo OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

embracing one another Virtue, namely, who was shown holding Fortune 
in a strait and loving embrace, with a motto on the base saying, VIRTU- 
TEM FORTUNA SEQUETUR; as if to demonstrate that, whatever many may 
say, where virtue is fortune is never wanting; and upon the other Fatigue 
or Diligence, who in like manner was shown in the act of embracing 
Victory, with a motto at her feet saying: AM AT VICTORIA CURAM. And 
above the half-columns that were at the extremities, and upon which 
the pedestals were narrower, adorning each of them with a single statue, 
on one there was seen Eternity as she is figured by the ancients, with the 
heads of Janus in her hands, and with the motto, NEC FINES NEC TEM- 
PORA; and on the other Fame figured in the usual manner, likewise with 
a motto saying: TERMINAT ASTRIS. Between one and the other of these, 
there was placed with ornate and beautiful composition, so as to have the 
above-named escutcheon of the Duke exactly in the middle, on the right 
hand that of the most excellent Prince and Princess, and on the other 
that which the city has been accustomed to use from ancient times. 



OF THE COURT OF THE PALACE. 

I thought, when I first resolved to write, that it would take much 
less work to bring me to the end of the description given above, but the 
abundance of the inventions, the magnificence of the things done, and the 
desire to satisfy the curiosity of craftsmen, for whose particular benefit, 
as has been told, this description is written, have in some way, I know not 
how, carried me to a length which might perchance appear to some to 
be excessive, but which is nevertheless necessary for one who proposes 
to render everything distinct and clear. But now that I find myself past 
the first part of my labours, although I hope to treat with more brevity, 
and with perhaps no less pleasure for my readers, the remainder of the 
description of the spectacles that were held, in which, no less than the 
liberality of our magnanimous Lords, and no less than the lively dexterity 
of the ingenious inventors, there appeared rare and excellent the industry 
and art of the same craftsmen, yet it should not be thought a thing 
beside the mark or altogether unworthy of consideration, if, before 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 101 

going any further, we say something of the aspect of the city while the 
festivities for the nuptials were being prepared and after they were 
finished, for the reason that in the city, to the infinite entertainment of 
all beholders, were seen many streets redecorated both within and with- 
out, the Ducal Palace (as will be described) embellished with extra- 
ordinary rapidity, the fabric of the long corridor (which leads from that 
Palace to that of the Pitti) flying, as it were, with wings, the column, 
the fountain, and all the arches described above springing in a certain 
sense out of the ground, and all the other festive preparations in progress, 
but in particular the comedy, which was to appear first, and the two 
grand masquerades, which had need of most labour, and, finally, all the 
other things being prepared according to the time at which they were to 
be represented, some quickly and others more slowly; the two Lords, 
Duke and Prince, after the manner of the ancient ^Ediles, having dis- 
tributed them between themselves, and having undertaken to execute 
each his part in generous emulation. Nor was less solicitude or less 
rivalry seen among the gentlemen and ladies of the city, and among the 
strangers, of whom a vast number had flocked thither from all Italy, 
vying one with another in the pomp of vestments, and not less in their 
own than in the liveries of their attendants, male and female, in festivals 
private and public, and in the sumptuous banquets that were given in 
constant succession, now in one place and now in another; so that there 
could be seen at one and the same moment leisure, festivity, delight, 
spending, and pomp, and also commerce, industry, patience, labour, and 
grateful gain, with which all the craftsmen named above were filled, all 
working their effect in liberal measure. 

Now, to come to the court of the Ducal Palace, into which one 
entered by the door already described; in order not to pass it by without 
saying anything about it, we must relate that, although it seemed dark 
and inconvenient, and almost incapable of receiving any kind of orna- 
mentation, nevertheless with marvellous novelty and with incredible 
rapidity it was carried to that perfection of beauty and loveliness in which 
it may be seen by everyone at the present day. In addition to the graceful 
fountain of hardest porphyry that is placed in the centre, and the lovely 



102 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

boy that pours water into it from the dolphin held in his arms, in an instant 
the nine columns were fluted and shaped in a most beautiful manner in 
the Corinthian Order, which surround the square court named above, 
and which support on one side the encircling loggie constructed very 
roughly of hard-stone, according to the custom of those times; over- 
laying the ground of those columns almost entirely with gold, and filling 
them with most graceful foliage over the flutings, and shaping their bases 
and capitals together according to the good ancient custom. Within 
the loggie, the vaults of which were all filled and adorned with most 
bizarre and extravagant grotesques, there were seen represented, as in 
many medallions made for the same purpose, some of the glorious deeds 
of the magnanimous Duke, which if smaller things may be compared 
with greater I have considered often in my own mind to be so similar 
to those of the first Octavianus Augustus, that it would be difficult to 
find any greater resemblance; for the reason that not to mention that 
both the one and the other were born under one and the same ascendant 
of Capricorn, and not to mention that both were raised almost unexpec- 
tedly to the sovereignty at the same immature age, and not to speak 
of the most important victories gained both by the one and by the other 
in the first days of August, and of their having similar constitutions and 
natures in their private and intimate lives, and of their singular affection 
for their wives, save that in his children, in the election to the princi- 
pality, and perhaps in many other things, I believe that our fortunate 
Duke might be esteemed more blessed than Augustus is there not seen 
both in the one and in the other a most ardent and most extraordinary 
desire to build and embellish, and to contrive that others should build 
and embellish ? Insomuch that, if the first said that he found Rome built 
of bricks and left her built of solid stone, the second will be able to say 
not less truthfully that he received Florence already of stone, indeed, 
ornate and beautiful, but leaves her to his successors by a great measure 
more ornate and more beautiful, increased and magnified by every kind 
of convenient, lovely, and magnificent adornment. 

To represent these matters, in each lunette of the above-named 
loggie there was seen an oval accommodated with suitable ornaments, 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 103 

and with singular grace; in one of which there could be seen the fortifi- 
cation of Porto Ferrajo in Elba, a work of such importance, with many 
ships and galleys that were shown lying there in safety, and the glorious 
building of the city in the same place, called after its founder Cosmopolis ; 
with a motto within the oval, saying: ILVA RENASCENS; and another 
in the encircling scroll, which said: TUSCORUM ET LIGURUM SECURITATI. 
Even as in the second was seen that most useful and handsome building 
wherein the greater part of the most noble magistrates are to be accommo- 
dated, which is being erected by his command opposite to the Mint, and 
which may be seen already carried near completion ; and over it stretches 
that long and convenient corridor of which mention has been made 
above, built with extraordinary rapidity in these days by order of the 
same Duke; likewise with a motto that said: PUBLICS COMMODITATI. 
And so, also, in the third was seen Concord, with the usual horn of plenty 
in the left hand, and with an ancient military ensign in the right, at whose 
feet a Lion and a She- Wolf, the well-known emblems of Florence and 
Siena, were shown lying in peaceful tranquillity; with a motto suited 
to the matter, and saying: ETRURIA PACATA. In the fourth was seen 
depicted the above-described oriental column of granite, with Justice 
on the summit, which under his happy sceptre may well be said to be 
preserved inviolate and impartial; with a motto saying: JUSTITIA VICTRIX. 
Even as in the fifth was seen a ferocious bull with both the horns broken, 
intended to signify, as has been told already of the Achelous, the straight- 
ening of the River Arno in many places, carried out with such advantage 
by the Duke; with the motto: IMMINUTUS CREVIT. In the sixth, then, 
was seen that most superb palace which was begun formerly by M. Luca 
Pitti with a magnificence so marvellous in a private citizen, and with 
truly regal spirit and grandeur, and which at the present day our most 
magnanimous Duke is causing with incomparable artistry and care to 
be not only carried to completion, but also to be increased and beautified 
in a glorious and marvellous manner, with architecture heroic and stu- 
pendous, and also with very large and very choice gardens full of most 
abundant fountains, and with a vast quantity of most noble statues, 
ancient and modern, which he has caused to be collected from all over 



104 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

the world; which was explained by the motto, saying: PULCHRIORA 
LATENT. In the seventh, within a great door, were seen many books 
arranged in various manners, with a motto in the scroll, saying, PUBLICS 
UTILITATI; intended to signify the glorious solicitude shown by many of 
the Medici family, and particularly by our most liberal Duke, in collecting 
and preserving with such diligence a marvellous quantity of the rarest 
books in every tongue, recently placed in the beautiful Library of 
S. Lorenzo, which was begun by Clement VII and finished by his Excel- 
lency. Even as in the eighth, under the figure of two hands that appeared 
to become more firmly bound together the more they strove to undo a 
certain knot, there was denoted the abdication lovingly performed by 
him in favour of the most amiable Prince, and how difficult, or, we should 
rather say, how impossible it is for one who has once set himself to the 
government of a State, to disengage himself; which was explained by 
the motto, saying: EXPLICANDO IMPLICATUR. In the ninth was seen the 
above- described Fountain of the Piazza, with that rare statue of Neptune, 
and with the motto, OPTABILIOR QUO MELIOR; signifying not only the 
adornment of the immense statue and fountain named above, but also 
the profit and advantage that will accrue in a short time to the city from 
the waters that the Duke is constantly engaged in bringing to her. In 
the tenth, then, was seen the magnanimous creation of the new Order 
of S. Stephen, represented by the figure of the same Duke in armour, 
who was shown offering a sword with one hand over an altar to an armed 
knight, and with the other one of their crosses; with a motto saying: 
VICTOR VINCITUR. And in the eleventh, likewise under the figure of the 
same Duke, who was addressing many soldiers according to the ancient 
custom, there was represented the militia so well ordained and preserved 
by him in his valorous companies; with a motto that explained it, saying: 
RES MILITARIS CONSTITUTA. In the twelfth, with the sole words, MUNITA 
TUSCIA, and without any further representation, were demonstrated the 
many fortifications made by our most prudent Duke in the most im- 
portant places in the State; adding in the scroll, with fine morality: 
SINE JUSTITIA IMMUNITA. Even as in the thirteenth, in like manner 
without any other representation, there could be read, SICCATIS MARI- 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 105 

TIMIS PALUDIBUS; as may be seen to his infinite glory in many places, 
but above all in the fertile country of Pisa. And in order not to pass 
over completely in silence the praise due to him for having brought back 
and restored so gloriously to his native Florence the artillery and the 
ensigns lost at other times, in the fourteenth and last were seen some 
soldiers returning to him laden with these, all dancing and joyful; with a 
motto in explanation, which said: SIGNIS RECEPTIS. And then, for the 
satisfaction of the strangers, and particularly the many German lords 
who had come thither in vast numbers in honour of her Highness, with 
the most excellent Duke of Bavaria, the younger, her kinsman, there 
were seen under the above - described lunettes, beautifully distributed 
in compartments and depicted with all the appearance of reality, many 
of the principal cities of Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, the Tyrol, and the 
other States subject to her august brother. 



OF THE HALL, AND OF THE COMEDY. 

Now, ascending by the most commodious staircase to the Great 
Hall, where the principal and most important festivities and the principal 
banquet of the nuptials were celebrated (forbearing to speak of the mag- 
nificent and stupendous ceiling, marvellous in the variety and multitude 
of the rare historical paintings, and marvellous also in the ingenuity of 
the inventions, in the richness of the partitions, and in the infinite quantity 
of gold with which the whole is seen to shine, but most marvellous in 
that it has been executed in an incredibly short time by the industry of 
a single painter; and treating of the other things pertaining only to this 
place), I must say that truly I do not believe that in these our parts we 
have any information of any other hall that is larger or more lofty; but 
to find one more beautiful, more rich, more ornate, or arranged with more 
convenience than that hall as it w r as seen on the day when the comedy 
was performed, that I believe would be absolutely impossible. For, in 
addition to the immense walls, on which with graceful partitions, and not 
without poetical invention, were seen portrayed from the reality the 
principal squares of the most noble cities of Tuscany, and in addition to 
x. 14 



io6 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

the vast and most lovely canvas painted with various animals hunted 
and taken in various ways, which, upheld by a great cornice, and con- 
cealing the prospect-scene, served so well as one of the end-walls, that 
the Great Hall appeared to have its due proportions, such, in addition, 
and so well arranged, were the tiers of seats that ran right round, and so 
lovely on that day the sight of the handsome ladies who had been invited 
there in great numbers from among the most beautiful, the most noble, 
and the richest, and of the many lords, chevaliers, and other gentlemen 
who had been accommodated above them and throughout the rest of 
the room, that without a doubt, when the fantastic lights were lit, at the 
fall of the canvas described above, the luminous prospect-scene being re- 
vealed, it appeared in truth as if Paradise with all the Choirs of the Angels 
had been thrown open at that instant; which illusion was increased 
marvellously by a very soft, full, and masterly concert of instruments 
and voices, which very soon afterwards was heard to come forth from 
that direction. In that prospect-scene the most distant part was made 
to recede most ingeniously along the line of the bridge, terminating in 
the end of the street that is called the Via Maggio, and in the nearest 
part was represented the beautiful street of S. Trinita; and when the 
eyes of the spectators had been allowed to sate themselves for some time 
with that and the many other marvellous things, the desired and welcome 
beginning was made with the first interlude of the comedy, which was 
taken, like all the others, from that touching story of Psyche and Cupid 
so delicately narrated by Apuleius in his Golden Ass. From it were 
taken the parts that appeared the most important, and these were accom- 
modated with the greatest possible dexterity to the comedy, so that, 
having made, as it were, an ingenious composition from the one fable 
and the other, it might appear that what the Gods did in the fable of the 
interludes was done also by mankind in the fable of the comedy, as if 
constrained by a superior power. In the hollow sky of the above-named 
prospect-scene, which opened out all of a sudden, there was seen to appear 
another sky contrived with great artifice, from which was seen issuing 
little by little a white and very naturally counterfeited cloud, upon which, 
with an effect of singular beauty, a gilded and jewelled car appeared to 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 107 

be resting, recognized as that of Venus, because it was drawn by two 
snow-white swans, and in it, as its mistress and guide, could be perceived 
likewise that most beautiful Goddess, wholly nude and crowned with roses 
and myrtle, seated with great majesty and holding the reins. She had 
in her company the three Graces, likewise recognized by their being 
shown wholly nude, by their blonde tresses, which fell all loose over their 
shoulders, and even more by the manner in which they were standing 
linked hand to hand; and also the four Hours, who had the wings all 
painted after the likeness of butterflies, and, not without reason, were 
distinguished in certain particulars according to the four seasons of the 
year. Thus one of them, who had the head and the buskins all adorned 
with various little flowers, and the dress of changing colours, was intended 
to represent the varied and flowering Spring; even as the second, with 
the garland and the buskins woven of pale ears of corn, and the yellow 
draperies wherewith she was adorned, was intended to signify the heat 
of Summer, and the third, representing Autumn, and all clothed in red 
draperies, signifying the maturity of fruits, was seen likewise all covered 
and adorned with those same fruits, vine-leaves, and grapes; and the 
fourth and last, who represented the white and snowy Winter, besides 
her dress of turquoise-blue all sprinkled with flakes of snow, had the hair 
and the buskins likewise covered with similar snow, hoar-frost, and ice. 
And all, as followers and handmaidens of Venus, being grouped around 
the car on the same cloud with singular artistry and most beautiful 
composition, were seen leaving behind them Jove, Juno, Saturn, Mars, 
Mercury, and the other Gods, from whom appeared to be issuing the soft 
harmony described above to sink gradually with most beautiful grace 
towards the earth, and by their coming to fill the scene and the whole 
hall with a thousand sweet and precious odours; while from another part, 
with an aspect no less gracious, but appearing to walk on earth, was seen 
to come the nude and winged Cupid, likewise accompanied by those four 
Passions that seem so often to be wont to disturb his unrestful kingdom; 
Hope, namely, all clothed in green, with a little flowering branch on the 
head; Fear, recognized, in addition to his pale garment, by the rabbits 
that he had on his hair and his buskins; Joy, likewise clothed in white 



io8 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

and orange and a thousand glad colours, and with a plant of flowering 
borage on the hair, and Sorrow, all in black and in aspect all weeping 
and sad; of whom, as his ministers, one carried the bow, another the 
quiver and the arrows, another the nets, and yet another the lighted 
torch. And while the above-described Hours and Graces, having 
descended from the cloud, went slowly towards their mother's car, 
now arrived on earth, and, having grouped themselves reverently 
in a most graceful choir around the lovely Venus, seemed all intent 
on singing in harmony with her, she, turning towards her son with 
rare and infinite grace, and making manifest to him the cause of her 
displeasure, when those in Heaven were silent, sang the two following 
stanzas, the first of the ballad, saying : 

A me, che fatta son negletta e sola, 
Non phi gli altar ne i voti, 
Ma di Psiche devoti 
A lei sola si danno, ella gl' invola; 

Dunque, se mai di me ti calse o cale, 
Figlio, T armi tue prendi, 
E questa folle accendi 
Di vilissimo amor d' uomo mortale. 

Which being finished, and each of her handmaidens having returned to 
her own place, while they kept continually throwing down various delicate 
and lovely garlands of flowers upon the assembled spectators, the cloud 
and the car, as if the beautiful guide had satisfied her desire, were seen to 
move slowly and to go back towards the heaven; and when they had 
arrived there, and the heaven was closed again in an instant, without 
a single sign remaining from which one might have guessed by which 
part the cloud and so many other things had come forth and returned, 
everyone, it appeared, was left all amazed with a sort of novel and pleasing 
marvel. But the obedient Cupid, while that was being done, making a 
sign, as it were, to his mother that her command would be fulfilled, and 
crossing the stage, continued with his companions, who were presenting 
him his arms, and who, likewise singing, kept in harmony with him 
the following stanza, the last, saying : 






OF THE ACADEMICIANS 109 

Ecco madre, andiam noi; chi 1' arco dammi ? 
Chi le saette ? ond' io 
Con T alto valor mio 
Tutti i cor vinca, leghi, apra, ed innammi. 

And he, also, as he sang this, kept shooting arrows, many and various, 
at those listening to him, whereby he gave reason to believe that the 
lovers who were about to perform their parts, stung, as it were, by them, 
were giving birth to the comedy about to follow. 



SECOND INTERLUDE. 

The first act being finished, and Cupid having been taken in his 
own snare at the moment when he thought to take the lovely Psyche 
by reason of her infinite beauty, it became necessary to represent those 
mysterious voices which, as may be read in the fable, had been intended 
by him to serve her; and so there was seen to issue by one of the four 
passages that had been left on the stage for the use of the performers, 
first a little Cupid who was carrying in his arms what seemed to be a 
graceful swan, with which, since it concealed an excellent bass-viol, 
while he appeared to be diverting himself with a wand of marsh-grass 
that served him as a bow, he proceeded to play most sweet airs. After 
him, four others were seen to come at one and the same moment by the 
four passages of the stage already described; by one the amorous Zephyr, 
all merry and smiling, who had wings, garments, and buskins woven 
of various flowers; by another Music, known by the tuning instrument 
that she had on the head, by her rich dress covered with her various 
instruments and with various scrolls wherein were marked all her notes 
and all her times, and even more because she likewise was seen playing 
with most sweet harmony upon a great and beautiful lyra-viol; and by 
the other two, also, Play and Laughter were seen to appear in the form 
of two little Cupids, playing and laughing. After these, while they were 
going on their way to their destined places, four other Cupids were seen 
to issue by the same passages, in the same guise, and at the same time, 
and to proceed likewise to play most graciously on four most ornate 



no OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

lutes; and after them four other similar little Cupids, two of whom, with 
fruits in their hands, were seen playing together, and two seemed to be 
seeking to shoot one another in the breast with their bows and arrows, 
in a quaint and playful fashion. All these gathered in a graceful circle, 
and, singing in most harmonious concert the following madrigal, with 
the lutes and with many other instruments concealed within the scenery 
accompanying the voices, they appeared to make this whole conception 
manifest enough, saying : 

O altero miracolo novello ! 

Visto T abbiam ! ma chi sia che eel creda ? 

Ch' amor, d' amor ribello, 

Di se stesso e di Psiche oggi sia preda ? 

Dunque a Psiche conceda 

Di belta pur la palma e di valore 

Ogn' altra bella, ancor che pel timore 

Ch' ha del suo prigionier dogliosa stia; 

Ma seguiam noi T incominciata via, 

Andiam Gioco, andiam Riso, 

Andiam dolce armonia di Paradiso, 

E facciam che i tormenti 

Suoi dolci sien co' tuoi dolci concenti. 



THIRD INTERLUDE. 

Not less festive was the third Interlude, because, as is narrated in 
the fable, Cupid being occupied with the love of his beautiful Psyche, and 
not caring any more to kindle the customary flames in the hearts of 
mortals, and using with others, as others with him, fraud and deceit, 
it was inevitable that among those same mortals, who were living without 
love, there should arise at the same time a thousand frauds and a thousand 
deceits. And therefore it was made to appear that the floor of the stage 
swelled up, and finally that it was changed into seven little mounds 
from which there were seen to issue, as things evil and hurtful, first seven 
Deceits, and then seven others, which could be recognized as such with 
ease, for the reason that not only the bust of each was all spotted, after 
the likeness of a leopard, and the thighs and legs like serpents, but their 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS in 

locks were seen all composed of malicious foxes in most fantastic forms 
and very beautiful attitudes; and in their hands, not without laughter 
from the bystanders, some were holding traps, some hooks, and others 
guileful crooks and grapnels, under which had been concealed with 
singular dexterity some musical serpents, for the sake of the music that 
they had to make. These, expressing thus the conception described 
above, after they had first most sweetly sung, and then sung and played, 
the following madrigal, went with very beautiful order (providing material 
for the deceptions of the comedy) their several ways along the four 
above-mentioned passages of the stage: 

S' amor vinto e prigion, posto in oblio 
L' arco e 1' ardente face, 
Delia madre ingannar nuovo desio 
Lo punge, e s' a lui Psiche inganno face, 
E se T empia e fallace 
Coppia d' invide suore inganno e froda 
Sol pensa, or chi nel mondo oggi piu sia 
Che 'I regno a noi non dia ? 
D' inganni dunque goda 
Ogni saggio, e se speme altra 1' invita 
Ben la strada ha smarrita. 



FOURTH INTERLUDE. 

Now, deceits giving rise to affronts, and affronts to dissensions and 
quarrels and a thousand other suchlike evils, since Cupid, by reason of 
the hurt received from the cruel lamp, was not able to attend to his 
customary office of inflaming the hearts of living mortals, in the fourth 
interlude, in place of the seven mounds that had been shown on the stage 
the time before, there were seen to appear in this one (to give material 
for the disturbances of the comedy) seven little abysses, from which 
there first came a black smoke, and then, little by little, was seen to 
appear Discord with an ensign in the hand, recognized, besides her arms, 
by the torn and varied dress and by the tresses, and with her Rage, also 
recognized, besides the arms, by the buskins in the form of claws, and by 
the bear's head in place of a helmet, from which poured a constant stream 



H2 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

of smoke and flame; and Cruelty, with the great scythe in her 
known by the helmet in the likeness of a tiger's head and by the buskins 
after the manner of the feet of a crocodile; and Rapine, also, with the 
pruning-hook in her hand, with the bird of prey on the helmet, and with 
the feet in the likeness of an eagle ; and Vengeance, with a bloody scimitar 
in the hand, and with buskins and helmet all woven of vipers; and two 
Anthropophagi, or Lestrigonians, as we would rather call them, who, 
sounding two trombones in the form of ordinary trumpets, appeared to 
be seeking with a certain bellicose movement (besides the sound) to excite 
the audience of bystanders to combat. Each of these was between two 
Furies, horrible companions, furnished with drums, whips of iron, and 
various arms, beneath which with the same dexterity had been hidden 
various musical instruments. The above-named Furies could be recog- 
nized by the wounds wherewith their whole persons were covered, from 
which were seen pouring flames of fire, by the serpents with which they 
were all encircled and bound, by the broken chains that hung from their 
legs and arms, and by the fire and smoke that issued from their hair. 
And all these, having sung the following madrigal all together with a 
certain fiery and warlike harmony, performed in the manner of com- 
batants a novel, bold, and most extravagant Moorish dance; at the end 
of which, running here and there in confusion about the stage, they were 
seen finally to take themselves in a horrible and fearsome rout out of the 
sight of the spectators: 

In bando itene, vili 

Inganni; il mondo solo ira e furore 
Sent* oggi; audaci voi, spirti gentili, 
Venite a dimostrar vostro valore; 
Che se per la lucerna or langue amore, 
Nostro convien, non che lor sia T impero. 
Su dunque ogni piu fero 
Cor surga; il nostro bellicose carme 
Guerra, guerra sol grida, e solo arm', arme. 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 113 



FIFTH INTERLUDE. 

Poor simple Psyche, having (as has been hinted in the last interlude) 
injured her beloved spouse with the torch by her rash and eager curiosity, 
and being abandoned by him, and having finally fallen into the hands of 
angry Venus, provided most convenient material for the fifth and most 
sorrowful interlude, accompanying the sadness of the fourth act of the 
comedy; for it was feigned that she was sent by that same Venus to the 
infernal Proserpine, whence she should never be able to return among 
living creatures. And so, wrapped in despair and very sad, she was seen 
approaching by one of the passages, accompanied by hateful Jealousy, 
who had an aspect all pallid and afflicted, like her other followers, and 
was known by the four heads and by the dress of turquoise-blue all inter- 
woven with eyes and ears; by Envy, known likewise by the serpents 
that she was devouring; by Thought, Care, or Solicitude, whichever we 
may choose to call her, known by the raven that she had on the head, 
and by the vulture that was tearing her entrails; and by Scorn, or Dis- 
dain (to make it a woman's name), who could be recognized not only 
by the owl that she had on the head, but also by the ill-made, ill-fitting 
and tattered dress. When these four, beating and goading her, had made 
their way near the middle of the stage, in an instant the ground opened 
in four places with fire and smoke, and they, as if they sought to defend 
themselves, seized hold of four most horrible serpents that were seen 
without any warning to issue from below, and struck them a thousand 
different blows with their thorny staves, under which were concealed four 
little bows, until in the end, after much terror in the bystanders, it ap- 
peared that the serpents had been torn open by them; and then, striking 
again in the blood-stained bellies and entrails, all at once there was heard 
to issue Psyche singing the while the madrigal given below a mournful 
but most delicate and sweet harmony; for in the serpents were concealed 
with singular artifice four excellent bass-viols, which, accompanying 
(together with four trombones that sounded behind the stage) the single 
plaintive and gracious voice of Psyche, produced an effect at once so sad 
x. 15 



H4 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

and so sweet, that there were seen drawn from the eyes of more than 
one person tears that were not feigned. Which finished, and each figure 
having taken her serpent on her shoulders, there was seen, with no less 
terror among the spectators, a new and very large opening appearing 
in the floor, from which issued a thick and continuous stream of flame 
and smoke, and an awful barking was heard, and there was seen to issue 
from the hole the infernal Cerberus with his three heads, to whom, in 
accordance with the fable, Psyche was seen to throw one of the two flat 
cakes that she had in her hand; and shortly afterwards there was seen 
likewise to appear, together with various monsters, old Charon with 
his customary barque, into which the despairing Psyche having entered, 
the four tormentors described above kept her unwelcome and displeasing 

company. 

Fuggi, speme mia, fuggi, 

E fuggi per non far piu mai ritorno; 

Sola tu, che distruggi 

Ogni mia pace, a far vienne soggiorno, 

Invidia, Gelosia, Pensiero e Scorno 

Meco nel cieco Inferno 

Ove 1' aspro martir mio viva eterno. 

LAST INTERLUDE. 

The sixth and last interlude was all joyous, for the reason that, the 
comedy being finished, there was seen to issue in an instant from the floor 
of the stage a verdant mound all adorned with laurels and different 
flowers, which, having on the summit the winged horse Pegasus, was 
soon recognized to be the Mount of Helicon, from which were seen de- 
scending one by one that most pleasing company of little Cupids already 
described, and with them Zephyr, Music, and Cupid, all joining hands, 
and Psyche also, all joyful and merry now that she was safe returned 
from Hell, and that by the prayers of her husband Cupid, at the inter- 
cession of Jove, after such mighty wrath in Venus, there had been won for 
her grace and pardon. With these were Pan and nine other Satyrs, 
with various pastoral instruments in their hands, under which other 
musical instruments were concealed; and all descending from the mound 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 115 

described above, they were seen bringing with them Hymen, God of 
nuptials, in whose praise they sang and played, as in the following 
canzonets, and performed in the second a novel, most merry and most 
graceful dance, giving a gracious conclusion to the festival : 

Dal bel monte Elicona 

Ecco Imeneo che scende, 

E gia la face accende, e s' incorona; 
Di persa s' incorona, 

Odorata e soave, 

Onde il mondo ogni grave cura scaccia. 
Dunque e tu, Psiche, scaccia 

L' aspra tua fera doglia, 

E sol gioia s' accoglia entro al tuo seno. 
Amor dentro al suo seno 

Pur lieto albergo datti, 

E con mille dolci atti ti consola. 
Ne men Giove consola 

II tuo passato pianto, 

Ma con riso e con canto al Ciel ti chiede. 
Imeneo dunque ognun chiede, 

Imeneo vago ed adorno, 

Deh che lieto e chiaro giorno, 

Imeneo, teco oggi riede ! 
Imeneo, per 1' alma e diva 

Sua Giovanna ogn' or si sente 

Del gran Ren ciascuna riva 

Risonar soavemente ; 

E non men T Arno lucente 

Pel gratioso, inclito e pio 

Suo Francesco aver desio 

D' Imeneo lodar si vede. 

Imeneo ecc. 
Flora lieta, Arno beato, 

Arno umil, Flora cortese, 

Deh qua! piu felice stato 

Mai si vide, mai s' intese ? 

Fortunate almo paese, 

Terra in Ciel gradita e cara, 

A cui coppia cosl rara 

Imeneo benigno diede. 
Imeneo ecc. 



n6 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

Lauri or dunque, olive e palme 
E corone e scettri e regni 
Per le due si felici alme, 
Flora, in te sol si disegni; 
Tutti i vili atti ed indegni 
Lungi stien ; sol pace vera 
E diletto e primavera 
Abbia in te perpetua sede. 

And all the rich vestments and all the other things, which one might 
think it impossible to make, were executed by the ingenious craftsmen 
with such dexterity, loveliness and grace, and made to appear so natural, 
real, and true, that it seemed that without a doubt the real action 
could surpass the counterfeited spectacle by but a little. 



OF THE TRIUMPH OF DREAMS AND OTHER FESTIVITIES. 

Now after this, although every square and every street, as has been 
told, resounded with music and song, merriment and festivity, our mag- 
nanimous Lords, distributing everything most prudently, to the end that 
excessive abundance might not produce excessive satiety, had ordained 
that one of the principal festivals should be performed on each Sunday, 
and for this reason, and for the greater convenience of the spectators, 
they had caused the sides of the most beautiful squares of S. Croce and 
S. Maria Novella to be furnished after the likeness of a theatre, with very 
strong and very capacious tribunes. And since within these there were 
held games, in which the young noblemen played a greater part by their 
exercises than did our craftsmen by attiring them, I shall treat of them 
briefly, saying that on one occasion there was presented therein by our 
most liberal Lords, with six companies of most elegant cavaliers, eight 
to a company, the play of the canes and the carousel, so celebrated among 
the Spaniards, each of the companies, which were all resplendent in 
cloth of gold and silver, being distinguished from the rest, one in the 
ancient habit of the Castilians, another in the Portuguese, another in 
the Moorish, a fourth in the Hungarian, a fifth in the Greek, and the last 
in the Tartar; and finally, after a perilous combat, partly with assegais 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 117 

and horses likewise in the Spanish manner, and partly with men on foot 
and dogs, some most ferocious bulls were killed. Another time, renewing 
the ancient pomp of the Roman chase, there was seen a beautifully 
ordered spectacle of certain elegant huntsmen and a good quantity of 
various dogs, chasing forth from a little counterfeited wood and slaying 
an innumerable multitude of animals, which came out in succession one 
kind after another, first rabbits, hares, roebucks, foxes, porcupines, and 
badgers, and then stags, boars, and bears, and even some savage horses 
all burning with love; and in the end, as the most noble and most superb 
chase of all, after they had sought several times by means of an immense 
turtle and a vast and most hideous mask of a monster, which were full 
of men and were made to move hither and thither with various wheels, 
to incite a most fierce lion to do battle with a very valiant bull; finally, 
since that could not be achieved, both the animals were seen struck down 
and slain, not without a long and bloody struggle, by the multitude of 
dogs and huntsmen. Besides this, every evening the noble youth of the 
city exercised themselves with most elegant dexterity and valour, accord- 
ing to their custom, at the game of football, the peculiar and particular 
sport of that people, with which finally there was given on one of those 
Sundays one of the most agreeable and most graceful spectacles that 
anyone could ever behold, in very rich costumes of cloth of gold in red 
and green colours, with all the rules, which are many and beautiful. 

But since variety seems generally to enhance the pleasure of most 
things, another time the illustrious Prince sought with a different show 
to satisfy the expectant people by means of his so much desired Triumph 
of Dreams. The invention of this, although, since he went to Germany 
to see his exalted bride and to do reverence to the most august Emperor 
Maximilian and to his other illustrious kinsmen, it was arranged and 
composed by others with great learning and diligence, may yet be said 
to have been born in the beginning from his most noble genius, so com- 
petent in no matter how subtle and exacting a task; and with it he who 
afterwards executed the work, and was the composer of the song, sought 
to demonstrate that moral opinion expressed by Dante when he says 
that innumerable errors arise among living mortals because many are set 



n8 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

to do many things for which they do not seem to have been born fitted 
by nature, deviating, on the other hand, from those for which, following 
their natural inclination, they might be very well adapted. This he 
also strove to demonstrate with five companies of masks led by five of 
those human desires that were considered by him the greatest; by Love, 
namely, behind whom followed the lovers; by Beauty, figured under the 
form of Narcissus, and followed by those who strive too much to appear 
beautiful; by Fame, who had as followers those too hungry for glory; 
by Pluto, signifying Riches, behind whom were seen those eager and 
greedy for them, and by Bellona, who was followed by the men 
enamoured of war; contriving that the sixth company, which com- 
prised all the five described above, and to which he wished that they 
should all be referred, should be guided by Madness, likewise with a good 
number of her followers behind her, signifying that he who sinks himself 
too deep and against the inclination of Nature in the above-named 
desires, which are in truth dreams and spectres, comes in the end to be 
seized and bound by Madness. And then this judgment, turning, as a 
thing of feast and carnival, to the amorous, announces to young women 
that the great father Sleep is come with all his ministers and companions 
in order to show to them with his matutinal dreams, which are reputed 
as true (comprised, as has been told, in the first five companies), that all 
the above-named things that are done by us against Nature, are to be 
considered, as has been said, as dreams and spectres; and therefore, 
exhorting them to pursue that to which their nature inclines them, it 
appears that in the end he wishes, as it were, to conclude that if they 
feel themselves by nature inclined to be loved, they should not seek to 
abstain from that natural desire; nay, despising any other counsel as 
something vain and mad, they should dispose themselves to follow the 
wise, natural, and true. And then, around the Car of Sleep and the 
masks that were to express this conception, were accommodated and 
placed as ornaments those things that are judged to be in keeping with 
sleep and with dreams. There was seen, therefore, after two most 
beautiful Sirens, who, blowing two great trumpets in place of two trum- 
peters, preceded all the rest, and after two extravagant masks, the guides 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 119 

of all the others, by which, mingling white, yellow, red, and black over 
their cloth of silver, were demonstrated the four humours of which 
bodies are composed, and after the bearer of a large red ensign adorned 
with various poppies, on which was painted a great gryphon, with three 
verses that encircled it, saying : 

Non solo aquila e questo, e non leone, 

Ma 1' uno e 1' altro; cosl '1 Sonno ancora 
Ed humana e divina ha condizione. 

There was seen coming, I say, as has been told above, the joyous Love, 
figured as is customary, and accompanied on one side by ever- verdant 
Hope, who had a chameleon on the head, and on the other by pallid 
Fear, with the head likewise adorned by a timorous deer; and he was 
seen followed by the lovers, his captives and slaves, dressed for the most 
part with infinite grace and richness in draperies of flaming gold, for 
the flames wherewith they are ever burning, and all girt and bound with 
most delicate gilded chains. After these (to avoid excessive minuteness) 
there was seen coming, to represent Beauty, in a graceful habit of tur- 
quoise-blue all interwoven with his own flowers, the beautiful Narcissus, 
likewise accompanied, as was said of Love, on one side by Youth adorned 
with flowers and garlands, and dressed all in white, and on the other 
by Proportion, adorned with draperies of turquoise-blue, and recognized 
by the spectators by an equilateral triangle that was upon the head. 
After these were seen those who seek to be esteemed for the sake of their 
beauty, and who appeared to be following their guide Narcissus; and they, 
also, were of an aspect youthful and gracious, and had the same narcissus- 
blooms most beautifully embroidered upon the cloth of silver wherein 
they were robed, with their blonde and curly locks all crowned in lovely 
fashion with the same flowers. And after them was seen approaching 
Fame, who seemed to be sounding a great trumpet that had three mouths, 
with a globe on her head that represented the world, and with immense 
wings of peacock's feathers; having in her company Glory, who had a 
head-dress fashioned likewise of a peacock, and Reward, who in like 
manner carried a crowned eagle on the head; and her followers, who were 



120 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

divided into three companies, Emperors, Kings, and Dukes, although 
they were all dressed in gold with the richest embroideries and pearls, 
and although they all presented an aspect of singular grandeur and 
majesty, nevertheless were distinguished very clearly one from another 
by the forms of the different crowns that they wore on their heads, each 
in accord with his rank. Then the blind Pluto, the God (as has been 
told) of Riches, who followed after these with rods of gold and silver in 
the hands, was seen, like the others, accompanied on either side by 
Avarice dressed in yellow, with a she-wolf on the head, and by Rapacity 
robed in red draperies, who had a falcon on the head to make her known; 
but it would be a difficult thing to seek to describe the quantity of gold, 
pearls, and other precious gems, and the various kinds of draperies 
with which his followers were covered and adorned. And Bellona, 
Goddess of War, most richly robed in many parts with cloth of silver 
in place of arms, and crowned with a garland of verdant laurel, with all 
the rest of her habit composed in a thousand rich and gracious ways, 
was seen likewise coming after them with a large and warlike horn in 
the hand, and accompanied, like the others, by Terror, known by the 
cuckoo in the head-dress, and by Boldness, also known by the lion's head 
worn in place of a cap; and with her the military men in her train were 
seen following her in like manner with swords and iron-shod maces in 
their hands, and draperies of gold and silver arranged most fancifully 
in the likeness of armour and helmets. These and all the others in the 
other companies had each, to demonstrate that they represented dreams, 
a large, winged, and very well fashioned bat of grey cloth of silver fitted 
on the shoulders, and forming a sort of little mantle; which, besides the 
necessary significance, gave to all the companies (which, as has been 
shown, were all different) the necessary unity, and also grace and beauty 
beyond measure. And all this left in the minds of the spectators a firm 
belief that there had never been seen in Florence, and perhaps elsewhere, 
any spectacle so rich, so gracious, and so beautiful; for, in addition to 
all the gold, the pearls, and the other most precious gems wherewith the 
embroideries, which were very fine, were made, all the dresses were 
executed with such diligence, design, and grace, that they seemed to be 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 121 

costumes fashioned not for masquerades, but enduring and permanent, 
and worthy to be used only by great Princes. 

There followed Madness, the men of whose company alone, for the 
reason that she had to be shown not as a dream but as real in those who 
sought against the inclination of nature to pursue the things described 
above, were seen without the bat upon the shoulders ; and she was dressed 
in various colours, but all put together most inharmoniously and without 
any manner of grace, while upon her dishevelled tresses, to demonstrate 
her disordered thoughts, were seen a pair of gilded spurs with the rowels 
turned upwards, and on either side of her were a Satyr and a Bacchante 
Her followers, then, in the semblance of lunatics and drunkards, were 
seen dressed most extravagantly in cloth of gold, embroidered with 
varied boughs of ivy and vine-leaves with their little bunches of ripe 
grapes. And these and all the others in the companies already described, 
besides a good number of grooms, likewise very richly and ingeniously 
dressed according to the company wherein they were serving, had horses 
of different colours distributed among them, a particular colour to each 
company, so that one had dappled horses, another sorrel, a third black, 
a fourth peach-coloured, another bay, and yet another of a varied coat, 
according as the invention required. And to the end that the above- 
described masques, which were composed almost entirely of the most 
noble lords, might not be constrained to carry the customary torches at 
night, forty-eight different witches who during the day preceded in 
most beautiful order all those six companies, guided by Mercury and 
Diana, who had each three heads to signify their three powers ; being them- 
selves also divided into six companies, and each particular company 
being ruled by two dishevelled and barefooted priestesses when night 
came, went in due order on either side of the particular company of 
dreams to which they were assigned, and, with the lighted torches which 
they and the grooms bore, rendered it abundantly luminous and clear. 
These witches, besides their different faces, all old and hideous, and 
besides the different colours of the rich draperies wherewith they were 
clothed, were known in particular, and one company distinguished from 
another, by the animals that they had upon their heads, into the shapes 

x. 16 



122 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

of which, so men say and believe, they transform themselves often by 
their incantations; for some had upon the cloth of silver that served as 
kerchief for their heads a black bird, with wings and claws outspread, 
and with two little phials about the head, signifying their maleficent dis- 
tillations; and some had cats, others black and white dogs, and others, 
by their false blonde tresses and by the natural white hair that could be 
seen, as it were against their will, beneath them, betrayed their vain 
desire to appear young and beautiful to their lovers. 

The immense car, drawn by six large and shaggy bears crowned with 
poppies, which came at the end after all that lovely train, was without 
a doubt the richest, the most imposing, and the most masterly in execu- 
tion that has ever been seen for a long time back. That car was guided 
by Silence, a figure adorned with grey draperies and with the customary 
shoes of felt upon the feet, who, placing a finger on the mouth, appeared 
to be making sign to the spectators that they should be silent; and with 
him were three women, representing Quiet, plump and full in counte- 
nance, and dressed in rich robes of azure-blue, and each with a tortoise 
upon the head, who appeared to be seeking to assist that same Silence 
to guide those bears. The car itself, resting upon a graceful hexagonal 
platform, was shaped in the form of a vast head of an elephant, within 
which, also, there was represented as the house of Sleep a fantastic 
cavern, wherein the great father Sleep was likewise seen lying at his 
ease, fat and ruddy, and partly nude, with a garland of poppies, and with 
his cheek resting upon one of his arms; having about him Morpheus, 
Icelus, Phantasus, and his other sons, figured in various extravagant 
and bizarre forms. At the summit of the same cavern was seen the 
white, luminous, and beautiful Dawn, with her blonde tresses all soft 
and moist with dew; and at the foot of the cavern, with a badger that 
served her for a pillow, was dark Night, who, being held to be the mother 
of true dreams, was thought likely to lend no little faith to the words of 
the dreams described above. For the adornment of the car, then, were 
seen some most lovely little stories, accommodated to the invention 
and distributed with so much diligence, delicacy, and grace, that it 
appeared impossible for anything more to be desired. In the first of 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 123 

these was seen Bacchus, the father of Sleep, upon a car wreathed in vine- 
leaves and drawn by two spotted tigers, with a verse to make him known, 
which said: 

Bacco, del Sonno sei tu vero padre. 

Even as in another was seen Ceres, the mother of the same Sleep, crowned 
with the customary ears of corn, and likewise with a verse placed there 
for the same reason, which said: 

Cerer del dolce Sonno e dolce madre. 

And in a third was seen Pasithea, wife of the same Sleep, who, seeming 
to fly over the earth, appeared to have infused most placid sleep in the 
animals that were dispersed among the trees and upon the earth; like- 
wise with her motto which made her known, saying: 

Sposa del Sonno questa e Pasitea. 

On the other side was seen Mercury, president of Sleep, infusing slumber 
in the many-eyed Argus; also with his motto, saying: 

Creare il sonno puo Mercuric ancora. 

And there was seen, to express the nobility and divinity of the same 
Sleep, an ornate little temple of ^Esculapius, in which many men, emaci- 
ated and infirm, sleeping, appeared to be winning back their lost health ; 
likewise with a verse signifying this, and saying: 

Rende gl' uomini sani il dolce Sonno. 

Even as in another place there was seen Mercury pointing towards some 
Dreams that were shown flying through the air and speaking in the ears 
of King Latinus, who was asleep in a cave; his verse saying: 

Spesso in sogno parlar lece con Dio. 

Orestes, then, spurred by the Furies, was seen alone taking some rest 
amid such travail by the help of the Dreams, who were shown driving 
away those Furies with certain bunches of poppies; with his verse that said : 

Fuggon pel sonno i piu crudi pensieri. 



124 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

And there was the wretched Hecuba likewise dreaming in a vision that 
a lovely hind was rapt from her bosom and strangled by a fierce wolf ; 
this being intended to signify the piteous fate that afterwards befell her 
hapless daughter; with a motto saying: 

Quel ch' esser deve, il sogno scuopre e dice. 
Even as in another place, with a verse that said: 

Fanno gli Dei saper lor voglie in sogno, 

there was seen Nestor appearing to Agamemnon, and revealing to him the 
will of almighty Jove. And in the seventh and last was depicted the 
ancient usage of making sacrifice, as to a revered deity, to Sleep in com- 
pany with the Muses, represented by an animal sacrificed upon an 
altar; with a verse saying: 

Fan sacrifizio al Sonno ed alle Muse. 

All these little scenes were divided and upheld by various Satyrs, 
Bacchants, boys, and witches, and rendered pleasingly joyous and ornate 
by divers nocturnal animals and festoons of poppies, not without a 
beautiful medallion set in place of a shield in the last part of the car, 
wherein was seen painted the story of Endymion and the Moon; every- 
thing, as has been said, being executed with such delicacy and grace, 
patience and design, that it would entail too much work to seek to 
describe every least part with its due praise. But those of whom it 
has been told that they were placed as the children of Sleep in such ex- 
travagant costumes upon the above-described car, singing to the favourite 
airs of the city the following canzonet, seemed truly, with their soft and 
marvellous harmony, to be seeking to infuse a most gracious and sweet 
sleep in their hearers, saying: 

Or che la rugiadosa 

Alba la rondinella a pianger chiama, 

Questi che tanto v' ama, 

Sonno, gran padre nostro e dell' ombrosa 

Notte figlio, pietosa 

E sacra schiera noi 

Di Sogni, o belle donne, mostra a voi; 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 125 

Perche il folle pensiero 

Uman si scorga, che seguendo fiso 

Amor, Fama, Narciso 

E Bellona e Ricchezza il van sentiero 

La notte e il giorno intero 

S' aggira, al fine insieme 

Per frutto ha la Pazzia del suo bel seme. 
Accorte or dunque, il vostro 

Tempo miglior spendete in cio che chiede 

Natura, e non mai fede 

Aggiate all' arte, che quasi aspro mostro 

Cinto di perle e d' ostro 

Dolce v' invita, e pure 

Son le promesse Sogni e Larve scure. 



OF THE CASTLE. 

By way of having yet another different spectacle, there was built 
with singular mastery on the vast Piazza di S. Maria Novella a most 
beautiful castle, with all the proper appurtenances of ramparts, cavaliers, 
casemates, curtains, ditches and counterditches, secret and public gates, 
and, finally, all those considerations that are required in good and strong 
fortifications; and in it was placed a good number of valorous soldiers, 
with one of the principal and most noble lords of the Court as their 
captain, a man determined on no account ever to be captured. That 
magnificent spectacle being divided into two days, on the first day there 
was seen appearing in most beautiful order from one side a fine and most 
ornate squadron of horsemen all in armour and in battle-array, as if 
about to meet real enemies in combat, and from the other side, with the 
aspect of a massive and well-ordered army, some companies of infantry 
with their baggage, waggons of munitions, and artillery, and with their 
pioneers and sutlers, all drawn close together, as is customary amid the 
dangers of real wars; these likewise having a similar lord of great experi- 
ence and valour as captain, who was seen urging them on from every side, 
and fulfilling his office most nobly. And after the attackers had been 
reconnoitred several times and in various ways, with valour and artifice, 
by those within the castle, and various skirmishes had been fought, now 



126 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

by the horsemen and now by the infantry, with a great roar of musketry 
and artillery, and charges had been delivered and received, and several 
ambuscades and other suchlike stratagems of war had been planned with 
astuteness and ingenuity; finally the defenders were seen, as if overcome 
by the superior force, to begin little by little to retire, and in the end it 
seemed that they were constrained to shut themselves up completely 
within the castle. But the second day, after they had, as it were during 
the night, constructed their platforms and gabionade and planted their 
artillery, there was seen to begin a most terrible bombardment, which 
seemed little by little to throw a part of the walls to the ground; after 
which, and after the explosion of a mine, which in another part, in order 
to keep the attention of the defenders occupied, appeared to have made 
a passing wide breach in the wall, the places were reconnoitred and the 
cavalry drew up in most beautiful battle-array, and then was seen 
now one company moving up, and now another, some with ladders and 
some without, and many valorous and terrible assaults delivered in suc- 
cession and repeated several times, and ever received by the others with 
skill, boldness, and obstinacy, until in the end it was seen that the de- 
fenders, weary, but not vanquished, made an honourable compact with 
the attackers to surrender the place to them, issuing from it, with mar- 
vellous satisfaction for the spectators, in military order, with their 
banners unfurled, their drums, and all their usual baggage. 



THE GENEALOGY OF THE GODS. 

We read of Paulus Emilius, that first captain of his illustrious age, 
that he caused no less marvel by his wisdom and worth to the people of 
Greece and of many other nations who had assembled in Amphipolis 
to celebrate various most noble spectacles there after the victory that he 
had won, than by the circumstance that first, vanquishing Perseus and 
subjugating Macedonia, he had borne himself valiantly in the manage- 
ment of that war, which was in no small measure laborious and difficult; 
he having been wont to say that it is scarcely less the office of a good 
captain, requiring no less order and no less wisdom, to know how to pre- 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 127 

pare a banquet well in time of peace, than to know how to marshal an 
army for a deed of arms in time of war. Wherefore if our glorious Duke, 
born to do everything with noble worth and grandeur, displayed the same 
wisdom and the same order in those spectacles, and, above all, in that one 
which I am about to describe, I believe that he will not take it amiss that 
I have been unwilling to refrain from saying that he was in every part 
its inventor and ordinator, and in a certain sense its executor, preparing 
all the various things, and then representing them, with so much order, 
tranquillity, wisdom, and magnificence, that among his many glorious 
actions this one also may be numbered to his supreme glory. 

Now, yielding to him who wrote of it in those days with infinite 
learning, before me, and referring to that work those who may seek 
curiously to see how every least thing in this masquerade, which had as 
title the Genealogy of the Gods, was figured with the authority of excel- 
lent writers, and passing over whatever I may judge to be superfluous 
in this place, let me say that even as we read that some of the ancient 
Gods were invited to the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis in order to render 
them auspicious and fortunate, so to the nuptials of this new and most 
excellent bridal pair it appeared that there had come for the same reason 
not some only of these same Gods, but all, and not invited, but seeking 
to introduce themselves and by their own wish, the good auguring them 
the same felicity and contentment, and the harmful assuring them that 
they would do them no harm. Which conception appeared gracefully 
expressed in the following fashion by four madrigals that were sung at 
various times in the principal places by four very full choirs, even as has 
been told of the Triumph of Dreams; saying: 

L' alta che fino al ciel fama rimbomba 
Delia leggiadra Sposa, 
Che in questa riva erbosa 
D' Arno, Candida e pura, alma colomba 
Oggi lieta sen vola e dolce posa, 
Dalla celeste sede ha noi qui tratti, 
Perche piu leggiadri atti 
E bellezza piu vaga e piu felice 
Veder gia mai non lice. 



128 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

Ne pur la tua festosa 

Vista, o Flora, e le belle alme tue dive 

Traggionne alle tue rive, 

Ma il lume e 1 sol della novella Sposa, 

Che piu che mai gioiosa 

Di suo bel seggio e freno 

Al gran Tosco divin corcasi in seno. 

Da' bei lidi, che mai caldo ne gielo 
Discolora, vegnam ; ne vi crediate 
Ch' altrettante beate 

Schiere e sante non abbia il Hondo e il Cielo ; 
Ma vostro terren velo 
E lor soverchio lume, 
Questo e quel vi contende amico nume. 

Ha quanti il Cielo, ha quanti 

Iddii la Terra e F Onda al parer vostro ; 

Ma Dio solo e quell' un che il sommo chiostro 

Alberga in mezzo a mille Angeli santi, 

A cui sol giunte avanti 

Posan le pellegrine 

E stanche anime al fine, al fin del giorno, 

Tutto allegrando il Ciel del suo ritorno. 

I believe I can affirm most surely that this masquerade a spectacle 
only to be arranged by the hand of a wise, well-practised, great, and 
valiant Prince, and in which almost all the lords and gentlemen of the 
city, and many strangers, took part was without a doubt the greatest, 
the most magnificent, and the most splendid which can be remembered 
to have been held in any place for many centuries down to our own 
times, for the greater part of the vestments were not only made of cloth 
of gold and silver and other very rich draperies, and, when the place re- 
quired it, of the finest skins, but, what is more (art surpassing the 
materials), composed with rare and marvellous industry, invention, and 
loveliness; and to the end that the eyes of the spectators, as they gazed, 
might be able with greater satisfaction to recognize one by one which of 
the Gods it was intended to represent, it was thought expedient to pro- 
ceed to divide them into twenty-one distinct companies, placing at the 
head of each company one that should be considered as the chief, and 






OF THE ACADEMICIANS 129 

causing each of these, for greater magnificence and grandeur, and because 
they are so figured by the ancient poets, to be drawn upon appropriate 
cars by their appropriate and particular animals. Now in these cars, 
which were beautiful, fantastic, and bizarre beyond belief, and most 
splendid with silver and gold, and in representing as real and natural 
the above-named animals that drew them, without a doubt the dexterity 
and excellence of the ingenious craftsmen were such, that not only they 
surpassed all things done up to that time both within and without the 
city, which at all times has had a reputation for rare mastery in such 
things, but they also (infinite marvel !) took away from everyone all hope 
of ever being able to see another thing so heroic or so lifelike. Beginning, 
then, with those Gods who were such that they were reputed to be the 
first causes and the first fathers of the others, we will proceed to describe 
each of the cars and of the companies that preceded them. And since 
the representation was of the Genealogy of the Gods, making a beginning 
with Demogorgon, the first father of them all, and with his car, we have 
to say that after a graceful, lovely, and laurel-crowned Shepherd, repre- 
senting the ancient poet Hesiod, who, singing of the Gods in his Theogony, 
first wrote their genealogy, and who, as guide, carried in his hand a large, 
square, and ancient ensign, wherein were depicted in divers colours 
Heaven and the four Elements, and in the centre was painted a large 
Greek O, crossed with a serpent that had the head of a hawk ; and after 
eight trumpeters who were gesticulating in a thousand graceful and 
sportive ways, representing those tibicines who, having been prevented 
from eating in the temple, fled in anger to Tibur, but were made drunk 
and put to sleep by deceit, and brought back with many privileges to 
Rome; beginning, I say, with Demogorgon, there was seen his car in the 
form of a dark and double cavern drawn by two awful dragons, and for 
Demogorgon was seen a figure of a pallid old man with the hair ruffled, 
all wrapped in mist and dark fog, lying in utter sloth and negligence in 
the front part of the cavern, and accompanied on one side by youthful 
Eternity adorned (because she never grows old) with verdant draperies, 
and on the other side by Chaos, who had the appearance, as it were, of 
a mass without any shape. Beyond that cavern, which contained the 
x. 17 



130 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

three figures described, rose a graceful little mound all covered and 
adorned with trees and various plants, representing Mother Earth, at the 
back of which was seen another cavern, but darker and deeper than that 
already described, wherein Erebus was shown likewise lying in the guise 
that has been told of his father Demogorgon, and in like manner accom- 
panied on one side by Night, the daughter of Earth, with two children 
in her arms, one white and the other dark, and on the other side by 
^Ether, the child of the aforesaid Night and Erebus, who must be figured, 
so it appeared, as a resplendent youth with a ball of turquoise-blue in 
the hand. At the foot of the car, then, was seen riding Discord, who 
separates things confused and is therefore held by philosophers to pre- 
serve the world, and who is regarded as the first daughter of Demogorgon; 
and with her the three Fates, who were shown spinning various threads 
and then cutting them. And in the form of a youth all robed in draperies 
of turquoise-blue was seen Polus, who had a terrestrial globe in the hand, 
and over him, alluding to the fable that is related of him, many sparks 
appeared to have been scattered from a vase of glowing coals that was 
beneath him; and there was seen Python, also the son of Demogorgon, 
all yellow and with a mass of fire in the hand, who seemed to have come 
in the company of his brother Polus. After them, then, came Envy, 
the daughter of Erebus and Night, and with her Timidity, her brother, 
in the form of a pallid and trembling old man, who had the head-dress 
and all the other vestments made from skins of the timid deer. And 
after these was seen Obstinacy, who is born from the same seed, all in 
black, with some boughs of ivy that seemed to have taken root upon her; 
and with the great cube of lead that she had on the head she gave a sign 
of that Ignorance wherewith Obstinacy is said to be joined. She had 
in her company Poverty, her sister, who was seen all pale and raging, 
and negligently covered rather than clothed in black; and with them was 
Hunger, born likewise from the same father, who was seen feeding the 
while on roots and wild herbs. Then Complaint or Querulousness, their 
sister, covered with tawny draperies, and with the querulous solitary 
rock- thrush, which was seen to have made her nest in her head-dress, was 
shown walking in profound melancholy after them, having in her com- 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 131 

pany the sister common to them, called Infirmity, who by her meagre- 
ness and pallor, and by the garland and the little stalk of anemone that 
she held in her hand, made herself very well known to the spectators 
for what she was. And on her other side was the other sister, Old Age, 
with white hair and all draped in simple black vestments, who likewise 
had, not without reason, a stalk of cress in the hand. The Hydra and 
the Sphinx, daughters of Tartarus, in the guise wherein they are generally 
figured, were seen coming behind them in the same beautiful order; and 
after these, to return to the other daughters of Erebus and Night, was 
seen License, all nude and dishevelled, with a garland of vine-leaves on 
the head, and keeping the mouth open without any restraint, and in her 
company was Falsehood, her sister, all covered and wrapped in various 
draperies of various colours, with a magpie on the head for better recog- 
nition, and with a cuttle-fish in the hand. These had Thought walking 
on a level with them, represented as an old man, likewise all dressed in 
black, with an extravagant head-dress of peach-stones on the head, and 
showing beneath the vestments, which at times fluttered open with the 
wind, the breast and the whole person pricked and pierced by a thousand 
sharp thorns. Momus, then, the God of censure and of evil-speaking, 
was seen coming after them in the form of a bent and very loquacious 
old man; and with them, also, the boy Tages, all resplendent, although 
he was the son of Earth, figured in such a manner because he was the first 
inventor of the soothsayer's art, in token of which there was hung from 
his neck a lamb split down the middle, which showed a good part of the 
entrails. There was seen, likewise, in the form of an immense giant, 
the African Antaeus, his brother, who, clothed in barbaric vestments, 
with a dart in the right hand, appeared to wish to give on that day mani- 
fest signs of his vaunted prowess. And following after him was seen 
Day, also the son of Erebus and Night, represented in like manner as a 
resplendent and joyous youth, all adorned with white draperies and 
crowned with ornithogal, in whose company was seen Fatigue, his sister, 
who, clothed in the skin of an ass, had made herself a cap from the head 
of the same animal, with the ears standing erect, not without laughter 
among the spectators; to which were added two wings of the crane, 



132 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

and in her hands were placed also the legs of the same crane, because 
of the common opinion that this renders men indefatigable against all 
fatigue. And Jurament, born of the same parents, in the form of an old 
priest all terrified by an avenging Jove that he held in the hand, and 
bringing to conclusion the band attributed to the great father Demo- 
gorgon, was the last in their company. 

And here, judging that with these deities the origins of all the other 
Gods had been made sufficiently manifest, the followers of the first car 
were brought to an end. 

SECOND CAR, OF HEAVEN. 

In a second car of more pleasing appearance, which was dedicated 
to the God Heaven, held by some to be the son of the above-named 
5ther and Day, was seen that jocund and youthful God clothed in bright- 
shining stars, with a crown of sapphires on the brow, and with a vase in 
the hand that contained a burning flame, and seated upon a ball of 
turquoise-blue all painted and adorned with the forty-eight celestial 
signs; and in that car, which was drawn by the Great and the Little Bear, 
the one known by the seven and the other by the twenty-one stars with 
which they were all dotted, there were seen painted, in order to render 
it ornate and rich in pomp, with a most beautiful manner and a graceful 
distribution, seven of the fables of that same Heaven. In the first was 
figured his birth in order to demonstrate, not without reason, the other 
opinion that is held of it which is said to have been from Earth ; even 
as in the second was seen his union with the same Mother Earth, from 
which were born, besides many others, Cottus, Briareus, and Gyges, who, 
it is believed, had each a hundred hands and fifty heads; and there were 
born also the Cyclopes, so called from the single eye that they had on 
the brow. In the third was seen how he imprisoned their common 
children in the caverns of that same Earth, that they might never be able 
to see the light; even as in the fourth their Mother Earth, seeking to 
deliver them from such oppression, was seen exhorting them to take a 
rightful vengeance on their cruel father; wherefore in the fifth his genital 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 133 

members were cut off by Saturn, when from their blood on one side it 
appeared that the Furies and the Giants were born, and on the other, 
from the foam that was shown fallen into the sea, was seen a different 
birth, from which sprang the beautiful Venus. In the sixth was seen ex- 
pressed the anger that he showed against the Titans, because, as has been 
told, they had allowed his genitals to be cut off; and in the seventh and 
last, likewise, was seen the same God adored by the Atlantides, with 
temples and altars devoutly raised to him. Now at the foot of the car 
(as with the other already described) was seen riding the black, old, and 
blindfolded Atlas, who has been reputed to have supported Heaven with 
his stout shoulders, on which account there had been placed in his hands 
a great globe of turquoise-blue, dotted with stars. After him was seen 
walking in the graceful habit of a huntsman the young and beautiful 
Hyas, his son, in whose company were his seven sisters, also called Hyades, 
five of whom, all resplendent in gold, were seen to have each on the head 
a bull's head, for the reason that they are said to form an ornament to 
the head of the Heavenly Bull; and the two others, as being less bright 
in the heavens, it was thought proper to clothe in grey cloth of silver. 
After these followed the seven Pleiades, daughters of the same Atlas, 
figured as seven other similar stars; one of whom, for the reason that 
she shines with little light in the heavens, it was thought right and proper 
to adorn only with the same grey cloth, whereas the six others, because 
they are resplendent and very bright, were seen in front glittering and 
flashing with an infinite abundance of gold, but at the back they were 
clothed only in vestments of pure white, that being intended to signify 
that even as at their first appearance the bright and luminous summer 
seems to have its beginning, so at their departure it is seen that they 
leave us dark and snowy winter; which was also expressed by the head- 
dress, which had the front part woven of various ears of corn, even as 
the back appeared to be composed of snow, ice, and hoar-frost. There 
followed after these the old and monstrous Titan, who had with him the 
proud and audacious lapetus, his son. And Prometheus, who was born 
of lapetus, was seen coming after them all grave and venerable, with a 
little statue of clay in one of his hands, and in the other a burning torch, 



134 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

denoting the fire that he is said to have stolen from Jove out of Heaven 
itself. And after him, as the last, to conclude the company of the second 
car, there were seen coming, with a Moorish habit and with a sacred 
elephant's head as a cap, likewise two of the Atlantides, who, as has been 
told, first adored Heaven ; and, in addition, in token of the things that 
were used by them in their first sacrifices, there were in the hands of both, 
in a great bundle, the ladle, the napkin, the cleaver, and the casket of 
incense. 

THIRD CAR, OF SATURN. 

Saturn, the son of Heaven, all white and old, who was shown greedily 
devouring some children, had the third car, no less ornate than the last, 
and drawn by two great black oxen ; and to enhance the beauty of that 
car, even as in the last there were seven fables painted, so in that one it 
was thought proper that five of his fables should be painted. For the 
first, therefore, was seen this God surprised by his wife Ops as he lay 
taking his pleasure of the gracious and beautiful Nymph Philyra, on which 
account being constrained to transform himself into a horse in order 
not to be recognized by her, it was shown how from that union there was 
born afterwards the Centaur Cheiron. Even as in the second was seen 
his other union with the Latin Entoria, from which sprang at one and the 
same birth Janus, Hymnus, Felix, and Faustus, by whom the same 
Saturn distributed among the human race that so useful invention of 
planting vines and making wine; and there was seen Janus arriving in 
Latium and there teaching his father's invention to the ignorant people, 
who, drinking intemperately of the new and most pleasing liquor, and 
therefore sinking little by little into a most profound sleep, when finally 
they awakened, thinking that they had been poisoned by him, were seen 
rushing impiously to stone and slay him; on which account Saturn, 
moved to anger, chastised them with a most horrible pestilence; but in 
the end it was shown how he was pacified and turned to mercy by the 
humble prayers of the miserable people and by the temple built by 
them upon the Tarpeian rock. In the third, then, was seen figured how, 
Saturn seeking cruelly to devour his son Jove, his shrewd wife and com- 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 135 

passionate daughters sent to him in J ove's stead the stone, which he brought 
up again before them, being left thereby in infinite sorrow and bitterness. 
Even as in the fourth was painted the same fable of which there has been 
an account in speaking of the above-described car of Heaven namely, 
how he cut off the genitals of the above-named Heaven, from which the 
Giants, the Furies, and Venus had their origin. And in the last, like- 
wise, was seen how, after he was made a prisoner by the Titans, he was 
liberated by his compassionate son Jove. And then, to demonstrate 
the belief that is held by some, that history first began to be written in 
the time of Saturn, there was seen figured with the authority of an 
approved writer a Triton blowing a sea-conch, with the double tail as 
it were fixed in the earth, closing the last part of the car; at the foot of 
which (as has been told of the others) was seen a pure maiden, repre- 
senting Pudicity, adorned with green draperies and holding a white 
ermine in her arms, with a gilded topaz-collar about the neck. She, with 
the head and face covered with a yellow veil, had in her company Truth, 
likewise figured in the form of a most beautiful, delicate, and pure young 
woman, clothed only in a few white and transparent veils; and these, 
walking in a manner full of grace, had between them the happy Age of 
Gold, also figured as a pure and gracious virgin, wholly nude, and all 
crowned and adorned with those first fruits produced by herself from the 
earth. After them followed Quiet, robed in black draperies, in the aspect 
of a young but very grave and venerable woman, who had as head-dress 
a nest composed in a most masterly manner, in which was seen lying an 
old and featherless stork, and she walked between two black priests, who, 
crowned with fig-leaves, and each with a branch of the same fig in one 
hand, and in the other a basin containing a flat cake of flour and honey, 
seemed to wish to demonstrate thereby that opinion which is held by 
some, that Saturn was the first discoverer of grain-crops; for which 
reason the Cyrenaeans (and even such were the two black priests) are said 
to have been wont to offer him sacrifices of those things named above. 
These were followed by two Roman priests, who appeared likewise to 
be about to sacrifice to him some waxen images, as it were after the more 
modern use, since they were seen delivered by means of the example of 



136 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

Hercules, who used similar waxen images, from the impious custom of 
sacrificing men to Saturn, introduced into Italy by the Pelasgians. These, 
like the others with Quiet, had likewise between them the venerable 
Vesta, daughter of Saturn, who, very narrow in the shoulders and very 
broad and full in the flanks, after the manner of a round ball, and dressed 
in white, carried a lighted lamp in the hand. And after them, as the 
last, closing the third company, was seen coming the Centaur Cheiron, 
the son, as has been told, of Saturn, armed with sword, bow, and quiver; 
and with him another of the sons of the same Saturn, holding the crooked 
lituus (for the reason that he was an augur) in the hand, and all robed 
in green draperies, with a bird, the woodpecker, on the head, because 
into such a bird, according as the fables tell, it is believed that he was 
transformed by Cheiron. 

FOURTH CAR, OF THE SUN. 

To the resplendent Sun was dedicated the fourth car, all glittering, 
gilded, and jewelled, which, drawn according to custom by four swift 
and winged coursers, was seen to have Velocity, with a head-dress of a 
dolphin and a sail on the head, as charioteer; and in it were painted (as 
has been told of the others), but with a different distribution, and as 
pleasing and gracious as could well be imagined, seven of his fables. 
For the first of these was seen the fate of the too audacious Phaethon, 
who contrived so ill to guide that same car, even as for the second was 
seen the death of the serpent Python, and for the third the chastisement 
inflicted on the rash Marsyas. In the fourth was seen how the Sun 
deigned for a time to lead a humble pastoral life, grazing the flocks of 
Admetus; even as in the fifth was seen how, flying from the fury of 
Typhoeus, he was constrained to change himself into a raven. In the 
sixth were likewise depicted his other transformations, first into a lion 
and then into a hawk; and as the last was seen his love received so ill 
by the timid Daphne, who finally, as is very well known, was changed 
by the compassion of the Gods into laurel. At the foot of the car, then, 
were seen riding, all winged and of different ages and colours, the Hours, 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 137 

the handmaids and ministers of the Sun, each of whom, in imitation of 
the Egyptians, carried a hippopotamus in the hand, and was crowned with 
flowers of the lupine; and behind them, likewise following the Egyptian 
custom, in the form of a young man all dressed in white, with two little 
horns on the head that were turned towards the ground, and with a gar- 
land of oriental palm, was seen walking the Month, carrying in the hand 
a calf which, not without reason, had only one horn. And after him 
was seen likewise walking the Year, with the head all covered with ice 
and snow, the arms wreathed in flowers and garlands, and the breast and 
stomach all adorned with ears of corn, even as the thighs and legs, also, 
were seen to be all wet and stained with must, while in one hand he carried, 
as a symbol of his circling course, a circle formed by a serpent that 
appeared to be seeking to devour the tail with the mouth, and in the 
other hand a nail, such as the ancient Romans used, so we read, to keep 
count of the years in their temples. Then came rosy Aurora, all pleasing, 
fair, and lissom, with a little yellow mantle, and with an ancient lamp 
in the hand, seated with most beautiful grace upon the horse Pegasus. 
In her company was seen the physician ^Esculapius, in the habit of a 
priest, with a knotted stick and a ruddy serpent in the hands, and a dog 
at his feet; and with them the young Phaethon, also (like ^Esculapius) 
the child of the Sun, who, all burning, to recall the memory of his unhappy 
fate, appeared to wish to transform himself into even such a swan as he 
carried in his hand. Orpheus, next, their brother, was seen walking 
behind them, young and much adorned, but of a presence grave and 
venerable, with the tiara on his head, and seeming to play a most ornate 
lyre; and with him was seen the enchantress Circe, likewise the daughter 
of the Sun, with a band around the head, which was a sign of her 
sovereignty, and in the habit of a matron, and she was shown holding in 
the hand, in place of a sceptre, a little branch of larch and another of 
cedar, with the fumes of which it is said that she used to contrive the 
greater part of her enchantments. And the nine Muses, walking in gra- 
cious order, formed a most beautiful finish to the last part of the lovely 
company just described; who were seen figured in the forms of most 
graceful Nymphs, crowned with feathers of the magpie in remembrance 
x. 18 



138 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

of the Sirens vanquished by them, and with feathers of other kinds, 
and holding various musical instruments in the hands, while among the 
last of them, who held the most honourable place, was set Memory, 
mother of the Muses, adorned with rich black draperies, and holding in 
the hand a little black dog, signifying the marvellous memory which 
that animal is said to have, and with the head-dress fantastically com- 
posed of the most different things, denoting the so many and so different 
things that the memory is able to retain. 

FIFTH CAR, OF JOVE. 

The great father of mankind and of the Gods, Jove, the son of 

Saturn, had the fifth car, ornate and rich in pomp beyond all the others; 

for, besides the five fables that were seen painted there, as with the others, 

it was rendered rich and marvellous beyond belief by three statues that 

served as most imposing partitions to those fables. By one of these was 

seen represented the image, such as it is believed to have been, of the 

young Epaphus, the son of lo and Jove, and by the second that of the 

lovely Helen, who was born from Leda at one birth with Castor and 

Pollux; even as by the last was represented that of the grandfather of 

the sage Ulysses, called Arcesius. For the first of the fables already 

mentioned was seen Jove transformed into a Bull, conveying the trusting 

Europa to Crete, even as for the second was seen his perilous rape as he 

flew to Heaven in the form of an Eagle with the Trojan Ganymede, and 

for the third his other transformation into fire when he wished to lie with 

the beautiful ^Egina, daughter of Asopus. For the fourth was seen 

the same Jove, changed into a rain of gold, falling into the lap of his 

beloved Danae; and in the fifth and last he was seen delivering his father 

Saturn, who, as has been told above, was unworthily held prisoner by the 

Titans. In such and so adorned a car, then, and upon a most beautiful 

throne composed of various animals and of many gilded Victories, with 

a little mantle woven of divers animals and plants, the above-named 

great father Jove was seen seated in infinite majesty, with a garland of 

leaves similar to those of the common olive, and in the right hand a Vic- 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 139 

tory crowned with a band of white wool, and in the left hand a royal 
sceptre, at the head of which was shown poised the imperial Eagle. At 
the foot of the throne, to render it more imposing and pompous, was seen 
on one side Niobe, with her children, dying by the shafts of Apollo and 
Diana, and on the other side seven men in combat, who were seen to have 
in their midst a boy with the head bound with white wool, even as in 
another place could be seen Hercules and Theseus, who were shown in 
combat with the famous Amazons. And at the foot of the car, which was 
drawn by two very large and very naturally figured eagles, there was seen 
walking (as has been told of the others) Bellerophon adorned with a royal 
habit and a royal diadem, in allusion to whose fable there was seen over 
that diadem the Chimera slain by him ; having in his company the young 
Perseus, born from Jove and Danae, with the usual head of Medusa in 
his hand, and the usual knife at his flank ; and with them was the above- 
named Epaphus, who had as a cap the head of an African elephant. 
Hercules, the son of Jove and Alcmena, with the customary lion's skin 
and the customary club, was seen coming after them; and in his company 
he had Scythes, his brother (although born from a different mother), the 
first inventor of bow and arrows, on which account his hands and his 
flank were seen furnished with these. After them were seen the two gra- 
cious Twins, Castor and Pollux, riding with an air of no less beauty 
upon two milk-white and spirited coursers, and dressed in military habit; 
each having upon the helmet, one of which was dotted with eight stars 
and the other with ten, a brilliant little flame as helmet-crest, in allusion 
to that salutary light, now called S. Elmo's Fire, which is wont to appear 
to mariners as a sign that the tempest has passed ; the stars being intended 
to signify how they were placed in Heaven by Jove as the sign of the 
Twins. Then Justice was seen coming after these, a beautiful maiden, 
who was beating with a stick and finally strangling a woman ugly and 
deformed, and in her company were four of the Gods Penates, two male 
and two female, these demonstrating although in barbaric and ex- 
travagant dress, and although they had on the head a pediment which, 
with the base turned upwards, supported the heads of a young man 
and an old by the gilded chain with a heart attached that they had 



140 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

about the neck, and by their long, ample, and pompous vestments, that 
they were persons of great weight and of great and lofty counsel; which 
was done with much reason, seeing that they were reputed by the ancient 
writers to be the counsellors of Jove. After them were seen walking 
the two Palici, born of Jove and Thaleia, adorned with draperies of tawny 
hue, and crowned with various ears of corn, and each with an altar in 
the hand; and in their company was larbas, King of Gsetulia, the son 
of the same Jove, crowned with a white band, and with the head of a 
lion surmounted by a crocodile as a cap, and his other garments inter- 
woven with leaves of cane and papyrus and various monsters, and with 
the sceptre and a burning flame of fire in the hands. Behind these were 
seen coming Xanthus, the Trojan River, likewise the son of Jove, in 
human form, but all yellow, all nude, and all shorn, with the overflowing 
vase in his hands, and Sarpedon, King of Lycia, his brother, in a most 
imposing garb, and in his hand a little mound covered with lions and 
serpents. And the last part of that great company, concluding the whole, 
was formed of four armed Curetes, who kept clashing their swords one 
against another, thus reviving the memory of Mount Ida, where Jove 
was saved from the voracious Saturn by their means, drowning by the 
clash of their arms the wailing of the tender babe; among whom, with 
the last couple, for greater dignity, as Queen of all the others, winged and 
without feet, and with much pomp and grandeur, proud Fortune was 
seen haughtily approaching. 



SIXTH CAR, OF MARS. 

Mars, the proud and warlike God, covered with brightly-shining 
armour, had the sixth car, adorned with no little richness and pomp, 
and drawn by two ferocious wolves very similar to the reality; and therein 
his wife Neriene and his daughter Evadne, figured in low-relief, served 
to divide three of his fables, which (as has been told of the other cars) 
were painted there. For the first of these, he was seen slaying the hapless 
son of Neptune, Halirrhotius, in vengeance for the violation of Alcippe, 
and for the second he was seen in most amorous guise lying with Rea 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 141 

Silvia, and begetting by her the two great founders of Rome, Romulus 
and Remus; even as for the third and last he was seen miserably reduced 
to captivity (as happens often enough to his followers) in the hands of 
the impious Otus and Ephialtes. Then before the car, as the first figures, 
preceding it on horseback, were seen two of his priests, the Salii, with 
their usual shields, the Ancilia, and clad and adorned with their usual 
armour and vestments, and wearing on their heads, in place of helmets, 
two caps in the likeness of cones; and they were seen followed by the 
above-named Romulus and Remus in the guise of shepherds, covered in 
rustic fashion with skins of wolves, while, to distinguish the one from the 
other, Remus had six vultures placed in his head-dress, and Romulus 
twelve, in memory of his more happy augury. After them came (Eno- 
maus, King of the Greek Pisa, and also the son of Mars, who held in one 
hand, as King, a royal sceptre, and in the other a little chariot all broken, 
in memory of the treachery shown against him by the charioteer Myrtilus 
in his combat for his daughter Hippodameia against Pelops, her lover. 
And after him were seen coming Ascalaphus and lalmenus, likewise sons 
of Mars, adorned with a rich military habit; recalling by the ships that 
they had in the hand, one for each, the weighty succour brought by them 
with fifty ships to the besieged Trojans. These were followed by the 
beautiful Nymph Britona, daughter likewise of Mars, with a net in her 
arms, in memory of her miserable fate; and by the not less beautiful 
Harmonia, who was born of the same Mars and lovely Venus, and became 
the wife of Theban Cadmus. To her, it is said, Vulcan once presented 
a most beautiful necklace, on which account she was seen with that 
necklace about her neck; and in the upper parts she had the semblance 
of a woman, but in the lower parts denoting that she was transformed, 
together with her husband, into a serpent she was seen all covered with 
serpent's skin. These had behind them, with a bloody knife in the hand 
and across the shoulders a little kid split open, and very fierce in aspect, 
Hyperion, born from the same father, by whom it is said that men were 
first taught to kill brute-animals, and with him the no less fierce ^Etolus, 
likewise the offspring of Mars; and between them was seen walking 
blind Rage, adorned with a red habit all picked out with black embroidery, 



142 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

with foaming mouth, and with a rhinoceros on the head and a cynocephalus 
upon the back. After these walked Fraud, with the face of a human 
creature and with the other parts as they are described by Dante in the 
Inferno, and Menace, truly threatening in aspect with the sword and 
the staff that she had in the hands, covered with grey and red draperies, 
and with the mouth open; and they were seen to have behind them Fury, 
the great Minister of Mars, and Death, pallid and not less in harmony 
with the same Mars; the first all draped and tinted in dark red, with the 
hands bound behind the back, and seeming to be seated, all threatening, 
upon a great bundle of various arms, and the second all pallid, as has 
been said, and covered with black draperies, with the eyes closed, and 
with a presence no less awful and no less horrible. Spoils, then, in the 
form of a woman adorned with a lion's skin, with an ancient trophy in 
the hand, was seen coming after these, and she appeared as if desirous 
to exult over two prisoners, wounded and bound, who were on either 
side of her; having behind her, as the last line of so terrible a company, 
a woman of a very stalwart presence, with two bull's horns on the head 
and with an elephant in the hand, representing Force, to whom Cruelty, 
all red and likewise awful, killing a little child, seemed to make a true and 
fit companion. 

SEVENTH CAR, OF VENUS. 

Very different was the aspect of the charming, graceful, elegant, and 
gilded car of benign Venus, which was seen coming after the last in the 
seventh place, drawn by two most peaceful, snow-white, and amorous 
doves; wherein were not wanting four scenes executed with great mastery, 
to render it pleasing, gladsome, and rich in pomp. For the first of these 
was seen the lovely Goddess transforming herself into a fish, to escape 
from the fury of the Giant Typhceus, and for the second, likewise, she was 
seen praying the great father Jove most piteously that he should deign 
to make an end at last of the many labours of her much-enduring son 
ZEneas. In the third was seen the same Venus caught by her husband 
Vulcan with the net, while lying with her lover Mars; even as in the fourth 
and last she was seen, no less solicitous for her same son ^Eneas, coming 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 143 

into accord with the so inexorable Juno to unite him with the snares of 
love to the chaste Queen of Carthage. The beautiful Adonis, as her 
dearest lover, was seen walking first before the car, in the gracious habit 
of a huntsman, and with him appeared as his companions two charming 
little Loves, with painted wings and with bows and arrows. These were 
followed by the marital Hymeneus, young and beautiful, with the 
customary garland of marjoram, and in his hand the lighted torch; and 
by Thalassius with the spear and shield, and the little basket full of 
wool. And after them was seen coming Peitho, the Goddess of Per- 
suasion, robed in the habit of a matron, with a great tongue upon the 
head (after the Egyptian custom) containing a bloody eye, and in the 
hand another similar tongue which was joined to another counterfeited 
hand; and with her the Trojan Paris in the habit of a shepherd, who 
was seen carrying in memory of his fable that for him so unlucky apple. 
Even as Concord, in the form of a grave and beautiful woman crowned 
with a garland, with a cup in one hand and in the other a sceptre wreathed 
in flowers, could be seen following these ; and with her, likewise, appeared 
as a companion Priapus, the God of orchards, with the usual sickle and 
with the lap all full of fruits; and with them, with a cube in the hand 
and another upon the head, Manturna, who was always invoked most 
devoutly by brides on the first night that they were joined with their 
husbands, believing that firmness and constancy could be infused by her 
into inconstant minds. Extravagantly figured, next, was Friendship, 
who came after these, for, although in the form of a young woman, she 
was seen to have the bare head crowned with leaves of pomegranate and 
myrtle, wearing a rough dress, upon which could be read, MORS ET VITA; 
with the breast open, so that the heart could be perceived, and there, 
likewise, were to be read these words written, LONGE ET PROPE; and 
she carried in the hand a withered elm-trunk entwined with a fresh and 
fertile vine. In her company was Pleasure, both the seemly and the 
unseemly, likewise extravagantly figured in the form of two young 
women that were shown attached to one another by the back ; one white, 
and, as Dante said, cross-eyed and with the feet distorted, and the other, 
although black, yet of a seemly and gracious form, girt with beautiful 



144 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

consideration by the jewelled and gilded cestus, with a bit and a common 
braccio for measuring in the hands. And she was followed by the Goddess 
Virginensis, who used also to be invoked in ancient nuptials, that she 
might aid the husband to loose the virgin zone; on which account, all 
robed in draperies of white linen, with a crown of emeralds and a cock 
upon the head, she was seen walking with the above-named zone and with 
a little branch of agnus-castus in the hands. In her company was Beauty, 
desired so much and by so many, in the form of a gracious virgin wreathed 
in flowers, and all crowned with lilies; and with them was Hebe, the 
Goddess of Youth, likewise a virgin, and likewise dressed with much 
richness and infinite grace, and crowned with the ornament of a lovely 
gilded garland, and carrying in the hand a beautiful little branch of 
flowering almond. Finally, that most lovely company was concluded 
by Joy, likewise a virgin, gracious and crowned with a garland, who in 
similar guise carried in the hand a thyrsus all woven of garlands and 
various leaves and flowers. 

EIGHTH CAR, OF MERCURY. 

To Mercury, who had the caduceus, the cap, and the winged sand 
was given the eighth car, drawn by two most natural storks, and likewise 
enriched and adorned with five of his fables. For the first of these he 
was seen appearing upon the new walls of Carthage, as the Messenger of 
Jove, to the enamoured .ZEneas, and commanding him that he should 
depart thence and set out on the way to Italy; even as for the second 
was seen the unhappy Agraulos converted by him into stone, and for 
the third he was seen likewise at the command of Jove binding the too 
audacious Prometheus to the rocks of Mount Caucasus. In the fourth, 
again, he was seen converting the ill-advised Battus into that stone that 
is called basanite; and in the fifth and last was his slaying, so cunningly 
achieved, of the many-eyed Argus. For clearer demonstration, that 
same Argus was seen walking first before the car, in a pastoral habit 
all covered with eyes; and with him was seen as his companion Maia, 
the mother of the above-named Mercury and daughter of Faunus, in the 




OF THE ACADEMICIANS 145 

very rich habit of a young woman, with a vine upon the head and a sceptre 
in the hand, having some serpents tame in appearance that were following 
her. After these was seen coming Palaestra, daughter of Mercury, in 
the semblance of a virgin wholly nude, but stalwart and proud to a marvel, 
and adorned with various leaves of olive over the whole person, with the 
hair cut short, to the end that when fighting, as it was her custom always 
to do, it might not give a grip to the enemy; and with her was Eloquence, 
also the daughter of Mercury, robed in the dignified and decorous habit 
of a matron, with a parrot upon the head, and with one of the hands 
open. Next were seen the three Graces, with the hands linked in the 
usual manner, and draped in most delicate veiling; and after them were 
seen coming the two Lares, dressed in the skins of dogs, with whom there 
appeared as their companion Art, also in the habit of a matron, with a 
great lever and a great flame of fire in the hands. These were followed 
by Autolycus, that most subtle thief, the son of Mercury and of the Nymph 
Chione, with shoes of felt and a closed cap that hid his face, having both 
his hands occupied with such a lantern as is called a thieves' lantern, 
various picklocks, and a rope-ladder. And finally, Hermaphroditus, the 
offspring of the same Mercury and of Venus, figured in the usual manner, 
was seen bringing up the rear of that little company. 



NINTH CAR, OF THE MOON. 

The ninth car, all silvered, of the Moon, drawn by two horses, one 
black and the other white, was seen passing in no less lovely fashion 
after the last; the Moon, draped, as is customary, in a white and delicate 
veil, guiding the silver reins with grace most gracious; and, like the 
others, it was seen adorned with no less beauty and pomp by four of her 
fables. For the first of these that most gentle Goddess, flying from the 
fury of Typhceus, was seen constrained to transform herself into a cat; 
even as in the second she was seen fondly embracing and kissing beautiful 
Endymion as he lay asleep, and in the third she was seen, won over by a 
delicate fleece of white wool, making her way into a dark forest, there to 
lie with the enamoured Pan, the God of Shepherds. In the fourth was 

x. 19 



146 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

seen how the same Endymion named above, for the grace acquired with 
her, was given pasture for his white flock ; and for a better representation 
of him who was so dear to the Moon, he was then seen walking first before 
the car, crowned with dittany, and in his company a fair-haired child, 
with a serpent in the hand, and also crowned with leaves of the plane, 
representing the Good Genius, and a great black man, awful in aspect, 
with the beard and hair all dishevelled and with an owl in the hand, 
representing the Evil Genius. These were followed by the God Vaticanus, 
who is believed to be able to bring succour to the wailing of little infants, 
robed in a handsome tawny habit, and with an infant in his arms; and 
with him was likewise seen coming, in a splendid and well-varied dress, 
with a key in the hand, the Goddess Egeria, who is also invoked in aid of 
pregnant women; and with them the other Goddess, Nundina, who like- 
wise protects the names of little babes, in a venerable habit, with a 
branch of laurel and a sacrificial vase in the hands. Then after these 
Vitumnus was seen walking, who was reputed to breathe the soul into 
children at their birth, figured after the Egyptian custom, and with him 
Sentinus, who likewise was believed by the ancients to give to the newly- 
born the power of the senses, on which account, he himself being all 
white, there were seen in his head-dress the heads of those five animals 
that are believed to have the five senses more acute than any of the others; 
that of an ape, namely, that of a vulture, that of a wild-boar, that of a 
lynx, and that or rather, the whole body of a little spider. Then 
Edusa and Potina, who preside over the nourishment of those same 
infants, were seen riding in the same fashion as the others, in the habit 
of nymphs, but with breasts very long and very full, one holding a basin 
containing white bread, and the other a most beautiful vase that seemed 
to be full of water; and with them, concluding the last part of the com- 
pany, was Fabulinus, who presides over the first speech of the same 
infants, robed in various colours, with the head all crowned with wagtails 
and singing chaffinches. 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 147 

TENTH CAR, OF MINERVA. 

Minerva, clad in armour, with the spear and the shield of the Gorgon, 
as she is generally figured, had the tenth car, composed in a triangular 
form and in the colour of bronze, and drawn by two very large and most 
bizarre owls, of which I cannot forbear to say that although it would 
be possible to relate singular and even incredible marvels of all the 
animals that drew the cars, yet these, beyond all the others, were figured 
so lifelike and so natural, and their feet, wings, and necks were made to 
move, and even the eyes to open and shut so well, and with a resemblance 
so close to the reality, that I know not how I could ever be able to convince 
of it those who never saw them. However, ceasing to speak of these, I 
must relate that of the three sides of which the triangular car was com- 
posed, there was seen painted in one the miraculous birth of the Goddess 
from the head of Jove, even as in the second Pandora was seen adorned 
by her with all those countless ornaments, and in the third, likewise, she 
was seen converting the hair of the wretched Medusa into snakes. Then 
on one part of the base there was painted the contest that she had with 
Neptune over the name that was to be given to Athenae (before she had 
such a name), when, he producing the fiery horse and she the fruitful 
olive, she was seen to win thereby a glorious and memorable victory; 
and on the other she was seen in the form of a little old woman, striving 
to persuade the overbold Arachne, before she had transformed her into 
the animal of that name, that she should consent, without putting the 
matter to the proof, to yield her the palm in the art of embroidery; even 
as in the third and last part, with a different aspect, she was seen valor- 
ously slaying the proud Typhon. Before the car was seen walking Virtue, 
in the form of a young and stalwart woman, with two great wings, and in 
an easy, chaste, and becoming habit, having as a worthy companion the 
venerable Honour, crowned with palm and resplendent in purple and 
gold, with the shield and spear in the hands, who was shown supporting 
two temples, into one of which (namely, that dedicated to the same 
Honour) it appeared impossible to pass save by way of that dedicated 
to Virtue; and to the end that a noble and worthy companion might be 



148 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

given to those masks, it seemed right that Victory, crowned with laurel 
and likewise with a branch of palm in the hand, should be added to the 
same line. These were followed by Good Fame, figured in the form of 
a young woman with two white wings, sounding a great trumpet, and 
after her, with a little white dog in her arms, came Faith, likewise all 
white, with a luminous veil that was seen covering her arms, head, and 
face; and with them Salvation, holding in the right hand a cup that she 
seemed to be seeking to offer to a serpent, and in the other a thin and 
straight wand. After these, then, was seen coming Nemesis, the daughter 
of Night, who rewards the good and chastises the wicked, virginal in 
aspect, and crowned with little stags and little victories, with a spear of 
ash and a similar cup in the hands; with whom appeared as her com- 
panion Peace, also a virgin, but of a kindly aspect, with a branch of 
olive in the hand and a blind boy, representing the God of riches, in the 
arms; and with them, carrying in the hand a drinking- vessel in the form 
of a lily, and in similar guise, was seen likewise coming ever-verdant 
Hope, followed by Clemency, who was riding upon a great lion, with a 
spear in one hand and in the other a thunderbolt, which she was making 
as if not to hurl furiously, but to throw away. Then were seen likewise 
coming Opportunity, who had a little behind her Penitence, by whom 
she seemed to be continually smitten, and Felicity, upon a commodious 
throne, with a caduceus in one hand and a horn of plenty in the other. 
And these were seen followed by the Goddess Pellonia, whose office it is 
to keep enemies at a distance, in full armour, with two great horns upon 
the head, and in the hand a vigilant crane, who was seen poised upon 
one foot, as is their custom, and holding in the other a stone; and with 
her, closing the last part of the glorious company, was Science, figured 
in the form of a young man, who was shown carrying in the hand a book 
and upon the head a gilded tripod, to denote his constancy and firmness. 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 149 

ELEVENTH CAR, OF VULCAN. 

Vulcan, the God of fire, old, ugly, and lame, with a cap of turquoise- 
blue upon the head, had the eleventh car, drawn by two great dogs; 
and in it was figured the Isle of Lemnos, where it is said that Vulcan, 
thrown down from Heaven, was nursed by Thetis, and began to fashion 
there the first thunderbolts for Jove. Before it were seen walking, as his 
ministers and servants, three Cyclopes, Brontes, Steropes, and Pyracmon, 
of whose aid he is said to have been wont to avail himself in making those 
thunderbolts. After them was seen coming Polyphemus, the lover of 
the beautiful Galatea and the first of all the Cyclopes, in the garb of a 
shepherd, with a great pipe hanging from his neck and a staff in the hand; 
and with him, crowned with seven stars, the deformed but ingenious 
Ericthonius, born with serpent's feet from Vulcan's attempt to violate 
Minerva, to conceal the ugliness of which it is believed that he invented 
the use of chariots, on which account he walked with one of these in the 
hand. He was seen followed by the savage Cacus, also the son of Vulcan, 
spouting a stream of sparks from the mouth and nose; and by Caeculus, 
likewise the son of Vulcan, and likewise in pastoral garb, but adorned 
with the royal diadem, and in one of his hands, in memory of the 
building of Praeneste, was seen a city placed upon a hill, and in the 
other a ruddy and burning flame. After these was seen coming Servius 
Tullius, King of Rome, who is also believed to have been born of 
Vulcan, and upon his head, even as in the hand of Caeculus, in token of 
his happy augury, a similar flame was seen to form in marvellous fashion 
a splendid and propitious garland. Then was seen the jealous Procris, 
daughter of the above-named Ericthonius, and wife of Cephalus, who, 
in memory of the ancient fable, seemed to have the breast transfixed by 
a javelin; and with her was seen Oreithyia, her sister, in a virginal and 
lovely habit, and in the centre between them was Pandion, King of Athens, 
born with them of the same father, adorned with the vestments of a 
Grecian King. After him came Procne and Philomela, his daughters, 
one dressed in the skin of a deer, with a spear in the hand and upon the 
head a little chattering swallow, and the other carrying in the same place 



150 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

a nightingale, and likewise having in the hand a woman's embroidered 
mantle, in allusion to her miserable fate; and she appeared to be following 
her beloved father all filled with sorrow, although adorned with a rich 
vestment. And with them, to conclude the last part of the company, 
was Caca, the sister of Cacus, adored by the ancients as a Goddess for 
the reason that, laying aside her love for her brother, she is said to have 
revealed to Hercules the secret of the stolen cattle. 



TWELFTH CAR, OF JUNO. 

When Vulcan had passed, Queen Juno, adorned with a rich, superb, 
and royal crown, and with vestments transparent and luminous, was 
seen coming in much majesty upon the twelfth car, which was not less 
pompous than any of the others, and drawn by two most lovely peacocks; 
and between the five little stories of her actions that were seen painted 
therein, were Lycorias, Beroe, and Deiopea, her most beautiful and most 
favoured Nymphs. For the first of these stories was seen the unhappy 
Callisto transformed by her into a bear, who was placed afterwards by 
compassionate Jove among the principal stars in the heavens; and in 
the second was seen how, having transformed herself into the likeness 
of Beroe, she persuaded the unsuspecting Semele to beseech Jove that 
he should deign in his grace to lie with her in the guise wherein he was 
wont to lie with his wife Juno; on which account the unhappy mortal, 
not being able to sustain the force of the celestial splendour, was con- 
sumed by fire, and Jove was seen to take Bacchus from her belly and 
place him in his own, preserving him for the full time of birth. In the 
third, likewise, she was seen praying ^Eolus that he should send his 
furious winds to scatter the fleet of Trojan ^Eneas; even as in the fourth 
she was seen in like manner, filled with jealousy, demanding from Jove 
the miserable lo transformed into a cow, and giving her, to the end that 
she might not be stolen from her by Jove, into the custody of the ever- 
vigilant Argus, who, as has been told elsewhere, was put to sleep and 
slain by Mercury; and in the fifth picture was seen Juno sending after 
most unhappy lo the pitiless gad-fly, to the end that he might keep her 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 151 

continually pricked and stung. At the foot of the car, then, were seen 
coming a good number of those phenomena that are formed in the air, 
among which could be seen as the first Iris, regarded by the ancients 
as the messenger of the Gods, and the daughter of Thaumas and Electra; 
all lissom and free, and dressed in vestments of red, yellow, blue, and 
green, signifying the rainbow, with two hawks' wings upon the head that 
denoted her swiftness. In her company, then, in a red habit, with the 
hair ruddy and dishevelled, was the Comet, figured as a young woman 
who had a large and shining star upon the brow; and with them came 
Clear Sky, in the aspect of a virgin, who was seen with the countenance 
of turquoise-blue, and turquoise-blue all the wide and ample dress, not 
without a white dove likewise upon the head, to signify the sky. After 
these were seen Snow and Mist, coupled together; the first dressed in 
tawny-coloured draperies, upon which were shown lying many trunks of 
trees all sprinkled with snow, and the other was seen walking, as if she 
had no shape, as it were in the semblance of a great white mass; having 
with them verdant Dew, figured in that same colour, to denote the green 
plants upon which she is generally seen, and having a round moon upon 
the head, signifying that in the time of the moon's fulness, above all, 
dew is wont to fall from the heavens upon green herbage. Then there 
followed Rain, dressed in a white but somewhat soiled habit, upon whose 
head seven stars, partly bright and partly dim, formed a garland repre- 
senting the seven Pleiades, even as the seventeen that blazed upon her 
breast appeared to denote the sign of rainy Orion. There followed, 
likewise, three virgins of different ages, attired in white draperies and also 
crowned with olive, representing the three classes of virgins that used 
to run races in the ancient games of Juno; having with them, for the last, 
the Goddess Populonia in the rich habit of a matron, with a garland of 
pomegranate and balm-mint upon the head, and with a little table in 
the hand, by whom the airy company above described was seen graciously 
concluded. 



152 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

THIRTEENTH CAR, OF NEPTUNE. 

Fanciful, bizarre, and beautiful beyond all the others appeared the 
thirteenth car, of Neptune, which was composed of an immense crab, 
such as the Venetians are wont to call Grancevola, which rested upon 
four great dolphins, having about the base, which resembled a real and 
natural rock, a vast number of sea-shells, sponges, and corals, which 
rendered it most lovely and ornate, and being drawn by two sea-horses; 
and upon it was seen standing Neptune, in the customary form and with 
the customary trident, having at his feet, as a companion, his spouse 
Salacia, in the form of a snow-white nymph all covered with foam. Before 
the car, then, was seen walking the old and bearded Glaucus, all dripping 
and all covered with sea-weed and moss, whose person from the waist 
downwards was seen in the form of a swimming fish. About him circled 
many halcyon-birds, and with him was seen the much-changing and 
deceitful Proteus, likewise old, all dripping, and covered with sea-weed; 
and with them proud Phorcys, with a royal band of turquoise-blue about 
the head, and with beard and hair long and flowing beyond measure, 
and carrying in the hand the famous Pillars of Hercules, as a sign of the 
empire that he once had. Then followed two Tritons with the customary 
tails, sounding their trumpets, and in their company appeared old ^Eolus, 
likewise holding in the hands a royal sceptre and a sail, and having upon 
the head a burning flame of fire. And he was followed by four of his 
principal Winds; by young Zephyrus, with the locks and the vax-ied wings 
adorned with various little flowers, by dark and parching Eurus, who had 
a radiant sun upon the head; by cold and snowy Boreas; and, finally, 
by the soft, cloudy, and proud Auster; all figured, according as they are 
generally painted, with swelling cheeks and with the large and swift wings 
that are customary. After these, in due place, were seen coming the 
two giants, Otus and Ephialtes, all wounded and transfixed by various 
arrows, in memory of their having been slain by Apollo and Diana; and 
with them, not less appropriately, were seen coming likewise two Harpies, 
with the customary maiden's face and the customary rapacious claws 
and most hideous belly. There was seen also the Egyptian God Canopus, 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 153 

in memory of the astuteness formerly used by the priest against the 
Chaldaeans, figured as very short, round, and fat; and likewise, young 
and lovely, winged Zetes and Calais, the sons of Boreas, by whose valour 
it is related that once upon a time those foul and ravenous Harpies were 
driven from the world. And with them were seen, at the last, the beauti- 
ful Nymph Amymone, beloved by Neptune, with a gilded vase, and the 
young Greek Neleus, son of the same Neptune, who, with royal sceptre 
and habit, was seen to conclude the last part of the company described 
above. 

FOURTEENTH CAR, OF OCEANUS AND OF TETHYS. 

There followed in the fourteenth company, with Tethys, the great 
Queen of the sea, the great father Oceanus, her husband, the son of 
Heaven, who was figured in the form of a tall and cerulean old man, with 
a great beard and long hair all wet and dishevelled, and covered all over 
with sea-weed and various sea-shells, with a horrible seal in the hand, 
while she was represented as a tall and masterful matron, resplendent, 
old, and white, and holding in the hand a great fish ; and they were both 
seen upon a most fantastic car in the semblance of a rock, very strange 
and bizarre, drawn by two immense whales. At the foot of the car was 
seen walking Nereus, their son, old, venerable, and covered with foam, 
and with him Thetis, daughter of that Nereus and of Doris, and mother 
of great Achilles, who was shown riding upon a dolphin; and she was seen 
followed by three most beautiful Sirens figured in the usual manner, 
who had behind them two very beautiful, although white-haired, Nymphs 
of the sea, called Graese, likewise daughters of the Sea-God Phorcys and 
of the Nymph Ceto, clothed most pleasingly in various graceful draperies. 
Behind these, then, were seen coming the three Gorgons with their snaky 
locks, daughters of the same father and mother, who made use of a single 
eye, with which alone, lending it to one another, they were all three able 
to see; and there was likewise seen coming the cruel Scylla, with the face 
and breast of a maiden and with the rest of the person in the form of a 
fish, and with her the old, ugly, and voracious Charybdis, transfixed by 
an arrow in memory of her well-deserved punishment. And behind 

x. 20 



154 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

these, in order to leave the last part of the company more gladsome in 
aspect, there was seen coming for the last, all nude, the beautiful and pure- 
white Galatea, beloved and gracious daughter of Nereus and Doris. 



FIFTEENTH CAR, OF PAN. 

In the fifteenth car, which had the natural and true appearance of 
a shady forest counterfeited with much artifice, and was drawn by two 
great white he-goats, was seen coming the rubicund Pan, the God of 
forests and of shepherds, in the form of an old and horned Satyr, crowned 
with foliage of the pine, with the spotted skin of a panther across the 
body, and in the hands a great pipe with seven reeds and a pastoral staff. 
At the foot of the car were seen walking some other Satyrs and some old 
Sylvan Gods, crowned with fennel and lilies, and holding some boughs of 
cypress in memory of the beloved Cyparissus. After these, likewise, 
were seen coming two Fauns crowned with laurel, and each with a cat 
upon the right shoulder; and behind them the wild and beautiful Syrinx, 
beloved by Pan, who, flying from him, is said to have been transformed 
by the Naiad sisters into a tremulous and musical reed. Syrinx had in 
her company the other Nymph, Pitys, likewise beloved by Pan; but 
since the wind Boreas was also and in like manner enamoured of her, it 
is believed that out of jealousy he hurled her over a most cruel rock, 
whereupon, being all shattered, it is said that out of pity she was trans- 
formed by Mother Earth into a beautiful pine, from the foliage of which her 
lover Pan used, as has been shown above, to make himself a gracious and 
well-beloved garland. Then after these was seen coming Pales, the revered 
custodian and protectress of flocks, dressed as a gentle shepherdess, 
with a great vessel of milk in the hands, and a garland of medicinal 
herbs ; and with her the protectress of herds, by name Bubona, in a similar 
pastoral dress, with an ornate head of an ox that made a cap for her head; 
and Myiagrus, the God of flies, dressed in white, with an infinite multitude 
of those importunate little creatures about his head and his person, with 
a garland of spondyl, and with the club of Hercules in his hand; and 
Evander, who first taught men in Italy to make sacrifices to Pan, adorned 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 155 

with royal purple and the royal head-band, and with the royal sceptre 
in his hand, concluded with gracious pomp the last part of that pastoral, 
indeed, yet pleasing and most fair company. 



SIXTEENTH CAR, OF PLUTO AND OF PROSERPINE. 

Then followed infernal Pluto with Queen Proserpine, all nude, awful, 
and dark, and crowned with funeral cypress, holding a little sceptre in 
one of his hands as a sign of his royal power, and having at his feet the 
great, horrible, and triple- throated Cerberus; but Proserpine, who was 
seen with him (accompanied by two Nymphs, one holding in the hand a 
round ball, and the other a great and strong key, denoting that one who 
has once come into that kingdom must abandon all hope of return), was 
shown clothed in a white and rich dress, ornate beyond belief. And both 
were in the usual car, drawn by four jet-black horses, whose reins were 
seen guided by a most hideous and infernal monster, who had with him, 
as worthy companions, the three likewise infernal Furies, bloody, foul, 
and awful, with the hair and the whole person entwined with various 
venomous serpents. Behind these were seen following the two Centaurs, 
Nessus and Astylus, with bows and arrows, and besides these arms 
Astylus carried in the hand a great eagle ; and with them the proud giant 
Briareus, who had a hundred hands armed with sword and buckler, and 
fifty heads, from which a stream of fire was seen spouting through the 
mouth and nostrils. These were followed by turbid Acheron, pouring 
water and sand, livid and stinking, from a great vase that he carried in 
his hands, and with him was seen coming the other infernal river, Cocytus, 
likewise pallid and dark, and likewise pouring from a similar vase a similar 
fetid and turbid stream; having with them the horrible and sluggish 
Styx, daughter of Oceanus, so much feared by all the Gods, who was 
dressed in a nymph's habit, but dark and foul, and carried a similar 
vase, and seemed to be encompassed by the other infernal river, Phle- 
gethon, whose whole person, with his vase and the boiling waters, was 
tinted with a dark and fearful redness. Then followed old Charon, with 
the oar, and with the eyes (as Dante said) of glowing coal ; accompanied, 



156 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

to the end that not one of the infernal rivers might be absent, by the 
pallid, meagre, emaciated, and oblivious Lethe, in whose hand was seen 
a similar vase, which likewise poured from every side turbid and livid 
water; and following behind them were the three great judges of Hell, 
Minos, ^Eacus, and Rhadamanthus, the first being figured in royal form 
and habit, and the second and third attired in dark, grave, and venerable 
vestments. After these was seen coming Phlegyas, the sacrilegious King 
of the Lapithae, recalling, by an arrow that transfixed his breast, the 
memory of the burned temple of Phoebus and the chastisement received 
from him, and, for clearer demonstration, carrying that temple all 
burning in one of his hands. Next was seen the afflicted Sisyphus under 
the great and ponderous stone, and with him the famished and miserable 
Tantalus, who was shown with the fruits so vainly desired close to his 
mouth. And then were seen coming, but in more gracious aspect, as if 
setting out from the glad Elysian Fields, with the comet-like star on the 
brow, and wearing the imperial habit, the divine Julius and the happy 
Octavianus Augustus, his successor; the terrible and dreadful company 
being finally concluded in most noble fashion by the Amazon Penthesileia, 
adorned with the spear, the half-moon shield, and the royal band upon 
the head, and by the widowed Queen Tomyris, who likewise had the 
hands and side adorned with the bow and barbaric arrows. 



SEVENTEENTH CAR, OF CYBELE. 

After these was seen coming Cybele, the great mother of the Gods, 
crowned with towers, and, for the reason that she is held to be Goddess 
of the Earth, robed in a vestment woven of various plants, with a sceptre 
in the hand, and seated upon a quadrangular car, which contained many 
other empty seats besides her own, and was drawn by two great lions; 
and for the adornment of the car were painted with most beautiful design 
four of her stories. For the first of these was seen how, when she was 
conveyed from Pessinus to Rome, the ship that was carrying her being 
stuck fast in the Tiber, she was drawn miraculously to the bank by the 
Vestal Claudia with only her own simple girdle, to the rare marvel of 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 157 

the bystanders; even as for the second she was seen taken by command 
of her priests to the house of Scipio Nasica, who was judged to be the best 
and most holy man to be found in Rome at that time. For the third, 
likewise, she was seen visited in Phrygia by the Goddess Ceres, after she 
thought to have hidden her daughter Proserpine safely in Sicily; and for 
the fourth and last she was seen flying from the fury of the Giants into 
Egypt, as the poets relate, and constrained to transform herself into a 
blackbird. At t v he foot of the car, then, were seen riding ten Corybantes, 
armed after the ancient fashion, who were making various extravagant 
gestures of head and person; after whom were seen coming two Roman 
matrons in Roman dress, with the head covered by a yellow veil, and 
with them the above-named Scipio Nasica and the Vestal Virgin Claudia, 
who had over the head a square white kerchief with a border all around, 
which was fastened under the throat. And for the last, to give a gracious 
conclusion to the little company, there was seen coming with an aspect of 
great loveliness the young and beautiful Atys, beloved most ardently, 
as we read, by Cybele; who, besides the rich, easy, and charming costume 
of a huntsman, was seen most gracefully adorned by a very beautiful 
gilded collar. 

EIGHTEENTH CAR, OF DIANA. 

In the eighteenth and incredibly beautiful car, drawn by two white 
stags, there was seen coming, with the gilded bow and gilded quiver, the 
huntress Diana, who was shown seated with infinite grace and loveliness 
upon two other stags, which with their hindquarters made for her, as 
it were, a most fanciful seat; the rest of the car being rendered strangely 
gracious, lovely, and ornate by nine of her most pleasing fables. For 
the first of these was seen how, moved by pity for the flying Arethusa, 
who was seen pursued by the enamoured Alpheus, the Goddess converted 
her into a fountain; even as for the second she was seen praying ^Escu- 
lapius that he should consent to restore to life for her the dead but 
innocent Hippolytus; which being accomplished, she was then seen in 
the third ordaining him guardian of her temple and her sacred wood in 
Aricia. For the fourth she was seen chasing Cynthia, violated by Jove, 



158 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

from the pure waters where she used to bathe with her other virgin 
Nymphs; and for the fifth was seen the deceit practised by her on the 
above-named Alpheus, when, seeking presumptuously to obtain her as 
his wife, he was taken by her to see her dance, and there, having smeared 
her face with mire in company with the other Nymphs, she constrained 
him, not being able to recognize her in that guise, to depart all derided 
and scorned. For the sixth, then, she was seen in company with her 
brother Apollo, chastising proud Niobe and slaying her with all her chil- 
dren; and for the seventh she was seen sending the great and savage boar 
into the Calydonian forest, which laid all ^Etolia waste, having been 
moved to just and righteous wrath against that people because they had 
discontinued her sacrifices. Even as for the eighth she was seen not less 
wrathfully converting the unhappy Actaeon into a stag; but in the ninth 
and last, moved on the contrary by pity, she was seen transforming 
Egeria, weeping for the death of her husband, Numa Pompilius, into a 
fountain. At the foot of the car, then, were seen coming eight of her 
huntress Nymphs, with their bows and quivers, dressed in graceful, 
pleasing, loose, and easy garments, composed of skins of various animals 
as it were slain by them; and with them, as the last, concluding the 
small but gracious company, was young Virbius, crowned with spotted- 
leaf myrtle, and holding in one hand a little broken chariot, and in the 
other a bunch of tresses virginal and blonde. 



NINETEENTH CAR, OF CERES. 

In the nineteenth car, drawn by two great dragons, coming in no 
less pomp than the others, was seen Ceres, the Goddess of grain-crops, 
in the habit of a matron, with a garland of ears of corn and with ruddy 
locks; and with no less pomp that car was seen adorned by nine of her 
fables, which had been painted there. For the first of these was seen 
figured the happy birth of Pluto, the God of Riches, born, as we read 
in certain poets, from her and from the hero lasius; even as for the second 
she was seen washing with great care and feeding with her own milk 
the little Triptoiemus, son of Eleusis and Hyona. For the third was 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 159 

seen the same Triptolemus flying by her advice upon one of the two 
dragons that had been presented to him by her, together with the car, 
to the end that he might go through the world piously teaching the care 
and cultivation of the fields; the other dragon having been killed by the 
impious King of the Getae, who sought with every effort likewise to slay 
Triptolemus. For the fourth was seen how she hid her beloved daughter 
Proserpine in Sicily, foreseeing in a certain sense that which afterwards 
befell her; even as in the fifth, likewise, she was seen after that event, as 
has been told elsewhere, going to Phrygia to visit her mother Cybele; 
and in the sixth, as she was dwelling in that place, the same Proserpine 
was seen appearing to her in a dream, and demonstrating to her in what a 
plight she found herself from Pluto's rape of her; on which account, 
being all distraught, she was seen in the seventh returning in great haste 
to Sicily. For the eighth, likewise, was seen how, not finding her there, 
in her deep anguish she kindled two great torches, being moved to the 
resolution to seek her throughout the whole world; and in the ninth and 
last she was seen arriving at the well of Cyane, and there coming by 
chance upon the girdle of her stolen daughter, a sure proof of what had 
befallen her; whereupon in her great wrath, not having aught else on 
which to vent it, she was seen turning to break to pieces the rakes, hoes, 
ploughs, and other rustic implements that chanced to have been left 
there in the fields by the peasants. At the foot of the car, then, were 
seen walking figures signifying her various sacrifices; first, for those that 
are called the Eleusinia, two little virgins attired in white vestments, 
each with a gracious little basket in the hands, one of which was seen to 
be all filled with various flowers, and the other with various ears of corn. 
After which, for those sacrifices that were offered to Ceres as Goddess of 
Earth, there were seen coming two boys, two women, and two men, 
likewise all dressed in white, and all crowned with hyacinths, who were 
leading two great oxen, as it were to sacrifice them; and then, for those 
others that were offered to Ceres the Law-giver, called by the Greeks 
Thesmophoros, were seen coming two matrons only, very chaste in 
aspect, likewise dressed in white, and in like manner crowned with ears 
of corn and agnus-castus. And after these, in order to display in full the 



160 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

whole order of her sacrifices, there were seen coming three Greek priests, 
likewise attired in white draperies, two of whom carried in the hands 
two lighted torches, and the other an ancient lamp, likewise lighted. 
And, finally, the sacred company was concluded by the two heroes so 
much beloved by Ceres, of whom mention has been made above Tripto- 
lemus, namely, who carried a plough in the hand and was shown riding 
upon a dragon, and lasius, whom it was thought proper to figure in the 
easy, rich, and gracious habit of a huntsman. 

TWENTIETH CAR, OF BACCHUS. 

Then followed the twentieth car, of Bacchus, likewise shaped with 
singular artistry and with novel and truly most fanciful and bizarre in- 
vention ; and it was seen in the form of a very graceful little ship all over- 
laid with silver, which was balanced in such wise upon a great base that 
had the true and natural appearance of the cerulean sea, that at the 
slightest movement it was seen, with extraordinary pleasure for the 
spectators, to roll from side to side in the very manner of a real ship upon 
the real sea. In it, besides the merry and laughing Bacchus, attired in 
the usual manner and set in the most commanding place, there were seen 
in company with Maron, King of Thrace, some Bacchantes and some 
Satyrs all merry and joyful, sounding various cymbals and other such- 
like instruments; and since, as it were, from a part of that happy ship 
there rose an abundant fount of bright and foaming wine, they were seen 
not only drinking the wine very often from various cups, with much re- 
joicing, but also with the licence that wine induces inviting the bystanders 
to drink and sing in their company. In place of a mast, also, the little 
ship had a great thyrsus wreathed in vine-leaves, which supported a 
graceful and swelling sail, upon which, to the end that it might be glad- 
some and ornate, were seen painted many of those Bacchantes who, so 
it is said, are wont to run about, drinking and dancing and singing with 
much licence, over Mount Tmolus, father of the choicest wines. At the 
foot of the car, then, was seen walking the beautiful Syce, beloved by 
Bacchus, who had upon the head a garland, and in the hand a branch, 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 161 

of fig; and with her, likewise, was the other love of the same Bacchus, 
Staphyle by name, who, besides a great vine-branch with many grapes 
that she carried in the hand, was also seen to have made in no less lovely 
fashion about her head, with vine-leaves and bunches of similar grapes, 
a green and graceful garland. After these came the fair and youthful 
Cissus, also beloved by Bacchus, who, falling by misfortune, was trans- 
formed by Mother Earth into ivy, on which account he was seen in a 
habit all covered with ivy in every part. And behind him was seen 
coming old Silenus, all naked and bound upon an ass with various gar- 
lands of ivy, as if by reason of his drunkenness he were unable to support 
himself, and carrying attached to his girdle a great wooden cup all worn 
away; and with him, likewise, came the God of Banquets, called by the 
ancients Comus, represented in the form of a ruddy, beardless, and most 
beautiful youth, all crowned with roses, but in aspect so somnolent and 
languid, that it appeared almost as if the huntsman's boar-spear and the 
lighted torch that he carried in the hands might fall from them at any 
moment. There followed with a panther upon the back the old and like- 
wise ruddy and laughing Drunkenness, attired in a red habit, with a 
great foaming vessel of wine in the hands, and with her the young and 
merry Laughter; and behind these were seen coming in the garb of 
shepherds and nymphs two men and two women, followers of Bacchus, 
crowned and adorned in various ways with various leaves of the vine. 
And Semele, the mother of Bacchus, all smoky and scorched in memory 
of the ancient fable, with Narcseus, the first ordinator of the sacrifices 
to Bacchus, who had a great he-goat upon his back, and was adorned 
with antique and shining arms, appeared to form a worthy, appropriate, 
and gracious end to that glad and festive company. 

TWENTY-FIRST AND LAST CAR. 

The twenty-first and last car, representing the Roman Mount Jani- 
culum, and drawn by two great white rams, was given to the venerable 
Janus, figured with two heads, one young and the other old, as is the 
custom, and holding in the hands a great key and a thin wand, to demon- 

x. 21 



ife OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

strate the power over doors and streets that is attributed to him. At the 
foot of the car was seen coming sacred Religion, attired in white linen 
vestments, with one of the hands open, and carrying in the other an 
ancient altar with a burning flame; and on either side of her were the 
Prayers, represented, as they are described by Homer, in the form of two 
wrinkled, lame, cross-eyed, and melancholy old women, dressed in 
draperies of turquoise-blue. After these were seen coming Antevorta 
and Postvorta, the companions of Divinity, of whom it was believed that 
the first had power to know whether prayers were or were not to be heard 
by the Gods; and the second, who rendered account only of the past, was 
able to say whether prayers had or had not been heard; the first being 
figured in the comely aspect and habit of a matron, with a lamp and a 
corn-sieve in the hands, and a head-dress covered with ants upon the 
head; and the second, clothed in front all in white, and figured with the 
face of an old woman, was seen to be attired at the back in heavy black 
draperies, and to have the hair, on the contrary, blonde, curling, and 
beautiful, such as is generally seen in young and love-compelling women. 
Then followed that Favour which we seek from the Gods, to the end that 
our desires may have a happy and fortunate end; and he, although shown 
in the aspect of a youth, blind and with wings, and with a proud and 
haughty presence, yet at times appeared timid and trembling because 
of the rolling wheel upon which he was seen standing, doubting that, as 
is often seen to happen, at every least turn he might come with great 
ease to fall from it; and with him was seen Success, or, as we would rather 
say, the happy end of our enterprises, figured as a gay and lovely youth, 
holding in one of the hands a cup, and in the other an ear of corn and a 
poppy. Then there followed, in the form of a virgin crowned with oriental 
palm, with a star upon the brow and with a branch of the same palm in 
the hand, Anna Perenna, revered by the ancients as a Goddess, believing 
that she was able to make the year fortunate, and with her were seen 
coming two Fetiales with the Roman toga, adorned with garlands of 
verbense and with a sow and a stone in the hands, to denote the kind of 
oath that they were wont to take when they made any declaration for 
the Roman people. Behind these, then, following the religious ceremonies 



OF THE ACADEMICIANS 163 

of war, was seen coming a Roman Consul in the Gabinian and purple 
toga, and with a spear in the hand, and with him two Roman Senators 
likewise in the toga, and two soldiers in full armour and with the Roman 
javelin. And finally, concluding that company and all the others, there 
followed Money, attired in draperies of yellow, white, and tawny colour, 
and holding in the hands various instruments for striking coins; the use 
of which, so it is believed, was first discovered and introduced, as a thing 
necessary to the human race, by Janus. 

Such were the cars and companies of that marvellous masquerade, 
the like of which was never seen before, and, perchance, will never be 
seen again in our day. And about it leaving on one side, as a burden 
too great for my shoulders, the vast and incomparable praises that would 
be due to it there had been marshalled with much judgment six very 
rich masks in the guise of sergeants, or rather, captains, who, harmon- 
izing very well with the invention of the whole, were seen, according as 
necessity demanded, running hither and thither and keeping all that 
long line, which occupied about half a mile of road, advancing in due 
order with decorum and grace. 

Now, drawing near at length to the end of that splendid and most 
merry Carnival, which would have been much more merry and celebrated 
with much more splendour, if the inopportune death of Pius IV, which 
happened a short time before, had not incommoded a good number of 
very reverend Cardinals and other very illustrious lords from all Italy, 
who, invited to those most royal nuptials, had made preparations to 
come; and leaving on one side the rich and lovely inventions without 
number seen in the separate masks, thanks to the amorous young men, 
not only in the innumerable banquets and other suchlike entertainments, 
but wherever they broke a lance or tilted at the ring, now in one place 
and now in another, and wherever they made similar trial of their dex- 
terity and valour in a thousand other games; and treating only of the 
last festival, which was seen on the last day, I shall say that although 
there had been seen the innumerable things, so rare, so rich, and so 
ingenious, of which mention has been made above, yet this festival, 
from the pleasing nature of the play, from the richness, emulation and 



164 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

competence shown in it by our craftsmen (some of whom, as always 
happens, considered themselves surpassed in the things accomplished), 
and from a certain extravagance and variety in the inventions, some of 
which appeared beautiful and ingenious, and others ridiculous and 
clumsy, this one, I say, also displayed an extraordinary and most charm- 
ing beauty, and likewise gave to the admiring people, amid all that 
satiety, a pleasure and a delight that were marvellous and perhaps 
unexpected; and it was a buffalo-race, composed of ten distinct com- 
panies, which were distributed, besides those that the Sovereign Princes 
took for themselves, partly among the lords of the Court and the strangers, 
and partly among the gentlemen of the city and the two colonies of 
merchants, the Spanish and the Genoese. First, then, upon the first 
buffalo that appeared in the appointed place, there was seen coming 
Wickedness, adorned with great art and judgment, who was shown 
being chased, goaded and beaten by six cavaliers likewise figured most 
ingeniously as Scourging, or rather, Scourges. After that, upon the 
second buffalo, which had the appearance of a lazy ass, was seen coming 
the old and drunken Silenus, supported by six Bacchants, who were 
seen striving at the same time to goad and spur the ass; even as upon 
the third, which had the form of a calf, there was likewise seen coming 
the ancient Osiris, accompanied by six of the companions or soldiers 
with whom, it is believed, that Deity travelled over many parts of the 
world and taught to the still new and barbarous races the cultivation of 
the fields. Upon the fourth, without any disguise, was placed as on 
horseback Human Life, likewise chased and goaded by six cavaliers 
who represented the Years; even as upon the fifth, also without any 
disguise, was seen coming Fame with the many mouths and with the 
great wings of desire that are customary, also chased by six cavaliers 
who resembled Virtue, or the Virtues; which Virtues, so it was said, 
chasing her, were aspiring to obtain the due and well-deserved reward 
of honour. Upon the sixth, then, was seen coming a very rich Mercury, 
who was shown being goaded and urged on no less than the others by 
six other similar figures of Mercury; and upon the seventh was seen 
the nurse of Romulus, Acca Laurentia, with six of her Fratres Arvales, 



OFrTHE ACADEMICIANS 165 

who were not only urging her lazy animal to a run with their goads, but 
seemed almost to have been introduced to keep her company with much 
fittingness and pomp. Upon the eighth, next, was seen coming with 
much grace and richness a large and very natural owl, with six cavaliers 
in the form of bats most natural and marvellously similar to the reality, 
who with most dexterous horses, goading the buffalo now from one 
side and now from another, were seen delivering a thousand joyous and 
most festive assaults. For the ninth, with singular artifice and ingenious 
illusion, there was seen appearing little by little a Cloud, which, after 
it had held the eyes of the spectators for some time in suspense, was 
seen in an instant as it were to part asunder, and from it issued the 
seafaring Misenus seated upon the buffalo, which at once was seen pur- 
sued and pricked by six Tritons adorned in a very rich and most masterly 
fashion. And for the tenth and last there was seen coming, almost 
with the same artifice, but in a different and much larger form and in 
a different colour, another similar Cloud, which, parting asunder in like 
tanner at the appointed place with smoke and flame and a horrible 
tunder, was seen to have within it infernal Pluto, drawn in his usual 
;ar, and from it in a most gracious manner was seen to come forth in 
>lace of a buffalo a great and awful Cerberus, who was chased by six 
>f those glorious ancient heroes who are supposed to dwell in peace 
the Elysian Fields. All those companies, when they had appeared 
me by one upon the piazza and presented the due and gracious spectacle, 
id after a long breaking of lances, a great caracoling of horses, and a 
tousand other suchlike games, with which the fair ladies and the multi- 
:ude of spectators were entertained for a good time, finally made their 
ray to the place where the buffaloes were to be set to race. And there, 
ie trumpet having sounded, and each company striving that its buffalo 
lould arrive at the appointed goal before the others, and now one pre- 
r ailing and now another, all of a sudden, when they were come within 
certain distance of the place, all the air about them was seen filled 
dth terror and alarm from the great and deafening fires that smote 
them now on one side and now on another, in a thousand strange fashions, 
>much that very often it was seen to happen that one who at the 



166 OF THE ACADEMICIANS 

beginning had been nearest to winning the coveted prize, the timid and 
not very obedient animal taking fright at the noise, the smoke, and the 
fires above described, which, in proportion as one went ahead, became 
ever greater and assailed that one with ever greater vehemence, so 
that the animals turned in various directions, and very often took to 
headlong flight it was seen many times, I say, that the first were con- 
strained to return among the last; while the confusion of men, buffaloes, 
and horses, and the lightning-flashes, noises, and thunderings, produced 
a strange, novel, and incomparable pleasure and delight. And thus 
with that spectacle was finally contrived a splendid, although for many 
perhaps disturbing, conclusion of the joyous and most festive Carnival. 

In the first and holy days of the following Lent, with the thought of 
pleasing the most devout bride, but also with truly extraordinary pleasure 
for the whole people, who, having been deprived of such things for many 
years, and part of the fragile apparatus having been lost, feared that 
they would never be resumed, there was held the festival, so famous 
and so celebrated in olden days, of S. Felice, so-called from the church 
where it used formerly to be represented. But this time, besides that 
which their Excellencies, our Lords, themselves deigned to do, it was 
represented at the pains and expense of four of the principal and most 
ingenious gentlemen of the city in the Church of S. Spirito, as a place 
more capacious and more beautiful, with a vast apparatus of machinery 
and all the old instruments and not a few newly added. In it, besides 
many Prophets and Sibyls who, singing in the simple ancient manner, 
announced the coming of Our Lord Jesus Christ, very notable nay, 
marvellous, stupendous, and incomparable, from its having been con- 
trived in those ignorant ages was the Paradise, which, opening in an 
instant, was seen filled with all the hierarchies of the Angels and of the 
Saints both male and female, and with various movements representing 
its different spheres, and as it were sending down to earth the Divine 
Gabriel shining with infinite splendour, in the midst of eight other little 
Angels, to bring the Annunciation to the Glorious Virgin, who was seen 
waiting in her chamber, all humble and devout; all being let down (and 
reascending afterwards), to the rare marvel of everyone, from the highest 






OF THE ACADEMICIANS 167 

part of the cupola of that church, where the above-described Paradise 
was figured, down to the floor of the chamber of the Virgin, which was 
not raised any great height from the ground, and all with such security 
and by methods so beautiful, so facile, and so ingenious, that it appeared 
scarcely possible that the human brain was able to go so far. And with 
this the festivities all arranged by our most excellent Lords for those 
most royal nuptials had a conclusion not only renowned and splendid, 
but also, as was right fitting for true Christian Princes, religious and 
devout. 

Many things, also, could have been told of a very noble spectacle 
presented by the most liberal Signor Paolo Giordano Orsino, Duke of 
Bracciano, in a great and most heroic theatre, all suspended in the air, 
which was constructed by him of woodwork in those days with royal 
spirit and incredible expense; and in it, with very rich inventions of the 
Knights Challengers, of whom he was one, and of the Knights Adven- 
turers, there was fought with various arms a combat for a barrier, and 
there was performed with beautifully trained horses, to the rare delight 
of the spectators, the graceful dance called the Battaglia. But this, 
being hindered by inopportune rains, was prolonged over many days; 
and since, seeking to treat of it at any length, it would require almost 
an entire work, being now weary, I believe that I may be pardoned if 
without saying more of it I bring this my long I know not whether to 
call it tedious labour, at length to an end. 



GIORGIO VASARI 



X. 



22 



DESCRIPTION OF THE WORKS OF GIORGIO VASARI 

PAINTER AND ARCHITECT OF AREZZO 

HAVING discoursed hitherto of the works of others, with the greatest 
diligence and sincerity that my brain has been able to command, I also 
wish at the end of these my labours to assemble together and make 
known to the world the works that the Divine Goodness in its grace has 
enabled me to execute, for the reason that, if indeed they are not of 
that perfection which I might wish, it will yet be seen by him who may 
consent to look at them with no jaundiced eye that they have been 
wrought by me with study, diligence, and loving labour, and are therefore 
worthy, if not of praise, at least of excuse; besides which, being out in 
the world and open to view, I cannot hide them. And since perchance >, 
at some time they might be described by some other person, it is surely 
better that I should confess the truth, and of myself accuse my imper- 
fection, which I know only too well, being assured of this, that if, as I 
said, there may not be seen in them the perfection of excellence, there 
will be perceived at least an ardent desire to work weU\ great and inde- 
fatigable effort, and the extraordinary love that I bear to our arts. 
Wherefore it may come about that, according to the law, myself confess- 
ing openly my own deficiencies, I shall be in great part pardoned. 

To begin, then, with my earliest years, let me say that, having 
spoken sufficiently of the origin of my family, of my birth and childhood, 
and how I was set by Antonio, my father, with all manner of lovingness 
on the path of the arts, and in particular that of design, to which he 
saw me much inclined, with good occasions in the Life of Luca Signorelli 
of Cortona, my kinsman, in that of Francesco Salviati, and in many other 
places in the present work, I shall not proceed to repeat the same things. 
But I must relate that after having drawn in my first years all the good 

171 






172 GIORGIO VASARI 

pictures that are about the churches of Arezzo, the first rudiments were 
taught to me with some method by the Frenchman Guglielmo da Marcilla, 
whose life and works we have described above. Then, having been taken 
to Florence in the year 1324 by Silvio Passerini, Cardinal of Cortona, I 
gave some little attention to design under Michelagnolo, Andrea del Sarto, 
and others. But the Medici having been driven from Florence in the 
year 1527, and in particular Alessandro and Ippolito, with whom, young 
as I was, I had a strait attachment of service through the said Cardinal, 
my paternal uncle Don Antonio made me return to Arezzo, where a short 
time before my father had died of plague; which Don Antonio, keeping 
me at a distance from the city lest I might be infected by the plague, was 
the. reason that I, to avoid idleness, went about exercising my hand 
throughout the district of Arezzo, near our parts, painting some things 
in fresco for the peasants of the countryside, although as yet I had 
scarcely ever touched colours; in doing which I learned that to try your 
hand and work by yourself is helpful and instructive, and enables you to 
gain excellent practice. In the year afterwards, 1^28, the plague being 
finished, the first work that I executed was a little altar-picture for the 
Church of S. Piero, of the Servite Friars, at Arezzo; and in that picture, 
which is placed against a pilaster, are three half-length figures, S. Agatha, 
S. Rocco, and S. Sebastian. Being seen by Rosso, a very famous painter, 
who came in those days to Arezzo, it came about that he, recognizing in 
it something of the good taken from Nature, desired to know me, and 
afterwards assisted me with designs and counsel. Nor was it long before 
by his means M. Lorenzo Gamurrini gave me an altar-picture to execute, 
for which Rosso made me the design; and I then painted it with all the 
study, labour, and diligence that were possible to me, in order to learn 
and to Acquire something of a name. And if my powers had equalled my 
good will, I would have soon become a passing good painter, so much I 
studied and laboured at the things of art; J}ut I .found the difficulties 
much greater than I had judged at the beginning. 

However, not losing heart, I returned to "Florence, where, perceiving 
that I could not save only after a long time become such as to be able ; 
to assist the three sisters and two younger brothers left to me by ;ny 



GIORGIO VASARI 173 

father, I placed myself with a goldsmith. But not for long, because in 
the year 1529, the enemy having come against Florence, I went off with 
the goldsmith Manno, who was very much my friend, to Pisa, where, 
setting aside the goldsmith's craft, I painted in fresco the arch that is 
over the door of the old Company of the Florentines, and some pictures 
in oils, which were given to me to execute by means of Don Miniato 
Pitti, at that time Abbot of Agnano without the city of Pisa, and of 
Luigi Guicciardini, who was then in that city. Then, the war growing 
every day more general, I resolved to return to Arezzo; but, not being 
able to go by the direct and ordinary road, I made my way by the 
mountains of Modena to Bologna. There, finding that some triumphal 
arches were being decorated in painting for the coronation of Charles V, 
young as I was I obtained some work, which brought me honour and 
profit; and since I drew passing well, I would have found means to live 
and work there. But the desire that I had to revisit my family and 
other relatives brought it about that, having found good company, I 
returned to Arezzo, where, finding my affairs in a good state after the 
diligent care taken of them by the above-named Don Antonio, my uncle, 
I settled down with a quiet mind and applied myself to design, execut- 
ing also some little things in oils of no great importance. Meanwhile 
the above-named Don Miniato Pitti was made Abbot or Prior, I know 
not which, of S. Anna, a monastery of Monte Oliveto in the territory of 
Siena, and he sent for me; and so I made for him and for Albenga, their 
General, some pictures and other works in painting. Then, the same 
man having been made Abbot of S. Bernardo in Arezzo, I painted for 
him two pictures in oils of Job and Moses on the balustrade of the organ. 
And since the work pleased those monks, they commissioned me to paint 
some pictures in fresco namely, the four Evangelists on the vaulting 
and walls of a portico before the principal door of the church, with God 
the Father on the vaulting, and some other figures large as life; in which, 
although as a youth of little experience I did not do all that one more 
practised would have done, nevertheless I did all that I could, and 
work which pleased those fathers, having regard for my small experience 
and age. But scarcely had I finished that work when Cardinal Ippolito 



174 GIORGIO VASARI 

de' Medici, passing through Arezzo by post, took me away to Rome to 
serve him, as has been related in the Life of Salviati; and there, by the 
courtesy of that lord, I had facilities to attend for many months to the 
study of design. And I could say with truth that those facilities and 
my studies at that time were my true and principal master in my art, 
although before that those named above had assisted me not a little; 
and there had not gone from my heart the ardent desire to learn, and 
the untiring zeal to be always drawing night and day. There was also 
of great benefit to me in those days the competition of my young con- 
temporaries and companions, who have since become for the most part 
very excellent in our art. Nor was it otherwise than a very sharp spur 
to me to have such a desire of glory, and to see many who had proved 
themselves very rare, and had risen to honour and rank; so that I used 
to say to myself at times: " Why should it not be in my power to obtain 
by assiduous study and labour some of that grandeur and rank that so 
many others have acquired ? They, also, were of flesh and bones, as 
I am." 

Urged on, therefore, by so many sharp spurs, and by seeirg how 
much need my family had of me, I disposed myself never to shrink from 
any fatigue, discomfort, vigil, and toil, in order to achieve that end; 
and, having thus resolved in my mind, there remained nothing notable 
at that time in Romr, or afterwards in Florence, and in other places 
where I dwelt, that I did not draw in my youth, and not pictures only, 
but also sculptures and architectural works ancient and modern. And 
besides the proficience that I made in drawing the vaulting and chapel of 
Michelagnolo, there remained nothing of Raffaello, Polidoro, and Baldas- 
sarre da Siena, that I did not likewise draw in company with Francesco 
Salviati, as has been told already in his Life. And to the end that each 
of us might have drawings of everything, during the day the one would 
not draw the same things as the other, but different, and then at night 
we used to copy each other's drawings, so as to save time and extend our 
studies; not to mention that more often than not we ate our morning 
meal standing up, and little at that. After which incredible labour, the 
first work that issued from my hands, as from my own forge, was a great 



GIORGIO VASARI 175 

picture with figures large as life, of a Venus with the Graces adorning and 
beautifying her, which Cardinal de' Medici caused me to paint; but of 
that picture there is no need to speak, because it was the work of a lad, 
nor would I touch on it, save that it is dear to me to remember still these 
first beginnings and many upward steps of my apprenticeship in the arts. 
Enough that that lord and others gave me to believe that there was in 
it a certain something of a good beginning and of a lively and resolute 
spirit. And since among other things I had made therein to please my 
fancy a lustful Satyr who, standing hidden amid some bushes, was 
rejoicing and feasting himself on the sight of Venus and the Graces nude, 
that so pleased the Cardinal that he had me clothed anew from head 
to foot, and then gave orders that I should paint in a larger pictare, 
likewise in oils, the battle of the Satyrs with the Fauns, Sylvan Gods, and 
children, forming a sort of Bacchanal; whereupon, setting to work, I 
made the cartoon and then sketched in the canvas in colours, which was 
ten braccia long. Having then to depart in the direction of Hungary, 
the Cardinal made me known to Pope Clement and left me to the pro- 
action of his Holiness, who gave me into the charge of Signor Jeronimo 

[ontaguto, his Chamberlain, with letters authorizing that, if I might 

dsh to fly from the air of Rome that summer, I should be received in 
Florence by Duke Alessandro; which it would have been well for me to 

lo, because, choosing after all to stay in Rome, what with the heat, the 
air, and my fatigue, I fell sick in such sort that in order to be restored I 

r as forced to have myself carried by litter to Arezzo. Finally, however, 
being well again, about the loth of the following December I came to 
Florence, where I was received by the above-named Duke with kindly 
mien, and shortly afterwards given into the charge of the magnificent 
Al. Ottaviano de' Medici, who so took me under his protection, that as 
iong as he lived he treated me always as a son; and his blessed memory 
I shall always remember and revere, as of a most affectionate father. 
Returning then to my usual studies, I received facilities by means of that 
lord to enter at my pleasure into the new sacristy of S. Lorenzo, where 
are the works of Michelagnolo, he having gone in those days to Rome; 
and so I studied them for some time with much diligence, just as they 



176 GIORGIO VASARI 

were on the ground. Then, setting myself to work, I painted in a picture 
of three braccia a Dead Christ carried to the Sepulchre by Nicodemus, 
Joseph, and others, and behind them the Maries weeping; which picture, 
when it was finished, was taken by Duke Alessandro. And it was a good 
and auspicious beginning for my labours, for the reason that not only did 
he hold it in account as long as he lived, but it has been ever since in 
the chamber of Duke Cosimo, and is now in that of the most illustrious 
Prince, his son; and although at times I have desired to set my hand 
upon it again, in order to improve it in some parts, I have not been 
allowed. Duke Alessandro, then, having seen this my first work, 
ordained that I should finish the ground-floor room in the Palace of the 
Medici which had been left incomplete, as has been related, by Giovanni 
da Udine. Whereupon I painted there four stories of the actions of 
Caesar; his swimming with the Commentaries in one hand and a sword 
in the mouth, his causing the writings of Pompeius to be burned in order 
not to see the works of his enemies, his revealing himself to a helmsman 
while tossed by fortune on the sea, and, finally, his triumph; but this 
last was not completely finished. During which time, although I was but 
little more than eighteen years of age, the Duke gave me a salary of six 
crowns a month, a place at table for myself and a servant, and rooms to 
live in, with many other conveniences. And although I knew that I was 
very far from deserving so much, yet I did all that I could with diligence 
and lovingness, nor did I shrink from asking from my elders whatever 
I did not know myself; wherefore on many occasions I was assisted with 
counsel and with work by Tribolo, Bandinelli, and others. I painted, 
then, in a picture three braccia high, Duke Alessandro himself in armour, 
portrayed from life, with a new invention in a seat formed of captives 
bound together, and with other fantasies. And I remember that besides 
the portrait, which was a gooQUikejaess, in seeking to make the burnished 
surface of the armour bright, shining, and natural, I was not very far 
from losing my wits, so much did I exert myself in copying, every Jgast 
thingfrom the reality. However, despairing to be able to approach to 
the truth in the work, I took Jacopo da Pontormo, whom I revered for 
| liis great ability, to see it and to advise me; and he, having seen the 



GIORGIO VASARI 177 

picture and perceived my agony, said to me lovingly: " My son, as long 
as this real lustrous armour stands beside the picture, your armour will 
always appear to you as painted, for, although lead-white is the most 
brilliant pigment that art employs, the iron is yet more brilliant and 
lustrous. Take away the real armour, and you will then see that your 
counterfeit armour is not such poor stuff as you think it." 

That picture, when it was finished, I gave to the Duke, and the Duke 
presented it to M. Ottaviano de' Medici, in whose house it has been up 
to the present day, in company with the portrait of Caterina, the then 
young sister of the Duke, and afterwards Queen of France, and that of 
the Magnificent Lorenzo, the Elder. And in the same house are three 
pictures also by my hand and executed in my youth; in one is Abraham 
sacrificing Isaac, in the second Christ in the Garden, and in the third His 
Supper with the Apostles. Meanwhile Cardinal Ippolito died, in whom 
was centred the sum of all my hopes, and I began to recognize how 
vain generally are the hopes of this world, and that a man must trust 
mostly in himself and in being of some account. After these works, 
perceiving that the Duke was all given over to fortifications and to 
building, I began, the better to be able to serve him, to give attention 
to matters of architecture, and spent much time upon them. But mean- 
while, festive preparations having to be made in Florence in the year 
1536 for receiving the Emperor Charles V, the Duke, in giving orders 
for that, commanded the deputies charged with the care of those pomps, 
as has been related in the Life of Tribolo, that they should have me with 
them to design all the arches and other ornaments to be made for that 
entry. Which done, there was allotted to me for my benefit, besides 
the great banners of the castle and fortress, as has been told, the fagade 
in the manner of a triumphal arch that was constructed at S. Felice in 
Piazza, forty braccia high and twenty wide, and then the ornamentation 
of the Porta a S. Piero Gattolini; works all great and beyond my strength. 
And, what was worse, those favours having drawn down upon me a 
thousand envious thoughts, about twenty men who were helping me to 
do the banners and the other labours left me nicely in the lurch, at the 
persuasion of one person or another, to the end that I might not be able 

x. 23 



178 GIORGIO VASARI 

to execute works so many and of such importance. But I, who had fore- 
seen the malice of such creatures (to whom I had always sought to give 
assistance), partly labouring with my own hand day and night, and 
partly aided by painters brought in from without, who helped me secretly, 
attended to my business, and strove to conquer all such difficulties and 
treacheries by means of the works themselves. During that time 
Bertoldo Corsini, who was then proveditor-general to his Excellency, 
had reported to the Duke that I had undertaken to do so many things 
that it would never be possible for me to have them finished in time, 
particularly because I had no men and the works were much in arrears. 
Whereupon the Duke sent for me, and told me what he had heard; 
and I answered that my works were well advanced, as his Excel- 
lency might see at his pleasure, and that the end would do credit 
to the whole. Then I went away, and no long time passed before he 
came secretly to where I was working, and, having seen everything, 
recognized in part the envy and malice of those who were pressing upon 
me without having any cause. The time having come when everything 
was to be in order, I had finished my works to the last detail and set 
them in their places, to the great satisfaction of the Duke and of all the 
city; whereas those of some who had thought more of my business than 
of their own, were set in place unfinished. When the festivities were 
over, besides four hundred crowns that were paid to me for my work, 
the Duke gave me three hundred that were taken away from those who 
had not carried their works to completion by the appointed time, accord- 
ing as had been arranged by agreement. And with those earnings and 
donations I married one of my sisters, and shortly afterwards settled an- 
other as a nun in the Murate at Arezzo, giving to the convent besides the 
dowry, or rather, alms, an altar-picture of the Annunciation by my hand, 
\ with a Tabernacle of the Sacrament accommodated in that picture, which 
v was placed within their choir, where they perform their offices. Having 
then received from the Company of the Corpus Domini, at Arezzo, the com- 
mission for the altar-piece of the high-altar of S. Domenico, I painted in 
it Christ taken down from the Cross; and shortly afterwards I began for 
the Company of S. Rocco the altar-picture of their church, in Florence. 



GIORGIO VASARI 179 

Now, while I was going on winning for myself honour, name, and 
wealth under the protection of Duke Alessandro, that poor lord was 
cruelly murdered, and there was snatched away from me all hope of 
that which I was promising to myself from Fortune by means of his 
favour; wherefore, having been robbed within a few years of Clement, 
Ippolito, and Alessandro, I resolved at the advice of M. Ottaviano that 
I would never again follow the fortune of Courts, but only art, although 
it would have been easy to establish myself with Signor Cosimo de' 
Medici, the new Duke. And so, while carrying forward in Arezzo the 
above-named altar-picture and the fa$ade of S. Rocco, with the ornament, 
I was making preparations to go to Rome, when by means of M. Giovanni 
Pollastra and by the will of God, to whom I have always commended 
myself, and to whom I attribute and have always attributed my every 
blessing I was invited to Camaldoli, the centre of the Camaldolese 

o iittMiBBiMw 

Congregation, by the fathers of that hermitage, to see that which they 
were designing to have done in their church. Arriving there, I found 
supreme pleasure in the Alpine and eternal solitude and quietness of 
that holy place; and although I became aware at the first moment that 
those fathers of venerable aspect were beside themselves at seeing me 
so young, I took heart and talked to them to such purpose, that they 
resolved that they would avail themselves of my hand in the many 
pictures in oils and in fresco that were to be painted in their church of 
Camaldoli. Now, while they wished that before any other thing I should 
execute the picture of the high-altar, I proved to them with good reasons 
that it was better to paint first one of the lesser pictures, which were 
going in the tramezzo,* and that, having finished it, if it should please 
them, I would be able to continue. Besides that, I would not make 
any fixed agreement with them as to money, but said that if my work, 
when finished, were to please them, they might pay me for it as they 
chose, and, if it did not please them, they might return it to me, and I 
would keep it for myself most willingly; which condition appearing to 
them only too honest and loving, they were content that I should set 
my hand to the work. They said to me, then, that they wished to have 

* See note on p. 57, Vol. I. 



i8o GIORGIO VASARI 

in it Our Lady with her Son in her arms, and S. John the Baptist and 
S. Jerome, who were both hermits and lived in woods and forests; and 
I departed "from the hermitage and made my way down to their Abbey 
of Camaldoli, where, having made a design with great rapidity, which 
pleased them, I began the altar-piece, and in two months had it com- 
pletely finished and set in place, to the great satisfaction of those fathers, 
as they gave me to understand, and of myself. And in that period of 
two months I proved how much more one is assisted in studies by sweet 
tranquillity and honest solitude than by the noises of public squares 
and courts; I recognized, I say, my error in having in the past placed 
my hopes in men and in the follies and intrigues of this world. That 
altar-picture finished, then, they allotted to me straightway the rest of 
the tramezzo* of the church namely, the scenes and other things in fresco- 
work to be painted there both high and low, which I was to execute 
during the following summer, for the reason that in the winter it would be 
scarcely possible to work in fresco at that altitude, among those mountains. 

Meanwhile I returned to Arezzo and finished the altar-picture for 



S. Rocco, painting in it Our Lady, six Saints, and a God the Father 
with some thunder-bolts in the hand, representing the pestilence, which 
He is in the act of hurling down, but S. Rocco and other Saints make 
intercession for the people. And in the fagade are many figures in 
fresco, which, like the altar-picture, are no better than they should be. 
Then Fra Bartolommeo Gratiani, a friar of S. Agostino in Monte Sansovino, 
sent to invite me to Val di Caprese, and commissioned me to execute a 
great altar-piece in oils for the high-altar of the Church of S. Agostino in 
that same Monte Sansovino. And after we had come to an agreement, 
I made my way to Florence to see M. Ottaviano, where, staying several 
days, I had much ado to prevent myself from re-entering the service of 
the Court, as I was minded not to do. However, by advancing good 
reasons I won the battle, and I resolved that by hook or by crook, before 
doing anything else, I would go to Rome. But in that I did not succeed 
until I had made for that same Messer Ottaviano a copy of the picture 
in which formerly Raff aello da Urbino had portrayed Pope Leo, Cardinal 

* See note on p. 57, Vol. I. 



GIORGIO VASARI 181 

Giulio de' Medici, and Cardinal de' Rossi, for the Duke was claiming the 
original, which was then in the possession of Messer Ottaviano; and the 
copy that I made is now in the house of the heirs of that lord, who on 
my departure for Rome wrote me a letter of exchange for five hundred 
crowns on Giovan Battista Puccini, which he was to pay me on demand, 
and said to me: " Use this money to enable you to attend to your studies, 
and afterwards, when you find it convenient, you can return it to me 
either in work or in cash, just as you please." Arriving in Rome, then, 

*" 

in February of the year 1538, I stayed there until the end of June, giving 
my attention in company with Giovan Battista Cungi of the Borgo, my 
assistant, to drawing all that I had left not drawn the other times 'that 
I had been in Rome, and particularly everything that was in the under- 
ground grottoes. Nor did I leave anything either in architecture or in 
sculpture that I did not draw and measure, insomuch that I can say 
with truth that the drawings that I made in that space of time were 
more than three hundred; and for many years afterwards I found pleasure 
and advantage in examining them, refreshing the memory of the things 
>f Rome. And how much those labours and studies benefited me, was 
seen after my return to Tuscany in the altar-picture that I executed at 
Monte Sansovino, in which I painted with a somewhat better manner the 
Assumption of Our Lady, and at the foot, besides the Apostles who are 
about the sepulchre, S. Augustine and S. Romualdo. Having then gone 
to Camaldoli, according as I had promised those eremite fathers, I painted 
in the other altar-piece of the tramezzo* the Nativity of Jesus Christ, 
representing a night illumined by the Splendour of the newborn Christ, 
who is surrounded by some Shepherds adoring Him; in doing which, I 
strove to imitate with colours the rays of the sun, and copied the figures 
and all the other things in that work from Nature and in the proper light, 
to the end that they might be as similar as possible to the reality. Then, 
since that light could not pass above the hut, from there upwards and 
all around I availed myself of a light that comes from the splendour of the 
Angels that are in the air, singing Gloria in Excelsis Deo ; not to mention 
that in certain places the Shepherds that are around make light with 

* See note on p. 57, Vol. I. 



182 GIORGIO VASARI 

burning sheaves of straw, and also the Moon and the Star, and the Angel 
that is appearing to certain Shepherds. For the building, then, I made 
some antiquities after my own fancy, with broken statues and other 
things of that kind. In short, I executed that work with all my power 
and knowledge, and although I did not satisfy with the hand and the 
brush my great desire and eagerness to work supremely well, nevertheless 
the picture has pleased many; wherefore Messer Fausto Sabeo, a man of 
great learning who was then custodian of the Pope's Library, and some 
others after him, wrote many Latin verses in praise of that picture, 
moved perhaps more by affectionate feeling than by the excellence of 
the work. Be that as it may, if there be in it anything of the good, it 
was the gift of God. That altar-picture finished, those fathers resolved 
that I should paint in fresco on the fagade the stories that were to be 
there, whereupon I painted over the door a picture of the hermitage, 
with S. Romualdo and a Doge of Venice who was a saintly man on one 
side, and on the other a vision which the above-named Saint had in that 
place where he afterwards made his hermitage; with some fantasies, 
grotesques, and other things that are to be seen there. Which done, 
they ordained that I should return in the summer of the following year 
to execute the picture of the high-altar. 

Meanwhile the above-named Don Miniato Pitti, who was then 
Visitor to the Congregation of Monte Oliveto, having seen the altar- 
picture of Monte Sansovino and the works of Camaldoli, and finding in 
Bologna the Florentine Don Filippo Serragli, Abbot of S. Michele in 
Bosco, said to him that, since the refectory of that honoured monastery 
was to be painted, it appeared to him that the work should be allotted 
to me and not to another. Being therefore summoned to go to Bologna, 
I undertook to do it, although it was a great and important work; but 
first I desired to see all the most famous works in painting that were in 
that city, both by Bolognese and by others. The work of the head- 
wall of that refectory was divided into three pictures; in one was to be 
when Abraham prepared food for the Angels in the Valley of Mamre, 
in the second Christ in the house of Mary Magdalene and Martha, 
speaking with Martha, and saying to her that Mary had chosen the 



GIORGIO VASARI 183 

better part, and in the third was to be S. Gregory at table with twelve 
poor men, among whom he recognized one as Christ. Then, setting my 
hand to the work, I depicted in the last S. Gregory at table in a convent, 
served by White Friars of that Order, that I might be able to include 
those fathers therein, according to their wish. Besides that, I made in 
the figure of that saintly Pontiff the likeness of Pope Clement VII, and 
about him, among many Lords, Ambassadors, Princes, and other person- 
ages who stand there to see him eat, I portrayed Duke Alessandro de' 
Medici, in memory of the benefits and favours that I had received from 
him, and of his having been what he was, and with him many of my 
friends. And among those who are serving the poor men at table, I 
portrayed some friars of that convent with whom I was intimate, such 
as the strangers' attendants who waited upon me, the dispenser, the 
cellarer, and others of the kind; and so, also, the Abbot Serragli, the 
General Don Cipriano da Verona, and Bentivoglio. In like manner, I 
copied the vestments of that Pontiff from the reality, counterfeiting 
velvets, damasks, and other draperies of silk and gold of every kind; 
but the service of the table, vases, animals, and other things, I caused 
to be executed by Cristofano of the Borgo, as was told in his Life. In 
the second scene I sought to make the heads, draperies, and buildings 
ot only different from the first, but in such a manner as to jrrtake as 
clearly evident as possible the lovingness of Christ in instructing the \ 

^-, i , ^>f i- .-,^.-_ u . .. *- ... I <! i.rr M ^ f H'1^ - W \-J 

Magdalene, and the affection and readiness of Martha in arranging the 
table, and her lamentation at being left alone by her sister in such labours 
and service; to say nothing of the attentiveness of the Apostles, and of 
many other things worthy of consideration in that picture. As for the 
third scene, I painted the three Angels coming to do this I know not 
how within a celestial light which seems to radiate from them, while 
the rays of the sun surround the cloud in which they are. Of the three 
Angels the old Abraham is adoring one, although those that he sees are 
three; while Sarah stands laughing and wondering how that can come 
to pass which has been promised to her, and Hagar, with Ishmael in 
her arms, is departing from the hospitable shelter. The same radiance 
also gives light to sojne servants who are preparing the table, among 



184 GIORGIO VASARI 

whom are some who, not being able to endure that splendour, place 
their hands over their eyes and seek to shade themselves. Which variety 
of things, since strong shadows and brilliant lights give greater force to 
pictures, caused this one to have more relief than the other two, and, 
the colours being varied, they produced a very different effect. But 
would I had been able to carry my conception into execution, even as 
both then and afterwards, with new inventions and fantasies, I was 
always seeking out the laborious and difficult in art. This work, then, 
whatever it may be, was executed by me in eight months, together with 
a frieze in fresco, architectural ornaments, carvings, seat-backs, panels, 
and other adornments over the whole work and the whole refectory; and 
the price of all I was content to make two hundred crowns, as one who 
aspired more to glory than to gain. Wherefore M. Andrea Alciati, my 
very dear friend, who was then reading in Bologna, caused these words 
to be placed at the foot : 

OCTONIS MENSIBUS OPUS AB ARETINO GEORGIO PICTUM, NON TAM PRECIO 

QUAM AMICORUM OBSEQUIS ET HONORIS VOTO, ANNO 1539 PHILIPPUS 

SERRALIUS PON. CURAVIT. 

At this same time I executed two little altar-pictures, of the Dead 
Christ and of the Resurrection, which were placed by the Abbot Don 
Miniato Pitti in the Church of S. Maria di Barbiano, without San 
Gimignano in Valdelsa. Which works finished, I returned straightway 

to Florence, for the reason that Treviso, Maestro Biagio, and other 

3 J j 

Bolognese painters, thinking that I was seeking to establish myself in 
Bologna and to take their works and commissions out of their hands, kept 
molesting me unceasingly; but they did more harm to themselves than 
to me, and their envious ways moved me to laughter. In Florence, then, 
I copied for M. Ottaviano a large portrait of Cardinal Ippolito down to the 
knees, and other pictures, with which I kept myself occupied until the 
insupportable heat of summer. Which having come, I returned to the 
quiet and freshness of Camaldoli, in order to execute the above-mentioned 
altar-piece of the high-altar. In that work I painted a Christ taken 
down from the Cross, with the greatest study and labour that were 



GIORGIO VASARI 185 

within my power; and since, in the course of the work and of time, it 
seemed necessary to me to improve certain things, and I was not satisfied 
with the first sketch, I gave it another priming and repainted it all anew, 
as it is now to be seen, and then, attracted by the solitude and staying 
in that same place, I executed there a picture for the same Messer 
Ottaviano, in which I painted a young S. John, nude, among some 
rocks and crags that I copied from Nature among those mountains. 
And I had scarcely finished these works when there arrived in Camaldoli 
Messer Bindo Altoviti, who wished to arrange a transportation of great 
fir-trees to Rome by way of the Tiber, for the fabric of S. Pietro, from 
the Cella di S. Alberigo, a place belonging to those fathers; and he, 
seeing all the works executed by me in that place, and by my good fortune 
liking them, resolved, before he departed thence, that I should paint an 
altar-picture for his Church of S. Apostolo in Florence. Wherefore, 
having finished that of Camaldoli, with the f agade of the chapel in fresco 
(wherein I made the experiment of combining work in oil-colours with 
te other, and succeeded passing well), I made my way to Florence, and 
iere executed that altar-picture. Now, having to give a proof of my 
>owers in Florence, where I had not yet executed such a work, and having 
many rivals, and also a desire to acquire a name, I resolved that I would 
do my utmost in that work and put into it all the diligence that I might 
find possible. And in order to be able to do that free from every 
vexatious thought, I first married my third sister and bought a house 
already begun in Arezzo, with a site for making most beautiful gardens, 
in the Borgo di S. Vito, in the best air of that city. In October, then, 
of the year 1540, I began the altar-picture for Messer Bindo, proposing 
to paint in it a scene that should represent the Conception of Our Lady, 
according to the title of the chapel; which subject presenting no little 
difficulty to me, Messer Bindo and I took the opinions of many common 
friends, men of learning, and finally I executed it in the following 
manner. Having depicted the Tree of the Primal Sin in the middle of the 
picture, I painted at its roots Adam and Eve naked and bound, as the 
first transgressors of the commandment of God, and then one by one, 
bound to the other branches, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Aaron, 
x. 24 



i86 GIORGIO VASARI 

Joshua, David, and the other Kings in succession, according to the order 
of time; all, I say, bound by both arms, excepting Samuel and John 
the Baptist, who are bound by one arm only, because they were blessed 
in the womb. I painted there, also, with the tail wound about the trunk 
of the Tree, the Ancient Serpent, who, having a human form from the 
middle upwards, has the hands bound behind; and upon his head, 
treading upon his horns, is one foot of the glorious Virgin, who has the 
other on a Moon, being herself all clothed with the Sun, and crowned 
with twelve stars. The Virgin, I say, is supported in the air, within a 
Splendour, by many nude little Angels, who are illumined by the rays 
that come from her; which rays, likewise, passing through the leaves of 
the Tree, shed light upon those bound to it, and appear to be loosing 
their bonds by means of the virtue and grace that they bring from her 
from whom they proceed. And in the heaven, at the top of the picture, 
are two children that are holding certain scrolls, in which are written 
these words: QUOS EV^E CULPA DAMNAVIT, MARINE GRATIA SOLVIT. In 
short, so far as I can remember, I had not executed any work up to that 
time with more study or with more lovingness and labour; but all the 
same, while I may perhaps have satisfied others, I did not satisfy myself, 
although I know the time, study, and labour that I devoted to it, 
particularly to the nudes and heads, and, indeed, to every part. 

For the labours of that picture Messer Bindo gave me three hundred 
crowns of gold, besides which, in the following year, he showed me so 
many courtesies and kindnesses in his house in Rome, where I made 
him a copy of the same altar-piece in a little picture, almost in miniature, 
that I shall always feel an obligation to his memory. At the same time 
that I painted that picture, which was placed, as I have said, in S. 
Apostolo, I executed for M. Ottaviano de' Medici a Venus and a Leda 
from the cartoons of Michelagnolo, and in a large picture a S. Jerome in 
Penitence of the size of life, who, contemplating the death of Christ, 
whom he has before him on the Cross, is beating his breast in order to 
drive from his mind the thoughts of Venus and the temptations of the 
a flesh, which at times tormented him, although he lived in woods and places 
\ wild and solitary, as he relates of himself at great length. To demonstrate 



GIORGIO VASARI 187 

which I made a Venus who with Love in her arms is flying from that con- 
templation, and holding Play by the hand, while the quiver and arrows 
have fallen to the ground; besides which, the shafts shot by Cupid against 
that Saint return to him all broken, and some that fall are brought back 
to him by the doves of Venus in their beaks. All these pictures, although 
perhaps at that time they pleased me, and were made by me as best I 
knew, I know not how much they please me at my present age; but, since 
art in herself is difficult, it is necessary to take from him who paints the 
best that he can do. This, indeed, I will say, because I can say it with 
truth, that I have always executed my pictures, inventions, and designs, 
whatever may be their value, I do not say only with the greatest possible 
rapidity, but also with incredible facility and without effort; for which A 
let me call to witness, as I have mentioned in another place, the vast 
canvas that I painted in six days only, for S. Giovanni in Florence, in 
the year igj for the baptism of the Lord Don Francesco de' Medici, 
now Prince of Florence and Siena. 

Now although I wished after these works to go to Rome, in order to 
satisfy Messer Bindo Altoviti, I did not succeed in doing it, because, being 
summoned to Venice by Messer Pietro Aretino, a poet of illustrious name 
at that time, and much my friend, I was forced to go there, since he 
much desired to see me. And, moreover, I did it willingly, in order to 
see on that journey the works of Tiziano and of other painters; in which 
purpose I succeeded, for in a few days I saw the works of Correggio at 
Modena and Parma, those of Giulio Romano at Mantua, and the 
antiquities of Verona. Having finally arrived in Venice, with two 
pictures painted by my hand from cartoons by Michelagnolo, I presented 
them to Don Diego di Mendoza, who sent me two hundred crowns of 
gold. Nor had I been long in Venice, when at the entreaty of Aretino I 
executed for the gentlemen of the Calza the scenic setting for a festival that 
/they gave, wherein I had as my companions Battista Cungi and Cristofano 
I Gherardi of Borgo a San Sepolcro and Bastiano Flori of Arezzo, men very 
'able and well practised, of all which enough has been said in another 
place; and also the nine painted compartments in the Palace of Messer 
Giovanni Cornaro, which are in the soffit of a chamber in that Palace, 



i88 GIORGIO VASARI 

which is by S. Benedetto. After these and other works of no little 
importance that I executed in Venice at that time, I departed, although 
I was overwhelmed by the commissions that were coming to me, on the 
i6th of August in the year 1542, and returned to Tuscany. There, 
before consenting to put my hand to any other thing, I painted on the 
vaulting of a chamber that had been built by my orders in my house 
which I have already mentioned, all the arts that are subordinate to or 
depend upon design. In the centre is a Fame who is seated upon the 
globe of the world and sounds a golden trumpet, throwing away one of 
fire that represents Calumny, and about her, in due order, are all those 
arts with their instruments in their hands; and since I had not time to 
do the whole, I left eight ovals, in order to paint in them eight portraits 
from life of the first men in our arts. In those same days I executed in 
fresco for the Nuns of S. Margherita in the same city, in a chapel of their 
garden, a Nativity of Christ with figures the size of life. And having thus 
passed the rest of that summer in my own country, and part of the 
autumn, I went to Rome, where, having been received by the above- 
named Messer Bindo with many kindnesses, I painted for him in a picture 
in oils a Christ the size of life, taken down from the Cross and laid on the 
ground at the feet of His Mother; with Phoebus in the air obscuring the 
face of the Sun, and Diana that of the Moon. In the landscape, all 
darkened by that gloom, some rocky mountains, shaken by the earth- 
quake that was caused by the Passion of the Saviour, are seen shivered 
into pieces, and certain dead bodies of Saints are seen rising again and 
(issuing from their sepulchres in various manners; which picture, when 
.'finished, was not displeasing to the gracious judgment of the greatest 
i painter, sculptor, and architect that there has been in our times, and 
I perchance in the past. By means of that picture, also, I became known 
to the most illustrious Cardinal Farnese, to whom it was shown by Giovio 
and Messer Bindo; and at his desire I made for him, in a picture eight 
braccia high and four broad, a Justice who is embracing an ostrich laden 
with the twelve Tables, and with the sceptre that has the stork at the 
point, and the head covered by a helmet of iron and gold, with three 
feathers of three different colours, the device of the just judge. She is 



GIORGIO VASARI 189 

wholly nude from the waist upwards, and she has bound to her girdle 
with chains of gold, as captives, the seven Vices that are opposed to her, 
Corruption, Ignorance, Cruelty, Fear, Treachery, Falsehood, and Calumny. 
Above these, upon their shoulders, is placed Truth wholly nude, offered 
by Time to Justice, with a present of two doves representing Innocence. 
And upon the head of that Truth Justice is placing a crown of oak, 
signifying fortitude of mind; which whole work I executed with all care 
and diligence, according to the best of my ability. At this same time 
I paid constant attention to Michelagnolo Buonarroti, and took his advice 
in all my works, and he in his goodness conceived much more affection 
for me; and his counsel, after he had seen some of my designs, was the 
reason that I gave myself anew and with better method to the study 
of the matters of architecture, which probably I would never have done 
if that most excellent man had not said to me what he did say, which 
out of modesty I forbear to tell. 

At the next festival of S. Peter, the heat being very great in Rome, 
where I had spent all that winter of 1543, I returned to Florence, where 
in the house of Messer Ottaviano de' Medici, which I could call my own, 
I executed in an altar-piece for M. Biagio Mei of Lucca, his gossip, the 
same conception as in that of Messer Bindo in S. Apostolo, although I 
varied everything with the exception of the invention; and that picture, 
when finished, was placed in his chapel in S. Piero Cigoli at Lucca. In 
another of the same size namely, seven braccia high and four broad 
I painted Our Lady, S. Jerome, S. Luke, S. Cecilia, S. Martha, S. 
Augustine, and S. Guido the Hermit; which altar-picture was placed in 
the Duomo of Pisa, where there were many others by the hands of 
excellent masters. And I had scarcely carried that one to completion, 
when the Warden of Works of that Duomo commissioned me to execute 
another, in which, since it was to be likewise of Our Lady, in order to 
vary it from the other I painted the Madonna with the Dead Christ 
at the foot of the Cross, lying in her lap, the Thieves on high upon their 
crosses, and, grouped with the Maries and Nicodemus, who are standing 
there, the titular Saints of those chapels, all forming a good composition 
and rendering the scene in that picture pleasing. Having returned again 



igo GIORGIO VASARI 

to Rome in the year 1544, besides many pictures that I executed for 
various friends, of which there is no need to make mention, I made a 
picture of aJVenus from a design by Michelagnolo for M. Bindo Altoviti, 
who took me once more into his house; and for Galeotto da Girone, a 
Florentine merchant, I painted an altar-picture in oils of Christ taken 
down from the Cross, which was placed in his chapel in the Church of 
S. Agostino at Rome. In order to be able to paint that picture in comfort, 
together with some works that had been allotted to me by Tiberio Crispo, 
the Castellan of Castel S. Angelo, I had withdrawn by myself to that 
palace in the Trastevere which was formerly built by Bishop Adimari, 
below S. Onofrio, and which has since been finished by the second 
Salviati; but, feeling indisposed and wearied by my infinite labours, I 
was forced to return to Florence. There I executed some pictures, and 
among others one in which were Dante, Petrarca, Guido Cavalcanti, 
Boccaccio, Cino da Pistoia, and Guittone d'Arezzo, accurately copied 
from their ancient portraits; and of that picture, which afterwards 
belonged to Luca Martini, many copies have since been made. 

In that same year of 1544 1 was invited to Naples by Don Giammateo 
of Aversa, General of the Monks of Monte Oliveto, to the end that I 
might paint the refectory of a monastery built for them by King Alfonso I ; 
but when I arrived, I was for not accepting the work, seeing that the 
refectory and the whole monastery were built in an ancient manner of 
architecture, with the vaults in pointed arches, low and poor in lights, 
and I doubted that I was like to win little honour thereby. How- 
ever, being pressed by Don Miniato Pitti and Don Ippolito da Milano, 
my very dear friends, who were then Visitors to that Order, finally I 
accepted the undertaking. Whereupon, recognizing that I would not 
be able to do anything good save only with a great abundance of orna- 
ments, dazzling the eyes of all who might see the work with a variety 
and multitude of figures, I resolved to have all the vaulting of the 
refectory wrought in stucco, in order to remove by means of rich com- 
partments in the modern manner all the old-fashioned and clumsy 
appearance of those arches. In this I was much assisted by the vaults 
and walls, which are made, as is usual in that city, of blocks of tufa, which 



GIORGIO VASARI 191 

cut like wood, or even better, like bricks not completely baked; and 
thus, cutting them, I was able to sink squares, ovals, and octagons, and 
also to thicken them with additions of the same tufa by means of nails. 
Having then reduced those vaults to good proportions with that stucco- 
work, which was the first to be wrought in Naples in the modern manner, 
and in particular the fagades and end-walls of that refectory, I painted 
there six panels in oils, seven braccia high, three to each end-wall. In 
three that are over the entrance of the refectory is the Manna raining 
down upon the Hebrew people, in the presence of Moses and Aaron, and 
the people gathering it up; wherein I strove to represent a variety of 
attitudes and vestments in the men, women, and children, and the 
emotion wherewith they are gathering up and storing the Manna, render- 
ing thanks to God. On the end- wall that is at the head is Christ at table 
in the house of Simon, and Mary Magdalene with tears washing His feet 
and drying them with her hair, showing herself all penitent for her sins; 
which story is divided into three pictures, in the centre the supper, on 
the right hand a buttery with a credence full of vases in various fantastic 
forms, and on the left hand a steward who is bringing up the viands. 
The vaulting, then, was divided into three parts; in one the subject is 
Faith, in the second Religion, and in the third Eternity, and each of \ 
these forms a centre with eight Virtues about it, demonstrating to the 
monks that in that refectory they eat what is requisite for the perfection 
of their lives. To enrich the spaces of the vaulting, I made them full of 
grotesques, which serve as ornaments in forty-eight spaces for the forty- 
eight celestial signs; and on six walls down the length of that refectory, 
under the windows, which were made larger and richly ornamented, I 
painted six of the Parables of Jesus Christ which are in keeping with that 
place; and to all those pictures and ornaments there correspond the 
carvings of the seats, which are wrought very richly. And then I executed 
for the high-altar of the church an altar-picture eight braccia high, con- 
taining the Madonna presenting the Infant Jesus Christ to Simeon in the 
Temple, with a new invention, fit is a notable thing that since Giotto 
there had not been up to that time, in a city so great and noble, any 
masters who had done anything of importance in painting, although there / 



IK 

\ 



192 GIORGIO VASARI 

had been brought there from without some things by the hands of 
Perugino and Raffaello. On which account I exerted myself to labour 
in such a manner, in so far as my little knowledge could reach, that the 
intellects of that country might be roused to execute great and honourable 
works; and, whether that or some other circumstance may have been 
the reason, between that time and the present day many very beautiful 
works have been done there, both in stucco and in painting. ^ Besides 
the pictures described above, I executed in fresco on the vaulting of the 
strangers' apartment in the same monastery, with figures large as life, 
Jesus Christ with the Cross on His shoulder, and many of His Saints who 
have one likewise on their shoulders in imitation of Him, to demonstrate 
that for one who wishes truly to follow Him it is necessary to bear with 
good patience the adversities that the world inflicts. For the General 
of that Order I executed a great picture of Christ appearing to the Apostles 
as they struggled with the perils of the sea, and taking S. Peter by the 
arm, who, having hastened towards Him through the water, was fearing 
to drown; and in another picture, for Abbot Capeccio, I painted the 
Resurrection. These works carried to completion, I painted a chapel 
in fresco for the Lord Don Pietro di Toledo, Viceroy of Naples, in his 
garden at Pozzuolo, besides executing some very delicate ornaments in 
stucco; and arrangements had been made to execute two great loggie 
for the same lord, but the undertaking was not carried into effect, for the 
following reason. There had been some difference between the Viceroy 
and the above-named monks, and the Constable went with his men to 
the monastery to seize the Abbot and some monks who had had some 
words with the Black Friars in a procession, over a matter of precedence. 
But the monks made some resistance, assisted by about fifteen young 
men who were assisting me in stucco-work and painting, and wounded 
some of the bailiffs; on which account it became necessary to get them 
out of the way, and they went off in various directions. And so I, left 
almost alone, was unable not only to execute the loggie at Pozzuolo, 
but also to paint twenty-four pictures of stories from the Old Testament 
and from the life of S. John the Baptist, which, not caring to remain any 
longer in Naples, I took to Rome to finish, whence I sent them, and they 



GIORGIO VASARI 193 

were placed about the stalls and over the presses of walnut-wood made 
from my architectural designs in the Sacristy of S. Giovanni Carbonaro, 
a convent of Eremite and Observantine Friars of S. Augustine, for whom 
I had painted a short time before, for a chapel without their church, a 
panel-picture of Christ Crucified, with a rich and varied ornament of 
stucco, at the request of Seripando, their General, who afterwards became 
a Cardinal. In like manner, half-way up the staircase of the same 
convent, I painted in fresco a S. John the Evangelist who stands gazing 
at Our Lady clothed with the sun and crowned with twelve stars, with 
her feet upon the moon. In the same city I painted for Messer Tommaso 
Cambi, a Florentine merchant and very much my friend, the times and 
seasons of the year on four walls in the hall of his house, with pictures 
of Sleep and Dreaming over a terrace where I made a fountain. And for 
the Duke of Gravina I painted an altar-picture of the Magi adoring Christ, 
which he took to his dominions; and for Orsanca, Secretary to the 
Viceroy, I executed another altar-piece with five figures around a Christ 
Crucified, and many pictures. 

But, although I was regarded with favour by those lords and was 
earning much, and my commissions were multiplying every day, I judged, 
since my men had departed and I had executed works in abundance in 
one year in that city, that it would be well for me to return to Rome. 
Which having done, the first work that I executed was for Signor 
Ranuccio Farnese, at that time Archbishop of Naples; painting on canvas 
and in oils four very large shutters for the organ of the Piscopio in Naples, 
on the front of which are five Patron Saints of that city, and on the inner 
side the Nativity of Jesus Christ, with the Shepherds, and King David 
singing to his psaltery, DOMINUS DIXIT AD ME, etc. And I finished 
likewise the twenty-four pictures mentioned above and some for M. 
Tommaso Cambi, which were all sent to Naples; which done, I painted 
five pictures of the Passion of Christ for Raffaello Acciaiuoli, who took 
them to Spain. In the same year, Cardinal Farnese being minded to 
cause the Hall of the Cancelleria, in the Palace of S. Giorgio, to be painted, 
Monsignor Giovio, desiring that it should be done by my hands, com- 
missioned me to make many designs with various inventions, which in 

x. 25 



194 GIORGIO VASARI 

the end were not carried into execution. Nevertheless the Cardinal 
finally resolved that it should be painted in fresco, and with the greatest 
rapidity that might be possible, so that he might be able to use it at a 
certain time determined by himself. That hall is a little more than a 
hundred palms in length, fifty in breadth, and the same in height. On 
each end-wall, fifty palms broad, was painted a great scene, and two on 
one of the long walls, but on the other, from its being broken by windows, 
it was not possible to paint scenes, and therefore there was made a pendant 
after the likeness of the head-wall opposite. And not wishing to make 
a base, as had been the custom up to that time with the craftsmen in all 
their scenes, in order to introduce variety and do something new I caused 
nights of steps to rise from the floor to a height of at least nine palms, 
made in various ways, one to each scene; and upon these, then, there 
begin to ascend figures that I painted in keeping with the subject, little 
by little, until they come to the level where the scene begins. It would 
be a long and perhaps tedious task to describe all the particulars and 
minute details of those scenes, and therefore I shall touch only on the 
principal things, and that briefly. In all of them, then, are stories of 
the actions of Pope Paul III, and in each is his portrait from life. In 
the first, wherein are the Dispatchings, so to speak, of the Court of 
Rome, may be seen upon the Tiber various embassies of various nations 
(with many portraits from life) that are come to seek favours from the 
Pope and to offer him divers tributes ; and, in addition, two great figures 
in great niches placed over the doors, which are on either side of the scene. 
One of these represents Eloquence, and has above it two Victories that 
uphold the head of Julius Caesar, and the other represents Justice, with 
two other Victories that hold the head of Alexander the Great; and in 
the centre are the arms of the above-named Pope, supported by Liberality 
and Remuneration. On the main wall is the same Pope remunerating 
merit, distributing salaries, knighthoods, benefices, pensions, bishoprics, 
and Cardinal's hats, and among those who are receiving them are Sadoleto, 
Polo, Bembo, Contarini, Giovio, Buonarroti, and other men of excellence, 
all portrayed from life, and on that wall, within a great niche, is Grace 
with a horn of plenty full of dignities, which she is pouring out upon the 



GIORGIO VASARI 195 

earth, and the Victories that she has above her, after the likeness of the 
others, support the head of the Emperor Trajan. There is also Envy, 
who is devouring vipers and appears to be bursting with venom; and 
above, at the top of the scene, are the arms of Cardinal Farnese, sup- 
ported by Fame and Virtue. In the other scene the same Pope Paul is 
seen all intent on his buildings, and in particular on that of S. Pietro 
upon the Vatican, and therefore there are kneeling before the Pope 
Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, who, having unfolded a design of 
the ground-plan of that S. Pietro, are receiving orders to execute the 
work and to carry it to completion. Besides these figures, there is 
Resolution, who, opening the breast, lays bare the heart; with Solicitude 
.and Riches near. In a niche is Abundance, with two Victories that hold 
the effigy of Vespasian, and in the centre, in another niche that divides 
one scene from the other, is Christian Religion, with two Victories above 
her that hold the head of Numa Pompilius; and the arms that are above 
the scene are those of Cardinal San Giorgio, who built that Palace. In the 
other scene, which is opposite to that of the Dispatchings of the Court, 
is the universal peace made among Christians by the agency of Pope 
Paul III, and particularly between the Emperor Charles V and Francis, 
King of France, who are portrayed there; wherefore there may be seen 
Peace burning arms, the Temple of Janus being closed, and Fury in 
chains. Of the two great niches that are on either side of the scene, in 
one is Concord, with two Victories above her that are holding the head 
of the Emperor Titus, and in the other is Charity with many children, 
while above the niche are two Victories holding the head of Augustus; 
and over all are the arms of Charles V, supported by Victory and 
Rejoicing. The whole work is full of the most beautiful inscriptions and 
mottoes composed by Giovio, and there is one in particular which says 
that those pictures were all executed in a hundred days; which, indeed, 
like a young man, I did do, being such that I gave no thought to anything 
but satisfying that lord, who, as I have said, desired to have the work 
finished in that time for a particular purpose. But in truth, although I 
exerted myself greatly in making cartoons and studying that work, I 
confess that I did wrong in putting it afterwards in the hands of assistants, ! 



196 GIORGIO VASARI 

1 in order to execute it more quickly, as I was obliged to do; for it would 
have been better to toil over it a hundred months and do it with my 
own hand, whereby, although I would not have done it in such a way 
as to satisfy my wish to please the Cardinal and to maintain my own 
honour, I would at least have had the satisfaction of having executed it 
with my own hand. However, that error was the reason that I resolved 
that I would never again do any work without finishing it entirely by 
myself over a first sketch done by the hands of assistants from designs 
by my hand. In that work the Spaniards, Bizzerra and Roviale, who 
laboured much in it in my company, gained no little practice; and also 
Battista da Bagnacavallo of Bologna, Bastiano Flori of Arezzo, Giovan 
Paolo dal Borgo, Fra Salvadore Foschi of Arezzo, and many other 
young men. 

At that time I went often in the evening, at the end of the day's 
work, to see the above-named most illustrious Cardinal Farnese at supper, 
where there were always present, to entertain him with beautiful and 
honourable discourse, Molza, Annibale Caro, M. Gandolfo, M. Claudio 
Tolomei, M. Romolo Amaseo, Monsignor Giovio, and many other men 
of learning and distinction, of whom the Court of that Lord is ever full. 
One evening among others the conversation turned to the museum of 
Giovio and to the portraits of illustrious men that he had placed therein 
with beautiful order and inscriptions; and one thing leading to another, 
as happens hi conversation, Monsignor Giovio said that he had always 
had and still had a great desire to add to his museum and his book of 
Eulogies a treatise with an account of the men who had been illustrious 
in the art of design from Cimabue down to our own times. Enlarging 
on this, he showed that he had certainly great knowledge and judgment 
in the matters of our arts; but it is true that, being content to treat the 
subject in gross, he did not consider it in detail, and often, in speaking of 
those craftsmen, either confused their names, surnames, birthplaces, 
and works, or did not relate things exactly as they were, but rather, as I 
have said, in, gross. When Giovio had finished his discourse, the Cardinal 
turned to me and said: " What do you say, Giorgio ? Will not that be 
a fine work and a noble labour ?" " Fine, indeed, most illustrious Excel- 



GIORGIO VASARI 



197 



lency," I answered, " if Giovio be assisted by someone of our arts to put 
things in their places and relate them as they really are. That I say 
because, although his discourse has been marvellous, he has confused 
and mistaken many things one for another." " Then/' replied the 
Cardinal, being besought by Giovio, Caro, Tolomei, and the others, " you 
might give him a summary and an ordered account of all those craftsmen 
and their works, according to the order of time; and so your arts will 
receive from you this benefit as well/' That undertaking, although I 
knew it to be beyond my powers, I promised most willingly to execute 
to the best of my ability; and so, having set myself down to search 
through my records and the notes that I had written on that subject 
from my earliest youth, as a sort of pastime and because of the affection 
that I bore to the memory of our craftsmen, every notice of whom was 
very dear to me, I gathered together everything that seemed to me to 
touch on the subject, and took the whole to Giovio. And he, after he 
had much praised my labour, said to me: " Giorgio, I would rather that 
you should undertake this task of setting everything down in the manner 
in which I see that you will be excellently well able to do it, because I 
have not the courage, not knowing the various manners, and being 
ignorant of many particulars that you are likely to know; besides which, 
even if I were to do it, I would make at the most a little treatise like that 
of Pliny. Do what I tell you, Vasari, for I see by the specimen that you 
have given me in this account that it will prove something very fine." 
And then, thinking that I was not very resolute in the matter, he caused 
Caro, Molza, Tolomei, and others of my dearest friends to speak to me. 
Whereupon, having finally made up my mind, I set my hand to it, with the 
intention of giving it, when finished, to one of them, that he might revise fj &v 
and correct it, and then publish it under a name other than mine. Jj j[ 

Meanwhile I departed from Rome in the month of October of the 
year 1546, and came to Florence, and there executed for the Nuns of the 
famous Convent of the Murate a picture in oils of a Last Supper for their 
refectory; which work was allotted to me and paid for by Pope Paul III, 
who had a sister-in-law, once Countess of Pitigliano, a nun in that convent. 
And then I painted in another picture Our Lady with the Infant Christ 



198 GIORGIO VASARI 

in her arms, who is espousing the Virgin-Martyr S. Catharine, with two 
other Saints; which picture M. Tommaso Cambi caused me to execute for 
a sister who was then Abbess of the Convent of the Bigallo, without 
Florence. That finished, I painted two large pictures in oils for Monsignor 
de' Rossi, Bishop of Pavia, of the family of the Counts of San Secondo; 
in one of these is a S. Jerome, and in the other a Pieta, and they were 
both sent to France. Then in the year 1547 I carried to completion for 
the Duomo of Pisa, at the instance of M. Bastiano della Seta, the Warden 
of Works, another altar-picture that I had begun; and afterwards, for 
my very dear friend Simon Corsi, a large picture in oils of Our Lady. 
Now, while I was executing these works, having carried nearly to com- 
pletion the Book of the Lives of the Craftsmen of Design, there was 
scarcely anything left for me to do but to have it transcribed in a good 
hand, when there presented himself to me most opportunely Don Gian 
Matteo Faetani of Rimini, a monk of Monte Oliveto and a person of 
intelligence and learning, who desired that I should execute some works 
for him in the Church and Monastery of S. Maria di Scolca at Rimini, 
where he was Abbot. He, then, having promised to have it transcribed 
for me by one of his monks who was an excellent writer, and to correct it 
himself, persuaded me to go to Riniini to execute, with this occasion, the 
altar-picture and the high-altar of that church, which is about three 
miles distant from the city. In that altar-picture I painted the Magi 
adoring Christ, with an infinity of figures executed by me with much 
study in that solitary place, counterfeiting the men of the Courts of the 
three Kings in such a way, as well as I was able, that, although they are 
all mingled together, yet one may recognize by the appearance of the 
faces to what country each belongs and to which King he is subject, for 
some have the flesh-colour white, some grey, and others dark; besides 
which, the diversity of their vestments and the differences in their adorn- 
ments make a pleasing variety. That altar-piece has on either side of it 
two large pictures, in which is the rest of the Courts, with horses, elephants, 
and giraffes, and about the chapel, in various places, are distributed 
Prophets, Sibyls, and Evangelists in the act of writing. In the cupola, 
or rather, tribune, I painted four great figures that treat of the praises 



GIORGIO VASARI 199 

of Christ, of His Genealogy, and of the Virgin, and these are Orpheus and 
Homer with some Greek mottoes, Virgil with the motto, IAM REDIT ET 
VIRGO, etc., and Dante with these verses: 

Tu sei colei, che 1' umana natura 
Nobilitasti si, che il suo Fattore 
Non si sdegno di farsi tua fattura. 

With many other figures and inventions, of which there is no need to 
say any more. Then, the work of writing the above-mentioned book and 
carrying it to completion meanwhile continuing, I painted for the high- 
altar of S. Francesco, in Rimini, a large altar-picture in oils of S. Francis 
receiving the Stigmata from Christ on the mountain of La Vernia, copied 
from nature; and since that mountain is all of grey rocks and stones, 
and in like manner S. Francis and his companion are grey, I counterfeited 
a Sun within which is Christ, with a good number of Seraphim, and so 
the work is varied, and the Saint, with other figures, all illumined by 
the splendour of that Sun, and the landscape in shadow with a great 
variety of changing colours; all which is not displeasing to many persons, 
and was much extolled at that time by Cardinal Capodiferro, Legate in 
Romagna. 

Being then summoned from Rimini to Ravenna, I executed an 

y 

altar-picture, as has been told in another place, for the new church of 
the Abbey of Classi, of the Order of Camaldoli, painting therein a Christ 
taken down from the Cross and lying in the lap of Our Lady. And at 
this same time I executed for divers friends many designs, pictures, and 
other lesser works, which are so many and so varied, that it would be 
difficult for me to remember even a part of them, and perhaps not pleasing 
for my readers to hear so many particulars. 

Meanwhile the building of my house at Arezzo had been finished, and 

* 

I returned home, where I made designs for painting the hall, three 
chambers, and the facade, as it were for my own diversion during that 
summer. In those designs I depicted, among other things, all the places 
and provinces where I had laboured, as if they were bringing tributes, 
to represent the gains that I had made by their means, to that house of 



200 GIORGIO VASARI 

mine. For the time being, however, I did nothing but the ceiling of the 
hall, which is passing rich in woodwork, with thirteen large pictures 
wherein are the Celestial Gods, and in four angles the four Seasons of the 
year nude, who are gazing at a great picture that is in the centre, in which, 
with figures the size of life, is Excellence, who has Envy under her feet 
and has seized Fortune by the hair, and is beating both the one and the 
other; and a thing that was much commended at the time was that as 
you go round the hall, Fortune being in the middle, from one side Envy 
seems to be over Fortune and Excellence, and from another side Excel- 
lence is over Envy and Fortune, as is seen often to happen in real life. 
Around the walls are Abundance, Liberality, Wisdom, Prudence, Labour, 
Honour, and other similar things, and below, all around, are stories of 
ancient painters, Apelles, Zeuxis, Parrhasius, Protogenes, and others, 
with various compartments and details that I omit for the sake of brevity. 
In a chamber, also, in a great medallion in the ceiling of carved woodwork, 
I painted Abraham, with God blessing his seed and promising to multiply 
it infinitely; and in four squares that are around that medallion, I painted 
Peace, Concord, Virtue, and Modesty. And since I always adored the 
memory and the works of the ancients, and perceived that the method 
of painting in distemper-colours was being abandoned, there came to 
me a desire to revive that mode of painting, and I executed the whole 
work in distemper; which method certainly does not deserve to be wholly 
despised or abandoned. At the entrance of the chamber, as it were in 
jest, I painted a bride who has in one hand a rake, with which she seems 
to have raked up and carried away with her from her father's house 
everything that she has been able, and in the hand that is stretched in 
front of her, entering into the house of her husband, she has a lighted 
torch, signifying that where she goes she carries a fire that consumes and 
destroys everything. 

While I was passing my time thus, the year 1548 having come, Don 
Giovan Benedetto of Mantua, Abbot of SS. Fiore e Lucilla, a monastery 
of the Black Friars of Monte Cassino, who took infinite delight in matters 
of painting and was much my friend, prayed me that I should consent 
to paint a Last Supper, or some such thing, at the head of their refectory. 




GIORGIO VASARI 201 

Whereupon I resolved to gratify his wish, and began to think of doing 
something out of the common use; and so I determined, in agreement 
with that good father, to paint for it the Nuptials of Queen Esther and 
King Ahasuerus, all in a picture fifteen braccia long, and in oils, but first 
to set it in place and then to work at it there. That method and I can 
speak with authority, for I have proved it is in truth that which should 
be followed by one who wishes that his pictures should have their true 
and proper lights, for the reason that in fact working at pictures in a 
place lower or other than that where they are to stand, causes changes in 
their lights, shadows, and many other properties. In that work, then, I 
strove to represent majesty and grandeur; and, although I may not judge 
whether I succeeded, I know well that I disposed everything in such a 
manner, that there may be recognized in passing good order all the 
manners of servants, pages, esquires, soldiers of the guard, the buttery, 
the credence, the musicians, a dwarf, and every other thing that is 
required for a magnificent and royal banquet. There may be seen, 
among others, the steward bringing the viands to the table, accompanied 
by a good number of pages dressed in livery, besides esquires and other 
servants; and at the ends of the table, which is oval, are lords and other 
great personages and courtiers, who are standing on their feet, as is the 
custom, to see the banquet. King Ahasuerus is seated at table, a proud 
and enamoured monarch, leaning upon the left arm and offering a cup 
of wine to the Queen, in an attitude truly dignified and regal. In short, 
if I were to believe what I heard said by persons at that time, and what 
I still hear from anyone who sees the work, I might consider that I had 
done something, but I know better how the matter stands, and what I 
would have done if my hand had followed that which I had conceived 
in idea. Be that as it may, I applied to it and this I can declare freely 
study and diligence. Above the work, on a spandrel of the vaulting, 
comes a Christ who is offering to the Queen a crown of flowers; and this 
was done in fresco, and placed there to denote the spiritual conception 
of the story, which signified that, the ancient Synagogue being repudiated, 
Christ was espousing the new Church of his faithful Christians. 

At this same time I made the portrait of Luigi Guicciardini, brother 
x. 26 



202 GIORGIO VASARI 

of the Messer Francesco who wrote the History, because that Messer 
Luigi was very much my friend, and that year, being Commissary of 
Arezzo, had caused me out of love for me to buy a very large property 
in land, called Frassineto, in Valdichiana, which has been the salvation 
and the greatest prop of my house, and will be the same for my successors, 
if, as I hope, they prove true to themselves. That portrait, which is in 
the possession of the heirs of that Messer Luigi, is said to be the best 
and the closest likeness of the infinite number that I have executed. 
But of the portraits that I have painted, which are so many, I will make 
no mention, because it would be a tedious thing; and, to tell the truth, 
I have avoided doing them to the best of my ability. That finished, I 
painted at the commission of Fra Mariotto da Castiglioni of Arezzo, for 
the Church of S. Francesco in that city, an altar-picture of Our Lady, 
S. Anne, S. Francis, and S. Sylvester. And at this same time I drew for 
Cardinal di Monte, my very good patron, who was then Legate in 
Bologna, and afterwards became Pope Julius III, the design and plan of 
a great farm which was afterwards carried into execution at the foot of 
Monte Sansovino, his native place, where I was several times at the 
orders of that lord, who much delighted in building. 

Having gone, after I had finished these works, to Florence, I painted 
that summer on a banner for carrying in processions, belonging to the 
Company of S. Giovanni de' Peducci of Arezzo, that Saint on one side 
preaching to the multitude, and on the other the same Saint baptizing 
Christ. Which picture, as soon as it was finished, I sent to my house at 
Arezzo, that it might be delivered to the men of the above-named 
Company; and it happened that Monsignor Giorgio, Cardinal d'Armagnac, 
a Frenchman, passing through Arezzo and going to see my house for 
some other purpose, saw that banner, or rather, standard, and, liking 
it, did his utmost to obtain it for sending to the King of France, offering 
a large price. But I would not break faith with those who had com- 
missioned me to paint it, for, although many said to me that I could 
make another, I know not whether I could have done it as well and with 
equal diligence. And not long afterwards I executed for Messer Annibale 
Caro, according as he had requested me long before in a letter, which is 



GIORGIO VASARI 203 

printed, a picture of Adonis dying in the lap of Venus, after the invention 
of Theocritus; which work was afterwards taken to France, almost 
against my will, and given to M. Albizzo del Bene, together with a Psyche 
gazing with a lamp at Cupid, who wakens from his sleep, a spark from 
the lamp having scorched him. Those figures, all nude and large as 
life, were the reason that Alfonso di Tommaso Cambi, who was then a 
very beautiful youth, well-lettered, accomplished, and most gentle and 
courteous, had himself portrayed nude and at full length in the person 
of the huntsman Endymion beloved by the Moon, whose white form, 
and the fanciful landscape all around, have their light from the brightness 
of the moon, which in the darkness of the night makes an effect passing 
natural and true, for the reason that I strove with all diligence to counter- 
feit the peculiar colours that the pale yellow light of the moon is wont 
to give to the things upon which it strikes. After this, I painted two 
pictures for sending to Ragusa, in one Our Lady, and in the other a Pieta; 
and then in a great picture for Francesco Botti Our Lady with her Son in 
her arms, and Joseph; and that picture, which I certainly executed with 
the greatest diligence that I knew, he took with him to Spain. These 
works finished, I went in the same year to see CardinaJMdj Monte, at 
Bologna, where he was Legate, and, dwelling with him for some days, 
besides many other conversations, he contrived to speak so well and to 
persuade me with such good reasons, that, being constrained by him to 
do a thing which up to that time I had refused to do, I resolved to take 
a wife, and so, by his desire, married a daughter of Francesco Bacci, a 
noble citizen of Arezzo. Having returned to Florence. I executed a 

w utmtHimmi\\ * 

great picture of Our Lady after a new invention of my own and with 
more figures, which was acquired by Messer Bindo Altoviti, who gave 
me a hundred crowns of gold for it and took it to Rome, where it is now 
in his house. Besides this, I painted many other pictures at the same 
time, as for Messer Bernardetto de' Medici, for Messer Bartolommeo 
Strada, an eminent physician, and for others of my friends, of whom 
there is no need to speak. 

In those days, Gismondo Martelli having died in Florence, and having 
left instructions in his testament that an altar-picture with Our Lady 



204 GIORGIO VASARI 

and some Saints should be painted for the chapel of that noble family 
in S, Ixgenzp, Luigi and Pandolfo MarteHi, together with M. Cosimo 
Bartoli, all very much my friends, besought me that I should execute 
that picture. Having obtained leave from the Lord Duke Cosimo, the 
Patron and first Warden of Works of that church, I consented to do it, 
but on condition that I should be allowed to paint in it something after 
my own fancy from the life of S. Gismondo, in allusion to the name of 
the testator. Which agreement concluded, I remembered to have heard 
that Filippo di Ser Brunellesco, the architect of that church, had given 
a particular form to all the chapels to the end that there might be made 
for each not some little altar-piece, but some large scene or picture which 
might fill the whole space. Wherefore, being disposed to follow in that 
respect the wishes and directions of Brunelleschi, and paying regard rather 
to honour than to the little profit that I could obtain from that commission, 
which contemplated the painting of a small altar-picture with few figures, 
I painted in an altar-piece ten braccia in breadth, and thirteen in height, 
the story, or rather, martyrdom, of the King S. Gismondo, when he, his 
wife, and his two sons were cast into a well by another King, or rather, 
Tyrant. I contrived that the ornamental border of that chapel, which 
is a semicircle, should serve as the opening of the gate of a great palace 
in the Rustic Order, through which there should be a view of a square 
court supported by pilasters and columns of the Doric Order; and I 
arranged that through that opening there should be seen in the centre 
an octagonal well with an ascent of steps around it, by which the 
executioners might ascend, carrying the two sons nude in order to cast 
them into the well. In the loggie around I painted on one side people 
gazing upon that horrid spectacle, and on the other side, which is the 
left, I made some soldiers who, having seized by force the wife of the 
King, are carrying her towards the well in order to put her to death. 
And at the principal door I made a group of soldiers that are binding S. 
Gismondo, who with his relaxed and patient attitude shows that he is 
suffering most willingly that death and martyrdom, and he stands gazing 
on four Angels in the air, who are showing to him palms and crowns of 
martyrdom for himself, his wife, and his sons, which appears to give him 



GIORGIO VASARI 205 

complete comfort and consolation. I strove, likewise, to demonstrate 
the cruelty and fierce anger of the impious Tyrant, who stands on the 
upper level of the court to behold his vengeance and the death of 
S. Gismondo. In short, so far as in me lay, I made every effort to give to 
all the figures, to the best of my ability, the proper expressions and the 
appropriate attitudes and spirited movements, and all that was required. 
How far I succeeded, that I shall leave to be judged by others; but this 
I must say, that I gave to it all the study, labour, and diligence in my 
power and knowledge. 

Meanwhile, the Lord Duke Cosimo desiring that the Book of the 
Lives, already brought almost to completion with the greatest diligence 
that I had found possible, and with the assistance of some of my friends, 
should be given to the printers, I gave it to Lorenzo TorrentinOj printer 
to the Duke, and so the printing was begun. But not even the Theories 
had been finished, when, Pope Paul III having died, I began to doubt 
that I might have to depart from Florence before that book was finished 
printing. Going therefore out of Florence to meet Cardinal di Monte, 
who was passing on his way to the Conclave, I had no sooner made 
obeisance to him and spoken a few words, than he said: " I go to Rome, 
and without a doubt I shall be Pope. Make haste, if you have anything 
to do, and as soon as you hear the news set out for Rome without awaiting 
other advice or any invitation/' Nor did that prognostication prove 
false, for, being at Arezzo for that Carnival, when certain festivities and 
masquerades were being arranged, the news came that the Cardinal had 
become Jl^jjslll. Whereupon I mounted straightway on horseback 
and went to Florence, whence, pressed by the Duke, I went to Rome, in 
order to be present at the coronation of the new Pontiff and to take part 
in the preparation of the festivities. And so, arriving in Rome and 
dismounting at the house of Messer Bindo, I went to do reverence to 
his Holiness and to kiss his feet. Which done, the first words that he 
spoke to me were to remind me that what he had foretold of himself 
had not been false. Then, after he was crowned and settled down a 
little, the first thing that he wished to have done was to satisfy an 
obligation that he had to the memory of Antonio, the first and elder 



206 GIORGIO VASARI 

Cardinal di Monte, by means of a tomb to be made in S. Pietro a 
Montorio; of which the designs and models having been made, it was 
executed in marble, as has been related fully in another place. And 
meanwhile I painted the altar-picture of that chapel, in which I repre- 
sented the Conversion of S. Paul, but, to vary it from that which 
Buonarroti had executed in the Pauline Chapel, I made S. Paul young, 
as he himself writes, and fallen from his horse, and led blind by the 
soldiers to Ananias, from whom by the imposition of hands he receives 
the lost sight of his eyes, and is baptized; in which work, either because 
the space was restricted, or whatever may have been the reason, I did 
not satisfy myself completely, although it was perhaps not displeasing 
to others, and in particular to Michelagnolo. For that Pontiff, likewise, 
I executed another altar-picture for a chapel in the Palace; but this, for 
reasons given elsewhere, was afterwards taken by me to Arezzo and 
placed at the high-altar of the Pieve. If, however, I had not fully satis- 
fied either myself or others in the last-named picture or in that of S. Pietro 
a Montorio, it would have been no matter for surprise, because, being 
obliged to be continually at the beck and call of that Pontiff, I was kept 
always moving, or rather, occupied in making architectural designs, and 
particularly because I was the first who designed and prepared all the 
inventions of the V^gna Julia, which he caused to be erected at incredible 
expense. And although it was executed afterwards by others, yet it 
was I who always committed to drawing the caprices of the Pope, which 
were then given to Michelagnolo to revise and correct. Jacopo Barozzi 
of Vignuola finished, after many designs by his own hand, the rooms, 
halls, and many other ornaments of that place; but the lower fountain 
was made under the direction of myself and of Ammanati, who after- 
wards remained there and made the loggia that is over the fountain. 
In that work, however, it was not possible for a man to show his ability 
or to do anything right, because from day to day new caprices came into 
the head of the Pope, which had to be carried into execution according 
to the daily instructions given by Messer Pier Giovanni Aliotti, Bishop 
of Forll. 

During that time, being obliged in the year 1^50 to go twice to 



GIORGIO VASARI 207 

Florence on other affairs, the first time I finished the picture of S. 
Gismondo, which the Duke went to see in the house of M. Ottaviano de' 
Medici, where I executed it; and he liked it so much, that he said to me 
that when I had finished my work in Rome I should come to serve him 
in Florence, where I would receive orders as to what was to be done. 
I then returned to Rome, where I gave completion to those works that 
I had begun, and painted a picture of the Beheading of S. John for the 
high-altar of the Company of the Misericordia, different not a little from 
those that are generally done, which I set in place in the year 1553; and 
then I wished to return, but I was forced to execute for Messer Bindo 
Altoviti, not being able to refuse him, two very large loggie in stucco- 
work and fresco. One of them that I painted was at his villa, made with 
a new method of architecture, because, the loggia being so large that it 
was not possible to turn the vaulting without danger, I had it made with 
armatures of wood, matting, and canes, over which was done the stucco- 
work and fresco-painting, as if the vaulting were of masonry, and even 
so it appears and is believed to be by all who see it; and it is supported 
by many ornamental columns of variegated marble, antique and rare. 
The other loggia is on the ground-floor of his house on the bridge, and is 
covered with scenes in fresco. And after that I painted for the ceiling of 
an antechamber four large pictures in oils of the four Seasons of the 
year. These finished, I was forced to make for Andrea della Fonte, 
who was much my friend, a portrait from life of his wife, and with it I 
gave him a large picture of Christ bearing the Cross, with figures the 
size of life, which I had made for a kinsman of the Pope, but afterwards 
had not chosen to present to him. For the Bishop of Vasona I painted 
a Dead Christ supported by Nicodemus and by two Angels, and for Pier 
Antonio Bandini a Nativity of Christ, an effect of night with variety in 
the invention. 

While I was executing these works, I was also watching to see what 
the Pope was intending to do, and finally I saw that there was little to 
be expected from him, and that it was useless to labour in his service. 
Wherefore, notwithstanding that I had already executed the cartoons 
for painting in fresco the loggia that is over the fountain of the above- 



208 GIORGIO VASARI 

named Vigna, I resolved that I would at all costs go to serve the Duke 
of Florence, and the rather because I was pressed to do this by M. 
Averardo Serristori and Bishop Ricasoli, the Ambassadors of his Excel- 
lency in Rome, and also in letters by M. Sforza Almeni, his Cupbearer and 
Chief Chamberlain. I transferred myself, therefore, to Arezzo, in order 

...- 

to make my way from there to Florence, but first I was forced to make 
for Monsignor Minerbetti, Bishop of Arezzo, as for my lord and most 
dear friend, a lifesize picture of Patience in the form that has since been 
used by Signor Ercole, Duke of Ferrara, as his device and as the reverse 
of his medal. Which work finished, I came to kiss the hand of the Lord 
Duke Cosimo, by whom in his kindness I was received very warmly; and 
while it was being considered what I should first take in hand, I caused 
Cristofano Gherardi of the Borgo to paint in chiaroscuro after my designs 
the f a$ade of M. Sforza Almeni, in that manner and with those inventions 
that have been described at great length in another place. Now at that 
time I happened to be one of the Lords Priors of the city of Arezzo, whose 
office it is to govern that city, but I was summoned by letters of the Lord 
Duke into his service, and absolved from that duty; and, having come 
to Florence, I found that his Excellency had begun that year to build 
that apartment of his Palace which is towards the Piazza del Grano, 
under the direction of the wood-carver Tasso, who was then architect to 
the Palace. The roof had been placed so low that all those rooms had 
little elevation, and were, indeed, altogether dwarfed; but, since to raise 
the crossbeams and the whole roof would be a long affair, I advised that 
a series of timbers should be placed, by way of border, with sunk com- 
partments two braccia and a half in extent, between the crossbeams of 
the roof, with a range of consoles in the perpendicular line, so as to make 
a frieze of about two braccia above the timbers. Which plan greatly 
pleasing his Excellency, he gave orders straightway that so it should be 
done, and that Tasso should execute the woodwork and the compart- 
ments, within which was to be painted the Genealogy of the Gods; and 
that afterwards the work should be continued in the other rooms. 

While the work for those ceilings was being prepared, having obtained 
leave from the Duke, I went to spend two months between Arezzo and 




Brogi 



LORENZO THE MAGNIFICENT AND THE AMBASSADORS 

(After the fresco by Giorgio Vasari. Florence: Palazzo Vecchio) 



GIORGIO VASARI 209 

Cortona, partly to give completion to some affairs of my own, and partly 
to finish a work in fresco begun on the walls and vaulting of the Company 
of Jesus at Cortona. In that place I painted three stories of the life of 
Jesus Christ, and all the sacrifices offered to God in the Old Testament, 
from Cain and Abel down to the Prophet Nehemiah; and there, during 
that time, I also furnished designs and models for the fabric of the 
Madonna Nuova, without the city. The work for the Company of Jesus 
being finished, Ijreturned to Florence in the year 1555 with all my family, 
to serve Duke Cosimo. And there I began and finished the compart- 
ments, walls, and ceiling of the above-named upper Hall, called the 
Sala^^degli Elementi, painting in the compartments, which are eleven, 
the Castration of Heaven in the air. In a terrace beside that Hall I 
painted on the ceiling the actions of Saturn and Ops, and then on the 
ceiling of another great chamber all the story of Ceres and Proserpine; 
and in a still larger chamber, which is beside the last, likewise on the 
ceiling, which is very rich, stories of the Goddess Berecynthia and of 
Cybele with her Triumph, and the four Seasons, and on the walls all the 
twelve Months. On the ceiling of another, not so rich, I painted the 
Birth of Jove and the Goat Amaltheia nursing him, with the rest of the 
other most notable things related of him; in another terrace beside the 
same room, much adorned with stones and stucco-work, other things of 
Jove and Juno; and finally, in the next chamber, the Birth of Hercules 
and all his Labours. All that could not be included on the ceilings was 
placed in the friezes of each room, or has been placed in the arras- 
tapestries that the Lord Duke has caused to be woven for each room 
from my cartoons, corresponding to the pictures high up on the walls. I 
shall not speak of the grotesques, ornaments, and pictures of the stairs, 
nor of many other smaller details executed by my hand in that apartment 
of rooms, because, besides that I hope that a longer account may be 
given of them on another occasion, everyone may see them at his pleasure ' 
and judge of them. 

While these upper rooms were being painted, there were built the 
others that are on the level of the Great Hall, and are connected in a 
perpendicular line with the first-named, with a very convenient system 

x. 27 



210 GIORGIO VASARI 

of staircases public and private that lead from the highest to the lowest 
quarters of the Palace. Meanwhile Tasso died, and the Duke, who had 
a very great desire that the Palace, which had been built at haphazard, 
in various stages and at various times, and more for the convenience 
of the officials than with any good order, should be put to rights, resolved 
that he would at all costs have it reconstructed in so far as that was 
possible, and that in time the Great Hall should be painted, and that 
Bandinelli should continue the Audience-chamber already begun. In 
order, therefore, to bring the whole Palace into accord, harmonizing the 
work already done with that which was to be done, he ordained that I 
should make several plans and designs, and finally a wooden model after 
some that had pleased him, the better to be able to proceed to accom- 
modate all the apartments according to his pleasure, and to change and 
put straight the old stairs, which appeared to him too steep, ill-conceived, 
and badly made. To which work I set my hand, although it seemed to 
me a difficult enterprise and beyond my powers, and I executed as best 
I could a very large model, which is now in the possession of his Excel- 
lency; more to obey him than with any hope that I might succeed. 
That model, when it was finished, pleased him much, whether by his 
good fortune or mine, or because of the great desire that I had to give 
satisfaction; whereupon I set my hand to building, and little by little, 
doing now one thing and now another, the work has been carried to the 
condition wherein it may now be seen. And while the rest was being 
done, I decorated with very rich stucco-work in a varied pattern of 
compartments the first eight of the new rooms that are on a level with 
the Great Hall, what with saloons, chambers, and a chapel, with various 
pictures and innumerable portraits from life that come in the scenes, 
beginning with the elder Cosimo, and calling each room by the name 
of some great and famous person descended from him. In one, then, 
are the most notable actions of that Cosimo and those virtues that were 
most peculiar to him, with his greatest friends and servants and portraits 
of his children, all from life; and so, also, that of the elder Lorenzo, that 
of his son, Pope Leo, that of Pope Clement, that of Signor Giovanni, the 
father of our great Duke, and that of the Lord Duke Cosimo himself. 



GIORGIO VASARI 211 

In the chapel is a large and very beautiful picture by the hand of 
Raffaello da Urbino, between a S. Cosimo and a S. Damiano painted by 
my hand, to whom that chapel is dedicated. Then in like manner in the 
upper rooms painted for the Lady Duchess Leonora, which are four, are 
actions of illustrious women, Greek, Hebrew, Latin, and Tuscan, one to 
each chamber. But of these, besides that I have spoken of them else- 
where, there will be a full account in the Dialogue which I am about to 
give to the world, as I have said; for to describe everything here would 
have taken too long. 

For all these my labours, continuous, difficult, and great as they < 
were, I was rewarded largely and richly by the magnanimous liberality 
of the great Duke, in addition to my salaries, with donations and with 
commodious and honourable houses both in Florence and in the country, 
to the end that I might be able the more advantageously to serve him. 
Besides which, he has honoured me with the supreme magistracy of 
Gonfalonier and other offices in my native city of Arezzo, with the right 
to substitute in them one of the citizens of that place, not to mention 
that to my brother Ser Piero he has given offices of profit in Florence, 
and likewise extraordinary favours to my relatives in Arezzo; so that I 
shall never be weary of confessing the obligation that I feel towards that 
Lord for so many marks of affection. 

Returning to my works, I must go on to say that my most excellent 
Lord resolved to carry into execution a project that he had had for a 
long time, of painting th^Great JIaJl, a conception worthy of his lofty 
and profound spirit; I know not whether, as he said, I believe jesting 
with me, because he thought for certain that I would get it off his hands, 
so that he would see it finished in his lifetime, or it may have been from 
some other private and, as has always been true of him, most prudent 
judgment. The result, in short, was that he commissioned me to raise 
the crossbeams and the whole roof thirteen braccia above the height at 
that time, to make the ceiling of wood, and to overlay it with gold and 
paint it full of scenes in oils; a vast and most important undertaking, 
and, if not too much for my courage, perhaps too much for my powers. 
However, whether it was that the confidence of that great Lord and the 



212 GIORGIO VASARI 

good fortune that he has in his every enterprise raised me beyond what 
I am in myself, or that the hopes and opportunities of so fine a subject 
furnished me with much greater faculties, or that the grace of God and 
this I was bound to place before any other thing supplied me with 
strength, I undertook it, and, as has been seen, executed it in contra- 
diction to the opinion of many persons, and not only in much less time 
than I had promised and the work might be considered to require, but 
in less than even I or his most illustrious Excellency ever thought. And 
I can well believe that he was astonished and well satisfied, because it 
came to be executed at the greatest emergency and the finest occasion 
that could have occurred; and this was (that the cause of so much haste 
may be known) that a settlement had been concluded about the marriage 
which was being arranged between our most illustrious Prince and the 
daughter of the late Emperor and sister of the present one, and I thought 
it my duty to make every effort that on the occasion of such festivities 
that Hall, which was the principal apartment of the Palace and the one 
wherein the most important ceremonies were to be celebrated, might be 
available for enjoyment. And here I will leave it to the judgment of 
everyone not only in our arts but also outside them, if only he has seen 
the greatness and variety of that work, to decide whether the extra- 
ordinary importance of the occasion should not be my excuse if in such 
haste I have not given complete satisfaction in so great a variety of 
wars on land and sea, stormings of cities, batteries, assaults, skirmishes, 
buildings of cities, public councils, ceremonies ancient and modern, 
triumphs, and so many other things, for which, not to mention anything 
else, the sketches, designs, and cartoons of so great a work required a 
very long time. I will not speak of the nude bodies, in which the per- 
fection of our arts consists, or of the landscapes wherein all those things 
were painted, all which I had to copy from nature on the actual site and 
spot, even as I did with the many captains, generals and other chiefs, and 
soldiers, that were in the emprises that I painted. In short, I will venture 
to say that I had occasion to depict on that ceiling almost everything 
that human thought and imagination can conceive; all the varieties of 
bodies, faces, vestments, habiliments, casques, helmets, cuirasses, various 






GIORGIO VASARI 213 

head-dresses, horses, harness, caparisons, artillery of every kind, naviga- 
tions, tempests, storms of rain and snow, and so many other things, 
that I am not able to remember them. But anyone who sees the work 
may easily imagine what labours and what vigils I endured in executing 
with the greatest study in my power about forty large scenes, and some 
of them pictures ten braccia in every direction, with figures very large 
and in every manner. And although some of my young disciples worked 
with me there, they sometimes gave me assistance and sometimes not, 
for the reason that at times I was obliged, as they know, to repaint every- 
thing with my own hand and go over the whole picture again, to the end 
that all might be in one and the same manner. These stories, I say, 
treat of the history of Florence, from the building of the city down to ^ 
the present day; the division into quarters, the cities brought to sub- 
mission, the enemies vanquished, the cities subjugated, and, finally, the 
beginning and end of the War of Pisa on one side, and on the other 
likewise the beginning and end of the War of Siena, one carried on and \ -x, 

^ 

concluded by the popular government in a period of fourteen years, 
and the other by the Duke in fourteen months, as may be seen; besides 
all the rest that is on the ceiling and will be on the walls, each eighty 
braccia in length and twenty in height, which I am even now painting in 
fresco, and hope likewise to discuss later in ^^^^y^^^iy^^^^S9&^ 
And all this that I have sought to say hitherto has been for no other 
cause but to show with what diligence I have applied myself and still 
apply myself to matters of art, and with what good reasons I could excuse 
myself if in some cases (which I believe, indeed, are many) I have failed. 
I will add, also, that about the same time I received orders to design 
all the arches to be shown to his Excellency for the purpose of deter- 
mining the whole arrangement of the numerous festive preparations 
already described, executed in Florence for the nuptials of the most 
illustrious Lord Prince, of which I had then to carry into execution and 
finish a great part; to cause to be painted after my designs, in ten 
pictures each fourteen braccia high and eleven broad, all the squares of 
the principal cities of the dominion, drawn in perspective with their 
original builders and their devices; also, to have finished the head-wall 



214 GIORGIO VASARI 

of the above-named Hall, begun by Bandinelli, and to have a scene 
made for the other, the greatest and richest that was ever made by 
anyone; and, finally, to execute the principal stairs of that Palace, with 
their vestibules, the court and the columns, in the manner that everyone 
knows and that has been described above, with fifteen cities of the 
Empire and of the Tyrol depicted from the reality in as many pictures. 
Not little, also, has been the time that I have spent in those same days 
in pushing forward the construction, from the time when I first began 
it, of the loggia and the vast fabric of the Magistrates, facing towards 
the River Arno, than which I have never had built anything more difficult 
or more dangerous, from its Being founded over the river, and even, one 
might say, in the air. But it was necessary, besides other reasons, in 
order to attach to it, as has been done, the great corridor which crosses 
the river and goes from the Ducal Palace to the Palace and Garden of 
the Pitti; which corridor was built under my direction and after my 
design in five months, although it is a work that one might think impos- 
sible to finish in less than five years. In addition, it was also my task 
to cause to be reconstructed and increased for the same nuptials, in the 
great tribune of S. Spirito, the new machinery for the festival that used 
to be held in S. Felice in Piazza; which was all reduced to the greatest 
possible perfection, so that there are no longer any of those dangers 
that used to be incurred in that festival. And under my charge, like- 
wise, have been the works of the Palace and Church of the Knights of 
S. Stephen at Pisa, and the tribune, or rather, cupola, of the Madonna 
dell' Umilta in Pistoia, which is a work of the greatest importance. For 
all which, without excusing my imperfection, which I know only too 
well, if I have achieved anything of the good, I render infinite thanks 
to God, from whom I still hope to have such help that I may see finished, 
whenever that may be, the terrible undertaking of the walls in the Hall, 
to the full satisfaction of my Lords, who already for a period of thirteen 
years have given me opportunities to execute vast works with honour 
and profit for myself; after which, weary, aged, and outworn, I may be 
at rest. And if for various reasons I have executed the works described 
for the most part with something of rapidity and haste, this I hope to do 




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GIORGIO VASAR1 215 

at my leisure, seeing that the Lord Duke is content that I should not 
press it, but should do it at my ease, granting me all the repose and 
recreation that I myself could desire. Thus, last year, being tired by 
the many works described above, he gave me leave that I might go about 
for some months to divert myself, and so, setting out to travel, I passed 
over little less than the whole of Italy, seeing again innumerable friends 
and patrons and the works of various excellent craftsmen, as I have 
related above in another connection. Finally, being in Rome on my 
way to return to Florence, I went to kiss the feet of the most holy and 
most blessed Pope Pius V, and he commissioned me to execute for him 
in Florence an altar-picture for sending to his Convent and Church of 
Bosco, which he was then having built in his native place, near Ales- 
sandria della Paglia. 

Having then returned to Florencgj remembering the command that 
his Holiness had laid upon me and the many marks of affection that he 
had shown, I painted for him, as he had commissioned me, an altar- 
picture of the Adoration of the Magi; and when he heard that it had been 
carried by me to completion, he sent me a message that to please him, 
and that he might confer with me over some thoughts in his mind, I 
should go with that picture to Rome, but particular^ for the purpose 
of discussing the fabric of S. Pietro, which he showed himself to have 
very much at heart. Having therefore made preparations with a 
hundred crowns that he sent me for that purpose, and having sent the 
picture before me, I went to Rome; and after I had been there a month 
and had had many conversations with his Holiness, and had advised 
him not to permit any alterations to be made in the arrangements of 
Buonarroti for the fabric of S. Pietro, and had executed some designs, he 
commanded me to make for the high- altar of that Church of Bosco not 
an altar-picture such as is customary, but an immense structure almost 
in the manner of a triumphal arch, with two large panels, one in front 
and the other behind, and in smaller pictures about thirty scenes filled 
with many figures; all which have been carried very near completion. 

At that time I obtained the gracious leave of his Holiness, who with 
infinite lovingness and condescension sent me the Bulls expedited free 



216 GIORGIO VASARI 

of charge, to erect in the Pieve of Arezzo a chapel and decanate, which 
is the principal chapel of that Pieve, under the patronage of myself and 
of my house, endowed by me and painted by my hand, and offered to 
the Divine Goodness as an acknowledgment (although but a trifle) of 
the great obligation that I feel to the Divine Majesty for the innumerable 
graces and benefits that He has deigned to bestow upon me. The altar- 
picture of that chapel is in form very similar to that described above, 
which has been in part the reason that it has been brought back to my 
memory, for it is isolated and consists likewise of two pictures, one in 
front, already mentioned above, and one at the back with the story of 
S. George, with pictures of certain Saints on either side, and at the foot 
smaller pictures with their stories; those Saints whose bodies are in a 
most beautiful tomb below the altar, with other principal reliques of 
the city. In the centre comes a tabernacle passing well arranged for 
the Sacrament, because it serves for both the one altar and the other, 
and it is embellished with stories of the Old Testament and the New all 
in keeping with that Mystery, as has been told in part elsewhere. 

I had forgotten to say, also, that the year before, when I went the 
first time to kiss the Pope's feet, I took the road by Perugia in order to 
set in place three large altar-pieces executed for a refectory of the Black 
Friars of S. Piero in that city. In one, that in the centre, is the Marriage 
of Cana in Galilee, at which Christ performed the Miracle of converting 
water into wine. In the second, on the right hand, is Elisha the Prophet 
sweetening with meal the bitter pot, the food of which, spoilt by 
colocynths, his prophets were not able to eat. And in the third is 
S. Benedict, to whom a lay-brother announces at a time of very great 
dearth, and at the very moment when his monks were lacking food, 
that some camels laden with meal have arrived at his door, and he sees 
that the Angels of God are miraculously bringing to him a vast quantity 
of meal. 

For Signora Gentilina, mother of Signor Chiappino and Sign or 
Paolo Vitelli, I painted in Florence and sent from there to Citta di 

3 * 4MMMMOTM* 

Castello a great altar-picture in which is the Coronation of Our Lady, on 
high a Dance of Angels, and at the foot many figures larger than life; 



GIORGIO VASARI 217 

which picture was placed in S. Francesco in that city. For the Church 
of Ppggio a Caiano, a villa of the Lord Duke, I painted in an altar- 
picture the Dead Christ in the lap of His Mother, S. Cosimo and S. 
Damiano contemplating Him, and in the air an Angel who, weeping, 
displays the Mysteries of the Passion of Our Saviour; and in the Church 
of the Carmine at Florence, in the Chapel of Matteo and Simon Botti, 
my very dear friends, there was placed about this same time an altar- 
picture by my hand wherein is Christ Crucified, with Our Lady, S. John 
and the Magdalene weeping. Then I executed two great pictures for 
Jacogo Cappqni, for sending to France, in one of which is Spring and in 
the other Autumn, with large figures and new inventions; and in another 
and even larger picture a Dead Christ supported by two Angels, with 
God the Father on high. To the Nuns of S. Maria Novella of Arezzo 
I sent likewise in those days, or a little before, an altar-picture in which 
is the Virgin receiving the Annunciation from the Angel, and at the sides 
two Saints; and for the Nuns of Luco in the Mugello, of the Order of 
Camaldoli, another altar-piece that is in the inner choir, containing 
Christ Crucified, Our Lady, S. John, and Mary Magdalene. For Luca 
Torrigiani, who is very much my intimate and friend, and who desired 
to have among the many things that he possesses of our art a picture 
by my own hand, in order to keep it near him, I painted in a large 
picture a nude Venus with the three Graces about her, one of whom is 
attiring her head, another holds her mirror, and the third is pouring 
water into a vessel to bathe her; which picture I strove to execute with 
the greatest study and diligence that I was able, in order to satisfy my 
own mind no less than that of so sweet and dear a friend. I also executed 
for Antonio de' Nobili, Treasurer-General to his Excellency and my 
affectionate friend, besides his portrait, being forced to do it against my 
inclination, a head of Jesus Christ taken from the words in which 
Lentulus writes of His effigy, both of which were done with diligence; 
and likewise another somewhat larger, but similar to that named above, 
for Signor Mandragone, now the first person in the service of Don 
Francesco de' Medici, Prince of Florence and Siena, which I presented to 
his lordship because he is much affected towards our arts and every 
x. 28 



218 GIORGIO VASARI 

talent, to the end that he might remember from the sight of it that I 
love him and am his friend. I have also in hand, and hope to finish soon, 
a large picture, a most fanciful work, which is intended for Signor Antonio 
Montalvo, Lord of Sassetta, who is deservedly the First Chamberlain 
and the most trusted companion of our Duke, and so sweet and loving 
an intimate and friend, not to say a superior, to me, that, if my hand 
shall accomplish the desire that I have to leave to him a proof by that 
hand of the affection that I bear him, it will be recognized how much I 
honour him and how dearly I wish that the memory of a lord so honoured 
and so loyal, and beloved by me, shall live among posterity, seeing that 
he exerts himself willingly in favouring all the beautiful intellects that 
labour in our profession or take delight in design. 

For the Lord Prince, Don Francesco, I have executed recently two 
pictures that he has sent to Toledo in Spain, to a sister of the Lady 
Duchess Leonora, his mother; and for himself a little picture in the manner 
of a miniature, with forty figures, what with great and small, according 
to a very beautiful invention of his own. For Filippo Salviati I finished 
not long since an altar-picture that is going to the Sisters of S.Vincenzio 
at Prato, wherein on high is Our Lady arrived in Heaven and crowned, 
and at the foot the Apostles around the Sepulchre. For the Black Friars 
of the Badia of Florence, likewise, I am painting an altar-piece of the 
Assumption of Our Lady, which is near completion, with the Apostles 
in figures larger than life, and other figures at the sides, and around it 
stories and ornaments accommodated in a novel manner. And since 
the Lord Duke, so truly excellent in everything, takes pleasure not only 
in the building of palaces, cities, fortresses, harbours, loggie, public 
squares, gardens, fountains, villas, and other suchlike things, beautiful, 
magnificent, and most useful, for the benefit of his people, but also 
particularly in building anew and reducing to better form and greater 
beauty, as a truly Catholic Prince, the temples and sacred churches of 
God, in imitation of the great King Solomon, recently he has caused me 
to remove the tramezzo* of the Church of S. Maria Novella, which had 
robbed it of all its beauty, and a new and very rich choir was made 

* See p. 57, Vol. I. 



GIORGIO VASARI 219 

behind the high-altar, in order to remove that occupying a great part 
of the centre of that church; which makes it appear a new church and 
most beautiful, as indeed it is. And because things that have not order 
and proportion among themselves can never be entirely beautiful, he 
has ordained that there shall be made in the side-aisles, between column 
and column, in such a manner as to correspond to the centres of the 
arches, rich ornaments of stone in a novel form, which are to serve as 
chapels with altars in the centre, and are all to be in one of two manners ; 
and that then in the altar-pictures that are to go within these ornaments, 
seven braccia in height and five in breadth, there shall be executed 
paintings after the will and pleasure of the patrons of the chapels. 
Within one of those ornaments of stone, made from my design, I have 
executed for the very reverend Monsignor Alessandro Strozzi, Bishop 
of Volterra, my old and most loving patron, a Christ Crucified according 
to the Vision of S. Anselm namely, with the Seven Virtues, without 
which we cannot ascend the Seven Steps to Jesus Christ and with other 
considerations by the same Saint. And in the same church, within 
another of those ornaments, I have painted for the excellent Maestro 
Andrea Pasquali, physician to the Lord Duke, a Resurrection of Jesus 
Christ in the manner that God has inspired me, to please that Maestro 
Andrea, who is much my friend. And a similar work our great Duke 
has desired to have done in the immense Church of S. Croce in Florence; 
namely, that the tramezzo* should be removed and that the choir 
should be made behind the high-altar, bringing that altar somewhat 
forward and placing upon it a new and rich tabernacle for the most holy 
Sacrament, all adorned with gold, figures, and scenes; and, in addition, 
that in the same manner that has been told of S. Maria Novella there 
should be made there fourteen chapels against the walls, with greater 
expense and ornamentation than those described above, because that 
church is much larger than the other. In the altar-pieces, to accompany 
the two by Salviati and Bronzino, are to be all the principal Mysteries 
of the Saviour, from the beginning of His Passion to the Sending of the 
Holy Spirit upon the Apostles; which picture of the Sending of the 

* See p. 57, Vol. I. 



220 GIORGIO VASARI 

Holy Spirit, having made the design of the chapels and ornaments of 
stone, I have in hand for M. Agnolo Biffoli, Treasurer-General to our 
Lords, and my particular friend, and I finished, not long since, two large 
pictures that are in the Magistracy of the Nine Conservadori, beside 
S. Piero Scheraggio; in one is the head of Christ, and in the other a 
Madonna. 

But since I should take too long if I sought to recount in detail the 
many other pictures, designs without number, models, and masquerades 
that I have executed, and because this much is enough and more than 
enough, I shall say nothing more of myself, save that however great and 
important have been the things that I have continually suggested to 
Duke Cosimo, I have never been able to equal, much less to surpass, the 
greatness of his mind. And this will be seen clearly in a third sacristy 
that he wishes to build beside S. Lorenzo, large and similar to that 
which Michelagnolo built in the past, but all of variegated marbles and 
mosaics, in order to deposit there, in tombs most honourable and worthy 
of his power and grandeur, the remains of his dead children, of his 
father and mother, of the magnanimous Duchess Leonora, his consort, 
and of himself; for which I have already made a model after his taste 
and according to the orders received from him by me, which, when carried 
into execution, will cause it to be a novel, most magnificent, and truly 
regal Mausoleum. 

This much, then, it must suffice to have said of myself, who am now 
come after so many labours to the age of fifty-five years, and look to live 
so long as it shall please God, honouring Him, ever at the service of my 
friends, and working in so far as my strength shall allow for the benefit 
and advantage of these most noble arts. 



THE AUTHOR TO THE CRAFTSMEN OF DESIGN 



HONOURED and noble craftsmen, for whose profit and advantage, chiefly, 
I set myself a second time to so long a labour, I now find that by the 
favour and assistance of the Divine Grace I have accomplished in full 
that which at the beginning of this my present task I promised myself 
to do. For which result rendering thanks first to God and afterwards 
to my lords, who have granted me the facilities whereby I have been 
able to do this advantageously, I must then give repose to my weary 
pen and brain, which I shall do as soon as I shall have made some brief 
observations. If, then, it should appear to anyone that in my writing 
I have been at times rather long and even somewhat prolix, let him put 
it down to this, that I have sought as much as I have been able to be 
clear, and before any other thing to set down my story in such a manner 
that what has not been understood the first time, or not expressed 
satisfactorily by me, might be made manifest at any cost. And if what 
has been said once has been at times repeated in another place, the 
reasons for this have been two first, that the matter that I was treating 
required it, and then that during the time when I rewrote and reprinted 
the work I broke off my writing more than once for a period not of days 
merely but of months, either for journeys or because of a superabundance 
of labours, works of painting, designs, and buildings; besides which, 
for a man like myself (I confess it freely) it is almost impossible to avoid 
every error. To those to whom it might appear that I have overpraised 
any craftsmen, whether old or modern, and who, comparing the old with 
those of the present age, might laugh at them, I know not what else to 
answer save that my intention has always been to praise not absolutely; 
but, as the saying is, relatively, having regard to place, time, and other! 
similar circumstances; and in truth, although Giotto, for example, was] 

221 



222 THE AUTHOR TO THE CRAFTSMEN OF DESIGN 

much extolled in his day, I know not what would have been said of him, 
as of other old masters, if he had lived in the time of Buonarroti, whereas 
the men of this age, which is at the topmost height of perfection, would 
; not be in the position that they are if those others had not first been such 
las they were before us. In short, let it be believed that what I have 
done in praising or censuring I have done not with any ulterior object, 
but only to speak the truth or what I have believed to be the truth. But 
one cannot always have the goldsmith's balance in the hand, and he who 
has experienced what writing is, and particularly when one has to make 
comparisons, which are by their very nature odious, or to pronounce 
judgments, will hold me excused; and I know only too well how great 
have been the labours, hardships, and moneys that I have devoted over 
many years to this work. Such, indeed, and so many, have been the 
difficulties that I have experienced therein, that many a time I would 
have abandoned it in despair, if the succour of many true and good 
friends, to whom I shall always be deeply indebted, had not given me 
courage and persuaded me to persevere, they lending me all the loving 
aids that have been in their power, of notices, advices, and comparisons 
of various things, about which, although I had seen them, I was not a 
little perplexed and dubious. Those aids, indeed, have been such, that 
I have been able to lay bare the pure truth and bring this work into the 
light of day, in order to revive the memory of so many rare and extra- 
ordinary intellects, which was almost entirely buried, for the benefit of 
those who shall come after us. In doing which I have found no little 
assistance, as has been told elsewhere, in the writings of Lorenzo Ghiberti, 
Domenico Ghirlandajo, and Raffaello da Urbino; but although I have 
lent them willing faith, nevertheless I have always sought to verify their 
statements by a sight of the works, for the reason that long practice 
teaches a diligent painter to be able to recognize the various manners 
of craftsmen not otherwise than a learned and well-practised chancellor 
knows the various and diverse writings of his equals, or anyone the 
characters of his nearest and most familiar friends and relatives. 

Now, if I have achieved the end that I have desired, which has 
been to benefit and at the same time to delight, that will be a supreme 



THE AUTHOR TO THE CRAFTSMEN OF DESIGN 223 

satisfaction to me, and, even if it be otherwise, it will be a contentment 
for me, or at least an alleviation of pain, to have endured fatigue in an 
honourable work such as should make me worthy of pity among all 
choice spirits, if not of pardon. But to come at last to the end of this 
long discourse; I have written as a painter and with the best order and 
method that I have been able, and, as for language, in that which I 
speak, whether it be Florentine or Tuscan, and in the most easy and 
facile manner at my command, leaving the long and ornate periods, 
choice words, and other ornaments of learned speech and writing, to 
such as have not, as I have, a hand rather for brushes than for the pen, 
and a head rather for designs than for writing. And if I have scattered 
throughout the work many terms peculiar to our arts, of which perchance 
it has not occurred to the brightest and greatest lights of our language 
to avail themselves, I have done this because I could do no less and in 
order to be understood by you, my craftsmen, for whom, chiefly, as I 
have said, I set myself to this labour. For the rest, then, I having 
done all that I have been able, accept it willingly, and expect not from 
me what I know not and what is not in my power; satisfying yourselves 
of my good intention, which is and ever will be to benefit and please 
others. 

DIE 25 AUGUSTI, 1567. 

CONCEDIMUS LICENTIAM ET FACULTATEM IMPUNE ET SINE ULLO PRM- 

JUDICIO IMPRIMENDI FLORENTINE VITAS PICTORUM, SCULPTORUM, ET 

ARCHITECTORUM, TANQUAM A FIDE ET RELIGIONE NULLO PACTO ALIENAS, 

SED POTIUS VALDE CONSONAS. IN QUORUM FIDEM ETC. 

GUIDO SERVIDIUS, PRJEPOSITUS ET VICARIUS GENERALIS FLORENT. 



INDEX 



x. 29 



INDEX OF NAMES 

OF THE CRAFTSMEN MENTIONED IN VOLUME X 



ACADEMICIANS, The, 37-167 

Agnolo, Baccio d', 23 

Agnolo Bronzino, Life, 3-12. 3-14, 219 

Albert!, Leon Batista, 40 

Alessandro Allori (Alessandro del Bronzino), 

12, 13 
Alessandro del Barbiere (Alessandro di Vin- 

cenzio Fei), 20 
Alessandro del Bronzino (Alessandro Allori), 

12, 13 
Alessandro di Vincenzio Fei (Alessandro del 

Barbiere), 20 
Alessandro Fortori, 20 
Alessandro Vittoria, 20 
Allori, Alessandro (Alessandro del Bronzino), 

12, 13 

Altissimo, Cristofano dell', 13, 14 
Ammanati, Bartolommeo, 23, 206 
Andrea Calamech, 23 
Andrea del Minga, 15 
Andrea del Sarto, 47, 172 
Andrea Palladio, 20 
Andrea Verrocchio, 47 
Antonio da Correggio, 187 
Antonio da San Gallo (the younger), 47 
Antonio di Gino Lorenzi, 30 
Apelles, 47, 200 

Bacchiacca, II (Francesco Ubertini), 8 
Baccio Bandinelli, 23, 24, 31, 176, 210, 214 
Baccio d'Agnolo, 23 
Bagnacavallo, Giovan Battista da, 196 
Baldassarre Lancia, 33 
Baldassarre Peruzzi, 174 
Bandinelli, Baccio, 23, 24, 31, 176, 210, 214 
Bandini, Giovanni di Benedetto, 31, 32 
Barbiere, Alessandro del (Alessandro di Vin- 
cenzio Fei), 20 

Barozzi, Jacopo (Vignuola), 206 
Bartolommeo Ammanati, 23, 206 
Bastiano Flori, 187, 196 
Battista Cungi, 181, 187 
Battista del Cavaliere (Battista Lorenzi), 31 
Battista del Tasso, 208, 210 



Battista di Benedetto Fiammeri, 23 

Battista Farinato, 20 

Battista Lorenzi (Battista del Cavaliere), 31 

Battista Naldini, 14, 15 

Beceri, Domenico (Domenico Benci), 20 

Benedetto Pagni (Benedetto da Pescia), 9 

Benozzo Gozzoli, 47 

Benvenuto Cellini, 21, 22 

Bernardino di Pornrio, 17 

Bernardo Timante Buontalenti, 16-18 

Biagio Pupini, 184 

Bizzerra, 196 

Bologna, Giovan, 25, 26 

Borgo, Giovan Paolo dal, 196 

Bronzino, Agnolo, Life, 3-12. 3-14, 219 

Bronzino, Alessandro del (Alessandro Allori), 

12, 13 

Brunellesco, Filippo di Ser, 47, 204 
Buffalmacco, 47 

Buonarroti, Michelagnolo, 12-17, I 9, 24, 26, 
31, 32, 46, 47, 172, 174,':! 75, 186-190, 194, 

206, 215, 22O, 222 

Buontalenti, Bernardo Timante, 16-18 
Butteri, Giovan Maria, 13 

Cadore, Tiziano da (Tiziano Vecelli), 20, 

187 

Calamech, Andrea, 23 
Camilliani, Francesco, 24, 25 
Caravaggio, Polidoro da, 174 
Carlo Portelli (Carlo da Loro), 15 
Cattaneo, Danese, 20 

Cavaliere, Battista del (Battista Lorenzi), 31 
Cellini, Benvenuto, 21, 22 
Cimabue, Giovanni, 3, 47, 196 
Cioli, Valeric, 32 
Clovio, Don Giulio, 16 
Colle, Raffaello dal, 7 
Collettaio, Ottaviano del, 33 
Correggio, Antonio da, 187 
Cristofano dell' Altissimo, 13, 14 
Cristofano Gherardi, 183, 187, 208 
Crocifissaio, Girolamo del, 15, 1 6 
Cungi, Battista, 181, 187 



227 



228 



INDEX 



Danese Cattaneo, 20 
Danti, Fra Ignazio, 28-30 
Danti, Vincenzio, 26-28 
Desiderio da Settignano, 47 
Domenico Beceri (Domenico Benci), 20 
Domenico Ghirlandajo, 222 
Domenico Poggini, 32, 33 
Don Giulio Clovio, 16 
Donate (Donatello), 22, 47 

Faenza, Marco da (Marco Marchetti), 20 

Fancelli, Giovanni (Giovanni di Stocco), 33 

Farinato, Battista, 20 

Federigo di Lamberto, 16 

Federigo Zucchero, 20 

Fei, Alessandro di Vincenzio (Alessandro del 

Barbiere), 20 

Fiammeri, Battista di Benedetto, 23 
Filippo di Ser Brunellesco, 47, 204 
Filippo Lippi, Fra, 47 
Flori, Bastiano, 187, 196 
Fontana, Prospero, 20 
Fortori, Alessandro, 20 
Foschi, Fra Salvadore, 196 
Fra Filippo Lippi, 47 

Fra Giovanni Agnolo Montorsoli, 9, 23, 33 
Fra Giovanni Vincenzio, 33 
Fra Ignazio Danti, 28-30 
Fra Salvadore Foschi, 196 
Francesco Camilliani, 24, 25 
Francesco da Poppi (Francesco Morandini), 14 
Francesco da San Gallo, 22, 23 
Francesco Morandini (Francesco da Poppi), 14 
Francesco Moschino, 32 
Francesco Salviati, 7, 47, 171, 174, 219 
Francesco Ubertini (II Bacchiacca), 8 

Gaddi family, 47 

Genga, Girolamo, 33 

Gherardi, Cristofano, 183, 187, 208 

Ghiberti, Lorenzo, 47, 222 

Ghirlandajo, Domenico, 222 

Ghirlandajo, Michele di Ridolfo, 15 

Ghirlandajo, Ridolfo, 15 

Giorgio Vasari. See Vasari, Giorgio 

Giotto, 47, 191, 221, 222 

Giovan Battista da Bagnacavallo, 196 

Giovan Bologna, 25, 26 

Giovan Francesco Rustici, 47 

Giovan Maria Butteri, 13 

Giovan Paolo dal Borgo, 196 

Giovanni Agnolo Montorsoli, Fra, 9, 23, 33 

Giovanni Cimabue, 3, 47, 196 

Giovanni da Udine, 176 

Giovanni della Strada (Jan van der Straet), 

^ 18, 19 

Giovanni di Benedetto Bandini, 31, 32 

Giovanni Fancelli (Giovanni di Stocco), 33 

Giovanni Vincenzio, Fra, 33 

Girolamo da Treviso, 184 



Girolamo del Crocifissaio, 15,16 

Girolamo Genga, 33 

Giuliano da San Gallo, 22, 23 

Giulio Clovio, Don, 16 

Giulio da Urbino, 17 

Giulio Romano, 9, 187 

Giuseppe Porta (Giuseppe Salviati), 20 

Gozzoli, Benozzo, 47 

Guglielmo da Marcilla, 172 

Ignazio Danti, Fra, 28-30 

II Bacchiacca (Francesco Ubertini), 8 

II Rosso, 47, 172 

Ilarione Ruspoli, 24 

Jacopo Barozzi (Vignuola), 206 

Jacopo da Pontormo, 3-5, 7-10, 12-14, 47, 176, 

177 

Jacopo Sansovino, 23 
Jacopo Tintoretto, 20 
Jacopo Zucchi, 19 
Jan van der Straet (Giovanni della Strada), 18, 

19 

Lamberto, Federigo di, 16 

Lancia, Baldassarre, 33 

Lancia, Pompilio, 33 

Lastricati, Zanobi, 33 

Leon Battista Alberti, 40 

Leonardo da Vinci, 47 

Lippi, Fra Filippo, 47 

Lorenzi, Antonio di Gino, 30 

Lorenzi, Battista (Battista del Cavaliere), 31 

Lorenzi, Stoldo di Gino, 30, 31 

Lorenzo della Sciorina, 14 

Lorenzo Ghiberti, 47, 222 

Lorenzo Sabatini, 20 

Loro, Carlo da (Carlo Portelli), 15 

Luca Signorelli, 171 

Manno, 173 

Manzuoli, Maso (Maso da San Friano), 15 

Marchetti, Marco (Marco da Faenza), 20 

Marcilla, Guglielmo da, 172 

Marco Marchetti (Marco da Faenza), 20 

Martino (pupil of Fra Giovanni Agnolo 

Montorsoli), 23 
Masaccio, 47 

Maso Manzuoli (Maso da San Friano), 15 
Michelagnolo Buonarroti, 12-17, 19, 24, 26, 

31, 32, 46, 47, 172, 174, 175, 186-190, I94> 

206, 215, 220, 222 

Michele di Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, 15 
Minga, Andrea del, 15 
Mirabello di Salincorno, 15, 1 6 
Montorsoli, Fra Giovanni Agnolo, 9, 23, 33 
Morandini, Francesco (Francesco da Poppi), 

14 
Moschino, Francesco, 32 



INDEX 



229 



Naldini, Battista, 14, 15 
Niccolo (Tribolo), 5, 30, 176, 177 

Orazio Porta, 20 
Ottaviano del Collettaio, 33 

Pagni, Benedetto (Benedetto da Pescia), 9 

Palladio, Andrea, 20 

Paolo Veronese, 20 

Parrhasius, 200 

Perino del Vaga, 47 

Perugino, Pietro, 192 

Peruzzi, Baldassarre, 174 

Pescia, Benedetto da (Benedetto Pagni), 9 

Pier Francesco di Jacopo di Sandro, 15 

Pieri, Stefano, 14 

Pietro Perugino, 192 

Poggini, Domenico, 32, 33 

Polidoro da Caravaggio, 174 

Pompilio Lancia, 33 

Pontormo, Jacopo da, 3-5, 7-10, 12-14, 47, 

176, 177 

Poppi, Francesco da (Francesco Morandini), 14 
Porfirio, Bernardino di, 17 
Porta, Giuseppe (Giuseppe Salviati), 20 
Porta, Orazio, 20 
Portelli, Carlo (Carlo da Loro), 15 
Praxiteles, 47 
Prospero Fontana, 20 
Protogenes, 200 
Pupini, Biagio, 184 

Raffaello dal Colle, 7 

Raffaello Sanzio, 174, 1 80, 1 8 1, 192, 211, 222 

Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, 15 

Romano, Giulip, 9, 187 

Rossi, Vincenzio de', 23, 24 

Rosso, II, 47, 172 

Roviale, 196 

Ruspoli, Ilarione, 24 

Rustici, Giovan Francesco, 47 

Sabatini, Lorenzo, 20 

Salincorno, Mirabello di, 15, 16 

Salvadore Foschi, Fra, 196 

Salviati, Francesco, 7, 47, 171, 174, 219 

Salviati, Giuseppe (Giuseppe Porta), 20 

San Friano, Maso da (Maso Manzuoli), 15 

San Gallo, Antonio da (the younger), 47 

San Gallo, Francesco da, 22, 23 

San Gallo, Giuliano da, 22, 23 

Sandro, Pier Francesco di Jacopo di, 15 

Sansovino, Jacopo, 23 

Santi Titi, 19, 20 



Sanzio, Raffaello, 174, 180, 181, 192, 211, 222 
Sarto, Andrea del, 47, 172 
Sciorina, Lorenzo della, 14 
Settignano, Desiderio da, 47 
Signorelli, Luca, 171 
Stefano Pieri, 14 
Stefano Veltroni, 20 

Stocco, Giovanni di (Giovanni Fancelli), 33 
Stoldo di Gino Lorenzi, 30, 31 
Strada, Giovanni della (Jan van der Straet), 
18, 19 

Tasso, Battista del, 208, 210 

The Academicians, 37-167 

Tintoretto, Jacopo, 20 

Titi, Santi, 19, 20 

Tiziano Vecelli (Tiziano da Cadore), 20, 187 

Tommaso del Verrocchio, 20 

Treviso, Girolamo da, 184 

Tribolo (Niccolo), 5, 30, 176, 177 

Ubertini, Francesco (II Bacchiacca), 8 
Udine, Giovanni da, 176 
Urbino, Giulio da, 17 

Vaga, Perino del, 47 
Valerio Cioli, 32 
Vasari, Giorgio, Life, 171-220 
as art-collector, 13 
as author, 3, 8, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19-24, 

29, 3. 32-34. 37. 4 x -44. 47. 6l . 62 , 67, 

69, 72, 76-78, 80, 82-84, 90, 92-94. 

97-102, 104, 105, 113, 116, 119, 127- 

129, 147, 162-164, I 66, 167, 171-223 
as painter, 12, 14, 16-20, 27, 105, 171-221, 

223 
as architect, 10, 26-28, 31, 171, 174, 177, 

178, 181, 184, 189-193, 202, 206-216, 

218-221 

Vecelli, Tiziano (Tiziano da Cadore), 20, 187 
Veltroni, Stefano, 20 
Veronese, Paolo, 20 
Verrocchio, Andrea, 47 
Verrocchio, Tommaso del, 20 
Vignuola (Jacopo Barozzi), 206 
Vincenzio, Fra Giovanni, 33 
Vincenzio Danti, 26-28 
Vincenzio de' Rossi, 23, 24 
Vinci, Leonardo da, 47 
Vittoria, Alessandro, 20 

Zanobi Lastricati, 33 
Zeuxis, 200 

Zucchero, Federigo, 20 
Zucchi, Jacopo, 19 



END OF VOL. X. 



GENERAL INDEX OF 
VOLS. I TO X 



GENERAL INDEX OF NAMES 



OF THE CRAFTSMEN MENTIONED IN VOLUMES I X 

NOTE. To bring this Index within as reasonable a compass as possible cross-references, such 
as Agnolo Bronzino. See Bronzino, Agnolo, are printed Agnolo Bronzino, the italics indicating 
the name under which the page-numbers will be found. 



ABACCO, Antonio L', VI, 113, 114, 130, 136, 

137; VIII, 167 
Abate, Niccolo dell' (Niccolo da Modena), VIII, 

37, 38; IX, 148 
Abbot of S. Clemente (Don Bartolommeo della 

Gatta] 

Academicians, The, X, 37-167 
Adone Doni 
Aertsen, Pieter, IX, 268 
Aglaophon, I, xxxix 
Agnolo (nephew of Montorsoli), VIII, 144, 

147, 151 
Agnolo (of Siena), LIFE, I, 97-105; I, 39, 97- 

105; II, 81, 94, 95; VIII, 53 
Agnolo, Andrea d' (Andrea del Sarto) 
Agnolo, Baccio d' (Baccio Baglioni), LIFE, VI, 

65-68; III, 12; IV, 101, 204, 267, 270; V, 

91/98, 102; VI, 65-69, 72; VII, 74; VIII, 

116; IX, 40, 41, 194: X, 23 
Agnolo, Battista d' (Battista d'Angelo, or del 

Moro) 

Agnolo, Domenico di Baccio d', VI, 68, 70, 72 
Agnolo, Filippo di Baccio d', VI, 68, 70 
Agnolo, Giuliano di Baccio d', LIFE, VI, 68- 

72; VII, 83-86, 88, 89, 102 
Agnolo, Marco di Battista d', VI, 27, 28 
Agnolo Bronzino 
Agnolo di Cristofano 
Agnolo di Donnino 

Agnolo di Lorenzo (Angelo di Lorentino) 
Agnolo di Polo 
Agnolo Gaddi 
Agobbio, Oderigi d', I, 79 
Agostino (of Siena), LIFE, I, 97-105; I, 39, 97. 

105; II,8i,94,95; VIII, 53 
Agostino Busto (II Bambaja) 
Agostino della Robbia 
Agostino Viniziano (Agostino de' Musi) 
Agresti, Livio (Livio da Forli) 
Aholiab, I, xxxviii 

X. 



Aimo, Domenico (Vecchio of Bologna), V, 28; 

VI, 217; IX, 189 

Alberti, Leon Batista, LIFE, III, 43-48; I, 
xli, 179; II, 227; III, 43-48; VI, 45; IX, 
271; X, 40 

Alberti, Michele, VIII, 205, 210, 211 
Albertinelli, Biagio di Bindo, IV, 165 
Albertinelli, Mariotto, LIFE, IV, 165-171; II, 
190; IV, 151, 154, 165-171; V, 86, 212, 217; 

VII, 108, 148; VIII, 62 

Albertino, Francesco d' (Francesco Ubertini, 

or II Bacchiacca) 
Alberto, Antonio, V, 13 
Alberto Monsignori (Bonsignori) 
Albrecht (Heinrich) Aldegrever 
Albrecht Durer 

Aldegrever, Albrecht (Heinrich), VI, 119 
Aldigieri (Altichiero) da Zevio 
Alessandro (Scherano da Settignano) 
Alessandro Allori (Alessandro del Bronzino) 
Alessandro Bonvicini Alessandro Moretto 
Alessandro Cesati (II Greco) 
Alessandro del Barbiere (Alessandro di Vin- 

cenzio Fei) 

Alessandro del Bronzino (Alessandro Allori) 
Alessandro di Vincenzio Fei (Alessandro del 

Barbiere) 

Alessandro Falconetto 
Alessandro Filipepi (Sandro Botticelli, or 

Sandro di Botticello) 
Alessandro Fortori 

Alessandro Moretto (Alessandro Bonvicini) 
Alessandro Vittoria 
Alessi, Galeazzo, IX, 239-242 
Alesso Baldovinetti 
Alfonso Lombardi 
Allori, Alessandro (Alessandro del Bronzino), 

V, 127; IX, 133, 138; X, 12, 13 
Alonzo Spagnuolo (Alonzo Berughetta) 
Altichiero (Aldigieri) da Zevio 

233 30 



234 



GENERAL INDEX 



Altissimo, Cristofano dell', X, 13, 14 

Altobello da Melone 

Alunno, Niccolo, IV, 18, 19 

Alvaro di Piero 

Amalteo, Pomponio, V, 154, 155 

Ambrogio Lorenzetti 

Amico Aspertini 

Ammanati, Bartolommeo, II, 228; IV, 274; 

VII, 95, 96, 99, 100, 203, 206; VIII, 91, 92, 

99, 153, 220; IX, 69, 70, 73, 118, 125, 126, 

129, 207, 208, 223; X, 23, 206 
Amsterdam, Lambert of (Lambert Lombard) 
Andrea, Maestro, VII, 66 
Andrea Calamech 

Andrea Contucci (Andrea Sansovino) 
Andrea d' Agnolo (Andrea del Sarto) 
Andrea da Fiesole (Andrea Ferrucci) 
Andrea dal Castagno (Andrea degli Impic- 

cati) 

Andrea de' Cert 

Andrea degli Impiccati (Andrea dal Castagno) 
Andrea del Gobbo 
Andrea del Minga 
Andrea del Sarto (Andrea d' Agnolo) 
Andrea della Robbia 
Andrea di Cione Orcagna 
Andrea di Cosimo (Andrea di Cosimo Feltrini) 
Andrea Ferrucci (Andrea da Fiesole) 
Andrea Luigi (L' Ingegno) 
Andrea Mantegna 
Andrea Palladia 
Andrea Pisano 
Andrea Riccio 

Andrea Sansovino (Andrea Contucci) 
Andrea Schiavone 
Andrea Sguazzella 
Andrea Tafi 
Andrea Verrocchio 
Angeli, Don Lorenzo degli (Don Lorenzo 

Monaco) 
Angelico, Fra (Fra Giovanni da Fiesole), LIFE, 

III, 27-39; I, 162; II, 190, 271; III, 27-39, 

12 1 ; IV, 73, 154, 185; VI, 246 
Angelo, Battista d' (Battista d' Agnolo, or del 

Moro), LIFE, VI, 27-28; IV, 61; VI, 27-28, 

108; VII, 236; VIII, 41 
Angelo, Lorentino d', III, 22, 23 
Angelo Ciciliano 

Angelo di Lorentino (Agnolo di Lorenzo] 
Anguisciuola, Anna, VIII, 48 
Anguisciuola, Europa, VIII, 45, 48 
Anguisciuola, Lucia, VIII, 45, 47, 48 
Anguisciuola, Minerva, VIII, 45, 46 
Anguisciuola, Sofonisba, V, 127, 128; VIII, 

45-48, 261 

Anichini, Luigi, VI, 85 
Anna Anguisciuola 
Anna Seghers 
Annibale da Carpi 
Annibale di Nanni di Baccio Bigio 



Anselmi, Michelagnolo, VIII, 39, 44 

Anselmo Canneri 

Antignano, Segna d', II, 26 

Antoine Lafrery (Antonio Lanferri) 

Antonello da Messina 

Antonio (Antoniasso), IV, 6, 7 

Antonio, Fra, VIII, 32 

Antonio Alberto 

Antonio Bacchiacca 

Antonio Begarelli (II Modena) 

Antonio Campo 

Antonio d' Andrea Tafi 

Antonio da Carrara 

Antonio da Correggio 

Antonio da Ferrara 

Antonio da San Gallo (the elder) 

Antonio da San Gallo (the younger) 

Antonio da Trento (Antonio Fantuzzi) 

Antonio da Verzelli 

Antonio del Ceraiuolo 

Antonio del Rozzo (Antonio del Tozzo] 

Antonio di Donnino Mazzieri (Antonio di 

Domenico) 

Antonio di Gino Lorenzi 
Antonio di Giorgio Marchissi 
Antonio di Giovanni (Solosmeo da Settignano) 
Antonio di Marco di Giano (II Carota) 
Antonio di Salvi 

Antonio Fantuzzi (Antonio da Trento) 
Antonio Filarete 
Antonio Fiorentino 
Antonio Floriani 
Antonio 1' Abacco 

Antonio Lanferri (Antoine Lafrery) 
Antonio Mini 
Antonio Montecavallo 
Antonio Particini 
Antonio (or Vittore) Pisanello 
Antonio Pollaiuolo 

Antonio Rossellino (Rossellino dal Proconsolo) 
Antonio Salamanca 
Antonio Scarpagni (Scarpagnino or Zanfrag- 

nino) 

Antonio Viniziano 
Antonio Vite 
Antonius Moor 
Antwerp, Hugo of, IX, 265 
Antwerp, Willem van, IX, 269 
Apelles, I, xxviii, xxxix; II, 80, 120, 191; 

III, 36, 254, 286; IV, 82, 83, 105; V, 14; 

VIII, 28; IX, 133, 168; X, 47, 200 
Apollodorus, I, xxxix 

Apollonio, I, 47, 49 

Area, Niccolo dell' (Niccolo Bolognese), II, 97; 

IX, ii 

Ardices, I, xxxix 
Aretino, Geri, III, 263, 264 

Aretino, Leone (Leone Lioni), LIFE, IX, 
229-232; VI, 87; VIII, 56, 184; IX, 95, 229- 
233 



GENERAL INDEX 



235 



Aretino, Marchionne, I, 17, 18 

Aretino, Niccolo (Niccolo d' Arezzo, or Nic- 

colo di Piero Lamberti), LIFE, II, 101-104; 

I, 130; II, 101-104, 145, 146, 159, 200; IV, 

Aretino, Spinello, LIFE, II, 29-39; I, 67; II, 

25, 26, 29-39, 67, 83, 179 
Aretusi, Pellegrino degli (Pellegrino da Mo- 

dena, or de' Munari) 
Arezzo, Niccolo d' (Niccolo Aretino, Niccolo 

di Piero Lamberti) 
Aristides, I, xli 

Aristotile (Bastiano) da San Gallo 
Arnolfo di Lapo (Arnolfo Lapi) 
Arrigo (Heinrich Paludanus) 
Arthus van Noort 
Ascanio Condivi (Ascanio dalla Ripa Tran- 

sone) 

Asciano, Giovanni da, II, 5 
Aspertini, Amico, LIFE, V, 209-211; V, 125, 

207-211 

Attavante (or Vante), III, 36-39, 209, 214, 215 
Ausse (Hans Memling) 
Avanzi, Jacopo (Jacopo Davanzo), II, 104; 

IV, 51. 55 
Avanzi, Niccolo, VI, 79, 80 

Bacchiacca, Antonio, VIII, 20 

Bacchiacca, II (Francesco Ubertini, or d' 

Albertino) 

Baccio, Giovanni di (Nanni di Baccio Bigio) 
Baccio Baglioni (Baccio d' Agnolo) 
Baccio Baldini 

Baccio Bandinelli (Baccio de' Brandini) 
Baccio Cellini 

Baccio d' Agnolo (Baccio Baglioni) 
Baccio da Montelupo 
Baccio de' Brandini (Baccio Bandinelli} 
Baccio della Porta (Fra Bartolommeo di San 

Marco] 
Baccio Gotti 
Baccio Pintelli 
Baccio Ubertino 

Baglioni, Baccio (Baccio d' Agnolo) 
Baglioni, Raffaello, VIII, 116 
Bagnacavallo, Bartolommeo da (Bartolommeo 

Ramenghi), LIFE, V, 207-209; IV, 237; V, 

207-209; IX, 147 
Bagnacavallo, Giovan Battista da, V, 201; 

VII, 129; IX, 147, 148; X, 196 
Baldassarre da Siena (Baldassarre Peruzzi) 
Baldassarre Lancia 

Baldassarre Peruzzi (Baldassarre da Siena) 
Baldinelli, Baldino, III, 233 
Baldini, Baccio, VI, 91 
Baldini, Giovanni, VIII, 24, 25 
Baldino Baldinelli 
Baldovinetti, Alesso, LIFE, III, 67-70; I, 4, 

48; II, 190; III, 59, 67-70, 101, 225; IV, 

82; V, 88, 92; IX, 182 



Bambaja, II (Agostino Busto) 

Banco, Nanni d' Antonio di, LIFE, II, 113-115; 

II, 113-115, 253; III, 28 
Bandinelli, Baccio (Baccio de' Brandini), LIFE, 

VII, 55-103; II, 127, 190; IV, 204, 274; 

V, 5, 27, 36, 57, 96-98, 135; VI, 69-71, 103, 

105; VI, 69-71, 103, 105, in; VII, 4, 27, 

28, 42, 43, 55-i3> !54 l8 7>' VIII, II 3, I4 1 . 

142, 146, 152, 163, 191; IX, 20, 49, 126, 190; 

X, 23, 24, 31, 176, 210, 214 
Bandinelli, Clemente, VII, 77, 94, 95, 98 
Bandini, Giovanni di Benedetto (Giovanni 

dell' Opera), IX, 126, 130, 140, 141; X, 

3i> 32 

Barba, Jacopo della, VII, 71 
Barbara de' Longhi 
Barbiere, Alessandro del (Alessandro di 

Vincenzio Fei) 

Barbiere, Domenico del, V, 201 ; IX, 149 
Barile, Gian (Giovan), IV, 238; VI, 177 
Barile, Gian (of Florence), V, 86 
Barlacchi, Tommaso, VI, 104, 113 
Barocci, Federigo, VIII, 227 
Baronino, Bartolommeo, VIII, 220 
Barozzi, Jacopo (Vignuola), VI, 114 ; VIII, 220, 

230, 237-240, 259; IX, 102, 146, 147; X, 206 
Bartoli, Domenico, II, 63, 64 
Bartoli, Taddeo, LIFE, II, 61-64 
Bartolo di Maestro Fredi 
Bartolommeo, Fra (Fra Carnovale da Urbino), 

IV, 138 

Bartolommeo Ammanati 
Bartolommeo Baronino 
Bartolommeo Bologhini 
Bartolommeo Bozzato (Girolamo Bozza} 
Bartolommeo Clemente 
Bartolommeo Coda 
Bartolommeo da Bagnacavallo (Bartolommeo 

Ramenghi) 

Bartolommeo da Castiglione 
Bartolommeo della Gatta, Don (Abbot of 

S. Clemente) 

Bartolommeo di Jacopo di Martina 
Bartolommeo di San Marco (Baccio della 

Porta), Fra 
Bartolommeo Genga 
\ Bartolommeo Miniati 
I Bartolommeo Montagna 
\ Bartolommeo Neroni (Riccio) 
I Bartolommeo Passerotto 
\ Bartolommeo Ramenghi (Bartolommeo da 

Bagnacavallo} 
I Bartolommeo Ridolfi 
Bartolommeo San Michele 
Bartolommeo Suardi (Bramantino} 
Bartolommeo Torri 
Bartolommeo Vivarini 
Bartoluccio Ghiberti 
Basaiti, Marco (II Bassiti, or Marco Basarini), 

IV, 52, 58 



236 



GENERAL INDEX 



Bassano, Jacopo da, IX, 175, 176 
Bassiti, II (Marco Basaiti, or Basarini) 
Bastianello Florigorio (Sebastiano Florigerio) 
Bastiani, Lazzaro (Lazzaro Scarpaccia, or 

Sebastiano Scarpaccia), IV, 52, 57, 58 
Bastiano da Monte Carlo 
Bastiano (Aristotile) da San Gallo 
Bastiano Flori 
Bastiano Mainardi (Bastiano da San Gimi- 

gnano) 
Battista, Martino di (Pellegrino da San 

Daniele, or Martino da Udine) 
Battista Borro 
Battista Botticelli 
Battista Cungi 
Battista d'Angelo (Battista d'Agnolo, or del 

Moro) 

Battista da San Gallo (Battista Gobbo) 
Battista da Verona (Battista Farinato) 
Battista del Cavaliere (Battista Lorenzi) 
Battista del Cervelliera 
Battista del Cinque 
Battista del Moro (Battista d'Angelo, or 

d'Agnolo) 
Battista del Tasso 
Battista della Bilia 
Battista di Benedetto Fiammeri 
Battista Dossi 

Battista Farinato (Battista da Verona) 
Battista Franco (Battista Semolei) 
Battista Gobbo (Battista da San Gallo) 
Battista Lorenzi (Battista del Cavaliere) 
Battista Naldini 

Battista of Citta di Castello, VII, 118, 119 
Battista Pittoni (Battista of Vicenza) 
Battista Semolei (Battista Franco) 
Battistino, V, 193, 194 
Baviera, IV, 232, 233; V, 194; VI, 100, 101, 

109, 209 
Bazzi, Giovanni Antonio (II Sodoma), LIFE, 

VII, 245-257; IV, 72, 218 ; V, 73 ; VI, 236- 
238, 247, 249; VII, 245-257; VIII, 197 
Beatricio, Niccolo (Nicolas Beautrizet), VI, 

114 

Beccafumi, Domenico (Domenico di Pace), 
LIFE, VI, 235-251; II, 96; V, 74, 153, 163; 

VI, 108, 213, 215, 223, 235-251; VII, 252, 
255. 256 

Beceri, Domenico (Domenico Benci), IV, 283; 

VII, 141; X, 20 

Begarelli, Antonio (II Modena), VIII, 38; IX, 

IJ 3 

Beham, Hans, VI, 119 
Bellegambe, Jean, IX, 266 
Belli, Valerio de' (Valerio Vicentino) 
Bellini family, V, 262 
Bellini, Gentile, LIFE, III, 173-184; III, 173- 

184, 280; IV, 57, 59, 109 
Bellini, Giovanni, LIFE, III, 173-184; III, 173- 

184, 280, 286; IV, 57, 58, 82, 109; V, 145, 



146, 260, 264; VI, 173; VIII, 33; IX, 159, 

160, 162, 163 
Bellini, Jacopo, LIFE, III, 173-175; III, 173- 

175, 280; VI, n, 35 

Bellini, Vittore (Belliniano), IV, 52, 59, 60 
Bello, Raffaello, VIII, 114 
Bellucci, Giovan Battista (Giovan Battista 

San Marino), LIFE, VII, 210-213; VII, 207, 

210-213 

Bembi, Bonifazio, VIII, 42, 43 
Bembo, Giovan Francesco (Giovan Francesco 

Vetraio), V, 180 

Benci, Domenico (Domenico Beceri) 
Benedetto (pupil of Giovanni Antonio Sog- 

liani), V, 165 
Benedetto Buglioni 
Benedetto Buonfiglio 
Benedetto (Giovan Battista) Caporali 
Benedetto Cianfanini 
Benedetto Coda (Benedetto da Ferrara) 
Benedetto da Maiano 
Benedetto da Pescia (Benedetto Pagni) 
Benedetto da Rovezzano 
Benedetto Diana 
Benedetto Ghirlandajo 
Benedetto Pagni (Benedetto da Pescia) 
Benedetto Spadari 
Bening, Levina, IX, 269 
Bening, Simon, IX, 268 
Benozzo Gozzoli 
Benvenuto Cellini 

Benvemito Garofalo (Benvenuto Tisi) 
Bergamo, Fra Damiano da, VIII, 169, 237 
Berna, LIFE, II, 3-5 
Bernard of Brussels, IX, 266 
Bernardetto di Mona Papera 
Bernardi, Giovanni (Giovanni da Castel 

Bolognese), LIFE, VI, 76-79; IV, in; VI, 

76-79, 83, 84; IX, 164 
Bernardino Brugnuoli 
Bernardino da Trevio (Bernardino Zenale) 
Bernardino del Lupino (Bernardino Luini) 
Bernardino di Porfirio 
Bernardino India 
Bernardino Pinturicchio 
Bernardino Zenale (Bernardino da Trevio) 
Bernardo Timante Buontalenti 
Bernardo Ciuffagni 
Bernardo da Vercelli 
Bernardo Daddi 

Bernardo de' Gatti (Bernardo Soiaro) 
Bernardo del Buda (Bernardo Rosselli) 
Bernardo di Cione Orcagna 
Bernardo Nello di Giovanni Falconi 
Bernardo Rosselli (Bernardo del Buda) 
Bernardo Rossellino 
Bernardo Soiaro (Bernardo de' Gatti) 
Bernardo Vasari 
Bernazzano, Cesare, V, 141 
Bersuglia, Gian Domenico, VII, 193 



GENERAL INDEX 



237 



Bertano, Giovan Battista, VIII, 40, 41 

Berto Linaiuolo 

Bertoldo, II, 249, 253, 254; IV, 185; VII, 107; 

IX, 8 

Berughetta, Alonzo (Alonzo Spagnuolo) 

Betti, Biagio (Biagio da Carigliano), VIII, 210 

Bezaleel, I, xxxviii 

Biagio, Raffaello di, V, 231, 232 

Biagio (pupil of Botticelli), III, 251, 252 

Biagio Betti (Biagio da Carigliano) 

Biagio Bolognese (Biagio Pupini) 

Biagio da Carigliano (Biagio Betti) 

Biagio di Bindo Albertinelli 

Biagio Pupini (Biagio Bolognese) 

Bianco, Simon, IV, 60 

Bicci, Lorenzo di, LIFE, II, 67-73; III, 20, 213; 

V, 5; VII, 61 
Bicci di Lorenzo 

Bigio, Annibale di Nanni di Baccio, VIII, 188 
Bigio, Nanni di Baccio (Giovanni di Baccio), 

VII, 81; IX, 69, 76, 100, 101, 113, 239 
Bilia, Battista deUa, VII, 118 
Bizzerra, VII, 129; VIII, 204; X, 196 
Blondeel, Lancelot, IX, 267 

Boccaccino, Boccaccio, LIFE, V, 58-60; VIII, 

23, 24, 42-44 

Boccaccino, Camillo, V, 59, 60; VIII, 43 
Boccalino, Giovanni (Giovanni Ribaldi), V, 

29 

Boccardino (the elder), III, 215 
Bol, Hans, IX, 268 
Bologhini, Bartolommeo, I, 120 
Bologna, Galante da, II, 51 
Bologna, Giovan, VII, 100, 101; IX, 267, 269; 

X, 25, 26 

Bologna, Orazio da (Orazio Sammacchini) 
Bologna, Pellegrino da (Pellegrino Pellegrini, 

or Tibaldi) 

Bologna, Ruggieri da, IX, 147 
Bologna, Vecchio of (Domenico Aimo) 
Bolognese, Biaerio (Biaerio Pupini), V, 208, 211; 

VIII, 32, 33? X, 184 
Bolognese, Franco, I, 79 
Bolognese, Guido, III, 170 

Bolognese, Marc' Antonio (Marc' Antonio 
Raimondi, or de' Franci), LIFE, VI, 95-96, 
99-106; IV, 232, 233; VI, 95-96, 99-106, 108, 
109, 120; VII, 65; VIII, 42 

Bolognese, Niccolo (Niccolo dell' Area) 

Bol traffic, Giovanni Antonio, IV, 105 

Bonaccorso Ghiberti 

Bonano, I, 15, 16 

Bonasone, Giulio, VI, 114 

Bonifazio (of Venice), IX, 214 

Bonifazio Bembi 

Bonsignori (Monsignori), Alberto, VI, 29 

Bonsignori (Monsignori), Fra Cherubino, VI, 

34 
Bonsignori (Monsignori), Fra Girolamo, LIFE, 

VI, 34-35; VIII, 42 



Bonsignori (Monsignori), Francesco, LIFE, VI, 

29-35; HI, 63; IV, 60; VI, 29-35 
Bonvicini, Alessandro (Alessandro Moretto) 
Bordone, Paris, IX, 178-182 
Borghese (of Antwerp), IX, 269 
Borghese, Piero (Piero della Francesca, or 

Piero dal Borgo a San Sepolcro) 
Borgo, Giovan Paolo dal, X, 196 
Borgo, Raffaello dal (Raffaello dal Colle) 
Borgo a San Sepolcro, Giovan Maria dal, VI, 

256 
Borgo a San Sepolcro, Piero dal (Piero della 

Francesca, or Borghese) 
Borro, Battista, IV, 262; VIII, 178 
Bosch, Hieronymus, VI, 118; IX, 267 
Bosco, Maso dal (Maso Boscoli) 
Boscoli, Giovanni, IX, 156 
Boscoli, Maso (Maso dal Bosco), V, 6; IX, 55 
Botticelli, Battista, VIII, 169 
Botticelli, Sandro (Sandro di Botticello, or 

Alessandro Filipepi), LIFE, III, 247-254; 

II, 190; III, 86, 87, 188, 222, 247-254; 

IV, 3, 4, 82; VI, 91 
Botticello, III, 247 
Boyvin, Ren6 (Renato), VI, 115 
Bozza, Girolamo (Bartolommeo Bozzato), IX, 

183 

Bozzacco (Brazzacco), VIII, 107 
Bozzato, Bartolommeo (Girolamo Bozza) 
Bramante da Milano 
Bramante da Urbino 
Bramantino (Bartolommeo Suardi), III, 18, 

19; IV, 217; VIII, 52, 53; IX, 190 
Brambilari (Brambilla), Francesco, VIII, 55 
Brandini, Baccio de' (Baccio Bandinelli) 
Brazzacco (Bozzacco) 
Brescia, Raffaello da (Raffaello Brescianino, 

or de' Piccinelli) 
Brescianino, Girolamo (Girolamo Mosciano, or 

Muziano), VI, 114; VIII, 50, 224 
Brescianino, Raffaello (Raffaello da Brescia, 

or de' Piccinelli), VIII, 164 
Bresciano, Gian Girolamo (Gian Girolamo 

Savoldo), VIII, 50 
Bresciano, Jacopo (Jacopo de' Medici), IX, 

206, 207, 223 
Bresciano, Vincenzio (Vincenzio di Zoppa, or 

Foppa), II, 271; III, 5; IV, 51, 52, 56 
Breuck, Jakob, IX, 269 
Brini, Francesco, III, 214 
Bronzi, Simone de' (Simone da Colle) 
Bronzino, Agnolo, LIFE, X, 3-12; IV, 179; V, 

127, 163; VI, 118, 256; VII, 29, 31, 113, 

149, 158, 160, 163, 167, 168, 171, 172, 175, 

176, 178, 182, 201; VIII, n, 12, 94, 153, 

156, 179; IX, 118, 125, 128, 133, 137, 252; 

X, 3-14, 219 

Bronzino, Alessandro del (Alessandro Allori) 
Brueghel, Pieter, IX, 267, 268 
Bruges, Johann of (Jan van Eyck) 



238 



GENERAL INDEX 



Bruges, Roger of (Roger van der Weyden) 
Brugnuoli, Bernardino, VII, 226, 227, 233, 

2 34 

Brugnuoli, Luigi, VII, 229, 233 

Brunelleschi, Filippo (Filippo di Ser Brunel- 
lesco), LIFE, II, 195-236; I, Hi, 22, 23, 26, 
48, 130; II, 84-86, 93, 95, 124, 139, 143-147, 
150, 159, 161, 183, 185, 188, 190, 195-236, 
240-243, 259, 260; III, 3, 12, 130, 196, 257, 
271; IV, 137, 185, 266; VI, 68, 71; VII, 87, 
88, 167, 226; VIII, 48; IX, 43, 44, 133; X, 
47, 204 

Bruno di Giovanni 

Brusciasorzi, Domenico (Domenico del Riccio), 

VI, 82; VII, 236, 237; VIII, 40, 41 
Brusciasorzi, Felice (Felice del Riccio), VII, 

237 

Brussels, Bernard of 
Buda, Bernardo del (Bernardo Rosselli), V, 

116 

Buda, Girolamo del, VII, 56 
Buffalmacco, Buonamico, LIFE, I, 135-151; 

I, 50, 51, 135-151, 170, 190, 191, 211 : II, 68; 

X, 47 

Buggiano, II, II, 235 

Bugiardini, Giuliano, LIFE, VII, 107-113; II, 
138; IV, 154, 161, 170, 186; VI, 183; VII, 
107-113; VIII, 121-123, 162; IX, 29, 30, 95 

Buglioni, Benedetto, III, 276; IV, 155 

Buglioni, Santi, III, 276; VII, 29; IX, 132 

Buonaccorsi, Perino (Perino del Vaga, or de' 
Ceri) 

Buonaiuti, Corsino, II, 26 

Buonarroti, Michelagnolo, LIFE, IX, 3-141 ; 
I, xxvi, xxxiv, 87; II, 159, 162, 187, 190, 191, 
221, 255, 261; III, 86, no, 140, 233; IV, 41, 
43, 48, 65, 66, 74, 84, 85, 101, 104, 145, 157, 

l86, 187, 199, 2OI, 204, 209, 212, 215, 223, 

224, 242-245, 259, 270; V, 5, 6, 23, 43-45, 
58, 86, in, 117, 128, 135, 165, 190, 194, 
228, 245, 247, 261 ; VI, 57, 59, 60, 66, 68, 78, 
79, 85, 92, 107, in, 113, 114, 129, 135, 
*36, 139, 140, 167, 174-177, 183, 185, 191, 
J 93 I 95, 205, 218, 219, 222, 225, 236, 263; 

VII, 10, n, 14, 16, 28, 32, 44, 46, 48, 49, 
57, 58, 61, 66-68, 71, 72, 75, 77, 81, 98, 99, 
107, 108, 110-113, 151, 172, 173, 179, 194, 
235; VIII, 3-5, 16, 25, 61, 73, 79, 82, 89, 91, 
92, 95, 96, 116, 128, 134, 136-138, 141, 146, 
156, 162, 163, 170, 185, 188, 201-204, 206- 
209, 235, 259; IX, 3-141, 145, 153, 162, 170, 
171, 187, 193-195, 215, 216, 224, 231, 235, 
236, 239, 246, 250, 251, 259; X, 12-17, 19, 
24, 26, 31, 32, 46, 47, 172, 174, 175, 186-190, 

194, 2O6, 215, 22O, 222 

Buonconsigli, Giovanni, IV, 52, 60 
Buonfiglio, Benedetto, IV, 17, 1 8 
Buono, I, 14, 15 

Buontalenti, Bernardo Timante, IX, 135-137; 
X, 16-18 



Buschetto, I, liv, Ivi; II, 80 

Busto, Agostino (II Bambaja), IV, 60; V, 42, 

43; VIII, 54, 55 

Butteri, Giovan Maria, IX, 131; X, 13 
1 

1 Caccianimici, Francesco, V, 201 
j Caccianimici, Vincenzio, V, 255, 256 
Cadore, Tiziano da (Tiziano Vecelli] 
; Calamech, Andrea, IX, 129; X, 23 
j Calamech, Lazzaro, IX, 129 
I Calamis, II, 80 
Calandrino, I, 135 
Calavrese, Giovan Piero, VIII, 216 
Calavrese, Marco (Marco Cardisco), LIFE, V, 

2 37-239; VIII, 91 

Calcagni, Tiberio, VIII, 233; IX, 83, 84, 98-100 
Calcar, Johann of (Jan Stephanus van Calcker, 

or Giovanni Fiammingo), VI, 116; IX, 178, 

266 

Caldara, Polidoro (Polidoro da Caravaggio} 
Caliari, Paolo (Paolo Veronese), VI, 22, 27; 

VII, 236-240; VIII, 41, 42, 102-104, 106, 

107; X, 20 
Calibrates, III, 55 
Calzolaio, Sandrino del, V, 161, 165 
Camicia, Chimenti, LIFE, III, 92-93 
Camilliani, Francesco, X, 24, 25 
Camillo Boccaccino 
Camillo Mantovano 
Cammei, Domenico de', VI, 76 
Campagnola, Girolamo, II, 138; III, 279; IV, 

5i, 55, 56 

Campagnola, Giulio, IV, 51, 56, 57 
Campi, Fra Ristoro da, I, 59 
Campo, Antonio, VIII, 44, 45 
Campo, Galeazzo, VIII, 44 
Campo, Giulio, VIII, 41, 44, 45, 48, 49 
Campo, Vincenzio, VIII, 44, 45 
Canachus, II, 80 
Canned, Anselmo, VI, 22 
Capanna (of Siena), III, 208; V, 74 
Capanna, Puccio, I, 85, 89-91 
Caparra, II (Niccolo Grosso) 
Capocaccia, Mario, IX, 233 
Caporali, Benedetto (Giovan Battista), IV, 48, 

75, 76 

Caporali, Giulio, IV, 48 
Caradosso, IV, 23, 144 
Caraglio, Giovanni Jacopo, LIFE, VI, 109, 

no; V, 194; VI, 109, no, 209 
Caravaggio, Polidoro da (Polidoro Caldara), 

LIFE, V, 175-185; IV, 83, 237; V, 175-185; 

VI, 177, 196; VIII, 17, 218, 219; IX, 170; 

X, 174 

Cardisco, Marco (Marco Calavrese) 
Carigliano, Biagio da (Biagio Betti) 
Carlo Portelli (Carlo da Loro) 
Carnovale da Urbino, Fra (Fra Bartolommeo) 
Carota, II (Antonio di Marco di Giano), I, 125; 

VI, 213; VII, 152; IX, 51 



GENERAL INDEX 



239 



Caroto, Giovan Francesco, LIFE, VI, 15-21; 

IV, 60; VI, 15-21, 37 

Caroto, Giovanni, LIFE, VI, 21-22; VI, 15, 21- 

22; VII, 238 
Carpaccio (Scarpaccia), Vittore, LIFE, IV, 51- 

61; IX, 210, 211 
Carpi, Annibale da VIII, 36 
Carpi, Girolamo da (Girolamo da Ferrara), 

LIFE, VIII, 30-36; V, 154; VIII, 28-36 
Carpi, Giulio da, VIII, 36 
Carpi, Ugo da, IV, 233; VI, 106, 107 
Carrara, Antonio da, V, 8 
Carrara, Danese da (Danese Cattaneo} 
Carrucci, Jacopo (Jacopo da Pontormo) 
Carso, Giovanni dal, VIII, 227 
Cartoni, Niccold (Niccolo Zoccolo), IV, 9, 

10 

Caselli (Castelli), Cristofano 
Casentino, Jacopo di, LIFE, II, 23-26; I, 183, 

185; II, 23-26, 29, 33, 83; VIII, 153 
Casignuola, Jacopo, IX, 238 
Casignuola, Tommaso, IX, 238 
Castagno, Andrea dal (Andrea degli Impic- 

cati), LIFE, III, 97-105; II, 190; III, 97- 

105, 109, 117, 173, 237, 239, 283; IV, 82; 

V, 116; VI, 182 

Castel Bolognese, Giovanni da (Giovanni 

Bernardi) 
Castel della Pieve, Pietro da (Pietro Perugino, 

or Vannucci) 
Castelfranco, Giorgione da, LIFE, IV, 109-114; 

I, xxxii; III, 184; IV, 82, 109-114, 125; 

V, 149, 228, 262; VI, 23, 173, !7 4 ; VIII, 

29, 73, 74; IX , 159-162, 165, 179 
Castellani, Leonardo, V, 238 
Castelli (Caselli), Cristofano, VIII, 39 
Castiglione, Bartolommeo da, VI, 152 
Castrocaro, Gian Jacopo da, V, 50 
Catanei, Piero, VI, 250 
Catena, Vincenzio, IV, 52, 58 
Catharina van Hemessen 
Cattaneo, Danese (Danese da Carrara), V, 

135; VI, 26-28, 54; VII, 228; IX, 176, 204, 

208-210, 214, 223; X, 20 

Cavaliere, Battista del (Battista Lorenzi) 
Cavalieri, Giovan Battista de', VI, 113 
Cavalieri, Tiberio, VII, 50 
Cavallini, Pietro, LIFE, I, 161-164; I, 92, 161- 

164 

Cavalori, Mirabello (Mirabello di Salincorno] 
Cavazzuola, Paolo (Paolo Morando), LIFE, 
N VI, 39-42; VI, 15, 24, 25, 29, 39-42, 50 
Cecca, LIFE, III, 193-200; III, 69, 193-200 
Cecca, Girolamo della, III, 263 
Cecchino del Frate 
Cellini, Baccio, III, 92, 263 
Cellini, Benvenuto, V, 135; VI, 86, 87; VII, 

93, 94, 96, 97, 99, 100; VIII, 128; IX, 51, 

118, 125; X, 21, 22 
Cenni, Pasquino, II, 26 



I Cennini, Cennino di Drea, I, 177, 221, 222; II 

109 

; Ceraiuolo, Antonio del, IV, 280; VIII, 65, 66 
i Ceri, Andrea de', VI, 190-192, 201 
| Ceri, Perino de' (Perino del Vaga, or Buonac- 

corsi) 
i Cervelliera, Battista del, III, 12; VI, 214, 247, 

248; VII, 256 
| Cesare Bernazzano 
Cesare Cesariano 
Cesare da Sesto (Cesare da Milano) 
Cesare del Nebbia 
Cesariano, Cesare, IV, 138; IX, 190 
Cesati, Alessandro (II Greco), LIFE, VI, 85 
Cherubino Bonsignori (Monsignori) , Fra 
Chimenti Camicia 
Christus, Pieter, IX, 265 
Cianfanini, Benedetto, IV, 162 
Ciappino, IX, 51 
Cicilia, II, V, 8 
Ciciliano, Angelo, VIII, 55 
Ciciliano, Jacopo, IX, 98 
Cicogna, Girolamo, VI, 22 
Cieco, Niccolo, III, 233 
Cimabue, Giovanni, LIFE, I, 3-10; I, xxiv, 

xxxv, lix, 3-10, 20, 21, 29, 47, 50, 55, 56, 

58, 63, 72, 74, 89, 94, 113, 117, 145, 174; 

II, 25, 82, 161, 202; III, 59; IV, 77; V, 177; 

IX, 133; X, 3, 47, 196 
Cini, Simone, II, 36 
Cinque, Battista del, VII, 12; IX, 51 
Cinuzzi, Vanni, II, 26 
Cioli, Simone, V, 30; VI, 133; VII, 9, 10, 189; 

VIII, 36 

Cioli, Valerio, VIII, 35 ; IX, 129, 140, 141 ; X, 32 
Cione, I, 103, 104 
Ciuffagni, Bernardo, III, 7 
Clara Skeysers 
Claudio (of Paris), V, 201 
Claudio, Maestro, IV, 254, 255 
Clean thes, I, xxxix 
Cleef, Joost van, IX, 266 
| Clemente, Bartolommeo, IV, 60 
Clemente, Prospero, VIII, 38, 39 
Clemente Bandinelli 
Cleophantes, I, xxxix 
Clovio, Don Giulio, LIFE, IX, 245-253; VI, 51, 

54, in, 264; IX, 245-253; X, 16 
Cock, Hieronymus, LIFE, VI, 116-120; VI, 

108, 116-120; IX, 266 
Cock, Matthys, IX, 266 
Coda, Bartolommeo, III, 184 
Coda, Benedetto (Benedetto da Ferrara), III, 

184; V, 211, 212 

Cola dalla Matrice (Niccola Filotesio) 
Colle, Raffaello dal (Raffaello dal Borgo), V, 

140, 195, 196; VI, 152, 169; VII, 117, 118, 

120, 128, 129, 201; X, 7 
Colle, Simone da (Simone de' Bronzi), II, 145, 

146, 200 



240 



GENERAL INDEX 



Collettaio, Ottaviano del, X, 33 

Colonna, Jacopo, IX, 202, 203, 223 

Como, Guido da, I, 48 

Condivi, Ascanio (Ascanio dalla Ripa Tran- 
sone), IX, 5, 107 

Conigliano, Giovan Battista da, IV, 52, 58 

Consiglio Gherardi 

Conte, Jacopo del, V, 119; VIII, 95, 169, 181; 
IX, 95, 152, 258, 260, 261 

Conti, Domenico, V, 115, 119; VII, 29; VIII, 
ii 

Contucci, Andrea (Andrea Sansovino), LIFE, 
V, 21-31; III, 243; IV, 5, 144, 186, 223, 
270; V, 21-31, 43, 88; VI, 66, 133; VII, 5, 
9, 61, 62, 187, 189; VIII, 36, 114; IX, 15, 40, 

41, 187, 202, 216 

Cordegliaghi, Giovanetto, IV, 52, 58, 59 

Coriolano, Cristofano, VI, 120 

Cornells, Jan, IX, 266 

Cornells Floris 

Corniole, Giovanni delle, VI, 76, 84 

Condole, Nanni di Prospero delle, VIII, 162 

Correggio, Antonio da, LIFE, IV, 117-122; 

IV, 83, 117-122, 125; VIII, 30, 31, 34, 37, 
217; X, 187 

Corsino Buonaiuti 
Corso, Jacopo del, III, 105 
Cortona, Luca da (Luca Signorelli) 
Cosimo, Andrea di (Andrea di Cosimo Fel- 
trini), LIFE, V, 229-233; III, 189; IV, 129; 

V, 221, 228-233; VII, 13, 149-152 
Cosimo, Piero di, LIFE, IV, 125-134; III, 189; 

IV, 125-134; V, 86; VII, 148 
Cosimo (Jacopo) da Trezzo 
Cosimo Rosselli 
Cosini, Silvio (Silvio da Fiesole), V, 6-8; VI, 

210; VIII, 55 
Cosine, II, 104; III, 136 
Costa, Ippolito, VIII, 41 
Costa, Lorenzo, LIFE, III, 161-164; HI, l6l ~ 

164, 167; VIII, 23, 25 
Costa, Lorenzo (the younger), VIII, 228 
Cotignola, Francesco da (Francesco de' Zaga- 

nelli), LIFE, V, 265-266 
Cotignola, Girolamo da (Girolamo Marchesi), 

LIFE, V, 211-212; V, 207, 211-212 
Cousin, Jean (Giovanni Cugini) 
Coxie, Michael (Michele), VI, 116, 178; IX, 

266-268 . 

Cozzerello, Jacopo, III, 130 
Crabeth, Wouter, IX, 269 
Credi, Lorenzo di, LIFE, V, 49-52; II, 190; 

III, 274; IV, 153, 186, 280; V, 49-52, 159; 

VIII, 42, 65, 66; IX, 190 
Credi, Maestro, V, 49 
Cremona, Geremia da, II, 236; VIII, 48 
Crescione, Giovan Filippo, V, 238 
Cristofano, II, 104; IV, 55 
Cristofano, Agnolo di, V, 223 ; VII, 70 
Cristofano Castelli (Caselli) 



Cristofano Coriolano 

Cristofano dell' Altissimo 

Cristofano Gherardi (Doceno) 

Cristofano Gobbo (Cristofano Solar i) 

Cristofano Lombard! (Tofano Lombardino] 

Cristofano Rosa 

Cristofano Solari (Cristofano Gobbo) 

Crocifissaio, Girolamo del (Girolamo Mac- 

chietti) 
Cronaca, II (Simone del Pollaiuolo), LIFE, IV, 

265-275; HI, 260; IV, 101, 265-275; V, 22; 

VI, 66, 70 

Cugini, Giovanni (Jean Cousin), VI, 114 
Cungi, Battista, VII, 121, 122, 124, 125; X, 

181, 187 

Cungi, Leonardo, VI, 225; VIII, 227 
Cuticello (Giovanni Antonio Licinio, or Por- 

denone) 

Daddi, Bernardo, II, 25, 26 

Dalen, Jan van, IX, 269 

Dalmasi, Lippo, II, 51 

Danese Cattaneo (Danese da Carrara) 

Danielle da Parma (Danielle Pom) 

Daniello da Volterra (Danielle Ricciarelli) 

Daniello Porri (Daniello da Parma) 

Daniello Ricciarelli (Daniello da Volterra) 

Dante, Girolamo (Girolamo di Tiziano), IX, 183 

Danti, Fra Ignazio, X, 28-30 

Danti, Vincenzio, I, 36; VII, 100; IX, 128, 

139; X, 26-28 
Dario da Treviso 

Davanzo, Jacopo (Jacopo Avanzi) 
Davanzo, Jacopo (of Milan), IV, 60 
David Fortini 
David Ghirlandajo 
David Pistoiese 
Delft, Simon van, IX, 269 
Delia Robbia family, V, 22 
Dello, LIFE, II, 107-110; II, 107-110, 136 
Dente, Marco (Marco da Ravenna), LIFE, VI, 

102-103; IV, 233; VI, 102-103, IQ 6; VII, 

63 

Desiderio da Settignano 
Diacceto, VIII, 161 
Diamante, Fra, III, 83, 85-87; IV, 3 
Diana, Benedetto, IV, 52, 60 
Diana Mantovana (Sculptore) 
Dierick Jacobsz Vellaert 
Dinant, Hendrik of, IX, 266 
Dirk of Haarlem 
Dirk of Louvain 
Dirk van Staren 
Dirk Volkaerts 

Doceno (Cristofano Gherardi) 
Domenico, Antonio di (Antonio di Donnmo 

Mazzieri) 

Domenico Aimo (Vecchio of Bologna) 
Domenico Bartoli 
Domenico Beccafumi (Domenico di Pace) 



GENERAL INDEX 



241 



Domenico Beceri (Domenico Benci) 

Domenico Brusciasorzi (Domenico del Riccio) 

Domenico Conti 

Domenico da Venezia (Domenico Viniziano) 

Domenico dal Lago di Lugano 

Domenico dal Monte Sansovino 

Domenico de' Cammei 

Domenico del Barbiere 

Domenico del Riccio (Domenico Brusciasorzi) 

Domenico del lasso 

Domenico di Baccio d'Agnolo 

Domenico di Mariotto 

Domenico di Michelino 

Domenico di Pace (Domenico Beccafumi) 

Domenico di Paris 

Domenico di Polo 

Domenico Ghirlandajo 

Domenico Giuntalodi 

Domenico Morone 

Domenico Panetti 

Domenico Pecori 

Domenico Poggini 

Domenico Pucci 

Domenico Puligo 

Domenico Romano 

Domenico Viniziano (Domenico da Venezia) 

Domenicus Lampsonius 

Don Bartolommeo della Gotta (Abbot of S. 

Clemente) 
Don Giulio Clovio 
Don Jacopo 
Don Lorenzo Monaco (Don Lorenzo degli 

Angeli) 
Don Silvestro 
Donato (Donatello), LIFE, II, 239-255; I, 48, 

130, 178; II, 72, 86, 93, 95, 101, 109, 113-115, 

120, 121, 123, 126, 132, 133, 138-140, 143- 

147, 151, 161, 183, 185, 188, 197, 199-204, 
213, 225, 239-255, 259, 260, 270; III, 3, 6, 
73, 74, 117, 131, 144, 147, 148, 269, 270, 
273; IV, 52, 152, 185; V, 23; VI, 220; 

VII, 30, 56, 57, 62; VIII, 113; IX, 8, 10, 
in, 133, 138, 169; X, 22, 47 

Doni, Adone, VII, 128; IX, 261 

Donnino, Agnolo di, III, 189, 190; V, 38; IX, 

29, 3 

Donzello, Piero del, III, 13 
Donzello, Polito del, III, 13, 14 
Dossi, Battista, LIFE, V, 139-141; VII, 201; 

VIII, 25, 26 

Dossi, Dosso, LIFE, V, 139-141; III, 164; V, 
139-141; VII, 201; VIII, 25, 26, 33, 56; 

IX, 163 

Duca Tagliapietra, III, 169 

Duccio, LIFE, II, 9-11; III, 6; VI, 245 

Durante del Nero 

Diirer, Albrecht, LIFE, VI, 92-98; III, 214; 

IV, 232; V, 96; VI, 92-99, 102, 119, 165; 

VII, 163, 164, 166; IX, 163, 246, 265, 

271 

X. 



Eliodoro Forbicini 
Enea Vico 

Ercole Ferrarese (Ercole da Ferrara) 
Erion, II, 80 
Europa Anguisciuola 
Eusebio San Giorgio 
Eyck, Hubert van, IX, 265 
Eyck, Jan van (Johann of Bruges), III, 60-62, 
64; IX, 265, 266 

Fabbro, Pippo del, VII, 5; IX, 192 

Fabiano di Stagio Sassoli 

Fabius, I, xl 

Fabriano, Gentile da, LIFE, III, 109-113; II, 

187; III, 35, 109-113, 173 
Fabrizio Viniziano 
Facchino, Giuliano del, III, 239 
Faenza, Figurino da, VI, 169 
Faenza, Jacopone da, VIII, 217; IX, 154 
Faenza, Marco da (Marco Marchetti) 
Faenza, Ottaviano da, I, 91 
Faenza, Pace da, I, 91 
Fagiuoli, Girolamo, V, 250; VI, 87, 276; VIII, 

171 

Falconetto, Alessandro, VI, 47, 48 
Falconetto, Giovan Maria, LIFE, VI, 43-48; 

VI, 22, 29, 42-48 
Falconetto, Giovanni Antonio (the elder), VI, 

42 
Falconetto, Giovanni Antonio (the younger), 

VI, 42, 43 

Falconetto, Jacopo, VI, 42, 43 
Falconetto, Ottaviano, VI, 47, 48 
Falconetto, Provolo, VI, 47, 48 
Falconi, Bernardo Nello di Giovanni, I, 197 
Fallaro, Jacopo, IX, 214 
Fancelli, Giovanni (Giovanni di Stocco), VII, 

97.' x > 33 

Fancelli, Luca, II, 227; III, 47 
Fancelli, Salvestro, III, 47 
Fano, Pompeo da, VIII, 215 
Fantuzzi, Antonio (Antonio da Trentd] 
Farinato, Battista (Battista da Verona), VII, 

237, 238; VIII, 107; IX, 214; X, 20 
Farinato, Paolo, VII, 236, 240, 241 ; VIII, 41 
Fattore, II (Giovan Francesco Penni] 
Federigo Barocci 
Federigo di Lamberto (Federigo Fiammingo, 

or Del Padovano) 
Federigo Zucchero 
Fei, Alessandro di Vincenzio (Alessandro del 

Barbiere), X, 20 

Felice Brusciasorzi (Felice del Riccio) 
Feliciano da San Vito 

Feltrini, Andrea di Cosimo (Andrea di Cosimo) 
Feltro, Morto da, LIFE, V, 227-229; V, 227-230 
Fermo Ghisoni 
Ferrara, Antonio da, I, 221 
Ferrara, Benedetto da (Benedetto Coda] 
Ferrara, Ercole da (Ercole Ferrarese} 

31 



242, 



GENERAL INDEX 



Ferrara, Girolamo da (Girolamo da Carpi) 
Ferrara, Stefano da, III, 285, 286; IV, 56 
Ferrarese, Ercole (Ercole da Ferrara), LIFE, 

III, 167-170; III, 164, 167-170; IV, 82 
Ferrarese, Galaseo (Galasso Galassi) 
Ferrarese, Girolamo (Girolamo Lombardo) 
Ferrari, Gaudenzio, V, 81 ; VIII, 56 
Ferrucci, Andrea (Andrea da Fiesole) 
Ferrucci, Francesco (Francesco del Tadda) 
Ferrucci, Francesco di Simone, III, 273 ; V, 3 
Fiacco (or Flacco), Orlando, LIFE, VI, 28 
Fiammeri, Battista di Benedetto, IX, 126; 

X, 23 
Fiammingo, Federigo (Federigo di Lamberto, 

or Del Padovano) 
Fiammingo, Giorgio, IX, 269 
Fiammingo, Giovanni (Johann of Calcar, or 

Jan Stephanus van Calcker) 
Fiesole, Andrea da (Andrea Ferrucci), LIFE, 

V, 3-8; V, 3-8, n; VII, 4; VIII, 133 
Fiesole, Fra Giovanni da (Fra Angelica) 
Fiesole, Maestro Giovanni da, VI, 210 
Fiesole, Mino da (Mino di Giovanni,) LIFE, 

III, ^.5^57 

Fiesole, Silvio da (Silvio Cosini) 
Fiesole, Simone da, IX, 15, 16 
Figurino da Faenza 
Filarete, Antonio, LIFE, III, 3-7; II, 159, 270; 

III, 3-7, 47, 92; IV, 56; VIII, 48 
Filipepi, Alessandro (Sandro Botticelli, or di 

Botticello) 

Filippino (Filippo Lippi) 
Filippo Brunelleschi (Filippo di Ser Brunel- 

lesco) 

Filippo di Baccio d'Agnolo 
Filippo di Ser Brunellesco (Filippo Brunel- 
leschi 

Filippo Lippi (Filippino) 
Filippo Lippi, Fra 
Filippo Negrolo 

Filotesio, Niccola (Cola dalla Matrice) 
Finiguerra, Maso, III, 238; VI, 91 
Fiorentino, Antonio, II, 236 
Fiorentino, Francesco, II, 58 
Fiorentino, Niccolo, II, 236 
Fiorini, Giovan Battista, VIII, 229 
Fivizzano, IV, 29 
Flacco (or Fiacco}, Orlando 
Flore, Jacobello de, IV, 51, 55 
Flori, Bastiano, X, 187, 196 
Floriani, Antonio, V, 148, 149 
Floriani, Francesco, V, 148, 149 
Florigorio, Bastianello (Sebastiano Florigerio), 

V, 148 

Floris, Cornelis, IX, 269 
Floris, Franz (Franz de Vrient), VI, 119, 120; 

IX, 267-270 

Foccora, Giovanni, III, 7 
Fontana, Prospero, V, 213; VIII, 220; IX, 
147, 148, 150-152; X, 20 



Fonte, Jacopo della (Jacopo della Quercia) 

Foppa, Vincenzio (Vincenzio di Zoppa, or 
Vincenzio Bresciano) 

Forbicini, Eliodoro, VII, 237 

Forli, Francesco da (Francesco Menzochi) 

Forli, Guglielmo da, I, 92 

Forli, Livio da (Livio Agresti), VIII, 188, 229; 
IX, 155 

Forli, Melozzo da, III, 124 

Fortini, David, VII, 37 

Fortori, Alessandro, X, 20 

Forzore di Spinello 

Foschi, Fra Salvadore, X, 196 

Fra Angelica (Fra Giovanni da Fiesole) 

Fra Antonio 

Fra Bartolommeo (Fra Carnovale da Urbino) 

Fra Bartolommeo di San Marco (Baccio della 
Porta) 

Fra Carnovale da Urbino (Fra Bartolommeo) 

Fra Cherubino Bonsignori (Monsignori) 

Fra Damiano da Bergamo 

Fra Diamante 

Fra Filippo Lippi 

Fra Giocondo 

Fra Giovanni 

Fra Giovanni Agnolo Monlorsoli 

Fra Giovanni da Fiesole (Fra A ngelicc) 

Fra Giovanni da Verona 

Fra Giovanni Vincenzio 

Fra Girolamo Bonsignori (Monsignori) 

Fra Guglielmo della Porta (Guglielmo Milan- 
ese) 

Fra Ignazio Danti 

Fra Jacopo da Turrita 

Fra Paolo Pistoiese 

Fra Ristoro da Campi 

Fra Salvadore Foschi 

Fra Sebastiano Viniziano del Piombo (Sebas- 
tiano Luciani) 

Francesca, Piero della (Piero Borghese, or 
Piero dal Borgo a San Sepolcro), LIFE, III, 
17-23; III, 17-23, 51, 52, 101, 135; IV, 71, 
82, 216; VIII, 52 

Francesco, Maestro, IV, 142 

Francesco, Mariotto di, V, 231-233 

Francesco (called di Maestro Giotto), I, 91 

Francesco Bonsignori (Monsignori) 

Francesco Brambilari (Brambilla) 

Francesco Brini 

Francesco Caccianimici 

Francesco Camilliani 

Francesco da Cotignola (Francesco de' Zaga- 
nelli) 

Francesco da Forli (Francesco Menzochi) 

Francesco da Melzo 

Francesco da Poppi (Francesco Morandini) 

Francesco da San Gallo 

Francesco da Siena 

Francesco da Volterra 

Francesco dai Libri (the elder) 



GENERAL INDEX 



243 



Francesco dai Libri (the younger) 

Francesco d' Albertino (Francesco Ubertini, or 

II Bacchiacca) 

Francesco de' Rossi (Francesco Salviati] 
Francesco de' Zaganelli (Francesco da Cotig- 

nola) 

Francesco del Tadda (Francesco Ferrucci) 
Francesco della Luna 
Francesco dell' Indaco 
Francesco di Giorgio 
Francesco di Girolamo dal Prato 
Francesco di Mirozzo (Melozzo) 
Francesco di Pesello (Francesco Peselli, or 

Pesellino) 

Francesco di Simone Ferrucci 
Francesco di Valdambrina 
Francesco Ferrucci (Francesco del Tadda) 
Francesco Fiorentino 
Francesco Floriani 
Francesco Francia 
Francesco Giamberti 
Francesco Granacci (II Granaccio) 
Francesco Marcolini 
Francesco Masini, Messer 
Francesco Mazzuoli (Parmigiano) 
Francesco Menzochi (Francesco da Forli) 
Francesco Monsignori (Bonsignori) 
Francesco Morandini (Francesco da Poppi) 
Francesco Morone 
Francesco Moschino 
Francesco of Orleans, V, 201 
Francesco Peselli (Francesco di Pesello, or 

Pesellino) 

Francesco Primaticcio 
Francesco Ricchino 

Francesco Salviati (Francesco de' Rossi) 
Francesco Sant' Agnolo 
Francesco Traini 
Francesco Turbido (II Moro) 
Francesco Ubertini (Francesco d' Albertino, 

or II Bacchiacca) 
Francesco Verbo (Verio) 
Franci, Marc' Antonio de' (Marc' Antonio 

Bolognese, or Raimondi) 
Francia (Franciabigio) 
Francia, Francesco, LIFE, IV, 23-29; IV, 23- 

29, 82; VI, 95; VIII, 23; IX, 26, 27 
Francia, Piero, IX, 130 
Franciabigio (Francia), LIFE, V, 217-223; II, 

190; IV, 170; V, 86-89, 91, 93, 101, 103, 

104, 217-223, 231, 232; VII, 70, 157, 171; 

VIII, 5; IX, 20 
Francione, IV, 191, 192 
Franco, Battista (Battista Semolei), LIFE, 

VIII, 89-101; VI, 108, 114, 156; VII, 28, 

29, 203; VIII, 12, 67, 68, 89-101, 181, 219, 

230; IX, 199, 205, 217 
Franco Bolognese 

Francucci, Innocenzio (Innocenzio da Imola) 
Franz Floris (Franz de Vrient) 



Franz Mostaert 
Franzese, Giovanni, IX, 88 
Frate, Cecchino del, IV, 162, 
Fredi, Bartolo di Maestro, II, 61 
Fuccio, I. 30, 31 

Gabriele Giolito 

Gabriele Rustici 

Gabriello Saracini 

Gaddi family, X, 47 

Gaddi, Agnolo, LIFE, I, 217-223; I, 185, 186, 

217-223; II, 15, 25; IV, 52, 54 
Gaddi, Gaddo, LIFE, I, 55-58; I, 50, 55-58, 

177, 186, 217, 219, 221 
Gaddi, Giovanni, I, 185, 186, 217, 221 
Gaddi, Taddeo, LIFE, I, 177-186; I, 57, 58, 81, 

88, 89, 129, 177-186, 217, 218, 221, 222; II, 

23 5 6 8 3, 199, 240; IX, 133 
Gaddo Gaddi 
Galante da Bologna 
Galassi, Galasso (Galasso Ferrarese), LIFE, 

III, 135-136; II, 104; III, 135-136; IV, 55 
Galasso (of Ferrara), VIII, 36 
I Galeazzo Alessi 
\ Galeazzo Campo 
' Galeazzo Mondella 
Galeotto, Pietro Paolo, VI, 87; VII, 152; IX, 

233 

Galieno, IV, 179 
Galle, Philip, IX, 270 
Gambara, Lattanzio, VIII, 42, 45, 49, 50 
Garbo, Raffaellino del, LIFE, IV, 175-179; IV, 

6, 9, 175-179 
Garofalo, Benvenuto (Benvenuto Tisi), LIFE, 

VIII, 24-29; VIII, 24-30, 33, 34; IX, 202 
Gasparo Misuroni (Misceroni) 
Gatta, Don Bartolommeo della (Abbot of S. 

Clemente), LIFE, III, 203-209; III, 188, 203- 

209; IV, 41, 82, 216, 217; VI, 255 
Gatti, Bernardo de' (Bernardo Soiaro] 
Gaudenzio Ferrari 
Genga, Bartolommeo, LIFE, VII, 206-210; VII, 

203, 204, 206-210; VIII, 92, 96-98 
Genga, Girolamo, LIFE, VII, 199-206; V, 15, 

16, 140; VII, 199-208, 210, 211 ; VIII, 140, 

171; X, 33 
Gensio Liberale 
Gentile Bellini 
Gentile da Fabriano 
Georg Pencz 
Gerard, IX, 268 
Geremia da Cremona 
Geri Aretino 

Gerino Pistoiese (Gerino da Pistoia) 
Ghent, Justus of, IX, 265 
Gherardi, Consiglio, II, 26 
Gherardi, Cristofano (Doceno), LIFE, VII, 117- 

143; IX, 261; X, 183, 187, 208 
Gherardo (of Florence), LIFE, III, 213-215; III, 

209, 213-215, 232; IV, 36; VI, 92; IX, 182 



244 



GENERAL INDEX 



Gherardo Stamina 

Ghiberti, Bartoluccio, II, 144-146, 155, 161, 

162; III, 237, 238 
Ghiberti, Bonaccorso, II, 160 
Ghiberti, Lorenzo (Lorenzo di Bartoluccio 

Ghiberti, or Lorenzo di Cione Ghiberti), ! 

LIFE, II, 143-162; I, 87, 112, 127, 130; II, | 

4, 9, 86, 95, 143-162, 165, 171, 183, 200, 

201, 204, 213-218, 234; III, 3, 237, 238, 

269, 270; IX, 114; X, 47, 222 
Ghiberti, Vittorio, II, 160, 162 
Ghirlandajo, Benedetto, LIFE, VIII, 59-60; 

III, 222, 229, 233; VI, 57; VIII, 59-60 
Ghirlandajo, David, LIFE, VIII, 59-60; III, 

222, 225, 229-231, 233; VI, 57; VIII, 59- 

60, 63, 64; IX, 5, 6, 182 
Ghirlandajo, Domenico, LIFE, III, 219-233; 

I, 112, 126, 189; II, 190; III, 69, 70, 188, 

213, 215, 219-233, 248; IV, 36, 65, 82, 279; 

VI, 57, 58, 191; VII, 108, 147; VIII, 59-61, 

63, 64, 66; IX, 5-9, 182; X, 222 
Ghirlandajo, Michele di Ridolfo, V, 165; VII, 

28; VIII, 66-69, 153, 156; IX, 130; X, 15 
Ghirlandajo, Ridolfo, LIFE, VIII, 60-69; I, 

125; II, 185, 190; III, 233; IV, 169, 212, 



216, 279-281; V, 220, 231; VI, 191, 192; 
155. 156; VIII, 3, 5, 60-69, 
93-95; IX, 20; X, 15 



VII, 28, 31, 155, 156; 



Ghirlandajo, Tommaso, III, 219 

Ghisi (Mantovano), Giorgio, VI, 113, 118 

Ghisoni, Fermo, III, 164; VI, 34, 167, 169; 

VIII, 40-42 
Giacomo Marzone 
Giamberti, Francesco, IV, 134, 191 
Gian (Giovan) Barile 
Gian Barile (of Florence) 
Gian Cristoforo, III, 92 
Gian Domenico Bersuglia 
Gian Girolamo Bresciano (Gian Girolamo 

Savoldo) 

Gian Girolamo San Michele 
Gian Girolamo Savoldo (Gian Girolamo 

Bresciano) 

Gian Jacopo da Castrocaro 
Gian Maria da Milano 
Gian Maria Verdezotti 
Gian Niccola, IV, 47, 48 
Gianmizzi, Giulio Pippi de' (Giulio Romano] 
Giannuzzi, Raffaello Pippi de', VI, 168 
Giano, Antonio di Marco di (II Carota) 
Gilis Mostaert 
Giocondo, Fra, LIFE, VI, 3-11; IV, 145; VI, 

3-11,28,47, 126 

Giolfino, Niccolo (Niccolo Ursino), VII, 240 
Giolito, Gabriele, VI, 115 
Giomo del Sodoma 

Giorgio, Francesco di, LIFE, III, 129-131; II, 
^ 10, 85; III, 129-131 
Giorgio Fiammingo 
Giorgio Mantovano (Ghisi) 



Giorgio Vasari 

Giorgio Vasari (son of Lazzaro Vasari, the 
elder) 

Giorgione da Castelfranco 

Giottino, Tommaso (or Maso), LIFE, 1, 203-208; 
I, 112, 203-208; II, 83 

Giotto, LIFE, I, 71-94; I, 7-9, 25, 39, 50, 51, 
57, 63, 71-94* 99, 109, 111-113, II 7> Il8 > 
123-127, 161, 162, 168, 170, 174, 177, 178, 
180, 182, 184-186, 190, 203-205, 222; II, 
23, 3, 35, 37, 73, 80-83, 86, 120, 131, 139, 
147, 150, 161, 162, 166, 171, 195, 202, 250, 
262; 111,59,259; IV, 80; V, 21 ; VI, 114, 202, 
219, 220, 235; VIII, 82, 153; IX, 3, 119, 

133, l82; X, 47, 191, 221, 222 

Giovan (Gian) Barile 

Giovan Battista Bellucci (Giovan Battista 

San Marino) 

Giovan Battista Bertano 
Giovan Battista (Benedetto) Caporali 
Giovan Battista da Bagnacavallo 
Giovan Battista da Conigliano 
Giovan Battista de' Cavalieri 
Giovan Battista de' Rossi (II Rosso) 
Giovan Battista Fiorini 
Giovan Battista Grassi 
Giovan Battista Ingoni 
Giovan Battista Mantovano (Sculptore) 
Giovan Battista Peloro 
Giovan Battista Rosso (or Rosto) 
Giovan Battista San Marino (Giovan Battista 

Bellucci) 

Giovan Battista Sculptore (Mantovano) 
Giovan Battista Sozzini 
Giovan Bologna 
Giovan Filippo Crescione 
Giovan Francesco Bembo (or Vetraio) 
Giovan Francesco Caroto 
Giovan Francesco da San Gallo 
Giovan Francesco Penni (II Fattore) 
Giovan Francesco Rustici 
Giovan Francesco Vetraio (or Bembo) 
Giovan Jacomo della Porta 
Giovan Maria Butteri 
Giovan Maria dal Borgo a San Sepolcro 
Giovan Maria Falconetto 
Giovan Maria Pichi 
Giovan Paolo dal Borgo 
Giovan Paolo Poggini 
Giovan Paolo Rossetti 
Giovan Piero Calavrese 
Giovanetto Cordegliaghi 
Giovanni (Lo Spagna), IV, 46, 47 
Giovanni (of Vicenza), IX, 211 
Giovanni (the Fleming), VIII, 74 
Giovanni, Antonio di (Solosmeo da Settignano) 
Giovanni, Bruno di, I, 135, 145, 147, 148, 191 
Giovanni, Fra, I, 59 
Giovanni, Maestro, IV, 260 
Giovanni, Mino di (Mino da Fiesole) 



GENERAL INDEX 



245 



Giovanni Agnolo Montorsoli, Fra 

Giovanni Antonio Bazzi (II Sodoma) 

Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio 

Giovanni Antonio de' Rossi 

Giovanni Antonio Falconetto (the elder) 

Giovanni Antonio Falconetto (the younger) 

Giovanni Antonio Lappoli 

Giovanni Antonio Licinio (Cuticello, or Por- 

denone) 

Giovanni Antonio Sogliani 
Giovanni Baldini 
Giovanni Battista Veronese 
Giovanni Bellini 
Giovanni Bernardi (Giovanni da Castel Bolog- 

nese) 

Giovanni Boccalino (Giovanni Ribaldi) 
Giovanni Boscoli 
Giovanni Buonconsigli 
Giovanni Caroto 
Giovanni Cimdbue 
Giovanni Cugini (Jean Cousin) 
Giovanni da A sciano 
Giovanni da Castel Bolognese (Giovanni 

Bernardi) 

Giovanni da Fiesole, Fra (Fra Angelica) 
Giovanni da Fiesole, Maestro 
Giovanni da Lione 
Giovanni da Milano 
Giovanni da Nola 
Giovanni da Pistoia 
Giovanni da Rovezzano 
Giovanni da Santo Stefano a Ponte (Giovanni 

dal Ponte} 

Giovanni da Udine (Giovanni Martini) 
Giovanni da Udine (Giovanni Nanni, or de' 

Ricamatori) 

Giovanni da Verona, Fra 
Giovanni dal Carso 
Giovanni dal Ponte (Giovanni da Santo 

Stefano a Ponte) 
Giovanni de' Ricamatori (Giovanni da Udine, 

or Nanni) 
Giovanni de' Santi 
Giovanni dell' Opera (Giovanni di Benedetto 

Bandini) 

Giovanni della Robbia 
Giovanni delle Corniole 
Giovanni di Baccio (Nanni di Baccio Bigio) 
Giovanni di Benedetto Bandini (Giovanni dell' 

Opera) 

Giovanni di Goro 

Giovanni Fancelli (Giovanni di Stocco) 
Giovanni Fiammingo (Johann of Calcar, or 

Jan Stephanus van Calcker) 
Giovanni Foccora 
Giovanni Franzese 
Giovanni Gaddi 
Giovanni Jacopo Caraglio 
Giovanni Mangone 
Giovanni Mansueti 



Giovanni Martini (Giovanni da Udine) 

Giovanni Nanni (Giovanni da Udine, or de' 
Ricamatori) 

Giovanni Pedoni 

Giovanni Pisano 

Giovanni Ribaldi (Giovanni Boccalino) 

Giovanni Rosto (or Rosso) 

Giovanni San Michele 

Giovanni Speranza 

Giovanni Strada (Jan van der Straet] 

Giovanni Tossicani 

Giovanni Turini 

Giovanni Vincenzio, Fra 

Girolamo, V, 60 

Girolamo Bonsignori (Monsignori), Fra 

Girolamo Bozza (Bartolommeo Bozzato) 

Girolamo Brescianino (Girolamo Mosciano, or 
Muziano) 

Girolamo Campagnola 

Girolamo Cicogna 

Girolamo da Carpi (Girolamo da Ferrara) 

Girolamo da Cotignola (Girolamo Marchesi) 

Girolamo da Ferrara (Girolamo da Carpi) 

Girolamo da Sermoneta (Girolamo Siciolante) 

Girolamo da Treviso (Girolamo Trevigi) 

Girolamo dai Libri 

Girolamo dal Prato 

Girolamo Dante (Girolamo di Tiziano) 

Girolamo del Buda 

Girolamo del Crocifissaio (Girolamo Mac- 
chietti) 

Girolamo del Pacchia 

Girolamo della Cecca 

Girolamo della Robbia 
j Girolamo di Tiziano (Girolamo Dante) 

Girolamo Fagiuoli 

Girolamo Ferrarese (Girolamo Lombardo) 

Girolamo Genga 

Girolamo Lombardo (Girolamo Ferrarese) 

Girolamo Macchietti (Girolamo del Croci- 
fissaio) 

Girolamo Marchesi (Girolamo da Cotignola) 

Girolamo Mazzuoli 

Girolamo Miruoli 

Girolamo Misuroni (Misceroni) 

Girolamo Mocetto (or Moretto) 

Girolamo Monsignori (Bonsignori), Fra 

Girolamo Moretto (or Mocetto) 

Girolamo Mosciano (Girolamo Muziano, or 
Brescianino) 

Girolamo Padovano 

Girolamo Pironi 

Girolamo Romanino 

Girolamo Santa Croce 

Girolamo Siciolante (Girolamo da Sermoneta) 

Girolamo Trevigi (Girolamo da Treviso} 

Giromin Morzone 

Giugni, Rosso de', VI, 87 

Giuliano Bugiardini 

Giuliano da Maiano 



246 



GENERAL INDEX 



Giuliano da San Gallo 

Giuliano del Facchino 

Giuliano del Tasso 

Giuliano di Baccio d'Agnolc 

Giuliano di Niccol6 Morelli 

Giuliano Leno 

Giulio Bonasone 

Giulio Campagnola 

Giulio Campo 

Giulio Caporali 

Giulio Clovio, Don 

Giulio da Carpi 

Giulio da Urbino 

Giulio Mazzoni 

Giulio Romano (Giulio Pippi de' Giannuzzi) 

Giuntalodi, Domenico, VI, 273-279 

Giuseppe del Salviati (Giuseppe Porta) 

Giuseppe Niccolo (Joannicolo) Vicentino 

Giuseppe Porta (Giuseppe del Salviati) 

Giusto, III, ii 

Giusto (of Padua), IV, 51, 56 

Gobbo, Andrea del, IV, 122 

Gobbo, Battista (Battista da San Gallo) 

Gobbo, Cristofano (Cristofano Solari) 

GOTO, Giovanni di, VI, 206; VII, 69 

Gossart, Jean, IX, 267 

Gotti, Baccio, IV, 280 

Gozzoli, Benozzo, LIFE, III, 121-125; III, 35, 

121-125, 161; VI, 246; X, 47 
Gra, Marco da, VIII, 55 
Gramone, III, 70 
Granacci, Francesco (II Granaccio), LIFE, VI, 

57-61; II, 190; III, 233; IV, 4, 169, 186; 

V, 97, 98, 231; VI, 57-61, 66; VII, 108; 

VIII, 5, 59, 60, 121 ; IX, 5, 6, 8, 20, 29, 30 
Grassi, Giovan Battista, V, 148 
Greco, II (Alessandro Cesati) 
Grimmer, Jakob, IX, 268 
Grosso, Nanni, III, 273 
Grosso, Niccolo (II Caparra), IV, 268, 269 
Gualtieri (the Fleming), VIII, 231 
Guardia, Niccolo della, III, 92 
Guazzetto, II (Lorenzo Naldino), V, 201; VIII, 

119, 127-129 
Gucci, Lapo, II, 26 
Guerriero da Padova 
Guerrini, Rocco, IX, 242 
Guglielmo, I, 15, 31 
Guglielmo da Forll 

Guglielmo da Marcilla (Guillaume de Marcillac) : 
Guglielmo della Porta, Fra (Guglielmo Mi- I 

lanese) 

Guglielmo Tedesco 
Guido Bolognese 
Guido da Como 
Guido del Servellino 
Guido Mazzoni (Modanino da Modena) 
Guillaume de Marcillac (Guglielmo da Mar- 
cilia] 
Gyges the Lydian (fable), I, xxxix 



Haarlem, Dirk of, IX, 266 

Haeck, Jan, IX, 269 

Hans Beham 

Hans Bol 

Hans Liefrinck 

Hans Memling (Ausse) 

Heemskerk, Martin, VI, 116; VIII, 90, 91; 

IX, 266 

Heinrich (Albrecht) Aldegrever 
Heinrich Paludanus (Arrigo) 
Hemessen, Catharina van, IX, 269 
Hemessen, Jan van, IX, 266, 269 
Hendrik of Dinant 
Hieronymus Bosch 
Hieronymus Cock 

Holland, Lucas of (Lucas van Leyden) 
Horebout, Lucas, IX, 268 
Horebout, Susanna, IX, 268, 269 
Hubert van Eyck 
Hugo of Antwerp 

Ignazio Danti, Fra 

II Bacchiacca (Francesco Ubertini, or d'Al- 

bertino) 

II Bambaja (Agostino Busto) 
II Bassiti (Marco Basaiti, or Basarini) 
II Buggiano 

II Caparra (Niccol6 Grosso) 
II Carota (Antonio di Marco di Giano) 
II Cicilia 

II Cronaca (Simone del Pollaiuolo) 
II Fattore (Giovan Francesco Penni) 
II Granaccio (Francesco Granacci) 
II Greco (Alessandro Cesati) 
II Guazzetto (Lorenzo Naldino) 
II Modena (Antonio Begarelli) 
II Moro (Francesco Turbido) 
II Pistoia (Leonardo) 
II Rosso (Giovan Battista de' Rossi) 
II Spdoma (Giovanni Antonio Bazzi) 
Ilarione Ruspoli 
Imola, Innocenzio da (Innocenzio Francucci), 

LIFE, V, 212-213; IV, 170; V, 207, 209, 

212-213 

Impiccati, Andrea degli (Andrea dal Castagno) 
Indaco, Francesco dell'.IV, 66, 67; VI, 126; 

VIII, 202 
Indaco, Jacopo dell', LIFE, IV, 65-67; III, 

233; IV, 65-67: IX, 29, 30 
India, Bernardino, VII, 237 
Ingoni, Giovan Battista, VIII, 37, 38 
Innocenzio da Imola (Innocenzio Francucci) 
Ippolito Costa 
Irene di Spilimbergo 



[acobello, I, 105 
[acobello de Flore 

[acomo Melighino (Jacopo Melighini) 
[acone (Jacopo), V, 119; VII, 176; 
16-19 



VIII, 



GENERAL INDEX 



247 



Jacopo (pupil of Sandro Botticelli), III, 251, 

252 

acopo, Don, II, 57 
acopo A vanzi (Jacopo Davanzo) 
acopo Barozzi (Vignuola) 
acopo Bellini 

acopo Bresciano (Jacopo de' Medici) 
acopo Carrucci (Jacopo da Pontormo) 
acopo Casignuola 
acopo Ciciliano 
acopo Colonna 
acopo Cozzerello 
acopo da Bassano 
acopo da Montagna 
acopo da Pontormo (Jacopo Carrucci) 
acopo da Trezzo 
acopo (Cosimo) da Trezzo 
acopo da Turrita, Fra 
acopo Davanzo (Jacopo Avanzi] 
acopo Davanzo (of Milan) 
acopo de' Medici (Jacopo Bresciano') 
acopo del Conte 
acopo del Corso 
acopo del Sellaio 
acopo del Tedesco 
acopo della Barba 

acopo della Quercia (Jacopo della Fonte) 
acopo dell' Indaco 
acopo di Casentino 
acopo di Cione Orcagna 
acopo di Sandro 
acopo Falconetto 
acopo Fallaro 
acopo Lanfrani 

acopo Melighini (Jacomo Melighino] 
acopo Palma (Palma Vecchio) 
acopo Pisbolica 

acopo Robusti (Jacopo Tintoretto] 
acopo Sansovino (Jacopo Tatti) 
acopo Squarcione 
acopo Tatti (Jacopo Sansovino} 
acopo Tedesco (Lapo) 
acopo Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti) 
acopo Zucchi 
acopone da Faenza 
akob Breuck 
akob Grimmer 
an Cornells 
an de Mynsheere 
an der Sart 
an Haeck 
an Scorel 
an Stephanus van Calcker ( Johann of Calcar, 

or Giovanni Fiammingo), 
an van Dalen 

an van der Straet (Giovanni Strada) 
an van Eyck (Johann of Bruges) 
an van Hemessen 
anszoon, Joost, IX, 269 
ean Belle gambe 



can Cousin (Giovanni Cugini) 
ean Gossart 
oachim Patinier 

oannicolo (Giuseppe Niccolo) Vicentino 
ohann of Bruges (Jan van Eyck} 
ohann of Calcar (Jan Stephanus van Calcker, 
or Giovanni Fiammingo) 
ohann of Louvain 
oost J anszoon 
oost van Cleef 
oris Robyn 
ustus of Ghent 

Keur, Willem, IX, 269 

Key, Willem, IX, 267, 268, 270 

Koeck, Pieter, IX, 267 

Lafrery, Antoine (Antonio Lanferri} 

Lambert Lombard (Lambert of Amsterdam) 

Lambert Suavius (Lamberto Suave, or Lam- 
bert Zutmann) 

Lambert van Noort 

Lamberti, Niccol6 di Piero (Niccol6 d'Arezzo, 
or Aretino} 

Lamberto, Federigo di (Federigo Fiammingo, 
or Del Padovano), IX, 127, 268; X, 16 

Lamberto (the Fleming), VIII, 231 

Lamberto Suave (Lambert Suavius, or Lam- 
bert Zutmann) 

Lampsonius, Domenicus, IX, 268, 270, 271 

Lancelot Blondeel 

Lancia, Baldassarre, VII, 206; X, 33 

Lancia, Luca, IX, 223 

Lancia, Pompilip, X, 33 

Lanferri, Antonio (Antoine Lafrery), VI, 113 

Lanfrani, Jacopo, I, 104, 105 

Lanzilago, Maestro, IV, 6, 7 

Lapo, Arnolfo di (Arnolfo Lapi), LIFE, I, 20- 
26; I, 8, 13, 14, 20-26, 29, 30, 33, 39, 65, 
113, 126, 170, 174, 180; II, 80, 202, 203, 262, 
264, 265; IX, 194 

Lapo (Jacopo Tedesco} 

Lapo Gucci 

Lappoli, Giovanni Antonio, LIFE, VI, 255-265 ; 
V, 196-198; VI, 255-265; VII, 158, 159 

Lappoli, Matteo, III, 206, 207; VI, 255 

Lastricati, Zanobi, VII, 45; IX, 125, 132; X, 

Lattanzio Gambara 

Lattanzio Pagani 

Laurati, Pietro (Pietro Lorenzetti), LIFE, I, 

117-120; I, 92, 117-120; II, 18; III, 55 
Laureti, Tommaso (Tommaso Siciliano), VI, 

186 

Lazzaro Calamech 
Lazzaro Scarpaccia (Sebastiano Scarpaccia, 

or Lazzaro Bastiani} 
Lazzaro Vasari (the elder) 
Lazzaro Vasari (the younger) 
Lendinara, Lorenzo da, III, 285 



248 



GENERAL INDEX 



Leno, Giuliano, IV, 147; VI, 130, 150; VIII, 4 

Leon Battista Alberti 

Leonardo (II Pistoia) 

Leonardo Castellani 

Leonardo Cungi 

Leonardo da Vinci 

Leonardo del Tasso 

Leonardo di Ser Giovanni 

Leonardo Milanese 

Leonardo Ricciarelli 

Leonardo (the Fleming), V, 201 

Leone Aretino (Leone Lioni) 

Levina Bening 

Leyden, Lucas van (Lucas of Holland), LIFE, 

VI, 96-99; IX, 265, 270 
Liberale, LIFE, VI, 11-15; IV, 54; VI, 11-15, 

23, 24, 35, 36, 49 
Liberale, Gensio, V, 149 
Libri, Francesco dai (the elder), LIFE, VI, 49; 

VI, 29, 49 
Libri, Francesco dai (the younger), LIFE, VI, 

52-54 
Libri, Girolamo dai, LIFE, VI, 49-52; VI, 

29, 37> 49-52, 54 
Licinio, Giovanni Antonio (Cuticello, or 

Pordenone), LIFE, V, 145-155; VI, 213, 244, 

247; VIII, 43, 44, 103; IX, 160, 167, 168 
Liefrinck, Hans, VI, 117 
Ligorio, Pirro, VIII, 181, 184, 186, 227; IX, 

84, 94, 95, 102 
Linaiuolo, Berto, III, 92 
L'Ingegno (Andrea Luigi) 
Lino, I, 43 

Lione, Giovanni da, VI, 152, 169 
Lioni, Leone (Leone Aretino) 
Lioni, Pompeo, IX, 232, 233 
Lippi, Filippo (Filippino), LIFE, IV, 3-10; II, 

189, 190; III, 83, 87, 259; IV, 3-10, 44, 82, 

99, 100, 176, 177; V, 87; VI, 66 
Lippi, Fra Filippo, LIFE, III, 79-88; II, 187, 

190; III, 79-88, 117, 118, 161, 247; IV, 3, 5, 

9, 185; VI, 246; VII, 57; IX, 119, 133; 

X, 47 

Lippi, Ruberto di Filippo, VIII, 118, 119 
Lippo, LIFE, II, 49-51; I, 48, 208; II, 49-51, 83 
Lippo Dalmasi 
Lippo Memmi 

Livio da Forll (Livio Agresti) 
Lo Spagna (Giovanni) 
Lodovico (of Florence), IX, 262 
Lodovico Malino (or Mazzolini) 
Lodovico Marmita 
Lodovico Mazzolini (or Malino) 
Lodovico Rosso 
Lombard, Lambert (Lambert of Amsterdam), 

IX, 266-268, 270 
Lombardi, Alfonso, LIFE, V, 131-136; V, 131- 

136, 210; VII, 77; IX, 167 
Lombardino, Tofano (Cristofano Lombardi), 

VI, 167; VIII, 45, 55 



Lombardo, Girolamo (Girolamo Ferrarese), 
V, 24, 28-30; VII, 9, 10, 189; VIII, 36, 37; 

IX, 202, 223 

Lombardo, Tullio, IV, 60 
Longhi, Barbara de', IX, 155 
Longhi, Luca de', IX, 154, 155 
Lorentino, Angelo di (Agnolo di Lorenzo) 
Lorentino d' Angelo 

Lorenzetti, Ambrogio, LIFE, I, 155-157 
Lorenzetti, Pietro (Pietro Laurati) 
Lorenzetto (Lorenzo) Lptti 
Lorenzi, Antonio di Gino, VII, 24; IX, 131; 

X, 30 

Lorenzi, Battista (Battista del Cavaliere), IX, 

131, 140, 141; X, 31 
Lorenzi, Stoldo di Gino, X, 30, 31 
Lorenzo (father of Piero di Cosimo), IV, 125 
Lorenzo, Agnolo di (Angelo di Lorentino), I, 

208; III, 209 
Lorenzo, Bicci di, II, 72 
Lorenzo, Neri di, II, 72, 73 
Lorenzo Costa 

Lorenzo Costa (the younger) 
Lorenzo da Lendinara 
Lorenzo degli Angeli, Don (Don Lorenzo 

Monaco) 

Lorenzo della Sciorina (Lorenzo Sciorini) 
Lorenzo di Bicci 
Lorenzo di Credi 
Lorenzo Ghiberti (Lorenzo di Cione Ghiberti, 

or Lorenzo di Bartoluccio Ghiberti) 
Lorenzo (Lorenzetto) Lotti 
Lorenzo Lotto 
Lorenzo Marignolli 
Lorenzo Monaco, Don (Don Lorenzo degli 

Angeli) 

Lorenzo Naldino (II Guazzetto) 
Lorenzo of Picardy, V, 201 
Lorenzo Sabatini 

Lorenzo Sciorini (Lorenzo della Sciorina) 
Lorenzo Vecchietto 
Loro, Carlo da (Carlo Portelli) 
Lotti, Lorenzetto (Lorenzo), LIFE, V, 55-58; 

III, 273; IV, 240; V, 55-58; VII, 78; IX, 

20, 239 

Lotto, Lorenzo, LIFE, V, 261-264 
Louis of Louvain 
Louvain, Dirk of, IX, 266 
Louvain, Johann of, IX, 266 
Louvain, Louis of, IX, 265 
Louvain, Quentin of, IX, 266 
Luca da Cortona (Luca Signorelli) 
Luca de' Longhi 
Luca della Robbia 
Luca della Robbia (the younger) 
Luca di Tome 
Luca Fancelli 
Luca Lancia 
Luca Monverde 
Luca Penni 



GENERAL INDEX 



249 



Luca Signorelli (Luca da Cortona) 

Lucas Horebout 

Lucas van Leyden (Lucas of Holland) 

Lucia Anguisciuola 

Luciani, Sebastiano (Fra Sebastiano Viniziano 

del Piombo) 

Lucrezia, Madonna, V, 127 
Lugano, Domenico dal Lago di, II, 236 
Lugano, Tommaso da, IX, 206 
Luigi, Andrea (L' Ingegno), IV, 47 
Luigi Anichini 
Luigi Brugnuoli 
Luigi Vivarino 
Luini, Bernardino (Bernardino del Lupino), 

V, 60; VIII, 56 

Luna, Francesco della, II, 223, 232 
Lunetti, Stefano (Stefano of Florence) 
Lunetti, Tommaso di Stefano, V, 51, 52,164, 231 
Lupino, Bernardino del (Bernardino Luini) 
Luzio Romano 
Lysippus, I, xl 

Macchiavelli, Zanobi, III, 125 

Macchietti, Girolamo (Girolamo del Croci- 

fissaio), IX, 126; X, 15, 1 6 
Madonna Lucrezia 
Madonna Properzia de' Rossi 
Maestro Andrea 
Maestro Claudia 
Maestro Credi 
Maestro Francesco 
Maestro Giovanni 
Maestro Giovanni da Fiesole 
Maestro Lanzilago 

Maestro Mino (Mino del Regno, or del Reame) 
Maestro Niccold 
Maestro Salvestro 
Maestro Zeno 
Maglione, I, 34 
Maiano, Benedetto da, LIFE, III, 



94; III, 13, 14, 149, 257-264; F 
-; V, 5; VI, 66 



7-264; I, 

36, I5 1 * 

266, 267 
Maiano, Giuliano da, LIFE, III, 11-14; III, n- 

14, 74, 257-259; IV, 197; VI, 131 
Mainardi, Bastiano (Bastiano da San Gimig- 

nano), III, 225, 230-233 
Maini (Marini), Michele, V, 3, 4 
Malino, Lodovico (or Mazzolini), III, 164 
Manemaker, Matthaeus, IX, 269 
Mangone, Giovanni, V, 5 
Manno, VI, 78; VIII, 164, 190; X, 173 
Mansueti, Giovanni, IV, 52, 59; V, 260 
Mantegna, Andrea, LIFE, III, 279-286; II, 

138; III, 162, 279-286; IV, 24, 55, 82; VI, 

T 5 2 9 3. 9i i" VIII, 23; IX, 211 
Mantovana (Sculptore), Diana, VIII, 42 
Mantovano, Camillo, VII, 201; VIII, 171 
Mantovano (Ghisi), Giorgio 
Mantovano (Sculptore), Giovan Battista, VI, 

no, in, 157, 164, 165, 169; VIII, 42 

X. 



Mantovano, Marcello (Marcello Venusti) 
Mantovano, Rinaldo, VI, 155, 156, 160, 161, 

169; VIII, 41 
Manzuoli, Maso (Tommaso da San Friano), 

IX, 137; X, 15 
Marc' Antonio Bolognese (Marc' Antonio 

Raimondi, or de' Franci) 
Marcello Mantovano (Marcello Venusti) 
Marchesi, Girolamo (Girolamo da Cotignola) 
Marchetti, Marco (Marco da Faenza), IX, 155, 

156; X, 20 
Marchino, III, 105 
Marchionne Aretino 
Marchissi, Antonio di Giorgio, IV, 36; V, 4; 

VI, 126 
Marcilla, Guglielmo da (Guillaume de Mar- 

cillac), LIFE, IV, 253-262; III, 53; IV, 253- 

262; VIII, 162; X, 172 
Marco, Tommaso di, I, 197 
Marco Basaiti (II Bassiti, or Marco Basarini) 
Marco Calavrese (Marco Cardisco) 
Marco da Faenza (Marco Marchetti) 
Marco da Gra 
Marco da Montepulciano 
Marco da Ravenna (Marco Dente) 
Marco da Siena (Marco del Pino) 
Marco del Tasso 

Marco Dente (Marco da Ravenna) 
Marco di Battista d'Agnolo 
Marco Marchetti (Marco da Faenza) 
Marco Oggioni 

Marco Palmezzani (Marco Parmigiano) 
Marco (son of Giovanni Rosto), VIII, 20 
Marco Zoppo 

Marcolini, Francesco, VI, 115 
Marcone, Piero di, VIII, 172, 173 
Margaritone, LIFE, I, 63-67; I, 38, 63-67, 118 
Mariano da Perugia 
Mariano da Pescia 
Marignolli, Lorenzo, VII, 46 
Marini (Maini), Michele 
Marinus (of Zierickzee), IX, 268 
Mario Capocaccia 
Mariotto, I, 198 
Mariotto, Domenico di, III, 12 
Mariotto A Ibertinelli 
Mariotto di Francesco 
Marmita, VI, 84 
Marmita, Lodovico, VI, 84 
Marten de Vos 
Martin Heemskerk 
Martin Schongauer (Martino) 
Martini, Giovanni (Giovanni da Udine) 
Martini, Simone (Simone Memmi, or Sanese) 
Martino (Martin Schongauer) 
Martino (pupil of Montorsoli), VIII, 144, 147, 

151, 156; X, 23 

Martino, Bartolommeo di Jacopo di, VII, 147 
Martino da Udine (Pellegrino da San Daniele, 

or Martino di Battista) 

32 



250 



GENERAL INDEX 



Marzone, Giacomo, III, 184 
Masaccio, LIFE, II, 183-191; II, 86, 87, 133, 
183-191, 198; III, 79, 80; IV, 3, 185, 215; 

VI, 202, 203; IX, 10, 133; X, 47 
Masini, Messer Francesco, IV, 227 
Maso Boscoli (Maso dal Bosco) 
Maso Fimguerra 

Maso (or Tommaso) Giottino 

Maso Manzuoli (Tommaso da San Friano) 

Maso (Tommaso) Papacello 

Maso Porro 

Masolino da Panicale 

Matrice, Cola dalla (Niccola Filotesio), V, 238, 

239 

Matteo (brother of Cronaca), IV, 275 
Matteo (of Lucca), II, 96, 97 
Matteo dal Nassaro 
Matteo Lappoli 
Matteo San Michele 
Matthaeus Manemaker 
Matthys Cock 
Maturino, LIFE, V, 175-185; IV, 83; V, 175- 

185; VI, 177, 196; VIII, 17, 218; IX, 20 
Mazzieri, Antonio di Donnino (Antonio di 

Domenico), V, 223; VII, 29; VIII, 12 
Mazzingo, III, 239 
Mazzolini, Lodovico (or Malino) 
Mazzoni, Giulio, VIII, 210, 211 
Mazzoni, Guido (Modanino da Modena), III, 

14; VIII, 38 
Mazzuoli, Francesco (Parmigiano), LIFE, V, 

243-256; IV, 83; V, 243-256; VI, 107-109, 

114, 259; VIII, 34, 39, 40, 217 
Mazzuoli, Girolamo, V, 244, 245, 254, 255; 

VIII, 39, 41, 42 

Medici, Jacopo de' (Jacopo Bresciano) 
Melighino, Jacomo (Jacopo Melighini), V, 72, 

73; VI, 139, 140; VIII, 237 
Melone, Altobello da, VIII, 24, 43 
Melozzo (Mirozzo), Francesco di 
Melozzo da Forli 
Melzo, Francesco da, IV, 99 
Memling, Hans (Ausse), III, 61; IX, 265 
Memmi, Lippo, I, 172-174 
Memmi, Simone (Simone Martini, or Sanese), 

LIFE, I, 167-174; I, 10, 25, 89, 92, 167-174, 

183; II, 16,37, 83; HI, 183 
Menighella, IX, 114 
Menzochi, Francesco (Francesco da Forli), 

VII, 201, 204-206; VIII, 171 
Menzochi, Pietro Paolo, VII, 205, 206 
Messina, Antonello da, LIFE, III, 59-64 
Metrodorus, I, xxxix, xl 

Michael (Michele) Coxie 
Michelagnolo Anselmi 
Michelagnolo Buonarroti 
Michelagnolo da Siena 
Michelagnolo di Viviano 
Michele (Michael Coxie) 
Michele Alberti 



Michele da Milano 

Michele di Ridolfo Ghirlandajo 

Michele Maini (Marini) 

Michele San Michele 

Michelino, I, 208 

Michelino, VI, 76 

Michelino, Domenico di, III, 35 

Michelozzo Michelozzi, LIFE, II, 259-271; II, 

241, 259-271 
Milanese, Guglielmo (Fra Guglielmo della 

Porta) 

Milanese, Leonardo, IX, 238 
Milano, Bramante da, III, 18 
Milano, Cesare da (Cesare da Sesto) 
Milano, Gian Maria da, VIII, 198 
Milano, Giovanni da, I, 182, 183, 185; II, 23 
Milano, Michele da, I, 221 
Minerva Anguisciuola 
Minga, Andrea del, VII, 97; IX, 131; X, 15 
Mini, Antonio, V, 165; VIII, 128; IX, 47-51, 

69, 81, 107, 109 
Miniati, Bartolommeo, V, 201 
Minio, Tiziano (Tiziano da Padova), VI, 47; 

IX, 203, 223 
Mino, Maestro (Mino del Regno, or del Reame), 

LIFE, III, 91-92; III, 91-92, 155 
Mino da Fiesole (Mino di Giovanni) 
Mino del Regno (Maestro Mino, or Mino del 

Reame) 

Mino di Giovanni (Mino da Fiesole) 
Minore, III, n 

Mirabello di Salincorno (Mirabello Cavalori) 
Mirozzo (Melozzo), Francesco di, V, 140 
Miruoli, Girolamo, IX, 156 
Misuroni (Misceroni), Gasparo, IV, 60; VI, 86 
Misuroni (Misceroni), Girolamo, IV, 60; VI, 

86 

Moccio, II, 4, 10, n, 101 
Mocetto (or Moretto), Girolamo 
Modanino da Modena (Guido Mazzoni) 
Modena, II (Antonio Begarelli) 
Modena, Modanino da (Guido Mazzoni) 
Modena, Niccolo da (Niccolo dell' Abate) 
Modena, Pellegrino da (Pellegrino degli Are- 

tusi, or de' Munari), LIFE, V, 80-8 1 ; IV, 237; 

V, 80-81, 176; VI, 125 
Mona Papera, Bernardetto di, II, 248 
Monaco, Don Lorenzo (Don Lorenzo degli 

Angeli), LIFE, II, 55-58; II, 55-58, 171; III, 

203 

Mondella, Galeazzo, VI, 42, 80 
Monsignori (Bonsignori), Alberto 
Monsignori (Bonsignori), Fra Cherubino 
Monsignori (Bonsignori), Fra Girolamo 
Monsignori (Bonsignori), Francesco 
Montagna, Bartolommeo, IV, 52, 60; IX, 211 
Montagna, Jacopo da, III, 183 
Monte Carlo, Bastiano da, IV, 179 
Monte Sansovino, Domenico dal, V, 30 
Montecavallo, Antonio, IV, 140 



GENERAL INDEX 



251 



Montelupo, Baccio da, LIFE, V, 41-45; III, 

148; IV, 186; V, 41-45, 97; VII, 155; VIII, 

54; IX, 55, 188, 190, 239 
Montelupo, Raffaello da, LIFE, V, 41-45; V, 

27, 41-45, 119; VI, 133, 222; VII, 9-n, 27, 

62, 81, 189, 191, 192, 194, 195; VIII, 89, 

91, 137, 147; IX, 51, 55, 69, 239 
Montepulciano, Marco da, II, 72, 179 
Montepulciano, Pasquino da, III, 7 
Montevarchi, IV, 46 
Montorsoli, Fra Giovanni Agnolo, LIFE, VIII, 

133-157; VII, 10, n, 81, 82; VIII, 91, 133- 

157; IX, 51, 117, 133; X, 9, 23, 33 
Monverde, Luca, V, 147 
Moor, Antonius, IX, 268 
Morandini, Francesco (Francesco da Poppi), 

X, 14 

Morando, Paolo (Paolo Cavazzuola) 
Morelli, Giuliano di Niccold, I, 221; V, 73; 

VI, 251 

Moreto, Niccolo, IV, 57 
Moretto, Alessandro (Alessandro Bonvicini), 

IV, 60; VIII, 49, 50 

Moretto (or Mocetto), Girolamo, III, 180 
Moro, Battista del (Battista d' Angela, or 

d' Agnolo) 

Moro, II (Francesco Turbido) 
Morone, Domenico, LIFE, VI, 35-36; VI, 29, 

35, 36, 38 
Morone, Francesco, LIFE, VI, 36-39; VI, 29, 

36-39, 40, 41, 50 
Morfco da Feltro 
Morzone, Giromin, IV, 55, 56 
Mosca, Simone, LIFE, VII, 185-195; V, 44; 

VI, 133; VII, 9, 10, 185-195; VIII, 224; 

IX, 69 

Moschino, Francesco, VII, 192, 194, 195; 

X, 32 

Mosciano, Girolamo (Girolamo Muziano, or 

Brescianino) 

Mostaert, Franz, IX, 266-268 
Mostaert, Gilis, IX, 268 
Munari, Pellegrino de' (Pellegrino da Modena, 

or degli Aretusi) 
Murano, Natalino da, VIII, 104 
Musi, Agostino de' (Agostino Viniziano) 
Muziano, Girolamo (Girolamo Mosciano, or 

Brescianino) 

Mynsheere, Jan de, IX, 269 
Myrmecides, III, 55 
Myron, II, 80 



Naldini, Battista, VII, 181, 182; VIII, 233; 

IX, 134; X, 14, 15 
Naldino, Lorenzo (II Guazzetto) 
Nanni, Giovanni (Giovanni da Udine, or de' 

Ricamatori) 

Nanni d' Antonio di Banco 
Nanni di Baccio Bigio (Giovanni di Baccio) 



Nanni di Prospero delle Corniole 

Nanni Grosso 

Nanni Unghero 

Nannoccio da San Giorgio 

Nassaro, Matteo dal, LIFE, VI, 79-82 ; VI, 76, 

79-82 

Natalino da Murano 
Navarra, Pietro, VI, 126 
Nebbia, Cesare del, IX, 261 
Negrolo, Filippo, VI, 86 
Neri di Lorenzo 
Nero, Durante del, VIII, 227 
Neroccio, I, 172 
Neroni, Bartolommeo (Riccio), V, 73; VII, 

257 

Niccola Filotesio (Cola dalla Matrice) 
Niccola Pisano 
Niccola Viniziano 
Niccolaio, VIII, 59 
Niccolo (goldsmith to Pope Innocent VIII), 

III, 281 

Niccolo (of Florence), III, 7 
Niccolo (Tribolo) 

Niccolo, Maestro, VI, 164; VII, 177 
Niccolo Alunno 
Niccolo Aretino (Niccolo d'Arezzo, or Niccold 

di Piero Lamberti) 
Niccolo Avanzi 

Niccolo Beatricio (Nicolas Beautrizet) 
Niccolo Bolognese (Niccolo dell' Area) 
Niccolo Cartoni (Niccolo Zoccolo) 
Niccold Cieco 
Niccolo d'Arezzo (Niccolo Aretino, or Niccolo 

di Piero Lamberti) 

Niccolo da Modena (Niccolo dell' Abate] 
Niccol6 dalle Pomarancie 
Niccolo dell' Abate (Niccolo da Modena) 
Niccolo dell' Area (Niccolo Bolognese) 
Niccolo della Guardia 
Niccolo di Piero Lamberti (Niccol6 d' Arezzo, 

or Aretino) 
Niccolo Fiorentino 
Niccold Giolfino (Niccold Ursino) 
Niccold Grosso (II Caparra) 
Niccolo Moreto 
Niccold Pizzolo 

Niccold Rondinello (Rondinello da Ravenna) 
Niccold Soggi 

Niccold Ursino (Niccold Giolfino) 
Niccold Zoccolo (Niccold Cartoni) 
Nicolas Beautrizet (Niccold Beatricio) 
Nicomachus, II, 80 
Nicon, III, 209 
Nino Pisano 

Nola, Giovanni da, V, 137-139 
Noort, Arthus van, IX, 269 
Noort, Lambert van, IX, 268 
Nunziata, VIII, 61, 62 
Nunziata, Toto del, II, 190; IV, 280; VI, 191, 

196; VIII, 66 



252 



GENERAL INDEX 



Oderigi d' A gobble 

Oggioni, Marco, IV, 105; VIII, 56 

Oja, Sebastian van, IX, 269 

Opera, Giovanni dell' (Giovanni di Benedetto 

Bandini) 

Orazio da Bologna (Orazio Sammacchini) 
Orazio di Paris 
Orazio Pianetti 
Orazio Porta 

Orazio Sammacchini (Orazio da Bologna) 
Orazio Vecelli 
Orcagna, Andrea di Cione, LIFE, I, 189-199; 

II, 91; III, 223 

Orcagna, Bernardo di Cione, I, 189, 190, 193- 

195. 197 

Orcagna, Jacopo di Cione, I, 194, 197, 198 
Orlando Fiacco (or Flacco) 
Orsino, III, 275, 276 
Ottaviano da Faenza 
Ottaviano del Collettaio 
Ottaviano della Robbia 
Ottaviano Falconetto 
Ottaviano Zucchero 

Pacchia, Girolamo del, VII, 252 

Pace, Domenico di (Domenico Beccafumi) 

Pace da Faenza 

Pacuvius, I, xxxix 

Padova, Guerriero da, IV, 51, 56 

Padova, Tiziano da (Tiziano Minio) 

Padova, Vellano da, LIFE, III, 73-75; II, 253; 

III, 73-75, 272 

Padovano, Federigo del (Federigo di Lamberto, 

or Fiammingo) 

Padovano, Girolamo, III, 209 
Pagani, Lattanzio, V, 212; VII, 128 
Pagni, Benedetto (Benedetto da Pescia), VI, 

152, 154-156, 169; X, 9 
Pagno di Lapo Partigiani 
Palladio, Andrea, VI, 28, 48; VIII, 233, 234; 

IX, 211-214; X, 20 
Palma, Jacopo (Palma Vecchio), LIFE, V, 259- 

261; IX, 160 
Palmezzani, Marco (Marco Parmigiano), VII, 

204, 205 
Paludanus, Heinrich (Arrigo), VIII, 38; IX, 

269 

Paludanus, Willem, IX, 269 
Panetti, Domenico, VIII, 24 
Panicale, Masolino da, LIFE, II, 165-167; II, 

46, 159, 165-167, 171, 185, 187-189; IV, 3; 

VI, 203 
Paolo, I, 103 

Paolo Caliari (Paolo Veronese) 
Paolo Cavazzuola (Paolo Morando) 
Paolo da Verona 
Paolo Farinato 
Paolo Pistoiese, Fra 
Paolo Ponzio 
Paolo Romano 



Paolo San Michele 

Paolo Schiavo 

Paolo Uccello 

Paolo Veronese (Paolo Caliari) 

Papacello, Tommaso (or Maso), IV, 76; VI, 

152; VII, 128 
Papino della Pieve 
Paris, Domenico di, IV, 47; V, 195 
Paris, Orazio di, IV, 47 
Paris Bordone 

Parma, Daniello da (Daniello Porri) 
Parmigiano (Francesco Mazzuoli} 
Parmigiano, Marco (Marco Palmezzani} 
Parrhasius, IX, 133; X, 200 
Parri Spinelli 

Particini, Antonio, VIII, 16 
Partigiani, Pagno di Lapo, II, 269, 270 
Pasquino Cenni 
Pasquino da Montepulciano 
Passerotto, Bartolommeo, IX, 156 
Pastorino da Siena 
Patinier, Joachim, 266 
Pecori, Domenico, III, 207-209; IV, 257; VI, 

255, 258, 271 

Pedoni, Giovanni, VIII, 48 
Pellegrini, Pellegrino (Pellegrino da Bologna, 

or Tibaldi), VIII, 34, 204; IX, 151-154, 258 
Pellegrino da Modena (Pellegrino degli Are- 

tusi, or de' Munari) 
Pellegrino da San Daniele (Martino da Udine, 

or di Battista) 
Pellegrino Pellegrini (Pellegrino da Bologna, 

or Tibaldi) 

Peloro, Giovan Battista, V, 73 
Pencz, Georg, VI, 119 
Penni, Giovan Francesco (II Fattore), LIFE, 

V, 77-80; IV, 237, 247; V, 77-80, 201; VI, 

146-148, 150, 151, 153, 177, 193, I94> 207, 

216 

Penni, Luca, V, 79, 201; VI, 115 
Perino del Vaga (Perino Buonaccorsi, or de' 

Ceri) 

Perugia, Mariano da, V, 263 
Perugia, Piero da, I, 221 
Perugino, Pietro (Pietro Vannucci, or Pietro 

da Castel della Pieve), LIFE, IV, 33-48; II, 

190; III, 23, 188, 204, 273; IV, 13, 15, 18, 

33-48, 82, 159, 169, 2IO-2I2, 236, 242, 243; 

V, 49, 50, 87, 230; VI, 235, 269; VII, 199, 
248, 249; VIII, 3; IX, 189; X, 192 

Peruzzi, Baldassarre (Baldassarre da Siena), 
LIFE, V, 63-74; IV > *45 J 46, 200; V, 57, 
63-74, T 36> 170, 176, 208; VI, 107, 167, 
174, 177, 239; VII, 253; VIII, 167, 168, 197, 
205, 218; IX, 65, 196; X, 174 

Peruzzi, Salustio, VIII, 205; IX, 82 

Pesarese, I, 105 

Pescia, Benedetto da (Benedetto Pagni) 

Pescia, Mariano da, VIII, 66 

Pescia, Pier Maria da, VI, 76 



GENERAL INDEX 



253 



Peselli, Francesco (Francesco di Pesello, or 

Pesellino), LIFE, III, 117-118; III, 86, 117- 

118 
Pesello, LIFE, III, 117-118; III. 59, 117-118; 

IV, 82 
Pesello, Francesco di (Francesco Peselli, or 

Pesellino) 

Pheidias, I, xl; II, 120; IV, 105 
Philip Galle 
Philocles, I, xxxix 
Pianetti, Orazio, VIII, 206, 207 
Piccinelli, Raffaello de' (Raffaello da Brescia, 

or Brescianino] 
Pichi, Giovan Maria, VII, 158 
Pier Francesco da Viterbo 
Pier Francesco di Jacopo di Sandro 
Pier Maria da Pescia 
Fieri, Stefano, IX, 137; X, 14 
Pierino (Piero) da Vinci 
Piero, Alvaro di, II, 64 
Piero Catanei 
Piero da Perugia 
Piero da Sesto 
Piero (Pierino) da Vinci 
Piero da Volterra 
Piero del Donzello 
Piero della Francesco, (Piero dal Borgo a San 

Sepolcro, or Borghese) 
Piero di Cosimo 
Piero di Marcone 
Piero Francia 
Piero Pollaiuolo 
Pieter Aertsen 
Pieter Brueghel 
Pieter Christus 
Pieter Koeck 
Pieter Pourbus 

Pietrasanta, Ranieri da, VII, 9, 10 
Pietrasanta, Stagio da, V, 162; VI, 214; VII, 

7, 195 

Pietro, I, 103 
Pietro Cavallini 
Pietro da Castel della Pieve (Pietro Perugino, 

or Vannucci) 
Pietro da Said 
Pietro da San Casciano 
Pietro di Subisso 

Pietro Laurati (Pietro Lorenzetti) 
Pietro Navarra 
Pietro Paolo, I, 105 
Pietro Paolo da Todi 
Pietro Paolo Galeotto 
Pietro Paolo Menzochi 
Pietro Perugino (Pietro da Castel della Pieve, 

or Vannucci) 
Pietro Rosselli 
Pietro Urbano 
Pietro Vannucci (Pietro Perugino, or Pietro 

da Castel della Pieve) 
Pieve, Papino della, VI, 272 



Piloto, VI, 201, 205, 207; VII, 56, 58, 69; 
VIII, 18; IX, 42, 43, 47, 48 

Pino, Marco del (Marco da Siena] 

Pintelli, Baccio, III, 93-94 

Pinturicchio, Bernardino, LIFE, IV, 13-19; IV, 
13-19, 46, 65, 211, 212; V, 227; VI, 195; IX, 
190 

Piombo, Fra Sebastiano Viniziano del (Se- 
bastiano Luciani), LIFE, VI, 173-186; IV, 
84, 114, 240; V, 66; VI, 108, 139, 148, 173- 
186, 217, 259; VII, no, in; VIII, 82, 84, 
92, 182, 201; IX, 68, 106, 109, in, 162, 

235 

Pippo del Fabbro 
Pironi, Girolamo, IX, 211 
Pirro Ligorio 
Pisanello, Vittore or Antonio, LIFE, III, 109- 

113; II, 187; III, 105, 109-113; VI, 35 
Pisano, Andrea, LIFE, I, 123-131; I, 123-131, 

189; II, 50, 81, 83, 91, 93, 120, 145, 147, 

154, 160, 200; VII, 30 
Pisano, Giovanni, LIFE, I, 35-44; I, 29, 35-44, 

76, 97, 98, 220; IV, 142; IX, n 
Pisano, Niccola, LIFE, I, 29-37; I> Ivi, 29-37, 

40, 41, 43, 44, 76, 97; II, 97; IV, 142 
Pisano, Nino, I, 127, 130, 131; II, 81, 83 
Pisano, Tommaso, I, 130 
Pisbolica, Jacopo, IX, 214, 215 
Pistoia, Gerino da (Gerino Pistoiese) 
Pistoia, Giovanni da, I, 164 
Pistoia, II (Leonardo), V, 79, 80 
Pistoiese, David, III, 263 
Pistoiese, Fra Paolo, IV, 162 
Pistoiese, Gerino (Gerino da Pistoia), IV, 18, 

46 

Pittoni, Battista (Battista of Vicenza), VI, 108 
Pizzolo, Niccolo, III, 280 
Plautilla, V, 126 
Poggini, Domenico, VI, 87; IX, 131; X, 32, 

Poggini, Giovan Paolo, IX, 232, 233 

Poggini, Zanobi, V, 106; VIII, 61 

Poggino, Zanobi di, V, 165 

Polidoro (of Perugia), IX, 234 

Polidoro da Caravaggio (Polidoro Caldara) 

Polito del Donzello 

Pollaiuolo, Antonio, LIFE, III, 237-243; I, 
xxxiv; II, 159; III, 237-243, 248, 285; IV, 
4, 81, 265; V, 21 ; VI, 182, 246; VIII, 64 

Pollaiuolo, Piero, LIFE, III, 237-243; III, 105, 
237-243, 248; VI, 182, 246 

Pollaiuolo, Simone del (II Cronacd) 

Polo, Agnolo di, III, 273, 274 

Polo, Domenico di, V, 135; VI, 84 

Polycletus, I, xl, 167; II, 80, 160 

Polygnotus, I, xxxix; II, 80 

Pomarancie, Niccolo dalle, IX, 261 

Pompeo da Fano 

Pompeo Lioni 

Pompilio Lancia 



254 



GENERAL INDEX 



Pomponio Amalteo 

Ponte, Giovanni dal (Giovanni da Santo 

Stefano a Ponte), LIFE, I, 211-213; I, 208, 

211-213 
Pontormo, Jacopo da (Jacopo Carrucci), LIFE, 

VII, 147-182; II, 190; IV, 179, 246, 260; 
V, 93, 98, 104, 118, 135, 190, 221, 222, 231, 
232; VI, 60, 255-257, 273; VII, 31, 147- 
182, 201; VIII, 18, 65, 92, 154, 179, 180; 

IX, 20, 107, no, 133, 134; X, 3-5, 7-10, 
12-14, 47, 176, 177 

Ponzio, Paolo, IX, 149 

Poppi, Francesco da (Francesco Morandini) 

Pordenone (Giovanni Antonio Licinio, or 
Cuticello) 

Porfirio, Bernardino di, X, 17 

Porri, Daniello (Daniello da Parma), VIII, 217 

Porro, Maso, IV, 262 

Porta, Baccio della (Fra Bartolommeo di San 
Marco) 

Porta, Fra Guglielmo della (Guglielmo Mi- 
lanese), VI, 217; VIII, 84; IX, 68, 69, 234- 
238 

Porta, Giovan Jacomo della, IX, 234, 235 

Porta, Giuseppe (Giuseppe del Salviati), VI, 
115; VIII, 106, 192, 193, 229, 230; IX, 214; 

X, 20 

Porta, Orazio, X, 20 

Porta, Tommaso, IX, 238 

Portelli, Carlo (Carlo da Loro), VIII, u, 69, 

170, 179; X, 15 
Pourbus, Pieter, IX, 268 
Prato, Francesco di Girolamo dal, V, 135; VII, 

72, 73; VIII, 162, 173, 190-192 
Prato, Girolamo dal, VIII, 190, 191 
Praxiteles, I, xxvi, xl, xli; IX, 133; X, 47 
Primaticcio, Francesco, Description of Works, 

IX, 145-150; V, 200, 201, 203; VI, 115, 157; 

VIII, 37, 183, 237, 238; IX, 145-151, 156 
Proconsolo, Rossellino dal (Antonio Rossellino) 
Prometheus (fable), I, xxxix 

Properzia de' Rossi, Madonna 

Prospero Clemente 

Prospero Fontana 

Protogenes, II, 80; X, 200 

Provolo Falconetto 

Pucci, Domenico, II, 26 

Puccio Capanna 

Puligo, Domenico, LIFE, IV, 279-283; V, 109; 

VIII, 119, 120 

Pupini, Biagio (Biagio Bolognese) 
Pygmalion, I, xxviii, xl 
Pyrgoteles, I, xl 
Pythias, I, xxxix 

Quentin of Louvain 

Quercia, Jacopo della (Jacopo della Fonte), 
LIFE, II, 91-97; I, 130; II, 86, 87, 91-97, 
145, 146, 151, 200; III, 131, 188; VII, 
245 



Raffaellino del Garbo 

Raffaello Baglioni 

Raffaello Bello 

Raffaello Brescianino (Raffaello da Brescia, 

or de' Piccinelli) 
Raffaello da Montelupo 
Raffaello da Urbino (Raffaello Sanzio) 
Raffaello dal Colle (Raffaello dal Borgo) 
Raffaello de' Piccinelli (Raffaello da Brescia, 

or Brescianino} 
Raffaello delle Vivole 
Raffaello di Biagio 
Raffaello Pippi de' Giannuzzi 
Raffaello Sanzio (Raffaello da Urbino) 
Raggio, IV, 4 
Raimondi, Marc' Antonio (Marc* Antonio 

Bolognese, or de' Franci) 
Ramenghi, Bartolommeo (Bartolommeo da 

Bagnacavallo) 
Ranieri da Pietrasanta 
Ravenna, Marco da (Marco Dente) 
Ravenna, Rondinello da (Niccolo Rondinello), 

LIFE, V, 264-265; III, 183,184; V, 264-266; 

VII, 204, 205 

Reggio, Sebastiano da, VI, 165 
Regno, Mino del (Maestro Mino, or Mino del 

Reame) 

Rene Boyvin (Renato) 
Ribaldi, Giovanni (Giovanni Boccalino) 
Ricamatori, Giovanni de' (Giovanni da Udine, 

or Nanni) 

Ricchino, Francesco, VIII, 50 
Ricciarelli, Daniello (Daniello da Volterra), 

LIFE, VIII, 197-211; VI, 113, 219, 224; VIII, 

184-186, 197-211, 228, 235; IX, 95, 100, 101, 

103, 107, 121, 122 
Ricciarelli, Leonardo, VIII, 207 
Riccio, Andrea, III, 64 
Riccio (Bartolommeo Neroni) 
Riccio, Domenico del (Domenico Brusciasorzi) 
Riccio, Felice del (Felice Brusciasorzi) 
Ridolfi, Bartolommeo, VI, 48 
Ridolfo Ghirlandajo 
Rinaldo Mantovano 
Ripa Transone, Ascanio dalla (Ascanio Con- 

divi) 

Ristoro da Campi, Fra 
Robbia, Agostino della, II, 123-125 
Robbia, Andrea della, II, 125-127, 175; III, 

276; V, 90 

Robbia, Giovanni della, II, 126; VIII, 116 
Robbia, Girolamo della, II, 126, 127; V, 90 
Robbia, Luca della, LIFE, II, 119-128; II, 119- 

128, 175, 213 
Robbia, Luca' della (the younger), II, 126, 

127; IV, 237; V, 90 
Robbia, Ottaviano della, II, 123-125 
Robetta, VIII, 119, 120 
Robusti, Jacopo (Jacopo Tintoretto) 
Robyn, Joris, IX, 270 



GENERAL INDEX 



255 



Rocco Guerrini 

Rocco Zoppo 

Roger van der Weyden (Roger of Bruges) 

Romanino, Girolamo, IV, 60; VIII, 49 

Romano, Domenico, VIII, 193 



IX, 126; X, 15, 16 
Romano, Giulio (Giulio Pippi de' Giannuzzi), | Salo, Pietro da, IX, 204, 223 



Sabatini, Lorenzo, IX, 151; X, 20 

Salai, IV, 99 

Salamanca, Antonio, VI, 276 

Salincorno, Mirabello di (Mirabello Cavalori), 



LIFE, VI, 145-169; III, 19; IV, 76, 84, 119, 
232, 237, 247; V, 55, 77-79, 108, 109, 195; 
VI, 20, 24, 103-105, no, 114, 145-169, 177, 

IQ3, 194, 207, 2l6, 221, 259; VII, 117, 236; 

VIII, 29, 39-42, 55, 138, 172; IX, 146, 168, 
245, 257, 258; X, 9, 187 

Romano, Luzio, VI, 212, 222 

Romano, Paolo, LIFE, III, 91-92; V, 57 

Romano, Virgilio, V, 73 

Rondinello da Ravenna (Niccolo Rondinello) 

Rosa, Cristofano, VIII, 50, 51, 104; IX, 177 

Rosa, Stefano, VIII, 50, 51, 104; IX, 177 

Rosselli, Bernardo (Bernardo del Buda) 

Rosselli, Cosimo, LIFE, III, 187-190; IV, 82, 

125, 126, 151, 165; V, 88, 229 
Rosselli, Pietro, IV, 159; VII, 68, 69 
Rossellino, Antonio (Rossellino dal Pro- 

consolo), LIFE, III, 139-144; II, 253; III, 

44, i39-i44> 253; IV, 275 
Rossellino, Bernardo, LIFE, III, 139-144; III, 

44, I39-I44> 268 

Rossellino dal Proconsolo (Antonio Rossellino) 
Rossetti, Giovan Paolo, VIII, 204, 210 
Rossi, Francesco de' (Francesco Salviati) 
Rossi, Giovan Battista de' (II Rosso) 
Rossi, Giovanni Antonio de', VI, 86 
Rossi, Madonna Properzia de', LIFE, V, 123- 

128; VIII, 45 
Rossi, Vincenzio de', VII, 94, 98, 101; VIII, 

153; X, 23, 24 

Rosso (or Rosto), Giovan Battista, VI, 164 
Rosso (or Rosto), Giovanni 
Rosso, II (Giovan Battista de' Rossi), LIFE, V, 

189-203; II, 190; IV, 84; V, 97, 189-203; 

VI, 109, in, 115, 257-261, 273, 274; VII, 

58, 59, 117, 118, 149, 188; VIII, 167, 183; 

IX, 20, 107, 146, 147; X, 47, 172 
Rosso, Lodovico, IX, 182 

Rosso de' Giugni 

Rosto (or Rosso), Giovan Battista 

Rosto (or Rosso), Giovanni, IV, 46; VII, 177; 

VIII, 20, 179 
Rovezzano, Benedetto da, LIFE, V, 35-38; 

IV, 155; V, 35-38; VII, 4, 63, 64, 187; IX, 191 
Rovezzano, Giovanni da, III, 105 
Roviale, VII, 129; VIII, 190; X, 196 
Rozzo, Antonio del (Antonio del Tozzo) 
Ruberto di Filippo Lippi 
Ruggieri da Bologna 
Ruspoli, Ilarione, X, 24 
Rustici, Gabriele, IV, 162 
Rustici, Giovan Francesco, LIFE, VIII, ni- 

129; IV, 105, 186; VII, 57, 66; VIII, ui- 

129; X, 47 



Salustio Peruzzi 

Salvadore Foschi, Fra 

Salvestro, Maestro, VI, 87 

Salvestro Fancelli 

Salvi, Antonio di, III, 239 

Salviati, Francesco (Francesco de' Rossi), 

LIFE, VIII, 161-193; III, 258, 262; V, 119; 

VI, 108, in, 177; VII, 178, 205; VIII, 11, 

12, 44, 84, 90, 91, 95, 161-193, 208, 209, 228, 
229, 231, 232, 235; IX, 133; X, 7, 47, 171, 
174, 219 

Salviati, Giuseppe del (Giuseppe Porta) 
Sammacchini, Orazio (Orazio da Bologna), 

VIII, 188, 228, 229; IX, 154 
San Casciano, Pietro da, VII, 15, 16, 19 
S. Clemente, Abbot of (Don Bartolommeo 

della Gatta) 
San Daniele, Pellegrino da (Martino da Udine 

or di Battista) 

San Friano, Tommaso da (Maso Manzuoli) 
San Gallo, Antonio da (the elder), LIFE, IV, 

191-205; IV, 145, 191-205, 254; V, 97; VI, 

66, 123, 272; VII, 74; VIII, 3; IX, 16, 40, 41 
San Gallo, Antonio da (the younger), LIFE, VI, 

123-141; I, 32; V, 29, 43, 58, 72; VI, 123- 

141, 167, 197, 198, 219, 220, 222; VII, 9, 

78, 119, 186, 189, 190, 193, 217, 218; VIII, 

13, 89, 136, 168, 202 ; IX, 61-67, 196, 197, 
224, 239; X, 47 

San Gallo, Aristotile (Bastiano) da, LIFE, VIII, 

3-20; IV, 212; V, 97; VII, 29; VIII, 3-20, 

119, 126; IX, 20, 29, 30 
San Gallo, Battista da (Battista Gobbo), VI, 

133, 140; VIII, 169 
San Gallo, Francesco da, IV, 134, 203, 204; 

V, 27; VI, 133, 173; VII, 9, 10, 189; VIII, 

153. I 55> J 56; X, 22, 23 
San Gallo, Giovan Francesco da, VIII, 4 



San Gallo, Giuliano da, LIFE, IV, 191-205; IV, 

>5, 270; V, 97; VI 
66, 123, 124, 12-6; VIII, 3; IX, 16, 29, 30, 



101, 134, 145, 191-205, 270; V, 97; VI, 6, 



188, 189; X, 22, 23 
San Gimignano, Bastiano da (Bastiano Main- 

ardi) 
San Gimignano, Vincenzio da (Vincenzio 

Tamagni), LIFE, V, 11-17; IV, 237; V, n- 

17; VIII, 218 

San Giorgio, Eusebio, IV, 47 
San Giorgio, Nannoccio da, V, 119; VIII, 

162-164 
San Marco, Fra Bartolommeo di (Baccio della 

Porta), LIFE, IV, 151-162; II, 190, 249; IV, 

82, 151-162, 165-167, 215, 244, 272; V, 159, 

160, 194; VI, 66; VII, 108, 109, 148; VIII, 61 



256 



GENERAL INDEX 



San Marino, Giovan Battista (Giovan Battista 

Bellucci) 

San Michele, Bartolommeo, VII, 217 
San Michele, Gian Girolamo, VII, 219, 220, 

222, 230-234 

San Michele, Giovanni, VII, 217 
San Michele, Matteo, VII, 219 
San Michele, Michele, LIFE, VII, 217-235; 



III, in; VI, 25, 26, 47, 130; VII, 127, 191, 
217-235, 237, 241; VIII, 102 
San Michele, Paolo, VII, 227, 230, 232 



San Vito, Feliciano da, VIII, 210, 211 
Sandrino del Calzolaio 
Sandro, Jacopo di, V, 97 ; IX, 29, 30 
Sandro, Pier Francesco di Jacopo di, V, 118, 

119; VI, 257; VII, 29, 176; VIII, u, 156; 

X, 15 
Sandro Botticelli (Sandro di Botticello, or 

Alessandro Filipepi) 

Sanese, Simone (Simone Memmi, or Martini) 
Sanese, Ugolino (Ugolino da Siena), LIFE, I, 

113; II, 62 

Sansovino, Andrea (Andrea Contucci) 
Sansovino, Jacopo (Jacopo Tatti), LIFE, IX, 

187-202, 215-225; II, 127; V, 5, 31, 35, 36, 

80, 88, 92, 93, 97, 98, 180, 218, 231, 247; 

VI, 47, 125, 127, 199; VII, 4, 5, 58; VIII, 

100, 126, 192; IX, 20, 40, 41, 107, 145, 

166, 170, 187-204, 206-208, 210, 215-225; 

X, 23 

Sant' Agnolo, Francesco, VIII, 215-217 
Santa Croce, Girolamo, LIFE, V, 137-138 
Santi, IV, 261 

Santi, Giovanni de', IV, 46, 210, 213, 249 
Santi Buglioni 
Santi Titi 
Sanzio, Raffaello (Raffaello da Urbino), LIFE, 

IV, 209-250; I, 86; II, 126, 190; III, 1 8, 19; 

IV, 13, 28, 29, 44-47, 82, 83, 143, 145, 146, 
155-158, 200, 201, 203, 209-250, 255; V, ii- 
I 5> 55, S 6 , 66, 72, 77-81, 107-109, 117, 126, 

169, 175, 191, 194, 201, 207, 208, 213, 222, 

245, 247; VI, 6, 38, 66, 69, 99-104, 106-108, 

114, 120, 126, 127, 130, 145-148, 153, 156, 

165, 174-178, 181, 183, 193-195, 207, 209, 

218, 221, 236, 269; VII, III, 117, 148, 174, 

199, 249; VIII, 4, 5, 25, 26, 28, 31, 32, 41, 
49, 61, 73-76, 78, 80, 81, 85, 97, 167, 216, 

219, 226, 236; IX, 20, 27, 28, 30, 31, 40, 41, 
65, 162, 165, 170, 189, 194, 196, 267; X, 
174, 180, 181, 192, 211, 222 

Saracini, Gabriello, II, 36 

Sart, Jan der, IX, 269 

Sarto, Andrea del (Andrea d' Agnolo), LIFE, 

V, 85-120; II, 190; IV, 83, 129, 134, 281, 
283; V, 85-120, 164, 194, 217-221, 231; VI, 
60, 106, 255-257, 272, 273; VII, 4, 58, 59, 
148-150, 152, 156, 157, 171, 188; VIII, 5, 
6, n, 16, 17, 19, 113, 119, 120, 122, 126, 135, 
163, 164; IX, 20, 43, 188, 193, 194; X, 47, 172 



Sassoli, Fabiano di Stagio, III, 54; IV, 256, 

257 

Sassoli, Stagio, IV, 73, 257; VI, 272 
Savoldo, Gian Girolamo (Gian Girolamo 

Bresciano) 
Scarpaccia, Lazzaro (Lazzaro Bastiani, or 

Sebastiano Scarpaccia) 
Scarpaccia (Carpaccio), Vittore 
Scarpagni, Antonio (Scarpagnino, or Zanfrag- 

nino), VI, 10 
Scheggia, VIII, 61 
Scherano da Settignano (Alessandro) 
Schiavo, Paolo, II, 166 
Schiavone, Andrea, VIII, 107, 108, 231 
Schizzone, V, 12 
Schongauer, Martin (Martino), LIFE, VI, 91- 

92; III, 214; VI, 91-92; IX, 7, 265 
Sciorini, Lorenzo (Lorenzo della Sciorina), IX, 

128; X, 14 
Scorel, Jan, IX, 266 
Sculptore (Mantovana], Diana 
Sculptore (Mantovand), Giovan Battista 
Sebastian van Oja 
Sebastiano da Reggio 

Sebastiano Florigerio (Bastianello Florigprio) 
Sebastiano Luciani (Fra Sebastiano Viniziano 

del Piombo) 
Sebastiano Scarpaccia (Lazzaro Bastiani, or 

Scarpaccia) 
Sebastiano Serlio 

Sebastiano Viniziano del Piombo, Fra (Se- 
bastiano Luciani) 
Sebeto da Verona 
Seghers, Anna, IX, 269 
Segna d' Antignano 
Sellaio, Jacopo del, III, 86 
Semolei, Battista (Battista Franco] 
Ser Giovanni, Leonardo di, I, 104; II, 119 
Serlio, Sebastiano, V, 72; VI, 113; IX, 196, 

267, 271 
Sermoneta, Girolamo da (Girolamo Sicio- 

lante) 

Servellino, Guido del, III, 12 
Sesto, Cesare da (Cesare da Milano), V, 65, 

141; VIII, 56 
Sesto, Piero da, VIII, 18 
Settignano, Desiderio da, LIFE, III, 147-149; 

II, 253; III, 147-149, 154, 156, 260; X, 47 
Settignano, Scherano da (Alessandro), VIII, 

1 68; IX, 55 

Settignano, Solosmeo da (Antonio di Gio- 
vanni), V, 118; VII, 5, 79, 80; VIII, 119; 

IX, 202, 223 

Sguazzella, Andrea, V, 100, 118 
Siciliano, Tommaso (Tommaso Laureti) 
Siciolante, Girolamo (Girolamo da Sermoneta) , 

VI, 221, 222, 225; VIII, 99, 188, 229; IX, 

152, 257-259 

Siena, Baldassarre da (Baldassarre Peruzzi] 
Siena, Francesco da, V, 71, 73 



GENERAL INDEX 



257 



Siena, Marco da (Marco del Pino), VI, 223; 

VIII, 204, 210 

Siena, Michelagnolo da, LIFE, V, 136-137; V, 

69, 136-137 

Siena, Pastorino da, IV, 262; VI, 87, 219 
Siena, Ugolino da (Ugolino Sanese) 
Signorelli, Luca (Luca da Cortona), LIFE, IV, 
71-76; III, 20, 23, 31, 52, 188, 204; IV, 71- 
76, 82, 216, 261; VI, 246; VII, 199, 246; 

IX, 190; X, 171 
Silvestro, Don, II, 57 

Silvio Cosini (Silvio da Fiesole) 

Simon Bening 

Simon Bianco 

Simon van Delft 

Simone, II, 104; IV, 55 

Simone (brother of Donatello), LIFE, III, 3-7; 

11,251; 111,3-7 
Simone (pupil of Filippo Brunelleschi), II, 

236 

Simone Cini 
Simone Cioli 

Simone da Colle (Simone de' Bronzi) 
Simone da Fiesole 
Simone del Pollaiuolo (II Cronaca) 
Simone Memmi (Simone Martini, or Sanese) 
Simone Mosca 
Simone of Paris, V, 201 
Simone Sanese (Simone Memmi, or Martini) 
Skeysers, Clara, IX, 269 
Sodoma, Giomo del, VII, 257 
Sodoma, II (Giovanni Antonio Bazzi) 
Sofonisba Anguisciuola 
Soggi, Niccolo, LIFE, VI, 269-279; IV, 186; 

V, 109, no, 196; VI, 261, 269-279; VIII, 

114 
Sogliani, Giovanni Antonio, LIFE, V, 159-166; 

V, 51, 159-166; VI, 214, 215, 247, 248; VII, 

256; VIII, 20 
Soiaro, Bernardo (Bernardo de' Gatti), VIII, 

39, 40, 43, 44 
Solari, Cristofano (Cristofano Gobbo), VIII, 

55; IX, 14,234 
Sollazzino, I, 193 

Solosmeo da Settignano (Antonio di Giovanni) 
Sozzini, Giovan Battista, VI, 87 
Spadari, Benedetto, IV, 262; V, 195, 196 
Spagna, Lo (Giovanni) 
Spagnuolo, Alonzo (Alonzo Berughetta), II, 

190; IV, 8; VII, 58; IX, 20, 189 
Speranza, Giovanni, IX, 211 
Spilimbergo, Irene di, IX, 175 
Spillo, VIII, 119, 120 
Spinelli, Parri, LIFE, II, 171-179; II, 36, 39, 

83, 125, 159, 171-179; III, 54 
Spinello, Forzore di, I, 104; II, 39, 177 
Spinello Aretino 

Squarcione, Jacopo, III, 279-281, 285; IV, 56 
Stagio da Pietrasanta 
Stagio Sassoli 

X. 



Staren, Dirk van, IX, 269 

Stamina, Gherardo, LIFE, II, 43-46; II, 20, 
43-46, 58, 83, 165 

Stefano, LIFE, I, 109-114; I, 92, 109-114, 203, 
204; II, 83 

Stefano, Vincenzio di, VI, 1 1 

Stefano da Ferrara 

Stefano da Zevio (Stefano Veronese) 

Stefano of Florence (Stefano Lunetti), III, 
215; V, 51 

Stefano Fieri 

Stefano Rosa 

Stefano Veltroni 

Stefano Veronese (Stefano da Zevio) 

Stocco, Giovanni di (Giovanni Fancelli) 

Stoldo di Gino Lorenzi 

Straet, Jan van der (Giovanni Strada), VIII, 
233; IX, 134, 135, 267; X, 18, 19 

Strozzi, Zanobi, III, 35 

Suardi, Bartolommeo (Bramantino) 

Suavius, Lambert (Lamberto Suave, or Lam- 
bert Zutmann), VI, no; IX, 269, 270 

Subisso, Pietro di, VII, 187, 188 

Susanna Horebout 

Tadda, Francesco del (Francesco Ferrucci), 
VII, 9, 10, 49; VIII, 133, 140, 142; IX, 97 

Taddeo Bartoli 

Taddeo Gaddi 

Taddeo Zucchero 

Tan, Andrea, LIFE, I, 47-51; I, 47-51, 55, 56, 
58, 135, 136, 145, 219; III, 69 

Tan, Antonio d' Andrea, I, 51 

Tagliapietra, Duca, III, 169 

Tamagni, Vincenzio (Vincenzio da San Gimi- 
gnano) 



Tasso, Battista del, VI, 213; VII, 13, 30, 31, 
34, 35, 137; VIII, 18, 164, 173, 176; IX, 51; 
X, 208, 210 



Tasso, Domenico del, III, 200, 262 

Tasso, Giuliano del, III, 200, 262; V, 97 

Tasso, Leonardo del, V, 31 

Tasso, Marco del, III, 200, 262; VII, 156 

Tatti, Jacopo (Jacopo Sansovino) 

Tedesco, Guglielmo, IX, 237 

Tedesco, Jacopo (Lapo), I, 14, 18-20, 23, 24, 

65, 174 

Tedesco, Jacopo del, III, 233 ; VIII, 59, 60 
Telephanes, I, xxxix 
The Academicians 
Tibaldi, Pellegrino (Pellegrino da Bologna, or 

Pellegrini) 
Tiberio Calcagni 
Tiberio Cavalieri 
Timagoras, I, xxxix 
Timanthes, II, 80 

Timoteo da Urbino (Timoteo della Vite) 
Tintoretto, Jacopo (Jacopo Robusti), VIII, 

101-106; IX, 214; X, 20 
Tisi, Benvenuto (Benvenuto Garofalo) 

33 



258 



GENERAL INDEX 



Titi, Santi, V, 160; VIII, 227; IX, 135; X, 

19, 20 

Tiziano, Girolamo di (Girolamo Dante) 
Tiziano da Cadore (Tiziano Vecelli) 
Tiziano Minio (Tiziano da Padova) 
Tiziano Vecelli (Tiziano da Cadore) 
Todi, Pietro Paolo da, III, 92 
Tofano Lombardino (Cristofano Lombardi) 
Tome, Luca di, II, 5 
Tommaso, IV, 76 
Tommaso Barlacchi 
Tommaso Casignuola 
Tommaso da Lugano 

Tommaso da San Friano (Maso Manzuoli) 
Tommaso del Verrocchio 
Tommaso di Marco 
Tommaso di Stefano Lunetti 
Tommaso Ghirlandajo 
Tommaso (or Maso) Giottino 
Tommaso Laureti (Tommaso Siciliano) 
Tommaso Papacello 
Tommaso Pisano 
Tommaso Porta 

Tommaso Siciliano (Tommaso Laureti) 
Topolino, IX, 114, 115 
Torri, Bartolommeo, VI, 264, 265 
Torrigiano, LIFE, IV, 183-188; IX, 8, 10, 116 
Tossicani, Giovanni, I, 208 
Toto del Nunziata 

Tozzo, Antonio del (Antonio del Rozzo), V, 73 
Traini, Francesco, I, 198, 199 
Trento, Antonio da (Antonio Fantuzzi), V, 

249, 250; VI, 108 

Trevigi, Girolamo (Girolamo da Treviso) 
Trevio, Bernardino da (Bernardino Zenale), 

IV, 138; VIII, 54 
Treviso, Dario da, III, 280, 285 

Treviso, Girolamo da (Girolamo Trevigi), LIFE, 

V, 169-171; V, 68, 169-171; VI, 211, 212, 
244; X, 184 

Trezzo, Jacopo da, VI, 86 

Trezzo, Jacopo (Cosimo) da, VI, 86 

Tribolo (Niccolo), LIFE, VII, 3-37; V, 6, 28, 

136, 233; VI, 133; VII, 3-37, 43-45, 81, 112, 

176, 189; VIII, 10, 36, 142; IX, 20, 51, 77, 

78, 202, 223; X, 5, 30, 176, 177 
Tullio Lombardo 
Turbido, Francesco (II Moro), LIFE, VI, 22- 

28; IV, 61; VI, 14, 15, 21, 22-28, 40, 50, 

164 

Turini, Giovanni, III, 239 
Turrita, Fra Jacopo da, I, 49, 50, 56 

Ubertini, Francesco (Francesco d'Albertino, 

or II Bacchiacca), IV, 46; V, 222; VI, 60; 

VII, 29; VIII, 10, n, 16, 18-20; X, 8 
Ubertino, Baccio, IV, 46 
Uccello, Paolo, LIFE, II, 131-140; II, 20, no, 

131-140, 159, 183, 184, 253; III, 257; IV, 

185, 246; VIII, 63; IX, 133 



Udine, Giovanni da (Giovanni Martini), V, 

145-147 

Udine, Giovanni da (Giovanni Nanni, or de' 
Ricamatori), LIFE, VIII, 73-85; IV, 237, 
239; V, 77, 155, 175, 229, 238, 246; VI, 147, 
148, 180, 194-196; VII, 118; VIII, 73-85, 
171; IX, 42, 51; X, 176 

Udine, Martino da (Pellegrino da San Daniele, 
or Martino di Battista), V, 145-150 

Ugo da Carpi 

Ugolino Sanese (Ugolino da Siena) 

Unghero, Nanni, VII, 4; IX, 188 

Urbano, Pietro, IX, 44, 107 

Urbino, Bramante da, LIFE, IV, 137-148; I, 
32; III, 155; IV, 137-148, 199-202, 216, 217, 
223, 232, 237, 254; V, 26, 28, 29, 65, 68, 
69; VI, 6, 124, 126, 136, 138; VII, 249; 
VIII, 5, 40, 53, 54, 75; IX, 27-29, 31, 65, 
71, 188-190 

Urbino, Fra Carnovale da (Fra Bartolommeo) 

Urbino, Giulio da, X, 17 

Urbino, Raffaello da (Raffaello Sanzio) 

Urbino, Timoteo da (Timoteo della Vite), 
LIFE, V, 11-17; VII, 200 

Ursino, Niccolo (Niccolo Giolfino] 

Vaga, VI, 191, 192 

Vaga, Perino del (Perino Buonaccorsi, or de' 
Ceri), LIFE, VI, 189-225; II, 190; IV, 84, 
237. 2 54; V, 7, 77-79, 153, 162; VI, 78, 109, 
125, 129, 139, 148, 177, 189-225, 244, 257- 
259; VIII, 14, 15, 82, 197-199, 202, 215, 
232; IX, 20, 61, 151, 234, 257, 259; X, 47 

Valdambrina, Francesco di, II, 145, 146, 200 

Valerio Cioli 

Valerio Vicentino (Valerio de' Belli) 

Valerio Zuccati 

Valverde, VI, 116 

Vanni Cinuzzi 

Vannucci, Pietro (Pietro Perugino, or Pietro 
da Castel della Pieve) 

Vante (or Attavante) 

Varrone (of Florence), III, 7 

Vasari, Bernardo, III, 55 

Vasari, Giorgio, LIFE, X, 171-220 

I, as art-collector, xvii, xviii, lix, 10, 58, 

79, 92, 94. IIJ > I20 > *26, 138, 157* 
173, 174, 199, 208, 213, 223 

as author, xiii-xix, xxi, xxiii, xxiv, 
xxxi, xxxiii-xxxvii, xlii, xliii, xlvii, 
xlix, 1, Iv-lix, 7, 9, 10, 13-16, 23- 
25, 29, 44, 47-49, 51, 57-59, 66, 
75. 79, 80, 86, 87, 89, 91, 92, 94, 97, 
99, 103, 105, 109, H2, 113, 124, 
126, 127, 140, 141, 146, 150, 163, 
164, 170, 181, 183, 191, 192, 198, 
217, 222 

as painter, xlii, 67, 86, 119, 120, 147, 
208 

as architect, 25, 31, 38, 39, 119, 120 



GENERAL INDEX 



259 



Vasari, Giorgio 

II, as art-collector, 5, 20, 26, 39, 46, 51, 

58, 64, 96, 104, 109, no, 128, 135, 

139, 162, 178, 179, 227, 253 

as author, 3, 5, 10, 31, 55, 57, 71-73, 

77-87, 94-96, 104, 113, 119, 125- 

127, 136, 138, 139, 147, 160-162, 
165, 166, 172, 178, 184, 187, 188, 
190, 202, 208, 228, 229, 234, 250, 
252-254, 263, 264 

as painter, 32, 39 

as architect, 173, 233, 264, 265 

III, as art-collector, 12, 48, 52, 54, 68, 88, 

113, 124, 140, 149, 157, 164, 170, 
189, 198, 209, 214, 221, 238, 242, 
254, 263, 270, 284 

as author, 5, 6, 14, 18, 19, 30, 33, 34, 
36, 39, 48, 51-56, 59, 64, 74, 75, 
Qi-93. 97, no, 112, 113, 123, 136, 
142-144, 149, i57 J 63, J 64, 174, 
175, 178-180, 198, 199, 209, 215, 

221, 225, 242, 249, 259, 262, 273, 
280, 283 

as painter, 56, 209 
as architect, 55 

IV, as art-collector, 6, 13, 46, 58, 67, 90, 

91, 95, 113, 118, 132, 138, 143, 161, 
170, 175, 187, 262 

as author, 7, 9, 17, 19, 26, 28, 33, 36, 
38, 39, 46, 48, 51, 52, 54-56, 61, 
66, 67, 71, 74-77, 79, 82-85, 91, 
98, 99, 111-114, IJ 7f Il8 > I2I I26 ' 
132, 134, 137, 145, 151, 154, 155, 
159, 162, 170, 176, 177, 185, 186, 

204, 214, 219, 222, 223, 227, 229- 
231, 233, 236, 242, 244-248, 257, 
26O, 262, 269, 271, 274, 280, 28l 

as painter, 231, 262, 273, 274 
as architect, 148, 231, 273, 274 
V, as art-collector, 17, 22, 24, 38, 45, 49, 
74, 77 79, I0 4 I][ 8, I2 6, 128, 165, 
196, 197, 201, 209, 213, 219, 250- 
252, 256 
as author, 3-5, 7, 11, 12, 17, 22, 24, 

26, 28, 30, 35, 45, 63, 66, 69, 73, 
91, 96, 98, 108, 112, 114, 120, 126, 

128, 132, 134, 135, 139, 145, 146, 
148, 155, 177, 182, 185, 192, 194, 

199, 201, 210-213, 223, 230, 232, 
238, 247, 250, 251, 253-255, 259, 
260, 264 

as painter, 36, 80, 119, 135, 163, 232, 

233, 265 

as architect, 233, 250, 251 
VI, as art-collector, 3, 22, 54, 60, 120, 

157, 175, 225, 230, 250, 256, 260, 

263 
as author, 3, 6, 10, n, 13, 15, 22, 23, 

27, 28, 32, 35, 39, 42, 46, 48, 53, 
54 57-59, 65, 75, 76, 79, 82, 84- 



87, 91, 93-95, I05-IO7, H2, 113, 

120, 123, 133, 152, 153, 159, 161, 

165-167, 175, 176, 178, 190, 194, 

196, 2O2, 204, 207, 210-213, 215, 

217, 221, 223, 229-231, 235, 239, 

246, 248-250, 258, 26l, 264, 269, 
273 

as painter, 22, 72, 120, 215, 221, 263, 

264, 276 

as architect, 70, 139, 278 
VII, as art-collector, n, 99, 253 

as author, 3, n, 12, 14, 16, 21, 24, 25, 

28, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 4i, 79, 95, 96, 
99-101, 103, 109, 117-125, 127-132, 

137-139, 141, M2, 147, 155, 157- 
160, 167, 168, 172, 173, 175, 178- 
180, 186, 190, 202, 209, 210, 217, 
225, 226, 230, 231, 234-236, 239, 
240, 253, 254, 257 

as painter, 13, 31, 95, 118-132, 137- 
139, 141-143, 188, 189, 206, 229, 
230, 235 

as architect, 35, 37, 85, 91, 95, 101, 

102, 119, 137, 193, 194, 206 
VIII, as art-collector, 16, 29, 112, 128, 164, 
165, 170, 181, 192, 211, 230, 
231 

as author, 3, 4, 8-10, 14-17, 19, 23, 24, 
26, 29, 31, 34-37, 39-42, 45, 48-54, 
59, 65-68, 77, 80, 81, 84, 90, 92, 
94, 98, 101, 103, 105, 107, 108, 
113, 119, 122-124, I2 7, 128, 133, 
144, 145, 147, 150, 153-157, 161- 
167, 170, 171, 177, 180, 183-189, 

193, 2O3, 206, 211, 2l6, 220, 226, 
228-230, 233, 237, 238, 240, 245, 
259, 260 

as painter, 8, 14, 20, 23, 52, 68, 80, 
91, 98, 162-164, J 66, 167, 170, 180, 
183, 185, 186, 189, 203, 206, 207, 
210, 229, 233 

as architect, 206, 207, 220 
IX, as art-collector, 6, 16, 104, 149, 152, 
156, 238, 251, 258, 259 

as author, 4-8, 22, 27, 30, 32, 35, 46, 
47, 55, 56, 60, 61, 63, 65, 68-88, 
9 1 , 93-97, 102-104, 107, 109-112, 
114-118, 122-125, I2 8, 130, 134, 
135, 137-140, 145, I47-I5I, 154- 
156, 160, 162, 169-172, 177, 178, 

l82, 183, 187, 192, 193, 199, 202, 
2O6-2O8, 2IO, 212, 214, 215, 2l8, 
221, 230, 232-234, 238, 239, 241, 
2 4 2, 245, 247, 248, 250-253, 259- 
262, 265-272 

as painter, 23, 32, 43, 95, 96, 107, 117, 
118, 134, 138, 148, 151, 155, 156, 
170, 203, 269-271 

as architect, 68-73, 77-79, 95^-96, 107, 
117, 140, 207 



260 



GENERAL INDEX 



Vasari, Giorgio 

X, as art-collector, 13 

as author, 3, 8, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19-24, I 
29, 30. 32-34 37. 41-44. 47. 61, , 
62, 67, 69, 72, 76-78, 80, 82-84, ! 
90, 92-94, 97-102, 104, 105, 113, I 
116, 119, 127-129, 147, 162-164, ! 
166, 167, 171-223 
as painter, 12, 14, 16-20, 27, 105, 171- 

221, 223 

as architect, 10, 26-28, 31, 171, 174, 
177, 178, 181, 184, 189-193, 202, 
206-216, 218-221 
Vasari, Giorgio (son of Lazzaro Vasari, the 

elder), III, 52, 54-56 
Vasari, Lazzaro (the elder), LIFE, III, 51-56; 

IV, 71, 82 

Vasari, Lazzaro (the younger), III, 55 
Vecchietto, Lorenzo, LIFE, III, 129-131; II, 

151; III, 129-131 
Vecchio, Palma (Jacopo Palma) 
Vecchio of Bologna (Domenico Aimo) 
Vecelli, Orazio, VIII, 102; IX, 171 
Vecelli, Tiziano (Tiziano da Cadore), LIFE, IX, 
159-178; III, 179, 183; IV, 114; V, 66, 133, 
134,152, 153; VI, 109, in, 114, 161, 183, 
222; VII, 237; VIII, 29, 33, 51, 56, 92, 102; 
IX, 48, 145, 153, 159-179, 182, 183, 201, 
202, 247, 252; X, 20, 187 
Vellaert, Dierick Jacobsz, IX, 269 
Vellano da Padova 
Veltroni, Stefano, VII, 120, 123, 124, 129; 

VIII, 220; X, 20 

Venezia, Domenico da (Domenico Viniziano) 
Ventura, IV, 147, 148 
Venusti, Marcello (Marcello Mantovano), VI, 

220, 225; IX, 106, 259, 260 
Verbo (Verio), Francesco, IX, 211 
Vercelli, Bernardo da, V, 151 
Verchio, Vincenzio, IV, 60 
Verdezotti, Gian Maria, IX, 178 
Verese, VI, 118 
Verio (Verbo), Francesco 
Verona, Battista da (Battista Farinato) 
Verona, Fra Giovanni da, IV, 222 ; VI, 38, 39, 

51, 218 

Verona, Paolo da, III, 243; IV, 179 
Verona, Sebeto da, IV, 51, 55 
Veronese, Giovanni Battista, VI, 13 
Veronese, Paolo (Paolo Caliari) 
Veronese, Stefano (Stefano da Zevio), I, 221; 

IV, 51-54; VI, 35, 42 

Verrocchio, Andrea, LIFE, III, 267-276; II, 190, 
243, 248; III, 75, 223, 267-276; IV, 35, 39, 
.81, 90, 92, 112; V, 49. 50, 55; VII, 56; 
VIII, ii i ; X, 47 
Verrocchio, Tommaso del, X, 20 
Verzelli, Antonio da, II, 218 
Vetraio, Giovan Francesco (Giovan Francesco 
Bembo) 



Vicentino, Joannicolo (Giuseppe Niccold), VI, 

108 
Vicentino, Valerio (Valerio de' Belli), LIFE 

VI, 82-84; V, 247; VI, 76, 79, 82-84; VIII, 

S 2 

Vicenza, Battista of (Battista Pittoni) 
Vicino, I, 50, 57, 58 

Vico, Enea, LIFE, VI, 111-112; VIII, 180 
Vignuola (Jacopo Barozzi) 
Vincenzio, Fra Giovanni, X, 33 
Vincenzio Bresciano (Vincenzio di Zoppa, or 

Foppa) 

Vincenzio Caccianimici 
Vincenzio Campo 
Vincenzio Catena 
Vincenzio da San Gimignano (Vincenzio Ta- 

magni) 

Vincenzio Danti 
Vincenzio de' Rossi 
Vincenzio di Stefano 
Vincenzio di Zoppa (Vincenzio Foppa, or 

Bresciano) 

Vincenzio Tamagni (Vincenzio da San Gimi- 
gnano) 

Vincenzio Verchio 
Vincenzio Zuccati 
Vinci, Leonardo da, LIFE, iy, 89-105; I, 

xxxiv; II, 190; 111,270,2717^273, 286; IV, 

44, 82, 85, 89-105, 109, 127, 138, 151, 156, 

196, 212, 215, 242, 270; V, 49, 50, 86, 228, 

261; VII, 41-44, 57, 58, 60, 148, 152; VIII, 

42, 56, in, 112, 114, 115; IX, 15, 19, 234; 

X, 47 

Vinci, Pierino (Piero) da, LIFE, VII, 41-51 
Viniziano, Agostino (Agostino de' Musi), LIFE, 

VI, 102-103; V, 97; VI, 102-103, IQ 6; VII, 

60, 63 
Viniziano, Antonio, LIFE, II, 15-20; II, 15-20, 

37, 43, 83; III, 176; VIII, 233 
Viniziano, Domenico (Domenico da Venezia), 

LIFE, III, 97- I0 5; HI, 19, 63, 97' IO 5> J 73; 

VI, 182 

Viniziano, Fabrizio, IX, 215 
Viniziano, Niccola, VI, 209 
Virgilio Romano 
Visino, IV, 170, 171; V, 223 
Vite, Antonio, II, 45, 58 
Vite, Timoteo della (Timoteo da Urbino) 
Viterbo, Pier Francesco da, VI, 130, 132; VII, 

119, 202 
Vitruvius, IV, 48, 75, 138, 205, 266; V, 68, 71 ; 

VI, 5, 45, 140; VII, 211; VIII, 40, 237; 

IX, 44, 113, 190, 213, 218 
Vittore Bellini (Belliniano) 
Vittore Carpaccio (Scarpaccia) 
Vittore (or Antonio) Pisanello 
Vittore Scarpaccia (Carpaccio) 
Vittoria, Alessandro, V, 247; VII, 228; VIII, 

100; IX, 204-206, 223; X, 20 
Vittorio Ghiberti 



GENERAL INDEX 



261 



Vivarini, Bartolommeo, IV, 52, 59 
Vivarino, Luigi, III, 178, 179; IV, 52 
Viviano, Michelagnolo di, VII, 55-57, 60, 66, 

73, 98, 99 

Vivole, Raffaello delle, VII, 152 
Volkaerts, Dirk, IX, 270 
Volterra, Daniello da (Danielle Ricciarelli] 
Volterra, Francesco da, VIII, 41 
Volterra, Piero da, V, 64 
Volterra, Zaccaria da (Zaccaria Zacchi), V, 45, 

132; IX, 189, 190 
Vos, Marten de, IX, 268 
Vrient, Franz de (Franz Floris) 

Weyden, Roger van der (Roger of Bruges), III, 

61; IX, 265 
Willem Keur 
WiUem Key 
Willem Paludanus 
Willem van Antwerp 
Wouter Crabeth 

Zaccaria da Volterra (Zaccaria Zacchi) 
Zaganelli, Francesco de' (Francesco da Cotig- 

nola) 
Zanfragnino (Antonio Scarpagni, or Scarpag- 



nmo 



Zanobi di Poggino 

Zanobi Lastricati 

Zanobi Macchiavelli 

Zanobi Poggini 

Zanobi Strozzi 

Zenale, Bernardino (Bernardino da Trevio) 

Zeno, Maestro, IV, 60 

Zeuxis, I, xxxix; II, 80; III, 209; IV, 82, 83; 

VI, 239; IX, 133; X, 200 
Zevio, Aldigieri (Altichiero) da, IV, 51, 54, 55 
Zevio, Stefano da (Stefano Veronese) 
Zoccolo, Niccolo (Niccolo Cartoni) 
Zoppa, Vincenzio di (Vincenzio Foppa, or 

Bresciano) 
Zoppo, VI, 8 1 

Zoppo, Marco, III, 279, 280, 285 
Zoppo, Rocco, IV, 46 
Zuccati, Valerio, IX, 182, 183 
Zuccati, Vincenzio, IX, 182, 183 
Zucchero, Federigo, VIII, 101, 106, 218-221, 

223-228, 230, 231, 233-236, 259; X, 20 
Zucchero, Ottaviano, VIII, 215, 218, 219 
Zucchero, Taddeo, LIFE, VIII, 215-236, 240- 

261; VIII, 182, 188, 215-236, 240-261 
Zucchi, Jacopo, VIII, 233; IX, 134; X, 19 
Zutmann, Lambert (Lambert Suavius, or 

Lamberto Suave) 



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