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Full text of "Living leaders, an encyclopedia of biography : special edition for Daviess and Martin counties, Indiana"

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_ I I . ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 

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Living leaders 7 an 
encyclopedia of eiografhy 



EiDing Eeaders ^ ^ 



Cncpclopeaia of BiograpDp, 



SPECIAL EDITION 

FOR 

Daviess and Martin Counties, 

INDIANA, 



ILLUSTRATED. 



AMERICAN PUBLISHING COMPANY, 
J 897. 



1142757 

INTRODUCTION. 







iHERE is an irresistible attraction in reading the lives of cel- 
ebrated people which enchains the hearts of young and old 
alike. The study of individual character as represented by 
men and women whose names are graven on the imperish- 
able tablets of Fame, is not only fascinating but instructive. 
Strange as it may seem we know less of living celebrities, 
who by thought and action are now molding the destiny of the nation, than 
we do of the immortal dead whose epitaphs are written in the sacred archives 
of history. 

This work is a record of noted Americans now livmg, and of the impor- 
tant events they have created. It contains the portraits of famous persons 
whose names are prominent in the annals of the times. Each portrait is 
reproduced from a recent photograph, and is accompanied by a biographical 
sketch obtained in nearly all cases by personal interview. The work is there- 
fore of untold value as a text book of national character, an authentic account 
of modern progress and development, and the influence of master minds upon 
American history. 

Hon. Benjamin Harrison, Ex-President of the United States, has said : 
" If we would strengthen our country, we should cultivate a love for it in 
our hearts and in the hearts of our children and neighbors ; and this love for 
civil institutions, for a land, for a flag, if they are worthy and great and have 
a glorious history, is widened and deepened by a fuller knowledge of them." 

Biography is not alone the history of individuals, it is the history of a 
Nation. 



The influence of truly great men upon humanity cannot be estimated. 
The diplomacy and stanch patriotism, of Grover Qeveland, the statesmanship 
of William McKinley, the forensic ability of Melville W. Fuller, the rare schol- 
arship of Edward Everett Hale, and the broad liberality of Archbishop Ireland, 
have been important factors Li shaping the course of human events. 

The scientific discoveries of Thomas A. Edison have resulted in untold 
benefit to Americans and to the world. 

The poetic genius of Thomas Bailey Aldrich, the oratory of Chauncey 
M. Depew. and the humor of Mark Twain, have left an indelible impress 
.pon mankind. 

" One touch of nature makes the whole world kin," whether it be the 
princely charity of John D. Rockefeller, or the devotion of Neal Dow to the 
cause of temperance. 

The world loves to read of great deeds of bravery and the heroism of Ida 
Lewis, the lighthouse-keeper who risks her life, in an open boat, during a ter- 
rible storm, to rescue drowning sailors, or the courage of Dr. Charles Park- 
hurst, battling against the forces of evil, calls for the admiration of all. 

America has produced many celebrated men who have risen from humble 
stations to occupy exalted positions. Levi P. Morton started in life as an 
humble clerk ; Robert Collyer was a blacksmith ; John Wanamaker, a mes- 
senger boy ; Lyman J. Gage, a night watchman ; James Whitcomb Riley, a 
wandering sign painter ; William B. Allison, a farmer boy ; George M. Pull- 
man, a house mover; Richard J. Oglesby, a carpenter, and Francis Bret 
Harte, a printer. These and many others began the battle of life under dis- 
couraging conditions, but finally overcame all obstacles and rose to eminence 
ind honor. 

This work is of especial importance in view of the approaching presiden- 
tal campaign. Soon a new pilot will stand at the helm to guide the Ship of 
State through the shoals and shallows of doubt and danger. Many able 
statesmen have spent their lives in vain pursuit of this coveted honor, while 
others, more fortunate, have secured the prize. The biographies and portraits 
)f all possible candidates for president and aspirants for other political honors 
are found in this book. 



The work is an invaluable cyclopedia of names and a portrait gallery of 
the most prominent men and women of the day. Its value to the young is 
unquestioned, as it teaches them to emulate the deeds of those who are living 
examples of deserving fame. 

The work necessarily contains the portraits and biographies of many 
who have seen long years of service, but who wear their age " like a lusty 
winter, frosty but kindly." And when the summons comes for any one of 
these grand old heroes to rise to a higher and a better life we can say from 
our hearts: 

" Weep not for him. 

Who departing leaves millions in tears ; 

Not for him — 

Who has died full of honor and years ; 

Not for him — 

Who ascended Fame's ladder so high, 

From the round at the top 

He has stepped to the sky." 



MELVILLE W. FULLER. 



A LESS modest man of equal abilities would probably have risen 
to public prominence earlier in life than did Mr. Fuller. Not 
until 1888, when he was appointed Chief Justice of the United States 
Supreme Court, did he become known to the country as a great jurist, 
though he had long been recognized as such in Illinois. Melville W. 
Fuller was born in Augusta, Maine, February U, 1833. After grad- 
uating at Bowdoin College in J 853 he began the study of law at Har- 
vard, and in 1855 entered upon the practice of his profession in his 
native city. Here he edited the Augusta "Age," became president of 
the common council, and in 1856 was elected city attorney. In the 
last-named year he removed to Chicago, where for thirty-two years 
he conducted a highly successful law practice. Mr. Fuller was a 
member of the Illinois Constitutional Convention in 1862, and of the 
Illinois House of Representatives in 1863. A strong Democrat, he 
served as a delegate to all the national conventions, from 1864 to 1880 
inclusive, and was always prominent in the councils of his party, 
where his word had the greatest influence. When President Qeve- 
land selected him to fill the vacancy on the Supreme bench of the 
United States, caused by the death of Chief Justice Waite, the choice 
was pronounced a wise one by those who knew Mr. Fuller best. He 
was confirmed by the Senate July 20, 1888, and took the oath of office 
on the 8th of October following. The degree of LL. D. has been 
conferred upon him by Bowdoin College and the Northwestern Uni- 
versity. 




MELVILLE W. FULLER. 



THOMAS ALVA EDISON. 



rmay be truthfully said that the current history of this country 
contains no brighter page than that which recites the achievements 
of Thomas A. Edison. This great inventor first saw the light of 
day at Alva, Ohio, February H, 1847. As a boy he became particu- 
larly interested in the study of chemistry. While employed as a news- 
boy on a railway train he took up the study of telegraphy, and pur- 
sued it so persistently by sitting up late at nights in a railway station 
that he was soon an expert operator. He worked at this trade in a 
number of places, and while at Adrian, Mich., opened a shop for 
repairing telegraph instruments and the making of new machinery. He 
then went to Indianapolis, where he invented his automatic repeater. 
Later, he was stationed in Cincinnati, with an established reputation as 
an inventor, and from there went to Boston, where he perfected his 
duplex telegraph. Shortly thereafter Mr. Edison was made superintend- 
ent of the New York Gold Indicator Company, and transferred his shops 
to Newark, N. J. In 1876 he resigned this position and established 
himself permanently at Menlo Park, N. J., devoting his entire time to 
research and invention. Among the productions of his brain are the 
phonograph, the microphone, the electric pen, the quadruplex and sextu- 
plex transmitter, improvement in the electric light and the telephone, the 
kinetoscope and kinetograph. Mr. Edison is of a modest, retiring dis- 
position, an indefatigable worker, and when occupied in perfecting a 
new invention scarcely takes time to eat or sleep until it is completed. 
Remarkable as have been many of his achievements in the past, he 
expects to produce still greater results from recent experiments, and the 
public has great confidence in his forecasts of coming miracles. 




THOMAS ALVA EDISON. 
9 



ELIZABETH CADY STANTON. 



AMONG the women of the United States who have devoted their 
lives to the work of correcting existing evils in the social con- 
ditions of their sex, there is none now living who is better known or 
more highly honored for the good she has accomplished than Elizabeth 
Cady Stanton. This popular lady was born in Johnstown, N. Y., 
November 12, 1815, and was graduated a* Mrs. Emma Willard's Sem- 
inary, in Troy, N. Y., in 1832. In 1840 she was married to Henry 
Brewster Stanton, and in the same year, while attending the World's 
Anti-Slavery Convention, in London, she met Lucretia Mott, with 
whom she was in sympathy, and with whom she signed the call for 
the first Women's Rights Convention. This was held at her home in 
Seneca Falls, July 19 and 20, 1848. She addressed the New York 
Legislature on the rights of married women in 1854, and in advocacy 
of divorce for drunkenness in 1860, and in 1867 spoke before the Leg- 
islature and the Constitutional Convention, maintaining that during the 
revision of the constitution the state was resolved into its original ele- 
ments and that citizens of both sexes had a right to vote for members 
of that convention. She canvassed Kansas in 1867 and Michigan in 
1874, when the question of woman suffrage was submitted to the peo- 
ple of those states. . Since 1869 she has addressed many congressional 
committees and conventions, and delivered numerous lectures on this 
subject, and for ten years she was president of the National Woman 
Suffrage Association. In 1868 she was a candidate for Congress. 
She was an editor with Susan B. Anthony and Parker Pillsbury of 
"The Revolution," founded in 1868, and is joint author of "History 
of Woman's Suffrage." 

10 




ELIZABETH CADY STANTON, 



GROVER CLEVELAND. 



STEPPING from comparative obscurity into the highest position in the 
gift of the American people, it is safe to say that no man was 
ever more favored by fortuitous circumstances than President Cleveland. 
He was born in Caldwell, Essex County, N. J., March 18, 1837. 
His father was a Presbyterian clergyman. After his father's death 
Grover became a clerk and assistant teacher in the New York Insti- 
tution for the Blind, but in 1855 he settled in Buffalo with his uncle, 
and studied law in the office of Rogers, Bowen & Rogers. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1859, and from 1863 until 1866 was district 
attorney of Erie County. He became the law partner of Isaac V. Van- 
derpool, and in 1869 a member of the firm of Lanning, Cleveland & Fol- 
som, practicing until 1870, when he was made sheriff of Erie County. 
The firm of Bass, Cleveland & Bissell was formed in 1873, and in 1881 
Mr. Cleveland was elected mayor of Buffalo. In 1882, favored by a 
factional fight in the Republican party, he was made governor of New 
York, and in 1884 the Democratic party nominated him for President 
of the United States, and elected him on a platform of tariff reform. 
He was defeated for a second term by the Republican candidate, Ben- 
jamin Harrison, but in 1892 he in turn defeated Mr. Harrison, and 
again became President. Mr. Cleveland is a man of well-balanced 
temperament, a hard worker, persistent almost to obstinacy, and devoted 
to economical reforms. He was married in the White House, in 1886, 
to Miss Frances Folsom, daughter of his former law partner. He stands 
forth a very sturdy figure in the line of Presidents. 




By permisBion of barony. 



GROVER CLEVELAND. 
J3 



FRANCES FOLSOM CLEVELAND. 



NEVER did a fairer type of American womanhood preside over the 
domestic affairs of the White House than she who has been 
twice called to the proud position of "the first lady in the land." 
Mrs. Cleveland, only a few years ago, was the charming Miss Fran- 
ces Folsom, of Buffalo, N. Y., where she was born in 1864. Her 
father was at one time Mr. Cleveland's law partner and the two men 
were close friends up to the time of Mr. Folsom's death, in 1875. 
After that sad event Mr. Cleveland was appointed guardian of his late 
friend's daughter, and she was taken to the home of her grandmother 
in Medina, N. Y., where she attended high-school. She was regarded 
as one of the brightest pupils in her class, and upon finishing her 
course in the high-school she entered the sophomore class of Wells 
College, where she graduated with high honors. As a girl. Miss Fol- 
som was a general favorite, admired for her beauty and charming 
vivacity, as well as for her many accomplishments. After leaving col- 
lege she visited Europe with her mother, and soon after her return she 
became the mistress of the executive mansion at Washington. She 
was married to Grover Cleveland, in the White House, May 28, 1886, 
and at once became the most popular lady in America. Under her 
leadership Washington society acquired great brilliancy. With a grace 
and dignity all her own, coupled with a charming cordiality and sim- 
plicity of manner that commanded the admiration of the whole country, 
she bore the responsibilities of her trying position like one to the manor 
bora She has proved a loving mother as well as a devoted wife. 
Mr, and Mrs. Cleveland have three beautiful children, Ruth, Esther and 
Marion. 

J4 




FRANCES FOLSOM CLEVELAND. 



WILLIAM B. ALLISON. 



WTH a broad and breezy style of statesmanship that at once 
stamps him as a product of the great West, Senator Allison, 
of Iowa, must be enrolled among those eminent Americans whose abil- 
ities have forced them into prominence from the obscurity of the farm. 
His early years were spent on the farm at Perry, Wayne County, 
Ohio, where he was born March 2, 1829. He was educated at Alle- 
gheny G)llege, Pennsylvania, and at the Western Reserve College, 
Ohio, after which he took up the study of law, and practiced his pro- 
fession in Ohio until 1857. He then went to Dubuque, Iowa, which 
city has since been his home. He was a delegate to the Chicago 
convention that nominated Abraham Lincoln lor the presidency in I860, 
and in the following year became a member of the staff of the gover- 
nor of Iowa, in which capacity he rendered valuable service in raising 
troops and organizing volunteer regiments for the war. In 1862 Mr. 
Allison was elected to the Thirty-eighth Congress as a Republican, and 
was re-elected to the three succeeding Congresses, serving continuously 
as a member of that body from December 7, 1863, until March 3, 
1871. In 1873 he was elected United States Senator to succeed 
James Harlan, and he has been three times re-elected. His present 
term of service will expire in 1897. Senator Allison has long been 
recognized as one of the strongest men in the Republican party, a nat- 
ural leader and organizer, combining the shrewdness of the politi- 
cian with the broad-minded patriotism of the statesman, and with per- 
sonal influence second to that of no man in Washington. He has 
been a prominent candidate for the presidential nomination in more than 
one Republican convention. 

16 




WILLIAM B. ALLISON. 

17 



DAVID BENNETT HILL. 



IN stature rather below than above the average height, and somewhat 
sparely built, Senator Hill is, nevertheless, a giant among the rep- 
resentatives of that wing of the Democratic party that has no patience 
with the so-called reform methods of the Cleveland administration. He 
w^as born in Havana, Chemung ( now Schuyler ) County, New York, 
August 29, 1843. His first employment was as a clerk in a lawyer's 
office 'n his native village, and he afterward studied law in Elmira, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1864. He was appointed city attor- 
ney, and later was many times a delegate to the Democratic State 
Conventions, being president of those held in 1877 and 1881. He was 
also prominent in the Democratic National Conventions of 1876 and 
1884; was a member of the New York Legislature of 1870 and 1871; 
was elected Mayor of Elmira in 1882, and in the same year was 
elected lieutenant-governor on the ticket headed by Grover Cleveland. 
When Mr. Cleveland resigned in 1884, to become President of the 
United States, Mr. Hill succeeded him as Governor of New York, and 
in 1885 he was elected Governor for the full term of three years. In 
1888 he was re-elected over Warner Miller, and in 1891 he was 
chosen United States Senator to succeed William M. Evarts. As a 
champion of Tammany, Senator Hill was opposed to the nomination 
of Grover Cleveland for a second presidential term in 1892, and has 
since vigorously antagonized the administration by his vote and influ- 
ence in the Senate, defeating the President's favorite nominations. His 
bitterest political opponents admit his shrewdness and courage. 




DAVID BENNETT HILL. 



THOMAS BRACKETT REED. 



A MAN of forceful ideas and a happy gift of expressing them — 
a man who thinks for himself, and displays remarkable originality 
of thought in looking at any subject — Thomas B. Reed, of Maine, is 
a recognized leader of the Republicans in the National House of Rep- 
resentatives. Mr. Reed was born in Maine, October 18, 1839, and 
was graduated at Bowdoin College in I860, after which he studied 
law. In 1864 he entered the Navy as acting assistant paymaster, but 
after one year of service he resumed his profession. He was elected 
a member of the lower branch of the Maine Legislature in 1868, and 
was state senator the following session. For two years he was attor- 
ney-general of the state, and was city solicitor for Portland for a term 
of four years. In 1876 he was elected a member of Congress, and 
has since been continuously re-elected. In the Fifty-first Congress Mr. 
Reed was elected Speaker of the House, and the vigor of his adminis- 
tration, and his fearless departure from the usage of years in his rul- 
ings, attracted widespread attention, as well as a storm of criticism. 
He was assailed in every way that party indignation could invent or 
the bitterness of defeat devise, yet his acts may be said to have been 
vindicated. It is admitted even by Mr. Reed's political opponents that 
he is a man of honor and patriotism — an American throughout — with 
a force of intellect and character, and a training and education which 
make all Americans proud to have him in the forefront of our public 
life. In the Fifty-fourth Congress Mr. Reed was again elected Speaker 
of the House. The revival of the Monroe Doctrine, by a controversy 
between England and the United States over the question of territorial 
rights in Venezuela, was the most important event of this Congress^ 

20 




THOMAS BRACKETT REED. 

21 



JOHN SHERMAN. 



POSSESSING in an eminent degree the essantial qualifications of a 
statesman, combined with a positive genius for solving the finan- 
cial problems in the affairs of government, the United States Senator 
from Ohio presents one of the most imposing figures in public life. 
John Sherman was born in Lancaster, Ohio, May 10, J 823. After 
receiving an education he studied law with a brother at Mansfield, 
where he afterward practiced for ten years. In 1855 he was elected 
to the Thirty-fourth Congress in the interest of the Free-Soil party, 
and was re-elected to the three succeeding Congresses. He became a 
power on the floor and in committees, and was recognized as the fore- 
most man in the House, particularly in matters affecting finance. In 
1861 he was sent to the United States Senate, where he at once 
became a leader. After the close of the Civil war he and Thaddeus 
Stevens prepared the bill for the reconstruction of the Southern States, 
which was passed by Congress in the winter of 1866 67. President 
Hayes appointed Mr. Sherman Secretary of the Treasury in 1877, and 
it was due to his management while at the head of that department 
that the resumption of specie payment was effected in 1879 without 
disturbance to the financial or commercial interests of the country. In 
1881 he re-entered the Senate, of which he is still a leading member. 
Senator Sherman was a prominent candidate for the Republican presi- 
dential nomination in 1880, and again in 1888. His present term in 
the Senate will expire iii 1899. He is a member of the committee 
on finance, the committee on foreign relations, and several select com- 
mittees requiring the exercise of his superior judgment and knowledge 
of affairs. 

22 




JOHN SHERMAN. 
23 



JOHN GRIFFIN CARLISLE. 



KENTUCKY enjoys the distinction of being the birthplace of many- 
noted men. Among those who have been before the public 
for a long term of years, and whose fame is so national in its scope 
that they can scarcely be said to belong to any state, is John G. Car- 
lisle, appointed Secretary of the Treasury in 1893. He was born in 
Campbell (now Kenton) County, Kentucky, September 5, 1835, and 
now resides in Covington, in the same state. He was occupied as a 
public school teacher while studying law, and in 1858 was admitted to 
the bar. Mr. Carlisle was elected a member of the Kentucky Legis- 
lature in 1859, and in 1864 he was nominated as presidential elector 
on the Democratic ticket, but declined to serve. He afterward served 
two terms in the senate of his native state, resigning his seat upon 
being nominated for lieutenant-governor, to which office he was elected 
in 1871. He was subsequently elected to Congress, and served with 
distinction in the House of Representatives, a portion of the time as 
Speaker, until he was elected United States Senator from Kentucky to 
succeed the late Senator Beck. He later resigned his seat in the Sen- 
ate to enter President Cleveland's Cabinet as Secretary of the Treasury. 
Mr. Carlisle is a leading representative of that branch of the Democ- 
racy which advocates a low tariff, and in his public speeches he has 
presented many forcible arguments against the policy of protection. 
Personally, he is a man of generous impulses and charitable inclina- 
tions, and is one of the most popular officials at Washington. Mr. 
Carlisle is a vigorous advocate of a sound financial policy. His views 
are always openly and freely expressed, and he is an unflinching oppo- 
nent of any measure that threatens the safety of the currency. 

24 



JOHN GRIFFIN CARLISLE. 

25 



WILLIAM Mckinley. 



HIS sturdy advocacy of the principk of protection, coupled with abil- 
ities of the highest order, have made William McKinley, of 
Ohio, a leader of his party, and one of the foremost figures in Amer- 
ican politics. Born in Niles, Ohio, in 1843, he inherited the indomi- 
table energy, perseverance and intellectual brilliancy characteristic of the 
Scotch-Irish and German blood that flowed in the veins of his parents. 
After completing an academic course Mr. McKinley entered upon the 
career of a school-teacher, but abandoned that calling on the breaking 
out of the Civil war to enlist as a private in the Twenty-third Ohio 
Regiment. He was repeatedly promoted for gallant service, attaining 
the rank of captain in 1864, and was breveted major at the close of 
the war. He then studied law, and in 1871 established himself in 
Canton, Ohio, where he was married to Miss Ida Saxton. His rise 
in the legal profession was rapid, and in 1876 Major McKinley was 
elected to Congress, where he remained four terms by successive re- 
elections. It was during this period that he became famous as the 
author of the measure known as the "McKinley bill," which subse- 
quently became so great a factor in national elections. He was first 
elected Governor of Ohio in 1891. In 1893 he was re-elected by a 
plurality of over eighty thousand votes, mainly upon the issue of pro- 
tection. This remarkable record has greatly enhanced his chances of 
receiving presidential honors, and has caused the Republican party to 
look upon him as its leader. Mr. McKinley has been likened to 
Napoleon in his personal appearance, though he is of larger physique 
than the famous general. As an orator and debater he has great 
power and influence. 




WILLIAM MCKINLEY, 

27 



SHELBY M. CULLOM. 



AVERY shrewd politician is Shelby M. Cullom. He was born 
in Wayne County, Kentucky, November 22, 1829. His family 
moved to Illinois when he was but a mere child, and he grew up 
among the pioneers. He worked on the farm in summer and attended 
the district school in winter. Subsequently, as has been the experience 
of so many of the strong men of the country, he taught the district 
school himself, and afterward entered the office of a law firm at Spring- 
field, 111., and, it so chanced, used the very books that were used by 
Abraham Lincoln when he studied law. Mr. Cullom rapidly acquired 
prominence after being admitted to practice. He was elected city attor- 
ney at Springfield, and in 1856 was elected to the Legislature and was 
voted for by the Fillmore adherents as Speaker of the House. In 
1862 he had become a man of prominence in Illinois, and was 
appointed by President Lincoln on the commission with George Bout- 
well, of Massachusetts, and Chas. A. Dana to oppose important claims 
against the government, arising from the accounts with quartermasters 
and others, dating from the Civil war. In 1864 he was elected to 
Congress as a Republican from a Democratic district. He remained in 
the House for years, and in 1872 returned to the Illinois House of 
Representatives, was elected Speaker, and in 1874 served another term 
in the Legislature. In 1876 he was elected governor of Illinois, and 
was re-elected in 1880, serving in that capacity until 1883, when he 
resigned to take his seat in the United States Senate, made vacant by 
the death of the Hon. David Davis. As a political organizer. Senator 
Cullom has few superiors, and as an experienced lawmaker his rank is 
among the highest. 



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SHELBY M. CULLOM. 



HENRY WATTERSON. 



IDENTIFIED with the revenue reform movement of the Democratic 
party, as an aggressive advocate of free trade ideas, the editor of 
the Louisville "Courier-Journal" is a man of remarkable force and influ- 
ence, whose advice is sought by the leaders of his party. Henry 
Watterson, whose father was a native of Tennessee, was born in 
Washington, D. C, February 16, 1840, and was educated there by 
private tutors. He entered the profession of journalism in Washington 
in 1858, and in 1861 went to Nashville, Tenn., where he edited the 
"Republican Banner." During the Civil war he served on the Con- 
federate side, a portion of the time as staff officer, and later as chief 
of scouts in Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army. Soon after the war he 
went to Louisville, Ky., to reside, and in 1867 succeeded George D. 
Prentice as editor of the "Journal." In the year following he united 
the "Courier" and the "Times" with that paper, and in connection 
with Walter N. Haldeman founded the "Courier-Journal," of which he 
has since been the editor. He was a member of Congress from 
August 12, 1876, until March 3, 1877, being chosen to fill a vacancy, 
but with this exception he has always declined public office. He is 
usually a delegate to the National Democratic Conventions, and presided 
over the one at St. Louis in 1876. At others he has served as chair- 
man of the platform committee. Mr. Watterson was a personal friend 
and resolute follower of Samuel J. Tilden. He is prominent as an 
orator and political speaker; has contributed freely to periodicals, and in 
1882 edited "Oddities of Southern Lifp and Character." As an editor 
he is easily the leading man in Southern journalism, and under his 
management the " Courier-Journal " has become a great power. 




HENRY WATTERSON. 

3J 



LEVI P. MORTON. 



TO have been a successful business nun, a legislator, a diplomat, 
a vice-president of the United States; to return quietly to busi- 
ness as an ordinary citizen, and then, at the age of seventy, to be 
looked upon as the probable candidate of his party for governor of his 
state, with a sharp struggle in prospect, is a record to be talked of, 
and is what Levi P. Morton has made. He was born in Shoreham, 
Vt., May 16, 1824, a direct descendant of George Morton, one of the 
Puritan fathers. He acquired the ordinary common school education, 
became a clerk in a store in Hanover, and showed such capability as 
to become a partner before he was twenty-one years of age. In 1849 
he went into business in Boston, and, in 1854, went to New York, 
where he established the dry goods firm of Morton & Grinnell. Later 
he established the banking house of Morton, Rose & Co., with a 
branch in London, the firms becoming widely known through their 
connection with the settlement of the Geneva and Halifax awards. In 
1878 Mr. Morton was elected to Congress, and was re-elected in 1880. 
He refused the chance of nomination for vice-president on the Repub- 
lican ticket the same year, and President Garfield gave him the choice 
between being Secretary of the Navy or Minister to France. He chose 
the latter place, and proved a most capable representative of this gov- 
ernment. He was defeated by Mr. Hiscock as the Republican nomi- 
nee for United States senator in 1887, but was nominated for vice- 
president in 1888 and elected with Mr. Harrison. At the end of his 
term he resumed attention to his business affairs, but in 1894 he 
became the candidate for governor of New York and was elected by 
a large majority. 

32 




LEVI P. MORTON. 
33 



RUSSELL ALEXANDER ALGER. 



MORE than once has the name and record of the soldier-statesman 
of Michigan been seriously considered by the Republican party 
when casting about for an available candidate for President of the 
United States. Gen. Russell A. Alger has been a successful man, both 
in political and commercial life. He was born in Lafayette, Ohio, Feb- 
ruary 27, 1836, and after receiving a liberal education, adopted the pro- 
fession of law. He was admitted to the bar in 1859, but two years 
later, at the breaking out of the war, he entered the volunteer service 
as captain of the Second Michigan Cavalry. He came out as a brevet 
major-general, having won promotion by his gallantry on many battle- 
fields, and especially at Gettysburg and in the Shenandoah Valley, 
where he greatly distinguished himself for coolness and bravery under 
the most trying circumstances. After the war he was engaged for a 
number of years in the lumber business in Detroit, where he amassed 
a large fortune. In 1884 the Republicans of Michigan elected him 
governor of the state, and he served two years. He takes an active 
interest in the affairs of the Grand Army of the Republic, and was 
chosen commander-in-chief of that organization in 1890. General Alger 
has rendered valuable service to his party in various state and national 
campaigns, and has gained a reputation as an enthusiastic worker in 
the political field. Only his loyalty to other candidates prevented him, 
on one or two occasions, from allowing his name to be urged for the 
presidential nomination, and, indeed, he received a handsome vote in 
the convention of 1888. He has many friends in both political par- 
ties, and is recognized as a man of unblemished character and marked 
ability. 




RUSSELL ALEXANDER ALGER. 

35 



LYMAN J. GAGE. 



IT was while employed as night watchman in a Chicago lumber 
yard that the opportunity of his life came to Lyman J. Gage. 
He was offered the position of bookkeeper for the Merchants' Savings, 
Loan and Trust Company, and accepting it, he began a career which 
eventually led him to the highest position in connection with any such 
financial institution, the presidency of the First National Bank, of Chi- 
cago. Born in De Ruyter, Madison County, N. Y., June 28, 1836, 
Mr. Gage came to Chicago in the fall of 1855, very poor but full of 
energy and pluck. Accepting the first employment that offered, he 
became a man of all work in a planing mill and lumber yard, being 
reduced to the station of night watchman in 1858, when the Mer- 
chants' Loan and Trust Company gave him a chance. He rose rap- 
idly to the office of cashier, and in 1868 he went to the First National 
Bank to occupy a similar position. He became vice-president and gen- 
eral manager of that institution in 1882, and was elected president in 
January, 1891. Mr. Gage was one of the promoters of the World's 
Columbian Exposition, and was one of four men to practically guaran- 
tee that Chicago would redeem its pledge to raise $10,000,000 for the 
Fair. It was his genius and tact which largely made the great enter- 
prise what it was. He was unanimously elected president of the 
World's Fair directors, but his duties as president of the bank com- 
pelled him to resign. Over ten years ago a high compliment was 
paid to Mr. Gage's genius for financiering by his election to the presi- 
dency of the American Bankers' Association. He is a man of genial 
disposition and fine personal appearance. 




LYMAN J. GAGE. 

37 



HARRIET BEECHER STOWE. 



SINCE the publication of "Uncle Tom's Cabin" no book by an 
American writer, or, perhaps it may be said, by any writer in 
the world, has reached the standard of popularity and circulation estab- 
lished by it. Its author has produced better things, from a purely lit- 
erary point of view, but her name and fame are inseparably associated 
with her first story. Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, who was the 
sixth child of Rev. Dr. Lyman Beecher, was born in Litchfield, Conn., 
June 12, 1812, and was educated at the Litchfield Academy. At the 
age of twelve she wrote compositions on profound themes, and at the 
age of fourteen taught a class in "Butler's Analogy." In 1832 she 
removed with her father's family to Cincinnati, where she was married 
in 1836 to Professor Calvin Ellis Stowe. Subsequently she made sev- 
eral visits to the South, and fugitive slaves were often sheltered in her 
house and assisted to escape to Canada. In 1849 she published "The 
Mayflower, or Short Sketches of the Descendants of the Pilgrims," and 
in 1851, while living at Brunswick, Me., where her husband had a 
chair in Bowdoin College, she wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin, or Life 
Among the Lowly." It was published serially in the "National Era," 
and in 1852 appeared in book form. Nearly five hundred thousand 
copies were sold in the United States alone within the five years fol- 
lowing its publication. It has been translated into twenty languages 
and dramatized in various forms. Mrs. Stowe traveled extensively in 
Europe for several years, and has published a number of other books, 
among them "The Minister's Wooing," "Dred; a Tale of the Great 
Dismal Swamp," "Old Town Folks," "The True Story of Lady 
Byron's Life," and "Lady Byron Vindicated." 




HARRIET BEECHER STOWE. 

39 



THEODORE ROOSEVELT. 



T TERY few men in the United States have made such a record at 
V such an age as has Theodore Roosevelt. No other young 
man of the old New York families inheriting wealth and position has 
done anything to compare with him. He was born in New York 
City, October 27, 1858. He graduated from Harvard, and the next 
year was elected to the New York Assembly, on the Republican 
ticket. Young as he was he led the minority in 1882. He was 
re-elected, and, in the face of bitter opposition, carried through the state 
civil service reform law and other measures equally important, securing, 
among other things, a great improvement in the management of city 
affairs. He was chairman of the New York delegation to the National 
Republican Convention in 1884, and an unsuccessful candidate for mayor 
of New York in 1886. In 1889 he was appointed a member of the 
United States Civil Service Commission, and by his tact, fearless honesty 
and force of character, made civil service reform something real and 
tangible. As police commissioner he was instrumental in effecting the 
recent reconstruction of the police system of New York City. 
He has been advancing steadily in the literary world as in the polit- 
ical. He owns a ranch in the northwest, spends a portion of his 
time there, and his works have in many instances the flavor of that 
region in them. Among his books are : " History of the Naval War 
of 1812," "Hunting Trips of a Ranchman," "Life of Thomas H. Ben- 
ton," "Life of Gouverneur Morris," "Ranch Life and the Hunting 
Trail," "Winning of the West," "The Wilderness Hunter," and "His- 
tory of New York." He is a splendid young American, one whose 
career is being watched with interest by a host of people. 

40 




THEODORE ROOSEVELT. 



THEODORE THOMAS. 



THE man to whom, more than to any one else in this country, is 
due the present appreciation of the modern school of German 
music is Theodore Thomas. He occupies an exalted and unique posi- 
tion among the musicians of America. Mr. Thomas was born in 
Essen, Hanover, Germany, October \l, J 835, and received his musical 
education principally from his father. He first played the violin in 
public at the age of six. In 1845 he came with his parents to the 
United States, and for two years played violin solos at concerts in 
New York. He then traveled for a time in the South, and returning 
to New York, in 1 85 J, played at concerts and at the opera, at first 
as one of the principal violinists and afterward as orchestral leader, 
until 1861. In connection with others, he began a series of chamber 
concerts in 1855, which were continued until 1869. His first sym- 
phony concerts were given in 1864, and extended until he left New 
York, in 1878, to take the direction of the College of Music at Cin- 
cinnati. He remained in Cincinnati until 1880, and then returned to 
New York, where he continued his work as conductor of the Brook- 
lyn Philharmonic Society and the New York Philharmonic Society, 
occasionally making concert tours, and giving a series of "summer 
night" concerts in various cities. He was conductor of the American 
Opera Company from 1885 to 1887. In 1888, after a successful 
season in Chicago, he disbanded his orchestra and severed his New 
York connections, subsequently establishing himself in Chicago, where 
he organized a new orchestra and where he still remains. He was 
conductor of the orchestral music at the World's Fair in 1893, where 
his wide reputation was still further extended. 









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THEODORE THOMAS. 

43 



JOHN IRELAND. 



NOTED for his world-wide liberality, and foi a patriotism that 
embraces humanity. Archbishop Ireland, of St. Paul> is as popu- 
lar outside his church as he is within its sacred precincts. As an 
orator he has gained a national reputation. He was born in Burn- 
church County, Kilkenny, Ireland, September H, 1838. His parents 
emigrated to the United States when he was a boy, and settled in 
St. Paul, Minn. He went to France in September, J 853, entered the 
Petit Seminaire of Meximeux, and finished the course in four years, 
half the usual time. After studying theology in the Grand Seminaire, 
at Hyeres, he returned to St. Paul in 1861, and was ordained in 
December of that year. He served as chaplain of the Fifth Minnesota 
regiment during a part of the Civil war, and was afterward appointed 
rector of the Cathedral at St. Paul. In J 869 he organized the first 
total abstinence society in the state. In J 870 he went to Rome as 
the accredited representative of Bishop Grace at the Vatican. After 
his consecration as coadjutor bishop of St. Paul in 1875, he undertook 
the work of colonization in the Northwest. He made large purchases 
of land in Minnesota, which were taken up by nine hundred Roman 
Catholic colonists. He then bought twelve thousand acres of land with 
equally satisfactory results. In 1887 he visited Rome in the interest 
of a Roman Catholic University, and was subsequently appointed arch- 
bishop of St. Paul. The Catholics of that diocese are devoted to him, 
and he has hosts of warm friends outside the church. Archbishop 
Ireland was for several years president of the State Historical Society, 
of Minnesota, and has always taken an active interest in the develop- 
ment of the Northwest. 

44 




JOHN IRELAND. 



CHAUNCEY MITCHELL DEPEW. 



CURIOUSLY enough, one of the greatest railroad magnates in the 
country, and a man whose abilities and high standing have even 
caused him to be talked about as a presidential possibility, is best 
known to the general public as an after-dinner speaker. Chauncey M. 
Depew was born in Peekskill, N. Y., April 23, 1834. He was gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1856, and in a few years was admitted to practice. 
In 186 J and 1862 he was a member of the New York Assembly, 
and in 1863 was elected Secretary of State. He held other political 
offices at a later date, but resigned them to engage in the practice of 
his profession. From 1866 until 1869 Mr. Depew was attorney for 
the Harlem Railroad Company, after which he was counsel for the 
consolidated New York Central & Hudson River Railroad Company 
until 1882, when he became second vice-president of that corporation. 
In the meantime, in 1872, he was defeated as a candidate for lieuten- 
ant-governor of New York, and in 1874 the legislature appointed him 
regent of the state university. He was elected president of the New 
York Central in 1885, and still holds that position, besides being presi- 
dent of the West Shore Railroad Company. Mr. Depew is a man of 
genial disposition, with a hearty hand-clasp for everybody. He is a 
delightful conversationalist, a great orator, and a statesman whose views 
have on more than one occasion been demonstrated as broad and 
sound. He has infinite tact, a quality so often lacking in public men 
that its possession may be almost counted an added sense and great- 
ness. A shrewd financier, a diplomat, a brilliant speaker, full "of 
infinite jest" and humor, an able business man, his versatility has 
made him a marked man in the affairs of the country. 

46 




CHAUNCEY MITCHELL DEPEW. 

47 



LEW WALLACE. 



BLESSED with a happy combination of talents and abundant oppor- 
tunities for turning them to account, General Lew Wallace, o£ 
Indiana, has made his mark as a lawyer, as a soldier, as a politician, 
as a diplomat, and as a writer. He was born in Brookville, Ind.,. 
April \0, 1827, and, after receiving a thorough education, studied law. 
EXiring the Mexican war he entered the army as first lieutenant. 
Thereafter he practiced his profession at Covington and Crawfordsville 
until the beginning of the Qvil war, when he was appointed adjutant- 
general of Indiana, and became colonel of volunteers. Subsequently he 
was commissioned brigadier-general and then major-general of volunteers. 
He was at the capture of Fort Donelson and Shiloh, and in 1863 pre- 
vented the capture of Cincinnati by the Confederates. His troops were 
defeated at the battle of Monocracy July 9, 1864, and he was removed 
from his command by General Halleck, but was reinstated by General 
Grant. After the war General Wallace was governor of Utah by fed- 
eral appointment from 1878 to 1881, and United States minister to. 
Turkey from 1881 to 1885. Since that time he has devoted himself 
to the practice of law and to literature at his home in Crawfordsville. 
His publications are very popular and have had an enormous sale. 
They include "The Fair God," 1873; "Ben Hur: a Tale of the Christ,"" 
1880; "The Boyhood of Christ," 1883; and "The Prince of India,'^ 
1893. In personal appearance Lew Wallace is the rugged soldier; in 
social life he is the refined scholar and genial gentleman; in character 
he is the embodiment of those qualities which go to make the highest 
type of American manhood. As a lecturer and public speaker he has 
gained considerable fame. 




LEW WALLACE. 

49 



JOHN WANAMAKER. 



ESTEEMED more as a philanthropist, as a reformer, and as an 
exemplary citizen than for any distinction gained by position or 
wealth, John Wanamaker is a man whose life furnishes a standard for 
the emulation of the American youth. Born near Philadelphia, July 
n, 1838, he attended a country school until he was fourteen, and then 
obtained employment in the city as messenger boy in the publishing 
house of Troutman & Hayes at a small salary. Subsequently the 
family lived for a time in Kosciusko County, Indiana, but returned to 
Philadelphia in J 856, where young Wanamaker eventually obtained 
employment in Tower Hall, the largest clothing house in that city. 
In 1861 he and the young man who was destined to become his 
brother-in-law opened a small store, and the business of Wanamaker & 
Brown was established. It grew to be the largest retail clothing house 
in America. A second store was started in the city, and, afterward, 
several branch houses. After the Centennial Exposition of J 876, with 
the financial management of which he was prominently connected, Mr. 
Wanamaker opened the great general store in Philadelphia, which con- 
tinues to be one of the wonders of the age. He has many times 
declined public office, but in 1889 accepted the portfolio of Postmaster- 
General in President Harrison's Cabinet, and introduced into the depart- 
ment the most approved business methods. From early youth Mr. 
Wanamaker has been deeply interested in Sunday-school and temper- 
ance work. In 1858 he founded the Sunday-school that has since 
grown into the famous "Bethany." He was for eight years president 
of the Philadelphia Young Men's Christian Association, and his gifts to 
religious and charitable institutions have been numerous and liberal. 




JOHN WANAMAKER. 

5J 



NELSON APPLETON MILES. 



FR conspicuous daring, for brilliant displays of coolness and cour- 
age, and for remarkable achievements as an Indian fighter, Gen. 
Nelson A. Miles has made a record of which every patriotic Ameri- 
can should be proud. General Miles was bom in Westminster, Mass., 
August 8, 1839. After receiving an academic education he engaged in 
mercantile pursuits until the beginning of the Civil war, when he entered 
the volunteer service as lieutenant in the Twenty-second Massachusetts 
infantry. In 1862 he was commissioned lieutenant <olonel of the Sixty- 
first New York volunteers, and served with the Army of the Potomac 
until the close of the war, being steadily promoted for gallantry until 
he attained the rank of major-general. In 1866 he received an appoint- 
ment in the Regular army as colonel of the Fortieth infantry, and in 
J 869 was transferred to the Fifth infantry. He defeated the Cheyenne, 
Kiowa and Comanche Indians, on the borders of the Staked Plains, in 
J 875, and in 1876 subjugated the hostile Sioux and other Indians in 
Montana. In the same year he captured the Nez Perces under Chief 
Joseph, and in 1878 captured a band of Bannocks near the Yellow- 
stone Park. He was commissioned brigadier-general in 1880, commanded 
for five years the Department of the Columbia, for one year the De- 
partment of the Missouri, and was transferred to Arizona in April, 1886. 
After a difficult campaign against the Apaches under Geronimo and 
Natchez, he compelled those chiefs to surrender, September 4, 1886. 
He was assigned to the Department of the Pacific, promoted to major- 
general, and later placed in command of the Division of the Missouri. In 
1891 he had charge of the Indian war in the Northwest. In 1895 he was 
appointed commander of the army, in place of Gen. John M. Schofield, retired. 

52 



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NELSON APPLETON MILES. 

53 



ADOLPHUS WASHINGTON GREELEY. 



IF a taste of adventure be one of the characteristics of the present 
head of the United States Signal Service, then there must be one 
man in the world whose taste has been pretty fully gratified. Adolphus 
"Washington Greeley was born in Newburypcrt, Mass., March 27, J 844, 
graduated from the Brown High School, and at the beginning of the 
war enlisted in the Nineteenth Massachusetts infantry. In 1863 he 
was promoted to be a lieutenant of colored infantry and arose steadily 
in the service, until in 1875 he was brevetted major-general of volun- 
teers for faithful service in the field. He received a commission as 
second lieutenant in the Regular army, was promoted to first lieutenant 
and attached to the Signal Service. In 1881 he was placed in com- 
mand of an expedition to the Arctic regions to assist in the establish- 
ment of the thirteen circumpolar stations decided upon by the Hamburg 
Geographical Congress. He sailed in the "Proteus," July 7, 1881, and 
after great hardships reached a point 81.44 degrees north and 64.45 
degrees west. He made important discoveries of lakes and mountains 
in Grinnell's Land and added much in^ other ways to our knowledge 
of the Arctic circle, but found himself without means of returning, the 
relief expedition promised having failed. Awful suffering ensued. Six- 
teen of the party died of starvation, one was drowned and one was 
shot. The third expedition sent to his aid succeeded and those left of 
the party were rescued when, two days later, they must all have been 
dead. In 1887 President Cleveland appointed the intrepid explorer, the 
man who had so endured, to the command of the Signal Service with 
the rank of brigadier-general, a position he now holds. 




ADOLPHUS WASHINGTON GREELEY. 

55 



THOMAS NELSON PAGE. 



ONE of those who have brought the heart of the South nearer to 
the heart of the North, just as have Joel Chandler Harris and 
George W. Cable, is Thomas Nelson Page. His work is known 
throughout the United States and to a certain extent, abroad. He is 
a genial and gifted story writer, one who knows the very pulse of a 
region and has reproduced its heartbeats in his works. He was bom 
in Oakland, Hanover County, Va., April 23, 1853, and grew to man- 
hood on the family plantation, a part of the original grant to his 
ancestor, Thomas Nelson. He was educated at Washington Lee Uni- 
versity and, after graduating, studied law and subsequently engaged in 
its practice at Richmond, Va. He succeeded in his profession, but 
that was not to be his chief work. He drifted into the way of writ- 
ing stories and poems in the negro dialect, and one of the stories, enti- 
tled " Marse Chan : a Tale of the Civil War," when published, in 
1884, attracted national attention. It was followed by '' Meh Lady" 
and others in the same vein, showing equally the keen perception and 
sympathy and remarkable gift of expression of the writer. There was 
but one future for the young lawyer and he has become recognized as 
one of the brilliant authors of the times. Among his published books 
are "In Ole Virginia," "Two Little Confederates," and others equally 
charming. He knows his region and the very heartbeat of its people. 
He is industrious, but the world has gone well with him, and this 
man who can tell such delightful and educating stories, as none other 
can of the country he knew in his childhood, is not working as vig- 
orously as he should just now. But it is in him and he cannot help 
writing. 

56 




THOMAS NELSON PAGE. 

57 



WILLIAM DEERING. 



A SINGLE generation has worked a complete revolution in agricul- 
ture, a revolution that has placed America where it feeds the 
world. In this revolution no name is more prominent than that of 
William Deering, the head of the Deering Harvester Works, at Qii- 
cago, one of the largest manufactories of grain and grass-cutting machin- 
ery in the world. Since his birth at South Paris, Me., April 25, 
1826, Mr. Deering's whole life has been one of untiring industry. He 
received a common-school and academic education, and early in life 
entered the South Paris woolen mills, where he was intrusted with the 
management of the business soon after reaching his majority. From 
this he naturally found his way into the wholesale dry goods business, 
and, later on, established one of the leading dry goods commission 
houses of New York and Boston, well known as Deering, MtUiken & 
Gd. As early as 1870 Mr. Deering became interested financially in 
the manufacture of the Marsh harvester, invented by the Marsh broth- 
ers in central Illinois in the early sixties, and in 1873, in order to 
protect his capital invested in this business, Mr. Deering came west. 
He at once took active hold of the business, and by his remarkable 
ability gave it an impetus that brought it immediately to the forefront. 
He aided other inventors and increased to their present magnitude the 
greatness of the works established. Personally, Mr. Deering is of a 
tall and powerful build, and, though sixty-eight years old, is active, 
and seems to have lost not a whit of his youthful alertness and vigor. 
He has given extensively and widely to charities, and is not merely a 
financier, a bold and fearless manufacturer, but a broad philanthropist 
and a kindly Christian gentleman. 

58 




WILLIAM DEERING. 

59 



CHARLES ANDERSON DANA. 



NOT as a journalist, merely, but also as a critic, historian and 
politician, has greatness been achieved by Charles A. Dana, edi- 
tor of the New York "Sun." His manifold ability and industry have 
placed him well in the lead of the newspaper managers of today. Mr. 
Dana was born at Hinsdale, N. H., August 8, J 8 19. He was edu- 
cated at Harvard, and in 1842 joined the Brook Farm Community in 
its socialistic venture. Two years later he took the management of 
the "Harbinger," a weekly paper devoted to social reform and litera- 
ture, and in 1847 became connected with the staff of the New York 
"Tribune." He attained the position of managing editor of that paper, 
and the development of his genius for journalism was largely instru- 
mental in making it the leading organ of anti-slavery sentiment 
just before the war, with an extraordinary influence and circulation. 
Leaving the "Tribune" in April, 1862, he entered the service of the 
government, and from 1863 to 1865 was assistant Secretary of War. 
He then became editor of the Chicago "Republican," which failed of 
success. In 1868 he organized the stock company that now owns the 
New York "Sun," and for over twenty-six years has been actively 
and continuously engaged in the management of that successful journal. 
Mr. Dana collaborated with Gen. James H. Wilson in writing a "Life 
of Ulysses S. Grant." He also edited "The Household Book of 
Poetry," and, in connection with Rossiter Johnson, compiled "Fifty Per- 
fect Poems." As an editor, Mr. Dana is trenchant and fearless; as a 
critic, able and opinionated; as a politician, aggressive and bitter. The 
"Sun" is conducted as an independent Democratic journal, and from a 
literary standpoint ranks high. 




CHARLES ANDERSON DANA. 

61 



JULIA WARD HOWE. 



PW names of women are more widely known than that of Julia 
Ward Howe, essayist, poetess, philanthropist and public speaker^ 
She was born in New York City, May 27, 1 8 19, her parents being 
Samuel Ward and Julia Cuttle Ward. Her ancestors included the 
Huguenot Marions, of South Carolina, Governor Sam Ward, of Rhode 
Island, and Roger Williams, the apostle of religious tolerance. Her 
father, a banker, gave her every advantage of a liberal education. 
She was instructed at home by capable teachers in Greek, German, 
French and music, and the ambitious and earnest girl improved her 
opportunities. In 1843 she became the wife of Dr. Samuel G. Howe 
and went abroad for a season. She had, when only seventeen years 
of age, produced several clever essays and reviews, and in J 852 pub- 
lished her first volume of poems. A drama in blank verse, writtea 
in J 853, was produced in both New York and Boston. Other works 
followed, and during the war Mrs. Howe became nationally prominent 
because of her stirring patriotic songs. In 1867 she visited Greece 
with her husband, where they won the gratitude of the people of that 
country because of aid extended in the struggle for national independ- 
ence. In 1868 Mrs. Howe first took part in the suffrage movement. 
She has since preached, written and lectured much, and, notwithstand- 
Lig her advanced age, still enjoys a life of almost ceaseless activity. 
Among her many works the "Battle Hymn of the Republic" is, per- 
haps, most widely known and most likely to remain a permanently 
admired masterpiece in American literature, but in all she has written 
there has been displayed the same earnestness and poetic gift and the 
same finished scholarship. 

62 




JULIA WARD HOWE. 

b3 



ROBERT COLLYER. 



THE story of that remarkable blacksmith, Elihu Burritt, has a par- 
allel in the early life of Dr. Robert CoIIyer, the eminent Unita- 
rian clergyman. Dr. CoIIyer was born in Keighly, Yorkshire, England,. 
December 8, 1823. His father was a blacksmith, and the son was 
compelled to earn his living in a factory. He attended night school 
for two winters, and at the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to a 
blacksmith. In 1850 he came to America and worked at his trade in 
Shoemakerstown, Perm., where he remained nine years. Having become 
a Methodist he preached the Gospel on Sundays, and his wisdom and 
glowing eloquence soon raised him above the shop into scholastic and 
theological circles. As a result of his studies, to which he applied 
himself most diligently, his religious views changed in the direction of 
Unitarianism, and after being expelled from the Methodist Conference he 
became a Unitarian clergyman and removed to Chicago to take charge 
of a mission among the poor. In 1860 he organized Unity Church,. 
Chicago, of which he was the pastor until 1879, when he went to 
New York to assume charge of the Church of the Messiah, which 
post he still holds. Dr. CoIIyer has written several books, and his 
lectures have been widely popular, especially his favorite lecture, "Grit."" 
The poetic instinct is developed in him to a degree that makes all his 
prose merely another form of poetry. Among the best of his published 
poems, and one that will live to be read and admired by future gen- 
erations, is a psalm of thanksgiving written after the great Chicago fire 
of 1871. Dr. CoIIyer seems to always look on the sunny side of life,. 
and his conversation is full of entertaining and amusing reminiscences. 
His personality is described in the one word— lovable. 




ROBERT COLLYER. 

b5 



CORNELIUS VANDERBILT. 



IN the directory of the financial world the name that stands out most 
conspicuously is Vanderbilt. The present head of the family of 
that time, Cornelius Vanderbilt, is the eldest grandson of the famous 
Cornelius who amassed an enormous fortune by shrewd business ven- 
tures, and whose genius as a financier seems to have been inherited 
by his namesake. Mr. Vanderbilt was born in Staten Island, N. Y., 
November 27, 1843. He was educated in private schools, and received 
a thorough business training. From 1867 until 1877 he was treasurer 
of the New York & Harlem Railroad Company, then served as vice- 
president until 1886, and afterward as president of that corporation. 
He was made president of the Canadian Southern Railway in 1883, 
and after the death of his father, William H. Vanderbilt, in 1885, he 
became a director in thirty-four different railroad companies. He is a 
trustee of many of the charitable, religious and educational institutions 
of New York City, where he resides in one of the handsomest private 
residences in the world. Among Mr. Vanderbilt's benefactions are the 
gift of a building in New York City for the use of railroad employes, 
a contribution of $100,000 for the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral, and a 
collection of drawings by the old masters and a painting of the Horse 
Fair, by Rosa Bonheur, to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Although 
his wealth is estimated at over a hundred millions, Mr. Vanderbilt 
applies himself closely to his business, and personally directs the many 
railroad enterprises of which he is the head. In his everyday life he 
is quiet but affable, free from affectation, and stands upon the plane of 
the thorough-going business man. He has undoubtedly inherited the 
executive ability of his grandfather. 

66 




CORNELIUS VANDERBILT. 

67 



ADLAI EWING STEVENSON. 



IN a great measure, no doubt, the credit of swinging Illinois into the 
Democratic column, which was one of the astonishing results of 
the national election in 1892, belongs to Vice-President Stevenson. A 
man of somewhat retiring disposition, he had nevertheless come to be 
recognized as a power in his own state, and was even seriously con- 
sidered for the first place on the presidential ticket, although he was a 
Cleveland man himself. Mr. Stevenson was born in Christian County, 
Kentucky, fifty-nine years ago, and was educated at Centre College, 
Danville. He afterward married the daughter of the president of the 
college. Dr. Lewis Green, and removed to Bloomington, III., whither 
his family had preceded him. There he studied law in the office of 
the late David Davis, and after practicing his profession in Metamora 
and Bloomington until 1874, he was elected to Congress on the Demo- 
cratic ticket. He failed of re-election in 1876, but was again success- 
ful in J 878. In 1880 and 1882 he was defeated by small majorities. 
In 1885 President Cleveland appointed him First Assistant Postmaster- 
General, and he became one of the most popular officers of that admin- 
istration. He was much talked of by western Democrats as a presi- 
dential possibility prior to the campaign of 1892, but the great mass 
of the party looked to Grover Cleveland for deliverance, and Mr. Ste- 
venson was accordingly nominated for the vice-presidency. Mr. Steven- 
son has been a successful lawyer and business man, and is regarded 
in his section as a man of uncommon ability and strength of character. 
He is energetic and decisive in his actions, and while First Assistant 
Postmaster-General he excited some comment by removing many incum- 
bents from office. 

68 




ADLAI EWING STEVENSON. 

69 



EDMUND CLARENCE STEDMAN. 



ENGLAND had her banker-poet, the learned Samuel Rogers, and 
America has a celebrity who divides his attention between poetic 
literature and the New York Stock Exchange. Edmund Clarence Sted- 
man has unquestionably taken a permanent place in the foremost rank 
of American poets. He was born in Hartford, Conn., October 8, J 833, 
and while attending Yale College in 1851 his poem of "Westminster 
Abbey," published in the "Yale Literary Magazine," received a first 
prize. He became editor of the Norwich "Tribune" in 1852, and of 
the Winsted "Herald" in 1854, and two years later went to New 
York City, where for many years he contributed to the leading period- 
icals. Some of his poems became so popular that he collected and 
issued them under the title of "Poems, Lyric and Idyllic." After a 
hard struggle for a competence he joined the editorial staff of the New 
York "World" in 1860, and was war correspondent until 1863. He 
then purchased a seat in the Stock Exchange and became a broker, 
continuing his literary work during his leisure hours. From time to 
time he issued volumes of his selected poems, including "Alice of Mon- 
mouth," "The Blameless Prince," "Poetical Works," etc. In 1874, 
with Thomas Bailey Aldrich, he edited " Cameos," selected from the 
works of Walter Savage Landor, and the poems of Austin Dobson. 
About 1875 Mr. Stedman began to devote his attention to critical writ- 
ing, and subsequently produced "Victorian Poets" and "Poets of Amer- 
ican Literature." He has since compiled and edited the "Library of 
American Literature," in ten volumes, besides issuing several additional 
books of his own works. His poems delivered on public occasions 
have always attracted attention by their excellence. 




EDMUND CLARENCE STEDMAN. 



SAMUEL LANGHORNE CLEMENS. 



BESIDES being the prince of American humorists, and one of the 
most fascinating story tellers in the world, Samuel L. Clemens, 
better known as "Mark Twain," has established for himself a high 
reputation as a man of letters. The story of his life is an interesting 
one. Born in Florida, Monroe County, Mo., November 30, 1835, he 
was apprenticed to a printer at the age of thirteen, and worked at his 
trade in Cincinnati, St. Louis, Philadelphia and New York. In 185 J 
he became a pilot on the Mississippi River steamboats. In J 86 1 he 
went to Nevada where, in the following year, he became editor of the 
Virginia City "Enterprise," and first used the nom de plume that after- 
ward became famous. He went to San Francisco in 1865, and was 
for five months a reporter for the " Morning Call." After an unsuc- 
cessful venture at gold mining he went to the Hawaiian Islands in 
J 866, returning six months later to deliver humorous lectures. He 
then went East, and published "The Jumping Frog and Other Sketches." 
In 1867 he went abroad with a party of tourists, and on his return 
published "Innocents Abroad." He next edited the Buffalo "Express." 
After his marriage he settled in Hartford, Conn., where he has since 
resided. He afterward lectured extensively in this country and in Eu- 
rope, and in 1872 wrote "Roughing It." Then came "The Gilded 
Age," written in conjunction with Charles Dudley Warner, and later 
"Tom Sawyer," "A Tramp Abroad," "The Stolen White Elephant," 
"The Prince and the Pauper," "Huckleberry Finn," "Pudd'n-Head 
Wilson," and other volumes. In 1884 he established in New York 
the publishing house of C. L. Webster & Co., which failed in 1894. 
Mr. Clemens' works have been translated into several languages. 




SAMUEL LANGHORNE CLEMENS. 



CHARLES HENRY PARKHURST. 



PERHAPS nothing else in recent years has done so much to create 
a sentiment against the New York organization known as Tam- 
many Hall, as the persistent and vigorous onslaughts of Rev. Dr. 
Charles H. Parkhurst, who, in his capacity as president of the Society 
for the Prevention of Crime, undertook to demonstrate and to break up 
the system of paid police protection under which, he declared, all kinds 
of vice, disorder and criminal immorality had abnormally flourished in 
that city. Dr. Parkhurst was born in Framingham, Mass., April 17, 
1842, and was graduated at Amherst in J 866. He studied theology 
at Halle in 1869, and at Leipsic in 1872 and 1873, during the inter- 
vals of which studies he was principal of the High School in Amherst, 
and professor of Williston Seminary at Easthampton, Mass. From 
1874 to J 880 he was pastor of the Congregational Church at Lenox, 
Mass., and was then called to the Madison Square Presbyterian Church, 
New York City, where he has since remained. Dr. Parkhurst has 
contributed to various magazines, and has published several volumes, 
including "The Forms of the Latin Verb, Illustrated by Sanskrit," 
"The Blind Man's Creed, and Other Sermons" and "Pattern in the 
Mount, and Other Sermons." In 1893 he began a personal investiga- 
tion of the social evil in New York, which resulted in his subsequent 
crusade against the alleged corrupt organization controlling the police 
department of that city. Such sustained energy, such high courage in 
the face of criticism and opposition, and such unswerving persistence as 
Dr. Parkhurst has shown in this undertaking are not often witnessed. 
Physically, the doctor is a small man, but morally and intellectually he 
is a giant. 

74 



By Permission of Surony. 



CHARLES HENRY PARKHURST. 



SUSAN BROWNELL ANTHONY. 



THERE is something that compels admiration in the fearless, per- 
sistent and self-sacrificing devotion with which that famous 
reformer, Susan B. Anthony, has labored for half a century in the 
cause to which she early dedicated her life. While one may not 
always recogni2e the wisdom of her course, there can be no doubt of 
her sincerity and" heroism. Miss Anthony was born at South Adams, 
Mass., February 15, 1820. Her father was a Quaker. He settled in 
Rochester, N. Y., in 1546, where his daughter, after teaching school 
for a number of years, participated in the temperance movement, organ- 
izing societies and lecturing throughout the state. About 1857 she 
became prominent among the agitators for the abolition of slavery. 
Her energies, however, were chiefly directed to securing equal civil 
rights for women. In 1854 and 1855 she held conventions in the 
cause of female suffrage in every county in New York, and since then 
has addressed annual appeals and petitions to the Legislature. She was 
active in securing the act of the New York Legislature in I860, giv- 
ing to married women possession of their earnings and the guardian- 
ship of children. In the same year she started a petition in favor of 
leaving out the word "male" in the fourteenth amendment to the 
United States Constitution, and worked with the National Suffrage 
Association to induce Congress to secure to her sex the right to vote. 
Between 1870 and 1880 she lectured more than a hundred times a 
year in all of the Northern and some of the Southern States. She 
is the author of " The History of Woman Suffrage," in two volumes, 
in which she was assisted by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Matilda 
Joslyn Gage. 




SUSAN BROWNELL ANTHONY. 

77 



CARL SCHURZ. 



BY virtue of his intellectual power and oratorical ability the same 
sentiments that made Carl Schurz a revolutionist and a fugitive 
in his own country placed him on a high pedestal as a patriot and 
statesman in America. He was born in Liblar, near Cologne, Prussia, 
March 2, 1828, and educated at Bonn. As adjutant in the Revolu- 
tionary army in 1849 he took part in the defense of Rastadt, and 
upo.i the surrender of that fortress escaped to Switzerland. For a 
time he was a newspaper correspondent in Paris, and afterward a 
teacher in London, but in 1852 he came to the United States, eventu- 
ally settling in Watertown, Wis., where in 1856 he began making 
speeches in German for the Republican party. In the following year 
he was an unsuccessful candidate for lieutenant-governor of Wisconsin, 
and soon afterward he began the practice of law in Milwaukee. His 
first speech in the English language, delivered in 1858, was widely 
published, and he became a power in Republican conventions and can- 
vasses. President Lincoln appointed him Minister to Spain, but he 
resigned in December, 1861, to enter the Union army, and served 
throughout the war, attaining the rank of major-general. After the 
war he became the Washington correspondent of the New York 
"Tribune," but in the summer of 1866 he removed to Detroit, where 
he founded the "Post." In 1867 he became editor of the "Westliche 
Post," of St. Louis, and in 1869 was chosen United States senator 
from Missouri. He supported Greeley in 1872 and Hayes in 1876, 
and the latter appointed him Secretary of the Interior. Upon retiring 
from that office he became editor of the New York "Evening Post," 
which position he held until 1884. 

78 




CARL SCHURZ. 

79 



ANNIE JENNESS MILLER. 



SOME years ago a young and beautiful woman, highly cultured, 
began to expound with unquestionable taste and good judgment 
the principle of correct and artistic dressing. Her name is now a 
synonym for dress reform. Mrs. Annie lenness Miller is a native of 
New Hampshire, where she was born January 28, 1859. She was 
educated in Boston, and before her marriage won considerable fame in 
Massachusetts as a woman of letters. Subsequently she took up the 
question that has given her fame in another direction, and she is now 
the most prominent and popular of all the leaders in the movement 
for reform in the matter of woman's dress. She has lectured in all 
the leading cities of the United States to crowded houses, and wherever 
she goes is always warmly received. She is one of the owners of a 
magazine published in New York, which is devoted to the aesthetics 
of physical development and artistic designs for dresses, and contains 
articles by the best writers on all topics of interest to women. Mrs. 
Miller's intelligence, taste and influence are widely acknowledged. She 
is the author of "Physical Beauty" and "Mother and Babe," the lat- 
ter a work which furnishes information and patterns upon improved 
plans for the mother's and baby's wardrobes. She is a finished writer, 
and skillful in the elucidation of her subjects. All the progressive and 
reformatory movements of the day appeal to her and have her sym- 
pathy and support. Her ultimate hope is to establish at the National 
Capitol an institution for physical development and the highest art of 
self-culture, which shall be under the control of able students of anat- 
omy, chemistry, and physical science. With this end in view, Mrs. 
Miller now makes Washington her home. 

. 80 




ANNIE JENNESS MILLER. 



BENJAMIN HARRISON. 



FROM the humble station of a farmer's son to the exalted position 
of President of the United States, describes in brief the career of 
Benjamin Harrison. He is the grandson of a president, General Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison, and was born in his grandfather's house at North 
Beni, Ohio, August 20, 1833. He was graduated at Miami Univer- 
sity, studied law in Cincinnati, and in 1854 removed to Indianapolis, 
which city has since been his home. Entering the war in 1862 as 
a second lieutenant in an Indiana regiment, he soon received the appoint- 
ment of colonel, and in January, J 865, was brevetted brigadier-general. 
After the war he resumed his former office as reporter of the Supreme 
court at Indianapolis. In 1876 he ran for governor of his state, but 
was defeated by a small majority by "Blue Jeans" Williams, the 
Democratic candidate. He was chairman of the Indiana delegation at 
the National Convention held in Chicago in 1880, when General Gar- 
field was nominated for the presidency. In that year General Harri- 
son was chosen United States senator, which office he held until March 
3, 1887. At the National Republican Convention held in Chicago in 
1888, he was nominated by his party for the presidency, and subse- 
quently elected. He was a candidate for re-election in 1892, but was 
buried under the Democratic "landslide" of that year. Among his 
personal characteristics it may be said that ex-President Harrison, as 
an impromptu public speaker, has demonstrated a gift of eloquence that 
is pointed and forcible. He has a faculty for seizing promptly upon 
a subject, ready-equipped and without loss of time, and presenting it 
clearly and concisely. He is an American of whom all are proud, 
regardless of political affiliations. 




BENJAMIN HARRISON. 



WILLIAM DEAN HOWELLS. 



T TNDOUBTEDLY the leading novelist and exponent of literature as 
\»J an art in the United States is the gifted author of "The Rise 
of Silas Lapham," " The Lady of the Aroostook/' " A Woman's Rea- 
son," and many other popular stories of the realistic school. William 
Dean Howells was born at Martin's Ferry, Ohio, in 1837. His ances- 
tors on the father's side were Welsh Quakers, and in all the genera- 
tions, from the great-grandfather down, the family lived in an atmos- 
phere of books and moral and literary refinement. Howells learned 
the printer's trade in the office of his father, who conducted a weekly 
paper in Hamilton, Ohio, and at the age of twenty-two became the 
news editor of the Columbus " State Journal." He wrote a life of 
Lincoln after the latter's nomination in I860, and the President after- 
ward appointed him Consul to Venice, where he resided from 1 86 1 to 
J 865. Returning to America, he engaged in literary pursuits, and in 
J 871 became editor of the "Atlantic Monthly," a position which he 
held until 1880, when he relinquished it to devote himself exclusively 
to writing. In 1886 he made a salaried connection with "Harper's 
Magazine," and created the department known as "The Editor's 
Study." During recent years, however, he has done but little editorial 
work. As a man of letters Mr. Howells is regarded by many as 
far in advance of any other writer of the present day. In addition 
to his novels he has written many poems, biographies, criticisms and 
sketches of travel in foreign countries. During his residence in Venice 
he mastered the Italian language and studied the literature of the coun- 
try. Mr. Howells is recognized as the leader of the realistic school 
of literature. 




WILLIAM DEAN HOWELLS. 



FRANCES HODGSON BURNETT. 



HAD she never written anything but "Little Lord Fauntleroy" and 
"That Lass o' Lowrie's," Frances Hodgson Burnett would have 
become widely known in literature. She was born in Manchester, 
England, November 24, 1849. She lived in Manchester and became 
familiar with the characteristics of the people of the Lancashire coal 
district, a fact v/hich is shown repeatedly in her works. Trouble 
came to the family, the father died and the mother and children came 
to the United States and settled in Knoxville, Tenn., and afterward in 
Newmarket, in the same state. There were two sons and three 
daughters, and they worked very faithfully to secure the necessary 
income for the family. Frances had an idea that she might possibly 
earn something by writing for the magazines, and made the attempt. 
In 1872 she contributed to "Scribner's Magazine" an article entitled 
" Surly Tim's Trouble," which was a success. The next year she 
married Dr. Luan M. Burnett, of Knoxville, but continued her literary 
work. There were other works and then came what is possibly her 
greatest success, "Little Lord Fauntleroy," which first appeared as a 
serial in "St. Nicholas," and was subsequently published in book form, 
both in the United States and England. Mrs. Burnett has become 
famous on two continents. The more prominent of her published 
works are: "Kathleen Mavourneen," "Lindsay's Luck," "Miss Cres- 
pigny," "Pretty Polly Pemberton," "Theo," "Haworth's," "Louisiana," 
"A Fair Barbarian," "Through One Administration," "Sara Crew," 
"Editha's Burglar," "Little St. Elizabeth," and other stories. Upon 
" That Lass o' Lowrie's," though, and " Little Lord Fauntleroy " rests 
chiefly her reputation. 



FRANCES HODGSON BURNETT. 

87 



WILLIAM RALLS MORRISON. 



INTIMATELY associated with much of the important Congressional 
legislation of a decade ago, and particularly with the fight for tariff 
reform that was waged by a wing of the Democratic party in that 
body, IS the name of Col. William R. Morrison, of Illinois, the pres- 
ent chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Colonel Morri- 
son was born in Monroe County, III., September 14, 1825. After 
receiving an education at McKendree College, he served as a private 
in the Mexican war, and subsequently studied law and was admitted 
to the bar. He was clerk of Monroe County from J 852 to 1856, 
served in the Legislature for the next three years, and in 1861 entered 
the army as colonel of the Forty-ninth Illinois Regiment, and was 
wounded at Fort Donelson. While in command of his regiment in 
the field he was elected to Congress as a Democrat, and served from 
1863 to 1865, but was defeated for the Thirty-ninth and Fortieth Con- 
gresses. He was again chosen in 1872, and served continuously until 
1887. Colonel Morrison was the father of the tariff reform measure 
known as the "horizontal" bill, and did good work on many impor- 
tant committees. In March, 1887, President Cleveland appointed him 
a member of the Interstate Commerce Commission for five years. At 
the end of that period he was reappointed, and upon the retirement of 
Judge Thomas M. Cooley he became chairman of the commission, a 
post which he has since filled most acceptably. Colonel Morrison's 
reputation is that of a good lawyer, a brave soldier, a shrewd politi- 
cian, and an earnest, aggressive legislator. He is a man of rugged 
constitution, and is as active and vigorous as when he first entered 
public life. 




WILLIAM RALLS MORRISON. 



JAMES WHITCOMB RILEY. 



PRACTICALLY alone in his occupation of a most interesting field 
of literature, James Whitcomb Riley has become justly famous as 
the "Hoosier Poet of America." His incomparable dialect verse pre- 
sents to us many vivid character studies and pen-pictures of western 
farm life, permeated with the perfume of old-fashioned roses, the bab- 
bling of brooks, the whistle of the "Bob White" and robin, and all 
the objects, sounds and expressions familiar to those who have lived in 
the country. Mr. Riley was born in Greenfield, Ind., in 1852. As 
a boy he traveled much with his father, who was an attorney, and 
at an early age he left school to adopt the calling of a wandering 
sign writer. For some time he performed in a theatrical troupe, and 
became proficient in recasting plays and improvising songs. About 
?875 he began to contribute to the Indianapolis papers verses in the 
Hoosier dialect, using the pen-name, "Benjamin F. Johnson of Boone." 
He exhibited his imitative powers by writing a piece called "Leonainie," 
which many literary critics were deluded into accepting as a poem of 
Edgar Allen Poe. He finally accepted an engagement with the Indian- 
apolis " Journal," and in that paper, and latterly in the magazines, 
published numerous dialect and serious poems. He has issued a num- 
ber of volumes, including "The Old Swimmin' Hole," " Afterwhiles," 
" Neighborly Poems," " Pipes o* Pan," " Green Fields and Running 
Brooks," "Rhymes of Childhood," "The Flying Islands of the Night," 
and others. As a public reader from his own works, Mr. Riley has 
been very successful. Indeed, if he were not a writer he might win 
as brilliant a reputation as an actor as he now enjoys in a literary 
capacity. 

90 




JAMES WHITCOMB RILEY. 



MARY ASHTON RICE LIVERMORE. 



MARY ASHTON RICE LIVERMORE is a woman of very ear- 
nest purpose, of wide information, and of decided force of char- 
acter. She was born in Boston, Mass., December 19, 1821. She is of 
Welsh descent, and her father was an active fighter in the navy in the 
war of 1812. Her mother was a descendant of a well-known English fam- 
ily. The girl received a thorough education in the Boston public schools, 
then graduated at a female seminary at Charleston, Mass., and acquired, 
in addition to what an ordinary girl would get, a thorough classical 
education. She was then engaged as a teacher to go to Virginia, and 
among her duties was the teaching of a lot of slaves attached to a 
plantation. She came back a pronounced abolitionist. She taught in 
a private school near Boston on her return, but had acquired the gift 
of talking in public and utilized that power for talking against slavery 
and the slave trade. In 1845 she had become the wife of the Rev. E. 
P. Livermore, a Universalist minister, and, their tastes and aims being 
similar, they worked together happily and effectively. In 1857 the 
couple removed to Chicago, where Mrs. Livermore assisted her husband 
in the publication of the Universalist organ for the Mississippi valley. 
She was earnest in all that pertained to assisting the Union troops 
during the war, and made a most creditable record, which was widely 
recognized. Since the war Mrs. Livermore has been best known as 
associated with the woman suffrage movement in the United States. 
She is the author of a number of works, among which may be men- 
tioned "What Shall We Do With Our Daughters?" and a number of 
articles in the "Arena," the " Chautauquan," the "Christian Advocate," 
and " Women's Journal." 



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MARY ASHTON RICE LIVERMORE. 

93 



CHARLES FREDERICK CRISP. 



POSSESSING in an unusual degree the quick mental grasp, the 
accurate judgment, the confident self-control, the promptness and 
firmness of decision, and the practical training which are among the 
essential qualifications of the successful parliamentarian, Mr. Crisp, as 
Speaker, became a power in the National House of Representatives. Mr. 
Crisp was born in Sheffield, England, where his parents were on a 
visit, January 29, 1845. He received a common-school education in 
Savannah and Macon, Ga., and in 1861 entered the Confederate Army 
as a lieutenant. He was a prisoner of war from May, 1864, until 
June, 1865. After his release he studied law, and practiced first at 
Ellavillc and afterward at Americus, Ga., which is now his home. In 
1872 he was appointed solicitor-general of the Southwestern Judicial 
Circuit, and held that office until the middle of J 877, when he became 
judge of the Superior Court of the same circuit. He resigned from 
the bench in September, 1882, to accept the Democratic nomination for 
Congress. He was permanent president of the Democratic Convention 
which assembled in Atlanta in April, 1883, to nominate a candidate 
for governor. Mr. Crisp was elected to the Forty-eighth Congress, and 
is now serving his sixth successive term in that body. He was elected 
Speaker of the House for the Fifty-second Congress, and was re-elected 
for the Fifty-third. In that position he added greatly to his popu- 
larity and influence in the House, and even his political opponents 
agree that his rulings and decisions have at all times shown careful 
consideration, unbiased by prejudice. He was succeeded in office by 
Thomas B. Reed, of Maine, who was elected Speaker of the House, 
for the Fifty-fourth Congress, in 1895. 




CHARLES FREDERICK CRISP. 



MARY MAPES DODGE. 



PW authors have possessed so happy a knack of combining enter- 
tainment with instruction in writing for the young, or of making 
the present moment both enjoyable and profitable for readers of any 
age, as Mary Mapes Dodge, the talented editor of ''St. Nicholas." 
Mrs. Dodge is a native of New York City, where she was born Jan- 
uary 26, 1838, and is the daughter of Prof. James J. Mapes, the dis- 
tinguished promoter of scientific farming in the United States. She 
was educated by private tutors, and early evinced a talent for literary 
composition, as well as for music, drawing and modeling. At an 
early age she was married to William Dodge, a lawyer of New York, 
and it was after his death that she turned to literature as a means to 
earn the money to educate her two sons. She wrote principally short 
sketches for children, a volume of which was published in 1864 under 
the name of " Irvington Stories." During the following year she pub- 
lished "Hans Brinker, or the Silver Skates." With Donald G. Mitchell 
and Harriet Beecher Stowe, she was one of the earliest editors of 
"Hearth and Home," conducting for several years the household and 
children's department of that journal. In 1873, when the children's 
magazine, "St. Nicholas," was started, she became its editor, and still 
holds that position. Mrs. Dodge's story, "Hans Brinker," has been 
translated into Dutch, French, German, Russian and Italian, and was 
awarded a prize of fifteen hundred francs by the French Academy. 
She has published a number of other volumes, both of prose and 
poetry, and contributes to the "Atlantic Monthly," "Harper's Maga- 
zine," "Century," and other periodicals. She has a pleasant home in 
New York, which is a literary center. 




MARY MAPES DODGE. 



WADE HAMPTON. 



PHYSICAL and mental vigor, unflinching courage in the face of 
opposition and love for truth and justice are dominant character- 
istics of that great southern leader, Senator Wade Hampton, of South 
Carolina. Born in Columbia, S. C, March 28, 18 i8, Mr. Hampton was 
graduated at the University of South Carolina and afterwarJ studied 
lav, but with no intention of practicing. In early life he served in 
the legislature of his state, as a national Democrat, and, although a 
slave-holder, he had little affiliation with secession sentiments. His 
speech against the reopening of the slave trade was pronounced by the 
New York " Tribune " '* a masterpiece of logic directed by the noblest 
sentiments of the Christian and patriot." At the beginning of the Civil 
war he enlisted in the Confederate service as a private, but soon raised 
a command which was known as "Hampton's Legion," and won dis- 
tinction in many engagements. He was several times wounded, and 
attained the rank of lieutenant-general in 1864. After the war he at 
once engaged in cotton planting, but was not successful. In 1876 he 
was nominated for governor of South Carolina against Daniel H. 
Chamberlain. Each claimed to be elected and two governments were 
organized, but Chamberlain finally yielded his claims, and General 
Hampton served two years as governor. In 1878 he met with an 
accident by which he lost a leg, but, while his recovery was in doubt, 
he was elected to the United States Senate, in which body he served 
until 1891. In the Senate his course was that of a conservative 
Democrat. He advocated a sound currency, resisting all inflation, and 
generally acted in concert with Thomas A. Bayard, whose aspirations 
for the presidency he supported. 




WADE HAMPTON. 

99 



BRONSON HOWARD. 



STRONGLY equipped in the possession of a keen dramatic sense 
and a full knowledge of the art of the playwright, it is not 
to be wondered at that Bronson Howard's success has been greater 
than that of almost any other American dramatist now living. Indeed, it 
may be said that at the present time he is easily the leading exponent 
of that particular school of dramatic literature in which he has been 
engaged for nearly twenty-five years. Mr. Howard was born in 
Detroit, Mich., October 7, 1842. His education was begun in the 
public schools and finished in the New Haven Collegiate and Commer- 
cial Institute, after which, having developed a taste for writing, he 
adopted the profession of journalism. During his newspaper experience, 
which extended over a number of years, the work of the dramatic 
critic was especially attractive to him, and he finally decided to write 
a play. His first successful drama was "Saratoga," which was pro- 
duced in New York in 1870, and was so well received that it was 
brought out in London in 1874. His next was ''Diamonds," produced 
in 1872, and this was followed by "Hurricanes" in 1878. In the 
latter year also appeared " The Banker's Daughter," one of the best 
and most successful of Mr. Howard's plays. His other dramas have 
all been given a cordial reception by the theater-going public, among 
the most popular of them being "Wives," "Young Mrs. Winthrop," 
"One of Our Girls," "Met by Chance," "The Henrietta," "Shenan- 
doah," and "Aristocracy." Mr. Howard is particularly happy in the 
invention of plots and dramatic situations, and his judgment is never at 
fault in the devising of scenes intended to work upon the emotions of 
an audience. 

100 




BRONSON HOWARD 

lOI 



STANLEY WATERLOO. 



IT seems to have been the lot of Stanley Waterloo to first thor- 
oughly arouse in Great Britain an interest in the literature of the 
region west of the AUeghanies in the United States. His books have 
become as popular abroad as at home. Mr. Waterloo's early life was 
spent on his father's farm, in St. Clair County, Michigan, where he 
was born May 21, J 846. He chose a military career, and was 
appointed to West Point, but the accidental injury of one of his eyes 
debarred him from admission to the academy. After a course at the 
University of Michigan he went to Chicago and studied law, but 
instead of practicing that profession, drifted into journalism. He was 
connected at different times with the Chicago "Tribune" and the Chi- 
cago "Times," and afterward went to St. Louis, where he did edito- 
rial work on several of the daily newspapers, and became prominent 
in politics. Subsequently he returned to the Chicago "Tribune," and 
still later took charge of the Chicago "Mail," the circulation of which 
he largely increased. He was also editor of the Washington "Critic" 
for a time, but of late he has devoted himself principally to literary 
work. In addition to many magazine articles and poems, he has pub- 
lished two novels, "A Man and a Woman," now in its ninth edi- 
tion, and "An Odd Situation," a deeply interesting study of reciproc- 
ity between Canada and the United States. Both books are remark- 
able for their originality and power, and display the author's familiarity 
with woodcraft, farm life, natural history, and the political and economic 
questions of the day. Mr. Waterloo has been twice president of the 
Press Club, of Chicago, and is an active figure in the journalistic and 
political affairs of his city. 

.tQ2 




STANLEY WATERLOO. 
103 



MATTHEW STANLEY QUAY. 



IT is generally admitted that the manager of the National Republican 
campaign in the year when Harrison was elected to the Presidency 
is quite capable of taking care of himself in the world. Very few 
shrewder politicians exist, even in a nation of politicians, than Matthew 
Stanley Quay, of Pennsylvania. He was born in Dillsburgh, York 
County, Pa., September 30, 1833. He graduated from Jefferson Col- 
lege in Pennsylvania in 1850, and began the study of law and was 
admitted to the bar in Pittsburg in 1854. In 1856 he was elected 
prothonotary of Beaver County and was re-elected in 1859. In 1861 
he resigned his office to become a lieutenant in the Tenth Pennsyl- 
vania reserves, then became assistant commissary of the state, later pri- 
vate secretary of Governor Curtin, and, in 1862, colonel of the One 
Hundred and Thirty-fourth Pennsylvania volunteers. He was compelled 
by impaired health to leave the army, but participated as a volunteer 
in the assault made on Mary's Heights after he resigned his command. 
In 1865 Mr. Quay was elected to the Pennsylvania legislature and 
served until 1867, when he established and edited the Beaver "Radi- 
cal." He served as secretary of the commonwealth, which office he 
resigned to accept the appointment of recorder of Philadelphia, but 
returned to the former position, retaining it until 1882. He became 
chairman of the Republican National committee in 1888, and conducted 
the campaign which resulted in the election of Harrison and Morton. 
In 1885 occurred his election as state treasurer of Pennsylvania by the 
largest vote ever given a candidate for that office. In 1887 he was 
elected United States senator for the term ending in 1893 and was 
re-elected at the expiration of that time. 




MATTHEW STANLEY QUAY- 

105 



THOMAS BAILEY ALDRICH. 



AS the nattily clever, as the graceful, the thorough, the adaptable 
and capable dealer with words and imaginations, and with an 
absolute genius, Thomas Bailey Aldrich stands, admittedly, at the head 
of American writers who presume to be ranked in the class thus des- 
ignated. He was born in Portsmouth, N. H., November JI, 1836, 
and prepared for college, but the death of his father changed family 
plans, and he engaged in the mercantile business in New York City. 
He acquired a good education of his own impulse, and in the early 
fifties began contributions to the magazines. He did charming work 
for ''Putnam's Magazine," the "New York Evening Mirror," and for 
the "Home Journal," in days when those wonderful men, N. P. Willis 
and William Morris, gave to the publication a national reputation. 
From 1870 to 1874 he was editor of "Every Saturday" in Boston, 
and since that date has devoted himself to the writing and publication 
of his works and to editorial duties. His poetry includes "Babie Bell," 
"The Dells," "The Course of True Love Never Did Run Smooth," 
"Pampinea and Other Poems," "Flower and Thorn;" later poems, 
"Friar Jerome's Beautiful Book," and an edition de luxe of "Lyrics 
and Sonnets." Among his prose works are "Story of a Bad Boy," 
"Marjory Daw and Other People," "Prudence Palfry," "The Queen 
of Sheba," "The Stillwater Tragedy," "From Ponkapog to Pesth," 
"Mercedes," and very many translations of magazine articles and sto- 
ries. He is one of the most knowing, the most thoughtful, delicate, 
and daintiest of writers. To have written "Marjory Daw" alone, that 
quaint, sweet and adroit piece of work, would stamp a man as a 
genius. 

106 




THOMAS BAILEY ALDRICH. 

;07 



LYMAN ABBOTT. 



DISTINGUISHED as a clergyman, and as a successor of Henry 
Ward Beecher in the pulpit of the famous Plymouth Church, 
Rev. Lyman Abbott is also well known as an author, literary critic 
and journalist. The third son of Jacob Abbott; he was born in Rox- 
bur , Mass., December 18, J 835, and graduated at the University of 
the City of New York in 1853. He studied law and was admitted to 
the bar in J 856, but soon abandoned law for theology, which he stud- 
ied with his uncle. Rev. John S. C. Abbott, the author. He entered 
the ministry in 1860, his first pastoral charge being a Congregational 
church in Terre Haute, Ind., where he remained until J 865. He then 
became secretary of the American Union (Freedmen's) Commission, which 
office called him to New York and occupied him until J 868. In the 
meantime he was also pastor of the New England Church of that city, 
but resigned in 1869 to devote himself to literature and journalism. 
In conjunction with his brothers he wrote two novels, and for several 
years edited the "Literary Record" of "Harper's Magazine," at the 
same time conducting the "Illustrated Christian Weekly." He was 
afterward associated with Rev. Henry Ward Beecher in the editorship 
of the "Christian Union," and upon Mr. Beecher's retirement became 
editor-in-chief. Mr. Abbott has written a number of books of devotion 
and Biblical history, a " Life of Henry Ward Beecher," and has edited 
Mr. Beecher's sermons and lectures, in addition to his many contribu- 
tions to periodical literature. In January, 1889, he received a call to 
the pastorate of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, so many years identified 
with Mr. Beecher's labors, and has continued to fill that post to the 
present time. 




LYMAN ABBOTT. 
109 



CHARLES KENDALL ADAMS. 



AMONG the great eaucators of the present day Charles Kendall 
Adams, late president of Cornell University and now president 
of the University of Wisconsin, occupies a high rank. He was born 
at Derby, Vt., January 24, 1835. In the fall of 1855 he moved to 
Iowa, where he prepared for college in the Denmark Academy, Iowa. 
He entered the University of Michigan in the fall of 1857, where, after 
graduation course of study, he took the Master's degree in 1862, and 
immediately thereafter was appointed instructor in Latin and history, in. 
1863 assistant professor, and in 1867 professor with the privilege of 
spending a year and a half in Europe. After hard study abroad he 
returned and soon became a prominent figure in university affairs. In 
1885 he was called to the presidency of Cornell University, a position 
which he occupied until the summer of 1892. During the seven years 
of his incumbency of that position the number of students was increased 
from five hundred and sixty to more than fifteen hundred, and the 
endowment of the university was increased by nearly two million dol- 
lars. In 1892 President Adams resigned the presidency of Cornell Uni- 
versity, with the purpose of devoting his life henceforth to the writing 
of history, but in 1893 accepted the call to the presidency of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. He is the author of many important works. 
The degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred upon President Adams 
by Harvard University in 1886. He is a member of many learned 
societies, and in 1890 was president of the American Historical Associ- 
ation, and has earned a high place among the great thinkers, educators 
and historians as a scholar of rare attainments and a writer of won- 
derful power and depth. 




CHARLES KENDALL ADAMS, 
in 



JAMES BURRILL ANGELL. 



TO the performance of the duties connected with his responsible 
office, the president of the University of Michigan brings a vig- 
orous and impressive personality, distinguished alike for moral and intel- 
lectual parts. James Burrill Angell v/as born in Scituate, R. I., Janu- 
ary 7, 1829, and is a lineal descendant from Thomas Angell, who. 
was one of the original settlers with Roger Williams of the Providence 
plantations. Mr. Angell was graduated at Brown University in 1849» 
and, after a period of travel and study in Europe, was appointed, in 
1853, professor of modern languages and literature in that college. In 
1860 he accepted the editorship of the Providence "Daily Journal,"' 
which place he occupied until 1866, when he was called to the presi- 
dency of the University of Vermont. In 1 87 1 he became president of 
the University of Michigan, an office he has since continued to fill, 
except during the years 1880 and 1881, which he spent in China as 
United States Minister, appointed by President Hayes, and also as 
chairman of a special commission appointed to negotiate a treaty with 
China. This commission procured a treaty on commercial matters, and 
also one on Chinese immigration. In 1887 Mr. Angell was appointed 
by President Cleveland a member of the commission, with Hon. Thomas 
F. Bayard and Hon. W. L. Putnam, to settle by treaty with the 
British commissioners the fisheries difficulties on the Atlantic coast of 
Canada. President Angell is a frequent contributor to reviews and 
magazines, is a member of various educational societies, and in 1893 
was elected president of the American Historical Association. He 
received from Brown University the degree of LL. D. President 
Angell ranks high as an educator. 



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JAMES BURRILL ANGELL. 

153 



RUSSELL SAGE. 



WHATEVER genius a man may have in certain directions could 
not be developed in some countries as in the United States. 
A great astronomer or great inventor might make himself heard of in 
the Republic of Andorra, or in Guatemala, but such distinction could 
scaxely come to the man in either country whose gift might be only 
the faculty of doing well on a stock exchange. But Russell Sage, 
those who know him best say, would have become prominent as a 
financier wherever he might have been placed. In Patagonia he would 
have done well in hides. He is almost the representative man of a 
large and potent class of business men in this country, not the daring 
speculator—though on occasion bold enough — not the great administrator 
of huge enterprises, nor the originator of ventures in new fields, but a 
man of the old New England stock who lives long and builds 
shrewdly. Born in Oneida County, New York, August 4, 18 J6. 
Mr. Sage has been all his life a business man and for a very long 
time a prominent figure in Wall street. He is unique in his methods. 
It is not known that he ever manipulated a "corner," and, though he 
was once famous for his " puts and calls," it is said that he has cur- 
tailed even that branch of his business since one notable day in June, 
1884, when he was reported to have lost $7,000,000. He is a man 
who realizes the present value of money. He loans money to banks 
and corporations and is a director in many things. He has strong 
friendships, and cried like a child when Jay Gould died. Nearly eighty 
years of age, he is active almost as a boy and constant at business. 
Though he dresses plainly he is a gallant of the old school, a court- 
eous man, and has a keen appreciation of what is clever. 

154 



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1 i 



RUSSELL SAGE. 
115 



WILLIAM VINCENT ALLEN. 



THE junior senator from Nebraska has become widely known of 
late as one not afraid to assert himself at any time, since he 
did not hesitate in the Upper House of Congress to support, in a 
degree, the unpopular cause of the Coxeyites nor to assist in the 
defense of the leaders in that movement when they were arrested. 
William Vincent Allen was born in Midway, Madison County, Ohio, 
January 28, 1847, and removed with his step-father's family to Iowa 
in 1857. He was educated in the common schools of Iowa, and 
later attended for a time the Upper Iowa University at Fayette. He 
enlisted as a private in the Thirty-second Iowa volunteers, and at the 
close of his service in the army was on the staff of Gen. J. T. Gil- 
bert. He then began the study of law and was admitted to practice 
in 1869. In 1884 he removed from Iowa to Nebraska, where he 
engaged in the work of his profession most successfully, and in the 
fall of J 89 1 was elected judge of the district court of the Ninth judi- 
cial circuit of Nebraska. In 1893 he was elected United States sena- 
tor to succeed Algernon S. Paddock. His term of service will expire 
in 1899, so that there still remain some years for further advocacy of 
what Senator Allen holds to be the people's cause. He is resolute in 
his course when it is once decided upon, and is earnest and vigorous 
in debate. His attitude in favor of the various reform movements has 
made him popular, and he is looked upon as a political possibility of 
more than ordinary dimensions. He is recognized as having at least 
the courage of his convictions, a quality the American elector seems to 
recognize more and more of late as a necessary quality in one sent 
either to make laws, to interpret them, or to execute them. 

JI6 



I 




WILLIAM VINCENT ALLEN. 



WILLIAM TAYLOR ADAMS. 



THOUSANDS of middle-aged men of today hold in loving remem- 
brance the name of "Oliver Optic;" a name that was associ- 
ated with their boyhood's pleasures quite as intimately as was that of 
Santa Claus himself. And "Oliver Optic" is still living, and is the 
patron saint of the children today, just as he was a generation ago. 
His real name is William Taylor Adams, and his hom.e is in Boston. 
Mr. Adams was born in Medway, Mass., July 30, 1822. He was 
for twenty years a teacher in the public schools of Boston, fourteen 
years a member of the school committee of Dorchester, and one year 
a member of the legislature. He has devoted most of his life to writ- 
ing for young people, with whom he has a warm sympathy. His 
literary career began in 1850, and he has produced over a thousand 
stories in newspapers, exclusive of his books. In early life he edited 
the "Student and Schoolmate," and in 1881 "Our Little Ones," but 
he is best known as an editor through "Oliver Optic's Magazine for 
Boys and Girls." His published works, issued mainly in series of 
several volumes each, include "In-Doors and Out," "Riverdale," "The 
Boat Club," "Woodville," "Young America Abroad," "Army and 
Navy," " Starry Flag," " Onward and Upward," " Yacht Club," " Great 
Western," etc. In fact, he has published about a hundred volumes in 
all, and the strangest thing about it is, that he is still writing. The 
fountain from which he draws seems to be inexhaustible, and his latest 
stories are as fresh and absorbingly interesting as his first. No writer 
ever exerted a greater or more wholesome influence on the minds and 
hearts of the young folks. Mr. Adams often says that he never quite 
got over being a boy himself. 

ns 




WILLIAM TAYLOR ADAMS. 

119 



PHILIP D. ARMOUR. 



ILLUSTRATING as he does the unflagging energy and enterprise 
that have made Chicago the most wonderful city, in some respects, 
in the world, as well as the philanthropic spirit that has given it a 
reputation for munificence, Philip D. Armour is a representative citizen 
of the western metropolis and a typical American. Born in Stock- 
bridge N. Y., May 16, 1832, Mr. Armour was educated in the dis- 
trict school. In 1851 he left home and went to California to seek his 
fortune. He returned in 1856 without having accomplished his pur- 
pose, and soon thereafter embarked in the commission business in Mil- 
waukee, Wis. In 1863 he formed a partnership with John Planking- 
ton, of Milwaukee, in the packing business, and that arrangement was 
the beginning of the immense enterprises in which Mr. Armour has 
since been engaged, and which has made his name known all over 
the world. The Chicago establishment of P. D. Armour & Co. was 
founded in 1868, and there are now extensive branch houses in New 
York and Kansas City. All in all, the packing-houses in which Mr. 
Armour and his brothers are interested, form one of the most gigantic 
enterprises in the country. He gives his business his personal super- 
vision, and has a wonderful capacity for work. The Armour Mission, 
founded by his brother but cherished and substantially endowed by 
himself, receives his attention every Sunday. Mr. Armour's latest 
magnificent present to the city of Chicago— the Armour Institute, fully 
endowed is of comparatively recent occurrence, and is numbered among 
the most princely gifts of the century on the part of a private citizen. 
He is a philanthropist in the best sense of the word, giving not only 
of his money but of his time and labor to the cause of charity. 



120 




PHILIP D. ARMOUR. 
I2J 



THOMAS FRANCIS BAYARD. 



IT fell to the lot of a Democrat of the old school to first bear the 
title of American Ambassador to the Court of St. James. Presi- 
dent Cleveland was the first executive to confer this diplomatic rank 
upon a citizen of the United States, and the appointment was given to 
Thomas F. Bayard, of Delaware. Mr. Bayard comes of a family of 
statesmen. He was born in Wilmington, Del, October 29, J 828, and 
at an early age entered mercantile life, which he soon abandoned for 
the study of law. In 1851 he was admitted to the bar, and two 
years later was appointed United States District Attorney for Delaware, 
but resigned that office in 1854. In 1869 he succeeded his father as 
United States senator, and at once became a prominent figure in that 
body. He was re-elected in 1875, and again in 1881, retaining his 
seat in the Senate until March, 1885, when he entered Mr. Cleveland's 
Cabinet as Secretary of State. Mr. Bayard has several times been 
proposed as a presidential candidate, but the recollection of a famous 
speech delivered by him at Dover, Del., in the early part of 1861, in 
which his language was construed to express Southern sentiments, mil- 
itated against his chances of election. Nevertheless, at the Democratic 
National Convention at Cincinnati, in 1880, he received one hundred 
and fifty-three and one-half votes on the first ballot, and in the con- 
vention of 1884 he was Mr, Cleveland's principal competitor for the 
nomination. After his retirement from the office of Secretary of State, 
in 1889, Mr. Bayard held no public office until his appointment as 
Ambassador to the Court of St. James, in 1893. He is a man of 
imposing presence, a power in debate, and during his career in the 
Senate he was the recognized leader of the Democrats. 

122 




THOMAS FRANQS BAYARD. 

J23 



ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL. 



OUT of a long and careful study of vocal physiology, prosecuted 
with a view of improving the methods of instructing deaf-mutes, 
was developed the telephone, which has made the name of its inventor 
famous. Prof. A. Graham Bell is a son of the Scotch educator, Alex- 
ander Melville Bell. He was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, March 3, 
J 847, and was educated at the Edinburgh high school and Edinburgh 
University, receiving special training in his father's system for removing 
impediments in speech. He entered the University at London in 1867, 
and in 1870 emigrated with his father to Canada. In 1872 he took 
up his residence in the United States, introducing with success his 
father's system of deaf-mute instruction and becoming professor of vocal 
physiology in Boston University. He had been interested for many 
years in the transmission of sound by electricity, and had devised many 
forms of apparatus for the purpose, but his first public exhibition of 
the telephone was in Philadelphia in 1876. Its complete success has 
made him wealthy. His invention of the " photophone," in which a 
vibratory gleam of light is substituted for a wire in conveying speech, 
has also attracted much attention, but has never been practically used. 
Professor Bell has put forth the theory that the present system of edu- 
cating deaf-mutes is wrong, as it tends to restrict them to one another's 
society, so that marriages between the deaf are common, and therefore 
the number of deaf-mute children born is on the increase. He is a 
member of various learned societies, and has published many scientific 
papers setting forth his theories and the results of his experiments. 
He has lived for some time in Washington, D. C. Prof. Bell is thor- 
oughly devoted to the cause of science. 

J24 




ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL 
J25 



EDWARD BELLAMY. 



UTOPIAN dreams of perfected socialism have not been few dur- 
ing the nineteenth century, but of all the schemes that have 
been proposed for the reorganization of society, none has attracted so 
much attention or received such serious consideration, because of its 
apparent practicability, as that embodied in Edward Bellamy's remark- 
able story, "Looking Backward." Mr. Bellamy is a writer of marked 
ability. He was born in Chicopee Falls, Mass., in 1850, and was 
educated at Union College and in Germany. He studied law and was 
admitted to the bar, but never practiced that profession, as he preferred 
a literary life. During 1871 and 1872 he was on the staff of the 
New York "Evening Post," and for the five years following was an 
editorial writer and critic for the Springfield "Union." His health 
failing him, he made a voyage to the Sandv.Hch Islands in 1876, and 
upon his return in 1877 became one of the founders of the Springfield 
"News." After two years more of journalism he abandoned it to 
devote himself entirely to literature. In addition to his many contribu- 
tions to the magazines, he has published " Six to One : a Nantucket 
Idyl;" "Dr. Heidenhoff's Process," and "Miss Ludington's Sister." 
His greatest success, however, has been in his socialistic novel, " Look- 
ing Backward," published in 1888, of which more than three hundred 
thousand copies were sold in America within two years of its first 
appearance. Mr. Bellamy still resides at Chicopee Falls, and interests 
himself in advancing the ideas of nationalism advocated in his book. 
He is thoroughly in earnest in his beliefs, and is known as a profound 
thinker, as well as one of the most clever and vigorous writers of the 
age. 




EDWARD BELLAMY. 

J 27 



ANDREW ELLICOTT KENNEDY BENHAM. 



A NAME that but a short time ago was on every tongue, in con- 
nection with a magnificent display of firmness and aggression in 
protecting American interests in a foreign harbor, is that of Admiral 
A. E. K. Benham, late commanding the North Atlantic squadron. In 
firing ipon the Brazilian insurgents, who attempted to enforce a blockade 
in the harbor of Rio de Janeiro, January 30, 1894, and thus interfere 
with American commerce, this brave naval officer won the applause 
of the world. Admiral Benham was born on Staten Island, N. Y., 
April 10, 1832. He entered the navy as midshipman November 24, 
1847, and rose to the rank of lieutenant September 16, 1855, having 
done several years' service on the " St. Mary's," in the Pacific squad- 
ron. He was attached to the "Crusader," on the Home station, in 
1860 and 1861, and when the Civil war began was made executive 
officer of the " Bienville," on the South Atlantic blockade, where he 
participated in the capture of Port Royal, S. C, and in 1863 served 
on the " Sacramento." He was promoted to lieutenant commander in 
1863, and commanded the "Penobscot" in the Western Gulf blockading 
squadron until the close of the war in 1865. After that he served at 
various stations, being promoted to commander in 1866, to captain in 
1875, and to commodore in 1885. Later he attained the rank of rear 
admiral, and was commanding the North Atlantic squadron at the time 
of the Rio bay incident, when he gave the insurgents and the whole 
world to understand that the American flag would be protected. Ad- 
miral Benham was retired from the service in the spring of 1894, hav- 
ing served his allotted forty-five years, and he took with him into his 
retirement the grateful appreciation of the Nation for his efficient work. 

128 



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ANDREW ELLICOTT KENNEDY BENHAM. 
129 



WILSON SHANNON BISSELL. 



THE man who acted as chief groomsman when President Cleve- 
land was married afterward became Postmaster-General in the 
President's Cabinet. W. S. Bissell was bom in Rome, Oneida County, 
N. Y., December 31, 1847, but since 1853 has been a resident of 
Buffalo. After receiving a preliminary education in the public schools 
he took a two years' course in Hopkins* Grammar School at New 
Haven, Conn., and then entered Yale College, where he was gradu- 
ated in 1869. He studied law in Buffalo, and in 1872 formed a part- 
nership with Lyman K. Bass for the practice of his profession. At 
the beginning of 1874 Grover Cleveland became a member of the firm, 
which was then known as Bass, Cleveland & Bissell. Mr. Bass with- 
drew, but the other parties retained their association until Mr. Cleve- 
land went to Albany to assume the duties of governor of the state, 
and subsequently resumed their partnership. A few years after the 
marriage of his law partner, then President of the United States, Mr. 
Bissell followed his example, and Mr. and Mrs. Qeveland were the 
honored guests of the occasion. Mr. Bissell has been an active Dem- 
ocrat all his life, but has always refused to be a candidate for office, 
except for elector-at-large in 1884. He was earnestly solicited by Mr. 
Cleveland early in 1885 to take a high official position, but declined, 
and his acceptance of a place in the Cabinet in 1893 was a great 
financial sacrifice. His fitness for the place was demonstrated as soon 
as he had taken charge of the office, and his services gave him a 
high reputation as a public official, but he was compelled to resign 
and return to his law practice in Buffalo, where he has the reputation 
of being a wise and able counsellor. 

130 



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WILSON SHANNON BISSELL. 

131 



JOSEPH CLAY STYLES BLACKBURN. 



THE name of Blackburn has become familiar throughout the United 
States as representing Kentucky pluck and vigor and statesman- 
ship, and it is largely to the subject of this sketch that the prominence 
of the name is due. Joseph C. S. Blackburn was born in Woodford 
County, Kentucky, October I, 1838. He attended the common schools, 
receiving private instruction as well, then took a course of study at 
Sayres Institute, and finally graduated from Centre College, at Danville. 
He entered at once upon a course of legal study at Lexington, Ky., 
and was admitted to the bar in 1858, being then only twenty years 
of age. He looked upon Chicago, 111., as a promising field, removed 
to that city at once, and practiced successfully until the beginning of 
the Civil war. His sympathies were naturally with the South, and 
he returned to Kentucky and entered the Confederate army, in which 
he served with distinction. The war over, he returned to his native 
state and resumed the practice of his profession, making his home 
eventually in Versailles. He was elected to the Kentucky legislature 
in 1871, and became conspicuous in that body. He was re-elected, 
and in 1875 was elected to Congress, in the Lower House of which 
he served continuously until 1884, when the legislature of his state 
elected him to the United States Senate. At the expiration of his term 
in 1891 he was re-elected to the Senate, for the term expiring in 1897. 
The same energy and force of character which made him a promising 
lawyer before he was twenty-one years of age, which led him into the 
army and allowed no circumstances to deter him from his course, have 
made Senator Blackburn a capable and earnest law-maker. He is a 
man of recognized force. 

J32 




JOSEPH CLAY STYLES BLACXBURN. 



RICHARD PARKS BLAND. 



FOM the outset of his public career Congressman Bland, of Mis- 
souri, has been the champion of cheap and plentiful money in 
every form, and for many years has been the recognized leader in the 
House of Representatives of the free silver wing. Mr. Bland is essen- 
tially a self-made man. He was born near Hartford, Ohio County, 
Kentucky, August 19, 1835. Orphaned at an early age, he worked 
during the summer months in order to obtain means with which to 
attend school in the winter, and thus acquired an academic education. 
He then studied law and was admitted to the bar. In 1855 he 
removed to Missouri, and then to California. Subsequently he settled 
in Virginia City, Nevada, where he became interested in mining opera- 
tions. Returning to Missouri in 1865, he eventually drifted to Lebanon, 
in that state, and while practicing law there was elected to Congress 
as a Democrat in 1873. He has since been regularly re-elected. He 
introduced in the Forty-fourth Congress the well-known "Bland Bill," 
which provided that the Secretary of the Treasury should purchase suffi- 
cient bullion to coin the minimum amount of $2,000,000 a month in 
silver dollars of 412' 2 grains each, and that these dollars should be 
legal tender. He also introduced in the Fifty-third Congress the 
"Seigniorage Bill," which was passed by the House, but vetoed by 
the President. Whatever else may be said of Mr. Bland's legislative 
career, it is certain that he reflects faithfully the wishes and the opin- 
ions of his constituents. Personally he has his cause much at heart, 
believing firmly in silver and conceiving himself to be the champion of 
the debtor class and a crusader against a wicked conspiracy of the 
bankers and the "gold bugs." 




RICPiARD PARKS BLAND. 

J 35 



JEAN BLEWETT. 



THROUGH many charming poems and dainty pen-pictures, which 
somehow never fai! to enlist the deepest interest and sympathy 
of the reader, the name of Jean Blewett has become well and favor- 
ably known in connection with the literature of Canada and the United 
States, and is constantly acquiring a wider recognition. She was born 
in a country place near Rondeau Bay, Ontario, Canada, November 4, 
1864. Her parents were John and Janet McKishney, of Argyleshire, 
Scotland, and much of her youth was spent with her Scotch grandpar- 
ents. She received a liberal education, and early manifested the imag- 
inative faculty which caused her to be regarded as an indolent dreamer. 
At the age of seventeen she wrote a book of prose, which, though 
showing the amateur, displayed much strength and originality, and gave 
promise of the better things that were soon to follow. She has since 
been a contributor to some of the leading magazines of Canada and 
the United States, and her poems, etchings and life-sketches have found 
their way to the hearts of thousands of readers in both countries. A 
keen observation and the faculty of describing what she sees in lan- 
guage that flows naturally from a poetic soul, give her the rare power 
of making the reader see, hear and feel with her, while the senses are 
gratified with the music that accompanies the revelation. Her religious 
verse is characterized by strength and breadth, and has called forth 
widely favorable comment, while her short stories show remarkable 
originality and power. Mrs. Blewett was married when quite young 
to Bassett Blewett, an Englishman, and now resides in a pleasant home, 
living a quiet life with her husband and two children, at Blenheim, 
Ontario. 

136 




JEAN BLEWETT. 

137 



HORACE BOIES. 



WHATEVER may have been the other conditions which aided 
the Democrats in wresting Iowa from the strong grasp of the 
Republicans in 1889, there is no doubt that their success was largely- 
due to the strength and popularity of their candidate for governor. 
The choice of Horace Boies to lead the fight against prohibition legis- 
lation in that campaign was a fortunate one. Mr. Boies was born on 
a farm near Buffalo, Erie County, N. Y., in J 827, and until he was 
sixteen years of age was a hard-working assistant to his father in 
clearing the timber land of the farm. He went West at seventeen, 
but after working for a time on a Wisconsin farm he returned to 
New York, took an academic course, and studied law. In 1852 he 
began the practice of his profession in Buffalo, and in a few years had 
established an excellent reputation as a criminal lawyer. Mr. Boies 
removed to Waterloo, Iowa, in 1867, and there practiced in partnership 
with H. B. Allen for several years. He was afterward associated 
with C. F. Couch until that gentleman retired to become a district 
judge, in 1884. Mr. Boies continued to add to his reputation and 
influence year after year, and, being a stanch Democrat, he naturally 
attracted the attention of the party managers in the state. They made 
him their candidate for governor in 1889, and he led them to victory. 
He was re-elected in 1891, but was defeated for a third term by F. 
D. Jackson, though the excellence of his administration was universally 
admitted. Mr. Boies was the choice of the Iowa and several other 
state delegations for the Presidency in the Democratic National Conven- 
tion of 1892. He is extremely popular in his state, and a prime factor 
in all political movements. 




HORACE BOIES. 

J39 



ROBERT BONNER. 



TO many thousands of readers a peculiar interest, amounting almost 
to reverence, attaches to the name of the man who founded the 
New York " Ledger," that famous story paper that for many years 
gave to the public the best productions of Mrs. Southworth, Sylvanus 
Cobb, Jr., Fanny Fern, Alice Gary, and a host of other writers. 
Robert Bonner was born near Londonderry, Ireland, April 28, J 824. 
His parents were Scotch-Irish Presbyterians. Coming to the United 
States at an early age, he learned the printer's trade, and in 1839 
was employed in the office of the Hartford " Courant," where he gained 
the reputation of being the most rapid compositor in Connecticut. In 
J 844 he removed to New York, and in 1 85 1 purchased the "Ledger," 
at that time an insignificant sheet. By printing the most popular class 
of interesting stories he gave the paper a wide circulation, which was 
further extended by the contributions of James Parton, Fanny Fern, 
Edward Everett, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Dickens, and other emi- 
nent authors and clergymen. Mr. Bonner has made large gifts of 
money to Princeton College and to various charities. To gratify his 
taste for fast horses he has purchased several of the most celebrated 
trotters in the world, always withdrawing them from the race course. 
These included "Peerless," "Dexter" and "Maud S." The last named 
had a record of 2:09:1, afterward reduced to 2:08i), and was purchased 
from William H. Vanderbilt for $40,000. Some years ago Mr. Bon- 
ner retired from active business life and is now enjoying, in a quiet 
way, the fruits of his energy and enterprise. Since his retirement the 
"Ledger" has been successfully conducted by his sons, to whom he 
surrendered it. 

140 




ROBERT BONNER. 

141 



HENRY BILLINGS BROWN. 



AVERY clean record and admirable as representing intellect, culti- 
vation and a power to look upon things broadly and justly, is 
that of Henry Billings Brown, now an associate justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. He was born in South Lee, Mass., 
March 2, 1836. He received a thorough preliminary education, and 
was graduated from Yale College in 1856, after which he studied law 
for some time in a private office, and later attended lectures at both 
Yale and Harvard law schools. He came west and was admitted to 
the bar of Wayne County, Michigan, in July, I860, and in the spring 
of 1 86 J, upon the election of Mr. Lincoln, was appointed United States 
Deputy Marshal, and subsequently United States Attorney for the east- 
ern district of Michigan, a position he held until 1868, when he was 
appointed judg* of the circuit court of Wayne County, to fill a vacancy. 
He returned x) active practice in partnership with John S. Newberry 
and Ashley Pond, of Detroit, each a man prominent in his profession. 
In 1875 he was appointed by President Grant United States District 
Judge for the eastern district of Michigan, to succeed Hon. John W. 
Longyear, and in December, 1890, was appointed associate justice of 
the Supreme Court to succeed Judge Samuel F. Miller. He entered 
upon the duties of his present office January 5, 1891. Since his 
advent in the Supreme Court, he has become recognized as a man of 
marked ability and one who is a credit even to that assemblage of 
leaders in the law. Honors have come upon him thick and fast. 
He was made an LL. D. by the University of Michigan in 1887, while 
Yale University conferred the same honor upon him in 1891. He occu- 
pies the front rank in his profession. 

142 




HENRY BILLINGS BROWN. 

143 



ROBERT JONES BURDETTE. 



METEOR-LIKE in their short-lived brilliance have been the careers 
of the majority of the newspaper "funny men" whose bright 
paragraphs made brief reputations for the journals in which they ap- 
peared. With Robert J. Burdette this has not been the case, for he 
is one of the few who possess literary ability of a high order, who 
are able to depict the pathetic as well as the humorous phases of life, 
and who write entertainingly on a variety of subjects. Nevertheless, 
he is essentially a humorist, and not many years ago he was univer- 
sally designated " The Burlington ' Hawkeye ' Man," because his name 
was so little known. Mr. Burdette was bom in Greensborough, Pa., 
July 30, J 844, but early in life removed to Peoria, 111., where he was 
educated in the public schools. He enlisted as a private in the Forty- 
seventh Illinois volunteers, in 1862, and served until the close of the 
war. In 1869 he became one of the editors of the Peoria "Trans- 
cript," was afterward connected with the "Review," and still later 
assisted in the founding of a new paper in Peoria, which did not suc- 
ceed. Subsequently he became associate editor of the Burlington 
" Hawkeye," and his humorous contributions to that journal, being 
widely copied, gave him a national reputation. In J 877 he began to 
deliver public lectures, in which he was very successful, his subjects 
being "The Rise and Fall of the Moustache," "Home," and "The 
Pilgrimage of the Funny Man." Several volumes of his humorous 
writings have been issued. He was connected with the Brooklyn 
"Eagle" for some time, and continues to contribute much to periodical 
literature. He also occasionally preaches, being a licensed minister of 
the Baptist Church. 




ROBERT JONES BURDETTE. 

145 



JOHN BURROUGHS. 



WHAT other American author writes so charmingly of bird life, 
green fields, rural fancies and observations, and the impressions 
of nature, as John Burroughs? The pure, bracing air of the country 
breathes through almost everything that comes from his gifted pen. 
Mr. Burroughs was born in Roxbury, N. Y., April 3, 1837. The 
son of a farmer, he early imbibed a love of the woods and meadows 
and the society of birds and books. After receiving an academic edu- 
cation he taught school eight or nine years, and then became a jour- 
nalist in New York. He was a clerk in the treasury department at 
Washington from 1864 until J 873, after which he was appointed 
receiver of the Wallkill National Bank, in Middletown, N. Y. In 1874 
he settled on a farm at Esopus, N. Y., giving his time principally to 
fruit culture, except during the months when his duties as bank exam- 
iner called him away. He has contributed largely to periodicals, writ- 
ing mainly upon rural themes and natural history. His published 
books are: "Wake Robin," "Winter Sunshine," "Birds and Poets," 
"Locusts and Wild Honey," "Pepacton," "Fresh Fields," "Signs and 
Seasons," " Indoor Studies," and " Notes on Wak Whitman as Poet 
and Person." He has also written enough poetry to create a wish 
among his admirers that he would write more. The thoroughness 
with which Mr. Burroughs' keen observation absorbs a subject is only 
equaled by the cleverness with which he describes it, always enlisting 
the sympathies and interest of his readers where a less entertaining 
writer would only weary them. As an author and naturalist he is a 
worthy successor of Thoreau, without Thoreau's personal peculiarities 
and erratic habits of life. 

146 




JOHN BURROUGHS. 

J47 



GEORGE WASHINGTON CABLE. 



MANY readers will remember with what delight they devoured 
those inimitable short stories, "Madame Delphine," "Posson 
Jone," "Tite Poulette," and "Cafe des Exiles," with which George W. 
Cable made his advent in the field of literature, and the enthusiasm 
with which they received his later and more elaborate works. Mr. 
Cable is a native of New Orleans, born October 12, 1844. He served 
in the Confederate army from 1863 to 1865, being severely wounded, 
and after the war returned to New Orleans, penniless. He had a 
hard struggle for existence for a time, but finally attracted attention 
through a series of clever articles published in the New Orleans "Pic- 
ayune," and in 1878 his sketches of Creole life began to appear in 
"Scribner's Magazine." These made him famous, and his success as 
an author was immediately assured. He possesses a thorough mastery 
of the Creole and negro dialects of his native state, and his stories all 
have the merit of novelty and interest. His keen powers of observa- 
tion have enabled him to depict the social life of the Louisiana low- 
lands so vividly that in som.e cases serious offense has been given to 
those whose portraits he has drawn. Through his publications he has 
been the means of effecting reforms in the con./act system of convict 
labor in the Southern States. Among his most popular works are 
"Old Creole Days," "The Grandissimes," " Bonaventure," "The Cre- 
oles of Louisiana," "Dr. Sevier," "The Silent South," "John March, 
Southerner," etc. Mr. Cable has also been successful in the lecture 
field, and his readings from his own books give the stories and their 
characters an added charm through his clever interpretations. In 1885 
he established his permanent home at Northampton, Mass. 

148 




GEORGE WASHINGTON CABLE. 

J49 



JULIUS C BURROWS. 



A PROMINENT figure in Congress has been for a long time that 
of Julius C. Burrows, who so ably represents the Third Michi- 
gan district. He was born in North East, Erie County, Pa., January 
9, 1837. He received a thorough common-school and academic educa- 
tion. He studied law and was admitted to practice, but, with the 
outbreak of the Civil war, entered the Union army, remaining in the 
service until 1864. After the war he settled down vigorously to the 
practice of his profession, in Kalamazoo, Mich., and was electeo prose- 
cuting attorney. In 1867 he was appointea supervisor of internal reve- 
nue for the states of Michigan and Wisconsin, but declined the office, 
preferring the regular career before him. He was elected to the Forty- 
third Congress, re-elected to the Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh Con- 
gresses, and in 1884 was appointed Solicitor of the United States Treas- 
ury Department, but declined the office. In the same year he was 
elected delegate-at-Iarge from Michigan to the Republican National Con- 
vention. He was elected to the Forty-ninth Congress, and has been 
re-elected continuously since. He was twice elected Speaker pro tem- 
pore during the Fifty-first Congress, and is a recognized power in the 
Republican party. In his last contest he received a majority of votes 
over the Democratic, Populist and Prohibition candidates combined. A 
fluent and powerful debater, a statesman of admitted ability, and pos- 
sessed of popular qualities, he is looked upon as a not unlikely occupant 
of a seat in the United States Senate. He is a fit specimen of the 
clear-headed, broad-viewed men, the drift from the east, who have made 
Michigan one of the most typically American and pi'Ogressive states of 
the Union. 

i50 




JULIUS C BURROWS. 

J5I 



JAMES E. CAMPBELL. 



ONE of the men who have become factors in the political history 
of the country within a comparatively recent period, but who 
have attracted universal attention by reason of inherent greatness, is 
Ex-Governor Campbell, of Ohio. First in the National House of Rep- 
resentatives, then in the Governor's chair, he distinguished himself as a 
man of more than ordinary ability, an able legislator, and a wise exec- 
utive. James E. Campbell was born in Middletown, Ohio, July 7, 
1843. He received a thorough education, and adopted the profession of 
a lawyer. During the Civil war he served in the United States Navy, 
and after the restoration of peace settled down to the practice of hk 
profession in Hamilton, Ohio, where, in 1876, he became prosecuting 
attorney, continuing in that office until 1880. In the mean time Mr. 
Campbell had become so popular throughout his district that in 1882 
he was elected to Congress as a Democrat, and he soon became one 
of the most popular men at the Capitol, as well as a leader in the 
House. He served in the Forty-eighth and Forty-ninth Congresses, 
and was re-elected to the Fiftieth, but subsequently resigned his seat to 
make the race for Governor of Ohio. He made a vigorous and bril- 
liant campaign, and succeeded in defeating his Republican opponent. 
Governor Foraker. At the end of his term as Governor, he failed of 
re-election, but his power and influence in his own party have contin- 
ued to grow, rather than diminish, and he is today a greater man 
than ever. At the National Democratic Convention of 1892 he was 
a recognized leader, and was enthusiastically cheered every time his 
tall, commanding figure was seen in the aisles. He represents the best 
principles of the Democratic party. 




JAMES E. CAMPBELL. 

153 



WILL CARLETON. 



EASILY the predecessor of the American poets of the day who are 
describing country life — by the way, the greatest life of the nation — 
though he used little or no dialect in doing it, stands Will Carleton, 
the Michigan poet, author of ''Over the Hills to the Poorhouse," and 
of similar poems which have touched the hearts of the American pub- 
lic. He was bom in Hudson, Lenawee County, Mich., October 21, 
J 845. He received the ordinary education of a boy of that region of 
apple orchards, of good roads winding beside lakes, and of good schools. 
He graduated at Hillsdale College in J 869. After his graduation he 
visited Europe and repeated the trip, making an earnest study of gen- 
eral European life as compared with the American. He began soon 
after his return a series of contributions to periodicals and magazines, 
and one day found himself made suddenly famous by contributions pub- 
lished in the east, "Over the Hills to the Poorhouse" and "Betsy and 
I are Out" being, doubtless, the most potent in giving him the wide 
reputation he so suddenly attained. He has lectured in Great Britain, 
Canada and the United States, and has proved an exceedingly popular 
man before an audience. His published books include "Poems" (Chi- 
cago, 1870t "Farm Ballads" (New York, 1873), "Farm Legends" 
(J 875), "Young Folks' Centennial," "Rhymes," "Farm Festivals," 
"City Ballads," and others. With a keen perception of what was 
about him, and with the gift of language for expressing in words that 
which he sees and feels, Mr. Carleton has won fairly the position 
he now occupies in the literary world. He is one of the graceful 
poetic historians of a great phase of life in the progress of the new 
world. 

J54 



^. 




WILL CARLETON. 

155 



ANDREW CARNEGE. 



BY all odds the largest manufacturer of pig-iron, steel rails and coke 
in the world is Andrew Carnegie. The son of a poor weaver, 
he was born in Dunfermline, Scotland, November 25, 1835, and came 
to the United States with his father in 1845, settling in Pittsburg two 
years later. He learned telegraphy, and was one of the first to read 
telegraphic signals by sound. Later, while in the employ of the Penn- 
sylvania railroad, he met Mr. Woodruff, the inventor of the sleeping- 
car, and joined him in his venture, the success of which gave him 
the nucleus of his wealth. He pooled his profits with the syndicate 
that purchased the Storey farm on Oil Creek, which cost forty thou- 
sand dollars, and yielded in one year over one million dollars in cash 
dividends. Mr. Carnegie subsequently associated himself with others in 
the establishment of a rolling mill, and from this has grown the most 
extensive and complete system of iron and steel industries ever con- 
trolled by an individual, embracing the Edgar Thomson Steel Works, 
the Pittsburg Bessemer Steel Works, the Lucy Furnaces, the Union Iron 
Mills, the Union Mill (Wilson, Walker & Co.), the Keystone Bridge 
Works, the Hartman Steel Works, the Frick Coke Company, and the 
Scotia ore mines. Many times a millionaire, Mr. Carnegie has devoted 
large sums to public improvements and to benevolent and educational 
purposes, both in this country and in Scotland. He owns about eigh- 
teen newspapers, is a frequent contributor to periodicals, and has pub- 
lished two books: "An American Four-in-Hand in Britain" and "Tri- 
umphant Democracy." He has shown a deep interest in the welfare 
of the working classes, and in all movements designed to improve their 
condition. 

156 




ANDREW CARNEGIE. 

J 57 



MARY HARTWELL CATHERWOOD. 



T TERY well defined and more than creditable is the position in lit- 
y erature of Mary Hartwell Catherwood. She was born in Luray, 
Licking County, Ohio, December 16, 1847. Her father, the scion of 
a long line of Scotch-Irish baronets, came with his family to Illinois 
when the state was still half wild, and fell a victim to the duties of 
his profession. The daughter, Mary, received a thorough education 
and graduated from the Female College at Granville, Ohio, in 1868. 
In 1888 she became the wife of James S. Catherwood, and has since 
resided at Hoopeston, 111. The child, Mary Hartwell, was always 
given to story making, but it was not until 1881 that the woman was 
fairly launched on the sea of letters. In that year " Craque-O'-Doom," 
from her pen, was published in Philadelphia ; " Rocky Fork " was pub- 
lished in Boston, in 1882, and then came in succession "Old Caravan 
Days," "The Secrets at Roseladies," "The Romance of Dollard," which 
first appeared as a serial in the "Century Magazine," "The Bells of 
St. Anne," "The Story of Tonty," and other works. As the roman- 
tic historian of Canada and the Great Lakes region Mrs. Catherwood 
has certainly no peer, and as a graceful defender of the conservative 
ideal against the unadorned realistic in style she has won almost equal 
prominence. She has a wonderful gift of story telling, and has, fur- 
thermore, an earnestness and enthusiasm in her work which reveals 
itself in the tone of all she writes. She is the graceful pioneer in a 
field which will yet be enormously and magnificently fruitful. Among 
western authors • she occupies an admittedly high position, the result of 
no exploitation nor of adventitious circumstance, but of distinguished 
merit. 

158 




MARY HARTWELL CATHERWOOD. 



AMELIE RIVES CHANLER. 



THOUGH yet a young woman, Mrs. Amelie Rives Chanler is 
well known in at least two continents. Her fame came swiftly, 
but it has remained because of the real strength of the young author- 
ess. Amelie Rives was born in Richmond, Va., August 23, 1863. 
She is the granddaughter of the Hon. Wm. C. Rives, who was three 
times Minister to France and once a United States senator. Her 
youth was passed part of the time in Mobile, Ala., and part of the 
time at Castle Hill, her father's place in Albemarle County, Virginia. 
It was not until 1886 that she became known to the world. In that 
year she published anonymously, in the "Atlantic Monthly," a story of 
the sixteenth century entitled "A Brother to Dragons," which excited 
widespread interest and comment. In 1887 "The Farrier Lass o' Pip- 
ing Pebworth," a short story in " Lippincott's Magazine," and "Nurse 
Crumpet Tells the Story," in "Harper's Magazine," added to the 
author's reputation. In 1889 "The Quick or the Dead" appeared in 
" Lippincott's Magazine," and reputation was a thing assured. There 
was much adverse criticism of the daring story, but its genius was 
admitted. In June, 1888, she became the wife of John Armstrong 
Chanler, of New York. Her first drama, "Herod and Mariamna," 
was published just before she went abroad. A study of life in the 
Latin quarter of Paris, by Mrs. Chanler, entitled "According to St. 
John," appeared in the "Cosmopolitan Magazine" as a serial in 1891, 
and a second drama, "Athelwold," was published in "Harper's Maga- 
zine" in 1892. Mrs. Chanler spends much of her time at Castle Hill, 
and there continues her studies in the line of the career which has 
been so brilliantly begun. 




AMELIE RIVES CHANLER. 



WILLIAM EATON CHANDLER. 



ORIGINAL and aggressive, with a mind that grasps quickly and 
accurately the most complicated questions of government, few 
men are better fitted to cope with the problems which the progress of 
legislation and agitation have pressed upon the attention of this genera- 
tion than Senator Chandler, of New Hampshire. Mr. Chandler first 
saw the light of day in Concord, N. H., December 28, 1835. After 
his admission to the bar, in 1856, he was appointed reporter of the 
New Hampshire supreme court, and in 1862 he was elected by the 
Republicans to the Legislature. In 1864 he was employed by the 
United States Navy Department as special counsel to prosecute the 
Philadelphia navy yard frauds, and in the following year he was 
appointed first solicitor and judge advocate-general of that department. 
From June 17, 1865, to November 30, 1867, he was first assistant 
Secretary of the Treasury. In 1876 he advocated the claims of the 
Hayes electors in Florida before the canvassing board of the state, and 
was afterward an outspoken opponent of the Southern policy of the 
Hayes administration. In 1881 Mr. Chandler was again a member of 
the New Hampshire legislature, and in April, 1882, President Arthur 
appointed him Secretary of the Navy, in which office he carried out 
many important measures, and introduced reforms the result of which 
has been the saving of millions of dollars to the government of the 
United States. He was first elected United States senator June 14, 
1887, to fill the unexpired term of Austin F. Pike, and was re-elected 
June 18, 1889. Mr. Chandler is a worker rather than a talker, and 
in every public position that he has held he has been known by what 
he has accomplished and not by what he has said. 

162 



K f 



(^ 




WILLIAM EATON CHANDLER. 
163 



WILLIAM BOURKE COCKRAN. 



TAMMANY'S great orator, recently a member of Congress, an ear- 
nest worker, and a man of influence in the House, is compara- 
tively new as a figure in national politics. He was born in Ireland, 
February 28, 1854, and was educated in his native country and in 
France, coming to America when seventeen years of age. Soon after 
his arrival in this country he became a teacher in a private academy, 
and was, later, principal of a public school in Westchester County, 
New York. Here he labored for some time. His natural abilities 
outside of those required in his avocation were recognized while he was 
still a teacher, and he participated in Democratic conventions, and 
became at length a recognized person of influence in the affairs of the 
party in New York City. His pre-eminent oratorical powers gave him 
prominence, and at the convention which nominated Grover Cleveland 
for the presidency, in 1892, Mr. Cockran's speech in opposition was 
admittedly the ablest effort of the occasion. He was elected a member 
of the Fifty-second Congress, and re-elected to the Fifty-third, taking an 
active part in the debates on national issues. Though an active partici- 
pant in the councils of the close political organization to which he 
belongs, and counted, as a matter of course, its spokesman on great 
occasions, Mr. Cockran is not so thoroughly identified with it in character 
as are other leaders who might be named, and is apparently rather 
inclined to take an independent course and be influenced rather by his 
convictions than the dictates of a "machine." His political opinions 
are broad and liberal, and, when made public in a speech, have 
always immeidate force, from the remarkable tact and force of their 
expression. 

164 




WILLIAM BOURKE COCKRAN. 

J 65 



JOSEPH COOK. 



FOR searching philosophical analysis, for keen and merciless logic, 
for dogmatic assertion of eternal truth in the name of science, it 
is doubtful if Joseph Cook, of Boston, has an equal on the lecture 
platform or in the field of religious literature. He is probably the 
most aggressive, as he is certainly the most celebrated, defender of the 
orthodox faith of the present day. Mr. Cook was born in Ticon- 
deroga, N. Y., January 26, J 838. He was educated at Yale and Har- 
vard, and after studying four years at Andover he was granted a license, 
but declined all invitations to any settlement as pastor. He preached 
in Andover for two years and in Lynn, Mass., for one year, and in 
J 871 went to Europe, where he devoted himself to study and travel 
until near the close of 1873. Upon his return he became a lecturer 
on the relations of religion, science and current reform. His " Boston 
Monday lectures," in Tremont Temple, Boston, attracted general atten- 
tion and were widely published, many of them being afterward deliv- 
ered by Mr. Cook in the various cities of the United States. In 1880 
he made a lecturing tour around the world, attracting large audiences 
and favorable criticisms everywhere. Mr. Cook's published works in- 
clude " Biology/' " Transcendentalism," " Orthodoxy," " Conscience," 
" Heredity," " Marriage," " Labor," '' Socialism," " Occident," and " Ori- 
ent." His greatest popularity arises from the fact that he attempts to 
show that science is in harmony with religion and the Bible. Presi- 
dent McCosh, of Princeton College, said of Mr. Cook as a lecturer: 
"He lightens and thunders, throwing a vivid light on a topic by an 
expression of comparison, or striking a presumptuous error as by a bolt 
from heaven." 

166 




JOSEPH COOK. 

167 



RICHARD HARDING DAVIS. 



NO man of the present day in the United States has fairly won 
a position in the literary field at a lesser age than has Richard 
Harding Davis. Though but just past his thirtieth year, he is recog- 
nized as one of the most brilliant of story-tel'ers of a certain class, and 
that class a good one. He was born in Philadelphia, April 10, 1864, 
and is the son of L. Clark Davis, editor of the "Philadelphia Ledger," 
and Rebecca Harding Davis, an authoress popular everywhere for her 
charming stories. With such parentage it is not at all surprising that 
the son should have the literary gift in a marked degree. He received 
a thorough education at Lehigh University and Johns Hopkins', and, 
almost immediately after leaving college, engaged in literary work. 
After writing a book, which was not long upon the market, and a 
magazine story or two, he began newspaper work in Philadelphia, 
serving successively on the " Record," the " Press," and the " Tele- 
graph," and paying a visit for the latter to England. On his return 
from England, he secured a connection with the New York "Evening 
Sun," and on that paper began the series of "Van Bibber" sketches, 
by which he is best known. It was not by these that he became 
first known, however, but by the spirited story of " Gallegher." It is 
a noticeable thing in all that he has accomplished and is what is great- 
est in his promise for the future that Mr. Davis' work shows with 
each successive volume increased care and quality, while none of the 
vigor is lost. He has published three or four books of travel, which 
are, in their way, as creditable as his stories. He has a future of 
exceptional brightness, being young and having "gifts" which may 
develop into something very great. 




RICHARD HARDING DAVIS, 

169 



FRANCIS MARION CRAWFORD. 



WITH a masterly touch in the delineation of natural men and 
women— with a fascinating and artistic style in depicting dra- 
matic scenes and situations, whether they have the picturesque setting 
of southern Continental conditions or the more sober hue of American 
life — F. Marion Crawford has won great popularity as a novelist. He 
is the son of an American sculptor, Thomas Crawford, and was born 
in Bagni di Lucca, Italy, August 2, 1854. He was educated partly 
in America, at Concord, N. H., partly in Italy, and partly in England, 
where he was a member of Trinity College, Cambridge. He after- 
ward studied at Karlsruhe and Heidelberg, and from 1876 to 1878 
studied Sanskrit at the University of Rome. In 1879 he went to 
India and was editor of a daily paper, the " Indian Herald," at Alla- 
habad. Returning to America in 1881, he remained until 1883, and 
then went to Italy, where, with the exception of occasional visits to 
this and other countries, he has since resided, his home being near Sor- 
rento. Mr. Crawford's writings are chiefly in the line of fiction, 
though he has done some work in critical philosophy and philology, 
and has contributed sketches of travel to periodicals. His first novel, 
"Mr. Isaacs," made him famous in the literary world, and his succeed- 
ing ones, which have followed one another in rapid succession, have 
been eagerly sought after and widely commented upon. He has been 
awarded a prize of one thousand francs by the French Academy as an 
acknowledgment of the merit of his noveh, and especially two of them, 
" Zoroaster " and " Marzio's Crucifix," which were written in French as 
well as in English. His latest, "Katharine Lauderdale," is a realistic 
American story. 

J 70 




FRANCIS MARION CRAWFORD. 



AMOS JAY CUMMINGS. 



NOT all newspaper writers are " born to blush unseen," although 
the concealment of their identity, as a rule, prevents them from 
becoming widely known through their work. An editor who has 
scratched his way into Congress with a sharp-pointed pen, is Amos J. 
Cummings, representing the Eleventh congressional district of New York 
City. Mr. Cummings was born in Conkling, Broome County, N. Y., 
May 15, 184 J. He was educated in a district school, and at the age 
of twelve years entered a printing office as an apprentice. He has 
set type in nearly every state in the Union. As a boy he was with 
Walker in the last invasion of Nicaragua, and during the Civil war 
was sergeant-major in the Twenty-sixth New Jersey infantry, being offi- 
cially mentioned for gallantry in the battle of Fredericksburg. Mr. 
Cummings has filled editorial positions on the New York "Tribune," 
under Horace Greeley; was managing editor at different times of the 
New York " Sun " and of the New York " Express," and was editor 
of the "Evening Sun" and president of the New York Press Club 
when elected to the Fiftieth Congress. He has served four terms in 
Congress, and has done valuable work as a member of the committee 
on merchant marine and fisheries, as chairman of the committee on 
library, and chairman of the committee on naval affairs. Mr. Cum- 
mings is a champion of organized labor, and carries a working card 
as a printer, being the only representative in the House who is a 
member in good standing of a labor union. While in Congress he 
has continued his work as a newspaper correspondent, and his letters 
are always full of interest. For many years he wrote for the New 
York " Sun," over the signature of " Ziska." 

J 72 




AMOS JAY CUMMINGS. 

J 73 



DONALD McDonald Dickinson. 



PECULIAR abilities, coupled with natural sagacity and tact, are 
essential qualifications of the successful organizer and leader in 
politics. In this respect there are probably few men in the United 
States better equipped than "Don" M. Dickinson, of Michigan, whose 
valuable services to his party were recognized in so substantial a way 
by President Cleveland in 1888. Mr. Dickinson was born in Port 
Ontario, Oswego County, N. Y., January 7, 1847. After obtaining a 
preliminary education in the public schools, he entered the University of 
Michigan, where he was graduated in J 867. He then took up the 
study of law, and was admitted to the bar in Michigan, eventually 
settling in Detroit, where for many years he has pursued the practice 
of his profession. Of rare legal acumen, he quickly won a foremost 
place at the bar, and has continually added to his reputation by his 
connection with important cases and the admirable manner in which he 
conducts them. By his shrewdness and foresight, as well as by his 
eloquence and magnetism, he became a power in the Democratic party 
of the state, and finally of the nation. In 1876 he was chosen chair- 
man of the Democratic State Committee of Michigan, in which position 
he rendered valuable service. In 1880 he was chairman of the Michi- 
gan delegation in the National Democratic Convention, and since that 
time has always taken an active and prominent part in national cam- 
paign work. In 1884 he became a member of the National Demo- 
cratic Committee, representing Michigan, and distinguished himself for 
clever management and wise counsel. President Cleveland appointed 
him Postmaster-General of the United States, January 17, 1888, a post 
which he creditably filled for one year. 

J74 




DONALD Mcdonald Dickinson. 



JOACHIM CRESPO. 



THE most important international topic during the last administration 
of President Cleveland was the dispute between England and 
America involving the question of the correct boundary line between 
British Guiana and Venezuela. The latter government claimed that 
Great Britain was encroaching upon their territory. President Cleve- 
land took the stand that the question involved the terms of the Mon- 
roe Doctrine, namely, that the United States considers any attempt by 
a European power, to extend their system to any portion of this hemi- 
sphere, as dangerous to the peace and safety of the nation. Gen. 
Joachim Crespo, President of the Republic of Venezuela, has the pecu- 
liar characteristics of one who would be a leader of men. It has been 
said of him that he is possessed of two attributes which seldom go 
hand in hand. He is a shrewd and conservative business man, rich 
in land and herds— a veritable cattle king of the South; but above all 
he is a brave and gallant soldier, a soldier whose iron nerve has 
endeared him to the hearts of his countrymen. His first act of 
bravery and patriotism was to head a revolutionary rising against the 
unconstitutional acts of President Palachio. That merciless despot was 
driven from the Presidency and General Crespo accepted the provisional 
head of the government. He immediately issued a pronunciamiento 
ordering a constitutional election. He was elected, and at once showed 
his affection for his country and loyalty to the people by adopting a 
new constitution, patterned as nearly after that of the United States as 
the different conditions of the country would permit. President Crespo 
was born in Barcelona, Venezuela, in J 845. The action of President 
Cleveland in the boundary question was heartily endorsed by every one. 

176 




JOACHIM CRESPO. 

177 



GEORGE R. DAVIS. 



THE man upon whom rested the chief responsibility for the con- 
duct of the World's Columbian Exposition of J 893 was Col. 
George R. Davis, of Chicago. There is that in the character of the 
man which speaks well for the wisdom of the National Commission in 
making him Director-General of that greatest of modern enterprises. 
Colonel Davis has clearness of judgment and a thorough knowledge of 
men, besides executive ability of a high order and a natural tact in 
the management of large and varied interests. He was born at Three 
Rivers, Palmer, Massachusetts, January 3, 1840, and after receiving his 
early education in the public schools, attended Williston Seminary, 
where he graduated in I860. He studied law and was admitted to 
the bar, but upon the breaking out of the war he enlisted in the 
Eighth Massachusetts regiment, and soon rose to the rank of captain. 
In 1863 he resigned to organize a battery of light artillery, and at a 
still later period he was a major in the Third Rhode Island cavalry. 
After the war Colonel Davis became a resident of Chicago and took a 
leading part in the organization of the First regiment, Illinois National 
Guard, of which he was made commander. In 1876 he was nomi- 
nated for Congress by the Republicans of his district, but was defeated. 
Two years later, however, he was elected, and S2rved three successive 
terms. At the close of his congressional career he was elected treas- 
urer of Cook County, and upon leaving that office became Director- 
General of the World's Fair. The story of his splendid work in that 
position is known to the world. To his individual efforts the success 
of the great exposition is largely due. He is now looked upon as a 
power in Western politics. 

178 




GEORGE R. DAVIS. 

J 79 



THOMAS McINTYRE COOLEY. 



ADMIRED no less for his modest, gentle disposition and entire free- 
dom from affectation than for the great intellectual force that 
made him a power on the bench, it is not strange that Judge Thomas 
M. Cooley has taken with him into his retirement the esteem and grati- 
tude of the people. Judge Cooley was born in Attica, N. Y., Janu- 
ary 6, 1824. He began the study of law in Palmyra, N. Y., in 
1842, and removing to Michigan the next year was admitted to the 
bar at Adrian in January, 1846. For a time he edited the Adrian 
"Watch-Tower," a newspaper, and in 1857 was assigned to the work 
of compiling the general statutes of Michigan, which were published in 
two volumes. In 1858 he was appointed reporter of the Supreme 
court, which office he held for seven years. In 1859 he was made 
justice of the Supreme court of Michigan, becoming chief justice in 
1868, and served until 1885, when he retired permanently from the 
bench. When the law for the regulation of interstate commerce went 
into effect Judge Cooley was made chairman of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, a post which he resigned in 1893. He has held the pro- 
fessorship of constitutional and administrative law in the University of 
Michigan, and the chair of American history in the same college. He 
is the author of a number of legal works, digests and commentaries, 
that are much used in the profession, and has written a history of the 
governments of Michigan. Judge Cooley is regarded as one of the 
most eminent authorities on constitutional law in the country, and his 
decisions while on the bench were all marked by clear, convincing 
analysis and common sense; a great man intellectually, a remarkably 
gifted and honest American citizen. 



J 80 




THOMAS McINTYRE COOLEY. 

J8J 



HENRY LAURENS DAWES. 



WHATEVER great ability, long experience, ripe judgment, accumu- 
lated public honors and a spotless private character can do to 
render any one an object of interest, respect and admiration, they have 
done for ex-Senator Henry L. Dawes, of Massachusetts. Mr. Dawes 
was born in Cummington, Mass., October 30, 18 16, and graduated at 
Yale in J 839. After a brief experience as a teacher and as a journal- 
ist he was admitted to the bar in 1842, and served in the Legislature 
from 1848 to 1850, when he was elected to the State Senate. He 
was a member of the constitutional convention in 1853, and afterward 
attorney for the Western District of Massachusetts until 1857, when he 
was elected to Congress. By successive re-elections he continued a 
member of that body until 1873, and in 1875 he succeeded Charles 
Sumner in the United States Senate. There he remained until 1893, 
when he retired from public life. As Representative and Senator he 
was the author of many tariff measures, and it was through his efforts 
that the completion of the Washington Monument was undertaken. 
! The entire system of Indian education, due to legislation, was created 
' by Mr. Dawes. The severalty bill, the Sioux bill, and the bill mak- 
ing Indians subject to and protected by our criminal laws are among 
the important bills of his authorship. Another notable measure of his 
, was the introduction of the Weather Bulletin in 1869, at the suggestion 
of Prof. Cleveland Abbe, for the purpose of collecting and comparing 
weather reports from all parts of the country. In fine, the legislative 
career of Mr. Dawes has been crowded with able and valuable service 
to the people of the United States, and is one of which any American 
might be proud. 




HENRY LAURENS DAWES. 

J 83 



REGINALD De KOVEN. 



IT may perhaps be said that no musical composer in the United 
States has acquired prominence so rapidly as has Reginald De Koven* 
There were adventitious circumstances to assist him, but there was 
merit as well. He was born in Middletown, Conn., in i859, and ac- 
quired his early education from his father, an Episcopal clergyman. At 
the age of eleven he was taken to Europe by his parents, and remained 
there about twelve years. He was educated at St. John's College, Ox- 
ford, taking his degree with honors, in 1879. He had shown musical 
ability and previous to taking his degree, had studied piano playing at 
Stuttgart, under Speidel, and after his university course, returned to 
Stuttgart for another year, studying under Dr. Lebert and Professor 
Pruckner. He then took a course with equally eminent teachers at 
Frankfort and at Florence, Italy. He came to Chicago in 1882. The 
musical ability in him manifested itself, and he wrote the words and 
music of the song "Marjorie Daw," which was successful, and the 
taste for reputation thus achieved seems to have led him on. Later, 
he wrote "The Begum." It was produced by the McCaulI Opera 
Company, and was a marked success in the leading cities of the coun- 
try, Since then his advancement in the musical world has been rapid. 
He has produced a number of operas ranking among the most popular 
on the stage to-day, some of which have proved equally popular abroad. 
More recently he has been engaged by "Harper's Weekly" to conduct 
the musical department of that journal. He writes of music as well as 
he composes it, and his studies abroad and practical experience in pro- 
ducing his own operas has given him a knowledge and grasp of the 
subjects upon which he writes. 




REGINALD DEKOVEN. 

1 35 



ANNA ELIZABETH DICKINSON. 



NOT merely as a brilliant public speaker, but as a playwright 
actress and philanthropist, Anna Elizabeth Dickinson has made 
her name familiar throughout the continent. She was born in Phila- 
delphia, October 28, J 842. She attended the Friends' Free School in 
the city named, her parents belonging to that society. Her father died 
when she was but two years of age, leaving his family in straitened 
circumstances, and the child had few advantages of education, but she 
studied and read enthusiastically and developed a remarkable talent. 
Her first address was made at a Friends' meeting when she was but 
fifteen years old. After that she spoke frequently, generally on slavery 
and temperance. She became a teacher, but in 1 86 1 was given a 
place in the United States Mint in Philadelphia, but was removed 
because of grave charges made against General McClellan in a public 
address. She then made a profession of lecturing, and soon gained an 
extended reputation. The receipts of one lecture delivered at Washing- 
ton, in 1864, were over $1,000, which sum she dona^^d to the Freed- 
man's Relief Society. In J 876 Miss Dickinson decided to leave the 
platform for the stage, and made her debut in a play called "A Crown 
of Thorns," and written by herself. Its reception was not what she 
had hoped, and she next essayed " Hamlet " and other Shakespearian 
roles, but her fort was not as an actress, and she returned to the lec- 
ture field, where she was again most successful. She wrote three 
plays other than the one mentioned. She has not lectured since 1892, 
her failing health preventing her. She acquired a fortune in the lecture 
field, but has given away the bulk of it in all kinds of charities. Miss 
Dickinson has retired from active life. 




ANNA ELIZABETH DICKINSON. 

'87 



JOHN WARWICK DANIEL. 



AS distinctively the representative of old Virginia orators of the pres- 
ent day, Senator John W. Daniel occupies a conspicuous position. 
He was born in Lynchburgh, Campbell County, Va., September 5, 
1842, and comes of a family distinguished in the law and statesman- 
ship and in the conduct of the state's affairs. He received his early 
education in the schools of Lynchburgh, at Lynchburgh College, and at 
Dr. Harrison's university and school. He had a gift for languages, 
and at eighteen had a knowledge of Latin, Greek, French and German. 
He was but nineteen when the Civil war broke out, and entered the 
Confederate army at once. He was wounded at the first battle of 
Manassas in 1 86 J, at Boonesboro in 1862 and at Antietam, and at 
the Battle of the Wilderness had his leg broken in a charge. He 
served with marked distinction through the war in the armies of north- 
ern Virginia, and at the time of the Battle of the Wilderness was on 
the staff of General Early. He studied law after the war, and entered 
immediately upon its practice. Later he wrote "Daniel on Attach- 
ments" and "Daniel on Negotiable Instruments," both of which books 
have become successes. He entered public life in 1869 and served 
two terms in the Virginia house of delegates. He was a member in 
the Virginia Senate from 1875 to 1881. He was that year beaten in 
the race for governor of Virginia, but was elected to Congress in 1885, 
and during his first session was elected to the United States Senate to 
succeed Senator Mahone, taking his seat in March, 1887, for the term 
expiring in March, 1893. In 1891 he was re-elected for the term 
expiring in 1899. The degree of LL. D. has been conferred upon him 
by Washington and Lee University and the University of Michigan. 



JOHN WARWICK DANIEL. 

189 



MARY LOWE DICKINSON. 



A WRITER of marked ability, but perhaps more widely known in 
the educational field, Mary Lowe Dickinson has thousands of 
friends throughout the United States who recognize the quality and 
extent of what she has accomplished. She was born in Massachusetts, 
but, after her marriage, resided for some years abroad, and is now a 
resident of the city of New York. An early experience in life as a 
teacher led her to realize the need for a more practical education for 
girls and women, and she has sought to teach better systems of train- 
ing. Her latest work of great importance was in Denver, Colo., where 
she held a full professorship in English literature. Such an estimate 
was placed on the value of her services, not only as an instructor, but 
as a social and moral influence, that her chair was one of the first 
to be fully endowed, and when ill-health obliged her to resign this 
position the chair was named for her, and she was made Emeritus 
Professor, and holds now its lectureship in English literature. She has 
been secretary of the Woman's Branch of the American Bible Society, 
national superintendent of the so-called department of higher education 
in the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and president of the 
Woman's National Indian Association. She conducted for six years a 
magazine devoted to the care of invalids, and held an associate editor- 
ship with Edward Everett Hale in his Magazine of Philanthropy. She 
is general secretary of the Order of King's Daughters and the editor 
of its magazine. Her principal literary works are "Among the Thorns," 
" The Amber Star," and " One Little Life," novels ; and, in poetry, 
"The Divine Christ" and "Easter Poems." Her productions are char- 
acterized by exquisite refinement. 

J90 




MARY LOWE DICKINSON. 

J9J 



NEAL DOW. 



VGOROUS and persistent warfare against the liquor traffic for more 
than half a century is the record that stands to the credit of 
that venerable reformer, Neal Dow, who recently celebrated the ninetieth 
anniversary of his birth at his pleasant home in Portland, Me. Mr. 
Dow was bom in Portland, March 20, 1804. He was twice elected 
mayor of that city, in J 85 1 and J 854, and through his efforts the 
Maine liquor law, prohibiting under severe penalties the sale of intoxi- 
cating beverages, was passed in 1851. He was a m.ember of the 
Maine Legislature in 1858-59. As colonel of the Thirteenth Maine 
volunteers, during the Civil war, he joined General Butler's expedition 
to New Orleans, and in April, 1862, was commissioned brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers and placed in command of the forts at the mouth of 
the Mississippi. Subsequently he was transferred to the district of 
Florida. He was twice wounded in the attack on Port Hudson, 
May 27, 1863, and was a prisoner of war for over eight months. 
He resigned his commission November 30, 1864. In 1857, and again 
in 1866 and 1873, Mr. Dov/ went to England at the invitation of the 
United Kingdom Temperance Alliance, and addressed crowded meetings 
in all the large cities. He spent many years in earnest endeavor to 
win the popular sanction for prohibitory legislation. In 1880 he was 
the candidate of the National Prohibition party for president of the 
United States, and received 10,305 votes. It was largely through his 
efforts that the prohibitory amendment to the constitution of Maine was 
adopted in 1884. In the ranks of reformers there is no more pictur- 
esque figure than Neal Dow, and in his green old age there is none 
held in greater reverence by an appreciative and admiring people. 




NEAL DOW. 
193 



MARY KAVANAUGH OLDHAM EAGLE. 



THE rare tact and ability shown by Mrs. K. O, Eagle in connec- 
tion with the Woman's Congress of the Columbian Exposition 
was no more than was expected of her by those familiar with what 
she had already accomplished in the field of church work and as a 
social leader. She was born in Madison County, Kentucky. Her 
father, William K. Oldham, a leading stock-farmer in the Blue Grass 
region, and her mother, nee Kate Brown, of Brown's Cove, Va., were 
both of Revolutionary stock. The daughter's early education was con- 
ducted chiefly at home, after which she graduated from Mrs. Julia A. 
Lewis' famous school, Science Hill, Shelbyville, Ky. She became a 
member of the Baptist Church in 1874, and has been one of the nota- 
ble workers for that organization since that time. In 1882 she became 
the wife of Hon. Jas. P. Eagle, of Arkansas, who was Speaker of 
the House in 1885 and who has since been twice elected governor of 
the state. Mrs. Eagle has been president of the Woman's Central 
Committee on Missions since 1882, and was the first president of the 
Woman's Mission Union, of Arkansas. In her husband's successful 
political career she has been an active factor. During his term as 
governor, the Executive Mansion was famous for the bounteous South- 
ern hospitality shown there, and Mrs. Eagle has in all her husband's 
campaigns been a tactful worker. As a member of the Board of 
Lady Managers of the World's Columbian Exposition, and as chairman 
of the Committee on Congresses, her reputation became more than 
national. She was selected as editor of the papers read, and the 
splendid volumes lately issued bear evidence that her literary skill is 
equal to her ability in other directions. 

t94 




MARY KAVANAUGH OLDHAM EAGLE 

i95 



GEORGE FRANKLIN EDMUNDS. 



FR many years the man best known in the United States Senate 
as a fearless foe of political jobs and legislative intrigues was the 
veteran statesman from Vermont, George F. Edmunds. He was born 
February 1, 1828, in Richmond, Vt., but after becoming a lawyer 
removed to Burlington to practice his profession. From J 854 to 1859 
he was a representative in the Legislature, serving three years as Speaker, 
and was elected to the State Senate in 1 86 1, retiring at the end of 
the term. In March, 1866, he succeeded Solomon Foot as United 
States senator, and by successive re-elections was continued in that office 
until he resigned in 1891. Senator Edmunds was active in the Andrew 
Jackson impeachment, acted an influential part in the passage of the 
re<onstruction measures, and was the author of the act for the sup- 
pression of polygamy in Utah, known as the "Edmunds act." He 
was a member of the Electoral Commission of 1876, was president pro 
tem. of the Senate after Mr. Arthur became President, and member of 
many important committees. At the National Republican conventions 
of 1880 and 1884, held in Chicago, he received thirty-four and ninety- 
three votes, respectively, each on the first ballot, for the presidential 
nomination. As a legislator, Mr. Edmunds was noted for his legal 
acumen, his readiness in repartee, and his love of strictly parliamentary 
procedure. The passage of the Pacific railroad funding act was largely 
due to his influence and exertions, and he was a leader in many noted 
legislative movements during his twenty-five years in the Senate. He 
retired to private life two years before the completion of his last term, 
resuming the practice of his profession at Burlington, Vt. He carried 
with him the respect and admiration of the people. 







^ 










GEORGE FRANKLIN EDMUNDS. 

J 97 



EDWARD EGGLESTON. 



LITERATURE gained what the ministry lost when that ever-popu- 
lar novelist and historian, Edward Eggleston, forced by failing 
health to abandon pastoral work, began writing for the press as a 
means of supporting his family. Mr. Eggleston was born in Vevay, 
Ind., December 10, 1837. He was prevented by delicate health from 
entering college, and his education was mainly self-acquired. In 1856 
he spent four months in Minnesota, hoping to be benefited by the cli- 
mate, and then returning to Indiana became a Methodist preacher, rid- 
ing a four-weeks' circuit. In six months his health broke down, and 
he was compelled to return to Minnesota, where he was variously 
occupied until 1866. He then removed to Evanston, III., and for six 
months was associate-editor of the "Little Corporal," a children's paper. 
A year later he became editor of the " Sunday-School Teacher," in 
Chicago, and was active in Sunday-school work until 1870, when he 
went to New York as literary editor of the New York "Independent." 
He succeeded Theodore Tilton as superintending editor of that paper, 
but resigned in July, 1871, to become editor of "Hearth and Home," 
which position he held for more than a year. In that paper he first 
published, serially, his story of "The Hoosier Schoolmaster," depicting 
early life in Indiana. It became immensely popular, and has been 
translated into various foreign languages. It was followed by "End 
of the World," "Mystery of Metropolisville," "The Circuit Rider," 
"Roxy," "The Hoosier School Boy," and a number of other works. 
From 1874 until 1879 Mr. Eggleston was pastor of a Brooklyn church, 
but again failing health compelled him to retire, and he has since 
devoted himself to literature. 

J98 




EDWARD EGGLESTON, 

J99 



CHARLES WILLIAM ELIOT. 



TO be the president of Harvard College is, of course, about the 
highest honor that can come to any one of the great educators 
in the United States. It may be fairly said that at the present time 
it appertains to one who truly deserves such fortune. Charles William 
Eliot was born in Boston, Mass., March 20, 1834. He was fitted for 
college at the Boston Latin school, and was graduated at Harvard in 
1853. In the following year he was appointed tutor in mathematics 
and studied chemistry. In 1858 he was made assistant professor of 
mathematics and chemistry, but in 1861 taught chemistry in the Law- 
rence scientific school. In 1863 he went to Europe and spent two 
years in the study of chemistry and in an examination of the systems 
of public instruction in France, Germany and England. On his return 
in 1865 he was appointed professor of analytical chemistry in the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mr. Eliot became president of 
Harvard University in 1869. As the result of his assumption of the 
direction of affairs. Harvard has assumed much of the style of the 
more famous English universities, adopting the elective system and 
making various changes in its curriculum. President Eliot has received 
the degree of LL. D. from Williams, Princeton and Yale, and is a 
member of a great number of learned societies of the country. He is 
a fluent and forceful speaker on public occasions, and is in great 
demand at all events where the dignity of the university would not be 
lowered by his presence. Besides "Chemistry Memoirs," written with 
Prof. Frank H. Storer, an "Essay on Educational Topics" he has 
published, in connection with Professor Storer, a "Manual of Inorganic 
Chemistry " and a " Manual of Qualitative Chemical Analysis." 

200 




CHARLES WILLIAM ELIOT. 

201 



STEPHEN BENTON ELKINS. 



T VTELL-INFORMED, daring, shrewd, and typically American is 
VV Stephen B. Elkins, whose name in the public mind is some- 
how associated with New Mexico. It is known that there was New 
Mexico and that there was Stephen B. Elkins, and that because of 
him New Mexico, somehow, developed faster. He was born in Perry 
County, Ohio, September 26, 184 J. His family removed to Missouri 
when he was but a child. He received an ordinary preliminary educa- 
tion and graduated from the Missouri University in 1860. He studied 
law, but as soon as the Civil war began entered the service as cap- 
tain of the Seventy-seventh Missouri regiment. The war left him in 
New Mexico, where he studied law and was admitted to the bar, 
engaged at once, with a decided speculative instinct which is in him, 
in mining and stock-raising, and became rapidly a rich man. He 
became interested in politics, also, and was a member of the Territorial 
Legislature, United States district attorney, and then a delegate to Con- 
gress, a strong fighter for the admission of New Mexico as a state. 
As the leading representative of New Mexico he acquired national 
prominence and influence in party councils. He was a strong advo- 
cate of Blaine for the presidency. He was Secretary of War under 
Harrison, and is today an important factor in the politics of the Repub- 
lican party. Of late Mr. Elkins has devoted attention rather to his 
various important business interests than to politics, but, young man as 
he is, and with a record in the political field such as he has already 
made, it is unlikely that his will not be a future voice in the direc- 
tion of governmental affairs. He is not of the class of men who can 
retire early from active effort. 

202 




STEPHEN BENTON ELKINS. 

203 



WILLIAM CROWNINSHIELD ENDICOTT. 



ATYPICAL living and forceful representative of what we call the 
**oId New England families" is William C. Endicott. He is a 
direct descendant of Gov. John Endicott, the colonial ruler of Massachu- 
setts, who died in Boston in 1665, after years of vigorous and often 
hasty-tempered action, and who was certainly a Puritan of the Puritans. 
He is a grandson of that Jacob Crowninshield who was prominent as 
a congressman, and who was appointed Secretary of the Navy by 
President Jefferson, but who died before entering upon the discharge of 
his duties. Of the same type as these men is the one who was 
Secretary of War during the first administration of President Qeveland. 
He was born in Salem, Mass., November J 9, 1827. He graduated 
at Harvard in J 847, and after a law school course was admitted to 
the bar in 1850. He rapidly acquired a position as a young man of 
judgment and ability, and was elected a member of the Salem common 
council in 1852, five years later becoming city solicitor. He retired 
from that office in 1864 and resumed practice, but in 1873 was 
appointed to the bench of the Supreme court of Massachusetts. This 
office he held for ten years, resigning at the end of that time on 
account of ill health. He had remained something of a figure in poli- 
tics. He was originally a Whig, but with the termination of that 
organization became a Democrat, and was, in 1884, an unsuccessful 
candidate for governor of Massachusetts. In 1885 he was appointed 
by President Cleveland Secretary of War and served out the term of 
office. He has not of late actively engaged in Democratic political 
affairs in his state, but is at all times a possibility with his party and 
a recognized leader in every important movement. 

204 




WILLIAM CROWN INSHIELD ENDICOTT. 

205 



WILLIAM MAXWELL EVARTS. 



HAVING followed the profession of the law for more than fifty 
years, and during that period left an indelible impression upon 
it by his great legal learning and his high standing as a practitioner, 
William M. Evarts, of New York, has well earned the rest he is now 
enjoying. He was born in Boston, Mass., February 6, 1818; gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1837, and admitted to the bar in New York in J 84 J. 
In J 851, while assistant district attorney in New York City, he suc- 
cessfully conducted the prosecution of the Cuban filibusters concerned in 
the Cleopatra expedition. His able and successful handling of other 
celebrated cases, some of them of a national character, soon earned him 
a wide reputation. In the Republican National Convention of 1860 he 
proposed the name of William H. Seward for the presidency. In 1868 
President Johnson chose him as chief counsel in the impeachment trial, 
and from July 15, 1868, until the close of Johnson's administration he 
was Attorney-General of the United States. He acted as counsel for 
the United States before the tribunal of arbitration on the Alabama 
claims in 1872, and was senior counsel for Henry Ward Beecher in 
the famous trial of 1875. In 1877 he was advocate of the Repub- 
lican party before the electoral commission, and during the administra- 
tion of President Hayes was Secretary of State. In 1881 he went to 
Paris as delegate of the United States to the International Monetary 
Conference, and from 1885 to 1891 he was United States senator from 
New York. Many of his public addresses have already taken a place 
among the great orations of the century, notably his eulogy on Chief 
Justice Chase and his speech at the unveiling of Bartholdi's Statue of 
Liberty. 




WILLIAM MAXWELL EVARTS. 

207 



JOHN VILLARS FARWELL. 



WHAT energy, industry and perseverance will accomplish for a 
young man, when aided by good habits and a strict adherence 
to the highest rules of honor, is illustrated in the life of that success- 
ful merchant and moral educator, John V. Farwell, of Chicago. Mr. 
Farwell was born in Campbelltown, Steuben County, N. Y., July 29, 
1825, and is the son of a farmer. He removed with his family to 
Illinois in 1838, settling in Ogle County, and in 1845 went to Chicago, 
without a dollar in his pocket, to look for work. His first employ- 
ment was in the office of the city clerk. Afterward he was employed 
successively in the dry goods houses of Hamilton & White, Hamilton 
& Day and Wadsworth & Phelps, and acquired an interest in the 
latter firm in 1850. The name of the firm was changed in I860 to 
Cooley, Farwell & Co., of which Marshall Field and L. Z. Leiter 
were subsequently members. In 1865 the firm became J. V. Farwell 
& Co., and so continued until 1891, when it was incorporated under 
its present name of The J. V. Farwell Company. Mr. Farwell has 
always taken a deep interest in religious matters. He was practically 
the founder of the Young Men's Christian Association in Chicago, 
which now owns one of the handsomest buildings in the city, and 
aided D. L. Moody, the evangelist, in the establishment of the Illinois 
State Mission, of which he was president for ten years. He has also 
served as chairman of the Chicago branch of the United States Chris- 
tian Commission. In connection with others he formed a syndicate 
which built the Texas State House, and which was conceded for the 
work three million acres of land in that state. He is one of the rec- 
ognized greatest business men of the great central city of the continent. 




JOHN VILLARS FARWELL. 

209 



EDGAR FAWCETT. 



GATHERING much of the material for his novels from the lower 
stratas of society, Edgar Fawcett has probably done as much as 
any other living writer to bring to the attention of thinking people the 
inconsistencies and weaknesses of the social system as it exists in this 
boasted nineteenth century. At the same time he has gained for him- 
self a high reputation as a clever and realistic novelist, and as a poet. 
Mr. Fawcett was born in New York City, May 26, 1847. He was 
graduated at Columbia College in 1867, and has since devoted himself 
to literature, writing novels, poems, essays and magazine articles, many 
of which have attracted general attention and caused much discussion. 
His books include "Short Poems for Short People," "Purple and Fine 
Linen," "Ellen Story," "Poems of Fantasy and Passion," "A Hope- 
less Case," "A Gentleman of Leisure," "An Ambitious Woman," 
" Song and Story," " Tinkling Cymbals," " The Adventures of a 
Widow," "Rutherford," "The Bunting Ball," "The New King Arthur," 
"Social Silhouettes," "Romance and Revery," "The House at High 
Bridge," " Douglas Duane," " A Man's Will," " Olivia Delaplaine," 
"Divided Lives," "A Demoralizing Marriage," "Agnosticism and Other 
Essays," "Miriam Balestier," " Solarion," "The Evil that Men Do," 
"Fabian Dimitry," and "A Daughter of Silence." Mr. Fawcett has 
also been successful as a playwright. His stories are unique in style, 
cleverly planned and as cleverly worked out, full of picturesque descrip- 
tions, thrilling incidents and interesting situations, and often with a 
weird and fantastic thread running through them. His poems are 
artistic, and at times exceedingly felicitous in form and pregnant with 
deep and tender meanings. 







EDGAR FAWCETT. 



KATE FIELD. 



VARIED accomplishments, kept constantly under the lash of persist- 
ent energy and hard work, have made Miss Kate Field one of the 
best known women in America. She lives in Washington, but would 
be equally at home in Chicago, New York, London, San Francisco, or 
Paris. Born in St. Louis and educated in Boston and Italy, she has 
since been all over the world, and is essentially cosmopolitan. After 
receiving a classical education Miss Field gave special attention to 
musical studies, and made several prolonged visits to Europe. During 
her stay abroad she became a correspondent of the New York ** Trib- 
une," the Philadelphia "Press," and the Chicago "Tribune," and 
also furnished sketches for periodicals. In 1874 she appeared as an 
actress at Booth's Theater, New York, and proved herself to be pos- 
sessed of considerable dramatic talent. Later, however, she left the 
stage, and has since devoted herself to lecturing and to journalism, the 
two occupations in which she has achieved her greatest success. 
Among her published works are " Planchette's Diary," "Adelaide Ris- 
tori," " Mad on Purpose " ( a comedy ), " Pen Photographs from Charles 
Dickens' Readings," " Hap-Hazard," "Ten Days in Spain" and "His- 
tory of Bell's Telephone." She founded "The National Review" sev- 
eral years ago, and is the founder and editor of "Kate Field's Wash- 
ington," the only periodical in the world bearing a woman's name 
Miss Field claims that whatever she may be is due to heredity, as her 
father, Joseph M. Field, was a brilliant and versatile man, and her 
mother, Eliza Lapsley Riddle, of Philadelphia, one of the most charm- 
ing actresses of her day. At any rate, she has built a lasting monu- 
ment for herself as a journalist, author, editor and orator. 

212 




KATE FIELD. 

2J3 



DAVID ROWLAND FRANQS. 



THE state of Missouri has had a long line of distinguished gov- 
ernors, but never one who so quickly gained a national reputa- 
tion for broad statesmanship as David R. Francis. He is today one 
of the most popular Democrats of the country, and is destined to receive 
higher honors than any that have yet been bestowed upon him. Ex- 
Governor Francis was born in Richmond, Madison County, Ky., Octo- 
ber I, 1850, and at the age of sixteen went to St. Louis, where he 
graduated at the Washington University, in 1870. He entered mercan- 
tile life, and eventually became one of the leading grain merchants of 
the city, rising to the honorable position of president of the Merchants' 
Exchange, in 1883. He was a delegate to the National Democratic 
Convention in 1884, and his voice was heard in able advocacy of 
Cleveland and Hendricks, at Chicago. In 1885 he was nominated for 
mayor of St. Louis, and triumphantly elected over his Republican oppo- 
nent, who, four years before, had received a majority of fourteen thou- 
sand votes. Mr. Francis became so popular as mayor that when he 
was nominated for governor in 1888, it is safe to say that no candi- 
date for that office ever had a more enthusiastic following. He was 
elected and gave the state one of the ablest administrations it has ever 
had. A warm personal friend of President Cleveland, it is commonly 
believed in high political circles that Mr. Francis could have been a 
member of President Cleveland's Cabinet, had he so desired. The 
prediction is frequently and confidently made that at an early date he 
will represent Missouri in the United States Senate, and certainly, with 
his capabilities and popularity, there is nothing preposterous in placing 
the goal of his future advancement at even a higher altitude. 







^ 




DAVID ROWLAND FRANCIS, 

215 



STEPHEN JOHNSON FIELD. 



ONE of the most eminent of American jurists, and a member of a 
distinguished family, is the senior Associate Justice of the United 
States Supreme Court, Stephen Johnson Field. He was born in Had- 
dam, Conn., November 4, 1816, and removed with his family in 1819 
to Stockbridge, Mass. In 1829 he accompanied his sister to Asia 
Minor, her husband, Rev. Josiah Brewer, having undertaken an educa- 
tional mission to the Greeks, and remained abroad two and a half 
years. He graduated at Williams College in 1837, after which he 
studied law, and was for seven years the partner of his brother, David 
Dudley Field. In 1848 he traveled extensively in Europe, and upon 
his return went to California, finally settling in Marysville in 1850, and 
was elected first alcalde of that city. He was a member of the sec- 
ond Legislature of California, and while serving on the judiciary com- 
mittee framed the laws creating the judicial system of the state. He 
became a judge of the Supreme Court of California in 1857, and chief 
justice two years later. In 1863 he was appointed by President Lin- 
coln Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, which posi- 
tion he still holds. He was a member of the electoral commission of 
1876, and voted with the Democratic minority. In 1880 he was' a 
candidate for the presidential nomination before the Democratic conven- 
tion and received sixty-five votes. Williams College conferred upon him 
the degree of Doctor of Laws in 1866. In 1889 a vicious assault was 
made upon Justice Field in a California hotel by Judge Terry, a noted 
lawyer of that state, and the latter was killed by a United States 
marshal named Nagle, who had been deputed to protect Justice Field. 
Justice Field is still hale and vigorous. 




STEPHEN JOHNSON FIELD. 

217 



JOHN FISKE. 



AMONG the deep thinkers of the day John Fiske occupies a con- 
spicuous place. He was born in Hartford, Conn., March 30, 
J 842. He received a thorough education, his father being a v/ell- 
known editor, and graduated at Harvard, and afterward at the Harvard 
Law School, but did not engage in the practice of hJs nominal profes- 
sion. He became, almost at once, a writer whose work was such as 
to attract attention from the thinking world. He wrote about this 
time an article on "Mr. Buckle's Fallacies," which appeared in the 
"National Quarterly Review," and which was, perhaps, the first of his 
contributions to the press to attract general attention. In 1869 he was 
appointed Lecturer of Philosophy in Harvard. Since 1881 he has been 
Lecturer on American History in the Washington University, St. Louis, 
Mo., and has been a m.ost prolific writer, and one the character of 
whose works has attracted the attention of the great thinkers of the 
world. Among what Professor Fiske has written may be included 
"Tobacco and Alcohol," "Myths and Myth-makers," "Outlines of Cos- 
mic Philosophy Based on the Doctrines of Evolution," " The Unseen 
World," "Darwinism" and Other Essays, "Excursions of an Evolution- 
ist," "The Destiny of Man Viewed in the Light of His Origin," "The 
Idea of God as Affected by Modern Knowledge " and " The American 
Political Idea Viewed from the Standpoint of Universal History." Pro- 
fessor Fiske is now engaged upon a work of magnitude, to be entitled 
"The History of the American People." It may be said of him that 
he ranks high in this country among the small group who correspond 
to the great scientists abroad, such as Darwin, Huxley, Tyndall, and 
others of their class. 

2)8 



ROSWELL PETTABONE FLOWER. 



SOME men overcome obstacles and acfiieve success by sheer per- 
sistency of will, aided by tact and good judgment. Of such is 
Roswell P. Flower, governor of New York, who began life as a 
poor boy, and by the most stubborn perseverance and determination 
gained both wealth and distinction. Governor Flower was born in 
Theresa, Jefferson County, N. Y., August 7, 1835, and is the descend- 
ant of an Englishman who emigrated to Hartford, Conn., in 1686. 
He lost his father when eight years old, and a few years later left 
school, to assist in the support of the family. At the age of fourteen 
he became a clerk in a store, but subsequently received a high-school 
education. After working in a brick yard and as a postoffice clerk, 
he was for ten years a jeweler, and learned that trade thoroughly, but 
eventually decided that it did not offer the rapid transit to fortune 
which his restless ambition craved. He then became a broker in New 
York City, and from that time his rise was rapid. Success attended 
his operations, and he soon became a prominent figure in Wall street. 
He also took an active interest in politics, with the result that in 1 88 1 
he became a member of Congress, having been elected as a Democrat 
over William W. Astor. In 1886 he was appointed one of the elec- 
tric sub- way commissioners in New York City. In 1888 he was 
again elected to Congress, and was re-elected in 1890, serving on vari- 
ous important committees, including the committee on ways and means 
and the committee on the quadro-centennial celebration. In 1892 he 
was elected governor of New York. He was succeeded in office by 
Levi P. Morton. Governor Flower gave $50,000 for the erection of 
the St. Thomas Home in New York. 

220 



ROSWELL PETTABONE FLOWER. 

22 J 



JOSEPH BENSON FORAKER. 



A STRIKING figure anywhere would be the brilliant and aggress- 
ive ex-governor of Ohio, but especially attractive of attention is 
he as the leader of the younger element of the Republican party in 
Ohio. He was bom near Rainsborough in the state named, July 5, 
1846, and worked on a farm in his boyhood. When sixteen years 
old he enlisted in the Eighty-ninth Ohio regiment and served in the 
Army of the Cumberland until the end of the war. He was made 
sergeant in 1862. After the war he spent two years at Wesleyan 
University and later entered Gjrnell, where he graduated in 1869. He 
was admitted to the bar the same year and practiced in Cincinnati. 
In 1879 he was elected judge of the Superior court in Cincinnati, sub- 
sequently resigning the office because of ill health. Meantime he had 
attained popularity with his party as a brilliant and capable leader and 
became the Republican candidate for governor in 1883, making a splen- 
did canvass though not a successful one. In 1885 he was again a 
candidate and was this time elected. In 1887 he was again elected 
and became decidedly the head of the most vigorous and aggressive 
element of his party in Ohio. In 1889 he was defeated by James E. 
Campbell, the Democratic candidate, but remained a potent force in the 
councils of his party, and has been a prominent figure in its national 
conventions. Still young in years, with a national reputation and rec- 
ognized as a man of great force, and one possessing the qualities of a 
natural leader of men, the future of the Ohio ex-governor is one of 
vast possibilities. In 1896 he was elected Senator to succeed Calvin S. 
Brice, and certainly few men are better fitted to wear the toga than 
Ex-Governor Foraker. 

222 



JOSEPH BENSON FORAKER. 

223 



J. ELLEN HORTON FOSTER. 



POSSIBLY no other woman, unless it may be Mrs. Lease, of Kan- 
sas, exercises the direct influence upon politics that Mrs. J. Ellen 
Foster, of Iowa, does. She is a striking figure in her field, even 
more so because she is not absolutely controlled by some ism, but 
thinks for herself and acts accordingly. She has been an important 
factor in more than one state election. She was born in Lowell, 
Mass., November 3, J 840, and is the daughter of Rev. Jotham Hor- 
ton, a Methodist preacher. She was educated in Lima, N. Y., and 
moved to Clinton, la., where, in 1869, she became the wife of D. E. 
Foster, a lawyer. She studied law and was admitted to practice, 
engaged in a business at first alone, eventually joining with her hus- 
band. Eventually she engaged in the temperance movement, in which 
she soon became a prominent figure. As superintendent of the legis- 
lative department of the W. C. T. U., she acquired a national reputa- 
tion. In 1887 she visited England, where she made a study of the 
temperance question, and where, in England, she addressed great audi- 
ences. In the United States she has always been independent as to 
what should be the best course to pursue in temperance movements as 
to making connection with any of the great political bodies. As a 
result she has not always been in the closest affiliation with her own 
organization, but has, none the less, become a power politically, and 
has, perhaps, done as effective work toward general temperance as any 
woman in the world, though the lines upon which she has worked 
have not been such as the leaders of the W, C. T. U. have always 
agreed upon. She has been broader, however, and has had the cour- 
age of her convictions. She is a remarkable woman. 




J. ELLEN HORTON FOSTER. 

225 



MARSHALL FIELD. 



OF the great merchant princes of America there is none who stands 
so close to the people, by reason of his being one of them, as 
Marshall Field, of Chicago. A man of slender build, of modest yet 
impressive demeanor, he carries his business responsibilities as gracefully 
as he does his years, never permitting them to affect in the slightest 
degree his kindly, sympathetic nature. The greatest merchant in the 
world was born in Conway, Mass., in 1835. His father was a 
farmer. He came to Chicago in 1856 and obtained employment in 
the wholesale dry-goods house of Cooley, Wadswcrth & Co., afterward 
Cooley, Farwell & Co., and now the John V. Farwell Company. He 
was given an interest in the concern in J 860, but in 1865 both Mr. 
Field and L. Z. Leiter withdrew from the house to join Potter Palmer 
in organizing the firm of Field, Palmer & Leiter. When Mr. Palmer 
dropped out, in J 867, the firm became Field, Leiter & Co., and since 
Mr. Leiter's retirement in 1 88 J the house has been known by its pres- 
ent name of Marshall Field & Co. It is the greatest mercantile estab- 
lishment in the world, having branches in Paris, Manchester, Yoko- 
hama and other foreign centers, and carrying on a business amounting 
to over forty million dollars a year. Marshall Field's rule is to never 
borrow, never give a note, never to speculate in stocks, and to buy 
for cash. His charity seems to be boundless, and is never ostenta- 
tious. His gifts have been bestowed with discretion and public spirit. 
He gave one million dollars to the Columbian Museum fund, was a 
large contributor to the Chicago University, and is a liberal patron of 
many public institutions of a charitable and educational character. His 
career has been marked by a strict business policy. 

226 




MARSHALL FIELD. 

227 



ALICE FRENCH. 



NO author of the present generation has more thoroughly mastered 
the art of writing short stories than has Miss Alice French. 
Her pen name of "Octave Thanet" is associated in the minds of all 
readers of current literature with many clever achievements in this line, 
and her sparkling style and exquisite humor have placed her in the 
front rank of magazine contributors. Miss French was bom in Ando- 
ver, Mass., March 19, 1850, and on both sides of the house is 
descended from the Puritans. She was educated in New England and 
goes there every summer, although for many years her home has been 
in Davenport, Iowa. She began to write shortly after her graduation 
at Abbot Academy, Andover, but took the advice of the editors and 
waited several years before venturing into print. Then she sent "A 
Communist's Wife" to the Harper's, who declined it, and afterward 
sent it to the Lippincott's, who accepted it. Since that time she has 
always found a place for her productions. Among her stories that 
have been issued in book form may be mentioned "Knitters in the 
Sun," "Otto the Knight," "Expiation," "We All," and "Stories of a 
Western Town." She has also edited "The Best Letters of Lady 
Mary Montagu." Personally, Miss French is a sociable, chatty, and 
altogether womanly woman, as sparkling and vivacious in conversation 
as she is in her writings. She is interested in historical studies and 
the German philosophers, has a fad for collecting china, likes all out- 
door sports, and prides herself on her cooking. Miss French spends 
her winters at Clover Bend, Ark., where she has a delightful and cosy 
retreat, and where the greater portion of her literary work is done. She 
has i wide circle of friends and admirers. 

228 



%?• 



■^-^m 







J 



ALICE FRENCH. 

229 



HAMLIN GARLAND. 



AN ultra advocate of the realistic is Hamlin Garland, prominent 
among the western writers of the new school who are pho- 
tographing the fervid life of the Mississippi valley, photographing it 
faithfully, with its bare spots and those more luxuriant. He has brains 
and the writer's gift, and above all he is earnest and persistent. He 
is in the field of literature in which he should properly be found He 
was born in 1860 in the La Crosse valley, Wisconsin, and lived the 
life of the usual Wisconsin boy of the time. A very good life for a 
boy, that was, too. When he was seven years of age his family 
moved to Iowa and there he grew to manhood. He learned the life 
of the prairies, how to ride a horse and herd cattle, how to do all a 
prairie farmer does, what the prairie farmer endures and what he 
enjoys, all of which shows in his stories. In 1883 he went to Dakota 
with the "boomers," and from there he went to Boston, where he 
taught private classes in English and American literature for some years. 
Of late he has devoted himself entirely to literature and the lecture 
platform. He has published six volumes of stories of western life, one 
volume of " Prairie Songs " and one volume of essays " Crumbling 
Idols." He makes his headquarters in Chicago, but his summer home 
is with his parents, in West Salem, Wis. Among his works "Main 
Traveled Roads" is easily the volume which has been most striking 
and has given him most prominence. Still a young man, Mr. Gar- 
land has a splendid literary future before him. If not as the greatest 
of western novelists he will at least retain prominence as the essayist 
and lecturer, for in each field he is strong. But where the maximum 
of his powers will most develop is still uncertain. 




HAMLIN GARLAND. 

23J 



HENRY GEORGE. 



IN these days, when people have learned to accept as a matter of 
course the existing laws and customs governing the organization of 
society, and to conform to them without question, the social reformer 
fmds his task no easy one. Among the political economists of the 
present day Henry George takes high rank as an advanced thinker, 
and has a following that increases in numbers every year. Mr. 
George was born in Philadelphia, September 2, 1839. In his boyhood 
he went to sea as an apprentice on a sailing vessel, and in 1858 he 
reached California, where he became a journalist, and where he eventu- 
ally wrote his first two books, "Our Land and Land Policy," and 
"Progress and Poverty." In 1880 he removed to T^ew York, and has 
since been chiefly known by his writings and addresses on economic 
subjects. In these he traces the social evils of our time to the treat- 
ment of land as subject to complete individual ownership, and con- 
tends that while the secure possession of land should be accorded to 
the individual it should be subject to the payment to the com^munity 
of land values proper, or economic rent. This theory, known as the 
"Single Tax," aims at abolishing all taxes for raising revenue except 
a tax on the value of land, irrespective of improvement. His later 
books are: "Irish Land Question," "Social Problems," "Property in 
Land," "Protection or Free Trade," "The Condition of Labor," and 
"A Perplexed Philosopher." Mr. George has lectured extensively in 
this country, Europe and Australia, and between 1887 and 1890 pub- 
lished "The Standard," a weekly single-tax paper. In 1886 he was 
a candidate for the mayoralty of New York on a labor ticket, receiv- 
ing sixty -eight thousand votes. 

232 




HENRY GEORGE. 
233 



PARKE GODWIN. 



KEEN political foresight, combined with legal knowledge, literary 
ability and a remarkable intellectual grasp, has made the name 
of Parke Godwin familiar to the ears of all educated people in this 
country. As a writer on topics pertaining to governmental reforms, he 
is especially well known. Parke Godwin was born in Paterson, 
N. J., February 25, 1816. He was graduated at Princeton College in 
J 834, after which he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 
Kentucky, but did not practice. He married the eldest daughter of 
William Cullen Bryant, the poet-editor, and from 1837 until J 853, with 
the exception of one year, was connected with the New York "Even- 
ing Post." In 1843 he issued the "Pathfinder," a weekly paper, which 
was suspended after three months. He contributed many articles to 
the "Democratic Review," in which he advocated reforms that were 
subsequently introduced into the constitution and code of New York. 
He was also editor of "Putnam's Monthly," to which he contributed 
many literary and political articles, afterward published in book form 
under the title, "Political Essays." In J 865 he again became con- 
nected with the "Evening Post." During the administration of Presi- 
dent Polk he was deputy collector of New York, but he subsequently 
joined the Republican party and supported it by his speeches and writ- 
ings. He is the author of "Popular View of the Doctrines of Charles 
Fourier," "Constructive Democracy," "Vala, a Mythological Tale," 
"Cyclopaedia of Biography," "History of France," "Out of the Past," 
a volume of essays, and has also edited an edition of William Cullen 
Bryant's prose and poetical writings, in six volumes. Mr. Godwin's 
opinions are much sought on political and literary questions. 

234 




't%M^:'.^ 



PARKE GODWIN. 

235 



ARTHUR PUE GORMAN. 



ONE of the most outspoken of men, with apparently no conceal- 
ments or reserves, and with abilities that eminently fit him for 
the high position in which his party has placed him, Senator Arthur 
P. Gorman, of Maryland, is regarded as a model of candor and hon- 
esty in the upper branch of Congress, where for a number of years 
he has represented his state as a conservative Democrat. Senator Gor- 
man was born in Howard County, Maryland, March U, 1839. He 
received a public school education, and in 1852 became a page in the 
United States Senate, where he remained until 1866, at which time he 
was the Senate postmaster. On September 1 of that year he was 
appointed collector of internal revenue for the Fifth district of Maryland, 
which office he held until March, 1869. Three months later he was 
made a director in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company, of which 
he became president in 1872. In November, 1869, he was elected to 
the Maryland Legislature as a Democrat, re-elected in 1871, and chosen 
Speaker of the House during the ensuing session. He was elected to 
the State Senate in 1875, and served four years. In 1880 he was 
chosen to represent the state in the United States Senate, succeeding 
William Pinkney Whyte, and was re-elected in 1886 and 1892. His 
term of service will expire in 1899. In the Senate, Mr. Gorman 
wields a powerful influence. He is eloquent and forcible in debate, 
and his remarks always receive the closest attention. When a compli- 
cated or momentous question is under discussion, it is usually the 
speech of Senator Gorman that clears the atmosphere like a thunder- 
shower at the close of a sultry day, pointing the way to a solution 
of the problem. 




ARTHUR PUE GORMAN. 
237 



ELISHA GRAY. 



LABORERS in the field of electrical science do not often rise to the 
position attained by Prof. Elisha Gray in the development of that 
science. His works have made an impression scarcely less important 
than that of any other whose name might be mentioned. Professor 
Gray was born at Barnesville, Belmont County, Ohio, August 2, J 835. 
At the age of twenty-one he went to Oberlin College, where he stud- 
ied for five years. It was not until his thirtieth year that he first 
turned his attention to electrical mechanism, with which he soon became 
fascinated. His first invention of practical importance was that of the 
needK' annunciator for hotels, which was invented in 1870 and perfected 
in J 8/ 2. This was followed by the electrical annunciator for elevators, 
and laxtr by the private telegraph line printer, so well known to this 
day. From 1873 to 1875 his attention was largely absorbed in devel- 
oping a system of electro-harmonic telegraphy for the transmission of 
sounds over telegraph wires. On February 14, 1876, he filed at 
Washington a caveat for ''Art of transmitting vocal sounds telegraph- 
ically." But Prof. A. Graham Bell, though probably anticipated in 
point of time by the caveat of Professor Gray, was granted a broad 
patent for speaking telephones, March 8, 1876, and sixteen years of 
litigation failed to deprive him of the credit as the inventor. Professor 
Giay's latest invention is the telautograph, for the transmission of writ- 
ten language in fac-simile. He resides at Highland Park, near Chicago, 
and is one of the most affable and genial of men. In his profession 
he is universally esteemed, both as a man and as a scientist and 
inventor of the highest rank. The w^orld owes him much for his 
valuab'" discoveries. 

238 




ELISHA GRAY. 

239 



GALUSHA AARON GROW. 



RENOWNED as a fearless and patriotic statesman during a critical 
period of the country's history — modestly retiring at the end of 
that period, only to be taken up thirty years after and elected to Con- 
gress by an unprecedented majority— such is the record of Galusha A. 
Grow, of Pennsylvania. Mr. Grow was bom in Ashford ( now East- 
ford), Windham County, Conn., August 3 J, 1824, but when ten years 
old removed with his family to Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. 
He was graduated at Amherst in 1844, after which he studied law 
and practiced at Towanda until 1850, when his health failed and he 
became a farmer. In that year he declined a unanimous nomination 
for the Legislature, but was soon after elected to Congress as a Dem- 
ocrat and served for twelve successive years, although in the mean 
time severing his connection with the Democratic party on the repeal 
of the Missouri compromise bill. His period of service was distin- 
guished by much important legislation. His first speech was delivered 
upon the Homestead bill, a measure which he continued to urge at 
every Congress for ten years, when he had at last the satisfaction of 
signing the law as Speaker of the House. He served as Speaker 
from July 4, 1861, until March 4, 1863, when, upon retiring, he was 
given a unanimous vote of thanks, a most unusual proceeding. Mr. 
Grow was a delegate to the National Republican conventions of 1864 
and 1868. In 1871 he settled in Houston, Tex., as president of the 
International and Great Northern railroad, but returned to Pennsylvania 
in 1875, and in 1876 declined a mission to Russia. In 1894 he was 
elected Congressman-at-Iarge to succeed William Lilly, deceased, receiv- 
ing the astonishing plurality of 188,294 votes over his strongest opponent. 

240 




GALUSHA AARON GROW. 

241 



GERTRUDE ATHERTON. 



TO be intensely natural, yet to impart to her creations a touch of 
ideality which may often be invisible in real life, although exist- 
ing in an imperfect medium, is one of the literary principles of that 
delightful writer of California stories, Mrs. Gertrude Atherton. Of her 
favorite field— California before the American occupation Mrs. Atherton 
has -nade an exhaustive study, living in the old tov/ns with the rem 
nants of the race of which she writes, and storing up knowledge of 
their customs and traditions. She was born on Rincon Hill, San 
Francisco, and was educated by her grandfather, Stephen Franklin, who 
was a nephew of Benjamin Franklin. Her father was Thomas L. 
Horn, one of the original Vigilance Committee. As a child she com- 
posed stories, and at fifteen she wrote a play which was acted by 
schoolmates at St. Mary's Hall, Benicia, Cal. Her education was 
completed at Sayre Institute, Lexington, Ky., and soon thereafter she 
was married to George H. B. Atherton, of California. She continued 
her persistent pursuit of knowledge, however, with an ambition to one 
day take a place in American literature. Her first published story, 
"The Randolphs of Redwoods," appeared in the San Francisco "Argo- 
naut." But her best work is in her stories of old California, "The 
Doomswoman " and the eleven shorter ones that have been collected 
under the title, "Before the Gringo Came." Som.e of her stories have 
appeared in " The London Graphic," " Blackwood's " and other English 
periodicals, and the " London Speaker " recently referred to her as one 
of the pioneers of the true American literature. Mrs. Atherton, who 
nov/ resides at Yonkers, N. Y., has in preparation a novel to be enti- 
tled. "Patience Sparhawk and Her Times." 

242 




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GERTRUDE ATHERTON. 

243 



HATTIE TYNG GRISWOLD. 



READERS of current literature have for many years been familiar 
with the name of Mrs. Hattie Tyng Griswold, the talented 
author of many charming poems, stories and sketches. Mrs. Griswold, 
though known as a Western woman, is a native of Boston, Mass., 
where she was born January 26, 1842. Her father removed to Wis- 
consin while she was yet a child, and her life has been spent in that 
state. At the age of fifteen she began writing for the press, and a 
little later became a contributor to the New York "Home Journal," 
then edited by N. P. Willis, and to the Louisville "Courier-Journal," 
edited by George D. Prentice. These two men were literary lions in 
those days, and when they put the stamp of their approval on a pro- 
duction, there could be no question of its merit. Sh? also wrote for 
the " Knickerbocker Magazine," and became quite a favorite of its ed- 
itor, Charles G. Leland. In 1863 she was married to Eugene Sher- 
wood Griswold, of Columbia, Wis., where she has continued to reside 
to the present time. Her pleasant home is the resort of many of the 
famous men and women of the day, for she has an extensive personal 
acquaintance with literary and other celebrities. Mrs. Griswold's first 
volume of collected poems was published in J 878, under the title of 
"Apple Blossoms." An edition of her later poems has been prepared 
for the press. In 1886 she published "Home Life of Great Authors," 
one of the most successful books of recent years. Among her works 
of fiction may be mentioned two stories for girls, "Waiting on Des- 
tiny" and "Lucile and Her Friends," and a novel entitled "Fencing 
with Shadows," which have added not a little to the author's reputa- 
tion. 

244 




HATTm TYNG GRISWOLD. 

245 



HORACE GRAY. 



PRESIDENT ARTHUR made good appointments. The cact and 
sense of that typical man of the world made him, perhaps, a 
better judge of men than was more than one other of the presidents 
possibly surpassing him in genius. Not the least sensible and satisfac- 
tory among the appointments made by President Arthur w^as that of 
Horace Gray, of Massachusetts, to be associate justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. Horace Gray was born in Boston, Mass., 
March 24, 1828. He received a thorough preliminary education and 
was a graduate from Harvard in 1845, and from the Harvard Law 
School in 1849. He was admitted to the bar in 1851, and found 
himself at once in a field congenial to his special talents and inclina- 
tions. He was appointed reporter of the supreme judicial court of 
Massachusetts in 1854, and held that position until 1861, when he was 
appointed associate justice of the same court August 23, 1864. His 
remarkable legal ability was manifested in his position on this digni- 
fied bench, and in 1873 he was appointed chief justice of the court. 
In that position he became widely known because of his legal learning 
and the thoughtfulness and fairness of his decisions, and December 19, 
1881, he was commissioned associate justice of the Supreme Court of 
the United States. He has filled the difficult position with all the 
ability and fairness that w^as expected of him, and is a distinguished 
member of the highest judicial tribunal of the world. He is one of 
the hardest working members of a body where hard work has been 
the rule for a long time, in fact from the beginning of the govern- 
ment, and his opinions are respected by his associates as highly as 
is his character by the country. 

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HORACE GRAY. 

247 



ARCHIBALD CLAVERING GUNTER. 



THERE can certainly be no question of the popularity of a novel 
when the demand for it swells the first edition to more than 
sixty-one thousand copies. Such was the fate of "Mr. Barnes of New 
York/* and of that later production from the same pen, "Mr. Potter 
of Texas." And yet the author had to turn publisher in order to get 
his books before the public. Archibald Clavering Gunter is an English- 
man by birth, having been born in Liverpool October 25, J 847, but at 
the age of five years he was taken to California by his parents, and 
was there educated, taking the degree of Ph. B. in University College, 
San Francisco. From 1867 until J 874 he followed his profession of 
mining and civU engineering, and then became a stock broker in San 
Francisco, operating in mining stocks. In 1877 he went to New 
York, having fully decided to make literature his occupation in life. 
He had previously written two successful plays, and he now produced 
several others that were even more successful. His first novel, " Mr. 
Barnes of New York," was finished in 1885, and published in 1887. 
It had been refused by all the publishing houses to which he had sub- 
mitted it, and he finally organized the Home Publishing Company and 
issued the novel himself. It was a great success, and has been 
printed in several languages. Mr. Gunter's own dramatization of the 
story had a remarkable run, and was immensely popular. His later 
novels, "Mr. Potter of Texas," "Miss Nobody of Nowhere," and oth- 
ers, have also been very successful. Combining energy and enterprise 
with marked literary ability, Mr. Gunter has accumulated a fortune 
from the products of his pen within a few years. His stories are full 
of dramatic force and interest. 

248 



ARCHIBALD CLAVERING GUNTER. 

249 



JOHN HABBERTON. 



THE author of that interesting and clever book, " Helen's Babies/' 
awoke one morning to find himself famous, and all because he 
had written something which, rather unexpectedly to him, struck the 
popular fancy. That work gave him a reputation which he has since 
sustained. John Habberton was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., February 
24, 1842. He lived in Illinois from his eighth to his seventeenth year, 
then went to New York, learned to set type in the establishment of 
Harper & Brothers, and subsequently entered their counting-room. In 
1862 he enlisted in the army as a private, rose to the rank of first 
lieutenant, and served through the war. He was again in the employ 
of the Harpers, from 1865 to 1872, when he went into business for 
himself and failed in six months. This led him to become a contrib- 
utor to periodicals, and later to accept the post of literary editor of the 
"Christian Union," which he held from 1874 to 1877, when he resigned 
to take an editorial position on the New York "Herald." His first 
literary work was a series of sketches of western life. His "Helen's 
Babies," after being rejected by three publishers, was brought out by a 
Boston house in 1876, and has sold to the extent of about three hundred 
thousand copies in the United States. Eleven different English editions 
of it have appeared, besides several in the British colonies, and it has 
been translated into French, German and Italian. A few of Mr. Hab- 
berton's other works are "The Barton Experiment," "The Jericho 
Road," " The Scripture Club of Valley Rest," " Other People's Chil- 
dren," "The Crew of the Samuel Weller," "The Worst Boy in 
Town," " Who was Paul Grayson ? " and " Brueton's Bayou." His 
style is simple and natural and devoid of affectation. 

250 




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I 




lOHN HABBERTON. 
25J 



EDWARD EVERETT HALE. 



IN the ranks of the literary workers of America there is one figure 
that deserves the distinguishing title of the " Grand Old Man/' of 
letters. Edward Everett Hale, D. D., is a survivor of that class of 
wnters and thinkers of which Emerson, Lowell and Parkman were 
such conspicuous representatives. He was born in Boston, Mass., 
April 3, 1822. After graduating at Harvard, in 1839, he studied the- 
ology and became a Unitarian minister. He was pastor of the Church 
of the Unity, of Worcester, Mass., from J 846 to 1856, since which 
time he has been pastor of the South Congregational Church, Boston. 
Dr. Hale has published a large number of books. The one that first 
gave him international fame was "The Man Without a Country," 
which appeared in 1861. Prior to that he had produced "The 
Rosary," in 1848, and "America," in 1856. Among his subsequent 
works may be mentioned "His Level Best," and other stories, 1872, 
"Ups and Downs," 1873; "Working-Men's Homes" and "In His 
Name," 1874; "Philip Nolan's Friends," 1876; "Boys' Heroes," 1885; 
"What is the American People," 1885. He edited a series of stories 
of the war, sea, adventure, etc., from 1880 to 1885, and (conjointly 
with Miss Hale ) wrote " A Family Flight Through France, Germany, 
etc.," in 1881. Mr. Hale has been a frequent contributor to period- 
icals, was editor of the "Christian Examiner," and the founder and 
editor of that popular publication, "Old and New." He afterward 
became editor of "Lend Me a Hand," and his work in the field of 
literature shows the same vigor and freshness today that characterized 
it thirty years ago. His stories are interesting and wholesome and 
show the masterly skill of the scholar. 

252 




EDWARD EVERETT HALE. 
253 



MURAT HALSTEAD. 



LONG recognized as one of the most powerful and influential expo- 
nents of Republican principles in the West, the veteran editor of 
the Cincinnati " Commercial-Gazette " is a striking figure in political 
journalism. Like the majority of Americans who have achieved dis- 
tinction by the force of superior abilities, guided by indomitable energy 
and pluck, Murat Halstead began life as a poor country boy. Born 
in Paddy's Run, Butler County, Ohio, September 2, 1829, he spent the 
summers on his father's farm, and the winters in school until he was 
nineteen years old, and after teaching for a few months, entered Farm- 
er's College, near Cincinnati, where he was graduated in 1851. While 
in college he had amused himself by contributing to the press, and 
finding that his articles were well received, and that he had a taste 
for such employment, he decided to adopt the profession of journalism. 
He became connected with the Cincinnati "Atlas," and then with the 
"Enquirer," and afterward established a Sunday newspaper in that city, 
of which he was editor. This enterprise was soon abandoned, and 
he obtained employment on the "Columbian and Great West," a weekly 
paper. He began work on the "Commercial," March 8, 1853, as a 
local reporter, and soon became news editor. In 1854 the "Commer- 
cial " v/as reorganized, and Mr. Halstead purchased an interest in the 
paper. In 1867 its control passed into his hands. He subsequently 
allied himself with the Republican party, which he has since supported. 
In 1890 Mr. Halstead edited a Republican campaign paper in New 
York, and President Harrison nominated him as Minister to Berlin, but 
the Senate refused to confirm the nomination. He is a stalwart figure 
in political journalism. 

254 




MURAT HALSTEAD. 

255 



JOHN MARSHALL HARLAN. 



IN the administration of justice there is probably no man wearing the 
ermine today who has more thoroughly enlisted the confidence of 
the people than has John M. Harlan^ associate justice of the United 
States Supreme Court, All his life Mr. Harlan has been of a judicial 
turn of mind. He was born in Boyle County, Kentucky, June I, 
1833, and was graduated at Center College, in that state, in 1850. 
After studying law at Transylvania University he practiced his profes- 
sion at Frankfort,, and in J 858 was elected county judge. He was 
afterward an unsuccessful Whig candidate for Congress, and was presi- 
dential elector on the Bell and Everets ticket. Removing to Louisville, 
he formed a law partnership with Hon. W. F. Bullock, and in J 861 
entered the Union army as colonel of the Tenth Kentucky infantry, 
serving in Gen. George H. Thomas' division. In 1863 he was elected 
attorney-general of Kentucky and filled the office until 1867. He was 
the Republican nominee for governor in 1871, and his name was pre- 
sented by the Republican Convention of his state in 1875 for the vice- 
presidency of the United States. Judge Harlan was chairman of the 
Kentucky delegation to the Republican National Convention in 1876, 
and afterward declined a diplomatic position as a substitute for the 
attorney-generalship, to which, before he reached Washington, President 
Hayes intended to assign him. He served as a member of the Louis- 
iana Commission, and on November 29, 1877, was commissioned an 
associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, as successor to 
David Davis. In his particular sphere Justice Harlan occupies a promi- 
nent place among the great men of America, and is justly honored for 
his eminent abilities and his pure life. 

256 




JOHN MARSHALL HARLAN. 

257 



WILLIAM RAINEY HARPER. 



YOUNGER in years than the great majority of men who have 
gained reputations as scholars and educators, it is yet doubtful 
if there is a college professor in the United States who stands higher 
as a Hebraist and master of Biblical literature than William R. Har- 
per, president of the University of Chicago. Bom at New Concord, 
Ohio. July 26, 1856, President Harper is but thirty-eight years of age. 
After graduating at Muskingum College, and after three years of s'udy 
at home, he took a two years* graduate course in Sanskrit, Greek and 
comparative philology at Yale under Professor Whitney, receiving the 
degree of Ph. D. In the same year he accepted the principalship of 
Masonic College, Macon, Term., and after teaching there for one year 
went to Denison University, Granville, Ohio, where he spent three 
years in teaching. From there he was called to the professorship of 
Hebrew and the cognate languages in the Baptist Union Theological 
Seminary at Morgan Park, III., near Chicago, where he began teach- 
ing Hebrew on the inductive method. In 1881 he organized a corre- 
spondence school of Hebrew, which later developed into The American 
Institute of Sacred Literature, now having its headquarters in Chicago. 
He also published " The Hebrew Student," the forerunner of the pres- 
ent "Hebraica," and "The Old and New Testament Student," now 
"The Biblical World." In 1886 he went to Yale as professor of 
Semitic languages and literature, afterward taking the chair of Biblical 
literature in English. In 1891 he became principal of the Chautauqua 
System, and in the same year was made president of the University 
of Chicago. President Harper is the author of several Hebrew, Greek 
and Latin text-books. 




WILLIAM RAINEY HARPER, 

2S9 



FRANCIS BRET HARTE. 



AS the founder of a distinct school of American literature, as well 
as for the truly artistic work that he has done in his chosen 
field, Bret Harte deserves the fame that he has won. He was bom 
in Albany, N. Y., August 25, 1839, and received a common school 
education. After the death of his father he went with his mother to 
California in 1854, and, after unsuccessful ventures at teaching and 
mining, he became a compositor in a newspaper office at Sonora. In 
1857 he went to San Francisco, and while setting type in the office 
of the "Golden Era" began writing anonymous sketches of his mining 
camp experiences. The result was that he was invited to join the 
corps of writers. Soon afterward he became associated in the manage- 
ment of the " Californian," a literary weekly, short-lived, but of interest 
as containing his "Condensed Novels." In July, 1868, the publication 
of "The Overland Monthly" was begun, with Mr. Harte as its 
organizer and editor. The second issue contained "The Luck of 
Roaring Camp," the first of those dialect character sketches of Western 
mining life of which he was the pioneer writer. It was followed by 
" The Outcasts of Poker Flat " and other stories, and the reputation 
of the author was established. In 1870 appeared his "Plain Language 
from Truthful James," popularly known as "The Heathen Chinee." 
His later novels and stories have all been exceedingly popular. He 
settled in New York in 1871, and became a regular contributor to 
magazines. In 1878 he was appointed United States Consul to Crefeld, 
Germany, whence he was transferred in 1880 to Glasgow, Scotland, 
and continued in that office until 1885. At present he is residing 
abroad, engaged in literary pursuits. 




FRANCIS BRET HARTE. 
26t 



JOSEPH ROSWELL HAWLEY. 



QUITE an exceptional man in his generation, presenting in the 
very highest form the qualities that are calculated to shine both 
in the field and in the forum, Senator Joseph R. Hawley, of 
Connecticut, is one of the most distinguished of the soldier-statesmen of 
the Republic. He was born in Statesville, N. C, October 31, 1826, 
removed to Connecticut in 1837, was graduated at Hamilton College 
in 1847, and began the practice of law in Hartford in 1850. The 
first meeting for the organization of the Republican party in Connecticut 
was held in his office, at his call, February 4, 1856. One year later 
he abandoned law practice and became editor of the Hartford "Evening 
Press," the new distinctively Republican paper. He responded to the 
first call for troops in 1 86 1, raising the first company of the First 
Connecticut volunteers, and is believed to have been the first volunteer 
in the state. Entering the service as a captain, he made a splendid 
war record and was mustered out in January, 1866, with the brevet 
of major-general. In April of that year he was elected governor of 
Connecticut, serving one year. In 1867, having consolidated the 
" Press " and the " Courant," he resumed editorial life, and more 
rigorously than ever entered the political contests following the war. 
He was always in demand as a speaker throughout the country, and 
was president of the National Republican convention in 1868. He 
served in the Forty-third and Forty-sixth Congresses, and in 1881, by 
the unanimous vote of his party, was chosen United States Senator, 
being re-elected in 1887, and again in 1893, for the term ending 
March 3, 1899. In the National convention of 1884 the Connecticut 
delegation unanimously voted for him for President in every ballot. 




JOSEPH ROSWELL HAWLEY. 

263 



JULIAN HAWTHORNE. 



INHERITING much of his distinguished father's talent, imaginative 
genius and graceful style of expression, Julian Hawthorne has estab- 
lished a reputation as a fluent and versatile writer. Mr. Hawthorne 
was born in Boston, Mass., June 22, 1846, was educated at Harvard, 
and studied civil engineering in the scientific school at Cambridge. In 
October, 1868, he went to Dresden to study, but the Franco-German 
war began while he was visiting at home in the summer of 1870, and 
he obtained employment as a hydrographic engineer under Gen. Geo. 
B. McClellan, in the department of docks, New York. In 1871 he 
began to write stories and sketches for magazines, and in 1872, decid- 
ing to devote himself to literature, went to England and then to Dres- 
den, where he remained two years. While there he published his 
novels " Bressant " and " Idolatry." He settled in London in Septem- 
ber, 1874, writing much for magazines, and for two years was a 
writer on the staff of the London "Spectator." In 1875 he published 
the sketches entitled '* Saxon Studies " in the " Contemporary Review," 
and his novel " Garth," which was followed by novelettes and collec- 
tions of stories entitled " The Laughing Mill," " Archibald Malmaison," 
■" Ellice Quentin," " Prince Saroni's Wife," " Sebastian Strome," and the 
"Yellow Cap" fairy stories. He returned to New York in 1882, and 
published " Dust," " Noble Blood " and " Fortune's Fool ; " also edited 
j"Dr. Grimshaw's Secret," the posthumous romance of his father, Na- 
Ithaniel Hawthorne, and wt-ote the biography of his father and mother. 
jDuring the last dozen years he has made his home chiefly in this 
country, and has done some of his best work for American magazines 
and syndicates. 




JULIAN HAWTHORNE. 

265 



DAVID BREMNER HENDERSON. 



RIPE experience ana sound judgment are no less essential than intel- 
lectual strength and force of character in the man who would 
be a leader of men. It is a combination of all these qualities that gives 
David B. Henderson, of Icwa, his power and influence in the National 
House of Representatives. Mr. Henderson was born at Old Deer, 
Scotland, March 14, 1840. He was brought to the United States 
when six years of age, settling first in Illinois, but removing in 1849 
to Iowa, where he was educated in the public schools and at the 
Upper Iowa University. He was reared on a farm until he was 
twenty-one years of age, when the Civil war breaking out, he enlisted 
as a private in the Twelfth Iowa regiment, in September, 1861. He 
was soon after commissioned first lieutenant, and served with his regi- 
ment until the loss of a leg caused him to be discharged, February 
16, 1863. In May of that year he was appointed commissioner of 
the Board of Enrollment of the Third district of Iowa, serving as such 
until June, 1864, when he re-entered the army as colonel of the Forty- 
sixth Iowa regiment, and served until the close of hostilities. He was 
collector of internal revenue for the Third district of Iowa from Novem- 
ber, 1865, until June, 1869. In the mean time he had been admitted to 
the bar, and in 1869 he became a member of the law firm of Shiras, 
Van Duzee & Henderson. He was Assistant United States District 
Attorney for about two years, resigning in 1871, and is now a mem- 
ber of the law firm of Henderson, Daniels & Kiesel, of Dubuque. 
He was elected to the Forty-eighth Congress as a Republican, and has 
since served continuously in that body, where he is distinctly one of 
its leading forces. 



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DAVID BREMNER HENDERSON. 

267 



HILARY A. HERBERT. 



AMONG the Southern men who have come into prominence by 
reason of their sturdy integrity, great force of character and 
superior accomplishments, is the Secretary of the Navy, Hilary A. Her- 
bert. During an unusually long career in Congress he has distin- 
guished himself in many ways, and especially by a thorough knowl- 
edge of the intricate affairs of the navy. Mr. Herbert is a native of 
Laurensville, S. C, where he was born March 12, 1834, but while 
he was yet a child his father removed to Greenville, Ala. He was 
educated in the universities of Alabama and Virginia, studied law and 
was admitted to the bar. Entering the confederate service as a cap- 
tain, he was rapidly promoted until he became colonel of the Eighth 
Alabama volunteers, and was disabled in the battle of the Wilderness, 
May 6, J 864. He continued the practice of law at Greenville until 
J 872, when he removed to Montgomery, where he has since resided. 
Colonel Herbert was first elected to the Forty-fifth Congress, and has 
been re-elected seven times, so that he was, when appointed Secretary 
of the Navy, about to enter upon his fifteenth continuous year in the 
National House of Representatives. He is known as a profound 
thinker, a forcible speaker in debate, and one of the few men in Con- 
gress who could be assigned to any kind of work with the assurance 
that it would be accomplished promptly, intelligently and thoroughly. 
He is particularly qualified to perform the duties of the high position 
he now occupies, and he enjoys the confidence of the administration, 
as well as the respect of all who have been associated with him in 
his public life. His course in the cabinet has been such as to retain 
for him the confidence of all parties. 

268 




HILARY A. HERBERT. 

269 



ABRAM STEVENS HEWITT. 



IF there were to be selected from among all men a typical American, 
in the broadest sense of that term, the choice might justly fall 
upon Abram Stevens Hewitt. He is a cultivated man, and has such 
talent, such practical ability, and such force of character, that he has 
made a distinct mark in the world. He was born in Haverstraw, 
N. Y. July 31, 1822. During his college course at Columbia he sup- 
ported himself by teaching, and after his graduation, in 1842, remained 
in the college as acting professor of mathematics. He studied law and 
was admitted to the bar in 1855, but abandoned that profession to 
become associated with Peter Cooper in the iron business. In 1862 
he went to England to learn the process of making gun barrel iron, 
and, at a heavy loss to his firm, furnished the United States Govern- 
ment with material during the war. The introduction of the Martins- 
Siemens or open hearth process for the manufacture of steel in this 
country is due to his judgment. The plan of the Cooper Union was 
devised by its own trustees, with Mr. Hewitt as their active head, and 
as secretary of this board he directed its financial and educational 
details. He was active in politics, but left Tammany, joined the Irv- 
ing Hall society, and was one of the organizers of the County Democ- 
racy in 1879. He was elected to Congress in 1874 and served con- 
tinuously, with the exception of one term, until 1886. In that year 
he was elected mayor of New York, defeating Henry George and 
Theodore Roosevelt. Columbia College gave him the degree of LL. D. 
in 1887. The firm of Cooper & Hewitt owns and controls the Tren- 
ton, "Ringwood, Request and Durham iron works. Mr. Hewitt has a 
record to be proud of. 

270 




ABRAM STEVENS HEWITT. 
27 J 



THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON. 



THE prominent position which Thomas Wentworth Higginson has 
held in the ecclesiastical, literary and political world for more 
than a generation gives a special value and interest to his portrait and 
biography. Born in Cambridge, Mass., December 22, 1823, he was 
graduated at Harvard in 1841, and at the divinity school in 1847, 
becoming in the last-named year pastor of the First Congregational 
church in Newburyport, Mass. He resigned his pastorate in 1850 to 
become a candidate for Congress on the Free-soil ticket, but failed of 
election. From 1852 until 1858 he was pastor of a Free church in 
Worcester, Mass., after which he left the ministry to devote himself to 
literature, and became conspicuous as an anti-slavery agitator. In 1856 
he aided in organizing parties of free-state emigrants to Kansas, and 
served as brigadier-general on Gov. J. H. Lane's staff in the free-state 
forces. Entering the Civil war as captain in 1862, he was soon made 
colonel of the Thirty-first South Carolina volunteers, the first regiment 
of freed slaves mustered into the National service. He took Jackson- 
ville, Fla., was wounded at Wiltown Bluff, S. C, in August, 1863, 
and resigned from the army in 1864. From that year until 1878 
Colonel Higginson dwelt in Newburyport, Mass., and then removed to 
Cambridge, Mass., where he has since resided, engaged in literary occu- 
pation. He was a member of the Massachusetts Legislature in 1880 
and 1881. He has written extensively on educational and other top- 
ics for Harper's periodicals, the "Atlantic Monthly" and other maga- 
zines. His first publication was " Thalatto," a compilation of poetry. 
He is noted for his broad-minded liberality, his keen insight into human 
nature, and his general knowledge. 




THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON. 

273 



GEORGE FRISBIE HOAR. 



NOTED for his legal acumen, his broad statesmanship and his 
extended and diversified culture, Senator George F. Hoar, of 
Massachusetts, is regarded as one of the truly great men connected 
with the government at Washington. Born in Concord, Mass., August 
29, J 826, he was graduated at Harvard in J 846, studied law and 
began the practice of his profession in Worcester. He was a member 
of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1852 and of the 
State Senate in 1857. He was elected as a Republican to four suc- 
cessive Congresses, serving from March 4, J 869, until March 3, 1877. 
He was elected United States senator to succeed George S. Boutwell, 
taking his seat March 5, 1877, and was re-elected in 1883, 1889 and 
1895. His term of service will expire March 3, 1901. Senator Hoar was 
a delegate to the Republican National conventions of 1876, 1880, 1884 
and 1888, presiding over the convention of 1880. He was one of the 
managers on the part of the House of Representatives of the Belknap 
impeachment trial in 1876, and was a member of the electoral commis- 
sion in that year. From 1874 to 1880 he was an overseer of Har- 
vard College, and in the latter year was regent of the Smithsonian 
Institution. He has been president, and is now vice-president, of the 
American Antiquarian Society, trustee of the Peabody Museum of 
Archaeology, trustee of Leicester Academy, and is a member of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, the American Historical Society, the 
Historic-Genealogical Society and the Virginia Historical Society. The 
degree of LL. D. has been conferred upon him by William and Mary, 
Amherst, Yale and Harvard Colleges. Senator Hoar is a typical Amer- 
ican statesman. 

274 




^ev 9~ yx:^^-z.-^ 



GEORGE FRISBE HOAR. 

275 



MARY JANE HOLMES. 



FOR stories of domestic life that are pure in tone and free from 
sensational incidents, without having an avowedly moral purpose, 
no living American author enjoys a wider popularity than Mrs. Mary 
J. Holmes. It may be added that no woman novelist, with the possi- 
ble exception of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, has received so large 
profits from her copyrights. Mrs. Holmes, whose maiden name was 
Hawes, was born in Brookfield, Mass., and is described as a very 
precocious child, who studied grammar and arithmetic at the age of 
six, and taught school at thirteen. While yet a child she was pos- 
sessed with an inspiration to write, and was only fifteen when articles 
from her pen began to appear in print. She was subsequently mar- 
ried to Daniel Holmes, a prominent lawyer and graduate of Yale, and 
lived for a period in Versailles, Ky., where she gained the knowledge 
of Southern life and Southern character portrayed in some of her sto- 
ries. But she ultimately made Brockport, N. Y., her home, and there 
she and her husband now reside in a lovely place which they call 
"Brown Cottage." Mrs. Holmes' first book was "Tempest and Sun- 
shine," and it has been followed by twenty-five or thirty others. That 
they are popular is proven by the fact that about two million copies 
have been sold, and that there is a continued demand for them. In 
addition to her novels she has written many articles and stories for 
papers, magazines and syndicates. Her long stories are usually printed 
serially in a periodical before appearing in book form, and as she 
never sells a copyright her revenues from her work are very large. 
Mrs. Holmes has traveled extensively in almost every part of the world. 
She is an untiring worker. 

276 





W^ '/ /V^^^^yi 



MARY JANE HOLMES. 

277 



HARRIET G. HOSMER. 



THE name of no sculptor in the United States is more widely 
known than is that of Harriet Hosmer. The quality of her 
art has long been recognized and her work has at all times sus- 
tained a reputation early acquired. She was born in Watertown, 
Mass., October 9, 1830. Her father was a physician; she was left 
motherless and led largely an outdoor life. Her genius showed itself 
when she was but a mere child, much of her time being spent in a 
clay pit near her father's home where she amused herself by modeling 
horses, dogs, and other creatures. She was given a good education 
and took art lessons with her father, and later took a medical course 
in St. Louis, Mo. In J 851 she executed her first important work, an 
ideal head of " Hesper." In J 852 she went to Rome with her father 
and Charlotte Cushman and there became a pupil of Gibson. Alter 
two years of study she produced two busts, " Daphne " and " Medusa," 
which were exhibited in this country. Her success thenceforth was 
rapid and her rank in the art world fully recognized. Her first full- 
length figure, "Oenone," was produced in J 855. Then followed 
*' Will o' the Wisp," " Puck," " Sleeping Fawn," " Waking Fawn," 
"Zenobia," a statue of Marie Sophia, queen of the Sicilies, Beatrice 
Cenci and other works as noted. Among these a bronze statue of 
Thomas H. Benton is in St. Louis, where Miss Hosmer spends much 
of her time. Among her patrons have been distinguished people 
abroad, including the Prince of Wales, and various great societies. 
She executed a statue of Queen Isabella for the Columbian Exposition. 
Miss Hosmer is a clever writer and has contributed valuable art studies 
to the magazines. 

278 




HARRIET G. HOSMER. 

279 



OLIVER OTIS HOWARD. 



PRESENTING as he does a combination of the soldier and scholar 
in a degree that is unusual in this country, Gen. O. O. How- 
ard, of the United States army, has both a military and a literary 
record. He was born in Leeds, Me., November 8, 1830, and was 
graduated at Bowdoin in 1850. In 1854 he graduated at West Point, 
becoming first-lieutenant, but resigned in 1861 to take command of the 
Third Maine regiment in the Civil war. For gallantry at Bull Run 
he was made brigadier-general of volunteers. He was twice wounded 
at the battle of Fair Oaks, losing his right arm June 1, 1862, but 
participated in many succeeding engagements, being again wounded at 
Pickett's Mill. In November, 1862, he became major-general of volun- 
teers, and in March, 1865, was brevetted major-general for gallantry in 
various battles. General Howard was commissioner of the Freedman's 
Bureau from March, 1865, until July, 1874, when he was assigned to 
the command of the department of the Columbia. In 1877 he led the 
expedition against the Nez Perces Indians, and in 1878 the campaigns 
against the Brannocks and Piutes. He was commissioned major-gen- 
eral in 1886, and is now in command of the department of the 
Atlantic. He has contributed many articles to magazines, has pub- 
lished "Donald's School Days," "Chief Joseph, or the Nez Perces in 
Peace and War" and "Isabella of Castile," and is the author and 
translator of "Life of the Count De Gasparin." The degree of A. M. 
-was conferred upon him by Bowdoin College, and that of LL. D. 
by Waterville, Shurtleff, and the Gettysburg Theological Seminary. He 
was made chevalier of the Legion of Honor by the French govern- 
ment in 1 884. 




OLIVER OTIS HOWARD. 

281 



VINNIE REAM HOXIE. 



IN the realms of art America furnishes no greater name, perhaps, 
certainly not among women, than that of Vinnie Ream Hoxie, the 
famous sculptor, who enjoys the distinction of being the first woman 
who ever received an order from the United States Government for a 
statue. Mrs. Hoxie was born in Madison, Wis., September 23, 1846. 
A portion of her early life was spent in Washington, D. C, where 
her father held an office, but her family afterward lived in the West, 
and she was educated at Christian College, Missouri. During the war 
her family returned to Washington, where she was for a time employed 
in the postoffice department, but subsequently studied art, and soon 
devoted her whole attention to sculpture. Her work in this line was 
so successful that she made busts of General Grant, Reverdy Johnson, 
Albert Pike, John Sherman and Thaddeus Stevens, besides producing 
"The Indian Girl," a full-length figure cast in bronze, the marble 
"Miriam," etc. But her most important piece at this time was the 
statue of Abraham Lincob, ordered by the Government and placed in 
the Capitol at Washington. Miss Ream spent three years abroad, and 
produced medallions of many eminent men. On her return, she mod- 
eled a bust of Lincoln for Cornell University, a life-size statue of 
" Sappho," " The Spirit of the Carnival," etc. Her later works include 
a statue of Admiral Farragut, which was cast in bronze from metal 
obtained from the flagship "Hartford," and placed in Farragut Square, 
Washington. She was married May 28, 1878, to Capt. Richard L 
Hoxie, of the United States Corps of Engineers. Mrs. Hoxie does not 
allow her devotion to act to interfere with her family duties. She has 
a wide circle of friends and admirers. 




VINNIE REAM HOXIE. 
283 



JOHN JAMES INGALLS. 



THE student and writer in politics, has, in the man who so long 
represented Kansas in the United States Senate, proved a dis- 
tinguished figure. John James Ingalls was born in Middletown, Mass., 
December 29, 1833. He graduated at Williams College in 1855, stud- 
ied law and was admitted to the bar in 1857. He removed to Atchi- 
son, Kan., in 1858, and there engaged in the practice of his profes- 
sion. He was a member of the Wyandotte convention in 1859, sec- 
retary of the territorial council in 1860, and of the State Senate in 
1861, and was a member of the latter body in 1862. In the same 
year he was an unsuccessful candidate for lieutenant-governor of Kan- 
sas. After his defeat he accepted the editorship of the Atchison 
"Champion," which he retained for three years. At about this time 
he won almost national reputation by a series of brilliant magazine 
articles. He was again defeated for the lieutenant-governorship in 1864, 
but was elected to the United States Senate for the term beginning in 
1873. This office he held by successive re-elections for three terms, 
and in 1887 was chosen president pro tempore of the Senate. He 
ranked among the ablest debaters in that body. He was defeated by 
the Populist party in Kansas when a candidate for re-election for a 
fourth term, but has remained a political factor of importance, delivering 
many addresses, contributing important articles to the reviews, and losing 
none of his prestige as one of the most brilliant of orators and writ- 
ers. In the Senate his keen logic, his wonderful gift of sarcasm, and 
his political audacity made him especially dreaded by all opponents. 
He is not surpassed as a debater of the aggressive type and a master 
of scathing criticism. 




JOHN JAMES INGALLS. 

285 



WILLIAM LYNE WILSON. 



MANY a congressman who opposed with his voice and vote the 
so-called "Wilson bill" will cheerfully testify to the brilliant 
intellect and engaging personality of its author. Few men in the 
National House of Representatives were personally more popular than 
William L. Wilson, of West Virginia. Mr. Wilson entered Congress 
from the study of a college president. He was born in Jefferson 
County, Virginia, May 3, 1843, and was educated at the Charlestown 
Academy, Columbian College and the University of Virginia. During 
the Civil war he served in the Confederate army, and for several years 
after the war was a professor in Columbian College, but on the over- 
throw of the lawyer's test oath in West Virginia he resigned his chair 
and entered upon the practice of law in Charlestown, where he still 
resides. He has taken an active part in various political campaigns, 
and was permanent president of the National Democratic Convention, at 
Chicago, in J 892. He was elected president of the West Virginia 
University in 1882, but resigned during the following year to take his seat 
in the Forty-eighth Congress. Mr. Wilson was a member of Congress 
for twelve successive years. From the first he has advanced steadily to 
the front ranks, until now he is the Democratic leader on the floor, made 
so by force of character and ability, and against the preference of the 
Speaker. His hard work during the winter of 1894, in behalf of his 
favorite tariff measure, the " Wilson bill," so affected his health that 
for a time after the passage of the bill by Congress he was seriously 
ill and spent several months under a physician's care, traveling in 
Mexico. Upon the resignation of Mr. Bissell, from the office of Post- 
master-General, Mr. Wilson was appointed his successor. 

286 




WILLIAM LYNE WILSON. 
287 



EDWARD KEMEYS. 



BECAUSE of his taking the great wild animal life of this country 
at this time, and turning it into enduring marble or bronze and 
so illustrating its very pulse and spirit and personality, Mr. Edward 
Kemeys is a great man. He has done other things. He has made 
men's faces and forms and is a sculptor of note in such direction, but, 
after lH, what is greatest about Mr. Kemeys is that he has recognized 
the interest and the importance in art of representing the wild animals, 
more particularly the carnivora, of the continent, and that he has seized 
upon that life while still existing, transforming it into something perma- 
nent. He is a naturalist, a history-maker, a sympathizer with nature 
as well as a sculptor, who has done this thing. A strong, rude poem 
is one of Mr. Kemeys' wild animals put into marble. He makes the 
great cats as they have lived in our wilds something to wonder over 
and to study and enjoy. He was born in Savannah, Ga., in January, 
J 843. He was at school in New York when the Civil war began, 
but entered the army at once and came out as a captain. After the 
war he farmed in Illinois, then was one of the Engineer Corps in Cen- 
tral Park, N. Y., then, somehow, got to modeling things in clay. 
He succeeded as a sculptor. He went West and studied the animals, 
shot and dissected the buffalo, shot and dissected mountain lions, saw 
all these animals playing or fighting and then, finally, came back east- 
ward and began to make those figures of our wild beasts, just as they 
are, which have attracted the attention of the cultivated world. He is 
potent in a great field, one of those who are giving to American art 
a character of its own and what will compare favorably with the 
original productions of other nations. 




EDWARD KEMEYS. 

289 



GEORGE KENNAN. 



TO be an intelligent traveler and explorer, and to be able to graph- 
ically describe what one sees, is to be a useful contributor to 
the history and geography of the world. Such a person is George 
Kennan. He was born in Norwalk, Ohio, February 16, 1845, and 
obtained a high-school education by attending school during the day 
while working at night as a telegraph operator. In 1864 he was 
assistant chief operator in the telegraph office at Cincinnati, and in 
December of the same year went to Kamchatka, by way of Nicaragua, 
California and the North Pacific. As a leader of one of the Russo- 
American Telegraph Company's exploring parties in Northeastern Siberia, 
in 1865 and 1866, and as superintendent of construction for the middle 
district of the Siberian division from 1866 until 1868 he explored and 
located a route for the Russo-American telegraph line between the 
Okhotsk Sea and Behring Strait. In 1870 he went again to Russia to 
explore the mountains of the Eastern Caucasus, proceeded down the 
Volga River to the Caspian Sea, made extensive explorations on horse- 
back in Daghestan and Chechnia, crossing the great range of the Cau- 
casus three times in different places, and returned to America in 1871. 
In 1885 and 1886 he made a journey of fifteen thousand miles through 
Northern Russia and Siberia for the purpose of investigating the Rus- 
sian exile system, visited all the convict prisons and mines, and explored 
the wildest part of the Russian Altai. On his return to the United 
States, Mr. Kennan published a series of magazine articles, afterward 
issued in book form, and lectured extensively on Siberia He is also 
the author of "Tent Life in Siberia and Adventures Among the Koraks 
and Other Tribes in Kamchatka and Northern Asia." 




GEORGE KENNAN. 

291 



CHARLES KING. 



WHOEVER has failed to read the delightful army stories of Capt. 
Charles King is not fully competent to discuss current litera- 
ture. Captain King is a resident of Milwaukee, Wis. He was born 
in Albany, N. Y., October 12, 1844, being the only son of Gen. Rufus 
King, grandson of Charles King, LL. D., president of Columbia Col- 
lege, and great-grandson of Rufus King, of New York, who was twice 
Minister to England and twenty years United States senator. In 1845 
Gen. Rufus King settled in Milwaukee, and in 1862 his son was sent 
by President Lincoln to West Point, where he became adjutant of the 
Corps of Cadets and was graduated in 1866. He served twice as 
instructor of tactics at West Point; was aide-de-camp to General 
Emory during the reconstruction days in New Orleans; commanded 
his troop of the Fifth regiment of cavalry during the Apache campaign, 
and was severely wounded in action at Sunset Pass. Captain King 
served through the Sioux and Nez Perces campaigns of 1876, and 
1877 as adjutant of the Fifth cavalry. He was promoted to the rank 
of captain in 1879, and placed on the retired list because of wounds 
received in the line of duty. For ten years he was inspector and 
instructor of the Wisconsin National Guard and colonel of the Fourth 
Wisconsin infantry, and is now making a study of the European 
armies. He is best known as an author of military history and sol- 
dier stories. His novels, "The Colonel's Daughter," "Marion's Faith," 
"Captain Blake," "Between the Lines," "Dunraven Ranch" and oth- 
ers, have been widely read throughout the United States and abroad. 
While in the army Captain King was known as a gallant soldier. He 
is now regarded as an able teacher of military tactics. 

292 




CHARLES KING. 

293 



DANIEL SCOTT LAMONT. 



THERE was probably no member of President Cleveland's Cabinet 
who possessed more influence with the executive than did the 
man who, within a few years, developed from a private secretary 
into that prominent official, the Secretary of War. During Mr. Cleve- 
land's first administration Daniel S. Lamont was his confidential man, 
and at that time his imperturbable manner and chilling politeness gave 
White House visitors the impression that his chief characteristics were 
secretiveness and discretion. Mr. Lamont was born in Cortland County, 
New York, February 9, 1 85 1, and was the only child of a country 
merchant. After completing an academic course he entered his father's 
store as a clerk, but soon abandoned that occupation to seek a political 
career. He was a delegate to Democratic State conventions before he 
was of age, and was a member of the New York Assembly in 1870, 
J 871 and 1875. He was afterward chief clerk in the New York 
State department under John Bigelow, and was confidential secretary to 
Samuel J. Tilden during the latter's term as governor of New York. 
From 1875 until 1883 Mr. Lamont was secretary of the Democratic 
State Committee of New York, and as such displayed a marvelous 
acquaintance with the details of state politics, as well as knowledge of 
public men and politicians. His ability to remember persons and 
call them by name was quite remarkable. He introduced into the 
management of the War Department a shrewdness and tact that was 
of more value than mere statesmanship. Mr. Lamont is a business 
man and a methodical one. He acquired a reputation for ability and 
sterling honesty, and without seeking it made many friends and admirers 
■while in office. 

294 



DANIEL SCOTT LAMONT. 

295 



ISABELLA BEECHER HOOKER. 



WTH the blood of the Beechers in her, it is not surprising that 
the subject of this sketch should have shown force of charac- 
ter ind become widely known. Isabella Beecher Hooker was born in 
Litchfield, Conn., February 22, 1822. She was the first child of the 
second wife of Dr. Beecher, and one of that wonderful family so justly 
recognized with the Fields, the Washburnes, the fighting McCooks and 
others as among the notable ones produced in this republic. She mar- 
ried John Hooker, of Hartford, Conn., in 1 84 1. Mr. Hooker is a 
lawyer who has achieved a standing in his profession and has refused 
a seat on the supreme court bench of his native state. Soon after 
their marriage the couple moved to Hartford, Conn., where they have 
since resided. Mrs. Hooker has continued since her marriage her 
efforts in the direction of attaining woman suffrage. She is one of 
the best kno'wm living exponents of the claims of the women who 
want to vote. She has written much and well, and has talked much 
and well. She was one of the conspicuous figures in the Woman's 
Department of the World's Fair in 1893. At the golden wedding of 
Mr. and Mrs. Hooker occurred something phenomenal. The event 
took place August 5, 1 89 1; Senator Joseph B. Hawley acted as mas- 
ter of ceremonies, and there was a demonstration such as Hartford has 
rarely seen; the judges of the supreme court of the state paid their 
respects in a body, and woman's movements were represented by dis- 
tinguished representatives such as Susan B. Anthony and others. It 
was an event of note of the day. Such demonstration from such 
people could have come to no ordinary person. In a green old age 
Mrs. Hooker is still the center of an earnest circle of reformers- 

296 




ISABELLA BEECHER HOOKER. 

297 



WILFRID LAURIER. 



BRILLIANT and magnetic, if not always logical, with unquestioned 
sincerity in his devotion to principle and with an enthusiasm that 
is infectious. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, the leader of the Liberal party in 
Canada, belongs to the dramatic school of statesmen. He was born 
in St. Lin, Quebec, November 20, 1 84 1. He was educated at L'As- 
somption College, graduated in law at McGill University, and admitted 
to the bar in 1865. From J 87 1 to 1874 he was in the Quebec 
Assembly. He then entered the Dominion Parliament, and in 1877 
v/as appointed Minister of Inland Revenue in the Mackenzie government^ 
a position which he held until the resignation of the Ministry, in 1878. 
Since that year he has held no office, though he has continued to sit 
in Parliament. Upon the retirement of Edward Blake from the Lib- 
eral leadership, in 1887, M. Laurier, who had already been recognized 
as the head of the French-Canadian wing of the party, was unani- 
mously chosen to succeed him. He has since been knighted for his ser- 
vices to the cause which he represents. He was violently outspoken in his 
denunciation of the execution of Louis Riel, and demanded the latter's 
exemption from punishment upon the ground of his nationality. Sir 
Wilfrid was at one time editor of "Le Defricheur," is an earnest advo- 
cate of temperance, and was a delegate to the Dominion Prohibitory 
Convention at Montreal in 1875. Impassioned and eloquent in debate 
and on the platform. Sir Wilfrid Laurier has an enthusiastic following, 
especially with the extreme wing of the Liberal party, and is respected 
for his marked ability even by his political opponents. His power 
over his French-Canadian followers is absolute and they are devoted to 
him, heart and soul. 

298 




WILFRID LAURIER. 

299 



VICTOR F. LAWSON. 



IT has come to few men to reap greater profit from journalism than 
has Victor F. Lawson. He was born in Chicago, September 9, 
1850. His father was a native of Norway, who came to the United 
States prior to 1840 and soon after settled in Chicago, where he accu- 
mulated a handsome estate, including the premises at 123 Fifth avenue, 
now occupied by the "Daily News." Mr. Lawson received his early 
education in the public schools, graduating in the high school in 1869, 
and later attending Phillips Academy in Massachusetts and Cambridge 
University. Returning to Chicago, he engaged in the business as man- 
ager of his father's estate and publisher of the " Skandinavian." In 
July, 1876, he purchased an interest in the "Daily News" and assumed 
the business management of that paper. The subsequent remarkable 
success of the "News" was due in no small degree to the industry, 
enterprise and capital which Mr. Lawson put into the concern. In 
March, 1881, Mr. Lawson and his partner, Melville E. Stone, began 
to issue a morning edition of the paper, which was called the " Morn- 
ing News," later the " Record." Mr. Stone was soon afterward 
bought out by Mr. Lawson, but the successful career of the two news- 
papers continued, and is among the phenomena of journalistic triumphs 
of the time. The income from the papers is very great, and Mr. 
Lawson has become a rich man. He takes an active interest in pub- 
lic affairs and the general welfare of the community. Each summer 
thousands of poor children have a happier life because of his Fresh 
Air Sanitarium in Lincoln Park, and in various other ways has he 
manifested his regard for the obligations attaching to him, and which 
have resuked in so much good. 




VICTOR F. LAWSON. 

301 



MARY ELIZABETH LEASE. 



WHETHER or not one may agree with the views of the remark- 
able woman whose name has become familiar because of its 
frequent appearance in the political news from Kansas, there will be 
little inclination to deny her vigor and enthusiasm or her gift ot express- 
ive language. Mary Elizabeth Lease was born in Pennsylvarua, Sep- 
tember 11, 1853. Her parents were Joseph P. Clyens and Mar\ Eliz- 
abeth Murray Clyens. She was educated in the Allegheny, N. '/., 
convent school, and in the Young Ladies' Seminary at Ceres, N. Y. 
She married Charles L. Lease in 1873, and has for some years beeri 
a resident of Wichita, Kan. She visited Great Britain and Canada, 
and, impressed with reform ideas, made a study of what she saw. 
She took up the study of the law, and of recent years has been 
actively engaged in politics. The political revolution in Kansas brought 
her to the front, and she became prominent as a Populist leader, 
attracting special attention by her bitter opposition to the re-election of 
John J. Ingalls as United States senator, and later, in the last presi- 
dential campaign, by her Southern speaking tour in company with 
General Weaver, the Populist candidate. She was appointed president of 
the board of trustees of the charitable institutions of the state of Kan- 
sas and has held other places of official trust. Impulsive, ambitious 
and eloquent, and living in a state where political experiments have 
found their trial field, Mrs. Lease has acquired a reputation all her 
own, and one fairly the result of her own intellect and courage. She 
would, perhaps, have a better following were her views less radical 
and her course less aggressive toward those she does not like in poli- 
tics, but she has at least the courage of her convictions. 




MARY ELIZABETH LEASE. 
303 



CHARLES B. LEWIS. 



GENERAL writers of wit, humor, pathos and descriptive narrative 
are by no means few in the American field of journalism, but 
none has gained a wider reputation in his particular line than Charles 
B. Lewis, better known by his pen-name of "M. Quad." Mr, Lewis 
was born in northern Ohio early in the forties, and, after receiving a 
common-school education, learned the printer's trade. Desiring to better 
his condition, and hearing of an opening in Maysville, Ky., he started 
for that place, and came very near losing his life in consequence. The 
steamboat on which he took passage on the Ohio river was blown to 
atoms by the explosion of its boiler, and for several months Mr. Lewis 
hovered between life and death in a Cincinnati hospital. When the 
war broke out he went to the front with the Seventh Michigan cav- 
alry, and served with his regiment throughout the conflict. After being 
mustered out he went to Michigan and again took up the printer's 
trade. He was connected for a time with the Pontiac " Bill Poster," 
and then drifted to Lansing, where one winter he was engaged to act 
as legislative correspondent for the Detroit "Free Press." He subse- 
quently went to Detroit and became a reporter for the "Free Press," 
continuing his connection with that paper for over twenty-five years. 
He made himself and his paper famous with his short stories and arti- 
cles depicting the humorous and pathetic phases of city life. A few 
years ago he became connected with a New York paper, and since 
that time has resided in Brooklyn. He is now on the staff of the 
American Press Association. Mr. Lewis has written a number of nov- 
els that have been well received, but he is best known and most ad- 
mired as a humorist, 




CHARLES B. LEWIS. 

305 



SARA JANE LIPPINCOTT. 



DESERVING to be remembered always as the pioneer in the pres- 
ent well-occupied field of magazines for children, Mrs. Sara J. 
Lippincott still occupies a place in the esteem of thousands of men and 
women who think of her only as "Grace Greenwood," the editor of 
the "Little Pilgrim/' and the author of many entertaining books 
and short stories. Mrs. Lippincott is now living quietly in her pleas- 
ant home in Washington, D. C, and is still a great friend of the 
children. She was born in Pompey, Onondaga County, N. Y., Sep- 
tember 23, J 823. Much of her childhood was passed in Rochester, 
N. Y., but in 1842 she removed with her father to New Brighton, 
Pa., and in 1853 married Leander K. Lippincott, of Philadelphia. She 
published occasional verses at an early age under her own name, and 
in 1 844 her first prose publications appeared in the New York " Mir- 
ror," under the pen-name of "Grace Greenwood," which she has since 
retained. For a number of years she edited in Philadelphia the "Lit- 
tle Pilgrim," a high-class juvenile monthly magazine, which attained a 
wide popularity. She is also the author of many addresses and lec- 
tures, and has been largely connected with periodical literature as 
editor, contributor and newspaper correspondent. " Ariadne " is probably 
the best known of her poems. Among her books are "Greenwood 
Leaves," "History of My Pets," "Poems," "Recollections of My Child- 
hood," "Haps and Mishaps of a Tour in Europe," " Merrie England," 
'' Forest Tragedy and Other Tales," " Stories and Legends of Travel," 
^ History for Children," " Stories from Famous Ballads," " Stories of 
Many Lands," "Stories and Sights in France and Italy," "Records of 
Five Years," and " New Life in New Lands." 

306 




SARA JANE LIPPINCOTT. 

307 



IDA LEWIS. 



WHAT the story of Grace Darling is to Great Britain, that of 
Ida Lewis is to America. Ida Lewis was born in Newport, 
R. I., in 1841. Her father, Capt. Hosea Lewis, was keeper of the 
Lime Rock lighthouse in Newport harbor, and the daughter became in 
early life a skilled swimmer and oarswoman. She is now a lithe, 
active woman of fifty-two, and is still at the lighthouse and the work 
she did so many years ago. She has rescued sixteen persons from 
drowning, and was only a slight girl of seventeen when her first res- 
cue was made, a very daring one, of the crew of a boat upset near 
the lighthouse in a storm. The next morning she rowed them over 
to Fort Adams, whence an attempt had been made to launch a boat 
but had been abandoned as hopeless. There was astonishment at the 
Fort when she arrived with those whom she had rescued. Many 
similar feats of bravery have followed. The United States Goverment 
recogni2ed the heroism of Miss Lewis and bestowed upon her a gold 
medal of the first class, the first ever given to a woman. The Humane 
Society of Massachusetts has given her a silver medal, and the Life Sav- 
ing Benevolent Society of New York has done the same. Her snug 
little home is filled with testimonials of recogr.i.'^n of her heroism. 
She is one of the happiest of women in her increasing age. Her 
soft, abundant hair is scarcely tinged with gray, and her bright eyes 
are full of contentment. She has suffered grave losses of friends and 
relations, but her cheeks have the hue that the sea air gives and she 
is sturdy and joyous and buoyant all the time. She breakfasts at 
six, has enough to occupy all her time, and is almost the ideal of a 
cheerful philosophical Christian. 




-^^ 



^ 

m 



IDA LEWIS. 
309 



HENRY CABOT LODGE. 



THOUGH one of the youngest of the senators of the United States, 
Henry Cabot Lodge is by no means the least conspicuous. He 
■was born in Boston, May 12, 1850, and is a member of one of the 
oldest New England families. He graduated from Harvard University 
in J 87 1. Three years later he graduated from the law school, and 
in 1875 received the degree of Ph. D. for his thesis on the Land law 
of the Anglo-Saxons. The quality of his acquirements and his natu- 
ral talent were soon recognized, and he was appointed to the position 
of university lecturer on American history. At about the same time 
he accepted the position of editor of the *'' North American Review." 
He was elected to the Massachusetts legislature in 1880 and re-elected 
in J 881. He acquired rapidly a prominence in party councils, serving 
for two years as chairman of the Republican State Central Committee 
and appearing as a delegate in the Republican National Convention of 
1880 and 1884. In 1884 he became a candidate for Congress and 
was defeated, but was successful in 1888. He served in the Fiftieth, 
Fifty-first and Fifty-second Congresses and was re-elected to the Fifty- 
third. In 1893, with the expiration of the senatorial term of Henry 
L. Dawes, Mr. Lodge was elected for the term expiring in 1899. Mr. 
Lodge has been an overseer of Harvard University since 1884 and is 
widely known as a man of letters. He is the author of a number 
of books, among which are "Life and Letters of George Cabot," a 
" Short History of English Colonies in America," a " Life of Daniel 
Webster," and " Studies in History." He is a man of wonderful 
ability, and although not a conspicuous partisan his voice is potent in 
the councils of his party. 

3!0 




HENRY CABOT LODGE. 

31J 



MARY SIMMERSON CUNNINGHAM LOGAN. 



CURRENT history affords no more striking example of how the 
wife of a great man may become identified with her husband's 
career, appearing as his best adviser in the gravest crisis of political 
and civil life, than has been furnished by the wife of the late Senator 
John A. Logan. Before her marriage Mrs. Logan was Mary Sim- 
merson Cunningham, daughter of John M. Cunningham, of Missouri. 
She was born August 15, J 838, in Petersburg, Boone County, Mo., 
and was educated in the Convent of St. Vincent, in Kentucky. On 
leaving that institution she assisted her father, who had been elected 
sheriff and county clerk of Williamson County, Missouri, and appointed 
register of the land office at Shawneetown, III. While thus engaged 
she met John A. Logan, then prosecuting attorney, and was married 
to him November 27, 1855. During the years that her husband was 
winning fame on the battle-field she conducted the affairs of the home- 
stead and the small farm attached, and lent all the aid possible to his 
advancement. When General Logan appeared in politics, after the war, 
she manifested an active interest in his political affairs, and greatly 
assisted him by her earnest, tactful work. At the time of his nomi- 
nation for the vice-presidency with Mr, Blaine, it was she who 
restrained the impetuosity of her husband, who would have scorned the 
nomination, and prevented any differences between the leaders of the 
party. Mrs. Logan was one of the most gracious and popular host- 
esses during her husband's senatorial career. His death very nearly 
caused her own also, but recovering her health she became editor of 
the " Home Journal " of Washington, and is still a prominent factor in 
various public enterprises. 

312 



^""^ 




MARY SIMMERSON CUNNINGHAM LOGAN. 
3J3 



JAMES LONGSTREET. 



THE man who was considered the hardest fighter in the Confeder- 
ate service during the Civil war, and who was known in the 
army as "Old Pete," is now living quietly on a farm near Gaines- 
ville, Ga. Gen. James Longstreet was born in the Edgefield district, 
Hamburg, S. C, January 8, 182 J. He removed with his mother to 
Alabama in J 83 1, and was appointed from that state to the United 
States Military Academy, where he graduated in 1842. After serving 
on garrison and frontier duty for several years, his regiment partici- 
pated in the war with Mexico, where his conspicuous bravery won 
him repeated promotions, culminating in the rank of brevet major. He 
was severely wounded at the storming of Chapultepec. After the war 
he served as adjutant, captain and paymaster, chiefly on the Texas 
frontier, until 1861, when he resigned. In that year he was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general in the Confederate army, and after the first bat- 
tle of Bull Run was promoted to major-general. His brilliant war 
record is well known. Early in 1864 he was wounded by the fire 
of his own troops in the battle of the Wilderness, and a year later 
was included in the surrender at Appomattox. He had the unbounded 
confidence of his soldiers, who were devoted to him. After the war 
he engaged in commercial business in New Orleans, and affiliated with 
the Republican party. He was appointed surveyor of customs of the 
port of New Orleans by President Grant; supervisor of internal rev- 
enue, postmaster at New Orleans and Minister to Turkey by Presi- 
dent Hayes, and United States marshal for the district of Georgia by 
President Garfield. Gainesville, in the latter state, has since been his 
home. 

314 




JAMES LONGSTREET. 

315 



DALTON McCarthy. 



^ I ^HE leader of a party which is but a skeleton army, Dalton 
X McCarthy yet occupies an enviable position, so far as his stand- 
ing in the eyes of the people of the Dominion of Canada is concerned. 
He is about fifty years of age at the present time, and was for many 
years a barrister of prominence in Barrie, Ontario. None in his pro- 
fession occupied a higher standing at the bar. He moved to Toronto, 
where his success was continued. He became a queen's counsel, tak- 
ing a lively interest in politics, and became eventually a member of 
the Dominion Parliament. He attached himself to the Conservatives 
and soon acquired prominence in its councils. The time came when 
certain differences of opinion between him and the leaders of the party 
became so marked that he separated from them, though his affiliations 
did not extend in the direction of the Liberals. He became the rec- 
ognized head of what was known as the Equal Rights party, or 
league, something which may be explained to American readers as cor- 
responding in a measure with the so-called "Mugwumps" of the 
United States, that is, those who form a mJddle party— a sort of bal- 
ance-wheel. The party has never become dominant in Canada, but 
has always been respected alike by Conservatives and Liberals. At 
the recent election in Ontario it cut no figure, but is still an existent 
entity. Mr. McCarthy, aside from being a jurist of admitted great 
ability, is a fluent and ready debater and a forceful man in support of 
any measure which he may countenance in the Dominion Parliament. 
He is one of the strong and admirable figures in Canadian politics. His 
followers believe firmly in him and those who oppose his measures 
recognize his power. 

316 




DALTON MCCARTHY. 

3J7 



ALEXANDER KELLY McCLURE. 



STERNLY opposed to machine power in party management, and 
official incompetency and dishonesty in public office, Alexander K. 
McCIurc, the able editor of the Philadelphia ''Times/' is widely known 
as a champion of pure politics. He was born in Sherman's Valley, 
Perry County, Pa., January 9, J 828, and at the age of fourteen was 
apprenticed to the tanner's trade. In 1846 he began the publication of 
a Whig paper, the "Sentinel," at Mifflin, Pa. He sold this paper in 
J 850, purchased an inteiest in the Chambersburg "Repository," became 
its editor, and made it one of the most noted anti-slavery Journals in 
the state. In 1853 he was the Whig candidate for the position of 
auditor-general, being the youngest man ever nominated for a state 
office in Philadelphia. He was a member of the convention that 
organized the Republican party in 1855, and of the National Convention 
that nominated Fremont for the presidency in 1856. In the latter year 
he sold thf: "Repository," quitted journalism, and shortly thereafter was 
admitted to the bar. He served in the Legislature and State Senate 
from 1857 to 1860. In 1862 he repurchased the Chambersburg "Re- 
pository," but lost it in the burning of Chambersburg in 1864. In 
1868 he settled in Philadelphia and practiced law. He supported Hor- 
ace Greeley in the campaign of 1872, and was elected as an Independ- 
ent Republican to the State Senate. In the following year he was 
an independent candidate for the mayoralty of Philadelphia, and was 
defeated by a small plurality. Deciding to return to journalism, he 
joined Frank McLaughlin in the establishment of the "Times," a daily 
newspaper, in 1873, and since its foundation he has been its editor-in- 
chief. 




ALEXANDER KELLY McCLURE. 

3J9 



ALEXANDER McD. McCOOK. 



A GREAT family are those McCooks; they know something; they 
are cultivated and intellectual, but they will fight on every pos- 
sible occasion. It is doubtful, if in the history of the United States 
any other single family in two generations has ever made such a fight- 
ing record as have these same McCooks. The Doones, of whom 
Blackmore tells us, were hardly comparable with the McCooks, though 
the latter have fought only for the right. There were and are two 
branches of the family, known in Ohio as the "fighting McCooks," 
which branches are known respectively as the "Dan tribe" and the 
"John tribe." They are simply a good American family who acquired 
an astonishing reputation during the Civil war. Gen. Alexander 
McCook is but one of the family — there were sixteen fighting McCooks 
in the Civil war, all officers, except one who was killed at Bull Run 
in the first fight, and they made records of note. Of course, such 
people go to West Point, when they can. Gen. Alexander McCook 
was born on a farm near New Lisbon, Columbiana County, Ohio, 
April 22, 1831. He entered the United States Military Academy at 
West Point, and graduated in the class of 1852. At the opening of 
the Civil war he was made colonel of the First Ohio regiment, and 
from that time his record was but improved with successive campaigns. 
He was made a major-general for distinguished services at the battle of 
Shiloh, was later in command of the army of the Cumberland, and, 
later still, of one of the trans-Mississippi departments. His appointment 
to the command of the department of the Colorado was but a just rec- 
ognition of his service and ability. General McCook deserves the 
gratitude of the whole nation. 

320 




ALEXANDER McD. McCOOK. 

321 



WAYNE MacVEAGH. 



Tf TTEASURES and movements designed to purify politics and estab- 
lYX lish governmental reforms have ever had a stanch advocate in 
Wayne MacVeagh, of Pennsylvania, who has found it easy to snap 
party ties in the interest of what he conceives to be a patriotic duty. 
That is why, after holding high public positions by the grace of the 
Republican party, he is now United States Ambassador to Italy by 
appointment of a Democratic President. Mr. MacVeagh was born in 
Phoenixville, Chester County, Pa., April 19, 1833. He was graduated 
at Yale in 1853, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and served as 
district attorney of Chester County from 1859 until 1864. He was 
captain of cavalry in 1862, when the invasion of Pennsylvania was 
threatened, and in 1863 was chairman of the Republican Central Com- 
mittee of Pennsylvania. In 1870 he was appointed United States Min- 
ister to Turkey, returning the following year, and in 1872 became a 
member of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention. He was the 
chief member of the "MacVeagh Commission" that was sent to Louisi- 
ana in 1877 by President Hayes to represent him unofficially, and to 
endeavor to bring the conflicting parties in that state to an understand- 
ing. In 1881 he was appointed United States Attorney-General in the 
cabinet of President Garfield, but resigned on the accession of President 
Arthur, and resumed his law practice in Philadelphia. He was for 
several years chairman of the Civil Service Reform Association of that 
city, and also of the Indian Rights Association. In December, 1893, 
the embassy to Italy was offered by President Cleveland to Mr. Mac- 
Veagh, who accepted it, and soon after took up his residence in that 
coimtry. 




WAYNE MacVEAGH. 
323 



JOHN WILLIAM MACKAY. 



THE most noted and perhaps the most romantic incident in the 
mining history of this country was the discovery, in 1872, of 
the famous Bonanza mines, with their fabulous deposits of silver and 
gold. The name most prominently connected with this discovery was 
that of John W. Mackay, who became widely known as the chief of 
the "Bonanza Kings." Mr. Mackay was born in Dublin, Ireland, 
November 28, 1831. He came with his parents to New York in 
1840, where he was later apprenticed to the trade of ship building, but 
in 1849 he caught the gold fever and went to California, where he 
lived a miner's life for several years with varying fortunes. He 
acquired a technical and practical knowledge of mining, and in 1860 
left California for Nevada, where, in 1872, he was among those who 
discovered the "Bonanza" mines on a ledge of rock in the Sierra 
Nevadas, under what is now Virginia City. The incident changed 
the face of the silver markets of the world. The mines were owned 
by John W. Mackay, James C. Flood, James G. Fair (afterward sena- 
tor from Nevada) and William O'Brien, but Mr. Mackay 's interest was 
double that of any of his partners. From one mine alone was taken 
$150,000,000 in silver and gold, and the active yield of all of them 
continued for several years, during which time Mr. Mackay personally 
superintended them. In 1878, with Flood and Fair, he founded the 
Bank of Nevada, with its headquarters in San Francisco, and in 1884, 
in partnership with James Gordon Bennett, he laid two cables across 
the Atlantic. In 1893 an atteteipt was made on Mr. Mackay's life by 
a crank in the Grand Palace Hotel, San Francisco. He received a 
serious pistol-shot wound, from which, however, he recovered. 

324 




JOHN WILLIAM MACKAY. 
325 



BRANDER MATTHEWS. 



YOUNG man though he be, it is doubtful if among the writers 
and critics of the United States any one is more widely known 
than Brander Matthews. He was born in New Orleans, La., Febru- 
ary 21, 1852, but his education was attained in the North. He grad- 
uated at Columbia College in 1871, and studied law in 1873, being 
admitted to the bar in the same year. Then, instead of practicing 
law, he promptly turned his attention to literature. He wrote plays, 
and later contributed freely to periodicals, using the pseudonym 
"Arthur Perm." He has been active in all things pertaining to the 
profession. He is one of the founders of the Authors' Club, and was 
prominent in organizing the American Copyright League and the Dun- 
lap Society. Among his publications have been "The Theatres of 
Paris," "French Dramatists of the Nineteenth Century," "The Home 
Library," "The Last Meeting," "A Secret of the Sea," pen and ink 
essays on subjects of more or less importance, and several other works 
of equal quality. His plays include " Margery's Lovers," " This Pic- 
ture and That," "A Gold Mine," and others of relative importance. 
He has edited various publications, such as the "Rhymster," "Poems 
of American Patriotism," " Sheridan's Comedies," " Ballads of a Book," 
and others of their class. He is a most industrious editor as well as 
writer. He, as a critic, is becoming daily more and more widely 
known and becoming so, to a great extent, because he is fair and 
just, giving credit where it is honestly due, whether the work to be 
criticised is the product of an unknown writer or a prominent author. 
It is not only his literary ability but his sense of justice which is giving 
him prominence. 




BRANDER MATTHEWS. 

327 



BERTHA HONORE PALMER. 



EVENTS proved that no mistake was made in placing at the head 
of the Woman's Department of the World's Columbian Exposition 
so popular and capable a lady as Mrs. Potter Palmer. As president 
of the Board of Lady Managers she filled her position with such grace 
and dignity, such tact and intelligence, and such rare administrative 
ability as to excite the admiration of the world. Mrs. Palmer was 
born in Louisville, Ky., where her childhood and early girlhood were 
spent. Her father, H. H. Honore, was of French descent, and her 
mother belonged to one of the oldest and most aristocratic Southern 
families. She received her education in a convent near Baltimore, Md., 
and afterward removed with her family to Chicago, where her father 
became an extensive property owner. In 1871 she was married to 
Potter Palmer, one of Chicago's wealthiest citizens, and proprietor of 
the famous Palmer House. Mrs. Palmer has traveled much, and has 
a large acquaintance among distinguished people at home and abroad. 
Her mental acquirements and inherited grace and refinement have made 
her a leader in society, while her contributions to city and state chari- 
ties are only surpassed by the good she privately does. During the 
World's Fair of 1893 she gained world-wide fame as president of the 
Board of Lady Managers, and it was universally conceded that a bet- 
ter selection for that responsible office could not have been made. 
Under her administration the Woman's Department attained proportions 
which formed one of the most remarkable developments of the Exposi- 
tion. The Palmer residence on the Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, is 
one of the handsomest in a city noted for its beautiful homes. It is 
built in the style of an old feudal castle. 

328 




BERTHA HONORE PALMER. 
329 



JOSEPH MEDILL. 



rthe forefront of American journalism stands a man whose fame is 
as inseparably associated with that of the Chicago "Tribune" as 
was Horace Greeley's with that of the New York "Tribune" a 
quarter of a century ago. Joseph Medill was born in New Bruns- 
wick, Canada, April 6, J 823. He removed with his parents to Stark 
County, Ohio, in J 831, and until he was twenty-one years of age 
worked on his father's farm. Subsequently he studied law, and began 
the practice of his profession at New Philadelphia, Ohio, in J 846. In 
J 849 he founded a Free-Soil Whig paper at Coshocton, Ohio, and 
thenceforth devoted himself to Journalism. In J 852 he established the 
"Leader," a Free-Soil Whig paper, at Cleveland, and in 1854 was one 
of the organizers of the Republican party in Ohio. Shortly after this 
event he removed to Chicago, and in May, 1855, he and two partners 
purchased the Chicago "Tribune," which has ever since been conducted 
as a Republican journal. Mr. Medill was a member of the Illinois 
Constitutional Convention in 1870, when the organic law of Illinois was 
revised, and was the author of the minority representation and several 
other provisions of that law. In 1871 he was appointed by President 
Grant a member of the first United States Civil Service Commission, 
and in the following year was elected mayor of Chicago by an 
immense majority on the so-called "fire-proof" ticket. He spent a year 
in Europe in 1873-74, and upon his return purchased the controlling 
interest in the "Tribune," of which he became and now is editor-in- 
chief. Mr. Medill has a winter residence in Southern California, where 
he spends a portion of each year, but is still active and vigorous in 
the editorial management of his newspaper. 

330 




JOSEPH MEDILL. 

331 



WILLIAM RALPH MEREDITH. 



A STRIKING figure in the legislature of Canada's great Province 
of Ontario is William Ralph Meredith, leader of the opposition 
in that body. He was bom in Westminster Township, Middlesex 
County, Ontario, March 31, 1840, graduated in 1859 at Toronto Uni- 
versity, and later began the practice of law in London, Ontario, where 
he soon achieved a high standing. In 1888 he removed to Toronto, 
of which city he is now city solicitor, and became the head of one of 
the largest law firms there. In March, 1876, he was appointed a 
Queen's Counsel by the Ontario Government, and in October, 1880, he 
received a like honor from the Dominion Government. The degree of 
LL. D. was conferred upon him by the University of Toronto in May, 
1889. Mr. Meredith has long been looked upon as one who will 
surely attain to a high position in the Canadian judiciary, but hitherto 
he has declined all overtures in that direction, doubtless, it is said, 
because of the position he occupies as leader of his party in the legis- 
lative assembly, and also because he looks to Ottawa as a larger field 
of politici.1 possibilities for him. In 1872 Mr. Meredith was elected to 
represent London in the Ontario Assembly. In 1878, on the elevation 
to the bench of the late Sir Matthews Crooks Cameron, he was unan- 
imously chosen as that gentleman's successor in the leadership of the 
Conservatives in the legislature. He is a man of striking and agree- 
able personal appearance, a fluent speaker, and has, apparently, the full 
confidence of the political party to which he belongs and in the coun- 
cils of which he leads. His position as leader of the opposition in 
Ontario gives him special prominence, because, as things are, he is in 
touch with the Ottawa Government. 

332 




WILLIAM RALPH MEREDITH. 

333 



WESLEY MERRITT. 



A GOOD soldier with a good record is Gen. Wesley Merritt, of 
the United States army. He was born in New York City, 
June 16, 1836. He graduated at the United States Military Academy 
in 1860, was assigned to the dragoons and was promoted to be first 
lieutenant in 1861 and captain in 1862. He took part in Gen. Stone- 
man's raid toward Richmond in 1863, and was in command of the 
reserve cavalry brigade in the Pennsylvania campaign of the same year, 
being about this time commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. For 
gallant conduct at Gettysburg he was brevetted major in the Regular 
army. He took part in various engagements in central Virginia in 
1863-64, and was brevetted lieutenant-colonel and colonel in the Regu- 
lar army and major-general of volunteers for gallantry in the battles of 
Yellow Tavern, Hawe's Shop and Winchester. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general and major-general in the Regular army for bravery at 
the battle of Five Forks, and later was commissioned major-general of 
volunteers. After the war he was employed chiefly on frontier duty 
until 1882, when he was placed in charge of the United States Mili- 
tary Academy at West Point. Here his strictness made him for a 
time almost unpopular with the cadets, but they learned to know his 
real quality and to regard him as a great head of a great school. In 
1887 he was ordered to Fort Leavenworth, and in 1887 became briga- 
dier-general. His career since the date named has been what was to 
be expected of such a man with such a record. He is one of the 
trusted generals of the army of the United States, and is at the pres- 
ent time commanding the department of Missouri, with headquarters at 
Chicago. He is a fine soldier. 

334 




WESLEY MERRITT. 
335 



CINCINNATUS HEINE MILLER. 



RECOGNIZED by all who can read and understand, as a great 
poetic genius, Cincinnatus Heine ( better known as Joaquin ) Mil- 
ler occupies an admitted position in American literature. Sir Edwin 
Arnold has declared Joaquin Miller one of the two American poets 
whose fame will endure. He was born in the Wabash district, in 
Indiana, November 10, 1841, and when thirteen years old immigrated 
with his family to Oregon. Three years afterward the boy went 
alone to California, but returning later to Eugene, Ore., he became the 
editor of the Democratic "Register" in that town. In 1863 he opened 
a law office in Canyon City, Ore., and from 1866 to 1870 served as 
county judge of Grant County. It was at about this time that his 
first poems appeared, one collection, entitled "Joaquin et Al.," giving 
him the name by which he is best known. In 1871 he published, 
in London, "Songs of the Sierras" and "Pacific Poems." In 1873 
appeared "Songs of the Sun Lands" and a prose volume entitled 
"Life Among the Modocs," "Unv/ritten History." His later works 
are the "Ship in the Desert," 1875; "The Danites in the Sierras," 
"The One Fair Woman," 1876; "Baroness of N. Y.," 1877; "Songs 
of Far Away Lands," 1878; "Songs of Italy," 1878; "Shadows of 
Shasta," 1881; "Memorie & Rime," 1884; "Forty-Nine, the Gold- 
Seeker of the Sierras," 1884, and he has since published other vol- 
umes, lately adding to his reputation by "The Building of the City 
Beautiful," appearing in 1893. A new edition of his works appeared 
in 1890 in response to the increasing appreciation of his undoubted 
genius. The poet lives on a height, near Oakland. Cal., overlooking 
the great ocean, of which he sings so well. 




CINCINNATUS HEINE MILLER. 
337 



DARIUS OGDEN MILLS. 



YEARS ago the "luck of D. O. Mills" became a proverb on the 
Pacific coast, but it was luck attended with a reputation for 
judgment, rapid decision, boldness and absolute integrity. Mr. Mills 
began at the very bottom of the ladder. Born in North Salem, West- 
chester County, N. Y., September 5, 1825, he was left without resources 
at the age of sixteen, and from a poorly paid clerk in New York City 
became, at twenty-two, cashier and one-third owner of a small bank in 
Buffalo. Two years later he went to California and established in 
Sacramento the gold bank of D. O. Mills & Co., which was immedi- 
ately and conspicuously successful. He became largely interested in 
mines on the Comstock lode, forest lands and other property, and in 
1864 founded the Bank of California, in San Francisco, of which he 
assumed the presidency. For years this bank had the highest credit 
in the financial centers both of Europe and Asia. Mr. Mills resigned 
and withdrew from the management of the concern in 1873, and two 
years later the bank was wrecked through disastrous speculations on 
the part of its president, William C. Ralston. Its failure created an 
excitement that convulsed the Pacific coast. Ralston committed suicide. 
Mr. Mills again became president, and in three years had firmly re- 
established the bank. He then left it, and gradually transferred his 
heavy investments to the East, where he erected the largest office 
building in New York, and finally returned to reside near his birth- 
place. Mr. Mills has made several munificent gifts to the state of 
California and the city of New York, and gave $75,000 to found the 
Mills professorship of moral and intellectual philosophy in the Univer- 
sity of California. 

338 




DARIUS OGDEN MILLS. 

339 



ROGER QUARLES MILLS. 



IT is high praise to say of any man that he is best liked where he 
is best known. No better evidence of a man's popularity and 
influence in his own community could be desired than the fact that he 
has been chosen to represent that community continuously for a quar- 
ter of a century in the legislative halls of the country. Such has 
been the lot of Roger Q. Mills, the junior senator from Texas. Sen- 
ator Mills was born in Todd County, Kentucky, March 30, 1832. 
After receiving a common-school education he removed to Palestine, 
Tex., in J 849, where he studied law, supporting himself in the mean 
time by serving as an assistant in the postoffice and in the offices of 
the court clerks. In 1850 he was elected engrossing clerk of the 
Texas House of Representatives, and in 1852, by a special act of the 
Legislature — for he was still a minor — he was admitted to the bar. 
He practiced his profession at Corsicana, and in 1859 was elected to 
the Legislature. Subsequently he was colonel of the Tenth Texas 
regiment in the Confederate service. In 1873 he was elected to Con- 
gress from the state at large as a Democrat, and served continuously 
in that body until he resigned to accept the position of United States 
senator, to which he was elected March 23, 1892. In 1876 Mr. Mills 
opposed the creation of an electoral commission, and in 1887 canvassed 
Texas against the adoption of the prohibition amendment to its consti- 
tution, which was defeated. He introduced into the House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1888 the bill that was known by his name, reducing the 
duties on imports and extending the free list. Senator Mills is a man 
of much quiet force, whose opinions in legislative matters have great 
weight. 



ROGER QUARLES MILLS. 

341 



HARRIET STONE MONROE. 



BROUGHT suddenly into prominence as the poet-laureate of the 
"World's Columbian Exposition, Miss Harriet S. Monroe, of Chi- 
cago, passed safely through the ordeal of criticism thus invited and now 
occupies a secure place among American poets. A volume of her 
poems, published under the title of ''Valeria, and Other Poems," has 
won from well known critics pronounced and cordial commendation. 
Miss Monroe was born in Chicago, December 23, 1860, her parents 
having moved to that city from central New York five years earlier. 
Her education was begun in the public schools, and continued in Dear- 
born Seminary, and at the age of sixteen she entered the Academy of 
the Visitation, at Georgetown, D. C, where she remained two years. 
While there she gave special attention to the study of composition, and 
to some extent indulged her inclination to write verses for her own 
amusement. After leaving school she engaged seriously in literary pur- 
suits, but for some time was content to have no other audience than 
her immediate friends. "Valeria" was first printed for private circula- 
tion in 1891, but in the latter part of 1892 the work was enlarged 
and brought out by a Chicago publisher. By request of the commit- 
tee on ceremonies of the World's Columbian Exposition, Miss Monroe 
wrote the "Opening Ode" for the dedication of the White City, which 
occurred October 21, 1892. Parts of the poem were read and parts 
of it sung by the great chorus on that memorable occasion. In prose 
Miss Monroe has done considerable journalistic work, chiefly in the 
line of art and literary criticisms, and has written a number of clever 
essays on the English poets. She is a graceful writer, and her essays, 
like her poems, are distinguished by simplicity and sincerity. 




HARRIET STONE MONROE. 

343 



lUSTIN SMITH MORRILL. 



ONE of the truly great men in the United States Senate, who com- 
mands the closest attention whenever he addresses that body on 
any of the important questions of the day, is the senior senator from 
Vermont. Senator Morrill has passed his eighty-fourth birthday, and 
for nearly forty years his voice has been heard in the legislative halls 
of the national government. He was born in Strafford, Orange County, 
Vt., April 14, 1 8 10. He received a common-school and academic edu- 
cation and engaged in mercantile pursuits until 1848, when he turned 
his attention to agriculture. He was elected to Congress in J 855 as 
a Republican, and was five times re-elected, serving from December, 
1855, until March 3, 1867. During the stirring times immediately pre- 
ceding the Civil war he was looked upon as a leader in the House, 
and his power and influence never waned thereafter. He was the 
author of the "Morrill" tariff of 1861, and acted as chairman of the 
committee of ways and means in 1864 and 1865. In 1867 he was 
elected United States senator from Vermont, and has served continu- 
ously in that body from March 4 of that >ear until the present time. 
His present term will expire in 1897. Senator Morrill is the author 
of ** Self-Consciousness of Noted Persons," published in 1886, a work 
which is a most interesting addition to thoughtful and analytical litera- 
ture. He is a fluent and graceful writer, as he is a forcible and elo- 
quent speaker. In debate he has few equals in the Senate, and he 
is especially strong on all questions affecting the tariff, which he has 
made a special study during his public life, and which has been the 
subject of some of his ablest oratorical efforts, delivered from the stand- 
point of a protectionist. 

344 




JUSTIN SMITH MORRILL. 

345 



JULIUS STERLING MORTON. 



INTIMATELY associated with all the material growth of Nebraska 
during the last forty years, J. Sterling Morton stepped into Presi- 
dent Cleveland's Cabinet fully equipped for the intelligent performance 
of the duties devolving upon him as Secretary of Agriculture. Mr. 
Morton was born in Adams, Jefferson County, N. Y., April 27, 1832, 
but at an early age removed with his parents to Michigan, and was 
graduated at Ann Arbor University. He subsequently graduated at 
the Union College of Law, New York, and after a brief editorial 
career with the Detroit "Free Press" and Chicago "Times," settled in 
Bellevue, Neb., in 1854. In the following year he started the 
Nebraska City "News," and was elected to the territorial legislature. 
He was re-elected in 1857, and in 1858 was appointed secretary of the 
territory to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Gov. Thomas B. 
Cuming, serving in that capacity until May, 1861. In I860 he was 
nominated for Congress, and was given the certificate of election, but 
was unseated by contest. In 1866 he was again defeated as the 
Democratic candidate for the first state governorship of Nebraska. After 
a retirement of fifteen years from politics, he was a candidate for the 
governorship in 1880, 1884 and 1892, each time failing of election, and 
in 1893 President Cleveland appointed him Secretary of Agriculture. 
Mr. Morton has been the favorite candidate of his party several times 
for the United States Senate. He is a practical agriculturist and hor- 
ticulturist, and has contributed largely to the best literature on those 
subjects. He is also the author of the Arbor Day legislation, which 
provides that one day in each year, April 22, be made a public holi- 
day devoted to tree planting. 

346 



JULIUS STERLING MORTON. 

347 



JOHN SINGLETON MOSBY. 



AFTER a career that reads more like a thrilling romance than a 
record of actual facts, that once famous Southerner, Col. John S. 
Mosby, is now engaged in the practice of law on the Pacific coast. 
He was born in Powhattan County, Virginia, December 6, 1833. 
While attending the University of Virginia, he shot and seriously 
wounded a student, who assaulted him. He was fined and sentenced 
to imprisonment, but was pardoned by the governor, and his fine was 
remitted. Becoming a lawyer, he practiced at Bristol, Va., until the 
beginning of hostilities in 1861, when he enlisted in the Confederate 
cavalry, and soon became noted as a fighter. Acting as scout, he 
guided General Stuart's force in a bold raid in the rear of Gen. George 
B. McCIellan's position on the Chickahominy, June 14, 1862. In Jan- 
uary, 1863, he crossed the Rappahannock into northern Virginia, which 
had been abandoned to the occupation of the National army, and 
recruited a force of irregular cavalry, with which he harassed the Fed- 
eral lines by cutting communications, destroying supply trains in the 
rear of invading armies, and capturing many cavalry outposts. In 
JVIarch, 1863, he routed a cavalry force much larger than his own, 
and a month later defeated a detachment sent especially to capture him. 
Once he was surrounded in the rear of Hooker's army, but cut his 
way through the lines. He was several times wounded. The Con- 
federate Congress placed his partisan rangers on the same footing as 
the cavalry of the line. After the war Colonel Mosby settled at War- 
renton, Va. He supported Grant in 1872, and Hayes in 1876, for 
the presidency, and by the latter was appointed consul at Hong Kong, 
where he remained six years. 




JOHN SINGLETON MOSBY. 

349 



LOUISE CHANDLER MOULTON. 



THE author of many exquisite sonnets, which not a few critics 
have placed at the head of their kind in America, the literary- 
reputation of Louise Chandler Moulton rests upon her poetry, notwith- 
standing the excellence and wide range of her prose work. Born in 
Pomfret, Conn., April 5, 1835, she was educated at Mrs. Emma Wil- 
lard's Seminary in Troy, N. Y., and began to contribute to periodicals 
under the name of "Ellen Louise" at the age of fifteen. She was 
only nineteen when she published her first book, "This, That and the 
Other," which was very successful, and after her marriage in 1855 to 
William U. Moulton, a publisher of Boston, she wrote "Juno Clifford," 
a novel, and contributed many articles and short stories to the maga- 
zines. In 1873 Roberts Brothers, of Boston, became her publishers, 
and have issued many volumes of her poetical and prose works, which 
have had a large sale. From 1870 to 1876 she was the Boston lit- 
erary correspondent of the New York " Tribune," and for five years 
she wrote a weekly letter on bookish topics for the Boston "Sunday 
Herald." Mrs. Moulton's home is in Boston, but she spends her 
summers and autumns abroad, principally in London and Paris, and 
her society and literary letters from those cities are much sought after 
by American newspaper publishers. Since the death of Philip Bourke 
Marston, in 1887, she has edited two volumes of his verses, "Garden 
Secrets" and "A Last Harvest," with a preface and biographical 
sketch of the author. It has been said of Mrs. Moulton that she is 
in herself two phenomena— the dedicated and conscientious poet, and the 
poet whose wares are marketable and popular. She is especially happy 
in her stories for children. 

350 




LOUISE CHANDLER MOULTON. 

3S1 



OLIVER MOWATT. 



STURDY man physically as well as mentally is the premier and 
attorney-general of the province of Ontario, Canada. Oliver 
Mowatt (now Sir Oliver) was born in Kingston, Upper Canada, July 
22f J 820. He received a thorough education, adopted the law as his 
profession, and was called to the bar in 1842. He was appointed a 
queen's counsel in 1856, and a bencher of the Law Society for the 
province in the same year. He became a member of the Senate, and 
an LL. D. of Toronto University. From J 856 to 1859 he was a 
commissioner for consolidating the public general statutes of Canada and 
Upper Canada. He entered political life in 1858, as representative of 
South Ontario; was provincial secretary in the same year; postmaster- 
general in 1863-64; and from November, 1864, until October, 1872, 
was vice-chancellor of Upper Canada. His prominence in the Liberal 
party of the province grew rapidly, and his acuteness as a political 
leader was soon recognized after he had fairly entered the political 
field. He left the bench at the period last named to form a new 
administration in Ontario, and became premier and attorney-general for 
the province, and representative of North Oxford in the Legislature. 
He is the author of many important legislative measures in the pro- 
vincial parliament, among which is the judicature bill, an act passed 
for the fusion of law and equity in the courts of Ontario. Time 
does not seem to tell upon him as upon most men. He is the same 
genial, alert, and politic director of affairs that he was long ago, and 
still apparently capable of guiding the destinies of his party successfully 
for a long time to come. He has been in power for twenty-two 
years and has just been again triumphant in a hard-fought campaign. 

352 




OLIVER MOWATT. 

353 



THOMAS NAST. 



NO other caricaturist in the world ever gained such wide popularity 
as Thomas Nast, whose famous autograph and peculiar style 
of work have for years been familiar to millions of readers of pictorial 
literature. Mr. Nast was born in Landau, Bavaria, September 27, 
1840, and was brought to the United States by his father in 1846. 
When a boy of fourteen he spent about six months in the drawing 
classes of Theodore Kaufmann, and then, with no other preparatory 
art instruction, he was engaged as a draughtsman on an illustrated 
paper. In 1860 he went to England as special artist for a New 
York weekly paper, thence to Italy, where he followed Garibaldi, mak- 
ing sketches for the leading illustrated papers of New York, London 
and Paris. Returning to New York he began, in July, 1862, drawing 
war sketches for "Harper's Weekly." His very first political carica- 
ture, an allegorical design that gave a powerful blow to the peace 
party, brought him into public notice and he immediately became popu- 
lar. Besides his work for " Harper's Weekly," by which he is best 
known, Mr. Nast has drawn for other periodicals, illustrated a number 
oi books, issued "Nast's Illustrated Almanac" for several years, and 
executed many caricatures in water colors. Since 1873 he has spent 
much of his time lecturing in the principal cities of the United States, 
drawing caricatures and sketches on the stage with extreme rapidity by 
way of illustration. In his particular line, pictorial satire, Thomas 
Nast stands in the foremost rank, and his talent in that respect has 
been productive of some excellent results, such as the overthrow of the 
Tweed ring in New York City, and the arousing of popular sentiment 
against various iniquities, political and otherwise. 




THOMAS NAST. 

355 



KNUTE NELSON. 



STURDY, thrifty and loyal, with mental and physical capacities that 
enable them to adapt themselves to any line of useful work, the 
United States has no better citizens than those who come from the 
land of the Vikings. Knute Nelson, ex-Governor of Minnesota, is 
one of these. He was born in the parish of Voss, near the city 
of Bergen, Norway, February 2, 1843. When three years of age 
he lost his father, and in 1849 he came to the United States with 
his mother, living in Chicago until the fall of 1850, and then in the 
state of Wisconsin until the summer of 1871. In August of the lat- 
ter year he removed to Alexandria, Minn., which city has since been 
his home. Mr. Nelson is a graduate of the Albion, Wis., Academy. 
He served in the Civil war as a private and non-commissioned officer, 
and was wounded and taken prisoner at the siege of Port Hudson, 
La. After the war he studied law, and in 1867 was admitted to the 
bar of the Circuit court of Dane County. He was a member of the 
Wisconsin Legislature in 1868 and 1869; was county attorney for Doug- 
las County, Minnesota, from 1872 to 1874; was state senator in the 
Minnesota Legislature from 1875 to 1878; was presidential elector on 
the Republican ticket in 1880, and was a member of the board of 
regents of the State University from February, 1882, to January, 1893. 
He was elected to the Forty-eighth Congress from the Fifth district of 
Minnesota, and was twice re-elected, his course in that body being 
such as to greatly increase his popularity. In 1892 Mr. Nelson was 
nominated by acclamation for governor of Minnesota, and elected. He 
has made a reputation as a conscientious and common-sense politician, 
and his influence is great among his own countrymen in the Northwest. 




KNUTE NELSON. 

357 



RICHARD JAMES OGLESBY. 



PERPETUALLY beaming with cordial good nature, and as full of 
humorous anecdote and apt illustration as that other son of Illi- 
nois, the immortal Lincoln, ex-Senator Oglesby is affectionately referred 
to by his political friends, as he once was by his soldiers, as "Uncle 
Dick." He v/as born in Oldham County, Kentucky, July 25, 1824. 
Left an orphan at the age of eight years, he removed to Decatur, 
HI., in 1836, and learned the carpenter's trade, which, with farming 
and rope-making, occupied him until 1844. He had studied law in 
the mean time, and in 1845 was admitted to the bar. He partici- 
pated in the Mexican war as first lieutenant in the Fourth Illinois regi- 
ment, and in 1847 resumed the practice of law in Decatur. In 1849 
he went to California and engaged in mining until 1851, when he 
returned to Illinois. In 1860 he was elected to the State Senate, but 
resigned in the following year to accept the colonelcy of the Eighth 
Illinois Volunteer regiment. He commanded a brigade at the capture 
of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, and for gallantry was made briga- 
dier-general. Again distinguishing himself at Corinth, where he was 
severely wounded, he was promoted to the rank of major-general. He 
resigned in 1864, and in November of that year was elected governor 
of Illinois He continued in that office until 1869, and was again 
elected in 1872. During the following year he was chosen United 
States senator, serving in that capacity until March 3, 1879. In 1884 
he was again elected governor for a term of four years, and since 
1888 has held no public office. General Oglesby takes a great inter- 
est in the affairs of the Grand Army of the Republic. He is one of 
the greatest sons of his great state. 

358 




RICHARD JAMES OGLESBY. 

359 



GEORGE WASHINGTON PECK. 



GRADUATING from the printer's case to the editorial tripod, and 
there acquiring a national reputation as a humorist, George W. 
Peck found it a comparatively easy matter to make the rest of the 
journey to the honorable position of governor of Wisconsin. His early 
life was a continuous struggle for a competence. Born in Henderson, 
Jefferson County, N. Y., September 2rf 1840, he was taken to Wis- 
consin in childhood by his parents. At '/ne age of fifteen he was 
apprenticed to the printer's trade in the office of the Whitewater ( Wis. ) 
"Register," and afterward worked in various places as a journeyman 
printer. In I860 he purchased on credit a half interest in the "Jeffer- 
son County Republican," at Jefferson, Wis., but sold out a year later. 
In 1863 he enlisted as a private in the Fourth Wisconsin Volunteer 
Cavalry, and for two and a half years served with his regiment in 
the south, being promoted to the rank of lieutenant. In the fall of 
1866 he went to Ripon, Wis., and started a newspaper called the 
"Representative," which he conducted for about two years, and was 
then engaged as a writer for the La Crosse "Democrat," published by 
"Brick" Pomeroy. He subsequently became half owner of that paper 
and changed its name to the "Liberal Democrat." In 1874 he founded 
the "Sun" at La Crosse, removed it to Milwaukee in 1878, called it 
""Peck's Sun," and made it a great success. As a vehicle for his 
humorous musings it became very popular. Some of his collected arti- 
cles have been published in book form, notably " Peck's Bad Boy." 
Mr. Peck was first mayor of Milwaukee and was subsequently elected 
governor of Wisconsin on the Democratic ticket in 1892. He enjoys 
the respect and confidence of the people. 




GEORGE WASHINGTON PECK. 
361 



THOMAS WITHERELL PALMER. 



OF the many hundreds who have enjoyed his hospitality, or even 
of the many thousands who have formed his acquaintance in a 
social, political, or business way, it would be difficult to find one who 
has anything but praise for ex-Senator Palmer, of Michigan. His 
genial disposition and sympathetic nature have given him a strong hold 
on a wide circle of friends, whose number was greatly increased dur- 
ing the World's Fair of 1893. Thomas W. Palmer was born in 
Detroit, January 25, 1830. After receiving an education he made a 
pedestrian tour in Spain, traveled in South America, and then engaged 
in mercantile life in Wisconsin. Subsequently he became a successful 
lumber merchant in Detroit, and interested himself in the politics of the 
state, serving as a member of the board of estimates and as a state 
senator in 1878. He was defeated for Congress in 1876, but was 
elected United States senator from Michigan for a term of six years 
from March 4, 1883. Upon the election of President Harrison, Senator 
Palmer was appointed Minister to Spain, but not finding the climate 
of that country agreeable he soon after resigned and returned to Detroit. 
In June, 1890, he was elected president of the National Commission 
having charge of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, a post 
which he filled most acceptably until after the close of the Exposition. 
Mr. Palmer impresses one as a man who thoroughly enjoys life, and 
is anxious that everybody about him should do the same. He is 
noted for his magnificent hospitality, his optimistic estimate of human 
character and motives, and his readiness to extend a helping hand to 
those who are striving to gain a foothold in the world. Naturally, he 
has a host of friends. 

362 




THOMAS WITHERELL PALMER. 
363 



ELIA WILKINSON PEATTIE. 



JOURNALISTIC ability of the highest order, and a versatility and 
capacity for work that are amazing, must be accorded to that brill- 
iant western writer, Mrs. Elia W. Peattie. She was born in Kala- 
mazoo, Mich., January 15, 1862, and before she was ten years old 
was taken by her parents to Chicago, where she grew to womanhood, 
and where she was married in J 883 to Robert Burns Peattie, a well- 
known Chicago journalist. She was an omnivorous reader from child- 
hood, and had written several short stories that attracted attention 
before she became regularly employed on the Chicago "Tribune" as a 
reporter. She afterward held a similar position on the " Morning 
News" — now the "Record" — and in J 888 removed with her husband 
to Omaha, since which time she has been one of the leading editorial 
writers of the Omaha "World-Herald." In addition to her editorial 
work, which has taken the widest possible range of subject, she pub- 
lishes every week a signed article on topics of her own choosing. 
Her regular literary work has included many contributions to such 
juvenile publications as " St. Nicholas " and " Wide-Awake," and such 
leading periodicals as the " Century," " Harper's Weekly," " Cosmopoli- 
tan" and " Lippincotts'." While in Chicago, between the rush of 
newspaper work and home duties, she wrote "The Story of 
America," a child's history, which has passed through many editions, 
and "With Scrip and Staff," a remarkable story of the children's cru- 
sade in the year 1200. She also wrote "The Judge," a novel, which 
was awarded a prize by the Detroit "Free Press," and afterward pub- 
lished in book form. She is one of the founders of the Omaha 
Woman's Club, and frequently lectures on literary and economical topics. 




ELIA WILKINSON PEATTIE. 

365 



JOHN McAULEY PALMER. 



WHETHER on a battle-field or in a political campaign, in a legal 
contest or legislative debate, Senator John M. Palmer, of Illi- 
nois, is known as a man of aggressive courage. He is a native of 
Eagle Creek, Scott County, Ky., where he was born September 13, 
1817. He removed with his father to Madison County, Illinois, in 
1831, completing his education in Alton (now Shurtleff ) College, and 
in 1839 settled in Carlinville, where he was admitted to the bar. He 
was twice elected probate judge of Macoupin County; was a delegate 
to the State Constitutional Convention in 1847; served as county judge 
for forty years thereafter, and was a member of the State Senate from 
1852 until 1856. In the latter year he was a delegate to the Repub- 
lican National Convention in Philadelphia, and in 1860 was a presiden- 
tial elector on the Republican ticket. He was elected a member of 
the Peace Conference in Washington in 1861, and in the same year 
he was made colonel of the Fourteenth Illinois infantry, participating in 
the Civil war. He was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general 
December 20, 1861, and for conspicuous gallantry at the battle of Stone 
River was commissioned major-general November 29, 1862. General 
Palmer was elected governor of Illinois in 1868, and held the office 
until 1873. He was afterward three times a candidate for the United 
States Senate as a Democrat, but failed of election, and in 1888 
entered the race for the governorship of Illinois and was defeated. In 
1890 he was elected United States senator by the Democratic members 
of the Legislature, and has since been dealing sledge-hammer blows at 
the opposition in Washington. His term will expire March 3, 1897. 
He is a man of great force. 

366 




JOHN MCAULEY PALMER. 
367 



THOMAS COLLIER PLATT. 



T TERY few shrewder men, very few men more earnest in following 
V a path once entered upon, and very few more sensible and 
adaptable have appeared in American politics than Thomas Collier Piatt, 
of New York. He was born in Owego, N. Y., July 15, 1833. He 
received a thorough education and entered Yale College, but left in 
1853, at the end of his sophomore year, because of failing health. 
He continued his studies, however, and in 1876 received the honorary 
degree of M. A. He engaged in business, and eventually became 
president of the Tiogo, N. Y., National Bank, and later engaged in 
the lumber business in Michigan, becoming a business man of decided 
prominence and influence. In 1872 he was elected to Congress, and 
was re-elected in 1874, in the mean time becoming a most important 
factor in state politics. In January, 1881, he was chosen United States 
senator, to take the place of Francis Kernan. His occupancy of the 
seat was but a brief one. There came the famous fight over the 
distribution of patronage in New York, and then followed the simulta- 
neous resignation of Roscoe Conklin and Thomas Piatt, the two sena- 
tors from New York. Mr. Piatt became again a candidate for the 
seat, but was defeated. He then became secretary and director of the 
United States Express Company, and since 1880 has been its president. 
He has not, however, disappeared from politics. He became commis- 
sioner of quarantine of New York, when his strong hand was felt as 
it is felt now in the trend of New York politics. He was a mem- 
ber of the National Republican conventions in 1876, 1880 and 1884, 
and for • years was a member of the Republican National Committee. 
Mr. Piatt is recognized as a power in politics. 

365 




THOMAS COLLIER PLATT. 

369 



TERENCE VINCENT POWDERLY. 



FR fifteen years the guiding star, the ruling spirit, of the order of 
Knights of Labor, the greatest organization of workingmen ever 
successfully planned or held together by wise council and tactful man- 
agement, Terence V. Powderly has earned a place among the great 
men of America. Mr. Powderly was born at Carbondale, Pa., Janu- 
ary 22, 1849. At the age of seventeen he was apprenticed to learn 
the trade of machinist in the Delaware & Hudson railroad shops, and 
three years later he obtained work in the shops of the Delaware, Lack- 
awanna & Western Railroad Company, at Scranton. His first con- 
nection with a labor organization was in 187 J, when he joined the 
Machinists* and Blacksmiths' Union, of Scranton, and since J 874, when 
he became a member of Assembly 88, Knights of Labor, he has been 
active in promoting the objects for which that organization was created. 
He was elected Grand Worthy Foreman of the Knights of Labor by 
the second general assem.bly, which convened at St. Louis in 1879, 
and at the convention held in Chicago during September of the same 
year he was chosen Grand Master Workman of the order. He was 
annually re-elected to that office and served until the latter part of 
1893, when he was superseded by J. R. Sovereign, of Iowa. Mr. 
Powderly was one of the founders of the "Labor Advocate,'* a regular 
contributor to the " Journal of United Labor," and has been three times 
elected mayor of Scranton. In 1882 he was nominated for lieutenant- 
governor of Pennsylvania by the Greenback-Labor party, but declined 
the nomination. He has lately devoted himself to the study of law, 
and will give the remainder of his life to the practice of that profession 
and to the cause of labor. 

370 




TERENCE VINCENT POWDERLY. 
371 



JOHN WESLEY POWELL. 



A VALUED contributor to the cause of science, and one whose 
writings are regarded as standard and exhaustive on the subjects 
whereof they treat, Maj. John W. Powell is well fitted for the director- 
ship of the United States Geological Survey, a position he has filled 
for a number of years. He was born in Mount Morris, N. Y., 
March 24, J 334, and spent much of his early life in Ohio, Wisconsin 
and Illinois, during which time he made collections of geological and 
natural history specimens. At the beginning of hostilities in 1861, he 
enlisted as a private in the Twentieth Illinois Infantry, afterward becom- 
ing lieutenant-colonel of the Second Illinois Artillery, and although he 
lost an arm at the battle of Shiloh he continued in active service until 
the close of the war. He then became professor of geology and 
curator of the museum in the Illinois Wesleyan University and in the 
Illinois Normal University, and in 1868 organized a party for the 
exploration of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. The success of the 
expedition led the general government to sanction the establishment of 
a topographical and geological survey, a department that has since 
assumed its present form and name. Major Powell, under the direc- 
tion of the Smithsonian Institution, established a Bureau of Ethnology, 
of which he remained chief until 1 88 J, when he was appointed director 
of the Geological Survey, and served for thirteen years. He has 
received honorary degrees from various colleges and universities, both in 
this country and in Europe, and is a member of many learned socie- 
ties. He has written extensively on his favorite themes, and is the 
author of a number of standard works on geology and natural history. 
He resigned the directorship of the Geological Survey in 1894. 




JOHN WESLEY POWELL. 

373 



JOSEPH PULITZER. 



ENERGY, enterprise and the ability to perceive and to supply on 
the shortest notice the wants of the reading public, must be con- 
sidered as a part of the capital necessary in the building up of a great 
metropolitan newspaper. These requisites are possessed in an extraor- 
dinary degree by that successful journalist, Joseph Pulitzer, proprietor of 
the New York "World" and the St. Louis "Post-Dispatch." Mr. 
Pulitzer was born in Buda-Pesth, Hungary, April iO, J 847. He came 
to America in early youth, and settled in St. Louis, where he quickly 
acquired a knowledge of English, became interested in politics, and was 
elected to the Missouri Legislature in 1869, and to the state constitu- 
tional convention in 1874. He entered journalism at the age of twenty 
on the St. Louis "Westliche Post," a German Republican newspaper, 
at that time under the editorial control of Carl Schurz. Subsequently 
he became its managing editor, and obtained a proprietary interest. In 
1878 he founded the St. Louis "Post-Dispatch," and still retains control 
of that journal. In 1883 he purchased the New York "World," 
which, after twenty-three years of existence under various managers, 
had achieved no permanent success, and at once greatly increased its 
circulation. He is at present its editor and sole proprietor. Mr. 
Pulitzer was elected to Congress in 1884, but resigned a few months 
after taking his seat on account of the pressure of journalistic duties. 
Indomitable pluck and perseverance, coupled with keen foresight and a 
faculty for keeping a little ahead of the times, have enabled Joseph 
Pulitzer, within a comparatively few years, to enroll his name among 
the greatest journalists of the period and to become recognized as the 
creator of one of the most successful newspapers in the world. 

374 




JOSEPH PULITZER. 

375 



GEORGE MORTIMER PULLMAN. 



FOR many years there has been no name so inseparably associated 
with progress in railway equipment as that of George M. Pull- 
man. The sleeping cars invented by him, and bearing his name, are 
known all over the world. Mr. Pullman was born in Chautauqua 
Gjunty, New York, March 3, 1831, and began to support himself 
at the age of fourteen. At twenty-two he successfully undertook a 
contract for moving warehouses and other buildings along the line of 
the Erie canal, then being widened by the state. In 1859 he removed 
to Chicago and engaged extensively in the then novel occupation of 
raising entire blocks of brick and stone buildings. In the same year 
he began experimenting with the idea of inventing a sleeping-car for 
railway travel, and in 1865 the first car, built on the now well-known 
model, was completed, and named "Pioneer." The fleet has grown 
from one car to many hundred and its working force from half a 
dozen men to fifteen thousand. The cars are operated on nearly a 
hundred roads and over a mileage equivalent to five times the circum- 
ference of the globe. The Pullman Palace Car Company, of which 
Mr. Pullman is president, was organized in 1867, and from the first 
has regularly paid its quarterly dividends. Mr. Pullman designed and 
established the vestibuled trains, now so popular. In 1880 he founded, 
near Chicago, the industrial town of Pullman, where the numerous 
employes of the company reside with their families. Architecturally, 
the town is picturesque, and according to mortality statistics it is one 
of the most healthful places in the world. Mr. Pullman is addicted 
to no affectations; is plain in his address, thoroughly business-like in 
his habits and without ostentation in his liberal gifts to charity. 

376 




GEORGE MORTIMER PULLMAN. 



JULIAN RALPH 



JULIAN RALPH, who, having made a brilliant record in journalism, 
is now making one as striking in literature, was born in New 
York City, May 27, 1853, his father being an English physician who 
came to this country early in the century. Mr. Ralph received his 
schooling in public and private schools and was forced by family 
reverses to shift for himself at fourteen, when he became a printer's 
apprentice. At eighteen he was local editor of the Red Bank, N. J., 
"Standard," and started a newspaper of his own, the "Leader," in the 
same town. That failed and he became editor of the Webster, Mass., 
"Times" during a broken period of eighteen months. At twenty he 
was a reporter on the "Daily Graphic" in New York, and at twenty- 
one went on the New York "Sun," on the staff of which journal he 
has been ever since. A series of humorous dialect sketches, entitled 
"The German Barber," first called public attention to his work, and 
of late years he has written many papers of travel and adventure for 
" Harper's," " The Century," and " Scribner's." Fiction he did not 
attempt until J 894, when he began to exploit his knowledge of the 
swarming poor of his native city in a series of short stories. His 
books are " On Canada's Frontier," " Our Great West," and " Chicago 
and the Fair." He was married in 1876 to Miss M. Isabella Mount, 
of Middletown, N. J., and is the father of five children. Mr. 
Ralph is perhaps one of the most notable exponents of the fact that 
a newspaper training rather fits than unfits a writer for purely literary 
work. A brilliant group of newspaper men have lately graduated with 
deserved honors in the literary field, but among them none is more 
prominent than the subject of this sketch. 

378 




JULIAN RALPH. 

379 



OPE READ. 



RANKING high among American humorists and delineators of 
Southern character, Opie Read has firmly established himself in 
the good graces of the reading public. Born in Nashville, Tenn., 
December 22, 1852, Mr. Read received his education in a private 
school and at Neophogen College, Gallatin. He learned the printer's 
trade, which he followed for a livelihood for some years, and in 1873 
became a newspaper reporter and general writer, associated with the 
"Patriot," of Franklin, Ky. He afterward had charge of the city 
department of the Little Rock (Ark. ) " Gazette," and it was during 
this connection that he began writing those inimitable short stories and 
sketches of Southern life that subsequently made him famous. In 1882 
he founded the "Arkansaw Traveler," at Little Rock, and the paper 
became so popular that in 1887, with a view to increasing the scope 
of the publication, it was decided to remove the plant to Chicago, from 
which city the paper was thereafter issued. In 1891 he withdrew 
from the "Arkansaw Traveler" for the purpose of devoting his whole 
time to regular literary work, and has published a number of novels 
that have added greatly to his reputation. He is the author of "A 
Kentucky Colonel," "Emmett Bonlore," "The Colossus," "A Tennessee 
Judge," "Len Gansett," and other novels, besides innumerable short sto- 
ries. Recently he has achieved success on the platform by giving 
public readings from his own works. Like most large men, for Opie 
Read is a giant in stature, he is generous and warm-hearted to a 
degree. His conversation abounds with humorous anecdote and keen 
flashes of wit, and in the rooms of the Chicago Press Club, his favor- 
ite lounging place, he is especially popular. 

380 




OPE READ. 

381 



WHITELAW REID. 



THOUGH cast in a different mold, it may be said that the pres- 
ent editor of the New York "Tribune" is in some respects as 
great a man as his eminent predecessor, the sage of Chappaqua. 
Whitelaw Reid was born in Xenia, Ohio, October 27, 1837. He was 
graduated at Miami University in 1856, and in the following year took 
editorial charge of the Xenia "News." When the war broke out he 
went to Washington as the correspondent of the Cincinnati "Gazette," 
subsequently accompanying the Union army on its march south, and 
his descriptions of battles were valuable contributions to the record of 
the war. In 1865 he was invited by Horace Greeley to take an edi- 
torial position on the staff of the New York "Tribune," and upon 
the death of Mr. Greeley he succeeded to the ownership and manage- 
ment of that paper. Extremely earnest in his political views, Mr. 
Reid, since he became a resident of New York, has exercised a pow- 
erful influence in local, state and national campaigns, and upon the 
accession of President Harrison in 1889 he was appointed United States 
Minister to Paris. In 1892, when Mr. Harrison was a candidate for 
re-election, Mr. Reid received the nomination for vice-president, and suf- 
fered the common fate of Republican candidates in that year. He is 
the author of a number of books relating to the history of Ohio dur- 
ing the war, to the condition of the South after the war, and upon 
subjects of a political and journalistic character. He is regent of the 
New York State University, and a member of many social, political 
and scientific organizations. Under his able management the "Tribune" 
has become a great power in political circles and the representative 
Republican organ in the East. 

382 




WHITELAW REID. 

383 



GEORGE GRAHAM VEST. 



A NATURAL orator, a man of intense feeling, generous impulses 
and marked ability, George G. Vest, United States senator from 
Missouri, has become well known, not alone in the state he represents, 
but throughout the country. He has been a conspicuous Democratic 
figure in the Senate for years. He was born in Frankfort, Ky., De- 
cember 6, 1830. He attended the high school of B. B. Sayre, in 
Franklin, for ten years, and in 1846 entered Centre College, at Dan- 
ville, in the same state, graduating in 1848. He studied law and 
removed to Georgetown, Mo., to engage in its practice. In 1856 he 
removed from Georgetown to Booneville. In 1861 he was elected to 
the Legislature, but soon entered the Confederate army, and later became 
a member of the Confederate Congress, in which body he served two 
years. At the close of the war he resumed the practice of the law 
in Sedalia, Mo., forming a partnership with Judge John F. Philips. 
Mr. Vest from this date incidentally took part in the political canvasses 
of the Democratic party, and so became widely and favorably known 
throughout the state. In 1877 he removed from Sedalia to Kansas 
City, intending to engage in his profession there, but was elected to 
the United States Senate as a Democrat, in place of James H. Shields, 
Democrat, who had been elected to fill the place made vacant by the 
death of Louis V. Bogy. Mr. Vest was re-elected in 1885, and again 
in 1890. In the Senate he has served on the important standing 
committees, and has shown the possession of statesmanlike qualities, 
while his gifts as a speaker and his qualities of personal popularity 
have added to his strength in that body. In his own state there has 
been no candidate opposed to him on the occasion of his renominations. 




GEORGE GRAHAM VEST. 



JOHN ROGERS. 



IN elevating the artistic taste of the masses, there can be no doubt 
that the well known "Rogers Groups" of statuary have had a 
large share. John Rogers, the sculptor, was born in Salem, Mass., 
and educated in the Boston high school. While working in a machine 
shop at Manchester, N. H., his attention was first drawn to sculpture, 
and he began to model in clay in his leisure hours. In J 858 he 
visited Europe, and upon his return, in J 859, he went to Chicago, 
where he modeled, for a charity fair, ''The Checker Players," a group 
in clay, which attracted much attention. He produced also some other 
groups, but "The Slave Auction," which was exhibited in New York 
in I860, first brought him to the notice of the general public. This 
was the forerunner of the celebrated war series of statuettes, which 
included, among others, "The Picket Guard," "One More Shot," 
"Taking the Oath and Drawing Rations," "Union Refugees," "Wounded 
Scout," and "Council of War." His works on social subjects, m.ost 
of which have been produced since the war, include "Coming to the 
Parson," "Checkers up at the Farm," "The Charity Patient," "Fetch- 
ing the Doctor," and " Going for the Cows." His groups in illustra- 
tion of passages in the poets, particularly Shakespeare, have also been 
very popular, but he has been most successful in illustrating every-day 
life in its humorous and pathetic aspects. His equestrian statue of 
Gen. John F. Reynolds, which stands before the city hall in Philadel- 
phia, was completed in 1883, and in 1887 he exhibited "Ichabod Crane 
and the Headless Horseman," a bronze group. A collection of Mr. 
Rogers* works was exhibited at the World's Columbian Exposition in 
1893. 

386 




JOHN ROGERS. 
387 



ANNA KATHARINE GREEN ROHLFS. 



BY far the most astonishing thing about that widely-read novel, 
"The Leavenworth Case," and the later productions from the 
same pen, is that they were written by a woman. The book in 
question is now used in Yale College as a text book to show the 
fallacy of circumstantial evidence, and is the subject of comments by 
learned lawyers, to whom it appeals by its mastery of legal points. 
Anna Katharine Green, which is the author's maiden name, and the 
one by which she is known throughout the world, inherits her legal 
turn of mind. She is the daughter of a lawyer, and was born in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., November U, 1846, While she was yet a child 
the family removed to Buffalo, and there her education was conducted 
until she was old enough to enter Ripley Female College, at Poultney, 
Vt. In her childhood she composed innumerable poems and stories, 
and soon after her graduation she wrote her first novel, " The Leav- 
enworth Case," which at once attracted the attention of the literary 
world, and was afterward dramatized. Her success brought eager invi- 
tations from publishers to furnish them stories, and other novels fol- 
lowed, including "A Strange Disappearance," "The Sword of Damo- 
cles," "Hand and Ring," "X. Y. Z.," "The Mill Mystery," "7 to 
12," "Behind Closed Doors," "The Forsaken Inn," "A Matter of 
Millions," " Cynthia Wakeham's Money," and " The Old Stone House." 
Her poetical works are embraced in a volume entitled " The Defense 
of the Bride, and Other Poems," and " Risifi's Daughter," a drama. 
In November, 1884, she was married to Charles Rohlfs, of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Her stories are all ingenious in plot and full of dramatic 
interest, and they have been published abroad in various languages. 




ANNA KATHERINE GREEN ROHLFS. 



WILLIAM STARKE ROSECRANS. 



CHIEFLY as a great military leader, but in no small degree as a 
diplomat and as a promoter of large enterprises, Gen. William 
S. Rosecrans has won enduring fame. He was born in Kingston, 
Ohio, September 6, 1819, and was graduated at the United States 
Military Academy in 1842, entering the corps of engineers. In 1854, 
after attaining the rank of first lieutenant, he resigned to establish him- 
self in Cincinnati as an architect and civil engineer. In 1855 he took 
charge of the Cannel Coal Company, of West Virginia, becoming also, 
in 1856, president of the Coal River Navigation Company, and in 1857 
he organized the Preston Coal Oil Company. At the beginning of the 
Civil war he volunteered as aide to General McClellan, then command- 
ing the Department of the Ohio, and later succeeded McClellan in the 
command of that department. In 1862 he was made commander of 
the Department of the Columbia, and conducted a campaign remarkable 
for brilliant movements and heavy fighting. After the war General 
Rosecrans went to California, and was offered the Democratic nomina- 
tion for governor of that state, but declined it. He was appointed 
Minister to Mexico, July 27, 1868, and held that office until June 26, 
1869, when he returned to the United States and declined the Demo- 
cratic nomination for Governor of Ohio. He was subsequently for a 
number of years connected with important railway and mining projects 
in California and Mexico, and in 1876 he declined the Democratic 
nomination for Congress from Nevada. In 1881 he was elected to 
Congress from California, serving until March, 1885, and in June of 
the latter year he was appointed register of the United States Treasury 
by President Cleveland. 




WILLIAM STARKE ROSECRANS. 

39 J 



WILLIAM EUSTIS RUSSELL. 



TO be governor of Massachusetts is, as it has been since the begin- 
ning of the republic, an honor to any man. Doubly great is 
it when the man who becomes governor has but lately attained man- 
hood. This honor came to William Eustis Russell, who was born in 
Cambridge, Mass., January 6, 1857. He received the ordinary com- 
mon-school education, but was widely popular, and when he was but 
twenty-five years of age was elected alderman and showed such marked 
ability that he was re-elected without opposition. In J 885 he became 
a candidate for mayor of Cambridge and was re-elected for three terms. 
He abandoned politics and went into business, but was called into the 
field again by the clamor of his party as the most available man in 
all Massachusetts for the Democratic party. He was made candidate 
for governor, but was defeated by a vote of twenty-eight thousand. 
He was again nominated in the succeeding year and was again defeated, 
but this time by only six thousand seven hundred and seventy-five 
votes. In 1890 he was again nominated and elected by nearly nine 
thousand plurality. He was re-elected at the end of his term and 
retained his place until the Republican upheaval in Massachusetts. He 
is one of the shrewdest and most careful of the young men in politics, 
for he is not yet forty years of age. His extraordinary success in 
such a state, at such an age, and under such circumstances, made him 
a prominent figure, and he has become, to an extent, conspicuous as 
a possible Democratic candidate for vice-president of the United States. 
He is one of the possible great factors in directing the affairs, not 
merely of his own state, but of the nation. It is already the political 
fancy to talk of him as presidential a possibility. 







WILLIAM EUSTIS RUSSELL. 



PATRICK JOHN RYAN. 



REMARKABLY eloquent, vigorous and impressive, with a depth of 
learning and force of character that make him a power in his 
particular sphere, Archbishop Ryan, of Philadelphia, has fairly won the 
ecclesiastical honors that have come to him. He was born in Cloney- 
harp, near Thurles, Ireland, February 20, J 831, receiving his education 
at Thurles and Dublin, and afterward entering Carlow College to pre- 
pare himself for the American mission. In 1853 he was ordained 
deacon, and during the same year he set out for St. Louis, Mo., 
where he finished his ecclesiastical studies in Carondelet Seminary, and 
was raised to the priesthood in 1854. Father Ryan became vicar-gen- 
eral February 15, 1872, was elected coadjutor archbishop of St. Louis 
and consecrated under the title of Bishop of Tricomia April 14. Owing 
to the age of Archbishop Kenrick, most of the work of governing the 
diocese devolved upon him, but he was equal to the emergency and 
his administration was energetic and successful. Bishop Ryan was one 
of the prelates selected in 1883 to represent the interests of the Roman 
Catholics of the United States in Rome. He was nominated arch- 
bishop of Philadelphia June 8, 1884. During that year he was pres- 
ent at the third plenary council of Baltimore, at which the opening 
discourse, "The Church in Her Councils," was pronounced by him. 
In 1887 he again went to Rome on business connected with the plan 
of establishing a Catholic university in Washington. As a pulpit ora- 
tor. Archbishop Ryan has few equals in the ranks of American clergy- 
men. Some of his lectures have been published, among the most 
popular of them being "What Catholics Do Not Believe," and "Some 
of the Causes of Modern Religious Skepticism." 




PATRICK JOHN RYAN. 

395 



EDGAR SALTUS. 



WIELDING English with the precision of the finished scholar, and 
displaying consummate skill in the handling of every subject 
that he undertakes to discuss, Edgar Saltus is unquestionably a master 
of the art literary. Moreover, he possesses the rare faculty of com- 
pelling interest in his subject by the very charm of his style. Mr. 
Saltus was born in New York City June 8, 1858. His early educa- 
tion was received at St. Paul's school, Concord, N. H., after which 
he went abroad and studied at the Sorbonne, Paris, and in Heidelberg 
and Munich, Germany. After his return he entered the Columbia 
College Law School, where he was graduated in 1880. His earliest 
literary efforts were in poetry, some of which gave evidence of the 
talent and artistic ability then in process of development, but his philo- 
sophical bent led him early into prose writing and to the revelation of 
thoughts and theories that at once attracted attention to his work. 
His first book was "Balzac," a biography published in Boston in 1884. 
He next devoted himself to the presentation of the pessimistic philoso- 
phy, a history of which he published in 1885 under the title of ''The 
Philosophy of Disenchantment." This was followed by an analytical 
exposition, entitled "The Anatomy of Negation," which was first pub- 
lished in London in 1886, and in New York in 1887. Mr. Saltus 
is also the author of " Mr. Incoul's Misadventure," " The Truth About 
Tristrem Varick," "Eden," "Imperial Purple," "Mary Magdalene," and 
other works. In all his writings there is evinced a rare delicacy of 
touch, a felicitous blending of light and shadow, that give one the 
impression imparted by a series of artistically-drawn pictures, and stamp 
the writer as a word-painter of strong individuality. 

396 




EDGAR SALTUS. 

397 



JOHN McAllister schofield. 



IN noting the famous military men of today — those who have contin- 
ued their connection with the army, whether confronted by grim- 
visaged war or white-winged peace — one naturally turns to John M. 
Schofield, the present commander of the arm.y. General Schofield was 
born in Chautauqua, N. Y., September 29, 1 83 1. He graduated at 
West Point in 1853, and two years later attained the rank of first 
lieutenant. He then became professor of natural philosophy in the 
West Point Academy, and later, while on leave of absence, was pro- 
fessor of physics, in Washington University, St. Louis. Being in St. 
Louis at the time of the breaking out of the war, in J 861, his first 
active service in the great contest was as chief of staff to General 
Lyon, who was killed at Springfield, Mo. He was appointed major- 
general of volunteers in 1862, and in J 864 commanded the Army of 
the Ohio, forming the left wing of Sherman's army in the Atlanta 
campaign, where he distinguished himself for bravery and good gener- 
alship. General Schofield succeeded Edwin M. Stanton as Secretary of 
War June 2, 1868, and remained in that office until the close of 
Johnson's administration, and under Grant, until March 12, 1869, when 
he was appointed major-general in the United States army and ordered 
to the Department of the Missouri. He was president of the board 
that adopted the present tactics for the army in 1870, went on a spe- 
cial mission to the Hawaiian Islands in 1873, and was president of 
the board of inquiry on the case of Fitz-John Porter in 1878. Upon 
the death of General Sherman, in 1888, he was placed in command 
of the army, but under existing laws he was retired in 1895, being 
succeeded by General Miles. 




JOHN MCALLISTER SCHOFELD. 
399 



ALBERT SHAW. 



ALBERT SHAW, now editor and publisher of the American "Re- 
view of Reviews/' ranks very fairly among the great young 
men of the United States. He was born in Butler County, Ohio, July 
23, J 857, and is, therefore, just thirty-seven years old. He was fitted 
for college privately, and went to Iowa in 1875, where he graduated 
in 1879 at Iowa College ( Grinnell ). His tastes were strongly for 
public questions and for writing, and he entered local Iowa newspaper- 
dom, continuing his reading in economics and political science. After- 
ward he went for advanced study to the Johns Hopkins University 
(Baltimore), where in 1884 he took the degree of Ph. D. on comple- 
tion of work in political economy, constitutional law and history, etc. 
Meanwhile he had accepted an editorial position on the Minneapolis 
" Morning Tribune." He was one of the founders of the American 
Economic Association ten years ago, and has contributed important 
monographic volumes to its publications, and also to those of the series 
of publications in history and politics of the Johns Hopkins University. 
In 1887 he went to Europe for a vacation of a year and a half, and 
traveled extensively, among other things making a special study of 
municipal government. On his return he was offered numerous uni- 
versity professorships, but decided to remain in journalism, but accepted 
lectureships at the Johns Hopkins, Cornell, University of Wisconsin, etc. 
After another year as editor of the Minneapolis "Tribune," he went 
to New York, at the opening of 1 89 1, and established the American 
"Review of Reviews." He continues to edit that periodical, of which 
he is also the chief owner. He was married in J 893 to Mrs. Bessie 
Bacon, of Reading, Pa. 




ALBERT SHAW. 

401 



GEORGE SHIRAS. 



FOR a place in which to awake and find one's self famous, there 
is nothing to compare with the Supreme Court of the United 
States. A seat upon that bench brings to the occupant, necessarily, 
the attention of sixty millions of people, yet it does not follow that, 
before his elevation, a Supreme Court justice has been more than locally 
known. The jurist is not advertised as is the politician, nor is a 
Supreme Court appointment attained as the result of a definite struggle 
for that great distinction. It has been the subject of much comment 
that not the most famous men have secured the prominent life position, 
but it has been the subject of comment quite as much that the appoint- 
ment of men comparatively unknown to the country at large has 
resulted well. George Shiras, Jr., was born in Pittsburg, Pa., January 
26, 1832. He received a very thorough preliminary education, and 
later entered Yale College, graduating from that institution in 1853. 
He attended the Yale Law School in 1854, and was admitted to the 
Pennsylvania bar in 1856. He soon acquired a high standing, espe- 
cially for his knowledge of corporation law as well as for his general 
scholarship. He received the degree of LL. D. from Yale University 
in 1883, and in 1888 was one of the Pennsylvania presidential electors. 
Upon the death of the associate justice of Brooklyn, in 1892, Mr. 
Shiras was appointed to the vacant place on the Supreme bench, and 
took the oath of office October 10 of the same year. His marked 
ability has been still further manifested in the position he now occu- 
pies. He is looked upon by his countrymen at large as one of the 
eminently safe men upon the bench, one who will be affected by no 
personal inclination but be ever strictly judicial. 




^' 





GEORGE SHIRAS. 
403 



DANIEL EDGAR SICKLES. 



PROMINENT among the men who have served their country faith- 
fully in times of peace and fearlessly during the more trying 
period of war is Gen. Daniel E. Sickles. He was born in New York 
City October 20, 1823, and began life as a printer, but afterward 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1844. He became a 
member of the State Legislature in 1847, corporation counsel of the 
city of New York in 1853, and the same year secretary of the Amer- 
ican legation in London. Two years later he was sent to the State 
Senate, and in 1857 was elected to Congress and re-elected in 1859. 
During his first Congressional term, discovering a guilty intimacy 
between his wife and Philip Barton Key, United States Attorney for 
the District of Columbia, he shot Key in the street February 27, 1859. 
He was indicted for murder, but acquitted. In 1861 he raised the 
Excelsior Brigade and entered the service as colonel, soon acquiring the 
rank of brigadier-general and later that of major-general. He was con- 
spicuous for gallantry in many battles, and at Gettysburg lost a leg. 
In 1865 he was sent on a confidential mission to the South American 
republics, and in 1866 he joined the Regular army as colonel of the 
Forty-second Infantry. He was placed on the retired list in 1869, 
with the full rank of major-general, and one month later President 
Grant appointed him minister to Spain, a post which he filled until 
1873. He became chairman of the New York Civil Service Com- 
mission in 1888, sheriff of Kings County in 1890, and was elected to 
the Fifty-third Congress as a Democrat. He is a sturdy and prominent 
figure in all movements, and, as some one has said, quoting the old 
phrase, "A man, every inch of him." 



DANIEL EDGAR SICKLES. 
405 



JERRY SIMPSON. 



READERS whose impressions of the Medicine Lodge statesman have 
been derived from the ridicule of his political opponents, who 
dubbed him "Sockless Simpson" on account of a remark made in one 
of his campaign speeches, will be surprised to know that he is a 
rather good-looking, well-dressed man, with scarcely a suggestion of 
rural simplicity in his appearance or manner. Congressman Simpson, 
of Kansas, was born in the province of New Brunswick March 31, 
1842, but his parents removed to Oneida County, N. Y., when he 
was six years of age. At the age of fourteen he began life as a 
sailor, which pursuit he followed for twenty-three years on the Great 
Lakes. During the early part of the Civil War he served for a time 
in Company A, Twelfth Illinois Infantry, but failing health compelled 
him to leave the service. In 1878 he drifted to Kansas, and is now 
living six miles from Medicine Lodge, Barber County, where he is 
engaged in farming and stock raising. Mr. Simpson was a Republican 
originally, casting his first vote for the second election of Abraham 
Lincoln, but during the past twelve years has voted and affiliated with 
the Greenback and Union Labor parties. He twice ran for the Kan- 
sas Legislature on the Independent ticket in Barber County, but was 
defeated both times by a small plurality. He was nominated for the 
Fifty-second Congress by the People's party and elected by the aid of 
the Democrats, who indorsed his nomination, and was re-elected to the 
Fifty-third Congress as a Farmers' Alliance candidate. Mr. Simpson is 
an earnest advocate of reforms for the benefit of the farmer and work- 
ing classes, and is a member of the committees on Agriculture and 
Territories. 

406 




JERRY SIMPSON. 

407 



FRANCIS HOPKINSON SMITH. 



PW men can truthfully say that they have achieved success and 
reputation in three different professions. Yet that distinction has 
been gained by F. Hopkinson Smith, the artist author whose clever 
work is familiar to all lovers of art and readers of magazine literature. 
Mr. Smith was born in Baltimore, Md., October 23, 1838. He re- 
ceived a thorough education and became a civil engineer, which profession 
he followed with success for a number of years. During that time he 
built a large number of public works, many of them under contract with 
the United States Government. These include the Race Rock, light- 
house off New London Harbor, in Long Island Sound, and the Block 
Island breakwater. Mr. Smith is well known as an artist, and has 
produced some very effective work in water-colors and charcoal. 
Among his water-colors are "In the Darkling Wood," "Peggotty on 
the Harlem," "Under the Towers, Brooklyn Bridge," "In the North 
Woods," and "A January Thaw." He has been occupied also in 
book and magazine illustration, and in late years has become deservedly 
popular as an author. In addition to numerous contributions to periodi- 
cals, embracing stories, sketches of travel, studies of characters and 
customs, and art reviews^ he has published in book form "Well-worn 
Roads," "Old Lines in New Black and White," "A Book of the Tile 
Club," and "Colonel Carter of Cartersville." He is a member of 
various art associations, and from J 875 until 1878 was treasurer of the 
American Water-Color Society. Mr. Smith has traveled extensively in 
foreign lands and written many charming magazine articles descriptive 
of his tours and observations, all illustrated by himself. He is also a 
humorist and a delightful entertainer. 

408 




FRANCIS HOPKINSON SMITH. 
409 



AINSWORTH RAND SPOFFORD. 



\ 7ERY well known throughout the United States is the name of 
V the present librarian of Congress, a man who has done well in 
the difficult post he has occupied for more than a generation. He 
was born in New Hampshire in 1825, but moved at a comparatively 
early age to Cincinnati, engaging there as a bookseller and publisher. 
He acquired a standing rapidly and became eventually editor of the 
"Daily Commercial." In 1861 he was made assistant librarian of 
Congress, and in 1865 was nominated to his present place. The posi- 
tion he occupies is in some respects the most important of its kind in 
the world. There is growing up under his supervision what will 
possibly be the greatest library the world possesses. His record for 
more than a quarter of a century has demonstrated him to be the 
man for so great a place. There is now being erected in Washing- 
ton a gigantic structure adapted to hold a collection of books beyond 
all precedent. Upon his thoughtfulness and energy and his good sense 
and policy must depend in the immediate future, and probably as long 
as he may live, the degree of success and completeness of this enor- 
mous library which one of the greatest of nations is establishing. He 
has done many good things for the country. Largely through his 
efforts the great collection of books in the National Library has been 
made what it is, a collection which will soon contain a million books. 
To him is to be attributed the reform in the manner of issuing copy- 
rights and the simple yet efficient manner under which that important 
branch of the business of the government is now conducted. He 
deserves the wide reputation he has achieved for discriminating judgment 
and high literary taste. 




AINSWORTH RAND SPOFFORD. 

411 



HOKE SMITH. 



ONE of the men who have been recently placed in conspicuous 
positions before the public, and who have demonstrated their fit- 
ness for the responsible places assigned to them, is Hoke Smith, Secre- 
tary of the Interior in President Cleveland's cabinet. Mr. Smith is 
a comparatively new man in national politics. He is a lawyer and 
an editor from Atlanta, Ga., born in Newton, N. C, September 2, 
J 855. In years he is the youngest member of the cabinet, represent- 
ing that young element of the South that has come to the front in 
public affairs since the war. His father was Prof. H. H. Smith, a 
distinguished educator of New Hampshire, who came from Revolution- 
ary stock. Hoke Smith was admitted to the bar in Atlanta in 1873, 
before he was of age, and became a popular railroad lawyer, not by 
appearing in the interests of the corporations, but by opposing their 
claims. He built up a large and remunerative practice. In J 887 he 
organized and became president of the Atlanta "Journal," now a lead- 
ing afternoon paper of the South. At that time Henry W. Grady, of 
'the Atlanta "Constitution," was an advocate of protection. Mr. Smith 
championed the principle of a low tariff. When Mr. Cleveland was 
defeated in 1888 Mr. Smith did not waver, but predicted the downfall 
of protection. He married the youngest daughter of Gen. T. R. R. 
Cobb and niece of the late Howell Cobb, and is closely related, by 
his own family as well as through his wife, to many of the leading 
families throughout the Southern states. Mr. Smith is persistent in 
carrying out his plans and in the performance of whatever work may 
be intrusted to him, giving little heed to the criticisms and vehement 
protests which his course sometimes provokes. 

4J2 




HOKE SMITH. 

413 



EMMA DOROTHY ELIZ/V NEVITTE SOUTH WORTH. 



MANY mothers, and even grandmothers, of today can remember 
with what pleasurable emotions they pored over the captivating 
novels of Mrs. E. D. E. N. Southworth when they were girls. Not 
a few of them have continued to read her works ever since, and even 
now wait impatiently for each new story from her pen; for, notwith- 
standing her advanced age, Mrs. Southworth is still writing. She was 
born in Washington, D. C, in the house and room once occupied by 
General Washington, December 26, J 8 19. She was graduated in 1835 
and in 1840 she married Frederick H. Southworth, of Utica, N. Y. 
Four years later, thrown upon her own resources, she became a school 
teacher in Washington, and while so occupied began to write stories, 
the first of which, "The Irish Refugee," appeared in the Baltimore 
"Saturday Visitor." Subsequently she became a regular contributor to 
the "National Era," in the columns of which paper appeared her first 
novel, "Retribution." It was issued in book form, in 1849, and the 
author at once attained such popularity that for years some of the 
leading publishers competed sharply for her stories. With unusual 
rapidity she wrote her succeeding stories, issuing sometimes three in a 
year. She has published about sixty volumes, and continues to be 
one of the most prolific of living writers. Many of her stories were 
first published serially in the New York "Ledger." They display 
strong dramatic power, and the majority have been translated into 
French, German and Spanish, and re-published in London, Paris, Leip- 
sic, Madrid and Montreal. For twenty-three years Mrs. Southworth 
resided in a beautiful villa on the Potomac Heights, near Washington, 
but in 1876 she removed to Yonkers, N. Y. 

4J4 




EMMA DOROTHY ELIZA NEVITTE SOUTHWORTH. 

415 



GOLDWIN SMITH. 



HIS prominent connection with the Liberal movement in Canada and 
his championship of the United States Government have made 
the name of Goldwin Smith quite as popular on this side of the Do- 
minion border as it is in Toronto, where he resides. This eminent 
author and scholar was born in Reading, Berkshire, England, August 
13, 1823. He was educated at Eton and Oxford, and was afterward 
associated with the reorganization of the latter university, in which he 
was regius professor of modern history from 1858 to 1866. During 
the Civil War in America he Wrote "Does the Bible Sanction Ameri- 
can Slavery?" "On the Morality of the Emancipation Proclamation," 
and other pamphlets that influenced public opinion, so that when he 
visited this country in 1864, to deliver a series of lectures, he received 
an enthusiastic welcome and the degree of LL. D. from Brown Univer- 
sity. Returning to the United States in 1868, Mr. Smith was ap- 
pointed professor of English and Constitutional History in Cornell Uni- 
versity, and resided at Ithaca until 1871, when he removed to Toronto. 
He has been prominent in educational affairs there, edited the "Cana- 
dian Monthly" for two years, founded the "Nation" in 1874, the 
"Bystander" in 1880, and the Toronto "Week" in 1884. He has 
written much for English reviews, and among his publications in book 
form the most popular in this country are "The Civil War in Amer- 
ica," "Experience of the American Commonwealth," and "The Rela- 
tions Between America and England." Mr. Smith advocates the con- 
solidation of Canada and the United States, which he regards as the 
manifest destiny of the countries, and is heartily in the movement for 
commercial union between the two countries. 

416 




GOLDWIN SMITH. 
4J7 



HARRIET PRESCOTT SPOFFORD. 



LUXURIANT in expression and intense in feeling, with descriptions 
and fancies glittering with sensuous delights and every variety of 
splendor, the stories of Harriet Prescott Spofford would be charming if 
their only merit was their artistic coloring. Mrs. Spofford began writ- 
ing when very young. She was born in Calais, Me., April 3, 1835, 
but in her youth was taken by her parents to Newburyport, Mass., 
which city has ever since been her home. At the age of seventeen 
she was graduated at the Pinkerton Academy at Derry, N. H. While 
in school at Newburyport her prize essay on Hamlet attracted the 
attention of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, who became her friend and 
counselor. Her father, Joseph N. Prescott, suffered a stroke of paral- 
ysis which permanently disabled him, and her mother also became a 
confirmed invalid, so that she felt the need of making her talents avail- 
able, and began to contribute to the Boston story papers. In 1859 
her sparkling story of Parisian life, entitled "In a Cellar," appeared in 
the "Atlantic Monthly," and gave her a reputation. The editor of 
the magazine, James Russell Lowell, had hesitated to publish the story 
until satisfied that it was not a French translation. From that day 
she was a welcome contributor both of prose and poetry to the chief 
periodicals of the country. In J 865 she was married to Richard S. 
Spofford, a lawyer of Boston. Among Mrs. Spofford's published works 
may be mentioned "Sir Rohan's Ghost," "The Amber Gods, and 
Other Stories," "Azarian," "New England Legends," "The Thief in 
the Night," "Art Decoration Applied to Furniture," "Marquis of Cara- 
bas," "Poems," "Hester Stanley at St. Mark's," "The Servant Girl 
Question," and "Ballads about Authors." 




HARRIET PRESCOTT SPOFFORD. 

419 



GLAUS SPRECKELS. 



THE founder of and principal factor in building up the sugar-refin- 
ing industry on the Pacific coast has become so well known 
through his enterprise and success that his name is familiar throughout 
all countries where sugar is dealt in as an article of commerce. Glaus 
Spreckels was born in Lamstedt, Kingdom of Hanover, in July, J 828, 
and came to America in 1848, arriving at Gharleston, S. G., where he 
began business as a clerk in a grocery store. Within two years he 
owned the store, and soon developed a wholesale trade and became an 
importer. In 1855 he removed his business to New York Gity, and 
in 1856 again transferred it to San Francisco, where he bought out 
his brother Bernard, who was engaged in the grocery trade. The 
Albany Brewery was started by him in San Francisco in 1857, and 
the venture proved so successful that he disposed of his grocery house 
and continued as a brewer until 1863. In that year he sold the 
brewery, and, with others, founded the Bay Sugar Refinery. For the 
purpose of acquiring a complete knowledge of the sugar business he 
went to Europe to master the process of manufacturing beet-root sugar, 
actually entering the great refinery at Magdeburg as a workman. 
Returning to San Francisco he built another and larger refinery, and 
in 1867 organized the present great corporation of the Galifornia Sugar 
Refinery, of which he is president and principal owner. This com- 
pany refines fifty million pounds of sugar every year. Mr. Spreckels 
is also extensively engaged in sugar-planting in the Sandwich Islands, 
where he obtained a grant of forty thousand acres of cane land, and 
is cultivating sugar cane on an enormous scale. Pluck, perseverance, 
and natural business ability are the causes of his success. 

420 




CLAUS SPRECKELS. 

421 



AUGUSTUS ST. GAUDENS. 



AUGUSTUS ST. GAUDENS, the sculptor whose design for a 
World's Fair medal failed to meet the approval of Secretary- 
Carlisle and the Senate, is a New Yorker in everything but the actual 
accident of birth. He was born in 1848, of Irish and French parent- 
age, and when but a mere child was brought by his parents to New 
York City. Their son showed his talent at a very early age. The 
first money he ever had he spent for a box of colors. Work to him 
was a necessity. At thirteen he had to leave school and was appren- 
ticed to a cameo cutter. He spent his days at the bench and his 
evenings at the Cooper Union art schools. Within three years he had 
a reputation as one of the best cameo cutters in the city. At nine- 
teen, having saved some money, he went to Paris to perfect his 
knowledge of cameo cutting. But he had an ambition to be an artist 
in a larger way and entered the studio of Jouffroy, the sculptor, where 
he worked with an energy that made him a favorite with his master. 
The war with Germany interrupted his studies and he went to Rome, 
where he opened his first studio. There he modeled a Hiawatha 
which ex-Governor Morgan, of New York, admired and had cut in 
marble. Then his success began. He made a bust of William M. 
Evarts, and after that orders fairly flowed in upon him. The Farra- 
gut statue in Madison Square, New York City, was his first great 
public commission. The critics at once pronounced it a masterpiece, 
as they did his Lincoln, his Pilgrim, and his Sherman. Even the 
rejected medal is admitted to be adrtiirable from an artistic point of 
view, and is considered by those competent to pronounce judgment, a 
worthy example of his skill. 

422 




AUGUSTUS ST. GAUDENS. 

423 



CHARLES WARREN STODDARD. 



IT is scarcely an extravagance to say that there is nothing more 
charming in modern literature than the sketches and poems that 
have from time to time emanated from the pen of Charles Warren 
Stoddard. As one turns the pages of " South Sea Idyls," for exam- 
ple, the pulsing joys of the tropics come over him, and he feels all 
the bewildering charms of the free and careless life known only to the 
dweller under those summer skies. Mr. Stoddard was born in Roch- 
ester, N. Y., August 7, 1843, and was educated in New York City 
and California, to which state he removed with his father in 1855. 
In J 864 he went to the Hawaiian Islands, where he has since passed 
much of his time, and as traveling correspondent of the San Francisco 
"Chronicle" from 1873 to 1878 he visited many of the islands in the 
South Seas, Europe, Asia, Africa and the Pacific slope from Alaska to 
Mexico. His keen observation, his poetical temperament and his 
remarkable powers of description have enabled him to write most enter- 
tainingly of what he has seen. Mr. Stoddard began to write poetry 
at an early age, was for a short time an actor, has occasionally lec- 
tured, and has contributed to many of the leading magazines. In 1885 
he became professor of English literature in Notre Dame University at 
South Bend, Ind., remaining in that position about a year. He revis- 
ited Europe in t889, and upon his return took the chair of English 
Literature in the Catholic University of America at Washington, D. C, 
which post he still retains. His latest work, "Hawaiian Life, or Lazy 
Letters from Low Latitudes," has but recently been published, and is a 
masterpiece of descriptive writing. He is an earnest student equally of 
the books of nature and of those written by man. 

424 




CHARLES WARREN STODDARD. 
425 



FRANCIS RICHARD STOCKTON. 



QUAINT humor and droll philosophy, mingled with bits of tender 
sentiment, all strung on the thread of a prankish imagination, 
make up the stories that come to us from the clever author of that 
tantalizing fragment, "The Lady or the Tiger?" Mr. Stockton is an 
author of such marked individuality that there is none with whom to 
compare him. He was born in Philadelphia April 5, J 834. After 
receiving an education he became an engraver and draughtsman, and 
in 1866 invented a double graver. But soon thereafter he abandoned 
that occupation for journalism, toward which he had a natural leaning. 
After being connected with the "Post," in Philadelphia, and "Hearth 
and Home," in New York, he joined the editorial staff of "Scribner's 
Monthly," where he had an opportunity of developing the literary talent 
that had already made itself manifest. Upon the establishment of "St. 
Nicholas," in the autumn of 1873, he became its assistant editor. 
His earliest writings were fantastic stories for children, written under 
the name of Frank R. Stockton, which he has since retained. Later 
he attained a wide reputation for his short stories for older people, 
among them being the "Rudder Grange" sketches, "A Transferred 
Ghost," " The Spectral Mortgage," " A Tale _ of Negative Gravity," 
and "The Remarkable Wreck of the 'Thomas Hyke.'" But it was 
that little conundrum of three magazine pages, "The Lady or the 
Tiger?" that set everybody talking and made the author famous. His 
novels are "The Late Mrs. Null," "The Casting Away of Mrs. 
Leeks and Mrs. Aleshine," " The Dusantes " and " The Hundredth 
Man.'* Mr. Stockton's humorous view is broad, but his writings will 
outlive a thousand laughs. 

426 




FRANQS RIOiARD STOCKTON. 
427 



JOHN PIERCE ST. JOHN. 



COMPARATIVELY few people are familiar with the early life of 
the man who is chiefly remembered as a former governor of 
Kansas, and as a subsequent leader of the Prohibition party, of which 
he was once the candidate for the presidency of the United States. 
Yet lohn P. St. John has had a checkered career. He was born in 
Franklin County, Indiana, February 25, 1833. In his early years he 
was employed on his father's farm, and was a clerk in a grocer's 
store. In 1853 he went to California, where he worked in various 
capacities, and made voyages to South America, Mexico, Central Amer- 
ica and the Sandwich Islands. He also served in wars with the 
Indians in California and Oregon. In 1860 he removed to Charleston, 
111., to continue the study of law, which he had begun in his miner's 
cabin. Early in 1862 he enlisted as a private in the Sixty-eighth 
Illinois Volunteer regiment, and before the close of the war was lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the One Hundred and Forty-third regiment. After 
the war he resumed the practice of law at Charleston, but subsequently 
removed to Independence, Mo., where he practiced successfully for four 
years and gained a reputation as a political orator. He removed to 
Olathe, Kan., in 1869, served in the State Senate in 1873 and 1874, 
and was elected governor of Kansas as a Republican in 1878. He 
held that office until 1882, when he was defeated as a candidate for 
a third term. In 1884 he was the candidate of the Prohibition party 
for the presidency, and received 151,809 votes. He is still an active 
Prohibitionist, dividing his time between lecturing on temperance and 
the practice of his profession. He stands as an example of unswerving 
devotion to a noble principle. 

423 




JOHN PIERCE ST. JOHN. 
429 



RICHARD HENRY STODDARD. 



PW men are better known in what may be called the old New 
York literary group than Richard Henry Stoddard. He was born 
in Hingham, Mass., in July, 1825. When he was ten years of age 
his family removed to New York, in which city he learned the trade 
of an iron molder. The literary instinct was strong within him, 
though, and as early as 1848 he began contributing to the newspapers 
and periodicals of the day. He soon acquired a recognized place in 
the American literary world of the time, a place he has retained. He 
has produced a number of works, among them being included "Adven- 
tures in Fairyland," "Town and Country," "The Story of Little Red 
Riding Hood," "The Children in the Wood," "Putnam the Brave," 
" Memoir of Edgar Allan Poe," the " Bric-a-Brac," and " Sans Souci 
Series" of compilations and a number of volumes relating to English 
literature. If fault is to be found with Mr. Stoddard's work in the 
consideration of literary matters, it must be on the basis that he is not 
always in touch with the new schools of literature and has come to 
have creeds as to book-making; but it is admitted of him by all that 
he- is an able essayist and critic, and that by his capable selections he 
has aided not a little in popularizing the best class of work in the 
United States. He has done much newspaper work, and is still a 
regular and vigorous writer for the daily press, being at the present 
time the literary reviewer on the New York "Mail and Express." He 
represents a school now passing away, which was a good one, which 
was' conservative but which did much toward making American litera- 
ture what it is. It was, at least, always a clean school and one 
tending to promote decent thought and action. 




RICHARD HENRY STODDARD. 

431 



ADOLPH HEINRICH JOSEPH SUTRO. 



AMONG the names most worthy of inscription upon the tablets of 
honored perpetuity in America is the name associated in the 
public mind with one of the greatest engineering feats of the century — 
Adolph Sutro. This distinguished man was born in Aix-Ia-Chapelle, 
Rhenish, Prussia, April 29, 1830. He came to America in 1850, and 
went at once to California to engage in mining operations, for which 
his studies had fitted him. He visited Nevada in I860, and after a 
careful inspection of the mining region there, planned the now famous 
Sutro tunnel through the heart of the mountain where lay the Corn- 
stock lode. Having interested capitalists in the project, he obtained a 
charter from the Nevada Legislature February 4, 1865, and the authori- 
zation of Congress July 25, 1866. Mining companies agreed to pay 
toll of two dollars for each ton of ore from the time when the tunnel 
should reach and benefit their mines. The work was begun October 
19, 1869, and before the close of 1871 four vertical shafts were opened 
along the line of the tunnel, one of which was 552 feet deep. The 
distance from the mouth of the tunnel to the Savage mine, where, at 
a depth of sixteen hundred and fifty feet from the surface, it formed 
the first connection with the Comstock lode, is twenty thousand feet. 
Lateral tunnels connect it with the mines on either side of the main 
bore. In 1879 the great tunnel was finished and its projector became 
a millionaire many ' times over. Mr. Sutro has devoted a part of his 
fortune to the establishment of a fine library and art gallery in San 
Francisco, where he resides, and his gifts to public charities have been 
many and munificent. In his lovely home at Sutro Heights he has 
collected many souvenirs of his tours throughout the world. 

432 




ADOLPH HEINRICH JOSEPH SUTRO. 

433 



ADA CELESTE SWEET. 



r certain fields of effort probably no other woman in the country 
has accomplished so much as Ada C. Sweet, of Chicago. Not 
only has she become known as one of the most sincere and intelligent 
workers in the interest of reforms and humanitarianism, but she has 
demonstrated to the world that in the management of a difficult public 
office a woman's tact and judgment may at least equal those of a 
man. Miss Sweet is the daughter of Gen. Benjamin J. Sweet, a law- 
yer and distinguished officer in the Civil War, and was born at Stock- 
bridge, Wis., February 23, J 853. At the age of sixteen she became 
assistant to her father, who was at that time United States Agent for 
paying pensions in Chicago, and afterward first deputy commissioner of 
internal revenue at Washington, remaining with him until his death, 
January I, 1874. Shortly thereafter President Grant appointed her 
United States Agent for paying pensions at Chicago. In the conduct 
of this office, which employed a large clerical force and disbursed 
millions of dollars annually. Miss Sweet made a remarkable record, 
effecting many reforms and reducing the work to a system which was 
promptly adopted by the government in the reorganization of all the 
other pension agencies in the country. She resigned the office Octo- 
ber I, 1885, to engage in business on her own account, and, after 
visiting Europe, was for two years the literary editor of the Chicago 
** Tribune.'*' Since 1888 she has pursued the vocation of United States 
Qaims Attorney, finding time, however, to do much literary and phil- 
anthropical work, and to labor for governmental reforms, besides meet- 
ing all social obligations. Among other benefactions she founded the 
ambulance system in connection with the Chicago police department. 



I 




ADA CELESTE SWEET. 

435 



THOMAS De WITT TALMAGE. 



COMBINING in an extraordinary degree the advantages of profound 
learning, the physical and mental qualifications of an orator, a 
deep religious sense and a pleasing manner, the Rev. T. De Witt 
Talmage is popular alike in the pulpit and on the platform. He was 
born in Bound Brook, N. J., January 7, 1832, and educated at the 
University of the City of New York. After graduating at the New 
Brunswick Theological Seminary in 1856, he was ordained pastor of 
the Reformed Dutch Church in Belleville, N. J. He had charge of 
the church in Syracuse, N. Y., from 1859 to 1862, and of one in 
Philadelphia from 1862 to 1869. During the war he was chaplain of 
a Pennsylvania regiment. In 1869 he became pastor of the Central 
Presbyterian Church in Brooklyn, N. Y., which post he still holds 
His congregation, in 1870, built the now famous Brooklyn Tabernacle, 
which was destroyed by fire in 1872, but at once rebuilt on a grander 
scale. It is the largest Protestant church in the country. The ser- 
mons of Dr. Talmage are published weekly in nearly six hundred 
religious and secular journals in this country and in Europe, being 
translated into various languages. He has at different times edited 
" The Christian at Work " in New York, " The Advance " of Chicago, 
and "Frank Leslie's Sunday Magazine," and has published a number 
of books. He received the degree of A. M. from llie University of 
the City of New York in 1862, and that of D. D. from the Univer- 
sity of Tennessee in 1884. Dr. Talmage has made a number of suc- 
cessful lecturing tours in the United States, always attracting large 
audiences wherever he appears, and has also traveled and lectured in 
Europe. 




THOMAS DEWITT TALMAGE. 
437 



NICKOLA TESLA. 



A YOUNG Servian became an American and accomplished wonders. 
Born in Servia between thirty and forty years ago, Nickola 
Tesia is a Slav of Slavs, with the racial characteristics strongly 
stamped in look, speech and action, but he has developed the same 
genius which has marked the highest class of American students and 
inventors. His father was an eloquent clergyman in the Greek 
church, but to his mother may probably be traced the secret of his 
inventive genius, for she made looms and churns for the pastoral 
household while her husband preached. Tesla's electrical work started 
when, as a boy, in the Polytechnic school at Gratz, he first saw a 
direct-current Gramme machine and was told that a commuter was a 
vital and necessary feature in all such apparatus. He was interested. 
He persevered in mathematics and mechanical studies and mastered 
incidentally half a dozen languages, and at last became assistant in the 
Government Telegraph Engineering Department at Buda-Pesth. He 
drifted westward and made his way to Paris; he then made his way 
across the Atlantic to work in one of the Edison shops and to enter upon 
a new stage of development. He evinced a marvelous comprehension 
and ingenuity and soon won the admiration of the great inventor. 
He worked as arduously as did Edison himself, but worked on new 
lines, lines so divergent from those of the master that separation was 
wise. Tesla had become a genius of the electrical world by himself, 
supported by Edison. The pupil has made marvelous discoveries and 
is known throughout the civilized world because of what he has 
accomplished in his field. He has a future of vast promise and bids 
fair to rival his illustrious master. 

438 




NICKOLA TESLA. 

439 



MARY VIRGINIA TERHUNE. 



PROMINENT in the literature of domestic economy, as well as in 
the field of fiction, the name of "Marion Harland" is in very- 
truth a household word in the United States. The lady who has 
made this pen-name famous is Mrs. Mary Virginia Terhune She 
was born in Amelia County, Virginia, December 31, 1831. At the 
age of fourteen she began to contribute to a weekly paper in Rich- 
mond, and when in her sixteenth year sent to a magazine a sketch 
entitled "Marrying through Prudential Motives," which was reprinted 
in England, translated for a French journal, retranslated into English 
for a London magazine, and then reproduced in its altered form in 
this country. In 1856 she married Rev. Edward Payson Terhune, 
who is now pastor of a Brooklyn church. She has been a constant 
contributor of tales, sketches and essays to magazines, edited a monthly 
called "Babyhood" for two years, besides conducting special depart- 
ments in "Wide- A wake" and "St. Nicholas," and in )[888 established 
a magazine called the "Home-Maker." Her first novel was "Alone: 
A Tale of Southern Life and Manners," issued under the pen-name of 
"Marion Harland," and has been followed by about twenty others, all of 
which have attained great popularity. She has also published a number 
of volumes on domestic economy, cookery, and various topics connected 
with home management, whereby she has become known to thousands 
of women throughout the civilized world, and is recognized as a high 
authority on all subjects associated with housekeeping. Mrs. Terhune 
has resided in New York since 1884, is a member of Sorosis and 
several other organizations of a literary and philanthropical character, 
and has lectured before various societies on her favorite themes. 

440 




MARY VIRGINIA TERHUNE. 

441 



CELIA LAIGHTON THAXTER. 



MANY people will be interested to know that they are in a great 
measure indebted to the late James Russell Lowell for the pleas- 
ure they have derived from reading the exquisite poems of Celia Thax- 
ter, for it was he who discovered her genius. Mrs. Thaxter never 
sought admittance to the field of literature, but Mr. Lowell, while edi- 
tor of the "Atlantic Monthly," happened to see some verses which she 
had written for her own amusement, and, without saying anything to 
her about it, christened them " Landlocked," and published them in the 
"Atlantic." Mrs. Thaxter was born in Portsmouth, N. H., June 29 ^ 
1835. When she was four years old her father, Thomas B. Laigh- 
ton, took his family to the Isles of Shoals to live. The childhood of 
herself and two brothers was passed at White Island, where her father 
kept the lighthouse, which is described by her in her book, "Among 
the Isles of Shoals." During her later life she has continued to spend 
all her summers among those islands. In 1851 she was married to 
Levi Lincoln Thaxter, of Watertown, Mass., who died in 1884. After 
the publication of her first verses in the "Atlantic Monthly," she had 
many calls for her work, and at last, persuaded by the urgent wishes 
of her friends, John G. Whittier, James T. Fields and others, she issued 
her first volume of poems in 1871, and later the prose work "Among 
the Isles of Shoals." Her other books are: "Drift weed," "Poems for 
Children," and "Cruise of the Mystery, and Other Poems." Among 
the finest of her single poems may be mentioned "Courage," "Kittery 
Church-yard," "The Spaniards' Graves," "The Watch of Boon Island," 
" The Sandpiper," " A Tryst," and " The Song Sparrow." She is a 
most fastidious writer. 

442 



CELIA LAIGHTON THAXTER. 
443 



THEODORE RUGGLES TIMBY. 



THE famous inventor, Theodore Ruggles Timby, was born in 
Dover, N. Y., April 5, 1822. His remarkable cast of mind 
was manifested at an early age, and, when only fourteen years old, 
he made a practical working model of a floating dry-dock. The cir- 
cular form of Castle William in New York harbor suggested to him 
the idea of a revolving plan for defensive works, and in J 84 J he 
submitted to the government the design of a revolving battery to be 
constructed of iron, the first practical suggestion for the use of iron in 
military defensive works. His first official record was made in 1843. 
He then sent a model of his turret to China, and in J 856 submitted 
his plans personally to Napoleon IE. Later he patented a broad claim 
for a revolving tower for defensive and offensive warfare on land or 
water. The builders of the Monitor paid him a royalty of $5,000 
for each turret constructed by them. Among the modifications of his 
revolving battery are the cordon of revolving towers across a channel, 
the mole and tower system, the subterraneous system, the tower and 
shield system, and the hemispheroidal system, together with the plan of 
firing heavy guns by electricity now in universal use. In 1888 Mr. 
Timby had a bill introduced in Congress to provide for the construc- 
tion of a sixty-inch refracting telescope. As early as 1856 he had 
become deeply interested in the solution of the laws of solar light and 
heat, and is now engaged on an exhaustive paper, the result of his 
researches and conclusions. He has received the honorary degrees of M. 
A. S. D., and LL. D. In 1890 the Legislature of the state of New York 
passed a resolution asking Congress to give to Mr. Timby national 
recognition. 




THEODORE RUGGLES TIMBY. 

445 



BLANCHE DILLAYE. 



TO have acquired, while still a young woman, prominence in one 
of the most difficult of arts, and to be accepted in some respects 
as an authority in a field where far more men than women are in 
competition, is certainly sufficient cause for a just pride, and this is 
what Miss Blanche Dillaye has accomplished. She was born in Syr- 
acuse, N. Y., her parents being Hon. Stephen D. Dillaye, a widely 
known writer on economic subjects, and Charlotte B. Malcolm Dillaye, 
and was educated at Miss Bonney's and Miss Dillaye's school (now 
known as the Ogontz College ) for young ladies. In the school, as 
had been the case from early childhood, Miss Dillaye evinced a talent 
for drawing, and she was finally allowed a year of study to develop 
herself in the art. She went abroad, but her final work came in 
connection with the Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts. She became 
a teacher in a young ladies' school and still pursued her art studies. 
Her fondness was for black and white, and she was attracted toward 
etching as a specialty. Masters in this branch aided her and found 
an apt pupil. She is the author of many notable etchings, and has 
even more than a national reputation. Her work has been exhibited 
successfully in England and in the Paris Salon, and she has occupied 
many official positions in connection with art matters. At the Colum- 
bian Exposition she represented the state of Pennsylvania in the judg- 
ment of etchings, and during the exposition's progress a paper on her 
art was read by her before the Congress of Women, which attracted 
wide attention. She is an artist of great gifts in the special field she 
has selected, a field rapidly attaining greater prominence in the Ameri- 
can world of art. | 

446 




I /^/aue^'^^^ 



y(^-_ 



BLANCHE DILLAYE. 

447 



GEORGE ALFRED TOWNSEND. 



KNOWN to the world as a war correspondent, historian, novelist, 
lecturer, and the most prolific writer for the newspaper press in 
America, George Alfred Townsend ("Gath") has had a remarkable 
career. He is the son of a Methodist minister, and was born in 
Georgetown, Del., January 30, 184L He was educated mainly in 
Philadelphia, and immediately after leaving school, in 1860, became city 
editor of "Forney's Press." In 1862 he was war correspondent for 
the New York "Herald," describing for that journal "McClellan's and 
Pope's campaigns. Later in the year he went to Europe, where he 
wrote for English and American magazines until June, 1864, when he 
returned and furnished for the New York "World" graphic descrip- 
tions of the closing battles and incidents of the war. He edited the 
New York "Citizen" for a time, then went to Europe to report the 
Austro-Prussian war, and afterward lectured, and v/rote constantly for 
several years. His engagements with the Chicago "Tribune," Cincin- 
nati "Enquirer," Boston "Globe" and other leading journals have made 
him famous as a political and descriptive writer and interviewer. He has 
used the pen-name "Gath" for twenty-six years. In addition to his 
other work he has published twenty books, several of them American 
historical novels. In 1885 Mr. Townsend founded a settlement and 
"literary factory," called Gapland, on South Mountain battle-field, fifty- 
eight miles from Washington. He spends his winters in Washington. 
In 1892 he made his sixth visit to Europe to study the haunts of 
Columbus and gather material for his novel, "Columbus in Love," 
which has since been published. Necessarily Mr. Townsend has a 
wide acquaintance with public men. 

448 




GEORGE ALFRED TOWNSEND. 
449 



JOHN TOWNSEND TROWBRE)GE. 



DESERVEDLY one of the most popular writers for the young in 
this country is J. T. Trowbridge. That clever critic, John Bur- 
roughs, once said of him: "He knows the heart of the boy and the 
heart of the man, and has laid them both open in his books." Mr. 
Trowbridge was born in Ogden, N. Y., September 8, 1827. He was 
educated in the common schools, and after teaching and working on a 
farm for one year in Illinois he settled in New York City, where he 
wrote for the journals and magazines. He went to Boston about 
1848, and was subsequently connected with various newspapers and 
magazines in that city. From 1870 to 1873 he was managing editor 
of "Our Young Folks." He was one of the original contributors to 
the "Atlantic Monthly," in which magazine were published his poems, 
"The Vagabonds," "At Sea," and "The Pewee," and the popular 
short story, "Coupon-Bonds." His "Neighbor Jackwood" is the pio- 
neer of noyels of real life in New England, just as "The Vagabonds" 
is the first specimen, and one of the best, of the school of poetry since 
made popular by Bret Harte and others. Mr. Trowbridge has led an 
active literary life, and is still writing in the same happy vein that 
delighted us so much when "Cudjo's Cave" was fresh from the press. 
Among his best stories, besides those mentioned are: "Neighbors* 
Wives," " Farnell's Folly," " The Drummer Boy," " Martin Merrivale," 
"Father Brighthopes," "The Fortunes of Toby Trafford." "The Three 
Scouts," "The Silver Medal," "Bound in Honor," "The Jolly Rover," 
"The Tinkham Brothers' "Tide-Mill," etc. Mr. Trowbridge portrays 
human nature through his sympathy and hearty affiliation with it, not 
through mere intellectual acuteness. 




JOHN TOWNSElSfD TROWBRIDGE. 

451 



WILLIAM FREEMAN VILAS. 



PLACED in a conspicuous position before the nation as chairman of 
the Democratic National Convention that nominated Grover Cleve- 
land to the presidency in 1884, William F. Vilas leaped into public 
prominence at a bound. Prior to that time he had been merely a 
successful lawyer in Wisconsin, scarcely known outside of his own 
state. Senator Vilas was born at Chelsea, Vt., July 9, 1840. The 
family removed to Madison, Wis., in J 851, and he graduated from the 
Wisconsin State University in 1858, afterward receiving a legal edu- 
cation in the law school at Albany, N. Y. At the outbreak of the 
Civil War he entered the Union army and rapidly rose to the rank of 
colonel, distinguishing himself for bravery in many engagements. After 
the war he devoted himself to the practice of his profession in Wiscon- 
sin. He v/as a member of the State Legislature in 1884-85, and it 
was while occupying this position that he was a delegate to the Dem- 
ocratic National Convention held in Chicago, and was made chairman 
of that body. He was a revelation to the leaders of the party, who 
at once recognized in him a bright and able representative of that new 
Democracy which the party orators were preaching at that time. As 
a result of this recognition Colonel Vilas was appointed postmaster-gen- 
eral in President Cleveland's cabinet March 5, 1885, and served until 
January 16, 1888, when he became Secretary of the Interior, remaining 
such until the end of Cleveland's administration. He received the 
unanimous nomination of the Democratic legislative caucus for United 
States senator from Wisconsin in January, 1891, and was elected to 
succeed John C. Spooner, Republican. He is a speaker of remarkable 
clearness and brilliancy. 



WILLIAM FREEMAN VILAS. 

453 



DANIEL WOOLSEY VOORHEES 



PW living men in America can point to a longer or more active 
political career than that which the " Tall Sycamore of the 
Wabash" is now rounding out in the United States Senate. Daniel 
W. Voorhees was born in Butler County, Ohio, September 26, 1827, 
but was taken to Indiana in infancy by his parents. He was gradu- 
ated at Asbury University and first practiced law at Covington, Ind., 
where he was an unsuccessful Democratic candidate for Congress in 
1856. In 1858 he was appointed United States District Attorney for 
Indiana, and in 1861 he was elected to Congress, in which body he 
served until February 23, 1866, when his seat was contested success- 
fully by Henry D. Washburn. He again sat in the National House 
of Representatives from 1869 until 1873, and upon the death of Oliver 
P. Morton was appointed to fill his seat in , the United States Senate, 
serving from November 12, 1877, until 1879, when he was elected for 
a full term. He was re-elected in 1885 and 1891, and is today one 
of the leaders in the Senate. Senator Voorhees has achieved a wide 
reputation as an orator and legislator. His tall, commanding figure 
and intellectual stature early won for him the name of the " Tall Syc- 
amore of the Wabash." His eloquence in debate and on the stump 
is liberally embellished with flashes of wit, humorous illustrations and 
sarcastic hits that always insure the close attention of his audience, 
and enable him to send his arguments home. He has advanced views 
on the silver question and is enthusiastic in all he undertakes. He is 
warm-hearted and earnest, and there is a great personal magnetism 
about the man which commands staunch friends. Senator Voorhees 
resides at Terre Haute, Ind. 

454 




iM* 




DANIEL WOOLSEY VOORHEES. 

455 



JOHN GRIMES WALKER. 



T 



O have made a good record in the American Navy at any time 



the seas, has been a distinction for any man. The American Navy 
has never lacked its ready heroes, though, and the Civil war brought 
them out in abundance. Among those ranking well is John Grimes 
Walker. He was born in Hillsborough, N. H., in J 835. He gradu- 
ated at the United States Naval Academy in 1856 and was made a 
master in 1858. With the beginning of the war he served for a 
time on the "Connecticut" patroling the Atlantic coast, and then in 
the "Winona," in the western blockading squadron. He was made a 
lieutenant-commander in 1862, and had command of the "Baron de 
Kalb" iron clad operating on the Mississippi river. He was in the 
command co-operating with Sherman, was in both attacks on Haines' 
Bluff, in the Yazoo river expedition, and in various other enterprises, 
including command of the naval battery, which bombarded Vicksburg 
in the rear, and was highly commended by Admiral Porter for the 
part he took in various affairs. It was here, in fact, that he showed 
the strength and intelligence that was in him and what sort of a sen- 
sible fighting naval officer he was. He was recklessly brave in all 
times of action, but never allowed his daring to affect his judgment as 
to what was best to do at any moment. He commanded the steamer 
"Saco" in the North Atlantic blockade in 1864 and the "Shawmut" 
in 1865. He was made commander in 1866, and for a time served 
at the Naval Academy at Annapolis. His course of promotion has 
been rapid, and he ranks deservedly among the sturdy and highly con- 
sidered naval officers of the world today. 

456 




JOHN GRIMES WALKER. 

457 



ELIZABETH STUART PHELPS WARD. 



STRIKING originality and a peculiar aptness for mingling the seen 
and the unseen ekments in life have had much to do with mak- 
ing the author of "The Gates Ajar" so popular with a large class of 
readers. Elizabeth Stuart Phelps the name by which she is known 
to the world — was born in Boston, Mass., August 31, 1844. Her 
father was Rev. Austin Phelps, professor of sacred rhetoric in Andover 
Theological Seminary, who, in 1848, removed his family from Boston 
to Andover. The daughter received a thorough education, and began 
to write for the press at the age of thirteen. Her mother, Mrs. Eliz- 
abeth Stuart Phelps, was an author of note, and after her death, in 
1852, Miss Phelps, who had been christened with another name, took 
her mother's name in full. Much of her life has been devoted to 
benevolent work in Andover, to the advancement of women, and to 
temperance and kindred reforms. In 1876 she delivered a course of 
lectures before the students of Boston University. Her published works 
include "Ellen's Idol," "Up Hill," "The Tiny Series," "The Gypsy 
Series," "Mercy Gliddon's Work," "I Don't Know How," "The Gates 
Ajar," " Men, Women, and Ghosts," " The Silent Partner," '' Hedged 
In/' " The Story of Avis," " My Cousin and I," " Old Maid's Para- 
dise," "Sealed Orders," "Jack the Fisherman," "The Master of the 
Magicians," and many others, besides numerous sketches, stories and 
poems for magazines. In October, 1888, she was married to Rev. 
Herbert D. Ward. Her most popular book is "The Gates Ajar," 
which reached its twentieth edition within a year after its publication. 
All her works are marked by elevated spirit and profound thoughtful- 
ness. 

45S 




ELIZABETH STUART PHELPS WARD. 

459 



CHARLES DUDLEY WARNER. 



DOWERED with a photographic power of reproducing what he 
sees, a humor which plays gently around whatever topic it 
touches, and a style distinctive in the possession of certain qualities as 
irresistible as they are delightful, Charles Dudley Warner occupies a 
high place in American literature. He was born in Plainfield, Mass., 
September J 2, 1829, and graduated at Hamilton College in 1851. His 
recollections of his youth are embodied in that popular book, "Being a 
Boy." While in college he contributed to the "Knickerbocker" and 
"Putnam's Magazine," and did other literary work. He then studied 
law, and practiced in Chicago from 1856 to J 860, when he returned 
to the East, obtained control of the "Press," an evening paper of 
Hartford, Conn., consolidated it with the "Courant" in 1867, and dur- 
ing the following two years gained a reputation by a series of foreign 
letters to that journal, written from abroad. Subsequently he traveled 
extensively in Europe, and upon his return in 1884 became co-editor 
of "Harper's Magazine." His most important work in connection with 
that monthly was a series of papers beginning with "Studies in the 
South," followed by "Mexican Papers" and "Studies in the Great 
West." Mr. Warner has written and lectured much on educational 
and social science topics. He was an ardent Abolitionist during the 
anti-slavery agitation. His career as an author began in 1870, and 
among the best of his books are "My Summer in a Garden," with 
an introduction by Henry Ward Beecher ; " Saunterings " and " Back- 
Log Studies." He also published, in conjunction with Samuel L. 
Clemens, "The Gilded Age." His other works include contributions 
to the magazines on social, artistic and literary topics. 

460 




CHARLES DUDLEY WARNER. 
46i 



KATHLEEN BLAKE WATKINS. 



CERTAINLY no other woman on this continent, and possibly no 
man below the rank of editor-in-chief, exercises so direct an 
influence upon the prestige and circulation of a newspaper as does 
Mrs. Kathleen Blake Watkins, of the Toronto "Mail." By her bril- 
liant work Mrs. Watkins has made a splendid reputation for that jour- 
nal and for herseE She is a native of Ireland, born in Castle Bla- 
keny in May, 1863, and educated in Dublin and Belgium. She was 
married at the age of sixteen, and came to this country in 1884. 
Shortly thereafter she entered upon a journalistic career in Canada, 
where, with the exception of extended visits to the United States and 
abroad, she has since resided. A remarkable feature of her work is 
that she conducts successfully two entirely separate and distinct depart- 
ments of the newspaper she represents, being special traveling corre- 
spondent and editor of the page devoted to the "Woman's Kingdom." 
This latter department is one of the most striking and attractive on 
any Journal in the world, and has gained a large and steadily growing 
constituency. Mrs. Watkins has published a series of popular sketches 
on " Dickensland," being the result of explorations in every portion of 
London made famous by the great English novelist. Her letters from 
the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893 were remarkable for their 
brilliancy and literary merit, and she has since been induced to issue 
in book form a resume of the exposition. Mrs. Watkins is best 
known by her pen-name of " Kit," over which she has done the greater 
portion of her work. She has recently ventured into the field of fic- 
tion, and there is no doubt that should she turn her attention to that 
class of literature her success would be great. 




KATHLEEN BLAKE WATKINS. 
463 



JAMES B. WEAVER. 



CREDIT should be given to the man whose loyalty to his convic- 
tions and devotion to a theory have twice prompted him to 
become the standard-bearer of a small following, and thus take upon 
himself the brunt of inevitable defeat. General Weaver, of Iowa, has 
made himself famous as a leader of forlorn hopes. He became the 
Greenback candidate for the presidency in 1880, and conducted a vig- 
orous campaign against the two large parties that were engaged in a 
struggle for supremacy. In J 892 he accepted the nomination of the 
People's party and again made a brave fight, receiving over a million 
votes for president. James B. Weaver was born in Dayton, Ohio, 
June 12, 1833, and graduated at the law school of the Cincinnati Col- 
lege in 1854. He served with distinction in the Union army during 
the Civil war, attaining the rank of brigadier-general through gallant 
conduct in various engagements, and at the conclusion of hostilities he 
began the practice of law in Iowa. He was elected district attorney 
of the Second Judicial district of that state, and filled the position of 
revenue assessor, besides that of editor of the "Iowa Tribune," issued 
at Des Moines. He was elected to Congress in 1878, and again in 
1884, and was re-elected in 1886. General Weaver is a plain, unas- 
suming man of the people, impatient of the buncombe and claptrap 
employed by the professional politician, sternly honest and uncompromis- 
ing, even though he may be mistaken, in his views on questions of 
national policy, and too broadly patriotic to submit to the restraint of 
party lines, or party dictation. With him consistency is almost a fault. 
Believing firmly in the cause he advocates, General Weaver is a noble 
example of unswerving devotion to principles. 

464 




JAMES B. WEAVER. 

465 



JAMES ABBOTT McNEILL WHISTLER. 



TO be recognized throughout the English-speaking world as a great 
painter, a brilliant man, intellectually, and one with the love for 
fight abundantly developed, is the fortune appertaining to the famous 
American artist who makes his home in London, with Paris as an 
occasional playground. James Abbott McNeill Whistler was born in 
1834, and, after receiving the ordinary school education, was appointed 
\o a cadetship in the United States Military Academy at West Point. 
He did not remain in the army, but, impelled by his artistic instincts, 
studied drawing later in Paris, and finally in 1863 settled in London. 
Since that time his career has been equally brilliant and eccentric. He 
holds decidedly original views concerning his art, and it would proba- 
bly be denied of him as little as of any one in the world that he 
has the courage of his convictions. His views of art may be icono- 
clastic, but he at least believes in them, and is as ready to fight for 
them and over them as a tigress over her young. The collisions 
with conservatives, which have resulted from time to time, have aided 
largely in making Mr. Whistler renowned. His aggressiveness has 
partly made his fame, but he is a great artist that is admitted every- 
where. His experiments with colors in search of novel effects have 
produced magnificent results. His paintings are telling, and indicate a 
daring and knowing genius. His etching attracted more attention than 
any other work of the class at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 
and, as for his queer fantasies, the story of the peacock room has 
gone around the world. He is a remarkable man, undoubtedly a 
great artistic genius, and as undoubtedly one of the most deUciously 
belligerent of human beings. 




JAMES ABBOTT McNEILL WHISTLER. 

467 



EDWARD DOUGLAS WHITE. 



WELL versed in all that pertains to the theory and practice of 
law, with a judicial mind and a valuable experience on the 
supreme bench of his own state, Edward Douglas White is not likely 
to disappoint the expectations of his friends as associate justice of the 
United States Supreme Court. Mr. White was born in Lafourche 
parish, Louisiana, November 3, 1845. He was educated at Mount St. 
Mary's, near Emmitsburg, Md., at the Jesuit College in New Orleans, 
and at Georgetown College, District of Columbia. During the Civil 
war he served in the Confederate army, and in December, i868, was 
licensed by the Supreme court of Louisiana to practice law. He soon 
gained a reputation as an accomplished lawyer and as a public speaker 
of much force and influence. In 1874 he was elected state senator, 
and served in that capacity until 1878, when he became judge of the 
Louisiana Supreme court. In 1888 he was elected United States sen- 
ator as a Democrat to succeed James B. Eustis, taking his seat the 
following year. President Cleveland appointed him associate justice of 
the Supreme Court of the United States in February, 1894, to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of Hon. Samuel Blatchford. Justice 
White's legal training and practice has been principally under the code 
of Louisiana, which is an adaptation of the French code, and which 
is derived from the Roman law rather than from the common law of 
England, which lies at the basis of the law practice and judicial decis- 
ions of all states except Louisiana. It is believed that the business of 
the Supreme court will be facilitated by the acquisition of a judge who 
is also familiar with the French and Roman systems of law. Mr. 
White is a scholar in more than the legal sense of the word. 

468 



I« 




EDWARD DOUGLAS WHITE. 

469 



FRANCES ELIZABETH WILLARD. 



IT is doubtful if there is another woman in the United States who 
has accomplished more for the cause of reform and education than 
Miss Frances E. Willard. She was born in Churchville, N. Y., Sep- 
tember 28, 1839, and graduated at Northwestern Female College, Evan- 
ston. 111., in 1859. She became professor of natural science there in 
1862, and was principal of Genesee Wesleyan Seminary in 1866-67. 
The following two years she spent in foreign travel and study. From 
1871 to 1874 she was professor of aesthetics in Northwestern Univer- 
sity and dean of the Woman's College, where she developed her sys- 
tem of self-government which has been adopted by other educators. 
Miss Willard left her profession in 1874 to identify herself with the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, serving as corresponding secre- 
tary of the national organization .until 1879, when she became its pres- 
ident. She organized the Home Protection movement, and sent an 
appeal from, nearly two hundred thousand people to the Legislature of 
Illinois, asking for the temperance ballot for women. On the death of 
her brother, Oliver A. Willard, in 1879, she succeeded him in his 
position on the Chicago "Evening Post." In 1886 she accepted the 
leadership of the White Cross movement in her own unions, and ob- 
tained enactments in many states for the protection of women. In 
1888 she was made president of the American branch of the Interna- 
tional Council of Women and of the World's Christian Temperance 
Union. She visited England twice in 1892, and was at the head of 
the women's committee of temperance meetings at the World's Fair in 
1893. She has published nine volumes in addition to numerous mag- 
azine articles, and is editor-in-chief of the "Union Signal." 

470 




FRANCES ELIZABETH WILLARD. 

471 



WILLIAM COLLINS WHITNEY. 



A CULTIVATED gentleman in politics, a man with millions behind 
him, a man with intellect as well — that is, perhaps, a fair, off- 
hand description of William Collins Whitney. He was born in Con- 
way, Mass., July 15, 1841. He received a thorough preliminary edu- 
cation, and graduated from Yale in 1863 and from the Harvard Law 
School in 1865. He was admitted to the bar and began his practice 
in the city of New York, winning a reputable place in his profession. 
He became interested in politics, and in 1871 became identified with the 
Young Men's Democratic Club and later acquired a prominence almost 
beyond his years by the active part he took in the famous fight upon 
the Tweed ring. He was made inspector of public schools in 1872 
and then ran as a candidate for district attorney under the auspices of 
the reformed Democracy, and was defeated. He took part in the 
Tilden campaign, and in 1875 was appointed corporation counsel in 
New York. During Mr. Whitney's term of office he saved New York 
City millions of dollars by his wise opposition to various claims brought 
by the ringsters against the city. He became a prominent figure in 
the better group of New York City Democracy, and with the election 
of Mr. Cleveland to the presidency, attained national prominence, being 
made Secretary of the Navy and fulfilling the duties of that most 
responsible position with energy, ability and tact. He has not lost 
;3ince an iota of the eminence he had attained. He stands prominent 
among the great men of his party when future contingencies are con- 
sidered, more particularly since his strength is so great among the bet- 
ter men of the city which is his party's stronghold, where he is rec- 
ognized as a man of marked ability and a politician above reproach. 




WILLIAM COLLINS WHITNEY. 
473 



ELLA WHEELER WILCOX. 



IN these days of verse makers, when there are so many aspirants 
for recognition in the realms of poesy, the young poet who gains 
the especial attention and approval of the reading public must be more 
than ordinarily gifted. No poetess of today has established herself 
more securely in the hearts of the American people than Mrs. EUa 
Wheeler Wilcox, who appeals more directly to the emotions of her 
readers than almost any other writer of verse now before the public. 
Mrs. Wilcox was born in Johnstown Centre, Wis., and her home 
from early childhood was near Madison, the capital of the state. At 
the early age of eight years she first displayed her poetical and literary 
talent, and at fourteen she began writing for the newspapers. In a 
very short time her work attracted attention, and when only seventeen 
years old she was receiving pay for her verses and stories. Since 
that time her star has been steadily in the ascendant. Her early 
reputation was made under the name of Ella Wheeler, which was 
changed in 1884 by her marriage to Robert M. Wilcox, of Meriden, 
Conn. Since 1887 she has resided in New York City, where her 
husband is engaged in a manufacturing business. Her published books 
now in print are : " Poems of Passion," " Poems of Pleasure," '' Mau- 
rine," "The Beautiful Land of Nod," "An Erring Woman's Love," 
"Men, Women and Emotions," "How Salvator Won, and Other Rec- 
itations," and "The Song of a Sandwich." Although her early edu- 
cation was only such as could be obtained at the district school, sup- 
plemented by three months in the Wisconsin State University, Mrs. 
Wilcox enjoys the advantages of a higher education, acquired by study- 
ing the hearts of the people. 



^ 




y 



\«<^' 



IP 




ELLA WHEELER WILCOX. 

475 



STEPHEN VAN CULEN WHITE. 



A MOST sagacious financier, whose daring as a speculator is 
guided by an intelligence of such an order that the combination 
amounts to genius, Stephen V. White is one of the most prominent 
figures in the financial center of this country. He was born in Chat- 
ham County, North Carolina, August I, 1 83 1. His father, being a 
Quaker, was opposed to slavery, and after the famous Nat Turner 
insurrection removed with his family to Illinois, where he engaged in 
farming. Stephen was at that time but six weeks old, and he was 
reared in the wilderness. He was graduated at Knox College in 1854, 
studied law in St. Louis with B. Gratz Brown and John A. Kasson, 
and after his admission to the bar in 1856 began practicing in Des 
Moines. He attained high rank as a lawyer, but in 1865 he removed 
to New York and engaged in banking. In 1882 he organized the 
now well-known banking firm of S. V. White & Co. As a banker 
Mr. White has been noted for his large and bold operations in the 
interest of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western railroad. Indeed, 
his operations have been such as could only have been conducted by 
a man possessed of phenomenal prescience, the power of cool calcula- 
tion and supreme confidence in his own convictions. In 1891 his firm 
failed and his fortune was swept away, but in little more than a year 
he had canceled his obligations, which he was bound only by honor 
to pay, and was again in his old place in the New York Stock Ex- 
change. Mr. White was elected to Congress from Brooklyn in 1886. 
He has long been a trustee of Plymouth church, is an expert astrono- 
mer, and has received the honorary degree of LL. D. from Knox Col- 
lege. 




STEPHEN VAN CULEN WHITE. 

477 



AUGUSTA J. EVANS WILSON. 



"f VriTH a national reptitation very firmly established, the author of 
VV "Beulah" has of late years chosen to do very little in the 
field of literature. It is not necessary that she should do more than 
she has already accomplished to fix her popular status. She was born 
near Columbus, Ga., in 1836. Her family removed to Texas, and 
afterward to Mobile, Ala., where in 1868 she became the wife of L. 
M. Wilson, and where she has since lived in a fine country home. 
The name of Augusta J. Evans had at that time already become 
famous. Her first novel, "Inez, a Tale of Alamo," was only moder- 
ately successful, but her second book, published in 1859, achieved a 
success which was almost instantaneous. It has passed through many 
editions and is still one of the popular novels. The Civil war put a 
check to her literary work, and for years there was a cessation of 
effort in the field for which she was so well equipped. Her next 
book, "Macaria," was printed on coarse brown paper, copyrighted by 
the Confederate States of America, and dedicated to the brave soldiers 
of the Southern army. It was printed in Charleston, S. C, published 
by a bookseller in Richmond, Va., was seized and destroyed by federal 
officers and was subsequently reprinted in the North, meeting with a 
very large sale. After the war she went to New York City and 
published her famous "St. Elmo," which was most successful. Her 
later works include "Vashti," "Infelice," and "At the Mercy of Tibe- 
rius." She is wealthy, and has chosen to live in retirement of late, 
and her absence from the literary field has been a source of regret to 
a great host of readers, since there is none who fills exactly her place 
in the broad field of literature. 

478 




AUGUSTA J. EVANS WILSON. 

479 



GEORGE HARDIN YENOWINE. 



IF some thoughtful, knowing man, acquainted with all necessary cir- 
cumstances, were to consider what one man has done most in the 
last fifteen years for the future of the city of Milwaukee, on Lake 
Michigan, he might say that the name he would select would be that 
of George Hardin Yenowine. Mr. Yenowine was born near Louis- 
ville, Ky., September 6, 1858. The son was to be educated as a 
doctor. The father engaged on the Confederate side in the Civil war, 
and the result was a decided disturbance in the Yenowine family pro- 
gram, but the blood was there still. The boy had to stay at home, 
and took up manfully the hard work on an impoverished farm. He 
was full of ambition, though, had ideas, and he made a little hand- 
press while still on the farm and tried to do printing with it; then 
became correspondent for the Louisville newspapers, and did such good 
work on the country news that he finally got a place on the Louis- 
ville "Evening Journal." Then came the usual newspaper man's life. 
Li 1879 Mr. Yenowine moved to Milwaukee, where for six years he 
was city editor of the Milwaukee " Sentinel," and then editor of the 
^'Evening Wisconsin." He next founded a newspaper of his own, 
which is widely known. He has been a factor in making Milwaukee 
what Milwaukee is today, a factor probably not recognized as it should 
be. Mr. Yenowine has prospered; he has bought his old Kentucky 
home, which has become a summering place for him. He is a very 
energetic business man and a journalist of ability. The fact that he 
is both Northern and Southern in thought makes him stronger, makes 
him what he is in all his views and all his enterprises, a broad and 
forceful American. 



i 




GEORGE HARDIN YENOWINE. 

48J 



ROBERT CHARLES WINTHROP. 



CHIEFLY associated in the popular mind today as the favorite ora- 
tor of great historical anniversaries, Robert C. Winthrop rests 
secure upon his reputation as a statesman achieved before the middle 
of the nineteenth century. Mr. Winthrop was born in Bostcn May 
12, 1809; graduated at Harvard in J 828, studied law with Daniel 
Webster, and served as a Henry Clay Whig in the Massachusetts 
Legislature from 1834 to 1840. During the next ten years he was in 
Congress, being Speaker of the House from 1847 to 1849, and distin- 
guished himself as a ready debater and an accomplished parliamentarian. 
A series of impressive speeches on public questions delivered by him in 
Congress are still consulted as authorities. In 1850 he was appointed 
by the governor of Massachusetts to Daniel Webster's seat in the Sen- 
ate, when the latter became Secretary of State. A year later he 
retired from active political life, and devoted himself to literary, histori- 
cal and philanthropical occupations. He was president of the Boston 
Provident Association for twenty-five years, of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society for thirty years, and has held many other posts of dig- 
nity and usefulness. His "Washington monument" speeches of 1848 
and 1885, his Boston Centennial address of 1876, his great Yorktown 
oration, and many others of his public speeches, are noted for their 
fervid eloquence, patriotism and scholarship. There is a portrait of 
Mr. Winthrop in the Capitol at Washington, presented by the citizens 
of Massachusetts, and another in the hall of the Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society. From the outset he has been at the head of George 
Peabody's trust for Southern education. His works are "Life and Let- 
ters of lohn Winthrop" and "Washington, Bowdoin and Franklin." 




ROBERT CHARLES WINTHROR 

483 



FELIX ADLER. 



IT is safe to say that the science of moral philosophy has had no 
more earnest and careful student than the scholarly founder of the 
religious organization known as the Society for Ethical Culture. Prof. 
Felix Adier is the son of a Jewish rabbi, and was born in Alzey, 
Germany, August 13, 1851. At the age of five years he was brought 
to the United States, where he passed through the New York public 
school and Columbia grammar school, and graduated at Columbia Col- 
lege in 1870. He then went abroad to study at Berlin and Heidel- 
berg, obtaining the degree of Ph. D. in 1872. Returning to America 
he was appointed in 1874 professor of Oriental languages in Cornell 
University, a post which he filled until 1876, when he gave it up to 
establish in New York City the Society for Ethical Culture. This 
religious but unsectarian society, which is addressed regularly on Sun- 
days by its founder, has flourished from the beginning, and celebrated 
its eighteenth anniversary in May, 1894. Its philanthropic work is 
widely known and copied. Professor Adler established the first kinder- 
garten for poor children in America, and was the first to introduce the 
district nursing system, which has since been so generally adopted. 
Earnest and persistent in his labor for tenement-house reform, he did 
valuable service as a member of the tenement-house commission. It 
was he who established the pioneer school of manual training, the 
Workingmen's School in New York, where five hundred children of 
the poor are educated according to the most improved methods. In 
1890 he established the "International Journal of Ethics," which is 
widely read at home and abroad. He has published "Creed and 
Deed," a collection of lectures, and " Moral Education of Children." 

481 



» 




FELIX ADLER. 

435 



JAMES GORDON BENNETT. 



BORN to editorial purple, James Gordon Bennett has at least shown 
that he has inherited many of the qualities of his famous father 
who gained the purple for him. It was a severe test of the stuff in 
a young man to succeed to such a property as the "New York Her- 
ald," to inherit the income of a prince and at the same time have 
imposed upon him the duties of a worker. Mr. Bennett has demon- 
strated that he possesses taste for each separate sphere; that he can 
spend as prodigally and his critics would say with just about the 
degree of reason of the average prince has been made clear enough, 
while he has not shirked the duty of managing his great property 
himself, managing it arbitrarily and completely, and taking the good 
and bad consequences; that he has the journalistic instinct is assured, 
that he has allowed it to develop only in certain channels is as well 
apparent. Born in 1 84 1, and therefore a man still comparatively 
young, he is widely known upon two continents for his lavish mode 
of life, and his daring ventures upon lines never adopted before and 
requiring great expenditures with results but a matter of speculation. 
He is a forceful character. It was a bold thing to send Stanley into 
the heart of Africa to find Livingstone, and the enterprise succeeded. 
It was as startling an undertaking to fit out a North Pole expedition, 
and the enterprise failed. The European newspaper enterprises of Mr. 
Bennett have had equally varying fortunes. With his newspaper and 
his wealth, he might have become an impressive political factor in the 
United States. He prefers Paris or a yacht. He is a notable Ameri- 
can, but he has not earned the title of a great one. Yet he has 
vigor and is a force in journalism. 

486 




JAMES GORDON BENNETT. 
487 



CALVIN S. BRICE. 



ALTHOUGH a young man, Calvin S. Brice, lawyer, railroad pro- 
jector and political leader, has a proud record. Though busi- 
ness reasons keep him in New York, he is by birth an Ohio man; 
was born in Denmark, Ohio, September J 7, 1845. He is the son of 
William Kirkpatrick Brice, from an old Maryland and Pennsylvania 
family, and a clergyman of distinction in the Presbyterian Church, and 
Elizabeth Stewart, of CarroUton, a woman of fine education and exem- 
plary traits of character. His education was carefully looked after by 
his parents and obtained in the common schools of his home and in 
those of higher grade in Lima, Ohio. He was only thirteen years 
old when he was able to enter the preparatory department of Miami 
University, at Oxford, Ohio, where he remained a year and then 
entered the freshman class. He was expecting to graduate, when the 
call for troops aroused his patriotism and though but fifteen years old 
he relinquished his studies and enlisted as a member of Capt. Dodd's 
university company, and in April took his first lesson of military dis- 
cipline at Camp Jackson, Columbus, and served with his regiment dur- 
ing the year. Returning to the university he resumed his studies, 
completed the regular course, and was graduated in J 863. Mr. Brice, 
after teaching for awhile, went into the army again, reuniting a com- 
pany and going back as captain. Being firm in the resolve to devote 
himself to the law, after the war he entered the law department of 
the Michigan University, and was admitted to the bar after being grad- 
uated from there. He has attained great distinction as a corporation 
lawyer, has been a leader in financial circles, and as United States 
Senator has done much good for the Democratic party. 

483 




CALVIN S. BRJCE. 
4i? 



CUSHMAN K. DAVIS. 



THE scholar in the United States Senate has appeared to advantage 
in the person of Cushman K. Davis, one of the senators from 
Minnesota. Mr. Davis was born in Henderson, Jefferson County, N. 
Y., June 16, 1838. While he was but a child his parents removed 
to Waukesha, Wis., where he attended the public schools and became 
afterward a student in Carroll College. He then entered the Univer^ 
sity of Michigan and graduated from that great institution in 1857, 
when only nineteen years of age. He studied law and began its 
practice in Waukesha, but at the beginning of the Civil war became 
a lieutenant in the Twenty-eighth Wisconsin regiment. He served 
creditably and was rapidly promoted, becoming assistant adjutant-general 
on the staff of Gen. Gorman, but in 1864 became incapacitated by 
typhoid fever and was compelled to leave the service. In 1865, with 
recovered health, he removed to Minnesota and resumed the practice of 
his profession in St. Paul, which city is still his home. A deep stu- 
dent and brilliant orator, he soon' became widely known, both on the 
political and lecture platforms. He was elected to the Minnesota Leg- 
islature in 1867, and in 1868 was appointed United States attorney 
for Minnesota, which position he held for five years. In 1874 he 
was elected governor of the state on the Republican ticket, and served 
one term, declining a renomination. In 1875, and again in 1881, he 
was a candidate for United States senator, but in the then condition 
of Minnesota politics was each time defeated. In 1887 he was elected, 
and in 1893 was again chosen for the position. He ranks high in 
the Senate, both as statesman and as a man of extraordinary cultiva^ 
tion and scholarship. 




CUSHMAN K. DAVIS. 
49t 



IGNATIUS DONNELLY. 



A STRONG, vigorous personality, and an immense amount of 
energy, arz among the characteristics of Ignatius Donnelly. He 
was born in Philadelphia November 3, 1831, and was graduated from 
the Central high school of that city in J 849. He then went to St. 
Paul, Minn., where he took up the work of journalism. In I860 he 
was elected lieutenant-governor of that state, was sent to Congress in 
1863, and made state senator in 1873. He is also an author, and 
his books are well known and bear the stamp of Mr. Donnelly's 
strong imagination. Among those most favorably known are "Caesar's 
Column," "Dr. Huguet," and quite a recent one, "The Golden Bottle." 
What might almost be called his life work is "Cryptogram," a claimed 
cipher conveying the information that Sir Francis Bacon was the 
author of the plays attributed to William Shakespeare. This assertion 
on the part of Mr. Donnelly has of course provoked much discussion 
and has not increased the estimation in which he is held by the 
great mass of thinkers; on the other hand it has secured quite a con- 
tingent of those who take the Bacon side of the controversy. It may 
be said of Mr. Donnelly that he has at least the courage of his 
convictions. Mr. Donnelly is an advanced thinker, and shows indom- 
itable will in whatever work he undertakes, literary or political. Mr. 
Donnelly has also appeared upon the platform as a lecturer supporting 
his own views, especially as to the Bacon cipher. Even those who 
differ from him on that question admit he makes a very ingenious 
argument in support of his theory. Mr. Donnelly is very popular in 
his own state and has a large number of admirers throughout the 
country. His works are interesting and are possessed of much merit 




IGNATIUS DONNELLY. 

493 



CARDINAL JAMES GIBBONS. 



MODERN history must include the names of great dignitaries of the 
Roman Catholic Church in the United States. The life of Car- 
dinal Gibbons affords an example of what ability and acumen, supple- 
mented by a power of application to an end, firmness of purpose, and 
a fixed regard for duty, may accomplish. James Gibbons was born in 
Baltimore, Md., in 1834. Of Irish parentage, he was taken for a 
time to his father's native country, and there began his first studies 
for the priesthood, to which he was destined, returning to take his 
theological course at the seminary of St. Sulpice in Baltimore. He 
w^as first assigned to a small church in the suburbs of Baltimore, but 
his talents, soon observable, carried him to a broader field. In 1868 
he was made vicar apostolic of North Carolina, with the rank and 
title of bishop, and in 1886 was recognized as one fitted for the hight 
est dignity of the church. He visited Rome, and there, in the mids- 
of an imposing ceremonial, received the red biretta from the hands of the 
Pope himself. The selection made was most satisfactory to the Roman 
Catholic Church in the United States. The cardinal's hat has become 
its new bearer well. The face, thoughtful, intelligent, almost ascetic 
in its expression, indicates the character of the man. He has tact, it 
may be great ambitions, but his great executive ability, his self-denial, 
his modesty and his attention to his duty are the qualities which endear 
him to the world. His influence is widely felt and his friends are 
not confined to those of his own church, and more could scarcely be 
said of any religionist than that, for religious antagonisms are gener- 
ally the strongest of all. He represents the progressive and broad- 
minded spirit of the day. 




TAMES GIBBONS. 

495 



JOHN B. GORDON. 



A BRAVE soldier, loyal to the South, fighting to the last for "The 
Lost Cause," who, when the war is ended becomes a stanch 
supporter of the Union, such a man is Gen. John B. Gordon. He 
was born in Upson County, Georgia, February 6, 1832. His ances- 
tors came from Scotland to Virginia in the seventeenth century, and 
were prominent in the days of the colonies. During the Revolutionary 
war they were prominent officers in the Continental army. General 
Gordon was educated at the University of Georgia. After completing 
his law studies he began practice with his brother-in-law, L. E. Bleck- 
ley, afterward chief justice of Georgia. In 1854 he married the daugh- 
ter of Hon. Hugh Anderson Haralson, who represented Georgia in Con- 
gress for many years. In 1861 General Gordon raised and uniformed 
a company of men for the Confederate army and was chosen cap- 
tain. General Gordon's war record was remarkable for bravery and 
audacity. At the battle of Sharpsburg, in 1862, he was severely 
wounded four times, but remained on the field with his men until the 
fifth ball struck him full in the face and knocked him senseless. He 
fought with stubborn valor throughout the war. He guarded the 
retreat from Petersburg, and at Appomattox Court House was put at the 
head of the four thousand troops that were intended to cut through 
General Sheridan's line, which was prevented by the surrender of Gen- 
eral Lee. He was delegate at large to the National Democratic Con- 
vention in Baltimore in 1872; was elected United States senator in 
1873, and again in 1879. In 1886 he was elected governor of 
Georgia, and was re-elected in 1888. In 1890 he was again elected 
senator. His career in Congress has been very brilliant. 

496 



. ,lglf^f&^y^^. 




JOHN B. GORDON. 

497 



JOEL CHANDLER HARRIS. 



A DELIGHTFUL delineator of Southern life, with a keen apprecia- 
tion of the negro character, Joel Chandler Harris is one of the 
most popular authors of the day. He was born December 9, 1848, 
in the little village of Eatonton, Ga. Before he was six years of age 
he had learned to read, and later he enjoyed the advantages of a few 
terms at the Eatonton Academy. When he was twelve years of age 
he decided to learn the printer's trade. He soon found an opportunity 
to do so in the office of a Colonel Turner who was then publishing 
a v/eekly newspaper called ''The Countryman." He found his position 
a congenial one, as Colonel Turner allowed him the use of his magnifi- 
cent library. It was here that this country boy received his education. 
He began his literary career by sending anonymous communications to 
"The Countryman," which were printed. He afterward threw off his 
disguise and contributed a number of essays and poems which were 
highly praised by the publisher. At the close of the war he obtained 
employment on various newspapers in Macon, New Orleans, Forsyth 
and Savannah. In 1876 he became a member of the editorial staff 
of the "Atlanta Constitution." Soon after Mr. Harris went on the 
"Constitution" he was requested to furnish some negro dialect 
sketches, then becoming very popular. While on the Turner planta- 
tion he had often listened to the weird folk-lore tales of the negroes, 
and now decided to reproduce them. In a few weeks appeared the 
"Uncle Remus" sketches, which at once created a sensation. His 
later works are: "On the Plantation," "Daddy Jake," "The Runaway," 
"Uncle Remus and His Friends," "Balaam and His Master," and 
"Little Mr. Thimblefinger." 

498 




JOEL CHANDLER HARRIS. 

499 



EVAN P. HOWELL. 



AN eloquent orator, a journalist of rare ability, and a patriot whose 
heart is full of love and devotion for his countrymen, Evan P. 
Howell is one of the most distinguished men of the South. Captain 
Howell is a native of Forsyth (now Milton) County, Georgia. At 
the age of twelve years his father moved to Atlanta. Here the son 
passed with distinction through the common schools of Warsaw and 
Atlanta, entering the Georgia Military Institute at Marietta in 1855. 
After completing a two years' course he went to Sandersvillej where 
he read law until the end of the year 1858, when he was enrolled 
among the Lumpkin Law School matriculates, at Athens. A year 
later he began the practice of law, which was interrupted by the break- 
ing out of the Civil war. He enlisted in the First Georgia Regiment 
as orderly sergeant and was appointed a lieutenant before the expiration 
of a month. He was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant, and 
before the second year he remodeled the company and became its cap- 
tain. From service under General Jackson in Virginia he was trans- 
ferred to the Western army in tim.e to engage in the struggle at 
Chickamauga. In the retreat from Laurel Hill the sufferings of Cap- 
tain Howell and his men were intense. He served until the close of 
the war and when the conflict ceased he returned to his home and 
began farming, which he carried on for two years. In 1868 he 
became city editor of the "Atlanta Intelligencer," but a year later he 
renewed the practice of law. He was elected to the State Senate in 
1873 and was reelected for a second term. In 1876 he purchased a 
controlling interest in the Atlanta Constitution, and became its editor in 
chief. 



( 




rA 



EVAN P. HOWELL. 
50 J 



JOSEPH JEFFERSON. 



THERE are few actors on the American stage who have so suc- 
ceeded as Joseph Jefferson in winning not only admiration but, 
in a degree, the affection of the public. The nature of the parts in 
which he has distinguished himself, notably that of Rip Van Winkle, 
may have had something to do with this, but there is much in the 
personal character of the man himself to win such regard. He was 
born in Philadelphia in 1829, and when but three years of age figured 
as the child in the drama of "Pizarro," then one of the most popular 
plays. In 1843, after the death of his father, Joseph joined a com- 
pany of strolling players who made their way to Texas and followed 
the United States army into Mexico. On his return to the Northern 
States the youth was engaged for minor parts in various theaters, and 
in 1849 married Miss Lockyer, an actress. He continued the usual 
life of an actor, drifting from place to place, and from 1850 to J 856 
was employed as actor and stage manager in Philadelphia, New York, 
Baltimore and Washington. After a trip to Europe, his health having 
been affected, he became stage manager again, and in 1857 became 
connected with Laura Keene. In 1858 he made a pronounced success 
as "Asa Trenchard" in "Our American Cousin." In the early six- 
ties he sailed for Australia, in which country his success continued, 
and in 1865, after his return to this country, appeared, much against 
his own inclination, as "Rip Van Winkle." Since that time his right 
to be counted one of the great American actors has not been disputed, 
and his reputation has been fully maintained in all the parts he has 
taken. He is wealthy, and, when in retirement, spends his time as 
painter, student and angler. 



iiigllHroiiii 1 
ifil(P^P^^"'"^tfr'iililiP^ 


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1 



JOSEPH JEFFERSON. 
503 



ROBERT TODD LINCOLN. 



INHERITING the name which his illustrious father made the synonym 
of wise leadership and patriotic devotion to his country, Robert T. 
Lincoln is one of the most modest and unassuming of public men. 
He was born in Springfield, III., in 1844, and was graduated at Har- 
vard University. During the latter years of the Civil war he served 
as a member of General Grant's staff, subsequently taking up the 
study of law at Harvard. He was admitted to the bar in 1867, and 
began the practice of his profession in Chicago, which has continued to 
be his home to the present day. In 1868 he was married to the 
daughter of Hon. James Harlan, at that time Secretary of the Interior 
of the United States. As a lawyer he achieved success, confining his 
practice largely to the United States courts and to civil suits, leaving 
the other branches of the work to his partners. In 1880 Mr. Lincoln 
was chosen a presidential elector on the Garfield and Arthur ticket, 
and when President Garfield assumed the duties of his office he invited 
the young man to a seat in his cabinet as Secretary of War. He 
was the youngest cabinet officer that had ever served in that capacity 
-up to that time, and he filled the office with marked ability for four 
years, being retained by President Arthur after Garfield's death. In 
J 889 President Harrison appointed him Minister to England, and he 
spent the next four years in London. Returning in 1893 he has since 
devoted himself to the practice of law in Chicago. Mr. Lincoln, 
though bearing a name the most potent with his party in summoning 
a sentiment of affection for its wearer, has not utilized the circumstance 
for his personal advancement. The son of Abraham Lincoln is a 
hard-working Chicago lawyer. 




ROBERT T. LINCOLN. 

505 



THOMAS LOWRY. 



NOT active in politics or literature, seeking fame of no sort, but 
working strenuously in a broad way for material ends, because 
his nature will not admit of any other course on his part, Thomas 
Lowry has become one of the foremost figures in the great Northwest. 
From a struggling young attorney he has become a millionaire and 
has set an example of daring in new fields, worthy of imitation by 
young men everywhere. He was born a little over fifty years ago, 
one of the great brood of young Illinoisans who saw the Prairie state 
in its infancy coeval with their own, and after the ordinary education 
of a youth of the region studied law at Rushville in the state named, 
and later removed to Minneapolis, Minn., to engage in practice. He 
succeeded very well, but it was not as a lawyer that he was destined 
to acquire most prominence. He was one of the men who recognized 
the great future of Minneapolis and St. Paul and who were shrewd 
enough to ride with their own fortunes on the wave of development of 
the twin cities. He had no money to speak of, but he borrowed it 
of Boston capitalists, purchased the rickety street car lines of the two 
towns and began their steady improvement. He struggled under a 
great load of debt, bankruptcy often stared him in the face, but his 
indomitable pluck and energy, his personal popularity and his financier- 
ing genius carried him through eventually, and he is now the owner 
of one of the greatest of urban transportation systems, as well as being 
deeply interested in different railroad companies and one of the heaviest 
of owners of real estate in both the cities named. He has never been 
a candidate for office, though he has served as a delegate to Repub^ 
lican national conventions. He is a remarkable man. 

506 




THOMAS LOWRY. 
507 



JOHN TYLER MORGAN. 



BELIEVING implicitly in Democratic principles, Senator Morgan is 
one of the most consistent representatives of his party. He was 
born in Athens, Term., June 20, 1824. When nine years of age his 
parents removed to Calhoun County, Ala., and settled near the village 
of Jacksonville. In early life he attended school and later obtained an 
academic education. He studied law in Talladega and commenced its 
practice in 1845. He devoted fifteen years to the duties of his profes- 
sion, acquiring a reputation throughout the state as an able and elo- 
quent lawyer. In I860 he was elected presidential elector, and voted 
for Breckinridge and Lane. In J 861 he was a delegate from Dallas 
to the state convention that passed the ordinance of secession. When 
the war broke out he enlisted in the Confederate army as a private. 
When the company was assigned to the Fifth Alabama Regiment, Mr. 
Morgan was appointed major, and soon after became lieutenant-colonel 
of the regiment. He was afterward commissioned as colonel, and 
returning to Alabama raised the Fifty-first Regiment. In J 863 he was 
appointed brigadier-gereral by Gen. Robert E. Lee, but refused the pro- 
motion in order to lead his old regiment, whose colonel had been killed. 
Later he was again commissioned brigadier-general and commanded a 
division, operating with Gen. James Longstreet in eastern Tennessee, 
and with Gen. Joseph E. Johnson and Gen. John B. Hood. At the 
close of the war he returned to Selma and resumed the practice of 
law. In 1876 he was a presidential elector on the Tilden and Hen- 
dricks ticket, and in the same year he was elected to the United States 
Senate. He was re-elected in J 883 and again in 1889. He is now 
serving his third term in that body. 

£08 




JOHN T. MORGAN. 

509 



WILLIAM J. NORTHEN. 



NO man has done more to advance the interests of Georgia than 
William J. Northen. An able, wise and trusted leader, he 
has won success equally as legislator, educator and governor. Mr. 
Northen was born in Jones County, Ga., July 9, 1835. The greatest 
and most successful part of his life has been identified with educational 
interests. He was graduated from Mercer University in 1853; began 
teaching school in 1854; assisted the famous instructor. Dr. Carlisle P. 
Beman, in the Mount Zion School, from 1856 to 1858, and then, on 
Dr. Beman's retirement, took control of the school, which he conducted 
with great success. When war was declared between the Northern 
and Southern States he enlisted as a private in the company com- 
manded by his father, who was nearly seventy years of age. Imme- 
diately upon his return to Hancock County he again devoted himself 
to school teaching, continuing in this work until 1874, when his health 
became impaired and he began farming. His political career dates 
from 1867, when he was elected a member of the state Democratic 
convention, which was the first political body that assembled in Georgia 
after the war. He was a state legislator in 1877-78, and again in 
1880-81. He was state senator and chairman of the educational com.- 
mittee of the General Assembly in 1884-85, and governor of Georgia 
from 1890 to 1894. As a practical and most successful farmer he 
has always taken a deep interest in agriculture. He has held both 
the vice-presidency and the presidency of the State Agricultural Society. 
The degree of LL. D. has been conferred upon him by Mercer Uni- 
versity and by Richmond College, Virginia. He is now at the head 
of the Georgia Immigration and Investment Bureau. 



-^ 



,v^^ 'w^ 




WILLIAM J. NORTHEN. 

5» 



ROBERT EMORY PATTISON. 



PENNSYLVANIA has produced a great many men of force of 
character, and among those of recent activity Robert Emory Pat- 
tison, late governor of the state, takes no mean rank. He is a young^ 
man. He was born in Quantico, Md., in 1850, his father being a 
Methodist clergyman, who was later sent to Philadelphia, where the 
son attended the Iiigh school, graduated and became a law student in 
1869. He began practice in 1872. In 1877 and 1880 he was elected 
comptroller of Philadelphia and his fearless administration of the office 
made the foundation of his political fortunes. He was nominated by 
the Democrats for governor and elected in 1882. Shortly afterward he 
sent a message to the Legislature recommending a policy of retrench- 
ment and urging the modification or repeal of laws which resulted in 
the multiplication of useless offices. A storm ensued, but the policy o£ 
the governor was successful. His term expired in 1886, and in 1887 
he was appointed a member of the Pacific Railway Commission, where 
his sturdy qualities were again made apparent. Again called upon by 
the Democrats, he was re-elected governor, and repeated the forceful 
administration of his first term. During the famous Homestead riots 
his judicial firmness of character was especially manifested. He recog- 
nized the fact that "a public office is a public trust," and his career 
was a shining example of loyalty to principle and honor. Without 
being a demagogue, he adhered strictly to the course he had marked 
out without regard to political influence or personal feeling. He was 
succeeded in office in 1895 by the Republican candidate, D. H. Hastings.. 
With his youth, his admitted ability and his wide popularity in his 
party, his future, politically, may be counted most promising. 

512 




ROBERT E. PATTISON. 
5J3 



JOHN DAVISON ROCKEFELLER. 



POSSESSING almost unlimited wealth, which he dispenses with the 
liberality of a prince to worthy objects, John D. Rockefeller is 
one of the most noted millionaires of the world. He was born in 
Richford, N. Y., July 8, 1839. In J 853 the family removed to Cleve- 
land, Ohio. After completing his studies at the high school Mr. Rock- 
efeller began his business career as clerk in the commission house of 
Hewitt & Tuttle. In fifteen months he became cashier, and before he 
was nineteen years old he engaged in the commission business in part- 
nership with Morris B. Clark. By 1860 the firm of Clark & Rocke- 
feller, with others, had established the oil refining business of Andrew, 
Clark & Co. In 1865 Messrs. Rockefeller & Andrews bought the 
interests of their associates in oil refining and established the firm of 
Rockefeller & Andrews. The firm of William Rockefeller & Co. was 
established in Cleveland, and a short time afterward the partners united 
in founding the firm of Rockefeller & Co. in New York, and two 
years later these companies were consolidated under the name of Rocke- 
feller, Andrews & Flagler. In 1870 the Standard Oil Company was 
organized with a capital of $1,009,000, with John D. Rockefeller as 
president. In 1882 the Standard Oil Trust was formed with a capi- 
tal of $70,000,000, which was afterward increased to $95,000,000. In 
1892 the Supreme Court of Ohio declared the trust to be illegal, when 
it was dissolved. The business is now conducted by the separate com- 
panies, in each of which Mr. Rockefeller is a shareholder. Notwith- 
standing his great wealth Mr. Rockefeller is a man of simple manners 
and taste. He is best known as the founder of the University of Chi- 
cago, to which he has given $7,000,000. 




JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER. 
51$ 



CLAUDE MATTHEWS. 



PROMINENT in the politics of the West is the name of Claude 
Matthews, governor of Indiana. Recognized as a man of marked 
ability and unflinching integrity, he has commanded the respect of both 
parties. In fact, he is regarded as a presidential possibility. Mr. 
Matthews was born in Bethel, Ky., in 1845. He entered Centre Col- 
lege, whence he was graduated in June, 1867. In 1868 he removed 
to Vermillion County, In^., where he engaged quite extensively in grain 
and stock farming. He has been quite prominent in the breeding of 
improved live stock. He organized the Indiana Short Horn Breeders' 
Association, and to him is due the formation of the National Associa- 
tion of the Breeders of Short Horn Cattle of the United States and 
Canada. In 1876 he was elected a member of the Legislature as a 
Democrat in a strong Republican county. In 1880 he was a strong 
candidate before the convention for lieutenant-governor, but withdrew. 
In 1890 he headed the Democratic ticket as candidate for Secretary of 
State, and was elected by a plurality of nearly twenty thousand. In 
1892, although a candidate for re-nomination as Secretary of State he 
was requested to become a candidate for governor. He was elected 
by a plurality of nearly seven thousand. While governor he was con- 
fronted by many serious problems. In 1893, when the local authori- 
ties were helpless, he suppressed the Columbian Association at Roby, 
organized for the purpose of holding prize fights. The coal miners' 
strike of 1894 was broken in a short time by his decisive action, and 
the sympathetic strike of the same year interfered very little with the 
running of trains in Indiana. Governor Matthews lives a quiet life, 
devoting most of his time to the study of social questions. 

5(6 




CLAUDE MATTHEWS. 
517 



RICHARD OLNEY. 



AN incident of the second administration of President Cleveland was 
the elevation to a position of public prominence of a man who 
was previously but little known outside of his own state. Secretary of 
State Olney comes from one of the oldest and most honored New 
England families. He was born in Oxford, Mass., in J 835, and gradu- 
ated from Brown University with high honors in 1856. Two years 
later he graduated from the Harvard Law School, and began the prac- 
tice of his profession with Judge B. F. Thomas, a descendant of Isaiah 
Thomas, the publisher of the "Old Thomas Almanac," and founder of 
the "Worcester Spy." In 1861 Richard Olney married Judge Thomas' 
daughter, thus uniting two of the oldest and most eminent families of 
New England. For many years Mr. Olney has been regarded as 
one of the ablest lawyers in Massachusetts, and his judgment in mat- 
ters of public and party policy has been much sought after in recent 
years by the younger generation of Democrats in his state. He has 
twice declined the offer of a place on the supreme bench of Massachu- 
setts, and has never sought office of any kind, although in 1874 he 
represented Roxbury in the state legislature, and was a candidate for 
attorney-general of the state in 1876, when the Democratic party was 
defeated. Since that time he has never aspired to public honors, but 
in 1893 he accepted the invitation to enter President Cleveland's Cab- 
inet as Attorney-General of the United States. Mr. Olney is a man 
of dignified bearing, one who appreciates the responsibilities of the posi- 
tion he occupies. He was appointed Secretary of State by President 
Cleveland upon the death of Walter Q. Gresham. Judson Harmon, of 
Cincinnati, was raised to the office of Attorney-General. 




RICHARD OLNEY. 
519 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Abbott, Lyman 108 

Adams, Charles Kendall 110 

Adams, William Taylor 118 

Adler, Felix 484 

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey 106 

Alger, Russell Alexander 34 

Allen, William Vincent 116 

Allison, William B 16 

Angell, James Burrill 112 

Anthony, Susan Brownell 76 

Armour, Philip D 120 

Atherton, Gertrude 242 

3ayard, Thomas Francis 122 

Bell, Alexander Graham 124 

Bellamy, Edward 126 

Benham, Andrew EUicott Kennedy 128 

Bennett, James Gordon 486 

Bissell, Wilson Shannon loO 

Blackburn, Joseph Clay Styles 132 

Bland, Richard Parks 134 

Blewett, Jean 136 

Boies, Horace i^» 

Bonner, Robert 140 

Brice, Calvin S 488 

Brown, Henry Billings 142 

Burdette, Robert Jones 144 

Burnett, Frances Hodgson 86 

Burroughs, John 14<^ 

Burrows, Julius C 1''0 

Cable, George Washington 148 

Campbell, James E ... 152 

Carleton, Will 154 

Carlisle, John Griffin 24 

Carnegie, Andrew 156 

Catherwood, Mary Hartwell 168 

Chanler, Amelie Rives 160 

Chandler, William Eaton 162 

Clemens, Samuel Langhonic 72 

Cleveland, Frances Folsoni 14 

Cleveland, Grover 12 

Cockran, William Burke 164 

CoUyer, Robert 64 

Cook, Joseph 160 

Cooley, Thomas Mclntyre 180 

Crawford, Francis IVIarion 170 

Crespo, Joachim 1"6 

Crisp, Charles Frederick 94 

Cullom, Shelby M 28 

Cumraings, Amos Jay 172 

Dana, Charles Anderson 60 

Daniel, John Warwick 188 

Davis, Cushman K 490 

Davis, George R 178 

Davis, Richard Harding 168 

Dawes, Henry Laurens 182 

Deering, William 58 

De Koven, Reginald 184 

Depew, Chauncey Mitchell 46 

Dickinson, Anna Elizabeth 186 

Dickinson, Donald McDonald 174 

Dickinson, Mary Lowe 190 

Dillaye, Blanche 446 

Dodge, Mary Mapes 96 

Donnelly, Ignatius 492 

Dow. Neal 192 



PAGE. 

Eagle, Mary Kavanaugh Oldham 194 

Edison, Thomas Alva 8 

Edmunds, George Franklin 196 

Eggleston, Edward 198 

Eliot, Charles William 200 

Elkins, Stephen Benton 202 

Endicott, William Crowninshield 204 

Evarts, William Maxwell 206 

Farwell, John Villars 208 

Fawcett, Edgar 210 

Field, Kate 212 

Field, Marshall 226 

Field, Stephen Johnson 216 

Fiske, John 218 

Flower, Roswell Pettabone 220 

Foraker, Joseph Benson 222 

Foster, J. Ellen Horton 224 

Francis, David Rowland 214 

Frenct., Alice 228 

Fuller, Melville W 6 

Gage, Lyman J 36 

Garland, Hamlin 230 

George, Henry 232 

Gibbons, James 494 

Godwin, Parke 234 

Gordon, John B 496 

Gorman, Arthur Pue 236 

Gray, Elisha 2 !8 

Gray, Horace 246 

Greeley, Adolphus Washington. 54 

Griswold, Hattie Tyng 244 

Grow, Galusha Aaron 240 

Gunter, Archibald Claverin- 248 

Habberton, John 2-50 

Hale, Edward Everett 252 

Halstead, Murat 254 

Hampton, Wade 98 

Harlan, John Marshall 256 

Harper, William Rainey 2"i8 

Harris, Joel Chandler 498 

Harrison, Benjamin 82 

Harte, Francis Bret 260 

Hawley, Joseph Roswell 262 

Hawthorne, Julian 264 

Henderson, David Bremner 266 

Herbert, Hilary A 268 

Hewitt, Abram Stevens 270 

Higginson, Thomas Wentwor li 272 

Hill, David Bennett 18 

Hoar, George Frisbie 274 

Holmes, Mary Jane 276 

Hooker, Isabella Beecher 296 

Hosmer, Harriet G 278 

Howard, Bronson 100 

Howard, Oliver Otis 280 

Howe, Julia Ward 62 

Howell, Evan P 500 

Howells, William Dean 84 

Hoxie, Vinnie Ream 282 

Ingalls, John James 284 

Ireland, John 44 

Jefferson, Joseph 502 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Kemeys, Edward 288 

Kennan, George 290 

King, Charles 292 

Lament, Daniel Scott 294 

Laurier, Wilfrid 298 

Lawson, Victor F 300 

Lease, Mary Elizabeth 302 

Lewis, Charles B 304 

Lewis, Ida 308 

Lincoln, Robert T 604 

Lippincott, Sara Jane 306 

Livermore, Mary Ashton Rice 92 

Lodge, Henry Cabot 310 

Logan, Mary Simmerson Cunningham. . . 312 

Longstreet, James 314 

Lowry, Thomas 506 

McCarthy, Dalton 316 

McClure, Alexander Kellv 318 

McCook, Alexander McD 320 

McKinley, William 26 

McVeagh, Wayne 322 

Mackay, John William 324 

Matthews, Brander 326 

Matthews, Claude 616 

Medill, Joseph 330 

Meredith, William Ralph 332 

Merritt, Wesley 334 

Miles, Nelson Appleton 62 

Miller, Annie Jenness 80 

Miller, Cincinnatus Heine 336 

Mills, Darius Ogden 338 

Mills, Roger Quarles 340 

Monroe, Harriet Stone 342 

Morgan, John T 608 

Morrill, Justin Smith 344 

Morrison, William Ralls 88 

Morton, Julius Sterling 346 

Morton, Levi P 32 

Mosby, John Singleton 348 

Moulton, Louise Chandler 350 

Mowatt, Oliver 362 

Nast, Thomas 354 

Nelson, Knute 356 

Northen, William J 510 

Oglesby, Richard James 358 

Olney, Richard 618 

Page, Thomas Nelson ,'')6 

Palmer. Bertha Honor^ 328 

Palmer, John McAuley 366 

Palmer, Thomas Witherell 362 

Pattison, Robert E 612 

Parkhurst, Charles Henry 74 

Peattie, Elia Wilkinson 364 

Peck, George Washington 360 

Piatt, Thomas Collier 368 

Powderly, Terence Vincent 370 

Powell, John Wesley 372 

Pulitzer, Joseph 374 

Pullman, George Mortimer 376 

Quay, Matthew Stanley 104 

Ralph, Julian 378 

Read, Opie 380 

Reed, Thomas Brackett 20 

Reid.Whitelaw 382 



Riley, James Whitcomb 90 

Rockefeller, John D 514 

Rogers, John .' .' 386 

Rohlfs, Anna Katherine Green 388 

Roosevelt, Theodore 40 

Rosecrans, William Starke 390 

Russell, William Eustis 392 

Ryan, Patrick John 394 

Sage, Russell 114 

Saltus, Edgar '. 395 

Schotield, John McAllister 398 

Schurz, Carl ' 73 

Shaw, Albert ' ' " ' . 400 

Sherman, John 22 

Shiras, George ..'. 402 

Sickles, Daniel Edgar ......[..[ 404 

Simpson, Jerry 4og 

Smith, Francis Hopkinson 408 

Smith, Goldwin 416 

Smith, Hoke 412 

Southworth, Emma Dorothy Eliza Nevitte. 414 

Spofford, Ainsworth Rand 410 

Spofford, Harriet Prescott 4I8 

Spreckels, Claus 420 

St. Gaudens, Augustus 422 

St. John, John Pierce 428 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady ]0 

Stedman, Edmund Clarence 70 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing 68 

Stockton, Francis Richard '. 426 

Stoddard, Charles Warren 424 

Stoddard, Richard Henry 430 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher 38 

Sutro, Adolph Heinrich Joseph 432 

Sweet, Ada Celeste 434 

Talmage, Thomas DeWitt 4,36 

Tesla, Nickola 433 

Terhune, Mary Virginia 440 

Thaxter, Ceiia Laighton 442 

Thomas, Theodore 42 

Timby, Theodore Rugglcs 444 

Townsend, George Alfred 448 

Trowbridge, John Townsend ' 450 

Vanderbilt, Cornelius 66 

Vest, George Graham . . . 384 

Vilas, William Freeman ' 452 

Voorhees, Daniel Woolsey 454 

Walker, John Grimes 455 

Wallace, Lew 48 

Wanamaker, John 50 

Ward, Elizabeth Stuart Phelps.' .'...'.'! .'.'." 458 

Warner. Charles Dudley 460 

Waterloo, Stanley ..!.102 

Watkins, Kathleen Blake '.". . 462 

Watterson, Henry .'..'. 30 

Weaver, James B 464 

Whistler, James Abbott McNeill 466 

White, Edward Douglas 468 

White, Stephen Van Culen 476 

Whitney, William Collins 472 

Wilcox, Ella Wheeler 474 

Willard, Frances Elizabeth 470 

Wilson, Augusta J. Evans 478 

Wilson, William Lyne 286 

Winthrop, Robert Charles . 482 

Venowine, George Hardin 480 



INDEX 



FOR DAVIESS AND MARTIN COUNTIES. 



Abraham, Geo. D 28 

Allen, Josiah G 4 

Axtell, Thos. J 18 

Axtell, VVm. F 7 

Boyd, Samuel Brown 20 

Breen, John N 57 

Brittain, Stephen H., M. D 56 

Brooks, Col. Lewis 38 

Cannon, Joseph 43 

Carnahan, M. J 50 

Carothers, Isaac T 52 

Chenoweth, Samuel A 33 

Craine, Wm. T 47 

Crooke, Harry H 21 

Cunningham, Andrew J 29 

Davis, Richard C 5 

Dosch. John 13 

Ellis, Samuel J 51 

Ellis, W. P 12 

Fields VVinepark 50 

Fitz-Gibbons, John, M. D 26 

Freeman, James B 36 

Gardiner, Hon. Wm. Ray i 

Garey, David 34 

Garten, Capt. Zimri V 22 

Gootee, Thomas N 48 

Goudy, Elijah 23 

Gray, Samuel O 34 

Hacker, Albert C 39 

Hardy, Hon A. M 25 

Harryman, Horatio 39 

Hefron, Hon. David J 6 

Hoffman, Frederick 46 

Hoffman. Wm. F 10 

Houghton, Aaron 49 

Houghton, Hon. Hileary Q 45 

Houghton, Maj Wm 53 

Hyatt, Elisha ' ... 25 

Jepson, M. H 17 

Kennedy, Hon. Wm. H 27 

Kiger, Valentine 46 

Kinnaman, Joseph 26 

Larkin, Patrick B 48 

Leming, Capt. John C 16 

Love, James B 50 

Lutes, F. G 15 



McCabe, Rev. John 29 

McCarty, John W 24 

McCormick, Hiram 40 

Marley, Alexander 44 

Marshall, James B 42 

Matthews, Rev. Joseph P 30 

Mattingly, Ezra 17 

Monaghan, Daniel S 16 

Morris, John T 40 

Moser, Noah 52 

O'Brien, James C 57 

O'Donoghue, Rev. Timothy 53 

O'Neall, Hon. John H 25 

Oppelt, Edwin A., M. D 56 

Padgett, Arnold J., Sr 20 

Patterson, Hon. R. Sanford 51 

Pershing, Elijah S 31 

Porter, Abraham W., M. D 54 

Ramsey, J. W 11 

Read, Nathan G 14 

Reily, Baldwin 25 

Reinhart, John J 49 

Routt, Geo. V 48 

Russell, Robert 4 

Spink, Thomas F 9 

Spencer, John H 14 

Sanford, William H 27 

Scudder, Cha;,. P., M. D 4 

Scudder, John A., M. D 3 

Sefrit, Frank I 11 

Shirey, Michael 35 

Slater, Frank A 8 

Smith, James E 49 

Steward, Wm. A 35 

Stiles, O. L 38 

Stoy, W. L 30 

Sullivan, Hugh H 8 

Taylor, Hon. Samuel H 26 

Tharp, Clinton K 26 

Underdo wn, Thomas G 13 

Walker, Thomas 48 

Wallace, Wm. R 53 

Wildnim, Robert 49 

Wood, Henry 55 

Yenne, S. P 31 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Hon. Wm. Kay Gardiner, of the law- 
firm of (larilintT & Gardiner, of Washiug- 
tou, lud., is widely known as a leading and 
popular advocate at the bar of this State, 
a gentleman of the highest professional at- 
tainments and a citizen whose record is tlic 
pride and admiration of his teliow towns- 
men. 

He is descended from two sterling 
Rhode Island tamilies, the Gardiners and 
the Andrews. His father, David M (Jar- 
diner, and his maternal grandfather, w'cre 
vessel masters on the high seas for years, 
the latter losing his life at the hands of a 
mutinous crew on board his own ship. 

David M. Gardiner was born August 
24, 1788, and died March 25, 1861. In mid- 
dle life he moved into Central New York 
and settled on a farm, and it was there our 
sabject was born January 18, 1837. His 
mother was Susan Andrews, who died June 
3, 1857, leaving thirteen children, seven of 
whom still survive, and of whom William 
K. is the youngest. She was born Febru- 
ary 4, 1796. 

His boyhood up to his sixteenth year, 
Mr. (Tanlincr spent in the district schools 
of his nati\r State. He set in at this age 
to learn the carpenter trade, but gave it up 
to enter Dundee Academy. He spent some 
time there and later was enrolled as a stu- 
dent in Starkey Seminary. Between sev- 
enteen and eighteen he taught one term of 
school in the village of Hopeton, near the 
west shore of Seneca Lake. At the con- 
clusion of that term he returned to the 
farm and si)ent the summer, and in the fall 
came west to Ohio to study medicine. He 
read with the late Dr. S."H. DeForest, of 
Bournevillc, and took lectures at the Cin- 
cinnati and Cleveland medical colleges. 
After engaging in the practice for a brief 
period and not being pleased with it, he 



came to Indiana and began railroading on 
the B. & O., then the (). & M., as a bridge 
carpenter in the fall of 1857. He was em- 
]>loyed in that department two or three 
Years and gave this up also, turning liis 
attention to school work. He taught at 
Shoals, Martin County, and at Plainville 
and Washington, Daviess County, and while 
teaching at this last point we find him 
poring over Blackstone and spending his 
spare hours generally in the careful prep- 
aration for that profession in which he has 
for the past quarter of a ceutury achieved 
both fame and honors 

Mr. (jardiner read law under the direc- 
tion of the late Judge Matthew F. Burke, 
and was alsj^ a student in the office of Jesse 
W. Burton, of Washington, beginning with 
the fall of 1862. During this time he tried 
a few cases in the justice and circuit courts 
and the common pleas court of Daviess 
County, having been admitted to the bar 
near the close of the above year. 

In the fall of 1863 Judge (iardiner 
opened a law office at Dover Hill, then the 
county seat of Martin County, but at the 
end of one year returned to Washington- 
and opened an office with the late Williann 
Thompson. February 14,1865, he married 
at Loogootee, and soon after moved there 
and opened a law office. During his resi- 
dence at Loogootee lie was honored by 
( iovernor O. P. Morton with the appoint- 
ment of Prosecuting Attorney for the ju- 
dicial circuit composed of the counties of 
Kno.x, (libson, Daviess, I'ike, Martin and 
Dubois, to fill a vacancy ; and subsequently, 
in 1867, was appointed by the late ( iov. Con- 
rad Baker, Judge of the common pleas court 
to fill a vacancy. In the spring of 18()!(, 
Judge (iardiner moved to Vincennes and 
formed a partnership with the late Colonel 
Cyrus M. Allen and Hon. Nathaniel Usher, 



which was dissolved in 1S72, and then 
Judge Gardiner returned to Washington, 
■where he has since resided. 

In his profession Judge (iardiner is a 
careful, sivillful and able practitioner. He 
is exceptionally strong in his ability to de- 
tect the vulnerable points in the trial ot a 
case and is most liappy in the application 
of a remedy to siipjily any defect. He is 
courteous to his op])oneuts, but unyielding 
in behalf of his <'lients. His manner of 
handling a witness is wonderfully smooth, 
easy and variable, and on cross-examination 
he can extort much evidence from a wit- 
ness. His speeches are pleasing, convincing 
and powerful. He has been associated 
with the best lawyers in the State in the 
trial of some of Indiana's noted cases and 
has shown himself to be the peer of any. 
In verification of this last reference an in- 
cident is related of him in the trial of the 
famous Wise will case in Sullivan, Ind.; 
that applies with particular force. In this 
case Judge (iardiner had for his colleagues 
Hon. Benj. Harrison and Hon. Joseph E. 
McDonald. 

This case was tried twice, the first time 
resulting in a disagreement of the jury. 
It was suggested by one of the jury that if 
the order of the atturneys had bcon re- 
versed in the presentation cit the easet<i the 
jury by the three gentlemen ali()\-e named, 
-a favorable verdict might have been had. 
Following out this suggestion the clients 
and Counsels Harrison and ^IcDonald held 
a consultation, with the result that Judge 
Gardiner was given the place of honor, 
the closing speech to the jury, with Harri- 
son to open the case. This rearrangement 
had the effect that was predicted, for in the 
second trial of the case the jury gave Gar- 
diner, Harrison and ^[(Donald a verdict. 

Judge Gardiner's practice has bfen con- 
stant in Daviess and Martin ( 'ounties, but 
during this time he has tried many import- 
ant cases in the courts of other parts of 
Indiana, and in Illinois and in the Federal 
courts. 

In politics, during his early life. Judge 
Gardiner was a Democrat. He became a 
Republican in 1864 with two prominent 
reasons for the change. During that year 
— 1864 — he was a candidate for his party's 
nomination to the office of prosecuting 
attorney for the circuit previously referred 
to herein. On the day set for making the 



nomination a committee of the convention 
waited on Mr. (Jardner and inquired of 
him whether it was true, as was reported, 
that in case he did not receive the nomina- 
tion, he intended accepting a commission 
from the Governor and enter the army. 
In rejjly Judge Gardiner inquired of the 
CDiiiniittcc whether the ac>cc|>tane<> of such 
an .,ifcr From the (;.,vcrnor would dis- 
.|uality him ,,r in any way pnjudi.'.. his 
claims upon the convention for a nomina- 
tion, and, being informed that it would, he 
])rom]itly declined to l)e consi<lered a can- 
didate, and stated that he would not accept 
a nomination if tendered him : and, further- 
more, if the conventi'ui voiced the senti- 
ments of the Democratic party on the 
issues of the war, he was then and there 
done with the organization, at the same 
time stating to the committee that he had 
iKi offer of a commission from the Gov- 
ernor, nor had he an understanding with 
the Chief Exccaitive of any cliaracter"touch- 
ino- tliat subject. 

"F,,llowiuu- this incident s,uuc wckseame 
the National I )enio.Tatic convention that 
n,>minated .McCMclhin f.r I'resid.^nt and 
declared the war a failure. This plank in 
their platform was a further ilisap])oint- 
nient to .ludge (iardiner and strengthened 
anew his determination to secede from a 
a party that seemed pledged to a disgrace- 
ful settlement of tlie great war then being 
carried on by the Government. 

Judge Gardiner has been active in poli- 
tics ever since the war. He has been an 
active partic'ipant in local, district. State 
and National conventions. He was a dele- 
gate to the National convention of 1884. 
He has had no personal ambition to gratify 
and his activity has been on behalf of 
others or the party generally. During all 
these years he has been a candidate for but 
one office — Representative to the Legisla- 
ture in 1886 — and this nomination he was 
forced to accept, and while the county went 
200 Democratic on the State ticket he was 
elected by more than 300 votes. 

Judge Gardiner has repeatedly been ap- 
pealed to to become a candidate for Circuit 
Judge or for Congress, and has frequently 
been mentioned by the press as a suitable 
person for a position on the State ticket, 
especially during the late campaign in con- 
nection with the nomination for Governor. 

In his professional and political career 



Ju dge Gardner lias been lironght into I'losc 
contact witli many men of National rcpu- 
tati(in and distinguished members of the bar, 
and politicians of Indiana, ( )hio and Illinois. 

Judge Gardiner's family cdnsists of his 
witc and three children, thi-ee others having 
died in infancy. Those living are : Charles 
G., born at Loogootee, educated in Wash- 
ington at the State University, and at 
Cornell University, of New York. He is 
a graduate of the Cincinnati Law Scho(d, 
and is a partner with his father in the ])rac- 
tiee of law. He is married tn ^liss .Tene 
W. Aikman. 

William K., .Jr., was born at i..M,gootee, 
and passed through the same schools as his 
brother, except the Cincinnati Law School. 
He is a member of the firm of (iardiner & 
(iardiner, and married Miss Helen Corliss, 
of Troy, X. Y. 

Miss Susan Gardiner is the third child. 

Mrs. (iardiner was Laura, the daughter 
of the late Thomas :\I. (iibson, of Loogoo- 
tee, who was for many years a leading 
merchant and prominent citizen of Martin 
County. He was popular and possessed 
sterling and positive qualities. He was 
warm hearted and affectionate, and both his 
friends and his enemies always knew where 
to find him. He was born in Mason County, 
Ky., and his wife, nee Sarah J. McFee, 
was born in Winchester, Ya. 

Mrs. Gardiner inherited all the sterling 
((ualities of brain and heart possessed by 
her father. She is a graduate of the Spring- 
field, O., Female College, and upon the 
ciunpletion of her education she taught 
school in Shoals, where her husband had 
performed similar duties oidy a few years 
before. 

The years spent in ]\Iartin County Judge 
(iardiner remembers as among the most 
pleasant of his whole life. The memory of 
his associates clings the closer to him as 
time goes on, and when he reflects upon the 
|)ast and recalls the scenes of his young 
manhood in and about Loogootee the pain- 
ful thought comes to him that those scenes 
are gone forever. 

Judge Gardiner has been the attorney 
fbr the O. & M. R'y Co., (the B. ct O. S. 
^\'.,) for twenty-four years ; and for the E. 
it I. and E. & R. R'y Co.'s since their 
construction through Daviess County, but 
he has made no specialty of corporation 
business. His practice has been general. 



and has included everything pertaining to 
the practice of law. 

During the war Judge Gardiner was a 
war Democrat, and in support of his posi- 
tion he wrote many articles, under a nom de 
plume, for publication in Washington 
papers.' 

John A. Scudder, ]\I. D. — The parent- 
tree of the Scudder family in .Vmerica was 
Thomas Scudder, who came from London, 
England, and settled in Salem, Mass., in 
1().'5o. He was the father of Thomas Scud- 
der, who removed to Huntington, Long- 
Island, and became the father of Benjamin 
Scudder, who became the fiither of Col. 
Nathaniel Scudder, of the Rev(dution, who 
removed to Princeton, New Jersey, and 
wlio graduated from Princeton College in 
17oL He was appointed colonel of a regi- 
ment that was organized in Monmouth 
County, by the New Jersey Legislature, at 
the beginning of the Revolutionary war. 
He was killed at the battle of Black Point 
near Shrewsbury, October 16, 1781, at the 
age of forty-eight years. 

Col. Scudder married Isabella Anderson, 
whose father, Kenneth .Anderson, was also 
aciihinel in the Rev(dution. I)r. John 
Anderson Scudder, son of Col. Nathaniel 
Scudder, also participated in the war of In- 
dependence; also a member of C'ongress 
from New Jersey in IS 10; afterward re- 
moved to Mason ( Vninty, Kentucky, thence 
to Daviess County, Indiana. He was sur- 
geon of the regiment of which his father 
was colonel. His son, Jacob F. Scudder, 
came with him to Daviess County ; married' 
Matilda Arrell, and became the father of 
John A. Scudder, the immediate subject of 
this review-. The Scudder family is of 
Scotch origin, and can be traced back to 
the same family to which belonged the 
Rev. Henry Scudder, of Colingborn, Scot- 
land, whose brother, Thomas Scudder, was 
the first representative of the family in 
America. Rev. Henry Scudder was a 
member of the general assembly of the 
Church of Scotland, which framed and signed 
(in 1(343) the articles of confession of faith 
at Westminster. 

Dr. John A. Scudder, whose name in- 
troduces this sketch, was born five miles 
south of Washington, Iiul., on the 2nd day 
of November, 18."'>2. Here on the home- 
stead of his parents he grew to manhood. 
In 1850-.'jl he attended Hanover College, 



anil tlieu took up the stiulv of mfdicine 
uuder the guidance of Dr. S. \X. Peck, of 
AVashingtou. In 1857 he graduated from 
the Miami Medical College of Cincinnati, 
and then located at Watihington, where he 
continued to reside and to practice medi- 
cine till he passed to his final rest; on the 
3rd day of February, 1896. He rose to 
prominence in the medical profession, and 
at the time of his death was a member of 
both the county and state medical societies. 
He served as pension examiner for twcntv- 
five years ; was a republican in politics and 
a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
church. February 18, 1859, he married 
Helen Van Trees, native of Washington. 
and the following children are the issue of 
the marriage: Ciiarles P., Tilla V., Laura 
G., Anna V., John A., deceased; M'iliiain 
F., deceased; David A- 

Dr. Scudder enlisted in the civil war 
August 8, 1863, and served thereatter till 
the close of the war as an assistant surgeon 
of the Sixty-fifth Indiana Regiment. He 
was an able physician, a loyal citizen, a lie- 
loved husband and father, and an I'steemcd 
friend. 

Charles P. Scuddek, M. I)., is a son 
of Dr. John A. Scudder, whose personal 
sketch appears elsewhere in this volume. 
He was born and reared in Washington, 
lud. His birth occurred Xovember 8, 
1859. He received a high school educa- 
tion, graduating from the high schools of 
AVashingtou in 1870. He began the study 
of medicine uuder the guidance of hie father, 
and in Alarch of 1881 graduated from the 
Miami Medical College of Cincinnati. Be- 
ginning the practice of his profession in 
AA'ashington, he soon rose to prominence in 
the medical profession of Daviess County, 
and is to-day among the representative 
physicians of this section of the State. 

Dr. Scudder is a Royal Arch Mason, a 
Knight of Pythias and a Knight of Ancient 
Essenic Order. 

In 1895 the Doctor led to the marriage 
altar Miss Louise J. Stamper, of Louisville, 
Ky. They have one child, a son, Charles P. 

Robert Russell, Auditor of Daviess 
County, was born in New York Citv April 
27, 1846. His father, Robert R. Russell, 
moved into Gallatin County, Ky., soon 
after this event, and there our subject was 
reared and educated. Robert R. Russell 
was born in Ireland seventy-two years ago. 



He learned the trade of silversmith and 
followed it all his life. He married Cath- 
erine Cochran, an Irish lady', who died in 
1867, and was the mother of nine children, 
four of whom are living : Robert, 
John, of Pana, 111.; Kate, wife of John 
Tomey, and Lulu, wife of AVm. Cornett, ot 
Omaha, Neb. 

Robert Russell learned the carpenter's 
trade in his youth and made that his busi- 
ness till 1888, when he was elected Trustee 
of AA'ashington Township, Daviess County, 
having come among the people of this 
county in 1870. His service in this capac- 
ity was so efficient as to justity the people 
in keeping him in the office as long as his 
services could be had, and when he did 
tiiially retire from it it was to enter the 
Auditor's office, to which his election had 
been effected in November, 1894. His 
majority in this election was in the neigh- 
liorbood of 600, which is exceptionally 
heavy foi-a Re])ublican candidate. It is not 
necessary to dwell upon the efficiency of 
his administration — that uoes without say- 
ing. The people have already discovered 
that they made no mistake in electing him. 

Mr. Russell was married in this county 
in 1872, November 20, to Mary S., daughter 
of Squire B. Aleredith, one of the early 
characters of the county. The children of 
this union are: Cora, wife of AA'illiam 
Botting, of Paducah, Ky.; Ella, Harry, 
Charley, Ruby and Edith." 

Air. Russell's first public service was as a 
member of the town council. He was 
elected to that body in 1878, and was con- 
sequently among the first to deal with the 
city's affairs. He has helped to bear the 
burdens of his party as well as to share in 
the honors of office. He has frequently 
been a delegate to state conventions and is 
regarded as a safe counsellor in party mat- 
ters. 

Air. Russell is l'a>t (inmd Alaster of the 
Alasonic Lodge : i- I'a-t 1 1 i^h Priest of the 
Chapter, Past iMuiucnt ( 'uminander of the 
Commandery, and at various times for the 
past fifteen years has been a member of the 
Grand Lodge. 

Hon. Josiah G. Allen, one of the 
youngest and most prominent members of 
the Daviess County bar, is a production of 
this county, in which he was born Decem- 
ber 3, 1861. He was reared on a farm, 
and to him fell the usual duties of a farm 



kill. His early scholastic training was con- 
fined to the district schools of his neigh- 
borhood. After completing tiie course of 
study prescribed in the high school of 
Washington, Mr. Allen then became a 
country school teacher, and for four years 
numbered among the best teachers of Da- 
viess County. Meanwhile he studied law, 
and in 1885 was admitted to the bar. The 
following year Mr. Allen and Mr. M. S. 
Hastings became partners in tiie practice 
of law, and they have remained associated 
in the practice of their profession, and 
gained a large and representative clientage. 

From an early date Mr. Allen has been 
active in political circles as a Re])ublican. 
In 1892 'he became the candidate of liis 
party for the office of ( Viuiity Ui|irc>iiita- 
tive in the House of l\e]in'sciitati\cs of 
Indiana. He was a successful candidate, 
and such was his services as to merit a re- 
election in 1804. Upon the organization 
of the lowcF house of the Legislature in tlie 
session of 18!)5, Mr. Allen was a proniincnt 
candidate for Speaker of the House, Init 
before the contest for the honors of this po- 
sition was concluded, he withdrew and gave 
his support to another candidate, who was 
elected. As a just ap])reciation of his abil- 
ity us a legislator, Mr. Allen was made 
chairman of the important committee of 
wavs and means during that session. In 
1896 he was renominated by his party for 
a tliird term, but went down with his party 
ill its defeat of that year. 

In the year 1888 Mr. Allen led to the 
marriage altar JNIiss Sallie A.Wright. Unto 
them have been born three ciiildren. 

Both Mr. Allen and his wife are com- 
municants in the Baptist Church, and they 
tire prominent in social circles. 

Fraternally he is a prominent member 
of the Knights of Pythias order, belongs to 
the uniform rank of that fraternity, and for 
tlu' past four years has been captain of the 
uniform rank. 

Xotwith-standing the many obstacles that 
have appeared in 5lr. Allen's course of life, 
he has by means of perseverance and sn- 
])erior ability surmounted them, and has 
achieved success. His success in life has 
been due to his individual effort, and hence 
he is what is often termed a self-made man. 

Richard C. Davi.s, of Washington, is 
connected with one of the strongest 
financial institutions in the Second Con- 



gressional District as cashier, and has 
demonstrated beyond question that no bank 
in Southern Indiana has a more competent 
official. By nature and long training he 
has acquired those qualities always discov- 
ei-ed in a genial, careful, shrewd and ac- 
commodating official. After completing 
his education he began that preparation, 
under the guidance and direction of a suc- 
cessful father, that has rendered him capa- 
ble of filling the most responsible position 
in any institution with which he shall be- 
come connected. He is regarded by those 
best acquainted with his record as a 
financier as especially gifted with the ability 
to distinguish between wildcat schemes and 
legitimate business, and is an ever present 
barrier in the protection of his institution 
from promoters of such schemes. 

Mr. Davis is in direct sympathy with the 
interests of his adopted city, and his time, 
energy and capital have been devoted to 
the promotion of whatever would benefit it. 
He is progressive and public spirited and 
stands the peer of any in the estimation of 
the public. 

Davis is an historic and honored name 
in this county. It stands proverbial for 
intelligence, honor and independence. 
Till y inhabit every state and territory and 
contribute their just portion to society and 
government. This branch of the family 
settled in Owen County, Ky., in the fore- 
part of this century. James Davis, our 
subject's paternal grandfather, was a farmer 
and died in the above county. His sou, 
our subject's father, was born on a farm in 
1735. He made a success of his farming 
venture, and in later life engaged in bank- 
ing in Owenton. He was president of the 
Farmers' National Bank of that city till 
his death in 1894. He married Lucinda 
Oliver, who died in 1872, leaving Richard 
C, John O , cashier of the Pike County 
State Bank, at Petersburg, and ]\Irs. Birdie 
Stamper, of Owenton. Mr. Davis' second 
wife was Mollie Scott, whose two children 
are Harry and Mary, both of Owenton. 

R. C. Davis was educated in the city 
schools of his native town, and upon the 
completion of the same entered his tiither's 
bank as clerk and in due time was ])ro- 
motcd to assistant cashier, l^pon the or- 
ganization of the People's National Rank 
of Wasliiiigtou, eight years ago, he was 
made its casliier. 



Mr. Davis was married in this coiiuty 
November 12, 1890, to Auuie, a tlaughter 
of the late Dr. John A. Scudder. The 
children of this union are Scudder and 
Richard C, Jr. 

Mr. Davis is a Democrat in politics, but 
is in no sense a politician. He is a Knight 
of the Ancient Elssenic Order, and as a citi- 
zen holds high rank. 

Hon. David J. Hefeon. — In recording 
the events that have transpired to mark the 
rise of a citizen in j)ul)lic life, it is import- 
ant that the narrator should inform him- 
self fully, from competent and unprejudiced 
sources, and gather those facts which will 
enable the reader to form a just conception 
of the individual. This method has been 
adhered to in the compilation of this brief 
biography of Judge David J. Hefron. 

Judge Hefron was born of Irish parents 
in Jennings County, lud., February 17, 
1842. His father was the late Lawrence 
Hefron, of County Mayo birth, who came 
to America in 1831, disembarked at Mon- 
treal, Canada; took up his residence in 
Erie, Pa., and three years later came to 
Jennings County, Ind. He married Bridget 
Dickson in the old country, and with his 
family of small eiiildren he settled upon a 
farm in Barr Township, Daviess County, 
in 1843. He died there in 1851, at theage 
of fiifty-one years. His widow still sur- 
vives and is spending her remaining days 
(for she is past ninety-three) with her hon- 
ored son. Her children were : Stephen ; 
Catherine, wife of James M. Graves ; John, 
deceased; David J., and Lawrence, de- 
ceased. 

Judge Hefron remained upon the farm 
till he was twenty-five years of age, having 
up to that time had access, as a student, to 
the schools of his district and to the high 
school at Mitchell. He became able to 
teach in time, and the funds earned at this 
occupation and at farming when not other- 
wise employed aided him very materially 
in defraying his exj^enses in securing a 
higher education and equipping himself 
generall)' for the profession for which he is 
so eminently adapted. He was a student 
in the state university of Indiana in 
1866-67, and again in 1868-69, and during 
that winter attended the law department 
of that institution. Upon his return to 
Washington he entered the law office of 
Hon. John H. O'Neall and was admitted 



to the liar the next year before Judge 
Malott. The same year a partnership was 
entered into between himself and his 
worthy tutor for the practice of law, thus 
bringing into existence a firm which be- 
came a power in the court practice to this 
circuit. 

As a lawyer Judge Hefron was careful, 
painstaking and successful. He possessed 
many of the powers of an advocate. His 
arguments were both pleasing and convinc- 
ing, and while he was conspicuous in his 
sphere as a practitioner, it was after his ap- 
pointment to the bench that he develojted 
the high qualities of a prompt, learned, 
courageous and just jurist. He possesses, 
in a marked degree, the quality of correctly 
judging facts as they come from witnesses. 
He is a speedy trial judge, never having to 
suspend court to consult some authority to 
sustain some notion that he may have about 
this or that thing as we frequently find 
judges doing; on the contrary, he has his 
decision ready the moment a point is sub- 
mitted to him. While discussing this 
point it was remarked by Judge (iardiner 
that he would rather practice law in the 
court of Judge Hefron than in the court of 
any other judge he ever knew. 

The partnership between O'Neall & Hef- 
ron existed, with the exception of a short 
interval, from its inception down to 1885, 
when the Forty-ninth Judicial Circuit was 
created by the Legislature, comprising 
Martin and Daviess Counties, and Gov. 
Gray appointed Judge Hefron to preside 
over it. 

In 1871 the town of Washington became 
a city, and Judge Hefron was elected its 
first Mayor. He was re-elected in 1873, 
and while in this office displayed executive 
ability and accurate judgment in a marked 
degree. 

During his political career Judge Hefron 
was an able and faithful expounder of the 
tenets of Democracy, and for this reason 
he was the party nominee for the State 
Senate in 1876, was elected and served out 
the unexpired term of Hon. Andrew Hum- 
phries, who had been elected to Congress. 
In 1878 he was elected to succeed himself 
in the Senate for a term of four years. He 
was regarded as one of the leaders of the 
Democracy. He was conspicuous in his 
opposition to the proposed amendment to 
the State constitution providing for woman's 




HON". DAVID J. HEFUON. 



suffrage, ami in tlic i'oni>russional appor- 
tionmeut wliieh was arranged by that Lug- 
islature he was a prominent factor. 

On September 10, 1873, Judge Hefron 
married Florence H. Barton, daughter of 
Dr. (i. G. Barton, and Ann (Mur]ihy) Bar- 
ton, the former born in Xew York, and the 
latter was of Irish birth. 

Mrs. Hefron was born in Washington, 
Ind., in the year 1S47, and was educated 
at St. Mary's Institute. Slie was a faith- 
ful and affectionate wife, a true woman and 
the light and jov ot her iuisl)and's house- 
hold till December 18, 1884, wlien death 
claimed iier. She was an exemplary 
Christian lady, a devout member of St. 
Marv's Church and an ideal mother and 
companion. Her loss was not only irre- 
parable to her family, but was one keenly 
teit by the church and society. 

Mrs. Hefron was the mother of three 
daughters and a sou, viz.: Josephine M., 
Anna B., Helen A. and John D. The 
daughters Josie and Anna were at St. 
Mary's College, Terre Haute, until their 
graduation, and Helen is a student tliere 
now. 

In convcrsatiiui \\ith a gentleman who 
has been intimatelv ac.iuaiuted with Judge 
Hetron for many' years, lie made tlie fol- 
lowing observations : "During Judge Hef- 
ron 's service as Circuit Judge he has been 
noted for his ability and especial ijdapta- 
l)iiity to the discharge of his judicial func- 
tions. He has kept the court docket cleaner 
than any of his predecessors on the Daviess 
or Martin County benches, and has suc- 
ceeded in retaining the respect of all classes 
of people beyoud that which was ordinarily 
enjoyed. His speech in one of the last 
cases he ever tried, as counsel for a Daviess 
County farmer against a Baltimore com- 
mission firm, was the prettiest thing I ever 
listened to. As a speech maker the Judge 
is a pronounced success. He is ready, quiet 
and graceful, and acjuits himself with oreat 
credit. 

"As a citizen Judge Hefron stands the 
peer of any man. He enjoys the universal 
respect of his fellows. The best evidence 
of his popularity in his district is the fact 
of his election to the bench in 188() and 
again in 1892, being elected the last time 
without opposition." 

William F. Axtell, superintendent of 
the schools of Washington, a successful 



and progressive educator and a highly 
esteemed citizen of this city, was born in 
Greene County, Ind., December 28, 1855. 
He is a son of Dr. A. J. A.xtell, of 
Bloomington, Ind., late Captain of Com- 
pany A, Ninety-seventh Indiana Volun- 
teer Infantry. The latter was born in 
Pennsylvania sixty-nine years ago, and 
with his father, Thomas Axtell, emigrated 
to Zamsville, O. He is a literary and 
medical graduate and has devoted his life 
to his profession. He resided in Greene 
County till 1872, when he established him- 
self in Bloomington. He married Susan 
Gilkerson, and Prof. Axtell is the second 
of their six children, five of whom are 
living. 

Our subject entered the Bloomington 
high school upon the removal of his father 
to that city, and afterward entered the 
preparatory department of Indiana State 
University, in which institution he com- 
pleted a classical course, and received a 
diploma in 1880. He began at once the 
study of medicine and pharmacy. He en- 
gagt'd in the drug business and continued 
it till his election to the office of County 
Superintendent of Monroe County in 1884. 
Upon his retireuicnt from that office he was 
ottered the principalship of the Washing- 
ton high school, accepted, and entered u])ou 
his duties in September, 1885. He served 
the people of Washington in that capacity 
faithfully and efficiently for nine successive 
years, and when Superintendent Hoffman 
retired Prof. Axtell was promoted to the 
vacancy. He is now completing his third 
year in this position and has maintained the 
same high standing that the schools of 
Washington have occupied for years. 

]Mr. Axtell is a leader in educational 
work in this State ; is well-known to 
teachers of Southern Indiana, being a 
member of their Association, as well as the 
Association of Indiana State Teachers. He 
is an active member of the Association of 
Superintendents of Schools of Indiana, an 
organization fi)r the exchange of views and 
suggestions to the end that the schools of 
the State may attain to the highest degree 
of excellence. 

October 18, 1883, Prof Axtell married 
Miss Kate Bollenbacher, daughter of (ieorge 
and Margaret (Shaver) Bollenbacher. The 
children of this union are: .Josephine L. 
and William. 



The schools of Washington are " iu com- 
missiou," have an enrollment of 1,600, 
housed in four modern and well equipped 
buildings, are operated by a corps of 
twenty-nine teachers and have graduated 
250 pupils. The high school has one of 
the finest chemical and physical laboratories 
in the State and sustains a circulating 
library. 

Frank A. Si^ater, general foreman of 
the car construction and repair shops of the 
B.& O. 8. W. Ry. at Washington, was born 
in the province of Prussia September 20, 
1837. His father was Cliarles Schlieder, 
which has become Americanized into 
Slater, and his mother, Caroline Schaner, 
were working people who came to the 
United States to seek opportunity and free- 
dom. The father and his two young sons, 
one of whom was our subject, reach<'d this 
country first in l.S4(i, landing at New York 
on the hitter's hirtlidav anniversary. 'I'hey 
established themselves at. C'roghan, tiuit 
state, and were variously employed tiie 
following four years. In 1850 the father, 
with his son Frank, returned to the father- 
land for ths purpose of, in time, bringing 
the remainder of the family to their new 
home. AVhile there Frank was apprenticed 
to a cabinet maker for a period of three 
years, or so much of that time as he desired 
to remain in Prussia; but having to work 
fifteen hours a day besides having to pay 
an apprenticeship fee of $40.00, he chose 
to return to the United States before his 
eighteenth birthday, and iu 1854 left Prus- 
sia after having served two of his three 
years. The remainder of the family fol- 
lowed later in the year and took up their 
residence at ('roghan, now Xaumburg, 
jS'ew York. 

While serving his German nuister Mr. 
Slater's sole desire was to become an ef- 
ficient workman and to master a trade with 
which he could earn a livlihood and a rv\n\- 
tation as a mechanic. His ambit ion was 
not entirely crushed by the severity of his 
first apprenticeship, and ujjou his returu to 
New York he engaged himself to a mas- 
ter at Watertown to finish his trade, and 
for the first year he received $40.00, second 
year foO.OO" and third year |70.00, with 
board and washing, a very scant allowance, 
it will seem, to one of whom much is re- 
quired. 

In 1858 Mr. Slater engaged in chair- 



nuiking in Oswego, X. Y., and was so em- 
ployed till October, 1861, when he went to 
Toronto, Canada, where he was similarly 
employed till the 2nd of the following July, 
when he went to Syracu.se, N. Y., a sick 
man from overwork. He ■tt'as not able to 
resume work till some time the next year, 
when he entered the employ of D. L. Frv 
&Co., piano-forte mak.-rs." 

He remained with this eompanv till 1865, 
when hr earn.' t.. the O. c^: M. Ry. Co. and 
entered their shops at Cochran, Ind., as a 
cal)inet maker. In ISTOhe was promoted 
to !)(' forenuin ot his shop. The next vear 
he had the duties of draftsniaii added to 
that of foreman, and forH\r years lie pored 
over his table and developed into a fine 
draftsman, whereas in the beginning he 
knew not the primary principles of draw- 
ing. In 1876 he was appointed general 
foreman, and on August 10, 1889, was 
added the duties of master car builder. 

Mr. Slater .started in life with a limited 
education. His parents were people with 
small mean.^.nnd the labor of thi'ir sons was 
need,, I to al,l in snstainiii- tli,^ Innne. The 
tinii' s,'le,'te,l t,) send the bovs U> school was 
when the weather was too bad to work, 
and in consequence not more than eight 
weeks in the year were spent within the 
walls of a .school house. Mr. Slater has 
felt the loss of these opportunities all 
through life, and it has made the road to 
success a very rough and thorny one for 
him. 

The Slater family contains now Gottlob, 
a brother at Sheboygan, Wis.; Charles, a 
brother at Naumburg, N. Y., and Mrs. 
Theresa Riehter, a si.ster, at (irand Junc- 
tion, la. 

Frank A. Slater was married at Oswego, 
X. Y., Man-h :J7, IS.lii, to Mary Cowan. 
Their two siir\i\ini;' children are: Charles 
v., a machinist, an,l Caroline, the wife of 
.1. S. McC.mnell, forenuui of the mill room 
at the I',. .^- (). .-ho]..*. 

Mr. Slater is a high Mason, being a 
mendier of thi' blue lodge, chapter, council, 
commandery and Scottish Rite, Ind. Con- 
sistory. 

Hu(;h H. Sulmvan, one of the veteran 
locomotive eugiueers of the B. & O. S. W. 
R'y has spent almost an average lifetime in 
the service of this railroad company, and 
is a brave, competent and trusted employee. 
His career as a railroad man began with 



the New Albany and 'Salem R'y Co., now 
a part of tlie Monon system, in 1853, as a 
freight brai<iiii;iii cm iis southern division. 
He served in iliis caiiacity three years and 
entered the 1 lotivc department as fire- 
man on tlic (lid '■ Bloomington " with engi- 
neer Elilward (iregory, in whtch position he 
was at the breaking out of the war. 

He enlisted at once in Company K, 
Fourteenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 
was mustered in at Terre Haute and taken 
to West Virginia, where his Cdmmand be- 
came a part of the Armv of the Potomac, 
Sumner's Division .if the Sec.iiid Ciirps. 

July 11, after his enlistnicnf , liis regi- 
ment was initiated into the realities (if war 
by Cduiing iiitd contact with the Kelicls at 
Rich .Mduiitain. Fniiii tliis du Mr. Sulli- 
van saw hard service and participated in 
many of the lildddicst battles (if the war, 
among them bei Hi; Ibill Run, Kil|iatrick's 
Raid on Riclmidnd, (Jreen Briar, Sdutli 
Mountain, Frederickslmru-,(;liancelldrsville, 
Cedar Mduntain, Raecddn Fdrd, Malvern 
Hill, .\ntietain and ( b'ttvsluiri;-. Other 
lesser engagements were had hite'r and be- 
fore his time df enlistment expired, but the 
lueutidU (if the firegdiug is sidlicient to 
indicate the service he rendered to the 
Union. 

Having served his three years, Mr. Sul- 
livan took up the duties of a civilian where 
he left off, as a locomotive engineer, but on 
tlie L. it X. R'y. He remained with this 
railway till the 'latter part (if the 60's, when 
he went out onto the "(ireat American 
Desert," and put in several months in the 
employ of the company then constructing 
the Union Pacific R'y, helping to build that 
road through Nebraska, Wyoming and 
down Weber Canon to Ogdeu, Utah. Soon 
after his return to the East he entered the 
service of the old O. & M. R'y Co., passing 
to its succe.s.sor, and is now nearing the 
completion of his twenty-eighth year with 
them. Xiueteen years of this time he has 
been " running passenger " on the east end, 
and in 1889 lie took up his residence in 
Wasliington. 

Mr. Sullivan is a veritable "Grand-Pap" 
in the service, and so he is familiarly called 
by his associates. Raih'oading was in its 
real infancy when he .set his first brake. It 
has kept pace in improvement with other 
public carriers and seems now td be ap- 
proaching very near to perfectidu. The 



old straji rail with its myriads of "snake 
heads," the original broad gauge track, the 
engine with hand brake and tallow cup, 
all are superseded by the modern steel rail, 
the universal standard gauge, the air brake 
and lubricator and other nuudr improve- 
ments. 

Mr. Sullivan was born in Lawrence 
County, Ind., January 16, 1838. His father, 
William Sullivan, a blacksmith, was born 
in Xorth Carolina, and his mother, Maria 
(^uakenbush, was born in Xew York. They 
came to this State early and were married 
in Lawrence Cdunty, and the survivors of 
their fainilv (if six are Lemuel, of Medora, 
Ind.; Isabel, wife of William Hvdenrich, 
of lildomington, Ind., and Hugh H. 

The Sullivans were from Ireland, no 
ddubt many generations ago, but tdd far 
back to lav claim to anv ties other than 
thdse df full-blooded Americans. Hugh 
H. Sullivan was married in Seymour, In- 
diana, December 21, 1881, to Mrs. :\Ivrtle 
Jolly, a daughter of Mrs. Mary WhJeler. 
They reside in their cozy and comfoi-table 
home on West Walnut street. 

Mr. Sullivan's close confinement to busi- 
ness has i)recluded the possibility of his 
becoming extensively acquainted, although 
his position and standing render him well 
known to the public; yet those who have 
been associated with him for years and 
have, consecjuently, had an opportunity to 
know him, speak of him in the highest 
terms as a citizen and as a man. He be- 
longs to the Brotherliood of Locomotive 
Engineei-s. 

Thomas F. Spink, manager of the 
"City Mills," of Washington, is a de- 
■scendant of one of the early families of 
Daviess County. His grandfather, Francis 
X. Spink, was born in Maryland, and came 
to this county about the time of the admis- 
sion of the state into the Union. He set- 
tled upon a farm and spent the residue of 
his life there. His son, James C. Spink, 
and the father of our subject, was born on 
a farm in this county in 1824, and in his 
young manhood was engaged in tilling the 
soil. He worked as a surveyor on the 
Wabash and Erie canal when it was being 
constructed through this locality. He 
finally engaged in the milling business, and 
it was in this cajjacity that he was most 
widely known. He was the senior mem- 
ber of the well-known firm of Spink & 



Ycal. \vhicli Hdorished in tliis city a quar- 
ter of a couturv ago. lu 1879 Jame.s C. 
Spink built the "City Mills" and operated 
it to his death in 1893. He was a mem- 
ber of the first council of Washington, and 
was a democrat. His widow, whose maiden 
name was Ann Elizabeth Wright, of Penn- 
sylvania stock, still survives. Her only 
living child is the subject of this sketch. 
The latter was born April 29, 1865, in 
Washington, and completed a course in 
the schools of this city in 1884. He went 
from the school-room into the Democrat 
office as city editor. He took up the study 
of phonography and prepared himself in a 
phonographic institute of Cincinnati. He 
secured employment in the general offices 
of the L. & X" H'y Co. in Louisville, and 
remained there three years. He next 
represented the Hammond people in the 
sale of typewriters, in Louisville and in 
Cincinnati. Retiring from that connection, 
he came home in July, 1889, and took a 
position in the mill with his father. 

Mr. .Spink was married in Louisville 
October 5, 1887, to Mary W., daughter of 
John W. Stone, a prominent tobacco 
dealer of Lynchburg, Va. INIrs. Spink 
died January 19, 1896, leaving an only 
child, James AA'arner, born in 1888, 

Mr. Spink is a thriity, industrious and 
progressive citizen, and in addition to the 
interests above mentioned, he is a stock- 
holder in the "Washington Street R'y Co. 

He is Chancellor Commander of the K. 
of P. fraternity, and is Past Grand Senator 
of the Ancient Essenic Order. 

William F. Hoffmann, of Washington, 
is a native of Indiana, his birth having oc- 
curred in Owen County, this State, on the 
18th day of August, 1857. He is a son of 
John A. and Elizabeth (Kerschner) Hoff- 
man. His father was born in the city of 
Speyer, Germany, in the year 1834, and was 
a son of John Hoffmann, whose entire life 
was spent in Germany, but his .son, John 
A. Hoffmann, after receiving a fair educa- 
tion in his native land set out for the New 
World, at the age of eighteen years. On 
coming to this country his first place of 
settlement was Brownsville, Union County, 
Ind. Here he formed acquaintance with 
Elizabeth Kerschner, whom he married in 
1856. Unto the marriage five children 
were born, William F. being the eldest. 
The mother died in 1868, and subsequently 



Susan Hahn became the second wife of 
John A. Hoffinan and bore him three chil- 
dren. 

Soon after his first marriage John A. 
Hoffmann, who followed plastering for 
many years in early life, settled on a farm 
in Owen County, Ind., where he has since 
resided. His son, whose name forms the 
caption of this sketch, was reared on the 
farm ; he did farm work and learned the 
])lastcicr'-- trade under his father. His 
carl\ I ihication was obtained in the com- 
uKin -ciiocils of his county. At the age of 
twenty-one years, Mr. Hoffmann entered 
the Northern Indiana Normal, of Valpar- 
aiso, from which institution he graduated 
in 1S,S2. He had previously taught school, 
and upon his graduation accepted the prin- 
cipalship ot the high school of Washington, 
Ind. After three years of successful ser- 
vice in this position, Mr. Hoffmann re- 
ceived a merited election to the superinten- 
<lency ot the city schools of Washington, 
being the youngest man in the state to hold 
a superindency of so large a city. For 
nine years he remained in charge of these 
schools, and gave universal satisfaction, and 
gained high rank as an educator. In 1894 
he resigned the position, in order to prepare 
himself for the practice of law. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1895, and in ^lay of 
that year opened a law office in Washington, 
and has since enjoyed a lucrative practice. 

Politically Mr. Hoffmann is a staunch 
Democrat, and fraternally a member of the 
Knights of Pythias order and also Masonic 
fraternity. He is a Knight Templar Ma- 
son and is junior warden in his command- 
ary He has served three years as master 
of the blue lodge, and has always taken a 
very active part in the fraternal organiza- 
tions to which he belongs. He is also an 
esteemed member of the Presbyterian 
Church. In 1884, Mr. Hoffmann wedded 
Miss Stella Lee, the youngest daughter of 
Clement Lee, Esq., of ^^'ashington. The 
marriage has been blessed by the birth of 
two sons. 

Mr. Hoffmann is truly a self-made man. 
From early life he has manifested a fond- 
ness for research into the vast field of knowl- 
edge in the scientific and literary world. 
He posse.sses a liberal education, and is one 
ot only two persons in Daviess County 
who hold a state teacher's license. He en- 
joys the esteem and confidence ot a wide 



accjuaiutaucL' and is a distiiiftivi'ly ivpre- 
seutative citizeu. 

Frank I. Sefrit, the able aud popular 
editor of the Washiiifrtou Gazette, is a gen- 
tleman who has grown up in this city, aud 
one whose career has been marked by a 
fixedness of purpose, by an intense ambi- 
tion aud by his peculiar fitness for the j)ro- 
fessiou he has chosen. He was boru in 
Knox County, lud., August 29, 18(56. His 
father came to this city soon after this in- 
cident, and here he educate<l iiis cliildreii. 
Frank began life as a clerk in tlie store "f 
(). H. Brann. He had worked for iiis 
tatlier around the latter's coal bank before 
tliis, but as an independent business man 
iiis merchandising was his first experience. 
I'pon leaving the store he went to Clark 
County, la., and was absent one season, 
and upon returning home he began work- 
ing in the capacity of a reporter fi)r the (ia- 
zctte, tiien owned l)y his fatherand brother. 
He s(jon familiarized himself with the re- 
quirements for a successful news-gatherer 
aud received the usual promotions as rap- 
idly as he was deemed fitted for them, and 
when his father laid down liispcu and took 
his iastjourney the management placed 
Frank in business charge ot the Gazette. 
In 189() he was officially named as its 
editor. 

Mr. Setrit is a sou of the late M. L. B. 
Sefrit, who was born in this, Daviess Coun- 
ty, Ind., in 1837. He had the advantage 
of oniv a common school education, but 
he was a man possessed of a bright and 
fertile mind. He stored it with the knowl- 
edge of experience and became able to cope 
with those of far superior childhood oppor- 
tunities. The iSefrits are of German de- 
scent. The name was originally " Seifert, " 
which has passed through frequent Ameri- 
canization and become Sefrit. The de- 
scendants of the first representatives of tiie 
family in the United States drifted into 
North Carolina, and it was in the " Old 
North State " that Charles Sefrit was born. 
His father, George Seifert, seems to have 
been the German emigrant before nuii- 
tioued. The family is noted for its long- 
evity, and it is said that this iiardy old man 
was fatally injured while out hunting at tlic 
age of 104. 

The grandfather of our subject came into 
Daviess Countv about 181(5. He married 
Elizabeth A. Everett and M. L. B. Sefrit 



was their sou. Tiie latter married Eleanor, 
the daughter of Frances McDonald, a 
brother of Judge David McDonald, of In- 
diana, and a cousin of the late Senator 
Joseph E. McDonald. Mr. Sefrit died in 
1892, and his wife in 1894. Their children 
are: Charles G., Frank I. and Louie B., 
all newspaper men, aud Walter and Callie. 

Frank I. Sefrit was married June 10, 
1891, to Ethel, daughter of Mrs. ^Nlalinda 
Leonard. The children of tliis union ai'e: 
Irene, Charles L. 

Mr. Sefrit is a Past Chancellor of the 
Knights of Pythias fraternity, and is a 
prominent Knight of Ancient Essenic order. 

J. W. Ramsey, one of the foremost con- 
tractors and builders of Washington, has 
been identified with the building interests 
of this city for nearly a quarter of a century, 
having come here in April, 1873. He be- 
gan contracting soon after this date, and 
among his best buildings are : the residences 
of John Helphinstine, Dr. Winton, Henry 
Thomas, Thomas Graham, John T. Neal, 
Joseph Wilson, ^Irs. Geeting, M. J. Car- 
iialiau and Simon Joseph. The store-rooms 
of Jackson, Josei)h, (Jraff & Keller, E. R. 
Eskridge, Z. Jones, the Meredith House 
addition, Helphinstine's livery barn. City 
Hall, the remodeling of Wilson's store, 
three good residences in Wiieatland, and 
one in Shoals for J. P. Hawkins are among 
the buildings he has erected. 

Mr. Ramsey learned his trade with Ivord 
& Lankard at Danville, Ky. After the 
war he went west and worked in the towns 
St. Louis, Mo., Lees Summit, Mo., at 
Topeka and Leavenworth, Kan., and in 
New Orleaus, La. He was born in Lan- 
caster Ky., Jan. 22nd, 1840, and was a son 
of Wra. Ramsey, born in the same locality, 
a blacksmith, and the husband of Martha 
Eastou. His living children are our sub- 
ject, and Mrs. Catherine Woods, of Chicago. 

Our subject got a fair education in the 
subscription schools, in his boyhood and 
his school days ended with a term in an 
academv at Lancaster some years later. 
September 19, 18(51, he enlisted in Com- 
pany C 19th K. V. I. and was mustered 
into the service at Harrodsburg. His com- 
mand was at Sommerset, Cumberland (lap, 
and in the fall of 1862 skirmished its way 
out to the Ohio river. It was with Sher- 
man's first advance on Vicksburg, at ( 'hick- 
asaw Bluff, Ark., Post, and back to Y(ning's 



I'oint, where it aided in digging the famous 
canal in front ot Vicksburg that afterwards 
turned the course of the Mississippi river 
at that point. In the spring of 1863 the 
command started at Port Gibson, Miss., and 
fought the battles preliminary to the siege 
of Vicksburg aud wound up the campaign 
with the cajjture of that city. Their next 
capture was Jackson, Miss., and from there 
they went to North Carolina; did some 
service in the Tesche country; returned to 
New Orleans, put on board a vessel, and 
sent to Matagorda Bay, Tex. and were 
busy in that region till the spring of 1864, 
when they were sent back to New Orleans, 
from where they started on the famous Red 
River expedition. Cain River, Cotton 
Plant, Yellow Bayou, and Mansfield were 
fought on this raid and the campaign ended 
at Morganza Beud on the Mississijipi river. 
Succeeding this the regiment did ]u-ovost 
guard duty at Baton Rouge for some 
months, and was mustered out at Louisville 
in February, 1865. Mr. Ramsey was mus- 
tered in as 3rd Sergeant of his Company 
aud was mustered out as 1st Lieuten- 
ant. 

Mr. Ramsey is an ardent Republican and 
never fails to do a citizen's duty in desig- 
nating the policy of the state and nation. 
He was married in St. Louis, Mo., August 
2ud, 1871, to Eliza Kelso, whose father, 
Wm. Kelso, was an old settler of Daviess 
County, and descended from South Caro- 
lina parents. 

Mr. Ramsey's only child living is James. 

Mr. Ramsey is an Odd Fellow and a 
member of the Grand Army of the Re- 
public. 

W. P. Ellis, ex-postmaster of Washing- 
ton, and a well-known mechanic, was born 
in this county, December 31, 1835. His 
youth was spent upon the farm and his ed- 
ucation obtained within the walls of the 
proverbial log school house. On approach- 
ing manhood he placed himself under the 
direction of George Birge, an efficient car- 
penter, to learn the trade and after the 
usual term of service he was a competent 
workman and set out for himself. He had 
not more than fairly begun wlien the civil 
war became the all absorbing topic and 
men were dropjjiug civil pursuits on every 
hand and entering the army. Mr. Ellis 
was no exception to this rule. He enlisted 
in Company E. 27th Ind. Vol. Tnf , was 



mustered in at this point, ordered to the 
uational capital and there placed in com- 
mand of General Banks. Later, he was in 
McClellan's command in West Virginia. 
Following this he particijtated in the engage- 
ments at Antietam, (icttysljurg, Chancel- 
lorsviilc, Cedar ^biuntain, and after veter- 
anizing at Tullahonui, Teun., he partici])ated 
in the canijiaign of Atlauta and went with 
Sherman to the sea. From that point north 
he saw the closing events of the war ; hard 
marching, swamp wading and pontoon 
building through the Carol inas, ending 
with the surrender of General Johnston 
near Goldsboro. Mr. Ellis was wounded 
at Gettysburg and at Resaca. He enlisted 
a private and was discharged a sergeant. 
He was in the Grand Review at M'ashing- 
ton, D. C., and when lie returned home he 
had seen more than four years of war. 

Upon donning citizen's clothes again Mr. 
Ellis returned to the bench and was a 
prominent builder of ^\'ashington, Ind. for 
vears. 

In 1878 Mr. Ellis was electe.l niav.ir of 
this city and was re-elected in 18S()" He 
has always been an active and influential 
worker in the Repulilican party. His ser- 
vices and ability were recognized by his 
a]>j>ointnient as postmaster for Washington 
by President Harrison in 1889. He suc- 
ceeded Stephen ISclding and served four 
vears and three months 

Mr. Ellis' father was William Ellis who 
came to this county in I.SIO. He was born 
in North Carolina in 1802, and was a son 
of A\'illiam Ellis who was a pioneer settler 
of Daviess County. 

Our subject's mother was Charlotte, a 
daughter o'f I'armenas Palmer. She died 
in I'syo at the age of ,S4. Her chililren 
were : Caroline, wife of J. C. Mercer ; 
Amory, died in the army; Rebecca, deceas- 
ed, married Thomas Banks ; Sarah, mar- 
ried Richard Harroll, of Franklin Countv, 
III.; W. P.; John, .leceased, married : Al- 
fred, of this countv ; Cicero B., of Hopkins 
Countv, Texas; 'Indiana, wife of J. A. 
(iaitlicr, of (),l(,n,nn.lS. P., of Washington. 

Novcnibci- 2(1, l.S().s, ,Mr. Ellis was mar- 
ried in this county to Mary E., daughter of 
James I>. McIIoliand, who was born near 
Bloominuton, Ind. 

Mr. and Mrs. Fllis' children are: Mer- 
rit; Idonia, wite of W. P. Walter, Deputy 
Circuit Clerk of this county; Frank; 



J2 



H.4i'n ; Albion ; William .M.; James K.; 
Dunakl. 

Mr. P]llis was the first commander of the 
(irand Army Post at Washington. He 
possesses in a high degree the confidence of 
the citizens of \\'asliington. 

John Dosch, ex-Recorder of Daviess 
Couiitv and a memi)er of the prominent 
real estate firm t)f Dosch & Sandford, of 
^\'asllington, was liorn in Dubois County, 
Ind., Feb. 20, Is.",!). His father Andrew 
Dosch, came to this city that same year and 
settled near town and engageii in farming 
and gardening. This has been his occu- 
])ation throngh his long and uneventful 
life. He was born in (iermauy, April 17, 
1S17, came to this country a single man and 
was married in New Orleans, La., to Maria 
Dudine, a German lady. 

John Dosch is the sixth of a family of 
ten children. He was fairly educated and 
applied himself in his youth to the task of 
learning the trade of harness making. 
After he had completed it he discovered 
tiiat the close continenient incident to that 
business ilid not agree with him and he set 
aliout preparing himself for a stationary 
engineer. He secured ready employment 
in this line and was one of the engineers tor 
Cable cV: Co. at their coal shaft' when he 
was elected County Recorder. John is a 
man who has always stood in with the boys, 
and as a consequence it became quite nat- 
ural for him to get into politics. He 
espoused Democracy from the start, and his 
party nominated him for Recorder in the 
summer of 1890 and he was elected in No- 
vember following and served four years. 
During his term the records of his office were 
so badly damaged by the attempted burn- 
ing of the Court House that the Commis- 
sioners ordered him to make copies of what 
rt'mained. He completed this work before 
his term expired. He was a candidate for 
re-election, but in 1894 was a bad year for 
Democrats everywhere, and he was not suc- 
cessful. He retired from office April 1(J, 
l.s<)."i, and on the first of the following 
month he formed his present partnership. 
October 28, 188G, Mr. Dosch was mar- 
rie(l to Charlotte F., a daughter of Wen- 
dalun and Frances Faust. 

Mr. and Mrs. Do.sch are the parents oh 
Frances, Charlotte and Laura (twins), 
Marie and John C. 

Mr. Dosch has made the most of his op- 



portunities. He is industrious, ambitious 
and, considering his age, he has been hon- 
ored with ottice and enjoyed its emoluments 
rather early in life. He has acquired suf- 
ficient means to reward him amply for all 
his efforts, and with the proper manage- 
ment of his resources he will be in easy cir- 
cumstances through life. 

Thos. G. Underdown, the efficient 
Treasurer of the citv of Washington, was 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., July 4th, 1844. 
At the end of his pui)ilage he "entered the 
United States navy, and served under both 
Admirals Dahlgren and Farragut. He 
was on the expedition commanded by Ad- 
miral Thacher, with a roving commission 
to the north Pacific Ocean. Being firdered 
home, he returned by mail steamer, was 
given a three month's leave and at the end 
of that time was discharged, having served 
four years and eight months. April 9th, 
1868, he started on a trip to France and 
Italy as second officer of a merchantman 
and visited many of the prominent ports of 
lower Euroi)e during this absence. Directly 
upon his return home, he came west and 
brought up in this city 27 years ago. While 
in the navy he had actpiired that habit of 
self-destruction so conmion among sailors 
and when he landed in this town he was 
" in hard luck," and was content to do the 
most menial labor for a living. One day 
he became confronted suddenly with a 
realization of the seriousness of his case 
and he resolved then and there to reform and 
to become the man his mother had tried to 
make him. That resolution became con- 
stant and has endured even to this day. 
He made friends and merited the good will 
of the business men of Washington, and 
having the mental qualifications, he secured 
desirable employment in a .short time. In 
1872 he entered the court house and served 
as deputy in the offices of Auditor, Re- 
corder and Treasurer respectively. He 
left the county building in 1880, and went 
west into Illinois in the interest of a bed 
spring company, but was not calculated for 
a solicitor in the beginning and returned 
poorer in purse than when he went out. 

In 1S,S2, Mr. Underdown first entered 
the City Treasurer's office as deputy under 
Wm. Thomi)son, and when that offu'cr died 
in 188G, Mr. Underdown was appointed to 
the vacancy. He has succeeded himself at 
each city election siuce that date. He is a 



Democrat of tlie most proiiouncfcl typo and 
his political service has been iu the interest 
of that party. He is regarded as a very 
careful officer and is popular with all classes. 

Thos. TimlerdoNvn is a sini of WmJ^uler- 
down wli.. was Ix.rn in Rcadin,-, Kn-laii.l. 
He came to the rnit.MJ States rai'lv in lile, 
and tor 31 years was a l'hila.leli)hia hanker. 
He i.s now livinu- in retirement at Haddon- 
field, N. J. Our sulyect is his oidy son hy 
marriage to Elizabeth Cresswell. 

Thos. Uuderdown married December "21, 
1872, Minerva C. Crago. 

He is a Red Man, is Trea.surer of the 
Hoyal Arcanum, and is a member of tlie 
Farragut Naval Association of Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

John H. Spencer, the present mayor 
of Washington, and a representative attor- 
ney of that city, is a native of Tennessee, 
born in Greenville, that state, on the 28th 
day of December, I860. 

His parents were William and Elizabeth 
(Jones) Sj)eneer. His father was a native 
of North (iiroliua and was a son of John 
G. Spencer, who was a native of Virginia 
and a descendant of Scotch ancestors. 
Elizabeth Spencer, nee .bmes, was born in 
North Carolina and hei' aneestoi'.- were nf 
English origin. William Sj)eneer removed 
from Tennessee to Indiana in 1867, and 
first . settled iu Rushviile, l)ut two years 
later removed to Daviess County, and in 
1871 located in Washington, where he died 
in 1895, at the age of sixty-seveu years. 
His widow now resides iu Washington. Of 
her six children the subject of this review 
is the only son. He was mainly reared and 
educated in Washington, from the high 
schools of which city he graduated in 1880. 
He studied law under the guidance of James 
W. Ogdon and was admitted to the bar in 
1882, and at once entered the practice of 
his chosen profession. 

He was made deputy prosecutor in 1886, 
a position in whieh he remained nearly two 
years. In 1S1)(» Mr. Spencer was again 
made deputy prosecutor, and for four years 
thereafter discharged the duties of this 
office. In 1B85 he was clerk of the judici- 
ary committee of the Legislature of Indiana. 

In 1889 he wa.s journal clerk in the 
State Senate, and in 1891 was engrossing 
clerk of the State Senate. 

In politics Mr. Spencer has always been 
a well defined Democrat. In May, 1894, 



he was elected mayor of Washington for a 
term of four years. As mayor he has given 
evidence of competency and ability. 

Nathan G. Re.ad, assistant cashier of 
till' 'Washington National P.ank, has been 
a l.'udin.u spirit in the business affiiirs of 
Daviess Cnuiity i'nv thirty years, and in 
that time lias lii'eii eiiLiageil in various 
public and pi'ivate matter-, and the public 
judgment as pi-onmineed upun in all things 
is, that lie possesses business and social 

Mr. Ivead was not especiallv prepared in 
his youth for any .'ailing. He secured only 
a fii'ir edueation'in the common schools, but 
having a bright, active and fertile mind, 
he readily adapted himself to circumstances 
and his experience in public life gave him 
a fund of information that has been of 
much value to him in later years. 

Upon leaving school Mr. Read entered 
the office of his brother, R. N. Read, who 
was the ( 'ounty Auditor, and served as 
(leputv fcir five \<'ars, and in November,. 
1866,' was himself eleete,] to that office; 
was re-elected in 1 .S7(). <er\inu-. in all, thir- 
teen years. It is the testimony of all that 
he was an efficieut official. Owing to a 
combination of circumstances the Demo- 
cratic convention of 1876 could not name 
either of the gentlemen for the office of 
sheriff who were avowed candidates, and 
Mr. Read was chosen as a compromise. He 
was elected the same fall aud succeeded ex- 
Sheriff Capt. I. ^V. McCormick. He put 
the office upon a business basis, and the 
conduct of it by each succeeding sheriff 
has been easier aud more efficient for his 
having held it. 

Mr. Read was born iu this, Daviess 
County, Ind., jNIarch 30, 1842. He is a 
•son of Nathan and jSIary (Weaver) Read. 
The former was born in Massachusetts and 
the latter in Pennsylvania. The former 
came to this, Daviess County, very early, 
and here died. Our subject is the young- 
est of eight children, three of whom are 
living, George C, a farmer of this county ; 
Sarah, wife of Elijah Arthur, of Washing- 
ton, and Nathan G. The last named was 
married January 21, 1878, to Fannie, 
daughter of John Teney, and widow of El- 
liott McCulloch. Mrs. Read was born 
March 2d, 1851, and is the mother of two 
children, Robert Nathan, deceased, and 
Lewis. 



rpuii his n'tirfim'iit fniiii the slieritt"'.s 
ottico Mr. Ucad eugagL'tl iu iiicrcluuuli.sinf;' 
for three years. He eame to his present 
ixisitioii iu February of 1 888. His service 
as Deputy County Treasurer, by appoint- 
meut, gave liim an experienced akin to 
banking that, when he eame intotlie bank, 
he was somewhat familiar with the (hities 
of his ])osition. 

Mr. Head is treasurer oi tiie 8eli(.ol 
Board of Washington, and has been a mem- 
ber of tiie lioard for eleven years. He is 
familiar with the needs of the school, 
understands the peculiar (|ualifications nec- 
essary for a successtul teacher, and employs 
only such, so far as it is in his power. 

As a citizen Mr. Read is progressive, 
public spirited and charitable. He is modest, 
never pushing himself, is very sociable, 
clever and accommodating. He is a mem- 
ber of none of the fraternities but is, in 
religion, a Presbyterian. 

F. G. LnTE.s, the efficient Recorder of 
Daviess County, was born in ]Meade County, 
Ky., February 23, 1837. Tnat same year 
his father, Wilson B. Lutes, crossed" the 
Ohio river into Indiana with his family and 
st'ttled in Perry ("ounty. He came into 
this (bounty some years later and resided till 
his removal to Green County, where he died, 
in ISK), at the age of 66 years. He was born 
in Bullet County, Ky., and was a gunsmith 
by trade. That was the trade of his father, 
\\'m. Lutes, a Peunsylvanian,aud descended 
from German stock. 

Henry Bugher's daughter, Virginia, be- 
came the wife of Wilson B. I>utes and 
Frances G. was their second child. The 
other children were : Augustus D., de- 
ceased, Mary E., wife of John Haver.stock 
of Shelby County, 111., Charles M. of Sul- 
livan, Ind., Jacob O., Danville, III., John 
W., Topeka, Kansas, Wilson B., Bedford, 
Ind., and Henry D. of Green County, Ind. 

Frances G. was reared to work from his 
boyhood and was put, at the proper age, to 
making brick. When he quit this business 
he engaged in merchandising at Odon, Ind. 
In 1875 he took the western fever and 
went to Kansas, and spent two years at 
Towanda. Xot being pleased with the 
country, he went to Brinkley, Ark., and 
found a good opening for a brick yard, and 
again engaged in the manufacture of brick. 
He conducted that business eight years and 
prospered, making, as he terms it his second 



start. He returned to Daviess County in 
1888, and embarked in business at Odon, 
again, and conducted it till his election to 
the office he now holds. 

Mr. Lutes has devoted his time and tal- 
ents, in politics, to the cause of the Repub- 
lican party. There has been no time when 
he was not an advocate of her doctrines and 
a defender of her policies. When he l>e- 
came a candidate in 1894 for the party 
nomination for Recorder, he got it and was 
elected at the ensuing election by a plurality 
of;')()7 \otes, and entered the office as the 
successor ot John Dosch. 

Mr. Lutes did not shirk duty when his 
country needed loyal men to bear arms in 
defense of her honor and to protect her 
emblem. He responded to the call of 18()2, 
and enlisted in Company C, 91st I. V. I. 
and was assigned to the army of the Cum- 
berland. The first year his service was in 
Kentucky, doing guard duty, but the next 
year he went to the front and participate<l 
in his first engagement at Pine Mountain, 
(,ia. He was on the Atlanta Campaign and 
followed Hood back north and fought him 
at Franklin, and again at Nashville, where 
he was " cut to pieces " and was ever after- 
ward useless to the Confederacy. The 
Xinety-first was next transferred from Clif- 
ton, Tenn., by the way of Cincinnati to 
Washington, D. C, and from there sent 
.south to Fort Fisher, to Ca])e Fear, and to 
Goldsboro, X. C, anil there joined Gen. 
Sherman. It operated in that State in pur- 
suit ot Gen. Johnston until his cajiture, 
when it was ordered to Salisbury and there 
]\Ir. Lutes was discharged in June, 1865. 

Mr. Lutes was married first in 1859 to 
Barliara, daughter of William Snvder. She 
died at Brinkley, Ark., in 1888, after living 
with her husband twenty-eight years. Four 
of her children also died there. They 
were Francis B., Clara B., Charles and 
Isadore. Those living are : Alice, wife of 
O. B. Roberts; William H., George W. 
and Pear! M. 

December 25, 1888, Mr. Lutes married 
Mrs. Sarah E. Spurgeon, daughter of 
William Gartin. She died in October of 
1891, and March 3, 1892, Mr. Lutes mar- 
ried Mrc. Loretta Hastings, daughter of Hi- 
ram Allen, and widow of John A. Hastings. 

Mr. liUtcs is a member of the Grand 
Army of the Republic and of the L^nited 
Brethren Church. 



J3 



Capt. John C. Leminc;, Slicritt'of Da- 
viess Couuty, was born in Warren County, 
O., July 23, 1841. Wliilo v.t a .«'hool boy 
in 185o, his parents leit the Iliickeye state 
and took up their residence in Cannelton, 
lud., and in that oKl river town young 
Jolin was educated sparingly and there he 
earned his first money at mule driving at a 
coal bank for $4 a week and board. He 
was put in charge of work at the Curlen 
coal banks in Kentucky some months later 
and remained with them until June 22, 
1861, when he went home on a visit and 
while there the martial spirit took posses- 
sion of him and he enlisted July 10th in 
Company A, 23d Ind. V. I. and was mus- 
tered in service at New Albany. The 23d 
liegiment was placed in Gen. Gresham's 
Division and participated in the Atlanta 
campaign. He was mustered out of the 
service on the 28th of July, 1864, and on 
August 1st was discharged. His parents 
had moved to Milford, O., and hither our 
subject went and remained until the next 
March. He had arranged to put in a crop 
that spring and let others bring the war to 
a close, but on the 10th of March some- 
thing occurred to prompt him to rejoin the 
army, and he accepted the commission of 
Second Lieut, of Company F, 195th Ohio 
V. I. and served as such till the fall, when 
he was jn-nmuted to I'^irst Lieut, of Com- 
pany E, but beftire joining his new com- 
pany he was detached as Aide to Gen. H. B. 
Banning, with whom he served till muster- 
ed out in December, 1865. 

Capt. Leming reached home Christmas 
eve and remained one week when he and 
his father and brother went to Southern 
Indiana and engaged in the timber Inisiness. 
Following this the Captain went south and 
engaged in the tug business at Vicksburg, 
Miss. On his return to the north he re- 
engaged in the lumber trade in Dubois and 
adjoining counties. In 1878 he accepted 
the Republican nomination for Recorder of 
Dubois County and was elected, being the 
first Republican elected in the county. He 
served four years and was a candidate for 
re-election and while the county went 
Democratic by 1,850 votes he was defeated 
by only 130 votes. 

On going out of office Capt. Leming en- 
gaged in the milling business at Porterville 
and operated his plant till January, 18, 
1884, when everything burned. He had 



Some land in Daviess County and he came 
here and engaged in farming and was so 
occupied when he was nominated tor sheriiF 
and elected in November of 1892. He 
took the office in August of 1893, was 
again elected in 1894. 

Capt. Leming has shown himself to be a 
superior peace officer. He has had to face 
and handle some very trying and exasper- 
ating cases of lawlessness, and he did it 
withal master liand. Uv has lieen fearless 
in the pert'iii'UKUii.-e ntliisduty and is a ter- 
ror in the eves uf eyi I-.^mts.' He has had 



oceasKiii lo resdiT r<> very yio(ir(ius meas- 
ures fcir the sLippres.-idii of incendiai-y and 

has not t'xceeded liis authority and has al- 
ways l)een within the pale of the law. He 
executes the mandates of the court without 
prejudice or bias and is ni^ver interested in 
the jirosecution ot a case lieyondliis sphere 
as an executivi' otHcei-. 

("apt. I>eiiiing's father was Isaac Lem- 
ing, b,,rii in New Jersi^y, in 1-S05. He 
married k'eziah Gest. who died in Feb- 
ruary, ]S(i!l, |,n din- her husband 14 

years. Four (,f her seven children are liv- 
ing, viz: John G., Taylor, Emma and 
Mattie. 

Capt. Leming was married in Daviess 
County, Ind., "November 28, 1869, to 
Louisa, daughter of Thomas Hayes. Their 
children are : May, Florence, Dean, Amy, 
Belle, Jesse, Frank, deceased, Raymond, 
and Helen. 

Capt. Leming belongs to the Masonic 
fraternity, to the Grand Army of the Re- 
public and to the Ancient Order of United 
A\'orkmen. 

Daniel S. Monaghan the capable city 
clerk of Washington, was born in this citv 
of Irish parents, October 6, 1868. Al- 
though his parents were poor they gave 
Dan a good English education in the paro- 
chial and public schools. His first under- 
taking was in the capacity of a student of 
telegraphy but not desiring to pursue this to 
its final completion hedropjied it and for the 
next three years was bar tender in one of 
the saloons of ^^'ashington. He was in 
the office of Recorder Dosch as deputy for 
three years, and while so employed was 
elected to his present office. He took pos- 
session September 3, 1894, for a term of 
four years. He was a candidate of the 
Democratic party and was elected by a 



jiliirality i)f 50 votes. He luis exercised 
unusual eare ami fidelity in the discharge 
of his duties, and when, finally, he shall 
have surrendered his charge and become 
a private citizen, it will be with the con- 
sciousness that he has acquitted himself 
well and merited the confidence of the vot- 
ers of Washington. 

Our suliicct's father, Dan Mf)naghan, was 
liorn on the Isle of Erin, and came to this 
city more than forty years ago. He mar- 
ried Mary Lively and is the father of: 
^Michael, Philip, Lizzie, Dan. S., Annie, 
Kate, Antonv, Bridget, Marijaret and 
John. 

The suhiect of this sketch has no fam- 
ily. 

Ezra ]\Iattingly, ex-chairman of the 
Republican Central Committee, is a lawyer 
of Daviess County, well and favorably 
known at the Washington bar, and is 
a gentleman possessing the esteem and 
confidence of his fellow townsmen. By 
nature and early training he acquired 
the habits of industry and honesty, 
and became possessed of a desire as 
he approached manhood, to engage in 
some professional pursuit that would furnish 
greater opportunities for intellectual ad- 
vancement than would the farm, and at the 
same time promise better remuneration for 
his labors. He accordingly shaped his 
affairs so that he could procure an educa- 
tiitn which he finished, as the term is com- 
monly accepted, by graduatiug at the South- 
ern Lidiaua Normal School at Mitchell. 
He had just passed his eighteenth year 
when he began his first school. He 
liked this profession, was well adapted 
to it and consequently made a success of it. 
He rose rapidly, earned his successive pro- 
motions, and in LS87 was elected principal 
of the scho(ds at Odon, Ind. His ability 
as an organizer, manager and instructor 
stimulated this school to a new growth and 
increased activity, and changed it from a 
state of passiveness kin to indifference to 
an active, interested and vigorous condition. 
His record in this school was the cap sheaf 
of his success. He renuiined at Odon three 
years and while there conducted two of the 
most effective summer normals ever held in 
Daviess County. 

In the year 1886 Mr. Mattingly was city 
editor of the Gazette in Washington, and 
in these new duties displayed the same 



capacity and ingenuity that characterized 
his efforts in other fields. 

In 1890 Mr. Mattingly began the study 
of law, and in 1892 was admitted to the 
bar before Judge Hefron. In June of the 
same year he joined William Heft'ernan as 
a partner, being now the junior member of 
the firm of Heff'ernan and Mattingly. Mr. 
Mattiugly's first case was a criminal one 
before Justice Wallace, of Veele township, 
this county. He is giving his time and 
talent to his profession and is meeting with 
that success which his efforts merit. 

Mr. Mattingly is an untiring worker in 
behalf of Republican principles, and was 
chosen county chairman in 1892 and again 
in 1894, in each of which years the Re- 
publicans carried Daviess County for every 
one of their candidates, which has never 
done before nor since. 

Mr. Mattingly was born in this county 
August 27, 1864. His father, the late James 
Mattingly, was born in Mason County, 
Ky., and died in January, 1865, at fifty-six 
years of age. The Mattinglys were Eng- 
lish Catholics, who settled in the colony of 
Lord Baltimore in 1634. They scattered 
westward through West Virginia and into 
Kentucky, to which point we trace them. 
Our subject's mother was Mary A., the 
daughter of Beverly Berry, of the same 
locality. Her surviving children are : Mary, 
widow of T. J. Chapman ; James W., 
Laura C, Elisha, Samuel and Ezra. 

Mr. Mattingly married, September 8, 
1892, TiUie E., daughter of Dr. E. D. 
Millis. Their only living child is Carrie, 
born in 1893. 

N. H. Jep.son's birth occurred in Bel- 
mont County, Ohio, January 28, 1835. 
His father, John Jepson, and his mother, 
Hannah, daughter of Samuel Hunt, w-ere 
married m their native Lancashire,Eng., and 
came soon to the United States and resided 
for a time in Troy, X. Y., where the young 
husband was employed in a woolen mill. 
About the year 1833 they came west and 
settled in Belmont County, Ohio, and en- 
gaged in farming. A few years later the 
father was badly crippled while raising a 
barn, and was in consequence forced to 
give up the farm and seek something to 
which his condition would admit of his 
giving his attention. He chose merchau- 
dising, was successful therein, and devoted 
the remainder of his active life to that 



J7 



business, coveriim' a period fmm 1S44 to 
1S80. He heioiioe,! to no org-anizatioii but 
tile Hcpuhlican party and tlif" Pivsljyterian 
C'liuivli, and died in' his ninctv-tlurcl year, 
in l'M>ruarv, ISSii. Tli.. husi'nrss that he 
left in St. riairsvillc, ()., i- still being con- 
durt.Ml l,y one nf his sens. Those of his 
childi'iii niiw living- are: Miss Hannah 
JepMin and ( ieorge Jepson, on the old 
hdiacstead. X. H. Jepson and Dr. 8. L. 
.T.'|.>..n.uf Wlierling, W. Ya. 

X. II. .lep.^.in wasedneatcdintheseho.ds 
ot St. Clairsville, ( )., and upon entering 
the liiisinc.-.s world it was as clerk in his 
f:itlii'i-"s cstaljlishment. Upon deciding to 
beeiKHi' a jeweler he placed himself at the 
disposal of B. K. Quest, of Cadiz, O. 
When he had become an efficient work- 
man he was employed at hi.s trade in St. 
Clairsville and in Steid)enville, where he 
first went intn business for himself On 
leaving this point he established a business 
at Urbana, O., and rciiiainrd there till 
1870, wdien he came to Washington. The 
store he opened here was mo<l(st and un- 
pretentious, and was the nuclitius nf the 
large and handsome establishment he cnin- 
ducts to-day. Using the language of an- 
other, his business has grown to such pro- 
portions that his stock is large and select 
as that of many firms in jobbing cities, and 
his fame as a mechanic has spread to " the 
four winds " till it is necessary to keep two 
men in his employ to do his repair work. 

Mr. Jepson enlisted in Co. B, 159 O. Y. 
I., in 1863 for the three months' or 100 
day service. His company was ordered to 
Ft. Delaware, wdiere it was utilized in guard- 
ing rebel prisoners. He was. dischai-ged 
after being out four months. 

There has been no day in Mr. Jepson's 
life that he has not been a Republican. His 
fii'st vote was cast for John C. Freemont for 
President, and he has voted at every Presi- 
dential election since. His connection with 
the municipal affiiirs of Washington began 
in 1876, when he was elected to the Coun- 
cil and served four years. He was Secre- 
tary of the Board of City Commissioners 
for three years, and was Secretary of the 
School Board two years and its Treasurer 
one year. In these capacities he displayed 
unusual judgment and foresight, exercised 
his authority with perfect fairness and cor- 
diality, and fr(uu the necessities of the case 
much of the corporation and school busi- 



ness was transacted by him. He has ever 
and always had the welfare of his city 
uppermost, and, in his loyalty to her institu- 
tion is the peer of any man. He was made 
chairman of the C'ommittee ou W'avs and 
JNIeans at the most <ritieal time, when the 
negotiations between the ( ). A- M. Ry. Co. 
and tlie city were pending with a proba- 
bility (if their tiiilure, aud succeeded in rais- 
ing the balance of the money necessary to 
bring the shops to A^'ashington. 

]Mr. Jepson has rej)eatedly been solicited 
by his friends to allow them to use his 
name in e(inne<'tion with the olliiM- of Mayor 
of this eitv, but knowinu that th.' duties of 
the ottiee' would necessarily divorce him 
from his business, he has declined. He is 
now representing the First Ward in the 
Council and holds tlie imjiortant chairmau- 
ship of the ( 'ommittei' on I'ulilie Schools. 

February '>, ISC.'i, Mr. .bjison was mar- 
ried in Newport, Kv, to Elizabeth M., a 
daughter of the late Capt. Samuel Black, a 
jirominent boat ca]itain on the Ohio river. 
He was a Pennsvlvanian and married Bar- 
bara Hardin, win, died at Steul.enviUe in 
1860, being the mother of eleven children. 
The Captain died in Louisville in 1890. 

^Ir. and Mrs. Jepson are the parents of: 
John, who is trav(ding for a Newark, X. J. 
jeweb-v house on the Pacific Coast ; Lucv, 
wife oV F. L. Cadou, eleeti'ician for the 
Washington Street Railway, and Jessie. 

Mr. Jepsiui is a member of only one 
fraternity, that of the Knights of Pythias. 
His associations are very largely with 
church work. He has been a Deacon in 
the Presbyterian Church for twenty-iive 
years, and has been Sabbath School Super- 
intendent fully as long. 

Thojias J. AxTELL, the managing head 
of both the gas and \vater plants of Wash- 
ington, and for nearly a quarter of a cen- 
tury a prominent merchant of this city, 
first became identified with the business in- 
tere>t- nf W'a-hington in the year 1859, at 
which time he brought in a stock of goods 
as agent for a firm at New .Albany, Ind. 
Although young, he had had much experi- 
ence behind the counter, and had only re- 
tired from a business of his own a few 
months previous to make a trip through 
the South aud to Texas for the purpose of 
gratif^ving a desire to see aud know that 
country for himself. Prior to this he had 
seen, nothing of the world. He had gone 



fniiu tlie stiuleut's desk into tlir store at an 
early age, and as he grew older was eon- 
fined the closer, first as clerk and then as 
proprietor, until he grew tired of business 
and became seized with a desire to find new 
scenes and meet with new experiences. 
The trip South fiallowed and was concluded 
some six months later, when lie landed at 
New Albany and found the situation which 
brought him to this city. He remained 
here till the first year of the war, when he 
went to Cincinnati and secured em])loy- 
ment with a drug house as traveling sales- 
man, with his territory limited by the boun- 
daries of the United States only. The last 
three vears of his five he was general agent 
of his" firm. A. L. Scoville & Co. The life 
of a commercial traveler then was not the 
rosv, band-box affair that it is now. There 
was only an occasional railroad then, con- 
sequently the i-eal business was done with 
till' horse. But there was plenty of busi- 
ness t]u'n,and men made even more money 
than they do now. 

During his career as a drummer Islv. 
Axtell had married a Washington lady, 
and when he left the road in 18(iG he re- 
turned to this point and engaged in the dry 
goods business as a member of the firm of 
Myers <t Axtell. The firm was prosper- 
ous and popular and did business in the 
Masonic block for twenty-two and a half 
vears, when their stock was destroyed bv 
tire. 

The year following this disaster Mr. Ax- 
tell purchased an interest in the AVashing- 
t(in gas plant and was made its manager. 
Four years later, in 1895, he assumed the 
superintendency of the AV^ashiugton water 
works and completed the first year of his 
service the first day of this (December) 
month. 

Mr. Axtell was born in Washington 
County, Pa., December 3, 1835. About 
the year 1840 his fiither moved to Blandens- 
burg, Ohio, and a few years later to Mt. 
Vernon, in both of which places he was a 
merchant. It was in these two old towns 
that our subject was schooled in books and 
trained in business. 

The Axtells are an old American fliinily. 
They settled in the Keystone state; many 
generations ago and \vere probably there be- 
fore ^^'ashington's army fought at Brandy- 
wine or camped at "N'alley Forge. Thomas 
Axtell, the father of our subject, was born 



in Washington County that state morr than 
ninety years ago. His wife, nee Mary \\ cir, 
was also born there. The foriiur diiil in 
Green Countv, Ind., and the latter tlird in 
this city in 188-. The children of this union 
were : George, a retired farmer of Bloom- 
field, Ind.; Dr. A. J., of Bloomington, Ind.; 
and Thomas J. The last mentioned was mar- 
ried November 16, 1863, to Edna Rodarmel, 
a daughter of Samuel A. Rodarmel, once 
postmaster of Washington, and of a ])ioneer 
family to this county. 

There have been Ijorn to Viv. and Mrs. 
Axtell three children : Dr. Fdwin B. of 
Denver, Col., who finished his medical edu- 
cation at the Cincinnati Medical College, 
located in Denver and \ti married to Miss 
Grace Coffin ; Frank F." who is a graduate 
of the State University of Indiana, is now 
a civil engineer with the U. S. Miss. Com- 
mission ; and Miss Ella Axtell. All are 
graduates of the Washington High School. 

In politics Mr. Axtell is a Republican. 
He has served his city as councilman and 
as school tru^te(■ ; Vicing president of the 
board of education one term and its treas- 
urer one term. In his public service he 
displayed cxcejitional foresight and judg- 
ment. His large ex]tcrience in business 
made him familiar with the needs of a cor- 
l)oration like Washington and his efforts 
were directed toward securing that legisla- 
tion which would have the most salutary 
effect upon it and its institutions. 

As a business man Mr. Axtell is careful, 
progressive and thorough. He was poor 
when he came to Washington, and whatever 
of this world's resources he now jxissesses, 
have come through years of industry and 
frugality. During his thirty years of resi- 
dence in Washington he has gone in and 
out among the people enjoying the utmost 
confidence and the highest respect of them 
all. His life has been of even tenor with 
few turns, rough corners or angles. He is 
interested in whatever will advance Wash- 
ington or her people and gives with liber- 
ality to whatever merits public support. 

His influence is not only felt in secular 
matters but in church matters as well. He 
is an active member of the Presbyterian 
Church and is an officer in that body. The 
church is indebted to him no little for its 
material and spiritual status in Washington, 
and his examj)le is an inspiration to the 
vouth to better deeds and purer thoughts. 



Mr. Axtell i.s a Knight Templar. 

Arnold J. PAiKfEiT, Sr., mcinber of 
the prominent law finn (it I'ailgrtt t^- Pad- 
gett, of Washington, Daviess ( Vmnty, has 
been idcntitie!] with the bar of this county 
tiir the past nineteen years, and has dis- 
phncd that ability as a suceessfiil jiraeti- 

lawvrrs -t S,,uthern Indiana. lie was born 
in this, Daviess Connty, ind., October 28, 
LSoo. He was a farmer's son, and all his 
early training was ot the rural sort. Dur- 
ing his eighteenth year he came to Wash- 
ington and was a student in the public 
schools till his oraduation in lS7o. He 
had decided on the law as his life-w.irk, 
and enn.lle.l as a student in the law de- 
partment at the State University, graduat- 
ing from there early in 1877. He entered 
at once into the practice and soon formed 
a partnership with the Hon. W. D. Bynum, 
ex-Congressman, which was terminated in 
three years by the removal of Mr. Hynum 
to Indianapolis. In 1880 he was ai)p(jinted 
Dejnity Prosecutor for this district, and two 
years later he was elected to that office by 
the Democrats. So well did he transact 
the business of the office during all of his 
conneetitiu with it that when his first term 
ex])ired he was re-elected and gave to 
Daviess and Knox < ounties, then compos- 
ing the district, an administration uuex- 
celh'd by any incundient of that office. 

For the past ten years Mr. Padgett has, 
political 1\-, been a private citizen. His 
professional duties have required much of 
his time, and when not taken up with those 
he has busied himself with questions per- 
taining to good government and good citi- 
zenship. From his first vote down to 1894 
he espoused the -cause of Democracy, but 
at that time he felt that that party was de- 
parting from its time-honored tenets and 
clinging to doctrines that were inimical to 
the interests of the common people, and he 
took up his political residence in the Peo- 
ple's party. He was a delegate to the Peo- 
ple's Party National Convention at St. 
Louis, was Chairman of the Indiana delega- 
tion, and in that convention labored for a 
union of the " Silver Forcec " for Bryan. 
He is a member of the People's party 
State Central Committee of Indiana, and 
aided materially in bringing about fusion 
on the Presidential question in 1896. He 
engaged in the work of the campaign. 



speaking in the counties of his Congres- 
sional District, and was a factor in ])roduc- 
ing the majoiitv that this district rolled up 
for tlie fusion ticket. 

Mr. Pa.lgctt is a son of W. B. Padgett, 
a gentleman of Kentucky birth Remar- 
ried Minerva, a daughter of Wm. Seal, and 
our subject is the seventh of twelve chil- 
dren. The paternal grandfather of our 
subject was Charles Padgett, a farmer, born 
in Marvland in 17'.)7, and died in Wash- 
ington,' Ind,, in IS!).-;. 

October -JS, 1,S7S, Mr. Padgett married 
(illen, a daughter of James ( 'osby, a promi- 
nent retired resident ot Washington, and 
born in Kentucky. 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Padgett 
are David H. and Arna V. 

Samuel Brown Boyd, editor and pro- 
])rietor of the Daily and Weekly Democrat, 
was Ijorn in Yorkville, Dearliorn County, 
Ind., Maivh 14, IS-VS, bein;.- a s,,n of John 
and Flizal.eth (Miller) Iliivd, who were 
natives of Ireland and Ohio, ivspcetively. 
The familv numbered nine .-hildrcn, five of 
whom are livin- -Anni.'M. I'.ovd, teacher ; 
Mrs. John S. (ioshorn, Mrs. K.lward John- 
son and the subject of this sketch, S. B. 
Bovd, all of Daviess ( 'oiintv, Ind.; and 
Henrv M. Bovd, contractor, San Antimio, 
Texa,^. The parents are dead. The fhther 
came to this eountrv from Ireland in 1827. 
Sh(n'tlv afterwar<l 'lu' settled in Dearborn 
Countv, where he resided until 1871. He 
\vas a farmer by occni)ation, but served as 
township trustee and county sheriff re- 
spectively in that county in the '50's. The 
mother was born in (iiiernsey County, Ohio, 
in 181.S ; wlu'u six years of age she with her 
parents removed to Delaware, their early 
home, wliciiee they came, where she resided 
until her marriage to John Boyd, when she 
came with him to Dearborn County. This 
was their home until 1X71, when they with 
their tiimilv moved to this (Daviess) ("ouuty. 
Both died' sli,,rtly after the n^moval— tlie 
father in 1X71 and the mother in 1875. 

At the age of seventeen the subject of 
this sketch found himself entirely depend- 
ent u])on his own resources. He worked 
on a farm in the summer and went to the 
country schools in the winter until he suc- 
ceeded in .securing a license to teach. 
The winter of 1877-8 found him in his first 
school. He continued at school work for 
ten years, teacliino: in country schools for 



four years; priiicijtal nf the < )(lon sehoul 
one year , in the Oraniniar selioul, AVash- 
iugton, oue year, and County Superintend- 
ent of schools four years — 1883-7. In the 
meantime he attended sehool two summers 
at Danville, Ind. 

In 1885 he bought a third interest in the 
Daviess County Democrat; in 1S87 this 
was increased to oue-half interest, and in 
connection with Stephen Belding and B. 
F. Strasscr, respectivelv. lie published the 
Daily and Weekly I)eni..ci-at until 1891, 
when he purchasetl the entire plant and has 
been operating it alone ever since. 

December 29, 1887, he was united in 
marriage to Miss Tillie Scudder, oldest 
daughter of Dr. John A. Scudder, of Wash- 
ington, Ind. To this union four children 
have been born — one dead and three living, 
Helen, Samuel Brown, Jr., and John Scud- 
der, aged respectively, live, three and oue. 

Ho is a jn-iiniincnt mcnilicr of the Dem- 
ocratic Ivlitiirial Asxiciatinn of Indiana, in 
which he has .-crved as both president and 
secretary. He has been an Odd Fellow 
for fifteen years, and is an ardent member 
of the Episcopal Church. 

Harry H. Ckookf:, cashier of the Odon 
Exchange liank. of Oihm, Irul., and oue of 
the tbremost i)t the young liusiness men of 
that corporation, is tlic business successor 
and theonly s >not the late Howard Crooke, 
the pioneer merchant, man ot affairs and 
benefactor of Odon. The former was born 
in the village of Odon, January 18, 1867, 
ajid as a boy, youth and man was associated 
with his father, was a student of his methods, 
and since the death of the latter has stepped 
into the vacancy well equipped for the 
duties incumbent upon him. 

Howard Crooke was born neai' Spring- 
ville, Lawrence County, Ind., in 1823. He 
was the son of a farmer. Oily Crooke, in 
jjoor circumstances, and when he had 
reached the age ot eighteen he had ceased 
to be a school boy and was ready to engage 
in business affairs of the world. Wine- 
]iark Judy was engaged in commerce with 
the pioneer Hat i)oat down White River, 
the Ohio and the Mississippi to New Or- 
leans. It was this crew of rugged boat- 
men that Howard Crooke joiued in 1841 
and got his first introduction to business 
and to the world. He followed the river 
some four or five years, then left it to go 
on the road for the same employer as an 



agent for lightning rods and wheat thus. 
This was a new business and he was one of 
the first nieu to engage in it. His exper- 
ience in educating the farmer of that day 
up to the point of discovering the utility of 
either of those articles was, no doubt, the 
same as that of his contemporary salesman, 
aud if it C(.uld be accurately ciunpilcd and 
published without color it would sur])ass in 
interest and ludicrousness the " Hoosier 
Schoolmaster." Mr. Crooke must have 
been a successful solicitor, for he remained 
in the business a number of years and sold 
his wares all over Indiana and Kentucky. 
He made money at it and when he quit 
traveling and came to Daviess County he 
had saved enough to buy a small farm ad- 
joining the hamlet of Odon. This he 
worked a short time and sold it and then 
opened a store (general stock) with a Mr. 
Owen (whom he soon bought out) in Odon, 
which was then scarcely more than a wide 
place in the road. 

Odon must have l)cen tbunded and 
named about this time for it contained only 
about three houses when Mr. Crooke cast 
his lot with it and had not grown amazing- 
ly when the war broke out. But whatever 
of real life it did manifest was infused into 
it by the presence of this energetic and 
pushing merchant. He Mas the acknowl- 
edged head of the village, was the active 
moving spirit in directing its affairs and 
supporting its enterprises; was the advance 
agent in the movement to get the E. it R. 
R. R. through the town and was the repre- 
sentative of the company in the negotiations 
prejjaratory to the construction of the 
road. 

Jlr. Crooke was successful in all his mer- 
chandising ventures, even from his first, 
and his accumulations were invested with 
wisdom and discretion. He was elected 
Justice of the Peace soon after he became 
a merchant, and while serving in this capa- 
city he conceived the idea of reading law 
with a view to taking it up regularly when 
he should retire from office. This deter- 
mination he carried out, and was admitted 
to the bar before Judge Malott. He prac- 
ticed for fifteen years with success, at 
the same time managing his other affairs, 
which at this time had become consider- 
able. In company with (i. T. Mulford he 
organized the Exchange Bank of Odon and 
was its active head till his death. He was 



operating the spoke and rim foctorv also at 
this time. 

In politics Mr. Crooke was a Kepubli- 
can. He was an intelligent partisan, Avas 
nominated for the State Senate in 1884, 
bnt was defeated by the small margin ol' 
thirteen votes. He was not a brilliant 
speaker in campaign work, but he was an 
honest and intelligible expounder of the 
principles of his faith and was in demand 
on all occasions requiring a good sound 
sensible talk. 

Mr. Crooke was a liberal contributor to 
charities. Although not a church ciininuini- 
cant, he gave financial aid tn rvciy church 
ei-ected in Odon. He never used lii|U(>r, 
did not use pnifaiic langiiagc, was chaste 
in his conversation, and c|uit using tobacco 
after he had chewed it tuv liirty years. His 
death on April 'I'K ISH"), was a public loss. 
It was said by one wlm knew him and his- 
tory that in his death (Jdon had " lost her 
balance wheel. " 

]\Ir. Crooke married Ann, a daughter of 
Ge(iru-e r\ Calmer, who bmu-lit hi'sfamilv 

fr.iinEnu-land. Mrs. Ci k.' .li.Mlin lsi)2, 

being the mnther uf the iolluwing .-hildren : 
Sarah, wife of J. A. Burrell; Fannie C., 
wife of Dr. S. O. Culmer ; Margaret A., 
wife of B. D. Smilev ; Harrv H. and Lillie 
B. wife of the Rev. W. B. Edgin, of Green 
Castle, lud. 

Harry H. Crooke was educated in the 
Odon schools and in the State University of 
Indiana. He came into the bank upon its 
organization as assistant cashier, but the 
next year he was made its cashier. He has 
other interests that recjuire much of his 
time, but as a banker he is best known. 
Like his woi'thj' sire, he is a Republican, 
but he manifests none of the traits of the 
politician. He is a Past Chancellor of 
Odon Lodge of K. of P., being the first 
man to be introduced to the Pythian mys- 
teries upon the institution of his lodge. 

December 20, 1890, he was married to 
Margaret, daughter of the late William 
Mason, who moved to this county from 
his birthplace, Richmond, Ky., twenty 
years ago. He married Mattie Sturgeon, 
and for some years was a practicing lawyer 
in Washington. 

Mr. and Mrs. Crooke are the parents of 
Hazel, Lela, Mason H., and Orrin. 

C.'VPT. ZiMRi V. Garten, a prosperous 
farmer and an esteemed citizen of Odon, 



Daviess County, is a representative of the 
industrious, thrifty and honest pioneer of 
Southern Indiana. He is descended from 
Elijah Garten, who emigrated to this coun- 
try from Wales with his jiarents when a 
small boy and settled in Virginia before 
the Revolutionary war ; afterwards became 
a very devout MethodLst and a convert of 
Wesley and Whitfield. He afterward lived 
in Tennessee, Kentucky and Indiana. He 
was fi)nd of the sport of the forest; in fact 
the wild and sparsely settled region seemed 
in the fullest accord with his nature, and 
this ]ieculiarity led him westward with the 
advaiK-e guard of civilization. He died in 
l.iawreuce County at an advanced age. He 
reared four sons, one of whom, James, 
father of our subject, came to Daviess 
County in 18-54 and died in 1876; two of 
Avhoni, Ro'.iert and William, went to Prince- 
ton, 111., and the fiiurth, Elijah, settled 
about thirty miles west of Chicago, on Fox 
River, now near St. Charles, in an early 
day. 

James Garten was born in Tennessee 
^lay 30, 1788, and reached his majority in 
Kentucky. About the close of the war of 
1812 he rode up into Southern Indiana, 
purchased land of the United States, and 
about the time the State was admitted to 
the Union the Gartens left their Kentucky 
home and settled on their new home in 
Lawrence County, Ind. It was in that lo- 
cality, and not long afterward, that Jalnes 
met Lydia Gray, whom he married. Lydia's 
father, John Gray, was a North Carolina 
man, aud while engaged in the cattle trade 
with the North, as it was conducted in an 
early day, "by the drovers," he met and soon 
after married a Pennsylvania lady. They 
decided to make their home in the new 
western region north of the Ohio River, 
and made their journey hither by boat 
down the Monongahela and Ohio Rivers 
to the nearest point accessible to Lawrence 
County, Ind., and there lauded, crossed 
through the forest to the Garten neighbor- 
hood and stopped. Mr. Gray bought two 
quarters of land there, became a prominent 
and prosperous citizen and died in the early 
'50's at the age of ninety-two. He was, 
perhaps, twelve years of age during the 
last year of the war of the Revolution, so 
was not old enough to take part in that 
struggle other than to do errands for Pa- 
triot officers of the armv, of which he 



22 



dflightt'd to tell liis grandciiiklren, who 
now revert' his memorv as one of the fathers 
dt our coiintrv. 

James Garte-u was the father of eight 
ehildren : Lowery, Xaucy, Syrina, and 
William, the first four by his first wife, 
Jane, deceased, who married John Pedigo, 
Elizabeth, widow of Samuel Taylor, resides 
near Hutehiuson, Kansas, Zimri V. and 
James H., bothot Odon,and oue girl, Mary 
Ann, who died at the age of 11 years. 

C'apt. (iarten was a pupil in the really 
pioneer schools of Indiana. The school- 
room was the rude log hut, the ])al- 
ace of the frontiersman, and its fur- 
nishings were the huge fireplace, the 
split-log benches and the indispensable 
hickory persuader that stood in the corner. 
With these environments he managed to 
get enough out of the old "elementary" 
and the Pike's "rethmatic" to enable him to 
compete successfully with the world in the 
endless struggle for a scant but honest 
living. He worked upon the farm 
till 1857. when he engaged in mer- 
chandising in Odon, having come 
to Daviess County and settled near 
that village in 1852. In 18(30 he resumed 
farming, but the next year the country was 
plunged into civil war and he began to 
think sei'iously as to the part he should 
play in the drama. He responded to the 
call of President Lincoln for troops, and 
in August, 1862, he enlisted in the 91st 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was com- 
missioned Captiau of Company "C." The 
first year of his service was in Kentucky 
among the Guerrillas, the worst enemy of 
regular troops. The 91st went next into 
Georgia, where it soon came into contact 
with the enemy in the open, the first battle 
being that of Pine Mountain. On the At- 
lanta campaign, and while engaged in the 
famous battle of Kennesaw Mountain, Capt. 
Garten, tlieu commanding his company, 
was hit with a musket ball in the calf of 
his left leg, ranging downward and lodging 
in his ankle. His injury was such as to 
render him incapable of further army ser- 
vice, and in September, 1864, he was dis- 
charged. He carried the niinnie ball in 
his ankle for four years, when it was taken 
out and is now in his possession. 

Capt. Garten took up farming on his re- 
turn from the army, and has ever since 
been identified with that pi'omiuent industry. 



He was married Januarv 1, lS(i:>, to Saraii 
J., a daughter of Dr. D.'j. Smith, a former 
Lawrence County man, and a j)romiuent 
citi/en of Odon for thirty years. This 
union resulted in three children : Lizzie, 
who died at two years of age, Walter who is 
married to Lizzie Crooke and has two 
children; and Minnie, wife of Alonzo A. 
Lane, who also has two children. 

Capt. Garten is one of the staunchest of 
Republicans. He hel.ieves in a strong cent- 
ralized goNcriinicnt, believes in a dollar 
that is as good as gcjld the world over, and 
above all, he believes in the suppression of 
lawlessness and violence in any form, by 
national intervention, if we must, and with- 
out the ability to do which we are not a 
nation. 

The only offices ( 'apt. (nirten ever held 
were Supervisor of Roads, Township As- 
sessor and Captain in the army, and before 
that. Captain of Home Guards, and these 
he filled before the war. 

As a citizen he has the confidence of his 
fellows. He is public spirited and pro- 
gressive. Xo worthy cause is denied his ear 
nor passes by without his encouragement. 
His life has been one of even tenor, with 
few turns, angles or rough corners. He 
has been essentially a home man, has allied 
liimself with none of the popular societies 
that keep men out at unseemly hours, pre- 
ferring to pass his evenings by his own 
fireside. He is well preserved for one born 
November 18, 1829, and gives promise of 
outliving man's allotted threescore and ten. 

Eli.jah Goudy, of Washington, is one 
of the few of the "old crowd" of train men 
yet in active service, one of the pioneer 
locomotive engineers of the old O. & M. 
R'y Co , a gentleman of the highest stand- 
ing in his trade and with his company, 
and an historic character in the stiidy of 
train service on the B. & O. 

Mr. Goudy began railroading in A'in- 
cennes, Ind., in 1860, in the capacity of 
freight brakeman on an eastern run. After 
two years of setting brakes he decided to 
place him.self in line for promotion to en- 
gineer and secured the position of fireman, 
his first engineer being Isaac Apgar. In 
two and a half years of this service he was 
promoted to be an engineer, and, as was 
the established custom, was put into the 
freight service May 4, 1869, he was passed 
on into the passenger service and is now 



23 



Hearing the completion of his twenty-eiglith 
year in this branch. He, as well as the 
few of Ills snrvivini;' cunteniporaries, have 
witnci^scd an era in railroad iniprovenieut 
and development unrivaled by that of any 
other artery of commerce, and it may be, 
have seen the very near approach to per- 
fection in the art. The original broad- 
gange track, the engine M'ith hand brake 
and tallow c-up, have ail given way to the 
modern steel rail, the universal standard 
gauge, the air brake and lubricator and the 
injector. The p'odding 14 to 2() mile speed 
is n<i longer on the time card, liut a rate 
anywhere from o5 to 112 miles an hour 
has the call and is within the scope of possi- 
bilities of the modei-n locomotive. 

Mr. Goudv was born in Ashland Coun- 
ty, O., October :]], 1.S42. His father, 
Thomas (Joudy, was a miller, and during 
Elijah's boyliiKid he was making a hand in 
the mill when he ought to have been in 
school. He worked in a woolen factorv a 
few years, after leaving the parental roof, 
and being a lover of machinery, he applied 
for a place on the railroad and was put to 
braking. 

Mr.Ooudv's father was b,,rn in Pcnn- 
svlvania in ]s]-2. lie married Catherine 
Hiser, who died in l.s;i2, being the mother 
of nine ehihlren, of whom p:iijah is the fifth. 
The other surviving ones are: Susan, wife 
of Wm. Zimmerman, of (xrand Kapids, 
Mich.: Martha, John, of Loui.sville, Ky., 
and Cassie, wife of John Temple, of Lan- 
caster County, Xeb. 

Our subject was married in Jackson 
County, Ind., in September, 187(), to Laura 
Reno. Their only child, Efifie ^L, was 
born in 1873. 

Mr. Goudy's time has been so occupied 
with his particular line of work that he has 
had little opportunity for social intercourse, 
or for political activity, if he so desired. 
He has been a hard worker all his life, yet 
his labcu's can not be said to have been 
without substantial reward. He could re- 
tire from the rcjad with ample means to 
jn-ovide foi' the wants of his household in- 
definitely, but his temperament is such that 
he could not be contented in idleness even 
had he the fortune of a Vanderbilt. He is 
a member of the brotherhood, but aside 
from this has no other fraternal connections 
except with the Ma.souic order. 

The Goudys are of German descent, our 



subject's grandfather, Thomas (ioudy, l)e- j 
ing near to the parent stock, and a Pcnn- I 
sylvanian by birth. 

John W. McCartv, Washington's effi- 
cient postmaster and po|nilar Democrat, 
was born in Countv Clare, Ireland, May j 

17, ISGl. Li im:', his parents left "Old Ire- ] 

land " for America, landed at New York 
and s])ent their hrst two years in liberty's ] 

land in New Jersey. They then came west | 

and cast their lots with the people of 
Daviess County for the next four years. 
The western fever then took possession of 
them and this time their journey was ended 
at Leavenworth, Kan. ' There John W. 
^Ic( arty gi-ew up and was educated 
in the city schools. He came back to- 
Daviess County in 1.S70 and after further 
attendance upon the parochial schools of 
AA'ashington he engaged in business. He 
was in the gents' furnishing line at Peters- 
burg, Ind.,"from 18,s0 to "1884. He then 
opened out in the livery business at the 
•same jioint. In 1886 he became the 
Democratic candidate for Circuit Court 
Clerk of Pike County, but that was not a 
Democratic year and he was defeated at the 
polls as was the entire ticket. Leaving 
Petersburg, Mr. .Me( 'arty accepted a posi- 
tion as bookkeeper w ith his brother P. R. 
]\L'Cartv, then merchandising at Vincenues. 
In 18S7 he came back to Daviess County 
and built the livery barn on Third and Van 
Trees Streets, and engaged in the livery 
business from which he retiretl when he 
was appointed to the position of postmaster 
of AVashington. He took possession of the 
office in March, 1894, and the admiui.stra- 
tion of the affairs of the office since he took 
charge has been honest and efficient. He 
has shown that same capacity for conserva- 
tive and progressive business that has 
characterized him all through life. His 
arrangement of the office for the public 
convenience is the best and his hours for 
tin' o]ieniiig and closing of the windows 
are made to suit the toiler as well as the 
merchant. He has succeeded in having 
Washington placed in the list of second 
cla.ss postoffices, raising it from a third 
cla.ss office and placing it in line entitling 
it to free delivery service. Air. McCarty 
has been an active worker in politics since 
he became of age. In 1890 he was made 
Chairman of the Daviess County Central 
Committee, and in this capacity his services 



were telling', iii<licating' marked ability as 
an organizer. Tliis position he held again 
in 18J)2. In that year, at the inauguration 
of President Cleveland, Mr. McCarty was 
eliosen as one of the aides from Indiana in 
the inaugural ]n-ocession. 

He was married in Washington May 25, 
1S92, to Jennie, daughter of the late 
Thomas Denver. Mr. and Mrs. MeCarty's 
children are C. Walter and Margaret. Mr. 
MeC-arty is one of five children of Michael 
McCarty and wife. They are P. U. Mc- 
Carty of Vincennes ; D. J. McCarty of 
Denver, Col.; Delia; I]lleu, widow of 
Thomas Baxter; ^Slary, wife of James 
Bradley, all of Denver, Col.; and the sub- 
jeet of this review. Mr. and Mrs. McCarty 
and children are members of the Cathcdic 
Church and number among the leading 
families of Washington. 

Hon. John H. O'Neall was born in 
New Burry, 8. C, October 30, 1837. His 
parents were Henry ^I. and Betsie (Ed- 
mundson) O'Xeall, Ixith natives of South 
Carolina. The father was a son of Henry 
and Mary (Miles) O'Neall, also natives of 
the Palmetto State. Henry O'Neall was a 
son of William O'Neall, a native of 
Delaware, and a grandson of Hugh 
O'Neall, a native of Ireland, from 
whence he came in 1730. He first set- 
tled in Delaware, then in South Caro- 
lina. Hugh O'Neall married Annie Cox, 
who bore him seven sons. The wife of 
William O'Neall was Mary Frost, and the 
wife of Henry O'Neall was Mary Miles. 
Betsie Edmundson, the mother of our sub- 
ject, was a daughter of John Edmund- 
son, and her mother's maiden name was 
Smith. 

John H. O'Neall was deprived of a father 
and mother at the age of six years. At 
their deaths he and two sisters younger 
than himself were taken by their grand- 
father, Henry O'Neall, and brought (August 
2, 1<S44,) to Daviess County, Ind., where he 
iiad settled in 1824, becoming a pioneer of 
the countv, in which he resided until his 
death, wh'ich occurred in 18.52 at the age of 
seventy-six years. 

The subject of this review is a Hoosier 
almost to the manner born, for he was not 
(piite seven years old when brought to the 
state. He graduated from the Indiana 
State University in 18(i2. He began the 
study of law under guidance of William 



Mack, Terre Haute, entered law depart- 
ment of the Michigan State University, 
whence he graduated in June 1864. Im- 
mediately afterward he opened a law office 
in Washington, and in 1866 was elected as 
a Democrat to the Legislature as a repre- 
sentative from Daviess County. In 1873 
Oovernor Hendricks appointed him i)rose- 
eiiting attorney for the circuit court, Vin- 
eennes circuit, and the following year the 
peo]>le elected him to the same office, which 
he resigned before the term of two years 
expired. In 1886 Mr O'Neall became the 
Democratic candidate for Congress and was 
elected. Two years later he was re-elected 
and a third term was declined two years 
later. He is a profound lawyer, an able 
advocate and an esteemed citizen. In 1866 
Mr. O'Neall married Alice A. Barton. 
Their children are Miles (i., attornev ; 
Annie E.; John H.; Hugh F.; Alice M., 
and David ^\^ 

Hon. a. M. Hardy, ex-member of Con- 
gress, is one of the prominent attorneys and 
citizens of Southern Indiana. 

Mr. Hardy was born in Ontario, Canada, 
in 1847. His parents were William and 
Sarah (Merrill) Hardy, natives of Canada. 
Their son was graduated at the age of 
eighteen, from Victoria College, Canada, 
and in 1866 graduated, in the law, from 
the University of Toronto, and then located 
at Natchez, Miss., where he practiced law 
and edited a newspaper and Ijceamc collector 
of Customs under President Grant. In 
1877 Mr. Hardy located in Washington, D. 
C, where he held a position in the law de- 
partment of the pension bureau till 1881. 
For some time thereafter he superintended 
the construction of the government jiost- 
office and custom house at Padncah, Ky., 
and in 1885 when he became a citizen of 
Washington, Ind. In 1894 he became the 
Republican candidate for Congress and was 
elected ; became the candidate of his party 
two years later and was defeated. 

Ei.isiTA Hyatt, deceased, was born in 
Mason county,Ky., October 4, 180'J, and died 
at Washington, "ind., December 31, 1885. 
His parents, Thomas and Margaret Hyatt, 
were pioneers of Daviess County, coming to 
the county in 1823, and their son was reared 
on the farm. He made several fiatboat 
trips to New Orleans, and late in the thirties 
began merchandising in Washington. For 
manv years thereafter Elisha Hvatt wasone 



of the most successful aud pruiniueut hnsi- 
ness meu of Southern Indiana. He mar- 
ried Margaret Beaziey, and they became 
the parents of the following children : Eliza- 
beth, Hiram, Lydia, Richai-d and Elisha. 

Hon. Samuel H. Taylor (deceased), 
was born January 2-5, 1837, in Cumber- 
land, M. D., where he was reared and edu- 
cated. Predilection led him to the jjrofes- 
sion of law. He began his professional 
career in his native town, of which he was 
postmaster under President Buchanan's 
administration. He came to Washington, 
Ind., in 1864, and here resided and prac- 
ticed law till his death occurred. He was 
an able lawyer and a prominent citizen. 
He was one of the organizers of the Wash- 
ington National Bank, of which he was 
vice president, cashier and director. He 
was twice elected Attorney of the Common 
Pleas Court, and in 1872 was elected Prose- 
cuting Attoi'ney of the Vincennes Circuit. 
He was delegate to the Democratic National 
Conventions of 1872, 1876 and 1884. In 
1878 he was elected representative of 
Daviess County in the State Legislature, 
and again elected in 1884. 

He was a leader, a dignified and courte- 
ous gentleman and forcible speaker. He 
married Miss Josette E. Johnson, who bore 
him six children, aud survives him. 

Mr. Taylor was appointed National Bank 
examiner for Indiana in June, 1885, and 
filled this office with marked ability. 

(^LINTON K. Tharp, attorney at law, 
was born in Marion County, Ky., October 
28, 1848, being a .son of Callenand Bernece 
(Rowlins) Tharp, both natives of Ken- 
tucky. 

Perry Tharp, Mr. Tharp's jiaternal grand- 
father, was a soldier in the Revolution. 

The subject of this mention was reared in 
Kentucky and given a liberal education. 
Taking up the study of law he entered the law 
department of Michigan University at Ann 
Arbor and completed a two years' course, 
and was then admitted to the bar at Owens- 
boro, Ky., where he practiced till 1879, 
since which date he has been a resident at- 
torney of Washington, Ind. He is a 
Democrat ; an ex-member of the Kentucky 
and Indiana Legislatures. He was State 
Senator from Daviess and Martin Coun- 
ties one session, being elected in 1886, and 
resigned to accept the position as revenue 
agent under Cleveland. In 1891 he was 



elected Mayor of Washington and held the 
office one terra. 

In 1882 Mr. Tharp married P^mma Bur- 
ton, and unto the marriage two children have 
been born. 

John Fitz-GibboNs, M. D., born in 
Ireland December 4,1841, son of John and 
Ellen Fitz-Gibbons, is a leading physician 
of Daviess County. His father was a phy- 
sician, and the son, after learning to com- 
pound took up the study of medicine in 
Dublin and became a graduate in 1861. 
The following year he came to America ; 
located at Louisville, Ky., and there prac- 
ticed two years, and then located in Wa.sh- 
ington, Ind., where he has since resided and 
practiced with pleasing success. 

In 1875 he graduated Ironi the medical 
department of the Indiana State University. 
In 1864 he married in Louisville, Weddiiig 
Leahy, who died in 1SS7, leaving five chil- 
dren. The Doctor was thrown upon his 
own rcsoui'ces at the au'c of sixteen years, 
but, uotwithstauiliui;- the luanv difficulties 
he li:i> ciK'oiintcrcdin life, he' has accom- 
plislicil sui'ccss, and long since has occujticd 
a (Icsiralilc rank among the best jihysicians 
of Southern Indiana. 

Joseph Kinnaman, of Odon, Daviess 
County, was born in this county, less than 
a mile north of the little city he is now do- 
ing business in, on the thii-d day of Feb- 
ruary, 1848. The Kiuuamanscame into this 
county in 1838, headed by Peter Kinna- 
man, the grandfather of our subject, and 
settled near Odon. Eli Kinnaman, father 
of our subject, and son of Peter Kinnaman, 
was born in Westmoreland County, Penn., 
in 1822. His father left the "Keystone 
State " two years later and journeyed west- 
ward and took up his residence on a farm 
in Stark County, O. In the year 1838 he 
continued his journey toward the setting 
sun and made his permanent and final set- 
tlement in Daviess County. Upon his 
death in 1873 a part of the farm upon 
which he had reared his family fell to his 
son Kli, and upon it he, in turn, reared his 
family and died at the age of seventy-two. 

Peter Kinnaman was born in the State 
of New Jersey and was the son of German 
parents. He was a farmer through life 
and made his start to the west very early 
in the present century. 

Eli Kinnaman was married in Daviess 
County to Rachel M., a daughter of John 



Shields, a South Carolinian by birth, and a 
descendant of the " witty Irish." Tlie 
chihlren of the above union are; Joseph, 
Mary, wife of 8. P. Wiuklepleek ; Sainuel, 
Frederick and Martha, wiie of J. F. Boyd. 

Joseph Kinnaman had only such advant- 
ages as were common to the sons of farm- 
ers in moderate circumstances in his boy- 
hood and youth. Like his ancestors, when 
he separated from the paternal roof and 
began the " battle royal," it was as a farmer. 
In February, 1895, he left the farm and en- 
gaged with George D. Abraham, of Odoii, 
in the hardware business. He retired from 
that business at the end of one year and 
engaged in the furniture business with Mr. 
Burrell, the firm being Kinnaman & Bur- 
rell. 

September 30,1883, Mr. Kinnaman mar- 
ried in this county Ruth, daughter of Hugh 
McCoy. Their two children are : Omie 
and Porter. 

Mr. Kinnaman is one of the working Re- 
publicans of his township. His fiither and 
grandfather were both Democrats up to the 
war, but changed parties upon tlie issues in- 
volved in that struggle. 

Mr. Kinnaman has all along manifested 
an interest in and supported any enterprise 
calculated to do good for his locality, and 
in all matters involving the welfare of Odon 
he arrays himself on the side of progress. 

Socially, Mr. Kinnaman is an agreeable 
gentleman ; he is highly regarded by his 
townsmen ; is one of the leading Masons of 
Odon, having been a Master of his Lodge 
and a delegate to the State (irand Lodge 
session of 1881. He was a constable of 
Madison township for nine years, and in 
1883 was a delegate to the Republican 
County Convention. 

Hon. Wm. Kennedy, of Daviess Coun- 
ty, was born at Philadelphia, Penn., Nov- 
enil)er 13, 1837. He is a sou of James 
and Margaret (McXally) Kennedy. His 
father was born in County Tipperary, Ire- 
land, and the mother in County Longford, 
Ireland. James Kennedy was a son of 
Patrick and Margaret (Cummings) Ken- 
nedy, who emigrated from Ireland to the 
United States and settled in Philadelphia, 
where the mother died. The father subse- 
quently moved with his son James to 
Daviess County. Ind., where the remainder 
of his days was spent. His children num- 
bered five, as follows: Edward, John, 



Thomas, Haunaii and .lames. The last 
named was his oldest, and was a lad when 
his parents came to this country. He be- 
came a citizen of Daviess County in 1838. 
He located on a farm in Barr Township 
where he resided till his death, which oc- 
curred in April, 1875). His wife preceded 
him in death in March of 1867. He was 
the father of eight children, viz : John, 
Ellen, Mary A., Catherine, James, Mar- 
garet, Edward P. and ^Yilliam. Tlie last 
named was reared on a farm and in tiie 
main farming has been his life pursuit. He 
first attended the country school and later 
completed a high school education at Mit- 
chell, Ind. For ten years thereafter Mr. 
Kennedy was engaged in school teaching 
together with farming. February 26, 1867, 
he married Mary A., daughter of William 
and Mary (Graves) Beckett. She died in 
July 1874, leaving the following children : 
Anna M., Charles K., deceased, and 
Albert F. 

April 2!*, 1878, Mr. Kennedy married 
the second time, wedding Ida M., daughter 
of James H. and Nancy J. (Myers) Smith. 
She was born in Martin County July 2, 
1857. She has borne him the following 
children : Alice A., deceased, Helen C, 
James W., Frederick W., John N., Paul 
A., Bernard C, Alice L. and Ada J. Mr. 
Kennedy and family are members of the 
Catholic Church, and himself a member of 
the Catholic Knights of America. In 1870 
he was elected Treasurer of Daviess Coun- 
ty and was re-elected in 1872. In 1890 he 
was elected State Senator for a term of 
four years. 

William H. Sanford, County Assessor 
of Daviess County, and a member of the 
real estate firm of Dosch tV: Sanford, is 
favorably known among the business men 
of Washington and vicinity He has gone 
in and out among them in his every day 
transactions both as boy and man and no 
man has yet uttered aught against him. 
He was born in this county November 27, 
1859, and grew up two miles east of Wash- 
ington on a farm. He received sufficient 
education in the .schools of his district, and 
in the Washington High School, having 
graduated from there in 1880, to equip 
him for ordinary business, and at twenty- 
two he came to Washington and entered 
the employ of Cable ct Kauifman as weigh- 
master at their mines. In 1885 he was. 



elfcted Citv Clerk to till the unexpired 
term of Georo-e Sigiior. In 1S88 he was 
a])])ointed Dei)iity C'duntv Treasurer by J. 
B. Smith and served four yt'ars. He was 
then appoiuted Deputy County Ee(!order 
by Johu Dosch and served two years. In 
May, 1895, he engaged iu the real estate 
business, including loans and insurance, as 
a nicml)cr of the present firm. He is an 
active Democrat and was elected County 
Assessor in November, 1896, defeating his 
opponent by 581 votes and being the second 
highest majority received by Democratic 
candidates. 

The Sanfords are among the pioneers of 
Daviess County. Our subject's grandfather, 
Hamletz Sanford, was the first of them in 
the county, and he came from Mason Coun- 
ty, Ky., about seventy years ago. He 
married Ann Clark. The Clarks were 
English people and went into Kentucky 
from Orange County, Va. 

J. C. Sauford, father of William H., 
married Hannah Eads. Their children are 
Lucy, wife of J. B. Hale of Roca, Neb.; 
R. R. Sauford, of New Orleans, La.; Rev. 
E. E. of ^lartinville, Ind.; Mary ; Janie , 
William H.; Josie ; Pierce, and John, de- 
ceased. 

Elijah Eads, our subject's maternal 
grandfather, was also one of the first to 
settle in Daviess County, and was a Justice 
of the Peace for many years. He was a 
gentleman of high repute, as was Hamlet 
Sauford, and both were successful farmers. 

William H. Sanford was married October 
6, 1887, to Rose E., daughter of Peter 
Bereus. Their three children are Joseph 
B., Eugene and Mary. 

Mr. Sanford is a high Odd Fellow, hav- 
ing received all the degrees that can be 
conferred, and is a member of the Grand 
Lodge. 

George D. Abraham, the leading hard- 
ware merchant of Odon, Ind., and well 
known throughout Daviess and ^Martin 
Counties as a sound and conservative busi- 
ness man, first entered the little village of 
Odon in 1866, just out of the army and a 
journeyman wagon maker in .search of em- 
ployment. His uncle, John Ransom, who 
put up the fir.st wagon shop in town, gave 
him work, and for the next four years he 
was so employed. He succeeded Mr. Ran- 
som at that time as proprietor of the shop 
and conducted it till 1881, when he had ac- 



Slimp and B. D. Smiley as his partners, the 
firm being Abraham & Co. This firm did 



cumulated sufficient funds to engage in 
merchandising, and together with Howard 
Crooke engaged in the hardware business. 
He succeeded to the full ownership of the 
business in a short time, and conducted it 
successfully till 1888, when he sold his 
stock and went to Elnora and engaged in 
the general store l)usine:s, building the first 
store theiv after the udvcut of the railroad, 
and wliere he still maintains a business, 
purely hard>vare. He returned to Odon 
and built the first brick store in the town 
and opened a general store with T. D. 
' " '^ ' liley as his pa 
1 & Co. Thi 
business for two years and was succeeded 
by John Haig & Son. Crooke and Abra- 
ham then opened a dry goods establishment 
here at Odon, and at the end of the year B. 
D. Smiley purchased the interest of Mr. 
Crooke, and at the end of the next year 
Mr. Abraham sold his interest to Wm. 
Danner. 

Mr. Abraham was appointed County As- 
sessor, being the first person to fill that 
office, and when his time expired in the 
fall of 1892 he again became a merchant at 
Odon. In 1895 he sold an interest to Jos- 
eph Ivinnaman in his present hardware 
business, but bought him out again the next 
year and is now the sole owner of the stock. 
From 1893 to 1895 he was a partner with 
a Mr. McCoy in the boot and shoe business 
at this point, and they were succeeded by 
James H. Garten. 

When Mr. Abraham came to Odon it was 
a small hamlet of perhaps 150 people. The 
only merchants in it were Correll & Son 
and Crooke & Smith. 

The only church in town served both for 
church and school. Rev. Littell, who had 
a store near the village, sold goods six days 
in the week and preached salvation to the 
people of Odon on Sunday. Clem Correll 
was then the Postmaster and the mail was 
brought in on hoi'seback. 

When George Abraham struck Odon he 
had $5 in money and a horse. While this 
was his actual capital, upon which alone he 
could receive credit, his other and more 
valuable stock in trade to him was his ex- 
perience. He had served three years in 
the army and had seen the " struggle " from 
the standpoint of an actual participant, and 
this, together with his natural turn, had 
given him an independence and a confidence 



28 



not common to all. He has passed tlirongh 
the crisis and panics and years of disaster 
and has come out of it all with an accumu- 
lation sufficient for his wants when he shall 
liave i-etired from business. He has erected 
two fine brick store rooms in Odon recent- 
ly ; he owns other property in the town and 
a good farm near by. 

Mr. Abraham was born in East Liver- 
pool, O., October 16, 1844. He had no 
schooling, and even learned to write while 
in the army. He enlisted in Coni]«ny 1, 
(35th Indiana Volunteers, and August 1, 
1862, went to Henderson, Ky., and spent 
the next eleven months The regiment 
was then ordered to Knoxville, Tenn., and 
participated in that niemorable siege. In 
the spring of 1863 his command joined 
Sherman's army at Daltou, (Ja., and was 
with him through all his campaign about 
Atlanta, and when that city had surrendered 
the 65th was sent back with Gen. Scofield 
to look after Hood in Tennessee. They 
encountered him at Franklin and at Xash- 
ville, whipping him at the former place 
and destroying his army at the latter. The 
65th, with other troops, was sent east to Ft. 
Fisher, N. C, joined Terry and aided in the 
capture of Wilmington and met (ien. Sher- 
man at Goldsboro and was with him at the 
surrender of Gen. Johnston at (ireens- 
burg. 

Mr. Abraham was mustered out of service 
June 22, 1865. 

Mr. Abraham is a son of Daniel Abra- 
ham, born in Jefferson County, O., in 1814. 
He married Elizabeth Ransom, a daughter 
of Abida Ransom, of Trumbull County, O., 
but born in Vermont. 

John Abraham, the grandfather of George 
D., was born in Westmoreland County, 
Penn. DanieT Abraham came to Indiana 
in 1853 and .settled in Green County. He 
moved to Daviess County in 1859, and re- 
sided till 1871, when he moved to Elk 
Falls, Kan., and there died in 1875. His 
children were : (Jeorge D., Mary E., wife 
of John!'. Eddy, of Chanute, Kan., and 
two others now deceased. 

George D. Abraham was first married 
December 22, 1869, his wife being Eranui, 
daughter of J. V. Smith, the veteran new.s- 
paper man of Odon. Mrs. Abraham died 
in 1874, leaving one child, Cora. In the 
fall of 1875 Mr. Abraham married Adaline, 
daughter of Joseph Blough. She died July 



23, 1S92, ieavino-: Nora, Daniel, Wilmer, 
Mabel aud Waldon. 

Mr. Abraham is one of the leaders of the 
Republican party in his township. He is 
decidedly a man full of energy and endur- 
ance, and the motto he seems to have fol- 
lowed through life is, " make hay while the 
sun shines." 

Rev. John McCabe, pastor of St. 
Mary's Roman Catholic Church in Daviess 
County, near Loogootee, Ind., was born in 
Covington, Ky., December 8, 1854. He is 
a son of ^liciiael and Mary (Byrne) ]\Ic- 
Cabe, who were born in Ireland, and who 
came to the United States about 1852, and 
were married in Covington, Kentucky. 
They subsequently moved to Aurora, Ind., 
where the father died. The mother sur- 
vives and makes her home with the subject 
of this sketch. These parents had seven 
children, viz: Mary J., Ellen, Catherine, 
Michael, Rev. Dennis of Indianapolis, 
Margaret and John. The last named was 
the oldest of the group. He was educated 
at St. Joseph College at Bardstown, Ky., 
and at St. Meinrad's College, Spencer Coun- 
ty, Ind. He was ordained priest February 
2, 1878, by ArchbLshop Purcell, and was 
immediately given charge of St John's 
Church in Warrick County, Ind., with mis- 
sions at Boonville and Newburgh. One 
year later he was transferred to St. Ann's 
Church at Terre Haute, Ind. Here he re- 
mained until July 3, 1885, at which date 
he became pastor of St. Ann's Church at 
New Castle, Ind., with a mission at St. 
Rose Church of Knightstown. Here he 
remained until February 1, 1896, when he 
was transferred to his present charge. The 
church over which he now presides has a 
membership of about 130 families, and is 
in a prosperous condition under the efficient 
management of Rev. McCabe. 

Andrew J. Cunningha.\[, of Barr 
Township, Daviess County, was born in 
this county April 30, 1853, and is a son of 
Michael and Julia A. (Shirclifl") Cunning- 
ham. His father was born in Ireland, and 
in early lite emigrated to the United States. 
He was a .sailor, and after coming to this 
country followed steamboating on the Mis- 
sissippi River for a number of years. He 
then came to Daviess County, married and 
settled down in life on a farm in Barr 
Townshi]), where he had previously entered 
land. In 1879, he purchased near IjOO- 



29 



gootcc, Ind., a farm upon whicli he removed 
and resided until his death, whicli occurred 
June 20, 1887. His widow survives him 
and resides on the above farm. These par- 
ents had eleven children, viz : Mary, John, 
deceased, Elvira, deceased, Patrick J., Ber- 
nard, deceased, Andrew J., Eliza A., Louis 
F., Michael P., John E. and Francis J. 

Andrew J. Cunningham was reared to 
farming, a pursuit he has always followed. 
He Mas married in Daviess County May 5, 
1874, to Mary A., daughter of William B. 
and Minerva J. (Beal) Padgett. Mrs. 
Cunningham was born in Daviess County, 
Ind., February 16, 1868. She has borne 
her husband the following children : Flor- 
ence A. born July 12, 1875, married Wil- 
liam Madden Januarv 23, 1894, and died 
November 9, 1895; Charles B. born Octo- 
ber 15, 1877, Martha E. born June 10, 
1879, Leo W. born March 25, 1881, Anna 
E. born October 25, 1885, Andrew, born 
January 31, 1888, William A. born Decem- 
ber 9, 1889, Marv A. born August 2, 1891, 
Alice B. born May 27, 1893. 

Mr. Cunningham is a successful and prac- 
tical farmer, and is the possessor of one 
hundred and sixty acres fine land. 

Rev. Joseph P. Matthews, pastor of 
yt. Michael's Church at Trainor, Daviess 
County, Ind., is a native of this county, 
born October 30, 1859. His father, Mich- 
ael Matthews, was a native of County 
Langford, Ireland. He emigrated to the 
United States and first settled in Baltimore, 
Md., where he married Ellen Owen and 
subsequently located in Madison, Ind., 
whence he came to Daviess County in 1867 
and settled on land in Barr Township. He 
died here May 20, 1874. His wife died 
April 3, 1896. They had nine children, 
Owen, Margaret, deceased, James, Mary E., 
deceased, Edward, Ann, Michael P., John 
and Joseph P. 

Kev. Matthews received a good common 
schddl educatinii and at tile ago of fourteen 
began studying for the ministry. In 1873 
he entered St. Meinrad's College in Spencer 
County, Ind., where he spent three years 
and then attended St. Joseph's, Bardstown, 
Ky., completing a course there in 1881. 
In 1884 he completed the course of studies 
in the Ecclesiastical Seminary at Louisville, 
and on the tenth day of June the same 
year he was ordained priest by Rt. Rev. 
INIcCloskey, Ordinary of the Diocese of 



Louisville. Rev. Matthews was then sent 
to Indianapolis where he remained two 
years, serving as assistant pastor of St. 
Patrick's Church. For two years there- 
after he was assistant pastor of the Holy 
Trinity Church at New Albany, Ind. He 
then came to Daviess County and organized 
the church over which he now presides, and 
erected a beautiful church building. He 
also has a mission in Martin County. 

Father Matthews, although a young 
man, has done much good and effectual 
work for his church. St. Michael's Church 
with its membership of sixty-five families 
is one of the fruits of his labors. 

W. L. Stoy of Odon, Daviess County, 
owner and proprietor of the famous '"Stoy's 
Inn," one of the finest little hotels in South- 
ern Indiana, the leading druggist of Odon 
and altogether one of the central figures of 
that small city, was born in Tuscarawas 
County, O. The next year his father em- 
igrated westward and settled on a farm near 
Odon and died there in 1873. He was a 
gentleman in moderate circumstances, and 
his wife, who survives hiai and is now past 
seventy, there were born the following 
children: A. F. Stoy, one of the leading 
and wealthy farmers of Daviess County, an 
old soldier and altogether a self-made man. 
Catherine and W. L. Stoy, the subject of 
this review. 

John Stoy, our subject's father was de- 
scended from French stock, was born in 
the same county as his children, and was a 
son of Ohio pioneers. His wife's parents 
were Pennsylvanians. 

W. L. Stoy did not pass beyond the com- 
mon schools in his effort to secure an edu- 
cation, and in beginning business he entered 
the drug store of D. J. Smith of Odon as a 
clerk and at the same time -took up the 
study of pharmacy, as was necessary to be- 
come an efficient and reliable druggist. 
He took a course in pharmacy at Valpa- 
raiso, Ind., and in the year 1882, engaged 
in the drug business alone. His first be- 
ginning was in rather a small way. He 
had the more essential thing than money ; 
he had energy and push and system and 
all these things he applied to his business, 
and of course he succeeded. Out of this 
small beginning in scarce more than a dozen 
years has come his business property, the 
Odon livery barn, Stoy's Inn and other 
property about town. The Inn is a two- 



stoi'v brick, with twenty-one roomt<, water 
works, sewage auil furnace heat, and is the 
one building in the town that the people of 
Odon are especially proud of. Mr. Stoy 
is also proprietoi' of the Opera House at 
Odon. 

In point of jnililic spirit and progress, W. 
L. Stoy is in advance of the procession. 
He was a potent factor in the movement 
to incorporate the town of Odon and was on 
the first Board of Trustees. He never dis- 
courages an enterprise that possesses any 
merit, but puts iiis hand in his pocket, if 
necessary, and gives it tinancial as well as 
moral support. He is a gentleman of 
superior judgment and tine business sense. 
He lias a system to follow in all his busi- 
ness and knows at the end of each day 
whether lie has made or lost money. 

In politics the Stoys are Republicans. 
Are ardent in behalf of their party and its 
candidates, and although politics as a busi- 
ness is entirely foreign to them, they are 
fair manipulators when a point must be 
carried and are not infrequently found on 
the winning side. 

Elijah 8. Pershing, the recently 
retircil Assessor of Daviess County, antl 
a rt'sidciii (it Klnora, was born in Tus- 
carawas Cniinty, ()., February 2, 1827. He 
was brought into Daviess County, Ind., at 
the age of 15 years. His fother, Solomon 
Pershing, now a resident of Einora, settled 
on a farm and amid the purest and most 
healthful surroundings, he reared his fami- 
ly to become strong and useful men and 
women. 

The Pershings are believed to be oi 
Swedish and German descent. Christian 



Pershing was our subject's grandfather, and 
his wife was Mary Buzzard. Their son, 
Solomon, was born seventy-three years ago. 
He married Magdalene Pesler, whose 
father, David Pesler, was a minister of the 
gospel and the father of a Westmoreland 
County, Peun., farmer. The children of this 
union were ; E. S., Rachel, Susan, Mary, 
Wm. A., Jacob W., David M., Harvey, 
Elmer and Malinda. 

Elijah S. Pershing obtained the educa- 
tion of his boyhood in the schools of Canal 
Dover, New Philadelphia and at Regles- 
ville, O., completing his career as a student 
in an academy in Washington. He began 
life as a teacher in this, Daviess County, 
and followed the ]irofcssion successfully for 
eighteen years coutiiuKiusly. He gave it 
up in 1892 when he was elected to the of- 
fice of County Assessor. He entered upon 
the duties of this office immediately after 
his election. Justly, honestly and with 
great efficiency, he administered the affairs 
of this office for four years and retired from 
it with the appreciation and the gratitude 
of a well-served public. 

Mr. Pershing was married in Daviess 
County, November 9, 1868, to Sarah, 
daughter of George Winklepleck. She 
died June 6, 1891, leaving the following- 
children : Isabel, wife of Levi Neiswandcr, 
of Browu County, Kan.; Eva J., wife of C. 
Edmonson, of Daviess County ; J. E., 
Charles A., George R., John D. and Su- 
san E. 

June 4, 1893, Mr. Pershing married 
again, wedding Ida M. Litherland. 

He is a member of the Knights of 
Pvthias and Red iSIen fraternal orders. 



MARTIN COUNTY BIOGRAPHIES. 



S. p. Yknxk, ex-sheriff of Martin Coun- 
ty, and one of the leading spirits of Shoals, 
is all but a native of the county iu which 
he now lives. He was brought here by 
his father the year of his birth and is noth- 
ing if not a Hoosier. He was born in 
Carroll County, O., January 25, ]8o3. His 
father was the late (ieorge Yeuue, who set- 
tled in the woods one-and-a-half miles south 
of Shoals and began the slow process of 



hewitig out a home tiir his timiily. He was 
interruiited in this by what he felt a nec- 
essity, from motives of patriotism, by his 
enlistment in the army in 18()2. Joining 
Company A, 17th Ind. Vol. Inf as a private. 
He was soon promoted to be foreman of 
repairs of his train and it was while serv- 
ing in this capacity that he died at Mur- 
freesboro, Tenn., April 14, 18(33. He 
married Sarah, a daughter of William Al- 



baugh, of Carroll County, ()., and to iier, 
who ijtill survives, has fallen the responsibi- 
lity of rearing and training her large fam- 
ily to become honorable and useful citizens. 
She is now past seventy-five and is ])artieu- 
hirlv spry for one who has endured the 
hardships and trials of a soldier's widow. 
Her children are Sabiua, the wife of L. C. 
Fish of this county ; J. W., a stockman 
and farmer of Perkins County, Xeb.; Mary 
C, wife of James Williams of this county; 
8. P.; J. A., a merchant of Perkins Coun- 
ty, Neb.; E. P., who died in February, 
1892; Dr. Oharles H., of Washington, 
Ind., and Jennie, wife of Thomas Acre of 
this county. 

The Yenues are descended from the 
sturdy Cermans and are the grand children 
of John George Yenne, a German who 
settled first in Pennsylvania, moved to 
Ohio, and finally came to Martin County, 
and here died in 1864 at the age of eighty- 
four. 

" Pete" Yenne, as he is most familiarly 
addressed, remained with his mother on 
the farm till the age <jf thirteen when he 
secured employment as bailer in a shingle 
mill. In two years he became a cutter and 
remained in the business till the year 1877. 
He was as proficient in this as he has dem- 
onstrated hiiiis(df to be in all his under- 
takings, having made a record of 40,000 
shingles a day, and when he retii-ed from 
it it was to take up a new line. He en- 
tered the store of Capt. E. M. White and 
clerked for him and his successor till 1880 
when he formed a partnership with Corne- 
lius Hill for the same business, and were 
together one-and-a-half years when Mr. 
Peek succeeded Mr. Hill, and the firm of 
Yenne & Peek was succeeded in turn in 
another year and a half by the retirement 
of Mr. Peek and the accession of J. A. 
Yenne. The next year the brothers sold 
the business to Tavener & Davis, but some 
time later the stock was resold to 8. P. 
Y'enne and he resumed charge of it. He 
owned it till 1889 when he sold out and 
engaged in the livery business and is now 
the veteran and the only liveryman, except 
his partner, in 8hoals. 

For some time prior to last spring Shoals 
was without first class hotel accommoda- 
tions, with the result that every commer- 
cial man made it convenient, when at all 
possible, to do business here and pay his 



hotel bills in some other town. This con- 
dition was greatly to be regretted and was 
only to be averted by some energetic action 
on the part of some progressive citizen of 
this town. Mr. Yenne saw the opportun- 
ity, believed he understood the needs of 
the " Knights of the grip," purciiased the 
Commercial House property, refitted and 
refurnislicd it and is realizing his hopes from 
his investment and at the same time con- 
ducting what the town most needs, a popu- 
lar hotel. 

■' Pete " Yenne is notorious for his in- 
tense Republicanism. It seems natural for 
him to be engaged in some political contest. 
He has done it all his life in behalf of his 
party, and with the continuance of existing 
conditions it is safe to say he always will. 
He has all the cjualifications for the success- 
ful but legitimate manipulator. His wide 
acquaintance, his cordial manner and his 
sincerity of purpose render him one of the 
most formidable competitors for votes in 
this county. 

He was the nominee of his party for 
Sheriff in 1884 against Democratic odds of 
340 and was defeated by only twenty-one 
votes. Two years later he was nominated 
by acclamation for the same office, and in 
spite of the declaration of his opponent 
that " he would beat him if it cost him 
$3,000." Mr. Y'enne was elected by over 
200 votes. He was a candidate to succeed 
himself in 1888, but was defeated by 
twenty-six votes. 

Mr. Yenne made a popular and ex- 
emplary officer. He executed all mandates 
of the court with absolute fidelity and was 
a careful and conservative official. During 
his term of service one of the most im- 
portant murder cases of this county was 
tried. In 1863, Jack Ballard, a union 
soldier, from this county returned home to 
take back to the army Allen Anderson, a 
friend of his who had deserted and was 
known to be in the neighborhood. He had 
decided not to go back to the army without 
resistance and advised with some of his 
copperhead friends as to the best means of 
disposing of their neighbor when he should 
undertake to execute the orders of his gov- 
ernment. It was decided that he should be 
killed and parties were stationed on the 
different roads leading to the house of the 
deserter. One morning before breakfast 
Jack P>allard told his wife that ho would 



32 



run over and tell lii.s prospective prisoner 
to get ready to go back with him at siieii a 
date and would be right back. But he 
never came and wlien she next saw him he 
was dead in the road literally shot to pieces. 
Thirty years afterward family trouble arose 
between some of those implicated in the 
murder and one of them, Albert Quaken- 
bush, turned states evidence. This result- 
ed in tiie arrest of J. (i. Jones, William 
Stanfield, James Archer, Dr. Stone, who 
was then in Illinois, and (^uakenbush. The 
court arnietl Mr. Yenne with bench war- 
rants and he landed them all in jail. The 
evidence showed in the trial of these men 
that they were present when Jack Ballard 
was killed and that they were parties to the 
murder, yet, by some means they secured 
an acquittal and the murder of Jack Bal- 
lard remains unavenged. 

Mr. Yenne was Chairman of the Re- 
publican County Central Committee for 
eight years from 1888 and during that 
time tiie party gained the entire Board of 
Commissioners, the County Auditor, Coun- 
tv Recorder and the Circuit Court Clerk. 
■ In 1890 he was elected Trustee of Hol- 
bert Township and served efficiently till 
August 14, 1895. 

Mr. Yenne was married September 28, 
1876 to Melissa, a daughter of Thomas 
Peek, a prominent stockman and a descen- 
dent of a pioneer family of this county. 
His father was once a member of the In- 
diana Legislature, and made the trip on 
horseback to the State Capitols at Corydon, 
Yiucennes and Indianapolis. 

Mr. and Mrs. Yenne's only child is a 
daughter, Mabel, a junior at DePauw Uni- 
versity. She is an intelligent and accom- 
plished young lady, with a bright and 
promising future. 

Mr. Yenne is a Chapter Mason and is 
Past Chancellor of the Knights of Pythias 
order, and a member of the I. O. O. F. 

S.iMUKT. A. Chenoweth, ex-County 
Auditor of Martin County, a prominent 
citizen of Shoals, and an estimable gentle- 
man, is a son of Wilson Chenoweth, a 
central figure in the commercial and indust- 
rial historv of Shoals in ante bellum, bellum 
and post bellum days. Tlic latter was born 
in W'asiiington County Ind., in 1X27. In 
1857 he cast his lot with Martin County 
|)cople. He was engaged in milling, mer- 
chandising and farming near Shoals, be- 



coming a merchant in ]S(j7. He was suc- 
cessful in business, and when he died he 
left a modest estate to be divided among 
his children. He was a strong Union man 
during the war and yave aid and comfort 
to the friends and <U^fenders of the Hag at 
every oppmtunity. He was a son of Joseph 
Chenoweth of Kentucky stock, who died 
in Washington County," Ind., about 1882, 
aged 85 years. Wilson Chenoweth mar- 
ried .Mary, a daughter of James Mcintosh, 
(if Scotch extraction. Mrs. Chenoweth has 
been a widow tiiirtecn years, and is enjoy- 
ing her last years in the society of her (chil- 
dren, viz : John A., Daniel A., Samuel A. 
and Laura, (wife of Charles A. (iorsuch). 

Samuel A. Chenoweth was born in Wash- 
ington County, Ind., March 13, 1856. His 
boyhood was spent in Shoals, and his edu- 
cation finished in the State University of 
Indiana, having reached the junior year in 
that institution, when he was forced to 
cea.se his studies for lack of funds. He en- 
gaged in farming, at which he succeeded, 
and in the course of time drifted into buy- 
ing and shipping horses and mules. To 
this latter business he is especially adapted. 
He is a natural trader, being the possessor 
of the most uni(|ne and at the same time 
honest methods for driving a good bargain. 
His judgment regarding the value of a horse 
is as good as the best. His earnings in this 
business have been such as to enable him 
to own two of the best bottom farms in 
Martin County. 

Mr. Chenoweth became interested iir 
politics in 1884, when he was named by 
the Republican party for the office of Town- 
ship Trustee. His election to this office in 
a Democratic township by a majority of 91 
votes was a compliment to his popularity 
and integrity as a citizen. His first term 
was filled with such efficiency as to secure 
a re-election in 1886. He was nominated 
in 1888 for County Auditor, and was de- 
feated, but in 1892 he was again made the 
Republican candidate for this office, and 
was this time elected by a plurality of 139 
votes. He succeeded Philip McGovern, 
and made one of the most efficient officers 
the county ever had. His service merited 
the gratitude of ail, and he retired to pri- 
vate life with the confidence of his partv 
and his people. In 1884 and l.S,S8 Mr. 
Chcnowetii was chairman of the Rc])ubli- 
can Central Committee of this countv. 



33 



September 4, 1889, Mr. CheiKiweth mar- 
ried Susan B., a daughter of Dr. J. C. L. 
Campbell, of Loogootee, Ind. The chil- 
dren of this union are: Ida A., Laura A., 
Wilson and Enslic (\ 

Mr. Cheudwotli has passed the chairs in 
the Independent ( )rder of Odd Fellows, at 
Shoals, and is a Master Mason. 

In matters of ])iiblie atiair ^Ir. Cheno- 
•\veth associates himself with the side of 
proo-ress and liberality yet not tn the point 
of e.\trava<ianoe, and no meritorious cause 
appeals to him and leaves his jiresence 
without a courteous hearing. He is eco- 
nomical in the administration of his private 
affairs, but by no means to the extent of 
parsimony. Socially, he is genial and af- 
fable, and possesses a warm and sympa- 
thetic nature for those in affliction. 

Samuel O. (Jkay, County Recorder of 
Martin County, and the only Eepublican 
who has filled that office for years, was born 
in Dubois County, Ind., March 14, 1863. 
His boyhood opportunities were those ot 
the country youth of his time in Ruther- 
ford Township, and his schooling can well 
be said to have been obtained by two terms 
at Marengo, Ind., and an attendance at the 
Martin County Normal of four terms. 
When he set out for himself it was as a 
farm hand, at which he was content to re- 
main for nine years. He obtained an in- 
terest in a thresher about this time, and 
while operating it in 1891 he met with the 
accident that deprived him of his left hand. 
Upon his recovery from this he engaged in 
teaching in the schools of this county , and 
continued it with success up to near the 
time of his taking his office. He was 
elected in the fall of 1894 by a plurality 
of 73 votes. 

Mr. Gray is a son of Wm. L. Gray, M. 
D., born in Muskingum County, O., 
.seventy-four years ago. He was a gradu- 
ate of the Cincinnati Medical College, and 
his professional life was passed in Indiana. 
He came to Dubois County in 1858, and to 
Martin County ten years later. He mar- 
ried Julia A. Davidson and died in 1892. 
The children of this union were : Polly L., 
Chauncey A., Samuel O., Joseph O., Thos. 
A., Wm. L. and Florence J. 

February 25, 1896, our subject was mar- 
ried in Martin County to Nancy E., daugh- 
ter of John A. Chattin, an ex-soldier, a 
farmer and a descendant of pioneer Hoosiers. 



Mr. (jray is a ^lethodist and is a self- 
made man, having accomplished success by 
his individual efforts. 

David Garey, of West Shoals, is the 
veteran officer of Martin County. He is 
now the I )eputy Circuit Court Clerk, and has 
reigned within the walls of ^lartin Coun- 
ty's public building longer than any other 
man. His long service with the different 
offices has so equipped him with knowl- 
cduc (if ('(uiiity affairs that he can, with 
pn.|irietv, l,.' ivferred to as the "walking 
eourt-h.uise." 

Mr. Garev was born in (iuernsev Couutv, 
O., May 0, 1844. His father, Wm. Garey, 
was a farmer and a native of Pennsylvania. 
There is nodoulit of the origin of this num- 
erous family. Their ancestors were Irish, 
and ti-aditiou has it that the real pioneers to 
America si'parated upon the eastern shore 
into three groo|)s; oue going to Vermont, 
one to Pennsylvania and the other to South 
Carolina. Our subject is of the Keystone 
branch, and is removed several generations 
from the pioneers of the family in this 
County. 

David Garey spent his youth upon his 
father's farm, acquired a fair education in 
the district schools and at the age of 17, 
came to this county and sojourned for some 
months. He returned to Ohio and spent 
the winter of 1861 in school and in the 
spring enlisted in Company F, 85th Ohio 
Vol. Inf., three months service. Upon the 
expiration ofthe term of service he re-enter- 
ed the service with Company K, 122nd Ohio 
Vol. Inf , and jiarticipated in all the engage- 
ments ofthe army ofthe Potomac. He vet- 
eranized at Columbus, O., and when he was 
discharged at the close of the war he was as 
First Sergeant, having served a little more 
than three years. In the spring of 1866 he 
returned to Martin County, and en- 
gaged in carpentering, for the succeeding 
two years, during the summer seasons, and 
during the winter seasons taught school. 
In 1868 he went into the County Record- 
er's office as deputy, and two years later re- 
ceived an election to this office. Upon the 
expiration of his four years term he went 
into the office ofthe Circuit Court Clerk to 
which he had been elected and to this office 
he was again elected in 1878, for a second 
term of four years. In 1884 Mr. Garey 
was elected County Surveyor and when his 
term expired he was invited to the deputy- 



8liip in the ('lurk's (ifficu and scrvud tlicre 
till 1890, wlifii the Democrats crowned all 
his honors with another election to the 
Clerk's office. He stepped from this posi- 
tion to deputy when Mr. Gates sncceeded 
to the office." He is also postmaster of 
West Shoals. 

^Ir. (iarey's mother was Mary Kinkaid. 
Her children are : David and Mrc. Eph. 
M. Moser. The former was married in this 
county in 1871, to Mattie Mitchell. She 
died in August, 1889, leaving: Willard S., 
Herbert A. and Kate B. His second mar- 
riage occurred Deceml)cr 7, 1892, when he 
wedded Kate, a daughter of William .Suni- 
merville, and who was a Mrs. Hitter at the 
time tif this niarriau'e. 

Mr. (iarcy is a Royal Arch Mason; a 
member of tlie Knights of Pythias fraterni- 
ty and of the Grand Army of the Republic. 

^V.^[. A. Steward, County Commissio- 
ner of Martin County and a substantial and 
representative tanner has been a citizen 
of this county since the year ISSli, when he 
located on the farm he now owns a short 
distance south of Shoals. 

Upon casting liis fortunes with the peo- 
ple of Martin County, Mr. Steward entered 
into the spirit of progress which has pos- 
sessed a large per cent of the population of 
Martin County since war days, and has 
manifested that interest in all matters of 
public concern which marked him early as 
a gentleman of public spii-it and push. 

He became a counselor in the manage- 
ment of Democratic politics soon after com- 
ing to the County and his advice has been 
as .safe and honest as his own labors have 
been active and efficient. He has never 
sought office, and when his ])arty named 
him as its candidate for the office he now 
fills it was against his protest. He was 
elected in November, 1894, by the small 
majority of 4 votes. It was a year of 
Democratic disaster the nation over and 
the wonder is that he had any majority at 
all when the votes were counted. His 
clean record as a private citizen and his 
known integrity aided in stemming the tide 
against Democracy and saved to the County 
an officer in whom there is no guile. 

Mr. Steward was born in Meigs County, 
Ohio, October 10., 1853. His father was 
a tiirmer and conse(inently he was reared in 
the country, with only the a<lvantagcs cif a 
common scho<d education. He married at 



the age of "21, and located near the old 
homestead and remaineil in his native 
county till the year, he came to ^[artin 
County, Ind. 

Mr. Steward is a .son of "\Vm. Steward, 
born in Harrison County, Ohio. He spent 
his early life in that county, but his last 
years were pas.sed in Meigs County, C, 
where he died in 1865. He married Mary, 
a daughter of Abe Moore, and their children 
are Charles, James, Christopher (died in 
Libby prison), Martha, John, Josiah, Wm. 
A., Mary E., Miles, George and Dayton. 

December 17, 1874, Mr. Steward mar- 
ried Lillie, daughter of D. P. Slater an old 
resident of .Meigs County, O. The children 
of this union are: Allie, Dora, Freddie 
and Christopher. 

Mr. Steward entered upon his duties as 
commissioner in December, 1895, succeed- 
ing Col. Lewis Brooks. The Board of 
which he is a member has paid $4,000 of 
])ubliG debt and has made public improve- 
ments to the amount of $7,000. Mr. 
Steward favors the practice of economy in 
the administration of the affairs of the 
county, and at the .same time is a friend to 
and looks with favor upon the expenditures 
of the public funds in behalf of good roads 
or other improvements of a like character. 

Mr. Steward has represented his party in 
State conventions, and has performed other 
service for the advancement of its cause. 
He is a member of the Knights of Pythias 
fraternity, and a man of progress, enjoying 
the confidence of many friends. 

Michael Shirey, of Shoals, ^lartiu 
county, has spent forty-four of the best 
years of his life in this county, and twenty- 
eight of them in Shoals. He is a living 
witness to the possibilities of a young man 
who cast his fortunes with a new country 
with no capital but his labor and with no 
opportunities except as lie may make them. 
In September, 1852, he .set out from Har- 
rison county, O., with his young wife to 
join some friends in Indiana and intended 
to .settle somewhere in the west and make 
that their home. They followed the 
national road westward to Indianapolis and 
then left their traveling companions and 
came to Dover Hill, the old county seat of 
Martin County. His capital consisted of 
his ti'am, a small amount of moncv and a 
•' kit ,.f tools." He had learned the cabinet 
maker's trade at Cadiz, ()., with John (iil- 



iaspii', and had done jourm'y work tlirongli 
the counties near where he was reared, so 
that he was better fitted to bet; in life than 
he who has made no preparation in youth 
for the duties ot life. He opened a shop 
and began the manufacture of furniture by 
hand, as was the custom in tiiose days, and 
kept at it till September, 1853, when he 
was lured farther west by the beautiful 
stories that were being told of that coun- 
try, his objective point being ( 'entirvillc, 
la. He never fell in love with the country 
for an hour. Broad and unbroken stretches 
of prairie was something that he had not 
been used to and it was too bleak and 
barren for him. He disposed of his effects 
and took the boat at Keokuk, la., and 
landed early the next spring at Xew Al- 
bany, and was soon back in Dover Hill, 
richer in experience but very much poorer 
in purse. He set in where he left off, as 
it were, and by the time the war came 
up he had regained his lo.sses and was 
ready to undertake a new experience. 

In 1S()"2 he enlisted in Company F, {35th 
Ind. V(d. Inf as a private ; was mustered 
in at Evansville and his regiment sent into 
Kentucky to keep the guerrillas in check. 
They were encamped at many places in 
that State, including Henderson, Madison- 
ville, Spottsville, Smithland and Glasco. 
They were then formed into a corps and 
sent to Kno.wille, Tenn., where they, with 
the rest of Burnside's army, were shut up 
by Long-street and underwent the historic 
siege of Knoxville. On being released by 
" Old Tecumseh " they fought Bragg all 
that winter, and in the spring of 1864 went 
to Dalton, Ga., and made ready to enter the 
Atlanta campaign. After the fall of At- 
lanta his regiment was made a part of Scho- 
field army, to attend to Hood and they re- 
pulsed the " Old Da.sher " at Franklin and 
ended the campaign by annihilating him at 
Nashville. 

The Regiment was then transferred to 
the east where it participated in the finish- 
ing strokes that restored the authority of 
the United States over Dixie. Mr. Shirey's 
Corps was detailed to take charge of the 
effects of Gen. Johnston's army after its 
capture and when this business was finally 
disposed of, his regiment was ordered back 
to Indianapolis for discharge, in June, 
1865 and on July 8, Mr. Shirey reached 
home. 



Mr. Shirey returned to the l)ench upon 
takinu- u]) civil pursuits and conducted his 
old l)usiness at Dover Hill till 1868, when 
lie moved his interests to Shoals, following 
up tile County Seat, which was removed to 
Sh(jals and started the business he still con- 
ducts. 

Mr. Shirey has always given his business 
his personal supervision. His labors all 
these years have been substantially re- 
warded and the eompetencv he has acquired 
is sufficient to provide liberally for his 
wants in his decline and at the end leave a 
modest fu-tune for each of his children. 
He owns valuable farm lands in Martin and 
Daviess Counties and good improved prop- 
erty in Shoals. He is a large stockholder 
in the Martin County Bank, of which he is 
President, and in the Indiana Clay and 
Specialty Co , of which he is also President. 
He uses his means lii)erally in support oi 
enterprises calculated to benefit the commu- 
nitv and is seldom mistaken in hisjndgment 
as to deserving and meritorious schemes. 

He has served his town on the Board of 
Trustees and his counsel and advice has 
been of invaluable aid in the conduct of the 
public business. In politics he is a Re- 
publican but never becomes especially en- 
thused but about once in four years. He 
belongs to the Grand Array of the Repub- 
lic and is a Chapter Mason. 

Mr. Shirey comes from German ancestry. 
His father was born in Westmoreland 
County, Pa., about 100 years ago. He 
came to Harrison County, O., in 1834 and 
died soon afterward. He married Rachel 
Wible who was left a widow with seven 
young children to rear. This fact accounts 
for the very imperfect education of our sub- 
ject. 

Mr. Shirey was born in Westmoreland 
County, Pa., March 21, 1832. He marrie 1 
Mordacia Davidson's daughter, Araminta, 
on July 4, 1852. Their children are: Ad- 
aline, deceased; F. M. Joplin, Mo.; Dora, 
deceased, wife of Dr. C. H.Yerone; Claud- 
ie, wife of Evart Shepardson, of Los Ange- 
les, Cal.; Seigle E., in business at Joplin, 
Mo.; Merlin I), and Charles Y. 

Ja.mes B. Freeman, of Shoals, is one of 
the oldest and best known citizens of Mar- 
tin county, in which he has resided the 
greater portion of his life. His birth 
occurred in this county, six miles south of 
Shoals, June 10, 1840. His father was 



^ .^-r 



4 




MICHAKL SHIt 



Win. Fruemau who was a native of Ken- 
tucky. He came into Martin County in 
1835 and resided here till his death, which 
oecured in 1842 at the age of 45. Origi- 
nally the Freenians were from the "Old 
IJay State" and upon coming west members 
of the family located in Cincinnati and in 
Kentucky. 

Wm. Freeman married Mrs. Rachel 
McNancy, whose father, Nathan Smith, 
was a native of North Carolina. This was 
his second marriage and James B. was its 
only issue. 

James B. Freeman was left fatherless in 
his infancy. His mother being left in 
humble circumstances was not able to pro- 
vide her son with other than very meager 
educational advantages. She died when 
he was but seventeen years of age and from 
that date he was thrown entirely upon his 
own resources. He sought work upon the 
farm and went to .school as lie could afford 
it, till he became able to secure a teacher's 
license, when he taught one term of school, 
in Lost River township. 

At this time the Civil War came on and 
prompted by a spirit of loyalty, he tendered 
his services in defense of the Union. In 
July 1861, Mr. Freeman enlisted in 
Company "I" 24th Indiana Volunteer In- 
fantry as a sergeant with C'apt. McGuffin, 
Colonel Alvin P. Hovey's regiment. The 
regiment rendezvoused at Vincenues and 
^^•as ordered from there to C'amp Jesse, St. 
Louis, thence to Jefferson City, and on to 
Sedalia, Mo., then to Georgetown. From 
that point the regiment went to Tipton, 
Mo., with Gen. Fi-emont to Springfield in 
pursuit of the rebel Gen. Price, and at that 
place Gen. Fremont was relieved and Gen. 
Hunter given command. 

The command returned to Tipton, thence 
to Sedalia, and there guarded prisoners cap- 
tured by Gen. Jeff. C. Davis. Their next 
movement was to St. Louis, through Otter- 
ville, thence to Ft. Donaldson, and to Ft. 
Henry. Tiie regiment then passed up the 
Tennessee River to Crumjj's Lauding and 
was assigned to Gen. Lew Wallace's Divis- 
ion, which was ordered on the morning of 
the 6th of April to the Shiloh battlefield. 
They reached the battle ground at sundown 
of that day and participated in the second 
day's fight. Supported the besieging ad- 
vance at C'orinth, was ordered to Memphis 
via Purdy and Summersville and then up 



White River for the purpose of joining 
Ckirtis. It was then ordered back to Hele- 
na where it remained till March, 1863, 
when it was moved south to engage in the 
manoeuvres about Yicksburg. The troops 
were landed at Milliken's Bend in April and 
were marched around opposite to and below 
Vick.sburg, to Louisville, striking the river 
at Perkins' plantation. By boat they then 
went to Grand Gulf and there had a si.K 
hour artillery duel with a Rebel land bat- 
tery in an effort to silence it, and failing, the 
flotilla was dropped down the river to Bru- 
in.sburg where Gen. Grant ordered a land- 
ing and Mr. Freeman's company was the 
second to touch ground. The landing was 
covered, four days' rations were drawn and 
the command moved out and at daylight it 
was fighting the Rebels at Port Gibson, 
drove them off the field and took possession 
of the town. The army then went on tow- 
ard Raymond, took it, filed to the left and 
on May 16, fought the battle of Champion 
Hill. This engagement lasted from ten 
a. m. to four p. m., many prisoners were 
taken and the batteries on the hill secured. 
The 24th Indiana lost 201 out of 500 men 
and remained on the field after the battle. 
Company I, aidiug in burying the dead. 
Mr. Freeman was put in charge of 100 men 
to gather up the arms and other similar 
property belonging to the government. 

The command followed up the enemy 
across Black River and up to their fortifi- 
cations at Yicksburg, which was charged on 
the 22nd of the month without success. 
Siege was then laid to the city and it was 
captured July 4, 1863. 

That campaign was the hardest through 
which Mr. Freeman passed. He was under 
marching orders for eighty-five days, and 
fifty-five of them he was under fire. 

After the close of the Yicksburg campaign 
the 24th aided in the capture of Jackson, 
returned to Yicksburg and rested a few 
days, and was then ordered to Port Hudson, 
to New Orleans,, thence to Algiers, and to 
Brazier City and back through Ijouisiana 
to Opelousas, New Iberia and back to Ber- 
wick City and to New Orleans. Mr. Free- 
man was then transferred to Company K, 
of the 11th Indiana and sent acro.ss Lake 
Ponehartrain to Madisonville and was 
there transferred to Company C, of the 
81st Ohit). He returned to New Orleans 
and Algiers at which latter place he was 



traust'erred to Varuer's Battaliun but was 
in that command but two months when he 
was returned to his own Company. Soon 
after this he left Baton Eouge for Indian- 
apolis where he was discharged Aug. 17, 
1864 and he reached Shoals the next day. 

JNIr. Freeman had saved up about |300 
and with that he joined a comrade and to- 
gether they opened a small store at Wag- 
goner's Hill, this county, but ran it only two 
years when they moved to Hillham in Du- 
bois County and there did a large and pay- 
ing business for nine years, laying the 
foundation of a modest fortune. Mr. Free- 
man then eame to Shoals with which town 
he has been ideutiiied most prominently. 
He has erected a number of buildings here, 
store-rooms, residences and a mill and has 
maintained a business place here all these 
years. 

Mr. Freeman was first married on March 
22, 1866, to Mary E. McCarrell. The 
children (if this marriage were: Isota, 
wife of O. M. Wallace, of Cairo, 111.; Rach- 
el, wife of J. M. Huif, reading clerk of the 
Indiana State Senate; Elsworth, deceased, 
and Stella. 

Mr. Freeman's present wife was Ida 
Cunningham, a daughter of John Price, of 
an old family, and an old stage man. He 
married a relative of a southern lady. 

In politics Mr. Freeman is one of the 
most ardent Republicans to be found. He 
never fails in prominently identifying him- 
self with every campaign of importance and 
in 1884 was chairman of the Martin County 
Central Committee ; was Vice Chairman 
through tin- campaign of 1896, and to his 
labors was largely due the success attend- 
ing the " big meetings " at Shoals. 

Mr. Freeman has passed all the chairs in 
the Masonic Blue Lodge, and has been 
King, Scribe and Treasurer of the Chapter. 
He is also a charter niember of the G. A. 
R. here, and was it first Quarter ^Master, 
and has been four times elected by acclama- 
tion its Senior Vice Commander, and is 
chairman of Lincoln League. 

O. L. Stiles, Trustee of Hallx-rt Town- 
shijJ, Martin County, was born in Guernsey 
County, O., >*'ovember 22, 1852. He is de- 
scended from the Stiles of the Old Bay 
State, his grandfather, Jonathan Stiles, be- 
ing born in that State. He emigrated to 
Ohio before the Indians were driven from 
that State and even jiarticipated in the wars 



that followed white invasion of the country 
west of the Alleghanies, besides being in 
the Federal armies in our .second war with 
England. His son Lewis, born 71 years 
ago, in that locality, is the father of our 
subject. He came to Indiana and to Mar- 
tin County in 1864 and died here in April 
of 1892. He was a farmer in moderate 
circumstances, was a Democrat but no poli- 
tician. He married Susana Barnes, who 
bore him: Susana, O. L, Harlan, Byron, 
Lewis, (Jeorge, Lucinda and Viola. 

(X L. Stiles was confronted in his youtii 
with the same conditions experienced by a 
majority of the youth of the country, long 
hours for work and short hours for school. 
He remained loyal to his father and left his 
fireside only when he married and became 
the head of a family of his own. October 
19, 1876, he took for his wife Annie Mertz, 
daughter of Frank Mertz, a Frenchman. 
They located upon a farm near the town of 
Shoals and resided in the country till 1888, 
when he disposed of his surplus stock and 
became a citizen of this place. He plants 
and tends a crop each year yet, but 
much of his time is consumed in the proper 
conduct of the office of Trustee. 

Mr. and ^Irs. Stiles' children are : 
Adelia, Ida, Myrtle, Orville, Bernard and 
Walter. Mr. Stiles was elected Trustee by 
the Democrats in November of 1894, and 
took his office the following August. He 
is making a faithful and careful officer. 

Col. Lewis Brooks, of Martin Oounty, 
a large farmer, an ex-county officer, a 
prominent Republican and an honored rep- 
resentative of one of the oldest families of 
Martin County, was born in 1835. His 
father settled in that county in 1817 and 
took up land at the old rival of Louisville, 
and historic town of Hindostan. It was 
in that vicinity that Col. Brooks was born, 
and some nine years after Hindostan was 
wiped out by an epidemic of fever. There 
was nothing unusual in his life till he was 
past twenty-five when he was commissioned 
Colonel of the Eightieth Regiment of 
Indiana Volunteers. He served through 
the war and was a brave and gallant sol- 
dier. 

He purchased a large tract of timber 
land near Hindostan after the war, and up 
to 1872 w-as engaged chieffy in removing 
the timber therefrom and in bringing the 
land into cultivation. He owns much of 



tlie tract to-day and lias m'ver pcnuittcd 
auythiug tu absorb his atti'iitioii to tlio ex- 
clusion of his farm. 

About the year above mentioned he per- 
mitted himself to be drawn into politics 
and accepted the nomination for the office 
of Corn.iiissioner, and was elected. He 
afterward was elected County Auditor and 
served several years. His service was so 
clean and impartial in this office that the 
Republicans made liim their candidate for 
C^ounty Trt^asurrr and rl.. ,•((•<! him. He 
served' in this office four years and returned 
to the country to devote his remaining 
years to the improvement of his farm. But 
he was not permitted to remain out of 
politics and in private life, for his party 
named him again (or comnii.ssiouer, elected 
him and the board of which he was a mem- 
ber gave the county a progressive, business 
administration. 

HoRATii) Harrymax, of Shoals, is the 
present County Auditor of Martin County, 
and is a favorite with his people regardless 
of politics or creed. He was born in the 
northeast corner of Martin County Decem- 
ber 15, 18(52, grew up in his father's cabin 
and secured a fair education in the little 
school house of the frontier pattern. He 
was licensed to teach at 17, and for the next 
10 years was either teacher or student, and 
at once both. He spent some time in the 
Southern Indiana Normal at Mitchell, and 
a year in the Central Normal College at 
Danville. After the close of his eighth 
term of school he accepted the Deputyship 
under County Auditor McGovrea and re- 
mained through his term and through the 
term of his Republican successor. This 
last appointment was made absolutely upon 
its merits, to say nothing of the first, as 
Mr. Harryman is one of the staunchest 
Democrats of Martin County. He demon- 
strated such efficiency in his position that 
he was nominated by his party by acclama- 
tion as their candidate for Auditor and was 
elected in November, 1896, by a majority 
of 246 votes. Mr. Harryman's first politi- 
cal service was in Baker Township, where 
in 1886 he was elected Township Assessor. 
In this office he gave evidence of ex- 
ceptional ability in transacting public busi- 
ness, and this faculty coupled with his well- 
known superior social qualities gave him a 
prominence which probably led to Ids first 
appointment at the county .seat. 



Mr. Harryman is a son of Cavanaw 
Harryman, wht) was born in Martin County, 
Ind., fifty-six years ago. His life has been 
that of a farmer, and he has moved along 
in his community without political or other 
interruption, and has given his children such 
advantages as his resources would permit. 
He is descended from Wm. H. Harryman, 
the grandfather of our subject, who came 
into this new and wooded country as a mill- 
wright very early and married and settled 
here. He was born in Pennsylvania. 
Cavanaw Harryman married Nancy Rhu- 
bottom, who died in 1884, leaving : Hora- 
tio, Minnie, Emma and Ida as her children. 

Horatio Harryman was married August 
6, 1890, to Lizzie, daughter of Elder John 
Mavity, a pioneer Christian preacher of 
Southern Indiana. Their only child, Vic- 
tor Hugo, died January, 1897. 

Mr. Harryman was chairman of the 
Democratic County Central Committee in 
1892, and in his present position will not 
only do his party credit, but will earn the 
plaudits of an appreciative public. 

Albert C. Hacker, postmaster of 
Shoals, Ind., was born in Cincinnati, O., 
August 31, 1857. He came with his 
widowed mother to Martin County in 1868, 
obtained a fair education in the schools of 
Loogootee, and acccjitcd a position with 
the Martin County Herald as typograpiier. 
This paper was afterward consolidated with 
the Shoals Times, and afterward known as 
the Times-Herald. Later Mr. Hacker 
quit newspaper work and became a messen- 
ger for the Adams Express Company. 
After holding this position several years he 
was promoted and placed in charge of the 
company's night office in the union depot 
at Columbus, O. However, one year later 
Mr. Hacker severed his connection with 
the express company and returned to 
Shoals, where he established, in 1887, the 
Martin County News, a weekly Democratic 
paper which has bad much to do with 
mobilizing of Democratic forces in Martin 
County. Its editorials have been most 
potent influence in keeping the county 
Democraev in line for party candidates. 
In 189.3 Mr. Hacker's party .services were 
recognized and rewarded by his a])j)oint- 
ment to the postmastership of Shoals. He 
became po,stmaster April 21, 1893, and has 
filled the position with much satisfaction to 
the public. 



39 



Mr. Hacker is a son of Jolui aud Theresa 
(Urich) Hacker. Both the Hacker aud 
Urich families were orginaily from Mary- 
land, whence they emigrated to Ohio. The 
town of Urichsville, O., where they settled 
takes its name from the Urich family. 

The subject of this personal sketch was 
married in Martin County, June 5, 1889, 
to Amanda, daughter of Colonel Lewis 
Brooks, of whom mention is made else- 
where in this volume. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hacker's children are Helen and Lewis. 
Mr. Hacker is Senior AVardeu of the Shoals 
Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons ; also 
Past Chancellor of the Knights of Pythias 
Lodge of Shoals; aud treasurer of the 
Shoals Opera Company. 

John T. Morris, County Superintend- 
ent of schools for Martin County, and a 
recognized leader among educators, is de- 
scended from a long line of successful teach- 
ers. Mr. Morris began teaching at the age 
of nineteen, in the country schools. Among 
the several district schools taught by him 
was District number One in Rutherford 
township, Martin County. The director of 
this district at that time was Augustus Ar- 
vin, who had also .served in the same ca- 
pacity, when Mr. Morris' paternal grand- 
father taught the school, and for many 
years thereafter, on down through the in- 
tervening years when the school was taught 
by the father of Mr. Morris, by three of his 
paternal aunts, and by three of Mr. Morris' 
brothers beside himself. 

Mr. Morris is a native of Martin County, 
born October 27, 1862. His Father, Rob- 
ert Morris was born in Jefferson County, 
O., in 1832, of Scotch ancestry. The Mor- 
ris family were originally of A'irginia. 
Robert Morris married Berthena Cannon, 
■who bore him nine children, of whom John 
T. Morris is the second. He was reared 
on the farm. As mentioned above he be- 
gan school teaching at nineteen, aud after 
teaching two years he entered the South- 
ern Indiana Normal at Mitchell, where he 
graduated in 1885, with the degree of B. 
S. After teaching country schools for 
three more years he became .Assistant Prin- 
cipal of the Loogootee high schuol, a pcisi- 
tion he held for one year. Mcanw liilc he 
studied law under the directions oi Clark 
& Dobbins, of Shoals, and in 1888 was ad- 
mitted to the bar. In June of 1889 Mr. 
Morris was elected to the office of Countv 



Superintendent of Schools, to which office 
was re-elected in 1891 and in 1893. He 
will have served eight full years when his 
present term expires in June of 1897. He 
is the only person who has ever succeeded 
himself in this office in Martin County. 
He has raised the standard of the schools 
materially, and done many things to in- 
crease the efficiency of teachers. He in- 
augurated Young People's Reading Circle, 
a valuable educative movement. He has 
been a regular attendant at the educational 
meetings of the State, including State Su- 
perintendents' Association, of which he has 
been vice-president, and he was a member 
of the committee, of this Association, that 
prepared an outline of work for Teachers' 
Institute work, and of a committee that pre- 
pared bi-monthly examination questions. 
He is also a member of the State Teachers' 
Association and of the Southern Indiana 
Teachers' Association. 

Mr. Morris was married, Sept. 13, 1894, 
to Louisa Wilking, a teacher also. Both 
he and she are influential members of soci- 
ety circles. He is an elder in the Christian 
Church; Past Chancellor of the K. of P. 
order; a Master Mason; a Democrat in pol- 
itics and a member of the hardware firm of 
Motsiuger & Morris, of Shoals 

Hiram McCormick, the leading crim- 
inal lawyer at the bar of Martin County, a 
a man of affairs and an esteemed citizen 
was born in Baker Township, Martin 
County, Ind., February 28, 1847. His 
father, William McCormick, was born in 
East Tennessee, March 10, 1789, and died 
in this county in 1876. He enlisted at 
Nashville, Tenn., for service in the war of 
" Eighteen and Twelve " and served faith- 
fully to the end of that, our last struggle 
with the British, ending with the battle of 
New Orleans. Upon discharge from the 
army he returned to his Tennessee home 
and two years later, 1817, turned his face 
northward in search of a home in the M'ilds 
of Indiana. He mad(! his first settlement 
in l..a\vr( nee County, near the northeast 
corner nf Martin ( 'mmtv, and resided there 
till LS-20, wluMi he came into J5aker Town- 
ship, as before stated, and there passed the 
renminder of his life. He was a plain 
farmer in moderate circumstances for his 
day, and an ardent Dcnmei'at of the (dd 
school. He was desrended from sturdy 
Scotch ancestry. His fiither, ( 'apt. William 



40 




HiKAM Mccormick 



McCorniick, was a Scotchman by birth, came 
to America during Colonial days and set- 
tled in the " Old Dominion." He was a 
student of events, was keenly alive to the 
necessity of American independence, and 
was inspired by motives of the purest pa- 
triotism to espouse the cause of enslaved 
America against the British thrown. He 
offered his service to the new government 
in its conflict with the " Mistress" of the 
seas and was commissioned a Captain of 
Volunteers. He moved into Tennessee 
atter his military duties were ended and 
peace declared, and in the county of his 
adoption lield many offices of honor and 
trust and, it is believed, was once a mem- 
ber of the State Legislature. 

William McCormick married Susan, a 
daughter of Paul Farris, of Kentucky. 
She was his second wife and was the mother 
o{ fourteen children. Those surviving are 
George ; Mrs. Thomas Roberts, of Baker 
Township ; Mrs. Elisha Baker, of the same 
township ; Mrs. Nancy Hurt, of Spring- 
ville, Ind., and Hiram. William McCor- 
mick's first wife was Nancy Rainey who 
bore eiglit children, only one of whom 
is living, viz: Reuben McCormick of 
Mitcheltree Township, Martin County. 

Hiram McCormick, in consequence of 
his meager circumstances and rural sur- 
roundings, did not obtain to exceed the 
most ordinary common school education. 
When he had reached his majority and en- 
gaged in business he located on a farm near 
his old home. In 1869 he was appointed 
by his brother as Deputy Sheriff of Martin 
County, the county seat being then at Dover 
Hill. He served in that capacity for three 
years, and upon retiring from office re- 
turned to the farm and was engaged in 
farming and in milling until the failure of 
his health, when in the hope of recovering 
the same he went west to Utah, Colo., and 
New Mexico, and traveled about for eight 
months. He regained his former self in 
his absence, and upon his return home he 
engaged in buying horses, shipping them 
south to ^lemphis and New Orleans. He 
undertook the practice of law following his 
retirement from stock dealing, being ad- 
mitted to the bar before Judge N. F. Mal- 
ott. He has shown from his earliest ef- 
forts that he is by nature happily adapted 
to the profession he represents, and in the 
course of his connection of twenty-one 



years with the bar of this and adjoining 
counties he has been connected with, either 
the prosecution or the defense, in many 
criminal cases of prominence. The notable 
ones in Martin County being the prosecu- 
tion of the Bunch murderer, resulting in con- 
viction. He was defendant's attorney in 
the Brannon murder case and secured an 
acquittal. Defended Miles, charged with 
murder in the first degree, and got his 
client off with a twenty-year sentence. He 
aided in the defense of Jones, Stanfield, 
Archer, Stone and Quakenbush for the 
murder of Jack Ballard ; and, although the 
evidence showed that they were the actual 
murderers the defense secured a verdict of 
acquittal. The same verdict was rendered 
in the case of the Nolan brothers, charged 
with the murder of O'Brien, wherein Mr. 
McCormick was attorney for tiie defense. 
Crabtree, for killing Stanford Freeman, se- 
cured an acquittal through the efforts of our 
subject. By appointment of the court Mr. 
McCormick defended W. B. Colvin, charged 
with the murder in the first degree, and got 
a twenty-year term for his client. Cobb, 
for killing Wagoner, his second man, was 
saved from the gallows and got off with a 
life term in prison through the exertions ot 
Mr. McCormick and his colleagues. This 
case was on the criminal calendar in Law- 
rence county. 

In politics Mr. McCormick was reared a 
Democrat and has been a leader in shap- 
ing the destiny of and in conducting the 
campaigns of his party in Martin County. 
He never asked his party for a favor that 
was not granted him, and never wavered in 
his allegiance to the time-worn principles 
enunciated by the founders of Democratic 
doctrines. He was forced to take issue 
with that wing of his party that framed the 
Chicago platform in the recent campaign 
and in order to encompass the defeat of 
what he believed to be a conspiracy 
against Republican institutions he joined 
forces with the Republican party and sup- 
ported McKinley for the Presidency. 

Mr. McCormick located at Shoals f6r 
practice in 1876. He w-as his party's can- 
didate in 1882 for District prosecutor in 
a district with GOO votes against him, but 
was defeated. In 1885 he was appointed 
to the same office by Governor (iray, and 
during his term worked up the Bunch mur- 
der case. He was the Democratic candi- 



4J 



date for State Senat<ir in ISSS, and tor 
Representative to the lower liouse in 1894, 
but was defeated each time by a close vote. 
During President Cleveland's first term 
Mr. McCorniick was appointed register of 
the land office at Seattle, Wash., but otlier 
engagements prevented his acceptance. 

Mr. ^McCcuiiiiek lias farming intei-ests in 
Martin ('(nuity. and is the manager of the 
Bear Hill Liiu Cal) distillery, the property 
of his wite. 

'Sir. McCormiek was married first in 
1S6(), August 20, to Rebecca, a daughter of 
jNIaleom Davis, a tobacco manufacturer and 
a prominent farmer and trader. Mrs. ]Mc- 
Corniick died December 30, 1893, leaving 
tlie following children : Nancy C, wife <if 
Sherman Forner; Stella, a stenographer and 
teacher; Belle, Ephraim T., Anna M. and 
Grover. :\Ir. :\IcC\.rnii.'k's pi^'.-ent wife 
was Mrs. Matilda Zuniteld<>. daughter .if 
Thomas Martin, an old settler of this eoun- 
tv. Thev were married September 7, 
1895. 

Mr. McCormiek is a Ma.sou and a Kuiiiht 
of Pythias. 

James B. Marshall, Prosecuting At- 
torney for the 49th Judicial District of In- 
diana, and junior memljerof the }ir(iniinent 
and able law firm of Houghton iV: ^Marshall, 
of Shoals, Indiana, was born on the 13th 
day of December, 1856, in Tuscarawas 
County, in the State of Ohio. He was a 
pupil in the common schools of his native 
county until 1867, when he came to Martin 
County, Indiana, Avith his parents, where 
his father had purchased a large tract of 
land, and engaged in farming. He attend- 
eu the common schools of Martin County, 
and select summer schools, where he fitted 
himself for teaching, and became an in- 
structor in the schools of his own county in 
1878. He was a close student in all his 
.school work which added greatly to his 
fund of knowledge; and in 1882 he com- 
pleted his education in the Southern Indi- 
ana Xormal College. His commencement 
year seems to have begun a new era for 
hilu, taking him out of that work for 
which he . had evidently so well fitted 
himself, and in which he had al- 
ready demonstrated his ability and 
fitness, and placed him in a new relation to 
the people of his county, that of a jjublic 
officer. He was elected Surveyor of his 
county in 1882, and again in 1884, but be- 



fore the expiration of his last term of of- 
fice, and while yet performing the duties of 
the same, undertook tiie publication of the 
Martin Countv Democrat, and was its edi- 
tor until the fall of the year 1887. The 
^lartin County Democrat was published at 
Shoals, and was the successor of The Dem- 
ocrat at Loogootee, and The Herald at 
Shoals, he having purchased and combined 
the two', as the Democratic organ of the 
county. 

Democratic politics, at this juncture in 
Martin County, was at a low ebb. There 
was no effective organization or positive 
and confident feeling among the party lead- 
ers, and tile official patronage of the county 
was in the liamls of the Republicans, .save 
s.niie of the minor offices. Mr. Marshall 
proved hiniselt a siiei'ess as an organizer, 
and expounder of Demoeratie princi]iles, 
and larg.'ly through his personal effiu-t, and 
that of iiisiiajier, the partv was again placed 
in ])ower in the eh^etion held iirtlie fall of 
ISSIi. 

At the time Mr. Marshall engaged in 
surveying he liegun his jircparation for the 
law, and continued his course of reading 
through his service as surveyor and editor, 
and afterward finished his pupilage with the 
old law firm <d" Clark cV: Dobbins, of 
Shoals, Indiana, in 1888, and at once en- 
tered the practice of his profession in the 
Martin Circuit Court. His first case of 
note was one against the Evansville & 
Richmond Railroad Company, for damages 
for personal injuries, as defendant's attor- 
ney, aided by general counsel fir the com- 
pany, and defeated plaintiff in the action. 

He formed his present partnership in 
law in June 1890, and the firm now stands 
at the front rank of the Martin County 
Bar. 

Since engaging in the practice of law and 
as editor, Mr. Marshall has become promi- 
nently identified with the politics of the 
Second Congressional District, and has met 
the leaders of his party and his voice and 
counsel has always been in keei^ing with 
the best interests of his country, and the 
common people. 

He has twice been the candidate of his 
party for the office of prosecuting attorney, 
and after his defeat by the great political 
land slide of 1894 by a small majority, in 
the election two years later, after having 
received the nomination unsolicited, and in 



his absence from the convention, was elect- 
ed by a majority of more tiian nine luimlred 
votes, defeating the man wiio defeated him 
two years before. 

The Marshall family are rather a hist<^ric 
family. We find from Paxton's history of 
the Marshall family, and other writers that 
the name ^Marshall seems to have originated 
from William LeMareschal, who came over 
to England with William, the Norman 
concjiierer, and the name is more or less 
connected witli English, Irish and Ameri- 
can histiirv since that time. 

Mr. Marshall is the third son of John G. 
and Nancy Sloan Marshall. His father 
was in early lite a mechanic, but after his 
marriage engaged in farming, and dealt 
largely in stock in Eastern Ohio, but in In- 
diana, after operating a farm for a time, 
engaged in contracting, and the last years 
of his life W'Cre spent on a farm at Burns 
City, Ind. He was the only child of Will- 
iam Marshall, ot Washington County, 
Penn., and was born January 1, 1825. He 
came to Ohio in early life, and was there 
married to Nancy Sloan, daughter of John 
Sloan, ex-Auditor of Harrison (.'ounty, O., 
and a son of a wealthy north of Ireland 
gentleman, February 4, 1847. Her mother's 
maiden name was Kissick. The father 
and mother both died at Burns City, 
Ind., at the old Marshall homestead, the 
former September 9, 1892, and the latter 
February 28, 1892, and were both interred 
in the Burns City Cemetery. 

The great grandfather of this sketch was 
Thomas Marshall, of Pennsylvania, and it 
is claimed a cousin of Col. Thomas Mar- 
shall, of revolutionary fame. The great 
grandmother on the Marshall side was 
Hamilton, and the grandmother Marshall a 
Shaw. The grandfather and great grand- 
parents died in Washington County, Penn. 
The grandfather, William Mashall, was 
born()ctober 11, 1794, and was the oldest 
of a family often children. 

The faniilv of John G. and Xancv S. 
Marshall are "as follows : William S. Mar- 
shall, deceast-d, Rebec'ca J. Marshall, at 
the old home; Thomas J. .Marshall, ot 
Terre Haute, In<l ; xVnna E. Marshall, at 
the old home. Burns Citv ; James B. Mar- 
shall, Mary E., wife of William H. Wads- 
worth, Worthington, Ind ; Sarah , wife 
,,t Caswell Woodrntf, of Odon, Ind.; John 
K. Marshall, deceased; (George W. Mar- 



shall, deceased, and S,.ym..ur Marshall, of 
Burns City, Ind. 

James B. Marshall was married in iNIar- 
tin County, Ind., July 7, 1892, to Eillie 
M. Luzadder daughter of Alexander Euzad- 
der, of West Shoals, Ind. Mrs. Marshall 
received her education at the State Uni- 
versity, Bloomington, Ind , where she was 
bora and spent her early life, and is de- 
eendant from an old Pennsylvania 
liunily. Her great grandfather, Abraham 
Luzaddei', was with Gen Clark at the cap- 
ture of Vincennes from the British, Feb- 
ruary 2(3, 1779, and was one of the pioneers 
of Ohio. He also served under Gen. Put- 
nam. 

There have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Marshall two children, both girls, (iail and 
Lois, the former born August 1, IS!) 3, and 
the latter May 23,1896. They are unusual- 
ly bright and iull of promise. 

Mr. Marshall, as a lawyer, is known in 
Martin and adjoining counties as an able 
and successful practitioner, and the firm is 
now the local counsel for the B. & O. S. 
W. R'y and E. & \i. Ry. 

He is connected with the city schools as 
trustee, and is the president of the Shoals 
Savings and Loan Association. As a citi- 
zen he enjoys in a high degree the confi- 
dence and esteem of his fellow townsmen. 
As a public officer he is meriting the ap- 
proval and favor of the public, and is vin- 
dicating the anti-election jiroinises of his 
friends. Socially, he is a pleasant and af- 
fable gentleman, and fraternally is a Mason 
and Past Chancellor of the K. of P. 

Joseph Cannon, ex-Sherift of ;\Iartin 
county, has passed his entire life a citizen 
of this county. He was born in Perry 
Township, August 14, 1844. He is a son 
of one of the oldest families of the county, 
his father, Joseph Cannon, being an em- 
migrant from Powell's A'alley, Virginia, 
and become a resident of this county about 
the year 1810, being then a boy of perhaps 
five years. He married Mary Clements 
who became the mother of nineteen chil- 
dren, 15 of them lived to be married and 11 
of them still survive; viz : Jas., John, Julia 
Ann, wife of John Harvin, Elizabeth, wife 
of Allen Cannon, Jose])h, Ennlv, wife of 
Hugh French, Nancy, wife of John Tink- 
er, William, Isaac and George W. 

"Joe" Cannon got very little education. 
He remained under the parental roof till he 



married wlieu he located near the old 
liomestead and continued the occupation of 
farming. In 1879 he engaged in operating 
a coal bank, together with teaming and 
performing the luties of Township Trustee 
to which he was elected that year. He 
farmed again in the year 1882 but the 
next year he was chiefly employed in wind- 
ing up his affairs as a grain thresher, a 
business he had followed for 15 .seasons 
continuously. 

In 1884 Mr. Cannon came into the sher- 
iff's office as deputy and in 1886 was nomi- 
nated by the Democrats for the chief of the 
office but was defeated and for the next 
two years was variously employed. In 
1888 Walter Payton was elected sheriff'and 
he appointed Joe Cannon as deputy and 
jailer. He remained in this capacity the 
four years that Mr. Payton was sheriff, and 
was again nominated for that office and 
was elected, served two years and was re- 
elected. 

Mr. Cannon's connection with the sher- 
iff's office covers a period in which there 
were many notorious criminals rendezvous- 
ing and operating in Martin County, all of 
whom were either disposed of by the courts 
or the people themselves, and Joe Cannon 
was not one of the by-standers, while good 
people risked their lives to remove this 
great evil from their midst, but with the 
mandate of the court as his authority he 
has arrested and placed behind the bars 
some of the most heartless of criminals. 

In 1862 Mr. Cannon enlisted in Compa- 
nj B, 80th Indiana Volunteer Infantrj' un- 
der Col. Brooks and was out one year. He 
served in Kentucky during this period and 
participated in the battle of Perryville. He 
returned home in 1863 and on March 17, 
of the next year he married Mary E. 
daughter of Basil Clements. Their only 
child is a son, William I., a farmer near 
Loogootee, Ind. 

Mr. Cannon's first office was that of as- 
sessor of Perry Township, then he was 
elected trustee and about that time he was 
also superintendent of roads of the town- 
ship. He owns a nice farm near Loogoo- 
tee besides other property and is at present 
deputy under Sheriff Sherfiek. 

Alexander Marley, one of the lead- 
ing business men of Shoals and ex-County 
Clerk of Martin County, was born in the 
county of Lawrence, Ind., Aug. 30, 1842. 



Before he was twenty years of age he en- 
listed in the Union army for three years, or 
during the war in defiense of old glory. "He 
was mustered into Company G, oOth Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry. It was Sept., 1865, 
when his regiment was ordered to Indian- 
apolis to be discharged, and Mr. Marley 
returned to civil life after serving four 
years and nine days. 

His first business venture was as a mer- 
chant in company with his brother at 
Trinity Springs, Ind., but in less than one 
year he changed to farming. The next 
year he engaged in merchandising at 
Huron, Ind., and some time later went to 
Freedom, Owen County, to carry on the 
same bu.siness, and finally lost his stock by 
fire. He then opened a store in Spencer, 
Ind., and conducted it one year, at the end 
of which time he returned to his native 
county and engaged in the saw-mill busi- 
ness. He disposed of this in time and 
turned his attention to shipping horses and 
mules south, following it for eight years 
and ending his connection with it by 
operating a plantation near Port Gibson, 
Miss., one season. On his return north he 
came to Shoals and sold goods for a time, 
then sold out and engaged in the hotel 
business. In November, 1886, he was 
elected to the office of Circuit Clerk of this 
county, and retired from the hotel to take 
possession of his office in March of the next 
year. Upon the close of his term he en- 
gaged in the flouring-mill business, and re- 
mains so at the present time. 

Mr. Marley is an ardent Republican. He 
was elected Trustee of Halbert Township 
in 1880, and again in 1882. He was 
elected Clerk of the county by over foi-t}' 
plurality, and was the first Republican to 
be elected to that office. He entered the 
office with all eyes upon him for that rea- 
son, and when he left it he carried with him 
the confidence and the gratitude of his 
party and his people. 

Mr. Marley is a son of Man ley Marley, 
born in Buncombe County, N. C, in 1813. 
His grandfather was Benjamin Marley, who 
left the old North State and settled in Law- 
rence County, Ind., soon after the admis- 
sion of the State into the Union. He mar- 
ried Sarah, a daughter of Robert Blair. 
Four of their seven children still survive: 
James, Jemimah, L. D. and Alexander. Mr. 
Marlev's second wife was Elizabeth West. 



44 



Her children are : Beujamiu B., Walter T., 
Ella and Susie. 

Alexander Marley was married in Mar- 
tin County, November 9, 1865, to Lavina 
Bell, whose father, Alex Bell, was born in 
Scotland, and whose mother, nee Catherine 
Thompson, was born in England. They 
came to Kent, O., soon after their marriage, 
and there Mrs. Marley was born March 
29, 1845. Nine years later her parents 
came to this county and died here. Their 
children were 14; those living are: Wm. 
T., James T., Carrie and Richard R. 

Two children were born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Marley, both of whom are deceased, viz : 
Harry E. who died in August, 1885, aged 
19,aud Effie C, who died at two month. 
Mr. Marlev is a Master Mason and a mem- 
ber of the G. A. R. 

Hon. Hileaey Q. Houghton is a gen- 
tleman who needs no introduction to the 
people of Daviess and Martin Counties, 
having been born and reared in the one, is 
a citizen of the other and a public servant 
of them both. Go back with me a quarter 
of a century and we find him an industri- 
ous farmer youth of 16 years, without 
especially promising prospects, with ambi- 
tion in no particular direction, but possess- 
ing strong physical and mental organiza- 
tion. His early education was such as the 
country schools afforded, and in his nine- 
teenth year he entered the preparatory de- 
partment of the State University of Indi- 
ana. He was a student continuously until 
his graduation from that institution with 
the degree of A. B. in June, 1880. He 
began preparation for the profession of law 
by systematic reading during his vacations, 
and in the summer of 1880 he was admitted 
to the bar. 

Mr. Houghton located for practice in 
Loogootee, and while there formed a part- 
nership with ex-Senator G. W. Alford, 
which continued till December, 1884, when 
the former decided to remove to the coun- 
ty seat and the firm dissolved. Mr. Hough- 
ton then entered into a partnership with 
Hon. Ephraim Moser, and was associated 
with him till the latter's death. For the 
past five vears he has been associated M-ith 
J. B. Marshall. 

In his profession Mr. Houghton has 
demonstrated peculiar fitness and adapta- 
))ility. He is strong as a trial lawyer, and 
is reliable as a counselor. 



His political career can l)e said to date 
from his entrance to the law. From that 
time forth he has done more or less cam- 
paigning in Southern Indiana. He is a 
strong, fearless and successful expounder 
of Republican doctrines, and in conse- 
quence of which he was named by his party 
as their candidate for State Senator June 
7,1894. He waselected in Nov. foUowingby 
more than 600 plurality, as against a plur- 
ality of 4 for the Republican ticket two 
years before. 

The Democratic Legislature had appor- 
tioned the State in 1891 so that the Re- 
publicans would have to carry the State by 
about thirty thousand to get the legisla- 
ture. This act was declared unconstitu- 
tional by the Supreme Court and the legis- 
lature of 1893 re-enacted substantially the 
same bill. The legislature of 1895 passed 
a bill, for the passage of which he signed 
the majority report of the committee, which 
would have given the legislature to the 
party that carried the state by three thous- 
and, and was drawn in line M'ith the previ- 
ous decision of the Supreme Court. This 
act was attacked in the courts on the ground 
that the legislature had no conititutional 
right to pass such a measure at that session 
because the six years period had not elaps- 
ed. He held that the legislature did have 
that power for reason that the act of 1893 
was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court 
sustained that position, but set the act aside 
because it provided for double districts, a 
point which had not before been raised. 

Mr. Houghton was born June 16, 1855. 
His father M'as the late Wm. H. Houghton, 
a brother of the venerable pioneer, Aaron 
Houghton, of Martin County, and was born 
in Mason County, Ky., in 1809. At the 
age of 8 years he came with his father, 
Wm. Houghton, and settled in Barr Town- 
ship, Daviess County and grew up there "in 
the Nvoods." He learned blacksmithing 
from his father and when a young man 
went to St. Louis and worked at his trade 
some three years. He then joined the Illi- 
nois troops being raised for the Black 
Hawk War and while in that service be- 
came acquainted with Lincoln. He return- 
ed to Daviess County after the war and 
bought a farm near his father, married and 
reared his family. He was first a Whig, 
then a Republican, and was one of the ear- 
ly commissioners of the county. He mar- 



ried in Mt. Pleasant, Harriet Poor, a daugh- 
ter of John Poor. She was born at Xew- 
berryport, Mass., and was a lineal descend- 
eut of John Poor, a passenger on the 
Mayflower. Mr. Houghton died in 1885 
and his wife in 1883, being the parents of 
nine children, of whom Hileary Q. is the 
eighth. 

October 19, 189"2 Sen. Houghton mar- 
ried lone, a daughter of Frank Baker. 
Their only child is Howard B., born May 
19, 1895. 

Frederick Hoffmann, the newly in- 
stalled Treasurer of Martin County, is a 
worthy rei^reseutative of the industrious, 
hardy German element, so numerous in 
Southern Indiana, and so valuable in the 
ujibuilding of an honest and patriotic com- 
munity anywhere. He belongs also to 
that branch of the human family designated 
"the common people," who are the real 
bone and sinew of our common country and 
the source of all power in government af- 
fairs. 

Mr. Hoffmann was born in Dubois 
County, Ind., on the first day of Novem- 
ber, 1857. His father, John L. Hoffmann, 
was a native of Greisen, Germany, and came 
to America in the year 1844. His place of 
settlement here was Dubois County. Farm- 
ing was his life pursuit. He became the 
husband of Barbara Huebner, and the 
father of the following children: Frederick, 
George L., Christian, Philip and Harry. 

Frederick, the subject of this review, 
was reared on the farm and to him fell the 
usual task of a country lad. In the coun- 
try schools he olitained a fair common 
school education. He remained under the 
parental roof and served his father faith- 
fully until he arrived at the age of 21 years. 
In February of ISSO, Mr. Hoffman mar- 
ried Fvic, a ilaiiuliti'i' "{ John Kiefner, of 
German descent. Mr. and Mrs. Hoffmann's 
children are : Emma M., Barbara Anna, 
Barbara Caroline, John D., Henry C., E. 
Lorena and Philip W. 

Two years jirior to Mr. Hoffmann's mar- 
riage he became a citizen of ^lartin Coun- 
ty, and has continued his residence here, 
devoting his time exclusively to farming. 
He began his carreer as a farmer with 
quite limited means on a small farm, and 
l)y means of diligence and persistent and 
unremitting effort, together witli tiie ex- 
ercise of frugal and industrious habits, lie 



has made a success of his undertaking. He 
is the owner of a farm of 3(i0 acres in 
Kutherford Township. 

In matters of public concern Mr. H(jff- 
raanu lias always manifested a spirit of 
progress. Me has shown a readiness and 
adaptability in dealing with questions af- 
fecting the welfare of his country, and has 
been ever willing with word and deed to 
aid in securing to his fellow citizens the 
best possible condition of affairs. 

Some twelve years ago Mr. Hoftmann 
became an active and influential worker in 
the ranks of the Democratic party. He has 
been at various times a valuable member 
of the County Central Committee of his 
party, but never became a candidate for of- 
fice until 1896, when he was nominated for 
the responsible position he now fills. The 
campaign of 1896 was one of the most bit- 
ter contests, and resulted in his election by 
a majority of 218 votes. He entered upon 
his official duties November 18, following 
his election, and has given evidence of his 
ability to meet the most sanguine hoi>es of 
his supporters for this important office. 

Fraternally Mr. Hoffmann is a member 
of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, 
and deserves appropriate mention among 
the prominent citizens of Martin County. 

Valenti^se Kiger, of Shoals, Ind., is 
and has been for the past fourteen years a 
leading stave manufacturer of jNIartin Coun- 
ty, a well known and large buyer of tindier, 
and perhaps he has made and shipped 
more staves out of Shoals during the past 
fourteen years than any other person or 
company in the business. 

Mr. Kiger came to Martin County a 
good liver, with some means, but he worked 
by the day for awhile. His knowledge of 
machinery always demanded a good salary 
of from three to five dollars per day. He 
owned and operated a saw mill in (xrant 
County after the war and accumulated con- 
siderable, but by mismanagement he lost 
most of what he had accumulated. He 
then removed to Muncie, Delaware County, 
Ind., and there again engaged in the mill- 
ing business, meeting with success and 
making considerable money. Again he 
lost what he had accumulated, on account 
of timber being scarce. It was in 1883 
that he came to Shoals and secured em- 
ployment with the well known firm of 
Johnson t*t Chenoweth. One vear later he 



ami John Clienoweth entered into a part- 
nership and engaged in stave bii.siuess. 
For two years they oj)erated a stave fac- 
tory together, and then Mr. Kiger bought 
the interest of his partner and increased 
tlie capacity of the factory a hundred thous- 
and staves per montli. Tlie business 
flourished from the start and increased, but 
as years went hv <ith('r tlirturics sprung up 

in almost every section of thi mitry^ and 

by an aggregation of capital large tlictorics 
were established and the results am. muted 
almost to a trust. The business of smaller 
factories grew gradually less, and for the 
past year or so Mr. Iviger's factory has not 
been steadily ()|ierated. However, his suc- 
cess in the business has enabled him to 
become the piissessur of a large and com- 
fortable home situated on a conspicuous 
eminence in West 8hoals, Ind., where is 
also located his factory, which is one of 
the most complete and modern stave fac- 
tories in this section of country. He also 
owns other residence property in West 
Shoals and farm land in ^lartin f'cmntv. 

Mr. Kiu-er was b,n-n in Muueie. 'lud., 
August V\ 18;]1). His father, William 
Kiger, was a mill man. He was born in 
Indiana, and die'il in 1884. He married 
Sarah (iibson, who died in 1870. AVilliam 
Kiger and wife had fourteen children, all 
of whom were at home at one time, and of 
the fourteen ten are now (1897) living. 
Valentine Kiger is the oldest but one of 
these cliildreu. He grew to manhood in 
Muncie, his native town, and in boyhood 
began learning the miller's trade. He 
completed it and followed the trade till the 
civil war came on. In July, 1861, Mr. 
Kiger enlisted in Company E, Nineteenth 
Indiana Volunteers. With his regiment 
he went to Washington, D. C, took the 
typhoid fever and lay sick for many weeks 
and was even carried out for dead. His 
recovery was very slow and it w-as believed 
he M-ouid never be fit for duty again, and 
was discharged. He returned home where 
he remained under the tender care of his 
home folks during the winter of 1861-2. 
Regaining health Mr. Kiger rc-enlisted in 
service in the fall of 1862, in Company B, 
Sixty-ninth Indiana Volunteers, which reg- 
iment joined the Western Army and parti- 
cipated in the initial manoeuvres 
against Vicksburg, including tlie bat- 
tles on the Yazoo River, the Ark- 



ansas Post fight, the digging of 
the famous canal in front of Vicksburg, 
and all the noted engagements in the rear 
of Vicksburg, and even in its capture. 
About this time Mr. Kiger was taken sick 
and was soon after shipped to Jefferson 
Barracks, St. Louis. He was furloughed 
home, recovered and returned to his regi- 
ment, which was then about to start ou the 
Red River Expedition. Ou the regiment's 
return to Morganza Bend, Mr. Kiger again 
furloughed home, and on returning to the 
army he went to New Orleans and to the 
vicinity of Mobile, and on to Pen.sacola, 
Fla., and ou his return to Mobile aiding 
in the building of fifty-four miles of 
corduroy road. The seige of Ft. Blakely 
followed and after its ca])turc the 
command went to Selraa, Ala., but 
after a brief sojourn returned to Mobile 
and then went to Galveston, Tex., and 
there retained for six months on (juarantine 
duty. Mr. Kiger's time c.\|iire(l ()(tiiber 
16, 1865, when he was honorably discharged. 

His military services endc^d Mr. Kiger 
returned to his family at Muncie, lud.,a'n(l 
soon afterward engaged in saw milling. 

Mr. Kiger married Margaret Driseoll, 
daughter of William and Emeline Driseoll 
of Muncie, Ind. This marriage occurred 
in December, 1860, and has resulted in the 
birth of the foUoAviug children : Charles 
R., deceased ; Minnie May, wife (^f Grant 
Luzadder; Lucus L. and Lulu A. (t^vin.s), 
the former is man-ied to Kizzie Jenetta 
Hamilton ; and the youngest child's name 
is Warren D. 

In politics iNIr. Kiger is a Re])ublican. 
He enjoys the respect of his fellow towns- 
men and is an honest and upright citizen. 

William T. Crane, of Martin County, 
is a son of Wm. T. and Elizabeth 15. 
(Flood) Crane. His father was a son of 
Richard H. Crane, born on Chesapeake 
Bay, Marylaud, and emigrated to Indiana. 
Richard Crane was twice married. His 
w'ives were sisters, and their maiden name 
was Gardner. He became the father of 
fourteen children, of whom Wm. T., the 
father of our subject, was the third. He 
was born in Monroe County, Ind., February 
10, 1828 and came to Martin County in 
1849, entering land and remaining about 
one year. He then returned to Monroe 
County and married Elizabeth B. Flood, 
November 12. 1850. She was born in 



Shelby County, Ky., May 17, 1827. Her 
father, Henry Flood, was a Kentuckian, 
and a son of Joshua Flood, a Virginian. 
Elizabeth B. Flood's mother's maiden 
name was Mary Todd, a sister of Samuel 
Todd, the father of Mary Todd, who be- 
came the wife of the immortal Abraham 
Lincoln. 

Soon after their marriage they settled in 
Martin County on the land Mr. Crane had 
previously entered, and there lived till they 
passed to their final rest. He died July 
27, 1882 and her death occurred April 1, 
1895. They had eleven children, viz : Re- 
becca, deceased; Mary E.; Hester, deceased; 
Richard H., deceased; Sarrh L.; "NVra. T.; 
Nancy N.; Amanda, deceased; Alice A.; 
Margaret E., deceased, and Robert L. 

Wm. T. Crane, the immediate subject of 
this sketch, was born in Martin County, 
Ind., Nov. 12, 1859. He married Nov. 18, 
1883, Mary C, the daughter of Syrenus 
and Sarah N. (Porter) Walton. She was 
born in Martin County May 14, 1861. 
The above marriage has given issue to the 
following children : Syrenus L., born Jan. 
15,1887; William W. born May 11, 1889; 
Robert S., born May 14. 1891; Richard E., 
born May 6. 1894 and died July 17, 1896. 

Mr. and Mrs. Crane are members of the 
U. E. Church. He is an I. O. O. F. and 
a member of the Farmers Mutual Protec- 
tive Association. 

Thomas Walker is a native of Ken- 
tucky and was born in Spencer County 
July 4, 1822, and came with his jmrents, 
Bennett and Nancy (Clarke) Walker, 
Martin County in 1827. He was married 
in Martin County in March, 1842, to Mar- 
tina, daughter of Thomas and Terissa 
(O'Brien) Queen. She bore him three 
children, viz : James E., Elizabeth and one 
that died in infancy, not named. This lady 
died in 1848, and in 1851 he married Mrs. 
Mary Halbert, widow of John Halbert, 
who bore him five children, viz: Susan, Wm- 
E., Thomas R., Harry and George A. In 
1852 Mr. Walker wac elected to the office 
of Treasurer of Martin County, and was re- 
elected in 1854, holding the office four 
years. He and familj^ are members of the 
Catholic Church. 

Patrick B. Larkin, of the firm Larkiu 
Bros., dealers in general merchandise at 
Loogootee, Ind., was born in Martin Coun- 
ty November 14, 1860, and is a son of Pat- 



trick and Mary E. (Montgomery) Larkin, 
who came to Loogootee in 1861. He re- 
ceived a good common school education, 
and completed his classical course at the 
Notra Dame University, and in 1882, in 
partnership with brother, engaged in their 
present business. 

He was married at Loogootee April 29, 
1885, to Annie C. Reynolds, who has borne 
him two children, viz : Bernard J. and 
Earnest. 

He and family are members of the 
Catholic Church. 

Thomas N. Gootee is a native of Mar- 
tin County and was born March 22, 1835. 
His parents, Thomas and Nancy (Silvers) 
Gootee emigrated from Kentucky to Mar- 
tjn County in 1818, behaving came here 
t he year previous and entered the land 
where the city of Loogootee now stands. 
He became quite wealthy and before he died 
owned over 600 acres of land, a part of 
which is now the sight of Loogootee. He 
subdivided and laid out the town and nam- 
ed it Loogootee. He was a man of more 
than ordinary intelligence and held many 
offices of trust during his life. Was coun- 
ty judge for a number of years and was a 
member of the Constitutional Convention 
that formed the present constitution of In- 
diana, and was elected to the legislature in 
1852. 

He was twice married and Nvas the father 
of eleven children, of whom Thomas N., 
our subject was next to the youngest by the 
first marriage. He received a good com- 
mon school education, which he completed 
in the State University and afterward en- 
gaged in teaching school for a number of 
years. 

In 1861 he enlisted in Company I, 24th 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry and at the ex- 
piration of nine months was promoted to 
second lieutenant in which capacity he serv- 
ed till December 1864, when he was dis- 
charged and returned home. 

He was married in Martin County in 
1864, to Sarah A., daughter of Joseph and 
Mary (Martin) Forden, who has born him 
five children, viz : Anna M.; Louis T.; 
Martha E.; Sarah C. and Elizabeth. 

George V. Routt is one of the oldest 
native born citizens of Daviess county, his 
birth occurring April 11, 1822. His par- 
ents, William H. and Lucy (Furnece) 
Routt, settled in Daviess County in about 



the year 1808, where they afterward resided 
until death. Tiiey were' tlie ])areiits of ten 
children, viz: Evnin V.. .Icphtliah C, James, 
Louisiana, Wifiiehnina, William .1., Mary, 
George Y. Winneford and Eli/alHth. 

Mr. Routt, of this review, was married in 
Martin Countv, Srptemher ;l(t, 1S47. to 
Martha J., daughter of ISarney and Mar- 
garet (Rane^) Reilv, wlio bore him seven 
children, viz: Margaret L., William ]5., 
Jeplithah, Emma, George A., Warren A. 
and Reilv. 

This lady died in 1872, and in 1873 he 
married jNIrs. Aznba Graham, widow of 
J. D.Graham, who bore him three children: 
Lewis, Mary AV. and Anna. 

Mr. Routt enlisted in the service in Janu- 
ary, I860, in Company W 14:id Lnd. Vol. 
He is a member of the (r. A. R., and he 
and wife are members of the Christian 
Church. 

Aaron' Hofghton is one of the oldest 
living pioneers of Martin County. He is 
a native of Kentuckv and was born in 
Mason Countv, Marcli'r). 1807. His par- 
ents, William and Celia A. (McKay) 
Houghton, were among the early jiionccrs 
of Kentucky, and settled in Daviess Coun- 
ty, lud., in "the year 1819. Our subject 
was next to the eldest of nine children and 
came with his parents to Daviess 
County when twelve years of age. 
In 1839 he went to New Orleans, 
La., where he married Catherine Robert- 
son, and in 1834 moved to Martin County 
and purchased and settled on the same 
farm on which he now lives, where he has 
resided ever since. His wife died in 1843, 
having borne him three children, viz : 
Victoria, Jeanette and Phcebe. In 1846 he 
married Catherine Agnew, who bore him 
six children, viz : Inis, H. Clav, Robert, 
Kittic, Doda and Eula. In 1840 Mr. 
Houghton was elected to the legislature 
and afterward served three terms in the 
Senate. He and wife are members of the 
Christian Church. 

John J. Rei.vhart is a native of Ken- 
tucky, and was born in Washington Coun- 
ty, September 14, 1824. His parents, 
Caleb and Eunice (Farris) Reinhart, were 
natives of Pennsylvania and Kentucky, re- 
spectively, and settled in Martin County, 
lnd., in 1827. They were the parents of 
eight children, viz : Elhanan, Stephen, 
Amanda, Artamesa, William, Anna: a 



daughter died in infancy not named, and 
John J., our subject, the eldest member 
of the family. He came with his par- 
ents to Martin County in 1827, and has 
resided here ever since with the ex- 
ception of about three years in Missouri. 

On July 7, 184.5, he married Minurva 
Davis, who was born in Martin Countv 
March 16, 1826, and was a daughter of 
Hiram and Rebecca (Lnndy) Davis. 

In about 1850 :\Ir. licin'hart settled on 
the farm, on which he now resides, and 
has made it his home ever since. Mr. 
Reinhart has been Justice of the Peace, 
Towiishi]) Trustee and County Commis- 
sioner of Martin Cuunty. He is the 
father of two children, viz: Kissie and 
Augustus. He is a Mason. 

Robert Wild.man is a native of Ohio 
and was born in Colnmltiana County, -Janu- 
ary 12, 1831. His jiarents, Jonas and 
Marv (Burton) Wihlman, were natives of 



Vi 



rgnii 



and Pennsylvania res])ectively 



and of Scotch-h-ish and (ierman extraction. 
Thev were married in Ohio and moved 
froni tliem-e to Martin County in 1.S40, 
where they afterwards resided until death. 
They were parents of thirteen children, 
viz : W^illiam, ^laria, Elizabeth, Arms- 
ted, Valentine, Robert, Joseph, .Jesse, 
Levi, Mary, Taylor, and two that died in 
infancy and not named. 

Mr. Wildman, of this review, came with 
his parents to Martin County in 1840 and 
has resided here principally ever since, with 
the exception of about three years spent in 
California in mining. He married in Mar- 
tin County March 20, 1861, Miss Mary A., 
dano-htcr of Nicholas and Hannah (O'Dou- 
nell') Walten, who bore him three children, 
viz: Alice, Kisiah and William. 

This wife died in May, 1867, and June, 
1876, he married Amanda Mc(Tonagle, 
who bore him one child, viz: Hugh R. 

Mr. Wildman is among the early pion- 
eers of [Martin County, and, is highly es- 
teemed by all who know him. 

James E. Smith, the popular pharmacist 
of Loogootee, lnd., was born in Daviess 
County, lnd., March 3, 184-5. He came 
to Loogootee in 1872 and purchased a 
small drug and paint stock of James Mc- 
Glaughlin, and has engaged in the busi- 
ness ever since. He now owns the best 
and most extensive stock of goods in his 
line in the city, and also owns the building, 



a fine two-story brick structure in wliichbe 
does business. He was married in Martin 
County April 7, 1868, to Mary A., daugh- 
ter of James and Catherine (Harper) 
Mosier, who bore him eleven children, viz : 
William S., Annie J., James W. Eugene S., 
Charles M., Frank E., Francis S., George 
D. E., James E., Mary A. and John H. 

M. J. Carnahan, President of the firm 
of M. J. Carnahan & Co., of Loogootee, is 
a native of Indiana and was born at Wash- 
ington; Daviess County, February 10, 
1844. 

His parents, Robert and Eliza (Graham) 
Carnahan, were both natives of Kentucky 
and emigrated from thence to Daviess 
County at an early day. 

He enlisted in the service in 1862, in 
Company C, 55th Indiana Volunteer In- 
fantry and at the expiration of his term of 
service with this company, re-enlisted in 
Company K, 117th Indiana A^olunteer In- 
fantry and served nine months. He then 
came to Loogootee and engaged in the 
clothing business, and about two years 
later sold out that business and engaged in 
the general mercantile business for about 
three years, then begun the hardware busi- 
ness which he has engaged in ever since. 

He was married at Louisville, Ky., in 
1872, to Hattie Dunn, who died in" 1885, 
and in 1889 he married Margaret Trippet, 
Avho has bore him two children, viz : Helen 
and Ramona. 

James B. Love, of the firm of T. K. 
ShirchiiF & Co., dealers in furniture and 
undertaking, Loogootee, Ind., is a native 
of Martin County, and was born October 
6, 1844. His parents, Harvey A. and 
Anna B. (Wood) Love, settled on land 
near Loogootee at an early day and after- 
wards resided there until death. They 
were the parents of six children, of whom 
James B. was the eldest. He was reared 
on a farm and engaged in that business un- 
til the breaking out of the war. In Feb- 
ruary, 1864, he enlisted in Company F, 
65th Ind. Vol. Inf., and served until 
August 1866, at which time he was dis- 
charged and returned home. In August 
of 1866 he came to Loogootee and began 
the cabinet making trade under S. A. 
Wood, serving an apprenticeship of three 
years. He then did journey work until 
1873, then leased the establishment in 
partnership with C. J. Berry, and subse- 



quently purchased the stock and engaged 
in the business until 1892, at which time 
they sold out, but in 1894 Mr. Love pur- 
chased a third interest in the establishment 
again and has engaged in the same since. 

He was married in Martin County, April 
28, 1870, to Frances L. Killion. who has 
borne him four children, viz: Hattie M., 
Freddie, Etta and Ethel. 

Mr. Love is a member of the Masonic 
Order, an Odd Fellow, a member of the 
K. of P. and G. A. E. 

WiNEPARK Fields, ex-Recorder of 
Martin County, and the leading general 
merchant of Cale, is widely known through- 
out this county as a thoroughgoing and 
substantial citizen. He is a native of the 
Hoosier state, being born in Lawrence 
County, August 6, 1851. His father Jno. 
M. Fields, came to Martin County the same 
year and settled in Baker Township, thi-ee 
miles southeast of Owensburg. There 
Winepark was reared amid humble sur- 
roundings and educated in the primitive 
way. Upon taking up the battle of life for 
himself he adliercd to the iarm and con- 
tinued it uninterrupted and undisturbed 
till the year 1880 when he left it to take 
uj) the duties of a public officer of his coun- 
ty. He was elected the foregoing year to 
the office of County Recorder by a majority 
of 499 votes and when his first term had 
expired his administration of the ofiiee had 
been so efficient as to merit an endorse- 
ment by his party, and it came in the form 
of a re-election in the fall of 1881. 

LTpon retiring from office Mr. Fields be- 
came associated with Noah Moser, of Loo- 
gootee, as a solicitor of pensions and for 
the next year and a half traveled through 
the west, soliciting claims from old soldiers 
in Missouri, Kansas and other states. 

In October, 1S91 ]Mr. Fields purchased 
from Roach c^- Sons, his present place of 
business and has since devoted himself as- 
siduously to building up a good business. 
He is a safe, conservative merchant, deals 
openly and squarely with his trade and is 
regarded very highly by his acquaintances. 

April 24, 1884, Mr. Fields married Ad- 
die, a daughter of Michael Shirey, of Shoals 
She died September 7, 1887, leaving a son, 
Frank Shirey Fields. February 1, 1893, 
Mr. Fields married Lina Cox, of Park 
County, Indiana. She died February 11, 
1894, and on December 20, of the same 



50 



year he married his present wife, nee Mary, 
a daughter of Johu W. May, of Bedford, 
Indiana. The only child of this union is 
Georgia May. 

The (atlier of Winepark Fiehls was born 
near Somerset, Ky., in 1S20. His early 
opportunities were of the erudest sort. 
He married Elizabeth Moser, whose father 
John Moser, moved into Martin County 
from Tennessee with his widowed mother 
and settled at Sergeants Tanyard when he 
was nine years old. In after years he be- 
came a prominent merchant and farmer in 
the northeast corner of this county. He 
was Justice of the Peace for many years 
and to him belongs the distinction of hav- 
ing never had one <if his decisions reversed 
by a higher court. lie married Sarah 
Waggoner and died in 1868. Four of his 
twelve children are now living, viz : Noah 
Moser, of Loogootee; Miranda, wife of 
C. Williams, of Williams, Ind.; Jossie, 
wife of (leorge I)ve, of Green County, Ind.; 
and Mrs. Louisa Perkins of Effingham 
County, III. 

John M. Fields was the father of two 
children l:)y his first marriage, Winepark 
and ]\Iary J., wife of D. K. Dunahue of 
this county. His second and last wife was 
nee, Telitha Harryman. The children of 
this union are : Ephriam S. and John C. at 
Owensburg, Ind.; Sarah C , deceased; and 
Rev. Theodore Fields, a minister of the 
Christian Church at Owensburg, Ind. 

Our subject's graud-father was Stephen 
Fields. He was born in Virginia and 
came to ludiana in 1829 and settled in 
Lawrence County. He was fond of the 
frontier and indulged in many of the sports 
iucident to those days, particularly that of 
bear hunting, with stories of which he de- 
lighted the ears of his grand-children in his 
old age. He was never sick, was a man of 
great industry, working up to within three 
days of his death, and died in Se[)teml)er, 
LSfi:^, at the age of nini'ty-one. 

Hox. K. Saxfoui) Patterson, one of 
Martin County's energetic and intelligent 
young men, was born in Daviess County, 
Ind., F^ebruary 25, 1867. His parents, 
Ambrose and Hattie (Burch) Patterson, 
were natives of the same county, and had 
nine children, viz : I^mma M., Anna, George 
W., R. Sanford, James C., Arlena, 
Hauorah, Phoebe A. and an infant, de- 
ceased. 



Mr. Patterson, the subject of this ])er- 
sonal sketch, received a good common school 
education and then entered the Northern 
Indiana Normal College, at Valparaiso, 
where he graduated. In 1890 he began 
school teaching, which profession he has 
since followed with marked success. In 
March, 1896, he was elected Chairman of 
the Populist party's committee of the Sec- 
ond Congressional District. He became 
the candidate of his party for Representa- 
tive to the Legislature, and in November 
of 1896 was elected by a majority of 698 
votes, the largest majority given to any 
man on the fusion ticket. 

Fraternally he ic a member of the order 
of Knights of Pythias, also of the F. ^I. B. 
A., and holds a membership in the Roman 
Catholic Church. 

Mr. Patterson has gained an enviable 
reputation as an educator; is a polished 
gentleman and a wide-awake politician. 

Samuel J. Ellis, the efficient and pro- 
gressive Trustee of Center Township, is 
one of the industrious and frugal young 
men of Martin County. He had not the 
advantages of a liberal education in his 
youth, the lack of which he has felt fre- 
quently as he has journeyed through life. 
Notwithstanding this fact he has succeeded 
far in excess of many who have begun life 
well ecpiipped and under the most favorable 
circumstances. At the age of sixteen he 
began to trade and traffic, and by the time 
he had reached his majority he had learned 
the art of taking care of himself in any 
transaction he might be approached on. 

In 1888 he left his old neighborhood near 
Dover Hill and in partnership with Law- 
rence Fields bought 304 acres of laud 
about three miles southeast of Shoals. 
This farm has been greatly improved since 
it came into their possession and is one of 
the most productive and profitable on 
White River. 

iNIr. Ellis is a son of Isaac F]llis, who 
came from Columbiana County, O., to Mar- 
tin County, Ind., and settled near Dover Hill 
sometime in the thirties. He was accom- 
panied by his father Gainor Ellis, who was 
one of the first Justices of the Peace of 
Center Township. He entered land from 
the Government and of course was a 
pioneer. 

Isaac Ellis married Abigail Jiarker fiir 
his second wife. She died 1879 — three 



years after her husbaiul. Her children 
were : Samuel J , John and Enos. There 
is a ha'f sister older than these, Mi-s. Sid- 
ney A. Utterback, of West Shoals. 

Samuel J. Ellis was born September 7, 
1852. He is an active Republican and 
was elected to his office in Xovember, 1894, 
by a good plurality. He discharges the 
duties incumbent on him in such a manner 
as to gain universal praise. He is progres- 
sive and makes a good official. The school 
house in District No. 6 was planned and 
erected by him and is pronounced the 
most convenient country building in the 
county. 

Isaac T. Cakotiikrs, Trustee of Mitch- 
eltree Township, Martin Tnunty, and a 
prominent young farmer of that township, 
has mingled among the citizens of this 
county as a business man only for the past 
four or five years. His birth occurred 
March 3, 1866, in Monroe County, Ind. 
He was brought into jNIartin County when 
young. He secured his cdui-ation from the 
district schools, and left lioni.' at the age of 
18 t.. cnt.'i- til.' employ of tli.' Adaius'Ex- 
press Co. at ( 'ineinnati. (_)., as a messenger 
on the B. A: O. S. W. R'y. He served that 
company faithfully for seven years, and 
when he retired from the road, in 1892, it 
was to engage in farming in the vicinity of 
Trinity Springs. Being an ardent Republi- 
can and a strong partisan he was drawn 
early into politics and has made the ac- 
quaintance of and become prominent with 
many of the wheel horses of Martin county 
politics. He was a candidate for the 
nomination for County Auditor in 1896, 
but was not successful. He secured the 
nomination for Trustee and was elected in 
November, 1894, by a majority of 88 votes. 
He has been conducting the office for more 
than a year, and has shown that he has a 
thorough understanding as to the needs of 
his township. He has built one school 
house in district No. 4, and has placed State 
maps, temperance charts and globes into 
his eleven schools, a thing which alone will 
redound (n liis credit for the next ten years. 

Mr. Carothers was married in Bartholo- 
mew County, Ind., September 8, 1892, to 
Anna B., daughter of Theoph. Smith, M.D., 
of Columbus. Josie E. is the only child 
of this union. 

Mr. Carothers is a son of the Rev. Isaac 
T. Carothers, one of the leading citizens 



of ]^Iartin County. He was Ijorn in .Tack- 
son County, Ind., was graduated from the 
State University, and euii'icd the ministry 
in the Missionary ISaptist < huich eai-ly in 
life. He enlisted in the service in the 
Mexican war, and also served in the civil 
war in Company G, 50th Regiment In- 
diana Volunteer Infantry, and was com- 
missioned captain. 

Jicv. Carothers married Elizabeth East. 
The children of this union are: Mary E., 
wife of Melvin Dillman, of Martin County ; 
Francis J , wife of Edward Smith, of 
Bloomingtou, Ind., G. W., of Blooming- 
ton ; Annie, wife of Alouzo Marley, of Mar- 
tin County, Ind., Isaac T., O. M., of 
Bloomingtou, Ind., and John C, of this 
county. 

Rev. Carothers has passed his life in 
Southern Indiana, and was for some years 
stationed at Bloomingtou and at Bedford, 
and is now jiastor of Boggs Creek and 
Huron Churches. He has been a most 
faithiul worker in the cause he represents 
and mucli gnod has resulted to the world 
from his etfnrts in many directions. His 
life has been one constant example of 
purity and moi-ality and his presence a con- 
stant m<'nace to the sin of the world. 

His ntighliors know him only to respect 
him most highly, and all acquaintances 
honor him with their friendship. 

NoAn ^losER. Among the representa- 
tive business men of ^Martin County, no 
name is more worthy (jf mention than that 
of Noah Moser, who is cashier of the 
White River Bank of Loogootee, and the 
practicing pension attorney of that place. 
He was born in jNIartiu County, Ind., June 
2, 1845 

His jjarents, John and Telitha (Wagoner) 
Moser, were early settlers of Martin Coun- 
ty. Mr. Moser was reared on a farm and 
given a common school education. In 1866 
he accepted a clerical position at Loogootee 
with Patrick Larkin, with whom he re- 
mained until the death of that gentleman. 
Mr. Moser served as deputy postmaster of 
Loogootee as express agent; in 1869 took 
up insurance business in which he has 
since continued. In 1879 he became a 
pension attorney. From 1885 to 1887 he 
was postmaster of Loogootee. December 
1, 1896, he purchased a half interest in the 
White River Bank of which he is now 
cashier. 



November 2, 18G9, was celebrated tlie 
marriage of Mr. Moser and Mary O'Rrian. 
Tlie marriage has given is^siie to one child, 
Georgiana. 

Hev. Tihothy O'Do.NfAGHrE, the be- 
loved and esteemed pastor of Saint John's 
Roman Catholic Church, at Loogootee, 
Iiid., is a native of Daviess County, Ind. 
He was born Xovember 9, 1844. His par- 
ents were James and Mary (Tooaiy) O'Don- 
aghue. They were natives of County Cork, 
Ireland, where they married and then emi- 
grated to America, first residing in New 
York, and then, about 1834, became citi- 
zens of Daviess County, Ind. Here the 
fath.^r died January 17, 1878. The mother 
lived for many years afterward, making 
her home with the subject of this review. 
She passed to her final rest February 17, 
1896. These parents had ten children, viz: 
Joanna ; Mary ; Margaret ; Amelia ; John ; 
Timothy ; James ; Dennis ; Michael and 
Lenora. 

Rev. O'Donaghue was reared in Daviess 
County, attended tiie public schools, and in 
1868 e'ntered St. Joseph College at Bards- 
town, Ivy. Here he prosecuted his studies 
for four years. His education was com- 
pleted in St. Meinrad's College, Spencer 
Countv, Ind. He was ordaineil Priest at 
Indianapolis Frl.niarv 17, 1878. bv Arch- 
bishop Purccll, iif ciiiriiHiati. In Marcii 
of the same year he was sent to Montezuma, 
Ind., as pastor of St. Ann's Church, of 
that place. While serving that cliurcli he 
also attended the mission of St. Mary's 
Church at Rockville, Ind. After a period 
of about eighteen months he was transferrel 
to St. Mary's Church in Daviess County. 
While here he also attended the mission of 
St. Joseph's Church in Martin County. In 
1890 he was made pastor of St. John's 
Church at Loogootee over which he has 
since presided. This church has a mem- 
bership of about two Imiidred families, and 
a beautiful church building, a brick struct- 
ure, and a school governed by the Sisters 
of Providence. 

Father O'Donaghue's pastorate at Loo- 
gootee has resulted in a substantial in- 
crease in the membership of his congrega- 
tion, and has improved the same spirit- 
ually, morally and financially. 

\ViLLiA.M R. Wallace was born in 
Martin County, Ind., June 18, 1861, and is 
a son of Francis and Mary (Roth) Wallace. 



Both of his parents were natives of Ohio. 
They became early settlers of Martin Coun- 
ty. His fiither enlisted in the Union 
Army in 1862, and was killed July 3, 1863. 
The mother of our subject subsequently 
married Edward Nicholas, now deceased. 
She is now a resident of Loogootee. 

Wm. R. Wallace was reared on the farm, 
and farming has been his life pursuit. He 
was married January 27, 1886, to Alice, 
the (laughter of Robert aud Mary A. 
(Walten) Wildraan. She was born in Mar- 
tin County December 19, 1862, and is the 
mother oi": Frances H. W. and one child 
who died in infancy. 

Shortly after Mr. NVallace's marriage he 
settled upon his present farm, of 200 acres, 
of fine and well improved land. He is a 
re|ircsi'iitative of one of the practical and 
succ'ssIliI farmers of the county, and is one 
of the cdunty's most valued citizens. 

Ma.joe William Houghton. This 
representative and well known citizen of 
Martin County is a native of Indiana, born 
in Daviess County October 28, 1839. His 
parents were William H. and Harriet 
(Poor) Houghton. His father was born in 
Mason County, Ky., in 1809, aud his 
mother was born in Massachusetts in the 
year 1819. William H. Houghton was a 
son of William and Celia A. (]\IcKay) 
Houghton, who were pioneer settlers in 
Daviess County, Ind , coming to the coun- 
ty iu the year 1819. They were the par- 
ents of nine children, eight of whom grew 
to maturity and were the following: 
Jeanette, Aaron, Phoebe, William H., 
Eliza, Saxton, Bonam R. and Albert. 

William H. Houghton came to Daviess 
County with his parents, married Harriet 
Poor, daughter of John aud Hannah 
(Chute) Poor, who came from Massachu- 
setts to Washington County, Ind., at an 
early day. 

IJnto William H. aud Harriet Houghton 
were born nine children, viz : Silas, de- 
ceased ; Aaron, deceased ; William ; John, 
deceased; Jeanette ; Walter R.; Eugene; 
Hileary C^., and Harriet. 

It appears that both the Houghton and 
Poor families are of Scotch and English 
origin. 

Major William Houghton obtained a 
fair education, taught school for a number 
of years, and farmed in summer seasons 
until pr(jmpted by a spirit of loyalty he 



tendered his services in defense of his 
country. April 23, 18()1, he enlisted in 
Company C, 14th Ind. Vol. Inf., as Ser- 
geant. 

June 7, 1861, he was )>roraoted to the 
rank of First Lieutenant, and May 12, 1862, 
to the rank of Captain, February 14, 1863, to 
the I'ank of Major, and remained in this 
rank to the expiration of his term of ser- 
vice. During the campaign of the wilder- 
ness he was Inspector General of tlie 2d 
corps on the stafi of Gen. Hancock, and 
was honorably dischai-ged June 20, 1864. 
He participated in all the battles and 
skirmishes of his regiment. September 17, 
1862, received a flesh wound in the left 
arm, and December 13, 1863, received a 
gunshot wound in his left thigh. After 
his discharge from the service he returned 
to Daviess County and engaged in the mill- 
ing and lumber business. 

In 1868 Mr. Houghton was ajijiointed 
Assistant Collector ot Internal Revenue, 
an office he held for two years. For sev- 
eral years thereafter he was Government 
Gauger. Meanwhile he was also engaged 
in farming and lumbering, but in 1877 he 
was appointed to the office of Government 
Gauger and Store Keeper and for three 
years thereafter he devoted his entire time 
to the duties of this office. He resigned 
this office and again took up the milling 
and lumber business, which he sold out in 
1881. For about one year thereafter he 
was engaged in the drug business. He 
then accepted the position of Superiuten- 
dent of the Eldorado Spoke Works at 
Eldorado, 111. This position he held till 
1888, when he returned to Martin County. 

In 1891 Major Houghton entered into a 
co-partnership with Fred. E. Davis in the 
banking business at Loognotee, Ind. Mr. 
Davis established the business iu INSS. 
Major Houghton's present partner in this 
business is Xoah Moser, who purchased the 
interest of Mr. Davis December 1, 1896. 
The bank which they operate is known as 
The White River Bank, and has a capital 
stock of $25,000. :\Iajor Houghton is 
president of the institution and Mr. Moser 
cashier. 

Major Houghton was married January 6, 
1870, to Kissie E. Reinhart. Mrs. Houghton 
is a daughter of John J. and Minerva J. 
(Davis) Reiuhart, and was born in Martin 
County ]S"ovember 10, 1847. 



^Nlajor Houghton is a member of the 
Christian Church, the Masonic Fraternity, 
the Grand Army, and is a Republican in 
politics. 

Abraham W. Porter, M. D., of Loo- 
gootee, is one of the leading physicians and 
surgeons of Martin county. He was born 
in Carroll County, O., June 23, 183.5. 
His parents were Nathan and Susan (Xofs- 
ker) Porter, and were natives i if the " Buck- 
eve State." Tiic liitlicr was bdrn in the 
year 1812, and tlic n^tlirr in 1814. The 
former was of Scdteli descent, and the lat- 
ter of German. They married iu Ohio and 
in 1858 removed to Martin County, Ind., 
where they continued to* reside till their 
deaths. They had the following children : 
David, Levi, Alexander, James, Alwilda, 
Catherine, Leonard H., Adaline and Abra- 
ham W. The last named being the oldest 
of the family. He received a good com- 
mon school e<lueation in his native county, 
and alter completing his literary course in 
Richmond College, Jefferson county, O., 
enii'aged in teaching .school. For several 
yiars tli< rcaftcr he was engaged in teach- 
ing, and meanwhile attended Barnesville 
Academy, of Belmont County, O., and took 
ny) the study of medicine. 

He was married Augu.st 7, 1859, to Mary 
L. Barnes, a native of Ohio, born at Barnes- 
ville August 3, 1837. Her parents were 
Isaac and Elizabedi (Bradfield Barnes). In 
1866 Di-. P(irt( r removed to Martin Coun- 
ty, Ind, and Mttlcd at Dover Hill. He 
was engaged in >cliool teaching till 1868, 
in whicli yiar lie began the practice of 
medicine. In 1S71 he attended the Eclectic 
College of Cincinnati, which in.stitution he 
again attended in 1875-6. From this col- 
lege he graduated ^lay 9, 1876. He is a 
nicndier of the Indiana Eclectic Medical 
Assuciatiou, of which he was President in 
1 s;)( I. He is also a member of the National 
[Medical .Vssociation. He was appointed a 
nicnil)cr cif the Hoard of Pension Examin- 
ers l)y President Harrison for Martin 
County. He has been a successful practi- 
tioner and has long stood in the front rank 
of his profession. In 1894 he became a 
candidate for Representative to the State 
Legislature and was elected. Fraternally 
he is a Master Mason. 

Unto his marriage have been born the 
following children : Rev. John W., Lsaac 
M., deceased ; James E. Charles A., Wal- 



ter, deceased ; Elvina E., E.stella and one 
other that died in iiifaney. 

The Doetor and liis family are members 
of tiie Christian Church, and number among 
tiie leading families of the community. 

Hkney Wood, editor and proprietor of 
the ]SIartin County Tribune, also attorney 
at law and notary public at Loogootee, is 
one of the esteemed and representative cit- 
izens of Martin County. He was born in 
this county March 19, 1857 and is a son of 
Charles and Mary C. (Padgett) Wood, who 
were also born in Martin County. Our 
subject's paternal grand-father was James 
Wood, a prominent character in the early 
history of Martin County. He was a na- 
tive of Kentucky, from which state his 
father, Moses Wood, together with his son, 
moved to Martin County at a very early 
day. They entered land on White River 
about four miles east of Loogootee and there 
settled. There Moses Wood died at the 
ripe age of ninety years. James Wood was 
his only son. and married Ann Drake be- 
fore coming to Indiana. He was a soldier 
in the war of 1812, represented Martin 
County in the Legislature of Indiana, and 
for many year served this county as one of 
its Associate Judges. 

Charles Wood, the fatlier of Henry, was 
born in Martin Countv, Ind., 'Slixy 2i), 
1832. He married Ma'rv C., daughter of 
Benedict and Eliza (Gates) Padgett, and af- 
terward settled on a part of the old Wood 
homestead where he resided and followed 
farming until his death, May 4, 1882. 
His widow survives him and resides on the 
same farm. He was trustee of Perry Town- 
ship two terms and sheriff of Martin County 
one term. He was a man of sterling qual- 
ities and the number of his friends was lim- 
ited only by the circle of his acquaintance. 
He was the father of the following chil- 
dren : Minerva J., Phoebe A., Wm. J., 
Lydia M., Carrie C, deceased, and Henry. 
The last named is the oldest of the family. 
He received a fair education and engaged 
in school teaching in which he remained 
more than ten years. He assisted his fath- 
cr in the sherifi's office. In 1887 he was 
employed as book-keeper for C. S. Wood 
ct Co., of Loogootee, with whom he re- 
mained till January 188!) when he purchas- 
ed a half interest in the Martin County 
Tribune, with F. J. Maston, which was at 
that time located at Shoals. Shortly after- 



ward they moved their newspaper office to 
Loogootee and not long thereafter Mr. 
Wood became the sole proprietor of the 
paper. 

In 1879 Mr. Wood began reading law 
under W. R. Gardiner and after going to 
Loogootee continued his studies without a 
preceptor. In 1884 he read law under 
Judge Marvity of Paola, Ind., and in 1889 
was admitted to the bar in Martin County. 
December 25, 1890 Mr. Wood led to the 
marriage alter, at Loogootee, Miss Anna 
Feagan. He is a member ot the Knights 
of Pythias order and is among the sub- 
stantial and progressive citizens of his 
town. As an editor he has demonstrated 
ability, having for years published one of 
the best and cleanest county newspapers in 
this section of Indiana. 

Balwin Reily is one of the oldest citi- 
zens of Martin County. His birth occurred 
in Perrv Township, of this countv, on the 
2(;th of' October, 1825. The place of his 
birth is within a mile of where he now re- 
sides. His father, Barney Reily, was a 
native of Mason County, Ky , and was a 
son of James Reily, who was a native of 
Scotland and an emigrant to the United 
States jirior to the revolution and a settl'er 
in the Virginia colony. There he married 
and subsequently removed to Mason Coun- 
ty, Ky. He was the father of six children, 
viz : Charles, Barney, Rachel, John, James 
and Nancy. 

Barney Reily came to ^lartin County in 
1818, and here resided until death. He 
married Margaret Raney, who was a native 
of Kentucky, and came to Martin County 
in an early day with her parents, who were 
Joseph and Martha (Silvers) Raney. Unto 
the above marriage were born the follow- 
ing children : Alonzo, Baldwin, Clement, 
Mason, William, Martha, Melissa and Caro- 
line. 

Baldwin Reily, the subject of this men- 
tion, was married in Martin County, Xo- 
vember 19, 1847, to Catherine L. Brown, 
who was born in this county November 19, 
1827. Her parents were Sauford and 
Elizabeth (Clements) Brown, and they 
were among the early pioneers of this coun- 
ty. Since 1857 Mr. Reily has resided in 
Loogootee, of which place he was apjwinted 
Postmaster in 1861. He enlisted in the 
service in 1864 in Company F, i:?7tli In- 
diana Volunteer Infantry, and served till 



the expiration of liis tfrni of enlistment. 
Mr. Reilv is tlie fatlicr of eiulit cliiidren, 
viz: Alon/.o S., Anna, .Mary, Artelia, ?»Iar- 
^■aret, Editli, Jennie, dceeased, and .Minnie. 
Mr. Keily is a mend,er of tlie I. O. O. F. and 
the G. A. R. He is a public spirited and 
enterprising citizen, and enjoys the esteem 
and contideuee of a wide eireie of friends. 

EDwin A. OpI'KLT, M. I)., is ,,ne ot tlie 
leading physicians ot Martin T'ounty. He 
was born in Tuscarawas ( 'uuntv, <)., l'\'b- 
ruary 26, 1820. Cliarles Oppelt, liis 
father, was a native of Canada, settled in 
in PennsyKania, married tSybilla Belling, 
siibse(|uently removed to Tuscarawas Coun- 
tv, ()., thence to the State of Iowa, where 
lie and his wil'e passed away in death. They 
were the parents of cK'ven children, of 
whom the subject ot this review is the eld- 
e.st. He received a fair education in the 
schools of Ohio ; completed a classical 
cour.se in Clarion Academy at Clarion, 
Penn. He learned gun-smithing, and after 
following the .same for a time, engaged in 
school teaching. At the age of 22 he be- 
gan the study of medicine under Dr. James 
Ross, of Clarion, as his preceptor. He 
was a pupil of Dr. Ross for six years, dur- 
ing which time he practiced medicine to 
some extent. He then returned to his 
native county, and regularly took up his 
profession. In 1869 Dr. Oppelt first 
located in Loogootee. Later he was hjcated 
at Cannelburg for a short time, but returned 
to Loogootee, where he has since continued 
to reside. 

He was married in Venango County, 
Penn., May 14, 1850, to Mary J. McKiney, 
who was born in Center County, Penn., 
January 12, 1822, and died at Loogootee 
jSIarch 2, 1895. For nearly a half century 
this good woman shared the joys and sor- 
rows of her devoted husband, and was a 
faithful wife and loving mother. Her chil- 
dren were three in number: Rachel A. G., 
deceased; Louisa A. and Frances I. 

Dr. Oppelt is one of the ohlest, most 
skillful and best educated physicians of 
Martin County. In 1857-8 lie attended 
what is now the AVestern Reserve Universi- 
ty, of Cleveland, O., from which institu- 
tion he graduated in 1S5S. Foi- many 
years he has stood in the front rank of his 
profession, but for the last few years he has 
not been in the most active practice by rea- 
son of his advanced years. 



He has led a long and useful life, and 
enjoys the confidence and esteem of a wide 
circfe ,,f (riends. Fraternally he is a mem- 
ber of the l.O. (). F.,and liolds a mem- 
bership in the Presbyterian Church. 

StkI'IIK.V H. HlilTT.M.V, M. I)., of Loo- 
gDoiee. Ind., is one ot Martin County's most 
skilltul and pi-ominent physicians. He was 
b,.rn in Salem, U ashinuKm County, Ind., 
Septemlx'r 25. ls;l(i. His parents, Th.mias 
and Catherine (Hoel) I'.rittain, were na- 
tives of ^'irginia and Ohio, respectively, 
and of Irish and (Jernian extraction. lir. 
Brittain's paternal grandfather was Samuel 
Brittain,a native of Ireland and a settler of 
Virginia. Dr. Brittain's father came 
to Washington County, Ind., in 1818, 
and there married and resided till 
his death. He was the father of seven 
children, viz: Mary J., Susan, Alice, Wm. 
AV., Stephen H., Sarah A., and Kllen. 

Until the subject of this review reached 
his majority his life was spent upon the 
farm Afti'r completing a fair literary ed- 
ucation in the schools of his native town he 
engaged in teaching. AVhile teaching school 
he began the study of medicine. During 
the years 1857-8 he attended the Cincinna- 
ti College of Medicine and Surgery. For 
a short time thereafter he continued his 
studies under the guidance of Dr. McPhe- 
ters, of Livonia, Ind., who had been his 
preceptor prior to his entering college. In 
1859 he graduated from the above named 
college and immediately began the practice 
of his profession at Newberry, Ind., where 
he remained until he enlisted, April 1861, 
in Company C, 14th Indiana Volunteer In- 
fantry. He became First Lieutenant iu 
1862. The following year he resigned his 
commission and went to Loogootee, Ind., 
where he and Capt. Harrold recruited and 
organized Company K, 143rd Indiana 
Volunteers which was mustered into the 
service in January 1864. Of this company 
he served as First Lieutenant till the close 
of hostilities and was honorably discharged 
at Nashville, Tenn., in October of 1865. 
He returned to Loogootee and at once took 
up the ]iractice of medicine. 

Dr. Brittain was married at Loogootee 
Alarch 12, 1863, to Elizabeth A., daughter 
of John B. and Catherine (Berkshire) 
Wood. She bore him four children, two of 
whom grew to maturity, viz : Laure K., 
now Mrs. H. A. Martin, of New Castle, 



Ind., and Thumas K., also ..f Now Castle. 

Thf luotlier of tht'se chililren ilird in 
December 1892, and in the following Sep- 
tember Dr. Brittain married Letitia K., 
daughter of Alexander and Isalxl (IJiand- 
ford) Sharum. This marriage has given 
is.sue to one child, viz : Stephen (J. 

Dr. Brittain is a Master Mason, a mem- 
ber of the I. O. O. F., and the G. A. R. 
He has served three terms as Command- 
er of the Post and is the present incum- 
bent of that office. He is an active mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian Church and a 
highly esteemed citizen. 

Ja.mew C. 0'Hi;ien, deeeasid, was born 
in Martin County, Ind., October 5, 1836. 
His parents were John J. and Elizabeth 
(^Montgomery) O'Brien. They were pion- 
eer settlers of Martin County, settling on 
the farm now occupied by the widow of 
the subject of this nu^ntion. Their children 
were the following; Julia A., Rose E., 
James C, Jane E. and Joseph E. 

James ( '. O'Brien was reared on the 
farm and taught the lessons of industry 
and |)erseverence which in after years 
crowned his efforts with success. In the 
main farming was his life pursuit. He 
was married January 29, 18(53, Mary 
(^uigley becoming his wife. She was born 
in Cass County, Ind., May 21, 1844, and 
is a daughter of Joseph B. and Mary 
(Murphy) Quigley. Her father was a 
native of Tennessee and her mother a 
native of Pennsylvania. They settled in 
Daviess County many years ago. Their 
children were : Jaue E., Susanna P., 
Joseph H., Mary, John J., Anna T., 
Regiua N., Rose E., William F., and 
(leorge B. 

James C. and Mary <l. O'Brien became 
the parents of the following children : 
Marv E., born November 11, 18G3; Eliza- 
lieth" B., born September 18, 18«5; John 
J., born May 22, 18(57, died September 4, 
1S73; Joseph H., born September 21, 
l.S(i9, died March 29, 1871 ; George F., 
born November 19, 1871 ; William M., 
I»>rn December 27, 1873, died January 28, 
1S74; Lewis E., born February 15, 1875; 
Charles M., born July 22, 1877 ; James 
C, born October 20, Ls'79. 

Mr. O'Brien passed to his Hnal rest Mav 
2, 188:!. He was a memberof tiie Romaii 
Catliolic Church to which bis family also 
belong. He was a representative farniei-, 



became the possessor of twelve hundred 
acres of land and died leaving a good e.s- 
tate to his family. In business affairs he 
displayed wisdom and judgment, mani- 
fested strictest honesty and his word was 
universally respected. 

He held several positions of h(mor and 
trust, j)erforniing the duties of each with 
marked ability and fidelity. In his youth 
he took the census of Martin County. For 
nearly ten years he held the office of Coun- 
ty Auditor of Martin County. He was 
also Treasurer of the same county, and 
also .served as a County Commissioner. 

He was public spirited, ever manifesting 
a deep interest in matters of public con- 
cern. In his death the county lost one of 
its most valued citizens, his neighbors a 
truste<i friend and his household its revered 
head. 

John N. Breen, of Loogootee, was 
born in Ireland, County AV^exford, March 
9, 1838. His father, Nicholas Breen, was 
a native of the same county and one of 
three sous l)orn unto Thomas and Alice 
(Devereux) Breen; he came to the United 
Stall's in an early day, remained for four 
years and tlien returned to Ireland, where 
he married Mary Hayes, daughter of Wal- 
ter aud ^largaret (Dillon) Hayes, who were 
of Anglo-Norman lineage aud natives of 
the Barony of Forth. After the marriage 
of Nicholas Breen he became a merchant in 
Ireland, but met with indifferent success and 
then decided to come to the United States. 
He left his family in Ireland, where his 
wife remained till her death. His death 
occurred soon after his arrival in this coun- 
try. 

John N. Breen, the subject of this re- 
view, is the only child of his parents, save 
a daughter, Alice, who died in infancy. 
Upon the death of his mother ^Nlr. Breen 
was taken by his grandmother, with whom 
he lived until coming to the United States, 
in 1848. On coming to this country he 
secured employment in the wholesale 
grocery house of John Hayes, at Louis- 
ville, Ky. After a stay here of two years 
he accej)ted a clerical position in M'ashing- 
ton, Ind., which he held for seven years, 
and then (1857) located at Loogootee, 
where he opened up a general store in part- 
nership with his M'ashington employer, 
James Campbell, who in two years sold" iiis 
interest to his son James J. Campbell, in 



partnership with whom Mr. Breeii remiiiiK'd 
till 1888, in which year he purchased his 
partner's interest. 

During President Buchanan's adminis- 
tration Mr. Breen served as Postmaster of 
Loogootee. He has also served as a mem- 
ber of the Martin County Board of Com- 
missioners. He has been President of 
the Loogootee Fair Association, While 
residing at Washington he was Presi- 
dent of the Washington National 
Bank for a time. He has been Presi- 
dent of the Loogootee Detective As- 
sociation for more than ten years, and a 



member of their Advisory Board, off and 
on, for twenty years. 

Mr. Breen was married October 11, 1865, 
to Mary J., daughter of James and Sarah 
(Mcllhenny) Campbell. Mrs. Breen was 
born in Columbiana County, O., May 12, 
1836, and came to Washington, Ind., with 
her parents when a child. Unto Mr. and 
Mrs. Breen were born seven children, viz : 
James W., Anna I^., John N. deceased, 
Mary E., Alice P>., Matilda C. and John 
F. Mr. Breen and his tliniily are members 
of the Roman ('atlmli*' ( 'hurch, and are 
numbered anujnir the leaders of societv. 




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