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IfMtal) FROM Tim- ITAT-I'AN- C& 

'/'IT, ( ' " 

oL. VI. 










THE biographies of Italian artists compiled by Vasari will 
always be considered the principal source of literary information 
concerning the numerous great painters who flourished in Italy 
during the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. Amongst 
all the works treating of the same subject, including even those 
which are based on lie most recent ^searches, there is perhaps 
none which can claim to be so original and just in its cnticihms, 
so reliable in its accounts, and, before all, j>o classical in its 
literary qualities as these biographies from the pen of the 
Aretine painter, whose imperfect HkiU as an artist contrasts 
strangely with his first-rate literary achievements, 

We may trust Vasariamhesitatingly in liis general accounts of 
those artista, especially of tie ^Florentine school, who were his 
contemporaries and personal friends, and also in most COSCK 
where he describes works of art examined by himself. But 
even here we must make allowance for slight inaccuracies in 
details. They were perhaps inevitable in a work for which the 
materials had to bo collected under great difficulties the painter 
being at the same time engaged in multifarious works by which 
he sought to win the admiration of his contemporaries. 

In reading these lives we must always bear it in raind that, with 
the exception of a few cases, the writer had no recourse to 
documents With regard to earlier artists he had often to rely 
on tradition, wlich is always liable to exaggeration, and seldom 
trustworthy in questions of chronology. The blunders com- 
mitted by Vaaari in this respect are perhaps thone most frequently 
to be mot with, but fortunately the strenuous labours of loarwul 
Italian archives have rendered it possible to correct most of 
such errors. The tew Italian edition of Yawi by Bigtior 
Gaetano Milancsi abounds in notes and discourses on such and 
similar questions, the results of which have been embodied ia 
this volume of Supplementary Notes, Many of the pMim* 
by Yasan have of late changed bands ; others, wbch 


left Italy years a$o have found a resting-place in various 
collections, especially in Great Britain ; but the compiler of the 
new Italian edition seems to have had little or no oppor- 
tunity of becoming personally acquainted with such works, and 
he is therefore sometimes at fault in Ins accounts of them. In 
the present volume I have endeavonicd to make good these 
shortcomings of the Italian annotator from my own notes and 
from the writings of competent critics. 

Yasari's statements as to the authorship of the pictures 
described by him have certainly a great weight, but it would be 
rash to follow him blindly in matters of such importance when- 
ever disputes on their authenticity have arisen, and when these 
nre founded on reasonable f rounds. Vasari has the less claim to 
be looked upon as an indisputable authority in this respect inas- 
much as he has himself occasionally ascribed the same work to 
different hands. Such contradictory statements may have been 
the result of mere inadvertence, but at the same time indicate 
the necessity of caution on the part of the reader. In souic 
instances documentary evidence is against him, and in others a 
close examination of the style of the woiks of art has led to 
results which deviate more or less from the opinion pronounced 
by him. They may be comparatively few in number, but the 
mere possibility of their occurrence has enhanced the dilHculties 
in the preparation of this commentary to the popular English 
edition of Bonn's Standard Library. Only of late years has art 
criticism undertaken to study pictures on the basis of sound 
scientific methods, and it is to be presumed that future researches 
may thus throw a fuller light on several points than has been found 
possible here. On the other hand, I venture to hope that this 
volume of Supplementary Notes, partly derived from various 
literary resources, and partly collected during repeated personal 
in&pection of works of art in Italy as well as in England and 
elsewhere, will prove a useful guide to the readers of Vasari's 


VEEONA, November 9 1884, 




P. 15* 

THE bronze statue of a chimaA'a, found near Arezzo, has 
been transferred from the Uffi/i Gallery to the new Museo 
Archeologico in the Palazzo della Orocetia at Florence. An 
engraving of it will be found in Wmckelmaun's " Monumenti." 

Pp. 1832 

The general outlines of the history of early Christian art, as 
laid down here, may be considered as reliable ; but in the details 
there are many statements which later researches have proved 
to be incorrect. They are, in fact, so obvious, that we neod not 
point them out here separately, since it uoulcl bo absurd now- 
a-days to consider Vasari an authority on this subject. 

[Born 1240 died 1302.] 

P. 85* 

The five earliest Florentine painters, who are recorded in 
documents, are : 1066, Rustico ; 1112, Girolamo di Morcllo (both 
priests and painters) ; 1191, Marchisello; 1224, Fid anza; 1230, 
Bartolomeo, At Cimabue's lifetime twenty-one painter-masters, 
who were all teaching pupils, arc mentioned in two documents 
of the years 1282 and 1294. 

* This and the other asterisks, &c., refer to the footnotes on tha 
V&rn indicated, 


P. 35t 

BaJdinucci is mistaken in connecting the Cimabue family with 
the Gualticri family. According to documents, dated 1302, lately 
discovered at Pisa, the artist's family name was Cenni : ** Magis- 
ter Ccnni, dictus Cimabue, pictor, condam (quondam) Pepi de 
Florentia de populo Sancti Ambrosu " (See Giuseppe Fontana, 
"Due document! incditi riguardanti Cimabue." Pisa: Nistri, 

P. 35} 

The construction of the church of Santa Maria Novella dates 
from the year 1279. The paintings in the chapel of the Gondi 
do not now exist, but it appears from some records about them 
that they were executed during the second half of the fourteenth 
century by some follower or Giotto's. 

P. 36* 

This picture is evidently not by Cimabue. 

P. 36f 

This picture is now in the National Gallery, London (No. 565). 
It is probably by the hand of some follower of Cimabue's. 

P. 36J 

There can be no doubt that this picture is not by Cimabue, 
to whom Vasari ascribed it. 

P. 36 

St. Francis died in 1226. We may therefore suppose that 
the artist took for his model a portrait of the saint made at his 
lifetime. Authentic portraits of St. Francis are still preserved 
at Subiaco in the Sacro Speco, and at Assisi in the sacristies of 
the churches degli Augeli and San Francesco, 

P. 37f 

The hospital of S. Jacopo e Filippo, called also del Porcellana, 
no longer exists. It was situated near the street called del 
Porcellana, a by-name of a certain Guccio, who was prefect of 
the hospital during the fourteenth century. 


P. 38f 

The only picture by Cimabue in the Louvre represents the 
Virgin with the Infant Christ (No. 153). On the frame are 
twenty-six medallions, containing the figures of the apostles and 
of saints. 

P. 38+ 

Giunta Pisano is the most distinguished of tlio&e early masters 
n ho painted at A&sisi, and who by Vasan are here called Greeks. 

P. 39* 

The fresco paintings in the nave of the loAVor church are still 
in part preserved They represent scenes from the lives of 
Jesus Christ and of St. Francis, Vhey arc much inferior to 
Cimabue's genuine works, and were probably executed during 
the years 1232 and 1253 by some unknown Italian artists. 
Cimabue painted ou the right wall of the southern transept the 
large fresco of the Virgin with the Infant Christ. The paintings 
on the vaulted roof belong to a later date. The earliest frescoes 
in the upper church are in the southern transept. They repre- 
sent scenes from the life of St. Peter and a crucifixion. There 
onn be no doubt that they arc by Giunta Pisano, whose name is 
still preserved in the affixed fragmentary inscription "... NTA. 
PISA.NVS." Those in the northern transept represent scenes from 
the lievclation, and are marked by a more developed style. 
Above the four Evangelists on the first vault appear four angels 
floating downwards from heaven, and touching with their hands 
the Evangelists, who are in the act of writing. 

P. 39f 

Vasari's description of the subject is not correct. The friars 
taught by the four doctors of the Church arc all of the Franciscan 
order. - In the centre is a half-length figure of Christ, who is 
here represented with wings, and clad in a colobium (a tuirique 
without sleeves). Out of the eight historical pictures from the 
Old Testament only the first five are still to be seen. 

P. 39$ 

Kearly all these compositions are tolerably well preserved, 
but on the opposite side four have been destroyed. 


P. 41f 

This picture lias always been considered to be Cimabue's 

P. 41J 
This occurred in the year 1267. 

P. 42 

The Via Borgo Allegri, at Florence, is near the Piazza Sant 
Ambrosio. It is first mentioned in 1301. 

P. 42 

The picture here described as being in the church of San 
Francesco at Pisa does not now exist. But there is a large 
mosaic by him in the apsistof the cathedral, representing Jesus 
Christ enthroned, with St. John the Baptist on one side, and the 
Virgin on the other (the latter figure is the work of Vincinus of 
Pibtoja). In a document published by Ciampi ("Notizie clella 
Sagrestia di Belle Arredi," p. 144), "Cimabue, the painter of 
the Majestaa," acknowledges payment "for the figure of St. 
John, which he lias added to the Majcstas." This document is 
dated 1301. The documents discovered by Fontana mention 
also paintings by Cimabue in the church of the hospital of Sta. 
Chiara, at Pisa, where he was assisted by "Johannes dictus 
Nucchulus, Pictor, filius Apparecehiati." 

P. 42f 

Besides the pictures described by Vasari, there exist at present 
no genuine works of his. 

The statement that Cimabue was also engaged in the building 
of Florence Cathedral is neither confirmed by documents nor by 
early writers. 

P. 44* 

The fresco -paintings in the chapter of Santa Maria Novella, 
better known by the name of Capclla degli Spagnuoli, wore begun 
in 1320. They arc the work, not of Simone di Martmo, but of 
Andrea da Firenze. Cimabue's portrait, as here dewcnbed, was 
published by Vasari in his second edition of the lives of the 
artists. The costume however, as G. Milaneni ha,s pointed out, 
is thai* of a French cavalier. The portrait in question probably 
represents Walter of Brienne, Duke of Athenes. 


[Born in 1232 (?) - died in 1310.] 

P. 46* 

See Domenico lo Faso Piotrasanta, I)uca di Sorradifalco, cDon 
Domemco Benedetto Gravma, " Storia del Duomo di Monreale," 
1838-1859. The construction of the cathedral was "begun in 


The principal architect of the Ceutosa of Pavia was probably 
Master Bernardo of Venice. (See G. L Calvi, " Notizie sulla Vita 
e sulle Opere di Pnncipali Architetti,'%tc. Milano : 1839, p. 105.) 


The architect of the Cathedral of Milan was the Lombard 
Marco da Campione (see Calvi, p. 59), not Henry of Grinunden, 
as was believed formerly. 

P. 46H 

San Petromo was commenced in the year 1396 ; the architect 
was Master Antonio Vinconzi, of Bologna, who was assisted by 
the skilful architect Andrea Manfredi, General of the order of 
the Servites. (See Cieognara, " Storia della Sciiltura.") 

P. 46** 

Vasari here confounds the works of various architects who 
lived at different times. 

P. 47 

The construction of the Campanile on the Pkzza of St 
Mark's, Venice, was begun as early as 911. It was completed 
by Bartolomeo Buono, an architect of Bergamo, who lived during 
the end of the fifteenth and the begimiing of the sixteenth 
centuries. lie was also the architect of the Procurazio Vecchie, 
and of other Venetian palaces. 

The church of Sant Andrea, at Pistoja, probably dates from 
the eighth century. The sculpture on the facade, repre- 
senting the adoration of the Kings, boar the following in- 
scription, which Vasari seema to have misimdorstood : " Fecit 


hoc opus Gruamuns magister bon (ims) et Adol (Adeo datus) 
frater cjus. Tune crant operarii Villanus et Pathus films 
Tignosi A D. MCTXVJ." These figures seem to indicate the year 
1196. (See Boutin, " Journal de Lionville," vol. iv,) 

A Florentine artist, named Buono, who lived during the 
thirteenth century, worked at Pistoja, in the chapel of Sau 
Jacopo, and in some other churches ; probably also at Florence 
in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. 

P. 47 

This Master Guglielmo was certainly an Italian, probably of 
Pisa. He was born in 1165, and became the chief architect of 
the Cathedral ot Pisa. 

P. 49' 

In 1185 Bonnano executed the bronze doors of the Cathedral 
of Monreale, which are inscribed: "BONANVS cms PISANVS ME 


The foundation of the papal residence at the Vatican originates 
from the Popes Eugen III. (1145-1153) and Coelestin Til. (1191- 
1198), The building was continued by Pope Innocent III, 
(1198-1216), who fortified it by walls and towers, and by 
Innocent TV. (1243-1254). The construction of the old palaco 
was completed by Pope Nicolaus III. Orsim ^1277-1280) under 
the direction of the Florentine architects Pra Sisto and RiHtovi. 
At the time of the erection of the now palace by Pope Nicolaus V. 
(1447-1455) it way pulled down. 

P. 51 

Tho two lions are now at the principal entrance of the 

P. 51f 

The lower church of San Francesco at Assisi was completed 
in 1232, and the upper church in 1253. 

P. 54f 

The Palazzo del Bargello was begun in 1250, and was 
enlarged m 1345 by Agnolo Gaddl (See the Life of this artist.) 


P. 54J 

These statements of Vasari's about Arnolfo and Lapo are foil of 
blunders. The only facts we know about them on documentary 
evidence are the following : At the time of Arnolfo there lived 
at Florence Maestro Lapo, son of Ciuccio di Ciuto, and brother 
of Donate and Goro, who were also sculptors. In 1272 these three 
artists were elected citizens of Siena in recognition of their services 
in the decoration of the cathedral of Siena. Lapo had been a 
fellow disciple of Arnolfo's, but not his father. Probably he 
constructed some of the buildings in Tuscany, hero described by 

P. 55* 

The statement that the campanile of the Badia was constructed 
in 1330, is confirmed by Giovanni TOlani, a contemporary writer, 
but not by Arnolfo, whose death occurred twenty years before. 


These tombs, or sarcophagi, are now in the Cortile of the Pa- 
lazzo Riccardi. 

P. 57 

The cathedral of Florence was originally dedicated to Santa 
Reparata. In 1412 its present name, Santa Maria del Fiore, was 
given to it by a solemn degree of the Signori and Gollegi. 

Pp. 5758 

More exact measures than Vasari gives here will be found in 
Federigo Fantozzi's "Guida di Firenze," 1842, and in more 
recent guide books. 

[Bom between the years 1205 and 1207 died 1278.] 

[Born about 1250 died after 1328 ] 

P. 60J 

According to documents, lately deciphered by Gaetano Milanesi, 
Niccola Pieano was the son of one Pietro of Pisa, where he lived 


in the parish of San Biagio. The vexed question of the artist's 
birth-place is thus solved. 

P. 61* 

Fuccio appears to have lived after Niccola Pisano. Very little 
is known about him. 

P. 62* 

The old church of San Doincnico, at Bologna, which had been 
constructed after the designs of Niccola Pisano, and wherein 
his son Giovanni erected the principal altar, was completely 
modernised, in the course of last century. 

P. 63 

The church of San Micliele, in Borgo, founded in 1018, was 
completed m 1304, after the plans of Fra Gughehno of Pisa, 
disciple of Niccola Pisano. 

Pp. 6364 

In July, 1272, Niccola Pisano received the commission to 
restore the altar of the church of San Jacopo at Pistoja. This 
is probably also the date of the apse here mentioned by Vasan. 
The mosaics in the apse were destroyed in 1599. 

P. 64* 

The architecture of the Santo at Padua is so different in style 
from the authenticated works of Niccola Pisano, that it is difficult 
to believe Vasari's statements referring to it. 

P. 66 

The church of San Lorenzo, at Naples, was begun in 1266 by 
Charles I. of Anjou, and completed in 1324. The Pwcopio, or 
Episcopal Palace, dated from the year 334. In its place Charles I. 
begun in 1272 to construct the cathedral. 

P. 67 

The beautiful reliefs which decorate the front of Orvioto 
Cathedral are not by Niccola Pisauo, nor was he employed there as 
an architect. (See Delia Valle, " Storia del Dtiomo d'Orvieto.") 
The German artists, here mentioned as assistants 
wero no doubt Lombards. 


P. 68f 

See " Le Sculture di Niccolb e Giovanni da Pisa e di Arnolfo 
fiorentmo, che ornaDO la fontana maggiore di Perugia, dise^nate 
e incise da Silvestro Massari, e descntte da Gio. Battista Virmi- 
glioni." Perugia: 1834, with eighty copper-plates. 

P. 70* 

See also G. Milanesi, "Document! per la Storia delTArte 
Senese." Siena: 1855-56, vol. i., p. 255. 

P. 70f 

The altar at Arezzo, here ascribed to Giovanni Pisano, is not 
by Giovanni Pisano, but of a later date. (See Cavalcaselle e 
Crowe, " Storia della Pittura Italiana '' vol. i) 

P. 72|| 

The pulpit of St. John the Evangelist, commonly called San 
Giovanni fuor civitas, is the work of Fra Guglielmo of Pisa, a 
Dominican firiar, and pupil of Niccola Pisano. 

P. 73 

The inscription here cited by Yasari, has the date 1301. 

P. 74 

Pope Clement V. went to Avignon in 1305, and this town 
remained the papal see until tihe year 1377, when Pope Gregory 
XI. returned to Rome. 

P. 75* 

The pulpit has of late been reconstructed, 


The enlargement of the cathedral of Pisa dates from the year 
1317. Aller Giovanni Pisano's death the campanile was finished 
by tfie two Sienese architects and sculptors, Niccol6 di Cocco del 
Mercia, and Sano, his pupil, about the year 1340. These two 
artists executed also the pulpit of tho cathedral during the years 
1354 and 1359. 

P. 76f 
Giovanni Pisano did not die in 1320, as Yasari asserts here, 


since we have records of works executed by him at a subsequent 
date. In the church Santa Maria dell 3 Arena, at Padua, he 
erected in 1328 the monument of Enrico degli Scrovegni. It is 
signed : " Opus Johanms magistri Nicholi de Pisis." The exact 
date of his death is not known 

P. 76J 

In 1313 Giovanni Pisano executed at Geneva the sepulchral 
monument of Margherita, the wife of the German Emperor 
Henry VII. The remaining portions of this sculpture are now 
in the Villa Brignole-Sale at Voltri. (See "Archivis Storico 
Itahano," 1875, p. 327.) 

[Born about 1250 died after 1320.] 

P. 79 

The date on the inscription, which Vasari here quotes, is not 
1199, as he says, but MCCL. 

Pp. 8081 

The apse of San Giovanni in Latorano at Rome was con- 
structed in 1291 by order of Pope Niccolaus IV. The beautiful 
mosaics which decorate it bear the signature : " Jacobus Torit, 
Pictor, hoc opus fecit." His assistant, IVa Jacobo di Camerino, 
seems to have executed the frieze, where his name is inscribed. 
The mosaics in the apse of Santa Maria Maggiore, which are 
also by Turriti, are dated 1295, (See G. B. de Rossi, " Musaici 
dclle Chiese di Roma anteriori al secolo xv," Rome : 1872.) 

P. 81* 

These verses were evidently made at the time of Vasari, 
possibly in honour of Andrea del Sarto. 

P. 82* 

Andrea di Antonio Tafi was still alive in 1404, when he made 

his testament. 



[Born about 1259 died after 1333.] 

P. 83 

It is not probable that G-addo Gaddi should have been taught 
the art of mosaic-painting by Tafi, since Tail was not liis elder 
as Yasari asserts. It is even doubtful whether he exercised 
that art. 

P. 84+ 

The upper portion of the mosaics on the fagadc of Santa Maria 
Maggiore at Rome are by Filippo Rossuti. Underneath there 
are four scenes representing the foundation of the Church. 
According to Yasari these were by G-addo G-addi. (See G-. B. de 
Rossi, " Musaici delle Chicse di Roma antcriori al secolo xv." 
Rome. 1872.) 

P. 8Sf 

It is highly improbable that the mosaic in the Ulfizi Gallery, 
here described, is by Gaddi, since its style points to the Byzantine 

P. 85J 

In the opinion of Cavalcaselle and Crowe, some of the wall* 
paintings in the upper church of San Francesco at Assisi may be 
bj- Gaddo Gaddi, 

P. 88* 

One hundred thousand gold florins were expended in the con- 
struction of the church of Santa Maria Novella, which was com- 
pleted about the year 1357. 

[Born 1216 (?) died 1293 (?).] 

P. 88J 

Margaritone, who probably lived before Cimabuc, was a native 
of Yasari's home, and there is ? apparently, much patriotic pride 


in all that the "biographer has to say about him. The few works by 
his hand "which still remain do not bear out the terms of admi- 
ration which Vasari has bestowed on his art. In fact, if it were 
not for Vasari's writings, perhaps none of his works would have 
been preserved until the present day. Vasari states here that 
he worked in the Greek, or Byzantine manner. But, in the 
opinion of the present writer, nothing can be more contrary to 
the principles of Byzantine art than the style of Margaritone's 
pictures, as it is shown, for instance, in the signed picture by him 
at the National Gallery, London. The arrangement of the com- 
position, every detail in it, and even the execution, display a 
class of workmanship which stands independent of traditions, and 
which is the direct offspring of the naive yet barbarous taste 
prevalent in Italy during th^e middle ages. 

P 89 

This picture is now in the National Gallery, London (No. 564). 
It is signed " Margaritus de Aritio me fecit. 1 ' 

P. 90 

The picture of the Crucifixus in the church of Santa Croce, at 
Florence, is probably not by Margaritone, but by some other 
contemporary artist. 

P. 93f 

We can hardly believe that Sphiello, who lived a century later 
than Margaritone, should have painted his portrait, and it may 
be noted here that not a few of the portraits of the earliest Italian 
masters, published by Vasari in Lis second edition of the lives, are 
evidently unauthentic. 

[Born 1260 -died 1336.] 

P. 94 

Antonio Pucci says in his " Ceatiloquio," which has been 
published in "Delizie degli Eruditi Toscaui," that Giotto died in 
1336 at the age of seventy years, thus assigning his birth to the 

VOL. I.] GIOTTO. l3 

year 1266, and this we may accept as a more probable date than 
the one given by Vasari, since we know that in 1298 Giotto 
executed in Rome the mosaic of the Navicella at the church of 
San Peter's, that is to say when he was thirty-two (scarcely 
twenty-two) years of age. Vasan's romantic story about Giotto's 
early studies in drawing is confirmed by a curious passage in. 
Leonardo da Vinci's writings. (See J. P. Richter, " The Literary 
Works of Leonardo da Vinci," vol. i., p. 332.) The same story 
occurs in Ghiberti's " Comentario." 

P. 95 
See Boccaccio, " Decamerone," Giornata vi , Novella v. 

P. 97|| 

The fragments of the paintings w*inch from the church Del 
Carmine came to the Liverpool Institution and to the Campo 
Santo at Pisa, are evidently not by Giotto. It appears also, from 
documents at Florence, that they had been executed after Giotto's 

P. 98* 

The wall paintings in the church of San Francesco at Assisi r 
which Vasari here ascribed to Giotto, are evidently not by this 
master, but by some imitator of his style. The paintings in 
the old cathedral of Arezzo were ruined with that building in 

P. 101* 

The earliest fresco paintings in the Campo Santo at Pisa, 
which Vasari erroneously ascribes to Giotto in the second edition 
of the "Lives," and to Orcagna in his first edition, appear to 
have been painted in 1371 by Francesco da Voltemu 

P. 103* 

The paintings on panel by Giotto, formerly in the old church of 
St. Peter's, at Rome, are now in the sacristy of St. Peter's Church. 

P. 104* 

Ko authenticated works from the hand of the celebrated illu- 
minator Oderigo da Gubbio, have come down to us (see " Giomale 
d'Eruditione Artistioa," Perugia: 1873, vol. ii, p. 1), nor da 
we possess works by his pupil Franco Bolognese. 


Pp. 105 106 

The crucifixion painted by Giotto in the church of Santa 
Maria sopra Minerva, does not exist now. 

P. 106 

Giotto was called to Avignon in 1334 by Pope Benedict XII. 
He begun there to decorate the papal palace with representations 
of the lives of some martyrs, but died before the work was 

P. 108J 

It is now generally admitted that these paintings are not by 
Giotto, but of a later date. 

P. Ill* 

The paintings ascribed to Giotto in the various churches at 
Ravenna arc inferior to his authenticated works at Padua, 
Horence, and Assisi, 

P. 113$ 
This picture is now in the collection of W. Puller Maitland, 

P. 119 

Pietro Laureati, or Lorenzetti, and Simone Memmi of Siena, 
whose life follows, were certainly not among the pupils of Giotto* 

P. 119f 

In Milanesi's new edition of Vasari the reader will find Giotto's 
*' Canzone sopra la Poverta" (vol. i., pp. 426-428). 

P. 120 

The quotation is from the Novella Ixii, 

[Born . . * . died 1350.] [Born , . . . died 1348.] 

P. 123f 

The Fontebranda is for the first time mentioned iu the year 
1081 ; in 1193 it was enlarged by Maestro Bellamiuo ; in 1243 it 


was covered by three arches, Dante refers tc it (Inferno 30, 78) ; 
" Per Fontebranda non darei la vista." 

P. 123 

The facade of the Duomo of Siena in its present slate is not 
the work of Giovanni Pisano. It was began in the beginning of 
the fourteenth century, but at that time the work advanced very 
little, and it was only completed in the second half of that century 
by Giovanni di Oecco. 

P. 124 

The date here assigned to the construction of that portion of 
the Palazzo Publico of Siena, which is situated towards the Via 
di Malborghetto, is correct (1308, or rather 1307), but the docu- 
ments referring to this work do not mention Agostino's name as 
having been engaged in it. The same may be said about the 
construction of the north front of the cathedral, and of the church 
of San Francesco. 

Pp. 124125 

The names of Agostino and of his son Giovanni occur for the 
first time in 1339 among the architects employed at the cathedral 
of Orvieto. 

Pp. 128129 

About the extensive destructions caused by the inundations of 
the Po in 1330, see Muratori, " Rer, Ital. Script.,*' vol xii., col. 738. 

P. 131 

The altar in the church of San Jacopo at Pistoja is, according 
to Ciampi and Tolomei, the work of Andrea di Jacopo Ognabene, 
and was completed in 1316. 

P. 132 

The church of Sant Antonio at Venice has been demolished. 
The Venetian artists, Jacobello and Pietro Paolo, were the sons 
of Antonio delle Masegne, or de 1 Masigni. They executed, among 
other noteworthy works, the fourteen fine statuettes on tho 
architrave of the gallery which separates the presbyterium from 
the nave of the church of St, Mark's, Venice, 



[Born 1301 (?) died 1350 ] [Bora 1250 (?) died 1339.] 

P 137f 

Ghibertfs "Ricordi" -were published for the first time by 
Cicognara, in lis <; Sloria della Pittura," and afterwards in vol. i. 
of the Lemonnier edition of Vasari The notes collected by Do- 
memco Ghirlandajo seem to be lost now. 

P. 138 

Vasari ascribes here to Stefano the frescoes of the capclla 
Buontempi in the church Cf San Domenico at Perugia, but a few 
pages further he states that they were by Buffalmacco. So much 
seems to be certain that they are neither by the one nor by the 
other, but by some unknown painter of the fifteenth century. 

P. 138f 

Some portions of this picture are in the collections of the Rev. 
E. Russel, of London, and of the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres. 
(See Catalogue of the Winter Exhibition at the Royal Academy, 
London, 1878, pp. 34-35.) 

[Bom .... died about 1350.] 

P, 144* 

Some of the finest wall-paintings in the lower church of San 
Francesco at Assisi are ascribed by Cavalcaselle to Pietro Laurati, 
or Lorcnzetti, as he is generally called nowadays. Among 
these is the extensive representation of the crucifixion, which 
Vasari ascribes to Pietro Cavallini, and the Passion of Our Lord 
as well as the figure of St. Francis receiving the Stigmata, which 
pictures Yasari ascribes to Giotto. Cavalcaselle also ascribes to 
Lorenzetti the half-length figures of the Madonna, of St. Francis, 
and of other saints on the opposite aisle. 


P 144t 

There is at present no known picture by this artist either in 
his native town, Siena, or elsewhere. 

[Born about 1270 -died 1348.] 

P. 144 

Andrea, the son of ser Ugolino, a notary, was a native of 

P. 146 * 

Vasari states here that Andrea took for his model the few 
antique sculptures he had an opportunity of seeing, and Giotto's 
manner of drawing He apparently overlooks the fact that 
Andrea must have seen also the sculptures executed in his native 
town by Niccola and Giovanni Pisauo. Moreover, we learn from 
the documents of the Opera del Duomo di Pisa, quoted by 
Ciampi, that Andrea had been an assistant of GKovanni Pisano. 

P. 147f 

These statues are now in the Orti Oricellari, and some of 
them have lately been placed on the Stradone del Poggio Im- 
periale, outside the Porta Komana. But it may be doubted 
whether they are really by the hand of Andrea. The earliest 
record in the account books of the Opera del Duomo of Florence 
about statues destined for the facade of the cathedral date from 
the year 1357, when Andrea was deid. 

P. 147f 

Alberto Arnold! was a Lombard, who came to Florence 
towards the beginning of the fourteenth century. 

Pp. 147-48 

The decorative carvings in wood of the Misericordia were 
executed in 1515 by Koferi d' Antonio di Noferi. Carota was not 
the appellation of this artist, as Vasari states, but of Antonio di* 


Marco di Giano. Noferi was paid 231 lire for Ms work, and 
Hidolfo del Ghirlandajo eighty-four lire for the three predella 
pictures. The marble figure of the Madonna by Andrea was 
executed in 1361 for sixteen gold florins. It stands now on the 
fag ade of the Misericordia towards the baptistery. 

Pp. 148-49 

In January, 1330, Andrea was commissioned to execute the 
bronze doors of the baptistery of Florence, for which Giotto had 
made designs. Three goldsmiths assisted him in the modelling 
work, which took only four months. The casting was at first 
undertaken by a Venetian bell-founder, but he having failed, 
Andrea was entrusted with it. The bronze doors with their 
marble framework were placed on the spot in 1336. 

P. 149* 

This altar had been executed in 1313, and it is therefore very 
doubtful whether it was really by Andrea Pisano. 

[Born . . . .Died 1351.] 

P. 154 

Of this artist no works have come down to the present day. 
fie is mentioned by Boccaccio, "Decamerone," Giornata viii. 
Novella 3, 6, 9 ; and Giornata ix. Novella 5 ; and by Sacchetti, 
Novella 191, 161, 164, and 192. 

P. 167* 

From documents we learn that those pictures in the Campo 
Santo at Pisa, which Vasari ascribes here to Bufialmaco, were 
painted about the year 1391 by Pietro di Pnccio of Orvieto. 


[Bom . . . .Died about 1338.] 

P. 1741T 

For the same place Lorenzetti painted also a panel picture, 
representing the Annunciation. It is signed with the artist's 
name, and bears the date 1344. It is now in the gallery of the 
Institute delle Belle Arti. 

P. 176* 

Vasari does not mention, and, in fact, does not seem to have 
known, that Ambrogio Lorenzetti, or diCiorenzo, was the brother 
of Pietro di Lorenzo, whom he calls Laurati. These two artists, 
who worked together in several large decorative works, are, next 
to Dnccio and Simone Martini, the most important artists of the 
earlier Sienese school. 

[Born. ..Died 1364?] 

P. 177 

There is no documentary evidence for any of the facts 
related by Vasari about the life of this artist. He states that 
Cavallini visited Florence, Assisi, and Orvieto, which we may 
believe. He omits, however, to mention that he was staying 
also at Naples, a fact about which there is a contemporary 
record. la June, 1309, King Charles II. of Naples ordered a 
high salary to be paid to "Magister Cavallinns de Roma, pictor," 
who at the time had a house there. (See H. W. Schultz, 
"Denkmaler der Kunst des Mittelalters iu Unteritalien," 
Dresden, 1860, vol. iii p. 76 ; vol. iv, p. 127.) 

P. 177* 

Cavallini was an artist of repute when Giotto came to Rome, 
and we may therefore doubt whether he became a disciple and 
assistant of Giotto's, as Vasari says here. 


P. 177t 

The mosaics in the apse of S. Maria di Trastevere represent 
Clnist and the Virgin enthroned and surrounded by saints. 
Below are scenes from the life of the Virgin, and in the centre a 
medallion containing a Madonna between St, Paul and St. Peter, 
with the kneeling figure of the donor Bertoldo Stcfaneschi, who, 
as appears from documents, lived at the end of the thirteenth 
and beginning of the fourteenth century The border of this 
medallion contains the letter " P," placed in a circle, evidently 
the artist's signature. In a copy of these mosaics, in water- 
colours, made in 1640, and now in the Barberini Library at Home, 
the fragment of the full signature is to be seen " (hoc op) vs 
(fee) IT PETRVS. . . ." apparently pointing to Pietro Cavallini. 
(See GK B. de Rossi, " Musaici cnstiani e saggi di pavimenti dclle 
chiese di Roma," 1872, vu. and viii.) The style of these mosaics 
is additional evidence that Cavallini was neither a pupil of 
Giotto's, nor a follower of his art. 

P. 177 

The facade of the church of San Paolo fuori le mura is deco- 
rated by modern mosaics. There are no traces of those by 

Pp. 177-178 

The fragments of mediaeval fresco-paintings in the cloisters of 
San Paolo fuori le mura are different from the style of Cavallini's- 
authenticated works. 

P. UfOf 

In the opinion of Cavalcaselle this crucifix is of a later date ; 
perhaps of the time of Donatello. 

P. 181 

The works in and near Pistoja by Giovanni of Pistoja, whose 
full name was Giovanni di Bartolomeo Cristiani, have been de- 
scribed by Ciampi, Tolomei, and Tigri. A triptychon by him in 
the Oratory de' Gherardi Pieraccini, near Pistoja, bears the 
signature " Johannes Bartholomei de Pistorio fecit." 


[Born 1285 (?) Died 1344.] [Boni Died 1357 (*)] 

P. 182+ 

Simone was the son of Martino, and a relative of Lippo, who 
was a son of Memmo di Filippuccio. Memmo had also been a 

P. 183 

Simone was a disciple of Duccio, not of Giotto. The style of 
his works is throughout Sienese. 

P. 183 

Simone went to Avignon in February, 1339, with his brother 
Donato, who was his assistant, and stayed there until his <lcath. 
The wall paintings he executed there in the Pope's palace are 
still to be scon. 

P. 185* 

It can only be said with certainty that the wall decorations of 
the Capella degli Spagnuoli, the chapter-house of Santa, Maria 
Novella, are the work of the school of Giotto. Messrs. Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle believe them to be by Andrea da Fircnze and 
by Antonio Veneziano. 

P 185f 

The figure which Vasari asserts to represent Madonna Laura 
is now believed to be an allegorical representation of Pleasure ; 
nor is it likely that the male portraits are meant for the personages 
here enumerated. They are more probably likenesses of note- 
worthy contemporaries. 

P. 188f 

Simone' s altar-piece for the church of Santa Caterina was 
painted in 1320. Portions of it are now in the gallery of the 
Academy of Fine Arts at Pisa, and at the Seminary. It ifl con- 
sidered to be one of the most important panel-paintings by the 
artist. See Bonaini, " Memorie inedite." 


P. 189* 

Yasari omits to mention the highly important wall paintings, 
which Simone executed in the church of San Francesco at Assisi. 
They represent scenes from the life of San Martino, and are, 
perhaps, the most fascinating paintings ever produced by a 
Trecento artist In the life of Giotto, Vasari ascribed them to 
Puccio Capanna. 

[Born about 1300 Died 1366.] 

P. 192f 

The pictures here ascribed to Taddeo Gaddi are, according to 
documents, by Giovanni di Cavenzajo (a place near Como), or as 
he is generally called, Giovanni da Milano. They were executed 
in 1365. 

P. 195 

The present building of Or San Michcle was begun in 1336, 
but G. Milanesi considers it highly improbable that Taddeo 
Gaddi had ever been employed as an architect. (See the Sansoni 
edition of Vasari, Florence, 1878, vol. i. pp. 587-591.) 

P. 201* 
There is no picture by Taddeo Gaddi in the Berlin Museum. 

P. 202f 

Those wall paintings at Assisi which Vasari ascribes here to 
Giovanni da Mflauo, are stated by Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle 
to be by Giotto, 

[Born 1308 (?) Died 1368.] 

P. 204f 

There is no record in any of the Florentine documents of the 
time which, supports Vasari's statement about the profession of 


Orcagna's father. Aiielrea certainly began Ms artistic career by 
studying painting, probably under the guidance of his brother 
Nardo. In 1343 he became a member of the painters* guild, and 
only nine years later he was received into the guild of sculptors. 
His name is here given as : " Andrea Cionis, vocatus Arcangnolus, 
piclor populi Sancti Michaelis de Yicedominis." Nardo, the 
name of his brother, is an abbreviation of Lionardo. Vasari, 
however, calls him Bernardo. 


The picture ascribed to Orcagna in the Lombard! Baldi 
collection is now m the National Gallery, London. (See J. P. 
Richter, "Italian Art, in the National Gallery," London, 1883, 
p. 12.) 

P. 208f 

The pictures in the Campo Santo, which Vasari here ascribes 
to Orcagna, may be safely assumed to be the work of Sienese 
painters. Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle ascribe them to the 
brothers Lorcnzetti. 

P. 209t 

Giuliano di Giovanni di Caslellano of Moutelupo, called 
Sollazzino, was born at Florence about the year 1470. In 1506 
and 1509 he is mentioned as staying at Pistoja, 1513 as being at 
Serravalle, and in 1516 at Casole in the Sienese territory. Later 
on he went to Pisa, and lived there until his death in 1543. The 
first restoration of the wall-paintings in the Campo Santo was due 
to Cecco di Piero, who in 1379 was engaged in this work in 
company with other unknown artists. 

P. 210* 
See also Filippo Villani, " De civitatis Florentiae famosis civibus*" 

P. 210 

Andrea Orcagna's brother Jacopo devoted himself entirely to 
painting, not to sculpture. 

P. 211f 

Orcagna died eight years before the construction of the loggia 
was begun. The architects of this magnificent building were 


Benci di Clone and Simone di Francesco Talenti. (See Passerini, 
Ounosita storico-artistiche : La Loggia de' Priori.) 

P. 212* 

The statues of the Virtues were designed by Angelo Gaddi in 
1383 and 1386, and sculptured by Piero Tedesco, Giovanni di 
Fetto, and Jacopo di Piero. 

P. 214[| 

Burchiello lived half a century after Giotto. He died at 
Home in 1448. 

P. 214f 

See Milanesi's edition of Vasari, voL i. p. 608, where the 
reasons are indicated why t^ie date of Orcagna's death should be 
assigned to the year 1368, and that of his birth to the year 1308. 

P. 216 

The painter Mariotto di Nardo was not a member of the 
Orcagna family. He was the son of the Florentine sculptor 
Leonardo, or Nardo, di Cione, and died in 1424. 

P. 217* 

This picture is now in the picture gallery of the Academy at 

[Bora -Died ] 

P, 2J8. 

In compiling this biography Vasari seems to have mingled 
together three different painters. There was at Florence a 
painter, Maso di Banci, of whom there are a few scanty records 
under the date of the years 1343 and 1350, Another artist with 
the name of Giotto di maestro Stefano, is referred to also iu 
& document of the year 1369, and some time previous to that 
date* may have had the nickname of Qiottino because of his few 
merits. There was also a certain Tommaso di Stefano, who in 


1385 became a member of the guild of sculptors, and who 
executed a statue on the campanile of the cathedral, which 
Ghiberti ascribes to Maso, and Vasari to Tommaso, called 
Giottino. The pictures which Vasari describes in these chapters 
are mostly unimportant, and in consideration of their disputed 
authorship they cannot claim any other interest but of being 
specimens of the school of Giotto. 

P. 224$ 

Tossicani, or more probably Toscani, seems to have been of 
Florence, not of Arczzo , he died in 1403. He executed amongst 
other works the wall paintings in the chapel Ardinghelli of the 
church Santa Trinita at Florence, erroneously ascribed by Vasari 
to Don Lorenzo Monaco. Michelini, or as G. Milanesi suggests, 
Michele di Maso Michelozzo, became,^ 1358, a member of the 
painters' guild. 

[Born 1307 Died 1365.] 

P. 226 

As in the preceding Lite Vasari was led to make one artist 
out of three, he has in this chapter also assigned to one artist the 
works originated by two, if not more, distinct persons. There 
are, in fact, so many painters bearing the Christian name of 
Giovanni, that it becomes an almost impossible task to comment 
on the details here given. 

TBorn Died 1396.] 

P. 232 

Vasari here states that the hall of the municipal palace 
(Palazzo del Podesta) was vaulted under the direction of Agnolo 
Gaddi, This work was begun in 1333, when Agnolo Gaddi 


must have been very young. It was completed in 1340 under 
the direction of the architect Neii Fioravanti. It is therefore 
highly improbable that Agnolo Gaddi, who, as far as we know, 
never practised architecture, should have been called upon in 
such an important case as this. 

P. 233 1| 

Stefano da Verona, or, as he signu his name, Stefano da Zevio, 
was a pupil of Vittore Pisano. His manner is very different 
from that of Agnolo Gaddi, and of the school of Giotto in general. 

P. 234* 

See also Milanesi's edition of Vasari, vol. i. pp. 642, 643, note. 
The illuminator Pietro da Perugia is not to be confounded with 
the celebrated Pietro Pefugino, Vasari refers here either to 
Pietro Paolo della Monna, or to Pietro di maestro Meo, two 
artists of but httle merit, who lived both at the time of Pope 
Pius II. (See " Giornale di erudizione artistica," Perugia, vol. ii. 
pp, 309 and 310 ; vol. vi. p. 129.) 

P. 234f 

There are no pictures by Agnolo Gaddi in the church of San 
Francesco at Assiai. 

P. 234 f 

The best Italian edition of Cemrini's " Trattato " is by Gaetano 
and Carlo Milanesi, Florence, 1859. 

[Born . . . .Died 1381 ?] 

P. 240 

There is a signed picture by Luca di Tomfc in the Gallery of 
the Academy of Fine Arts at Siena, and another in the Academy 
of Fine Aria at Pisa, They bear the dates 1367 and 1366, 

VOL. I.] DUOOIO. 27 


[The first meution of this master is in 1282, the last in 1339.] 

P. 241 J 

The painter Guido does not hold an exceptional position in 
the history of Sienese art, since the picture which was hitherto 1 
believed to have been executed in 1221, really dates from the 
year 1281. (Seo G. Milancsi, *' Scritti varj : Delia vera eta di 
Guido pittore Senese e della cclebre sua tavola in San Domenico 
di Siena," Siena, 1873.) 

P. 242* 

In October, 1308, Duccio received the commission for this 
celebrated picture, and finished it in 1311. 2,000 gold florins 
were paid for it (some say 3,000), because of the extensive use of 
gold and ultramarine which the painter had to make. 

P. 242J 

There is a small but very fine picture by Duccio in the STational 
Gallery, London (No. 566). It is a triptych, with the Madonna 
and Infant Christ in the centre. (See J, P. Eichter, " Italian Art 
at the National Gallery,'* pp. 8-9.) 

P. 243 

The very scanty information about Moccio in contemporary 
documents shows that he was a native of Perugia. He is not 
mentioned in the account-books of Santa Maria del Fiore at 
Florence, but some work in the Cathedral of Siena was done 
under his directions. 

Pp. 243-244 

The monument of the bishop Simone (not Era Zenone) 
Vigilant!, at Aacona, is not the work of Moccio, but of Andrea 
da Firenze. The doors of San Francesco, and of Sant Agostino r 
at Ancona, are by Giorgio da Sebenico, 



[Flourished in the second half of the fourteenth century,] 

P. 244$ 

Antonio di Francesco da Yenezia became in 1374 a member 
of the painters' guild at Florence. There was at the same 
time a Florentine painter, Antonio di Francesco Vanni, who 
entered the guild in 1382, It is very possible that some of the 
works here ascribed to Antonio Viniziano were by the latter 

P. 249* 

The tabernacle by Antonio Vmiziano, at Nuovoli, near Prato, 
is still in its place; the pictures, however, are not in a good state 
of preservation. They represent the Deposition from the Cross 
in the centre, and at the sides the Last Judgment and the Death 
of the Virgin. 

[Flourished in the middle of the fourteenth century.] 

P. 252 

There is a probably genuine picture by Jacopo da Casentino 
in the National Gallery, London. It comes from Prato Vecchio, 
and is a representation of St. John the Evangelist lifted tip into 
Heaven ; with various saints, and other scenes from the life of 
the Evangelist (No. 580). 

P. 254. 

The rules and regulations of the Florentine brotherhood of 
painters were published by Baldinucci, and also by Gaye, 
*' Carteggio inedito," vol iL 


[Born 1333 -Died 1410 ] 

P. 255 

The two Spinello families, of Florence and of Arezzo, were 
not connected with each other. 

P. 259f 

The dates here given, 1334 and 1338, are probably a printer's- 
error of the first edition, and stand for 1384 and 1388. Some 
fragments of wall-paintings, possibly j)y Spinello, are still to be 
seen in the church of San Francesco, at Arezzo. 

P. 259$ 

Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle ascribe the Pieta with St. 
Jolm to Jacopo da Casentino. 

P. 267 

Spinello was called to Pisa in 1391 by the chief of the works 
of the cathedral. 

P. 268J 

In the G-aUeria delle Belle Arii at Florence there is a picture 
by Spinello, representing the coronation of the Virgin with saints, 
which was executed in 1401 for the monastery of Santa Felicita. 
He was assisted in the work by Niccolb di Pietro G-erini, and 
Lorenzo di Niccolb. An engraving of the picture will be found in 
the publication " Gallcria della I. c K. Accademia di Belle ArtL" 

P. 269f 

Spinello had two sons, the painter Pam, born in 1387, and 
Baldazzare, born in 1405, who docs not seem to have been an 
artist. Forzore, here mentioned by Vasari, was not the son, but 
the nephew of Spinello. Another Forzore, who was also a. gold- 
smith, is mentioned by Vasari in the laves of Agostino and 
Agnolo. He lived towards the middle of the fourteenth century t 
and was the son of Spinello di ser Forzore* 


[Born 1354? Died 1408 ?] 

P. 271 

In the lists of the fraternity of painters the artist's name 
reads as follows, under the date of the year 1387 " Ghcrardo 
d' Jacopo Starna dipintore." Starna, meaning partridge, was the 
nickname of his father. 

P. 272* 

These paintings represent the four Evangelists and the four 
Fathers of the Church. Ci.ielh, "Bellezze di Firenze," says that 
they are by Taddeo Gaddi, and Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle 
ascribe them to Agnolo Gaddi (vol. i. p. 494). 

P. 273f 

The now fragmentary pictures of Santf Antonio Abbate at 
Pistoja exhibit very little artistic merit. They appear to be 
the work of different hands. 

[Born 1357 Died after 1430.] 

P. 275f 

In the fourteenth century there were at Florence several 
painters with the name of Lippi or Filippi. The list of the 
painters' guild contains no less than ten Lippi. Vasari seems 
to have included in this biography the productions of several of 
them, as in the case of some of the foregoing chapters, 

P. 277f 

* The wings of the tabernacle in the Baptistery of Florence, 
which are now lost, were painted in 1815 by Lippo di Benivieni. 
In the Casa AleBsandri at Florence there is a picture with the 
signature "Lippus me fecit, 11 possibly by the same artist. The 


mosaics of the Baptistery were repaired in 1402 by Lippo di 
Corso, who two years later repaired also the mosaics of the 
facade of San Miniato al Monte. He is last heard of in 1430, 

P. 278J 

There is a signed picture of this inferior artist, representing a 
Madonna and Child, in the National Gallery, London (No. 752) 

[Bom about 1370 Died 1425?] 

P. 280* 

Don Lorenzo di Giovanni is the n'ame given to the artist in 
the document that records his reception into the monastery, 
which took place in December, 1391. His Christian name had 
been Piero. 

P. 280f 
This picture is now in the Gallery of the Uffizi at Florence. 


For more particulars about this artist see Milancsi's edition of 
Vasari, vol. ii. p. 22, note 

P. 282 

The illuminations of the books of the monastery of San Mattia 
di Murano were executed by Don Niccolo RosseUi [born 1407 
died 1471]. 

[Born 1363 Died 1422,] 

P. 285 

In 1407 the paintings of this chapel were completed by Taddeo 
Bartolo, who in the same year begun the colossal figure of San 
Cristofano, which is in the ante-room of the chapel. The series 


of portraits of celebrated Roman statesmen and the figures of 
the Roman gods were finished in 1414. 

P 286f 

The two pictures by Bartoh at San Gemignano have been 
transferred to the Palazzo Pubkco. 

P. 287* 

This picture is now at Yienna, But other works by Bartoli 
in the same church of San Francesco, which had been covered 
by whitewash, have of late been discovered, and are now to be 
seen there. One of them is signed "TADEVS BAKTOLI DB SENIS 


* P. 287f 

The Duomo and the church of San Michele at Volterra contain 
also pictures by Bartoli. 

P. 287 

The Pinacotcca and the church of Sant Agostino at Perugia 
contain some pictures by Bartoli. 

At Siena there is one picture by him in the church de* Servi. 

P. 288* 

Domenico Bartoli was born at Asciano, a place near Siena, at 
the beginning of the fifteenth century. There is a picture by 
him in the church of Sant* Agostino at Asciano. 

P. 289* 

The only picture in the Louvre ascribed to Taddeo Bartoli, 
is a half-length figure of St. Peter, which was bought in 1864. 

[Born 1350? Died 1427.] 

P, 289 

Nearly all the pictures ascribed by Vasari to Lorenzo di Bicci 
are by the hand of his son, Neri di Bicci. In other respect* 
also bis biography is full of errors. 


Pp. 291-292 

The Crucifixion here described was painted in 1469 by Neri 
di Bicci. 

P. 292* 

These pictures were executed, not for Kicciardo di messer 
Niccolb, as Vasan says, but for Tommaso di Leonardo Spinelli. 
Their date is not 1418, but 1440, that is to say, many years after 
Lorenzo di Bicci's death. 

P. 295 

The drawing for the monument of Marsili was made in 1439 
by Bicci, the son of Lorenzo di Bicci. 

P. 297* 

The only work by Lorenzo di Bicci which is authenticated 
by documents is the figure of San Niccolb above the door of the 
Spedale di San Matteo, executed in 1412. 

P. 297f 

Bicci was born in 1373 and died in 1452. A detailed account 
of his works is given by Milanesi in his edition of Vasari, vol. ii. 
pp. 63-68. There is very little to be said about their merit as 
works of art. 


[Born 1371 died 1438.] 

P. 314* 

Some of the statues on the facade of the Cathedral, Siena, have 
of late been transferred into the museum of the cathedral. 
Those by Jacopo della Quercia have not yet been discovered. It 
may be that the artist left Siena for the reasons here given, i.e., 
in 1391, when Malavolti was banished, but it is not probable that 
at so early a date he had done all these works for the cathedral, 
the less so as his name does not occur in the account-books of 
that building before 1417. 


P. 316f 

Jacopo della Quercia did not go to Bologna soon after the 
competition for the bronze doors of the Baptistery at Florence. 
This competition took place in 1402, t.e. the same year in which 
Giovanni Bentivoglio was murdered, of whom Vasari says that 
it was he who patronized the artist at Bologna. He was called 
to Bologna in 1425 by the Archbishop d' Arli, and in the same year 
he was commissioned to make the door of the cathedral, but com- 
pleted the work only in 1430. In 1438 he executed the statue 
of the Madonna and Child at the Cathedral of Ferrara, where it 
is still to be seen. 

P. 318* 

These very fine figures in relief have of late been restored by 
Prof. E. de Fabris. At present the work is generally ascribed 
to Nanni di Banco and to Donatello, who, according to documents, 
received payment for this work in 1418 and in 1421. 

P. 318f 

The first contract for the erection of this fountain, called 
Gaja, is dated 1409. He began the work in 1412, when a now 
contract was made. In 1419 the whole was completed and paid 
for at the price of 2280 florins. 

P. 319* 

At present the monument is replaced by a modern copy, the 
original having been sheltered in the museum of the cathedral. 

P. 319 

Only one of the alto-relievos in bronze on the baptismal font 
of San Giovanni is by Jacopo della Quercia. It represents the 
vocation of St. Joachim (1430) ; the others are by Donatello 
and by Ghiberti. The framework in marble of the bapti&raal 
font had been entrusted to him in 1427. In 1436 he became 
warden of the cathedral. 

P. 320 

Matteo Civitali, who was born in 1435 and died in 1501, was 
probably a pupil of Mino da Fiesolc, and not of Jacopo della 
Quercia (see J. Burchhardt's " Cicerone," edited by Dr. Bode, 


Leipzig, 1879, vol. ii. p. 373). Between 1472 and 1492 
he received several commissions at Lucca, his native place, 
The tempietto described by Vasari was executed during the 
years 1482 and 1484. Perhaps his finest works are the statues 
in the Cathedral of Genoa, executed between the years 1492 and 


This statue is still to be seen at the Cathedral of Lucca. 

[Born .... was still Ir^ng in 1444.] 

The sculptor and architect, ISTiccolo di Piero de' Lamberto, of 
Arezzo, notwithstanding the praise bestowed upoii him by Vnsari, 
who was his fellow-countryman, does not appear to have been an 
artist of special merit, if we judge from those works of his \\ hich 
are still in existence. But, as we have already shown in the 
notes to Yasan's "Life of Margaritonc " (see pp. 11, 12 of this 
volume), the writer, very naturally, took a special interest in 
those artists who were born and worked at his native place, and 
thus occasionally pronounced favourable opinions of inferior works. 
In reading such biographies we must be especially on our guard. 
On the other hand, we must also admit that in these very 
chapters the writer gives a great number of facts about which he 
must have been better informed than could possibly be the case 
when writing about artists whose works he only saw when 
travelling about. 

P. 322 

The two statues at the Campanile of Florence Cathedral, which 
are here described as by Niccolo, are still to be seen there. 
Their attribution to this artist rests alone on the authority of 

P. 324f 

The praise which Vasari bestows on this work is no doubt 
exaggerated. The two figures represent the Virgin and the 


Angel of the Annunciation. In the figure of the Virgin the 
head is wanting. 

P. 325 

As to the competition for the bronze doors of the Baptistery 
at Florence, see p, 45 of this volume (note to p. 364). 

P 325f 

The name of the artist is thus entered in the Guild-book of 
the painters; "Nicholo di Piero scarpellatore aretino MCCCCX." 
The earliest date of the commissions given to him by the wardens 
of Florence Cathedral is the year 1388, In 1394 and in 1396 
he executed for them the statues of the Virgin and of our 
Saviour. After these he made the statues of St. Augustiu and 
St. Gregory to be placed^m tabernacles on the side of the portal 
(they were removed later on). From 1402 until 1408 he worked 
at the ornaments of the side-door in front of the Via de' Servi. 
The figure of St. Mark, described above (vol. i. p. 324, note *), 
was made during the years 1408 and 1419. After the year 1419 his 
name does not appear any more in the account-books of Florence 
Cathedral From 1408 to 1410 Mccolo executed the fine orna- 
mentation at the entrance-door of Or San Michele. Niecolfc 
of Arezzo is mentioned for the last time in 1444 as giving an 
estimate of a drawing for some bronze works in the Cathedral of 
Prato, but it may be doubted whether this is the same artist. 

P. 326 

As an appendix to the life of the Aretine sculptor and archi- 
tect Niccolb, Vasari gives an account of some early pictures of 
the Ferrarese school, to be found at Bologna. These fresco 
paintings in the church of the Madonna di Mezzaratta, which 
are still in existence, are so inferior that even specialists will not 
consider them worth any serious attention. 


The fresco paintings in the Schifanoja Palace at Ferrara are 
by the hand of two or three unknown Farrarcse masters, but 
certainly not by Cosimo Tura. About this great artist, of whom 
Vasari gives a very scanty account, see note to vol. ii. p. 127 

VOL, I.] DELLO. 87 


[Born 1404 still living about 1464 ] 

P. 327f 

Dello became a member of the painter's guild in 1433, not in 
1417. Dello is most probably an abbreviation of Daniello. 

P. 327J 

Neither the Coronation of the Vn-gin, nor the Twelve Apostles, 
in the church of Santa Maria Nuova^ were by Dello, as Vasari 
eays. Documents show that these works were executed in 1424 
by Lorenzo di BiccL 

P. 327 1| 

Dello executed also works in brass. In 1425, when very 
young, he made a statue in this material to strike the hours on 
the tower of the town hall afc Siena. The document referring to 
it gives his name as Dello Mcholai de Florentia. He had gone 
to Siena because his father, a tailor by profession, had been 
obliged to leave Florentine territory for political reasons. 

P. 330J 

The above described works by Dello were most probably 
executed after his return from Spam. In the life of Paolo 
Uccello (see vol. i.p. 355), we are told that this artist introduced 
Dello's portrait in the fresco paintings in the cloister of Santa 
Maria Novella, where both seem to have worked contempora- 
neously. In this portrait Dello's features are not those of a 
young man. In 1427 he had left Siena for Venice, where he 
remained until 1433, when he went to Spain and settled first at 
Seville. He returned to Morence in 1446, but in 1448 or there- 
about he left again for Spain. Filarete, in the introduction to 
his treatise on architecture, written between the years 1464 and 
1406, mentions Dello as being still alive* 


[Born 1300 -died 1421.] 


Vasari is wrong in saying that Nanni d' Antonio di Banco 
descended from a rich family. Documents show on the contrary 
that his ancestors had been stone-cutters. He himself entered 
that guild in 1405. 

P. 335* 

The date of the artist's death is probably 1421, according to a 
manuscript in the Strozzi collection. 

[Born 1400 died 1482,] 

P. 336 x 

It remains an open question who was the master of Luca 
della Kobbia, Leonardo di Ser Giovanni, named by Vasari, was 
engaged from 1355 to 1371 to execute the silver decoration on the 
altar of the church of San Jacopo at Pistoja. From these data 
it becomes highly improbable that he should have taught young 
Ghiberti, whoso artistic education might have begun when he 
was about fifteen years of age. Baldinucci's statement is a mere 
supposition, supported by no facts. 

P. 336 

It IP impossible that Luca della Kobbia should have served 
Sigismondo Malatesta at so early a period as is stated here by 
Vasari. This prince was born in 1417. In 1447 he ordered the 
erection of the church of San Francesco, and some time later 
tlio chapel of San Sigismondo within that church. Its monuments 
in marble are attributed by Vasari (in the " Life of Filarote") to 
Bimone, an artist who is believed to have been tho brotfoer of 


P. 336 

In 1437, on May 30, Luca was commissioned to do the reliefs 
on the campanile of the Cathedral at Florence, and in 1440 he 
had already finished them. The payment was 100 florins. 

P. 337* 

The exact date of the commission for the Singing Gallery of 
the cathedral is neither 1405, as Vasari has it, nor the years 
1435 or 1445, suggested in former commentaries, but 1431. In 
1440 the whole work was completed. 

P. 337f 

The reliefs of the Singing Gallery are in the Galleria Nazionale 
at Florence. An exact copy of the whole work, in gypsum, 
is to be seen at the North Court of the South Kensington 
Museum. In this the pieces have been joined together, and the 
ornamental parts have been added, showing thus the arrangements 
of the whole composition, aa originally placed. The Museo 
ITazionale at Florence contains two other works in marble not 
mentioned by Yasari, one representing St. Peter loosed from 
prison by the angol, the other the Crucifixion of St. Peter, 
originally destined for St. Peter's Chapel in the cathedral 

P. 338* 

The four reliefs for the Singing Gallery by Donatello are now 
also in the Galleria Nazionale. 

P. 339* 

The history of this work is somewhat complicated. On 
February 28, in the year 1446, Michelozzo, Luca, and Maso di 
Bartolommeo, called Masaccio (see editor's note to voLi p. 405*) 
were commissioned to execute the bronze doors on the first sacristy. 
The latter artist having died, the fcwo former employed Giovanni 
di Bartommeo, the brother of Maso, to do for them the frame- 
work (1461-1463). At last, on August 10, 1464, Luca alone, 
Michelozzo being absent at the time, was left to complete the 


P. 340f 

The lunette with the representation of the Resurrection of 
Christ had been finished in 1443 for the payment of 50 lire. 

P. 340J 

The lunette with the relief of Christ's Ascension had been 
ordered in 1446. It appears from the dates of this work, as well 
as of the foregoing one, when compared with the dates of his 
works in marble and in bronze, that Vasari is mistaken when he 
states that Luca della Kobbia only began to execute terra-cotta 
ware after having become tired from the labours bestowed on 
those other works. 

P. 341* 

The North Court of the South Kensington Museum contains 
among other works by Della Robbia twelve circular medallions of 
enamelled terra-cotta painted in blue, with representations of the 
agricultural operations of the twelvemonths of the year, and with 
the zodiacal signs, These are attributed to Luca della Kobbia, 
and supposed to have been used for the interior decoration of the 
writing-cabinet of Cosmo de' Medici, here described by Vasari, 
and also by Filarete. 

P. 343f 

Messer Benozzo Federighi died in 1450 ; Luca della Eobbia 
got the commission in March, 1455, and finished the work within 
a year. 


Agostino d' Antonio, the son of Antonio di Duccio, was born 
in 1418, and died about 1498. He seems to have chiefly resided 
at Perugia, where most of his works are to be found. His 
brother Ottaviano was born in 1422 In 1478 Ottaviano received 
commissions for goldsmith's work from the Siguoria of Florence. 

P. 344|| 

Andrea della Eobbia, the son of Marco, Luca's brother, was 
born in 1435. He died in 1525, not in 1528, as Vasari states 
further on. 


P. 345J 

These terra-cotta works represent the meeting of St. Francis 
and St. Domenic, and, besides, whole-length and half-length 
figures, each separately framed. The two figures placed at tiie 
extreme ends of the series are believed to be the portraits of 
Luca and of Andrea della Robbia. One of them is signed 
"DALLANNO 1451," the other "ALLANNO 1495" (from the year 
1451 to the year 1496). These dates render it improbable that 
the whole work is by the hand of Andrea, as Vasari relates 
He would scarcely have begun to execute a work of such high 
artistic qualities when only fourteen years of age. It would 
rather seem that the work was begun by his uncle Luca. 

P. 346f 

Giovanni dclla Robbia, the eldest of the three sons, was born 
in 14C9 and died about Iho year 1529. Luca, who worked for 
Pope Loo X., was born m 1475, and died in 1550. Girolamo, 
the youngest, who worked for the King of France, was born in 
1488. In 1527 he seems to have gone to France, where 
Francis I. appointed him to make plans for a magnificent castle 
to be erected in the Bois cle Boulogne Girolamo devoted nearly 
forty years to the decoration of this building, during the succes- 
sive reigns of four kin#s. In 1550 he fell into dwgrace with 
Henry II. and returned to Florence; but in 1559 he again 
visited Henry's Court, acompanied by Francesco Primaticcio, 
and was soon reinstalled in his former post as architect and 
sculptor to the king, in which post he remained until he died in 
1566 at the castle of Nesle. 


[Bora 1397 died 1475.] 

Paolo jcli Dono, nicknamed Paolo Uccello (see vol. i. p. 353), 
was the son of Dono di Paolo, a barber and surgeon of Prato- 
vecchio, who, in 1373, became a citizen of "Florence. His first 
artistic education was that of a goldsmith. As a boy he entered 
the workshop of Ghiberti, and he is named among those who 
assisted at the preparation of the second door of the Baptistery. 


It is not known who was Ms master in painting. In the " Life of 
Antonio Yeneziano," Vasari calls him a pupil of this artist (see 
vol. i. p. 250), but this seems impossible, because Antonio Vene- 
aiano appeal's to have died before the date of Paolo's birth. With 
more probability we may consider him a pupil of Vittore Pisano, 
called Pisanello (see J. P. Kichter, " Italian Art at the National 
Gallery," pp. 72, 73). 

P 352J 

In the inventory of Lorenzo do* Medici's property, it is said 
that in the large room on the ground floor there were six framed 
pictures, one representing the defeat at San Romano (viz. the 
Florentines under the command of Niccolb da Tolentino defeating 
the Milanese, A.D. 1432), a struggle between dragons and lions, 
and the story of Paris, " by the hand of Pagolo CJccello,'* 

P. 354* 

Every arcade contains two fresco paintings, one placed above 
the other. Those of the fourth arcade are infinitely superior to 
the others. They represent the Deluge and the inebriation of 
Noah. These two paintings, which Vasari describes in detail, 
are certainly by the hand of Paolo Uceello ; but all the others, 
including the creation of Adam and Eve, here also described, are 
so much inferior that one cannot ascribe them to the same hand. 

P. 356* 

From documents we learn that some more work for the ca- 
thedral of Florence was entrusted to the artist. In 1434 he 
had to execute a coloured cartoon for the circular window in the 
chapel of San Zanobi. In 1443 he drew cartoons representing 
the Annunciation, the Nativity, the Resurrection, and the As- 
cension of Christ for the circular windows of the Cupola, to be 
executed in stained glass. In the Librcria of the cathedral he 
painted, in 1452, the figure of Beato Andrea Corsini. 

P. 356f 

More precise details about the painted monument of Hawkwood 
have been extracted by 0. Milancsi from the archives of tho 
Opera del Duomo. On December 2nd, 1395, the picture had 
"been entrusted to Angelo Gatti and Giuliano d'Arrigo, called 


Pesello, for ten florins payment. This picture was finished, it 
seems, but became spoiled in the course of time. Therefore, 
in 1436, on the 18th of May, and again on the 2Cth of the same 
month, it was decided that the figure of John Hawkwood should 
be re-done " in the same form and manner as the original work.'* 
Four days later Paolo Uccello took upon himself the task. But 
when the work was finished, the committee disapproved of it, and 
ordered it to be entirely destroyed. On the 6th of July, Paolo 
Uccello was again engaged to paint the figure on horseback in 
terra verde, and he completed his task on August 31st. 

P. 358* 

One of the battle-pieces is in the Uffizi, No. 29. Another 
one is now in the Louvre (No 1GC, in the Galerie des Sept metres). 
In neither of these can we identify tlfc portraits of the captains 
mentioned by Vasari. The Louvre picture formerly belonged to 
the Campana collection at Eome, which was bought by Napoleon 
III. A third battle-piece is in the National Gallery, London 
(No. 583), bought in 1857 from the Loinbardi-Baldi collection. 
According to the official catalogue this represents the battle ot 
Sant' Bgulio, fought in 1416, in which Carlo Malatesta, Lord ot 
Rimini, and his nephew, Galeazzo, were taken prisoners by Braccio 
di Montonc. The knight holding up a baton is believed to bo 
Malatosta, and the youth, who carries his bassinet in his hand, 
is said to be Galcazzo. However, the imposing attitude of 
the figure said to be Malatesta does not seem to suggest that he 
has been captured by those who follow him in the picture. 
Further researches may perhaps lead to a satisfactory answer 
to the still open question of the subjects of these three battle- 
pieces. It is not known what has become of the fourth. The 
one in London seems to be the finest of all (see J. P. Eichter, 
" Italian Art at the National Gallery," pp. 14-16). 

P. 358 

Donatello having lived at Padua from 1444 to 1449, it is 
probable that Paolo Uccelli visited that town at about the same 
time, as Vasari states that Donato, who was the painter's friend, 
invited him to go there. His paintings at Padua are also men- 
tioned by the " Anonymus " of Morelli, who wrote at the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth, century: "The giants in chiaroscuro 


were done by the hand of Paolo Uccello, of Florence, who painted 
one each day, being paid one ducat each." (See Frizzoni's 
edition, Bologna, 1884, p. 66.) The proper name of the house 
where they were done is neither Vitah, as Vasari has it, nor 
Vitelliano, as the " Anonymus " wrote, but Vitaliani. These 
paintings do not now exist. 

The journey to Padua mentioned by Vasari is not the only 
engagement the painter entered into out of Florence. In the 
Florentine doom-book of 1427 there is an entry to the effect that 
Paolo di Bono left the town two years ago, and was then at 
Venice Before leaving he made his will, dated August 5th, 
1425 (see Gaye, " Carteggio Inedito," vol. i. p. 147), In 1430 
he is again noted in the doom-book as being absent, but in 
1433 he is stated to have returned. Ho seems to have stayed 
at Venice up to 1432, f <is in that year, on March 23rd, the 
board of works of the Cathedral, Florence, addressed a letter to 
the Floientine ambassador at Venice, Messer Pietro Beccamigi, 
asking him to make enquiries about a certain Paolo di Bono 
(Uccello), of Florence, then staying there, and who m 1425 had 
executed a figure of St. Peter in mosaic on the faqade of St 
Mark's, and asking further about his capabilities. 

In 1468 he visited Urbino, where he painted a picture for the 
Confraternity Corpus Domini. This fact is made known by 
documents, quoted by P. Pimgileoni, " Elogiodi Giovanni Santi," 
p, 75. 

P. 359f 

These portraits are at present in the Louvro (No. 165). The 
Christian name of Mannetti, the mathematician, is not Giovanni, 
as Vasari has it, but Antonio. Above his portrait is the con- 
temporary inscription " Antonius Manetti," and in his first edition 
Vasari also has Antonio. 

P. 360f 

The entries of the doom-books of 1427, 1430, and 1433, in- 
variably give the year 1397 as the date of his birth, and from the 
obituary of Florence, it appears that he died on December llth, 
1475, and was buried at Santo Spirito. 

The name of his daughter, a Carmelite nun, was Antonia (born 
1456, died 1491). In the obituary she is called a paintress 



[Born 1378 died 1455.] 

In the heading of this life, as given in the first edition, Ghiberti 
is called a painter. This has been altered in the second edition, 
but the former statement was not without some justification. 
Not only were Ghiberti's works in relief the most pictorial in 
conception ever done, but the artist says himself in his " Com- 
mentario," a sort of diary or biography : " My mind has been 
very much directed to painting " (L'animo mio alia pittura era 
in gran parte volto). See also editor's_note to p. 385f. 

P. 363* 
See p. 386 and note *. 

P. 364 

The competition for the relief representing the Sacrifice of 
Isaac was instituted in 1401, and a year's time was allowed. 
It is very improbable that Donato (Donatello), then a youth of 
seventeen years only, took part in it, His name occurs, how- 
ever, among the assistants of Ghiberti, in the execution of 
the second door, began in 1403. The full name of Niccolb 
d'Arezzo, one of the competitors, was Niccolb di Luca SpinelH. 
He was brother to the painter Spinello. According to Ghiberti's 
" Commentario," there were seven competitors. The one not 
named by Vasari is Niccolo Lamberti, also called Niccolo di 
Hero, of Arezzo. His life has been written by Vasari (see vol. i. 
p. 321-27). 

P. 865f 

Vasari seems to describe here the model which Donatello 
made for the bronze doors of the sacristy of the cathedral, 
work entrusted to him in 1436 for a payment of 1900 florins. 
He did not carry it out. 

P. 366* 
Both works are at present in the Museo Nazionale, Florence 


P. 367 

The house, No. 29 in the Via Bufalini, bears a moderc 
inscription setting forth that there it was that the bronze 
doors of the Baptistery were cast by Ghiberti. It appears, how- 
ever, from documents lately discovered by G. Milancsi, that 
Ghiberti bought this house in 1450, when nothing but the jamb* 
of the two doors remained to be done. In 1498 the house was 
let to Pietro Perugino the painter. 

P. 371f 

The two reliefs in bronze in the Baptistery of Siena were 
ordered on May 21st, 1417. He finished them on October 30th, 

P. 372* 

The statue of St. Matthew, in the church of Orsanmichele, 
had not been ordered by the masters of the mint, as Vasari has 
it, but by the guild of bankers, as is testified by the Latin 
inscription on the frieze of the monument : " OPVS . UNIVERSI- 


1419, on August 26th, Ghiberti received the commission for this 
work , in 1420 he finished the model, and in 1422 the bronze 
statue. The figure of St. Stephen was executed in 1428. 

P. 372f 

Fra Leonardo di Btagio Dati died in 1423. The monument 
by Ghiberti lias of late been placed behind the high altar of 
Santa Maria Novella. 

P. 372J 

Bartolommeo Vallori died in 1427* His life has been written 
by Luca dclla Robbia (published in the " Arch. Storico," vol. iv.). 
See vol. i. p. 344, note J. 

P. 372 
This monument is now in the Museo Nazionale. 

P. 373* 

The first order for the sarcophagus of San Zanobi is dated 
March 18th, 1432. On April 18th, 1439, it was renewed 


and modified. The work was completed in 1440, It is still in 
the cathedral. 

P 382* 

Leonardo da Vinci mentions the doors of the Baptistery in the 
draught of a letter addressed from Milan to the Commissioners 
of Buildings at Piacenza, m which the following passage occurs : 
" You should not be so hasty or so quick to give the commission, 
lest by this haste it should become impossible to select a good 
model and a good master ; and some man of small merit may be 
chosen, who by his insufficiency may cause you to be abused by 
your descendants, judging that this age was but ill supplied with 
men of good counsel and with good masters ; seeing that other 
cities, and chiefly the city of the Florentines, has been as it were 
in these very days, endowed with beautiful and grand works in 
bronze ; among which are the doors of their Baptistery." (See 
" The Literary Works of Leonardo da Vinci," edited by J. P. 
Bichter, vol. ii pp. 400, 401.) 

P. 382$ 

It is quite improbable that Brunelesco, after having taken part 
in the competition, should have become an assistant of G-hiberti's 
in the execution of his work. About Masolino, see the editor's 
note, p. 388f of this volume. 

P. 383* 

In 1425, on January 2nd, Grhiberti was commissioned to make 
the third pair of doors. The preparation of the work in wax took 
sixteen years. The brass for casting the reliefs was bought 
in 1440. In 1443 all but three had been cast. The whole was 
completed in 1447. In April, 1452, the doors were gilt, and in 
the month of June of the same year they were placed at the 
principal entrance, where they are still to be seen. Both pairs 
of side-doors, the one by G-hiberti as well as the one by Andrea 
Pisano, had formerly also been placed at the principal entrance, 
but in the course of time one after the other had to be removed 
to a side-entrance. 


According to Del Migiiore, the artist did not belong to the 


ancient family of the Ghiberti, although he had assumed its 
coat-of-arms, It is true he had been made a citizen, and had 
become eligible for municipal offices, but neither he nor any of 
his descendants held a high office. 

P. 385f 

In 1423 he became a member of the painter's guild (Compagnia 
di San Lucca), and in the following year he completed the car- 
toons for two circular windows for the front of the cathedral, 
one representing the expulsion of Joachim, the other the en- 
tombment of the Virgin. After having visited Venice during 
the last month of this year, he executed, in 1425, the cartoons 
for two circular windows in the cupola of Florence Cathedral, 
one representing Christ's Agony in the Garden, the other the 
Kesurrection of Christ, f Again, in 1434, he was commissioned to 
make the cartoons for two windows in the chapel of San Zanobio. 
These coloured cartoons were executed in glass at the time by 
different masters, and the windows are still to be seen on the spot. 
The following is a quotation from his memoranda in the " Commen- 
tario : " " I made the design, representing the Assumption of the 
Virgin, for the central window on the fa9ade of the cathedral, 
and I did also those on its sides. In the same church I did 
many windows. In the choir there are three circular windows 
for which I did the design, ouo representing the Ascension of 
Christ, the other the Agony in the Garden, the third the 

P. 386* 

The manuscript in the Magliabecchian Library is in the hand- 
writing of the end of the fifteenth century, probably copied from 
the original, which is lost. In the first part or " Commentario," 
Ghiberti treats of the Roman and Greek artists, on Pliny's au- 
thority. Jn the second part he enumerates the early Florentine 
artists, and gives the particulars of his own works. The third 
treats of Architecture, Perspective, and Proportion. Only the 
second " Commentario," being the most valuable of the three, 
has appeared in print (see Cicognara, " Storia della Scultura," iv. 
p. 208, and Vasari, ed. Le Monnier, vol. i.). 

P. 387 
Vittorio Ghiberti, the contemporary of Vasari, was the great- 


grandchild of Lorenzo Gliibcrti. He was a sculptor and painter 
(bom 1501, died 1542). 


[Bom 1383 died about 1447.] 

The description of lliis great artist's long career is very short 
and certainly incomplete. Late researches have brought to light 
valuable information concerning events of Masolmo's life, of which 
Vasari seems to have been unaware^ and, what is still more 
important, the discovery of two extensive wall-decorations, 
authenticated by the artist's signature, now enable us to study 
closely the style of this artist's works, which have very often 
been confounded with those of his far-famed pupil, Masaccio 

Many of the details of Masolino's Kfe can now be proved to be 
unfounded, but this does not in the least invalidate the writer's 
general statements about the artist's career, of which lie appears 
to us to speak with more justice than many writers on art, even at 
the present day, feel inclined to admit. According to the views of 
Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, the merits of this painter would 
come to very little when compared with his defects. According 
to their theory, Masolmo had no share in the execution of the 
celebrated wall-paintings of the Brancacci Chapel in the church 
of the Carmine at Florence ; and the apparent discrepancies 
of style, which have always been noticed by those art-students 
who have studied the wall-paintings m question on the spot, are 
to be explained a* varieties of style in one and the same artist, 
Masaccio. Instead of producing any proofs of tins somewhat 
vague Hypothesis, they repeatedly point to the difference of 
Raphael's manner, when under the influence of Perugmo, and 
when working independently. (See Italian edition, " Storia dclla 
Pittura in Italia," Firenze 1883, vol. ii., pp. 261, 28*2, 292, 303.) 
But we may safely say that sxich a comparison is not to the point, 
inasmuch as there is no evidence to show that the quite ex- 
ceptional and peculiar deviations, to which Ivaphacl's art was- 
Subjected for some short period, are likely to have been fore- 


shadowed in the case of Masaccio. According to Messrs. Crowe 
and Cavalcasello, Masolino was incapable of producing such fine 
and grand paintings as have heretofore borne his name, and, 
we believe, on good grounds, supported by the testimony not 
only of Vasari, but also of so early a writer as Albertmi in his 
" Notes on the Statues and Pictures at Florence," published in 
1510. In this work the following passage occurs " The (fresco- 
work in the) chapel of the Brancacci is half by his (Masaccio's) 
hand, half by the hand of Masolino, with the exception of the 
crucifixion of St Peter, which is by Filippo (Filippmo Lippi)." 
And here we feel justified in saying that, if the testimony of 
tradition in ait history is worth anything, it must be in this in- 
stance. Vasari says of the famous wall-paintings in the Brancacci 
chapel, that " all the most celebrated sculptors and painters since 
Masaccio's day " have befn studying there. He goes on to give 
a long list of names of such painters, including Michelangelo and 
other personal friends of his. (See vol. i., p 411.) Therefore the 
tradition about the authorship of that highly esteemed monument 
must have been uninterrupted. Again, the interest, by which 
three generations of great painters had been led to take the fresco- 
paintings of the Brancacci Chapel as the best models for their 
own studies, must have been too lively to admit of suc k h serious 
blunders as the said theory would involve. However, if we were 
to admit for a moment that Masolmo's collaboration at the 
Brancacci Chapel was not sufficiently evident, it would be vain to 
enter into a discussion upon the subject, if there were no other 
monuments of Masolino's style than those described by Vasari, 
for alt the works by his hand enumerated by the biographer 
have perished since, with the exception of the Brancacci 
Chapel. Even here only two pictures can at present be iden 
tified with his descriptions. 

But some forty years ago, ^vhen the whitewash was taken off the 
wall of the collegiate church at Oastighone d'Olona, in the pro- 
vince of Como, between Varese and Milan, it was found that its 
choir was covered by fresco paintings, exhibiting the signature : 
" MASOLIKVS DE TLOBENTiA piNSix." The following subjects are 
hero represented, the figures being nearly life-size : " The Nativity 
of Christ," " The Annunciation," " The Coronation of the Virgin/' 
"The Marriage of the Virgin," and "The Adoration of the 
Magi." All these compositions are placed in triangles above 


the spectator's head. On tlie perpendicular walls we find 
representations of the " Entombment of the Virgin." The two 
large pictures at the sides have been described as representing 
scenes of the life of St. Laurentius ; however, in the opinion 
of the present writer they illustrate the life and martyrdom 
of St. Stephen. This church was founded in 1422 by the Cardinal 
Branda, of Castiglione. The date of its completion may be con- 
jectured from, the inscription on a fine high-relief on the portal 
giving the year 1428. The sepulchral monument of the caidmal 
in the choir bears the date 1443. Tie, no doubt, was Masolmo's 
employer not only in Castiglione, bnfc most probably also at Rome, 
as will be seen in the notes to Va&ari's " Life of Masaccio." Close 
to the collegiate church is the small baptistery, which is entirely 
covered bv fresco-paintings by Masolino, representing scenes 
rom the life and martyrdom of St. John the Baptist. On the 
i eiling are busts of the Fathers of the Church and of prophets. 
Mere occurs the date 1435 If these figures can be relied upon 
is correct (the writing is apparently of a later date, but it may 
>nly be a subsequent restoration of the original), it would follow 
hat the pictures in the baptistery were about seven years later 
lian the decoration of the collegiate church. A close study of 
hese imposing and very impressive pictures enables us to state 
>ositively that the characteristics of style are here precisely the 
ame as in the pictures in the Brancacci Chapel at Florence, 
^hich have always been given to the same artibt. 

P. 1 

Tommaso, known by the name of Masolino (little Tom), was 
orn in 1383, being the son of Cristofano di Fina, a whitewashes 
a January, 1423, he became enrolled most probably not for 
le first time in the lists of the corporation, of medical men and 
lemists, which also included the painters. In a municipal 
Dcument, dated 1427, January 18, di Fino testifies 
tat " Tommaso his son is in Hungary. 1 ' Some statement about 
oney due to him by Messer Filippo Scholari, renders it probable 
tat the painter was at that time employed by this celebrated 
lorentine banker and captain, who lived at Budapesth and at 
emesvar in the service of King Sigismund, and who died in 
127. In another contemporary document referring to some 


money transactions, Masolino is mentioned as '* Maestro Tomato 
di Xpofaro dipintore." (See "Giornale, Storico degli Archivi 
Toscani, 1 ' I860, vol. iv. p. 192 ) 

P. 388 t 

The story of Masoluio's artistic education seems to have been 
compiled by Vasan for the sake of filling up a <>ap in tradition. 
Thus a similarity of names appears to have misled him to state 
that Masolino had been an apprentice of G-htberti's, who, by the 
way, was his elder by five years only. There was certainly 
among the assistants of Ghiberti, when doing the second door of 
the baptistery, one Tonimaso di Oristoforo di Braccio, who in 
September, 1409, became enrolled m the jewellers' guild. He 
died in 1401. 

P 389* 

The picture representing the shipwreck of the Apostle is no 
longer in existence, Possibly it was placed in the lunette above 
the composition which Vasari describes as St. Peter raising his 
daughter Petrouilla from the dead. The subject of this picture 
is apparently the raising of Tabitha (See diagram, p. 58, 
No IX. b.). With this the artist has combined the representa- 
tion of St. Peter and St. John healing the lame (No. IX. a), and 
as a link between the two stories he has introduced in the centre 
two profane figuies, walking about, a motive which he has repeated 
in a fresco of the Baptistery at Castiglione. The picture of the 
preaching of St. Peter, which is also mentioned by Vasan as a 
work of Masolino\ at the foot of the foregoing page 388, is 
marked No. V. on the diagram, p. 58 ; by him is also the picture of 
"Eve Offering the Apple to Adain," not mentioned by Vasari, 
probably on account of its subordinate position amidst the 
principal wall-paintings. 

P. 389J 

Until the year 1427 Masolino's name occurs occasionally in 
Florentine documents, but not after that date. Possibly he had 
left Florence and did not return there till shortly before he died. 
Under the date of October 18th, 1447, there is an entry in the 
obituaries of Florence, that one Tommaso di Cristofano was 
buried in Santa Maria de 1 ^iore. It remains doubtful whether 
the artist is meant. 


P. 389 

Paolo di Stofauo, called Paolo Scliiafo, lived for a long time 
at Pi*a, ami died there in 1478. 

P. 390* 

The drawings ascribed to Masohno in different collections 
lave not been authenticated. 


[Bom 1387 died 1452 J 

P. 391 J 

VasarYfl statement that PaiTi was educated in the studio of 
Lorenzo GMberti is not supported by documents, nor is it 
probable thai he ever devoted himself to the art of sculpture. 
In 1-107 lie assisted Ins father in the execution of wall-paintings 
at the town hall of Siena, and from this we may conclude that 
he had also been educated by him in the art of pointing Parri 
was of delicate health, and, as ho asserts himself in a document, 
for some years he suffered so much from nervousness that lie 
was tmaLle to work. 

P. 399f 

The goldsmith Forzore di Mccolo Spinelli was not a brother, 
but a cousin of Parn. 

P. 400* 

Parri was buried not in the church of St. Agostino, but in the 
church of Morello, in the lamily sepulchre of the Spinelli, where 
also his father had been buried. 

[Born 1401 died 1428.] 

In the account of this artist's early life and works no mention 
is made of his master. Later on Vasari remarks incidentally 


fiat he owed his artistic education to Masolino (p. 408). This 
is fully confirmed by a comparison of the works of both 
masters. The principles of Masaccio's art we find already 
realized to a great extent in Masolino's works, but although the 
master outlived the pupil for about thirty years, yet the latter 
has always been considered the greater artist. Among all wiiters 
on art Leonardo da Vinci seems to have been the first who 
pointed out the great and, so to say, unique merits of this artist. 
Jn his manuscripts at Milan the following passage occurs : 
" After the time of Giotto the art of painting declined again, 
because every one imitated the pictures that were already done ; 
thus it went on from century to century until Tomaso, of Florence, 
ui'knamed Masaccio, showed by his perfect works how those 
v ho take for their standard any one but Nature the mistress of 
all masters weary themselves in vain." (See " The Literary 
Works of Leonardo da Vinci," vol. i., p. 33*2,) Leon Batdsta 
Alberti, in the dedication of his "Treatise on Painting" to 
Filippo di Ser Brunclleschi, written in 1436, says that Brunellesclu, 
Donatello, Luca della Robbia, Ghiberti, and Masaccio, were 
artists capable of doing the very best works, and that no one of 
tlio most famous antique artists were to be preferred to them. 
(See L. B. Albcrti'vS " Kleinere Kunsttheoretischc Schriften," ed. 
j.uutschck, p. v., 46 and 47.) 

P. 402* 

The exact date of Masaccio's birth is 1401. This is proved 
by a declaration, made by the artist's brother Giovanni, to the 
effect that he was born in the said year on December 21, 
St. Thomas's Day. 

P. 405f 

VafiarTs picture, which for a long time was placed in front of 
Masaccio* s fiosco representing the Trinity, has of late been 
removed from it. The state of the fresco appeared to be 
deplorable, but it has been restored, taken off from the wall, and 
is at present placed near the entrance-door of the church (since 
1861). There existed formerly on the same altar, a crucifix, 
which is believed to have been modelled by Masaccio. It is now 
preserved in the sacristy of Santa Maria Novella, and may be 
the work of another artist, who was known by the same nickname. 


Tliis Maso di Bartolomraco, called Masaccio, was born in 1406, 
and died about the year 1456. He was chiefly engaged by his 
contemporaries in the execution of ornamental bronze works, 
such as the doors of the sacristy of the Duomo of Florence. He 
was also employed for doing accessory work in marble, for 
instance, the coat of arms on Pietro Mellini's monument in the 
church of Santa Croce. 

P. 405 

There are at the Berlin Museum three panel pictures by 
Masaccio, which most probably originally belonged to the pre- 
della of the above described altar-piece at Pi&a. They represent 
the Adoration of the Magi, the Crucifixion of St. Peter, and the 
Decollation of St. John the Baptist. Formerly they were in 
the collection of Marchese Cappom, of Florence, 

P. 406* 

Two other pictures by Masaccio in the same palace are 
mentioned in the Inventory of Lorenzo il Magnifico's property, 
drawn up after his death. They represented figures of St. Peter 
and of St. Paul, painted on panels, and were placed above the 
chimney ; valued at the time at twelve florins. 

P 40Cf 

There is no consistency whatever in the statement that the 
wall-paintings at San Clemente, Rome, were by OHotto. This 
is an hypothesis which sound criticism will feel bound to 
reject aa preposterous. Vasan ascribes them to Masaccio, and 
Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcasellc in their " History of Painting " 
accept this attribution. They do not deny the apparent diver- 
gency of style in these paintings, when compared with well- 
authenticated works of Masaccio, but they believe these can be 
reconciled by the hypothesis that the fresco paintings of San 
Gemente are very early works of Masaccio (Italian edition, 
1883, vol. ii., p. 281). However, in the opinion of the present 
writer the existing difficulties cannot be overcome by this new 
suggestion. After a careful study of the works of Masolino at 
Castiglione and at Florence, and of those by Masaccio at Florence, 
it appears to him impossible to deny that the frescoes at San 
Clemente are by the hand of Masolino, and not of Masaccio, and 


this explanation is by no means a new one. Rumohr lias already 
expre&sed a doubt that they are by Masaccio ("Ital. For- 
sclmngen," ii., p 250). A. von Zahn lias claimed them for 
Masolmo ("Jahrbucher der Kuns-twissenschaft," n,, p. 155). 
See also Woltmann and Woermarm, " Gescluchte der Malerei," ii., 
139, 140. Vasari tells us that the frescoes were ordeied by the 
Cardinal of San Clemente. It is a striking coincidence that 
between the years 1411 and 1420, when we may expect that these 
paintings were executed, the cardinalate of San Clemente was in 
the hands of Branda of Castiglione, of whom we know that he was 
JVIasolino's patron. 

P. 406J 

There has been only one emperor by the name of Sigismund 
(1410-1437) : he visited -Rome in 1433 after the death of Pope 
Martin V. (1417-1431). 

P. 407 

Masaccio'* collaboration at Rome with Pisanello and Gentile 
da Fabnano becomes very improbable, if we consider that the 
latter artist was employed by Pope .Eugene IV. at the church of 
San Giovanni in Laterano during the yeais 1431 and 1432, that 
is to say, three years after Manaccio's death (1428); see E. 
Muntz, u Lcs Arts a, la Cour des Popes," i , 4, 47. According to 
Facio, " Do Viris Illustrious," Pisanello and Gentile collaborated 
at the same church towards the year 1450 

P. 407 :( 

Masaccio may have returned to Moience in 1424, when his 
name was entered or re-entered in the guild-book of painters ; 
certainly not when Cosmo de' Medici had been recalled from 
exile (in 1434), nor after the death of Masolino (about 1447), as 
he died himself in 1428. 

P. 407f 

The picture of St. Paul was on a pilaster of the Capella de 1 

P. 408J 

Antonio Brancacci is known to have died as early as 139L 
Probably Vasari mistook Antonio, the founder of the chapel, for 

10L. L] MASACOIO. 57 

Felice Brancacci (died in 1422), who, according to G-, Milanesi, 
commissioned tlie wall-paintings. 

P. 409* 

No authenticated drawings by Masaccio are at present known 
to have come down to us, 

P. 409 

The portrait ot Maibaccio, painted by'hnnself, is in the pictuie 
marked III. on the diagram, p. 58 Vasan gave a reproduction 
of it in woodcut m front of this painter's life in the second edition 
of his work He, however, somewhat altered the features, which 
in the woodrtit point to a more advanced age. 

P. 410* 

The subject of the picture described by Yasan as representing 
" The restoration to life of the king's son by St. Peter and St. 
Paul " seems to be taken from the Legenda aurea, chap. 44, 
headed, " St. Peter enthroned" ; St. Peter is seated on a king's 
throne, to which all Christians are doing honour ; for the follow- 
ing reason especially. When Peter preached at Antioch, he 
was imprisoned by Theophilus, the prince of that town. St. 
Paul hearing of this, presented himself to the prince as a 
sculptor and painter, and thus succeeded in getting access 
to St. Peter, who was starving, and whom lie provided with 
food and wine. St. Paul also suggested to the tyrant that a 
man who can cure illnesses and bring the dead back to life 
would be more useful free than in chains. Theophilus replied, 
that he did not believe in such powers of the apostle ; because, 
if he were able to do so much, he would also free himself from his 
chains. But " tell him," he continued, ** to bring me back my 
son, who has been dead for fourteen years ; then I will restore to 
him his freedom." When Paul brought this news to Peter, the 
latter said : " Tou have promised much, but it is easy to fulfil,'* 
When taken out from prison, he prayed for the boy, who 
suddenly returned to life. Theophilus and all tbc people in 
Antioch became believers thenceforth, and built a splendid church, 
wherein they erected a magnificent throne, on which St. Peter 
was seated," 

58 NOTES Otf VASARI. [VOL. 1. 

The accompanying diagram indicates the distribution of the 
works by Masolino, Masaccio, and Filippmo, in the Brancacci 
Chapel : 

By Masohno - -V. St. Peter preaching , JX, a, St Peter and 
St. John healing the lame; IX. b, the raising of Tabitha; XI. 
Eve offering the apple to Adam. 

By Masaccio : 1. Adam and Eve driven from Paradise , 
III. St. Peter paying the tribute ; IV. a, Theophilus and his 
councillors; IV. b, St. Peter enthroned; VI. St. Peter and St. 
John healing the sick; VII. St. Peter baptizing, VIII. St 
Peter giving alms. 

The rest of the pictures (II., X., XII.) are by Filippino (see 
p. 50 of this volume). 


Masaccio can scarcely have been buried at the church of the 
Carmine in the year 1443, as Vasari states on the following page, 
for he died in 1428, probably at Rome. A document of the 
ensuing year, signed by MR brother Giovanni, contains the 
following note by the side of the artist's name, Tommaso di Ser 
Giovanni di Castel San Giovanni : " He is said to have died at 


P. 412 

No panel pictures ascribed to Ma&accio, besides those in the 
Berlin Museum, are now considered to be genuine. 

[Born 1377 died 1445.] 

This biography is one of the best compiled bv Vasari. The 
lively description of the events connected with the construc- 
tion of the cupola of the Duomo at Florence is the more valuable 
because the writer had before him the manuscript of Brunelleschi's 
life compiled by Antonio Manetti (formerly believed to be 
anonymous; see vol. i , p. 413, note f)- Manetti \\as a contem- 
porary of the artist (born 1423 died 1497), 

P. 415J 

Afterwards called San Michele degli Antinori and now 
San Gaetano. 

P. 416f 

In the list of the members of the guild of silk weavers the 
name of Filippo di Ser Brunellesco di Lippo is entered under 
date of December 19, 1398. The goldsmiths formed a section of 
this guild. A later entry, dated July 2, 1404, shows that he had 
become a member of this section. 

P. 41 7f 
This villa is now in the possession of the King of Italy. 

Pp. 417418 

Vasari speaks in similar terms about Paolo Uccelh's invention 
of perspective. Vol. i., pp. 349-350. 

P. 418* 

The following entry is to be found in the inventory of Lorenzo 
il Magnifico's property : A picture, on panel, representing a per- 
spective view of the Palace of the Signori, -with the Piazza and 
Loggia and all the houses there, and a picture on panel repre- 
senting the Duomo di San Giovanni. 

Pp. 420421 
Compare vol. i., pp. 364-366, where more details about Bru- 


ncllesuhi's competition for the bronze doors of the baptistery are 

P 422J 

The two reliefs made in competition by Bmnellesclii and by 
Donatello are now in the Museo Nazionale. 

Pp. 424425 

Vasari' s statement, that there had been a meeting of architects 
and engineers, when Brunelleschi in 1407 returned to Florence 
from Rome, is probably erroneous, Neither Manetti's biography 
nor the archives of the Dnomo of Florence mention it. Such a 
meeting occurred, however, ten years latoi, in 1417, and the 
date given by Vasari is perhaps a mi&pnnt. 


The \vnter of the jest is now known to have been Brunelleschi's 
biographer, Manetti. 

Pp 428429 

The registers of the wardens of the Duomo give the names of 
many Florentine artists attending the meeting here described, 
but there occuis no reference to foreign masters. In his state- 
ments about these Vasari seems to have been misled by the 
exaggerations of popular tradition 

Pp. 432433 

Brunelleschi's Fromemoria is still preserved in the Archives of 
the Duomo, the text varying very slightly from the transcript 
published by Vasari. The paper bears the date 1420. The 
original text has of late been given by Cesare Guasti, in his 
valuable publication, "La Cupola di Santa Maria del Fiore 
illustrata," Florence, 1857. 

P. 434f 

According to Manetti and Baldinucci the cupola built by 
Brunelleschi, of Santa Felicita, is of a later date. Tt is still m 
existence. The cupola he constructed as a trial is pronounced 
by them to be the one of the chapel Bidolfi in the church San 
Jacopo sopr' Arno. ThiK one had been removed in 1709. 

P. 435* 
Altogether, nineteen models had been presented by the 


different competitors. Manetti states that when Bmnelleschi 
was commissioned to begin with the construction of the cupola 
up to the height of 14 braccia (not 12 braccia, as Vasari has it), 
his yearly provision was fixed at thirty-six florins, the lowest 
sum ever paid to a head architect of the cathedral. 

Pp 435 436 

On April 16, 1420, the wardens decided that Ghiberti and 
Batista d' Antonio should join Brunelleschi. 

f 441f 

For the construction of his model of the chain work Brunel- 
leschi was paid 100 florins. From 1425 until 1443 Ghiberti 
continued to be his colleague in the o|fice of chief of the fabric r 
but after 1443 Brunelleschi held the office alone, During that 
time his monthly salary had been raised from three florins to 
fifty, and afterwards to a hundred, whereas Ghiborti never received 
more than three florins 

P. 442f 

Antonio da Verzelli was a carpenter who in 1423 received one 
florin from the wardens as payment for some invention of his 
for raising stones. 

P. 445 
The date here given should be 1425, not 1423, 

P. 449 
The building was completed m 1444. 

P. 450J 

The designs and models of Vicopisano were made ih 1436. 
Brunelleschi went three times to Pisa to take charge of the 
fortifications, in 1426, in 1435, and in 1440. Nothing is 
known about his visit to Milan, related further on by Yasari. 

P. 461 

In April, 1431, the wardens of the Duomo allowed Brunel- 
kschi to leave his work for forty-five days, having 


called by the Princes of Mantua and Ferrara, and in 1436 he 
was again on leave of absence for twenty days for a visit to 

P. 468*{ 

The best account of bronze statues at Ferrara is in L. N 
Citaclella's "BTotizie relative a Forrara" (Ferrara. 1864, p. 415 
and following). Antonio di Cnstoforo of Florence did the 
bronze figure of the Marquess Niccolo d'Este, and executed with 
other sculptors the base of marble The horse was modelled 
and cast by Niccolo Baroncelh (died 1453), who also made the 
entire equestrian statue of Marquess Borgo. 


[Born 1386 died 1466.] 

P. 471 

Vasari relates the same story about the crucifix in the life 
of Brunelleschi (see vol. i., pp, 419, 420.) 

P. 472f 

Ponatello seems to have undertaken the Pope's monument in 
the year 1426, 

P. 473 

The figures of the four evangelists were ordered ui 1408. 
In 1415 the figure of St. John was put in its place, Donatello 
received for it 160 florins. The following description of an 
old man corresponds in its details to that wonderful statue of 
the Florentine Secretary of State, Poggio Bracciolini, which is now 
inside the cathedral. 

p. 474* 

The decorations of the organ were ordered iu 1433. They 
represent angel boys in attitudes of rejoicing, and are til prcHenfc 
in the Museo Nazionalc. Doiiatello entered the service of the 
wardens of the cathedral at an early ago. Fn 1407 he was paid 

VOL. I.] DONATO. 63 

by them sixteen florins for a figure in marble, one-and-a-half bracci 
in height. In 1412 lie received 128 florins for the figure of Joshua, 
and fifty florins on account for the figures of St. John the Evan- 
gelist and David. In 1415 two figures for the Campanile were 
ordered. In 1418 he received 100 florins for a figure in marble (it 
IB not stated what it represented). In 1 42 1 Donatello and Giovanni 
di Bartolo, called il Rosso, were paid in part for the figure of 
Abraham, and in the following year were executed the two heads 
of prophets which are placed on the side door of the cathedral 
near the alto-relievo of the coronation of the Virgin* (See vol. i., 
pp. 317, 318.) 

P. 474f 

Donatello executed in 1434 the coloured cartoon for the 
circular window of the cathedral, in ^mpetltion with Ghiberti, 
and won the prize. 

P. 474|| 

When the palace of Or San Michele had been built at the 
expense of the municipality, each guild was permitted to con- 
struct a tabernacle outside the building and to adorn it with 
a statue representing their respective tutelar saint. 

P. 475J 

Bocchi's discourse on the statue of St. George has been re- 
printed by Semper in " Donatello, seine Zeit und Schule." (See 
" Qellenschriften fur Kunstgeschichte," vol* ix.) 

P. 475 

See vol. i., note ||. The basso-relievi have not been removed. 
The niche which they adorn contains now no figure. 

P. 477 and P. 478* 
These figures are now in the Museo Nazionale. 

P. 478|| 

The first-named fountain, not of granite but of marble, is at 
present in the garden of the villa di Castello. The second is now 
in the Museo Nazionale. 


P. 480J 

AD iuteie&tmg letter which lately has been found among the 
private correspondence of the Medici family appears to refer 
to this bronze work. In July, 1471, the Contc di Maddaloni 
writes from Naples to Lorenzo il Magmfico, thanking him for the 
present of the head of a horse in bronze, and informing him that 
lie had placed it in his house at a spot where it can be seen from 
all sides. 

P. 481 

The statue of Gattamelata seems to have been executed, not 
by order of the Venetian Republic, but probably at the 
expense of Giovan Antonio, the son of the celebrated Con- 
dottiere. A document dated June 29th, 1453, gives endence 
that after the complctftn of the monument an estimate was 
made by a jury, elected partly by Giovan Antonio and partlv by 
Donatello, when it was stipulated that 1650 gold ducats were to 
be paid to Donatello. 

P 483f 

Donatello's statue of St. John, in wood, is at present placed in 
the second chapel on the right of the high altar in the church 
of the Frari. 

P 483 

The monument at Monte Pulciano was possibly executed 
by Donatello as well as by Michelozzi, as both artists wore 
working in common at that time. The commission, however, 
seems to have been given to Michelozzi alone, who in 14IJ6 sipiod 
a contract referring to the payment for the mouummt which then 
he called his work. 

P. 484} 

The most noteworthy of Doiwteilo's works ut Sieua are the 
high-relief in brass on the baptismal font, representing llurodcs 
receiving the head ot St. John the Baptist ; and the allegorical 
figures ot Faith and of Hope. Thcpe were done towards tho 
year 3427. Returning to Siena in 1457 he executed the atatue 
of St. Johu in one of the chapels of the cathedral* 


P. 485^ 

The statue of San Lodovico is at present insirle the church 
above the principal door. 

P. 486 

The grotesque statue of Mercury is now in the Museo 
Nazionale. It is generally admitted to be by Donatello and not 
an antique. 

P. 490f 

It can no longer be doubted that Vasari is light in giving 
the date of Donatello's death as 1466. This is confirmed by 
the identical entry in the Florentine obituaries. 

P. 491* 

Bertoldo died in 149L A very interesting note about him 
occurs in a letter written in that year by Ser Bartolomeo Deo to 
his -uncle, Benedetto Dei: "In these days died at Poggio [a 
Cajano] Bertoldo, a sculptor of great merit, who also executed 
very fine medals, he has always done excellent work for the 
Magnifico Lorenzo, who was much affected by it, as there is no 
other artist in Tuscany, and perhaps not even in Italy, wlio is so 
gifted for such work as he was," etc. 

[Born 1396 (?} died 1472.] 

P. 494* 

The Michelozzi family at Florence descended from one 
Bartolommeo di Oherardo, called Borgonone, a tailor from Bur- 
gundy, who in April, 1376, applied for, and was granted, the 
citizenship of Florence* 

P. 495* 

Michelozzo assisted G-hiberti, not only in his youth, on the 
statue of St. Matthew (1419-1422), but also in his later year* 


In 1442 lie worked under Ghiberti's directions at the bronze 
doors of the baptistery. 

P. 495J 

The silver statue of St. John is in the centre of the silver 
altar amidst historical representations by Verrocchio, PolJajuolo, 
and others. This masterpiece of Florentine goldsmith work is 
preserved in the " Opera del Duomo.'* 

P. 495 

This statue, in marble, of the Infant St. John has been 
transferred to the Museo Nazionale It is not by Michelozzo, but 
by Antonio Gamberelli, called il Eoselhno, who executed it in 
1477, five years after Michelozzo's death. 

P. 500J 

In the year 1462 Michelozzo became a member of the 
Collegio. In 1427 he is mentioned as holding the post of en- 
graver at the mint, and this office he seems to have held until 

P. 507f 

The Palazzo Corsi, in the Via Tornabuoni, has in the course 
of time been subjected to alterations, but the facade has been 
entirely restored according to Michelozzo's original design. 

Pp. 507508 

The chapel of the Annunciation was began by Piero 
<le' Medici, in 1461, eight years before the death of Cosimo, his 
father. From the account books of the church de' Servi we 
learn also that neither Michelozzo, nor Pagno Portigiani (not 
Partigiani, as Vasari has it), was the architect of the chapel 
of the Annunciation in the church of the Servi, but Giovanni 
di Bcttino, the same who, according to Gaetano Milanesi, 
constructed the fagade of S. Maria Novella, which is generally 
ascribed to Leon Battista Albert!. In 1444 Michelozzo was 
the head architect of the church of the Servi, now commonly 
called Santissima Anunziata 


P. 508* 

Pagno de Lapo Portigiani was born in 1406, and died in 

P, 508 

The bronze candelabra and the entrance gate of the chapel 
of the Annunciation were the works of Maso di Bartolommco, 

called Masaccio. (See Editor's note pp. 54-55), 

P. 510J 

At San Miniato al Tedesco, in the church of San Jacopo de' 
Domenicani, there is a monument of Giovanni Ghelini, a physician 
of Florence. It was erected in 1461. The figure of Chelini is 
said to be very fine, and in its style not unlike the works of 

P. 511* 

The best account of Foppa's works is given by Giov. Morelli 
in his recent publication "Italian Masters in German Galleries'" 
(English translation, London, 1833, passim). This great, but 
far too little appreciated, master was a native of Brescia. Both 
in the school of Brescia and especially in that of Milan, Foppa 
holds the same place that the mighty Mantegna does at Padua 
and Mantua. According to Filarete and Girolamo Savonarola 
he was a scholar of Squarcioni. Messrs. Crowe and Caval- 
caselle wrongly state in their " History of Painting," that he 
was a Pavian. Among other contemporaries of Foppa, Cnlepino 
(of Bergamo) and the Anonymus of Morelli call Km Brescian, 
and his picture of 1456 at the Town Gallery of Bergamo (JsTo. 
54) " Christ on the Cross," bears the inscription " Vineen cins 
(not civis) Brixiensis p." (See also Stefano Fenaroli, "' Dizio- 
nario degli Artisti Bresciani," p. 131). According to Loinazzo 
(" Trattato della Pittura," L, 39 and 55), Foppa came to Milan 
in 1460. This is, however, not quite correct. The pictures 
in the Medici Palace at Milan, here mentioned by Vasari, 
were executed as early as 1457. At present nothing of them 
is left. Foppa died at Brescia in 1492. The works of his 
still in existence are chiefly in the Milanese Collections, but 
some of them are exhibited under wrong names. (See Morelli 
p. 398, note.) 



In 1464 Michelozzo was staying at Ragusa, making arrange- 
ments for going to the island of Scio to enter the services of 
Messer Girolamo Giustiniani da Garibaldi, and of Messer 
Odoardo Giustiniani dal Fornello, of Genoa, commanders of 
Turkish war vessels. Michelozzo was to serve them as architect 
and engineer for not less than six months, payment being 
stipulated at 300 ducats a year. It is unknown whether the 
artist undertook the journey. 


In the Florentine obituaries he is entered as having been 
buried in the church of San Marco on October 7th, 1472. 

P. 511|| 

Vasari seems not to have known that after the death of 
Brunelicschi, Michelozzo became surveyor of the cupola and 
of the lanthorn of Florence Cathedral in his place, and held 
this office from 1446 to 1451. In 1453 he founded the bell of 
the Palazzo della Signoria. 

VOL. n 

[Flourished circa 1450.] 

P. 2f 

Very little is known of Filarete's life. From his signature on* 
the bronze doors of St. Peter's, Borne (OPVS ANTONII PETBI DB 
PIOKBNTIA), we learn that the name of his father was Peter. 
Vasari says that he died at the age of fifty-five (see p. 7), 
but the date of his death as well as of his birth remains unknown. 
Filarete is probably a surname, which he had in common with 
others. There was at Florence one Francesco di Lorenzo de* 
Filareti or Filarete, who from 1457 to 1501 held the office of 
herald of the Republic. Both may have belonged to the same- 


familv. " Averulino " seems to be another surname pointing to 
Veroli, tlie town between Rome and Naples, whence his ancestors 
may have come. 


Filarete's plans for the Ospedale Maggiore at Milan arc pre- 
served in his manuscripts (see p. 5 note*). The ground plan 
of the present buildnig is about the same as he devised it, but 
all the decorative work betraying the peculiar style of Lombard 
art is most probably by the architects of the school that suc- 
ceeded him. The dimensions of Filarete's plans were two 
hundred and forty metres by ninety, forming an oblong. The 
building was to be divided in three principal parts with a 
spacious court in the centre, adorned by cupolas, facades, 
flights of steps, etc., as at present to %e seen. (See Calvi, 
** Notizie sulla Vita e le Opera de' Principali Architetti," etc , 
1862, vol. ii., p. 78; and Mongori, " I/Arte in Milano," 1872, p. 

P. 4* 

About Foppa see Editor's note, page 67 of this volume. The 
paintings by this artist at the Ospedale Maogiore no longer 


P. 6* 

The artist, who, with Filarete, executed the bronze doors at 
St. Peter's in Rome, is Simone di Giovanni Grhmi, a Florentine 
goldsmith, born in 1407, who after 1427, remained at Rome 
in the service of the popes Eugene IV., Nicholas V., Pius 11., 
and Paul II. He died at Florence in 1491. The other 
Simone, who was a scholar, not, however, the brother of Dona- 
tello, was a native from Fiesole. His full name is Simone di 
Nanni Ferrucci, the father of the sculptor Francesco Ferrucci. 
In a contemporary document he is called "Simone, an en- 
graver (intagliatore) who was a scholar of DonateHo." The 
first of the two above named artists, Simone, seems to have 
chiefly cast his works in bronze, the second worked mostly in 


Jean Fouquet, the greatest French artist of the fifteenth 


century, was bora at Tours, about 1415 or 1420. In 1440 he 
was called to Rome to paint tlie portrait of Pope Eugene 
IV. In 1461 he is mentioned as living at Paris, and died about 
the year 1485. He executed chiefly illuminations. The portrait 
of the pope is mentioned also in Filarete's manuscripts, and 
also in a description of the Touraine written in 1477 by Fran- 
cesco Florio, a Florentine who was staying there. Two portraits 
by Fouquet, perhaps the only existing panel pictures of his, 
have of late been added to the Louvre Collection. One of 
them represents King Charles YIL, the other GuillAume Juvenal, 
his chancellor (Nos. 653 and 652). 


Eeltrarae, or Beltramone, called Van one, the illegitimate son 
of Angelo Bolfradelli of Florence, was born in 1420, and died 
about the year 1457. The last seven years of his life he 
spent at Rome, where he executed several works of inferior 
importance ; for instance, seven windows in St. Peter's church, 
the marble pavement in the small chapel of the Vatican, the 
bronze doors on the river side of the Castle of Sant Angelo. 
Niccrolo'h family name is Baroncelli. (See note on vol. i, 
p 468.) Niccolo, as well as Varrone, were fellow-pupils of 
Filarete's, as he states himself in his manuscripts, not his pupils, 

P. 71 

In the life of Paolo Romano Vasari states that the tomb 
of Pope Pius II. had been executed by Piccolo della Guardia 
and Pietro Paolo da Toclu Here he ascribes it to two 
disciples of Filarete ; but according to G-. Milanesi, none of these 
statements can be accepted. From 1450 to 1454 Pasquino was 
at Urbmo working in company with the sculptor Maso cli Barto- 
lommeo, called Masaccio. He died in 1484, fifty-nine years 
of age, at Florence, where be held the office of head of the 
foundry of Lombardy, Bernardo di Pietro Ciuffagni, of 
Florence, was born in 1385, and died in 1453. He executed 
several statues for Florence Cathedral; for instance, in 1410 
the figure of St. Matthew, in 1415 the figure of Joshua on 
the Campanile. Vasari's statement that ho worked also at 



Mantua is most probably an error; an artist of a similar 
name, Bernardo di Bartolo Fancelli, a sculptor from Settig- 
nano, was staying at Mantua towards the end of the fifteenth 


[Born 1432 died 1490.] 

The details of this life are to a great extent unreliable. 
n several instances Vasari seems to have mistaken Giuhano for 
his brother, Benedetto da Majano, w<hom, however, he calls his 
nephew. But these and other errors of the biographer can 
be corrected by the aid of documents which of late have come 
to light, 

P. 9* 

From he Itzcordi of the painter Neri di Bicci we learn that 
Giuliano da Majano was for some years employed by him iu 
carving frames which at that time were carved on the same 
panel on which the painter worked. In the account books 
of the convent of the Servi, Giuliano's name is not to ho found 
before the year 1470, when he was employed in wood work for 
five years. 

P. 9f 

The Intarsiatura which Giuliano executed for the sacristy of 
the Abbey of Fiesole, represent figures of samts and open books* 
They bear the following signature: OPVS IVLIANI IJJONA&DI 



The Intarsiatura in the cathedral of Pisa, here described by 
Vasarij is the work of Francesco di Giovanni, called Francione. 
Guido del Seravallino (not Servellino, as Vasari has it) was a 
native from Pisa. Domenico di Mariotto, however, although 
luring for a long time at Pisa, was born at Florence. He died afc 


Pisa, in 1519. Giovanni Battista del Cervelliera, the celebrated 
wood engraver of Pisa, was also an architect. He died, very 
old, in 1570. 

P. 10* 

Vasari's statement that Giuliano da Majano was the architect 
of Poggio Reale is confirmed by Luca Paciolo. (See * Divina 
Proporzione," Venice, 1509, fol. 29, tergo.) 

P. 10f 

Pietro del Donzello was bom at Florence in 1452 ; Polito in 
1458. They appear to have been poor painters. Polito worked 
in the studio of Neri di Bicci from 1469 until 1473, and Pietro 
was staying with G-iusto cpVndrea for some time. They seem to 
have gone to Naples in or about the year 1481. The date of 
Polito's death is unknown. Pietro returned to Florence, where 
he died in 1509. None of their paintings at Naples have come 
down to us 

P. lot 

We learn from documents that the architecture of the tri* 
nmphal arch was the work of Pietro di Marbiao. The statues 
and basso-relievi which adorn it, were executed during the years 
1456 and 1471 by Pietro di Martino, Isaia da Pisa, Domenico di 
Moutemignano, Antonio da Pisa, Domenico Lombardo, Francesco 
Azzara, Paolo Romano, whose life Vasan wrote, and Andrea 
dalT Aquila (see Camillo Minieri Riccio, " Gli artisti ed artefici che 
lavorarono in Castelnuovo a tempo di Alfonso I. e Forranto I,," 
Naples, 1876). Giuliano da Majano's name doe not occur 
among these artists, but it is very probable that Benedetto, his 
brother, had something to do with this work, inasmuch as we 
find in the inventory of his property, drawn up after his deaih, 
several statues destined for the " Porta Realo " at Naples. 

P. lit 

The Palace of San Marco (now Palazzo Venezia) is the work, 
not of Giuliano da Majano, who appears to have never visited 
Rome, but of several architects, presided over by Giacomo "da 
Pietrasanta. (See E. Miintz, " Les Arts a- la Oour des Popes," 
volii.,pp. 49-73.) The construction of thto palace was probably 


begun in 1455. The marble loggia, from which the pope gave the 
benediction, is the same which Raphael introduced in the back- 
ground of his fresco representing the Incendio del Borgo. It 
was the work of the architect Jacopo da Pietrasaiita, and of the 
sculptors Mino da Fiesole, Isaia da Pisa, Paolo Romano, Pagno 
d'Antonio da Settignano, Marco da Firenze, and Giovanni da 
Verona, who executed it in 1463 and 1464. Later on it was 
taken down by order of Pope Julius II. 


[Born about 1416 difcd 1492 ] 

P. 14f 

According to Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, " History of 
Painting," the portrait representing the artist, at present in the 
house of Signer Marini Franceschi, of Borgo San Scpolcro, is 
not by his own hand, but probably a copy after the lost original. 
The picture mentioned in the same note (f), representing the 
Nativity, is in the National Gallery, London (No. 908), with 
another work of the artist the Baptism of Christ (No. 065, 
formerly at Borgo San Sepolcro). These two genuine pro- 
ductions of an artist who is seldom to be met with in public 
and private collections enable us to atudy closely the style of 
the master in all its details, and to arrive at some conclusion 
with regard to its relation with the works of contemporary 
artists. There can be no doubt that Piero della Francesca 
studied art at Florence, but neither Vasari, nor documents tell 
us the name of his master. In the years 1439 and 1440 lie 
worked with "M. Domenicho di Bartolomeio da Vinczia" at the 
chapel of St. Egidio in Santa Maria Nuova, at Florence, as we 
learn from the archives of that hospital. (See Weigel's " Archiv 
fur zeichnende Kiinste," Leipzig, 1856, p. 232, note.) He 
was then about twenty-three years of age, and there is no 
reason to suppose that he had been also the pupil of Domenico 
Veneziano (vol. ii, p. 98-105), the less so, as thi3 view is not 
supported by a comparison of the works of both artiste. But 


if we compare Piero' s two pictures at the National Gallery with 
the one "by Paolo Uccelli in the same collection (see note to vol. 
i,, p. 358* in this volume), we will observe a striking affinity of 
style between the landscapes in the background of the pictures. 
Paolo Uccelli was Piero's elder by about nineteen years, and it 
is very probable that he, being the first representative of the 
scientific and realistic tendencies in painting, had also been the 
master of Piero, who certainly was the most ardent follower of 
these new principles. (See J. P. Richter, " Italian Art at the 
National Gallery," p. 16.) 

P. 14$ 

The lost manuscript of Piero dclla Francesca's treatise " De 
Prospectiva Pmgendi," ftas been found by Harzen. at the Am- 
brosian Library, Milan. (See " Archiv fur zeichnende Kunste," 
Leipzig, 1856, p. 231, foil) Of late Dr. Max Jordan has 
shown conclusively that Luca Paciolo's well-known Italian 
publication is merely a translation from the Latin manuscript, of 
which Picio dclla Francesca is the author. (See " Jahrbucher der 
Koenigl Prcussi&ehcu Kunstsammlnngen ") However, it seems 
to be incredible that a man of Luca Paciolo's learning and 
position should have been guiiiy of so treacherous an act as he 
is charged with by Vasan. A careful examination of the con- 
tents of the treatise has led Dr. Wmtcrberg to the following 
conclusions, which we may acccept as the only satisfactory 
solution of tho disputed question of authorship. The whole 
work is, so to say, nothing but a series of practical applications 
framed on Euclid's propositions, which are continually quoted. 
The author seems to forbear, on purpose, all reasoning of his 
own. The arrangement of the subject is somewhat confused. 
The reckonings by which the problems are solved, are, at the 
present day, valueless, because of their prolixity. Nay, it 
seems impossible that one single man should have made him- 
self responsible for the correctness of the very large numbers 
occurring m the calculations without having some check. There- 
fore, we may safely assume that Piero della Francesca and Luca 
Paciolo were the joint authors of this treatise, Luca Paciolo 
is known to have been the pupil of Piero, and there can be no 
doubt that other publications of his secure him the fame of one 


of the greatest mathematicians of his age. (See ** Repertorium fUr 
Kunstwissenschaft," v., pp 33-41.) 

P. 15* 

The Duke of Urbino, of whom Vasari here states that he 
employed the artist, was Guidobaldo I., the sou of the Duke 

P. 16t 

The palace at Ferrara, where Piero clella Francesca worked, 
is known as the Palace of Schifanoia. The frescos, still pre- 
served there, are by the hand of Ferrarese artists. Those 
by Piero have perished, and at present there is not a single 
picture by him to be found at Ferrara. 

P 16J 

The years 1447 1455, the limits of the pontificate of Nicho- 
las V., define the period within which Piero's Roman labours 
must be placed. In the " Life of Raphael " (vol. iii , p. 13), 
Vasaii speaks but of one fresco in the Vatican by Piero ; here 
he attudes to two, and infonns us of their position. 

Bramantc of Milan is generally called Bramantino. His real 
name was Bartolommeo Suarcli. At first he was a scholar 
of Foppa's. Afterwards he became influenced by Donate 
Bramante. About the works of Bramantino at Milan, see 
G. Morelli, " Italian masters in German Galleries," passim, 

P 18t 

Documents relating to this picture show that he executed it 
during the years 1454 and 1469 for payment of 320 florins. 

P. 18J 

The panel picture representing the Virgin was ordered in 
1445. For the same brotherhood he painted, in 1478, another 
picture of the Virgin, doubtless the one to which Vasari refers, 
It is now lost. 

The genuineness of the fresco paintings at the church of 


San Francesco in Arezzo is at present universally admitted, and 
the judgment passed upon them by Vasari cannot be said to 
be exaggerated. 

P 21f 

seen at the town gallery 

P 21f 

This picture has not been destroyed. Tt is in a fair 
btate of preservation, and is to be seen at th 
of Perugia. 

Nothing remains of this woik 


See note referring to p. J4 J of this life. 

P. 23* 

It is, perhaps, a mere hypothesis of Vasari's when he calls 
Pietro Perugino a pupil of Pieio della Francesca Elsewhere 
he states that he had visited the studio of Vcrrocchio. On the 
evidence of his early works we may say that he was a pupil of 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo 

The date of Piero della Francesca's death is not 1458, as 
Vasari has it, but 1492, October 12th, as proved by the 
obituaiies of San Sepolcro, "Maestro Pietro di Benedetto de T 
Francescbi, pittore famoso a eft 12 Ottobre, 1492 (fu) sepolto in 
B'idia" (buried in the Cathedral). 


[Born 1387 -died 1452.] 

In this biography the writer lias drawn a very lively picture 
of the artist's character, of his tendency in art and of his pious 
life. This he has done so successfully that it has even been 
conjectured, but without aufBcient reasons, that some able 
monastic writer had assisted the author in his descriptions* In 
one respect, however, the biography is quite unsatisfactory. It 


seems to have been compiled with utter disregard to, or, at least, 
in careless ignorance of the chronological order of facts which 
constitute the artist's long career. About these there can be 
no doubt, now-a-days, since all the documents referring to 
Fra Giovanni da Fiesole's life are made known. But instead 
of pointing out in the notes every single error in Vasari's 
perplexed narrative, it would be more to the point to give 
here beforehand a short review of the principal facts. 

In 1408, at the age of twenty-one, he went with his brother 
to Fiesole with the view of entering the order of the Dominican 
friars. They were at once sent to Cortona to pass there the 
noviciate, whence they returned, probably to Fiesole. But for 
political reasons the whole body of the Dominican friars at 
Fiesole left one night in 1409 for Umbria, and did not return to 
Fiesole until 1418. Some years, if tfot the whole tune of his 
absence from Tuscany, he must have spent at Cortona, where 
pictures of his are still to be seen. During the years 1418 and 
1436, when staying at Fiesole, he executed numerous pictures for 
his monastery, as well as for the churches, and for private persons 
at Florence, When in 1436 the reconstruction of the monastery 
of St. Mark in that town was begun, he was invited to decorate 
with paintings both the church and the monastery, and remained 
there for nine years. In, or after, the year 1445, Pope Eugene 
IV. (not Nicholas V.) ordered him to come to Kome, where he 
chiefly lived until his death, in 1455. During a three-months' 
stay at Orvieto, in the summer of the year 1447, he executed 
the fresco paintings on the ceiling of the chapel of the Madonna 
di S. Brizio at the Duomo. After the death of Pope Eugene in 
1447, he was engaged by his successor, Pope Nicholas V., for 
whom he painted the frescos in the chapel of the Vatican, still 
bearing the name of that pope. 

P. 24 1| 

Fra Benedetto, the brother of Fra Giovanni, died in 1448. 
From an account book of the monastery of San Marco it becomes 
evident that he was not an artist, and did not execute the illu- 
minations ascribed to him, of which he is proved to have been 
merely the scribe^ whereas the illuminations were executed by 
Zanobi di Benedetto Strozzi, who did the figures, and by 


Filippo di Matteo Torrelli who worked at the ornamentations 

P. 29! 

This tabernacle is exhibited in the Sala di Lorenzo Monaco in 
the TJffizi Gallery. 

P. 30* 

In the church of San Domenico at Cortona, on the left of the 
high altar, there is a picture of the Madonna between St. John 
the Evangelist, St. John the Baptist, St. Mark, and Mary Magda- 
len; a crucifixion and an annunciation above. The predella 
with scenes from the life of St. Dominic and a second altar- 
piece representing the Annunciation, having also a predella with 
scenes of the life of the Virgin, have been transferred to the 
baptistery of the Duomo. ** These pictures are most probably the 
earliest works of the master now in existence. 

P. 30 

Fra Angelico has treated the same subject with slight varia- 
tions in a picture, which is now in the collection of Lord 

Pp. 3132 

Yasari's statement that the pope intended to bestow upon 
Fra Giovanni Angelico the honours of an archbishopric is not 
supported by those writers whom we must expect to have been 
best acquainted with the incident, such as Castiglioni, the secre- 
tary and biographer of Fra Antonino. But on the other hand 
it is nearly certain that the painter suggested to the pope to 
bestow that honour on Fra Antonino. 

P. 35* 

Zanobi di Benedetto Strozzi was born in 1412. He was a 
scholar of the illuminator Biagio Sanguigni. (Compare note 
on vol. ii,, p. 24|.) He executed several illuminated manu- 
scripts for different churches of Florence, some of which are 
now in the Library of the church of San Lorenzo. He died 
in 1468. He appears to have been a faithful imitator of the style 
of Fra Angelico. 


P. 35 

Domenico di Michelino, tlie atithor of tlie picture containing 
the full length portrait of Dante in the cathedral of Florence, 
was bom in 1417, and died in 1498. The said picture was 
painted in 1466. 

About Attavante, see note on vol. iii., "Life of Grhcrardo 

P. 40* 

The manuscript descubed by Vasan after Bartoli's notes is 
now in the Marciana Library at Venice (Cl. xii., Cod. Ixviii.), but 
unfortunately, it has been deprived of all its miniatures except 
those on the title-page. If we Compaq the style of the figures 
and of the ornaments on that sheet with those authenticated 
works of his which bear his signature, such as the codex 
of Martinus Capella in the same library (Cl. xiv., Cod xxxv.), 
it becomes evident that Bartoli, Vasari's informant, was mistaken 
in ascribing it to Attavante. 

[Born 1404 Died 1472.] 

In many respects Alberti may be called the forerunner of 
Leonardo da Vinci, of whom Vasari says tbat he worked much 
more by his word than in fact and by deed. The same may 
be truly said of Alberti, The life of this artist chiefly treats 
on the works of art executed by him, and we learn here but 
little about his numerous writings by which he exercised a great 
influence on his contemporaries. These are stated to have 
treated on about thirty-eight different subjects, but only few of 
them have been published. The following are the most im- 
portant ones : " De Statua," a treatise in which he gives 
directions for the execution of sculptures; ;< Delia Kttura 
libri tre," written in Latin, and translated by the author into 
Italian, with a dedication to Filippo di Ser Bmnellcschi (about 


1435) ; and " Elementa Picturse," repeating mostly the contents 
of the first book on painting; "Trattato della Prospettiva,'' 
a treatise on optics, not on perspective, in the later meaning of 
this woid. The treatise " De' cinque ordint Architettonici " 
was followed by his most extensive, and, at the same time, most 
important work "De re aedificatoria," divided into ten books. 
This work may be said to have been the principal cause of the 
introduction of the antique style into Italian architecture during 
the second half of the fifteenth century. Amongst his other 
works may be noted : * fc Piacevolezze matematiche " treating on 
problems of mechanics, hydraulics, and dynamics. 

The best Italian edition of his works bears the title " Opere 
volgari di L B. Alberti," in five volumes, edited by Bonucci 
(Florence, 1843-49). Some of his smaller works have been 
published by Hubert laritschek (Vienna, 1877), 

P 48f 

The conduit of the Aqua Vergine was constructed in 1453, 
and was enlarged in 1446 and m 1472. 

P. 43$ 

This beautiful church was began in 1447. The marbles 
which were used as the building material were brought together 
in very large quantities from Istria, from the Porto di Rimini, 
which hereby became ruined, from the old church of San 
Francesco, and from other buildings inside and outside Rimini. 
The Prince even ordered the destruction of old churches at San 
Severo and at Classe, near Ravenna. According to an inscription 
inside the building it was completed as early as in 1450, but thin 
is contradicted by documents (published by Zanobi Bicchierai 
in 1855), which show that in 1454 Alberti, when at Rome, sent 
to Rimini a drawing for the facade by which he meant to 
introduce alterations in the first design. During his absence 
the works were directed by Matteo Pasti of Verona, the well- 
known medallist. 

P. 44* 

Vasari alludes here to Alberti's invention of the vertically 
placed painter's net, for which Leonardo substituted the vertical 


glass plane. (See J, P Bichter, " The Literary Works of Leonardo 
da Vinci," TO!, i , p. 260, note.) 

In judging from the style of the facade of Sta. Maria Novella, 
it seems improbable that it is throughout by Alberti. The 
fagade was began by Turino Baldesi, a Florentine patrician, 
who loft certain sums for its construction in 1348, but at that 
time only the lower portions were executed About the year 
1456, Alberti was engaged by Giovanni di Paolo Rucellai 
to finish the facade. The date of the completion is indicated 
by the inscription : " Anno Sal MCCCCLXX." Probably Alberti 
executed only the central door. According to Fra Giovanni 
di Domenico da Corello, who in his " Theodocon " treats on 
gome Florentine chinches, the design of the facade was mado by 
Giovanni Bettim. (Seo note, ** Life of Michelozzo," p. 66.) The 
same is stated by Del Migliore. 

The Palace Kucellai was begun about the year 1451, and 
completed in 1455. 

Pp. 4445 

An anonymous writer of biographies of artists, who wrote 
about the year 1520, asserts that the model of the Palace 
Eucellai was by Bernardino Rossellmo, and that of the Loggia 
by Antonio del Mighore Gruidotti. 

P. 47* 

At Mantua Alberti executed also the small church of San 
Sebastiano, which TK as begun in 1460. There can be no doubt 
that Alberti really conceived the plan of tlie church of San 
Andrea in 1470, two years before his death The work was 
only begun in 1472, and continued for forty years, 

P. 47f 

Luca (not Silvcstro) Fancelli, already mentioned by Vasan in 
the Life of Brunelleschi, was born in 1430, and died in 1495. 
When the Marquess of Mantua requested Cosimo de' Medici to 
send him an architect, Fancelli was sent to him, and remained 
for thirty years in his service. In 1487 he was called to Milan 
to give his opinion about the construction of the cupola of the 
Duonio. In 1491, after the death of Giuliano da Majano, lie 
became chief architect of Florence Cathedral. 



[Born 1399 died 1452 (?).] 

Lazzaro di Niccolb de' Taldi, of Cortona, settled at Arezzo 
towards tlie beginning of the fifteenth century. He is to be 
considered the head of the Vasari family. His son Giorgio, who 
was the grandfather of the biographer, and who by profession 
was a potter (vasajo), altered the first by-name of his family into 
Do' Vasan. But the biographer was mistaken in describing his 
ancestor Lazzaro as having been a painter, since documents have 
revealed to us the fact that he exercised the modest profession 
of a saddler, as he described himself on the Cortonebe municipal 
papers of the year 1427. His name does not occur in the list of 
the Painters 1 Guild of Arezzo. 

The proper name of the artist is Fabiano di Stagio di Ser Picro 
Sassoh. He executed, in 1487, a glass window for the chapel of 
the Confraternity of the Trinita, at Arezzo. His son Stagio, who 
was a pupil of Marcillac, exercised the same art. 

[Born about 1444 died about 1493.] 

This biography has given rise to much controversy. Unlike 
most of the " Lives," it contains but few facts, and is abundant in 
raisonnement. According to Vasan, Italian art owes to Antonello 
one of the greatest discoveries, yet all that he tells us about it 
has generally been acknowledged to be inaccurate in its details. 
This has given rise to numerous theories, which tend to harmo- 
nize Vasan's story with well-known and indisputable facts. Of 
late, however, Senatore Morelli has undertaken to discredit 
entirely this biography of Vasari' s, and as he has succeeded, too, 
at the same time in determining the position which is really 
due to the artist, it seems to me necessary to bring here before 


the reader the whole of his arguments, which may thus serve as 
a commentary to Vasari's Life. (See "Italian Masters in German 
Galleries," pp. 376390.) 

" In the foremost rank of those opinions, which in the course of 
long years have assumed the character of axioms, and which no 
one now thinks it needful to prove, stands the conviction that 
' Antonello travelled to Flanders, and there learned oil-pamtiti 
of John van Eyck ' Some modern writers substitute Roger van 
der Weyclen, or else Hans Memhng, for Van Eyck, who died m 
1441. Unless I am grossly mistaken, this fable owes its origin 
to nothing but the vain and lively imagination of some Sicilian. 

*' Let us look into the question closely, and without precon- 

" That the painters of Europe, long before the brotliois Tan 
Eyck, had made use of the ' oil mediufi,' is evident not only 
from the 'Trattato della Pittura,' of Cennino Cennmi, which was 
compiled in the year 1437, but also from the much earlier 
Diversarum artium schedulas' of the monk Theophilns. 

" The inscription placed on Jan van Eyck's memorial 111 the 
Netherlands has not one syllable about his invention of oil 
painting ' 

Hie jacet eximia clarus virtute Joannes, 
In quo pictures gratia rnira fiat, etc l 

"And among the German writers of the fifteenth century, not 
one speaks of this discovery of Van Eyck's, while the greater 
number of German painters, as Martin Schongauer, Michel 
Wohlgemuth, Albrccht Durer, Hans Holbein the elder, Burck- 
mair, and others, had adopted the system of oil painting perfected 
by the brothers Van Eyck, without anyone north of the Alps 
making a noise about it. 

"But even in Italy there appears to ha\e been no particular 
atir made about the new Flemish method of painting till the 
biography of Antonello da Messina appeared in the ' Vite ' of 
Vasari in 1550. 

" Bartholomeus Facius, indeed, in his book, ' De viris illus- 
trious,' written in 1456, says of Joannes Gallicns (Van Eyck), 
whom, as a practical painter, he calls * princeps pictoruca,' that 

1 See Zam's *' Encyclopedia, jfco., vol. iu, 305. 


he 'multa cle colonun proprietatibus invenisse, quae ab antiquis 
tradita, ex Plinii et ab ahorura auctorum lectione didicerat/ 

** A contemporary of Facing, the Florentine architect and 
sculptor, Antonio Averulino (named Filarete), says, in Book 
24 of his ; Trattato della Architettura,' etc. (see Vasari, vol. 
i., p. 5) ' And in oil also can they lay all these colours upon 
canvas or on wood, but thereto goeth another method of painting, 
exceeding fair for them that know it. In Lamagna (Germany) 
they work well on this wise, and specially doth Master John, of 
Bruges, and Master Roger (Van der Weyden) excel therein, 
who both work right skilfully in oil colours. Qu. Tell me how 
they apply this oil, and what manner of oil it be ? Am. Linseed 
oil. Qv. Is it not very dim ? Ans. Yea, but they purge off 
the dimness , in what way, I cannot tell ' x 

"In the year 1464,* wlren Eilarete wrote his Trattato, Antonello, 
born (according to the historians) about 1414, numbered some 
fifty years of age, yet he is never mentioned by Filarete in con- 
nection with the subject. And the same silence is maintained 
by Ciriacus of Ancona, and the Tuscan Albertini. 

" The only writer of the fifteenth century that ever names 
Antonello is the Sicilian Matteo Collaccio, and that in a letter to 
another Sicilian, Antonio Siciliano, Principal of Padua Univer- 
sity. Speaking of the celebrated men of his tune, he says* 
*Habet vero haec aetas Antonelhim Siculum, cujus pictura 
Yenetus in Divi Oassiam aede magnae est adniiratiom.' 

" Albrecht Diircr, who visited Venice for the first time in 1494, 
when Antonello had just died, does not once mention him in his 
letters or notes, a sign that Antonello could not have enjoyed 
that fame at Venice, nor that consideration in the eyes of con- 
noisseurs, which was attempted to be bestowed on him fifty years 
later, as in Vasan's biographies. 

"In 1524 the Venetian patrician Marcantonio Michiel, an 
intelligent amateur, addressed himself to the architect Sum- 
monzio, of Naples, with the view of getting fuller information 
about Antonello da Messina. The Sfeapolitan's reply to the 
Venetian ran thus :* ; From the time of King LadisJaus down to- 

1 This shows that at the time of Filarete the new Van Eyck system 
of painting was theoretically known, but that no Italian painter had as* 
yet felt prompted to abandon for it the native method of tempera 


our own Neapolitan master Colantonio, we never possessed a 
man with so great a talent as he for painting ; had Le not died 
young, he would have done great things. And if this Colantonio 
never i cached the same perfection in his art as his \\ell-known 
pupil at Venice, Antonello da Messina, it was only the fault of 
the times he lived in. The declared aim of Colantonio was, 
according to the general fashion then at Naples, to paint m the 
manner of the Low- Countrymen ; and being passionately fond of 
his art, he had resolved to go to Flanders, in order to perfect 
himself therein at the fountain-head. But King lloger 1 of 
Anjou diverted him from his intended journey by himself 
instructing him, both in the application of oil (practica) and in 
the mystery of mixing colours (tempcia). Aid it was from 
Colantonio, who died young, that his pupil Antonello da Messina 
learned it.' 2 

" Modern criticism has clearly demonstrated that Summonzio's 
'Neapolitan painter Colantonio' was nothing but one of the 
numerous inventions or illusions of Neapolitan local patriotism ; a 
but that has nothing to do with our immediate object. I only 
wish to draw the attention of my readers to the fact that the first 
writer who gives us any account of Antonello's artistic training, 
the Neapolitan architect Summonzio, makes him learn the new 
Flemish manner of painting in oil, not in Flanders, as Yasari tells 
us, but in Italy. 

"In flat contradiction to this statement of the Neapolitan is the 
information imparted to Vasari for his 'Vite,' some five-aud- 
twenty years later, by (as I have some reason for believing) a 
Sicilian savant. His account is that Antonello learnt drawing at 
Eome (of whom ?) ; that he then retired to Palermo, 4 where he 
acquired great celebrity, and after several years' residence there, 
returned to his native town Messina, where he set the seal to the 
fame he had won at Palermo. But, having gone to Naples ono 
day, he was there shown the beautiful picture by Jan van Eyck, 
which had been sent from Flanders to King ' Rene* ; 1 and the 

1 King Roger reigned at Naples from 1435 to 1442. 

a Lanzi, " Storm Pittorica della Italia," Milano, 1842, il 319. 

3 Crowe and Cavalcaselle, i. 335, and u. 78, and Dr. Gustavo 
Frmom (" Archivio Stonco Itahano"); " Napoli nei sucu rqpporti coll* 
tote del Kmascimento." 

4 The Palermitan patriot seems to me to peep out in this passage. 


glowing, ^hid colours of that painting so impressed lion, that lie 
resolved tlierc and then to set out for Bruges, where, beinu 
received in the friendliest way by Jan A an Eyck, lie was initiated 
forthwith into the mysteries of oil-painting On returning from 
Flanders to Measma (say, about 1440 or 1441, as Jan \an Eyck 
died in the latter year), Aiitoncllo remained a very short time in 
liis native town, and then repaired to Venice therefore, about 
the year 1442 or 1443. 

" Let us now hear another and later Sicilian, Mimrolicus (* Hist. 
Sic ,' fol. 186). According to him, Antonello * ob rnirum 
ingenium Vcnetiis aliquot aimos pubhce condnctus vixit Medio- 
lani quoque fmt percclebn&' Strange to say, not a single 
contemporary writer of Milan records the presence of the thrice- 
celebrated Antonello da Messina in the Lombard capital ' 

'*If, as we have scth, the statement of Summoiizin sounds 
gather stupid, so, on the other hand, provincial pride and childish 
vanity peep so simply out of the lines of the Sicilians, Mattco 
Collaccio and Manrolicus, as well as out of Antonello's bio- 
graphy in Yasari's work, that we can hardly forbear smiling at 
it. And, in fact, of all the biographies of celebrated artists in 
Vasari's * Vite, 1 there is none that so persistently runs foul of 
chronology and hibtoiy as this one of Antonello da Messina. 

" To crown all, the biography concludes with an Epitaph, in- 
scribed on the grave of the artist, who died at Venice in the 
year 3493 an epitaph which, often and easily searched for, 
has never yet been found by mortal man. (See vol. ii., p. G3.) 

" All this, as well as the story interwoven with it about 
Domcmco Veneziano and Andrea del Castagno, really docs not 
sound like earnest, but seems to me rather comical and childish ; 
and it is incomprehensible to me, that in Italy, where so many 
learned men have, ever since the last ccnturv, puzzled their 
brains over Antonello's biography, none should uutil now have 
been struck by the absurdity of the wboic narrative in Vasari. 

fc If, therefore, we want to get some light about this master, 
we must entirely banibh the Vasari biography from oar mindft, 
and look elsewhere for the light Suppose we let his works &poak 
for themselves ! 

** The oldest dated picture of Antonello da Messina that has 
come do\\n to us is of the year 1465, and, as far as T know, there 
is no enrlicr work of his. This is the painting now at the 


National Gallery, London (No. 673), representing the Salvator 
Mundi. Marked on a cartel of larger size than is usual in his 
later woiks, are the words : Antonellns Messaneuss. The paint- 
ing, both in expression and colouring, looks still very Flemish. 

" The same Netherlandish appearance we find in several small 
Ecce Homo's, without signature, one of which is in the house 
Spmola delle Pelliccierie at Genoa, and another at the municipal 
picture-collection of Vicenza (Room 3, No. 12). Both pictures, 
much disfigured, may possibly date from even before the year 
1465. To that same early Flemish period of the master (1465 
70) may also belong the much-injured Ecce Homo of Signer Zir 
at Naples. All these four heads of Christ are as yet very weak 
in their modelling, and, as I have &aid, look very Flemish both in 
conception and in the ruddy complexion peculiar to the school 
of Van Eyck. Compared with works* of the same master some 
ten years later, they are evidently productions of anything "but a 
finished artist. 

u In the beginning of the year 1473 the triptych for the church 
of S. Gregorio, of Messina, must have been finished ; whether 
at Messina itself or at Venice (whence he might easily send it to 
Sicily by sea), cannot be determined. 1 It seems certain that in 
that year Antonello was already at Venice. 

" His practical mastery of the new method, still unknown in the 
City of the Lagoons, of glazing in oil colours a ground laid in 
tempera, must have given Antonello a higher status at Venice 
than his intrinsic merits as an artist would have warranted. "We 
see lha,t he is at once honoured with a commission from the 
wardens of S. Cassiano. Unhappily the altar-piece there, so 
highly praised by Matteo Collaccio and Sabcllico, and signed with 
the year 1473, has long since disappeared. And not only did 
the church dignitaries of Venice patronize him, but the patricians 
were eager to have their likenesses taken on the new principle 
practised by Antonello ; and, to judge by the number of portraits 
he turned out in tho&e years, he must for a time have been the 
most popular portrait-painter at Venice. 

1 This picture is now in the University building at Messma, and in 
a deplorable state. It is signed: "Ano. Dm. rfi. cccc. soptuagesimo tertio. 
Antonellus Me&sanesis pinxit." It has still a very Flemish look, and 
radicates an artist who knows perfectly how to handle the brush., but is 
not yet master of the forms of the human body, 


"A male portrait, of the year 1474, s 
formed part of the Duke of Hamilton's collection * Of the year 
1475 is the precious and highly -prized portrait in the Salon Carre 
at the Louvre, likewise signed Antonellus Messaneus ; of the 
same year, and with the same signature, is the 4 Crucifixion ' at 
the Antwerp Gallery, in which picture a slight tinge of Car- 
paccio's influence on the Messmian is very visible to nae 

"If Antonello brought with him to Venice the so-called mystery 
of the new Van Eyck method, he must nevertheless have felt 
lnmself, as an artist, occupying a subordinate position as compared 
with the brothers Bellini, the Vivarmi, and even Carpaccio. 
The productions of his later years make it evident to me that 
Antonello gradually formed himself by studying the works and 
seeking the society of t tho_ great Venetian masters, till he reached 
that degree of perfection (especially in the rendering of form and 
in linear perspective) which we miss in his early Ecce Homo's, 
and admire in his portraits of 1475, 76, and 78. Up to the last- 
named year the flesh-colours m Antonello's pictui OB still retain 
the ruddy tint of the Flemings/ whereas the male portrait of 
1478 at the Berlin Gallery (No. 18) has acquired a lighter flesh- 
colour, similar to that of Giambellino. Amongst the whole of 
Antonello's portraits, I give the preference to this one at Berlin. 
In all his other likenesses, both those of his early period and 
those of the ninth decade (1480 1490), for instance, in the 
capital Portrait of a Man, now belonging to the lawyer Molfino 
of Genoa, and in that of a man crowned with laurel at the Muaeo 
Oivico of Milan, Antouello exaggerates the linear perspective of 
the eye to such a degree that the look of the person represented 
becomes unnaturally sharp ; a thing that also happened to 
D'urer in his otherwise magnificent portrait of the old shoemaker 
at Numberg. 

** To this, his later Venetian period, I would assign, besides the 
S. Sebastian at Dresden, also the beautiful portrait of a young 
man at the Berlin Gallery (No. 25), further, a Christ on the 
Cross (in possession of the late Duca di Castelvecchio at Borne), 

1 An excellent picture of his } representing an " Ecce Homo," is in 
the collection of Mr. F. Cook, Richmond, 

a So jn the raalo portrait at the Irivulzio houst* at Milan, of the year 
1476, in that oi the Borghoso Gallery at Borne, and in that of Prince 
Giovanelli's collection at Venice. 


and the totally over-painted S. Sebastian (No. 16), in the Stadel 
Gallery at Frankfort 

ki It is not likely, however, that from the year 1478 until Ins 
death in 1493 Antonello should have contented himself with pro- 
ducing this half-dozen of pictures, mostly small, that are known 
to us ; we may with good reason suppose that other and larger 
worl of his must be in existence, though what corner they 
mav be hidden in, is more than I can say offhand. 

" We have seen that the earliest works of Antonello can only 
be traced back to the year 1464 or 1463 at the farthest, and 
that those heads of Christ betray the hand of a still very im- 
perfect artist. Now, if the Messinian really came into the world 
in 1414, as all the historians repeat after Yasari, the question 
arises, what has become of his early works, unless we are to 
conclude that he began the study o^ painting in his fiftieth 
year' Vasari, after introducing him into the world in 1414, 
makes him die in 1493 at tJie age (not of seventy-nine, but) of 
forty-mne years. Let u& keep to this last item, and Anlonello's 
birth would not have taken place till 1444, which, under all the 
circumstances, appears the likeliest thing, Gallus, in his 'Annals 
of Messina,' l places the birth of Antonello about eleven years 
before the death of King Alphonso, who died in 1458, therefore 
about 1447. Let us then suppose that Antonello was bom in 
the beginning of 1445, and died towards the end of 1493. 

" According to this calculation, he must have painted the Sal- 
vator Mundi, at the National Gallery of London, in his twentieth 
year, an age with which the workmanship of that picture agrees 
very well. From this point of time to the year 1478, we are 
able to follow his progress almost year by year. His Italian 
nature gradually works its way through the Flemish shell in 
which his first master had encased his hand as well as mind ; at 
length the son of the South stands fully revealed in the portrait 
of the year 1475 at the Louvre, and that of 1476 in the Tnvulzio 
house at Milan, while the portrait of 1478 (No. 18) in the Berlin 
Gallery, sets before us the Sicilian modified into a Venetian. 
And if in this formation and transformation of Antonello as an 
artist, Giovan Belliui had, of all Venetian painters, obviously the 
greatest share; yet, on the other hand, as we had occasion to 

1 Ilackert, <% Memorie dei Pitton Messmesi." 


remark in examining the St. Sebastian at the Dresden Gallery, 
Mantegna's wall-paintings at Padua were also not without in- 
fluence on his artistic development. 1 

" From the above we may conclude that it was in Venice that 
Antonello completed his artistic education, which could not well 
have been the case, had he come there at the age of eight or nine 
and fifty. I have yet to add that Scardeone, in his ' Antiquitates 
Patavienses,' as well as Vasari, relates that the Paduan sculptor 
Andrea Riccio, 2 born in 1440, and an intimate friend of An- 
tonello's, ' deeply lamented his death,' a grief that probably 
would not have been so keen at the decease of an old man of 

" And now, lastly ,we put the question . Was it really necessary 
to make an Italian travel to Bruges for a purpose winch he could 
just as well have gainecf in his own country ? Were there not 
painters enough of the school of Van Eyck in Italy, both at 
Naples and elsewhere, in the middle of the 15th century ? We 
know that the celebrated Roger van der Weydcn himself btayed 
sc\ oral ycarrc in the Peninsula at that very time The possibility, 
then, of Antonello's having acquired the Van Eyck method from 
some Flemish painter in Italy itself, instead of in the Netherlands, 
must, 1 think, be conceded. I ask no more ; all the inferences 
I leave to the discernment of my readers. 

"Antonello's activity at Venice during more than twenty years, 
and the prominent position he had won there as a portrait-painter, 
could not remain without influence on his own narrower native 
land. Whoever visits the churches of Meshiua and of the towns 
and villages along that eastern coast of Sicily as far as Syracuse, 
will still find in many of them Madonnas, whether in colours or 
in marble, that remind him of Antonello as well as G-iambelhno, 

1 A view radically different from ours, as to Antonello's significance 
mthe developmentof Italian art, was propounded by the celebrated Bawm 
von Rumohr. In his " Three Journeys to Italy," he says: "Besides 
the beautiful Van Eycks, the Berlm Gallery has three works b> Anto- 
nello da Messina. With these our gallery acquired the unique and 
inestimable advantage of being able to demonstrate that the Venetian 
Sutool, commonly called ' Venetian ' and nothing more, I mean that 
wfach propagated ^tself from Antowllo to the JBellbu and further on, 
had really derived both the technique of oil painting, and in particular #* 
"Naturalistic tendency, from these old Netherlanders" 

8 Should be Antdwo Riccio of Vei-ona, 


sometimes also of Cima da Conegliauo; and perhaps he will soon 
be convinced that there can be no talk of a really native ' Mcs- 
smian School,' any more than of a 4 Palermitan. 1 ' The paintings 
of an Antonio 1 and Pietro da Messina, a Maso, an AntoneUo 
Saliba, a Salvo d' Antonio, the so-called Francesco Cardillo, and 
others, as well as the marble statues of the Virgin with the 
Infant Christ in her aims at the churches of Messina, Taormina, 
Catania, Syracuse, and other places, have one and all the stamp 
of the Venetian school ; and they give room to the conjecture 
that all these East Sicilian artists, drawn to Venice by their 
famous countryman Antoncllo, may have there icceived their 
artistic training, whether as painters or as sculptors 

"And not only did AntoneUo act powerfully on his own Sicilian 
countrymen ; we also discern his influence in several portraits by 
painters of Upper Italyfor instance, ^hose of Jacopo de Bar- 
bari, Filippo Mazzola, Andrea Solari (portrait of a Venetian 
Senator at the National Gallery, London). 

" The Beilin Catalogue assigns to Antonello da Messina three 
pictures, the ' St. Sebastian 1 (No. 8), the * Virgin and Child* 
(No. 13), and the celebrated portrait of a young man in Venetian 1 
costume (No. 18). 

" The picture of St. Sebastian bears the inscription on a 
balustrade: 'ANTONELLUS. MESANEVS' (sic). In this 
painting the workmanship is far too weak in drawing, and much 
too rough in execution for Antonello; besides, the master 
always signed his name on a label, and spelt Messaneus with a 
double s. I therefore take this St. Sebastian, as well as the one 
similar to tliis at the Town Gallery of Bergamo, to be pupils' 
work. The signature was evidently put on the picture after the 
death of Antonello. 

''The second picture, the 'Virgin and Child,' has, in my 
opinion, also a forged signature, and may very probably be the 
work of Pietro da Messina. The hand of Mary here comes nearer 
to the form of the hand of Giambellino than, that of Pietro's 

1 A picture by Antonio da Messina is in the collection of Mr Francis 
Cook, Richmond. It represents the Virgm with the Infant Christ 
standing on her knees ; two angels are holding a crown above the Vir- 
gin's head. The picture is signed AOTTfe DE MESSINA OPVS. 
The execution of this very feeble production is in the style of Giovanni 


picture S Maria in the Church Formosa, Venice , both the shape 
of the legs in the Infant Christ and the head of the Virgin arc 
likewise imitated from Giambellino ; but the shape of the ear, 
with the lobe terminating in a point, the stiff little trees set in 
rows, and the pale red horizon, appear to me to indicate Pietro 
rather than any other pupil of Antonello. Be that as it may, 
the picture seems to me far too weak for a work of the master 

" Very fine, on the contrary, is the third little picture, the 
portrait of a yonng man (No. 18). In this painting our 
Messinian is already quite Giambellino -Venetian. The original 
date, 1478 or 1479, has been changed by a forger into 1445, 
probably with the view of bringing the picture more into har- 
mony with the supposed date of Antonello's birth, 1414. 

" Besides this little p&ture, I believe that the Berlin Gallery 
possesses a second portrait by Antonello da Messina. It re- 
presents likewise a young man, bears the number 25, and is 
ascribed in the catalogue to the Venetian school, which I take 
as another proof of my thesis that the Sicilian at Venice be- 
came in time a Venetian. I would place this painting in the 
decade 1480 90. 

" But enough of the Messmian. I am only afraid I have 
offended many an art-student by the somewhat original view 
J have taken of this highly-praised master, and my endeavour 
to assign him a lower position in art-history than he has hitherto 
occupied in the eyes of the orthodox." 


[Born 1427 died 14J19] 

At the end of this biography we are informed that Baldo- 
vinettfs drawings and writings were found after his death in 
a coffer. Of these the treatise on the execution of pictures 
in Mosaic seems to be lost, but another book of his, not 
mentioned by Vasari, bearing the title " Ricordi di Alesso Bal- 
dovinetti," has of late been rediscovered and published in 


1868 by Giovanni Pierotti. It contains numerous references to 
the pictures executed by the artist, and also notes which 
illustrate his intercourse with his fellow-artists. In this respect 
the diary has a value of its own, and enables us thus to 
establish some facts in art-history, about which we have no 
other evidence The first entry, which has the date 1449, is to 
the effect that the artist gave to Bernardo d'Agabiti de' Ricci 
a print in brimstone, taken from one of Maso Finiouerra'a 
Niellos, and received in exchange a dagger worth one lira and 
thirteen soldi. This is the earliest record we possess of Maso 
Finiguerra, and it is the more valuable because it shows the 
original value of those prints, a copy of which is valued at present 
at about 200 or more. Not leas instructive are the notes about 
the incidents connected with his picture representing the In- 
ferno. In 1454 the Marquis Ludovico *of Mantua had ordered 
his agent at Florence, Boccolino, to commission Andrea del 
Castagno to paint for him a picture of the Inferno. For some 
reason or other Baldovinetti painted the said picture for payment 
of 40 lire. Yet it was sent to the Marquis as the work of the 
artist who had originally been commissioned. In 1463 he 
painted a Madonna picture, to be placed on an altar, for 
Ghuliano da Majano. For the same he drew a legendary scene 
of the life of St. Eeparata, and coloured a holy family. For 
these works Giuliano gave him artist's materials which he had 
for sale. Transactions like these may have been not uncommon 
with the artists of the time. They give the art-critic, at all 
events, a warning not to depend too much on documents when 
disputes about the authenticity of pictures arise. 

P. 65J 

The pictures in the chapel of San Egidio are not mentioned 
by Baldovmetti in his ** Kicordi," nor is Ms name to be found 
in connection with them in the account books of Santa Maria 
Nuova, except under the dale 1460, when his name is entered as- 
having received eight gold florins for some figures, placed round 
the high altar. 

P. 65J 

Lorenzo di Benvenuto Volpaja was born at Florence in 1446. 
At first he did simple carpenter's work, but by his singular 


capacities he soon raised himself above that profession and 
became a most celebrated mechanician and engineer. Thus he 
composed that complicated clock, of which Yasari speaks, but 
which we should term a planisphere, since it showed not only 
the moTements of the sun, the moon, and the planets, but 
also the phases of the moon, and the eclipses of the sun, and of 
the moon This planisphere is not the one in the Florentine 
Museum of Natural History, to which the note in the transla- 
tion refers, this having been constructed a hundred years later. 
Lorenzo had the public clocks in charge for a long time He 
died in 1512. 

P. 66 

It appears from the artist' s " Bicordi," that in April, 1470, 
he was commissioned t9 paint the altar-piece of the church 
Santa Trinitu, which had to represent the Holy Trinity, San 
Benedict, San Giovanni Gualbcrto, and some angels. It was 
completed in February, 1472, and cost eighty-nine gold florins. 
The frescoes in the same church were ordered in July, 1471, and 
had to be finished in five years, for payment of 200 gold florins. 
But lie seems to have bestowed much more time upon them. 
When, in 1497, Pietro Perngmo, Benozzo Gozzoli, and Cosimo 
Ropolli were called upon to estimate the work, they valued it at 
1 000 gold florins, 

P. 66f 

Lanzi's statement about the bad condition of this picture is no 
doubt an exaggerated one. All that Yasari says about it can 
still be verified on the spot There is, besides an extensive 
landscape in the background, which has all the characteristics of 
treatment on which Yasari speaks in the foregoing passage. 
Balclovinetti does not mention it in his " Eicordi," but it appears 
from documents that in May, 1460, he was commissioned to 
paint the Annunciation for a payment of twenty florins. Jn 
1462 he was still at work there. 

P. 68* 

Tlic portrait of the artist painted by himself in fresco a 
head Been full face is in the collection of Scnatore Morelli at 


P. 68f 

Among the books of tlie Hospital of San Paolo which are at 
present in the Florentine state archives, there is one bearing 
the title " Libro dello Spedale de' Frati Pinzocheri del terzo 
ordine di San Francesco," wherein the following entry has been 
found : " Alesso di Baldovmeto has bequeathed to our hospital 
this day the 23rd of March, 1499, all his property, with the 
obligation that the hospital is to maintain Mea, his servant, 
as long as she lives. Attested by Ser Hero di Leonardo da 
Vinci, public notary of Florence. Alesso died on the last day of 
August, 1499, and was buried in San Lorenzo in his tomb, and 
thus the hospital became his heirloom. May God pardon him. 
his sins,*' 

P. 68J 

Graffione's Christian name was Giovanni He was born in 
1455, and died in 1527. Before entering the studio of Baldo- 
vinetti (with whom he was staying in 1485), ho was initiated 
in the art of painting by Piero di Lorenzo Zuccheri. 

[Born about 1430 died about 1492.] 

P. 70$ 

The artist's Christian name was Bartolommeo ; Bellano or 
Vellano was his family name. 

P. 71f 

No documents have as yet been found which prove the 
artist's stay at Rome in the service of Pope Paul II. (See E. 
Muntz, "Les Arts a la Cour des Popes," ii., pp. 29-30.) 

P, 72* 

The statue of Pope Paul IL, at Perugia, was erected in 1467, 
at a nominal cost of 1000 florins with the following inscription 
at the foot of it : 



On the left was the date. MCCCCLXVII die x. mensis octobris ; 
D. Paulo II , Pont Max. ob aequat. P. Aug. Perus. Only half 
of the sum named above was spent in the execution of the 
work. Mariano d' Antonio and Angelo di Baldassare, two 
painters of Perugia, had been commissioned to gild some 
ornaments of the statue, which in 1798 was removed from 
its public place, and soon afterwards was melted down, the 
metal being used for the coming of bajocchi. 

P. 73* 

It is to be noted that the Anonymus of Morclli, in speaking of 
the tomb of Roccabonella, says that Andrea Riccio executed it 
about the year 1492, r when Bellano had died (see Fmzoni, 
"Notazia d'opere di disegno," Bologna, 1884, p. 30). We may 
therefore conclude that Bellano died at the age of sixty-two, 
and that the figure ninety-two, as given by Yasari, is a misprint. 


[Bom 1406 (?) died 1469.] 

The circumstances of this artist's private life have, on the 
whole, very little to do with his art, nor dare we say that the 
investigations about its details tend to reveal to us the secrets of 
its style. However, the romantic story which Yasari tells us in 
these pages is too exciting not to arouse the suspicion that 
little in it may stand the test of documentary evidence. In 
the interest of clearing up all doubts in this matter, Signer 
Gaetano Milanesi has of late undertaken to bring together all 
the documents in which the arlist is named, and he has thus 
been enabled to re- write the whole life, the data of wLich may 
be summed up in the following brief account. The date of 
his birth is most probably the year 3406, not 1402 as Vasari 
has it in his first edition, nor 1412 as we read in his second 
edition. When about eight years old he was sent to the 
convent Del Carmine, where he received the ordinary monastic 


instruction. At the age of fifteen he became a novice, and in 
1421 the holy orders were solemnly bestowed upon him. The j oung 
friar seems to have studied painting not only from the works 
of Masaccio, but also under the direction of this master, who- 
was at work in the church of the same monastery until his 
death, which occurred in 1428. In 1430 and 1431 the account 
books of the monastery distinguish the friar's name by adding 
the word " painter." After the last-named year Ins name 
entirely disappears from the books. Apparently he left the 
monastery in order to devote himself entirely to painting. Vasari 
says (p. 75) that, in doing so, he "threw off the clerical 
habit," but this is improbable, since lie continued to be on 
good terms with the friars of Del Carmine. Probably he left 
the monastery with the approbation of his superiors. Milanesi 
doubts Vasari's story about the artist's vf&it to the Maich of 
Ancona, and his captivity in North Africa, but the reasons ho 
adduces are not convincing. It is not likely that from 1432 
until 1439 he lived hi Tuscany continuously, tlic years 1434 and 
]437 being the only dates at which he can be proved to have 
received commissionp at home. In the same year, 1434, he was 
also at Padua. (See vol. ii., p. 79f.) 

The biographer's statements about the artist's occupations 
during the years 1440 and 1452, do not call for special comment. 
At that time he received numerous commissions for pictures in 
and near Florence. Documents inform UK that in 1442 by a 
papal bull he became appointed rector and abbot for life of the 
parochial church of San Quirica a Legnaja, near Florence. Soon 
after the year 1452, he settled at Prato, where he bought a house, 
staying therein until about 1463. He seems to have settled at 
Prato soon after the year 1452, on account of the extensive wall- 
paintings which he had been commissioned to paint there. In 
1456, when fifty yeais old, he became the chaplain of tho 
monastery of Santa Margherita, where he fell in love with one of 
the nuns, Lucrezxa Buti, born in 1435, who had been forced to 
become a mm in 14<51, after the death of her lather. The nun 
served the artist as a model for the figure of the Virgin in a, 
picture. This seems to have given her an opportunity of re- 
vealing to the artist her intention of escaping from involuntary- 
captivity. On the feast of the Cintola, the renowned relic of Prato 
Cathedral, Fra Filippo succeeded in bringing lier to his house,, 


where slie gave birth to a son, Fihppo, or Filippino, the renowned 
painter (1457). Spinetta Buti, the sister of Lucrezia (born 
1434), with other nuns, followed the example given them by 
Lucrezia, and fled from the monastery, but in 1459 all had to 
return and to re-enter tiie noviciate In 1461 there weic before 
the magistrate new accusations against Fra Filippo and others 
for their disorderly intimacy with the nuns of Santa Margherita. 
But before the end of the same year Pope Pius II., on the re- 
commendation of Cosimo de' Medici, granted him a dispensation, 
recognising thcieby the friar ana the nun as a married couple. 
Yasari \mduly brings against the artist the charge that lie, 
** clearing to retain the power or living after his own fashion, and 
of indulging his love of pleasure as might seem good to him, did 
not accept the pope's offer. 77 fVol ii , p. 86.) The truth is that 
lie accepted it, and L%ci*xia continued to live in his house, where, 
in 1465, she was delivered of a daughter, named Alessandra. 
The Pope's dispensation fiom ecclesiastical duties caused him 
the lo<?s of the income derived from them, and he became thus 
forced to depend entirely on his profession as a pamtei IJa\ ing 
often been pressed to complete the wall-paintings in the Cathedral, 
boonn eight years before, he devoted himself, in 1463, entirely 
to this work, and finished it two years later. In 1466 he left 
for Spoleto, where, on tlie recommendation of Picro de' Medici, 
"he had been commissioned to decorate the choir of the cathedral 
with frescoes ; and there lie died three years later, on October 8, 
1469, by poison, as Yasari states, or perhaps a natural death, 

P. 76 

The picture for King Alphonso ! of Naples, was painted in 
Florence, in 1456 ; it seems to have been sent to the king as a 
present from Giovanni di Cosimo de' Medici. 

P. 77* 

These two pictures are now in the National Gallery, London, 
(NOR 666 and 667). They have the form of lunettes, and are 
marked with the crest of the Medici, three feathers tied together 
in a ung In the picture of the seven saints, St. John is scaled 
between St. Cowman and St Damianus, the tutelary saints of the 
family. A reproduction of this picture in photogravure 


is given in "Italian Art at the National Gallery" by J, P. Kiclitcr, 
London, 1883. 

P 77 

Fra Filippo has treated the subject of the Annunciation in 
several pictures , one ia in the National Gallery, London (sec 
foregoing note), others are at the Doria Gallery, Rome, <it the 
Church of SAU Loi enzo, Florence, and in the Munich Gallery. (Sue 
Giov Morelh's " Italian Masters in German Galleries," London, 
1883, p. 71.) The picture of the vision of St. Bernard, painted 
for the palace of the Signoria, is now in the National Gallery, 
London (No. 248). The saint ia here ropiesented writing nt a 
desk on the left. The Virgin, surrounded by three angels, 
appears opposite to him, and the heads of the monks are in the 
background. The figures aie repiese^te4 half-long th, and 
smaller than life-size A document informs us, that on the 16th 
of May, 1447, Fra Filippo received 40 lire, " for having painted 
the figure of the Virgin and of St Bernard, to be placed above 
the door of the Cancellena of the Palazzo do 1 Signori." 

P. 78* 

The picture of the Baldi andLombardi Collection is now in the 
National Gallery (No. 586), where it is erroneously ascribed to 
Filippo Lippi. It is an inferior work of the school of the artist. 
The picture for the sacristy of Santo Spirito is a different one* 
It is now in the Louvre, No. 221, and was painted m 14^6 for 
a payment of 40 florins. 

P. 79f 

Gonzati, in his publication u La Basilica di Sant' Antonio <U 
Padova," vol. i. p. xxi , has published a document showing that in 
1434 he was staying at Padova: "Fra Filippo da Florentia che 
adorna lo tabernacolo dclle relirniie per onze 11 de azzurro," 

P. 79J 

The picture of the Nativity now in the Louvre (No. 220) can- 
not be the one here described by Vasari, it being by a different 
hand, perhaps by Grafione. Probably the picture No. 9 in the 
gallery of Prato, may be indicated here, as Milanesi auggestfe. 
It represents the Virgin, who gives her girdle to Saint Thomas 


On her right are the Saints Gregory and Marglicrite, the tutelary 
saint of the monastery, who presents to the Virgin a kneeling 
nun, probably the portrait of the abbess de' Bovacchiesi, who 
ordered the picture. On the left are St. Augustin the 
monastery of St. Margherite professed the rule of this saint and 
Tobias with the Angel. 

P. 83J 

There are two pictures of the Virgin with the Infant Christ in 
the Berlin Gallery, No. 58 and No. 69. None of them corre- 
sponds with the description of the subject here given by Vasari, 
nor does the New Catalogue of the Berlin Gallery by Dr. Meyer 
and Dr. Bode undertake to identify the pictures. 

P. 83lf 

The small picture of St. Augustin in the IJflm Gallery, 
ascribed to Filippo Lippi, is apparently the work of Sandro 

P. 84* 

In February, 1451, he was commissioned by Antonio del 
Branca, of Perugia, living at Florence, to paint a picture for 
the church of San Domenico, at Perugia, but payment was re- 
fused after the completion of the work, in September of the same 
year, because Del Branco charged the painter before the Floren- 
tine Tribunal for having produced a picture not worth the 70 
gold florins agreed upon, and, moreover, for having entrusted 
another artist with the execution of the picture. The dispute 
must at the tune have been settled in some way, since Vasari saw 
the picture in Perugia in the church for which it had been 
destined. It is not known what has since become of it. At that 
time the artist does not seem to have visited Perugia. But he 
certainly went there in 1461, when he had to value some paint- 
ings by Benedetto Buonfigli. 

P. 84J 

Fra Diamante was "born about the year 1430, at Terranova, 
near Florence, and entered at an early age the Monastery Del 
Carmine at Prato. He became the scholar of Fra Filippo, and 
assisted him in the wall-paintings of the Cathedral of Prato, but. 
for some unknown reason left the work in 1463, and was detained 


in prison at Florence. When freed not very long afterwards he 
left the Carmelite order, and took the habit of the monks of San 
Giovan Gualbcrto. In 1466, he was made a chaplain of the 
monastery of Santa Margherita at Prato, m hiicces.sion to Fra 
Filippo. After having returned irom Spolcto, where he worked 
in common with his master, and completed the work which he 
had left unfinished, he seems to have bettlotl 111 Florence, smeo 
his name is entered there in 1472 as a member of the guild of 
St. Luke (the painters' guild). Of the many works lie had 
executed at Prato, nothing but a few defaced fragments of a 
wall-painting in the town hall, executed in 1470, has come down 
to us, and we possess, at the present day, no authenticated panel 
pictures of his. 


Jacopo del Sellajo was born at Florence, in 1442, and died 
there m 1493. His son, Arcangelo (born 1478, died 1531) was 
also a painter. 

P. 87* 

There are no drawings by Fra Filippo in the British Museum. 
They are exceedingly scarce. 


Paolo di Mariano, the Roman sculptor, lived at the time of 
Pope Pius II. and Paul II. By order of the first-named Pope, 
he executed, in 1461, in company with Isnia, of Pisa, the 
tabernacle for the head of St. Andrew ; and in the following year 
the statues of Si Peter and St. Paul and the Pope's portrait to 
be placed above the new entrance of the apostolic palace. In 
1463 he executed with other artists the marble pulpit serving 
for the Pope's benedictions at St. Peter's. For Pope Paid IT. he 
executed, in 1467, the sepulchral monument of Cardinal Lorlovico 
Scarampi Mezzarota and the altar of the church of St, Agnese, 
outside Rome. He was also engaged on the sculptures on the 
triumphal arch of the Castcllo Nuovo at Naples. 


P. 89* 

Niccolb della Guardia and Pictro Paolo da Todi were gold- 
smiths, and not sculptors, nor are they mentioned by Filarete as 
having been pupils of Paolo. Vasan's statement as to tlie 
sepulchral monument of Pope Pius III. is an apparent anachro- 
nism. According to the original contract for this monument, 
published by Enca Piccolomim (" Alcum document! inediti mtorno 
a Pio II. ed a Pio III.," Siena, 1871), the Florentine sculptors 
Francesco di Giovanni and Bastiano di Francesco received the 
commission for the monument of Pope Pius III. (about the year 


Chimenti di Leonardo Camicia, a carpenter, was born in 1431. 
In 1480, he was staying in Hungary. The date of his death is 
not known, but he was still living m 1505. 


Baccio di Fino di Ventura de Puntclhs, or PontelH (not Pm- 
tclli, as Vasari has it), is the artist's proper name. lie was 
born at Florence in 1450, where he studied architecture under 
FraiK'ione About the year 1471 he went to Pisa and stayed 
there until the year 1479, when he went to Urbino, At Pisa 
he had chiefly been occupied with wood- work for the Duomo* 
The nature of his engagements at Urbino is unknown But 
when leaving the residence of the Dolce Federigo after his 
death, in 1482, for Eome, Pope Sixtus IV. appointed him at 
once inspector of the fortifications, In 1483 he had to super- 
intend the works executed by Giovannino de' Dolci at Civita 
Vecchia, and in the following year he had to reconstruct the 
citadel of that place. These are the only facts made known 
to us by documents referring to Pontelli's stay at Kome, iu 
the time of Pope Sixtus IV. On tho other hand, it is evi 
dent that the chief works attributed to him by Vasari were 


executed by other artists some time before Pontelli arrived 
at Rome. The Library of the Vatican was the work sif 
different architects. The Sixtine Chapel is the work of Gio- 
vannmo de' Dolci. The same architect seems to have had in 
charge the reconstruction of the Church of Santi Apostoh. (See 
E Monte, "Les Arts a la cour des Papes," vol. hi), During 
the reign of Pope Innocent VI11 , Pontelli held the office 
of commissioner of all the fortifications m the Marea. He 
is last heard of in 1492. His sepulchral monument is at 


[Born 1390 ? died 1457.] 

[Bom in the first decade of the fifteenth century died 1461.] 

P. 95|| 

The wall-paintings at Legnara have of late been removed to 
the Musuo Nazionale at Florence. They have been restored to 
a great extent. 

Pp 96-97 

The two saints whom Andrea depicted in the chapel of the 
Cavalcanti family in the church of ft Croce, seem to have 
perished. On the walls of that church, near the chapel of the 
Cavalcanti, there are two fresco paintings of the said saints, and 
it is generally stated that they arc the work of Andrea del 
Castagno, but it is to be observed that they arc different in 
style from his genuine works. They havo, in fact, all the 
characteristics of the style of Alesso Baldoviuctti. 

P. 98* 

The pictures ascribed to Andrea del Castagno in the Gallery 
of the Academy of Fine Arts at Florence arc the work of later 


P. 98f 

Andrea depicted Niccolo da Tolentino on horseback in 1456, 
and was paid for it twenty-four gold florins. In 1444 lie made 
tlie design for one of the coloured circular windows on the cupola, 
and in the following year the angel- boys in imitation of bronze 
work above the organ. 

P. 98J 

The picture of the Last Supper in the Refectory of Santa 
Maria Nuova was executed m the year of the artist's death. 
Vasari does not mention the Last Supper he painted in the 
monastery of Sant' Apollonia, wluch is still in existence. 

P. 103* 

Since it is proved by documents that Domenico Veneziano 
outlived Andrea del Castagno, we need not enter into the 
details of Vasari' s fictitious tale about the murder of the 
former. Very little is known about Domenico' s life. He 
settled at Florence in 1438. The only authenticated picture 
of his, now in the Ufim (No. 1305) with the signature OPVS 
POMIMOI DE VENETIIS, is not painted in oil, but in tempera. 
It was formerly in Santa Lucia tie' Ma^noli. (See vol. ii., p. 100, 
note*.) The two painters did not collaborate in Santa Maria 
Nuova as Vassari states. (Vol. ii., pp. 100 and 101.) Andrea set 
to work there in 1451, whereas Domenico was engaged from 
1439 until 1445. Vasari's statement about Domenico Veneziano 
having been murdered by his friend may have been derived 
from a confused tradition. Indeed, hi 1443 there was murdered 
at Florence an artist by the name of Domenico di Matteo, of 
whom we know nothing else. 

P. 104f 

Andrea had been commissioned by the Signoria to paint 
Einaldo dcgli Albizzi (when declared a rebel and exiled in 1434), 
and his adherents, as hanging head downwards. These were not, 
however, the members of the Pazzi conspiracy, which occurred after 
his death in 1478, when Botticelli received a similar commission. 


P. 105. x 

Jacopo del Corso (dcgli Adimari) is probably identic^^Sfi 
Jacopo del Pace. Marchmo is also called Marco del Buono 
(born 1402 died 1489). Giovanni da Rovczzano stands for 
Giovanni di Francesco del Cervelliera, a painter and illumi- 
nator, who died in 1459. Picro del Pollajuolo's life is given 
later on. 


[Born 1370 9 died about 1450] 

[Born 1380? died 1456.] 

It seems to be Vasarf s axiom that most of the great artists 
of Northern Italy, about whose artistic education lie knew little 
or nothing, must have been initiated into the art of painting in 
Tuscany, his native country. He would have us believe that 
Pisanello was a bcholar of Andrea del Castagno. Modern re- 
searches, however, have conclusively demonstrated that there 
were not a few independent schools of painting throughout the 
country. Among those the school of Verona hold a very pro- 
minent position* This town still possesses an umihually largo 
number of paintings executed during the fourteenth and the 
following centuries, illustrating very plainly the development 
and growth of the native school. In taking this point of view, 
when studying the works of Pisanello afc Verona, amidst those 
of his contemporaries and immediate predecessors, we can 
hardly deny that the style of this artist is in close affinity with 
the one of his great predecessor, Altichieri. We need not add 
that the hypothesis of Pisancllo having been taught painting 
by Andrea del Castagno, is the more absurd because this 
Florentine artist was the younger by about ten years. Vasari's 
account of the artiHt, however interesting, is very incomplete. 
According to him, Pisancllo visited Florence in his early years. 
Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle and others suppose that he was a 
pupil of some illuminator in the style of Lorenzo Monaco. The 


catalogue of the National Gallery seems to adhere to the opinion 
that he was educated by Domenico Veneziano. Eecently Com- 
mendatorc Morelh has pointed out, that Paolo Uccelh might 
have been Pisano' s master. It is known that Uccelli had been at 
work at Padua, close to Verona, and whoever has had an oppor- 
tunity of studying Pisano's numberless drawings of animals, will 
be reminded of what Va&ari says about similar inclinations of 
his supposed Florentine master (See vol. i., p 353.) We do not 
know at what time Paolo Uccelh went to Padua, but since he is 
known to have been about fourteen years younger than Pisano, 
we may safely assume that the Veronese artist influenced the 
Florentine, and imparted to him that peculiar taste for the repie- 
sentation of animal life. 

P. 106* 

Pisano was at Home during the years 1431 and 1432, and not 
in his youth Bartolommeo Facio, who wrote m 1450. says 
("Be Viri Illustnbus ") "Pisanello completed those his- 
torical paintings in the church of Saint John which Gentile 
had left unfinished." Gentile IH known to have worked there 
in 1427. Facio mentions also wall-pamtings by Pisano in the 
Doge's Palace at Venice, and in the palace of Mantua. 

P. 10711 

" The school of Fabriano attained its celebrity not so much 
through Alcgretto "Nuzi as through his eminent pupil Gentile 
da Fabriano It was bofore hitf wall-paintings in Bt. Giovanni 
in Laterano at Rome (in which, it is true, his fellow-workman, 
the great Pisanello of Verona had also a hand) that Uoirer van 
dor Weyden in 1450 is said to have hazarded the remark that 
Gentile appeared to him the most excellent painter in ail 
Italy. These wall-paintings, unfortunately, have been destroyed, 
like his other frescoes, including those in the Sacellnm of 
Pandolfo Malatcsta at Brescia of about the year 1418, his 
paintings in the Doge's Palace at Venice (1420), and those in th*j 
cathedral of Ovieto (1425-1426), Only a few small panel- 
pictures by this master are preserved, of which the best-known 
are the ' Apotheosis of Mary with the Saints Francis, Jerome, 
Magdalen, and Dominic' in the Brera Gallery, Milan, and a 


small 'Madonna' in the Town Gallery of Perugia, and the 
two at Florence, in the church of S. Niccolo and at the 
Academy. This last picture, the 4 Adoration of the Kings/ is, 
no doubt, the best among them, and has also been praised by 
art-lus>torians above its due. Compared with his great con- 
temporaries, Fra Angelico, Ghiberti, Masaccio, Pisanello, I 
think a subordinate place is all that of right belongs to Gentile 
as an artist " (G. Morelli, " Italian Masters in German Gal- 
leries," p. 256 ) 

P. 1HH 

Only two panel-pictures by Pisano are at present known, 
The portrait of Leonello d'Este a bust, in the collection of 
CoHunendatore Morelli at Milan, anjj. |he picture with the 
figures of St. George and St. Anthony the Abbot, mentioned in 
the foot-note as being in the Costabili Gallery at Ferrara, 
It was bought there by Sir Charles Eastlake, the late Director 
of the National Gallery, after whose death Lady Ea^tlake pre- 
sented it to the Gallery. 

P. Ill 

About the medals by Vittorc Pisano, PCC Julius FriedMnder, 
" Die Tialienischen ftchaumunzen dor funizclmten Jahrhunderts " 
(1430-1530), Berlin, 1882; A. Armand, "Los Medailleurs 
Italiens," Paris, 1879; Aloiss Hoiss, "Los Medailleurs de la 
Renaissance," Paris, 1881. See also, "A Guide to the Italian 
Medals exhibited in the King's Library, British Museum," 
London, 1881. 

The large collection of drawings by Pisanello in the Louvre, 
where they are kept in a volumo, culled the Codex Vallardi, 
was formerly ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci. 

[Born 1367 died 1446.] 


[Born 1422 died 1457.] 

The lives of these two artists have been somewhat confused 
by Vasari, who ascribes indiscriminately works by the younger 
to the elder of the two, It is quite evident from the date of 
Pesello's birth that he must have been a follower of the school 
of Giotto. The anachronism in the statement that he was a 
scholar of Andrea del Castagno need hardly be pointed out. 
Whenever his name occurs in documents, it is connected with 
inferior works. At the present day we can trace none of them. 

The younger Peselto Appears in his pictures as an artist who 
followed tho style of Era Filippo Lippi, and whose merits were 
very great, He was not the sou of the elder Pesello, but his 

P. 114* 

The picture here mentioned is stated by Messrs. Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle to be the one now in the Uffizi, No. 26. As 
Morelli has pointed out ("Italian Masters in German Galleries," 
p* 343), it is, on the contrary, an unmistakable work of Cosimo 
Jftoselli's, painted about the year 1480. 

P. 114f 

The prerlclla in the Buonarotti Gallery may be considered to 
be the earliest known work by Francesco Peselli. 

P. 114|| 

The large picture of the Trinity by Francesco Pesello is now 
in the National Gallery, London, No. 727. 


[Born 1420 died 1498,] 

P. 116* 
Gozzoli is mentioned in Florentine documents as having "been 


engaged by Ghiberti, in 1444, for n term of three years to assist 
him in the execution of the second bronze door of the baptistery. 
The yearly salary was to be progressive, from sixty to eighty 
florins. We may conclude from this, that Gozzoli was a gold- 
smith before he became a painter. He was with Era Angehco 
in Rome, and when this painter went to Orvieto, in 1447, he took 
Gozzoh with him. 

P. HGf 

This work of the master, representing the Virgin and Child, 
with six saints and pome angels, is now in the National Gallery, 
London, No. 283. A document relating to this altar-piece in- 
forms us that in the year 1461, at which time the artist was 
forty-one years of age, he was commissioned to paint it for the 
Brotherhood of San Marco at Florence.* J?y the contract he was 
specially directed to make the figure of the Virgin similar in 
mode, form, and ornaments to the Virgin enthroned in a picture 
by Fra Giovanni da Ficsole in the church of San Marco. It is 
also directed " that the said Benozzo, shall, at his own expense, 
prepare with gesso, and diligently gild the said panel through- 
out, both as regards figures and ornaments ; and that no other 
painters shall be allowed to take part in the execution of the 
said picture, either in the predella, or in any portions of the 

P. 119J 

The picture from the Duomo of Pisa is at present No. 199 in- 
the Louvre Gallery, where it is caPed " Le Triomphe de Saint 
Thomas d'Aqum." 

P. 120|| 

There are two excellent pictures by Melozzo (born 1438 died 
1494) in the National Gallery, London (Nos. 755 and 756). They 
form part of a series executed for the Duke of Urbino, and were 
probably destined for the library of his castle. They represent 
allegoric figures of the Arts, seated on a throne, with a kneeling 
prince on the steps, Two other pictures of the series are in Bei lin 
and at Rome. Like his countryman Bramante, Melozzo, who was 
also an architect, chiefly devoted himself to paintings by which 
the effect of architectural works was to be enhanced. The number 


of panel pictures by his hand is therefore exceedingly small. Their 
intrinsic merit, so conspicuous in the two at the National Gallery, 
cannot be overrated, if we remember that he was only seven 
years younger than Mantegna. Nothing is known of his artistic 

P. 121 

The date on the Latin inscription indicate?, not the artist's 
death, but the time when the people of Pi&a bestowed on him 
the honour of erecting his tomb in the Caiupo Santo. 

P. 121 st 

Zanobi Machiavelli, the son of Jacopo di Piero, was born in 
1418, and died in l79f A signed picture by him is in the 
National Gallery at Dublin. 


[Born 1439died 1502.] 
P. 1-22* 

Vasari asserts that this artist " did not work for the sake of 
gain, but for his own pleasure," whereas Francesco says himself 
in his Trattato: "I did not devote myself to what I felt inclined 
"by nature, but more than once I felt compelled to exercise in- 
ferior, z.e., mechanical aits, with the hope of securing me thus the 
uccehsities of daily life, using thereby less strain, of the mind 
than of the body." 

P. 123* 

A copy of Francesco's Xrattato, with a few marginal notes by 
Leonardo da Vinci, is in the library of Lord Ashburnham. He 
had gone to Milan in 1490, whence both artists undertook a 
journey to Pavia for the purpose of passing their opinion about 
the proposed recoup ruction of the cathedral 



[Bom 1412 died 1480.] 

P. 125J 

The only snare winch II Veochiclta really had in the deco- 
rative bronze work on the baptismal font appears to have been 
the restoration of a foot on one of the angel boys executed by 
Donatello. Vasari does not mention that II Vecchicttn worked 
also as a silversmith for the Cathedral of Siena during the years 
1474 and 1478, when he had to execute the figures of four 

P. 125 1| 

A facsimile reproduction of the statue of Marmus Socinus is to 
be seen in South Kensington Museum. The original tit Florence 
has of late been transferred from the UiHzi G-allery to the Museo 

P. I27f 

In the Town Galleiy of Ferrara there is a picture on panel, 
representing the Trinity, which dates from the first half of the 
fifteenth century, and ib signed with the initials G. G. (No. 54). 
"If this rude production really belongs to Galasso Galassi, to 
whom it is there ascribed, there mnst have been two Feirnre,sc 
painters of that name : the one just mentioned, who, according to 
Vasari, painted in the church of Mezzaratta, near Bologna, m 
1404 , and (2) a younger Galasso Galassi,born in 1438, as Vasari 
likewise informs us, to whom are attributed the two Saints, Peter 
and John the Baptist, painted on panel, in one of the sub* 
terranean chapels of San Stefano at Bologna. On one of these pic- 
tures is seen a similar G. G. The fit. Apollonia at the Bologna 
Pmacothcc, there ascribed to Marco Zoppo (which is alno accepted 
by Messrs. Crowe and Cavakasello i., 349, 4), appears to me to 


"be painted by this latter Galassi." G. Morelli, " Italian Masters 
in German Galleries," p. 104. 

P. 127J 

About Cosimo Tura, called Cosmo, see L. N. Citadella, 
" Eicordi e document! intorna cella vita di Cosimo di Tura, detto 
Cosme," Ferrara, 1869. 


[Born 1427 died about 1479.] 

P. 128* 

G. Milanesi suppc?5ep~that the fountain by Antonio Rossellino, 
formerly in the Medici Palace, is the one which has been trans- 
ferred to the Villa di Castello. 

P. 129* 

The artist received the commission for this monument in 1461, 
for payment of 425 gold florins 

P. 129J 

The monument for the wife of the Duke of Amalfi was not 
completed by Antonio Rossellino, he having died when working 
at it It stands in the Piccolouaim chapel in the church of S. 
Anna de' Lornbardi, also called Mont Oliveto. 

P. 130J 

The two busts by Antonio Rossellino have been transferred 
from the Uffizi to the Museo Nazionale of Florence. Another 
original work of the master, the bust of Giovanni da San Miniato, 
a physician, is in the South Kensington Museum. 

[Born 1409 -died 1461.] 

Pp. 132133. 
In 1453, Bernardo Rossellino superintended the works executed 


at the church of San Stefano Rotondo These are the only 
works of his, about which documents are still in existence. 

[Born 1428 died 1464.] 

P. 135 

There can be no doubt that the artist was born, not at 
Florence but at Settignano. He was the son of Bartolommeo 
di Francesco, a mason. 

P. 137 

The portrait bust of Marietta degli Strozzi has of late been 
added to the Louvre Collections at Paris. 

[Born 1431 died 1484] 

Pp. 140-41 

It is uncertain whether this artist, whose correct name was 
Mino di Giovanni di Mino, came from Fiesole, as one document 
has it, or from Poppi, a large village in the Casentino, as is 
stated in another. According to Yasari, he was a pupil of 
Desiderio da Settignano, but this we can hardly believe to be 
true, since that sculptor was the elder by only two or three 
years. They may have been fellow-pupils, or worked in com- 
pany for some time. 

P. 142 

Other works of the artist at Rome are : A tabernacle in the 
church of S. Maria in Trastevere, bearing the signature " OPVS 
MIKI " j a relief representing the Virgin, on the sepulchral monu- 
ment of Oristoforo della Rovere, in the church of S. Maria del 
Popolo ; a similar representation on the monument of Pietro 
Riario, in the church of Santi Apostoli ; and a relief with the 


representation of the Day of Judgment, in the cloister of Sant 
(See Burckhardt's k{ Cicerone," edited by Dr. Bode.) 

P. 144* 

The monument of Count Hugo, the son of the Marquess 
Humbert of Magdeburg, was ordered in 1469. In 1471 new 
stipulations were made, according to which the payment was 
to be one thousand six hundred lire, and that Mmo was to 
complete the work within eighteen months. The work was 
finished after a considerable delay. Moreover, the artist had 
departed from the original plan by adding a balustrade in 
marble, and some parts had been executed in marble instead of 
macigno; thus under date of January 4, 1481, the payment was 
raised to one thousand seven hundred and seventy-seven florins 
fourteen soldi and flfcc 4enan. 

JP. 145J 
These two portrait busts are now in the Museo !N"azionale, 

P. 146f 

The artist's tombstone is in the church of S. Maria, in 
Campo. It bears the following inscription : " Julianns Mini 
sculptons hie jacet primus et gcnitus. Obijt Ann. MCCCCLXVI." 

[Born 1460 died 1535 ] 

/>. 147* 

The statement that Costa went to Florence to study paint- 
ing there may be dismissed as a fable. I need hardly to point 
out the anachronism in the statement that Filippo Lippi and 
Gozzoli were his masters. Costa was probably a pupil of 
Cosimo Tura, a distinguished artist, about whom Vasari seems 
to have possessed very scanty information. (See vol. L, p. 326, 
and vol. ii, p. 127.) 

P. 148f 

Lorenzo Costa had moved from Ferrara to Bologna as early 
as the year 1483. It is generally stated, that Francia may possibly 


have learned from liim simply the technique of painting, but that 
no sooner was he master of the brush than he reacted with over- 
powering effect on Costa. Any unprejudiced student who compares 
the two standard works by Lorenzo Costa m tne Berlin Gallery, 
painted in the first years of the sixteenth century, with his great 
tempera pictures of 1488 in the Bentivoglio Chapel (Church S. 
Jacopo Maggiore), will hardly be able to dispute that one and 
the same character looks out from all these pictures, though 
oproad over a period of some sixteen years. In St. Cecilia's 
Chapel (S. Jacopo Hag more at Bologna), where both painters 
worked together in 1505-1506, the beholder of those splendid 
frescoes is left in doubt whether Costa was more indebted to 
Francia, or he to Costa. (Sec 0. Morelli's " Italian Masters in 
German Galleries," pp 233, 234 ) 

P. 150* 

The municipal vanity of the Bolonese went so far, that some 
of their local write: s, in speaking of the great altar-piece, now 
in the choir of S. Giovanni in Monte at Bologna, while they 
could not question the execution of it by Costa, felt bound 
nevertheless to claim the invention and drawing for their own 
Francia. This statement has even been repeated by the Floren- 
tine editors of Vasari (Ed, Lemonnier, iv. 243, 2) ; which is the 
less excusable m them, as there exists in their own city, among 
the collection of drawings at the Ufiizi, the pen-and-ink sketch 
for that very painting, though, indeed, under the false name of 
Filippmo Lippi. (Photograped by JPhilpot in Florence, No. 
7G3.) (Morelh, pp. 234, 235 ) 

P. 151* 

In the National Gallery, London, there is an altar-piece, dated 
1505 (No. 628), by Costa. In the British Museum is a fine pen- 
drawing by him representing four female figures. 

P. 151J 

Mazzolini was the son, not of Mazzuoli, but of Giovanni di 
Maestro Querino, He was born about the year 1481, and died 
about the year 1530. 

P. 15I|| 
A replica of this picture is in the collection of Lord Northbrook, 


[Bom about 1463 died 1513.] 

P. 152* 

There "were two Ferrarese artists of the name of Ercole 
Grandi. One of them, commonly called Ercoie Roberti, was 
the son of a painter Antonio, who is stated to have been already 
dead in 1479. This Ercole may have been born about the year 
1463, in 1 5 13 he is recorded as dead. "We possess no authenticated 
works of this master, nor do we know the name of his master. 
It could not have been Costa. The younger Ercole Grandi, son 
of Gmlio Cesare, is first mentioned in 1492, as being in the 
service of tbe Dukes d? Ferrara. He was a pupil of Costa and 
Fiancia, and died in or before the year 1431. His master- 
piece, a Madonna with Saints, is in the National Gallery, London. 

P. 154* 

This picture has been removed from the walls, and was for 
some time in the Solly collection, whence it came into the 
possession of the present writer. 

P. 154f 

Two valuable little pictures, NOB. 163 and 164, came to- 
Dresden under the name of Ercole Grandi, from the sacristy of 
S. Giovanni in Monte at Bologna. As we still find in the same 
church two works by Francesco Cossa and two by Lorenzo Costa, 
we must conclude that the pictorial decoration of this church 
during the last thirty years of the fifteenth century was almost 
entirely entrusted to the Ferrarese settled at Bologna. If now 
we examine the interesting figures, full of life and character, m 
the two pictures before us (Nos. 163, 164), we plainly see, not 
only the influence of Andrea Mantegna, but also that of Giam- 
bellino (aboiit 1460-1465), on the artistic development of young 
Ercole Eobcrti. 

Vasari says that the three small pictures painted by Brcole 
Grandi formed the base or predella of the chief altar-piece of 
that church. If that was the case, he could not possibly have 
meant, as modern writers state, the great picture by Lorenzo 
Costa (now set up in the choir of the church), for this painting 


cannot have seen the light before the first decade of the six- 
teenth century, the two predella pictures of the Dresden Gallery 
being in that case probably some thirty years older. Laim, in 
his "Giaticola" of the year 1560, says: "E sopra 1'altar 
mags, 101 e sono dipinte doe istorie fate a olio (?) de ma (mano) 
d'Ercole da Frara (Ferrara), Tuna e quando Crihto fu condotto 
alia croce trai due ladroni, 1'altra quando Oisto fa tradito da 
Jnda E ncl mezzo la Madonna con Ciisto morto in bracuo 
In the year 1749 the Canon Luigi Crespi sold two Predellas with 
the very same subject, to be taken to Dresden. It is therefoie 
more than probable that the Dresden pictures are the Predellas 
seen by Lami in 1560. The centre-piece, the Pieta, is in the 
Royal Institution at Liverpool. (See G. Morelli, " Italian 
Masters," pp. 109, 110) 

P. 155+ 

Tdgha-pietra means simply sculptor, a word used m some 
parts of Italia for scidtoro as well as for fecarpcllmo. The 
cognomen of Duka, a native from Modena, was Foscardi. 

[Born about 1400 died about 1464.] 


[Born about 1426 died 1507.] [Born about 1428 died 151G ] 

Pp. 149-150 

In a Florentine document, dated April 3, 1125, Tacopo 
Bellini is mentioned thus . " Jacobus Petri piclor de Veneths, 
famulus et discipuius magistri Gentilinus pictons de Fabriano." 

At the beginning of the fifteenth century the school of painting 
of the city of Venice stood far below its school of sculptors. 
The painters De Flor (Francesco and his son Jacobello), 
Jacobello de Bonomo, and other picture-makers of even less 
merit, represented pictorial art at Venice, when Gentile da 
Fabriano, and his slall more important fellow-labourer, the 


Vcionese Yittor Pisano, called Pisanello, were invited to Venice 
about; the year 1419 with the commission to decorate with 
paintings one room in the Palazzo Dueale. 

The presence of these two eminent artists in the City of the 
Lagoons gave also a new impulse to its school of painting. 
Jacopo Bcllim became a scholar of Gentile, and when his 
master had finished his work at Yenice, he accompanied him to 
Florence. During the few years of then: stay at Yenice, 
Gentile and Pisanello must not only have instructed Bellmi in 
their art, but their influence on G-iambono, and especially on 
Antonio Vivarmi of Muiano, also seems to me to be un- 
deniable. (See G Morelli, "Italian Masters in German 
Galleries," pp 356, 357.) 


Not one of the few pictures by Jaropo Bellini, which hnvc come 
down to us, is in a good state of preservation. Among these 
may be mentioned a Crucifixion, painted on canvas, in the 
Gallery of Verona. It is signed <c OPVS IACOPI BELLINI." In the 
British Museum is the Sketch-book of the aitiwt, who appears 
here as a very reafc draughtsman, whose powers Yti^an scorns to 
Iin\c underrated The portraits of Petiarch and Lauru in the 
Muufrin Gallery are by no means works of this artist, as stated 
in the Florentine edition of 1838. 


The early works of Giovanni Bellini are very much like those 
of Andrea Mantogna, and are not seldom mistaken for works of 
the latter, who for some time must have been Giovanni Bellini's 
master. The picture of Christ's Agony in the Garden, No. 
726 in the National Gallery, London, one of the carliwl works 
by Giovanni Bellini, was formerly ascribed to Mantegna, by 
whom there is a similar picture of the same Hubject in Lord 
Northbrook's collection. Giovanni here rivals Mantegna in 
the application of the rules of perspective, of foreshortening, 
&c., and at the same time he displays his pre-eminent abilities 
as a colrariat His figures appear to be more lively, more full 
of motion, and, so to speak, nearer to reality, than those of the 
great Paduan master The portrait of the Doge Loredan, also 
in the National Gallery (No. 189), was painted during tha 


first years of the sixteenth century, and is not an early work of 
the artist, as Vasari seems to imply here. For a full account of 
Bellini's pictures in the National Gallery, with illustrations, see 
" Italian Art in the National Gallery," by J P. Richter, London, 
1883, pp. 78-80. 

P. 160f 
This picture was destroyed by fire in 1867. 

P. 163f 

It was in the thirties of the fifteenth century that Antonio 
Vnarini founded the far-famed picture-manufactory of Muiano, 
iu which a German, apparently of the school of Cologne, the 
well-known Joannes Alemannus, found employment about 1440. 
Joannes Alemannus and Joannes de Murano are no doubt one 
and the same person. From tins art-factory, which provided 
everything that was needed for the adornment of a church altar, 
there afterwards came forth the painters Bartolorameo Vivarini, 
a younger brother of Antonio, Alvise Vivarini, Andrea da 
Murano, and others. The Berlin Gallery possesses, in the 
" Adoration of the Kings " (No. 5), by far the most interesting 
work of Antonio da Murano. It is a painting of IUH early 
period, about ] 435 to 1440. In this picture, so valuable to art- 
history, we fail to discover the slightest influence of John 
Alcmaunus, a painter surely much overrated by modem writers ; 
but we do see very marked traces of Gentile da Fabriano and 
Pisanello da Verona. The landscape in the background is alto- 
gether in Gentile's manner, and the work is an infallible proof 
that Antonio must have been already an accomplished artist 
when he founded with John Alemannus the well-kwown studio 
at Murano. (See G-. Morelh, "Italian Masteis in German 
Galleries," pp. 357, 358.) Bartolommeo Vivarini was the 
younger brother, and partly a pupil of Antonio. A Madonna 
picture by this artist is in the National Gallery, London (No. 
Alvise, or Luigi, Vivarini comes in some pictures very near to 
Giovanni Bellini The most important picture of his also is 
in the Berlin Museum (No. 38). It represents a Madonna 
enthroned with the Child and Saints. His wall-paintings in the 
Palazzo Ducale, of which Vasari speaks, were begun in 1488. 


P. 166 

Following Bemasconi, Messrs Crowe and Cavalcaselle 
(" History of Painting in Northern Italy ") count the celebrated 
engraver Hieronymus Mocetus among the Veronese. But 
surely the circumstance that in a church at Verona there is a 
signed picture of Moceto cannot be considered a proof of his 
being a Veronese. Moceto as an artist is thoroughly Venetian, 
and I presume that he was born either at Murano or at Venice. 
All his works prove it. In all probability Alvise Vivarini must 
have been his master. The large glass window at S Giovanni e 
Paolo (whose inscription, added only at the beginning of this 
century, has misled all the writcis on art), belongs entuely to 
Mocetto. (See G Morelli, "Italian Masters in German Gal- 
leries," p. 360, note.) 

P. 168* 

A portrait bust of the Sultan Mehemet II., dated 1480, is in 
the collection of Sir Henry Layard in Venice The pen-and- 
ink drawings of a Turk and of a Turkish Lady, both seated, 
which are in the British Museum, represent some unknown 
noble persons. A large composition by the same artist, repre- 
senting the reception of a Venetian Ambassador at the Sultan's 
Court (painted at Constantinople, according to Boschim), is in 
the Louvre (No. US). Some ascribe this picture to Carpaccio, 
his pupil. 

P. 169J 

This picture contains the portraits of Gentile and of Giovanni 
Bellini. Waagen's statement (see Note *, page 170) that these 
portraits are also to be found in a picture at Berlin is evidently 
an error. 

P. 171J 

Jacopo Montagnana, who is not to be mistaken for the well- 
known artist of Vicenza, Bartolommeo Montagna, was born 
about the year 1450 at Padua, 

P. 172 

The picture of the Bacchanal is at Alnwick Castle, in the 
collection of the Duke of Northumberland. It 10 signed: 




[Bom 1447 died 1488.] 

Francesco, known as "La Cecca," and not II Cecca, as 
Vasari has it, was the son of Angelo di Giovanni, a currier 
from San Miniato al Tedesco, who had settled at Florence. 
After his father's death, in 1460, he was placed with Francione, 
one of the most celebrated Florentine carpenters and engineers. 
At the age of twenty-five years he began to work independently, 
having but little to live upon. After some time he became 
celebrated, and in 1479 important works were for a first time 
entrusted to him by the Signoria 

[Bom 1408 (?)died 1491 (?).] 

The minute researches about the statements in this life, which 
have been published by Gr. Milanesi in his ' Commentario " to 
the last edition of Vasari, have made it highly probable that no 
artist of this name existed at Arezzo in the fifteenth century, 
and that the works ascribed to him had been produced by 
different hands. 


[Born 1445died 1497.] 

P. 197 

Vasari describes the illuminator G-herardo as a man of 
much ingenuity (cervello sqfistico). He had been educated in 
the school of Angelo Poliziano. Some of his Latin letters are 
still in existence. (See C. Pini e G. Milanesi, "Scrittura d'artisti.") 
For some years he held the office of the organist at the church of 
a Egidio. 



[Born 1439 -died 1506.] 

P. 17J 

The picture of the Assumption m the church of Sant Ambrogio 
has been identified as being the one here mentioned by Va&ari, 
a memorandum of the contract having been discovered of late. 
According to this the painter was commissioned in 1498 for a 
payment of forty ducats. 

P. 174f 

The altar-piece in the church of Cestello was painted by 
Rosselli m 1492, his second picture, in the Gigli chapel, seems 
to have been painted about the year 1505, 

P. m 

The fresco paintings in Sant Ainbrogio were executed in 1486 
for payment of one hundred and fifty-five gold florins. 

P. 176* 

The large share winch Rosselh had in the wall decorations of 
the Sistine Chapel, he having executed there not less than four 
pictures, is an evident proof that the Pope much esteemed hia 

P. 177* 

Yasari has treated separately the lives of Piero di Cosimo and 
of Andrea di Cosimo (Feltrini.) 

P. 177|| 

Angclo di Donienico di Donnino, a verger, was born in 1466. IB 
1503 he executed figures of Christ, the Madonna and Saints, in 
the Palazzo del Podesta, He is last spoken of in 1515, when he 
painted the altar-piece of the Hospital of Santa Lucia, in com- 
pany with Domeuico di Pietro Aghinetti. 

P. 198* 
Francesco Brini, or del Brina, was born in 1540, The work, 


here mentioned by Vasari, was one of his earliest. In 1566, 
1570, and 1574 ho is again mentioned as Laving executed paint- 
ings. One of them, representing the Adoration of the Magi, 
signed and dated : " FR . BRINI . p A : D . MDIXX," is in the 
Academy of Florence. He died at Pisa in 1599 

P. 199J 

It is not known what has become of Gherardo's picture at 

Pp. 199200 

Attavante, or Yante, the son of G-abbriello diVante di Francesco 
di JBartolo, was born in 1452. His splendid illuminations of 
manuHcripts may be seen in various libraries, for instance, in the 
Laurentiana at Florence, in the Vaticatia, in the Cathedrals of 
Florence and Prato The date of fas death is not known. The 
last dated work of his is of the year 1508. Stefano Lunetti was 
born in 1465, and died in 1534. An Antifonarmrn, illuminated 
by him, is in the Museo di San Marco. In the latter part of his 
life he devoted himself entirely to Architecture 

P. 200 x " 

Gicn amii, called Boccardino the elder, was the son of Giuliano 
di Giovanni di Tommaso Boccardi, a wine merchant. His 
master, in the art of illumination, was Zanobi di Lorenzo. 
During his long life (born 1460 died 1529) he was engaged at 
Florence, Monte Caw&mo, Naples, Perugia, and Siena. His son 
Francesco, who was also an illuminator, died in 1547. 

P. 200J 

The two brothers of Gherardo, Bartolornmeo and Monte, were 
also illuminators. We learn from Monte's last will, dated July, 
1497, that Gherardo had died at the beginning of the same year. 

[Born 1449 died 1494.] 

P. 205* 

The picture of the Visitation in the Louvre (No. 202) is 
inscribed with the date 149L 


P 206{ 

Domenico stayed at Rome in 1475, in company with liis brother 
David. Besides the paintings in the Sistine Cbapel he was en- 
gaged to paint in the Vatican Library, but at present nothing 
by his hand is to be seen there. (See Eug. Muutz, " Les -Arts a la 
Cour des Papes.") 

P 214 

The name of the villa belonging to Tornabuoni, in which 
Ghirlandajo pamted a chapel, was not Casso Maccherelli, as 
Vasari says here, but Chiasso Macereghi. It is now owned by 
Cav. Petronio Lemmi, who lately sold two fresco-paintings from 
the same villa, by Botticelli, to the Louvre. 

P. 215f 
As to Lorenzo Volprajo's clock, see pp. 93, 94 of this volume. 

P. 218 

The statements about Domemco Ghirlandajo's engagement for 
the decoration of Siena Cathedral in mosaics, are unfounded. It 
wa<? not he, but his brother David, who in 1493 undertook a part 
of this woik, which however no longer exists. In 1492 the same 
artist executed mosaics on the fagade of Orvieto Cathedral. 

P. 220* 

Bastiano di Bartolo di Gemignano Mainardo was a native from 
San Gemignano, where many works of his are still to be found. 
He died in 1513. About Niccolo Ciccco nothing whatever is 
known, Jacopo d'Alessandro del Tedesco is mentioned in 1503, 
in the book of the brotherhood of St. Luke. Baldino Baldmelli, 
the son of a maker of cuirasses, was born in 1476. In 1515 he 
appears to be still living. 


The following entry in the obituary of the Compagnia di San, 
Paolo fixes the date of the artist's death. "Domemcho di 
Tommaso di Churrado Bighordi.the painter, called del Grillandajo 
(this stands in Florentine dialect for Ghirlandajo) died on 
Saturday morning, January 17th, 1493 (old style 1494 new 
dtyie), of the plague, as is asserted, since he was ill four days 
only. He was buried in Santa Maria Novella, between noon and 


one o'clock ; may God pardon him. His death was a very great 
loss, because he was a man of importance in every respect and 


[Born 1429 died 1498.] [Born 1443 died before the 

year 1496.] 

P. 222J 

As to Maso Finiguerra, see Notes to the Life of Marcantonio 
Raimondi, p. 

P. 223* 

The figuie of St. John is not by Antonio Pollajuolo, but by 
Michelozzo, see p. 66 (note to vol. i., p. 495JJ of this volume. 

P. 223 

Mazzingo, whose proper name was Antonio di Tommaso 
de* Mazzinghi, held a high office at the mint of Florence during the 
years 1450 and 1454. This shows that he cannot have been the 
pupil of Antonio del Pollajuolo. Nor can this have been the 
case with Giovanni de' Gucci, or del Facchino, a jeweller, born in 
1395. VasarTs remark possibly applies to his grandson Bernardo, 
a highly esteemed goldsmith, born in 1452. Giovanni Turmi of 
Siena, a goldsmith and sculptor, was born about the year 1384, 
and died in 1455. 

P. 223J 

Antonio di Salvi Salvucci was born in 1450, and died in 1527. 
Not one of his various works mentioned in Florentine documents 
appears to have come down to us. 

Pp. 223-224 

Antonio never ceased to exercise the art of a goldsmith. Only 
occasionally he seems to have executed paintings himself. For 
most of the early works of Piero Pollajuolo, his brother Antonio 
must have famished the cartoons. This is proved by forms 
quite peculiar to Antonio appearing in pictures by Piero. 


In the excellent picture with, the Saints Eustace, James, and 
Vincent (No. 1301 in the Uffizi), which once adorned the altar 
in the chapel of the Cardinal del Portogallo, both the oval of St. 
Vincent's face and the shape of St. Eustace's hand are altogether 
those of Antonio, and Vasan, in mentioning this picture (v. 95), 
says expressly that this is one of the pictures winch was done 
by both of them. The wall paintings in the said chapel, which 
Vasari assigns here also to Piero, are unmistakably by the hand 
of Alesso Baldovinetti, who seems to have been Picro's master. 
(See G. Morelli, " Italian Masters m German Galleries," 
pp. 351-352) 

P. 224 

The picture representing the Angel Raphael with Tobit is 
now in the Pinacotccm c Turin. 


The picture of the Martyrdom of St, Sebastian is now in 
the National Gallery, London (No. 292). It is difficult to believe 
Vasari's statement that the principal figure in this picture, 
which was ordered by a member of the Pucci family, was to be 
taken as a portrait of Gino Capponi, who had died in 1421. 
However, tHs may be, tbe face of the Saint is of singular beauty, 
and we can enjoy it the better because the upper portion of the 
painting is not so much covered by thick and dirty Tarnish and 
repaints, as all the lower parts are. The figures in the lore- 
ground are, so to speak, typical of the artist's style. The ncli 
landscape in the background, with a triumphal arch on the left, 
and the Arno valley on the right, suggests a comparison with the 
landscapes in the pictures by Baldovinetti. Albertmi in his 
"Memoriale" of 1510, only mentions Pioro Pollajuolo's name in 
connection wilih this picture, but Vasarfs statement about the 
co-operation of the two brothers renders it extremely difficult to 
decide whether Antonio, who no doubt drew the cartoons, 
renounced his brother's assistance when carrying out this large 

P. 228f 

The drawing of the colossal statues in the British Museum, 
ascribed to Pollajuolo, is not by the hand of this master. 


A drawing by Pollajuolo, corresponding to Vasari's description 
of the artist' s design for an equestrian statue of Francesco Sforza, 
Duke of Milan, has been discovered lately by Coinm. G Morelli, 
among the unknown drawings in the Munich Gallery. Mons. L. 
Courajod, however, in publishing the drawing and commenting on 
it, declared it to be the work of Leonardo da Vinci. The question 
raised by Mons. Courajod excited the greatest interest. The 
following is an extract from the explanations given by Comm. 
Morelli, by which the problem is finally solved and, at the same 
tune, we have here a most acute analysis of Pollajuolo'h style in 
geneial: " The Munich drawing, lightly and boldly outlined with 
the pn, and shaded with thin sepia, will be recognized by anyone 
who is at all familiar with the drawings of Antonio del Pollajuolo, 
as the work of his hand. We see before us an old bald-headed 
warrior, mounted ; under his horse'% htofs lies the enemy, 
thrown to the ground. The face of the horseman has the well- 
known features of Francesco Sforza. Morelli says : 

" This capital drawing may in all probability be one of the two 
drawings of Antonio del Pollajuolo which Vasaii had in his 
possession, and which, according to his statement, Antonio pre- 
pared in competition for the monument that Lodovico il Moro 
intended erecting at Milan to his great father Francesco." It 
answers evidently the description of Vasan's second drawing 
Unfortunately the *< pedestal covered with battle-pieces,'* is lost. 
The reason why Pollajuolo never executed in metal either of his 
two designs for Sforza's monument will be explained in the 
Notes to Vasari's " Life of Leonardo da Vinci." (See p. 154 
of this volume.) According to Comm. G. Morelli, * b there is 
only one way of settling the controversy, and that is, to compare 
unquestionably authentic drawings by Pollajuolo with the Munich 
drawing. If these authentic drawings exhibit the same character- 
istics as the one at Munich, the question is decided in my 
favour; if the contrary, I am at least so far in the wrong, that 
without sufficient reason I thought I perceived in this drawing 
the features peculiar to Pollajuolo. 

What is an artist's idiosyncrasy ? and how shall we learn to 
seize and to comprehend it ? I answer : By fixing our eye not 
only on his merits, but also, and more especially, on his defects; 
the latter being much more obvious to the eye than the former, 
though they are for the most part conditioned bj them. (On 


this point see my articles on the Borghese Gallery in the " Von 
Lutzow'sche-Zeitschrifl fiir bildende Kunst," vol. ix.) Antonio 
del Pollajuolo appears to me m all his works as an artist full of 
energy and character, but devoid of all grace, a gift with which 
kind nature had endowed his younger contemporary, Leonardo, 
in the richest measure. But to descend from generals to 
particulars: I think I may broadly assert, that whereas all 
genuine drawings by Leonardo are executed either in chalk (red 
or black), or with the silver point or the pen, those of Pollajuolo 
are cither done with the pen alone, or firmly outlined with the 
pen and shaded with sepia. This last manner, in which the 
Munich drawing of Sforza's statue happens to be executed, 
ranges through all the shades from a glaring dark yellow (acre et 
crue), to a light delicate pale-yellow (douce blonde et legdrement 
blafarde), according*asH;hey have been exposed a shorter or a 
longer time to the corroding effect of light ! 

A second characteristic of Pollajuolo is the firm contour in ink 
with which hib always undulating forms of the human body are 
drawn. Another peculiarity is his claw-like and anything but 
graceful fingers. Again, in the open mouths of his passionately 
vociferating combatants lie seldom forgets to show the teeth. 

Let us first examine Pollajuolo's well-known engraving, signed 
with his name, " The Gladiators," and compare the moulding of 
the human forms in this engraving with the forms in the Munich 
drawing. Mr Courajod says the stroke of the pen in this drawing 
does not in the least correspond to that in the drawings of 
Pollajuolo. 1 now request the learned gentleman kindly to com- 
pare, for instance, the characteristic contour of the lower part of 
the leg in Francesco Sforza, with the same contour in some of 
Pollajuolo's gladiators; also the warrior lying under the hoofs 
of Francesco Sforza's horse, with the gladiators, likewise fallen 
on the ground, to the extreme right of the spectator ; and unless 
he is a sinner too hardened in his superstition, he will find a 
strong family likeness in the formation and position of the loft 
hand in the two men lying on the ground ; he will notice too the 
same form of the beat knee in these two men ; and finally, the 
warrior in the drawing shows his teeth, as several of the 
gladiators do. 

But even the heliotype annexed to the postscript of Mr. 
Courajod's own little book, p. 43, which represents the much- 


damaged * tracing ' (not * copy '), likewise at Munich, of 
Pollajuolo's original drawing, (in England) known under the name 
of i Death of Gattamelata/ ought surely to have convinced our 
learned opponent that the author of this drawing was also the 
author of the Sforza drawing , for in both drawings, the * tracing,* 
as well as the original drawing, we see the same claw-like hand, 
the same form of the knee, the same contour of the lower part of 
the leg, the same unmitigated expression of pain." (See 
" Italian Masters in German Galleries," pp. 90-97.) 


[Born 1447 died liftO. 1 ] 

P. 231f 

The picture No 106 in the Berlin Gallery answers Vasari's 
description of the one in the chapel of the Bardi family in the 
church of San Spirito. 

P, 282|| 

The picture, representing Spring, with Venus and the Graces 
dancing, is iu the Academy of Fine Arts at Florence. Vasari's 
description of the subject is somewhat inacciuate, In any case, 
it is somewhat difficult to explain all the details of this allegorical 

P. 233f 

These four pictures are now in the collection of Mr. F. R. 
Leyland, in London. One or two of the series appear to have 
been painted by pupiLs, from the master's cartoon. 

P. 233J 

Two pictures, representing the Adoration of the Magi, and one 
with the Adoration of the Shepherds, are in the National Gallery, 
London : Nos. 592, 1033, and 1034. The pictures are compara- 
tively small in size, and may therefore originally have been, 
destined for private houses. (See " Italian Art at the National 
Gallery," by J. P. Eichter, pp. 22-24.) 


P. 233|| 

Tliis picture, formerly in Hamilton Palace, is now in the 
National Gallery, London. Richa informs us that Palniicri had 
filled the highest offices in the Government of Florence, and that he 
was deputed to attend at the Council General held during the Ponti- 
ficate of Eugenms IV. He cultivated letters, but his poem " La 
citta di vita " was criticized by his enemies as professing heretic 
opinions, similar to those held by Origcn, respecting the angels. 
At last Pahmeri's orthodoxy was admitted, but during the con- 
troversy the altar with this picture was placed under an inter- 
dict and covered up. The historic value of the picture is 
therefore indisputable The landscape in the background 
exhibits views of Florence, the colh of San Mimato and Pistoja, 
and gives to the work an additional importance. With regard 
to the composition wetnay say, that, from an orthodox point of 
view, it seems very difficult to discover anything objectionable 
in it Surely it cannot have appeared very unusual that the 
Virgin has no nimbus. In the abstract theosophical system of 
Origcn there is absolutely nothing which in pictorial representa- 
tions could somehow be made apparent. The first circle of 
angels, the one nearest to Christ, is formed by wmgcd heads of 
infants (cherubs), and amidst them appear patriarchs. The 
second and third circles seem to me to be a free interpretation 
of St. John the Evangelist's vision, described m Revelation, 
chapters xv. 7, xvi. 1. The black vases with golden borders in 
the hands of some of the angels are probably meant for " the 
golden vials full of the wrath of God." Near them there are 
other angels, who in attitude of expectation point upwards with 
their rods , while those in the lowest circle point down, and at 
the same time seem to invite those who hold vials to pour them 
out upon the city of Morcnce. Urom a merely artistic point of 
view, the picture in its present state is less important than 
might generally be expected. The cartoon, from which the 
picture was executed, was probably drawn by Botticelli him- 
self ; in the painting, however, we find no trace of the master's 
own hand. The rendering of the human forms is coarse, the 
tone of colouring is different; in short, all the peculiarities 
of the master's style are wanting. In the church of San Jacopo 
a Kipoli, at Florence, there is a large altar-piece, repre- 
senting the Coronation of the Virgin, and numerous saints. 


ascribed to BotticelK, which shows the same style of execution 
Both pictures are, I believe, by the hand of the same pupil ot 

P. 235f 

In 1481 appeared at Florence, Oistoforo Landino's commen- 
tary " Sopra La Comedia di Dante Alighieri " The few copies 
of this edition still in existence are illustrated by eighteen 
engravings, after drawings by Botticelli The work is appa- 
rently incomplete. Botticelli is known to have also illustrated 
a copy of Dante in parchment for Lorenzo di Pier Francesco de' 
Medici. This highly important work, formerly in Hamilton 
Palace, is now in the Berlin Museum. (See " Jahrbucher der 
Koenigl. preussischen Kunstsammlungen," 1883; u Die Zeich- 
nungen des Sandro Botticelli zur G-oetfychgn Comoedie," by F. 
Lippmann ) 

P. 236* 

See Gustave G-rnyer, " Les Illustrations des ecrits de Jeiocie 
Savonarole," Paris, 1879. 

P. 238* 

The portrait in the Pitti Palace (No. 353) neither represents 
La bella Simonetta, nor is it by Botticelli. The picture here 
described by Vasari is to be found at Chantilly, in the palace of 
the Due d'Aumale. It is inscribed, " Simonetta Jamicnsis Ve$- 
pwcia " Another, and superior, portrait of a young lady is in 
the Berlin Museum (No. 106A). 


[Born 1442 died 1497.] 

P. 241* 

Giuliano was the brother, not the uncle of Benedetto da 

P. 242f 
The marble statue of St. John is now in the Museo Nazionale, 


P. 243* 

The marble bust of Filippo Strozzi has been, since 1878, in the 
Louvre. It bears the signature " PHILIPPUS . STROZZA . MATHBI . 
PILIDS . BENEDICTS . BE . MAJANO . FECIT." A replica in terra- 
cotta is in the Berlin Museum, 

P. 245* 

The bust of Pietro MeHi'ii has been transferred from the 
Gallery of the Uffizi to the Maseo Kazionale. 

P. 248f 

The chapel, with its ornaments, has lately been removed and 
rebuilt'inside Prato cathedral. 

Pp. 248-249 

Of Baccio di Andrea Cellini we only know that in 1480 he was 
staying in Hungary, together with his brother Francesco. Gio- 
vanni, their brother, was the father of Benvenuto Cellini. 

Girolamo, son of Piccolo, of Volterra, was also piper to the 
Signoria of Florence. He was a pupil of Francesco d'Aguolo* 
called La Cecca, as indicated in his surname, Bella Cecca, 

Davit Pistoleso, born in 1453, was a very active master, who 
had numerous pupils. 

Geri, the son of Angelo di Geri, of Arezzo, executed in 1466 
tarsia work for the church of San Michele. He died in 1485. 


[Born 1435 died 1488.] 

P. 250J 

Only one of the reliefs is by Terrocchio. It represents the 
martyrdom of St, John the Baptist. 

P. 251* 

According to Baron A. von Eeumont, it was not Francesco, 
but Giovanni Tornabuoni who, after the death of his wife in 
September, 1477, ordered the sepulchral monument, the frag- 
ments of which are still at Florence (in the Museo Nazionale), 


It had been erected most probably in that town, and not at 
Borne, as Vasari says, who informs us in the Life of Mino da 
Fiesole, that this artist executed the monument of Gianfrancesco 
Tornabuoni, in the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, 
by order of Giovanni, the grandfather of the deceased. (See 
" Giornale di Erudizione Artistica," 1873, p. 167 ) 

P. 251 

The statue of David was finished in 1476, and cost 150 florins. 
It is now in the Museo Nazionale. 

P. 252* 

A fine terra-cotta, representing the same subject, by Verroc- 
chio, is in the Museo of the Hospital of Santa Jlana Nuova. 

P. 253* 

The group of Christ and St. Thomas was completed by Ver- 
rocchio in 1483, for a payment of 800 florins. 

P. 255f 

The altar-piece, which Vcrrocchio painted for the church of 
San Domenico, was for some time in the possession of Signor 
Alessandro Foresi, who sold it recently to a Scotoh gentleman. 

P. 258* 

Francesco was the son of Simone di Giovanni Ferrucci, of 
Fiesole, whom Vasari calls the brother of Donatcllo. He was 
only his pupil. Francesco was born in 1440, and died in 1493* 
Agnolo di Polo, the son of Polo d'Agnolo de' Vetri, was born in 
1470. The bust of Christ in the house of the Academia di 
Lettere ed Arti, at Pistoja, is the only authenticated work of this 

[Born 1431 died 1506.] 


Marco Zoppo spent the greater part of his life at Venice. Hia 
works have nothing in common with the style of Lippo Dalmasio. 


One of Ms pictures is in the National Gallery (No. 590). It 
represents Christ placed in the tomb. Officially, however, it is 
ascribed to Cosimo Tura. 

P. 264(| 

The figures of the Evangelists are evidently not by Mantegna, 
nor are they by Marco Zoppo, as Messrs. Ciowe and Cavalcaselle 
("History of Painting in North Italy," vol. i., p. 300) have 
suggested. We have in this instance no means to identify the 

P 265f 

The six large pictures which cover the wall on the left, inside 
the chapel, are entirely by Mantegna, who has here depicted the 
life and maityrdonf ofSt. Jacob. The two scenes above on the 
opposite wall are by unknown masters of the school of Sqnaraone. 
The two in the centre are signed "orvs BONI" (a Ferrarese 
painter) and " OPVS ANSVINE." They represent scenes from the 
life of St. Christopher. The large picture underneath, which is, 
unfortunately, much damaged, represents the martyrdom of St. 
Christopher. It is one of Mantegna's late works, less sculptu- 
resque than the fresco paintings opposite, broader in execution, 
and more harmonious in colouring. 

P 267 

The altar-piece of the church of San Zeno was painted between 
the years 1457 and 1459. Two of its predolla compartments 
are in the Museum of Tours ; the centre-piece, representing 
the Crucifixion, is in the Louvre. 

P. 267f 

The Duke of Mantua had frequently solicited the artist, in, 
1457 and during the following years, to enter his service and 
to settle at Mantua. He seems to have arrived there only in 

P. 268* 

Mantegna's paintings at Hampton Court are to a great extent 
repainted. He began them some time before he went to Rome, 
where he remained from 1488 until 1490, and finished them 
after his return to Mantua, in 149& As early as 1501, as we 


learn from a letter of Sigismondo Cantelmo to the Duke of Fcr- 
rara, a theatre, which had been temporarily fitted up in the 
ducal palace at Mantua, as the interior of a classical dwelling- 
house, for the performance of Latin plays, was decorated 
with six pieces of Mantegna's "Triumph." About the year 
1626, Daniel Nys, Charles, I 's agent in Italy, bought the whole 
series, consisting of nine pieces, and sent them to England. 
They do not, however, figure in Charles I.'s catalogue, as they 
were placed, on their arrival, at Hampton Court. Ifc has been 
frequently stated that they were sold by the Commonwealth for 
1,000. This is inaccurate. They were valued at JBl,000 in 
September, 1651, but not sold, the Council of State ordering 
that '* before the pictures at Hampton Court, of 'The Triumphs 
of Csesar ' be sold, the Council to be informed what is bid for 
them." (See State Papers.) They are afterwards noted as " Re- 
served for His Highness' use," z e , Cromwell, At the Restora- 
tion they appear in Thomas Beauchamp's "Inventory of the 
Goods of the Late King, reserved by order of the Council of 
State." Since then they have remained at Hampton Court (see 
E. Law, " Historical Catalogue of the Pictures at Hampton 
Court," pp. 256-262). 

P. 272 J 

Marco Zoppo's picture in the Berlin Gallery bears the signa- 
ture : '* Marco Zoppo da Bologna pmsit, MCCCCLXXI in vinexia." 

P. 273J 

The National Gallery, London, contains three genuine works 
of the master. The large altar-piece, representing the Virgin 
and Child enthroned, St. John the Baptist, and the Magdalen 
(No. 274), is signed : " ANDBBAS MANTINBA, c. P. (citizen of 
Padua) F." This is, perhaps, the most delicate work ever exe- 
cuted by the artist. It is in an admirable state of preservation. 
Having been executed at Padua, it may be safely assumed that 
it is one of the artist's earlier works. The second genuine 
picture in the National Gallery, the grisaille representing the 
Triumph of Scipio (No. 902) is, according to documents, one of 
his last works, having been executed during the years 1504 and 
1506. To these has been added, of late, another grisaille, 
representing Samson and Delilah. At Hampton Court there 


are no other paintings of his but the above described so-called 
cartoons. Lord Northbrook possesses a picture of Christ's 
Agony in the Garden, signed' "OPVS ANDBE^B MAXTEGNA," 
Another very remarkable work of his is the Adoration of the 
Shepherds, in the collection of Mr. A* R, Boughton Knight. 
The British Museum contains the largest collection of genuine 
drawings by this master. 

[Bora 1457 died 1504.] 

P. 275* 
See the diagram, page 58 

P. 276J 

This picture, which is now in the National Gallery, London 
(No, 293), icpresents the Virgin and Child, St. Jerome, and St. 
3Dominic, in an open landscape. Below, there are tliree small 
predella pictures and the arms of the Rucellai family. Another 
genuine work of his, in the same collection, is an angel adoring 
(No. 927), a fragment of a fresco painting. 

P. 279f 

The preparatory sketch of the Disputation of St. Thomas is 
hi the Print Room of the British Museum. The artist went to 
Rome in 1488 S having been recommended by Lorenzo il Magni- 
fico to the Cardinal Oliviero Caraffa. The whole work appears 
to have been completed in 1490. Some works by Antoniasso 
may still be seen in and near Rome. (See Crowe and Caval- 
casclle, "History of Painting in Italy/' vol. iii., p. 167, and 
Costantino Corvisierfs article in **H Buonarroti," 1869, 

P. 280J 

The precise date of the completion of these frescoes is given 
in an inscription, to be found on the pilasters in the representa- 
tion of the Resurrection of Drusiana : " A. s. MCCCCCII PHI&IP- 



P. 282J 

Jh March, 1480, the monks of San Donate commissioned 
Leonardo da Vinci to paint an altar-piece representing the 
Adoration of the Magi, and in July of the following year a 
formal agreement was entered into. The price offered was 
three hundred florins in gold, on condition that the work was 
ready within twenty-four, or at the most, thirty months As 
Leonardo failed to fulfil these conditions, the arrangement with 
him was cancelled, and Filippino Lippi was instructed to do the 
work. He only completed it in 1496. Vasari's description of 
the portraits introduced in it is not quite correct. 

[Born 1454 died 1513.] 

"Between the works of Fiorenzo and those of the early 
period of Bernardino Betti, called il Pintuncehio, more cor- 
rectly Pintoriccio and Pintoricchio (the little painter), I find a 
very close affinity. Such a work, unless I altogether deceive 
myself, is to be found in Room I. of the Borghese Gallery 
at Rome, there ascribed to Carlo Crivelli. The picture repre- 
sents the Christ Crucified, between St. Jerome and St. Christo- 
pher, with a landscape background. As in many early pictures 
of Pintiiricclno, the flesh-colour of the Christopher is very 
brown, the too-elongated body of the Christ recalls the master 
Fiorenzo ; so does the type of the Infant Christ Here, in. the 
bent forefinger of St. Christopher, we already find a gesture that 
afterwards got to be conventional in Pinturicchio No doubt, 
after Perugino's return from Florence in 1470, Pinturicchio was 
strongly influenced by that master too, so that at a certain epoch 
works of the ktter were ascribed to the former. 11 (See G. 
Morelli, " Italian Masters in German Galleries," p. 264.) 

P. 2b5 

Before going to Siena, ho executed very large and highly 
important works at Rome, and it is difficult to accept Vasan's 


statement tbat Pinturicchio, an accomplished artist of fifty years 
of age, should then have engaged Raphael, a youth of twenty 
years, to do for him the sketches and ^-311 the cartoons. The 
three preparatory drawings for the frescoes at the Libreria are at 
Chatsworth, in the collection of the Duke of Devonshire, at the' 
Uffizi, Florence, and at Perugia, in the Casa Baldeschi. Although 
ascribed to Raphael tiaditionally, on the ground of Vasari's 
statement, they are evidently Pinturicchio's own productions. 
We cannot enter here into the discussions which of late have 
taken place upon this matter, but we may say that the facts 
given above will be accepted as indisputable by those who have 
followed without prejudice the arguments brought forth by Com. 
0. Morelli. 

P. 289J 

Above tbe altar there is a representation of the Adoration of 
the Magi. The kneeling figure of the Virgin in this composition 
occurs in the so-called sketch-book of Raphael now at Venice. 
Pmtuiicchio executed these paintings about the year 1483, when 
Raphael was an infant, or not yet born Other drawings in the 
same yketch-book reproduce figures which are to be found in 
Pmturichio's paintings in the Vatican What is more impor- 
tant, nearly all these drawings ascribed to Raphael, show all the 
peculiarities of Pinturricclno's style, in fact, they are his own 
work, and there is not the slightest affinity with the authenti- 
cated drawings by Raphael, to whom, the sketch-book or col- 
lector's album had been attributed less than a century ago. 
" Most of these drawings relate to works which were executed, 
some by him, and some (the studies of drapery) by P. Perugino, 
at Rome, in 1480 to 1482. Others, again, as the copies from 
Perngino's drawings, the imitations from L. Signorelli, Andrea 
Mantegna, Leonardo da Vinci, belong to a later period. The 
* Flying Angel with the Tambourine,' for instance, is of Pintu* 
ncchio's Sienese time (1503-6), and wholly agrees in treatment 
with his magnificent drawing, washed with Indian ink, of 
1 Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini setting out to the Council of Basic,* 
at the Uffizi Gallery, where it is still ascribed to Raphael." See 
G. Morelli, " Italian Masters in German Galleries," pp. 269 -285, 
where ample and conclusive proofs are given that these drawing! 
are really by Pinturicchio, 


P 290* 

See Gregorovius, " Lucrczia Borgia " (German and Italian 
edition), where tlie description of these paintings by Lorenz 
Behaun is given. 

P. 292f 

The chapel of the Signona, at Perugia, with the fresco paint- 
ings by Benedetto Buonfigho, foimss at present part of the 
Pinacoteca of that town. The aitist was commissioned to paint 
them in 1454 (the date of Pintuncchio's birth). At Ins death 
in 1496, they were not quite finished They represent bcenes 
in the lives of St. Louis of France, and of San Ercolano. Other 
works of his are in the Sala di Benedetto Buonfiglio. His works 
arc elaborate, but do not lank high. He appears to have formed 
his style upon the works of Benozzo Gc&oA. (See G, Fnzzoni, 
"L'arte dell' Umbria, rappresentata nella Nuoia Pinacoteca 
Comunale di Perugia," " Arcluvio Storico Italiano," Quarta Serie, 
v. 1880.) 

P. 293 

The proper name of the artist whom Vasari calls here Niccolb 
Alunno, and who ever since has been named so, is JSTiccolb da 
Fuligno. Professor Adamo Rossi has conclusively shown, v" Gior- 
nale d'Erudizione Artistica," Perugia, 1872, i., p. 258) that 
Alwino cannot be considered to be the family name of the arti&t. 
On his picture in the church of Santf Agostino, described by 
Vasari, and no doubt seen by him, we find a couple of Latin, 
verses giving the name of the artiat as being 

". . . . Nicolaus alummis 
Fnlign ?e , . . ." 

(Niccolb, a native of Foligno). This somewhat unusual and 
poetic expression was apparently chosen by the anonymous poet 
to avoid difficulties of prosody; it thus gave rise to Vasari'f- 
strange misunderstanding. 

The earliest signed picture of Niccolo da Foligno is said to- 
bear the date 1458, the latest is of the year 1499; we may 
therefore conclude that he was born about 1430, aud would be 
about twenty years of age when Benozzo Gozzoli, after lending 
a helping hand to his master, Fra Angelico da Fiesole, in the 
chapel of Onicto cathedral, during the years 1446-1447, came- 


in 1450 to the little town of Montefalco. Here, in the church 
of St. Fortunate, Gozzoli went to work at those beautiful 
frescoes that have all the freshness of youth about them. 
Benozzo may have worked in Montefalco and its neighbourhood 
down to the year 1455. When he left Montefalco he seems to 
have settled at Perugia, where, amongst other pictuies, he may 
very well have painted the fine altar-piece of the year 1456, which 
lias now found a lodgment in the Town Gallery of Perugia. 

If, therefore, Niccolb da Foligno was a growing youth when 
Benozzo Gozzoli came to Montefalco in 1450, we shall not be 
taking too bold a step if we suppose him to have entered the 
studio of Gozzoli as a pupil. And, in fact, when looking at 
any of Niccol&'s earlier paintings, one cannot help remarking, 
that one and all tjjey teem with reminiscences of Benozzo. 
Him, therefore, and no other, I consider to have been Niccolo's 
real master, under whose guidance he developed into a true 
artist. Just outside Montefalco, on the road that leads to the 
church of S. Fortunate, stands the so-called Capella della Can- 
cellata, adorned with frescoes in which both the hand and the 
mind of Piccolo are clearly to be discerned. In every part of 
these wall-pamtings the man of Fohguo has evidently worked 
under the influence of Gozzoli. We have the same remark to 
make on Niccolo's paintings in the church of S. Maria in 
Campis, near Foligno. Here, too, ho plainly declares himself a 
pupil and imitator of Gozzoli. 

In the " Crucifixion," for instance, the angel in green drapery 
is quite Gozzolesque, and in the " Annunciation," on the opposite 
wall, the announcing angel is absolutely borrowed from Benozzo, 
or to put it more exactly, from Fra Angelico, from whom Gozzoli 
had taken it The folding, and the form of the hands, even the 
expression of the face, reminds one altogether of Benozzo. And 
what is more, the golden nimbus with narrow streaks is not only 
Angelico's as well as Gozzoli's, but the same that we met with 
some years later in the pictures of the Peruginese, Fiorenzo di 
Lorenzo. From what has just been said, the influence of Fra 
Angelico on this Umbiian, through the medium of Gozzoli, 
seems to me more probable and clear than the influence of the 
much earlier RionoBC, Taddeo di Bartolo. But in Iris later 
works., when left to himself, Niccolb da Foligno always betrays 
tihat tendency to exaggeration which marks the inhabitant of a 


small provincial town , he becomes unnatural and even grotesque, 
as one may easily convince one's self by seeing his altar-pieces, 
which are not very rare, in the galleries of Rome. (See G. 
Morelli, "Italian Masters in German Galleues, 1 * pp. 258, 259.) 

la the National Gallery, London, there is an altar-piece (No. 
1107) which is signed "NICOLAI Fulignatis MCCCCJLXXXVII." 
The centre-piece is a Crucifixion, Christ's Agony in the Garden 
and Christ bearing the Cross are represented on the left wing, 
the Resurrection of Christ and a Piet& on the right. 

P. 293f 

This seems to refer to the banner, painted on both sides, 
which is still to be seen in the public school of Assisi, 

P. 293J 

The paintiugs discovered by Rumohr have since disap- 
peared. There is in one of the rooms of the chapter at the 
same church a triptych, with the inscription, *' NICOLAI DE 


P. 294 

A few genuine but unimportant pictures by Pinturicchio are 
in the National Gallery, London ; the Return of Ulysses to Pene- 
lope (No 911), a fresco painting, coming from the Petrncci Palace 
at Siena, and two small panel pictures, namely, St. Catherine of 
Alexandria, with a prelate in adoration (No. 693), and the 
Madonna and Child (No. 703). 


[Born 1450 died 1517.] 

P. 294* 

Francia is not a name adopted by the artist, but simply an 
abbreviation of Francesco. Thus Francia Bigio, the name of a 
Florentine artist, whose life is also given by Vasari, stands for 
Francesco Bigio. 

P. 5 

Francesco Raibolini, called Francia, is to be considered a- 


follower of Lorenzo Costa. The assertion that Francia was a 
pupil of Marco Zoppo may be read in books, but nowhere in 
his works, not even in his niello works, and still less his paint- 
ings, which, in technical matters, all point to Lorenzo Co&ta. 
The atelier of Francia at Bologna consisted of two stories ; in 
the upper storey pictures were painted under the supervision 
of Lorenzo Costa; in the lower, gold and silver works \\ero 
executed, coins stamped, c , under the direction of Francia. 
The fable that Francia must have been a pupil of Marco Zoppo 
originated most likely at Bologna, and not until the seven- 
teenth century. Local patriotism wanted to give the Bologncse 
Francia a Bolognese painter for his master. It is Malvaaia, 
in his " Felsina pittrice," that treats us to the plea&ing talc ; 
and, to give us fidl measure, he makes Marco Zoppo descend 
from Lippo DalmasicT, Francia from Marco Zoppo, and winds 
up with making Lorenzo Costa a pupil of Francia. It seems 
far more probable that Francia acquired the firvst rudiments 
of design from some goldsmith at Bologna, and afterwards 
improved himself in drawing, perhaps under the direction of 
Francesco Cossa, who had been settled in Bologna from the 
year 1470. His two "Paci," niello woiks, executed between 
3480-1485, which are to be seen at the Pmacoteca of Bologna, 
recall the manner of Cossa in the design and the draperies. 
(G. Morelh, "Itahan Masters in German Galleries," pp. 56, 57.) 

P. 297J 

The predella of this picture was painted by Lorenzo Costa. 
It is at present in the Brera Gallery, Milan. In the church of 
S. Maria della Misericordia there are two circular windows after 
cartoons by Francia, one representing the Madonna with the 
Infant Christ, the other St. John the Baptist. 

P. 299* 

The fresco paintings in the chapel of Santa Cecilia have been 
freed from old repaints and judiciously restored by Cav. Cave- 
naghi of Milan. They represent scenes from the Life and 
Martyrdom of Santa Cecilia and of San Valeriano. Two are by 
Francia and two by Costa. The other six are by their pupils 
Tsimai'occio, Chiodarolo, and Aspertmi. The chapel thus forms 
a museum of the school of Bologna at the end of the fifteenth 


century. (See G. Frizzoni, " Gli affrcsclii di Santa Cecilia m 
Bologna," in the periodical "II Buonarroti," 1876.) 

P. 299 

There is no picture of the Annunciation by Francia in the 
Town Gallery of Modena. The one here mentioned by Vasari 
is in the Brera Gallery at Milan 

P. 303* 

The genuineness of the letter which Raphael is supposed to 
have directed to Francia is now-a-days not generally accepted. 
It has been first published by Mal\-asia, but as G Milanesi 
points out, the idiom appears to be modernized here and there. 
The original document has never been produced. 


[Born 1440 died 1523.] 

Pp 307-309 

Vasari does not gh c the name of the artist at Perugia who 
as Perugino's first master But as ho describes Mm as having 
been " not particularly distinguished m las calling," ho induces 
the reader to believe that Pcrugino owed hia artistic education 
chiefly to Verrocchio, However, an examination of Perugino's 
early works, especially those which were executed at Florence, 
leads to very different conclusions. When coining to Florence 
he appears to have already formed his style, and to Lave become 
an accomplished artist. None of his early works at Florence 
betrays the alleged influence of the Florentine sculptor. It 
may be that his first native master was, as Vasari says, an 
inferior draughtsman, but so much seems to be indisputable that 
their style strongly suggests the hypothesis that it was formed 
upon the works of Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. 

P. 309f 
The picture in the Pitti palace is signed 



P. 310 

Antonio di Giorgio, the architect of the church of the Frati 
Gesuati, was a member of the family Marchissi of Settignano. 
He was born in 1450, and died in 1522 

P. 313 

The large picture with Christ on the Cioss is still to be seen 
in the church Delia Caka, in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Porta Eomana (at present a seminary). The style of Fiorenzo 
di Lorenzo is very evident in it. 

P. 316* 

No picture by Perugino representing St. Jerome is to be 
fouoft in the Colonna Gallery at Rome. 

P. 316|| 

The principal portions of the altar-piece painted by Perugino- 
for the Certosa of Pavia are in the National Gallery, London 
(No. 288), They form a triptych, with the Virgin adoring the 
Infant Christ in the centre. On both sides are the Archangels 
Michael and Raphael, who is accompanied by the youth Tobias. 
(See the heliograph, No. xiii., in J. P. Eichter's "Italian Art 
at the National Gallery.*') This panel picture, although not 
superior to the master's fresco paintings in the Sistine Chapel, 
might fairly be described as the finest altar-piece ever produced 
by him. Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle think that perhaps it 
was painted in the year 1504, during the artist's stay at 
Florence, and, as it were, under the eyes of Leonardo da Vinci, 
Michelangelo, and Kaphael, but it appears to me to be an 
earlier work. In 1494 Perugino visited Venice and painted an 
altar-piece for the church of Sant Agostino at Cremona ; two 
years later he again travelled in Northern Italy, when he stayed 
at Venice for some time, and was invited to enter, at Milan, the 
service of the Duke Lodovico Sforza. We only hear of this 
proposed engagement through a document which has recently 
been made known (see G. Morelli, " Italian Masters in German 
Galleries, 1 ' pp. 288, 289) ; thus it becomes very probable that at 
the time of these travels Perugino was commissioned to paint 
the picture in question. Preparatory drawings are in the British 
Museum and in the University Galleries at Oxford. 


P> 317 

The exact date of the fresco-paintings in the Sistiue Chapel is 
not known, He seems to have gone to Eome in 1480. The 
payment was only made to him in 1490, some unknown time 
after the completion of his work. According to Vasari, Peru- 
gino executed there the following subjects the " Granting of 
the Keys" (assisted by Don Bartolommeo rlella Gatta), the 
" Nativity," the "Baptism of Chnst," the "Finding of Mose*," 
and as centre-piece the " Assumption of the Virgin," Three of 
these frescoes, namely, the " Nativity," the " Finding of Moses,'* 
and the great centre-piece, the Assumption, had to make room 
afterwards for the " Last Judgment " of Michelangelo. Thus, 
of the five pictures in this chapel that Vasan assigned to Peru- 
gino, there remained only the " Granting of the Keys " and the 
"Baptism of Christ." Of the other frtsc*, the "Journey of 
Moses," which later critics likewise handed over to Porngino, 
Vasari says not a word. 

"Before subjecting these two frescoes to a minute examination, 
we have to remark, that being in the immediate vicinity of the 
altar, they were more exposed than any other picture in the 
chapel to the injurious effects of the smoke both of incense and 
of tapers. Hence, they had to undergo repeated cleanings and 
restorations, so that in their present state but little of their 
original colouring can be seen. 

"Now in both these pictures the composition suffers from 
overcrowding a fault that Pmturicchio aery often commits, 
Pcrugmo hardly ever. If we look, first ot all, at the landscape 
background of both pictures, we must at once confess that those 
steep masses of rock, those cypresses and palms, that beautifully 
shaped hollow of the valley, and even the falcon in the air 
pursuing smaller birds, are more in the stylo of Pmturic- 
chio's landscapes than of Perugino's. In the * Journey of 
Moses/ the angel in the centre has an action quite after the 
fashion of Pinturicchio ; and the children (though Messrs. Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle fancy they see in them very plainly the hand of 
Bartolommeo della Gatta, iii. 178), are exactly like other 
children by Pinturicchio for instance, those in the chapel of S. 
Bernardino in the church of Ara Coeli, contrasting very favour- 
ably with Perugino's unshapely infants with paunches like a 
leather bottle. Then the woman that kneels before Zipporali, 


ready with a stone to perform the operation on the child, has the 
character of Pintnricchio so distinctly stamped upon her face and 
figure, and the fine head of a man near her, with black hair and 
A red cap, is so strongly suggestive of the same master, that I 
am perfectly amazed to have been the first to see in this picture 
the hand of Pinturicchio and not of Perugino. 

" If now we examine carefully the picture that faces it, the 
' Baptism of Christ,' and fix our attention first of all on the 
two old bearded countenances at the extreme right of the 
picture, both speak loudly for Pinturicchio The angels too, 
and the youth near them dressed m gold-brocade, have alto- 
gether the type of Bernardino Betti, and not of Vannucci, to 
pay nothing of the naked long-legged figures of youths in the 
centre. The heads in this picture are all full of intelligence 
and life, but we m*s m them that finer, deeper conception and 
treatment by which the heads in Perugino's ' Granting of the 
Keys ' excite our admiration. 

" To my eyes, therefore, these two wall-paintings, the * Baptism 
of Christ ' and the ' Journey of Moses,' are works of Pintu- 
ricchio and not of Perugino, although I willingly admit that for 
some of his pictures the younger master (like Raphael in his 
youthful days) occasionally used the drawings of his friend and 
master Perugino, and thus he may have introduced here and 
there a Peruginesque figure in these paintings. But the com- 
position and pictorial execution belong, in my opinion, to him, 
the despised Pinturicchio, and no other. 

" The only work of Perugino's now left in the Cappella Sistina 
is, I believe, the ' Granting of the Keys to Peter,' and in this 
magnificent and really mature picture I can nowhere detect a 
strange hand. The co-operation of Don Bartolommeo della 
Gatta, if it ever existed, may have been m one of the lost wall- 
paintings of Perugino." (G. Morelli, "Italian Masters in German 
Galleries," pp 266-269.) 

The paintings on the ceilings " in one of the apartments of 
the Torre Borgia," now known as the " Stanza dell 1 Incendio 
del Borgo," are still preserved. 

P. 818f and ** and P. 319* 
All these pictures are now in the Museum of Perugia. 


P. S19J 

The picture of the Marriage of the Virgin is now In the 
Museum of Caen, in France. The composition has been re- 
peated, with slight variations, by Eaphael in the well-known 
picture at the Brera Gallery in Milan. 

P. 320f 

Perugino began the frescoes in the Cainbio in 1499, and 
finished them in 1500. 

P. 320 

Not Messer Benedetto Calera, aa we read here, but Messcr 
Filippo di Benedetto Capra, had ordered the picture for the 
church, of San Niccolo. One of Perugino's chief works at 
Florence is the fresco representing Christ on the Cross, with 
saints, here described as being in the Monastery of CestcHo, at 
present known by the name of Santa Maria Maddalena do' Pazzi. 
He began to paint it in 1493, and finished it in 1496, for payment 
of 55 ducats. 

P. 321* 

The altar-piece painted for Fiesolc is to be seen in the Tri- 
buna of the Uffizi Gallery (No. 1,122), It is signed : " PJBTRVS . 


P 323 

The centre-piece is in the Museum of Lyons ; the throe pre- 
della pictures are in the Museum of Rouen. 

P. 324f 

In 1493 Perugino married Chiara, the daughter of the archi- 
tect Luca Fancelli, who bore him seven children. The eldest, 
Giovanni Battista, became a sculptor. 

P. 325 

Giovanni Santi, the father of Kaphael, died as early as 1494, 
when his son was only eleven years of age. It is, therefore, 
impossible that both should have worked together in Perugino's 

P, 325* 

The proper name of Eocco Zoppo was Giovan Maria di Bar- 
tolommeo. In 1497 Perugino appointed him his representative. 
He died in 1508. 



P. 332* 

The works of Stefano da Zevio (= peacock) are rather scarce. 
The picture of the Madonna with St. Catherine in the Museum 
of Verona (No. 52), ascribed to Pisanello, with the peacock, and 
the Adoration of the Magi, in the Brera Gallery at Milai (signed 
and dated: "Stefanus Pinxit, 1435") may be regarded as his 
typical works. Drawings of his may be found in the go-called 
Vallardi volume in the Louvre 

P. 333* 

Stefano was a jtfipjj, not of Liberals, but of Pisanello. 

P. 333f 

Altichiero was born about the year 1330, and died p'obably 
towards the close of the century. Biondo says (" Italii illus- 
trata ") : " pictorise artis peritum Verona superior! saeculohabuit 
Altichierum." Fresco-paintings by him are to be fomd at 
Verona in the church of Sant Anastasia, and at Padua in the 
Santo. He seems to have been the master of Pisanello. 

P. 335f 

At tihe beginning of the fifteenth century the school of' 
ing of Venice stood far below its school of sculptors. Fra iccsco 
and his son, Jacobello De Flor, as well as Jacobello de B< 

ere is 
isty of 
185, 13 

were much inferior to their contemporary, Pisanello. Tl 
a large authentic work of Jacobello de Flor in the sacr 
Ceneda cathedral; one by Jacobello de Bonomo, dated 
in the church of S. Arcangelo, not far from Rimini 

P. 337** 

Vittore Carpaccio was a pupil of Gentile Bellini. HiA large 
altar-piece in the National Gallery, London (No. 750), It'epre- 
senting the Virgin and Child, with the Doge Mocenigo, hadl been 
commissioned in 1479, and was finished in 1485. 

P. 339J 
Catena's first instructor in art appears to have beenVu 


countryman, the elder Jerome, of Treviso. Early works of his, 
signed with his name, are in the picture-gallery at Pesth and 
at the Town Gallery of Padua. To him may also be ascribed 
three pictures in the National Gallery, London . Kos 694, 234, 
and 599. (See Eichter, " Italian Art at the National Gallery," 
pp. 80 and 81.) 

P. 340 

By Coideghiaghi the writer seems to mean Previtali, whose 
Christian name was Andrea. He was a native from Bergamo, 
and was at work there from the year 1511 until 1525, when he 
scorns to have died Previously he had lived at Venice. The 
Anonymus Morellianus did not find a single work of Frevitoh'b in 
the collections of amateurs at Venice, while he mentions se^eial 
byPalma Vecchio and Giovanni Caiiani % proof that Prcvi- 
tah's merits were not recognized till later. Lanzi, how- 
ever, probably led by the commendations and exaggerated 
praises of Count Tassi, has, in his " History of Art," greatly 
overrated this master by putting him almost on a level with 
Palma Vecchio. As regards technique Previtali is certainly very 
eminent, in brilliance of colouring he is not behind any of 
Giambellino's pupils, and the landscapes in the background of 
his pictures are for the most part neatly and faultlessly exe- 
cuted; but for all that, the painter lacks the mam attributes of 
a great artist, invention and the power of original represen- 
tation. And then Previtali had no influence whatever on the 
development of Venetian art, and hardly any even on the local 
school of Bergamo. 

P, 342J 

The notion of an original Vicontine School cannot be enter- 
tained at all. No doubt the great Barfcolommeo Montogna 
founded a school of painting at Vicenza, out of which sprang not 
only Benedetto Montagna, better known as an engraver than as 
a painter, but also Giovanni Speranza, an imitator of Barto- 
lommeo ; partly, also, Giovanni Bonconsiglio and Francesco da 
Ponte, father of Jacopo Bassano ; but Bartolommeo Montagna 
was a Brescian by birth, and his artistic training he must have 
received mainly at Venice. That in this latter town he also 
received influences from Vittor Carpaccio seems evident to me, 
not only from his picture of 1487 (the entlironed Modoinu with 


Saints) at the Town Gallery of Bergamo, but also from the 
technique of his drawings. His most important work is probably 
the great altar-piece of the year 1499 at the Brera Galleiy m 
Milan. (See G. Morelli, " Italian Masters in German Galleries, 1 * 
pp. 393, 394.) 

P. 343 

By Vincenzio Verchio we have to understand Vmcenzio 
Civerchio, of Crema, a rather scarce master, who had settled at 
Brescia. Signed pictures of his are to be found at the Town 
Gallery of Brescia, a triptych of 1495 with the genuine signa- 
ture, " Vincentius Cremensis ," one of 1504 in the church of 
S Alcssandro at Brescia, one dated 1525 in the church (sacristy) 
of Palazzuolo (all* Oolio) . another in the cathedral of Crerna. 
Of his, latest period (1537 and 1539), one at the gallery of 
Lovere, another m the church of ft. Giovanni sopra Lecco. 

[Born 1476 -died 1534?] 

Pp. 346-347 

Francesco, the brother of Jacopo, was born in 1492, In 1513 
he was commissioned at Florence to paint some frescoes in the 
cloister of the Monastery de' Servi; but the work was not 
carried out by him. Afterwards he was staying at Rome, bnt 
left in 1525, In 1531 he is mentioned as staying at Montepul- 
ciano. In 1536 he worked at the Vatican in company with 
Perino del Vaga and others. He is last heard of in 1558 as 
being still in Rome. 

[Born about 1441 died 1523.] 

P. 348 
The earliest record of works by Signorelh bears the date 1470- 


Jn that year he executed some decorative works in the church 
of San Francesco, at Cortona. 


This imposing, and in every respect noteworthy, picture has 
lately been added to the National Gallery, London (No. 1,128), 
after having been previously in the Hamilton Collection Vasari 
imputes the bad restoration of the Infant Christ to Sodoma, an 
artist whose deeds he seems to have been anxious to put in a 
bad light whenever he could. The cause of the restoration of 
the Infant was, m all probability, not damp, but the realism with 
which Signorelli seems to have treated the subject, thereby 
offending the taste of the church-goers of Volterra Nothing 
points here to Sodoma. The heavy rerasuijjfcs are no doubt the 
work of some indifferent hand. A banderole lying on the 
ground bears the signature " LUCAS CORTONEWSIS PINXIT." The 
biographer's statement that this picture is painted in fresco, 
which implies that it was a wall painting, is evidently an error. 
It is painted on panel, and as such it is also mentioned in a manu- 
script by Ormanni in the library at Volterra. 

P. 351t 

This picture is now in the Berlin Gallery. It represents Pan 
with his companions. 

P. 353* 

The fresco painting of the journey of Moses, which has for a 
long time been ascribed to Signorelli, is more probably the work 
of Pmturicchio. 

[Born 1452 died 1519.] 

P. 366f 

See also Gustavo Uzielli, " Kicerche intorno a Leonardo da 
Vinci," and J. P. Richter, " The Literary Works of Leonardo 
da Viuci," vols. i. and ii. London : S. Low and Co. 1883. 


P. 367* 

Prof Uzielli has shown (see "II Buonarroti," 1S75) that the 
sonnet ascribed to Leonardo by Lomazzo, is by Antonio di 
Matteo di Mcglio, herald of the Signoria of Florence from the 
year 1418 until his death, which occurred in 1446. To him it is 
ascribed by most of the manuscripts of the fifteenth century in 
Florentine libraries. 

P. 368* 

Several writings of Leonardo's refer to the canalization of the 
River Arno (see " The Literary Works," vol ii., pp. 227-230). 
They appear all to have been written at some later date of 
Leonardo's life. 

P. 369* 

Mons. Ch. Ravafl&dti has undertaken fche reproduction by 
photography of tho manuscripts at Paris. Two volumes, con- 
taining the manuscripts marked A, B, and D, have already 
appeared. The manuscript at the British Museum contains 283 
sheetp It treats chiefly on mathematics. At Windsor Cabtle 
is the largest collection of original drawings, besides very valuable 
manuscripts on Anatomy, etc. The Forstor Library at the South 
Kensington Museum contains three small volumes of note-books. 
Two others are at Ashburnham Place, in the library of Lord 
Ashburnham, One is at Milan, in the Trivulzio Palace, and one 
at Rome, in the possession of Count Manzoni. (See " The 
Literary Works of Leonardo da Yinci," vol. i,, pp. 5-7, and 
vol. ii., pp. 479-499.) 

P. 370 

According to Amoretti, there are six different specimens of 
twisted ornaments in the Ambrosian Library at Milan. The 
original blocks of these are preserved in the print room of the 
Bibliothcq-ue Rationale at Paris. Durer, who copied them, 
omitting the inscription, added to the second impressions his own 
monogram. In his diary he designates them simply as ** die 
sechs Knoteu." (See Thau&ing, " Life of A. Durer," i.', 362-363.) 
In Leonardo's MSS. we find here and there little sketches or 
suggestions for these and similar ornaments. 

P. 373f 
The history of the picture heie mentioned as bointj in the 


Borghese Gallery at Home is not known. It is evidently not by 
Leonardo da Vinci, but by Lorenzo di Credi. It corresponds, 
however, with the description here given by Yasari. There- 
fore, if it really belonged in Vasan's time to Pope Clement VII., 
it would follow that the artist's name, attached to the picture, 
had been changed at a very early period, 

P. 374f 

The head of the Medusa in the Uffizi Gallery appeal's to have 
been painted a considerable time after Leonardo's death, pro 
bably with the intention of replacnig the lost original. 

P. 373t 

In the March of 1480 the monks of San Donato (near 
Florence) had given an order to Leonardo for this picture to 
adorn the high altar of their church, and in July of the following 
year a formal agreement was entered into. The price offered 
was three hundred florins in gold, on condition that the work 
was ready within twenty-four, or, at the most, thirty months. 
As Leonardo failed to fulfil these conditions, the arrangement 
with him was cancelled, and Filippino Lippi was instructed to do 
the work. 

P. 3751 

Leonardo went to Milan earlier than Vasari indicates here. lie 
seems to have left Florence in 1482 But he does not seem to 
have been at Milan before the year 1487. It cannot be said 
with certainty where he had been staying in the meantime. 
Among his manuscripts there are some very remarkable letters 
addressed to the Defterdar or governor of Syria. In these Leo- 
nardo speaks of himself as having stayed among the mountains 
of Armenia. (See " Literary Works," vol. ii., pp. 387-394.) 

P. 376f 

The best existing copy after the Last Supper is in the Diploma 
Gallery of the Royal Academy, London. It is the work of 
Marco d'Oggiono, the pupil of Leonardo. It is not known 
when Leonardo began the picture, but certain MS. notes referring 
to it are in favour of the hypothesis that in 1494 the cartoons 
were not yet prepared. On the other hand, Luca Paciolo 


informs us definitely that it was completed in 1498. Prepa- 
ratory studies for this picture are in the Pmacoteca at Venice 
and at Windsor Castle. (See the reproductions m " The Literary- 
Works," vol. i., p. 334, plates xlv -1 ) 

P. 379* 

Montorfano's picture was executed in 1495. It is m a very 
good state of preservation. 

P 379J 

G-aleazzo Maria Sforza was assassinated in 1476 before his 
scheme for erecting a monument to his father, Francesco Sforza, 
could be earned into effect. In the following year Lodovico il 
Moro, the young a^pipnt to the throne, was exiled to Pisa, and 
only returned to Milan in 1479, when he was Lord (Governatore) 
of the State of Lilian in 1480, after the minister Cieco Simonetta 
had been murdered. It may have been soon after this that 
Lodovico il Moro announced a competition for an equestrian 
statue, and it is tolerably certain that Antonio del Pollajuolo 
took part in it. (See ante, p. 127.) Leonardo may have been 
in the competition there and then, but the means for executing 
the monument do not seem to have been at once forthcoming. 
It was not, perhaps, until some years later that Leonardo, m a 
letter to the Duke (see Vasari, ii., pp. 392-394, note), reminded 
him of the project for the monument. Then, after he had 
obeyed a summons to Milan, the plan seems to have been so far 
modified, perhaps in consequence of a remonstrance on the part 
of the artist, that a pacing horse was substituted for one 
galloping, and it may have been at the same time that the 
colossal dimensions of the statue were first decided on. We 
learn from a statement of Sabbk da Castiglione that when Milan 
was taken by the French in 1499, the model sustained some 
injury ; and this informant, who, however, is not invariably trust- 
worthy, adds that Leonardo had devoted fully sixteen years to 
this work. This often-quoted passage has given ground for an 
assumption, which has no other evidence to support it, that 
Leonardo had lived in Milan ever since 1483. But I believe it 
is nearer the truth to suppose that this author's statement alludes 
to the fact that about sixteen years must have passed since the 
competition, in which Leonardo had taken part. In September, 


1501, Ercole I., Duke of Ferrara, wrote to his agent at Milan : 
" Seeing that there exists at Milan a model of a horse, executed 
"by a certain Messer Leonardo, a master very skilful in such 
matters, one which the Duke Lodovico always intended to have 
cast, we think that if the use were granted us of this model, it 
would be a good and desirable thing to make a casting from it." 
The reply was " With reference to the model of the horse 
erected by Duke Lodovico, his reverend lordship (the Cardinal 
of Rouen, French Governor of Milan) perfectly agiees to its 
removal, as far as he is concerned. Yet, as his Majesty the 
King (Louis XII.) had himself seen the statue, his lordship dare 
not grant the duke's request without previously informing the 
king" Nothing came of the project. Soon afterwards the 
model must have fallen into decay and become lost. (Leonardo's 
numerous preparatory studies are reproduced, with his notes 
referring to them, in "The Literary Works," vol. ii., plates 
Ixv.-lxxvi. and pp. 10-17.) 

P. 380J 

Marc Antonio della Torre taught the science of anatomy in 
the universities, first of Padua, and then of Pavia ; and at Pavia 
he and Leonardo may have worked and studied together. We 
have no clue to any exact dates, but in the year 1506 Marr 
Antonio della Torre seems to have not yet left Padua. He was 
scarcely thirty years old when he died, in 1512, and his writings 
on anatomy have not only never been published, but no manu- 
script copy of them is known to exist. Some of Leonardo's 
writings on anatomy are reproduced in " The Literary Works," 
vol. ii., pp. 105-133. 

P, 381J 

The different portraits said to represent Leonardo da Vinci 
are very unlike each other. The drawings, showing the head in 
profile, at Windsor Castle and elsewhere, seem to bo a pupil's 
work, executed from memory. The picture in the Uffizi at 
Florence is admittedly not by Leonardo himself, but probably by 
some unknown artist of the middle of the sixteenth century. 
Here, also, the features are widely different from the original 
drawing at the Koyal Library in Turin (see "The Literary 
Works," vol. i., plate i.), from which the drawings at Venice 
and at Milan have been copied. 


P 382* 

In " The Literary Works," vol. i., pp. 13-332 will be found 
the original text of Leonardo's treatise on painting, as redis- 
covered from the various autographs still in existence. It 
differs widely from all the previous editions, and contains, among 
other hitherto unknown materials, the highly important researches 
.on the proportions of the human figure. 

P. 382* 

In 1499 Lodovico il Moro was deprived of the Duchy of 
Milan. In the following year Leonardo is mentioned as staying 
at Venice. In 1502 Caesar Borgia commissioned him to inspect 
the fortresses of his States, but he remained in the service of 
the tyrant only for a^very short time. Some notes referring to 
his journeys in Central Italy are to be found in his manuscripts. 
More valuable are the maps drawn by Leonardo at this time. 
(See " The Literary Works," vol. ii. 9 pp. 240-240, and plates 

P. 383* 

The liistory of the cartoon in the Diploma Gallery of the 
Eoyal Academy has been discussed by A. Marks in the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society of Literature, 1883. 

P. \ 

The picture said to represent Ginevra Benci, in the Pitti 
Palace, is not by Leonardo da Yinci. 

P. 385* 

Leonardo prepared the cartoon in the Sala del Papa of Santa 
Maria Novella at Florence, and worked there from the end of 
October, 1503, till February, 1504, and then was busied with the 
painting in the Sala del Conwglio in the Palazzo della Signoria, 
till the work was interrupted at the end of May, 1506. Some of 
his preparatory studies are still preserved. (See " The Literary 
Works," vol. i., pp. 338, 339, and plates lii.-lvii.) 

P. 386f 

Vasari, as is well known, describes only one scene or episode 
of the cartoon the battle for the standard, in the foreground of 
the composition, as it \?ould seem ; and this only was finished as 


a mural decoration in the Sala del Consiglio. This portion of 
the composition is familiar to all, from the disfigured copy 
engraved by Edelinck. Mariette had already very acutely 
observed that Edehnck must surely have worked from a Flemish 
copy. There is in the Louvre a drawing by Uubens, which also- 
represents four horsemen fighting iound a standard, and which 
agrees with Edelinck's engraving, but the engraving reverses the 
drawing. An earlier Flemish drawing, such as may have served 
as the model for both Rubens and JEdelinck, is m the Uffizi 
collection. This seems to be a work of the second half of ihe 
sixteenth century, a time when both the picture and the oartoou 
had already been destroyed. It is apparently the production of 
a not vciy skilled hand. Raphael Trichet du Fre.sw, 1051, 
mentions that a small picture by Leonardo himself, of the battle 
of the standard, was then extant in the* l^ilciies ; by this he 
probably means the painting on panel which is now in the pos- 
session of Madame Timbal, in Parw, and which has lately been 
engraved by Haussoullier as a work by Leonardo. More pro- 
bably it is the work of some unknown Florentine painter of <ho 
beginning of the sixteenth century. At the same time, it would 
seem to be a copy, not from Leonardo's cartoon, but from his 
picture in the Palazzo della Signoria. At any rate, this little 
picture and the small Flemish drawing in Florence are the oldest 
finished copies of this episode in the groat composition of the 
"Battie of Anghiari." An earlier but very slight Hkolck by 
Raphael of the same subject, apparently drawn in 1505, is in the 
University Galleries at Oxford. 

P. 387* 

Between the years 1506 and L514 Leonardo was staying for 
some time at Milan, and for Home time at Florence, travelling 
frequently hither and thither. In September, 1514, he left Milan 
for Rome, accompanied by several of his pupils. Ilia patron, 
Giuliano de' Medici, lodged him in tho Vatican. As to his occu- 
pations at Rome, see " The Literary Works," vol. iL pt>. 407- 

P. 388* 

It is not known what has become of the pictures hero de- 


P. 389* 
See also " Tlie Literary Woiks," vol. ii. 5 pp. 282-286, 301-311. 

P. 390f 

Leonardo's drawings of the anatomy of the horse are at 
Windsor Castle. (Sec " The Literary Works," vol. ii , p. 489.) 

P. 390J 

Leonardo's numerous drawings and his writings on architecture 
are reproduced in " The Literary Works," vol. ii., pp. 25-104, 
and plates lxxvii,-cvi. 

P. 391f 

Beltraffio's picture, here described as being in Bologna, is now 
in the Louvre at Paris. 1 

P. 392* 

Among Leonardo da Vinci's immediate pupils at Milan, of 
whom we possess authenticated works, are to be reckoned Giovan 
Antonio Boltraffio, Marco d'Oggioimo, Andrea Sala, called Sa- 
lai'no, i.e little Sala , Giovan Antonio Bazzi, called Sodoma at 
Siena , Ccsare da Sesto , and the so-called Giampietrmo. Among 
those indirectly influenced by him the Milanese Ambrogio de 
Prodis, Bernardino dei Conti of Pavia, Andrea Solari of Milan, 
Bernardino Luini, Gaudenzio Ferrari, &c. 


[Born 1478 died 1511.] 

P. 395f 

It appears from recent researches that Giorgione was the 
illegitimate son of Jacopo Barbarella, a member of a distin- 
guished Venetian family which had settled afc Castelfranco, and 
of a peasant girl of Vedelago. (See Camavitto, " La Famigh'a 
di Giorgione da Oastelfranco," " Giornale Arcadico," 1878.) 

P. 395 

" It is but one of the many fables that have arisen out of 
nramcipal vanity, that, as Vasari records, Giorgio BarbareUa 


learned his new method of painting from the pictures of Lionardo 
da Vmci. Where, in Venice, could Giorgione have seen, in his 
time, paintings by Lionardo ? Again, some writers aiSsert that 
Giovanni Bellini, in his picture of the year 1505, painted for the 
church of St Zaccaim at Venice, modified his former manner of 
painting after the new system of Giornione This statement 
is directly contradicted by the great altar-piece done by 
Giovanni Bellini for the church of St Giobbe, at Venice, in the 
last decade of the fifteenth century, now in the Pmacoteca of 
Venice (No. 38). The pupil may very likely have learned from 
his master, but not the converse, and I think Dtirei was quite 
right, when, in a letter from Venice (1506) to his friend Pirck- 
heirner, he declares Giovanni Bellini to be still the greatest 
painter in Venice. It was only m the last six years of his 
short life, from about 1505 to 1511, that Gborgione developed 
his full, his total power. The few works that have come down 
to us (all his wall-paintings have been destroyed by the nea air) 
show such an original and higlily poetical mind, his simple, uupre- 
judiced, and fine artist-nature speaks out of them so freshly, so 
wrnningly, that whoever has once understood him can and will 
never forget him No other artist knows like him how to capti- 
\ate our mind and chain our imagination for hours with such 
small means ; and yet we often do not know, in the least, what 
those figures of his really stand for. Vasan already remarked 
that it was difficult to give Giorgione's representations an ex- 
planatory name. Giorgione was a gen tune, harmless, cheerful 
naturea lyric poet, in contrast with Titian, who was wholly 
dramatic. Tho latter is, no doubt, a more powerful and energetic 
mind, whilst Giorgione is, to my thinking, an artist of much finer 
gram. In his landscape backgrounds, in the charm of his out- 
lines and colouring, few have equalled and none surpassed 
Giorgione, excepting, perhaps, Titian. His love was given to 
music, beautiful women, and, above all, to his noble art. No 
one was so independent as he ; to the great and powerful of this 
world he remained indifferent, to none of them did he sacrifice, 
as, for instance, Titian did, his freedom and, still less, his 
dignity. So Vasari paints him to us, and I believe the likeness 
is true to life." (G. Morelli, " Italian Masters in German 
Galleries," pp. 158, 159.) 


P. 396* 

It is not known where the original of the picture, representing 
David with the head of Goliath is to be found. Different 
galleries claim to possess it. 

P. 397* 

The works of Giorgione are extremely rare. They are 
mostly so-called cabinet pictures } it is only exceptionally that 
he seems to hare undertaken church paintings. The Anonymus 
Morellianus counts no more than about a dozen of his pictures m 
all, as existing at Venice in his tune, that is, between 1512 and 
1540 ; a second dozen Vasari has incidentally described, but of 
these very few can now be identified. The pictures enumerated 
in the following short list may safely be accepted as genuine 
works of the master 1 and 2 The so-called " Fire Ordeal," and 
" The Judgment of Solomon," in, the Uffizi Gallery at Florence 
(Nos, 621 and 630), perhaps the earliest works of the master 
now in existence ; 3, The large altar-piece at Castelfrauco, " The 
enthroned Madonna, with the Saints Francis and Liberale," the 
artist's masterpiece; 4. The stormy landscape with a gipsy 
woman and a soldier in Yenice, in possession of Prince Gio- 
vanelli ; 5. The Madonna with the Infant Christ, seated between 
the Saints Antony and Rochus, in the Museo del Prado, Madrid, 
where it is ascribed to Pordenone , 6. The half-length figure of 
the " Knight of St. John," in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence 
(N"o. 622) ; 7. Daphne and Apollo in a landscape (much injured), 
in the Museum of the Seminario Vescovile at Venice ; 8, The 
so-called " Concert," in the Louvre Gallery at Paris , 9. A land- 
scape with shepherds, in the Picture Gallery at Pesth ; 10 " The 
Three Philosophers,* 1 in the Belvedere Gallery at Vienna; 11. 
The sleeping Venus, in the Dresden Gallery, where it is 
ascribed to Sassoferrato ('), as being a copy after Titian. 
(See G. Morelli, "Italian Masters in German Galleries," pp, 

P. 400* 

This is one of Titian's earliest works. The figures are busts, 
nearly life-size. 

P. 400f 
The picture at Treviso, representing the dead Christ sur- 


rounded by angels, by no means merits the praise bestowed on 
it by some writers, who seem to have been mibled by the state- 
ment of the Anonymus Morellianus, that Giorgione had painted 
the same subject The said picture at Treviso is the production 
of an inferior artist, perhaps of Domemco Caprioli. (See G. Frizzoni,. 
"Notizia d'Opere di Disegno," Bologna, 1884, pp. 218-219.) 


[Born 1494 -died 1534.] 

P. 402$ 

See also the biographies by Julius Meyer, in the new edition 
of Nagler's " Kunstlerlexicon," and by J. I*, tfichter in Doliine, 
" Kunst und Kunstler." 

P. 404* 

Correggio owed his artistic education to the school of Ferrara- 
Bologna. According to an old tradition he was a pupil of 
Francesco Bianchi of Ferrara, a pupil of Co-sirno Tura, who 
had settled at Modena. Bianchi was very intimate with Francia 
and Lorenzo Costa, and is said to have painted in company with 
them al fresco in the Bcutivoglio Palace at Bologna. Wo can 
then also admit as probable that the taleutcd pupil from Correggio, 
having served out his apprenticeship with Bianchi in 1507 or 
1508, was sent by him to the studio of his friend Francia, to 
complete his studies. His earliest authenticated picture, a largo 
altar-piece with the Madonna enthroned and lour saints in 
the Dresden Gallery was painted in 1514-15, and is signed' 
"AWTON[IV]S DE ALEGRIS . p." It has many features in com- 
mon with Francia as well (e.g., tiic head of St. Cullierine) 
as with Costa. Surely before receiving the commission for so 
large a picture the young artist must have produced some other 
works displaying his extraordinary gifts. Such were, for instance, 
a small Madonna picture, with saints, in the collection of Signor 
Gustavo Frizzoni, of Milan ; another Madonna picture, ascribed 
to Titian, in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence (No. 1002), and a 
Madonna picture in the Musco Municipal at Milan. Two 
pictures, painted about the years 1513-14, are in England . a 



large altar-piece with four saints, at Bath House, London, in the 
collection of Lord AsUmrton, and a charming little picture of a 
Holy Family, at Hampton Court (No 276). Before Correggio 
settled at Parma, he must have been artistically in communica- 
tion with Dosso and Garofalo His picture of " A Rest during 
the Plight to Eoypt," in the Tribune of the Uffizi Gallery, seems 
to warrant the hypothesis. 

P. 404f 

The hypothesis that Correggio was influenced by Mantegna 
is altogether antiquated, nor can we believe that Bcgarelh, the 
sculptor of Modena, had been acquainted with the painter. 

P. 407* 

The two pictu|jes^incoiTectly described by Vasari from what 
Giulio Romano seems to have related to him about them, have in 
the course of time passed through many hands The Leda is 
now in the Berlin Gallery, the Danae is m the Borghesc Gallery 
at Rome. A picture of Venus and Mars with a Onpid IR in the 
National Galleiy, London. Correggio painted two more repre- 
sentations of mythological subjects, not mentioned here, although 
not inferior to them : " Jupiter and Antiope,"now in the Louvre, 
and " Jupiter and lo," in the Belvedere Gallery at Vienna. 

P. 407 

The picture representing Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen 
is now at Madrid, in the Museo del Prado. 

P. 409J 

The portrait of Correggio was painted by Dosso Dossi. In 
the course of last century the picture came to England, and has 
since been lost sight of. 

P. 411J 

The artist-family of the Solari (architects and sculptors) origi- 
nally came from the village of Solaro, near Saronno, in the province 
of Milan, and was already settled at Milan in the first half of 
the fifteenth century, where Andrea most probably was bom 
about the year 140'0 Christopher, the sculptor and architect, 
called II Goppo, scorns to have stood in something like a father's 
place to his younger brother. For this reason the painter may 


also have been surnamed del Goppo. Who his real instructor 
was, is not yet ascertained. In the superb modelling of his 
heads we detect the schooling he must have had, probably from 
his brother the sculptor. No Lombard painter comes so near to 
Leonardo as he, none ever turned out such a head as that in the 
"Ecce Homo" of the Poldi Gallery (Milan). In modelling 
hands, Solano is far behind Leonardo. A small Madonna 
picture, m the Brera Gallery, the earliest by A. Solario known, 
might also point to the influence of Bartolommeo Suardi, 
called Brarnantmo. In 1490 lie accompanied his brother CrisLo- 
foro to Venice, and there he may have painted the fine portrait 
of a " Venetian Senator" (now in the National Gallery, London), 
about 1492-93. The influence of GiambeHini, still more that 
of Antonello da Messina, is evident in this painting, and so long 
as it remained in the Casa Gavotti at Gciioa^it actuallv passed 
for a work of Giambellini's. The magnificently modelled u Ecce 
Ilonio" at Poldi's may also have been painted about 1494. 
The two brothers returned from Venice to Milan in 1493. 
About this time he appears to have been strongly influenced by 
Leonardo da Vinci, In the Poldi-Pezzoli Museum at Milan are 
two tablets dated 1499, and signed : " Andreas Mediolancnsis," 
therefore not painted at Milan. The picture of the Crucifixion, 
in the Louvre, is likewise signed : " A. Mcdiolanon&is fa.," and 
dated 1 503. In 1505 Solario painted the portrait of his frieml, 
John Christopher Longoni, No. 734 of the Nuliimal Gullery, 
London. In 1507 Solano travelled from Milan to France, and 
worked for two years at Gaillon for the Cardinal George of 
Amboise. Before returning to Italy lie seems to have spent 
some time at Flanders, In the Poldi- Pezzoli Museum there w 
a picture of his dated 1515. From that time forward we heal- 
nothing of him. See G. Morelli, ' c Italian Masters 111 German 
Galleries," pp. 64-69. 

P. 412* 

That he painted the large altar-piece for the Carthusian 
church near Pavia (now exhibited in the now sacristy there), 
after 1515, is more than probable, especially as wo are told that 
the upper part of the picture was left unfinished, and that it 
was completed (perhaps only restored) by Bcrnardini Campi 
about 1576* 


[Born 1462 died 1521.] 

P. 412 

The proper name of Pier di Cosinio was Piero di Lorenzo di 
Picro d* Antonio. 

P. 415 

Vasari relates that Piero di Cosimo sometimes drew his 
inspiration from looking at walls covered with impurities. The 
statement may partly be exaggerated, but at the same time it 
suggests a reference to one of Leonardo da Vinci's writings, 
headed : " A way of developing and arousing the mind to various 
inventions," " I cannot forbear to mention among thcbe precepts 
a new device for study which, although it may seein but trivial 
and almost ludicrous, is neveitheless extremely useful in arousing 
the mind to various inventions. And this is, when you look at 
a wall spotted with stains, or with a mixture of stones, if you 
have to devise some scene, you may discover a resemblance to- 
various landscapes, beautified with mountains, rivers, rocks, 
trees, plains, wide valleys and hills, in varied arrangement ; or 
again you may see battles and figures in actions; or strange 
faces and costumes, and an endless variety of objects, which you 
could reduce to complete and well-drawn forms. And these 
appear on such walls confusedly, like the sound of bells, in whose- 
jingle you may find any name or word you choose to imagine." 
(See J.P. Richter, "The Literary Works of Leonardo da Vinci,"" 
vol. i., p. 254.) 

P. 423* 

The National G-allery, London, possesses a picture by Piero 
di Cosimo, which may have been one of the series here described. 
It represents the deatli of Procris (No. 698). A satyr kneels 
at her head, and her hound, Lelaps, is sitting at her feet. The 
background is formed by an extensive landscape with a large 
river. The types of the figures have a vague resemblance with 
those we meet in the pictures of Filippino Lippi. See the 
reproduction of the picture in J. P. Richter's " Italian Art at- 
the National Gallery," plate vhi. 


P. 425J 

The picture of Cleopatra is to be found in the collection of 
the Due cTAuinale, at Chantilly. The Museum of the Hague 
contains tlie portrait of Francesco da San Gallo, painted by 
Piero. (See Gustavo Frizzoni, " L'artc Italuiua nulla Galleria 
di Loudra," Arcluvio Storico Italiano, 1879.) 

[Born 1444 died 1514 ] 

The best and most complete in formation about tins great 
architect will be found in Baron Henry de*Geymuller'b publica- 
tion, "Les Projets pnmitife pour la Basilique de Saint Pierre 
de Rome par Bramantc, Raphael Sanzio, Fra Giocondo, Ics 
Sangallo, &c., publics pour la premiere fens en fac-similo," 
Paris, Baudry (French and Gorman text), with numerous plates. 
Here will be found the proofs of the following facts. The 
architect's family name was not Lazzari, but Dramante The 
surname Asdruvaldmus appears to have been derived from 
Monte Asdrualdo, which is oituated near Urbino. 

P. 428t 

The church of the Madonna del liiscalto near ITrbania, wliich 
has been supposed to have been constructed by Bramantc, does 
not recall Ins style, nor can it be believed that he should have 
constructed it, since Bramante was at the time a youth of 
fifteen years of age. The numerous other buildings in the 
Romagna, ascribed to him, are more probably by other archi- 
tects. When at Milan he executed in 1487 a model for the 
cupola of the Cathedral, and in 1491 lie was commissioned to 
snake an estimate referring to it 

P. 429f 

No authentic picture by Zenale is now to be found. The 
large altar-piece, the " St, Martin," behind the principal altar of 
the parish church of Treviglio, is indeed a joint work of Zenale 
and Buttinone (a copy of the original contract is preserved in 
the archives of the church), but wo cannot tell what part of the 


work is Zenale's and what Buttmone's. (See G Morelli, " Italian 
Masters in German Galleries," pp 416-419.) lie was born in 
143C, and died in 1526. 

P 430f 

Several buildings at Milan aic as>t'iibed to Biamante, At the 
church of Saul' Ambrogio the canons' residence (1492) and the 
monastery (1498), at Santa Maria delle Graxie the cloisters, 
the sacristy, the cupola, and the refectory (1492) ; the church 
of Santa Maria presso San Satiro (about 1474 and 1494) ; the 
exterior and the first cloisters of the church Santa Radegouda ; 
a portico, some windows, and other decorative work at the 
Spedale Maggiorc, and similar woik at the Arcivescovado, In 
Leonardo da Vincfo jnanuscripts there is a passing note ou the 
buildings of Braraanle at Milan. (See J. P. Richter, " The 
Literary Works of L. da Ymei," \ol. ii., p 427, No. 1414. 

P. 437 

Views of this hou^e, in which Raphael lived, may be seen in 
A. di Gcymuller, "Hafitiello Sanzio studiaio conic architetto," 
Milano, 1884, pp. 52 aud 99. 

P. 440* 

See also " Le Letters di Michelangelo Buonarroti pubblicate per 
cura di Gaetano Milauesi," Florence, 1875, where a more correct 
text of the letter is given. 

P. 443* 
Ventura was bom at Pistoja in 1442, and died in 1522. 

[Born 1475 died 1517.] 

P. 447* 

The picture of the Last Judgment was executed in 1499. It 
has been transferred from the wall on canvan, and is at present 
in the Museum of the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova. Com- 
pare vol. ii,, pp. 449, 450. 


P. 451* 

Fra Bartolommeo signed in 1504 the contract by which, he 
agreed to paint the said picture. 

P. 452J 

The history of the picture which went to France is indicated 
in the following inscription, which was originally attached to its 
frame : " Jacopo Huraldo (Iluraulff), Heduorum episcopo, 
Ludovici XII. francoruin regis legato iidissimo Senatus Popu- 
lusque Florentiuus dono dedil. Anno MDXH." The picture 
itself is inscribed : " Orate pro pictore MDXI Bartholorne 
floren. or. prae." 

P* 457 1| 

The description of this picture is incorrect in so far as Christ 
appears in it not as " showering down lightnings and thunder- 
bolts," but, on the contrary, as in the act of giving his benedic- 
tions to the people. The picture has been removed to the 
Museum in the Palazzo Publieo. 

P. 4o8f 
Now to be seen in the Museum in the Palazzo Publieo of Lucca, 

P. 458J 

The picture of the Assumption is now in the Museum of 
Naples. There is no picture by Fra Bartolommeo at the 
Berlin Museum. 

P. 459f 

Numerous drawings by Fra Bartolommeo are in the Uffizi 
Collection at Florence, and in the Louvre. 

P. 461 J 

The picture of the Abduction of Dinah is now in the Belve- 
dere Gallery at Yienna. 

P. 462* 

Nothing is known about the life and works of Oiecchino del 
Frate. Benedetto, the son of Giovanni Cianfanini, was born in 
1462, and was at an early period of his life in the studio of 
Botticelli. In later years he was a friend of Lorenzo di Credi's. 


He died in 1542. His works cannot be identified. Still less is 
known about Gabriele Rustici, who died in 1562. 

P, 462f 

Era Paolino was born in 1490. Authentic works of this master 
may still be found in the galleries of Florence, in the churches 
of Pistoja, and elsewhere. 


Born '474 died 1515.] 


G. Milanesi, in his notes, to the new edition of Vasari, 
published by Sansoni, points out that the reliefs of Adonis with 
the dog, and the one with the two wide figures, arc still to bo 
found in the Palazzo Riccardi, and that the relief with the boys 
carrying the thunderbolts of Jupiter is in the Uffizi. 

P. 472* 

The picture of the Deposition is still to be found in the small 
Musco of the Seminario Patriarcale, near the Church Bella 
Salute, at Venice. 

[Born 1466 died 1524.] 

P. 477* 

The original is now in the Munich Gallery, where it has been 
ascribed to Pcrugino, and also to Raffaellino del Garbo, to whom 
it ( is assigned by Vasari, probably through inadvertence. That 
Raffaellino del Garbo painted a picture with the same subject 
and the same composition as this, which is really by the hand of 
Perugino, may be inferred from a drawing by Raffaellino in the 
British. Museum, although it is at presort 1 ; not known where the 


picture is to be found, or whether it has ever been carried out. 
The first idea, both of this drawing by Raffaellino del Garbo and 
of the painting by P Perugmo, must be sought in that magnifi- 
cent picture by Filippino Lippi in the Badia at Florence, a true 
marvel of Florentine art, which must also have been present to 
the mind of young Fra Bartolommeo when he represented the 
same subject in a picture now in the Academy at Florence. 

A fine tondo by Raffaelhno del Garbo is m the collection of Mr. 
W. Graham, London. It icpresents the Vugin with the Infant 
Christ, to whom an angel offers a pomegranate. Another anpel 
and the infant St. John are on the other side ; landscape in the 

Another beautiful tondo, representing the Madonna with the 
Infant Christ and two angels, is in the possession of Mr. A. Casella, 
London. There are numerous drawings ify the same master at 
the British Museum. 

P. 477+ 
This fresco -painting is still in existence. 

P. 480f 

Bastiano di Niccolb di Bnstiano da Monte Carlo was received 
in the painters* guild in 1518. He died in 1563, 


[Bom 1472 died 1528.] 

Pp. 483-484 

Similar opinions to those here expressed by Vasari about the 
course of instruction for young artists will be found in Leonardo 
da Vinci's treatise on painting. See *' The Literary Works of 
L. da Vinci," edited by J. P. Richter, vol. i., p. 244* 

P. 486 

The expeditions here mentioned, in which Torrigiano served 
as a soldier, occurred during the years 1493 and 1503. 

P. 487* 
Torrigiano executed also at Westminster Abbey the rccum- 


bent metal effigy of Margaret, Ccmntess of Richmond, mother of 
Henry VII. (d. 1509), placed in the chapel of Henry IV. ; and 
in Chancery Lane, in the chapel inside the Rolls Buildings, the 
terra-cotta monument of Dr John Young, Master of the Rolls, 
about the year 1516. In 1519 Torngiano was again in Florence. 
On the 18th of June of that year Rinaldo de' Ricasoli, consul of 
the Florentine colony at London, wrote to the Signona of 
Florence complaining of the sculptor and Florentine citizen 
Piero Torrigiano for having acted contrary to his engagements 
entered into, about two years before, to construct an altar and 
other bronze works for King Henry VIII. for payment of one 
thousand pounds sterling. It is further stated that this sum 
had already been placed in the hands of some merchant of Lucca, 
who had given sec,urj^fcies for the artist, and who had Lo pay him 
the sum in parts during the progress of the work. Two hundred 
and fifty pounds are stated to have already been credited to the 
artist in account with Pier Francesco Bardi in London, and now 
the Signona of Florence is invited to prevent payment of the 
sum to the artist at Florence, since he had left London without 
beginning the work, " insalutato hospite," and without having 
received leave from the king, apparently with the intention neither 
of executing the work nor of returning to London, reflecting thus 
disgrace upon, and possibly prejudicing the Florentine colony. 
The original of this interesting letter is in the Florentine 
archives among the " Lettere esterne alia Signoria." 

[Born 1445 died 1516.] [Born 1455 died 1534.] 

P. 489 

Giuliano da San Gallo went to Rome at an early period of his 
life. There is in the library of the Palazzo Barberini a book of 
drawings from ancient monuments, begun in 1465 From the 
year 1469 until about 1472 he worked at the Palazzo di San 
Marco, the present Palazzo Venezia, in the Vatican, and in the 
Tribune of St. Peter's. (See E Muntz, " Les Arts a la Cour 
des Papes," vol. ii., pp. 40 and foil) The works ascribed to 
him at Pisa are by other masters. 


P. 490* 

Documents in the Florentine State Archives give the names of 
other artists, omitting Giuliano, as having been engaged in the 
defence of Castellana 

P 490f 

The construction of this cloister was hegun in 1492 bj 
Giuliano, Alainaimo, and Jacopo di Giovanni Salviati; other 
architects completed it afterwards 

P. 504* 

Reproductions of drawings by Giuliano for the church of St. 
Peter will be found in H. de Geymuller, " Les Projets primitifs 
pour la JBasilique de St Pierre de Rome, Paris, 1880. 

P 504f 

See Enrico do Geymuller, " Raflaello Sanzio, studiato couae 
architetto," Milaiio, 1884. 

P. 506 

Biagi aiErms that in 1521 Antonio di San Gallo constructed 
the church of Sautf Agostino at Cortona, after the model of San 
Lorenzo and Santo Spirito, of Florence. (" Storia di Colle," 
Florence, 1859.) 


[Born 1483 died 1520.] 

P. 2* 

The day on which Raphael died was a Good Friday, but 
Vasari is probably mistaken when asserting that the day of his 
birth was also a Good Friday. The inscription on Raphael's 
tombstone, which was written by Cardinal Bembo, has certainly 
a greater claim to be accepted than Vasari' s statement, who, in 
more than one instance, appears to have been misinformed about 
Eaphael. Compare below, p. 179. 


P. at 

A Madonna by Giovanni Santi is in the National Gallery, 
London (No. 751). 

P. 3f 

In no way can Giovanni Santi be considered to have influenced 
lihe art of painting as professed by his son in his earliest works. 
There is nothing in his works to foreshadow the genius of Raphael. 
Much pains may have been bestowed upon them, but in his com- 
positions as well as in the types of his figures, we miss, above all, 
the grace and charm which with Raphael were only natural gifts* 


Two of Raphael's very earliest works are in the National 
Gallery, London : the small panel picture, ** Dream of a Knight," 
and the cartoon, drawn with the pen and ink, for the .same 
picture. As G. Morelh has shown conclusively (" Italian Masters 
in German Galleries"), there is nothing in these works winch 
reminds one of Perugino. But if we compare them with genuine 
works by Tunotco Viti, who in spite of chronological and other 
obvious inconsistencies has hitherto absurdly been called Raphael's 
pupil, we must admit that ho was really his first master. 


From the year 1493 to the middle of 1498, Perugino was only 
at brief and rare intervals a resident in Perugia, and Raphael 
does not seem to have gone there before the year 1500. 

P. 4|| 

The picture of the Coronation of Mary, as well as its predella, 
is now in the Picture Gallery of the Vatican. For many years it 
had been considered a work of Perugino himself, probably because 
it had been ordered of him, and so passed out of his studio to the 
purchaser under the master's, instead of the assistant's name. 
The original cartoons of the predella are still in existence. The 
pen-drawing for the " Annunciation " is at the Louvre ; that for 
the " Presentation " in the Oxford Collection j the sketch for the 
" Adoration " belongs to Cavalier Donini of Perugia* 



The "Christ on the Cross," formerly in the collection of 
Cardinal Fesch, is now in Dudley House, London. It was 
painted about the year 1501. G-. Morclli remarks about its 
style : "The fine, somewhat womanly, and impressionable nature 
of young Raphael very soon forgets his teacher Timotco while at 
Perugia, and strives with all its might, as we see in tlus interest- 
ing picture, to adapt itself to the manner of his new master. It 
is to be observed that m this picture Raphael borrowed the two 
flying angels who catch the blood of Christ in cups, as well as Ihe 
Christ and the other figures, from Perugino. The Christ is taken 
from Pietro's painting in the church Delia Calza , the Magdalen 
from his fresco at S. Maddalena de' Pazzi at Florence ; the St. 
John from his c Dcposizione ' at the Palazzo Pitti. The shadows 
in the picture are very black, nay, sootj* The shape of the 
hand is modified after the Peruginian hand, the (1st being 
narrower and the fingers longer than in the hand of the Dream- 
ing Knight ; the ear of Ht. Jerome is fat and round, a 
peculiarity which Raphael retain ed from that time to the end 
of his life; the landscape in the background is thoroughly 
Peruginian : a plain with a nver in the middle, and hilly ground 
on both sides. Here also we find, on St. Jerome's thigh for 
instance, those longish cross-puckers that are peculiar to Perugino 
und Pinturicchio. In short, there is in this picture of Raphael's 
hardly a feature left to remind us of Timoteo. Yet the noble, 
deep, and tender spirit of the young artist already shines so 
brilliantly out of these figuzcs, that in gazing at them we scarcely 
think of Piotro Porugino." 

This is the first picture which Raphael signed with his name : 



The picture of the Sposalizio, is dated aroint. In 1495 
Perugino bad painted a similar picture for the Cathedral of 
Perugia, now at the Museum of Caen in France, This was 
imitated by Raphael with regard to the composition. 

P. 6* 

See about this vexed question (I. Morclli, " Italian Masters 
in German Galleries" (pp. 328-331) : *' A journey of Raphael to 

1 74 NOTES ON VA.SARI. [VOL. Ill* 

Siena, to help Pintuncchio with his frescoes in the Libreria of 
the Cathedral, is what I should think no serious inquirer will 
now maintain. It was plainly a pure invention of Sienese local 
patriotism. There is not a feature to be found in these frescoes 
that would be beyond the artistic ability of Pintuncchio ; on the 
contrary, I think the faults of the master in composition as well 
as in drawing show themselves more glaringly here than any- 
where else, Passavant allows that Raphael had no direct shai e in 
these frescoes, and quotes a$ a proof the * History of Siena,' by 
Sigismund Tizio, where there is not a word said to imply any 
co-operation of Raphael in those wall-paintings Nevertheless, 
as the drawing of the Graces in marble, \vhich were in that 
Libreria, is generally accepted as Raphael's (this drawing is one 
of the set of 'Raphael drawings,' so-called, at the Venetian 
Academy), we ni^st^ conclude, says Passavant, that young 
Raphael stayed some time at Siena (i. 60). But wo have 
already seen that even this drawing of the ' Two Graces * is by 
Pintariccluo, and not by Raphael. This, of course, does not 
exclude the possibility of Raphael having, as early as 1503, paid 
his friend and instructor a short \isit at Siena. With ,such 
friendly relations subsisting between the Decemvir Pintuncchio, 
then verging on fifty, and Raphael, a youth of twenty, it is a very 
natural conjecture that the young artist, from sheer desire of 
learning, would often visit the studio of the renowned Pin- 
tnricehio, and pick up valuable hints from that master. The 
well-known drawing in the Oxford collection which represents 
four young men standing, three of them leaning on their lances, 
furnishes, I think, the best proof of the soundness of this 
hypothesis. Tn this drawing we see the same young man in 
four different postures. It is, therefore, a study from nature, a 
so-called drawing from the model, and not a composition, Now, 
did Pinturicchio mako the same studies, at the same time and 
from the same model as Raphael, which T think most probable, 
or did he borrow this ' model-drawing ' from Raphael ibr one of 
his own wall-paintings in the Libreria of Siena '<* 

" This much is certain, that Pinturicchio, in one of his Siena 
frescoes, has brought in three of these young men in the middle- 
distance, with some slight alterations from the drawing j for 
instance, the young wamor with the lanco and short yellow 
cloak, who in Raphael's study appears almost in profile and 


looking to the left, turns his face to the right in the fresco ; the 
second young man, the leader, who maiches in front of the other 
in a red cap, shows in the fresco the whole of his left foot 
balanced on tiptoe, while Raphael's sheet puts him in a different 
attitude , Pintuncchio also makes him. sti etch out his right arm, 
and hold a stick in his hand details winch are arranged other- 
wise in the drawing. The middle figui e in Raphael's ' model- 
drawing' is wanting in the fre&co. Moreover, the group in 
Pinturicchio is much livelier than in Raphael's study. 

" On the strength of these considerations I think we nia) 
be allowed to presume that young Raphael drew the same iignic 
from nature in different attitudes in the atelier of Pinturicchio, 
and very likely together with his elder friend. It would f-eem 
well-nigh ridiculous to suppose that an artist who had grown 
grey in his profession, who had been ffrwt-paiutor to Pope 
Alexander VI., would have had the composition fur hi& u ork in 
the Libreria of Siena Cathedral done for him by a youth of twenty. 

" Vasari, who (as Baron Rumohr has remarked, li 330) never 
had a good word for Pinturicchio, seems to have blindly taken 
the fable forged by Siencse municipal vanity for sterling coin, 
and given it currency in his work." 

P. 6 

In the spring of the year 1504 Raphael visited his native 
town, Urbino. Towards the middle of October of the same year 
he came for the first time to Florence. How strongly he was 
attracted by the grace of Leonardo, may be seen not only in 
several drawings of this his first Florentine period, but quite as 
much in his likeness of Maddalena Doni, which involuntarily 
reminds one of Leonardo's portrait of Mona Lisa del Griocondo. 

Along with the portraits of the Doni couple (in the Palazzo 
Pitti), we may place in this period "The Madonna di Casa 
Tempi" (in the Munich Gallery), the so-called " Madonna del 
Granduca" (in the Palazzo Pitti), and the Madonna in Lord 
Cowpcr's collection at Panshanger. Raphael's first residence at 
Florence may have lasted till about the summer of 1505. He 
then returned to Perugia again, where he passed nearly a whole 
year before he went back to Florence In this period, probably, 
are to be placed the following works : The fresco painting in the 
convent of S. Severe, Perugia , the so-called " Madonna in the 

176 NOl'ES ON 7ASABI. [VOk Ill, 

Meadow " at the Belvedere, and, perhaps, the Madonna picture,. 
No. 147a, at the Berlin Gallery. 

In the summer of the year 1506, Raphael appears lo have 
returned to Florence, leaving unfinished his wall-painting in 
San Severo at Perugia. At Florence he painted, amongst other 
things, the beautiful so-called Madonna del Cardellmo, which 
we can still admire, in spite of the deformities that have overlaid 
it. (There is a hasty pen-and-ink sketch of it at Oxfoid.) 
There, also, he began at a later time, the great altar-piece for 
the Dei family (N"o. 1G5 in the Palaz/a Pitti), in which the 
influence of Era Bartolommeo dolla Porta is so plainly to be 
traced. Unfortunately, Raphael left also this picture uncom- 
pleted, as pi essmg business seems to have called him back to 
Perugia. By this time ho was a master of renown, at Florence 
as well as Perugia ; ^oonmissions came flowing in from all sides, 
and he was obliged to have recourse to assistants. We must 
not be astonished, therefore, if many a work that issued from 
his studio during this period of his activity (from the end of 1506 
to the middle of 1508), does not exhibit its Raphaelite paternity 
so purely as his earlier works. 


This picture, in which Raphael seems to have been extensively 
assisted by his pupils, is in the possession of the King of Naples, 
who keeps it deposited at the National Gallery, London. 

P. 10f 
See note to p. 6. 

P. 11* 

" The Munich * Madonna di Casa Canigiani * is so disfigured 
by bad restoration, that on first seeing it we know not what to 
think ; it is only after closely examining the details of form that 
we come to the conviction that the picture was not only com- 
posed by Raphael, but partly painted by him ; and that it 
belongs to that class of Iris works which he executed with the 
help of others, such as the * Entombment 5 at the Borgheso 
Gallery, the so-called 'Madonna di Ca&aColonna* at the Berlin 
Gallery, the 'Madonna Nicolini* at Lord Cowpcr's, c. Not 
only have the transparence and clearness of the colours disap- 
peared through infamous repainting, but portions of the figure* 


have been so defaced and distorted that one can no longer detect 
in it even the hand, still less the mind, of Raphael." (See 
Morelli, " Italian Masters w. German Galleries," p 83 ) Before 
the unfortunate cleaning and repainting of the picture, the name 
of the master, and the date, 1505, are said to have been legible 
on the seam of the Virgin's dicss 

P. 12* 

The picture was not purchased by Pope Paul V,, but the 
monks of San Francesco made him a present of it, after having 
furtively transferred it from Perugia to Rome, to the great 
annoyance of the citizens of Perugia, who in vain made remon- 

P 15* 

The man standing near Raphael is a portrait, not of Pemgino, 
but of Giovan Antonio Bazzi, called il Sodoma. 

P. 30f 
It is not known what has become of this picture. 

P. 35J 

It is very doubtful whether the portrait in the Munich Gallery 
said to represent Bindo Altoviti is really by the hand of Raphael. 
In its present state of alteration by heavy repaints it seems im- 
possible to pronounce an opinion about its genuineness. (See G* 
Morelli, " Italian Masters in German Galleries," pp, 84, 85 ) 

See also " Life of Bramante," note on p, 166 of this volume. 

P. 38* 

Raphael went beyond everyone else in his admiration for 
Diirer. We can believe Lodovieo Dolce (" Dialogue on Paint- 
ing," p. 42), when he says that drawings, engravings, and wood- 
cuts of Durer's hung in Raphael's studio, and were loudly praised 
by him. He must have got to know them through his own 
engraver, Marc Antonio Raimondi, whom he had employed since 
the year 1510. Raimondi had already, as early as 1506, formed 
his style by reproducing on copper almost tlie whole of Dfirer's 

178 NOTES ON YASABI. [VOL. 111. 

" Life of the Virgin," and he now, under Raphael's own eyes, 
did the same \vifch the " Little Passion." Nor did Raphael him- 
self escape the influence of Durer's genius. In his " Bearing of 
the Cross" of 1516 the famous " Spasimo di Sicilia" of the 
Madrid Museum he borrowed the whole of his composition, 
almost figure for figure, from the corresponding woodcut in the 
" Great Passion " It was nothing but the unqualified admira- 
tion which Raphael conceived for Durer, consequent on his 
becoming acquainted with the numerous specimens of the latter's 
art, rendered accessible by means of commerce, that gave him 
the desire to become known m his turn to the Nuremberg 
maister, and to enter into personal relations with him. That 
Durer should have taken the initiative in this interchange of 
presents is wholly improbable. It >vas far more natural that 
Raphael, being the*y<*mger, should have taken the first step, and 
surprised Durer with some specimens of his drawing. Durer 
would then have felt himself highly honoured, and bound to make 
a, more handsome present in return. (See M. Tliausmg, ** Albert 
Durer," vol. ii., pp. 89-91 ) 

P. 38f 

The portrait of Raphael's mistress, here referred to as being 
at Florence in private possession, is most probably the so-called 
"Donna Velata" of the Pitti Gallery. The features of this 
portrait remind one of the head of the Madonna in the cele- 
brated picture of " La Madonna di San Sisto " at Dresden. 


The portrait, called La Fornarina, in the Tribuna of the 
iTffizi, where it is ascribed to Raphael, is by the hand of 
Sebastiano del Piombo. The so-called Fornarina in the Palazzo 
Borghese at Rome is probably by Giulio Romano. 

P. 49** 
The cartoons are now at the South Kensington Museum* 

P. 50$ 

The representation of the same subject in the Louvre, which 
is in a greatly damaged state, has perhaps a better claim to be 
considered the original. 


P. 60ft 

The most trustworthy account of his end is to be found in a 
letter written by the Venetian Marc Antonio Michel di Ser 
Vittor to Antonio di Marsiho at Venice, and dated from Rome 
April llth, 1520, five days after the great master expired. It 
seems that while superintending the frescoes in the Famesina, a 
summons from the Pope brought him with hurried steps to the 
Vatican On arriving there, overheated, he was detained in a 
large hall until perspiration was checked. Seized with fever, he 
was bled, in a belief that the attack was pleurisy, and the conse- 
quence was that he died about ten o'clock on Good Fnday 
(April 6th, 1520) (See G Fnzzoni, Notazia d' Opcic di disegno, 
Bologna, 1884, pp. xxm -xxv.) 

P. 64* 

Raphael's pictures in the National Gallery, London, are 
described and partly illustrated in J. P. Richter's " Italian Art 
at the National Gallery," pp. 53-56. The results of late re- 
searches about Raphael's life are to be found in the biographies 
of the artist written by E. Muiitz (French and English edition), 
H. Grimm, A. Springer, Crowe and Cavalcaselle, and others. 
As to Raphael's drawings at Oxford sec J. 0. Robinson, "A 
Critical Account of the Drawings by Michel Angelo and Raf- 
faello in the University Galleries," Oxford, 1870. 

[Born 1467 died 1529.] 

P. 67* 

In 1509 he was already at Rome, as is shown "by the Pope's 
Breve, dated October 19th of that year, authorizing the French 
friar to leave the order of Saint Dominic to become either a 
Benedictine or an Augustine friar. 

P. 68* 
In 1517 he was staying at Cortona,as appears from documents. 

P. 76 
One of tlie glass windows of the Capponi Palace, representing 


the Entombment of Christ, is now in the Museo Nazionale of 

P. 77* 

Maestro Luca, mentioned in the following line, is Luca 

P. 78 

Pastormo Pastorini of Siena, who executed pictures as well 
as glass windows, and also medals, was born about the year 
1508, and died in 1592. As to his numerous medals see A. 
Armand, "Les Medailleurs Itahens des quinzieme et seizieme 
Biecles," Pans, 1879. 

Battista di Lorrenzo Borro died at Florence in 1553. 


[Born 1457 died 1508.] 

P. 80* 

Simone di Maso d' Antonio Pollajuolo, as the aitist is called in 
documents, had no family relation with the sculptor of that 
name. In 1493 Antonio Pollajuolo executed at Rome the 
bronze monuments here referred to. 

P. 87 

In July, 1495, Cronaca was appointed chief architect for the 
construction of the great hall at the Palazzo della Signoria. In 
the following year his salary was raised, but in 1497 the post 
was given to Antonio di Francesco da Sangallo, and in 1498 to 
Baccio d'Agnolo. 

P. 94 

Matteo, the brother of II Cronaca, was born in 1452, H$ 
is not mentioned in Florentine documents after the year 1469. 
According to Albertini ("De mirabilibus novae et veterk 
urbis Romae," 1510) he executed in the church of San Pietro in 
Vaticano a bas-relief representing the martyrdom of St, Paul 
and St. Peter. This is now to be seen in the Grotte Vabicane. 
An engraving of it is in Dionisi, " De Cryptis Vaticanis." 



[Born 1492 died 1527 ] 

P. 93 

The full name of this artist is Domenico di Bartolomeo degh 

P. 94 

The two disciples of Ridoltb del Ghirlandajo, here named, 
wore Bartolomeo (or Bagio) di Zanobi Getti (not Gotti, as 
Vasari has it), who died in 1436, and Antonio, called Toto, who 
in 1419 worked in company with Torrigiani at Florence. 
Antonio d'Arcagnelo, who is mentioned in the lists of Saint 
Luke's Guild under date of the year 1520, was also his pupil. 

P. 96 

The two Madonna pictures for Messer Agnolo della Stnfa and 
for Messer Agnolo Nicolini are lost, but the one painted tor 
Messer Fihppo Spini is most probably the picture No. 145 in 
the Pitti Gallery at Florence. 

P. 98J 

This picture had been painted m 1525. The frescoes of the 
two angels, said to have been executed by Pnligo in the same 
church, are, according to Gaetano Milanesi, by Domenico 

P. 99 

Vasari omits to mention that in 1525 Puligo went to Genoa 
to paint two altar-pieces. These, however, are now lost. 

[Bora 1465 died 1526.] 

P. 99* 

Francesco di Simone is mentioned in the life of Yerrocchio as 
having been a pupil of this artist. 


P. 100* 

By Miehele Maini, mentioned in the following passage, we 
have possibly to understand Miehcle di Luca Manm, a sculptor 
of Fiesole, who was born in 1465. 

P. 100 

Antonio di Giorgio Marcliissi was bom in 1451. In 1474 he 
was at Pesaro, in 1487 he constructed a monastery near Florence. 
In 1494 he is mentioned as being at Naples m the service of the 
King, with a salary of 200 ducats, and in 1498 as inspecting the 
fortresses of Calabria. In 1517 Pope Leo X. called him to 
Civita-Vccchia, and m the following year he was employed by 
the Government of Florence to inspect several fortresses in 
Tuscany. He died at Florence in 1522. 

P. 103 

Giovanni Mangone, a native from Garavaggio, was at Rome 
from 1527 (if not from an earlier date), until liis death in 1543, 
Among other works executed by him is the Palace of the 
Cardinal Armellmi In the Uffizi collection is an architectural 
drawing signed with his name. 

P. 103f 

Maso Boscoli, the son of Piero di Mano d' Antonio da Setti^ 
nano, was born in 1503, and died in 1574. Silvio Cosini was 
born at Pisa m 1495 His brother Vmccnzo was also a sculptor. 
Jacopo Sansovino says in lus testament that the two bi others 
Cosini have been engaged by him to execute his tomb at Venice. 
Silvio died at Milan about the year 1540. 

Pp. 105-106 

Silvio Cosini went to Genoa in 1532, as appears from the 
monograph by Santo Varni " Delle opere eseguite in Gcnova da 
Silvio Cosini," Genoa, 1868. 

[Bora 1492 died after 1529.] 

P. 107J 
Before going to Eome Yincenzo executed some fiescoes and 


altar-pictures at Montalcino. Some of them are dated 1510 
and 1511. 


[Bora 1469 died 1523.] 

P. Ill* 

The only thing that is credible in this narrative of Vasari is the 
" very pleasing manner " of young Tiinoteo Viti, winch was 
" very similar to that of his compatriot the new Apelles," viz., 
the style adopted some years later by his younger countryman, 
Raphael. Is there not convincing proof,in*the first place, that 
Raphael's artistic development was only very superficially known 
to Vasari; and, secondly, that he too often, as in this case, 
blinded by some prepossession, forsook the path of historical 
truth, to lose himself in the mazes of conjecture ? He evidently 
assumed that Raphael must have been the master of Timotco 
Viti, whereas chronology alone might have taught him better, 
had he paid the slightest attention to it. 

Nearly all the art-historians have very naturally followed 
Vasari, and down to the present day they regard and represent 
Tiinoteo as a pupil and imitator of Raphael. There were, 
indeed, in the second decade of the sixteenth century two works 
of Raphael's at Bologna, namely, the "St. Cecilia," painted in 
1516 for the altar of S. Cecilia Dagholi at the church of St. 
Giovanni in Monte, and the picture of " G-od the Father and the 
Four Evangelists," executed for Vmcenzo Hercolani, some say in 
1517, others in 1510. But Tirnoteo Viti, after serving his 
apprenticeship, left Bologna in 1495. How could he at that 
time have seen pictures by Raphael, a lad of twelve ? "We 
know from several documents that a warm friendship subsisted 
between Raphael and Timoteo Viti. From this tender relation 
between the two artists of Urbino Vasari draws forthwith the 
inference (see vol. iii., p. 107) that Timoteo must have been the 
pupil of Raphael. 

P. lilt 
The tempera-picture (now in the Brera Gallery) of "Mary 


Enthroned, and Saints Crescentinus and Vitalis," is, so Vasari 
informs us, the first work that Timoteo painted after his return 
from Bologna; and, in fact, it has not only a very fresh and 
youthful look, but vividly reminds us, if not of Perugino, as 
Passavant imagined, yet of Lorenzo Costa and of Francia. This 
picture may therefore be a product of the years 1496 to 1500, the 
very time when Timoteo grew intimate with the Spaccioli family, 
for whom the painting was executed, and out of whose midst he 
shortly after, in 1501, chose a wife, Girolama di Guido Spaccioli. 
The picture, as Passavant tells us, was for a long time considered 
a work of Raphael, until documents were found which re- 
assigned it to Timoteo. 

p. mi 

The Sant Apollonia is now in the Municipal Gallery of Urbino. 

Pp 112-113 

Pungileoni informs us in his * k Elooio stor-ico di Timoteo," &c., 
that Timoteo Viti had married already in 1501, that he never 
left his native town between the years 1501-1510 ; further, that 
in 1513 he was chief xnagisti ate of Urbmo, and that in 1518 his 
art was in request at the ducal court of Urbino. Timoteo Viti, 
moreover, belonged to a well-to-do family at Urbino, was much 
esteemed there, and in 1518, when Kaphael was doing his wall- 
paintings iii the church of S. Maria dell a Pace, he was close 
upon fifty, certainly not the age for a prosperous and highly- 
respected man to leave his home and family, and go to work as 
a journeyman, or even as assistant to a much younger master, at 
a wall-pauntmg far from his own fireside. 

This picture was painted in 1504. 

P. 114* 

The Magdalen was painted in 1508 for the Bolognese Lodovinn 


The true estimate of Viti's great artistic merits, and a full 
Account of his works has been given by G. Morelli, *' Italian 


Masters in German Galleries" PP- 291-310, 317-319. The 
following quotation from this work appears to settlo the much 
disputed question of Vitfs relation in art to Raphael t " In 
April of the year 1495, when Timotoo Viti came back a finished 
painter to his native town, Urbino, he there found Raphael, at 
the age of twelve, left without a master and guide in his art, 
through the death of his father, Giovanni, the year before. 
Will anyone call it unlikely then, that young Raphael should 
have joined his countryman and senior by fifteen yem and con- 
tinued under him those studies in pamting which had been 
interrupted by his father's death ? Timoteo was a lovable, 
frank, and pure artist-nature, and had gained, as -we see by 
Francia's diary, the entire affection of his master at Bologna. 
And such being the case, is it not also probable that the mutual 
esteem and friendship which afterwards existed between young 
Raphael and Francia, was brought about through this very 
Timoteo ? 

" Timoteo Viti, in the next few years after his return to 
Urbino, paints a c Raphaelesque * picture at a time when 
Raphael was hardly fifteen; and, secondly, we know that 
Raphael, after once leaving Urbino in 1500, revisited his native 
town only two or three times (in 1504, 1506, and 1507), and 
never stayed there long. In October of the year 1504 he went 
from Urbino to Florence. Further, we know that in 1501 
Timoteo Viti married Girolama Spaccioli, and from that moment 
never left his house and family again for any length of time ; 
from which it follows that ho could not possibly have studied 
under Raphael, either at Perugia or at Florence. On all these 
grounds is it not more reasonable to assume that that touch of 
Raphael, which all connoisseurs detect in Viti's works, especially 
in his early pictures, was a part of Timoteo's own individuality? 
Was he not also an Urbinate? As Lorenzo Lotto was Cor- 
reggesquc sooner than Correggio himself, so Timoteo Viti 
breathed Raphaelite grace and a Raphaclite delicac'y into his 
works several years before Raphael, But it is not only the 
general conception of Timoteo's early works that recalls 
Raphael, it is also the shape of the hands and feet, the oval 
of the face, the manner of laying on the folds that remind us of 
his younger countryman. I cheerfully admit that to those who 
judge of Timoteo Viti by the * Enthroned Madonna' (No. 120) 


in the Berlin Gallery or the portrait-painting Luke in the 
Academy of Rome, any exposition of this contested point, how- 
ever honest, will be the voice of one crying in the wilderness.*' 

P. 11C 

Genuine drawings by the master are rare. Sonic of them 
are in the Oxford Galleries and in the British Museum. 

[Borr 1460 died 1529.] 


The capitals in the ante-room were executed by him in 
when he was thirty years of age. The architecture of the ante- 
room was the woik of II Cronaca, who finished the model of it 
in 1489. 

P. 121 

The works executed by Sansovino in the convent of San 
Marco, near Coimbra, are still in existence, although not well 

P. 122* 

These two statues were executed at Florence, not at Genoa, 
the artist having sought and received permission to do the work 
in his studio. 

P. 122f 

Andrea appears to have worked at the figures of Christ and 
St, John the Baptist from 1502 until 1505. 

P. 122J 

The two monuments in S. Mario del Fopolo must have been 
executed before the year 1509, since they are mentioned in 
Albertini's book, "De Mirabilibus Urbis Romae," which ap- 
peared in that year. Ascanio Maria Sforza died in 1501 f 
Girolamo Bazzo della Rovere in 1507. 



[Born 1474 died 1552.] 

P. 131* 

Benedetto was born at Pistoja He is generally called ' Da 
Rovezzano," because after returning to Tuscany in 1505 he 
settled at Rovezzano and there invested in land the money he 
had gained by his art. In 1499 and in 1502 he was staying at 
Genoa. Soon afterwards he seems to have gone to France. 

P. 133f 

From a contemporary manuscript by Biagio de' Milanesi we 
learn that this sepulchral monument was begun in 1506, and 
nearly completed in 1513, 

P. 134* 

The fragments of the monuments are in the Museo Kazionale 
at Floiencc. 

P. 135 

Soon after Benedetto da Rovezzano had reached England, in 
1524, Cardinal Wolsey engaged him to construct a monument 
for him at Windsor. After the fall of the Cardinal, Henry VIII 
ordered him to continue the work, which was to be his own 
monument. However, it was destroyed in 1646 by order of 
Parliament. The marble sarcophagus, which is the only re- 
maining portion of the work, serves now for Nelson's tomb at 
Si Paul's, London. 

P. 136* 

In July, 1552, he entered the monastery of VaUomDroa, 
paying 100 ducats for his board until his death. 


[Born 1469 died ahout 1535.] 



[Born about 1505 died 1566.] 

P 139* 

A few of the sculptures which originally decorated the tomb 
of Gaston de Foix are in the South Kensington Museum. The 
nick -name of Agostino Busti was not " II Bambaja," but " Lo 
Zarabaja " By him also is the monument of Lancino Curzio in 
the Museo Archeologico in the Brera at Milan. 

P. 140J 

It appears from Michelangelo's manuscript notes that in 
February, 1542, he committed 1o Raffaello da Montelupo the 
execution of three statues, larger than life -size, and already 
begun by him, for the said monument, to be completed within 
eighteen months for payment of 400 scudi. Jn August of the 
same year, the agent of the Duke of Urbino commissioned 
Raffaello to execute five statues for the same monument. See 
" Lettere e Ricordi di Michelangelo Buonarroti," pp. 709 and 71 7. 

P 148f 

Raffaello da Montelupo is the author of an autobiography of 
which a fragment has come down to us. It has been published 
by Gaye in the " Carteggio Incdito " (vol. hi. pp. 581 foil.)? and by 
G-aetano Milanesi in Sansoni's edition of Vasari, vol. iv., 
pp. 551-562. 

[Born 1459 died 1537.] 

P. 144* 

In the accounts of the hospital of Santa Maria Nuova, the 
artist's name is given as follows, under date of the year 1486 
" Lorenzo d' Andrea d'Oderigo Barducci, painter in the studio 
of Andrea del Verrocchio." 


P. 146 

The portrait of Verrocchio, by Lorenzo di Credi, is now in the 
Gallery of the Uffizi (No. 1163), at Florence. 

P. 147 

Two Madonna pictures by Lorenzo di Credi are in the 
National Gallery, London (Nos. 593 and 648). A heliograph 
reproduction of the last-named will be found in J. P. Richter, 
" Italian Art at the National Gallery.'* 

P. 147|| 

Lorenzo took up his abode in Santa Maria Nuova in 1531, at 
the age of seventy-two, six years before his death. 


[Born 1490 died 1541.] 

[Born 1460 died about 1418.] 

P. 155* 

The Procession to Calvary, No. 806, at the National Gallery, 
ib an early work of Boccaccino, who probably studied for some 
tiflxe at Venice under Giovanni Bellini, The bright colouring, 
the careful execution, and the poetic landscape in the back- 
ground, give to this rich painting a special attraction. 

P. 156 

By Girolamo, the miniature-painter, Vasari seems to mean 
the well-known illuminator Gia'olamo of Cremona, who during 
the years 1467 and 1475 executed sixty-one illuminations 
in the choral books, which are still preserved at the Libreria of 
Siena Cathedral He appears to have been a pupil of Liberate 
da Verona. 


P. 156f 
Of Luino Vasari speaks again at the end of the life of Garofalo. 

[Born 1481 died 1536.] 

P 158* 

The registration of Balcla^s are's birth having "been discovered 
in Sienese documents, there can no longer be a doubt that he 
was a native of that town. The name of his father was not 
Antonio, but Giovanni di Salvestro di Salvadore Pernzzi, a 
weaver from Volterna, Mio had no relation with the noble Flo- 
rentine family of the same name. 

P. 159* 

The fresco-paintings in Sant Onofrio are not by Pinturiechio, 
but, as Cavalcaselle and Fnzzoni have shown, early works oi 
Pernzzi's, to whom they are rightly ascribed by Vasari, and 
who appears in these paintings as a follower of Pmturicchio, 
(See d. Frizzoni, "Delle Pitture di Baldassare Pemzzi," an 
article which appeared in " II Buonarroti," 1869.) 

P. 162f 

Four extensive frescoes representing scenes of the history of 
Rome are still to be seen in a large room of the Palazzo del 
Campidoglio. They are, however, ascribed to Buonfigli. 

P. 164f 

This admirable cartoon now belongs to the National Gallery, 
London (at present not exhibited). 


As to Milighino see L. K. Citadella, " Document? ed Blnstra- 
zioni risguardanti la storia artistica ferrarese," Ferrara, 1868, 
p. 270 foil. Instead of Antonio del Rozzo we have to read del 
Tozzo,this being the nick-name of the Sienese painter and archi- 
tect Antommaria di Paolo Lari, who died about the year 1550. 


P. 172 

Peruzzi's architectural drawing, here described as "being in 
his possession, is now in the Louvre. Another drawing of his in 
the same collection is the representation of the " Triumph of 
Ycspasianus and Titus " (No 437). A sketch-book of his is 
pieserved in the Municipal Library of Siena. It contains 
amongst others the sketch for his beautiful fresco, not men- 
tioned by Vasari, representing the "Sibyl \vith the Emperor 
Augustus " in the church of La Madonna diFontegiusta, at Siena 


[Born about 1488 died about 1528.] 

P. 175f 

The paintings at LaMagliana have been removed, some to the 
Louvre at Paiis, others to the Gallery of the Campidoglio at 
Koine. They are not by Giovan Francesco, but by Lo Spagna. 

P. 177J 

There were two artists of Pistoja of the name of Lionardo, 
the one having the family name of MalateBta, the other of 
Grazia. The latter one seems to have been the pupil of 
II Fattore. 

[His first works dated 1483died 1523.] 

P. 178f 

Among Pellegrino's works executed at Rome were the decora- 
tions of three cars, one representing Cheerfulness with cupids 
carrying a lady, the other representing Magnanimity with letters 
burning, the third Force with a tower amid flames. These had 
been ordered by Pope Leo X. for festivities given in the year 1515. 


P, 180* 

The latest and most comprehensive researches as to Gaudeazio 
Ferrari are given in G. Colombo, " Vita ed Opere di Gaudenzio 
Ferrari, 1 ' Turin, 1881. (See also G. Morelli, "Italian Masters 
in German Galleries/* pp. 438-443.) An old tradition credits 
Ferrari with a precocity of talent ; having regard to this, and 
still more to certain habits that clung to him all his life, and 
which remind us of Macrino d'Alba and the Oldoni of Vercelli, 
it seems not improbable that he had already acquired the first 
rudiments of hit* art at Vercelli, before coming to Milan, not 
indeed, as Bordiga and others of his followers would have us 
believe, from the weak-minded Girolamo Giovenone, who was 
from six to eight years his junior, but more likely from Macrino 
d'Alba. At Milan, however, Gaudenzio must have visited, not 
only the studios 7)f 'Scotto and Luini, of whom Lomazzo says 
that they had been his masters, but also that of Bramantino. 
This master's influence on him is apparent in his four little panel 
pictures (Nos. 52, 53, 57, and 58) at the Turin Gallery, and in 
the habit (which he retained almost all his life) of throwing the 
light on his figures from below, after the manner of Bramantino. 

Gaudenzio, it is true, has not the grace of Luini, neither are 
his works so perfect in execution as those of his rival ; but take 
him for all in all, as regards inventive genius, dramatic life, and 
picturesquenesR, he stands far above Luini. In his hot haste 
Ferrari often loses his balance, and becomes quaint and affected: 
many of his larger compositions, too, are overcrowded with 
figures , but in his best works he is inferior to very few of his 
contemporaries, and occasionally, as in some of those groups of 
men and women in the great " Crucifixion " at Varallo (not 
Veralla, as Vasari has it), he might challenge a comparison with 
Eaphael himself. 

The drawings of this great but not sufficiently known and 
appreciated master are mostly executed on the method intro- 
duced into the Lombard schools by Vincenzo Foppa, that is, in 
black chalk and gypsum on blue-grounded paper ; later in life 
he sometimes used Indian-ink. His finest drawings are to be 
found in the Royal Library at Tumi; the Aiubrosiana also 
possesses several 


[Born 1486 died 1531,] 

P. 180J 

The artist's family name was not Vannuccliio, as has been 
stated ever since the time of Cmelli, who in his " Bellezze di 
Firenze," published in 1677, mistook him for one " Andrea di 
Michelagnolo Vannuccliio Sarto," whereas in contemporary 
documents, and in his own signatures his name is constantly 
given as being Andrea di Agnolo, or simply Andrea del Sarto. 
The artist's well-known monogram, combined of two A's, one 
inverted, is to be explained, not as meaning Andrea Vanmicchi, 
but Andrea Angeh 


There were at Florence two painters of the name of JBarile 
Andrea, born in 1468, and Giovanni, born in 1486 It is more 
likely that Andrea, the elder of the two brother artists, should 
have been Andrea del Savto's master than G-iovanni, here named 
by the biographer. 

P 183* 

The picture of "Bathsheba" at the Dresden Gallery is ap- 
parently the work of Francia Bigio alone, not of Andrea del 

P. 183f 
These curtains had been painted by Andrea Feltrim in 1510. 

P. 191* 

Andrea undertook to paint these two frescoes m 1511, and 
finished the one representing the "Birth of the Virgin" in 1514. 
His earlier frescoes in the same place had been executed during 
the years 1509 and 1510. 

P, 191J 

This work, which Vasari describes as having been the last of 
the series, had already been completed in 


P. 192|| 

Throe pictures by Andrea del Sarto representing scenes from 
the Life of Joseph are at Panshanger, in the collection of Lord 
Cowper. Messrs. Crowe and CavalcaselJe (" History of Paint- 
ing," vol. iii., p. 585) believe them to be by Pontormo. 

P. 194* 

Carlo Recanati, the first husband of Lucrczia, died in Sep- 
tember, 1516 

P. 195f 
The picture in the Tribuna is dated MDXVII. 

P 197f 

Soe M. Thausing, " Albiecht Diirer," vol. ii., p. 87 (English 
edition) : " Andrea has in fact in his grisaille frescoes on the 
walls of the cloisters of the Scalzi at Florence, representing the 
"Life of St. John," copied whole figures from Durer's series. 
For instance, m the "Preaching of St. John," the Pharisee 
wrapped in the long cloak, on the right, is taken from the " Eece 
Homo " of the Passion on copper ; and the woman seated with 
an infant, from the woodcut of the "Lying-m Chamber" in the 
"Life of the Virgin." 

Pp. 198-199 

The picture of the " Dead Christ surrounded by Angels" in 
now in the Belvedere Gallery at Vienna. A beautifid old copy 
of the original is at Dudley House. 

P. 200* 

Altogether five thousand and ninety gold florins were spent 
by the municipality of Florence for the decorative works on the 
occasion of Pope Leo's visit to Florence here described. 

P. 207f 

The fresco-paintings in the Scaki were begun by Andrea in 
1511. In 1518, when Andrea went to France, the work was 
interrupted, and he only resumed it in 1522, and worked at it 
until the year 1526, when it was completed. 

TOL, HI.] jtoBEA DEL SARTO, 195 

P. 209f 

The large picture of the Assumption, now in the Pitti Gallery 
at Florence, was ordered in 1526 for a church near Cortona, by 
Madonna Margherita, the widow of Rosato Passermi, and mother 
of the Cardinal Silvio. 

P. 221* 

The " Madonna del Sacco " is signed on a pillar : " ANN. J>OM. 

P. 223J 

In June, 1519, the Abbot of San Salvi commissioned Andrea 
to paint the "Last Supper " in that monastery for a payment of 
thirty-eight gold florins. 

P. 225J 

These cartoons had been ordered in 1525. 

P. 227* 

There is a picture, exactly like the one at Dresden, and also 
ascribed to Andrea, at the Madrid Museum (No. 387), measur- 
only ninety-eight centimetres high by sixty-nine broad, In the 
background of that picture are seen two servants of Abraham, 
which answers to the description of Vasan (vol. viii., 289), u vi 
erano, oltrecio, ccrti servi ignudi che guardavano nn asino che 
pasceva," i.e., "there were, in addition, some naked servants 
guarding a grazing ass." At that rate, we have two pictures by 
Andrea del Sarto, representing the same subject one at Dresden, 
seven feet high by five broad, and another at Madrid, much 
smaller. Senor P. de Madrazzo, the author of the Madrid 
catalogue, states that the Madrid picture is a " repetition " of 
the one that was left in Andrea's studio at his death, and after- 
wards bought by Filippo Strozzi and presented to the Marquess 
del Vasto. 

G. Morelli considers the Madrid picture to be that replica in 
gmaller size which Andrea del Sarto painted for Paolo of 
Terrarossa. (See "Italian Masters in German Galleries," 
pp. 203, 204.) 

P. 229f 
Compare foregoing note. 


P. 230f 

Bcinardo del Buda was a member of the Roselli family, and 
a great nephew of the well-kuown painter Cosimo (vol. ii, 
pp. 173-178). *' II Buda " was the nick-name of his father, who 
was also a painter. Bernardo went to Perugia after the death 
of Andrea del Sarto, and executed there numerous paintings, 
some of which aie still in existence. He seems to have died 
there some time after the yeav 1558. The payments for the 
frescoes at the Palazzo della Signoiia, at Florence, which Vasari 
here describes, were made m 1529 to Bernardo, not to Andrea 
del Sarto. 

P 233 

Numerous drrrwhgs by Andrea del Sarto are in the Uffizi 

P 234* 

Andrea del Sarto's pupil Andiea was the son of Antonio di 
Bartolominco, a weaver. His nick-name was " Chiazzella," not 
*' Sgnazzella " Fiom the year 1516 until 1524 he was staying 
in France, where he executed several pictures at the Castle of 
Semblangay, most of which were ruined in 1793. 

The proper name of " II Solesmeo" was Antonio di Giovanni 
He was also a sculptor and pxipil of Jacopo Sansovino. An 
altar-piece by his hand is in the church of the Badia di San 
Fedele at Poppi. It bears the signature, " ANTONIVS SOLVSMEVS 


The three pictures at San Spirito by Pier Francesco di 
Jacopo di Doxneuico (not *' di Sandro," as Vasari has it) at the 
church of San Spirito are still in existence, bnt generally 
ascribed to Pier di Cosimo. He died in 1567. His father, 
Jacopo, was also a painter. 

As to Salviati, see vol. v., pp. 119-162. 

Jacopo di Francesco del Conte, named " Calvi,*' was born in 
1500. He chiefly lived at Kome, and became celebrated as a 
portrait-painter. He died there about the year 1588. 

P. 234f 
Jacopo, called Jacone, died in 1 540. 


[Bom about 1490 ? died 1530.] 

P 239-* 

Tlie work here described is now m Pesaro, in the Gallery of 
the Palace Bonamim-Pepoh Another similar work of hers, 
representing figures of the Apostles and Saints, is in possession of 
Conte Carmllo Grassi, of Bologna. 


Plautilla, the daughter of Pietro cli Luea Nelli, was horn in 
1523, she died in 1587, and was theiefore still alive when Vasari 
wrote her life. 

P. 242f 

The picture of the Last Supper, by Plautilla Nelli, is now in 
the small refectory of Santa Mono, Novella. 

[Born 1497 ? died 1537.] 

P 245f 

See also E. Ridolfi, "Esarae cntico della vita e delle opore di 
Alfonso Citadella, detto Alfonso Ferrarese o Lombardi," in 
" Archivio Storico Italiano," terza serie, torn. xx. 

P. 247* 

The busts of the twelve Apostles, which were executed for 
the church of San Giuseppe at Bologna, are now in the Cathedral 
of Ferrara, whereto they were transferred by Monsignore Gio- 
vanni Maria Riminaldi, to whjna they had been sold in 1769 for 
ten ducats. 

Pp. *52-253 

The exact dates of the life of Michelangelo da Hicna arc not 


Pp. 254-255 

Girolamo Santacroce, the sculptor of Naples, wlio is not to he 
mistaken for the bettor-known Venetian painter of the same 
name, was bora about the year 1502, and died in 1532, as De' 
Doinimci asserts (''Yite degli Artefici Napoletani "), though 
Vatan gives the year 1537 as the date of his death 

From De Doininici, who gives many details about Giovanni 
da Nola, we learn also that this artist was born in 1478, and 
died in 1560. 


n ** 

[Born about 1479 died 1542.] [Born -died 1548.] 

Pp. 256-259 

In the lives of these two artists Vasari is far from doing 
justice to tlieir great merits. It may be that Vasari held them 
in little esteem because they had visited Rome to study Michel- 
angelo and the antique works. Possibly also Vasari's friend 
Gcnga, who at one time appears to have competed with the 
two Dossi (see pp. 257-258), may have furnished him the mate- 
rials of this biography. Dosso Dossi was a pupil of Lorenzo 
Costa's. He was a few years older than Garofalo, and both 
these artists appear to have stood under mutual influence 
during their long stay at Ferrara. In all his works, the best 
as well as tho&e which were hastily executed, DORSO displays 
a peculiar, fantastic, one may even say romantic disposition* 
The colouring of his later works suggests the influence of Titian 
and Giorgione. At present there are more works of hi.s at 
Borne, in the Palazzo Borghese, in the Palazzo Doria, &c*., than 
at Ferrara. Out of Italy they are very seldom to be met with, 
except in the Dresden Gallery and at Hampton Court. (See 
Iwan LermoliefF, " Die Galenen Rom's," in " Zeitschrifl fur 
Bildende Kunst," vol. x., and G. Morelli, " Italian Masters in 
German Galleries," pp. 1 14-120, and passim.) 

Pp. 255-257 
The altar-piece which Dosso executed in 1522, for the cathe* 


dral of Ferrara, is now in the Dresden Gallery. It represents 
the Virgin with the infant Christ above clouds, and "below, the 
saints Sebastian, Jerome, John the Baptist, Lawrence, and 

P. 257* 

The ducal palace at Ferraia does not contain, in its present 
state, any genuine pictures by Do&so. 


[Born 1493 Died 

P. 260 x 

See as to Pellegrino da & Daniel e, G. Morelli, "Italian 
Masters in German Galleries," pp. 18-23. 

" With regaul to Pellegrino da S. Daniele, I see in his picture 
at Cividale, of the year 1528, an imitator indeed, but not an 
original pupil of Palina; and we must bear in mind that Count 
Maniago celebrates this work as Pellegrino's best. 

" As I have ventured, m opposition to our latest writers, to 
represent this painter of Friuli as a second-rate artist, I feel 
bound to support this my opinion by tangible facts. Vasari 
himself never was at Fnuli, so that Pellegrino's works were quite 
unknown to him ; with rognrd to them he had to trust blindly 
his informant, the painter Giovan Battista Grassi of TJdine (wee 
vol. lii, p. 264). This Grassi, as was commonly tho case in 
those (lays, looked at his countryman through the spectacles of 
municipal vanity and exclu&iveness, making of an ordinary man 
a giant. He introduced Martino da Udine to Vasari as a pupil 
of Giovanni Bellini, adding that the master, astonished at the 
marvellous progress of his pupil Martino, gave him the sur- 
name of Pellegrino, that is, the rare, the extraordinary. But 
neither Morelli's Anonymus nor Carlo Riclolfi in the following 
century take the slightest notice of this Pellegrino. Then at 
length came Abate Lanzi, and after him the Friulese Count 
Maniago, who took up again the fable of Vasari, that i to say, 
of Grassi. In later times Harzen of Hamburg, and after him 


Passavant, contributed much to bring Pellegrino again into 
notice by attributing to him the beautiful engravings signed 

" According to my own studies, and after documents kindly 
communicated by Dr Joppi of Udine, the biography of this 
painter would stand pretty much as follows Battista, the 
father of PeUegrino, was a Dalmatian, who in 1468 was already 
settled at Udine as a painter; in 1470 he was living at the 
village of S. Damele, not far from Udiue, where he was to have 
painted in a church In the year 1487 his son Martino, or 
Pellegrino, acted as a witness at Udiue, from which we may 
conclude that he must have been born between 1460 and 1470. 
In 1491 he is called in a public contract, Maestro Martino. By 
this contract he was commissioned to paint frescoes in the church 
of Yillanova (near 5. Damele), of which, however, there is 
nothing now to be seen. In another contract of the year 1494, 
,5th April, on the picture at Osopo (which is still to be seen), he 
is called Maestro Martino, dicto Pellegrino di Udme. The 
word Pellegrino in Italian means stranger, as well as pilgrim, and 
the poets call a thing which is uncommonly beautiful and rare, 

"Whoever contemplates the above-mentioned picture at 
Ofeopo ill probably never #uess that the word pcllegrino 
could be applied to Martiuo da Udine in the latter sense of 
the word; he will rather share my opinion that Martino was 
called Pellegrino because he was looked upon as a stranger at 
Udine just as Jacopo de' Barbari was called at Nurnbcrg, 
Walch, that is, the stranger. He must, however, have executed 
this Osopo work several years after the contiact, for the compo- 
sition of it so strongly recalls the picture by Bartolomineo Mon- 
tagna of the year 3.499 (now at the Brera Gallery in Milan), 
that we may consider it highly probable that Pellegrino used the 
drawing of Montagna's picture for his own, as we certainly can^ 
not conceive that so great an artist as Bartolommeo Montagna 
can have borrowed the composition for one of his best works 
from an artist so much below him, especially as the superior com- 
position of the Osopo picture is in striking contrast with the 
weak execution. 

"In the year 1497-98 Pcllegrino painted one part of the choir 
in the church of S. Antonio at S. Daniele, and married there the 


same year. In his fresco paintings at the church of S. Antonio 
as well as in his picture at Osopo, Pellegrrao shows himself a 
weak and as yet old-fashioned painter, who had probably had no 
other master than his father Battista, 

" It is impossible to form any opinion on the altar-piece at the 
Cathedral of Udme, the * S Joseph ' painted by him in 1501, as it 
has been cntu-ely painted over. In the year 1504- he was at 
Ferrara, and worked for the Duke Alphonso, but seems afc the same 
time to have carried on a trade in wood ; in 1505 and 1506 we 
find him sometimes atUdinc, sometimes at S. Daniel e, and it is in 
that year that lie is nrst called Pcllegnno da S. Daniele. In the 
autuuin of 1506 he went again to Ferrara, but returned after 
some months to Udine, where lie stayed the whole of the year 
1507. In the autumn months of 1508, 1509, 1510, 1511, and 
1512 he regularly visited Foirara, where he*wo*rked again for the 
duke. In 1513 he pointful the two allegorical figures, grey in 
grey, in the Loggia of the town-hall of Udiue, which are still 
partly to be seen there. In the year 1516 he was engaged to 
execute for S. Dainele a painted wooden statue of S Margaret. 
In 3519-1520 he painted the organ wings for the cathedral of 
Udinc, and in this work one recognizes for the first time the 
influence which Giovan Antonio da Pordenone must have 
exercised on him, especially in the bunchy arrangement of the 

" In the years 1519-1521 Pellegrino painted the other part of 
the choir of S. Anlouio at S. Daniele, and m this, his best work, 
lie appears OH an imitator, not only of Portleuone, but of Roma- 
nino, whose magnificent altar-piece, painted m 1513 for the 
church of Santa G-uistina at Padua, had moat likely been often 
studied by Pcllegrmo on his travels from Udine by way of 
Padua to Ferrara and back. In his colouring he is Romani- 
ncsque, in his bunchy foldings Pordenonesquc, and in some of his 
heads he recalls Titian and Palma, whose pictures lie must have 
seen at Oclerzo or Zerman, and in the Scuola del Banto at Padua. 
In the year 1526 Pellegrino goes, apparently for the first time, 
to Venice, there to buy colours for the large picture which he had 
engaged to paint for the church, of Civxlale, and it is therefore 
quite natural to suppose that during his stay at Venice he went 
to see the paintings of Palma, whose magnificent 'Barbara' 
must have already acquired great celebrity, and that he took 


that master for his model, of which anyone that looks at the 
picture at Civirlale will very soon be convinced 

In the years 1530 and 1531 Pellegrino devoted himself almost 
exclusively to trading in wood , but we know that in spite of 
his business he continued to accept commissions for pictures as 
late as 1546-7. He died in the month of December, 1,547, when 
over eighty years of age." 


Sebastiano Plorigorio of Conoghano was Pellegrino's son-in- 
law, who died young. He was the son of a certain Griacomo of 
Bologna, who had settled at Coneghano. Unfortunately, besides 
the Ingenious altar-piece in tlie church of S Gioroio at Udme, 
we know of only two pictures by Sebastiano Flongeno, and those 
not important onCs,1n the Venetian Academy. The Madonna 
picture (No. 384) with the Saints Augustine and Anne, is there 
also ascribed to Flongeno, but already Boschmi (" Munerc della 
Pittura," 1664, p. 468) designated this picture as a work of 
Benedetto Diana, to whom it in fact belongs. 

Pordenone in his younger years, e g , in his beautiful altar- 
piece of Sussigana, and in his freseocb at the Palace-chapel of 
S Salvatore, betiays very clearly the influence of Giorgione, and 
more particularly of Titian whon still Giorgiouismg (whose 
frescoes at Padua of the year 1510-11 Giovan Antonio seems to 
have closely studied). He was indeed a Friulese by birth, that 
is, on the mother's side, but his father was a Bresciau (of Corti- 
celle del Lodesano, near Cremona), and he certainly cannot have 
owed his artistic culture, as Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle 
arbitrarily assume, to an insignificant Gianfrancesco da Tolmezzo, 
but mainly to his own study of Titian's and Giorgione's works. 

P 268 
Pordenone's pictures at Spilimbergo were executed in 1524. 


As to Amalteo see: Conte Federigo Altan di Salvarolo, 
" Memorie intorno alia vita ed alle opere dell' insigne pittore 
Pomponio Amalteo" (vol. xlviii. in the Raccolta of Calogera); and 


Vincenzo Joppi, "Documenti mediti sulla vita cd opere del 
pittore Pomponio Amalteo di San Vito al Tagliamento," Udiue, 
1869. This artist's last picture is in the cathedral of Porto - 
gruaro. In its signature he gives his own age as seventy-eight 

P. 275 

Among the pupils of Giovanni Antonio Licinio, the bio- 
grapher omits to mention Bernardino Licinio da Pordenone, a 
distant relation of the great painter, whom he followed very 
closely in his art, and many of his pictures, which were chiefly 
portraits, are erroneously ascribed to Giovanni Antonio. The 
Hampton Court Gallery possesses two works of his. The dates 
on his pictures fall between the years 1524 and 1542. 


[Born 1492 died 1544] 

P. 278 
These two pictures still exist in the church of San Girolamo 

P. 281* 

Some of Soghani's paintings in the cathedral of Pisa were 
executed in 1528, when Penno del Vaga had returned from 
Genoa, others after the death of Andrea del Sarto (1531). 

P. 283* 

Sogliano'w picture of the monks at table in the refectory of 
San Marco is painted on panel. He completed it in 1534. 


[Born 1497 P died 1544.] 

P. 287f 

Girolamo da Treviso's Madonna picture, formerly in the 
Boccaferri chapel in the church of San Domenico at Bologna. 


(sec Zanotti, " Le Pitture di Bologna," ed. 1706, where this 
picture is described), is now in the National Gallery, London 
(No. 623). The Madonna and Child enthroned appear on the 
left under a canopy, near them are the Saints Joseph, James, 
and Paul, the last is presenting the donoi, the patron of the 
Boccaferri chapel, to the infant Christ. Behind the throne are 
some angels playing musical instruments. The picture is signed, 
" IERONIMVS , TBEVISCVS . P." The head of St. Paul is ap- 
parently copied from Raphael's picture of "St Cecilia" in 
Bologna. lu the types of other figures, in the colouring, and in 
the landscape, we perceive the influence of Dosso Dossi and of 

P. 278** 

Peruzzi's cartoon *isnow, as has already been stated, in the 
National Gallery, London (No. 167), but it is not exhibited. In 
its place we have one of the numerous painted copies of it (No, 
218), ceitainly not the one by Girolamo da Treviso, which is 
reported to have been lost at sea. 

P. 288f 

By " the old Cardinal" Vasari apparently means not Cnstoforo 
Madruzzi, but his predecessor, Bernardo Clesio. 


[Born end of the fifteenth century died 1543.] 


[Born end of the fifteenth century died about 1528,] 

P. 294J: 

Some of the numerous grisaille paintings on facades executed 
at Rome by Polidoro and Maturino may still be seen there. 

P. 297 

Giovarar Francesco Bembo, called Vetrajo, was the brother 


of Bonifacio Bembo. These two artists belonged 

monese school of painting TP 1515 he executed some> 
paintings in the cathedral of Cremona 

P. 301* 

" "When Polidoro da Caravaggio came to Messina, he founded 
there a school of hardly any merits. It became extinguished 
with the death of Tonno, Polidoro's murderer." G. Morelli. 


[Born 1496 died 1541 ] 

P. 306f 

Among the Kecordanze of the Convent de' Servi, now in the 
State Archives at Florence, the following entry is to be found 
under date of the year 1517 " To-day, on 19th of April, the 
fathers reassembled to entrust again Giovan Battista di Jacomo, 
called * II Rosso,' with the execution of the picture, which is near 
the door of San Sobastiano, cancelling at the same time the en- 
gagements made with others, but stipulating that the said Rosso 
shall receive no payment whatever for the said painting un- 
less he behaves better than he did when executing the fixst 
picture," &c. 

Pp. 311-312 

Tho chapel of toe church of La Pace at Rome, which II 
Rosso had to decorate, is the one close to the Chigi chapel. In 
1524 he received the commission to paint it. 

P. 312f 

Giovanni Jacopo Caraglio was born at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, and died in 1551 (or, according to others, in 
1570). As to his medals sec A. Armand, " Les me*dailleurs 
Italiens des quin&ieme et seizieme siecles," Paris, 1879, p. 88, 

P. 313 

Raffaello di Michelangelo dal Colle (a place in the neighbour- 
hood of Borgo), the pupil of Giulio Romano, died in 1566, 


Pp. 313-314 

In July, 1528, the artist stayed at Citta di Castello, and in 
November of the same year he received the commission for the 
fresco-paintings at Arezzo, which Vasari describes here. 

Pp. 317-318 

He went to France about the year 1530. In the account- 
books of the royal palaces his name first appears under date of 
the year 1532, as ordinary painter to the King. In 1535 he was 
nominated director of the works in stucco and in painting in the 
large gallery of Francis I. at Fontamebleau. After the year 
1540 his name disappears from the account-books. 


[Born 1484 died 1542.] 

Pp. 325-328 

G. Morelli has thus summed up his lesearchcs about Bartolom- 
meo llameughi : " He was a painter of Francia's school, who after- 
terwards took Dosso for his model. I very much doubt if he 
was at all influenced by Raphael, either directly, like Girolamo 
Marchesi, or indirectly, like Innocenzo da Imola At all events, 
I never met with a work of his in which I could trace any mental 
influence of Raphael. In his early pictures he reminds us of 
the school of Francia, much in the same way as his contempo- 
raries Giaeomo and Giulio Francia ; later on he imitates Dosso. 
The doctrine of a direct influence of Raphael on his contem- 
poraries must be received with great caution, just as the in- 
fluence of Mantegna or Perugino on their contemporaries is to 
be understood cum grano salis. These accepted traditions, in 
most cases, have their root in municipal vanity. This much we 
may admit with reference to many painters of the first half of 
the sixteenth century, that the propagation of Raphael^ composi- 
tions by the engravings of a Marcantonio, a Marco Dente, a G. 
Caraglio, and others, contributed much to extend the influence 
of the great Urbinate more or less over all the provinces of 
Italy." ("Italian Masters in German Galleries," p, 246.) 


Pp. 328-330 

Amico Aspertini, the son of the painter Giovanni Antonio 
Aspertini, was bom in 1475. In 1552 he made his will, and 
seems to have died soon afterwards. Lionello and Guido, his 
brothers, were also painters, the latter having been the pupil of 
Ercole Ferrarese, as Vasari asserts in the life of this artist* In 
the chapel of Santa Cecilia at Bologna Amico Aspertini painted 
two frescoes " The Decapitation of the two Martyrs Tiburgio 
and Valeiiano," and " The Entombment of the two Saints/' 
Other works of his are in the Pmacoteca of Bologna. (See 
GiiRtavo Frizzoni, " Gli affreschi di Santa Cecilia in Bologna," 
published in " II Buonnaroto," 1876, p. 215.) 

P. 331* 

Girolamo Marches! of Cotignola ought tft bfc considered less a 
disciple of Francia than as a pupil of his own countrymen, the 
brothers Francesco and Bernardino Zaganelli of Cotignola. Of 
this we have convincing proof in his eaily works, such as the 
"Entombment" (No. 119) in the picture-gallery at Pesth, 
pigned "Hieronymus Marchesys de Cotignola." Evidently, 
then, his picture in the Berlin Gallery, of the year 1526, the 
" Promulgation of the Rules of their Order to the Bernardmea " 
(No. 268), belongs to the time when this Romagnole had been at 
Rome, and received a powerful bias from the genius of Raphael. 
Nay, it is in the highest degree probable that Marchesi actually 
painted in the Loggie, that is to say, from the drawings and 
under the personal superintendence of Raphael. 

P. 332f 

How much Innocenzio had been influenced in his youth by 
the Florentines, and especially by Mariotto Albertmelli, is 
particularly evident from his picture (No. 216) at the Pina- 
eoteca of Bologna, the Holy Virgin receiving a great number of 
devotees under her mantle; also in the Madonna (No. 587) 
of the Lichtenstein collection of Vienna. There is one picture 
by him in the Berlin Gallery (No. 280) representing the Virgin 
and Child, with Saints, 



[Bora 1482 died 1525.] 

P. 334 

Francia Bisfio (or Franciabigio) was the sou of Cristofano di 
Francesco d* Antonio, a weaver of Milan, and died in September, 
1508. It is uncertain when he came to Florence. Francia Bigio, 
whose surname was Guidini or Giudici, may therefore also have 
been born at Milan, since his name has not been found in the 
baptismal registers of Florence. He had two younger brothers, 
BafFaello and Angelo x The latter was also a paiuter. 


The picture here described is most probably the well-known 
" Madonna del Pozzo " in the Tribuiia of the Uffizi at Florence 
(No. 1,125), for a long time, but without any foundation what- 
ever, officially ascribed to Raphael. 

P. 336|| 

The picture of the Annunciation is now in the Pinacoteca 
at Turin. 


The National Gallery, London, possesses a portrait of a young 
man in a black habit, bearing on his. breast the cross of Malta 
(No. 1035). The letter which lie is holding in his hand seems 
to bear the date 1514. The picture is signed by a monogram 
formed by the letters F, B. A. (X P., signifying "Frauciscus 
Christopher! pinxit/' On the parapet is an inscription in 
the language of the Province, "TAR : VBLIA : CHI : BIEN : EIMA" 
(" slowly forgets he who loves well '*). 

P. 340 

Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbmo, married in 1518. Two 
years previous Francia Bigio decorated some cars for the 
sumptuous festivities on St. John's Day, and also the banners 
for the funeral of Giuhano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours, 


P. 92* 

Perino's fresco paintings at Santa Trinita are still in existence. 
The Annunciation and the Coronation of the Virgin were 
executed by Taddeo and Federigo Zueeheri, as Vasari states 
later on. 

P. 101* 

Those portions of the said fresco-painting, which were not 
completed by Perino, were executed later on by Daniello da 
Volterra, and by Pellegrino da Modeua, 

P. 103f 

Giovanni da Fiesole, the son of Saudro do' Rossi, was born in 
1496. He was for some time in Spurn. 

P. 104 

In the original inscription we read: "Praeelarae familiae *' 
before " Magni viri " See Merli e Belgnano, " II Palazzo del 
Prmcipe Doria a Fassolo in Genova," 111. vol. x. of ** Atti della 
Societa Ligure di Storia Patria." 

P 107f 

There is at Dudley House, London, a large altar-piece, 
representing the Nativity, with Shepherds adoring, St. Stephen 
b the background. It bears the signature, " MDXXXIIXI. PJSEINO 
BOBACConsai FIOEETN o*vs PACiEBVT." The painting showa in 
some figures the strong injfiuenco which Foidenone mutt have 
jxercised on the pupil of Kaphael by the largo picture hi had 
executed at Genoa. The picture in question is most probably 
.he one here described by Vasari as being in the church of 
Santa Maria de Consoktione. In the collection of Lord Norfch- 
jrook there are two pictures of the Madonna with the infant 
Christ, which may also be Ascribed to him. One of tnwu is an 
mfinished work and was formerly assigned to Fra Bartolommeo. 

P. 113* 

The sculptor whom Vasari calls here Bologna, is Domenico 
If mo, with the surname II Varignana, a native of Bologna, 

242 NOTES ON fASAEI. [YOt. 17. 

[Bora 1486 died 1551.] 

P. 124 

Domenico, who in documents is surnamed Mecarino, and 
sometimes Mecuccio, was the son of Giacomo di Pace, a labourer 
at the farm " Delle Cortine " near the castle of Moutaperto, 

P. 125 

Pietro Perugino visited Siena in about 1508 or 1509. Becca- 
ftimi may have gone to Rome about the year 1510 or 1511. 

P. 128 

It is not known what has become of the picture which Vasari 
describes here* 

P. 131 

The imperfect reading in the original text, " Petition of . . ," 
("petizione di . . .") may be corrected and supplemented in 
" punizione di Cassio," z.., the punishment of Cassius. In Vasari's 
description of these fresco paintings there are some more 
material inaccuracies, about which Botari has a long note in his 
edition of Vasari. 

P. 131f 

Beccaftimi's frescoes in the town-hall were executed during 
the years 1529 and 1535. 

Pp. 136-137 

Beccafumi appears to have gone to Genoa about the year 

Pp. 140-141 

The picture painted by fecccafumi at Genoa represents Jason, 
who in coming out from the temple encounters Medea. 

P. 142f 

The three panels which formed the predeUa of this altar-piece 
.are now in the collection of Mr. W. Graham, London. 


[Born 1492 died 1552.] 

[Bora 1480 died about 1551,] 

P. Ull 

This picture Is still In the church of Sant Agosiino at Arezzo. 
It lias been pronounced to be one of the most important worku 

of art in that town. 

P. 162f 

This church is at present generally called SS. Annunziafca. 
The picture bears the date 1522. 

P. 166 

The Assumption, painted for the church of Sargiano is still In 
its place, 

P. 168 

Domenico Qinntalodi or GrantaloecM of Pruto, was born in 
1506, and died in 1560. 


[Born 1500 died 1550,] 

P. 172* 
The statement that Tribolo was born in 1500 is confirmed by 

the baptismal registers of Florence, and therefore cannot be 


P. 174* 

Giovanni, called Nanni Unghero, the son of Alesso d' Antonio, 
was bora in 1490, In his youth he chiefly executed sculptures 
in wood. Among these are the decorations of the organ and of 
the choir in the church de' Servi. In later years he was chiefly 
occupied as an engineer. He died in 1546. 

P. 175 

Jacopo Sansovino's statue of the apostle St. James is now 
placed in the cathedral on one of the pilasters underneath the 

P. 178* 

From a legter by Barbazzo to Michelangelo, dated October, 
1525, it appears that the design for the monument was done by 
this artist. 

Pp, 183-184 

Michelangelo's models for the statues of Earth and Heaven 
were not carried out. He replaced them afterwards by the 
well-known statues of Day and Nighb on the monument of 

P. 205 

In May, 1540, Baccio BandinelH was commissioned to execute 
the monument of Giovanni de' Medici. 

P. 206 

The description of the preparations for the nuptials, to which 
Vasari here refers, is a very rare pamphlet published at 
Florence, by Benedetto Giunta and bearing the title : " Appa- 
rato et feste nelle Nozze dello Llustrissimo signer Duca di 
Firenze, et della Duchessa sua Consorte, con le sue Stanze, 
Madnali, Comedia et Intermedij, in quelle recitati MJ>. 


Ranti, with the surname de' Bughoni, was born at Florence in 
1494. For some time he was staying with Andcea and. Giovanni 
della Robbia, In later years, when independent* he seems to 
have been chiefly employed in works of minor importance. In 


552 and 1553, for instance, he executed in terra-cotta ware 
he pavement of the Libreria di San Lorenzo with a frieze after 
he design by Tribolo. He died in 1576 

P. 212* 

The PirotfcJmm was published at VemVe in 1540. Its author 
ras born at Siena in 1480, and died in 1539 

P. 214* 

Giovanbatista del Tasso was born in 1500, and died in 1555. 
i his youth he distinguished himself chiefly by executing 
irvingR in wood, and is even pronounced by Henvonnto Cellini 
> have been the best artist of this kind. Pnko Ccwimo #avo 
im several commissions as an architect, bub few of them have 
sen carried out. 

[Born 1520 CO died 1554(?)] 

P. 227* 

An old terra-cotta reproduction of the original ifl to be found 
South Kensington Museum. 

P. 228* 

According to Grassi'fl " GaMa di Fia, M published in 1850, 
3 statue of Riches was executed iu 1550, 

This beautiful work shown the moat delicate execution iri 
i details. Of late it has been transferred to the MUHCO 

P. 229f 

Ct may be remembered here that Leonardo da Vinci had been 

ployed by Baldassaro Turini to paint a Madonna picture, a 

ture which at present cannot be traced. Vasari ralalea in 

Life of Baccio Agnolo, that Turini engaged Giuliano, tiie 

246 NOTES Off fVASARI. [YOL. 17. 

son of Baccio, to construct a chapel with his sepulchral monu- 
ment m the cathedral of Pescia. He further relates m the life 
of Baccio da Montelupo that Raffacllo, the son of this artist, 
erected the sepulchral monument in the said place. Wo may 
therefore conclude that the architecture was the work of the 
above-named two artists, and that Pienno da Vinci executed 
only the figure of the deceased. 


[Born 1488 died 1560.] 

P 232t 

Yiviano cfi Bartolommeo di Francesco, a blacksmith from 
Gajuole, settled at Florence about the year 1450. His son 
Michelangelo, born m 1459, was the father of Baccio, the artist, 
whose surname was originally de f Branding and thus he signed 
his name until the year 1530 After that date he called himself 
da' BandineUi, on the supposition that he was a descendant of a 
noble Sienese family bearing that very name. When he was to 
be made a cavaliere ho sent Anton Francesco Doni to Siena in 
order lo make out hit. pedigree, with the result that one Francesco 
Baudinelli of Siena was stated to have been the artist's great 
great grandfather, who, for some reason or other, was supposed 
to have retired to Gajuole Michelangelo, the father of Baccio, 
is also much praised by Benvenuto Cellini in his "Autobiography," 
and also in the preface of the " Trattato dell' Onficena." 

P. 233t 

Girolamo del Buda was the father of Bernardo del Buda, 

P. 234* 

In 1503 Michelangelo, the father of Baccio, paid five hundred 
ducats for this villa nearPrato to the Cardinal Francesco Piccolo- 
mini, whose property it had been. Later on Baccio enlarged it. 
See Guasti, " La Villa Bandmelli a Pizzidimonte," in '* Opuscoli 
di Belle Arti," Firenze, 1859 and 1874. 

Pp. 238-239 
The engraving of which Vasari speaks here, has become known 


by the title of ScJieletn di JBaccin. It is signed and dated, " A. v. 

P. 239* 

Not Lorenzo di Bicci, but his son Bicci di Lorenzo, executed 
the paintings here spoken of, at the Opera del Duomo, Florence. 

P. 240* 

Bandinolli received the commission for the statue of St. Peter 
in 1515, Vasari is therefore in error when stating that it was 
exhibited as early as 3513. 

P. 256 
The statue of Hercules is signed on the base, "BACCIVS 


7>. 257-25H 

Very .severe, but not altogether unfounded strictures upon 
the statue will be found in Benveuulo Gellini'K " Autobiography, 1 ' 

P. 267' 

The base of the .statue ha for a lo# time served as the deco- 
ration of a fountain on tin* piazza in front of the church of San 
Lorenzo, and it was only m 1851 that the statue belonging to it 
was removed from the Palazsso Vecchio and placed on the 
base, constructed for it. 

P, 281 

Benvenuto Cellini returned to Florence from Franco in August, 


[Born 1475 died 1554.] 

P. 299f 

the picture by Fra Bartolommeo and Bupfiardini, representing 
the Abduction of Dinah in now iu the Belvedere Gallery at Vienna, 


P. 299J 

The picture here described is now in the public gallery of 
Bologna. It bears the signature, " JVL . PLOR . FAC." (meaning 
Julianas Florentinus faciebat). In the same collection is another 
picture by him representing St. John hi the Desert, bearing the 
same signature. 

Pp. 229-300 

The large picture of the martyrdom of Catherine is still to be 
seen in the church of Santa Mana Novella. 

P. 300 

The portrait of Messer Francesco Guicciardini, the celebrated 
historian, is stijl to be seen in the palace of the Guiccardini 
family. It is not known what has become of the other portraits 
which Yasan describes here and on the following page. 

[Bora 1508 died 1556.] 

P. 304* 

Raphael del Colle died in 1566, but the date of his birth is 
not known. Some of his pictures are still to be seen in the 
churches of Borgo San Sepolcro. 

P. 313f 

The picture is signed, " GIORGIO ARRBTINO PACEVA MDXXXX." 

P. 318J: 
All these paintings were destroyed in 1848. 

P. 330 

The fresco-paintings by Va&an in the Compagnia di Gesii, at 
Cortona, are still in existence. 



[Bom 1494died 1557.] 

With regard to chronology, tint, life is less correct than those 
of other Florentine rontemporaiics of Vasari, about whom he 
was generally very well informed. 

Pp. 337-338 

The name of Pnntormo's relative in the Via de 1 Servi was 
Maddalena. She died at the age of fifteen, in December, 1515, 
not in L513, as Vasari has it. 

Pp. 340-341 

Andrea di Gosuno, of whom Viusari apeaks here, is elsewhere 
called Andrea Feltrmi. 

P. 343 

Not Piei o da Vinci, the father of Leonardo da Vinci, but his 
eldcHt son, Set* Giuliano, JPioro died in 1004, and the festivities 
here described happened in 1535, 

P. 354* 

This highly interesting pioturo is now in the National Gallery, 
London (No. 3131). It was formerly in Hamilton Palace, where 
it was described as representing an allegory. The boy seated 
on the steps, about whom Vaaari obHervea tbat lie is a portrait 
of Bronxmo, acorns to be about ton years of age, and therefore 
the date of the picture can be calculated to have been about the 
year 1512, Bronj?ino having been bom about 1502. A full expli- 
cation of the fmbjoct and its identification air*, given in " Italian 
Art at the National Gallery," by X 1*. Kiehter, London, 1883, 
pp. 36-39. 

P, 356* 

Tho lieh'fl of Borgherim Hold the decorative pictures here 
spoken of in 1584 to the Grand Duke Francesco do' Medici for 
ninety ducats. 


P. 367* 

It appears from a contemporary letter, published in vol. Ixxx. 
of the " Griornale Arcadico," that Puntormo was in 1539 at Rome, 
where he painted the portrait of Monsignore Giovanni Guidiccioni. 
There is in the Borghese Gallery at Rome a very fine portrait of 
a Cardinal (Room II., No. 20) which is ascribed to Raphael, but, 
as Senatore Morelli has shown, this is evidently by the hand of 
Puntormo. (See Von Lutzow's " Zeitschrift fur Bildende Kunst," 
vol. x , pp 98, 99.) Possibly this is one of the pictures here 

The portrait of the Bishop Ardinghelli must have been executed 
before the year 1547, it being the date of his death. In Decem- 
ber, 1544, he had been made a Cardinal. 

P. 372* 

The picture of Venus and Cupid, after the cartoon of Michel- 
angelo, is now in the Uffizi G-allerv ut Florence. 

P. 377 

The proper name of the two Flemish artists is John Rost or 
Rostel and Nicholas Carcher, of Brussels The contracts of 
their engagements at Florence bear the date of October, 1546. 
Rost died in 1564 

[Born 1492 died 1553.] 

P. 384 

Simone Mosca was a native of San Martino a Terenzano, a 
village near Florence. His father, Francesco di Simone, called 
Delle Pecore, was a stone-cutter. 

P. 386 

The Cesi chapel in the church of S. Maria della Pace was con* 
structed in 1524 by Antonio da San G-allo. We may, therefore, 
assume that the date 1550 here assigned for Simone Mosca's 
work is a printer's error, and that the real date was 1530. 


P. 395 

Giovan Domenico's family name was Beranglia or Versunha. 
He was a sculptor and architect who was chiefly engaged at 
Orvieto, and in 1565 also at Todi. Yasari calls him Mosca's 
son-in-law, "but more probably he was his father-in-law. (See 
Campori, " Meiuorie Biografiche," pp. 30, 31.) 

P. 397 

The relief representing Diana and Actteon is now in the 
Uflizi Gallery (not exhibited). It is sined, " orvs PRANCISCI 


P S9 

Francesco Moscliini died at 1'ipa in 1578. His son Simone r 
who was also a sculptor, died at Parmzi in JJ510, A learned 
treatise about tlwwo two arti^ta has been published by Auiadco 
Ronehini in vol. viii. of " Atti e Memone dollo UH Dopntaxionf 
di storia patnu per le proviiKiie Modcneai e Parmensi." Addi- 
tional information about tfimone Mosca will be found in Gaye, 
" Carteggio Inedito," vol. iii. 

[Born 1476 died 1551.] 

[Born 1518 died 1558.] 

[Born 1506 died 1554.] 

P. 399f 

The two fresco paintin^n which have been transferred from the 
Potrucci palace to the Picture Gallery of Siena, are by 


They represent scenes of Boman history. Another fresco paint- 
ing from the same palace, also transferred on canvas, is now in 
the National Gallery, London (No. 910), It represents the 
Triumph of Chastity, and is signed with the forged inscription, 
" I.VCAS COBITIVS." It is evidently a weak and much damaged 
production by Genga, who seems here to have worked under the 
influence of SignoreUi's grand fresco paintings in the Duomo of 

P. 409 

Baldassare Lancia, the son of Marino Lanci, was born in 1510. 
In 1562 (not in 1558, as Vasari relates on page 413), he went to 
Malta to execute the fortifications of the island and to make the 
plans for the new town La Valletta. 

P. 417 

The treatise on fortifications by Giovan Battista San Marino 
has the title * u Nuova inventione di fabricare fortezze di varie 
forme ecc. di Giovan Batista Belici (Bellucci) " It was published 
in 1598 at Venice, by Tommaso Bogliom. The edition is a very 
incorrect one, 

[Born 1484 died 1559.] 

P. 419* 

In 1509, San Michele came for the first time to Orvieto, and 
was appointed the superintendent of the Cathedral in November 
of that year with annual payment of hundred florins. After the 
year 1528, he seems to have given up that office, 

P. 421* 

Vasari enumerates four forts at Verona as works of San 
Michele, but the fort Delia Maddalena was not among these, nor 
does San Michele seem to have been the inventor of angular 
bastions. They appear for the first time among the drawings of 
Mariano Taccola of Siena (born 1381, died 1458), in his work 


De Machinis (Codex Marcianus). On tlio same principle a 
bastion was constructed at Rome by Pope Oulixtus III, soon after 
the fall of Constantinople, as may be seen on the reverse of a 
medal of that Pope. 

P. 423 

Some of the writings ot San Michole have of late been pub- 
lished. His u Dincorso circa il fortifkar la oittd di Udine e altri 
luoghi dclla patria del Friuli dirctlo al doge Pietro Lando nel 
1573," appeared in the "Arohivio Rtorieo Jtaliano," nuova serie, 
tonio xiv., parte ii., p. 26. Some of his letters were published 
at Verona in 1874, by Antonio Bertoldi. See also "Document! 
tratti dalT Arehivio generate di Venezia mtorno ai servizi di 
San Micheli," edited by the same (Venice, 1874). Other writings 
of liis have appeared in the " Giornale Veneto, 1 * vol. iii., parte 
prima, p. 26, and vol. iii., p. 362. 

P. 428* 

The gate of the Palio or Porta Stuppa was constructed between 
the yearn 1524 and 1#57. 

P. 47 

In this very beautiful palace the Corte d* Apollo is now 

P. 445* 

Domcnico del Ei(jcio in bettor known by his byname Brusa- 
sorci. He was born in 1494, and died in 1507. 

P. 44G* 

The dated works of Bernardino ladia fall between the year* 
1568 and 1584, 

P. 447J 

Battiata Farinaii, called %oktti, was born in 1532, and died in 
1592, lie wati, as Vadari suyw, the pupil of his uncle Paolo 
Farinato (see p. 451). 

P. 448* 

Paolo Veronese was born at Verona in 1528. In 1548 lie was 
staying for some time at Mantua, from 1551 until 1553 in the 


province of Treviso, and since 1551 at Venice. From 1566 
until 1567, he was again at Treviso, and in 1572 at Vicenza. 
He died in 1588. 

P. 448 1| 
The Supper of Simon is now in tie Turin Gallery. 

P. 450J 

It is, as is well known, one of the finest pictures in the Louvre 
G-allery at Paris. 

P. 451 f 
Paolo Farinato died in 1606. 

[Born 1477 died 1549.] 

The family name of the artist has for a long time "been said to 
be Kazzi. This error seems to have arisen from a doubtful read- 
ing of a document, but it is now proved to have been Bazzi. 
{Sec Meyer's " Kiinstlerlexicon," vol. in., p. 178, foil) It will 
be seen that neither of these names occurs in Vasari, who simply 
calls the artist by his byname, il Soddoma* It is also to be observed 
that the biographer does not treat him fairly, and that the de- 
scription of his life and works is very incomplete. His informant 
was most probably Beccafumi, the rival of Sodoma. 

P. 453* 

Sodoma was born at 1ihe town of Vercelli in Piedmont, where 
he studied painting under Martino Spanzotti. Between the years 
1498 and 1501 he was at Milan. It is not known whether he 
was a pupil of Leonardo's da Vinci, but so much is certain that 
his works betray a marked influence of this master on his style. 
About the year 1501 Be went to Siena. 

P. 458 

The magnificently decorated ceiling of the so-called Camera 
della Segnatura in the VaticaBsWas thought so perfect by Eaphael, 


that he not only left it as it was, but testified his esteem for 
Sodoma by introducing his portrait (by tbc side of his own, and 
that of his literary adviser, Count Castighone) in the " Scuola d* 
Atenc." He is here represented as wearing a white garment and 
white cap. This figure has hitherto been misinterpreted as re- 
presenting Ferugino. Sodomo seems to have visited Koine oa 
two occasions. For the first time in 1508, after the completion 
of tho frescoes at Montoliveto, when he executed the paintings in 
the Vatican, and the second time in 1513, when Agostino Chigi 
engaged him to decorate the Villa Famesma. 

P. 460* 

The picture of Lncrezia at Hanover cannot for several reasons 
be identified with Sodoma'n Lucrczia, which ^asari here do- 
scribes. It is, as G. Fmzoni has shown in a learned treatise on 
the master (" jNrtova Anfcologia," 1871), by the hand of Pcriuszi. 
We learn from a letter which Sodoma had written to Francesco 
Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua, in May, 1518, that the Lucrezia 
had originally been painted for this prince, and that Giuliano de' 
Medici, who saw the picture at Florence, expressed a wish to 
acquire it. Possibly Pope Leo received it from his brother 
Giuliano, and not directly from Sodoma, It is not known where 
the picture itt at present to bo found. 

P. 409* 

This picture was painted in 1542. it is now in the Academy 
of Fine Arts at Pisa. 

Pp. 469-470 

The statements about Sodoma's matrimonial life are no doubt 
exaggerated. He had two children by his wife Beatrice, the 
daughter of an innkeeper, a son, Apelle, and a daughter, Faustina, 
who became the wife of Kiceio, the painter and architect (see 
p. 470), who died in 1571. ii appears from occasional references 
to Sodorna's wife, that she was with him in 1531, and alno in 1541. 

P. 470f 

Giomo, or Girolamo, Magagni was born in 1507, and died in 


[Born 1481 died 1551.] 

P. 472 

Giovan Francesco, the brother of Bastiano da San Gallo, was 
born in 1484. In 1513 he is mentioned as staying at Rome, 
holding the office of superintendent of the building of St. Peter. 
In 1519 he had to construct, with Ginliano Leno, the extensive 
stables of the castle of Palo between Rome and Civita Vecchia, 
and in 1527 he was appointed military engineer of the Florentine 
Republic. He died in 1530. 

P. 473* 

See Enrico di Geymuller, " Raffaelo Sanzio studiato come archi- 
tetto," Milano, 1884, pp. 54-57. 

P. 474 
The comedy of the Mandragola was written by Macchiavelli. 

P. 487* 
The proper name of Jacone was Jacopo di Giovanni di Francesco, 

Pp. 491-492 

Francesco d' Ubertino, called Bacchiacea, was born at Florence 
in 1494. In his early youth he had studied under Pietro Peru- 
gino, but his works recall more particularly the style of Andrea 
del Sarto. One of his finest pictures, representing Moses striking 
the Rock, is in the Palazzo Giovanelli at Venice, where it was for 
a long time ascribed to Durer. The artist seems to have stayed 
at Rome during the years 1520 and 1530, where he was on intimate 
terms with Giulio Romano, Francesco Penni, and Benvenuto 
Cellini, who mentions him in his autobiography. See J. Lermolieff, 
" Die Galerien Rom's," "Zeitschrift fur Bildende Kunst, 1 ' vol. ix., 
pp. 77-80. 


[Born 1481 died 1559.] 


[Born 1501 died 1556.] 

P. 495 x 

Domonico Panetfci \v as bom at Ferrara between the years 1450 
and 1460, and died there in 1511 or 1512. A large picture by 
thin master, whose woi'ks are very rarely to l>c found except at 
Ferrara, is in the Berlin Museum ; it represents a Pictu. 

P. 495|| 

Altobello Meloni was a pupil of Romanino There is a large 
picture by him m the National Gallery, London, representing 
Chris c and the Disciples going to Kmumus. Jt was formerly in 
the church of San Bariolommeo at Cremona. 

P. 496 s 

That Garoialo went to Rome in 1499 (not 1500) is proved by 
a curious letter, written at the time by Boceaccino to G-urofalo'a 
father, complaining of his son'a bad behaviour and sudden <lo- 
parture. (See Pungileoni, " Elogio Storico di RaiFucllo Sanzio," 
p. 289, and Gaye, " Cartcgoio," i., 344. 

P. 496f 

Baldini seems to be a clerical error ibr Busini, an artint whose 
surname was Sollazzino, and who died in 1508. The following 
statements about Garofalo's inovtwmts are somewhat confused. 
He went to Mantua, not before, but one year after the death of 
bis father, which occurred in 1501. 

P. 497* 

Garofalo went to Rome for the second time about the year 
1513, not in 1505. 


P. 497J 

It is, perhaps, more correct to say that Garofalo's manner de- 
generated when he came under the influence of Raphael than 
that it improved, as Yasari would have it. (See J. Lermohen^ 
" Die Galerien Rom's," " Zeitschriffc fur bildende Kunst," vol. x. t 
pp. 210, 211,264-269.) 

P. 498 

The Palazzo Costabili, which at present belongs to Count 
Scrofa, contains fresco paintings by Garofalo, representing alle- 
gorical and mythological scenes. The picture of the Adoration 
of the Magi, which was painted for the monastery of San Ber- 
toldo, as Vasan says, is perhaps one of the two large representa- 
tions of this subject in the Pinacoteca of Ferrara. One of them 
is dated 1537, the other 1549. 

P. 498f 

The picture of the Madonna and Saints in the church of Santo 
Spirito is now in the Pinacoteca of Ferrara. It bears the date 
1514. The other, lepresentmg the Nativity, came into possession 
of Professor Vmcenzo Camuccini. 

P. 499* 

The pictures by Garofalo painted for the church of San Fran* 
cesco are now in the Pinacoteca of Ferrara. The Resurrection 
ofLazarus is signed and dated, "BENVEGSTV . GAKOFALO . P . 1532," 
and the Slaughter of the Innocents bears the date 1518. 

P. 499J 

The two pictures painted for the church of San Domenico are 
now in the Pinacoteca of Ferrara. The former is signed and 

P. 500 

The picture painted for the Frati Ingesuati is now in the 
Dresden Galleiy. 

P. 500 
The original is now in the Palazzo Chigi at Rome. 


P. 502* 

A full account of Garofalo's pictures at Dresden is given by 
O. Morelli, k< Italian Masters in German Galleries," pp. 14-120 

P. 504f 

" Girolamo da Carpi, or as he signs himself Hieronymus de 
Carpis (Carpi would therefore be the family-name), was born 
about 1501, and died in 1556. His father Tommano was a 
painter, and as such we find him in the service of Lucrczia 
Borgia, in the year 1507. Hieronymus, in 1538, married Cata- 
rina Amatori at Ferrara. Cittadella tells us that he not only 
worked with Garofalo, as for instance, in 1535, at the Palace of 
Coppara,but also with and under Dosso. As assistant to Dosso, 
he painted, amongst other things, several rooms m^ the * Belve- 
dere,' a countiy seat on a small island near Fcrrara. The rudi- 
ments of painting he would most likely have learnt from his 
father. Vasari tells us that he studied afterwards under Garo- 
falo. To judge by his authentic picture of the year 1530 in the 
chufch of San Martmo at Bologna, he must also haie been 
strongly influenced by DOPSO, for that painting proves him at 
least as much an imitator of Dosso as of Garofalo. Later on, 
between 1540 and 1550, he copied several of Correggio's paint- 
ings, and brought some of them to Kome, in 1550, where he 
showed them to Vasari." G. Morelli, "Italian Masters in 
German Galleries," p. 120, 

P. 510 

The fresco paintings in the Palazzo Coppara have been de- 
stroyed. They have been described by Baruffaldi. 

P. 511 

The picture by Correggio representing "Our Ln<ly who is 
putting a little tunic or camicia on the Infant Christ,'* is now in 
the National Gallery, London. 

P. 511f 

The original of Parmigiano's Cupid preparing his Bow, is 
now in the Belvedere Gallery at Vienna. 

P. 513 

The great fire in the caslle of Ferrara happened in 1554, on 
the 1st of February, 


P. 513f 

G-alasso, called 1'Alglnsi, the architect of the covered portico 
of tlie castle of Ferrara, died in 1573. 

P. 515 

The works Here described as being in the church of San 
Doinenico have disappeared. 

P. 516f 

The proper name of this artist is Henry Pallidani, of Malines. 
The picture here described is still at Perugia, in the church of 
San Francesco, as is also the glass \\indow in the chapel of San 

P. 517* 

Tiraboschi feserts that these two pictures were not the works 
of Ingoni, but by the hand of Domenico Carnevali and Giuseppe 
Romani. There are, however, two other works by Ingoni in 
the same church of San Piero, one representing Christ in the 
Garden, and the other the Transfiguration. (See " Notizie degii 
Artefia ModenesL") 

P. 519* 

Anselmi was born at Lucca in 1491, and died about the year 
1554. He was a pupil of Sodoma when at Siena. Most of his 
works are at Parma, where he had adopted the manner of 
Corrcggio. A Madonna picture by him is in the Louvre, 

P. 520* 

Giovanni Battista di Bgidio Bertani was a painter, sculptor, 
and architect. He was born at Mantua in 1516, and died 
hi 1576. 

P. 521 J 

This work has the title " OH osenri e difEcili passi dell' opeia, 
di Vitruvio." It was published at Muntua in 1558. 

P. 521 1| 

Ippolito Costa, the son of Lorenzo Costa, the well-known 
painter of Ferrara, was born in 1501, and died in 1561. 

P. 523J 

Lattanzio Garnbaro was born in 1530, and died about the 
year 1574. 


P. 525 

Camillo Boccaccino was born in 1515, and died in 1546. His 
paintings, in San Sigismondo aio still in existence. 

P. 527f 

About the different artists with the name of Campi, see Gnido 
Sommi Picenardi, " Giornale Araldico-Gcuealo t >ico, M Pisa, 1879, 
No. 4. 

P. 528* 

Giulio Campi's pictures in the choir of SamV At>ata at Cicnionti 
recall the manner oi' Poideuone. They are signed " JuliuH 
Campus faeiebat 1536." 

P. 580 

Sofonisba, when going to Spain in 1559, wan accompanied by 
two ladies, two gentlemen, and her two .servants. The King of 
Spain, whose portrait she painted, gave her u yearly pension of 
200 scndi. She married there Don Fubmio cli Moiifada, a 
Sicilian cavaliere, and, after Jiis early death, the cavaliure Orazio 
Lomclli, of Genoa. 

P. 532f 

Geremia, whose full name is Cristofano di Oereniia, IK men- 
tioned in Filarete'h nianuscripti, *' Trattato d'Architefctura," of 
which Vasan lias made extensive use. lie had a oreat reputa- 
tion for his works in bronze, hi 1468 he was employed by Pope 
Paul If. in the restoration of the antique equestrian statue of 
Marcus Aiirchus* Two medals are known to have been executed 
by him. (See R Munlz, "Les Arts a la Oour des J^ijieH,*' 
vol. ii., p. 93, where a reproduction of his medal of the Emperor 
Augustus is to he found.) 

P. 533. 

About Romauino and Moretto, pee Fenaroli, "Dizionario degli 
Artiwti Brenciani," Brescia, 1877; Frnaroli, " Alcssandro lionvi- 
eino Soprannominato il Moretto," Brescia, 1875; and Gnat. 
Frimmi, ** Alcssandro Bonvicino detto il Morotto," " Giomale 
d*Erudizione Artistica," vol. iv,, fase, vi., 1875, 

P. 533f 

"Romanino was born at Brescia, not at Romano. Ilia 
ancestors came from Romano, a Huiull town close to the 


frontier, but within the territory of Bergamo. His grandfather 
Luchino already bore the surname of Romanino, In a docu- 
ment of the year 1517, commumoated by Grasselli (Abecedario), 
we read : t Magistro Hieronimo de Romani, filio che fu de maistro 
Romano da Brexa.' So that Romanino's father was a painter 
too, and probably the first instructor of his sons, for Girolamo 
had two brothers, Antonio and Alessandro (born 1490), who 
were also painters, and probably his assistants. Stefano Rizzi, 
whom the local writers name as the teacher of Romanino, is 
quite an unknown master. But I have grounds for throwing out 
the conjecture that Romanino must have been influenced in his 
youth more by Vincenzo Civerchio than by Ferramola, In the 
years 1509 to 1513 he appears to have lived and laboured partly 
at Padua, and partly also at Venice : here he took Giorgione for 
his model, an$ then it was that he acquired his brilliant golden 
colouring. In 1514 Romanino was back at Brescia, his grandest 
work, the great altar-piece in the church S. Francesco, if I am 
not mistaken, dates from that year. The beautiful frame that 
encloses this great picture, which was made by Stefano Lamberti 
of Brescia, in 1502, has induced several German writers to 
believe that the picture itself was of the same date. Romauino's 
best period is that between the years 1510 and 1520; it was- 
during that time that he painted, amongst others, his pictures 
for S Giustina at Padua (now in the Town Gallery there), and 
for S Francesco, S. Maria in Calchera, and S. Giovanni Evan- 
gelista, all at Brescia ; and to the same period belongs the fine 
Giorgionesque Portrait of a Cavalier, formerly at Countess 
Fenaroli's house, where it was ascribed to Titian. 

"In Romanino's large pictures for S, Giustina and S. Fran- 
cesco, we already find that harmony of colours which became 
characteristic of the Brescian school. Moretto, from 1521 on- 
wards, only de\ eloped, and perhaps refined it. Romauino in 
his later years became careless, and sometimes slovenly, of which 
it would not be difficult to find specimens. He, like Moretto, 
was little known outside the district of Brescia. Few can have 
surpassed him as a fresco-painter, of which his wall-paintings in 
the Val Camonica, at Cremona, at Trent (the Castle), and at 
Brescia, furnish proof. Amateurs now and then confound him 
with Moretto." G. Morelli, "Italian Masters in German Gal- 
leries," pp. 403-407. 


P. 533 

" Moretto was born at Brescia in 1498, and died there at the 
end of the year 1555 (Fenaroli, * Diz. d. art. Bresc.,' 35 and 57). 
The last date on his works is 1554 ; it is on the great altar- 
piece, the * Lamentation over Christ,' belonging to Signor Friz- 
zoui-Salis, of Bergamo. 

" I Lave no wi^h to dispute that Moretto, when twenty-four 
years old, may have studied and learned a good deal from Titian's 
polyptych of the * Resurection,' painted in 1522 for the church 
of 8. ISTazzaro e Celso, at Brescia ; but that he ever tried in his 
best period to imitate the Cadorian, as Messrs Crowe and Caval- 
caselle will have it, I really cannot see. Examine his works of 
the year 1521, m S. Giovanni Evaugclista at Brescia, his male 
portrait of 1526 (now at the National Gallery, London), his " St.. 
Margaret " of 1530 in S. Francesco at Brescia ; Another picture 
of 1540 in S. Giorgio at Verona ; and you will grant, I hope, that 
in these works no one ran seriously find a trace of Titian's in- 
fluence on Moretto, and htill lc&s of any direct influence of Talma 
Vecchio on the art of this thoroughly original BrcMiian* This, 
again, is one of those purely imaginary assumptions that find their 
sole origin in the everlasting system of " influences "' of the fanned 
historians. Why, the forms of the BrcRciim, alwayn elogant, arc 
utterly different from the forms of the Borgamose ; and i\w\\ the 
deep golden tints of the latter arc in sfci iking contrast with the 
delicate silver tones in Moretto's paintings, His harmonies of 
colour are as original as they are graceful they delight the 

"Moretto, in contrast to his rival Itomaiiiuo, is hardly ever 
negligent in his works : pictures intended for village churches 
are painted as lovingly and carefully as those for t?ie town. 
Moretto may be said to have worked almost exclusively for his 
native town and the province of Brescia, and it ifi there that 
nearly the whole work of his life is still to be found, lie was, 
therefore, little known beyond the frontiers of the Brescian dis- 
trict. The AnonymiiH Morcllianus 1ms not dropped a syllable about 
him, a certain proof that Moretto was then held in no sort of re- 
pute at Venice. His fame, like tlmt of IUH pupil, G% B. Moroni, 
dates only from about half a century ago. , , . Tho best works 
of Moretto are to be found in the churches of Brescia (S, Ntizzaro, 
S, Clementc, choir of S. Giovanni Evangeliata, S. Eufemia), and 


out of Italy, in the Belvedere at Vienna. 1 ' G-. Morelli, " Italian 
Masters in German Galleries," pp. 400-403." 

P. 535* 

Gian Girolamo Savoldo was of the same age as Romanino, and 
perhaps his fellow-pupil. Ho visited Florence in 1508, and we 
find him enrolled as master in the Painters 1 guild there (Hierony- 
mus de Savoldis de Brixia) , his stay, however, cannot have been 
of long duration, as none of his works known to us betray the 
slightest Florentine influence. Later on, he settled at Venice, 
and there lie studied the works of Giovanni Bellino (S. Giovan 
(Jrisostomo, of the year 1513) and Titian. The most important 
work of this rathei rare master is in the Brera Gallery at Milan. 
The Hampton Court Gallery possesses also two pictures by 1 is 

P. 535f 

A replica of his "Venetian Lady," as she is shied in the 
Berlin Catalogue (No. 307), or " St Magdalen," ns she used to be 
called, was a short time ago still m the house of Count Fenaroli, 
at Biescia, but was lately purchased by the picture-dealer Baslini, 
and sold to the National Gallery, London. Carlo Ridolfi, 
(" Vile," &c. i. 354) mentions such a picture as belonging to the 
Avcroldi house, at Bi escia " ed in oa&a Averolda una fignra della 
Maddalena, involta in drappo col vaso dell' alabastro, mcaniininata 
al aepolcro, celebre pittura, della quale si sono tratte incite 
copie. Madame Ardier, ambasciatrice fiancese, aveva una delle 
Maddalene suddctte ... e in casa Antelmi (of Brescia) vi & xm 
Deposto di croco." This last picture was in the house of Torre, 
at Brescia, before it came into the Berlin Gallery. 

VOL. V, 


[Born 1483 died 1561.] [Born 1452 died 1525.] 

[Bora 1458 died 1497.] 

P. Sf 

This mosaic, which is now at Paris in the Muse*e de Cluny, 
bears the signature, *'OPVS MAGISTEI DAVID FLOBENTINF, 159(5." 


P 4 

This statement probably refers to the fco-called Belle Jar- 
diniere, Raphael's celebrated Madonna picture, in the Louvre. 


Vasari docs not appear to have been well informed about Hi- 
dolfo's early works " Until the <leath of ln,s lather Domcnico, that 
is, till the year 1494, lie certainly remained bis pupil, a fact which 
IR proved by the drawmap of the two masters. In the collection 
of the Corsim library fit Rome aie two such drawings, one by 
Bidolfo, the othei by Domcnico. Even hits early work in the 
choir of San DOIIMMHCO at Pistoja (Saints Sebastian, Jerome, and 
a third), proves llidolfo's descent from Domoniuo The St. 
Jerome is taken fiom the father's fresco at Ogaife&auti, Florence, 
After DomenWh death, his favourite pupil Grtnncci may very 
likely have earned on llidolfo's education ; and this is proved, 
better than words could prove it, by two small panels, each with 
three adoring angels. These two paintings may be seen in the 
so-called Room of Small Pictures at the Academy of Florence 
under the name of Granucoi. Besides Grauacci, Pier cli Cosimo 
must also have had an inJhienec on the artistic career of Uidolfo. 
The laiidhcapeM in the early pictures of the latter arc as good as 
copied from those of Pier di Cosimo 

" But when Leonardo da Vinci came and seitlod aL Florence in 
103, certainly none contributed NO much as h< to form youn/^ 
Eidolfo, then twenty years old. In this Leonardine period of our 
artist, T place, amongst others, the following pictures, in all of 
which, Leonardo's influence is 11101*0 or loss visible. They are, 
one and all, still at "Florence, and therefore easily accessible. 

"(1) t The Annunciation 1 (No 1288), in the Ulfizi Gallery* 
A few years ago this picture came from the sacristy of the con- 
vent church of Montoliveto (near Florence) to the IMzi Gallery, 
under the name of Grhirlandajo ; presently, though still doubt- 
fully, it was ascribed by the then directors of the gallery, Messrs. 
Gotti and Oampana, to the great Leonardo cla Vinci. The 
funeral urn l of stone introduced in the picture, such as is often 
met with in Domenico's picture*, might of itself have made those 
gentlemen pause before delivering such a verdict* The shape of 

1 Compare the drawing by Kidolfo Ghirlamlajo at the Uflfoi Gallery 
(Philpot 678), which might b a btudy for the <k Annunciation." 


the hands, too, especially the long fingers with the ugly nails, 
reminds one rather strongly of the hanclh in (2) the ' Portrait of 
a Goldsmith' (No. 207, Palazzo Pitti). The question is : Is this 
picture really a work of Leonardo, as Signer Chiavacci's catalogue 
would have us believe, or is it rather an early work of our Ridolfo 
del Ghirlandajo ? In spite of repaint and dirt, one still recognizes 
in the landscape background and in the yellow rocks, the imitator 
of Pier di Cosiino. Then the modelling of the head and the 
formation of the hand are exactly the same as we see in Ridolfo' s- 
early work at the house of Cavaliere Niceolt) Antinori (Via de* 
Servi, Florence). Nowhere can we get to know Ridolfo's early 
period bettei than in the picture just named, which represents (3) 
the * Walk to Calvary,' and was painted for the Antinori house 
in 1505. ] Here we have before us about seventeen pretty large 
figures with a $reat many small ones. On the hair of the young 
man with red and white striped hose, and a lance in his hand, the 
lights are laid on exactly as they are on the angel's head in the 
1 Annunciation ' (No. 1288) at the Uffizi. The shapes of the 
hands and fingers are the yame as those we see in the above- 
named ' Annunciation,' in the * Portrait of a Goldsmith,' at the 
Pitti , in (4) the ' Angels ' at the Academy, in (5) the ' Madonna 
with the Marriage of St. Catherine, 1 at the church of theConser- 
vatorio in Ripoli (Via della Scala), and also in (6) a 'Male 
Portrait/ No. 318, at the Louvre, there ascribed to Francia, but 
which I unhesitatingly pronounce to be by our Ridolfo del Ghir- 
landajo. The head of Longinus, with the fantastically shaped 
helmet, reminds one much of Leonardo da Vinci, and so does his 
horse. The cross-puckers on the sleeve of Veronica are the 
same as those we noticed on the sleeve of the Madonna in the 
'Annunciation' at the Uffizi; and so on. 

" To the same Leomirdesque period of Ridolfo belong the (7) 
so-called portrait of Girolamo Benivieni, in the collection of 
Marchese Torrigiani at Florence (Room II., No. 9), there ascribed 
to Leonardo. It represents an old man in a black cap and black 
clothes. In all these youthful works the usually defective 
drawing stands in singular contrast with the beauty of the heads 
in the figures 

"In Ridolfo's works of the years 1506 to 1510, we remark, on 
the contrary, the influence, partly of FraBartolommeo, and partly 
See note to P. 5f. 


of his friend and contemporary Raphael Sanzio, who at that 
period was making studies, apparently with Ridolfo, on the cele- 
brated cartoon of Leonardo da Vinci. Out of these art studies, 
jointly pursued, there sprang up, as Vasan tells us, an ardent 
friendship between the two congenial youths That such an 
intimacy with the far more talented Raphael could not fail 
to influence Ridolfo, is natural ; and several paintings of this 
early period of the master seem to furnish evidence of such an 
influence. Amongst others, besides the very good painting (No. 
91) in the Berlin Gallery, there is the "Madonna with St. 
Elizabeth and the little St. John "(No mo) in the Tribuna of 
the Uffizi Gallery, there erroneously ascribed to Orazio Alfani 

" Vasari relates in his life of Domemco Puligo (viu. 181, 132), 
that Ridolfo del Ghirlandajo always employed a number of young 
painters in his studio, and further, that they excreuted many pic- 
tures for him which were then sent out under high-sounding 
names to England, Germany, and Spam. Of these assistants of 
Ridolfo, Vaaari names amongst others Baccio Gotti, Toto del 
Nunziata, Antonio del Cerajuolo, Domcnico Puligo. To one or 
another of these painters may belong many a picture that is ex- 
hibited in public or private galleries as the work of Andrea del 
Sarto, of Fra Bartolommeo, or of Franciabigio." G. Morelli, 
*' Italian Masters in German Galleries." 


Thin picture has of late been sold, and in now in the National 
Gallery, London. 

P. SJ 
Nunziata was born at Florence in 1475, and died in 1525. 

P. 8$ 
These fresco paintings were completed in 1514. 

P. 12 

Michele, the son of Jacopo di Michelo, with the surname 1 
Toyini, was born at Florence in 1503. He died in 1577. 

Carlo di Galeotto Portelli da Laro died at Florence in 1574, 



[Born 1487 died 15G4.] 

P. 27 

The second saint canonized by Pope Hadrian was not St. 
Hubert, but St. Benno, of Meissen, m Saxony. 

P 29* 

Giovanni states in his diary, which has been published by 
Maniago m "Storia dclle Belle Arti Fuulane," Documento xc., 
that he left Uclmc for Florence on October the 1st, in 1532, 
and that he arrived there on the 4th, when he at once began tho 
woik in the chapel of the Medici. 

[Born . . . .Died 1561.] 

P, 34* 

Marten Jacobsz. van Heemskerck, painter and engraver, born 
-at Heeruskerck in Holland m 1498. Died at Haarlem m 1574. 


The words used by Fedengo Zucehcro, are : " qm si avilupa, 
ne sa quel che si dicha " (here he becomes confused, nor does he 
know what he says). The copy of Vasari containing this note 
;s in the possession of Cav. Alessandro Saracini, of Siena, 

P. 50* 

Jacopo Kobusti, called Tintoretto, was born at Venice in 
1519, and died in 1574. The judgment which Vasan passes 
upon this artist is as severe as it is unjxi&t. 

P. 54f 

Tn 1807 the church and the monastery Delia Caritfc have been 
converted into the Academia delle Belle Arti. 

[Born 1474 died 1554] 


Andrea del Verrocchio went to Venice about the year 1485, 


and died there in 1488. If, therefore, lUistici realty visited his 
studio before the great sculptor left Florence, he must have 
entered it when he was a lad of eleven years of age, or even 
less. We may also assume that Leonardo da Vinci, then thirty- 
three years of age, did not enter into the close intimacy with 
Eustici, here described, at that very time. It is more likely 
that this occurred at the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
after Leonardo's return from Milan. 

P. 63* 

Lconardo da Vinci was also closely related to Piero Martelli. 
(See J P. Richter, " The Literary Works of Leonardo da 
Vinci," vol. i.,p. 12.) 

P. 65 

Kustici reconed the oi'dcr for the bronze stjitnes on the 
Baptistery in 1506, where they uerc placed in 1511. 

P. 84 

ftustici died at Tours. 

[Born 1506 ('') died 1563.] 

P. 99* 

The head of the saint in this statue is said to be a likeness 
of the Principe D'Oria. 

P, 101 

Among the architecture executed at Genoa by Montorsoli, 
may be mentioned the Duke's palace of Fassalo, which he 
enlarged. Ho also decorated its garden with fountains 

P. 104* 

The Marine Monster, which Montorsoli executed in front of 
the palace, was soon ruined. In 3581 a new one was executed 
by Gian Giacomo of Valsoldo, apparently after the model of 
the one by Montorsoli. The statue of Jupiter was executed in 
1586 by Marco Sparti of Urbino. 


P 109 

Di Marzo affirms that Montorsoli executed only the figure of 
St. Peter, and that the figuies of St. Paul and of St. John 
the Evangelist were done after his models by his pupil Martino, 
whereas the other statues were by the hand of various later 
masters. (See "Gli scultori della Penisola di Sir-ilia," in " Arch. 
Stor. Ital ," serie terza, tomo xvi., p. 342.) 

[Born 1510 died 1563.] 

P. 119 

The name of Francesco's father was Michelangelo di Fran- 
cesco di Giovanni d' Andrea. 

P. 120 

Dmeetto is the surname of Giovan Francesco, who was born 
in 1480. 

P. 123* 

Raffaello da Bream was the son of Giovanni Antonio di 
Tommaso de' Piccinelb, of Brescia, a dancing master, who had 
settled at Stena in 1505. His sons Raffaello and Andrea 
exercised the same art, before they became painters. The 
picture gallery at Siena contains several works by Andrea, who 
was the more important of the two. He appears to have been 
chiefly influenced by Sodoina. After the year 1524 the two 
brothers came to Florence. Kaffaello died there in 1545. 

Pp. 130-131 

Fra Damiano of Bergamo was born towards the end of the 
fifteenth century, and became a Dominican Friar at an early age. 
The art of inlaying was taught him at Venice, and the art of 
wood engraving in Istria. His chief works are the choir of the 
high altar of San Domenico at Bergamo, and the one of San 
Domenico at Bologna, in which town he resided for a great 
many years, and where he died in 1549. 


P. 131 

Two drawings by Salviati, icprofeeuting the same subject, are 
in the Uffizi Collection, at Florence. 

P. 132 

Carlo Portelli of Laro died at Florence in 1574. 

P. 134 

Vasari omits to mention that during Salviati's stay at Venice 
he was asked by Giovio, on behalf of the Marquess of Mantua> 
to enter the service of that prince, as appears from a letter 
written by Giovio to Pietro Aretino, dated Feb. 24, 1540. (See 
" Lettere pittoriche," vol. v., No. Ixviii.) It la not kiNnvn why 
the proposition had no effect. 

P 14:{ 

liattista di Loren/o d' Andrea rial Itarro <liecl at Florence in 
1553. Vasari mentionfe him also in tlie life of Guglielmo da 
3M ar cilia. 

P, 155 

The following fresco paintings tire still to be seen in the Sala 
Kcpfi a, at the Vatican, The Mmperor Charles the Groat con- 
firming to the Pope the donation of Pepin, and Pope Gregor VI L 
with the Emperor Henry IV. at Cauossti, by Taddeo Zuccbero ; 
King Peter of Aragoii recognizing his kingdom as a fief of the 
papal see, by Livio Agresti of Forli ; King Liutprand sanction- 
ing the dominion of the papal see over the Alps, by Orazio 
Sammacchini (Vasari cfdls him by mistake Fumaccini in the 
Life of Primaticcio) ; the defeat of the Lombard King Astolf by 
Girolamo da Scrmoneta. Salviati depicted the Kmperor Barba- 
rosfla kneeling before Popo Alexander III. on the Piazza of 8t 
Markka, Venice. Jt has been shown by Muratori and others 
that the scene never occurred in fact, but it has been made the 
subject of several pictures, which have become famous, fmch as 
the wall-painting by Federico Zucchero in the Doge's palace at 
Venice (Sato del Maggior Consi^lio). Moat of the other 
pictures in the fiala Rcgia were painted bv Vasnri. 


Pp. 157-158 

The goldsmith. Manno is also mentioned by Cellini m his 
autobiography A full account of this artist has been given by 
A. "Ronchini, m vol vii. of " Atti e Memorie clelle KR. Deputa- 
zioni di storia patria per le provincie Modenesi e Parmensi" 

P. 161 

In the Palace of San Marco, the Doge's Palace, there is at 
present only one picture by Giuseppe Salviati, representing a 
Madonna It is in the Sala de' Stucchi, 

Giuseppe Porta was born at the beginning of the sixteenth 
century at Castelnuova di Garfaguana, and died about the year 

[Born about 1509 died 1566.] 

P. 165 

The Deposition from the Cioss in the church of Trinita de* 
Monti is undoubtedly the artist's masterpiece. From the 
original receipt for it, which iw still in existence, it appears that 
the work was completed in 1541 It has been engraved by 
Paolo Toschi, Dorigny, and many others. 

P. 168* 

No trace of these works has been left in the church of Trinita 
de' Monti. 

P. 171* 

The statue is at present best known by the name of Ariadne, 
whom it really appears to represent. Pope Julius TI. bought 
it in 1521 from Girolamo Maffet. It is not known where it was 

Danielle's paintings of the Invention of the Cross, with the two 
saints Cecilia and Lucia, which he executed in the church of 
Sant' Agostiuo, are no more in existence. 


Marco da Siena, also called Marco del Pino, the assistant of 
Damello da Yolterra in tlie execution of the paintings at the 
church of Trinita de' Monti was born at Siena, about the year 
152 J, and was a pupil of Beccafumi. About the year 1529 he 
went to Rome, whore he executed some altar-pieces in the 
churches of Santi Apostoli and Araceli, besides the fresco- 
paintings in S. Trinita, here mentioned by Yasari. The fresco 
in the Sala Regia of the Yatioan, representing the Emperor 
Otto in the act of restoring some provinces to the papal sec, is 
also by him. Between the years 1556 and 1500 he went to 
Naples, where he executed many pictures, and where he founded 
also a school of painting, in which the principles of Michel- 
angelo were taught. He devoted himself also to architcutuie, 
as appears from a reference made by Lomazzo in the " Tcmpio 
della Pittura," to a large book he wrote on that a&, hut which at 
present seems to be lost. 

More details about Pellegrino di Tebaldo do 1 Pellegrini, or 
Pcllegrino da Bologna, as he is called, will be found in the life 
of Francesco Primaticcio, which follows. 

The Spaniard Bizzera or Bcccvca i again mentioned in the 
JJife of Cnstofano Gheiardi and in Yasari's autobiography. 

P. 172J 

The picture of David cutting off the head of Goliath, executed 
on a slate slab, which is painted on both sides, forms part of 
the Louvre Collection (No. 333). Jn 1715 it was presented to 
King Louis XIV. by a Spanish ambassador as being by the 
hand of Michelangelo 

A pieta by Danicle da Voltorra is in the Gallery of St. 

P. 174* 

Oraxio Piatcsi, not Pianetti, as Yasari has it, died at Florence 
in July, 1557. 

Pp. 176-177 

Daniele executed in bronze only the horse, upon which later 
on was placed the statue of King Louis XIII. by the French 
sculptor Biard (1639). In 179$ it was destroyed by command 
of the authorities of the French. Republic. 


P. 178 

Biagio Belli was a native of Cutigliano (not Carigliano), a 
place in the mountains of Pistoja. In 1572 ho entered the order 
of the Teatine friars of San Silvestro at the Quirmal in Borne, 
He died in 1615, at tiie age of seventy. 

[Born 1529 died 1566 ] 

P 179 

Some very curious manuscript notes written by Federigo, the 
"brother of Taddeo, in a copy of Vasari's life, which is now at 
the Bibliolheque Rationale, Pans, serve as a valuable com- 
mentary with regard to details. 

P. 182* 

Jacopone of Faenza was a son of Griov. Battista Bertucci 
He was not a disciple, but an imitator of Raphael. See Valgi 
migli, "Dei Pittori e degli Artisti Faentini," Faenza, 1871 
{second edition). 

P. 182f 

Danielle da Parma, surnamed Pom, was a native of Milan 
He seems to have died in 1566. See A. Ronchini, " II pittor. 
Daniele da Parma," Modena, 1872. 

P. 185 

Neither Taddeo Zucchero's copy nor Raphael's original repre 
senting the Nativity can at present be traced. 
Stefano Yeltroni was a cousin of Vasari's 

Pp. 190-191 

Taddeo and Federigo Zucchero came to Orvieto in 156 
(See Luzi, " H Duomo d'Orvieto descrilto e illustrate," Firenz- 

P. 193 

The representations of the Credenza, drawn by Taddeo 


Zucchero, were taken from the life of Caesar. See Gr. Campori, 
" Itfotizie fltoriche e artistiche della majolica e della porcellana 
di Ferrara, ne' secoh, xv, e x^i.," Modena, 1873. 

P. 201 

Giovanni Strada, better known by the name of Stradanus, was 
an imitator of Salviati and Vasari Jacopo Zucehi, or dc k l 
Zucea, sometunes called Zncelii, was a Florentine. Ilib life lias 
been written by Baglioni. 

Battista Naldmi of Florence was a disciple of Pontoimo and 
Augelo Bronzuio. See pp 479-480 of the present volume (v ). 

P. 202 

Pope Pius IV died on December 13, in the year 1565. The 
Cardinal Sant' Augelo, Ranuccio Famese, had died in October of 
the same year. 

P. 203 

The Cardinal of Ferrara, of whom Vasari speaks here, is 
Tppolito d'Este, elected in 1538. He died in 1572. 

P. 205 

Jacopo Barozzi who is not to be mistaken for the well-known 
painter Fedengo Barocci of Urbino was born in 1507 at Vignola, 
near Modcna. 

P. 206* 
The castle of Caprarola is situated between Viterbo and Sntri 

Pp. 209-210 

The Cardinal Famese, here spoken of, is Alexander, nephew 
:>f Pope Paul HI. By Sant' Angolo is meant Rauuzio Farnewe. 
The "chamberlain Santa Fiore" is the Cardinal Giudo Afloamo 
Sforza; "the elder Salviati" IB the Cardinal Giovanni, who had 
3een elected by Pope Loo X. ; Chieti is 1he famotiH Cardinal 
3iovan Pietro Caraffa, who was Bishop of Chieti, and afterwards 
Pope Paul IV. ; Carpi is the Cardinal Ridolfo Pio of Carpi 

P. 213 

Annibale Caro's report has alno been pul/hVht'd among his 


letters (Epistolario) under date of November 21, 1562. This 
text is said to be a better one than tlie one published by Vasari, 

P 225* 

Vignola wrote also a treatise bearing the following title in the 
edition of Egnazio Danti, which appeared fourteen years after 
the architect's death : " Le due regole della prospettiva practica 
di niesser Jacomo Barozzi da Vignola, con i Commentarj del R. 
P. M Egnazio Danti dell' Ordmc de' Predicatori, matematico 
nello Studio di Bologna," Roma, 1587, 

Vasari does not speak again of Vignola in the life of Michel- 
angelo, as he here promises to do. When at Rome in the service 
of the Pope, Vignola constructed the church of Sant Andrea, near 
the Vigna di Papa G-iulio, and also several churches at Assisi, 
Perugia, and elsewhere. The church del Gesu at Rome w&s 
begun by him, but completed by Giacoma della Porta. King Philip 
II. of Spain invited him to enter his service, but he had to 
remain at Rome, where, after the death of Michelangelo, he had 
become the chief architect of St. Peter's. Among his earlier 
works may be mentioned the Ducal palace at Modena. Vignola 
died at Rome m July, 1573. 

P. 227 

Federigo Zucohero executed amongst other works the fresco- 
pamtmgs in the cupola of Florence Cathedral, after the death ol 
Vasari, who had begun them. These productions of but little 
merit were severely criticized, especially by Beuvenuto Cellini 
in his sonnets. They were completed in 1579 at a cost of 
70,000 lire. Federigo Zucchero afterwards visited Venice, the 
Netherlands, and England. A full account of the works he 
executed in England is given by H. Walpole in the " Anecdotes 
of Painting." After having returned to Rome he was called to 
Madrid by Philip 1C But lie had soon to return home, as hi& 
works did not satisfy the King. In his later years he worked 
at Turin, Milan, Loreto, Rimini, and Venice, and wrote a book 
about his travels, published in 1608 at Bologna, bearing the title, 
tk II passaggio per 1'Italia." Another work of his has the title, 
" Lamento dolla Pittura, e Lettere ai priucipi e aaiauti del Disegno." 
Federigo Zucchero died at Ancona in 1609 


[Born 1475 died 1564.] 

P. 227 

Michelangelo was still alive when Vasan issued the fii-ht 
ilition of these lives. In the second, which appeared after his 
eath, the account of the great artist's life is very much more 
omplete. In the meantime there had appeared an excellent 
fe of the master, written by Ascamo Coudi\i, a pupil and 
ersonal friend of Michelangelo. These two live.s by Vasari and 
Y Condivi have, with Michelangelo's own writings, always been 
ansidered the best authorities for our knowledge oHihe master. 

P. 229* 

It is not sufficiently proved that the Buonarroti family descends 
om the Counts of Canossa, ap has been shown by Marclieue 
iiuseppe Campori in his "Catalogo degli artisti italiani e 
jranicri negli stati Estensi," Modcna, 1855. 

p. 230" 

Marictte justly observes that Michelangelo would scarcely 
ave allowed Condivi to blame Domenico Ghirlandajo, Michel- 
agelo's master, m the way he lias done, if his own feelings had 
ut concurred. 

P. 233* 

The marble representing the head of an old Faun, ascribed to 
Eichelangelo, has lately been transferred from the Uflm Gallery 
> the Museo Nazionale. We have reason to believe that the 
orfc is of a somewhat later date, and not by the hand of Michel- 
ngelo, but rather done by some unknown sculptor who inspired 
imself by Vasari's description of the celebrated head, perhaps 
i order to replace the lost original. 

P. 234* 

The Casa Buonarroti has of late become a public museum 
ador the care of the municipality of Florence, 


P. 235 

Michelangelo's statue of Hercules is mentioned by Dan in 
1642 as being at Fontainebleau. (See * s Tremor des Merveilles 
de Fontainebleau.' 1 ) The garden in which it was placed was 
destroyed in 1713, and it is not known what has become of this 
valuable work. 

P. 236 

It is difficult to say which of the two kneeling angels in front 
of the tomb of San Domeuico is by the hand of Michelangelo. 
The opinions of late writers on Michelangelo are divided, and it is 
even doubtful whether eithci of the two statues of the monu- 
ment in its present state is Michelangelo's work. 

P. 237 

Michelangelo's statue of San Giovanni 1ms hitherto been con- 
sidered to be lost In 1875 a marble sjtatue vaguely answering 
tlie description of the original was fonnd at Pisa in the Casa 
Rossclmiui, and pronounced to be the original. It has of late 
been added to the Berlin Museum, bu/t the authenticity of the 
work is not generally admitted. 

P. 237J 

The statue of the Sleeping Cupid is ajt present in the Museum 
of Turin, where it has lately been re-disoroered. See Dr. Konrad 
Lanfre, " Der Cupido des Michelangelo m\ Turin," "Zeitschrift 
fiir Bildende Kuiwt," 1883. 

P. 238* 

The picture of St. Francis, afte/ Michelangelo's cartoon, is no 
longer to be found in the church of San Pi^ro in Montorio, at 

P. 238f 

The statue or Bacchus is now in the MusJeo Nazionale at 
Florence. The statue of Cupid which Michelangelo executed 
for Jacopo Galli seems to be mi&sing. The one! ascribed to the 
master at South Kensington Museum is generally believed to be 
the one to which Vasari here refers, but the execution of this 
work points to some inferior artist. 


P. 239* 

This is the only work of the master on which he had engraved 
his signature. He has placed it very conspicuously on the 
riband acro&s the Virgin's bosom. 

The remark of the Lombards, " Oar Hunchback of Milan," 
refers to the celebrated sculptor, Cnstoforo Solan, whose nick- 
name was "H Gobbo " (the hunchback). Vasari has some notes 
about him, vol iv., p 543, and vol. v,, p. 434. 

Pp. 239-240 

Vasari is satisfied with treating as "dullards' 1 those who 
maintained that Michelangelo had given the Virgin too youthful 
an appearance for the true age which he had allowed the Christ. 
Condivi, in liis life of Michelangelo, has given us $ae explanation 
which he had from Michelangelo himself. " Don't you know,'* 
he said, "that chaste women keep their youthful looks much 
longer than others ? Isn't this much more true in the case of a 
virgin who had never known a wanton desire, to leave its shade 
upon her beauty ! ... It is quite the contrary with the form of 
the ' Son of God,' because I wanted to show that he really took 
upon him human flesh, and that he bore all the miseries of man, 
yet without sin," 

P. 241* 

It appears, from documents in the archives of Santa Maria del 
Fiore, that the marble had been injured, not by Simone da 
Fiesole, but by Bartolommeo di Pietro, called Baceellino. It 
had been put aside for thirty-five years, when Michelangelo was 
intrusted with it, to use it for his statue of David. 

P. 241 f 

In 1873 the statue was removed from the Piazza deUa Signoria, 
where it had stood for more than three and a lialf centuries, to 
the Accademia dello Belle Arti, where it has been placed in the 
centre of a large cupola room, which serves as a Michelangelo- 
Museum of casts. 

P. 242f 

The Tondo, representing the Madonna with the Infant Christ 
and the Infant St. John, which is in the possession of the JRoyal 


Academy of Arts, London, is exhibited at the Diploma Gallery, 
Burlington House 

P. 242J 
This Tondo is now at the Mn^eo Nazionale of Florence. 

P. 242 

The sketched figure of St Matthew is in the courtyard of the 
Academy of Fine Arts, Florence. 

P 243 

The proper name of the Flemish merchants, whom Vasari 
calls Moscheroni, is Mouscron. The work which Michelangelo 
executed for them was not a cast in bronze, hut a btatue in 
marble. It is^n a chapel of the church Notre Dame at Bruges. 
A reference to it will be found in Durer's well-known Diary. 

P. 248f 

Two unfinished statues, representing male figures, are now in 
the Museo Nazionale, Florence. A group of four others, also 
unfinished, have been placed in the Giardmo Boboli, at the back 
of the Pitti Palace. 


The various letters written by Michelangelo on that occasion, 
will be found in Gaetano Milanesi, " Le Lettere di Michelangelo 
Buonarroti," Florence, 1875. 

P. 253* 

Michelangelo was occupied for two years in the casting of the 
Pope's statue, which, in February, 1508, was placed over the 
door of San Petronio. The model had been completed at the 
end of the year 1506 In the difficult task of casting he was 
assisted by Bernardino d' Antonio dal Ponte, of Milan, Chief of 
the Artillery of the Florentine Republic. See B. Podestfc, "La 
Statua di papa Gmlio II., in Bologna " (" Atti e Memorie della 
It. Deputazione di Storia, patria per le Provmcie di Romagna," 
Anno settimo, p. 121), See also, "G, Campori, Michelangelo 
Butanrroti e Alfonso I. d'Este" (*' Atti e Memorie della Depu- 
azioneo di Storia patria per le provincie del? Emilia," vol. vi ). 


P. 254 

Bramante, who was Raphael's countryman, was not also his 
kinsman, as Vasari asserts here. 

P 257* 

It appears from a note m Mou&ijpiorc Paride de' Grassi's 
" Cerimomale," or u Diario," that the scaffolding had not yet been 
removed in 1512, and that at the death of the Pope in 1513 the 
chapel could not yet be opened to the public. Some part-< of the 
decorations seem to have been completed m 1509. The second 
and most considerable portion of the vault was probably finished 
in 1512 or 1513, and it is difficult to understand how Vtisori 
could say that the whole work was finished within twenty 
months ; but it may be that he referred to the wliole that which 
only applies to the first half. 

P. 267 

Pope Julius ri. died in February, 1513, at which time Michel 
angelo was thirty -nine years of a ( ie, 

P 277 

Michelangelo returned to Florence in October, 1529, after 
having been absent for thirty days only. 

P. 277f 

The picture of the Leda, which was sent to France, cannot 
be traced. 

P. 278f 

The statue of Apollo has lately been removed to the MURCO 

P. 279* 

There is a cartoon representing Leda with the Swan in the 
Council Room of the Royal Academy of Arts, London, but this 
may rather be ascribed to Broxuino than to Michelangelo. (See 
Frizzoni, "L'Arte Italiana nella Galleria ITazionale di Londra," 
pp. 19-20.) The composition also differs from the description 
given above by Yasari. 


P. 280* 

The collection of drawings by Michelangelo, formerly at the 
Hague, in possession of the King of the Netherlands, has been 

P. 284* 

Tommaso (Maso) di Pietro Boscoli, of Fiesole, was born in 
1501, and died at Florence in 1574. Some of his works at 
Florence and at Rome ha^e been mentioned by Vasari in the 
life of Andrea Contucci, of Sansovmo, who was the master of 

P. 293* 

See also Milanesi's edition of Michelangelo's letters, p. 535. 
The model, constructed by Michelangelo, is still preserved at 
Home, in St. Peter's. 

P. 301 

The first edition of Vasari's Biographies of the artist, the so- 
called editio Torrentina, was published in March, 1551 (1550 
old style). 

P. 302 

The letters written by Michelangelo to Vasari are not faith- 
fully reproduced by the latter. He arranged and abbreviated 
them according to the purposes he had here in view. A com- 
plete reproduction of the originals will be found in Mdanesi's 
edition of Michelangelo's letters (Florence, 1875). 

P^. 305-306 

The construction of the bridge Santa Maria was entrusted 
to Kanni Bigio in Tuly, 1551. Michelangelo had been engaged 
in the work during the la&t months of the year 1548 and early in 

P. 310 

Mcsser Eraldo, Michelangelo's physician, is the celebrated 
Eealdo Colombo. There is a letter by Michelangelo, addressed 
to Yasari, written in May, 1557, m which he really shows his 
intention of making a secret visit to Florence, on horseback. 
(See Milanesi's edition of Michelangelo's letters. No. 482.) 


P. 311* 

The full name of Michelangelo's servant, who by trade was a 
stonecutter, was Francesco di Bernardino dell Amadore, or 
Amadori. He wa, 1 * u native of Castel Duranic, in the State of 
TJrbmo (hence his surname), and died at Rome in 1555. 

P. 31 3f 

A close examination of these %ures gives evidence that 
Vasari was n^htin saving that they are not finished, especially 
at their backs. 

P. 314 s 

The group was sent to Florence, and in 172*2 placed under 
the cupola of the Cathedral, where it is still to be seen. 

P. 314f 

It is not known what has become of this smaller group 
PIITO (not Pievo) Ligorio, of Naples, architect and compiler 
of several books on the antiquities of Rome. 

P. 3d$ 

In March, 1560, Vasari came to Rome with the Cardinal 
Giovanni do' Medici 

P. 326* 

The title of the publication is . *' Ragionuiuonti del Signer 
Giorgio VttHari, piLtore c arehitetto aretino, aopi*a le invention! 
da lui dipinte in Firenze ncl pnlazzo <li loro Altexze Serenmsime," 
Florence, 1588. It has been reprinted in the eighth volume of 
MilancHi's new edition of Vasari (Florence, 18H2 j. 

P, 329* 
The bu,st of BrutiiH in now in tlio MUHQO Nassionale at Florence. 

P, 330* 

The church of San Giovanni de' Fiorentim wap completed l)y 
Carlo Maderna and Alonhundro (xalilei, who constructed the 
facade in the time of Pope Clemens XII. The chapel at 
Santa Maria Maggiore was eomi)letc<l by Giacomo della Porta. 


The Cardinal di Santa More, who had ordered it, was Guido 
Ascanio Sforza. 

P. 331f 

Gabrio, or Agahrio Serbelloni not Scierbellone, as Vasari 
has it was a relative of Pope Pius IY. 

P. 333* 

The inventory of all the things left by Michelangelo has been 
published by Grotti, " Vita di Michelangelo Buonarroti," vol. ii., 
p. 148. 

P. 333f 

Michaelargelo died, not on the seventeenth, but on the 
eighteenth of February, 


A few of the drawings here mentioned are in the Royal 
Library, Windsor Castle. 

P. 339 

Giov. Morelli (" Italian Masters in German Galleries," p. 125- 
127) writes thus on Michelangelo's character 

" Michaelangelo was sprang from a patrician family of Florence, 
and had grown np in a rich and splendid, but politically distracted 
city, at a time when moral character was on the decline "With 
hig lofty, proud, and independent nature, he soon became dis- 
gusted with the want of principle and the idle pleasure- 
hunting of his contemporaries. This disposition of mind wo find 
already expressed in his celebrated ' David , ' it increased with 
years, and, especially after the fall of the republic at Florence, 
found its strongest expression in his well-known versos on the 
M attic of 'Night/ 111 at ease, he at an early age withdrew from 
the world, to live entirely to his art. He was, at bottom, like 
Correggio, of a simple and pure nature. Michelangelo's whole 
cabt of mind belonged rather to the age of Dante j yet, as a phe- 
nomenon, and because he worked chiefly for popes, and in the 
two intellectual capitals of Italy as it then was, Rome and 
Florence, he had a far more direct and powerful influence on his 
contemporaries than would have been the case otherwise." 


Pp. 343-344 

Maestro Antonio Bigarmo, of Modena, is better known by the 
name of Begarelli. 

P. 358 

As to Yalerio Cioli, of Settignano, see Baldinuccrs work, 

P. 359 

The two artists Lazzaro and Andrea Calaincc, of Florence, went 
in later years to Messina, where woiks by them are still to be 
found. Lazzaro was the more distinguished of the two. 

P. 360 

The proper name of the Florentine painter, Piero Frani'ia, as 
Vasari call? him here, was Piorlranecsco d'Jacr^o cli Domcnieo 
Toflchi. lie is mentioned atao 111 the life of Andrea del Sarto. 

Battista del Cavalierc, the son of Domcnieo Lorcnxi da Settig- 
nano, was a pupil of Baudiuelli. 

Andrea del Mintja was a pupil of Kidolfo del Obirlandajo. 
Vasari speaks of him again in his notes about the Academicians, 
as he does also with Antonio di (rino Lorenxi. 

P. 3(11 

About Butteri, the pupil of Bronzino, see Baldinucci, x,, 
p. 144. 

P. 363 

Battista I^Taldini, the disciple of Pontormo, i,s alo mentioned 
by Vasari in the life of the latter artiht. 

P. 364* 

Giovanni Striidano of Bruges, born in 1/336, died in 1605. For 
ten years he was staying with Voaari. 

P. 366 

In his notes about the Academicians Yasari speaks again of 
Tommaso d' Antonio Manzuoli, call(d Muso di Sail Friano, and 
alao of Stefano Fieri* 

Benedetto Vrclu f s Hpccch hart been publwhcd ai. Florence, hi 
1564 : " Oraziono funerulc fatta o recitata uell 1 eae<iuio di Michel- 


angelo Buonarroti in Firenze nella chiesa di San Lorenzo, indiritta 
al inolto magmfico e reverendo monsignoie raesscr Vineenzio 
Borghini, Pnore degl' Inuocenti." Next to Vasari's and Con- 
di vi's lives of Michelangelo, it is one of the principal sources of 
our knowledge of the master. Salviati's speech has been printed 
at Florence in the same year. 

P. 369 

The several epitaphs have also been published at Florence in 
the same year " Poesic di diversi autori latim e vulgari, fatte 
nella morte di Michelagnolo Buonarroti, raccolte per Domenico 

P. 370f 

See also L Passerim, " La Bibliografia di Michelangelo Buo- 
narroti e gli incisori delle sue opere," Florence, 1875. This 
gives nearly complete lists of all publications on the artist, with 
short criticisms of the contents. The following are the best 
lives written within the last few years , Aurelio Gotti, " Vita di 
Michelangelo Buonarroti, narrata coll' ajuto di Nuovi Document!," 
two volumes, Florence, 1875; Hermann Grimm, " Leben Michel- 
angelo " (several German, English, and Italian editions), Berlin, 
London, and Milan; Springer, "Leben Michelangelo's und 
Raphael's," Leipzig. 


[Born 1504 died 1570.] 

P. 371. 

Distinguished members of Primaticcio's family are mentioned 
in Alberti's " Storia di Bologna." Malvasia's account of Prima- 
ticcio's life is based on the one here given by Vasari, but he has 
made it more complete. See " Felsina Pittrice," vol. i., p. 123 
foU. (ed. 1841). 

P. 371* 

Primaticcio went to Mantua in 1525, and stayed there till the 
year 1531. (See D'Arco, " Storia della Vita e delle Opere di 
Criulio Pippi," Mantua, 1838, p. 36.) 



The copies in bronze after the antique, wliicli had been exe- 
cuted in Rome under the directions of Primaticcio, were placed 
in the garden of the Tuilcnes and of other royal castles They 
are at present in the Pavilions Denon and Dam of the Louvre. 

P. 872J: 

See also J. Vatout, " Le Palais do Fontainebleau, son Ili&toire 
et &a Description," Paris, 1852; E. Jamm, fc< Fontainebleau, ou 
Notice Historique et Descriptive sur cette Residence Royale," 
Fontamcbleau, 1838. About the other works executed by Pri- 
maticcio m the service of French kings, see Villot, u Police des 
Tableaux du Musee du Louvre." 

P. 374 

Domenico del Barbicre, of Florence, where he was bom at 
the beginning of the sixteenth century, was a painter, sculptor, 
architect, and engraver on copper as well (See A. Bubcau, 
" Dominique Florentin Sculpteur dn seizjeme siccle," m *' Reunion 
des SociettSs Savantes des Departcments a, la Horbomie, Section 
des Beaux Arts," Paris, Plon, 1877. 

P. 376f 

Prospero di Silvio Fontuna was born in 1512, and died in 
1597. (fcseo Uualandi, "Memoricdi Belle Arti," iii., p 181.) 

P. 376 

Pellegrino di Tibaldo de' Pellegrini, commonly called Pelle- 
grino Tibaldi, was born about the year 1532. A detailed account 
of his works is given in the new edition of Malvasia's " FeMna 
Pittrice" (Bologna, 1841). 

P. 370 

Jacopone da Faenza, or Jucopo Bertucci, was born towards 
the end of the fifteenth century. He died about the year 1580. 
(See Gian. Marcello Valgimigli, u Dci Pittori e degli Artiti 
Faentini," Faenza, 1871. Vasari mentions him, too, in the life 
of Zucchcro. 

Pp. 379-380. 

Luca Longhi was born in 1507, and died in 1580. (See Lues 
LongM, "Tn^trnto dalconto Alessandro Cappi," Ravenna, 1853. 


Livio Agresti, a pupil of Perm del Vaga, died about the year 
1580. He is also mentioned in the life of Zucchero. 

P 381 

Giovanni <U Tonimaso Boscoli, of'Montepulciano, sculptor and 
architect, was born about the year 1524. He died in 1589. 
See A. Konchini, " Giovanni Boseoh e la Pillotta " (" Atti e 
Memorie delle RR. Deputazioni di storia patria per le provincie 
Modenesi e Parmensi," vol. vii.). 

P 382 

Bartolommeo di Bartolomraco Passerotti was born in Bologna 
about the year 1530, and died there m 1492. (See Gualandi, 
" Memorie," seric hi. e iv.) 

[Born 1477 died 1576.] 

P. 382f 

See also Crowe and Cavalcaselle, "Life and Times of Titian," 
where use is made of valuable publications of documents and 
Icfctei s, which have of late been brought to light, especially from 
Spanish archives. 

P. 382 

According to Dolce, " Dialogo della Pittura," Titian was sent 
to Venice by his father at the early age of nine years. His 
uncle Antonio sent him to Sebastiano Zuccato in order to be 
taught the art of painting. This painter sent him to Gentile 
Bellini. But Titian went soon afterwards to Giovanni Bellini, 
and finally to Giorgione. With reference to these statements, 
Signer Morelli observes ("Italian Masters in German Galleries," 
pp. 41, 42) : " I agree with these statements, except that I 
would fain leave out Giovanni Bellini. Little as I admire the 
moral character of Titian, I should find it very painful to admit 
that the aged Bellini, from whom young Titian so greedily, and 
with so much intriguing, snatched away his pension of the Sen- 
geria (salt office), in 1513, had ever been his master. Whether 
Titian learned the rudiments of his art from Antonio Rosso, 

VOL. V.] TITIAN. 289 

fitom Sebastiano Zuccato, of from Gentile or Giovanni Bellini, 
is a question of no great historical importance. What cannot 
be denied is the influence of Giorgione, which is so manifest in 
the works of his youth, that many pictures by Titian of that 
period (1504 1512) have been attributed to his master and 
model, Giorgione. 

" In 1505 Titian appears to have been still an assistant of 
Giorgione ; and we are informed by the Anonymns Morellianus, 
that, in 1511, on Giorgione's death, Titian completed several 
unfinished works of his master and friend." 

P 383* 

The date here given is now admitted to be probably correct, 
since Titian was a follower, not a pupil of Giorgione. It is not 
known what has become of the portrait here described. 

P. 384* 

Titian's wall paintings on the Fondaco de' Tedeschi have 
perished in the course of time, as well as those by Giorgione. 

The picture of the Ecee Homo was bought in 1620 for the 
Duke of Buckingham. It is now in the Belvedere Gallery, 

The picture of the Angel Raphael with Tobit is still in the 
church of San Marzialo (not San Marziliano). 

P. 385 

The fresco paintings at Vicenza and at Venice, on the por- 
ticoes of the Grimani Palace, have periled. The picture of St. 
Mark with other saints is at Venice, in the sacristy of the 
church of S. Maria della Salute. 

P. 386 

The picture by Giovanni Bellini, representing a Bacchanalian 
feast, is now at Alnwick Castle, in the collection of the Duke of 

P. 387* 

Compare J. P. Kichter, " Italian Art at the National Gallery ," 
pp. 85, 86. The companion picture is at Madrid, in the Museo 
del Prato. 

The picture, here described as representing a " wicked Hebrew 


showing to Jesus the coin of C:t?sar " is the well-known " Cristo 
della Moneta" of the Dresden Gallery. Tt is signed " TICIANVS." 
" (Nearly all the early works of the master till about 1522- 
1524 are signed Ticianos, not Titianus.) Messrs. Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle place this painting in the year 1508 ("Vita di 
Tiziano," &c.), Vasari in 1514. I do not know any other picture 
of Titian's that is executed with so much care and love as this 
noble and profoundly conceived head of Christ. It is painted on 
the Van Eyck method, as may still be seen at one spot on the 
neck of the Christ, where the glazing has come off. It is asserted 
that the M Tribute-penny " was painted for Duke Alphonso of 
Ferrara, a matter which I am content to leave alone. This much 
seems certain, that the picture was only bought by Alphonso IV. 
or Francis I. of Este, and in that way came first into the Gallery 
of Modena, a*id thence to Dresden, among the "hundred 
pictures." (See G. Morelli, " Italian Masters in German Galleries," 
pp. 171-172.) 

The picture of the Shepherd, to whom a Peasant Girl offers a 
Flute, is in the Doria Gallery at Borne. An excellent copy of 
it by the hand of Palma Vec^ hio is in the collection of Lord 

P. 388f 
This celebrated woik was executed in the year 1519. 

P. 389 

The picture containing the portrait of the Doge Andrea Gritti 
was destroyed by fire in 1797. 

P 389f 
All these portraits were destroyed by fire in 1577. 

P. 389J 

This picture perished by fire in 1867. The preparatory draw- 
ing for it is m tbe print-room of the British Museum. 

P. 390* 

An old copy of the picture representing the battle of Cadore 
(not of Chiaradadda, as Vasari says), is in the Uilizi Gallery at 

VOL. V.] TITIAN. 291 

-P. 390t 

The large picture of the Disciples at Emmaus is now in tlio 
Louvre at Paris. 

Pp. 390-391 

The two pictures by Titian and by Pordenone have not left the 
church of San Giovanni Elemosynano. The one by Titian \\iis 
painted in 1 533. 

P 391 J 

The copy in the Louvre is supposed to be by Battista Franco. 
It is not by Titian. 

P. 391 

The portrait of Davalos, surrounded by allegorical figures, 
is in the Louvre. Pietro Aretino was pamte4 by Titian at 
least six times. One of these portraits is in the Pitti Gallery at 

P. 391 

The twelve heads of Roman Emperors have been copied by 
Agostini Caracci and by Bernardino Campi. The latter ones 
are in the Museum at Naples. The originals, which are lost, 
were painted in 1537 and 1538. 

P. 392* 

The authenticity of this picture has been doubted by Messrs. 
CJrowe and Cavalcaselle. 

P. 892 

The very fine portrait of Pope Paul III. is in the Museum of 
Naples, and the portrait of Francesco Maria, Duke of Urbino, is 
in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence. The pen-and-ink drawing for 
this picture is in the collection of Signer Morelli at Milan Tn 
the Uffizi Gallery there are, besides, two portraits of the Duchess 

P. 392f 

The Venus by Titian in the Uffiai Gallery reminds us of 
Ctiorgione's similar representation in the Dresden Gallery, which 
for a long time was mistaken for a work of Titian's. 

The principal reason of this re-lwptiwm may be Boujrhl in the 


circumstance that the celebrated Venus of Titian (No. 1117 in the 
Tribune of the Uffizi), having come to Florence with the Duchess 
Vittoria della Kovere of Urbino, and being thus open to the ad- 
miration of connoisseurs, was generally found almost identical 
with the Venus by Giorgione. And m truth this nude female 
figure reposing on a couch, by Titian, is nothing but a copy of 
the Dresden Venus, only modified in the upper part of the body. 
The features of this so-called Venus at Florence are, it is well 
known, identical with those of young Eleonora Gonzago (wife of 
the Duke Francesco Maria della Rovere), whose portrait by 
Titian, as Bella di Tiziano, we see at the Pitti Palace, No. 18 ; 
in the portrait painted from life her individuality is more marked 
than in the Venus -picture. Is it not very probable that the Duke, 
who doubtless knew the celebrated Venus in the Casa Marcella, 
commissioned Ws friend Titian to copy it for him, and to put the 
countenance of his adored Eleonora in the place of the sleeping 
Venus-head of Giorgione ? In this simple way the riddle would 
be solved (G. Morelli, "Italian Masters in German Galleries," 
p. 167). 

P. 394 

The portrait of Titian painted by himself is in the Uffizi 
Gallery at Florence. A replica of it is in the Berlin Museum. 

Pp. 394-395 

Titian came to Rome in October, 1545, and visited Florence 
in the summer of 1546. 

P. 395 

The picture of the Allocution painted for Del Vasto is now at 
Madrid, in the Museo del Prado. It is not in a good state of 

The two pictures painted for the chnrch San Salvadore are 
still m their places. 

P. 396 

In 1538 Titian visited the emperor's court at Augsburg. The 
portrait of Charles V. in the gallery of Monaco bears the date of 
that year. 

P. 397f 

The pictures of Prometheus, of Sisyphus, and of Tityg 
perished in the fire of the palace del Pardo. 

VOL. v.] iiriAx. 203 

P. 397J 

The picture by Titian, representing Diana and Actaeon, in 
the Bridgewater Gallery, London, is certainly by Titian's own 
hand. Tlie equally large picture of Europa on the Bull, is at 
Cobhani Hall, mtlie collection of the Earl ofDarnley. 


This is the Christ crowned wiLh Thorns in the Louvre Gallery, 
a late work of the master. The pictures enumerated hereafter 
are still in their place. 

Pp. 400-401. 

Few of the portraits and compositions here described have 
as yet been identified. The picture begun fo^ the Doge Gri- 
inam is the lar^e canvas called La Fede in the Sala delie quattro 
porte of the Palazzo Ducale at Venice. Tt was begun in 1544, 
and finished by his assistants after his death There ih in the 
National Gallery, London, an eaily work of Titian's, representing 
Our Saviour appearing to Mary Magdalen, but the figures are 
smaller than life size. 

The picture of the Entombment is in the Louvre Gallery. 

P. 402* 

Jan van Calcar died in 1546. A beautiful portrait by him 
is in the Louvre Gallery. 

P. 406 

The very fine altar-piece by Paris Bordone is in the church of 
Santa Maria presso San Celso (not San Celso, as Yasan says) at 

P. 406f 
Paris Bordone died in 1570. 

P. 408* 

The portrait of Bembo at the Uffizi bears tihe signature, 
<c Fs. et Valerius Zuccatus von. f. 1541." 

P. 408 
For Bartolommeo Bozzato we have to read Girolatno Bozza* 

294 NOTES ON VASAEI. [?OL. 7. 

[Bom 1486 died 1570] 

P. 409* 

According to Milanesi the Tatti family lived in Poggibonsi, 
not in Lucca, as Vasari says. The father was a mattress- 
maker, Jacopo was born m I486, according to the entries iii the 
baptismal registers of Florence, which are supported by subse- 
quent .statements of Jacopo's father in municipal documents. 

P. 409 

Vasari in stating here that Jacopo Sansovino and Michel- 
angelo Buonarroti were born at Florence in the same Via 
Ghibelhna, seems to forget that m the life of the latter he had 
said that Michelangelo was born at Caprese in the Casentino. 

P. 415* 

The statue of Bacchus by Sansovino is now in the Museo 
Nazionale at Florence. 

Pp. 416-417 

Jacopo Sansovino took great offence at having been excluded 
from executing with Michelangelo the facade of the church of 
San Lorenzo. In 1517 he addressed an insulting letter about 
this affair to Michelangelo. A portion of it has been published 
by A. Gotti, " Vita di Michelangelo Buonarroti," vol. i., p. 136. 

P, 417* 

This is one of the few works of artistic merit which are popu- 
larly venerated as working miracles. 

P. 421 

The palace of Messer Giovanni Delfino is now the Palazzo 
Manin. In the course of time it has been much altered. Only 
the facade by Sansovino is left intact. 


P. 423 

The statue of St. John the Baptist is still to be found in the 
church of Santa Maria de' Frari. 

The statues of Neptune and Mars are placed in front of the 
Doge's palace. The Scala de* Giganti has its name from them. 

P. 424* 
There are also four statues of the Evangelists by Sansovino. 

P. 429f 

See also Milanesi's edition, Florence, 1881, vol. vii., pp. 513* 

[Born ] 309 died 1592.] 

P. 429 

See Leone Leoni d'Arezzo, scultore, e Giov. Paolo Lomazzo, 
Pittore Milanese, Nuove Biccrche del Dott. Carlo Cusati ; Milan r 

The name of Leoni'B master is not known. Ho seems to 
have come early to Rome, where he is known to ha\ e hold the 
office of engraver at the papal mint from 1538 until 1540, About 
his medals see A, Armand, Lea M^dailleur-H Italians. In 1549 
he left Italy, and stayed for a short time at tho court of the 
Emperor Charles V, at Brussels, and again in 1551 and m 

P. 430 

The equestrian statue of the Emperor Charles V M by Leone 
Leoni, is in the garden of Buen Retiro, at Madrid. It was 
ordered in 1549, and completed in 1552. 

The statues in marble of the Emperor Charles V. and of his 
Empress Isabella are now in the Royal Academy of San Ferdi- 
nando ; the bust of tho Emperor is at the now palace, and the two 
large bronze medallions are in the garden of Buen Retiro, at 


What Vasari calls here the ** palazzo di Brindisi " is a mutila- 
tion of the Spanish name of the place, Binche or Bins. This 
palace was inhabited by Queen Maria, widow of King Louis II. 
of Hungary. 

P. 433 

It is not known when Pompeo Leoni was born. He was 
much engaged as a sculptor in Spain : in 1570 at Madrid, in 
1571 at Toledo, in 1579 at the EscuriaL From 1582 until 1592 
he was staying at Milan, where a great number of statues, 
especially of the royal family, were executed by him. He died 
at Madrid in 1610. He had collected many works of art and 
curiosities. Part of his property was publicly sold at Madrid 
after his death L some works which had belonged to it being 
afterwards purchased by Charles the First, when as Prince of 
Wales he visited Spain. Pompeo Leoni's name appears on the 
cover of two of the most important volumes containing drawings 
"by Leonardo da Vinci : the Codex Atlanticus at Milan, and a 
volume m the Royal Library, Windsor Castle. 

P. 435 

The statue of Santa Catcriua by Guglielmo dclla Porta is now 
in the Academy of Fine Arts at Geneva. 

P. 438 

Guglielmo della Porta executed at Rome several other works 
of minor importance. He died in 1577, 

Pp. 439-440 

Nanni di Baccio Bigio is mentioned on various occasions in 
the life of Michelangelo Buonarroti. He it was who by his 
ignorance caused the breakdown of the Ponte Santa Maria, now 
called Ponte Rotto. 

P. 442 

Gnleazzo Alessi constructed at Milan the fagade of the church 
of Santa Maria presso San Celso, not of San Celso, as Vasari 



Pp. 442-443 

Rocco Gruerrini was born at Marradi during the first half of 
the sixteenth century. After having studied at Florence he 
entered the service of the Duke of Ferrara. In 1541 and 1542 
he was in Africa with the army of Charles V. Leaving the 
Spanish service, he entered in 1564 the French army, and went 
soon afterwards to Germany. The fortresses of Spandau, 
Custrin, Wiirzburg, and Augustusburg were constructed after 
his plans and under his directions. The Counts of Linar, in 
Prussia, are his descendants. 

[Born 1498 died 1578,] 

P. 443 

According to the researches of Ivan Kukuljevic, the com- 
patriot of Clovio, who published a life of the artist in the 
Jllyrian language (German translation, 1852) his real name was 
Glovicie ; he was born at Grissune. 

P. 445* 

A picture of this subject, ascribed to Titian, is in the church 
of Sant' Afra at Brescia. 

P. 445 

The monastery of Candiana is situated in the province of 


Pp. 445-44(5 

It is not known when Clovio entered the service of the 
Cardinal Farnese, but it appears from a letter by Caro that in 
1543 he was in the cardinal's house. See the article on Giulio 
Clovio, by Eonchini, in " Atti e Memorie della Deputazione di 
Storia Patria per le Proviacie Modenesi e Pannensi," vol. iii. 

P. 447* 

The volume is not in the Museum at Naples. It is asserted 
that it is now in the possession of the exKing of Naples. 



In the Pitti Gallery there is a Deposition from the Cross by 
Govio, bearing the signature, " Julius Clovius Macedo Facie- 
bat." It is painted on parchment, He was staying at Florence 
in 1553. 

P 450 

Giulio Govio came to Florence in 1553, with the intention of 
leaving the service of the Cardinal Farnese. From the year 
1560 until his death he was staying at Rome. 


Pp. 453-454 

Nearly all the pictures by Sicciolante, here described by 
Vasari, are still to be found at the various places for which they 
were originally destined. 

Pp. 454-455 

Marcello Yenusti was not of Mantua, as Vasari says, but of 
Como. (See Bertolotti, "Artisti Lombard! a Roma.") He died 
in 1579. 

P. 45(5 

Very little is known about Jacopo del Conte. See Mariotfci, 
"Lettere Pittoriche perugine," page 230. 

P. 457 

Cesare del Nebbia was a pupil of Muziano. He died at the 
age of seventy -two, during the pontificate of Pope Paul V. 


P. 458 

The notes about these artists, although interesting, have 
naturally no authoritative value. At the end of this chapter 


Vasari names Ms informer, Domenico Lampsonio of Liege, He 
has ateo made use of Luigi Guiceiardmi's " Descrizione dei Pacsi 
Basst " It does not seem to be necessary to correct here all the 
blunders committed by Vasari on the few pages treating of 
Northern artists. It will suffice here to point out as the latest and 
most trustworthy history of the respective schools Woltmann 
and Woermann's "History of Painting*' (G-erman and English 

P. 458J 

Lodovico (Ludwig) da Lovanio is an unknown name. Nor 
is it possible to say who is meant by Luven Fiamrningo. 

P 45S 
Petrus Christus or Christi, not Chris tophson. 

P. 460|| 

Heinrich of Dinant, z.e., Henry met de Bles, called in Italy H 
Civetta, because he used to introduce an owl (civetta) in his 

P. 460 

By Lancelotto is meant Lancelot Blondel of Bruges. Hero 
Cock ssauds for Pieter Koek of Alost. 

P. 462f 
Hans Bol, not Bolz. 

P. 462ft 

By Marina of Siressa is meant Marinus (Seeuw) van Koymers- 
walc, of Ziericksee, by whom there is a picture in the National 
Gallery, London. 


P. 467 
Angiolo di Cosimo di Mariano, called II Bronaino, was born at 


Monticelli, one of the suburbs of Florence, in 1502, and died in 

P. 468 

The picture here described as being in the church of the 
Trinitfc. at Florence is now in the Gallery of the Accademia delle 
Belle Arti. 

P. 469 

The portraits of Bartolommeo Panciatichi and his wife are 
now in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. 

P. 469* 

The engraving after the picture of the Birth of Christ is by 
Giorgio MarUipvano. 

P. 471* 

A very fine portrait of the Duchess is in the collection of Sir 
Kichard Wallace, Hertford House, London. 

P. 471 

The Allegory painted for the King of France is now in the 
National Gallery, London. Bronzino apparently intends to 
give the spectator a lesson of the worthles&ness of life. We 
here coine in contact with the pessimistic tendencies of the 
artist's time, and it becomes very apparent that the poetic 
sentiment and the naioeti of feeling which had inspired Florentine 
artists in progressing ascendancy during more than two centuries 
has passed away. 

P. 473 

The picture of Christ appearing to Mary Ma<rdalene, painted 
for Giovambattista Cavalcanti in the church of 8anto Spirito, is 
now in the Louvre Gallery at Pans. 

P. 474 

Bronzino's and Pontormo's paintings in the church of San 
Lorenzo have been destroyed. 

P. 477* 
Alessandro di Cristoforo di Lorenzo Allori was born in 1535, 


and died in 1601. His father*Ci'ibtoforo was born in 1577, and 
died in 1621. More details about both these artists will be 
found m Baldinucci. 

P 478+ 

Giovammaria Butteri was bora about the year 1 550, and died 
in 1606. (See Baldinucci, vol. x , 144 ) 

P 478 

Cristofano dell' Altrisaimo went to Como in July, 1552, and in 
May of the following year he had already completed the copies 
of twenty-four portraits in the gallery of Giovio. The whole 
series was completed in 1556. (SeeGaye, "Carteggio," vol ii., 
pp. 389-92, 401-2, 412-414; Gualandi, "Lettere Pittoriehc," i. 
371.) From Alessandro Lamo we learn that Bernardino Campi 
copied the same series at the same time for iJbnna Ippohta 
Gonzaga. Cri&tofano dell' Altissimo died in 1605. The date of 
his birth is not known. 

P. 479f 

Stefano Fieri was born in 1542. In 1576 he was at the court 
of William Duke of Bavaria. There is an Assumption by him 
in the church of San Prassede at Home, He died in 1629. 
Lorenzo Voiani della Sciorina died in 1598. 

P, 479J 

Battista Naldini, born 1537, died 1591. Francesco Moraldini 
da Poppi, born 1544, died 1597. 

P. 480* 

Manzuoli died in 1571. 

The Christian name of Carlo del Loro is Pontelli. He died 
in 1574. 

Pp. 480-481 

Andrea di Mariotto del Minga, who is also mentioned in the 
life of Bandinelli, died in 1596. A picture by him, representing 
Christ in the Garden, is in the church of Santa Croce at Florence. 

P, 481* 
Girolamo di Francesco di Mariotto Macchietti Crocifissajo was 


born in 1534, and died in 1592. f Mirabello, the son of Antonio 
Oavalori or Cavori, called Salinuoino, died in 1572. 

Federigo di Lamberto (Susterman) was born at Amsterdam 
in 1524, and died at Florence m 1591. 

P. 481f 

Bernardo Timante Buontalenti was born in 1536, and died in 

Pp. 482-483 

Bernardino di Porfirio of Leccio executed the table here 
described in 1562. He died in 1601. 

P. 483 

Jan van der Straat, or Giovanni della Strada, as Vasari calls 
him, commonr/ called Stradanus. was born at Bruges in 1523 ; he 
died in 1605. For more details about him see Baldinucd's work. 

P. 484* 

Jacopo Zucchi was born about the year 1541, he died about 

P. 484f 

Santo di Tito Tidi was bom at Borgo a San Sepolcro in 1536. 
He studied under Bronzino and Bandinello, and became one of 
the best Florentine painters of the second half of the sixteenth 
century. He died at Florence in 1603. 

P. 485 

Alessandro di Vicenzo Fei, called del Barbiere, was born in 
1542. He studied under Ridolfo del Ghirlandajo, and died in 

Pp. 486-487 

Benvenuto Cellini was born in 1500, and died in 1571. The 
first of the numerous editions of his Autobiography appeared in 
1730 at Florence. 

P. 488 

Francesco, the son of Giuliano da San Gallo, was born in 1494, 
and died in 1576. 


Pp. |88-489 
Bartolommeo Atnanuato was born in 1511, and died in 1592. 

P. 489 

The family name of Battista del Benedetto was Fiammeri 
He is generally called Battista dell' Auimanneto. 

P. 489* 
Vincenzo de' Rossi was born in 1525, he died in 1587. 

P. 490 

Francesco Camilliani, the son of the sculptor Giovanni di 
Niccolo, who was called della Camilla, died in 1586. 

P. 491* 

Giovanni Bologna, or Jean de Boulogne, was born about th 
year 1524; he died in 1608. 

P. 492f 
Vincenzo Danti was born in 1530, and died in 1576. 


The basso-relievo representing Moses raising the Serpent ia 
the Wilderness, and the other mentioned immediately before, 
which were both executed by Danti ibr the Duke Cosimo, arc 
now in the Museo Nazionale at Florence. 

P. 494f 

Ignazio Danti was born in 1536, and died in 1586. About hia 
scientific works, nee Jodoco del Badia, " Rassegna Nazionale," 
1881 (Sept and Nov.). 

Pp. 495-496 
The pictures here described are still in existence. 

P. 497 

Antonio di Gino Lorenzi died in 1583. 
Stoldo di Gino Lorenzi was born in 1534, and died in 1583, 
Move details about him will be found in Borphini's ** Kiposo." 

304 NOTES Otf ViSAEI. [VOL. V 


Battista di Domenico Lorenzi was born in 1527, and died in 
1594. Giovanni di Benedetto, the pupil of Bandinelli, died ia 

Pp. 498-499 
Valerio Cioli was born about the year 1529, and died in 1599. 

P. 499* 
Now the Garden of the Palace of the King of Italy. 

P. 500 

Giovanni di Paolo di Giovanni Fancelli, called Giovanni dt 
Stocco, died in 158(5. 

Zanobi di Bernardo Lastricati was born in 1508, and died in 



[Born 1511 died 1574.] 

P. 501* 
Vasari was born on July 30, 1511. 

P. 505* 

See also voL viii. of Milanesi's edition of Vasari's writings, 
Florence, 1882. 

P. 530* 

It is stated that, when Michelangelo became informed of the 
fact that Yasari had executed these pictures within a hundred 
days, he observed: "J5T si conosce" meaning, "I am not 

P. 540 

The name of ihe daughter of the Aretine citizen Francesco 
Bacci, whom Vasari married, was Mccolosa. A medal with her 
portrait has been struck by Pastorino da Siena. 


In February, 1-3-J9, Elconora di Toledo, the wife of Cosimo, 
bonght from the Pitti family the famous palace which still 
be.iis that name, for the sum of 9000 florins.. Bui as there was 
still some work to be done there, the Duke with his family 
continued to live in the Palazzo Vecchio, of %\hii'h he had taken 
possession in 1J40. 

P. 547* 
See also vol. viii. of Milanesi's edition, Florence, 1882. 

P. 550 

Yasan refers here to the marriage of Prince Francosco with 
the Archduchess of Aubtua, the daughiei of the 







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CHARTRES : The Cothcrliol and Other Churchei, By H. T. L. T. MAbSl M.A. 
WONT ST. MICHEL By H. /. L. J. MASS^, M.A. .* 

na.wvn ivirv*vn.>r* >.....,,. ,_.. _ T . ', . 

The Best Practical Working Dictionary of the 

English Language. 








The Appendices comprise a Pronouncing Gazetteer Oi the Wotld, 
Vocabularies of Scripture, Greek, Latin, and Engksh Proper Names, 
a Dictionary of the Noted Names of Fiction, a Brief History of the 
English Language, a Dictionary of Foreign Quotations), Words, Phrases, 
Vroverbs, &c, a Biographical Dictionary with 10,000 names, &c,, &c. 

Br. I&ETRttAT) Editor of the 'Ot/oul English Dvttanaty* says 'In this its 
latest form, and with iis laiqr implement ami numeious appendices, it is a wondeiful 
volume, which well maintains Us piound atjanisL all riv.ils on Its own lines, The ' defini- 
tions,' 01 motcpiopeil}, 'explanations of mcinin^' m 'Webster' have always struck m<s 
as ptj ticularly leri>e and well-put, and it i 1 - lintd to sec how dnything better could bo 
done within the limits. 1 

No one who has not e-MiTmnul tta work cai cfully -would believe that such a vast amount 
of lexicographical infoirnation could possibly be found within so wnall a compass.' 

Jjev. JOSBrH WOOD, D D. Heitd Master oj Harrow, says 'I have always 
thought \ery highly of Us merits Indt.d, I consider it to bo far the mos>t accurate 
English "Dictionary in existence, and much raoie reliable than the "Century." For 
daily and houily refeicnce, "Webstex " stems to me unuvalled ' 

Prospectuses, wi1h Pyues and Specimen Pages ; on Application. 


Full f&rlhulars on application.