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THE 



LIVES 



OF 



THE PURITANS: 



CONTAINING 



A BIOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT OF THOSE DIVINES WHO 
DISTINGUISHED THEMSELVES IN THE CAUSE 



OF 



)aeIip)U0 Hitiettp, 



FROM THE REFORMATION UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH, 

TO THE ACT OF UNIFORMITY, 
IN 1662. 



BY BENJAMIN BROOK. 



IN THREE VOLUMES, 



^>0^^>^i^>^^<^>^^>^>^^^ 



VOL. III. 



He, being dead, yet speaketh. — Hebrews. 

Many of the Paritans were men of great erudition, deep viewi of 
religion, and unquestionable piety; and their writings contain a mine of 
wealth, in which any one, who will submit to some degree of labour, will flad 
himself well rewarded for his pains. — Wilberforce. 



ILonOon: 

PRINTED FOR JAMES BLACK, 

TORE-STREET, CO? ENT-AARDiw' 



' m 



I « 
> 4- 



1813. 



• . • • • 

. - * • ■ » 

« • • • . • * . 



^r.*'.\ ^ '•.^ ^ .* 






• ■ • 



* • • ■ a 

• ••• • •. 

• . ■ ■ • 



I • 



■ » • » • 

• ••■•• « 
••••§•# • 



i ■ « 



CONTENTS OF VOL. Ilf. 



John Dod •••• 

Thamas Lj^diat 

IVilliaiiiTwisse 

Jeremiah Barroaghs 
Francis Corn well •• 
Thomas Collier • • . . 

Philip IVindy 

Thomas Moore 

John Darance 

John Batchelor 

Jphn Greene • 

John Price 

Mr. Symonds '. 

Joseph Symonds .... 

Henry Barton 

Henry Wilkinson .. 
Thomas Coleman . . . 
Ephraim Paget. .... 
Thomas Hooker • • . . , 

John Saltmarsh 

Herbert Palmer . • . . 

Robert Balsom 

Thomas Edwards . • . 

John White 

Peter Smart 

Richard Blackerby t . 

Thomas Temple 

John jVilkinson 

John Geree t tt# 



FAGE 

1 

6 
12 
18 
S5 
87 
90 
31 



ib. \ 



S2 
34 

37 
38 
39 
40 
59 
60 

64 

70 

75 I 

79 \ 

88 

88 

90 

96 
100 
101 
108 



PAIIB 

Thomas Shepard.... 103 

Saraoel Crook , lOT 

Francis Woodcock 109 

Edward Symonds 110 

Andrew Wyke 118 

Henry Tozer ib» 

Christopher Lore 115 

Peter Saxton 139 

George Walker 140 

John Vicars 14S 

Patrick Yoong 145 

Daniel Rogers 140 

John Cotton...' 15t 

William Lyford 161 

John Lathorp • • • 168 

William Gouge 165 

Thomas HiU 170 

Thomas Wilson 178 

Natkaniel Ward 188 

Robert Abbot ib. 

John Spifsbury 18S 

Cnthbert Sydenham 184 

William Erbery 185 

Jeremiah Whitaker ItO 

William Strong IM 

Thomas Gaiaker, j an 

Samuel Bolton.. 

John Morcot •• 884 

JothnaHoyle •« 



CONTKNTS. 



AnilreN' reme Mn 

AlPMnJrr firiMi livN 

JchnOralle SW 

Hklmrd Vlnr* VW 

Ila|[b Rnblnxtn XT'B 

John Anffi 8M 

IUI)ih Koblnwin JUf7 

NndHlnlrl linden SWf 

Jcrom Tarner U I 

Meplwn MidIuII lb. 

Timothy Arnilajte Sifil 

a)lnW»rkn>w. SS5 

TbOBIM YoBM ■■•.. lb. 

Jvfen Prndiiri'n 96A 

J*lln(iir»rd SST 

ft)4ba><l Cnpcl SM 

ium Noyr* yol 

Edward BTifht SIM 

Bebm Hack. va 

tUphrn rfame MS 

tUmntdtUirbu 9M 

Jtmrt RrBnrnrd 9HK 

Thaprn* HIabR Sffl 

J«hn JaiH-wn; )nl 

Jain Unxtr; 9WI 

Jabn (;iinblrdrn W1 

J«hn FrMt ib. 

HB(h l'.*aM SKI 

Otadiah H«il|twlck WA 

William Nandlirooke Ml 

Min Urvi-rlj «0K 

Wllllan (^Irr SMI 

^hn Uvr) .Wl) 

TtMmaa (ioiMlwlH ib. 

bberi Hani 9(19 

Ohrlilaf hrr f'nkr -ftm 

JMp I'aiitidiEi- 311 

■ydfanh lynpHD 31S 

■obert Dlanlry .114 

John Atrnwinltb aift 

VMarBulkly 3I« 



Hamiirl Jarnmb .1ID 

ThoinluCBKIaii .WO 

llrnr; fjun.d-r Klf 

Cliorlei iierlff au 

John Ib>|;<Ti 380 

Mnrjtan Unyd 3KD 

Ktlward Bitrbrr 330 

Jnhn Caniir Jjli 

llMkirt Ruurr 341 

WIIJ iiMl lHyir 34S 

PrlrrHlnTj 317 

Kdsiirdl^rfi..... 310 

llBuli Pbi,™ 350 

John fhiry sgp 

llriiiy tVliHIlrlrf 373 

Adnnlrau Hyfliild ai4 

l^indnnlliw .IcMop an 

Henry Di-nne 8TS 

franrU Taylor SSO 

Kvnn Howru 3S1 

Waller CradMk US 

WI1linin.T«rrFry SSA 

l^hrlitophrr mnchwood ... 3W 

»llll«niT4jlr>r S90 

Jnhn Jonirt 3t| 

PraiiMhid KarrhonB SBfl 

John i«y 403 

J»bn Hiniptan 4(U 

JobnKirlillr 411 

Bciuamin Co* , lb. 

JahD Nnrlun 4I9 

Hamurl Mirmnan 481 

HnmuH KInnr 48S 

Tboma* I'alinnt 485 

VVilllam ThuinpioD 486 

Nnmui'l Oolr 41t 

Juhu WILun 4.11 

Alirnhnm Chrare 4.'U 

Klrhnril Mather 440 

ZccliariubNymn.... 44A 

Jobn I}BfcD|Hirt ib. 



CONTENTS. 



Cterlct Cbannccy 451 

JotanAUen 466 

namai GranthBai ........ ib. 

TfaomuLoBib 461 

diver Bowlii 466 

AhD.Fuk 468 

n<H>"« Parker iM 

P«lerHabar1 471 

SuDUd Wbillng 418 

John WWIwrlsbl 4T8 

Soger ffmiams..... 4TT 

JotanSherman 4B8 

Tlfoniai Cobbel 48S 

John BlllDt 484 

Haaiera Kao]}y 4B1 

Jobs Ward fiOO 

ADDENDA. 

Mr.Allen 502 

Hr. BroUeiby ib. 

Mr. Evans ib. 

Hr.Fiis 503 

Dngb Boolbe ib, 

Tbomai Greihop 504 

James Rosier ib. 

Dr. Penny ib, 

Ur.Sparrow ib. 

Mr. Wabh 505 

Mr.FDlwer ib, 

Mt. Lolrlh ib. 

Jobn BroHD ib. 

Qavid Tliickiienny. . . .. 506 

Edward Chapman ib. 

fialpliLever 507 

William Dretrel ib. 

Jobn ^aih ib. 

Mr.Eram 608 

JUcbard Prond ib. 

JohnHoabe ib. 

Jwepb Nicboli 509 

J«haUwiiwii ib. 



milian Fleming ib. 

Jamea GiKwell ik. 

JahD Hopkim 610 

Thamns FBrmr ib. 

JohnOiPnbridgi: ib. 

Ml. Harsnel ib. 

Nirholai WmramsoD 611 

Hr. Gibion Ib. 

Blr. Horrockf ib, 

Sampion SbeOeld ib. 

lUcbard GardiDCT &1S 

Mr Kendal ib. 

Ezekkl Culvernell lb. 

Mr. Bembere 513 

George Xfwion ib. 

John Allison .......... )k 

William Bonme 614 

William ^;tbDnt ib. 

Mr. Adersler Ibi 

Ht. B. Bridcer lb. 

Tbomai Newhonie 516 

Ttiomai Edmnndi ib. 

Stephen Goagfae ib. 

Robert ClesTer 5IS 

Robert Maodeiill ib. 

John WilkinHin ib. 

John Morton ^-^ 511 

Mr, Hubbard ib. 

Jobn Yates ih. 

John Frewen 518 

Francis Bright ib. 

Mr Udney ib. 

Samuel Blacklock 619 

Mr, Bradslreel Ih. 

Mr, Crowder 686 

Samael SkelloD lb. 

Humphrey Barnel ....■••• ib. 

Mr Brodet 591 

Aicbard Demon. .V ib. 

Jobn Vincent ib. 

Jaka Tralk ,.. ib. 



VUl 



CONTENTS. 



PAGB 

Adam Blackman •• 68t 

Thomas Warren ib. 

William Herriofton ib. 

Nicholai Beard flSS 

William Green ib. 

William Powell ib. 

WiUiamKent ftS4 

Mr. Da? eniih ib. 

Mr. Barret ib. 

Mr. Salisbory M5 

Mr. Jeifryet ib. 

Henry Page 5S6 

Ralph Smith ib. 

Ephraim Hewet. •••...... ib. 

Dr. Jenningson ....•..•• ib. 

John Jemmet • • • • • fi9T 

John Stooghton •••.....«. ib. 

Mr. Borchell ib. 

TbomaiiSeott i 5S8 

WillUm Maditerd ib. 

Mr. Cooper 589 






FA6B 

Edmund Small ib. 

Mr. Smith ib. 

John Spencer ib. 

Hannibal Gammon 630 

Mr. Wainwright ib. 

John Sims tb. 

John Foxcroft 691 

Ralph Blarsden ib. 

Nicholas Darton ib. 

Henry Roborongh ib. 

Abraham Pdrson 639 

Howcl Vanghan ib. 

Robert MatOB ib. 

Peter Pmdden 63S 

Robert Booth ib. 

Walter Rosewell 084 

Thomas Ball ib. 

Stanley Gower ib. 

Henry Flint 635 

James Sicklemore ib. 

Afpshdix •• 5ST 



CONTENTS OF THE NOTES. 

Acoriowanecdoteof Bishops Neale and Andrews 2 

The occasion of the civil war 3 

Accoont of the famous John Selden 9 

Archbishop UsBer tamely submitted to Archbishop Laud 15 

Bodies dug up after the restoration • 16 

Account of the Earl of Warwick IS 

A popish book dedicated to Archbishop Laud 49 

Mrs. Burton committed to prison 44 

Warrant for apprehending H. Burton lb. 

to the warden of the Fleet 45 

A rurioui anecdote of Bastwick's litany ib. 

Sentence against Bastwick and Prynne 47 

darendon'i character of Archbishop Land « . 49 

The paring of H. Burton'sears 50 

The people at Cof entry and Chester prosecuted 61 



CONVSMTS. a 

PASS 

Aecomit of William PryBiie 5f 

■■ the portrait of Arckbitbop Laad mad H. Barton 8S 

A corioai anecdote of Archbtihop Abbot Yi 

Gomnfttee ofreHftonolfeiBlfetoLaad , 81 

A£coiiiit of the iDROYBtloni of Dr. Ootim ...••..•• 01 

Mn. Smart's letter to her hBifoaad ...« tS 

, Sir Edward Lakenor a friend to the tioncoiiformisti M 

Anecdotes of BIflhop Nelle 101 

Mr. Gibbons beheaded on Towerohill 1S5 

Dr. Grey*B opinion of C. Love ••••« 137 

Soldiers threatening to shoot Dr. Manton ••••^ 138 

A cnrions aneedote of George Walker. J •• 140 

Dr. Grey's frivolons reasoning •••••• 148 

Account of the Alexandrian maanscript « • • /• • ••• . 148 

The Iklse accusation of John Cotton 154 

The Mayor of Amndcl prosecntcd...*....^ 165 

Dr. Tnck*s severe usage 177 

Bishop Kennet's character of the tryers.. 186 

Account ofthe assembly's annotations # •• 811 

■ ' massacre in Ireland .^ ••... 886 

Earl of Essex 883 

Anecdote of Dr. Heylln and Bishop Williams • 848 

Dr. Grey's insiooatlon of S. Marshall 849 

Account of Lady Brown's piety 851 

» ■ the flfth monarchy-men ••.•••• 857 

■ — William Janeway 2T8 

Warrant for apprehending Thomas Cawton 381 

Account of Castell*8 Lexicon Heptaglotton 388 

— — the monthly lectures in Yorkshire 348 

Archbishop Matthews 343 

—— — Sir Henry Vane .* 348 

Anecdote of Bishop Montaigne •• « M> 

Account of Thomas Peters ,, ••••••«. • 353 

Waller's plot 356 

■ — Mrs. Peters ••••••••» • 368 

Bishop Bedell favoured ibe union of protestants 370 

King Charles's schismatical remark «« t« 38$ 

Warrant to the keeper of Newgate* • • • • • • • ^ 398 

Oliver Cromwell an enbmy to persecution • • 416 

Two anecdotes of Oliver Cromwell •••••# ib. 

Account of the infamous Titus Oates ••• • 487 

TOL. III. b 



X CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Ptablic difpatatloM mn relis'ioD to be difcooBleasaced 4311 

Arebbiibop Ncile tmagbl tbe people to pny for tbe dead 440 

Dr. Merrick tbreateoed by ArcbbUbop Lud 45iS 

Aaecdotei of two penecated brotben ^ 487 

If n. HotcbiMOD baoifbed and Budered 476 

Tbe aoMUCIflc leiiftb of ladiaa woidf 488 

OraBger'i ccmare of two books OB eoacroreny 500 

Accowit of tbe aatbor'i If S. aathoritiei 639,510 



THE 



LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 



John Dob, A.M.-^Tki8 celebrated divine was born al 
Shotwich in Cheshire, about the year 1549y was the youngeat 
of seventeen children, and educated in JesUs college^ 
Cambridge; where he continued nearly sixteen years, rad 
was chosen fellow of the house. During his abode in the 
university, he became thoroughly convinced of his sins, 
betook himself to deep humiliation, and earnestly sought the 
blessings of pardon and peace through Jesus Christ; which, 
to his unspeakable comfort, he at last obtained. While at 
Cambridge he was particularly intimate with Drs. Fulke, 
Chadderton, Whitaker, and others, who held their weekly 
meetings for prayer and expounding the scriptures. In die 
year I6l5y a divioe of the same name, and no doubt the 
same person, was elected proctor of the university %• Having 
received an invitation to become pastor at Hlinwell in 
Oxfordshire, he left the university, and entered upon the 
stated exercises of the christian ministry. In this situatioo 
he preached frequently, catechized the youth, and united 
with others in a weekly lecture at Banburj. Hb labours at 
Hanwell were numerous, and most extensively useful. It is 
observed, that hundreds of souls were at this place converted 
under his ministry .f He was about thirty years old when he 
first settled at Hanwell, and remained there about twen^ 
years, where he had twelve children by his first wife, the 
daughter of Dr. Nicholas Bound. After her death he took, 
a second wife, and was married by his old fiiend Dr. William 
Gouge. 

Mr. Dod's great popularity and usefulness in the abov^ 
situation, roused the envy of several neighbouring ministers, 
who, though they seldom preached themselveS| would not 

* Faller*8 Hiit. of Camb. p. 1S9. 
f ClarlL'i Lire* anntxed lo bit Martyralof !•, p. 168, 169. 
VOL. ni. ^ 



2 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

allow their people to go and hear him ; and for the singular 
crime of multitudes flocking to his ministry, he was several 
times questioned in the bishops' courts.* In addition to 
this, bemg exercised with some other trials, he was induced 
to consult Mr. Greenham, his excellent father-in-law. lliis 
reverend divine, after hearing his complaints, said, '' Son, 
son, when affliction lieth heavy, sin lieth light;" and gave 
Mr. Dod such suitable advice, that he had abundant cause 
to bless God for it, and found it of excellent use all tlie 
rest of his days. However, he was at length suspended 
from his ministry at Hanwell by Dr. Bridges, bishop of 
Oxford. Being driven from his affectionate and beloved ~ 
people, he preached a short time at Fenny Compton in . 
Warwickshire, llien accepted an invitation to Canons Aahby 
in Nbrdiamptonshire. In the latter situation he was treated 
with pecidial* kindness by Sir Erasmus Dryden, a gentleman 
of great learning and piety ; but he did not contmue long 
witfaoiit molestation. For, upon the complaint of Bishop 
Neile,f he was silenced by the archbishop.t 

Though this excellent divine was cast aside, he did not 
remain idle. When his efforts of public usefulness were set 
aside, he went about from house to house, giving private 
instructions; and by his pious discourse and holy deport- 
ment, he was nearly as useful as when he enjoyed hb public 
munistry.^ He was particularly desirous of a more pure 
reformation of the church, and therefore united with his 
brethren in subscribing the ** Book of Discipline.^'! He 
con^ued under the above suspension several years. But 
Qn. the accession of King James, Sir Richard Knightly 

1 procured him his liberty; and he renewed his ministerial 
abours at Fausley in Northamptonshire, where he continued, 
in great reputation and usefulness, all the rest of hb days. 

* Clark's Lives annexed to Marty rologie, p. 170. 

f Bhhop Neile of Durham and Bishop Andrews of Winchester, attend- 
iai^ upon King James, had the following conversation with him : His 
majesty, Always intent upon his prerogative, aslced the bishops, ** My 
lortlSf eannet I take my subjects* money when I want it, without all this 
fonmility in parliament?" The Bishop of Durham readily answered, 
*^ Gdd' forbid, sir, but you should ; yon are the breath of our nostrils*'* 
Upon this the king turned, and said to the Bishop of Winchester, ** Well, 
my lord, what say yon?" ^* Sir," replied the bishop, ** I have no skill to 
judge of parliamentary cases." The king answered, *' No put oifs, my 
lord ; answer me presently." ** Then, sir," said he, ** I think it lawful 
for y*a to take ray brother Neile's money, for be oflTers it.'* Thii 
plcamntry afforded great entertainment to the company. — JBiog. Britan. 
vol. i. p. 185. Edit. 1778. 

? Clark's Lives annexed to Martyrologie, p. 170. 
Faller'f Worthier pact i. p.. 181. || Neal's Puritanfi vol. i. p. 423. 



DOD. 9 

m 

Here, also, he felt the iron rod of the prc^Iates ; and, as iii 
the three former sitoations, he was for a time suspended from 
his public ministry.* 

Mr. Dod was a pattern of patience. He bore his 
numerous trials with great meekness of spirit and holy 
resignation to the will of God. He used to say, *^ Sanctified 
afflictions are spiritual promotions/' In the sixty-third year 
of his age, he laboured under extreme bodily affliction, and 
was brought to the very brink of the grave : but when the 
physician, who gave a check to his complaint, told him he 
had then some hope of his recovery, die good old man 
replied, " You think to comfort me by what you say ; but 
you make me sad. It is the same as if you had told onid 
who had been sorely weather-beaten at sea, and was expect^ 
ing to enter the deSired haven, that he must return to sei^ 
to be tossed by fresh winds and waves." Having a comfort- 
able assurance of heaven, he was desirous to leave th^ 
world, and to ** be with Christ." And as he enjoyed much 
divine consolation in his own mind ; so, in numerous remark- 
able instances, he administered the same to others. 

This venerable divine used to say, '' I have no reason to 
complain of any cr6ss^, because they are the bitter fruit of 
my sin. Nothing shall hurt us but sm ; ahd that shall not 
hurt us, if we can repent of it. And nothing can do ua 
good but the love and favour of God in Christ; and that 
we shall have if we seek it in good earnest. Afflictions are 
God's potions, ^hich we may sweeten by faith and prayer; 
but we often make them bitter, by putting into God's cup 
the ill ingredients of impatience and unbelief. There is no 
affliction so small but we shall sink under it, if God uphold 
us not : and there is no sin so great but we shall commit it^ 
if God restrain us not. A man who hath the spirit of 
prayer hath more than if he hath all the world. And no 
man is in a bad condition, but he who hath a hard heart and ' 
cannot pray." 

During the civil wars,f when some of the king's party 
came to his house, and threatened to take away his life, this 
heavenly divine, with holy confidence replied, " If you do, 
you will send me to heaven, where I long to be ; but yon 

* FaUer's Worthies, part i. p. 1^« 

i* The first ill blood between Kin|^ Cliarles and kit Ml\|ectt, wklck 
afterwards ]ed to all the horrors of civil war, was occasioned* by cJi# 
severe proceedings in the high commission court, and the cmel censnres la- 
the star«chamber ; in both of which the coor^ clergy were allowed tao 
much power.— J3<0j^. BriUm, fol. i. p. 372. 



» LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

ctn do nothing except God ffive you leave." ' When they 
broke open hb chests and cuMKMurds, and canied away what 
^ey pleased, his only complaint was, The Lordgave, and 
the Lord hath taken atDay ; blessed be the name ofthe Lord. 
When they came a second time, he was confineq to his bed 
|>y sickness ; but though they cut away the curtains from hisr 
bed, and took the pillow-cases from under his head, he uttered 
not a murmuring word.* Comii^ a thkd time, and havings 
taken most of the linen and household stu£f, and brought 
them into the room in which the good old man sat warmmg 
himself by the fire ; he, during their absence to search for 
more, took a pair of sheets, and put them under the cushion 
on which he sat, greatly pleasii^ hiniself, after they were 
gone, that he had plunder^ the plunderers, and, by a lawful 
robbery, saved so much of his own property .f 
. Mr. Dod was exceedingly beloved, though not without his 
enemies. These, out of malice, stigmati^ him Faith and 
Repentance; because he was constantly recommending these 
two things* He was a person of great moderation; and 
when he was questioned about subscription and the cere- 
monies, he was always e<]^ually ready to give his opinion, and 
cautious in giving his advice. He urged all who desired his 
opinion upontheib points, to take heed against being influenced 
by the example or arguments of others, but to look to God 
and his holy word for direction. He used to ask them 
whether ^ey could su£fer in that cause aloney if all others 

. were deadi Though he was a strict nonconformist, and bore 

J bb share of sufferings in the cause, he was of a most 

^ liberal spirit, and loved all who loved Christ. 

As old age and afilictions came upon him, he usually 
compared himself to Sampson when his hair was cut ; saying, 
'' I rise in the morning as Sampson did, and think I wUI go 
fordi aa at other times \ but, alas ! { soon find an alteration : 
I mustvStoop to old age, wluch hath dipt mv hair, and taken 
away my strength. But I am not afraid to look death in the 

, face. I can say, death, where is thy sting ? Death cannot 
hurt me. To a wicked man death is unwelcome ; but to a 
child of God, who hath laboured and suffered much, death 
is welcome, that he may rest from his labours." During \m 
faist sickness he was exercised with most grievous pains, but 
was eminently supported and comforted in the exercise of 
. fiutfa and patience. He wrestled hard with Satan, and at last 
overcame. He longed to be with Christ, and his desire was 

* Clark'i IdTCi, p. 174, 175. f Fuller's Cborch Hiit. b. x\. p. S90. 



]x>D. a 

• • • - 

gnmtfd. His last words were, I d^e to be dissolved amd 
to he )mth Christ. He finished his course, and recetved llMi 
crown of r^hteousness, in the year 1645, aged mnety-MX 
years, when his remains were interred in Fansley church. 

Dr. Lloyd gives the following account of tms vtfmM o 
divine: — '< Mr. Dod/' says he, ''had no ddigfat &i con- 
tradiction, nor could he find in his heart to disturb the peace 
of the church. He was so far from it, that, as I have 
frequently heard fipom his grandchild and others, when some 
thought ttieir dissents ground enough for a war, he declared 
himself against it, and confirmed odiers in their allesiance : 
he professed to the last a just hatred of that horrid rebellion."* 
The celebrated Archbishop Usher had tfie highest opinion of 
him, and said, '' Whatever some affirm of Mr. Dod^s 
strictness, and scrupling some ceremonies, I desire that when 
i die my soul may rest with his." Wood styles ban ^ a 
learned and godly divine.^f Fuller denominalei him 
'' patien^ liumble, meek, and chaatable ; an excellent 
scholar, especially in Latin and HebraiMr, and exceedingly 
profitaUe m conversation. He was a good chymist, to 
extract gold out of other men's lead; and however looae 
were the premises of other men's discourse, piety was alwajjss 
his unforced conclusion.''^ He is classed lunoi^ die learned 
writers of Jesus college, Cambridge.^ Echard calls hiln ** i| 
learned decalogist, an exquisite Hebrician, and a moat pioui 
and hospitable divine ;" and says, ** he was highly valued hf 
all good men."! Granger observes, ** diat in learning he was 
excelled by few, and in unaffected piety by none. .If odii^g 
was ever objected to this meek and humble man bat his 
being a puritan." His sayings have been often printed, and 
are still tp be seen pasted on the walls of cottages. An old 
woman in his neighbourhood, he adds, told him, ^ that she 
would have gone mstracted for the loss of her husband, if she 
bad been witfiout Mr. pod's sayings in her house.'t 

It is recorded of Mr. Dod, that one evening, being late in 
his study, his mind was strongly impressed, though he could 
assign no reason for it, to visit a gentleman of his acquaint^ 
ance, at a very unseasonable hour, !^f ot knowing the design 
of Providence, he obeyed and went. When he came to the 
house, after knocking a few times at the door, the gentleman 
himself came, and inquired whether he wanted him upon any 

* Biog. BritaD. vol. vii. p. 4809. f Wood^t Athens, vol. f . p. 758. , 
i F«ll€r*8 VITofftHiet, part i. p. 181.^Cburch Hist. b. zt p. 89D. 
S Fuller*! Hist, of Cam. p. 86. I Echard's Hilt, of Eng . ?ol. ii. p. 545. 
I GraofeKi Biog. Hist, f ol. i. p. 370. 



6 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

iHurtituhur business. Mr. Dod having answered in the 
liegAtive^ and sign^ed diat he could not rest till he had seen 
jMoOf the gentleirian replied, ^* O, sir, you are sent of God at 
this Very hour ; for I was just now going to destroy myself," 
mtid immediately pulled the halter out of his pocket, by which 
he had intend^ to commit the horrid deed. Thus the 
mischief was prevented.* 

It is observed of Mr. Dod, that a person being once 
enraged at his close and awakening doctrine, picked a 
quarrel with hiin, smote him in the face, and dashed out two 
of his teeth. This meek and lowly servant of Christ, 
without taking the least offence, spit out the teeth and blood 
into hia hand, and siiid, '^ See here, you have knocked out 
two of. my teeth, without any just provocation ; but on 
condition I might do your soul good, I would give you leave 
to dash out all the rest."+ Thus Mr. Dod was not overcome 
pf^vil, but overcome evil with good. % 

. Mr. Timothy Dod, ejected in 1662, was his son, and 
imitated the amiable virtues of his excellent father .j; Old 
lif r. Dod Was commonly called the Decalogist, because he 
^fid Mr. Robert Cleaver, another puritan minister, published 
" An Ei^sition of the Ten Conmiandmcints," 1635. They 
also published ^ The Patrimpny of Christian Children ;" 
and were authors of '* Ten Sermons to fit Men. for the 
Worthy Receiving of the Lord's Supper." Mr. Dod, it is 
said^ was the au^or of that singular and well-known little 
Sermon^ on ithe word Malt. Bishop Wilkins passes a high 
encomium upon hb sermons, with those of other learned 
divines.^ 



Thomas Lydiat, A. M.— This celebrated scholar was 
bQrn at Alkrington, or Okertpn, near Banbury, in Oxford- 
shire, eaiiy in the year 1572, and educated first at Winchester 
school, then at New College, Oxford, where he was chosen 
fellow. A disposition to learning distinguished him from 
childhood, in consequence of which his parents, who lived in 
wealthy circumstances, des^ned him for a scholar, and 
placed him at the university under the tuition of Dr. (after- 
wards Sir Henry) Marten. He signalized himself by intense 
application to his studies, and became almost a prodigy in 
good literature, especially in logic, mathematics, astronomy, 

• Flavel't Worlu, ▼©!. U. p. 9S%\ Edit. 1797. + Ibid. vol. t. p. 470. 
■ i Palmer's I<)[odcod. Mem. vol. iii. p. 30. 
S Discourse on Preachio;, p. 8S, 83. 



LYDIAT. 7 

the learned languages, and divinity. His desire to enter 
upon the ministerial function was opposed by a defective 
memory and an imperfection of utterance; and, as the* 
statutes of the college required him, after a certain time, to 
enter upon those studies more immediately connected with 
the clerical profession, or resign his fellowship, he chose die 
latter, and retired to a smafl patrimonial property at his 
native place. He there^ diuii^ seven years, employed 
himself in completing literary designs which he had formed 
while resident at the university ; and he first made himself 
known to the learned world by publishine, in 1605, a work 
entitled, " Tractatus de variis Annorum Formis." Of this 
he published a defence, in I6079 against the arrogant 
censures of Joseph Scaliger ; and he ventured directly to 
attack that proud dictator of literature in his ** Emendatio 
Temporum ab Initio Mundi hue usque Compendio facta, 
contra Scaligerum et alios," 1609* ibis learned work was 
dedicated to Henry, Prince of Wales, who appointed him 
his chronologer and cosmograplier, and would no doubt 
have been a liberal patron to him, as he was to men of 
science in general, had not his auspicious commencements 
been cut short by an untimely death. 

At the above period, Dr. Usher, afterwards the celebrated 
archbishop, being on a visit to England, became acquainted 
with Mr. Lydiat, whom he persuaded to accompany him to 
Ireland, where he procured him apartments in Dublin 
college. A community of studies was doubtless the prin- 
cipal inducement for Usher to desire liis company ; and it is 
highly probable that he derived assistance from him in his 
own chronological labours.* Mr. Lydiat is said to have 
contuiued about two years in Ireland, though the time 
cannot be exactly ascertained. It appears, however, from 
letters in Parr's Collection, that he was in Ireland in 16 10, 
and that he was returned to England in August, I6I 1. From 
the same authority we also learii, that there had been a design 
of settling him in the public school at Armagh. He had 
many friends, among whom were the lord deputy, and the 
chancellor of Ireland, who jointly promised to ao great thin^n 
for him ; but were prevented by his coming to England, 
and returning no more to that country.f 

There is a circumstance connected with Mr. Lydiat's visit 
to Irdand which is involved in considerable obscurity. It k 
asserted in thie notes to the life of Usher,t that soon after 

• AikiD's LiTes of Seidell and Usher, p. 402. 

i Wood*i Atiieiise Ozoo. woU ii. p. 46. i B'lOf;. Britan, f oh vi. p. 40(ST« 



8 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

his return be entered into the conjugal connexioii, and married 
Usher's sister ; for which fact the only authority given is^ the 
alleged subscription of ** your loving brother-in-law" to some 
of Usher's letters. In reality, however, these letters are only 
'signed ** your loving friend and ftro^Aer/' which last appella- 
tion Usher bestows upon others of his correspondents : nor 
is there foun4i either in th^ letters between them, or in the 
several lives pf the primate, the least hint of such connexion^. 
Indeed, it is not apparent from any recorded incidents of Mr. 
Lydiafs life th^t he was n^furi^d at all. Yet, on the other 
himd, Mr. Heqry Biiggs, in a letter to Usher, dated in 1610, 
says, '^ I pray you salute from me your brother, Mr. Lydiat,' 
which expression can scarcely imply any thing else than a 
real relationship, for he was not then a clergyman. In that 
case, however, he must hs^v^ been married before h^s return 
to England,* 

Whatever schemes might have been formed for his settle- 
ment in Ireland, they were rendered abortive by his acceptance, 
though not without much hesitation, of the rectory of 
Okerton, of which his father was patron. Though he entered 
upon the pastoral office with considerable reluctance, he 
sedulously performed its duties, and continued in this situation, 
with some mtemiptions, to the end of his days. During the 
first twelve years, he wrote and preached more than siv 
hundred sermons on the htanony of the Gospels^ In the 
mean time he was also employed in several works of profound 
erudition, but which were probably limited to a few readers ; 
for, instead of producing any pecuniary compensation to 
their author, they sunk all his patrimony in the expense of 
printing. Being, moreover, involved in the debts of a near 
relation for whom he had unadvisedly become a surety, he 
was arrested and thrown into prison at Oxford, whence h^ 
was removed to the Eang's-bench. The confinement of 
such a man was undoubte<uy felt as a disgrace to letters; and 
by the contributions of Sir William BosMrell, an eminent 
patron of learned men, of Usher, Laud, and some others, he 
at lei^th obtained his. liberation. The famous Selden, who 
fi'equlsntly extended his bounty to literary merit in distress, 
absolutely refused to lend his aid on this occasion, in resent- 
ment of a slight pffered him by Lycfiat, who, in some annota- 
tions which he published on the Arundel Marbles, had 
mentioned him with no oth^r epithet than that of *^ ap 
industrious author." Whatever offence there might be in 

* Aikio'fl Lives of Selden aod Usbcr, p. 403, 404. 



LYDIAT. 9 

this want of civility, Selden would certainly have sbewn n 
greater and more pious mind in forgiving it»* 

Mr. Ljdiati soon after he was restored to liberty, pre- 
sented a petition to King Charles, requesting his protection 
and pati^nage in an intended voyage to the East, for tli0 
purpose of collecting valuable manuscripts. The project 
displayed his zeal for the service of learning, but the ensuini^ 
political troubles^ prevented any attention being paid to hit 
applicatioD/ Though he was a man of low stature, and 
ramer insignificant m appearance, he was a person of n 
ffreat mind and of uncommon learning. He pulled die 
Teamed Chiistopher Clavius, the whole college of mathema^ 
ticians, and even that Goliah of literature, Joseph Scaliger 
himself; who, when he found himself outstripped, scorn- 
fully st^matized Mr. Lydiat with being a beggarly j beardleu 
priest. He was, nevertheless, highly esteemed by the most 
learned men at home and abroad. Sir Thomas Chaloner 
and other celebrated scholars, vnth those mentioned above^ 
were among his familiar acquaintance. The virtuosi beyond 
..sea wjere pleased to rank him with the celebrated t<oid 

• 

* Mr. JohD Selden was sometiines styled ** the great dictator of learnlof 
jof the English nation/' whom Grotius, his antagonist, calls ** the glory 
^of his coantry |'* an4 Sir Matthew Hale, ** a resolved and serious christian.*' 
,He was a man of as eztensiye and profound emdition as any of his timef 
wd was thoroughly skilled in every thing relating to his own professloa of 
the law {. bat the principal bent of his stodies was to saicrcd abd protee 
antjqaify. . The greater part of his works are on uncommon sulgecti* 
Like a man of genius, be was not content with walking in the beaten tmck 
of learning, but was concerned to strike out new paths, and ei^arge the 
territories of science. Towards the close of life, he owned, that, oat of the 
numberless Tolufnes he had read and digested, nothing stuck so close to hb 
heart, or gave him such solid satisfaction, as the single passage of Paul ia 
ills epistle to Titus, ii. 11—14. He died in the year ItUMf when th* 
celebrated Archbishop Usher preached his funeral sermon, and, withoM 
.jscruple, declared *' that he himself was scarcely worthy to carry his bookt 
after him.'* Mr. Selden was author of many learned publications, among 
which was *' The History of Tithes ;" for which, in 1618, he wasconveoei 
before the high commission, and required to subscribe a degrading recaata^ 
^ion. Afterwards, at an audience of King James, at the time when 
Montague was preparing a confutation of this work, the' worthless and 
arbitrary ^ou^ch stem^ forlwde him to make any reply, saying, *^ If 
you or any of your friends shall write agaiast this confutation, I will 
^Ibrow you into pri^o." He was a valuable member of the long parliftp 
Tnent, and one of the lay members who sate with the assembly of. dt vines. 
In tlpeir debates he spoke admirably, and confuted divers of themia tMr 
:own learning. Sometimes, when they cited, a text of scripture to prote 
their ^ssertlofi, be would tell thep, ^^ Perifapf }p your little pocket Bibles 
v^ith gilt leaves," which they would ofleil poll out and tread, ** tho 
translation may be thus, bat the Gvcak or Hebrew signifies thus and thus t*' 
and so would silence them. — Oramger'M Biog, Hist, vol. ii. p. 92t.— 
MkifCt Lives of Selden and Vsktr^ p. 96, S87.— fcltctic Rewiewy vol. vlii. 
p. 20^.—Whia»cke'9 Mem. p. Tl . Bdit. 17S9. 



JO UVES OF THE FTUTANS. 



Bkmi mi Mr* Jmtfh Mtie-, md wlm ther foood tint 

Ik; IttJaofcif^r preftmienty dier nid that FiigliAmen (fid 

ttcit deitfTve mkdk prat sdholarv, since tbej made so fitde of 

dbm. ^TWiM^ tlicj have wronged his memory/' sajs 

FflJkr, ^ wfco have rtpreaeated him as an anabaptist: jet 

1m was dhafectcd to the dUdpUme and aramomes of die 
c1mvc( ;^* OB wlkfc accovDt he isy with justicey dasaed anioii|r 

Mr* \j9Sa/L thoufifa opposed to the ecclenastical dis- 
dfdbe 12ro;»o»», <i^^^ of lojal Dnndples, »>d 
dweovcrad fait zeal in the ntyJL cause ; for which, upon the 
eommtoceneat ^ the ci%il war, he was a considerable 
JO&srer from the porliameiit^s army. His own statement 
to Sir Wiiltam Compton, ^orernor of Banbury castle, affirms 
dbat hit rectory was foiv times piUaged, and himself reduced 
to so gieat a want of coounon necessaries, diat he could not 
change his linen for a quarter of a year, without borrowii^ a 
sUrl« He was also twice carried away to prison, and was 
crtidly used by the scdcfiers for refusii^ their demands of 
tooaey, for d^mding his books and papers, and for his bold 
speeches in finrour of the royal cause. From this and other 
carctnnstaoces^ it appears that his mannerB were not con- 
ciliating, aad that, to a scholar's ^orance of the world, he 
jCMiied the bhmtneas of an independent character. Of his 
confident and sanguine disposition, a judgment may be 
formed from a passage in one of his letters to Usher. After 
expre9siog a hope that his learned friend would in the end 
assent to the truth of what he had delivered concerning the 
beginning and conclusion of Daniel's serenty weeks, and all 
the dependencies thereon, he says, ** For certunly, how weak 
soerer I, the restore and publisher diereof,^ am, yet it is 
strong and wiU prevail ; an<C notwithstanding mine obscure 
estate, in due time the clouds and mists of errors being dis^ 
persed aad vanished, it will shine forth as bright as the clear 
tun at noon-tide.'^f 

This learned man finished his painfrd life, and died in 
indigence and obscurity at Okerton, April 3, 1646, aged 
seventy-four years.} Though be obtained considerable repu- 
tation among learned men at home and abroad; yet his 
fame is so &r obliterated, even in his own country, that 
it is probable few English readers have known to whom 
Dr. Johnson refers in hb *' Vanity of Human Wishes,'* 

• Fuller*! Wortbiei, part if. p. SS8. 
. i Aiklo*sUveflorSel4eiisiidUiher, P/40T. 
t Wodd'f AtbeoB 0»>n. ? ol. ii. p. 46—48. 



LYDIAT. 11 

where, as a warning against the enthusiastical expectations 
of the young scholar, he says/ 

If dreams yet flatter, once Rg^ain attend ; 
Hear Lydiaf s life, and Galilio's end. 

Wood says, ** he was a man possessed of some excellen* 
cies ; yet he set too high a value on his own performances, 
and for many years spent an idle and obscure life.^f Echard 
denominates him '^ a man of a great soul and incomparable 
learning, particularly in mathematics, antiquities, la^^uagea 
and divimty;" and adds, '' that he ,was admired by the 
greatest scholars of the age/*t Kennet styles him '^thal 
master of astronomy and mathematics, who, besides his 
admired works in print, left twenty-two volumes of manu- 
scripts, as rarities, in the hands of Dr. John Lamphire/'t 
Mr. Lydiat'a remains were interred by the side of his 
father and mother in the chancel of Okerton church, where 
a monumental inscription was afterwiutb erected, of which 
the following is a translation :) 

Sacred to the Memory 
of Thomas Lydiat, rector of Okerton, 
an accomplbhed divine and niathematidaB» 
^ whose tomb was erected 

at the expense of New College, Oxford, 
in memory of so great a scholar. 
He was bom in 1573, 
and died in 1640. 

His WoaKs. — 1. Tractatus de variis annomm fonnis, 10O6y— 
2. Prelectio Astronomica de naturi coeli & conditionibus elemento> 
rum, 1005. — 3. Disqnisitio physiolog^ca de origine fontiam, 1005.-— 
4. Defentio tractatus de variis annorum formis contra Joseph! 
Scatigeri objectionem, 1007. — 5. Examen Canonum Chronologic 
Isagbgicorum, 1007. — 10. Explicatio temporum ad initio mondi hoe 
usque, compendio facta, contra Scaligerum & alios, 1009.-7. Ex- 
plicatio & additamentum argumentorum in libello emendationis tea- 
porum compendio faetae, de nativitate Christi & ministerio in terris, 
1013. — 8. Soils & liunae periodus, seu annus magnus, 1020. — ^9. De 
anni Solaris mensmi Epistola Astronomica, ad Hen. SaYilinm, 
1020. — 10. Numerus aureus' melioribus lapillis insig^tus factusq; 
Gemmens, &c., 1021. — 11. Canones Chronologici, nee non series 
summorum magistratunm & trlumphorum Romanorum, 1075.— 
|2. Lstten to Archbishop Usher, printed in his Life, 1080. 

• AlkiB*i Uvet, p. 406. 
' f Wood's Hist, et Antiq. 1. ii. p. 149. 
" Ecliard*8 Hist, of £og. vol. ii. p. 56S. 
Kennet'e Chronicle, p. 764. 
Wood's Hilt, et Aatiq. 1. ii. p. 149. 



12 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

' William Twisse, D.D.— -This iUustrious dSmnt was 
born at Spenham-Landy near Newbury, in Berkriiirey about 
the year 157^^ and educated first at Winchester school, dien 
in New College, Oxford, where, he was chosen fellow. He 
spent sixteen years at the university; and, by a most intense 
-applicaton, obtained an extraordinary knowledge of logic, 
philosophy, and divinity. His profound erudition appeared 
m his public lectures and learned disputations, but especially 
in correcting the works of the celebrated Bradwardine, then 
published by Sir Henry Savile. He took his various degrees 
^ith universal applause. He was an admired and popular 
preacher, and greatly followed both by the collegians and 
townsmen. 

He continued in his beloved pursuits at the university, till 
his brilliant talents and profound literature excited very 
public attention. His uncommon fame reached the court of 
'King James, who chose him to be chaplain to Lady Elizabeth, 
^B about to leave her native country and go to the Palatine* 
He cheerfully complied with the appointment,. and accom- 
panied the pious young priivcess to the foreign court; and^ 
to moderate her grief, and adnUBister comfort te her troubled 
mind, upon her. painful separation from her friends^ he 
expounded spme portion of scripture to her every day. 
He dwelt much upon the great uncertaiuty of life, and the 
importance of a smtable preparation for death; and, from 
his appropriate instructions and admonitions, she derived 
that signal advantage by which she was enabled to endure 
die greatest adversi^ with undaunted courage. This amiablq 
princess was ex^cbed with many trials very soon after heir 
arrival. For, presently after she was crowned Queen of 
Boheniia, she was forced to flee from the country and to 
live an e^e all the rest of her days. She bore these tribu- 
lations with christian magnanimity. This is represented as 
the eflect of the doctor's excellent instructions, who taught 
her, '* That Divine providence ordereth all die estates and 
conditions of all men, according to his own good pleasure, 
and for the eternal advantage of his people:" as, Rom'^ 
yiii. 28. ''We know that all things work together for good, 
to them that love God, to them who are the caU^ according 
to his purpose."* He did not, however, continue veiy long at 
the court of the Palatine, but was called bac|c to JSngUod. 
His return was the occayion of deep r^ret both to the 
prince and princess, which was particularly expressed at die 

« Park's LWei, last vol. part i. f». 1% U. 



TWKSE. .. 18 

limft of his deptrtufe. Upbn hb lanival in his native coontryv 
lie took his final leave <^ the qoyiti and devoted himself to 
thoise profound studies by iivhich he published to the woiU 
thoie learned works which \vill'b^ the'aditiiradon of learned 
and (NOUS men to the latest posterity. 

Dn Twis$e^ about the same time^ became curate of 
Newbtury^ near the plaice of his birth^ where, by his ex* 
emptary life and useful preaching, he gained a most die* 
tinguished reputation. In this retured situation, which was 
exactly suited to his wishes, he lived in great p«ice and 
comfort ; and being secluded from the world, his time waa 
wholly devoted to his studies and the spiritual advantage of 
his flockv He never sought after worldly riches, or aspired 
after ecclesiastical preferment, but modestly refused them 
when they were offered. He, indeed, often congratulated him- 
self that he was in so low a condition, and so little exposed to 
the alluring temptations. He often professed how greatly he 
Twas iudeb^d to divine goodness, for having placed him id 
j so mean and obscure a place, where he was pVeserved frooi 
V. aspiring after worldly preferment. No man ever sought 
more industriously to obtain ecclesiastical promotion than 
he sought to avoid it. Hence, when he was offered the 
provostship of Winchester college, and warmly entreated to 
accept it, he as warmly contended against it, though it waa 
a post of considerable pecuniary interest. He preferred hit 
studies, and the ministry of the word, to any idle or honour- 
able post ; and worldly interest had but little influence on 
his mind. Also, when the Bishop of Winchester laid a 
prebend at his feet, he politely thanked his lordship, but 
modestly declined accepting it. The Ejurl of Warwick 
promised to confer upon him a more valuable living than 
that of Newbury, which at first he agreed to accept, pro- 
vided the people of his charge could be furnished with a 
suitable pastor. He accordingly >\'aited upon the Arch- 
bishop Of Canterbury, requesting his favourable approbation, 
and was kindly received. His lordship granted all that he 
requested, uid observed, that he would make mention of 
hii|i to the king as a pious and learned divine, and no puritan. 
Dr. Twisse was, however, sagacious enough to , see the 
snares that were laid for him ; and therefore, without making 
any-furdlier application, he returned to Newbury, resolvii^ 
not to exchanse his curacy for any other situation. Also the 
states of Fiieuand invited him to the professor's chair in the 
university of Franeker ; and he was pressed, to accept a pro- 
fessor's place at Oxford; but he refused them both. He 



14 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 



was ttMe conceraefd for his beloved studies, and minis^ 
lerial usefidnessy dian for all the splendour and emolument 
of a university. 

Upon the publication of the Book of Spoits, our learned 
divine refused to read it, and ventured to declare his opinioil 
decidedly against it: he, nevertheless, escaped better than 
many of his brethren, who, for so doing, were suspended 
from their ministry, driven out of the kingdom, or cast into 
prison. He viraS a persion of great moderation, yet as 
decidedly against the use of the superstitious ceremonies as 
the entouragement of profane sports.* His refusal to read 
die book did not pass unnoticed at coivt; but when King 
James heard of it, he commanded the bishops not to molest 
him. His majesty, indeed, very well knew, that, though 
Dr. Twisse lived m low circumstances, and in an obscure 
situation, his fame was so great in all the reformed churches, 
diat their lordships coula do nothing against him which 
would not be a public reproach to themselves. It was, after 
all, no small llisparagement to them, and to the church to 
which they belonged, that so eminently pious and learned a 
divine should live vnthout preferment. The celebrated 
Dr. Prideaux said, ** The bishops do very little consult their 
own credit, in not preferring Dr. Twisse, though against his 
wishes, to some splendid ecclesiastical dimity; by which, 
though they despair of drawing him to meir party, they 
might take off, or mollify, the popular envy, and not hear 
themselves exposed to scorn by the curate of Newbury." 
During the civil wars. Prince Rupert, coming to Newbury, 
entertained our divine very courteously, and made him many 
honourable promises, if he would turn against the parlia- 
ment, write in defence of the royal cause, and live among the 
king's party : but Dr. Twisse very wisely and politely de- 
clined me royal invitation.f 

He obtained uncommon celebrity firom the books which 
he published, especially upon points of controversy. Here 
hb talents and erudition were employed upon his favourite 
subjects without restraint, and vnth extraordinaiy success. 
^ Among his antagonists were Dr. Thomas Jackson, Mr. Henry 
Mason, and Dr. Thomas Godwin, who was a person of 
great learning, especially in antiquities; but is said to have 
been more fit to mstruct grammarians than to contend with 
a logician like Dr. Twisse. He next encountered Mr. John 
Goodwin, the celebrated advocate for Arminianism, whom 

» Mede*8 Works, p. 845, 846. 

f* Clark*! LiTes, last toI. part i. p. 14—17, 



TWISSSE. |5 

he is said to have refuted with great leanung add ju^^ent^ 
Hb next contest was with Mr. John Cotton, a divme vdiom 
he highly esteemed, and whom he treated with great gen^ 
tieness. He learnedly refuted Dr. Potter's ^ Survey of die 
New Platform of Predestination.''* He treated Dr. Heylin 
according to his deserts, in defence of the morality of the 
sabbath. He also successfully contended with tfie famous 
Arminius and others, in defence of tfie doctrines of graced 
His answers to Dr. Jackson and Arminius, uid his " rachet 
of God's Love," when first published, were aD suppressed 
by the arbitrary appointment of Bishop Laud.f 

In the year 1640, Dr. Twisse was chosen one of the 
sub-committee, to assist the committee of accommochtioil 
appointed by the house of lords to consider the innovations 
introduced into the church, and to promote a more pure re- 
formation 4 In the year 1643, he was nominated, by an 
order of the parliament, prolocutor to the assembly of 
divines. On account of his great modesty, he repeatedly 
declined the appointment, but was at lei^th prevailed upon 
to accept the ofHce. The learned assembly was opened 
July 1, 1643, when Dr. Twisse preached to botfi houses of 
parliament, in Henry the seventh's chapel. ** In his sermon,'* 
Says Fuller, '^ he exhorted his learned auditory to a fiuthftil 
discharge of their dut}% and to promote the glory of God 
and the honour of his church ; but he was sorry that ihef 
wanted the royal assent. He hoped, however, that in due 
time it might be obtained, and that a happy union would b^ 
procured between the king anci parliament.'*^ 

Dr. Twisse, on account of his age and manifold in- 
firmities, was. not able to attend upon the concerns of the 
assembly ; but, in a few months, was taken ill, fidling down 
in the pulpit to rise no more. He had been long grieved 
to behold the disagreement between the king and the par- 
liament, which, he said, would prove fatal to both; and 
he often wished that the fire of contention might be 

• Toplady's Historic Proof, to], i. p. 68. 

f About the lame time. Dr. George Down ham, bishop of Derry fa 
Ireland, pnblished a book against the Arminiaosi upon which, Bisliop 
Laud procured the suppression of all the copies sent to England ; and, not 
satisfieid with this, he caused a letter to be sent to Archbishop Usher, coai* 
manding the same proceeding against the book in Ireland. The pious and 
learned primate tamely yielded to the superior power of this arbitrafy 
prdate i issued his warrant for the seisurei of all the remaining copies oif 
Downham's work ; and signiied that he should '* take order that aothlBf 
should be hereafter published contrary to his migesty*s sacred diractloa,**— » 
i»f:i|wie*«CmiM)«0fiie,p. 171, 179. 

i Kingdom's MS. Collec. p. 900. 

S Fnller's Church Hist. b. zi. p. 199. 



16 LITBS OF THE PURITANS. 

extidgui^hedy though it were at the price of his own blood.*. 
When he fell down in tfie pulpit^ he was carried to his 
lodgings and laid upon his bed^ where he languished about 
a twelvemonth. During hb long illness, multitudes of jpersoos 
resorted to him, who witnessed his exemplaiy futh and 
patience. In the civil wars, he had been driven from his 
curacy and the people of his charge, at Newbury, and 
deprived of all his property by the royd forces; so mat, in 
the time of his sickness, when certain persons were deputed 
from the assembly to visit him, they reported, ** ibat he was 
veiy sick, and in great straits.*'. The parliament, having 
taken his case into consideration, passed ah order, Decem- 
ber 4, 1645, for one hundred pounds to be given him out 
of the public treasmy.f Nearly the last words that Dr.Twisse 
uttered, were, ^' I shall at length have leisure enough to 
follow my studies to all eternity ;" and died July 20, 1646, 
aged seventv-one years. The whole house of commons, and 
the assembly of divines, paid their last respects to his me« 
mory by following, in one sorrowful procession, his mortal 
remains to the grave ; when Dr. Robert Harrb preached 
his funeral sermon from Joshua, i. 2., Moses my servant is 
dead. He was buried in Westminster abbey, where his 
body quietly rested till the restoration, when the humane, 
the Uberaly and the enlightened Charles ordered his bones 
to be dug up, together with the bodies of many other 
persons, eminent in church and state; and thrown into apit 
digged on purpose in St. Margaret's chufch-yard.t Tne 

» ciark*8 Liyest p. 17. f W^bitlocke's Mem. p. 189. 

X One of those illustrioits penotis, whose body siiffeTed this shamefol 
indifnity^ was the valiant Admlirai Blake, trbose name was a terror to the 
tneniies of Britain ; who raised tbf naval reputation of his country to a 
higher pitch than any of his predecessors, and whose services to the English 
nation will be a monament if his renown as durable as time. The following 
H a list of some of the persons to whose bodies this malevolence was offieretdl^ 
«n the 18th and Hth of September, 1661. Others woold probably have 
ihared the same fate ; but the thing was so indecent, and drew so genentl 
an odium on the governnient, that a stop was put to any farther pro- 
ceedings : 

l^izabeth Cromwell, mother of William Stroud, esq. M. P. 

Oliver, lord protector, Humphrey Mackworth, colonel, 

Elizabeth Clay pole, her daughter, Dennis Bond, esq. 

Robert Blake, admiral, Thomas May, esq. the historian, 

John Pym, esq. M« P* John Mildrum, colonel. 

Dr. Isaac Dorislaus, Colonel Boscaweo, 

Sir William Constable, colonel, Doctor William Twisse, prolocutor, 

Edward Pophara, admiral, Stephen Marshall, presby. divine, 

Richard Dean, admiral, William Strong, indepea. divine. 

Grimg€T'9 Biog, Hiit. vol, iii. p, 8O.-*Fro0d*« Aihtnm 0x9n. vol, i» 
p. 886, 



TWISSE, 17 

refined barbarity and contemptible meanness of these pro- 
ceedii^Sy might have been expected amongst untutored 
jNivagedy rather than from a monarch bred up in all the 
refinements of the English court. 

Though Dr. IVisse died in necessitous circumstances, the 
parliament, after his death, voted a thousand pounds to be 
given . to his children, out of the public treasury ;• but, on 
account of the national confusions, it is doubtful whether 
it was ever paid. Mr. Clark says, ^* he was much admired 
for his great learning, subtle wit, exact judgment, great 
mtegrity, pleasing behaviour, and his exemplary modesty', 
piety, h^mility and self-denial.^f Fuller denommates him, 
*^ a chvine of great abilities, learning, piety, and moderation.i 
Wood says, *' his plain preaching was esteemed good ; his 
solid disputations were accounted better ; but his pious life 
was reckoned best of all." The most learned of his adver- 
saries confessed that there was nothing extant more accurate 
and fiill upon the Arminian controversy, than what is con- 
tained in his works. All writers against Arminianism have 
made honourable mention of his works, and have acknow- 
ledged him to have been the mightiest man in those contro- 
versies that the age produced.^ He was succeeded at New- 
bury by Mr. Benjamin Woodbridge, who was afterwards 
ejected in l662.|| 

His Works. — 1. A Discovery of Dr. Jackson's Vanities, 1631. — 
2. Yindiciae Gratiae, Potestatis et Providcntiae Dei, 1632. — 3. Dis- 
sertatio Scientia Medii tribus libris absoluta, 1639. — 4. Dissertiones, 
1639.— 5. Of the Morality of the Fourth Commandment, 1641.— 

6. A Treatise of Reprobation, in Answer to Mr. John Cotton, 1646. — 

7. Aniinadvertiones ad Jacobi Arminii Collat cum Frank. Junio et 
Joh. Arnold Corvin, 1649. — 8. De Predestinatione et Gratia, 1649. — 
9. The Doabting Conscience Resolved, 1652. — 10. The Riches of 
€k>d's Love onto the Vessels of Mercy, consistent with his absolate 
hatred or reprobation of tiie Vessels of Wrath, 1653. — 11. Two 
Tracts in Answer to Dr. li. (Hammond) 1653.— 12. The Synod of 
Ddrt and Ares reduced to Practice, with an Answer. — 13. The 
Scriptures Sufficiency to determine all matters of Faith. — 14. The 
Christian Sabbath defended against the cr>'ing Evil of these 1 imes 
of the Antisabbatarians of our Age. — 15. Fifteen Letters, published 
in Mede's W orks. — ^He also left numerous manuscripts behind him. 

^ Whitlocke*s Mem. p. S91. f Clark's Lives, p. IS, 14, 18. 

1 Fu11er*8 Worthies, part i. p. 96. 

% Wood's Athente Oxod. vol. ii. p. 40, 41. 

I FUmer*8 Noncon. Mem. vol. i. p. 290. 



VOL. HI C 





ih LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Jeremiah BuRRotGHs, A.M. — This very amiable 
divine was born in the year 1599> and educated at Cambridge^ 
but was obliged to quit the university, and afterwards die 
kingdom, on account of nonconformity. After he liad 
finished his studies at the university, he entered upon the 
ministerial work, and was chosen colleague to Mr. Edmund 
Calamy at Bury ^t. Edmunds.* In the year 1631, he 
became rector of Titshall, in the county of Norfolk; 
but . upon the publication of Bishop Wren's articles and 
injunctions, in 1636, he was suspended and deprived of his 
living.f He sheltered himself for some time under the 
hospitable roof of the Earl of Warwick ;t but^ on account 
of the intolerant and oppressive proceedings of die ecclesias- 
tical ,julers, the noble earl at length found it was impossible 
to protect him any longer ; and shortly after, to escape the 
fire of persecution, he fled to Holland, and settled at 
Rotterdam, where he was chosen teacher to the congrega- 
tional church, of which Mr. William Bridge was pastor.j^ 
After his suspension, he is charged with attempting to bribe 
the bishop's chancellor, by an offer of forty pounds; and 
going beyond seas, aiid returning disguised in a soldier's habit, 
with many libellous pamphlets, when, it is said, the sentence 
of deprivation was pronounced against him for noitresidence.| 
Of this circumstance, however, Mr. Edwards gives a very 
different account. He says, " that Mr Burroughs, for some 
speeches spoken agakist the Scotch war, in company not to be 
trusted, for fear fled in all haste to Rotterdam ;" at which he 
very much stumbled.^ Mr. Burroughs, in his animadversibii 
upon this misrepresentation, observes as follows : ** Had 
Mr. Edwards been willing to have conferred with me about 
this, as I desired, before he printed, I should have so ftdly 
satisfied him about my going out of the kingdom, that he could 
never have stumbled, nor have caused others to stumble. 
How does he know there were speeches delivered, for fea» of 
which I fled ? It may be there was only an accu3ation. In 
his bold assertion there is held forth to the world, at leas^ 
some indiscretion in me, that I should speak words of a hi^h 

* Calamy's Account, vol. ii. p. 5. 

-t- Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk, vol. i. p. 138. 

t This noble person was a great friend and patron of the perseciited 

guritaus, and one of their constant hearers. He was not content with only 
earinfr long sermons in the congregation, but would have them repeated ia 
his own house.— Grander'* Biog, HUt, vol. ii. p. 116. 
^ Edwards^s Antapologia, p. 18, 19. 
II Wren's Parental ia, p. 96. 
1 Edwards's Antapologia, p. 16. 



BURROUGHS. 19 

nature^ in company not to be trusted. I am so fully clear in 
that business, that I wiped off before my lord of Warwick 
v^hatsoever might have seemed indiscretion, not by mine own 
assertion only, but by the testimony of two gentlemen, being 
fdl t)ie company, besides the accuser, who were present whil^ 
we discours^ed of that matter. The truth is, there were no 
such speeches ; there was only some accusation of speeches. 
What man can free himself from accusation? This 
ung^ierous accuser afterwards recanted, and expressed his 
great s9n;ow for having aspersed the character of our pious 
and worthy divine.* 

Mr. Burroughs replies to the charge that he fled in all 
haste to Rotterdam, by saying, ^^ It was four or five months 
after this accusation before i went to Rotterdam. Had not 
the prelatical faction been incensed against me, for standing 
out against their superstitions, I should have ventured to have 
stood to . what I had spoken,, for all I said Mas by way of 

auery, affirming nothing. I knew how dangerous the times 
^en were. I knew what the power of the prelatical party 
at that time Mras, who were extremely incensed against me. 
A man's innocency, then, could not be his safety. A mere 
accusation was enough then, to cause me to provide for my 
security. I was, by Bishop Wren, deprived of my living in 
Norfolk, in which, I believe, I endured as great a br^mt as 
almost any of those who stayed in England; though Mr. 
Edwards is pleased to say, we fled that we might be safe 
upon the shore, while our brethren were at sea in the storm. 
I believe neither he, nor scarcely any of our presbyterian ^ 
brethren, endured a harder storm at sea, than I did before I 
went out of England. Yet, I bless God, he stirred up noble 
friends to countenance and encourage me in my sufferings ; 
for which I will not cease to pray that the blessing of God 
may be upon them and their families. For some months I 
lived with my lord of Warwick, with whom I found much 
undeserved love and respect, and was in the midst of as great 
encouragements to stay in England, as a man deprived, and 
under the bishop's rage, could expect ; when I set myself in 
as a serious a manner as ever I did in my life, to examine my 
heart about my staying in England ; whether some carnal 
respects, that countenance I had from divers noble friends, 
ffae offers of livings, did not begin to prevail too far with me. 
My spirit was much troubled with these thoughts. Why do I 
sjp[ bnger in England, where I cannot with peace enjoy 

• Barrouj^Ks's VindicatioD, p. 18, 21 . Edit. 1646. 



90 LIVES OF THE PUEITANS. 

- • . 

^NrliAt my soul longs after f Did I not formerly think, diat If 
evei- God took foe clearly from my people, 1 would halt^n 
to be where I might be fr'ee from such mixtures in Ood'n 
worship, without wringing my conscience any more I Why 
do I, therefore, now stay ? Am I not under temptation P God 
knows these were the sad and serious workings of my spirit; 
«nd these workings were as strong as ever I felt diem in 
my life. 

'^ While I was thus musing," says Mr. Burroughs, ** thus 
troubled in my spirit, and lifting up my heart to God to 
help me, and set me at liberty, leaning upon my chamber 
window, I spied a man, in a citizen's habit, comii^ in the 
court-yard towards my chamber; and upon his coming near^ 
I knew him to be formerly a citizen of Norwich, but, at that 
time^ one of the church at Rotterdam. When this man 
came near to me, he told me that he came lately from 
Rotterdaln ; and that he was sent there by the church to give 
me a call to join with Mr. Bridge in the work of the Lor^ in 
that church. When I heard him say this, I stood awhile 
amazed at the providence of God; mat, at such a time, a 
messenger should be sent to me upon such an errand. JVfy 
heart, God knows, exceedingly rejoiced in this call. I 
presently told the man I saw God much in it, and dared not 
m the least to gainsay it. My heart did much close with itj 
yet I desired to see the hand of God a little further. I 
required him to return my answer to the church, with a 
desire, that, as most of them knew me, they should give me 
their call under their own hands; Uien there would be 
nothing wanting, but I should be theirs; and thus we 
parted."* 

Mr. Burroughs, having vindicated his own character against 
the aspersions of his adversaries, fiirther observes, that, 
** after this I hoped all would blow over^ when my lord of 
Warwick, falling sick in London, sent for me, and I came 
up to him and continued with him about three weeks, going 
finely up and down the city. My lord knew all the busi- 
ness, and made no question but all was over. Being now^ 
as I hoped, set fr.ee from my accuser, the messenger from 
Rotterdam ctane to me again, with an answer to what I had 
desired, shewing me how the church there had assemblec^ 
and had sent a call to me in writing, under the hands of the 
elders, with many other hands, in the name of the church ; 
on which we agreed upon the day when, and the place 

« Borroughs'fi Viodicatioo, p, 18^21. 



BURROUGHS. 21 

where, we should meet in Norfolk, to make a full condu- 
sioQ and prepare for our voyage/'* 

Our divine has thus favoured us with a circumstantial 
account of his invitation to Rotterdam. Upon his arrival, 
he was cordially received by the church; and he continued 
^ zealous and faidifiil labourer several years, gaining a very 
bigh reputation among the people. After the commence- 
ment of the civil, war, wbep the power of the bishops was 
set aside, he retufued to Eq^land, says Ghraqger, '^ not to 
preach sedition, but peace; for which he earnestly prayed 
and Iaboured."t 

Mr. Burroughs was a person highly honoured and es- 
teemed, aqd he soon became a most popular and admired 
preacher. After his return, his popular taleuts and great 
worth presently excited public attenton, and he was chosen 
preacher to the congregations of Stepney and Cripplegate, 
Xiondon, then accounted two of the largest congregations in 
£iu;land. Mr. Burroughs preached at Stepney at seven 
o'clock in the morning, and Mr. William Oreenhill at three 
in the afternoon. These two persons, stigmatized by Wood as 
notorious schismatics and independents, were called in Step- 
ney pulpit, by Mr. Hugh Peters, one the morning star, the 
other th^ evenifig star of Stepney. t Mr. Burroughs was chosen 
9ne of the assembly of divines, and was one of the dissenting 
brethren, but a divme of great wisdom and moderation. He 
united with his brethren, Messrs. Thomas Goodwin, Philip 
Nye, William Bridge, and Sydrach Sympspn, in publidiing 
their '^ Apologetics! Narration," in defence of their own dis- 
tinguishing sentiments. The authors of this work, who had 
been exiles for religion, tq speak in th^ own language^ 
^ consulted die scriptures without any prejudice. They con- 
** sidered tiie word of God as impartially as men of flesh and 
** blood are likely to dp, in any juncture of time ; the place 
'' they went to, the condition they were in, and the company 
'' they were with, affording no temptation to any bias.'' 
They assert, that every church or congregation has su£Bcient 
power within itself for the regulation of religious govern- 
ment, and is subject to no external authority whatever. The 
principles upon which they founded their church govern- 
ment, were, to confine themselves in every thing to what 
flie scriptures prescribed, without paying any regard to the 
opinions or practice of men ; nor to tie themselves down so 

• BniToiighs's Yindication, p. 88. 

-f GraoKer^s Biog. Hist. vol. U. p. 193, 194. 

t Wood*! AthcDiB, fol. ii. p. 113, 



28 LIVES OP THE PURITANS. 

strictly to their present resolutions^ as to leave no room for 
alterations upon a further acquaintance with divine trudi. 
They steered a middle course between Presbyterianism and 
Brownism: the former they accounted too arbitrary, the 
latter too rigid ; deviating from the spirit and simplicity of 
the gospel.* These are the general principles of the inde^ 
pendents of the present day. 

^ Mr. Burrong^s, in conformity with the above principles, 
united with his brethren in writing and publishing their 
^ Reasons against certain Propositions concerning Presby* 
terial Government."f In the year 1645, he was chosen one 
of the committee of accommodation, and was of' great 
service in all their important deliberations.^ He was a 
divine of great piety, candour, and moderation ; and during 
their debates, he generously declared, in the name of the 
independents, ** That if their congregations might not be 
exempted from the coercive power of the classis; and if 
they might not have liberty to govern themselves in their 
own way, so long as they behaved themselves peaceably 
towards the civil magistrate, they were resolved to suffer, or 

Si to some other part of the world, where they might enjoy 
eir liberty. But," said he, " while men think there is nd 
way of peace but by forcing all to be of the same mind^ 
while they think the civil sword is an ordinance of Ood td 
determhie all controversies in divinity; and that it must 
needs be attended with fines and imprisonment to the dis- 
obedient; while they apprehend there is no medium between 
a strict uniformity and a general confusion of all things : 
while these sentiments prevail, there" must be ^ base sub- 
jection of men's consciences to slavery, a suppression of 
much truth, and great disturbances in the christian world.''§ [ 
After his return from exile, he never gathered a separate 
congregation, nor accepted of any parochial betiefice, but 
continued to exhaust his strength by constant preaching^ 
and other important services, for the advantage of the church 
of God. He was a divine of a most amiable and peaceable 
spirit ; yet he had some bitter enemies, who, to their owi^ 
disgrace, poured upon him their slander and falsehood* 
Mr. Edwards, whose pen was mostly dipped in gall, pours 
upon him many reproachful and unfounded reflections. He 
charges Mr. Burroughs, and some others, with having held a 

♦ Biog. Britan. vol. il. p. 620. 

+ Reasons of Dissenting Brethren, p. 40, 133, 192. 

{ Papers of A.ccoin. p. 13. 

^ Bnrroughs's Vindicatioo, p. SO.^Neal*s Paritans, toI. iu. p. 286. 



BUBBOUGHS. jSS 

meetmg with one Nichols, a man of vile and daj^erous 
sentiments : whereas Mr. Burroughs thus declared, '' i know 
no such man as this Nichols. I never heard there was such 
a man in the world, till I read it in Mr. Edwards's book. I, 
to this day, know of no meeting about him, or any of his 
opinions, either intended, desired, or resolved upon; much 
less that there was any such meeting."* What he thus 
declared under his own hand, he afterwards proved from the 
most correct and substantial evidence, casting all the re- 
proach upon the false statement of his bitter adversary .t 

This peevish and bigotted writer, indeed, warmly censures 
Mr. Burroughs for endeavouring to propagate his own senti- 
ments upon church discipline; and even for pleading the 
cause of a general toleration. But our pious divine, 'with 
his usual christian meekness, repelled the foolish chai^ges, 
proved his own innocence, and exposed the rancour of his 
enemy .( Being charged with conformity in the time of the 
bishops, he says, ** Though I did conform to some of the old 
ceremonies, in which I acknowledge my sin ; I do not cast 
those things off as inconvenient or discountenanced by the 
state only, but as sinful against Christ ; yet I think there can 
]iardly be found a man in that diocese where I was, that was 
so eyed, who conformed less than I did, if he conformed at 
^1. As for the new conformity, God kept me from it; and 
my sin in the old makes me be of a more forbearing spirit 
towards those who. now differ from me. I see now what I 
did not ; and I bless God I saw it before the times changed : 
and others, even some who scorn at new light, must acknow- 
ledge they see now what a while since they saw not. Why 
then should they or I fly upon our brethren, because they see 
not what we think we see? O, how unbecoming is it for 
such who conformed to old and new ceremonies, now to be 
harsh and bitter in the least degree against their brethren, 
who differ from them, when they differ so much from what 
they were not long since themselves ! Some of them know 
I loved them as brethren, when they conformed to what I 
could not, but was suspended for refusing it. Let me have 
the same love from them as brethren, though I cannot now 
conform to all they now do."§ 

Mr. Edwards and old Mr. John Vicars were his most 
bitter and fririous enemies. The latter he addressed in the 

* Edwards's Gangrasna, part i. p. 25. Third £dU.~-part ii. p. 71 . 
+' Borroughs*s YiDdicatioo,p. 5—8. 

X Edwards^s Antapologia, p. S16. — Gangraena, part i. p. 78. ii. 80.— 
BorroQghs's Vindicatioo, p. 5—12. S It>i^- P« 17, 18. 



M LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

language of meekness bnd conciliation, as follows : ** I 
reverence^ and teach others to reverence old age ; but/' says 
he, '' it must know there are many infirmilies attending it ; 
and is fitter for devotion, than for matters of contention. If 
Mr. Vicars had told me some experience of the work of 
God upon his soul, or of the good providence of God 
towards his people and himself, I should have diligently 
observed it, and, 1 hope, I might have got good by it. But^ 
oh, how unbecoming old age is that spirit of contention which 
appears in his books ! If he think those places he has cited 
will serve his turn, surely his skill in presbytery is not great. 
My pen was running into a hard expression, but I will not 
provoke tlie old man : vet I must be plain with hina. How 
uncomely is it for an old professor of piety and religion, to 
be found jeering and scorning at piety and religion P Who 
would have thought that ever Mr. Vicars should have lived 
to that day f llie chief scope of his bopk is to cast dirt upon 
the apologists. Certainly the spirit of the man is much 
altered from what he once seemed to be. Is it becoming 
the ffravity and wisdom of old a^e to charge his brethren 
publiciy, of unworthy double dealmg, and of unfaithfulness i 
The Lord, I hope, will cause Mr. Vicars to see. cause to be 
humbled for this/** 

When Mr. Burroughs and his brethren were stigmatized as 
schismatics, he discovered his great mildness and forbearance. 
** I profess, as in the presence of God," says he, '^ thirt upon 
die most serious examination of my heart, I find in it, diat 
were my judgment presbyterial, yet I should preach and 
{dead as much for the forbearance of brethren differing firom 
me, not only in their judgment, biit in their practice, as I 
have ever done. Therefore, if I should turn presbyterian, I 
frar I should trouble Mr. Ed^vards and some others mcxe 
than I do now: perhaps my preaching and pleading for 
forbearance of dissenting brethren would be of more force 
dian it is now A 

Dr. Grey, who has called our divine ^ an ignorant, factious, 
and schismaticml minister,** has certainly imitated too modi, 
hi rancour and misivpreseiitatioD, die examjde of his pie- 
decessors^ Mr. Baxter, who knew his great worth, aaid|, 
^^ if aD die episcopahaiis had been like Archbishop Usher; 
all dK Presbyterians like Mr. Stiraheii MaishaU; and aD the 
sadepesdeats like Mr. Jeraaiah Barroughs, die breaches of 
the church wo«ld soob have heea healed.* The last solject 



r.9i»ak ^mi.|^i4. 



CORNWELL. IS 

Mr. Burroughs preached upon^ which he also piliblishedy was 
his '^ Irenicum/' or an attempt to heal the divisions among 
'christians. His incesssuit labours, and his grief for the 
distractions of the times, are said to have hastened his end. 
He died of a consumption, November 14, 1646, in the fortjf- 
seventh year of his age. Granger says, '^ he was a man of 
learning, candour, and modesty, and of an exemplary and 
irreproachable life."* Fuller has classed him among the 
learned writers ' of Emanuel college, Cambridge.t Dr. 
Williams says, that his " Exposition of Hosea" is a pleasing 
specimen, to shew how the popular preachers of his time 
applied the scriptures, in their expository discourses, to the 
various cases of their hearers. t He published several of his 
writings while he lived, and his fhends sent forth many 
others after his death, most of which were highly esteemed 
by all pious christians. 

His Works. — 1. Moses's Choice, 1641. — 2. Sion's Joy, a Sermoa 

§ reached to the Honofirable House of Commons, at their public 
'hanksgiving, Sept. 7, 1641—1641.-3. An Exposition of the 
Prophesy of Hosea, 1648. — 4. The Lord's Heart opened, 1643. — 

6. A Vindication of Mr. Burroughs, against Mr. Edwards his fool 
aspersions, in his spreading Gangraena, and his angry Antapologia: 
concluding with a brief Declaration what the Independents would 
have, 1646.—^. Irenicum, to the Lovers of Truth and Peace, 1646. — 

7. Two Treatises: The first, of Earthly mindedness; the second, of 
Conyersing in Heaven and Walking with God, 1640^ — 6. An Exposi- 
tion upon 4y 5, 6, and 7th Chapters of Hosea, 1650. — 9. An Exposi* 
tion upon 8 and 9th Chapters of Hosea, 1650. — 10. The rare Jewel 
of Christian Contentment, 1650. — 11. Gospel Worship, 1650. — 
1% Gospel Conversation, 1650.— 13. The Evil of Evils: or, the. 
exceeding Sinfulness of Sin, 1654.— 14. The Saints Treasury, 1654.-— 
15. Three Treatises, of Hope, of Faith, and of the Saints Walk by 
Fakh, 1655. — 16. Reconciliation, or Christ's Trumpet of Peace, 165.. 
17. The Saints Happiness, 1660.— 18. A Treatise of Holy Courage 
in Evil limes, 1661.^-19. True Blessedness consists in Pardon of 
{Sin, 1668.— 20. Four useful Discourses, 1675, 



Francis CoRNWELLy A. M. — ^This person was educated 
at Emanuel college, Cambric^e, and afterwards beneficed 
at Orpington in Kent. During the intolerance of Archbishop 
Ijaudy having refused to wear the surplice, to kneel at th^ 
sacrament, and use the sign of the cross in baptism, he was 
cast into prison. His companion in Maidstone gaol was 
Mr. Wilson of Otham, near that place, About this time^ he 

• Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. ii. p. 193. 

^ Jailer's Hist, of Camb. p. 147* 

% ^iUiasM'i CliristUn Preacher, fi. 499. 



96 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

espoused the sentiments of the baptists, and became a 
zealous advocate in the cause. In 1643^ he publicly avowed 
Ills principles, and wrote in defence of tliem. In 1644, in 
a visitation sermon preached at Cranbrook in Kent, from 
Mark vii. 7> before the ministers of those parts, he took the 
liberty of freely and fully declaring his sentiments upon the 
subject of baptism, lliis very much startled some of the 
clergy present, and offended others. The matter was, there- 
fore, debated among them, and the arguments in favour of 
antipaedobaptism were strongly urged by Mr. William 
Jeffery of Seven-oaks, who had baptized Mr. Comwell, and 
to whom he referred them. The debate was carried on till 
Mr. Christopher Blackwood, one of the ministers, desired 
them to desist at that time ; for he had taken dowii the 
sermon in short-hand, and would return an answer in prints 
which he hoped would be to the satisfaction of them all. 
His advice being adopted, it was agreed to postpone, for 
the present, the discussion of the question, to re-examine the 
point in dispute, and to bring their collections together at 
the next meeting, which was to be within a fortnight. In 
the mean time, Mr. Blackwood, as our author obser\'es, 
studied the question with great diligence and close attention. 
The impression made on his mind was very different from 
what was expected. As he studied the subject, he began to 
suspect his own opinions ; presently changed his sentiments ; 
and, when they met, he produced his arguments against 
infant baptism. His papers being left with the ministers for 
their examination, and waiting some time, and receiving no 
answer to his arguments, he published them vnth corrections 
and enlargements .• 

Mr. Cornwell, soon after this, withdrew from the estab- 
lished church. He disapproved of national and parochial 
churches ; and taught, that a church ought to consist <^ 
such only as professed repentance from dead works, and 
fi^ith in the Lord Jesus Christ, and were baptized by immer- 
sion, and upon their believing, which he thought was the 
pattern of the first churches in Judea. He soon gathered n 
church in Kent, which was formed upon this plan, and to 
which he was pastor to the day of his death. He was sucr 
ceeded in the same place and office by his son. It reflects 
great honour on Mr. Cornwell's memory, that he was a 
zealous opposer of persecution and an imposed uniformity. 
He wrote against the ordinance of parliament that was made 

♦ Crosby's Baptists, ▼ol. i. p. 344— 84T.— Ncal*» Puritans, vol. it. 
p. 632'-634. 



COLLIER. SJr 

to silence aU preachers who had not received episcopal or 
jMresbyterian ordination, or who should preach any thing 
contrary to the articles of faith, and the directory of public 
worship, set forth by the assembly. He maintained, that 
all who profaibitefd any minbter from preaching the gospd 
Ifreely, acted like the Jews of old, who cast the blind man 
out of the temple, for confessing that Jesus was the 
Christ.* 



; His Works. — 1* A Vindication of the Royal Commuunon of Kii _ 
Jesus, 1643. — 2. A Description of the Spiritual Temple; or, iho 
Difference between the Christian and Antichristian Church, 1646.-^ 
8. A Conference between Mr. John Cotton and the Elders of New 
England, 1646. — 4. Two Queries worthy of Consideration, 



' Thomas Collier was a minister of the baptist persua- 
ision, a person of great cfiligence, moderation and usefulness, 
and a sufferer in the evil times m which he lived. Edwards 
denominates him a great sectary, and a man of great power 
among them ; who had emissaries under him, whom he sent 
abroad into various parts of the country. He preached 
some time in the island of Guernsey, where he had many 
converts ; but his cruel persecutors would not allow him to 
enjoy peace. They banished him and many of his followers 
from die place, and cast them into prison at Portsmouth ; 
'but how long diey remained under confinement, we are not 
infontied.-f- On account of his incessant labours and exten- 
sive usefulness, he is represented by his adversaries as havii^ 
done much hurt at Lymington, Hampton, Waltham, and dl 
along the west country. " This Collier," says my author, 
^* is a great sectary in the west of England, a mechanical 
fellow, and a great emissary, a dipper, who goes about 
Surrey, .Hampshire, and those counties, preaching and 
dipping. About a fortnight ago, on the Lord's day, he 
preached at Guildford in the meeting-place, and to the 
company of one old Mr. Close, an independent minister, 
who hath set up at Guildford, and done a great deal of 
mischief, having drawn away many of the well-meaning 
people from the ministry of other godly ministers. There 
tiiis Cdllier exercised ; and it was given out in the coimtry, 
that he was a rare man; and the people came firom the 
towns about to hear him. This fellow, m his circuit, at an 
texercise where he was preaching to many women for rebap- 

« Crosby's Baptists, vol. i. p. 348, S49. 
f Edwards's Gangrsna, part iiu p. 41. 



S8 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

dzation and dippiug, made use of that scripture to that 
purpose : And in that day seven women shaU take hold of 
4me manj* isuc.* 

In the year 1645, Mr. Collier came forwards in viniUca* 
tion of his sentiments^ and published a work, entitled^ 
*' Certain Queries, or Points now in Controversy, Examined ;*^ 
in which, after vindicating his own views of christian bap- 
tism, he maintains, that magistrates have no power whatever 
to establish church government, or to compel any j^rsons 
bjr any human power, to observe the government of Christ. ^ In 
discussing the power of the civil magistrate in ecclesiastical 
matters, he gives his advice to the parliament to use tlieir 
utmost endeavours to promote a further reformation of th« 
church ; for the attainment of which, he recommends them 
** to dismiss that assembly of learned men, who are now 
called together to consult about matters of religion ; because 
he cannot conclude that God hath any thing for them to da^ 
and he knows no rule in the hook of God for such sm 
assembly. ' He also recommends them to go forwards io 
subduing their auti^hristian enemies^, so far as by civil law th^j 
had power. He then concludes by recommending the parr 
liament to give the kingdom to the saints; by which ia 
meant,'' says h^, '^ not only an external kingdom, but the 
spiritual kingdom and goverpment of the church of Christ.^f 

The year following, two of Mr. Collier's letters, addressed- 
to his religious friends, were intercepted, and published te 
the world. As they discover his piety and usefrilness, and 
contain a sufficient answer to all the impious clamour of 
Mr, Edwards's scurrilous pen, it will be proper to insert 
them. The first, dated from Guildford, April 20, 1646, is 
addressed ^^ To the Saiuts ip th^ o^der and fellowship of 
the gospel at Taunton ;" the preamble to which is, " Your 
dear brother, Thomas Collier, desireth the increase of grace; 
and peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesue 
Christ ;" and is as follows :t 

*' Dear brethren and sisters, 

" I have not had an opportunity of writing unto 
you until now, although my spirit hath been up to the Lord 
for you continually, llie Lord hath manifested his presence 
with me exceedingly in my journey. I desire the Lord to. 
raise up your hearts in mankfulness. He hath gathered 
saints in Pool by me. Fourteen took up the ordinance at 
once; there is like to be a great work; and I confinaeq 

♦ Edwards's Gangraena, part ii. p. 122. 

f Ibid, part iii. p. 27—29. % I^>d* P* ^1* 



COLLIER. 

the ehurdies in other fdaces. I am not yet got to far m 
London ; but I shall, t expect, to-monrow. Dearly beloved, 
my desire and prayer to our Fadier, on your behalf, is, that 

Jrour souls may be satisfied widi his fulness, that you may 
ive above, and then you shall not vi^ant comfort. My ex* 
hortation to you is, to wait upon the Lord, in his own way, 
and not to look forth into the world. There is bread enough 
in your Father's house, where be hath promised his presence. 
Though you seem to want gifts, yet you shall not want the 
wesence of your Father, your Jesus, if you wait upon him. 
jlliere ate two brethren I suppose will visit you frovi 
Hampton; brother Sims and brother Row, whom I desire 
you to receive as from the Lord. The unlimited power of 
the presbyterians is denied them, of li^hich you shall hear 
more shortly. I desire to be remembered to all my kind 
fHends with you, and at present rest 

'^ Your dear brother in the &ith and fellowship of the gospel, 

** Thomas Collieb.'' 
In a note to the above letter, Mr. Collier says, '^ I shall 
see you as speedily as possible." His second letter breadies 
the same pious feelings, and is also addressed '' To th« 
Saints in the order and fellowship of the gospel." It if 
dated from London, May 2, 1646, and is as follows :* 
^ My dear ones in the Lord Jesus, 

** I sahite yon, desiring Him who is our head 
and husband, our life and liberty, our all and in all, to 
gather up our souls more abundantly into the glorious 
unity and fellowship of the Son of God; that you may. 
not live upon these lower things, which are but instru- 
ments to convey light and love unto us : I mean, even ordi- 
nances, or the like ; which indeed are but as a shell without 
the kernel, further than we enjoy Christ in diem. My dear 
ones, you are in my heart continually, and my desire is to 
be with you as sooti as possibly I can, to impart some 
Spiritual gifts unto you, and to enjoy fellowship in Jesus 
Christ vndi you. But what is this? you are upon the heart 
of Christ; nay, engraven upon his hand, and shall be had 
in everlasting remembrance before him. I am much in 
hasie at present, the post coming forth of tovm, only I hav^ 
sent you diese few Imes, and two books here enclosed, as a 
remembrance of my love. I desire to be remembered to all 
my dear fiieittls widi you, and at present rest and remain 

'* Your dear brother in the faith and fellowship of the gospel^ 

" Thomas Collier. 

• Edwardf^f Gaagraas, part Hi, p. 6S. 



» LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Mr^ Collier was author of sevenJ other pieces, ia addition 
to the one we have mentioiied, whiqh were probably 4)n the 
cpntroversies ,of the day. But at what place or places he 
ftli^wards preached, or when he died, we are not inprmed. . 

Philip Tandy was a nunister in Ae establish^ church^ 
but afterwards joined the brethren of the ^teparation, and 
^espoused the sentiments of the bs^ptists, observioff the seventh 
day a3 the christian s^ibbath. He was remarl^Iy zealous to 
promote hi^ own views of divine prutk, and appears to ha¥e 
been a. person of great abilities and piety. Edwards deno- 
minates him ^' a great sectary," who had been at York smd in 
the northern parts, propagfiting his sentiments. While he 
was in the north, he held a disputatioi) concerning bis 
opinions, with a pious and learned minister of York. The 
debate was carried on by letters, in one of which Mr. Tandy 
remarks as follows: " Let us lay aside tradition, custom, 
the reputation of learning, and all selfish respects ; and let us 
speak and write so as knowing that we must shortly give an 
account to Jesus Christ foi: all that we build, whether it be 
hay or stubble, gold or wood. For my part, I am confident, 
that, within a few years, I shall see him whom my soul loveth, 
and much will it go to my heart, if I either oppose a truth, 
or maintain an error. Sir, let us look about us : the vail is 
not. yet taken off. In something most good men have been 
blinded. It may be in this for one. It is good to be tenderly 
jealous. Pardon me, that I thus exhort you. I see so many 
temptations that sti'ongly invite even godly men to contend 
for paedobaptism, and so far do I see, also, into the mystery 
of antichrist's sitting in the temple of God as God, thfit { 
cannot but give a caution to the godliest man upon earth, 
who undertakes the defence of this practice." Mr. Tandy 
undertook, in his next letter, to vindicate his own views ojf 
baptism and the fourth commandment concerning the sabbath; 
to vi4iich the minister mentioned above wrote a large and fiiU 
reply, . in which;^ it is said, he confuted him in all the 
particulars contained in his letter.* It doQS not appear Bit 
what place Mr. Tandy preached, or when he died, but he 
was living in the year 1646. 

. * Edwards's Gangrasoa, part iii. p. 64—59.. 



TANDt—T. MOORE^DURANCE. Sl 

THOMtAs Moore was a zealous and active preacher 
athotig the separatists during the civil wars. Edwsurds calk 
him " a great sectary and manifestarian/* who, in his opinion, 
did much hurt in Lincolnshire^ in some parts of Norfolk and 
C!ambri(]^eshire. He obtained great fame at Boston, Ljnne 
and Hollandji at which places he had many followers, who 
accompanied him fix>m place to place, attending upon his 
niinistiy. He did not confine his labours to buildings that 
were consecrated; but, without distinction of places, he 
preached in houses, and in all places wherever the people 
were disposed to assemble. It is observed, that he sund his 
followers refused to keep days of public festing and dianks- 
giving, in the .time of civil wars ; " because,'' says my audior, 
** diey will not give thanks to God for one man killing 
aiK)ther.'' On account of his opinions and practice, he was 
shamefully persecuted by the presbyterian mimsters and odiers 
of a bigotted, party spirit. At Boston he was questioned by 
Colonel King, governor of the tovm, when he was cast into 
prison for keeping a conventicle in the night season. It doc» 
not, however, appear how long he remained under the malice 
and power of his persecutors, nor what afterwards became of 
faim^ only he was living in the year 1646.* 



John Durance was a zealous and popular preacher of the 
independent denomination. Edwards says, ** he was formerly 
an apprentice to a washball-maker in Lombard-street, London, 
and afterwards became a preacher without being ordained ; 
yea, after preaching some years, he presumed, without ordina- 
tion, to baptize and administer the Lord's supper." This 
was certainly a dreadful crime in the opinion of this bigotted 
writer. He often preached at Sandwich in Kent, but lived at 
Canterbury, where he gathered a separate church, and dis- 
pensed the word and ordinances of the gospel. The author 
mentioned above, with a view to reproach his memory, gives 
the following curious account of him : " There is one 
"Master Durance, a preacher at Sandwich in Kent, a bold con- 
ceited man, and an independent, who, since the beginning of 
ifais parliament, was ^a washing-ball maker, or seller of wash- 
ing-balls, here in I^ndon, but now turned preacher ; and 
being' never ordained minister, hath consecrated himself to be 
one of the priests of the high places. Among many high 
affected strains of new light, and strange expressions, which 

* Edwardi's Gangrsoa, part ii. p. 86. Hi. 90. 



92 . LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

the man uses in his sermons and prayers^ to get himself the 
name of such a rare man, these are some : he prayed to tb« 
Trinity to take care of these three kingdoms; God the 
Pather to take care of one, God the Son of the second, and 
God the Holy Ghost of the third kingdom." This author 
charges Mr. Durance with having prayed publicly in th« 
church at Sandwich, *^ that the king might be brought up in 
chains to the parliament" He also observes, that, after his 
preaching at Canterbury, he hath the use of a great room near 
the cathedral, where many resort to him, and *^ he takes 
occasion to build them up in independency." Although he 
preached regularly every week at Canterbury and Sandwich, 
he would have done the same also at Dover; but he was 
opposed by the godlj/ ministers of the town, who wrote up to 
London against him, and, by this means, prevented him from 
going thither. This shews his great zeal and diligence, and 
their extreme bigotry and intolerance. Mr. Edwards, one of 
the most bitter enemies to toleration, further chai*ges him with 
saying, after the surrender of Oxford to the parliament, 
*^ diat, notwithstanding this, there would be no peace till 
there was a general liberty of conscience in England." A 
dreadful crime was this in the eyes of this bigotted writer! 
Mr. Durance lived in one of the prebendaries houses in 
Canterbury ; and, after preaching on the Lord's day in one of 
ibe churches, he preached and administered the ordinancet 
of the gospel to his own church, in his own house, in the 
evening. How long he continued in this situation, or when 
he died, we are not able to learn ; but he was living in the 
year 1646.* v 



John Batchelor was a divine of the independent deno- 
mination, who lived some time at Rotterdam in Holland, 
where he was probably driven by the Laudian persecution^ 
Several of his letters, dated from this place in September^ 
1S41, expressive of the liberal sentiments of the independents^ 
wer^ afterwards printed.t He soon after r^eturned to hid 
native country, and became a chaplain in the army; on which 
account, and on account of his views of church govemmeu^ 
Edwards has classed him among *^ the notorious sectariesp 
and tliose who smell of the army."^ He was an avowed 
advocate for liberty of conscience, and a universal toleration, 
for which he has incurred the hot displeasure and indignatioB. 

* Edward8*8 Ganj^raena, partii. p. 124, 144. iii.96,97. 

f £dwards*» Antapologia, p. 39. t GaognBoa, part iii. p. 266. 



BATCHEI^OR. ! 3B 

^ thU censorious writer. About the year 1643, he was 
appomted, with several other learned divines, one of tfat 
licensers of the press, for books in divinity. In this office he 
discovered his generous sentiments, by giving his public sane* 
tion to all publications which were founded on the broad and 
liberal principles of christian freedom and a toleration of all 

Srties. This was sure to incur the indignant censure of 
r. Edwards, who gives the following amusing account of 
him: 

** Master Batchelor," says he, " is the licenser-general of 
books, not only of independent doctrines, but of books for a 
toleration of all sects, and against paedobaptism."* What a 
shocking crime was this in the opinion of this bigotted and 
intolerant writer ! In another place he says, ** There is one 
Master John Batchelor, licenser-general of the sectaries' 
books, and of all sorts of wicked opinions, who hath been a 
man-midwife to bring forth more monsters begotten by die 
de^, and bom of the sectaries, wiihin tliis three last years, 
than ever were brought into the light in England by all the 
former licensers, the bishops and their chaplains, for fourscore 
years. He hath licensed books pleading for ail sorts of 
sectaries: as, seekers, antinomians, anabaptists, antiscrip-f' 
turists, arians, antitrinitarians, questionists, and all bias-' 
phemers. This is apparent by his licensing that late i^icked 
pamphlet, called, ^ Some modest and humble Queries con* 
ceming a printed Paper, entitled, ' An Ordinance presented to 
die Honourable House of Commons.' 

*^ This Master Batchelor hath licensed several pamphlets 
for a toleration; yea, not only for a limited toleration of some 
sects and opinions, as anabaptists and independents ; but for 
a universal toleration of all consciences and opinions, as maj 
be seen in Walwin's book licensed by him: yea, he hath 
licensed unlicensed books printed before he was bom, as a 
pam{Alet, entitled, ' Religious Peace,' made by one Leonard 
Busher, and printed in 16 14; wherein there is a pleading 
for a toleration of papists, jews, and all persons differing in 
religion ; and that it may be lawful for them to write, dispute, 
confer> print and publish, any matter touching religion, lliat 
the wickedness of Master Batchelor may the more appear, I 
desire the reader to observe these following particulars : — He 
gives not a bare imprimatur to this book of Busher's, but 
gives his imprimatur with a special recommendation in these 
words : * This useful treatise, entitled. Religious Peace, long 

* GaDfTOim, part i. p. 88. 
YOL. HI. P 



\ 



M LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

lince presented by a citizen of London to King Jame» and 
the kigh court of parliament then sitting, I allow to be 
reprinted; and so to some of Saltmarsh's books, Smoak in 
the Temple; Groans for Liberty; Reasons for Unity; Love 
-and Peace. In the reprinting Busker's book for general 
toleration, he made some material alterations, and wrote in 
the margins of such places in the book where some special 
passages were for toleration, that they should be printed in 
a larger letter, no doubt that the reader might better obsenre 
them." 

This intolerant author also adds : ** John Batcfaelor treads 
in the steps of some licensers who went before him. The 
man hath justified and acouitted the former licensers, 
Dr. Baker, Dr. Bray, Dr. Hayward, Ur. Weeks,' and the 
rest of that race, who, in the point of licensing, were saints 
to him. He hath licensed such books and things, that I 
am confident none of them durst have done, for fear the 
people would have risen up and torn them in pieces ; and 
certainly the people would never have borne with such 
books in the bishops' days. If any man, before the sittiiq^ 
of this parliament, had written or licensed such books, he 
would without doubt have been questioned and proceeded 
against by this parliament. This Batchelor is such a des- 
perate licenser, that nothing now in that kind can stick widi 
him, having swallowed down those wicked ^ Queries' upon 
the ordinance against heresies and blasphemies; and," says 
my author, ^^ I am afraid that if the devil himself should 
make a book, and give it the' title, * A Plea for Liberty of 
Conscience, with certain Reasons against Persecution ior 
Religion,' and bring it to Mr. Batchelor, he would license 
it, not only with a bare imprimatury but set before it the 
commendations of a useful treatise, a sweet and excellent 
booky making for love and peace among brethren.*'* 

Such are the reproaches cast upon our divine, who wae 
greatly celebrated for christian moderation, liberty of con- 
science, and free inquiry. He was living in 1646; but 
where he preached, or when he died, we have not been able 
to ascertain. 



John Greene had a principal hand in raising a baptist-, 
congregation in Crutched-friars, London, in the year 1639, 
and was chosen to the office of minister.f He was by trade 

• £dward8*8 Gangraena, part iii. p. 102— 105* 
f Crosb>'i Baptists, toU iiK p. 86, 48. 



GREENE. S5 

^ felt-maker of hat-maker, but he became a zealous and 
popular preacher. In the year 1641, there was published 
It quarto pamphlet, entitled, " The Brownists' Synagogue ; 
br, a late Discovery of their Conventicles, Assemblies, and 

S' laces of meeting ; where they preach, and the manner of 
leir praying and preaching; with a relation of the names, 
^aces, and doctrines of those which do commonly preach. 
The chief of which are these: Greene, the felt-maker; 
Marler, the button-maker ; Spencer, the coachman ; Rogers, 
the glover : which sect is much increased of late within this 
city. A kingdom divided cannot stand." In this work, 
Greene and Spencer are called the two arch-separatists^ 
sind are said to be /^accounted as demi-gods, who were here 
and every where." It shews the manner of their worship, 
which we extract, because it gives some idea of the spirit of 
the times, and proves that the voice of slander could not 
attribute any improper conduct to them in their public 
assemblies. " In the house w'here they meet," it is said, 
" there is one appointed to keep the door, for the intent to 
sive notice, if there should be any insurrection, warning may 
be given them. They do not flock together, but come two 
or diree in a company ; and all being gathered together, die 
mail appointed to teach stands in the midst of the room, and 
His audience gather about him. The man prayeth about the 
space of half an hour; and part of his prayer is, that those 
i/^hich conie thither to scoff and laugh, God would be 
pleased to turn their hearts ; by which means tliey think to 
escape undiscovered: His sermon is about the space of an 
hour, and then doth another stand up, to make the text more , 
plain ; and at the latter end he entreats them all to go home 
severally, lest the next meeting they should be interrupted 
by those which are of the opinion of the wicked. They 
seem very steadfast in their opinions, and say, rather jthan 
turn, they will bum."* 

During the above year came forth another pamphlet, 
entitled, " New Preachers, New ;" in the epbtle to which, 
the writer, addressing Mr. Greene, says, " Do not these 
things come firom proud spirits, that he, (Mr. Spencer,) a 
horse-keeper, and you, a hat-maker, will take upon you to 
be ambassadors of God, to teach your teachers, and take 
upon yoii to be ministers of the gospel in these days of 
light. Consider, 1 pray you, that our JLord would not have 
had the ass,' (Matt. xxi. 3,) if he had not stood in need of 



36 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

him. Now the truth is, the church hath no need of such ai 
TOU; an unlearned^ self-conceited hat-maker. It is true, that, 
in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign, the popish 
priests and friars being dismissed, there wa» a scarcity for 
the present of learned men; and so some tradesmen were 
permitted to leave their trades, and betake themselves to the 
ministry ; but it was necessity that did then constrain them 
80 to do. But thanks be to God, we have now no such 
necessity; and therefore this practice of you and your 
comrades casts an ill aspersion upon our good God, that 
doth furnish our church plentifully with learned men ; and 
it doth also scandalize our church, as if we stood in need of' 
such as you to preach the gospel. This you call preaching, 
or prophesying ; and thus, as one of them told the lords of 
the parliament, that they were all preachers; for so they 
•practise and exercise themselves as young players do in 
private, till they be by their brethren judged fit for the 
pulpit, and then up they go, and, like mountebanks, play 
their part. — Mr. Greene, Mr. Greene, leave off these ways : 
bring home such as you have caused to stray. It is such as 
jou that vent their venom against our godly preachers, and 
the divine forms of prayers; yea, against all set forms of 
prayers : all is from antichrist ; but that which you preach is 
most divine ; that comes fresh from the Spirit : the other is 
an old dead sacrifice, composed (I should have said killed) 
so long ago, that now it stinks. It is so old, that m the 
year 1549 it was compiled by Doctor Cranmer, Doctor, 
Goodricke, Doctor Scip, Doctor Thirlby, Doctor Day, 
Doctor Holbecke, Doctor Ridley,^ Doctor Cox, Doctor 
Tailor, Doctor Haines, Doctor Redman, and Mr. Robinson, 
archdeacon of Leicester ; but what are all these ? They are 
not to be compared to John Greene, a hat-maker ; for he 
thinketh what he blustereth forth upon the sudden, is far 
better than that which these did maturely and deliberately 
compose." It is not at all wonderful, that, when the church 
had lost its power to persecute nonconformists, those who 
still retained the spirit of persecution should indulge in this . 
kind of defamation and ridicule. 

However, during this year, Mr. Greene, together with 
several of his brethren, was complained of to die house of 
commons, for lay-preaching. He was convened before the 
house, when he was reprimanded, threatened to be severely 
punished, if he did not renounce the practice, and then 
dismissed ;* but whether he obeyed their orders, or still 

• Jialion*! CoUeciioiiSy vol. ii« p. W^, 270* 



PRICE. 9T 

continued to exercise his talents in preachings we are not 
able to learn. 

Mr. Edwards, in reproaching all who dissented from hi^ 
presbyterian bigotry, observes of Mr. Greene, that he was 
ione of the first mechanics, who, presently after the meet- 
ing of the long parliament, preached publicly in the 
churches in London; and that afterwards, m the year 1644, 
he accompanied Colonel Hemstead to Trinidad. After his 
return, he statedly preached in ColemaurStreet, once on the 
Lord's day, and once on a week day; where, in the year 
1646, to use the words of our author, " there is so* great a 
resort and flocking to him, that yards, rooms, and house are 
all so full, that he causes his neighbours' conventicles, and 
bthers, to be oftentimes very thin, and independents to 
preach to bare walls and empty seats, in comparison of this 
great rabbi."* Crosby mentions one Mr. John Green, wh<|. 
inirvived the restoration, and who endured cruel persecution 
^th the rest of his brethren ; but it does not appear whether 
this was the same person.t 



John Price was a zealous preacher among the inde* 
pendents, during the civil wars. Edwards styles him ^' an 
exchange-man, a beloved disciple of Mr. John Goodwin, and 
one of his prophets ; who used to preach for him when he 
had any book to answer, or some libertine tractate to set forth." 
He then gives the following account of him : " This 
Master Price contents not himself to preach only in London, 
but I hear that he was lately at Bury St. Edmunds ; that he 
there preached in a house, and maintained certain dangerous 
and heretical opinions ; as, that men might be saved who 
were not elected, and that if men improve nature well, God 
will surely give them grace. So that it seems this exchange- 
man sells other wares besides ijadependency and separation, 
and does with feigned words make merchandize of men's 
souls." This scurrilous writer adds : ** Master Price was 
also at a meeting here in London, where some of several 
sects, seekers, antinomians, anabaptists, brownists, inde- 
pendents, met with some presbyterians, to consider how all 
these might live together, notwithstanding their several 
€|^iaiis ; and he was, as all the sectaries were, for a general 
titration; and they agreed together like buckle and thong, 
•nly tbe presbyterians were not satisfied." 



^- Biwardi't GRngneoa, part iii. p. S48, 249. 
f Cnikgr> B^^lsb, vol. iii. p. 8S. 



V .'A 



' -> 



38 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

In the year 1646^ Mr. Price published several pamphlets 
on the controversies of the day. One was written in defence 
of independency ; two others were replies, one to the City 
tlemonstrance, the other to a Vindication of the Remon- 
strance. In politics he seem^ to have been of republican 
principles, ascribing the supreme power of the kingdom to the 
house of commons ; and this is all that, we know of him.* 



Mr. Symonds was beneficed at Sandwich in Kent, during 
the civil wars ; styled by Edwards, " a great independent^ 
and a great sectary," If we aire to give credit to this writer, 
be was of a liigh and- imperious spirit, and, in his views of 
church discipline, remarkably rigid and severe. + He relates 
of him what he calls " a merry story," which is as follows: 
While he was at Sandwich, a person came to him to be 
catechized; but, instead of performing the duty of his 
office, he sent him to a mechanic of the town to do it for 
him; and when he was expostulated with, and asked why 
he had done so, he replied, " that one goose might best 
teach another to eat." The author applies and improves 
this story by adding, '^ so merry are our most demure inde- 

pendehts."t 

The following account of Mr. Symonds we give in the 
words of this writer. " There is one Mr. Symonds, a great 
sectary," says he, " who came to London since the war$^ 
and preached at little Alhallows, Thames-street, and at the 
Tower, where I have been informed, that he hath preached 
several strange things : as,^ for toleration^ and liberty for all 
men to worship God according to their canscienceSy and is 
favour oi antip&dobaptism. Also preaching once at Andrew's, 
Undershaft, for Mr. Goodwin, he preached high strains oi 
antinomianism : as, that Christ was a legal preacher^ and 
lived in a dark time, and so preached the law, but afterwards 
the gospel came to be preached. Afterwards, preaching at 
Lawrence Poultney, on the day of thanksgivmg for taking 
Sherborn castle, he spake of the great victories the saints, 
meaning the independents, had obtained ; and yet the parlia- 
ment was now making lews against these . saints. As at 
London he hath preached thus; so since he left London, this 
last summer, he preached at Bath before the General strange 
stuff, viz. against presbytery, saying it was a limb of anti- 
christ, pleading for liberty of conscience, and for those who 

• Edwards's Gan^rseaa, part iii. p. 160, 161. 
+ Ibid. p. 108, 109. X Ibid. p. 76. 



SYMQNDS. 91 

Would not have their children baptized till they came to yean 
of understanding, and for weavers and ignorant mechanict 
preaching; when he spake of these men's gifts, and theijr 
having the Spirit, before learned men and men bred at univer- 
aities, with a n-eat deal of this stuff. It is a sad thing, that 
Sir Thomas l*air&x, that valiant and well-affected gentleman, 
should have such land of chaplains and preachers upon all 
occasions to preach before him. I have spoken the more oC 
this Mr. Symonds, because I hear he is nominated one of 
the itinerary preachers of Wales ; that so the country and 
ministers may be aware of him; and that the assembly, 
yirhen he comes to be approved of, mav do their duties, aiul 
not let him pass so easily as they did Mr. Cradock."* 

From this curious narrative it appears that Mr. Symonda 
was of the baptist persuasion ; and it is further observed, that 
he was approved and appointed by the house of commons 
to preach in Wales.- He was living in the year 1646; but 
was a different person from Mr. Joseph Symonds, pastor of 
Ihe church at Rotterdam in Holland, a brief memoir of 
whom is given in the next article.f 



Joseph Symonds was some time the worthy assistant of 
Mr. Thomas Gataker, at Rotherhithe, near London; but 
afterwards he became rector of St. Martin's, Ironmongers - 
lane, in the city. Having espoused the sentiments of the 
independents, he forsook the church of England, left his 
benefice, and went to Holland. After his departure. Arch- 
bishop Laud, in the year l639y pronounced against him the 
sentence of deprivation, by which the good man lost his 
liviuj^, after he had given it up.t Mr. Symonds having 
sacrmced his benefice, to escape die storm of persecution, 
setded at Rotterdam, where he was chosen pastor to the 
English church, in the place of Mr. Sydrach Sympson. In 
this situation, his deportment and his doctrine were par« 
ticularly conciliatory, and his labours eminentiy useftd.^ Mr. 
Edwards, to reproach his sentiments and to cloud his memory, 
says, '^ that his independent church at Rotterdam was over- 
growi^with anabaptism ; and that he wrote to his friends in 
England, saying, he was so pestered with anabaptists, that he 
knew not what to do."! Mr. Robert Park, afterwards one of 

• Edwards's GangniDa, part ill. p. 841, SiS. f ttid. p. 131, 84S. 

1 V^arton's Troables of Land, vol. i. p. S60« 

$ Bailie's Dissuasive, p. 84, 176. 

I £dwsrds*8 GaDfrviia, part ii. p% 16. 



40 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

the ejected nonconformists, was his assistant in the pastoral 
office.* It appears that he was living in the year 1646, and 
still pastor of the church at Rotterdam. Though he was an 
independent, Edwards styles him " one of the most moderate 
and modest of that way."t Several pieces, written by a 
person, of the same name, occur in the Sion and Bodleian 
catalogues.} Though pastor of a church in a foreign land, 
he was sometimes called to preach before the parliament, as 
appears from one of his sermons afterwards published widi 
this title, " A Sermon lately preached at Westminster, before 
sundry of the Honourable House of Commons, 1641 : Bj 
Joseph Symonds, late minister in Ironmongers'-lane, LondoDi^ 
now pastor of the Church at Rotterdam." 



Henry Burton, B. D. — This painful sufferer for non- 
conformity was bom at Birdsall in Yorkshire, in the year 
1579> and educated in St. John's college, Cambridge, where 
he took his degrees, and was afterwards incorporated at 
Oxford. His first public employment was that of a tutor to 
the sons of Lord Carey at Leppington, who, in 1625, was 
created Earl of Monmouth, and whose lady was governess 
to Pruice Charles in his infancy. It was probably owing to 
the interest of this honourable person, that he was made 
clerk of the closet to Prince Henry, and, after his death, to 
Prince Charles. In the year 1623, he was appointed to 
attend the young prince to Spain ; but, for reasons unknown, 
he was set aside, even after part of his goods were shipped.^ 
On that prince's accession to the crown, he expected no less 
than to be continued in the clerk's ofEce ; but his majesty 
giving that place to Neile, Bishop of Durham, Mr. Burton 
is said to have been so highly disgusted, that he warmly 
expressed his resentment on all occasions, particularly by 
railing against the bishops. " The vapours of ambition fuming 
in his head," says Clarendon, " he would not think of less 
than still being clerk of the closet. Being thus disappointed, 
and, as he called it, despoiled of his right, he would not in 
the greatness of his heart, sit down with the afiront, but com^ 
mitted two or three such weak and saucy indiscretioiis, as 
caused an inhibition to be sent him, that he should not 
presume to come any more to court." The principle of 

• Palmer's Noncoa. Mem. vol. »i. p. S55. 
i Ivdwards'g Gangraena, part iii. p. 94S. 
J Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. iii. p 5. 
^ Fuller'! Charcb Hist. b. xi. p. 152. 



H. BURTON. 41 

diese weak and saucy indiscretions^ as they are called, was, 
that in April, 1623, he presented a letter to King Charles, 
remonstrating against Dr. Neile and Dr. Laud, his majesty's 
constant attendants, as being much inclined to popery; 
which was certainly too true. " From that time/' adds 
the noble historian, ** he resolved to revenge himself 
upon the whole order of bishops; and so turned lecturer, 
and preached against them, being endowed with malice and 
boldness, instead of learning and any tolerable parts."* 

The above slanderous accusation is founded in ignorance, 
or prejudice, or both, as will appear to all who will only read 
his works with impartiality. Indeed, Mr. Burton afterwards 
affirmed his right to the above office, and that Bishop Neile 
cast him out through envy ; and added : '' but this was 
ordered by the special providence of my God, who would 
not suffer me to rise high at court, lest I jshould have been 
corrupted with its preferments ."+ From what he has published 
to the world, he appears to have been furnished with con- 
siderable parts, and to have been no mean scholar. He was 
courageous in the cause of truth, and a man of a warm spirit ; 
which led him, on certain occasions, to discover some degree 
of heat and indiscretion. The oppressions and cruelties of 
the prelates were sufficient to make a wise man mad. But 
that he resolved to revenge himself upon them, and tiumed 
lecturer for that purpose, is easily asserted, but not easily 
proved. Indeed, the charge of his turning lecturer at all, is 
certainly incorrect ; for in 9ie above year he was presented to 
the rectory of St. Matthew's, Friday-street, London. 

Mr. Burton was a person of a most heroical spirit, and 
never feared the appearance of an enemy, as appears from 
the account he gave of himself. Speaking of his various 
citations before Laud, his courage was such, that he says, 
'' I was not at any time before hun, but methought I stood 
over him, as a schoolmaster over his scholars : so great was 
the goodness of God towards me. Being convened before 
the high commission for my book, entitled, ' Babel no Bethel,' 
Harsnet Archbishop of York, having run himself out of 
breath vnth railing against me and my book; and saying, 
that I had dedicated my book to the parliament, to incense 
them against the higher powers, (meaning the king,) 1 
answered, ' No, my lord, I am none of those^ who divide 
the king and parliament, but I pray God unite them 
together ! '" 

« Clarendon's Hist. vol. i. p. 158.-— Wood's Athens Ozon. toI. i. p. 814. 
^ BanoD*f Namtloa of kit Life, p. % Edit. 1649. 



is LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

He afterwards describes the prelatical innovationfl and 
usurpations, and how he set himself to oppose them, sayings 
** I more and more disliked the prelates' usurpations, and 
tyrannical government, with their attempts to set up popery* 
Therefore I purposely preached upon the second chapter to 
the Colossians, crying down all will-worship and human 
inventions in God's service. I began in my practice, as in 
my judgment, to fall off from the ceremonies.' Only I 
watched for an occasion to try it out with them, either bj 
dint of arguments, or force of law, or by the king and his 
council, resolving either to foil my adversaries, though I had 
no great hope of success ; or, at least discover the mystery 
of iniquity and hypocrisy, which, like a white vail, they had 
cast over all their foul practices. This discovery I took to be 
of no small importance. I saw how every day they got 
ground in the hearts of the simple and credulous, as if all 
diey did was to maintain the protestant religion ; when 
under that specious colour, the withered whore of Babylon 
came in naked at the first, till at length she began to s^ew 
her painted face in her superstitions, altar-service, and other 
garbs. And as they laboured to undermine and overthrow 
die true protestant religion, and set up popery ; so they did 
not seek less to overthrow the civil state, with its good laws^ 
and just liberties of the subject, and to introduce arbitrary 
and tyrannical government."* What degree of truth is con- 
t^ned in these strictures on the character and proceedings of 
the ruling prelates, thosd who are conversant with the history 
of the times will easily determine; and this will in part 
appear in the course of the present narrative. 
. Mr. Burton was a great sufferer in the cause of noncon- 
formity. He felt the shocking intolerance and cruelties of 
the ruling prelates, especially those of Bishop Laud. lu the 
year 1626, he was convened before tlie high commission, 
when he would have received the censure of the ruling 
ecclesiastics, had not the judges interposed and granted a 
prohibition, which they might, do according to law, by which 
he was at that time rescued from his cruel oppressor .t Mr. 
Burton having published a book entitled, " The Baiting of 
the Pope's Bull; or, an Unmasking of the Mystery of 
Iniquity, folded up in a most pernicious Breave or Bull, sent 
from the Pope lately into England, to cause a Rent therein, 
for his Re-entery," 1627 ; though the book was wholly against 
the pope and his dangerous bull, and was licenced by 

« Barton's NarratUn, p. 8, 9, t Heyliii*i Life of Land, p. Ifil. 



H. BURTON. t$ 

f 

Pr. Goad^ be was caUed before the council by the instiga* 
t^oQ of Laud, who spoke vehemently against the book^ 
calling it a libel. Aftenvards, he published another work 
agsdnst popery, entitled, " The Pouring out of the Seven 
Vials/' 1628; for which he was prosecuted in the high 
commission by this prelate, and the book suppressed. And 
when he published his book, entitled, ^' Babel no Bethely** 
wholly against the church of Rome, this prelate employed 
his pursuivant to apprehend him ; committed him to the 
fleet, refusing bail when offered, contrary to the petition 
of right ; suspended him from his benefice-; and suppressed 
the book.* About the same time, his " Trial of Private 
Devotions/' 1628^ against Dr. Cosins; and his " Plea to 
an AppeaJ, in refutation of divers Arminian and Popish 
Errors broached by Mountague in his Appello Casarem^^ 
were both called in and suppressed, by the severity of this 
intolerant ecclesiastict 

How long Mr. Burton remained under the above sus- 
pension, and a prisoner in the Fleet, we have not been able 
to learn. He was afterwards released. This, however, was 
to him only the beginning of sorrows. November 5, 1636^ 
he preached two sermons at his own church in Friday-stree^ 
from Prov. xxiv. 21, 22, My son^fear thou the Lord 4md th€ 
king^ and meddle not mth tnem that are given to change, &c« 
in which he laid open the late innovations in doctrine, 
worship, and ceremonies, and warned his hearers against 
them. Dr. Laud, now archbishop of Canterbury, hearing 
of this, caused articles to be exhibited against him in the 
high commission, and sunmioned him to answer them, out 
of term, before Dr. Duck. . On his appearance, he was 
cliarged with having ^' spoken against turning communion 
tables into altars, against bowing to them, against setting up 
crucifixes, against saying the second service at the altar, and 
against putting down afternoon sermons on the Lord's day." 
Enormous crimes, indeed, were these ! He was, moreover, 
charged with having said, *\ that ministers might not safely 
preach upon the doctrines of grace without being troubled 
for it ; and that the ministers in Norfolk and Suffolk were 
suspended for nonconformity to the rites and ceremonies, 
imposed upon them contrary to the laws of the land." 

* It 18 cnrions to observe, that while Mr. Barton was treated thus fdr 
W.ritiBg against popery, one Chowney, a fierce papist, pablished a book in 
defence of popery, for which he was neither punished nor even qncslioned ; 
but was permitted to dedicate his work to Land, who fovoured it with hit 
loyal and episcopal patronage 1 l—fVMthckt'B MtmorUUi, p. 81. 

f Pryine'i Cast. Doome, p. 186. 



44 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

. These charges amountmg, it is said^ to sedition, he wm 
required to answer upon his oath^ and so to become his own 
accuser : but he refused the oath ; and, instead of answering, 
appealed to the king. Notwithstanding his appeal, within 
fifteen days he was summoned, by the direction of the 
archbishop, to appear before a special high commission at 
Doctors' Commons; when, in his absence, he was sus- 
pended from his office and benefice, and attachments were 
given out to apprehend him.* 

Under these oppressive proceedings, Mr. Burton kept 
himself close shut up in his own house ; and, to give an 
impartial public a fair opportunity of deciding upon his 
case, he published his sermons, entitled, " For God and the 
King ; the Sumipe of two Sermons preached on the fifth of 
November last, in St. Matthewes, Friday-street, 1636;" with 
** An Apologie for an Appeale," addressed to the king, the 
lords of the council, and the learned judges. + The pursui- 
vants of the high commission not daring to break open 
Mr. Burton's doors, the archbishop and the bishop of 
London, with several others, drew up a warrant to one 
Dendy, a sergeant at arms, to apprehend him.^ By virtue 
of this warrant, Dendy, accompanied by the sheriff of 
London, and various other armed officers, went the same 
evening to Mr. Burton's house in Friday-street, and between 
ten and eleven o'clock at i^ight, violently broke open his 
doors, took him into custody, and seized his books and 
papers, as many as they pleased. The next day, instead of 
being brought before the lords, as the warrant ex{Nressed, 

« Burton's Apologie for an Appeale, p. 4, 15.— Prynne's DiscoTery of 
tbe Prelates' Tyranny, p. 14. Edit. 1641. 

+ Mrs. Burton liis wife, venturing to present copies of these sermons to 
several of the lords in parliament, was committed to prison for her pains.— 

i The following is a copy of the warrant ; — ** To Edward Dendy^ 
*' esquire, one of his m^esty's sergeants at arms. These shall be to will 
** and- require you to make your immediate repair to any place where yoa 
** shall understand of the present being of Henry Burton, clerk, and 
** having found him, to take him into your custody, and to bring him forth* 
** with and in your company (all delays and excuses set apdrt) before «s» 
** to answer to such matters as shall be objected against him. And you are 
** further, by virtue hereof,^ tq require and charge all mayors, sheriffs, 
'* justices, baililTs, constables, headboroughs, and all others^ his mi^Mty'i 
** officers and loving subjects, to be aiding and assisting unio yon In the 
*' full and due execution of this service, whereof nerther they nor yoa 
** may fstW at your perils. And this shall be unto you and them %. 
** sufficient warrant. Dated at the star-chamber, the first of Feb. 16S7. 
•♦ W. Cant. Henrv Vaine, Arundall and Surry, 

** Gail. LondoD. Tho. Coventry, J.Coke." 

Ibid, p. 14, li» 



&. BURTON. 45 

lie was, by another warranty and \iithout any cause assigned^ 
committed close prisoner to the Fleet.* 

Dming Mr. Burton's close confinement, two anonymous 
publications came forth, the one entitled, '^ A Divine Tni- 
gedj, containing a Catalogue of God's late Judgments upon 
Sabbath-breakers;" the other, " News from Ipswich,"discover- 
in^ the innovations and severities of the prelates, especially 
Bishop Wren of Norwich. Iliese were supposed to liave 
been written by Mr. William Prynne, the lawyer. Dr. John 
Bastwick, a physician, havings published a book, entitled, 
Apologeticus ad prasules AnglicanoSy and a panipldet, called, 
** The New Litany ;"t these three, Mr. Burton, Mr. Pryime, 
and Dr. Bastwick, now confined in prison, were prosecuted 
in the star-chamber, for '^ writing and publishing seditious, 
schismatical, and libellous books against the hierarchy, and 
to the scandal of the government." Tliis was the substance 
of the indictment. They had warmly reflected upon the 
bishops, taxed them with inclinations to popery, and ex- 
claimed against the severity and injustice of the proceedings 
of the h^h commission. The persons then in power were 
of too impatient and revengeful a temper to let such reflec* 
tions and invectives go unpunished.^ 

When the three defendants had prepared their answers to 
the indictment, they could not obtam counsel to sign diem, 
through fear of the prelates; upon which they petitioned 
the court to receive them ffom diemselvcs, which was 
rejected. However, Mr. Prjnne and Dr. Bastwick, having"* 
no other remedy, left their answers at the ofiice, signed 
by their own hands, but were, nevertheless, proceeded 
against pro confesso. Mr. Burton prevailed upon Mr. Holt, 

* The foUowing is a copy of this second warrant : — *' To the wardea 
** of the Fleet or his deputy. These are to will and require yoo to receire 
^' into yoor custody, the person of Henry Burton, cleric, tent herewith 
** onto yon, and to keep him a close prisoner in the Meet, not sofierinf 
** any one lo speak: with him until further order^ whereof you may not fail 
'* at your perils, and this shall be your warrant. Dated from Whitehall, 
'« the second of Feb. 1637. 
** W. Cant. Arnndall and Surry, T. Jermyn and Jo. Coke, 

" GaU. London, Pembroke and Moontf^omery, Fra. Windebanke." 

Prynne t Discovery of ike Prelates* Tyranny y p. 16. Edit. 1641* 

i In the indictment against the three prisoners, it is said, that Or* 
Bastwick bad signified in his <* Litany,'* in the name of his wife, who was 
great with child, that he was desirous of father William's holiness (meanior 
Laud) and William London, the principal governor of the treasury, beisr 
godfathers to his child, not doubUng that he should procure the whore or 
Babylon, with whom they had so long committed fomicatioB^ to be cod* 
■iother.--Baiir«r*« MS. CoOec, vol. ixxiil. p. 289, WO. • 

t Biog. Britaa. vol. i. p. 680. £dit. 1778. 



te LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

a learned and an aged, bencher of Gray's-inn^ to sign his 
answer ; but the court, instead of receiving it, even when 
signed, ordered the two chief justices to expunge what they 
deemed unfit to be brought into the court. Accordingly, 
they struck out the whole answer, consisting of forty sheets 
of paper, except a few lines at the beginning, and a few 
more at the end: and because Mr. Burton would not 
acknowledge it thus purged, he was, in like manner, pro- 
ceeded against pro confe^so.* 

The three pnsoners were brought to the bar June 14, 1637, 
when they offered to defend their several answers at the 
peril of their lives ; but the court, finding them not filed on 
record, would not receive them. The prisoners at the bar 
cried aloud for justice, and that their answers might be 
read ; but, however reasonable their request, it was peremp- 
torily denied. During the trial, Prynne and Bastwick having 
been examined, the learned judges came next to the case of 
Mr. Burton, which was as follows : 

Lord Keeper. Mr. Burton, what say you ? 

Burton. My good lords, your hofiours, it should seem,* do 
determine to censure us, and take our cause pro corifesso, 
although we have laboured to give your honours satisfaction 
in all things. My lords, what have you to say against my 
book ? I confess, I did write it ; yet did I not say any 
thing out of intent of commotion or sedition. I delivered 
nothing but what my text led me to, being chosen to suit 
with thp day, namely, the fifth of November. 

L. Keeper. Mr. Burton, I pi-ay stand not naming texts of 
scripture now : we do not send for you to preach, but to 
answer to those things which are objected against you. 

Burton. My lord, I have drawn up my answer, to my 
great pains and charges ; which answer was signed with my 
counsel's hand, and received into the court according to the 
rule and order thereof. And I did not think to have been 
called this day to a censure, but to have had a legal proceed* 
ing by way of bill and answer. 

L. Keeper. Your answer was impertinent. 

Burton. My answer, after it was entered in the court, 
was referred to the judges, but by what means I do not 
know ; and what cause your lordships had to cast it out, I 
know not. But after it was approved of and received, it 
was cast out as an impertinent answer. 

Lord Finch. The judges did you a good turn^ to mfdce it 

« Pryint'i PreUtci' Tyranny, p. 14^18, 40—43. 



H. BURTON. 4T 

impertiiient; for it was as libellous as your book: so that 
jour answer deserved a censure alone. 

L. Keeper. What say you^ Mr. Burton^ are you guilty 
or not ? 

Burton. My lord, I desire you to peruse my book^ not 
only here and diere^ but every passage of it. 

L. Keeper. Mr. Burton^ time is short. Are you guilty, 
or not guilty i What say you to that which was read ? Dodi 
it become a minister to deliver himself in such a railing and 
scandalous way i 

Burton. In my judgment, and as I can' prove it, it was 
neither railing nor scandalous. I conceive, that a minister 
hath a larger liberty than always to go in a mild strain. I 
being a pastor of my people, whom I had in charge, and 
was to instruct, I supposed it was my duty to inform thent 
of those innovations that are crept into the church, as like- 
wise of the dai^er and ill consequences of them. As ^or 
my answer, ye blotted out what ye would, and then the rest, 
which made best- for your own ends, you would have to 
stand ; and now for me to tender oiJy what will serve for 
your own turns, and renounce the rest, were to desert my 
cause ; which, before I will do, or desert my conscience, I 
will rather desert my body, and deliver it up to your lord- 
ships to do with it what you will. 

L. Keeper. ' This is a place where you should crave 
mercy and favour, Mr. Burton, and not stand on such terms 
as you do. 

Burton. Wherein I have offended through human frailty, 
I crave pardon of God and man. And I pray God, that, in 
your sentence, you may so censure us that you may not sin 
against die Lord.* 

Thus, while Mr. Burton and his fellow-prisoners desired 
to say more for themselves, they were interrupted, and com- 
manded silence ; when the following dreadful sentence was 
passed upon them : " That Burton shall be deprived of his 
ecclesiastical benefice, degraded from his ministerial func- 
tion and degrees in the university, as Prjnne and Bast wick 
have been from their professions of law and physic ;t tliey 

• Harleiao Miscellany, yo\, if, p. 17. Edit« 1745. 

t Mr. Prymie liaviDg published bis ** Histrio-Mastix," a book against 
playt, masqnerades, Ac, itgafe great offence to Archbishop Laud, who, in 
the year 18S3, procured a sentence against bim in the star-chamber, '* That 
hit ilKHild be disabled from the practice of the law, be degraded from his 
degree in the unifersity, be set in the pillory, have boUi his ears cot off. 
Ml b»ok bvrat by the common hangman, to pay a fine of Jh» thoui*nd 
foiBdi, and to be impriioBed daring life;*' which sentence was rigorously 



48 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

shall be fined each^ve thousand pounds ; they shall stand in 
the pillory at Westminster, and have their ears cut oflF; an<J 
because Prynne hath already lost his ears, 'by sentence of 
the court in 1633, the remainder of the stumps shall be cut 
off, and he shall be stigmatized on both his cheeks with the 
letters S. L. for a seditious libeller; and they shall suffer 
perpetual imprisonment, in three of the remotest prisons of 
the kingdom, namely, in Carnarvon, Cornwall, and Lancaster 
castles." Previous to the execution of this terrible sentence^ 
Mr. Burton's parishioners sent a petition to the king, signed 
by a great number of hands, humbly entreating his pardon 
and liberty. It was presented by two of them, who were 
immediately committed to prison for their pains.* And, 
June 30th, the sentence was executed upon the three pri- 
soners, the hangman sawing off the remainder of Prynne's 
ears, rather than cutting them.t 

These three men were of the three most credible pro- 
fessions, and not of the meanest character in their several 
faculties. Nevertheless, they are called by many bigotted 
historians, these fellows, iiiese pilloty-men, diese stigmatized* 
scoundrels: when, in fact^ the truly stigmatized, as our 
author observes, were their persecutors, who really deserved 
the punishment which these injured gentlemen suffered; 
Their crime, if any they were guilty of, was not against any 
law of the land, but the tyrannical oppressions of the 
prelates.^ 

On passing the above sentence, Archbishop Laud made a 
long and laboured speech, to clear himself from the charge 
of innovationsy with which he was branded by the puritans. 
Though Laud was the chief prosecutor of these unfortunate 
sufferers, and his hand was first put to their numerous 
warrants, he made, in this speech, the following declarations : 
" I can say it clearly and truly, as in the presence of God, 
" I have done nothing, as a prelate, to the uttermost of what 
^^ I am conscious, but with a single heart, and with a sincere 
" intention for the good government and honour of the 

executed. At the same time, Dr. Bastwick having pabtished his EUnckuM 
Papismi et FlageUum Epiicoporum Latialiumf against the papists, 
declaring he intended nothing against our bishops, but only those of Rome, 
he was, nevertheless, sentencedJn the high commission, *' to fine a tkoutamd 
pounds, to be excommunicated, debarred the practice of physic, his book to 
be burnt, and to be imprisoned till he made his recantation," — Whithcke'9 
MtmoriaU, p. 18, 21. 

* Strafforde*s Letten, vol. ii. p. ST. Edit. 17S9. 

fiRushworth'sCoIlec. vol. it. p. 882.— Prynne's Prelates* Tyranny, p«4ll« 

( Clarendon and Whitlocke Compared, p. $3. 



H«.BURTO!r. 

^ cfaordi,* and dM iniJatfUMMi of dM o ri hod wi 
^ leUnon of Clinit» ivofessed, estdhhaked. 




in &a church of Engbnd." Was ihe 
this reverend prelate become so caUoas, that, bj 
acts of cruelty and oppression, he had lost aU feeling far 
feUow-cieatures? In the condosion of the above 
still addressing the lords who consdlnted the coart, he 
adds : — ** I humbly give you all iettrty ikaMk$ for jomtjmti 
^ and AoiioMrgAfeccitmfe upon these men, and your anawtawj 
*' disUke of .theml'^f No one will for a moment diinnn 
thw unanimous dislike of them ; but whether this, as wdl as 
ihejutt and hommrabU censure put upon them, was d cseiiing 
the hearty thanks of a learned and pious archbishop, wiU 
certainly be questioned. An impartial writer very justly 
observes, diat as the punishment of these men was ez« 
orbitant, and disproportionate to the offence, it was then, 
and hath been ever smce, looked upon bv all merciful and 
unprejudiced persons with horror and detestation.; 

The morning when the prisoners were to sufier their 
heavy septence, Air. Burton being brought to the Palace- 
yard, Westminster, and beholding the piUory, he said, 
^ Never was my wedding-day so welcome and joyful to me 
as this day is ; and so much the more, seeing I have so noble 
a captain, who hath gone before me with so undaunted a 
spirit, that he saith of himself, ^ I gave my back to the 
smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair.' 
The Lord God will help me; therefore, I shall not be 
confounded. Shall I be ashamed of a pillory for Christ, 
who was not ashamed of a cross for me ?" Then being put 
in the pillory, he addressed the immense crowd of spectators, 
siayipg, ^^ Good people, I am brought4uther to be a spectacle 
to the world, to angels, and to men. And though I stand 
here to undergo the punishment of a rogue ; yet, unless it be 
the property of a rogue to-be a faithfid servant of Christ, 
and a loyal subject to the king, I am clear from any such 
charge. But if to be Christ's fidthful servant, and the king's 
loyal subject, deserve such kind of punishment as thb, I 
glory in it, and bless God my conscience is clear. I bless 
God, who .hath accounted me worthy of these sufferings. 

.* The character given of his grace by Lord Clarendon, very much 
acconU with the good opinion he had of himself. *' No man," observes '\ 
tiie noble historian, ** was ever more plentifally replenished with a good ^ 
cooscijeoce, and most sincere and worthy intentions, and a man of iauneoie J 
▼irtae."— CtoreRi/on*« HM. vol. i. p. 61. — ' 

f Laod's Speech annexed to Troubles, vol. ii. p. 67—84. 

:|: Biog. Britan. vol. i. p. 682. 

VOL. III. E 



50 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

I bless Gody I am fiill of comfort/' With a ^ve and 
cheerful countenance he added : ^' I was never m such a 
pulpit before. Little do you know what fruit God is able 
to produce from this dry tree. Through these holes (meaning 
the pillory) God can bring light to his church. My con- 
science, in the discharge of my ministerial duty, in admonish- 
ing m]r people to beware of the creeping in ofpoptryy and in 
ei^orting them unto a dutifrd obedience to God and die 
king, was that which first occasioned my sufferings. The 
trudi which I have preached, I am ready to seal with my 
own blood, and this is my crown both here and hereafter. 
When he was delivered out of the pillory, and again brought 
upon the scaffold, the executioner cut off his ears in a most 
barbarous manner ;* during which, and while the blood wa9 
streaming in every direction, he manifested the greatest 
constancy and composure of mind, saying, ** Be content ; 
blessed be God, it is well;" and much more to the same 
purpose.f Mr. Prynne and Dr. Bastwick had this part (rf 
their sentence executed at the same time and place. 

The day preceding the execution of the above sentence, it 
was decreed in the star-chamber, '^ That Henry Burton shatt 
be sent to Lancaster castle, William Prynne to Carnarvon 
castle, and John Bastwick to Launceston castle, and there 
suffer perpetual imprisonment, and not be allowed any use 
of pen, ink, or paper, or any other book than the Bible, the 
Book of Common Prayer, and certain books of devotion ; 
and no person to have access to them.'^ Accordingly, July 
£6th, Dr. Bastwick was taken from the Gatehouse ; the day 
following, Mr. Prynne was taken from the Tower ; and, July 
28th, Mr. Burton was taken from the Fleet ; and, their sores 
not being cured, were conveyed to their respective places of 
confinement. As they passed out of the city, vast multitudes 
of people came forth to witness their departure, taking their 
final and sorrowfril farewell. As Mr. Burton passed from 
Smithfield to Brown's-well, a little beyond Highgate, it is 
said that no less than one hundred thousand persons were 
collected to witness hb departure, and that his vnfe, going 
along in a coach, had great sums of money thrown to her as 
she passed along.t But the liberty given to Mr. Burtoq and 
his fellow-sufferers to speak in the pillory ; and the affection 

* His ears were pared so close, that the temporal artery being cut, the* 
blond gushed oat in torrents apon tBe scaffold. The sight of this awakened 
the compassion and cries of an immense concourse of people*-— Al^ef'a 
Church HUt, b. xi. p. \55.—Strafforde'i Letttrtp Tol. ii. p. 85. 

+ Prynne's Prelates* Tyranny, p. 46 — 60. 

t StnUforde's Letters, vol. ii. p. 114. 



H. BURTON- 61 

and compassion of die populace, were highly offensive to 
Laud's proud spirit ; as appears from hia letter to Wentwordi, 
dated August 28, 1637 :• " What say you to it," observes 
the intolerant prelate, ^ that Pmuie and his fellows should be 
'' suffered to talk what they pleased while they stood in die 
^* pilloiy, and win acclamations from the people, and have 
^' notes taken of what they spake, and those spread in written 
** copies about the city ; and that when they went out of 
*' town to dieir several imprisonments, there were thousands 
^' suffered to be upon the way to take their leave, and God 
•* knows what else ? — And I hear Prynne was very much 
'' welcomed, both in Coventry and West-Chester, as he 
^' passed towards Camarvon."f A writer of some eminence 
observes, diat nature seemed to have designed Laud for die 
office of an inquLntor. He was fierce and unrelenting in his 

« atrafbrde'f Letters, toI. ii. p. 99. 

f Mr. Prjnoe, on bit way from London to Canarvon, spent tba Lord*! 
day at Cofentry ; where he twice attended divine service at church, and 
•ereral persons, his friends, visited him at the inn, his condoctors haTinf 
received no orders to the contrary. Archbishop Land hearing of this, 
immediately sent a messenger to Coventry, to bring the mayor and six 
others np to London, and convened them before the conncil-table. TliOBgh 
■mst of them never spoke to Mr. Prynne, they were obliged to a continued 
attendance for some time, and pnt to two or three hundred ponnds 
expense, wlien they were reprimanded and dismissed. On Mr. Prynne*t 
arrival at Chester, Mr. Calvin Brewen and some others visited him at ihm 
inn, assisted him in the purchase of some necessary fhmiture for his 
chamber at Carnarvon, and manifested certain other acts of kiodnest 
towards him. But by the direction of Laad, pursuivants were sent with 
warrants to apprehend them, and bring them before the high commission at 
York I when some were fined three, and some five hundred pounds, and 
iwrced to enter into bonds of three hundred pounds each, not only to abide 
by the further appointment of that court, but to make rack pablie 
acknowledgment in the cathedral of Chester, and before the mayor, 
aldermen, and citizens, in the town-hall, as the commissioners should 

Srescrlbe* Also, these pious high commissioners hearing that there were 
ve paintings of Mr. Prynne, In the possession of his friends In Clicster, 
they not only prosecuted the poor painter, but sent forth two warrants, 
first fo defece the paintings, then to born them. Accordingly, the Inoftn- 
■ive paintings were apprehended and defaced, and then publicly burnt at 
the high-cross in Chnter, in the presence of the mayor, aldermen, and 
citizens. It is cud^as further to observe, that the Bishop of Chester, who 
took an active part in these barbarous proceedings, out of enmity to Mr. 
Prynne, called his crop-eared horse by the name of Prynne. Thus 
the angry and reve^ful prelates, not glutted by the severe sentence 
obtainnl against Mr. Prynne, pursued and grievously oppremed those who, 
as he was conveyed, to prison, shewed him any acts of civility, Mr* 
Ihrynne's servant was also severely proseented In the high commission, 
and sent from prison to prison, only for refusing to accuse his master. 
The archbishop, who was leader in all these barbarous proceedings, and 
whom Granger considers eminent for sincere and ardent piety, seemed 
(datitttte of the feelings of humanity. — PrynfWs Prelatei' Tyranny^ 
f. 99—106.— i^cars Purittmty vol. iL p. 280,^Qr§nffer'» Biog. HUt. 
VOL iL jf. 159. 



M LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

ing they might be to the spirit of Archbishop Laud, will 
rouse the pity and indignatioa of every generous and pious 
mind. The learned Mosheim^ in aUusion to these shocking 
severities, observes, ^' That a violent spirit of animosity and 
persecution discovered itself through the whole of Laud's 
ecclesiastical administration. This haughty prelate executed 
the plans of his royal master> and fulfilled the views of his 
own ambition, without using those mila and moderate 
methods, that prudence employs to make unpopular schemes 
go down. He carried things with a high hand. When he 
found the laws opposing his views, he treated them with con- 
tempt, and violated them without hesitation. He loaded the 
Suntans with injuries and vexations, and aimed at nothing less 
lan llieir total extinction."* 

; The three prisoners remained in the above remote islands^ 
undef Biost severe usage, till the year 1640. During this 
period, Mrs. Burton and Mrs. Bastwick, as widows forcibly 
divorced firom their husbands, often petitioned his majes^j^ 
and the lords of the council, for liberty to visit them, or that 
they might reside on those islands where they were imprisoned^ 
cor that they might be shut up in close prison with them. 
But, by the sovereign power and influence of Laud, their 
p^hions were all rejected. Though the archbishop could 
neveg be prevailed on to forgive the three sufferers, he said, 
'' ll^ humbly beseeched God to forgive them.'^ One of the 
prisjii^rs, however, obtained some mitigation of his afflic* 
tionis. For, upon the petition of Sir Thomas Jermin, 
governor of Jersey, being presented to the king, in behalf of 
Mr. Prynne, he was allowed to attend divine service, and 
receive the sacrament in the castle, and to walk vrith his 
keeper in the gardens. But as soon as the unmerciful arch- 
bishop heard of the royal indulgence, he fell into a violent 
rage, and sent a messenger for one Mr. Hungerford, who had 
been employed in procuring it, and convened him before the 
council.f 

In the above year, the prboners were called home by 
order of the parliament. For, November 7th, Mrs. Burton 
and Mrs. Bastwick having presented petitions to th^. house 
of conmions, in behalf of their husbands, complaining of 
their heavy sentence in the star-chamber, the house im- 
mediately ordered, '^ That their said husbands shall be forth- 
with sent for, in safe custody, by a warrant of the house, 
directed to the governors of the islands where they are pri- 

• Mosheim's Eccl.Hist. toI.t. p. S9S. 
f Frynne'i PrekUn' Tyranny, p. no. 



H. BURTON. U 

mHnen, ^Uid to die captuns of the castles there ; that &e cause 
of their being detained may be here certified/'* This warrant 
lit dated November ?» 1640. A petition was also presented 
in behalf of Mr. Prynne, when the house gave a similar order 
for his return. 

Mr. Burton and Mr. Prynne coming in the same vessel^ 
arrived at Dartmouth on the 22iid of November, where 
they were received and entertained widi extraordiiiury de- 
monstrations of affection and, joy. In die wh<de of their 
^'oumey to the metropolis, they were attended widi a marvel- 
ous conflux of people, and not only their charges borne with 
great magnificence, but liberal presents given them. This 
kind of treatment they met virith all the way, great numbers of 
people meeting them at their entrance into all the towns 
through which diey passed, and waiting upon them some 
distance out, with wonderfid acclamations of joy. As diey 
approached the metropolis, the road betwixt Brentford and 
llondon was so fiill of coaches, horsemen, and persons on 
tootf come to meet them, and congratulate them on their safe 
arrival, that it viras viidi difficulty they could ride one mile an 
hour. As diey entered London, there was so immense a con- 
course of people, diat they were nearly three hours in passing 
from Charing-cross to dieir lodgings in the city. The 
numerous crowds who escorted them into the city, in token 
of their great joy, carried lighted torches before thein,.strewed 
die road with herbs and flowers, put rosemary and bays in 
dieir hats, and, as they went along, with loud acclamations 
/or their deliverance, shouted. Welcome homey welcome home i 
God bless you, God bless you : God be thanked for your 
retum,f 

On November 30th, being two 4ays after his arrival in 
Ix)ndon, Mr. Burton appeared before the house of com- 
mons, and, December 5di, presented his petition to the house, 
entided, ^' The humble Petition of Henry Burton, late Exile, 
and close Prisoner in Casde-comet, in the Isle of Guernsey .'' 
In this petition he gives a sketch of his numerous and painful 
sufferings, and concludes by recommending his case to their 
impartial {consideration ; but the whole is too long for our 
insertion.^ On the presentation of the petition, with many 
others of a similar kind, the house appointed a committee for 
&eir examination; and on the 12th of March following, 

• Prynae'i Prelates' Tyranny, p. 1 12.— Rashworlh's CoUec. vol. ▼. p. 20. 
— Nalson's Collec. vol. i. p. 499. 

•I- Prynne's Prelates* Tyranny, p. US, 114. 
« t Ibid. p. 127— 130.— Rnshwortli'i CoUec. vol. v. p. 78, 70. 



66 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Mr. Rigby' delivered tbeir' report' to the house, when ike 
house passed the following resolutions : 

1 . " That the four commissioners. Dr. Duck, Dr. Worral, 
Dr. Sams, and Dr. Wood, proceeded unjustly and illegall/in 
suspending Mr. Burton from his office and benefice, for niot 
appearing upon the summons of the first process. 

2. '^ That the breaking up Mr. Burton's house, and arrest- 
ing his person without any cause shewed, and before any suit 
depended against him in the star-chamber, and his close im- 
prisonment thereupon, are agaitist the law and the liberty of 
the subject. 

3. ** That John Wragg hath offended in searching and 
seizing the books and papers of Mr. Burton, by colour of 
a general warrant dormant from the high commissioners ; and 
tfiat th^ said warrant is against law and the liberty of the 
subject ; and that sergeant Den<}y and alderman Abel haVe 
offended in breaking open the house of Mr. Burton, and ought 
respectively to make him reparation for the same. 

4. " That Mr. Burton ought to have reparation and 
recompence for the dams^ges sustained by the aforesaid pro- 
ceedings of Dr. Duck and others, who suspended him frohi 
his office and benefice. 

5. '^ That the warrant from the council-board, dated 
at Whitehall, February £, l6d7> for committing Mr. Burton 
close prisoner, and the comibitment thereupon, is illegal, and 
contrary to the liberty of the subject. 

6. " That the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of 
London, the Earl of Arundal and Surrey, the Earl of Fem- 
broke and Montgomery, Sir H. Vane, Sir J. Coke, aijd Sir 
Francis Windebank, do make reparations to Mr. Burton fofr 
his damages sustained by this imprisonment." 

The 24th of the same month, Mr. Burton's case being 
again brought before the house, it was further resolved : 

1. " That the sentence in the star-chamber against Mr. 
Burton is illegal, and without any just ground, and ought to 
be reversed, and he ought to be freed from the fine o(j€5000, 
sttid the imprisonment imposed upon him by the said sentence, 
and to be restored to his degrees in the university, orders in 
the ministry, and to his ecclesiastical benefice in Friday-street, 
London. 

2. " That the order of the council-board for transferring^ 
Mr. Burton from* the castle of Lancaster to the isle of 
Guernsey, and his imprisonment there, are against Is^w and 
the liberty of the subject. 

3. ** Tliat the said Mr. Burton ought to have reparation 



H. BURTON. 57 

and recompence for the damages sustained by die said 
imprisonment, loss of his ears, and other evils* sustained by 
the said unjust and illegal proceedings/'* 

On die 20th of April, die house of commons voted 
Mr. Burton to receive six thousand pounds for his damages 
sustained, but the confusions of die times prevented the 
payment of the money. And by an order of the house, 
dated June 8, 1641, he was restored to his former ministry 
and benefice in Friday-street.t Mr. Prynne and Dr. Bastwick 
also presented their petitions to the house, when their cases 
were taken into consideration, and the house passed similar 
resolutions in their favour.* 

On Mr. Burton's restoration, he formed a church after the 
model of the independents ; and he appears to have gready 
prospered in his public ministry. Wood represents him as 
severe in the exercise of church discipline ; that he would 
admit none to the Lord's supper besides members of his own 
church, or any to baptism besides the children of such ; that 
he challenged a power of examination into the lives and 
conversation of members, casting out whom he pleased, and 
not admitting them till they gave satisfaction to the church ; 
and that he would not administer the Lord's supper at Easter 4 
But this author further observes, that towards the close of 
fais life, he became more moderate ; and he lived tiU after the 
beheading of his old master. King Charle*s I. Herein, 

■ • Prynne's Prelates* Tyrrfnny, p. 139—141 .— Rnsbworth'i Collect. ? oI.t. 
p. 207, 213.— Nal8on*8 Collec. vol. i. p. 787, 794. 

+ Prynne's Prelates' Tyranny, p. 146. 

:|: Mr. Prynne was afterwards chosen member of the long parliament. 
He was a man of a courageoas spirit, and boldly stepped forwards to 
correct every enormity in church and state. He was, perhaps, one of the 
hardest students that ever existed. He was called one of the greatest 
paper*worms that ever crept into a library. Wood supposes that he wrote 
a sheet for every day of his life, computing from the time of bis arrival to 
man's estate to the day of his death. He says, " his custom was, when 
'* he studied, to put on a long quilted cap, which came an inch over his 
** eyes, serving 9» an umbrella to defend them from too much light { and 
*' seldom eating a dinner, would every three hours, or more, be mounching 
**" a roll of bread, and now and then refresh his exhausted spirits with ale." 
This voluminous writer was author of about t$Do hundred books, which he 
gave, in forty volumes folio and quarto, to the public library of Lincoln's- 
inn. On the restoration of Charles II., some one asked the king what 
must be done with Prynne, to make him quiet. " Why,'| said his 
m^esty, " let him amuse himself with writing against the catholics, and in 
f ^ poring over the records of the Tower." To enable him to do the 
latter, Charles made him keeper of the records of the Tower, with a salary 
^ ,<|lye hundred pounds a year. He died October 24, 1669.— FTood'i 
MhefUB Oxom. vo), ii, p. 31 l^Sf^. 

h Ibid. p. 460. 



58 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

however/ he is mistaken ; for Mr. Burton was buried January 
Ty 1647> aged sixty-eight years.* 

The memory of this zealous and faithful servant of Chrial 
has suffered the reproach and contempt of most of our 
bigotted historians; but, from' the foregoing narrative, his 
manifold and painful sufferings stand as a monument of 
disgrace to the government under which he lived, and 
especially as a lastii^ reproach to Archbishop Laud.t Some, 
indeed, have not been ashamed to assert, that his heavy 
sentence, with that of his fellow-sufferers, was jiLst and 
necessary *t But, says Granger, '^ The punishment of these 
men, who were of the three great professions, was ignomimou$ 
and severe. The indignity and severity of their punishment 
gave general offence ; and they were no longer regarded as 
criminals, but confessors."} 

His Works, in addition to those already mentioned. — 1. A 
Censure of Simony, 1624. — 2. Israel's Fast, or Meditations on the 
seventh Chap, of Joshua, 1628. — 3. Truth's Triumph over Trent, or 
the great Gulph between Sion and Ba))yIon ; that is, th^ irreconcile- 
able Opposition between the Apostolic Church of Christ and the 
Apostate Synagogue of Antichrist, in the main and fundamental 
Doctrine of Justification, 1629. — 4. The Law and the Gospel recon- 
ciled against the Antinomians, 1631. — 51 The Christian's Bulwark, or 
the Doctrine of Justification, 1632. — 6. Exceptions against Dr. 
Jackson's Treatise of the Divine Essence and Attributes, 163.. — 
7. Jesu Worship Confuted: or, certain Arguments against Bowing 
at the Name of Jesus, proving it to be Idolatrous and Superstitious, 
and so utterly unlawAil: With Objections to the contrary fully 
Answered, i641. — 8. The Sounding of the two last Trumpets : 
or. Meditations on the^ ninth, tenth, and eleventh Chapters of 
Revelation, 1641. — 9. The Protestation Protested; or, a short 
Jlemonstrance shewing what is piincipally required of all those who 
take the last Parliamentary Protestation, 1641. — 10. England's 
Bondage and Hopes of Deliverance, a Sermon preached before the 
Parliament, 1641. — 11. A Narration of his own Life, 1643. — 12. A 
Vindication of Independent Churches, in Answer to Mr. Prynne, 
1644. — 13. Parliament's Power for Laws in Religion, 1646. — 14. Tmth 
Vindicated against Calumny, in a brief Answer to Dr. Bastwick's two 
books, entitled, * Independency not God's Ordinance,' 1645. — 
15. Truth shut out of Doors; or, a brief Narrative of the Occasioa 
and Manner of Proceeding of Aldermanbury parish in shutting their 
Church-door against him, 1645. — 16. Tinith still Truth, though shut 
out of Doors, 1646. — 17. Conformity's Deformity, in a Dialogue 
between Conformity and Conscience, 1646. — 18. Relation of Mr. 
Chillingworth. 

♦ Peck's Desiderata Ciiriosa,' Vol. ii. b. xiv. p. 22* 

f The portraits of Archbishop Land and Mr. Burton, botik whole 
lengths, were published in one print. The prelate -lA-represented as vomit* 
ing up his own works, and Mr. Burton holding his head. The jk'iat Sf 
extremely scarce and curious. — Granger's Blog. HUi* vol* ii. p« I5S. 

+ Vernon's Life of Heylin, p.91. Edit. 1682, 

S Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. ii. p. 192, 193. 



H. WILKINSON. 60 

Henry Wilkinson, B.D.-— Tlis worthy divine was 
born in the vicarage of Halifax, Yorkshire, October Q, 1666, 
and educated in Merton college, Oxford. He was a near 
relation to Sir Henry Savile, by whose favour he was elected 
probationer fellow of the collie; and in the year. 1601, he 
became pastor of Waddesdon in Buckinghamshire, where 
he continued in the laborious and &ithful exercise of his 
ministry fbrty-«ix years. He married the only daij^hter of 
Mr. Arthur Wake, another zealous puritan divine, by whom 
he had six sons and ^bree daughters. She was a person 
of most amiable character, and they lived together in 
mutual a£Eection upwards of fifty years. He was a man of 
considerable leamii^ and piety, and being an old puritan, says 
Wood.* was elected one of the assembly of divines. But it 
i. saidthat he spent most of his time am'ong his pamhioners 
by whom he was exceedingly beloved and revered. 

Mr. Wilkinson was author of ** A Catechisme for the use 
of the Congregation of Waddesdon,'' oftentimes printed. 
Also ^ The Debt4)ook ; or, a Treatise upon Rom. xiii. 8. 
wherein is handled the civil debt of money or goods," 16^ ; 
and several other articles. The celebrated Dr. Henry 
Wilkinson, Margaret professor at Oxford, and ejected at die 
restoration, was his son.t Mr. Neal very much confounds 
die one widi the other.t Mr. Wilkinson <&ed at Waddesdon, 
March 19, 1647^ aged ekhty-one years. His mortal remains 
were laid in the (Cancel of his own church, where, against 
the south vrall, wais a monumental inscription erected, of 
which the follovdng is a translation .-$ 

Henry Wilkinson, 

forty-Bix years the fsithful pastor of this drnrch, 

was born the nintii day of Octobar, 1506, 

and died the nineteenth day of March, 1647. 

He married Sarah 

the only daughter of Arthur Wake 

of Sawey For$8t in the county of Norikmi^^ion, 

with whom he lived in holy concord fifty-three yean, 

and by whom he had nine children, 

six sons and three daughters. 

The remains of the aforesaid Sarah Wilkinson, 

who lived to the age of seventy years, 

were laid by the side of her husband, 

leaving us an example 

of a most upright and holy life, 

f Wood*8 Athene Ozod. vol. ii« p. ^. 
f 'Pialmer's NoncoD. Mem. vol. I. p. 841. 
t Neal*i Paritans, vol. iH. p« M. 
S Waid*s Greshaia Profeston, p. 813» 814. 



60 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

M)d a reputation scarcely to be exceeded. 

John Wilkinson, son of the aboye, 

who died December 18, 1664, 

aged sixty-one years, 

was also inteired 

^ear them. 



Thomas Coleman^ A. M.-— This learned and pious 
divine was bom in the city of Oxford, in the year 1598, and 
educated in Magdalen college, in that university. Havii^ 
-entered upon the ministerial work, he became vicar of Blitofn 
in Lincolnshire; but he was persecuted, and afterwards 
driven from the place for nonconformity. On the com- 
mencement of the civil wars, he fled for refuge to London, 
was made rector of St. Peter's, Comhill, and chosen one of 
the assembly of divines. He frequently preached before 
the parhament; andy October 15, 1643, when both houses 
took the covenant, he preached before the lords, giving some 
explanation of it. He observed on this occasion, " that by 
prelacy, as used in the covenant, was not meant all episco-- 
pacy, but only the fonn therein described.'** In 1^44, he 
was appointed one of the committee of examination and 
approbation of public preachers. The year following, in 
the grand debate of the assembly, concerning the divine right 
of the presbyterian mode of church government, he gave his 
opinion against it ; and openly declared, both in the assembly 
and from the pulpit, that if the divine right of presbyterianism 
should ever be established by public authority, he was ap* 
prehensive it would prove equally arbitrary and tyrannical as 
the prelacy had been. He therefore proposed that, under 
present circumstances, the civil magistrate should have the 
power of the keys till the nation should be brought into a 
more settled state.t 

Mr. Coleman was of erastian principles respecting church 
govemment ; but he fell sick during the above debate ; and 
some of the members waiting upon bim, h^ desired they 
would not come to any conclusion till they had heard what 
he had further to offer upon the question. But his complaint 
increasing, he died in a few days, and the whole assembly 
paid the last tribute pf respect to his memory by attending 
his funeral solemnities, March 30, 1647- Wood says, ^^ he 
was so acconmlished an Hebrean, that he was conunonlj 
denominated Kabbi Coleman ^^^ and adds, '* that he behaved 

♦ SyWester*8 Life of Baxter, part i. p. 49. * 
t Neal's Poritaoff, vol. lii. p. S61. 



T* COLEMAN. 61 

bolii modesdy and learnedly in the assembly.''* Fuller styles 
lim" a modest and learned divine, equally averse to presby- 
tiay and prelacy /'t 

Piom the eminent talents, learning, and moderation of this 
CKcdknt divine, we might suppose that even bigotry itself 
would lie dormant ; but this unhappy temper, ever influenced 
Iqrpaity principles, and to promote a party interest, will.break 
ftrowh idl difficulties, to blacken the memory of real worth. 
Mr. Coleman, in common with many of his brethren, is the 
Mbject of public calunmy. The zealous historian^ speak- 
ing of those divines who preached before the parliament, says, 
'^ Another of these brawlers, who seldom thought of a 
Uiop, or .the king's party, but with indignation, was Mr. 
Thomatj Cdanao.; In one of his sermons, he thus rants 
sginst die church of Ei^land, and violently persuades the 
jwriianieal to execute severe justice upon her children. * Our 
cidiedrals in a great part are of late become the nests of idle 
dnnes, and die roosting places of superstitious formalists. 
Oip formalists. and government, in the whole hierarchy, are 
become a fretting gangrene, a spreading leprosy, an insup- 
poitaUe tynrnny. Up with it, up with it to the bottom, root 
sad blanch, hip and ddgh : destroy these Amalekites, and let 
d^ir place be no more found. Throw away the rubs ; out 
ividi ifie Lord's enemies, and the land's. Vex the Midianites ; 
^boMk the Amalekites, or else they will vex you with their 
^inles, as they have done heretofore. Let popery find no 
favour, because it is treasonable ; prelacy as fittle, because it 
13 tyrannical.' 

" Hiis," our author adds, ^' was rare stuff for the blades at 
Westminster, and pleased them admirably well. Therefore 
tbey straitly order Sir Edward Aiscough and Sir John Wray, 
to give the zealot hearty thanks for his good directions, and to 
<le8ire him by all means to print it ; which accordingly he did, 
and, in requital of thanks, dedicates his fury to their worships ; 
^re he falls to his old trade again, very prettily by his art of 
ifaetorick, calling the king's army partakers with atheists, 
ii^dels, and papists ; saying, * it hath popish masses, super- 
stitious worships, cold forms in the service of God: it is 
stored with popish priests : it persecutes God's ministers, 
painful preachers : it doth harbour all drunken, debauched 
deigy, or idle, non-preaching, dumb ministry, our ambitious 
tyrannical prelacy, and the sink and dregs of the times ; the . 
r^ptacle of the filth of the present and former ages, our 

* Aibeae Oxod. vol. ii. p. 53. 

f FaUer's Chorch Hist. b. zi. p. 313. 



/ 
I 



62 LIVES OF THE PUHITANS. 

flpiritoal coartfs-meii/ This man's ndling/' he adds, '^ pleased 
^e ca^anom so well, that they cpuU think of no man fitto' 
to prate when their wicked league and covenant was taken 
than he; which accordingly he did to the purpose^ ticldii^ 
thdr filthy ears with the same strains of malice ; impudently 
affirming! ^ That none but an atheist, papist, oppressor, 
rebel, or the guilty, desperate cavalimtt, and light and empty 
men, can refuse the covenant :' and so concludes with reflec- 
tion upon the king's party, as idolaters. And for diis stuff, 
Oolond Long must be ordered to give him thanks from the 
house/'* 

' Admitting the correctness of our author's extracts, there 
was certainly too much trudi in many of Mr. Coleman's 
remarks, though some of them peihiq[>s require a degree of 
limitation. It is, however, a certain feet, which many of out 
zealous historians seem willing to forget, diat '' their worships, 
the blades at Westminster," whose ** filthy ears were tickled 
with the preacher's strains of malice," and who thanked him 
for his sermons, desiring him to print them, even the commons 
in parliament, as well as the lords, were, according to 
Clarendon, all members of the established church.t Yet^ 
such is the foul language of the above bigotted and peevish 
writer, that his prejudices and party feelings appear without 
restraint, while he pours forth his abundant slander and con- 
tempt upon men of the worthiest character. 

His Works. — l.The Christian's Course and Complaint, both in ths 
pursuit of Happiness desired, and for Advantages slipped in that 
pursuit ; a Sermon preached to the Honourable House of Commons 
on the monthly Fast, Aug. 30, 1643 ; at St. Mai^arefs Westminster, 
1643. — 2» The Heart's Engagement, a Sermon preached at St. Mar« 
garet's Westminster, at the public entering into the Covenant, 1643.—- 
3. God's unusual Answer to a Solemn Fast, a Sermon preached to 
both Houses of Parliament, at their public Fast, Sep. 12, 1644 — 
1644.— -4. A Brotherly Examination Examined: or, a clear Justifica- 
tion of those Passages in a Sermon; against which Mr. Gillespie did 
preach and write, 1646. — 5. A short Discovery of some Tenets 
which intrench upon the Honour and Power of Parliaments. — 6. A 
Modell, &c. 



Eprraim Paget iiras bom in Northamptonshire^ in die 
year 1575, and educated in Christ's college, Oxford. He 
was die son of Mr. Eusebius Paget, a celebrated puritan 
divine, and a ^reat sufierer for nonconformihr* He wbls so 
great a proficient in the knowledge of the languages, that 

• FoQlis's Hht. of Plots, p. 1S3, 184. 
f ClarciidoB*t Hist. vol. i. p. W. 



E. PAGET. eS 

upon Yob admittance into the oniversity, die Greek ptofeasor 
sought his acquaintance, and derived much assistance from 
Urn. At die age of twenty-six years, he understood and 
WToteJ^hGt or sixteen languages.* Having completed his 
studies at the university, he became minister at St. Edmund's 
church, Lombard-street, London, where he continued many 
years. While in thb situation, he entered into the coniugal 
state, and iparried Lady Bord, widow of Sir Stephen Dori, 
of a worthy family in Sussex. Upon the commencement of 
the civil wars, he was a great sufierer; and he was so mudi 
troubled and molested, says Wood, that, merely for the sake 
of quietness, he left his benefice in his old age, being then 
commonly called old father Ephraim. He retired to 
Deptford in Kent, where he spent the remainder of his days 
in retirement and devotion. He entered upon the joy of Ins 
Lord in the month of April, 1647^ a^ed seventyrtwo years. 
His remains, according to his last wm and testament, were 
laid in Deptford church-yard.f 

Though his name is enrolled among die sufferers in the 
royal cause, he is with justice classed among the puritans. 
Many excellent divines, who were dissatiraed widi the 
ecclesiastical discipline and ceremonies, and even with 
epbcopacy itself, were nevertheless, during the national 
confusions, great sufferers on account of their loyal attach- 
ment to his majesty and the civil constitution. Their zeal for. 
the king and his cause exposed them to the severity of the 
opposite party. This appears to have been the case with 
Bir. Paget. He was decided in his attachment to his 
majesty's interest and the civil constitution, for which he was a 
sufferer in those evil times; yet he was opposed to the 
ecclesiastical establishment, as well as the cruel oppressions 
of the prelates. Therefore, in the year 1645, being only two 
years before hb death, he united with his brethren, the 
London nunisters, in presenting a petition to the lords and 
commons in Parliament, for the establishment of the presby- 
terian discipune.t He wrote with great bitterness against 
the independents, baptists, and other sectaries, by which he 
exposed himself to the resentment of his enemies. ^ Error 
and heresy," it is said, *^ began to take deep root, and to 
spread far and wide over the face of the earth ; he, therefore, 
set himself to discover them, and root them up, when he 
published his * Heresiography.' Hence sprung his trouble;'' 

• Paget*8 Hereiiograpby, Pref. Edit. 1662. 

f Wood's Athene Ozoo. vol. ii. p. 6S. 

I Grey^ Ezaminatioii, vol. il. Appen. p. 87— -Sa. 



64 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. ' 

and it b added, ^' the enemies o^ goodness making that the 
ground of their malice, which he wrote to undeceive and 
bring them into the way of truth. Upon thb he was 
persecuted, reviled, slandered, and, through false suggestions,- 
suffered even imprisonment itself. He bore up manfully, and 
suffered patiently whatever their malice could inflict, tUl at 
last the Lord in mercy put an end to his misery, and received 
him to himself.^'* He was an excellent preacher, and his 
sermons were* as pleasant as they were profitable, drawing 
the hearts of his auditors, as by a bait of pleasure, to that 
which is good.f 

His Works.— 1. Christiftnographie : or, a Description of the 
multitudes and sundry sorts of Christians in the worid not subject to 
the Pope,. 1636. — 2, A Treatise of the Ancient Christians in Britany, 
1640.--3. Heresiographie : or, a Description of the Heresies of later 
Times, 1646.— 4. The Mystical Wolf, a Sermon on Matt. vii. 16., 
1646. 



Thomas HobKER.— This excellent divine was bom at 
Mkrfield in Leicestershire, in the year 1586, and educated 
in Emanuel college, Cambridge, of which he became fellow. 
He acquitted himself in this office with such ability and 
fisdthfiilness as commanded universal admiration and applause. 
During his abode at Cambridge, he was brought under such 
deep convictions of sin, that his mind was overwhelmed with 
extreme horror. The anguish of his soul, under a sense of 
his sin and desert, was inconceivable. He was ready to 
exclaim, " While I suffer thy terrors, O Lord, I am dis- 
tracted." Afterwards, speaking of these mental exercises, he 
said, ** In the time of my distress, I could reason to the rule 
of duty, and see there was no other way of relief but by 
submission to God, and by lying at the feet of Jesus Christy 
humbly waiting for his favour ; but when I applied the rule 
to myself, and endeavoured to put it in practice, my reason- 
ing failed me, and I was able to do nothing." Having 
laboured under the spirit of bondage for a considerable time^ 
he received light and comfort, and his mind became power- 
fully and pleasantly attached to holy and heavenly contempla- 
tions. It now became a custom with him, when redring to 
rest at night, to select some particular promise of scripture, 
upon which he meditated during his wakeful hours. Ld this 
he found so much improvement and comfort, that he recom- 
mended others to adopt the same practice. 

• P^t*t Heresiog. Pref. f tloyd'a Meinoires, p. 510. 



HOOKER. 65 

. Mr. Hooker hariog tasted that the Lord was gnciousy 
resolved to employ hi& time and his talems- in the work of the 
ministry^ when he commenced preaching in London and its 
vicinity. He soon became celebrated for his ministerial 
endowments, particularly in comforting* persons under 
spiritual distress. In the year 1 626, having been disappointed 
of a desired settlement at Colchester^ he was chosen iectiver 
at Chelmsfordy one Mr. Mitchel being the incumbent. His 
lectures were soon numerously attended, and a remarkable 
unction and blessing attended his preaching. A pleasing' 
reformation also followed, not only in the town, but likewise 
in the adjacent country. By a multitude of public houses in 
die town, and by keeping the shops open on the Lord's day^ 
the people of Chelmsford had become notorious for intenw 
perance and the profanation of the sabbath. But by the 
blessing of God, so pientifully poured out upon Mr. Hooker's 
nodnistry, these vices were banished from, the place, and the 
sabbath was visibly sanctified to the Lord. His zealous and 
useAil labours, however, were not continued very long. For 
in about four years his difficulties were so great, on account 
of his nonconformity, that he gave up his pulpit and com- 
menced teaching school. . He could not defile his conscience 
by the observance of the superstitious ceremfonies: he had 
rather give up his pulpit and his public ministry, which 
he dearly loved, than sacrifice the ^' testimony of a good 
conscience." 

Though the best and most delightful empIo}inent of this 
worthy servant of Christ was gone, his influence was not 
lost. This was wholly employed to promote the Redeemer'<s 
cause. He. engaiged the various ministers in the vicinity of 
Chelmsford, to establish . a monthly meeting for fasting, 
prayer, and rdiciQus conference. By his influence, several 
pious young mmUters were settied iu the neighbourhood, and 
others became more establbhed in the fundamental doctrines 
of the gospel. Indeed, so great was his popularity, and so 
high his reputation, *when silenced, that no less than forty* 
seven conformist ministers of liis acquaintance, presented a 
petition to the Bishop of London ; in which they testified, 
^ That they knew and esteemed Mr. Hooker to be orthodox 
in his doctrine, honest in hb life, and conversation, peaceable 
in his disposition, and in no wise tmbulent or factious." 
But these powerifiil mediators could not prevail. Mr. 
Hodcer being stigmatized as a puritan, must be buried in 
nlence. He was bound, about the year 1630, in a bond of 
fifty pounds, to appear before the h^b commission ; but this 

VOL. III. F 



LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 



iMHidy'by tbe advice of his friends, he ferfeitedy preferring 
It M a lesser evil to pay so great a smn, than fiedi into 
die hands of the nilii^^ prdates, whose tender mercy vaa 
cniehy.t 

Mr. Hooker, to avoid the storm of persocuJion, fled to 
Holland. He had no sooner taken shipping, and the vessel* 
got under sail, than the enraged pursuivants arrived on the 
wore, but happily too late to oeach him* Duripg the nassage, 
the ship was in the i^toiost danger of being lost ; but tJus hoty 
^[lan, u\ this perilous situation, exercised a» unshaken 
confidence in God, who sent a remarkable delivesaace. I« 
Holland, he preached about two years at Delfi^ as assistanl 
to Mr. Forbes, an s^e4 an4 excelie9t ^otch minasln^ I^ 
was next called to Kottenfaun, where be. was employed for> 
some time as colleague to the celebrated Dr. Wiwam- Ames. 
The gieatest friendship and affection subsisted betwixt these 
two learned divines. The latter declared, that, notwjthstam^ 
ing his acquaintance with many scholars of d^Serent natioBS, 
he had never met vrith a man equal to Mr. Hooker, either a» 
a preacher or a kamed disputant. He assisted Dn Amo» 
in composing hi/s celebrated work, entiitled, ** A Fresh Suit 
against Human Ceremonies in God^a Wovd^p.*^ But Mr. 
Hooker not finding Holland agreeable to his virishes, and * 
number pf his firiends ii^ England i»vitii|g him^ at diia time to 
accompany them to America, he returned to his native 
country to prepare for the voyage. He was no sooner oome^ 
to Enghnd, than the bishop'a pursuivants were again 
employed to apprehend hup. At one time they were i^ton 
the very point of taking him, a^d even knocked at the door 
of the chamber ia which he and Mr. Sawiel Stone were 
employed in friendly conversation. Mv. Stone went to the 
door ; when the officers demanded whether Mr. Hooker was. 
there. *< What Ho<Aer?" replied Mr. Stoiie. *< Do you 
mean Hooker who once lived at Chdmsford?'' The offioeps 
answered, ^< Yes, that is he.'- ^^ If it be he who^ you look- 
for,'' observed Mr. Stone, *^ i saw him about an hour ago.a^ 
such a house in the town : you had best hasten there after 
him.'' The officers taking this eva^ion^ for a sutteienli 
account, went their way, while Mr, Hoc^er ooooealed' 
himself more securely, till he went on board in dto> Downstv 
He sailed for New England in the year l€3d> when Mfi 
Stone and Mr. Cotton, both celebrated puritans, acc<mipanied 
him in the same ship. Mit* Hooker arriving sit Newlowa^' 

» 

« Mather's Hist, of New Eog. b. m. p. ft8--Sl . 



HOOKER. Vt 

afterwwdi called Cambridge ; and being moftt aiFectioAtttel;f 
leceived hj \m old friends, who had gone over the preceding 
jpear, he aaid, ^* Now i Hve, if ye staml ftist in die Lord." 

Great aumbers soon after following these adventurers from 
England, Newtown became too narrow for them : accord- 
'^^J9 in 1636> Mr. Hooker, with many 'of his friends, 
ramoved to a fertile spot on the delightful banks of the river 
Cottiecticiit, which they called Hartford. There he lived all 
%m rest of his days, and was deservedly esteemed '^ as die 
fadwrf tbe pillar, and the oracle of the new colony." As a 
yreacher, ne was remarkably animated and impressive ; not 
only Ua voice, bat every feature in his countenance, spoke 
the flrdonr of hia soul. All was life and reality in his 
descriptiona. Hia preaching was not that theatrical ailecta* 
lion wnkh ia exhibited by men who paint for admiration, but 
that and ^sUch is kindled by a coal from God's altar. His 
Btoviag addfesaes flowed from his own exquisite relish of 
ftrine Anigs, and an impassioned desire of promoting diem 
ift the hearta of others. His success, like his services, was 
vary eoiinest A profrine man, for the purpose of diversion, 
nea add to kia companions, '' Come, let us go and hear what 
ba^riiag Hooker wilt sav to us." For the sake of sport, diey 
aU mat to Chelmsford lecture. Conviction presendy seised 
the mind of this person. The word of God became quick 
ttid powerfld, and he retired with an awakened conscience. 
Also, by tbe subsequent instructions of Mr. Hooker, he 
became an humble follower df Christ; and afterwards 
followed diia worthy minister to New England, that he might 
wjov the benefit of his preaching as long as he lived. At 
iBodber time, one of his enemies hired a fiddler to play in the 
choreb-wd and the church-porch, with a view to disturb 
him in bis sermon ; but the design had not the least efiect 
apon Mr^ Hooker's mind : he went on with his sermon in his 
unabated zeal and vivacity. When the man went to die 
door to hear what he said, his attention was instantly caught; 
ooflfMtioD immediately seized his conscience; and at the 
conehiaioA of the service, he made his humble confession to 
Ur. Hooker, and ever after lived a religious life. By the 
i^plkcatioli of his doctrine, he had a surprising tailent for 
laadlkig uid awakening the consciences of his hearer^. 

TUs lesmed divine was remarkable for humility and a 
My dispeiidenGe upon God. lliis will appear from the 
twmfam cir^umatance. Some time after his settlement at 
Hirtford, having to preach among liis old friends at Newtovm. 
on a Lord's <by in the afternoon, his great fame had coUe9t^4 



6» LIVES or THE PURITANS. 

together a vast concourse of pebple. When he 'came to 
preachy he found hhnself so entirety at a loss what to say^ 
thaty after a few shattered attempts to proceed, he was obl^ed 
to stop, and say, that what he had prepared was altogeuer 
taken from him. He therefore requested the congregation to 
sing a psalm while he retired. Upon his rettun, as our 
aumor observes, he preached a most admirable sermon, 
holding the people two hours, in a most extraordinary strain 
both for pertinence and vivacity. After the public service .wa4 
closed, some of his friends speaking to him of the Lord's 
withholding his assbtance, he meekly replied, ** We daily 
confess that we have nothings and can do nothing, without 
Christ; and what if Christ wul make this manifest before our 
congregations ? Must we not be humbly contented ?''* 

Mr. Hooker wished to be abased, and the Lord alone to 
be exalted. He dreaded outward ease and prosperity^ ma 
that which was most likely to bring the Lord's people into 
spiritual adversity. When at the land's end, taking his final 
leave of England, he said, '^ Farewell, England ; I expect now 
no more to see that religious zeal, and power of godliness^ 
which I have seeii among professors in that land. Adversity 
has slain its thousands, but prosperit;y its ten thousands. 1 
fear that those who have been zesuous christians in the fire of 
persecution, will become cold in the lap of peace.'' 

He was highly celebrated as a man of prayer. He 
used to say, ^* Prayer is the principal work of a minister ; 
and it b by this he must carry on the rest." Accordingly, 
he devoted one day in every month to private prayer and 
fasdng, besides the observance of matry such days fnibticly 
with his people. It was his settled opimon, that if professors 
neglect diese duties,* ** iniquity will abound, and the love of 
many wax cold." His prayers in public were ferven^ but 
^ot IpAg, and singularly adapted to the occasion^ Als he 
proceeded his ardour usually increased ; and, as the last 
9tep in Jacob's ladder was nearest heaven, the close of hi» 
pi^yer lyas mostly a rapture of devotion ; and '' his people," 
It is said, " were often surprised with the remarkable answers 
to his prayers." 

Though Mr. Hooker's natural disposition was irascibl<^ 

he acquired a wonderful command of his temper. He.vraf 

J always ready to sacrifice his own apprehensions to the letter 

..reasons of others. T^e meanest of his brethren, and evei^ 

.^children, were treated by him with endearing cOndescwsioa* 

• MaUicr't Hift. of Ncvr Eng. b. iji. p« », 88. . 



HOOKEIL 09 

One instance it may not be improper to meii6oii. A 
ne^bour of his having sustained some damage; when 
Mr. Hooker meeting a boy notorious for such mischief^ 
warmly accused and censured him. The boy denied Ae 
charge^ but he continued his angry lecture. ** Sir/' said the 
boy, ** I see you are in a passion ; 111 say no more to you ;** 
and then ran off. Mr. Hooker finding, upon inquiry, that the 
boy could not be proved guilty, sent for him, and humbly 
confessed his fault, which, with the good council he gave him, 
made a deep and lasting impression on the mind of the boy. 

Notwithstanding Mr. Hooker's great condescension, he 
did qot in the least degrade or depreciate his holy function. 
When he mounted the pulpit, he appeared with so much 
majesty and independence, that it was pleasantly said of him^ 
He wmild put a king in his pocket. Judges, princes, and 
peasants equally shared in his pointed reproofs and solemn 
admonitions. He possessed an excellent talent for solving 
eases of conscience, and set apart one day in the week for 
any of his people to come to hmi and propose their scruples 
and difficulties. Though his own preaching was generally 
very practical and experimental, he reconunended young 
ministers, when first settled, as well for their own benefit as 
that of their people, to preach the whole system of divine 
truA. He had a happy method in the government of the 
church. He would propound nothing to the church assembly 
till it had been previously considered by several of die prin- 
cipal brethren; and if at any time he saw an altercation 
be^iiing to rise in the church, he would put off the vote till 
another opportunity ; previous to which, he would visit, and 
generally gain over, those who objected to what appeared 
me most proper to be adopted. He used to say, ** The eldera 
must have a church within a church, if they would preserve 
the peace of the church." 

1 his holy and heavenly divine desired not to outlive his 
work. His last sickness was short, and he said little. When 
his opinion was asked concerning certain iipportant points, 
he replied, *^ I have not that work now to perform, f have 
declared the council of God.'' One of his brethren obsery- 
ing to him, that he was going to receive his reward, 
** Brotfier," said he, '^ I am going to receive mercy'* After- 
wards, he closed his eyes with his own hands, and, with a 
smile on his countenance, he expired, July 7» 16479 ^^ 
sixty-one years.* He was justly styled " the grave, the godly, 

« Mone aid Pftrish*! Hkt. of New Elf. p. 76—78. 



10 LIVES 0F THE FURITAN8. 

tbe jufticioiMy the fnkh&ly and tbe hborioiis Hooker.** Tbtt 
pe»ce which b^ enjoyed in his own mind, through belitYiBg 
in Christ, for the space of thirly years, continu^ firm and 
HUf hf^Len to the la^.* Mr. Henry Whitfield gives th^ foUaw- 
ing testimony of his worth: '^ I did not think/' says he, 
" there had been such ^ man on the earth, in whom th^rt 
fhone so many incomparable excellencies; and in whom 
learning gnd wi9dooi were so admirably tempered with zeal, 
holiness, find watchfulness/' And for his great abilities and 
glorious services in both Englands, says Mr. Ashe, he 
deserves a place in the first rank of those worthies whose 
lives are preserved.! Fuller has honoured him with a placis 
among the learned writers and fellows of Emanudl college, 
Cambridge.^ 

Hb Works.— 1. The SouFs Implantation into Christ, 1037.— 
3.The Uobetiever'8 Preparing for Christ, 1638.— 3. The Soars effectnal 
^9nmg to Christ, 1638.--i. The Soul's Humiliation, 1640.^-^ A 
Sarvey of the Summe of Church-Discipline, 1648. — 6. The Doubluii^ 
Christian drawn to Christ^ 1652. — ^7. The Application of HtsdemptiQii 
by the Word, 1666.— 8. The Sjpiritual Rule of the Lord's Kingdom.—:, 
9, Farewell Sermon on Jer. xiv. 9. publi9hed in Air. Fenner's Works." 
-r-And probably some others. 

John SAiiTMABSH, A. M.^— This person was desceiid#f| 
from a respectable and ancient family of the same qam^ a^ 
Saltmarsh in Yoi:)L8hirey and educfited in Magdalen college^ 
CamWidge, where he enjoyed the patropage and support of 
Sir John Metham, his kinsman. He was a person of a fiiie^ 
active fancjy no contemptible poet, and a good preacher ; bi|| 
no friend to bishops and ceremonies.^ AlM>ut thfi year 1641^ 
be became minister at Northatupton, afterwards at Brai3te4 
in Kent, and, at length, was chosen to the office of chaf^aiQ 
in Sir Thomas Fairfex's army ; where, to hiis great honour, b^ 
i9 said to have always preached up peace and unity. He 
meddled not with matters of discipline, but wholly laboured 
to draw souls from sin to Christ.! He afterwards opj^oly 
declared his sentiments concerning die war, saying, '' Th$t 
all means should be used to keep the l^ng and people from % 
sudden union ; that die war being against popery, should bei 
cherished, as the surest means tQ engage the |>eQi4e; and 
that if the kii^^ would not, iu tbe eud, granit their deaaauuid% 

• Iforton'i Memorial, p. 1«5. 

t lfatber*8 Hist, of New. Eag. b. iU. p. ii-*^. 

1 FnUer*! Hist, of C^b. p. 147. 

S Faller*8 Worthies, part iii. p. 212. 

I Wood's Athtaw Oxm« toI. ti. p. m 



SALTMARSH. 71 

ihn te rdot hiita out, togedier with the mpi Kne, and ap|k>int 
te crown to some oAet penon/' These sentunents were 
hid brfore the houae of commons, and they underwent a 
pvieukur examination ; but it does not appear whether he 
was sentenced to recrive any kind of puniniment. During 
dui examination, howerer, one of the members said, ** He 
mm no reason to condeAin Mfc*. Saltmarsh ; tot it was better 
that one family should be destroyed than ihany."<* 

Mr. Saltmarsh employed his pen id controrersy with 
mwnl learned divines^ among whonii was Dr. lliomas 
Fuller, the historian. This person havine preached a iermon 
OB ** reformation/' which he afterwaras published, Mr. 
Saltmarsh published his animadversions upon it, in which he 
chaiged faim widi several points of popery. Fuller, however, 
defended his former arguments, in a piece under the titk of 
" Trmh Mttitained,'' m which he challenged Saltmarrfi to 
lefilv; hat he declined the contest, givii^ diis reason for 
it, mat he would not shoot his arrows agamst a dead ttiark^ 
bong iafermed diat Fuller ^as dead. He also engaged m 
GMrovMy uMi the celebrated Mr. Thomas Oataker) Mr. 
Jolm lAfyf Dr. John BAiftwick, Mr. Thomas Edwards, and 
odMrt. It is uM that the very titles of some of hit pieces 
sBened to hirve some tincture of enthusiasm, if not of mmf 
m thttttwf 

Mr. Edwards, who employs his presbyterien bigotry in re- 
proachini^ hn memory, cives the following account of him :-- 
'^ There is one Mr. Saltmarsh, a man who hath of late writ 
iftsny traAy pamphlets, fully stuffed with all kinds of errors, 
ipstmnce, am impudence, and hath been well answefed and 
bifHed by three learned divines. I am still in .his debt for 
SMie pasiiages in his ** Groans for Liberty," and ** Reasons 
brUmty, Love and Peace," against m^ first and second part 
of ** Gangnena," and shsll say in this diird, I purpose to 
iBokott With him once for all, in another tractate, lliis 
Ihiter Saltmarsh, the last half year, hath much followed the 
smy : a fh plaee for him. When Oxford was taken, he was 
oae of those famous preachers who preached at St. Mary]s ; 
ssit • man to eredit the parliament and the reformation with 
tbe university, as his brodier Peters. Master Saltmarsh being 
to preach iti the army on a fast-day this summer, made a 

Cihte by way of apology, that he preached not for the fast: 
would not be understood as preaching upon that occasion, 
or that hk seMien wns a fast sermon." 

• Wliltlocke*t Memorial, p. 68. 

i Biof . BritM. Vol. Hi. f . fiOSS, S054. Edit. 1 747. 



78 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

r 

This writer also adds : ^^ He hath been at Bdth this year^ 
and there, in one of the lesser churches, preached, that, as 
John Baptist ^dre a leathern girdle, so his doctrine was 
leathern doctrine. He would have preached at the great 
c.hurch, but the minister would not give way ; whereupon he 
came to the minister's house, to contest with him about 
denying him his pulpit ; to whom the minister replied, that 
he had heard of him by Mr. John Ley and Mr. Thomas 
£dwards, and was fully satisfied concerning him. Besides, 
he said * I have heard of oqe M^ter Saitmarsh, who, in the 
time of the former differences between the king and the 
Scots,. viz. before this parliament, made verses to incense- the 
king to war against the Scots, when he went into the north ; 
and that when the late oath, made by the bishops, came forth^ 
went many miles to an archbishop to take that oath upon his 
knees:' to which Master Saltmarsh replied, he was then in* 
his. darkness; and the minister of Bath rejoined, he thought 
I^im to be still in the smoak."* 

We make no comment upon the above account, but .allow 
Mr. Saltmarsh to speak for himself. In answer to Mc«* 
£dwards, he says, ** When I called to you the other day in, 
the street, and challenged you for your unanswerable crime* 
against me in the third pait of the last '^ Gangraena,'' in setting 
my name against all the heresies you reckon, which your owa. 
soul and the world can witness to be none of mine, and your 
own confession tome when I challenged you — how were you 
tarqubled in spirit and language? Your sin was, as I thought, 
upon you, scourging you, checking you as I spc^. 1 told 
you at parting, 1 hoped we should overcome you by prayer* 
I. believe we shall pray you either into repentance, or.shain9,- 
or judgment, ere we have done with you ; but, oh! might it* 
be Jrepentance rather! till Master Edwards smite upon.hiai 
thigh, and say. What have I done? > 

^* For your anagram upon my name, you ,do but fulfil, the 
prophecy, They shall cast out your names as evil, for the Son 
' of man's sake. Aildvyoiur book of jeers and stories of your, 
brethren;, poor mahi it will not long. be music in youreara>. 
at this rate of sinning. For the nameless authoc and his ; 
after-reckoning, let all such men be doing; let them rail^ 
revile, blaspheme, call heretics. It b enough to me, that* 
they write such vanity as they dare not own. And now let 
me tell you bothy and ail such pensioners to the great accuser, 
of the brethren ; fill up the measure of your iniqui^^ if you.* 

m Edwards's Gangraeoa, part iii. p. WZ^ 114. 



SALTMARSH. 73 

triO needs perish ^rhether we will or no. I hope I rest in 
Ae bosom of Christ, with others of my brethren: rail, 
persecute, do your worst ; I challenge all the powers of hell 
that set yott on work, while Christ is made unto me wisdom, 
iwhteonsness, sanctification, and redemption. And I must 
m you further, that since any of the light and glory of 
CSiiist dswned upon me ; since first I saw th^ morning star 
of righteousness, any of the brightness of the glory in my 
heart, that heart of mine which once lived in the coasts <^ 
Zebalnn and Napthali, in the region and shadow of death, I 
can freely challenge you, and thousands more such as you, to 
aay, write, do, work, print, or any thin^ ; and I hope I shall 
in die strength of Christ, in whom f am able to do' all 
things, give you blessings for cursing, and prayers for persecu- 
Uons.''* ^ 

Mr. Edwards, in answer to this, observes, " That Mr. 
Gataker had proved his opponent to be a . shadow without 
sobstance; had taken off the shadows he had cast on 
onny truths of the gospel ; had shewed this new light, 
with his dawmngs cf light, to be only a shadow of cmrk- 
ness and death; and had caused this great light to go out in 
a smoke and snuff.'' He proceeds in his usual style of 
mUleiy^ concluding diat the former accusations were still 
aDaiiswered.t 

The death of Mr. Saltmarsh was very extraordinary, and 
is thus related. December 4, 16479 he was at his own house 
at Ilford in Essex, when he told his wife that he had received 
9 special message from God, which he must deliver to the 
army. He went to London the same evening, and early on 
Mmiday morning, December 6th, to Windsor. When he 
came to the council of officers, he addressed them as follows: 
'^ I am come hither to reveal to you," said he, ** what I have 
received from God. Though the Lord hath done much for 
you, and by you, yet he hath of late left you, and is not in your 
counsels; because you have forsaken him. God will not 
prosper your consultations, but destroy you by divisions 
among yourselves. I have formerly come to you like a lamb, 
but God hath now raised in me the spirit of a lion; because 
you have sought to destroy the people of God, who have 
always stood by you in the greatest difficulties. I advise 
all the faithful to depart from you, lest they be destroyed with 
Jim" He then went to Sir ^fhomas Fairfax, the general ; 
and, without moving his hat, said, ^^ I have received a com- 

• Sftlfmarsh's Answer to Edwards, p. 9—1 !• Edit. 1812. 
f Edwards'i Gaograeoa, part iii. p. 293. 



74. LIVES OF THE PUBITANS. 



Qiftiid fimn God not to honoiur you at all. I have hommredl 
you 80 mucb^ that I have offended God ; who hadi revealed 
' unto me that be is b^hly dbpleased widi your committingr 
his saints to prison; and that be will not prosper you, nor 
can I bono«ur you/' He next went to Cromwdl, to whom 
be delivered the sam^ message^ declaring that the Lwd waa 
angry with bimi for cauaing diose persons to be impiisoned 
whom be knew to be faithful in the cause of God* A^ after, 
recommending him to take some effectual measures for their, 
eidaigementy be took his leave of them all, saying, ** I have 
done my errand, and must leave you, never to see the army 
any more." He went the same night to Londoni and next 
day took his leave of his friends in the city, saying, his work 
was done, and his message delivered, and desir»l them la 
take care of his wife* lliur8day>. December Qth, he left 
Ixmdon well and cheerful ; and die same evening arrived at 
Ilford. The day following, he told his wife that he had now; 
finished his work, and must go to bis Father. In the aftemoo% 
be complained of the head*acbe, desiring to lie down upon hhr 
bed, when he rested well through ike night. Saturdivft 
momiiq;, December 11th, he was taken speechless, and died 
about four' o'clock in the afternoon.* It appears (nHm: 
Mr. Saltmarsh's writings, that he was strongly ti^ed with tbe 
piincijAes of lantinomianism. 

His Works.— 1. Practice of Policy in a Christian Lilb, 1039.-—' 
% Holy DiseoTeries and Flames, 1640.-^. Free Grace; or, tbe^ 
Flowings of Ckrisf s Blood freely to Sinners, ISib."-^^ New Qnerie,. 
I645W--6. Shadows flyins^ away, 1646.— 6. Dawnings of L^rht, WM^ 
— 7. Maxims of Reformation, 1646. — 8. Reasons for Unity. Peaea 
and Love, 1646.— 0. Groans for Liberty, 1646.— 10. Beams of LigBt, 
discovering the Way of Peace, 1640. — 11. Some Queries fbr 
Hie better anderstanding of Mr. Edwards's last book, called 
Gtmyrmnm, 1646.*-^ 13. Parallel between Prelacy apd Presbytery^ 
1646. — 13. The Divine Right of Presbytery asserted by the present 
Assembly, and petitioned for accordingly to the H. of Gom. iii 
Pariiament, with Reasons discussing this pretended Dirine Right, 
1946. — 14. Sparkles of Glonr; or. Some Beams of the Moniinft 
Star, 1647.— U^ Wonderfol Predictions^ 1648.— 16» The Assembly's 
Petition against his Exception. — 17. The Openiag of Mr. Pr^nne'ia 
Vindication. -^ 18. Flagellnm Flagelli, against Dr. Bastwiek. — 
19. Animadversions on Mr. T. ruller^s Sermon. — 20. Several' 
Sermons* 

• Wood's AthensB Oxoo. tol. ii. p. 199, 10^. 



PALMEIL n 



Hbrbkbt Pai-mbb, B. Dw^-TUs nott picas Amut 
ibe SOB of Sir Tbomas Pslmer, bora at Wingham mv 
jCanterbiiryy in the year ISQI, and edntatfJ m St John's 
college, Gunbiidge ; bat was afterwards chosen fellow of 
Qiieeu's college^ in the same university. He was a outt 
celebrated for genuine piety , and thought to have beea 
sanctified from the womb. In the year lG96» be entered 
upon his first ministeriai exerdses in the city of Canterbury, 
having previooAly obtained a license from Archbishop Abbot,^ 
authorizing him to deliver a lecture at St. Alphage church, 
every Lord's day afternoon. In diis situation, by his sound 
doctrine and unblemished deportment, his great usefulness 
was presently manifest to all. By his aealous and jmbcioaa 
efforts, the corruptions so prevalent among the ecclfriaiitics 
of the cathedral, who preferred pompous ceremonies above 
the power of godliness, were greaUy interrupted. Thi% 
indeed, soon roused the malice and enmity of the bigotted 
ecclesiastics. They could not endure the soundness of his 
doctrine and the hcJiness of his life, so much opposed to 
their dead fonnality, and thw unri^teous doings. Though 
bis high birth and numerous friends screened him for a time^ 
articl^ were at length exhibited against him ; but his replies 
to those articles, it is said, were such, that he was honourably 
acquitted.^ 

In the year 16£9^ upon the comfdaint of the dean and arch* 
deacon, Mr. Palmer was silenced and his lecture put dowl^ 
to the great grief of his numerous audience. The ch atg ea 
brought against him were, — ** That he read prayers umI 
catechised against the minister's will, and not according to 
the ecclesiastical canons :-*tliat in the catechizing, he took 
upon him to declare the king's mind in his instructions >-» 
^t he preached a factious sermon in the cathedral, and 
detracted from its divine service : — and that fectioos persons 



• When Arclibisbop AbkoCn BMtWr was prepuuM of fciai, the h mM tm 
htiwt bad a dream, wbwli prawei at oaer as aawa aatf as fanianiai Af Ms 
fmmn pronotioo. She fancied fbe was loM ia bcr ilm, ilmif^b^ f^MM 
eatajack, or pike, tbe rbUd ibe weal wiib woaM pro? # a «i^ aN4 riar m 
l^reat preferaieot, Vot Utmg mfler tM^ lu laklaf a pail •/ mm^r mm Af rM 
rtf«r Wey, wbicb raa by tbeir boatr, tbe aeeWrarty eaaclM a pM't. **f 
bad (basaa odd opportaaitj of faUUIb^ htr dfvaai. TM« m^f #wfM# 
nocb cooverwtioa, aad CMoian; lo ibe fcaowMfe iT <>^rfa«i p^^mm oT 
dittiBctioo, tbey offered lo bccooM j poa in r i f# rfc<$ fMU$, w)tk^k wm 
kindly accepted, aad bad Ibe fatdafi lo aibwl mmt miiinal-n^ 4/ %iir 
affection to tbeir pdmm mMt m icboof, m4 ikin^ M mtm '<» w 
BBi versify. Sacb were tbc pmA t§mM of li« imfh0f$ ikmrn- Jfa^ 
MvUtm. vol. L p. S. -»— ^ ^-p^ 

f Cterfc't Lhroi aaaesed lo MaHjiaMpiiy p. 



I 

76 LIVES OP THB PURITANS. 

from dl the parishes in the city, were his auditors/'* H#w- 
ever^ by the petition of many of the citizens and gentry^ and 
the honotoifole testimony of several ministers, concerning 
his orthodox doctrine and unblemished character, together 
with the testimony of ten knights and others, presented to 
the archbishop, he was asain restored, and the archdeacon 
inhibited from his jurisdiction.-f It is likewise observed, that 
all who took an active part in thb afiair, exposed themselves 
to the scorn and contempt of the people.^ 

Mr. Palmer afterwards removed to the vicarage of Ashwel! 
in Hertfordshire, to which, on account of liis amiable cha^ 
racter, though a puritan, he was presented by Bishop Laud, 
receiving his institution February 7, 1632. Laud mentioned 
this 'circumstance as an instance of his impartiality, in his 
own defence, at his trial.^ There Mr. Palmer, as in hia 
former situation, discovered his zealous care and unwearied 
diligence, in promoting the welfare of his flock. Though he 
was a man of great learning, he never wished to make it 
appear. He sought not the applause of men, or any worldly 
emolument, but the approbation of God, the testimony of a 
good conscience, and the salvation of souls. 

During the above year, he was chosen one of the preachert 
I to the university of Cambridge, and afterwards one of the 
clerks in convocation. In 1643, he was appointed one of 
the assembly of divines, and afterwards one of the assessors; 
During the assembly, he was highly distinguished by his ex- 
cellent talents, his unwearied industry, his great useftdaess, 
and was seldom absent. Upon his removal from Ashwdl, 
he Was succeeded by Mr. Crow, afterwards silenced in l66d,|t 
and he accepted an invitation to Duke's-place, London. . 
But afterwards, having received a pressing invitation, be 
became pastor at New Church, Westminster, being succeeded 
at Duke's-place by Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Thomas Young, 
another worthy puritan. In each of these situations he was 
highly admired, and his preaching, expounding, catechizing, 
and other ministerial labours, were abundant. He was alwaya 
abounding in the work of the Lord. In 1644, he was con- 
stituted maister of Queen's college, Cambiidge, by the,Ear) of 
Manchester. He succeeded Dr. Martin, one of Laiid'a ^sh|ip* 
buns, and a man of high principles. Under the peculiar care 

. • Pry mie*i Cant. Doome, p. S79, ST3.— Riish worth*i Colle^ vol^ ii* P^ 34^ 
. + CInrW's Live«, p. 187.-— Pr>UDe'8 Cant. Doome, p. 373. 

1 Heylin's Life of Land, p. 201. 

4 Clark's l^ives, p. 187. , 

I Fklncr't NoBcoB. Bicm. toI. ii,,p. 309. 



PALMER. n 

and e&coQhigeineDt of the new mastery the college flonriilied^ 
fSfen to thegreat adnuntion of all.* In 1645^ he was appointed^ 
by order of parliament^ one of the committee of accon- 
inodation*f 

Mr^ Palmer was always firm to his principles. Though he 
would deny himself when only his own interest was concerned, 
he was constantly zealous and unmoved in whatever con- 
cerned the honour of God and the glory of his kingdom. 
Therefore^ when he was called to preach at. the Buhop of 
Lincoln's visitation, he spoke with great freedom asainst the 
existing corruptions of the church, not fearing the conse* 
quencesy though sensible of his great danger. When the 
Book of Sports, bowing to the altar, reading part of the 
service in tli^ chtacel, and other innovations, were enjoined, 
he resolved to lose all, rather than offend God by the en- 
couragement of superstition and profoneness. He con- 
stantly and vigorously opposed the superstitious and unrigh- 
teous oath of canonical obedience.^ He was always a most 
consistent and conscientious nonconformist. 
. This worthy divine, bebg highly reputed for learning and 
piety, was often called to preach before the parliament, for 
which he has incurred the severe displeasure of certaiq 
historians. One of these bitter writers, with an evident 
design to reproach his memory, has transcribed the following - 
passage from one of Mr. Palmer's dedications addressed to 
the Earl of Essex, then general to. the parliament's army : 
*^ God hath put you in his own place : God hath graced 
you \rith his own name, Lord of Hosts, general of armies. 
. God hath committed to your care what is most precious io 
himself, precious gospel, precious ordinances, a precious 
parliament, a precious people. God hath called forth your 
excell^ior as a choice worthy to be a general, and the €ham« 
pion of jfesus Christ, to fight the great and last battle with 
' antichrist in this your native kingdom."^ Another of these 
writers observes, that, June 28, 1643, ** Mr. Palmer made 
a long-winded tittle-tattle, stuft with rebellion and sedition, 
before the house of commons {• at the end of which he foimd 
out a pretty device, to have all the cavaliers' throats cut ; 
and all this to be justified by inspiration of Almighty God. 
f I kumbh entreat you,* said he, ^ to ask GoJCs amhenifinif 
whether Me tmll spare such or such, or pardon them ; and if 
he Will not, you must not* Probably this politiciao," adds 

• Clark*8 LWet, p. 167—197. 

f Piipen of Accdamodatioo, p. 18. t Clavk't th0l^ ^ Nt 

S L'Btcnoso't DisieBten* layiop, part ii. f. i#. 



80 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

oo'hartnJ'^ * When he desired them to come formrds, they 
urged him to make hi^ escape^ kindly ofFering him all the 
assistance in their power; but this he refused^ suspecting 
they might have some ill design upon him. Though they 
assured him of their ^ood intentions^ and gave him the most 
evident proofs of it^ he still refused to accept their offers, 
saying, ^* I will rather endure the utmost that God will suffer 
them to inflict upon me, than risk the lives of those who 
have shewed themselves friendly." As an evident token of 
dieir esteem, they brought him out to the fresh air, cleaned 
his room, and so left him. 

The next morning a council was called, particular^ with a 
view to determine what should be done with Mr. Balsom ;. 
and as they were debating about putting him to death, a 
captain, being one of the council, stood up, and said, ^^ I 
will have no hand in the blood of this man ;" and went out oC 
the room, and so nothing was done. The prisoner was then 
carried to Salisbury ; and on the very night of his arrival,, 
another council was called, and picked for the purpose^ 
by which he was condemned to be hanged. Having, 
received the sentence of death, the high sheriff waited upcui 
him in prison ; who, after much ill language, told him that he. 
must prepare to suffer at six o'clock next moiiiing ; assuring: 
him, at tne same time, that if he would ask the king pardon, 
and serve his majesty in future, his life would be spared, 
and he might have almost any preferment he pleased. . Mr.- 
Balsom, being remarkably courageous, and not in the least 
afraid of death, boldly replied, ^' To ask pardon when I son- 
not conscious of any offence, were but the part of ^fool; 
and to betray my conscience in hope of preferment, were but 
the part of a knave : and if I had neither, hope of heaven,- 
nor fear of hell, I M'ould rather die an honest man, thicp live a^ 
fool or a knave.'' He accordingly rose next monung in full 
expectation of his doom ; and about six o'clock^ th^ officers, 
came to the prison with a view to carry him forth to execution. 
As he was preparii^ to go, he heard a post ride in, immedi- 
ately asking. Is the prisoner yet alive ? He brought a reprieve: 
from Sir Ralph Hopton, when, instead of death, Mr. Balsoin, 
was immediately carried to him at Winchester. As hcv 
entered the city, Sir William Ogle, governor of the plac^, 
said, " I will feed you with bread and water two or three, 
days, and then hang yQu." He fell, however, into better 
hands. For upon his appearance before Sir Ralph Ho{>to|^... 
ajfter ^ome familiar conversation relative to his espousing the 



BALSOM. 81 

pftriiament** cause, and the principles on which he acted, he 
was committed with this charge, '^ Keep this man safe, but 
use him well/' 

Mr. Balsom, after remaining in a state of confinement for 
some time, was at length, by an express order, next carried to 
Oxford, and committed prisoner to the castle. Here he set 
ap a public lecture, preached twice every day, and was nu- 
meitniBly atfended, not only by the prisoners and soldiers, but 
hy courtiers and townsmen. After having been once or twice 
prohibited, he said, '* If you be weary of me, I do not wish 
to trouble you any longer ; you may turn me out of doors 
when you please. But while I have a tongue to speak, and 
people to hear, I will not hold my peace." At length, by 
an exchange of prisoners, he was released. And having 
oblaihedluB liberty, he was sent for by the Earl of Essex; 
when he became chaplain in his army, and continued with 
Um dujrinff his command. 

Iff, Biusom afterwards settled at Berwick, where he was 
ifMedly employed in his beloved work of preaching. In 
dus situation he had the strong affections of the people, the 
miles of God upon his labours, and the satisfaction of 
seeing the work of the Lord prosper in his hands. His 
labours were made extensively useful ; but having occasion, 
afiter some time, to visit his own neighbourhood, he never 
rettimed. For, to the great anguish of his affectionate 
people, he was taken ill and died, in the year 1647** 

This zealous and faithful servant of God, a short time 
before his death, wrote a letter to a friend in London, giving 
him some account of the transactions in the north ; and 
because the sight of it will be gratifying to every inquisitive 
retder, it will be proper to be inserted. It is dated May 21, 
1646, and is as follows :t 

^ My dear friend, 

** Yours was not a little welcome to me, nor am I put 
to it to send you a requital. The news here is so good, that 
I can hardly hold my pen for joy. The king's coming to 
the Scotch army in all probability will prove one of our 

Etest mercies since the wars began. And never did I 
' of any christians carrying themselves so boldly and 
fintfaiiilly in reproving their prince, so humbly before their 
•God, -so innocently towards their brethren, so desirously of 
a settled and well-grounded peace, as the Scots now do« 
Hiey labour with much earnestness for the king's conversion ; 

• Clark*8 LUn annexed to his Martyrologie, p. 179—1^2. 
f Edwards's G&ngrcna, part iii. p. 7S, 74. 
VOL. III. O 



«e LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

UH him plainly of his blood-guiltiness ; have sent for out of 
Scotland the able9t ministers to coaveise widi him ; have 
banished all malignants six miles from his person by proch^ 
matJon ; refused to entertain him with any token of joy ; and 
told him he was a great sinner before God, and that he must 
give satisfaction to bodi kingdoms. The malignants droop, 
who were gathering towards him out of bodi kingdoms. T%e 
Frendi agent, who was active in making a breach, is much 
discountenanced. The nobles and ministers profess dieir 
earnest longing after a happy union, the settling the govern^ 
ment of Christ in his church ; which beii^ done, they will 
presently return to peace. The independents themselves 
•tand amazed at their wisdom, resolution, and fidelity: ze^ 
with humility, doth accompany all their actions. The 
malignant party, which was much feared, is borne down; 
The mouths that were so wide, both of independents and 
malignants, are sewn up : they have not a word to say. And 
see how the Lord blesses them. All their enemies in 
Scotland are routed and brought to nothing. The Idng 
refuses to proclaim Montrose and his adh^ents rebels ; but 
the King of kings hath taken the quanel into his own hand; 
and utterly dispersed them. I have not time to write the 
particulars, only to let you know I am 

Your assured friend, 

R. Balsom.'' 



Thomas Edwards, A. M. — This very singular person 
was bom in the year 1 599> and edacated in Trinity college, 
Cambridge, where he took his degrees in arts, and was 
incorporated at Oxford. Oiie of his name, and apparently 
the same person, is said to have been of Queen's college^ 
Cambridge, and one of the preachers to the university. For 
a sermon which he delivered in St. Andrew's church, he was 
committed to prison, February 11, 1627; where he remained 
till he entered into bonds for his appearance before \ii 
ecclesiastical jucfges. Upon his appearance at the time atfd 
place appointed, he was charged with having uttered in hi|( 
sermon the following words : — ^* W hen, there arise any double 
about the way, that thou knowest not well which way to tlik«^^ 
if thou art a sei vant, thou must not go to thy carnal mastery 
to enquire of him : il ihou art a ^wife, thou must not go t0*^ 
tny carnal husband, to ask him : if thou art a son, thou tfua^ 
not go to thy carnal father : if thou art a pupil, thou mu3t'iiot 
go to thy carnal tutor to ask him ; but thou must find out a 



EDWARDS. 83 

man in whom the Spirit of God dwelleth : one ^o b 
renerced by grace^ and he shall direct thee.** A little after, 
he said, ^'^If all this he not true, then this book, clapping hb 
hand upon the Bible, is full of falsehoods, and God himself 
is a liar, and Christ himself a deceiver." He also added, '' If 
the. day of judgment were now at hand ; if the seals were 
opened; if the tire were now about my ears, ^hich should 
bum those diat follow not this doctrine, I would testify and 
teach this, and no other doctrine.*' 

Mr. Edwards, for delivering these sentiments, ^as 
repeatedly convened before his superiors; and, March 31, 
1628, he was required to make a public revocation of hb 
opinions in St. Andrew's church, where he had delivered hb 
sermon ; and the following instrument was aftenvards drawn 
up, testifying his compliance : — ^* These are to certiA*, that 
whereas Mr. Edwards, A. M. late of Queen's college in 
Cambridge, was required to explain himself, concerning 
words spoken by him in a sermon preached in tlie parish of 
St. Andrew's in Cambridge, as if he had deliorted from 
consulting carnal tutors, husbands and masters. To tlib 
purpose he did explain himself, in tlie said church of St. 
Andrew's, April 6, l62d, being the day appointed, to mic, 
* He desired not to be mistaken, as if he had preached against 
obedience to superiors, or hearkening to dieir advice and 
counsel, though carnal and wicked ; for such might advise 
well : as the pharisees sitting in Moses's chair, were to be 
obeyed in their sayings; and tliat they oucht rather to be 
dutiful to such than others, that they may wm them and stop 
their mouths, 1 Peter, iii. I. Only if tliey advise any thing 
contrary to die word, as to lie, swear, &c. to remember the 
speech of the apostle, ' It is better to obey God, rather than 
ihen.' In witness whereof, I, Ihomas Goodwin, then curate 
of the said church, being present, have subscribed mv name 
as also we whose names are undent ritten, being also there 
present Thomas Goodwin, Tho. Ball, Th. Marshall."* 

Though Mr. Edwards b said to have • been alwavs a 
piuritan in his heart, he received orders according to the form * 
of the established church ; and, on his leading the universitv 
he was hcensed, in the year 1629, to preach at St. Rotolph's 
church, Aldgate, London-+ About die same time, he was 
brought mto trouble for nonconformity, and questioued or 
suspended by Bbhtp Laud, for refusing to observe hi. 
superstitious mjunctions.| In the year 1 640, having deliverrd 

• Baker'i MS. Collrc. toI. ▼!. p. 192. xti. 898. 
+ lirwcoart*t Reprrt. Reel. fol. i. p. 9|6. 
t Prjime's Cant. Dooae, p. «78. 






M LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

a sermon in Mercer's chapel, which gave great offence to the 
ruling prelates, letters missive were issued against him, and 
he was apprehended by the bbhop's pursuivants, and pro- 
secuted m the high conmiission. It will be proper to give 
an account of his puritanistu and persecution m his own 
words : — " I never had a canonical coat," says he, " never 
" gave a penny to the building of Paul's, took not the 
** canonicid oath, declined subscription for many years before 
*'*die parliament, (though I practised the old conformity,) 
'^ would not give ne obolum quideni to the contributions 
" a^nst the Scots, but dissuaded other ministers ; much less 
** did I yield to bow to the altar, and at the name of Jesus, 
^' or administer the Lord's supper at a table turned altarwise, 
" or bring the people up to rails, or read the Book of Sports, 
*^ or« highly flatter the archbishop in an epistle dedicator]^ to 
** him, or put articles into the high commission court i^ainst 
** any, but was myself put into the high commission cpurt^ 
'' and pursuivants, with letters missive and an attachment^ 
*^ sent out to apprehend me for preaching a sermon at 
Mercer's chapel^ on a fast-day, in July, 1640, against the 
bishops and their faction ; such a free sermon as, I believe, 
^' never a sectary in Eugland durst have preached in such a 
** place, and at such a time."* This Mr. Edwards has to 
say of himself; though it is generally supposed that he 
never had any stated charge, but officiated as lecturer at 
various places, particularly at Hertford, and at Christ's-church, 
London, one of his name in 1643, but whether the same 
person we cannot ascertain, was vicar of Heinton in Hert- 
fordshire.t 

When the parliament declared against King Charles I., he 
became a zealous advocate for the changes in the civil and 
ecclesiastical constitution, and supported vnth all his influence 
the ruling party. He was a most rigid presbyterian, and, n^itb 
uncommon zeal, defended and supported that dbcipline and 
government. This he declares in the dedication of one of 
his books, to the lords and commons assembled in parliament, 
as follows : ^' ^1 my actions," says he, ** from die beginning 
** of your sitting, my sermons, prayers, praises, discourses, 
'^ actings for you, speak this. I am one who out of choice 
''and judgment have eii[ibarked mvself, with wife, children^ 
'' estate, and all that's near to me, m the same ship with yoUk 
'' to sink and perish, or to come safe to land with you, ana 
'' that in the most doubtful and difficult times, not only early 
'' in the first beginning of the war and troubles, in a mafig;« 

« £dwards*8 Gangraena, part i. p. 75, 76. Second £dit. 
t Vfood'i Athenie Oxod. yoI. ii. p. 728. 



EDWARDS. 85 



U 

u 
u 
i< 
a 

it 

u 



it 

U 
€t 



nant place among courtiers and those who were servants 
and had relations to the king, queen, and their children, 
pleading your cause, justifying, satisfying many dut 
scrupled ; but when your affairs were at the lowest, and the 
chance of war against you, and some of the grandees and 
favourites of these times were packine up and ready to be 
gone, I was then highest and most zealous for you, preach- 
ing, praying, stimng up the people to stand for you, by 
going out in person, lending of money, in the latter going 
** before them by example ; and as I have been your honour's 
** most devoted servant, so I am still yours, and you cannot 
'* easily lose me."* 

When the independents began to gain some ascendency, 
Mr. Edwards became equally furious against them as he had 
been against the prelacy. He wrote and preached against 
them with great severity, and opposed the sectaries with great 
virulence. This appears from several of his publications ; 
but we shall give the account in his own words :—«-'' Many 
" years ago," says he, " when I was persecuted by some 
prelates and their creatures, in no possibility nor capacity by 
my principles and practices of preferment, I preached 
against, and upon all occasions declared myself against, the 
'' Brownists, separatists, antiqomians, and sdl errors in that 
'' way, as well as against popish innovations and Arminian 
** tenets. I have preached at London and at Hertford against 
^ those errors. About ten years ago, when independency 
^* and the chuich way be^an to be fallen to by men of some 
** note, and some people took after it, I preached against it 
** early, apd by all ways laboured to preserve the people." 
He adds, ^* I never yet sought an^ great things for myself, 
** great livings, or coming into public places of honour and 
** respect^ to be of the assembly, or to preach in any public 
'' places before the magistrates, either at Westminster or 
** JUondon, but hav^ contented myself with small means, and 
** to preach in private places in comparison, having refused 
<' many great livings and places, preaching here in London for 
** a little^ and that but badly paid, (as many well know,) mind* 
** ing the work and service, litde die maintenance.'*! 

Most of Mr. Edwards's productions are controversial ; th^ 
language and sentiments of which are bitter and. violent ii^ 
the highest degree. He distinguished himself by alt the zeal 
and bigotry of a fiery zealot. His bitterness and enmity 

* GaDfrsena, part }..p. 8. f Ibid, part Hi. p. 14,15. 



86 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

against toleration- rose almost to madness ; and had he beeji 
possessed of power^ he would undoubtedly have proved a^ 
furious a persecutor of all nonconformists to presbyterianism, 
a^ the prelates had been of those who ventured to dissent 
hojn the established episcopal church. Many of his severe 
and unworthy reflections upon some of the most worthy 
persons, as collected from his " Gangrajna" and " Antapo- 
logia/' are noticed in the various parts of this work. The 
pacific Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs says, *' I doubt whether 
there ever was a man, who was looked upon as a man pro- 
fessing godliness, that ever manifested so much boldness and 
malice against others, whom he acknowledged to be reli- 
gious persons. That fieiy rage, that implacable, irrational 
violence of his, against godly persons, makes me stand and 
wonder."* 

His indignant temper and language against toleration is 
without a parallel. It will be proper to give a specimen in 
his own words, for the gratification of the inquisitive reader. 
^' If ministers,'* says he, " will witness for truth, and against 
errors, they must set themselves against toleration, as die 
principal inlet to all error and heresy; for if toleration foe 
i[ranted, all preaching will not keep them out. If a toleration 
be granted, the devil will be too hard for us, though we preach 
^ver so much against them. A toleration will undo all. 1% 
will bring in scepticism in doctrine, and looseness of life^ 
and afterwards all atheism. O ! let ministers, therefore^ 
oppose toleration, as that by which the devil would at once 
lay a foundation for his kingdom to all generations ; witness 
tgainst it in all places ; possess the magistrate with the evil of 
it ; yea, and the people too, shewing them how, if a toleration 
yjvere granted, they would never have peace any more in dieir 
families, or ever have any command of wives, children, 
servants ; but they and their posterity are likely to live in. dis- 
conftent and unquietness of mind all their days. Toleration 
is destructive to the glory of God and the salvation of souls; 
therefore, whoever should be for a toleration, ministers ought 
to be against it. If the parliament city, yea, and all the 
people, were for a toleration of aU sects, as anabaptists, 
antinomians, seekers, Brownists, and independents ; yet 
ministers ought to present their reasons against it, preach a^ 
cry out of me evil of it, never consent to it ; but protest, 
against it^ and withstand it by all lawfi^ ways and meana 

« BarroQgbs's Yindicatioo, p. 2. £dit. 1646. 



EDWARDS. 87 



within their power, yentttring the Iom of liberties, ettitm, 
lives, and all in that cause, and inflame us with zeal against 
a toleration, die great Diana of the sectaries.* 

** A toleration," adds this bigotted and furious zealot, ^ is 
the grand design of the devil; his master-piece and chief 
engine he works by to uphold his tottering kingdom* It is 
^e most compendious, ready, and sure way to destroy all 
religion, lay all waste, and bring in all evil. It is a most 
transcendent, catholic, and fundamental evil, of any that can 
be imi^ined. As original sin is the fundamental sin, having 
in it the seed and spawn of all sin : so a toleration hath in it 
all errors and all evils. It is against the whole stream and 
current of scripture both in the Old and New Testament, 
both in matters of faith and manners, both general and par- 
ticular commands. It overthrows all relations, political, 
ecclesiastical, and economical. Other evils, whether errors 
of Judgment or practice, are only against some few places of 
scnpture or relation; but this is against all. This is the 
j^baddon, ApoUion, the destroyer of all religion, the abomina- 
tion of desolation and astonishment, the liberty of perdition ; 
therefore the devil follows it night and day, and all the devils 
in hell, and their instruments, are at work to promote a 
tolewtion/'t . 

These extracts, expressed in the author's own language, are 

^*ustly descriptive of his arbitrary and outrageous temper. 
3ut the presbyterian interest beginning soon after to decfine, 
and Oliver Cromwell having overturned the power of the pai^ 
liament, Mr. Edwards, to escape the expected resentment of 
the independents, fled to Holland, where he died of a auartan 
ague, in l647y aged forty-eight years. By his wife, who was 
heiress of a considerable fortune, he left one daughter and 
four sons, the second of whom was Dr. John Edvirards, 
author of Veritas Redux, and many other learned works 
upon theological subjects.} 

His Works. — 1. Reasons against the Independent Government of 
particalar Congregations, 1641.-2. A Treatise of the Civil Power of 
jSoclesiasticals, and of Suspension from the Lord^i Supper, 1642. — 
9; Antapologia; or, afUil Answer to tlie * Apoiog^tical Narration* ot 
Mr. gliomas) Goodwin, Mr. Nye, Mr. Sympson, Mr. Burroug^hs, and 
Mr. Bridge, Members of the Assembly of Divines, 1644. — I. Gan- 
g|^na; or, a Catalogue and DiscoTcr}' of man v of the Errors, Here- 
sills, Blfu^bemies, and pemicions Practices of the Sectaries of this 

s 

• Edwards's Gaofratoa, part i. p. 85, 86. Third edit. 

"f ibid. p. 58, 69. 

} Bios. BriUn. loh y. p. 543. Edit. IT78. 



.88 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

I 

Time, vented and acted in England in these four last years, iii Parb, 
1646.— 6. The particular Visibility of the Church, 1647.— 6. TK« 
Casting down of the last and strongest Hold of Satan ; or, a Treatise 
against Toleration, Part first, 1647. 



John White, A. M. — ^This excellent divine was bom tt 
Stanton St. John in Oxfordshire, in the year 1576, and 
educated first at Winchester, then in N ew College, Oxford, 
where he was chosen fellow. In the year 1606, he left Ae 
university, and became rector of Trinity church, Dorchester, 
where he • continued, with little interruption, above forty 
years. He was a Judicious expositor of scripture; and, 
during his public ministry at Dorchester, he expounded tfie 
whole Bible, and went through one half a second time.* 

About the year 1624, Mr. White, with some of his friends, 
projected the new colony of Massachusetts in New England, 
as an asylum for the persecuted nonconformists; but, for 
several years, the object met with numerous discouragements. 
Indeed, the difficulties became so foimidable, that the under* 
taking was about to be relinquished, and those who had 
settled in the new plantation were on the point of returning 
home. At this juncture the worthy settlers, who had already 
outbraved many a storm, and surmounted the greatest diffi*- 
culties, received letters from Mr. White, assuring them, that 
if they could endure their painful conflict a little longer, he 
would procure for them a patent, and all the necessaiy 
supplies for the new settlement. They concluded to wait 
the event ; and in all these particulars he made his promise 
good. Thus, by the blessing of God upon his active and 
vigorous endeavours, the colonists were enabled to maintain . 
their ground ; and they afterwards greatly prospered.^ * Thb 
was the first peopling of Massachusett's Bay in New 
England. 

About the year 1630, Mr. White was brought into trouble' 
by Bishop Laud, and prosecuted in the high commission 
court, for preaching against Arminianism aiid the popish cere- 
monies.it Wood is therefore mistaken when he says '' that 
he conformed as w^ll after as before the advancement of 
Laud.'' Though it does not appear how long his trouUes 
continued, or what sentence was inflicted upon him ; yet ' 
these proceedings against a divine of such distinguished^ 

♦ Wood's Athena; Oxod, toI. ii. p. 60. 

+ Mather'sNew Eng. b. i.p. 19.->Priiice*iCbilfD. Hist. vol. i.p.|44-*149. 

{ Prynne'9 Caot. Doome, p. S62. 



WHITE. 89 

-fexcdlence^ and one so universally beloved, were sure to 
Vring the greatest odium upon his persecutors. Mr. White 
was afterwards a great sufferer from the public confusions of 
the nation. His excellencies could not screen him from the 
destructive ravages of the civil wars. Prince Rupert and his 
forces b^ng in those parts, a party of horse was sent into the 
town, when the soldiers plundered his house, and earned 
away his library. But, upon the approach of these calami- 
ties, the good man fled from the storm; and, retiring to 
LoodoQ, was made minister of the Savoy.* 

In the year 1640, Mr. White was appointed one of the 
learned divines to assist the committee of religion, consisting 
of ten €iii8, ten bishops, and ten barons.t In 1643, he was 
chosen one of the assembly of divines, and cons^ntly 
attended. He was deservedly admired on account of his 
great zeal, activity, learning, moderation, and usefulness, 
daring the uriiole session. Upon the meeting of both houses 
of parliament, the assembly of divines, and the Scots com- 
noners, in Margaret's church, Westminster, to take the cove- 
tent, he engaged in the public prayer ; and, to prepare their 
minds for so sacred an engagement, as our author observes, he 
prayed a yii// hour.t In 1645, upon the revival of the com- 
mittee of accommodation, he was chosen one of its members.^ 
And about the same time he was appointed to succeed Dr. 
Featley in the sequestered rectory of Lambeth ; and, accord- 
ing to our historian, he was appointed to have the care and 
use of die doctor's library, until the doctor should be able to 
procure his, which had been carried away by Prince Rupert's 
soldiers.! In 1647^ Mr. W^hite was offered the wardenship 
of New College, Oxford, but refused the ofKce. 

When the public broils of the nation were concluded, he 
returned to his flock and his ministry at Dorchester ; where 
he continued in peace the remainder of his days. He died 
suddenly, July 21, 1648, aged seventy-two years. His 
remains were interred in the porch of St. Peter's churchy 
Dorchester, but without any monumental inscription.! He 

was a most faithful pastor; and a divine of sound doctrine^ 

« 

* Wood*s Atheoae Oxon. vol. ii. p. 61. 

i This coramiUee was appointed by the bouse of lords, and desig^ned to 
•lamine all innoTatinns, as weU in doctrine as discipline, illegally intro- 
4«ced into the church since the reformation. It was extremely ofS^nsife 
to the intolerant spirit of Archbishop Laud. — Wharton*t ^oubUa of 
Lni^ Tol. i. p. 174, 175. 

1 Whitlocke'8 Mem. p. 70. 

S Papers of Accommodatioo, p. IS. 

I Wood's Athene Oxon. vol. ii. p. 01> 

I Wood's Hilt. & Antiq. 1. ii. p. 149. 



9» LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

90 admirable judgment, and a most powerful genius, being 
na less eminent for piety, £aith, and diligence. Also, ha was 
a .person of unconunon gravity, and so universally beloved 
and respected, that he was usually called the patriarch of 
Dorchester, The puritans at a distance, as well as those 
about him, according to Wood, '* had more respect for him 
tban even for their diocesan; yet he was a most moderate 
piuitan.'^* ** He was a constant preacher," says Fuller, 
*t and, by his vidsdom and . ministerial labours, Dorchester 
was much enriched with knowledge, piety, and industry ."t 
Mr. John White, the ejected nonconformist, was his son.t 

His Works.— 1. The Way to the Tree of Life, 1647.— 2. A Coi»- 
mentary upon the Three first Chapters of Genesis, 1656. — 3. Direc- 
tions for Reading the Scriptures. — i. Of the Sabbath.' — 5. Seyeral 
Sermons. — ^Most probably he vas author of some other articles. 



Peteb Smart, A. M . — This great sufferer in the cause 
Df nonconformity was bom in Warwickshire, in the year 
1569; dnd educated first at Westminister school, then at 
Broadgate's-hall, Oxford, and afterwards elected student of 
Christ's Church, in the same university. After taidne his 
degrees he entered into the ministry, when Dr. Wuliam 
James, dean, and afterwards bishop, of Durham, presented 
him first to the grammar-school at Durham, then made him 
one of his chaplains ; and, in 1609^ presented him to the sixth 
prebend in the cathedral of Durham, and the rectory of 
Boldovers.$ In the* year 1614 he vi^as removed from the 
sixth to the fourth prebend ; but his patron, the bishop, dying 
in ^bout three years, he received no further advancement. 

The first business of a public nature in which Mr, Smart 
appears to have been engaged, was his appointment to the 
high Commission for the province of York. He was nomi- 
nated one of the commissioners in the year 1625; and though 
at their second assembly he qualified according to law, he 
seldom honoured the court witli his attendance, and sub-> 
scribed only to one sentence. Upon the renewal of the 
commission in 1627> he again qualified, but seldom attended.} 

. * Wood's Athene Oxon. toI. M. p- 60, 61. 
• f Faller'8 Wortbies, fiart ii. p. 340. 
^ Palmer's Noncon. Mem. vol. ii p. 145. 

^ GraDger says be was minister at Bowden, by which is pnMUy 
intended the same place. — Biog. Hist,- vol. ii. p. 160. 

y Wood's Athene Oxon. vol. 114 p, 11.— Ulustiatioa of 29cal itf tlM 
article of Peter Smart, p. 8, 3. 



SMART. 91 

This vftis about tea months previous to the commcncancfit 
of his troubles, occasioned by a sermon which he preached 
in the cathedral at Durham. In this sermon, delivered July 
9,7, 1628, he spoke widi considerable freedom against the 
superstitions and popish innovations, which Dr. Cpsins and 
others had introduced into that church.* His text was, / 
hate all those that love superstitious vanities^ but thy law do 
I love. For the satisfaction of the reader, we shall insert 
some of the most exceptionable and offensive parts of this 
sermon. He said, ^ The whore of Babylon's bastardly brood, 
doating upoti their mother's beauty, that painted harlot, the 
church of Kome, has laboured to restore her all her robes 
and jewels again, especially her looking-glass, the mass, in 
which she may behold all her bravery. For they, despising 
all the plain simplicity of that srave matron, Christ s holj 
spouse, have turned her offices an out of doors, with all her 
bousehold-stuii^ her tables, her books, her cups, her com- 
munions, the very names of her ministers : instead whereof, 
the words priest and altar are taken up by them; because 
without a priest no sacrifice can be offered ; without priest 
afid sacrifice there is no use of an altar ; and without all these 
there can be no mass. But the ntass coming in, brings in 
with it an inundation of ceremonies, crosses, crucifixes^ 
chalices, images, copes, candlesticks, tapers, basons, and a 
thousand sucn trinkets which attend upon the mass. 

'^ Before we had ministers, as the scripture calls them, we 
had communion tables, we had sacraments; but now we have 
priests, we have sacrifices and altars, with much altar-furni- 
ture, and many massing implements. Nay, what want we ? 
Have we not all religion agam i For if religion consists in 
altar-ducking, cope-wearmg, organ-playing, piping, and sing- 
ing, crossing of cushions, kissing of clouts, oft starting up 

* AoaccoantortbcseioDOfatioot it still oo record. Dr. Cosin rcMovtd 
the commonioo table in the church of Darbam, aod erected it aliar-«k# 
expend iDf two kuudred pooods in beaatifviog it.— He ifed there to officiate* 
turning bis back to the people.~He used extraordinary boaiaa to it -lu 
compelled oUien to do Uie same, oiinf ?iolence on Ummc who refii«i>d ..if! 
abolished Uie singing of Psalms in tl£ chufck.~-nr!M^ n^uT^X^ 
wax candks to be set up and lighted in the church, on CandlemLSl!^ 
nigbt, in honour of our Lady.-He caused diven inLm, most iloSi.h! 
painted, to be erected in Uie church.-He used Iki^rmpi^kill!^^ 

all good order and, intend of a relbnaation, made it aTSmSl!^^ 
He caused two thouiand pounds to be exaendMl in t^tilm^irr^^* — 
other supentitloos inno^tlons. He ^SS^i^ ^72^121^2? 
saeruneotal bread to beconwcnOed, kS^e^Jt « a!nlll2^^ **• 
«»r ?f^^". with a golde. beard, U?a W J^ ci' 1 'i'JIf ^'^T •^ 
-oriVs CsOec. toI. .. p. W^l0.^iami»!!iZ 7^^ ST^*^ 



92 LIVES OP THE PURITANS. 

and squatting down, nodding of heads, and whirling about till 
their noses stand eastward ; in candlesticks, crucifixes, burn- 
ing of wax-candles, and (what is worst of all) gilding of 
angels, garnishing of images, and setting them up: if, I say, 
religion consists m these, and such like superstitious vanities, 
cerenionial fooleries, apish toys, and popish trinkets, v^e had 
never more religion than now. They are whores and whore- 
mongers, they commit spiritual fornication, who bow their 
bodies before the idol."* These were the most exceptionable 
passages in Mr. Smart^s. sermon, even his enemies being 
judges. 

. The very day on which he preached this invective and 
seditious sermon, as it is called, against tlie decent and allowed 
ceremonies of the church of England, a letter missive was 
issued to apprehend him, and bring him before the dean and 
other commissioners. Upon his appearance he delivered up 
his sermon to be copied, declaring that he would justify every 
particular therein contained. After he had entered into a 
bond of one hundred pounds for his future appearance he was 
dismissed. From the time of his first appearance to January 
$9th following, he appeared no less than eight different times 
before his ecclesiastical judges. In the mean time, articles 
were exhU)ited against him, to which he gave hid writteii 
answers. At length, however, he was sent to the high com- 
mission at Lambeth. Fuller says, that for preaching the 
above sermon, '^ Mr. Smart was kept a prisoner four months, 
by the high commision of York, before any articles were 
exhibited<against him, and five months before any proctor wasr 
allowed him. * From the high commission of York he was 
carried to* the high commission at Lambeth, and, after long 
trouble, jemanded back to York, fined Jive hundred pounds, 
ordered to recant, and, fOr neglecting which, he was fined a 
second time, excommunicated, degraded, deprived, and com- 
mitted to prison, his damage amounting to many thousand 
pounds."t It is inquired by what Ij^w Mr. Smart was treated 
thus, for preaching against setting up images, altars,- placing 
them at the east end of the church, and bowing to diem, 
directly contraiy to the Bpok of Coiniuon Prayer, and the 
homily against idolatry, confirmed by act of parlia^ient?^ He 
' remained in prison eleven or twelve years, till he was released, 
by the long parliament. The puritans had so much esteem * 

« Grey's Ezamlnatioii of Neal, ▼ol. i. p. 118, 1 19.— lllojitration vf Net!,, 
p. 181. 

t vFoUer's Church Hi#t« b. zi. p. 178.^IUustnitioD of Neal, p. 5, 72« 
;( HuiiUey'i Prelates* UsarpatioDs, p. 160. 



SMART. SS 

•ndcQiiipMskHi for him, diat durii^ his imprisonmenty thej 
nkei him j£4O0 a year.* Bishop Laud, it should be observed^ 
in§ the leading person in all the cruelties inflicted upon 
lir.Soiart.f 

November 12, 1640, the humble petiuon of Mr. Peter 
Smart, prisoner in the KingVbench, complaining of the hard 
mge he had met with, was read in the house of commonsi, 
irim it was referred to the c6mmittee appointed to consider 
Ae petition of Dr. Leighton and others. The house further 
onjoedy ^ That Mr. Smart, in all his particulars, shall have 
Ae same liberty as that granted to Dr. Leighton, and shall 
have copies of the records in the king's-bench and the high 
commiswon gratis.'^ 

Ou Jmimiy 12th following, an order passed the house, 
''ThatDr.Easdale, Roger Blanchard, and Phineas Hodson, 
D. D«. shall shew cause to this house why they do not pay the 
monies «dj|iM]ged to be paid to Mr. Peter Smart, upon a 
jnd^^nient m the king's-bench, against the said Easdale, 

• GtWDger's Biog. Hiif. ▼ol. ii. p. 170. ^. 

f Pryftoe*! Cut. Doome, p. 78, 93; 498. — Doring Mr. Soiart's confine* 
MH 11 prisoDy he receWed a letter from Mrs. Smart, dated Witten«<3illMurC, 
April C, 1632.:'Tliis letter, ^rhich is said to be *' larded with cant, and to be 
• fpediaen of female casuistical puritanism," was as follows: — 



" Most loving and dearly beloved bnsbaod, 

** The grace and blessing of God be with yon, eren as nnto mine 
** owne sonle and body, so do I dayly in my harty prayer wish unto yon 
'*aad my children; for I doe dayly twise, at the least, in this sort 
" rcaember yon. And I do not doable, deere husband, but that both yon 
** and 1, as we be written in the booke of life, so we shall together enjoy 
" the aime CTerlastingly, f hrought the saveing grace and mercy of God, 
** Mr deare Father, in his Soonne oor Christ : and for this present life, let 
**« wholly appointe ourselves to the will of our God, to glorifie him, 
** whether by life or by death; and even that mercifull Lord make at 
** worthy to honor him either way, as pleaseth him. Amen. Ye what great 
" fiase of r^oysing have we in our most gratious God, we can not bnc 
** briit fonrth into the prasiog of such a bountiful! God, which niaide .yon 
** worthy to salTcr for bis name and worde saike : for it is given to yon of 
** God, not only that ye should believe in him ; but also, that ye shonid 
" saler for his saik, 1 Peter, 4, 5. Yf ye suffer rebuke in the name of 
** Christ, that Is, in Christ's canse, for bis truths sake, then ar ye happy 
** and hlesied ; for the glory of the spirit of God resteth upon von> and 
•** therefore rejoice in the Lord, and againe I say rejoice; for the distressed 
'^chnrch doth yet suffer dayly thinges for her mortification, and for thin 
** ennse, ii contemned and despised. But alas! if thy servant David, if 
" Ihiae oaely Soonne our Saviour Christ livede in shame and contempt, and 
**weere a noklng stocke for the people; wbie should not we then 
** patiently snff'er all things, that we might enter into glory, through many 
** Ironblet, Tezationi, shame, and ignominy, &c. — Tfa&.J[ile8sinf of God be 
*' with aU, Amen, pray, pray. — ^Your loving and faithfnll wife until! 
" death, 

^' SvsAsnrA Skast.' 

JlnKrvfiMi 0flf$al, f, 61^70. 



*• 



fl4 LIVES OF THE PURITANS- 

Blanchardy and Hodson, at the suit of the said Peter Smait 
about ten years since." 

On January 22ndy Mr. Rouse presented the report of the 
conunittee concerning Mr. Snvurt to the house of commonf , 
upon which the house resolved : 

1. ** That the several proceedings of the high commission 
court of York and Canterbury, against Mr. Smart, and thfe 
several fines by them imposed upon him, are illegal and 
unjust, and ousht not to bind. 

2. ** That the degradation of Mr. Smart, and his depriva- 
tion from his prebend, and other ecclesiastical livings, are 
unjust and illegal ; and that he ought to be restored to all of 
them,, together with the mean profits. 

3. ** ITiat Dr. Cosins and others, the prosecutors of Mr. 
Smart, ought to make him satisfaction for his damages 
sustained. 

4. ** That Dr. Cosins (a chief actor in Mr. Smut's prose- 
cution) is guilty of bringing superstitious innovations into the 
church, tending to idolatry ; and of speaking scandalous and 
malicious words against his majesty's supremacy and the 
religion established. 

5. *' That Dr. Cosins is, in the opinion of this house, unfit 
and unworthy to be a governor in either of the universities, of 
to continue any longer head or governor of any college, or'to 
bold and enjoy any ecclesiastical promotions."* 

The house then referred it to the committee, to prepare 
snch things as might be thought fit to be transmitted to the 
house of lords concerning Dr. Cosins ; and also to consider 
of the most proper way of making Mr. Smart reparations for 
the damages he had sustained. When Mr. Rouse delivered 
the charge against Dr. Cosins, at the bar of the house of lords^ 
be said, among other things, '^ That by the arms of the priests 
Mr. Smart had been oppressed and ruined. He fell tipo^ 
their superstitions and innovations, and they fell upon him 
with their arms ; they beat him down ; yea, they pulled him 
up by the roots, taking away all the means of his support ; 
jet leaving him life to feel his miseries. There is no cruelty 
uke priestly cruelty; and this cruelty cast him into lon^ 
continued misery, whence he could obtain no release by tag 
priestly mercy. And now it is prayed, that as these aeUn" 
quents, by ' their cruel oppressions of Mr. Smarts have 
ifdvanced the cause of popery, so they may in a suitably 
degree be punished; that in tiieni priestly cruelty, and (chs 

« 

• Rasliwortb'i Collec. vol. v. p. 41, 136> 168.— NoIwd'i CoUec veL 1. 
M3S,7S4, f . ^ f . 



8SIART. ^5 

voy cause of popeiy^ may appear to be punished and sup- 
pimed; and Mr. Smart, suffering for the cause of protestancy, 
may be so repaired, that in him pious constancy, and the 
ouise of protestancy, may appear to be righted and repaired."* 
Mr. Rouse, in a speech before the house of commons, 
March 16, 1640, denominated Mr. Smart ^ the proto- 
auulyr;'' and he was usually called, ^ the protonuutyr in 
diese latter days of persecution."t 

Mr« Smart,, therefore, received some reparations for 
damages, but whether adequate to his losses and sufferings, 
IB extremely doubtfid. His case was several times before 
the lorda, who passed various orders in favour of his repa- 
ratioiBs.^ By an order which they passed in 1642, he waft 
rettorad to his prebend in Durhaili, and presented to the 
vicarage of Acliff in that county .$ In 1644 he was witness 
agtfost Archbishop Laud at his trial, and was living October 
31, 1648, beii^ then seventy-nine years of a^*|| Mr. Smart 
vas a tolerable poet, a pious and judicious mmister, a reverend 
and grave divine, and a zealous enemy to superstition ;f but 
Us enemies say, that he was of a most forward, fierce, and 
ungovernable spirit; and that he was justly imprisoned and 
doly rewarded for his excessive obstinacy .*• This, however, 
11 the first time we have heard that excessive obstinacy was 
iMbf rewarded thus. It is said, '^ he had not preached m the 
cathedral church at Durham, though a prebendary of it, for 
•even years, till he preached that seditious sermon for which 
he was questioned. And while he held and enjoyed his pre- 
ferment, and his health too, he seldom preached more than 
ooce or twice a year.'^ Tltis account comes from one of his 
prosecutors, being his bitter enemy; and appears extremely 
tuajMciou!). For if Mr. Smart had been so indolent and 
Qattentive to his ministerial function as here represented, how 
vai it that he gained so high a reputation among his brethren f 
The puritans, it is well known, invariably abhorred the con- 
iud of idle, worldly shepherds, over the flock of Christ.f f 

IGs Works. — 1. The Vanity and Downfal of Superstition and 
I^>pith Ceremonies, in two sermons, in the cathedral church of 
Imiam, preached in July 1628, printed 1628.— 2. A brief but true 

* Rashwortb's CoIIec. yoI. v. p. 211. 
* f Greer's Ezamioattoo, toI. \, p. 1 19.— Wood*8 Atbenas Ozon. yoI. Ii.p. 18« 
1 niastratioD of Neal, p. 137—142. 

S Nal8on*9 CoUec. toI. it. p. 406.— Neal's Puritani, vol. ii. p. 909« 
I lUostratioD of Neal, p. 161. 

f Prynne's Cant^ Doome, p. 93. — Wood's Athena Ozoa. fol. ii. p. If. 
** IHnitration of Neal, p. 5, 162. 
^f Bio^raphia Britaa. ^ol. Iv. p. 283. Edit. 1778. ^ 



96 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

historical Narrative of some notorious Acts and Speeches of Mr. 
John Cozens, and some other of his Companions, contracted into 
Articles. — 3. Various Poems in Latin and Eoglish.— 4. Yarioua 
Letters. 



RiCHABD Blackerby. — This eminently holy and learned 
divine was bom at Worlington in Suffolk, in the year 1574^ 
and educated in Trinity college, Cambridge, vfhere be coni' 
tinned nine Tears, and made amazing attauiments in useful 
literatnre. Here he sat under the ministry of the famous 
Mr. Perkins, by means of whose preaching he was effectually 
converted to God. For several years he laboured under the 
most painful awakenings of conscience, approaching almost 
to melancholy. While he was groaning under these cdnvic^ 
tions, his father, who was unconscious of the cause of his 
dejection, called him home, hoping that a change of air 
might remove his complaint ; but his father was not afware of 
.his disease, and the remedy proved ineffectual. AfterwiiffdSi 
he found peace with God, and enjoyed comfort in his lywii 
JM>ui, through faith in Jesus Christ, which he never lost to his 
dying day. Upon his leaving the university, he became 
domestic chaplain first to Sir Thomas Jermin of Kushbrobk 
in Suffolk, then to Sir Edward Lukenor* of Denhaih in the 
same county. Here he continued till he married the daughter 
of Mr. Timothy Oldman, minister of Denham, whose father 
was greatly persecuted, and at length forced to abscond, in 
the days of Queen Mary. Mr. Blackerby, after remairiiAg 
two years with bis father-in-law, was called to preadi at 
Felt well in Norfolk. In this situation he continued some 
time, but, on account of his nonconformity, was at last obliged' 
to remove to Ashdon in Essex, where he 'abode twenty-dl^ee 
years, and was employed in the education of youth. Sorihe 
of his scholars became men of considerable eminence. Dr.' 
Bernard, whom he recommended to Archbishop Usher, an4 
who afterwards became that learned prelate's chaplain and 
wrote his life, was one of them. Although Mr. Kackerby, 
on account of his nonconformity, could not, with a good 
conscience, accept of any ecclesiastical preferment, or under^ 
take any pastoral charge, within the pale of the^natipnal 
church,/ y^t he constancy preached at one place or anotii^, 
as he found opportunity. During the last ten years of. the 

* Sir Edward was member in seyeral parliaments, and a person of 'coa- 
fiderable eminence. He was a gentleman of great piety, an able patriei^« 
a zealons promoter of a further reformation, and a great friend to the 
fersecoted ooncoafolrmiats.^ilf^. Chronology, tel, ii« p. 593. (S.) 



•hOfe l^mod, be preached regularly at Hennio^m in 
Eifi^ iir StoJ^f, or jH^ikw ip Suffbk^^ 

Mr. Blackerby was a nian of a most holy and f^zempkuf 
dmnctpr, as wiU ai>pear from tbe account siven of Uin by 
Mr, Q9fk. f* During his loug life/' says this audior, ^* bt 
fteyer AO^nned to lose one moment of time in idleness. As a * 
WfB mmo^ he speut «U his leisure hours in providing fiv 
iniB|oit9lity- He ix>se early, bodi winter and summer, and 
fffi9t tbe whole d9y in reading, meditation, prayer, and the 
MitnictiQD .of others. He was remari^aUy punctual and coo- 
f^tSB^QW HI Ihe observance of family religion. He instructed 
^ pMllilf /daily in true christian piety and useful learning, 
tad ^ICsltod b^ore Ihem continually in vnsdom, love, ami 
tf^ t ftft f a s * Young students, upon their leaving the 
JmfttSfkfp put themselves under his tuition, to be further pre- 
pmifyr ttie pidbiic ministry ; to whom he taught Hebrew, 
Pfm^ tfl$ .Sdiptures, read divini^, and gave excellent in* 
Mncligw .rdatisise to learning, doctrine, and future life.^ 

In )ua Auhlic ministry, when he was suspended in out 

^^ lie m(A to another. By this means, thou^ he lived ip 
^PH^f Jhe was seldom kept silent for any considerable 
||QMd* His method in preaching consisted chiefly in ope&- 
fng ii^ meaniiig of scripture, and in making appropriate 
I^MflrvaliQQs, fol£>wed widi a close application. He studied 
^i^d to understand the scriptures, had great skiU in die 
4Mi|^nfdy and lived much in holy converse vrith God. Hit 
{wenching was accompanied with so abundant an out-pour- 
ttg i>f .the Spirit, that he had reason to believe God made him 
die spiritual Seither of above two thousand persons. Indeed, 
tlie word of God fiEdling from his lips, soon became tha 
savoyir of life unto life to those who heard it, or they became 
emaged against it. And though persons of sesired con- 
IQQiices sometimes became violendy outrageous against his 
freadling, the signal judgments of God commonly found 
duffi out. At Hundon he met with considerable oppoaitioB 
ftmn many of the principal persons in the place, who united 
tiigf^her and procured his suspension, but who were afiter*- 
ivanii .blasted in dieir estates, some brought to beggary, and 
all, excepting one, died miserable deaths. The sabbath 
filter hit spspension, one of them boasting in the church- 
jvdy that now they bad got Blackerby out of the pulpit ; a 
.WMWrn atai^iw by, and hearing him, replied, '' Blackerl^ 
%ill pceach in Hundon pulpit, when you are crying m helL ' 

• Clark*! Livat, taut to), part i. p. 67, M. 
▼OL. III. M, 



W LIVES or THE P0RITANS. 

And tlie wj sabbadi after this man was^lmriedi itr. 
Bicckarby obtained bis liberty, and preached on that dqr m 
Hvndon pulpit. 

Mr. Blackerby was eminently distinguished ibr personal 
feli^n and triie holiness. To promote this, vras indeed Us 
chief business. Though he was not without his infirmities; 
yety to all impartial judses, he was free from the allowance of 
any iniquity. His whole deportment was as if God, his holy 
law, and the day of judgment, were constantly before hu 
eyes. He was always deeply impressed with the majesty and 
holiness of God, and maintained a constant watchfulness 
over his heart and life. He practised mortification and sdtf- 
denial, and was justly reputed ** one of the holiest men livina.'' 
.Nevertheless, he was deeply humbled under a sense of nis 
-manifold infirmities^ and imperfections. This he often di^ 
covered to a grand-child of his, whom he used to address ai 
follows : ^' Oh, thou little thinkest what a vile heart I hate^ 
and how I am pli^ed with proud thoughts. Child, if dioH 
hast any acquaintance with God, pray for me, that God woaU 
purify this blthy heart. Oh ! if God did not enable me, iA 
some measure, to keep a watch over it, I should act to the 
shame of my fece." While he brought these bitter accusal ^ 
tions against himself, he exercised the greatest candow 
towards oAers, even diose who difiered from him in matlerii 
of subscription and church discipline. He used to obserft^ 
with the nunous Mr. Perkins, '^ That when a man^ia ooee 
acquainted with his own heart, he will be apt to think eveiy 
one better than himself: and an appearance of the love c^ 
God in any, will make him put the best construction on aD 
Aeir words and actions.'' Yet no hope of preferment, nor 
any painful suffering, would prevail upon him to act contrary 
Id die convictions of his own mind. Though he could not^ 
with a safe conscience, conform to the church of England, 
with the view of obtaining a living, or to secure himself Atttn 
the iron hand of persecution ; yet, in those things wherein it 
appeared to be his duty to conform, no man was more exact 
than hamself • Like many other nonconformists, he had no) 
ofa}ection to die use of some parts of the Book of Commonj 
Prayer. • . -^ 

He was a wise, afiectionate, and faithful friend, and never 
aufieied sin to pass unreproved. In the discharge of 'this 
most difficult duty, he majiifested sO much love, serioutaesir, 
and sweetness of spirit, that while he touched the consd^aoei 
of those whom he reproved, they still loved him. ^* His 
reproofs," as one observes, '< were dipt in oil; driven into the 



BLACKERBY. 99 

iMtrl^ and received with alt acceptation, because of the over* 
pmuagldoidness with which they were attended." When he 
ma. in comfumy with persons of wealUi, and heard them 
iWMTy or use profiEuie language^ he would withdraw from 
dw comi^uiy with a sad countenance; and would address 
diem in private, with so much affection and seriousness, that 
tfa^ wdud frequendy thank him. On one of these occa- 
iooBp a gentleman said to him, i* Had you reproved me at 
tahk I would have stabbed you, but now I thank you." 
^ He was a strict and zealous observer of the sabbath. As 
iwqparatoiy to the holy observance of this day, he constantly 
pffeadied m his own house on the Saturday afternoon. He 
rose earlier on the sabbath than on other days ; and prayed 
six tiioei with his family every sabbath, besides expounding 
the acriptima. He was particularly zealous in recommending 
to othttn dlie holy observance of this day. Being once 
iBvited to preach at Linton in Cambridgesliire, where a foir 
was annually-kept on the Lord's day, he so convinced the 
idhabitants of the sinfulness of the practice, that, it is said^ 
diey would hold the fair no more on that day. He was of a 
aaoit tender and contrite spirit; and enjoyed so much the 
pretence and blessing of God in holy duties, that he often 
said at die conclusion, he would not for many worlds have 
misted the opportunity. This holy man was crucified to the 
world, and the world was crucified to him. He lived above 
die world, having his affections set on better things. His 
passionate fondness for the things of this world was so fieir 
subdued, that, though he had a most tender affection for his 
relations and friends, the loss of them did not discompose his 
mind, nor interrupt his conununion with God. When his 
ddett daughter, whom he dearly loved, was taken away by 
death, he preached her funeral sermon with the utmost com- 
posure, and said, he believed she feared God from three 
years pld. He preached as a man who had not lost his God, 
though he had lost his dearest child. The love of the 
creature could never draw his heart from the Creator. He 
enjoyed the abundant manifestations of God's love. His 
holy and heavenly dcportmept was accompanied with a 
settted peace of conscience, and a full assurance of eternal 
1^. lie often declared before his death, that for more than 
tartv years he never had a single doubt of his sdvation. 

When the persecuting prelates were laid aside, and Mr. 
iNackerby could take the pastoral charge without subscrip- 
tion and observing the ceremonies, he was chosen pastor of 
Great Thuijfow in Suffolk, wh^re he continued the rest of bis 



i0D LIVES OP THE PORITAN& 

6aj9. ,Widi gmit zeil md ftidifiiliiefft, he hfc a mrf to M«^ 
mote die glory of God and the good of souk to the «e|y m/L 
He wa^ taken Ul m the pulpit, was carried hoBie> and oMk 
tinaed in a weak state about sis weeks, but kfept his bed ttif 
two days. He died in die year 1648, seed s e y t n tj-fc u T 
jears. Mr. Blackerby was ^ an eiedlent ung^dit, ilkd ae^ 
counted the best Hebiean in Cambridce.'^ Uriagei' atf^ 
^ he was perfecdy skflled in the learned languages.'^ At hik 
death, he expressed his strong hopes, dial in the day of jtM%- 
ment tfa«e would be many hundreds of his posteii^ siGmfaig 
at die right hand of Christ. And it is said, that dMite %ho 
knew ius children believed they were all heirs of isfeiMl fift : 
diere were fiiv^urable hopes of all his' gimiidcliilA[en, inany 
of whom were eminent persons; and inany off Inm K'^ea'^ 
grandchildren were truly pious christians.^ The ckeakil 
Mr. Samuel Faircioug^, who was ejected' in IdGSy MMM 
one of his daughters.) It is said, that on nzetvitk tf ikii 
heavenly maiesty and holiness ^hidl always attended Ifav 
Blackerby, me excellent Mr. Daniel Rogers of WedtetaMd 
ttsed to say, he coidd never come into Ms p r e s entee w i tfi Wi l 
trembfii^.| 

Thomas Temple, D. D.— This karmid dhtM ^M* 
brother to Sir John Temple, ma^er of die rolls, and one kS. 
his majesty's privy councfl in Ircliand. He was feHo^ %f 
Trimty coflege, Dublin, and afterwards resided for sonlie ^§Hm 
in Lincoln coAege, Oxford. He was beneficed first at ^%p*' 
wick in Nordiamptonshire, then at Battersea tn Sm^. 4te 
diis last place he "was labouring in the year 16S9, havii^ HEfK 
Samuel W^s for Ins assistomt.! Upon die comrnenc cBKJBt 
of die civil war, he espoused the cause of die pariianHM; 
and, in 1643, was appointed one <^ the licensers of ifaa 
press, and nominated one of die assembly of divines, and ha 
coostandy attended durii^ the session. He was one of Ae 
committee for the examination and oit&nation oi raif^tera.^ 
In 1645, lie was chosen one of the committee of accomnao* 
d^don.tt In each of these public offices he discovered gifSal 
l eai i nug and moderation. In the year 1648, he united wMi 

• Clark's Lifet, p. 58— 6S. 

4 Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. ii. p. I9S. 'J CUrk*s Lifftf p»#4» 

JPHlmerls Noncon. Mem. iol. iii. p. 2T9. 
Clark^s LWes, p. 65. 
f dOaay^s Accoont, vol. it p. 407, 540. 

• • Neat's Paritaas, vol. iii. p. 46, 5S, 89. 

f f ftpen of AccomnodaUoD, p. 1$, • . _ 



TE1IPLE--J. WILKINSON. 10| 

^ rati of ^ London mhuBtera in tfieir protestation ftgainft 
liw king's deaths* Wood denominates him '' a forward 
fnkdberJ'i He frequently preached before the pariiament, 
lid several of his sermons were afterwards published^ Ofie of 
tttdi 19 entitled^ ** Chrisf s Government in and over his 
9taple, delivered before the honourable House of Commons 
al dieir Fast, October 26, 1642, on Psalm ii. 6./' 164S. But 
Hrheo he died we have Hot been able to learn. 



#o«if Wilkinson, D.D. — ^This venerable divine was 
tern m dw parish of Halifax in Yorkshire, and educated in 
die uidveiiity of Oxford, where he was hi^y celebrated for 
leamiiy^ He became fellow of Magdalen collie, was 
fitfor to Prince Henry, and afterwards made principal of 
lfq;0sdeiih&all, in the same university. By his recommenda- 
tilN^ 4m weU-biown Mr. Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbuiy, 
^m taken into die family of Lord Hardwicke, soon after 
CMted Eari of Devonshire, in the quality of tutor to his 
iea WSliam Lord Qivendish.$ Upon die commencement of 
die civil wars, he espoused the cause of the parliament; and 
Oxford being garrisoned by the royal forces, he fled to the 
parlifunent's quarters, when he was succeeded in the above 
o<Bce by Dr. Thomas Read. But m the year 1646, Dr. 
Wilkinson was restored ; and by an ordinance of partiamen^ 
dated May 1, 1647, he was appointed one of the visitors of 
die university of Oxford. In May, 1648, he was made 

Eetideut of Magdalen college, in the place of Dr. 01iver.| 
•e did not, however, live long to occupy diis public office ; 
far lie died January 2, 1649, and his remains were interred 
in the church of Great Milton in Oxfordshire. Though h^ 
WIS a man of great learning and piety,i Dr. Walker is pleased 
to say, upon the slender authority of a scurrilous and abusive 
btter written against the puritans, ^' That he was known not 
to have preadied above once in forty years ; that he had out> 
lived die little learning he once possessed ; and was become 
Ae very sport of boys."** How far this account, from so 
base an authority, and evidently designed to reproacli hit 
Bemory, is worthy of credit, we will not attempt to determine; 

.• Gdamy't.CttDtin. ¥•!. ii. p. 74S. 

<^ Wood's Athene Ozon. toI. i. p. 895. 

i VTatson*! Hiit. of Halifax, p. 626. 

( Biog. Britan. vol. iv. p. 2599. Edit. 1747. 

I VTalker's Attempt, part i. p. 120, 1S4. 

1 Neal's Puritana, ▼ol. iii. p. 4S1. 

•• Walker*! Attempt, part i. |U 127. 



lot LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

bat certain it is, that the parliament, to -whom he -was wdt 
known, and by whom he was so highly esteemed, formed m 
very diiSerent opinion of him. 

Fuller observes, " that Dr. Lawrence Hmnphrey, die 
famous old puritan, having bequeathed to Magdalen collq^ 
a considerable sum qf gold left in a chest, and not to be 
opened except in some case of great emergency ; Dr. Wil« 
kinson, while he was president, took this gold, and shared it 
betwixt himself and the fellows of the college. Though one 
must charitably believe,'' he adds, " that the matter was not 
so bad as is reported, yet the most favourable account gave a 
general distaste.'** Dr. Heylin says, " the sum. amounted toi 
upwards of twelve hundred double pistoles, value sixteen 
shillings and six-pence each ; and that die old doctor had one 
hundred for his share of the spoil, and the fellows thirty each.* 
But he observes, that, according to tcadition, the money waa 
left by the founder of the college, and not by Dr. HumphrqU 
Wood says, '^ the sum ai^ounted to no less than fourUm 
hundred pounds ; and Dr. Henry Wilkinson, the vice-preii* 
dent of the college, not John Wilkinson, was the chief 
divider of the spoil.^ 



John Geree, A. M.-.-He was bom m Yorkshire, in die 
year 1600, and educated in Magdalen college, Oxford. Hk 
first ministerial labours were at Tewkesbury in Gloucesterahine* 
But, says Wood, he was schismatically inclined, and e 
nonconformist to certain ceremonies of the church of 
JEngland, for which he was silenced by Bishop Goodnm ; 
yet he was so universally beloved, that, after he had re- 
ceived his lordship's censure, he was supported by hie 
brethren. Under this censure he remained a considerable 
time; but in the year 1641, he was restored to his cure by 
the conmiitte^ of religion. In 1645, he became miniatar ot 
St. Alban^s in Hertfordshire ; and, having laboured fliero 
about four years, was made preacher at St. Faith's undo* St* 
Paul's, London. He was a diorough puritan, and at all thfee 
places waa much followed by those of his own persuaaiott^ 
He wrote with considerable abili^ against the baptisti, wae 
op|>osed to the war betwixt the king and parliameiity and 
against taking away the life of the king. He died ill the 
month of February, 1649> ag^ fprty-nipe yeaips, Hia deaths 



• FoUer'f Cborcb Hist. b. Ix. p. 284, 

-f HeyUn's Ezamen. Histor. p. 268. 

t Wood*! AtheacB Ozon. toI. u. p. 749* \ Ibid* p. ei.. 



J. 6EREE-SHEPARD. Ua 

it is said, was occasioned by his eitremie frief for Oi^ fi^sust v^ 
King Charles.* Mr. Baiter deiyjOAOik^t tjc * aa •iiianr 
nonconfomust divinc."t He cmsc yjrx . >ir » •.« »'. •^••j^^^ 
ingly beloved by his people. tLn: ib^- w^iic: ::.:- j# mfu « 
year upon his widow fur lift:, feui >*d;&'-':: •-r- uj^^a-i^ «. 
his children.l Mr. S'jepiieL Oi-tr*?* stu »lurr iMjrz.^ -^■.•m^ 
-was his elder brother, il: _--.-liiir .•ii-*j»jl .*#► ; *^ -♦r.-r- 
nonconformisu ic ::V:*i^ xts um *w.jramf.. 



or, a Viad:ixj:ii ••' iir tv ymtw *jif -.a^^'^i* '-a^f • 

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■lav vhbr^r: ImirsiraARa i jm i.. 'Mr^uur ^ '-^ . « 

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IMS. — ^T C'lairtf rr k mi " „rr«« -r-.^ '•^w.«n.«^ti« M^ 

' n l*a»^ 1— .-•.■i^. ... : 8-' - — — *» --► - 

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lot LIV«S OP Tfi« l^illTANS. 

6ontnry to his conscteiice.* He next removed to Hedddil ui 
Nortkumberl'andy wheie> as in other places^ his labour* "Wt^re 
made a l>lessii^ to many souls. But even in this remo^ 
Comelr of the land, die eye of Laud was upon him, and 
this tyrannical prelate would not suffer him to preach without 
a perfect conformity to the ecclesiastical injunctions and the 
nev^ ceremonies. ^JThus, being shut out from all prospect 
of future usefulness, he resolved to withdraw from the stormy 
and retire to New England. Previous to his departure, he 
t«ry narrowly escaped being t^en by the bishop's officers. 
And, towards tli^e close of the year 1634, having tsdcen 
shipping at Harwich, the ship had not been many hours at 
set before a moUt tremendous storm arose, in which they wer« 
in tiie utmost danger of being lost. An eminent, but profEine 
^cer on the shore, observing their distress, was heard to say, 
^ As for that poor collier, I pity hiipi much : but as for ibia 
puritans in the other vessel, bound for New England, I am 
not Concerned; for their faith will save them." The ship at latf 
returned safe into the harbour. The next day Mr. Shepfattf 
went ashore to bury his first-bom son ; but, on account of ^e 
watchful pursuivants, who were still anxious to take hinci, h% 
dare not be present at the funeral, f 

In the month of July, 1635, Mr. Shepard, after havmg 
wun narrowly Escaped falling into the hands of the bishop's 
6mceri$l sailed froin Gravesend in company with Mr. Wilson^ 
Mr. Jones, and others, and arrived at Boston in New En^* 
I^d, in the beginning of October following. Previous to hu 
Arrival, Mr, Hooker and his conffregation having removed froin 
Cambridge to the banks of the nver Connecticut, Mr. Shepard 
was chosen pastor of the church at Cambric^e, and mere 
continued to the (lay of his death. When the antinomiah and 
familistic errors broke out in the new, colony, this worthy 
divine, by his endeavours and influence, was the happy means 
of stopping the progress of the i^ectious malady. He was 
in excellent preacher, and took great pains in his preparations 
for the pulpit. He used to say, '^ GoA will curse that man's 

• II is obsenred of Dr. NeUe, that, wlben he was Bisbop of Lincoln, aM 
"when ainr man preached before King Jamet tk&X had renown of pietT, 
h^, UBwillmg the king shonld hear him, would in the sermdn-tilne entertiMit 
the king whb a merry tale, after which be wonld laugh, aM tell thuse sear 
him, he could not hear the preacher for the old bishop.'* It is added s 
** When he was Archbishop of Yorl£, his head was so filled with Arminiaa 
impiety, that in the next Icing's reign be Was loolced updn by ^e puiiUaaSeat 
to be one of the great grievance of fbe kiDgdora."~l,« N«hU iditei^ 
Yol. i. part ii. p. 146, 147. 

f Mather's Hist, of New Eoglafld, b, iH, p. 84^87. 



SHEPARD. 105 

latk>tfrt vfho goes idly up Bsd down all the week, tnd diea 
goes into Ins study on a Saturday afternoon. God knows 
mat we have not too much time to praj in, and weep m, 
md get our hearts into a fit firame for the duties or dw 
sabbath/' 

Mr. Shepard's mat care and attention to die duties of die 
pastoral office wiU appear fipom the following extracts col- 
lected from his diary :— ^ August 15, 1641, 1 saw four evils,^ 
says he> '' attending my ministry. — 1. llie devil treads me 
down by riiame^ discouragement, and an apprehension of the 
unsavoury spirits of the people. — 0. I am become too care* 
Ifess^ because I have done wc»l, and have been enlaiged and 
respected.^-^. Weakness and infirmities: as the want of 
light, life^ and spirit/— 4. The want of success.— I saw these 
tbings> and hate cause to be humbled for them. I have this 
day found my heart heavy, depressed, and untoward, faf 
musibg upon die many evils to come. But I was comforted 
by reieoUeetk^, that diough in myself I am a dyii^, condemned 
sinner, I am alive and reconciled by Christ; that I am 
mmUe to do any Aing of myself, yet by Christ I can do all 
things \ and that though I enjoy all these only in part in this 
World, I shaU shordy have them in perfection in heaven. 

'^ March 19, 1642 ; I said, as pnde was my sin, so shame 
would be Iny punishment. I had manv fears of £li*s punish- 
ment, for not sharply r^Nroving sin. Here I considered thai 
the Lord may make one good man a terror, and a dreadAil 
example, that all the godly may fear, and not slight his com- 
mands as Eli iiid. 

^' October 10th. When I saw gifts and honours conferred 
upon others, I began to affect their excellencies. The Lord 
therefore humbM me, by letting me see, that all this was 
diabolical pride. And he made me thankful for seeing i^ 
puttii^ me in mind to watch against it in future." 

His very humble and contrite spirit will appear from the 
following extracts, written on days of specuu fasting and 
{Hrayer : — ** November 3rd. I saw sin to be my greatest 
evil ; and diat I am vile ; but Grod is good, against whom I 
have sinned. I saw what cause I had to loame myself. It 
v?ai8 a good day to me. I went to God, and trusted in hinu 
I considered whedier all tfie country did not fare the worse 
for my sins. I saw it did, and was dee|dy humbled. 

'^ Aprfl 4th. May not I be the cause of the church's nre^ 
sent sorrows f My heart hath been lonn et a distance nom 
the Lord. The Lord first sent a terrible storm at sea;, and 
my deliverance, in being snatched from j^parent death. 



lOe LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

86 sweet, that I hoped my future life would be whoHy' 
devoted to trod. I then set my fece towards New England, 
where I resolved to be the Lord's in all manner of holiness. 
Afterguards the Lord took my dear wife from me. Thif 
made me resolve to delight no more in creatures, but in the- 
Lord alone. When God threatened my child with blindnets, 
his affliction was sweet to me, but much more his commandf 
and promises. Then I could do his will and leave all thingi 
to him. But how is my gold become dim ! I have no cause 
to blame the Lord who has persuaded me; but the Lord 
pardon my sin. To serve Satan without promise, and 
forsake the Lord against his promise, is grievous indeed! 
With respect to my people, I have not pitied them, nor 
prayed for them, nor visited them, nor loved them, so much 
as i ought to have done. The gospel which I have preached 
has not been seen in its glory, nor been believed, nor proved 
effectual. Becau9e I have greatly neglected to seek to Christ 
for supplies, all hath been dead work; and the fruit of pride* 
I have now had a long sickness, as if the Lord would use ne 
no more. Oh ! my God, who is like unto thee, pardoninf 
juid subduing mine iniquities!"* These are some of the 
severe censures which this eminently holy man pronounced 
against himself. 

Mr. Shepard, when on his death-bed, was visited by nuuiy 
of his friends and brethren in the ministry. Several youog' 
ministers having called to see him, he addressed them as 
follows: "Your work," said he, "is great, and reqoiret 
" great seriousness. For my own part, 1 never jMreacned a 
^ sermon which, in the composing, did not cost me prajfers, 
^' with strons cries and tears. I never preached a sermon' 
** from which I had not firsLgot some good to my own soul. 
" i never went up into the pulpit but as if I were going to 
'* give an account of myself to God."t Before his ^pwrUm, 
addressinshis friends, he said, " Oh ! love the Lord Jesus very 
dearly. That little part which I have in him is no smmU 
comfort to me now.' He died of a quinsey, August 25, 
l649y aged forty-three years. He was a person of great 
learning, a hard student^ an admirable preacher, and an 
excellent writer. His work on the " Parable of the Tea 
Virgins," observes Dr. Williams, is a rich frmd of experi- 
mental and practical divinity: the dress is plain, but tke 
strain of thought is extremely animated and ^searching4 
Fuller has honoured him v^th a place among the learned 

• Mather*8 Hist, b^ iii. p. 91—93. f Ibid. p. 238. 

1^ Cbristian Preacher, p. 485. 



CROOK. 107 

uriio were fdlows of Emanuel college, Cambridge.* 
The- two Mr. ThomaB Shepards^ successively pastors of the 
dioick at Chariestown in New England, were his son and 
gnuid8oii.f 

His WoEKS.— 1. The Doctrine of the Sabbath, 1649.— 2. Certain 
Select Cases Resolved^ 1660.-3. Subjection to Christ in ail hit 
OrtJuawef and Awpointnients, the best means to preserve onr 
Ubertv, 186(L-*4. The Sincere Convert, 1052.-5. A Treatise of 
liAuries, I663.r-U The Parable of the Ten Yir^s, 1000.-7. The 
SwnwBdiever, 1071. — S. The Chorchmenibersbip of Children, and 
their sialit to Baptism.-^. New England's Lamentations for Old 
EaghiiA Bnms.— 10. A Treatise of Hearing the Word.— 11. Wina 
§om Oaspcl Wantoas; or. Cautions against Spiritual Drunkenness. 

Samubl CnooKy B. D. — ^This excellent divine was bom 
at Great Wakfingfield in Essex, January 17, 1574; educated 
in Peaibroke-hally Cambridge ; and afterwards chosen fellow 
of Fiiminnel college. His father was the learned and labori- 
ooi Dr. Crooky preacher to the honourable society of Gray's* 
inm, and descended from an ancient family. He was highly 
, esteemed in the university, for his pregnant parts, great 
induatfy, and answerable proficiency in all the branches of 
usefid and polite literature. He was chosen reader of rhe- 
toric and philosophy in the public schools, which offices he 
filled widi great applause. While at Cambridge he was a 
constant hearer and a great admirer of the excellent Mr. 
Perkins. He preached first for a short time at Caxton, near 
Cambridge; then, in the year 1602, accepted an invitation to 
die pastoral charge at Wrington in Somersetshire, receiving 
his presentation to the living from Sir Arthur Capel. In 
gratitude for the advantages which he had enjoyed at the 
miveraity, he gave to the library of Pembroke-hall, Basil's 
WoriLS, Greek and Latin; to Emanuel college, all theCouncils, 
Greek and Latin ; and to the university library, the Works of 
Gregory Nazianzens and Gregory Nissens. 

Mr. Crook, upon his settlement at Wrington, took inde- 
fat^able pains in his ministry, and his usefulness surpassed 
all expectation. He constaiMy preached three times a week, 
and sometimes oftener, to the end of his days. As he 
pieadied so he lived. His life was one continued comment 
ap<m his doctrine. He was much admired and esteemed bj 
hm peofJe, and their affectionate attachment continued to 
incicaae to die last. As, during his preparations for the 

• HIit. 9t Guibriagc, p. 147. f Mather's Hist. b. iii. p. 8t. 



KIS lAYIS OP THB PURITANS. 

mnuBtry^ he had hid in riMyj to mm he leid otft HbenAjv 
Hb termoaf were grave, jiuneioitiy end «ppropriate ; aad hie 
apfdicatioiif, by a sweet eloquence, ferrent zeal, and h>Te Up 
souls, were addressed to me hearts of his hearelw. H# 
did not serve God with that which cost him nothing, \^t 
laboured much in his preparations for the pulpit. His CQik> 
4tant motto was, '^ I am willing to spend and he spenf In 
time of sickness, the . {Aysician observing that he migkt ImM 
longer if he woaU preach less, be said^ ^* Alas ! if I may not 
labour I cannot five. What [^d wiu life do me, if I b^ 
hindered from the end of livinc P* When labouriog vaidet 
the infirraides of old age, he woiud not desist from bis belor ad 
work, but often preached when with the utmost difficulty 
he could scarcely walk to the house of God; and even th^ 
his sermons were delivered with his usual vivacity i* He fed 
his flock, not wilh akry notions and vain sjpecoIatioQs, but 
with Ihe substantial provision of the gpspeC He prondod 
milk for babes, and stroi^ meat for men. Kotwilhstmdiilg 
his excellent endowments, and die high adniratiou in whadb 
be was held by sJl who knew him, he was not lifted up wMi 
prid^ but walked in all humility before God and jnen. He 
is said to have been the first who brought extemporary 

Csyer into use in that part of the country, in which exercisu 
soreatly eacelled. 

fie laboured in the mimstry, widi very little iuterruptia^ 
above forty-seven years. During this period he was ik0 
means of tu-inging many wandering sinners to Christ. Once^ 
indeed^ die bishop put a stop to his. Tuesday lecture ; luiC jt.ii 
said, '^ God was pleased so to order .it, that the lecture w<ai 
soon revived, and, die Inshop who interrupted it was cast oM 
ef his office.''-!- During a ufeof nearly seventy-five yeani> be 
witnessed many changes in the church of Christ Nor waa 
he without his sufferings in the civil wars. Rude sohbeii 
tgrjraniuz€«d over him in bis own house, not permitting him la 
be quiet in his study. There they followed him vridi dravMil 
swords, vowing his instant death, for not joining them in ttieir 
bloody cause. The Lord, however, was plei»ed to delivuT 
hsm from the.r^pe of his enemies. 

Mr. Crook, during his last sickness, often protested that 
fhd dotttriue he .had taught was' the truth of God, as ha 
should answer at the tribunal of Christ, to which he ima 
kosOsuing. He received the sentence of his approaching 
death with cbeerftOness ; and seeing he had no proqpool uf 

• Clark's Lives aonexed to his Msrtyrolttfie, p. 202r-20e» 

♦ IbM. p. 20<MW8. -^ -^ *: ' ^ 




bridges 





poutd ■■■Her h^ 
10, 16«64 He tow. tut n 
oiBllifUiy ■■ "va 
S He 



iiML 



nu • 



? 



• CUrfc** Uv<n 

f Hiit. af CaMknCfc p 14T 
WMilackr't ll«v. p. flft 
il«h fMlM, ML W. y . ft. 



tW ■■^.VflSuQ^. ^ 



.—11 



110 LIVES OK THE PURITANS. 

Sars^ and his remains were interred in St CMave's diureh.* 
e was esteemed.a.good scholar and an excellent preadMr* 

His Works. — 1. The Two Witnesses, in seyeral Lector^ at St 
Lawrence Jewry, on Rev. xi., with the great Question dufiwmedf 
Whether the two Witnesses were slain or do ? 1643. — ^This work wm 
made public by an order firom the committee of the house of eon** 
inons,|dated April 27, 1643. — 2. Chiiisf s Waming-pieoe, giving Notics 
to eyery oue to watch and keep their Garments, delivered in a SsfiMin 
at Margaret's, Westminster, before the House of Commons, at their 
solemn Fast, October 30, 1644— 1644.--3. Lex Talionis; or, God 
paying every Man in his own Coin, a Fast Sermon before the Hoose of 
Commons, July 30, 1645, on 1 Sam. ii. 30., 1646.— 4. Joseph Pandlelcd 
by the present Parliament, in his Sufferings and Adininoement, a 
Sermon preached before the House of Commoi|s on their solemn Day 
of Thanksgiving, Feb. 19, 1645, on Gen. xlix. 23, 24., 1646. 



Edward Symmonds, A.M. — This pious man was bom 
at Cottered in Hertfordshire, and educated at Peter-nousei 
Cambridge. Upon his leaving the university, he entered into 
the ministerial oflSce, and appears to have preaqhed at Fowey 
in Cornwall. In the year 1630 he became rector of L^tde 
Kayncin Essex, where he continued till the commencenmit 
of the civil wars. He omitted the use of the cross in baptism 
and wearing the surplice, for which he was brought before a 
justice of peace ; but whether the prosecution was dropped, 
or he was punished for this two-fold marvellous crime, we are 
not able to learn. ^^ His omission of the cross and surplic^ 
and his friendship with Stephen Marshall, plainly intinuiie^'* 
says Dr. Walker, ** that he was something mcliimbla to the 
puritans ;"f and we venture to add, that the former alone 
sufficiently proves that he was a puritan and a nonconformist. 
He was nevertheless brought into many troubles durii^ die 
ciyil wars, by the committee of scandalous ministers. Ai^ 
pearing before the conunittee, he was sequestered for preecft- 
jpg and publishing, ** That the king, beii^ the aupeanie 
magistrate, hath immediate dependence upon God, to whom 
only he is accountable— that the title of the Lord's anointed is 
proper and peculiar to the king : that rojral birth is equimdeat 
to royal unction : that authority is a sacred thing, and essentiel 
to the king^s person : that resistance is against the way of 
God, destructive to the whole law of God, inconsistent widi 
the spirit of the gospel, the perpetual practice of. chiistiiuutyy 
the calling of ministers, common prudence, the rule of 

• Wood's Athens Ozoii. vol. ii. p. 82, 88.— ^afkei^ Attempt^ part iL 
p.6» ^ Walker's Atteoipt, part ii. p. 9aU . . 




snai06Q& ui 

bmiMiHiiyi 
even die kte 

monds ac kmw i b ^B"^ 
WBB fardwr 
aflbnung, ''' 
compl J with 

king; and dnt ikcj aie noc K> be 
mand ■mwifiiii^ to die vdi 4C God, x x 
the coBBind of the 
.believe vhaisocvcr if 
ieemttm a dicime mrntoKt w a 
Baa: aid that if David's 
Saul's gan 
£rom his castiei^ 
die loids and 

<mler, dated March S, I<&42. 
aequestered into the haadb of Mr. Pi jwr 
ivas appointed to preach 
order.* 

Mr. STmflKMi 
other hanbhipa. 
.Dr. Walker, were peraons at 
fiunilj eaperience 
to lee tor aifetv 
fcflgdi into Frace. The ^^ 
incorrect in asaeiliiia, '^ that Mr. 
miseries upon Ums^ bt<jiw he Kr.tut mjl p 
wridi them in rehdiion." 
meddled not with state 
yn the peaceable powfira of »ar j?nap. H 

?9ur 1649, siM^ bis rcmainft w«Pt ansr^ic n ^- ?^t^ vuv -^. 
aulVwIuuf, \^mikm *^ He v» & i^trwa ir xn»si ^^^--v 
courage, wisdom, and karanngi u. ^ut»If!aE aoft i imnusMs 
preacher;''t andAoogh he irfi i r mua nirs^ ttgt rnsc 
through his zeal for the ro^al caaa^ i^ via m strrr n um 
life, and so pbun, psi' 1 1 kf. woe yrjiaoi^ n vnttrua^ ---^ 
be was looked upon at a pamn^ He iwmimery * i • «f 
Sobject's Belief," l(^: ana "^ J& VoidflamuL vr i- 
Chalks." 



■ » 






IM UVES or THE PURITANS. 

An Bssw Wyke waft a zealoHS nimst^ of die baptbit 
penoMOBy and apprehended in the county pf Suffolk, for 
preaching and dippmg. When lie was brougM^ before the 
ooounittee of the county, to be examined about his authority 
to preach and the doctrines he delivered, he refused to give 
my account of either. He alleged, that a freeman of England 
was not bound to answer any such interrogatories, either to 
accuse himself or others ; but he signified, that if Ihey had 
any thing against him, diey ought to bring forward thek 
diarge, and produce their evidence. This was, indeed, con- 
■idered as great obstinacy, and as hirh contempt of tbenr 
fmtkoiity; tiberefore he was immediately sent to ji^.* 

It does not. appear how long he remamed in prison ; but 
-Airing his confinement a pam^let was published either ^ 
Umsdf or some of his (hends, entitled, ** The Innocent in 
'Prisop Complaiiui^ ; or, a true Relation of the Proceedmgs 
of the Committee of Ipswich and ihe Committee of Biuv 
fit. Edmunds in the county of Suffolk, against Andrew Wyke, 
a witness of Jesu^ in the same county, who was cpimp^itefl 
to prison, June 5, l€46."f This work ^ves a circum^iaiitial 
«^COunt of bis adversaries' proceedings against l^i^, t^ 
^clsiims bitt^riy against the comnnttee for its persec^vtuw 
jmndples iind iHegm conduct. Widiholding from.o4ier9 the 
viessihg of christian liberty, came with an ill ^race fio^n ^pap 
persons, wbo, only a few years before, ¥4iiie they grouefl 
'Under the irom rod of the tyrannical pontes, bad eame^jr 
«^eadedfor the same ble$sing. 

March 16, 1630, Mr. Wyke, together with several p^htan^ 
-Was conunitted to prison at Coventry, to be tried for lop 
i^imes. He is represented as having kissed a soldier tiiree^ 
^times, and said, '^ I breathe the Spirit of -God into tbee/* 
During hia confinement^ he preached every Lord's day at vm 
«gate of the prison, when multitudes of people stood jn lii# 
irtreet to hear him. But how lone his tribulations coottouei^ 
-or when lie (fied, we are not able Ieam.t 

Henut Tozeb, B. D — ^TTus learned person w^ bomj(l 
North-Tawton in Devonshire, in the year l602, and educated 
in Exeter college, Oxford, where he took his desr^o^ «nd 
was afterwards chpsep SMWectpr and fellow of me bpuse. 
Having entered into die ministesial offi^^y it isaaid, that;lva 

• Bdwardf's GangrsBDA, partiii. p. ISO, 170. 
+ Crosby's Baptists, vol. K p. 835. 
t Wkittocke*! Mem. p. 4S0,4«e. 



■ TOZER. IIS 

Was useful in moderating, reading to novices, and lectnriog in 
die chapel. He was an able and a laborious preacher, had 
much of the primitive religion in his sermons, and scfemed to 
be a most precise puritan in his lotjks and life, on which 
account his sermons and expositions in the church«r« of St. 
Giles and St. Martin in Oxford, were much frequented by 
the puritanical party. In the year 1643, he fias 
one of the assembly of divines, but declined his 
*' choosing," says Wootl, " to remain a! ()\i'jrL ^lA 
before the king or parliament, rather than \rtAar^ tmm^.-d 
among rigid Calvinisbf." He wu a n^itad «t^.^/fc'.»r>M^ aui 
having preached at Christ's Church beic#r»: Lit mi^^^. v iC 
St. Mary's before the parliament, hi^ «a» a$#yrjdMbt« i^ vie 
chancellor of the university, in Up^'j. to Ui^t uc O'.^ciuri 
'degree ; but this in like mMismtr he ref u»ea.* 

Mr. Tozer was a divine of purttaL pruinpj»« : y^.. un 
account of his unsliaken lovaiti ajud ti*^ uw uf £ii» OttmBiia 
Prayer, after it hvs set asidt', he eiperKAr. vz m#ui» ir uuui* tixm 
the opposite party, of which the f<>>ii'/wiur u'-'-juir ic i:iv^ 
by the pen of Dr. Walker: — ^ Lh. Hat*-**:*, iia^n^ -"nr":! 
from the college, the ^o^vnajj^fUL' nv^f ta^ * \r '.uirw 
devolved upon Sir. I'ozer at MAWt^rvx : irr ciii ii» uevm* \«r 
disgrace his post, but shewed lumwi'f a A-.Hr ruunitiiuft it^mv^ 
the illeeal visitation, IfMly aus revj»iu>.:M '.■;^)r*i't< <*•> 
tained m the highest degr*^ tite noffui* .« Qj*' •.^ysgi* 
made a noble stand in defeitot ^ lu» w x ''»^swjtL tmc lur 
of the other fellow «, wberi tbaC aiiir^.^^ u^ixtsTtu* »» i^ ut 
foot, after the surrender of tint rw^^t^^A v^ '->«* y«rMM^sif : ' 
March 21, UiKf I find him u^a k <:£«vja. i^*r» n« ^mu^m 
at Merton college, haiiug bM ml/^umic v. ^ijtu • r * ^^^ jiium^ 
ing the Conunon Praver in tlK •jjuki^, li'^r *b» \r.tiiiHUi> 
for the direct/jr}' came jjii fgrot : .'.jv. •> up nq: i^ni )\r tfur 
admonished one of tli^ bMiw;. 5-^ r*^u«ar v, aft^^M W 
chapel-prayers on th^ aoc^puuL' li^ ukC m«v^. •.uM»t»f(«« 
shewed '^ tlie utmost ditUkit K* tb'jM; 'X a«» ^aruaa^at lafrir^ 
and always cotmteuaiH.^:^ acid paU'^uaKJt li«» /<*-«u««ir ^ ... 
college. Although the vi«afjr%idi( a^jifsu ir ». mi ^4 1 
term ;^ yet, as Dr. Fdl, titt: ty»<aan«'>»dj.r umc in^^*^.-*^.' 
open it at the osaal timt ia ti^ aivi^roiv vitirju <i • .••.«« 
to that order, so did Mr. 7 oks aMv a iu> v'*-^-' ' '-^u- 
'' These iafanuatioBfe,*' «a»ft uw aulMr. « u^^ •Mt»#i' u.^ 



▼OL. IJI. 



1 

f 



M LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

gotten Irom ^ spies and setters ,of the house ; for wUeh 
diey were afterwards rewarded widi the fidlowships of those 
who by that means were ejected. A most exceUent ^ncou^ . 
mgemeiit to informers! And let me add/' says he, ^ ihat k 
dinect contradiction to the very letter of the^tntutes, tiMj 
ondered one of them to receive the rents of the cbliege, and 
soon after made him sub-rector/ thou^ he was at dnt 
lime, or only a few months before, no more dian batehebMr 
of arts.** 

To the above criminations Mr. Tozer desired timie to piak 
m his answer, which was granted him. When he returned 
his answer, he disowned their authority, saying^' ^' That the 
things about which he was auestioned, concerned the disc^ 
fjiUne oi die college; and that he had soitie tiane befai« 
answered in the nsime of the whole college, that they eoidd 
not, without peijury, submit to any other visitors than fXnose 
to whom their statutes directed diem." This mswer b^HC 
unsatisfactory to the visitors, they ordered him to be ejecte{ 
and committed the execution of the sentence to the loldiors 
of the garrison. However, Mr. Tozer still kept possesiiioi 
of hb college for some time ; and, June S9, 164», the visitors 
sent for him again, and in direct oppo^tion to the staCuttea 
of the hoiwe, peremptoiily foibade him to proceed to ik 
election the day following ; and to' effectually prevent hitk, 
Ibey expelled lum -boA from the coHege and the univeriii^. 
He refosed after all to ddiver up the keys of the college' mtA 
to be perjured, when they proceeded to apfyrehend wlti 
hnprison him. There is one circumstance more concemu^ 
\^ ^vSmngA which, says our authoif, must not be omitl^ 
ifki. ^* That the second of the satiie months hie was draped 
out of St Martinis church by the soldiers, and forbiddeq' to 
officiate diere any more; because, forsooth! he preached 
pestilential doctrme.'' The visitors, however, afterwards 
moderated dieir sentence; allowed him the use. of. His 
phamber in the college ; and appointed him the profits of a 
travelling fellowship, to be allowed him for three years: 
^' but^" our author adds, *^ Vi^hether it was ever paid h^'OT' 
not^ I cannot say."* Upon the appointment of thfis aUoWSMM, 
be went to Holland; and becatne minie^r to ikt l&ti^Mk 
merdiants at Rotterdam, where be died ^ptember 1 1; mM, 
aged forty-reight years, and his remains were hitevi^ Itt4u4 
English church at that place. Dr. Thomas Marshall, who 

• Walker's Attempt, part il. p. 1 15. 



LOVlB. , 115 

meeeeded him in die preacher's office, says, <' he was always 
liken ibr an honest and a conscientious puritan/'* 



WoBKs.r-'l* Directions for a (xodly Life, especially for com* 
vmieating at the Loiti's Table, ie28.r— 2. A ChriMtiaa AmendmeBt, 
sSennon on New-years-day at St Mary's Ch. in Ox. on 2 Cor. v. 17., 
U8S^— 8. Dicta et facta Christi ex quatoar EvaDgelistis collecta, st 
la ordine disposita, 1634. — i. Christian Wisdom, or the Excellency, 
fce. of true Wisdom, a Sermon on 1 Kings x. 24., 1639.---5. A Sermon 
'iBJohn'Xviii.3.,1640. 



Chmbtovher Love, A. M . — ^This person was the son 
of Mr.iCbristopher Love, bom at Cardiff in Glamoiganshire, 
jn tiie.jwr 1618, and educated at New-inn-hall, Oxford.' He 
^was the youngest child of his parents, and the son of dieir 
<id age ; his mother, who was of a respectable family, was 
ifiRy years old when he was bom. Though they never in- 
'teadeid him for the ministry, they gave him a good education, 
from a child he was remarkably fond of books ; and though 
Us parents were too indulgent to him, allowing him too great 
liberty for play and sinful recreations, he never neglect^ his 
learning. He felt greatly concerned for his own improvement ; 
-dierefore he devoted much of his time, both night and day, 
to his beloved studies. 

He was fifteen years of age before ever he heard a sermon. 
At diis period, Mr. Erbery going to the town, he was induced 
through curiosity to hear him; and he, with some others, was 
greatly entertained with the novelty of it. Although he went, 
•8 he used afterwards to observe, only to see a man in a 
inlpit ; yet, there God was pleased to meet with him, and| 
ij that sermon, gave him such a sight of his sins and his 
ndone condition, that he confessed he returned home, as be 
expressed it, ^^ with a hell in his conscience." When he 
came to his father's house, being dead to all his former carnal 
pleasures and sinful pastimes, his father greatly wondered at 
the sudden change ; and, concluding him to be seized with 
some strange fit of melancholy, recommended him to asso- 
ciate fmd play with his old companions, but he refused* He 
could now take no pleasure in their company. His father 
WHDitimes advised him to go to gentlemen's houses,. and 
•ttend his usual games ; but the very thoughts of them, were as 
dacgers in his heart ; therefore, he begged to be excused.^ 

Mr. Love having fiilly relinquished the card-table, deured 

• Wood'b Atbenae Oxon. vol. i. p. 72,— Bioj. BriUn. vol. ▼!. p. 4076. 



116 LIVES OF T»B PURITANS". 

leave of bis father^ upon die next lecture day, to go to chorck; 
but this he absolutely refused, conceiving it to have been the 
occasion of his present sadness. Also, to prevent his attend* 
ance at churchy his father locked him up in a high chamber 
of the house^ thinking by diis means to confine him there t31 
the service was over. Such, however, was his courage, and 
his de^re to hear the word, that he made his escape by tying 
a cord to the window, and sliding by it down the side of tl^e 
house; and so went to the church, where the Lord was 
pleased so to deepen his convictions, that it ended in a soiind 
conversion of his soul to God. Upon his return home, he 
found his father greatly exasperated. His situation was now 
deplorable. While his earthly parent was exceedingly dis- 
pleased, the thoughts of an almighty and offended God weie 
almost; insupportable. It was no small aggravation of bn> 
distress, that for some time he had not a friend on earth to 
whom he could unbosom his complaint. Afterwards he 
made known the anguish of his mind to Mr. Erbery, who was 
instrumental in further promoting his edification and benefit : 
neveitheless the Sovereign Disposer of all events was pleased 
to suspend the manifestations of his love, and keep4iim under 
a doiul for many years.* 

About the same time some others, who had been his cornh 
panions in vice, were brought to an acquaintance with God. 
They who had been ^iihiliar associates in games and sinful 
pleasures, now often assembled together for . the purpose of 
feating and prayer. That they might not neglect their schooU 
hours, nor displease their parents, they met together in die 
n^t season, when their parents thought they were in bed. 
For mJEiiiy months they held these nocturnal assemblies, 
sdttteg ^art two nights in thb week for these devotional exer- 
cises. Mr. Love's father seeing him continue in this course, 
appeared to draw his affection from him, and looked upon hira 
as a hopeless youth. He who had been called a youi^ 
gamester y was now stigmatized a young puritan* Mr. Erb^rj 
perceiving his distressed situation, waited upon his fatiier, aiid 
requested him to allow his son to come to his house, and he 
would promote his improvement in learning, and take |>roper 
care of him, to which his father gave his consent. : i • . - ^ 

In diis new situation he continued for some time, lQ>his 

^reat advantage and comfort, of which he retmned a livdjr 

sense to the day of his death. His father going to iMxAot^ 

procured a. place^for him as an apprentice, entered into an 

• Sloane's MSS. Ko« S946. ■' 



LOVE. 117 

agreement with the master, and even paid the stipulated 

pmnium : but youns Love was exceedingly averse to the 

ntaation^ and eamesjUy entreated his father to send him to 

Oiford. Though his father consented to his wishes, he did 

it in displeasure, withholding his pecuniary aid; and, during 

kb abode at the university, he was supported partly by his 

^ modier, and partly by Mr. Erbery. He who was appointed 

to endure inany troubles, began thus to bear the yoke in his 

^th. Upon his arrival at Oxford, not knowing any person 

m the place, nor whom to choose for his tutor, as he sat by 

the fire at the inn, there came several young scholars, whose 

disconrse was wholly against the puritans, railing against 

them, and cursing tliem, especially one Mr. Kogers, whom 

diey stq^atized an arch-pinitariy aiid declared there was none 

other besides him who was head of any house in Oxford. 

Having heard what they had to say, he resolved to make 

«ome further inquiries concerning this Mr. Rogers, hoping 

that he was just such a tutor as he wanted; and after 

guning satttfactory information, he intrusted himself to his 

cue and tuition. 

While at the university, Mr. Love had but little to subsist 

Qpon ; but he was careful of what he received, and extremely 

provident of his time, making suitable improvement in his 

studies. He sought the acquaintance of religious persons, 

who, in those times of danger, were particularly cautious 

whom they admitted into their society. He enjoyed, how- 

ci^er, little or no comfort for several years. God seemed to 

keep at a distance from him, which, caused him to sigh and 

mourn. The remembrance of his foimer misspent life was to 

htm a source of constant and bitter lamentation. In the 

midst of these painful conflicts, he walked as in the valley of 

the shadow of death. ^Fhe terrors of death and hell com* 

^ssed him about, and the thoughts of God made him afraid. 

The apprehensions of death were an astonishment to him. 

Under wese afBictive terrors and convictions, he desired to 

five, as he used to say, ^^ that he might have a little longer 

Kspite out of hell." Having little or no hope of escaping 

hiture misery, he feared that every step he took would launch 

him into endless torment. The waves and billows passed over 

hit soul, and had he not been supported by the grace of Christ, 

he would have been overwhelmed in the mighty storm. Amidst 

all these painful conflicts, he lifted up his heart to God in 

devout prayer and supplication, ami was at length enabled by 

faith to look witliin the vail, and obtain a glimpse of God, as 

a father and a friend, through Jesus Christ. He chose rather 



in LIYES^ OF THE PURITANS. 

to sufler affliction with the people of God, than to liv« in die : 
pleasures of sin. He was enabled to come unto the Lord, 
and to cast anchor on die promise of his word ; and thea he 
enjoyed comfort. 

He knew that grace was absolutely necessary to make a 
sood christian; so learning, in his opinion, was of great 
importance to make an able minister of die gospel. He was, 
dierefore, constandy assiduous to enjoy both. He was a 
good proficient in the school of Christ, as well as in the 
school of the prophets. The Lord greatly blessed his close 
application to his studies; and, to qualify him for making 
known the glorious gospel of the blessed God, he filled - 
his earthen vessel with die treasures of wisdom and know>. 
ledge. 

JJuiing the above painful conflict, he was generally looked: 
upon as melancholy. As he had but few friends to whom he? 
could unbosom his complaint, most persons were totally 
unacquainted with the cause of his dejection. At the usndlj 
time of attending his meals, as I have heard him say, (the 
writer of his life observes,) he used to come to his meal^ 
¥^en he would scarcely take any nodce of those who sat 
with him at table, but wondered that they could eat and drinki 
with such merry hearts. While at the table, he thought tlier 
moments long till he again retired to his study, where he 
spent nearly all his dme, devoting certain hours every day.^tio^ 
his academical pursuits, and the rest to the study of the holy/ 
scriptures. He allowed himself very litde sleep, and litde iX' 
no dme for recreation. He was steady in his attachment to 
the house and ordinances of God, and conscientiously, exact. 
in all the dudes of private devotion. For his zeal in dfte^ 
cause of God, he was often prosecuted in the bishops' cotirtft; 
but none of diese diings moved him, or damped his reli|^onS) 
ardour.* 

Mr. Love having entered the ministerial function, became a 
very popular and useful preacher, but was persecuted for 
nonconformity. Even during his abode at Oxford^ for 
nefosing in convocation to subscribe Laud's superstitknttf 
canons, he was expelled from the house, never to sit thei«: 
any more. Upon leaving the university, he went tx> London^ 
where he was invited by the sheriff, who was a person' of 
eminent piety, to become his domestic chaplttn. In tfaist 
KtUation he was exceedingly beloved, and made i&stmmeDtai 
in the conversicm of several in the ^mily« He receiitod 

•"Sloaoe'tfMSS. Ko.SMftv . 



LOVE. Ili 

ia?itation to become lecturer at St. Aiiii% Aldersgate; bat 
the Bishop of London opposed his settlement, and for diree 
jears refused his allowance. Mr. Love's popularity exasp^ 
rated the minds of his enemies^ and he no sooner entered 
upon his public ministry, dian he was silenced from 
preaching. 

He had, indeed, certain conscientious scruples against die 
ordination of the church of England, and, therefore, went 
into Scotland, with a view to have obtained presbyterian onfi- 
aation; but diere he met ^ith a disappointment. That 
church had decreed to ordain none besides diose who should 
settle among them ; nevertheless, large offers were made to 
him, in addition to ordination, if he would have continued in 
the north. On his return fit)m Scotland, he was invited by 
Ae aldermen and other worthy persons of Newcastle, to 
preach for diem on a Lord's <lay; and, in his sermon in die 
afternoon, he openly expressed his sentiments against the 
errors in the Book of Common Prayer, and the superstitious 
ceremonies in die national church. For diis, he was imm»> 
diately committed to the common gaol, a most filthy place, 
among thieves and murderers, having nothing but straw to lie 
upon; During his confinement, die people flocked to the 
prison ; and not being admitted to his company, he preached 
to diem through the grates of the prison. Afterwards, his 
friends being allowed to go into the prison, they cleaned it 
far his comfor^ and there he preached to all who came, and 
was made remarkably useful. Having suffered confinement 
for some time, he was removed to London, and tried in the 
court of king's-bench, and acquitted. About the com- 
mencement of the national troubles, for maintaining in his 
sermon the lawfiilness of defensive war, in certain cases, 
agaimit the civil magistrate, he was accused of treason and 
rebellion, but was publicly acquitted, with the recovery of 
damages.* 

During the wars, Mr. Love was chosen to be preacher to 
die garrison of Windsor, then under the command of Colonel 
John Venn ; on which account the royalists nick-named him 
** Venn's principal fireman at Windsor." Notwithstanding 
diis foul caiunmy,hi8 ministerial labours were gready esteenied, 
even by those who differed from him in matters of ceremony ; 
and, our author adds, " I am bold to say, that no man was 
more generally beloved than he was, and, I believe, as great a 
seal was set unto his ministry as God doth usually set to the 

• Sloase'i MSS. No. d945.*-Mr. Uve't Trial, p. 6S. Edit. Ittl. 



IjJO LIVES OF THE PUtllTANS. 

m^istry of any of his servants." When God visited the town 
and castle with the 'plague, and maey were cii^ off, he still 
pontinu^ed in the place; and, not afraid of the ravages of 
death, he visited the abodes of the aiBicted and dying where^ 
ever he heard of them. To promote their comfort and sal- 
vation, he exposed himself to infectioa and death ; and 
through this period of extreme danger the Lord protected 
him ftom bom. Though many fell on the right hand and 
on the left, his life was precious in the sight of the Lord. 
Having made the '^Lord his refuge, and the Most High his 
habitation/! he was not ** afraid of the pestilence that 
walked in* darkhess, nor of the destruction that wasted at 
noon-day." • , 

Upon the establishment of the presbyterian government, 
he was ordained according to their method, in Aldermanbury 
church, January 23, 1644, by Mr. Horton> Mr. Bellers, and 
Mr. Roberts; which was done by fasting and prayer, and 
laying on of hands. In his examination, being asked whether 
he thought he could suffer for those truths of Christ, of 
which he had then made a profession, if he should be called 
$o to do, he thus answered :-t-'^ I tremble to think what I 
should do in such a case, especially when. I consider. how 
many have boasted what they could suffer for Christ ; and yet 
when they have come to it, they have denied Christ and his 
truths, rather than suffered for them. Therefore, I dare not 
boast what I shall do ; but if this power, be given m*^ of God, 
then I shall not only be \^illing to be bound, but to die for the 
sake of the Lord Jesus." On this occasion, he received 
.excellent conunendations of his gifts and graces, particularly 
from Mr. Ley, by whom he was examined.* 

In the year 1645, Mr. Love being called to preach before the 
commissioners at the treaty of Uxbridge, he addressed his an* 
die^ce, saying, *' That they were not to expect any good from 
ihe treaty ; for they (meaning the king's commissioners) came 
from Oxford with hearts full of blood, and there was as grc^at 
- a distance between the treaty and peace, as between heaven 
and hell. He inveighed," says the noble historian, ^^ so sedi< 
tiously against all who followed the king, and against the 
persons of the commissioners, that he could be understood to 
intend nothing else but to stir up the people to mutiny ; and 
therein to do some act of violence to the commissioners."t 
Another writer says, ^^ That instead of friendship, he vomited 
Qut nothing but threatening and vilifying contradictions to die 

• Sloane^s MSS. No. S946. 

f Clarciidoii^ l^iM. Tol. ii. p. 445, 44i. 



. LOVE. 121 

Mica-iiiakers, altogether unbecoming one of his faction.'' 
ThiB scurrilous author further adds, *^ I shall conclude with our 
supposed martyr, by asserting, that he who had the ignorance, 
Umd zeal, and impudence, to term episcopacy and the Com- 
moB Prayer Book, the tXDo plasue-soreSy several times in one 
pitachment, had need have set forms of sermons enjoined him, 
as well na prayers"* 

Hie king's commissioners, indeed, complained of the 
lemioa to the commissioners of the opposite party, who laid 
the case before the parliament ; upon which Mr. Love was 
sent for to London, and he underwent an examination ; the 
result of which was, that the congregation at Uxlnridge were 
disappdiated of a preacher, and even after the psalm was 
song, be was unexpectedly invited to supply the place, when 
be deliverod the same sermon which he had preached the day 
before at Windsor. He was, therefore, acquitted by order of 
the houfe of conunons ;f yet Neal says, he was confined to 
Us own house during the treaty, and then discharged.^ ** The 
Presbyterian house of commons," it is said, '^ who cles^-ed Mn 
Love from any slander, for prattling such stuff, did plainly 
demonstrate what little desire they had for peace, and tiiereby 
intimated their abominable hypocrisy to the whole world."} 
This affords die reader a specimen of the ignorance, the 
bigotry, and the bad spirit of this party historian. 

Mr. Love, indeed, allowed that he cautioned the people 
ai^mist placine too much confidence in the treaty ; ^' because," 
lud he, '^ while our enemies go on in their wicked practices, 
and we keep to our principles, we may as soon make fire and 
water to agree ; and, I had almost said, reconcile heaven and 
hell, as their spirits and ours. They must grow better, or we 
must grow worse, before it is possible for us to agree. "|| He 
ako said, ** men who lay under the guilt of much innocent 
blood, are not meet persons to be at peace with, till all the 
gailt of the blood be expiated aild avenged, either by the 
iword of the law, or the law of the sword : else a peace can 
sever be safe nor just."i[ He further added, ^' that there was a 
graeration of men who carried blood and revenge in their 
aearts against the well-affected in the nation, who hated not 
odv their bodies, but their souls, and would drink a health to 
dwnr damnation." Though there might be too much truth in 
these expressions, they were certainly very unseasonable and 

• Foalit'i Hist, of i>lots, p. 108, 155. 

f Lome's Trial, p. 68.— Whitlocke*s Mem. p. 123. 

1 NeaVi Poritaof, vol. iii. p. 233. 

S Foolis*! Hift. of Plots, p. 155. g Ibid. p. 154^ 

I I/Estraoge's Dissenters* Sayings, part ii. p. 62* 



lae LIVES OF XBE PURITANS. 

Uttbecoming in this critical jnncture. ^^ Many/' My» Fuller, 
** condemned his want of charityi but more his want of 
discretion."* 

Mt« Love .was appointed one .of the assembly of diviaea; 
when he became minister of St. Lawrence Jewry, London; 
Md.is said to have been chosen to the pastoral office at St. 
Ann's, Aldersgate-streety where he had before been: chosen 
Ieotur^r.+ Hfi united with the London ministers in^declaiii^ 
ilgainst die king's death.t He was afterwards engaged in a 
fonspiracy .which cost him his life ; and as he was a principal 
sufferer on account of this plot, it was called Love's, plot. It 
was formed l^ a number of gentlemen and ministers,. and 
designed to raise money by private contribution, to rforwavd 
liwB expedition of Charies II. into England ; but die vigihmce 
of the commonwealdi discovered and defeated the object. 
I^e principid persons concerned in this affiur, were «onie 
disbanded officers who' had served the parliament; in the wafs: 
as. Majors Adams, Alford, and Huntingdon; Colonels 
Vaugban, Sowton, Titus, Jackson, Bains, rad Barton; and 
Captains Adams, Potter, Far, Mauwey, and Starkly and Mr; 
Oibbons. The ministers were Dr. Drake, and Messrs. Case, 
Watson, Heyrick, Jenkin, Jackson, Jacquel, Robinson^ 
Cawton, Nalson, Haviland, Blackmore, and Love. These'had 
their private assemblies at the houses of Major Adams, 
Colonel Barton, and Mr. Love ; and held a correspondence 
with the king, who desired them to send codumissioners to' 
Breda to further his designs, and he would sufficiently rewacd 
them when God should restore him to his kingdoms. 

But so large a confederacy, could not easily be concealed: 
from the watchful eyes of the new government, which had ittf 
spies in all places. Major Adams being apprehended km 
suspicion, was the first who discovered the conspiracy to the 
council of state. Upon his information, warrants wece issuedf 
fer apprehending most of the above persons; but sevenk 
absconded and withdrew from the storm. The ministers vriia 
were apprehended, were Dr. Drake, and Messrs. Jenkiny 
Jaiikson, Robinson, Watson, Blackmore, . Haviland, . and 
Love; but seven of them, petitioning for mercy, and^ pro^ 
mising submission to the government in future, vvere ideasfMk 
But Mr. Love and Mr. Gibbons were made publiaexamplea^ 
as a terror to others. . 

Mr. Love was brought before a new high < court 

• Poller's Church Hist b. xl. p. 214. 

-^ Sloane's MSS. No. 3945. 

% Calamy*j Contia. toL iUp. 744. 



L07E. isr 

oBotod ibrllie purpose, as was the cnstam in those tunes for 
Hds c t imin a b , when Mr. Attorney-general Prideux, June 
90, \65ly read the fiJlowiii^ indictment against him for high 
tRSion : '* That he, the said Christopher Lore^ as a trutor 
''sid'an enemj of this commonwealdi and free state of Eng- 
^ kad, and out of a traitorous and wicked design to stir up 
''aaew and bloody war, and to raise insurrections, seditions^ 
'^ aad rebellions within this nation, hath, at several times in 
''file yean 1648, 1649» 1650, and 1651, m London, and at 
" sdier idaees within the commonwealth of England, together 
'''widi ttie persons mentioned above, traitorously and malici- 
" oasly combined, confederated, complotted, contrive<l, and 

to stir and raise up forces against the jniesent 
of this nation, since the same hath been settled 
'^ in a CdHinioiiwealth and free state, and for the subversioii 
"and ahenidui of the same : that he hath traitorously and 
"naliGioaal^ declared and published Qiarles Stuart, eldest 
" SOB of die bte king, to be king of England, without con- 
'^ sent of pnriiament : that he hath traitorously and mahciously 
" kvited and assisted the Scots to invade this commonwealth 
** of Bngland : that the said Christopher Love, at divers times 
''between Mtfch 29> 1650, and June 1, 1651, in London 
" and otber places, hath traitorously and maliciously main- 
" tuned correspondence and intelligence by letters and 
" liessa^^es with die said Charles Stuart, and widi the queen 
" Us mother, and with sundry of his council : and that he 
" hadi likewise holden correspondence with divers persons of 
"the Scots* nation, and hath assisted them with money, 
" anns, and other supplies, in the present war against the 
" parliament, to the hazard of the public peace, and in breach 
" of die laws of die land."* 

To diis charge Mr. Love, after demurrii^ !iP^^ ^^ jwis- 
ittion of the court, pleaded not guiUjf. The vntnesses 
hoi^t against him were eight of his confederates, above 
laeatioDed. Mr. Jackson, afterwards an ejected noncon- 
famist,t was summoned, but he refused to be sworn, or to 
tibe evidence, because he believed Mr. Love to be a good 
lasL He said, ^' I fear I should have a hell in my conscience 
tsiny dying day, if I should speak any thing circumstantiaily 
(iqiidiGial to his life." The court reminded him of his 
mjptioB to die public, and that the very existence and 



'•UtrtTrlal, p. 1,2. 
i Rb loi tlMB eight of the ministen coneemed in thk plot wcfli ijected 



£St LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

safety 6£ alt" government depended upoto what they requii 

After all Mr. Jackson refused to be sworn ; for which he was 
immediately committed to the Fleet, and fined five hundred 
pounds.* 

During the trial, which lasted six days, the court concluded 
that Mr. Lo^ had carried on a criminal correspondence with 
both the king and the Scots. Kespecting the king, it was 
sworn, that about a month after his late majesty's death, 
several of diem had assembled in Dowgate and other places, 
to cpncert measures to forward the king's agreement with .die 
Scots; for which purpose diey applied by letters to the 
queen, and sent over Colonel Titus, who had one hundred 
pounds to defray his expenses. The colonel, having de* . 
]iver<id his message, sent back letters by Colonel Alford, 
which were read in Mr. Love's house ; with die copy of a 
letter firom the king himself, when Mr. Love was present. 
Therefore, upon these and similar facts, the counsel for the 
commonwealth insisted, that here was criminal correspond- 
ence to restore the king, contrary to the ordinance of 
January SO, 1648, which declares, '^ That whosoever shalt 
proclaim, declare, publish, or any ways promote Charles 
Stuart, or any other person, to be king of England, without 
consent of parliament, shall be adjudged a traitor^ and suffer 
the^ains of death as a traitor." 

THie other branch of the charge was Mr. Love's corre- 
spondence with the Scots, and assisting them in the war against 
the parliament. To support this article. Captains Potter 
and Adams, and Mr. Jacquel, swore that letters came from 
Scodand to Colonel Bamtield, with the letter- L upon them, 
giving an account of the battle at Dunbar, and of the affairs 
of the Scots for three months after Christmas. There came 
letters also from the Earls of Argyle, Lothian, and Loudon, 
who proposed raisii^ ten thousand pounds to buy arms, and 
to hire shipping, with a view of landing five thousand men in 
England. The letters were read in Mr. Love's house ; b.ut 
the proposals were disliked, and only forty pounds were 
raised to defiay the expenses of the messenger. At another- 
tune a letter was read from General Massey, in which r he ' 
desired them to provide anus, and specified his own necesei* 
tied, and those of Colonel Titus; upon which it was agreed 
to raise two or three hundred poun4s by contribution, wA 
every one present wrote down what he would lend ; among . 

« Love'83'rM]ip.M,58. 



LOVE. las 

yAkm was Mr. Liove, who not only contributed himself, but 
coried about a paper to encourage others. This was con- 
fldered by the counsel of the cou'^inonwealth as sufficient to 
bring Mr. Love within tlie ordinance of July 1, 1649, which 
decfiuesy ^ That if any persons shall procure, invite, aid, or 
wist any foreigners or strangers to invade England or Ire- 
land; or shall adhere to any forces raised by the enemies of 
Ae jmiliament or commonwealth, or keepers of die liberties 
of Kngland; all such persons shall be deemed and adjudged 
gnfllyirfliig^ treasoit."* 

In his defence, Mr. Love behaved \nth too much freedom 
and boldness^ and set too high a value upon his ministerial 
Attmctar, which the court was inclined to treat with neglect. 
He objected to the witnesses, who were forced into the 
service to save their own lives; and observed, that as to 
aeveni of die fects attempted to be proved against him, there 
was only one witness; and that some of them had sworn 
Uadj, or at least their memories had failed them in some 
things, iriiich was no wonder after so long a time. He called 
for no witness to disprove the evidence ; but in his defence 
nid, '^ None of the witnesses 4wear that I ever desired, per- 
maifed, or directed any person to write any letter, to any 
pemms whose names are mentioned in the chaises, or to any 
penon in or of the Scots* nation : or that ever any letter was 
written in my house ; but only that letters supposed to be 
come firom, or sent to Scotland, were read there, which I do 
not deny : or that I ever did so much as read a letter in my 
haose, or elsewhere, that was supposed to come from tiie 
Soots, or pretended to be sent into Scotland : or, that I ever 
gave my particular consent to sending any letter : or, that I 
ever collected one penny of money for the king, or for the 
Scots, or for any person in Scodand : or, that 1 ever invited 
aoy person, or foreign force, to invade either England or 
raand, as I am expressly cliargcd : or, finally, that I ever 
ptolftBd, contrived, or endeavoured to raise forces, tumults, or 
Qsurrections widiin this nation, . and against the present 
SMnunent«"t 

Towaids the close of his defence, he confessed that there 
Ittl lieea several meetings at his house ; and that a com- 
■Mon bad been read there ; but that he utterly dissented 
fc^Vi It. ■ He.. acknowledged further, that he was present at 
As.f^dM of.letteis, or of some parts of them: f^ But," 
^htf'^XiWtMiigmnant^f the danger that I now see I am 



a» LIVES OF THE 1PURITANS. 

in* The tct of Augosi^, 1660, makes it treason to boM 
any correspondeDce with Scolbuidy or to send letters tfaidier 
iCMily in a way of commence, the two nations being at. war. 
Here my counsel acquaints me with my danger, because, 
being present when letters were read at my house, I am guilty 
of concealment ; and, therefore, I lay myself at your feet fw 

ttiercy. 

^^ I hare been called a mal^nant and apostate ; but^God 
is my witness, I never carried on a malignant inteiest: I shall 
retain my covenanting principles ; from which, by the grace 
of God, I will never depart. Neither am I an incemfiaiy 
between die two nations of England and Scotland : but I am 
grieved for their divisions ; and if I had as much blood in mj 
veins as there is water in the sea, I would count it virell spent 
to quench the fire that our sins have kindled between diem. 
I have all along ei^ged my life and estate in the parliament^ 
quarrel, against the forces mised against die late king ; jMTt 
from a prospect of advantage, but from conscience and dmjr: 
and I am so far from repentii^, that, were it to do again npdfi 
tlie same unquestionable authority, and for the same dedarsS 
ends, I should as readily engage in it as ever, diough I swish 
from my soul, dia^ the ends of that just war had been h^Om 
accomplished. But as to treason, I do not know msf act^ 
mine proved against me, that brings me under anyone 80t4iiMr 
inexistence. I never wrote any letter nor sent any lotterto uy 
of die Scots' nation; yet I confess dieir proceedings widiidle 
king are agreeable to my Judgment. And diough I disomtUidie 
fiommtsfiion, and instructions mentioned in the indictmeait, ( 
have desired an agreement between theking and die. Scots, 
agreeably to die covenant; and they having declwred4iim-to 
be their kii^yl have, as a private man, dewed and pragfed 
diat they might accomplish their ends, upon siuth tefvia'aa 
are cansstent widi die safety of refigion and the terms itf "die 
covenant. For I thought that if the king and Scbts beeune 
nhited, itjweuld advance the cause of God, die jnteieils ctf 
true religbn, and the good of die tiadon. 

'^ Therefore, I humbly beseech your lordship anddM COlhrl^ 
to nat a frur and candid construction upon all diat I hwedone, 
ead that thingsemay : not be taken in the ^orst sense. 1 4iCMii 
your lordship say at Guildhall, that ke is noi gyHt^ mkim 
mindisn^t fpriUy. The Loid kno^wi, diatiift>die upr^bliMli 
of my heart, I have done vrhat I have deiie ; md i atodtt 
amaked when I heard m^j^f rtharged ^wMi iti^aaott. 3Wi|gk 
I acknowledge, that for not revealing, as mine accusers have 
done, Iiaai,%iyour acts, guilty of iccnoadMent^'a^ I 



%tmild J beg flie mefcy ol the eourty praim 
Gody to live a quiet and peaceable life, in in codbnetB and 
honesty. And duu I ccmmiit nqrself and my aU to God and 
TOUT itt<%nientf, in die words of Jeremiah to the rulers <tf 
Israel : As for me, behold lam in your hmtdSf to do with me 
as seemethgood and meettoyou; bSk know ye/or certain, thai 
if ye put mte to death,ye shall surely bring itinocent blood upon 
yourselves* But I hope better things of you, though I thus 
speak.''* 

The court allowed Mr. Lore die benefit ot counsel learned 
in the law, to argue the exceptions against die indictment; 
but afber all diat Mr. Hale, afterwards the famous Judge 
Hale, could say in bdialf of the prisoner, the court pronounced 
sentence of deadi upon him as si traitor. Hie senloioe 
being' pronounced, Mr. Love said, ** My lord, I have received 
sentence of death in myself, that I should not trust in myself, 
but in God, which raiseth the dead. And, my lord, though 
jou have condemned me, neither God, nor my own con- 
science, doth condemn me." He was then carried to the 
Towcr.t 

. Great intercessions were made to the parliament for die 
preservation of his life. His wife presented one petition, or 
probably more, in die most movii^ language ; and he pr&- 
•mited no less than four himself. Several parishes in London 
presented their petitions to die house of commons, as did 
iqpwards of fifty ministers; but all that could be obtained 
was the respite of his execution for a month.t The last of 
his petitions, read in the house August 14tli and l6th, was 
die foUowii^ :$ 

*^ To the supreme authority, the parliament of the com- 
^ monwealth of England. — ^The humble petition of Chris- 
^' topher Love, a condemned prisoner in the Tower of 
^ London ; sheweth, that your petitioner doth humbly adore 

the wonderful goodness of God, and most thankfully 

acknowledge the great mercy of the parliament, for so 
** seasonaMe and acceptable an act of grace, to such an 
^ offending suppliant, that when there was but one step 
*^ between him and death, the number of his days being 
^ accomplished, and he almost cut off from the land of the 
^ living, then you mercifiiUy interposed, and gave him his 
^ life for a mondi longer, ^ch was to him as a resurrection 

• l0we*t Trial, p. 0S~7l. f Ibid. p. 181- 

' t Granger's Biog. Hht. vol. iii. p. 4S. 

S L<nre*i Case, p. 4, 5. £dit. 16&l.--LoTe'8 Viodication of hit PrUiciplet, 
p. 5— 14. fidlUISil. 






ISB • LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

*' from the dead : The consideration whereof melteth th^ 
'^ heart of your petitioner, and makes him, after a more 
*^ narrow search into bis heart and way s, more deeply, sensible 
'' than ever of his sin agaihst God, and more sorrowful for 
*^ his high crimes and offences ^against the parliament, in 
'' his late and great miscarriages. '^ , 

^' He humbly acknowledgeth he hath so highly Yiolated 
'^ the laws of the commonvyrealth, as that thereby he hath 
*' rendered himself guilty of the sentence of death justly 
^^ passed upon him by the high court of justice. He doth 
** also herewith humbly offer to your honours a free and 
'^ full narrative, under his hand, of the whole design, to the 
^ best of his remembrance, which he leaveth to your grave 
'^ wisdoms' favourable interpretation, fully resolving that he 
*^ will neither plot, contrive, nor design any thing ''prejur 
^' dicial to the present government ; but will, in l^s place 
*' and, calling, oppose any designs whatsoever that may tend 
^' t6 the ruin of the commonwealth. 

/^ Your dying petitioner, with all humble importunity, 
** prostrates himself at your feet, and puts his mouth in tl^ 
^' du^t; and oh ! that there may be hope ! craving your tender 
'^ mercy, begging his life at your hands ; promising nevier 
** to employ that life- against you, which he shall receive 
^* from you ; but doth hold it his djuty, in his place and 
^^ calling, to lay out himself for the glory of God, the. good 
*^ of his people, and the peace and safety of this conunon- 
** wealth. And your petitioner shall ever pray, &c-' 

" Chkistopher l^OVE." 

In the nan^ative accompanying this petition, Mr. Love 
admits, many of the things objected against him at his t^rial. It 
is dated from the Tower, July 22, 1651, but much too long 
for our insertion.* But, as Mr. Neal justly observes, the 
affairs of the commonwealth being now at a crisis, and 
King Charles II. having entered England at the head pf 
sixteen. thousand Scots, it was thought necessary to strike 
the presbyterian party with some degree of terror, by making 
an example of one of their favourite ministers. We are 
informed, that, at this juncture. Colonel Fortescue was sent 
to General Cromwell, then in the north, with a petitioQ. in 
behalf of Mr. Love; but that both (he general and the rest 
of the officers declined meddling in the affair.i - Ot&er his^ 
torians, however, affirm, that Cromwell actually sent a letter 
of reprieve and pardon for Mr. Love; but that the postboy 

• L6V9*8 CaM, p. 5—14. f Wbmocke'i Mem. p. 474. . . ( 



LOVE. U9 

was stopped on the road by several persons belon^uDig to th« 
late king's aiinyy who opened the Scotch mail, and findinc 
this letter of reprieve for Mr. Love, they took it, and wiS 
indignation tore it in^ pieces; declaring, that he who had 
been so great a firebrand at Uxbridge, was not fit to live.* 
If this story be true, our divine fell a sacrifice to the ungo* 
vemable rage of the royalists. 

Upon the arrival of the mail from Scotland, and there 
being no letter from Cromwell in behalf of Mr. Love, it 
was concluded that his silence was an absolute denial. 
Mr. Love was therefore ordered to be executed on Tower- 
hill. During lus confinement, after his trial, he received 
many encouraging and affectionate letters from his numerous 
friends, particularly from Dr. Drake, Mr. Robinson, Mr. 
Jenkin, wad Mrs. Love, which are now before me. The last 
t^at he received from Mrs. Love, written the day before his 
execution, and well worthy of the pious reader's penisal| 
was the following: 

'* Mj heavenly dear, 

" I call thee so, because God hath put heaven into 
thee before he hath taken thee to heaven. Tliou now bo 
boldest God, Christ, and glory, as in a glass ; but to-morrow 
heaven's gates will be opened, and thou shalt be in the full 
enjoyment of all those glories which eye hath not seen, nor 
ear heard, neither can the heart of man understand. God 
hath now swallowed up thy heart in the thoughts of heaven ; 
but ere long thou shalt be swallowed up in the enjoyment of 
heaven ! And no marvel there should be such quietness and 
calmness in thy spirit, whilst thou art sailing in this tern- 

Eestuous sea, because thou perceivest, bv the eye of faith, a 
aven of rest, where diou wait be richly laden with all the' 
glories of heaven ! O, lift up thy heart with joy, when thou 
layest thy dear head on the block, in the thoughts of this, 
that thou art laying thy head to rest in thy Father's bosom ; 
which, when thou dost awake, shall be crowned, not with an 
earthly, fading crown, but with an heavenly, eternal crown of 
glory! Be not troubled when thou shalt see a guard of sol- 
diers triumphing with their trumpets about thee ; but lift up 
thy head, and ^ou shalt behold God with a guard of holy 
angels triumphing to receive thee to glory! Be not dis- 
mayed at the scoffs and ffeproaches thou mayest meet with 
in thy short way to heaven ; for, be assured, God will not 

• Kennel's Hist, of Bag. vol. iii. p. ld&— £chard*8 Hilt, of Eof . tol. U. 
p. 706. 

VOL. III. ' K 



130 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

only glorify thy body and soul in heayen, but ho will also 
. jjAftke the memory of thee to be glorious on earth-! 

'^ Ov let iiot one troubled^hought for thy. wife and- babe^. 
rise within tihee ! thy God will be our God and our portkm. 
Ho will' be a husband , to thy widow, and a &tbeF to tliy 
children : the grace of thy God> wiU be sufficient for m» 

'^ Now, my ^r, I desire willingly lundcheerf^y to r€siM 
my rigli^ in thee to thy Father and^ my Fathar, who halb we 
^reateftt' int^est m ihee : and confident I> am, thoughjBm 
Baye separated us for a time, yet God will ere long ming-ai 
together again, where we sliaU eternally enjoy one-anMneri^ 
nem to part more ! ' 

^^ Oy let me hear how God bean up. thy heart, an^^kt 
me taiSbe of those comforts which^ support tbee^ ijist^ibey 
.may be as pillare^ of marble to beai; up my sinking jmrit I 
loan itrriie no more. Fa^well, forewell) iny d^u-, tub^vip 
i^ieet where we shall neyer bid farewell more^; tilbiwinA 
time I leaye thee in the bosom of a loying, tendcfrheaited 
Father; and so I rest, 

<f Till I sifaall f(Hr.eyer rest in heaven, 

*^Mary LoyE." 

This, ezcdlentc letter discoyers^ tbei^ipe tnumphCby^eiLtbft 
world 'in Mrs. Loyje, which, her. husbandi so bappily'eab^ 
perienced. She. wajs,, not only surrounded by. tbeic> tl^pce 
children, but. with child of .a fourth ; y^t.sbe paissedt.oiffit 
this circumstance in silence;, and thQughifQrmfirly.w«alL'ia 
gmce, yet she now enjoy^: strong, confidence and>gittit 
<iamfort, and[ animated her husbabd. by the mostencoiiiM^ 
ing coosldeiations. Thus, <f by faith, out: of weakneBB^sM 
was made strong." The . iiext> .morning^ being the day. iii| 
whidi. he sufSordd, Mr* Loye returned, her titefotlQwiiif 
fare.WelLepistl€(; 

MMy mcfst gracious beloyed, 

'^^lanl now going from a prispa to a. palace*, i 
iiaye finished; ray work:; I amnow. to.receiyie rajr, wQgfliN 
I am going to heayen, where there are two of n^. chUdlfii.; 
and leayingtheeon earth, wbett^therearethrefiot'tQ^ oa||miK 
those two aboye need joot atjy care ; hut the thiree bdfow QWl 
thine. It* con^ifcirts me to tMnk: two of nxy. chilai€;^»A<^ill 
the bosom^f Abrah[^m, and: tbr^ of the|qii w|n bift iH; u|m 
arms aud care of so tender, and gpodlji acinoth^ i . I ki^giW: 
thou art a woipan of a.sorrow^i8plrit,.y6t;bejQ8i)^i^^ 
Though i\\y sorrows b^ gr^t forthj hi^b.and's going out 
of the world, yet thy paiiis shall be the less in brir ^" " 




LOVE. ISl 

f fay child into the xfoAA : thou shalt be a jojffot molhcr, 
though thou art a sad widow ! God bath many nMfdea; 
in Ktoreforthee : the prayen of a dying husband will not be' 
lost. To my sha^e I speak it, I never prayed so much for. 
thee at Itberty; as I have done ih priscm. I cannot write' 
moi^ ; but I Mire a ftWpt^actical cdUHseb to Iteve with t^ 
viz. 

<' 1* Keepiulde^ li' sound, otthodb^c, tad soul-settching 
iliin&Cry. 0& tdei^ ai^ many dfitdv^it gbhe out iiitothe 
WY>rti ; buV Chtist^s sh^epf ktaOMr hi^ vOlce, and a sUAnge^ 
Will th^y tiot folfow. Att^d bh thht ministry which teai&i 
the way of God in tilith, and fallow Soldnlon^s ddvice : 
Cease to hear the imiruciian that causdh to err from the tDOj/ 
fff kfiowiedge. 

^< 2. Brink up thy children in the kiiowledge and ad- 
mbiiitidh of uieLottf. Tte motheir oudit to be the teacher 
in the iathdPs absenoe. 'I%e nioi/Vb z^hSch hts mother taughi 
hbn. Tunothy was instructed by his gnlndmottier Lois, and 
his mother Eanic^: 

^^ 3. Pray in thy iiiihily daily, that thy dwelling may be 
in the number of the faihilles that do call upon God. 

'^ 4. Lad[)otir for' a medk and quiet spirit, which is in the 
sight of God of gte^t price. 

^ 5. Pore hot on the comforts thou wantest; but on the 
mercies thou hast. 

<< 6. Look rather to God^s end in afBicting, than at the 
measure and d^ree of thy afflictions. 

^' 7. Laboar to clear up thy evidences for heaven, when 
God takes fromi thee the comforts of earth, that, as thy 
sufferings do abound, so thy consolations in Christ may 
much more abound. 

^^ 8. Though it is good to maintain a holy jealousy of the 
deceitfulness of thy heart, yet it is evil for thee to cherish 
fears and doubts about the truth of thy graces. If ever I 
had confidence touching the graces of another, I have con* 
fiqonce of grace in thee. I can say of thee, as Peter did 
of Sylvaniis, / am persuaded that this is the grace of God 
wherein^ thou standest. Oh, my dear soul, wherefore dost 
thou doubt, whose heart hath been upright, whose walkings 
have been holy ! I could venture my soul in thy sours 
stead. Such confidence have I in thee ! 

<< 9. When thou findest thy heart secure, presumptuous 
and proud, then pore upon corruption more than upon 
grace: but when thou nndest thy heart doubting and 
unbelieving, then look on thy graces, not on thy infijraiities. 



132 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

" 10.^ Study the covenant of grace and merits of Christy 
Und then be troubled if thou canst. Thou art interested in. 
such a covenant th^t accepts purposes for performances, 
desires for d^s, sincerity tor perfection,- the righteousness 
of another, viz. that of Jesus Christ, as if it were our. 
own. Oh, my love, rest, rest then in the love of God, in. 
the bosom of Christ ! 

"11, Swallow up thy will in the wiU of God. It id a 
bitter cup we are to drink, but it is the cup our Father hath. 

Sut into our hands. When- Paul was to go to suffer at. 
erusalem, the christians could say. The mill ofthe Ijord. 
be done. O say thou, when I go to Tower-hill, The wiU.oJ. 
the Lord he done. 

'^ 12. llejoice in my joy. To mourn for me inordinately,, 
argues that either thou enviest or suspectest my happiness. 
^^joy^ of the Lord is my strength. O, let it be thine also I . 
Dear wife, farewell! I wUl calfthee wife no more : I shall 
see thy mce no more ; yet I am not much troubled ; for 
now I am going to meet the bridegroom, the Lord Jesus 
Christ, to whom I shall be eternally married ! 

" Thy dying, 
<^ Yet most affectionate mend till death, 

^^ Christopher Lovb." 
From the Tower of London, 

August 22, 1651, 
The day of my glorification.* 

On this fatal day, at two o'clock in the afiemooil, Sfr. 
Love mounted the scaffold with great intrepidity and reso* 
lutioii. - The ministers who accompanied him were Mr. 
Simeon Ashe, Mr. Edmund Calamy, and Dr. Thomas 
Manton. Upon the scaffold, Mr. Love^ taking off his hat 
twice before the people, made a long speech to theni], 
addtiBssing them as follows : 

<^ Beloved christians, I am this day made a spectacle 
unto God, to angels, and to men. I am made a grief to the 
godly, a laughing-stock to the wicked, and a gazing-^slodc 
to all ; yet, blessed be Grod, I am not a terror to mysdf : 
though there is but a little between me and death, th^re it 
but a little between me and heaven. There are only two 
steps between me and glory : my head must lie down upon 
the block, and I shall ascend the throne. I am exchanging 
a pulpit for a scaffold, and a scaffold for a throne. I fun 



• Xove's SennoDs on Grace, Appfo. p.. !2U— 8U. £4it. 1810. 



LOVE. I3S 

exchanging a pnard of soldiers for a goard of angeb^ to 
cany roe into Abraham's bosom. 

<< I speak the truth, and lie not I do not bring a 
reyengetul heart upon this scaffold. Before I came to this 
place, and upon my bended knees, I begged mercy for 
them who denied mercy to me ; and I have prayed God to 
forgive them who would not forgive me ; and I have from 
my h)eart forgiven the worst enemy I have in the world. 
Now, in the presence -of God, I tell you, that as I would 
in my trial confess nothing that was criminal, so I denied 
nothing that was true, that I may seal it with my blood. 
What 1 then denied and protested before the high court of 
justice, I now deny and protest before you. 

<^ I am for a regulated mixed monarchy, which I judge 
ta be one of the b^ governments in the world. I oppose d, 
in my place, the forces of the late king ; because I am against 
screwing up monarchy into tyranny, as much as against 
those who would pull it down to anarchy. I was afwayi 



my judgment against the engagement : I pray 
God to forgive them who impose, and them who take it^ 
and preserve them who refuse it. Neither would I be 
looked upon as owning the present government : I die with 
my judgment against it. And I die cleaving to all those 
oaths, vows, covenants, and protestations, which were im- 
posed by the two houses of parliament. I have abundant 
peace in my own mind, that I have set myself a^inst the 
sins and apostacies of the time. Although my faithfulness 
hath procured me the ill-will of men, it hath secured me 
peace with God : I have lived in peace, and I shall die in 
peace. 

" But, before I draw my last breath, I desire to justify God 
and condemn myself. Though I come to a shamefid and 
untimely death, God is righteous. And though he cut me 
off in the midst of my days, and in the midst of my 
ministry, because I have sinned, he is righteous, blessed be 
his name. My blood shall not be spilt for nought. I may 
do more goodf, and. bring more glory to God, by dying 
upon a scaffold, than if I had died upon my bed. I bless 
God, I have not the least trouble on my spirit ; but 1 die 
with as much quietness of mind as if I were going to lie 
down upon my bed to rest. I see men thirst after my 
blood, which will only hasten my happiness and their 



liH LIVES OF THE IHJRITANS. 

k 

iruin. For ^hougli I am pf a me^ parenta^, my Uood im 
the blood of a christian, of a minister, of an innocent mw^ 
9md .of a martyr ; and ibis I speak yithout vanity. Had I 
renounced ipj oqwexk^nt, defaimchod jmy conscience, ,wd 
endangered my soul, t pjglijt have escaped this pl^ace ; Ipjdj 
|>lessea be God, I b^ve ;piade the best choice : I have 
^:Ji9sen a^ictjion rather th^ sin. And, therefore, welcome 
scaffold, yfelcojp^^ a^e, welcome block, welcome death, 
welcome .all, becsM^ jtbey will send me to my Fathc^^s 
bouse. 

^,' I bless God, a^ without y^ity it is spoken, that I 
h^ye formerly h%d ipMce iTear in the drawing of a tooth tJbap 
I haye now in the cutting off my head. Thus I CQm^t 
mysejif to God, and to jreceive tl^e fatal blow. I am pom- 
tbfrted in this, jthat t^i^n qien Jdjl me, they cannot d^fqii 
ipoje: and .t^Wgh it^ey tbfw^t me iput of the wprld, thejr 
ipannot tjbrij^ me 014 9^ ^i^ye^i* I am going Uf i& 
{leavehly Jerusale;!^, jto thp imimmerable company ^ wgels| 
to Je^ Qhrist, the fj^iatc^r of the new povenan^ to ibfi 
spirits o|^ j\j^ 9ien mad^ perfect, and to God the jud^ of 
fU ; in whose presence there is fulness of joy, and ^i i^lu^f^e 
light hand there are ple9sures for eyermore. I conclude in 
tte words of the apostle, ^ I am now ready to be offered up, 
and the time of my departure is at hand ; I haye fii^isjl^ 
my course; I haye kept the faith: henceforth there is laid 
up for me the crown of righteousness ; and iiot for me onlj^ 
but for all them who loye the appearance of our Lor4 
^esus Christ:' through whose blood I expect salyatictt 
and the remission of sins. And so the liord bless joq 

Haying finished bis speech, ^e turned to Tichbu|m tht 
sheriff, and said, <« IVjay | pray?" " Yes," said th« 
sheriff; <^ but consider the time." Then, turning to th^ 
people, he said? '^ Beloyed, I will pi^Iy pray a little ^rlule 
, trith you, to commend ipy soul \o God, and I hay^ ^oiie." 
He then prayed with a loud ypic^, saying : 

<^ Most glorious and eternal majesty, thpu art r^hteopv 
and holy in all thou doest to the spns of men. Thoi^h thou 
bast suffered nien to cond^om thy seryant, thy servant will 
not condenm thee. He justifies ^heet, though thou ^i^tcsft 
him off in the midst of his days, and in t^e midst oi his 
ministry ; blessing thy ^lori^\is na,Ene, th^ tho^iunh hft bt 
takQ^ away from the lanp oi'ibe Uvilng, be i^ i|Qt l^^t^ QVJ^ 

• Love's Trial, p. m~-l98.-r-toY«*i Case, p. lir«. 



LOTE. 

of the book of life. Father, my hour fs come. Thy poor 
GKflture can say, without vanity and falsehood, he hath 
desiied to fflorUy thee on earth ; glorify thoa him now in 
heay^n. He hath desired to bring the souls of other men 
to heayen ; let now his soul be brought to heaven. O tJion 
hlflwd Godi whom thy creature hath served, who hath 
made thee his hope and his confidence from his youth ; 
fbnake him hot now in his drawing nigh to thee. Now 
that be is in the valley of the shacfow of death, Lord, be 
thou life unto him. Smile thou upon him, while men 
frown upon him. Lord, thou hast settled the persuasion in 
his teart, that, as soon as the blow is given to divide his' 
head from bis body, he shall be united to his Head in 
beavea. Blessed be God, that thy servant dies in these 
iiopes. Blessed be God, th^ thou hast filled thb soul of 
fli^ tervant with joy and peace in believing. O Lord, 
fht«k upon that poor brother of mine, who is a companioit 
iridi me in tribnhtion ; and who is this day to lose his life 
as. wtll as myself.* O fill him full of the joys of the H^ly 
Ghoat, when he is to give up the ghost Lord, strengthen 
omr ballrts, that we may give up the ghost with joy and noit 
with grief. We entreat thee, O Lord, think upon thy poor 
dttircbes. O that England may live in thy sight ! O that 
London may be to thee a faithful city ! and tliat rigliteous- 
Hen nkay be among the pc(^le ;, that so peace and plenty 
nay be Within their walls, and prosperity within their 
habitations. Lord, heal the breaches of these nations. 
Miike Eiigland and Scotland as one stafi* in tlie Liofrd'a 
hand; that £phi^iih may not envy JudaK, nor Judah vex 
Eirihiaim ; but that both may fly upon the shoulders of the 
Phiiistines. O that men of the protcstant rcHgioti, engaged 
ia the s^tne cause and covenant^ may not delight to spill 
eath other's blood, but engage against the conunbii adver* 
aaiy of religion and liberty ! G^ shew mercy to all who 
fear huti. Lord, think upon our covenant-kee^Mng brethren 
of the kingdom of Scotland. Keep them faithful U} ibee; 
and let not those who have invaded them overmead their 
had. Prevent the shedding of more christian blood, if it 
•eeta good in thine eyte. God, shew mercy to thy poor 
serylint, i#ho is now giving up the ghost. O blessed Jesa% 
atoply thy blood, not only for my justification unto^ life, bdt 
aitto for riiy comfort, for the quieting of my soul, that so I 
may be in the joys of heaven before I come to the possisi^ 

^ His feUo'w-so^erer, who was beheaded (he fame day, for befog con* 
' Hi the Mun^ ploC, was Mr. Gllbbonf. 



136 LIVES OF THE PURlTANSj 

sion of heaven. Hear the prayers of all thy people that 
. have been offered up for thy servant. And though thoii 
hast denied prayer concerning my life, let the fruit of 
prayer be seen, by bearing up my heart against the fear of 
death. O God, shew mercy to all tliat.fear thee, and to all 
who have engaged for the life of thy servant: Let them 
have mercy in the day of their appearing before Jesus 
Christ. Preserve thou a godly ministry in this nation, and 
restore a godly magistracy, and cause good days to be the 
heritage of thy people, for the Lord's sake. Now, Lord, 
into thy hands I commit my spirit. And though thy servant 
may not, with Stephen, see the heavens open ; yet, let him 
have the heavens open : and though he may not see upon 
a s'baffold the Son of God standing on the right hand of 
God ; yet, let him come to the glorious presence of Je$U8 
Christ, and this hour have an intellectual sight of the 
glorious body of his Saviour. Lord Jesus, receive my 
spirit. And, Lord Jesus, stand by thy dying servant, who 
in his life hath endeavoured to stand by thee. Lord, hear 
and pardon all his infirmities ; wash away his iniquity by 
the blood of Christ ; wipe off reproaches ; wipe off guilt 
from his person ; and receive him pure, and spotless, and 
blameless before thee in love. And all this we beg for the* 
sake of Jesus Christ. Amen and amen.'' 

Mr. Love having ended his prayer, turned to the sherii^^ 
and said, ^^ I thank you, sir, for your kindness : You have 
expressed a great deal of kindness to me." He then asked- 
for the executioner, who coming forwards, he said, ^^ Ait 
thou the officer ?" and being answered in the affirmative, lie 
said, with his eyes lifted up to heaven, ^^ O blessed Jesus i 
who hast kept me from the hurt of death, and from the fear 
of death: O blessed be God! blessed be God!" Then, 
taking his leave of the ministers and his other friends, he 
said, " the Lord be with you all." He then kneeled down 
and made a short prayer ; and, rising up, he said, <^ Blessed 
be God, I am full of joy and peace in believing. I lie 
down with a world of comfort, as if I were to lie dowa ia 
iny bed. I shall rest in Abraham's bosom, and in the 
embraces of the Lord Jesus." As he was preparing to lay^ 
his head on the block, Mr. Ashe said, '' Dear brother, how* 
dost thou find thy heart ?" Mr. Love replied, " / Mess Gody 
w, J am as full of joy and comfort as ever my heart can' 
hold. Blessed be God for Jesus Christ.^* He then laid 
himself down upon the scaffold, with his head over the 
block j and, stretching forth his bands, the executicioer. 



LOVE. 137 

severed his head from his body at one blow.* His mortal 
raBuns were afterwards interred, with great lamentation, 
in the chancel of the cburch of St. Lawrence- J ewiy. 

Mr* Love was a zealous presbyterian, a most popular 
pteacber, and highly beloved among his brethren. But his 
memory has greatly suffered by tlie reproaches of high- 
choich historians, and by none more than Clarendon, who 
oyS) '<He was guilty of as much treason as the pulpit 
ooidd contain. And, therefore, when he appeared upon the 
scaiRdd, he. seemed so much delighted with what he had 
done, that he could not even then forbear speaking with 
bUtemeti and animosHt/ against both the kins and the 
hishopt. And in a raving fl^ he laid his heaa upon the 
block, without so xspicYi as praying for the king, any further 
than he propagated the covenant.^f 

Thete are, indeed, most heavy charges. But if Mr. Love 
was really guilty of so ' much treason,' it was in behalf of 
ihekbigy and with a view to promote the royal cause ; there- 
fiire, according to the noble historian's own principles, the 
change is null and void. But if the historian refer to his 
preaching at Uxbridge, or on any other occasion, the 
chaige is asserted in like manner, without the smallest evi- 
dence, and, from all that I have been able to collect, appears 
equally groundless and contrary to truth. With respect to 
Mr. liove^s < speaking with bitterness and animosity against 
both the king and the bishops,' when he was on the scaffold, 
the charge is altogether without foundation, and stands 
diametrically opposed to matter of fact ; ^ appears from 
Love's speech at length, now before mc.f And as to his 
laying his head upon the block, < in a raving fit,' we are at 
a loss to understand his lordship's meaning, unless he 
undesignedly insinuates, that Mr. Love died in the enjoy- 
moit of the most happy and exquisite religious feelings. 
Dr. Calamy assures us, " That he died neither timorously 

• Love's IVial, p. 128, 129. 

f Clarendon's Hist. vol. iii. p. 338. — Dr. Grey informs ns, that be bad 
net with the foHowing manuscript note, upon the margin of Nalson*» 
IntrodnctioD, relative to Mr. Love's character and death : — *' It might be 
** observed, (says the note,^ as a circumstance contributing to make his 
** death appear the more judicial, that when Archbishop Laud was be* 
** iMaded, this Mr. Love, in a most inhuman triumph, flourished his band- 
^kerchief dipt io the blood of that great and venerable prelate; which/' 
tke doctor immediately adds, '* will fully justify Lord Clarendon's cha- 
•■cler of Mr. Love." Every reader, however, will easily perceive the 
Ulacy of the doctor's argament. — Grey's Examination of NeMl, vol. iii. 
p. 128. * 

I hoife§ Trial, p. 121— 1!28,— Love's Case, p. 14—27. 



198 LIVES OF TH6 PURITANS. 

Mor proudly, but with great Alacrity and cbeerfhliiM, as if 
he mid been goine to bed.''* Dr. Manton, who attended 
Mr. Love upon me scaflbld^ who preached his funeral 
sermon, and who knew him much better than the historiiuis 
who have aqiersed his character, says. <^ He was a man 
eminent in grace, of a singalar life ana conversation, and 
a pattern of piety most worthy of imitation, "f * Airatbhr 
wnter, who was intimately acquainted with him, gives an 
exceilent account of his christiaki character and his riiinis* 
terial qualifications and usieMness; and adds: — ^< In all 
hiis relation^ as a minister, a christian^ a subject, a husband, 
a friend, and a father, he served his g^ieration cm the eartii, 
and made a swift progress in his way to heaven. He lived 
too much in heaven to live long out of heaven ; imd sure 
I am that he lived a life oi heaven upon earth; His 
fellowship was with the Father and with bis Son dtim 
€hrist"t 

His WoRK8.~I. The Debauclied Cavalier, 1642.— 2. Eng^andll 
Distemper, 1645. This is the Sermon preached at Uxbridge.— r 
$. Short and plain AnimadvcrsioDs on some Passages in Mr. DelTI 
l^rmon before the House of Commons, 1646.— 4. Answer to an 
VkiUcensed Pamphlet, 1647.— 6. A Vindication of England's Dis- 
temper, 1661.^6. Love's Case, 1651.— 7. Love's Trial, 1651.— 
S. Love's Advocate, 1651. — 9. A Full Narration of the late Dan* 
g^erous Desi^ against the State, 1651. — 10. His Speech and Prayer 
upon the Scaffold on Tow^-hill, 1651.— 11. The Truth, and GHowthi 
and different Degrees of Grace, 1652. — 12. A Sermon at the FunehJ 
of Mrs. B., 1652. This was the last sermon he preached. — 13. Heaivcsn^i 
Glory tteirs Terror, 1653. — 14. The Soul's Cordial, 166a— 15. A 
Treatise of Election and Effectual Calling, 1653. — 16. Scripture^ules 
to be observed in Buying and Selling, 1653.-17. The true Doctrine 
of Mortification and Sincerity, in Oppoi^ition to Hj^pocrisy, 1654.— 
18. Combat between the Flesh and Spirit, 1664.— 19. The Stolh oi* 
Substance of Practical Divinity, 1654. — 20. The Christian's Direcfbry; 
1654.-21. The Dejected Soul's Cure, 1657.— 22. The Ministry of 
the Angels to the Heirs of Salvation, 1657. — ^23. The Omnipresenoe 
of God, 1657.--24. The Sinner's Legacy to his Posterity, 1657.— 
35. The Penitent Pardoned, 1657.— 26. A Discourse of Christ's 
Ascension and Coming to Judgment, 1657. — 27. The natural Maails 
Case stated, 1658. — Many of Uie above articles wet^ published after 
the author's death; and some of them came forth with ike higlr 
oommendations of his brethren^ 

* ClarendoB and Whitlockc Compared, p. SOS. 
. + MantoB^s Funeral Sermon for Mr. Love. — Thii lentaoB h knH^M'^ 
** The Saint's Triumph over Death." The government, miderslainnii|p tlidfl^ 
Dr. Manton intended to preach Mr. Love's funeral sermoh, expreraed lomtf 
displeasure, and the soldiers dlreatened to shoot h'lvtk. However,- he inm 
liot to be terrified by sBch dani^ers, but preached it a^ Mr. Love's ditnrcii ia 
Lawrence- Jevrry^ to a Dumerous congregation. — Palnurs Noncon, JUm* 
vol. i. p. 427. j; SloaniB'# MfiS. Ne. 3M& 



SAXTON. ISO 

Saxto^, a. M. — This venerable divine was born 
4t or Bear Bramley, in the parish of Leeds, in Yiorkshire, 
aod educated in the university of Cambridge, where he 
took his degrees in arts. He was admitted preacher, first 

?Aitcihbisbop Hutton, then by Archbishop IVlatthews, bcrfk 
tibe province of York. He obtained the king's presen- 
iaJ&w as well as that of Sir Edward Stanhope, to the rectory 
of Bdlington iu his native county, as appears from the 
book of admissions in the register's office at York; where^ 
December 1, 1614, he made the usual subscription willingly 
d ex mono* He afterwards saw cause to change his 
Ojmiioii; wd he became so alienated from the disciplme 
indceieqioAies of the church, that he is said to have called 
the mnAice the whore^s smock.* 

Him^g espoused the sentiments of the puritans, and not 
heiw qsaaroed to avow his opinions, he could find no rest 
ia hiB native country. The horrors of cruel persecutiaa 
having overspread the nation, he retired from the storm, and 
sought an asylum in New England, where, to his great 
comfinrt, he arrived in the year 1640. There we find his* 
name, as minister of Scituate, in the first classes of those 
who enlightened the dark regions of America by their 
ministry. f He continued some time in this situation; but 
the unsettled condition of the colony, and some unhappy 
contentions in the plantation where he lived, induced him 
to remove first to Boston, then to England, in his advanced 
years.^ On his return from New England, the ship was 
overtaken in so violent a storm, that the mariners, who could 
not be brought to pray before, came trembling to him like 
dying men ; and they found him upon the deck exulting, 
with nis arms stretched towards heaven, and crying, " O / 
who is now for heaven? who is bound for heaven?'^ 

After Mr. Saxton's arrival in his native coimtry, he had 
the offer of a considerable living in Kent, which he declined 
to accept, preferring the vicarage of Leeds in his own 
county, to which he was inducted in the month of April, 
1646, and possessed till his death, which happened Octo- 
ber 1, 1651, having survived his daughter Silence, the wife of 
Captaui Samuel Pool, to whom she was married in New 
England ; but she died at Leeds, as did also his widow the 
Femruary following. He was a venerable, pious, and 
burned divine ; but he used many plain expressions, which 
ofien occasioned smiles, and once downright laughter in a 

^ Thoresby's Yicaria Leodiensis, p. 86. 

f Mather's Hiit. of New Bug. b. Hi. p. 3. t U>id« p. 314 



140 LIVE? OF THE PURITANS. 

country cburcli urberc he was preaching. His text wai 
Job XI. IS. ^^ For vain man would be wi^e, though man 
be born 11 ice a wild ami's colt.'' He, observing the irreve* 
rence of the {leople, threatened to malie them crv before he 
]iad done, and was as gocxl as Ifis word when he came to 
the application. The a/^ed minister, for whom he then 

tireaclied^tohl me, as our author adds, that he m.*ver sawthe 
ike in that church before, almost the whole of (he congiie- 
St ion being liathcd in tears ; and he further ohserves,^ that 
r. Saxton was a very studious and learned man, and a 
great Hebrean, and he constantly carried his Hebrew BiUe 
with him into the pulpit.« There gocn under his name a 
b^>ok, entitkxl <^ Christmas Cheere ; or, Profitable Notes of 
Two Hermons preached (he S5fh of Deci'mber, being com- 
monly (how riehtly let others judge) called Christmas day, 
and n[K)n the* any followin/i;, commonly called 8t. 8tepben*is 
day," 1606. Mr. Palmer has, by mistake, classed cor 
venerable divine amon^ (he worthy ministers who weta 
ejected after the restorution.t 

(/EOROE Walkbh, B. f). — This learned divine was 
Ixini at Hawkshead in J^ancashire, in tlie year 1381, and 
iHlucatrd in St. John's college, Cambridge. Being favoured 
with reliij^ious parents, he enjoyed the lx;neflt of their pious 
inhtructioriH v^hen very young,t which ap|xrared of signal 
advunt;ige io him in future life. Mavmg finished Jii» 
stu(li(*H at the uiiiv<rKify, he went (o London ; and, in the 
vear 1614, became rector of St. John the Kvangeli^t, in 
Watling-street.S Here he continucfd a faithful andlaborioua 
nn'nihter nearly forty years, refiihin/i^ all other preferments, 
though fn^iiutritly offered him. He did not preach to obtain 
' pretcnnmf, but to win souls to Christ. About the same 
time he Ix^came chaplain to Dr. Felton, bishop of Kly, who 
made choice of him the very morning of his consecration. 
He was a bold opposer of popery, and he engaged several 
times in public dis])utations against its errors and super* 

• 7horc%hy\ Viraria l^o4\en%\%, p. 87,88. 

+ Psimrr'i Noncoii. Mrm. vol, I. p. 377. 

i The fonomiuj; coriou* anrcdute ii rrlalcd of him, whirk wr |;i«« willi- 
eut comment: — ** Beinf vi»iir<l ubrn a child viiih ihc small-pox, nnJ tboM* 
who «tooH eipfcting hit HiiiMilaiion, hr ktarlf>d up oii( of a tramr, nith fbU 
rjaciilation, i.ord, take me not ateny till i have t/tewed forth thy prithea f 
whirh, aflrr hib recovery, induced bit parents to devote bim to the oiinii- 
Xty:''-FuUet*B IVorthirg, jmrt ii. p. llS. 

S Nei»coort*« iCepcn. £ccl. vol. i. p. 375. 



WALKER. 141 

stitions. In the year 1623 he had a public dispute vith a 
popish priest of the name of Smith, before a yery large 
assembly ; and, by the consent of botli parties^tbe account of 
it was aiterwards published. He had many encounters with 
Fisher, the famous Jesuit, and many others, who were 
deemed the most able disputants of the Romish persuasion.* 

Mr. Walker was a divine of sterling piety and strict 
Sabbatarian principles ; and he often ureed from the pulpit 
the necessity of an exact observance of the Lord^s day. In 
the year 1635, having openly avowed his sentiments in one 
of his sermons, and recommended the holy observance of 
the sabbath, as opposed to a book published l)y Bisliop 
White of Ely, and set forth by public autliority, he wsis 
convened before Archbishop Laud, wlien he received 
canonical admonition.f In the year 1638 he was prosecuted 
and severely censured in the star-chamber. Having 
preached a sermon in his own church, to prove ^^ that it is 
a sin to obey the greatest monarch on earth, in those things 
which stand opp<^ed to the commands of God,*' he was 
committed twelve weeks to the custody of a pursuivant, to 
whom he paid fees to the amount of twenty pounds. I'pon 
his prosecution, he was shut np ten weeks close prisoner in 
the Gratehouse, and at last compelled to enter into a bond 
of a thousand pounds, to confine himself pri^on^r in his 
brother's house at Cheswick, when his living was seques- 
tered. He continued a prisoner upwards of two years, but 
was afterwards released by an order of parliament. 

His case was laid before the house of commons in 1(>4I, 
when it was resolved, ^^ That his commitment from the 
councQ-table for preaching a sermon, October 14. ]6.'>i, 
and his detainment twelve weeks for the same, is against 
the law and the liberty of the subject. 

<< That the prosecution of the said Walker in the rtar- 
chamber, for preaching the said sermon, a.nd lifs clow 
imprisonment thereupon for ten weeks in the Gat«;hoi]wr, 
and the payment of twenty pounds fees, is a^inst Jiw and 
the liberty of the subject 

'* That the five passages marked in the sermoa, by Mr. 
Attorney and Sir John Banks, contain no cr.me, r^cn dcMTv^ 
any censure, nor be any ponbhmmt for th^m. 

^ That the enforcing the said Walker to e&i«y uOo tfce 
bond of one thooBand poaiMb. ia asmbmumati i» kis 

• Fyiner*iWonhici,pwtH.pulia. 
'^ Wood's Atbcaa Oxoa. « li. i. p. Mft. 



UB LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

brother's house at Cheswick, and his idiprisoiiineiit tbeir, jm 
i^gaiiMst law. 

<^ That the sequestration of the parsonage of the said 
Walker, by Sir John Lamb, was- donne without any wana^ 
and against the law of the land. 

^ Ttnit Walker ought to be restored to his parsonage, 
and the whole profits thereof, from the time m the said 
sequestration, and to hare* reparation fbr idl such damagei' 
as he- hath sustained by these several imprisonment^ aitf 
his casetraBsmitled to the lords."* 

Mnbether Mr. Walker received any reparation for 
damages we haye not been able to karn; but after his release' 
from confinement, he returned to hisr benefice and ndnisterial 
charge in Watiffig^street, wherehe continued the rest of ha 
days- without further molestation. In the year 164S he vrar 
choeen'one of the assembly of divines, whene, by his muni- 
ficeat and generous behaviour, he gained a (Hstinetddiedi 
reputation. The year following he was appointed' biie cff 
the committee for the examination and ordinsition of public 
preacheiB. The same year he was one of the witnessed 
against ATcbbishop Laud at his trial, when he deposed tfaaf 
the archbishop had endeavoured to introduce arminiaoism 
and the popish superstitions into the church of England^f 
Though Wood reproaches him with having preached^ 
against the kingt and his party, he united with ms breihreiiy 
ine London ministers, in their protestaticm againiSt the kingV 
death, declaring that his majesty ought to have htatt 
rdea6ed«$ He was a member of the first provincial 'as- 
sembly in London, and sometimes chosen moderator. Hf 
died in the year 1651, aged seventy years, and his ren|Btiii' 
were interred in his own church in Watlin^-street. FolUr* 
says, '^ he was well skilled in the oriental languages, and* 
an exceHent logician and divine. He was a man oi a^hdhr 
life, an humble spirit, and a liberal hand, who deserved wdCl' 
of 'Zion college library ; and who, by his example and per- 
suasion, advanced a thousand pounds for the maintebaiace of 

♦ NJrtsott's Collections, ▼ol. ii. p. 1^, 251. 

f Prynna't'Caot. Doome, p. SSO^ SS2. 

{ Dr. Grey charges him with the stune crime^ for the proof of wkicli>l«- 
appeals to the following passage in one of bis sermons : ** After God liad 
rrjeeted Saul for bis ditobedience from being king oyer Israel,*' says Mr. 
Walker, ** and baddeclated bis parpteelo hntf<>y Samael, ao'evlf spirit tff 
fnr^, jealousy, and tyranny, came upon him." The reader wiU jadge wlnit 
degree of proof it affords.— Grey's Ejpmmin^ TOl.^i. p.aS9; 

S GaJamy*s Contin. ¥ol. ii. p. 7iS* 



VICARS. 143 

meBfildne ministen in his natiye county/' Wood calls 
um ^< a kamed man, but a serere puritan."* 

ffis WoK|C8^ — 1. The Sum of a DispnlAUon between Mt. Walker^ 
Mor of 8t^ Jolm the Eviui., and a Popigh Priort, caUing himself Md 
flnrnt^bpitMlcea Norns, 192^.-2. Fisher's FoUy Unfolded; ojT, the 
Ti||ntbiftJ#siijgs Challenge Ajpsweredy.l^ai. — 3. Socinianism in the 
FaMmsntal' Ppi^ of Justification Discovered and Confoted, 1641. 
-^ The dochrine'of the Holy Weekly Sabbath, 1641.-~6. Qod made 
^WHe ifr aU Us Woriu, 1641^--^. Sermons preached befeve tkm 
IMittMiil^lM4»&c. 

fpwi TfCAiis Ufas. borOf in the city of London, in tho 
90ir. i^*f8^ d«8Qende4 A;9m the YicaiB in Curnberland, and 
edli^MM wt^liO' ChrM-cIiurch hospil^ London^ then in 
^toi yi ttCQii^ge^ 0:v^fQrd., Having, finished his aci^leBiical 
sMMI9.be tebiiod to London, and hecame udier at Christ's* 
lifivndl) .which he kept till: towards the close^of life. Wood 
UriJs Jiinfcf^ H ppriUnical ppet, and a zealous brother in the 
<MP9;*^'aQd aays,. that, '' upon the conunencement of the 
inril W9iB> be diewed his great forwardness for presbjrte-; 
nnisniy^hated.aU people that loved obedience, and affrighted 
Wmy of: the weaker sort,, and others, from haying any 
^poeement. with the king's party, by continually inculcating 
tiBto.thdr heads strange stpries of God's wrath against the 
ttWiUcnu, Afterwards, when the independents became 
piedominant, he manifested great enmity against them, 
especially after the king's death."f He is said to haye 
^ hated all people who loved obedience, as the devil doth 

ghfhr- water; and he could out-scold the boldest face in 
BpUngsgate, especially if kings, bishops, or^ns, or may- 
9B, .were to be the objects of their zealous indignation.''^ 
js warmly censured for calling the ceremonies of tlie 
clmirishf < a stinking heap of atheistical and Roman rubbish ;" 
9nd. for saying, ^' Throw away the rubbish with the Lord's 
caMmies.. Vex the Midiauites, abolish the Amalekites: let 
pcmety find no favour."^ 

Mr. Vicars was a most furious adversary to the indepen'* 
dents. The title of one of his pieces written against tneni^ 
vtllafford a curious specimen of the length to which the 
diffieient parties at that time carried their animosity. It is 



« Faller's Worthies, part ii. p. 118.— Wood's Atheoe Ozoo. vol. i. 
p. 840. 
+ Wood's AtheDae, vol. ii. p. 86, 8S. 
FoQlis^s Hist, of Plots, p. 179. 
Walker's Attempt^ part i. p. 17, 18. 



! 



144 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

as follows ! ^< Coleman-street Conclave visited ; and tliat 
gitiad Impostor, the Schismatics Cheater in Chief, (who hath 
long sRly lurked therein,) truly and duly discovered ; con- 
taining a mpst palpable and plain Display of Mr; John 
Goodwin's self-conviction, (under his own hand writing,) 
and of the notorious Heresies, Errors, Malice, Pride, and 
Hypocrisy of this most hugeGaragantua in falsely pretended 
Piety, to the lamentable misleamng of his too credulous 
soul-murdered Proselytes of Coleman-street, and elsewhere: 
Cpllected principally out of his own big-bra^gadochio 
wave-like swelling and swaggering Writings, full fraught 
with six-footed Terms, and Aeshlie rhetorical Phrases, &r 
more than solid and sacred Truths, and may fitly serve, (if it 
be the Lord's will,) like Belshazzar's Hand-writing on the 
Wall of his Conscience, to strike Terror and Shame into bis 
own Soul and shameless Face, and to imdeceive bis moflt 
miserably cheated, and inchanted or bewitched FollowMS,"- 
1648. Facing the title is John Gfoodwin's picture, witti a' 
wind-mill oyer his head, and a weather-cock upon it: Uie 
devil is represented blowing the sails ; and there are other 
hierofflyphics or emblems about him, " designed,'* says* 
Wood, " to shew'the instability of the man."* The mie 
. Mr. Toplady, in the fervour of his zeal against arminianism, 
seems highly delighted with what he calls ^^ this facetious* 
title. "+ To us, however, it afibrds a lamentable proof of 
the degradation to which even good men sometimes subject 
themselves, when they siifier their passions to get the bdter 
of their reason. Such language, in the present day, would 
in justice be treated with silent contempt. 

Though it does not appear at what place Mr. Yicatu 
laboured ia the ministry, one of his name was beneficed at 
Stamford in Lincolnshire, and prosecuted for nonconformity,: 
He was apprehended by a pursuivant and cast into pris^Mi^ 
upon the bare accusation of a drunken, popish innkeeper^ 
where he continued many weeks before any articles were 
exhibited against him. He was afterwards bailed, but 
forced to enter into bonds not to so ten miles from London. 
And when he was carried before his spiritual judges, he was 
again cast into prison, sentenced to pay a great fine, and 
deprived of his living, upon the most frivolous charges^ 
which were disprov^ by many respectable witnesses.^; 



* Athens Oxon. vol. ii. p. 85. 

f Toplady*8 Historic Proof^ vol. i. p. 41. 

X Huntley's Frelates' Usurpations, p. 16^. 



p. TOUNG. Mft 

This, in all probability, was the sune pmon** Mr. TicMi 
died Augnsit IS, 1652, aged aeYcnly-two ytaiM. Hia ie» 
mains were intenred in the chorch of Christ-chnich htripil^ 
and over his grave was a la^ monomental inacripCies^ 
which, with the church, was dotioyed by the coollamtios 
in 1666. 

His W0BK8. — 1. A PhMpective Glan to look into Heaven ; or^ 
the Celestul Canaan Described, 1618.— 2. The Soule's Sacred Solilo- 
qnie, 1618.-^ England's HalMi^ ; or. Great Britain's gratefta 
Jletribation for God's gracious Benediction in oar many and laaMMs 
DeliYerances, 1631.-^ Qointessence of Cruelty; or, the P^ftih 
Powder-plot related, 16... — 6. England's ReaieaibriiDcer ; or. a 
thankful Acknowledgement of Pariiamentarie Merries to the Fagliih 
l^atTon, 1641.-6^ The Sinfulness and Unlawfuhiess of BMkiag the 
Picture of Chrisfs Humanity, 1641.— 7. God in the Mount; or, JSng- 
laod's Remembrancer, being a Panegerick*PfFamides erected to lie 
Honour of England's God, 1642^—8. A Looking Ghus for Mattg- 
nants ; or, God's Hand against God-haters, 1643.-1^. God in the 
Mount; or England's Remembrancer, being the Pint and HttimJ 
Part of a Parliamentary Chronicle, 1644. — 10. God's Arkeorertoppiiy 
the World's Waves; or, a Third Part of ParlianeBtary Chromrie. 
1646. — 11. The Burning-bush not consumed; or, the Foartfa aad 
Last Part of a Parliamentary Chronicle, 1646.— The three last artMes 
were collected and published together, entitled, ** MagnaUn Dtk 
Angiicaua; or, England's Parliameutarv Chronicle, 1646. — 13. Cole* 
man-street Conclave Visited, as noticed above, I64S.^>I3. Ilie Scbi»' 
matTck Sifted, 16 . . .— 14L Soul-saving Knowledge, lu*., 16 . . .— lA. The 
Picture of a Puritan, 16. . . — 16. Dagon DeuMlisfaed ; or, Twenty admir- 
able Examples of God's severe Justice and Dispteasnrr against the 
Subsi^ribers of the late En^psgement against the King and the whole 
House of Peers, 166D.— He also published several Traaslatioos of 
the Works of learned Men, among which was "Mischief's Mysterie; 
or. Treason's Master-piece, the Powder-plot, invented by Hellish 
Malice, prevented by Heavenly Means," 1617. This was ttceascd; 
and a new edition aftenwards being wanted, he waited upon Dr. 
Baker, chaplain to Archbishop Land, requesting to have the license 
renewed, when the doctor refased, saving, " We are not so aagry 
with the papists now as we were twenty }ears ago."! 

Patrick Young, A. M.— This celebrated scholar was 
born at Seaton in Scotland, August 29, 1584, and educated 
in the university of St. Andrews, where he took his degrees 
in arts, and was afterwards incorporated at Oxfortl. He 
was the son of Sir Peter Young, joint tutor with Buchanan 
lo Jaines I., and afterwards employed by the king in various 
ncgociations, and rewarded with a pension. Upon tha 

• Haatley^ Prriatei' Umrpatioa^ p. ISS. / 

f Pryone^s Cast. Dooae, p. 1S4. 

TOL. III. L 



146 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Accession of James to the crown of England, bis father 
accompanied him to this country, and placed Patrick in the 
fymily of Dr. Lloyd, bishop of Chester, from whom he 
derived great assistance in his literary pursuits. In the year 
1605 he went to Oxford, entered into deacon's orders, aad 
was elected chaplain of New College. He employed him- 
self in this seat of the muses in the assiduous study of 
ecclesiastical history and antiquities, and of the Greek 
language, in which he acquired an extraordinary knowledge. 
On his removal from the university he went to London, 
with the intention of obtaining preferment at court, to which 
be had easy access by means of his father. One of his 
principal patrons was Dr. James Montague, bishop of Bath 
and Wells, through whose interest he obtained a pension 
from the kins of nfty pounds a year ; and as he was master 
of an d^antXatin ^yle^ his pen was occasionally employed 
by his majesty, and by some other persons in power, in 
writing letters ; and he was also engaged in examining the 
trchiv^ of the kingdom.* 

It was one of the first objects of his ambition to obtain the 
post of keeper of Prince Henry's library aiid museum, in 
the palace of St. James's, which was his residence. In this 
be fiuled; but he was afterwards, through the influence of 
his patron. Bishop Montague, elected librarian to the king. 
To the royal library Mr. Young was a most assiduous 
visitor, spending the greatest part of his time in it, and, at 
the king^s command, classing its contents in catalogues. Hn 
had fir^uent literary conversations with his majesty, who 
placed nim in this situation, for which he was so wcQ 
qualified. By his persuasion, on the death of the very 
learned Isaac Casaubon, in 1614, with whom he was 
familiarly acquainted, the king purchased most of his books 
and manuscripts for the library. Also, for the purpose of 
augmenting tne stores committed to his care, he was venr 
desirous of visiting the continent, but was unable to put his 
c^ign in execution till 1617, when he went to Paris, t9king 
with him recommendatory letters from the learned Caindefli 
to some of his literary acquaintance in that metropolis. Bj 
their means he was introduced to various other emineni 
men, with whom, by the sweetness of his disposition, anjd 
the candour and urbanity of his manners, he ingn^ti^^d 
liimseli^ and also rendered himself peculiarly, dear to ^f^ 
with whom he was Connected. After his return, he assistea 

• Bios. Britaa. vol. viii. p. 438a--Aikiii's Life of Seldeo asS UsKer. 

p.ser. ^ . . . 



R YOUNG. 147 

Mr. Thomas Rhead in making a Latin Teman of tbe 
works of King James, a task undoubtedly oonsideied at 
highly important by the royal author. This translaliooi 
^^ which/' says Dr. Smith, ^< will extend to all eiemiitf the 
fame of this most learned king," appeared in 1619; and 
Mr. Young was deputed to csary the present cc^y from his 
majesty to the university of Cambridge, which was received 
Yfith ail due respect in solemn convocation. 

Mi. Young, in the year 16S0, entered into tlie married 
atate ; and, about the same time, though oiil^ in deaooa*i 
orders, was presented to the rectory of Havs m Middlesex, 
and the rectory of Llanindimel in Denbighshire,* and was 
aoon after collated to a prebend of St. Paul's, London, and 
chosen to the oflSce of treasurer of that church* In 1684, 
on the deatti of Mr. Khead, he was reconmiended by Bishop 
Williams, then keeper of the great seal, to the Duke of 
Buckingham, as the fittest person in the kingdom to succeed 
him in the o&ce of Latin secretary. Although be had 
hitherto published nothing in his own name, be appears 
to have acquired a high character among tlie leamea, both 
at home and abroad, many of the latter of whom corres- 
ponded with him upon literary topics, and received from 
faim many signal advantages. When the cckbrated John 
Selden undertook to examine the Arundelian Marbles, he 
chose Mr. Young for one of his companions; and he 
derived so much assistance from him in drawing up the 
account of these valuable remains tliat, rasing bv all 
patrons of higher rank, he inscribed his '< Marmon Arun- 
deleana" to Mr. Youog, in an afTectionate and gnlefal 
dedication, which confers honour on both the frieo&f 

The femous Alexandrian manuscript of the Old and 
New Testament being added to the treasurrs of the royal 
library, Mr. Young employed himself assiduously in ool- 
lating it with other manuscripts and printed books, and 
(x>nmiunicatcd many various readings to Grolin% Usher, 
and other learned men. It was his intention to print the 
whole in typ:^s similar to the letters of the original, and he 
published a specimen of his design ; but some circiunstances 
occurred to prevent it from being accomplished.) The cause 
of its failure Bishop Kennet ascribes to the puritans; and 
says, ^^ that religion and learning were so little countenanced 
by the parliament and assembly of divines, that they nevtr 



• Walkci*! Attemm, part il. p. SO. 

•f- Aikio*t Lives of Seldea aod Uihcr, p. S6S— 971. 

t Ibid. p. S7«. 



14d LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

called for the work, and so it was left unfinished."* What 
degree of credit is due fo this statement, every reader who 
is at all conversant with the history of this period wiH 
easily judge. Wood observes, " that the laborious task 
was undertaken by the request of the assembly of divinci,*' 
and, towards the close of the year 1645, an ordinance was 
read for printing and publishing it. He had for his assistants 
the learned Selden and Whitlocke ; but why it was never 
C(»npleted he could never leam.f Another writer affirms, 
that the premature death of Mr. Young prevented the 
accmnplishment of the design ; after which it was takoi up 
l)y Dr. Grabe.t 

Mr. Young, however, in the year 1633, edited, frcmi the 
same manuscript, the ^' Epistles of Clemens Romanus;" 
and, in the year 1637, he published, with a Latin version, 
<^ Catena Graecorum Patrum Jobum, coUectore Niceta 
Heradeae Metropolita." In 1638, he published '^ £rpo8ito 
in Canticum Canticorum Folioti Episcopi Londineniris, una 
cum Alcuini in idem Canticum Compendio." This work 
was written by Gilb. Foliot, bishop oi London, in the reign 
of Henry II. He greatly contributed to the publication of 
Walton's Polyglot Bible, particularly by his annotations in 
vol. vi. of that learned producticm. He continued in the 
office of librarian till the king's death ; and had mad^pre- 
parations for editing various other manuscripts from the 
royal library, besides those mentioned above, but the con- 
fusions of the times prevented their publication. After his 
death, most of his Greek and Latin manuscripts, collected 
and written with his own hand, came to the possesion of 
the celebrated Dr. John Owen.§ 

FrcMn the concurrent testimony of Anthony Wood and 
Dr. Walker, it is certain that Mr. Young espoused the 
sentiments and cause of the presbyterians, aiid we have no 
evidence that he ever declined from them afterwanfs; 
therefore, be is with justice classed among the puritan 

• Keiiiiet*8 Hist, of Eog. vol. iii. p. 148. 

f Wood's Albena Oxon. vol. i. p. 794. 

% Aikin^ Lives of Selden and Usher, p. 145.— This fiunous maiHMcript 
is now deposited in the British Museum $ but Dr. Grabe never accompilished 
kis desifo. However, in the year 1786, Dr. Woide, by anezampled 
laboar and care, published a most perfect fac-simile of the If em TVstoMsefff, 

Eriated in types resemblinf the characters of IIm original. Tbe Rev. Mr. 
^ber, one of the librarians of the British Museum, has lately published a 
fac-simile of the Paahns, and has also this year, 1813, announced hii 
intention of pnblisbiog the Ptntattuch in a flimilar ttjrle. 
S Wood's AthensB, vol. i. p. 794. 



D. R06BM. 149 

wortUes.* UpoD his lemoval from tbe oSceof libmiaiiy 
be retired to the liouae bf Us aon-in-law, at Bromfield' u 
Essex, where he was taken off by an acute disease, Seplen- 
ber 7, 1652, aged sixty-eiriit years. His corpse was iiitened 
in the chancel of Braaifidd church, and over his grave was 
laid a stone of black marble, with the following monumental 
inscription :f 

Here onder 

lieth the body of Patrick Young, eiq. 

Son of Sir Peter Young, knt 

who left two daughters 

N and coheh'estei. 

Elizabeth married to John Attwood, eiq. 

and Sarah married Sir Samuel Bose, knt 

He died September 7, 1662. 

Mr. Young was a penon most celebrated both for pietj 
and erudition, and one of the most distinguished Grecians 
of the age. Bishop Montague used to style him, ^< the 
patriarch of the Greeks. "t Of his character, both as a 
scholar and a man, abundant eulogies, from persons of 
literary distinction, are annexed to Dr. Smithy's biographical 
memoir of him. He was consulted by most of the great 
ftcliola^ in Europe : as, Fronto-Ducaeus, Sirmondus, reta- 
vius, Grotiiis, Yalesius, Salmasius, Vossius, Casaubon, 
Usher, Selden, and many others. 



Daniel Rogers, B. D. — This excellent divine was bom 
in the year 1573, and educated in Christ's college, Cam- 
bridge, where he was chosen fellow. He was son to Mr. 
Richard Rogers, of Wethersfield in Essex, and brother to 
Mr. Ezekiel Rogers, both eminent puritan divines. Upon 
his removal from the university, he was some time mimster 
at Haversham in Buckinghamshire; afterwards at Wetlien- 
jGeld, the place of his birth, though not the immediate suc- 
cessor of his fatlier. In the latter situation, however, he met 
with some trouble under the persecution of Bishop Laud. 
This unmerciful prelate was no sooner advanced to the see 
of London, than he proceeded with the utmost severity, 
against the nonconformists in his diocese ; and, in the year 
1689, great numbers, for preaching against arminianism and 

• Wood's Athene, vol. i. p. 7M.— Walker*! Attempt, part ii. p^ SO. 
f Biog. BriiM. yol. vii. p. 4819. { Walker's Attempt, part il. p. M. 



150 LIVES or THS PUIIITANS. 

the popish ceranonies^ were suspended and brought into 
other troubles. Amonff the numerous suflerers' from this 
intolerant prelate was Mr. Rogers.* It does not appear 
how long he ccmtinued under the ecclesiastical oppression^ 
or whether he ever obtained his lordship's favour. In the 

J ear 1643, one of his name, a godly and orthodox divine, 
ecame rector of Green's Norton in Northamptonshire, the 
living b^ing sequestered from the Bishop of Oxford for his 
malignancy against the parliament. This was most pro- 
bably the same person, but he did not enjoy the benefice 
any long time, resigning it into the hands of those from 
whom he. received the presentation.+ But whether this was, 
indeed, the same person, or another of his name, it is 
certain Mr. Rogers spent his last years among his beloved 
people at Wethersfield. 

He was a man of great parts, great grace, and great 
infirmities. He bad a natural temper so remarkablv i>ad, 
tarnishing the lustre of his eminent graces, that the mmous 
Mr. John Ward used to say, " My brotber Rogers bath 

5 race enough for tzsH> men ; but not enough for himself.** 
'hough he was a man of most distinguished talents, and 
received the high applause of all who knew him, yet he 
enjoyed so lar^e a portion of the grace of God, that he 
was never lifted up in his own eyes, but always discovered 
a very low opinion of himself. During the last year of his 
life, says our author, he exclaimed, in ray presence, *' O 
cousin ! I would exchange circumstances with the meanest 
christian in Wethersfield, who bath only the soundness of 
grace in him."j: Afterwards, he was seized with a quartan 
ague, which greatly affected his head; and though he 
recovered, he continued to be exercised with painful appre* 
hensions about the safety of his own state. He often said, 
" To die is work by itself." But as the hour of his dq)ar« 
ture approached, the frame of his mind b^ame more serene 
and happy ; and, upon a review of the work of Christ, be 
oft^n exclaimed, " O glorious redemption." He died in 
the month of September, 1652, about eighty years of afe.^ 
Crosby intimates that Mr. Rogers was inclined to the pecanar 
sentunents of the baptists ; and that he candidly declared 
that he was not convinced, by any part of scripture^ in 
fiivbur of infant baptism.)) 

• Prynne*s Cant. Doom^, p. 373. f Keonet*! Chronicle, p. 809. 

t Finnin*8 Real Christian, Pref. 

S MS. Chronolo|ry, toI. ii. p. 485. (19 | 4.) 

I Craibj't Hbf . of BapCiits, irol. I. p. 107. 



COTTON., 151 

Titis, howeyer, is a very paitial and inconect statanenty 
IS will appear from Mr. Hogers's own words. Speaking of 
tte improper use made of ms words by a Gertain writer, iA 
ftfoor of the peculiar sentiments of the baptists, he says, 
^If I were to answer that anabaptist, I should answer mm 
i&Mcni el cantemptUj by silence and contempt. For why 
ihoakl I not ? since in that very place of my ^' Sacraments,'' 
part L p. 78, 79, where I confute those schismatics, he 
mtches my words trom their own defence. My words 
aie, < I confess myself unconvinced by any demonstration of 
fcriptare for psBdobaptism;' meaning by any posUrve text. 
What is that to help him, except I thought diere were no 
other arguments to evince it ? JVow, what I think of that 
mj next words shew. I need not transcribe them. In a 
word, this I say, though I know none, yet that is no argo* 
ment fox the non-baptizing of infants; since so. many 
scciptiires are sufficiently convinciog for it. Therefore, this 
mnt €f ^positive text must no more exclude infants, than the 
like reason should disannul the christian sabbath, or women 
fipm partaking of the Lord's supper."* Mr. Rogers was a 
divine of great fame and usefulness in his day. He is 
dassed among the learned writers and fellows of Christ's 
college, Cambridge, and styled a divine of vast parts.f 



Works. — 1. David's Cost, wherein every one who is desirous 
to serve God aright may see what it must Cost him, 1619. — % A 
Practical Catechism, 1633. — 3. Naaman the Syrian, his Disease and 
Care, 1642. — 4. Matrimonial Honour, 1642.-- 5. A Treatise on ths 
Sacraments. 



John Cotton, B. D. — This celebrated person was bom 
«t Derby, December 4, 1585, and educated first in Trinitv, 
then Emanuel college, Cambridge, in the latter of which be 
was chosen fellow. He received some convictions of sia 
under the awakening sermons of the famous Mr. Perkins ; 
hat his prejudice and enmity against true holiness, and 
against this holy man's preaching, were so great, that when 
he heard the bell toll for Mr. Perkins's funeral, he greatly 
igoiced that he was then delivered from his heart-searching 
niinistry. The remembrance of this, when afterwards he 
became acquainted with the gospel, almost broke his heart. 
The ministry of the excellent Dr. Sibbs proved the meant 

* Marshairs Defence of Infant Baptiim, p. ft, 6. Edit. 1646. 
> FoUer'ft Hist, of Cam. p. 92. 



I5t LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

of Us awakeniDg, and of leadiiiff him to the knowledge of 
Jesus Christ ; yei he laboured tbiee years under the most 
disoQusolate and painful apprehensions, before he expe* 
rienced jey and peace in believing. After this im- 
portant change, Mr. Cotton had to preach at St. Manr's 
church, when the wits of the various colleges expected a 
sermon flourishing with all the learning of the university: ; 
but, to their great disappointment and mortification, he 
preached a judicious and impressive discourse on repent-* 
auce, shooting the arrows of conviction to their consciences. 
And though most of the coU^iuns manift^sted their disap- 
probation, this sermon was instruipental, under Grod, in the 
conversion of the celebrated Dr. Preston, then fellow of 
Queen's college. From this time, the greatest intimacy and 
affection subsisted betwixt these two learned divines. 

Mr. Cotton, upon his leaving the university, was chosen 
minister of Boi^n in Lincolnshire; but Bishop Barlow, 
suspecting him to be infected with puritanlsm, used Jus 
utmost endeavours to prevent his settlement. The learned 
prelate could openly object nothing, only " that Mr. Cotton 
was young, and, on this account, not suitable to be fixed 
among so numerous and factious a people." Indeed, Mr. 
Cotton had so much modesty, and so low an opinion of 
himself, that he at first agreed with his lordship, and 
intended to have returned to Cambridge ; but his numerous 
friends, anxious to have him settled among them, persuaded 
t|ie bishop of his great learning and worth, who at length 
granted his institution.* 

Mr. Cotton met with a more favourable reception than 
could have been expected. From the convictions and 
distress under. which he laboured, ail the people clearly saw. 
Chat, instead of serving any particular party, his great 
Ccmcem for some time was about his own salvation. J^t, 
afterwards, the troubles in the town, occasioned by « the 
wrminian controversy, became so great, that he was obliged 
to use his utmost endeavours to allay them. .And h^ is said 
to have so defended the scripture doctrines of election, par* 
ticulfir redemption, effectual calluig, and the final per^e- 
Terance of the saints, that, by the blessing of Grod up<Hi 
Us efforts, the foundations of arminianism were destroyed, 
those disputes ceased, and the arminian tenets were heard of 
no more.t 

Mr.JCotton married Mrs. Elizabeth Horrocks, sister to 

• Mather's Hist, of New Eugland, b. iii. p. 14—16. 

f Ibid. p. 17. ^Clark's LiTes aoocKed to tis Marty rologio, p. 8|0k 



COTTON; I5S 

Mr. James Horrocks, an excdlent minister in LancasUie. 
On the very day of his marriage, it is observed, he inl 
obtained that assurance of his inlerrat in the favour of God, 
"which he never lost to the day of his death. He therefbie 
u^ed to say, ^< The Lord made that day a day of dombk 
marriage." 

This worthy servant of Christ having been about three 
years at Boston, began to examine the corruptions in the 
church, and to scruple conformity to its supenlitious cere* 
monies. He did not keep his sentiments to himself. What* 
ever appeared to him to be tnUh^ he freely and fully made 
known to others. Such, indeed, was the influence of kit 
opinions, that nearly all the inhabitants of tlie town, it k 
said, espoused his sentiments, and became decided noncon* 
formists. But complaints were presently brought a^inst 
him to the bishop, and he was suspended from his ministry. 
During his suniension, his liberty was attend to him, with 
very great preferment, if he would have conformed to the 
ecclesiastical ceremonies, though it were only in one act 
JBut he refused to pollute his conscience by the observance 
of such base, worldly allurements. He did not, however^ 
continue long under the ecclesiastical censure, but was sooa 
restored to his beloved work of preaching.* 

The storm haying blown over, he enjoyed rest for many 
years ; and, during the calm, iVas always abounding in the 
work of the Lord. In addition to his constant preachings 
and visiting his people trom house to house, he took many 
young men under his tuition, from Camtnridb^, Holkn^ 
and Germany. Dr. Preston usually recommenued his pupib 
to finish their studies under Mr. Cotton. His indefatigable 
labours, both as pastor and tutor, proved a blessing to 
many. There was so pleasing a reformation among the 
people of Boston, that superstition and profaneness weie 
nearly extinguished, and practical religion abounded in 
eyety corner of the town. The mayor and moat of the 
magistrates were styled puritans, and the ungodly paitj 
became insignificant. 

Mr. Cotton, after a close and unbiassed examination of ' 
the controversy about ecclesiastical discipline, was de- - 
cidedly of opinion, that it was unhiwful for any church to 
enjoin rites and ceremonies not enjoined by Jesus Christ ^ 
or his apostles ; that a bishop, according to the New Terfa. 
meat, was appomted to rule no larger a diocese than ooe 

« Matktr't HiH. k Ui. p. IT. 



154 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

congregation ; and that the kejrs of govemment were ^ivei 
to every ccMigr^ational church. The public "worship of 
Grod at Boston was, therefore, conducted without the fetter* 
and formality of a liturgy, pr those vestments and cere** 
monies which were imposed by the commandments oi men. 
Many of his people united together as a christian church, 
and enjoyed the fellowship of the gospel, upon congre- 
gational principles, ^' entering into a covenant with God 
and one another, to follow the Lord Jesus in all the purify 
of gospel worship. "♦ 

Mr. Cotton was a celebrated divine, apd obtained a most 
distinguished reputation. The best of men greatly heed 
him, and the worst greatly feared him. For his gpreat 
learning, piety, and usefulness, he was highly esteemed by 
Bishop Williams, who, when he was keeper of the great 
seal, recommended! him to the king, and his majesty allowed 
him, notwithstanding his nonconformity, to continue in t&e 
exercise* of his ministry. + The celebrated Archbishop 
Usher had the highest opinion of him, and maintained a 
friendly correspondence with him. One of his letters, 
written by the learned prelate's request, dated May Slj 
1636, is upon the subject of predestination.} He was also 

freatiy admired and esteemed by the Earl of Dorset, who 
indly promised him, that, if he should ever want a friend 
at court, he would use all his interest in his favour.^ But, 
in the midst of all this honour and applause, his meekqess 
and humility remained untarnished. 

Mr, -Cotton, having preached at Bost(Hi nearly iweAtj 
years, found it impossible to continue any longer. Hfe 
beheld the storm of persecntion Ikst approaching, and 
wisely withdrew from it, A debauched fellow of Boston, 
to be revenged upon the magistrates, for punishing him 
according to bis deserts, brought complaints against them^ 
together with Mr. Cotton, in the high commission court ; 
and sworcjll " That neither the minister nor tl^e magbtrntei 
of the town kneeled at the sacrament, nor observed certain 

• Mather's History, b. iii. p. 18. 

+ FuHer's Church Hirtory, b. \x. p. 2«S. 

i Parr's lilfe of Usher, p. 3S8. ' 

S Clark's Lives, p. 280, 22\. \ 

I When this vile infonner first appeared before the cpminitsioD, he eon- 
plained only of the magistrates ; and when the spiritual rulers said hh 
must include Mr. Cotton, he leplied, ^* Nay, the iniui«t«r;}4 an lioaest auw, 
and never did me any \vrong." But when they signified that all his com- 
plaints would be to no purpose, unless he included th« miniiteri he twort 
•gainst them all.--4fa/Acr*« Hist. b. iii. p, 19. 



COTTON. 155 

9 

(Bcdenastidal ceremonies." Bishop Land having got the 
leuM of goyernment into his own hand, by his arbitrarj 
influence, lett^^rs missive were sent down to apprehend 
Ifr.CSoCton and bring him before the commission ; blithe 
viwiy concealed himself. Great intercessions were made fiir 
Itim by the £ari of Dorset and others, but all to no purposa 
This worthy earl sent him word, '' That if he had been 
^ goilty of drunkenness or uncleaoness, or any such lesser 
^ crime, be could have obtained his pardon : but as he was 
^'gailty of nonconformifv and purltanism, the crime was 
^ Qnpairdonible. Therefore," said he, '^ vou must fly for 
"your safi»ty."* So it was undoubtedly from painful 
experioice, that Mr. Cotton afterwards made the following 
complaint: ^^ The ecclesiastical courts," said he, ^' are lik^ 
tiie courts of the high-priests and pharisees, which Solomon, 
by a spirit of prophesy, styleth, dens of lions^ and mountamt 
of leopards. Those who have had to do with them have 
Ifonod thcfm to be markets of the sins of the people, the 
cages of uncleanness, the forgers of extortion, the taber- 
nacles of bribery, and contrary to the end of civil govern- 
ment; which is the punishment of evil-doers, and the 
praise of them that do well." 

Am this holy and excellent divine had no prospect of ever 
enjoying his liberty in his native country, he resolved to 
transpoit himself to New England. Upon his departure 
from Boston, he wrote a very modest and pious letter to the 
Bishop of Lincoln, dated May 7, 1633, signifying bis 
resignation of the living.t Dr. Anthony Tuckney, after- 
waras silenced in 1692,^ who had for some time been his 
assistant, became his successor in the pastoral office. Mr. 
Cotton's resolution to remove into a foreign land was not 
hasty and without consideration : the undertaking was the 
lesalt of mature examination, and founded upon most sub* 
stantial reasons. He observed, that the door of public 
Qsefulness was shut against him in his own country ; that 
oar Lord commands his disciples, when they are persecuted 

• Mather's Hist. b. iii. p. 19.— While this pious, learned and aseful 
dWioe was treated with great severity, persons guilty of drunkenness 
aad other fool crimes, very common among the clergy of those times, were 
very seldom noticed. One instance, however, it may be proper here to 
■MBtion* The mayor of Arundel, in the year 1634, imprisoned a clergy- 
maa for notorious drunkenness and misbehaviour, though he continued oniyx 
oae oiffat aoder confinement. But, surprising as it may appear, the 
mayor, for this act of justice, was fined and censured by the hifh com« 
Bisiion at Lambeth. — Huntley's Prelate*' Usurpations, p. 164* 

f Massachasets' Papers, 249—251. 

X Palmer*! Noaaon. Mem. vol. i. p. 264. 



158 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

■ymxl ; «Iiir.b wa« donft arcoidinglr. Till this platfom 
«M ndfiitttfl, tin: ch'irrhn f>t' N'ew Enfrlaivl made freqaent 
mK of Mr. iUiWm\ l>ook, entitled, '^ Tfie Keys of the King- 

t'b'tH rrhhn.tril dij'iae, ftfter his removal to New England, 
hiiUl n frir^mlly <»fTopo.idettce willi muiy persons of dis- 
lirif^ion in liiii iiatire coiihtr/, among whom was the Pio- 
Irctin (iTfmtWKil, One of the prolrctor'n It-tters, written with 
hin own liantt, dat^d fictober 2, 1653, is here insrrted 
w^rlMUirn, for the iviti<ifaclinn nf every inquisitire reader. 
TlifiaddremJii, « To my estcnned frit-nd, Mr. Cotton, pastor 
Uf the f;hiirrh at Boston m New EnglaJid;" and the letter 
ilnelCit 'U) follown: 

" Worthy Nir, nml my christian friend, 

** I rccrjml yours a few daycs since. It was welcome 
*' to ine IfccaiiM; iii;r|iitl by you, whome I love and honour 
•' in IIh! Iioni : liiit more to six some of the same groands of 
" our ttrtiiifff'M iitirrin^<t in you, that Jiave in us to quiet ui 
** to our workc, and iiiip]iort u.i therein, which hath had 
" i!:miU:ht ililtinillye in our engagement in Scotland, by 
« reiipion wfi; have hnd to ilo with some whoc were (1 
" verily Ihinkc,) i^imII v ; l)ut, through weakncsse and the 
*' Niilitillyi! of .Hutan, invo1v<xl in inlcTests ugainst the Lord 
**Hmi liJN jicople. With what tciidernuhsc wee have pn>- 
" cw-ilcd with Hiir-ii, mid that in synccritye, our papers 
" (whirh I NiipjiONi- you hitve scMMi) will in part manifest, 
" mill I fr'ivn yoM wmie comfortable uttsurnnce off. The 
•' liord hiith marvel hniNly n|>]M:iintl even agaimt them ; and 
" now iifTiiiiie, when all the power wns devolved into the 
•' HcoltiNli kinge and ninlignant partye, they invadinge 
*■ ('jiglaiitl, fh<^ Ijortl rnyiuHr upon Ihcm such snares aa the 
" InrltMol will shew, imfy the narrative is short in this, that 
" itl'tbi'tr whole nrmio, when the narrative was framed, not 
*^ llvitui' their whuh) annieretiirnrtl. Surely, sir, the Lord 
" la yrMtly to bit fi-nred ns to be pntiset]. Wee uL-ed yoor 
" '-— '-J fhif ug, tniich ns ever; how shall we beliave 
■ luoh niercycs'f Whiil is ihe Lord a 
lesle* are now l'iilfillii»ge ? Who 
I kuow his will, (o <io€: his will, 

thus in a 
Tfst of our 
poocwe&ke 




POTTON. IS 

^' crealuTe, aad not worthye of the name of a wonne; yet 
^^ accepted to serve the Lovd and his people. Indeed, aqr 
^^ dear friend, between you and me, you knowe not mc; my 
'< weaknesses, my inordinate panions, my unskilifullneme, 
<^ and every way unfitnesse to my worke ; yctt the Loid, 
^' who will have mercjre on wboroe he will, does as yim 
^^ see. Pmj for me. Salute all christian friendes, though 
^< unknown. 

<^ I rest your aflSsctiooate friend to serve vou, 

" O. Cromwell.*'* 
Mr. Cotton was a divine indefatigably laborious all hi<i 
days. He lived under a conviction of that sacred precept, 
^^ Be not slothful in business, but fervent in spirit, servini; 
the Lord." He rose eariy, and commonly studied twelve 
hours a day, accounting that a schoiars dau. He was rr- 
tcdved to wear out, rather than rust out. tte was a man of 
ffreat literary acquirements, and so well acquainted with the 
Hebrew, that he could convene in it with great ease. He 
was a most celebrated preacher, delivering tlie great truths 
of the gospel with so much gravity and judgment, that his 
hearers were struck with admiration and revf*rence ; and 
with so much plainness, that persons of the weakest capacity 
might understand him. He was remarkable for practical 
religion and christian benevolence, and his whole life was 
filled with acts of piety and charity. He was a pt^rson of 
great modesty, humility, and good-nature : and though hr 
was often insulted by angry men, he never expressed the 
least resentment. A conceited ignorant man once followed 
him home ailcr sermon, and with frowns told him his 
preaching was become dark or flat. To whom he meekly 
replied, " Both, brother; it may be both : let me have your 
prayers that it may be otherwise." At another time, Mr. 
Cotton being kisulteil by an impudent fellow in the street, 
who called him an old fool, replied, " I confess I am so. 
The Lord make thee and me wiser than we are, even wise 
imto salvation." We give one instance more. Mr. Cotton 
having, by the desire of a friend, given his thoughts upon 
the doctrine of reprobation, against the exceptions of the 
anninians, the manuscript fell into the hands of the cele- 
brated Dr. Twisse, who published a refutation of it ; upon 
Vdlich Mr. Cotton thus modestly observed, " I hope God 
will give me an opportunity to consider the doclor^s labour 
aC Jov^ I bless the Lord, who has made uic willing to bt 

*i 1188. No. 4i5S. 



•156 JAVES OF THE PURITANS. 

in one place to flee unto another; and that he wished to 
enjoy all the ordinances of God in their scriptural 
purity-* > 

Taking leave of his numerous friends at Boston^ he 
tmvelled to London in disguise. Upon his arrival in the 
nietropolii^, several eminent ministers proposed to have a 
conference, with a view to persuade him to conform, to 
which he readily consented. At this conference, all their 
arguments in favour of conformity were first produced ; aH 
of which Mr. Cotton is said to have answered to their 
satisfection. He then gave them his arguments for noncon- 
formity, with his reasons for resolving to leave the country, 
rather than conform to the ecclesiastical impositicms. Ir 
the conclusion, instead of bringing Mr. Cotton to embrace 
their sentiments and conform, they all espoused his opinions ; 
and from that time Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Thomas Groodwin, 
Mr. Philip Nye, Mr. John Davenport, Mr. Henry Whit- 
field, and some others, became avowed nonconformists, for 
which they were all afterwards driven 3nto a foreign land.t 
Mr. Davenport, one of the opponents, giving his opinion of 
this conference, thus observes: " Mr. Cotton," says he^ 
'' answered all our arguments with great evidence of scrip- 
ture,' composedness of mind, mildness of spirit, constant 
adherence to his principles ; keeping them unshaken, and 
himsdf from varying from them, by any thing that was 
spoken. The reason o£ our desiring to confer with him, 
rather than any other, upon these weighty points, was, our 
former knowledge of his approved godliness, excellent 
learning, sound judgment, eminent gravity, and sweet 
temper, whereby he could quietly bear with those who 
differed from him."{ 

Mr. Cotton having fully resolved upon crossing the 
Atlantic, John Winthrop, esq. governor of the hew planta- 
tion, procured letters of recommendation from the churck 
at Boston to their brethren in New England. He took 
shipping 4;he beginning of July, 1633, and arrived at 
Boston in New England the beginning of September fol- 
lowing. He had for his companions in the voyage^ il^ 
e]|;celknt Mr. Hooker and Mr. Stone, both driven from their 
native country by the intolerant proceedings of the bishopfii** 
After being about a month at sea, Mrs. Cotton. wa9 
•delivered of a son ; who, from th^ place of his birth, wail 

* Massachasetf* Papers, p. 55— 6T. 
t Mather*s Hist. b. iii. p. SO— 218. 
t Norton*! Life of Mr. Cottoli, p. 32, 33. Bdit. 1618. 



COTTON. 137 

ealled Seaborn. Upon their arriyal at Boston, the town, 
.which had been hitherto called Trimountain, on account 
of its three hills, was, out of respect to Mr. Cotton, who 
went from Boston in Lincolnshire, now called Boston.* 

This learned divine, presently after his arrival, was chosen 
colleague to Mr. John Wilson, in the church at Bostoo, 
which soon proved an unspeakable blessing to the town. II 
was in part owing to his wudom and influence, that in a few 
years it became the cwital dfthe whole province. Pkevioua 
to Mr. Cotton's arrival, the civil and ecclesiastical constitu- 
tions were both in a veir shattered state ; but, by his vigoious 
and judicious efforts, the utmost order and agreement weie 
promoted; and, it is said, he was more useful than any 
other person in the settlement of the civil as well as the 
ecu^Iesiastical polity of New England. f About the year 
1642, when the episcopal power began to decline in Bog* 
land, several of the leading members in both houses of par* 
liament wrote to him, warmly pressing him to return to his 
native country; lyt he, enjoying the blessings of peace 
and safety, was unwilling to venture out in the midst of the 
•ftorm.t He therefore continued at Boston to the day of 
his death. 

About this time, numerous antinomian and fiimilistic 
errors b^an to be propagated in various parts of New 
England, particularly at Boston. This raised a dreadful 
tempest among the people. Mrs. Hutchinson, and Mr. 
Wheelwright, h&c brother, were at the head, and Mr. Cotton 
was deeply involved in the unhappy affair. Indeed, some 
of our historians do not hesitate to affirm, that he imbibed 
s(Hne <^ their wild opinions ; but, upon farther examination) 
he saw his error, and renounced them.$ Others deny the 
whole charge, and endeavour to prove it altogether a slander 
intended to injure his reputation.! All, however, agree, 
that at the synod of Cambridge, in 1646, he openly 
declared his utter dislike of all those opinions, as being 
some of them heretical, some blasphemous, some erroneous, 
and all incontrruous. At the above synod, Mr. Cotton, 
Mr. Richard Mather, and Mr. Ralph Iwtridge, were each 
appointed to draw up a platform of church government, 
with a view to collect one out of them all at the next 



« Morse and Parish's Hist, of Kew Emm. p. 40. t Ibid. p. 54. 

t Mather*i Hisf . b. iii. 90-^StS. 

^ Bailie*s Dissuaiiife, p, 57— 59.— Morse and P^bh*i Hist. p. 142. 
I Matber^s Hist. b. iii. p. SI.— Mrce'i YiadkirtioD, part i. p. 907. 



15S LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

•jnod ; vrhich was done accordingly. Till this platform 
ivas adoutcd, tiie churches of New Lnfflaud made freqaeiit 
use of Mr. Cotton's book, entitled, ^^ Tite Keys of the King- 
dom oi Meaven."* 

This celebrated dirine, after his removal to Now Ungland, 
held a friendly r4)rreK|)0iidetice with many persons of dis- 
tinction in liis native country, among whom was the Pro- 
tector Cromwell. One* of the proti*ctor*h letters, written with 
bis own hand, dated October Hj, 1659, is here inserted 
verbatim, for the satisfaction of every inquisitive reader. 
The address is, ^^ To my esteemed friend, Mr. Cotton, pastor 
io the church at Boston in New England ;" and the letter 
itself is m follows : 

" Worthy sir, and my christian friend, 

^^ I received yours a few dayos since. It was welcome 
^ to me b(*cause signed by you, whome I love and honour 
<^ in the Lord : but more to see some of the same groondaof 
*< our actingrs stirringe in you, that have in us io quiet'iM 
^< to our worke, and support us therein, which hath hid 
<< greatest diflicultye in our engagement in Hcotland, br 
^ reascm wee have lind to do with some whoe were (I 
<^ verily tliinke,) g(xll^ ; but, through weaknesse and the 
^< subtiltye of 8aian, mvolved in interests against the Lord 
<< and his people. With what fenderncihsc wee have pro- 
<< ceeded with such, and that in synccritye, our papers 
<^ (which I suppose you have s<*en) will in part manifest, 
<^ ami I give you mmc comfortable ahsurance off. The 
^< Ijord hath marvellously api^eared even against them ; ami 
^ liow ngaine, when all the power was devolved into the 
<< Scottish kinge and malignant partye, they invadinM 
^ England, the Ijord ravnetl upon therm such snares as toe 
<< incfosed will shew, cmly the narrative is sh(»rt in this, that 
^< of their whole nrmie, when the narrative wfis framed, m>t 
<^ five of th(4r whole armie returned. Surely, sir, the Loid 
" is greatly to be feared as to be pmis(Ml. W<*e need your 
'* prayers in this as much as ever ; how shall we Ijehaye 
^ ourselves after such niercves ? What is the Lord a 
^ doeinge ? What prophesies are now fulfillinge ? Who 
<< is a God like ours ? To know his will, to doe liis will^ 
*< are both of him. 

^< I tooke this lilx^rtye from businesse to salute tlius in a 
*^ word : truly I am ready to serve you, and the n*st of our 
<^ brethren, and the churches with you. I am a poor wealiia 

• Mom sad ParUh'i IlUt. p. 14A, 146. 



POTTON. . IS 

^' ciealaref and ikH werthye of the name of a woime; yet 
^^ accepted to serve the Lotd and hb people. Indeed, my 
^^ dear friend, between you and me, you knowe not me; my 
'< weaknesses, my inordinate passions, my unskillfuUnesse^ 
<^ and every way unfitnesse to my worke ; yett the Loid, 
^^ who. will have mercye on whome he will, does as you 
^^ see. Fray for me. Salute all christian friendes, though 
^^ unknown. 

<^ I rest your affsctiooate friend to serve you, 

" O. Cromwell."* 
Mn Cotton was a divine indefatigably laborious all his 
days. . He lived under a conviction of that sacred precept, 
^^ Be not slothful in business, but fervent in spirit, serving 
the Lord." He rose early, and commonly studied twelve 
hours a day, accounting that a scholars dau. He was re- 
served to wear out, rather than rust out. £le was a man of 
Seat literary acquirements, and so well acquainted with the 
iebrew, that he could converse in it with great ease. He 
was a most celebrated preacher, delivering tlie great truths 
of the gospel with sarouch gravity and judgment, that his 
hearers were struck with admiration and reverence; and 
.with io much plainness, that persons of the weakest capacity 
might understand him. He was remarkable for practical 
religion and christian benevolence, and his whole life was 
filled with acts of piety and charity. He was a person of 
great modesty^ humility, and good<nature ; and though he 
was often insulted by angry men, he never expressed the 
least resentment. A conceited ignorant man once followed 
him home after sermon, and with frowns told him his 
preaching was become dark or flat. To whom he meekly 
replied, " Both, brother; it may be both : let me have your 
prayers that it may be otherwise." At another time, Mr. 
Cotton being kisulted by an impudent fellow in the street, 
who called him an old fool, replied, ^^ I confess I am so. 
The Lord make thee and me wiser than we are, even wise 
unto salvation." We give one instance more. Mr. Cotton 
hfiving, by the desire of a friend, given his thoughts upon 
the doctrine of reprobation, against the exceptions of the 
arminians, the manuscript fell into the hands of the cele- 
brated Dr. Twisse, who published a refutation of it;* np<ni 
Vhich Mr. Cotton thus modestly observed, ^^ I hope God 
will give me an opportunity to consider the doctor's labour 
•f love. X bless the Lord, whp has made me willing to bt 

■ 

• Slo«M*i 1188. No. 4156. 



MO LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

tenght by a meaner dkciple than such a doctor; iriioit 
acholastical acuteness, pregnancy of ivit, solidity of judg- 
ment, and dexterity of argument, all orthodox dtrinei so 
lii^hly honour; and before ^hom all arminians and jesuils 
fi£ ^wn in silence. Grod forbid that I should shut my 
eyes against any light brought to me by him. Only I desiie 
not to be condemned as a mlagian or arminian benHre I am 
heard."* 

Mr. Cotton often wished not to outlive his work. Herein 
his desire was granted; for his last illness was yery shoit 
Haying taken feaye of his beloyed study, he said to Mn. 
Cotton, ^'I shall go into that room no moreJ*^ He wit 
desirous to depart, that he might enjoy Ghrist and the 
company of glorified saints, particularly his old inendiy 
Preston, Ames, Hildersham, Dod, and others, who had bem 
peculiarly dear to him while he liyed. Haying set Ms 
house in order, and taken a sdemn leaye of the magiattatpi 
and ministers of the colony, who came to see him- ia his 
sickness, he sweetly slept in Jesus, December 83, 16fil^ 
aged sixty«seyen years. His remains were interred with 
great lamentation and funeral solemnity. He is denomi- 
nated ^^ an uniyersal scholar, ^a liying system of the lifaenl 
arts, and a walking library. He was deeply skilled in 
Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, and an extraoidinary thcMik^ 
gian."i Fuller has honoured him with a place amonir the 
learned writers and fellows cMf £manuel college, Cam* 
bridge, t Dr. Cottcm Mather, the pious historian, was his 
grandson. 

His Works.— -1. The Way of Ufe, 1641.--2. Doubts of Pradssli: 
nation, 1646. — 3. Exposition upon Ecclesiastes and Cwilicleay 164& 
—A, The Way of the CoDg^g^tional Cbarches Cleared, 10i8.T- 
5. Commentary on the First Epistle of John, 1656.-~6. BCflk fer 
Babes. — 7. A Treatise on thet New Covenant. — 8. Yarioas S ei md— ■ 
~9. Answer to Mr. BaU about Forms of Prayer. — la The Grooadt 
and Ends of Infant Baptism. — 1 1. A Discourse upon Singiqg PnliM. 
— i2. An Abstract of the Laws in Christ's Kingdom, for Civil 
Government — la A Treatise on the Holiness of Church Members. 
— 14. A Discourse on Things Indifferent— 15. The Ke5fs of Hm 
Kingdom of HeaTen.— 16. Answer to Mr. Cawdry.— 17. Tbe BloodT 
Tenet Washed and made White in the Blood of the LaiQli.— 19.-A 
Copy of a Letter of Mr. Cotton's of Boston in New Englandi sent in 
Answer of certain Objections made agaiivt their DisoipliijH» and 
Orders there, directed to a Friend. 

« Mather's Hist. b. fii. p. 86—29. f Ibli. p^ flfk * 

J FuUer'i Hist, of Cam. p. 147. 



tYFORD. 161 

William Ltpord, B. D. — This worthy dirine was 
bom at Pi^smore, near Newbury, in Berlcshire, ab'^ut the 
year 1598, ami educated in Magdalen college, Oxrord, 
where he was chosen fellow. While at <he university, he 
entered upon the ministerial function, and in the year 1631 
was admitted to the reading of tlie sentenccK in the college. 
Afterwards, by fivour o- the Karl of Bristol, he became 
minister of Sherborn in Dorsetshire, where he coniiuued the 
rest of^is days. Upon the commencement of the civil wmts 
he espoused the cause of the parliament ; and in l64S.was 
nominated one of the assembly of divines ; but choosing 
lather to continue in his stated ministerial exercises, he did 
not sit among them. He was zealous and laborious in the 
work of the Lord, taking unspeakable pleasure in every 
duty of the pastoral othce. He fed the lambs in Christ 8 
'flock, and possessed an excellent talent for catechizing 
youth, wherein he was eminently useful. 

Mr. Lyford was a divine of an excellent spirit, and an 
avowed advocate of peace and moderation. He took no 
active part in the public broils of the nation ; but drew up 
his thoughts in writing, in a work entitled, ^^ (?asf*8 of 
Conscience propounded in the Time of Rebellion.'' This 
work, according to Bishop Kennet, was written with plain- 
ncss, modesty, and impartiality, in discussion of the three 
following questions : — " 1. Whether it be lawful to keep 
days of public rejoicing and tlianksrrivinff for victories in a 
civil war ?*-^2. Whether it be lawful tor the civil magistrate 
to impa<ie an act of worship in itself unlawful, or estt^emcd 
to be so, on men of a different judgment, especially on a 
minister, who must needs be not only a passive hearer, but 
an actor in the business, under temporal pains of seques- 
tration, impri^nment, deprivation, &c. ? — 3. Whether a 
minister performing such an act of worship, upon such a 
force or fear, or for temporal ends, does perform an accept- 
able service unto God?"* He answered each of these 
.questions in the negative^ in which he discovered his senti- 
ments relative to the controversies of the day. 
, Mr. Lyford, during his last sickness, ^^ looked for the 
appearance of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ.'* 
This supported and comforted his mind under a long and 
painful illness. During the whole of it, his confidence was 
fixed on Jesus Christ, the rock of ages. In his letters 
written at this period, he thus expressed himself: <^ However 

« Kennel'^ Chrooicle, p. S49. 
▼OL, III. H 



. 16f LIVES OF THE jPUftlTANS* 

it may please God to dispose of my h^th, I rest cooofoitribly 
assured of his everlasting love |o me in his Son Jesus Christ ; 
who loved me and gave liimself for me. In the ,\ise of th^ 
means, I wait to see what the Lord will do with me. I know 
it^wUl be well with me at last, having so many pledges of his 
everlastinjg^ love to support me. Mv pasting coa^Qme9» Apd 
my appetite faileth ; but my God faileUi not. In lqp,4Mid in 
contemplation of the great things he hath done for pnei wd 
the far greater things he will yet do, I find refred^injent*" 
A few dnys previous to his dissojujtipny his friepd^ dewiffif 
liim to give tpem son^e account of hi^ hopes and comforts, be 
cheerfully replied^ " I will let yov know ho\v it is with m^, 
and on what ground I stand. Here is the ^ye, tfaje wnA oif 
God and devouring flames, the gr^at pumsbment of siji, on 
the one hand ; and here am J, a poor sinjUi creature, on th^ 
other: but this is my comfort, the covenant pf ^pracp, es- 
tablished upon so many sure promises, hath satuf^ .jaH. 
>The act of oblivion passed in heaven is, / will forgive their 
, iniquities, and their sins mil J remember no more^ sakh th 
Lord. This is the blessed privilege of all within the covfr> 
nant, of whom I am one. For 1 find the spirit which is 
promised bestowed upon me, in the blessed effects of it 
upon my soul, as the pledge of God's eternal love. By this 
I know my interest in Christ, who is the foundation of tha 
covenant; and therefore, my sins being laid on him, shall 
never be charged on me.'' . As the earthly house of his taber^ 
nacle was dissolving, with great difiiculty, he said, ^ My dia* 
solution is more comfortable to me than my marriage-day. 
Thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our 
Lord Jesus Christ." And when the trying moment arrived, 
he cheerfully surrendered his soul into the hands of his dear 
Redeemer, October S, 1653, aged fifty-five years, when his 
remains were interred in tlie chancel of Sherboum church.* 
Fuller observes, that Mr. Lyford was ** a man of a pleasant 
countenance, a courteous carriage, a meek spirit, great mo- 
desty, and that his memory is still preserved in his learned 
works.^t Wood says, " he joined the presbyterians, was 
much followed for his edifying and practical preaching, and 

. that his works savour much of piety; zeal, and sincerity, but 
shew him to have been a zealous Calvinist}'t Pr. Walker 

' i^rms^ *^ that he suffered much from the faction, both in hif 

« Memorials of Mr. Lyford, preSzed to his *< Plain lIaB*i aesiea fizea- 
ciscd.** Edit. 1655. 

f Fuller's Worthies part i. p. 96. 
% Wood:s Athene Oacoti. vol. II. p'. OS. 



/ 



LATHORP. UiS 

* ... 

name and mimstij; and they wondered/' says be, ^diat do 
hohf a insm as he was, should doat so mndi on kings, biriiopa, 
die Coimmon Prayer, and ceremonies."* He bequeadied, ht 
his last will and testament, the sum of one hundred and twenty 
pounds to Magdalen coUege, Oxford, ^* in ^titude for the 
advantages whith he had diere enjoyed ; and m restrtution for 
a stim of money, which, accordi^ to the corrupt custom of 
those itimes, Ve bild f e^ceived for the ^sienation of his fellow- 
ship."! Mr. tVinds B^iifield, srff^rwwds ejected m 1662, 
Mrab his ^cce^sor at ^erborti4 

His Works. — 1. PrjncTples of Faith and a Good Coascienoc, 
1642.— 2. An ApcAogie fbV ika t^iblic Ministrie and In&at-fiaplStB, 
16&3,— a The PiRin Mlua's Senses £xerdsed Id discera both Gooil 
and £nl; or, a Discovery of the Errors, Hereries, and ftlamhrmifli 
of these Times, 1656.-^ A Legacy; or, an Help to Yoaqg P^opl^ 
to prepare them for ttie Sacrament, 165^ — 6. Cases of ^-ooscience, 
tof^poandcd in the time of ttebeHion, Resolved, 1061. — 6. ConscieDCv 
Infontoed, toachin; onr late Thank^girings, 1661.-7. SerMM on 
▼atiMA OecaiioiM. 



, John Lathorp. — ^This excellent person M-as minister of 
Egerton in Kent; but, renouncing his episcopal ^^dillatiol^ 
was chosen pastor of the independent church, under the cm 
c»f Mr. Henry Jacob, London, upon Mr. Jacob's retifing to 
America. This little society, which had hitfaerlD assembled 
in private^ moying from place to place, began about this 
time to assume courage, and ventured to shew itself in public. 
It was not long, however, before the congregation ^-as di^ 
covered by Tomlinson, the bishop's pursuivant, at the house 
6f Mr. Humphrey Bamet, a brewer's clerk, in Blackfnars ^ 
when, April 9Qy l)i|d2, forty-two of them were apprehended, 
and only eighteen escaped. Of those who were taken, some 
were cbnfined in the Clink, some in New Prison, and others 
in the Gatehouse, where they continued about two years. 
They were then released upon bail, except Mr. Lathorp, 
for whom no favour could for some time be obtained. 
He, at length, petitioned the king, and his numerous family of 
chfldren laid their lamentable case at the feet of Arclibinbop 
Laud, reqjuesting that he might go into banishment in a f/yrrin 
land; which being granted, he went to New England, m tfcs 
year 1634, when he was accompanied by about thirty f^ km 



• Walker^i Attenpt, part ii. p. 419. f lf^ak/»f iai ^ MU f,i,fif 

t Wood's AUieac, vol. it p. 571.— Palmer'i JlMt«s, Him', ZT^ 
fm aiv. 



16ft LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

congregation. It is observed, that, during his imprisonment^ 
bis wife fell sick and died ; but that he obtaineid so much 
favour as to visit her, and pray with her, before she breathed 
her last ; and then returned to prison.* 

Mr. Lathorp was a man of learning, and of a meek and 
quiet spirit ; but met with some uneasmess from his people 
on the following occasion. It appears that some of his con- 
gregation entertained doubts of the validity of baptism, as 
administered by their own pastor; and one person^ who 
indulged these scruples, carried his child to be re-baptized at 
the parish church. This giving offence to some persons, the 
subject was discussed at a general meeting of the society ; and 
when the question was put it was carried in the negative: at 
the same time it was resolved, by a majority, not to make any 
declaration at present, whether or no parish churches were 
true churches^ This decision proving unacceptable to the 
most rigid among them, they desired their dismission; anSl, 
miiting with some others who were dissatisfied about the 
lawfulness of infant baptism, formed themselves into a new 
society, which is thought to have been the first baptist con- 
gregation in England. This separation took place in ^e 
year 1633, and the new society chose Mr. John Spilsbuiy 
for its pastor.t But the remainder of Mr. Lathorp's church 
renewed their covenant, to walk together in the ways of God^ 
so far as he had made them known, or should make them known 
to them, and forsake all false ways: and so steady were they 
to their vows, that diere was scarcely an instance of any one 
departing from the church, even under the severest persecu- 
tions.t 

Mr. Lathorp, being driven from his native country, tod re- 
tiring to New England, was chosen first pastor of the church 
at Scituate, where he continued for some time, distribatti^ 
the bread of life. Part of the church afterwards removing to 
Barnstaple, he removed with them, where he continued pastor 
of the church to the day of his deaths He died November 8, 
1653. He was a man of a happy and pious spirit, studious 
of peace^ a lively preacher, and willing to spend and be spent 
for the glory of Christ and the salvation of souls.$ 

Mr. Prince, in compiling his " Chronological Histoir of 
New England/' made use of " An original Register,^' is 
manuscript, by Mr. Lathorp, giving an account of Scituate 

• MoftoD*t Memorial, p. 141.— NeaFs Puritans, toI. ii. p. 273. 
f Neal's Puritans, vol. ii. p. 373, 374.— Crosby's Baptists, toK i. 
p. 148, 149. 

t Neal's Puritans, ▼ol. ii. p. 374. S Morton's Memorial, p. 141. 



GOUGE. 1(15 

and Barnstaple, vihexe he had been luccessively the fint 
minister.* 



William Gouge, D.D. — ^This very learned and cele^ 
brated divine was bom at Bow, near Stratford, Middlesex, 
November 1, 157^, and educated first at Eton school, then 
in King's college, Cambridge. He was endowed with great 
powers of mind, was a great lover of learning, and perhaps 
exceeded by none in close application to study. His progress 
in the various departments of useful literature corresponded 
with his application. During his first tliree years at tne um- 
yersity, he was so assiduous m his academical pursuits, that 
he slept only one night out of the college. Here he spent 
nine years, and during the whole of that period he was never 
absent from the college prayers at half past five o'clock in the 
morning, unless he was from home. He usually rose so long 
before the hour of prayer, as to have time for private devotion 
and reading his usual portion of scripture. He invariably 
xesA fifteen chapters in the Bible every day; five in the 
morning, before he entered upon his regular studies, five 
after dinner, and five at night before he went to rest. When he 
was chosen reader of logic and philosophy in the college, he 
was so remarkably exact in those exercises, and performed 
them with such admirable propriety, that, while he gained 
the high applause of his auditors, he incurred the hatred of 
those who were less attentive to their duty. Indeed, he was 
so exact and conscientious in all his ways, that he was 
reproachfully denominated an arch-puritan. 

In the year 1608, he was unanimously chosen minister of 
Blackfriars, London ; where he appears to have been assist- 
ant to the excellent Mr. Stephen Egerton, and, at his death, 
succeeded him in the pastoral office. His labours were 
peculiarly acceptable to die people ; the congr^tiongreatly 
increased; and the church was greatly enlaimd. Inougn 
considerable preferments were frequently o&red him, he 
refrised them all. His only object was to be useful to souls. 
He used to say, ** It is my highest ambition to go fit)m 
Blackfriars to heaven." He viras highly esteemed by the 
people of his charge, and by all who knew his wordi. Mul- 
titudes statedly resorted to his ministry, and many strangen 
attended his Wednesday momii^ lecture. This lecture he 

« Prince's Cbroa, Hiit vol. i. Pktf. p. 1. 



]|SS, LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

• 

kept up about thirtif'^ive years. Indeed^ so great \nm 
&me, mat wfien religious persons from distant parts of die 
country went to London, they did not think their business 
finished^ unless they had attended Blackfriars lecture. '^1 he 
success of his ministry was also ver^ great. It is said^ Ukat 
tibousands were converted and bjiilt up under his. ministry.* 
He was long employed in the work, and eminently faithful 
and laborious as long as he could get into tlie pulpit. His 

f)reaching w^s always, distinct, his method easy, and his 
ai^uage adapted to persons of the meanest capacities. 
jBr. Gouge, while he preached the gospel to others^ en- 
joyed its consolations in his own mind. He found so much . 
true comfort in his work, as, he believed, could not be found- 
in any other employment. He often professed, that his 
Seatest pleasure u\ this world was in preacliing the gO^pjel. 
is heart and his h^opiness we^e so much in his work, ^uat. 
he often said to Lord (!^oventry, then keeper of the great sc^^ 
that he enyiea not his situation. His whple life was p^-p . 
ticularly exemplary. The doctrine which he delivered to 
others had its proper infli^ence aiid effect upon himself* 
^though his conduct was unblamable and irreprova^le .ia , 
the sight of all men, he was not without his enemies. B^e. 
was as excellent and peaceable a subject as any in tlie . 
nation ; yet, throush the instigation of Bishop Neile, he.was , 
cast into prison only for republishing Finch's book on " T|ie 
Calling of the Jews.'' Having rem^iined in prison nine . 
weeks, he was released. In the year 1626, he was chosen 
one of the feoffees for purchasing impropriations ; for which 
he was ordered to be prosecuted in the star-chamber: but 
die prosecution being so manifestly invidious, was| afterwards 
dropped .t During the intolerance of Bishop Laud, he was 
prosecuted in the mgh. commission,, for opposing anninifuusm 
and the new.ceremonies.t 

Tliis celebrated divine was deeply concerned for the. 
Redeemer's cause ii^ foreign countries, as well as at home, 
Hi^ exercised particula|^ compassion toward&the foreign. pro:> 
testants, und^ alL iheTr afflictions and. persecutions.. Hfe 
rejoiced in their prosperity, but was afflicted in their adversitj4 
Iperefore, wh^n public collections for the poor and distressed ; 
ministers of the Palatinate utterly failed, he united with. his ^ 
brethren in promoting a private contributipn for their relief^ 

• Clark's LiTes aonezed to bit Martyrologie, p. 234— SS9. 

+ Ibid. p. dS»->24l. } PrvBDc/g Cant. Doome. p. 302. 



GOUCE. IS7 

bat, marvellous as it may appear/ fot this singular act of 
|;enerosity and homamty^ he was convened before die high 
commission as a notorious delinquent* 

In the year 1643, Dr. Gouge was nominated one of the 
assembly of divines. He assiduously attended during the 
whole session ; and was held id so high reputation, tliat he 
often' filled the moderator's chair in his absence. September 
I25th, in the same year, when the house of commons, the 
Scots commissioners, and the assembly of divines met in 
St. Margaret's church, Westminster^ to subscribe the cove- 
nant. Dr. Gouge concluded the solemnity with prayer. He 
was one of the select committee for the examination of minis- 
ters who' petitioned for 'sequestered livings. In 1644, he was 
rn the committee appomted for the examination and or- 
ition of mimsters. Ih 1647, at the first session of die 
provincial assembly, be was chosen prolocutor, and opened 
th)e session with a senrt'<6n at Blackfiiars. In die same ytwt . 
he was upon the committee appointed to draw up the con- * 
fessiontof fiiidi'. And in the year 1648, he was on the com- 
mittee appointed to draw up die assembly's annotaUoos. 
His poition was from the first book of Kinss to the book of 
Esther, inclusive.! In the same year he umted with his bre- 
thi^n, in London and. its vicinity, in declaring against the 
kii^s death.t 

Dr. Goi^e' was a ^ strict observer of the sabbath ; and 
when the Book of Sports came out, he absolutely refused to 
read it. He was determined to suffer, radier than sin by 
encouraging profane sports on the Lord's day. He was 
exact in observing the public exercises of the house of God, 
in promoting religion in his faniily, and iii the devotions of 
the closet ; and, tO the great honour of his character, he 
would never allow his servant to be absent from public 
worship' on die Lord's day to cook provision, whatever com- 
pany he expected, tie possessed an excellent talent for 
solving cases of conscience ; and so great was the blessitig of 
God upoii his judicious counsels, that multitudes were re- 
stored to joy and peace in believing. Ministers, in difficult 
ctoes, often consulted him ; on which account, he was deno- 
minated Ae father of the London divines, and the very oracle 
of his tiitie. He was Said to b* the very picture of Moaes for 
a meek and quiet spirit. As he was not easily provoked, so / 
he' was never inclined to provoke others. When he received 

* ^mitlcy'i Pidatiy* Urarpatioai, p. 1M. 

t Nenl's Hut. of Puitaos, vol. i^. p. SS, 70, 14K^ 350, SM, 4M; 

t Calamjr^i Contiinuitidi, vol. ii. p. 743. 



168 LIVES OF THEf PURITANS. 

any injury, he always prayed for his enemies, and said, '.' that 
revilers and evil doers always hurt themselves most." He was 
remarkably kmd to persons in disiiess, especially the poor of 
Christ's dock. According to the abdity which Go^ gave 
him, he employed his substance to useful purposes. He 
afforded much support to tlie poor scholars at the university* 
It was his very meat and drink to do his heavenly Father's 
will. His humility, indeed, outshone all his other amiable 
endowments. He was never lifted up by multitudes flocking 
to hear him, nor by the applause he received from them ; but 
used to say, '' I know more to abase me, than others do to 
exalt me." 

He was, throi^h the whole of his life, remarkably exact and 
conscientious in the improvement of his time. He .rose early, 
both winter and summer. If at any time he heard other 
persons at their work before he was in his study, he would 
complain, saying, ^^ I am much troubled that any persons 
should be at their calling before I am at mine." He was an 
excellent scholar, being familiarly conversant with the original 
languages, and every department of useful literature. When 
the persecuting prelates would allow of no other fisists be* 
sides those appointed by authority, Dr. Gouge and his pioua 
friends kept their private fasts regularly every month. On 
these occasions he greatly excelled. He was remarkably, 
concerned for the welfare of the foreign protestaut churches. 
Hearing that it was well with them, he rejoiced and praWed * 
God : but when he received evil tidings, '^ he sat down and 
wept, and mourned, and fasted, and prayed unto the God of 
heaven." 

In tfab decline of life, he was much afflicted with an asthma 
and the stone. Under these painful maladies he often 
groaned^ but never murmured. Labouring under these afflic- 
tions, he frequently said, ^' Soul, be silent ; soul, be jpatient. 
It is thy God and Father who thus ordereth thy estate: thou 
art his clay ; he may tread and trample on thee as he pleasetht 
thou hast deserved much more. It is enough that thou art 
keipt out of hell. Though thy pain be grievous, it is toler- 
able. Thy God affords some intermissions. He will turn it 
to thy good, and then put an end to all. None of these, 
things can be expected hereafter." Under his greatest pains 
he used the woixls of Job: ^' Shall we receive good 9t die 
lumds of God, and shall we not receive evil? At such 
times, he committed his soul to Christ, saying, '* I am per- 
suaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed 
unto him against that day." When his friends endeavourecl 



GOUGE. 169 

to comfort him, by remmding him of his gifts and usefulness, 
he repliedy ** I dare not think of any such thing for comfort. 
Jesus Christ, and what he hath done and suffered, is the 
only ground of comfort. I, being a great sinner, comfort' 
nqiieu in a great Saviour. When I look upon myself, I see 
oodui^ but weakness and emptiness; but when I look upon 
Ohtist, I see nothing but sufficiency and fulness." 

A few days before he died, having continued for three days 
io a state of drowsiness, he inquired what day it was, and 
eidaimed, ** Alas, I have lost three days!" Afterwards, 
reviving a little, he said, " Now I have not long to live. The 
time of my departure is at hand. I am going to my desired 
liaven. I am most willing to die. I have, blessed be God, 
Qodung else to do but to die. Death is my best friend, next 
to Jesus Christ. I am sure I shall be with Christ when 
I die.*'* As the hour of his departure approached, he spoke 
much in admiration of the rich grace and mercy of God in 
Christ Jesus; and died full of unspeakable comfort. Decern^ 
ber 12, 1653, in the seventy-ninth year of his age, having 
been numster of Blackfriars nearly forty-six years.f Dr* 
Cakmy observes, ** that he was a person of as eminent a 
reputation for ministerial abilities, strict piety, and indeia- 
t^ble labours for the good of souls, as most ministers that 
IBFcr were in the city.j Granger says, " he was offered the 
provostship of King's college, Cambridge, but declined to 
accept it ; and that he was laborious, exemplary, and so much 
beloved that none ever thought or spoke ill of him, excepting 
those who were inclined to think or speak ill of religion 
itsdf."^ He is classed among the learned writers and distin- 
giushed worthies of this college.|| Wood styles him *^ a pious 
and learned divine," and says, ^' he is often honourably men- 
tioned by Vcetius, Streso, and other learned and foreign 
divines."f Mr. William Jenkin was assistant to Dr. Gouge 
about twelve years, preached his funeral sermon, and suc- 
ceeded him in the pastoral office. Mr. Thomas Gouge, on 
whose death Dr. Watts wrote an excellent elegiac poem, was 
the doctor's son, and Mr. Richard Roberts married his 
eldest daughter. These three excellent divines were ejected 
by Ae Act of Uniformity, in 1662.** 

Hk Works.— 1. Eight Treatises on Domestic Duties.— 2. The 
Whole Armour of God. — 3. A Treatise on the Siu against the Rolf 

* Jenkin's Funeral Sermon for Dr. Gouge. 

f Gark's Lives, p. 242—246. | Calamy's Continuation, vol. i. p. 18. 

S Graij^r's Biog. Hist. vol. ii. p. 179. i) Fnller'ti Hist, of Cam. p. 75. 

1 Wood's Athens Ozon. vol. i. p. 807. 

** Falmer's ^ioncoo. Mem. voU i. p. 109, 184. iii. p. SOI. 



Kv 

Cii 

aiiJ 
stud* 
itn|>: 

shin ' 
he 111 
to Cau 
and ii<( 
the \A:.ii. 
stations, I.' - 
good sht |.i,. 
appruaclii ti. 
clioseii )>:iNt.i. 
flhire; wIuti- 
preacher ul;*.. 
the Earl (if \\ 
witli Mrs. \\; 
lie aflcnvunl^ : 

In theyiiiv 
Mas appoiuti-' 
tioiis ill re!i^> 
leamtjd diviii(.;<, 
to prepare inui 
choson Olio of 
tended ; nvA, by . 
ticidarly ti^cfid in :. 
he was clit>:>cu cue 



t kingdom B MB. Collcv. 



rf. HILL. ITt 



ordiimtioii of pubUc; preachers;, and in l645» when 
committee of accommodation was revived by order of pariia^ 
ibent, he was appointed one of its learned members,*- Htt: 
preached frequently before the house of parliament, and vnm 
chosen momii^ lecturer at the Abbey church, Westminster. 
He preached every Lord's day at St. Martin's in the Fields^. 
** where/^ it is observed, ** his labours were made a Uessing: 
to many thausands/^f He was a divine universally celebratedi 
for learning and ability ; and therefore was appointed master- 
of Emanud college, Cambridge, and afterwards of Trinity 
college, in the same university. Here he employed all hia- 
talents and zeal in the advancement of sound learning and 
genuine piety, and in the observance of college exercises. 
Mr. Henry Oatland, afterwards one of the ejected ministers, 
who was one of his pupils, observes, ** that he derived un- 
speakable advantage from Dr. Hill's plain but excellent: 
method of preaching Cfarist-^t He was twice chosen vice- 
chancellor, and was particularly concerned to preserve the- 
hpnour and privileges of the university. 

Dr. Hill was a divine sound in the ^th, and firmly attached 
to the doctrinal articles of the church of England. He con-'" 
sidered unccmditional election, salvation by grace, justifica- 
tion by the imputed righteousness of Chiist, and the final- 
perseverance of believers, not as points of dry speculation or 
vain curiosity, but as prominent doctrines of scripture, and 
the very life of true christian fiuth. What he beUeved he 
constantly practised through life, and found its uuspeakaU* i 
comforts in truth. During his last sickness, being exceed-'^'" 
ingly afBicted with a quartan^ ague, he found much joy and - 

Saace in believing. Ipe distinguishing love of God in: Christ 
esus was the foundation of his confidence and happ'mesa. 
Being asked, just before his departure, whedier he enjoyed : 
peace with ,God, he cheerfully replied, '^ Through the mercy * 
of God in Christ my peace is made, and I quietly r^ in it.'* 
He died much lamented, December 18kJ653. He was a 
divine eminent for humility and holiness, an excellent and' 
useful preacher, and of great learning and .moderation; but' 
no friend to arminianism.$ . He used to lay his hand upon 
hi? br^uit, and say, '' Every true christian hath some^ii^', 
her^, that will frame an argument agunst arminianism."|| 

T^s leurped and pious divine has not escaped the reproack*' 

» 

« Papers of AocOHBiodatioB, pv 14« 

f Clatk*8 LWet annexed to Martjrolof^e, p. 8S0, SSI. 

t CaXumy's Cootin. vol. ii. p. 885. V Clarkli Utcs, p. SSS. 

I Finnin'i Real CMitilui, p. 86. SdKLl6T0« 



I7f LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

fol insinuations of Dr. Grey. Mr. Neal having specified hi»' 
preferments^ the doctor adds, " but how deserving this gentle* 
man was of these preferments, his works sufficiently testify:' 
and then, to prove what he insinuates, he cites Dr. Hill'a 
words, deUvered on public occasions, as follows : — " That wo 
may have an incorrupt religion, without sinful, without guile- 
ful mixtures ; not a linsey-woolsey religion : all new-born 
babes will desire word-milk, sermon-miik, without guile, 
without adulterating sophistication of it. — What pity it is 
that cathedral societies, which might have been colleges of 
learned presbyters for feeding and riding of city churches, 
and petty academies to prepare pastors for neighbouring 
places, should be often sanctuaries for nonresidents, and be ' 
made nurseries to many such drones, who can neither preach, 
nor pray, otherwise than ready say, or sing their prayers^ and in 
the- mean time, truth must be observed in a non-edifying 
pomp of ceremonious ser\^ices. — Behold, with weeping eyes, 
the many hundred congregations in the kingdom, where noul- 
lions of souls are like to perish for want of vision. Truth if 
' sold from among them, either by soul-betraying nonresidents, 
soul-poisoning innovators, or soul-pining dry nursies. Iti many 
places the veiy image of jealousy, the idol of the mass, is set up; 
yea, the comedy of the mass is acted, because she wanteth the 
light of truth to discover the wickedness and folly of it. In 
many miles, not a minister that can preach and live sermons. I 
vrish every parliament-man had a map of the soul-misery of the 
most of the ten thousand churches and chapels in Ei^land. 

" In the stead of the high commission," says he, " which ' 
was a soul-scourge to many godly and faithful ministers, we 
have an honourable committee, that turns the wheel upon 
such as are scandalous and unworthy. In the room of Jero- 
boam's priests, burning and shining lights are multiplied in 
some dark places of the land, which were full of the habita- 
tions of cruelty. In the place of a long litui^, we are in 
hopes of a pithy directory. Instead of prelatical rails about 
the table, we have the scripture rails of church discipline in 
great forwardness. Where popish altars and crucinxes did 
abound, we begin to see more of Christ crucified in the sim- 
plicity and purity of his ordinances. Instead of the prelates* 
oath, to establish their own exorbitant power, with dppurfe- 
nances> we havC' a solemn league and covenant with 6od> 
engaging us to endeavour reformation, according to his word ; 
yea, and the extirpation of popery and prelacy itself.*"* We 

i ■ ■ 1 

m • 

* Grey's ExBM. of j!^«al, TCfl* ii. p. 168, IM^ 



T. WILSON. ITS 

make no comment upon these expressiom, but leave the 
pious reader to form his own opinion of the ungenerous in-' 
slnuatiohs of the zealous churchman. Dr. Hill was author 
of a number of pieces^ chiefly sermons before the parlia- 
ment 

His Works. — 1. The Trade of Truth Advanced, in a Sermon to 
the Honourable House of Commons, at their solemn Fast, Jnly 27, 
164^---1642.--2. The Militant Church Triumphant OTer the Dragon 
and his Angels, preached to both Houses of Parliament, July 21, 
1643— 1643.— <). The Season for England's Self-Reflection, and 
Adyancing Temple-Work, in a Sermon before the Ilon'scs of Parli- 
ament, August 13, 1644, being an extraordinary Day of HnmiliatioOy 
1644.---4* The Right Separation Encouraged, preached to the House 
of Lords, November 27, 1644, being the Day of their monthly publia 
Fast, 1644. 



Thomas Wilson, A. M. — This excellent minister waa 
bom at Catterly in Cumberland^ in the year l601, and edu- 
cated in Christ's college, Cambridge ; where he was greatly 
admired for hb indefatigable industry, and great progress in 
useful learning. Upon his leaving the university, he taught 
Hchool for some time at Chartwood in Surrey ; dien entered 
into the ministry at Capel, in the same county. Here, by 
his judicious preaching and holy example, he directed the 
people in the way to eternal life. Though he received littl© 
or nothing for his pains, he was not the less faithfiil and labo- 
iious in promoting the welfare of souls. He sought not 
theirs, but them, and was greatly beloved by his people. 
Afterwards, he removed to Farlington, near Portsmouth, 
'^vhere he laboured among very ignorant and heathenish^ 
people. He did not continue long at this place, but removed 
to Teddington, near Kingston-upon-Tliames. In tliis situa^ 
tion he continued several years, and was made a blessing to 
many souls. He next accepted a presentation to the bene- 
fice of Otham, near Maidstone, in Kent. At this place he 
^as the means of awakening many careless sinners, and of 
building them up in faith and holiness. Multitudes flocked 
to hear him from Maidstone and its vicinity ; and the church 
was soon found too small to contain them. His great popu- 
larity and usefulness* presently awakened the envy of profane 
sinners, and several neighboiu-ing ministers ; but he went on 
undismayed, the Lord blessing his labours. 

Notwithstanding his labours and usefulness, he was aj: 
length silenced for refusing to read the Book of Sports. In 
the month of April, 1634, he was inliibited by Archbishop 



}7t LIVES OF TBE fUfllTANS. 

Stand's Mcinr-geiieraly from port '6f 'bis public ministerial exei<- 
•cises. But, upon the pubuoation of the Book of Sports^ hb 
TeAised to read it^ when die archbishop scfntfrn* him to LanK 
•bedi; andy April 29, l6S6, no less ihnn fourteen Axrg^ 
were exhibited against him, to each of which he gave his 
answer^ May 28th following. The substance of these furticles, 
together widi Mr. Wilson's answers, was as follows : 

1. That canonical obedi^ice is due by your oath, taken aft 
your institution. 

Answer. It is true, as I understand the oath^ it is accord- 
ing to the canons of the church of England. 

2. That a minister must have a popular election, as seces- 
•ary to hold his place. 

Ans. I never held such an opinion, nor ever spok^ it, pri; 
vately or publicly. 

3. That there is little comfort for a minister instituted and 
inducted, without the approbation of die people. 

Ans. I know and believe the contrary. 

4. You have held conventicles in your house, and in other 
liouses in the town of Otham, within this two years, and used 
exercises of religion by law prohibited. 

Ans. I deny that I have holden conventicles, and usedh 
exercises of religion by law prohibited. ^ 

5. Within this four years you have collected in private 
houses, or caused to be collected, forty or fifty persons, and 
to them repeated sermons, expounded scripture, made tediou^ 
extemporary prayers, full of tautologies, and delivered dan- 
gat)us doctrine, to the perverting and corrupting of hif 
majesty's subjects. 

Ans. I protest against such doctrine^ and any such effect. 
I also deny that I collected, or caused to be collected^ any 
tuch persons. 

6. You refused to read die King^s Declaration for Sporti 
On Sundays, and spoke disdainfully to the apparitor and 
officer of the court. 

Ans. I said to the apparitor, ^* Remember the sabbath dajr 
to keep it holy ;" and I said no more. I refused to read the 
book, not out of contempt of any authority, being coni- 
manded by no law. The king's majesty doth not in tfao 
book command or appoint the minister to read it, nor it to 
Ire read, but published. And seeing there is no penalty 
threatened, nor authority given fo any one to question those 
tvho refuse to read it, my refusal to read it was upon sufficient 
grounds of law and conscience ; which, for the satisfaction 
of diis high coort^ and to clear myself from contempt, { shall 



T. WjQDrSON. I7i 

.bviefly express "ii^raelf thus : His majesty's exfNress pkaewe k^ 
diat die. laws of the realm, ^nd Ihe canons of l|^ •church, be 
observed in all places of die kingdom ; and dierefofe at Otham 
in Kent : font this book, as I conceive, is contrary to botl|^.— - 
It is contrary to the slatute laws.r^It is contrary to <the eccle- / 
siastical laws. — It js c^uydnMry to the scnptm^. — It is eoo- 
trary to the ciM^nc^s.^— It is c^nlraiy to divines, ancient «nd 
modem.-— j[t is conti'ary to reason^* y 

7. In 1633, when the commission was grafted for repair- 
ilig St. Paul's, you sfoidy to build sumptuous temples u to 
justify antichrist. 

^3. I deny this sdtogether. 

8. In 1634, you bade the pepple, in scorn and derision, to 
lake heed of cUaiing with high priest's servants. 

Ans. I deny both the time and the words. 

9. At Boxley, June 99, 1632, you said. No man can have a 
broken heart, who hath two steeples ; meaning two benefices, 
alleging Acts yx. 20. 

Ans. I never spake such words. But at the fimeral of « 
puve and learned minister, I entreated the ministers present to 
prepare to give an account of their lives and livings, shewing 
the vanily CMf those who plead for pluralities, saying, ** That u 
a man's heart^were broken, it would not be with the ^^ight 
^ three churches ; -' ^d herein I followed no new opinion, 
but die general opinion of learned divines, both ancient and 
modem. 

, 10. You have scandalized the governors and government 
«f die church of England, as persecutors of God's faithful 
ministers and people. 

Ans. This is not true, in the whole or in any part. 

11. In April, 1633, you delivered a dangerous doctrine, 
•ven that if a subject suffer the penalty of die law from the 
civil magistrate, he is free from sin. 

Ans. I deny the time, and words, and doctiine. I never 
taught, nor read, nor heard of this doctrine, till I heard this 
article ; and I abhor it, and disclaim it as dangerous. 

12. April 22, 1634, you lectured and expounded, after 
jahibition by the vicar-general. 

^Ans. This is n(A true. I did not preadi, excepting on 
Ijord's days and holidays; neither did I expound. Yet 
I had^a Ucense to expound, and was not ft>rbidden expound- 
ing. I constandy instruct, by question and answer, in the 

• Mr. Wilton eolar^ apra-eacb of these topia with {feat jmigmettt, 
1i«t the whole It (00 lon^ fq( ini^rtioii. 



176 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

cathechism, such as come to prayers, for which I' had my 
institution and license, and from which I never received any 
prohibition ; nor, so far as I understand, is it any sin against 
God or man. 

13. Vpu are accounted an enemy to the church of Eng- 
land, and draw others into schism after you; 

Ans. I deny the whole of this, and every part." 

14. You are to promise^ by your word and honour^ to 
speak the truth. 

Ans. I believe what I have confessed, and deny what 
I have denied in every part.* 

From the above articles, together with Mr. Wilson's 
replies, it is manifest that Laud had laid the snare to catch 
him, chiefly for refusing to read the Book of Sports. In this 
his lordship succeeded according to his wishes: for Mr. 
Wilson's answers, in which he declared his refusal to read the 
book, were no sooner given, than the archbishop replied, 
/ suspend you for ever from your office and benejice till yikt 
read it ; and he continued suspended for the space of four. 
years.t Abou^ the same time he was committed to Maid^ 
Stone jail for nonconformity, but how long he remained in 
confinement it does not appear.t At the expiration of the 
above period, he was brought into the high commission 
court by means of the archbishop ; and, to his great cost and 
trouble, was again prosecuted fo( die same crime. Indeed/ 
the archbishop, in answer to this, said, that Mr. Wilson was 
not censured for not reading the book; but, accordii^ to 
his own confession, for dilapidations, in not repairing hi» 
house .$ With what kind of evidence this is asserted, the 
candid and intelligent reader will easily perceive. 

Mr. Wilson, remaining under suspension, and being dis- 
satisfied with the ministry of his successor, removed to Maid^ 
stone, where he gave private instructions among his friends. 
His adversaries, at the same time, traduced his character, and 
slandered him as a favourer of schism. Therefore, to wipe off. 
the reproach, he addressed a letter to the parishioners of 
Otham, exhorting them ^* to fear God and honour the king, 
and walk in love one towards another." For the information 
and Satisfaction of all, this letter was read to the public con- 
gregation on the Lord's day. The news of this^ however, 
soon reached London, when Mr. Wilson and Dr. Tuck, who 



J 



« Life of Mr. Wilson, p. 67—89. Edit. 1672. 
f Prynne's Cant Doonae, p. 149 ^ClarlL'i LiTes, part i* p. 18^-8I« 
* Nears Puritans, vol. iv. p. 6S2. 
Whartoo'g Troubles of Laod, vol. i. p. 344. 



T.WILSON. 177 

had read the letter^ were cited to appear before the high com- 
nussion. Mr. Wilson was charged in the court with havinr 
Bent a scandalous and offensive letter to Otham, to nourish 
schism, and to confirm the people in the dislike of govern* 
ment; upon which he acknowledged his writing a letter, but 
denied its evil tendency, saying, ^* I know that it was to ex- ^ 
hort the people to fear God and the king, and to meddle not 
with those that are given to change ; to walk in foith and love, 
and to call upon God: but I utterly deny all occasion of de- 
rogating from the church of England, or confirmation of aoj 
in a dislike of ^e government, and protest against all asper- 
sions and imputations of schism or scandal : neither did 
I direct any one to read it, nor intended or desired it should 
be read in the church."* Notwithstanding all they could 
allege in their own defence, they were enforced to continue 
their attendance no less than three years, to their great cost 
and trouble.f 

In the year 1639, the Scots having entered Ei^land, and 
a parliament being called. Laud took off Mr. Wilson's sus- 
pension. , But his troubles and sufferings were not ended ; 
for, September 30, 1640, he was cited to appear before the 
archbishop's visitors at Feversham, together with other minis- 
ters in Kent, to answer for not reading the prayer against 
the Scots. Upon their appearance, Mr. Edward Bright^ 
being called first, was asked whether he had read the prayer; 
and when he said he had not, the archdeacon instantly sus- 
pended him from ofiice and benefice, without admonitioo, or 
even giving him the least time to consider of it Mr. Wilson, 
who witnessed this rash proceeding, was next called. When 
he was asked whether he had read the prayer, he answered in 
the negative; '^ because,'* said he, ''in the rubrick of the 
Common Prayer, it is enjoined that no prayer shall be pub* 
licly read excepting those which are contained in the Book 
of Common Prayer, and that prayer against the Scots is not.** 
This unexpected answer so confounded the archdeacon that 
he did not know what to say. It cooled his fiuy, and caused 
him to proceed more deliberately with Mr. Wilson than he 
had done with Mr. Bright. He ^ve him fourteen days to 
consider of it, and then deliver his answer at Canterbury '4 
but whether he delivered any other answer, and what afiter- 

♦ LifeofMr.Wilson, p. 90,91. 

+ Dr. Tack's case was, indeei, more dlstreiiiog than Mr. WilfWTij for, 
•o account of bodily infirmities, lie was anable to ride, and oeceailAlcd tm 
wutke all bis joarnies on fool.<^Z6i4. p. 13. 

t Ibid. p. 14— <16. 

VOL. III. ^ 



178 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

wards followed relative to this cas^^ we are not able, for 
want of inforpiatioDy to relate. 

About the same time a warrant was issued from tfie lords 
of the council, ^moi^ whom were Archbishop Laud and the 
Bishop of London, to apprehend Mr. Wilson. With diis war*- 
rant a pursuivant was sent to bring him to London. It does not . 
appear for what crime this prosecution was designed ; yet no 
doubt it was the sin of nonconformity. The pursuivant, ha^ 
ing received his warrant, hastened without delay to Otham ; 
where, though he heard Mr. Wilson preach, aiid was afters- 
wards in the same room with him in his own house, he let 
him slip out of his hands. Mr. Wilson, suspecting turn as 
soon as he entered the room, retired and hid himself, and so 
escaped the snare. The pursuivant vras enraged at his lb8% 
and said he had been employed in this service thirtyiirix 
years, and had never been served so before. Mr. WusoOy 
having escaped the snare, withdrew from the storm till tilt . 
meeting of the long parUament, when he went to London, ' 
and presented his case and petition to the house of commons; 
The house appointed a committee to take his case into con*- . 
sideration; and, November 30, 1640, Mr. Rouse, who was 
one of this committee, reported to the house, *^ That Mr. Wil- 
son had been suspended four years from his living, wordi sixty 
pounds a year, only for not reading die Book of Recreations 
on the Lord's day; that die archbishop himself had sus- 
pended him; and that for three years he had attended' 
upon the high commission." The house therefore rescdved^ 
*^ That Mr. Wilson had just cause of complaint ; and that 
diere was just cause for the house to afford him relief.''* 
Upon the presentation of his pAition, Sir Edward Deerinff, 
one of the members for Kent, said, '* Mr. Wilson, your peti- 
tioner, is as orthodox in doctrine, as laborious in preachiiM^, 
and as unblemished in his life, as any minister we have. He 
ia now. separated from his flock, to both their griefs : for it is 
not with him as with many others, who are glad to set a pur- 
suivant on work, that they may have an excuse to be out of 
the pulpit; it is his delight to preach."f Sir Edward furdier 
observes of Mr. Wilson, " He is now a sufferer, as all good 
men are, ander the general obloquy of a puritan.^ The poi^ 
snivant watches his door, and divides him and his' cum 
asunder, to both their griefs. About a week since," he adds, 
*' I went to Lambeth, to move that great bishop (too great ' 
indeed) to take this danger from off this, minister, and to recall 

♦ RoshworthN Collec. vol. v. p. 66.*— Nahon's Cellec. vol. i. p. 571. 
f Life of Mr. Wilson, p. 17— 2«. 



T. WILSON. 179 

the pui'suivsmt. And I did undertake for Mr. Wilson, that he 
should answer his aqcusers in any o( the king's courtu a| 
Westminster. The bishop made me answer, ' I am sure. that* 
he will not be ^bsent from his cure a twelvemonth together.' "^ 

Upon the above resolution of the house^ he was released 
from all his troubles, when he returned to his charge and 
wonted labours at Otham. In the year l643, he was uomi* 
nated one of the assembly of divines ; and, lliough at so great 
a distance, he constantly attended. In the assembly he was 
much esteemed for hb meek and humble deportment, anc) 
his grave and judicious counsels. Having continued soma 
time 9t Otham, he removed to Maidstone, where he remaine4 
to the day of his death. Here his first care was to promote * 
the reformation of the church, and to administer the sacra« 
ments, according to his views of the word of God. To this 
end he preached upon the necessity of observing scriptural . 
discipline, and the qualifications necessary to church-fellow- 
ship. At first he met with considerable opposition, but by 
prudence and perseverance things were brought to a favour- 
able issue. 

Mr. Wilson was indefatigable in his attendance upon his 
numerous duties, and usually observed the following method : 
he protracted his studies on Saturdays nearly till midnight^ 
and rose by two or three o^clock on a sabbath morning, being 
much displeased if he was later. About seven he came out 
of his study, and called Iiis family together, when he read and 
expounded a portion of scripture, requiring those present to 
give some account of the exposition ; then sung a psalm, and 
concluded with prayer. At nine o'clock he went to church, 
and entered upon public worship by singing, then prayed for 
a blessing, and expounded out of the Old Testament about 
an hour; then, besides singing and prayer, he preached an' 
hour, and concluded. ^rhen,^oing home, he invariably prayed 
with his family before dinner. In the afternoon he. observed 
the same method as in the morning, only his exposition was 
upon some part of the New Testament. The public services 
of the day being ended, he called his family together, when 
many neighbours attended ; then they repeated the sermons 
and expositions, sung a psalm, and concluded with prayer. 
After this he usually went to a friend's house in the town, 
where many attended, and did the same. He administered 
the Lord's supper regularly once a month, delivered weekly 
lectures, attended meetings for religious conference, and was 

• Collection of Deerins't Speeches, p. 9, 10. £dit. 1649. 



180 LIVEiS OF TH£ PURITANS. 

incessant in catechizing. He did the Lord's work faithfullvi, 
and found his reward in the labour. Sonie^ indeed, thougnt 
he laboured too much, and that he ought to have spared him- 
self ; but he was of a contrary opinion, being persuaded that * 
God makes no difference betwixt an idle and an evil servant. 
Hence, when his frieud^ attempted to dissuade him firom' so. 
intense an application, he was ever deaf to their counsel, 
sayitig, " Would you have my Lord, when he cometh^ to find 
me idler 

He waig always exa(^t in setting a good example before his 
children and servants, knoM'ing them to be much influenced 
by the deportment of superiors. What he preached to them 
on the sabbath, he practised before them all the week ; and 
** in all things he she\i'ed himself a pattern of good works.*' 
He ^as a strict observer of the sabbath, and eminently suc- 
cessful in promoting the same among his people. This wa^ 
die happy fruit of his labours at Maidstone, as well as at other 
places. One of the judges taking notice of this at the 
assize, publicly declared, that, in all his circuit, there was no 
town where the Lord's day M'as so strictly observed. Mr* 
Wilson was of a courageous spirit, and feared no obstades hi 
the path of duty. Ite feared God, and none else. He knew 
God would take care of his om'u cause, whatever sufferings 
his servants might endure ; therefore, when trials came upon 
him, he said, with Luther, ** I had rather fall with CSuist 
than reign with Caesar." He shewed his courage in reprof- 
ing sin. If men were bold in sinning, he was bold in reprotr- 
ing them, even without respect of persons. His sincerity, 
humility, and great piety, were manifest to all. The excellent 
Mr. William Tenner, after being in his company, said, " I am 
ashamed of myself, to see how Mr. Wilson gallops towards 
heaven, and I do but creep at a snail's pace."* Indeedj^his 
treasure wad in heaven, and his heart was there also. This 
excellent trait in his character will appear ffoiQ the following 
anecdote : — Duritig the insurrection in 1648, the soldiers took 
from him a legacy of a hundred pounds left to his daughter, 
though it was afterwards restored . But when the money was 
gone, being asked whether he Mas not much troubled, he 
replied, "No; I was no more troubled when I heard the- 
money was carried off, tlian when it was brought to my house.*'t 

Mr. Wilson^s great piety was most manifest in his affliction 
and death. When the bridegroom came, he had .his lamp 
trimmed, oil in his vessel, add his light burning. He endured 

• Ufe of Mr. ITUiod, p. S2--49. t Ibia. p. il. 



T. WILSON. 181 

his extreme pain with exemplary patience : he monnied, but 
never mmmured. He was willing to drink his heavenly 
Father's bitter cup^ When lying upon his death4)ed be 
called his family around him. He desired his vnfe not to be 
cast down^ or to sorrow as those who have no hope ; but to 
trust in the Lord ; and added, '* Though we must now be 
separated for a season, we shall meet again to part no more 
for ever.*' He exhorted his children to fear die Lord, saying, 
*' Look you to it, that you meet me not in the day of judg- 
ment in an unconverted state/' He praised God, and spoke 
much of the preciousness of Christ. The prospect of his 
approaching death afforded comfort to his soul. To a pious 
lady of his acquaintance, who was leaving Maidstone, he 
pleasandy said, " What will you say, Mrs. Crisp, if I get the 
start of you, and get to heaven before you get to Dover ?* 
Another person saying, ** Sir, I think you are not far from 
your Father's house ;" he immediately replied, " That is good 
,uews indeed, and is enough to make one leap for joy." To 
those who mourned over him, he said, ^' I bless God^ who 
hath suiOTered me to live so long to do him some service ; and 
now I have finished the work appointed for me, that he is 
pleased to call me away so soon. He fought the goodjightf 
he finished his course, he kept the faith, and died in peace, 
towards the end of the year 1653, aged fifty-two years. He 
had a clear understanding, a quick invention, a sound judg- 
ment, a tenacious memory, and was a hard student, a good 
scholar, an excellent preacher, and clothed vpith humility. • 
Mr. Wilson was twice married, and by his second wife he had 
eleven children, ten of whom were living at his death. Mr. 
Thomas Wilson, ejected in 1662, is supposed to have been 
his son.t When upon his death-bed he recommended Mr. 
John Crump, afterwards ejected in 1662, to be his ^uccessor^ 
We are informed that Mr. Wilson was a baptist, and in the 
year 1638, joined Mr. John Spilsbury's churcbi London ;$ 
but whether he continued to adhere to the baptists' senti- 
ments, and acted upop them to the end of hi3 days, we are 
unable to ascertain. He was author of a sermon preached 
before the house of commons, entided, ** Jerechoe's Do^in- 
fall," 1643 1 apd probably som§ others. 

• Ufeof Mr. Wilton, p. S4, 52—64. 

f Palaier*s Noncoo. Mem. ¥o). ii. p. 132. t ^'*^' P* ^32, 

S Cnwby's Baptisti, vol. i, p. 149.— Neal'g Pnritam, toI. if. p. 6S2. 
tfSS. 



IBS LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Natijaniel Warjd, a. B. — This excellent person \vas the 
son of Mr. John Ward, and brother to Mr. Samuel Ward, 
both celebrated puritan divines ; was born at Haverhii ia 
Suffolk, about the year J 570. He received a liberal edu- 
cation, and viras intended tor the lav*^; but afterwards trayel- 
ling into Prussia and Denmark, where he was honoured with 
the intimate friendship of the celebrated David Pareus 6£ 
Heidelberg, from whom he received the most valuable in«- 
tftruction, he purposed, upon his return home, to enter upon 
the Christian ministry. He became preacher at St. Jaroes\ 
Duke's-place, London, in the year 1626 ; and afterwards 
became rector of Standon Massey in Essex,* where he felt 
t^e iron hand of Archbishop Laud. Previous to the year 
16SS, he v^as often convened before this intoleraut prelate 
for nonconformity ; and, after frequent attendance, for re- 
fusing to subscribe according to the canons, he was excom- 
municated and deprived of his ministry. The good man 
remained a long time under the prelate's heavy censure. + It 
does not indeeid app^r that he was ever released. For 
having found that his release could not be obtained without 
^he most degrading submission, contrary to the light of 
conscience and the testimony of scripture, he left his natiye 
country, and in the year 1634 retired to New EIngland. 
Upon his arrival he was chosen pastor of the church at 
Ipswich, where he continued in high reputation, frequ^it 
labours, and great usefulness, about eleven years. In 1645 
he returned to England, and became minister of Shenfield in 
Essex. He subscribed the Essex testimony as minister of 
this place, and was sometimes called to preach before the 
parliament. He greatly lamented the confusions of the 
times, and discovered great loyalty to the king, and much 
solicitude for his majesty's welfare.}: He died at Shenfield 
in the year 1653, aged eighty-three years.§ He is classed 
among the learned writers of Emanuel college, Cambridge, l 
He was a learned man, a pious christian, an excellent 
preacher, and the author of many articles, full of wit and 
good ser^e, the titles of which have riot reached us. ' 



Robert Abbot, A. M. — This person received his edu- 
cation in the university of Cambridge, where he took his 

* Newcourt's Repert. Eccl. vol. i. p. 917, vol. ii. p. 545. 
f Wharton*8 Troubles of Land, vol. i. p. 525. 

fGrey*8 Examination, vol. i. p. 401. 
Mather*s Hist, of New £ng. b. iii. p. 167. 
I Fnller'ft Hist, of Cam. p. 147. 



N. WARD-ABBOT-^SPILSBUttT. 183 

diogneB in arts, and was afterwards incorporated at Oxford.' 
Having finished his studies at the university^ he became 
ficar^ Cranbrook in Kent, and minister of Southwick in 
Hampshire. A minister of the same name, and no doubt the 
ame person, was a great sufierer under the tyrannical oppres- 
dtm of Bishop Pierce of Bath and Wells. This learned 
|mfete compelled Mr. Abbot and others, contrary to law and 
jwtioe, to raise sums of money towards carrying on the war 
igunst the Scots.* In the beginning of the year 1643, ac- 
ewding to Dr. Walker, he was dispossessed of his viparage by 
wilder of the house of commons ; because he had taken another 
hying, which, from his own confession, was inconsistentt 
Whether this be indeed correct we are imable to ascertain ; 
hot be this as it may, it appears that, upon the commence- 
ment of the dyil war, he espoused the cause of the parlia- 
Bent, united himself to the puritans, and became rector of 
8t. Austin's church, Watling-street, London, where he con- 
tinued in peace and quietness all the rest of his days. In 
each of these situations he was happy among the people of 
his charge. They were much attached to him; and often 
warmly pressed him to appear in print. He lived to a good 
old age, and was living in the y<3ar 1653 ; but when he died 
tre have not been able to learn. t 

His Works.— 1. Be Tliarikful London and her Sisters, 1626.— 
% Four Sermons, 1639.— 3. Tryal of our Church-forsakers, 1639. — 
4*. Milk for Babes ; or, a Mother's Catechism for her Children, 1646. 
—6. Three Sermons, 1646.— 6. A Christian Family Builded by God; 
(H*, Directions £6r Governors of Families, 1653. 



John Spilsbury was a minister of the antipacdobaptist 
denomination. Upon his embracing these sentiments, he 
i9 said to have gone into Holland to be baptized by* Mr. 
John Smjth; after which he returned to England, and 
b^n to baptize adults by immersion. Crosby, however, 
attempts to clear him of this, and to prove that he did not 
go abroad for this purpose ; but with what degree of sue* 
cess we will not undertake to determine.^ In the year 
163?, part of Mr. John l^athorp's church, in London, hav- 
ing espoused the sentiments of the baptists, desired to be 
dismissed from the church, and to be allowed to form a 
distinct congregation. " The church," it is observed, 

* Impeachment of Bishop Pierce, p. 8. 
f Walker*s Attempt, part ii. p. 183. 
t Wood's Athenae Oxon. vol. i. p. 800. 
S Crosby's Baptists, vol. i. p. 96, 103> 104. 



184 Liyj^ OF THE PURITANS. 

<< having grown very numerous, and being more than Ciwld 
In those times of persecution conveniently meet together, 
and believing that those persons acted from a principle d 
conscience, and not obstinacy, agreed to allow them the 
liberty they desired." They formed tlicraselves, therefore, 
into a distinct church, Se])tember 13, 1633, and chose Mr. 
Spilsbury to the office of pastor. This church, which 
settled in Wapping, is thought to have been the first baptist 
congregation in England.* In the year 1638, Mr. William 
Kii&i, Mr. Thomas Wilson, and other celebrated persons, 
became members of this church,+ and the society appears to 
have been in a flourishing condition. 

In process of time, however, some disputes arose among 
(he members, on the subject of mixed communion. Those 
who opposed it withdrew, and formed a separate society ^under 
the care of Mr. Kiffin. This separation is said to liave taken 

Elace in I6h3^ soon after which the present baptist meeting* 
ouse in Devonshire-square was built, where Mr« Kiffin and 
his church assembled for public worship.^ Mr. Spilsbunr, 
in 1644, subscribed the confession of faith set forth in the 
name of the seven baptist congregations in London ; but 
when he died we have not been able to learn. It appears 
that after the above separation he went to Ireland, where 
he was highly respected. Henry Cromwell, in a letter 
dated Dublin, March 8, 1654, addressed to Secretary 
Thurloe, speaks in high terms of him.^ He was a man of 
an excellent spirit and great moderation.|| He published a 
piece entitled, " The peculiar Interest of the Elect in Christ 
and his Saving Grace." 



CuTHBERT Sydenham, A. M. — This divine was horn at 
Truro in Cornwall, in the year 1622, and educated in St, 
Alban's-hall, Oxford. He continued at Oxford till after 
the commencement of the civil wars, and the place was 
garrisoned by the royal forces ; at which time he left the 
.university, and espoused the cause of the parliament. 
About the year 1644, he became lecturer of St. Nicholas 
church, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; " where," says Wood, 
*^ by his constant and confident preaching, he gained more 
respect than any venerable minister in "that or another 

♦ NeaFs Puritans, vol. ii. p. 347.— Crosby's Baptists, vol. i. p, 148, 149. 

+ Crosby *s Baptists, vol. iii. p. 41, 42. 

t Wilson's Hist, of DissentUig Ohorches^ vol. i. p. 401. 

^ Thurloe's Slate Papers, vol. ii. p. 149. 

I Bailie's Aoabaptism, p. 94, 118. 



SYDENHAM— EEBBRT. ISS 



coct>oration.'* This could not indeed be his fimlt. He wm 
undoubtedly most doBemng of it In the yew 1630, bj 
virtue of letters from the coniniission»s of parliament, far 
regulating the uniyersitj of (hrfbtd, he was cieafied master 
of drts. In those lettars they gave him a most exoelknt 
character. He was a constant and zealous preacher, and 
a man of great learning and piety, frequently exerdstiir a 
holy jealousy over his own heart* But retiring to LoMoa 
for the benefit of his health, and to superintend the printing 
of some of his books, he there died, about March S3, IGM, 
aged thirty-two years. 

His Works.— 1. A Christian, Sober, and Plaip ExeieitatioB of te 
two grand practical Controversies of these Tioies, Infant llapfhi 
aiid Singing of Psalms, 1653. — 2. llie great Mjsterie of Godlineii, 
opened in several Sermons, 1654. — 3. Hypocrisie Discovered in its 
Nature and Workings, being the Sum of Seven Senaons, 16M.^ 
4. The False Brother; or, the Mapp of Scotland, drawn by an Eogiih 
Pencil. — 5. Anatomy of Joh. Lilbonrn's Spirit and Pamphlets; or, 
a Vindication of the Two Honourable Patriots, Oliver Cromwell, 
Lord Governor of Ireland, and Sir Arth. Hasehigg, Knight and 
Baronet ; wherein the said Lilbonm is demonstratively proved to ba 
a common Lyer, and unworthy of civil Converse. 



William Erbert, A. B. — This perscm was bom at 
Roath-Dagfield in Glamorganshire, in the year 1604, and 
educated in Brazen-nose college, Oxford. Having finished 
his studies at the nniyersity, he entered into the ministerial 
office, retired into Wales, and became yicar of St. Mary's 
in Cardifi. Wood says that he was always schismaticallj 
inclined, that he preached in conyenticles, and that, fctf 
refusing to read the king's declaration for sports on the 
Lord's day, he was brought several times into the high 
commission court at Lambeth, where he sufiered for his 
obstinacy .f The Bishop of Landaff, visiting his diocese in 
the year 1634, pronounced Mr. £rbery ^ schismatical and 
dangerous preacher ; and, for disobeying his majesty's in* 
stnictions, he gave him judicial admonition, and threatened 
tb proceed further against him if he did not submit. Re- 
fusing to debase himself by submission, contrary to truth 
and his own conscience, the bishop, the year following, pre- 
ferred articles against him in the high commission court, 
threatening to punish him according to his deserts. In 
1636 his lordship complained of the slow prosecution against 

« Wood's AthenaB.OzoB. vol. ii. p. 100, 101. 
-f ibid. p. lOS. 



Ig6 XlVfS or THE PURITANS. 

kitii, and -observes^ that << this madeliini persist in fits hf* 
ways, and his foUo'virers judge him faultless." Thou^ the 
prosecution was slow, it was sure. It was committed into 
the hands of proper persons, and success was certain* 
Therefore, in the year 1638, Mr. Erbery was forced to 
lerign his vicarage, and be left' the diocese in peace.* 

Being thus deprived of his living, and dnven from hit 
flock, he most probably went from place to place through 
the countiT, and preached as he coidd obtain an opport»* 
Bity, as did his brethren, Messrs. Wroth, Cradock, and 
Powell. In the year 1640, says Wood, he shewed hinMelf 
openly, preached against the bishops and ceremonies, and 
made early motions towards independency. f Mr. Edwards, 
with his usual scurrility, gives the following account of 
him : '^ In the beginning of the parliament, he was an inde- 
pendent, but by degrees is fallen to many gross erron, 
holding universal red(*mption, &c. and is now a seeker, and 
I know not what. This man was a chaplain in the Eaxl ct 
Essex's army a great while, and there did broach many 
antinomian doctrines, and other dangerous errors: but 
having left the army a good while since, he was about . 
London, and did vent his opinions here. About last spring 
he betook himself to the Isle of Ely for his ordinary resi- 
dence, from whence he takes his progress into one county 
or another in private Rouses, venting his opinions amongst 
well-affected people, under the habit of holiness. In Jiuy 
last he was at Bury, where he exercised in private, some' 
forty persons being present, and declared himself fiOr 
general redemption; that no man was punished for Adam's 
sin; that Christ died for all; and that the guilt of Adun's 
sin shouM be imputed to no man. He said also, that within 
a while God would raise up apostolical men, who should be 
extraordinary to preach the gospel ; and after that shall b»^ 
the fall of Rome. He spake against gathering churches, 
the anfibaptists' re-baptizing, and said men ought to 
wait for the coming of the Spirit, as the apostles did. 
^ Look, as in the wilderness they had honey and manna, 
but not circumcision and the passover till they cariie into 
Canaan; so now we may have many sweet things, con- 
ference and prayer, but not a ministry and sacraments. 
And then, after the tall of Rome, there shall be new heavens 
and anew earth: there «hall be new Jerusalem; and then 
•hall the church b^ one, one street in that city,andnom(»e.' 

• WKaf ton's Troobles of Land, vol. i. p. 536-^565. 
f Atbeoe Oxoo. fol. ii. p. 103. ^ 



ERBERY. Ig7 

Not kmg aficT he went to Northampioo, where in a private 
meeting the main Bcope of his exercise was, to speak againal 
the certainty and sufficiency of the scriptures, allying that 
there \^as no certainty to build upon them, because there 
were so many several copies.' He was also at OiuKHe* 
Newport Pagnel, and appointed shortly to return again to 
JB«{ry.'^* The readier wUl judge for himself* how rar thia 
account, from the unworthy pen of Mr. Edwards, i^ deserv- 
ing of credit. 

Afler the surrender of Oxford in 1646, Mr. Erbery, still 
a chaplain in the parliament's army, was sent thither; 
where, says Wood, " he kept his conventicles in a house 
opposite to Mertou college church, cmd used all the meant 
in his power in opposing the doctrine of the presbyterian 
ministers, who were sent by the parliament to preach the 
scholars into obedience.''^ He was certainly held in high 
favour and esteem among the soldiers, but is said to have 
envied the reputation of the presbytcrians. While he was 
at Oxford he opposed them in several public disputations. 
At one time the subject of debate was, '' Whether the 
ministry of the church ought to be entrusted to a select 
number of persons ?"' In the conclusion, Mr. Erbery and 
his party are said to have put the presbyterian disputants 
under the same difficulty as our Lord did the unbelieving 
Jews, by his question about John's baptism. For, demand- 
ing of themj " whence they had their orders," they durst 
not say, ^< from the bishops," whom both sides confessed to 
be antichristian ; nor could they deny it, as they had all 
been episcopally ordained ; so the shout went in favour of 
Erbery's party, and the meeting was dissolved, to the great 
disturbance of the presbyterian disputants. Afterwards Mn 
Erbery had a disputation with Mr. Chcynel, one of the 
presbyterian ministers. The debate was conducted in St 
Mary's church, when, it is said, he maintained, among 
other things, ^^ That the saints shall have the same worship, 
honour, throne, and glory, as Christ now hath ; and shall 
be endowed with a greater power of working miracles than 
Christ had when he was on earth." The contest, which 
lasted about four hours, was not carried without tumult; 
and in the conclusion, each party retired claiming the 
▼ictory.t The account of this dfisputc was afterwards 
puldiahed by the adverse party, eQtitled, <^ A Relation of a 

* Gangraena, part i. p. 109, 110. Second edit. 

-f Athense Oxon. vol. ii. p. 104. 

% WallLer*! Attenpt, part i. p. 185, 19S. 



188 , LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Disputation in St. Mary's church in Oxon, between Mn 
Cheynel and Mr. Erbery," 1()46. A particular detail of 
o^her disputes which he had with the Visitors was also pub- 
lished by his opponents, entitled, " An Account ^iven to the 
Parliament by the Ministers sent by them to Oxford," 1647. 
In this piece they give a circumstantial account of their 
disputations with Mr. Erbery, but not sufficiently interestine 
to deserve the reader's particular attention. Mr. Erbery had 
a public dispute with one Mr. Nichols, of which he gave a 
particular account in a piece entitled, '' A Dispute at 
Cowbridge, (Glamorganshire,) with Mr. Henry Nichols^ 
Pastor of an Independent Church, and Parson of a Parish- 
Church."* But this is not more interesting than the 
former. 

Upon Mr. Erhery's departure from Oxford, says Wood, 
" be went to London, where he vented his blasphemies in 
several places against the glorious divinity ana blood of 
Jesus Christ, especially in his conventicle at Christ-church 
wiihin Newgate, where those of his opinion met once H 
week. He was at length brought before the committee of 
plundered ministers at Westminster; when, to the admiration 
, of those who had heard his blasphemies, he began to make 
a solemn profession of his faith in orthodox language : but 
the chairman took him up, and commanded him silence^ 
saying, * We know your tricks well enough.' To say the 
truth,"' adds our author, '' he had language at command, 
and could dissemble for matter of profit, or to avoid danjger ; 
and it was well, known he was a mere canter." Tbif 
account, from the bigotted historian, is extremely partial 
and incorrect, as appears from a particular narrative pub- 
lished by Mr. Erbery himself, in which he denies manv of 
the charges alleged against him, and acquits himseli of 
others. The piece is entitled, " The Honest Heritique; or. 
Orthodox Blasphemer, accused of Heresie and Blaspheniie, 
but cleared of both by the judgment of God, and of good 
Men, at a Committee for Plundered Ministers of the I^rlia* 
ment, March 9th, 1652 : With a double Answer to Articles 
charged against him ; whereupon he was freed irom his 
Prison, and liberty granted by the Lord to preach 
again."+. 

« October 12, 1653, Mr. Erbery and Mr. John Webster 
endeavoured," says Wood, ," to knock down learning and 
the ministry together, in a disputation they had with two 

♦ ^Ijery 'I Testimony, p. 852. f IWd.^ p. 3101 



fiABERY. 189 

ministers in a cburch in Lombard-street. JETrbery then 
declai:ed, that the wisest ministers and purest churches were 
at thdt time befooled^ confounded, and defiled by learning. 
He said, also, that the ministers were monsters, beasts, asses^ 
grcejdy dogs, and false prophets ; that they are the bca$t 
with seven beads and ten horns ; that Babylon is the church 
in her ministers; and that the great Whore is the church 
in her worship. So that with him," he adds, ^^ there was an 
end of ministers, and .churches, and ordinances toffetben 
While these things were babbled to and fro, the miutituda 
bdjDg of various opinions, began to mutter, and many to 
cry put, and immediately there was a tumult, wherein the 
women bor^ away the bell, but some of them lost their 
kerchiefs. And the dispute was so hot, that there waf 
more dimger of pulling down the church than the 
ministry."* 

It is observed of Mr. Erbery , by one who appears to have 
been well acqi^ainted with him, that the four principal 
things upon which he chiefly dwelt in his ministry, were 
the following : ^< That there was a measure of a pure appear- 
ance of spirit and truth in the days of the apostles. — That 
abput the latter end of their days, or soon after, the spirit of 
the Loi]d withdrew itself, and men substituted an external 
and carnal worship in its stead. — That tliis apostacy was 
not yet removed from the generality of professing christiansy 
notwithstanding their pretence of ddiverance; but that 
they still lay under it, and were likely so to do for some 
time. — That when the appointed season came, the apostacy 
should be removed, and the new Jerusalem come down from 
(rod, of which some glimpse might now appear in particular 
saints ; yet the full view and accomplishment thereof seemed 
to be at some distance."^ 

Mr. Baxter denominates him " one of the chief of the 
anabaptists," and Mr. Neal calls him '' a turbulent anti- 
nomian ;"t whereas he was neither the one nor the other. 
Primitive baptism, he thought, consisted in going into the 
water ankk-deep^ and not in a total immersion; but judged 
that none have now any right to administer that ordinance 
without a fresh commission from heaven. In his views of 
the trinity he was of the Sabellion cast ; and it appears^ 
from the general strain of his writings, that he drunk very 
deep in the spirit of mysticism. He was an admirer of the 



♦ Athea« Oxw, vol. ii. p. 104. f Erbcry'a Testimony, Prcf. 

t Keal*! P«rit«Biy toI. iii, p. S97. 



190 LIVES OP THE PURITANS. 

Quakers, with wTiom his wife united,* and from whom he 
expected great things, but did not unite with them. He 
liad formmy laboured under k sore affliction, which had 
deeply affected his head ; previous to which he was a man 
^ good parts and an excellent scholar, zealous and suc- 
^ eessAil in his ministry, and particularly grave and religious 
ni his life.t Mr. Christopher Love thus observes : '^ As for 
Mr. Erbery, though he is fallen into dangerous opinions ; 
yet, he being my spiritual father, I do naturally care for 
Aim ; ^d my heaVt cleaves more to him than to any man^in 
the world. I speak to the praise of God, he was the instru- 
ment of my conversion nearly twenty years ago, and the 
means of my educ^ition at the university ; for which kind* 
Bess, the half of what I have in the world I could readily 
part with for his relief. It is true, about eight or nine years 
since, he was plundered in Wales, and came to see me at 
Windsor castle ; but a son could not make m^re of a father 
Ihan I did of him, according to my ability. When I had 
not twelve pounds in the world, I let him have six of it ; and 
I procured him to be chaplain to Major Skippon's regiment, 
where he had eight shillings per day.'^t He is characteriased 
by those of his own persuasion, as a holy and harmless 
person, for which the world hated him.$ I(e died in the 
month of April, 1654, aged fifty years. 

His Wo^KS. — 1. The great Mysterie of Godliness :> Jesos Christ 
our Lord God and Man, and Man with God, one in Jesus Christ ou^ 
liord, 1640. — ^2. Ministers for Tylbes, proving they are no Ministers 
of the Gospc!, 1653. — 3. Sermons on several Occasions, one of which 
is entitled, " The Lord of Hosts," 1653.— 4. An Olive Leaf: or, 
•ome peaceable Considerations to the Christian Meeting at Cbrisfi 
Church in London, 1654. — ^. The Reign of Christ, and the- Saints 
with him on Earth a I'housand Years, one Day, and the Day at 
hand, 1654. — 6. The Testimony of William Erbery, left upon Record 
lor the Saints of succeeding Ages, 1658. — ^This contains several of the- 
.foregoing pieces. # ' 



Jeremiah Whitaker, A.M. — This excellent person 
was bom at Wakefield in Yorkshire, in the year 1599, and 
educated in Sidney college, Cambridge, where he was hcJd 
in high estimation. He was religiously thoughtful from a 
child ; and when a boy at school he us^ to travel, in com- 
pany with others^ eight or ten miles to hear the gospd, and 
unite with them in prayer and other religious exercises. 

♦ Biog. Britan. vol. ?. p. 3199. Edit. 1747. 

t MS. AccoQot. t LoTe'ff YlndicatioB, p. 3$. fidit. 1651. 

S Wood's Atben« Oxon. voj. it. p. 104. 



/^ 



J. WHITAKER; 191 

He often said, in the days of his youth, ^^ I had much 
rather be a minister of the gospel than an emperor." 
While at the university, be made considerable progress in 
the various branches of useful literature ; .and, upon his 
removal, he settled at Oakham in Rutlandshire, where, for 
some time, he taught school. Here he became intimate 
with Mr. William Peachy, an eminent scholar and preacher, 
ifhose daughter he afterwards married. Having been at 
Oakham about four years, he accepted the pastoral charge 
at Stretton in the same county. He naturally cared for the 
fionls of the people, and the preaching of the gospel was 
his beloved work. His heart was so deeply engaged in 
the work, that, having received an invitation to become 
master of a college, he returned this reply : " My heart," 
said he, '^ doth more desire to be a constant preaqher than 
to be master of any college in the world." 

Upon the publication of the Book of Sports, this amiable 
divine, with multitudes of his brethren, was exposed to the 
persecution of the ruling prelates. Though, for refusing to 
read it, he was involved in some difficulties, he happily- 
escaped the malicious threaten ings of his enemies. B<nng 
Afterwards required to afford pecimiary assistance for the 
purpose of carrying on the war against the Scots, he refused, 
and openly told the Jjishop, or his chancellor, that he could 
not do it with a good conscience; for which, if one of his 
friends had not paid the money, he would have suiicred 
suspension and deprivation.* . 

Mr. Whitaker, liaving preached at Stretton thirteen years, 
^as chosen, in the year 1643, one of the assembly of 
divines. This called him up to Loudon, wiien he accepted 
an invitation to the pastoral office of St. Mary Magdalen, 
Bermondsey, in Southwark; and he became one of the 
morning lecturers at the Abbey church, Westminster. In 
1647 he was appointed a member of the first provincial 
assembly holden in London, and was once chosen to tlie 
office of moderator. During the same year, by an order 
from the house of lords, he was appointed, with Dr. Thomas 
Goodwin, to have the oversight and examination of the 
papers to be printed for the assembly of divines.t The 

{^ear following he was in danger of being deprived of his 
ccture at Westminster for refusing the engagemqnt; but, 

* Clark's Lives annexed to his Martyrologie, p. S61) 265, 
f Dis8eotin|; Brethren's Propositions. 



192 



LIVES OF T|IE PURITANS. 



on account of his universal esteem and great moderation, 
he continued unmolested.* 

This worthy divine, during the latter part of his life, was 
afflicted with most racking pains, but was of a most humble^ 
meek, and quiet spirit. Under these tormenting agonies, he 
never murmured, but, in the exercise of faith and patience, 
was entirely resigned to the will of God. He manifested so 
excellent a spirit through the whole of his long and painful 
affliction, that many persons were of opinion that Grod 
designed him for a pattern of patience to posterity. When 
his triends asked him how he did, he usually replied, ^' The 
bush is always burning, but not consumed. And thou^ 
my pains be -above the strength of nature^ they are nol 
above the supports of grace.^* About two months before 
his death, his pains became more extreme than ever, wheii 
he cried thus unto the Lord : " O thou Father of mercie^ 
pity me. Do not contend for ever. Consider niy fram^ 
that I am but dust. My God, who hast made heaven and 
earth, help me. Oh ! give me patience, and inflict what 
thou wilt. If my patience was more, my pain would be 
less. Dear Saviour, why dost thou cover thyself with a 
thick cloud ? Blessed is the man that endureth temptation. 
Consider, Lord, that I am thy servant. Lord, drop some 
sweet comfort into these bitter waters. O that the blood rf 
sprinkling may allay my pains ! I am in a fiery fmrnace. 
Lord, be with me, and bring me out refined from sin. Whcai 
I have sailed through the ocean of these pains, and look 
back, I see they are all needful. I fly unto thee, O God ! 
Hide me under the shadow of thy wings, till the terrible 
storm be overpast. O, my God ! break open the prison 
door, and set my poor captive soul at liberty. But enaUe' 
me willingly to wait thy time. No man ever more desired 
life than I desire death. When will that day arrive that I 
shall neither sin nor sorrow any more? When shall this 
earthly tabernacle be dissolved, that I may be clothed upon 
with that house which is from heaven ? Blessed are the dead 
which die in the Lord ; for they rest from their labours.** ■ 

Through the whole of his affliction heexercised an unshaken 
confidence in God, and enjoyed an uninterruped assurance 
of his favour. He called him nw Father and mi/ God^ and . 
said, " Consider, and save me, for I am thine. How long, 



* aark'fi Li?C9, p. 266. 



J. WHITAKER. 193 

W long, shall I not be remembered ? Yes, I am remem<* 
beted : blessed be thy name. This is a fierv chariot, but 
il will carry me to heaven. Blessed be (jod, who has 
Utbeito supported me; who has delivered me, and will 
deliver' me.' As the agonizing fits of pain were coming 
Qpoo him, he usually said, ^' Now, in the strength of the 
I^rd God, I will undergo these pains. Oh ! my God, put 
tuidemeath thine everlasting arms, and strengthen me." 
Nutwithstanding all his pains and roarings, he often told liis 
fiiends, that he would not, for a thousand worlds, exchange 
itates with any man on earth whom he looked upon as living 
in a slate of sin. The grand adversary of souls could 
lever f hake his confideiu:e. He often said, << Through 
ntercy, I have not one repining thought against God." As 
be Mi the fits coming on, he requested his friends to with- 
draw, that they mii^ht not b(* grieved by hearing his groan* 
iii£8 ; and he blessed God they were not obliged to hear his 
doleful lamentations. As the period of his dissolution 
approached, his agonizing fits became more frequent and 
more painful ; but the Lord was, at length, pleased to deliver 
him out of them all. He died June 1, 1654, aged fifty-five 
years, and his mortal remains were interred in Bermondsey 
church, when vast numbers of people honoured his funeral 
by th« ir attendance.* H is funeral sermon was preached by 
nr. Simeon Ashe, and afkrwards published, entitled, 
" Liviiig Loves betwixt Christ and Dying Christians. A 
Sermon preached at M. Magdalene, Bermondsey in South- 
wark, near London, June (i, 1654, at the Funerall of the 
faithful Servant of Christ, Mr. Jeremiah Whitaker, Minister 
of the Gospel, with a Narrative of his exemplary Life and 
Death," 1634. 

After Mr. Whitaker's death, his body was opened in the 
presence of several physicians; when they found both his 
kidnies full of ulcers, and one of them swelled to an 
enormous size, and filled with purulent matter. In the neck 
of his bladder, they found a stone about an inch and 
balf long, and an inch broad, weighing abont two ounces, 
which is supposed to have occasioned his racking pains.f 
"He was a constant and an excellent preacher, an 
universal scholar, an eminent theologian, an able disputant, 
>Uid much given to acts* of charity and liberality ."t Mr. 
Leigh says, ^^ he was a pious and learned divine, mighty io 

• CUrk'f Livef, p. 267—272. 

+ Ibid. p. 273.— Ashe'B Fun. Sf r. for Mr. Whitaker. 

t Ckirk'n Uvet, p. 266. 

VOL. III. O 



19* LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

ihe scriptures, laborious in his ministerial fundioii/feeBliMll 
for God^s glory, and of a humble, melting spiri^ and k 
wonderful instance of patience during the whole of hik 
heavy afflicticm/'* Fuller includes him among the \ektn0i 
writers of Sidney college, Cambridce.f We have not been 
able to collect any long list of his writings; only he 
published certiin sermons preached before the parliamrat, 
and probably some others. Mr. William Whitaker, qected 
in 1662, was bis son 4 

Mr. Whitaker, during his heavy affliction, wtote a l^iei 
to the Protector Cromwell, the sight of which will b6 
highly gratifying to every inquisitive reader. It is tran- 
scribed from the original in Mr. Whitaker^s own hand, and 
though there be no date, it was evidently written in the yeaf 
1651. It is addressed << To his Highness the Ldrd Pro* 
tector," of which the following is a copy :^ 

<< May it please your highness to pardon this boldness in 
presenting this book, composed by some godly men, to 
appease the heat of the present controversies, wherein is 
proved — ^ That the office of the ministry is not the intru- 
sion of men, but the institution of Jesus Christ. — ^Thatthe 
necessity of this office is perpetual. — That the ministry inwk 
60 preserved under antichrist, that it is not antichtistian*-— 
That this office is peculiar to sonie, and not commdn to Idl.-^ 
And that they who assume this office must be called lawfdlf 
at present, and also hereafter.^ Ordination, in geiielal ig 
necessary, and how that is to be observed is justifiable. 
. ^^ I cannot come to tender it, being confined to my chaiii* 
ber under extreme tormenting pains of the stdne, whiich 
forceth me to cry and sorrow night and day. But blessed for 
ever be the Lord, wlio hath begotten us to a lively hobe and 
joy by Jesos Christ; that the thoughts of eternity do 
sweeten the bitter things of time : that, when we are we&ry 
of the thines of this life, we may greatly rejoice in hope cf 
a better, in this dying condition, give me leave to tender 
many thanks to your highness for taking away the engage- 
ment, wherebv you have greatly refreshed the conscfences 
of many. The good Lord recompense this great act of 
mercy, and enlarge your heart to prevent the like sham in. 
future, at which the worst of men frown, and the best <^ 
men mourn. And the same God who hath raised you above 
other men, still raise you to be higher than yourself^ fif 

* Leigh*8 Re1i|[:ion and Learning, p. 364. 
i History of Cambridge, p. 154. 
1 Palmer*8 Noocon. Mem. vol. i. p. 157. 
t Sloane's MSS. Ko. 4159. 



J. WHITAKER. 195 

Aoffe an these dominions, and tbrones, and poivers ; that 
jroQ may account all these things low and little, dr^ and 
dost, dung and dross, in comparison of things etemaL 
Ako^ what poor things are Pompej, Caesar, Nimrod^ and 
Nebachadiiezzar, to the Abels, whose thoughts are fixed 
Ml things everlasting ! 

^ May it please your highness to consider seriously, how 
idlgioo is not only weakened by divisions, but almost 
waited by the daily growing of alterations. The reins of 

Evcrnment a long time have been let loose, and are now 
it in the church totally : in families extremely so, that 
masters know not how to order their servants, nor par^its 
flidr childien. All grow willing to command, but unwilling 
to be commaDded : sabbaths are generally profaned, ordi- 
IMooet detpiied, the youth playing whilst the minister is 
Meaching, the consciences of many growing wanton, abus* 
uuf liberty to all licentiousness. And .there are none left in 
pSoes to put offenders to shame for any of these abomina- 
tiooBm The good Lord persuade your heart to appoint such 
jaiticeB whose principles and practice lead them to restrain 
▼ice; who do account the sabbath their delight, that the 
inferior officers may be by them encouraged. 

^^ I beseech you also, in the bowels of Jesus Christ, to 
remember the many poor prisoners in the land, who in 
uprightness of their heart lent the greatest part of their 
ertate apon public faith. The Romans were forced in like 
straits to borrow of the people; but it is recorded to their 
gloiy, that their wars were no sooner ended than these 
public debts were discharged. Let not paganish Rome rise 
np in the day of judgment to condtmn uutaithful England. 
The n^lect of this will involve the land in national guUt. 
I am persuaded, if the Lord help you to defray these debt^, 
Aat you shall win the hearts of very many, and stop the 
months of your greatest adversaries. 

^' And now that I have taken upon me to speak, let not 
your highness be an^ry with your poor servant, if he 
implore your pity and candour, and petition for the safe 
ntum of Mr. Cawton, a sincere servant o^ Christ ; who, 
tiein^ involved in the business for which Mr. Love suffered 
death, half a year since suffered a voluntary banishment in 
great extremity and hardship. May not the blood of Love 
mkSer for that offence ? Have not others in other kinds done 
as much and more, and yet found favour ? I beseech your 
licmour's protection, that the beginning of your government 
jnaj be with acts of grace ; and oh that such a day of 



196 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

release might come that your highness might see it, both 
for your honour and safety, to proclaim liberty to the 
captives, and the opening of the prison to them who haY<$ 
been long bound. The God of glory help you to lay such 
foundations in common equity and righteousness, that yoa 
may leave the najlion in a better condition when you dii; 
thap you found it : that you may give up your account 
with joy ; which is the hearty prayer of, 

" Your higlmesses humble servant, 

« Jkr. Whitakeh." 

Hb Works.— >1. Cbrlst the Settlement of Unsettled Times, a 
Sermon preached before the Honourable House of Commons, at their 
late pablic Fast, 25 Jan. 1G42, printed 1642.-2. The Christian's 
Hop6 Triumphing, in a Sermon preached before the Right HonoifP* 
able the House of Lords, in Abbey-church, Westminster, May 18^ 
being the Day appointed for solemn and public Humiliation, 1646. 
— 3. The Danger of Greatnesse ; or, Uzziah, his Exaltation and 
Destruction, a Sermon before the Lords and Commons in Parliament^ 
and the Assembly of Divines, in the Church of St. Martin's in tilt 
Fields, January 14, 1645, being a special Day of HumiliatiMi aet 
apart to seek God's Direction in the settling of Church GoTenn 
mentyl646. 



William Strong, A. M. — This excellent minister 
received his education in Katherine-hall, Cambridge, of 
which he was chosen fellow. The master of the coUcj^ was 
the celebrated Dr. Sibbs. Upon leaving the university, be 
was presented to the living of Long Crichill in Dorsetshire, 
where he continued till he was forced to flee from the cava* 
liers.* He then fled to London, where he often preached 
before the parliament, was chosen one of the aaditional 
divines to the assembly, and minister of St. Dunstan^s in tlie 
West. After some time he gathered a congregatioil uppn 
the plan of the independents, which assembled in West^ 
minster abbey, and was composed of many parliament ipen 
and persons of quality residing in Westminster.t He waa 
chosen to the office of pastor in this society, December 9, 
1650, upon which occasion he delivered a sermon on the 
order of, a gospel church, which may be «een among Ids 
select sennons published after his death. He was iuter- 
wards nominated one of the triers for the approbation, of 
.preachers.^ 

• Wood's Atbenae Onm; vol. ii. p. 1S9. 
-f Caliiniy*8 Accouot, ? ol. H. p. 41. 

X Bishop Keooet ponn great calumny upon those learaed dl? isiei wh^ 
>ere appointed triers. '« By the qacstions they were wont to tik,** 



STRONG. 197 

Mr. Strong died in the vigour of life, and wa& buried ia 
die AUiey church, July 4, 1654 ; but bis remains were dug 
up at the restoration and thrown into a pit dug on purpose 
in St. Margaret's church-yard ; but of this brutal transaction 
a more particular account is given in another place.* Mr. 
Obadiah Sedgwick, who preached his funeral sermon, says, 
^that he was so plain in heart, so deep in judgment, so 
painful in study, so frequent, exact, and laborious in 
preaching, and, in a word, so eminently qu ilified ibr all the 
datiea of the ministerial office, that he did not know his 
eqoal/'t Mr. Strong published several sermons and 
flieological treatises in his life-time ; and others were pub- 
liihed after his deatli. Among these we find, in quaito, 
•* Thirty-one select Sermons, preached on spe(^ial Occasions. 
By William Strong, that godly, able, and faithful Minister . 
of Christ, lately ofthe Abbey at Westminster, 1656." To 
this volume there is a preface by Dr. Thomas Manton, Mr. 
John Rowe, and Mr. George Griffith. There is another 
piefiu:e by Dr. Henry Wilkinson, d' an of Christ's Church, 
who jFives the following account of Mr. S troughs character: 

** There is an excellent vein in his sermons, as one siith 
in the like case, the farther you search the richer treasure 
you are likely to find. That which made bis sennotis pass 
with so great approbation of the most judicious hearers, 
when he was alive, and will be a passport to his writm^^s 
though posthumous, ^vas, that he followed the advice of the 
Apostle to Timothy, studying to shew himself approved to 
Crod, a zoorkman that need not be ashamed^ ^igMu dividing 
ihe word of truth. He made preaching his work. He was so 
much taken up in this work, that to my knowled^^e he was 
often in watchings a great part of the night, besitles his 
pains in his day studies. But, besides that very great 
diligence and travail of head and heart, and that unseason- 
able and hard study, that he laid out in his sermons, he had 
a special faculty or kei ping close io his text and business in 
band; which, as it is very requisite in a preacher, so it is 
very advantageous to commend a discourse to the most 
judicious ear. That which further contributed to his 
excellency in preaching, was his skill and deep insight into 
the mystery ot godliness, and the doctrine ofthe free grace 
of God. And as to the mystery of iniquity within us, he 
was well studied in the soul's anatomy, and could dexterously 

he, '' a man coold not U\\ what they aimed at, except it was to advance 
Qukerism, or make way for Mahometism."— iVeaf* Puritans^ fol. ir, 
p. lOS.— ifmiici's Chronicle^ p. 7 14. 

• See Art. Dr. WiUiam Twiue. f Stronf*^ Fancnil Sermon. 



t» LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

diBsect the old man. He underatood well the mystery of 
iuiqoity without us, of Satan and antichrist; and, by hk 
knowledge of these mysteries, he was able to advance the 
kingdom and honour of our Lord Christ in the hearts and 
lites of his hearers ; to discover Satan's depths, and to di»» 
appoint his plots and devices. There was one thing mor^ 
which added very much unto him and to his labours in 
preaching, and made him successful in clearing dark places^ 
Und searching further into the deep mines of the word, and 
that was his constant recourse to the originals, in which ha 
had good skill. By these means he went beyond most of hil 
brethren in the work of the ministry ; so that his sermons had 
always something above the ordinary reach, and a certaitt 
strain answering the advantage and happiness of the age in 
which he lived. There was so great a weight, both of words 
lind sense, in this our author's sermons, and so much of 
worth, that they appeared as good upon a narrow disquisition 
as they seemed to be when they were delivered. The igno* 
ranee or want of a clear knowledge of the doctrine of di^ 
covenant of grace, God's rich and frep grace in the businels 
of our salvation, was formerly, and is still, the cause of miaiy 
errors in the church. The author of these sennons bad 
arrived to an excellency and height in this doctrine, beyond 
die most that I ever read or knew. Had he lived to hzth 
perfected his labours about the covenant of grace/ I pre- 
sume I may say they had surpassed all that went before. 
Though his adversaries did very much endeavour to asperse 
him, yet he proved them to be unjust and false. He was «3I 
happy in the purity and innocency of his life as he was for 
tiie fervour which, through grace, he erected in his preach- 
ing.". 

Mr. George Griffith, in his preface to Mr. Strong't 
sermons, entitled, " The Heavenly Treasure," l656, givea 
die following account of the author : ** It is abundantly mani- 
fest to most of the godly through the nation, but more 
especially in the city of London, <vith what singular ability, 
strong affection, and good success, Mr. Strong employed and 
i$pent himself in the service of the gospel. He did the work 
of him who sent him while it was day; because, as he often 
isaid, the night was coming when no man can work. While 
he had the opportunity, neither the flatteries nor the frowns of 
taen could hinder him fron) his beloved exercise. He 
fNreached the word with mu(^ freedom aad boldness^ and 






• WiUuittoii'f Preface to Mr. Stro^B*s Thirty-one Sittmam. 



STRONG. JS» 

without fear or partiality. He was not of them who corrupt 
the word of God, but declared .all the divine counsel. He 
often told me that one chief object of his study and prayer to 
God was, that he might be led into all trutli^ and teach the 
same both seasonably and profitably. God appointed him to 
labour in those places where all his abilities might be exer- 
cisedy and shine forth in all their lustre. Though he com- 
monly preached four times a week, and frequently oftener^ 
his sermons were not filled with empty notions ; but were 
well studied and enriched with substantial matter, the com- 

i)osition being close, elaborate, and pithy. And while he 
aboured more to profit than to please, he never failed to 
please as well as profit those who heard him. What he 
delivered harmonized one part with another, and was ever 
j^upported with strong arguments. He compared spiritual 
thmgs with spiritual; yet not with the enticing words of 
man's wisdom, but in full demonstration of the Spirit. Being 
^lled with the Spirit, he was enabled to do much work in a 
jUttle timp. He did not weaf o^t with rusting, but with using* 
He exhorted professors of the gospel, however thjey might 
differ about matters of discipline, to maintain good works, 
and bring forth the fruits of righteousness. He laboured to 
bring all parties to live a holy life. Indeed, he well knew 
that persons zealous about external matters, might shew with 
what pjorty they sided ; but by the holiijiess of their lives only, 
couljd they know that they were on the Lord's side. Hence 
he pressed the duties of self-examination and 8elf<ienial ^tb 
great earaestpess ^nd exactness, le9t any persons should pro- 
fess Christianity out of faction^ carrying a pagan heart under a 
christian n^pae."* 

The learned Mr. Theophilus Gale, who published Mr. 
Strong's " Dis^course of the Two Covenants," in 1678, gives 
him the following character : " He was a wonder of nature 
for n^tu^l parts, and a miracle of grace for deep insight into 
the more profouiid mysteries of the gospel. He had a spirit 
capacious a^d prompt, sublime and penetrant, profound and 
clear ; a singular sagacity to pry into the more difficult texts 
of scripture, an incomparable dexterity to discover the secrets 
of corrupt nature, a divine sapience to explicate the mysteries 
of grace^ and an exact prudence to distribute evangelical 
doctrines, according to the capacit}- of his auditors. He was 
a star of the first magnitude m the right hand of Christ, to 
diffuse the resplendent li^t oi the gospel. And as he 

• Griffi(h*s Preface to Mr. Strong*! Heavenly treaiare. 



too LIVES, OF THE PURITANS. 

■ 

transcended most of this age in the explanation of evangelical 
truth, so, in his intelligence and explication of the Jkxfo Core- 
nantSy he seems to excel himself: this being the study of his 
life, and that whereon his mind was mostly intent. The 
notices I received from his other works gave me a great , 
impression of his divine wisdom ; but what mine eyes naY6 
seen, and my thoughts imbided of his incomparable intel- 
ligence, from his elaborate Discourse of the Two Covenants, 
assures me, that not the half was told me by his works for- 
merly published. He was, indeed, a person intimately and 
familiarly acquainted with the deepest points in theology; 
but especially those which relate to the covenant of grace."* 
The learned Dr. Thomas Manton styles him '^ an eminent 
and a faithful servant of God, a man eloquent and mighty in 
the scriptures, and a burning and shining iight in the church 
of Christ."t 

His Works. — I. Thirty-one Select Sermons, preached on special 
Occasions, 1656. — 2. The Heavenly Treasure, 1656. — 3. Commaniom 
with God, the Saint's Privilege and Duty, 1656. — 4. A Treatise Oft 
the Subordination of Man's WiH tothe Will of God, 1657.— 5. Hdl 
Torments, 1672. — 6. A Discourse of the Two Covenants, 1678.1-— 
7. The Parable of the Prodigal. 



Thomas Gataker, B. D. — This celebrated divine wm 
the son of Mr. Thomas Gataker, another puritan divine, the 
pastor of St. Edmund's, Lombard-street, London. He was 
bom in the metropohs, September 4, 1574, and educated in 
St. John's college, Cambridge, where he had Mr. Hennr 
Alyey for his tutor. He greatly distinguished himself by his 
assiduous application; and he is mentioned among those 
ardent students who attended the private Greek lectures 
given by the learned Mr. John Boys, in his chamber, at four 
o'clock in the morning.^ He was afterwai;ds chosen fellow 
of Sidney college, in the same university. He entered with 
great reluctance on the ministerial work while he was at die 
university, when he engaged with Mr. William Bedell, after- 
wards Bishop of Kilmore, and some others^ in the pious and 
laudable work of preaching every Lord's day in the adjacent 

* Gale*8 Sammary, prefixed to Mr. Strang's " Disconne of the Core- 
Bants.*' 

f Manton's Preface to Mr. Strong's Heavenly Treasore^ 

t This is very evangelical, and oncommonly jadiciont.— -friOiiMif^f 
Christian Preacher^ p. 448, 

5 Aikin's liiYcs of Sclden and Usher, p. 406. 



T. GATAKER, Jrs. SRH 

country, where didr UxNirs were most wuded. Ha^qg 
continued these exeroBeB some tDne, he removed to IxmdaB, 
^nd became domestic chafdain to Sir WiQiam Cook, to miioK 
lady he was nearlj rebted. Hk admirable talent fur preadi- 
ing soon gained him so great a reputation, diat, in the yar 
1601, he was chosen preacher to the honourable Mxaelr of 
Lincoln Vinn ; where, for the space of ten jears, he laboured 
with great acceptance, popularitj, and usefulness. Prmout 
to Mr. Gataker s settlement in this situanon, Mr. Lev, after- 
wards Earl of Marlborough and lord treasurer, having been 
present, with his lady, when Mr. Gataker preached at 
St. Martin's in the Fields ; on their return home she asked am 
old servant how he liked the preacher. " Why truly,'' said 
the man, ** he's a pretty pert boy ; and he made a reasonable 
good sermon." Not many weeks after, Mr. Ley, returning 
from Lincoln's-inn, said to his lady, ** I wHl tell yon some 
news. That young man, whom you heard at St. Martin's, is 
chosen lecturer at Lincoln's-inn." The old servant standii^ 
by and hearing this, said, ** What ! will the benchers be 
taught by such a boy as he .^' Mr. Gataker having observed 
in one of his sermons, that it was as lau-ful for the husband- 
man to cultivate his ground as for counsellors to confer with 
their clients and give advice on the Lord's day ; die appro- 
priate admonition was well received, and occasioned the 
alteration of the time of public worship ; for, instead of preach- 
ing at seven o'clock in the morning, as had been the constant 
practice, he was desired to preach at the usual hour of morn- 
mg service. He did not, however, entirely leave Sir William 
Cook's family, but in the vacations went down to their seat 
in Northamptonshire, where, during his stay, he preached 
constantly, sometimes in their domestic chapel, and some- 
times in the parish church. In this he acted purely from the 
inotive of christian piety, uninfluenced bv any worldly consi- 
derations, as very clearly appeared from the following circum- 
stance, peculiarly honourable to his memory: our author, after 
stating this fact, immediately adds, '' And this he did with an 
apostolical mind, not for filthy lucre, but freely making the 
gospel a burden only to the dispenser. Yet such was the 
devotion of that religious pair, (Sir William and his lady,) 
that they would not serve God without cost ; for they after- 
wards, in consideration of those pains, freely taken, settled 
upon Mr. Gataker an annuity of twenty pounds per annum, 
which he indeed received a few years; but afterwards he 
remitted it unto the heir of that family, forbearing tp use 
the right he had, and forbidding his executor to claim any 



801 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

arrears of that annuity. This is mentioned to shew Ihe 
generous temper of his christian soul."* 

Mr. Gataker's learned preaching to the above society, at 
it gave him much satisfaction, so it gained him great reputa- 
tion ; and, if it had accorded with his views, woidd have pro- 
cured him considerable preferment. But whei) various valuable 
benefices were offered lum, he refused to accept of them, coin 
eluding that the charge of one congregation was sufficient for 
one man. He therefore chose to remain in his present sHuar 
tion, in which, though his salary was small, his emplimnent 
was honourable, and his condition safe. Moreover, it afforded 
him great leisure for the pursuit of his studies, in which he 
was very assiduous, particularly the holy scriptures in the 
original languages, the fathers of the church, and the best 
writers among uie Greeks and Romans. 

In the year I6II, he was prevailed upon, not without 
some difficulty, to accept of the rectory of Botherhithe in 
Surrey, a living of considerable value, with which he was 
much importuned to hold his former office ; but that being 
inconsistent with his principles, he absolutely refused. li 
Ais situation, notwithstanding an almost perpetual head-achc[ 
with which he was afflicted from his youth, he continued for 
many years to discharge his numerous pastoral duties witli 
unrenutting and indefatigable industry, and to feed the flock 
of Christ over which the Holy Ghost made him overseer, 
God greatly blessing his labours. Although he had'not coin- 
mitted anv of his learned productions to the press; yet his 
.celebrity foi* erudition was so great, that he held a reguly. 
correspondence with the learned Dr. Usher, afterwards t}i# 
celebrated primajte of Ireland. Some of his epistles ^re stiljf 
preserved, and afford sufficient testimonies of the nature ap4 
extent of his studies, and of his unremitting care to preseryf 
the unpublished works of some of the ancient divines. Thesf 
letters contain very shining proofs of his modesty and humi* 
lity, which do not sdways accompany profound literary acquu'Ot- 
ments. Mr. Gataker's first letter is dated from Rotherhithe, 
March 18, 1 6 16, in which he informs Usher, that he had in 
his possession a manuscript, containing certain treatisea 
which be could not learn ever to have been printed ; among 
which was " Guielmus de Santo Amore, de periculis novissi? 
morum temponim," and an oration delivered in writing to th# 
Pope at Lyons, by Robert Grosthead, formerly Bishop of 
lincoln. 

* Clark*8 ^vet amiexed to M^tyrolQgie, jp. 148 — !&!> 



T. GATAKER, Jmr. flOt 

*^ Some of these/' says he, '' peradventure, if they be not 
abroad already, might not be unworthy to see the Ught, nor 
should I be uuwilliiigy if they should be so esteemed, to heal 
my poor and weak endeavours that way. But, of that oration to 
the pope, certain lines, not many, are pared away in mj 
copy, though so as the sense of them may be guessed and 
gadiered from the context; and in the other treatises tfaera 
are many faults that cannot easily, or possibly some of them 
without help of other copies, be amended. My desire is to 
understand from you, whether, at your being in England, for 
I wot well how carefril you were to make inquiry after suck 
monuments, you lighted upon any of these, and where, or ia 
whose hands they were." 

In another letter to Usher> date^ from Rodierhitfae, June 
94, 1617> he writes thus: — '' I esteem myself much beholdea 
unto you, as for your former love, so for this your late kind* 
ness, in vouchsafing me so large a letter, with so full instruo 
tions concerning this business, that 'I was bold Co break unto 
you, though the same,' as by your information appeareth, wert 
wholly superfluous. True it is, that diough not fully pur- 
posed to do ought therein myself, willing rather to have 
offered mine endeavours and furtherance to some others.** 
Having mentioned two of the manuscripts, he adds, '^ But 
I perceive now, by your instructions, that the one is out 
already, and the other perfect and fit for the press, in die 
hands of one better furnished and fitter for the performance 
of such work than myself, whom I would therefore incite to 
send what he hath perfect abroad, than by his perfect copy, 
having pieced out mine imperfect one, to take his labours out 
of his hand. I have heard, since I wrote to you by Mr. Bill, 
that Sir Henry Savile is about to publish Bishop Grosthead's 
epistles, out of a manuscript remaining in Merton college 
library. If I meet with your countryman -Malachy, at any 
time, I will not be unmindftil of your request. And if any 
good ofiice may be performed by. me for you here, either 
about the impression of your learned and religious labours, so 
esteemed and desired, not of myself alone but of many others 
of greater judgment than myself, or in any other employment 
that my weak ability may extend itself unto, I shall be ready 
and glad upon any occasion to do my best therein."* 

Dr. Usher and Mr. Gataker had an ardent Jiredilection for 
publishing the remains of ancient divines, which introduced 
ihem to an acquaintance with each other, and occauoned their 

• Pkirr^fl Idfe of U&ker, p. 37—76. 



«* LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

friendly correspondence. Hie letters of our divine^ it is said^ 
shew his true genius and disposition, and will account for diat 
hot and eager opposition which his writings met with^ when 
he ventured to publish his opinions from the press. As he 
never ^Tote upon any subject which he had not fully studied, 
iand thorouglily examined what had been said upon it by men 
of all ages and all parties ; so his penetrating skill in distin- 
guishing truth, and his honest zeal in supporting it, laid him 
continually open to the clamours of those who had nothing in 
view, but the maintenance of those systems to which they 
were attached from their education, or the magnifying of such 
notions as were popular in those times ; and, by defending 
which, they were sure to have numerous admirers, thougk 
their want of learning, and the weakness of their arguments, 
were ever so conspicuous. But in these kind of disputes, 
such furious opponents were sure to have the worst ; and how 
considerable soever they might be, either in figure or numb^, 
they served only to heighten the lustre of his triumph. For, 
it is added, as the modesty of his nature withheld him from 
printing any thing till he was forty-five years of age ; so by 
that time his judgment was so confirmed, and his leamii^ 
supported by an extraordinary and almost incredible memory, 
80 greatly extended, that he constantly carried his point, and 
effectually baiBed all the attempts to envelope again in dark- 
ness and obscurity any subject that he had once proposed to 
enlighten. 

The great regularity of his life, his unblemished character, 
and the general esteem in which he was held by the greatest 
and best men in the nation, fortified him sufficiently against 
all those low and little artifices by which a writer, deiScient in 
any of these respects, would certainly have suffered. He had 
not the least tincture either of spleen or arrogance in his 
nature ; and though it be true that he gave no quarter to die 
arguments of his adversaries, nothing could provoke him to 
stake at their persons. He always remembered that the prize 
contended for was truth, and that, for the sake of obtaining it^ 
the public undertook to sit as judges: he was cautious^ there- 
fore, of letting fall any thing that was unbecoming, or that 
might he indecent or ungrateful to his readers to peruse. 
He was not, however, so scrupulous as to forbear disclosing 
vulgar errors, through fear of giving the multitude offence. 
His modesty might, indeed, hinder his preferment, but it 
never obstructed his duty. He understood perfectly weli 
how easily the people may be wrought either to superstition 
or profanehess ; and no man could be more sensible than he 



T. GATAKER,.Jnir. 805 

wasy that true religion was as far distant from t)ie one as from 
die other. He was well acquainted with the arts of hypo* 
critea, and thought it as necessary to guard against them as 
to avoid the allurements of open libertines. He understood 
ditt souls might be ensnared, as well as seduced ; and that 
canting words, and a solemn shew of sanctity, might enable 
presumptuoas or self-interested persons to put a yoke upon 
the necks of christians, very different from the yoke of Jesus 
Christ.* 

This IS certainly a very high character of our learned divine. 
He wa? very careful, in the exercises of the pulpit, to preach 
not only sound, but suitable doctrine, such as might edity any 
christian congregation ; and was particularly appropriate to 
die people of his charge. His desire to discharge his duty 
induced him, among other subjects, to discourse on one both 
furious and critical, which he applied to common use. This 
was the nature of lots, about which much had been written, 
and more spoken ; from which, in the opinion of the learned 
(jataker, some very great inconveniencies had arisen. He, 
dierefore, thought, that, by a minute investigation of the sub- 
ject, it might give his congregation clear and correct views of 
the nature, use, and abuse of lots, and might prove very 
beneficial to. them. This induced him to handle the matter, 
as he did all subjects, freely, fully, and fairly ; without sus- 
pecting, however, that this would oblige him to have recourse 
to the press, and involve him in a long and troublesome 
controversy. Some ill-disposed persons reported that he 
defended dice and cards, with otlier groundless stories; 
which induced him to publish his thoughts on tlie subject in 
a small treatise, " in which," says my author, " it is hard to 
say whether the accuracy of the method, the conclusiveness 
of his reasoning, or the prodigious display of learning, de-: 
serves most to be admired." He dedicated his work to 
Sir Henry Hobart, bart. chief justice of tlie common-pleas, 
with all the benchers, barristers, and students of Lincoln's-inn, 
as a mark of his gratitude and respect for their past favours. 
This piece made a great noise in the world, and gained the 
audior great reputation. 

. The title of this learned treatise is, " Of the Nature and 
Use of Lots, a Treatise Historical and Theological, written 
by Thomas Gataker, B. of D. sometime Preacher at liu^ 
coln's-inn, and now Pastor of Rotherhithe," 1 6 19* In the 
prQ&ce to the judicious and ingenuous reader, he observes, 

... • Biof. BriUo. toI. It. p. S160. 



JM LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

#uit how baekward he had eyer been to publish any Aag 
from the press, thej knew best who had often pressed hia 
Aereto, but had never till that time prevailed. *^ A twofold 
ftecessitj/' says he, ''is now imposed upon me of doing 
somewhat in this kind, partly by the importunity of divert 
ehristian friends, religious and judicious, who having eidier 
beard, being partakers of my public ministry, or heard of \y 
ike refiort of others, or upon request seen some part of Au 
weak work, have not ceased to solicit the further put^ishiog 
of it ; as also partly, and more especially, by die iniquity of 
iome others ; who, being of a contrary judgment on some 
particulars therein disputed, have been more forward thaa 
was fit, by \mchristian slanders, and uncharitable ceoMirefl^ 
to tax and traduce both me and it." He dien remarics, tbal^ 
if any should' surmise that these kind of writings mi^ht pcea* , 
tion too much liberty, a thing not necessary in that licentioos 
age; he answers briefly, '' First, that it is unequal, that, for the 
looseness of some, the consciences of those that be godj 
riiould be entangled and ensnared ; and, secondly, that whe^ 
ioever shall take no more liberty than is here given rindl be 
sure to keep within the bounds of piety and sobriety/ ef 
equity and of charity, than which I know hot what can be 
more required. For no sinister ends, I protest before God% 
face, and in his fear, undertook I this task ; neither haive I 
averred or defended any thing therein but what I am verily 
persuaded to be agreeable to God's word." 

llie first chapter describes what a lot is, and treata of 
lottery in general ; the second, of chance or casualty, and of 
casual events ; the third, of the several sorts or kinds of lots; 
the fourth, of ordinary lots ; the fifth, of the lawlidness of 
such lots, with cautions to be observed in the use of tfien; 
the sixth, of ordinary lots lusorious^ and of the lawfuloesB of 
them ; the seventh contains an answer to the principal olge«>> 
lions against hisorious lots; the eighth, an answer to die 
lesser arguments used against them ; the ninth, 6f ca^itioiis 
to be observed in the use of them; the tenth, of extraoi^ 
dfaaryw divinitary lots ; the eleventh, of the unhiwfrihMie oif 
such lots ; the twelfth contains an admonition to avoid ihem, 
with an answer to some ailments produced in the defence 
of them, and the conclusion of the whole. The second 
CaKtton of this treatise, revised, corrected, and enlai^geA by 
ftft author, was published in 1627. 

The publication of the first edition of Urn woA drew 
Mr. Gataker into a public controversy, which continued many 
years. A very warm writer, who bad^beeil misled by com* 



t. GATAKER, Jitir. fOf 

Mtt UltfMij tendered wliat he took to b« a MfetatifMi of Ui 
doctrin^ to those who were then intrusted with the lacensing of 
die press. But his perfommnce, being written with greater 
apprarance of ai^r than argument, was stopped ; which dio 
piMsionate Wiiter considered as an additional injury, and of 
wbiA ht fp6 loudly complained, that our author, who oa^ 
idught die investigation of truth, generously interposed, and 
opened die way as well for his adversary ad for himsdf* 
He was, indeed, convinced that he could not better defend 
Us own duuncter and sentiments against evil reports, than by 
affording his virulent adversary the fan-est opportunity. H« 
did not, however, treat him Mith total silence* After the 
poblicalion of his opponent*s angry piece, he employed hit 
jfct in a most learned refutation of his ailments and obteo- 
tMMifl, in a work entided, ** A just Defence of certain PMi- 
s^Jea in a former Treatise concerning the Nature and Use of 
IMb, againift such exceptions and oppositions as have been 
made thereunto by Mr. J^ B. 2. e. John Balmford, wher^ 
Ae insufficiency of his Answers given to the Arguments 
h fo n g ht in defence of a Lusorious Lot is manifested ; thi 
imbecility of his Arguments produced against the same further 
dBscovCTed; and the point in controversy more fully cleared,** 

• About twelve years after, Mr. Gataker had to contend witk 
taore leaitied opponents, and he found himself under ti^ 
necessity of publishing a defence of his sentiments in Latin^ 
against two very learned men who had written on the same 
Subject. His treatise is entitled, " Thomae Gatakeri Lon* 
dinatis Antithesis partim Gulielmi Amesii partim Gisberti 
VsBtii de sorte ITiesibus reposita," 1637. In this performance 
he discovered, as in all the productions of his pen, his great 
piety, modesty, and erudition.* 

Mr. Gataker, in the year l6£0, made a tour into the Low 
Countries, which gave him a very favourable impression of 
the tnx)testantism of the Dutch, and doubtlessly inclined him 
to. m^ rehgious moderation by which he was characterized. 
WhHe he gave much satisfaction to the protestants, by his 
preadhing to the English church at Middleburg, he excited 
the warm displeasure of the catholics, by disputing vnth great 
freedom and boldness against the ablest of their pnestK. 
Though he might not convert them, he certainly confounded 
Aem, which occasioned their great resentment. His mother, 
teidfdte, knowing his fervent zeal in the cause of truth, and 

' * Biog. Britan. fol. iv. p. 2160— 2165. 



108 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

tfie proTOCfttion bis .Mrorks had already giveOi had certainly 
some cause to apprehend his danger from a party never, 
famous for their moderation. Upon his return he applied- 
himself^ with his former assiduity, to his beloved studies and 
die duties of his charge. He also addressed a letter to his 
learned and pious friend Usher, now preferred to a bishopric, ia 
which be gives a very affecting description of the state of the 
foreign protestants. In this letter, dated from Rotherhithe, 
September 29, 1621, he expresses himself as follows : 

^' My duty to your lordship remembered. This messenger 
so fitly offering himself to me, I could not but in a line or. 
two salute your lordship, and therefore signify my continueil 
and deserved remembrance of you, and- hearty desire of your 
welfare. By this time I presume your lordship is settled in 
your weighty chaige of oversight, wherein 1 beseech tiie 
JLord in mercy to bless your labours and endeavours, to the 
glory of his own name and the good of his church, never 
more oppressed and opposed by mighty and malicious adver* 
saries, both at home and abroad; never in foreign parts 
generally more distracted and distressed than at present. Out 
of France there is daily news of murders and massacrei^ 
cities and town taken, and all sorts put to the sword. Nor 
are those few that stand out likely to hold long against the 

tower of so great a prince, having no succours from without^ 
n the Palatinate likewise all is reported to go to ruin. Nor dO; 
the Hollanders sit, for ought I see, any surer ; for that the coals 
that have been heretofore kindled against them about trans- 
portation of coin, and the fine imposed for it, the quarrels 
of the East Indies, and the command of the narrow seas, 
the interrupting of the trade into Flanders, &c. are daily 
more and more blown up, and fire begiuneth to break pu^ 
which I pray God may not bum up both them and us. 

" I doubt not, worthy sir, but you see as well, yea much 
better I suppose, than myself and many others, being able 
further to pierce into the state of the times, and the conse- 
quences of these things, what need the forlorn flock of Christ 
hath of hearts and hands to help to repair her ruins ; and to 
fence that part of the fold that as yet is not so openly broken 
down, against the incursions of such ravenous wolves, as, 
having prevailed so freely against the other parts, will not in 
likelihood leave it also unassaulted : as also what need she 
hath, if ever, of prayers and tears (her ancient principal 
armour) unto Him who hath the hearts and hands of all men 
in his hand, and whose help (our only hope as things now 
stand) is oftentimes then most present when all human helps 



T. GATAKER, Jxw. 

«nd hopes do fail. But these lamentable occurrences 
me fardier than I had purjx>8ed mrhen I put my pen to paper, 
I shall be right glad to hear of your lordship's health and 
Mrelfare, which the Lord vouchsafe to continue; gladder to 
see the remainder of your former learned and laborious work 
abroad. The Lord bless and protect you. And thus ready 
to do your lordship any service I may in these parts^ I 
rest, &c."« 

Mr. Gataker had not yet finished all his writings on points 
of controversy. His zeal and courage in the cause of ffnh 
testantism engaged him to enter the list of disputants against 
the popish party. Observing that the papists labftured to 
prove the doctrme of transubstantiation to be agreeable to 
the holy scriptures^ he resolved to shew, in the most con- 
vincing manner, the absurdity and impossibility of their 
attempts; and, having driven them firom this, which was 
tiieir strongest post, he prosecuted his attack, and forced 
his opponents to quit every other refuge. This he did in hit 
work entided ^' Transubstantiation declared by the PopiA 
Writers to have no necessary Foundation in God's Word,** 
1624. He also published a *^ Defence" of this work. His 
learned, performances in this controversy proved a great and 
.seasonable service to the cause of protestants, and verjr 
deservedly rendered him conspicuous in the eyes of the most 
worthy persons of those times, who admired his erudition and 
his fortitude as much as his humility and his readiness to 
serve the church of Christ.t 

In the year 1640, he was deeply engaged in the controversy 
about justification, which greatly increased his reputatioii. 
In 1643, he was chosen one of the assembly of divines, and 
constantly attended during the session. His endeavours hi 
this learned synod, for promoting truth and suppressing 
error, were equally strenuous and sincere ; yet his study of 
peace was so remarkable, that when his reason canceming 
Christ's obedience in order to our justification, could not 
obtain the majority of that assembly, by whom die question 
was determined contrary to his sense, his peaceable and pious 
spirit caused him to keep silence, and hindered him fiom 
publishing the discourses which he had designed to publish 
on that subject. In the year 1644, he was chosen one of tbt 
committee for the examination of ministers. He was r^ 
peatedly urged to take hb doctor's degree, but he alwayi 

• FutH Life of Uiher, p. 16, f Biog. Britea. vsl. H. f. flM. 

YOL. III. F 



»lt) LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

refused : and when he was offered the mastership of Trinity 
college, Cambridge, by the Earl of M^ncheister, he declined 
the honourable preferment.* 

Mr. Gataker, content with his own pastoral charge, was 
more ambitious of doing good to others than of exalting him- 
self; he therefore assiduously applied himself in those tur- 
bulent times to his ancient studies, which could give offence 
to no party, and which might entitle him to the gratitude and 
approbation of all the friends of good literature. With this 
object in view he published his judicious and laborious dis- 
course on the name by which God made himself known to 
Moses \nd the people of Israel. In this performance he 
diewed himself a very great master of Hebrew; and the 
work was so well received by all competent judges, that it 
has been often reprinted. This very profound, curious, and 
instructive treatise is entitled, ** De nomine Tetragrammato 
Dissertatio, qu& vocis Jehovah apud nostros receptae usus 
defenditur, & a quorundam cavillationibus iniquis pariter 
atque inanibus vindicatur," 1645. The work was reprinted m 
1652 ; it is also inserted amongst his " Opera Critica ;" and it 
found a place among the ten Discourses upon this subjecf, 
collected and published by Hadrian Reland, the first five of 
which were written by John Drusius, Sextinus Amama, 
Ijcwis Capel, John Buxtorff, and James Alting, who opposed 
the received usage, which is defended in the other five disser- 
tations, the first of which was written by Nicholas Fuller^the 
second by our author, and the three others by John Leusden* 

This celebrated scholar^ by his continual application to die 
study of the best Greek authors, his wonderful memory, his 
unconunon penetration, and his accurate judgment, :wai 
enabled to look into the very principles and elements of diat 
copious, elegant, and expressive language. This might seem 
Ibeneath the attention of so great a man ; but he resolved to 
vindicate these inquiries, and to shew how much a thorough 
knowledge of grammatical learning contributes to the.inl- 
provement of science. He was aware that the singularities 
of his opinion might lessen his reputation, if they were not 
clearly and fully established. He knew that they did not 
spring either from a naked imagination, or an affectation of 
opposing common opinions ; but were in reality the produce 
of nuich reading and reflection, and they had, at least to him* 
^Ifj the appeai'ance of certain, though not vulgar trutbi. It 

♦ Clark'i LiTfi, p. 158— 155. " 



T. GATAKERy Ji7)r/ I Ml 

'Was from these motives, therefore, that he y^tured to pdb- 
lish a work which would scarcely have been noticed from any 
other hand, but which, from its own merit, and the respect 
due to its author's skill, especially in Greek literature, was 
very wellreceived, and highly commended, by able and candid 
judges. This learned and critifaT work is entitled, ** De 
jDiphthongis sive Bivocalibus Dissertatio Philologica, in qua 
Ifiteraruni quarundam sonus germanus natura genuina Agura 
nova et scriptura vetus veraque investigatur," 1646.. This is 
also printed amongst his " Opera Critica." ITie point which 
he endeavours to establish is, that there are in reality no 
diphthongs, and that it is impossible two vowels should be so 
Uended together as to enter into one syllable. This, as we 
have observed, was one of our author's singularities. We 
shall not enter into this controversy, nor attempt to decidt 
whether he was right or wrong in his views of orthography.* 

Notwithstanding Mr. Gataker's assiduous application to 
these deep and critical studies, he paid the most exact attend- 
ance to his pastoral duties, and to the assembly of divioet. 
In obedience to their appointment, he wrote Hhe annotationt 
upon Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Lamentations, published in the 
Assembly's Annotations on the Bible.t Though he was a 
divine most distinguished for moderation, he disapproved 
of many things in &e national church, but would have been 
satisfied with moderate episcopacy. He was of opmion, dbnt t 
iMshops and presbyters, accordii^ to the New TeaCament, ' 
were the same. He was always opposed to the great power " 
and splendour of the prelates; and concluded, that tbej 
ought to be divested of their pompons, titles and their seats 
in parliament.! He differed more than once with the lety 
learned Dr. Ljghtfoot,in their meetings at the asaenrirfy; 
' though they sometimes debated warmly^ they never lost 
tempers, or indulged any rancour on account of these 

As our divine advanced in years, his incessant iabonrs^ bodi 
of body and mind, brought upon him those inliiiniliis whtrh 
slackened his speed, but did not wholly stop the p roy et of 
his studies. For even under these wAnaotii^ vtA m\iitm tjM^ 
fined to his chamber by the dii eclion of hk plrvfi^vMM, he 
was continually em|doyed m hb beloved tfmUsmifkmw^m, 

• BioK. Brifu. ▼•!. H. ^ aii(. 

f This wefbl work b imprmftnfj i^mbmi *«» ffe«r tum^mMf ^ ^^^Jtm 
but was OBdrrtakra hj tatum <t%jm^ x^f^ikrM 17 iw» jnr^iKiif» mw 
of wbon were ■ e»brri of ihe jii'MSfy. fj^\ y0't^in. m4 «w y^tJJuil 
acriptore appotoird bia \j tkoot •«• Mt •«» 4« m^B. 4>»«#m 4^ 4^* 
were celebraicd fonUM. m ifte «ate ffitt Surf uA^M m I01O wWm, 



tit LITES OF THE PURITANS. 

But when, through the excellency of his consdtiition, 1^ 
temperate manner of livings and the skilful efforts of the 
f|u:ulty9 he recovered a moderate share of health, he betook 
himself again to the duties of his ministry ; but was after- 
wards under the necessity of declining the ei^ercises of the 
pulpit, though he cdntini^ed to administer the sacraments, 
and to deliver short discourses at funerals. The chief part 
of his time was now employed in study, and in composiiK 
several learned works. He employed his learning, his zeal, 
and his moderation in the antinomian controversy, by pub^ 
lishing a work, entitled, ^' A Mistake or Misconatructiofi 
removed, (whereby little di£ference is pretended to have hwit 
acknowlefdged between the antinomians and us^) and Fiee 
•Grace, as it is held forth in God's Word, as well by the 
Prophets in the Old Testament, as by the Apostles and 
«Qurist himself in the New, shewed to be other than is by the 
Antinomian Party in these times maintained. In way of 
.Answer to some Passages in a Treatise of Mr. John Sub- 
.marsh, concerning that subject," 1646. This is written .ip 
answer to Mr. Saltmarsh's " Free Grace, or the Flow]iigs,of 
Christ's Blood freely to Sinners ; being an Fxperim^pt of 
V Jesus Christ upon one who hath been in Bondage .of xP 
'troubled Spirit at times for twelve years,'' 1645. Mr. Qatn- 
;ker .in.his work observes, ** That it seems a thing piuch to im 
jfeared, that this course, which I see some effect, and maii|f 
.people are much taken with, of extracting divinity in a kiipii 
'(Qfchymical viray, even chimerical conceits, will, if it hold op, 
«aa .much corrupt the siipplicity of the gospel, and the doctrins 
lOf firith, as ever the, quirks and quillets of the old schoolmen 
<did«" During the same year he published '* Shadows with- 
out Substance, in the pretended New Lights," in answer to 
.Saltmarsh's '^ Shadows flying awav.'' Also his " Mysteriou* 
.Clouds and Mists," in answer to Mr. J. Simpson. 

jyf r. Gataker soon after published his discourse on the 
-ityle of the New Testament, in which he opposed the senti- 
HiMits of Pfochenius, who maintained that there were no 
Hebraisms in: those sacred writings, which he endeavoured to 
prove as well by authorities as arguments. All this over 
s^tlior undertook ^ overthrow, which, in the opinion of it)ie 
best critics, he most effectually accomplished ; and more than 
this, he so clearly and concisely explained the true meaning 
of many texts in the Old as well as the New Testament; 
corrected such a variety of passages in ancient authorsL;.aiid 
discovered such a consummate skill in both the living :aDd 
dead languages, as very justly gained him the character of 



T. GAfAKER, Jun; «15 

if by them, why not by the ancienU? ** 1 could readfly 
grant you diat," says our divine, " and yet deny the conse- 
quence that you. would draw from it. For the Grreek lan- 
guage itself was much declined, in the time of the apostles, 
by the admission of a multitude of exotic words and phrases 
borrowed from the Italians, Sicilians, Cyrenians, and Cartha- 
genians, partly from their being under the same government, 
and partly from their commercial intercourse with those 
nations. But, after all," says he, */ if Demosthenes could 
live again, it is most likely he would find many obstacles in 
reading Paul's writings, and would object to many of the 
words and phrases." He then quotes a long passage from 
Beza's Annotations on the Acts of the Apostles, m which that 
learned commentator shews the reasons why the apostles were 
not studious about their style, but endeavoured to make them- 
selves understood by those with whom they conversed, rather 
than to render their dfscourses elegant from their pure and 
correct language. 

In the same manner he proceeds through the rest of his 
treatise, in which he explains, as they occur, a multitude of 
passages in sacred and profane authors, correcting some and 
commending other critics who have gone before ; but with so 
much mildness and moderation, with such apparent can- 
dour and respect to truth above all things, that it is impossible 
for the reader not to admire his excellent temper, while be 
ruins the reputation of the contrary party. In the forty- 
fourth chapter, Mr. Gataker gives a recapitulation of the whole 
dispute between him and Pfochenius, and observes, that the 
true state of the question is, whether the style of the New 
Testament in Greek is evefy where the same with that which 
was used hy the ancient writers, at the time when the lan- 
guage w'as m its greatest purity ?• Or, whether it is not such 
as frequently admits of Hebraisms and Syriasms f Pfochenius 
^rms the former, and denies the latter ; while our learned 
critiQ maintains the opposite sentiments. Mr. Gataker con- 
dudes by observing, that, notwithstanding all that Pfochenius 
jbas urged, he does not doubt that nearly six hundred phrases 
MjOil^t be produced from the New Testament, and a much 
'^^ '^ number from the Greek version of the Old Testa^ 
lii ^ purity of which Pfochenius seems tacitly to main- 
fl^\which there are plain characters of the Hebrew or 
'^^ kc tongues, and not the least resemblance of the 
le^ so far as men of the greatest labour and eruditioQ 
to discovered.* The venerable primate of Ireland 

.. •BiOf.Brltea.Tol.W. p.8167— Sl^. 



«« LIVES OF THB PURITANS. 

than whom there could not be a better judge, shewed His gnmi 
laBspect both for our author and his {>ei formance, by sending 
it with his own Annals as a present to Dr. Arnold Boate, 
then residing at Paris.* 

Though this literary production was a very considerable*' 
yvatk, and greatly increased the author's reputation, it wai^ 
indeed, no more than a specimen of- a much larger work, in^ 
which he had been employed for many years. He at first, 
intended his discourse against Pfochenius only as an appendix 
to this celebrated perfoimance; but that treatise being ready* 
for the press, and it being very doubtful whether he should liv€: 
to complete the other, he judged it most expedient to publish- 
that alone, particularly that he might see what kind of recep* 
tion his iarger work was likely to meet with from the repubUa. 
of letters. Finding this specimen universally applauded, he. 
determined to publish the first two books of the other, the; 
whole being divided into six, to which he gave this title i 
'' Thomas Qatakeri Londinatis Cinnus ; sive adversaria nm^ 
eellanea animadversionum veriarum libris sex comprehensa: 

Juorum premores duo nunc primitius prodeunt reliquiv 
einceps (Deo favente> seorsim insecuturis," 1651. la dw 
Eefbce the author shews, that these collections were pub^ 
hed in fulfilment of his promise made in his dissertation qb 
the style of the New Testament ; which promise would have 
heen fulfilled much sooner, had he not been prevented by Inx 
numerous avocations, apd by a dangerous eruption of blood,. 
by which he was brought very low, and for a long time, 
withheld from his studies. The first book is divided into< 
deven chapters, and the second into twenty, but they aier 
mostly independent one of another. The account given of 
the forgoing work renders it unnecessary to enlarge upon 
this performance. They are exactly the same in. their nature^ 
except that this tends to no one particular point, but dift< 
covers, in numerous instances, the author's opinion on difficult 
passages in the Old and New Testaments, the primitive 
fitthers, modem critics, and, as his subjects occasionally led 
him, he illustrates a vast variety of obscure or perplexed 
places both in Greek and Latin authors ; and there are aonMt 
observations on words and phrases in our own lang^age^ 
This work was received with the highest commendatioo^ 
Morhoff particularly applauds the author for. his singular 
happiness in distinguishing the true sense of the most difficult 
passages^and of making it appear that what h» diefenda i$ 

• 

• Parr*i life of Uiher, {».569. 



T. GATAKER, Jcm. f 17 

litb tmef sense, and this in few words^ without any ostentation^ ' 
Vid without ever insulting those whom he corrects : but, on 
the contrary, he ascribes their mistakes, sometimes as a slip 
of the memory, and at others, to the bad editions of the 
kioks which they used.* The remainuig books of this col- 
lection were published after his decease, by his son Mr,- 
Charles Gataker, with the following tide*: ** Adversaria Mis- 
cellanea Posthuma, in quibus sacrse Scripturse primo deinde 
alionim Scriptorum locis multis Lux afFunditur," 1659. 

Mr. Grataker's natural modesty, as well as his christian 
moderation, kept him from that publicity of character which, 
from his great abilities, and his numerous friends, he might 
easily have attained. Notwithstanding the mildness of his 
temp^, and his aversion to whatever might render him the 
object of public discourse ; yet the trial of the king moved 
him to make a public declaration of his sentiments. He was, 
accordingly, the first of the forty-seven London ministers 
who subscribed their ^' Letter to the Generall and his Councell 
of Warre," commonly called their " Declaration" against the 
kill's death. In this address they firmly remind them of 
dieur duty to the parliament, and of the obligations they were 
under, as well as the parliament, to defend his majesty's 
person and maintain his just rights. They told the general 
and his council that the one could not be injured, or the 
other invaded, without manifest breach of many solemn oaths, 
particularly the covenant: they taught them to distinguish 
between God's Approbation and permission ; they set, in its 
true light, the folly of pretending to secret impulses in. 
vkdation of God's written laws; they made it evident that 
necessity was a false plea ; and they concluded by recom- 
mending them to follow the rule of John the Baptist, Do 
violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely , and scrupled 
not to tell them, that, if they persisted in theur design, their 
sin would surely find them out.f 

During the year in which Mr. Gataker published the first 
two books of his Miscellanies, he printed a small piece on 
iirihnt baptism, which was very much admired. He was 
deq>ly versed in that controversy ; therefore, in addition to 
dus, he wrote several other discourses, in whieh he treated 
ibe main questions with great seriousness and solidity of 
aMpnent. He published two Latin discourses on this 
tiB|ect, which, in point of modesty, learning, and argumen- 
it is said, were not at all inferior to any of the other 

If. Britan. toI. W. p. 2169, 2170. 
•fnr to tkt Gen. 



fl8 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

productions of his pen. The first of these is entitled, " De 
JBaptismatis Infantilis vi & efiicacia Disceptatio privatimhabita 
inter V. C. Dom. Samuelem Waidum, theoiogise sacrae docto- 
rem, & in academia Cantabrigiensi Professorem, & Thomam 
Gatakerum," 1651. The other is entitled, " Stricturae ad 
Jllpistolam Joannis Davenantii de Baptismo Infantum," 1654. 
. In the year 1652, he favoured the world with his admirable 
edition of the Emperor Marcus Antouinus's Meditations, to 
which he prefixed a preliminary discourse on ihe philosophy 
of the Stoics, which, in the opinion of the ablest critics, both 
at home and abroad, is allowed to be a most complete and 
correct treatise, as well as a most useful compendium of 
• morality. He added also an exact translation, together with 
a commentary. In some of his former works he had^ given 
occasional specimens of his perfect acquaintance with the 
works of this imperial philosopher, whose celebrity has 
always been as high among the learned as his station was in 
Ae world ; therefore, when the work was published, men''8 
expectations were highly raised, and abundantly gratified. It 
had been published in Greek by Conrad Gesner, with a Latin 
translation by William Hy lander, and had passed through 
several editions; Mr. Gataker found both the text and the 
translation exceedingly faulty, and spent nearly forty years 
in considering how the former might be amended, and a new 
translation made, which might do justice to so exquisite a 
production. He found prodigious difficulties in the arduous 
undertaking, being able to meet with very few manuscript 
copies, and receiving very slender helps from those learned 
persons, whose assistance he solicited in the progress of his 
endeavours. He sent indeed a list of his principal difficul- 
ties to the celebrated Salmasius, who, in his answer, vefy 
gratefully acknowledged, and warmly commended his under- 
taking; but gave him, at the same time, a dismal pro- 
spect of the obstacles he had to overcome: as, innumerable 
corruptions, fi-equent chasms, more frequent transpositions, 
and many other misfortunes, for the removal of which he 
promised his assistance; which, however, his frequent joumie^ 
and other occurrences prevented. Mr. Gataker, nevertheless; 
persevered in the arduous work, and, with the few helps be 
enjoyed, his own sagacity, and the comparing of various' 
copies, at length completed his design, and, to the great satis- 
faction of the learned world, published his admirable edition 
of this valuable work, about two years before his death,* uiMlep 
the following title : *' Marci Antonini Imperatoris de r^buf 
suis sive de iis quae ad se pertinere censebat JLebri xii. ciw 



T. GATAKER, J0K. : fI9 

Versioiie Latin^ 8c commentariis Gatakeri/' 1652. The work ^ 
was reprinted in 1697^ with the addition of the Emperor's life,, 
by Mr.- Dacier^ together with some select notes of the same 
author, by Dr. George Stanhope, who, in his dedication to the 
Lord Chancellor Somers, gives a high (Character of our author .* 
. Mr. Gataker, in the evening of his days, when he earnestly 
deatred that repose which his labours so well deserved, 
waa warmly attacked by an active and angry adversary, who 
was infinitely beneath him in point of knowledge, but who 
had credit with certain persons high in office, and who was 
esteemed by the vulgar as a person of transcendent abilities. 
This was Mr. Wilham. Lilly, the famous astrologer, who, 
finding that our author had a very bad opinion of his pre- 
tended art, and a worse opinion of his personal character, had 
the confidence to take up his pen against him ; but he expe- 
rienced the disappointment which he might easily have fore- 
seen. Mr. Gataker, who possessed all the sacred and pro- 
fane learning relative to this subject, not only defended him- 
self with great strength of argument, but very clearly detected 
aO die plausible sophisms tliat could be urged in support of 
this pretended science. The ground of this controversy was 
Mr. Gataker's Annotations on Jeremiah x. 2., in which chap- 
ter the Jews are warned against listening to the predictions of 
astrologers, and complying with the practice of idolaters, the 
two great sins to which they would be tempted in a state of 
captivity. Our author considered it his duty to expose the 
vanity of predictions from the stars, and to shew to the chris- 
tian world, that it was not only folly and ignorance, but great 
wickedness to rely upon them. Uis exposition is curious, 
lull of solid sense and sound learning, and effectually destroys - 
fl{e credit of that delusive art, by which, in all ages, weak and 
wandering minds have been misled. 

' These annotations roused all the tribe of astrologers against 
our learned author, from the highest to the lowest. William 
Lilly, John Swan, and Sir Christopher Hey don, took great 
offence, and wrote against him without mercy. I'his induced 
Mr. Gataker to publish a discourse in defence of himself, and 
what he had before advanced against the illuminated star- 
gazers, which is entitled, " A Vindication of the Annotations 
on Jeremiah, chap. x. ver. 2., against the scurrilous aspersions 
of that grand impostor Mr. William Lilly ; as also against the 
various expositions of two of his advocates, Mr. John Swan, 
and another by him cited but not named. Together with the 

* Bio|;, Britao. toI. It* p. 2171. » 



no LIVES OF i;he PUEITANS- 

annotadons themselves; wherein the pretended gromids of 
judiciary astrology, and the- scripture' proofs produced for i^ 
are discussed and refuted/' 1653. In this treatise he ffilly and 
openly exposed his opponents and their pretended science ; 
and enforced all that he had said against it by substantial 
arguments, and produced, in support of his own sentiments, 
9 numerous train of respectable authorities. I'his excited 
their scurrility and abuse more than ever ; which induced him 
to publish a reply to their raillery and bitter language, in a 
piece entitled, " A Discourse Apolegitical, wherein Lillies lewd 
and Ibwd lies in his Merlin or Pasquil for the year 1654, aro 
clearly laid open ; his shameful desertion of his own cause it 
furttier discovered ; his shameless slanders fully 'refuted; and 
his malicious and murtherous mind inciting to a general mas* 
sacre of God's ministers, from his own pen evidently evinced i 
together with an advertisement concerning two allegations 
produced in the close of his postscript ; and a postscript con- 
cerning an epistole dedicatory of one I. Gadburie," 1654« 
In this treatise our venerable author speaks of the most con^ 
siderable transactions of his life, relates at large the manner lo 
which he arrived at his several preferments, and completdy 
refutes all the idle and malicious reflections of Lilly aiid liia 
associates. He mentions, among other particulars, his seiH 
timents upon church government, and declares that he never 
was an advocate for the power and splendour of the prelacy ; 
but that, on the contrary, he had always inclined to a mode 
rate episcopacy. As, for the sake of doing good in his gene* 
ration, he had submitted to the bishops ; so, when they were 
taken away by what he esteemed the supreme power, he suIh 
mitted to that likewise, yet never sought any preferment, but 
refused it from both parties. This, it appears, was written a 
very little time before his death. 

Although Mr. Gataker convinced all judicious and impar- 
tial inquirers after truth of the vanity of this delusive science^ 
he could never silence his conceited and obstinate antagonist^ 
whose bread, indeed^ was in some degree at stake ; and who 
was, therefore, bound by one of the strongest ties to defend 
that craft by which he lived. By his frequent publicattons^ 
he vilified and persecuted our venerable divine to the end of 
his days, and, contrary to all the rules of religion or hmnaiiity^ 
insulted him when laid in his silent grave..* As for die pioua 
and learned Mr. Gmtateer, he pursued the same peaceable and 
useful- coinrse,^tUl hi»' years, his infirmities, ana hi»perpetaai 
labours^ wore out his constitution. 

• DIog. Britao. vdl. It. p. «n2— ^175, 



f . 6ATAKER, Jim. SM 

In his last sickness his faith and patience were Btrikiii|^ 
manifest. To a servant who waited upon him when confined 
to his bed, and who told him that his head did not lie rights 
he said, ^' It will lie ri^ht in my coffin." The day before hit 
departure, being exercised with extreme pain, he cried, 'MIow 
long, Lord, how long? come speedily!" A little before he 
died, he called his son, his sister, and his daughter, to each of 
whom he delivered his dying charge, saying, ** My heart fails, 
and my strength fails : but God is my fortress, and the rock 
of my salvation. Into thy hands, therefore, I commend my 
soul ; for thou hast redeemed me, O God of truth. — Son," 
aaid he, ** you have a great charge, look to it. Instruct your 
wife and family in the fear of God, and discharge your minis* 
try conscientiously. — Sister," said he ^* I thou^t you might 
have gone before me, but God calls me first. I hope we 
shall meet in heaven. I pray God bless you. — Daughter," 
«aid he, ^* mind the world less and God more ; for all tilings, 
without religion and the fear of God, are nothing wordi.^ 
He then wished them all to withdraw and leave him to rest, 
when he {>resently expired, July £7, 1654, aged seventy-nine 
years, having been forty-three years pastor at Rotherhithe. 
Jlis funeral sermon was preached by his very esteemed friend 
-Mr. Simeon Ashe, and afterwards published with the follows 
iiig tide : " Gray Heyres crowned with Grace, a Sermon 
preached atRedriff, August 1, at the Funeral of ^at reverend 
and eminently learned and faithful Minister of Jesus Christ, 
Mr. Thomas Gataker." 

This venerable divine was married four times. His third 
wife was sister to Sir George Farwell. He would never 
suffer his picture to be taken ; but the following is said to be 
a just description of his person. He was of a middle stature, 
a thin body, a lively countenance, and a fresh complexion* 
He was temperate in diet, free and cheerful in conversation, 
and addicted to study, but did not seclude himself from useful 
company. He possessed a quick apprehension, a solid judg- 
ment, and so extraordinary a memory, that, though he us^ 
no common-place book, he had in readiness whatever he had 
read. His house was a private seminary for both Englishmen 
•and.foreigners, who resorted to him, lodged at his house, and 
received instructions from bim. His extensive learning was 
admired by the great men of the age, both at home and 
abroad, with whom he held a regular correspondence. It is 
•aid, " Of all the critics of this age who have employed their 
pens in illustrating polite learning, tlicre are few, if indeed 
any, who deserve to be preferred to Thomas Gataker fpr 



LIVES OF* THE PURITANS. 

diligence and accuracy, in explaining those authors whose 
writings he has examined." He is styled ^' a writer of infr 
iiite learning and accurate judgment;"* and his name as a 
scholar is paralleled witb those of Selden and Usher.f He 
was an ornament to the university, a light to the church, a 
loving husband, a discreet parent, a faithful friend, a kind 
bene^ctor, a candid encouragei* of students, and a stoat 
champion for the truth ; yet so much for peace and modera- 
tion, diat he maintained unity and affection towards those vrbo 
differed in lesser matters.* Echard says, " He was remark- 
able for his skill in Greek and Hebrew, and the most cele- 
brated among the assembly of divines ;" and adds, '^ it is hard 
to say which was most remarkable, his exemplary piety and 
charity, hb poUte literature, or his humility and modesty in 
refusing preferment."^ 

His Works, in addition to tliose whose titles have been already 
given. — I. David's Instructor. — 2. The Christian Man's Car©.— 
3. The Spiritual Watch.— 4. The Gain of Godliness.— 5. The Jifit 
Man's Joy, with Signs of Sincerity. — 6. Jacob's Thankfulness. — 
7. David's Remembrances. — 8. Noah's Obedience. — ^9. A Memorial 
of England's Deliverance. — 10. Sorrow for Zion. — 11. God's Parley 
with Princes, with an Appeal from them to Him. — 12. £leaaeK^ 
Prayer, a Marriage Sermon. — 13. A Good Wife God's Qift.-*' 
14. A Wife Indeed. — 15. MarriageDuties.— 16. Death's Advantage. — 
17. The Benefit of a Good Name, and a Good End. — 18. Abraham's 
Decease, delivered at the Funeral of Mr. Richard Stock, late Pastor 
of Alt-hallows, Bread-street — 19. Jeroboam^s Son's Decease. — 
20. Christian Constancy Crowned by Christ. — ^ITie above Sermons, of 
which the pious Bishop Wilkin's gives a ver}' high character,J| were 
published separate, but, in 1637, collected and published m one 
▼olnnie foli6. — ^21. Francisci Gomari Disputationis ElencticaSy de 
Jttstificationis, &c., 1640. — ^22. Animadvertionis in J. Piscatoris k 
L. X<ucii scripta adversaria, de causa meritoria JustificationiSy 1641.*:- 
23. Mr. Anthony Wotton's Defence, 1641.— 24. A true Relation of 
Passages between Mr. Wotton and Mr. Walker, 1642. — 26. An 
Answer to Mr. Walker's Vindication, 1642. — 26.' Stricturae in Barth. 
Wigelini Sangallensis de' obedientia Christi disputationum Theol0N> 
gicam, 1653. — 27. Ejusdam Yindicatio adversus Capellum. — 2S. The 
Decease pf Lazarus. — 29. St. Stephen's last Will and Testament-^ 
30. God's Eye on his Israel. — 31. A Defence of Mr. Bradshaw against 
Mr. J. Canne. — I'he celebrated Hermannus Witsius, in the year 
1698, collected and published in one volume all Mr. Gataker's 
critical works, entitled, *' Opera Crilica;" which will stand a mono* 
meut to his memory as durable as time. 



♦ Biog. Britao. vol. iv. p. fin5< 217«. 

f Aikin's Lives of Selden and Utber, p. 40S. 

t Clark's Lives, p. 256—260. 

S Ecbard'a Hist, of Eog. vol. ii. p. 77U 

I Wilkiat on Preachiag, p. 82, 83. 



S; BOLTON. 

Samubl Bolton, D. D. — This excellent idivine was bom 
b the year 1606, and educated in the university of Cambridge. 
He afterwards became minister of St. Martin's church, Lud- 
ntie-atreet, London ; where he continued about three years. 
Upon his removal from this situation, he was chosen minister 
tf St. Saviour's, Southwark, where he continued seven years, 
and then removed to St. Andrew's, Holbom. At each of these 
places hb ministry was made a blessing to many souls. He 
was Dominated one of the additional members in the assem- 
bly of divines. Upon the death of Dr. Bainbrigge, he was 
chosen master of Christ's college, Cambridge, which he 
fovmied with great wisdom and prudence the rest of his 
fltys. Having strong desires to win souls to Christ, though 
lie was master of a college, and had no ministerial charge of 
bis own, he preached gratuitously every Lord's day for many 
yean. In the year 1648, a minister of his name, and pro- 
iiaUy die same person, attended the Earl of Holland upon 
die scaffold when he was beheaded in the palace-yard, West- 
minster.* 

l)iiring his last sickness, which was long and painful, he 
•lercised great patience, and often said, though the provi- 
dence of God was dark towards him, he had light and cSm* 
fort within. A little before he died, he said to a person 
moving him in bed, " Let me alone ; let me lie quietly. I have 
as much comfort as my heart can hold." The last time 
Mr. Calamv visited him he was anxious to be with Christ, 
flaying, " Oh this vile body of mine ! when will it give way, 
diat my soul may get out and go to my God ? When will it 
be consumed, tliat I may mount up to heaven f" When he 
perceived any symptoms of his approaching dissolution, he 
rejoiced I exceedingly, calling tbem, " the little crevices 
through which hb soul peeped." He died greatly lamented, 
October 15, 1654, aged forty-eight years, and was buried in 
St. Martin's church, mentioned above. He gave orders, in 
his last will and testament, to be interred as a private chris- 
tian, and not with the outward pomp of a doctor; " be- 
cause," as he observed, " he hoped to rise in the day of 
judgment, and appear before God, not as a doctor, but as an 
kumble christian." ^Numerous elegies were published on his 
death. . 

Dr. Bolton was a person of good parts and considerable 
learmng, a burning and shining light in his day, and a man 'of 
great piety and excellent ministerial abilities. He was ortho- 



* Whitlocke'i Mem. p. 387. Edit. 173?. 



/ / 



LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

dk>x in his judgment, philanthropic in his 8|Miit, end A cde<- 
brated interpreter of scripture. He studied, not oaly ti» 
preach the word, but to live as he preached. His life was an 
excellent comment on his doctrine. He was the voice .^ 
God crying aloud to those around him, by his exemplary 
life as well as his holy doctrine. He was a man of much 
prayer, reading, meditation, and temptation, the four thiogi 
which, in the opinion of Luther, make a preacher. He was 
assaulted with manifold temptations, and very probably with 
more than many hundreds of his brethren. He laboured 
under the buffetings of Satan, that, being himself tempted, he 
might be better able to comfort those who were tempted. 
The words from which Mr. Calamy preached his funeral 
sermon had often been a source of great joy to his aouT: 
'* Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned 
like unto his glorious body, according to the mighty workiQ|( 
whereby he is able even to subdue all things to himself."* 

His Works. — I. A Vindication of the Rights of Law and Hm 
Liberties of -Grace, 1645. — 2, The Arraignment of Error, 1646^— 
3. The Sinfulness of Sin, held forth in a Sermon preached to the 
Honourable House of Commons, upon the late Solemn Day tff 
Humiliation, March 26, 1646— 1646^-^. A Guard of the Trae ti 
Ijife, 1647. — 5. The Dead Saint speaking to Saints and Sinners, 16&T. 
— ^. A Word in Season to a Sinking Kingdom. — 7. The Weddiq^ 
Garment, 



John Murcot, A. B. — ^This very pious man was bomjA 
Wanvick, in the year 1625^ and educated in Merton college, 
Oxford, under the tuition of Mr. Ralph Button. Oxfati 
being garrisoned by the king's forces, he, to avoid beariiu 
arms, ned from the place in disguise, and went to live wim 
Mr. John Ley, vicar of Great Bud worth in Cheshire, where 
he continued several years in close application to his studies. 
Upon his entrance on the work of the ministry, he was 
ordained according to the presbyterian form at Manche^t^, 
and settled first at Astbury in Cheshire; afterwards, he 
•removed to Eastham, and, upon the death of Mr. llalph 
Marsden, to West Kirby, both in the same county. In each 
of these situations he was much beloved, and his labours 
were rendered particularly useful. About the time of his last 
removal, he married Mr. Marsden's daughter. The Oxforfi 
historian says, that he at last removed to Chester; where, by 

• Calamj»s Faneral Sermon for Dr. Bolton.— Clark's Lifts, part i. 
p. 4S-47. 



MURCOT. 

liis damage, (meuuB^ imdodbtedljyliii CXI 
he became ridicHtoms to tie KuJberf.* It does not apfw^ 
however, that he ever settled at Chester. For the vmcr id 
his life, who is very paiticiilar in speciirii^ bis vanou 
removals, gives no intimatioD of the kiiid. 

Though he never settled in that dtr, vet, after labouriiig 
aome time at Kirbj, and finding himself unable to prcmote 
church discipline according to his wishes, he went to Ireland 
and settled in the city of Dublin. He was there chosen one 
of the preachers in ordinary to the l(Md deputy and council^ 
and was greatly admired and followed. In this sitnatkMi he 
was in labours more abundant than most of his brethieii, and 
die Lord sufiered him not to labour in vain. He was instrv- 
mental in the conversion of many sinners, and in the estab- 
lishment of many saints. The Lord, who had prepared hina 
for this service, blessed his endeavours in umniug multi- 
tudes of souls to Christ. In matters of worship and ceremo- 
nies, he was zealous in opposing the iuventions and 
impositions of men, closely adhering m all things to die word 
of God. A public disputation was held at Cork, May 26, 
1652, between the psdobaptists and the antipaedobaptists, in 
which Dr. Harding, Dr. W orth, aud Mr. Murcot, were par* 
ticularly engaged, though we have no further account of it.t 

During his last sickness his mind was most serene and 
happy. Apprehending that the hour of his departure was at 
hand, he said to his friends, '' I must now tell you I am not 
long for this world ;" and, raising himself up, he ciied, " Lord^ 
remember me in this trying hour." To his affectionate wife 
he said, " Haste, haste, love, for my time is very short. I 
shall not reach midnight. These raptures tell me I must 
quickly be gone." His sister, asking him whether he was in 
charity with all the Lord's people, though in certain things 
they differed from him ; '^ Yes," said he, stretching forth his 
arms ; and with a loud voice added, '' Lord Jesus, draw me 
up to *hyself ;" and breathed his sotil into the hands of his 
dear Redeemer, December 3, 1654, aged twenty-nine years. 
His remams were interred with great funeral solemnity in 
St. Mary's chapel, Dublin; when the lord deputv^ the 
coimcil, and the mayor and aldermen of the city followed, 
with great laibentation, his body to the grave.t 

Though Wood, with most palpable untruth, denominates 
him " a forward', prating, aad pragmatical precisian, who 

* Wood*8 Athene Ozon. ▼ol. ii. p. 112. 

f Crosby's Baptists, vol. iii. p. S18. 

t Ifr. Mnrcot's Life prefixed to tail Works. Edit. 1057. 

▼OL. III. g 



tS6 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

cave .up the gbost very unmllingb/;*'* it appears from hk 
ufe, ^ that he w^s an eminently humble^. hmy,' i|nd happy 
man; and a most zealous, laborious, and usefid preacher. 
* Granger says, " he was an admired preacher, a man ^ great 
industry in his profession, and of uncommon stric^ss^q^ 
life/'t Mr. Murcot's works, consisting of various ..articles, 
were, published at different times; but were afterw^^ 
collected and published with his life prefixed, in one vpluoif 
quarto, 1657- 

Joshua Hoy lb, D. D. — This learned divine was bom 
at Sawerby, near Halifax, Yorkshire, and educated in 
Magdalen college, Oxford. Afterwards, being invited |Dio 
Ireland, he became fellow of Trinity college, Dublin, took 
his degrees in divinity, and was chosen divinity professor m 
that university. In his daily lectures he expounded die 
whole Bible, seldom taking more than one verse at a tnao^ 
which lasted about fifteen years ; and in about ten years mon 
he went through greatest part of the sacred volume a second 
time. In the year 1634 he sat in the convocation, held at 
Dublin. But, upon the commencement of the rebeUioB in 
Ireland, in ljS41, he fled i^rom the terrible effusion of blocMl^ 
returned to Ei^land, and became vicar of Stepney, near Lon- 
don ; but, according to Wood, he being too scholastical, ^U 
not please the parishionera.^ In the year 1643 he was 
appointed one of the assembly of divines, abd constandy 
attended. He was witness against Archbishop Laud at hii 
trial,, when he attested that the archbishop had cotrupted the 
university of Dublin, by the arbitrary mtroduction of the 
errors of popery and arminianism.|| In the year 1645 he 
was elected one of the committee of accommodation ; «od id 
' 1648 he became master of University college, Oxford,^ and 
king's professor of divinity in that university. In the office 
of professor he has incurred the severe animadversioa of 

♦ Wood^s Athens Oxon. vol. ii. p. 1 13. 

f Granger's Biog. Hist. toI. iii. p. 49. 

( Acrordiog to the computation of the popish prietts themeWcf,. wIm 
were actively employed in this rebellion, upwards of one hundred mndjlf^ 
four thousand protestantM were massucred in Irelaod in the space of 'm .few 
Booths: but, during the continuance of the rebellion, according tofQirj. 
Temple, there were above three hundred thousand cruelly mnrdered UI'mH 
blood, or ruined in some other way. Cardinal Richelieo was deepljr toa* 
cerned in,this massacre ; and, according to Rapin, King Charl^ I. **' spread 
abroad that the catholics had his authority for what they did.**^— ifiW. tf 
England, vol. ii. p. 386. 

^ AtbensB Ozon. vol. ii. p. 113. 

I Pryane s Gaat. Doome, p. 178, 359. 



vSei 



HOTLE--FERNE. 9K 

. Dr. WalkjfCf • This abusive writer says diat he opened hi^ 

Isctiirea bj a speech void of all spirit and. learning ; ai^d tha^ 

Us lectures had neither method nor argument in diem, and 

dwi^j^ hini to be ignorant even of the most common rides o^ 

logjo;* Wood however styles him " a person of great reading 

and fomiory, much devoted to study, profound in the feculty 

of div^utj, a constant preacher, and a noted puritan;" and 

'^ be was highly respected by the famous Archbishop 

Uier/'t In vindication of this learned' prelate, he wrota 

^ A R^ynder to Will Malone Jesuit his Reply concerning 

the^Retd Presence,'' 1641. Dr. Hoyle was a member of 

great hpnour and esteem in the assembly of divines, as master 

of all.i&e.anqent leamine of Greek and Latin fathers^ and 

mie, who ragned in his chair and in the pulpit.} He died 

Xkefi^q^ber 6, 1654, and his remains were interred in the olcl 

d|UM|>bidpiq;ing to University college. His successors 

B|.,9K. offices of master and professor were Mr. Francis 

Johnson and Dr. John Conant, both silenced nonconformists 

b 1662^ 

Andbew Peene, A.m. — ^This worthy minister was 
bcMn in the year 1596, and afterwards chosen fellow of 
Katfaerine-hall, Cambridge, where he probably received his 
education. Having finished his studies at the university, he 
became rector of Wilby in Northamptonshire, where he con- 
tinued a laborious, faithful^ and successful preacher twenty- 
seven years. One of his name and degree was of Peter<> 
house, and elected master of the Charter-house in I6l4;|| 
and die year following he became vicar of Southminster or -^ 
Sudminster in Essex. But this could not be the same person.f 
In the ^ear 1643 Mr. Perne was chosen one of the assembly 
of divines, and constantly attended during the whole session. 
He often preached before the parliament, and several of his . 
sermons were published ; one of which is entitled, " Gospel 
Courage, or a Christian Resolution for God and his Truth, 
in a Sermon preached before the Honourable House of 
Commons, at Margaret^s, Westminster, at a Publique Past, 
ft^ 21 of May, 1643"— 1643. Being called up to London, 
hf sained a high reputation, and was offered considerable 

• Walker's Attempt, part i. p. 141. 

f Wood's Athens, vol. ii. p. 113. 

1 Calamy's Account, vol. ii. p* 472. 

\ Palmer's Nnncon. Mem. vol. t. p. 229, 267, 4SS. 

I NicboU's Hist, of Leicestershire, vol. ii. p. 369. 

f Newcoort't Repcrt. Ecrl. vol. ii. p. 537. 



9Sk LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

preferments ; but he refiued them all, resolving to retinrn to 
his charge at Wilby. In this place, by his awakemng sermofi^ 
and exemplary life and conversation, a most signal and happy 
reformation was effected ; and his people revered and loved 
lum as a father. *' He was full of spiritual' warmth'/' says 
Mr. Ainsworth, '' filled vrith an holy indignation asaiint sin, 
active in his work, and never more in his element ttian wheA 
he ¥ras in the pulpit." As his life was holy, so his death 
was happy. He blessed God that he was not afraid to die ; 
my, he earnestly desired to be gone ; and often cried out, 
durinff his last sickness, *' When will that hour come i One 
assault more, and this earthen vessel will be broken, and I 
shall be with God.'** He died December 13, 1654, 9%ei 
sixty years. Mr. Samuel Ainswordi, one of die silenced 
nonconformists, preached and published his funeral sennoD^ 
His remains were interred in the chancel of Wilby chordi ; 
where, at the foot of the altar, is the following monumeotri. 
inscription erected to his memory :f 

Here lietb 

iDtcrred Mr. Andrew Pernr, 

a faitbfiil servant of Jesus Christ, 

a zealous owner ever of God's cause 

in perilous times, 

a powerfal and successfu) preacher 

of the gospel, 

a gpreat blessing to this town 

and country, 

where he lived twent^*seven years. 

He departed December 13, 

1664. 

Albxander Gross, B. D. — ^This pious man was bom ia 
Devonshire, and educated first in Caius college, Camhricbe, 
then in Exeter college, Oxford, where he was admitted tbUi« 
reading of the sentences. Entering upon the work'df the 
ministry, he became preacher at Plympton, in his own coun^« 
afterwards rector of Bridford, near Exeter, aud at tfen^ 
▼icar of Ashburton, in his own county ; at each of l^hich 
'places he was much followed, .especially by persons of 
aerious piety. He was a zealous puritan, aiid, upon the 
conmiencement of the civil wars, he espoused the cause of the 
parliament.^ He was a man of a strong mendory, a aoond 
judgment, and great integrity^ abhorring all kinds of auper- 

♦ Neal's Puritans, vol. iv. p. 128. 

+ Brid^8*s Hist, of NortbamptoDshire, vol. i. p. 155. 

J Wood'i Atbeos Oxoo. vol. ii. p. lOJ. 



GROSS— 6RAILE. 

■ 

athion. He was a judicious, faithful, laborious, and constaal 
preacher, and deeply versed in a knowledge of die scripturea, 
and furnished with an excellent gift in prayer. His public 
mimstry- was accompanied widi the rich blessing of God, 
and made abundandy usdful in the conversion of souls. Hit 
holy life was an excellent practical comment upon his 
holy doctrine. While he urged the necessity of holiness 
ippon others, he practised holiness himself. He was a 
burning and shining light. In a word, be spent his strenffth, 
his life, his all, for die honour of God and the good of soids.* 
He died in a good old age, in the year 1654. 

■ 

His Works. — 1. Sweet and Soal-persuading IndacemeDts leading 
unto Christ, 1632. — 2, The Happiness of enjoying and making a 
trac and speedy use of Christ, 1640. — 3. Severml Sermons, 1640.— 
4. The Mystery of Self-denial; or, the Cessation of Man's living to 
Himself, 1642.— 5. Man's Misery without Christ, 1642.-<6. The Waj 
to a Blessed Life, 1643.— This is sometimes entitled, '* The Fiery 
Pillar."— 7. Buddings and Blossomings of Old Thiths, 1656.-6. Hm 
Anatomy of the Heart. — 9. Of Sacred Things. 



John Gratle, A. M.— This worthy minister was bora in 
Gloucestershire, in the year l6l4, and educated in Magdalen 
college, Oxford. Upon his leaving the university, he became 
a famous puritanical preacher; and, about the year 1645^ 
succeeded Mr. George Holmes as master of the free-school 
at Guildford in Surrey. Towards the close of this year, he 
married the daughter of Mr. Heni^ Scudder ; and, the year 
following, he lived at Collin^born-Dukes in Wiltshire, where 
he was most probably exercised in the ministerial function. 
Afterwards he became rector of Tidworth in Hampshire, 
where he was much followed by the precise and godty parijf, 
as they are contemptuously called. Wood says '^ he Mras a 
presbyterian, but tinged with arminiaiiism.''f Whether he 
was or was not tinged with arminianism, we shall not under- 
take to determine ; but in his work entitled " A modest 
Vindication of the Doctrine of Conditions in the Covenant 
of Grace, and the Defenders thereof, from the Aspersions 
of Arminianism and Popenr,*' 1655, he certainly labours 
much to repel the charge. He was a man of g^at learnings 
humility, integrity, and christian circumspection ; and a pious, 
faidi&l, and laborious minister of Christ, beipff ever opposed 
to the use of superstitious ceremonies. He hved mucb 

• Grow*8 Blossomings of Old Truthf, Prcf. 
f Wood's AtheiUi Ozon. yoU il. p. lOft* 



iStf LIVES OF THE PURITANTS. 

rfeipectedy and died greatly lamented.* During his last sick- 
oesSy when afflicted with extreme pain, he discovered becom- 
ing submission to the will of God. He said, '' I could be 
obntented, if the Lord see it good, to abide a while in this 
c6i|dition, amongst these poor people. It may be, I shall do 
more good amongst them, ;n my sickness, than they have 
recmed firom all my labours during the time of my health.*'f 
He died in the year 1654, dnd the fortieth of his age. His 
remains were interred in Tjdworth church, when Dr. Cham- 
bers preached his funeral sermon to a very numerous v^on* 
gregation. This sermon was afterwards published, fronai 
which part of the above account is collected. 



Richard Vines, A. M. — This learned and excellent, 
divine was bom at Biason in Leicestershire, about the year 
1600, and educated in Magdalen college, Cambridge. From 
the university he wa3 chosen schoolmaster at Hinckley in his 
native county ; and afterwards, on the death of Mr. James 
Cranford, he obtained a presentation to the rectory of Wed- 
diiigton in Warwickshire. Here he was a zealous and faithful 
labourer in the vineyard of Christ. His ministry was verjp 
much foUowed ; and his endeavours were made a great 
blessing to (he people. He also preached at Caldecot, a 
place near Weddmgton, and, at the death of the incumbent 
was presented to the living. With great care and diligence, 
be served both parishes, the profits of which amounted only 
to eighty pounds a. year. He also delivered a lecture at 
Nuneaton in the same county, to which multitudes resorted. 
Mr. Evans, afterwards ejected in 166^, succeeded him in bis. 
two livings, who, it is said, found that side of tlie country, well 
stocked with religious knowledge and solid christians, pror 
duced by the preaching of many excellent men, but especiaDy 
his wordiy predecessor.^ 

On the breaking out of the civil war, Mr. Vines was driven 
fW>m his flock, and forced to take shelter in Coventry. Indeed, 
there were about thirty worthy ministers in that city, who, 
driven from their flocks, fled thither for safety from the plunder 
of soldiers and popular fury, though they never meddled in 
the wars.^ The heavy judgments of God being now inflicted 
upon the nation, these divines set. up a morning lecturo in 

* Chambers's Faneral Sermon for Mr. Graile. 

f Grace's Doct. of Cooditioos, Pre£. 

t Calaroy's Account, vol. n. p. 744,745. , 

( Sylvester's Life of Baxter, part i. p. 44. 



VINES. . SSI 

• 

diat city, in which Mr. Vines was frequently engaged, aft well 
as on the Lord's day. 

'In the year 1643, he was chosen one of the assembly of 
divinesy and he constantly attended during the session. Here 
his excellent abilities and great moderation were called forth 
into daily exercise ; and how much good he did, in the matter 
of church government^ says our author, may be safely con- 
cealed, but can scarcely be expressed without giving offence 
to some.* In 1644, he was appointed by the parliament one 
of the assistant divines at tne treaty of Uxbiidge. llie 
Oxford historian, speak'mg of Dr. Hammond, one of the 
king's party, on this occasion, thus triumphantly observes : 
" It being his lot to dispute with Richard Vines, a presby- 
terian minister, who attended the commissioners appointed by 
parliament, he did, vnth ease and perfect clearness, disperse 
all the sophisms that he brought against him."t How ht 
this statement is correct, we are unable to say. Whitlocke, a 
writer fkr more correct and impartial, however, speaking of 
Ais treaty, says, '^ That while Dr. Steward and Dr. Sheklen 
argi!ied very positively y that the government by bishops was 
Jure Divtno; Mr. Vines and Mr. Henderson arguea as 
positively, but more -moderateluy to the contrary, and that 
Ae government of the church by presbyteries vras' Jure 

Divino^t 

' Mr. Vines vms chosen a member of the committee of 

accommc^dation, and was chairman at their meetings.} On 
the subject of a general accommodation of all parties, he 
wr6te an excellent letter to Mr. Baxter, discovering his mild 
and accommodating 8pirit.| He was, at the same time, 
appointed master of Pembroke-hall, Cambridge, by the Earl 
of Manchester, and, it is swd, few persons were better qua- 
lified for the situation. Here he promoted true religion and 
sound literature to the utmost of his power, and restored the 
college to a very flourishing state, till, m the year 1649; he was 
turned out for refusing the engagement.^ In the year 1645, 
he was one of the committee of learned divines appointed by 
the assembly to prepare the Confession of Faith.** In 1648 
he was appointed, by order of the parliament, one of the 
assistant divines at the treaty of the Isle of Wight; on which 

• Clark*« Lives, last yoI. part i. p. 48. 

+ Wood*t Athene Oxon. vol. ii. p. 159. 

% Whitlucke's Mem. p. 119, 123, 126. S ^V^^ of Accom. p. S« 

I Sylvester's Baxter, part ii. p» 147. I Ibid, part i. p. 64, 

«-• Neari Paritani, vol. iii. p. 350. 



LIVES OF THE PURITANS, 

occasion he was much applauded by his own party, pardcu^' 
larly for proving the suniciency of presbyterian ordination. 
Ministers, he observed, who had been ordained by the pres- 
byterian churches in France and the Low Countries, wem 
formerly owned and acknowledged, to all intents and pur- 
poses, by our bishops, as lawfully ordained, both to preach 
and admiinister the sacraments.* During the treaty, he had 
much converse and some disputation with the king.t His 
majesty highly valued him for his ingenuity, aud seldom spoke 
to nim without touching his hat, which Mr. Vines returned 
with most respectful language and gestures 4 

Dr. Grey, m his answer to Mr. Neal, relates, that when 
Mr. Vines returned from this treaty, he addressed one Bfr. 
Walden, saying, *^ Brother, how hath tliis nation been fooled ! 
We have been told that our king is a child and ^Jool; but if 
I understand any thing by my converse with him, which I have 
bad with great liberty, he is as much of a christian prince as 
ever I read or heard of, since our Saviour's time. He is a^ 
very precious prince, and is able of himself to argue vidth the 
ablest divines we have. And, among all the king's of Israel 
and 'Judah, there was none like him." This account is said 
to have been given about the year 1675, by one Nathaniel. 
Gilbert of Coventry, in an information subscribed by bis own 
hand, having himself heard Mr. Vines. Dr. Grey tran-r 
scribed it from an attested copy of the original, which original 
was in possession of his fadier, to whose grandmother the 
above Gilbert was half brother ! $ 

When sentence of death was pronounced upon the king, 
Mr. Vines, and several of his brethren, presented their duty to. 
his majesty, with their humble desires to pray with him, and 
perform other serviceable offices, if he would be pleased to 
accept them. The king returned them thanks for their kind 
offers, but declined their services.|| About the year 1653» 
Mr. Vines was appointed, by order of the parliament, one of 
the divines to draw up the Fundamentals, to be presented to 
the faouse.i 

When Mr. Vines first went up to London, he was chosen 
minister of St. Clement's Danes, where many persons of 
quality were his constant hearers. After some time, by the 
solicitation of the Earl of £ssex,' he resigned the place and 

« Poller's Cborch Hist. b. xi. p. 215. 

f Whiilocke*8 Mem. p. S36, 339. % FiOler^ Woitbies, pt. \u p. 184. 

^ Grey's ExaminatinD, voL i. p. 414. 

I Wood's Atbenn OiLon. vol. ii. p. fifiS. 

I Sylvester's Baiter, part ii. p. 197. 



VINES. SSS 

Tcmoved to Walton in Hertfordshire. He afterwards accepted 
an invitation to Su Lawrence Jewry, London; where his 
exc^ellent talents were still employed in promoting the 
Redeemer's glory, and the salvation of his people, jianj 
flocked to his ministry, and his labours were made a blessing 
to their souls. While pastor of St. Lawrence, he was chosen 
one of the weekly lecturers at St Michaers, ComhiU, and was 
often called to preach before the parliament. It is but just, 
however, to observe, that our divine, with several of his 
brethren, preached too warmly against the baptbts.* On the 
death of the Earl of Essex, die parliament appointed a 
public funeral for him, which was performed with great 
solemnity in St. Peter^s chur/ch, Westminster, when Mr. Vines 
preached his funeral sermon to a very great audience, com- 
posed of persons of very high distinction.t 

After a laborious and useful life, Mr. Vnies, at length, 
became the subject of painful bodily affliction. Thougii 
afflicted with racking pam in his head, which nearly took 
away his sight, yet he would not desist from his public 
labours. He was resolved to spend and be spent in the work 
of the Lord. The day before he died, he preached and 
administered the Lord's supper ; and about ten o'clock the 
same evening he was taken with bleeding at the iKMe, and 
died betwixt two and three next morning, aged fijfty-five 
years. His remains were interred, with great lamentation, ia 
the church of St. Lawrence Jewry, February 7, l65o ; whea 
Dr. Thomas Jacombe preached his funeral sermon, civxng the 
following high commendations of his character : — He was a 
burning and shining light in his day, and po>4sessed vefj 
excellent parts, even taller by the head than most of hm 

• Nears Paritmns, yoI. iii. p. 130. 

f Robert, Earl Qf Enez, was oalj mb of the ■■fortsaMe faravtec mt 
Qaeen Elizabeth, and inherited nach of hi« father « p«p«larirj. He «ai a 
DoblemaD of verj aprighf iDCeatioBi. Owiayr to ih^ cn rn p i minm o^ Us 
■atore, and the tiacerity of hb zeal fvr the cMemcialt of r^i i^j tm^ kt 
the wed jrreat kiadnev to the penecaied p«riiaa«. He wai me of (lM«t 
few Doblrnieo in parliaaent who dared to auaek the ** fra* ■mi»t^r cao 

Crogative.^' Bat he never appearvd to lo gvfsa an adv-innicr mM 'he 
d of an army. He acqnired a gr^^t rt pta ri n n an a loMa^ s a a*«4 ^ 
merit that was detpiied b? JaaM^ f. and ovrrioolled hj Chtkr^^. M« 
conraj^e was i^reat, aod hi« hooonr oas iuM^tirhte ; !Mf h^ r^ih^f wa.'^ 
than soaght for opportnaiiiet for ighrinc; ar.«( ka^^ \^i»r iMw *^ f*^ 
than improre a TiciorT. When he loofc the rtmmemi t 4f «»-* pm^U^m^t^t 
army, he was better q'aaliird than any naa m rh^ k*»r4*vm f^f fA^ /*ww j 



bat he is «aid to teve been Moa eriipvpd b? \ a-^w r*r* *f iouf.^i »**, 
if BOt his snperiors in the an of war. went far bryowd hi« m •#•#* *«4 
enterprise. He died S#>preBber 14, l4-*«; emA wm deaib IbmC a SiM«4a^ 
for the adraarement of CromwHI.— •iof- Mritem, m4» *' F- ^* '^' 
Sdit. ni9.'~Qrmgm'9 BUg. HiU. voL u f. SJ3: i«- tf** 



SM LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

brethren. He was mighty in the scriptures, and an intw- 
prater one of a diousand. He was an accomplished scholar, 
a perfect master of the Greek, an excellent philolo^st, and 
an admirable orator. He was a ready and close disputant, 
and approved himself, to the admiration of many, in the 
treaties of Uxbridge and the Isle of Wight. He was a 
tolid, judicious, and orthodox divine, mighty in points of 
controversy, giving a death-wound tb error. His spiritual 
and powerftiT ministry was principally upon the doctrine of 
justification, debasing man and exalting the Saviour. He 
wbhed to die praying or preaching. That which wotdd have 
made some keep their beds, did not keep him out of die 
pulpit: and as he preached, so he lived and died. He was 
of an heroical and undaunted spirit ; and, like Luther, notbing 
would hinder him from a courageous and conscientious dis- 
- charge of his duty.* He was accounted ^' the very prince of ' 
preachers, a thorough Calvinist, and a bold, honest man, void 
of pride and flattery.^f FuUer styles him ^* sm excellent 
]|^acher, and the very champion of the assembly;" and 
adds, ^* that he was constant to his principles, yet moderate 
and charitable towards those who dinered from him.'^t Wood 
says nothing of him, only denominates him a zealous puritan.^ 

Dr. Grey insinuates a reflection on the simplicity and 
mtegrity of Mr. Vines, by a story of his praying m the 
morning of an Easter Sunday, before the Marquis of Hert- 
ford, for the king's restoration to hi& throne and regal AAtsl 
but, in the afternoon, when the Marquis was absent, and Liont « 
Fairfax come to church, he prayed in stulo parlianientario, 
that God would turn the heart of the king, and give him 
|;race to repent of his grievous sins, especially all the blood 
he had shed in those civil, uncivil wars. On this it was 
observed, that Mr. Vines was much more altered between the 
forenoon and afternoon, tlian the difference between an 
English marquis and an Irish baron^ The reader, however, 
will easily perceive, that each of these prayers might have 
bjBen very consistently offered up by the same person. 

When Mr. Vines was schoolmaster at Hinckley, he had for 
one of his pupils Mr. John Cleiveland, a noted royalist and 
popularpoet in the reign of Charles L, who, it is said, " owed 
the heavmg of his natural fancy, by the choicest elegancies in 

^ Jacombp'a Fan. Ser. for Mr. Vioet. 

f Clark*« Lives, part i. p. 48—51. 

t F«llcr*i Worthies, pan ii. p. 184, ISS. 

^ AtbcniB Oxoo. fol. i. p. 801. 

I Grejr*! Ezaminatioo, toI. iii. p. 115, 176.. 

1 * 



a. ROBINSON. 83S 

Greek and Latiiiy to Mr. Vbes."* — ^A few days before the 
death of our pious dirine, as he was preaching at St. Gregoiya 
church, a riide fellow cried aloud to him, ** Lift up your 
voice, for I cannot hear you:" to whom Mr. Vines replie<^ 
'< Lift up your eais, for I can speak no iouder."f 

His Works.— 1. A Treatise on the Sacrament, 1667.— 2. Chriil 
tiie Christiau*8 only Gain, 1661,-r-3. God's Drawing and .^laals 
Cominjc to Christ, 1662.— 4. The Saint's Nearness to God, 1062. — 
6. Funeral Sermon for the Earl of Essex. — 6. Funeral Sermon for 
Mr. William Stronfc- — 7. Caleb's Integrity in following the Lord fully, 
a Sermon before the Honourable Honne of Commons, at tlielr lat« 
solemn Fast, Not. 30, 1642.— 8. The Posture of David's Spirit, wbea 
he was in a Doubtful Condition, a Sermon before the Commons, 1644. 
— 9., The Happiness of Israel,. a Sermon before both Houses, 1640i.—» 
He was aathor of some other Sermons. 



Hugh Ro^Inson^ D. D. — This learned person was borb 
in St. Mary's parish, Anglesea, and educated first at Wick- 
ham school, then at New College, (!>xford, where he took 
his degrees in arts, and was admitted perpetual fellowi After 
finishing his studies at the university, he was chosen principal 
master of Winchester school; and, taking his degrees in 
lUvinity, he became archdeacon of Wiuton, canon of Wellsp 
and archdeacon of Gloucester. In the beginning of the 
civil war he lost all his preferment, joined himself to the 
puritans, espoused the cause of the parliament, took die 
covenant, and afterwards became rector of Hinton, near 
Winchester. He was an excellent linguist, an able divine, 
and very well skilled in ancient history.) He died March 30« 
1655; and his remains were interred in the chancel of 
St. Giles's in the Fields, London. 

KDs WoRRs.^1. Pieces, written for the Use of the ChOdren of 
Winchester School^ in Latin and English, 1616.— 2. Grammaticalia 
qosedam, in Latin and En^cUsh, 1616.— 3. Antiquao Histori» Synopsii, 
1616.— 4. The Latin Phrases of Winchester School, 16&i.— 
6. Annaliuro Mundi Universaliom, 1677, — ^Ue alsb wrote a pieca in 
Vindication of the Covenant 



• Biojr. Britan. yoI. iii. p. 688. Edit. 1778. 
t Fuller's Worthies, part ii. p. 136. 
} Wood's Atheh* Oxen. vol. ii. p. 117. 



S36 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

John Angel, A. M. — This pious divine was bom ia 
Gloucestershire, and educated in Magdalen-hall, Oxford. 
Having taken his degrees, he Jeft the university and entered 
upon the ministerial worL. Previous to the year 1629> Mr. 
Higginson, being chosen by the- mayor and aldermen of- 
Leicester to be the town preacher, but refusing the office, on 
account of his growine nonconformity, he recommended Mr. 
Aneel, then a learned and pious conformist, to their appro- 
bation. They accordingly made choice of him ; v\rhen he 
removed to Leicester, and continued in the office of public 
lecturer, vvith some interruption, upwards of twenty years.*. 
Though at first he was conformable to the established diiutdi, 
he afterwards imbibed the principles of the puritans, and 
became a sufferer in the common cause. Archbishop Laud, 
giving an account of his province in the year 1634, observes, 
*^ lliat in Leicester the dean of the arches suspended one 
Angel, who hath continued a lecturer in that great town 
for divers years, without any license at all to preach ; yet. 
took liberty enough." His grace adds, *^ I doubt his violence 
hath cracked his brain, and do therefore use him the mote 
tienderly, because I see the^hand of God hatb overtaken 
bim.^'t Mr. Angel most assuredly had the license of those 
-who employed him, and who paid him for his labours^ 
though he might not have the formal allowance of hie 
diocesan or the archbishop. What his lordship can mean by' 
insinuating that '^ his violence had cracked his brsdn, and the' 
hand of God having overtaken him," is not very easy to 
understand. If he laboured under some afflictive, mental, or 
bodily disorder, as the words seem to intimate, he was surely 
more deserving of sympathy and compassion than a heaiy' 
ecclesiastical censure. But tlie fact most probably was, tfai^^ 
Mr. Angel was deeply involved in spiritual darkness about 
his own states and in painful uncertainty concerning his own 
salvation. '^ For," says Mr. Clark, " there was a great light, 
Mr. Angel, formerly of Leicester, afterwards of Grantham, 
but now with God, who being under a sore and grievous 
deseHion, received much comfort from the conversation oC' 
Mr. Richard Vines."* This undoubtedly refers to the same 
affliction. 

Though it do^s not appear how long Mr. Angel contiBued 
under suspension, he was afterwards restored to his ministEy ; 
and he continued his lecture till the year 1650, when he vim 

• Mmther's Hist, of New Eb|;. b. iii. p. 73. 
-f Wharton^s Troubles of Land, toI. i. p. 531. 
t Clark's Lives, last vol. part i..p. &0. 



AN6EL--R. ROBINSON. 1S7 

turned oat for -refusing die engagement. About theMune 
time the company of mercers in London made choice of him 
as public -lecturer at Ghrandiam in Lincolnshire; and not 
long after be was appointed assistant to the commissibners of 
diat county, for ejecting ignorant and scandalous ministers 
and schoolmasters, but did not long survive the appointment. 
He died in the banning of June, 1655) vrhen his remains 
were interred in Grandiam church. Having gained a dis- 
tinguished reputation, and being so exceedingly beloved while 
he lived, his funeral was attended by a great number of 
ministers, when Mr. Lawrence Sarson delivered an oration at 
his grave, in high commendation of his character. Wood 
denominates him ** a frequent and painfid preacher ; a man 
mighty in word and doctrine among the puntans ;" and adds^ 
^' mat as his name was Angel, so he was a man indeed of 
angelical understanding and holiness, a burning and shining 
li^t, and he continued to shine as a burning light, until God 
translated him to shine as a star in the kingdom of heaven 
for ever.''* Mr. Henry Vaughan, ejected at the restoration, 
was his successor at Grantham.t 

Ifis Works. — I. The right ordering of the ConvenatioD, 1650.-* 
2. Funeral Sermon at the Burial of John Lord Darcey, l6A0.~-> 
9, Preparation for the Communion, 1609. — 4. Tlie right Government 
of the Thoughts ; or, a Discovery of all vain, unprofitable, idle, and 
wicked Thoughts, 1650. 



Ralph Robinson. — ^This holy minister was bom at 
Heswall in Cheshire, in the month of June, I6l4y and edu- 
cated in Katherine-hall, Cambridge. Here, for several years, 
he made good use of his time and academical advantages, and 
came fordi well qualified for the ministry. Upon the com- 
mencement of the national confusions, in 1642, he left the 
university and went to London, where he gained consider- 
able reputation. Being richly furnished with gifts and 
■graces, he was gready beloved by the London ministers, and 
his preaching rendered him exceedingly popular. He ac- 
cepted an invitation to the pastoral charge at St. Mary's, 
• Woolnoth, and was ordained presbyter, . by fasting and 
prayer and the imposition of hands, in the year 1647 he 
"was chosen one of the scribes to the first provincial assemUy 
in London. In 1648 he united with the London ministers in 

• 

* Atbenn Oxod. yoI. ii. p. 118. 

t Fdmer's NoBcoa. Mfia« Yiih tt» p. 417. 



S98 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

decLuii^ i^nst t)ie king's deaths* And in 1651 he wif 
concerned in Love's plot; but, upon his petitioning .for 
pardon^ and promising submission to the existing govemm^t 
m future, he was released.^ 

Mr. Robinson died in the meridian of life* When be wap 
seized with his last sickness, having no (freat degree cipfia^ 
he was unapprehensive of his approaching change. When 
he was requested to. make his will, he said, ** I will do it 
with all. readiness, though I perceive not myself in m 
danger of death :" adding, '' I pray you flatter me not* ff 
my physician apprehend danger, let me know it ; for, I Ucm 
God, the thoughts of death are not dreadful to me/' To an 
mtimate friend he said, ** I bless God, I have loved fastiiig 
and prayer with .all my heart." And being asked what was 
the present state of his mind, he replied, *^ Thoiq^h I 
have not ravishing joys, I enjoy uninterrupted and satiating 
peace ; not in the least questioning my everlasting happiness 
through the grace of God in Christ Jesus." Being reminded 
of the rest to be found in the bosom of Christ, he said, ^ Gkl 
true rest can be found no where else ;" with which woids he 
breathed his last, June 15, 1655, aged forty-one years. He 
was a person of exemplary piety ; and, in his judgment wtii 
practice, a thorough presbyterian, and ever true and steadjr tp 
hb principles. He was an indefatigable, orthodox, and useftl 
preacher ; a loving husband, a tender father, a viffilant pastoTt 
a cheerful companion, and a faithful friend.t Many poems 
and elegies were published on his death. He was author 
of the following works : '^ Self Conduct ; or, the Saint's 
Guidance to Glory, opened in a Sermon at the Funeral of 
the virtuous and reUgious Gentlewoman, Mrs. Thoinaiin 
Barnardiston," 1654. — '^ The Christian completely Anned^'' 
1656.^" Christ AU and in All," 1656. 



Nathaniel Rooebs. — ^This excellent minister was boffH 
at Haverhil. in. Suffolk, about the year 1598; and at .theagu 
of fourteen was sent to Emanuel college, Cambridge, wheDp 
he became a hard student, made great proficiency in idl kinds 
of useful leamipg, and was a great ornament to the college* 
He was son of Mr. John Il(^rs, famous for his ministry and 
nonconformity at Dedham in Essex* Under the pioaf 

• Calamy*8 Contin. vol. ii, p. 744. 
f Wood's AtbrnflB Oxon. vol. ii. p. 77. 

X Asbe's Fun. Ser. for Mr. Robinson, eotiUed, <« The Qsod lfM*i Death 
IjimeBte4.'*<-^ark*s Uves, Ust tolr part i. p. ftf— M 



N. ROGERS. 

kifltruotions of his excellent parentfl, he feared.tfae Lord from 
liifl youth ; and, as he grew up to the age of man, he trod ia 
the footsteps of his honoured and worthy &ther« Hough he 
was indeed a person of most exemplary piety ; yet it is reuted^ 
that, through the hurry of business, he went one morning from 
home without attending to his usual private .devotiona,.whea 
his horse atumliied and fell, by whidb h^ lost much bloo^ 
and was exceedingly briused. This event, however, taught 
him a valuable lesson. It awakened him to so deep a sense 
of his onussion of duty, that, from that time to the day of his 
deaths no engagements' whatever would hinder him from 
attending upon the exercises qf the closets 

Mr. Kogers, having fimshed his studies at the university, 
became domestic chaplain to a ()er8on of quaUty, when he 
gave the first s^cimen of his ministerial abilities. After he 
had continued m this situation about two years, he became 
assistant to Dr. Batkam, at Bocking in Essex. The doctor 
being a high churchman, and particularly intimate with 
Bishop L«aud^ many people wondered that he employed for 
his curate the son or one of the most noted puritans in die 
IdngdouLi Mr. Rogers was much beloved by the people, 
and they were remarkably kind to him. Though tiie doctor 
treated him widi civility, he did not allow him one^enth of his 
benefice, amounting to many hundreds a year, when he did 
above three-fourths of the work. Mr. Rogers now began to 
examine the controversy about ecclesiastical matters, and, as 
the result of his inquiries, he became thoroughly dissatisfied 
with the ceremonies and discipline of the church. After- 
wards, the doctor being present at a funeral, and observing 
that Mr. Rogers did not use the surplice, he was so completely 
disgusted, tliat he advised his curate to provide for himself, 
and so dismissed him. What a sad crime was it to bury the 
dead without a jsurplice ! 

After he had preached about five years at Bocking, he was 

Sesented to the living of Assington in Suffolk, where the 
ishop of Norwich allowed him to go on in the Lord's work, 
without molestation, for about five years. His preaching 
was highly esteemed, and^eady blessed among persons of 
all descriptions. He had commonly more headers than could 
crowd into the church. The ignorant weiie instructed, the 
careless awakeaed,.and the sorrowfrd comforted. He was a 
'^ fisher of men," and, by the blessing of God upon his 
endeavours, many were caught in the gospel-net. At length, 
the ruling ecclesiastics were resolved to stop the mouths of 



f 40 LIVES OP THE PURITANS. 

all ministen who refused to conform to their arbitrary 
injunctions ; on \vhich account sreat numbers of the most 
laborious and useful preachers m the kingdom were either 
buried in silence, or forced to abscond, to avoid the fiiry of 
the star-chamber and of the high commission. Mr. Rogers, 
perceiving the approachmg storm, chose to prevent rather 
than receive the terrible sentence of those tribunals; and 
therefore he resigned his living into the hands of his patron. 
Not being satisfied to lay down his ministry, he forsook the 
neighbourhood of his father, with all his prospects of worldly 
advantage ; and, casting himself and his youne family on the 
providence of God, embarked for New England, where he 
arrived November 16, 1636. Mr. Ralph Partridge, another 
puritan minister, accompanied him in the same ship.* 

Upon their arrival, Mr. Rogers was chosen co-pastor with 
Mr. Norton over the church at Ipswich. These judicious 
and holy men, whose hearts were cordially united in pro- 
moting the glory of God and the salvation of souls, were 
rendered a peculiar blessing to this religious society. Mr. 
Rogers was much afflicted, especially with the spittins of 
blood. When the complaint was upon him, he used to 
comfort himself by observing, *^ Though I should spit out 
my own blood, by which my life is maintained, I shall never 
cast out the blood of Christ, or lose the benefits of that 
blood which cleanseth us from all sin." Under one of these 
afflictions, Mr. Cotton wrote him a consolatory letter, dated 
March % 1631, in which he addressed him as follows :— " I 
bless the Lord with you, who perfecteth the power of his 
grace in your weakness, and supporteth your feeble bodj to 
do him still more service. You know who said, * Unmortified 
strength posteth hard to hell : but sanctified weakness creepetfa 
fest to heaven.' Let not your spirit faint, though your hoisj 
do. Your soul is precious in God's sight. ^ Your hairs are 
all numbered.' The number and measure of your fainting 
fits, and wearisome nights, are all weighed and limited l^ 
him who hath given you his son Jesus Christ to take upon 
him your infirmities, and bear your sicknesse8."+ During the 
last conflict, he was full of heavenly conversation, and closed 
his life and labours saying. My times are in thy hands. He 
died July 3, 1655, aged fifty-seven years. He was an emi- 
nently holy man, an admirable preacher, and an incomparable 
mast^. of the Latin tongue. ^^ And I shall do an injury 

• Mather's Hist, of New Eog. b. iii. p. 104—106. f Ibid. p. lOT. 



f/TUHNEIU-MARSHALL. Ml 

Id his rnemoty/' says our author, '^ if I do not decfaure that 
he was one of the greatest men and one of die best ministert 
Aat ever set his foot on the American shore."* 



Jerom Turneb, a. B. — ^This worthy person was bom 
at Yeovil in Somersetshire^ in the year I6l5, and educated 
at Edmund's-hall, Oxford/ Having finished his studies at 
the university,iie became schoolmaster at Bear in Devonshire, 
where he also preached as assistant to his friend and kins* 
man, Mr. Hugh Gundry, for the space of two years. At the 
expiration of this period, he removed to Exmoudi in the 
same county, where, for about two years, he was assistant to 
Mr. William Hook, afterwards silenced at the restoration.f 
He next removed to Compton, near the place of his nativity, 
and afterwards became chaplain to Sir Thomas Trenchard. 
But, upon the commencement of the civil war, he was forced 
to flee for safety, when he took refuge at Southampton. 
There he abode during the national confusions, and preached 
among the puritans with considerable approbation. Upon 
the conclusion of the wars, in 1646, he became pastor at 
Nelherbury in Dorsetshire, where he continued a zealous 
and useful preacher to the time of his death. In the year 
1654 he was appointed one of the assistant commis- 
noners of Dorsetshire, for ejecting ignorant and scan- 
dalous ministers. Wood says, ^^ his love to learning was 
very great, and his delight in the ministerial exercise was 
greater than his weak body could bear. He had a strong 
memory, was well skilled in Greek and Hebrew, and was a 
constant, zealous, fluent, and useful preacher ; but," says he, 
** too much addicted to Calvinism, t He died at Nether- 
bury, November 27, 1655, aged forty years. 

His Works. — 1. A. Breast-plate for the Keeping ' of the Heart, 
1660.-2. A Rich Treasarie for the Promises, 1660.-9. Am Exposir 
tbn on the first Chap, of the Epistle of St Paul to the I^hesians. 



Stephen Marshall, B. D. — This celebrated persou 
ffViS born at Godmanchester in Huntingdonshire, and educated 
Uk Emanuel college, Cambridge. He was some time minister 
at Wethersfield in Essex, then presented to the benefice of 
Finchingfield in the same county ; but hb memory has greatly 

• Mmther^ Hist, of New Bug. b. iii. p. 106— lOS. 

f Palmer*8 Noncoo. Mem. vol. i. p. 184. 

I Wood's Athens Ozoo. ^ol. ii. p. 121, ISt. 

VOL. III. R 



94t LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

tuflkred from men of opposite principles. In the fornHSC 
situation, his people, from their warm attachment to him^ 
expended fifty pounds to purchase him a library, and 
performed for him many friendly offices. It is further 
observed, that '' he was sensible of their kindness, and 
engaged himself by a voluntary promise never to leave 
them. He had not continued long in this situation before 
Mr. Pickering, a reverend and learned divine, minister of 
Finchingfield, died. The fatness of the benefiV' it is said, 
^< helped the patron to suitors enow, but, amongst all, our 
Marshall was the man w}iom his affection made choice of 
to bestow his presentation upon; who having unluckily 
married himself to Wethersfield, knows not what course 
to take to sue out a bill of divorce. The great living, worth 
j£200 a year, is a strong temptation to the holy man's conv 
cupiscible appetite ; however, Wethersfield holds him to 
his promise, never to leave them. A little assembly of 
divines is called ; and it is there debated bow far Mr. 
Marshall's- promise is obligatory. The casuists, knowkig 
his mind before, conclude, that it bound him not to leave 
them for a lesser salarj/, but left him at liberty to take a 
bigger living when he could get it. Indeed, there is no 
reason why any promise, though ever so solemnly imd 
deliberately made, should stand a perpetual palisado to anj 
jnMllv man's preferment. This decision satisfies his corvan. 
For ne leaves Wethersfield, and awfnr he goes to Finchine* 
field. This,'* it is added, '^ is the first noted essay that he 
gave of his fidelity in keeping his promise."* 

In this partial and curious account of Mr. Marshall, it hs 
also thus observed : << He was as conformable as could be 
desired, reading divine service, wearing the surplice, le* 
ceiving and administering the sacrament kneeling; approv* 
ing, commending, and extolling episcopacy and the litoi^ ; 
ol^rving all the holidays with more than ordinary mli- 
gence, preaching upon most of them. This he did so long 
as he had any hopes of rising that way. His ambition 
was such," says this writer, ^' I hare great reason to believe 
that he was once an earnest suitor for a deanery, which is th^ 
next step to a bishopric ; the loss of which made him turn 
schismatic. His son-in-law Nye was heard to say, < tfafit 
if they had made his father a bishop, before he had he^ttiS 
far. engaged, it might have prevented all the war ; and sincii 
he cannot rise so high as a bishop, he will pull the bishopi^. 

• Life of Marihall> p. 5. Sdit. 1680. 



MARSHALL. MS 

I • 

as low as himself 4 yea, if he can, lower than he was hlm« 
self, when he was at Godmanchester.'^'* 

This is the representation of a known adveisary, and is 
evidently designed to cast a stigma upon his character* 
Notwithstanding his conformity, as here represented, after 
his removal to Finchingfieid he was silenced for noncon- 
formity ; and he remaim d a long time in a state of suspen* 
sion. Upon his restoration to his ministry, in 1640, he did 
not return to his former charge, but was appointed lecturer 
mt St. Margaret's church, Westminster. Although he was 
greatly despised and reproachcrd by the opposite party, he 
^was a man of high reputation, and was often called to 
preach before the parliament, who consulted him in all afiairs 
of importance relating to religion. ^^ And without doubt," 
says Clarendon, <^ the Archbishop of Canterbury had never 
so great an influence upon the councils at court, as Mr. 
Marshall and Dr. Burgess had upon the houses of parlia- 
ment. "+ November 17, 1640, nas observed as a day of 
solemn fasting by the house of commons, at St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, when these two divines were appointed ,to 
ccHifiuct the public service of the day ; on which occasion, 
it is said, they prayed and preached at least seven hours^ 
The service being closed, the house voted thanks to both 
the preachers, desiring them to print their sermons ; and, to 
afford them encouragement in future, a piece of plate was^ 
by order of the house, presented to each.t 

Lord Clarendon, with other historians of a similar spirit, 
brings^ against him a charge unworthy of any honest man. 
The accusation relates to the ministers' petition presented 
io the parliament ; and, says he, ^^ The paper which con- 
tained the ministers' petition, was filled with very few 
hands, but that many other sheets were annexed for the 
reception of numbers who gave credit to the undertaking. 
But when their names were subscribed, the petition itself 
was cut off, and a new one, of a very different nature, 
annexed to the long list of names ; and when some of the 
ministers complained to Mr. Marshall, with whom the 
petition was lodged, that they never saw the petition to 
which their names were annexed, but had signed another 
petition against the canons, Mr. Marshall is said to reply, 
that it was thought fit by those who understood the business 
bett^ than they, that the latter petition should be preferred 

• Life of Marshall, p. 10. f Clarendon*! Hiit. toI. i. p. 9S9. 

% Nalsoo*! Collec. toI. i. p. 530, 53S. 



S44 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. . 

rather (ban the form^/'* This, indeed, is a cbai{ge 43f a 
very high nature, and ought to have been wdl suhstaotiated. 
Dr. Walker, notwithsta^ing his extreme bigotrjr and 
enmity against the puritans, seems not to give full credit to 
the noble historian. ^< It is probable^'^ says he, ^'tbat 
Mr. Marshall was deeply enough concerned in this affiur ;" 
but he appears unwilling to affirm it as a matter iAfs^ 
If, however, the above account had been true, why did noi 
the ministers complain to the committee appointed by the 
hous^ of commons to inquire into their regiuar methods of 
procuring hands to petitions ? The learned historian an- 
swers, that they were prevailed upon to sit still and pass ii 
by ; for the truth of which we have only his loroship's 
word, as nothing of the kind appears in Rushwortfa, Wlut- 
locke, or any other impartial writer of those times. The 
whole a&ir has, therefore, the appearance of a mere forceiT, 
designed to blacken the memory of Mr. Marshall and tht 
rest of the puritans. , 

Few persons have censured our divine with greater seyet 
rity than the anonymous author of ^< A Letter of Spiritual 
Advice, written to Mr. Stephen Marshall in his Sicknesf,^' 
1643. '' When I heard of your sickness,'' says this writer, 
^< I assure you I found in myself such a different apprehen- 
sion of your state, from that of other ordinary sick men, that 
I think you will not wonder if all the king's subgects, who 
wish good success to his majesty in this war, cannot impotB 
your visitation to any thing but the just severity and reveage 
of Almighty God, for having had so strong an influence 
upon the ruin of this kin^om and church. For, sir, is it 
not apparent that your eminent gifts of preaching have been 
maAQ use of for the kindling of those flames of rebellion and 
civil war, and most unchristian bloodshed ? Have not yon, 
with all the earnestness and zeal imaginable, persuaded vom 
hearers to a liberal contribution for the maintaining of thb 
unnatural war ? Have not you forsaken your own cSurge^ to 
accompany and strengthen the general of your anny in his 
resolutions and attempts against the just pow^ and life of 
his and your anointed sovereign? Does not the whoia 
kingdom impute almost all the distractions and combustioM 
therein as much to the secHtious sermcnis of the preachers nf 
your faction, as to the contrivances of those persons who aal 
you on work 7 Let your own conscience be your own JoH^ 

« ClareDdon's Hist.Tol. i. p. 161, 162. ' 

f Walker's Attempt, part i. p. Ijk 



MARSHALL. 945 

in tbis matten and it ^ill tell you, that if all tbese new 
iatgoB ahould succeed to your wish, and tliere should 
kqipen to be a change of government, you would think 
JiiinidTes wronged if you should not be acknowledged 
TOy effectual instruments in that change. These things 
ftoefore being so, you cannot accuse of nncharitableness 
those who think these designs not only unjust, but ruinous 
both to justice and religion, if they attribute it to God^s 
aercy to them, and vengeance on vou, if he take such a 
fln^-brand as ^ou out of the world. • 

While this anonymous calumniator thus reproaches 
Mr. Marshall for his zeal in the cause of the parliament^ 
he b extremely lavish in the die nified compliments con« 
fared upon his majesty, styling him '' God's anointed, and 
a moot righteous christian king.'* Wood says, ^^ that, upon 
liie approach of the troublesome times in 1640, Mr. Mar« 
sludl, Mr. Calamy, Dr. Burgess, and some others, fint 
whiiipered in their conventicles, then openly preached, that 
far the cause of religion it was lawful for subjects to take up 
arms against the king/'f <<As to Mr. Marshall," says 
Dr. Cuamy, ^^ lie was an active man, and encouraged 
takmg up arms for securing the constitution, when it ap- 
]MBarea not only to him and his brethren, but to a nural:^ 
of as worthy gentlemen as ever sat in St. Steplien's chapol^ 
te be in no small danger ; yet I am not aware that he can be 
jostly charged with any concurrence in those things wliich 
ajfterwards overthrew the constitution, and tendecf to con* 
forion. He wrote a defence of the side which he took in our 
civil broils, and I cannot hear that it was ever answered.''^ 
Mr. Marshall, at ttie same time, took an active part in 
the controversy concerning church government. The cele- 
brated Bishop Hall having published his work in defence of 
episcopacy and the liturgy, called, '' An Humble Remon- 
strance to the high Court of Parliament," 1640, he united 
with several of his brethren in writing the famous book, 
entitled, <^ An Answer to a Book, cntituled, < An flumble 
Remonstrance;' in which the Original of Liturgy and 
Episcopacy is discussed, and Queries propounded concern- 
ing botn.« The Parity of Bisiiops and Prrsbyters in Scripture 
dmonstrated; the Occasion of fhrir Imparities in Anti- 
quitv discovered ; the Dis])arity of the ancient and our 

maaem Bishops manifested ; the Antiquity of Ruling 

• 

* letter of Advice, p. 1, 2. 

I't AUieuB Dion. vol. ii. p. 2S5, 236. 
F'i CoDtiB. vol. ii. p. 137. 



t46 . LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Elders in the Church vindicated: the Prelatical Chul^h 
bounded. Written by Smectymnuus," 1641. The word 
smectymnuus is composed of the initi:ils of i- s authors' nnme^^ 
who were Stephen Marshall, Edmi|n(t Calamy, Thomas 
Young, Matthew Newcomen, and William Spurstowe. 
^^ The work," it is said, '^ is certainly written with great 
fierceness of spirit s^nd much asperity in language, ccm- 
taining eighteen sections, in 'the last of wliiph the differ- 
ences between the prelatists and puritans are aggravated 
with great bitterness." The same author, on the same page^ 
says, " it was, indeed, a very well writt<*n piece, theretore 
we find frequent reference to it in all the detences and apo- 
Wiesfor nonconformity, which have been since published.'' 
A4^. Calamy affirms, that it ^' gave the first deadly blow to 
episcopacy." The learned Dr. Kippis says, " it was a 
production of no small importance in its diy; and wAs 
d[awn up ip a style of composition superior to that of the 
puritans in general, and, indeed, of many other nriteiB at 
that period." The learned Bishop Wilkins represents it as 
^^ a Cfipital work against episcopacy."* 

The book is concluded by a postscript, in which is cqq^ 
tained an historical narrative of the bitter effects of episco- 
pacy, as, pride, luxury, brilxTv, extortion, rebellion, treasaii| 
&c. ; and the whole is closed thus : — ^^ The inhuman butphee 
ries, blood-sheddings, and cruelties of Gardiner, Bonner, 
and the rest of the bishops in Queen Mary's days, are so 
fresh in every man's memory, as that we conceive it a UAng 
altogether unnecessary to make mention of them. Only we 
fear lest the guilt of the blood then shed should yeC remain 
to be required at the hands of this nation, becau<se it hath 
not quickly endeavoured to appease the wrath of God, by ft 
general and solemn humiliation for it. What the practices^ 
of the prelates have been ever since, from the beginning of 
Queen Eliz^bith to this present day, would fill a volume^ 
like E^ekiel's roll, with lamentation, mourning, and woe 
to record. For it hath been their great design to hinder all 
further reformation ; to bring in doctrines of popery, armi- 
nianism, and libertinism ; to maintain, propagate, and mach 
increase the burden of human ceremonies ; to keep out, and 
beat down the preaching of the word, to silence the faithful 
ministers of it, to oppase a.rd persecute the most zealoua 
professors, and to turn all religion to a pompous outside j^ 
and to tread down the power of godliness. Insomuch, M 

• Biog. BritaQ. toI. iii. p. 132, 186. Edit. 17T8. 



MARSHALL. S*7 



^ •* • 



it is come to an ordinary proverb, that irhen any thing is 
spoiled, we use to say, The bishop's foot haih been in U. 
And in this, and much more which might be said, fulfilling 
Bishop Bcmner's prophecy, which, when he saw that in 
King. Edward's reformation there was a reservation of 
ceremonies and hierarchy, is credibly reported to have 
4ised these words, ^ Since they have begun to taste our broihj 
they voiUnot be long ere they xsnll eat our beef J* "• 

tjpon the publication of the above work. Bishop Hall 
wrote his ^^ Defence of the Humble Remonstrance against 
the frivolous and false Exceptions of Smectymnuus,'' 1641 • 
To this, Smectymnuus published a reply, entitled, " A Vin- 
dication of the Answer to the Humble Remonstrance, from 
the unjust Imputations of Frivolousness and Falsehood: 
wherein the cause of the Lititrgy and Episcopacy is further 
debated," 1 64 1 . The learned prelate concluded the dispute 
by publishing his piece entitled, << A short Answer to a 
t^ious Vindication of Smectymnuus," 1641.f 

In tbisvear, Mr. Marshall was appointed chaplain to the 
Earl of ^sex's regiment in the parliament's armv. Dr. 
Grey, in contempt, denominates him and Dr. Downing 
*^ the two famed casuistical divines, and most eminent camp- 
chaplains ;" and charges them, on the authority of Clarendon 
and Echard, with publicly avowing, << that the soldiers lately . 
taken prisoners at Brentford, and released by the king upon 
their, oaths, thai they would never again bear arms against 
him^ were not obliged by that oath; but by their power 
they absolved them, and so engaged those miserable wietches 
in a second rebellion."^ This, as well as the foregoing 
account, has all the appearance of forgery, with a view to 
calumniate the two excellent divines. Priestly absolution 
was as remote as possible from the practice of the puritans ; 
and they rejected all claims to the power of it with the 
utmost abhorrence. The parliament's army, at the same 
time, stood in so little need of these prisoners, which were 
only 150 men, that there is good reason to suspect the whole 
account to be a falsehood. § 

In the year 1643, Mr. Marshall was chosen one of the 
assembly of divines, and was a most active and valuable 
member. In this public office it was impossible for him to 
escape the bitter censures of the opposite party. One of 

* Smectymnnns, p. 77, 78. Edit. 1654. 
f Biog. BriUn. vol. iv. p. 2498. Edit. 1747. 
± Grey's ExamiBatioD, vol. ii. p. 10. 
) Nears Paritansy vol. iii. p. 3, 4. 



91» LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

them, speaking of him as a member of the assemUj, tftjrs^ 
<< He quickly grows to be master, anil is so called 1^ allw 
They si^ not to consult for the reformation of religion ia 
things that are amiss, but to receive the parliament's ccrtn* 
maaas to undo and innovate religion. In which work, ot 
rather drudgery of the devil, our active Siephen needs 
neither whip nor spur: tooth and nail he bends himself to 
the overthrow of the hierarchy, root and branch.*'* Dr. 
Heylin, with his usual modesty, calls him " the great bell- 
wether of the presbyterians ;"f and aflirms, that though he 
had the chief hand in compiling the directory, he married 
his own daughter by the form pntscribed in the Book of 
Common Piayer ; which he had no sooner done than he 
paid down five pounds to the churchwardens of the parish^ 
as a fine for using any other form of marriage than that 
contained in the directory .J The truth of this rrprcseuta* 
tioii of so excellent a person as Mr. Marshall, especially 
from the pen of Dr. Heylin, is extremely dcmbtful, if ki^fc 
unworthy of the smallest en dit. 

Mr. Marshall frequently united with his brethren in the 
observance of public fasts, when the services were usually 
protracted to a very great length. On one of these occar 
sions, it is said, ^< that Dr. Twisse having commenced Um 
public service with a short prayer, Mr. Marshall prayed in 
a wonderful, pathetic, and prudent manner for two htmrtm 
Mr. Arrowsmith then preached an hour, then they suog ai 
psalm ; after which Mr. Vines prayed nearly two hoar% 
Mr. Palmer preached an hour, and Mr. Seaman prayed 
nearly two hours. Mr. Henderson then spoke of the evils of 
the time, and how they were to be remedied, and Dr. TwisM 
closed the service with a short prayer."^ 

* Life of MarshaU, p. 11. 

f Dr. Peter Heylin, preaching at Westminster abbey, before Bisbop 
Williams', and endeavourini^ to justify the church in the impositioii ot 
doctrine and ceremonies, and to censure the nonconformists, be said, *' Id* 
stead of hearkening to the voice of the church, every man hearkens to biin* 
lelf, and cares not if the whole miscarry so that be himself may carry hit 
own devices. Upon which stubborn height of pride, what quarrels have 
been raised ? what schisms in every corner of the church P-r-To Inquire no 
further, some put all into open tumult rather than conform to the lawful 
government derived from Christ and bis apostles." On expressing these 
words, the bishop, sitting in the great pew, knocked aloud with bis staff 
npon the pulpit, saying, " No more of that point, no more of that poiit,- 
Peter.'* To wbom lleylin immediately answered, *' I have a little more to 
say, my loid, and then I have done ; when be proceeded to finish bii sabject* 
Biog, Britan. vol. iv. p. 8597. Edit. 1747. 

fHeylin's Ezamen Historicum, p. 864. ' 
Biog. Britan. vol. i. p. 518. £;dit. 1778. 



MARSHALL. S19 

in the yetur 1644, he attended the oommisiionen of par* 
liament at the treaty of Uxbridge. In 1645, he was chosea 
one of the committee of accomnoodation, to secure the peace 
of the church, and promote, as far as possible, the satisfao* 
tion of all parties. The year fcdiowiiig, he was appointed, 
together with Mr. Joseph Caryl, chaplain to the commia* 
SLoners who were sent to the king at Newcastle, in order to 
an accommodation for peace. Removing thence, by easj 
joumies, to Holmby-house in Northamptonshire, the two 
chaplains performed divine worship there ; but his majesty 
never attended.* He spent his Lord's day in privatr. ; and 
thou^ they waited at table, he would not so much as allow 
them to ask a blessing. The Oxford historian, who men- 
tions this circumstance, relates the following curious anec- 
dote : — ^< It is said that Marshall did, on a time, put himself 
more forward than was meet to say grace; and, while he 
was long in forming his chaps, as the manner was among the 
saints, and making ugly faces, his majesty said gr.'ice him- 
self, and was fallen to his meat, and had eaten up some pait 
of his dinner, before Marshall had ended the blessing ; but 
Caryl was not so impudent."+ 

About the above period, Mr. Marshall and Mr. Nye were^ 
by order of the parUament, appointed to attend the commis- 
sioners to Scotland, whose object was to establish an agree- 
ment with the Scots.t In their letter to the assembly, thej 
assure their brethren, that the ministers in the north are 
wholly on the side of the parliament. They conclude their 
cwUhig letter, as Dr. Grey calls it, in the following words : 
^< We scarce ever saw so much of Christ for us as thia 
day, in the assembly's carrying of this business: such 
weeping, such rejoicing, such resolution, such pathetical 
expressions, as we confess hath much refreshed our hearts, 
before extremely saddened with ill news from our dear coun- 
try ; and hath put us in good hope that this nation (which 
sets about this business as becometh the work of God and 
the saving of the kingdoms) shall be the means of lifting 
up distressed England and Ireland. "( 

In the year 1&7, Mr. Marshall was appointed, together 

• Dr. Grey, on tbe authority of « An Apolofry for the Bishops/* aayt^ 
that Mr. Marshall having once petitioned the liinf^ for a deanery, and at 
Another time for a bishopric, and being refiised, his maj^^sty told him at 
Qolmby, that he would on this account overthrow all. — Grfjp^s ExaiB* 
vol. i. p. S92. 

f Wood*8 Athene Oxon. vol. ii. p. 975. 

± Clarendon's Hist. vol. ii. p. 232. 

S Grey'i Bzamlnatioo, vol. ii. p. M. 



J50 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

with Mr. Vines, Mn Caryl, and Dr. Seaman, to attend the 
cximmissioners at the treaty of the Isle of Wight, when he 
conducted himself with great ability and moderation. The 
house of commons having nrfw many important affairs under 
consideration, Mr. Marshall and Mr. Nye, by ofder of the 
house, December 31, 1647, were desired io attend the neiet 
morning to pray with them, that they might enjoy the 
direction and blessing of God in their wei^ty consulta* 
tions.* In the year 1654,' when the parliament voted a 
toleration of all who professed to hold the fundamentals of 
Christianity, Mr. Marshall was appointed one of the com« 
mittee of learned divines, to draw up a catalogue of fun- 
damentals to be presented to the house, f About the same 
time he was chosen one of the tryers. 

A writer already mentioned, who employs thirty quarto 

})ages in little else than scurrility and abuse, gives the 
bllowing account of him : <^ Because the church could not 
be destroyed without the king, who was more firmly 
wedded to it than Mr. Marshall was either to his wife or his 
first living ; the king, and all who adhered to him, and the 
church, must be destroyed together: to whose ruin Mr. 
Marshall contributed not a little. His thundering in all 
pulpits; his cursing all people who were backward in 
engaging a^inst him; his encouraging all those whoie 
Tillany made them forward in undertaking that great -worky 
warranting them no small preferment in heaven if th^ 
would lay down their lives tor the cause ; his menaces B,nA 
private incitatiotis, becoming drum-major or captain-general 
to the army, praying from regiment to regiment at Edse-p 
hill. His religion stood most in cxternais: in a Jewish 
observation of the sabbath, praying, preaching, fasts, and 
thanksgivings. Under these specious sbews,'^ adds the un* 
worthy biographer, " the mystery of iniquity lay hid.^t 

Mr. £cbard, with his usual candour, d^iominates him 
<< a famous incendiary, and assistant to the parliamentarians ; 
their trumpeter in their fasts, their confessor in their sick- 
ness, their counsellor in their assemblies, their chaplain in 
their treaties, their champion in their disputations;^' and 
then adds, " This great Shim^i, being taken with a des- 
perate sickness, departed the world mad and raving /% thaa 
which there never was a more unjust aspersion. Mr. Baxter^ 

• WhUlocke's Mem. p. 2«0, 287, SS6. 

i Sylvester's Life of Baxter, part ii. p. 107—199. 

% Life of Marshall, p. 13, 17. 

\ £chard'i Hist, of £d|;. toI. ii. p, 783. 



MARSHALL. 151 

who knew him well, calls him << a sober and wofth j man ;**• 
and used to observe, on account of his great moderatkmy 
that if all the bishops had been of the same spirit as 
Archbishop Usher, the independents like Mr. Jeremiah 
Burroughs, and the prebyterians like Mr. Stephen Marshall, 
the divisions of the church would soon have been healed. 
He was, indeed, taken ill, and obliged to retire into the 
country for the benefit (tf the air, when the Oxford Mercnrr 
published to the world that he was distracted, and in hur 
rage constantly cried out, that he was damned for adhering 
to the parliament in their war against the king. But ho 
lived to refute the unjust calmnny, and published a treatise 
to -prove the lawfulness of defensive war, in certain cases 
of extremity. Upon his retirement from the city, he spent 
his last two years at Ipswich. His last words when upon 
his death-bed, according to Mr. Petyt, were, King Charletj 
Kins Charles^ and testified much horror and regret for the 
bloody confiisions he had promoted.f , This reprcsentatioa 
appears to be void of truth, and only designed to reproach 
his memory. For Mr. Giles Firmin, who knew hun in litist, 
9nd attended him in death, observes, in a preface to one of 
Mr. Marshall's posthumous sermons, ^^ That he left behind 
him few preachers like himself; that he was a christian in 
practice as well as profession ; that he lived by faith, and died 
by faith, and was an example to the believers, in word, ill 
conversation, in charity, in faith, and in purity. And when 
Jhe, together with some others, conversed with him about his 
death, he replied, ^ I cannot say, as one did, I have not so 
lived that I l^hould now be afraid to die; but this I can say, 
/ I have so learned Christy that I am not afraid to die.' "( He 
enjoyed theTull use of his understanding to the last ; but, for 
some months previous to his death, he lost his appetite and 
ihe use of his hands. 

He was justly accounted an admired preacher;^ but, Ui 



« Sylvester's Life of Baxter, part ii. p. 199. 
il- Grey's ExamiDation, yol. iv. p. 146. 

fNeal's Puritans, vol. W. p. 19. 
Mr. Marshall was certaioly a usefal as well as admired preacher, .•f 
which the foUovfing instance is preserved on record : — Lady Brown, wife 
to an eminent member of the loof parliament, was under great trouble 
about the salvation of her soul. For some time she refused to attend upoo 
public worship, though it had formerly beeo her great delight. She asked 
Fhat she should do there, and said it would only increase ner damnation I 
In thi« state of mind she was persuaded, and almost forced to hear Mr. 
Marshall; when the sermon was so exactly suited to her case, and so 
powerfully applied to her mind, that she returned home in transportt of 
joy. — Caiamy's Coniin. yol. i. p. 467. 



Sa? LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

refute this account of his character, Dr. Grey quotes sereral 
passives from his sermons preached on pubUc occasions ; 
among ivhicb are the following :— '^ Beloved, our days aie 
better than they were seven years ago ; because it is better 
to me the Lord executing judgment, than to see men woriL-^ 
ing wickedness; and to beh^d people lie wallowing in 
Iheir blood, rather than iq^iostatizing from God, and em* 
bracing idolatry and superstition, and banishing the Lord 
Cfaorkt from taiongsl men.— Carry on the work stiS. Leave 
not a rag thai bdongs to popery. Lay not a bit of the 
liord's buildii^ with any thing -that bdongs unto anti- 
christ's stttflf; but away with sdl of it, root and branch, 
kead and tail ; throw it out of the kingdom. — I could easHf 
i^ hefoae you a eatalogne of mercies. You have receivOT 
many peculiar to yout own persons, to your souls and bodies, 
your estates and families, privative mercies, positive mer« 
cies. You eat mercies^ drink mercies, wear mercy's clothes, 
are compassed about and covered with mercies, as much' 
88 ever the earth was in Noah's flood. "« These sermons, 
ct which this is a specimen, so abound with striking cc»n« 
paris<ms, and contain so pointed an appeal to the hearers^ 
that though they are not suited to the taste of modem elo- 
quence, it is easy to conceive how they might gain great 
admiration in those times. The doctor's refutation, tlere^ 
fore, refutes itself. 
Another author endeavours to expose Mr. Marshall to 

Jnblic contempt, on account of his sentiments delivered m 
is sermons before the parliament. We give these sent!**' 
ments in his own words, as transcribed from his sermons t 
<< Christ," says he, ^^ breaks and moulds commonwealths al 
kis pleasure. He hath not spoke much in his word how 
long they simil last,, or what he intends to do with them£ 
only this, that all kings and kingdoms that make wav against 
the church, shall be broken in pieces; and that, in the end, 
all the kingdoms of the world sliall be the kingdoms of our 
Lord and his saints ; and they shall reign over them. Did 
ever any parliament in England lay the cause of Christ and 
religion to heart as tliis hatli done ? Did ever tbit city of . 
London, the rest of the tribes, and the godly party through* 
ont the land, so willingly exhaust themselves, that Christ 
. might be set up ? Let all England cry that our blood, our 
poverty, &c. are abundantly repaid in this, that there it 
such a concurrence to set the Lord Christ upon his thronei 

• Grejf's Examinatioo^ toI. iii. p. 183—185. 



MARSHALL. tfit 

Id be Lord and Cbsid over this oor Isimel.''* Tboeii 
more to the same purpose ; but this oontains a sidtdad 
specimen. 

Newcouit calls him << llie Geoeva-BaU, and a hctiam 
and rebeUions diirine;"t and Wood styles him ^ a notori* 
ous independent, and the aidiflamen of the lebdlioas roat.**^ 
The fact however is, he never was an independent, but lived 
and died an avcrwed presbyterian. And vrith respect to his 
lebellion, what is obrarved above will afford every impartial 
leader a sufficient refotation of the charge. Fnller has 
classed him among the learned writers of Emanud coU^e ^ 
and gives him the following character : ^ He was a minister 
well qualified for his work ; yet so supple, that he did not 
break a joint in all the alterations of the times. Althougk 
some suspected him of deserting his piesbyterian principles; 
yet upon his death-bed he gave fidl satis&ction of the con* 
trary.'^ll He died in the month of November, 1655, when 
his remains were interred with great funeral solemnity in 
Westminster abbey, but were dug up, together vrith many 
others, at the restoration.! Mr. Huj?h Glover, ejected in 
1663, was his successor at Finchingneld.** Mr. Marshall 
wrote with consideraible ability against the baptists, and 
published many sermons preached before the parliament, 
the titles of some of which we have collected. 



His Works. — 1. A Sermon preached before the Honoursble Hovm 
ilf Coinmoi]i3, at their public Fast, Nov. 17, 1640—1641.-2. A Peace- 
Offering to God, a Sermon to the Honourable House of Commons, at 
their public Thanksgiving, Sept. 7, 1641— 1641.— 3. Meroz Cursed; 
or, a Sermon to the Commons at their late solemn Fast, Feb. 23, 1641 
— 1641, — 4. Reformation and Desolation; or, a Sermon tending to 
the Discovery of the Symptoms of a People to whom God will by f^ 
be reconciled, preached before the Commons at their late public Fajt, 
Dec. 22, 1641—1642.-^. The Song of Moses the Servant of God, 
and the Song of the Lamb, opened in a Sermon before the Commons 
at their late solemn Day of Thanksgiving, June 15, 1643— -1643. — 
il. A Copy of a Letter vrritten by Mr. Stephen Marafaall to a Friend 
of h«s in the City, for the necessaiy Vindication of himself and bis 
Midbtry, against the altogether groundless, most unjust, and ungodly 
Ajpenion cast upon him by cerMn Malignants in the City, 1643.— 
7. A* Sermon of the Bi^tizing of Infants, preached in Abbey-church, 

* L'Estraoge's Dissenten' Sayingi, part ii. p^40y 59. 
f Newcourt's Itepert. Ecd. vol. it. p. 26S. 

} Wood's Athens, vol. ii. p. ST5, 715. ^ HUt. of Can. p. 147. 

roller's Worthies, part ii. p. 52, 53. 1 Kenoet's Chronicle^ p. 506. 
** Fftlmcr's Noocoo, Men. vol. il. p. 900. 



£34 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Wettminster, at tbe Moniiog lecture appointed by the Honourabte' 
House of CommuuB, 1644. — 8. The Churches Lamentation for tbe 
€rood Man's Loss ; delivered in a Sermon to the Right Hononrable 
the two Houses of Parliament and the Reverend Assembly of 
Dhrines, at tbe Funeral of that excellent Man, John Pym, esquire, 
« late Meml}er of the Honourable House of Commons, 1644. — 
9. God's Master-Piece, a Sermon tending to manifest God's glorioot 
appearing in the Building up of Zion, preached- before the Right 
Honourable the House of Peers, March 26, 1645—1645. — 10. The 
Strong Helper; or, the Interest and Power of the Prayers of the 
Destitute, for the BnilcUng up of Zion, opened in a Sermon before tbe 
Commons, upon the solemn Day of their monthly Fast, April 90^ 
1645^1645. — II. A Sacred Record to be made uf God*s Merciea to 
Zion : a Thanksgiving Sermon preached to the two Houses of Par- 
liament, the Lord Mayor, Court of Aldermen, and Common Connoil 
of the City of London, at Chrisf s Church, June 19, 1645—1645.— 
12. A Defence of Infant Baptism : In Answer to two TreatukeSy and 
ao Appendix, lately published by Mr. Jo. Tombes, 1646. 



Timothy Armitage, in the year 1647, was choaen 
pastor of the first independent church in the citj of Nor* 
wich. So early as the year 1643, many pious people io^ 
Norwich joined Mr. Bridge's church at Yarmouth, who 
afterwards wished to have the seat of the church removed 
to the former place ; but the majority of members residing 
at Yarmouth, the proposal was declined. Yet it was 
mutually agreed that they should form themselves into a 
separate church. This was done June 10, 1644, in the 
presence of several of their bn^thren from Yarmouth, who 
signified their approbation by expressions of the most tender 
and endeared afiection. Indeed, many of the members of 
both churches had been companions in the patience of our 
Lord Jesus in a foreign land, when they enjoyed sweet 
communion together in the ordinances of the gospel, but 
returned home upon the commencement of the civil wars. 
The church at Norwich was no sooner formed than namer« 
oils additions were made to it. Mr. Armitag<^'a(%er labouring 
several years with ffreat usefulness, died math regretted in' 
Decemh!er, 1655. He published a work entitled, " Enoch's 
Walk with God." Mr. Thomas Alkn; the silenced non- 
conformist in 1662, succeeded him in the pastoral office.* 
There were at this early period no less than fifteen pongre- 
gational churches on the coast of Sufiblk and Norfcdk^ under 

• Meen^ MS. CoUec. p. 116. ^ 



ARMITAGE--G. WORKMAN— T. TOUNG. flSfi 

f 

the direction and enconragement of Mr. Armitage and 
Mr. Bridge.* 



Giles Workman, A.M. — ^This worthy person was the 
ion of Mr. Wiili^ Workman, born at Newton fia^path in 
Gloucestershire^ in the year 1605, and educated at Magda- 
len-ball, Oxford, where he took his decrees in arts. After 
finishing his studies at the university, lie became vicar 'ot 
Walfora in Herefordshire, then master of the college school 
in Gloucester, and at length, by the favour of Matthew 
Hale, esq., afterwards lord chief justice, he became rector 
of Alderley in Grloucestershire^ Wood says, <^ he was a 
quiet and peaceable puritan."f He was brother to Mr. 
John Workman, another puritan divine, and a great 
sufferer under the oppressions of Archbishop Laud. Mr. 
Giles Workman died in 1655, aged fifty years ; when his 
remains were interred in Alderley church. He published 
^< A modest Examination of Laymen's Preaching, discovered 
to ha neither warranted by the Word of Grod, nor allowed 
by the Judgment or Practice of the Churches of Christ in 
New England," 1646. He also published several sermons. 



Thomas Young, D. D. — This pious and learned divine 
was probably educated in the university of Cambridge. 
He was afterwards preacher to the Ejiglish merchants at 
Hamburgh ; and, upon his return to his native country, he 
became vicar of Stow-Market in Suffolk, in which situation 
he continued almost thirty years. He was a person of great 
learning, prudence, and piety, and discovered great fidelity 
and ability in the work of the ministry. t In the year 1643 
he was chosen one of the assembly of divines, and proved 
himself a distinguished member during the whole session. 
Bdhg called to the metropolis, he was chosen pastor at. 
Dukes-place in the city. In 1645 he was appointed one 
of the committee ctf accommodation ;S ^nd about the same 
time was chosen master of Jesus college, Cambridge, by 
the Earl' of Manchester. In this public situation he dis- 
coFeied his gieat abilities and usefulness, till he was turned 



« Palmer's Nonson. Mem.Tol. iii. p. 11, 980. 
f Wood's AtbensB Ozon. vol. ii. p. 1S8. 
% Clark's Lives annexed to Martyrologie, p. 194. 
S Papers of Accom. p. IS. 



$56 LIVES OP THE PURITANS. 

01]^ in 1650, for refusing the engagement.* Upon this he 
most probably reiired to Stow-Market, where he afterwards 
died, in the year 1655, and his remains were interred in the 
church under a marble htone, with a monumental inscription. 
Mr. Baker says, ^< he left behind him the character of a 
learned, wise, and pious man."t Mr. Leigh styles him « a 
leamed divine, very well versed in the fathers, and author of 
an excellent treatise, entitled " Dies Dominical He was 
also one of the authors of Smectymnuus.t 

John Pbndarves, A. B. — This person was bom ia 
C<»niwaU, in the year 1623, and educated at Exeter ooU^^ 
Oxford. In the year 1642, when the nation was involved 
in war, he left the university, took part with the parliament, 
and, says the Oxford historian, ^^ having a voluble tongue 
for canting, went up and down preaching in houses, bams, 
under trees, hedges, and elsewhere." Though this is 
evidently designed to blacken his memory, his oondoct 
herein was surely as commendable as that of many of tike 
episcopal clergy, who stretched all their power to obtain 
numerous rich livings, but did not preadi at all. << Bnt,^' 
says he, ^^at length he turned anabaptist; and baying 
obtained a great multitude of disciples, made himself head 
of them, defied all authority, contradicted and opposed all 
orthodox ministers, challenged them to prove their callingi 
and spared not many times to interrupt them in their pulpits^ 
and to urge them to disputes. After several chaUmgeSy 
Dr. Mayne, of Christ's Church, undertook to be his respon* 
dent; and, according to appointment, they met September 
11, 1652, in Watlington church, Oxfordshire, when an 
innumerable company of people assembled : but Peodanyi 
beinff backed by a great party of anabaptists, and the^cnm 
of the people, who behaved themselves very rudely, the 
disputation was interrupted, and so came to nothing."^ H« 
was lecturer at Wanta^ in Berkshire, and pastor to the 
baptist church at Abingdon in the same county. Cor 
author acids, that '' he accounted himself a tnie-bofil 
Englishman ; but, because he endeavoured utterly to undo 
the distressed and tottering church of Ei^land, he irai 
undeserving of the name. And as he did these things fiff 

♦ Walker's Attempt, part i. p. ll(i. 
+ Baker's MS. Collec. vol. vi. p. 58w 
t Leigh on Religion aod Learning, p. S69. 
S Wood's Athene Ozoa. ?ol. ii. p. 127. 



PENDARYES— J. 6IFF0RD. £57 

no other purpose than to obtain wealth, and make himielf 
famous to posterity ; so it would be accounted worthy, if 
by my omission oi hinl his name could have been buried in 
oblivion." This bitter writer, nevertheless, allows him to 
liave been a tolerable disputant* Mr. Pendarves died in 
London, in the beginning of September, 1656, aged thirty* 
four years. His remains are said to have been carried to 
Abingdon, in. a sugar-cask filled up with sand ; whore they 
were interred, with sreat funeral solemnity, in t)ic baptists* 
burying-ground. He was a fifth monarchy nian;t and, 
being famous among the party, his interment drew tc^etber 
so great a concourse of people, that the government took 
notice of it, and sent Major-general Bridges, with a party 
of soldiers, to attend at Abingdon on the occasion. The 
numerous assemblage of people spent sevend days in the 
religious exercises of praying and preaching which was 
attended with some rude behaviour and confusion.; 

His Works — 1. Arrows against Babylon ; or, Qaerirs scr^ ing to a 
clear Discovery of the Mystery of Iniquity, 1656. — 2. Endravonrs 
for Reformation of Saints* Apparel, 1656. — 3. Queries for the People 
called Quakers, 1656.— 4- Prefatory Epistle to a Book entiUed« 
* The Prophets Malachy and Isaiah prophesying to the Saints and 
Professors of this Generation,' 1656. — 5. Sevend Sermons, 1657. — 
And various other small articles. 



John Gifford. — This person was bom in the county of 
Kent ; afterwards he became a major in the king^s army 
durinj^ the civil wars. He was concerned in the insurrectioa 
raiscdin that county ; for which he was apprehended, and^ 
together with eleven others, received the sentence of death. 
But, the night before he was to suffer, hb sister coming to 
visit him, and finding the centinels who kept the door of 
the prison fast asleep, and his companions in a state of 
iatoxication, she urged him to embrace the favourable 
opportunity and escape for his life. Having made his 

< • Wood's Atheote, ▼ol. if. p. 187. 

-¥ The fifth monarchy men arose about the time of the death of Charles I. 

1 during the commonwealth. They expected the immediate appearance 

Chriit to establish on earth a new monarchy or kingdom, and to com* 

B hb glorious personal reign of a thousand years. As there are four 

aaipmi mentioned in ancient history, which successively gained the 

kn of the world, so these men, believing that tbitf new spiritual kiag^ 

[Christ was to be theJi/)tA, received the appellaUon Qfjlftk monmrckjf 

^ MS. CoUcc. p. 468. 

U III. s 




LIVES OF THE PURITANS. * 

escape, he fled into the fields and crept into a ditcb, where 
he remained about three days, till search for him was orer; 
and then, by the help of friends, he went in disguise to 
London. After concealing himself for some time in the 
city, and at various places in the country, he went io Bed- 
ford, where, though an entire stranger, he commenced the 
practice of physic ; but still remained very debauched in 
his life. He was greatly addicted to drunkenness, swear- 
ing, gaming, and similar immoral practices In his gaming 
he usually found himself a loser, which made him sometimes 
disccmtented, and resolve to leave off the practice ; but' his 
resolutions were soon broken, and he returned to his old 
coursie. One night, having lost fifteen pounds, he became 
almost outrageous, attended with most reproachful thoughts 
of God ; tint looking into one of Mr. Bolton^s books, SQUie^ 
thing laid fast hola upon his conscience, and brought binl 
for Uie first time io a deep sense of his sins. Under these 
painftil convictions he laboured for about a month, when 
God by his word so discovered to him the forgiveness of 
his sins, through faith in Jesus Christ, that, as he used to 
say, he never lost sight of it afterwards. 

Mr. Gifford having thus tasted that the Lord was gracious, 
presently sought an intimate acquaintance with the religious 
people in Bedford, whom he had before grievously perse- 
cuted, and had even resolved to murder the minister who 
had occasionally prcaghed to them. Indeed, he imd been a 
man of.so profligate and base a character, that they werefoi 
same time jealous of his profession ; but he, being naturallj 
of a bold spirit, still thrust himself among them, both in 
theit public meetings and private company. Having made 
SuflScient trial, they embraced him as a disciple and a 
brother ; and after some time he began to preach amoiu; 
them. The very first sermon he preached was ma£ 
instrumental in the conversion of a female, whose future life 
hccsime an ornament to her profession. He afterwards col- 
lected the most pious persons in the congregation together; 
and, having repeatedly assembled and prayed to God for 
his direction and blessing, they formed themselvea into a 
christian church. They were twelve in all, incltidii^ Mr. 
Giflbrd, and all ancient and grave christians, ana well 
known to one another. Here was laid the foundation of 
that religious society of which the celebitttod Mr. John 
Bunyan was afterwards pastor, and which exists and 
flourishes at the present time. It was fonned upou strict 



/ 

I 



CAPEL. «9 

Gon^re^iohal principles, admitting both paedobaptists and 
antipaedobaptis^, and still continues on the same broad 
foundation. 

The membere of this infant society, after giving them*- 
, selyes to the Lord and to one another, unanimously chose 
Mr. (jriffi)rd to the office of pastor. He accepted the charge^ 
and i^aye himself up to the service of the Lord and his 
people, to walk with them, watch over them, and dispense 
among them the Inysteries of the kingdom. This was about 
the year 165L The principle on which they entered into 
church fellowship, and on which they added fresh members^ 
waS) '^ Faith in Christ anc} holiness of life," without respect 
to any outward circumstances whatever. <^ By this means,'' 
it is said, '' grace and faith were encouraged, and love and 
amity maintained ; disputing and occasion of janglings, 
and unprofitable questions, avoided ; and many thiit were 
weak in ikith confirmed in the blessings of eternal 11 fe.'^ 
Mr. Gifford died September 1^1, 1656; who, on his deaths 
bed, wrcke a most excellent letter to the congregation, 
earnestl|r persuading them to continue in the faithful 
maintenance of their principles, and afiectionately exhorting 
them to promote peace, holiness, and brotherly love.* 



Richard Capel, A, M. — This worthy divine was bom 
in the city of Gloucester, in 1586, and descended from the 
ancient family of that name, being a near relation to Loid 
(}apel. His lather was an alderman of the city ; one whu 
greatly promoted the cause of Christ in the place; and was 
a zealous friend to the suffering nonconfornii^^ts. His soa 
was educated in Magdalen college, Oxford, where he 
gained a considerable reputation^ and was chosen /ellow of 
ike house. He had many learned pupils, who became 
&mous in their day ; among whom were Dr. Frewen, after- 
wards archbidiop of York, and the celebrated Mr. William 
Femble. Mr. Capel, being desirous of greater usefulness to 
souls, ,iemoved from the univensity and entered upon the 
ministerial work, first at Bstington, then at Pitcfacomb in 
bis own county* He did not enter into the sacred office for 
apiece of bread, but for the advancement of the Redeemer's 
kingdom and the salvation of men. Therefor.^ he had no ' 
sooner entered fupon the ^ork^ than he gave himself wholly 
to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine ; and his profiting 

• Meen*s MS. CeUec. p. SISH^H, SS5; M trangcribod frcua the 
•rif^al chufch-book at Bedford. 



«» LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

intolerable and abominable ; yet he could Uttre been satisfied 
ivitli moderate episcopacy. He held a profession of faith 
and repc^niand^, and a subjection to the ordinances of Christy 
to be the rule of admission to church fellowship; but ad* 
mitted to baptism the children of those who had been 
baptized, withgut requiring the parents to own any covenant 
or being in church felhm^hip. He, as well as his colleague, 
considered the subbath as beginning on the Saturday 
evening. 

Mr. Pfoyesj'at the close of life, endured a long and tedious 
affliction, which he bore with christian patience and holy 
cheerfulness. He died triumphing ih the Loid, October 
8S, 1656, aged forty-eight years. He possessed a quick 
invention, a sound judgment, a strong memory, and was a 
good linguist, an able disputant, an excellent counsellor, and 
one of the greatest men of tluB age.* He was much bdp^f^d 
by his people, and his memory is there respected at the 
present day. He published a piece entitled, ^' Moaes and 
Aaron, or the Rights of Church and State f and ^< A CbIb- 
chism," for the use of his flock, which, to the honour of Ul; 
memory, has lately been reprinted.f 



Edward Bright, A. M. — This worthy minist^of Cbriit 
was br>rn at Greenwich, near Iiondon, and educated in the 
university of Cambridge, where he was chosen fellow of his 
college.} AHerwards he became vicar of Goudhunt in 
Keijt, where he fell under the displeasure of ArcblHshop 
Laud. In the year 1640 he was cited, with other puriiwi 
ministers in Kent, to appear before his lordship's visiton «t 
Feversham, to answer for not reading the prayer against the 
Scots. According to summons, th<y appeared before Sk 
Nathaniel Brent, the archbishop's vicar-general, and other 
officers : ^"uen Mr. Bright was first called, and being asked 
whether lie had read the prayer, he answered in the negative. 
Upon which the arclnkacon immediately suspend^ bim 
from his office and benefice, without the least admonttkm, 
or even giving him a moment of time for consideration. 
This rash act was deemed, even by the favourites of JLaiid, 
to be neither prudential nor canonical.^ It does not appear 
how long the good man continued under this cruel setttoaces 

* • 

♦ Mather's Hist of New Eng. b. iii. p. 145'-148. 

+ Mors" aod Parish's Hist. p. 43, 46, 41. 

i Baker's MS. Conec. vol. ?i, p. 81. 

S Life of Mr. Wikoo, p. 15. £dil. ISTt. 



JBRIGHT— PECK. 263 

but he was most probably released upon tbe meeting of the 
long parliament, toward[i> the close of this year. 

Mr. Bright was afu-rwards chosen fellow of Emanuel 
college, Cambridge; bul he still <.oniinued in his beloved 
work of prciiching. He was next chosen minister of Christ- 
church, London ; but he did not long survive his removal. 
Duritag his hst sickness, be often said, ^' 1 thaiik God I came 
not to London for money. I brought a good conscience 
.from Cambridge, and I thai»k God I have not lived to spoil 
.it.'' He died in the month of December, li)b6 ; when his 
funeral sermon was prciiched by Mr. Samuel Jacomb, and 
afterwards published. He was zealous, courageous, and 
conscieatious in tlie suppoit of divine truth ; jet of great 
candour, affection, and moderation. He was a man of great 
piety, ffood learning, rxcclhnt ministerial abilities, and 
admirable industry. Many elegies were published upon 
his death.* He had the character of a very good man, and 
was endowed with a considerable share of patience, which 
indeed he very much needed, having the affliction of a very 
firoward and x^amorous wife. On this account, many 
thought it a ha{)piness to him to be dull of hearing. This 
WOTtiiy servant of Christ is, by mistake, included among the 
ejected ministers atlcr the restoration.f 



Robert Peck. — This zealous puritan was rector oi 
jligfaam in Norfolk, to which he was preferred in tlie year 
iS06. He was a zealous nonconformist to tiie ceremonies 
^uul corruptions of the church, for which be was severely 
persecuted by Bishop Harsnet. Having catechized his 
hmuly and sung a psalm in his osfrn house, on a Lord's day 
evening, when some of his neighbours attended, his lordship 
«njoin^ him, and all who were present, to do penance, re- 
quiring them to say, / confess my errors, 'f hose who 
nfiieed were immediately excommunicated, and required 
4a tfm heavy costs. All this appeared under the bishop's 
own hand. For this, and similar instances of his oppression 
'Md omelty, the citizens of Norwich, in the year 16!?3, 
jpiMftutodi m complaint against his lordship in the house of 



.1^ the bishop's ^swer to this complaint, he had nothing 
"^^^tMjoX^Ax. Peck's doctrine and life, only his non- 
0^; He pleaded, in his own defence, <^Tbat 



Semon fbr Mr. Bright. 
fa afyPt |fefli««oli U. p. 988. 



t64 LIV£S OF THE PURITANS. 

Mr. Peck had been sent to him by the justices of the peace, 
for keeping a conventicle at night, and in hi& own house; 
that his catechizing was only an excuse to draw the people 
together; and that he had infected the parish with strange 
opinions : as, < that the people are not to kneel as they 
enter the church ; that it is superstition to bow at the name 
of Jesus ; and that the church is no more sacred than anj 
other building/" His grace further affirmed, that Mr. 
Feck had been convicted of nonconformity, and of keeping 
conventicles, in 1615 and 1617; and that, in 16!^, he was 
taken in his own house, with twenty-two of his neiglibonts, 
at a conventicle.* How far the house of commons acquiesced 
in his lordship's defence, or whether they considered it a 
sufficient justification x>f his arbitrary proceedings, we 
.have not been able to learn. 

Mr. Peck suffered much under the persecutions of 
Bishop Wren ; when he was driven from his flock, deprived 
of his benefice, and forced to seek his bread in a foreign 
land.f He is indeed said to have been deprived for non" 
residence, which was the case with many of his brethreiu 
JBy the terrific threatenings of their persecutors, and having 
no better prospect than that of excommunication, impriscm- 
ment, or other ecclesiastical censure, they were driven frmn 
their beloved flocks, or they retired for a time into some 
private situation, in hope that the storm might soon be over; 
lor which they were cottured as nonresidents. This was 
DO doubt the case with Mr. Peck. He and Mr. Thomai 
Allen are said to have had so much influence upon their 
parishioners, that, after the deprivation of the two mimsteiK) 
none of them would pay any thing to those who served their 
cures. This shews how greatly they were beloved4 Hav- 
ing fled to New England, the church atHigham, in the new 
colony, rejoiced for a season in his light. He remained 
there several vears ; till afterwards he received an invitation 
from his old niends at Higham, in his native country^ when 
he returned home, laboured am(M]g them, and was of eminent 
service to the church of Grod.§ 

The following account is given of Mr. Peck by one .of 
our historians, me design of which is too obvious : '< He 
was a man of a very violent schismatical spirit. He pulled 



• MS. Remarks, p. 71S— 715. . 

f NalsoB'i CoUec. yoI. ii. p. 400, 401.— ^Rosbworth'i Collec* vol. iU. 
p. S53. 

Wren's Parentalia, p. 95. 

Mather's Hist, of New £o|f. b. iii. p. 914. 



\ 



S. GEREE. 965 

down the rails in (he chancel'of the church at Higham, and 
levelled the altar and the whole chancel a foot below the 
church, as it remains to this day ; but, being prosecuted for 
it by Bishop Wren, he fled to New England, with many of 
his parishioners, who sold their estates for half their value, 
and conveyed all their effects to the new plantation. They 
elected the town and colony of Highani, where many of 
their posterity still remain. He promised never to desert 
them ; but, hearing that the bishops were deposed, he left 
them to shift for themselves, and came back to England in 
1646, after a .banishment of ten years. He resumed his 
charge at Higham, where he died in the year 1656. His 
funeral sermon was preached by Mr. Nathaniel Joceline^ 
and afterwards published ;"* but this we have not seen. 



Stephen Geree, A. B. — This person was elder brother 
to Mr. John Geree, another puritan divine ; was bom in 
Yorkshire, in the year 1594, and educated in Magdalen- 
hall, Oxford. Having finished his academical pursuits at 
the university, he entered upon the ministerial work, but 
laboured most probably in the two-fold capacity of minister 
and schoolmaster. On the approach of the civil wars, he 
took part with the parliament, became minister of Wonncrsh, 
near Guildford in Surrey ; but he afterwards removed to 
Abinger in tlie same county. Wood, in contempt, styles 
him ^< a zealous brother in the cause that was driven on by 
the saints."f He appears to have been living in 1656, 
but died probably soon after that period. He published 
several sermons, one of which is entitled, " The Ornament 
of Women; or, a Description of the true Excellency of 
Women, at the Funeral of Mrs. Eliz. Machel, on Prov. 
xxxi. 29, 30"— 1639. He also published « The Doctrine 
of the Antinomians by Evidence of God's Truth plainly 
Confuted, in an Answer to divers dangerous Doctrines in 
the seven first Sermons of Dr. Tob. Crisp," 1644 ; and 
^^ The Golden Meane, being some Considerations, together 
with some Cases of Conscience, resolved, for the more 
frequent Administration of the Lord's Supper," 1656- 

' * Blomefield's Hisl. of Norfolk, toI. I. p. 6S8. 
^ Wood^ JUhenm Oxon. toI. ii. p. 138. 



• « 



S66 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Edwaio Corbet, D. D. — Thk ivorAj person was bom 
at Pontesbury in Shropshire, in the year (60^, descended 
from the ajicieiit family of Corbels in thai county, and edu- 
cated in«Merton college, Oxfoni, where he was chosen 
iisllow. He was made proctor of the uniyersity; but^ 
reusing confoitoity in certain points, he was called before 
the vice*cbancelIor. He was no efiemy to the church of 
EnglamI, but could not with a good conscience obs^crve all 
its superstitious ceremonies. And while the vice-chancellor 
laid his case before Archbishop Laud, chancellor of the 
iniiversity, he petitioned his lordship for relief; but it was 
|i0t li^y he could obtain the least redress.* The civil 
war having commenced, and Oxford being garrisoned by 
the l^ing^s forces, he was deprived of his fellowship, ara 
expelled from the college, for refusing to espouse the royal 
cause.t Archbishop Laud, being afterwards prisoner in 
the Tower, refused him the rectory of Cliatham in Kent, 
because he was a puritan; and when he was appointal 
rector of that place, by. order of parliament, his lordship 
ttill refused his allowance ; but his refusal was to no pur- 
po6c4 He was witness against the archbishop at bis triidy 
and deposed '^ that, in the year 1^38, his grace visitiu 
Merton colh^ge, by his deputy, Sir John Lamb, one artidfe 
propoiHkded to the wardens and fellows was, ^ \¥heiher 
they made diue reverence, by bowing towards the idtar^ 
when they came into the chapel /---That he and Mr. Cheynd 
were cpjoiaid by the visitors and comroisstoners to use Ais 
ceranoBy ; but they refused ; for which, though he assigned 
iki& reasons for vetoing, he was particularly threatened. — 
That, after this, Dr. Frewin, the vice-chancellor, toU him 
that he was sent to him by the archbishop, i^uiring him to 
use this ceiieiiiony.<«<i~That the aichbishop afterwards sent 
injunctions to Merton college, requiring them io bow towards 
the altar, and the visitors questioned those who refused. — 
And that in Magdalen college there was a crucifix placed 
over the communion table, and pictures in the windows; 
and a n^v crucifix was set up in Christ's diurch, none c^ 
which innovations wme ever faemrd of before the time dT 
this aichbishop."^ 

Mr. Corbet was chosen one of the assembly of divines, 
one of the committee tor the examination and ordinatioa of 

* Wharton's Tronbles of Land, vol. ii. p. 15J», 156. 
f Wood's Athens Oxon. vol. ii. p. 88. 
^ Pi^nne's Breviate-of Land, p. 97,^8. 
^ Pr\nne's Cant Doome, p. 71. 



CORBET. 267 

ViiBisten, and one of the preachers before the iMurliameiit. 
He- was ^appointed one of the preachers to reodncife the 
Oxford scholars to the parliament, one of the visitors of 
th»t uiiiverbity, and orator and canon of Christ's Church, in 
the ro(MU of Dr. Hammond. It is observed, '' that, though 
he was one of the visitors, he seldom or lu^ver sat among 
thrm. And v« hon he usually {^reached at St. Mary's church, 
the year Ix'fon* the king was beheaded, he would, in his 
long prayer before sermon, desire ^ that (lod would open 
the king^s eyt's to lay to heart all the blood that he had 
q;)ilt. And that he would prosper the parliament and their 
blessed procciedings." He was an easy maii,'Mt is added, 
<< and apt to be guided by the persuasions of otliers; and, 
therefore, by Cheynel and Wilkinson, two violent and 
impetuous presbyterians, he was put into the roll of vhitora, 
nerely to make a nose of wax."* However, he did not 
continue long in tliis situation ; but, being made rector of 
Great Uasely in Oxfordshire, he nrmovod to the chaige of 
his flock, wiierc he continued to the end of his days. He 
took his doctor's degree in 1648, and dic>d in London, 
in January, 1657, aged fifty-five years; when his remains 
were "conveyed to Great Hasely, and interred in the chancd 
cf the church.t Ho was a good divine, a valuable preacher, 
tad a person remarkable for integrity. His wife was 
dangfato: of Sir Nathaniel Brent, and grand-daughter of Dr. 
Rotert Abbot, bishop of Salisbury.^ ' She was a lady of 
most exemplary piety. Iler funeral sermon was preached 
by Dr. Wilkinson, and afterwards published, with some 
account of iter excellent diameter.^ Dr. Corbet appean 
to have been author of ^' The Worldling's Looking-glass; 
or, the Danger of losing his Soul for Gain," 1630. " God'a 
Piovidence, a Sermon before the House of Commons," 
1642. And most prol)ably some others. Some of Bishop 
Abbofs manuscripts iell into his hands, particularly his 
Latin Commentary upon the whole Epistle to the Romans. 
This learned and laborious work, in four volumes folio. 
Dr. Corbet deported in the BodUuan library, Oxford, whcM 
it still remains.! 

. * Grey'i EEiiaiiiHition of Neat, vol. ii. p. 900. 
f Wood's Athenae Oxon. voU ii. p. 749. 

?Bio|c. Brilnn. Tol. I. p. 93. Edit. 1778. 
RcBMet Obfookle, p. 16.— Clark's Uwes annexed to Martyrolog'^f , 
y. 414. I Biog. Britao. ibid. p. S4. 



f6S LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

James Cranpord, A. M. — This excellent muiister 
the son of Mr. James Cranford, many years minister and 
master of the free*8chool in Coventry. He was born in that 
city in the year 160!^, and educated in Baliol college, Oxford, 
where he took his degrees. Upon his leaving the university, 
he became minister in Northamptonshire, then removed to 
London, and became rector of St. Christopher le StockSi 
near the old Exchange. This was in the year 1642. The 
following year he was appointed, by order of parliament^ 
to be one of the licensers of the press for works m divinity. 
In the year 1644, he was appointed one of the Lcmdon 
ministers to ordain suitable young men to the christian 
ministry. And in 1645, he was brought into trouble for 
speaking against several members of the house of conunons. 
He was charged with saying, tliat they had carried on a 
correspondence with the royalists, and were false to the 
parliament ; for which he was committed to prison ; where 
ne continued about five weeks, when the house of commons 

Srocceded to an examination of his case, and passed upon 
im the following sentence : — ^^ That the words spoken bj 
Mr. Cranford against some members of the house of com* 
raons, and of the committee of both kingdoms, thai tkejf 
kept intelligence xsnth the king's party ^ and were fabe U> 
the parliament^ were false and scandalous. — That Bfr» 
Cranford, at a full exchange In London, and at West* 
minster, shall confess the wrong he hath done them in* so 
scandalizing them. — ^Tbat he shall pay five hundred pounds 
to each of those four members for damages. — ^And that ho 
shall be committed to the Tower during the pleasure (rf* the 
house.^'^* Whether this heavy sentence was legal or ill^al, 
we will not pretend to determine. 

Thongh Afr. Cranford thus felt the vengeance oi his 
cuperiors, he does not appear to have been a man of a turt 
bulent spirit; and though he mieht be provoked to use the 
above unjustifiable expressions, he was a man who bore an 
excellent character, and was highly esteemed among his 
brethren. Wood denominates him an '^ exact linguist, wdl 
acquainted with the fathers, schoolmen, and modem divines} 
a zealous presbyterian, and a laborious preacher."f Fuller 
adds, ^^ that he was a famous disputant, orthodox in judg« 
mcnt, and a person of great humility, charity, moderation, 
a(id kindness towards all men.'';t Uq died April 27, 1657} 

m 

• Whitlocke'i Mem. p. 144, 145. 

f Wood*i Athenas Oxon. vol. ii. p. 1S3. 

i Fuller's Worthies, part iti. p. 118, 



CRANFORDl-BLAKK. 9G> 

aged fifly-fiye years; when his remains were interred in 
St. Christopher's church. 

•His Works. — I. The Tears of Ireland, wherein is represented a lift 
of the anhcard-of Cruelties of the blood-thirsty Jesuits and the Popish 
Faction, 1642. — 2. An Exposition oh the Prophesies of Daniel, 
1644. — 3. Haeresco-Machia; or, the Mischief which Heresies do, and 
the Means to prevent them, 1646. — 4. A Confutation of the Anabap* 
tists. — He wrote also numerous Prefaces to other men's works. 



Thomas Blake, A. M. — ^Tbis pious servant of ChrisI 
was bom in the county cf Stafford, in the year 1597, and 
educated in Christ's Church, Oxford. Haying finished his 
studies at the university, he entered upon the ministerial 
work, and obtained some preferment in the church. He 
became a faithful steward of the manifold mysteries of 
God. He was zealous in the work of the Lord, and his 
labours were made eminently useful. He was the faithful 
and laborious pastor of St. Alkmond's church, Shrewsbury, 
but it is doubtful whether this was the first place of his neL^ 
Ueoient. When the parliament prevailed, and episcopacy 
was abolished, Mr. Blake took the covenant ; but was after- 
wards turned out for refusing the engagement.* In the year 
1647, he accepted an invitation to Tamworth in hb native 
county, where he continued in the ministerial work all the 
lest of his days. Here he was appointed one of the 
assistant commissioners of Staffordshire, for ejectii^ ignorant 
and scandalous ministers and schoolmasters. He died at 
Tamworth, aged sixty years, and his remains were interred 
in his own church, June 11, 1657.t He was a man of 
great piety, good learning, and a constant and excdlent 
preacher. 

Mr. Anthony Burgess, afterwards ejected in 166?,t who 
preached Mr. Blake's funeral sermon, ^tves the foUowing 
commendations .of hb character: — He was a man of 
inany excellent qualifications. He possessed good natural 
talents, much improved by diligent application, and sancti* 
fied by the grace of Grod. The most eminent feature in hit 
character was his great piety, for which he was highly 
esteemed. And as he was a man of conrideiable learning, 

* Calamy'i Accoaot, yoI. ii. p. 184. 

-^ Wo6d*8 Athens Ozod. yoI. ii. p. ISS. 

t Palmerli Jf oncon. Hem. yoI. ili. p. 950. 



f70 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

and ihat learning being directed to proper objects, he wat 
enabled to do more work in the vineyard of Christ thaa 
many of his brethren. • He did not overlook the younger 
part of his flock. Being well persuaded of the importahce 
of early religious instruction, he discovered great diligence 
in catechizing the youth of his congregation. He possessed 
a peculiar tenderness of spirit, which fitted him in a more 
eminent degree for this part of his work. As a true 
chepherd over the flock of Christ, he sought not theirs^ but 
them : not any worldly advantage, but the salvation of tlieir 
souls. He was a wise and prudent counsellor. Persons 
voder trouble of soul sought his advice, and he gave it with 
great alrility and readiness. But, while he administcrecl 
consolation to others, God sometimes left him to walk ii^ 
npiritual darkness; yet, at length, he dispelled those 
uoomy fears, and caused him to rejoice in his salvatiooi 
IJpoa his death-bed he found the comfort of the doctrine ht 
had preached. He had not the least doubt of the truth 
of it ; and he left the world in full assurance of eteioal 
life.* 

Mr. Samuel Shaw, afterwards silenced at the restonttioUff 
who delivered Mr. Blake's funeral oration, addressed the 
people as follows :-— ^^ While he lived, it was as impossibly 
lor him not to love you, as it is for you ix> make aim mji 
adequate return of love : and his care was answerable to his 
love. His writings were not read without satisfaction ; and 
his sermons were nevef heard without approbation, aj]4 
seldom without following advantage. His awful giB'Thtj^ 
ancl commanding presence could not be considered without 
reverence, nor his conversation without imitation. To se^ 
him live was a provocation to holy life: ta see him ^ 
might have made us weary of life. When God restrained 
hiia from this place, he made his chamber his church, and 
his bed biiipulpit; in which I heard him offer «p ma^jr 
prayers to Uod for you. His death made him nundful of 
you^ who have been too unmindful of his life. I did not 
> see that aay thing made him so backward to resign uj^ his 
soal to God as his unparalleled cave for you. nis deatk 
seemed litfle to him in comparison of your happiness. { 
sat by himi and I only, when, with a Jfiood of tears, ba 
pfayed : Lord, charge not me with the ignorance of tkis 

• 

• Faneral SermoD for Mr. Blak«. ' 

f Palm«r's Noncon. Mem. Y9l. li. p. 404» 



JANBWAlr. 171 

people. His wisdom, justioe, and tenderness^ were such 
predomininit graces, that it is as much mj inability to 
describe them as it is my utihappinesB not to imitaie 

them."* 

His Works.— 1. Birth's Privilege ; or, tbe Right of Infants to 
Baptismc, 1644. — 2. Infonts Baptisine freed from Antichristiaiiisinek 
In a full Repulse given to Mr. Ch. Blackwood, in his Assault of that 
Part of Clirist's Possession which he holds in his Heritage of Infantsl 
entitled, by * The Storming of Antichrist,' ie46.--3. A Moderate 
Answer to the two Questions, I. -Whether there be sufficient 6ffMui4 
from Scripture to warrant the Conscience of a ChristiaB to present hit 
Infants to the Sacrament of Baptism ? — 2, Whether it be not sinfi4 
for a Christian to receive the Sacrament in a mixt Assembly? 1645.—- 
4. An Answer toMr.Tombes his Lctter.in Vindication of the ^irth- 
privilege of Believers and their Issnc, 1646.^ — 6. Vincficiie FeederiS^ 
A Treatise of the Covenant of God with Mankind^ 1093.-^. Itttet 
Baptisme m'aintained in its Latitude, 1653. — 7. The Cofeaant Sealed i 
or, a Treatise of the Sacrament of both Covenants, 1666. — 8. Posti- 
script to the Rev. and licarned Mr. Rich. Baxter, 1655. — 0. Mr* 
Job. Humphrey's Second Tindication of a Disciplinary, Ahti-erastSHn, 
Orthodox, Free Admission to the Lord*s Supper, taken into Com 
sideration, 1656. — 10. Answer to Mr. B. Cox about Free Admimiott 
to the Sacrament — 11. Living Truths in Dying Times. — 12. Several 
Sermons. 



John Janeway. — Tliis extraordinary person was the 
son of Mr. William Janeway, and born at Lilley in Hert- 
fordshire, October S7, 1633. He was educated first at 
P^uFs school; London, under the care of the excellent 
Mr. Lanffley, where he made great progress in Latin, 
Greek, Hebrew, matliematics, and astronomy. Ailer* 
wards, he was sent to Eton college, where the eyes of many 
were upon him, as the glory of the school and the wonder 
of the age: and at the period of seventeen he onter(*d 
King's college, Cambridge, wh«i the electors contended for 
the patronage of so admirable a youth. He afterwards 
became fellow of the college. 

In addition to his great learning, he was endowed with 
inany excellent ornaments of nttturc. His deportment was 
candid ^nd agreeable, courteous and obliging. Though he 
tvas exceedingly admired and caressed, he did not discover 
the least vanity or pride. His learning was mixed with 
much modesty and prudence; and he had great command 
of his passions, by which he was preserved irom the follies 
and vices of youth. But, hitherto, J^ was wholly uncon- 

• Faaeral Oration for Mr. Blake. 



S7S LIVES OF TUE PURITANS. 

• 

cenied about his best interests. He did not trouble him- 
self about religion 9 or the salyatioH of his souL But Grod, 
who had chosen him to shine as the sun ii^ ^ firmament of 
glory for ever, was pleased, at the age c£ eighteen, to- 
enlighten his mind by the power of his grace, convincioff 
him of sin, and his need of a Saviour. Mr. Baxter^ 
^< Saints' Everlasting Rest'" was principally the instrument ' 
of promoting his conversion to God. The important 
change soon became manifest to all. His time and his 
talents were now so much employed in the pursuit of future 
happiness, that he found little leisure, and less delight, in 
the contemplation of the moon and stars. He now tasted 
the sweetness of studying the mind of Grod in his word; 
and was most concerned to please and to enjoy him for 
ever. He pitied those who were curious in their inquiries 
about almost every thing except the knowledge of them*, 
selves and Jesus Christ. ^^ What things were once gain to 
him, he now counted loss for Christ. Vea, doubtless, he 
counted all things but loss for the excellency of the know- 
ledge of Christ Jesus; and did count them but dung, that 
he might win Chri^." Though he did not look upon 
human learning as useless, but exceedingly profitable when 
suitably employed ; yet, when fixed on any thing short of 
Christ, and not employed to his glory, he considered it as a 
sword in the hand of a madman. 

In this state of mind, Mr. Janeway began to think bow 
he could best improve his present attainments^ and direct 
all his future studies in the most proper channel. He was 
particularly concerned to express his love and thankfulness 
to God, who had called him out of darkness into his marvd^. 
lous light. He, therefore, addressed many letters to his 
jelations and friends, in which he wrote so judiciously and 
profitably upon divine subjects, that they were more like 
the productions of old age than a person of his years. He . 
could not help announcing to others what he had seen, aod 
heard, and felt. To plead the cause of God, to exalt his 
dear Redeemer, and to brin^ sinners to Christ, was the only 
object he had in view. But his uncommon gravity, his 
striking majesty, his pathetical expressions, his vehement 
expostulations, and his close applications, can be seen only, 
in his own words. 

Before he was arrived at the age of nineteen, writing io 
his father, who was then in great distress of mind, he thin 
addressed him : — ^' The causes of your desponding and 
melancholy thoughts, give me leave, with submission,, to 



JANEWAY. 879 

^es8. The first, I think, is yoar reflecting upon jroor 
entering into the mitiistry iirithout that reverence, care, and 
holy zeal for God, loVe to Christ, and compassion to souh^ 
which is required of every one who undertakes that holy 
office. It may be there was a respect to your living in the ' 
world, rather than.yoiir living to God. Be it thus, be it 
iiot so bad, or be it worse, the reiQiedy is the same. These 
liave in them a wounding power, which will be felt to be 
grievous, when felt as they are m theitiselves. But con- 
tinual sorrow and sad thoughts kisep the wound open too 
long, and are not available to produce a cure. Wounds, 
indeed, must first be opened, that they may be cleansed. 
They must be opened, that their filth may be discovered, in 
order to their being purged and healed. But no longer than 
till the Balm of Gilead is am)lied, that they may be healed. 
When Christ is made use ofaright, he leaveth joy and com- 
fort ; yet a constant humiliihr of spirit is no way incon- 
sistent with this peace with God. 

** A second cause of your heaviness may be, a sense of the 
«tate of the people committed to your care. And, indeed, 
who can help mourning over people in such a condition ? 
Objects of pity they are, especially because they pity not 
themselves. I have often wrestled with God, to direct you 
in the path of duty concerning them, which, I a^ per- 
suaded, is your request also, ffow, after seriously examin- 
ing yourself, what your conscience doth conclude to be 
your duty, do it; and be sure yon do it: you 'are then to 
rest upon God for his effectual working. And this is no 
more the cause of heaviness to you, ihari the opposition 
which the apostles found was to them, who, notwithstand- 
ing, rejoiced in tribulations. 

" You may have some thoughts and cares concerning 
yoMT family when you are gone. Let faith and former 
experience teach you to drive away all such thoughts. 
Your constitutiou and solitary habits may also be some 
cause of. melancholy. But there is a duty which, if pro- 
perly observed, would dispel all. This is heavenly medi- 
tation, and the contemplation of those thin^ to which the 
christian religion t,ends. If we walk close with God in this 
duty, only one hour in the day, oh, what influence would 
it have on the whole day ; and, it duly performed, upon the 
whole life ! I knew the nature and usefulness of this duty 
in some measure before, but had it more deeply impressed 
upon me by Mr. Baxter's " Saints' Ev^crlasting Rest ;" for 

▼OL. III. T 



S74 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

m 
I 

which I have cause for ever to bkss God. As for your 
dear wife, I fear the cares and troubles of the world take off 
her mind too much from walking closely with God, aod 
from earnest endeavours after higher degrees of grace^ 
I commend God unto her, and this excellent duty of medi- 
tation to all. It is a bitter sweet ; bitter to corrupt nature, 
but sweet to the regenerate part. I entreat her and your- 
self; yea, I charge it upon you, with humility and tender- 
ness, that God have at least half an hour in a day allovrad 
him for this exercise. Ob, this most precious soul-reviv- 
ing, soul-ravisbing, soul-perfecting duty ! Take this from 
Jrour dear friend, as spoken witli reverence, fiEiithfuIness, add 
ove. 

<' One more direction let me give. See that none in your 
fimiily satisfy themselves in family prayer, without draw- 
ing near to God twice a day in secret. Here secrrt vrants 
may be laid open. Here great mercies may be begged 
with great earnestness. Here the wanderings and cotaSeis 
in family duty may be repented of and amended. This is 
the way to get sincerity, seriousness, and cheerfulness in 
religion. Thus the joy of the Lord will be your strength. 
Let those who know their duty do it. If any think it is 
imnecessary, let them fear lest they lose the most excellent 
help to a holy, useful, and joyful life. 

<< Take some of these directions from sincere affection ; 
some from my own experience ; and all from a compassion- 
ate desire for your joy and comfort. The Lord teadi yoa 
in this and in the r^. I entreat you, never rest till you 
have attained to true spiritual joy and peace in the Lord. 
The God of peace afford you his direction, with the fore- 
tastes of his comforts in this life, and the perfection of than, 
in the enjoyment of his excellency and holiness, through 
Jesus Christ." 

^ Having arrived at the age of twenty, he became fellow of 
his college. He wrote many pathetical letters to his brotheiB, 
followed by his prayers and tears for a blessing. He'oflea 
Itddressed them individually, in private conversation, when 
he earnestly recommended Christ, and affectionately uiged 
them to seek an interest in him. And these his labours wei^ 
not in vain. He was supposed to have been the spiritual 
fiither of his own natural father, and several of his broth«!S, 
who will have cause to bless God, to eternity, that they 
ever received his instructions. He spoke to all his brethren 
in the language of the apostle : Brethren^ my hearfs demc 



JANE WAY. S76 

and prayer to God for i/ou all isj that you may be ^aved. 
QChis witl best appear in his own words, in a tetter addressed 
to them. 

. " Distance of place," says he, " cannot at all lessen- that 
natural bond whereby we are one blood; neither ought it 
to lessen our love. Nay, where true love is, it cannot. 
Respecting my love towards you, I can only say, that 
I feel it better than I can express it. But love felt and not 
^xpres^ed is little wortb. 1 desire, therefore, to maket my 
love manifest in the best way I can. Let us look on one 
another, not as brethren only, but as members of the same 
boHy, of which Christ is the head. Happy day will that 
be, when the Lord will discover this union ! Let us, there- 
fore, breathe and hunger after this, that so we may all meet 
in Christ. If we be in Christ, and. Christ in us, we shall b^ 
one in each other. 

^^ You cannot complain of the want of instruction. God 
hath not been to us as the dry and barren wilderness. Ypa 
have had line upon line, and precept upon precept. He hath 
planted you by the rivers of waters. It is indeed the Lord 
alone who maketh fruitful ; yet we are not to stand still and 
do nothing. There is a crown worth, seeking to obtain. 
Seek then by earnest and constant prayer. Keep your 
iiouls in a praying frame. This is a great and neces^uy 
4^^y 5 y^^ ^ ^^^y great privilege. If you can say nothuif^ 
come and lay yourselves in humility before the Lord. 
Through mercy I have experienced what I say ; and you 
may belieye me when I say, that there is more sweetness to 
be got in one glimpse of God's love, than in all that the 
world can afford. Oh, do but try ! Qh, taste and see how 
good the Lord is ! 

'^ Beg of God to make you. sensible of your lost and 
undone state by nature, and oi the excellency and necessity 
of Christ. Say unto God, ^Let me be, any thing in the 
world if I may be enabled to value Christ, and be persuaded 
to accept of him as he is tendered in the gospel. Oh that 
I may be delivered from the wrath to come ! Oh, a blessing 
fo^ me, even lor me !' and resolve not to give it up till the 
liord hath in $ome measure satisfied you. Oh ! my bowels 

J earn towards you. My heart works. Oh that you did 
at know with what afiections I now write to you, and 
what prayers and tears have been mingled with these lines ! 
The £ord set these things home, and give you a heart to 
mpply them to yourself. 

^< Give me leave to deal plainly with you,^ and comt 



I 



fTfl LIVES OF THE PtJRITANS. 

cioier to you. I love vour souls so well, that I cannot bear 
the thoughts of their being lost. Know this, thai there ift 
such a thing as the new birth ; and except a man be borti 
agam^ he cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven. This 
new birth hath its foundation laid in a sense of sin, and in 
a godly sorrow for it, and a .heart set against it. Without 
this, there can be no salvation. Look well to yourselvess 
You will see that you are in hcH'l^ mouth, without this first 
step; and nothing but free grace and pure mercy is be* 
tween you and a state of damnation. The Lord deliver ui 
from a secure and a careless lieart. Here you see a natural 
man's condition. How dare you then lie doii^n in security i 
Oh, look to Grod for your soul's sake i Without rppentaticCi 
there is no remission of sin ; and repentance itself will lose 
its labour if it be not of the right kind. Prayers, and tears, 
and groans, will not do without Christ. Most persons, T^heir 
they are made in some measure sensible of their sins, and 
are under fears of helL run to duty and reform some things^ 
and thus the wound is. nealed, by which thousands fall short 
of heaven. For if we be not brought off from trusting in 
oufselves, and flrom our oitn righteousness, as well as oar 
sins, we are never likely to be saved. We must see oiir 
abfeolut^ need of Christ; give up ourselves unto hini; and 
cbuntdll things but dross and dung in comparison of hiA ri^- 
teousness. l^k therefore for God's inercv in Christ alone. 

** The terms of tlie eospel are,Rcpent and believe. GiUcious 
tertns ! Mercy for fetching ! Mercy for receiving ! tia 
you dpsire the grace and mercy of God ? I know you do ; 
and even this desire is the gift of Grod. Hunger afler 
Christ. Let your desires put you upon endeavours. The 
work itself is sweet. Yea, mourning and repentance them*, 
selves have more sweetness In them than all the comforts of 
this world. Upon repentance and believing comes ju8ti£l«> 
cation ; and after ^^ards sanctification by the spirit dwelliiig 
ill us. By this we become the children of Grod ; are made 
partakers of the divine nature ; and lead new lives. It b' 
unworthy of a christian to have such a narrow spirit as not 
to act for Christ with all his heart, soul, and strengtti. 86 
not a^hatned of Christ ; nor afraid of the frowtis of the 
witkad. Be sure to keep a conscience void of ofienc^; aiid 
yield by no means to dny known sin. Be much ih secHtt 
j)rayer and in reading the scriptures. My git^itest d^sitt 
IS, that God would work his own work in you.'* 

Such was the spirit of his letters addressed to his brethren* 
l&t observed this method with every other means of thhtrnc- 



JANEWAT. 917 

tioD. He dflcn yisited tbem for this poipofie ajone ; wbea 
he most faithfuUy addressed each according to his necessity. 
On one of these visits, observing that one of his brothers 
«Iept at family prayer, he embraced an early opportunity of 
shewing him the magnitude of his sin, and the just desert 
of such contempt of God. The Lord was pleasc'd to 
apply his instructions as a dagger to his heart ; and, though 
he was only about eleven years of age, it was supposed to 
be the means of his souUs conyersimi to God. The change 
wrought in his young brother gave him great comfort apd 
encouragement. Having occasion to write to hini soon 
after, he reminded him of wuat the Lord had done for his 
«oul, and urged him never to rest till he enjoyed good 
evidence of the change. '^ I hope," said he, ^' that God 
hath a good work lo do in you, for you, and by jfou; 
yea, I hope he hath alr^y begun the work. BuL' oh ! 
iaJLe not up with some beginnings, &int desires, pr lazy 
fteekings. Oh, remember your former years! One may 
weep a little for si^, ^nd yet go to bell for sin. Many whot, 
under some such Wi9rk, shake off the sense cf sin^ murder 
their convictions ^nd return to folly. Oh, take heed! 
If any draw back, the Lord will take no pleasure in th^m. 
But I hope better things of you." 

His great Ipve and compassion for souls will appear from 
the following address to one of his near relations. Having 
shewn how much it is beneath the christian to have bis heart 
anidously set upon any thing in this world, he adds, << Oh, 
what folly is it to trifle in the things of God ! But I hope 
.b^ter things of you. Did I not hope^ why should j[ 
inoum in secr^et for you, as one cast out among the dcsad ? 
Oh ! what shall I do for you, besides pouring out my soul 
like water? and give my God no rest till he graciously visit 
you with jbis. salvation? till he cast ypu down and raise you 
up ? till he wound you and heal you again ?" 

AfiC* Janeway was mi^ty in prayer, and his soul was 
&egu^Iy so transported in the duty, that he almost forgot 
whether he was i^ the body or .out of the body. His con- 
verse with God was so familiar, and attended with such 
4ivine cousolatipn to his youl, that, wJien he engaged in this 
duty, he otien iibund the greatest difficulty to leave it off. 
lie could, by |»appy expedenoe, testify, that ^pisdom*s wms 
are ways of pleasantness^ and aU her pmjths are peace. In 
Jijis appipaches to Qpd, like Jacob, be wre^l^ with the 
Loird, and was cpirer iMiwilHiirg ito ri^ from off his knees 
'ii^Aw^>tus Fall's bl^ He conii^^ with God a9 



878 LIVES OF THE PURITANS- 

a man with hift friend ; and on all occasions of importance 
sought his direction and his blessing. His p-ay( rs were no 
vain oblations; bur were often reinRrkably henn< and an- 
swered. We shall give the following instance as worthy 
of being prescrv 'd. 

His fatlie-, being deeply exercised with affliction, and 
under painful apprehensions about the safety of his state^ 
he said to his son, *^ Oh, son, this passing into eternity is a 
great thing i This dying is a solemn l)nsmess, and enough 
to make any one's heart ache, who hath not his pardon 
sealed, and his evidences clear for heaven. I am under no 
small fears as to my own state for another world. Oh that 
God would clear liis love ! Oh that I could clieeriiilly say 
I can die, and am able upon good grounds to look deatq 
in the face, and venture upon eternity with well-groundod 
peace and comtbrt !" Mr. Janeway, s(*eing his dear father 
so deeply afflicted with despondency, presently retired for 
the purpose of wrestling with God in prayer. He most 
devoutly prayed, that God would lift up the light of his 
countenance upon him, and fill his soul with joy and peace 
in believing ; that so he might leave the world with joy* 
Arising from his knees, and coming to his father, he asked 
him how he did, but received no immediate answer. His 
father continued some time unable to speak, but K^ejpi 
exceedingly. After recovering himself, he burst forth into 
these expressions : <^ Oh, son ! Now he is come ! Now he 
is come ! Now he is come ! I bless God, I can die« The 
Spirit of God hath witnessed with my spirit that I am a child 
of God. Now I can look up to Grod as my Father, and to 
Christ as my Redeemer. I can now sav. This is my FHettd: 
this is my Aefoved. My heart is full, it is brim-full. I can 
hold no more. I now know what that means. The peace of 
God which passeth understanding. That fit of weeping 
which you saw me in was a fit of overpowering love aiuL 
joy. It was so great, that I could not contain myself, nor 
can I express what glorious discoveries God hath made to 
me. Had that joy been greater, I Question whether it would 
not have separated my soul and body. Bless the L^, O my 
soul, and all that is within me bless his holy name ; who 
hath pardoned all my sins, and sealed, that pairdon. Oh ! 
now I can die. 1 bless God, 1 can die. I desire to depart 
and to be with Christ." 

The sou was partaker of his father's blessing on two 
accounts. First, that his jbther was so clearly satisfied 
about the safety of his state. And, secondly, that this was 



JANEWAY. S7^ 

w eyident and immediate an answer to his prayer. Young 
Janewaj, therefore, broke forth in strains of the highest 
joy and praise, saying, << Oh blessed, and for ever 
blessed, be God for his infinite grace ! Oh, who wouM not 
pray unto God. Verily, he is a Grod hearing prayer, and 
that our souls know right well/' He then told his fother 
how much he had been affected with his despondency ; that 
he had just been praying with all earnestness for his soul ; 
and how wonderfully the Lord had answered his prayer. 
Upon this, his father felt his joys still increased, and ex- 
claimed, saying, Now let thy servant depart in peace^ far 
mine eyes have seen thy sahation. When I walk through 
the valley of the shadow of death^ I wUlfear no evil. On ! 
how lovely is the sight of a smiling Jesus, when one is dying ! 
How refreshing is it, when heart, and flesh, and all things 
iail, to have God for the strength of our heart, and our 
portion for ever !" He then de{^ed to be numbered wiUi 
the blessed.* 

Upon the death of his fiither, Mr. Janeway endeavoured 
to fill up that relation, in the tender and affectionate care 
of his mother, sisters, and brethren. His excellent ex« 
anmle, prudent instructions, and holy practice, had the 
desu-ed effect. Those who were older than himself, as well 
B8 the younger branches, loved and revered him. 

Having returned, after some time, to King's coU^e, he 
there continued till he was invited to become domestic 
tutor in the family of Dr. Cox. Here he did not disappoint 
the e^^pectations of his employer. His deportment was so 
sweet and obliging, and ms conversation so spiritual and 
holy, that he gained the esteem and admiration of all. But^ 
on account of his ill health, he was obliged to relinquidi 
the situation, to try a change of air, and reside with his 
mother. Here he continued m a weak and languishing con* 
dition, in the prospect of death, but not afraid to die. He 
was even ashamed of desiring life, and said, ^^ Is there any 
thing here more to be desired than the enjoyment of Christ ? 
Cam I expect any thing here below comparable to that 
Uessed vision ? Oh that crown, that rest which remaincth 
for the people of God ! And, blessed be God, I can say it 
is mine. 1 know thai when the eftrihly house of this taber* 
nacle is dissohedj I have a buUding of God, an house nU 

• Mr. WiUiam Janeway, the fkther of Mr. John Janeway, wai mloifCfT of 
LiUey in Hertfordshire, then of Harpenden, and afterward! of Kelsall in 
the same county. At hii death, he left a widow and cltffB chUdrts, 
tef eral of whom bc«aaio worthy miniiten of Chriit. 



taO LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

made.wUh hands; and therefore I desire not to be uncloihedy 
but to be clothed upon mth Christ. To me io liv^ u 
Christy and to die is gatn. Through mercy I can now speak 
in the language of the apostle : 1 have fought a goodfighii 
henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righttf 
ousness.^^ 

Perceiving one of his relations much troubled at the 

I)rospect of his dt^ath^ he charged him not to p^ay tor hb 
ife, unless it should be more for the glory oi Grod. ^^ i wisb 
you/' said be, ^^ to keep your mind submissive to the will of 
God. concerning me. The Lord draw you nearer to him^df, 
that .you may walk with .him; and if'i go to hhu befoie 
youy I hope you will follow." Afterwards, ihe Lqrd was 
pleased so far to restore him, that his friends were in hopes 
of his perfect recovery. And while God thus remembered 
him, he did pot forget God. His words to an intimate 
friend discover his deep sense of the love of God. I}e ^^id^ 
^^ God holds mine eyes most upon his gooilness^ his unnKenT 
surable goodness; and upon the promises. which are most 
sure and. firm in Christ. His lov^ to us is greater, mpM 
sure, more full, than ours to ourselves. For when we Wvod 
ourselves so as to </e5/ro^ ourselves, he loved us so at, to 
save us." 

Mr. Janeway, writing to a friend under perplexing icais 
about the state of his. soul, thus addressed him : ^ Oh ! sttod 
still and wonder. Behold and admire his love ! Conskior 
what thou canst discover in this precious Jesus. Ker^ 19 • 
sea; cast thyself into it, and thou shalt be compassed 
with the height, and depth, and breadth, and length of 
love, and be filled with all the fullness of God. Is not this 
enough ? Wouldst Jhou have more? Fling away aU exv 
cepting God. For God is a sufficient portion^ and tte 
only proper portion of the soul. Hast thou not. ta^ed^ 
hast thou not known, that his love is better than wine ? .H« 
is altogether lovely. And while I write, my heart doth 
bum. My soul is on fire. I am sick of love. But noW| 
methinks, I see you aln)ost drowned in tears, because, jom 
fed -not such workings of love towards God. Weep on 
still ; for love, as well as grief, hath tears. And tears iof 
love, as well as others, shall be kept in God's bottle.. Kimr 
that they are no other than the streams of Chriirt's lov9 
flowing to thee, and from thee to him. Christ is Aus 
delighted in beholding bis beauties in those whom ht 
loves.^' • ' 

Mr. Janeway,' however, was not always on the UfOiiJiitr 



JANEWAT. 881 

f 

He had his cloudy days, as well as others. His sweets 
wer^ sometimes tmrned into bitters. He was painfully 
assaulted by Satan's temptation^. The enemy was permitt^ 
to come upon him as a^ armed man* As, in die case of the 
apostle, lest he should be exalted aboye nieasure, tlie enemy 
was suffered \o buffet him; and it would have made % 
christian's heart ache to have heard how this gracious mao 
was exercised with Satan's dreadful temptations. But he 
WHS well armed for the painful conflict. Having on the 
shield of faith, wherewith to quench the fiery darts of the 
wicked one, he came off a complete conqueror. In the 
trying cont^, he sent up strong cries and tears to the Lord 
for fresh supplies of grace. 

* This holy man was much afraid of spiritual declension^ 
both in him^lf and others. He eyer laboured to maintain 
a tender conscience ; and took notice of the smallest depar<p 
tures of his soul irom God, as well as God's withdrawing^ 
from him. His great concern was to build sure, by being 
looted and grounded in the faith* He also exercised a 
similar godly jealousy over his intimate frieods and relationiu 
To one of his brothers he wrote thus : ^< You live in a place^** 
said he, ^< where strict and close walking with God hatH 
few or no examples. God's own children are too apt to 
forget their first love. Our hearts are prone to.be carelessi 
and to neglect our watch. When conscience is put off 
with some poor excuse, religion withers; he who oncf 
seemed a zealot^ becomes a Laodicean; and he who once 
appeared an eminent saint, may afterwwls come to nothing. 
It is too common, to have a name to be alioe^ and yet to be 
dead. Bead this and tremble, lest it should be your case; 
When we are indolent and asleep, our adversary is most 
awake. I consider your age; I knoyr >vhere you dwell; I 
am no stranger to your temptations ; therefore I cannot help 
being afraid of you, and jealous over you. Let me remind 
you of what you know already. Remember what meltings 
of soul you once had ; how solicitously you once inquired 
after Christ ; and how earnestly you seemed to ask the way 
to Zion, with your face thitherward. Oh, take heed of 
losing those impressions ! Be not satisfied with a slight work. 
True conversion is a gtoat thing, and very different from 
whi^t most persons taSe it to be. TherdTore rest not ip 
meie convic^ons, much lec^s in a lifeless md formal pro- 
fession. 

^ There is such a thing as being ^kwH ^ christian ji as 
back unh pcrdiiiani as being not far from the 



f82 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

kingdom of heaven^ and falling short at last. Beware, lesC 
thou lose the reward. The promise is made to him thai 
holdeth fast, holdeth oiit to the end, and overcometb* 
Labour to forget the things which are behind, and reacS 
unto the things which are before. He who b contented 
with just enough grace to escape hell and get to heaven, 
and desires no more, maj be sure he hath none at all, and 
M far from the kinj?dom of God. Labour to enjoy con* 
Terse with God. Strive to do every thing as in his pre- 
tence, and for his glory. Act as in the sight of the grave 
and eternity. Let us awake and fall to work in good 
earnest. Heaven and hell are before us. Why do we 
sleep ? Dulness in the service of God is very uncomfortablei 
and at best will cost us dear ; but to be contented in such 
a frame is the certain sign of a hypocrite. Oh, how will 
such tremble when God shall call them to give an account 
of their stewnrdship, and tell them they may be no longer 
stewards! Oh, live more upon the invisible realities of 
heaven, and let a sense of their excellencies put life into 
your performances ! For your preciseness and singularity 
you must be content to be laughed at. A christians 
walking is not with men, but with God. 'He hath great 
cause to suspect his love to God, who does not delight more 
in conversing with God and being conformed to him, than ill 
conversing with men and beuig conformed to the worid. 
How can the love of God dwell in that man who liveth 
without God in the world ?'* 

This shews how anxious he was himself to be undeceived, 
and to undeceive otiiers. Here we see his delight, his 
treasure, his life, his all. The great love he had to Christ 
and the souls of men made him desirous to spend and be 
spent in the work of the ministry. Accordingly, at the age of 
twenty-two years, he entered upon the sacred office under 
ft deep impression of its importance and the worth <tf 
souls. Yet alas ! he never preached more than two sermons ; 
which, it is said, he delivered with such cleiameBS and 
freedom, such tenderness and compassion, such power and 
majesty, as greatly amazed those who heard him. He 
understood the glorious mysteries of the gospel, and what 
he delivered was the language and experience ot his own 
heart. His two sermons were from Job xx« 21* <' Aequaml 
now thyself with him^ and he at peace r thereby gooa sk&U 
come unto thee^ 

*' During the closing scene of life Mr. Janeway seemed 
wh(dly employed in the contemplation of Christ, teaTm> 



JANEWAY. S8S 

and eternity. He lived as a stranger in the world, and in 
the constant prospect of a better state. Like the -worthy 
patriarch, '^ he looked for a city which hath foundations 
whose bnilder and maker is God." His meditations, his 
discourse, his whole deportment, all made it appear that 
he was fast ripening for glory. He was never satisfied 
unless he was employed in those pursuits which brought 
him nearer to God and the kingdom of heaven. Hereby 
his faith was increased to full assurance. The Lord often 
called him up to the mount and let him see his glory. He 
often feasted upon the fat things of God^s house, and enjoyed 
many foretastes of future blessedness. From hu own happy 
experience, he could say to others, ^^ Oh, taste and see that 
the liord b good! Come unto me, and I will declare unto 
you what he hath done for mv soul.'* 

In the midst of all needful worldly comfbrts he longed 
for death ; and his thoughts of the day of judgment ffreatljr 
sweetened all his ^oyments. He said, '^ What if the day 
of judgment were to come even this hour ? I shoidd be 
glad with all my heart I should hear such thunderings, 
and behold such lightninfi;s as Israel did at the mount; 
and I am persuaded mv heart would leap for joy. But 
this I am confident of^ that the meditation of that day 
hath even ravished my soul; and the thoughts of its 
certainty and nearness is more refreshing to me than all the 
comforts of the world. Surely nothing can more revive 
my spirit than to behold the blessed Jesus, who is the life 
and joy of my soul.'' It required no small degree of 
patience and seif^enial to be kept so long from him whom 
bis soul loved. 

Mr. Janeway at length found himself in a deep consump* 
tion, but was not afraid. The spitting of blood did not in 
the least intimidate him, who enjoy ra an interest in the 
blood of Christ. During the progress of his complaint, he 
was seized with dimness in his eyes, which ended in the 
total loss of his si^ht. Being in expectation of his departure, 
lie called his mower, and said, <^ Dear mother, I am dying ; 
but I beseech you be not troubled. Through mercy I am 
cpiite above the fear of death. It is no great matter. I 
have nothing that troubles me, excepting the apprehensioif 
of your grief. I am going to Him whom I love above 
life."' From this faintmg fit the Lord was pleased to 
revive him ; and for severd weeks his soul was so devoutly 
employed in the contemplation of Christ and heaven, that 
he ahnost fbrgoi lus pains and sickness. His fisuth, his 



t8i LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Jove, and his joys exceedinfflv abounded. He freqaentlj 
fxcUimed, ^^Oh that I could let you know what I feel! 
Oh that I could shew you what 1 now see i Oh that I 
could expiess a thousandth part of that sweetness which 
I row nnd in Christ! You would then all think it 
worth your while to make religion your chief business. 
Oby ray dear friends, you little think what Christ ib worth 
upon a death-bed ! I would not for a world, nay, 
for a million of worlds, be now without a Christ apd a 
pardon^ . I would nut tor a world live any longer; and 
the very thought of the possibility of a recovery makes m^ 
tremble.*' 

When it was said that the Lord might again raise him 
up to healih and stn^nglh, so as to live many years, he said, 
*^ And do you think to please me with that ? No, friend, 
you are mistaken, if you think that life, and health, and ibt 
world are pleasing to me. TJie world hntli Quite lost its 
cxceilrncy. Oh, how poor and contemptible is it in all it|( 
glory, wh(*n compared with the glory of that world which I 
now live in sight of! And as for life, Christ is my life. 1 
tell vou, it would please me incomparably more if yoa 
should say to me, ^ You cannot possibly hold out long, 
fiefore to-morrow you will be in eternity.' I tell you 1 do 
so long to be with Christ, that I could be content to be citf 
in pieces, and to be put to the most exquisite torments, so | 
might but die and be with Christ. Oh, how sweet is 
J<?sus ! Come, Lord Jc siis, come quickly. Death, do thy 
worst. Deatli hath last its terrors. Through grace, I can 
s^y, death is nothing io nic. I can as easily die as shut my 
fyes. I long to be w ith Christ. I long to die." 

To hjs mother he said, ^^ Dear mother, I as earnestly 
beseech you as ever I desired any thing for you in my JLif^ 
that you would cheerfully give nic up to Christ, I beseech 
you do not hinder me now I am going to glory. I am 
Afraid of your prayers, lest they shoultl pull one wtiy and 
n^ine another." Then, turning to his brothers, he thu» 
' addressed them : '' I charge you all do not pray for mj 
life. You wrong me if you do. Oh the glory, the uar* 
speakable glory that I now behold ! My heart is full, mj 
heart is full! Clu-ist smiles, and I am constniued to smile. 
Cjm you find in your bea* ts to stop mc, now 1 am going tQ 
the cojnplete .and eternal enjoyment of Christ? WciMld 
you keep me from my crowu ? The arms of n^jr bkssc;^ 
8aviour arx) opi^ii to embrace me. The ansdls Sit^Jpd mulj 
tp c^ry jny spul into his bo^ow, Oht 4^4 yoii ]bi4 s09 



JANEWaY. 185 

Irhat I see, yoU it^ould all cry out with me^ t)ear Lord, how 
longF Come, Lord Jesus, corae quicklj. Ob, why aM 
liis chariot wheels so slow in coming !" r 

A itilnister haying spoken to him of the rlories 6f he&ven. 
he ibid, ^ Sir, I feel somethilig of it. My heart is as fiill 
as it cati hold in this lower state. I can bold no more. 
Oh^ that I coald but let you know what I feel I Who am 
I, Lord ; who am I^ that tbou sbouldst be mindful of me ? 
Why me. Lord, why me! and pass by thousands to look 
upoh such a wretch as I ! Oh, what shall I say unto thee, 
ihbti tyfcseryer of men ! Oh, why me, Lord, why me ! Oh, 
blessed, and for ever blessed be free ^race! How is it. 
Lord, that thou shouldst manifest thyscu unto me, and not 
uriib Others ? Even sOy Father^ because it seemed good in 
ikjf ifghi. Thou wUt have mercy, because thoU wilt hav^ 
mefcy. And if th6u wilt look upon such a poor worm, who 
dsA hinder ? Who would not lov^ thee, oh blessed Father } 
Oh, how. sweet and gracious hast thou been to me ! Oh, 
ibA he should have me in his thoughts of love, before the 
fctattdations of the world !" 

Thus he continued admiring and adoring the sovereignty 
of divine grace. As he experienced the intermissions of 
tritlttiphatit joy, he thus cried : ^' Hold out, faith and 
^ietice, yet a little while, and your work is done. What 
B the imitter, oh ! my soul ? What ! wilt thou, canst thou 
thus unworthily slight this astonishing condescension of 
God ? Doth it seem a small matter, that the great Jeliovah 
should deal thus familiarly with a worm ? And wilt thou 
pass this over as a common mercy ? What meanokt thou, 
oh my soul, that thou dost not constantly adore and praise 
this unspeakable love ! Doth God deal graciously and 
familiarly with man, and are his love and praise too eood 
for him ? Why art thou not, oh my soul ! swallowed up 
^ery moment with his free, unparalleled, and everlasting 
love ? Stand astonished ye heavens, and wonder ye angels, 
at this infinite grace! Was ever any one under heaven 
more beholden to this grace than I ? Oh, help! me to praise 
the Lord, for his mercy endureth for ever !" 

One of his brothers having prayed with him, his joys 
became unutterable ; and " i believe," says our author, 
**lhat if exceeds the highest strains of rhetoric to set forth 
to the life what this heavenly ra^n delivered." He broke 
out in such words as these : ^^ Oh, he is come! he is come ! 
Otu how sweet, how glorious, is the blessed Jesus ! . How 
.diml I ^>eak the thousandth part of his praises ! Oh, for 



886 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

words to flpt forth a little of that excellency ! But it is in« 
exprt^ssible. Ob, how excellent and glorious is the precious 
Jesus ! He is altogether lovely. Oh, my friends, stand 
and wonder ! Come, look upon a dyinj^ man apd woodor. 
Was there ever greater kindness ? Were there eyer more 
sensible manifestations of rich grace ? Oh, why m^ Lord? 
why me? Surely this is akin to heaven. And it I weie 
never to enjov move than this, it is more than a suffici^t 
recompence for all the torments that men and devils could 
inflict. If this be dying, it b sweet. This bed is soft 
Christ's arms, and smiles, and love, surely would turn hdi 
into heaven. Oh that you did but see and ieel what I do! 
Behold a dying man, more cheerful than you ever saw a 
man in health and in the midst of his swe^est woridiy 
enjoyments ! Oh, sii s, worldly pleasures are poor, pitilul^ 
sorry things, when compared with this giory now in my soul. 
Why should any of you be so sad, when I am so glad ? 
This is the hour that I have waited for." 

Mr. Janeway took his leave of his friends every evenings 
hoping that he should see them no more till the morning of 
the resurrection. He exhorted them to make sure of a 
comfortable meeting in a better world. He entreated tfaoae 
about him to assist him in praises. ^^ Oh," said h^ << he^ 
me to praise God ! Henceforth, to eternity, I have nothii^ 
else to do but to love and praise the Lord. I have my 
soul's desires on earth. I cannot tell what to pray for 
which is not already given me. The wants capaUe of 
being supplied in this world are supplic d. I want only one 
thing, iiud that is a speedy lift to heaven. I expect no 
more here. I desire no more. 1 can bear no more. Oh^ 
praise! praise! praise! that boundless love, which hath 
wonderfully looked upon my soul, and hath done more for 
me than for thousands of his children. ^ Bless the Lord, O 
my soul ; and all that is within me, bless his holy name !' O 
my friends, help me, help me, to admire and praise him, 
who hath done such astonishing wonders for my soul ! Ht 
hath pardoned all my sins, and hath filled me with hk 
goodn(^. He hath given me grace and glory, and no good 
thing hath he withhoiden from me. All ye mighty angds, 
help me to praise God. Let every thing that hfUh being 
help me to praise him. Praise is my work now, and wm 
be my work for ever. Hallelujah, hallelujah, hallelujah!'* 

During his sickness he found the word of God sweet to 
his soul, especially the fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, and 
seyenteenth chapters of John's gospel, and the fifty-fourtli 



JANEWAY. S8f 

of baiah. He Qften, with abundant joy, repeated those 
lilMds: fFUh great mercies will I gather thee. A short time 
before his death, he said, ^ I have ahnost done conversing 
with mortals. I shall presently behold Christ himself, who 
lored me and washed me in his blood. In a few hours I 
dttll be in eternity, singing the song of Moses and the Lamb. 
I shall presently stand upon mount Sion, with an innumerable 
eompam/ of angels, and the spirits of just men madeperfedj 
ibnTJesus the mediator of the new arcenant. I shall near 
the Yoice of much people, and be one amongst them, saying, 
MalUbyah! salvation j glory y and honour, and power be unto 
the LoHD otrr God ! Vet a little while, ana I shall sing 
unto the Lamb, Worthy art thou to receive praise, who hast 
redeemed us to God by thy bloody out of every kindred^ and 
Umfpie^ and people, and nation, and hast made us kings and 
pnests unto Uod, and we shall reign with thee for ever and 
eoer. And who can help rejoicing in all this ? 

The day before his departure, his brother James having 
beed praying for him, he said, ^' I thank thee, dear brother, 
for thy love. I know thou lovest me dearly ; but Christ loves 
me ten thousand times more. Dear brother, come and kiss 
melbefore I die.'' Havuig kissed his cold dying lips, he 
said, ^< I shall go before thee to glory, and I hope thou wilt 
follow after.'' A few hours before bis happy exit, he called 
together his mother, and sisters, and brethren, to give them 
one more solemn warning, and pray for them before he 
departed. 

His affectionate mother being first called, he thanked lier 
for her tender love to him ; and desired that she might see 
Christ formed in the hearts of all her children, aud meet 
them all with joy in the day of judgment. 

He prayed that his elder brother might be wholly taken 
up with Christ and love to souls, and be more holy in his 
life, successful in his ministry, and finish his course with joy. 

For his brother Andrew, living in London, he prayed tliat 
God would deliver him from the sins of the city, make him 
a feOow-citizen of the saints, and of the household of God. 
<< O that he may be," said he, '^ as his name is, a strong man^ 
Imd that 1 may meet him with joy." 

To James he said : '' Brother James, I hope God hath 
ffiven thee a goodly heritage. The lines have fallen to thee 
in pleasant places. The Lord is thy portion. Hold on, 
dear brother ; Christ and heaven are worth striving for. 
Hie Lord give thee abundance of his grace." 



iSS LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

To his brofther Abraham, he said : ^' The blessiDg of the 
God of Abi aham rest upon thee. The Lord make thee die 
foher of many spiritual children/' 

To his brother Joseph he said : " Let him bless diee, O 
Joseph, 1/i'ho blessed him that was separated from bis 
brethren. My heart hath been working towards thee, poor 
Joseph ; and I am not without hopes that the arms of the 
Almighty will embrace thee. The God of thy father bless 
Aeer 

To his sister Mary he siud : " Poor sister Mary, Ay body 
is weak, and thy days will be filled with bitterness. The Lord 
sweeten all with his grace and peace, and give thee health of 
Son!. Be patient; make sure of Christ ; and all is weU." 

To Sarah he said : ** Sister Sarah, thy body is strong and 
healthful. O that thy soul may be so too ! JThe Lord make 
thee a pattern of modesty, humility, and holiness.'' 

To his brother Jacob he said : ^' The Lprd m&ke thee an 
Israelite indeed, in whom there is no guile. O that diou 
mayest learn to wrestle with God, and not go without a 
blessing !'* 

And of his youngest brother Benjamin, then an infan1| he 
said : '^ Poor little Benjamin ! O that the Father of the 
fatherless would take care of thee ; and that thou who hast 
never seen thy father on earth, may see him with joy in 
heaven. Tlie Lord be thy father and thy portion." 

He then said to tliem all : '^ O that none of us may be 
found among the unconverted in the day of judgment ! O 
that we may all appear, with our honoured father and dear 
mother, before Christ with joy; and that they may say, 
* Lord, here are we, and the children whom thou hast given 
us P O that we nray live to God here, and live with God 
hereafter. And now, my dear mother, brethren, and sisterSy 
fiirewell. I leave you a short time. / commend you to Crod, 
and to the word of his ^race, which is able to biiild you up, and 
to give you an inheritance amon^ them which are sanctified. 
And now, dear Lord, my work is done. / have foueit a 
goodjight, I have finished my course, I have kept ihe faith; 
nencgorth there is laid up for me the crown of rishteou$nes$* 
Come, Lord Jesus, cane quickly ;'' and he presently departed. 
He died in the month of June, l657y in the twenty-fourdi 
year of his s^e ; when his remains were interred in Kelshall 
church, where his father had been minister. 

The foregoing account of this extraordinary young mui 
was originally published with the recommendatory testimonial 



LAN6LET. fSB 

«f fourenment presbytemn ministers, giring dieir attestatioD 
%9 die tnilii of die narrative.* A late popular writer observes, 
dia^ if ever mortal lived the life of an angel while upon the 
cndi, Mr. Janeway seems to have been the man. And he 
adds, ^ that his death-bed scene, above all others I have 
cMier read or seen, appears to have had in it die lamst share 
of divine communications/'f Wood denominates Mr. Jane- 
wsjr a zealous presbyterian.^ His three brothers, William, 
James, and Abraham, were all ejected nonconformists in 



John Lanolet, A. M. — ^This celebrated scholar was 
bom near Banbury in Oxfordshire, and educated in Mag- 
dbleii4iaU, OxCcH-d. Afterwards he was prebendary of 
Gloucester, where he was master of the college school 
about twenty years; and, in the year 1640, he succeeded 
Or. Ghll as chief master of St. Paufs school, London. In 
bodi these situations many persons were trained up under his 
tnidon, who became eminently distinguished characters in 
duirch and state. Among the number of his learned pupik 
was Mr. Richard Cumberland, afterwards bishop of Peter- 
bolough.ll He was a judicious divine, a universal scholar, 
and so celebrated an antiquarian, that his delight in, and ac* 
quaintance with, antiquities deserves the highest commendatidn 
mat can be given.f He was highly esieeined by men cele- 
brated for literature, but little regarded by the clergy, because 
he was a puritan, and a witness against Archbishop Laud at 
histrial.** 

Mr. Langley was indeed called as witness against the 
archbishop; when he deposed, that, in the year I6I6, his 
lordship, then dean of Gloucester, came down to the cathe* 
dral of that place, intending to turn the communion-table into 
an altar, aud to place it altar-wise at the east end of the choir^ 
removing it from its former situation in the midst of the 
church. Dr. Smith, bishop of Gloucester, opposed the 
innovation, and warmly protested to the dean and the pre- 
bends, that if the communion-table sliould be removed, or 

• Jaaewa^F'i Life of Mr. John Janeway. Edit. 1673.— Clark*t UfCf, 
ls«v»l.p.60— 81. 
f BfanpMB^s Plea for Relij^ion, p. 306, 310. Edit. 1810. 

{AtJleD« Oxon. vol. ii. p. 3S5. 
Fdaer't Noncon. Mem. vol. ii. p. 306. iii. 311, 315. 
BISf. BriCM. vol. iv. p. 658. Edit. 1778. 
Bsyaoldt*! Fan. Srr. for Mr. Langley. 
** W«oi1i AtbeiUD OxoD. vol. ii. p. 135. 

, TOL.III. U 



190 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

any oinh 'uuHmifiM hixw^t kito the ctdiedi«l,M DMnLani 
tken intended, he wo«U never come witkin die wails of Ae 
cethedral any more. But Che deap wm ao vieleut, tfaa^ m 
direct opposition to the order and sqppointment of tfie biilKip, 
he cawed the Lord's table to be removed aad placed akp- 
wise, ixND nordi to south, at the east end of the dieir, wilb 
po|Msh furniture upon il, boding towards it Unisdf^ ani 
commending the varioos officers of the church to d» ihe 
same. He further deposed, Chat the biAop was wo wtmdk 
offended at these innovations, that he, according to hie pro» 
testation, came no more into the cathedral to the day of his 
death. This is the substance of M'hat Mr. Lai^Iey testified, 
which was further confirmed by odier evidenoe.* 

ICr. JUangley^ being a most celdirated s c h ol a r , wia cheesa 
one of the licensers of the press far the fhilosopUoal and- 
historical depaitnient.t A nMnister of his nune, b«t, aoecidU 
ing to Wood, a <Kfferant person, was chosen one of Iht^ 
assembly of divines4 He died at his honae adjoiniag Paufs 
school; September 13, 1657. I>r. Edward Reynolds^ 
wards bishop of Norwich, preached his iunenl 
nrhich was afterwards pubUsfaed. Fidier caUs Mr. f anghy 
'^ the «bte and raligions schoolmaster.'* Ardideacoo EcbaHl 
dcnoounates him ** an exoetteot theologist of the pwaCan 
Utomp, a great lingiHst and historian, ami a nice wmi exact 
9ntiq«iary ; for ^ich he was hiahly esteemed by the Anaoas 
Sel^n aad other learned men. $ Mr. Strype aays, '^ ha 
was « general scholar, and a great antiqmay, espeodU^ m 
matters relating to bis own conatiy, ihe stories ami curiostties 
of which be, during his travels, made a considerable coUee* 
Isea,'' His^awM presence nod speeeh produced imcomason 
relict and fesff among his sdiolars^ and such was Ur 
b^aviottr towards them, that they both feared and ioVed hsm^ 
His remains were interred, with great fimeral solemmly, wr 
Mercer's chapel, Oieapside; when all his sch<4ars nttayded^ 
And, as he died a single man, they walked before ifae coip se, 
baring white gloves, and beuig hung with verses insteari of 
escutCTeons, from the school through Cheapside to Maeoar^ 
f^pd. He was so much in favour with the worsfa^fM 
company of mercers, that th^y Accented his commeodatinn 
,ef a successor .fl Mr. Langley was author of ^ Totias^ 

• Prynne's Cant. Doope, p. 7S— 78. 

t Neari Pnritaoi, to]. Hi. p. 46. t Wood*B AtlMBVp voL ii«#r'l8k 

S Ecbard't Hist, of £ag. vol. ii. p. 811. 

I KDigbf 8 Life of Colet, p. 319, 880. £dil. ITMi 



JUMoricis fldumbnido in mum Scfaolae Pauliuee," 1644— 
'* Ab introdikietiqB ip Gnmv^* — ^Anfl 90jaa/& other jMeces* 



J^HN O^MBi^pDENy A. M.-^This person was bom i^ 
Hampshire^ in tbe year 1^^, and educated first at Broad- 
gate-hally then in Christ's church, Oxford, where he tpo)c 
his degrees jm arts. In 1632 he was admitted to the reading 
pf the set^enees. After ccMnpleting his studies at the luuh 
verskj, he preached for several years^.at Loi^worth in Bei^- 
shire. Wlusn the civil wars brote out, he espoused the qaus^ 
of the parliament, became chaplain to Robert^ earl pjf 
jLeicester, a^ tfteryfords, for Bo^le time, rector of CrPyt- 
chMTGhin Glam^ganshire. In thi? situation he died abojf^ 
the month of October, 1657, aged fifty-nine yej^s. Hur 
jfeitaaim were interred m the chancel of the church at that 
itoce^ 



His Works. — 1. A Sermon on Gen. vi. 5 — 7,, 16^.-2. A Sermon 
on Gen. xxii. 1, 2., 1027.—^. God's great Mercy to Mankind in 
Jesus Christ, a Seraion at PauFs CTross, on Isa. liii. 6., 1628. — 4. Two 



S^rinons before Ihie Univendty of Oxford, 1057.— 5. Ckritt tempted, 
IIm Devil oonqoered : or, a Atxti Exposition on a Part of the Fonith 
of St Matthew's Gospel, 1667.--6. A Sermon on A^ts^ 



Joi^N Frost, B. D. — ^This pious minister was so^ oiP 
Mr. John Frost, the ancient and pious minister of Fajcen- 
ham in Suffolk. During his childhood and youth, he disr 
covered a sweet and amiable disposition, and ^was ever 
harmless and affectionate in Jiis behaviour. He received his 
acbool learning first at Thetford, then at Bury St. Edmund'i^ 
where he made Mncommon proficiency, especially in Greek 
and X^atiu. But that which added the greatest lustre to nis 
diameter was his early piety, and a zealous attachment to 
the word of God. Even in the days of his youth he diligently 
•easched thi^ scriptures, copstantly attended upon the word 

g cached, and spent much time in the duty of private prayer. 
6 WHS desirous, firom a child, to b(e employed in the work of 
line ministry; therefore, he earnestly and constantly praye4 
that God would fit him for that important work. 

At the age g^ sixteen he eqtered St. John's college. Cam* 
faridge^ wh^e he continued thirt^n y^ars, and was choseq 

« ^Woed'i Atkeas 0«oa. vol. li. p. ISI. 



818 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

fellow of tbe house. During this period, he made tmnmg 
progress in all kinds of useful learning ; but, having die chris- 
tian ministry constantly in view, he directed his studies chiefly 
to those branches of literature which were likely to be most 
serviceable in that holy office. At the university, on account of 
the acuteness of his mind, the mildness of his behaviour, his 
intense application to study, and his great proficiency in use- 
ful knowledge, he was greatly beloved by men of leaming and 
piety. He entered upon his ministerial work during his 
abode at Cambridge; and afterwards became pastor at 
St. 01ave*s, Hart-street, London ; where he remained to die 
day of his death. 

In this situation he continued many years, and gained a 
distinguished reputation. As he lived highly respected, so 
he died gready lamented. And having lived a most pious 
life, he died a most peaceable and happy death. During his 
last sickness, he discovered a becommg submission to the 
will of God, being willing to die, if his heavenly Father had 
so determined ; or willing to live, if most for the glory of God 
and the advantage of his church. When he was asked how 
he did, he replied, ** Full of peace and sweet submission to 
God my Saviour, and in dependence upon him.*' The pangs 
of death evidendy approacnmg, he called his family tocedier 
and ei^ged in prayer, for the last time, with much liveliness 
and affection. And having received something to drink, his 
affectionate wife reclining upon his bosom, he exclaimed, 
" We have overcome, we have overcome !** and si>oke no 
more, but resigned his pious soul to God, and immediafdy 
entered upon die joy of his Lord, November 2, 1657. 

Mr. Crofton, who preached and published Mr. Frostfs 
fimeral sermon, gives the following account of his exceDent 
qualifications: — ** He was sound in the f^uth, well studied in 
polemical divinity, and able to defend die trudi, holding last 
the doctrines of the gospel, and establishing the minds of his 
people in the faidi, especially against the fancies of annim- 
anism and popery. He was singularly excellent in practical 
divinity, pressing die observance of duties, rebuking sin with 
wisdom and afiection, and prudendy directing persons into all 
necessary christian conversation, as becometh the professioo 
of the gospel. He was a thorough puritan in principle and 
practice, but h^^y esteemed the unity and peace of the 
church. He studiously laboured to promote concord amooff 
die episeopal and presbyterian divines. He was ever sok^ 
citous to perform all the duties of his office, by preaching, 
administenug the sacraments, catechiziiq^ the youth, and 



EVANS. 

▼isi&ig the sick. He wu zealous amd fervent, 

and i^ise, and always deeply affected widi the worfi «f 

souls. 

** His excellent ministerial endowments were manifest Id 
all. What he delivered to die people was first deeply im- 
printed on his memory by an easy method, and deepfy 
engraven on his own heart by serious meJBtition. He ex* 
pressed himself with great power and plainness, and enforced 
^the great truths of die gospel widi strong arguments and 
padietical affections. In his daily conv^sation he was cour- 
teous and affable to all men, wfaedier his superiors, inferiors, 
or equals. He was meelL and ^rave, hdy and exemplary, as 
was obvious to all who knew him.''* He was the author of 
** Select Sermons,'' 1657. 



f^ Hugh Evans was bom in Radnorshire, bat removed in 
his youth to the city of Worcester, where he lived some years. 
About the commencement of the civil wars, he left thi^ city 
fiid went to reside at Coventry. There he fomid a society 
q{ biqptists, vriien he soon embraced their sentiments, and 
was admitted a member of their church. This was about 
the year 1643. He approved himself a very pious, senribie, 
and hopefiil young man. His brethren socm perceived that 
he was endowed vrith prcmiising gifts for the ministry, and 
encouraged him to cultivate and exercise them; which he 
did to ^eir abundant satisfiiction. He now bq;an to pity 
die state of his native country; and, considering its deplor- 
able condition as overspread whfa gross darkness, and desti- 
tute of the means of knowledge and salvation, he felta strong 
de^re to devote himself to die laudable, but arduous wori^ of 
enlightening and converting his countrymen. Tho-e were 
then not above one or two gathered churches in all W^ales, 
and very few preachers of die eospel. His friends approved 
and countenanced his benevolent inclination, but judged it 
advisable that he should first have some ftirtfaer literary 
advantage and instruction. Accordingly, he was placed for 
some dme under the care and tuition of Mr. Jeremiah Ives, 
a baptist minister of considerable respectability. Having con- 
tinued widi Mr. Ives, and eii|oyed the benefit of his instruc- 
tions for a consideraUe time, he, according to hb or^^inal 
intention, returned mto Wales. This, it appears, was about 
the year 1647« 

• Croftoa't Faneral Senaon and Life •f Mr. Fr«8tv 



tM LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Mr. Evans entered (ipon the ministerial work aa one fl 
siUe. of its importance, and deeply impressed with the worth 
of souls. It soon appeared that his labours were both accept* 
ah 'e and usefiil. The good people among whom he preached 
warm) J solicited and pressed him to continue with theiii, which 
he did to the end of his dsiys. Though, at the commencement 
of his nunistry, he does not appear to have been above thir^- 
years of age, he vras tinwearied in all his labonra to proiBote 
dieir best interests, and to extend the boundaries of the 
Redeemer's kmgdom. He presently succeeded in gatlierilfg 
a respectable congregation, which, as our author obaefves^ 
has continued by a succession of new members down to the 
present time. After having spent about ten years, widk 
exemplary diligence, unwearied perseverance, dnd eminent 
success in promoting the gospel among his countrymen, he 
finished his course in the prime of life, and in the heightof 
his usefulness, to the unspeakable regret of his mun^rHl 
fiiends, by whom he was exceedingly respected and bdoveAi 
His ministry was chiefly exercised in Radnorshire and Breclu 
nockshire. Dr. Walker enumerates him among the pc^Mlltt 
itinerants of Wales, and charges him with having. recetfrod * 
salary for itinerant preaching in both those counties.^ If ka 
did so, it only proves his great activity and uncommon labouttk 
When one man does the work of two, it is fit he shpuld H^ 
ceive double wages. There is reason to think, says oair' 
author, that he was for some time the only baptist mimstelr 
in Wales. Some of the other preachers, and Mr. Vavasdl* 
Powell among the rest, were probably baptized by him^ 
His people, it is added^ were all baptists, and do not appear 
to have admitted mixt communion, though some of the Be^b« 
bouring churched did ; nor did they practise singing in their 
public worship, except, perhaps, at the Lord's tBme, The 
church afterwards increased, and spread into several branches { 
and now forms three or four distinct and respectable chmt^hes^ 
assembling in the counties of Radnor, Brecon> and MonI* 
gomery. 

Mr. Evans had, doubtless, many enemies ; buthb pri^pd' 
opponents are said to have been the Quakers; who vnu» 
lently opposed him from the press, as well as otherwise, 
conceiving a very strong and unreasonable antSpathy agamst 
him. A hook was published against hiin, about die time (^ 
his death, by one John Moon, who called Mr. Evans ** tk6 
blind Welsh priest of Radnorshire/' and attempted^ V^ 

-• WaUer's Attempt, part i. p. 169. 



O. SEDGWICK. 195 

• I 

iUiberalljE, to aspenb and vilify his cfatncter and menoiy. 
His two friends, Mr. John Price and Mr. William Bownd^ 
answered die Quaker, and successfully vindieated their de- 
ceased brother; and, from their own intimate knowledge 
of him, expressed the liighest opinion of his integrity and 
piety, as well as the truest respect and veneration for his 
memoiy. The amiableness and respectability of his charac- 
ter may be safely inferred from the strong attachment of his 
pious and numerous friends. He died about the year 1857^ 
wid probably not more diain forty years of age.. But he lived 
long afterwards in the affectionate recollection of those who 
had attended on his faithful and edifrinir ministry*^ Mr. 
Heinry Gregory, who had been a member of Mr. Ehrans's 
church, was his successor in the pastoral office.t 



Obadiah Sedowiok, B. D.-<-This excellent person 
\I9«B brother to Mr. John Sec^wick, anodier puritan divine, 
bom at Mariborough in Wiltshire, in die year lOOO, and 
educated first at t^ueen's college, then in Magdaleohhall, 
Oxford. Having finished' his academical studies, he entered 
^M)n the ministerial exercise, and became chaplain to Lord 
Horatio Vere, whom he accompanied to die Low Countries. 
*Aft]er his return, he went again to Oxford, and, in the year 
16^, was admitted to the reading of die sentences. He was 
tutor to Matthew Hale, afterMfards die celebrated lord chief 
jii8tice.t LfCaving the umversity a second time, he became 
preacher at St. Mildred's, Bread-street, London; but was 
^ven from the place by die intolerance of the pr^ates. 
He became vicar of Coggeshall in Essex, in the year 16S9»S 
"where he continued two or three years. Upon the com- 
mencement' of the wars, he returned to die city and to his 
ministry at St. Mildred's, and was often called to preach 
before the parliament In die year 1642, he became chap« 
lain to Colonel HoUis's regiment in the parliament's army. 
The year following, he was appointed one of the licensers of 
the press, and chosen one of the assembly of divines, and he^ 
constantly attended.n Wood observes, but certainly with no 
good design, '< that while he preached at Mildred's, which 
was only to exasperate the people to rebel and conf6und 
episcopacy, it was usual with hkn, especially in hot weather^ 

« Theolog. Bib. Maf . vol. ▼. p. 4SO—42t. f Ibid. ? ol. ? f. p. 6» 



? Clark's Lives, last voU part ii. p. 186. 
Newcoart*s Repert. Eccl. ▼ol. ii. p. 100. 
I Neal's Paritaos, vol. it. p. 65av iU« 46, M. 



296 LIVES OF THE PURItANS. 

to onbottoii his doublet in the pulpit, that his breath iiiq;ht 
be longer, and his voice more audible, to rail against the 
king's party, and those about the king's person, whom he 
called popish counsellors. This he did in an especial manner 
in September, 1644, when he, with great concernmeDt, tcdd 
the people, several times, that God was angry with the. army 
for not cutting off delinquents."* Dr. Grey, with a similar 
design, denonnnates him '^ a preacher of treason, rebellion, 
and nonsense ;" for the proof of which, he alleges the follow- 
ing passages from Mr. Sedgwick's sermons preached befote 
tlie parliament : — ** The field which I am at this time to work 
upon, and eo over, you see is large. There is much mora 

f round in it tliaii 1 can conveiiiently break up and sow. 
shall therefore, by God's assistance, who is the only breaker 
of hearts, 'Iset upon the work, and may he in tender mercy so 
accompany, and water, and prosper his truths at this day, thai 
all our fsdlow ground may be broken up, and then be so gra- 
ciously sown in righteousness, that we and all the land may 
shordy reap in mercy. — Sirs, you must break up diis grcHUN^ 
or it will break up our land. There is not such a God- 
provoking sin, a God^removing sin, a church-dissQlving^.S 
kingdom-breaking sin, as idolatry. Down with it, down with 
it, even to the ground. Superstition is but a bawd to gross 
idolatry .-^Be as earnest and as active as you possibly can tp 
send labourers into the field ; I mean to plant the land with a 
heart-breaking ministiy. — God hath been the salvation of die 
parliament, and in the parliament, and for the parliament 
Salvation at Edge-hill; salvation at Reading and Causon; 
salvation at Gloucester ; salvation at Newbury ; salvation in 
Cheshire; salvation in Pembrokeshire; salvation in the 
north ; salvation from several treacheries ; and salvation from 
open hostilities.'*-!' Such are the formidable proofs, in th^ 
opinion of the learned doctor, that he was a preacher of 
treason, rebellion, and nonsense! How far he was guilty, 
every reader will easily judge. 

In tliC year 1046, Mr. Sedgwick became preacher at 
St. Paul's, Covent-garden ; where he was exceedingly fol- 
lowed, and was mstiumental in the conversion of many souls* 
In 1653, he was, by the pailiament, appointed one of the 
tri^ers ; and the year following was constituted one of tlie 
assistant commissioners of London for ejecting ignorant and 
scandalous mmisters. He ws(s very zealous to carry on, as 



♦ Wood's AthensB Oxon. Yol. ii. p. 139. 
i Grejf'b EzaminaiioD, vol. iii. p. 804— J206. 



SANDBROOKE. S97 

in deriaon it is called, '^the good work -of reformation in 
church and*8tate." He was a frequent preacher before the 
parliament. Sir John Birkenhead casts his foul aspersions 
upon him and Mr. Marshall, saying, ** it is pleasant ,to ob- 
serve how finely they play into each other's hands. Marshall 
procures thanks to be given to Sedgwick ; and, for his great 
pains, Sedgwick obtains as much for Marshall; and so they 
pimp for one another. But, to their great comfort be it 
spoken, their whole seven years sermons at Westminster are to 
be sold in Fetter-lane and Pye-comer."* Had this writer known 
how many of the episcopsd clergy purchased aqd preached 
the sermons of the puritans, he might have greatly extended 
his foul aspersions. Mr. Sedgwick finding, at length, that 
his health began to decline, he resigned all his preterments 
and retired to Marlborough, his native place, where he died 
in the month of January, 1658, aged fifty-seven years, and 
his remains were interred in the chancel of Ogbom St. A% 
drew, near Marlborough.f He was a learned divine, and an 
orthodox and admired preacher .t In his ministry, he was 
succeeded by the celebrated Dr. lliomas Manton, ejected in 
1662.$ 

His WoRKS.f-:l. Several Sermons on public Occasions, 1639, &e. 
--f42. Parliamentary Sermons, 1642, &c. ; among which were, ^ Eng- 
land's Preservation,'' 1642.—" Haman's Vani^," 1643.— " An Ark 
against a Deluge: or. Safety in Dangerous Times,** 1644.—^. Mii»- 
tary Discipline for the Christian Soldier, 1639.— 4. Christ's Council 
to his Languishing Church of Sardis, 1640. — 6. Speech in Guildhall, 
1043^—6. The best and worst Malignant, 1648.-— 7. The doubting 
Christian resolved, 1663. — 8. The humble Sinner resoWed; or. 
Faith in the Lord .(esns Christ the only way for sensible Sinners, dis- 
covering the Quality, Objects, and Acts of Justifying Faith J| 1656. — 
Ol The Fountain opened, and the Water of Life flowing, 1657. — 

10. The Shepherd of Israel ; or, an'Exposition of Psalm xiuii., 1658.— 

11. Anatomy of Secret Sins, 166a — 12. I'he Bowels offender Mercy 
Sealed in the Everlasting Covenant, 1660.— 13. The Parable of the 
Prodigal, 1660. — 14. Synopsis of Christianity. — 15. A Catechism. 



William Sandbkooke, L.B. — ^This pious person was 
educated in Gioucester-hall, Oxford ; and in 1635 he became 
rector of St. Peter's xihurch in that city, where his preaching 

• GfSBger^ Bi«g. Hist. vol. iii. p. 48. 

f Wood's Atbey» Oxod. vol. ii. p. 139, 140. 



1 Neal's PoriUns, vol. i?. p. 184. 



Palmer's Noocon. Mem. vol. i. p. 125, 426. 
j The MS. of this excellent work, and apparentl j io Mr. Mgwickli 
•wtt band, is in the posscsiion of the author. 



1M LIVES OF THE PURITANS, 

was much followed bj the religious and puritanical adiolarSk 
Upon die commencement of the civil wari he espoosed the 
cause of the parliament^ left the university, and went lo sea 
as chaplain to the Earl of Warwick, admiral to the puita* 
Bient. However, in 1644, being tired of a sea emvlsfmeB^ 
he became die officiating minister at St. Margarers- dhiirch^ 
Rochester, when Mr. Selvey,' the incumbent, to his- great 
honour, allowed him all the profit^ of the living. Afterwnrds^ 
by the powers which dien were, he was appointed one &[ 
die three lecturers at the cathedral in that city, ^ purpoeely^* 
sa^ our author, '^ to preach down the heresies and blasphe* 
ttnes of Richaitl Coppin, and his bigoted foUowers*** He 
died at Rochester in ihe month of March, l658, leaviif 
behind him the character of a godly and.paiiiAd preacher.* 
He published a work entided, ** The Chnrch Ae pn^et 
Subject of die New Covenant,'' 1646 ; and ^ Several Se»- 
mons," 1657. 



John Bevbrly was fellow of Trinity college, CanlMidlgis^ 
where he most probably received his education. Towaras 
the close of life he setded at Rowell in' Northamptonshire; 
where, by his pious and useful labours, he gathered a chiirch 
accorcling to me model of the independents. Having beeo 
instrumental in the conversion of about diirty peraonsy he 
united them in. church fellowship, upon congregpitioDai piift- 
ciples, when they entered into a covenant to vralk with each 
omer in the order of the gospel. The tenpr of their covenaot 
was, ** To walk.together with God, in gospel fdlA and ordlbSy 
■MMi a particular church, in the performance of all duties 
towards God^ towards each other, and towards all men^ in 
die strengdi of the spirit of Christ, and accordii^ to his 
word.^' They chose Mr. Beverly their pastor, two elders, 
and two deacons.. This was in the year 1656* Under 
Mr. Beverly's ministry,, many of the inhabitants of the 
town were awakened and received into the church. But 
bis excellent and useful labours were not long condmed 
among them after the above period ; for he died in tbe 
month of June, 1658. After his death, the good peopk who 
composed his church mosdy attended upon the ministry of 
Mr.' Thomas Browning of Desbprongh. Upon bis rioctioii, ' 
in 1662, they invited him to the office of pastor, and M con- 
tinued vnth them to the day of his death/ This clmiich B ' 

■• Wood'! AthtenaB Oxoo. vol. ii. p. 149. 



SKTG»LY-^W. CAKTBIL AM 

Mi m tlOBtbtkcey and ib rather a flouridiiiig state, under the 
pastoral care of Mr. Jokft Wood. Mr. Beveriy was author 
of several pieides on chunifa goremmettt : as> ** The Grnind 
*]Poiiit of Oiurch Matters." — ^A Trtet against Hombeck d§ 
Jhdepmtum^y in Latin.-^^ADd apieoe agahist fr/ee Admia^ 
sidtt) opposed' to Ae CoAtracUctioiiB of Timson, publMied m 



William* Cartek was bom in ^e year 1605| voA edo- 
^ted inihe university of Qambridge> after which he beeame 
a very popular preacher in London. In die year 1643, he 
was appointed one of ^ licensers of the press ; and, the 
tame year> was chosen one of the assembly of divines, upon 
which he constantly attended. After some time he joined 
liie independents, became one of the dissenting brethren in 
llle assemblj^, uid discovered his ^reat zeal, teamir^ and 
ittoderatton in support of their distinguishing sentimente.f 
In ' 1654, he was appointed one of the tiyers of public 

Sreachers, in which capacity Dr. Walker has endeavomed to 
epreciate his memoiy, widi that of other learned divmes.t 
Be had frequent ofiers of preferment, but, being dissatisfied 
with die parochial discipline of those times, he refused them 
all* He was, neverdieless, indefatigable in his ministry, 
jMeachk^ twice ^ry Lord's day to two large congregations 
m the i^ty^ besides weekly lectures and other occasional ser- 
vices. He was one of the preachers before the parliament. 
His incessant and arduous labours wasted his strength, and 

St an end td hift life about the month of June, 1658, aged 
y-lfaree years. He was a good scholar, an admired 
jpfeacher, Md a man of most exemplary piety.. His relations 
irere afterwards great sufferers by the purchase of bishops* 
linds.f He was author .of a sermon entitled, '' Israel's Peace 
vnl^ -God Benjamin's Overthrow ; preached before the 
Honourable House of Commons, at their late solemn Fast, 
July «7, 1642.'' 



: Hsin'i MS; Collcc. p. 4IS, 414.<-PklMf *» N«neoB. Mtai. «ol. ill. 

f*8l-rSS. 

f l>l88entiiig Brethren's ReaMos, p. 40 — . 

iWalkeT*^ Attempt, part i. p. 174, 175. 
JHai^ FnritSBi, tsl. Ui. p. 46. 



300 UVES DF THE PURITANS. 

John HARRi8y D. Dw— This learned person was the sob 
of Mr. Richard Harrisi rector of Hardwick in Bucldngham-- 
shire; bom at that place in the year 1588, educated in gram- 
mar learning at Wickham school, near Winchester, and 
admitted perpetual fellow of New College, Oxford, In 
the year 1617 he was fmanimously elected one of the proc- 
tors of the university ; and two years after was chosen Greek 
professor, both of which offices he filled with great honour. 
Afterwards, he was prebendary of Winchester, rector of 
Meanstock in Hunpshire, and, in the year 1630, h^ became 
'warden of Wickbam college. In the beginning of die civil 
wars, he took part with the parliament, and was, appointed 
one of the assembly of divines ; when he took the x^ovenant 
and other oaths, and kept his wardenship to the day of lua 
death. He died August 11, 1658, aged seventy years, and 
his remi^ins were interred in the chapel belonging to Wickham 
college. Dr. Harris was so adnurable a Grecian, and so 
eloquent a preacher, that Sir Henry Savile used to call him 
the second Cfarysostom.* He published " A short View of 
the life of Dr. Arthur Lake, bishop of Bath and Wells,* < 
1629* Several of his letters to the celebrated Dr. Twisse 
were also published by Mr. Henry Jeanes, in 1653. One <tf 
these letters was '^ Of God's finite and infinite Decrees;?- 
another, " Of the Object of Predestination." It does not 
appear, however, that he was any relation to Dr. Robert 
Harris, another puritan divine who lived at the same time. 



Thomas Goodwin. — ^Tliis excellent servant of Christ 
was some years minister at South Weisld in Essex, where be. 
was much beloved, and eminendy useful. He was a divine 
of puritan principles, and deeply concerned for the purity and 
spirituality pf christian worship, lliough he died joui^, he. 
was a person of great learning, exemplary piety, and univer- 
sal reputation. Mr. Bownd, who preached his funend ser- 
mon, gives the following account of him : ** He was an. 
eminent light and pillar in the church where he lived. He 
gave evident proof that he was one in Christ, and is now 
blessed. He was a good and precious man, and well known 
to be a minister of great worth, every way qualified for the 
work to which he was called. It was his desire firom a yoatk 
to be a minister of the gospel ; and, accordii^ to that desire^ 
the Lord in due time called him to his service. To his qndB- 

« Wood's Atbeoa Oxoo. vol. U. p. 144.— Ecbaid's Hiit. of £^r- 
vol. ii. y. S87. 



- I 



J. HAllRIS— GOODWIN* SOI 

ficati^ns for the sacred office, his brethren in the counter, with 
many others in more distantplaces, could give ample testunonj. 
He was a learned and a godly person, and it is difficult to 
say which of the two had the pre-eminence : they seemed to 
keep pace, and he was eminent in both. He was a great pro- 
ficient in the study of divinity and in a knowledge of the holy 
scriptures. Like Ezra, he was a ready scribe in the law of 
the Lord; and, like ApoUos, mighty in the scriptures. 
Though he was young, his attainments were very great; 
God gave unto him abundantly of his spirit. In prayer he 
had much of the spirit of devotion, and was filled with the 
breathings of the Holy Ghost. In preaching, he was very 
pow;erful, and spoke directly to the hearts of his hearers. In 
his hfe, he was most exemplary, both as a christian and a 
minister. His preaching was admired by the godly and the 
learned, yet persons of the meanest capacity could under-* 
stand him. He had such a winning method, that his ser- 
mons were never tedious, but the attention of his hearers 
seemed to be chained to his lips. He took great pains in his 
ministry, and was frequendy engiqged in preaching, in which 
he took great delight. The love of Christ, and me souls of 
the people, made frequent preachii^ his recreation and hi<t 
pleasure. 

This faithful Qiinister of Christ was very jealous in pro- 
moting a further reformation of the church. The zeal of 
God's house did even eat him up. In the cause of God he 
manifested undaunted cours^e, and laboured vigorously to 
promote the Redeemer's kingdom and glory, whatever oppo- 
sitions were in the way. One might stand upon his grave 
and say, ^' Here lies one who never feared the face of any 
.man.'* He was never proudly puffed up with his rare endow- 
ments ; but, in the whole of his conversation, he discovered a 
happy degree of humility and holiness* He lived fi-ee fi*om 
woiidly incumbrances, but fiill of cares for God's glory and 
the ssdvation of his people. He was deeply concerned for 
persons in sickness and death.- He used to tell me, says oup 
audiCNT, how sadly it affected his heart wheti any one was sick, 
or taken away by death, and he, the pastor, have no know- 
ledge of his condition. He naturally cared for the souls of 
the people ; and he sought not his own things, but the tliinp 
of Jesus Christ. He was a minister of the gospvl, and iia 
endeavoured to fulfil his ministry. He made his work his 
business, and *^ studied to approve himself unto God a work* 
man that needed not to be ashamed." 
As tfiis righteons man lived, so he died| and bis «im1 wm 



4M . LIVES OF THE WKVtMiS. 

hmppy. Duriiw^ the sickneM of which he died, I vitiM 
him, sftyi Mr. Bownd, and havkig recoiiUBeBded wbaufr 
lion to die will of God under all hia di8p€»«atioii0, lie r^lidily 
concurred, and added, *^ But my desire is to teach fuftbw^ 
and not only to submit, which an ordinary christian nwiy.df^ 
but to raise up myself (o courage and cfaeerfuhiess under ibi 
rod. Blessed be God, that hitherto I can date his choic^ 
merciies from some great aiBiction.'' Having exhorted hte 
to the lively exercise of faidi, that he might be abl^ to queadh 
the fiery do-ts of the devil, he replied, ^' I Wess God, iblt 
Satan hatii, as yet, got no ground by this affliction/' Coniiw 
to him on anodier occasion, and finding him gready redmmf 
he said, ^^ Dear fiiend, two days since I overbed the ifXtpf 
speaking to my wife, as if he £^ed me ; and I bless GqA )w1iO 
ao ordered it diat 1 diould h^u- him. For, indeed, till 4w% 
I did nojt so seriously consider of death, as I have done jjocf • 
I did all along in my sickness set my heart to labour far a 
sanct^ed use of the Lord's hand; but, overfaearivg ifaai^' 
I diou^t it needful to look most carefully into my famrt aa 
to evidences for eternity ; and truly, upon a thoron^ iseanh 
of my heart, I bless God, I find good old evidences, thwi^ 
I be but a young man, and ibey stick very close to me. fijk§ 
friend," said he, " one thing I must tell you, which taiivhkf 
and afflicts my spirit very much, that when I grew teiy 
serious, being exercised about serious work, the aeajrjcbing,4rf 
my heart for eternity-evidences, I perceived tiiis seriouiwwrt 
of mine was judged by some to be melanchojly, for ftar ct 
death. Now this, indeed, troubles me very mucli^ that aay 
riiould take .me to be such a one who am afraid to die.^ 

I afterwards called upon hiiEL, says his pious ibiogimplMri 
and told him that his friends were about to meet to^Mier 
to offer up prayer to God for him ; when, after pauaing a 
little, he broke out in most affectionate expressions of th^ 
sense he had <^ his people's love to him, and how greatthf ha. ^ 
loved them, saying, ^^ Oh my poor peo{)Ie ! Oh the souu of 
my poor people ! How dear, now precious are tfiey to ma I 
Oh, if God should spare me, how would I lay out m y talf 
for them!" He then vrished me tp commend him to hit 
people, and tell them, diat which be desired them to beg of 
God was a clearer sense of his love, saying, ''Not 'dint I 
altogether want it; for, 1 bless God, I Iwve it;"' butooiM say 
9Q more. 

The next time I called upon him, •continues Air. Bownd^ I 
heard from his mouth a most predious and powerfid da* 
tMraa aonceming the a^eetqeaa mnd fidness of Ghnit. He 



X. HARRIS. SB$ 

tmalktmatuii kebad been preacbkur from die pidpit. I 
«pU :|»t help wondering to bear bkf deliror a duoouise ao 
~ metnodicmly quoting the scripturet, aad not fiuling 
e, almost without fiiulteiing. He very nupresuvely 
those worda^ ** AXL things are yaarsj whether PaiH 
.Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or deaths or 
igs;** whea he oould proceed no further, but afterwaiAa 
zMed, ** because ye are Christ's." He afiberwards said, 
'^ WeHy it is a sweet thing when he that speaks of Christ 
hadi Cbist dwelling in Urn, at the time when he speaks ;** 
m gave iq> the ^host. He died in die prime of life, 
Ihe midst of his usefulness, September 4, 16.58 ;* but 
r he was any rdation to die cdebrated Dr. Thomas 
in, or to Mr. John Goodwin^ both of whom lived air 
fa BsawlUBe, we have not been abk to kam. 



BoBSBT Hakris, D. D. — ^This learned divine vras bom 
it Biiaa d Campden m Gloucestershire, in the year 1578, 
aal odncated in Magdalen collie, Oxf<mi, where he became 
aa CKcaUent scholar, and a famous logician and disputant. 
Bf &e blessing of God upon his studies, and the pioutf 
ivImelaoDs of his tutor, he was brought to a saving know^ 
kd^e of the gospel, and soon after became a celebrated 
puitUL He preached his first sermon at Chipping Campden 
m his native county. Such, however, is said to have been 
the igaonuice of the times, that when he came to the church 
there was no BiUe to be found ; and it was with much diffi-* 
txdty that he could procure one to carry virith him into the 
pnlpil. Indeed, the vicar of the parish possessed a Bible, 
ta whose house he was directed ; but, as it had not been seen 
fior many months, it was with great difficulty it could be 
foinkL Having at length prociu-ed the sacred volume, he 
went to the church and preached an admirable sermon from 
8m. X. Lf 
He eKcettent Mr. Dod being silenced for nonconformity, 
d^qected from Hanwell in Oxfordshire, Sir Anthony Cope 
* Mr. Harris to become his successor. He, accordingly, 
itmoved to Hanwell, though with much grief and fear. I'he 
WOfle would own no man as their pastor except him who 
Bad been ejected. It was, however, agreed upon that Mr. 
Harris jhould preach so long as there was any hope of 
MQirfldng Mr. Dod. During Uiis unsettled state at Hanwell, 

d'l Funeral Sermon for Mr. Goodwin. 

,*j filfcs aaaezMl to liartjrolosle, -p. dU, SU. 



3M LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Archbishop Bancroft presented the living to one of his 
chaplains, on pretence of a lapse. But Sir Anthony Cope, 
then sitting in parliament, together with several other mem- 
bers of the house, waited upon the archbishop, and presented 
Mr. Harris, whom his grace, after a long contest, reluctandj 
admitted. Sir Anthony having formerly spoken against in- 
sufficient ministers, not without some reflection upon the 
intolerant proceedings of the archbisliops and bishops, Ban- 
croft embraced this opportunity of shewing his resentment; 
and, therefore, referred Mr. Harris to be stnctly examined by 
the most learned of his chaplains. ^Fhe chaplain, after mifli- 
cient examination, returned Mr. Harris moderately hamei* 
This proving unsatisfactory to the archbishop, he was com- 
mitted to the examination of Bishop Barlow, a person ezacdy 
suited to Bancroft's wishes. The bishop was a person irf 
great wit and learning, and extremely glad of the opportunity. 
He examined Mr. Harris first in divinity, then in other 
branches of learning, particularly the Greek, in which Us 
lordship was esteemed a celebrated critic. As the stoiy ii 
related, '^ they Greeked it till they were both run aground lor 
want of words; upon which they burst into a fit of laughter, 
and so gave it over."* Barlow returned to the archfaislioB^ 
and, delivering a most fovomnble testimony, his grace, it v 
said, was satisfied. 

Mr. Harris being now settled at Hanwell, Mr. Scudder at 
Drayton, and Mr. Whately at Banbury, they became paiti- 
cidarly intimate, and were united in judgment and afiectioa. 
Mr. Harris married Mr. Whately 's sister, and Mr. Scudder 
his wife's sister. These divines commonly met tosedier 
once a week, to translate and analyze a chapter of the Bibk. 
Iliis practice was productive of numerous good effects^ bf 
stirring them up to greater diligence, and promoting the* 
mutual edification. 

. Though Mr. Harris was thus comfortably settled, he wis 
called to endure many trials. His faith and patience were 
much exercised by his wife's long and painful illness. Thb 
a£Siction, said Mr. Dod, was designed to season him and fit 
him for tus work. '^ And I should have been spoiled,'' ssjs 
Mr. Harris, '' had 1 not been tlius taken down. Youig 
ministers know not on what ground they tread till God make 
them humble." He, nevertheless, foimd much encourage* 
ment in hb work. His people began to relish his miaistiy, 
and the Lord greatly blessed his labours. He did not fised 

• Clark's Utei, p. 818. 



R. HARRIS. 90S 

Ihem i^ith airy notions^ and dry speculations, but with '^ the 
sincere milk of the word ;'' and in a method adapted to those 
of the meanest capacity. And God is said to have so won- 
derfully blessed his endeavours, that there was not one prayer- 
le^s family in Hanwell, nor one person who refused his 
examination and instruction previous to receiving the Lord's 
supper. 

In this situation he continued about forty years, blessed in 
himself, and made a blessing to his people, until the com* 
mencement of the civil wars. Tlie bloody battle of Edge- 
hill, only a few miles distant, was fought October 23, I6489 
being the Lord's day ; yet, the wind bein^ contrary, he did 
not hear the least noise of it till tiie public exercises of the 
day were over ; nor could he believe tlie report of a battle 
till soldiers, besmeared with blood, came to make it known. 
From this time his troubles increased. Rude soldiers were 
quartered upon him, some calling him romtd-kead, others 
tnalignant ; but he continued to attend upon his numerous 
duties as at other times. One company that was quartered 
upon him was so outrageous in sweating, that he could not 
forbear preaching from James v. 12. ^' Above all things, mj 
brediren, swear not at all." This so offended them, that they 
swore they would shoot him if he preached again from the 
same text Undismayed by their tlireatenings, he ventured to 

£ reach from the same words the following sabbath ; when, as 
e was preaching, he observed a soldier preparing bis fii^ock, 
as if he meant to shoot; but Mr. Harris went on without 
fear, and finished his discourse without interruption.* He. 
indeed, endured the storm till he had suffered very material 
iigury, and was at length drives from the place. 

Ifr. Harris, being forced from his flock, fled to London^ 
when he was chosen one of the asseinbly of divines, and 
preached at St. Botolph's church, Bishopsgate. He wu 
one of the preachers before the parliament. In 'the year 
1646, he was' appointed one of the six preachers to the 
miversity of Oxford; and, the year following, one of the 
visitoni. Dr. Walker, with his usual slander, observes, that 
when the visitors proceeded to open their visitation, they 
began, as they did all their odier distinguished wickedness. 
sod accordu^ to their usual hypocrisy, with prayen ana 
a sermon! Tne sermon was preached by Mr. Hams.f He, 
at the same tkne, took his doctor*s degree, was made piesi- 

s CUurk'f Livei, p. 3tl. t Walker's Attcnpl, part i. p. 117. 

VOL. IIT. X 



a06 LIVES OP THE PURITANS. 

ident of Trinity college, and became rector of GrarlingtoB, 
near Oxford. He governed his college with great prudence, 
gaining the affections of all the fellows and students^ who 
reverenced him as a Either. 

Dr. Harris, in his last sickness, being desired to admit 
company, i^aid, f ' It is all one to me whether I am left alone 
or have my friends with me. My work is now to arm myself 
for death, which now assault me, and apply myself to that 
great encounter." Accordingly, he spent all his time in 
prayer, meditation, and reading the scnptures ; and when he 
became unable to read himself, his friends read to him. He 
said to them, ** You must put on all the armour of God, and 
then go forth in the strength of the Lord. Stand in Ae 
fight, and the issue will be clorious : only for^t not to call 
in the help of your General. Do all from hun and under 
him." Bems asked whence he derived his comfort, he said, 
" From Chnst and the free grace of God." When it was 
signified that he might take much comfort from his laboon 
and tisefulness, he replied, '^ All is nothing without a Saviour. 
Without him my best works would condemn me. Oh! I 
am ashamed of them, being mixed with so much -sin. Oh! I 
am an unprofitable servant. 1 have not done anything for Crod 
as I ought. Loss of time sits heavy upon my spirit. Woik, 
work apace. Be assured nothing will more trouble you, when 
you come to die, tlian that you have done no more for Grbd, 
who has done so much for you." He said, ** I never saw Ac 
worth of Christ, nor tasted the sweetness of God's love^ id 
so great a measure as I do now." When his friends asked 
what they should do for him, he replied, '' You must not only 
pray for me, but praise God f&r his unspeakable mercy to me. 
O, how good is God ! Entertain good thoughts of hmi. We 
cannot think too well of him, nor too ill of ourselves. I an 
now going home, even quite spent. I am on the shore, bat 
leave you still tossing on the sea. Oh ! it is a good time to die 
in." Afterwards, being asked how he did, he said, ^' In no 
great pain, I -praise God, only weary of my useless Bfe. If 
God hath no more work for me to do, I would be glad to be 
in heaven, where I shall serve him vnthout distractions^ I 
pass from one death to another ; y^ I fear none. I pnuse 
God that I can IKe, and dare die. If God hadi more woriL 
for me to do, 1 am wflling to do it, though my infirm body be 
very weary.'' He professed that he lived and cBed in tiiat nidi 
which he preached, and found its unspeakable comforts now in 
the immediate prospect of death. He closed his eyes ia 



peace^ resigniDg hit soul to God, December 11, l658/iq[ed 
eighty years.* 

Mr. Clark gives the following account /of his exeellent 
endowments: — He was a hard student, endowed witfi great 
parts, and furnished with all manner of learning necessary to 
a divine. He was a pure and elegant Latinist, very exact in 
the Hebrew, and much admired as a subtle, clear, and ready 
disputant. He excelled in chronology, church history, the 
councils, case divinity, and in the knowledge of the fadiers. 
But his parts were best seen in the pulpit. His gifts in 
■prayer were very great; his affections warm and fervent; his 
petitions weighty and substantial ; and his language, pertinent, 
unaffected, and without tautology. He preached with 
learned plainness, unfolding the great mysteries of the 
gospel to persons of the meanest capacities. He used to 
My, '^ a preacher hath three books to study: the Bibkf 
himself y and his p/iople" He observed, that the humblest 
{Nreachers converted the greatest number of souls, not the 
most learned scholars while unbroken. He valued no man 
for his gifts, but for his humility under them. Nor did he 
expect much from any man, were his parts ever so great, till 
he was broken by temptations and afflictions. He was a 
man> who ruled "(^ell his own house, was of great modera- 
tion about church discipline, exceedingly charitable to the 
poor, and eminently distinguished for humility, mortification, 
and self-denial. In short, he was richly furnished with every 
necessary qualification to render him a complete scholar, 
a wise governor, a profitable preacher, and an excellent 
christian.f 

Notwithstanding this account from the impartial pen of 
one who must have been well acquainted with him, Dr. 
Walker has stigmatized him as *^ a notorious pluralist." He 
rests the evidence of this slanderous accusation upon the 
authority of a scurrilous and abusive letter, published to 
expose and pour contempt upon the puritans. The doctor 
ilso observes, ** that he had somewhere read, that in those 
times Dr. Harris's picture was drawn with one steeple upon 
bis head, and odiers coming out of his pockets." We shall 
Hot attempt to justify pluralities. They are undoubtedly 
indefensible. Yet the satire had certainly been more season- 
able, if pluralities did no where exist among rigid churchmen.^ 
Respecting this charge, Dr. Harris himself made the follow- 
ing open and generous declaration : '' I stood clear," says 

• Clark's Lives, p. S25--S27, + Ibid, p. WY— 3S1. 

J Walker*! Attempt, part I. p. 127. 



90B LIVES OF T&B PURITANS. 

he, ^ in my own conscicncey and in the consciettciBS of those 
who best knew me. I was far from allowing nonresidence 
and a plurality of livings; yet, to such as were ignolvnt of all 
circumstancesy there was some appearance of evil."* He 
undoubtedly possessed several benefices; but whedier he 
received the profits of them all, and enjoyed them all at the 
same time, appears extsemely doubtfuL Though Dr. Gr^ 
denominates him '*■ a fanatical hero^ and a professedl 
enemy to the constitution, both in church and state;'' yet 
he in part acquits him of the vile charge, and invalidatisa, 
in a great measure^ the authority of th6 above scurrilous 
letler.t 

The Oxford historian brings accusations against Dr. Harris, 
which, if true, would prove him to have been one of tbe 
basest of men. He charges him with having taken- for his 
own use two bi^ of gold,containing one hundred pouwk eadb^ 
which he found among some old rubbish in Tnaity rnlhir, 
soon after he became president. He also affirms, that Br. 
Harris told several most glaringfalsehoods, with a view In 
secure the money to himself*. Though our documents wffl 
not afford us materials for a complete refutation of the«e 
charges ; yet the whole of what is asserted, and especiallyjlhe 
worst part of it, is so contrary to the uniform spirit and 
deportment of this learned and pious divine, that the account, 
appears extremely suspicious, and only designed to reproach 
the memory of the puritans.} 

Dr. Harris's last will and testament contains much excel* 
lent adiace to his wife and numerous children, but is too 
long for our insertion.^ His works came forth at diflfieient 
times, but were afterwards collected and published in one 
volume folio, in 1654. The pious Bishop Wilkins passes, aa 
liigh encomium upon his sermons.|| It doc^ not appear 
whether he was any relation to Dr. John. Harris, whose 
memoir is given in a foregoing article. 



Christopher Feake was first a minister in the esta* 
blished church, afterwards he joined the brethren of the 
separation, espoused the sentiments of the baptbts, became a 
fifth . monarchy-^nan, and was exceedingly zealous in the. 
cause. Edwards, who styles him a great sectary, gives die 

• Clark*! Lives, p. 323. 

f Greer's Examination, toI. ii. p. 898, 299. 

} Wood's AciieDaB Oxod. toI. ii. p. 748. 

Ir Clark's Uves, p. 336—338. f| VfUlkisi on Preaching, p. 8S, 89. 



FEAKE* 909 

following curious and amusing account of him : ** This 
Master Feake, >¥ithin this twelvemonth, was preacher in Lon- 
don, and hath preached many strange and odd things at 
Peter's in Comhill, besides Wool-church, and other places : 
as, for separation from* our assemblies, expressing many 
heterodox things about mixed communion at theiLoitPs 
supper, against maintenance of ministers by uAes ; and, in 
sermons and prayers, hath had many flings at the assembly ; 
butnow is preacher in the town of Hertford, and in AIL-saints, 
the greatest parish and church of that town, being put into a 
sequestrated living by the power of some of the independents. 
As for his carriage at Hertford, where he hath preached since 
last January, it hath been as follows : His preaching and 
praying shews him to he no friend to the assembly, nor to the 
directory; h^ hath never used the Lord's prayer since he 
went thither, but hath preached agunst the use of k as a 
l^rayer. It is observed of him by understanding men, hia 
auditors, that they never heard him appoint <h* sing a paakn ; 
he reads but one chapter, or a piece of a chapter, and hath 
Hot baptized any since his going. One of the committee, a 
Jnslice of peace, put up some articles against him at die 
«88izes at Hertford, to both judges dien on the bendi. The 
"finit was this, ' That God would destroy not only unlawful 
government, but lawful government, not only the abuse, bat 
the use of it; and as he had be^m to destroy it in E^haid, 
«o would he, by raising combustions in the bowels of imuice 
and Spain; and that he would destroy aristocracy in Holland^ 
for toleratii^ arminianism/ When he denied tibe words, one 
being present and asked, affirmed him to have preached ^us ; 
and there are found four oAers, understandiiig men and of 
igood worth, who will testify the same. When Master Feake 
«iplained himself before the judges, that there was in 
monarchy and aristocracy an enmity against Christ, which he 
would destroy ; and as he was preaching, some turbnlent 
fellows and sectaries clambered up by the bench, and cried 
oat, ' My lord, my lord, Mr. Pr. doth it in malice : we will 
maintain our ipinister with our blood.' Whereupon the 
juitee threw away the paper, and said he would hear no more 
of It, though he had before commanded Master Eldred to> 
read openly all those heterodoxies. The Lord's day follow- 
ing Master Feake in the pulpit endeavoured to answer all 
die articles put up 9gtm»t him to the judges, in m great 
aaditory.''* 

« EAmwH^ GMsrsoa, part iii. p. 81, 147, Ut. 



810 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Upon the sequestration of Mr. )\^illiam Jenkin he became 
minister of Christ's churchy London/ and afterwards one of 
die lecturers at Blackfriars; but was most violent against 
Cromwell's government. He is denominated a bold and 
crafty orator, of high reputation among the anabaptists. He 
preached with great bitterness against the civil administration 
during the commonwealth, but especially against the protec* 
tor, calling him ** the man of sin, the old dragon, and the 
most dissembling and perjured villain in the world;" and 
desired, that if any of his friends were present, they would go 
and tell him what he said.t The protector, therefore, to 
support his own authority, ordered hiufi to be taken into 
custody. He was apprehended in the year iGoS, when he 
was carried before Cromwell and the council, and committed 
prisoner to Windsor-castle4 The baptists, disliking the 
proceedings of goveiiiment, protested against them in t 
work entitled,/' A Declaration of several of the Churclies of 
Christ, and godly people in and about the city of LondoD, 
concemii^ the kingly interest of Christ, and the present 
sufierings of his cause and saints in England,'' 1654. Ib 
this piece they declare, *^ That they value the churches of 
Christ, which are the lot of God's inheritance, a thousand 
times beyond their own lives ; that it is their duty to perse- 
vere therein to the utmost hazard of their lives ; that the Lord 
made them instruments to vex all in his sore displeasure, vi4io 
take counsel against Christ, whom the Lord hath anointed 
and decreed king; and that they were not merely the 
servants of man ; and that they not only proclaimed Jesm 
Christ to be king, but that they would submit to, him alone 
upon his own terms, and admit him only to the exercise of his 
royal authority," 1 his declaration was subscribed by a gre^t- 
number of persons ; ten of whom are said- to be ** of the 
church that walks with Mr. Feake, now close prisoner for this 
cause of Christ, at Windsor-castle."$ He remained under. 
confinemeht several years; was in prison in 1655; but enjoyed 
his liberty in 165 7 11 These tribulations did not cause him 
to desist from his public labours. For he was no sooner 
released from prison than he renewed his ministerial exer^ 
cise, and was preacher in the city, most probably at various 
places, in the year 1658 ;f but when he.died we are not abU 



♦ Keonet's Chronicle, p. 793. 

+ Thurloe's State Papers, vol. i. p. 621. 

± Ibid. vol. ii. p. 67. ^ Declaration, p. 9, 91. 

« Thurloe's State Papers, vol. iii. p. 485. t. 756. 

IT Ibid. vol. vii. p. 57. 



PARTRIDGE— SYMPSON. 3H 

to learn. He was author of several pieces, the tides of which 
have not come to our knowledge. 



Ralph Partridge was a most worthy minister, and b> 
great sufferer from the persecuting prelates. He was hunted 
by the severity of the bishops, as he used to express it, '^ like 
a partridge upon the mountains, till at last he was resolved tQ 

fet out of their reach, and took flight to New England.'^ 
Ipon his arrival, he settled at Duxbury in the colony of 
Plymouth, and was held in very high repute through the 
country. Tlie synod of Cambridge^ in 1648, made choice of 
him, together with Mr. Cotton and Mr. Mather, to draw up 
their model of church government. He was a person of 
great humility and self-denial, and always content with the 
meanest circumstances. When most of the ministers of 
Plymouth colony left their places, on account of their want 
of a sufficient maintenance, this good man continued with Ub 
people to the last.* He lived a pious and unblamable life, 
possessed a grave and solid judgment, was famous in dispu- 
tation, and much honoured and beloved by all who knew hun. 
This excellent servant of Christ was scarcely ever interrupted 
in his ministry by bodily sickness, during the period of forty 
years. He dhed in a good old age, in the year l658.f 



. Sydrach Sympson, B. D. — This meek and quiet divme 
received his education iu' the university of Cambridge, and 
afterwards became a celebrated preacher in London. He 
was appointed curate and lecturer of St. Margaret's church, 
fiah-street ; but his preaching soon gave offence to Arch<- 
bishop Laud, who, in his metropolitical visitation, in the year 
1635, convened him before him, with several other divines, 
for breach of canons. Most of them having promised sub- 
mission, they were di8missed.t By the intemperate super- 
stition and bigotry of Laud, and the violence with which he 
exacted conformity, many eminent divines were driven out of 
the kingdom. Amoi^ these were Mr. (afj^erwards Dn) 
Thomas Goodwin, Mr. Philip Nye, Mr. Jeremiah Bur- 
roughs, Mr. William Bridge, and Mr. Sympson. They all 
retired to Holland, and were afterwards denominated the five 
pillars of the independent or congregational party ; and, in 

• Mather's Hist, of New England, b. iii. p. 99. 

f Morton^ Memorial, p. 153. 

t Wharton's Trouble! of Land, to!, i. p. A86. ' 



1^1 



819 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

the assembly of diviaes, were distinguished by the name of 
die dmentuig brethren.* 

Upon Mr. Sympson's arrival in Holland, he went to 
Botterdam ; and beholding the good order of the Engliidi 
church at that place, under the pastoral care of Mr. Bridse, 
he desired to become a member ; and, upon delivering his 
confession of fedth, was received into their communion. 
After some time, Mr. Sympson discovered certain things in 
the church which he did not well approve ; and urged die 
utility of prophesyingSy that, after sermon on the Lord's day, 
the people might express their doubts, and propose questions 
to the ministers, with a view to their better edihcation. Tins, 
however, with some other things, produced a misunderstand- , 
ing betwixt Mr. Bridge and Mr. Sympson ; which, at lengdi^ 
caused the latter even to separate himself from the church, 
and begin a new interest. This new society had, indeed, a 
very small beginning, but afterwards, through die blessing of 
God, it became very considerable^ Mr. Joseph Symonds^ 
another persecuted puritan, succeeded him in the office of 
pastor to diis church.| 

About the commencement of the civil war Mr. Sympson 
returned to England ; and in the year 1643 was chosen one 
of the assembly of divines, and he constandy attended drain 
the session. In all their debates he conducted himself wim 
great temper and moderation. He was one of the five divines 
who published and presented to the house of conunoDf, in 
1643, ^* An Apologetical Narration submitted to die Honenw. 
able Houses of Parliament," in favour of the independents. 
In the year 1645 he was appointed one of the committee oT 
accommodation.^ In the year 1647 he united with bb dii* 
senting brethren in presenting their reasons to the houses of 
parliament, against certain p^rts of the presbyterian goven- 
ment.|| In the year 1650 he was appointed, by the pnilift* 
mentary visitors, master of Pembroke-hall, Cambric^, in 
the room of Mr. Vines, who was turned out for refusing the . 
engagement. In 1654 he yms chosen a member of the com* 
mittee for drawing up a catalogue of fundamentals, to be 
presented to the parliament. During the same year he was 
constituted, by order of die council, one of the commissioners 
for the approbation of public preachers; these commissioners 
were commonly distinguished by the name of fryers. In 

• Neal's Puritans, toI. iii. p. 917. 

f £dward8*s Aotapolo^a, p. 142, 143. 

X Bailie's DissoasiTe, p. 7T. § Papen of Accom. p. 1S» 

I Beasooi of Dissentins Brtthreo, p. 40> 13S, 198. 



STMPSON. 



313 



1655 he was appointed, by a commission from the protector 
Clromwelly one of the new visitors of the oniversity of Cam- 
bridge.* During the long parliament he gathered a church 
and congregation in London, upon the plan of the indepen-' 
dents^ which assembled in Abchurch, near Cannon-street. 

Mr. Sympson was a divine of considerable learning, of 
great piety and devotion, and a celebrated preacher. Dr. 
Grey calls him a celebrated preacher of rebellious principles ; 
which is plain, says he, from the following passage in one of 
his sermons: ^' Reformation is liable to inhuman treacheries. 
Pharaoh's dealing was very treacherous. He bade the 
people go ; gave them liberty by proclamation ; and when he 
had got them at an advantage, he brought up an army to cut 
them off. The reforming of the church will meet widi such 
kind of enemies."! If the learned doctor had not been m the 
constant practice of ascribing rebellion to the puritan divines, 
be would have fotind some difficulty in discovering rebellious 
principles from this passage. And so far from appearing ^ 
plain from the passlEige, that he was a celebrated preacher of 
those princi{Mes, we diink it would puzzle all the learning of 
the two universities of Oxford and* Cambridge to make the 
discovery. Mr. Edwards censures him for attempting to' 
piopagate his own sentiments relative to church discipline^ 
ub^ty of conscience, and universal toleration.^ In his last 
sickness, he laboured under spiritual darkness and some 
melancholy apprehensions; on which account certain of his 
friemls and brethren assembled at his house to assist him 
with their prayers. When they took their leave of him, he 
tfianked them, and said, he was now satisfied in his soul, and 
lifting up his hands towards heaven, exclaimed, ^^ He b 
come, he is come !" and died the same evening. This was 
m the year 1658.$ Mr. Sympson published several sermons 
pveached before the parliament, one of which is entitled, 
^ Refpirmation's Preservation, opened in a Sermon preached 
at Westminster before the Honourable House of Commons, 
at the late solemn Fast, July 26, 1643.'' He was author 
of some other pieces, the titles of which have not reached 



• Sylvester*! lAt^ of Baxter, part ii. p. 197.— Neal*s Pnritani, Vol. it. 
p. S7, 183. 

f Gre>*i Examination, toI. i. p. 188. | Antapologia, p. 215,216* 
S NeaPi Paritans, vol. iv. p. 207* 



314 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Robert Dinglet^ A. M.— This mcms minister was the 
son of Sir Jolrn Dingley, by a sister of Dr. Henry Hammond ; 
Mras bom in Surrey, in Uie year 1619^ and educ|ited in Mag- 
dalen college, Oxford. Having finished his studies at ths 
imiversity, he took orders, and, according to Wood, became 
«< a strict observer of church ceremonies, and a remarkable 
bower to the altar when he entered the church." Upon the 
commencement of the wars, he espoused the cause of the 
parliament, became an avowed enemy to superstitious cere- 
monies in divine worship, and a zealous puritan. He was 
made rector of Brightstone in the Isle of Wight, where he was 
much followed by those of his own persuasion, for .his excel- 
lent practical preaching. He was presented to this benefice 
when Colonel Hammond, his kinsman, was governor of die 
island. But while Mr. Dingley was thus caressed and fol« 
lowed by his own party, he was hated by the royalists, oa 
account of his activity as assistant to the commissioners of 
Hampshire, for ejecting ignorant and scandalous ministen 
and schoolmasters.* This is the only crime alleged against 
him, for which he was even hated by die contrary party. He 
died at .Brightstone, in the year l659> and his remains werQ 
interred in the chancel of hb own church. Over his grave 
was .the following monumental inscription erected to hii 
memory: 

Here 

lieth the body 

of Mr. Robert Dingley, 

Minister of thiai place ; 

second sen of Sir John Dingley, Knighi, 

who died on the twelfth day of January^ 

1669, 

in the fortieth year 

of his age. 

1.5 

His Works. — 1. The Spiritnal Taste described : or, a Glimpse of 
Christ discovered, 1640. — ^2. The Disputation of Angels: or, ths 
Ang^cl Guardian, 1654. — 3. Messiah's Spicndonr : or, the |^liiiipso4 
Glory of a Beauteous Christian, 1654. — 4. Divine Optics: or, alVeft- 
tise of the Eye, discovering the Vices and Virtues thereof, 1665.— 
5. Philosophical, 1 historical, and Theological Observations ef 
Thunder, with a more general view uf God's wonderful Woiki^ 
1658.—^ A Sermon on Job xxvL 14., 1658. 



* Wood's Athene Oxon. vol. ii. p. 155. 



DINGLi^T— ARROWSMITH. 315 

John Arrowsmith, D. D. — This learned divine was 
born at Gateshead, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne, March 9Q, 
1602, educated in St. John's college, Cambridge, and after- 
wards chosen fellow of Katharine-hall, in the same univer- 
sity. He was elected one of the university preachers, was 
beneficed at Lynn in Norfolk, afterwards preacher at St. Mar- 
tin's, Ironmouger's-lane, London^ and chosen one of the 
assembly of divines.* He constantly attended durii^ the 
session ; he united with several of his brethren in drawing up 
the assembly's catechism ; and was one of the divines approved 
by the parliament to be consulted in ecclesiastical matters. 
April 1 1, 1644, he was elected master of St. John's college^ 
when Dr. Beale was ejected, in the following manner:— 
'^The Right Honourable Edward Earl of Manchester, in 
pursuance of an ordinance of parliament, for regulating and 
reforming the university of Cambridge, came in person into 
the chapel of St. John's college, and, by the authority to him 
committed, did, in the presence of all the fellows then resi- 
dent, declare and publish Mr. John Arrowsmith to be con- 
stituted master of the said college in room of Dr. Beale, late 
master there, but now justly and lawfully ejected : requiring 
him the said John Arrowsmith, then present, to take upon 
him the said place, and did put him into the said master's 
seat or stall, within the sud chapel : and did likewise straitly 
charge all, and every of the fellows, &.c. to acknowledge him 
to be actually master of the college, and sufficiently autho- 
rized to execute the said office." 

Upon his admission, he was required to make and subscribe 
a solemn declaration, of which the following is a copy :t 

** I, John Arrowsmith, being called and constituted by the 
Right Honourable Edward Earl of Manchester, (who is 
authorized thereto by an ordinance of parliament,) to be' 
master of St. John's college, in the university of Cambridge, 
with the approbation of the assembly of divines now sitting 
at Westmmster, do solemnly and seriously promise, in the 
presence of Almighty God, the searcher of ail hearts, that, 
durii^ the time of my continuance in that charge, I shall 
feithfully labour to promote piety and learning in myself, the 
fellows, scholars, and students, that do or shall belong to the 
said college, agreeably to the late solemn national league and 
covenant by me sworn and subscribed, with respect to all 
the good and wholesome statutes of the said college, and of the 
university, correspondent to the said covenant; and by all 

« Baker'i MS. Collec. vol. i. p. 865. f Ibid. vol. zii. p. 169, 170. 



^ ^ 



316 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

means to procure the welfare and perfect reformation both 
of that college and university, so far as to me appertains. 

"John Arhowsmith." 

During the above year he was one of the committee of 
learned divines, which united with a committee of the lords 
and commons, to treat with the conunissioners of the church 
of Scotland, concerning an agreement in matters of religion.* 
He took his doctor's degree in the year 16479 ^^^ ^^^ chosen 
vice-chancellor of the university the same year. In the year 
1651 he was elected regius professor of divinity, upon the 
death of Dr. Collins, who had filled the chair marnr years ; 
and was at the same time presented to the rectory of Scrmer- 
sham.i In 1633, upon the death of Dr. Hill, he was chosen 
master of Trinity college, Cambridge, when he was succeeded 
at St. John's by Dr. Tuckney ; and, m 1655, he resigned his 
professorship, in which office he was succeeded by me same 
person.^ He was appointed one of the tryers, and one of the 
preachers before the parliament. He was a man of unexcep- 
tionable character, and of great learning and piety ; an acate 
disputant, a judicious divine, and an excellent author, u 
appears from the learned productions of his pen, ' which 
gained him great reputation. He died in February, l6S9f 
aged fifty-seven years, and his remains w^re interred m 
*1 rinity college chapel, the 24th of the same mondi.j 

Mr. Neal having observed that the leammg and J^ty of 
our divine were unexceptionable. Dr. Grey adds, "And had 
our learned historian added, that he was an eminent preacher*, 
and famed for his flowers of rhetoric, I could have helped 
him to passages in support of such an assertion." He men 
enumerates the passages as follows: — '^ You have endea- 
voured," says he, ^' to fence this vineyard vnth a settle(| mili- 
tia, to gather out the malignants as stones, to plant it widl 
men of piety and truth, as choice vines, to build the towers of 
a poweiful ministry in the midst of it, and to make a win»> 
press for the squeezing of malignants. — ^The main woiC of 
the spirit of grace is to negociate the treaty of a match betwixt 
the Lord Jesus and the coy souls of men. — It b a spiritiad 
affection that hath the Holy Ghost for its father, feith for its 
Aiother, prayer for its midwife, the word for its nurse, sin- 
cerity for its keeper, and trembling for its handmaid. — ^After 
some overtures of a match in the reign of king Henry VIIJ., 

* Pftpera of Accom. p. 13. + Baker'i MS. CoUec. yoL i. p. iMk 

X Kennet's Chronicle, p. 601, 935. 

S Wood*8 Athens, vo). ji. p. 371.— Calamy*! Accoiuty vol* ij. p« 78» 
994.^Baker'8 MS. CoUec. toI. i. p, 8«5, 



AEROWSMITH. 51T 

die reformed church in this Idngdom was solemnly married ta 
Jesus Christ, when the sceptre was swayed by Edward VI, 
That godly young prince (as became the bridegroom's friend) 
rejoicing greatly^ because of the brid^oom's voice. The 
famous nine and thirty articles of her confession then framed, 
were an evident sign of her being with child, and that a 
thorough reformation viras then concevcedy though but con-" 
ceived. Many and sore were the breeding fits she conflicted 
with m Queen Mary's days, and such as gave occas^n to fear 
she would have miscarried/'* 

In another place, says Dr. Grey, ^* I shall take the liberty 
of adding a character of the assembly of divines, from a right 
' reverend bishop of those times ;" and then cites his lordship's 
words as follows: — ^^^ You mayjud^e of them," says the 
bishop, ^' by their compeers, Goodwm, Burroughs, Arrcwh 
tmiihj and die rest of their ignorant, factious, and schismatical 
ministers, that, together widb those intruding mechanics, (who 
widiout any callmg from God or man, do step from their 
batcher^* board, or horses' stable, into the preacher's pulpit,) 
aie the bellows which blow up this fire, that threatened the 
deatmction 'of this land."f 

The reproachful insinuations of the doctor and the learned 
prelate ace sufficiently refuted from the following account of 
Dr* Arrowsmith, given by one who appears to have been well 
acquainted with him :— -^^ He was a burning and a shining 
lig$t; who, by his indefatigable study of the sublime m^ste- 
fiei of the gospel, spent himself tp the utmost, to explicate 
die daricest places of scripture. This he did with a view to 
enli^len others in the knowledge of Jesus Christ. He was 
m holy and learned divine ; firm and zealous in his attach- 
ment to the cause of Christ, from which no worldly allure- 
loent would shake his faith, or move his confidence. He was 
% jnan of a thousand. Those who best knew him could 
^ give testimony of his diligence, his zeal, his integrity. His 
|tublic ministry discovered hb great dexterity, 'sound jud^* 
menf^ admirable learning, and indefatigable labours. His 
90ul aspired after more than his weak and sickly body was 
aUe to perform. He put fordi his energy beyond his strjengtb 
to do good."^ 

IBs Works.— 1. Tbe Covenant-avengiii^ Sword Brandished, in a 
Sfltmon before the Honourable House of Commons, at their late 



• Grey'i Examination, ▼ol. if. p. 156. f IWd. p. ^U 

t Arrawimitb'f Qod-Mao, FM. Edit. 1660. 



SIS LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

•olemn Fast, Jui. d5, 1649-^1643^-3. England's EbeB-«ser; or, 
Stone of Help set up in thaokral acknowledgment of the Liord's 
having helped ns hitherto, in a Sermon preached to both Houses of 
Parliament at Christ's Chnrcb, London, March 12, 1645—1646.— 
d. A Chain of Principles ; or, an Ordinary Concatenation of theolo- 
gical Aphorisms and l.xercitafions, 1659.-^ €rod-Man^ 1660.^ 
6. A Great Wonder in Heaven. — 6. Tracta Sacra. 



Peter Bulkly, B. D. — ^Thb excellent person was born 
at Odell in Bedfordshire, January 31, 1582, and educated in 
St. John's college^ Cambridge^ where he was chosen fdlow. 
He had a considerable estate left him by bis fother. Dr. Ed- 
ward Bulkly/ whom he succeeded in the ministry at the 
place of his birth. By favour of the excellent Bishop Wit 
liams, who connived at his nonconformity, as he had done 
at the nonconformity of his venerable father, he continiied 
unmolested upwards of twenty years. Towards the close of 
this period, his ministry was attended with wonderful success 
in the conversion of souls. But infonnation was no sooner 
given to Archbishop Laud than he was immediately silenced 
for nonconformity .t His mouth being stopped, and havmg 
no further prospect of ministerial usefiilness in his own ooim- 
try, he sold his estate, and, in 1635, went to New England. 
He took with him a considerable number of planters, who^ 
upon their arrival, settled at a place which they cdled 
Concord. 1 here he gathered a church, became its wortkj 
pastor, and expended a large estate, while most of his 
vants got estates under him. It was his custom, when any 
had lived with him a certain number of years, to dismiss him 
frpm his service, and fix him in a comfortable situation, and 
so take another in his room. 

Mr. Bulkly was author of '^ The Gospel Covenant opened," 
of which the pious Mr. Shepard has given the follownMf 
account: ''The church of God,'* says he, ''is bound to bless God 
for the holy, judicious, and learned labours of this aged, expe- 
rienced, and precious servant of Jesus Christ; who hath taken 
much pains to discover, in demonstration and evidence of the 
Spirit, the great mystery of godliness wrapt up in the cove* 
nant ; and hath now fully opened many knotty questions con- 
cerning the same, which have not been brought so fully to 
light until now."t T^^ ^oi'l^ passed through several editions, 

* Dr. Bulkly was a faithful miDistpr of the gospH, and a person of dii- 
tingoishf d eminence. He made additions to Foz^s " Acts and Moflnaieoli 
of the Martyrs.**— See Fox't Martyrg, toI. iii. p. 861«-863. 

t Mather*! Hist, of New Enj. b. ill. p. 98. t ^^^^» P* ^* 



. BULKLT-*JACOMB. 319 

WBB highly esteemed, and was one of die first books published 
in New England. 

Mr. Bulkly was twice nliarried. By his first wife he hadi 
nine sons and two daughters ; and by his second wife, the 
amiable daughter of Sir Richard Chitwood, he had three sons 
and one daughter. Old age, and its numerous infirmities, at 
length coming upon him, put an end to his zealous and useful 
labours. He was afraid of out-living his work, and died 
March 9, 1659> aged seventy-seven years. . He was an 
excellent scholar, a thundering preacher, a judicious divine^ 
a strict observer of the sabbath, an exemplary christian, and 
one who was esteemed as a father, a prophet, and a coun- 
•ellor in the new commonwealth.* He had three sons employed 
in the ministry, Gresham, Edward, and John. Edward suc«- 
ceeded his father as pastor of the church at Concord, where 
he died. John, his youngest son, was educated, and. took 
iiis degrees, in Harvard college; and, coming to England, 
flatted in the ministry in this country, but was ejected by tlw 
act of uniformity in l662.t 



Samubl Jacomb, B. D. — This learned divine was bora 
«t Bnrton-Lazers in Leicestershire, and educated in Queen's 
college, Cambridge; of which, in the year 1648, he was 
chosen fellow. By the religious instruction of his pious 
parents, together with his attendance upon the ministry of 
Mr. Ludlam, he was brought under serious concern for his 
tool at a very early period. Having resolved to employ him- 
self in the mmistry, he became a hard student, a good scholar, 
and an excellent divine. His preaching while at the univer- 
•ity was much admired and followed by the collegians and 
omtn. He was possessed of popular talents, and was 
appointed one of the university preachers by the authority •of 
me^mrliament. 

; Mn Jacomb continued at Cambridge about twelve years. 
Afterifards, he removed to London, and was chosen pastor 
at StrMary Woolnoth, in Lombard-street. In this situation, 
hit excellent endowments were much esteemed and admired, 
as wdtt by his brethren in the ministry as by the people of 
his charge. His sermons were so demonstrative, that tliej 
were sufiicient to convince an atheist ; so clear, as to enlighten 
the most ignorant; so awakening, as to rouse tlie most cam- 
less; so persuasive, as to charm the most obdurate; so 

• Mather's Hist, of New Sng . b. iH. p. 9t. 
f Falner's Noncoo. Men. toI'. ii. p. fOO. 



SSO LIViSS OF THE PURITANS. 

fervent, as to awaken the most formal ; and so discreet^ as to 
reduce the most fiery zealot to a proper temper. Incoih. 
versation he was grave, humble, cheerful, amble, serious, 
and affectionate.* However, with these exceUent quidifica- 
tions, he did not live fou^ years after his removal to LondoiL 
During his last sickness, he felt happily resigned to his 
heavenly Father's will. ** God is wise," said he, ^ Aereibre 
let him do with me as seemeth him good.*' His comfdaiirt 
/beginning to affect his head, and to becloud his mind, he was 
exercised with fears, and said, ^* This is the only ibiiig du^ 
troubles me, l^st I should lose my understanding ; but my 
Savioiu- intercedes for me: he doth, he doth." His fean 
were altogether groundless. He enjoyed the perfect nae of 
his mental powers, with solid peace and comfort to the last 
ilis last words were, There remaineth a rest for thepeopkcf 
God, He died in the month of June, 1639- He lived and 
died a nonconformist to the church of England.f And he 
appears to have been brother to Dr. Thomas Jacomb, the 
ejected nonconformist.^ Mr. Jacomb published, ^ Moses 
his Death, a Sermon preached at Christ's Church in London, 
at the funeral of Mr. Edward Bright, Minister there,** 1657- 
He was author of two or three other Sermons. Mr. Pktridc 
preached and published his funeral sermon, firom iriiidi 
part of this brief memoir is collected. 

« 

Thomas Cawton, A. M. — ^This excellent divine wi» 
bom at Rainham in Norfolk, in the year 1605, and educated 
m Queen's college, Cambridge. lie was desirous of the 
ministerial work from a child, and was patronized and snp^ 
ported at the university by Sir Roger Townshend.- He maoe 
uncommon progress in the knowledge of the arts, the lai^ 
guages, and divinity ; and his piety was so remaricable, tint it 
became a proverb in the university. The profiuie achelan 
us^d to stigmatize those who were religiously inclined ^ as 
poisoned by Cawton's faction, and as becoming Cawtooiats*'' 
Havii^ continued seven years at the university, he removed 
to Ash well, about twelve miles from Cambridge, to live in die 
house of Mr. Herbert Palmer, another celebrated puritui. 
His principal object in this removal was the study of divinity, 
in which he made a remarkable proficiency, and occasionally 
assisted Mr. Palmer in the exercises of die pulpit. Affcer- 

♦ Niphols's Hist, of Leicestershire, vol. ii. p. 2T0. 
f Patrick's Funeral Sermon for Mr. Jacomb. 
X Falmer's Noocon. Mem. vol. i. p. 160. 



cAWTON. an 

ivards; he became domestic chaplain to Sir William Annin*, 
of Orton in Nothamptonshire ; where he was exceedii^ly 
beloved for his piety, alnlities, and faithfulness. Having con- 
tinued in this situation four years, he, in the year l6S7, 
became rector of Wivenhoe in Essex,* being presented to the 
living by Sir Roger Townshend. When he entered upon 
his charge at Wivenhoe, it was a place remarkable for drunk- 
enness, swearing, sabbath-breaking, stnd almost every other 
scene of profaneness ; but, by the blessing of God upon hii 
'faithful labours and exemplary deportment, it soon became 
equally remarkable for sobrie^, the observation of the sab-* 
bath, and unfeigned piety. The inhabitants of the town 
usually brought their fish to sell on the sabbath day, when 
they kept their market near the church-doors. Mr. Cawton's 
righteous soul was sorely vexed with their ungodly ways ; and, 
by his faithful and unwearied endeavours, the evil practice was 
aboli^ed, and a happy reformation followed, it is further 
added, that he was the means of bringing great numbers to 
.the saving knowledge of the gospel ; and diat no minister was 
ever more beloved by his people.f He married die daughter 
of Mr. William Jenkin, the ejected nonconformist. 

Mr. Cawton having continued his ministerial labours at the 
mbove place about seven years, his healdi began visibly to 
decline, when he was advised to remove to some other situa- 
tion, particularly for a change of air ; and receiving, about 
the same time, an invitation to Bartholomew's church, behind 
the Exchange, London, he removed to the metropolis. The 
chance proved happily instrumental in the restoration of his 
healm, and the means of preventing the return of the ague. 
In London, Sir Harbottle Grimstone, who lived in his parish, 
was his constant hearer and his very good friend. In the 
year 1648, he united with the London ministers in their 
declaration against the king's death :t and, the same year, was 
brought into trouble for his zeal in the royal cause. Being 
invited by the lord mayor and aldermen, to preach at Mercer's 
chapel, he prayed for the royal family, especially for king 
Charles H., whom he considered as the legsu sovereign : but 
delivered nothing offensive in his sermon. His prayer, how- 
ever, proved offensive to the ruling party. The day follow- 
ing, the council of state issued a warrant to apprehend jiim.( 

* Newconrt*8 Repert. Eccl. vol. ii. p. 679. 

t Life of Mr. Cawtoo, p. 1—^. Edit. 1602. 

1 Calamy'i Contin. toI. ii.p. 743. 

S The warrant, dated Arom Derby-hovse, February 96» 1648, wm tlMi 
ffonowlns:— ^'Tliese are to will and require you forthwith, spM .light 
^* hereof, to make speedy repair aato any tech place. fihtffft>. y s» m^ l 

VOL. III. V . . 



928 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Upon bis appearance before bis judges, he was chained witb 
having proclaimed the young kin^; and that, according to die 
existing laws, he was guilty of high treason. He waa, dieie- 
fore, required to* make his humble submission, and to retract 
what he had uttered, as the indispensable condition of his 
release. This Mr. Cawton refused to do, saying, '' If I have 
done any thing not becoming a minister of the gospel^ I liope 
I should be willing to recant." He was then sent prisoner ta 
the Gatehouse, where he continued about six months. Bot 
the parliaments forces in Ireland having obtained a signal 
victoi^, the house of commons resolved that a certain number 
. of prisoners, and Mr. Cawton among the rest, should be set 
at liberty, as a testimony of thankfulness to God. He wai 
accordingly released, August 14, 1649-* 

Mr. Cawton having obtained his liberty, returned to Us 
fiunily and his flock, and continued for some time in the 
zealous and laborious observance of his ministerial duties. 
But in the year 165 1, being deeply concerned in Love's plol^t 
he fled to Holland, together with Mr. James Nalton. iJpoo 
their arrival, the English church at Rotterdam being destitnte 
of a pastor, they were chosen co-pastors to the society. Hr. 
Nalton, afterwards one of the ejected nonconformists^ having 
leave to come back, returned home ; but Mr. Cawton not 
enjoying the same privilege, remained at Rotterdam to the 
day of his death. His fame, both as a preacher and a 
scholar, soon spread through the United Provinces. He shone 
as a star of the lirst mi^nitude, and was highly esteemed by 
die Dutch, French, and English ministers in those partSb 
He presently became intimately acquainted with the leanied 
Voetius, Leusden, Uchtman, Hulsius, . and others^ highly 
celebrated for piety and literature. The publication of those ' 
famous works, ^< Walton's Polyglot Bible,'* and << Castell'i 
Lexicon Heptaglotton," were greatly indebted to his cmcou- 
ragement and exertions.^ In the year 1658, he received a 

** vDdentaod Uie ptnon of Mr. Thomas Cawton to be, who pmcbci 
** before the lord mayor yesterday | and him yon are to appnheod, anA 
*' briof into safe custody, before (he council of sUte, for leditioat presd^ 
** inf( I hereof you are not to fail, and for ap doing this ibaU be year 
" sofBcient warrant."— !:,//• •/ Mr. Catotoriy p. 87. 

* Life of Mr. Cavi'ton, p. S8~4S. 

f See Art. (hristopber Love. 

t Palmer's Noncon. Mem. vol. i. p. 148. 

V Ufe of Mr. Cawtoo, p. 48— 66.— The former of these learMd ivorks 
was printed in six volumes folio, and was the first book pablltbed' ia 
£ni;land by subscription. The latter cost the author the aisidaoat lidMrar 
of seventeen years. His Obwcaried dilif^nce employed io this widtfrtiikl^f 
mored his health, and impaired kit coostitatioai and tbe 



DUNSTER. 



• • r • 



letter from Charies 11.,^ then at Brassels, in whicli bis inajeity 
attempts to acquit himself of being at all inclined to popery^ 
and urges Mr. Cawton to use his utmost endeavours to sup^ 
press all such unworthy aspersions.* 

At lewthy Mr. Cawton having served the Lord seveA 
years at Cambridge^ seven years at Wivenhoe^ seven years in 
London^ and seven years in Holland^ died at Rotterdam of a 
fit of the palsy y August 7> lG5d, in the fifty-fourth year of 
kb age. He was a laborious student^ ah excellent Ionian, 
and an incomparable linguist. He had a most exact know* 
ledge of the Greeks Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic: 
and was (ieaniliar in the Dutch, Saxon, Italian, Spanish, and 
French languages. But that which made his exceUent 
abilities and literature appear to the greatest advantage, wiis 
his. eminent piety and holy conversation. He was highly dis- 
tinguished for his faith, patience, sincerity, self-denial, . and 
hospitality. As a minister, he was laborious, affectionate^ 
and faithftil ; as a master, he was the teacher and governor 
of his house ; as a husband, he was affectionate and tender- 
hearted ; as a father, he was ever careful to promote the best 
interests of his children ;t and, it is added, ** he was a great 
hotnour to his profession, and a pattern of virtue in every 
social relatioii. He had few equals in learning, and scarcdy 
a supeiior in piety .''^ Wood says, ** he was a learned ana 
fdigious puritan,'^ which is no mean character from his 
unworthy pen. The learned Mr. Thomas Cawton, one of 
die ejected nonconformists in 1662, ^as his son.|| He trod in 
the footsteps of his father, whose life he published in 1662^ 
with the sermon annexed which his father preached at 
Mercer's chapel, February 25, 1648, entitled, " God^s Rule 
for a Godly Life; or, a Gospel-Conversation opened and 
applied," from PhB. i. 27- 



Henry Dunster. — ^This person was a pious and learned 
divine, who, to escape the persecutions qf Archbishop Laud, 
retired to New England in 1640. Upon his arrival, he was 
chosen president of Harvard college, Cambridge; which 

ezpene aitendiDf^ it entirely rained bin of bis fortane. He spent npott 
U upward* of twelve ikoutamd poonds. Tbe anthor only received a Teiy 
poor reward for his incredible and indeed Herculean labours.— Gran^crt 
Biog. Hi$t, Tol. iii. p. fd.'—Biograpkia Britannicat foU ill. p. 310. 
Edit. 1778. 

• Ufb of Mr. Cawton. p. 78—80. t Ibid. p. 7, SI, ^ 

t Granger's Biog. Hist. toI. iii. p. 47. S Atbeast Ozoa. vol. 11. p.dftS. 
t Palmer's Nqocou. Mem. toI. i. p. 85?. 



3M LIVES OP THE PURITANS. 

cAee be' held with great reputation and usefulneM for di^ 
Mwce of fourteen years. He is said to have been fitted hy 
me Lord for this work, and to have been a most able profr- 
cient in the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin languages, and an 
orthodox and powerful preacher. He is denominated ** one 
of the greatest masters of oriental learning that New Engr 
land had ever known."* But having espoused the peculiar 
sentiments of the baptists, the overseers of the college, in 
Ae year 1654) procured his removal from the office of pre- 
ndent ; when he was succeeded by the worthy Mr. Charles 
Chauncey.-^ Upon Mr. Dunstcr's removal from the collci^ 
he retired to Scituate, where he died in the year 1659- ne 
had a principal hand in publishing the Psalms in metre for 
Ae use of public worship, among the churches of New 
JBi^land ; and in his last will and testament he ordered his 
body to be buried at Cambridge ; and, to the honour of his 
memory, he bequeathed legacies to those veiy persons who 
had been the authors of his removal from the places 

Charles Heble, A.M.^^This excellentdivine was bom 
of honourable parents at Prideaux-Herle, near Lystwithyd in 
Cornwall, in the year 1598, and educated in Exeter c<meg^ 
Oxford. In the year 16 18, he took his degrees in arts; and, 
having finished his studies at the university, he entered upon 
the ministerial work. He first settled at some place in Devon- 
ahire, where, being always accounted a puritan, he suffered 
persecution on account of his nonconformity .$ Afterwards, 
be became rector of Winwick in Lancashire, being one of 
Ae richest livings in England. Upon the commencement of 
die civil war, he took part with the parliament, was elected 
one of the assembly of divines, and, upon the death of Or. 
Twisse, in 1646, was chosen prolocutor to the assembly. 
He was appointed one of the morning lecturers at the Abbey 
church, Westminster, one of the licensers of the press, one 
of the committee for the examination and ordination of 
ministers, one of the committee of accommodation,! aod 
one to assist in preparing materials for the confession of 
faith. On the dissolution of the assembly, he spoke in die 
name of his brethren, and *^ thanked the honourable and 
reverend Scots commissioners for their ass stance ; excused^ 

• Bac)^at*8 Hist, of Baptists, toK i. p. S82. 

-f Mather's IJist. of New E6g. b. iv. p. 127, 188. } Ibid. b. lii. p. 100. 

iPrynoe's Breviate of lAsd, p. 6. 
ltip«n Qf Accomaodatioa, p. 9. 



HERLB. SSS 

in die best manner he could, die directory's not being so weU 
observed as it ought; and lamented that die assembly had not 

e^wer to call offenders to an account"* In the year l647| 
r. Herle and Mr. Stephen Marshall were appointed to attend 
the commissioners of parliament to Scouandy to give ths 
Scots a just account of the affiurs of England. Aifttr ths 
king's death, Mr. Herle retired to his flook and stated min»^ 
terial exercise at Winwick, where he continued the rest of hit 
days. 

In the year 1651, the Earl of Derby havm^ raised a regi* 
ment of soldiers for Charles II., then on his march finoin 
Scodand, he sent Lieutenant Arundal, widi about forty horsey 
to Mr. Herle^s house at Winwick, which filled the whole 
family with the utmost constemaUon, expecting to be imm^ 
diately plundered and ruined. Arriving at his house, Arundal 
said to Mr. Herle, ^^ My business is to tdl you, that the Earl 
of Derby wishes you to come to him with all speed; and if 
you will go, there shall be no further trouble to yon or youv 
family J' Mr. Herle replied, ** I will go immediately, and 
wait upon the right honom^able the Earl of Derby, my patron;" 
and ordered his horse to be brought out. After some kind 
entertsiinment of the lieutenant and his Soldiers, Mr. Herle 
accompanied them to the earl's quarters, who receivM and 
treated him with the utmost civility. After some friendly con- 
▼ersaUon with him, his lordship sent him back, attended by a 
guard of soldiers. It is also observed, that, after the battb 
of Warrington-bridge, in this year, Arundal's forces being 
routed, and himself wounded, he retired to Mr. Herle's house, 
where he was treated with the utmost kindness.t 

During the above year, Mr. Herle was appointed, together 
with Mr. Isaac Ambrose, Mr. Edward Gee, and some others, 
assistant to the commissioners for ejecting ignorant and scan- 
dalous ministei-s and schoolmasters in Lancashire. Dr. Grqr 
says," that, m this office, he acted " with great severity ; and 
how well he was qualified for such dirty work, his public 
sermons sufficiently testify." He then transcribes from those 
sermons the following expressions, to prove the charge 
allied against him '4 — ^* Do justice to the greatest. Saul's 
sons are not spared ; no, nor Agag, nor Benhadad, though 
diemselves kings. Zimri and Cosbi, though princes of the 
people, must hd pursued to their tents. Wlmt an army of 
martyrs has God given to die fire for our refbrmadon at 

• Neal*t Pnritani, vol. ii. p. 556. lii. 46. 
f MS. Chrooology, fol. ii. A. D. 1S5I. 
t Qnj^M EzaminatioD, vol. ii. p. S16* 



488 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

first ! Whtt a calendar of traitors has he given to the gallows, 
for our prciserration since !"— Whether these expressions 
afford sufiicient evidence of the doctor^s charge, or*whetber 
he designed it only to repix>ach the memory of tliis celebrated 
divine, every inteUigent reader will easily judge. The cha^ 
racter of Mr. Hene is too well established to be at all 
unpaired by any such calumny. He was a moderate presby- 
lenan, exceedingly beloved by his brethren in the miniatiy, 
and the author of several practical and controversial writii^. 
Fuller iustly denominates him ^' a good scholar and a deep 
divine; and says, ^^ he was so much the christian, the 
scholar, and the gentleman, that he could agree in affection 
with those who differed from him in judgment."* He died 
at Winwick, tovirards the end of September, 16599 ag^ 
sixty-one years; and his remains were interred in his own 
church.f Mr. Herle, with the assistance of several other 
wiinisters, ordained the famous Mr; John Howe, in his ovni 
church at Winwick; on which account Mr. Howe would 
iometioies say, ** that he thought few i^ modem times had 
do primitive an ordination; for he considered Mr. Herle. as ^, 
primitive bishop.''^ 

His Woaxs. — I. Microcosmo^aphy, in Essays and Chaiaotm, 
1628. — % Contemplations and Devotions on all the Passages of oar 
^Saviour's Passion, 1631. — 3. An Answer to misled Dr. Hen. Feam^ 
according to his own method of his Book, 1642. — 4. Seireral Sermons 
before the Lords and Commons, 1642, &c. ; among which were 'the 
following: — '' A Pa3Te of Compasses for Church and State, befoia 
the Honourable House of Commons, at their monthly Fast, Nov. last^ 
1642.'' — <* David's Song of three Parts, a Sermon before the Honomw 
able House of Lords, June 15, 1643.'' — ^' David's Reserve and Rescae, 
a Sermon before the Honourable House of Commons, Nov. 6, leA."— 
6. The Independency on Scriptures of the Independency of Chorebes, 
wherein the Question of the -Independency of Church €rov«rnnMnt 
is temperately stated and argued, 1643. — 6. Worldly Policy. an4 
moral Prudence, the vanity and folly of the one, and the solidifjr and 
usefulness of the other, in a moral discourse, 1654. 



John Rogers. — This zealous man was first employed in 
teaching school, then presented to the rectory of Purleigh in 
Essex, vtrorth about two hundred po\inds a year. But it is 
said he becano^e a nonresident ; ai^d, hiring another to supply 
his place, he removed tq London, and became lecturer at 

♦ Worthies, part i. p. <e5.''Cbarch Hist. b. xu p. SIS. 
t Wood's Athenae Oxon. vol. ii. p. 151, IM. 
t Palmer*! Noacon. Mem. toU ii, p. 81. 



J« IIOGERS* 901 

St. Thomas the Apostle's, but was soon after ejected. This 
kind of usa^e very much troubled him, and he petitioned -the 
lords commissioners for his restoration, but without success.* 
He afterwards went to Ireland, most probably widi the 
£nglish army, and was chosen minister of Christ's church, 
Dublin. But the exact time of hi? return to England we 
have not been able to learn. He was a zealous and active 
man, and in his principles a fifth monarchy-man, and of the 
baptist persuasion. About the year 1649^ he married the 
daughter of Sir Robert Paine of Huntingdonshire. Wood 
denominates him ** a notorious fffth monarchynnan And an 
anabaptist, and a busy, pragmatical- fellow ;" and says, ^* he 
Wais very zealous to promote a quarrel between his party wad 
Oliver Cromwell, for seeming to unite with them till he had 
got the reins of government into his own hands, and then 
leaving them widi scorn. He, with Mr. Qiristopher Feake^ 
one as impudent and forward as himsdf, were the leaders of 
their party, and not wanting on all occasions to raise a com- 
motion."t 

Mr. Rogers, as well as his brethren, was extremely hostile 
U} Cromwell's government. He openly declared his tonti- 
ments against it. In his prayer before the public congrega- 
tion, he used many such expressions as these : '^ Hasten die 
time, when aU' absolute power shall be devolved into the 
hands of Christ ; when we shall have no lord protector, but 
one Lord Jesus Christ, the only true protector and defender 
of the faith. Look in mercy on thy saints at Windsor, who 
are imprisoned for the truth and testimony of Jesu»: be tiiou 
their freedom and enlargement."! Having repeatedly de- 
clared against Cromwell's usurpation, both by preaching and 
writing, he was apprehended and cast into prison^ This was 
abont the year 1654. Mr. Rogers and several of his brethrm 
were confined at Lambeth, when no one of dieir party was 
allowed to have access to them. In the '^ Declaration of 
several of the churches of Christ," subscribed and published 
during this year, twenty-five of them are said to have sub- 
scribed ^'in the name of the whole body that walks with 
Mr. Rogers, now prisoner for this cause of Christ at Lambeth 
prison."|| 

Mr. Rogers, after remaining in confinement some time, was 

« Tburioe'8 State Pftpen, toI. iii. p. 485. 

f Athens Oxon. toI. ii; p. 449. 

1 Thurloe^s State Papers, yoI. iii. p. 483. 

S Ludlow's Memoirs, vol. iii. p. 490. £;dit. 1699. . ^ 

I Declarattoo, p.21. 



LIVES OJF THE PURITANS. 

joined by his friends, who presented a petition to Cromwell 
for his enlargement ; upon which he was brought before the 
protector's council at Whitiehall. The council told him that 
there were high charges gainst him, and that he was not a 
prisoner in the cause of Christ, but suffered as a busy-bodj- 
and an evil doer. His friends desiring that the cause might 
be debated betwixt the protector and himself, their requett 
was granted. The same evening, therefore, Mr. Rogers was 
admitted into the presence of Cromwell ; and being reminded 
of the high charge exhibited against him, it is said, he declared 
that they who brought the charge were drunkards and 
swearers. But when the protector asked him which of them 
were, he could name none of them. Whea the protector 
pressed him for scripture, in support of his principles and 
conduct, he said the scripture was positive and privative ; and 
beine asked which of the evil kings whom God destroyed, he 
would compare with the present state, he gave no answer. 
** Whereupon the protector," our author adds, ^^ shewed what 
a disproportion there was : those being such as laboured to 
destroy the people of God, but his work, (speaking of him- 
self,) was to preserve them from destroying one another ; and 
that if the sole power was in the hands of the presbyteriansy 
the fifth monarchy-men, or the persons re-baptized, thcnr 
would force all their own way : but his work was to keep.aU 
the godly of several judgments in peace." When Mr. Ro^gen 
spoke against a national ministry and a national church, ap« 
plying it to what was done in die commonwealth, callmg.it 
antichristian, the protector told him it was not so ; for a 
national church endeavoured to force all into one form.* 

Several persons of respectability and influence haviiq; 
afterwards interceded with the protector for the release <tf 
Mr. Risers, Mr. Feake, and others, or to have them brought 
to trial ; the protector said, that out of mercy he kept them 
ftom trial ; " because," said he, " if they were to be tried^ 
the law would take away their lives." They were, therefore, 
sent back to prison. On March 31, 1655, Mr. Rogers, by 
an order from Cromwell and his council, was removed from 
his prison in the city to Windsor-castle.f Here it is previa*' 
ble he remained a prisoner for some time. He was living in 
the year 1659 ; but whether he survived the restoration we 
have not been able to ascertain. Granger styles him '^ a 
great fanatic/' adding, '^ that he was no less popular among 
the anabaptists and fifth monarchy<-men, tp»n Love was 

« Wood*8 Atbenae Oxon. vol. u. p. 442. •I' Ibid^ 



LLOYD. an 

jHttong the presbyterians." After Cromwell had deserted 
Iheie eectariesy he took umbrage at the great popularity and 
^nterprizing spirit of Rogers ; and was little less apprdiensive 
4tf Feake, nfho was also regarded as a leader of that party. 
They were both imprisoned, and the protector was thought to 
act widi extraordinary clemency in sparing their lives. Tins 
WBS imputed to a secret r^ard that he retained for his old 
friends, the independents.* Mr. Rogers's writings are very 
aiiigular. One of his books is entitled, ^^ A Tabernacle for 
die Sun, or Irenicum Evangelicum, an Idea of Church Dis- ' 
jcipline/' 1653. In the same year Mr. Crofton published a 
vmart reply to this work, entided, " Bethshemesh Clouded, 
or some Animadversions on the Rabbinical Talmud of Rabbi 
John Rogers." Another of his pieces is entitled^ *^ A 
Christian Concertation with Mr. Prynne, Mr. Baxter, and 
Mr. James Harrington, for the true Cause of the Common- 
wealth/' 1659. 



Morgan Lloyd was born in Wales, and brought to the 
knowledge of the gospel by the ministry of Mr. William 
.Erbery. He afterwards entered upon the ministerial work, 
and preached, during the commonwealth, at Wrexham, 
where he is supposed to have been the immediate successor 
of Mr. Walter Cradock. He was a person of great piety and 

Siculiar ministerial talents, but rather inclining to mysticism, 
e was fond of expressing himself in figurative and mysteri« 
ous language ; yet what he delivered was often very striking. 
Several of his letters, descriptive of his character and senti* 
ments, are preserved among the writings of Mr. Erbery, to 
whom they were addressed ; one of which we shall give as a 
specimen. Though it is without date, it was written about 
tne year 1652, and is as follows :t 

" Sir, 

" The sweetness of the Father's love in you is very 
pleasant to my taste. Though you have particularly and 
clearly written to me concerning the things I desired to know 
of y<Ju ; yet your promise of more makes me now only mind 
oU again. We never write, hear, or speak in the light of the 
ather, but when our inner man is withdrawn from the spirit 
of this world, which is the devil's street, in which his coachea 
tnmdle;. which life and spirit of nature is a whirlwind that 



£ 



* Onmf^efn Biog. Hist. vol. iil. p. 50. 
i Srbery'i TettimoDy, p. 104, Ul, SS4. 



8S0 LIVES OF THE TURITANS. 

catcheth many into the fleshly pits and unprofitable fonm^ 
and keepeth ^e poor offspring of Adam in die outward couit 
of this creation. I dare not belieye what I hear of you* It 
is no matter what flesh without truth speaketh ; yet loVe would 
be satisfied. I loi% to know the teachings of Grod widna, 
more effectually concertiing the hypostasis of die Lord Jemsi 
and in what spnit you leave off public teaching, and what the 
witnesses are, and the olive trees. If men, and bookstand 
letters, were my teachers, I should litde know myself ib him 
who fashioned me; but the more spiritual any is, the mora 
communicative, as the angels of the Father. Therefore I 
enquire what Aat morning-star is that is risen ; what vial, or 
seal, or trumpet are we ui^ler; and what manner of peopk 
should we be in this ase. It will possibly be as a worn upon 
the wheel, and as apples of gold m pictures of silver> if yoa 
will let me hear further of truth from you, and of the wiadodi 
of God, which, though it cannot be comprehended in nrf 
words, b thereby hinted, and so commumcated. My true 
love, widi my wive's, to yourself and to Mrs. Erbery. I add 
diis truth, that I am 

** YoUrs in the love, light, and peace of 

^* the Comforter, though as nothing, 

** Mob. Lloyd.'' 

Mr. Lloyd was well known and greatly esteemed in die 
Principality. Some have supposed that he waa a baptist, bpt 
this appears extremely doubtful. He was pastor of a church 
formed upon the principles of the independents, which mqtt 
probably held communion with certain persons of the liaptist 
persuasion. He was author of several pieces, the ddes of 
which w^ have not been able to collect. Having finished Mb 
labours, be died at Wrexham in the year 1659,* and Mr. 
Ambrose Mostyn, afterwards ejected in 1662, was hb suc- 
cessor in the pastoral ofiice.f 

Edward Barber was "a person of great learning, and 
first a minister in the establbhed church, but long before the 
commencement of the civil wars he embraced the prindples 
of the baptists. He was die means, says Crosby, of coovmc- 
ing many that in&nt-baptism has no foundation in scriptuia^ 
and soon gathered a numerous congregation. They' as* 

sembled in the Spital in Bishopsgate-street, London; and 

I 

• Thomases MS. History, p. 169, liO. ' 
. -ii Palmer's Noncoo. Mem. toI. iii. p. 479* 



E.BQiaBER. 991 

diey appear to be the first ch^rch among the baptists that 
practised the laying on of hancU upon persons when received 
into the church. He was a man of considerable emin^ic^ 
but be felt tlie cruel oppres^ons of the times in whidi h« 
Uvedi Previous to the year 1641> he was apprehended bj 
his inhuman persecutors, and cast into prison, where he re* 
mained eleven months. The particular crimes with which 
he was charged, and for which he was thus punished, were» 
bis disbelieving the baptism of infants, and denying that to 
pay tithes to the clergy was a divine ordinance under the 
^ospeL He endured thb persecution, dierefcM'e, for exercit*- 
mg the right of private judgment, and believing accordii^ to 
the convictions of his own mind. He died some time 
previous to the restoration, but we cannot learn in what 
year.* 

■ Mr. Edwards, who has always something base to say ct 
men of this description, gives the following curious account 
cf a meeting, in which, if the account be true, Mr. Barber 
was a principal person concerned. NoVenaber 1£, 1645, there 
assembled about eighty anabaptists, many of whom were 
members of Mr. Barber's church, in a hous^ in Bishopsgate* 
•treet, and held a love-feast, at wUch five uqw members, lately 
dipped, were present. The meeting was conducted in the 
following manner : When the company were assembled, they 
comdienced their exercise by prayer ; and after prayer, aU 
the company being on their knees, Mr. Barber and another 
person went to them one after another, and laid their hands 
upon each of their heads, women as well as men, and either 

. prayed that they might receive the Holy Ghost, or said, ^' Re- 
ceive ye the Holy Ghost"* They afterwards sat down to 
supper; and supper being ended, before the cloth was taken 
away, they administered the Lord's supper. This finished^ 
the question was proposed for discussion. Whether Christ died 

Jor all men or not^if They next entered upon a disputation, 
which they continued to a late hour. It is also added, that 
those persons, who, after the laying on of hands, should pos- 
sess sufficient gifts, were sent forth to preach.f Mr. Barber 
piddished a work entitled, " A Treatise of Bajptism or Dip* 
piiq; ; whi^ein b clearly shewed, that our Lord Christ ordained 
Dipping ; and the Sprinkling of Children is not according to 
Christ's Institution ; and also the Invalidity of those Amiments 
which are commonly brought to justify Aat Piractice, 1641. 

• Crosby's Baptists, voL t p. 919. UL 3. 

f Bdiwardi's Quicrnna, part i. p. 136, 13T. Secsnd edit 



SSa LIVES OP THE PURITANS* 

•John Canne« — ^This learned and zealous puritan wis 
educated in the established churchy and he most probably 
received episcopal ordination, but afterwards espoused tl^ 
cause of the separatists. According to Neal, he was chosen 
pastor to Mr. Lathorp's separate congregation in London^ 
when he retired to New England ;* but, according to Crosby, 
he was chosen pastor to Mr. Hubbard's people, upon their 
return from Ireland. The latter of these historians certainly 
appears more correct in his calculations.f Mr. Cannci 
having laboured among his people, by preaching to them ill 
private houses, for some time, was at length driven by the 
cruel hand of persecution into Holland, where he was 
chosen pastor of the Brownist congregation at Amsterdam. 
He is denominated *^ a known separatist, and hitherto die 
busiest disputcr for this opinion."^ He continued at Amster- 
dam many years, and was greatly esteemed and followed by 
the puritans who went to Holland. He was banished from 
his native country, as appears from his own words. " Upon 
my banishment from Hull," says he, '* for what cause I kn6w 
not, there being nothing to this day (l657) made known to 
me ; I went apart, as Elias did, into the wilderness. And as 
I lay under hedges, and in holes, my soul in bitterness 
breathed forth many sad complaints before the Lord. * It is 
enough, O Lord, take away my life ; for I am not better than 
my fathers.' Often and sore wrestlings I had with my G%iif 
to know his meaning and teaching under this dispensation; 
and what further work, whether doing or sufiering, he had for 
me, his poor old servant."^ He is said to have succeeded 
Mr. Aiusworth as pastor of his church ; but shortly after his 
election to that office, he was censured and deposed by patt 
of the people, who renounced communion wim him and die 
other part of the congregation. || This may be true ; but it 
does not appear that he was deserving of such treatment 
The party rejecting him were most probably such as could 
not endure his sound doctrine or his faithful discipline. 

Mr. Canne was a person who rendered himself vciy 
popular, particularly by his controversial writings. He 
delivered his sentiments with great clearness and freedon^ 
especially upon the controverted points of church discipline. 

• NcaTs PDritmM» toJ. ii. p. 374. 

i CfMby's Baptiiti, vok i. p. 104, iii. 40,41.— Alnswortb'i Ufe,f.Wt*^ 
8te Art. Lathorp. ,' 

t Paget*8 Defence, Pref. 

S Canoe's Time of the End, p. SSft. Edit. ]tf7« 
I Paset's Defence, p. 8S. 



CANNE. '■ ■ ' m 

^-NoM,^ tayi he^* '' may join in spiritual comiHiiAlM nijlli 
that nmustry which hath not a true calling, electioff, and' 
iqpprobation of the faithful {)eople to \«rhich he is minister.' 
So necessary is a right election and calling to every eccle* 
wastical office, that, without the same, it cannot possibly be 
true, or lawfiil. If the ministers scandalously sin, the con-^ 
gragation that chose them freely, hath free power to depose 
ttem, uid put others in their places.'' He also adds : ** And 
it is sure that Christ hath not subjected any congregation of 
his to any superior ecclesiastical jurisdiction than to that 
which is within itself: so that if the whole congregation shall 
err in a matter of fEUth or religion, no other church or church-^ 
officer hadi any warrant or power from the word of God to 
censuray punish, or controul the same; but only to advise 
diem ; and so to leave their souls to the immediate judgment 
of Christ" 

Mr. Canne, while in a state of banishment, published a 
work entitled, '^ A Necessity of Separation from the Church 
of England, proved from the Nonconformists' Principles," 
1634 ; in the preface to which he thus observes :— ^^ I know 
what I say, and have good experience of this thing ; for there 
b not ten of a hundred which separate from the church of 
Engkod, but are first moved thereto by the doctrines of the 
aonconformists, either in word or writing, taught to the 
people. And, indeed, upon their grounds, how can any one 
do less than separate, if his heart be tender against every sin, 
seeing that they confidently affirm, that the muiistry, worships 
and cuscipline are from antichrbt, and that in the church are 
swarms of atheists, papists, adulterers, liars, 8cc. These are 
^eir own testimonies, and we know they are true ; and, there- 
fore, in obedience to God, and care of our precious souls^ 
we have left our unsanctified standing in their assemblies, 
and^ through the Lord's mercy to us, do walk in the holy 
ord«r of his gospel, although daily sufferers for it."t 

Soon after the meeting of the«long parliament, Mr. Canne 
returned to his native country. Writers are divided in their 
opinions whether he espoused the peculiar sentiments of the 
baptists. Crosby himself leaves the matter undetermined4 
There is no doubt, however, that he belonged to this denomi* 
nation. For it is observed, that, in the year 1640, the bap- 
tist congregation in Broad-mead, Bristol, separated from the 
established church ; soon after which, Mr. Canne was called 

* BaUie's Dinoasive, p. 40— 4S. , 

f Gffey*t Ezamination, vol. i. p. 43, 44. 

t Croibj't Baptists, vol. iii. p. 41. ^ 



S9t LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

U> pitedi among diem; when he settled tfacan in flie onler 
of t christian churchf and declared himself to be ■ baptist; 
but did not make adult baptism a necessary qualification to 
church communion.* The particular circumstances ai Us 
introduction to these people are preserved in die ancieni 
records of the church m Broad-mead, from which my wordq^ 
and esteemed friend, Mr. Isaac James of Bristol, hM gcum 
ously communicated to me the following curious extract^ 
beii^ the whole of what relates to Mr. Canne : 

^ Shordy after, on a time called Easter, because Mr; 
Hazard could not in conscience give the sacrament to die 
people of the parish, he went out of town to visit his Idndred 
at Larae.t At this juncture, the providence of Grod broi^il 
to this city one Mr. Canne, a baptized man. It was that Mr^ 
Canne that made notes and references upon the Bible; He. 
was a man very eminent in his day for godliness, and'fbr 
reformation in religion, having .great understanding in die 
way of the Lord. When Mrs. Hazard heard that be was 
come to town, slie went to die Dolphin inn and fetched him 
to her house, and entertained him all the time he stayed in Ab 
city; who helped them much in the Lord. He bemg skiliiil 
in gospel order, like Aquila, taught them the way of dit 
Lord more perfecdy, and shewed them the difference be tmu aa 
die chui-ch of Christ and antichrist, and left widi dieai a 
printed book treating of the same, and divers printed papal 
to that purpose. So that by Mr. Canne the Lord did ton* 
£rm and setde them, shewing them how they should join 
together and take in members. He exhorted them to wail 
upon God together, and expect the presence of Grod with 
diose gifts they had ; and to depart from those ministers who 
did not come out of antichristian worship. When he had 
ftayed some time in the city, he departed, and, on a Lord's 
day foUowuig, preached at a place called Westerleigh, aboot 
aeven miles from this city ; and many of the professors from 
hence ^ent thither to hear Mm, with Mrs. Hazard, willing to 
enjoy such a light as long as thev could : where he had libei^ 
to preach in the public place (called a church) in the monmig; 
but, in die afternoon could not have entrance. The obetrttC- 
tioa was by a very godly great woman that dwelt in duit 
place, who was somewhat severe in the profession of what 
she Imew: hearing that he was a baptized man, by diem 

« 

• TbompsoD^f MS. Collections. 

f This Mr. Ilaxard was mioister of Ratdiff pwisli and St Emetfh 
Bristol, whence be was ejected at the restoimUoa.— JP«AiMr'« N^tu^^iuMtau 
t»l. it p. 177. 



. CANNE. 

- < 

called an anabaptisti which was to some tufficieiit cauae df 
prejudice* 

*^ This godly honourable woman, perceiving that Mr. 
'Canne was a baptist, caused the public place to be made &st. 
Then he drew forth with abundance of people into a green 
thereby, and sent for Mr. Fowler, the minister that lived diere, 
to speak with him, who viras^ a holy, good man, of great wordi 
fptr his moderation, zeal, sincerity, and a sound preacher of the 
gospel, as he approved himself since.* Who accordingly 
came to Mr. Caniie on the green, where they debated the 
business of reformation, and me duty of separation from die 
worship of antichrist, cleaving close to the doctrine of our 
Xiord Jesus and his instituted worship. Mr. Fowler agreed 
there was great corruption in worsl^, and that it was the 
duty of people to reform ; but at that season, as things stood, 
it was not a proper time, because they should not be suffered, 
and should be cast out of all public places. Mr. Canne 
answered, * That mattered not, they- should have a bam to 
mieet in, keeping the worshm and commands of the Lord as 
they were delivered us.' llius Mr. Canne continued near 
two hours on the green, asserting and proving the duty of 
people in such a day ; after which they took leave of each 
Qtbeat and departed. But the business of preachins in a bam 
could hardly be received. The thing of relative holiness, and 
tincture of consecrated places, was not off the people, having 
been so long nursed up in ^norance and outward form." 

These curious recoitls also add : — *^ Mr. Hazard being eome 
home, and Mr. Fowler meeting with him, told him his wife 
was quite gdhe, and would hear him no mote. But she, with 
those few that had joined themselves together to Worship the 
Lord more purely, after Mr. Canne had thus instructed diem, 
and shewed them the order of God's house, stept further in 
separation, and would not so much as hear any minister that 
did read conmion prayer. Thus the Lord led them by 
degrees, and brought them out of popish darkness into htt 
auorvellous light of the gospel." 

.After the above transactions we find no further account of 
Mr. Canne for many years. In the mean time, however, bt 
embraced the sentiments of the fifth monarchy-men, and is 
classed among the dbtingui^ed leaders of this new sect4 
He afterwards published his omnions to the world in a work 
* * I, *^ The Time of the End: shewmg, firs^ until the 



• Mr. Fowler was afterwards ijected from Uiis^ace at the mt0imti««« 
FisbMi^f Nomfion, Mem. vol. ii. p. 254. 
t ^aget'k Hererioffrnphj, p. W. JUit 1MB. 



LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

■ 

Aree yean and an half are come^ the Prophecies of Scnpture 
will not be understood concerning the duration and period of 
the Fourth Monarchy and kingdom of the Beast. Then, 
secondly^ when that Time shall come, before the expiratioo, 
the Knowledge of the End will be revealed,"' 1657* To this 
work are prdKxed two preiaces, one by Mr. Christopher 
Feake, the other by Mr. John Rogers, both zealous fifth 
monarchy-men. The latter styles him, an ''aged brother 
and companion in tribulation/' and ''this old sulBerer and 
standard against the prelates and tyrants, old and new." Also, 
in this book, Mr. Canne gives some account of himself, which 
it will be proper to notice in this place. After stating hil 
deliverance from his seventeen years banishment, he makes 
the followii^ observations :— '' Being brought thus at die feet 
of God, and there waiting and hearkening what the Lord 
would speak, I had the former things, for the substance of 
them, given unto me. And I can speak it in trudi, I* under- 
stood Uiem not till now; but thought The Time of the End 
was to be found out and known some other way. Upon 
many- considerations my soul was sore distressed, and I be- 
sought the Lord with tears, day and night, that he would take 
pity on me, and not leave me to a deceived heart 

'' As often as I set my face unto the Lord by pnyer and 
supplication, I found myself more encouraged, and had more 
of the prophecies opened unto me. Yea, and the L<»d 
knows i lie not, whensoever my heart hath been most mehed 
and broken before him, and my soul swallowed up vndi the 
greatest love and longing after his glory ; at such times I have 
been most confirmed, and strengthened to believe, that it was 
the spirit of truth which revealed these things to me, a worm. 
Nevertheless, being yet unsatisfied in myself, and fearful lest 
I should gq aside from the teachings of God, I acquainted 
some of my christian fiiends with the thing, and how the case 
stood with me, and desired that the same might be spread 
before the Lord, which was done several times. Very ear* 
nestly was the Lord sought for counsel and direction, diat 
there might be no miscarriage on either hand ; and I found 
die ftruit of their prayers a greater confirmation. 

'' I have not published this treatise," says he, '' as I hsv^- 
done things heretofore. For in humility and an awftil fear oF" 
my God, here I can say, and that truly, This is a work offaiJth^ 
and prayer: not of my own labour and study, comparativel/jr 
as former things have been ; for here I have been mord oti^ 
of the bo4y, and With the Lord on the moimt.. But, oh^ 
I would be humble in such expressions^ that the Lmd alone 



CANNE. SS7 

might be exalted ; and I remain still a worm in my hok, and 
numbered among tbe dead. Neither have I rested in the 
eznerience of God's inward workings upon my soul; but the 
holy scriptures have been the man of my counsel. lusomocfa 
that I have not hearkened any further to the persuasions and 
operations of the Holy Spirit than what I might do, y^ and 
ought, by faith grounded upon the blessed word. The scrip- 
tures, through the free grace of a divine blessing, by a humble 
application of thcjm, have sweetly supported me."* 

In this work Mr. Canne gives his opinion of the timet, 
which will undoubtedly afford the reader some anilisement. 
He considered the state poUcy during the commonwealth as 
the ^ond apostacy. '^ Are not the tryers,'' says he, ^ zealons 
' men against the idolatry of the j^Wt apostacy i They will tell 
jou, there must be no invention^ in God's worship ; but every 
thing must be according to the pattern, as in Uie ininistiy, 
worship, and government. But what say ye of the character 
of the hiter apostacy f Are they not lovers of themselves, 
covetous, proud i I wish for their own sakes it be not so. 
The tryers are the great crackers^ and they think they deserve 
to be named mend-all, as havii^ done a great piece of s^- 
vice about church reformation. This, I think, I may safely 
say, and that truly by experience: That the present national 
clergy is more corrupt, and fEu- worse, dian it was in the 
bishops' time. For^^ nrst, there were then no professors but 
could have found, within a few miles of their dwellings, some 
honest puritan, or nonconformist, to go to, whereby to be 
refreshed and buiilt up in faith^ knowledge, and holiness: 
whereas now, inen may travel twenty, thirty, forty miles, and 
not find a parish priest that hath any gospel savour in his 
ministry : no power, sweetness, or life ; but old, formal, fniit- 
les8 sti^, sa&d over a hundred times. Secondly, though it be 
tr.ue> the bishops took little care to reform the clergy, but 
rather how to suspend and silence^ as some do know, such as 
witnessed against their unsanctified callings and places ; 
nevertheless, if the times be compared, the enormities of the 
national clergy are less looked into ^nd reformed. I say less 
now than in the prelates' times. I remember the old non- 
conformists were wont to* call the bishops making of priests, 
their licenses, and visitations, the pichns. of' men's pockets, 
I wish it may not appear ^so in the day of Christ, that some of 
ihfiae men have done little better." t 

In srpeaking of tlie three horns plucked up by the roots, he 

• Cume'ii Time of tbe End, p. S66-270. f Ibid. p. 49, 57, 58. 

VOL. III. Z ^ 



338 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

says, ^^ I shall propound this to the reader^ to be eonridered 
and weighed by him, whether Eofiand^ Scotland, and Ire* 
land are not three kingdoms; and these three at one time, 
as to their privilq^ laws, rights, freedoms, brtAen ! And 
whether this be not done by men who have the characters 
of the last apostacy upon them, and sadi as call therosdyes 
a state and goyemment, but never could formally put them- 
selves either into a kingdom or commonwealth ? I think this 
certainly may be asserted, that if the present state apostacy 
be not the little horn, it hath not yet risen. ^ This hom 
takes two sorts of people for its greatest enemies, the fifth 
monarchy«men, and the commonwealth men/'* 



We make no comment on these opinions, but leave the 
leader to exercise his own judgment Mr. Canne aflerwards 
published a piece entitled, << A Query to William Prynne^" 
1659, urinteid with << An Indictment against Tythes,'* bj 
John Osborne. The curious reader will doubtless be gia- 
tified with the following extracts from this work, which we 
give in the author's own words : — ^ A few months befine 
the sitting of this present parliament,'' says Mr. Caiine, 
^' I declared my opinion concerning the late govemiiient by 
a single person, or the second state apostacy, how it shopld 
be pluckt up, root and branch, by the representatives of 
the people. These representatives of the people, Whoever 
they should be, (for I jMsitively pitched upon none,) ItoA 
to be die earthquake in Rev. xi. 13« Now so it is, and 
blessed be the Lord for it, we see the same is come to pasBi 
to the great joy and comfort of all upright ones eveij 
where. 

<< This blessed work of the Lord, which is marvdloosin 
our eyes, not only strengthens me in my former opinioB, 
that the earthquake is begun; but likewise what I haiv 
there spoken concerning the effects of that earthquake, as to 
tithes, the carnal church, ministry, worship, and ^oven- 
ment, with all the corrupt laws of the nation, will, in some 
short time, be utterly overthrown. The sun may shine, vet 
not be seen, because it is under a cloud. I am petsuaoed 
the great works of the last day are upon us, and the spirit 
is moving on the face of the waters, howbeit darbictf 
covereth the earth. That I may not be mistaken wko 
I speak of the earthquake, I would not be understood ss 
fixing either persons or time. For, as I said before, the 
earthquake, I think, is begun among us ; yet, for the instia* 

* CaDDe*s Time of the £iid| p. 141, 146, 1S6. 



CANNE. 339 

ments Vfhom the Lord will make use of to cany on this 
work, it is known only to himself. So the time, though 
, I humbly conceive it shall gradually go forward, and have 
no more such a death upon it as it had before ; notwith- 
standing, like the hand of a watch, the motion may not 
easily bs discoyered/' 

Alfr. Ganne next considers some of the glaring evils which 
. arise from paying tithes, which he expected would soon be 
abolished, and which he thought would be the fii it effect of 
the earthquake. <^ There hath been of late discovered,'* 
says he, <^ such horrid oppression and cruelty in tithe- 
takers, as, I think, the like was never heard of io any 
former generation. It is almost incredible what inhutaian 
and most unchristian crbelty hath been lately exercised 
. upon many poor people, for refusing, of conscience, to pay 
tithes. There seems to be a great desire among the goaly, 
on all sides, to have all ignorant and scandalous ministers 
rejected. I think, by this time, it doth appear to every one 
1? no understands the present state of the nation, how im- 
possible it is, that such unsavoury salt should be cast put 
upon the dunghill, while tithes do stand. Those who get 
lid of rooks, as an annoyance to them, destroy their nests. 
If £ngland be ever freed from such unclean birds, viz. 
u^norant and scandalous priests, tithes must be taken away. 
This is that which keeps them in their places, as the nests 
do the rooks. So long as such a way of maintenance 
stands, the most unworthy wretches will creep into public 
places, whatever care be taken to prevent them. 

^< By wishing to have tithes put down, we are so far,*' 
says he^ <^ from seeking to stop the progress of the gospel, 
that one main end why we desire the removal of them, b to 
have the gospel thereby advanced, and ignorant and carnal 

K>p]e the sooner turned from the error of their ways, 
ubtless, whensoever this shall come to pass, the truth of 
Gfod, and the power of it, will more increase and spread 
abroad than ever it hath done since the rise of the beast. 
Though we are against tithes, we are not against a godly 
gospel ministry ; but would have it in all places encou- 
laged^ and care taken that the people every wherethrough 
the nation may be instructed in a way agreeable to ue 
gospel." 

Mr. Canne dates the above piece from his own house 
without Bishopsgate, London, the Idth of the 5th month, 
1659. Kennet confounds him with one John Camm, a 
quaker, and says, he was sent to prison, in 1658, from the 



SM LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

famous fifth monarchy meeting in Coleman-street* ^ Wood 
observes that when Needhain, the fdrioiis satirist, was 
tamed out of his place of writing the weekly newi^ in tfie 
time of Richard Cromwell, one Johii Can was mpomtedio 
succeed him in the same office ; but it is very difficalt io 
ascertiin whether this was the same person.f Mr. Camie 
was certainly a man of considerable learning ibd piety j and 
of unshaken constancy and 2eal in the cause heespousiki; 
though for want of more light, he appears to have been too 

.rigicTaiid enthusiastic. We iiavc not bednaUe to' leani 
when he dii'd. 

That which made this learned person most known to Ac 
world, and for which his name will be transmitted to'i>6s« 

' terity, was the publication of his mar^nal references in tlie 
Bible. He was author of three sets c? notes, whidh acobnd- 
panied three difierent editions of the Bible. One of these 
was printed at Amsterdam in 1647; the 'title of wUiHh 
refers to a former one. " Here are added," observes' iSie 
title, ^< to the former notes in the maigirL many Hebrai8I^ 
diversity of readings, with consonancy of parallel scripftniaL 
taken out of the last annotations^ and all set in due order aiia 
place." This is followed by a dedication «< To the'&l^t 
Honourable Lords and Commons assembled in the Hi^ 
Court of Parliament." Another is commonly known and 
has been often reprinted. There was an edition of it piA- 
li^ed at Amsterdam, in the year 1664. To the title'onbis 
edition is added, <^ With marginal notes, shewing scUptnie 
to be the best interpreter of scripture." In iheprdSu:e he 
makes mention of another edition, with larger annbtatioiis, 
which he desigivcd to publish: ^^ A work," says he, <^ in 
which he had spent many years; and which wduld stOl 
require time and care." We have not, however, been abfe 

. to learn whether this was ever published. And it is grieatlv 

' to be regretted that the later editions of that in 1664, tnoiij^ 
printed m the name of Canne^^ have the mar^n so laMifit' 
ously crowded with references, in addition to those ori^li^ 
done by Mr. Canne, that the reader is perplexed inlmaid w 
being instructed. His references are exceedingly ap^jpOilte 
and judicious. A new edition of the Bible of 1664, i^^fact* 
tainly a desideratum; the printing of which, says ^nlj 
author, would, I am persuaded, reward aiiy corrtet^m 
elegant workman.} 

Dr. Grey, endeavouring to depreciate the chart^ter of 

* Kennel's Chronicle, p. 73, 363. ■^- 

f AtbeuaB Oiloo. vol. ii. p. 469. % Life of Ainiwortfa, p. 15, 58« 



£. ROGERS. Ml 

r ■ 

mur divine, relates the followinff anecdote of .hw : — ^^^ Tti|ft . 
Ganne,^' says he, ^^ because no human inventions were tol)e 
idlowed about the worship of God, cut out of his Bible the 
contents of the chapters, and the titles of tl^e leaves, and so 
left the bare text without binding or covers. "« Admitting 
this to be the fiict, surely it. was not in the power of bigotrjf 
itself to account what he did a very great' crime. It was no . 
violation of any. existing canons, consUti^ns, or act of., 
parliaipent ; nor could it be follow^ , by '.any very evil. 
consf^quences, so long as he preserved, the whole o^ the^ 
sacr^text unadulterated. "" 

His Works, in addition to those already noticed.— 1. The Way 
of Peace, or good Connsel for it : Preached upon the 5th day of the 
second month, 1632, at the Reconciliation of certain Brethren, 
between whom there had been former DLGferences, 1632. — % Syon's 
Prerogative Royal; or, a Treatise tending to prove, that every parti- 
oolar Congregation hath, from Christ, alraolate and entire PoweV to 
exercise in and of herself every Ordinance of God, 1641. — 3. A^tay 
agQainst Striding: wherein, in opposition to Mr. John Robinson^he 
nil^ertakes to prove the unlawfulness of hearing the Ministers of the 
Church of England, 1642.-^. TVuth with Time^ 1659.— 6. A' twofold '. 
ffiakiiig of the Barth.-^. T|?e Churches Pfea. 



fSzEkiBL Rogers, A. M. — ^This pious minister of Christ 
was bom at Wethersfield in Essex, in the year 1590 ; at the 
age of thirteen he was sent to the university, and, at twenty, 
took his degrees in arts. He was son to the venerable IMur. 
fiiohard Rc^rs, and brother to Mr. Daniel Ro^rs, both 
&mou9 for tneir ministrv and nonconformity at the above 

Sliace. Having finished his academical pursuits, he became 
omestic chaplain to Sir Francis Barrington, whose family 
wiis celebrated for religion and hospitality. Here he was 
conversant with persons of the first rank, and was greatly 
admired for his devout prayers, his judicious sermons, ana 
his excellent strains of oratory. After he had remained about 
six years in this worthy family, Sir Francis presented him to 
the benefice of Rowley in Yorkshire. This he did, in 
hopes that his evangelical and zealous preaching would 
awaken the people in that part of the country to a serious 
concern for their souls. His church was situated in the 
centre of many villages, whence a numerous assembly 
attended on his ministry. 

Though great numbers at this place were enlightened and 
eomfortra by his preaching, he enjoyed but little comfort 

* Examination of Ncal, yol. i. p. 231* 



348 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

himself. He laboured under many fears and great distress^ 
lest he did not experience the influence of those truths . 
on his own heart which he zealously enforced upon others* 
He trembled to think of his own heart remaining unim« 
pressed with those important doctrines and pathetic expies- . 
sions, by which others were moved and affected. It yeiy 
much increased his affliction, that he had not one serious 
friend in that part of the kingdom, to whom he could 
communicate the trouble^ of his mind. His wounded spirit 
^as so deeply afflicted, that he resolved to take a journey 
into Eissex to obtain the advice of his brother at Wethers- ' 
field, or his cousin, Mr. John Rogers of Dedham. Upoa 
his arrival at the lattiT place, it was the lecture day ; and, 
instead of consulting his kinsman, as he intended, he went 
to hear him preach, entering the assembly just before the 
sermon. To his great surprise, the subject was perfectly 
suited to the state of his afflicted spirit ; and, before the 
close of the sermon, all his perplexing doubts and fean 
were fiillv resolved. Having obtained the desired peace 
and comfort, he returned to hb stated ministerial exercise ; 
with fresh courage, and a remarkable success attended his 
future labours.* Being naturally of a lively spirit, and 
having a feeble body, his animated discourses often ex- 
haustra his strength. This induced him to study phydc^ 
in which he obtained considerable skill. 

By the encouragement or connivance of Archbishop 
Matthews of York, the lectures or prophes3rings, put down 
in the days of Queen Elizabeth, were again revivra. These 
lectures were the means of difiusing the li^ht of the gospd 
into many dark comers of the land, particularly in York- 
shire. The ministers within a certain district held their 
fnonthly assemblies, when one or two of them preached, and 
others prayed, before a numerous and attentive congrega* 
tion.f Mr. Roi^ers took an active part in these exercises as 
long as the archbishop lived. From one of these public 
lectures, a vile accuser waited upon the archbishop, an<L 
charged one of the ministers with having prayed, ^^ that Grbd 
wouM shut the archbishop out of heaven.'* The worthy 
prelate, instead of being ofi'erided, as the slanderer expected^ 
only smiled and said, ^^ Those good men know well enough 

• Mather^ Hist, of New Eng. b. iii. p. 101, lOS. 

-f T^rre are monthly lectares, when two miniiteri mvany prtacli. ttfll 
field by the independent ministers in the West- Rid log of Yorkshire. 1 
periodical associations, which are often very niuneroofly atteoded, 
probably originaled in the above exercises. 



E. ROGERS. 343 

that if I were gone to heavoi, their exercises would soon be 
put down."* The words of the good archbishop wei^ 
indeed, found true ; for his head was no sooner laid in the 
dust than thev were put down. Mr. Rogers, having 
preached at Rowley about thirty years, was silenced for 
nonconformity ; but, as some kind of recompence^ he was 
allowed the proiSts of his living for two years, and permitted 
to put another in his place. He made choice of one Mr. 
Bishop for his successor; who, for refusing to read pub^ 
licly the censure passed upon Mr. Rogers, was himself 
presently silenced.f 

^ In the year 1638, our pious divine, not allowed to open 
his mouth for the good of souls, in his own country, retired 
from the cruel oppression with many of his Yorkshire 
friends, and went to New England. They took shipping 
at Hull, and on their arrival procured land, and formed a 
new plantation, which they called Rowley. Here he dwelt 
near his kinsman, the worthy Mr. Nathaniel Rogers of 
Ipswich ; and continued about the same period that ne had 
done at Rowley in Yorkshire. Some time after his settle- 
ment in the new colony, he was appointed to preach the 
sermon at ^ public election, which is said to have rendered 
his name fiimous throughout the commonwealtli. While he 
was praised abroad, he was venerated at home. His ministry 
was highly esteemed and extensively useful among the 
people of his charge. The principal topics on which he 
insisted were, regeneration and union to Christ by faith ; 
and when addressing his people on these subjects, he had 
the remarkable talent of penetrating their feelings, and 
unvailing the secrets oi their hearts. His sermons and his 
prayers e^cpressed the very feelings and exercises of their 
souk. They often stood amazed to hear their minister so 
e^^actly describe their thoughts, their desires, their motives^ 

* This ezcellent prelate, who bad been an ornament to the university of 
Oxford, wai no less an orqament to hii high station in the church. He was 
noted for his ready wit $ i^od was equal, if not superior to Bishop Andrews, 
in the faculty of ponaiof . He liad an admirable talent for preachiof, 
which he never suffered to lie idle; but used to go from one town to another 
to pvieach to crowded congregations. He Jcept an exact account of th« 
nambcr of sermons which he preached after his preferment; by which it 
appears, that he preached, when Dean of Durham, 781 ; when Bishop of 
that diocese, 550; and when Archbishop of York, 781 ; in aij, 199& 
He died March 89, 1088; when his wife, a person of most exemplary 
ulsdom, gravity, and piety, generously gave his library, consisting of SOOO 
volumes, to the library of the cathedral of York.— Ae N§V€'3 Liv$s, vol. i. 
part ii. p. 114.--0rafif«r*« Biog. HUU vol. i. p. S4S. 

t Mather^ Hist, of New England, b. iii. p^ 108. 



344 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

and their whole characters. They were sometimes ready 
to exclaim, <^ Who bath told him all this ?*' His conver- 
satioD among his people was serious and instructive. He 
took great pains in the religious instruction of the youth^ 
especially those who had been recommended to him by 
their dying parents. He was a tree of kuo\i ledge richly 
laden with fruit, from which even children could pluck 
and eat. He was remarkable for healing breaches, and 
making peace among contending parties ; and so great wae 
his ability and influence, that, when any contentions arose 
among his people, he sent for the parties, examined the 
grounds of their complaints, and commonly quenched the 
sparks of discord before they burst into an open flame. 
His labours proving emiiK^ntfy useful, it was thought im- 
proper, after some years, that a minister of his splendid 
talents should confine his efforts to one small congregation. 
He was, therefore, induced to commence public lectui^ 
particularly for the benefit of the adjaci^nt towns, upon 
which the people attended with great satisfnction. On 
account of the increase of his labours, an excellent young, 
man was obtained as his assistant. This, howeveri proved 
the means of exciting an unhappy jealousy among the 
people, that Mr. Rogers was not sufficiently zealous for his 
settlement; and, at length, produced that aUenatioq c( 
affection which was never entirely healed.* 

The latter part of tliis worthy man's life was a dreary 
wi'itcr of Jjrials and sufferings. It was during this period 
that he buried his wife and all his children. A second wilGs, 
tf^thcr with her little one, was soon snatched from his arms. 
The very night of his third marriiige, his house was burnt 
down, with all his furniture, and his excellent library which 
he took with him from England. After having rebuilt his 
house, he had a fall from his horse, which so bruised hii 
right arm that it became entirely useless, and he afterwards 
wrote with his leit. Under these painful trials, he was 
choerftilly resigned to the will of God, and enabled to 
reioice amidst all his tribulations. Writing to a minister at 
Charlestown, a short time before his d^th, he very inucli 
lamented that the younger part of his people were so little- 
affected with the things of God, and that many of them 
strengthened each otlier in the ways of sin. In this letter 
he says, <^ I tremble to think what will become of thia 
glorious work which we have begun, when the ancients 

* Matber's New Bngland, b. iii. p. 109. 



STYLES. 3(5 

shall be gathered to their fathers. I fear grace and blessings 
VfilT die with them. All is hurry for the world : every one 
is for himself, and not foi* the public good. It hath beea 
God^s wny not to send sweeping judgments, when the chief 
magistrates are godly. I beseech all the Bay ministers to 
c&li earnestly upon the magistrates, and tell them their 
godliness is our protection. I am hastening home. Oh I 
that I might see some signs of good in the generation follow- 
ing, to send me away rejoicinfi^. I thank God I am near 
home ; and you, too, are not rar off. Oh ! the weight of 
glory that is ready waiting for us, God's poor exiles* 
We shall sit next to the mai^rs and confessors. Cheer up 
your spirits with these thoughts; and let us be zealous forj 
God and for Christ, and make a good conclusion.'** 

Mr. RcM;ers closed his labours and his lif^ January SS. 
1660, agedseventjr years. He gave his new librair to Harvaid 
college, and his house and Ismds to the town of Rowley for 
the support of the eospel. A part of the land is said to 
haye been bequeathed on consideration of the people's sup- 
porting a pastor and teacher, according to the principles of 
the original settlers in the country ; but this bavins beea 
long since neglected, the corporation of Hanrard coltege, to 
whom the land was rorfeited, made their rightful claim and 
obtained it; so that Mr. Rogers is numbered amon^ the 
distinguished benefactors of Siat university. But still, in 
the first parish of Rowley, the rent of the lands left them 
b^ Mr, Rogers amounts to more than the salary of their 
nunister> 



WiLLtAM Styles, A. M.-— This divine was bom at 
Doncaster ia Yorkshire, and educated in Trinity college, 
Qmibridge. On his entrance upon the work of tne 
ministry, he was ordained both deacon and priest in the 
year 16S0, when he was presented by Richard Harebread, 
esq. to the yicar^^ of Ledsham or Ledston, to the par** 
sonage-house of which he was a considerable benefactor ; 
and, March 3, 1624, he was presented by the lung to the 
vicarage of Pontefract. He was a divine of puritan prin- 
ciples, was disaffected to ecclesiastical ceremonies, and 
wa$ prosecuted by the high commission of York for the 
enormous crime of baptizing a child without the si^ of 
the cross; but Alexander Cooke, by his powerful mediatkm 

• Matber*8 New England, b. iii. p. 103, 104. 
f Mont and Parish's Hist, of New Eng. p. 106. 



34C LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

i¥ith the archbishop, cot the prosecution to be withdra^m. 
About the year 1642 he succeeded the famous Mr. Manrel 
in the vicarage of Hessel cum Hull, whence he was after- 
wards ejected for refusing the engagement.* 

Dr. Walker says Mr. Styles was turned out about the 
year 1647, for preaching against the intended murder of 
the king; and was succeed^ by one Hibbert^wbo, itwai 
thought, was not in orders till alter the restoration. ^< I am 
further informed," says he, ^^ that Mr. Styles was once of 
tiie parliament's party, and was in Hull when Sir John 
Hotnam excluded the king, and was present wheu, upon his 
majesty's demand of his town and garrison of Hull, Sir John 
denied him admittance : at which, as I was told by a drum- 
major who stood by, Mr. Styles clapped Sir John upon his 
shoulder, and said, ^ Honour should sit upon his shoulders 
*for that day's work.' I am also informed," says he, << that 
he never appeared in the commission against scandalous 
ministers, but for the safety and deliverance of some peisoDS 
that were loyal and episcopal ; and this I am sure of, that 
he died a very great penitent, and openly declared, in his 
last sermon, in favour of loyalty and conformity ."f But 
this account, transmitted in the ^^ Sufferings of the parochial 
Clei^," says Mr. Thoresby, is full of mistakes4 

Mr. Styles having refused the engagement, as intimated 
above. President JBradshaw wrote to Licutenant-colond 
Salmon, deputy-govemor of Hull, to turn him by force out 
of the church and secure his person. Upon this a petition 
and testimonial was subscribed by the inhabitants, certify- 
ing — « That he was a very orthodox and laborious preacher, 
ofa most blameless conversation ; and, by his constant and 
unwearied pains in the gospel, he had won many souls to 
God ; and consequently their loss of him would be exceed- 
ing great ; that ne was a verv old man, unfit to trayd, 
and had not a house in the world to put his head in, offering 
to be bound for his peaceable demeanour ; and that if he 
could not in conscience comply, before the latter end of 
March, he should then yield to the law." The president 
was by this means prevailed upon to allow his continuance 
till the winter was over, when he was finally turned out and 
driven from the place. Upon his ejectment he removed to 
London, and preached nearly a year in Iropmonser's- 
}ane; but his health very much declining, he retumecT into 

• Thoresby 's Vicaria Leodiensji, p. 95. 
+ Walker's Attempt, pi^rt ii. pi 3TS. 
i Tbpre^by*s Vicaria LeodiemU, p. 98. 



STERRT. 347 

■ 

his natiye county, and was preferred to the vicarage of 
Leeds, with the nee consent of Mr. Robinson, the legal 
vicar, who had been driven away during the national con- 
fusions. . Here he met with kind reception, and was highly .. 
honoured by the magistrates and people, for his excellent 
practical preaching. Though he was a puritan, he was a 
person of great loyalty, and had the courage to pray pub- 
licly for the king, then in a state of exile. He died a little 
before the restoration, andj March 16, 1660, his remains 
"weTe interred in his own church. Mr. Christopher Nesse^ 
afterwards one of the ejected ministers, was his lecturer ; 
and Dr. Lake, ailterwards bishop of Chichester, was his suc- 
cessor.* Mr. Thoresby says, he had in MS. his ^^ Catechism 
preparatory to receiving tiie Lord's Supper,'* which he 
styles, << solid and judicious." He had also some of his 
sermons in MS. and had seen several volumes of them, 
written by the aldermen and others, his devout hearers. 
He bad likewise in his possession his judgment concerning 
several matters in religion, attested by Mr. Hill of Kother- 
ham, who, in the presence of Mr. Wales and Alderman , 
Maxon,. wrote it from his own mouth a little before his 
death.f 



Peter StBRRT, B. D. — ^This zealous minister was bom 
in the county of Surrey, and educated in Emanuel college^ 
Gambrif!^, where, in the year 1636, he was chosen fellow. 
In 1643 be was appointed one of the assembly of divines for 
the city of London, and gave constant attendance during 
the session. He was afterwards one of Cromweirs chaplains, 
and is styled <^ a hiffh-jQown mystical divine." He lived 
till affer the restoration of King Charles, when he is said to 
have held a conventicle in London. It is further observed, 
that he and one Sadler were the first who were observed to 
make a public profession of Platonism in the university of 
Cambriage.:^ 

During the national confusions Mr. Sterry appears to- 
have been a zealous and firm advocate in the cause of the 
parliament. He frequently preached at Whitehall^ and 
before the parliament, on which occasions he declared his 
sentiments without the least reserve. As these sentiments 

* Pftlmer^ Noncon. Mem. vol. iii. p. 441. 
•f Thoresby's Vicaria Leodiensii, p. 96—98. 
± Baker*8 MS. CoHec. vol. vi. p. 84. 
\ Edwards's €luigreiia» part ii. p. 119. 



MS LIVES OF THE PURItANS. 

arc selected and transcribed, (oo evidently with a view to 
reproach his memory, we shall give them in the words of 
our author. In his sermon before the house of coipinoiUy 
November S6, 1645, speaking of the discomfiture c^ the 
fpyal forces, he adds, <^ What ailed you, ye mighty armies 
at Keinton, Newbury, York, Naseby, tl^t ye fled, ap4 were 
driven backwards ? What ailed you, ye strong ttea&ons, 
close conspiracies, that ye trembled and fell, aijid j^our 
foundations were discovered before you could take effect f . 
They saw thee, O Jesus ! They saw thee opening in tbe,, 
midst of us; so they fled before us. You sit at we rigbt 
hand of the I<ord Jesus in this commonwealth ; as the Lord. 
Jesus sjts at the riglit hand of his Father, in that. kingdom, 
which is over all. The Lord Jesus hath his coBcubinesi 
his queens, his virgins ; saiiits in remoter forms ; saiints in 
higher forms; samts unmarried to any forms^ who keep 
themselves single for the immediate embraces of tbeir 
Lord."* The mipartial reader is left to judge for himadf 
wliat d^ree of reproach is attached to these sen{iineD|a|« 

Mr. I^rry was tothor of a number of tracts, the titljesof • 
which have not reached us. He appears to have been 
diseply tinctured with mysticism. Mr. Baxter otamei 
that he was intimate with Sir Henry Vane, and thouciit to 
have been of his opinion in matters of religion; and that 
'< tamiy and sterilitj/ were never more happuy coi\]Qiaed«''f 
He was so famous ror obscurity in preaching, that Sir B^* 
jamin Uudyard said, he was '< too high for tins wor)d, and 
too low for the other.*']: Mr. Erbery includes him in the 
list of divines <^ who had the knowledge of Christ in tl^fli 

* L*Estrange'B Dissenters* 8ajiii|p. part ii. p. 10—13. 

+ Sir Henry Vaoe, a principal leailcr in the bouse of commoM, W8f Ol^ 
of those siDgolar characters that are seen but once in an age,' and such' an 
age as that of Charles I. It is hard to Ray whether he was a more fmitasiAc'' 
vv«ionary or profound politician. He did not, like the gienerality of 
enthusiaKts, rely supinely on heaven, as if he expected every thlnf frua 
thence; but exerted himself as if be entirely depended on his own activity. 
H)b enthuKiasm seems never to have precipitated him into iigndlclow 
measures, but to have added new powers to his natural Biigacity. Be 
mistook his deep penetration for a prophetic spirit, and the light of his ■ 
genius for divine irradiation. The solemn league and covenant was the„ 
fmit of his prolific brain, which teemed with new systems of pdliticis and 
religion. He deserves to be ranked in the first class of myilics ; yet he kid 
a genius far above the level of mankind $ and he spoke like a pkiloioiiker 
B]^on every sohje'ct except religion. He preserved a uniformity of cbarae- 
ter to the last, and died in cxpeciacion of the crown of martyrdom. He was 
beheaded June 14, 1662,— Su!»ester ^ Life of Baxter, part I. p. WA 
Granger'9 Biog. Hist, vol. ii. p. 2)3. iii. 109. 

X Sylvester's Life of Baxter, part i. p. 75, 



E.GEE. U» 

] Spirii, sgad held forth Christ iii the Spint These men,** 
1 flays he,^ ** are nearest to Zion, vet are they i^ot come info it 
For as eyisry prophet shall ope day be ashamed of his vision ; 
jea prophesy itself shall fail; so it is manifest these men 
are of a dark and deeper 'speech than can be easily uhder- 
Blaod ; therefore it is not Zion."* 

It IS (related by Ludlow, that -when news was brought of 
Cromwell's death, Mr. Sterry stood up, and desired those 
abqut him not to be troubled. << For," said he, << this is 
^pod hews : because, if he was of great use to the people of 
God when he was amongst us, now he will be much more 
so, being ascended to heaven to sit at the right hand ot 
Jesus Christ, there to intercede for us, and to be mindful of 
iis dn all occasions.^f This, if true, was flattery or phrenzy 
^ in perfection. 

! 

t • 

'!E!i)yARD Gee, A. M. — This pious man was bom at 

Ban1niJ7 in Oxfordshire, in the year 1613, and educated 

firal'kt Newton school, near Manchester^ then in JBrazen-nose 

' ooffi^, Oxford. About the year 1636 he became chaplab 

to 'fjt. P^urr, 'bishop of Soder and Man, and minister at 

Sine ' j^lace In Lancashire. Upon tlie commencement of 
e citil war, he espoused the cause of the parliament, took 
fhe Covenant, and, for his ^reat activity in promoting the 
Tuiy cause, as Wood in derision calls it, he became rector of 
therichi living of Eccleston, in the same county.} He was 
flssistdnt to the commissioners of Lancashire for ejecting 
ignorant aind scandalous ministers and schoolmasters. 

This worthy puritan, during his last sickness, laboured 
finder the painful assaults of Satan. After enjoying the 
'iW'eetGst consolations, the enemy was suffered to come 
^ij^funst him like an armed man, grievously tempting him to 
despair of his own salvation. But, by the help of God, he 
was enabled to resist the enemy, and to say imto him, <* A way 
with thee, away with thee, thou accuser of the brethren : 
God confound thee." On one of these occasions, observes 
;1lf r.' Gee, " I was in a most woeful condition ; and it was 
jmnqh worse with my soiil than any pangs of death. I w^s 
•o full of horror that I was ready to tumble off my bed into 
'QiejprtLYe, yea, into the pit of hell. And I was the rtio^c 
full of horror, becadse I had before spoken so much of my 

• 'Brbcry*8 testiosooy, p.*fl9.. f . Ncaft Parltaw, toL It.' p. 198, 

t W4o4*t AtbeiMi Oxoo. toI'. I!.' p. 168. 



550 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

assurance and comforts. I was ready to cry out. Oh, 
damned wretch that I am ! But my most merciful Father, 
at length restoring unto me the joys of his salyation, en- 
abled me to say unto the tempter, ^ Thou implacable and 
irreconciieablo enemy of my soul, away with thee, away 
with thee.' "• This holy, tempted servant of Christ, died 
May 2by IGGO, aged forty-seven years ; when hia mortal 
part was interred in the church at £ccleston. He published 
" A Treatise of' Prayer and Divine Providf^nce,*' Ui5S ; and 
^< The Divine right and original of the Civil Blaffirtiate," 
1658. 



Hugh Peters, A. M . — This unhappy man was bom at 
Fowey in Cornwall, in the year 1599. His &fher was a 
respectable merchant, and his mother of the ancient family of 
the TrefTys, of Place in that town. At fourteen years of age 
he was sent to Cambridge, where he became a member fint 
of Jesus college, then of Trinity collq;e. During hia re- 
sidence at the university, he was greatly addidra to the 
follies and vain delights of youth; but afterwards, by at- 
tending the preaching of Dr. Sibbs, Mr. John Davenport, 
Mr. Thomas Hooker, and others, he was awakened to a 
sense of his sins, and turned from the error of his wav. It 
is indeed observed, that when he was at Cambridge, he was 
so lewd and insolent, as to be whipt in the RegentVwalk, 
a punishment scarcely ever inflicted upon any sinoe^ or 
perhaps a long time before, and so expelled for ever nom 
the university.f It is further added, that after this. he 
betook himself to the stage, where he acquired that gesticu- 
lation and buffoonery miich he practised in the pulpit.t 
He was admitted into holv orders by Bishop Montaigne of 
London ;$ and he preached for a considerable time^ and wif 



• Ambrose*! Works, p. 764. Edit. 1701. 

f KrnDet's Cbronicle, p. 877. 

1 Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. iil. p. 54. 

\ Bishop Montaigne was ^equally zealous for tlie confomlty of hit 
clergy as the rest of his brethren. It is related that, in the yemr IMs be 
tent bis servant on a Saturday to the minister who was to preach before hlB 
on the following Lord'b day, desiring a sight of hit sermon. Tlie aUairter, 
not coming as was expected, greatly increased the prelate^ jealovy, who 
tent for him on the sabbath morning al)ont an boar before divine tervice« 
"When the preacher came bis lordship began to give blni advice* etpeciaUy 
that he should take heed and say nothing unfit for tbe p tete ttt' timet. He 
inquired what was his text) and being told Gal. I. 6—8., / eiertel tUi 
ffou art $0 ioon removed^ jfc, tbe bishop struck bis hand «pon hb brfatC, 
and swore the text was not allowable for thqte timei. •* No, My lofd/* nid 



PETERS. 8§1 

ysat acceptance and success, at St. Sepolchre's in the city, 
certain scnrrilous writer says, << he set up the trade of 
an itinerary preacher, never being constant or fixed to any 
one place or benefice ; and he roved about the world like 
universal churchmen, called Jesuits.'"* Mr. Peters, speaking 
of his labours at Sepulchre's, says, ^^ there were six or seven 
thousand hearers ;'' and adds, << I believe above one hundred 
every week were persuaded from sin to Christ. ''t His great 
popularity and usefulness, together with his nonconformity, 
at length awakened the envy and malice of his enemies. 
He was noticed by the ruling prelates ; and having prayed 
for the queen in Sepulchred church, <^ That as she came 
into the Goshen of safety, so the light of Goshen mislit 
shine into her soul, and that she might not perish in the Say 
of Christ;'' he was apprehended by Archbishop Laua, 
silenced from his ministry, and committed close prisoner to 
New Prison, where he remained for some time before any 
articles were exhibited against him: and though certain 
noblemen interceded and offered bail for him,it was refused *4 
and at length, after obtaining his release, he was obliged to 
flee to New England.^ 

We are aware that several writers of the adverse party 
have assigned a very different reason for his goin^ into 
exile. Langbaine insinuates something of ^< an affair that 
' he had with a butcher's wife of Sepulchre's ;" and^Gran^r 
says, ^< That bein^ prosecuted for criminal conversation 
with another mans wife, he fled to Rotterdam."] Mr. 
Peters himself appears not to have been insensible of his ill 
character among his enemies ; but he terms it altogether a 
reproach, and attributes it to his zeal in the cause he 
espoused. ^< By my zeal," says he to his daughter, << it 
seems I have exposal myself to all manner of reproach : but 

one of bis cbaplaim, who stood by, '' the very meotioii of the text is not 
^aUowable for tbe present times.** The bishop Miid, ** Look to thyself; 
for if thoa spealLest any thing that shall not please, I vow to break thy 
neck and thy back too.*' The preacher replied, that he l|ad nothiog to 
' ipeak bnt the truth, and so was dismissed. Thoogb his lordship was ex- 
ceedingly displeased with the sermon, it contained a faithful account of the 
awfbl condition of thote who forsake the faith they once received : only he 
' observed, that they might expect some application, but he was not ambitl- 
^ ovs of lying in prison ; and thai closed the ttrmon.-^Baker^s US. CqIUC' 
• Yd. xxi. p. 104. 

• Bate»*8 Lives of the Klng*s Murderrts, p. 40. Edit. 1661. 
f Peters*8 Dying Legacy, p. 100. Edit. 1680. 
± Hantley** Prelates* Usurpations, p. 102. 
^ Prynne's Cant. Doome, p. 419. 

I Historical and CHtical Account of Hugh Peten, p. Si. Edit. ITil.*-' 
Granger's Biog. Hiit. toL ilL p. 54. 



S53 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. . 

I wish you to know, that, besides jour mother, I have had 
no fellowship that way with any woman since I knew her, 
baying a godhr wife before also, I bl^ss God/** It may not 
be improper further to obseire, that when he was afterwaids 
nnder sentence of death, and only a short time before his' 
execution, an intimate friend waiting upon him, put the 
question seriously and directly to him, whether he was 
guilty of the above accusation. To whom he replied, ^^ I 
bless the Lord, I am wholly clear in that matter, and I never 
knew any woman but my own wife/'f A man is not, 
indeed, allowed to be witness in his own cau;se ; nor should 
the testimony of his adversaries be deemed a full, proof. A 
person loaded with so vile an accusation as Mr. Peters was, 
and suSbring as a traitor in the way that he did, when 
jparty spirit ran high, and revenge actuated those whoboie 
rule; for such a one to be. traduced and blackened beyond 
his deserts, is only what might be naturally exp^ed. 
What reproacli is not envy, malice, and a bigoted party 
spirit, able to cast upon men of the worthiest character ? 
Mr. Peters's future popularity, and his high esteem among 
persons of the first rank in the nation, as will appear pi the 
present narrative, certainly render the truth of the above 
charge .at least extremely doubtful. 

Mr. Peters having fled to Rotterdam, there gathered a 
congregation, and formed a church upon the plan of the 
independents, to which he was chosen pastor. He had the 
celebrated Dr. William Ames for his colleague in the same 
thurch ; but this excellent divine did not long survive his 
removal from Francker to tliis place. Mr. Peters continued 
five or six years, not without the blessing of God upon his 
ministry, and was succeeded in the pastoral charge oy Mir* 
William Bridge, Mr. Sydrach Sympson, and Mr. Samud 
Ward, all famous in their day, and all driven from their 
Jiative country for nonconformity.^ Mr. Peters, during hii 
stay in Holland, appears to have behaved himself so well 
as to procure great interest and a high decree of reputation 
in the country: ^For, being aflerwarcS in Ireland, and 
seeing the great distress of the poor protestants, who had 
been plundered by the Irish rebels, he went into Holland, 
and procured about thirtu thousand pounds to be sent from 
thence into Irehmd for {neir relief."^ We hence see how 

X 

• Peten'a "Dying Legacy, p. 106. , 

f Speeches and Prayers of the KiD£*s Jadges, p. 61. Edit 1660. 

1 Ballie'a Dissuasive, p. 75. 

{ Ludlow's Memoirs, vol. iii. p. 75. ' Edit. 1099, 



PETERS. S65 

little credit is^ due io Dr. Nichols, that bold champion for 
faigh^chnrch principles, who says, that Mr. Peters, growing 
nUo contempt among the' people at Rotterdam, lyas obliged 
in a little while to leave the place.* 

On the resignation of his charge at Rotterdam, in the 
year 1635, he went to New England, and was chosen pastor 
of the church at Salem.f There he obtained a high repu- 
tation,, and was greally esteemed in the new colony. By an 
order from the general court of government, dated Boston, 
March 3, 1636, Mr. Peters, Mr. John Cotton, and Mr. 
Thomas Shepard, were appointed to assist the goveniot, 
deputy-governors, and others, " to niake a draught of laws 
agreeable to the word of Grod, which might be fundamentals 
of the commonwealth, and to present the same to the next 
general court."t Mr. Peters, after residing there sevea 
years, was sent to England by the government of the new 
commonwealth to mediate for ease in customs and excise. 
Upon his arrival in his native country, he found the nation 
deeply involved in the horrors of civil war; and being 
obliged to remain in England, he was not able for some 
time to accomplish the object of his mission.^ He always 
intended returning to Nfew England, but one thing or 
another occurred, in those unsettled times, to prevent 
him.g 

Mr. Peters had not been long arrived in England, before 
iie became a zealous preacher in the parliamenrs army. In 
the year 1644, he was with the Earl of Warwick at the 
siege of Lime, a particular account of which he gave to the 
house of commons. In r645, he attended Sir Thomas 
Fairfax at the taking of Bridgwater ; and, bringing letters 
from the general, he was called before the house, and gave 
a circumstanti&l account of the siege; when the house 
voted him to receive one hundred pounds, as a reward for 
his bnwearied services. As a preacher he was undoubtedly 
veiy serviceable to the cause of the parliament. When it 
was determined io storm Bridgwater, " Mr. Peters, in his 
I 

• l/ichols's Defence of (he Cbnrch, p. 50. Edit. 1740. 
+ History t>f New Eng. p. 79. 
1 Backas's New Eng. Baptists, vol. I. p. 76—70. 
S Peters's Dying Legacy; p. 97—103. 

jj Mr. Thomas Peters, a minister of puritan principles, Went to New 

Bngland during the civil war ; and after staying atKint three years, be 

Hetumed to bis native country. He was a worthy man, and author of 

• several excellent pieces; but whether he was any relation to Mr. Hugh 

Peters, we have not been able to learn.— JfatAer's Hiat, of Nem Eng. 

. V iU. p. 214. 

TOL. III. S A 



354 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

aemum on the Lord's day before, encouraged the soldierfli 
to the work."* It would certainly have lool^ed ipuch 
better, and have been mucl^ more consistent with hU office 
as a minister of the gospel of peace and Ipv^ if) initeiad of 
this, he had excited theip as much as possible to spare the 
effusion of human blood. His conduct in thisj^ boweveri 
was not singular. This wai» too much the spirit imd infatu- 
ation of the times. 

During the above year, Mr. Peters was called b^fpre the 
house of commons ; when he gave a particular acGount of 
the si^;e of Bristol, and the cause ot sitting down h^fbie 
it, to prevent the plunder and cruelties of Pnnce Rupert in 
that part of the country. On this occasion, h^ prei»0d the 
desire of Sir Thomas FairfsuL to have more recruits seat 
him. He afterwards brought letters from liieutenaint- 
general Cromwell, concerning the taking of Winchei^* 
castle; after which, being called before the house^ he gave 
a circumstantial account of it, when the bouse voted him to 
receive fifty pounds. In this year he returned fron^ the arn^^, 
and gave an account to the house of the stormipg and f^kii^ 
of Dartmouth ; when he spoke of the valour, unity, and aflfoo 
tion of the army, and presented letters, papers, and cruci- 
fixes, with oHier popish relics taken in the place^ piling 
his stay on this occasion in London, says Mr. Edwards, 
^^ he improved the whole of his time in preaching against 
the presbyterian government, the assembly, uniformity, 
common council, and the city of London, and fob a tole- 
BATioN OF ALL SECTS !"t About the samc time^ having 
preached in the market-place at Torrinffton, and coo- 
yinced many, it is said, of their errors m adhering to. 
the kinfi^'s party, he was sent, with Lieutenant-ooloiid 
Berry, to Plymouth, to treat with the governor. Towards 
the close of this year, he was again called before the 
house of commons, and, after giving a particular relatioB 
of the proceedings of Sir Thomas Fairfax, he signified, that 
Lord Hopton's army of five thousand men wajs disbanded; 
that Hopton was not gone to Oxford, but had taken shipfung 
for France ; that many of the commanders had accompanied 
him, and others were gone to their own homes ; tiiat Pen- 
dennis-castle was closely besieged; and that the general in- 
tended to return towards Exeter. An order, at the same tim^ 
passed the house, for one hundred pounds a year to be 
settled upon Mr.* Peters and his heirs, out of the Earl of. 

* Whitlorke*8 Memorials, p. 88, 156. 

t Edwards's Gangrasna, part i. p. 814. Second edit. 



PETERS. S5S 

Worcester's estates. And shortly after, an ordinance passed 
for settling upon him two hundk'ed pounds a year.* 

Mr. Peters, about this time, became a kind intercessor in 
behalf of a lady of quality who was under confinement 
This appears from a letter written with his own hand, dated 
June, 1646, and now before me. It begins as follows : — 
" To my worthy friend Mr. Uushwortb, secretaiy to the 
general. 

'' Honoured friend, I understand th&t the Lady Harlaw is 

^ out, and the Lady , You may remember that I had 

'^ a promise for my Lady Newport, when you know my 
'^ Lord Newport is here with you, I pray therefore let me 
" entreat you in favour of her enlargement," &c.f 

In the year 1649, Mr. Peters accompanied the parlia^ 
mentis army to Ireland, when he is said to have had the 
command of a brigade against the rebels, and came off with 
honour and victory. In a letter dated Dublin, September 
15, 1649, he gives an account of the bloody slaughter in 
the. taking of Drogheda, which was as follows :{ — 

« Sir, 

" The truth is, Drogheda . is taken : 3552 of the 
** enemy slain, and sixty-four of ours. Colonel Castles and 
^^ Colonel Symonds of note. Ashton the governor killed : 
<* none spared. We have also proceeded to Trym and 
<^ Dundalk, and are marching to Kilkenny. I come now 
" from giving thanks in the great church. We have all 
*^ our army well landed. 

" I am yours, 

" Hugh Peters." 

It wag the common expression in those days, " that the saints 
^should have the praises of God in their mouths, and a two- 
edged sword in their hands."§ This was a principle evidently 
too prominent in the life of Mr. Peters. However, from the 
above detail, it appears how much he was in favour with the 
generals and the parliament, and that he must have made a 
distinguished figure in the transactions of those times. Nor is 
it improbable that the distinction with which he was treated 
by them, attached him so firmly to their interest, that in the 
end it cost him his life.|| From Ireland, says Dr. Walker, 
he was sent into Wales, with the commission of a colonel, 

• WbUlocke's Memorials, p. 157, 165, 169, 195, 800, 203, 804, 883, 
988, 410. 

+ Sloane'6 MSB. No. 1519. t WhiUdcke'f Memorial!, p. 411. 

S Memoirs of Col. Ilatcbinsoo, vol. i. p. 314. Edit. 1810. 
I Hbtorical Account, p. U. 



856 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

to raise a regiment : but having misspent his time, and raised 
only three companies, CromweH's ivife drew up articles 
against him. Mr. Peters, hearing of this, contrived, with 
Ck>lonel Philip Jones and one Mr. Sampson Lort, " to 
settle a congregational church of their own invention |^ 
hoping by this means to make it appear, that, instead of 
being idle, he had been all the time very' well employed. 
Afterwards he went to London ; anil, says our author, being 
asked his advice, ^^'How to drive on the great design of 
propagating the fifospel in Wales," he briefly delivered it 
to this effect : ^^ That they must sequester all ministers 
without exception, and bring the revenues of the church into 
the' public treasury; out of which must be allowed one 
hundred pounds si year to six itinerant ministers to preach 
in every county."* 

During the wars he had several interviews and conferences 
with the king ; when, says Mr. Peters, " He used me civilly; 
and I offered my poor thoughts three times for his saf^y.'V 
Mr. Peters assistecl Mr. Challoner in his last moments, "beiiiff. 
executed for his concern in Waller's plot. J He also assisted 
Sir John Hothiim, whom he attended upon the scaffold, and 
from whom he received public thanks. § 

When Archbishop Laud was under confinement, it was. 
moved in the house of commons to send him to New 
England ; but the motion was rejected. '' The plot," says 
Land, " was laid by Peters, and others of that crew, that 
they might insult over me."|| The archbishop, at the copi- 
mencement of his trial, delivered a speech in his own 
defence, in the conclusion of which, he challenged any 
clergyman to come forth, and give a better account of his 
zeal for the church, and his conversion of papists to the 

{)rotestant religion ; when Mr. Peters, standing near his 
ordship, asked him whether he was not ashamed of making 
so bold a challenge in so honourable an assembly ? adding, 
that he himsdf, the unworthiest of many hundred minister 
in England, was ready to answer his challenge; and io^ 

♦ Walker's Attempt, part i. p. 147. 

+ Wbitlocke's Memorials, p. 257» 364.— Peters'sDyinfr Legacy, p. lOS. ; 

X This was a plot of considerable magnitude, with Mr. Waller, a member^ 
of the house of commons, at the head. It was the dest;!;n of the kiDg«.4iid 
those concerned tn this conspiracy, to compel the parliament toap^Ace;; 
but the confederacy was soon discovered, and several leading persons wcjre 
apprehended. Cballoner and three others were executed : but Waller 
saved his life by paying a tine of ten thousand pounds, and wai banlgM? 
from the kingdom.— iZapin*s Hist, of Eng. vol. ii. p. 467, 488. 

§ Whitlocke's Memorials^ p.. 117. 

g Wharton's Troubles of Laud, vol. i. p. SOS. 



PETERS. 



S57 



produce a catalogue, not of iwentv-two papists, but of 
above one hundred and iweniVj Whom he, through the 
blessing of God, had converted and bf-ought home to God, 
making them other kind of converts than any he had recited, 
who were made neither good protestants nor good christians. 
He further added, that he, and many other ministers in 
England, were able to produce hundreds of true converts 
to Christ, for every one of his pretended ones; some of 
whom, by his own confession, soon turned apostates, and 
the rest were little better.* Whatever truth there might 
be in this reply, it certainly discovered Mn Peters's too 
great forwardness, while it very much offended the arch- 
bishop. 

During the archbishop's trial, his library at Lambeth, it . 
is said, was given to Mr. Peters, as a reward for his remark- 
able services.t The truth of this, however, is rendered 
rather doubtful, and appears, even from the very words cS ' 
Laud himself, to have been founded merely on report. " All 
my books at Lambeth," says he, " were, by order of the 
bouse of commons, taken away, and carried I know not 
whither ; but arc, as it is commonly said, for the use of 
Mr. Peters.' Before this time," his lordship adds, <* some 
good number of my books were delivered to the use of the 
synod," meaning the assembly of divines.t , 

• In the year 1651, Mr. Peters was one of the committee 
appointed by the parliament to take into consideration 
wnat inconveniencies were in the law, and how the mischiefs 
"that arose from delays, and other irre^larities in the pro- 
ceedings of the law, might be best and soonest prevented^ 
In this committee were Mr. Rushworth and Sir Anthony 
Ashly Cooper, afterwards the Earl of Shaftsbury and lord 
chancellor ; besides many others of high rank. " But none 
of them," says Whitlocke, " was more active in this busi- 
ness than Mr. Hugh Peters, who understood little of the 
law, and was very opinionativ(!."^ Mr, Peters, speaking 6f 
these transactions, says, " When I was called about mending 
laws, I was there to pray, rather than to mend laws. But 
in this, I confess, I might as well have been spared, "J 
Here, in his own words, his ignorance and inability, in 
things of this nature, #are as frankly acknowledged as they 
are plainly described by the learned historian. But it is 

• Prynnc's Cant. Doome, p. 56. - 

f Walton's Life of Hooker, Prcf,— Wood's Athenie, vol. i. p. 263. 

i Wharton's Troubles of I^aud, vol. i. p. 365. 

S Whitlocke's Memorials, p. 496, 497. U Peters's Dying Legacy, p. 109. 



.:. ;%.- 



S58 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

difficult to reconcile his being Tery opinhnaiive and his 
. activity in the cause^ -with his attending the committee to 
prm/^ rather than to mend laws, 

tt is observed of Mr. Peters, that in the year 1653, he 
prayed and preached for peace, and exhorted the people to 
peace, and zealously warned them against the sins of the 
times.* The year following, he was appointed one of the 
iryers of ministers. Dr. Walker intimates that he and 
Mr. Philip Nye were tlie most active and busy among 
them. He brings a foul accusation against Mr. Peters, as 
if, he were guilty of simony. The charge is foundt*d <m 
no other evidence than that one Mr. Camplin, a clergyman 
in Somersetshire, applied to Mr. Peters, by means of some 
other person, to obtain a settlement in the rector/ of King- 
ston in that county ; when Mr. Peters said to him, *^ Hath 
thy friend any money ?"+ A slender proof is this of so severe 
an accusation ! They who are acquainted with the jocose 
temper and conversation of Mr. Peters, will not in the least 
wonder at such an expression from his mouth. Mr. Peter% 
speaking of himself in the above capacity, makes use of very 
modest and humble language. " When I was a tryer « 
others," says he, <^ I went to hear and gain experience^ 
lather than to judge."t 

In the year 1658, Mr. Peters went to Dunkirk, where ke 
laboured in the capacity of preacher to the English garri- 
8on.§ In a letter from Colonel Lockhart to Secretary Thar-» 
loe, dated from Dunkirk, July 18, 1658, we have the 
foll6wing account of him : " I' could not suffer our worthy 
" friend, Mr. Peters, to come away from DuYikirk withont 
** a testimony of the great benefits we have all received from 
"him in this place, where he hath laid himself forth, in 
<^ great charity and goodness, in sermons, prayers, and 
*' exhortations, in Visiting and relieving the sick and 
" wounded ; and, in all these, profitably applying the sin« 
** gular talent God hath bestowed upon him to the chief 
" ends proper for our auditory. For he hath not only 
" j$hewed the soldiers their duty to God, and pressed it 
<< home upon them, I hope to good advantage, but hath 
^' likewise acquainted them with their obligations of obedi- 
'^ ence to his highnesses government, and affection to his 
^ person. He hath laboured amongst us here with much 

♦ Thurloe's State Papers, vol. i. p. 380. 
+^ Walker's Attempt, part i. p.' 172, 174. 
± Peters's Dying Legacy, p. 109. 
( Wbitlocke'8 Mem. p. 674. Edit. 17S2. 



€6 



PETERS. aSO 

^< good will, and seems to enlarge his heatt towards us, and 
<^ care of us for many othier things. — Mr. Peters hath been 

twice at Berglu and hath spoke with the cardinal (Maxa- 

rin) three or four times. I kept myself by, and had a 
^^ care that he did not importune him with too king speeches. 
<^ He returns loaden with an account of ail things here, ifnd 
** hath undertaken every man's business.''* 

Mr. Peters returned to England at the aboye period, 
bringing an abundant store of intelligence to the govemitient. 
January 29, 1660, when General Monk was on his march 
from Scotland towards London, he was appointed to preach 
before him on a fast-day at St Albania; when, it ig said, 
^^ he troubled the general with a long fast sermon ; and at 
night too he superero^ted, and prayed a long prayer in 
the general's quarters. Our author gires the following 
account of the sermon on this occasion : — ^< As to the ser^ 
mon, he managed it with some dexterity at the first, allow- 
ing the cantings of his expressions. His text was Psalm 
Cvii. 7. Ife led them forth by the right waj/y thai they 
ndffht go to a cUy of habitation. With his fingers on the 
-cushion he measured the right way from tiie Red 8ea^ 
through the wilderness to Canaan ; said it was not forty 
days march, but God led Israel forty years through the 
-wilderness, before they came thither ; yet this Was still the 
Lord's right way, who led his people crincledum cum 
crancledum. He particularly descended into the lives i£ 
the patriarchs, how they journeyed up and down, though 
blessings and rest were promised them. Then he reviewed 
our civil wars, our intervals of peace, and fresh distractions, 
and hopes of rest. But though the Lord's people," he 
said, ^^ were not yet come to a city of habitation, he was 
-still leading them on the right wtw^ how dark soever his 
dispensations might appear to men. 'f 

May the 16th, in the above year, an order passed tlie 
liouse of commons, now modelled in favour of loyalty^ 
^< That the books and papers in the hands of John Thurloe 
and Hugh Peters, heretofore belonging to the library of the 
late Archbishop of Canterbury, be forthwith secured.'* 
But it does not appear from our author whether any such 
books were found in their possession.^ After the king's 
restoration, Mr. Peters being apprehended and comniitted 
io prison, his majesty sent a warrant to Sir John Robin* 
son, lieutenant of the Tower, to obtain informatioii of his 

« Tharloe*8 State Papers, Yol. Tii. p. 8S3, 849. , 

f KeoBet*8 CbroDkle, p. 36. t l^'^- p. 150. 



560 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

royal father's library; ivhen Mr. Peters underwent an 
examination, and declared upon his oath, ^^ That, in the 
•year 1()48, he presi'rved (he library in St. James's against 
the violence and rapine of the soldiers ; that the same con- 
tinued three or four months in his custody ; that he did not 
take any thinff away, but left it unviolated as he found it ; 
and that he delivered up the key and custody of all to 
Major General Ireton.''* 

Mr. Peters was thought to have been deeply concerned in 
the king's death, on which account his name has been 
treated with much severity. It wns supposed that the war- 
rant for the king's -execution was directed to him and Colo- 
nel Hacker, and that they were the two persons who were 
in mnsk upon the scaffold when his majesty was beheaded. 
There was some demur in tlie house of commons whether 
he should be excepted from the act of oblivion.f But, in 
the conclusion, it was declared against him, and he was 
apprehended, committed to the Tower, and tried with the 
rest of the regicides, in all twenty-nine, fitishop Kennet 
in one place says, that for a while he had been sculking up 
and down in secret, but was at length apprehended in South- 
wark; and in another, that he was discovered by one of 
those confidents whom he brought from New England, 
and seized upon in bed with another man's wife.^ This 
vile calumny is cast upon him on the slender evidence of a 
bigoted and abusive piece, entitled, '' Regicides no Saints^ 
nor MaHyrs." 

Mr. Peters was brought to the bar, October 13, 1660; 
when he was indicted for high treason, to which he pleaded 
-^fwi gui/fy. '^ After the indictment was read," says Bishop 
Kennet, <^ he saw a whole congregation of witnesses again^ 
him, who upon their oaths testified him guilty of the most 
horrid crimes that any man could be gililty of." These crimes 
are next enumerated as follows : — " That he not only took 
arms, but was himself actually a colonel, and gave out com- 
inissions. — That he met in private consultation, near the 
time of the king's trial, at the Star in Coleman-street, with 
Cromwell, Pride, and others of the bloody plot — That in 
December, 1648, the head-quarters were at Windsor, where 
Cromwell, Ireton, Rich and Peters, usually sat in consulta- 
tion, till two or three o'clock in the morning, with strict 
guard about them ; soon after which the king was brought 
to trial. — That during this consultation at Windsor, Peton 

♦ Biog. Britan. vol. i. p. 230. Edit. 1747, 

t Ludlow 8 Mob. p.S94. Edit. 1771. i Kennet*! Cbron. p. I9i, W. 



PETERS. 3fil 

commonly called his majesty tyrant and fool, saying, < he 
\¥as unfit to be a king, and that tlie kingly office itself was 
dangerous, chargeable, and useless.' — That an aged gentle- 
man haying said, ' Gpd save the king, and preserve him out 
of the hands of his enemies,' he was ofTended, and said, ^ Old 
gentleman, your idol will not stand long.' — Tha^t at Marga- 
ret's, Westminster, he preached upon these words, Not this 
man^ but' Barahbas^ comparing all along his- majesty to 
Barabbas, and bloodily inciting his auditoiy to kill the 
king; intimating that God would bring every tyrant io 
justice, signifying that there was no exception for king, or 
prince, or any of that rabble. — That he rode next before the 
king when he was brought from Windsor to his trials— 
That in the painted chamber, the first day the high court 
of justice sat, Hugh Peters and John Goodwin were with 
them, when all others, except the judges and officers of the 
couft, were kept out. That he was. present at making pro* 
clamation in Westminster-hall for the high court of justicei 
and did there openly say to Sergeant Dendy, ^ All this you 
have done is worth nothing, unless you proclaim it ia 
Cheapside and the Old Exchange.' 

'' That the said Hugh Peters was marshalling and en- 
couraging the soldiers ^ho guarded thesking in St. James's 
Park, a little Ix^fore his trial. — That he was constantly in 
private consultations at Bradshaw's house during the trial, 
with them who sat upon the king. — That h6 bid Stubbs 
command his soldiers, when the king came near the high 
court, to cry out justice! justice! — That being at the high 
court of justice on the twentieth of January, he was heard 
to say, ' This is a most glorious beginning of the work.'— 
That on Sunday the twenty -first of January, he preached at 
Whitehall, from Psalm clix. 8., To bind their kings with 
chainSj Sft,^ applying his text and sermon to the late king, 
and highly applauding the proceedings of tlie army, saying, 
* This is a joyful day, and I hope to see such another day 
to-morrow.' — That the Sunday after his majesty was sen- 
tenced to die, he preached again upon the same text at 
St. James's, saying, ' He intended to have preached upon 
another text before the poor wretch; but that the poor 
wretch refused to hear him.'— That in the afternoon of the 
same day, he preached at Sepulchre's, and repeated all his 
parallel between his late majesty and, Barabbas, crying out, 
that none but Jews would let Barabbas go. — That in this 
sermpn, he said, ^ Those soldiers who assisted in this great 
work had £manuel written on their bridlds.* 



MS LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

<^ That in the painted chamber, on one of the days of the 
kiug*s trial, Peters kneeled down and prayed for a bleieing; 
and amongst other thin^, he said, ^ O Lord, what a mercy 
is it to see this great city fall down before us !*— ^That he 
was upon the scaffold a little before the execution, and then 
whispered to Tench, the carpenter, who thereupon did there 
knock and fasten four staples, pulling a cord out of his 
pocket. — That after the kmg was murdered, Peters said, 
^ Jjoid, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, for 
mine eyes have seen thy salvation/ — That a while after the 
execution, he said, < I rejoice to think of that day ; for to 
me it seemed like the great and last day of judgment, when 
the saints shall judge the world/ '*« 

This is a full account of all the charges which even his 
enemies bring against him ; but whether these things prove 
*' him guilty of the most horrid crimes that any man could 
be guilty ot," is left with the reader to judge. Most of the 
foregoing particulars, as every reader will easily perceive^ 
fell far short of high treason. Though it is said, tnat to all 
these particulars he made not one word of answer, except in 
cant and impertinence ;f yet. when the witnesses were pro- 
duced to find him guilty of iiaving been one of the king's 
judges, their evidence completely fail(*d, and they coiud 
only prove that he was present on the occasion, when he 
used some indiscreet language. When the court attempted 
to prove that he was upon the scaffold the day on which 
the king suffen^d, lie i)ro(luced witness depofling that he was 
sick on that day, and confined to his own house. What 
Mr, Potcrs observed in his own defence, was little more 
than a protestation of his own innocence, fie said that the 
war comm(;nced l)eforc he cm me to I'Jn^land ; that since his 
arrival, he had endeavourcHl to promote sound religion, 
gocMl learning, and the employment of the poor; and that, 
for the l)etter attainment of thc!S(5 ends, he had espoused the 
interest of the pariiametit. He then added, << I had neither 
malice nor mischief in my heart Ui^iiinst the king. I had so 
much respect to his majesty, pariieularly at Windsor, that 
I propoun(hHl to him my tlionghts thnvt ways, to pn^serve 
him from danger, which were i^ood, as he was pIcMised to 
signify, though they di<l not siieeced. As for malice, I had 
none m me."t W hitlocke r)bs rves, that, " upon a con- 
ference between the king and Vfr. P(»ters, the king d(*siring 
one of his own chaplains might be i)ermitted to come to 

• Kmiiefi Chronicle, p. 277, «T8. + Ibid, 

t Trial of Regicidei, p. 30, 153—183. Edit. 1660. 



PETERS. ass 

him, for his satisfaction in some scruples of conscience. Dr. 
Juxton, bishop of London, was ordered to go to his 
majesty."* " And Sir John Denham being entrusted hy 
the qiieen to deliver a message to his majesty, who at thitf 
time wks in the hands of the army, by the assistance of 
Hugh Peters he got admittance to the king."f 

These were certainly very considerable services, and 
could hprdly haye been expected from a man, who, accord-* 
ing to Burnet, '^ was outrageous in pressing the king's 
death, with the cruelty and rudeness of an inquisitor."^ 
As to the vile insinuation of many writers, that he was sup- 
posed to have been one of the masked executioners, besides 
thetleposition at his trial, that he was then confined by sick- 
ness, no stress was laid by the king^s counsel on any sus- 
Eicions or reports on this head. So that in all good reason, 
^r. Barwick, Mr. Granger, and others, should have fore- 
borne saying, ^' that he was upon no slight grounds accused 
to have been one of the king's murderers. "§ 

Mr. Peters, in further protestation of his own innocence, 
says, ^^ I thought the act of indemnity would have included 
me; but the hard character upon me excluded me. I have 
not had my hand in any man's blood, but saved many in 
life and estate. ''|| All that was proved against him con- 
sisted merely in words ; but words, it must be acknowledged. 
Unfit to be uttered. Yet, when it is recollected that many 
greater offenders than Mr. Peters escaped capital punish- 
ment, we shall be led to suspect that he met with some 
unkind and hard usage. When he was asked why sentence 
should not be passed upon him, to die according to law, he 
only said, ^' I will submit myself to Grod ; and if I have 
spoken any thing against the gospel of Christ, I am heartily 
sorry for it."i[ The sentence of death was then passed upon 
him; when he was confined in Newgate only three clayg 
and then executed. According to Ludlow, it was of no use 
to plead in his own defence: the court was fully resolved 
on his execution. **It was not expected," observes this 
author, " that any thing he could say should save him from 
the revenge of the court ; and, therefore, he was without 
hesitation brought in guilty. "♦♦ 

Mr. Peters, the day after his condemnation, preached to 

* Wbit1ocke*8 Memorials, p. 364. + Hibtorlcal Account, p. 84. 

f Hist, of his Time, vol. i. p. 162. 

^ Historical Account, p. 25.-<^Granger*s Biog. Hist. vol. iii. p. 65. 

II Peters's Dying Legacy, p. 104, 106. . . 

1 Tfial of Regicides, p. 182^184. *• Lvdiow's Memoira, p. 407. 



364 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

bis friends and fellow-prisoners in Newgate. His text was 
Psalm xlii. II. Whj/ art thou cast downy O my sotdf 
And why art thou disquieted within me? HopeAhou in 
God; for I shall yet praise him, who is the healih of my 
countenance and my God, The subject was particularly 
appropriate. For, during his imprisonment, he was exer- 
cised with a painful conflict in his own spirit, fearing, as he 
often said, that he should not go through his sufferings with 
courage and comfort. To his friends he said he was 
somewhat unprepared for death ; and therefore he felt in 
some degree unwilling to die. Some things, he observed, 
he had conmiitted, and others he had omitted, which 
troubled him ; but he believed the light of God's counten- 
ance would at last break forth. And the favour of God did 
at length appear. For a little time before he went to the 
place of execution, his mind became perfectly composed; 
and with the utmost cheerfulness he said, '^ I thank God, 
now I can die. I can look death in the face, and not be 
afraid." To the truth of this many could bear witness.* 

Bishop Kennet observes, that ^^ alter the trial and coo- 
denmation of the regicides, Dr. Barwick and Dr. Dolben 
were sent to persuade tliem to repentance, and to confess 
their impious deeds." It is also added, '^ that they might 
employ their pious endeavours to better purpose with 
others, their first care was to solicit Hui;h Peters, the prin- 
cipal and rin^-leader of all the rest. The\dld prophecies 
uttered by his impure mouth were still reoeived by the 
people with the same veneration as if they had been oracles, 
though he was known to be infamous for more than (Hie 
kind of wickedness. He was accused, upon no slight 
grounds, to have been one of (he masked executioners faired 
to murder the king, but it could not be sufficiently proved 
against him." To all that these divines could say to him, 
says our author, " Peters answered with much surliness, 
negligence, and stupidity, and stopped his ears against all 
admonitions. He had so perfectly shook off all sense of 
piety and religion, if ever he had any, that his accomplices 
earnestly requested these divines to intercede with his 
majesty that a person so deaf to advice, and so impeoe* 
trable to their sacred ministrations, might not be hurried 
into another world till he were brought, if possible, to a 
better sense of his condition. "t 

To this account, too evidently designed to reproach his 

* Speeches and Prayeri of the King's Jadges, p. 68. 
f Kcpnet's Chronicle, p. 284, SS5* 



PETERS. S66 

Memory, we shall only observe, from other authority, fhat 
the two doctors used their- utmost endeavours to persuade 
him to a recantation of his former activity in the cause of 
the parliament, with promises of pardon from the king if 
he would comply. Though he was then much afflicted in 
q)irit, he was enabled to resist their insinuations. He told 
them, " he had not the leasf cause to repent of his adherence 
to the parliament ; but only that, in the prosecution of that 
cause, he had done no'more for God and his people." And 
thus, with civility, he dismissed his visitants. 

The day on which he suffered he was carried on a sledge 
from Newgate to Charing-cross, the place of execution ; 
where he was made to behold the execution of Mr. Cook, 
another of the regicides. Here a person came to him, and 
upbraided him with the death of the king, bidding him now 
TOpent : to whom Mr. Peters said, " Friend, you do not 
well to trample upon the feelings of a dying man. You are 
greatly mistaken. I had nothing to do in the death of the 
J"**?'" When Mr. Cook was cut down, and brought to be 

Juartered, the hangman was commanded to bring Mr. 
'eters near, that he might behold the mangled remains of 
his fellow-sufferer. As the hangman approached him, being 
^U over besmeared with blood, and rubbing his bloody hands 
together, he said, "How do you like this, Mr. Peters? 
how do you like this Work ?" To whom Mr. Peters re- 
plied, ^^ I thank God, I am not terrified at it. You may do 
your worst." As he was going to be executed, he gave a 
piece of gold to a friend, requesting him to carry it to bis 
daughter as a token of respect trom her dying father ; and 
to let her know, " That bis heart was as full of comfort as 
it could be ; and that before that piece should come into her 
hands, he should be with God in glory." When he was 
upon the ladder, he said to the sheriff^ " Sir, you have 
here slain one of the servants of God before mine eyes, and 
have made me behold it, on purpose to terrify and discou- 
rage me ; but^ God hath ordered it for my strengthening 
and encouragement." " If Peters said this," a learned 
doctor observes, '.' it is plain he died as he lived, and went 
out of tHe world with a notorious He in his mouth;" then 
insinuates, that he had taken a large potion ; that he behaved 
himself like an idiot; that he was stupidly drunk, and there-^ 
fore was not in a condition to make such a reflection. This 
surely needs no* comment.* When he was going off, he 

« Grey's Ezftmioatioto^ vol. iii.p. 888. 



966 UVES OF THE PURITANS. 

iftid, ^< Whaiy Jlesh ! art thou unwiUing to go to God 
through thejire and jaws of dejath ? OA, said fie, « this is 
m good day. He is come whom I have long looked foTy axd 
I shall be with him in glory i'* and went off with a smile on 
bis countenance.* He suffered October 16, 1660, -i^ed 
tixty-one years; and his head was set upon a pole on Iion- 
don-bridge. 

Mr. Peters, it is allowed by all, intermeddled too much in 
state matters, and wns too much the tool of the ruling porty, 
which evidently brought him to this disgraceful end. Few 
men have suffcn d greater infamy and reproach. He is 
accused of many enormous crimes, but whether justly or not, 
we leave it with God to judge. Bishop Burnet, speaking i^ 
the triumphant death of the regicides, says, ^^ It was indeed 
remarkable that Peters, a sort of enthusiastical buffoon 
preacher, though a very vicious many who had been c^ great 
use to Cromwell, and had been outrageous in pressing the 
king's death with the cruelty and rudeness of an inquisitor, 
was the man of them all that was the most sunk in his spirit, 
and could not in any sort bear his punishment. He had neither 
the honesty to repent of it, nor the strength of mind to suffer 
'for it as all the rest of them did. He," our author adds^ 
^ was observed all the while to be drinking some cordial 
liquors to keep him from fainting. 'V ^ 

Kennet styles him a virulent incendiary in the king's 
death, and says he was not fit to die, and was unable to bm 
up under the prospect of it. "And," he adds, " without 
any reflection on the wickedness of the man, there never Inis 
a person suffered death so unpitied ; and, which is more, 
whose execution was the delight of the people, which thef 
■ expressed by several shouts and acclamations, when they 
saw him go up the ladder, and again when the halter was 
putting about his neck ; but when nis head was cut off, amd 
hdd up aloft on the end of a spear, there was such a shout 
as if the people of England had acquired a victory, "t Suck 
was their loyal infatuation, brutality, and outrage ! 

Grander says that Mr. Peters, together with his brethrat, 
went to his execution with an air of triumph^ rejoicing that 
he was to suffer in so good a cause. But, he adds, it a{^)eara 
from this mstance, and many others, that the presumption 
of an enthusiast is much greater than that cf a saint. He 

♦ Speeches and Prayew, p. 59— 6«. 

+ Burnet*s Hist, of bis Time, vol. i. p, 16?. 

t Kenaet's Cbrooicle, p. 109, 888. 



PETERS. 967 

was a great pretender to the saintl v character, a yehemcat 
declaimer against Charles I., and one of the foremost to 
encourage and justify the rebellion.* Dr. Barwick sayv, 
^< he was known to be infamous for more kinds of wicked- 
ness than one.' V Wood denominates him ^' a theological 
and pulpit buffoon, and a diabolical yillain.'^^ Dr. &rey 
says, <^ he was a juggling, scandalous, and infamous 
villain, and that be got the mother and daughter with 
child." He styles him, ^^tbe gingerbread prophet, the 
lato pastor of a hunger-served flock at Salem iu New £ng« 
land, that mongrel minister, that military priest, that mo- 
dern Simon Magus, that disguised executioner, that bloody 
butcher of the king.''$ 

These are, indeed, very heavy charges. They require 
good evidence for their support. On the one hiuid, it u 
easy for an historian to assert what he wishes to be true, 
though he cannot prove it ; and on the other, it is oftea 
extremely difficult to disprove what is asserted, though it 
may in fact rest on no good evidence. Though we would 
by no means connive at sin, or attempt to lessen the guilt of 
any man, the truth of the above charges appears extremely 
doubtful. Some of these accusations are unquestionably 
the language of scurrility, misrepresentation, and abuse.; 
and they aU come from known enemies, those who hated 
the cause in which he was engaged, and looked upon it as 
detestable. We do not find, that they knew of any of those 
things of Mr. Peters themselves ; and, therefore, what they 
have published must be considered only as common fame, 
which in' those times, when malice, bigotry, and revenge 
ran so high, might easily have been propagated without 
even the shadow of proof. Mr. Peters suffering as a 
traitor, they were probably too forward to believe those 
reports ; the truth of which was at best extremely uncertain. 

Indeed, the times in which Mr. Peters was on the stage, 
were far enough from favouring sucli vices in the ministe* 
rial character. He must be a novice in the history of those 
times, who knows not what a precise and demure kind of 
men were the preachers among the parliamentarians. They 
were careful, not only of their actions, but of their wprds, 
and even their looks and gestures. Drunkennc^ whoie. 
dom, swearing, and such like vices, were quite out of 

* Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. iii. p. 65, 339. 
f Historical Account, p. S3. 

f Wood's Athense Ozon. vol. ii. p. 113, 739. 
Gre>*t ExamioatioD, ▼ol. ii. p. 358. Hi. 887. 



368 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

To^ue among them. It was their sobriety and strictnois of 
behaviour, joined with their popular talents in the pulpit, 
which caused them to be so much revered and esteemed.- 
If Mr. Peters had been so vicious, so infamous for wicked* 
ness, and so scandalous and diabolicil a villain, as he is 
represented, he could certainly have had no influence over 
the people, nor would he huve been treated io the manner 
that he was by some of the principal men in the nation. 
They must )iave parted with him even for their own sakes, 
unless they wished to have been looked upon as enemies to 
religion. 

, Besides, if it be recollected who were the patrons of 
Mr. Peters, the truth of his accusations will appear veiy. 
doubtful. We have seen how he was entertained by the 
Earl ot Warwick, Sir Thomas Fairfax, and Oliver CJrom-^ 
well, and how much he was caressed and rewarded by the 
parliament. Ilow improbable then is it that he was infii- 
mous for wickedness! His patrons, it is observed, weie- 
never accused of personal vices. Tliey were men who at 
least made high pretensions io religion ; and the cause i^ 
which they fought, they avowed to be the cause of God. 
With what face could they have done this, if their chaplain, 
their confident, their tool, had been known to be so* vicious', 
so infamous ibr wickedness, and so scandalous and diabo* 
lical a villain ? Or,' how could they have said and done so 
much against scandalous ministers, who employed one of 
the most scandalous ? In short, how could they ptAlidjf 
reward Mr. Peters, when they always professed great acpl 
for godliness, and cn(1eavoure<l to promote it in the highest 
degree? Men of their wisdom, courage, and zeal, can 
hardly be thought to have actc*d so inconsistent a part.* 

Mr. Edwards observes of Mr. Peters, that he was a great 
agent for the sectaries ; and that by preaching, writing, and 
conference, he greatly promoted the cause of independ- 
ency .f In addition to the thirty thousand pounds which 
he collected for the persecuted protestants m Ireland, as 
already noticed, he was a diligent and earnest solicitor for 
the distressed protestants in the vallies of Piedmont, who, 
by the tyrannical oppressions of the Duke of Savoy, bad 
been most inhumanly persecuted and reduced to the utmost 
extremity. « Also, in gratitude to the Hollanders for. tliM 
sanctuary he had found among them, during his persecu- 
tions under Archbishop Laud, he was of signal service ifs^ 

• Historical Accoont, p. 85 — ^89. 

t £d wards*! Gaograeoa, part Hi* p. 190. 



DURY. SB» 

them in. composing thdr differences with England, in the 
time of Cromwell.* 

Mr.Peters^ durii^ his imprisonment, wrote certain papen^ 
as a legacy to his daughter, ^hich were afterwards pub- 
lished, from which some parts of this memoir have be^ 
extracted. Though a comfortable annual maintenance was 
conferred upon him by the parliament, he was deprived of 
all at the restoration; and Mrs. Peters, who lived manr 
years after his death, was wholly dependent upon her friendg 
lorsupport.t 

His Works. — 1. God's DoiDgs, and Man's Duty, opened in a 
Sermon preached before the House of Commons, the Lord Mayor, 
and the Assembly of Divines, 1646. — 2, Petcrs's Last Report of the 
English Wars, occasioned by the Importunity of a Friend, pressing 
an Answer to some Queries, 1646.— -3. A Word for the Army, and 
two Words for the Kingdom, to clear the one and cure the other, 
forced in much Plainness and Brevity from their faithful Servant, 
'Ebagtk Peters, 1647. — 4. Good WorK for a Good Magistrate, or a 
short Cut to a great Quiet, 1651 — 5. Some Notes of a Sermon 
preached the 14th of October, 1660, in the Prison of Newgate, after 
his Condemnation, 1660. — 6. A Dying Father's Last liCgacy to an 
only Child; or,. Mr. Hugh Peters's Advice to his Daughter, written 
by his own hand, during his late imprisonment in the Tower of 
Ijondon, and given her a little before his death, 1660. — The portrait 
of Mr. Peters is prefixed to this little work. 



John Dury . — Thi^ zealous divine was bom in Scotland, 
but sojourned some time in 4he university of Oxford, par* 
ticularlj for the benefit of the public library. He was 
there in the year 1624, but it does not appear how long he 
continued. Afterwards, he travelled into various foreign 
countries, particularly through most parts of Germany, 
where he visited the recesses of the muses. By long con- 
tinuance in foreign parts, he spoke the German language so 
fluently, that, upon his return to England, he was taken for 
a native German. Our- author ad(£, that he was by pro<- 



• Lodlow's Memoirs, p. 407. 

+ Mr. John Knovvles, in a letter to the governor of New England, dated 
July 6^-1677, thug observes: — V* There isacother trouble which I presume 
'* to piit npon you, that is, to speak to the Reverend Mr. Higgioson, pastor 
*' of Salem, to move that congregation to do something for the maintenance 
"of Mrs. Peters; who, since her husband suffered here, hath depended 
*' wholly upon Mr. Cockquaine, and tlmt church whereof he is pastor. 
^ I fear the will be forced to seek her living in the streets if some course 
*■ be not taken for her relief, either by Mr. Higginson, Mr. Oxenbridge, or 
" some other sympatbiziog miaiiter." — Mas»uehuHt$ Pap$r$f p. 514. 

YOJJ. III. Q, B 



370 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

fession a divine and a preai;hcr, but whether be took oideiff 
according to the church of England, which he alwayi 
scrupled, doth not appear.* However, these scruples, by 
some m(*an8 or other, he overcame. For, though he had 
been ordained in one of the foreign reformed churches, he 
was required to be rc-ordained be^ure he could be admitted 
to a benrfice in England ; and, accordingly, submitted to 
the renewal of this ceremony under the nands of Bishop 
Hall of Exeter, t 

Mr. Dury was for many years employed in a design of j 

promoting a reconciliation between the Calvinists and • 

Lutherans abroad ; or, as he used to express it, ^< for makfiig 

and settling a protestant union and peace in the chuiche^ 

beyond the seas.'' We shall give an account of this object^ 

in the words of oile who warmly censures both Mr. uuxj 

and his undertaking. << He made a remarkable figure m 

liis time, by running with an enthusiastic zeal for unitfatf 

the Lutherans and Calvinists. He was so stron^l^ poasean 

with the hopes of success, that he applied to Ins supofaa 

for a dispensation of nonresidence upon his living, in oidci 

to travel through the christian world to accomplish fte 

design. And he not only procured a license for the pur* 

pose, but obtained the approbation and reconmiendatioa of 

the Archbishop of Canterbury ,t and was assisted by Bishop 

Hall, and the Bishop of Kilraore in Ireland.^ He b^an 

by publishing his plan of an union in 16^; and, the 

same year, appeared at a famous assembly of Lutherans at 

Frankfort in Germany. The churches also of TransyNaais 

sent him tlieir advice and counsel the same year; andlif ' 

afterwards negociated with the divines of Sweden aad 

Denmark. He directed his attention to every quaiter. 

He consulted the universities, communicated their answai^ 

and was not discouraged by the ill success which he wd 

with. He conferred with the learned divines in most of tk 

places on the continent, and obtained their approbatioii of 

his design. His project, however, was much ridioahd: 

• Wood's Athenae Oxen. vol. I. p. 849, 860. 

•f Prynne*s Cant. Doome, p. 390. 

X Archbishop Laud made meotioo of this circumataBce at his CriaL ^ 
although he at firsi espoused Mr. Beryls oudcrtakiDg, he appears a ftmn i * 
to have thrown «ome difficolties io the way. — Ikjid. p. 639, 641. 

^ Bishop Bfdell of Kilnore, who loved to bring mea iaia tbt 00^ 
manion of the church of England, bat did not like compelling tbea, ail 
of opinion, that protestants would agree well enoagh. if they caahA bi ' 
brought to understand each other. He was therefore iodacad to pnmt^ 
Mr Dnry*8 design, and, towards defiaying the expenies of which, Ik mK* 
•cribed twenty pounds a year.— J9<0f . iirttaa. toI. iU p. ISA. Bdit. 11Y9^ 



DURY. 371 

But this only served to inflame his zeal. He afterwards 
endeayoaredto nnite, not only the Lutherans and Calvinists., 
bat even the whole christian world. To this end, he 
trayelled through many parts of Germany, where he was 
cordially received and liberally entertained. He seems to 
have b^n an honest man, but enthusiastical. His notions 
were but idle f mcies, and his scheme was equally wild and 
impracticable/'* 

Notwithstanding the censures of the above writer, it is 
manifest that Mr. Duty's undertaking received the warmest 
patronage and encouragement of many celebrated divines. 
In the year 1635 he exchanged several letters upon the' 
subject with the learned Mr. Joseph Mede. He first sdi- 
cited this celebrated scholar to give his thoughts upon the 
best method of pursuing the design ; and then stated the 
method in which he had addressed tbe Batavian churches, 
dfuring his remarks upon it. Mr. Mede most cordially 
^iqpftproved of his endeavour to promote a pacification, but 
was doubtful of its success. He commenaed Mr. Dury's 
method of addressing tbe foreign churches ; owned his 
good intentions ; and spoke of bis abilities in terms of tiie 
Sigbest approbation. '' From his wisdom and abilities 
therein,*' says he, " I am fitter to receive knowh^dge and 
instraction than to censure or give direction."f Mr. Dury 
communicated his design to the most celebrated divines of 
New England, who signified their hearty concurrence in the 
generous undertaking.^ And Mr. Baxter observes, that 
*^ Mr. Dury having spent thirty years in his endeavours to 
reconcile the Lutherans and Caivinists, was again going 
abroad upon that work, and desired the judgment of our 
association how it might be most successfully accomplished; 
upon which, at their desire, 1 drew up a letter more largely 
in Latin, and more briefly in English. "§ 

Upon the comnieiicement of the civil wars, Mr. Dury 
espoused the cause of the parliament, and was chosen one 
or the superadded members to the assembly of divines. He 
took the covenant with the rest of his brethren, and was 
appointed one of the committee of accommodation.|| It is 
said, that he afterwards joined the independents, took the 
engagement, and all other oaths that followed to the restora- 
tfon.! He was certainly a man of a most worthy chanu^r, 

• Biog. Britan. vol. vii. p. 4383. Edit. 1747. 
' ^ Mede's Works, p. 804, 863—866. 

{Mather's Hist, of New Eng. b. iii. p. 3fl, 40. 
Sy Westerns Life of Baxter, part i. p. 117. 
I Pfipers of Accom. p. 13. f Wood's Albensi Ozoo. fol. U p. MO. 



»7f LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

and was exceedingly revered and beloved by numerous per* 
sons highly distinguished for learning and piety ; among 
whom, it would be a great omission not to mention Che 
famous Sir Robert Boyle, who was his kind friend.* In 
the great design of promoting concord among christians, be 
discovered a most excellent spirit, and was indefatigsJbly 
laborious. Though he was not so successful as the best of 
christians desired, his endeavours were certainly us^ul. 
Through the whole, he acted upon the most generous and 
worthy principles. This will appear from his letter, dated 
July, 1660, addressed to the Lord Chancellor Hide ; which 
was as follows: 

<<MyLord, 

<^ In the application which I made to yoor ho* 
nour when you were at the Hague, I offered the fruit of my 
thirty years labours towards healing the breaches of protest* 
ants ; and this I did as one who never had served the tim 
of any party, or have been biassed by particular intererfi 
for any advantage to myself; but walking in the light by, 
rules and principles, have stood free from all in matters of 
strife, to be able to serve through love. My way hath beeoj 
and is, to solicit the means of peace and truth amongst the 
dissenting parties, to do good of&ces, and to quiet their d»- 
contents, and I must still continue in this way if I should 
be useful. But not being rightly understood in my aims 
and principles, I liave been constrained to give this brief 
account thereof, as well to rectify the misconstruction d 
ibrmer actings, as to pievent further mistakes concerning my 
way : that such as love not to foment prejudices may be 
clear in their thoughts concerning me; and may know when 
to find me, if they would discern me or any of the talei^ 
which God hath bestowed upon me for the public welfare of 
his churches, m Iiich is my whole aim ; and wherein I hope 
to persevere unto the end, as the Lord shall enable me, to 
be without offence unto all, witii a sincere purpose ta 
approve myself to his majesty in ail faithfulness. 

^^ Your lordship's most humble servant in Christ, 

« John Dury." 

During the same month he sent another letter, ^ving aa 
account of certain proceedings relative to the universal 
pacification among christians. It was addressed to tht 
Earl of Manchester, lord chamberlain of his majestyV 

* Bioj;. Britao. Tol. ii. p. 497. Edit. UTS. 



WHITFIELD. 975 

t 

honsebold.* The author now cited denomiaates Mr. Oary 
^^ the Lithuanian scholar/' and observes that in December^ 
1660, he was presented, hj favour of the Earl of Man« 
Chester, with so much of the l^ithuanian Bible as was 
then printed, which was down to the Chronicle8.+ Thus, 
Mr. Dury lived till after the restoration, but does not appear 
to have conformed, nor yet to have been ejected. Eveiy 
thing seems to have giv<*n way to his favourite object; 
therefore he most probably discontinued his stated minis- 
terial exercises some time before this period. 

His Works. — 1. Consultatio Tbeologica snper ne^otio pAcit 
Ecelesiast. 1641. — 2, Epistolary Discourse to Tho. Goodwin, Ph. Njc, 
and Sam. Hartlib, 1642. — 3. Of Presbytery aod Indepeodency, 1646. 
•—4. Model of Church GovemmeDt, 1647. — 6. Peace-fuaker the 
Gospel way, 1648. — 6. Seasonable Discourse for Reformation, 1649.-^ 
7. The reformed School, 1650. — 8. The reformed Library-Keeper, 
1050; — 9. Bibliotheca Augosfa sereniss. Princ. D. Augnsti Ducia 
BhinoTlcensis etc., 1650. — 10. The unchang^ed, constaot, and single* 
bearted Peace-maker drawn forth into the World : or, a Vindicatum 
of John Dury from the Aspersions cast upon him in a oameleM 
Pamphlet, called,* The time-serrin^ Proteus, and ambidexter Divine, 
uncased to the World,' 1650. — 11. Supplement to the reformed School, 
1651. — 12. Earnest Plea for Gospel Communion, 1654. — 13- A Sum- 
muy Platform of Divinity, 1654.— 14. A Declaration of John Dury 
to make known the Truth of his Way and Deportment in all these 
Times of Trouble, 1660. — 15. Irenicorum Tractatuum Prudromusy 
1662. — ^And some others. 



Henry Whitfield was the son of an eminent lawyer; 
and, his &ther designing him for the law, he wait educated 
first in one of the universities, then at the inns of court. 
He was inclined to religion from a child ; and as he grew 
up to years of maturity, being desirous to he employ<^ in 
preaching the gospel, he gave up all thoughts of the law^ 
and entered upon the ministerial function. He became 
minister of Ockham in Surrey ; at which place, as also in 
the adjacent country, his labours were wonderfully blesf^cd 
in the conversion of souls. During the period of twenty 
years he remained a conformist, but was highly ifstcemr^d l)y 
all pious nonconformists, many of whom, under the molcfsta* 
tions and persecutions of the bishops, were shelti'red under his 
Toof. At length, however, upon mature investigation and 
thorough conviction, he could no longer conform to tlio 
church of En^and. This soon brought him into thost 

« Kennet'i CbroDiclc, p. 197, 198. + Ibid. p. 808. 



974 LIVES OF THE' PURITANS. 

• 

troubles from which he bad protected others. He was pro* 
secuted b^ Archbishop Laud, particularlv for refusing to 
read the Book of Sports.* Mr. Whitfield, beiug a man of 

Sreat moderation and self-denial, would not contend with 
le metropolitical power of the archbishop ; but peaceably 
resigned his benefice and the public charge of nis flock. 
As there was no prospect of any reformation of the church, 
nor of his further employ in the ministry in his native 
country, he sold his estate, and, in the year 1639, retired to 
New England. Many cf his religious friends and ao« 
quaintances accompanied him; who, upon their arriyal, 
began a new plantation, and called the place of their st^ttle- 
ment Guildford. There they formed themselves into 9 
christian society, choosing Mr. Whitfield to the office of 
pastor. Atier sojourning at Guildford eleven years, pa- 
tiently enduring the hardships of the new colony; and 
having a pressing invitation to his native country, 1m 
returned to England in 1650. On his arrival, he was mat 
cordially received by his old friends, and highly respecird 
by some of the first persons in the nation. He settled in the 
ministry at Winchester, where he probably continued th^ 
rest of his days. He was an excellent preacher, eminent 
for liberality and self-denial, and appears to have died 
about the restoration. f He was author of a work entitkdi 
<^ Some Help to stir up to Christian Duties," 1636. 

Adoniram Btfirld, a. M. — This pious divine was the 
son of Mr. Nicholas Byfield, another worthy puritan, and 
educated in Emanuel college, Cambridge, in the year 
164!s{ he became chaplain to Sir Henry Colmly^s regiment^ 
in the parliament's army; and the year following was 
appointed scribe to the assembly of divines, being, accord- 
ing to Wood, '^ a iTiOst zealous covenanter. "j Upon the 
first publication of the Directory, by order of the parlia- 
ment, the profits arising from the sale of it were bestowed 
upon Mr. Byfield and Mr. Henry Roborough, the other 
scribe, who sold the copy, it is said, for several hundred 
pounds.^ In the year 1646, when the " Confession of 
Faith" was drawn up by the assembly of divines, Mr. 
Byfield, Mr. Thomas Wilson, and Mr. Stanley Gower, wera 

• Prvnne's Cant. Doome, p. 131. 

f Matter*! flist. of New Knf:land, b. iii. p. 817, 918./ 

t Athpnw Oxon. vol. ii. p. 229. 

i Fuller's X:hurch Hist. b.xi. p. 222. . . 



A. etfieldl-jessop. ms 



appointed to collect proofe of the various artickf from 
fcripture; all of which, upon the examination of the 
assembly, were inserted in the mai^in ; and the year fol- 
lowing, when it was printed, Mr. &p^field, by order of the 
house of commons, delivered a copy to each membarof the 
house.* 

He was rector of Fulham in Middlesex ; and after the 
wars, he became rector of CoUingbom-Ducis in Wilt, 
shire. Upon his removal to the latter situation, he wat 
nominated assistant to the commissioners in that county 
for ejecting ignorant and scandalous ministers. In this 
capacity he was not likely to escape the bitter censures of 
Dr. Walker ; who endeavours to prove, that in the exami- 
nation of Mr. Bushnell, he was not only too (Scions, but 
guilty of some illegal proceeding. Th(5 charges are sup- 
ported, however, by very slender evidence, or rather no 
evidence at all.t Mr. Bytield is one of those few writers^ 
•ays Granger, who have, by name, been stigmatized by Butler^ 
in his ^^ Hudibras.'^ This may be true, and he might be*' 
as he was in truth, a very pious, excellent, and useful 
divine. He observes, that Mr. Byfield was said to have 
been a broken apothecary; that he was of special note; 
and a very active zealot in the busy and boisterous reign of 
Charies I. ; and then adds, that his portrait was published^ 
" with a windmill on his bead, and the devil blowing the 
sails/'t The best of men have, in all ages, suflS^reu the 
vile reproaches of the wicked, who frequently account them 
^' the offiscouring of all things.'' Mr. ByfieLd, witli two or 
three others, assisted Dr. Chambers in compiling his 
^ Apology for the Ministers of the CounU^ of WiltHhire,*' 
1654. He died in the year 1660.^ Mr. Isaac Knight, his 
successor at Fulham, and Mr. Daniel BurgciM, Ims i»uc« 
eessor at Collingbom, were both ejected noucoiifbnuisti 



CoNSTAHTiNE Jessop, A.M.— This person was the son 
rf Mr. John Jessop, minister of Pembroke, born in tli« 
year 1602, and educated in Jesus rollege, Oxford. Having 
passed through a regular c<»urse of study in tliat university^ 
he went into Irelanc^ and entered Trinity college*, Dublin ; 

* Neal's Puritani, yoI. iii. p. 361. 
. + Walker'u Attempt, part i. p. 182—194. 

X Granger's Biog. Hist. toI. ii. p. 187. S Wood'i Atbenae, foF. 11. p. tSO. 
fl Palmer's Noncoii. Mem. fol.ii. p* 447. ill. Stfl* 



S76 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

but afler some time returned to Oxford. About tbe yeur 
1632 he eutcred into the ministerial office; arid, upon the 
commei)« emcut t>f the civil war, he espoused the cause of 
the parliament, took the covenant, and succeeded the cele- 
brated f)r John Owen, as minister of CoirgeshaU in Elssex. 
Having continued his ministerial labours for some time at 
this place, he removed to Wimborn-Minster in Dorsetshire; 
in which county he was appointed assistant to the conunis* 
sion( rs for ejecting ignorant and scandalous ministers and 
schoolmasters. He did not, however, continue in this 
situation many years, but became rector of Tyfield in Essex^ 
vh^re he died about the year 16f)0, aged fifty-eiffht years* 
The Oxford historian diiiominates iiim " a U^arned, faithful, 
and suffering minister of Jesus Christ."* He was author of 
<* The Angel of the Church. of Ephesus, no Bishop of 
^jSphesus," J 644; and a piece " Conceniing the Nature 
of the Covenants of Grace ; wherein is a Discovery of thd 
Judgment of Dr. Twisse in the point of JustificatioBi 
clearing him therein from Antinomianism," 1655* - 



Henry Denne. — This zealous person was educated is 
the university of Cambridge, and ordained by the Bishop of 
St. David's about (he year 1630. Afterwards he signalued 
himself by his preaching and writings, his disputing and 
sufferir>gs. He entered upon his ministerial labours at 
Pirton in Hertfordshire, where he remained about ten yeany 
and was much beloved and respected by his pari8hi(Mie0» 
In the year 1641 he was appointed to preach at a visitatioQ 
held at Baldock in the same county. This occasioned him 
to be more publicly known, and made him many friends 
and enemies. He had always been sus|)ected of puritanisnu 
'fhe difference now subsisting betwixt the king and parlia^ 
ment gave many ministers an opportunity of declarinfp 
their sentiments more openly,' and of endeavouring to pro- 
mote the desired reformation of the church. Among these 
"was Mr. Dt'nne, who embraced this opportunity of exposing 
the sin of persecution, the vices of the clergy, and tte 
numerous corruptions in the worship and discipline of the 
established church. The introduction to his sermon- was 
extremely singul ir, but discovered considerable ingenuity. 
His text was John v. 35. He was a burmns and a shining 
Ughty and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his Ughi. 

« Wood's Athena Oson. vol. ii. p. 175^ 176. 



^DENNE. 37T 

In the sennon he freely censured the principal evils of the 
time, and laid open the numerous vices of the clergy ; par- 
ticularly their pride, their covetousness, their pluralities, 
and nonresidence. His applications were close and search- 
ing ; one instance of which it may not be improper to give* 
The court for receiving presentments against nonconformists 
being held at those visitations, after having enumerated and 
exposed some of the most flagrant crimes of the clergy with 
great freedom, he said, ^^ I must call upon those in autho- 
rity, that they would make diligent search after these ^/ixrcf* 
If the courts had been as diligent to find out these^ as non*- 
conformable ministers ; surely by this time the church would 
have be^i as free from themy as the land is from wolves. 
But they have preferred the traditions of men before the 
commandments of Grod. I tell you, that conformity hath 
ever fared the worse for their sakes, who, breaking the com- 
mandments of God, think to make amends by conformity to 
the traditions of men." * 

During the delivery of the sermon, some of the clergy 
^ could hardly exercise patience to hear it out ; and after- 
wards there was so great a noise in the country, and so many 
false reports were propagated against both the preacher and 
the sermon, that he was obliged to publish it in his own 
defence. From this time he began to be much noticed, not 
only as a man of considerable parts, but as one suitable to 
help forwards the reformation of the church. The revolu- 
tion which soon after took place in the state occasioned a 
material alteration in the affairs of religion. Many learned 
men were led to a closer study of the sacred scriptures, as 
well as a more accurate investigation of some doctrines, then 
generally received as true. Of this number was Mr. Denne, 
who, judging that the baptism of infants had no foundation 
in scripture, or in the purest ages of the church, publicly 
professed himself a baptist, and, about the year 1643, was 
baptized by imme^rsion. He immediately joined himself to 
Mr. Lanib's chur(^h, meeting in Bell-alley, Coleman-street, 
London ; where he still continued to preach, as well as in 
different parts of the country.* 

This change in Mr. Denne*s sentiments exposed him io 
the resentment of the ruling powers, who put frequent ob- 
structions in the way of his preaching and public useful- 
n^. In the year 1644 he was apprehended in Cambridge- 
shire, by the committee of that county, and sent to prison 

« Crosby'i Hitt. of Baptists, toI, I. p. SS1-*90S. 



378 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

for preacbir^ against in&nt baptism. Haying suffered 
coonnement for some time, his case, through the interoessioii 
of friends, "was referred to a committee of parliament. He 
was accordingly sent up to London, where he was kept 
pri^ner in Lord Pctre's house in Aldcrsgate-street, till the 
committee heard bis case and released bin!.* 

At this time there was confined in tbe same prison, the 
learned Dr. Daniel Featly, famous for bis opposition to 
the baptists. The doctor baying just published bis book, 
entitled, ^' The Dippers Dipt ; or, the Anabaptists Ducked 
an4 Plunged oyer Head and Ears, at a Disputation in 
Southwark,'' it was laid in the way of Mr. Denne, who 
haying read it, thought himself called upon to defend hii 
principles. He therefore challenged tbe doctor to a dispiH 
tation, which being accepted, Mr. Denne is reported to bayc 
had the best of tbe argument, and that the doctor declined 
proceeding further, under pretence that it was dangerous so 
to do without a license from goyemment. Mr. Denm^ 
upon the inyitation of the doctor, immediately set about 
answering the book, and in the course of a few weeks pnn- 
duced a yery learned and ingenious reply. 

After his release, notwithstanding the obnoxious nature of 
his opinions, Mr. Denne obtained, by some means, the; 
yicarage of Eltisley in Cambridgeshire, where he preached 
publicly in the church, and was much followed. But this 
excited the jealousy and op)X)sition of the prcsbyteriaos. 
Haying, on a certain occai>iO!i, \o preach a lecture at St 
Ives in Huntingdonshire, X'-v committee of the county 
issued an order to pn^vent hi-. ; upon wtiich he went intO; 
a neighbouring church-yaid, uiul [.reached under a tree to a 
great numberot' people, and tj the great mortification ofhii 
opponents. In June, l(>4f3, he was again committed to 
prison, for preaching his own sciiliments and baptizing by 
inunersion, at Spahiihg in Liricohishire. Here his cbi^ 
persecutors were < wo justices, wiio sent the constable on the 
Lord^s day morning to apprehend him. Their object was 
to prevent him preaching ; for, to their great morlilicatUHi, 
multitudes flocked to hear him. Uprm the examination oC 
his case, the on'y crime broui^ 'i against him was that ci 
dippings and only one person couid be produced in evidence^ 
or the charge. When first called U^fore his spiritual, 
judges he was urged to accuse l/imselt*; but this he utterly 
refused. The single witness produced in proof of the 

* Edwards's Gangraena, part i. p. 77. 



DEXNE. S79 

cbarge was one Anne. Jarrat, who, June S3, 1646, made 
the following depositioD: ^^ This examinate sailh, on Wed- 
nesday last, in the ni^ht, about eleven or twelve o'clock, 
Atine Steunet and Anne Smith, the servants of Joha 
Mackernesse, did call out this examinate to go with them 
to the little (Tott, with whom this examinate did go; and 
coming thithei. Master Denne, and John Mackemesse^ 
and a stranger or two, did toUow after. Ahd being 
come to the river-side, Master Denne >^ent into the watery 
and there did baptize Anne Stennet, Anne Smith, Godfrey 
Roote<^ and John Sowter, in this examinate's presence."* 

It wris accounted a sad crime to perform this ceremony in 
the rtigkt. The oppressions of the times not suflerinaf it to 
be observed in open day, ought, however, to bear all the 
blame. Though his persecutors discovered a m^ st intole- 
rant spirit, anii by their extreme bigotry, exposed them- 
selves to the reproach of all unbiassed minds, th< y succeeded 
in one thing according to their wishes. For, through their 
repeated oppressive proceedings, Mr. Denne was at length 
obIig( d to quit his living ; and seeing no prospect of useful- 
ness in the church, he went into the army. As he was a 
man of great courage and zeal for the liberties of his 
country, he behaved himself so well in the character of a 
soldier, as to gain a reputation not inferior to many who had 
made it the profession of their lives. At the conclusion- of 
the war he returned to his tbrmer exercise of preaching, and, 
took every opportunity of defending his principles. 

In the year 1658 Mr. Denne was engaged in a dispute 
concerning baptism with Dr. Gunning, in St. Clement's 
church, near Temple-bar, London. The disputation lasted 
two days ; and he is said to have afforded strong proofs of 
his abilities and learning, as a good scholar and a complete 
disputant. Indeed, he was accounted by one who had a 
considerable hand in the public affairs of the nation, " the 
ablest man in the kins^dom for prayer, expounding, and 
preaching." In his views of the doctrines of the gospel he 
took the middle way, with Bishop Usher, Bishop Da venant, 
Mr. Baxter, and others. + Mr. Edwards, who was never 
suspected of partiality to those called sectarians j acknow- 
ledges <' that he had a very affectionate way of preaching, 
and was much esteemed among the people;" yet he deno- 
minates him a great antinomicmy and a desperate arnumanT^^ 
Another writer observes, that he was formerly " a high altar- 

* Edward8*8 Ganii^raena, part iii. p. 86, 87. 

+ Crosby's Baptists, vol. i. p. 221— 224, 308— SOT. 

f £dwards's (^ogrena, part i. p. 76, 77*. 



3S» LIVES OP THE PURITANS. 

man, a bower at the name of Jesus, and a conformist to the 
abominable innovations introduced by Canterbury ; that be 
opposed the remonstrance and the petition of the weil- 
affccted, pleading for a riddance of episcopacy, the cere- 
moni^, and other corruptions; and that he was a rigid 
arminian, an enemy to free grace, and an antinomian."* 
Mr. Denne united with his brethren, the baptist ministers in 
London, in their protestation against Yenner's insurrection^ 
and in avowing their unshaken loyalty to the king.f His 
death is supposed to have taken place towards the close of 
the year 1660. After his interment the following lines 
were put upon his grave-stone : 

To tell his wisdom, learning, goodness, unto men, 
I heed to say no more, but here lies Henry Dennb. 

His Works. — 1. The Doctrine and Conversion of John the Bap- 
tist: a Visitation Sermon, 1642. — 2. Antichrist Unmasked, 1644^— 
3. The Foandation of Children's Baptism Discovered and Raised, 
1645. — 4. The Man of Sin discovered, whom the Lord will destroy 
with the Brightness of his coming, 1645. — 5. The Drag-Net of the 
Kingdom of Heaven ; or, Christ drawing all Men, 1646. — 6. The 
licvellers Design discovered, 1649. — 7. A Contention for the Troth ; 
in two Public Disputations between Dr. Gunning and Henry Denne, 
concerning Iniant-Baptism, 1658. — 8. Grace, Mercy, and Peace. 



Francis Taylor, A. M.— iThis excellent divine was fx 
some time rector of Clapham in Surrey, and afterward^, rector 
of Yaldiflg in Kent, to one of which places he was presented 
by Archbishop Laud.t In the year 1643 he was ^^hosen 
one of the assembly of divines, and paid constant attendance. 
In tiie assembly he discovered great learning and modera- 
tion. His distinguished abilities and erudition were, how- 
ever, most richly displayed in his writings. He wrote the 
Annotations upon Proverbs, in the Assembly's Annotations, 
as they are commonly called. He was most famous in all 
kinds of Hebrew learning and Jewish antiquities. He held 
a correspondence with Boctius, Archbishop Usher, and the 
most celebrated scholars of his time. Among the letters to 
the archbishop, still preserved, there is one from Mr. Taylor, 
dated from Clapham, in 1635.§ Upon his removal from 
Yalding, he became preacher at Christ's church in the city 
of Canterbuiy, where he appears to have died about the 
restoration. He left behind him the character of an able 

• Rutherford's Survey of Antichrist, part i. p. 193. Edit, 1641. 

-^ Kennet's Chronicle, p. 358. 

i Wharton's Troubles of Laud, yol. i. p. 369. 

S r^n'i Life of Vsher, p. 475. 



F. TAYLOR— BOWEN. . 981 

critic and a most celebrated divine.* He had a son of 
the same name, i¥ho, .though he lost his sight by the small- 

{>ox, ^hile a student in Cimibridge, was a minister of good 
earning, genuine piety, and great usefulness; but wdi 
silenced and imprisoned in 1663.f 

^ His Works. — 1. The Danger of Vowes Neglected, and the Ncccs- 
sitie of Reformation, a Sermon before the House of Liords, at the lat» 
solemn Fast in the Abbey-church, Westminster, May 27, 1646 — 1646. 
— 2. God's Glory in Man's Happiness, 1654. — 3. Opuscula Rabbinica» 
1654.^-4. Examen Prefationis Morini in Biblia Grseca de Textns 
£braici Corruptione, 1660.— 6. Tractatus de Patribus Rabbi Nathan. 
•^6. Capitula Patrum.— And most probably some others. 

Evan Bowen appears to have been bom in Wales, where 
he laboured in the work of the ministry. He was employed 
for some time in the Principality as one of the itinerant 
preachers, whom Dr. Walker promnely denominates gospel' , 
posiiUions.t Afterwards he obtained a settled ministry. Mr. 
iVilliam Williams being ejected for some delinquency, he 
was appointed by the commissioners to be his successor at 
Uanaian. Dr. Walker mentions this affair more than once. 
He observes that there were four th&usand souls in the 
parish; and brin^ four separate charges against Mr. 
Bowen : as, ^' That he had been an itinerant, and had received 
a salary for his labours, as appeared from the account of the 
seques^tion/' We may, therefore, suppose he was a man of 
approved labilities for so laborious an office ; and he migEt - 
have been many years employed in the ministry. After he 
had proved liimself to be an able minister of the gospel, he 
would be accounted no unfit person for the charge of so 
large a parish. 

'* He was fifty -five years of age." This is a heavy charge, 
indeed ! if such a number of years necessarily disqualiiy a 
man for the ministerial work. This, surely, could be no great 
blemish in his character. Bv the experience of many years, 
and a long acquaintance with the world, he would not be less 
qualified for the numerous duties of so populous a parish. 

But ^^ he was a mason by occupation." The charge 
may be true, and be no greater blemish in his character 
than his vears. Dr. Walker himself mentions several cler- 
gymen who kept tippling-houses, and, surely, the occupation 
of a mason will ncStJbe accounted less honourable. But the 

' • Ncal's Paritans, vol. !▼. p. 971. 
f Palmer's Noocon. Mem. vol. ii. p. SSS. 
% Walker's Attempt^ part i. p. IM* 



SBS LIVES OF THte 1»URITANS. 

fiu;t most probably was, that Mr. Bowen, when a yobtli, or 
during the former part of bis life, ha^t been employed in 
this business ; and what disgrace was there iii this ? If the 
doctor h!id sHid, that he foiiowed his trade even while he 
was an itinevan', it would have shewn him to be a miln of 
most extraordinnry abilities, and the charge would have 
been no great crime* 

" Hr w-s untaught in the Ens^lish tongue, and confessed 
he had never read the Primer in blnglish."* Had he been 
welt taught in the English tongue, it would have been no 
very important qualification for preaching among the moan- 
tains of fValttt. Then'' were thousands of excellent scholan 
who never read the Primer. The puritans were not very 
partial to that book. The truth is, Mr. Bowen was a most 
laborious, acceptable and useful preacher. He was a noncon- 
formist to the ( stablished church, and supposed to have been 
of the biiptisi denomination. He died abont the year 1660.t 



Walter Cradock was descended from a reputable 
family, born*at Tre*ela, near Llangeven in Monmrnithshire^ 
and educated at Oxford, most probably with a design i6 Acf 
christian ministry. Upon his return from the univcreitjr, 

. having heard of the fame of Mr. Wroth, a zealous puritani 
minister in Wal -s, and of his singular way of preaching, 
he had the curiosity to go and hear him. The happy con- 
sequence was, that he believed Mr. Wroth was a. tmt 
minister of Christ; was fully convinced of the truth and 
importaitce of his doctrine; and began himself not long 
after to pre^ich the same gospel, with much concern for the 
salvation of his countrymen. Afterwards he became curate 

- to Mr. William Erbery, another Zf^alous puritan, who was 
vicar of St. Mary^s church, CardiiBT, in Glamorganshire. 
Mr. Cradock was remarkably ze;dous and courageous in the 
cause of Christ ; on which account the Bishop of Landaflf 
calls him " a bold ignorant young fellow ;" and says, *' he 
was very disobedient to his majesty's instructions," most* 

Erobably by refusing to read the Book of Sports, and that 
e preached very scuismatical and dangerous doctrine; for 
vrhich he suspended him and deprived him of his curacy. 
For proof of his disobedience, and of his schismatic^l 
tnd dangerous doctrine, his lordship observes, ^ that 
he used this base and unchristian passage in the pulpit: 

• Walkfr*s Attempt, part i. p. 161. ii. 409. 
t Thomas's MS. Hist. p» 189. 



CRADOCK. - iSS 

That Godso hoed the worlds that he seni hi$ San to Ikt Uk^ a 
^Urocy and die tike a heasV^* These to>ubles came upon faioi 
in the year 1634. 

Mr. Cradock having received the episcopal censure, and 
being driven from his stated ministerial exercises, he preached 
up and down the country as he found an opportunity, 
sometimes in the churches and sometimes out of them. In 
imitation of his Master, << he went about doing good,*' an^ 
wherever he could procurer hearers, there he preached. He 
was unconunonly zealous and laborious, and preached in 
most places throughout north and south Wales, with great 
acceptance and usefulness.f His fame spread through the 
country, and his labours were made a blessing to the p^ple. 
This gave him comfort and encouragement in his work. His 
miiiistry was instrumental in the conversion of Mr. Vavasor 
Powell, who became his zealous fellow-labourer in the vine« 
yar4 of the Lord.t 

Ip the year* 1639, Mr. Cradock, with the assistance of 
Mr, Wroth, formed a church according to the model of the 
independents, at Llanfaches.^ About the same time he 
settled at Wrexham, where he preached in the church. Hitf 
constant and laborious preaching made him many enemies \ 
and his name is said to have made so deep an impression on 
their minds, that they denominated all persons eminent Ibf 
piety, Cradockims. It was accounted a sufficient reproach 
to call them by his name ; which, in fact, was conferring 
no small honour upon him, and was no leal disgrace to 
them. This term of supposed reproach continued in prac*. 
ticc above a hundred ycars.|| By Mr. Cradock's ministry at 
Wrexham many sinners were called '' firom darkness to light, 
and from the power of Satait to God ;" among whom were 
Mr. Morgan Lloyd and Mr. David ab Hugh, who afterwards 
became eminent ministers of the gospel.f 

During the confusion of the civil wars^ this pious divine 
mas obliged to leave Wrexham; and being driven out of 
Wales, he fled to London, where he became pastor of 

* The king, in his remark on this expression, obsenres, that this was not 
■inch unlike that not long since uttered : ** That the Jews crucified Christ 
Hke a damned rogue between two thieves.** Then, surely, the royat 
mmimeiit was equally schismatical as the text! ! — fFhartorCs Troubles •( 
IfCiui, vol. i. p. oSS. 

f Cradock^s Works, Pref. Edit. 1800. 

t Ufe of Vavasor PoweU, p. 106. Edit. 1671. 

y Tkomas's MS. Materials, p. ISl. 
V I Thomas's MS. Hist, of Baptists, p. 169. 

% TiMmias's MS. Eccl. Hist p. 899. 



884 LIVES OF THE PURITANS. 

Alhallows the Great. In this situation he continued tiO 
things became more settled in the nation, and then^ with 
several^otbers, resumed his labours in his native country. It 
does not appear, however/ that he returned to his former 
charse at Wrexham, or to any other stated ministry, but was* 
employed, with many others, as an itinerant, under die direc- 
tion of the parliament, for propagating the gospel in Wales. 
He was a leading man among the travelling go^llers^ as Dr. 
Walker is pleased to call them ;* and went from place to 
place preaching the word of God with great popularity and 
success. 'Willis incurred the displeasure and roused the malice 
of his enemies. The writer just mentioned cannot 'speak of 
him without misrepresentation and abuse. He observes that 
Mr. Cradock, Mr. Powell, and other enthusiasts, represented 
their countrymen to the parliament '^ as pagans and infidels, 
and a people that understood nothing of God, or of the 
power of godliness; and so had need be converted to the 
faith." From the deplorable darkness which at this time 
overspread the whole of the Principality, there was certainly 
too much truth in this representation. But he adds, ** that 
they made it their business, by aU possible methods of 
calumny and reproach, to decry not only the old ministers, 
but the ministry itself, and the tithes and revenues, as Babr- 
lonish and antichristian ; and this they did from die pulpit, 
with all the bitter railings and invectives that can be imagmed.^f 
They undoubtedly disapproved of the ceremonies, ^vero- 
ment, and persecution* of the church of England, as savouring 
too much of the church of Rome. Tliey might also endea- 
vour to instil the same sentiment in the minds of the people. 
This was certainly the practice among all parties. In thoA 
distracted times, all ministers, whether friends or enemies to 
the estabUshed church, laboured to propagate their own 
opinions. And, surely, if they believed their opinions to be 
die truth, they were sufficiendy authorized so to do, provided 
they proceeded with chrisUan moderation. That Mr. Cradock^^ 
or his brethren, acted at all inconsistent with sound chri»- 
tianity, could appear only to Dr. Walker and writers of a 
similar spuit, whose pens ^re always dipped in gall. 

It was impossible for him to escape the bitter censures of 
Mr. Edwards's presbyterian bigotry. This intolerant writer 
says, " Tliere is one Master Cradock, who came out of 
Wales, and is going thither again to be an itinerary preacher, 
who declined coming to the assembly ; biit now lately, seeing 

* Walker's Attempt, part i. p. 158. f Ibid. p. 147, 159. . 



CRADOCK. ass 

ttie f0j fioiild nat be had without the concurrence of Ae 
lords, and having made some leading men his friends^ he 
•came to t>e .examinedy and is passed. Besides that he hath 
^diered a church, and administered the Lord's supper in a 
bouse At Aveningy be hath preached many odd things in the 
city, strains tending to antinomianism and libertinism, speak- 
ii^ jigainst men of an Old Testament spirit, and how pocnr 
drunkards and adulterers could not look into one of our 
churches but hell fire must be flashed in their faces. Hiat, 
if a saiot should commit a gross sin, and, upon die commission 
of it, shoidd be starded at it, that would be a great sin in 
Ura." This heavy charge appears, however, to be -without 
tbe least foundation, and stands directly opposed to Mr. 
i/radock's clear and consistent views of the gospel, and his 
vniform christian character. 

The bigoted historian also observes of our pious divine : 
*^ That lately he preached on that text in Thames-street, 
fVe are not of' the night, but of t-he day ; when he delivered 
matfer to this effect ; that since the apostles' times, or pre- 
sendy after, there had been a great night, but now the day 
was breaking out after a long night, and light was 4:oming 
eveij day more than other; and there were many gospel 
privileges, and of the new Jerusalem that we should then 
enjoy. In that day there should be nov ordinances to punish 
men for holding opinions ; there should be no confessions of 
fiudi ; there every one should have the liberty of their con- 
sciences, as. in Micah it is prophesied of those gospel times: 
All people will walk every one in the name of his god, and we 
tsnil wcuk in the name of the Lord our God, for ever and ever ; 
which place was brought by him for liberty of conscience ; ' 
and in that day neither episcopacy, nor presbytery, nor any 
others should intermeddle or invade the rights of the saints. 
Many such flings he had ; and this sermon was preached just 
ut the time when the ordinance against heresies was taken 
into debate, and the confession of faith to be brought into the 
iiouse of commons : so that by these and many more par- 
ticulars, his firequent hints about dipping, and suffering such, 
shews what ace the iirst fruits of these itinerary preachers^ and 
vhat a sad thing it is, that men so principled should go among 
such people as the Welsh, with so large a power of preaching 
as he and his fellows have."* Mr. Cradock was a zealous 
^vocate for religious liberty and universal toleration, as the 

• Edwards's Gangraena, part iii, p. IdS. 
TOL. III. 2c 



98& LIVES OF TBE PURITANS. 

• 

birthrigbt of man^ which awakened the intolerance of this 
furious presbyterian. 

He was a man of an excellent character and of high repu- 
tation; therefore, in the year 1653, he was appointed by the 
parliament to be one of the committee for the approbation 
of public preachers, commonly called tryers. Here his 
name is classed with those of Dr. Owen, Dr. Goodwin, 
Dr. Manton, and many other celebrated divines.* This 
probably called him out of Wales, and brought him back to 
Liondon. He died about the year I66O. Mr^ Cradock was 
an independent in his views of church government ; but he 
could atree in the important doctrines of the gospel, with 
those who differed from him in matters of discipline. He 
had a low opinion of himself, and a very high esteem for his 
Lord and Master. He excelled in clear views of the doctrine 
of justification by the imputed righteousness of Christ, and in 
the great simpucity of his manner of preaching.f Hb 
^' Works,*' consisting of sermons, expositions, and observa- 
tions, were collected and published in one volume octavo in 
the year 1800* By his zealous endeavours he procured 
the New Testament to be printed in Welsh, for the use of 
the coDUBon people.^ 



William Jeffbuy was the son of pious parents, born at 
Penhurst in Kent, about the year 16 16, and afterwards lived 
at Seven-oaks in die same county ; where he and his brodier 
David were the chief supporters, if not the founders, of a 
congregation of baptists. He was chosen pastor to this con- 
gregation, which greatly increased under his zealous and labo- 
rious ministry. At the time of his ordination to the pastoral 
office, it was denominated the church of Bradbnm; and 
afterwards that which, assembled at Bedsell's-green. He did 
not confine his labours to any one place ; but, while he ixxk 
particular care of his own flock, he extended his labourfrto 
distant places in the country. By his unwearied assiditttjr, 
many separate congregations were raised, and a church wss 
formed about Speldhurst and Pembury, over which Mr. Jote 
Care was ordained elder. This church afterwards removed 
to Tmibridge-wells. By the united labours of Mr. Jeffiny 
and several others, it is said there were more than tweabf 
particular congregations gathered in the county of Kept; 

♦ Scobell's Collpc. part if. p. 279. + Cradock's Workf, PTef. 

X Parliameot Explained, p. 89. Edit. 1646. 



JEFFERT. 

'which, with very litde variation^ continaed maov yean, 
some of them were very i expectable interests. The gratt 
object of this constant and faithful labourer was to 
and establish the fundamental truths of the gospel, 
entering upon points of controversy and matters of 
speculation. He was very zealous in main taining the love of 
God ; a vigorous and successful promoter of the intcresu of 
the baptists ; and one who suffered much with grea: 
and pleasure m his Master's cause. He bad several 
tions with the episcopalians, the indepenfienls, and 
With the last, he and Mr. Mattliew Caffiu had «eTenl coo- 
tests. He was author of a piece entitled, " The whole Faith 
of Man; being the Gospel declared in plainiie««, aa it is in 
Jesus, and the way thereof, of old confirmed b\ divers 
wonders, miracles, and gifts of the Holy Gho-t," 
edition, printed in 1659. 

The following anecdote is related of Mr. J^ffE-r^-'- con^^t- 

fation : — The magistrates of Seven-oaLs sent their officers to 
is congregation, dien meeting at Bradbum : uLo took ai! the 
men into custody, and carritrd them up to the to\%n, where 
they were kept prisoners during tlie night. Tlie f-^lk>vio; 
day, when the justices were assembled, tlie ^tis^fiMtn «ere 
brought before them, and they underwent an exainimtjoo : 
after which they were dismissed. They all, with one heart, 
full of wonder and joy, returned to the mcetin^-hoaM: mhei*c«' 
they were carried, to return their united thank « u* GrA ua 
this unexpected deliverance. When they entered the plar.e, 
to their great surprize and inexpreasible joy, they found tiw^ 
women there, who had not departed from the bouse of God, 
but spent the whole night, and following morning, in izxao^ 
and prayer to. God in their behalf.* 

Mr. Jeffery survived die restoration, and bore hL^ «hare o# 
persecution with the rest of his brethren; on acconat *A 
which, they unitedly published an address to the kia^ dbe 

BLrliament, and the people, entided, ^ SionS Groam for her 
iatressed : or, sober endeavours to prevent innocent bkiod," 
Sec. This is dated March 8, I66I, and is signed hy TVions 
Monck, William Jeffery, William Reynold*, Joseph Wrigb, 
Francis Stanley, Francis Smith, and George Hammoo. 

Many pious and worthy persons were now pri^ofien iii 
Maidstone jail, amons whom were Mr. Jeffer%, Mr. Joka 
Reeve his colleague, Mr. George Hammoo % mmm 
Canterbury, and Mr. James Bhckmore, minirtcr aC 

• CroOiy*! B^liilf, vol. iiL f tX— IM' 



S8S LIVES OF TBE PURITANS. 

dfher place in Kent. These pereecnted Bemnto of Cbtiat," 
Vfhiie under the cniel rod of oppressioii, poblkhed a ^mkk 
entitled, ** The humble Petition, tnd Representatioft of tiie 
Sufferings of sevend peaceable and innocent subjects, tnUed 
hj the name of Anabaptists, inhabitants of the county oi Kent ; 
and prisoners in the tail of Maidstone for the testinKMy of a 
mod conscience." It is addressed " To his Maieaty Charles 
ll. IGm of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, and the 
domimoaB thereunto belonging," and is as fc^ws:* 

^ May it please your majesty, 

^ For as much as by autliority derived from yourseIf| 
aevtral of us your subjects, inhabitants in the county of Kent^ 
lire now imprisoned ; it therefore much concerns llhee;^ A 
kiiig, to hear what account we give of our distressed contfition'. 
Thou hast already seen our confession of faith, wherm our 
peaceable resolutions were declared. We have not viofaOed 
any part thereof, that shoald cause tliat Kberty promised 
from Breda to t>e withdrawn. And now for our prindplei 
diat most particidarly relatie to magistrates and govenuoden^ 
We have witb all clearness laid them before thee ; humbly 
beseeching they may be read patienlly, and what we say 
traghed in the balance of the sanctuary, atid then judgfe hoii 
Worthy we are of bonds and imprisonment. And ws w^ 
the more eamesdy desire, because not only our own lives are 
in danger, but also an irresistible deeftfuction cometh on our 
wives and littlcf ones by that violence which is now exercised 
on us. Disdain not our plainness in speaking, seeii^ the 

Sreat God accepts of the like. And now, oh king, that all 
ly proceedings, both towards us and sJl men, may be such as 
may be pleasiug to the eternal God, in whose bands Hsy and 
our breath are, who ere long shall judge both quick and desfd 
IkCcording to their works, is the prayer of thy faithful subjects 
imd servants.^ 

After stating their sentiments respectmg liis majesty's 
authority, ffaey conclude with an earnest supplication to lit 
released from their present bondage, and to enjoy die fvffl 
liberty of worsbippiug God. It is signed in the name of ibe 
baptists now prisoners in the jail of Maidstone, by