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Thb voltune is an attempt to present in simple and con- 
venient form the assistance needed by young students making 
their liist acquauitance with Livy. Much has been stated that 
voald seem unnecessary, had not the editor's experience in the 
class-ioom shown him the contrary. On the other hand, that 
fiifaiess of ilhistiation which ap|iarently aims to supersede the 
fanctioa of the teacher has been carefully avoided. 

The text is that of Weisscnbom (mra H. J. MUller), 
Wctdmann, Berlin ; a very few changes are mentioned in 
Jml notes as they occur. To that edition the present editor 
acknowledges hb chief indebtedness in the preparation of the 
Introduction and Notes, though he has also availed himself 
freely of the assistance of other books and editois, especially 
those cited at the end of the introduction. 

Theie has been no attempt to make the orthography abso- 
kitdy uniforni, or to adopt always the so-called ''classical" 
spelling. Snch an orthography represents a state of things 
which never existed in ancient times ; and the very variety 
of spelling should be instructive to the student who has 
progressed far enough to read Livy. 

The selection of the three books contained in this volume 
is not merely sanctioned by long usage, but rests upon good 
reason. Book I. forms a unit by itself, a '' prose epic/* deal- 
ing with the mythical age of the Roman kings, while Books 
XXL and XXII. not only exhibit the author's style in its 
perfection, bat also deal with the most thrilling and 
crisb of the Roman republic. 

PiiwcsfOiit N* J., November, 1890. 


The life of the Romans was intensely practica 
politics were their national pursuits, aiid during 
centuries of the republic their exclusive pursui 
therefore natural that the nation's best days were 
over before the national literature fairly began; i 
natural, likewise, that when at last literature did 
begin its career, history was one of the earliest < 
to be cultivated. 

It is not to be understood that there were 
before this time. Soon after the establishment of 
lie the chief pontiffs began to keep official ' 
records, called the Afinaies Maximi, containing ' 
a list of the magistrates, the prodigies, and the ch 
of each year, all expressed in the briefest mann 
were annually exposed to public view on a white 
front of the pontiffs official residence, and when f 
lected and published, formed eighty books. But the 
house with all its archives had perished in the b 
Rome by the Gauls in 390 b. c, so that the s 
about the earlier period must have been restored frc 
ory. The /iM iintei^ *' linen books,'* were lists of m 
earlier than 390 n. c, preserved in the temple 
Moneta in the Capitol, which had survived the cal 
that overwhelmed the rest of the city. 


Inicriplionsv which form so extensive a portion of the 
iDcmoriils of later timesi'were very scanty in the period 
prior to the development of literature. 

The fiunily records and traditions of noble houses doubtless 

constituted an important element in the formation of the 

national history, and a still more important element were 

the onl traditions of the people and the metrical lays, 

whereby they half unconsciously preserved from age to age 

the legends of the olden time. 

About two hundred yeais b. c., the earliest poets, Naevius 

H'marial '■nd Ennius, treated themes taken from the na* 

'"'•'-»• tional history in |XKrtical form, the one dealing 

thos with the fiist Punic war, the other with the traditional 

period from Aeneas to his own age. 

Soon aAer began the practice of writing prose annals, 
Tw ABMfiate. ^^ ^' histories in strictly chronological arrange- 
ment, with the events of each year placed by 
Nearly contemporary with Ennius was Q. Fabius 
Pictor, the first annalist, whose grandfather had 
gained this curious surname by painting a battle 
pictare in the temple of Salus^ and who was himself a 
pominent public man at the time of the Hannibalic war. 

After thb war was over, he wrote in Greek an account 
if it, addressed to the educated among his own country- 
nen mod to the Hellenic public, intended to oflsct the ac- 
XMDit s^^ren fay Silenus, which he regarded as too fiivorablc 
o the Carthaginians, intended also to gtorify the achieve- 
ments of his great kinsman, Fabius the Dictator. A general 
ketch of the national history constituted the introductory 
oction of thb work, which was, upon the whole, of such a 
haracter that Fabius was not undeservedly called the father 
f lUwMtt history. Livy highly respected him and often 

statements, but at second hand out of later 


Contemporary with Fabius was L Cincius Alii 
likewise wrote in Greek. Latin prose had not 
developed into a fit vehicle of literary expression. 
This writer was a patrician, was praetor in 
an B. c, and having been token prisoner by Ha 
exceptional opj)ortunities to inform himself with 
the facts of the second Pimtc war, which was the sul 
more detoiled part of his work, though he also be 
foundation of Rome. 

L. Calpumius Piso, consul in 133 b. c, wrote Ah< 
the earliest period to his own. He was the 
first to show a critical spirit, endeavoring to 
distinguish the historical from the mythical elemer 
accounts of the earliest times. 

Valerius Antias, a contemporary of Sulla, did n 
any one else to falsify Roman history. His Anna 
least seventy- Ave books, covered the whole ex- 
tent of it down to his own time. Where the 
story seemed too bare and bald, he adorned it with th 
of his own imagination. But his work was popular, 
much used as an authority by later writers. Livy, in h 

books,,> v as ofton led n c tray -by-Jiimy and afterward s 
him in strong terms of disapprobation. 

The Uistoriae (in fourteen books) of Q. Aelius Tul 
accuser of Ligarius, were highly praised by Diony- < 
sius for their accuracy. They extended from the 
landing of Aeneas to the civil war of Pompey and C 

These are the names of a few of the best known 
many annalists of the last two centuries of the republic 
works are known to us by reports of other writen ai 
few cases by small fragments of the originals. 

Early in this period, however, M. Porcius Cato, Anti-i 
the Censor, who had been the first to write history ^*" 


in LatiHy abo took the iDitiative in breaking away irom the 
^^ annalistic method. In his Origines he omitted 

the whole period for which the earlier annalists 
c cn rtitute d the chief authority. 

Some yean later L» Coelius Antipater (after 120 b. c.) wrote 
hii acoomt of the second Punic war independently of the 
annalists. He was a man of great culture and 
leamiog, a friend of C Gracchus and the younger 
Scipioi and hb liook was dedicated to Laelius. Dissatisfied 
with ptcvkms accounts of the war, written entirely from the 
Roman point of view, in his desire for impartiality he was 
the lint of the Romans to consult the history of Silenus, 
Hannibal's Greek historiographer, and to compare it with 
the accounts given by his own countrymen. 

And this was not his only merit, for he tried also to in- 

tiodoce a better literary style, and nuide the innovation of 

inserting q>eeches into the course of his narrative, not merely 

to explain it, but also as a means of giving expression to 

his own reflections, and the supposed views of the actors 

in' the story. Though there were other writers who decidedly 

opposed the annalistic method, yet it seems, on the whole, to 

hate retained its popularity with both authors and readers. 

Besides general histories, there were numerous biographies, 

and monographs, dealing with the careers of indi* 

▼iduals or with short periods or episodes in the 

career of the nation. In fact the catalogue of 

historical writen in the various departments is surprisingly 

kmg. Yet Cicero (De Leg. L 5) laments ** Abesi 

'' kisi&ria liiteris nostris!* for none of the histories 

that had then appeared were worthy as literature of a place 

beside the poetry and oratory that had reached so high a 

degree of perfec tio n. And though Sallust and Caesar soon 

published their works, which have been recognized 



ever since as models of Latin prose, there was 
great general history in Ronnan literature. The t 
of the civil wars were not favorable to the cc 
execution of such a work. The proper surroun 
spiration were to come in the next generation 
after the storm, in the peace and repose of \ 
age. And when Cicero wrote the words ther 
growing up to manhood who was to remove fore 
of his complaint. 

Titus Livius Patavinas was bom in 59 b. c. at F 
Padua, the ancient capital of the Ven^ti. Tlie citj 
said, had been founded by Antenor, the compan* 
ion of Aeneas. At all events, it was proud of its 
early relations with Rome, of which it had always be 
friend, and notably during the Hannibalic war. ] 
for the most part ''out of the way of wars and ii 
commerce,'* the city had grown populous and weal 
time of Strabo (Livy's contemporary) it was one 
important cities of the empire, having 500 citizei 
trian census, ranking in this respect next to Capu 
in Italy. Yet with all this prosperity the inhabitant 
brated for their antique virtue and pure morals. T 
ceiyed Roman citizenship by the lex Julia in 49 b. 
incorporated into the Fabian tribe. 

We do not know when Livy's family had settled a 
but there is evidence that it was a noble bmily 1 
circumstances. Our author doubtless received the 
education usual for young Romans of rank, and we 
know that he made a special study of rhetoric and | 
The time and circumstances of his removal to the 
not known, hut probably it occurred about the 
time of the battle of Actium. While still a young 
man he was in high favor with Aug\istus, and a men 


Bml lilenry cnde that was the chief ornament of his court ' «- 

e seems to have enjoyed intimate friendship with the family 

the CaesaiSy and even to have had apartments in the palace. 
t informs as that Augustus took a personal interest in the 
mpositioii of his history, and perhaps his undertaking was 
gdy doc to the influence of the emperor, who had made * • - 

epic poet of Vergil almost in spite of himself. 

Saettmiiis says it was by the advice of Livy that the young \ 

ndiusy afterward emperor, took to writing history. Yet ' 

Tf was too candid to be a flatterer, and it was not altogether ^ 
jcst when Augustus called him a Poropeian ; for, while ad- 
King the great qualities of Julius Caesar, he openly ques- 
ted whether it woukl not have been better for the state v 
be had never been bom. 

hJboat livy's private life we possess very few details. He 
I a son, and a daughter who married a rhetorician named 
^ L. Magius. He never hekl office or took any 

part in politics, but lived a life of scholarly quiet, ^ 

steadily engaged upon the history that was his 

Work. We do not know whether his occasional absences 

n Ronie were long continued or whether his residence 

R was permanent He may have retired to spend his 

yean in his native town, for he died there in 1 7 a. d. 

k 1413 some workmen making excavations at Padua, 

aovcfcd a coffin which was thought to contain the bones 

the hisloffian, and the city erected a sumptuous tomb in 

hoQor. But subsequent investigation showed that the 

t belief was erroneous. 

ivy^s cariiesi writings were phik>sophical and rhetorical. 
y have not been preserved. Whether he was actually a 
teacher of rhetoric is doubtful, but it is evident 
that he was a master of the art so highly prized 
he Romans, and never more so than after free speech had 
BMe a tiiiBC of the past. 


His great history extended from the landing of 
Latium to the death of Dnisus in 9 b. c The h 
is hardly important enough to form a fitting close 
to such a work, and it is probable that the author 
intended to continue it to the death of Augustus, and 
the round number of 150 books. In tliat case he w 
reached the point whei^ Tacitus* Annals begin. 

Of the entire 14a books, there are extant, exdusiv 
fragments of the 91st and 120th, but 35; viz., 
ai-45i and of these the 4rst and 43d are in- 
complete. No more than these were extant in * 
the Middle Ages, and as no trace of the lost books 
discovered since the seventh century, the often-exci 
cherished hopes of finding them will probably ^ 
never be realized. The world doubtless owes this ^ 
irreparable loss to the misguided zeal of Pope ( 
(590-604), who caused all the copies of Livy he < 
to be burned on account of their antichristian charac 
missing portions were not only far greater in quai 
what has been preserved, but they possessed greater 
value. By way of compensation we have only thi 
summaries, pcriochae^ as they are called, written fa 
hand, and commonly attributed to Florus, because th* 
in the mss. of his works. For some periods thes( 
only authority that we possess. 

The work seems to have been begun about 27 i 
earlier), when the historian was in his thirty-third ; 
it was continued steadily through the rest of his ^j^i 
life, more than forty years. The books must "^« 
have been published in instalments; for the author 
in his lifetime the most extensive &me» as appe 
Pliny's story of the man who travelled fipom Cades 1 
for the sole purpose of seeing his (ace. But the 


iolo dffcidgt, lo convenient for purposes of reference, was 
fan, in all probability nol_ made by Livy himself, 7 
though it is possible to make out various groups 
of five, ten, or fifteen books which form units within the 
iiouls of the whole. 

Book I. coven 244 years, the time of the kings, besides the 
brief summary of the Trojan and Alban myths; the first 
decade extends to the ctose of the second Samnite war ; the 
k»t second decade toU of the third Samnite, the Pyrrhic, 
and the first Punic war and the interval before the second ; 
the entire third decade is devoted to the second Punic or 
Hannibalic war. Book XLV. brings us to the year 167 b. c, 
and the triumph of Paulus after the conquest of Macedonia ; 
so that the remainder of the history, ninety-seven books, 
covered 15S yean, less than two yean to a book, showing 
that the lost poitions were much more detailed than the 
citant poitiotts. 

The l^end of the foundation of the city, which many 
a nn a l i fti had treated at great length and adorned with later 
fables of Greek invention, Livy gives in short and 
simple form. Smibr in spirit is his treatment 
of the histoiy of the kings, in which he fol- 
lowed SDch annalists as Piso and Tubero, doubtless borrowing 
tome features of the story fiom the poet Ennius. Throughout 
the firrt decade he foltowed various annalists, and here he was 
ted into some binndeni as he afterward discovered, by Valerias 

On coming to the second Punic war, he found contemporary 
aathorities to diaw upon. All through the third decade may 
^ ^ ^^ ^^^ be traced an extensive use of Coelius Antipater. 
fardMikM In Books XXI. and XXII. he expressly mentions 
''"*^"^* Fabius and Cincius, and it is evident that he 

oosMoked a number of other annalists, to whom he refen by 


general expressions. Here was available the great G 
torian, Polybius, whose universal history in forty ^ 
books extended from the beginning of the Punic 
wars to the destruction of Carthage and Corinth, 
was one of the thousand Achaeans exiled to Italy in 
He lived on intimate terms with the younger Scipic 
friends, and supplemented his exceptional opportu 
gathering information by extensive travel in the east 
He treated his subject in a critical and philosophic : 
impartial in his attitude and sure in his judgment, 
was clear, simple, and unadorned, his matter adm 
ranged ; and though his work » in some places dry i 
was a most excellent source of information for si 


From the beginning of the third decade many p 
Liv7 correspond with Polybius, some of them word 
but there are numerous variations which are hard to € 
the supposition that Livy copied directly from Polybi 
is doubtful whether he had Polybius before him at fi 
simply following Coelius, who drew from the same 
source as Polybius, namely, Silenus. But there 
is no doubt that after the aflfairs of Macedonia ai 
became involved in the narrative, Livy made const 
Polybius, that is, from Book XXI H. onward, thoug 
not expressly mention him before Book XXX. ch. 45 
possible that even from the beginning of the decad 
Polybius to supplement and correct his chief 

It is not (air, in charging Livy with negligence a 
lity, to judge him by the standard of modem historica 
The classical and mediaeval historians, in treating ,^| 
of times prior to their own, were content to take io 
the writings of previous chroniclers as the basis 


of their own work, — to transcribe bodily without naming the 
caiiier author, and to amend or modify if they saw fit 

It was only when they reached contemporary events that 
their labor became original and independent A critical inves- 
DiAnityof tigator of facts like Polybius was a rare exception. 
The physical diiHculty of a thorough collation of 
authorities in antiquity was a stupendous obstacle 
to critical research. 'l*he most industrious of modem investi- 
gtton, if deprived of printed books, modem libraries and 
carduUy arranged state archives freely opened to students, 
could accomplish comparatively little. Few of the ancients 
could possibly have made thorough preliminary studies of their 
fnbjects, in any such sense as we now understand the words. 
Beskks, a searching examination of all authorities was foreign 
Iiv7*s pwpoM ^ Livy's purpose, which was moral and artistic, not 
■oc criiiaL critical It was to a large extent impossible under 
the conditions of his age and was not desired by his contem- 
poiaiies. And so when he is accused of writing from chroni- 
den and not fiom documents, and while we must admit that 
he made no effort to discover new doaiments, and did not 
even take the trouble to examine those that were within his 
reach, we must also remember that this was the fashion of his 
* age, not his peculiar fault. We should be doing him great 
injustice if we failed to recognize his sincere desire to tell the 
troth, which he .^gaided as the first duty of the historian, and 
of which he continually gave evidence. In those days, history 
that was already ancient was regarded as closed and settled. 
People expected to find in the annalists all there was to know 
of the subject* and so, for the time before 390 b. c., Livy kx>ked 
ipoo them as his only source. 

The lesuk of this ancient method was, of course, much con* 
fwoii and contradiction, most of which will never be satisfac- 
torily doddated. It is peculiarly unfortunate that, through 


the loss of all the later books which treated of re 
contemporary events and were addressed to a 

, lin|i 

public able to detect errors of fact or deficiency of j 
of information, we are not in a position to esti- ^, * 
mate livy as an original historian. 

He has been reproached, moreover, with having 
himself too exclusively to the narration of events, 
having neglected all that concerned civilization, in 
laws, manners, literature, and the arts. This cha 
shares with nearly all the ancients, who had little id 
philosophy of history, cared not for abstract discus 
preferred, when they had to explain the causes of 
put their reflections into the mouths of their persona] 
practice was not natural, to be sure, but its improb 
atoned for by the great oratorical beauties of which 

Though we know so little about the facts of Livy's 
works we learn to know and love him. His centra 
the grandeur of eternal Rome. He gives the j, 
index to his mental attitude in his preface. It m 
is evident that he took a patriotic pleasure in his * 
work as a consolation for the death of republican fre 
for the present which contained so much that was sa 
his heart. 

He had an earnest moral purpose, — to hold up 
degenerate Romans of his own i\ay the picture of th 
their ancestors, which had made the brave days of ]^] 
old so truly glorious. This he was able to do ^ 
better than any of his predecessors, by his poetic i 
rare rhetorical and dramatic talent, and that unusw 
sympathetic treatment which renders all that is higt 
so attractive to his readers. His ethical purpose 
better fulfilled because he does not stop to moral! 

• >• 


He had a lofty conception of the Roman virtues, — fortU 
tode, ralor, magnanimity, candor, obedience to authority, self- 
resnaint, inoomiptiUe integrity, self-sacrificing patriotism,— 
rhich led him often to idealize the heroes of Che oklcn time. 
When ibfccd to disappnnx of the conduct of his countrymen, 
be coodenms it as un-Roman. 

Wc rcaliae his firm belief in Rome's destiny to dominion and 
pcnnaneiice, — a destiny resting upon the national character. 
So he deeply regretted the decay of the old-lashioncd sturdy 
rvtnes and the ancient religious faith of the people, and felt 
nth Angnstus and with Horace the necessity for their revival. 
fie was free from superstition, but was pious and reverent 

Tlioq^ he accepted the imperial rule as established by 
Uilgnstaa, and lived on friendly and even intimate terms with 
riiiiitKiM ^ emperor, it was rather with resignation than 
irfjrirtocntic with enthusiasm. The existing state of things 
^'* was the best possible under the circumstances, 

H ttOC the ideally best. His heart was with the older, better 
me of liberty, the only condition worthy, in his view, of men 
r seU^respect And by liberty he did not understand the 
ccnae of the many, the mob rule of democracy, but the tem- 
BcdL sdf-fcstiained, biw-abiding freedom of the best days of 
le araiDcncy, when the counsels of the state were really 
pectod by her wisest and best citizens. His admiration for 
le Poinpeimi party, whose side Patavium had espoused in the 
ra war, was based upon an ideal conception of their objecU 
1 mm attenapl to restore that long-perished condition of the 
And so, though his sympathies are essentially aris- 
he disliked all that was violent or subversive of the 
Older of society, and hated an aristocrat like Appius 
the decemvir, as heartily as the most turbulent tribune 
the /Ms. 
Him mime was intensely consen-ative, and so, with poetic 


appreciation, he repeated the legends of the early 
had long ago become a part of the national nicni- 
ory, not concealing the (act tliat they contained a 
large mythical element, but presenting them in 
features, with simplicity and dignity, doing away n 
accumulation of inappropriate additions of later 1 
we are not to understand him as vouching for tl 
every story he relates. In this same conservativ 
rc|X)rts prodigies and miracles, realizing that they wc 
part the creations of excited imagination, but not fe 
upon to question what the best men had believed 
upon in the post, and considering them also an 
feature in the pictures he drew of by-gone times, 
scenery, so to speak, amid which the actors had m< 
membcring the age in which he lived, it is evident 
that, though he was devout and imaginative, with 
a profound reverence for the mighty post and for th 
the unseen world, he could not possess the childlili 
of a primitive civilization. 

The kindliness of his nature constantly appears ii 
for the oppressed and unfortunate ; his indignation 
deceit, and oppression is honest and spontaneous. 

The warmth of his patriotism was such that it 
l)etrayed him into partiality to his countrymen an 
toward their opponents: but this fault is only, 
the excess of a virtue which we can regard more 
charitably than the cold impartiality of those wh( 
patriotism to bias their judgments ; and the essent 
of his disposition led him to appreciate what wai 
good wherever he found it. 

However Livy has been criticised for his his* 
torical methods, as a writer he has met with noth- 
ing but praise. His language is pure, rich, dear, h^ 


-•companble in eloquence to that of the greatest oiaton. 
^uintOian, the prince of ancient critics, characterizes it most 
lapfxly by the phrases **i4Ut€a ubertas^^ and ^^darissimus can* 
iPTy" {JL,\»yt and loi )• In ordinary narrative, simple and easy, 
le rises without eflbrt to eloquence, and his tone is always 
proportioned to the nature of his subject. He excels in 
paiating the great scenes in the nation's life, the bitterness 
if paity mugglesy the passions of the masses, the joy and 
Iread of multitudes. He lives with his characters, and makes 
heir fedings his own. In the expression of emotions, and 
spcdaDy of pathos, he is unequalled. 

His modem admirers cannot fail to rejoice that he enjoyed 
he good fortune of being appreciated by his contemporaries, 
b (ar as we know, there was but one dissenting voice, pcr- 
i^M the voice of jeatousy, amid the universal chorus of admi- 
latioo. Quintilian says (VHI. L 3), ''In 
Tiio Uvh . . • /u/ai inesu Poliw Asinius 
mndmm PaitmHiiairm*' Evidently this was a cliargc of 
lo^indalism, which may have been intelligible at the time, 
M which to modem scholars has proved a subject of 
iKh inqoiiy more curious than profitable.' 
la point c»f language, Uvy, together with Sallust and Nepos, 
t tte ooonecting link between the golden and silver ages 
of Latinity: he possesses the qualities of the 
latter in such degree only as to enhance the 
beauties of the former. He is the one great 

* NanenMM theories upon this subject have been propounded. For 
ifu., H. Meascl la the N. Jahrb. fiir Philol. 1885, pp. 408 tqq., makes 
tm tkit oiie of the points which may have offended Atiniut wai LIvy'a 
t of fl# befofc consonants, which it abnormally extensive in com- 
irinn villi the usage of Caesar and Cicero. Similar to this is the very 
ise use of faMensive and frequentative verba, most extensive In the first 
Kide» aad eonntantly growing more restricted as the work goes on. 
ft ctfMf different and very improhabte hypothesis was, that Iivy*r 

fai his sympathies with the Pompeian party. / ' 


prose writer among the poets of the Augustan age, as 
and Lucretius were tlic only ga*at |)octs amid the pros< 
of the Ciceronian period. 

Livy*s language is still pure and correct enough, 
no longer that of Caesar and Cicero. Without spc 
new words and new expressions, his syntax is alread] 
modified, partly in consequence of natural developmc 
through the influence of the language of poetry, and 
of the language of the people, — both of which in t 
rial epoch penetrated more and more into the laii 
prose. This mixture, showing a little in Livy, is s 
the approaching decailence ; another sign is that cert 
and certain forms have in his diction already lost th< 
sense. His style, in short, with all its brilliancy ai 
charm, has no longer the severity and simplicit; 
preceding age. 

The peculiarities of Tacitus' style have been cot 
put under three heads, — brevitas^ XHtnelas^ cohr potiii 
has the last two, as decidedly as he lacks the p 
first. In the perioils of Cicero we find always a ^ 
carefully adjusted lialance of the (larts, perfect syni 
clauses and phrases. In Livy and in Sallust ti 
constant variety in the coonlinate elements, and \ 
tional lack of symmetry, which in Tacitus develops 
moit pronounced |)ecu1iarity. 

Yet essentially Livy is a Ciceronian in style ; his 
elevation, abundance, — at times a little excessive^ — r 
ing, vivid imagination, seem to \yt the actual 
fulfilment of Cicero*s own ideal of the historical 
style, which he says (Orator, XX. 66), differs from the 
"almost as much as the poetic style.'* Quintilian s 
31), that history is like an "epic in prose," having 
to borrow of poetry some of its liberties, lliis tlu 


appean to have pal into practice. In lact, next to the ora- 
torical tem of thought and exprcssiont his most salient char- 
acicfisiic ii the poetic coloring he assumes from time to time,— 
consista^g in the employment of words or constructions rare 
in prose, in the boldness of his images, and in turns of phrase 
wKkc the oidinary manner of expression. 

Among die more obvious features of Livy's diction and 
sprtax the beginner will notice tlie following points: — 


Use of concrete singulars for collectives or plurals. 

^ptri habitually for tquites or equilatus^ e.g. p. 46^ 1. i6; 
similarly /ri///, miUs^ Romanns; vestUxn collective sense, 
pi 104, L 20; Poemus for excrdtas Pmnicus^ p. 81, 1. 33. 

Abstract for concrete substantives. 

wttmigU for nmigtbus^ p. 95, 1. 17; urvitia for servos^ 
p- SOk !• 9* nx.1.7, 

I ^vFondness for vetbab of actjgn iij^/. ^•^^^ii v//, 1 1 

i^,)v£H«aCfl»» p. <5^ L 12; sa/edta, p. 25, 1. 19; ^fWp. 75, 
L 7; VfltilMS. p. 77, I. 10. /A<^.UA,/c/. 
And veibals of agency in •/cr or -x^r, using the latter both 
and adjectively. 

i 7. ? "Vr/AfAillMr, p. 14, I. 32; exenifM iikiatt reductp^ p. 14, 
'*^'' L ai; likrmt^r UU aHimms, p. 68, L 32. 


Of poiaeiiion used predicatively. 

^rwpe mmmit semaims HanniMis irai^ p. 84, 1. 2 ; Melae 
ggttmi^ p. 9^ 1. 15. 

ith adjectives. 
immatsmm mMtmdimis^ p. 107, L 4; iusiaiis n!i^ 
r, p. 158, 1. 19; arc9$m/ks0s miUinm^ p. 175, K la 



' J* rt***» • "' Dative. 

Predicative or of service. 

fiiu €0rdi tsui^ p. 49, 1. 17; ut nsui esseni^ p. 

Instead of accusative or ablative with preiK>sitioi 
ally after compound verbs. 

mare Jtumimibus invexii^ p. 147, 1. 21; adequil 
p. 188, I. 7. 

Extensive use of dative of reference! and of a| 
involvetl idea of interest. 

QHOtrtHtibmt raiM iuitHr^ p. 2c^ 1. & 


.J^Sh Adverbial or synecdochical. 

It ^* 

\ V*^ adversHm femur iclus^ p. 80, 1. 24 ; npparitore, 

^^ p. II, I. 36. 

Omission of direct object, es|)eciaUy with 
ducert {cxerciinm)^ p. 28, 1. 14; Umere {cui 
L 16. 


Extensively used without pre|K)sitions, where 
normally be expected, — the local ablative constfl 
off into the modal or instrumental. 

(fVr) carfttHio stdenti^ p. 44* 1. 14; iapidci 
cecidisse^ p. 142, 1. 6; pmfectHS (cum} stXi 
uavihus^ p. (>c^ 1. 2. 

Names of towns uude^ regularly take «4. 
Comparatio Compendaria. 

omuium spt ctUrius^ p. 79, L 17. 


Fondness for forms in -^xir/, "bundus^ ^<U9uiu^ 
Used substantively. 

ah Htrmamdica prp/ugi^ p. 78, 1. 7; im/ert 
118, 1. 6. 


Atdiate adjectives used adverbially. 

pmpirm evemitsemi^ P* SH« 1« IS^ 
For objective genitives. 

emtnUribms mtiis tHptdimemiU^ p. 139, L 8; diciaiorm 
fVfW. p. 171. 1- !«• 

ADVERBS. ' , . iAf.* 

Fondness for tiie ending -wf. /^loCi;, 
^*^ grt^iim^ p. 4v L 31 ; pidtUmpHm^ p. loi , L 3& 
Adverbs widi adjective significance. 

mmmimm tirca ^ut^rum^ p. 72, I. 26 ; quadragiHU diinde 
mnim^s^ p. ao, L 16.* 

FecoUar use of certain ab\*erbs ; c. g., 

iirem for time as well as place ; etUrmm ss sed; iuxta ss 
pmriter; mdkmc for p.i»t time; umlty ibi^ iiuU^ referring 
to persons; mlmmimm^ with numerals. 


AlEection for iterativcs or inlcnsives, often precisely with 
the meaning of the simple verbs. 
imperiimbai^ p. 27, 1. 8. 
Sonple verbs for compound. 

im mMims ^tr^ ferric p. 105, I. 23; scribtreU p* 153* I* 15- 
Fmi and fmtrnm as auxiliaries instead of sum and €ram. 
Ffiram as the equivalent of tssem* 
Frequent ap|)canince of present and perfect subjunctive 
■a dependent clauses of oraiio obliqua^ where i :tilc of ser. 
pjencc would require the imperfect or pluperfect;' 
e.|^ Tarquin^s speech, p. 62, 11. 17, sqq. 
Active and passive with middle sense. 

^mmdi^ p. 146^ 1. 9; demissa^ p* 44f 1* 15; Ptrfundirit^ 
p. 56^ L 2. 

Nevicr verbs in compound tenses of the passive. 

fervemimm {tsf^^ p. 107, 1. 21; est ussntum^ p. 195, 1. 27; 
immmtitmimm {frmi)^ p* 89^ 1* 7* 

* St9 Affticte OT tilt \jSSm AoHst Mimictivc In CUmkal Kexicir, Oct., iSmk^ 




; Abbtive absolute without sulistaiuive. 

I imfu/^nra/o, p. 46, 1. 20; iurxp/ara/fi^ p. 146, 

i*ast passive |)articiple for verbal abstract noui 
tfrj^vMrra/MM in a/iis, p. 64, 1. 3. 

Of deponent verbs in passive sense. 
txperiHs^ p. 44, 1. 33, 


iMvkta , , . Si , . • dimkarttury p. 78, 1. ao. 


aqua tx ofiaco specu (proflH€ns\ p. 26^ 1« 13; 
Trebiam {fommi$ia\ p. 88, 1. aa 

In comparative and superlative degrees. 
, O ixult hres^ p. 105, I. 30; fxteaiissima valtf^ 

Gerundive in instrumental ablative or ablative 

Q^ibus oppugHandis^ p. 77, 1. 26 ; qHatrcndU % 
• ''^^-^ 1.36. 



R^mmIhs^ rnr, regitt^ p. 14, 1. 27. 


ilk Urminum dedit^ kic mercedtm dabit^ p. 
An.'Uktrophe of prepositions. 

Faesutas inier Arrttiumquf^ p. 144, I. 16. 

ad fidem promissorum^ p. 107, L 28. 

rebus perptiratis vpcataqut multiiudimt^ p. 
Constructio per synesim. 

Magna pars raptas (i. e. virgiues^ p. I3« L i 

Ai enim^ e. g. p. 91, I. 5 ; Tantum nt^ p. 
frrareniy p. 64, 1, 26; mi MervemisstMt^ j 


Inrenkm of fimiiliar phrases. 

MU d0miqme^ P- 44* 1* 33 1 ven primo^ P< 94« !• 15* 

cmmsHia mmxiiUqmi^ p. 66^ L 17; k^stu pro hcspiU^ p. 
7if L 9^ 

Umgt mmU mlwi auepiissimus^ p. 20, 1. 18 ; ttaqu€ trgo^ 
pt. 30^ L 25; li^tw d€ iniiffro^ p. 147, L is. 


TkE tcaci of the first decade comes to us through recensions 
bjr Victorianus (fourth century) and two Nicoroachi (fifth 
centiiry)* The best mss. representing them are the Codex 
liedkrms (M) at Florence (eleventh century) and the Codex 
Fsrisimms (P) at FuriSi No. 5725 in the Biblioth^ue Nationale 
[icDtli century). Earlier mss. once known to scholars have 

For tlie third decade the only source of the text b the 
hdcanas (P) MS. of Paris, No. 5730 (sixth century). As 
CTtval feavcs at the beginning are missing, we are reduced, 
br the fint two thirds of Book XXL, to two mss. derived 
RHB the Pateanus, the Colbertinus at Paris, No. 5731 (C) 
lentil or eleventh century), and the Mediceus at Fk>rence (M) 
dcvealh century). 

The text of Livy was first printed at Rome in 1469. The 
nt great critical edition was that of Gronovius, Leyden, 1644, 
ilncii lemained the standard for nearly two centuries. A 
wmber of excellent editions have appeared since 1830, and 
he fint nmk today is held by those of Madvig (Copenhagen), 
■d WcMenbom (Bcriin). 


Among recent editions of Books I., XXL, and X 
following arc worthy of recommendation : — 

Weissenbom, annoUted edition {cura H. J. Miiller), \\ 

Berliiu Bk. I., 8th cd., 1885 ; XXI^ 8th cd., 1888 ; XXI 


The whole ol Livy is constaatly appearing in parts. 

Mpritx MuUer, Bk. I. Teubner, Leipzig, 1888. 
Hcynacher, Bk. I. Perthes, Gotha, 1885. 
Scelcy, Bk. L Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1881. 
Valuable Introdnction. 

\V6lft!in. Bk. XXL Teubner, Uipzig, 1884. 
Wolfflin. Bk. XXI I. Teubner, Uipzig, 1883. 
Luterbacher, Bk. XXI. Perthes, Gotha, 1887. 
Luterbacher, Bk. XXII. Perthes, Gotha, 1889. 
Riemann et Benoist, Bks. XXL, XX 1 1. Hachette, \ 
Harant, Bks. XXL, XXI I. Belin, Paris, 1886. 
Capes. Bks. XXI, XXI L Macmiilan, London, 1889. 
Dowdall, Bk. XXI. Dcighton, Bell, & Co., Cambrid 
Dowdall, Bk. XX 1 1. Deighton, Bell, & Co., Cambrii 

Among other books interesting to students of Li 
mentioned : — - 

Ancient Gassics for English Readers. Livy, by I 
Collins: Macmiilan, London ; Li ppincott, Philadelphia* 
Ancient Rome in 1888. J. H. Middleton. Black, li 
Die Phraseologie des Livius. £. Ballas. Jolowicz, V 
£tudes sur la Langue et Grammaire de Tite^Live. ( 
Thorin, Paris, 1885. 

It has to a great extent superseded the earlier work ef 
Hauptpunkte der Livianisdien Sjmtax. 

Historisch-Kritische Untersuchungen zur 3ten C 
Livius. H. Hesselbarth. Waisenhaus, Halle, 1889. 

Lexicon Livianum. F. Fiigner. Teubner, Leipzig. 
I., 1889. 

An important and valuable work, to appear In parts. 

Livius, XXI-XXIIL, grammatisch untersucht. 
Weidmann, Berlin, 1888. 




Tki motives of the author in writiHi^ the history oj 
man p^o/^le^ ami thi pian and aim of the woi 

Factunisnc o|>crae pretium sitn, si a prinion 
res |)opuH Roinani pcrscripscrim, ncc siitis scio 
sctam, dicere nusim, 4uip|)c qui cum vctcrcm 
gatam esse rem videam, dum iiovi sem|KT scrip 
ill rebus certius aliquid allaturos sc aut scriln 
nidem vetustatcm superaturos crcdunt. Utcuin 
iuvabit tamcn rcrum gesLimm inemori»ie princi 
rum popult pro virili parte et ipsum consuluis: 
in tanta scriptonim turlia mea (;ima in obscurx 
bilitate ac magnit\idine coram me, qui nomini 
mco» consoler. Res est practerca et inmcnsi 
<iuae supra septingentesimum annum reiKtatur, 
ab exiguis profecta initiis eo rrevcrit, ut iam 
dine lal)oret sua; et legentium pleris()uo hai 
quin primae origines proximaque originihus mi 
bitura volupUitis sint festinantibus ad baec no* 
iam pridem praevalcntis |)opu1i vires sc ipsac 
ICgo contra hoc quoquc lalioris pracmium j>eta 
a cons|)ectu m«ilorum, quae nostra tot pc^ a 
aeias, Untisper ccrte, dum prisca tota ilia mer 
avertam, omnis expers cunie, quae scrilientis an 
non flecterc a vcro, sollicitum tamen efficcre \ 

Quae ante conditanv conttendamve urt>em pc 
gis decora &bu1is quam incorruptis rerum gcsi 


mcniis traduntur, ea ncc adfirmare nee refeUere in 
mo est. Datur haec vcnia antiiiuitaii, ut miscendo 
nana dhrinis primo^dia .urbium augustiora facial. Ei 
cut populo licere oportct consecrare origines suas et 
dcos referre aocUMSi ca belli gloria est populo Ro- 
■o, uty cum suum conditorisque sui parenlcm Martem 
tmimuni fenu» tarn et hoc gcntes humanae patiantur 
|M> aaimo quam imperium patiuntur. Sed haec et 
uadUM^ ntcumque animadvcna aut existiinata crunt, 
d ia aagno equidem ponam discrimine: ad ilia mihi 
* te quisque acriter intendat animum, quae vita, qui 
les liscrint, per quos viros quibusque artibus domi 
tiaeqiic et partum et auctum ini|)erium sit; labente 
ide poukitini disciplina velut desidcntn primo mores 
latur antmo^ deinde ut magis magisque lapsi sint, 
coeperint praecipites, donee ad haec tempora, 
vitia nostra nee remedia pati possutnus, pcr- 
Hoc illud est praecipue in cognitione re- 
ac fnigifcniniy oninis te exempli documenta 
nliHtri posita monuroento intueri; inde tibi tuaeque 
quod imitere capias^ inde foedum inceptu, 
cnto, quod vites. Ceterum aut me amor ne- 
(allit, ant nulla umquam res publica nee 
nee bonb exemplis ditior fuit, ncc 
cmtatem tam senie avaritia luxuriaque. inmi* 
ncc vbi tantus ac tam diu paupertati ac par« 
hoooa fiierit: adeo quanto rerum minus, tanto 
s captdiUiis erat Nuper divitiae avarittam et abun- 
B volnptatcs desiderium per luxum atque libidinem 
pcfdendique omnia invexere. Sed querellae, 
^mdem gratae futnrae, cum fersitan necessariae 
iflicio oerte tantae ordiendae rei absint: cum 
oininibtts votisque et precationibus deonim 
si» at poetiSy nobis quoqiie mos esset, liben- 
at onis tantum operis SMCcessus pro- 



At the fail of Troy Aetuas and Ah tenor escape to h 
Ike tatter utttes in Venetia; the former in Lati 
where he ma^Ties anti founds n city. 

I. lam priinum omnium satis constat Troia capt 
ceteros saevitum esse 'IVoianos; duobus, Acneae Ant 
rique, et vctusti iure hospitii et quia pacis redden 
que Helenae semper auctorcs A**nint, omne ius 
Achivos abstinuisse. Casibus dcindc variis Anten< 
cum multitudine Enetum, qui seditione ex Paphla^ 
pulsi et sedes et ducem rege Pylacmene ad IV 
amisso (juacrebant, venisse in intumum maris ^Adr 
sinum; Euganeisque, qui inter mare Alpesque incole 
pulsis Enctos Troianosque eas tenuissc terras. T\ 
quern primum egressi sunt locum Troia vocatur, pag 
inde Troiano nomcn est ; gens univcrsa Vcneti app< 
Aeneam ab simili clade domo profugum, sed ad 
iora rerum initia ducentibus fatis primo in Macedc 
venisse, inde in Siciliam quaercntem sedes delatun 
Sicilia classe ad Laurentem agrum tenuissc. Tro 
huic loco nomen est. Ibi egressi Troiani, ut q 
ah inmenso prope errore nihil praeter arma et 
superessety cum praedam ex agris agerent, Latinu: 
Aboriginesque, qui turn ea tenebant loca, ad arce 
vim advenarum armati ex urbe atque agris concu 
Duplex inde fama est: alii proelio victum Latinun 
cem cum Aenea^ deinde adfinitatem iunxisse trs 


alii, ann instructae acies constitissent, priusquam signa 

canerenly proccssisse Latinum inter priinores ducemque 

advenaniin evocasse ad conloqutum; percunctatuin de- 

ipdc« qui mortales cssent, unde aut quo casu profecti 

5 doniOy quidve quaercntes in agruni Liurcniem exisscnt, 

postqoam audaerit niukiludinem Troianos essc^ ducDln 

Acneam filium Anchisae et Veneris, cremata |Kitria domo 

p fo fu go a scfiem condendaeque urbi locum quacrcre, et 

nobilitatem admiratum gentis virique et animum vel bello 

to vd pad paratum dextra data fidem futurac amicitiae 

sanxine. Inde foedus ictuin inter duces, inter excrci* 

tns lalutationem factam; Aeneam apud Litinum fuisse 

in hospitia Ibi Latinum apud penates deos domesticum 

pnUico adiunxisse foedus filia Aeneae in matrimonium 

as data. Ea ics utique Tioianis spem adArmat tandem 

^fltabili certaque sede finicndi erroris. Oppidum condunt; 

ab nomine uxoris Lavinium appcllat. Brevi 

quoque virilb ex novo matrimonio fuit, cui Asca« 

parentes dixere nomen. 

Vki^ry if Iki ijttiims nnd Trojans pvtr the RutuUans and 

Eintscans. Death 0/ Aeneas* 

II. Bello dcinde Aborigines Troianique simul petiti. 
litmus rex Rutukmim, aii pacta Lavinia ante advcn- 
Aeneae fuerat, praebturo sibi advenam aegre pati- 
timul Aeneae Latinoque bellum intulerat. Neutra 
laeta ex eo certamine abiit: victi Rutuli, victores 
as Atxiogines Troianique ducem Latinum amisere. Inde 
Tvmiia Rutulique diffisi rebus ad florentes opes Etnis- 
Meaentinmque regem eorum confugiunt, qui Caere, 
to tnm oppido, imperitans, iam inde ab' initio 
kiettis novae origine urbis, et tum nimio plus 
satis tutum esset accolis rem 7'roianam crescere 
hand gravatim soria anna Rutulb iunxit. Aeneas, 
tanti belli terrorem ut animos Aboriginum sibi 


conciliaret, nee sub eodem iure solum sed ctiam noi 
omnes esscnt, Latinos utramque gcntcin ap|K*llavit 
dcinde Aborigines Troianis studio ac fide crga n 
Acncam cesscrc. Frctusque his animis cx)alcsccntiur 
dies magis duorum populorum Aeneas, quamquam 
opibus Ktruria erat, ut iam non terras solum sed 
ctiam per totam Italbe longitudinem ab Alpibus 
fretum Siculum fama nominis sui implessct, tamen, 
moenibus bellum propulsare posset, in aciem c 
eduxit. Secundum inde proelium Latinis, Aeneac < 
ultimum ot>enim morUilitnn fuit Situs est, quern 
(]ue cum dici ius fasque est* super Numicum fluv 
lovcm indigetem appellant. 

Regency 0/ Lavinia^ the widinv of Aeneas* Their son , 
Ml us founds, Aiba Lon^^a, One of his descemianis^ 4 
Hhs, usurps the throne of his elder brother^ Numitor^ 
his maii descendants^ and makes his daughter a \ 
I 'irgin* 

III. Nondum matunis imperio Ascanius Aeneae 
crat ; tamcn id imperium ei ad pulicrcm aetatcm 
lumc mansit. Tantisper tutela muliebri, Uinta indol 
I^vinia crat, res Latina et regnum avitum pat'criiui 
puero stotit. Haud ambigam — quis enim rem 
vetcrem pro ccrto adiirmet? — hicine fucrit Ascaniu 
maior quam hie, Creusa matrc Ilio incolumi natus 
mesque inde paternae fugae, quern lulum eundcm 
gens auclorem nominis sui nuncuixit.Jis Ascanius, 
cum<]ue et quacumque matrc genitus — certe n 
Acnea constat — abundante Lavini muUitudinc flore 
iam, ut turn res erant, atque opulentam urbcm 
seu novcrcae reliquit, novam ipse aliam sub Al 
monte condidit, quae ab situ porrectae in dorso 
Longa Alba appellata. 

Inter I^ivinium et Albam Longam coloniam dedu 
triginta ferme interfuere anni. Tantum tamen opes 


veiant inaxiiiie fusis Etniscis, ut tic tnoite quidem 

' Acneae, nee deinde inter rouliebrem tutelam rudimen- 
tumque primum puerilit regni movere arma aut Mezen- 
tiiis Etniscique aut uUi alii accolae ausi sint Pax ita 
5 ooovcneraty ut Etniscis Latinisque fluvius Albula, queni 
nunc Tibcrim vocant, finis esset Silvius deinde regnat, 
Aicani filius, casu quodatn in siivis natus. Is Aeneam 
Silviam creat; is deinde Latinum Silvium. Ab eo co- 
loniae aliquot deductae, Prisci Latini appellati. Mansit 

lo Silviis postea omnibus cognomen, qui Albae regnaverunt 
Latino Alba ortus, Alba Atys, Atye Capys, Capye Ca- 
petus^ Capeto Tiberinus, qui in traiectu Albiilae amnis 
submenus celebre ad posteros noroen flumini dedit. 
Agrippa inde Tiberini filius, post Agrippam Romulus 

15 Sihrius a patre accepto imperio regnat. Aventino ful- 
mine ipse ictus legnum per manus tradidit Is sepuUus 
in eo coDe, qui nunc pais Roinanae est urbis, cognomen 
colli fecit Proca deinde regnat. Is Numitorcm atque 
Amuliuro prooeat; Numitori, qui stirpis maximus erat, 

JO legnum vetustum Silviae gentis legat. Plus tamen vis 
poCuit quam voluntas patiis aut verecundia aetatis. Pulso 
fiatie Amulius regnat Addit sceleri scelus : stirpem 
fiatris virilem interiroit,^^ fratris filiae Reae Silviae per 
apcdcm honorisi cum Vestalem cam legisset, perpetua 

•5 virgittitate 9ptm partus adimit. 

7}l# Mrfl i^ R0muiMS and Rtmus, Expoud fy order 0/ thi 
kingt ikgy are nursed by a she wdf^ and finally rescued 
and krmtgki up fy ike shepherd Fauslulus, 

CIV. 8ed debebatur, ut opinor, fiitis tantac origo uibis 
maximique secundum deorum opes imperii principiumj 
Vi conpiessa Vestalis cum geminum partum edidisset, 
sea ita lata^ seu quia deus auctor culpae honestior erat, 
j9 Martem incertae stirpis patrem nuncupat Sed nee dii 
nee homines aut ipsam aut stirpem a crudelitate regia 


[ vindicant. Sacerdos vincta in custodiam datur, ; 

^ in profluentem aquam mitti iubet* 

Forte quadain divinitus super ripas Tibcris 
lenibus stagnis nee adiri usquain ad iusti cursum ] 
amnis, et ix>sse quamvis langiiida meigi aqua ii 
s|)em ferentibus dabat. Ita, velut defuncti regis in 
in proxima eluvie, ubi nunc ficus Runiinalis 
Komularem vocatam ferunt — pueros exponunU 
turn in his locis solitudines erant. Tenet fama 
fluitantem alveum, quo expositi .erant pueri, ten 
sicco aqua destituissct, lupam siticntcm ex montiL 
circa sunt ad puerilem vagituni cursum flcxisse 
summissas infantibus adeo initem praebuisse manin 
lingua lambentem pueros magister regii pecoris in^ 
Faustulo fuisse nomen ferunt. Ab eo ad stabu 
rentiae uxori educandos datos. Sunt qui Lai 
vulgato corpore lupam inter pastores vocatam [ 
inde locum fabulae ac miraculo datum. 

Ita geniti itaque educati, cum primum adolevit 
nee in stabulis nee ad pecora segnes venando pc 
saltus. Hinc robore corporibus animisque sump 
non feras tantum subsistere, sed in Litrones 
onustos impetus jfacere, pastoribusque rapta divid 
cum his crescente in dies grege iuvenum seria a< 


Remuj^s identUy is accidentally discavtrtd^ and the tw 
ers^ assisted by their friends^ the shepherds^ atin 
stay the usurper Amulius* 

V. lam tum in Palatio monte Lupercal hoc 
ludicrum ferunt, et a Pallanteo, urbe Arcadica, 
tium, dein Palatium montem appellatum. Ibi Eua 
qui ex eo genere Arcadum mtiltis ante tempc! 
tenuerit loca, soUemne allatum ex Arcadia institui 
nudi iuvenes Lycaeum Pana venerantes per lusun 


htdYiaiii cunerent, quem Roman! deinde vocaveruht 

Ifttittm. Huic dedids ludicro^ cum soUemne notum es« 

set, insidiatos ob iiam praedae amissae latronesi cum 

Romulut vi se defendisset, Remum cepisse, captum regi 

5 Amulio tradidisfie ultro accusantes* Crimini maxime 

dabant in Numitoris agros ab lis impetus fieri; inde 

cos collecta iavenum manu hostilem in modum praedas 

agere. Sic Numitori ad supplicium Remus deditur. 

lam inde ab initio Faustulo spes fuerat regiam stir* 

■e pern apud se educari : nam et expositos iussu regis 

iniantes sciebat, et tempus, quo ipse eos sustulisset, ad 

id ipsoro congniere; sed rem inmaturam nisi aut per 

occasionero aut per necessitatem aperire noluerat Ne- 

cessitas prior venit Ita metu subactus Romulo rem 

15 aperit Forte et Numitori, cum in custodia Remum ha- 
berety andissetque geminos esse fratres, comparando et 
aetatem eorum et ipsam minime servilem indolem teti- 
gcnt animum roemoria nepotum; sciscitandoque eodem 
perrenit, ot baud procul esset, quin Remum agnosceret 

so Ita undique regi dolus nectitur. Romulus non cum 
g^obo iuvenuro, nee enim erat ad vim apertam par, sed 
aliis alio itinere iussis certo tempore ad regiam venire 
posloribas ad regem impetum facit, et a domo Numi- 
toris alia comparata manu adiuvat Remus. Ita regem 

9$ obcmncant* 

JH^ kingdom 0f Aiha is restored io Numit^r* Romulus and 
PemuSf desiring io found a city wkero iksy Mod grown 
ar/t emtiend fir the j^eemimnu* 

VL Numitor inter primum tumultum hostis invasisse 

orbem atque adortos regiam dictitans, cum pubem Alba- 

oaiii in arcem praesidio armisque obtinendam avocasset, 

potqnaro iuvenes peipetmta cae!de pergere ad se gratu- 

3» famtcs vidity extempio advocato concilio scelus in se 

originem nepotumi ut genid, ut educati, ut cognid 


essent, caedem deinceps tyranni scque eius auct 
ostendit luvenes per mediam contionem agmine 
gresst cum avum regem salutassent, secuta ex 
tnultitudtne consentiens vox ralum nomen imperiui 

rcgi efficit. 

ha Numitori Albana re permissa Romulum Remui 
cupido cepit in lis locis, ubi cxpositi ubique ec 
crant» urbts condendae. £t sujiererat multitudo All 
rum Latinorumquc, ad id pastores quoque accessi 
qui omDes facile spem facerent parvam Albam, ps 
Lavinium prae ea urbe, quae conderetur, fore. In 
nit deinde his cogitationibus avitum malum, regni ci 
atquc inde foedum cerumen coortum a satis miti 
cipio. Quoniam gemini essent, nee aetatis verec 
discrimen facere posset, ut dii, quorum tutelae ea 
csscnt, auguriis legerent, qui nomen novae urbi 
qui conditam imperio regeret, Palatium Romulus, f 
Avcntinum ad inaugunmdum tcmpla capiunt. 

Remus is slain, Romulus Jouuds Rome om Ike Pc 
I fill. The legend of Hercules^ Cacus^ and Etfandi 

VII. Priori Remo augurium venisse fertur sex 
res, iamque nuntiato augurio cum duplex numcrus 
mulo se ostendissct, utrumque regem sua mul 
consalutaverat. Temix>re illi praeccpto, at hi m 
avium regnum trahebant. Inde cum altercatione 
grcssi certamine irarum ad caedem vertuntur. ] 
turba ictus Remus cecidit Vulgatior (ama est lu 
fratris Remum novos transiluisse muros; inde ab 
Romulo, cum verbis quoque increpitans adiecisset 
deinde quicumque alius transiliet moenia mea 1 " 
Tectum. Ita solus potitus imperio Romulus ; c 
urbs conditoris nomine appellata. 

Palatium primum, in quo ipse erat educatus, i 
Sacra diis idiis Albano ritu, Graeco Herculi, ut a) 


andfo instituta eranty facit Herculem in ea loca Gery- 
one interempto bovcs mira specie abegisse memorant, ac 
prope Hberim fluvfum, qua prae se armentum agens 
nando tiaieceraty loco herbido, ut quicte et pabulo laelo 
5 reliceret boves, et ipsum fessum via procubuisse. Ibi 
cam eiim cibo vinoque gravatum sopor oppressisseti 
pastor accola eius kx:i nomine Cacus, ferox viribus, 
captiis pukhritudine bourn cum avertere earn praedam 
veUet, quia, si agendo annentum in speluncam compu* 
le lissety ipsa vestigia quaerentem dominum eo deductura 
cnint, aversos boves, eximium quemque pukhritudine, 
caudis in speluncam traxit. Hercules ad primam auro- 
ram somno excitus cum gregem perlusirassct oculis et 
partem abesse mimero sensisset, pergit ad proximam 
15 speluncam, si forte eo vestigia fcrrent. Quae ubi om- 
nia foras versa vidit nee in partem aliam ferre, confu- 
lus atque incertus animi ex loco infesto agere porro 
annentum occepit Inde cum actae boves quaedam ad 
desiderium, ut fit, relictarum mugissent, reddita inclusa- 
so rum ex spelunca boum vox Herculem convcrtit Quem 
cam vadentem ad speluncam Cacus vi prohibere cona- 
Ins essety ictus clava fidem pastorum nequiquam invocans 
morte occubuit 

Euander turn ea profugus ex Peloponneso auctoritate 

MS magis quam imiicrio regebat loca, venerabilis vir mira- 

cnlo litterarum, rei novae inter nides artium homines, 

vencrabilior divinitate credita Carmentae matris, quam 

Caikiquam ante Sibyllae in Italiam adventum miratae 

eae gentes fiierant Is turn Euander, concursu pastorum 

JO trepidantiaro circa advenam manifestae reum caedis ex- 

chns postquam factnus facinorisque causam audivit, habi- 

tnm formamque viri aliquantum ampliorem augustioremque 

homana intuens rogitat, qui vir esset Ubi nomen 

potremqae ac patriam accepit, ''love nate, Hercules, 

JS sahre** inquit "Te mihi mater, veridica interpres deum, 

au t tumm caelestium nunienim cecinit, tibtque aram hic 


dicatum iri|#>quain opukntissima olim in terris | 
maximam vocet tuoque ritu colat" Dextra Here 
data accipere se omen inpleturumque fata ara cor 
ac dicata ait. Ibi turn primum bove eximia capts 
gregc sacrum Herculi adhibitis ad ministerium dapen 
Potitiis ac Pinarits, quae turn familiae maxime inc 
ea loca incolebant, factum. Forte tta evenit, ut P 
ad tempus praesto essenty iisque exta apponeie 
Pinarii extis adcsis ad ceteram venirent dapem. 
institutum mansit, donee Pinarium genus fuit, ne 
soUemnium vescerentur. Potitii ab Euandro edocti 
stites sacri eius per multas aetates fuenmt, donee tr 
servis publicis soUemni familiae ministerio genus < 
Potitiorum interiit Haec turn sacra Romulus un 
omnibus peregrina suscepit, iam tum inmortalitatis v 
parta Cy ad quaro eum sua fata ducebant^ (autor. 

Homuius makes laws^ istabOshes the Senate^ assumes i 
staie^ and opens an asylum for strangers. 

VIII. Rebus divinis rite perpetratis vocataqu 
concilium ' muldtudine, quae coalescere in populi 
corpus nulla re praeterquam legibus poterat, iura < 
quae ita sancTk generi hominum agresti fore ratus, 
ipse venerabileni insignibus imperii fecisset, cum 
habitu se augustiorem, tum maxime lictoribus' due 
sumptis fecit Alii ab numero avium, quae a 
regnum portenderant, eum secutum numerum p 
me baud paenitet eorum sententiae esse, quibus • 
paritores hoc genus ab Etruscis finitimis, undc 
cunilis, unde toga praetexU sumpta est, ct nui 
quoque ipsum ductum placet; et ita habuisse Et 
quod ex duodecim populis communiter creato re| 
gulos singuli populi Hctores dederint. 

Crescebat interim urbs munitionibus alia atqu 
adpetendo loca, cum in spem magis futurae mu 


nb quam ad id, quod turn hominum erat, munirent 
Deinde ne vana urbis magnitudo esset, adiciendae mul* 
thudinis causa vetere consilio condentium urbes, qui 
obsconun atque humilem conciendo ad se muititudinem 
5 natam e terra sibi prolcm emenliebantur, locuniy qui 
nunc neptus descendentibus inter duos lucos est, asylum 
apcrit. Eo ex finitimis populis turba omnis sine discri- 
nine, liber an servus esset, avida novarum rerum per- 
Ibgity idque primum ad coeptain magnitudinem roboris 
>o fait. Cum iam viriuro baud paenitcret, consilium deinde 
viribus parat: centum creat senatores, sive quia is nu- 
mens satis erat, sive quia soli centum erant, qui creari 
panes possent: patres certe ab honore, patriciique pro- 
eonim appellati. 

Im 0rder I0 Maim wh»a^ ikt Romans imviie ihdr neighhon 
$0 mriineu gamts^ and uizt tki maidens who come with 
tkdr parents. 

15 IX* lam res Romana adeo erat valida, ut cuilibet 
finitimanim civitatum bello par esset; sed penuria mu- 
lieram horoinis aetatem duratura magnitudo erat, quippe 
qnibus nee domi spes prolis nee cum finitimis conubia 
Tum ex consilio patnim Romulus legatos circa 
gfntes misit, qui societatem conubiumque novo 
popalo peterent : urbes quoque ut cetera ex infimo 
dein, quas sua virtus ac dii iuvent, magnas opes 
niagnumque nomen (acere. Satis scire origin! Ro- 
ct deos adfuisse et non defuturam virtutem. 
S5 Rroinde ne gravaientur homines cum hominibus sangui* 
nen ac genus miscere. Nusquam benigne legatio au« 
est: adeo simul spemebant, simul tantam in medio 
Item molem sibi ac posteris suis metuebant; a 
rogitantibus dimissi, ecquod feminis quoque 
^ iMfhiiu apentissent: id enim demum oonpar conubium 
tee. Aegre id Romana pubes passai et baud dubie 
aA noa spectare res coepit 


Cul tcnipus locumquc aptum ut darct Romulus, a 

gritudincm animi dissimulans ludos ex induslria par 

Ncptuno Equcstri sollcmnis; Consualia vocat. Indi 

dcindc finilirais spcctoculum iubct, quantoquc appara 

turn scicbant aut poterant concckbrant, ut rem clara 

cxsi)ectalamquc faccrcnt MuUi mortalcs convcnerc, si 

(lio ctiam vidcndac novae urbis, maxime proximi quiqi 

Caenincnses Crustumini Anteranates; lam Sabinorutn oi 

nis muUitudo cum liberis ac coniugibus vcnit Invit 

Iwspiialitcr per domos cum silum mocniaque et i 

(jucntem tcclis urbem vidisscnt, mirantur tarn brevi n 

Komanam crcvisse. Ubi spectacuU tempus vcnit, de 

tacque eo mentes cum ocuUs crant, turn ex compos 

orta vis, signoque dato inventus Romana ad rapienc 

virgines discurrit Magna pars forte, in qucm quaec] 

incidcrat, raptae; quasdam forma excellentes primoril 

patnim dcstinatas ex plcbc homines, quibus datum i 

gotium crat, domos deferebant. Unam longc ante al 

specie ac pulchritudine insignem a globo Talassii c 

usdam raptam ferunt, multisque sciscitantibus, cuin; 

cam ferrent, identidcm, ne quis violaret, Talassio f< 

clamitatum: inde nuptialem banc voccm factam. T 

bato per metum ludicro maesti parentes virginum profu 

unt, incusantes violati hospitii focdus deumque invocani 

cuius ad sollemne ludosque per fas ac Adem decc 

vcnisscnt. Ncc raptis aut spes de se melior aut inc 

r.aiio est minor. Sed ipse Romulus circumibat, docel 

que patrum id su^^erbia factum, qui conubium Aniti 

negassent Illas tamen in matrimonio, in societate 1 

tunarum omnium civitatisque, et, quo nihil carius hum; 

generi sit, libenim fore. Mollirent modo iras, et qui 

fors corpora dedisset, darent animos. Saepe ex inii 

postmodunx gratiam ortam, eoque mclioribus usuras vi 

quod adnisurus pro se quisque sit, ut, cum suam vie 

functus officio sit, parentium ctiam patriaeque exp 

desiderium. Accedebant blanditiae vironim factum p 




^.•itiiim copidiute atque amore, quae maxime ad mulie* 
tee ingenium efficaces preces sunt 

Rmmuim defuUs ikt fe^pit pf Catnina^ stays their king^ and 
de^catts titt first '*spolia opima." 

X. lam admodum mitigati aiiimi raptis erant. At 

lapcaniiD parentes turn maxime sordida veste lacrimisque 

5 ct qucreUis civitates concitaliant. Nee domi tantum 

ind^gnationcs continebant, sed congregabantur undique 

ad Titum Talium, jregem Sabinorum^ et legationes eo, 

quod maximum Tatii m>men in iis regionibus erat| con- 

veniebant Caeninenses Cnistuminique et Antemnates 

to cianty ad quos eius iniuriae pan i^ertinebat Len^e 

agere his Tatius Sabiriique visi sunt; ipsi inter se trcs 

populi communiter bellum parant Ne Cnistumini qui- 

dem atque Antemnates pro anlore iraque Caeninensium 

mis se inpigre movent: ita per sc ipsum nomen Caeni- 

IS VKOA in agrmn Romanum impetum facit Sed elTuse 

vastantibits fit obvtus cum exercitu Romulus, levique 

ccrtamine docet vanam sine viribiis iram esse. Exerci- 

tmn fundit (ugatque, fnsum persequitur; legcm in proe« 

lio oblnincat et spoliat ; duce hostium occiso urbem 

SD primo impettt capit. 

Inde exercitu victore reducto ipse, cum factis vir 
magnificns tum fiictorum ostentator hand minor, spolia 
duds hostium caesi suspensa fabricato ad id apte fer- 
colo geiens in Capitolium escendit, ibique ea cum ad 
SS c|iicrciim pastoribus sacram deposuisset, simul cum dono 
des^gnavic templo lovis finis, cognomenque addidit deo. 
*Iappiter Feietri" inquit, '^haec tibi victor Romulus 
legia arma fero» templumque his regionibus, quas 
animo metatus sum, dedico, scdem opirois spoliis, 
regibos ducibusque hostium caesis me auctorem 
l eqaen tes posteri ferent** Haec templi est origo, quod 
omnium Romae sacratum est Ita deinde diis 


visum, ncc inritam conditoris templi vocem esse, qii 
kituros eo s|X)lia posteros nuncupavit, nee multitudin 
conpotum eius tloni vulgari budem. ' Bina i)ostca intc 
tot aniios, tot bella opima paru sunt six)lia: adeo rar 
cius fortuna dccoris fuit« 

Easy victories ever AnUmHoe and CrusiumeriuM. The St 
biuis gain the Roman citadel by bribing Tarpeia* 

XL Dum ca ibi Romani gerunt, Antetnnatiuui exe 
citus per occasioncm ac soHtudincni hostilitcr in iin< 
Roinanos incursioncin facit. Raptim et ad hos Romar 
logio ducta jxilatos in agris opprcsstt F*usi igitur prin 
imi>etu et claniorc hostcs, oppidum captuni; duplicuii 
victoria ovantem Romuluni Hcrsilia coniunx precibi 
raptarum fatigata orat, ut parentibus eanim det vcnia 
et in civitatcm accipiat: ita rem coalescerc concord 
posse. Facile impetratuin. Indc contra Crustumin 
l)rofcctus bcllum infcrentcs. Ibi minus ctiam, qtiod ali 
nis cladibus cecidcmnt animi, certaminis fuit Utroqi 
coloniac missae; plures invent!, qui propter ubcrtatc 
tcrrae in Cnistuminum nomina darcnt Et Romam ini 
frcfiucnter migratum est, a parentibus maxime ac propi 
c]uis raptanim. 

Novissimum ab Sabinis bellum ortum, multoquc 
maximum fuit: nihil enim per iram aut cupiditatcm s 
turn est, nee ostenderunt bellum prius qu«im intulcrui 
Consilio etiam additus dolus. Spurius TaqKius Roman 
praeerat arci. Huius filiam virginem auro eorrum 
Tatius, ut armatos in areem accipiat — aquam forte 
turn sacris extra moenia petitum ierat; — accept! obi 
tam amiis necavere, seu ut vi capta potius arx videi 
tur, seu prodendi exempli causa, ne quid usquam fidi 
proditori esset. Additur fabula, quod vulgo Sabini i 
reas armillas roagnt ponderis brachio laevo gemnuitosq 
magna specie anulos habuerint, pepigisse earn quod 


flflbtrls manibus haberent; eo scuta illi pro aureis 
doab cong^sta. Sunt qui earn ex pacto tradendi quod 
in sinistns manibus esset derecto anna petisse dicant, 
ct fraode visam agere sua ipsam peremptam mercede. 

A hMU emsMis in tkg valley where was afterward Ike Fo- 
rum. Romulus averts defeai by vowing a temple to Ju- 
pUer Siator. 

5 XIL Tenuere tamen arcem Sabini, atque inde postero 

die* cum Romanus exercitus instructus quod inter Pala- 

tinom Capitolinumque collem campi est complesset, non 

prius descenderunt in aequum, quam ira et cupidttate 

lecoperandae aids sUmulante animos in advcrsum Romani 

to sobiere. Princtpes utrimque pugnam ciebant : ab Sabinis 

Mettios Curtius, ab Romanis Hostius Hostilius. Hie 

rem Romanam iniquo loco ad prima signa animo atque 

andacia sustinebat Ut Hostius cecidit, confestim Ro- 

mana indinatur acies, fusaque est ad vetcrem portam 

■5 BalatiL Romulus eC ipse turba fugientium actus arma 

• ad caelum tollens "luppiter, tuis*' inquit "iussus avibus 

hie in Palatio prima urbi fundamcnta ieci. Arcem iam 

icelere emptam Sabini habent; inde hue armati superata 

media YaUe lendunt At tu, pater deum hominumque hinc 

JO saltem arce hostes, deme terrorem Romanis fugamque 

foedam siste. Hie ego tibi templum Statori lovi, quod 

moQaiiientum sit posteris tua praesenti ope senratam 

orfoem esse, voveo." Haec precatus, velut si sensisset 

aoditas preces^ "hinc" inquit, "Romani, luppiter opti- 

a$ oms maximus lesistere atque iterare pugnam iubet." 

Reslitere Romani tamquam caelesti voce iussi : ipse ad 

p l im or cs Romulus provolat. Mettius Curtius ab Sabinis 

p r in ce p s ab arce decucurrerat, et effusos egerat Romanos 

toCo quantum foro spatium est, nee procul iam a porta 

i» lUalH crat, rl a mi fa ns "Vicimus perfidos hospites, inbelles 

Iam sciunt longe aliud esse viigines rapere, 


aliud pugnare cum viris.'' In cum hacc gtoriantc 
cum globo fcrocissimorum iuvcnum Romulus impetu 
facit. Ex cquo lum forte Mettius pugnabat; co pc 
facilius fuit Pulsum Romani pcwcquunlur, ct alia R 
mana acics audacia regis accensa fuiidit Sabinos. M< 
tius in paludem sese strepitu sequentium trcpidante cq 
coniecit; averteratquc ea res ctiam Sabinos Unti pc 
culo viri. Et ille quidem adnuentibus ac vocantib 
suis favore multorum addito animo evadit: Romani £ 
binique in media convalle duorum montium redintegn 
proelium; sed res Romana erat superior. 

Thi Sabint women tninat their fathers and husbands to 
reconciled. The Romans and Sabines unite into one cc 
munity under the joint rule of Romulus and Tatius. 

XIII. Tum Sabinae mulieres, quarum ex iniuria b 
lum ortum erat, crinibus passis scissaque vcste vi( 
malis muUebrt pavore ausae se inter tela volantia infei 
ex transverso impetu facto dirimerc infcstas acics, d 
mere iras, hinc patres hinc viros orantes, ne se sangu 
nefando soceri generique rcspcrgerent, ne parricidio r 
cularent partus suos, nepotum illi, hi libenim progcnic 
"Si adfinitatis inter vos, si conubii piget, in nos ven 
iras. Nos causa belli, nos vulnenim ac cacdiimi v 
ac parentibus sumus. Melius peribimus quam s 
alteris vestnim viduae aut orbae vivemus." Movet 
aim multitudinem tum duces. Silentium et repent 
fit quies; inde ad foedus faciendum duces prodei 
nee pacem modo sed civitatem unam ex duabus facii 
regnum consociant, imperium omne conferunt Roms 
Ita geminata urbe, ut Sabinis tamen aliquid daref 
Quirites a'Curibus appcllati. Monumentum eius pugr 
ubi primum ex profunda emersus paludc equus C 
tium in vado statuit, Curtium lacum appellanmt 

Ex bello tam tristi laeta repente pax cariorcs Ss 


Das Yiris ac parendbus et ante omnes Romulo ipsl 

iecit Itaquc, cuni populum in curias triginta divideret, 

Domina earum curiis inposuit Id non traditur, cum 

y hand dubie aliquanto numerus maior hoc mulierum fu- 

^^[ 5 crity actate V^nj^dignitatibus suis vironimve an sorte lectae 

, >»^ sine, quae nomina curiis darent £odeni tempore et 

centuriae ties cquttum conscriptae sunt: Ramnenses ab 

RdDulOy ab T. Tatio Titienses appellati; I^cerum no- 

miius et originis causa incerta est Inde non modo 

m commune scd coqcon etiam regnum duobus regibus 


Tmiims is siaim fy tki Laurentians^ and Romulus nigns 
miome* Tks Romans attack and captun Fidenoi, 

XIV. Post aliquot annos propinqui regis Tatii Icgatos 
Latirentium pidsant, cumque Laurentes iure gentium 
ageient, apud Tatium gratia suorum et preces plus po- 
tj teiant Igitur illorum poenam in se vertit: nam La- 
vini, cum ad sollemne sacrificium eo venisset, concursu 
facto interficitur. Earn rem minus aegre quam dignum 
crat tulisse Romulum ferunt, seu ob infidam societatem 
rcgniy seu quia baud iniuria caesum credebat Itaque 
9o bello quidem abstinuit : ut tamen expiarentur legatorum 
auariae regisque caedes, foedus inter Romam Lavini* 
imqiie urbes raiovatum est 

^ cum hb quidem insperata pax eratt aliud multo 
p io pi a s atque in ipsis prope portis bellum ortum. Fide- 
«5 nates nimis vicinas prope se convalescere opes rati, 
prittsquam tantum roboris esset, quantum futurum appa- 
lebaty o ggupant bellum facere* luventute armata im- 
mtasi Yastatur agri quod inter urbem ac Fidenas est 
lade ad hevam versi, quia dextra Tiberis arcebat, cum 
j» nMgna trepidatione agrestium populantur ; tumultusque 
ex agris in urbem inlatus pro nuntio fuit Ex- 
Romolus — neque enim dilationem pati tam vicinuro 


bcUum poterat — exercituni educit, castn a Fidenis t 
passuum locat. Ibi modico praesidio relicto egrc 
omnibus copiis partem milituni locis circa densa 
giilta obscuris subsidere in insidiis iussit; cum i 
maiorc atquc omni equitatu profcctus, id quod qus 
bat, tumultuoso et niinaci gcncre pugnae adcquit: 
ipsis proi)e portis hostcm excivit. Fugae quoque, < 
simulanda crat, cadem equcstris pugna causam ni 
niirabilem dedit. £t cum velut inter pugnae fuga 
consilium trepidante equitatu pedes quoque rcferrct 
dum, plenis repente portis efiusi hostes inpulsa Roi 
acie studio instandi sequendique trahuntur ad locum 
(liarum. Inde subito exorti Romani transversam 
dunt hostium aciem ; addunt pavorem mota e c 
signa eorum, qui in praesidio rclicti fuerant: ita 
tiplici terrore percuisi Fidenates prius paene quam 
mulus quique cum eo equites erant circumagcrent i 
equos, terga vertunt multoque efTusius, quippe vera 
qui simulantes paulo ante secuti eranti oppidum re 
bant. Non tamen eripuere se hosti: haerens in 
Romanus priusquam fores portarum obicerentur velu 
mine uno inrumpit. 

Conquisi of part of the Veientim territory, Popular\ 
Romnlns with the lower classes and the soldiers. 

XV. Belli Fidenatis contagione inritati Veientiun 
imi et consanguinitate -— nam Fidenates quoque E 
fuerunt, — et quod ipsa propinquitas loci, si Ro 
arnia omnibus infesta finitimis essent, stimulabat, in 
Romanos excucurrerunt populabundi magis quam 
more belli. Itaque non castris positis, non exp< 
hostium exercitu laptam ex agris praedam per 
Veios rediere. Romanus contra^ postquam hoste 
agris non invenit, dimicationi ultimae instnictus 
tusque Tiberim transit. Quern postquam castra p 


d mI tirbcin accessunitn Veientes audivere, obviam 
cgresuy ut poiiin acie dccemercnt, quam inclusi tie 
tcctb mocnibiisqiie dimicarent. Ibi viribus nulla arte 
aditttis tantum vcteiani robore cxcrcitus rex Romanus 
S vicit, pcnccutusquc ftisos ad moenia hostes urbc valida 
muris ac litu ipw miinita abstinuit; agros rcdicns va« 
slat oldsccndi magis quam pracdae studio. Kaque clade 
baud minus quam advcru pugna subacti Veientes pacem 
pclitum oratorcs Romam mittunt. Agri iiartc multatis 
10 in centum annos indutiac datae. 

. Haec ferme Romulo regnante domi militiaeque gesta, 

. quorum nihil absonum fidei divin«ie originis divinitatisque 
post mortem creditae fuit, non animus in regno avito 
recupciamloy non condemlac urbis consilium, non bello 

15 ac pace firmandae. Ab illo enim profccto viribus datis 
tantom vaJuit, ut in quadraginta deinde annos tutam 
pacem haberet Mukitudini Uimen gratior fuit qunm 
patribus, longe ante alios acccptissimus militum animis: 
irccentosque armatos ad custodiam cor|x>ris, quos Cele- 

m res appellant, non in bello solum sed etiam in pace 

Dmrimg m rt7*iew in ike Campus Martius Romnlus mysieri* 
mmsiy disappears from ikt tarik. Reappearing in tieified 
fiMrm^ ke predicts Rome^s fuiure ghry* 

XVL His inmortalibus editis operibus cum ad exer- 
cicimi ircensendum contioncm in campo ad Caprae 
polodem haberet, subito coorta tempcstas cum magno 
as firagore tonitribusque tam denso regem operuit nimbo, 
at conapect u m etus contiont abstulerit Ncc deinde in 
terra Romulus fuit. Romana pubes sedalo tandem 
porove, postquam ex tam turbido die serena et tran- 
qnilla kix rediit, ubi vacuam sedem regiam vidit, etsi 
cretlebat patribus, qui proxumi steterant, sublimem 
proceltoi tamen vetut orbitatis metu icta mae- 

UBER I. CAl'. XVll. 

stum aliquamdiu silcntium obtinuit. Dcinde a paiu 

\ ii)iiio facto deura dco natiim, rcgcm parcntcmquc url 

1 Komanac salverc univcrsi Romuhini iubcnt ; paccm pi 

! cibus cxiK)scunt, uli volcns propitius siuim semper s 

I spitci progcnicm. Fuisse credo lum qiioipie aliqu^ 

^ qui discerptum regcm patrum roanibus laciti argucrc 

— manavit enim liaec quocpic scd pcrobscura fama; 

illam alteram admiratio viri et pavor praescns nobili 

vit. Ht consilio ctiam unius hominis addita rei dici 

fides, fi^amquc Proculus lulius, sollicita civitatc dcsi< 

rio regis et infensa patribus, gravis, ut traditur, quam 

magiiac rei auctor in comionem prodit. •* Romulii 

inquit " Quirites, parens urbis huiiis, prima hodiema \\ 

caelo rei)cntc delapsus se mihi obvitim dedit. C 

I^rfusus horrore vcncrabundus adstitisscm, petens pn 

bus, ut contra intueri fas esset: "Abi, nuntia** in(i 

"Romanis, caclestes ita vellc, ut mea Roma caput 01 

terrarum sit: proindc rem militarcm colant, sciant< 

et ita |X)stcris tradant niillas o|)cs humanas ariT^is 1 

manis resisterc posse." "Haec" inquit "locutus su 

mis abiit." Minim quantum ilU viro nuntianli haec fi 

fucrit, quamquc desiderium Romuli apud plebem cxc 

tumque facta fide inmortalititis Icnitum sit. 

/N/i-rrrt^Mftw, ifurittg which the senators rule iu rctal 
Dispute Wtuven the two parts of the nation as to 
choice of a king. Discontent of the louver orders, 
election is referred to the people^ subject to confirf9tatioh 
the Senate, 

XVII. Patnim interim animos certamen regni ac 
pido versabat. Necdum ad singulos, quia nemo ma^ 
pere eminebat in novo populo, pcrvenerat; factioni 
inter ordines certabatur. Oriundi ab Sabinis, ne, < 
post Tatti mortem ab sua parte non erat regnatum, 
societate aequa possessionem imperii amitterent, sui < 
poris creari regem volebant; Roman! veteres peregrir 


icgeiD aspcfnabantur. In variis voluntatibus regnari ta- 
men omncs volebant libcrtatis dulcedinc^nondum experta. 
Hmor deinde patres incessit, ne civitatem sine imperio, 
exerdtum sine duce, multarum circa civitatium inritatis 
5 animts vis aliqua externa adoriretur. £t esse igitur alt- 
quod caput placebat, et nemo alteri concedere in ani- 
mum inducebat Ita rem inter se centum patres decern 
decuriis iactis singulisque in singulas decurias creatis, 
qui summae rerum praeessent, consociant. Decern im- 

to peritabant, unus cum insignibus imperii ^ et lictoribus 
crat; quinque dierum spatio finiebatur im|)eriuni ac per 
omnes in orbem ibat; annuumque intervallum regni fuit 
Id ab re, quod nunc quoque tenet nomen, interregnum 
appellatum. Fremere deinde plebs, multiplicatam servi- 

■5 totem, centum pro uno dominos factos; nee ultra nisi 
wtgtm et ab ipsis creatum videbantur passuri. Cum 
sensissent ea moveri patres, ofTerendum ultro rati quod 
amissofi erant, ita gratiam ineunt summa potestate populo 
pctmissa, ut non plus darent iuris quam retinerent- 

so Decrevenint enim, ut, cum populus regem iussisset, id 
sic ratum esset, si patres auctores iierent. Hodie quo- 
que in legibus magisUratibusque rogandis usurpatur idem 
ins vi adempta: priusquam populus suffragium ineat, in 
incertum comitiorum eventum patres auctores fiunt. Tum 

as intenex contione advocata ''Quod bonum faustum felix* 
que tit** inquit, "Quirites, regem create: ita patribus 
▼isom est Patres deinde, si dignum qui secundus ab 
Romulo numeretur crearitis, auctores fient" Adeo id 
gratum plebi fuit, ut, ne victi beneficio viderentur, id 

jD modo iciscerent iuberentque, ut senatus decemeret qui 
Romae regnaret 

NumuL PmnpUiuSf m Sabini rtfwWHtd for pUty and Jusiici^ is 
€iecUd king and inauguraiid upon thi Capitolim HiiL 

XVIil. Indita iustitia religioque ea tempestate Nu- 
Pompili erat Curibus Sabinis habitabat, consul- 



lissimus vir. ut in ilia quisquam esse actate p< 
omnis divini atque human! iuris. Auctorcm doc 
eius, quia non_extat alius, falso Samium Pylhai 
cdunt, quern Scrvio Tullio rcgnantc Koniac ccntun 
l)lius post annos in ultima luliac ora circa Meiap< 
lieraclcamciue ct Crotona iuvcnum aemulantium 
coctus habuisse consUL Ex quibus locis, ctsi cii 
acutis fuissct, quae fama in Sabinos, aut quo li 
commercio quemquam ad cupiditatcm discendi c 
set, quove pracsidio unus per tot gentes dissons 
inonc moribusque pervcnissct ? Suopte igitur ii 
tcmpcratum animum virtutibus fuissc opinor mag 
structumtiue non Urn pcrcgrinis artibus quam dis 
tctrica ac tristi veienim Sabinorum, quo genere i 
quondam incomiptius fuit 

Audito nomine Numae patres Romani, quar 
inclinari oi>es ad Sabinos rege inde sumpto videl 
tamen nequc se quisquam nee factionis suae aliu 
denique patrum aut civium quemquam praeferre i 
ausi ad unum omnes Numae Pdmpilio rcgnum d 
dum decemunt. Accitus, sicut Romulus augurat 
condcnda rcgnum adeptus est, de se quoque deo 
suli iussit. Inde ab augure, cui deinde honorii 
publicum id perpetuumque sacerdotium fuit, dedui 
arcem in lapide ad meridiem versus consedit. 
ad laevam eius capite velato sedem cepit, dextra 
baculum sine nodo aduncum tenens, quem litut 
pellarunt Inde ubi prospectu in urbem agrumquc 
deos precatus regiones ab oriente ad occasum d 
navit, dextras ad meridiem partes, laevas ad s 
trionem esse dixit, signum contra, quoad Ion 
conspectum oculi ferebant, animo finivit; tum 1 
laevam manum translato dextra in caput Numae 
sita precatus ita est: '^luppiter pater, si est & 
Numam Pompilium, cuius ego caput teneo, regei 
mae essCj^jit), tu signa nobis certa adclarassis ini 


finesi quos feci." Turn peregit verbis auspicia,. quae 
miui vellet ; quibus missis dedaratus rex Numa de 

t{^ '^u rI4' 

Numa fontuU the tempU 0/ Janns^ reigns in unbroken peeue^ 
imcuUeUes fear of ike gods and establishes tiie calendar* 

XIX. Qui regno ita potitus urbem novam, conditam 

S vi et armis, iure earn legibus(|ue ac moribus dc integro 

condere parat Quibus cum inter bella adsnescere vide- 

let non posse, quippe cflerari militia aninios/mrtigandum 

feiocem populum armonim dcsuctudine ratus lanum ad 

infimum Argiletum indicem pacis bellique fecit, apertus 

to lit in aimis esse civitatem, clausus pacatos circa omnes 

popukM significaret Bis deinde post Numae regnum 

daiisus fuity semel T. Manlio consule post Punicum 

primum perfectum bellumi itenim, quod nostrae aetati 

dii dederunt ut videremus, post belhim Actiacum ab 

■5 imperatore Caesare Augusto pace terra marique parta. 

Choso eo cum omnium circa finitimonim socictate ac 

Ibederibus iunxisset animos, positis extemorum periculo- 

mm curis ne luxuriarent otio animi, quos metus hostium 

' disciplinaque militaris continuerat, omnium primum rem 

30 ad multitudinem inperitam et illis saeculis rudem effica- 

cisiniamy deorum metum iniciendum ratus '^e'stV Qui 

cum desoendere ad animos sine aliquo commento roira- 

cnli non posset, simulat sibi cum dea Egeria congres- 

SOS noctumos esse; eius se monitu, quae acceptissima 

25 dib essentf sacra instituerei sacerdotes suos cuique de- 

ofum praencere. 

Atque omnium primum ad^cursiis lunae in duodecim 

memes djsP^bit annum; quem, quia tricenos dies singu- 

lii mensibtts luna non explet, desuntque • . . dies solido 

J0 ttino, qui solstitiali circumagitur orbe, intercalariis men- 

, wbam interponendis ita dispensavit, ut vicesimo anno ad 

^ metam eandem solis, unde orsi essent, plenis omnium 

nmoram spatiia dies congruerent. Idem nefastos dies 


fastosquc fecit, [quia aliquando nihil cum populo 

f utile fulurum crat. "j 

Instituiion of ike grtai FiaMiHS, tki VtstaU^ ihi Saiii\ 

tht Poniifex Maximns. 

XX. Turn saccrdotibus creandis animum adiecit, qi 
quain ii>se plurima sacra obibat, ea maximc quae i 
ail Dialcin Haminem pcrtinenL Scd quia in civ 
iKllicosa plures Romuli quam Numac similes rcges 
talxit fore, ilurosque ipsos ad bclla, nc sacra re 
vicis desererentur, flaminem lovi adsiduum sacerdc 
crcavit, insigniquc cum vcste et curuliregia sella a 
navit Huic duos flamines adiecit, Marti unum, 
mm Quirino; virginesque Vestae legit, Alba oriun 
saccrdotium et genti conditoris baud alicnum. lis 
adsiduae templi antistites essent, stipendium de pul 
statuit, virgmitate aliisque caerimoniis vencrabilcs 
sanctas fecit. Salios item duodecim A[arti Gradivc 
git, tunicaeque pictie insigne dedit et super tun 
acneum |K*ctori tegumen, caclestiaque arma, quae ar 
a))pcllantur, ferre ac |x:r urliem ire canentes can 
cum tripudiis sollcmnique saltatu iussit. 

Pontificcm deinde Numam Marcium Marci filiun 
patribus legit, eique sacra omnia cxscripta exsignat 
adtribuit, quibus hostiis, quibus diebus, ad quae tci 
sacra fiereht, atque unde in eos sumptus pecunia 
garctur. Cetera quoque omnia publica ^rivataque \ 
pontificis scitis subiecit, ut esset, quo consultum pi 
veniret, ne quid divini iuris neglegendo patrios ritus 
rcgrinosque adsciscendo turbaretur; nee caclestes n 
cacrimonias sed iusta quoque funebria placando 
manes ut idem pontifex edoceret, quaeque prodigia 
minibus aliove quo visu missa suscipercntur atque < 
rentur. Ad ea elicienda ex mentibus divinis lovt E 
aram in Aventino dicaviti deumque consuluit aug 
quae suscipienda essent 


Pmf^fki reign cf ikt pious king* His mteiings with the 
goddess Egeria. Instiimtion of the worship of Fides. 

XXI. Ad haec consuUanda procurandaque multitudine 
OfDni a vi et armis conversa et animi aliquid agendo 
occupati eranty et deonim adsidua i nsjdens cura, cum 
interesse rebus humanis caeleste numen videretur, ea 
j pictate omniuin pectora imbuerat, ut fides ac ius iu- 
landum pro anxio legum ac poenanim metu civitatem 
r^erenU Et cum ipsi se homines in regis, velut unici 
exempli, mores formarenty turn finitumi etiam populi, 
qui antea castia'non urbem positam in medio ad soUi- 

to citandam omnium pacem crediderant, in earn verecun* 
I diam adducti sunt, ut civitatem totam in cultum versam 
^deonim violare ducerent nefas. Lucus erat, quem me- 
dium ex opaco specu Tons perenni rigabat aqua. Quo 
quia se persaepe Numa sine arbitris velut ad congres- 

t5 sum deae inferebat, Camenis eum'nucum sacravit, quod 

earum ibi concilia cum coniuge sua Egeria essent Et 

Fidet sollemne instituit Ad id sacnurium flamines bigis 

\ cniTu arcuato vehi iussit, manuque ad digitos usque Ifi^ 

vohita rem divinam fiicerei significantes fidem tutandam 

ao sedemque eius etiam in dexteris sacratam esse. Multa 
alia sacrificia locaque sacris &ciendis, quae Argeos pon- 
tificcs vocanty dedicavit Omnium tamen maximum eius 
opeium fuit tutela per omne regni tempus baud minor 
pacts quam regnL — Ita duo deinceps reges, alius alia 

S5 via, iUe bello hie pace, civitatem auxenmt* Romulus 
lepCem et triginta regnavit annos, Numa tres et quadra* 
guita. Cum valida tum tempento et belli et pacis 
ntibai erat civitas. 

Thiims Hostiiins is eh&sem third king. War is declared against 

Alba LoHga* 

XXIL Numae morte ad interregnum res rediit Inde 
TUInm Hostilium, nepotem Hostili, cuius in infima arce 



Clara pugna advenus Sabinos fuerat, regem populuj 
sit: patres auctorcs facti. Hie non solum proximc 
dissimilis sed ferocior etiam quam Romulus fuit. 
aetas viresque turn ayita quoque gloria animum ! 
labat Sencscere igitur civitatem otto ratus un 
matcriam excitandi belli quaerebat. Forte eveni 
agrestes Romani ex Albano agro, Albani ex Re 
praedas in vicem agerent. Imperitabat turn Gaius 
ilius Albae. Utrimque legati fere sub idem temp 
res repetendas missi. TuUus praeceperat suis, ne 
prius quam mandata agerent. Satis sciebat nega 
Albanum : ita pie belluin indici posse. Ab A 
socordius res acta: excepti hospitio ab Tullo 1 
ac bcnigne, comiter regis convivium celebrant, 
sper Romani et res repetiverant priores et negar 
bano bellum in tricesimum diem indixerant 
renuntiant TuUo. Tum legatis TuUus dicendi p 
tern, quid petentes venerint, £icit. lUi omnium 
primum purgando terunt tempus: se invitos quic 
quod minus placeat Tullo, dicturos, sed imperio s 
res repetitum se venisse; ni reddantur, bellum ir 
iussos. Ad haec Tullus ''Nuntiate" inquit "regi 
regem Romanum deos facere testes, uter prius p 
res repetentes legatos aspematus dimiserit, ut ii 
omnes expetant huiusce dades belli." 

IVAen the armiis metU the Aibam dictntor dipreeaUs a 

battle as fatal to both parties. 

XXIII. Haec nuntiant domum Albani. Et 
utrimque summa ope parabatur, civili simillimum 
prope inter parentes natosqiie, Troianam utramqu 
lem, cum Lavinium ab Troia, ab Lavinio Alba, al 
norum stirpe regum oriundi Romani essent. I 
tamen belli minus miserabilem dimicationem fecit, 


nec acie certatttm est, et tecUs modo dirutis alterius 
vtMS duo populi in unum confusi sunt. 

Albaini priores ingcnti exercitu in agnim Romanum 
impetum fecere. Castra ab urbe haud plus quinque 
5 milia passuum kxrant, fossa circunulant: fossa Cluilia ab 
nomine ducis per aliquot saccula appellata est, donee 
cum re nonien quoque vetustate abolevit In his ca- 
stas Quilius Albanus rex moritur; dictatorem Albani 
Mcttiam Fufetium crcant Interim Tultus ferox prae- 
lo cipae morte regis, magnumque deorum numen, ab ipso 
capite orsum, in omne nomcn Albanum expetiturum 
poenas ob bellum inpium dictitans, nocte praeteritis ho- 
stlum castris infesto exercitu in agrum Albanum pergit. 
Ea res ab stativis excivit Mcttium. Ducit quam prox- 
15 ame ad hostem potest. Inde legatum praemissum nunti- 
are Tullo iubet, priusquam dimicent, opus esse colloquio: 
a tecum congressus sit, satis scire ea se allaturum, quae 
nihilo minus ad rem Romanam quam ad Albanam per- 
lineant Haud aspernatus Tullus, tamen, si vana adfe- 
99 lantur, in aciem educit Exeunt contra et Albani. 
FMtquam struct! utrimque stabant, cum jiaucis procerum 
10 medium duces procedunt Ibi infit Albanus: '*Iniu- 
fias et non rcdditas res ex foedere quae rcpctitae sint, 
ci ego regem nostrum Cluilium causam huiusce esse 
15 bcDi audisse vidcor, nec tc dubito, Tulle, eadem prae 
te fern. Sed si vera potius quam dictu speciosa di- 
oenda sunt, cupido imperii duos cognatos vicinosque 
populos ad arma stimulat. Neque, recte an perpe* 
, ram, interpretor; fucrit ista eius ddiberatio, qui bellum 
3D snaccpit : me Albani gercndo bello ducem creavere. 
nhsd te. Tulle, monitum velim: Etrusca res quanta 
tios teque maxime sit, quo propior es Tuscis, hoc 
scis. Multum illi terra, plurimum man poUent 
Menior esto, iam cum signum pugnae dabis, has duas 
35 aciei q>ectacuk> fore, ut fessos confectosque simul vic« 
ac rictum adgrediantur. Itaque si not di amant. 




quoniam non contend liberUte certa in dubiam 'm\ 
scrviiiiquc aleam imus, ineamus aliquam viam, qua, 
uirb impcrent, sine magna dadc, sine multo sang! 
utriusciuc populi decerni possiL" Haud displicct 
rullo, quamquam cum indole animi turn spc vide 
fcrocior erat. Quaerentibus utrimque ratio initur, 
ct fortuna ipsa praebuit materiam. 

TAe contisiauis aj;;rei io decide the war by a combat of i 

champions from tack army, 

XXIV. Forte in duobus turn exercitibus crant t 
mini fratrcs ncc aetate ncc viribus dispares. Hor 
Curiatiosque fuisse satis constat, nee ferme res ani 
alia est nobilior. Tamen in re Um clara nomi 
error manet, utrius ixjpuli Horatii, utrius Curiatii fiu 
Auctores utroque trahunt; plures tamcn invcnio, qui 
nianos Horatios vocent; hos ut scquar, inclinat ani 
Cum trigeminis agunt reges, ut pro sua quisque \ 
dimicent fcrro:' ibi imperium fore, unde victoria f 
Nihil recusatur. Tempus et locus convenit Prius< 
diniicarcnt, foedus ictum inter Romanos et Albano! 
his Icgibus, ut, cuius populi civcs eo ccrtamine vici: 
is alien populo cum bona pace imperitaret. 

Foedera alia aliis Icgibus, ceteruni eodem modo c 
fiunt Tum ita factum accepimus, nee ullius vet 
foederis memoria est Fetialis regcm Tullum iu 
vit: "lubesne me, rex, cum patre patrato populi / 
foedus fcrire?" lubente rege "Sagmina" inquit "te 
l^osco." Rex ait "Puram tollito." Fetialis ex arcc 
minis herbam puram attulit Postea regem ita ro| 
"Rex, facisne me tu regium nuntium populi R< 
Quiritium, vasa comitesque meos?" Rex respo 
"Quod sine fraude mea populique Romani Quii 
fiat, facio.*' Fetialis erat M. Valerius. Is patrem 
tum Spurium Fusium fecit, verbena caput capill 


taagens. Pater patiatus ad ius iurandum patrandum, id 
est sanciendum fit foedus» multisque id verbis, quae 
longo eflata carmine non operae est referre, peragit 
Legibos deinde recitatis ''Audi" inquit, '' luppiter^^j^udi, 
5 pater patrate populi Albani, audi tu, populus Albanus : 
Qt ilia palam prima postrema ex iUis tabulis cerave rc- 
dtata sunt sind' dob maloT^utique ea hie hodie rectis- 
intellecta sunt, illis legibus populus Romanus prior 
deficiet Si prior defexit publico consilio dolo 

•o nalo^ torn tUo die, lupptter, populum Romanum sic ferito, 
vt ego hunc porcum hie hodie feriam, tantoque magis 
ferito^ quanto magis potes pollesque." Id ubi dixit, 
pofcum saxo silice percussit. Sua item carmina Albani 
somnque ius iurandum per suum dictatorem suosque 

issaoerdotes peregerunt 

ViU99y tf ike Maratii aver the Cttriatii^ in coftsequefUi of 
which Alba becomes subjeci te Reme. 

XXV. Foedere icto trigemini sicut convenerat arma 
capiunt Cum sui utrosque adhortarentur, deos patrios 
patfriam ac parentes, quicquid civium domi, quicquid 
in cjcerdtu sit, illorum tunc arma, illorum intueri ma- 
ss Billy feroces et suopte ingenio et pleni adhortantium 
vocibus in medium inter duas acies procedunt Con- 
sedeiant utrimque pro castris duo exercitus periculi ma- 
gis praesentis quam curae expertes: quippe imperium 
agebatur in tam paucorum virtute atque fortuna positum. 
as Itaqne eigo erecti suspensique in minime gratum spec- 
tacnhim animos intendunt Datur signum, infestisque 
amiiiy vehit acies, temi iuvenes magnorum exercituum 
gefentes coiicurrunt Nee his nee illis pericu- 
Mum, publicum imperium servitiumque obversatur 
J» animo (tituraque ea deinde patriae fortuna, quam ipsi 
fedasent Ut primo sUtim concursu increpuere arma 
■Bcaatesque (iilaere gladii, honor ingens spectantis 


peistringit, ct ncutro inclinaU spc torpebat vox sp 
tusque. Consertis deinde manibus cum iam non mo 
tantum corporum agitatioque anceps tdorum armoru 
que, scd vulncra quoque ct sanguis spcctaculo esse 
duo Romani su|)cr alium alius vulneratis tribus Alba 
cxpirantes comicrunt Ad quorum casum cum conclan 
set gaudio Albanus cxcrcitus, Romanas Icgiones iam s 
tota, nondum tamen cura deserucrat, exanimes vice un; 
qucm ires Curiatii circumstetcrant Forte' is integer i 
ut universis solus nequaquam par, sic adversus singi 
fcrox. Ergo ut segregaret pugnam eorum, capessit 
gam, ita ratus secuturos, ut quemquc vulnerc adfect 
corpus sineret. Iam aliquantum spatii ex eo loco, 
pugnatum est, aufugerat, cum respiciens videt ma] 
intcrx'allis sequentes, unum baud procul ab sese abe 
In eum magno impctu rediit; et dum Albanus exc 
tus inclamat Curiados, uti opem ferant fratri, iam ] 
ratius caeso hoste victor secundam pugnam pete 
Tunc clamore, qualis ex insperato faventium solet, 
mani adiuvant militem suum, ct ille dcfungi pro 
fcstinat. Prius itaque quam alter, qui nee procul ab< 
consequi posset, et alterum Curiatium conficit. lara 
aequato Marte singuli supererant, sed ncc spe nee 
bus pares. Alterum intactum ferro corpus et gemi 
victoria ferocem in certamen tertium dabat, alter fes 
vulnere, fessum cursu trahens corpus, victusque frnt 
ante se strage victori obicitur hosti. Nee illud procl 
Aiit Romanus exultans ''Duos" inquit ''fratrum M 
bus dedi, tertium causae belli huiusce, ut Rom; 
Albano imperct, dabo/* Male sustinenti arma glac 
supeme iugulo defigit, iacentem spoliat Romani o 
tes ac gratulantes Horadum accipiunt eo roaiore 
gaudio, quod prope metum res fuerat Ad sepulti 
inde suorum nequaquam paribus animis vertuntur, qii 
impcrio alteri aucti, alteri .dicionis alienae facti. Sc 
era extant quo quisque loco cecidit, duo Romana 


loco piopios Albam, tria Albana Romam versus, sed 
distantia locis, ut et pugnatum est 

Tkg 0mfy jmrvMttg Horaiius slays his sister^ wko bewails ths 
death of her Unur^ ^ne of the Curiatii; bet fig sentenced to 
deaih fy the king^ he is saved by an appeal to the people* 

XXVI. Priusqiiam inde digredcrentur, roganti Mettio, 

ex fbedere icto quid imperarcti iini)erat Tullus, uti iu- 

5 vcntutem in armis habcat, usunim sc eorum opera, si 

beUum cum Veienttbus forct Ita exercitus inde domos 


Mnceps Horatius ibat trigemina spolia prae se ge* 
fens. Cui soror virgo, quae desponsa uni ex Curiatiis 

so fbeiat, obvia ante poitam Capenatn fuit ; cognitoque 
super umeios fratris paludamento sponsii quod ipsa 
confecerat, solvit crines et flebiliter nomine sponsum 
mortuum appellat. Movet feroci iuveni animum con- 
ploratjo soforis in victoria sua tantoque gaudio publico. 

>S Stricto itaque gladio simul verbis increpans transfigit 
podlani. ''Abi hinc cum inmaturo amore ad spon- 
fom** inquit, '^oblita fratrum mortuorum vivique, oblita 
patriae. Sic eat quaecumque Romana lugebit hostem." 
Atiox visum id (acinus patribus plebique, sed recens 

» meritam lacto obstabat. Tamen raptus in ius ad regem. 
Rex^ ne ipse tarn tristis ingratique ad vulgus iudicii ac 
secundum indicium supplicii auctor essct, concilio populi 
advocator ''Duumviros*' inquit, "qui Horatio perduellio- 
sem hidicent secundum legem facio." Lex horrendi 

t% camuDis erat : duumviri perduellionem iudicent Si a 
du u m v iris provocarit, provocatione ccrtato. Si vinccnt, 
caput obnubitOf irifelici arbori reste suspendito, verbe* 
mo vd intra pomerium vcl extra pomerium. Hac lege 
dnoniviri creati, qui se absolverc non rebantur ea lege 
iiinoxtnm quidem posse, cum condemnassent, tum 
ex lis ^'PuUi Horati, tibi perduellionem iudico** 


inquit ''I, lictor, oonliga manus." Accesserat lie 
iniciebatque laqucum. Turn Horatius auctore Tu 
clcmcnte Icgis interprete, "provoco" inquit Ita pro 
cationc certatum ad populum est. Moti homines sunt 
CO iudicio maxime Publio Horatio patrc proclamantc, 
filiam iure cacsam iudicare; ni ita essct, patrio iure 
filium animadvcrsurum- fuisse. Orabat dcinde, nc 
c^ucm paulo ante cum egregia stirpe conspcxisscnt, orbi 
libcris faccrent. Inter hacc scncx iuvenem amplcx 
spolia Curiatiorum ftxa eo loco, qui nunc Pila Mora 
appcllatur, ostcntans, "Huncine'* atcbat, "qucm mo 
ilccoratum ovantemque victoria incedcntem vidistis, Q 
rites, eum sub furca vinctum inter verbera ct crucial 
vidcre potcstis, quod vix Albanorum oculi tam defon 
spcctaculum ferre possent? I, lictor, conliga man 
quae paulo ante armatae impcrium populo Roma 
pcpererunt. I, caput obnube liberatoris urbis huii 
arbore infelici 8us|>ende, verbera vel intra pomeriu 
modo inter ilia pila et spolia hostium, vel extra pou 
rium, modo inter sepulcra Curiationim. Quo enim ( 
cere hunc iuvenem potestis, ubi non sua decora et 
a tanta foeditate supplicii vindicent?*' Non tulit po] 
lus nee patris lacrimas nee ipsius parem in omqi pc 
culo animum; absolveruntque admiratione magis virtu 
quam iure causae. Itaque, ut caedes manifesta aliq 
tamen piaculo lueretur, imperatum patri, ut filium ex] 
arct pecunia publica. Is quibusdam piacularibus sac 
ficiis factis, quae deinde genti Horatiae tradila sui 
transmisso per viam tigillo capite adoperto velut s 
iugum misit iuvenem. Id hodie quoque publice sei 
per rcfectum manet; sororium tigillum vocanl. Ho] 
tiae sepulcrum, quo loco comierat icta, constructum ( 
saxo quadrato. 


Trtmckery tf Mtiiius FufittMs^ the Alban dieiat&r^ in the war 

against Fidtnae* 

XXVII. Nee diu |)ax Albana mansit. Invidia vulgi, 

quod tribus militibus fortuna publica commissa fuerit, 

vanum ingenium dictatoris corrupiti et, quoniam recta 

consilia baud bene evenerant, pravis reconciliare popu- 

S larium animos coepit. Igitur ut prius in bello pacem, 

sk in pace bellum quaerens, quia suae civitati animo- 

nam plus quam virium cemebat esse, ad bellum palain 

atque ex edicto gerundum alios concitat populos, suis 

per speciem societatis proditionem reservat. FidenateSi 

ookmia Romana,[yeientibus sociis consilii adsumptis pacto 

tnnsttionls Albanorum/ad bellum atque arma incitantur. 

Cum Fidenae aperte descissent, TuUus Mettio exercitu- 

qtie eius ab Alba accito contra hostes ducit. Ubi 

Anienem transiit^ ad confluentis coUocat caslra. Inter 

■5 eum locum et Fidenas Veientium exercitus Tiberim 

transienit. Hi in acie prope flumen tenuere dextrum 

Gomu, in sihistro Fidenates propius montes consistunt 

Tullus adversus Veientem hostem derigit suos; Albanos 

contra legionem Fidenattum conlocat Albano non plus 

JO animi erat quam fidei. Nee manere ergo nee transire 
aperte ausus sensim ad montes succedit Inde, ubi satis 
sabisse sese ratus est, erigit totam aciem, fluetuansque 
aniniOy ut tereret tempus, ordines explicat Consilium 
erat, qua fortuna rem daret, ea inclinare vires. Mira- 

S5 cttlo prinx) esse Romanis, qui proximi steterant, ut 
nadari latere sua soctorum digressu senserunt ; inde 
cqucs citato equo nuntiat regi, abire Albanos. Tullus 
ID re trepida duodectm vovit Salios fanaque Pallori ae 
BmrorL Equitem clare increpans voce, ut hostes exau- 

j0 direnti redire in' proelium iubet, nihil trepidatione opus 
eve; suo iussu circumduci-^lbanum.exercitumy ut Fi* 
€icnatitim nuda teiga invadant Item imperat, ut hastas 
cquites erigerent. Id (actum magnae parti peditum 



Romanorum conspectum abeuntis Albani exercitus in 
saciisit; qui videranti id quod ab rcgc auditum ( 
rati, CO acrius pugnant Tenor ad hostes transit: 
audiverant clara voce dictunii et magna pars Fidenati 
ut qui coloni additi Romanis essent, Latine scieb 
luquc, ne subito ex coUibus dccursu Albanorum in 
cludcrcntur ab oppido, tcrga vertunt. Instat Tu 
fusoque Fidenatium comu in Veientem alieno pa\ 
pcrculsum ferocior redit. Nee illi tulere impetum^ 
ab cfTusa fuga flumcn obiectum ab tergo arcebat/7 ( 
]x>stquain fuga inclinavit, alii arma foede iactailtes 
aquam caeci ruebant, alii, dum cunctantur in ripis, ii 
fugac piirgnaeque consilium oppressi. Non alia i 
Roniana pugna atrocior fuit 

Afeitins is deHcnnctd by TuUhs^ and pHi to dtnth in the j 
tMCi of thi Atban and Roman armies* 

XXVIII. Turn Allunus exercitus, spectator cert2 
nis, dcductus in camix>s. Mettius Tullo devictos he 
gratulatur, contra Tullus Mettium bcnigne adloqui 
Quod bene vertat, castra Albanos Romanis castris i 
gere iubet; sacrificium lustrale in diem posterum. p2 
Ubi inluxit, paratis omnibus, ut adsolet, vocari ad < 
tionem utrumque exercitum iubet Fraecones^ ab extn 
orsi. primos excivere Albanos. Hi novitate etiam 
moti, ut regein ^omanum contionantem audirent, pi 
imi constitere. Ex^conppsito armata circumdatur 
mana legio. Centurionibus datum negotium erat, 
sine mora imperia exequerentur. Tum ita Tullus ir 
"Romani, si umquam ante alias ullo in bello fuit, q 
primum dis inmortalibus gratias ageretis, deinde ves 
ipsonim virtuti, hestemum id proelium fuit. Dimica 
est enim non magis cum hostibus quam, quae dim 
tio maior atque periculosior est, cum proditione ac 
iidia sociorum. Nam, ne vos falsa opinio teneat, inii 


meo Albani subiere ad montes, nee imperium illud roeum 
sed consnium et imperii simulatio fuit, ut nee vobis, 
ignorantibiis deseri vos, avert<fretur a eertamine animus, 
ct hostiinis circumveniri se ab tergo ratis terror ac fuga 
5 iniceretar. Nee ea eulpa, quam ai^o, omnium Alba- 
norum est: ducem seeuti sunt, ut et vos, si quo ego 
inde agmen declinare voluissemi fecissetis. Mcttius illc 
est ductor itineris huius, Mettius idem huius maehinator 
beOi, Mettius foederis Romani Albanique ruptor. Au- 
to deat deinde talia alius, nisi in hunc insigne iam docu- 
mentum moitalibus dedero/' Centuriones armati Mettium 
dicumsistunt Rex eetera ut orsus erat peragit: "Quod 
bonum fiiustum felixque sit 'populo Romano ac mihi 
vobisque, Albani, populuro omnem Albanum Romam 
■S traducere in animo est, civitatem dare plebi, primores 
in patres legere, unam urbem, unam rem publicam 
facere. Ut cx-^ uno quondam in duos populos divisa 
Albaoa res est, sie nunc in unum redeat" Ad haec 
Albanapubes inermis ab armatis saepta in variis volun- 
ao tatibos communi tamen roetu CQgente silentium tenet. 
Turn TuUus ''Metti Fufeti'* inquit, ''si ipse discere 
pones (idem ae foedera servare, vivo tibi ea disciplina 
a ine adhibiU esset: nunc, quoniam tuum insanabile 
ingenium est, at tu tuo supplicio doce humanum genus 
as ca sancta credere, quae a te violata sunt Ut igitur 
panlo ante aniroum inter Fidenatem Romanamque rem 
andpitem gessisti, ita iam corpus passim distrahendum 
dabi&'* Exinde duabus admotis quadrigis in cumis 
canim distentum inligat Mettium, deinde in diversum 
j» iter cqui coneitati laeerum in utxoque curru corpus, qua 
inlMCseiant vinculis membra, portantes. Avertere omnes 
Mb tanta foeditate spectaculi oculos. Primum ultimum* 
iOiid supplicium apud Romanos exempli parum^ me* 
legum humanarum fuit. In aliis gloriari licet» 

itiom mitibres^placuisse poenas. 





Ai^ is distr^td and Us po^UUimi rtmcvtd to Rome, 

XXIX. Inter haec iam praemissi Albam erant cquiti 
qui multitudinera traducerent Romam. Legioncs dein 
ductae ad diruendatn urbem. Quae ubi intraverc pi 
toSf non quidem fuit tumultus iUe nee iXLvor, qua 
captarum esse urbium solet, cum effractis portis stratis 
nricte muris aut arce vi capta clamor hostilis et curs 

"pciT^rbem armatorum omnia ferro flammaque misc 
sed silentium triste ac tacita maestitia ita defixit oi 
nium animos, ut prae metu quid relinquerent, quid \ 
euro ferrent, deficiehte consilio rogitantesque alii al; 
luuic in liminibus starent/ nunc ernibundi domos si 
ultimum illud visuri pervagarentur. Ut vero iam eq 
turn clamor exire iubentium instabat, iam fragor tecton 
quae diruebantur ultimis urbis partibus audiebatur, p 
visque ex distantibus locb ortus velut nube inducta o 
nia impleverat, raptim quibus quisque poterat elatis, o 
larem ac penates *'tectaque, in quibus natus quisci 
c<Uicatusque esset, relinquentes exirent, iam contin< 
agmen migrantium impleverat vias* Et conspectus al 
rum mutua miseratione integrabat lacrimas; vocesc 
etiam miserabiles exaudiebantur mulierum praecipue, ci 
obsessa ab armatis templa augusta praeterirent ac ve 
captos relinquerent deos. Egressis urbe Albanis 1 
mabus passim publica privataque omnia tecta adaeq 
solo, unaque bora quadringentorum annonim opus^ c 
bus Alba steterat, excidio ac minis dedit: t<m] 
tamen deum — ita enim edictum ab rege fucrat — tc 
peratum est. 

Growth of tho city, Wor agaitut thi Sabims. 

XXX. Roma interim crescit Albae minis: duplies 
civium numems ; Caelius additur urbi monSy et c 


frcqucntius habitaretur, earn sedem Tullus regiae capit, 

ibiquc dcinde habitavit Principes Albanoruui in patfxrs, 

m ea quoque pan rei publicae crerccret, legit: lulios, 

Seivilios, QuinclioSi Geganios, Curiatios, Cloelios; tem- 

5 plumquc ofdini ab se aucto curiam fecit, quae Hostilia 

osque ad patnim nostrorum aetatem appellata est. Et 

Qt omnium ordinum viribus aliquid ex novo populo 

_adiccretury equitum decern '^tumias ex Albanis legit, le- 

giooes et veteres eodem supplemento explevit et novas 

lo soripsit. 

Hac fiducia virium Tullus Sabinis bellum indicit, genti 

ca tempestale secundum Etruscos opulentissiniae viris 

annisque. Utrimque iniuriae factae ac res nequiquam 

^ crant itpetitae : ^TuUus ad Feroniae fanum mercatu frc- 

h$ qoenti negotiatores Romanos conprehensos querebatur; 

Sabini suos prius in lucum confugisse ac Romae reten- 

tos. Hae causae belli ferebantur. Sabini, baud parum 

• memores et suarum virium partem Romae ab Tatio 

locatam et Romanam rem nuper etiam adiectione po- 

JO pull Albani auctam, circumspicere et ipsi externa auxilia. 

Etniria erat vicina, proximi Etruscorum Veientes. Inde 

Cob residuas bellorum iras maxime sollicitatis -ad defectio- 
saem animis voluntarios traxere, et apud vagos quosdam 
ex ioopi plebe etiam merces valuit: publico auxilio nullo 

t$ adinti sunt, valuitque apud Veientes — nam de ceteris 
minus mtrum est — pacta cum Romulo indutiarum fides. 
Cum bellum utrimque summa ope pararent, vertique in 
CO Its videretur, utri prius arma inferrent, occupat Tul- 
lus in agnim Sabinum transire. Pugna atrox ad Silvam 

J9 Malitiosam fuit, ubi et peditum quidem robore, cetenim 
equilatu aucio nuper plurimum Romana acies valuit. 
Ab cquitibtts repente invectis turbati ordines sunt Sabi* 
nonim; nee pugna deinde illis constare nee fuga ex- 
plicari sine magna caede potuit* 


A shower of sUmes is sxpiaiid by a niug day if feast. L 
ing a pestiUnce Tuiims falls a prey to SHpirstitious ten 
and is finally destroyed by a thunderbolt* 

XXXI. Devictis Sabinis cum in magna gloria mag 
que opibus regnum TuUi ac tota res Romana es 
nuntiatum regi patribusque est in monte Albano Ia[ 
bus pluvisse. Quod cum credi vtx posset, missis 
id visendum prodigium in conspectu baud aliter, qi 
cum grandinem vcnti glomeratam in terras agunt, 
bri cecidere caelo lapides. Visi etiam audire vo< 
ingcntcm eic^summi cacuminis luco, ut patrio ritu s 
Albani facerent, quae velut dib quoque simul cum 
tria relictis oblivioni dederant, et aut Romana s; 
suscepcrant aut fortunae, ut (it, obirati cultum reli< 
rant deum. Romanis quoque ab eodem prodigio 
vcndiale sacrum publice susceptum est, seu voce cae 
ex Albano monte missa — nam id quoque traditur — 
haruspicum monitu : mansit certe sollemne, ut, quai 
que idem prodigium nuntiaretur, feriae per novem 

Haud ita multo post pestilentia laboratum est li 
cum pigritia militandi oreretur, nulla tamen ab a 
quies dabatur a bellicoso rege, salubriora etiam cred 
militiae quam domi iuvenum corpora esse, donee 
quoque longinquo morbo est inplicitus. Tunc { 
fracti simul cum corpore sunt spiritus illi fcroces, 
qui nihil ante ratus esset minus regium quam s 
dedere animum, repente omnibus magnis parvisque 
perstitionibus obnoxius degeret, religionibusque etiam 
pulum impleret Vulgo iam homines, eum statum re: 
qui sub Numa lege fuerat, requirentes, unam c 
aegris corporibus relictam, si pax veniaque ab diis 
petratra esset, credebant. Ipsum regem tradunt vol 
tem commcntarios Numae, cum ibt quaedam oo 


toDemnia sacrificia lovi Elicio facta invenisset, operatum 
lis sacris se abdidisssc; sed non rite initum aut curatum 
id sacnim esse^ nee solum nullam ei oblatam caelestium 
spedem, sed ira lovis soUicitati prava religionc fulmine 
5 ictum cum doroo conflagrasse. ^"'"'^hiUus magna gloria 
beDi regnavit annos duos et triginta. 

Ameus Mardms is tlecied fourth king. His character, Rc^ 
ofthi ctremomics to be observed in declaring war. 

XXXI I. Mortuo Tullo res, ut institutum iam inde ab 

initio eraty ad patrcs redierat, hique intcrregcm nomina- 

N veiant Quo comitia habente Ancum Marcium rcgem 

to populus creavit ; patres Aicre^auctpres. Nuroae Pompili 

w regis nepos filia ortus Ancus Marcius erat. Qui ut 

legnare coepit, et avitae gloriae memor, et quia proxi- 

mum legnum, cetera egrcgiumi ab una parte baud satis 

pro sp erum fiierat aut neglectis religionibus aut prave 

15 cuhisy longe antiquissimum ratus sacra publica ut ab 

Numa instituta erant facere, omnia ea ex commentariis 

regis pontificem in album relata proponere in publico 

iubet Inde et civibus otii cupidis et iinitimis civitati- 

bus fiicta spes in avi mores atque instituta rcgem abi- 

jo tofum. Igitur Latini, cum quibus Tullo regnante ictum 

ibedus erat, sustulenmt animos; et, cum incursionem in 

agnim Romanum fecissent, repetentibus res Romanis su- 

perbe responsum reddunt, desidem Romanum rcgem 

inter sacella et aras acturum esse regnum rati. Medium 

as cnl in Anco ingenium, et Numae et Romuli memor ; 

et piaeterquam quod avi regno magis necessariam fuisse 

pacem oedebat cum in novo tum feroci populo, etiam 

quod illi oontigisset otium, sine iniuria id se baud facile 

hpbitumm: temptari patientiam et temptatam contemni, 

j0 t e in p or a qoc esse T^llo regi aptiora quam Numae. Ut 

quoniam Numa in pace religiones instituissct, a 

beilicae caerimoniae proderentur, nee gererentur . so- 


lum sed ctiain indicerentur bella aliquo ritu, itis ab c 
] ()ua gcntc Acquiculisy quod nunc fetialcs habent, desicrij 
■t i[uo res re])ctuntur. 

Ixgatus ubi ad fines eorum venit, undo res repel 
lur, capile velato filo — lanae vclamen est — " A 
luppiicr" inquit, "audiie. fines" — cuiuscuukiuc gc 
sunt, noniinat, — "audiat fas 1 ego sum publicus nun 
; ixvpuli Rotnani ; itiste picque iegatus venio verbiii 
nicis fides sit.*' Peragit inde postulata. Inde lovem 
tcin facit : *' si ego iniuste inpieque illus homines illa.s 
res dedier mihi exposco, tum patriae com|X)tem me n 
(]uam siris esse.*' Haec, cum fines supra^ndit, h 
quicunKjue ei primus vir obvius fuerit, haec i)orUun in 
clicns, haec forum ingressus {Kiucis verbis canninis con* 
endicjue iuris iurandi mutatis |Kragit. Si non dedil 
quos exposcity diebus tribus et triginta — tot enim soil 
ncs sunt — peractis bellum ita indicit : ''Audi luppite 
tu lane Quirine diiquc omnes caelestes vosque terrc: 
vos<|uc inferni audite 1 lilgo vos testor, populum ilk 
— quicuinque est, nominat — " iniustum esse, neque 
])crsolvcrc. Sed de istis rebus in patria maiorcs i 
consulcmus, quo |)acto ius nostrum adipiscamur." 1 
nuntius Romam ad consulcndum redit. Confestim 
his ferme verbis patres consulebat: "Quarum re 
litiuitv^ausarum condixit pater patratus populi Ror 
Quiritium patri patrato Prisconim Latinorum homini 
que Priscis I^tinis, quas res nee dedenmt nee solve 
nee feccrunt, quas res dari solvi fieri oportuit, d 
inquit ei, qucm primum sententiam rogabat, "quid i 
scs?" Turn ille: "Puro pioque duello quaerendas i 
SCO, itaque conscntio consciscoque." Inde ordinc 
rogabantur, quandoque pars maior eorum qui aderan 
eandem sententiam ibat, bellum erat consensum. 1 
solitum, ut fctialis hastam ferratam aut sanguineam p 
ustam ad fines eorum ferret, et non minus tribus 
bcfibus praesentibus diceret: «'Quod |)opuli ftiscoi 


Latinonini hominesque Prisct Latini adversus populum 
Romanam QutriUum fecerunt deliquerunt, quod populus 
Rocnanos Quiritium bellum cum Priscis Latinis iussit 
esse, senatusque populi Romani Quiritium censuit, con- 
5 lenstt, coiucivity ut bellum cum Priscis Latinis fieret, 
ob cam rem ego populusque Romanus populis Prisconim 
Latinonim hominibusque Priscis Latinis bellum indico 
ftdoque.*' Id ubi dixisset, hastam in fines eorum emit- 
tcbat Hoc tum modo ab Latinis repetitae res ac bel* 
io km indictam, moremque eum posteri acceperunt 

O^imrt 0f Poliiarimm^ uUUmtHt of the Avintine Hill^ war 
with ikt Laiims^ foriificatum of the Janicuium^ and extern* 
st0m 0/ the fr^Hiiers. 

XXXin. Ancus demandata cura sacronim flaminibus 
saoeidocibiisque aliis exercitu novo conscripto profectus 
Mitorium urbem Latinonim vi cepit, secutusque morem 
legum priorum, qui rem Romanam auxerant hostibus in 

15 civitatem acdpiendis, multitudinem omnem Romam tra- 
doziL El cum circa Palatium, sedem vetenim Romano- 
nim, Sabini Capitolium atque arcem^ Caelium montem 
Albani tnplessent, Aventinum novae multitudini datum. 
Additi eodem baud ita multo post Tellenis Ficanaque 

JO caplis novi cives. Politorium inde rursus bello repeti- 
turn, quod vacuum occupaverant Prisci Latini. Eaque 
causa dimendae urbis eius fuit Romanis, ne hostium 
semper reoeptaculuro esset P6stremo omni bello Latino 
MeduQiam conpuho aliquamdiu ibi Marte incerto varia 

t% victoria pugnatum est : nam et urbs tuta munitionibus 
pnttidioque firmata valido erat, et castris in aperto po- 
sitb aliquoCiens exercitus Latinus commjnus cum Roma* 
nis stgna oontulerat Ad ultimum omnibus copiis conisus 
Ancos^jicieN^Mimum vincit, inde ingenti praeda potens 

j» Romam ledit^ tum quoque multis milibus Latinonim in 
civitatem aooeplist quibus, ut iimgeretur Palatio Avend- 


num, ad Murciae datae sedes. laniculum quoque ai 
icctuin» noQ inopia loci, sed ne quando ea arx hostiu 
csset Id non muro solum, sed etiam ob commodii 
tcm itineris ponte SuUicio, turn primum in Tiberi 
facto, coniungi urbi placuit* Quiritium quoque fos! 
iuud parvum munimentum a planioribus aditu locis, At 
regis opus est Ingenti inciemento rebus auctis ci 
in tanta muUitudine hominum discrimine recte an p 
])cram facti confuso facinora clandestina fierent, can 
nci tcrrorem increscentis audaciae media urbe inmin< 
foro aedificatur. Nee urbs tantum hoc rege crevit : 
etiam ager finesque : silva Mesia Veientibus adem 
usque ad mare imperium prolatum, et in ore Tib< 
Ostia urbs condita, salinac circa factac ; cgregieque 
bus bello gestis aedis lovis Feretiii amplificata. 

TargHiMius Priscus comes from Eimria i0 ifome^ when 
gains the affections of ike peopit and ike confidence of 

XXXIV. Anco regnante Lucumo, vir inpiger ac < 
tils potens, Romam commigravit cupidine .maxime ac 
magni honoris, cuius adipisccndi Tarquiniis — nam 
(luoque peregrina stirpe oriundus erat — facultas non 
erat. Demarati Corinthii filius erat, qui ob scditi< 
(lonio profugus cum Tarquiniis forte consedisset, u 
ibi ducta duos filios genuit Nomina his Lucumo a 
Arruns fuerunt. Lucumo superfuit i)atri bononim 
nium heres, Arruns prior quam pater moritur u 
gravida relicta. Nee diu manet superstes filio p: 
qui cum ignorans nurum ventrem ferre inmemor in 
stando nepotis decessisset, puero post avi morten 
nullam sortem bonorum nato ab inopia Egerio ind 
noroen. Lucumoni contra omnium heredi bonorum 
divitiae iam animos facerent, auxit ducta .in^matri mo 
TanaquH summo loco nata, et quae baud facile hi 


quibus Data erat, humiliora sineret ea, quo innupsisset 
Spementibus Etniscis Lucumonem exule ad vena ortiini, 
ferre indignitatem non potuit, oblitaque ingenitae erga 
patriam caritatis, dummodo vinim honoratunf^ideret, 
5 consilium fnigrandi ab Tarquiniis cepit Roma est ad 
id polissimum visa: in novo populo, ubi omnis repen- 
tina atque ex virtute nobilitas sit, futurum locum forti 
ac strenuo viro; regnasse Tatium Sabinum, arcessitum 
in legnum Numaro a Curibus, et Ancum Sabina matre 
to ortum nobilemque una imagine Numae esse. Facile 
persuadet ut cupido honorumi et cui Tarquinii matema 
tantum patria esset 

Sublatis itaque rebus amigrant Romam* Ad lani- 

culum forte ventum erat. Ibi ei carpento sedenti cum 

■5 uxore aquila suspensis demissa leniter alis pilleum aufert, 

superque carpentum cum roagno clangore volitans nirsus, 

vekit ministerio divinitus missa, capiti apte reponit, inde 

sPDblimis abit Accepisse id augurium laeta dicitur Ta- 

naquil, perita, ut vulgo Etnisci, caeleslium prodigiorum 

JO mulier. Excelsa et alta sperare conplexa virum iubet : 

earn alitem, ea regione caeli et eius dei nuntiam venisse, 

circa summum culmcn hominis auspicium fecisse, levasse 

buroano superpositum capiti decus, ut divinitus eidem 

fcdderet. Has spes cogitationesque secum portantes ur* 

s$ bcm ingress! sunt, domicilioque ibi conparato L. Tar- 

<]uiniuro Priscum edidere nomen. Romanis conspicuum 

euro no\'itas divitiaeque faciebant, et ipse fortunam be- 

n^gno adioquio, comitate invitandi beneficiisque quos po- 

tcvat sibi conciliando adiuvabat, donee in regiaro quoque 

jo de eo fama perlata est Notitiamque eam brevi apud 

regtro liberaliter dextreque obeundo officia in familiaris 

nsidtiae adduxerat iura, ut pubiicis pariter ac privatis 

bello domique intercsset, et per omnia expertus 

tutor etiam liberis regis testamento institueretur. 


/// thi death rf Ancus he is chosen fifth king. He esiab 
the **gentes minores," conquers Apiclae^ lays cu 
Circus Maximns and insiitutes the ** ludi Komani." 

XXXV. Kegnavit Ancus annos quattuor et vi 
cuilibet superionim regum belli pacisque et artib 
gloria par. lam filii prope puberem aetatcm cront. 
magis Tarquinius instate, ut quam primum comitia 
crcando fierent; quibus indictis sub tempus puerc 
natum ablegavit. Isque primus ct pctisse anil 
rcgnum et orationem dicitur habuisse ad concili 
picbis animos con|x>sitam : se non rem novam 
tcro, quippe qui non primus, quod quisquam 
nari mirarive posset, sed tertius Romac perc 
regnum adfectet; et Tatium non ex pcregrino 
scd etiam ex hoste regem factum, et Numam igi 
urbis non petentem in regnum ultro accitum : s 
quo sui potens fuerit, Romam cum coniuge ac fc 
omnibus commigrasse; maiorem partem actatis eius 
civilibus oflficiis fungantur homines, Romae se qu; 
vetore patria vixisse; domi militiacque sub baud 
tendo magistro, ipso Anco rcge, Romana se iura 
manos ritus didicisse; obsequio et observantia in 
cum omnibus, benignitate erga alios cum rcge ips< 
tasse : — * haec eum baud falsa mcmorantem i 
consensu populus Romanus regnare iussit Ergo 
cetera egregium secuta, quam in petendo h.ibuerat, 
rcgnantem ambitio est; nee minus rcgni sui Ar 
(luam augendae rei publicae memor centum in 
legit, qui deinde minorum gentium sunt appellati, 
baud dubia regis, cuius beneficio in curiam ver 
Bellum primum cum Latinis gessit, et oppidum ibi 
oh& vi cepit, praedaque inde maiore, quam quanta 
fama fuerat, revecta ludos opulentius instructiusque 
priores' reges fecit. Tunc primum circo, qui nunc 


tmiit dtcitufy designatus locus est Loca divisa patribus 
cquitibusque, ubi spectacula sibi quisque facerent, fori 
^>penatL Spectavere furcis. duodenos ab terra specta-' 
cola alu sustinentibus pedes. Ludicrum fuit equi pugi- 
5 laqpt ex Etniria maxime acciti. Sollemnes, deinde annui 
manseie ladi, Roroani magnique varie appellati. Ab 
eodem xege et circa forum privatis aedificanda divisa 
sunt loca, porticus tabemaeque factae. 

H^mrwiik ikg Sabines. iturtast of Ike equites dispiU thi 
wppasithm 4/ ike augur Alius Navius. 

XXXVL Muro quoque lapideo circumdare urbem pa- 

10 labaty cum Sabinum bellum coeptis intervenit Adeoque 
^ ea subita res fuil, ut prius Anienem transirent hostes, 
qoam obviam ire ac prohibere exercitus Romanus pos- 
set Itaque trepidatum Romae est Et primo dubia vic- 
toria magna utrimque caede pugnatum est Reductis 

15 deinde in castra hostium copiis datoque spatio Romauis 
ad conparandum de integro bellum, Tarquinius, equitem 
maxime sub deesse \iribus ratus, ad Ramnes Titienses 
Lnceiesy quas centurias Romulus scripscrat, addere alias 
Gonstitoit, suoque insignes relinquere nomine. Id quia 

an inaogonito Romulus fecerat, negare Attus Navtus, incli- 
tos ea tempestate augur, neque mutari neque novum 
constitni, nisi aves addixissent, posse. Ex eo ira regi 
niota, elodensque, artem ut fcrunt, "Age dum" inquit, 
*• divine tu, inangura, fierine possit, quod nunc ego 

95 mente concipia'' • Cum ille augurio rem expertus pro- 
fiecto fiituram dixisset, '' Atqui hoc animo agiUvi ** 
inqoit ''te novacula cotem discissurum: cape haec et 
peiage, quod aves tuae fieri posse portendunt** Tum 
iOnm baud cunctanter discidisse cotem ferunt Statua 

j» Atti capite velato, quo in loco re» acta est, in comitio, 
l^ibns ipsis ad laevam airiae fuit, cotem quoque 
loco sitam fuisse memorant, ut esset ad posteios 


miraculi eius luonumentum. Auguriis certe sacerdotu 
augurum tantus honos accessit, ut nihil belli dom 
ix)stea nisi au^icato gercretur, concilia populi, < 
citus vocatiy summa reruniy ubi aves non admisis 
dirimcrentur. Neque turn Tarquinius de eciuituiu cc 
riis quicquam muUvit, nuinero alteruiu tantum adi 
lit mille ct octingenti equites in tribus ccnturiis es 
Posteriores modo sub isdetn nominibus qui additi < 
appellati sunt, quas nunc, quia geminatae sunt, sex 
cant centurias. 

Thi SahiHts an defeaied and ikeir spoils offtrtd to Vu 

XXXVII. Hac parte copiarum aucta iterum cum 
binis confligitur. Sed praeterquam quod viribus crc 
Romanus exercitus, ex occulto etiam additur dolus, 
sis qui inagnam vim lignorum in Anienis ripa iacc 
ardentem in flumen conicerent; ventoque iuvantc 
censa ligna, et pleraque in ratibus inpacta sublicis 
haererent pontem incendunt. Ea quoque res liT^] 
tcrrorem attulit Sabinis, et fusis eadem fugam in{ 
multique mortales, cum hostem eflfugissent, in fli 
ipso periere; quorum fluitantia arma ad urbem c< 
in Tiberi prius paene, quam nuntiari posset, insi 
victoriam fecere. £o proelio praecipua equitum 
fuit: utrimque ab comibus positos, cum iam pell 
media peditum suorum acies, ita incurrisse ab lat 
ferunt, ut non sisterent modo Sabinas legiones fei 
instantes cedentibus, sed subito in fugam aver 
Montes eflfuso cursii Sabini petebant ; et pauci tei 
maxima pars, ut ante dictum est, ab equitibus i 
men acti sunt. Tarquinius instandum perterritis 
praeda captivisque Romam missis, spoliis hostium 
votum Vulcano eraf — ingenti cumulo acccnsts 
porro in agrum Sabinum exercitum inducere; et 
quam male gestae res erant, nee gesturos melius 


me poteiant, tamen, quia consulendi res non dabat 
spatium, |ere^bviain Sabini tumultuario milite ; itenimque 
ibi fusi peiditis iam prope rebus pacem petiere. 

Smrremder 0/ Cciiaiia. ViciorUs evtr th$ Laiins. Public 

works at Rome. 

XXXVIII. Collatia et quidquid citra Collatiam agri 

5 ciat Sabinis ademptum, Egerius — fratris hie Alius erat 

regis — CoUatiae in pracsidio relictus. Deditosque Col- 

y latinos ita accipio eaniquc dcditionis formulam' esse: 

rrx interrpgavit ''Estisne vos Icgati oratoresque niissi a 

populo Conlatino, ut vos populumque Conlatinum dede- 

^ loretis?" ''Suinus." " Estne popuUis Conlatinus in sua 

potestate?" "Est" "Deditisne vos populumque Con- 

lalinum, urbem, agros, aquam, terminos, delubra, utensi-* 

lia, divina humanaque omnia in meam populique Romani 

dicionem?" " Dcdimus." "At ego recipio." Bello 

15 Sabino peifecto Tarquinius triumphans Romam redit. 

lode Priscis Latinis bellum fecit Ubi nusquam ad 

universae rei dimicationem ventum est; ad singula op« 

pida circumferendo arma omne nomen Latinum domuit. 

Comiculumf Ficulea vetus, Cameria, Cnistnmerium, Ame- 

so noht Mcdulliai Nomentum, hacc de Priscis Latinis aut 

qoi ad Latinos defecerant capta oppida. Pax deinde 

csl focta. 

Maiore inde animo pacis opera inchoata quam quanta 
mole gesserat bella, ut non .quietior populus domi es- 
SS set, quam militiae fuisset : nam et muro lapideo, cuius 
exoidium operis Sabino bello turbatum erat, urbem, qua 
Dondam manierati ctngere parat; et infima urbis loca 
cifca fonim aliasque interiectas coUibus convallest quia 
ex pbnis locis baud iacile evehebant aquas, cloacis fa- 
Ji st^io in Tiberim duetts siccat; et aream ad aedem in 
Capitolio lovisy quam voverat bello Sabino, iam pniesa- 
giente animo fiituram olim amplitudinem loci occupat 


A Jltmi appears upon tht head af Servius ThUihs, a yt 
boy asUep in ikt palaci of Tarquin. Th4 quan prti 
his future emitunci. 

XXXIX. Eo tempore in regia prodigium visu c 
tuque mirabile fuit: pucro dormienti, cui Scrvio T 
fuit nomcn, caput arsissc fcrunt mukorum in consp< 
Plurimo igitur damorc indc ad Untac rci miraci 
orto cxcitos rcgcs, ct, cum quidam familiarium a<] 
acl rcstinguendum ferret, ab rcgina retcntura, sedau 
cam tumultu moveri vetuisse puenim, donee sua sp 
expcrrcctus esset. Mox cum somno ct flammam aL 
•I\im aUlucto in secrctum viro Tanaquil "Viden tu 
crum hunc" inquit, "qucm Um humili cultu cducai 
Scire licet hunc lumen quondam rebus noslris d 
ruturunr^)raesidiumque regiae adAictae: proinde r 
riam ingeniis publicc privatimque decoris omni ii 
gentia nostra nutriamus." Inde puerum liberum 
cocptum haberi "^rudirique artibus, quibus ingenia 
magnae fortunae cultum excitantur. Evenit facile, < 
diis cordi essct. riuvenis evasit vcre indolts regiae, 
cum quaereretur gener Tarquinio, quisquam Rom 
iuventutis ulla arte conferri potuit, filiamque ei ! 
rex dcspondit. y 

Hie quacumque de causa tantus illi honos lui 
credere prohibet serva natum eum iKirvumque i 
scnisse. Eorum magis scntentiae sum, qui Corr 
capto Servi Tulli, qui princeps in ilia urbe fuerat, 
vidam viro occiso uxorem, cum inter rcliquas ca] 
cognita esset, ob unicam nobilitatem ab regina Ro 
prohibitam ferunt servitio partum Romae edjdisse 
Tarquini in domo. Inde tanto beneficio et inter mu 
familiaritatem auctam, et puerum, ut in domo a 
eductum, in caritate atque honore fuisse; fortunanc 
tris, quod capta patria in hostium manus vener 
serva natus crederetur fecisse. 


Tmtfmim is wturdend mi tJU instigation of the sons of Anctts 


XI» Duodequadiagesimo ferme anno, ex quo regnare 

coq>eial Tarquiniu% non apud regem modo sed apud 

patres plebemque k>nge maximo honore Servius TuUius 

eiat Turn And filii duo, etsi' antea semper pro indig- 

5 niniiiio habuenuit se patrio regno tutoris fraude pulsos, 

Rgnare Romae advenam non modo vicinae sed ne 

Italicae quidem stirpisi turn inpensius iis indignitas ere- 

tcerCy si ne ab Tarquinio quidem ad se rediret regnujn, 

sed praeceps inde porro ad servitia caderet, ut in ea- 

lo dem ciritate post centesimum fere annum quod Romu- 

lusy deo prognatuSy deus ipse, tenuerit regnum, donee 

in terns faerit, id servus, serva natus, possideaL Cum 

oommune Roroani nominis tum praecipue id domus 

suae dedecus fore, si Anci regis virili stirpe salva non 

15 modo advenis sed servis etiam regnum Romae pateret 

Ferro igitur earn arcere contumeliam statuunt Sed ei 

iniuriae dolor in Tan|uinium ipsum magis quam in Ser- 

vium eot sUmulabat, et quia gravior ultor caedis, si 

^ sitpereHet, lex futurus era! quam privatus; tum Servio 

r'av ocdso querocumque alium gencrum delegisset, eundem 

regni heredem facturus videbatur : — bb haec ipsi regi 

insidiae parantur. Rx pastoribus duo feroeissimi deleeti 

ad lacinus, quibus consueti erant uterque agrestibus ferra- 

mentisy in vcstibulo regiae quam potuere tumultuosissime 

as spetic rixae in se omnes apparitores regios convertunt. 

Inde, cum arobo regem appeltarent clamorque eorum 

penitus in regiam pervenisset, 'vocati ad regem pergunt. 

PHmo uterque vocifenuri et certatim alter alteri ol^tre- 

Coerdti ab lictore et iussi in vieem dicere tan- 

obloqui desistunt; unus rem ex conposito orditur. 

Dam intentus in eum se rex totus averteret, alter elatam 

secnrim in caput deiecit, reiictoque in vulnere telo ambo 

89 fofai etannt* 



His dioih is camuaiid uniii^ fy iks SLssisiana cf Tana^ 
Stnfims Tuiiius is tstabliskid as sixth king, 

XLI. Tarqutnium moribundum cum qui circa e 
cxcepissent, illos fugicntes Uctores coniprehendunt < 
tnor inde concunusque populi miiantiuin, quid rei e: 
I'anaquil inter tumuUum daudi regiam iubet, arbi 
eicit; simul quae cunundo vulneri opus sunt, tamqi 
!ipcs subesset, sedulo conparat, simul, si destituat s 
alia praesidia molitur. Servio propere accito cum ps 
exsanguem virum ostendisset, dextram tencns orat, 
inultam mortem soceri, ne socrum inimicis ludibrio 
sinat. "Tuum est" inquit, "Scrvi, si vir es, regr 
non eorum, qui alienis manibus pessimum (acinus 
cere. Erige te deosque duces sequere, qui clarum 
fore caput divino quondam circumfuso igni portei 
runt. Nunc te ilia caelestis exdtet flamma, nunc 
pergiscere vere. Et nos pcregrini regnavimus. Qui 
non unde natus sis, reputa. Si tua re subita coi 
torpent, at tu mea consilia sequere.'* Cum ck 
impetusque multitudinis vix sustineri posset, ex su 
ore parte aedium per fenestras in Novam Viam vi 
— habitabat enim rex ad lovis Statoris — populum 
naquil adloquitur. lubet bono animo esse: sop 
fuisse rcgem subito ictu, ferrum baud alte in cc 
descendisse, iam ad se redisse; inspectum vulnus 
torso cruore; omnia salubria esse. Confiderc prope 
ipsum eos visuros; interim Servio Tullio iubere pop 
dicto audientem esse; eum iura redditurum obiturui 
alia regis munia esse. Servius cum tral)ea et licto 
prodit, ac sede regia sedens alia decemit, de aliis 
suUurum se regem esse simulat Itaque per al 
dies, cum iam exspirasset Tarquinius, celata roortc 
speciem alienac fungendae vicis suas opes fin 
Turn demum palam factum est conploratione in 
orta. Servius praesidio firmo munitus primus in 


popali voluntate patrum regnavit Anci liberi iam turn, 
oonprensis sceleris roinistris cum vivere regem et tantas 
ese^opcs Servi nttntiatum est, Suessam Pometiam exu- 
latum knmt 

Servims mtarrigs his daugkUrs tp ikt ions of Tarquinn War 

ViU. ImsiiiuiioH of ihi comsus. 

5 XLII. Nee iam publicis magis consiliis Servius quam 
privatM rounire opes, et ne, qualis 'Anci iiberum animus 
advenus Tarqutnium fuerat, talis adversus se Tarquini 
libenim esset, duas Alias iuvenibus regiis Lucio atque 
Arranti Taiquiniis iungit. Nee rupit tamen fati neces- 

m sitatem humanis consiliis, quin invidia regni etiam inter 
domesticos infida omnia atque infesta faceret Perop- 
poitune ad praesentis quietem status bellum cum Vei- 
entibos — iam enim Judutiae exierant — aliisque Etruscis 
sumptum. In eo belto et virtus' et fortuna enituit 

15 TuUi ; fusoque ingenti hostium exercitu baud dubius rex, 
leu patrum teu plebis animos periclitaretur, Romam 

Adgrediturque inde ad pacis longe maximum opus, 
at, quem ad modum Numa divini auctor iuris fuisset, 

m ka Seivium conditorem omnis in civitate discriminis 
ofdinuroque, quibus inter gradus dignitatis fortunaeque 
aliquid interiucet, posted iama ferrent. Censum enim 
instituit, rem saluberrimam unto fiituro impcrio, ex quo 
belli pacisque munia non viritim ut ante, sed pro habitu 

«$ pccuniamm fierent Turn classes centuriasque et hunc 
oidiiiem ex censa dtscripsit vel pad decorum vel bello. 

The reformed coHstitniiom and ike Comltia Centuriata. 

XLIIL Ex lis, qui centum milium aeris aut maiorem 
eensom haberent, octoginU confecit centurias, quadrage- 
aat senbnim ac iuniorum : prima classis omnes appellati ; 


seniorcs ad urbis custodiam ut pracsto essent, iuven 

ut foris bella gererent Amia his imperata galea, dipcu 

ocreae, lorica, omnia ex aere ; hacc ut tcgumenta corp 

ris essent: tela in hostem hastaque et gbdius. Addit 

huic classi duae £aibnim centuriae, quae sine ani 

sti|K*ndia facerent; datum munus ut machinas in be 

fcrrent. Secunda classis intra centum usque ad quinq 

ct scpluaginta milium censum instituta, et ex iis, senio 

bus iunioribusque, viginti conscriptae centuriae. An 

iinpcrata scutum pro clipeo, et praeter loricam omi 

cadcm. Teniae classis quinquaginta milium censi 

esse voluit. Totidcm centuriae et hae eodcmque d 

crimine aclatium factae; nee de armis quicquam mu 

turn, ocreae tantum ademptae. In quarta classe ccn! 

(luinque et viginti milium ; totidem centuriae facta 

anna mutata, nihil praeter hastam et verutum datii 

Quinta classis aucta, centuriae triginta factae. Fun< 

lapidcsque missiles hi secum gcrcbant. His accensi c 

nicincs tubicinesquc, in duas centurias distributi. I 

(lecim milibus hacc cLissis censebatur. Hoc niii 

census rcliquam multitudinem habuit: indc una centi 

facta est immunis militia. Ita pedestri exercitu orn 

(listributoque equitum ex primoribus civitatis duodec 

scripsit centurias. Sex item alias centurias, tribus 

Romnio institutis, sub isdem, quibus inauguratae en 

nominibus fecit. Ad equos emendos dena niilia a< 

ex publico dat.!, et quibus equos alerent, vidu.ic ad 

biitac, quae bina milia aeris in annos singulos pcnden 

Hacc omnia in dites a pauperibus inclin<ita onera. 

Deinde est honos additus: non enim, ut ab Rom 
traditum ceteri servaverant reges, viritim suflfragium 
dcm vi eodemque iure promisee omnibus datum < 
sed gradus facti, ut neque exclusus quisquam suffra 
videretur, et vis omnis penes primores civitatis cs 
Equites enim vocabantur primi, octoginta indc prir 
classis centuriae ; ibi si variaret, quod raro incidel 


r ut lecimdae classis vocarentur, ncc fere umquam infra 

iu dcscenderent, ut ad infimos pervenirent. Nee mirarj 

oporlet hunc ordincnif qui nunc est post expletas quin- 

que et triginta tribus duplicate eanim nunicro centuriis 

c iunionini seniorunu|ue, ad institutam ab Servio TuUio 

sunimam non convenire. Quadrifariam cnim urbe divisa 

* rcgionibus coUibusque, qui habitabantur, partes eas tribus 

appcllavit, ut ego arbiuror ab tributo — nam eius quocfuc 

aequaliter ex censu confcrcndi ab eodem inita ratio est; 

to — neque eae tribus ad centuriaruin distribiitionem nu- 

menimque quicquam pertinuere. 

/»/ feremwies 0/ tht Lustrum. Tht stt'en hills of the dty 

ant C9Hhseti with a rinj^uall, 

XLIV. Ccnsu perfccto, quern maturaverat mctu Icgis 

de incensis latie cum vinculonim minis mortisquc, edixit: 

ut omnes cives Romani, cquitcs |X!dilesque, in suis quis- 

15 que centuriis in Campo Martio prima luce adcsscnt. 

IIn instnictum exercitum omncm suovctaurilibus lustravit, 

idque coiiditum lustnim appcllatum, quia is ccnscndo 

finis (actus est Milia LXXX eo lustro civium censa 

dicuntur. Adicit scriptorum anticiuissimus Fabius Pictor 

JO eonim» qui arma ferrc posscnt, cum numenim fuissc. 

Ad earn multitudincm urbs quo(|uc amplificanda visa 

cut Addit duos colics, Quirinalem Viminnlemquc ; inde 

dcinceps auget Esquilias, ibique ipse, ut loco dignitas 

fieret, habitat. Aggere et fossis et muro circumdat 

^ ^5 urbem : ita pomerium profert. Pomerium, verbi vim 

{^ tolani intuentesy postmoerium interpretantur esse : est 

antem magis circamocrium, locus, quem in condendis 

urbibits qtumdam Rtrusci, qua murum ducturi erant, 

oertis circa terminis inaugtirato consecrabant, ut nequc 

J» interiore parte aedificia moenibus continuarcntur, quae 

^ iNific vulgo etiam coniungunt, et extrinsecus pun aliquid 

ab humano cuitu pateret soli. Hoc spatium, quod ne- 


que habitari neque arari fas erat, non magis quod 
imirum cssct, quam quod murus post id, pome 
Koinani appcllarunt, et in urbis incrcmento sen 
quantum niocnia processura crant, tantum termin 
conscxrati proferebantur. 

A tempii io Diana is buiii 0h the Avtntiat Hill as a 
m4H samtMary for Rome ami Laiinm. 

XLV. Aucta civitate magniludtnc urbis, fonnatis 
nibus domi ct ad belli ct ad |)acis usus, ne sc 
armis'opcs adquircrentur, consilio augere iin|)eriun 
natus est, siniul et aliquod addcre urbi decus. 
turn erat inclitum Dianae ICphcsiae fanum. Id coi 
niter a civitatibus Asiae factum fama terebat. 
conscnsum deosque consociatos laudare mire Servii 
tor proceres Latinorum, cum quibus publice privati 
hospitia amicitiasque de industria iunxerat. Saejx: 
ando eadem perpulit tandem, ut Romae fanum C 
ix>puli Latini cum ik)I)u1o Romano facerent. Ea 
confcssio caput renun Romam esse, de quo totiens 
certntum fuerat. 

Id quamquam omissum iam ex omnium cura L 
nun ob rem totiens infeliciter temptatam armis vi 
tur, uni se ex Sabinis fors dare visa est privato c( 
imperii recuf^erandi. ]k)s in Sabinis nata cuidani 
familiae dicitur miranda magnitudine ac specie. 
per multas aetates cornua in vestibulo tenipli I 
nionumcntum ei fuere miraculo. Habita, ut era 
prodigii loco est; et cecinere vates, cuius civitatis 
cives Dianae immolassent, ibi fore imperium; idqn 
men pcrvenerat ad antistitem fani Dianae, Sabim 
ut prima apta dies sacriAcio visa est, bovctn R 
actam deducit ad fanum Dianae et ante aram s 
Ibi antistes Romanus, cum eum magnitudo vie 
celcbrata fama movisset, mcmor responsi Sabinut 
adloquitur: ''Quidnam tu hosj^es paras," inquit. 


oeste sacrificium Dianac facere? Quin tu ante vivo 
pcrfttnderis flumioe? Infima valle praefluit Tiberis." 
Rdigioiie tactus hospes, qui omniai ut prodigio respon- 
deret eventus, cupcret rite facta, extemplo descendit ad 
STiberim. Interea Romanus imroolat Dianae bovem. Id 
mire gratum regi atque civitati fuit 

Sirvims* dmngkier and her hnsband Lucius Tarquinius con- 

spin against kirn, 

XLVL Servius quamquam iam usu baud dubie reg* 

Dom possederat, tamen, quia interdum iactari voces a 

iuvene Tarquinio audiebat se iniussu popuH regnare, 

lo ooDciliata prius voluntate plebis agro capto ex hostibus 

viritim diviso ausus est ferre ad populum, vellcnt iube- 

rentne se regiiare ; tantoque consensu, quanto baud 

qoisquam alius ante, rex est declaratus. Neque ea res 

Tarquinio spem adfectandi regni minuit: immo eo in- 

■S pensiaSy quia de agro plebis adversa patruin voluntate 

semeiat agi, criminandi Servi apud patres crescendique 

io curia sibi occasionem datam ratus est, et ipse iuve- 

nis aidentis animi et domi uxore TuUia inquictum ani- 

mnni stimulante. Tulit enim et Romana regia sceleris 

ao tragid exemplum, ut taedio regum maturior veniret lib- 

CftaSp uUimumque regnum csset, quod scelere partum 

Ibiet Hie L. Tarquinius •» Prisci Tarquini regis Alius 

neposne fuerit, parum liquet; pluribus tamen auctoribus 

ISGom ediderim — fratrem habuerat Amintem Tarquinium, 

as nulis ingenii iuvenem. His duobus, ut ante dictum est, 

doae Tulliae regis filiae nupserant, et ipsae longe dis- 

pares moribus. Forte ita inciderat, ne duo violenta 

rngtsAk matrimonio iungerentur, fortuna credo populi 

Romani, quo diutumius Servi regnum esset, constituique 

ja civitatis mores possent Angebatur ferox TuUia nihil 

in viro neque ad cupiditatem neque ad auda- 

; tota in alterum aversa Tarquinium' eum 

eom vimm dicere ac regio sanguine ortum; 


spcmere sororenii quod viniin nacta muUebri ces 
audacia. Contrahit celeritcr similitudo eos, ut fere 
malum malo aptissimum; sed initium turbandi omr 
fcmina ortum est Ea secretis viri alieni adsuc 
Mrrmonibus nullis verborum contumeliis parcere de 
ad fratrem, de sorore ad virum; et se rectius vie 
ct ilium caelibcm futunim fuisse contendere (|uam 
inpari iungi, ut elanguescendum aliena ignavia < 
Si sibi eum, quo digna esset, dii dedissent virum, 
so prope diem visuram regnum fuisse, quod apud ps 
videat. Celeriter adulescentem suae temeritatis in 
Ita Lucius Tarquinius et lullia minor prope contir 
funcribus cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecis 
iungimtur nuptiis magis non prohibente Servio < 

TarqttiH^ incited by his wife to seize the throne^ goes 
armed mem to the Forum^ summons the Senate an 
veigks violently against Servins. 

XLVIL Turn vero in dies infestior Tulli 8en« 
infestius coepit regnum esse. lam enim ab scelci 
atiud spectare mulier scelusy nee nocte nee interdi 
rum conquiescere pati, ne gratuila praeterita parr 
esscnt : non sibi defuisse, cui nupta diceretur, nee 
quo tacita serviret; defuisse, qui se regno dignun 
tarct, qui meminisset se esse Prisci Tarquini filium quam sperare regnum mallet ''Si tu is « 
nuptam esse me arbitror, et virum et regem api 
sin minus, eo nunc peius mutata res est, quod 
cum ignavia est scelus. Quin accingeris? Non ti 
Corintho ncc ab Tarquiniis, ut patri tuo, peregrina 
moliri necesse est; di te penates patriique et 
imago et domus regia et in domo regale solium e 
men Tarquinium creat vocatque regem. Aut si ad 
panim est animi, quid frustraris civitatem? Quid 
regium iuvenem conspici sinis? Facesse hinc T 


nios aut Corinthum, ilevolvere retro ad stirpem, fratris 
similior quam patris." His aliisqiie increpando iuvenem 
instigat, nee conquiescere i|)sa potest, si, cum Tanaquil, 
peregrina mulier, tanttim moliri potuisset aninio, ut duo 
5 oontinua regna viro ac dcinceps genero dedisset, ipsa, 
regie semine orta, nullum momentum in dando adimen* 
doque regno faceret. His mulicbrilnis instinctus furiis 
Tarquinius circumire et prcnsarc minorum maxime gen- 
tium patres, admonere patemi liencficii, ac pro eo grati- 

10 am repetere ; alliccre donis iuvencs ; cum de se ingentia 
pollicendo tum regis criminihus omnibus locis crcscere. 

~ Postremo, ut iam agcndae rei tcmpus visum est, stipa* 
tus agmine armatonim in (orum inrupit Indc omnibus 
percubis pavore in regia sede pro curia sedens patres 

ij in curiam per praeconem ad rcgem Tanjuinium citari 
iussit Convenere extemplo, alii iam ante ad hoc prac- 
paratiy alii mctu, ne non vcnissc fraudi essct, novitatc 
ac miraculo attoniti et iam de Scr\'io actum rati. Ibi 
Tarquinius maledicta ab stiqie ultima orsus : servum scr- 

SD vaque natum post mortem indignam ixirentis sui, non 

interregnOy ut antea, inito, non comitiis habitts, non per 

sufliragium populi, non auctoribus patribus, muliebri dono 

. rrgnum occupasse. Ita natum, ita creatum regcm, (iiu- 

torem infimi generis hominum, ex quo ipse sit, odio 

^5 alienae honestatis ereptum primoribus agnim sordidissimo 
cuique divisisse; omnia onera, quae communia quondam 
fberint, inclinasse in primorcs civitatis; instituisse cen* 
sum, ut insignia ad invidiam locupletiomm fortuna esseti 
et porata node, ubi vellet, egentissimis largiretur. 

Servhis is mmrdetrd, antf his daughter drives over his body. 
Tki lemgik ef his reign. His character* 

j» XLVIIL Huic orationi Servius cum intervenisset tre* 
pido nontio excitatus, extemplo a vestibulo curiae magna 
''Quid hoc'' inquit, ''Tarquini, rei est? Qua tu 


audacia me vivo vocare ausus es patres aut in s( 
I ronsiilere mea?" Cum ille ferociter ad haec: sc 
tris sui tenere sedem, miiko qiiam servum potion 
filium regisy regni heredem, satis ilium diu per lie 
tiam eludentem insultassc dominis; clamor ab utrius< 
fautoribus orituFi et concursus popuH ficbat in curij 
apprcbatque regnatunim qui vicissct. Turn Tarquin 
necessitate iam ctiam if^sa cogente ultima auderc, m 
ct aetate et viribus validior medium arripit Servi 
elatumque e curia in inferiorem partem per gra 
dcicit; inde ad cogendum scnatum in curiam n 
iMt fuga regis apparitorum atque comitum. Ipse pi 
exangiiis ab iis, qui missi ab Tarquinio fugicii 
consecuti erant, interficitur. Crcditur, quia non abh( 
a cctero scelere, admonitu TuUiac id factum. Carp 
ccrtc, id quod satis constat, in forum invecta ncc i 
rita coctum virorum evocavit virum e curia, rcgeii 
prima appellavit. A quo facessere iussa ex tanto 
nuiltu cum se domum reciperet, pcrvenissct<|ue ad 
mum Cyprium vicum, ubi Dianium nuper fuit, flee 
carpentum dextra in Urbium clivum, ut in collem 
quiliarum eveheretur, restitit pavidus atque inhibuit fi 
is qui iumenta agebat, iacentemque dominae Sci 
tnicidatum ostendit Foedum inhumanumque inde 
ditur scelus nionumentoque locus est: Sceleratum \ 
vocant, quo amcns agitantibus funis sororis ac viri 
lia per patris corpus carpentum egisse fertur, parte 
sanguinis ac caedis patemae cruento vchiculo cor 
nata ipsa respcrsaque tulisse ad penates sues v 
^\\\f quibus iratis malo regni principio similes 
diem exitus sequerentur. — Servius Tullius regnavit 
nil et XL ita, ut bono etiam moderatoque succ< 
rcgi difficilis aemulatio esset. Ceterum id quoqi 
gloriam accessit, quod cum illo simul iusta ac le] 
regna occiderunt. Id ipsum tam mite ac lam i 
ratum imperium tamen, quia imius esset, deponere 


in animo habuisse quidam auctores sunt, ni scelus intes* 
tinum Itberandae patriae coiisilia agitanti intervenisset 

Tmrqmim^ tmrmamed tki Proud^ becomes the seventh and last 
king. He mistrusts his subjects^ weakens the senate^ but 
conciliates the Latins, 

XLIX. Inde L Tarquinius regnare occepit, cui Su* 
perbo cognomen facta indiderunt, quia socerum gener 
5 sepuitura prohibuit, Komulum quoque insepultum perissc 
diclitans; primoresque iiatrum, quos Servi rebus favisse 
credebaty interfecit ; conscius deinde male quaerendi 
regni ab se ipso adversus se exemplum capi posse, 
annatis corpus circuinsaepsit. Neque enim ad ius regni 
lo quicquam praeter vim habebat, ut"<iui\ neque populi 
iuKU neque auctoribus patribus regnaret. Eo accede- 

rbaty^ut.Jn^ caritate civium nihil spei reponenti ^metu 
.regnum tutandum esset Quern ut pluribus incutcret, 
cognitiones capitalium rerum sine consiliis per ^se* solus 

15 excrcebat, perque eam causam occidcre, in exilium agere, 
bonis multare poterat non suspectps modo aut invisos, 
fed unde nihil aliud quam praedam sperare posset. 
Pftiecipue ita patrum numero inminuto statuit nullos in 
patics kgeitf quo contemptior paucitate ipsa ordo esset, 

JO niin)isqu<c^ peiL...sCL.njhil^, agi indignarentur. Hie enim 
re^m primus traditum a prioribus morem de omnibus 
tenatum consulendi solvit, domesticis consiliis rem pub- 
Ikam administravit, bellum, pacem, foedera, sucietates per 
se ipse cum quibus voluit, iniussu populi ac senatus 

as fecil diremitque. Litinorum sibi maxime gentem con- 
dliabaty ut jwregrinis quoque opibus tutior inter cives 
csMtt neque hospitia modo cum primoribus eorum sed 
adfinitates quoque. iungebat Octavio Mamilio Tusculano 
«-is kmge princeps Latini nominis erat, si famae cre- 

j» dtmusy ab Ulixe deaque Circa oriundus, — - ei Mamilio 
fitiaun nuptum ilat, perque eas nuptias multos sibi cpg* 
nalot amicotque eius conciliat 




TurHUS Herdonius of Aricia% at a mctiiHg of ike Lath 
Uagmt^ attacks Tarquin in a vioUnt karaMgm* 

L. lam magna Tarqutni auctoritas inter Latinorun 
proccres erat, cum in diem certam ut ad lucum Fcrcn 
liiwe convcniant indicit : cssgjma^.,ag5rc_d.c rebus com 
intinibus velit Coiivcniunt frcquentes prima luce. Ips* 
'rarquinius dicm^quidcm^scrvayiti scd paulo ante quan 
sol occideret, venit. ^ Multa ibi toto die in concilia 
variis iactata sermonibus erant. Tumus Herdonius al 
Aricia fcrociter in absentem Tarquinium erat invcctus 
hnud minim esse Supcrbo inditum Komae cognomen- 
iain cnim ita clAm quidem mu^itantc^ vulgo tainc 
cum appeltabant; — an quicquam su|)erbiu8 esse quai 
hidificari sic omne nomen Latinum? IVincipibus long 
ab domo excitis ipsum, qui concilium indixerit, no 
adesse. Temptari profecto patientiam, ut, si iugum a( 
ccperint, obnoxios premat. y^ui enim non apparen 
adfectare eum imperiunT^ Sbatinos? Quod si sui ben 
credidcrint cives, aut si creditum illud et non raptui 
porricidio sit, credere et Latinos, quamquam ne sic qu 
ilcm alienigenae, debere: sin suos eius pacniteat, quipp 
qui alii super alios trucidentur, exulatum eant, bona ami 
tant, quid spei melioris Latinis portendi? Si se audian 
ilomum suam quemque inde abituros nequc magis ol 
scrvaturos diem concilii quam ipse, qui indixerit, olwe 
vci.^ Haec atque alia eodcAi) pertinentia seditiosi 
facinorosusque homo bisque artibus opes domi nacti 
cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius. Is^'Tii 
orationi fuit. Aversi omnes ad Tarquinium salutandunr 
<l«i silentio facto monitus a proximis, ut purgaret s 
quod id temporis venisset, disceptatorem ait se sum; 
liim inter patrem et filium, cura reconciltandi cos i 
graiiam moratum esse; et quia ea res exemisset illui 
dicm, postero die actunim quae constituisset. Nc i 


ftb Tumo tulisse taciturn ferunt; dixisse enim 
nuDain breviorem esse cognitionem quam inter patreni 
et fiiium, iHuicisque transigi verbis posse: ni__pareat 
pstriy habiturum infortunium esse. 

TmrmMSf falsely accustd by Tarquin of a InasoHobU €0Hspi' 
raey^ is put to death withont a trial, 

5 LI. Hacc Aricinus in regem Romaiium increpans ex 
concilio abiit. Quam rem Tarquinius aliquanto quam 
videbatur ,acgrius fercns confestim Turno'^ecem machi- 
natur, ut eundem terrorem, quo civiura animos doini 
opprcsserat, Latinis iniceret Et quia pro imperio pa- 

lo lam interfici non poterat, oblato falso crfmii\C insontem 

oppiessit Per adversae factionis quosdam Aricinos ser- 

vum Tumi auro corrupit, ut in deversorium eius vim 

. magnam gladiorum inferri clam sineret. Ea cum una 

nocte perfecta essent, Tarquinius paulo ante luccm 

B5 accitis ad se principibus Latinorum quasi re nova |kt- 
turbatus, moram suam hcstcmam, velut deorum quadam 
providentia inlatam, ait saluti sibi atque illis fuisse. Ab 
Tumo did sibi ct primoribus populorum parari necem, 
at Latinorum solus impcrium teneat. Adgressurum fu- 
hestemo die in concilio; dilatam rem esse, quod 
anctor concilii afuerit, quem maxime pcteret. Inde 
illam alisentis insectationem esse natam, quod morando 
spem destituerit. Non dubitare, si vera ^deferantut, quin 
prima luce, ubi ventum in concilium sit, instructus cum 

S5 coniaratomm manu armatusque venturus sit. Dici gla- 
dioram ingentem esse numemm ad eum convectum. Id 
vanum necne sit, extempio sciri posse. Ro'gare eos, ut 
inde secum ad Tumum veniant. Suspectam fecit rem 
eC ingenium Tumi ferox et oratio hestema et mora 

3* Tarquini, quod videbatur ob eam diflerri caedes potuisse. 
Ennt inclinatis qutdem ad credendum animis, tamen 
nisi giadits deprehensis cetera vana existimaturi. Ubi 

U.^ anc 


est CO ventumi Tumum ex somno cxcitatum circum- 
sistunt custodes ; conprchensisque sen'is, qui caritatc do- 
mini vim iiarabant, cum gladii aUliti ex omnibus locis 
(ieverticuli protraherentur, cnimvero manifcsta rcs visa, 
inicctac(iuc Turno catenae; et confestim I^itinonim con- 
cilium magno cum tumultu advocatur. Ibi tarn atrox 
itnidia orta est gladiis in medio positis, ut indicta causa 
novo genere leti delectus ad caput aquae Fcrentinae 
crate suiKnie iniecta saxisque congcstis mergerctur. 

Korne^s sHprtmacy is acknawUdgid by the Lntins and ccu" 

firmed by a irtaty* 

LII. Rcvocatis deinde ad concilium Latinis Tarqui- 
nius conlaudatis<]ue, qui Tumum manu 
t'csto jxirricidio merita poena adfecissent, ita verba fecit ; 
l>osse quidem se vetusto iure agcrc, quod, cum om< 
ncs Latini ab Alba oriundi- slut, -c6^ foederc teneantur 
quo ab Tullo res omnis Albana cum coloniis suis it 
Romanum cesserit imperium; ceterum se utilitatis i< 
luagis omnium causa censere, ut renovetur id foedus 
socundaque potius fortuna i>opult Romani ut iiarticipe 
Litini fruantur, quam urbium excidia vastationesque agrc 
rum, quas Anco prius, patre Hcinde suo regnante pci 
pcssi sint, semper aut expectent atit jiatiantur. Hau 
clif^culter persuasum Latinis, quamquam in eo focdci 
superior Romana res crat. Ceterum ct capita nomiii 
Litini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant, et Turnt 
sui cuique periculi, si advcrsatus esset, rcccns erat doc 
nicntum. Ita rcnovatum foedus, indictumque iiinioribi 
I-ntinorum, ut ex focdere die certa ad lucum Fcrentinj 
armati frequcntcs adessent. Qui ubi ad edictum R 
mnni regis ex omnibus populis convenere, ne diice 
suum neve secretum imperium propriave signa habere] 
miscuit manipulos ex Latinis Romanisque, ut ex bii 
singiilos faceret binosque ex singulis; ita geminatis^n 
nipulis centuriones imposuit« 


Wf with iki y^Ucians and capture of Suessa Powutia with 
rich spoil. Tarqmin resorts to a stratagem to gain posses^ 
sioM of Gabii* 

UII. NeCy ut iniustus in pace rex, ita dux belli 
piavus fuit: quin ea arte aequasset superiores reges, ni 
degeneratum in aliis huic quoque decori offecisse t. Is 
primus Volscis bellum in^^centos amplius post suam 
5 aetatem annos movit, Suessamque Pometiam ex his vi 
cepit. Ubi cum divendita praeda quadraginta talcnta 
aigenti refecisset, concepit^ahimo earn amplitudineni lo- 
vis lempli, quae digna deum hominumque rege, quae 
Romano imperio, quae ipsius etiam loci roaiestate es- 
lo set Captivam pecuniam in aedificationem eius templi 

Excepit deinde eum lentius spe bellum, quo Gabios 
propinquam urbem, nequiquam vi~ adortus, cum obsi- 
dendi quoque urbem spes pulso a_moenibtis adempta 
■5 cssetf postremo minime arte Romana, fraude ac dole, 
adgressus est Nam cum velut posito bello fundamen- 
tb templi iaciendis aliisque urbanis operibus intentiim se 
emit simularet, Sextus fiHus eius, qui minimus ex tribus 
ctaty transfugit ex coropositq Gabios, patris in se saevi- 
so liam intolerabilem conquerens : iam ab alienis in suos 
▼ertisse superbiam, et liberonim quoque eum f rcqucn tiae 
taedere, ut, quam in curia solitudinem fecerit, domi 
^quOque ^iaciat, ne quam stirpem, ne quem heredem 
regni relinquat Se quidem inter tela jCt gladios patris 
S5 eUpsom nihil usquam sibi tutum nisi apud hostes L. 
TarquinPcredidisse. Nam ne errarent, manere iis bel- 
lofli, quod poiitum simulctur, et per occasionem eum 
incaotos invasurum. Quod si apud eos supplicibus lo- 
cus non sit, pererraturum se omne Latium Volsoosque 
30 iode et Aequos et Hemicos petiturum, donee ad eos 
penreniat, qui a patrum crudelibus atque impiis suppli* 


ciis tegere liberos sciant Forsitan etiam ardoris aliquid 
.id belluin armaque se advcrsus superbissimuni regem ac 
kTocissimum populum inventunim. Cum, si nihil mora- 
rciitur, infensus ira porro inde abiturus videretur, be- 
nignc ab Gabinis excipitur. Vetant mirari, si, qualis s 
in cives, qualis in sofcios, talis ad uUimum in liberos 
c:»set. In se ipsum postremo saevitunim, si alia desint. 
Sibi vero gratum adventum eius esse, futurumque cre- 
dere brevi, ut illo adiuvante a portis Gabinis sub Ro- 
mana moenia Jbellum transfeiatur. i 

SextHS TarquiHy afttr gaining ike confidence of iki Cabinet^ 

hetrays iheir ciiy to his father, 

LIV. Inde in consilia publica adhiberi. Ubi cum 
do aliis rebus adsentire se veteribus Gabinis diceret, 
quibus eae notiores essent; ipse identidem belli auctor 
esse, et in co sibi praecipuam prudentiam adsuroere, 
quod utriusque populi vires nosset, sciretque invisam 
i^rofecto superbiam regiam civibus esse, quam ferre ne 
libcri quidem potuissent Ita cum sensim ad rebellaa* 
dum primores Gabinorum incitaret, ipse cum promptis- 
si mis iuvenum praedatum atquc in expeditiones iret, et 
dictis factisque omnibus ad fallendum instructis vana 
ndcrcsceret fides, dux ad ultimum belli legitur. Ibi cum 
inscia multitudine, quid ageretur, proelia parva inter Ro* 
mam Gabiosque fierent, quibus plenimque Gabina res 
superior esset, tum certatim summi infimique Gabinorum 
Sex. Tarquinium dono deum sibi missum ducem cre- 
dere. Apud milites nrero obeundo pericula ac labores 
pariter, praedam muniBce largiendo tanta caritate esse, 
ut non pater Tarquinius potentior Romae quam Alius 
Gabiis esset. Itaque postquam satis virium coUectum 
ad omnes conatus videbat, tum ex suis unum sctscita- 
tum Romam ad patrem mittit, quidnam se facere vellet, 
luandoquidero, ut omnia unus Gabiis posset, ei dii 


dcdissent Huic nuntio, quia, credo, dubiae fidei vide- 
batar, nihO voce respoiisum est Rex veliit delibcra- 
bundus in hortum aedium transit sequente nuntio filii; 
ibi inambulans tacitus suroma papaverum capita dicitur 
5 bocuio decusstsse. Interrogando expectandoque respoii- 
sum nuntius fessus, ut re inperfecta, redit Gabios; quae 
dixerit ipse quaeque viderit^ rcfert: seu ira sen oilio 
seu tuperbia insita ingcnio nullam cum vocem emisissc. 
Sexto ubiy quid vellet parens, quidve praecipcrct tacitis 

fo ambagibus, patuit, priroores civitatis criminando alios 
apad populum, alios sua ipsos invidia opportunos inter- 
emit. Multi palam, quidam, in quibus minus spcciosa 
criminatio erat futura, clam interfecti. Patuit ciuibusdam 
volentibus fuga, aut in exilium acti sunt, absentiumquc 

15 bona ittxta atque interemptorum divisui fuere. Largiii- 
cmeii inde praedaeque; ct dulcedine privati commodi 
lensus malorum publiconim adimi, donee orba consilio 
auxilioque Gabina res regi Romano sine ulla dimicati- 
one in roanum traditur. 

Tike fammdalioHs of the Capiioiine 7V/////r are laid; Ttrtfii* 
nus -refuses to withdraw from the site. 

wo LV. Gabiis receptis Tarquinius pacem cuiTi Aequo- 
mm gente fecit, foedus cum Tuscis renovavit Inde ad 
negotia urbana animum convertit; quorum erat primnni, 
ut lovis templum in monte TaqKio monumentum rcgni 
sui nominisque relinqueret: Tarquinios reges ambos, pa- 

95 tiem vovisse, filium perfecisse. Et ut libera a ceteris 
religionibus area esset tota lovis tcmplique eius, quod 
inacdificaretur, exaugiirare fana sacellaque statuit, quae 
aliqtiot ibi a T. Tatio rege primum in ipso discrimine 
advenus Romulum pugnae vota, consecrata inaugurata- 

JO que postea fuerant Inter principia condendi huius op- 
ens movisse nnmen ad indicandam tanti imperii molem 
traditur deos; nam cum omnium sacellorum exaugura- 
admitterent aves, in Termini fano non addixere. 


IiUjue omen auguriumque ita acceptum est, non motam 
lenwini sedem unuinque eutn deorum non evocatum 
sacralis sibi fintbus firma stabiliaque cuncu portcndcrc. 
Hoc perpetuiutis auspicio accepto secutum aliud mag- 
niliulincm imperii portcndens prodigium est: caput hu- 
inanuin integra facie aperientibus fundamenu tempi 
(iicitur apparuisse, quae visa species haud per ambagcj 
arccm earn imperii caputque rerum fore portendcbat 
iiUiiic ita cednere vates, quique in urbe erant, quosqu< 
ad cam rem consultandam ex Etruria acciverant Au 
gcbatur ad inpensas regis animus. luque Pomptina* 
manubiae, quae perducendo ad culmen o|)eri destinata 
crant, vix in fundamcnU suppeditaverc. Eo magis Fa 
bio, praeterquam quod antiquior est, crediderim quadra 
ginta ca sola talenta fuisse, quam Pisoni, qui quadragint 
milia pondo argenti seposiu in eam rem scribit, ciuipii 
summam pecuniae neque ex unius turn urbis praed 
spcrandam, et nuUorum ne huius quidem magnificentia 
opcrum fundamenta non exsuperaturam. 

Pitbiic works and coUniis, Terrified by an omen^ Targui 
sends to cansuU the oracle at Delphi. 

LVL Intentus perficiendo templo fabris undique i 
Ktruria accitis non pecunia solum ad id publica c 
usus, sed operis etiam ex plebe. Qui cum haud pa 
vus ct ipse militiae adderetur labor, minus tamen pic 
gravabatur se templa deum exaedificare manibus su 
quam postquam et ad alia, ut specie minora sic lal 
ris aliquanto maioris, traducebantur opera, foros in cir 
faciendos cloacamque maxiinam receptaculum omnii 
purgamentorum urbis, sub terra agendam; quibus di 
bus operibus vix nova haec magnificentia quicqu; 
adaequare potuit His laboribus exercita plebc, quia 
urbi multitudinem, ubi usus non esset, oncri reba 
esse, et colonis mittendis occupari latius imperii fii 



volebat, Signiam Circeiosque colonos misit, praesidia 
wtN futura terra manque. 

Haec agenti portentum terribile visum: anguis ex 
columna lignea clapsus cum terrorem tugamque in regia 
5 fecissety ipsius regis non tarn subito pavore perculit 
pectus quam anxiis inplevit curis. Itaque cum ad pub- 
lica prodigia Etrusci tantum vates adhiberentur, hoc 
velut domestico extcrritus visu Delphos ad maxime in- 
dituro in terrb oraculum mittere statu it. Neque re- 

to sponsa sortium uUi alii committere ' ausus duos filios 
per ignotas ea tempestate terras, ignotiora maria, in 
Graeciam misit Titus et Amins profccti. Comes iis 
additus L. lunius Brutus, Tarquinia, sorore regis, natus» 
iavenis longe alius ingenio, quam cuius simulationem 

15 tnduerat Is cum primores civitatis in quibus firatrem 
suum ab avunculo interfcctum audisset, neque in animo 
sue quicquam regi timendum neque in fortuna concu* 
piacendum relinquere statuit, contemptuque tutus esse, 
ubi in iure parum praesidii essct. Ergo ex industria 

JO iactus ad imitationcm stuUitiac cum se suaquc pracdae 
ease regi sineret, Bruti quoque baud abnuit cognomen, 
ut sub eius obtentu cognominis liberator ille popuU Ro- 
mani animus latens opperirctur tempora sua. Is turn 
ab Tarquiniis ductus Delphos, ludibrium verius quam 

s5 comes, aureum baculum inchisum comeo cavato ad id 
baculo tulisse donum Apollini dicitur, per ambages efifi- 
giem ingenii suL Quo postquam ventum est, perfectis 
patris mandatis cupido incessit animos iuvenum scisci- 
tandi, ad quern eorum regnum Romanum esset venturum. 

^ Ex infimo specu vocem redditam ferunt : ^' Imperium 
sammum Romae habebit qui vestrum primus, o iuvenes, 
oaculum matri tulerit" Tarquinii, ut Sextus, qui Ro- 
mae lelictus fuerat, ignarus responsi expersque imperii 
caset, rem summa ope taceri iubent; ipsi inter se, 

3S ttler prior, cum Romam redissent, matri osculum daret. 
iOfti permittunt Bratus alio ratus spectare Pythicam 


vocem, velut si prolapsus cecidisse^ tenam oscub coa 
ligit, scilicet quod ea communis mater omnium morta 
Hum essct. Reditum inde Romam, ubi advenus Rutulo! 
bcllum summa vi parabatur. 

A dispute among tht princes and thgir friends^ fi^g<^gtd ii 
the sUgt of Ardea^ aboHt the comparativt mtriU of thei 
wives^ is settled by visiting atl the tatties nnexpectedi) 
SextHs Tarqnin conceives a guilty passion for Lueretii 
wife of his cousin Coltatinus. 

LVII. Ardeam Rutuli habebant, gens, ut in ca rcg 
one atque in ea aetate, divitiis praepoUcns. Eaque ips 
causa belli fuit, quod rex Romanus cum ipse dita 
cxhaustus roagnificentia publicorum operum, turn praei 
(Iclcnire popularium animos studebat, praeter aliam si 
pcrbiam regno infestos etiam quod se in fabroru 
ministeriis ac servili tarn diu babitos opere ab re] 
indigiiabantur. Temptata res est, si primo inipctu ca 
Aixica posset Ubi id parum processit, obsidione m 
nitionibusque coepti premi hostes. In his stativis, 
fit longo niagis quam acri bello, satis liberi comnicat 
cranty primoribus tamen magis quam militibus; re 
quidem iuvcnes interdum otium conviviis comisationibi 
que inter se tcrebant. Forte potantibus his apud S 
Tarquinium, ubi et Conlatinus cenabat Tarquinius £g< 
Alius, incidit de uxoribus mentio; suam quisque laud 
niiris modis. Inde certamine accenso Conlatinus nc 
verbis opus esse, paucis id quidem horis posse sc 
quantum ceteris praestet Lucretia sua. ''Quin, si vi^ 
iuventae inest, conscendimus equos, invisimusque pi 
sentes nostrarum ingenia? Id cuique spectatissim 
sit, quod necopinato viri adventu occurrerit ocul 
Incaluerant vino. '' Age sane I " omnes. Ciutis ec 
avolant Romam. Quo cum primis se intendenti 
tenebris pervenissent, pergunt inde Collatiam, ubi Lak 
tiam haudquaquam ut regias nurus, quas in conv 



Juzuque cum aequalibus viderant tempus terentes, seel 
node sen deditam kuiae inter lucubranles ancillas in 
medio aedium sedentem inveniunt. Muliebris certami- 
nis bus penes Lucretiam fuit. Adveniens vir Tarquinii- 
S que exccpU benigne ; victor nuiritus coiniter invitai 
fcgios iuvenes. Ibi Sex « 'larquinium inala libido Lu- 
cietiae per vim stuprandae capit ; cum forma tum spec- 
lata casUtas incitat. Et tum quidem ab noctunio 
Ittdo in castra redeunt 

A few days Uter he goes secretly to Cotlatia and violates her 
chastity. She semts for her father and iutsdand and slays 
herself after hcearing their vow of vengeance, 

lo LVIII. Pftucis interiectis diebus Sex. Tarquinius in- 
scio Conlatino cum comite uno Collatiam venit. Ubi 
exceptus benigne ab ignaris consilii cum post cenam in 
hospitale cubiculum deductus csset, amore ardcns, post- 
quam satis tuta circa sopitique omncs vidcbantur, stricto 

15 gladio ad dormientem Lucretiam venit, sinistraque manu 
mulieris pectore oppresso " Tace Lucretia " inquit ; " Sex. 
Tarquinius sum; ferrum in manu est; moriere, si emi- 
scris vocem." Cum pavida ex somno mulicr nullam 
opem, prope mortem inminentem videret, tum Tarqui- 

jo nius (ateri amorem, orare, miscere precibus minas, versare 
in omncs partes muliebrem animum. Ubi obstinatam 
videbat et ne mortis quidem metu inclinari, addit ad 
metum dedecus: cum mortua iugulatum servum nudum 
podtmim ait, ut in sordido adulterio necata dicatur. 

S5 Quo terrore cum vicisset obstinaUm pudicitiam velut vi 
atrox libido, profectusque inde Tarquinius ferox expugnato 
dccore muliebri esset, Lucretia maesta Unto malo nuntium 
Romam eundem ad patrem Ardeamque ad virum mit- 
tit, ut cum siogulis fidelibus amicis veniant: iu facto 

jD maluiatoque opus esse; rem atrocem inddisse. Sp. 
Lucretius cum P. Valerio Volesi Alio, Conlatinu* cum 


L lunio Bruto venit, cum quo forte Romam redii 
ab nuntio uxoris erat conventus. Lucretiam seilent 
luaestam in cubiculo inveniuot Adventu suonim lacrir 
oborlac. Quaercntiquc viro "Satin salvae?" •'Minim 
inquit; "quid enim saivi est mulicri amissa pudicii 
Vestigia viri alieni, Conlatine, in lecto sunt tuo. Ci 
mm cori>us est tantum violatum, animus insons: rr 
testis erit. Sed date dexteras fidenique liaud inp 
ailultero fore. Sex. est Tarquinius, qui hostis pro 
spite priore nocte vi amiatus mihi sibique, si vos 
estis, |)estifcrum hinc abstultt gaudium.*' Dant on 
omncs (idem; consolantur aegrain animi avertendo no: 
ab caicta in auctorem delicti : nientem peccare non * 
pus, et unde consilium afueriti culpam abesse. /'V 
inquit "videritis, quid illi debeatur: ego me etsi ] 
cato absolvoi supplicio non libera; nee ulla dei 
« inpudica Lucretiae exemplo vivet." Cullrum, quem 
veste abditum habebat, eum in corde defigit, pro 
saque in vulnus moribunda cecidit Conclamat 

Brutus arouses thi people at Rome, Tarquin is deposed 

tauisked with all his house, 

LIX. Brutus illis luctu occupatis cultrum ex vul 
Lucretiae extractum manantem cruore prae se tenens ' 
hunc " inquit " castissimum ante regiam inuriam sai 
nem iuro, vosque^ dii, testes facio, me L. Tarquii 
Sui)crbum cum scelerata coniuge et omni liben 
stirpc fcrro, igni, quacumque denique vi possim, < 
turum, nee illos nee alium quemquam regnare R< 
passurum." Cultrum deinde Conlatino tradit, inde 
cretio ac Valerio, stupentibus miraculo rei, unde nc 
in Bruti pectore ingenium. Ut pracceptum erat, iui 
totique ab luctu versi in iram Brutumi iam ind< 
cxpugnandum regnum vocantenfi, seqnuntur ducem. 


turn domo Lucreiiae corpus in forum deferunt, concient* 
que miraculo, ut fit, rei novae atque indignitate homines. 
Pro se qutsque scelus regium ac vim quenintur. Mo- 
vet cum patris maestitia, turn Brutus castigator lacrima 
5 rum atque tnertium querellarum auctorquei quod viros, 
quod Romanos deceret, arma capiendt adversus hostilia 
ausos. Ferocissimus quisque iuvenum cum amiis vo- 
luntarius adest; sequitur et cetera iuventus. Inde parte 
piaesidio reticta CoUatiae, custodibusque datis, ne quis 

lo euro motum regibus nuntiaret, ceteri armati ducc 
Bnito Romam profecti. Ubi eo ventum est, quacunv 
que incedit armata multitudo, pavorem ac tumultum 
iadt. Runtis ubi anteire primores civitatis vident, quid- 
quid 8i(| baud temere esse rentur. Nee minorem motum 

15 aniniorum Romae tam atrox res facit, quam Collatiae 
leoerat Ergo ex omnibus k>cis urbis in forum curri- 
tur. Quo simul ventum est, praeco ad tribunum Celc- 
rum, in quo turn magistratu forte Brutus erat, populuin 
advocavit Ibi oratio liabita nequaquam eius pectoris 

JO ingeniiquCy quod simulatum ad eam diem fuerat, de vi 
ac libidine Sex. Tarquinii, de stupro infando Lucretiae 
ct miserabili caede, de orbitate Tricipitini, cui mortc 
filiae causa mortis indignior ac miserabilior esset Ad- 
dita superbia ipsius regis miseriaeque et labores plebis 

S5 in ibssaa cloacasque exhauriendas demersae : Romanos 
homines, victores omnium circa populorum, opifices ac 
lapicidas pro bellatoribus factos. Jndigna Servi Tulli 
regis memorata caedis et invecta corpori patris nefando 
vehiculo lilia, invocatique ultores parentum dii. His 

JO atrocioribusque, credo* aliis, quae praesens rerum indig- 
nitas haudquaqttam relatu scriptoribus facilia subicit, me- 
rooratb incensam multitudinem perpulit, ut imperium regi 
•brogarel, exulesque esse iuberet L. Tarquinium cum 
ooniuge ac liberis. Ipse iunioribus, qui ultro nomina 

35 dabant, kctis armatisque ad conciundum inde adversus 
rcfem 'exerdtum Ardeam in Ct^stra est profectus; impe- 


rium in urbe Lucretio, praefecto urbis iam ante ab re 
instituto, relinquit Inter hunc tumultum TuUia doi 
profiigit cxsccrantibus, quacumquc incedebat^ invocantib 
que parentuin furias viris mulieribusque. 

Tki TarqnifU go into txiU* Stxius is kilUd at Gabii. 
RtpHblk is inaugHraied with Brutus and Coliatiuus 
tlu first cousuls, 

LX. Harum rerum nuntiis in castra perlatis cum 
nova trcpidus rex pergeret Romam ad coinprimen 
motus, flcxit viam Brutus — senserat enim adventum, 
nc obvius fieret; eodemque fere tempore diversis 
ncribus Bmtus Ardeam, Tarquinius Romam vener 
Taniuinio dausae portae exiliumque indictum; liber 
rem urbis laeta castra accepere, exactique inde 11 
regis. Duo patrem secuti sunt, qui exulatum O 
in Etniscos ierunt; Sex. Tarquinius Gabios tamqi 
in suum rcgnum profcctus ab ultoribus veterum sit 
tatium, quas sibi ipse caedibus rapinisque conciverat 
intcrfectus. L. Tarquinius Superbus regnavit annos q 
que ct viginti. Regnatum Romae ab condita urbe 
liberatam annos ducentos quadraginta quattuor. 
consules inde comitiis centuriatis a praefecto urbia 
commentariis Servi Tulli creati sunt, L. lunius Bi 
et L. Tarquinius Conlatinus. 



Tkg smd/td cf ih§ third Dtcadg is ihi HanmbalU or Stc&nd 

, Punic IVar* 

I. In parte opens mei licet mihi praefari, quod in 
principio summae totius professi pierique sunt rerum 
scriptoresy bellum maxime omnium memorabile, quae 

. .uinquam gesta sint, me scripturum, quod Hannil>ale 
5 duce Caithaginienses cum populo Romano gessere. Nam 
neqoe validiores opibus uliae inter se civttates gentes* 
que contukrunt amia, neque his ipsis tantum umquam 
virium aut roboris fuit; et baud ignotas belli artes inter 
sese, sed expertas primo Punico conferebant bello, et 

lo adeo varia fortuna belli ancepsque Mars fuit, ut proptus 
periculum fuerint, qui vicerunt Odiis etiam prope ma- 
ioribus certarunt quam viribuSi Romanis indignantibus, 
quod victoribus victi ultro inferrent arma, Poenis, quod 
foperbe avareque crederent inperitatum victis esse. 

15 Faroa est etiam Hannibalem annorum ferme novem, pu- 
eriliter Uandientem patri Hamilcari, ut duceretur in 
Hispaniam, cum perfecto Africo bello exercitum eo tra- 
iectunis sacriftcaret, altaribus admotum tactis sacris iure 
inraiido adactum se, cum primum posset, hostem fore 

so populo Roroana Angebant ingentis spiritus vinim Sici- 
lia Saidiniaque amissae : nam et Siciliaro nimis celeri 
desperatione rerum concessam et Sardiniam inter motum 
AMcae fraude Romanonim stipendio etiam insuper in« 
posito interceptam. 


Ccnguests by Hamiicar and Nasdrubai in Spain, 

II. His anxius curis ita se Africo bellOi quod 
sub recentem Romanam pacetiii per quinque annos, 
dcindc novem annis in Hispania augendo Punico in 
rio gcssit, ut apparerct maius eum, quam quod gcr< 
agitarc in animo bellunii et, si diutius vixlssct, Ha 
care duce Pocnos arma Italiae inlaturos fuissCi 
Hannibalis ductu intulenint. 

Mors Hamilcaris peropportuna et pucritia Hanni 
distulerunt bcllum. Mcdius Hasdrubal inter patrcn 
(ilium octo ferme annos imperium obtinuit, florc ac 
uti fcrunt, prime Hamilcari conciliatus, gcner ind< 
aliam indolem profecto animi adscitus, ct, quia ( 
crat, factionis Barcinae opibus, quae apud militcs 
bemquc plus quam nnxlicae erant, baud sane volu 
principum in imperio positusJ Is plura consilio < 
vi gerens hospitiis magis reguiorum conciliandtsquc 
amicitiain principum novis gentibus quam bcllo au 
mis rem Carthaginicnsem auxit Cetcnim nihilo ei 
tutior fuit: barbarus eum quidam palam ob iram 
fecti ab eo domini obtruncat; conprcnsusque ab 
cumstantibus baud alio, quam si evasisseti vultu, tom 
quoque cum laceraretur, eo fuit habitu oris, ut supi 
lactitia dolores ridentis etiam speciem praebuerit. 
hoc Hasdrubale, quia mirae artis in sollicitandis ge 
impcrioque suo iungendis fuerat, foedus renov 
populus Romanust ut finis utriusque imperii esset 
Hiberus, Saguntinisque mediis inter imperia duorui 
pulorum libcrtas servaretur. 

Hannibai is chosin eommauder p/tki Punic armUs in •! 

III. In Hasdrubalis locum baud dubia res fuit 
praerogativa militaris, qua extempio iuvenis Hs 
in praetorium delatus imperatorque ingenti omniui 



more atque adsensu appellatus eraty ••• favor plebis seque- 
batur. HuiK (yixdum puberem Hasdrubal litteris ad se 
accersierat, actaque res etiam in senatu fuerat. Barcinis 
nitentlUis, ut adsuescerct militiae Hannibal atquc in pa- 
5 temas .succederet opes, Hanno, alterius factionis prin- 
ceps ''Et aecum poslulare videtur" inquit ''Hasdrubal, 
et ego tamen non censeo quod petit tribuendum." 
Cum admiratione tarn ancipitis sentcntiae in se omnis 
converttsset, ''Florem aetatis" inquit "Hasdrubstl, quein 

lo ipse patri Hannibalis fruencfum praebuit, iusto iure eum 

a Alio repeti censet ; nos tamen minime decet iuven- 

tutem nostram pro militari rudimento adsuefacere libidini 

^ praetonim. An hoc timemns, ne Hamilcaris Alius nimis 

tcro imperia inmodica et regni paterni speciem videat, 

15 et, cuius regis genero hereditarii sint relicti exerciius 
liostri, eius filio parum mature serviamus? Ego istum 
ittvenem domi tenendum, sub legibus, sub magistratibus 
docendum vivere aequo iure cum ceteris censeo, ne 
quandoque parvus hie ignis incendium ingens exsuscitet" 

Tkf ckaraciiT cf Hanmbai, 

JO lYk Fauci ac ferme optimus quisque Hannoni ad- 
sentiebontur; sed, ut plerumque fit, maior pars melio- 
rem vkit 

Missus Hannibal in Hispaniam primo statim adventu 
omnem exercitum in se convertit: Hamilcarcm iuvenera 

s$ redditum sibi veteres milites credere; eundem vigorem 
in vulttt vimque in oculis, habitum oris lineamentaque 
inlueri. Dein brevi eflecit, ut pater .in se minimum 
momentum ad fovorem conciliandum esset Numquam 
ingenium idem ad res diversissimas, parendum atque 
)D imperandum, habilius fuit« Itaqne baud facile disceme- 
res, utrum imperatori an exercitui carior esset: neque 
Hasdmbal alium quemquam praeficere malle, ubi quid 
fsftiler ac strenue agendum esset, neque milites alio 


ducc plus conAdcre aut audere^ Plurimuin audac 
ad pcricula capessenda, plurimum consilii inter ipsa 
ricula erat. NuHo iabore aut corpus fatigari aut s 
nius vinci potcrat Galons ac frigoris paticiitia par ; ' < 
potionisque desiderio natural!, non voluptatc modus i 
tus; vigiliarum sonmique nee die nee nocte ,drsCrimii 
tempora: id, quod gerendis rebus supercsset, quicti 
turn; ea nequc moUi strato nequc silentio accer^ 
multi sacpe militari sagulo opertuni humi iacentcm ii 
custodias stationcsque niilituni conspexerunt Vestitus 
hil inter aequales excellens; arma atquc equi conspi 
txintur. Equituin peditumque idem longe primus « 
Princeps in proelium ibat, ultinius eonserto proelio 
ccdcbat. Has tantas viri virtutes ingentia vitia ac< 
bant: inhuniana crudelitas, perfidia plus quam Put 
nihil vcri, nihil sancti, nuUus dcum metus, nullum 
iurandum, nulla religio. Cum hac indole virtutum a 
vitiorum triennio sub Hasdrubale imperatore meruit i 
re, quae agenda videndaque magno future duci e 

His victoriis ever thi Spanish tribes, 

V. Ceterum ex quo die dux est declaratus, 
Italia ei provincia decreta bellumque Romanum m2 
turn esset. nihil prolatandum ratus, ne se quoque 
patrem Hamilearem, deinde Hasdnibalcm, cuncta 
casus aliquis opprimeret, Saguntinis inferre helium st 
Quibus oppugnandis quia haud dubie Romana arma 
vebantur, in Olcadum prius fines— -ultra Hibcrun 
gens in parte magis quam in dicione Carthaginier 
erat — induxit exercitum, ut non i>etisse Saguntinos 
rcnini scric, finitimis domitis gentibus, iungendoque 
tus ad id bellum videri posset. Cartalara urbem 
lentam, caput gentis eius, expugnat diripitque; 
ractu perculsae minorts civiutes stipendio inposiu 


periom accqpcre. Victor exercitus opulentusque )>raeda 
Caithaginem Novam in hibema est deductus. Ibi large 
paitiendo praedam stipendioque praeterito cum fide exsoj- 
Ycndo cunctis civium sociorumque animis in se firmatis 
5 vere priroo in Vaccaeos promotum bellum. Hermandica 
et Arbocab, eorum urbes vi captae. Arbocala et virtutc 
et multitudine oppidanpnim diu defensa. Ab Herman- 
dica profugi ^xulibus Olcadum, priore aestate domitac 
gentis, cum se iunxissent, concitant Carpetanos, adorti- 

fo que Hannibaleni regressum ex Vaccaeis baud procul 

Tago flumine, agmen grave praeda turbavere. Hannibal 

pcoelio absdnuit, castrisque super ripam positis, cum 

prima quies silentiumque ab hostibus fuit, amnem vado 

'traiecity valloque ita producto, ut locum ad transgrcdi- 

15 endum hostes haberent, invadere eos transeuntes statuit. 
Equitibus praecepit, ut, cum ingressos aquam viderent, 
adorirentur inpeditum agmen, in ripa elcphantos — qua- 
diaginu autem erant — disponit. Carpetanorum cum 
adpendicibu s Olcadum Vaccaeorumque centum milia fu- 

ao ere, invicta acics, si aequo dimicaretur campo. Itaque 
et ingenio feroces et multitudine freti et, quod metu 
cessisse credebant hostem, id morari victoriam rati, quod 
interesset amnis, damore sublato passim sine ullius im- 
perio, qua cuique proximum est, in amnem ruunt Et 

«5 ex parte altera ripae vis ingens equitum in flumcn 
inmisia, medioque alveo haudquaquam pari certaminc 
con^ukmim, quippe ubi pedes instabilis ac vix vado 

\ fidens vel ab Jnsrmi equite equo temere acto perverti 
posicty equcs corpore armisque liber, equo vel per me- 
j9 dios guigites stabili, comminus^ eminusque rem gereret 
Pub magna flumine absumpta; quidam verticoso amni 
deiati in hostis ab elephantis obtriti sunt^ 'Postremi, 
qoibus regressus in suam ripam tutior fuit, ex varia tre- 
pidatkme cum in unum coUigerentur, priusquam a tanto 
JS pwrore reciperent animos, Hannibal agmine qnadrato 
ingressus fiigam ex ripa fecit, vastatisque agris 






iiura paucos dies Carpetanos quoque in d editionen^ a( 
ccpiL £t iain omnia Uans Hibenim praeter Saguntinc 
Carthaginiensium eranL 

/// /ays sUg< to SagHutum in 219 B. C. Surprisi pf ti 


VI. Cum Saguntinis bcllum nondum erat, ceterum iai 

1)clli causa ccitamina cum finiiimis serebantur, maxin 

Turdctanis. Quibus cum adessct idem, qui litis er 

sator, nee certamen iuris, sed vim quacri apparcn 

Icgati a Saguntinis Romam missi auxilium ad bellu 

iam haud dubie inminens orantcs. Consules tunc K 

mac erant P. Cornelius Scipio et Ti. Sempronius Longi 

Qui cum legatis in senatum introductis dc re publi 

retulisscnt, placuissetque mitti legatos in Hispaniam 

res sociorum inspicicndas* quibus si videretur dig 

causa, et Hannibalt denuntiarent, ut ab Saguntinis, ! 

ciis populi Romani, abstineret, et Carthaginem in Al 

cam traicerent ac sociorum populi Romani querimon 

dcferrent, — hac legatione decreU necdum niissa, omnii 

spe celerius Saguntum oppugnari adlatum est Ti 

relata dc integro res ad senatum; et alii provinc 

consulibus Hispaniam atque Africam decementes te 

marique rem gerendam censebant^ alii totum in His 

niam Hannibalcmque intendebant bellum; erai>t qui 1 

temcrc movendam rem Untam expectandosque ex His 

nia legatos censerent. Haec sententla, quae tutissi 

vidcbatur, vicit; legatique eo maturius missi P. Vale 

Flaccus et Q. Baebius Tamphilus Saguntum ad Hann 

lem atque inde Carthaginem, si non absisteretur bello, 

ducem ipsum in poenam foederis rupti deposcendum. 

Nationality of tkt SaguntiHes. Hannibal it woundea 

VIL Dum ea Romani parant consuluntque, 
Saguntum summa vi oppugnabatur. Civitas ea Ic 


opulentissiina ultra Hiberum fuit, sita passus mille femic 
a man. Oriundi a Zacyntho insula dicuntur, mixtiquc 
ctiam ab Ardea Rutuiorum quidam generis; ceterum in 
tantas brevi creverant oi>es seu maritiiuis seu terrestri- 
5 bus fructibusy seu multitudinis incrcmento, seu discipiinae 
sanctitate, qua fidem socialein usque ad perniciem suani 
cohicrunt Hannibal infesto exercitu ingressus Anes per- 
vastalis passim agris urbem tripertito adgrcditur. Angu- 
lus muri erat in planiorem patentioremquc quam cetera 

lo cifca vallem vergens : adversus euin vineas agere insti- 
tuiCy per quas arics moenibus admoveri posset. Sed ut 
locus procul muro satis aequus agendis vineis fuit, ita 
haudquaquam prospere, postquam ad eflcctum operis 
ventum est| coeptis succedebat. Et torris ingens inminc* 

■5 bal, et mums, ut in suspecto loco, supra ceterae mo- 
dum altitudinis eniunitus erat,- et iuventus delecta, ubi 
plurimum periculi ac timoris ostendebatur, ibi vi maiore 
obsistebant Ac primo missilibus submovere hostem ncc 
qukquam satis tutuni munientibus pati; deinde iam non 

ao pro moenibus modo atque turri tela micare, sed ad 
emmpendum etiam in stationes operaque hostium ani- 
mus eiat; quibus tumultuariis certaminibus baud ferme 
plures Saguntini cadebant quam Poeni. Ut vero Han- 
nibal ipse, dum murum incautius subit, adversum femur 
S5 tragula graviter ictus cecidit, tanta circa fuga ac trepi- 
datio fuit, ut non mi^tum abesset, quin opera ac vineae 

A hnmch is made im tki wall^ but an attempt to storm the 

town fails. 

VIII. Obsidio deinde per paucos dies magis quam 

oppugnatio fuit, dum vulnus ducis curaretur. Per quod 

jD tempui ut qutes certaminum erat, ita ab apparatu ope- 

nun ac rounidonum nihil cessatum. Itaque aaius de 

integro coortum est bellum, pluribusque partibus, vix 

apientibus qutbusdam opera locis, vineae coeptae agi 


admoverique aries. Abundabat multitudine hominuro 
Poenus — ad centum quiDquaginta milia habuissc in ar- 
mis satis creditur; — oppidani ad omnia tuenda atque 
obcunda multifartam distineri coepti non sufficiebant 
Ita(]uc iam feriebantur arietibus muri, ([uassauequc mul- 
tae ixirtes crant; una continentibus minis nudaverat 
urbcm: tres deinceps turris quantumquc inter eas muri 
crat cum fragore ingenti prociderant Captum oppiduni 
ea ruina crediderant Poeui, qua, velut si pariter iitros' 
(juc mums texisset, ita utrimque in pugnam procursum 
est. Nihil tumultuariae pugnae simile erat, quales in 
oppugnationibus urbium per occasionem partis alterius 
conseri solent, sed iustae acies velut patenti campo intei 
niinos muri tectaque urbis roodico distantia intervalk 
constiterant Hinc spes, hinc desperatio animos inritat 
Pocno cepbse iam se urbem, si paulum adnhatur, ere 
dente, Saguntinis pro nudata moenibus pairia corpon 
op])onentibus nee ullo pedem referente, ne in relictun 
a sc locum hostem inmitteret. Itaque quo acrius c 
confertim magis utrimque pugnabant, eo plures vulncra 
luntur nuUo inter arma corporaque vano intercident< 
tclo. Phalarica erat Saguntinis missile telum hastil 
abicgno et cetera tereti praeterquam ad extremum, und( 
fenrum extabat; id, sicut in pilo, quadratum stuppa cir 
cumligabant linebantque pice ; fermm autem tres longun 
hal)ebat pedes, ut cum armis transfigere corpus possci 
Sed id maxime, etiam si haesisset in scuto nee penc 
trasset in corpus, pavorem faciebat, quod, cum mediur 
accensum mitteretur conceptumque ipso motu multo ma 
iorem ignem ferret, arma omitti cogebat nudumque m 
litem ad insequentes ictus praebebat. 


A Roman tmbasty, not btin^ rectivtd by Hannibai^ pr^cttc 

io Carthagi. 

IX. Cum diu anceps Tuisset certamen, et Saguntini 
quia practer spem resisterent, crevissent animi, Poenu: 


quia non vicisseti pro victo esseti clamorem repente op- 
pidani toUtint hostemque in ruinas muii expellun^ indc 
npeditum trq>idantemque exturbant, postrtmo fusum fu- 
gatuiiique in castra redigunt 
5 Interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est; qui- 
but obviam ad mare missi ab Hannibale qui dicerent 
nee tuto eoa adituroa inter tot tarn eflTrenatarum gentium 
anna nee Hannibali in tanto discrimine rerum operac 
ene fegadones audire. Apparebat non admissos pro- 
io tinus Carthaginem iCuros. Litteras igitur nuntiosque ad 
principes factionis Barcinae praemittit^ ut praepararent 
moffum animosy ne quid pan altera gratificari populo 
Romano ponet. 

ii^mw in thg Carihaginian Stnait supports iki claims of 
•^ Homt, 

J X. Itaque, praeterquam quod admissi auditique sunt, 

15 ea quoque vana atque inrita legatio fuit Hanno uniis 
advemis senatum causam foederis magno silentio propter 
aiictoritatem suam, non cum adsensu audientium egit, 
per deos foederum arbitros ac testes senatum obtestans, 
ne Romanum cum Saguntino suscitarent bellum : monu-> 

jp isse, praedixisse se, ne Hamilcaris progeniem ad exerci- 
tum roitterent : non manes, non stirpem eius conquiescere 
viri, nee umquami donee sanguinis nominisque Barcini 
quisquam supersit, quietura Komana foedera. ** luve- 
nem flagrantem cupidine regni viamque unam ad id 

as cementem, si ex belUs bella serendo succinctus armis 
legionibusque vivat, velut materiam igni praebentes, ad 
eicerdtus misistis* Aluistis ergo hoc incendiuro, quo 
nunc ardetis. Saguntum vestri circumsedent exercitus, 
osde arcentur foedere: mox Carthaginem circumsede- 

JD bunt Romanae kgiones ducibus isdem dis, per quos 
prioie beDo nipta foedera sunt uld. Utrum hostem an 
¥08 an fortunam utriusque populi ignoratis? Legatos ab 





sociis et pro sociis venientes bonus imperator vester in 
castra non admisiti his gentium sustuUt; hi taroen, 
i unde ne hostium quidein iegati arcentur puisi, ad nos 
I vcnerunt; res ex foedere repetunt. Ut publicafraus ab- 
sit, auctorem cul|)ae et reum criminis deposcunt. Quo ; 
ienius agunt, segntus incipiunt, eo, cum coeperint, vereor 
ne perseverantius *saeviant Aegatis insulas Kryccmque 
ante oculos proponite, quae terra manque per quattuor 
ct viginti annos passi sitis. Nee puer hie dux erat, 
sed pater ipse Hamilcar, Mars alter, ut isti volunt. 
Scd Tarento, id est Italia, non abstinueramus ex foe- 
dere, sicut nunc Sagunto non abstinemus. Vicerunt 
ergo di homines, et^ id de quo verbis ambigebatur, 
titer populus foedus rupisset, eventiis belli velut aecus 
index, unde ius stabat, ei victoriam dedjt Carthagini 
nunc Hannibal vineas turresque admovet, Carthaginis 
moenia quatit ariete : Sagunti niii\ac -— falsus utinam 
vates sim^nostris capitibus incident, suscepturoque cum 
Saguntinis bellum habendum cum Romanis est. Dede« 
mus ergo Hannibalem? dicet aliqujs. Scio meam le* 
vem esse in eo auctoritatem propter paternas inimicitias; 
scd et Hamilicarem eo pcrisse lactatus sum, quod, si 
ille viveret, bellum iam haberemus cum Romanis, et 
hunc iuvenem tamquam furiam facemque huius belli odi 
ac detestor; nee dedendum solum ad piaculum rupti 
foederis, sed, si nemo deposceret, devehendum in ultima: 
in«iris terrarumque oras, ablegandum eo, unde nee ac 
nos nomen famaque eius accidere neque ille sollicitarc 
quietae civitatis statum possit. Ego ita censeo, legato 
extemplo Romam roitten^os, qui senatui satisfaciant 
alios, qui Hannibali nuntient, ut exercitum ab SagunU 
abducat, ipsumque Hannibalem ex foedere Romanis de 
dant; tertiam legationem ad res Saguntinis reddenda 


7%4 SiMoii nfusa ike Roman iUmands^ and iki siege pf Sa- 

guHinm goes oh. 

XL Cum Hanna perorasset, nemini omnium certare 
oratione cum eo necesse fuit: adeo prope omnis sena- 
tus Hannibalis erat, infestiusque locutum arguebant Han- 
nonem quam Flaccum Valerium, legatum Romanum. 
5 Responsum inde legatis Romanis est bellum ortum ab 
SaguntiniSy non ab Hannibale esse; populum Romanum 
iniusle facerct si Saguntinos vetustissimae Carthaginien- 
siom socictati praeponat. 

Dura Romani tcmpus terunt legationibus mittendis, 

le Hannibal, quia fessum militem proeliis operibusque ha- 
' bebaty paucorum iis dienim quietem dedit stationibus ad 
custodiam vinearum aliorumque operum dispositis. Inte- 
rim animos eorum nunc ira in hostis stimulando, nunc 
spe praemiorum accendit. Ut vero pro contione prae- 

15 <iam captae urbis edixit militum fore, adeo accensi 
omnes sunt, ut, si extempio signum datum csset, nulla 
vi resist! videretur posse. Saguntini, ut a proeliis qui- 
etem habuerant, nee lacessentes nee lacessiti per aliquot 
diesi ita non nocte, non die umquam cessaverant ab 

JO opere, ut novum murum ab ea parte, qua patefactum 
oppidum minis erat, reficerent Inde oppugnatio eos 
aliquanto atrocior quam ante adorta est; nee, qua pri- 
mum aut potissimum parte ferrent opem, cum omnia 
variis clamoribus streperent, satis scire poterant. Ipse 

as Hannibal, qua turns mobilis omnia munimenta urbis su- 
perans altitudine agebatur, hortator aderat Quae cum 
admota catapultis ballistisque per omnia tabulata dispo- 
sitis moros defensoribus nudasset, tum Hannibal occa- 
siooem ratus quingentos ferme Afros cum dolabris ad 

j» sttbmendum ab imo murum mittit. Nee erat difficile 
opaSi qood caementa non calce durata erant, sed inter- 
liU hito stnicturae antiquo genere. /Itaque latius, quam 


qua cacdcrctur, ruebat, pcrquc patentia minis agroir 
armatorum in urbcm vadebant Locum quoque cditui 
capiunt, conlatisque eo caUpultis ballistisque, ut caste 
lum in ipsa urbe vclut arccin inminentcni habcrer 
inuro circumdant Et Saguntini murum intcriorem s 
nondum capta parte urbis ducunt. Utrimque summa 
ct muniunt et pugnant; scd interiora tuendo niinore 
in dies urbem Saguntini faciunt. Simul crescit inop 
omnium longa obsidione et minuitur expectado extern 
opis, cum tarn procul Romani, unica spes, circa omr 
hostium essent PauHsper tamen adfectos animos reci 
avit repentina profectio Hannibalis in Oretanos Car[ 
tanosque, qui duo populi, dilectus acerbitate constema 
rctentis conquisitoribus metum defectionis cum praefa 
issenti oppress! celeritate Hannibalis omisenmt mc 

Attempt to storm tk$ city. Overtures of surrender. 

XII. Nee Sagunti oppugnatio segnior erat Maharbs 
Himilconis filio — eum praefecerat Hannibal — ita in 
grc rem agente, ut ducem abesse nee cives nee hos 
sentircnt Is et proelia aliquot secunda fecit, et tril 
arietibus aliquantum muri discussity strataque omnia 
centibus minis advenienti Hannibali ostendit Itac] 
ad ipsam arcem extemplo ductus exercitus, atroxc] 
proclium cum multomm utrimque caede initum, et p 
arcis capta est 

Tcmptata deinde per duos est exigua pacts sp 
Alconem Saguntinum et Alorcum Hispanum. AIco ins< 
Saguntinis, precibus aliquid motumm ratus, cum 
Hannibalem noctu transisset, postquam nihil lacrin 
movebant, condicionesque tristes ut ab irato vict 
ferebantur, transfuga ex oratore factus apud host 
mansit, moritumm adfirmans, qui sub condicionibus 
de pace ageret Pbstulabatur autem, redderent res T 


detaniSy traditoque omni auro atque argento egressi urbe 
cum singulis vcstimentis ibi habitarent, ubi Poenus ius* 
sisset Has pacis leges abnuente Alcone accepturos 
Saguntinosy Alorcus, vinci animos, ubi alia vincantur, 
5 adfirmansy sc pacis eius interpretem fore poUicetur. 
Eiat autem turn miles Hannibalis, cetcrum publice Sa- 
guntinis amicus atque hospcs. TraiHto \ya\am telo cus- 
todibus hostium transgressus munimenta ad praetoreni 
Sagundnum — el ipse ita iubebat — est deductus. Quo 
lo cum extemplo concursus omnis generis hominum esset 
fiictusy submota cetera multitudine senatus Alorco datus 
cst^ cuius talis oiatio fuit 

Addrtss of AhrcHs io the SaguHlincs, 

XIII. ''Si civis vester Alco, sicut ad pacem peten- 
dam ad Hannibalem vcnit, ita pacis condiciones ab 

■5 Hannibak ad vos rettulissct, supervacaneum hoc mihi 
fuisset iter, quo nee orator Hannibalis ncc transfuga ad 
vos veni; sed cum ille aut vestra aut sua culpa nian- 
serit apud hoslcm — sua, si nictum simulavit, vestra, 
si periculum est apud vos vera referentibus — ego, nc 

jD ignoraietis esse aliquas et saUitis et pacis vobis condi- 
ciones, pro vetusto hospttio, quod mihi vobiscum est, 
ad vos veni* Vestra autem c«iusa me nee ullius alte- 
rios loqui, quae loquor apud vos, vel ca fides sit, c|uo(l 
ncque dum vestris viribus restittstis, neque dum auxilia 

S5 abRomanis sperastis, pacis umquam apud vos mcntio- 
nem feci. Postquam nee ab Romanis vobis ulla est 
apes, nee vestra vos iam aut arma aut moenia satis 
defendunti pacem adfero ad vos magis necessariam quam 
aeqoam. Cuius ita aliqua spes est, si eam, quem, ad 

j» modum ut victor fert Hannibal, sic vos ut victi audie- 
tb et non id, quod amittitur, in damno» cum omnia 
vktoris sint, sed quidquid re]inc|uitur pro munere habi- 
turi eitis» Urbem vobis, quam ex magna parte diru* 


tarn, captam fere totani habct, adiinit, agros relinqu 
locum adsignaturusi in quo novum oppidum acdificet 
Aunim et argcntum omne, publicum privatumque, ad 
iubct dcferri; corpora vcstniy coniugum ac liberon 
vcstrorum scrvat inviolata, si inermes cum binis ve^ 
mentis velitis ab Sagunto exire. Hacc victor hos 
im|>erat; hacc, quam<iuam sunt gravia at(|uc acerl 
fortuna vestra vobis suadcL Ekjuidcm baud* dcspc 
cum omnium potcstas ei facta sit, aliquid ex his ren 
surum; sed vcl haec {utienda censeo ix>tius quam tri 
clari corpora vestra, rapi trahique ante ora vestra coniuj 
ac liberos belli iure sinatis.*' 

SaguMtHm is taken by storm. 

XIV. Ad haec audienda cum circumfusa paula 
multitudine i)erniixtum senatui esset populi concilii 
rcpentc primores scccssionc facta, prius<|uam respon; 
daretur, argentum aurumque omne ex publico priv; 
que in fonmi conlatum in ignem ad id laptim fac 
conicicntes eodcm plcrique scmct ipsi praecipitavcr 
Cum ex CO pavor ac trcpidatio totam urbcm pcrv; 
set, alius insupcr tumultus ex arce auditur. Turris 
quassata prociderat, perquc ruinam cius cohors Po< 
rum imi>etu facto cum signum imperatori dedisset 
clatam stationibus custodiisque solitis hostium esse url 
non cunctandum in tali occasione ratus Hannibal 
viribus adgressus urbem momento cepit signo date 
omnes puberes interficerentur. Quod imperium cru< 
ceterum prope necessarium cognitum ipso eventu 
cui enim parci potuit ex iis, qui aut inchisi cum 
iugibus ac liberis domos super se ipsos concremave 
aut armati nullum ante finem pugnae quam mori< 


Tki grg4U boUj^ tapiund. Duraiiom of thi siege. 

XV. Captum oppidum est cum ingenti praeda. Quam- 
quam pleraque ab dominis de industria comipta erant, 
et in caedibiM vix ullum discrimen aetatis ira fecerat, 
et capUvi militum praeda fuerant, tamen et ex pretio 
5 renim venditarum aliquantum pecuniae redactum esse 
constat, et multam pretiosam supellectilem vesteinque 
missani Carthaginem. 

Octavo roensCi quam coeptUm oppugnari, captum Sa- 

guntum quidam scripsere; inde Carthaginem Novam in 

le hibema Hannibalem concessisse; quinto deinde mense, 

.quam ab Carthagine profectus sit, in Italian! pervenisse. 

Quae si ita sunt, fieri non potuit, ut P. Cornelius Ti. 

Sempronius consules fuerint, ad quos et principio op- 

pognationts legati Saguntini missi sint, et qui in sue 

15 iiiagistratu cum Hannibale, alter ad Ticinum amnen, 

ambo aliquanto post ad Trebiam pugnaverint Aut 

omnia breviora aliquanto fuere, aut Saguntum principio 

annif quo P. Cornelius Ti. Sempronius consules fuerunt, 

non coeptum oppugnari est, sed captum. Nam exces- 

av sisse pugna ad Trebiam in annum Cn. Servili et C. 

Flamini non potest, quia C. Flaminius Arimini consula- 

turn iniit, creatus a TL Sempronio consule, qui post 

pagnam ad Trebiam ad creandos consules Romam cum 

irenissel, comitiis perfectis ad exercitum in hibema rediit. 

Censiimaiion ai Rome pm hearing the news* 

S5 XVL Sub idem fere tempus et legati, qui redierant 
ab Carthagine, Romam rettulerunt omnia hostilia esse, 
et Sogunti excidium nuntiatum est, Untusque simul 
maeior patres misericordiaque sociorum peremptorum in- 
c^gne et pudor non lati auxilii et ira in Carthaginien- 
metuaque de summa rerum cepit» velut si lam ad 



I)ortas hostis esset, ut tot uno tempore motibus animi 
turbati trepidarent inogts quam consulerent: nam ne(|ue 
hostem acriorem bcllicosioremque secum congressum, nee 
rem Romanam tam desidem umquam fuisse atque in- 
bclicm. Sardos CorM>sque et Histros atque lUyrios 
laccssisse magis quam exercuisse. Roniana arma, et cum 
Gallis tumultuatum verius quam belligeratum : Poenum 
I hostcm veteranumi trium et vigiuti annorum militia du- 
rissiina inter Hispanas gentes semper victorem, duci 
accrrimo adsuetum, rccentem ab excidio opulentissimac 
urbis Hiberum transire; trahere secum tot excitos His 
panorum populos; conciturum avidas semper armorun 
Gallicas gentes: cum orbe terrarum bcllum gerendun 
in Italia ac pro moenibus Romanis esse. 

Preparations at Romt for war. 

XVII. Nominatae iam antca consulibus provincia 
erant, turn sortiri iussi. Cornelio Hispania, Semproni 
Africa cum Sicilia evenit. Sex in eiim annum decretal 
legiones et socium quantum ipsis viileretur et class 
quanta parari posset. Quattuor et viginti peditum R< 
nianonim milia scripta et mille octingenti equites, s 
ciorum quadraginta milia i>editum, quattuor milia 
quadringenti equites; naves ducentae viginti quinqueremc 
rcloces viginti deducti. Latum inde ad populum, v< 
lent iuberent populo Carthaginiensi bellum indici ; eii 
que belli causa supplicatio per urt)em habita atq 
ndorati di, ut bene ac feliciter evenirct quod belli 
populus Romanus iussisset. Inter consules ita copi 
divisae: Sempronio datae legiones duae — ea quatet 
milia erant peditum et treceni equites — et socion 
sedecim milia peditum, equites mille octingenti, na^ 
longae centum sexaginta, celoces duodecim. Cum 
terrestribus maritimisque copiis Ti. Sempronius missus 
Sidliam, ita in Africam transmissurusi si ad arcend 


Ita]ta Poenum consul alter satis esset. Cornelio minus 
oopiarum datum, quia L. Manlius praetor et ipse cum 
haud invalido praesidio in Galliam mittebatur; naviuin 
maxinie Cornelio numerus deminutus. Sexagtnta quin* 
5 queremes datae — neque enim nuuri venturum aut ca 
parte belli dimicatunim hosteni credcbant^et duac 
Romanae legiones cum suo iusto equitatu et quattuor- 
decim milibus sociorum peditum, equitibus mille sescen- 
tis. Duas legiones Romanas et decern milia sociorum 
to pcditum^ mille equites socios, sescentos Romanos Gallia 
pfovincia eodem versa in Punicum bellum habuit 

A Roman tmbassy declares war at Carthage. 

• XVIIL His ita conparatis, ut omnia iusta ante bel- 
lum liercnt, legatos maiores natu, Q. Fabium M. Livium 
L. Aemilium C« Licinium Q. liaebium^ in Africam mit- 

■5 tunt ad percunctandos Carthaginienses, publicone consilio 
Hannibal Saguntum oppugnassct» et, si, id quod facturi 
videbantur, laterentur ac defenderent publico consilio 
fictum, ut indicerent populo Carthaginiensi bellum. 
Romani postquam Carthaginem vcnerunt, cum senatus 

JO dattts essel et Q. Fabius nihil ultra quam unum, quod 
mandatum erat, percunctatus esset, tum ex Carthagini- 
ensibus unus: "Praeceps vestra, Romani, et prior legatio 
fuit, cum . Hannibalem tamquam suo consilio Saguntum 
oppugnantem deposcebatis : ceterum haec legatio verbis 

t$ adhttc knior est, re asperior. Tunc enim Hannibal et 
instmulabatur et deposcebatur ; nunc ab nobis et con- 
letsio culpae exprimitur, et ut a confessis res extemplo 
lepetontur. Ego autem non, privato publicone consilio 
Saguntum oppugnatum sit, quaerendum censeam, sed 

j» utmm iure an iniuria : nostra enim haec quaestio atque 
animadversio in ctvem nostram est, quid nostro aut suo 
ftoerit aibitrio; vobiscum una disceptatio est, licueritne 
per fbedttt fieri. luque quoniam discemi placet, quid 


publico conJinio, quid sua sponte imperatqrcs faciant, 
nobis vobiscum focdus est a C Lutatio consule ictum, 
in quo cum cavereUir utrorumquc sociis, niliil de Sa- 
guntinis— necdum cnim crant socii veslri — caulum est. 
At cnim co fticdcre, quod cum Hasdrubale ictum est, 
Siigunlini cxcipiunUir. Advereus quod ego nihil dictur«s 
sum, nisi quod a vobis didici: vo» enim quod C. Lu- 
taiius consul primo nobiscum focdus icit, quia nequc ex 
aucloritale patrum nee populi iussu ictum crat, ncgaslis 
vos eo teneri: itaquc aliud de integro foedus publico 
consilio ictum est. Si vos non tenent foedcra vcsira 
nisi ex auctoriute aut iussu vestro icta, nc nos quidcm 
Hasdrubalis focdus, quod nobis insciis icit, obligare po- 
luit. Proinde omittite Sagunti atque Hiberi mentioncin 
faccre, et, quod diu parturit animus vcstcr, aliquandc 
pariat." Tum Romanus, sinu ex toga facto, "Hie" 
incjuit "vobis bellum et pacem porUmus, utrum placet 
sumitc." Sub banc vocem baud minus ferociter, darct 
utrum vellet, subcLimatum est Et cum is iterum sini 
cffuso bellum dare dixisset, accipere sc omncs respon 
denmt et, quibus acciperent animis, iisdem se gesturos. 

Fntitity of disputing about treaties* The Romans fail to gaii 

allies in Spain. 

XIX. Haec derecta percunctatio ac denuntiatio bel 
magis ex dignitate populi Roman! visa est quam d 
foederum iure verbis disceptare, cum ante, tum maxim 
Sagunto excisa. Nam si verborum disceptationis n 
csseti quid foedus Hasdrubalis cum Lutati priore fo< 
dere, quod mutatum est, conparandum erat, cum i 
Lutati foedere discrte additum esset, ita id ratum for 
si populus censuisset, in Hasdrubalis foedere nee exce] 
tum tale quicquam fuerit, et tot annorum silentio i 
vivo eo conprobatum sit foedus, ut ne mortuo quide 
auctore quicquam mutaretur? Quaroquam, etsi prio; 


ibedere ttaretur, satis cautuin erat Saguiitinis, sociis utro- 
niinque exccptis. Nam neque additum erat ''lis, qtii 
tunc essent" nee ''ne qui postea adsumerentur ; " ct 
cum adsumere novos liceret socios, quis a«>cum censerct 
S aut ob nulla queroquam merita in amicitiam recipi aut 
receptos in fidem non defendi? Tantum ne Carthagi- 
niensium socii aut sollicitarentur ad defectionem aut sua 
q>onte desciscentes reciperentur. 
Legati Romani ab Carthagine, sicut iis Romae impc- 

iQ latum erat, in Hispaniaro^ ut adirent civitates et in so- 
cictatem perlicerent aut averterent a Poenis, traiecenint. 
Ad Bargusios primum venerunt, a quibus benignc ex- 
cepts quia taedcba t imperii Punici, multos trans HiIk- 
ram populos ad cupidinem novae fortunae erexerunt. 

II Ad Volcianos inde est ventum, quonun celebre per 
Hispaniam responsum ceteros populos ab societate Ro- 
mana avertit Ita eniro maximus natu ex iis in concilio 
fcspondit : " Quae vcrecundia est, Romani, postularc 
vos, ud vestram Carthaginiensium amicitiae pmepona- 

m muS| cum qui id fecerunt crudelius, quam Poenus hostis 

Sy perdidity vos socii prodideritis ? Ibi quaeratis socios, 

censco, nbi Saguntina clades ignota est : Hispanis po- 

pulis sicut lugubre, ita insigne documentum Sagunti 

nitnae erant, ne quis fidei Romanae aut societati con- 

t$ fidat'* Inde extemplo abire (inibus Volcianorum iussi 
ab nuDo deinde concilio Hispaniae benigniora verba 
takie. Ita nequiquam penigrata Hispania in Galliam 

Simitar fmlurt in Gaul, The envoys ntum komi fy way 

0f Massilia. 

XX. Ibi its nova terribilisque species visa est, quod 

JO annati -* ita mos gentis erat — in consilium venerunt. 

Com veriiis extollentes gloriam virtutemque populi Ro- 

ac magnitudinem • imperii petissent, ne 


licllum Italiae inferenti per agros urbesquc suas Uansd: 
tmn dnrent, tantus cum fre mitu risus clicitiir ortus, ut 
\ix a niagistratibus maioribusque natu inventus sedarc- 
ttir: adeo stolida inpudensqne postulatio visa est ecu* 
sere, ne in Italiam transmittant Galli bellum, ^psos id 5 
nvxTtcre in sc agrosquc suos pro alicnis populandos 
ohiccrc^ Sedato tandem fremitu resix>nsum Icgatis est 
ncquc Romanoniro in se meritu m esse neque Carthagi- 
niensium inturiam, ob quae aut pro Romanis aut advcr- 
sus Pocnos sumant arma. Contra ca audirc ^cse gcntis 1 
suae homines agro flnibusque Italiae pcllj a populo 
Romano stipendiumque pcmlere et cetera^ indigna pati.. 
ICadem ferme in ceteris Galliae conciliis dicta audita- 
que : nec^ hospitale quicquam pacatumve satis prius 
audiium, quam Massiliam venere. Ibi omnia ab sociis 
inquisita cum cura ac fide cognita: praeoccupatos iam 
ante ab Hannibale Gallorum animos esse; sed ne illi 
quidcm ipsi satis mitem gentem fore — adeo fcrocia 
atque indomita ingenia esse, — ni subinde aufoT^iius 
avidissima gens est, principum animi concilientur. Ita 
pcragratis Hispaniae Galliacquc populis legati Romani 
rcdeunt baud ita mulfo post quam consules in provin- 
cias profecti erant. Civitatem omnem expectatione belli 
crectam invenerunt, satis constante fama iam "^liberuin 
Poenos transisse«/ 

"^HaHnibat f^ves his army a furlough. Final prtparaiiims 
for the invasion of Italy in ihi spring ^y^ 218 BC. 

XXl/ Hannibal Sagunto capto Carthaginem Novam in 
hiberna concesserat, ibique auditis, quae Romae quaeque 
Carthagine acta decretaque forent, seciue non ducem 
solum sed etiam causam esse belli, partitis divenditisque 
reliquiis praedae nihil ultra differendum ratus, Hispani 
generis milites convocat. "Credo egovos" inquit "so- 
cii, et ipsos cemere pacatis omnibus Hispaniae populis 


aut finiendam nobis militiam exercitusque dimittendos 
esse aut in alias terras transfcrendum belltim : ita eniin 
hae gentcs non pacts solum, sed etiam victoriae bonis 
florebuntf si ex . aliis gentibus praedam et gloriam quac- 
5 remus. Ilaque cum longinqua a domo instet militia, 
incertumque sit, quando domos vestras et quae cuiciuc 
ibi cara sunt visuri sitis, si quis vestrum suos inviscrc 
vohy commeatum da Primo vere edico adsitis, ut (lis 
bene iuvantibus bellum ingentis gloriae praedaeque futu- 
lo rum incipiamus." Omnibus fere visendi domos oblata 
ultro potestas grata erat, et iam desiderantibus suos ct 
longius in futunim providentibus desiderium. Per to 
turn tempus hiemis quies inter labores aut iam exiiaustos 
aut mox exhauriendos renovavit corpora animosque ad 
. 15 omnia de integro patienda. Vere primo ad edictum 

Hannibal, cum recensuisset omnium gentium auxilia, 
Gadis profectus Hcrculi vota exsolvit, novisque se ohli- 
gat votis^ si cetera prospera evenissent. Inde partiens 
30 curas simul in inferendum atque arcendum bellum, ne, 
dum ipse terrestri per Hispaniam Galliasque itinere Ita- 
liam peteret, nuda apertaque Romanis Africa ab Sicilia 
esset, Yalido praesidio firmare eam statuit. Pro co 
^ supplementum ipse ex Africa maxime iaculatorum, le- 
ss vium armis, petiit, ut Afri in Hispania, Hispani in 
Africa, melior procul ab domo futurus uterque miles, 
vehit mutuis pigneribus obligati, stipendia facercnt Tre- 
decim milia octingentos quinquaginta pedites caetratos 
mtsit in Africam et funditores Baliares octingentos sep- 
j0 tuaginta, equites mixtos ex multis gentibus mille ducen- 
tot. Has copias partim Carthagini praesidio esse, 
partim distribui per Africam iubet Simul conquisitori- 
bos in civitates missis quattuor milia conscripta delectae 
iuventutis, praesidinm eosdem et obsides, dud Cartha* 
yy ginfiii Iubet. 


Hasdrubat is Uft ia ttefiwi Spain. HaHHtbats minuulMS 


XXII. Neque Hispaniam ncglegendam ratus, atque 
id CO minus, quod haud ignarus erat circumitam ab 
Roinanis cam legatis ad solicitandos princi[)um animos, 
llasdnibali fnttri, viro inpigro, earn provinciam dcstinal 
llnnaUiue cam Africis maxime pracsidiis, pcditum Afro 
nun undccim milibus octingentis quinquaginta, Liguribut 
trcccntis, Baliaribus quingcntis. Ad haec pcditum auxi 
ii.i additi equilcs Libyphoenices, mixtum Punicum Afri 
gt*nus, quadringenti quinquaginta et Numidae Mauriqut 
areolae Oceani, ad mille octingenti et parva Ilergetui 
nianus ex Hts|)ania, trecenli equites, et, ne quod tei 
rcstris dcesset auxilii genus, elephant! viginti unus, cla: 
sis praetcrea data tuendae maritumae orae, quia, qu 
jMrtc belli vicerant, ea turn quoque rem gesturos Ri 
manos credi potcrat, quin(|uaginta quinqueremes, quadr 
rcmcs duae, triremes quinquc ; scd aptae instructaeqi 
rcmigio triginta et duae quinqueremes erant et trirem< 

/^Ab Gadibus Carthaginem ad hil)ema exercitus red 
Atque inde profectus praoter Onusam urbcm ad h 
bcrum marituma ora ducit Ibi fama est in quic 
visum ab eo iuvenem divina specie, qui se ab lo 
(liceret ducem in Italiam Hannibali missum : proin 
sequeretur neque usquam a se dcAccteret oculos. ~ I 
vidum primo pusquam circumspicientem aut rcsjpicientt 
sccutum ; deinde cura ingenii humani, cum,-^ quidn; 
id esset, quod respicere vetitus esset, agitaret .aaifi 
tempeiare oculis nequiviss^ tum vidisse post sese s 
penteih mira magnitudine cum ingentp arborum ac ^ 
gultorum strage fern ac ppst insequi cum fragore cj 
nimbum. Tum, quae Yiioles ea quidve prodigii cs 



quaerentem/aodisse, vastitatem Italiae esse: pergerd 
gornt ire nee ultra inquireret Moeretque fata in occuUo 

7/i# tfr/w/, 103,000 strpng^ trasses iks Ebro and reaches the 
Pyrenees^ Deserthm ^3000 Spaniards. 

XXIII. Hoc visu laetus tripertito Hibenim copias 
5 traiecit praeroissis^ qui Gallorum animos, qua traducen- 
dus exercitiis erat, donis conciliarent Alpiumque transi- 
tos specularentur. Nonaginta milia pedituin, duodeciin 
milia equitum Hiberum traduxit. Ilergetes inde Bargu* 
siosque et Ausetanos et Lacetaniam, quae subiecta Pyre- 

fo naeb montibus est, subegit, oraeque huic omni praefecit 
Hannoncm, ut fauces, quae Hispanias Galliis iungunt, 
in potestate essent« Decern milia peditum Hannoni 
ad praesidium obtinendae rcgionis data ct mille equites. 
Postquam per Pyrenaeum saltum traduci exercitus est 

15 coeptus, rumorque per barbaros nianavit certior de bcllo 
Romano, tria milia inde Carpetanorum peditum iter 
aveitenint Constabat non tam bello motos quam lon- 
ginquitate viae inexsuperabilique Alpium transitu. Hanni- 
bal, quia revocare aut vi retinere eos anceps erat, ik* 

90 ceteronim etiam feroces animi inritarcntur, supra scj>icni 
milia hominum domos remisit, quos et i|)sos gravari mili- 
tia aenaerat, Carpctanos quoque ab se dimissos simulans. 

Crossing 0/ the Pyrenees. Friendly interviews with the Cauls. 

XXrV. Inde, ne mora atque otium animos sollicita- 
let, cum reliquis copiis Pyrenaeum transgreditur et ad 

S5 oppidum Iliberri castra locat) Galli quamquam . lUliae 
bellum inferri audiebant, tamen, quia vi subactos trans 
Pyrenaeum Hispanos fama erat praesidiaque valida in* 
posita, metu servitutis ad arma constemati, Ruscinonem 
aliquot populi conveniunt Quod ubi Hanntbali nuntia- 

j» torn est| moram magis quam belluro metuens, oratores 


£t P. Cornelius in locum cius, quae missa cum 
praetore erat, scripta legione nova profectus ab urbe 
scxaginta longis navibus praeter oram Etruriae Ugurum- 
que et inde Saliuvium montts pervenit Massiliam, et ad 
proximum ostium Rhodani — pluribus enim divisus am- 
nis in mare decurrit — castra locat, vixdum sati? credens 
Hannibalem superasse Pyrenaeos montis./Qucin ^^ ^^ 
Riiodani quoque transitu agitare animidvertit, incertus, 
quonam ci loco occurreret, necduro -satis refectis al 
iactatione marituma militibus, trecentos interim delectos 
cquites ducibus Massiliensibus et auxiliaribus Gallis ac 
cxploranda omnia visendosque ex ^jP^^jS^ pracmittit 
Hannibal ceteris metu aut pretio paoi^s iam in Volca 
nun pervencrat agrum, gentis validae. Colunt auten 
circa utramque ripam Rhbdani ; sed diflisi citeriore agn 
arccri Poenum posse, ut flu men pro munimento habc 
rent, -omnibus fermc suis trans Rhodatmm^traiectis ultc 
riorem ripam amnis armis obtinebant//< Ceteros accola 
fluniinis Hannibal et eorum ipsorum, quos sedcs sua 
tcnuerant, simul perlicit donis ad naves undique coi 
tralicndos fabricandasque, simul et ipsi traici exercitui 
Icvarique quam primum regionem suam tanta hominui 
urgente turba cupiebant Itaque ingens coacta vis n; 
vium est lintriumque temere ad vicinalem usum parat 
mm; novasque alias primum Galli inchoantes cavaba 
ex singulis arboribus, deinde et ipsi milites pjl^/fSS£ 
materiae simul facilitate operis induct! alv^^sinfontx 
nihil, dummodo innare aquae et capere onera possent, c 
rantes, raptim, quibus se suaque transveherent, laciebant 

Ptusage of the Rkont by ihi Punic armym 

I « 

XXVII. lamque omnibus satis conparatis ad trai 
endum terrebant ex adverso hostes omnem ripam * cqui 
virique obtinentes. Quos ut avertcret, Hannonem ] 
milcaris filium vigilia prima noctis cum parte copiart 



inaxime Hispanis, adverso flumine ire iter unius diet 
iubet et, ubi primum possity qum occultTssime tral< 
amni circumducere agmen, ut, ^lUVT'o^fs factosiC's 

^riatur ab tcrgo hostcs. Ad id dati duces Galli edo- 

^^^"^ent indc miliii quinqiic ct vjginti^ femi^ tupcao |)arvae 

insulao circtimfusuny^ aranerfT ^iipre, ubi ^'dividebatur, 

totfit fninus^'liKd alveo' t/aiisitum ostendere* )bi ra{> 

; tim caesa materia ratcsque fabricataei in/(^uiblis cqui 

virique et alia onera traicerentur./// Hi^>apl siiie uIU 

lo mo)e in utrof ^stimeims coniectis ipsi ca^tn^ superpo« . 

fsiti^^Xculuntes fluinen tranavere. Et silius exercitus' 

ratibua iunctis . tniiectuSy castris prope flumcn positis, 

nocturhd ""itinere atque oi>cris labore fessus quicte unius 

diet rcAcitur, intento duce 'ad consilium opportune ex- 

15 equendum. Postero die profectt ex loco edito fumo 
significant transisse et haud procul abesse. Quod ubi 
accepit Hannibal, ne tempori deesset, dat signum ad 
traic^ndmfl. lam paratias aptatasque habebat pedes 
liilmk/J^u^ fore propter equos naves. Navfum agmcn 

ao ad excipiefiiatim'adversi/inipettun fiuminis parte superi- 
ore tnnsmittens trapqu^llitatem infra traicicntibus'liutribus* 
priMUeBSu/ Equoh/m pars magna ni^ntes ' Jgn^ a pur^^ 
pibus trahebantur praeter eos, quos in^tos^ frenaj^-^j 
que, ut extemplo egresso in ripam equiti usui esscnt'^ 

as inposuerant in naves, j 

Thi Gauls art dnven of and iki tUphants brought across 

XXVIIL Galli occursant in ripa cum variis ululatibus 
cantuqne moris sni r]uatientes scuta super capita. vibran- 
esque dexteris tela, quamquam ct ex adverB<f^''terrebat 
ta vis navium cum ingen^ton&^ fluminis et clamore 
naotanim militunj^,,^ qui nitebantur pemimpere ' 
impetum fluttiinis» et qui ex'^altera ripa • traicientes suos 
hoitabantun lam satis ^{Mtventes adverse tumultu^erri*' 



bilior ab tergo adortus chmor castris ab Hannone ca{ 
tis. Mox ct ipse aderat, anccpsqiie terror circumstalw 
ct e navibus tanta \\ armatorum in terram evadente c 
nb tergo in]>rovisa prcmcnte acie. Galli postquam utrc 
iiue vim facere conati pcUebantur, qua patere visui 
niaxime iter, perrumpunt/ trepidique in vicos passii 
suos dKTugiunt Hannilul ceteris copiis per otium tn 
icctis siK^mens iam GaUicos tumultus castra locat. 
^Clcphantorum traidendoruni varia consilia fuisse crcd< 
*fcrte variat memoria actac reu Quidafii' congrcgat 
ad ripam elcphantis tradunt ferikissimum ex lis. inrit 
turn ab rectore suo, cnm refugientem in aquam sequ 
rctur, -^ ftantcm tmxisse gregcm, ut quemque timentc 
altiiudinem destitucret vaduniy impetu ipso fluminis 
nUcram ripam rapicnte. Ceterum magis constat rat 
bus traicctos; id ut tutius consilium ante rem fore 
ita acta re ad fidem pronius est Ratcm unam d 
centos longam pedes, quinquagiiUa latam, a terra* i 
anmem porrexerunt, quara, ne secunda aqua deferrctu 
phiribus validis retiiiaculis parte supcriore. ripae rclig 
tarn 'pontis in modinn bumo iniecta constraverunt, 
iKluac audacter velut per solum ingrederentur. Altc 
ratis aeque lata, longa pedes centum, ad traiciendu 
Hiimen apta, huic copulata est; tum elephant! per stal 
1cm ratcm tamquam viam praegredientibus fcmihis a< 
ubi in^^minorero applicatam transgress! sunt, extcmplo i 
solutfs, quibus leviter adnexa erat, vinculis, ab actiiar 
nliquot navibus ad alteram ripam pertrahitur. Ita p 
mis expositis alii deinde repetiti ac traiecti sunt. Nil 
sane trcpidabant, donee continent! velut ponte agere 
tur; primus erat pavor, cum soluta ab Cetcrif rate 
altum raperentur. Ibi urgentes inter se cedcntibus < 
trcmis ab aqua^t^pidationis aliquaxUum ed^bant, doii 
cluictcnir*Jpse'^6mor circumspcctan(ibus'^ aqtjam' feciss 
Excidere etiam* saevieptcs. quidam in flumen, sed pc 
uere ipsor stabiles dciectis rectoribiis quaerendis ped 
temptim vadis in terram evasere.) 


Etumtnter of HannibaPs and Scipi^s cavatfy* 

XXIX. Dum elephant! traiciuntur, interim Hannibal 
Nuinidas equites quingentos ad castra Romana roiserat 
speculatum, ubi et quantae copiae essent et quid para* 
rent Huic alae equitum missi, ut ante dictum Cbt, 

5 ab oslio Rhodani trecenti Romanorum equites occurruiu. 
Pkoelium atroclus quam pro numero pugnantium editur: 
nam praeter multa vulnera caedes etiam prope par 
utriroque fui^ fugaque et pavor Numidarum Romanis 
iam adroodum fessis victoriam dedit Victores ad cen« 

to turn quadraginta, nee omnes Romani, sed pars Gallorum, 
victi amplius ducenti cecidenint. Hoc principium simul 
omenque belli ut summae rcrum prosperum eventum, 
ita baud sane incruentam ancipitisque certaminis victo- 
riam Romanis portendit. 

§5 Ul re ita gesta ad utrumque ducem sui redierunt, 
nee Scipioni stare sententia poterat, nisi ut ex consiliis 
ooeptisque hostis et ipse conatus caperet, et Hanniba- 
km incertum, utrum coeptum in Italiam intenderet iter 
an cam eo, qui primus se obtulisset Romanus exerci- 

JO tus^ roanus consereret, avertit a praesenti certaroinc 
Boioium legatorum regulique Magali adventus, qui sc 
duces itinerum, sodos periculi fore adfirmantes, intcgro 
bello niiaquam ante libatis viribus Italiam adgrediendam 
censent Multitudo timebat quidem hostem nonduni 

•5 oblitterata memoria superioris belli, sed magis iter in- 
mensam Alpesque, rem (ama utique inexpertis horren- 
dani^ metuebat 


Mmmiktif nu^iving U push en ai 0fU4 ic iks Alps^ addnssts 

kii men* 

XXX. Itaque Hannibal, postquam ipsi sententia stetit 
peigere ire atque Italiam petere, advocata contione varic 

jD militom versat animos castigando adhortandoque : mirari 
se^ qninam pectora semper impavida repens tenor inva- 



crit Per tot annos vincentis eos stipendia facere, 

neque ante Hispania excessisse, quam oipncs gentesqui 

ct lerrae, quas duo diversa maria amplectantur, Cartha 

^inicnsium cssent. Indignatos deinde, quod quicumqu( 

S^igiintum obscdissent velut ob noxam sibi dedi postula 

ret ix>pulus Romanus, Hiberuni ti%}ecisse ad dekndun 

noincn Romanorum libenuiaimrqire terrarupi. Tun 

ncinini vi>um id longum, cum ab occasu solis ad ex 

ortus intcnderent iter; nunC| postquam multo maioren 

partem itineris emensam cemant, Pyreiiaeum saUutn inte 

fcrocissinias gentes -superatum, Rhodanutn, tantum am 

nein, tot milibus Gdi^rym probibentibus, domita etian 

ipsius fluminis vi traiectum, in conspectu Alpis habcant 

()iiarum altcrum latus Italiae sit, in ipsis portis hostiun 

fatigatos subsistere, — quid Alpis aliud esse credente 

(Itiam nnontium altitudines? Fingerent altiores P>Tena€ 

iugis; nullas profecto terras caelum contingere ne 

inexsuperabiles humano gcneri esse ; Alpis quidcr 

iiabitari, coli, gigncrc atquc alere animantes ; pervia 

faiicis esse exercitibus. Eos ipsos, quos cemant, leg; 

tos non pinnis sublime elatos Alpis transgressos. N 

niaiorcs quidem eorum indigenas, sed advenas Italia 

cultorcs has ipsas Alpis ingentibus saepe agminibus cui 

liberis ac coniugibus migrantium modo tuto transmisiss 

Militi quidem arinato nihil secum praeter instrumen 

belli portanti quid invium aut inexsuperabile esse? S 

guntum ut caperetur, quid per octo menses pericu 

quid laboris exhaustum esse? Romam, caput orbis tc 

raruro, petentibus quicquam adeo asperum atque arduu 

vidcri, quod inceptum moretur? Cepisse quondam C 

los ea, quae adiri posse Poenus desperet: protnde a 

cederent animo atque virtute genti per eos dies totie 

ab se victae, aut itineris finem sperent campum inU 

iacentem Tiberi ac moenibus Romanis. 


Tki march mp tht Rko$n^ through thi country of the Alio- 
brogts^ when HauHibat settles a civil war^ and thence h- 
ward the mountains. 

XXXI. His adhortationibus incitatos corpora curare 
atque ad iter se parare iubet. Postero die profectus 
adversa ripa Rhodani mediterranea Galliae petit, non 
quia rectior ad Alpes via esset, sed quantum a mari 
5 recessissety minus olivium fore Romanum crcdens, cum 
quo, priusquam in Italiam ventum foret, non erat in 
animo nianus conserere. Quartis castris ad Insubm 
pervenit Ibi Isara Rhodanusque amnes diversis ex 
Alpilius decurrentes agri aliquantum amplexi confluunt 

so in unum ; mediis campis Insulae nomen inditum. . In- 
colunt prope AUobroges, gens iam inde nulla Gallica 
gente opibus aut fama inferior. Turn discors crat 
Regni certamine ambigebant fratres; maior et qui prius 
imperitaial, Brancus nomine^ minore ab fratre ct coetu 

IS iuniorum, qui iure minus, vi plus poterat, pellebatiir. 
Huius seditionb peropportuna disceptatio cum ad Han- 
nibolem rciecta esset, arbiter regni factus, quod ea 
senatus principamque sententia fuerat, iroperium maiori 
lestituit Ob id meritum commeatu copiaque renim 

so omnium, maxime vestis, est adiutus, quam infames fri- 
goribos Alpes praeparari oogebant. Sedatis Hannibal 
certaminibus Allobrogum cum iam Alpes peteret, non 
recta regione iter instituit, sed ad laevam in Tricastinos 
flexit; inde per extremam oram Vocontiorum agri ten- 

S5 dit in Tricorios baud usquam inpedita via, priusquam 
ad Druentiam flumen pervenit. Is et ' ipse Alpinus 
amnis kmge omnium Galliae fluminum difficillimus tran- 
situ est. Nam cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non 
tamen navium patiens est, quia nullis coercitus ripis, 

js ptttribus simul neque iisdem alveis fluens, nova semper 
vada novosque gurgites-«et ob eadem pediti quoque 


inccrta via est — ad hoc saxa glareosa volvens, n 
subtle nee tutum ingredienti praebet; et turn forte 
bribus auctus ingentein transgredientibus tumultum fc 
cum super cetera trepidatioDe ipsi sua atque incc 
danaoribus turbarentur. 

Sciph sends kis army £0 Spain and rttums to Italy . A 
nihal mitts with som4 cppasiti^H an kis march. 

XXXII. P. Cornelius consul triduo fere post, qi 
Hannibal a ripa Rhodani mqvit, quadrato agmine 
castra hostium venerat, nuUam dimicandi moram fa 
nis. Ceterum ubt deserta munimenta nee facile 
tantum progressos adsecuturum videt, ad mare ac n 
rcdiiti tutius faciliusque ita descendenti ab Alpibus I 
nibali occursunis. Ne taroen nuda auxiliis Ron 
Hispania esset, quam provinciani sortitus erat, Cn. 
pionem fratrem cum maxima parte copiarum advc 
Hasdrubalem misit, non ad tuendos tantummodo vc 
socios conciliandosque novos, sed etiam ad pcUen 
Hispania Hasdrubalem. Ipse cum admodum ex 
copiis Genuam repetit eo qui circa Padum erat < 
citus, Italiam defensurus. . , ' •• ^ . /^ 



•<.'.- ^ " ' •' ' 

Hannibal ' ab ^ Drupntia '^ampestri maxime itinen 
Alpis cum '^^ha^'pace' incotentium ea loca Gall 
pervrenit Tum, quamquanv fama prius, jqiut^'^lncer 
maius vero 'ferriysolent,^ praecepta res erat/ tliniei 
pro[\inquq vua 'nionpum altitudo nivesque caelo ] 
inmixt&y 'tteta 'Infoniiia inposita rupibus, pecora it 
taque torrida frigore, homines intonsi et iiiculti, a 
lia inanimaque omnia rigentia g^, cetera ' visu 

dictu foediora, terrorem j!^^^^^^^\.^,..^^pt!S^^]i^ 
mos agmen clivbs ^apparufxunt! inminentes t)iffiulc^ 
denies montani, qui, si vailles occultiores inseui 
coorti ad^pugnam repente ingentcm fugam ttrage 
)x\ Hannibal consistere signa iussit; Gal 

'. ^ 

106 yi^^^^i'lTi LIVI AB URBE CONDITA 

y.>. .^ 

ad visenda ioca pwcmi^f, postq^m .conpcrit transitura 
ca ntnrHfse, castra'' inter confragbsa omnia praeniptaquc" 
quam cxtcntissinw /fwicst valle locat Turn per eosdem 
Gallos^ baud sane multum lingua moribusque abhorreii- 
Stis» cum se inmisc^ijsscnt conlocyiis/montano/uro, edoctus 
^^^^tcrdiu tjinlum -ibSicferi ^(fim^jiiacte quemquc 

. dilabi iccu, ]uce prima subiit ^tuniulos, ut ex aperio 
atquc intcrdiu vim jp^r^ angustias facturus. Die deincic 
simulando aliud, quam' mo^ l»r>ibatm{ con synipt yr /cum 
lo.codem, quo cons&tmnt,'TSc6 '^cai tra comm^SntTubi 
primum digressos tumulis n^oatanos iaxatasque seoiii 
f««^o*as, ploijbus. ignibus quam ' pro Tiumcromanemium 
in specieni^' factis inpalimeiuieque cum eguitc rcUciis 
it maxima parte ^pMitixhC'-i^ cum exprdMg^c^erriinq [ 
15 quoquc viro, raptim angustias ^tvadit iisque ipsis tumu-' 
lis» quos liostes tenuerant cousedit \ i 

'^>!/^ry-^ " 

Aiiacks 9H ikg Carthaginians in a narrow pass. Then ikra 
V days of easy $narcking. 

V XXXIII. Prima; deinde luce castra mota et agmen 
relicum incedcft^-^^iiXt^^fam montani rigno dato ex 
castellis ad stationem solitam conveniebant, cum rcpenle 
10 conspiciunt alios arce occupaU sua super caput inmi- 
nentis, alios via transire hostis. /Utraque simul obiecU 
rvn oculb animisque inmobilcs pariihipefV6^defixit;' de- 
;inde. ut trepidationem in angustfis suoquc ipsum tumuUii 
^;>/>fmiscen agmen videre, equis maxime consftrtatl^ quid- ' 
^Ai quHl ad^^u ii^i/e^ris, «ttis ad pemicicm fore rati,/' 
d,ven«^fi5ibu^ luxtoYn vias ac deviaJ^^^Tj^^tJ^fc 
Turn vero .imul ab hostibus simui iniquj^^oiof^ / 
Ft>eni oppugnabantur. phisquc inter ipsol; Sibt/W 
que tendente,^ut^^^^^^ pHus evaderet, quam^^uij;' '; 
JO hosti^s cerUmmis erat- ' F^ui .lyia^e iqfesjnm agmen' 
6acb«it, qu. et clam,ribus e^QAMi^S^ nem4i'rt^m 
'!J2S!2J2i^ ^"""^ Mgcbant, ^tferriti trcpidabant. et 


icti forte aut vulnerati adco constcmabanty^jut^stragc 
' ingentein simiil hominum ac sarcinanim /oropis^ gene 
faccrenW nvi(Uosque /^turba, cum praecipites deruptaeq 
utrimqiie^gustim^^ssenty in inmensam altitudinis de 
cit, quosdam et armatos; sed .ruinac^ maxuDC mo 
iiinienta cum oneribus devolvcbaittur/ "'Quac^iuanKfaJ 
foeda visd Jtr^nt, stetit panimper tamen Hannibal 
suos codtinuit, ne tumultum ac trepidationem auger 
Deimlo; postqu2r|(n/inte^ agmen vidit periculumc] 
esse, ne exutmiv^inpedimentis exercitum neqttiquaiu 
columcm traduxisset, ^ecuffit ex supe/riore loco et, c\ 
imiKtu ipso fudissSfnostenll^^^tm quoque' tumultum au^ 
Sod is tumultus moraento temporis postquam liber 
itinera fuga montanorum erant, sedatur, nee per otii 
ukhIo, sed prope silentio mox omnes traducti. Cast 
lum inde, quod caput eius regionis erat, viculosque i 
cumiectos capit, et captivo cibo ac pecoribus per tridui 
exercitum aluit, et, quia nee a montanis primo percu 
ncc loco magno opere inpediebantur, aliquantum 
triduo viae confecit 


Triochery of ifu moutUainetrs. 

: XXXIV. Perventum inde ad frequentem cultoril 
alium, ut inter montanos, populum. Ibi non belle apei 
sed suis artibus, fraude et insidiis, est prope circi 
vcntus. Magno natu principes castellorum oratores 
Poeniim venitmt, alienis malis, utili exemplo, doc 
memorantes amicitiam malle quam vim experiri Poe 
rum; itaque oboedienter imperata facturos; comrr 
turn ittnerisque duces et ad iidem promissorum obsi 
acciperet Hannibal nee temere credendum nee as[ 
nandum ratus, ne repudiati aperte hostes fierent, 
nigne cum respondisset, obsidibus, quos dabant, acce 
et commeatUi quem in viam ipsi detulerant, ui 
nequaquam ut inter pacatos^ conposito agmine du 


eoram sequitur. \ Primum agmen elephanti et equite^ 

enm^ ipse iml cum robore_ peditum circumspectans 

^^mma sollicitusque mcedet)ai^^' Ubi in angustiorem viam 

elHN^c altera subiectam 'iugo insuper inminenti ventuni 

1^ S est, undique ex ihsidiis barbari, a fronte ab teigo co- 

J. *^ ^ oiti, comminus eminus petunt, saxa agmcn 

.' deyolvynj^ Maxinu^ ab tergo vis hoinii 


/^ eo^yersa/^ peditum aaes ^u4 . dubium J(it\i, quin, nisi 

' ^- finoata extrema-^ agmmis' niissent, ingens ^ia eo^ saitu 

1/ I 10 accipienda dades fuerit. Tdiic quoque ad extremum < 

^jl/fV\ pericuU ac prope pemiciem ventum est Nam duni 

^ cunclatur Hannibal demittere agmen in angustias, quia 

Bon, ut ipse equiiibus praesidio erat,^ita^*pe<IitiDUs quic- 

quam ab tergo auxilii reliqui eraty occursantes per obli- 

15 qua niontaiii interrupto medio agmine viam insedere ; 

noxq^e'^una Hannibali sine equitibus atque inpedimen- 

tis acta est. 

Thi summii of tki pass is reaclud. Two days* kali. Bt- 

ginniHg 0/ thi discent, 

V XXXV.' Postero die ian\ segnius intercursantibus bar- 
bans 'lunctdle coY>iae, saitusmie baud sme ciade.^ roaiore 

SO tamen iumentorum q\iam • hominum . pefnici^, superatus. 
Inde montani ^ paucipres ia(n 'etVlatrocinii magis quam 
belli more concursabant niodo in ' primun?,^ modo in no- 
vissiroum agmen, . utcum<iue aut , locus <ppp9itunitatem 
daret aut progress! 'niorative aliqiiam occasioneiii fecis- 

t% sent Elephanti. sicut per artas pcaecipites vias magna 

mora agebantury'^if^ tutum ab hostibus quacumque incc- 

derenty quia insuetis adeundi propius metus erat, agmcn 


Nono die in iunim/Alpiutnyj^erventu^ f^t j)er invia 

JO pleraque et^-iffrtiis, ^cjuos^ /arflTauieiilium ^ firaas '^ut,* ubi 
fides lis non esset, teihete initae valles a coniec^ntibus 
iter 6de1)ant Biduum in iuffo stativa habitat K^isque 


labore ac pugnando quics daU militibus; iumentaq 
aliquot, quae prolapsa in rupibus c^n^j. ^QJ^f "^o yej 
giar agmiiii? in castija pcrvcncrc/l'fegw'^tifUw J 
imioniitt%ivi^' ctidm^^'c^Kus * occid^te/iam ;>ifferc Vcf 
llarum ir<gcntem tcrrbrem^adtetltT^ Per omnia nive c 
plcla cum .siguif^' prifliia* l^cc ^ niotis scgnitcr agm 
iriccdcrct, pigrltiaquc ct desp^aiio in omnium vu 
cmincrct, praegrcssus signa Hannibal in promuntu 
quodam, undc Ipng^ ac late grospe^tuj/erat, consist 
iu^sis . militibus^'^rtaliam^>ost^tat"'>u^^ Alpi 

mdntibiis cfrcufnpadanoi ^ campos," moeniaque eos t 
iransccndere non^ Italiac modp, sed S^JJJJ^^J^'*. ] 
manac ; cetera'/ planv^rocli vi^ " liiiit * too W ^iuram 
altcro proelio to:em ct capjut Italiac in manu ac po 
tate habituros. /.-r-u</-^'" 

., ProcedercT indc agmen coepit^ Um nihil nc.bpsti 
quidcm praeter pArva furta-^er QCca^ioncV temp^jjtil 
Cetcnim iter multo, quaiti m ascensu fucrat — ut ^1< 
que Alpium ai> lulfi^cut breviora ita -^frfectiora s 
— difficilius fuit. Omnis enijpj^ /^f??.^ y!^ orapccps, 
gusta, lubrica erat, ut neque sustincrj|5 se a y^j^yyi^ 
ncc, qui paulum titubassent, hae/ere adfixi vestigio 
aliique super alios et iumenta in liomines. occideren 

At cm point the road becomes impassable. 

XXXVL Ventum deinde ad multo angustiorem ru) 
atque ita rectis saxis, ut aegre^xpeditus miles ten 
bundjis ipanibusque retinens vifgurta ac stirpes^ "< 
emmentes demittere sese posset. Natura locus iam 
praeceps recent! lapsu terrae in pedum mille admo 
altitudinem abniptus erat' Ibi cum vclut ad d 
viae equites constitissent, miranti Hannibali, quae 
moraretur agmen, nuntiatur rupem inviaih esse. 
gressus deinde ipse ad locum visendum. Haud (' 
res visa, quin per invia dxca uec trita antea qua 




longo ambitu drcumduceret aginen. Ea ve^ via inex-^/j 
superabilis fuit: nam euro super A^^ercm nivem intacLim 
nova modicae altiludinis^essct, mol^i nee prdeaitae facile 
pedes ingredientium ^nsjgtebant; ut vero tot hominum 
5 iomentonimque ine^u dilapsa est, per nudam infra 
glaeiem fluentemque ta|>9m '^ liquespenti^ ^niyis ingredic 
bantur. Taetra ibi luctatio erat Kibrica glaeie non 
recipiente vestigium et^in. -prc^o ^itius pedes fallentc, 
uty seu manibus in adinigen'cio'^ seu ' genu 89 adiuvissciu, 

to ipsis adiBini^^^lis prolapsis it^rum eoriliiSrent ; hec stirpes 

circa mOKGSvt, ad quas pede aut nianu quisquam eniti / 

posset, erant; ita in levi tantuni ^acie Jt^bidaqu^ nivc 

'volutaba nturtJ ' luinenta seeal^t iiitcc^ui^-'e^am inAmam 

ingredientia nivem, et prolaps^ iaetai^t^'graviu^in cpni- 

15 tcndo ungulb penitus perfrfngei)amf ''ut -pi vdut 

pedica capta haererent in dura et alte eonereta glaeie. 

Tk€ 0bsirHCiiom is removed after four days^ and the descent 

eueompiisked in three more. 


XXXVIL Tandem nequimiitm^ iumentis atque homi- 
nibus (atigatb castia in idgo ^posita, aegerrime ad id 
ipsum loco purgato^*^ tantuni nivis fodfCTicHiin'" atqiic 
egere^uro fuit Inde ad rupeni muni^nda^Yy per quam 
uham^via esse'^^poterat, *milites^''duai, 'cum' *caedendum 
esset saxum, /arbpribus circa inmanibus deiectis detnin- 


' catisque stnleft/^lngentem lignorum faciunt, eamque, 

fj^^^ ct vis/ v^Du ^apta faciendo igni coorta^'cftsct, suct^enrlunt, 

' S5 anknfiaque /saxa infustf''acej^ plmeracaiiU. ^Ita torridam. 

incendio '*^pem ferro pailfdunt/^molliuntqQe anfractilxis 

modicis clivos, ut non iumcnta / solum^ se^^ elephanti 

eliam deduci possent QuadriaUt(m,*^eii'ea ^ rupem con- 

sumplom iumentis prope fame abstlm|itis ;^ i^uda enim 

JO fere cacumJiia sunt/ ' kx^ si quid est pabuli, obruunt 

nives. Inferiora valles apricosque quosdam coOes ha- 

. bent rivosque prope silvas et iam humano cultu digni- 


ora loca. Ibi iumenU in pabulum missa, et q 
nuinienilo fessis hominibus data. IViduo iiulc ad 
num descensuiDy iam ei locis nioUioribus et accok 

7*A/ /eti^tA of HaHMibaPs march from Spain^ his route 
ikt Aips^ and ikt numbtr of his troops, 

XXXVIIL Hoc maxime modo in Italiam pervcr 
est, quinto mWs<J^a' Cartha^m^ l*^Ova, Xt quulam ai 
res sunt, quinto decinio die Alpibus 8t$erat^*^Qua 
copiae transgresso in Italiam Hannibali (uennty ne 
quam inter auctores constat. Qui plurimum, cci 
milia peditum, viginti e^iuitum fuisse scribunt; qui 
nimum, viginti milia peditum, sex equitum. L. Cii 
Alinicntus, qui captum sc ab Hannibale scribit, ma 
atictor movercti nisi confunderet numcrum Gallis ] 
rilnisque additis: cum his octoginta milia pcditum, 
com equitum adducta — in Italia magis adfluxisse 
simile est, et ita quidam auctores sunt ; — ex 
autem audisse Hannibale, posttjuam Rhodanum tran! 
triginta sex milia hominum ingcnlemque numenmi < 
nun et atiorum iumcntorum amisisse. Taurini sen 
proxuma gens erat in Italiam degrcsso. Id cum 
oinnes constet, eo magis miror ambigi, quanam 
transient et vulgo credere Poenino — atque inde n 
ci iugo Alpium inditum — transgressum, Coclium 
Cremonis iugum dicere transisse; qui ambo saltus 
non in Taurinos, sod per Salassos montanos ad L 
(■alios deduxissent. Nee veri simile est ea tur 
(ralliam patuisse itinera; utique quae ad Pocninui 
runt obsaepta gentibus semigermanis fuisscnt. T 
liercule montibus his, si quem forte id movei 
transitu Poenorum ullo Seduni Veragri, incolae 
eius, nomen norint inditum, sed ab eo, quem in s« 
sacratum vertice Poeninum montani appellant* 


Hannibai tapiuns a iown of the TaurinL Scipio hasUns to 

mui him beyond ike Po. 

XXXIX. P^ropportune ad principia rerum Taurinis, 
proximae genti, adversus Iiisubres motum bellum erat. 
Sed armare cxercitum Hannibal, ut parti alteri auxilio 
cssety in reficiendo inaxime sentientem contracta ante 
5 mala, non poterat; otium enim ex labore, copia ex 
inopia, cultus ex inluvie tabeque squalida et proix: 
efferata corpora varie movebat. Ea P. Cornelio consul! 
causa fiiit, cam Pisas navibus venisset, excrcitu a Man- 
lio Atilioque accepto tirone et in novis ignominiis tre- 
lo pido, ad Padum festinandii ut cum hoste nondum refecto 
manus consereret. Sed cum Placcntiam consul venit, 
iam ex stativis moverat Hannibal Taurinorumque unam 
urbero, caput gentis eius, quia volentes in amicitiam 
non veniebanty vi expugnarat; ac iunxisset sibi non 

■5 metu solum, sed etiam vohmtate Gallos accolas Pacli, 
ni eos circumspectantis defectionis tempus subito ad- 
ventu consul oppressisset Et Hannibal niovit ex Tauri- 
niS| incertos, quae pars sequenda esset, Gallos praesentem 
secuturos esse ratus. Iam prope in conspectu erant ex 

ap ercitus, convenerantque duces sicuti inter se nondum 
satis DOti, ita iam inbutus uterque quadam admirationc 
altfrius. Nam Hannibalis et apud Romanos iam ante 
Sagunti excidium celeberrimum nomen erat, et Scipio- 
nem Hannibal eo ipso, quod adversus se dux potissi- 

S5 mum lectus esset, praestantem virum credebat. Et 
auxeiant inter se opinionem, Scipio, quod relictus in 
Gallia obvius fuerat in Italiam transgresso Hannibali, 
Hannibal et conatu tam audaci traiciendanim Alpium 
et effectu. Occupavit tamen Scipio Padum traicere, et 

JO ad Tidnum amnem motis castris, priusquam educeret in 
ukxot adhortandorum militum causa talem onttionem 


Sdpi^s address U his army be/on ihi baitU on tkt Ticin 

XL. "Si eum exercitum, roilites, educerem in acic 
(]ucin in Gallia mecum habui, supersedissem loqui af 
vos; quid enim adhortari referret aut eos equites, 
cciuitatum hostium ad Rhodanuin flumen egregte vi< 
sent, aut eas legiones, cum quibus fugientem hi 
ij>sum hostem secutus confessionem cedentis ac deti 
taiuis certamen pro victoria habui? Nunc, quia 
exercitus, Hispaniae provinciae scriptus, ibi cum fr 
Cn. Scipione meis anspiciis rem gerit, ubi eum ge 
scnatus populusque Romanus voluit, ego, ut coiisu 
ducem adversus Hannibalem ac Poenos haberetis, 
me huic voluntario certamini obtuli, novo impen 
npud novos milites pauca verba facienda sunt, 
genus belli neve hostem ignoretis, cum lis est y< 
militcSf pugnandum, quos terra marique priore 1 
vicistis, a quibus stipendium per vigioti annos 
gi^tts, a quibus capta belli praemia Siciliam ac S 
niain habetis. Erit igitur in hoc certamtne is ^ 
iliisque animus, qui victoribus et victis esse solet. 
nunc illi, quia audent, sed quia necesse est, pugn 
sunt, nisi creditis, qui exercitu incolumi pugnam 
tractavcre, eos duabus partibus peditum equitumqi 
transitu Alpium amissis, plus spei nactos esse. 'At 
pauci quidem sunt, sed vigentes animis corporibu 
(|uorum robora ac vires vix sustinere vis uUa p 
ICiligies immo, umbrae hominum, fame, frigore, in 
squalore enecti, contusi ac debilitati . inter saxa rupei 
ad hoc praeusti artus, nive rigentes nervi, nnembrs 
rida gelu, quassata fractaque arma, claudi ac debiles 
('tim hoc equite, cum hoc pedite pugnaturi estis, rel 
extremas hostium, non hostem habetis. Ac nihil 
gis vereor, quam ne, cum vos pugnaveritis, Alpcs ^ 
Hannibalem videantur. Sed ita forsitan decuit. 


Ibedenim niptore duce ac populo deoa ipsos sine ulb 
bumana ope committere ac profligare belluin, nos, qui 
tecundum deos violati surous, commissum ac profliga- 
tnm conficeie.*' 

CcmiutHoiwm of thi eoHiuPs speech. 

5 XLI. "Non vereor, ne quis me haec vestri adhor- 
tandi causa magnifice loqui existimet, ipsum aliter animo 
adfectum esse. Licuit in Hispaniam, provinctam meam, 
quo iaro profectus eram, cum exercitu ire meO| ubi et 
fratrenif consilii participem ac periculi socium haberem, 

to et Hasdrubalcm potius quam Hannibalem hostem, ct 
iDinoiero baud dubic molem belli; tameni cum practer- 
veherer navibus Galliac oram, ad famam huius hostis in 
tenam egressus pracinisso equitatu ad Rhodanum movi 
castra. Equestri proelio, qua parte oopiarum consc- 

t5 rendi manum fortuna data est, hostem fudi; peditum 
agmen, quod in modum fugientium raptim agebatur, 
quia adsequi terra non poteram, neque • • .y rcgressus 
ad navisy quanta maxime potui celeritate tanto maris 
terrsmimque circuitu in radicibus prope Alpium huic 

JO timendo hosti obvius fui. Utrum, cum declinarem certa- 
men inpiovidus incidisse videor, an occurrere in vestigiii 
eins, lacemere ac trahere ad decemendum? Expcriri 
iuvaty utrum alios repente Carthaginienses per viginli 
annos terra ediderit, an iidem sint, qui ad Aegatis pug- 

a5 navenint insulas, et quos ab Eryce duodevicenis denariis 
acstimatos emisistis, et utrum Hannibal hie sit aemulus 
itinenim Herculis, ut ipse fert, an vectigalis stipendiari- 
usque et servus populi Romani a patre relictus; quern 
nisi Saguntinum scelus agitaret, respiceret profecto, si 

j» non patriam victam, domum certe patremque et Ibedera 
Haroilcaris scripta manu, qui iussus ab consule nostro 
praesidlum deduxit ab Eryce, qui graves inpositas victis 
Caithaginiensibus kges fremens maerensque accepit, qui 


(icccdens Sicilia stipcndium populo Romano dare pac 
c^t. Itaque vos ego, militesy non eo solum anin 
quo adversus alios hostcs soletisy pugnare velim, s 
rum indignatione quadam atque ira, velut si ser 
vidcatis vestros arma repentc contra vos ferentes. Lie 
ad Hrycem dausos ultimo supplicio humanorumi fai 
intcrficere; licuit victricem dassem in Africam traio 
att^ue intra paucos dies sine uUo certamine Cartliagim 
(Iclcre : — veniam dedimus precantibus, emisimus ex < 
siilione, pacem cum victis fecimuSi tutelae deinde i 
strac duximusy cum Africo bello urgerentur. I'ro 
iniK*rtitis furiosum iuvenem sequentes oppugnatum ] 
triam nostram veniunt Atque utinam pro decore t 
turn hoc vobis et non pro salute esset certamenl N 
dc posscssione Siciliae ac Sardiniae, de quibus quond 
agcbatur, sed pro Italia vobis est pugnandum. ^ 
cht alius ab tergo cxercitusi qui, nisi nos vincim 
hosti obsistat, nee Alpes aliae sunt, quas dum supisr 
coniKirari nova possint praesidia. Hie est obstandu 
iniliics, vclut si ante Romana mocnia pugncmus. Ui 
quisque se non corpus suum, sed coniugem ac lilx: 
I)arvos armis protegere putet; nee domestieas sol 
agitet curasy sed identidem hoc animo rcputet, nosi 
nunc intueri manus senatum populumque Romanu 
(]ualis nostra vis virtusque fuerit» talem deinde fortun 
illius urbis ac Romani imperii fore." 

Hannibal makis capihfts fif^t far life nnd liberty^ as an 

ampii to his soldiers. 

XLIL Haec apud Romanos consul. Hannibal re 
prius quam verbis adhortandos milites ratus, circumc 
ad spectaculum exercitu captivos montanos vinctos 
medio statuit, armisque Gallicis ante pedes eorum ] 
iectisi interrogare interpretem iussit, ecquis, si vine 
levaretur armaque et equum victor acciperet, dccer 


ferrovelkL Cum ad unum omnes ferrum pugnamquc 
poicerenty et deiecta in id sors esset, se quisque eum 
opUbat, quern foituna in id ceitamen legeret, cu- 
iusque son exciderat, alacer inter gratulantes gaudio 
5 exultans cum sui rooris tripudiis arma raptim capiebat 
Ubi vero dimicarent, is habitus animorum non inter 
eiusdem modo condicionis homines eiat, sed etiam inter 
spectantes vulgo^ ut non vincentium magis quam bene 
morientium fortuna laudaretur. 

Hannibats address io his army. 

to. XLIIL Cum sic aliquot spectatis paribus adfectos 
dimisissety contione inde advocata ita apud eos locutus 
fertur: ''Si, quern animum in alienae sortis exemplo 
paub ante habuistis, cundem mox in aestimanda for- 
tuna vestra habueritis, vicimus, milites ; ncque enini 

15 spectaculum modo illud, sed quaedam veluti imago vcs- 
trae condicionis erat Ac nescio an maiora vincula 
maioresque necessitates vobis quam captivis vcstris for- 
tuna circumdederit : dextra laevaque duo maria clau- 
dunt nuHam ne ad eflugium quidem navem habentis; 

JO circa Padus, amnis raaior ac violentior Khodano ; ab 
tergo Alpes urgent, vix integris vobis ac vigentibus 
transitae. Hie vincendum aut moriendum, militcs, est, 
ubi priroum hosti occurristis. Et eadem fortuna, quae 
necessitatem pugnandi inposuit, praemia vobis ea victo- 

as ribus proponit, quibus ampliora homines ne ab dis qui- 
dem inmortalibus optare solent Si Siciliam tantum ac 
Sardiniam parentibus nostris ereptas nostra virtute recu- 
peraturi essemus, satis tamen ampla pretia essent: nunc 
quidquid Romani tot triumphis partum congestumque 

JO possidentt Id omne vestrum cum ipsis dominis futurum 
est In hanc tam opimam mercedem, agite dum, ills 
bene iavantibus arma capite. Satis adhuc in vastis 
Lnsitaniae Celtiberiae()ue montibus pecora consectando 


nullum emoluroentum tot laborum pcriculonimque ve 
tronin^ vidistis; tempus est iam opulenU vos ac dit 
stiiH!ndia facere et magna operae pretia mereri, tantui 
itineris per tot montes fluminaque et tot armatas geDt< 
cmcnsos. Hie vobis terminum laborum fortuna dedil 
hie dignam mercedem emeritis stipendiis dabit" 

**Ncc quam magni nominis bellum est, tam difficilei 
cxistimaritis victoriam fore; saepc et contemptus host 
cnientum certamen edidit et incliti populi regesque pc 
levi momento victi sunt. Nam dempto hoc uno fu 
gore nominis Romani quid est, cur illi vobis oonparan< 
sint? Ut viginti annorum militiam vestram cum ill 
virtute, cum ilia fortuna taceam, ab Hercults columni: 
ab Oceano terminisque ultimb terrarum per tot feroci; 
simos Hispaniae et Galliae populos vincentes hue pei 
vcnistis; pugnabitis cum exercitu tirone, hac ipsa aestat 
cacso, victo, circumsesso a Gallisi ignoto adhuc due 
suo ignorantique ducem. An mc in praetorio patrii 
clarissimi imperaforis, prope natum, ccrte eductum, d< 
niitorem Hispaniae Galliaeque, victorem eundem no 
Alpinanim modo gentium, sed ipsarum, quod multo maiu 
est, Alpium, cum scmenstri hoc conferam duce, desei 
tore excrcitus sui? Cui si quis demptis signis Poenc 
Romanosque hodie ostendat, ignoraturum certum habec 
utrius exercitus sit consul. Non ego iUud paivi a( 
stimo, milites, quod nemo est vestruro, cuius non ant 
oculos ipse saepe militare aliquod ediderim iacinus, ci 
non idem ego virtutis spectator ac testis notata teropc 
rihus locisque referre sua possim decora. Cum laudati 
«i me miliens donatisque, alumnus prius omnium vestnii 
quam imperator, procedam in aciem adversus ignoto 
inter se ignorantesque." 

Contmuaiicm 0/ tkg same* 

XLIV. ''Quocumque circumtuli oculos, plena omni 
video antmorum ac roboris, veteranum peditem, genero 


sissimarttin gentium equites frenatos infrenatosque, vos 
aocios fidelissimos fortissimosque, vos Carthaginienses cum 
pro patna turn ob iram iustissimatn pugnaturos. Infc« 
rimus bellum infestisque signis descendiinus in Italiain, 
5 tanto audacius fortiusc|ue pugnaturi quam hostisi quanto 
maior spcs, maior est animus inferentis vim quam ar- 
centis. Accendit piaeterea et stimulat animos dolor, 
iniuria, tndignitas. Ad supplicium depoposcerunt uk 
docero primum, deinde vos omnes, qui Saguntum oj)- 

to pugnassetis ; deditos ultimis cruciatibus adfecturi fuerunt. 

Cnidelissima ac superbissiroa gens sua omnia suitiuc 

arbitrii lacit Cum quibus bellum, cum quibus pacem 

* habeamust se modum inponere aecum censet. Circum- 

scribit includttque nos terminis monUum fluminumquc, 

15 quos non excedamus, nequc eos, quos statuit, terminos 
observat 'Ne transieris Hiberum! Ne quid rei tibi sit 
cum Saguntinis ! ' 'At cis Hiberum est Saguntum * 
' Nuaquam te vestigio moveris 1 ' ' Parum est quod vetcr- 
rimas provincias meas Siciliam ac Sardiniam adimis? 

JO Etiam in Hispanias, et inde si decessero, in Africain 
transcendes.' Transcendes autem? Transcendisse dica 
Duos consules huiiis anni, unum in Africam, alterum 
in Hispaniam misenint Nihil usquam nobis relictiim 
est, nisi quod armis vindicarimus. I His timidis et ignavis 

MS esse licet, qui respectum habent, quos sua terra, suns 
agar per tuU ac pacau itinera fugientes accipient ; vol)is 
peceae est fortibus viris esse et omnibus inter victoriam 
mortemve cerU desperatione abruptis aut vincere aut. si 
fortuna dubiubit, in proelio potius quam in fuga mortem 

3D oppetere. Si hoc bene fixum omnibus, si destinatum 
ammo est, itenim dicam, vicistis: nullum contemptu 
mortis telum ad vincendum homini ab dis inroortalibus 
acritts datum est** 


The NnmidiaHS plunder iht tribts friindiy to Romt, Scij 
crosststht TictHus and iHcamps. Hannibatt liberal pro 
isa to Au mem, 

XLV. His adhorUtionibus cum utrimque ad certain 
accensi militum aninii essent, Romani ponte Ticint 
iiingunt tuundique pontis causa castellum insuper inii 
mint; Poenus hostibus opere occupatis Maharbalem ci 
ala Numidarumy equitibus quingentis, ad depopuland 
sociorum ix>puli Romani agros mittit; Gallis parci qu2 
inaxime iubct principumque animos ad defectionem s 
licitari. Ponte perfecto traductus Romanus exercitus 
ngrum losubrium quinque milta passuum a Victumu 
conscdit. Ibi Hannibal castra haliebat ; revocatoq 
propcre Maharbalc atque equitibus, cum instare certam 
ccrneret, nihil umquam satis dictum praeroonitumque 
ruhortandos milites ratus, vocatis ad contionem cei 
praemia pronuntiat, in quorum spcm pugnarent: agri 
scsc datururo esse in Italia, Africa, Hispania, ubi qu 
<)uc vclit, inrounem ipsi, qui accepisset, liberisque; c 
])ccuniam quam agnim maluisset, ei se argento satisfy 
turum; qui sociorum cives Carthaginienses fieri vellei 
I)otcstatem facturum; qui domos redirc mallent, dat 
rum se operam, ne cuius suorum popularium mutats 
scctim fortunam esse vellent. Servis quoque domin 
prosecutis libertatem proponit, binaque pro iis mancii 
(iominis se redditurum. Eaque ut rata scirent foi 
npinm. laeva manu, dextra silicem retincns, si faller 
lovem ceterosque precatus deos, ita se mactarent, qu< 
ad modnm ipse agnum mactasset, secundum precati 
ncm caput pecudis saxo elisit Tum vero omnes, vel 
(lis auctoribus in spem*suam quisque acceptis, id mon 
quod nondum pugnarent, ad potienda sperata rati, pre 
Hum uno aninu) et voce una poscunt 


Thi btillU of tkt Ticinus begins mnexpictediy to both sides, 
Dtfemi of iki Rotnans. Resent of the eonsui by his son, 

XLVI. Apud Romanos haudquaquam tanta alacriixs 
eraty super cetera recentibus etiam tcrritos prodigiis; 
nam et lupus intraverat castra laniatisciue obviis ipse 
intactus evaserat, ct examen apum in arborc practorio 

5 iiuninente consederat Quibus procuratis Scipio cum 
equitatu iacubtoribusque expeditis profectus ad castra 
hostium ex propinquo copiasque, quantae et cuius gene- 
ris cssent, speculatidas, obvius fit Hannibali et ipsi cum 
equitibus ad exploranda circa loca progrcsso. Ncutri 

le alteros primo cemebant, densior deinde inccssu tot lie 
minum equoruro oriens pulvis signum propinquaiUiuiu 
hostium fuit. Consistit utrumque agmen et ad procliuin 
sese expediebant Scipio iaculatores et Gallos eciuites 
in fironte locate Romanos sociorumque quod roboris fuit 

15 in subsidiis ; Hannibal frenatos equitcs in medium ac- 
dpit, comua Numidis firmat Vixdum clamore sublato 
iaculatores fugerunt inter subsidia ad secuudam acicm. 
Inde equitum certamen erat aliquamdiu anceps. Dcin, 
quia turbabant equos pedites intermixti, multis labcnti- 

so bus ex equis aut desilientibus, ubi suos premi circuni- 
ventos vidissenty iam magna ex parte ad pedes pugna 
veneiaty donee Numidae, qui in comibus erant, cir- 
cumvecti paulum ab tergo se ostendenint Is pavor 
perculit Romanos, auxitque pavorem consults vulnus !>ۥ 

15 riculumque intercursu turn primum pubescentis filii pro- 
pulsatum. Hie erit iuvenis, penes quem perfccti l)uius< e 
belli laus est, Africanus ob cgrcgiam vicloriam tic 
Hannibale Poenisque appellatus. Fuga tamen eflfusa 
iacolatonim maxume fuit» quos primos Numidae invase- 

J0 rant ; alius confertus equitatus consulem in medium 
aoceptum non armis modo, sed etiam corporibus suls 
pw)tcgen s in castra nusquam trepide neque effuse ce* 


(Iciicio reduxit Servati consults decus Coelius ad i 
vum natione Ligurem delegat; malim cquidem de I 
verum esse, quod et plures tradidere auclorcs et b 

TAi IfamaMS ntrtat ie PiaciHtia, HaHuikal fMawt^and 

camps six miUs away. 

XLVII. Hoc primum cum Hannibale proelium I 
quo facile apparuit equitatu meliorem Pocnum esse 
ob id campos patentis, quales sunt inter Padum Al| 
que, bello gerendo Romanis aptos non esse. Ita 
proxima nocte iussis militibus vasa silcntio conlij 
castra ab Ticino mota, festinatumque ad Padum est, 
ratibus, quibus iunxerat flumen, nondum resolutis ! 
tumultu atque insectatione hostis copias traiceret F 
Placentiam pervenere, quam satis sciret Hannibal 
Ticino profcctos; tamen ad sesccntos moratorum 
citeriore ripa Padi segniter ratem solventes cepit. Tti 
ire pontem non potuit, ut extrema resoluta erant, 
rate in secundam aquam labente. Coelius auctor 
Magonem cum equitatu et Hispanis pcditibus iflui 
cxtemplo tranasse, ipsum Hannibalem per super 
Padi vada exercitum traduxisse elephantis in ordii 
ad sustinendum impetum fluminis oppositis. Ea \ 
tis amnis eius vix fidem fecerint, nam neque eqi 
armis equisque salvis tantam vim fluminis super 
veri simile est, ut iam Hispanos omnes inflati 
vexerint utres, et multorum dierum circuitu Padi \ 
petcnda fuerunt, qua exercitus gravis impedimentis 
(liici posset. Potiores apud me auctores sunt, 
biduo vix locum rate iungendo flumini inventum 
dunt; ea cum Magone equites et Hispanorum exped 
praemissos. Dum Hannibal, circa flumen legation 
Gallorum audiendis moratus, traicit gravius peditum 
men, interim Mago equitesque ab transitu fluminis 


unius itincre Placentiam ad hostes contendunt. Han- 
nibal paucis post diebus sex niilia a Piacentia castra 
communivii ei postero die in conspecUi hostium acic 
derecta polestatem pugnae fecit. 

Scifh tnirenchts himself oh ike Trebia and awaiis ike cont' 

ing of i^is coliengue Sempronius, 

5 XLVIII. Insequenti nocte caedes in castris Romanis, 
tumultu tamen quam re maior, ab auxiliaribus Gallis 
facta est. Ad duo milia peditum et ducenti equitcs 
vtgilibus ad portas tracidatis ad Hannibalem transfugi- 
unt, quos Foenus benigne adlocutus et spe ingentiuni 

to donorum accensos in civitates quemque suas ad soUici- 
tandos popularium animos dimisit. Scipio caedem earn 
signuro defectionis omnium Gallonim esse ratus, con- 
tactosque eo scelere velut iniecta rabie ad arroa ituros, 
quamquam gravis adhuc vulnere erat, tamen quarta vigi- 

iS'lia noctis insequentis tacito agmine profectus ad Trebiam 
fluviuro lam in k>ca altiora collisque inpeditiores equiti 
castia movet Minus quam ad Ticinum fefellit; mis- 
sisque Hannibal primum Numidis, deinde omni equitatu 
turbasset utique novissimum agmen, ni aviditate praedac 

so in vacua Romana castra Numidae devertissent Ibi 
dum perscnitantes loca omnia castrorum nullo satis 
digno morae pretio tempus tenmt, emissus hostis est 
de manibus, et cum iam transgressos Trebiam Romanes 
metantisque castra conspexissent, paucos moratorum oc- 

^5 cidenint citra flumen interceptos. Scipio nee vexatio- 
nem vulneris in via iactati ultra patiens et collegam — 
iam enim et revocatum ex Sicilia audierat — ratus ex- 
pectandnm, locum, qui prope flumen tutissimus stativis 
est vifufly delectum communiit Nee procul inde Han- 

jo nibal cam consedisset, qtiantum victoria equestri elatus, 
tantum anxius inopia» quae per hostium agros euntem 
nnaquam piacparatis commeatibus maior in dies excipi- 


cbat, ad Clastidium vicutn, quo magnum frumenti 
nicrum congesserant Romani, mittit Ibi cum i 
porarent, spes £icu proditionis, nee sane magno pre 
nummis aureis quadringentis, Dasto Brundisino, praefe 
|)rnesidii, corrupto traditur Hannibali Clastidium. 
iiorreum fuit Poenis sedentibus ad Trebiam. In ca] 
vos ex tradito praesidio, ut fama dementiae in princi 
rcrum coUigeretuTi nihil saevitum est 

Tht Cariha^nioHS stud a jUei t0 invade Sicify, 

XLIX. Cum ad TYebiam terrestre constitisset belli 
interim circa Siciliam insulasque Italiae inminentes e 
Sompronio consule et ante adventum eius terra mari< 
res gestae. Viginti quinqueremes cum mille armatis 
deix>pulandam oram Italiae a Carthaginiensibus miss 
novem Liparas, octo ad insulam Vulcani tenuerunt, 1 
in fretum avertit aestus. Ad eas conspectas a A! 
sana duodecim naves ab Hierone, rege Syracusanon 
niissae, qui tum forte Messanae erat cousulem Roi 
num opperiens, nullo repugnante captas naves Messaii 
in portum deduxerunt. Cognitum ex capttvis pra( 
viginti naves, cuius ipsi classis essent, in Italiam mi: 
(luinque et triginta alias quinqueremes Siciliam pet 
ad sollicitandos veteres sorios; Lilybael occupandi pi 
ripuam curam esse; credere eadem tcmpestate, < 
ipsi disiecti forent, eam quoque classem ad Aeg 
insulas deiectam. Haec, sicut audita erant, rex 
Aemilio praetori, cuius Sicilia provincia erat, perscr 
nionetque, ut Lilybaeum firmo teneret praesidio. 1 
templo et a praetore circa civitates missi legati tri 
nique suos ad cunun custodiae intendere, et a 
omnia Lilybaeum teneri apparatu belli, edicto propos 
ut socii navales decem dierum cocta cibaria ad na 
deferrent, ut, ubi signum datum esset, ne quid mor 
conscendendi foceret; perque omnem oram, qui 


speculis prospicerent adventantem hostium classem, missi. 
ItaquCy quaniquam de industria ita moderati cursum 
navium erani Caithaginicnses, ut ante lucem accedercnt 
Lilybacum, praescnsum tamcn est^ quia et luna pcrnox 
S erat et suUatis armamentis veniebant ; extemplo datum 
tignum ex speculis et in oppido ad arma conclamatum 
est et in naves conscensum; pars niilitum in muris 
portanimque stationibus, pars in navibus erant. Et 
Carthaginienses, quia rem fore baud cum inparatis cer- 

lo nebant, usque ad lucem portu se abstinuerunt, demendis 

armamentis eo tempore aptandaque ad pugnam classc 

absuropto. Ubi inluxitt recepere classem in altum, ut 

' spatium pugnae esset, exitumque liberum e portu naves 

hostium haberent Nee Romani detrectavere pugnam 

15 et memoria circa ea ipsa loca gestarum rerum freti ct 
militum multitudine ac virtute. ' 

7^ Romans defiai it off Idlybaeum. Semprouius arrives 
mi Mtssana. Hitro of Syracust promises him support. 

L. Ubi in altum evecti sunt, Romanus conserere 
pugnam et ex propinquo vires conferre velle; contra 
eludere Poenus et arte, non vi rem gerere, naviumque 

JO quam virorum aut armorum malle certamen facerc. 
Nam ut sociis navalibus adfatim instructam classem, ita 
inopem milite habebant, et, sicubi conserta navis essct, 
haudquaquam par numcnis armatorum ex ea pugnabat. 
Quod ubi animadversum est, et Romanis roultitudo sua 

J5 auxit animum et paucitas illis minuit Extemplo sep- 
tem naves Punicae circumventae ; fugam ceterae cepe- 
runt Mille et septingenti fuere in navibus captis militcs 
nautaeque, in his tres nobiles Carthaginiensium. Classis 
Romana incdumis, una tantum perforata navi, sed ea 

JO qooque ipsa reduce, in portum rediit. 

Secundum banc, pugnam, nondum gnaris eius qui 
Meswnae erant, Ti. Sempronius consul Messanam venit 


Ei frctum inttanti rex Hiero classem ornatam arma 
(|ue obviain duxit, transgrcssusciuc ex regia in pr 
riam navcm, gratulatus sospitcm cum excrcitu ct na 
aclvcnissc prccatusquc prospcrum ac fclicein in Sic 
transitum, sutum deinde insulae et CarthaginicnsiutT 
nau cxposuil, poUicitusque est, quo aninio priore 
l>opulum Romanuni iuvenis adiuvisset, co senem ad 
rum; fnimentum vestimcntaquc sese kgionibus cor 
sociisquc navalibus gratis praebitunim ; grande pcric 
IJIylMeo maritumisque civiutibus esse, et quibusdani 
Icntibus novxs res fore. Ob haec consul! nihil < 
tandutn visum, quin Lilybaeum classe peteret Et 
rcgiaque classis una profecti. Navigantes inde pv 
turn ad Lilybaeum fusasque et captas hostium i 

AfiHor cptmiWHS in ikt Sicilian seas. Sem^Hius i; 

dered io ran/om Scipio* 

LI. A Lilybaeo consul, Hierone cum classe i 
dimisso reltctoque praetore ad tuendam Siciliae o 
ipse in insulam Melitam, quae a Carthagtniensibus 1 
Uatur, traiecit Advenienti Uamilcar, Gisgonis Alius, | 
t'cctus praesidii, cum paulo minus duobus milibus roil 
oppidumque cum insula traditur. Inde post pa 
(lies reditum Lilybaeum, captivique et a consulc 
praetore praeter insignes nobilitate viros sub co 
vcnienmt Postquam ab ea parte satis tutam Sici 
censebat consul, ad insulas Vulcani, quia fama erat i 
ibi Punicam classem, traiecit; nee quisquam hos 
circa eas insulas inventus. lam forte transmiserant 
vastandam Italiae oram, depopulatoque Viboniensi 
urbem etiam terrebant. Repetenti Siciliam coi 
escensio hostium in agrum Viboniensem facta nuntii 
litteraeque ab senatu de transitu in Italiam Hannib 
et ut primo quoque tempore conlegae ferret auxili 


missae Itaduntur. Multis simul anxius curis exercitum 
extcniplo in naves inpositum Ariminum man su|)eru 
misity Sex. Pomponio legato cum viginti quinque longis 
navibus Viboniensem agrum maritimamque oram Italiac 
5 tuendam adtribuiti M. Aemilio praetori quinquaginta na- 
vium classem explevit. Ipse compositis Sictliae rebus 
decern navibus oram Italiae legens Ariminum pervenit. 
Inde cum exercitu suo profectus ad Trebiam fiumen 
conlegae coniungitur. 

Tki consuls disagree. Trifling success of some of Sempra- 
niu^ troops againsi ike Cariitaginians* 

lo LII. lam ambo consules et quidquid Romanarum 
viriura erat Hannibali oppositum aut illis copiis defend! 
posse Romanum impcrium aut spem nullam aliam esse 
satis dcclarabat Tamen consul alter equestri proelio 
uno et vulnere suo animi minutus trahi rem malebat; 

■5 recentis animi alter eo(|ue fcrocior nullam dilationem 
patiebatur. Quod inter Trebiam Paduroque agri est 
Galli tum incolcbant, in duorum praepotentium populo- 
rum certamine per ambiguum favorcm baud dubic gra- 
tiam victoris spectantes. Id Roman!, modo ne quid 

flo moverent, aequo satis, Pocnus pcrini(]uo animo ferekiti 
ab Gallis accitum se venissc ad liberandos cos dictitans. 
Ob earn iraro, simul ut praeda militcm aleret, duo milia 
peditum et mille cquiteSf Numidas picrosquc, mixtos 
quosdam et Gallos, popular! omnem deinceps agrum 

95 usque ad Padi ripas iussit Egentes ope Galli, cum 
ad id dubios servassent animos, coacti ab auctoribus 
iniuriae ad vindices futuros declinant, legatisque ad con- 
sules missis auxilium Romanorum terrae ob nimiam 
cultorum fidem in Romanos laboranti orant Cornelio 

j» ncc causa nee tempus agendae rei placebat, suspecta- 
que ei gens erat cum ob infida multa facinorai tum, 
ut alia veUistate obsoievissent^ ob recentem Boiorum 


pcriidiain; Scinpronius contra continendis in fide » 
maximum vinculum esse primos, qui eguisscnt 
ilcfcnsos censcbat. Is turn coUega cunctantc cq 
turn suum mille peditum iaculatoribus fenne adni 
ad dcfendendum Gallicum agrum trans Trebiam ni 
SiKirsos et inconpositos, ad hoc graves praeda plcro 
cum inopinato invasissent, ingentem terrorem caedcn 
ac fugam usque ad castra stationesquc hostium fee 
unde multitudine cflusa pulsi rursus subsidiq suorum ) 
lium restitucre. Varia inde pugna sequentes inter cc 
tesciue ; cumque ad extremum aei|uassent ceitamen, n 
lamcn hostium caedes, penes Romanos tama vict< 

SemproHtus insists upon fightings for which Hannibi 

equally eager. 

LIII. Ceterum nemini omnium maior ea iustic 
quam ipsi consuli videri; gaudio efTerri, qua parte 
.irum alter consul victus foret, ea se vicisse; resti 
ac refectos militibus antmos, ncc quemquam esse pr 
conlegam, qui dilatam dimicationem vcllct; eum ai 
nugis quam coqiore aegrum memoria vulneris acier 
tela horrere. Sed non esse cum acgro senescent 
(^uid cnim ultra diflfcrri aut tcri tempus? Quern 
titim consulcm, quern alium cxcrcitum expcctari? 
stra Carthaginiensium in Italia ac prope in consi 
urhis esse. Non Siciliam ac Sardiniam victis adcm 
ncc cb Hiberum Hispaniam peti, sed solo patrio 
raque, in qua geniti forent, pelli Romanos. "Quai 
ingemiscant *' inquit *'patres nostri circa moenia O 
ginis bellare soliti, si videant nos, progeniem s 
duos consules consularesque exercitus in media \ 
paventis intra castra, Poenum quod inter Alpis Ap 
nuroque agri sit suae dicionis fecisse?" Haec adsi 
aegro conlegae, haec in praetorio prope contionabu 
agere. Sdmulabat et tempus propincum comitiorum 


in novos consules bellum differretur, et occasio in sc 
iinum vcrtendae gloriae, dum aeger conlega erat Ita- 
que ncquiquam dissentiente Cornelio parari ad propin* 
cum certamcn milites iubet. 
5 Hannibal cum, quid optimum foret hosti| cemeret, 
vix uliam spem habcbal temere atque inprovide quic- 
quam consules acturos; cum alterius ingcnium, fama 
priuSf deinde re cognitum, percitum ac ferox sciret esse, 
ferociusque factum prospero cum praedatoribus suis ccr- 

lo tamine crederet, adesse geremiae rei fortunam haud 
diffidebat Cuius ne quod praetermitteret tempus, soU 
lidtus intentusque erat, dum tiro hostium miles esset, 
4ium meliorem ex ducibus inutilem vulnus faceret, dum 
Gallorum animi vigerent, quorum ingentem multitudinein 

15 sciebat segnius secuturam, c^uanto longius ab donio tra- 
herentur. Cum ob haec taliaque speraret proptncuin 
certamen et Cacere, si cessaretur, cuperet speculatores- 
qoe Galli, ad ea exploranda, quae vellet, tutiores, quia 
in tttriaque castris militabant, paratos pugnae esse Ro- 

90 maoos rettulissent, locum insidiis circumspectare Poenus 

Tk£ htiiiit 0f ihi Trtbin. nooo Carthaginians lit in ambush. 
Tki Ramans art praifohed to cross the river, 


LIV. Erat in medio rivus praealtis utrimque clausus 
ripis et ciica obsitus palustribus herbis et, quibus inculta 
fenne vestiuntur, viigultis vepribusque. Quem ubi equi- 

ss tes quoque tegendo satis latebrosum locum circurovec- 
tus ipse oculis perlustravit, ''Hie erit locus'* Magoni 
Intri ait» ''quem teneas. Delige centenos viros ex 
omni pedite atque equite, cum quibus ad me vigilia 
prima venias; nunc corpora curare tempus est" Ita 

jD pnetorium roissum* Mox cum delectis Mago aderat. 
^'Roboia' virorum cemo" inquit Hannibal; " sed uti 
etiam, non animis modo valeatis, singulis vobis 


iiovcnos ex turinis manipulisque vestri similes eligit 
Mago locum monstrabit, quem insiUeatis; hostem ca 
cum ad has belli artes habelis." Ita Mago cum mil 
ct]uitibus, mille peditibus dimissus. Hannibal prin 
luce Numidas equites iransgressos Trebiam flumen ob 
(luiiare iubet hostium porttSi iaculandoi|ue in sution* 
cliccre ad pugnam hostem, iniecto deinde certamii 
ccdcndo scnsim citra flumen pertrahere. Haec ma 
(lata Numidis ; ceteris ducibus peditum equitumqt 
l)raeccptumy ut prandere omnes iuberent, armatos d 
inde instratisque equis signum expectare. 

Scmpronius ad tumultum Numidaram primum omne 
iHjuitatum, ferox ea parte virium, deinde sex milia p 
diium, postremo omnes copias ab destinato iam an 
consiiio avidus certaminis eduxit. Erat forte brunu 
tcinpus et nivalis dies et in locis Alpibus Apenninoqi 
intcricctis, propinquitate etiam fiuminiim ac paludiui 
pracgclidis. Ad hoc raptim eductis hominibus* atqv 
cfiuis, non capto ante cibo, non ope ulla ad arcendui 
frigus adhibita, nihil caloris incrat, et quidquid aun 
niiminis adpropinquabanty adflabat acrior frigoris vi 
Ut vero refugientes Numidas inscquentcs aquam ingrcs 
sunt — et erat pectoribus tcnus aucta noctumo imbri- 
tum utique egressis rigere omnibus corpora, ut vix a 
inoruni tenendorum potentia esset, et sinuil lassitudit 
ct procedente iam die £une etiam deficeit. 

The Romans art defeated^ mainiy by iki suptrwrify of i 

Punic cavalry* 

LV. Hannibalis interim miles ignibus ante tentoi 
factis oleoque per manipulos, ut moUirent artus, mis 
et cibo per otium capto, ubi transgressos flumen hos 
nuntiatum est, alacer animis corporibusque arma ca] 
atque in aciem procedit Baliares lo^t ante signa 
levem armaturam, octo ferme milia hominum, dc 


gravioreni armis peditem, quod viriuni, quod roboris 
oat; in comibus circumfudit decern milia equitum, ct 
ab cornibus in utramque partem divisos elephantos 
staluit Consul effuse sequentis equites, cum ab re- 
5 sistentibus subito Numidis incauti exciperentur, signo 
receptui dato revocatos circumdedit peditibus. Duodc- 
viginti milia Ronuma erant^ socium nominis Latini viginii, 
auxilia praeterea Cenomanorum; ea sola in fide man- 
seiat Gallica gens. lis copiis concursum est. Proeliuni 

lo a Baliaribus ortum est ; quibus cum maiore robore 

legiones obsisterent, diducta piopere in cornua levis 

armatura est; quae res effeciti ut equitatus Romanus 

.extemplo urgeretur. Nam cum vix iam per se resistc- 

rent decem milibus equitum quattuor milia et fcssi 

■5 integris plerisque, obruti sunt insuper velut nube iacu* 
lorum a Baliaribus coniecta. Ad hoc elephanti emi* 
nentes ab extremis comibus, equis maxime non visu 
modo sed odore insolito territis, fugam late fadebant. 
Pedestris pugna par animis magis quam viribus erat^ 

90 quas recentis Pocnus paulo ante curatis corporibus in 
proelium adtulerat; contra ieiuna fessaque corpora Ro- 
manis et rigentia gelu torpebant Restitisscnt tamen 
animis, si cum pedite solum foret pugnatum; sed ct 
JSaliares pulso equite iaculabantur in latera, et elephanti 
^5 iam in roediam peditum aciem sese tulerant, et Mago 
Numidaeque, simul latebras eonim inprovida praeterlata 
mcks est, exorti ab tergo ingentem tumultum ac terro- 
lem fecere. Tamen in tot circumstantibus malis mansit 
aliquamdia inmota ades, maxime praeter spem omnium 
jD advenus elephantos. Eos velites ad id ipsum locati 
venitis coniectis et avertere et insecuti aversos sub cau- 
disy qua maxnme molli cute vubera accipiunt, fodiebant. 


Part of tki Romans nirtai t^ Piaceniia. Tk€ nmnani fc 

law mi ni^i from ikoir camp* 

LVI. Trepidantisque et prope iam in suos constem 
tos c media acie in extremam ad sintstruin corou advc 
sus Gallos auxiliares agi iussit Hannibal. Ibt extempi 
hand dubiam fecere fugam, quo novus terror additi 
Romanis, ut fusa auxilia sua viderunt. Itaque cui 
iam in orbem pugnarent, decern milia feraie hominuii 
cum alibi evadere nequissent» media Afronim acie, qi 
(;allicis auxiliis firmata erat, cum ingenti caede hostiui 
pcmipere, et, cum neque in castra reditus esset flumir 
intcrclusis, neque prac imbri satis decemere posscii 
<iua suis oi)em ferrent^ Placentiam recto itinere pe 
rexere. Plures deinde in omnes partes eruptiones fa< 
lae; et qui flumen petiere aut gurgitibus absumpti sui 
;uit inter cunctationem ingrediendi ab hostibus opprcssi 
(jui passim per agros fuga sparsi erant, alii vestigia cedei 
tis sequentes agminis Placentiam contendere; aliis tinu 
hostium audaciam ingrediendi flumen fecit, transgressicit 
in castra pervenerunt. Imbcr nive mixtus et intoleranc 
vis frigoris et homines multos et iumenta et elephantc 
prope omnis absum])sit. Finis inscquendi hostis Pocn 
niimcn Trebia fuit, et ita torpentes gelu in casti 
rcdicre, ut vix laetitiam victoriae sentirent. Itaque noci 
inscquenti, cum praesidium castrorum et quod relicui 
ex fuga sauciorum ex magna parte roilitum erat ratibi 
Trcbiam traicerent, aut nihil senscre obstrcpente pluv 
aut, quia iam moveri nequibant prae lassitudine a 
vulneribus, sentire sese dissimularunt, quietisque Poen 
tacito agmine ab Scipione consule exercitus Placentiai 
est perductus, inde Pado traiecto Cremonam, ne du< 
rum exercituum hibemis una colonia premeretur. 


AUuth mi Romt, Tki new ccnsuis. HaHHtbal^ repulstd 
from Piacentia^ capimres VUtumulat. 

LVII. Romam tantus terror ex hac clade perlatus 
est, ut iam ad urbem Romanam crederent infestis si^'- 
nis hostem ventunimy nee quicquam spei aut auxilii 
esse, quo portis moenibusque vim arcercnt ; uno con- 

5 sule ad Ticinum victo, alterum ex Sicilia revocatuin ; 
duobus consulibus, duobus consularibus exercitibus victis, 
quos alios duces, quas alias legiones esse, quae arccs- 
santur? Ita lerritis Sempronius consul advenit. Ingenti 

• periculo i)er effusos passim ad praedandum hostiinn 

fo cquites audacia roagis quam consilio aut spe fallcndi 
resistendive, si non falleret, transgrcssus, id, quod unum 
maxime in praesentia desidcrabatur, comitiis consulari- 
bus habitis, in hiberna rediit Creati consules Cn. 
Servilius et C. Flaminius iterum. 

ij Ceterum ne hiberna quidem Romanis quieta erant, 
vagantibus passim Numidis equitibus et, ut quaeque lis 
inpcditiora erant, Celtiberis Lusitanisque. Omnes igitur 
undique clausi commeatus erant, nisi quos Pado naves 
tubveherent. Emporium prope Piacentiam fuit et opcrc 

JO magno munitum et valido firmatum praesidio. Eius 
castelli oppugnandi spe cum equitibus ac levi armatura 
profectus Hannibal, cum plurimum in cclando inccpto 
ad eflectum spei habuisset, nocte adortus non fcfcllit 
vigiles. Tantus repente clamor est siiblatus, ut Placen- 

a5 tiae quoque audirctur. Itaque sub lucem cum equitatu 
consul aderat iussis quadrato agmine legionibus sequi* 
Equestre interim proelium commissum, in quo, quia 
saucitts Hannibal pugna excessk, pavore hostibus iniecto 
defensum egregie praesidium est Paucorum inde die- 

3» rum quiete sumpta et vixdum satis percurato vulnerc 
ad Victumulas oppugnandas ire pergit. Id emporium 
Romanb Gallico bello foerat; munitum inde locum 


tVequenUverant adcoUe mixti undique ex finitimis pc 
lis, et turn terror populaiionum eo pleros(|ue ex a 
conpulerat. Hiiius generis niultitudo^ fatna inpigre 
fcnsi ad Placcntiam praesidii accensa, annis arre 
ubviain Hannitxili procedit. Magis agmina quam a 
ill via concurrerunt, et, cum ex altera parte n 
praeter inconditam tiirbam esset, in altera et dux ni 
ct miles duci fidens, ad triginta quinc|ue milia ho 
nam a paucis fusa / Postero die deditione facta pi 
sidium intra mocnia accepcre; iussique anna trad 
rum dicto paruissent, signum repente victoribus dai 
\it tamquam vi captam urbem diriperent Neque v 
quae in tali re memorabilis scribentibus videri so 
practemiissa clades est: adeo omne libidinis crude! 
tihque et inhumanae sui)erbiae editum in iniseros exc 
plum est. Hae fuerc hibemae expeditiones Hannibali 

HaHnibaTs attempt to cross the ApenHiKis is deftated 6y ti 

pest nmi cold, 

LVIII. Haud longi inde temporis, dum ihtolerabi 
frigora erant, quies militi data est, et ad prima ac dul 
signa veris profectus ex htbernis in Etruriam due 
cam quoque gentem, sicut Gallos Liguresque, aut 
aut voluntatc adiuncturus. Transeuntem Apennini 
ailco alrox adorta temi)estas est, ut Alpium propc fc 
tlitatem superaverit Vento mixtus imber cum ferret 
in ii>sa ora, primo, c|uia aut arma omittenda erant a 
contra cnitcntes vertice intorti adfligebantur, consUten 
(Icin, cum iam spiritum includeret nee leciprocare ar 
mam sineret, aversi a vento paruroper consedere. Tu 
vcro ingenti sono caelum strepere et inter horrend( 
fragores micare ignes; capti auribus et oculis mci 
omnes torperc; Undem effuso imbre, cum eo mag 
acccnsa vis venti esset, ipso illo, quo deprensi eran 
loco castra ponere necessarium visum est. Id vci 


bboris velut de integro initium fuit; nam nee cxplicarc 
quicquam nee statuere poterant, nee, quod statutum es- 
se! manehat, omnia perscindente vento et rapiente. Ei 
mox aqua levata vento, cum super gelida moniiuin 
J iuga concreta esset, tantum nivosae grandinis dciecit, 
ut omnibus oroissis procumberent homines tegminibus 
suis niagis obruti quam tecti. Tantaque vis frigoris 
insecuta est, ut ex iUa miserabili hominum iumentorunv 
que strage cum se quisque attollere ac levare vellet, 

lo diu nequiret, quia tori)entibus rigore nervis vix Aectcrc 
anus poterant Deinde, ut tandem agitando sese mo- 
vere ac reeipere animos et rarts locis ignis fieri csi 
coeptusy ad alienam opem quisc|ue inops tenderc. Hi- 
duum eo loco velut obscssi mansere. Multi homines, 

15 multa iumenta, clcphanti quocjue ex iis, qui proelio ad 
Tiebiani iacto superfueranti septem absumpti. 

Am iMdeeisive baiiU wiik Sempronius, 

LIX. Degressus Apennino retro ad Placentiam casL*a 
movit, et ad decern milia progressus consedit. Postero 
die duodecim milia peditum, quinque equitum adversus 

so hostem ducit Nee Sempronius consul — iam enim redi- 
erat ab Roma — detrectavit certamen : atque eo die 
Iria milia passuum inter bina castra fuere. Postero die 
tngentibus animb vario eventu pugnatum est. Prinio 
ooncursu adeo res Romana superior fuit, ut non acic 

^5 vincerent solum, sed pulsos hostes in castra perseqiie- 
rentur, mox castra quoque oppugnarent Hannibal pan- 
els propugnatoribus in vaUo portisque positis ceteros 
confeitos in media castra recepit, intentosque signum 
•d emmpendum expectare iubet lam nona ferme dici 

JO bora erat, cum Romanus nequiquam fatigato milite, 

* poslquaro nulla spes erat potiundi castris, signum recep- 

tni dedit Quod ubi Hannibal accepit laxatamque 

pagDam et recessum a castris vidit, extemplo equitibus 


ilcxtra lacvaque emissis in hostem ipse cum pedi 
rolx)re nicdiis castris erupit Pugna raro magis 
sacva aut utriusque partis pemicie clarior fuissetf 
extendi cam dies in longuiu spatium sivisset; nox 
ccnsum ingentibus animis proelium diremiu Ita 
acrior concursus fuit quam caedes^ et sicut aeqi 
tcrnie pugna erat, ita clade pari disccssum est 
ncuira parte sescentis plus peditibus et dimidium ( 
cqiiitum cecidit. Sed maior Roinanis quam pro 
incro iactura fuit, quia equestris ordinis aliquot et 
buni militum quinque et praefecti socionim tres s 
interfecti. Secundum eam pugnam Hannibal in Ligu 
Scnipronius Lucam concessit. Vcnienti in Ligures H 
nibali per insidias intercept! duo quaestores Rom; 
C. Fulvius et L. Lucretius, cum duobus tribunis n 
turn ct quinque equestris ordinis senatorum ferme U 
ris» quo magis ratam fore cum iis pacem societatem< 
crcderet, tiaduntur. 

Cm, Scipio gains ever many tribu in ike N. E. of Spain i 

defiois Hamn0. 

LX. Dum haec in lulia geruntur, Cn. Come! 
Scipio in Hispaniam cum classe et exercitu mis 
cum ab ostio Rhodani profectus Pyrenacosque mon 
circumvectus Emporias adpulisset classem, exposito 
exercitu, orsus a I^eetanis omnem oram usque ad Hi 
rum flu men partim renovandis societal ibus partim nc 
instituendis Romanae dicionis fecit. Inde conciliata < 
mentiae iustitiaeque fama non ad maritimos modo popul 
sed in mediterraneis quoque ac montanis ad ferocio 
iam gentes valuit; nee pax modo apud eos, sed 
cictas etiam armorum parta est, validaeque aliqt 
auxilionim cohortes ex iis conscriptae sunt. Hanno 
CIS Hiberum provincia erat; eum reliquerat Hanni 
ad regionis eius praesidium. Itaquci priusquam aliei 


rentur omnia, obviam eundum ratusi castris in conspectu 
bostium positisy in aciem eduxit. Nee Romano dific- 
lendum certamen visum, quippe qui sciret cum Han- 
none et Hasdrubale sibi dimicandum esse, malletquc 
5 adversus singulos separatim quam adversus duos simul 
rem gerere. Nee magni certaminis ea dimicatio fuit: 
sex milia hostium eaesa, duo capta eum praesidio ca- 
stronim. Nam et castra expugnata sunt atque ipse 
dux com aliquot principibus capiuntur ct Cissis, pro- 

M pincum castris opptdum, expugnatur. Ceterum praeda 

oppidi parvi pretii rerum fuit, supellex barbarica ac viliuro 

.mancipiorum; castra militem ditavere, non eius niodo 

exercituSy qui victus erat, sed et eius, qui cum Hanni- 

bale in Italia militabat, omnibus fere cans rebus, nc 

15 gravia inpedimenta ferentibus essent, citra Pyrenaeutn 

HmsdruM^arrivimg too iaii io Mp Hanno^ retires beyond the 
Etro. He returns and stirs up the liergetes against the 
Romans. Scipio subdues them and winters at Tarraeo. 

LXI. Priosquam certa huius cladis fama accideret, 
tiansgressus Hiberum Hasdrubal cum octo milibus pc- 
ditum, mille equitum, tamquam ad primum adventum 

JO Romanorum occursurus, postquam perditas res ad Cissim 
amissaque castra accepit, iter ad mare convertit. Haud 
proctil Tarracone elassicos milites navalesque soeios va- 
got palantisque per agrosp quod ferme fit, ut secundac 
ics neglegentiam creent, equite passim dimisso cum 

S5 magna caede, maiore fuga ad naves conpellit Nee 
diutius circa ea loca morari ausus, ne ab Seipionc 
opprimeretor, trans Hiberum sese reeepit Et Scipio 
impCim ad fiunam novorum hostium agmine acto, cum 
In paucot praefectos navium animadvertisset, praesidio 

JO Tairacone modico relicto Emporias cum classe rediit. 
Vixdnm digrtaso eo Hasdrubal aderat, et Ileigetum 


j)opuIo, qui obsides Scipioni dederat, ad defectio 
inpulso, cum conim ipsorum iuventute agros fide 
Ronianis socioruin vastat Excito deinde Scipionc 
l)crius toto CIS Hibenim rursus ccdit agio. S< 
rclictom ab auctore defectionis Iler;getuin gentem 
infesto exercitu invasisset, conpulsis omnibus Atana^ 
urberoi quae caput eius populi erat, circumsedit, ii 
que dies paucos pluribus quam ante obsidibus inif 
tis Ilergetes pecunia ctiam multatos in ius dicionen 
reccpit. Inde in Ausetanos prope Hibenim, sc 
et ipsos Poenorumi procedit, atque urbe eonim obs 
Lacetanos auxilium finitimis ferentes nocte haud pi 
iam urbe, cum intiare veUent« excepit insidiis. C 
ad duodecim milia; exuti prope omnes armis dc 
passim palantes per agros diflugcrc. Nee obsessos 
uUa res quam iniqua oppugnantibus hiems tutab 
Triginta dies obsidio fuit, per quos raro umquam 
minus quattuor pedes alta iacuit; adeoque pluteo: 
nncas Romanonim operuerat, ut ea sola ignibus ali« 
tiens coniectis ab hoste etiam tutamentum fuerit 
stremo, cum Amusicus princeps eorum ad Hasdrubi 
profugisset, viginti argenti talentis pacti deduntur. 
raconem in hibema reditum est 

ProdigUs aiarm tht PiopU ai Romi. 

LXII. Romae aut circa urbem multa ea hieme 
digia (acta aut, quod evenire solet motb seme! in 
ligionem animis, multa nuntiata et temere credita s 
in quis, ingenuum infantem semenstrem in foro olit 
triumphum clamasse, et in foro boario bovem in ten 
contignationem sua sponte escendisse atque inde 
multu habitatorum territum sese deiecisse, et nav 
speciem de caelo adfulsisse, et aedem Spei| quae 
in foro olitorio, fulmine ictam; et Lanuvi hastam 
commovisse, et corvum in aedem lunonis devol 


atquc in ipso pulvinario consedisse, et in agro Amttcr- 
nino muUis locis hominum specie procul Candida vestc 
visos nee cum uHo congresses, et in Piceno lapidibus 
pluvisse, et Caere sortes extcnuatas, et in Gallia lupum 
5 vigili gladium ex vagina raptum alistulisse. Ob cetera 
procligia libios adire decemviri iussi; quod autem lapi- 
dibus pluvisset in Piceno, novemdiale sacrum cdictum, 
ct subiode aliis procurandis prope tota civitas oi^crata 
fuit lam primum omnium urbs lustrata est, hostiaequc 

lo tnaiores quibus editum est dis caesae, et donum ex 

auri pondo quadraginta Lanuvium lunoni portatum est, 

et signum aeneum matronae lunoni in Aventino dedi- 

' caverunt, et lectistemium Caere, ubi sortes adtenuatac 

erant, imperatumi et supplicatio Fortunae in Algido; 

15 Romae quoque et lectisternium luventati, et supplicatio 
ad aedem Herculis noniinatim, deinde universo populo 
circa omnia pulvinaria indicta, et Genio maiores hostiac 
caesae quinque, et C. Atilius Serranus praetor vota 
suscipere iussus^ si in decem annos res publica eodem 

JO ttetisset statu. Haec procurata votaque ex libris Sibyl- 
linis magna ex parte ievaverant religione animos. 

C Fiaminius^ popular with thg plebtians^ is elected consul a 
socoud iimu^ and inaugurated informally at Ariminum. 

UCIII. Consulum designatorum alter Flaminius, cui 
eae kgiones, quae Placentiae hibemabant, sorte evenc- 
rant, edictum et litteras ad consulem misit, ut is exer- 

J5 dtus idibus Martiis Arimini adesset in castris. Hie in 
provincia consulatum inire consilium erat memori vete- 
mm certaminum cum patribus, quae tribunus plebis et 
quae postea consul prius de consulatu, qui abrogabatur, 
dein de triuropho habuerat, invisus etiam patribus ob 

JO novam legem, quam Q. Claudius tribunus plebis adver* 
mt senatum atqoe uno patrum adiuvante C« Flaminio 
tnlent, ne quis senator cuive senator pater fuisset 


nuritimam navem, quae plus quam trecentarum air 
rarum esset, haberet Id satis habitum acl fructu 
A^vii vectandos; quaestus omnb patribus indccorus y 
Res per suinmam contentionem acta invidiam 
nobilitatem suasori legis Flaminio, iavorem apud pl< 
alicrumque indc consulatuin peperit. Ob haec 
auspiciis ementiendis Latinarumque ferianim mor; 
consularibus aliis inpedimentis >etenturos se in ^ 
siroulato itinera privatus clam in provinciara abiit. 
res ubi palam facta est, novam insuper iiam in 
iaro ante patribus movit: non cum senatu modo, 
lam cum dis inmortalibus C. Flaminium bellum ge 
Consulem ante inauspicato factum revocantibus ex 
acie dis atquc hominibus non paruisse; nunc cc 
cntia spretorum et Capitolium et soUemncm vou 
luincupalionem fugisse, ne die initi magistratus 
optimi maximi templum adiret» ne senatum invisus 
ct sibi uni invisum videret consuleretquci ne La 
indiceret lovique LAtiari soUemne sacrum in montc 
ccrct, ne auspicato profectus in Capitolium ad 
nuncupanda, paludatus inde cum Uctoribus in pn 
ciam iret Lixae modo sine insignibus, sine lictoi 
profectum clam, furtim, haud aliter quam si exilii c 
solum vertisset Magis pro maiestate videlicet im 
Arimini quam Romae magistratum initunim et in 
vcrsorio hospitali quam apud penates suos praetes 
sumpturum. Revocandum universi retrahendumque 
sucnint et cogendum omnibus prius pracsentem in < 
hominesque fungi officiis, quam ad exercitum et in 
vinciam iret. In eam legationem — legatos enim i 
placuit — - Q. Terentius et M. Antistius profecti ni 
magis eum moverunt, quam priore consulatu litt 
moverant ab senatu missae. Paucos post dies m; 
tratum iniit, inmolantique ei vitulus iam ictus e man 
sacrificantium sese cum proripuisset, multos circums 
tes cruore respersit. Fuga procul etiam maior a 


igoaBnM, qtiid trepidaretar, et consunatio fuit Id a 
pleritque in omen magni tenons acceptum. Legionibus 
inde duabus a Sempronio prions anni consufei duabus 
a C. Atilio praetore aoceplis in Etnuriam per Apennini 
J tmnites exeidtus doci est ooeptus* 



Caliic phis against HannibaL Serviiius is iHaugmraied 
sui ai R09M4* Further prodigiis occur* 

I. lam ver adpetebat, itaque Hannibal ex hilx 
movit, et nequiquam ante conatus Uanscendere A] 
nintim intolerandis frigoribus et cum ingenti peri 
moratus ac metu. Gallii quos praedae populationun 
conciverat spcs, postquam pro eo, ut ipsi ex al 
agro raperent agcrcntque, suas terras scdem belli 
premique utriusque partis exercituum hibemis vie 
verterunt retro in Hannibalem ab Romanis odia; 
tusqiie saepe principum insidiis, ipsorum inter se fra 
eadem levitate, qua consenserant, consensum indi 
tium, servatus erat, et mutando nunc vestem, i 
tegumenta capitis errore etiam sese ab insidiis muni 
Ceterum hie quoque ei timor causa fuit maturius 
vendi ex hibemis. 

Per idem tempus Cn. Servilius consul Romae id 
Martiis magistratum iniit Ibi cum de re publica 
tulisset, redintegrata in C. Flaminium invidia est: • 
sc consules creasse, unum habere. Quod enim illi 
turn imperium, quod auspicium esse? Magistratus i 
domo, publicb privatisque penatibus, Latinis feriis i 
sacrificio in monte perfecto, votis rite in Capitolio 
cupatis secum ferre; nee privatum auspicia sequi, 
sine auspiciis profectum in extemo ea solo nova a 
Integra concipere posse. Augebant metum prodigii 


plaribos simul locis nuntiata: in Sicilia milttibus aliquot 
spicula, in Sardinia autem in muro circumeunti vigilias 
equiti scipionenii quern manu tenuerat, arsisse, et litora 
crebris ignibus fulsisse, et scuta duo sanguine sudasse, 
5 et milites quosdam ictos fulminibus, et solis orbem mi- 
nul visum, et Pvaeneste ardentes lapides caelo cecidisse, 
et Arpis parmas in caelo visas pugnantemque cum luna 
solemy et Capenae duas interdiu lunos oitas, et aquas 
Caeretes sanguine mixtas fluxisse fontemque ipsum Her- 

lo culis cnientis manasse respersum macuHs, et Antii meten- 
tibus cruentas in corbem spicax cecidisse, et Faleriis 
caelum findi velut magno hiatu visum, quaque patuerit 
ingens lumen efiulsisse; sortes sua sponte adtenuatas, 
unamque excidisse ita scriptam ''Mavors telum suum 

iS concutity" et per idem tempus Romae signum Martis 
Appia via ac simulacra luporum sudasse, et Capuae 
iq)eciem caeli ardentis fuisse lunaeque inter imbrem ca- 
dentis. Inde minoribus etiam dictu prodigiis fides 
habita: capras bnatas quibusdam factas, et gatlinam in 

JO maremi gallum in feminam sese vertisse. His, sicut 
eiant nuntiata, expositis auctoribusque in curiam intro- 
ductiSy consul de rcligione patres consuluit. Decretum, 
ut ea prodigia partim maioribus hostiis, partim lacten- 
tibus procurarentur, et uti supplicatio per triduum ad 

9§ omnia pulvinaria haberetur ; cetera, cum decemviri libros 
iospexissent, ut ita fiercnt, quem ad modum cordi esse 
divis e carminibus praefarentur. Decemvirorum monitu 
deaetum est, lovi primum donum fulmen aureum pondo 
quinquaginta fieret, et lunoni Minervaeque ex argento dona 

j» darentur, et lunoni reginae in Aventino lunonique So- 
apitae Lanuvii maioribus hostiis sacrificaretur, matronaeque 
pecunia conlata, quantum conferre cuique commodum 
emetf donum lunoni reginae in Aventinum ferrent, lee* 
tistemiuroque fieret, et ut libertinae et ipsae, unde 

35 FcRNiiae donum daietuTi pecuniam pro faculutibus suis 
coofienent Haec ubi (acta, decemviri Ardeae in foro 


maioribus hostits sacrifiounint Pdslrenio Decembr 
niense ad aedem Satumi Romae inmolatum est^ 
stemiumque imperatum — cl eum Icctum senatores s 
runt^ct convivium publicum, ac per urbem Satu 
diem ac noctcm clamaUy populusque eum diem f 
habere ac servare ia perpetuum iussus. 

Painfui march cf ikt Carihrnginians thrcm^ ihi mars* 

ik$ Amo into Eirmruu 

II. Dum consul placandts Romae dis habem 
dilectu dat operam, Hannibal profectus ex hibemis, 
jam Flaminium consulem Arretium pervenissc 
erat, cum aliud longius, ceterum commodius ostcr 
tur iter, propiorem viam per paludem petit, qua f 
Amus per eos dies solito magis inundaverat« 
panos et Afros et omne veterani robur exercitus a< 
lis ipsorum inpedimentis, necubi consistere coactis 
cessaria ad usus deessent, prinnos ire iussit, sequi C 
ut id agminis medium esset, novissimos ire ec] 
Mtigonem inde cum expeditis Numidis cogere a| 
maxime Gallos, si taedio laboris longaeque viae, i 
mollis ad talia gens, dilabercntur aut suhsisterent, 
bentem. Primi, qua modo praeirent duces, per 
altas fluvii ac profundas voragines hausti paene 
inniergentesque se tamen signa sequebantur. Galli 
sustineie sc prolapsi neque adsurgcre ex vorag 
poterant nee aut corx)ora animis aut animos spe 
nebant, alii fessa aegre trahentes membra, alii, ubi 
victis taedio animis procubuissent, inter iumenta e 
iacentia passim morientes. Maximeque omnium i 
conficiebant per quadriduum iam et ties noctes toi( 
Cum omnia obtinentibus aquis nihil, ubi in sicco 
stemerent corpora, inveniri posset, cumulatis in 
sarcinis insuper incumbebant, aut iumentorum 
toto prostratorum passim acervi tantum quod i 


aqua quaerentibus ad quietem parvi temporis necessa* 
rium cubile dabant Ipse Hannibal, aeger oculis ex 
vema primum intemperie variante calores frigoraquey 
elephantOi qui unus superfuerati quo altius ab aqua 
5 extaiet, vectus, vtglliis tanien et nocturno umore palu- 
strique caelo gravante caput, et quia medendi nee locus 
nee tempus eiat, altera oculo capitur. 

Jiammibmi lays wasU ikg conniry in &rder to pravcki Flamin- 

ius t& baiiU. 

IIL Multis hominibus iumentisque foede amissis cum 
tandem de paludibus emersisset, ubi primum in sicco 

lo potuity castra locat, certumque per praemissos explora- 
tores habuit exercitum Romanum circa Arreti moenia 
esse. Consults deinde consilia atque animum et situm 
.icgionum itineraque et copias ad commeatus expedien* 
dot et cetera, quae cognosse in rem erat, summa om- 

15 nia com cura inquirendo exequebatur. Regio erat in 
primis Italiae fertilis, Etrusci campi, qui Faesulas inter 
Arretiumque iacent, frumenti ac pecoris et omnium co- 
pia renim opulenti. Consul ferox ab consulatu priore 
et non modo legum aut |)atrum maiestatis, sed ne deo- 

JO mm quidem satis metuens. Hanc insitam ingenio eius 
tenieritatem fortuna prospero civilibus bellicisque rebus 
suocesBU aberat Itaque satis apparebat nee deos nee 
homines consnlentem ferociter omnia ac praepropere 
actumm. Quoque pronior esset in vitia sua, agitare 

J5 earn atqoe inriiare Poeniis parat, et laeva relicto hostc 
Faesulas petens medio Etruriae agro praedatum profec- 
tos quantam maximam vastitatem potest caedibus incen- 
diisqne consult procul ostendit. Flaminius, qui ne quieto 
quidem hoste ipse quietunis erat, tum vera, postquam 

j6 ret socionim ante oculos prope suos ferri agique vidit, 
•mm id dedecus ratus, per mediam iam Itatiam vagaii 
Foenmn atque obsistente nullo ad ipsa Romana moenia 


ire oppugnanda, ceteris omnibus in consilio saluU 
magis quam speciosa suadentibus : conlegam expectandi 
ut coniunctis exercitibusi communi auimo consilicH 
rem gererent, interim equitatu auxiliisque levium art: 
nim ab^effusa praedandi licentia hostem cohibendi 
iratus se ex consilio proripuit, signumque simul itk 
pugnaeque cum proposuisset, ''Immo Arreti ante m 
nia sedeamus" inquit, ''hie enim patria et pen2 
sunt. Hannibal emissus e manibus perpopuletur Itali 
vastandoque et urendo omnia ad Romana moenia | 
veniat, nee ante nos hinc raoverimus, quam, sicut o 
Camillum ab Veiis, C Flaminium ab Anetio pat 
acciverint" Haec simul increpans cum ocius si| 
convelli iuberet et ipse in equum insiluisset, equus repe 
conruit consulemque lapsum super caput effudit '1 
ritis omnibur/ qui circa erant, velut foedo omine ii 
oiendae rei insuper nuhtiatur, signum oroni vi roolie 
oniifero convelli nequire. Conversus ad nuntium ''N 
iiucn^^ quoque** inquit "ab senatu adfers, quae me i 
Qirere vetent? Abi, nuntia, effodiant signum, ^i 
convellendum manus prae metu obtorpuerint.'* Inccd 
inde agnien coepit primoribuV superquam quod diss 
serant ab consilio, territis etiam duplici ^rodigio, mi 
in vulgus laeto ferocia duds, cum spem magis ips 
quam causam spei intueivtur. 

Ambuscadi of thi Punic army in a dtfiU mar Lake Tn 
memust Tfti /Romans fall into iki trap. 


Y. Hannibal <[iioA -agri est inter Cortonam urb 
Trasumennumque'^lacum bmni clade' belli pervastat, c 
magis iram hosti ad vindicandas sociorum inurias aci 
Et iam ^pervenerant ad loca nata insidiis, ubi maxi 
montes' Cortonenses Trasumennus subit Via tant 
interest perangusta, velut ad id ipsum de ifidustria 
licto spatio ; deinde paulo latior patescit campus ; ii 
colles insuigunt. Ibi castra in aperto locat, ubi ij 

j^ /tm LIVI AB ORBfi CONDItA ' / 

cam Affis modo Hispanisque consideret; Baliares ce* 
teiamque levetn annatucani post montis circumdudt ; 
equites ad ipsas (auces ^saltusi tuuiulis/apte tcgendbUsi 
local, ut, ubi intrassent Romani/ oSiectio equitatu dausa 
c omnia lacu ac montibus essent ^ 

Flaminius cum pridic , folis occasu ad lacum perve- 
nissct,' inexplo^to postero die vixdum satis certa luce 
angustiis superatiSi postquam in pat^ntiorem campum 
pandi agmen coepit, id tantum hostium, quod ex ad- 

lo veiso eiat, conspexit; ab tergo ac super caput baud di- 
spectae insidiae. Fobnus ubi, id quod petierat, clausum 
lacu ac montibus et circurofusum suis copiis habuit 
hostem, signum omnibus dat simul invadendl Qui ubi 
qua cuique proximum fuit decucurrerunt, eo magis Ro- 

85 manis subita atque inprovisa res fuit, quod orta ex 

, lactt- fcebula campo quam montibus densior sederat, 
agminaque hostium ex pluribus coUibus ipsa inter s«* 
sats cofispecta eoque magis pariter decucurrcrant ]^ 
manus damore prius undique orto quam satis c^^^^ 

so ac drcumventum esse sensit, el ante in frontem . late 
que pugnari coeptum est, quam satis instrueretur acies 
aut eiqiediri arma stringique gladii possent 

A f^ Privemis rtgmlar f$rmatian. The Roman resistanu is 

fiira kui disorderly. 


y. Consul perculsts omnibus ipse satis, ut in re tre- 
pida, inpavidus turbatos ordines, vertente se quoque ad 

9$ dinonos clamores, instniit, ut tempus locusque patitur 
ct, quacumque adire audirique potest, adhortatur ac 
slaie ac pugnare iubet: nee enim inde votis aut inplo* 
latione rieum, sed vi ac virtute evadendum esse. Per 
medias ades feno viam fieri et, quo timoris minus sit, 

30 eo minus ferme periculi esse. Cetenim prae strepitu 
ac tnmultu nee consilium nee imperium accipi poterat, 
tantnmque abemt, ut sua signa atque orriines et locum 
aoaoerent, ut vix ad arma capienda aptandaque pugnae 


conpeteret animusy opprimcrenturque quidam onerati r 
gis lis quam tecti. Et crat in tanta caligine ma 
usus auriuiu quam oculonim. Ad gemilus vulneraton 
ictiisque cor|H>rum aut armorum et mixtos terrentii 
pavcntiumc[ue clamores circumferebant ora oculosqi 
Alii fugienlcs pugnantium globo inlati haerebant, al 
rcdeuntcs in pugnam avertelxit fugientium agmen. I 
inde, ubi in omnis partis neijuiquam impetus capti, 
ab/ lateribus robntes ac lacus, a fironle et ab tei 
hostium acies daudebat, apparuitque nullaro nisi 
dextera ferroque salutis speni esse, turn sibi quisq 
dux adhort;.torque I'actus ad rem gerendam, et nova 
integro exona pugna est, non ilia ordinata per prin 
pes hasutosciue ac triarios, nee ut pro signis antes 
naniy post signa alia pugnaret acies, nee ut in s 
legione miles aut cohorte aut manipuk) esset; fors cc 
globabat, et animus suus cuique ante aut post pugnar 
ordinem dabat; tantusc|ue fuit ardor animorum, ad 
intentus pugnae animus, ut eum motum terrae, c 
multarum urbium Italtae magnas partes prostravit avert 
que cursu rapidos amnis, mare fluminibus invexit, mo 
tes lapsu ingenti proruit, nemo pugnantium senserit 

Tht consul fights bmvely^ but is kilied^ and his army almt 


VI. Tris fcrme horas pugnatum est, et ubique atr 
citer; circa consulem tamen acrior infestiorque pugi 
est. Eum et robora vironim sequebantur et ipse, qu 
cumque in parte premi ac laborare* scnscrat suos, inp 
gre ferebat opem; insignemque armis et hostes sumir 
vi petebant et tuebantur cives, donee Insuber eques- 
Ducario nomen erat — facie quoque noscitans consulei 
"En" inqnit "hie est" popularibus suis, "qui Icgiom 
nostras cecidit agrosque et urbein est depopulatusi lai 
ego banc victimam manibus peremptorum feede civiui 
dabo;" siibditisque calcaribus equo per confertissimai 


cr ' / < •, 

hosdum lurbam impetam facit, obtruncatoque prius ar- 
migerOy qui se infesto venienti obviam^ obiecerah cQnsu-'^ 
lein lancea tiansfixit ; spoliare ^4i()ientem •, triarii bble^s. 
• ' * sciitb arcuere. Magnae partis fuga inde primum coe^ . ' 
/y^-'^pit/ et iam nee lacus nee roontes pavori, obstabant; 
r per omnia arta praeruptaqne velut caecf evaduut^r,arma- « 

I que et viri super alios alii prae<±2itantui7^ :Pars ma^ip^ .' 

ubi locus fugae^ deest, Mr prima vada pauidis in aquifni 
prome ss i, quoild'^cai^tibus umcrisve extare possunt, sese 

f o inmergunt Fuere qiios ingonsukiis ^ mvor^ /niando etiam 
capessere fugam inpuleriv'qtiAe ubi . iitm^Sd^4c sine spe ' 
erat, aut deficientibus animis hauriebantur gurgitibus aut 
neqniquam^essi vada retro aegerrime repetebant atque 
ibi ab ingressis aquam hoslium equitibus passim truci- 

S5 dabantur. Sex milia ferme primi agminis per adversos 
bosles eruptione inpigre (acta, ignari omnium, quae post 
se agerentur, ex sal^u ' evasere, et, cum in tumulo quo- 
dam constitissent, ctamorem modo ac ^sonum armorum 
audienteSy quae fimuna pugnac^esset. neque scire nee 

so perspioere^prae^is^gine /pjteran^ JircUnat^ denique re 
cum/incalescente' 'liole'clispulsa nAula aperuisset diem, 
turn liquida iam luce montes campique pefditas res 
straumque ostendere foede'' Ttotiianam aciem. Itaque, 

^^'wt'vti cotbpectos proeul inmitteretur eques, sublatis rap- 

a5 tim s^gnis quam citatissimo poterant agmine . sese abri- 
puenint. Postero die, cum super qetera extrema fam<*s 
etiam instareti fidem dante^^taharbalcf^qui cum omni- 
bus equestribus copiis nocte consecutus^'^eiatr^si arma 
tradidissent, abire cum siiigulis 'vesdmentis passurum., sese 

JO dedidenint Quae FUnica religione servata fides ' ab 
Hannibak est, atque in vincula omnes conieetL 


JisUmi tf ikg RoHUM Uss Ric^piion of ike mws ni Rome, 

VII. Maec est nobtlis ad Trasumennum pugna atque 
inter paucas memorata populi Romani clades.* Quinde- 

A LIBER XXII. CAP. VII. /^-^^>^ 

cim miliaX Romanoruin in acie caesa ; decern n 
sparsa fugaNper oinnem Etruriani divcrsis itineribus 
bcm petiere;\duo milia quingenti hostium in acie, ra 
postea ex vuliueribus periere. Multiplex caedet^utr 
que 'facta traditOr ab al^;/'e^o^'^raeieh[uaf^ 
auctum ex vano vemnT' quo nimis inclinant feitne s 
bentium animi, F^biuni, aequalcm temppribus huiu 
belli, potissimum auctorem liabui. '"Hannibal capti 
rum, qui Latini nominis essent^ sine pretio dimis 
^onuinii ^ vincula dati^ segregata ex hostium coa< 
Vatofum cuthulis corpora suorum cum sepeliri iassis 
^'Flamini. quoque corpus funeris causa magna cum c 

Jn^^isitum nonjoxcnit*! /•»-*' 

( Romae ad primumSiuntium cladis eius cum ing< 
! terrore ac tumultu concunus in \ forum populi est I 
tus. ^ ; Matronae vagae per vias, qiue repens clades 
latiT quaeve fortuna exercituT^essety^6i^6s' percunctan* 
Et cum frequeiXis contionis . modo turba in comiti 
et curianr versa magistratus vocaret, tandem haud mi 
ante solis occasum M. Pomponius praetor '*Pugn 
inquit '* magna victi sumus ;" et auamquapv, nihil cert 
ex eo auditum est' tamen aJius^fabValiO iffpleri ^oii 
bus domos refenint consulem cum* magna parte co] 

< y 

rum caesum, superessd paucos aut fuga passim/ 
Etruriam sparsos aut captos ab hoste. ' Quot ^^\^ 
ercitus victi fuerant, tot in curaft distracti aniroi eor 
ernnt, quorum propinqui. sub C» Flaminio consule i 
ruerant, ignor&ntium, quae cuiusqufi^suprum fortuna ess 
ncc quisquam satis certum habet, quid 'aiit^speret 
timeat. Postero ac deinceps aliquot diebus ad poi 
maior prope. mt^lienim quam virorum multitudo stf 
aut , suorum aliquem aut nuhtios • de iis opperiei 
circumfundebanturque obviis sciscitantes - neque av< 
utique* ab notis, priusquam^Ordihe^bmhja /ipquisiss< 
poterant. Inde varios vultns^digreaientium ^ nun 
eemeres, ut cuique laeta^ut tristja numj^bantu^gi;^ 
lantisque aiit consolantiiryf^deuritibus^ddmos ctrcumfus 

r* « 


^  • 

Fen^nanpn nracf^ue et gaiidia insignia erant et luctus; 
^^^^^^^*^^uii^ in ip$4 porta sospiti Alio repente oblatam in 
nplexiT^eiu!!" expirasse ferunt, aiterain, cui mors filii 
(also nuniiaU/ crat/lfiacstam sedentem domi ad primum 
5 conspectun/i fedeunti^^gaudio nimio exanimatam. Sena* 
turn praetorcs per dies aliquot ab orto usKiue ad occi- 
dcntem solem in curia relincnt consultantes, c|uonam|duce 
aut quibtts copiis resist! victoribus Poenis posset. / 

FmiT ik^msand Roman cavalry captured in Umbria* Fabiut 

Maximus appointed dictator. 

VIII. Priusquam satis certa consilia essent, repens 

lo'alia nunliatur clades, quattuor niilia equitum cum C. 
Centenio propraetore missa ad conlegani ab Servilio 
consule in Umbria, quo |K>st pugnam ad IVasumennum 
auditam averterant iter, ab Hannibale circuinventa. Eius 
rei (ama varie homines adfecit: pars occupatis maiore 

15 aegritudine animis levem ex conparatione priorum du- 
cere recentem equitum iacturam; pars non id, quod 
acciderat, iter se aestimare, sed, ut in adfecto corpore 
quamvis levis causa magis (|uam in valido gravior sentire- 
tur, iti turn aegrae et adfectae civitati quodcumque ad- 

JO vcrri incideret, non rerum magnitudine, sed viribus 
extenuatis, quae nihil, quod adgravaret, pati posscnt, 
aestimandum esse. Itaque ad remcdium iam diu ne- 
que desideratum nee adhibitum, dictatorem dicendum, 
civitas confugit Et quia et consul aberat, a quo uno 

S5 did posse videbatur, nee per occujiatam armis Punicis 
Italiam (acile erat aut nuntium aut litteras mitti, quod 
nnmquam ante earn diem factum erat, dictatorem popu- 
his creavit Q. Fabuim Maximum et magistrum equitum 
M. Minuciuro Rufum; hisque negotium ab senatu da- 

j» tare, ot muros turresque urbis firmarent et praesidia 
disponerent, quibus locis videretur, pontesque rescinde- 
fCDt fluminum: pro urbe ac penatibus dimicandum esse, 
fltundo Italiam lueri nequissent 


mmrtkgs through Umbrim and tkttue S0utk% 
imi0 Apulia* Fakius t^nsuiis ike staaie* 

IX. Hannibal recto itinere per Umbriam usque 
Spoletium venit. Indc cum perpopulato agro urbem 
pugnare adortus esset, cum magna caedc suorum re 
sus, coniectans ex unius coloniae liaud nimis pros] 
temptatae viribus, quanta moles Romanae urbis e 
in agrum Picenum avertit iter non copia solum oi 
generis frugum abundantem, sed refertum praeda, q 
efluse avidi atque egentes rapiebant. Ibi per dies 
quot' stativa habita, refectusque miles hibemis itincr 
ac palustri via proelioque magis ad eventum seen 
quam levi aut facill adfectus. Ubi satis quietis da 
praeda ac populatiohibus magis quam otio aut requie 
dentibus, profectus Praetutianum Hadrianumque agi 
Marsos inde Marrucinosque et Paelignos devastat ci 
que Arpos et Ijuceriam proximam Apuliae regior 
Cn. Ser\*iliu8 consul levibus proeliis cum Gallis fi 
et uno oppido ignobili expugnato, postquam de cc 
gae exercitusque caede audivit, iam moenibus pal 
metuens, ne abesset in discrimine extremo, ad url 
iter intendit. 

Q. Fabius Maximus dictator iterumi quo die m2 
tratum iniit, vocato senatu, ab dis orsus, cum edocui 
patres plus neglegentia caerimoniarum auspiciorutr 
quam temeritatc atque inscitia pcccatum a C. Flam 
consule esse, quaeque piacula irae dcum essent i| 
deos consulendos esse, pervicit, ut, quo<l non fe 
decernitur, nisi cum taetra prodigia nuntiata sunt, 
cemviri libros Sibyllinos adire iubcrentur. Qui insp< 
fatalibus libris rettulerunt patnbus, quod eius belli a 
votum Marti foret, id non rite factum de integro at 
amplius faciundum esse, et lovi ludos magnos et ac 
Veneri- Erucinae ac Menti vovendas esse, et suppl 
tionem lectistemiumque habendum, et ver sacrum voi 


dum, si beUatum prospere esset, resque publica in 
eodeniy quo ante bellum fuisset, statu permansisset Sena- 
tus, quoniam Fabium belli cura occupatura esset, M. 
Aemilium praetorem ex conlegii pontificum sententia om- 
5 nia ea ut mature fiant, curare iubet. 

71U Pi^U vow a ver sacrum. Tke SWyUitu books art in* 


X. His senatus consultis perfectis, L. Cornelius Len- 
tnlus pontifex maxirous, consulente conlegium praetore, 
omnium primum |x>pulum consulendum de verc sacro 
censet: iniussu populi voveri non posse. Rogatu^ in 

lo haec verba populus: "Vclitis iubcatisne haec sic fieri? 
Si res publica populi Romani Quiritium ad quinquenni- 
um pioxiroum, sicut velim earn esse salvam, servata erit 
hisce ducllisi quod duellum populo Romano cum Car- 
thaginiensi est, qtueque duclla cum Gallis sunt, qui 

85 CIS Alpes sunt| turn donum duit populus Romanus 
Quiritium, quod ver adtulerit ex suillo, ovillo, caprino, 
bovitto grege, quaeque profana erunt, lovi fieri ex qua 
die senatus populusque iusserit. Qui faciet, quando 
volet quaque lege volet, facito; quo modo faxit, probe 

ao fiictum csta Si id moritur, quod fieri oportebit, profa- 
num esto, neque scelus esto. Si quis rumpet occidetve 
insciensy ne fraus esto. Si quis depsit, ne populo see* 
his cstOy neve cui cleptum erit. Si atro die faxit 
insciens, probe factum esto. Si nocte sive luce, si 

as aervus sive liber faxit, probe factum esto. Si antidea, 
ac senatus populusque iusserit fieri, faxitur, eo populus 
aolutus liber esto." Eiusdem rei causa ludi magni voti 
aeris trecentis triginta tribus milibus trecentis triginta 
tribos triente, praeterea bubus lovi trecentis, multis aliis 

3» <iivii babos albis atque ceteris hostiis. Votis rite nuncu- 
patis supplicatio edicta; supplicatumque iere cum con- 
iugibofl ac liberis non urbana multitudo tantum, sed 
ajreithim etiam, quos in aliqua sua fortuna publica 


quoque cootingebat cura. Turn lectistemium pei 
duuro habitum decemviris sacrorum curantibus. 
pulvinaria in conspectu fuerunt: lovi ac lunoni v 
aherutn Neptuno ac Minervae, tertium Marti ac V< 
quartum ApoUini ac Dianae, quintum Vulcano ac 
Ue, sextum Mercurio et Cereri. Turn aedes vi 
Veneri Erucinae aedem Q. Fabius Maximus die 
vovity quia iu ex fatalibus libris editum erat, t 
vovcreti cuius maximum imperium in civitate c 
Menti aedcm T« Oucilius praetor vovit 

Afilitary preparaiioHs. Serviiius joins Fabins, Capth 
a Roman Jltti on tht way to Spain, 

XL Ita rebus divinis peractis, turn de bello d 
re publica dictator rettulit, quibus quotve legioi 
victori hosti obviam eundum esse patres censerent 
cretum, ut ab Cn. Servilio consule exercitum accip 
scriberet praeterea ex civibus sociisquc quantum < 
turn ac peditum videretur; cetera omnia ageret fac 
que, ut e re publica duceret. Fabius duas legione 
adiecturum ad Servilianum exercitum dixit lis 
magistrum equitum scriptis Tibur diem ad convci 
dum edixit, edictoque proposito, ut quibus oppida 
tellaque inmunita essent, uti commigrarent. in loca 
ta, ex agris quoque demigrarent omnes regionis < 
qua iturus Hannibal esset, tectis prius incensis ac 
gibus (^orruptis, ne cuius rei copia esset; ipse via 
minia profectus obviam consuli exercituque cum 
Tilierim circa Ocriculum prospexisset agmen consul 
que cum equitibus ad se progredientem, viatorem n 
qui consuli nuntiaret, ut sine lictoribus ad dictato 
veniret. Qui cum dicto paruisset, congressusque eoi 
ingentem speciem dictaturae apud cives sodosque 
tustate iam prope oblitos eius imperii fecisset, litterae 
urbe adlatae sunt, naves onerarias commeatum ab 


in Hispaniam ad exercitum poitantes a classe Punica 
circa portum Cosanuni captas esse. Itaque extempio 
ooosttl Ostiam proficisci iussus navibusque, quae ad 
urbem Romanam aut Ostiae essent, conpletis milite ac 
5 navalibus sociis, persequi hostium dassem ac Htora Ita- 
liae tutari. Magna vis hominum conscripta Romac 
eiat; libertini etiam, quibus liberi essent et aetas mill- 
tarisv in verba iuraverant. Ex hoc urbano exercitu qui 
ininofes quinque et Iriginta annis erant in navis inpositi, 
lo alii, ut urbi praesiderent, relictL 

FMms waickes Hannibal ai a soft distance and steadily re^ 

fusts battU* 

XII. Dictatofy exercitu consults accepto a Fulvio 
Flacco legatOy per agnim Sabinum Tibur, quo diem 

. ad conveniendum edixerat novis militibus, venit. Indc 
I¥aeneste ac transversis limitibus in viam Latinam est 

15 cgressusy unde itineribus sumina cum cura exploratis ad 
hostem ducit, nullo loco, nisi quantum necessitas co- 
geiety fortunae se commissurus. Quo primum die baud 
piocul Arpis in conspectu hostium posuit castra, nulla 
mora facta, quin Poenus educeret in aciem copiamque 

JO pugnandi faceret Sed uIh quieta omnia apud hostes 
nee castra ullo tumultu mota videt, increpans quidem, 
Tictos tandem illos Martios animos Romanis debellatum- 
que et concessum propalam de virtute ac gloria esse, 
in castia rediit, cetenmi tacita cura animum incessit, 

J5 quod cum duce haudquaquam Flamini Senipronique 
stmih Tutura sibi res esset, ac tum demum edocti ma- 
ils Roman! parem Hannibali ducem quaesissent. Et 
pradentiam quidem novi dictatoris extempio timuit; 
constantiam hauddum expertus agitare ac temptare ani- 

j» rourn movendo ciebro castra populandoque in oculis 
eins agios socionim coeptt; et modo citato agmine ex 
ooospecto abibat, modo repente in aliquo flexu viae, 
u excipere degressum in aequom posset, occultus sub* 


sistebat Fabitis per loca alta agmen ducebat m 
ab hoste intervallo, ut neque omitterct eum ncque 
grederetur. Castm» nisi quantum usus neccssarii 
gcrent, tenebatur miles; pabulum et ligna nee 
petebant nee passim; cquiluro levisque armaturae i 
conposita instructaque in subitos tumultus et suo 
tula omnia et infcsta efliisis hostium populatoribus 
bcbat; nct^ue univcrso periculo summa renim cor 
tebatur, et parva momenta levium certaminum ex 
coeptorum finitimo receptu adsuefaciebant territum 
stinis cladibus militem minus iam tandem aut vi 
aut fortunae paenitere suae. Sed non Hannibalem 
gis infestum tam sanis consiliis habebat quam magi: 
equitum, qui nihil aliud^ quam quod in|)ar erat i 
rio, morae ad rem publicam praccipitandam hab 
ferox rapidusque consiliis ac lingua inmodicus [ 
inter paucos, dein propalam in vulgus pro cunct 
segnem, pro cauto timidum, adfingcns vicina virtu 
vitia, conpellabati premendoque superioremi quae 
sima ars nimis pros|Kris multorum succcssibus c 
sese extoUebat 

/fanHtbai mtuxkes ihrougk Samninm into Campania^ hi 

io get possissioH of Cnpun* 

XIII. Hannibal ex Hirpinis in Samnium transit, 
neventanum de)x>pu1atur agrum, Telesiam urbcm < 
inritat etiam de industria ducem Romanum, si forte 
censum tot indignitatibus ac cladibus sociorum detn 
ad aecum certamen possit. Inter multitudinem s< 
rum Italici generis, qui ad Trasumennum capti ab 1 
nibale dimissique fuerant, tres Campani equites e 
multis iam tum inlecti donis promissisque Hannibali 
conciliandos popularium animos. Hi nuntiantes, s 
Campaniam exercitum admovisset, Capuae potiendae 
piam fore, cum res maior quam auctores esset, dul 
Hannibalem altemisque fidentem ac diffidentem tamei 


Campainos ex Samnio peteret, movenint Monitos, ut 
etiam atque etiam promissa rebus adfirmarenty iussosque 
cum plurilnis et aliquibus principum redire ad se dimisit. 
Ipse imperat duct, ut se in agnim Casinatem ducat, 
5 edoctus a peritts regionunv s^ ^^^^^ saltum occupassct, 
exitum Romano ad opem ferendam sociis interclusurum. 
Sed Punicum abhorrens ab Latinorum nominum pro- 
nuntiatione os, Casilinum pro Casino dux ut acciperet, 
fecit, aversusque ab suo itinere per Cnllifanum Allifanum- 

10 que et Caknum agrum in Campum Stellatem descendit. 
Ubt cum nKMittbus fluminibusque clausam regionem cir- 
cumspexissety vocatum ducem percunctatur, ubi terrarum 
esset Cum is Casilini eo die mansurum eum dixisset, 
tum demum cognitus est error, et Casinum longe inde 

15 alia regtone esse, virgisque caeso duce et ad reliquo* 

. mm terrorem in cnicem subbto, castris communitis, 

Maharbalem cum equitibus in agrum Falemum prae* 

datum dimisit. Usque ad aquas Sinuessanas populatto 

ca peivenit. Ingentem cladcm, fugam tamen tcrro- 

ao remque latius Numidae fecerunt ; nee tamen is terror, 
cum omnia bello flagrarent, fide socios dimovit, videlicet 
quia iusto et moderato regebantur imperio nee abnue- 
bant, quod unum vinculum fidei est, melioribus parere. 

DiuaiisfacticH in ikg Roman army^ tncouragtd by Afinuciusy 

tki Afnsier 0/ Horse. 

XIV; Ut vero^ postquam ad Vultumum flumcn cas- 
25 tra sunt posita, exurcbatur amoenissimus Italiae ager 
villaeque passim incendiis fumabanty per iuga Afassici 
montis Fabio ducente, tum prope de integro scditio 
accensa; quieverant enim per paucos dies, quia, cum 
celerius solito ductum agmen esset, festinari ad prohi- 
JO bendam populationibus Campaniam credtderant. Ut vero 
in extrema iuga Massici montis ventum, et hbstes sub 
ocolis ciant Falemi agri colonorumque Sinuessae tecta 
iirente% nee ulla erat mentio pugnae, '^Spectatum 


hue '• inquit Minucius *• ut ad rem fruendam oculis, so 
mm caedes ct incendia, veniinus? Nee, si nulliiis 
terius nos» ne etviuro quidem horuni pudct, quos S 
essain colonos patres nostri miscrunt, ut ab Sam 
hoste tuu haec ora esset, quam nune non vie 
Samnb urit, sed Poenus advena, ab extremis orbis 
rarum terminis nostra euncUtione et socordia iam 
progressus? TaiUum pro degeneramus a jiatribus 
stris, ut praeter quam nupcr oram illi Punicas v£ 
classes dedeeus esse imperii sui duxerint, earn i 
plenam hostium Numidarumque ac Maurorum iam 
tam videamus? Qui modo Saguntum oppugnari 
dignando non homines tantum sed foedera et 
cicbamus, scandentem moenia Romanae coloniae Hs 
balem lenti specUmus. Fumus ex incendiis vilh 
agrorumque in oculos atque ora venit, strepunt i 
clamoribus plorantium socionim, saepius nos quam 
rum invocantium opem; nos hie pecorum modo 
aestivos saltus deviasque callis exercitum ducimus 
diti nubibus silvisque. Si hoc modo peragrando < 
mina saltusque M. Fttrius reciperc a Gallis ui 
voluisset, quo hie novus Camillus, nobis dictator ui 
in rebus adfectis quaesitus, Italiam ab Hannibale t 
perare parat, Gallorum Roma esset, quam vereor n< 
cunctantibus nobis Hannibali ac Poenis totiens scr 
rint maiores nostri. Sed vir ac vere Romanus, que 
dictatorem eum ex auctoritate. patrum iussuque p 
dictum Veios allntum est, cum esset satis altum 
culum, ubi sedens prospectaret hostem, descend! 
aecum atque illo ipso die media in urbe, qua 
Busta Gallica sunt, et postero die citra Gabios c( 
Gallorum legiones. Quid? Post multos annos cur 
Furculas Caudinas ab Samntte hoste sub iugum 
sumus, utrum undem L. Papirius Cursor iuga & 
perlustiando an Luceriam premendo obsidendoqu^ 
lacessendo victorem hostem depulsum ab Romanis 


vicibus iugum superbo Samniti inposuit? Modo C. 
Lutatio quae alia res quam celeritas victoriam dcdit, 
quod postero die, quam hostem vidit, classem gravem 
oommeatibusy inpeditam suomct ipsam instruroento at- 
5 que adparatu, oppressit? Stultitia est sedendo aut votis 
debellari credere posse; arma capias oporlet et de- 
scendas in aecum et vir cum viro congrediaris; audendo 
atque agendo res Romana crevit, non his segnibus 
consiiiiSy quae timidi cauta vocant" Haec velut con- 
le tionanti Minucio circumfundebatur tribunorum equitum- 
que Romanorum multitudo, et ad aures quoque militum 
dicta ferocia evolvebantur, ac, si militaris sufTragii res 
cssety baud dubie ferebant Minucium Fabio ducem prae- 

FMut iriit i0 pr€V€%l HannibaVs rtium ic Apuiia. 

15 XV. Fabius pariter in suos baud minus quam in 
hostis intentus, prius ab illis invictum animum praestat. 
Quaroquam probe scit non in castris modo suis, sed 
iam etiam Roroae infamem suam cunctationem esse, 
dbstinalus tamen tenore eodem consiliorum aestatis re- 

ao liquom extiaxit, ut Hannibal destitutus ab spe summa 
ope petit! certaminis iam hil)emis locum circumspecta- 
rety quia ea regio praesentts erat copiae, non perpetuae, 
arbiista vineaeque et consiti omnia magis amocnis quam 
necenariis fnictibus. Haec per exploratores relata Fabio. 

S5 Cum satis sciret per easdem angtistias, quibus intra- 
verat Falemum agrum, reditunim, Calliculam montem et 
Casilinum occupat modicis praesidiis, quae urbs Vul- 
tumo Aumine dirempta Falemum a Campano agro divi- 
dtC; ipse iugis iisdem exercitum reducit misso exploratum 

1» cum quadringentis equitibtis sociorum L. Hostilio Man- 
cino. Qui» ex turba iuvenum audientinm saepe ferociter 
cofitionantem magistrum equitum, progressus primo explo- 
ntoris. modoi ut ex tuto specularetur hostem, ubi vagos 
pMBun per vicos Numidas proapexit, ac per occasionem 


etiam paucos occidit, extemplo occupatus certamine 
animus, excidenintque praecepta dicutoris, qui, quant 
Uito posset, progrcssum prius reci|)ere scsc iusse 
quam in conspectum hostium veniret. Numidae 
atque alii occursantes refugientesque ad castra pr 
ipsa euin cum fatigatione equorum atque hominum ] 
traxere. Inde Carthalo, penes quem summa equcs 
imperii erat, concitatis equis invectus, cum prius, qi 
ad coniectum teli veniret, avertisset hostis, quinque 
me milia continend cursu secutus est fugientis. M 
cinusi postquam nee hostem desistcre sequi nee s\ 
vidit eflugiendi esse, cohortatus suos in proeliuro n 
omni parte virium inpar. Itaque ipse et delecti e 
turn circumvent! occiduntur; ceteri efluso cursu C 
primum, inde prope inviis callibus ad dictatorem j 

Eo forte die Minucius se coniunxerat Fabio, mi 
ad firmandum praesidio saltuin, qui super Tarracii 
in artas coactus fauces inminet mari, ne ab Sinu 
Poenus Appiae limite pervenire in agrum Komai 
posset. Coniunctis exercitibus dictator ac magister c 
tum castra in viam deferunt, qua Hannibal ducti 
erat Duo inde milia hostes aberant 

Hanmi^Ps stratagem to cUar the m^ttntain passu* 

XVL Postero die Poeni quod viae inter bina a 
erat agmine conplevere. Cum Romani sub ipso co; 
tisscnt vallo, baud dubie aequiore loco, successit ta 
Poenus aim expeditis equidbusque ad lacesscndum 
stem. Carptim Poeni et procursando rccipicnd( 
sese pugnavere ; restitit suo loco Romana acics ; 1 
pugna et ex dictatoris magis quam Hannibalis 
voluntate. Ducenti ab Romanis, octingenti hostium 
cidere. Inclusus inde videri Hannibal via ad Casili 
obsessa, cum Capua et Samnium et tantum ab 
go divitum sociorum Romanis commeatus tubvefa 


Poenufl inter Formiana saxa ac Litemi arenas .stag- 

,/Aaque et per horridas silvas hibematurus esset. j Nee 

Hannibalem fefeliit suis se ariibus peli. Itaque cum 

per Casflinum evadere non posset, petendique montcs 

5 et iugum Calliculae superandum esset, necubi Romanus^ 

indusum vallibus agmen adgrederetur, ludibriuin oculo- 

rum specie terribile ad frustrandum hostem coromentus, 

principio noctis furtim succedere ad montes statuit 

Fallads consilii talis apparatus fuit: faces undique ex 

to agris conlectae fascesque virgarum atque aridi sarmenti 

praeligantur comibus bouin, quos domitos indomitos- 

que maltos inter ceteram agrestem praedam agebat 

Ad duo milia ferme bourn eflecta, Hasdrubalique nego- 

tiom datum, ut nocte id armentum accensis comibus 

IS ad montis ageret, maxime, si posset, . super saltus ab 

hoste insessos. ) 

Ojrm wiih i^rchis iUd io their homs frightin away ihg 

Jipmatu guarding the defiUs, 

XVIL Priniis tenebris silentio mota castra; boves 
aliquanto ante signa acti. Ubi ad radices montium vi- 
aaque angustas ventum est, signum extemplo datur, ut 

ao accensis comibus armenta in adversos concitentur mon- 
tis, et metus ipse relucentis flammae a capite calor- 
que iaro ad rivom ad imaque comua veniens velut 
stimulatos furore agebat boves. Quo repente discursu 
hand secus qnam silvis montibusque accensis omnia 

95 orca viigulta ardere, capititmque irrita quassatio ex- 
citans flammam hominum passim discurrentium speciem 
pnebebat Qiii ad transittim saltus insidendum locati 
ciant, ubi in suromis montibus ac super se quosdam 
4^ conspexere, circumventos se esse rati praesidio 

JO cxcessere; qua minime densae micabant flammae, velut 
totisBimum iter petentes summa montium iuga, tamen 
Id quoidam boves palatos a suis gregibus inciderunt 
Et primo cum procul ceroerent« veluti flammas spi- 


rantium miraculo adtoniti constiterunt ; deinde ut hu 
tuona apparuit Traus, turn vero insidias rau esse, cui 
tnaiore tutnuUu concitant le in fugatu. Levi quoqu 
armaturae hosiium incurrerc; ceterum nox aequato t 
more neutros pugnani incipientis ad bicem tenuit. In 
terea toto agmine Hannibal transducto per saltuni c 
quibuMlam in i|iso aaltu bostium oppressis in agio Allj 
fdno posuit castia. 

Fabius foiicws tkt CarikagimaHi inip ApuHa^ and Uav€ 
AtiHMcius UMpprarify in command* 

XVIII. Hunc tumultum sensit Fabius; ceterum e 
insidias esse ratus et ab nocturno uti(|ue abhorreii! 
ccrtamine suos muntmentis tenuit. Luce prima sul 
iugo montis proelium fuit, quo interclusam ab suis le 
vem arroaturam facile — etenim numero aliquantum prae 
stabant — Komani superassent, nisi Hispanorum cohon 
ad id ipsum reraissa ab liannibalc su|)ervenisset. Ea ad> 
suetior inonttbus et ad concuniandum inter saxa nipcs* 
que aptior ac levior cum velocitatc corporum tum 
armorum habitu campestrem hosteni, gravem armis sta- 
tariumque, pugnac generc facile elusit Ita haudquaquam 
pari certaniine digressi. Hispani fere omnes incohimes, 
Romani aliquot suis amissis in castra contendenmt. 

Fabius quoque movit castra, transgressusque saltum 
super Allifns loco alto ac munito ronsedit. Turn per 
Samnium Roniam se petere simulans Hannibal usque 
in Paelignos populabundus rediit; Fabius medius inter 
hostium agmen urbemque Romam iugis duccKit nee 
al)sistens nee congrediens. Ex Paelignis Pocnus flexit 
iter retroque Apuliam repetens Gcreonium pervcnit, ur* 
bem metu, quia conlapsa minis pars moenium erat, 
ab suis desertam. Dictator in Larinate agro castra com- 
muniit. Inde sacrorum causa Romam revocatus, non 
imperio 'modo, sed consilio etiam ac prope precibtis 
agens cum magistro equitum^ ut plus consilio quam 


fertunae confidati et se potius ducem quam Sempronium 
Fbuniniumque imitetur; ne nihil actum censeret ex- 
Iracu piope aestatc per ludificationem hostis; medicos 
quoque plus interdum quiete quam movendo atque 
5 agendo proficere ; baud parvam rem esse ab toliens 
victore hoste vinci desisse, ac respirasse ab continuis 
cladibus — baec nequiquam praemonito magistro equi- 
turn Romam est profectus. 

in Sptum Or. Sciph surprises Hasdrnbats fleet at the mouth 

ef the Ebro, 

XIX. Principio aestatis^ qua haec gerebantur, in 

ao Hispania quoque terra marique cocptum bellum est. 
Hasdrubal ad eum navium numerum, quern a fratre 
instructum paratumque acceperat, decem adiectis qua- 
draginta navium classem Himilconi tradit, atque ita 
Carthagine profectus naves prope terram, excrcitum 

15 in litore ducebat, paratus confligere, quacumque parte 
coptarum hostis occurrisset. Cn. Scipio postquam mo- 
visse ex hibemis hostem audivit, primo idem consilii 
fiiit; deinde minus terra propter ingcntem famam no- 
vomm auxiliorum concurrere ausus, delecto milite ad 

so naves inposito quinque et triginta navium classc ire 
obviam hosti pergit. Altero ab Tarracone die ad sta- 
tionem decem miiia passuum distantem ab ostio Hilien 
amnis pervenit Inde duae Massilicnsium speculatoriae 
praemissae rettulere classem Punicam stare in ostio flu- 

•5 minis castraque in ripa posita. Itaque ut inprovidos 
incautosque universo simul efluso terrore opprimeret, 
sublatis ancoris ad hostem vadit Multas et locis altis 
positas turris Hispania habet, quibus et specuHs et pro- 
pugnaculis adversus latrones utuntur. Inde primo con- 

jp spectn hostium navibus datum signum Hasdrubali est, 
tumultusque prius in terra et castris quam ad mare et 
ad naves est ortus, nondum aut pulsu remorum stre- 
pitaque alio nautico exaudito aut aperientibus classem 


promunturiisy cum repente eques alius super alium ^ 
liasdrubale missus vagos in litore quietosque in tentor 
suiSf nihil minus quaro hostem aul proelium co d 
expectantis, conscendcre naves propere atque arma c 
))ere iubet: cUssem Romanam iam haud procul por 
esse. Haec equites dimissi passim imperabant; nM 
Hasdrubal ipse cum omni exercitu aderat, varioqi 
omnia tumultu /tiepunt ruentibus in naves simul ren 
gibus militibusque fugientium magis e terra quam 
pugnam euntium modo. Vixdum omnes conscenderai 
cum alii resolutis oris in ancoras evehuntury alii, i 
quid teneat, ancoralia incidunt, raptimquc omnia ac prai 
propere agendo militum apparatu nautica ministeria ii 
|)ediuntur, trepidatione nautarum capere ct aptare arir 
miles prohibetur. Et iam Romanus non adpropinquab 
modo, sed derexerat etiam in pugnan) naves. Itaqii 
lion ab hoste et proelio magis Poeni quam 8uom< 
ipsi tumultu turbati, temptata verius pugna quam init; 
in fugam averterunt classem. £t cum adversi amn 
OS lato agmini et tum multis simul venientibus hau 
sane intrabile esset« in litus passim naves egerunt, ai 
que alii vadis alii sicco litore excepti, partim arma 
partim inermes' ad instructam per litus aciem subrui 
perfugere. Duae tamen primo concursu captae erar 
Punicae naves, quattuor suppressae. 

The successes of ikt Romans canst tiasdmbal to reiin inl 


XX. Romania quaroquam terra hostium erat, arma 
tamque aciem toto praetentam in litore cernebant, hau< 
cunctanter insecuti trepidam hostium classem, navis omnis 
quae non aut perfregerant proras litori inlisas aut cari< 
nas fixerant vadis, religatas puppibus in ahum extraxere 
ad quinque et viginti naves e quadraginta cepere. Nc< 
que id pulcherrimum eius victoriae fuit, sed quod un^ 
levi pugna toto eius orae mari potiti erant. Itaque ad 


Oniisam dasse provecti; etcensio ab navibus in terrain 
fiicta. Cum urbem vi cepissent captamque diripuisisent, 
Carthaginem inde petunt, atque omnem agrum circa 
defiopulaU posiremo tecta quoque iniuncta muro por- 
5 tisiqiie incenderunt Inde iam praeda gravis ad Lon- 
giinlicani pervenit ciassis, ubi vis magna sparti erat, ad 
lem naulicam congesta ab Hasdnibalc. Quod satis 
in usum fuit sublato, ceterum omne incensum est. 
Ncc continentis modo praelecta est ora, sed in Ebu- 

to Mim insulam transmissum. Ibi urbe, quae caput in* 
snlae est, biduum nequiquam summo labore oppugnata 
obi in spero inritam Irustra ten tempus animadversum 
est| ad populationem agri vers! direptis aliquot incen- 
sisque vicis, niaiore quam ex continent! praeda parta, 

,2 cum in naves se recipissent, ex Baiiaribus insulis le- 
gati pacem petentes ad Scipionem venerunt. Inde 
flexa retro classis, reditumque in citeriora provinciae, 
quo omnium populorum, qui cis Hiberum incolunt, mul- 
tonim et ultiinae Hispaniae legati concurrerunti sed 

so qui vere dicionis imperiique Romani facti sint obsidi« 
bus datis populi, ampiius fuerunt centum viginti. Igitur 
tenestribus quoque copiis satis fidens Romanus usque 
•d saltum Castulonensem est progressus. Hasdrubal in 
Liisitantam ac propius Oceanum concessit. 

Ummtikd rtiurms near ihg £6ro io protect his attUs, and is 

attacked by the Cettiberi, 

%% XXI. Quietum inde fore videliatnr reliquom aestatis 
tempuSy fuissetque per Poenum hostcm ; sed praeter- 
quam quod ipsorum Hispanoruro inquieta avidaque in 
noras res sunt ingenia^ Mandonius Indibilisque, qui 
antea Ilergetum regulus fuerat, postquam Romani ab 

^D talto recessere ad maritimam oram, concitis popularibus 
in agfum pacatum socionim Romanorum ad populan- 
dum venerunt Adversus eos tribuni militum cum 
expeditis auxilits a Scipione missi levi certamine, ut 


tumultuariam manum, fudcre, miUe honiinibus occisi 
quibusclain captis magnaque parte annis exuta. H 
tamen tuinultus cedentem ad Oceanum Hasdrubalem c 
Hiberum ad socios tutandos retraxit Castra Punica 
agro Ilergavonensium, castra Romana ad Novaai Classei 
crant, cum iama repens alio avertit bellum. Celtibei 
qui principes regionis suae miserant legates obsidesqi 
dcderant Romanis, nuntio misso a Scipione exciti am 
capiunt, provinciamque Carthaginiensium valido exercii 
invadunt; tria oppida vi expugnant Inde cum ips 
Hasdrubale duobus proeliis egrcgie pugnant; ad quii 
decim milia hostium occidenint, quattuor milia cui 
multis militarilMis signis capiunt* 

P* Scipio arrix*ts in Spaim wiik a fleet. Spanish hostage^ 
kept at SaguntHm by the CartkagiuiaHs^ are detivtred i 
the Romans. 

XXII. Hoc statu renim in Hispania P. Scipio i 
provinciam venit, prorogato post consulatum imperio a 
senatu, missus cum triginta longis navibus et octo mil 
bus militum magnoque commeatu advecto. £a classi 
ingens agmine onerariarum procul visa cum magna ]a< 
titia civium sociorumque portum Tanraconis ex alto tenui 
Ibi milite expostto profectus Scipio fratri se coniungit 
ac deinde communi animo consilioque gerebant bellun 
Occupatis igitur Carthaginiensibus Celtiberico bello hau 
cnnctanter Hiberum transgrediuntur, nee ullo viso host 
Saguntum pergimt ire, quod ibi obsides totius Hispania 
traditos ab Hannibale fama erat moiiico in arce custc 
diri praesidio. Id unnm pignus inclinatos ad Roroanai 
societatem omnium Hispaniae populorum animos mon 
batur, ne sanguine liberum suorum culpa defection! 
lueretur. Eo vinculo Hispaniam vir unus sollerti magi 
quam fideli consilio exsolvit Abelux erat Sagunti no 
bills Hispanus, fidus ante Poenis, tum, qualia plerum 
que sunt barbaronim tngenia, cum fortuna mutaven 


fidem. Ceterum tiansfugam sine magnae rei proditione 
venientem ad hostis nihil aliud quam unum vile atque 
iniame onrpus esse nitus, id agebat, ut quam n^axumum 
emolumentiim novis sociis esset. Circumspectis igitur 
5 omnibus, quae fortuna potestatis eius poterat facere, ob- 
sidibus polissimum tradendis animum adiecit, earn unam 
rem maxime ratus conciliaturam Romanb principum 
Hispaniae amiciliam. Sed cum iniussu Bostaris prae- 
feed satis scire! nihil obsidum custodes facturos esse, 

•o Boslarem ipsum arte adgreditur. Castra extra urbem in 
ipso litore habebat Bostar, ut aditum ea parte inter- 
duderet Romanis. Ibi eum in secretum abductum velut 
ignorantem monet, quo statu sit res: metum continu- 
isse ad earn diem Hispanoruni animos, quia procul 

■5 Roroani abessent; nunc cis Hibenim castra Romana 
esse, arcem tutam perfugiumque novas volentibus res; 
itaque, quos metus non teneatt beneficio et gratia de- 
vinciendos esse. Mirand Bostari {jercunctantique, quod- 
nam id subitum tantae rei donum posset esse, "Ob- 

so sides" inquit "in civitates remitte; id et privatim pa- 
rentibusy quorum maxumum nomen in civitatibus est suis, 
et puUice populis gratum erit Volt sibi quisque credi, 
et habita fides ipsam plcrumque obligat fidem. Mini- 
steiium restituendonim domos obsidum mihimet deposco 

s$ ipse, ut opera quocjue inpensa consilium adiuvem meum 
el rei suapte natura gratae quantam insuper gratiam 
possim adiciam.** Homini non ad cetera Punica ingenia 
callido ut persuasity nocte clam progressus ad hostium 
ttationeSi conventis quibusdam auxiliaribus Hispanis et 

jD iri> his ad Scipionem perductus, quid adferret, expromit, 
ct fide aocepta dataque ac loco et tempore constitute 
ad obsides tiadendos, Saguntum redit. Diem insequentem 
ibsumpsit cum Bostare mandatis ad rem agendam ac- 
dpiendis. Dimissus, cum se nocte iturum, ut custodias 

35 hostium fidleret, constitutsset, ad conpositam cum iis 
hoiam csdtatis custodibus puerorum piofectus, velutr 




ignanis in praeparatas sua fraude insidias ducit« 
castra Romana perducti; cetera omnia de reddenc 
obsidibus, sicut cum Bostare constitutum erat, acta p 
eundem ordinem, quo si Carthaginiensium nomine s 
ageretur. Maior aliquanto Romanorum gratia fuit in 
pari, quam quanta futura Carthaginiensium fuerat. Ill 
enim gravis superbosque in rebus secundis expertos fc 
tuna et' timor mitigasse videri poterat; Romanus prin 
adventu incognitus ante ab re dementi liberalique initiu 
fecerat; et Abelux, vir prudens, baud frustra videbat 
socios mutasse« Itaque ingenti consensu defectione 
omnes spectare; armaque extempio mota forent, 
hiems, quae Romanos quoque et Carthaginienses co 
cedere in tecta coegit, intervenisset. 

Unpa^l€arity of Fabius. HauHibal spares kis tsiaits wk 

plumdering ikt country* 

XXIII. Haec in Hispania secunda aestate Puni 
belli gesta, cum in Italia paulum intervalli cladib 
Romanis sollere cunctatio Fabi fecissct; quae ut Ha 
nibalem non mediocri sollicitum cura habebat, tande 
eum militiae magistrum delegisse Romanos cementei 
qui bellum ratione, non fortuna gereret, ita contemp 
erat inter civis armatos pariter togatosque, utique poi 
qtiam absente eo temeritate magistri equitum laeto v 
rius dixerim quam prospero eventu pugnatum fuen 
Accesserant duae res ad augendam invidiam diet 
tons; una fraude ac dolo Hannibalis, quod, cum 
perfugis ei monstratus ager dirtatoris esset, omnib 
circa solo aequatis ab uno eo ferrum ignemque et vi 
omnem hostilem abstineri iussit, ut occuki alicuius pac 
ea merces videri posset; altera ipsius facto, primo fc 
sitan dubio, quia non expectata in eo senatus au 
toritas est, ad extremutn baud ambigue in maxima 
laudem verso. In permtitandis captivis, quod sic prim 
Punico bello factum erat, convenerat inter duces R< 


manum Poenumque, ut quae para plus reciperet quam 
daicty argent! pondo bina et selibras in militem prae- 
staret Ducentis quaclraginta septem cum plures Ro- 
manus quam Poenus recepisset, argentumque pro eis 
5 debitum saepe iactata in scnatu re, quoniam non con- 
suluisset patres., tanlius erogarctur, inviolatum ab hoste 
agrum misso Romam Quinto filio vcndidit, fidemque 
publicam inpendio privato exsolvit. 

Hannibal pro Gerconi moenibus, cuius urbis captae 
lo atque incensae ab se in usum horreorum pauca reli- 
queiat tecta, in stativis erat. Jnde frumentatum duas 
exercitus partes mittebat; cum tenia ipse expedita in 
statione erat simul castrts praesidio et circumspectans, 
necunde impetus in fnimentatores fieret 

in ike akstnce of Fabius^ Mifiucius gains a irijling viciory, 

■5 XXIV. Romanus tunc exercitus in agro Larinati erat; 
praeerat Minucius magister equitum profecto, sicut ante 
dictum est, ad url)em dictatore. Cetenim castra, quae 
in monte alto ac tuto loco posita fuerant, iam in 
planum deferuntur; agitabanturque pro ingenio ducis 

ao consilia calidiora, ut im|)etus aut in frumentatores pala- 
tos aut in castra relicta cum levi praesidio fieret. Ncc 
Hannibalem fefcllit cum duce muiatam esse belli rati- 
onem^ et ferocius quam consuhius rem hostes gesturos. 
Ipse autem, quod minime quis crcderet, cum hostis 

25 propius csset, tertiam partem militum frumentatum dua- 
bus in castris retentis dimistt; dein castra ipsa propius 
hostem movit duo ferme a Gereonio milia in tumulum 
hosti conspectum, ut intentum se sctret esse ad frumenta- 
tores, si qua vis fieret, tutandos. Propior inde ei atque 

JO ipsis inminens Romanonim castris tumulus appaniit ; ad 
quero capiendum, si luce palam iretur, quia baud dubie 
hostis breviore via praeventurus erat, nocte clam missi 
Numidae ceperunt Quos tenentis locum contempta pau- 
dtate Romani postero die cum deiecissent, ipsi eo 



transferunt castra. Turn uUque exiguom spatii vail 
vallo abciat, et id ipsum totum prope conplevera 
mana acies. Simul et per aversa a casciis Hannibalis 
tatus cum levi annatura emissus in irumentatorei 
caedem fugamque hostiuiu palatoram fecit Nee 
certare Hannibal ausus, quia tanta paucitate vix < 
si oppugnarentur, tutari poterat. lamque artibus 
sedendo et cunctando bellum gerebat, rcceperatque 
in priora castra, quae pro Gereoni moenibus 
lusta quoque acie et conlatis signb diniicatum qi 
auctores sunt: prinio concursu Poenuin usque ad 
fusum, inde eniptione facta repente versum terron 
Romanos, Numeri Decimi Sainnitis deinde intei 
proelium restitutum. Hunc principem genere ac c 
non Boviani modo, unde erat, sed toto Samnio, 
dictatoris octo milia peditum et equites quingento 
centem in castra, ab tcrgo cum apparuisset F 
bali, speciem parti utrique praebuisse novi praesidii 
Q* F!abio ab Roma venientis. Hannibalem insid 
quoque aliquid timentem recepisse suos, Romanum 
cutum adiuvante Samnite duo castella eo die e 
nasse. Sex milia hostium caesa, quinque adm< 
Romanorum; tamen in tam pari prope clade v 
faniam egrcgiae victoriae cum vanioribus litteris nu 
equitum Romam perlatam. 

The peopU maki Minucius equal im •command wiih Ft 

XXV. De his rebus persaepe et in senatu et in 
tione actum est Cum laeta civitate dictator unus 
nee famae nee litteris crederet et, ut vera omnia ei 
secunda se magis quam adversa timere diceret, 
M« Metilius tribunus plebis id enim vero ferendum 
negat; non praesentem solum dictatorem obstitiss^ 
bene gerendae, sed absentem etiam gestae obstar 
in ducendo bello sedulo tempus terere, quo di 
in magistratu sit solusque et Romae et in exercitu 


perium habeat; quippe consulum alterum in acie ceci- 
disscy alterum specie dassis Punicae persequendae procul 
ab Italia aUegatum; duos praetores Sicilia atque Sar- 
dinia occupatosy quarum neutra hoc tempore praetore 

5 cgeat ; M. Minucium magistnim equitum, ne hostem 
videret, ne quid rei bellicae gereret, prope in cus- 
todia babitum. Itaque hercule non Samnium niodo, 
quo iam taroquam tians Hibenim agro Poenis conces- 
sum sit; sed Campanum Calenumque et Falernum 

lo agnim pervastatos esse, sedente Casilini dictatore et le- 
gionibus populi Romani agrum suuni tutante. Exerci- 
turn cupientem pugnare et magistnim equitum dausos 
prope intra vallum retentos, tamquam hostibus captivis 
arma adempta. Tandem, ut abscesserit inde dictator, ut 

ij obsidione liberatos, extra vallum egrcssos fudisse ac fu- 
gaose hostis. Quas ob res, si antiquus animus plebei 
Romanae esset, audaciter se laturum fuisse de abro* 
gando Q. Fabi imperio; nunc modicam rogationem 
promulgaturum de aequando magistri equitum et dicta- 

JO toris iurc. Nee tamen ne ita quidem prius mittendum 
ad exercitum Q. Fabium, quam consulem in locum C. 
Flamini suffecisset Dicutor contionibus se abstinuit in 
actione minime popularis. Ne in senatu quidem satis 
aequis auribus audiebatur, cum hostem verbis extol- 

t$ leret bienniique clades per temeritatem atque insci- 
tiam dticum acceptas referret, et magistro equitum 
quod contra dictum suum pugnasset, rationem dicerct 
reddendam esse. Si penes se summa imperii consilii- 
qne sit, prope diem efTectumm, ut sciant homines, bono 

30 iropetatore baud magni fortunam moment! esse, mentem 
rationetnque dominari, et in tempore et sine ignominia 
sinvasse exercituni quam multa milia hostium occidisse 
naiorem gloriam esse. Huius generis orationibus frustra 
habitis et consule creato M. Atilio Regulo, ne praesens 

IS de inre imperii dimicaret, pridie quam rogationis fe- 
icndae dies adesset nocte ad exercitum abiit Luce 


orU com plebis concilium csset, magis Uciu 
dicUtoris iavoniue magtstri equitum animos v< 
quam satis audebant homines ad suadendum, que 
go piaccbat, prodire, et iavore superante auctori 
men rogattoni decrat Unus inventus est suasoi 
C. Terentius Vano, qui priore anno praetor 
loco non humili solum, sed etiam sordido onus 
trem lanium fuisse ferunt, ipsum institorem mercii 
que hoc ipso in servilia eius artis ministeria usui 

Varr^s suutssful tarter ms « dimagague. Fabius is i 
iurhed fy tkg prpm^li^n ^ Minucius. 

1/ XXVI. Is iuvenisy ut primum ex eo genere q 
pecunia a patre relicta aninuM ad spem liberalio 
tunae fecit, togaque et forum placuere, prock 
pro sordidis hominibus causisque advcrsus rem et 
bonorum primum in notitiam populi, deinde 
nores pervenit Quaesturaque et duabus aedil 
plebeia et curulii postremo et practura perfunct* 
ad consulatus spem cum adtolleret animos, baud 
callide auram favoris popularis ex dictatoria invi< 
tiit scitique plebis unus gratiam tulit. 

Omnes earn rogationem, quiqne Romae qui< 
exercitu erant, aequi atque iniqui, praeter ipsura 
torem m contumeliam eius latam acce|)erunt ; ip 
gravitate animt criminantes se ad muhitudinem i 
tulerat, eadem et populi in se "saevientis iniuriai 
acceptisque m ipso itinere litteris senatusque c 
de aequato Imperio, satis fidens haudquaquam ci 
perii iure artem imperandi aequatam, cum in^ 
civibus hostibusque animo ad exercitum rediit 

Th^ dixndt tht Ugiotis equally* 

XXVIL Minucius vero cum iam ante vix to! 
fuisset rebus secundis ac favore volgi, turn uti< 
modice inmodesteque non Hannibale roagis vi 


se quam Q. Fabio glohari: ilium in rebus asperis uni- 
cum duccm ac parem quaesituhi Hannibali, maiorcni 
minoriy dictatorem magistro cquitum, quod nulla memo- 
ria habeat annalium, lussu populi aequatum in eadem 

5 ctvitatCy in qua magistri equitum virgas ac secures die- 
tatoris tremere atque horrere soliti sint; tantum suam 
fclidtatem virtuteroque enituisse. Ergo secuturum se 
foftunam suam, si dictator in cunctatione ac segnitie 
deonim hominumque iudicio damnata perstaret Itaque 

ID quo die primum congressus est cum Q. Fabio, statu- 
endum omnium primum ait esse, quem ad modum 
imperio aequato utantur; se optumum ducere, aut die- 
bos altemis aut, si maiora intervalla placerent, partitis 
temporibus alterius summum ius impcriumque essei ut 

15 par hosti non solum consilio, sed viribus etiam esset, 
ri quam occasionem rei gerendae habuisset Q. Fabio 
baudquaquaro id placere: omnia eam fortunam habi- 
tura, quamcumquc temehtas conlegae habuisset. Sibi con>* 
municalum cum alio, non ademptum imperium esse; 

ao itaque se numquam volentem parte, qua posset, rerum 
consilio gerendarum cessurum, ncc se tempora aut dies 
imperii cum eo, exercitum divisurum, suisque consiliis, 
quoniam omnia non liccret, quae posset, servatiirum. 
lU obtinuit, ut legiones, sicut consulibus mos esset, 

as inter se dividerent Prima et quarta Minucio, secunda 
et tertia Fabio evenerunt; item equites pari numero 
•odumqne et Latini nommis auxilia diviserunt. Castris 
qnoque se separari magister equitum voluit. 

Mimmims is Umpud to haiiU atid hadiy beaten. 


XXVIII. Duplex inde Hannibali gaudium fuit — ne- 

T que enim quicquam eorum, quae apud hostes age- 

lentttfy eum fallebat et perfugis multa indicantibus et 

per suot exploiantem ; — nam et liberam Minuci teme- 

ritatem se sao modo captaturum et sollertiae Fabi 


dimidium virium decesstsse. Tumulus erat inter 
Minuci et Poenonim, quern qui occupasset, hau< 
bie iniquiorem erat hostt locum facturus. Eutr 
tarn capere sine certamine volebat Hanntlial, quaii 
id operae pretium erat, quam causam certaminis 
Minucio, qucm procursurum ad obsistendum satis 
bat, contrahere. Ager omnis medius erat prima 
inutilis insidiatori, quia non modo silvestre quic 
sed ne vepribus quidem vestitum habebat, re ipsa 
tcgendis insidiis, eo magis, quod in nuda valle 
talis fraus timeri poterat Et erant in anfractibiis 
rupes, ut quaedam earum ducenos armatos possent < 
In has latebras, quot quemque locum apte ii 
poterant, quinque milia conduntur |x;ditum equitu 
Necubi tamen aut motus alicuius temere egrcs 
fulgor armorum fraudem in valle tam aperta det 
missis paucis prima luce ad capiendum, queni 
diximus, tumulum avertit oculos hostium. Primo 
conspectu contempta paucitas, ac sibi quisque 
scere pellendos inde hostis ac locum cajMei 
dux ipse inter stolidissimos ferocissi mosque ad' 
vocat et vanis minis increpat hostcm. Princip 
vcm armaturam dimittit; deinde conferto agmine 
equites ; postremo, cum hostibus quoque subsidia 
videret, instructis legionibus procedit Et Hannil 
borantibus suis alia atque alia increscente cer 
mittens auxilia pcditum equitumque iam iustam e? 
rat aciem, ac totis utrimque viribus certatur. Pri 
vis armatura Romanorum, praeoccupatum ex inferior 
succedens tumulum, pulsa detrusaque terrorem ii 
cedentem intulit equitem et ad signa Icgionum \ 
Peditum acies inter perculsos inpavida sola en 
debaturque, si iusta ac recta pugna esset, ha 
quam inpar futura; tantum animorum fecerat pi 
ante paucos dies res gesta. Sed exorti repente 
atores eum tumultum terroremque in latent uti 


ab tergoque incunantes fecerunt, ut neque animus ad 
pug n am neque ad fugam spea cuiquam superesset. 

He ts reKMHi by Fabius and ackmawUdgts his fauii, 

XXIX. Turn Fabiusi primo clainore paventium audito, 
dein conspecU procul turbaU acie, 'Mu est/' inquit, 
5 ''non celeritis quam timui deprendit foituna temerita* 
tem. Fabio aequatus imperio Hannibalem et virtute 
et fortuna superiorem videt Sed aliud iurgandi succen- 
icndique teropus erit; nunc signa extra vallum profertc. 
Victoriam hosti extorqueamus, confessionem erroris civi- 
le bus." lam magna ex parte caesis aliis, aliis circuni- 
spectantibus fugam Fabiana se acies repente velut caelo 
demissa ad auxiltum ostcndit Itaque, priusquam ad 
cooiectum teli veniret aut manum consereret, ct suos 
a fuga efliisa et ab nimis feroci pugna hostes continuit. 
15 Qui solutis oidinibus vage dissipati erant, undique con- 
fttgerunt ad integram aciem; qui plures simul terga 
dcdeiant, conversi in hostem volventesquc orbem nunc 
sensint referre pedem, nunc conglobati restare. Ac iam 
prope una acies facta erat victi atque integri exercitus, 
ao inferebantque signa in hostem, cum Foenus receptui 
cecinitf pabm ferente Hannibale ab se Minucium, se 
ab Fabio victum. 

Ita per variam fortunam diei maiore parte exacta, 
cum in castra reditum esset, Minucius convocatis mili- 
as tibos^ ** Saepe ego ** inquit " audivi, milites, eum primum 
CMC vinim, qui ipse consulat quid in rem sit, secun- 
dum eum» qui bene monenti oboediat; qui nee ipse 
coosalere nee alteri parere sciat, eum extremi ingenii 
esse. Nobis quoniam prima animi ingeniique negata 
30 sors est, secundam ac mediam teneamus et, dum im- 
peiate discimus, parere prudenti in animum inducamus. 
Castra cum Fabio iungamus; ad praetorium eius signa 
tnlerimusy ubi ego eum parentem appellavero, quod 


beneficio eius crga nos ac maiestate eius dignu 
vos, militcs, eos, quorum vos modo arma ac d 
texenint, patronos salutabttis, et, si nihil aliud, 
rum certe nobis animorum gioriam dies hie ded< 

Ht rtsumts his •position at smbordiKate^ and Fabims i 

popuiar «/ Rome. 

XXX. Signo dato, conclamatur inde, ut coll 

vasa. ProfecU et agmine incedentes ad dictatoris 

in admirationem et ipsum et omnes qui circa 

converterunt« Ut constituta sunt ante tribunal 

progressus ante alios magtster equitum, cum 

Fabium appellasset circumfusosque militum eius 

agmen patronos consalutassct, " Parendbus *' inquit 

dictator, quibus te roodo nomine, quod fando p 

aequavi, vitam tantum debco, tibi cum meam S2 

tum omnium horum. Itaque plebeiscitum, quo 

tus sum magis quam honoratus, primus antiquo 

goque et, quod tibi mihique exercitibusque his 

servato ac conservatori, sit felix, sub imperiuu 

spiciumque tuum redeo et signa haec legionesqi 

stituo. Tu, quaesOi placatus me magisterium eq 

hos ordines suos quemque tenere iubeas.*' Tum d 

interiunctae militesque, contione dimissa, ab notis 

tisque benigne atque hospitaliter invitati, laetusquc 

ex admodum tristi pauIo ante ac.prope execrabili i 

Romae, ut est perlata fama rei gestae, dein litteri 

magis ipsorum imperatorum quam volgo militur 

utroque exercitu adfirmata, pro se quisque Max 

laudibus ad caelum ferre. Pari gloria apud Hannil 

hostisque Pocnos erat; ac tum demum hi sentire 

Romanis atque in Italia bellum esse; nam bi 

ante adeo et duces Romanos et milites spreveran 

vix cum eadem gente bellum esse oederent, 

terribilem famam a patribus accepissent. Hannit 


quoque ex acie redeuntem dixisse ferunt, tandem earn 
nubem, quae sedere in iugis montium solita sic, cuin 
prooelia imbrem 

Servilims* itufftciuai imvasiom of A/Hea. FaHus nsigns 

his command. 

XXXL Dum haec geruntur in Italia, Cn. Servilius 

5 Geniinus consul cum classe centum viginti navium cir- 
cumvectus Sardiniae et Corsicae oram et obsidibus 
utrimque acceptis, in Africam transniisit et, priusquam 
in continentem escensiones faceret, Menige insula va- 
ftala et ab incolentibus Cercinain, ne et i|)sorum ure- 

fo retur diripereturque ager, decern talentts argenti acceptis 
ad litoia Africae accessit copiasque exposuiL Inde ad 
populandum agram ducti milites navalesque socii iuxta 
effusi, ac si in insulis cultonim egentibus praedarentur. 
Itaque in insidias temere inlati, cum a frequentibus 

gj palantes et ignari ab locorum gnaris circumvenirentur, 
cum multa caede ac foeda fuga retro ad naves con- 
puU sunt Ad miUe hominum, cum Sempronio Blae- 
so quaestoie amissum. Classis ab litoribus hostium 
pienis trepide soluta in Siciliaro cursum tenuit, tradita- 

jo que Lilybaei T. Otacilio praetori, ut ab legato eius 
P. Cincio Romam reduceretur. Ipse per Siciliam pedi- 
bus profectus fireto in Italiam traiecit, litteris Q. Fabi 
accitus et ipse et conlega eius M. Atilius, ut exercitus 
ab se exacto iam prope semenstri imperio acciperent. 

<5 Omnium prope annates Fabium dictatorem adversiis 
Hanntbalem rem gessisse tradunt; Coelius etiam eum 
primum a populo creatum dictatorem scribit. Sed et 
Coelium et ceteros fugit uni consuli Cn. Servilio, qui 
torn procul in Gallia provincia aberat, ius fuisse di- 

JO cendi dictatoris ; quam moiam quia expectare terriu 
lertia iam dade civitas non potent, eo decursum esse, 
vt a populo crearetur, qui pro dictatore esset; res 


inde gesUs gloriamque insignem ducis et augentis tit 
lum imaginis posteros, ut, qui pro dictatore creatus < 
let, fuisse dkutor crederetur, facile obtinuisse. 

Tki cansuis c^ntinui his policy At tJU end of Uu year. Ai 

poiitan embassy to Roms. 

XXXII. Consules Atilius Fabiano, Gcminus Servil 
Miniiciano exercitu accepto, hibem^iculis mature cominu 
tis, quod reliquom autumni erat Fabi artibus cum sum 
inter se concordia bellum gesserunt. Frumentatum c; 
unti Hannibali diversis locis opportuni aderant carp< 
tes agmen palatosque excipientes; in casum univer 
dimicationis, quam omnibus artibus |)ctebat hostis, n 
veniebant; adeoque inopia est coactus Hannibal, 
nisi cum' fugae specie abcundum ei fuisset, Galli 
repetiturus fuerit, nulla relicta spe alendi exercitus 
eis locis, si insequentes consules cisdem artibus bell 

Cum ad Gereonium iam hicme inpediente constitis 
bellum, Neapolitani legati Romam venere. Ab iis q 
draginta paterae aureae magni ponderis in curiam 
latae atque ita verba facta, ut dicerent: scire s 
populi Roman i aerarium bello exhauriri, et, cum iu 
pro urbibus agrisc]ue sociorum ac pro capite atque a 
Italiae, urbe Romana, atque imperio geratur, aequ 
censuissc Neapolitanos. quod auri. sibi cum ad tc 
plorum ornatum tum ad subsidium fortunac a maiori 
relictum foret, eo iuvare populum Romanum. Si qii 
opem in sese crederent, eodem studio fuisse oblatui 
Gratum sibi patres Romanos populumque factunim, 
omnes res Neapolitanorum suas duxissent, dignos< 
iudicaverint, ab quibus donum, animo ac voluntate 
rum, qui libentes darent, quam re maius ampliu» 
acciperent. Legatis gratiae actae pro munificentia ci 
que; patera, quae ponderis minimi fuit, accepla. 


Rmtum tmv€ys umt to Mactdonia U demand tki surrender 
0f Demeirius 0/ Pharos^ $0 Ugnria io complain of the 
help given to HannibeU^ and to Ilfyria to demand the un- 
paid triple. 

XXXIII. Per eosdeni dies speculator Carthaginiensis, 
qui per biennium fefellerat, Romae rleprensus praecisis- 
que maoibus dimissus, et servi quinque et viginti in 
cnicein acti^ quod in campo Martio coniurassent ; in« 
5 dici data libertas et aerts gravis viginti milia. Legati 
et ad Philippum, Macedonum regem, inissi ad depo- 
scendum Demetrium Pharium, qui bello victus ad euin 
fugissety et alii in Ligures ad expostulandum, quod 
Poenum opibus auxiliisque suis iuvissent, siinul ad vi- 

10 senduro ex propinquo, quae in Bois atque Insubribus 
gererentur. Ad Pineum quoque regem in Illyrios legati 
missi ad stipendium, cuius dies exierat, poscendum aut, 
si diem profeiri vellet, obsides accipiendos. Adeo, etsi 
bellum ingens in cervicibus erat» nullius usquam ter* 

15 ranim rei cura Romanos, ne longinquae quidem, efiugie* 
bat. In religionem etiam venit aedem Concordiae, quam 
per seditionem militarem biennio ante L. Manlius prae* 
tor in Gallia vovisset, locatam ad id teropus non esse; 
itaque duumviri ad earn rem creati a M. Aemilio prae- 

m tore urbano C Pupius et K. Quinctius Flamininus 
aedem in arce Ciciendam locaverunt 

Ab codem praetore ex senatus consulto litterae ad 
consules roissae, ut, si iis videretur, alter eorum ad 
consules creandos Romam veniret: se in earn diem, 

S5 quam iusstssent, comitia edicturum. Ad haec a con- 
sulibiu reacriptttm, sine detrimento rei publicae abscedi 
Don posse ab hoste; itaque per interregem comitia 
habenda esK potins» quam consul alter a bello avoca- 

- rctnr. Puribus rectius visum est dictatorem a consule 

ja did ooroitionim habendorum causa. Dictus L. Veturius 
Fhilo M. Pomponium Mathonem magistrum equitum 


dixit lis vitio creatis iustisque die quarto dedni 
ma^stratu abdicare, res ad interregnum rediit. 

Gn€U ixciitmtmi aittnds ikt ckoiu of tomsMis for 216 i 

XXXIV. Consulibus prorogatum in annum impel 
Interregcs proditi sunt a patribus C Clauilius 
Alius Cento, inde P. Cornelius Asina. in cius i 
regno comitia habita magno certamine patrum ac pi 
C. lerentio Varroni, quern sui generis hominem, 
insectatione principum popularibusque artibus con 
turn, ab Q. i*abi opibus et dictatorio imperio cone 
aliena invidia splendentem, volgus extrahere ad cc 
latum niiebatur, i)atres sunima ope obstabant, n< 
insectando sibi aequari adsuescerent liomincs. Q. 
bins Hcrennius tribunus plebis, cognatus C. Tei 
criminando non senatum modo sed etiam augures, < 
dictatorem prohibuisscnt comitia |)er(iccrc, ])cr invi< 
eorum favorem candidato suo conciliabat: ab homir 
nobilibus per multos annos bellum quaerentibus H; 
balem in Italiam adductum ; ab iisdeni, cum deb< 
possit, fraude bellum trahi. Cum quattuor legior 
universis pugnari prospcre posse appaniisset eo, r 
M. Minucius alisente Fabio prospere pugnasset, < 
legiones hosti ad caedem obiectas, dcinde ex 
caede creptas, ut pater patronusque appellaretur, 
prius vincere prohibuisset Romanos quam vinci. ( 
sules deinde Fabianis artibus, cum debellare poss 
bellum traxisse. Id foedus inter omnes nobilis ict 
nee finem ante belli habituros, quam consulem \ 
plebeium, id est hominem novum, fecissent; nam 
beios nobiles iam eisdem initiatos esse sacris et c 
temnere plebem, ex quo contemni a patribus desiei 
coepisse. Cut non apparere id actum et qua 
turn esse, ut interregnum iniretur, ut in patrum p 
state comitia essent? Id consules ambos ad exercil 


moffaodo quaesisse; id postea, quia invitis iis dictator 
csset dictus comitionim causa, expugnatum esse, ut 
vitiosus dictator per augures fieret Habere igitur in- 
terregoum eos; consulatutn unum certc plebis Romanae 
5 esse, et populum liberum habiturum ac daturum ei, 
qui mature vincere quam diu imperare malit 

ymrr0 and Pauius an tltcttd. Four farmer praetors an 

chosen again. 

XXXV. Cum his orationibus accensa plebs esset, tri- 
bus patriciis petentibus, P. Comelio Merenda, L. Man- 
lio Volsone, M. Aemilio Lepido, duobus nobilium iam 

ao lamilianim plebeisy C. Atilio Serrano et Q. Aelio Pneto, 
quorum alter pontifex, alter augur erat| C. Tercntius 
consul unus creatur, ut in manu eius essent comitia 
logando conlegae. Turn experta nobilitas parum fuisse 
virium in conpetitoribus eius, L. Aemilium Paulum, 

§5 qui cum M. Lavio consul fuerat et damnatione con- 
legae, ex qua prope ambustus evaserat, infestum plcbei, 
diu ac multum recusantem ad petitioncm conpellit. Is 
proximo comitiali die concedentibus omnibus, qui cum 
Varrone certaverant, par magis in adversandum quam 

JO coolega datur consuli. Inde praetorum comitia habita ; 
creati M. Pomponius Matho et P. Furius Philus; Philo 
Romae iuri dicundo urbana sors, Pomix)nio inter civis 
Romanos et peregrinos evenit Additi duo practores, 
M. Claudius MarceUus in Siciliam, L. Postumius AI* 

J5 binus in Galliam. Omnes absentes creati sunt, ncc 
cuiquam eorum praeter Terentium consulem mandatus 
honos quern non iaro antea gessisset, praeteritis aliquot 
fortibot ac strenuis viris, quia in taJi tempore nulli 
noimt magistratus videbatur mandandus. 

Grmi isuroato of tkt army* AVv prodigies alarm tho puhlU 

jB XXXVI. Exercitus quoque multiplicati sunt Quantae 
atttem oopiae peditum equituroque additae sint, adeo 


et nttmero ct genere coptarum variant auctores» ut 
quicquam satis certum adfirmare austis sim. Do 
milia novoruin mUitum alii scripta in supplement 
alii novas quattuor legiones, ut octo Icgionibus 
gererent; numero (|uoque peditum etiuitumque kgic 
auctos roilibus peditum et centenis equitibus in sing 
adiectis, ut quina milia peditum, treceni equites ess 
socii duplicem numerum equitum darent peditis aet 
rent, quidam auctores sunt Illud haudquaquam 
crcpat, maiore conatu atque impetu rem actam qi 
prioribus annis, quia spem posse vinci hostem diet 

Ceterum priusquam signa ab urbe novae legic 
movcrent, decemviri libros adire atque inspicere i 
propter territos vulgo homines novis prodigiis; nam 
Romae in Aventino et Ariciae nuntiatum erat 
idem tempus lapidibus pluvisse, et multo cruorc si 
in Sabinis, Caere aquas in fonte calido manassc; 
quidcm etiam, quod sacpius accideratt magis terrc 
Et in via fomicata, quae ad Campum erat, aliquot 
mines do caclo tarii cxanimatique fuerant Ea i 
digia ex libris procurata. Legati a Pacsto pat< 
aureas Kouiam adtulcrunt lis sicut Neapolitanis grai 
actae ; atirum non acceptum. 

Envoys from Micro Mtig gifts and a few choice troop. 

XXXVII. Per eosdem dies ab Hierone classis O 
cum magno rommeatu accossit. Legati in senatuni 
troducti nuntianmt caedem C. Flamini consuHs exer 
tusqtic adiatam adeo aegre tulisse regem Hieronem, 
nulLi sua propria regnique sui clade moveri magis p 
tuerit. Itaque, quamquam probe sciat magnitudin< 
populi Romani admirabiliorem prope adversis reli 
quam secundis esse, tamen se omnia, quibus a boi 
fidelibusque sociis bella iuvari soleant, misisse ; quae i 
accipere abnuant magno opere se patres conscript 


otare. lam omnium primum ominis causa Victoriam 
auream pondo ducentum ac vigintt adicnre sese; acci- 
perent earn tenerentque et habcrent propriam et pcr- 
petuam. Advexisse etiam trecenta milia modium triiici, 
5 ducenta hordei, ne commeatus deessent, et quantum 
practerea opus csset, (|U0 iussisscnt, subvecturos. Militc 
atque cquite scire nisi Romano Latiniquc nominis non 
uti populum Romanum; levium annorum auxiiia ctiani 
externa vidisse in castris Romanis; itaiiue misisse mille 
ao sagittarionim ac funditonun* aptam manum advcrsus 
Baltares ac Mauros pugnacesque alias missili telo gentes. 
Ad ea dona consilium quociuc addebant, ut praetor cui 
provincia Scilia evenisset, classem in Africam traiceret, ut 
et hosles in terra sua bellum haberent, minusque laxamenti 
■5 daietur iis ad auxiiia Hannibali submittenda. Ab senatu 
ita responsum regis legatis est : virum bonum egregiumquc 
socium Hieronem esse, atque uno tenore, ex quo in 
amicitiam populi Romani venerit, (idem coluisse ac rem 
Romanam omni tempore ac loco munifice adiuvisse. Id 
JO perinde ac deberet gratum populo Romano esse. Aurum 
et a civitatibus quibusdam adiatum gratia rei accepta 
non accepisse populum Romanum; Victoriam omenquc 
•ccipere, sedemque ei se divae dare dicarc Capitolium, 
templum lovis optimi maximi. In ea arcc urbis Ro- 
ss nanae sacratam volentem propitiamque, firmam ac sta- 
bOem fore popuk) Romano. Funditores- sagittariique et 
frumentum traditum consulibus, quinqueremes ad • • . 
navium classem, quae cum T. Otacilio propraetore in 
Sicifia tnXf quinque et viginti additae^ permissumque est, 
jD Ql^ n c re publica censeret esse, in Africam tiaiceret 

Sfitmm HUk iaken by tki newly UvUd soldiers. Boastfulnas 
0/ Farrp and dispa$idency of Paulus. 

XXXVIIL Dikctu perfecto consules paucos morati 
diet, dum ab sociis ac nomine Latino venirent militeSi 
Tnm, quod numquam antea factum erat, iure iurando 


ab tribunis militum adacU miliies; nam ad earn ( 
nihil praeler sacramentum fuerat, iiissu consults « 
venturos ne(|uc iniussu abituros; et ubi ad deci 
turn aut centuriatum convenissent, sua voluntate 
inter sese decuriati equites, centuriati pedites coni 
bant, sese fugae atque formidinis ergo non abituros 
que ex ordine reccssuios nisi teti sumendi aut repot 
aut hostis fcriendi aut civis scrvandi causa. Id 
voluntario inter i|>sos foedere ad tribunos ac legitir 
iuris iurandi adactioncm translatun). 

Contioncs, prius(|uain ab urbe signa moverentur, i 
sulis Varronis multae ac feroces fuere^ dcnuntis 
bcllum arcessitum in Italiam ab nobilibus mansui 
que in visceribus rei publicae, si plures Pabios imp 
tores haberet, se, quo die hosteni vidissct, perfectui 
Conlegae eius Pauli una pridie, quam urbe p 
cisccrctur, contio fuit, verior quam gratior pop 
qua nihil inclementer in Varronem dictum nisi 
modo, mirari se» qui dux, priusquam aut suum 
hostium cxercitum, locorum situm, naturam rcgi< 
nossct, iam nunc togatus in url)e sciret, quae 
agenda armato forcnt, et diem quoque praedi< 
IXMSct, qua cum hoste signis conlatii csset dimicatui 
se, quae consilia magis res dent hominibus quam 
mines rebus, ca ante tcmpus inmatura non pract 
turum ; optare, ut, quae cautc ac consuke gcsta ess 
satis prosperc evenirent; temeritatim, praeteniuam c| 
stuUa sit. infelicem ctiam ad id locorum fuisse. 
sua sponte apparcbat, tuta celcribus consiliis pra< 
situntm, et, quo id constantius pcrseveraret, Q. Fal 
Maximus sic eum proficiscentcm adiocutus fertur. 

FadiM adm&niskts Panlns btf^n his departnn. 

XXXIX. "Si aut conlegam, id quod roallem, 
similem, L. Aemili, baberes, aut tu conlegae tui ei 
similis, supervacanea esset oratio mea; nam et < 


boni coDsules etiam me indicente omnia e re publica 
fideque vestra faccretis et mali nee mea verba auribus 
vestris nee consUia animis acciperetis. Nunc et con- 
legam luum et te talem vinim intuenti mihi tecum 
5 omnis oratio est, quern video nequiquam et virum 
bonum et civem fore, si altera |>arte ciaudente re pu- 
Uica, malls consiliis idem ac bonis iuris et potestatis 
crit. Erras enim, L. Paule, si tibi minus certaminis 
cum C Terentio quam cum Hannibale futurum censes; 

lo nescio an infestior hie adversarius quam ille hostis 
mancat te, cum tu cum illo In acie tantum, cum hoc om- 
nibus kx:is ac tem|X)ril)us sis certaturus, et adversus 
Hannibalem leglones(|ue cius tuis equitibus ac pediti- 
bus pugnandum tibi sit, Varro dux tuis militibus tc 

t$ sit oppugnatunis. Ominis etiam tibi causa absit C 
Flamini memoria. Tamen ille consul demum et in 
provincia et ad exercitum coepit furere; hie, prius* 
quam peteret consulatum, dcinde in petendo consulatu, 
nunc quoque consul, priusquam castra videat aut ho- 

so stem, insanit Et qui tantas iam nunc procellas proe- 
lia atque acies iactando inter togatos ciet, quid inter 
armatam iuventutem censes facturum et ubi extemplo 
res verba sequitur? Atqui si hie, quod facturum se 
denuntiat, extemplo pugnaverit, aut ego rem miliurem, 

2$ belli hoc genus, hostem hunc ignoro, aut noblllor alius 
Trasuroenno locus nostris cladibus erit. Nee gloriandi 
tempus adversus unum est, et ego contemnendo potius 
quam adpetendo gloriam modum excesserim ; sed ita 
ret se habet: una ratio belli gerendi adversus Hanni- 

j9 balem est, qua ego gessi ; nee eventus moilo hoc 
docet— stultorum bte magister est ^ sed eadem ratio, 
quae fuit futuraque, donee res eaedem manebunt, in- 
mutabilb est In Italia bellum gerimus, in sede ac 
solo nostro; omnia circa plena civium ac sociorum 

^ toDt ; amiis, viris, equis, commeatibos iuvant iuvabunt- 
que; id iam fidei documentum in adverns rebus no* 


stris dederunt; meliorcs, prudentiores, constantiores 
temput diesque facit; Hannibal contra in alien 
hostili est terra, inter omnia inimica infestaque, p 
ab domo, ab patria; neque illi terra ncque niar 
|>ax; nullae eum urbes accipiunt, nulla moenia; 
us(]uam sui videt; in diem rapto vivit; partem 
tcrtiam exercitus eius habet, quem Hiberum ar 
traiccit; plures fame quam ferro absumpti, ncc 
paucis iam victus suppcditat Dubitas ergo, (luii 
dcndo siipcraturi simus cum, qui scncscat in 
non commeatus, non supplcmentum, non pccuniani 
beat? Quam diu pro Gereonii, castelli Apuliae ii 
tamquam pro Carthaginis moenibus sedct I Scd n< 
versus te quidem dc me glortabor; Scrvilius atque 
lius, proximi consules, vide, quem ad modum 
ludificati sint. Haec una salutis est via, I^ I 
quam difficilem infcstamque cives tibi magis < 
hostes facient. Idem enim tui, quod hostium n 
volcnt; idem Varro consul Romanus, quod Haii 
Poenus imperator cupict. Duobus ducibus unus' re 
opportct. Rcsistcs autem, si advcrsus famam nimon 
hominum satis firmus steteris, si te neque con 
vana gloria neque tua falsa infamia movcrit. Vcrii 
laborare nimis saepe aiunt, extingui numquam ; g]< 
qui spreverit, veram hal)cbit. Sine, timidum pro < 
tardum pro considcrato, inbellcm pro perito bell 
cent. Malo, te sapiens hostis m^tuat, quam stuhi 
laudent Omnia audcntem contemnet Hannllial, 
temere agentem metuet. Ncc ego, ut nihil a| 
suadeo, sed ut agentem te ratio ducat, non for 
tuac potestatis semper tu tuaque omnia sint; an 
intentusque sis, neque occasioni tuae dcsis ncque 
occasionem hosti des. Omnia non properanti 
certaque erunt; festinatio inprovida est et caeca.*' 


Pmuims* npfy* Arrtvimg bifort ikg itumy^ Uu ecnsuis form 

iW9 crimps. 

XLi Advenus ea oratio consulis haud sane laeta foil, 
magit latenlis ea, quae diceret, vera quam facilia factu 
esse. Dictatori magistnim equitum intolerabilem fiiisse; 
quid consuli advenus conlegam seditiosum ac temera- 
5 rium virium atque auctohtatis fore? Se populare in- 
ccndium priore consulatu seroustum eflugisse; optare, 
tit omnia prospere evenirent; sed si quid adversi caderet, 
hostium se telis potius quam suflTragtis iratonim civium 
caput dbiecturum. Ab hoc sermone profectum i'^ulum 

io tradunt prosequentibus primoribus patnim ; plebeium 
consulem sua plebes prosecuta, turba conspectior, cum 
d^itates deessent. 

Ut in castra venerunt, permixto novo exercitu ac 
vetere^ castris bifariam factis, ut nova minora essent 

85 propius Hannibalem, in veteribus maior pars ct omnc 
lobur virium esset, consulum anni prions M. Atilium 
aetatem excusantem Romam miserunt, Geminum Ser- 
vilium in minoribus castris legioni Romanae et socium 
peditum equitumque duobus milibus praeficiunt Han- 

j9 nibal quamquam parte dimidia auctas hostium copias 
cemebat, tamen advcntu consulum mire gaudere. Non 
solum enim nihil ex raptis in diem commeatibus su* 
perabaty sed ne unde rapcret quidem quicquam reliqtii 
ciat omni undiquc frumento, postquani ager |Kinini 

J5 tutus eiaty in urbes munitas convecto, ut vix decern 
dicnim, quod conpertum postea est, frumcntum su])er« 
etfet, Hispanorumque ob inopiam transitio parata foerit, 
si maturitas temporum expectata foret 

T%g mrm/t impaHenti is incnand fy succiss in a skirmish. . 
HmmmikJ iriss^ by deserting his tamp^ to lure the Romasu 
from their entrenehmsnts. 

XLL Cetenim temeriuti consulis ac praeptopero in** 
materiam etiam fortuna dedit» quod in piohi- 


bendii pnedatqribus tumuUuarto procUo ac pr 
magit militum quain ex pracparato aut iussu it 
torum orto haudquaquam par Poenis dimicatic 
Ad miUe et septingenti caesi^ non plus centun 
inanorum sociorumque occisis. Cetcrum victoribi 
fuse sequentibus metu insidiarum obstitit Faulus c 
cuius eo die — nam akernis imperitabaiu — im] 
erat, Vairone indigiiante ac vociferante emtssum \ 
e manibus debellarique, ni cessatum foret, pc 
Hannibal id damnum haud aegerrime {lati; quin 
credere velut inescatam temeritatem ferocioris a 
ac novorum maxime militum esse. Et omnia c 
stium haud secus quam sua nota erant: diss 
discordesque imperitare, duas prope partes ti 
militum in exercitu esse. Itaque locum et t 
insidiis aptum se habere ratus, nocte proxima 
praeter arma ferenti secum milite castra plena 
fortunae publicae privataeque relinquit, transque 
mos montis laeva pedites instructos condit, 
equitest impedimenta per convallem mediam tn 
ut diripiendis velut desertis fuga dominorum 
occupatum inpeditumque hostem opprimeret. 
relicti in castris ignes, ut fides fieret, dum ipse 
gius spatium fuga praeciperet, falsa imagine < 
rum, sicut Fabium priore anno frustratus esset, 
in locis consules voluisse. 

Pauius nsiraifu th$ tirmy^ and diSirters betray Han 


XLII. Ubi inluxit, subductae primo stationes, < 
propius adeuntibus insolitum silentium admirat 
fecit Tum satis conperta solitudine in castris con 
fit ad praetoria consulum nuntiantium fugam h< 
adeo trepidam, ut tabernaculis stantibus castra n 
rint, quoque fuga obscurior esset, ciebros etiai 
lictos ignes. Qamor inde ortus, ut signa p 


iubeient ducerentque ad persequendos hostis ac pro- 
tiniis castra diripienda. Et consul alter velut unus 
torbae militaris erat; Pauhis etiain atque etiam dicere 
providendum praecavendumque esse; postreino, cum ali- 
5 ter neque seditionem neque ducem seditionis sustinere 
posset, Mariuro Statilium praefectum cum turma Lucana 
expioratum mittit Qui ubi adequitavit portis, subsistere 
extra munimenta ceteris iussis ipse cum duobus equi- 
tibus vallum intravit, speculatusque omnia cum cura 

lo renuntiat insidias profecto esse ; ignes in parte castro* 
lum, quae vergat in hostem, relictos, tabernacula a|>erta 
et omnia cara in promptu relicta, argcntum quibusdam 
locis temere per vias velut obicctum ad praedam 
vidisse. Quae ad deterrendos a cupiditate animos nun- 

15 liata erant, ea accenderunt, et clamore orto a miiiti- 

. bus, ni tignum detur, sine ducibus ituros, haudquaquara 

dux defujt; nam extemplo Varro signum dedit profi- 

dscendi. Paiulus, cum ei sua sponte cunctanti pulli 

qaoque ausptcio non addixissent, nimtiari iam eflerenti 

ao porta signa conlegae iussit. Quod quamquam Varro 
aegre est passiis, Flamini tamen recens casus Claudi- 
que consults primo Punico bello memorata navalis clades 
religionem animo incussit Di prope ipsi eo die magis 
distulere quam prohibuere inminentem pestem Romanis. 

M$ Nam forte ita evenit, ut, cum referri signa in castra 
iubenti consult milites non parerent, servi duo. For- 
miani unus, alter Sidicini equitis, qui Senrilio atque 
Atilio consulibus inter pabulatores exccpti a Numidis 
fueiant, profugerent eo die ad dominos. Deductique 
3f9 ad consoles nuntiant omnem exercitum Hannibalis trans 
proxiroos montes sedere in insidiis. Horum opportunus 
adventus consules imperii potentes fecit, cum ambitio 
alteriut wam primum apud eot prava indulgentia roa- 
iestatem tolvisset 


Hanmibal^ short of prcvisioHS^ moves souikvHsrd^ andenc 

Hear Cannae. 

XLIIL Hannibal postquam motos magis incoi 
Komanos quam ad uUiinum temere cvectos vidit, 
qtiiquam detecta fraude in castra rediit. Ibi ( 
dies propter inopiani fruinenti manere nequit^ no^ 
consilia in dies non apud milites solum mixto 
conluvione omnium gentium, sed etiam apud d 
ipsum ortebantur. Nam cum initio fremitus, deinde a 
vociferatio fuisset exposccndum stipendium dcbitum 
rentiumque annonam primo, postremo famem, et 
cenarios milites, maxime Hispani generis, de transi 
cepisse consilium fama csset, ipse etiam intcrdum 
nibal dc fuga in Galliam dicitur agitasse ita, ui 
licto peditatu omni cum equitibus se proripcret. 
haec consilia atque hie habitus animorum esse 
castris, movere inde statuit in calidiora atque eo 
turiora messibus Apuliae loca, simul ut, quo lo 
ab hoste recessisset, transfugia inpeditiora levibus 
nils essent. Profectus est noctc ignibus similiter 
tabemaculisque paucis in speciem relicUy ut insidi 
par priori metus condneret Romanoi^'U^d per eur 
Lucanum Statilium onmibus ultra castra trans(]ue ni 
exploratis cum relatum essety /visum procul hos 
agmen, tum de insequendo eo' * consilia agitari co 
Cum.' utriusque consulis eadsm /quae ante seispcr 
set sententia, ceterum Varroiii^fere omhes, PaukrT 
praeter Servilium, prioris anni consulcm, adscntirclni 
maioris partis sententia ad nobilitandas clade Ror 
Cannas urgente fato profecti sunt. Prope eum vi 
Hannibal castra posuerat aversa a Voltumo vento, 
campis torridis siccitate nubes pulveris vehit. Id 
ipsis castris percommodum fuit, tum salutan praec 
futunira erat, cum aciem dirigerent, ipsi ais^^rsi; i 
tantum adflante vento, in occaecatum pulvere oi 
hostem pugnaturi. 


Remans follow^ and again ferm two eam/s* 

XLI V. r Consules sads exploratis itineribus sequentes 
FoenuiD, ut ventum ad Cannas est, et in conspectu 
Poenum habebanty bina castra communiunt eodem ferme 
intervallo, quo ad Gereoniuni, stcut ante copiis divisis. 
5 Aufidius amnis utrisque castris adfluens aditum aquato- 
ribus ex sua cuiusque opportunitate baud sine certa- 
mine dabat; ex minoribus tamen castris, quae posita 
trans Aufidium enuit, liberius aquabantur Romani, quia 
ripa ulterior nullum habebat hostium praesidium. Han- 

to nibal spem nanctus locis natis ad equestrem pugnam, 
qua parte virium invictus erat, facturos copiam pugnan- 
di consules, derigit aciem lacessitque Numidarum procur- 
tatione hostis. Inde rursus soUicitari seditione militari 
ac discordia consulum Romana castra, cum Paulus 

■5 Sempronique et ' Flamini , temeritatem Varroni, Varro 

Paulo ipeci^um timidb ac segnibus duclbus exemplum 

Fabiuro obiceiet, '\estareturque deos hominesque hie, 

nuUam penes se culpam esse, quod Hannibal iam velut 

^ iisu cepisset Italiam; se constrictum a conlega teneri, 

JO ferrum atque, arma iratis et pugnare cupientibus adimi 
roilitibus; ille, si c;uid proiectis ac proditis ad incon- 
•ultam atque inprovidam pugnam legionibus accideret, 
le omnb cnlpae exsortem^^' omhis eventus participem 
lore, dkercii^ videre^ ut, ^uibus lingua, prompta ac 

M$ lemenria, aeque in pugna vtgerent manus. ' 

Tki baiiU af Cannot. Arrangement of ike Roman forces, 

XLV. Dam altercationibus magis quam consiliis tern- 
pus teritur, Hannibal ex acte, qiHam ad multum diei 
teaoerat instructam, cum in castra ceteras reciperet 
copiaii Numidas ad invadendos ex minoribus castris 
JO Romanomm if^\iitorW ^trans flumen mittit. Quam in-* 
cooditam toibam cum vixdum in ripam egressi clamore 


ac turoultu fugasscnt, in sutionem quoque pro 
locaum atque ipsas prope portas evecti sunL Id 
adeo indignuni visum, ab turoultuario auxilio iai^. 
castra Komana terreri, ut ea modo una causa, n< 
templo transirent Auinen derigerentque acicm, tenueri 
manosy quod suinma imperii eo die penes l^iulum 
luque postero die Varro, cuius son eius diei ii 
eraty nihil consuko conlega signum proposuit insir 
que copias flumen traduxit, sequente l^ulo, quia 
non probare quam non adiuvare consilium pc 
Traosgressi flumen ieas quoque, quas in castris n 
bus liabueranti copias suis adiungunt atque ita inst 
aciem: in dextro cornu^id erat flumini propius- 
^manos equiies locant, deinde pedites; laevum 
_ extremi equites sociorum, intra pedites ad mc 
iuncti legionibus Roinanis tenuerunt; iacuhtores 
ceteris levium annorum auxiliis prima acies facta, 
sules cornua tenuere, Terentius laevum, Aemilius 
trum; Gemino Servilio media pugna tuenda data. 

Order of haiiU of ike Pnfuc mrmy. 

XLVI. Hannibal luce prima, Baliaribus leviquc 
armatnra praemissa, tninsgressus flumen, ut quo5qu< 
dtixerat, ita in acie locabat; Gallos Hispanosque 
tes prope ripam laevo in comu adversttf^ Rom 
cqti^rntum, Hex trum comu Numidis equitibus d 
^' media '^acic peditibus firmata, ita ut Afronim ut 
cornua essent, interponerentur his medii Galli 
Hispani. Afros Romanam crederes aciem; ita i 
erant armis et ad Trebiam, cetenim magna ex pai 
Trasumennum captis. Gallts Hispanisque scuta eit 
formae fere erant, dispares ac dtssimiles gladii, 
praelongt ac sine mucronibus, Hispano, punctim 
quanv caesim. adsneto petere hostem, brevitate h 
et cum mucronibus. Ante alios habitus gentium I 


cum magnitudine corponim turn specie terribilis erat; 
Galli super umbilicum erant nudi; Hispani linteis prae- 
textis purpura tunicis candore miro fulgentibus con- 
siiterant Numcrus omnium peditum, qui turn stetere 

5 in acie^ milium fuit quadragintdi decern equitum. Duces 
Gomibus praeeranty sinistro Hasdrubal, dextro Maliar- 
bal; mediam aciem Hannibal ipse cum fratre Magone 
lenuit Sol» seu de industria ita Ibcatis, seu quod forte 
ita steteie, peropportune utrique parti obliquus erat, 

ID Romanis in meridiem, Poenis in septemtrionem versLs. 
Ventus — Voltumum regionis incolae vocant — adversus 
Romanis coortus multo pulvere in ipsa ora volvendo 
pixispectum ademit 

7Xr R^man tavalry is dnven off iki field* Thi iegions^ ai 
first a^paremiiy suuissfid^ ars tntirtfy surrounded fy the 

XLVII. Clamore sublato procursum ab auxiliis et 

■S pugna levibus primum armis commissa ; deinde equitum 
Galkmim Hispanorumque laevum comu cum dextro 
Romano concurrit, minime equestris more pugnae; 
frontibus enim adversis concurrendum erat, quia, nullo 
circa ad evaganduro relicto spatio, hinc. amnis, hinc 

so peditum acies claudebant. In derectum utrimque ni- 
tentes stantibus ac confertis postremo turba equis vir 
vinmi amplexus detrahebat . equo. Pedestre magna iam 
ex parte cerumen (actum ^ent; acrius tamen quam' 
diutius pugnatum est, ^[fllilsique Romani equites terga ; 

fl5ifcitttnt Sob equestris finem certaminis coorta est pe- 
ditum pagna, primo et viribus et anfmis 'par, dum 
constabant ordines Gallis Hispanisque ; tandem Romani, 
ditt ac saepe conist, obliqua fronte, acieque densa in* 
palere hosHum ^'netiih'' :nimis teouemy e^uc parum 

l»validum« a cetera promihentem adle./^^pubis ^nde^ac^' 
Hcpide re^f^fiiiSiis pedemymstitere, ac tenore uno per 
piacoepa pavore fugientittm/agmen in mediam primum 


aciem bUti, postremo nuUo resistente ad subskiia 
rum pcrvcncrunt, qui utriiiiqu« reductis alis coi 
rant^' media, qua GalU His|>amque steterant, aliqus 
prominente acic. Qui cuncus ul pulsus aequavit 
tem primum, dcin ccdcndo etiam sinum in i 
dcdit, Afri circa iam cornua fcccrant, innienubi 
incaute in medium Romanis circumdedcrc alas; 
cornua extendendo clausere el ab tergo ^Pstis. 
Romania defuncti nequiquam proelio uno, omissis ( 
Hispanisque, quorum terga cccideiant, advcisus 
integram pugnam incunt, non tantum eo iniquam, 
inclusi advc^rsus circumfusos, scd etiam quod fessi 
recentibus ac vegetis pugnalMuit. - 

Siratagtm 0/ ike Numidians 0m ik€ PunU righi wih 

XLVIIL lam et sinistro comu Romano^ ubi s 
mm equites adversus Numidas stcterant, conse 
proelium erat, segnc primo et a Punica coeptum in 
Quingenti ferme Numidae, praeter solita arma tcl 
gladios occultos sub loricis habentes, s))ccie transfug: 
cum ab suis parmas post teiga hal)entes adequitas 
repente ex equis desiliunt, parmi$c]uc et iaculis 
pedes hostium proiectis in mediam aciem accepti d 
que ad ultimos considere ab tergo iubentur. Ac 
proelium ab omni parte conseritur» quieti manser 
postqnam omnium animos oculosque occupaverat c< 
men, tum arreptis scutis, quae passim inter ace 
caesonim corporum strata erant, avcrsam adoriii 
Romanam aciem, tergaque ferientes ac poplites 
dentes stragem ingentem ac maiorem aliquanto p 
rem ac tumultum fecerunt. Cum alibi terror ac f 
alibi pertinax in mala iam spe proelium esset, \ 
drubal, qui ea parte praeerat^ subductos ex m< 
ade Numidas, quia segnis eonim cum adversis pu 
cral, ad penequendoi passim fugientis mittit, Hispa 

194 TlTl LI VI All UKB£ CONDlTA 


et Gallos cquites Afris piope iam fessis cacde magis 
quam pugna adiuogit. 

Pmmius^ irying to raify the troops^ is kUUd. Enormous loss 

of ike Romans* 

XLIX. P^rle altera pugnae Paulus, quamquam primo 
statim proelio funda graviter ictus fuerat, tamen et oc* 
5 currit laepe cum confcnis Hannibali et aliquot locis 
proeiium restituit, prolegentibus eum equitibus Romanis, 
oinissis postremo cquis, quia consulem et ad rcgcndum 
cquum vires deficiebant. Turn denuntianti cuidam ius- 
sisse consulem ad pedes descendcre equites, dixtssc 

lo Uannibalem ferunt '* Quam mallcin^ vinctos mihi trade- 
ret ! " Equitum peilcstrc proeiium, quale iam baud du* 
bia hostium victoria, fuit, cum victi mori in vestigio 
mallem quam fugere, victores moranlibus victoriani irati 
trucidarent, quos peilere non poterant. Pepulerunt u- 

15 mm iam paucos superantis et labore ac vulneribus 
fessos. Inde dissipati omnes sunt, cquosque ad fugam 
qui poterant repetebant Cn. Lentulus tribunus militum 
cum praetervehens equo sedentem in saxo cniore op- 
pletum consulem vidisset, ''U Aemili" inquit, *' quern 

ao unum insontem culpae cladis hodiemac dei respicere 
debent, cape hunc equum, dura et tibi virium aliquid 
superest, et comes ego te tollere possum ac protegere. 
Ne fanestam banc pugnam morte consulis feceris; 
ctiam sine hoc lacrimarum satis luctusque est" Ad 

S5 ea consul : ^ Tu quidem, Cn. Cornell, macte virtute 
esto; sed cave frustra miserando exiguum tempus e 
nanibus hostium evadendi absumas* Abi, nuntia pu- 
Uice patribus, urbem Romanam mnniant, ac, priusquam 
hostis victor advenit, praesidiis iinnent; privatim Q. 

30 Fabio, Aemilium praeccptorum eius memorem et vixisse 
adhoc et morL Memet in hac strage militum meorum 
patere expitare, ne aut reus iterum e oonsulatu sim 


autaccusator conlegae exbtam, ut alieno crimine u 
centiam meam prot^am." Haec cos agentis p 
turba fugientiuiD dviuiDi deinde hostcs oppressere; c 
sulem ignorantes, quis esset, obniere teliSy Lcntu 
inter tumultum abripuit equua. Turn undique efl 
fugiunt. Septem milia hominum in minoia castia, 
cem in maiora, duo fernie in vicum ipsum Can 
perfugerunty qui extemplo a Caithalone atquc equitil 
nulio rounimento tegentc vicum, circumventi sunt. C 
sul alter, seu forte seu consilio nuUi fugientium 
sertus agmini, cum quinquaginta fere equitibus Vcnusi 
perfugit. Quadraginta quinque milia quingenti pedit 
duo milia septingenti equites, et tantadem prope 
vium sociorumque pars, caesi dicuntur; in his am 
consulum quaestores, L. Atilius et L. Furius Biba< 
lus, et undetriginta tribuni militum, consulares quid: 
praetoriique et aedilicii - inter eos Cn. Servilium C 
minum et M« Minucium numerant, qui roagister eqi 
turn priore anno, aliquot annis ante consul fuerati • 
octoginta praeterea aut senatores aut qui eos maj 
stratus gessissent, unde in senatum legi deberent, cu 
sua voluntate milites in legionibus facti essent. Cap 
eo proelio tria milia peditum et equites mille et qui 
genti dicuntur. 

Somi nmnaHts of the btnieH army €scap€4o Canusium fy nigk 

L. Haec est pugna Cannensis, Aliensi cladi nobil 
tate par, ceterum ut illis, quae post pugnam acciden 
levior, quia ab hoste est cessatum, sic strage exercitu 
gravior foediorque. Fuga namque ad Aliam sicv 
urbem prodidit, ita exercitum senravit; ad Cannas fu 
gientem consulem vix quinquaginta secuti sun^ alteriu 
morientis prope totus exercitus fuit 

Binis in castns cum multitudo semiermis sine duci 
bus esset, nuntium qui in maioribus enint miuunt 
dum pioelioy deinde ex laeiitia epulis fittigatos quid 


noctunia hostes premcret, ut ad se transirent; uno 
agmine Canusium abituros esse. Earn sententiam alii 
totam aspeniari: cur enim illos, qui se . arcessant, ipsos 
non venire, cum aeque coniungi possent? Quia vide- 
5 licet plena hostium omnia in medio essent, et aliorum 
quam sua corpora tanto periculo mallent obicere. Aliis 
non tam sententta dispUcere quam animus deesse. P. 
Sempronius Tuditanus triliunus militum ''Capi ergo ma- 
Yultis" inquit "ab avarissimo et crudelissimo hoste, 

10 aestimarique capita vestra et exquiri pretia ab inter- 
logantibusy Romanus civis sis an Latinus socius, ut ex 
tua contumelia et miseria alteri honos quaeratur? Non 
tUy si quidem Li. Aemili consulis, qui se bene mori 
quam turpiter vivere maluit, et tot. fortissimorum viro- 

15 rum, qui circa eum cumulati iacent,' cives estis. Sed 
antequam opprimit lux, maioraque hostium agmina ob- 
saepiunt iler, per hos, qui inordinati atque inconpositi 
obstrepunt portis, efUmpamus. Ferro atque audacia via 
fit quamvts per confertos hostis. Cuneo quidem hoc 

JO laxum atque solutum agmen, ut si nihil obstet, disi- 
cias. . Itaque ite mecum, qui et vosmet ipsos et rem 
publicam sal/am vultis.'* Haec ubi dicta dedit, stringit 
gladium cuneoque iacto per medios vadit hostis. Et 
dim in latus dextrum, quod patebat, Numidae iacula- 

ss rentur, tianslatb in dextrum scutis in maiora castra 
ad sescentQS evaserunti atque inde protinus alio magno 
agmine adiuncto Canusium incolumes perveniunt Haec 
apod victos roagis impetu animorumi quos ingenium 
saum Cttique aut fors dabat, quam ex consilio ipsorum 

JO ant imperio cuiusqviam agebantur. 

MtJuurhtU urgtt an immnRaii mtrtfemint upon i?#M/. Th€ 

k^rr^rs of iki baiiU-field. 

LI. Hanpibali victor! cum ceteri drcumfusi gretula- 
rentnr suaderentque, ut tanto perfunctus bello diei quod 
idjcuni esset. noctisque insequentis quietem et ipse sibi 


sumeret et fessis daret tnilitibus, Maharbal, prael 
cquituni, ininime cessandum ratus, *' Immo ut, quid 
pugna sit actum, scias, die quinto" inquit '^victo 
Capitolio epulaberis. Scquere; cum e<|uite, ut 
venisse quam venturum sciant, praecedam.'* Hani 
nimis laeta res est visa maiorque, quam ut eara 
tim capere animo posset Itaque voluntatem se 
dare MaharUalis ait, ad consilium pensandum tern 
opus esse. Tum Maharbal : " Non omnia ntm 
eidem di dedere; vincere scis, Hannibal, victoria 
nescis." Mora eius diet satis creditur saluti fuisse 
atque imperio. 

Postero die ubi primum tniuxit, ad spolia leg< 
foedamque etiam hostibus spectandam stragem insisi 
lacebant tot Romanorum miiia, peditcs passim equ 
que, ut quem cuique fors aut pugna iunxerat aut t 
Adsurgentes quidam ex strage media cruenti, quos st 
matutino frigore excitaverant vulnera, ab hoste oppi 
sunt. Quosdaro et iacentis vivos succisis femin 
poplitibusque invenerunt, nudantis cervicem iuguluni 
et relicum sanguinem iubentes haurire. Inventi < 
dam sunt mersis in efibssam terram capitibus, quois 
ipsos fecisse foveas obruentisque ora supcriccta hi 
interclusisse spiritum apparebat. Praecipue conv< 
omnes subtractus Numida mortuo superincubanti ] 
mano vivus naso auribusque lacerati^, cum ille niani 
ad capiendum teUim inutilibus, in rabiem ira versa, 
• niando dentibus hostem expirasset. 

Smrrttukr cf semi Romans in iktir camps. Kindmu sha 

the fugitivts at Canusium. 

LII. Spoliis ad multum diei lectis, Hannibal ad i 
nora ducit castra oppugnanda, et omnium primi 
brachio obiecto flumine eos excludit. Cetenim ab o 
nibus labore, vigiliis, vulneribus etiam fessis maturi 
ipsius spe deditio est • facta- Pacti, ut arroa atq 


equos traderenty in capita Romana trecenis nummis 
quadrigatjs, in socios ducenis, in servos centenis, et 
ut CO pretio persoluto cum singulis abirent vestimentis, 
in castra hostis acccpenint, traditique in custodiam 
5 onines sunt, seoisum cives sociique. Dum ibi tempus 
teritur, interea cum ex maioribus castris, quibus satis 
vtrium et animi fuit, ad quattuor milia hominum et 
ducenti equites, alii agmine, alii palati passim per 
agros, quod baud minus tutum erat, Canusium per- 

lo fugissent, castra i|isa ab sauciis timidisque eadem con- 
dicione, qua altera, tradita hosti. Praeda ingens parta 
cst| et praeter equos virosque et si quid argenti — 
quod pluriroum in phaleris equorum erat, nam ad ve- 
aceodum (acto perexiguo, utique niilitantes, utebantur 

15 — omnis cetera praeda diripienda data est. Turn se- 
peliendi causa conferri in unum corpora suoruro iussit. 
Ad octo milia Aiisse dicuntur fortissimorum virorum. 
CoDsukm quoque Romfmum conquisitum sepulturoque 
quidaro auctores sunt. 

im perfugerant, mulier Apula nomine 
Bosa, genere clara ac divitiis, moenibus tantum tectis- 
que a Canusinis acceptos, frumento, veste, viatico etiam 
invit, pro qua ei munificentia postea, bello perfectOy ab 
senatn honores habiti sunt. 

yimmg P. Sci^ tupprtssts a phi of some young nobUs to 

destrt ikeir country • 

<S LIIL Ceterum cum ibi tribuni militum quattuor 
essent, Fabiui Maximus de legione prima, cuius pater 
priore anno dictator fuerat, et de legione secunda L. 
PbUidus Bibttlus et P. Cornelius Scipio, et de legione 
tcrtia Ap. Oaudius Pulcher, qui proxime aedilis fuent, 

30 omnium consensu ad P. Scipionem admodum adule- 
soentem et ad Ap. Gaudium summa imperii delata est 
(Juibiis consultantibus inter paucos de tumma rerum 
ntiniilil p. F«iriu9 Pbilus, consubri? riri Alius, nequir 


qaam eos perditam spem fovcre; desperatam coi 
ratamque rem esse publicain ; nobiles iuvenes quos 
quorum principem M. Caeciiium Metellum, marc 
naves spectare, ut deserta Italia ad regum alic 
transfugiant Quod malum, praeterquam atioxy s 
tot dades etiam novum, cum stupore ac miraculo 
pidos defixisset qui aderant, et consilium advocan 
de eo censerent, negat consilii rem esse Scipio iuv 
fatalis dux huiusce belli. Audendum aiquc agenc 
non consultandum ait in tanto malo esse; irent sc 
extemplo armati, qui rem publicam salvam veil 
nulla veriusy quam ubi ea cogitentur, hostium c 
esse. Pergit ire sequentibus |)aucis in hospitium 
telli ety cum concilium ibi iuvenum, de quibus adk 
erat, invenisset, stricto super capita consultantium gl 
"Ex mei anin>i scntentia'' inquit, "ut ego rem pi 
cam populi Roniani non deseram, neque alium ci 
Romanum deserere patiar; si sciens fallo, tum 
luppiter optimus maximus domum, familiam remque m 
pessimo leto adficiat. In haec verba, M. Caecili, i 
postulo ceterique qui adestis; qui non iuraverit, in 
hunc gladiuui strictum esse sciat" Haud secus pai 
quam si victorem Hannibalem cemerent, iurant .on 
custodiendosque semct ipsos Scipioni tradunt. 

Varro uniies the wrecks of ike nrmy ai Canusinm, Ex 

j^eraied reports at Rome. 

LIV. Eo tempore, quo haec Canusii ageban 
Venusiam ad consulem ad quattuor milia et quing< 
pedites equitesque, qui sparsi fuga per agros fuen 
pervenere. Eos omnes Venusini per familias beni] 
accipiendos curandosque cum divisissent, in singulos ec 
tes togas et tunicas et quadrigatos nummos quii 
vicenos et pediti denos, et arma quibus deerant de 
runt, ' ceteraque publice ac privatim hospitaliter fa( 
ccrtatumque, ne a muliere Canusina populus Veoi 


nus officiis vinceretur. Sed gravius onus Busae muU 
titudo faciebaty el iam ad decern milia hominum eranti 
Appiusque et Scipio, postquam incolumem esse alterum 
coDsulem accepeninty nuntiutn extemplo niittunt, quao- 
5 tae secum |)edituin equitumque copiae essent, sciscita- 
tumque simul, utrum Venusiam adduci exercitum an 
manere iuberet Canusii. Varro ipse Canusium copias 
traduxit. £t iam aliqua species consularis exercitus 
ciaty moenibusque se certCi etsi non armis, ab hoste 

lo videbantur defensuri. 

Rornam ne has quidem reliquias superesse civiuin so- 
doramque, sed occidione occisum cum duobus consuli- 
bus exercitum deletasque omnes copias adlatum fuerat 
Numquam salvn urbe tantum pavoris tumultusque intra 

15 moenia Komana fuit. Jtaquc, ne succumbam oneri, neque 

• adgrediar narrare, quae cilisscrtando minora vcro faciam. 
Consule exercituque ad Trasumennum priore anno amissOy 
non vulnus super vulnus, sed multiplex dadeSy cum duo- 
bus consulibus duo consulares exercitus amissi. nuntia. 

JO bantur, nee ulla iam castra Romana ncc ducem nee 
militem esse; Hannibalis Apuliam, Samnium ac iam 
prope totam Italiam factam. Nulla profccto alia gens 
Uinta mole cLidis non obruta esset. Conpares aut 
cladem ad Aegatis insulas Canhaginiensium proelio 

ts navali acceptam, qua fracti Sicilia ac Sardinia cessere, 
el vectignlis ac stipendiarios fieri se passi sunt, aut 
pugnam adversam in Africa, cut postea hie ipse Han- 
nibal succubuit: nulla ex parte comparandae sunt, nisi 
quod minore animo latae sunt 

Tki SinaU tuumbiis^ and &rdir is ratortd to ike city. 


19 LV. P. Furius Philus et M. Pomponius praetores 
senatum in curiam Hostiliam vocaverunt, ut de urbis 
coslodia consnierent; neque enim dubitabant deletis 
exerchibus hostem ad oppngnandam Romam, quod 
Ulttin opus belli restaret, venturum. Cum in malis 


sicuti ingentibuSy ita ignotis ne consilium quidem t 
expedireiit, obstrcperetque chinor bmentantium mi 
rum, ct, nondum palam £Kto^ vivi mortuiquc per 
nes paene domos promiscue conptorareDtur, tum 
Fabius Maximus censuit equites expedites et Appi: 
Laiina via mittendos, qui obvios percunctando — ali< 
profecto ex fuga passim dissipatos fore — referanty < 
fortuna consulum atque exercituum sit, et, si quic 
inmortales, miscriti imperii* relicum Romani non 
fccerint, ubi eac copiae sint; quo se Hannibal 
proelium contulerit, quid iiaret, quid agat actum; 
sit. Haec exploranda noscendaque per inpigros iuv 
esse; illud per i)atres ipsos agendum, quoniam n 
stiatuum paium sit, ut tumultum ac trepidationem 
urbe toUanty matronas publico arceant contineriqtie 
tra suum quamque limen cogant, conploratus iamili^ 
coerccant, silentium per urbem fociant, nuntios n 
omnium ad praetores dcducendos curent, suae qui; 
fortunae domi auctorem expectet, custodesque [ 
terea ad portas ponant, qui piohibeant quemq 
egredi urbc, cogantque homines nullam nisi urbc 
moenibus salvis salutem si)crare. Ubi conticucrit 
multus, tum in curiam patrcs revocandos const 
dumque de urbis custodia esse. 

Tiding come at last from Varro, Tht Stnati skortem 
period of moumiNj^, Bad newt from Sicify, 

LVI. Cum in banc sententiam pedibus omnes 
sent, submotaque foro i)er magistratus turba^ p 
diversi ad sedandos tumultus discessissent, tum der 
litterae a C. Terentio consute adlatae sunt: L. A 
lium consulem exercitumque caesum; sese Canusii 
reliquias tantae cladis velut ex naufragio coUigen 
Ad decem roilia militum ferme esse inconpositc 
inordinatorumque. Poenum sedere ad Cannas, in 
tivonim pretiis praedaque alia nee victoris animo 






magni duels more nundinaniem. Turn privatae quoque 
per domos clades vulgatae sunt, adeoque totam urbcm 
opplevit luclusy ot sacrum anntversarium Cereris inter- 
missum sit, quia nee lugentlbus id facere est fas, nee 
5 ulla in ilia tempestate matrona expers luctus fuerat. 
Itaque ne ob eandem eausam alia quoque saeni pu- 
blica aut privata desererentur, senatus eonsulto diebus 
triginta luctus est finitus. Ceterum cum, sedato urbis 
tumultu, revocati in curiam patres essent, aliae insu|)er 
lo ex Sicilia litterae adlatae sunt ab T. Oucilio pro- 
praetore: regnum Hieronb classe Punica vastari; cui 
cum opem inploranti ferre vellet, nuntiatum sibi esse 
aliam classem ad Aegatis insulas stare paratam in- 
stnictamque, ut, ubi se versum ad tuendam Syraeu- 
15 sanam oram Poeni scnsissent, Lilybaeum extemplo 
provinciamque aliam Romanam adgrederentur ; itaque 
dasse opus esse, si regem soduro Siciliamque tueri 

Exicuiiom 0f two Vestais. Humnn tacrifias are offtred, Rt^ 
imftntments «r# sent to ike army^ and new texnes raised. 

LVII. Litteris consults praetorisque lectis, censuerunt 

JO praetorem M. Claudium, qui classi ad Ostiam stanti 

praeesset, Canusium ad exercitum mittendum, scriben- 

dumque consuli, ut, cum praetori exercitum tradidissct, 

primo quoque tempore, quantum per commodum rei 

piiblicae fieri posset, Romam veniret. Territi etiani 

aj super tantas clades aim ceteris prodigiis, turn quod 

duae Vestalcs eo anno, Opimia atque Floronia, stupri 

conpertae, et altera sub terra, uti mos est, ad portam 

Collinam necata fiierat, altera sibimet ipsa mortem con* 

tchreiat. L Cantilius, scriba pontificius, quos nunc mi« 

j» Dores pontifices adpellant, qui cum Ftoronia stuprum 

fecerat, a pontifice maximo eo usque virgis in comitio 

enty at inter verbera exptraret Hoc nefas cum 

iQlp u| fit* clades in pfx)digium versqm esset, 


decemviri libros adire iussi sunt, et Q. Fabius F 
Dclphos ad oraculum missus est sciscitatum qi 
precibus suppliciisque deos posscnt placarc, et qua< 
futura finis tantis ckidibus foret. Interim ex iata 
libris sacrificia aliquot extraordinaria facta; inter 
Callus et Galla, Graecus et Graeca in foro bo 
sub terram vivi demissi sunt in locum saxo consaef 
iam ante hostiis humanis, minime Ronuuio s 

Placatis satis, ut rebantur, deis, M. Claudius 
celUis ab Ostia milie et quingentos milites, quo 
clossem scriptos habebat, Romam, ut urbi prac 
essenti mittit ; ipse, legione classica — ea legio 
erat — cum tribunts militum Teanum Sidicinum 
missa, classe tradita P. Furio Philo conlegae, p^ 
post dies Canusium magnis itineribus contendit. 
dictator ex auctoritate {latnuii dictus M. Junius e 
Sempronius magister equituni dilectu edicto iuniore 
annis septemdecim et quosdam praetextatos scri 
Quattuor ex his legiones et millc equites efTecti. 
ad socios Latinumque nomen ad milites ex formula 
piendos mittunt. Arma, tela, alia parari iubcnt e( 
tcra six>]ia hostium detrahunt tcmplis porticibusque. 
formam novi dilectus inopia libcrorum capitum ac 
cessitas dcdit; octo milia iuvenum validonim ex 
vitiis prius scisciuintes singulos, vcllcntne militarc, e 
publice armavenuit Hie miles magis ptncuit, cum 
tio minore redimendi captivos copia fieret 

HaHnibaPs inalmtut of his pris&Hirs. Tki captwe Ro, 
s€nd to iki cmpiiai U ask a ransom. 

LVIII. Namque Hannibal secundum tam prosp 
ad Cannas pugnam victoris magis quam bellum g 
tis intentus curis, cum, captivis prodnctis segregati 
socios, sicut ante ad Trebiam Trasumennumque la 
benigne adlocutus sine pretio dimisisset, Romanos 



que vocatos quod nunquam alias antea, satis niiti 

sermone arlloquitur: non internecivum sibi esse cum 

Romania bellum ; rle dignitate atque impcrio certare. 

Et patres virtuti Romanae cessisse, et se id adniti, ut 

5 suae in vicem simul felicitati et virtuti cedatur. Ita- 

que redimendi se captivis copiam facere; pretium fore 

in capita equid quingenos quadrigatos nummos, tre* 

cenos peditii servo centenos. Quamquam aliquantum 

adiciebatur equitibus ad id pretium, quo pepigerant de- 

to dentes se, laeti tamen quanKumque condicioncm paci- 

scendi acceperunt Placuit sufTragio ipsorum decern 

deligiy qui Romam ad senatum irent, nee pignus aliud 

fideiy quam ut iurarent se redituros, acceptum. Missus 

cum his Carthalo nobilis Carthaginiensis, qui, si forte 

15 ad pacem inclinaret animus, condiciones ferret. Cum 

• egressi castris essent, unus ex iis, minime Romani 

ingenii homO| veiuti aliquid oblitus, iuris iurandi sol- 

vendi causa cum in castra redisset, ante noctem co- 

mites adsequitur. Ubi Romam venire eos nuntiatum 

to est, Carthaloni obviam lictor missus, qui dictatoris verbis 

' Bimtiaret, ut ante noctem excederet finibus Romanis. 

Spttch pf their envoys before ike Se^aie* 

LIX. Legatis captivorum senatus ab dictatore datus est 
Quorum princeps '' M. luni vosque, patres conscripti/' 
inquit, ''nemo nostrum ignorat nuUi umquam civitati 

35 tnliores foisse captivos quam nostrae ; ceterum, nisi 
nobis plus iusto nostra placet causa, non alii umquam 
minus neglegendi vobis quam nos in hostinm potesta- 
tem venerunt Non enim in acie per timorem arma 
tradidimiis, sed cum prope ad noctem superstantes 

30 comulis caesonim corporum proelium extraxissemus, in 
castm recepimns nos; diei relicum ac noctem inse- 
quentem fessi labore ac vulneribus vallum sumus tutati; 
pottero die, cum circum9essi ab exercitu victore aqua 


arceremur, nee ulla iain per cohfcrtos hosiis crump 

s|)es essct, ncc esse nefas ducercmus, quini]uaginu 

bus hominum ex acie nostra trucidatis, aliquem 

Canncnsi pugna Romanum militem restarvi tunc 

mum |Mcti suinus pretium, quo redempti dimitterc 

arma, in quibus nihil iam auxilii erat, hosti tradidi 

Maiorcs quoque acceperamus se a Gallis auro : 

misse, et patres vestros, asperrimos illos ad condic 

pacis, legatos tamen captivorum redimendorum ( 

Tarcntum misisse. Atqui et ad Aliam cum Gall 

ad Hcracleam cum Pyrrho utraque non tarn dad 

famis quam {tavore et fuga pugna fuit. Cannensis 

|)os acervi Romanorum corix>rum tegunt, nee suf 

mus ])ugnaey nisi in quibus trucidandis et ferrui 

vires hostcm defecerunt. Sunt etiam de nostris qui 

qui ne in acie quidem fuere, sed praesidio c 

relicti, cum castra traderentur, in potestatem ho 

venerunt Hand equidem uUius civis et commil 

fortunae aut condicioni invideo, nee premendo 

me extulisse velim; ne illi quidem, nisi pernii 

pedum et cursus aliquod praemium est, qui pic 

incrmes ex acie fugientes non prius quam Venusia< 

Canusi constiterunt, se nobis merito practulcrint g 

tique sint in se plus quam in nobis prcsidii rei 

blicae esse. Sed et illis bonis ac fortibus militibus 

mini et nobis etiam promptioribus pro patria, 

bcneficio vestro redempti atque in patriam restitu 

erimus. Dilectum ex omni aetate et fortuna hal 

octo milia servorum audio armari. Non minor r 

rus noster est. Nee maiore pretio redimi possi 

quam ii emuntur ; nam si conferam nos cum 

iniuriam nomini Romano faciam. Iltud etiam in 

consilio animadvertendum vobis ' censeam, patres 

scripti, si iam duriores esse velitis, quod nullo r 

merito iaciatis, cut nos hosti reltcturi sitis : P) 

videlicet, qui hospitum numero eaptivos habuit. 



baibaro ac Pdeno, qui utrum avarior an crudelior sit, 
vix exisUmari potest? Si videatis catenas, squalorem, 
deformitatem civium vestrorum, non minus profecto vos 
ca species moveat, quam si ex altera parte cematis 
5 stiatas Cannensibus campis legiones vestras. Intueri po- 
testis soUicitudinem et lacrimas in vestibulo curiae 
stantium cognatorum nostrorum expectantiumque respon- 
sum vestrum. Cum ii pro nobis proque iis, qui ab- 
sunt, ita suspensi ac soUiciti sint, quem censetis animum 

ID ipsorum esse, quorum in discriminc vita libertasque 
est? Sed si, me dius fidius, ipse in nos mitis Han- 
nibal contra naturam suam esse velit, nihil tamen no- 
bis vita opus esse censeamus, cum indigni ut redinie- 
remur vobis visi simus. Rediere Romam quondam 

15 remissa a I^ho sine pretio capti ; sed rediere cum 
legatis, primoribus civitatis, ad redimendos sese missis. 
Redeam ego in patriam trecentis nummb non aesti- 
mattts civis? Suum quisque animum habet, patres con- 
icripti. Scio in discrimine esse vitam corpusque meum; 

to magis roe faroae periculum movet, ne a vobis damnati 
ac lepuhi abeamus ; neque enim vos pretio peperdsse 
homines credent'* 

Mamiims Twrquatut cpposa thi request of the captives. 

LX. Ubi is finem fecit, extemplo ab ea turba, quae 
in comitio erat, clamor flebilis est sublatus, manusque 

S5 ad curiam tendebant orantes, ut sibi liberos, fratres, 
cognatos redderent. Femtnas quoqne metus ac ne- 
cessitas in foro turbae virorum inmiscuerat Senatus 
submotts arbitris consult coeptus. Ibi cum sententiis 
variaretor, et alii redimendos de publico, alii nullam 

30 paUice mpensam faciendam nee prohibcndos ex pri- 
vato redimi, si quibus argentum in praesentia deesset, 
dandam ex aerario pccuniam mutuam praedibusque ac 
pnediis cavendum . populo censerent, tum T. Manlius 
ToiquatiiSy priscae ac ntmb durae, ut plerisque vide* 

LIDEK XXil. CAl*. LX. 

Itttur, sevcriutis, interrogatus sententiam ila locutw 
tur: "Si Untummodo postulassent legati pro iis, c\ 
hostium potestatc sunt, ut redimerentur, sine 
insectatione eoniin brevi sententiam peregissem; 
enim aliud quain admonendi essetis, ut morem 
turn a patribus necessario ad rein militarem cx( 
scn'aretis? Nunc autem, cum prope gloriati sint, 
se hostibus dediderint, praeferrique non captis mo 
acie ab hostibus, sed etiaai iis, qui Vcnusiam C 
umque pervenerunt, atque ipsi C Terentio c 
aecum censucrint, nihil vos eorum, patres cons 
quae illic acta sunt, ignorare patiar. Atque v 
haeci quae apud vos acturas sum, Canusii apud 
exercitum agcrcm, optimum testem ignaviae cuiusq 
virtutis, aut unus hie saltem adessct P. Sempr 
quem si isti ducem secuti essent, milites hodie i 
stris Romanis, non captivi in hostium potestatc < 
Sed cum, fcssis pugnando hostibus, turn victoria 
et ipsis plerisque rcgressis in castra sua, noctei 
erumpendum liberam habuissent, et septem milia 
torum hominum enimpcre etiam per confertos 
possent, neque per se ipsi id facere conati sunt, 
alium sequi voluerunt. Nocte prope tota P. So 
nius Tuditanus non destitit monere, adhortari cos, 
paucitas hostium circa castra, dum quics ac silc 
esset, dum nox inceptum tegere posset, se ducci 
querentur: ante lucem pervenire in tuta loca, in 
orum urbes posse. Si ut avonim memoria P. I 
tribunus niilitum in Samnio, si ut nobis adulcscc 
priore Punico liello Calpumius Flamma trecentis ^ 
tariis, cum ad tumuUim eos capiendum situm 
medios duceret hostis, dixit: 'Moriamur, mih'tc 
morte nostra eripiamus ex obsidione circumventas 
ones,' si hoc P. Sempronius diceret, nee viros eqt 
nee Romanes vos ducerem, si nemo tantae virtuti 
tidsset comes. Viam non ad gloriam magis quar 

aoS Tm Livi Ah ukbe condita 

salotein ferentem demonstrate reduces in patriam, ad 
parentesy ad coniuges ac liberos facit Ut 8er\'emini, 
deesi vobis animus; quid, si moriendum pro patria 
esset, faceretis? Quinquaginta milia civium sociorumque 
5 circa vos eo ipso die caesa iaccnt Si tot exempla 
virtutb non movent, nihil umquam movebit; si tanta 
cladcs vilem vitam non fecit, nulla faciet Libcri 
atque incolumes desiderate patriam, immo desiderate, 
dum patria est, dum cives eius eslis: sero nunc desi- 
to deratis, deminuti capite, abalienati iure civium, servi 
Carthaginiensium facti. Pretio redituri estis eo, unde 
ignavia ac nequitia abistis? P. Scmpronium civcm ves- 
tnim non audistis amia capere ac sequi se iubentem, 
Hannibalem post paulo audistis castra prodi et arma 
15 tradi iubentem. Quamquani quid ego ignaviam istorum 
accusoy cum scelus possim accusare? Non modo enim 
sequi recusarunt bene monentem, sed obsistere ac re- 
tinere conati sunt, ni strictis gladiis viri fortissimi in- 
ertes subroovissent. Prius, inquam, P. Sempronio per 
JO civium agmen quam per hostium fuit erumpendum. 
Hos cives patria desidcret? Quorum si ceteri similes 
fnissent, neminem hodie ex iis» qui ad Cannas pugna- 
verunt, civem haberet. Ex milibus septem armatorum 
sescenti extiterunt, qui erumpere auderent, qui in pa- 
ss triam liberi atque armati redirent, neqne his sescentis 
hostes obstitere; quam tutum iter duanim prope le- 
gionum agmini futunim censetis fuisse? Haberetis ho- 
die viginti milia armatorum Canusii fortia, fidelia, patres 
consoriptL Nunc autem quem ad modum hi boni 
JO fidelesque — nam fortes ne ipsi quidem dixerint — cives 
esse possant? Nisi quis credere potest aut favisse 
cmmpentibus, qui, ne erumperent, obsistere conati sunt, 
aut non invidere eos cum incolumitati tum gloriae 
iDonim per virtutem partae, cum sibi timorem ignaviam- 
3S que servitutis ignominiosae causam esse sciant Malue- 
nmt in tentoriis latentes simul lucero atque hostem 


expecure, cam nlentio docUs erumpendi occask 
Al ad erutnpenduin e castris defuit animm, ad 
foititer castra animum habueraot; dies noctesq 
quo! obsessi vallum armis, le ipsi tulad vallo 
tandem ultima ausi passique, cum omnia subsidi 
deessent adfectisque £uiie viribus arroa iam si 
neciuirent, necessitatibus magts humanis quam 
victi sunt Orto sole hostis ad vallum ai 
ante secundam horam, nuUam fortunam ceitamii 
pertiy tradiderunt arma ac se ipsos. Haec vc 
tonim per biduum militia fuit Cum in acie 
ac pugnare decucrat, in castra refugenint; cui 
vallo pugnandum erat, castra tradiderunt, neque i 
neque in castris utiles. Et vos redimamus? 
erumpere e castris oportet, cunctamini ac manetis 
manere, castra tutari armis necesse est, et cas 
arma et vos ipsos traditis hosti. Ego non magi 
redimendos, patrcs conscripti, censeo, quam ilk 
dendos Hannibali, qui per medios hostis e 
eruperunt ac per summam virtutem se patriae r 

Tk€ Stnati decides mot to redeem tke prisoitert. Tk 
mans are deserted by tnamy of their edlies. 

LXI. Postquam Manlius dixit, quamquam ] 
quoque plerosque captivi cognatione attingebant, ] 
exemplum civitatis minime in captivos iam indc 
quitus indulgentis, pecuniae quoque summa h( 
movit, quia nee aerarium exhauriri, magna iam s 
erogata in servos ad militiam emendos armand 
nee Hannibalem maxime huiusce rei, ut fania 
egentem locupletari volebant Cum triste respo 
non redimi captivos, redditum esset, novusque 
veterem luctus tot iactura avium adiectus esset, 
magnis fletibus quesdbusque legatos ad portam ; 
cnti sunt Unus ex lis domum abiit, quod fallat 


ditu in castra iure iurando se exsolvisset. Quod ubi 
innoluit relatumque ad senatum est, omnes censuerunt 
conprchendendum et custodibus puUice datis dedu- 
cendum ad Hannibalem esse. 
5 Est et alia de captivis fama: decern primo venisse; 
de ets cum dubitatum in senatu esset, admitterentur 
in iirbem necne, ita admissos esse^ ne taroen iis sena- 
tus daretur* Morantibus deinde longius omnium spe 
alios Iris insuper kgatos venisse, L. Scribonium et C 

lo Calpurnium et L. Manlium ; tum demum ab cognato 
Scriboni tribuno plebis de redimendis captivis relatum 
esse, nee censuissc redimendos senatum; et novos le- 
gatos tris ad Hannibalem reveitisse, decern veteres 
lemansisse, quod per causam recognoscendi nomina 

15 captivonim ad Hannibalem ex idnere regressi religione 
sese exsolvissent ; de iis dedendis magna contentione 
actum in senatu esse, victosque paucis sententiis qui 
dedendos censuerint; ceterum proxumis censoribus adeo 
omnibus notis ignominiisque confectos esse, ut quidam 

10 eorum mortem sibi ipsi extemplo consciverint, ceteri 

non foro solum omni deinde vita, sed prope luce ac 

publico camcrint. Miiari magis adeo discrepare inter 

auctores, quam, quid veri sit, discemere queas. 

Quanto autem maior ea clades superioribus cladibus 

^5 fuerit, vel ea res indicio est, quod fides sociorum, 
quae ad eam diem firma steterat, tum labare coepit, 
nulla profecto alia de re, quam quod desperaverant 
de imperio. Defecere autem ad POenos hi populi: 
Atellani, Calatini, Hirpini, Apulorum pars, Samnites 

10 praeler P^ntros, Bruttii omnes, Lucani, praeter hos 
Uzentini et Graecorum omnis ferme ora, Tarentim, 
Metapontini, Crotonienses Locrique, et Cisalpini omnes 
GallL Nee taroen eae clades defectionesque sociorum 
nioverant^ ut pacts umquam mentio apud Romanos 

IS fieret, neque ante consults Romam adventum nee post* 
quam is tcdiit renovavitque memoriam acceptae dadis. 


Quo in tempore ipio adeo magno anitno dvita 
ut consul! ex tanta clade, cuius ipse causa n 
fuisset, redennti et obviam itum frequenter ab oi 
ordinibus sit et gratiae actae, quod de re public 
desperasset; qui si Carthaginiensiuai ductor fiuss< 
hil recusandum supplicii foiet* 


Preface. Pa^o 1. 1. Faotamsna operae pratlnm stm: 
* whether I shall accomplish something worth the trouble,* i. e. 
something of real merit and value; of. Norn operat tsi^ 'it is 
not worth while/ p. jo, 1. 3. Factnrus sim^ A. 334, a ; H. 529, 
II., 4; G. 469. Quintilian (Inst. Orat. 9, 4, 74) remarks that 
Livy begins his preface with part of a hexameter verse. Such 
metrical lines, considered as a fault in prose writers, were doubt* 
less unconscious and accidental. Cf. p. 196^ 1. 22; Haec uhi 
dicta didii^ etc, a hexameter and a half. a primcMrdio : he 
is about to write of Roman history as a whole, ^not of a single 
portion, like Caesar or Sallust. 2. perscripaerim : the per- 

fect subjunctive here in oraih Miqua represents the future 
perfect indicative of craiio recta. This, being a clause of pro- 
tasis, is, of course, a dependent clause. A. 336, 2, 337, 307, r; 
H. 525, 2; G. 653. 659, 661. ai aciam: Mf I should know;' '(^ 
the supposition is regarded not as contrary to fact, but as pos* ^ 
sible. A. 307 ; H. 509 ; G. 598. 

3. anaim : archaic, for austts sim : this form is not generally 
used in prose. Similar forms are faxe and faxim^ which are 
often used by Livy. These are probably in reality futures indi- 
cative and subjunctive, analogous to the 9 futures in Greek. 
A. 136. a\ H. 240, 4; G. 191, 5. quippe qui • . . ▼idaam: 
•inasmuch as I see.' A. 320, #; H. 517, 3, 1); G. 636. 
4. ram: 'the subject.' dum: not merely temporal, but in* 

troducing a reason for the preceding statement. aampar: 

construe with ncvi; the idea is nevi semptr ixistnnt auctont 
qui CTidunL 5. in r^baa oartiiia aliquid : * something more 
authentic iff the way of fact' 6. mdam Tatiiatatam : * the 
inartistic simplicity of the ancients.' Utonmqiia atit: *bow- 

2l6 NOTES. [Pagb 1. 

ever this may be,' L e. however my success may be judged. 
A. 316; G. 628. 7. memoriae: dative; construe with ccH" 
suttiisu. iMiiiolpU torramm popnli : * of the leading nation 
of the world.* 

8. pro Tirili parte: 'to the best of my ability,' 'as (ar as 
in me lies.' Cf. the English colloquial Mike a man.' 9. in 
obaouro alt : a favorite form of expression with Li vy ; instead of 
tlic simple predicate adjective we have the neuter singular used 
substantively with a preposition. IX. Res eat praatorea, etc. : 
the second ground for hesitancy in undertaking the work. We 
notice here a confusion between the history and its subject, 
both signified by ns. at quae . . . repetatur: 'since it 
reaches back,' or 'must be traced back.' Cf. note on vuU' 
mm^ L 3. VL qnao . . . oroverit : in this second relative 
clause ns takes on a new sense ; it is no longer the historian's 
undertaking, but the enipire itself, the subject of his work. 

14. laborot : ' is burdened ; ' its vastness has become a 
source of weakness. ot lagentluni, etc. : a third ground of 
hesitancy. This // corresponds to the // before inmgmsi^ 1. 11. 
IS. qnin • • . praobitora . . . aint: A. 319, d\ H. 500, 11., 
501, II., 2; G. 551, 2. 16. featinantibua : dative, agrees 
with pievisqui^ 1. 14. haeo: i. e. contemporary with the 
writer. 18. oontra : adverb. nt . . . avartam : an object 
substantive dause, in apposition with pratfnium, A. 331 ; H. 
498; G. 546. 19. malomm: i.e. the civil wars of the 

last generation. XL onraa: A. 218, a\ H. 399, i., 3; G. 
373. In dealing with recent events, an historian could scarcely 
help offending many of his contemporaries, inasmuch as the 
era of the civil wars had just closed. These wars had caused 
the utmost bitterness, and it was impossible to discuss the 

^ period from any point of view in a manner that would please 

^ everybody. 

22. poaaot: imperfect subjunctive in apodosis, where a pro- 
tama contrary to fact is implied ; i.e.* could render the mind 
anxious, if the writer were not expert eurae. A. 308, 310; H. 
510; G. 599b 602. Transtote : * which otherwise migbt,' etc. 
23. aata oonditam oondandamva nrbam: 'before the city 
was founded or should be founded;' i. e. not everything that 
occui ' i ed before the foundation of Rome la to be considered, 
bat simply thosa things that necessarily preceded its foundation 

pAOsa.] BOOK I. PREFACE. . 2\J 

and had some relation thereto. The first expression, being too 
broad and general, is limited by the second. We might trans- 
late 'founded or planned.' poatioia magla • • • moiiain«n- 
tis: * suitable rather to the fictitious tales of poets than to 
reliable records of history.* A. 234, a ; H. 391, l. ; G. 356. Or, 
* tricked out with poets* tales rather than (resting on) authentic 
memorials of history.* jFadmiis and m^HumtHiis woidd Uien be 

Pafire 2. 1. tradnntar: *are handed down (by tradition) 
as having occurred.* 9. en = iaiis^ or tatttm. 7. potisai* 
mum: *in preference to all others.* fsimt: 'claims;' sub- 
junctive in intermediate clause (attraction). A. 342; H. 529* ti.: 
G. 666. tarn : construe with atqu^. 10. hand in magnfl 
. . . diaorimino : * I shall not consider of any great impor- 
tance.* DAihi : ethical dative. A. 236; H. 389; G. 351. 
*What I wish is that each one,* etc. 12. artibiia: 'methods.* 

13. labento deindo . • . etc. : * then let him follow with his 
attention the character of the people, giving way as the tone of 
public morality declined, then (oliserve) how it began more and 
more to sink, and at last began to fall headlong in ruin, until one 
comes down to the present age, in which we can endure neither 
the evils of our time nor their remedies.* The metaphor is that 
of a building which settles at its foundations, then decays, and 
finally collapses in a heap of ruins. The objects of se^uatur^ 
1. 1 5i are the noun mores and the two following indirect questions 
ui iapsi . . . sini . . . coiptrini ; Hi being here interrogative. 
A* 334 ; H. 529, I. ; G. 469. 17. remedia : the cure for the 
desperate social and political evils of the time was the empire, 
established on the ruins of the republic, monarchy substituted 
for anarchy. To many the remedy seemed as intolerable as 
the disease. Merivale, History of the Romans under the Em- 
pire, IV. 42. It is well known that there was great opposition 
to the reforms of Augustus. 18. illud: predicate. ramm: 
*of history.* 

19^ omnia . . . •xempli dooumenta: * useful examples for 
every occasion.' te : ' you ; * indefinite, * one.' 20. tibi 
toaeqna rai pablioaa: *for yourself and for your state;* the 
moral and political lessons of history are both indicated. 
21. quod Imitara oapiaa: 'you may choose what to imitate.' 

21 8 NOTES. [Paob a. 

Incapta • . • nlta : A. 253 ; H. 424 ; G. 398. 22. quod 
▼itas (capUu): "you may understand what to avoid.' imiUrt^ 
viUs: A. 317, 2 \ H. 497« I ; G. 545, i. 24. aaaotlor : * purer.' 
neo ia q«am • • • : *nor was there ever a sute into which/ 

25. wnwMX adjective used adverbially. inmisraTerlnt : A. 
320, a ; H. 503, 1.; G. 634. 26. paapertati: *poverty;* par- 

slmoolao: * frugality.* 28. Nupor: especially since the time 
of SuUa. Cf. SalL Cat. 10. 29. doaidorium . . • poreundi 
perdmdlqvo . . . etc.; paronomasia and oxymoron; it is not 
meant that men really have such a wish, but that they act as 
if they had it lurani: actual indulgence in extravagance 
snd luxury, manifested outwardly; iuxuria is the corresponding 
inward tendency of character. 32. initio ... ordiendao: 
pleonasm. 8C at . • • oaaot . . . inoiporamua: A. 308; H. 
(lo; G. 599. nobis: i. e. historians. 35. orals (notis): 

dative. tantnm oparis := imnium opns^ direct object of inrsis, 

Boor* I. Page 3; Chap. I. 1. satia oonatat: 'it is gen- 
eially agreed.' Livy gives the commonly accepted account ; but 
here, as in other places where he uses this expression, he is 
not to be understood as vouching for the truth of the story. 
2. aaavitom aaa^, etc. : ' that cruelty was vented upon the rest 
of the Trojans ; ' i.e. they were massacred. A passive imper- 
sonal; A. 230; H. 465, 1; G. 199, R. I. dnobua: A. 229, 
235; H. 385, 2. Notice Livy*s fondness for the dative of 
reference, and sparing use of prepositions. Aenoao Ante- 
noiiqna: the former, the founder (through one of his descend- 
snts) of Rome, the historian's mother city ; the latter, of Pata- 
rium, his birthplace. The two heroes are closely connected in 
II. ii. 822. 3. inro hoapitU : Antenor had enterUined Mcne- 
bus and Ulysses when they came to ask for the restoration of 
Helen. II. iii. 207. reddendaoqna Helenaa : Antenor ad- 
vised the return of Helen. II. vii. 350, sqq. 4. omna ins 
MUi nbaUnniaao: 'refrained from every exercise of the right 
»l conquest;' the laws of war, as then understood, permitted 
the killing, maiming, or enslavement of captives. 5. dainda : 
Donnect this word with tmriis^ 'diverging thenceforward.' 

3. SbStnas: our author has a preference for the syncopated 
lorm of genitive plural. Pylaemfoes, king of the Enl^ti, allies 

Pack 4.] BOOK L CHAP. 1. 219 

of the Trojans, coming from Paphlagonia, was slain by Mene- 
laus; cf. 11. V. 576. Mdiaon*: 'civil discord;* irom U^-irtj 
si or 1///=: without, apart; cf. si'<urus^ si<trHO, 7. ad T^o« 
iam: 'before Troy;* Troiai would mean *in Troy.' 8. ▼•- 
nissa : cf. Veig. Aen. i. 242, sqq. 9. XhiganeiaqiM : of 

unknown origin ; their name is preserved in the Euganean hills, 
near Padua. 10. In quom . . . locum : translate, Locus^ in 
qu€M, etc. The relative clause standing first, the antecedent, 
as usual, is attracted into it and assimilated in case witli the 
relative pronoun. A. 200; H. 445* 9i G- ^^^* ^ nroiaao: 
attracted to the case of pago^ instead of agreeing with nomtn. 
This is customary in giving names. A. 231, b\ H. 387, N. 1; 
G. 322. appallatl here agrees with the predicate nominative 
rather than with the subject. The real origin of the Veneti is 
uncertain. 13. nb: 'in consequence of.* domo: why no, 
preposition? A. 258, 1, tf ; H. 412, 11., i; G. 411. ad maiora 
ranim initla: a case of hypallage; maiora should properly 
agree with nrum^ and is to be translated accordingly. For this 
figure cf. p. 7, 11. 4, 5, and p. 13, 1. 24. 14. in Maoadoniam: 
where he founded the city of Aenea on the peninsula of Pallene. 
15. in Biolliam: to Egesta. 16. tanuisaa: sc cursum or 
some similar word as direct object. This infinitive clause is 
subject of coHstaty 1. i. Laurentam agmm: a strip of the 
Latin |Coast from the Tiber southward to Lavinium,-the vicinity 
of Laurentum. Ttoia: the ordinary construction would make 
this a dative. Cf. Troiano^ above, 1. 12; the position is em- 
phatic. 17. ttt quiboa . • . suparaaaat : a causal relative 
clause. A. 320, i\ H. 517, 3, 1); G. 627, r., 636. 18. inman* 
ao: 'unmeasured, infinite;* Milton says: '*0f amplitude almost 
immense:" 20. Aboriginas : (<f^, arigiHe)^ yet the SidUi are 
spoken of as eariier inhabitants, a branch of the great Latin 
stock, found later in Southwestern Italy and in Sicily. 23. 
adfinitatam : connection by marriage, while blood-relationship is 

Page 4. 1. aigna oanarant : sigma is nominative: ^the 
signals (i. e. the trumpets) sounded.' 3. paroonotatom : as 
well as admiratum, 1. 9, perfect participle (not infinitive), agree- 
ing with the subject of sanxisse^ 1. 11. 4. mortalaa: poetic 
for homines. 6. postquam andiarit: a subordinate dante 

220 NOT£S. [Paoi 4. 

of 0raii4 Miqua requires its verb in the subjunctive. A. 336; 
H. 524; G. 653. Morits Miillcr remarks that posiquam oftener 
lakes the perfect than the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive in 
0ratM Miqua^ when depending on a perfect inAnitive. Cf. 
p. 11I9 1. 17, iransUrii. 7. orsmata patria : this ablative 
absolute expresses both the time and cause of their emigration, 
patsia* * native city.* 9. ▼•!: (voio),- i.e. 'whichever you 
please,' expresses the utmost freedom of clioice between alter- 
natives. IX. foodoa iotiim: ktum because the making of a 
league or treaty was solemnised by slaying (icert) an animal in 

13. panatas : guardians of the ptnus^ house-provision ; then 
guardians of the family; the state considered as an enlaiged 
family bad its PtHotu also. X5. Ea res utiqua: 'this fact 
at last' 16. aada: ablative of means rather than of pbce. 
X7. LaTinlvai: the religious centre of the Latin confederacy, 
because it was the home of the Penates of Latium, where in 
- later times the Roman consuls and praetors had to sacrifice to 
VesU and the Penates, on entering and on quitting office. 
BroTi : sc. tempore, 18. atlrpia : nominative, Uiough not the 
usual form. 

Chap. II. 20. aimul : omitted In the latest editions of 
Wsb. ; the word is found in the mss. except M. 21. Rata- 
loram : an Umbro-Sabellian people of ancient Latium, whose 
capital was Ard£a. paota . • . fuorat: this form of pluper- 
fect is very frequent in Livy. 25. Z«atinum : he was, accord- 
ing to tradition, afterward worshipped as lupiier Latiaris, 
26. florantoo : NSgelsbach, Lat. Stil., p. 362 ; the metaphor Is 
the same In English. The Etruscan empire in early times ex- 
tended as far south as Campania. 27. Caere : most probably 
locative ablative; the omission of in before opulento oppido is 
hardly conclusive proof that its appositive Caere is dative after 
^ ieeeperiiemt^ a case which nowhere else appears. Cf. Praenesie^ 
p. 142, I. d. 28. Impailtana : notice our author*s excessive 
foodnesi for frequentative or intensive verbs. 29. minima: 
•bj no means,' amounting, as usual, to an emphatic negative. 
lalnio: A. 250; H. 417, 2; G. 400. 31. band: hand usually 
negatives a particular word, moh a proposition in general; hence 
M^eeui is chiefly and most properly used with adjectives and 
aclwerbs. graratlm: the termination "im appearing in many 


Pagb6] book I. CHAP. III. 221 

adverbs, a form of which our author is particularly fond, is an 
old accusative case-ending. A few of these adverbs, e. g. 
pariim^ are true accusatives; the rest, formations by analogy. 
Cf . p. 97, 1. lo, gravaUt the usual form. aoola • proleptic ; 
*in alliance.* 

Page 5« 1. nao : as often in Uvy, s ei ut^ correlative 
with «/, p. 4, 1. 32. 2. Ziatiiioa : it is much more likely that 
the king's name was derived from that of the nation. 3. Tto- 
yianis: dative. studio ao fide: A. 253; H. 424; G. 39S. 
V^4. in dies: *day by day/ denotes a process. * Every day's 
quotidie. 10. inde proelium : ** the battle which ensued.* 
IX. qaemoamqiM eum dioi iua Casque est: * whatever by 
human and divine law it is right that he be called.* The 
author scruples to speak more definitely : in being buried, 
Aeneas appears a mortal; as Jupiter Indiges, he appears a god. 
12. super Numloum: *on the banks of the Numicus' (or Nu- 
micius), a small stream flowing into the sea a few miles south 
of the Tiber. 13. indlgdtem {indH, f^en, £tgw) : the Indi- 
' getes, " native ** gods, were deities exercising protection over 
certain localities. This Jupiter or Pater Indiges was probably 
the river god Numicus, thought of as an ancient king of tliat 
valley (cf. Tiberinus and the Tiber river, p. 6, II. 12, 13), wor- 
shipped as a hero after his death in this_ locality, and later i 
identified with Aeneas. Tlie inscription on the so<alled Ae- 
rdum of Aeneas, according to Dionysius, was, VLaxfAi Ocov XBvmm 
%s non^iov No/«fffott 'M)y«a jk/im ; i. e. Di vi Patris Indigetis, qui 
Numici amnis undas temperat. Vidi Preller, Rom. Mythol. 
80 sqq. 

Chap. III. 14 Imperlo : A. 234; H. 391, I.; G. 356. The 
dative with waturus is rather poetic and post-classical. 19. 
adilrmet: dubitative subjunctive. A. 268; H. 484, v.; G. 468. 
21. quern ZGlnm eundem : ' whom, as he also was named lulus,' 
etc. 24; multitudine : 'population.* 26. snb Albsno 

monte : *at the foot of the Alban mountain,* now Monte Cavo 
(3147 ft. high), 18 miles from Rome and plainly visible thence. 
The city, of which no traces remain, lay between the base of 
the mountain and the Alban Lake. 27. porreotae: generally 
applied to horizontal extension, as here. 28. Zrf>nga Alba: 
LMga is emphasised by being placed first, reversing the usual 


223 NOTES. [Pagb 6. 

order. The length of the city is here the point of special atten- . 
tion. The name h usually understood as the Long White Town, 
but some prefer to derive Alba from v'alb = i^tEB, i. e. a 
height, a mountain, Oscan Uki ; cf. Tibur^ Ttbae^ Alpes, 29. 
LaTininoi: sc coHdiium. 30. trigiiitn • . . anni: cf. the 
prediction of the Tiber god to Aeneas. Aen. viii. 43, sqq. : 

Q A\ "A i9ir4Kncath ui oak shall lie along, 
V^' AU^iy herself, and white her thirty young. 

When'tnirty rolling years have run their race, 
Thy SOB Ascanius, on this empty space, 
%^ C Shall boiM a royal town of lasting fame, 

fW"^^ t Which fnm thb omen s hall rec eive the name.** 

^-^ -' " DltYDBN*S Ta. 

But it is more iiatural to interpret this as representing Alba and 
the thirty Latin cities, than a period of thirty years. fermo : 
'about,' not 'almost' tamon : notwithstanding the short 

Page 0* 1. morto : temporal. 2. muUobrem . . . 
pnorllls: notice the fondness of the Latin for an adjective 
where we use a noun in the genitive. 4. ausi sint: 

Livy frequently uses a perfect where we should expect an im- 
perfect subjunctive. The perfect expresses the time relation 
looked at from the writer^s standpoint rather than with refer- 
ence to the tense of the principal verb. This imparts an air 
of great liveliness to the sentence. Cf. p. 20, 1. 26. For a dif- 
ferent explanation, see Roby*s Lat. Gram., 1516. 5. AlbAla: 
the "whitish" river (unless we follow a similar et)'mology to 
that suggested for Alba)^ owing to the character of the soil 
through which it flows. Cf. Horace's flavus TiUris^ ' the yellow 
Tiber.' The other etymology would give the same meaning for 
AlbuU and Tiberis^ ' mountain stream.' 7. in sIlTia natus : 
a fair specimen of the etymological myth, so dear to the Ro- 
mans, of which innumerable examples occur in Livy's earlier 
books. 9. Prisol Latin! : i. e. the people of the Latin towns 
older than Rome, as distinguished from the later " Latin colo- 
nies" all over Italy. Livy evidently takes the thirty Latin towns 
for cohmies of Alba; cf. p. $3, 11. 13, 14. 

10« cognomon : strictly speaking, it was their nomen {geniiie). 
This altogether Imaginary list of kings was needed to fill the 

Page 7.] BOOK I. CHAP. IV. 223 

interval between the fall of Troy and the founding of Rome, 
which Vergil (Aen. i. 265 sqq ) makes 333 years ; i. e. three lor 
the reign of Aeneas, thirty for Ascanius, and three hundred for 
the Alban dynasty before Romulus. The accepted dates ii&i 
and 753 B, c. would make the interval a century longer. 13. ad 
posteroft : construe with uUbrt ; flmminiy with dtdii ; adhxvt = 
apud. 15. Aventtno : dative. 16. per maniu tnididit : 
* handed down.* 17. Romanao . . . urbia : more sonorous 

and stately than the usual Romae, 18. Prooa: the GreelL 
form Fracas is more usual. 19. maadmiu: sc. mr/«, super- 
lative here used in speaking of two. 21. aotatla : his brother^s 
superior age. A. 217; H. 396, iii. ; G. 361, 2. 23. Rose: 
dadve after adimii instead of ablative of separation. A. 229; 
H. 385, II., 2; G. 346. The word is explained as rea^ 'the 
culprit,* alluding to her loss of chastity, or rea vcii^ 'under the 
obligation of a vow;' the spelling Hkea suggests the Phrygian 
goddess and the supposed Trojan extraction of the Silvii. 
24. Veatalom: the worship of Vesta was common to all the 
Latins. Her altar, with its ever-burning fire, was the family 
hearth of the state, from which the household fires were kin- 
dled at certain dates. It was tended by the Vestal Virgins, who 
were looked upon as the cherished daughters of the nation. 
Upon this subject in genera], consult the interesting chapter in 
Lanciani*s Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries, 
chap. vi. 

Chap. IV. 27. ■eoundom: preposition;.* next after.* 29. 
■eu ita rata: 'either because she believed the fact to be so.* 
honesUor: 'more creditable* to herself. 30. ineertae=: 

spuriae. 31. rogia : cf. muiUhnm^ pturiiis^ above, U. 2, 3. 

Page 7« 1. Baoerdoa : she was punished because she was 
a priestess. 2. profluentem aqnam: 'into the current of the 
stream.' iubet: sc. rex, 3. di¥initas: 'by some provi. 
dential chance.' Livy frequently uses an adverb for an attribu- 
tive adjective. TIboris, etc. : order, Tiberis^ effusus super ripas 
letUbus stagHts nee usquam adiri potereU ad cursum insii amnis 
ei spem dabat fereniibusy etc. ; adiri is here used transitively. 
4. ad ioati onranm . . . amnls : i. e. 11^ iustum eursum amnis; 
hypallage. 6. imperio: A. 249; H. 421, i.; G. 405. 7. in 
proadma oliiTle: *at the edge of the overflow.* RnmliiaUs : 

224 NOTES. (Pace 7. 

I Rumina was the goddess of suckling ; rmma a= mamma. The 
Ficus Ruminalis stood on the slope of the Palatine Hill, toward 
the Tiber, neaur the Lupercal cave. 8. RomuUram : a false 
notion of later times. Vastao : * waste* or *wild;* *vast* is 
quite a secondary meaning ; cf. vasiare^ devastate. 10. quo : 
instrumental rather than locative ablative. tenuis: 'shallow.* 
15. F^Qstiilo : from f^AV {favio) and i'Tul (/m/i , opi-iul- 
an); identical with Faustus, or Faunus, an ancient pastoral di- 
vinity; and Lareniia is no other than Acca Larentia, mother of 
the Lara^ guardian spirits of the Roman land. 16. qui . • • 
patent: relative clause of characteristic; A. 320, tf ; H. 505, i.; 
G. 634. 17. vulgato corpore: ablative absolute; *by reason 
of her prostitution.* 18. fabuUo no miraoulo: hendiadys; 
'for the mauvellous tale.* 20. noo . . . segnos: concessive, 
ad paoom : i. e. when they were at pasture. peragrare and 
the subsequent infinitives are historical ; this usage is most fre* 
quent where verbs are crowded together in rapid narration. 
22. sabsistoro : transitive ; * they lay in wait for.' 24. seria : 
such encounters as are mentioned above ; iooos, sports, such as 
are mentioned in the next chapter. 25. celobraro: *they 
engaged continually or habitually in.* 

Chap. V. 26. Xiiiporoal hoo: *the present, now existing 
Lupercal.* Lupercus (/w/mj, arceo)^ "Warder-off of the Wolf,** 
originally a god of shepherds, carrying us back to the pastoral 
age of civilization. Lupercal generally means the cave of Lu- 
percus, on the Palatine near the Ficus Ruminalis; here it 
means the annual festival held in his honor on February 15th. 
28. Palatinm: from \Th^ I pal (pasco^ /Vr/i^if) as * pasture ; * 

^ fii^>j^fy«|Mftgy }n the text is qu ite fanci ful. 29. genare : i.e. 
gcHtt^ the Arcadiantribe iivmg about Pallanteum. . tampa* 
atatilnia : poetic for temporibus; A. 250 ; H. 417, 2 ; G. 400, R. 3. 
30. taauarit : we should expect the imperfect. aoUemna : 
substantive; sottemnis^ from soUus •^ totus^ and annus^ means 

* annually recurring,* so that our meaning of the word solemn is 
highly specialised, coming from the character of the periodic 
religious observances to which it is ordinarily applied. ut 

• • • o ui r af U B t : substantive clause, appositlve to saUmne. A. 

' 32(x 333; H. 501, III.; G. 508, A, II., 2, 557. 31. Lyoaaum 

( Pana : Pan was worshipped by shepherds on Mt. Lycaeus in 

Arcadia, tnum (im^ «^, god of copulation of cattle) and Lupir- 

Page 9.J BOOK I. CHAP. VI. 225 

eus seem to be only different names for Faunus, who con«> 
sponds substantially with the Greek Pan. 

Page 8. 2. deditis : dative ; sc. iis or pasiaribus^ from 
the last sentence of Chapter IV. 3. Insidiatos : agrees with 
latroHis^ subject of ctpissc. 5. nitre : ' tx*yond/ then beyond 
what is naturally expected or decent, * outrageously,' 'impu- 
dently.' Ciimini: a so<alled dative of service. A. 233; 
H. 390; G. 350. 6. Us: Komulus and Remus. 7. praadas 
agero: the Latin equivalent of ' cattle-lif ting ; ' the cattle are 
driven, not carried ; cf. Sepw mi ^/>rir, applied to animate and 
inanimate plunder. 9. regiam: this is the emphatic word, 
specifying the nature of Fau.stulus* hope. 

11. et tempus, quo . . . congmere : ' and that the time 
when he himself had rescued them, exactly corresponded with 
that time* Congruert is usually followed by the dative. 15. 
Numitori: dative of reference qualifying the whole statement 
in a more remote and general way, instead of a possessive 
genitive modifying anittutm. 16. geminoa: predicate; first 
because emphatic. 18. eodem pervenit : ' had arrived at 
the same conclusion' (as Kaustulus). 19. oaaot : impersonal; 
its subject is the clause qttin . . . agnoscerei, A. 332; H. 501, 1.; 
G. 55S. 21. par ad: strong enough for. 22. aliis alio 
itinere: 'some by one way, some by another.' 23. ad regom: 
in regem would be more n.itural. 

Chap. VI. 27, pubem: the young men of military age. 
28. in aroem . . . obtinendam : * into the citadel, to hold it.' 
praesidio armlaque: hendiadys = praesidh armato, avo- 

oassat, * had called them away ' from the protection of the king. 
81. ut ... tit . . ut: interrogatives. 

Pasre (>• 1. dainoepa : attributive to caedim^ like an 
adjective. Numitor . . . ostendit: a perfect example of the 
periodic sentence, with all modifying elements and subordinate 
clauses standing between the subject of the principal clause. 
which is the first word, and its verb, which is the last. St 
. * . auctorem . . • osttmtiii^ * assumed the responsibility.' 
2. agmine : Madvig, Lat. Gr. 258, Obs. a. 4. ratam . • . 
effioit: 'confirmed.' 6. re: sc. publica, 8. anpererat 

mtilUtado : ' the population was excessive.' 9. ad Id . . . 


226 NOTES. [Paob 9. 

•oOMMenuiti qui • • • faoerent : * to this (excess of numbers 
in Alba) the shepherds also fell to be added, so that all together 
they readily created a hope that,' etc Qui • • • facerent: a 
clause of result A. 319, 2 ; H. 500^ 1. ; G. 633. 10. par- 
▼am . • . panmm : repetition for emphasis. 13. Inda = 

exta^ i. e. cupidim, 

14. oaaeiit . . . poaaat: reasons stated not as facts, but as 
influencing the minds of the brothers. A. 340, 341, d\ H. 516^ 
II.; G. 541. 15. tatelaa: * under whose protection;* a* 

predicative genitive of possession, characteristic of Livy. A. 
214, €\ H. 401, 402, 403. 16. esaeiit: subjunctive in a 

clause logically subordinate to Uf»crent, A. 342; H. 529, 11.; 
I ^G. 666. augarlia : augur is from avis and a root which has 

'T disappeauvd from Latin and seems to have meant * to an- 

^yi^tkomat^ qui . . . qui: strictly uter should be used, as but 
(/twqVpersons are in question. Qui is sometimes used for quis^ 

^ V specially in dependent questions. Madvig, Lat. Or. 88, 
^Obs. I. 18. tompla: not object of inaujiurandum^ but sec- 
ondary object of eapiuni. Tifupium (ttmpulum^ diminutive of 

> % tempus) from the same root as riium* rifitvot, is a definite 
space marked out by certain boundaries, here for the purpose 
of taking auspices ; it meant also the consecrated space where a 
deity was worshipped, and later the building put up in such an 
enclosure, a 'temple.' 

Chap. VI I. 19. Priori : emphatic by its position. Remo : 
dative of advantage; the birds did not come fa him, but ap- 
peared /ar him in the sky. 22. Tempore . . . praecepto : 
' by priority of time ; ' limited, like numero, by avium, 23. reg- 
nnm trabebant: 'claimed the sovereignty.' ' 24. oertamioo 
Iranun: 'in their angry strife.' Xbi: 'therefore;' circum- 

stantial rather than local. 26. transiluiase mnroa: city 

waUs had a peculiar sanctity among the Latins, so this action 
was not only a deadly insult but a sacrilege. Afurus, the gen- 
eral term for wall; moeuia, the special word for a wall of 
fortilicatioa. 27. irorbis qnoqne inorapitana: 'upbraiding 

bim with words also' — as well as striking him. 8io dainde, 
etc: sc. Pireai or a similar expression. 31. Palatium: 

Rf^ma Qftadrata^ the original city of the Ramnes, nearly "square," 
was on the Palatine Hill, where traces of its walls still exist 
■nuilt; Madvig, Lat Gr. 113, b. 32. AilMuio ritn. 

Pace 10] HOOK I. CHAP. VII. 22] 

Oimeoo: the Greeks sacrificed nfiifto capitis the Latins veUi0 
€apiU; the Latins burned die exta of the victims, the Greeks 
ate them at the sacrificial feast. Bnandro: (f^, lUijyi, M^) 
probably Faunus, appearing as an exile from Greece and under 
another name. Like Pan, he comes from Arcadia. 

Pa|?o lO* 1. Heroiilem: one of his twelve labors was 
killing the three^ieaded or three-bodied monster Geryon, on the 
island of £r)th6a, near Gadcs in Spain, and the capture o( 
his cattle for Eurystheus of Ar^os. 2. mira specie: A. 251: 
H. 419, II.; G. 402. Observe that the ablative of quality must 
be limited by an adjective or equivalent genitive. 4. tnde- 
oarat: intransitive. laeto: 'joy-giving:' the adjective has} 

an active sense ; cf. * wine that maktth giad the heart of man.*l 
5. via: construe with y^/xarMr. 6. sopor: heavy sleep; som- 
nus : ordinary sleep. 7. aooola . . . loot : A. 234, ^, i ; 

H. 391, II., 4; G. 356, R. I. Clous: not, as ordinarily ex- 
plained, from Mffof, i. e., contrar)* of Evander, the 'good man,* 
but akin to caecus; a fire-brcatliing demon of the lower work!, 
here appearing as a shepherd dwelling in a cave* feroz 

viribus: 'presuming on his strength.* Viribns: causal ablative. 

9. armentnm: afiS)tnintH99i {arm-e); cattle fit to plow with. 

10. eo : in this and other adverbs of its class, the ablative case 
notion has been lost. deduotura erant: cf. p. 50. L 19; 
A. 308, r/; H. 511, 2; G. 599, K. 3. XI. avtfrsoa: * b.-ickwards.* 
Bos appears in tliis chapter as both masculine and feminine, 
probably owing to the blunder of some copyist. 14. numero: 
dative. 15. ai forte . . . ferrent: *(to see) whether per- 
chance their tracks would lead thither.* An indirect question, 
introduced by sL A. 334, /; H. 529, 11., i, N. i ; G. 462, 2. 
16. foraa: denotes direction, implying motion, * outwards;* 
/irr/j, position only, * outside.* partem: * direction.' 17. anl- 
mi: A. 218, r, R.; H. 399, in., i ; G. 374, R. 3. 18. oooepit: 
archaistic. ad: *in consequence of.* 19. ut fit: *as is 

20. ez apelnnoa: construe with nddiia, 22. fidem: * pro- 
tection.' 24. auotoritate : by the influence due to high charac- 
ter. 25. imperio ... by official authority. 26. Mtteranim: 
the knowledge of the alphabet came to the Romans through 
the Greeks of southern Italy. artium: A. ai8$ H. 399^ 3; 

228 NOTES. [Pagb U. 

G. 373. 27. Carmentoe: or Cnsmeniai {ca(s)furg, to sing, to 
prophesy); a nymph of song and prophecy, sometimes repre- 
sented as the wife of Evander. 28. BibyUao: the Cumacan 
Si^l« visited by Aeneas (Aen. vi. i, sqq.). 

30. tropidantiiim : 'hastening in alarm.' 31. habitum: 

* bearing.* 32. aliquantum: for a/i^aaHio. 33. humaufi: 

sc. y^rwtf. 34. love nate: Hercules was the son of Jupiter 

jjf^Zaa) and Alcmene of Thebes. 35. interpres: 'one who. 

' speaks in the name of another/ which is the etymological mean- 

•^ Ciag of 'prophet* deum: and the three next following words 

^ are an example of ktfmw'oteUuia^ which Livy is not very careful 

to avoid. 36. Aram: the Ara Maxima Htrculis stood in or 

near the Forum Boarium (cattle market) at Rome, and there 

Hercules was worshipped as a god of good faith (Deus Fidius) 

in commercial transactions. 

Paipe 11* 3. aooipare: i. e. interpreted as applying to 
himself; the opposite of acciptre was improbare omen, fata: 
(fart): that which has been spoken, the decrees of destiny, 
arm oondlta: 'by founding an altar.* 8. ad tempus: 'in 

good timet* at the appointed time. eacta : the eating of the 

entrails of the victim (instead of burning them on the altarX 
. after the fashion of the Homeric age, is one of the Greek 
features of this rite. 10. Pinarium genus . . . vesoeren- 

tnr : this explains the supposed etymology of Pinarius {nnmu, 
to fast, abstain). 12. tradito aervia publioia : this was done 
in the time of Appius Claudius Caccus, censor in 312 b. c, and 
was regarded as an act of impiet}*, which called down the 
anger of the gods, manifested by the extinction of the whole 
lamUy within one year, Liv7, ix. 29. But Diodorus, 4, 21, 
says it still existed in his time. 14. Haoo ... una : ' these 
alone.* 15. paragriaa: foreign to Alba, the mother city of 
Rome; peregrtHus^ from per and if(.vr, 'across country;* Ital. 
peiiigriM, Ft. piUrin, Eng. pilgrim. 16. fautor: notice the 
frequency of verbal nouns in 'tor and -^ar. 

Chap. VIII. 17. parpatratlB: notice the weakening of 
the radical vowel when simple verbs are compounded {ptr, 
pairare). U. In popuU untua oorpua : ' into a single na^ 
tional body.* 19. laglbua : 'statutes;' lura : •principles 
ol right.* The king possesses full legislative and executive 


power. 20. ita . • . ai: *only thus . . . if.* 23. Alii: 

*sonie/ as if another alii were to follow. 24. eum ••ontam 
numerum: *that he derived this number/ or 'that this 'num- 
ber followed (Romulus).* The Arst interpretation is preferable. 
25. me baud paenitet : ' I am inclined.* Livy no( ipfre- 
qucntly uses kauii with verbs. This is not common in good f 
]irosc except in the phrase hauti scio an, quibna . . . 
placet: *who think.* apparitorea hoo genua: 'attendants 
of this class;* hoc genus is adverbial accusative. A. 240,^; 
H. 378, 2 ; G. 331, R. 3. 26. ab Etniaola : the ancients went 
too far in deriving Roman institutions from Etruria ; it was easy 
thus to explain what was not understood. 28. Ita habuiase: 
* had. this arrangement* 29. oommuniter oreato rege : the 
Etruscan league consisted of twelve cities, mutually independ- 
ent, which, however, in time of war or general danger appointed 
a king or commander in chief in command of the whole league. 
30. dederint : as already stated, Livy often uses, for greater 
liveliness, primary tenses of the subjunctive in subordinate 
clauses of oratio obliqua^ where we should expect secondary 
tenses. 32. adpetendo: *by annexing;* the logical subject 
is indefinite. 

Patro 12. 1. ad id : ' with reference to the number.* 
3. vetere . • . urbea: *by an old device of founders of cities.' 
5. natam e terra: cf. the familiar story of Cadmus and the 
dragon *s teeth. 6. nuno aaeptua, etc., *now an enclosure . 

which you encounter as you come down between the two jjrovcs.*-! 
From this obscure statement we might infer that the author is 
speaking of the Palatine, but the Capitoline has two peaks* 
each in early times covered by a grove, and thie depression 
between them was called Inter Duos Lncos. Tradition pointed 
to this as the site of the Asylum of Romulus. deaoendenti- 
baa : dative of reference. A. 235 : H. 384, 11., 4« N. 3; G. 354. 

7. turba omnU: 'a rabble of all sorts.* 9. ad ooeptam 
magnitadinem : * in proportion to the greatness of the under 
taking.* 10. Cum . . . paeniteret : * when he began to be 
contented;' the personal accusative is lacking, but easily sup- 
plied from the subject of the next verb, which is evidently 
Romulus. oonsiltum : the Senate under the monarchy was 
always the royal council merely, with no independent pow^ 


•30 NOTES. [Pace la 

though it nominated a king through an M/irrexvrhen the throne 
fell vacant X2. qui . . . poMent : A. 320 ; H. 503, 11., 1 ; 
G. 634. X3. patren: the theory was tliat the Senate origi- 
nally consisted of the heads (paires) of the several gentes. 
The word patrts has two meanings according to the context: 
(1) Senators ; (2) i'atricians ; the whole body of the original 
buigesses, as distinguished from the plebeians and others who 
did not at first possess political rights. But Livy's idea here 
is that patricians were such only because the heads of their 
houses had been members of the Senate. ab honoro: Mn 
consequence of their official dignity.* 

Chap. IX. 19. res : • community.' 17. hominia aeu- 
tem duratim: * destined to last but a generation.' qnippe 
quitnia . . . oaaent: A. 320, €\ H. 517, 3, i); C. 636. 18. 
qvlboa: by comstrmcth ad sensum refers to Rcmanis, to be 
supplied from rts Rofnana. oonubia : the ius conubii^ 

existing between two states, gave the citizens of either the 
right of contracting legal marriages with the 'citizens of the 
other. It did not exist as a matter of course, but by interna- 
tional agreement 21. nrbea qaoque, etc.: the infinitives 
depend on the verb of saying implied in the previous context 
ex infimo: Livy makes a very extensive use of adjectives as 
substantives, especially in the neuter singular. 22. invent: 
A. 336 : H. 524 ; G. 653. 23. scire : sc. se. 25. no gra- 
▼anntar : A. 339 ; H. 523, in. ; G. 655. honoines : ' as men.' 
27. adao: 'for;' introducing the ground for the preceding 
statement. simnl . . . simnl : ' at once . . . and/ or ' though 
. . . yet.* 29. rogitantibus dimissi: *sent away with the 
question (oft repeated).' 30. id enim damum, etc. : ' for in 
that way only would they secure marriage on an equal footing.' 
32. ad Tim spectare res ooepit: 'the situation began to look 
like proceeding to violence/ 'as If a resort to violence were 

Pnare 13* 1. Cni: antecedent is vim. 3. VTeptuao 

Bqnestri: Neptune (Poseidon) was the creator of the horse. 
Consnalla: the festival of Consus, a god of crops and agricul- 
ture. He had an altar at the end of the circus, where horse- 
racing took pbce. This may suggest how the confusion between 
Nqitnoe and Cdnsus arose. The Consualia occurred on August 

1»AG«13-1 BOOK i. CHAP. IX. 231 

2tst and December 15th. 5. oonoelabrant : 'they prepare to 
solemnize.' 6. mortales : poetic for komines. 8. Caenl- 
neuMfl, etc.: Caenina was probably on the Anio, some six miles 
cast of Rome, but this is uncertain; Crustumerium was near 
the Tiber, about fifteen miles N. N. £., and Antemnae at the 
confluence of the Tiber and Anio, about three miles above 
Home. Livy apparently regards them all as Latin towns, 
lam : * finally.* Sabinonim : the Sabines seem in early times 
to have extended their power further into Latium than in the 
historical period, and there is little doubt that a Sabine city id 
the Quirinai was united to the Ramnian city on the Palatine on 
at least equal terms. The legend that here follows may be 
regarded as an actiological myth, of which the main purpose 
was to account for the Sabine element in the community., 
> I Actiological (airia, Xoyor) myths are stories invented to explain I 
the origin of existing historical facts, customs, names, etc, 
after that origin has been forgotten. It is curious to notice 
also how the marriage customs of most primitive peoples seem 
to be a reminiscence of the conquest of wives by violence. 
13. eo: viife Nagelsbach, Lat. Stil., p. 233; the adverbs 
represents spectaculos dcditae being regularly followed by the 
dative. ex oomposito: * according to previous arrangement/ 
15. Magna para . . . raptaa: coHstruclio ad sensHut. in 

quern quaeque^ etc. : i. e. ir^ io^ in qitem qnaeque^ etc. 17. 
homines : subject of dt/ereba9tt. ez 'plebe : this is an an- 
achronism, for there was then no pMs^ existing as an inferior 
order beside the full buigesses. 21. Talaasio : it is needless 
to say that this account of the wedding cry is purely fictitious^ 
and furnishes an admirable example of the etymological myth, 
for which the antiquarian taste of Livy*s age had a strong incli- 
nation. The real meaning of the word in question was even then 
no longer understood. Vidt Pretler, 584. 22. hano : *this 

present/ * this ... of to-day.* Cf. Catullus, 61 and 62. 21 

inousantes : 'complaining of.* violati hospitit foedae: hyp* 
allage for violatum hospitn fotdus, 25. per fas ao fidem : 
'against right and truth.* Wsb. explains fur ^si mpA {ynfk 
ampddt) in this archaic phrase ; cf. perfidus^ periurium. 
29. in matrimonio : * in lawful marriage,* not in concubinage, 
as they may have feared. in aooietate . . . fore: 'and 
would have a share in all the rights of property, in citUenship, 

232 NOTES. [Page 19. 

and* what is dearest to human nature, in their children/ 
33. aMlioribus maraa vlris : * they would find their husbands 
all the kinder.* M. anam Tioam : * in his own capacity.* 
Cf. note on koc f^tnus p. ii, 1. 25. 36. piirsnntittm : * ex- 

cusing their conduct on the ground of/ etc. 

Piilirc 14. Chap. X. 3. admodum: 'quite/ 4. aor- 
dida Teste: a sign of mourning. 7. regem Sabinorum: 
king of Cures, the chief .Sabine town, here called king of the 
Sabines, as opposed to all the Latin communities next men- 
tioned. 10. Ziente : * too slowly/ 14. nomen : by me- 
tonymy for those who bear the name, the nation. 16. va- 
•tantibiu: A. 228,^; H. 304, i., 2, 392, 11. 21. viotore: an 
instance of our author*s characteristic use of a verbal noun in 
^ior as an attributive adjective. 22. oatentator : another of 

his favorite verbals. 23. fabrioato ad id apte feroulo: *on 
a frame properly constructed for the purpose/ These are the 
first spotia c/tima in Roman history. 

25. paatoribna eacram : *hcld sacred by shepherds;* pas- 
ioribus is a dative of reference. A. 235; H. 384, 11., 4, N. 3. 
The tree was sacred /^ Jupiter as all oaks were; vide Preller, 96. 
The Capitoline Hill appears as yet uninhabited. Livy does not 
call this a triumph (cf. p. 48, 1. 15), but Dion>'sius expressly 
says that Romulus introduced the aistom of triumphs. 27. 
Feretri: probably from firefruM = fenttluM ; some derive it 
itom^ferio. Romulus rex regia: notice the alliteration, 

common in formal and solemn language. 29. dedico: c.x- 
pressii'e of an intention to be subsequently fulfilled, = tUslhw, 
30. me auctorem : * my example/ 32. prlmmn omnium : 

this very ancient shrine was restored by Augusttis. 

Pnirc 15« 2. neo . . . landem: *nor the glory of that 
gift cheapened by the lar^e number of those who should share 
it/ ConpotHm: sc. taudis. 3. Bina: A. 95, ^; H. 174,2,3). 
inter: Mn the course of.* The two occasions referred to are 
when A. Cornelius Cossus slew Lars Tolumnius, king of Veil, 
437 B. Cy and when M. Gaudius Marccllus slew Viridomarus, 
king of the Insiibres, 222 n. c. 

Chap. XI. 7. per ocoaaionem ao aolitadinem: "taking 
of the deserted state of the country,* the people 

1*ack16.J book I. CHAP. XII. 23i 

being engaged in celebrating their triumph at Rome. 8. a^ 
hos: for in kos, like ad rt^tm^ P- ^ !• 23. 9. leglo: *ilu 
levy/ *army/ not the later * legion.' U. Hanilia: tradiikx 
says she was the only matron among the captured Sabin 
women; probably a goddess of marriage, identical with Hon 
wife of Quirinus, with wliom Komulua was identified after bt 
death. 12. fatigata: * importuned.' 13. rem: *thc coji 

monwealth.* ooalaacera : *grow strong.* 16. Utroqoa 
*to both places/ Antcmnae and Crustumerium. 17. plurei 
more than for the other conquered places. It is taken fc 
granted that the conquered cities ceded a part or the whole < 
their territory, and that Roman colonists were sent to occup 
the ceded land. The Crustumine was preferred to the otlM 
districts for the reason stated, and so more gave in the 
names as colonists. 18. darent: A. 320; 11. 503; 0.63* 
19. frequautor : * in large numl)ers.* 20. raptarum : ooe 1 
the tliirty curiat was named Rapta, 22. par iram : equni 
lent to a modal ablative or adverb. 24. Spuriua Tazpeioi 
the following story was told to account for the old name M(^ 
Tarpcius for the Capitoline 1 1 ill. 25. ard: the later arx wi 
on the N. E. peak of the hill, but here the S. W. peak, afic 
ward called C/i^/Vf///////, is meant. 26. aquam • • . aacrii 
tradition says that Tarpeia was a Vestal and fetched wati 
from the fountain of the Camcnae for the service of the go( 27. acoapti, etc. : ' wlicn they had been admitted, the 
killed her by throwing their shields upon her.* 29. na qui 
uaquam, etc.: 'that no faith should ever be kept with a tnitoi 
30. auraas armillaa: it is not likely that tlie ])oor and fruj; 
Sabines wore golden bracelets; there is probably here a co 
fusion with the later Gallic conquerors of Rome, who delightc 
in i)crsonal adornment 32. aam : i. e. Tarpeiam^ subject < 

Pnyre 10« 1. habarant: A. 336; H. 524; G. 653. 3. d 
raoto arma patisaa, etc.: *that she asked for their shield 
outright (in order to disarm them), and that when ahe « 
found to be acting treacherously (toward the Sabines) she «j 
slain by her own recompense.* 

Chap. XII. 5. taman : 'at all events,* whether the ^ 
story or the other be correct. 6. quod . . . oampi ¥^ 

234 NOTES. IPage 17. 

'the whole plain.* 9. In adTenum Romani aubiere : *the 
Romans advanced up the hill.' 10. Principea: best under- 
stood as subject of ciebani^ with Afettius and Ifosiius as apposi- 
tives. ab Sabinia: *on the part of the Sabincs.* U. Hoa- 
' tliia Hoatiliiia: said in chap. xxii. to have been the grandfather 
of king Tullus Hostilius. 12. ram: Mhe cause.* iniquo 

looo : concessive. ad prima aigua : * in the foremost ranks.* 
14. InoUnatnr: 'gives way.* portam Palatii: the Porta 
Mugonia or Mugionis, one of the three gates of Koma Qua- 
drata^ the original Palatine city, was on the north side of the 
hi]l« near the highest point of the Via Sacra and the Arch of 
Titus. 15. aotna : ' carried along,* ' swept away.* 18. 

anperata : * passed over and left behind.* 20. aaltam : 

(x<r/(«f )//>«, from salHs\ *at least.* dema . . . aiato: the 

solemnity of the invocation is heightened by the chiasmus and 
alliteration. 21. Statori : the epithet is emphasized by being 
placed first. quod ... alt: A. 317, 2; H. 497, i.; G. 545, i. 
22. praaaantl : note the constant use of this adjective to char- 
acterize the help of the gods. 29. foro : the ground after- 
ward occupied by the Forum was then a swampy valley, and 
so continued till the construction of the system of cloacae, 
30. hoapltaa • . . hostaa : an instance of paronomasia^ i. e. 
the use In juxtaposition of words of similar sound, quite fre- 
quent In Livy. Vide p. 71, 1. 9, and p. 97, 1. 6. 

Page 17. 1. haao glorlantem: *thus boasting;* the use 
of the accusative with this verb, instead of the ablative with 
He^ Is unusual. 2. feroolaaimomm luvennm : ' the most 

valiant soldiers.* 3. Ex aquo : cf. a^ unrov : *on horseback.*. 
•o: construe with faciiius. S. Mettlua In paludem, etc.: 

this aetiological myth explains the name of a marshy pool which- 
existed in the Forum. 7. perlonlo : causal ablative. 9. fa- 
vor*: 'encouragement, applause;* the language is borrowed 
from the amphitheatre or circus, where partisans of particular 
eonteatanta encouraged them by gesture and voice (ddnuert^ 
^oaurt). U. raa Romana arat auperlor: 'the Romans were 
^tting the upper hand.* 

Chap. XIII. 15. dirlmara . • • dirlmara: 'parted the hos- 
tile armica ... put an end to the angry contest ; * historical 
bfinitiTca. 17. aaiando: {m^fari)^ unspeakable, 'aboroina* 

PAOBiai BOOK I. CHAP. XIII. ' 235 

ble.* parrloidio : not patri-ciMum^ but from par and caidtrt, 
hence the murder of an equal, a fellow citizen. Qf. the qu» 
stores parriddii of early Roman law, the *' trackers of murder/ 
18. nepotum . . . progeDiem : * the former, their offxprinj; con- 
sisting of grandchildren : the latter, their offspring consisting o( 
children : * Ncpoium and liber nm are so-called genitives of dctv 
nition used where an appositive might well stand. A. 214./; 
H. 39^* VI.; G. 359. 19. Si adfinitatia, etc.: note the chani;t 
from oratio obliqua to oratio recta ; this often ser\'es, as here, 
for heightened effect. It is unusual in Cicero. 21. M«liw 

peribimua: brachylogy. 22. altaris: 'the one or the other 
(class) of you;* the word being used of two categories ot 
men, not of two individuals; it would be natural to repeat 
sine alteris in place of ant. orbae : * fatherless.* 23^ 
Silentiam . . . qaiea : the former is cessation of speech, the 
latter of action. 26. imparium: *thc government.* 

28. Quiritea: this etymology is uncertain; the word per 
haps comes from qniriSy a lance, and means **the spearmen.* 
the soldiers of the state, or from s SKU, which appears in 
r/z/'iVt, and means **thc members of the curiae^ Cnxi 

bus : about twenty-five miles N. £. of Rome, now the vil' 
lagc of Corresc. appellati : its subject is to be supplid 

from geminata nrlfe^ i. c. all the citizens of the enlaigcd com 
m unity. 30. Tado: {^*adere)^ where one can walk, '01 

solid ground.' Curtium lacum : this was a bog at the foo 
of the Palatine Hill, subsequently drained and filled up. Livy 
Book vii., ch. 6, relates another story to account for its nam( 
the legend of M. Curlius, who leaped full armed and on horse 
back into a chasm which opened in the Forum and could b< 
closed only by the sacrifice of ''the most valuable thing ii 
Rome,*' understanding thereby its military prowess. 

Pnffe 18. 2. curias: the curia was a civil organization 
vnder a curio^ consisting of several gtmtes^ having a commor 
worship, real or fictitious kinship, etc. Vide Morey, Outline.* 
of Roman Law, p. 8, sqq. 3. nomina eanun': some of th< 
curiae had Sabine gentile names, others had local names 
7. oenturiae: (centum^ viriae), bodies of '(theoretically) one 
hundred men, 1. e. one from each gens^ ten from each cHrii> 
RamneiMaa . . . Titienset : sc. equiies; the derivation it aoi 

236 NOTES. [Page 19. 

as here stated ; adjectives in eptsis are not formed from per' 
sonal names. . 8. Lnoerum : if the Luccres were the 

conquered Albans, it would be proper to speak of only twenty 
curiae in Romulus* time. Hut the existence of three tribes 
in the Roman pcpnlus is one of the "ultimate facts" of 
history, and upon such points as the origin of the Luceres, 
Livy, with characteristic conservatism, refuses to commit him- 
self. Perhaps the most general belief in antiquity was that 
the Luceres were of Etruscan origin, and their name derived 
from iucnmtf^ a lord. At all events, we are not very much 
dearer with regard to the Ramncs and Titles. 

Chap. XIV. 13. Xaaurentliim : living about Lavinium, about 
eighteen miles south of Rome; cf. note on Lavinium^ p. 4, L 
17; at that time it was a considerable seaport. pulsant: 

•maltreated.* ivro gentiiun agerent: 'made complaint 

according to international law;* they had a right to demand 
the surrender of the offend«?rs for punishment. 16. soUemno: 
cf. note on this word, p. 7, 1. 30. 18. ob infidam sooieta* 
teiii regni: 'on account of the mistrust caused by a divided 
(shared) sovereignty.* 19. haud: construe with iniuria, 

22. ranovatam Mt : this was done yeariy after the Latin festi- 
val. (Bk. VIII., ch. II). 25. ninds vicinas prope so: 
pleonasm. 26. prinsquam . . . asset, quantum . . . appa- 
rebat: * before there should Ix: as much strength in the new 
state as it was evident tlierc would (ere long) be.' 27. oo* 
cupant facora : like ^Bmw with a participle ; * they anticipated 
(the Romans) by beginning war;* cf. p. 38, 1. aS, and p. 
112, L 39. Cicero and Caesar do not use this construction. 
28. intar iirbem ao Fidenaa: Fidenae, the tite de pent of 
the Etruscans for many years on the Latin side of the Tiber, 
was only five miles above Rome. 

« Piifire lO. 3. omnibus oopiia : an instance of the ablative 
^of accompaniment without a preposition, so frequent in Livy; 
ihtia used It shades off into the modal ablative. locia • . . 
otaoniit : a hopelessly comiptcd passage in the mss. ; ' in 
r!ark (shady) places rounl nixint (\. e. amonjiTst) the thick under* 
brush.* 5. id quod qnaorebat: refers to kostim excivit 

9. ▼•Int: 'apparently.* 10. trepidante :* wavering.* pedes: 
sinpiUr for plural, the individual representing the multitude: 

Paob 20.] BOOK I. CHAP. XV. 23; 

cf. RcmaHHSf infra^ 1. 21. X3. Znda: i. e. tx e0 loco. tiaoft 
▼ersam: *in flank.* X4b mota . . . signa: *thc advanciog 
of (lie standards ; ' signa is subject of adduni. 

18. affusiua : * in wilder haste* 19. almulaiitM : 

i. c. RomaHos, 20. haarana in targo : * pressing close upoo 
tlieir rear.' 

Chap. XV. 23. Fidanatia : adjective agreeing with MH 
oontagiona : * infection,* as of a disease. VaianUum : Vcii 
was situated in a high, steep, rocky position, twelve miles N. W. 
of Rome, on the Cremera river ; for a long time it was Romc*9 
chief antagonist. 

25. ai Romana . . . aaaant: (because such nearness was 
unsafe) ' if the Roman arms were dangerous to all the neigh- 
bors;* subjunctive expressing the thought in the minds of the 
Vcicntincs. 27. laati • . . balli: * regular warfare,* opposed 
to tutNulinariMm, 30. Romantia: singular for pluraL 31 
dimioationi oltimaa : * a decisive conflict ; * the dative is strictiv 
governed by intCHius only. initHiHs is also used with md or U 
and the accusative. 

PaffO 20. 2. da: not *from,* but 'for,* *on behalf of.' 
4 tantum . . . robora: *by the sheer strength.* Yatarmni: 
in using this word of the militia of early Rome, the authoc 
unconsciously introduces an idea l)cIonging to a much latei 
time. 5. ad moania: constnie with perstcuiMS, 9. ora< 
toraa* 'envoys,* lit. ^pleaders? Agri parte: cf. p. 43, H 
II, 12, where substantially the same statement is repeated 
A. 220, b^ \\ H. 410, itLr; G. 377, R. I. maltatia: dati\ie, 
agreeing with the indirect object of Hatae (sun/). ' 10. lndo< 
Umn : (ini/utNs := tNs^r/us i hence a period of interruption ir 
the course of a warX *^ truce;* in dealing with the Etruscans 
the Romans always concluded a truce for a fixed number ol 
years (often months each), not a definitive peace. XL farms: 
'essentially,' 'in a general way.* 12. fidai: dative with «^ 
sonum^ which is also used with ab and the ablative. A. 234: 
H. 391 ; G. 356, R. 5. 

15. Abillo: agent of ^tf//r. 16. qaadraginta • . • aoaoi: 
i. e. Numa*s reign. dainda: with adjective force, 'die next' 
18. longa ante alloa aocaptiasimaa : pleonasm, a doubly 
strengthened superlative. 19. Calaraa: (altr^ ctllo\ prohaUr 

238 NOTES. [Pace 21. 

but another name for the equites^ mentioned in ch. xiii., though - 
the author regards them as a separate body, but does not state 
whether they were cavalry or footmen. The statement seems 
like an implication that Romulus grew despotic in his last years, 
and reminds one of the Greek tyrants. The whole story is per- 
haps due to confusion about the meaning of Ceitres, 

Chap. XVI. 22. lomortalibua : worthy of immortality, * fa- 
mous.* 23. oontionem : (convtntio)^ ' assembly.* ad Caprae 
IMdttdam : the * Goat*s Marsh * was in the locality afterward 
occupied by the Circus Flaminius in the Campus Martius. 
25. iragoro tonitrlbuaquo : hendiad}'s, 'crashing of thunder.* 
regom opemit nimbo: Vitie PrcUer, 84. 26. contioni: 

A. 229; H. 386, 2. abatulerit: cf. p. 6, 1. 4, and note. in 
terris: ' on earth.* 27. Romana pubea . . . obtinuit: a 

good example of the periodic sentence. Pubes^ as invents in 
other places, is equivalent to milites ; the military age was 
from seventeen to forty-six. 28. ax: 'after.* die: 'weather.* 
30. patriboa: notice that the person believed is in the dative; 
the thing believed, in the accusative, here represented by the 
clause snbiimtm rapinm esu, aublimam : ' on high.* 

Pacre 21. 3. aalvere . . . inbant: *they all cried, Hail 
Romulus!* pacem: * protection,* * favor:* we say the 'peace 
of God.' 4. Tolana {et) propitlua: asyndeton. aoapitet: 
an archaic word. 7. manavit : ' circulated.* 10. Proonlua : 
this praenomen occurs only in early times. According to some 
authorides, the gens fniia was brought to Rome from Alba 
in the reign of TuUus Hostilius; cf. p. 38, 1. 3, where our 
author seems to contradict himself. 11. gravla: construe 

with nmctar, quaniTla: limits ,magi:a€. 15. perfuana: 
notice the frequent metaphorical use in Latin of words of flow- 
ing. 16. oontra Intuari: 'to look into his face:* because 
it was not permitted men to toehold the gods, except as a 
special mark of favor. 17. ita toUo, nt . . . : without lAi, 
veiU would have been followed, as usual, by the subjunctive 
without ar/, or by an infinitive clause. 

Chap. XVII. 24. Patmm: here not patricians, but sena- 
toffB, who at this time were all patricians, as it was not till the 
time of Tarqutnius Priscus that representatives of the more 
iaportant pkbeian families were introduced into the Senate as 

Pagb 23.1 BOOK I. CHAP. XVI I. 239 

coMscriptL 25. Tenabat: 'was occupying, exciting.* 86. i 
perranerat: sc. certamen ac eupido. 27. ordinas: the tvo 
tribes, Ramnes and Tities. 

28. non arat rasnatniii: 'there had been no king.* In: 
' notwithstanding;.* 30. Roman! vataraa : the Ramnes, the 

Romans of Palatine. paragrinom : c£. note on this word, 
p. II, 1. 15* 

INigo 22. 1. asparnabantur: 'objected to.* ragoaii: 

l)eing intransitive, is impersonal in the passive, hence, 'thcj 
wished that there might be a monarchy,* not *th;:y wished to 
be ruled by a king.* 2. libartatls duloadlna : the author's 
republican sympathies are well known. 4. oirca: adverb as 
adjective. 5. Bt. ... at: 'though . • . yet.* 6. name . . • 
induoabat: 'no one could make up his mind to give place to 
another;* the direct object of inducebat is alttri cmtctdtre, 
7. Zta: 'under these circumstances.' ram: 'the government* 
cantum: this was the original number of the Senators; UtT 
seems to have forgotten the doubling of the Senate, which is at 
least implied in ch. xiii., ^gewinatd tirbt^ etc. daeaok deoo- 
riia faotia : various explanations of this arrangement have been 
suggested, but its precise nature cannot be understood; the 
only point that is dear is that each senator had his turn 
in ruling for five days. 13. in orbam: 'in rotation.* 

annuumqua : inexact in speaking of five hundred days. 
13. ab ra : from its real nature. nuno : an tMterrcx was 
appointed for the last time in 52 b. c. tanat: 'is current,* 
' obtains.* 

16. at ab ipaia oraatum : ' and that one of their own choos- 
ing.* 17. aa movari: 'that this intention was on foot* 
18. ita sratiam inannt: 'adopted a popular course« but in 
such a way that,* etc. 30. populua: strictly speaking, thb 
consisted at that time of the patricians only, but Livy, with 
some historical inaccuracy, already confuses popuius and pMs; 
it was the so-called constitution of Servius TuUius that first 
made the whole body of plebeians citizens, i. e. members of 
xYit popuius. iasalsaat: 'should elect;* iubtrt is the proper 
word to denote a decree of the cemitia centuriata^ L e. the 
popuius^ as constituted by Servius Tullius, voting by centuries 
31. ai patraa auotoraa fiaraat: *if the senators should confirn 


240 NOTES. [Page 22. 

(their choice);* the senators had reserved the power of con- 
firming the king's election, and thus retained as much power 
as they granted the people. Historically, ^paires auciorts fiutit^ 
means that the senate authorized the newly elected king to appear 
before the comiiia curiaia (assembly of patricians by cunae) 
to ask for the Ux curiaia dc imperio by which sovereignty 
was formally conferred. 22. rogandis» etc. : * in voting for laws 
and magistrates,* rogart is said of the magistrate presiding 
over the comiiia^ who asked the people whether they favored 
or opposed the proposed law or candidate, to which question 
they replied by their votes, without debate or amendment, 
usiurpatiir: (ushs^ raptrt; seize to one*s self by using), Ms 

23. In inoertam . . . eTontam: * against the uncertain (as 
yet unknown) result.* 25. interrax : the inierrex for the time 
being noiiinated the king. oontione : contiones were public 
meetings where no voting, but only speaking took place; to be 
distinguished from comiiia. Quod ... ait: *and may it 

prove,* etc.; optative subjunctive: the solemn formula used at 
the opening of the comiiia^ whereby they were placed under 
divine protection. 28. numerator: A. 320,/; H. 503, 11., 

2 ; G. 556, R. 2. 29. na vioti banaftoio vidarantnr : * not to 
be outdone in complaisance* 30. aoiaoarant: this is the 

verb technically used for enactments of the piebs» This whole 
story cannot be regarded as an historically correct account of 
the election of a king at Rome, for in fact the senators chose 
an internx^ he nominated the king, and the citizens in comiiia 
CMfiata could simply accept or reject the nominee proposed, 
nt . . . daoamarat: this ut clause follows scisccreni^ rather 
than inbircnt^ which would require an infinitive clause. 

Chap. XVIII. 32. Nnmaa: (akin to numcrus^ voftof), the 
'lawgiver* or * arranger* of the commonwealth; the name and 
character are entirely mythical, and the account of this reign 
is simply a list of institutions, chiefly religious, attributed to a 
king of this name; there may have been a king named Pom- 
pilius, though even that is sometimes derived from pompa^ a 
(religious) procession. It is well known that the earliest Ro* 
man l^gal system had a religious basis: vide Morey, Outlines 
of Roman Law, pp. 14, sqq. 

pAGKaaj BOOK 1. CHAR XVlli. 241 

Pa^c 23. 2. Auotorem: 'teacher.* 3. Pytiuigorun: 

Pythagoras of Samos settled at Croton, nnd founded there a 
school of philosophy; he was a contemporary of Tarquinius 
Supcrbus rather than of Servius Tullius. Numa resembled 
him in his application of philosophy to practical and political 
affairs. Pythagoras exercised a strong influence in forming 
the aristocratic governments of the Dorian cities of Magna 
(traecia. His system of doctrine was characterized by asceti- 
cism and by a m)'stic treatment of mathematics. 5. 
ciroa: *in and about.* Motapontiim Heracleamqu« tn 
Crotona: cities of Magna Graecia, the two former on the Gulf 
of Tarentum, the third at the S. E. extremity of Lucantx 
Crotona: Greek accusative. 6. aemulantiiini : * eagerly 
pursuing.* 7. coetua: * sissociations.* 8. in Bablnof : sc. 
adhta esstt U. inganio: causal ablative. 13. tempe- 
ratum: 'regulated.* virtutibtts: ablative of means. opinor 
magis : * I think it more likely.* 14. tetrioa «o tristi : ' harsh 
and stern.* Babinorum : the Sabines were for ages proverbial 
for their virtue and simplicity. 16. patras Roman! : here there 
is confusion between the whole senate and the Kamnian mem- 
bers of it. 30. ad unum omnea: 'all to a man.* -3L 
augurato : Livy frequently uses the perfect participle alone as 
an ablative alMolute. 33. augura: augurs appear to have 
existed before this time, but not as public officers, nor in an 
organized colUf^inm ; cf. p. 9, 1. 18. dainda: thereafter. 
fit%o ■=. causA : the adverb here appearing as preposition with 
the genitive: cf. «W«ca and other adverbs similarly used in 
Greek. A. 223, €\ H. 398, 5 ; G. 372. 

34. aaoardotium: a religious office, not properly a priest- 
hood, daduotus : * escorted,* * conducted,* not * led down.* 
in aroam: on the N. £. summit of the 
Capitol ine Hill was the au/^uracMium, the 

station for taking the auspices, a space 

cut off by certain limits (iimpinffi); see 

figure. The line N S is the ** cardo^'* w j  | | e 

E\V is the ^^iitcupuaHus;^^ the observer 

stood at the centre, facing £ or S. The 

augur, after dividing the sky similarly by 

imaginary lines into four regiones^ two for 

favorable and two for unfavorable indications, interpreted the 


242 NOTES. [PAOB24. 

signs which appeared. Here one only of the dividing lines is 
mentioned. 27. litanm: perhaps an Etruscan word meaning 
'curved * or * crooked ; ' possibly akin to /i/art. 30. meridiem 
(probably m^di*^ diem): the augur was facing east. septom- 
trionom: the stpitm iriones were the seven draught oxen, i. e. 
the seven stars of Ursa Maior^ or the Great Dipper in the 
northern sky. Ursa Minor was the wagon drawn by these 
oxen. 31. sigaum oontra . . . animo finivit: *he fixed in 
his mind a landmark opposite him/ i. e. on the horizon, as the 
end of the dtcumanns; the same was done to the westward. 
3C pator : this word is already included in luppiter^ Diu* 
piier^ DiispiUr, 36. uti: archaic for uiinam. signa: 
the flight or cries of birds, or thunder or lightning. adolaraasia 
as adeiaraviris : A. 128, /, 5; H. 240, 4; G. 19I9 5. 

Pafire 224. 1. perogit : * specified.' 2. deolaratua : i. e. 
by the god who sent the omens. do templo: *from the 
auguraculum.* Dr. Moritz Miiller points out that the taking of 
auspices, as above described, really preceded the announce- 
ment of the nomination of the king by tltc intemx^ 

Chap. XIX. 4. rogno . . . potitns: the Ux curiata de im^ 
perio is not mentioned, though Cicero (De Repub. 2, 13) 
assigns its origin to Numa. 5. Ti at armia: hendiadys. 

•am : i. e. nrbem^ the object being thus repeated in order to 
sharpen the contrast between de inttgro conden and condiiam, 
6. adan o aoe y a; governs the accusative alone or with a prepo- 
sition, the dative or the ablative; its subject here is general, 
*men,* or ferocsm populum to be supplied from line 8. 8. 
laimiii: the gate of ianus Bifrons stood at *the lowest part of 
the ArgiUtum^ in the valley between the Capttoline and Qui- 
rinal, and thus between the Roman city of the Palatine and the 
Sabine of the Quirinal; through this gate the united armies 
went out to war. 9. infimum: *the lowest part,* next to 

the Forum. A. 193; H. 440, 2, N. 2. 12. olauana fait : 
*has been ck>sed,* not *was closed;' it is the occurrence, not 
the resulting state that is thus expressed; the latter would be 
tiausns €si. T. Itfanlio oonania : 235 B. c 

X4b po^t boUiim Aotiaonm: the batUe of'"fM^m, in which 
Octavianus (Augustus) defeated Antony and Qcopatra, was 
ioi^t 31 B. C.9 and the gate of Janus dosed 29 b. c. It was 

Face 24.) UOOK 1. CHAP. XIX. 24 

dosed again by Augustus 25 b. c, so this book was apparenii 
written l>etween 29 and 25 R. c. IS. imperatore, 'empcror 
16. luxnriarent: *run riot,* fall into license and lawkssnca 
19. rem: appositive to met am imtcuMiium^ L 21. Z 

deaoendora ad animoa: * sink into their hearts.* 23. Essrli 
one of the Camenac, nymphs of brooks and fountains, sor. 
and prophecy; the connection of these ideas appears in tb 
word hmpkaiicns^ ' inspired.' 29. ouiqna doomaa : i. ( 

27. omnittm primum: -the regulation of the calendar «i 
of the utmost importance for religious purposes, on account 
the numerous festivals, etc., as well as for civil ones. ad 
'according to.' duodeoim monsea: the lunar month i 
twenty-nine days, twelve hours, forty-four minutes; twelve lu 
nar months therefore were approximately three hundred a» 
(ifty-four da)'s. The solar year is approximately three hue 
dred and sixty-five days and a quarter, so an intercalary montl 
of alternately twenty-two or twenty-three da}*s, called Merccck 
nius, was inserted after February 23 or 24, i. e. at the end 
the year, March being in early times the first month. Ilfi 
this correction was made so irregularly that when Julius Caesa 
reformed the calendar, he had to insert sixty-seven days beside 
the intercalary month in the year 46 B. C. The Julian calcnda 
was corrected by Pope Gregory XIII. in 1582, but the Grecc 
rian calendar was not adopted by the British government til 
1752, when the necessary correction was made by omitttn| 
eleven dap from September. ** Old Style," still used in Russia 
means the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar omits \U 
29th of February in cen tejmia L.^cars not divisible by fou 
hundred. The confusion of the Roman calendar was due parti] 
to the imperfect astronomical knowledge of the pontiffs, parti] 
to their intentional manipulation of it for political purposes 

29. daauntqiia . . . dies: the numeral is wanting in the mss 

30. anno : dative. 31. Tioeaimo anno : in fact, no suci 
cycle of twenty years was ever known at Rome. 33. naftstos: 
digs fasti were those "^ptr quos praetoribus licit fori ;^ nefoA 
those ••/^ quos nt/as/dri praetarem;^ i. e. business days ati 
holidays, days on which court could or could not be hekl. The! 
praetor was the judge when Varro wrote the above definiti«. 
Under the monarchy it was the king who exerdsed supr««e 

244 NOTES. iPAGK 25. 

judicial functions. Only certain ones of the ditt fasti were also 
€iUs iomHiaUs^ ** quibus cum populo agi Iketi^ i. e. on which it 
was lawful to hold comiiia. 

Paf^ 25* Chap. XX. 5. Dialem flaminem : a flamen 
(from f FLAG, ^tf^tf rr, flamma; ory/tfr/, *to blow,' hence *a 
kindlcr;* ot JilamtH^ from the fillet worn round the head) is 
the special priest of a particular deity; this is the chief priest 
of Jupiter, who with the flamincs Afartiaiis and Qnirinalis 
constituted the Jlaminet maioresy distinguished from the twelve 
mimcres. These three priests were in all periods patricians. 
6. RomuUr A. 218, d\ H. 39i» 11., 4; G. 356, r. I. 7. 
rosiJio viola: of the ro)*al office; vicis in genitive is not used 
by any writer earlier tlian Livy and by him only once elsewhere, 
cf. pi 51, 1. 31. 8. adsidnum: 'permanent and resident;' 
the /lamtn Dmiis was never permitted to be absent a single 
night from the city, nor to sleep three successive nights out of 
his own bed. These and numberless other restrictions {vide 
Aul. Cell. X. 15), rendered the office as much a burden as an 
honor, so that, according to Tacitus (Ann. iii. 58), it was 
vacant for seventy-five years just before the Christian era. 
9. tn a ignt qoe . . . Toato : a ioga praeiexta and a peaked cap, 
called apix^ witliout which peculiar dress he might not appear 
in public. oomli (cmrrns) . . . sella: originally a chariot 
leat, later an ivory chair used by the highest magistrates. We 
any think of the king in the earliest times as sitting in his 
chariot to administer justice in the city, where all others were 
Obliged to go on foot. rogia: emphasized by its abnormal 
position between the two parts of a compound word. 

U. vIrgliMaqiio : they were emancipated from the potestas 
of their fathers, and that they might not be subject to the 
mamns of husbands, vowed to vii^nity for thirty years. There 
were at first four, afterward six vestals at Rome Vesta*s 
temple and the house of the Vestals stood at the southeast end 
of the Forum close to th^ base of the Palatine. Their dis- 
covery a few years since created extraordinary interest in the 
excavations of Rome; vidi Lanciani, Ancient Rome in the 
L*igfat of Recent Discoveries, ch. vi. Alba and Lavinium 
^ere ancient oentrei of Vesta worship, which was general among 
tht Latins. 12. gonti : Livy uses aliinm with the dative. 

PA0C3S.] BOOK 1 CHAH. XX. 24J 


oonditoris: sc. urbis. 13. atipendiaiii ' besides gnmts d 
money, the Vestal college was endowed with portions of tW 
public land. 14. oaerlmoniis ; * sacred distinctions;' thdi 
persons were sacred and they enjoyed great consideration, e. ^ 
the privilege of riding in the city, and respiting criminals oJ 
the way to execution. 15. Salios : (sa/irt), *thc Lcapcn.'i 
OradiTo : from gradiar^ the champion war-god, marching at 
the head of his people; or from t gka, fframtm^ *grow/ tht 
god of the Spring, which was Mars* original character. VL 
tunioaeque : * consisting of a tunic ; * genitive of definition. 

17. ancilia : (<f w^, catdere) from a silver coin of the gm 
Licinia we learn that the general shape was Q The stoiy 
is that one such shield fell from heaven, as v3 a pled^'e 
of Romc^s future dominion, and that Numa, to prevent its bcir^ 
stolen, h..d eleven others made exactly like it. 18. ferrt: 

this procession and festival took place in March, the mootii 
sacrc<l to Mars. oarmina: certain fragments of the Saliahc 
hymns form the oldest extant specimens of the Latin languaf:& 
They were unintelligible to the Romans of Livy*s time ; cL 
Hor. Epist. ii. 1, ^. 19. tripudiia: explained by utUm 

niquc saltatH^ a "three-step" war-dance. 20. Pootificem: 

the author probably had in mind the fiontifex ntaxitnus^ chid 
of the college of )X)ntirf!(, though no others arc mentioned in 
this connection. This official, tlioiigh not a priest of any par- 
ticular deity, had in republican times the general supcr\'istor 
of the whole religious system of the state, the care of the 
Vestals, the regulation of the calendar, the keeping of the 
AnnaUs AfariMt\ etc. The etymology of ponii/ex is • nol 
certain ; Mommsen derives it from //>/«, facere^ taking p^m 
in the general of *road.* 22. quibna hoatiia: ihi 

division of functions among the gods was so minute, anc 
the characters of some of them so diversified, that the unioi 
tinted needed instruction as to the proper quarter in whicl 
to make their supplications. Different deities required differ 
ent sacrifices, and formal correctness in the ritual was Ibi 
sine qua non of Roman worship. All this necessitated \ 
learned body to perpetuate the ritualistic lore. 

25. quo sr ad quim, consnltnm f supine, ' for advice 

26. perepinoa: the introduction of foreign rites without lb 
authority of the senate, was a species of treanon. 27. n« 


246 NOTES. [Page 26. 

• • • modoastfr m&m . . . mad^. oaaleates, 'pertaining to 

the godi above/ 28. plaoandosqna manM : the gerundive, 
except with certain few verbs, it not used in the accusative 
without a preposition ; here it is allowed only in order to co6r- 
dinate with fumMa. A. 300; G. 431 ; Madvig, Lat Gram. 
422. 30. siuoiperoiitiur: * accepted,* i. e. understood as 

applying to the Roman people. ourarontor: 'attended to»* 
1^ proper expiatory offerings. 

Page 26. Chap. XXI. 4. Interaaao: *to concern itself 
with.* 5. iva iunuidttm: 'regard for one*s oath.* 6. pro 
Aiudo: some texts have proximo^ i. e. 'a secondary consider- 
ation.* 8. fonnarent: subjunctive after cum^ causal as 
well as temporal, though with cum . . . turn we usually find 
the indicative in both clauses. 13. oz opaoo apeou: sc. 
prtfiutns. IC arbltrla: {ad^bytter; ad^ ire^ one who goes 
to see), * witnesses.* 15. deao : i. e. Egeria. Camenis 
ijCoMtmnmt from casnere^ cature), fountain nymphs, later identi- 
fied with the Greek Muses; their grove was in a valley near 
the /Vnte Capena, 17. FIdei: the personification of good 
faith in business relations. aollemiio: *the (periodic) wor- 
ship,* held October ist. Id: a curious use of the pro- 
noun ; here id means /cr this (worship). aaorarium : this 
shrine was near the Capitoline temple. flamines : i. e. the 
three JUmines mawres, bigis ourm : appositives. 18. ad 
. . • osqtto: generally usque ad* InTolnta: i. e. with a 
white bandage, emblematic of purity and inviolability. 

21. Argoos : there were twenty-four Aigean chapejs, six in 
each region of the city. Their precise nature and the meaning 
al the name are unknown. Yearly, on March 16th and 17th, 
and on May 15th, it was customary for a religious procession 
to visit them all in succession; and on the last-mentioned date 
twenty-four wicker figures of men were thrown into the Tiber, 
probably as an expiatory offering. This feature is sometimes 
understood as a relic of an earlier human sacrifice. 24. deln- 
oopa : with adjective force, * successive.* alios alia : instead 
of miiir aliemt which would be more strictly correct in speak- 
ing of but two kingi. These words perhaps emphasise the 
difference be t ween them as distinct from their mere number. 
27. teipatata t 'regulated,* 'organiied.* 


Chap. XXII. 30. BostlU: t«dSrch.xii. Infima: A. 193; 
H. 440» Sf ^' >• 

PacT® 27* 1. olaim : not predicative, but attributive to 
pugtM^ iVMXt^cnavii^ * elected.* 2. iMitrea auotoras: ci 
note on p. 22, 1. 21. 5. Senaaoar* : *grow feeble.' & 

matarlam : * occasion.* 7. Albani : Ihougti Rome ia repn- 
sented as originally a colony of Alba, no special connection 
appears to have been preserved between them. 8. Xmperita- 
bat : there is no apparent reason for the use of the intensive 
verb. It is not perfectly clear whether Livy considered the 
rulers of Alba kings for life or yearly dictators; more prob- 
ably the latter. He calls Mettius (p. 28, I. 8) a dicUtor; it is 
not likely that he meant to imply a change in the form of gov- 
ernment 9. lagati : i.e. fiiiaies; cf. ch. xxxii. aub: 
' about.' 12. pie : * justly/ with due regard for the rights of 
gods and men. 14. celebrant: 'attend.' 1& ia trioaaimnm 
diem : * to begin at the expiration of thirty days.' 18. 
omnium: A. 218, a\ H. 399, 2; G. 373. 21. ni=:x< #wv. 
22. Ad haeo : * in reply to this.' 23. utar : relati\-e ; its 
antecedent is turn {popHium). In Latin the relative clause 
usually stands first, and then contains the antecedent (attrac- 
tion) in the case of the relative pronoun (assimilation). 25. 
ezpatant: may be transitive, witii dii (supplied from de^s) » 
subject; or intransitive, with clades as subject. 

Chap. XXIII. 28. natoaqna: poetic for liber&tque. pro- 
lem : poetic 29. ab . . . atirpa ragum . . . Romant : 

this is true only of Romulus, their founder. 

Pagr^ 28> 2. in Qnum : as will appear in ch. xxix. 
5. miUa : A. 247, c\ H. 417, i, n. 2; G. 311, R. 4. fossa 

Cluilia : this was probably once the boundary of Roman ten> 
tory on this side. King Cluilius is a pure invention to account 
for this name; cluin ^^ purgare : cf. cloaca* 7. abolavit: 
* fell into oblivion.' 10. ab ipao capita oranm :  having 

begun at the very head.' The king, the head of the nation, 
had died already, and this was to be regarded as the beginning 
of divine judgment. U. ezpatitanim : in mliquim^ instead 
of the usual nb aiiqm^. 14. Mattiom : a Hostiliua and a 

248 NOTES. [Pagb 29. 

Mettius were the opposing leaders in ch. xii. in the battle be- 
tween the Romans and Sabines ; evidently this is the same 
legend appearing in another form. In the next sentences we 
are struck by the resemblance to the story of Aeneas and Lati- 
nus in ch. i. 

Daolt: 'marehes.' 17. aatia scire: sc. st* 19. si 
▼ana adferantur : * in case fruitless proposals should be 
made.* 21. Poatquam . . . atabant : it has been ascer- 

tained that Uvy uses the imperfect with postquam nearly a 
hundred times. atmoti ss insiructL 22. infit : poetic 

for inqmii. 23« non roddltaa rea : * failure to make resti- 

tution.* 25. audlaae : sc. diunttmy agreeing with regcm, 

•adorn prao ta farra : * allege the same pretext.' Wsb. says 
that Livy prefers after dubiio the infiniti%*e to the subjuncti%*c 
with f «//». 26. diotu : A. 303 ; H. 547 ; G. 437. 28. reota 
an perparam : a dependent question, to be completed by 
supplying fiaL 29. interpretor : ' decide.* fuarit, etc. : 
' let that have been (as it was) a matter for the decision of 
him,* etc. 31. Zllad to . . . mouitom : wonere in the active 

is commonly followed by a secondary object in the accusative, 
when this is a pronoun, instead of dt with the ablative. Such 
an accusative is retained with the passive. 32. ciroa noa : 

' in our vicinity.* qao . . . hoc : A. 250; H. 423; G. 400. 
34. iam oom : * just as soon as.* 35. apaotaoulo : A. 

233,11; H. 390; G. 35a vt . . . adgredlantur : a clause 

of purpose. The Etruscans will look on, not merely for the 
pleasure of the sight, but in order to make this attack. 

Page 20. 2. alaam : lit. ' a die ; * here ' a contest of 
doubtful result.* 6. Quaarontibiia : may be considered as 

an ablative absolute, or a poetical dative of agent with an in- 
volved idea of interest. ratio : * plan.* 7. materlam : 

* the means.* 

Chap. XXIV. 8. trlgemini : tradition says that the mothers 
of these youths were sisters, married at the same time, and that 
the aiz ditldren were all born on the same day. 10. farme : 

* acarcely any.' U. nobilior : ' better known.' 12. error : 
not * mistake,* but * confusion,* ' uncertainty.' 13. Anotoraa 
tttroqtM tnhunt : ' there are authorities in support of both 
views.* Id Rome there was an altar of Janns Cunatims, as 

Pack 29.] BOOK I. CHAP. XXIV. 349 

well as a pila Horaiia; but the Horatii were prominsnt in the 
early histor}- and Curiatii were rarely heard of. ploree : the 
historian decides the question, as in many other instances, by 
the majority of voices, — a rather uncritical method. 19. qois- 
quo : in appos>ition with the subject of dimiccHt (i. e. irigi- 
Mini), 16. ibi ^ ptnes cos^ * on their side.* unde = 

a quibus, ab frequently means * on the side of.* CL ab Sabi- 
uis, p. i6, 1. lo. 17. oonvenit : * is agreed upon.' 18. fot. 
dus : * a compact.* 19. legibus : * terms,* ' conditions.* 

cuius : for tttrius, 20. cum boua pace : ' peaceably 

and honestly.* imperitaret : notice the intensive form. 

21 cetemm : here used in its proper sense, ' as to the rest,' 
*jn other respects.* Generally it is a mere weak adversatiit 
or continuative conjunction, and Livy constantly uses it for 
sed, eodem mode omnia : the -formality is in all cases 

the same, while the conditions vary in the different instances. 
22. Totustior foederis memoria : hypallage for veimsiions 
foederis memoria, 

23. Fetialis . strictly an adjective in agreement with stutr^ 
dot or legalus understood. Fctiates were not peculiar to 
Rome, but found among other Italian nations. They were the 
consecrated agents of international intercourse, and attended to 
the solemnizing of treaties, declaration of war, exchange of 
prisoners, etc. 24. patre patrato : the chief (^paicr) ap- 

pointed (patratus) for the time being. Varro says that four 
fecials were usually sent at once. It is said that the chief 
fecial was called pater because he was given pairia potesias in 
cases where he had to deliver up citizens to the enemy, as 
sometimes happened. 25. aagmina ( « sac, sacer) : the 

* sacred tufts* of grass brought from the Capitolinc, the centre 
of the city. They were symbols of the home soil. The fecial 
who carried the tufts was called verbenaritts, 26. poaco : \ 

usually takes two accusatives in Livy. Puram : i. e. kerbam* 
eac aroa : from the Capitoline Hill. 29. Taaa : * imple- 

ments.* 30. qnod • . . fiat :' so far as it may be 

done.* quad = quaninm. A. 320, ^; H. 503, i, N. i; G. 
629, R. sine fraude : ' without prejudice.* 3X Terbena : 

generally used in the plural ; tender branches or twigs 
of laurel, olive, myrtle, cypress, or other tree. Derivation 

250 NOTES. [Page 31. 

Page 90. a. sanoiendiim : making the treaty binding 
by the sanction of religion, — with an oath. 3. oarmino : 

* (metrical) formula.' non operao eat : colloquial, * it is not 
worth while.' A. 252,^; H. 404; G. 378. But vidi Roby, Lat. 
Gr. 1283. 6. ilia: refers somewhat loosely to legibus, 1. 4. 
prima poatrama: * f roiii beginning to end.* tabuUa oarave: 

* (stone) tables or (wooden tablets covered with) wax.* Some 
editors make of this, by hendiadys, * waxen tablets.* 7. dolo 
male : * evil intent.* utique = ei uii. 8. legibus : we 
ordinarily find the preposition ab after de/icere, 9. defeadt: 
archaic for de/ecerii, U. poroom : a hog was the regular 
sacrifice upon the conclusion of a treaty. 13. aazo: genus; 
aiUoa : species ; a flint was the symbol of Jupiter or of his 
thunderbolt, by which he punished perjury. The solemnity 
of this imprecatk>n is heightened by the threefold alliteration. 
kic kodU^ potts polUs^ saxo sUice, 

Chap. XXV. 16. aiout oonTenerat* *as had been agreed.' 
20. pleni adhortantiam ▼ooiboa : * inspired by the encouraging 
shouts of their friends.* 21. Cooaadarant : had sat down, 
' were sitting.* 22. periooU: A. 218, a\ H. 399, 2; G. 373. 
23. praaaantia : * immediate.* qnippe ^ nam. 24. 

poaitmn: 'depending.* 25. Xtaqne ergo : pleonasm. mi- 
nima is a very strong negative. apeotaonlum : generally an 
exhibition whose object was to please or amuse, e. g. the games 
of the circus ; this exhibition is ' anything but pleasing.' 28. 
pOTionlom . . . imperiom: the chiastic order makes sed un- 
necessary. 30. aa • . . quam : * such as.' 31. facisaent : 
represents the future perfect indicative or perfect subjunctive, 
chxftrsaiur being in the historical present (secondary tense). 
This is an expression of the feelings of the champions in 
informal araiio obiigya. A. 340, 341; H. 528; G. 665. 
•tatim: they proceed at once to business without prelimi- 
nary by-play. 

PafT® 3t« 1. paratrlngit: *tlirills.* nautrosriW neu- 

tram partem, 3. anoepa: * indecisive.* 6. auper alium 

alios: we should rather expect sHper aitemm alter. 8. ajcani- 
fliaa: * breathless' with anxiety. 9. oirovmatatarant : trans- 
late by imperfect, like considerant, p 30, 1. 21. 10. ut . • • 
■to: • • • * while • . • yet* 11. faros: * confident' of success. 

Page 32.] BOOK I. CHAP. XXVI. 25 1 

capasBlt: intensive of eaptrt. A. 167, c\ H. 3361 11., n. 2. 

19. qualii {clatncr) . . • aolet {tsst). ex insperato 
faventittin: *o£ those who applaud an unexpected success.* 
Ex with the ablative neuter of an adjective or participle is a 
favorite form of adverbial phrase with our author. 20. 
militem: 'champion.* 23. Marie: iax pugna^ by metonymy. 

26. trahena oorpua : we say * dragging himself ^ong? 27. 
antese: i.e. ante suam stream; temporal. obioitur: has 
the sense of the middle voice. lllud, etc.: 'what followed 
was not a battle.* 28. SCaniboa : it was necessary to appease 
the shades of the slain. 30. Male: 'scarcely,* 'with difli- 
culty.* arma: 'his shield.* 31.aaperne: 'over the top 
of his shield.* iucolo: sc. in. Livy goes far toward the 

style of poetry in his suppression of prepositions. 35. dioioiiia 
alienee: 'subject to foreign dominion,* opposed to sui imru. 
This is oiie of our author's favorite predicative genitives of 
possession. 36. extant : * are still to be seen ; ' the mounds 
so called existed in Livy*s time in the campus sacer Harmiw- 
rum, on the yia Latino^ five miles from Rome. 

Pagre 32. Chap. XXVI. 4. imperaret, imperat: the 
juxtaposition emphasizes the fact of Tullus* new 'authority. 
8. Princepe: 'at the head* of the returning army. A. 191; 
H. 442, 443; G. 324, R. 6. 9. desponsa: this implies the 
existence of the connnbium between Rome and Alba. 10. 

fuerat: the use of fui and fueram for sum and eram^ in the 
compound tenses of the passive, is characteristic of Livy. 
portam Capenam : this gate, through which passed the Via 
iMtina^ was one of those in the wall of Servius TuUius, and 
so did not exist at that time; but the name indicates the 
locality of the occurrence. U. paludamento : here « mili- 

tary cloak;* generally it means the purple or scarlet cloak of 
the commanding general, assumed on going out to war. 13. 
anlmum: 'wrath.* 15. Inorepana: 'speaking vehemently* or 
'violently;* it has no object here. 16. inmatoro: 'untimely,* 
inappropriate to the occasion. 19. patribua: here means 

patricians, constituting with the piebs the whole community. 

20. faoto obatabat: 'was a set-off against his deed.* ad 
regem-: the king was the supreme judge of the community, 
but he could delegate his judicial power. 


352 NOTES. [Page 33. 

23. DiinmTiros : probably am extraordinary commission- for 
the case in hand ; thougli they are often identified with the per- 
manent quaistartt parricidiL iMrdueUionem : * high treason ; ' 
he had usurped the sovereign power in presuming to punish 
bis sister, and so had committed an act of hostility to the state. 
The crime, aside from this aspect, was murder, parricidiuM, 
PerdytUio: from dutUiSy *a public enemy;* cf. dudlumz=. 
Mium, just as dttis s= bis^ duonus =s bonus^ etc. ; the earlier (d)n 
is in many words replaced by a later b, 24. •eoandttm 

l«C«m: it seems better to regard this phrase as limiting y^r/9, 
than as limiting iudiani; the former implies that this appoint- 
ment was made under a general law governing such cases. 
horrendi oarminia; the law was contained in a (metrical) 
formula horrible in its provisions. A. 215; II. 396, v.; G. 364. 
26. proTOomtiono oertato: Met him prosecute his case by 
appeal ' (to the people). Under the monarchy the king seems 
to have had the option of allowing or refusing the privilege of 
appeal; it became a constitutional right in capital cases, by 
the Valerian laws passetl in the first year of the republic. 

27. obnnbito . . . auapendito, Terbarato: the subject of 
these imperatives is the iictor who carried out the sentence 
of the magistrate. Such easily supplied words are usually 
omitted in the concise phraseology of statutes. By the veiling 
of his head, the criminal is marked out as devoted to the in- 
fernal gods, to whom also barren trees (as well as barren 
animals) were sacred. The * barren tree* became in time a 
gibbet Arbori : an old locative form like humiy doifit\ etc., 
or else an ablative of place with the preposition omitted. 
28. intra • . . vel extra: generally executions were outside 
the walls. pomerinm: for the etymology of this word, cf. 

note on p. 54, 1. 25. 29. qui •• alMolvere non rebantur . • . 
poaaa: the law said iudUeni^ 'condemn,* and their judgment 
would but bring the case before the people on appeal. 

Page 33* 2. Inioiobatque : conative imperfect ; he was 
just about to throw.* auotore Tollo: *by permission of 

Tullus ; * the king*s consent, necessary for the api^eal, Js given. 
4b ad s apud, 6. patrio lure : the pairia p^tesias, the power 
6i. the paUr fumiiias over all members of his family was un- 
Umitedt extending in early times even to life and death. In a 

Pa(:k34.J hook I. CHAP. XXVII. 253 

case involving capital punishment, however, it was usually 
exercised with tlie advice of a family council. VitU Morcy, 
Outlines of Roman Law, Per. I., chaps, i., ii. 7. animadver- 
■urum fuiaae; represents aniffiadx^trtissem of cratio recta. 
A. 337*2,^2; H. 527, in.; G. (162. 10. Pila: may be un- 

derstood as neuter plural, * weapons,* i. c. * trophy,* or feminine 
singular 'pillar.* 13. foroa: a fork-shaped frame, laid upon 

the shoulders of the criminal, whose arms were stretched out 
and tied upon its limbs, preparatory to the scourging which 
preceded execution. 23. ipsius : ' of the culprit himself.* 

25. ut . . . lueratur: while the legend of the Horatii and 
Curiatii cannot be entirely accounted for, some of the features 
of the story are manifestly aetiological. There was at Rome 
an altar to luno Sororia^ where certain sacri^ces were offered 
by the geits Horatia^ though at public expense. In the same 
street, which led from the Carinai along the western slope of 
the Esquilinc to the P'icus Cyprius^ and just where one ap* 
proached this altar, was a beam lixcd in the opposite walls, called 
sororitun tigUlum^ from the neighboring altar, apparently; and 
under this beam the Horatii, when sacrificing, passed, it seems, 
with head veiled as was usual in the Roman ritual, when sacri- 
ficing. This .suggested the idea of passing under the yoke (a 
sign of humiliation) in expiation of a crime committed by a 
Horatius his sister. In the vicinity was an altar to 
/anus Curia titis^ which suggested that this was the same Ho- 
ratius who fought against the Curiatii, in the comlxit coni- 
memorated by the Pila Horatia in the Forum. Such is, in 
substance, the explanation of Schomann, quoted more fully by 
Professor Seeley (Livy, I., Introduction). 26. Imperatam 

patrl: impersonal construction. A* 230; H. 301, 1 ; G. 199, r. i. 
29. sub iugum: a conquered army was sent under the yoke 
as a sign that it received life and freedom only by the mercy 
of the victor. 33. sazo quadrate: 'hewn stone.' A. 244, 
2; H. 415, III.; G. 396, R. 2. 

Paipe 34. Chap. XXVII. l. Nao : adversative; 'but 
. . • not* Xnvidia : ' dissatisfaction.* 3. vaanm : ' un- 

stable,* ' vacillating.* 8. ez edicto : ' after formal procla* 

mation.* 10. oolonia : abstract, in apposition to concrete 

Fidenatts, Ci. ch. xiv. end. 13. ab Alba : Livy generally 

254 NOTES. [Page 35. 

uses tik with the name of a town from which motion starts. 
dnoit : as often, without an object ; * marches.* 14. con- 

fluentas : accusative plural, agreeing with Tiberim ct AnU- 
mem. Some regard it as a proper name, like the German 
CMentM (a modernized form of ConflMentes\ at the confluence 
of the Rhine and Moselle. 19. leglonem : * levy,* * army,* 

not ' legion.* This is the original meaning. Albano : i. e. 
Mettius; not an instance of the use of the singular repre- 
senting the collective body. 21. Znde ^ Heindt. 22. 
erigit : * leads upward,* ' causes to ascend.* 23. ordines 
expUoat: 'deploys his ranks.* 24. qua . . . inolinare 
▼Irw: 'to lend his strength to that side to which fortune 
should give the victory.* Mtraonlo : predicative dative, the 
so-called dative of service. A. 233 : H. 390 ; G. 35a 26. la- 
ter*: the right flank only, but the plural perhaps indicates 
that several divisions had their flank exposed on that side. 
28. la ro tropida : * in this dangerous crisis.' Balioa : the 
Salii Qnirinalts or AgonaUs must be here intended. The 
Smiii MariiaUs or Palatini were said in ch. xx. to have been 
established by Numa. Pallorl no PaTort : the gods who 
inspire fear and panic in the enemy ; by some authorities 
identified with Picus and Faunus, the Lares Hostilii, to whom 
was ascribed the protection of the city against enemies. 

Page 35. 2. Id {esse) . . . rati : < believing it to be 
true.* 5. colOBi : the former inhabitants, Etruscans, may have 
been allowed to remain at Fidenae with the new settlers from 
Rome. The latter must have been driven out at the beginning 
of this revolt. essent: A. 320, t\ H. 517, 3, i); G. 636. 

Ziatlne solebant : ' understood Latin.* 6. lateroluderentur : 
Uie battle must have been south of the city. 8. Valedtem : 
singular for plural. alleno pavore: *the panic of the others* 
(the Fidenates). 10. ab targo : they must have changed 
front, for at the beginning of the battle the river was on their 
Hank, unless here the Anio is meant, and not the Tiber. The 
historian seems to lose sight of the conquered enemy in the 
deeper interest of what now befel the Albans. 

Chap. XXVII L 16. doTlotoa hoetea: 'upon the de- 
feat of the enemy.* 18. Qood beae Tortat: a stereo- 
typed formula, with the tense of the verb unchanged even in 

Page 37.] UOOK I. CHAP. XXIX. 255 

dependence on a secondary tense, iubti being historical present 
19. saerifioittm lustrala : this was usually performed before 
battle. iMstraiis is one of several adjectives in *miis first 
brought into prose by Livy. in diem pofttermn : * to take 
place the next day.* 21. ab Mctremo oni : beginning at 

the furthest part of the camp. 22. otiam : * also ; ' intro- 

ducing a second reason why they stood nearest, the lirst bein; 
that they were first summoned. 27. Romani : a vocative 

standing first is unusual and emphatic. quod . . . «car»tis: 
* any reason why you should return thanks.* A. 320; H. 503. 
I, N. 2; G. 634. 29. hMteraum . . . proelium : wc should 
have expected htsUrno in proelio to correspond with in Mh^ 
and may translate accordingly. 30. nou magli : we should 
say * not so much.* 

Pagre 30. Tl illud : refers to the action of the Albans ; it 
is subject, and Meitm imperium is predicate. 2. conailinm : 
'artifice.* 3. ignorantibua : i.e. in order that you — not 
allowed to know that you were being deserted— might not have 
your attention diverted, and give up the fight in discouragement. 
The participle agreeing with vobis expresses the means whereby 
this purpose was to be attained. So also m//>, 1. 4. 8. dno- 
tor . . . maohinator . . . mptor : notice the climax, the second 
and third of these words having each a more emphatic position 
than its predecessor. 12. Qaoid ... ait : * may this prove/ 

etc. Cf. note on p. 22, 1. 25. 15. oivitatom : citizenship, 

plebi . . . patres : the historian takes for granted distinctions 
of status in Alba corresponding to those at Rome ; but it 
should be remembered that the piebs was not yet part of the 
populus at Rome. 29. in diveraum iter : * in opposite 

directions.* 30. qua . . . membra : ' where his limbs had 

remained fast in the chains.* 33. auppUoiam . . . exempli : 
hypallage ; translate supplkii txtrnplum, 34; legum ha- 

manarum : * the dictates of humanity.* In eliie : * other* 


Page 37. Chap. XXIX. 2. multitadiiiem : * popula- 
tion.* Legionee : the infantry, as distinguished from tqmitis. \ 
6. olamor . . . eniaua s= clamatttfs kostes et cumntts peri 
urtftm armaii i metonymy. 7. omnia . . . miaoet : ' causes^ 

256 NOTES. [Page 3a 

universal confusion.* Miscei is poetical for impUi ; of. Aen. 
iL 487. 8. defijdt : ' stupefied.' 9. prae metn : ' for 
very fear;* causal, to be connected with deficiente consilw. 
XL. •mbttndl : Livy is fond of verbal adjectives in -buruius. 
A. 164, /; H. 333, I. 12. oltimum illud : < then for the 

last time.* A. 240,^; H. 378,2; G. 331, r. 3. 13. insU- 

bat : * began to press.* fragor i^fratigere) : ' crash.' 

16. qnibua . • . elatia : i. e. iV>, quae quisque efftrrt pole- 
rai^ etatis ; attraction of the relative with omission of the 
antecedent. 17. laram : the lar familiaris^ the spirit of 

the ancestor of the family, the guardian genius of the house. 
18. oontinens agmwi : * an unbroken procession.' 

20. Tooasqaa . . . mlaarabilea : * .sorrowful cries.' 22. 

▼•lot oaptoa : * prisoners, as it were, in the hands of the enemy.* 

24. paaaim {fassus^ pandire). Cf. note on p. 4, 1. 31. 

25. quibiia : ' during which.* The accusative would be more 
natural. A. 256, h ; H. 379, 1 ; G. 392, r. 2. 28. tarn- 
pUa : dative ; * the temples were spared.' Ttmperare is also 
followed by the ablative with ab ; used here probably be- 
cause there is no passive of parcere in use. The worship of 
the distinctively Alban gods remained in its old scat, and in 
their case the sacra were not transferred to Rome. — The 
foregoing chapter has always been regarded as one of the finest 
descriptive passages in Latin literature. 

jp Chap. XXX. 30. oiTtmii : Livy includes the plebeians 

V among the citizens, having no idea of the distinction, still 

ing at that time, between the patricians, who were citizens, and 

the plebeians, who were only residents. quo: A. 317, b\ 

H. 497i "•» 2 ; G. 545, 2. 

PttSre 38* X- MUB : assimilated in gender to the predi- 
cative accusative, udem. 2. deinda : * from that time on.' 
baMUTit : intransitive. in patrea : 1. e. he gave the head.<i 
of the principal houses seats in the senate. 3. ZuUoa : 

from p. 21, I. 10, it appears that there were already luiii at 
Rome in the reign of Romulus. We are not to suppose that 
these six gtnUs were the only ones thus treated ; but these, 
at least, were in after times regarded as of Alban origin. 
4b templnmqna : a meeting place formally marked out and 
cottiecrated by the augurs. The senate often met also in the 


PAGsaaj BOOK I. CHAP. XXX. 257 

temples of particular gods. Cf. Aul. Cell. xiv. 7 : (^Fatyv) 
di^uii^ nisi in toco ptr augurtm consiituto^ quod iempium 
appeilaretur^ umatMSconsuitum factum esset^ iustum id mom 
fuisst. 5. HostiliA : it was customary at Rome to name 

public works after the magistrate under whose charge they 
were constructed, e. g. the Via Appia and the Circus Flaminims 
were named respectively after the censors under whom they 
were built. The Curia Hostilia stood on the northeast side of 
the Comitium, facing nearly south. For the history of the 
building, vide Middleton, Ancient Rome in 1888, 149. 

7. omniam ordinum : the three orders of senators, knights, 
and people. 8. dooem tuimas: ten troops of thirty men 

each, added to the previously existing three centuries. IX. 
Hao fiducia v\AyajA'=^harum fiducia virium; causal ablative. 
12. aeoandam: *next after.' 14. Faroniae: a goddess of 
spring, of flowers and of love, worshipped in common by 
Sabines, Etruscans, and Latins, at whose temple near Mount 
Soracte (or, as some say, at Trebula Mutuesca in Sabina) 
annual fairs were held. At her altars it was customary to 
emancipate slaves. 16. suoa: probably refers to criminals 
and runaway slaves, who would have taken refuge in the cuj^ 
ium at Rome, so that reUnios does not mean ' detained against 
their will,* but ' not delivered back * to the Sabines. 17. baud 
parum : litotes, i. e. the affirmation of something by denying its 
contrary; this is stronger than an ordinary affirmation. 19. 
adieotione : this word, used only twice by Livy, does not 
appear in any earlier writer. Wsb. 

22. residuaa baUomm iras : * the lingering resentment caused 
by former wars.' defeotioiiem : does not here mean a revolt ; 
in which sense it could apply to subjects only, but a breach 
of treaty obligation. Veii had not yet been subdued by Rome. 
25. nam de oeteris minus mirum eat: Mn the case of the 
rest (of the Etruscans) there was less matter for surprise;' 
i. e. the Veientines had been engaged in war with the Romans, 
while the other Etruscans had not, and so had no special motive 
for attacking them in concert with the Sabines. The Veien- 
tines presumably would not have refused, if they had not been 
bound by their truce. But the truce made with Romulus (ch. 
XV.) seems to have been already broken (ch. xxvii.) and there 
la no mention of its renewal. 27. Toitiqno in eo na 

2s8 NOTES, [Page 39. 

Tidcratur: *aiid it leemed to be merely a question which,* etc. 
28. ooovpat . . . traneiro: 'anticipated the Sabines by cross- 
ing into their territory' (before they had time to enter his); 
cf. note on p. i8» I. a;, occupani . . ./acire. 29. BUvam 

MaUtlOMUB : in Sabina. 22. Ab . . . inveotia : * by a sud- 
den charge of the horsemen.* 33. oonatare : • stand their 
ground; in ranks; oxpUoarl: 'scatter' in flight; we must 
translate by a personal active construction; the pasiive is im- 
possible in English. 

Paffea9. Chap. XXXI. 1. in: the preposition is neces- 
aary with an ablative of characteristic, when not accompanied 
by an attributive (adjective or its equivalent), but here we find 
preposition and adjective both. 3. lapidibua pluTiase : p/uerg 
is generally construed with the ablative ; this is a prodigy of 
frequent occurrence in the later books of this history ; it may 
have been a shower of meteoric stones. 4. missis: \ht 

subsUntive, easily supplied, is wanting. 5. in oonspeotu: 

ac iomm qui missi erani. 7. oaelo: strict prose would 
require de coih. Visi {iibi sunt). 8. iuoo : the grove 
of Jupiter Latiaris was upon the summit of the Mons Albanus 
(now Monte Cavo), eighteen miles southeast of Rome. 
10. Romana aaorn : the Roman sacra^ as well as the Alban, 
had been brought from Lavinium, consequently the Albans 
could readily adopt the Roman worship, though it had been 
modified by Numa and by the union with the Sabines. A great 
part of their religion was common to all Latins. U. nt fit: 
*as is. natural.* 12. Romania: dative, as in poetry, for the 
ablative with ab; this case indicates especially the interest 
of the person involved in the action of the verb, as opposed to 
mere agency. 13. tooo . . . miaaa: causal ablative absolute, 
corresponding to moniiu^ 1. 15. 

15. tuuruapiomn : (Ifpoc^Bgeotian Jopfc, Etruscan hams; spe- 
r«nr)t soothsayers, apparently originally Etruscan, but certainly 
very early found at Rome, if not indigenous there ; their office was 
to interpret just such omens as the one in question ; they were 
skilled also in the lore of lightning, but derived most of their 
information as to the future from the Inspection of the entrails 
ol animals killed in sacrifice. Vidi Excursus on Prodigies, in 
Capes* Uvy, p. 316^ sqq. qnandoquo » ^iviriii/M-irMryir/. 

Pack 40.) BOOK 1. CHAP. XXXI 1. 2S< 

16. i»rla« pmr novem dies: these were extraordinaiy obsd 
vances, specially proclaimed in each instance; ftriae legitime 
occurring regularly, were a matter of course. X8. pestilontU 
an epidemic disease, not necessarily *the plague.' 19. cmn 
concessive. 21. ittTonam : * men of military age.' 24. regium 
'worthy of a king.* 26. obnozius: 'a victim to.' rtli 
gtonibus . . . Impleret: * occupied the whole time of the peopi 
with religious observances.' 28. roqoirentoft : * regretting 
29. oorporibiu: the Ronuns often said 'bodies' where wi 
say * selves.' pax veniaquo: 'peace and pardon,' ' favor aiM 

Page 40. 1. XoTi XUioio: cf. p. 25, 1. 31, for the meaning 
of this epithet oporatum: ' occupied,' ' busy.' 4. apecism: 
* manifestation,' 'vision.* aolUolUti: disturbed,' 'irritated' 
5. oonflagrasae : the subject is enm to be inferred from i^^ 
1. 3. 

Chap. XXXI I. 7. ab initio : i. e. after the death of the fits) 
king. 8. ad patroa 'to the senate.' 10. fnaro nuctorsi 
cf. note on p. 22, 1. 21. Nomao . . . napoa: thus a Sabine kinj 
follows a Kamnian, Sabine at least on his mother's side; hi) 
father is not mentioned. U. fiUa: A. 244, a\ H. 413 

G* 395* Q^ u^: yi\icxk he. 13. oatora: accusative of spc 
cification. A. 240, c\ H. 378 ;.G. 332. 19. aacra . . . faom 
the king as the head of the state religion performed some d 
the sacra pnbtica in person, others by deputy, through the pon- 
tiff, flamcns, single gentes, etc. 16. oommantariia: a col- 
lection of ritual directions existed in later times, attributed « 
Numa and other early kings. 

17. pontifioam: sc. maximum, in album: 'upon i 

whitened tablet.* in pubUoo: probably at the domns rtgu. 
as the official residence of the chief pontiff was afterwaid 
called. This knowledge, which had previously been a monopot)' 
of the priests, was also in later times kept secret by the poi- 
tiffs. 19. abitumm {tsse) : ' would turn back ' (from TuUus' 
style of reign). 21. foedua : not previously mentioncc 

aoatolerant animoa : ' had plucked up courage.' They felt them 
selves bound only so long as Tullus, with whom they had condudei 
their treaty, lived. 22. rapetantibva : * when they demandec 
reatitution ; * dative. 23. daaidom: predicative; 'would paai 

NOTES. [Page 41. 

bis reign in inaction.' 25. memor: construe with inginiumi 
'possessing qualities of,* 'reminding of.* 26. praaterquam 
q«od • • • oradabat: * beside the fact that tie believed,* etc. 
A. 333; H. 540, it., n.; G. 525. 27. atlam: sc. credebai^ 
*he also believed.* 28. quod: relative pronoun, referring 
to following id, illi: i.e. to Numa. sine iniuiia: i.e. 
without putting up with insult and injury from the suiYounding 
nations. 30. TuUo ragi: «to a king like Tullus.* 32. 
prodasaator : 'published* and so 'instituted.* 

Pave 41. 2. AaquionUa: a branch of the Aequi, living, , 
however, in Sabina. Some regard them as mythical, simply 
ei qui mequum cotunt, fatlalaa: fecials are mentioned as 
existing already in the previous reign (ch. xxiv.) so the original 
establishment of the college cannot be attributed to Ancus. 
4. IjQgatna: iht paitr patratus ; cf. ch. xxiv. raa rapatuntur : 
res repttert is primarily to demand the return of things wrongly 
taken, probably at first plunder from farms; then it came to 
mean satisfaction for wrongs in general. 7. faa: personifi- 
cation. 8. iiiata plaqaa: rightly by human and divine law. 
9. F^raglt: this formal proclamation was called ciarigatio {cian^ 
i. e. ci^rm vece^ and agere), 11. dadlar: archaic for didi; 
this and other such forms are relics of the language of the 
ancient formulas employed. A. 128, /, 4; H. 240,6. patriaa 
oompotam: a perjurer suffered civil and religious excommu- 
nication. 12. airia: syncopated form of siveris {sinert). 
anpraaoandit : archaic. 14 oonolpiandiqua iuria iurandi: 
*and of the phraseology of the oath.' 17. peraotia: there 
is nothing here to show that the fecials did not remain dur- 
ing the interval, but from ch. xxii. we should infer the con- 
trary custom. 18.. lana Qulrina : Janus the god of be- 
ginnings is generally invoked first, even before Jupiter. Janus 
Qttirinus is the god of the beginning (and ending) of war. 
. oa a laa t aa • • • tanraatraa • • • infami: the gods of heaven, 
; earth, and hell, three great classes; it would be impossible to 
' call each by name. 

21. maioraa nato: i. e. the senators. 22. oonaniamua: 
they oould notfOf course, do this in person: that was the 
province of the king. 24. oonaolabat: the imperfect shows 
tkat the general practice is in view, not merely the present 


instance. Qammm^de quibHs; the genitive in this sense 

is common in legal phraseology, which was generally archaic 
ramm: * stolen property** 25. UUttm: 'subjects of litigatioa.* 
oaussjrum: 'questions o£ law/ or 'claims.* ooodijcit: has 
made demand ; comiidh is the legal term for the summons bj 
a plaintiff of a defendant to appear before a magistrate in thirty 
days; vidi Sandars* Justinian, Introd., $95. 27. dodanut 
etc. : dare is to give what one is under obligation to give, 
generally the payment of money; factrt^ the performance of 
any obligation, not specifically giving, tliough that also may be 
included; st»lvire^ payment of penalty, danuges, or indemnity 
for wrongs committed. So Wsb. distinguishes them. 29. 
quid oaasas: sc. de HSf antecedent of quarum^ L 24. 36. 
Quod: 'whereas.* 

Pntr<3 42* 4. oensoit, oonaensit^ consoivit: alliteratioo 
is common in ancient formulas. €. ego populnsquo: 'I, as 
the representative of the n.ation.* 8. ubi dixtoset: the sub- 
junctive rather than the indicative, is used here to denote the 
action as habitual, and thus corresponding with the imperfect 
tense of the principal verb. Roby, Lat. Gr. 1716. A.' 323, 
309, b\ H. 518, 1: C 569, K. 2. Uhi^ here, is 'whenever* 
hastnm: the ceremony of throwing the spear upon declaring 
war was preserved till the tim.c of the empire ; as the frontiers 
were extended, the ceremony iKcame symbolical, and the spear 
was hurled from the temple of Dellona in Rome; vide Leigh- 
ton, Mist. Rome, 41. 

Chap. XXXIII. XL demandata: * intrusted during his 
absence.* 13. Politoriom : the exact position of this town 
is unknown, owing to its early disappearance. ^6. olroa: 'on 
l)oth sides of.* veterum Romanonun: the Kamncs of Romn 
Qtitidrata^ the Romulean city on the Palatine. 17. Capito* 
Uum atque aroem: the southern and northern peaks respeo 
tivcly of the Cnpitoline ; this hill seems to have been a common 
stronghold of the double state, while the distinctive seat of the 
Sabines was the Quirinal, as is clear, at least, in the sphere of 
religious institutions. Caelium: cf. ch. xxx. 18. ATanti- 
num: generally masculine, agreeing with mont ; the highest 
of the hills of Rome, south of the Palatine, from which it was 
separated by the valley of Murcia. This settlement of the 

263 NOTES. [Paos 43. 

Aventine cannot have been very complete, for by the Ux 
icilia^ B. c. 454« part of this hill was assigned, as a part of the 
nger pubiicus^ to the plebeians. 19. Tellenis: somewhere 
to the south of Rome, early destroyed. Floana : eleven miles 
from Rome on the road to Ostia. 20. ruraiia • • • repeti- 
tnm : pleonasm. 24. Modnlllam : a colony of Alba northeast 
of Rome; d p. 48, 1. 20. oonpulao: * concentrated.* 

Apinrently this was a war with the Latin league. 26. in 

aporto: 'in the open country.' 27. oomminos . . . aigna 

oontulonit : *had engaged in hand to hand conflict.* 28. 
Ad vltimiim: 'finally.* 

Page 43* !• a^ Jtf uroiao : a^Grecism ; sc. cram ; in 
the valley between the Palatine and Aventine, which apparently 
was not then drained; cf. p. 48, 1. aS. Murcia is a surname 
of Venus, by some explained as Myriea^ by others as connected 
with muUtrti cf. il/«/riiArr (Vulcan). Zanioulom: a high 
hill on the northwest bank of the Tiber; a natural bul- 
wark against the Etruscans. 2. oa : assimilated in gender to 
the predicate noun «rr. 4. ponto Bnblioio: 'bridge of piles.' 
For certain reasons, supposed to be religious, but probably in 
origin military, no iron was allowed to be employed in its con- 
struction. It was necessary to destroy it quickly sometimes, 
because of invasions. Its exact position cannot be certainly 
determined. 5. Quiritinm . . . foaaa: a moat, where the 
ground around the city was flat. 6. a . • • locis: 'on the 

sides approachable upon a level ; ' a large part of the defences 
of the city consisted in the steep faces of the hills. 

8. mnltitadine : Ancus was traditionally regarded as the 
founder of the /Mj, as a distinct order in the state, and con- 
sisting of the free inhabitants of conquered towns. The ple- 
beians, then, were not the clients of particular patrician houses, 
but rather under the protection of the king as head of the 
commonwealth, and while possessing private rights, had no 
share in the political rights, which remained as yet the ex- 
clusive property of the full burgesses, known as patricians. 9. 
ossoer: the Mamertine prison, now entered from the church 
of S. Pietro in Carcere, consists of two vaults, one above the 
€>ther« The lower and older, the Tullianum, attributed to Ser- 
vhis TuUius, Is a drcubr vault narrowing; to the round open- 

Pack M.] BOOK I. CHAP. XXXIV. 26} 

ing at the top, by which alone it was entered from the upper 
chamber. This vault was probably the well-house of the early 
Capitol, protecting the spring which supplied the water needed 
by the garrison. In this place the Catilinarian conspirators 
were put to death by the order of Cicero, and tradition satyi 
that SS. Peter and Paul were confined here, and that the spring 
arose miraculously to enable them to baptise a convert. U. 
hoo rege : temporal ablative absolute. 12. silva Ifiesia : 
extending along the right bank of the Tiber, below Rome. 
14. OstU : on the left bank ; the coast has risen, and its ruins 
are now three or four miles inland. saUnAa: shallow pits 
into which the sea water was admitted, which, upon evapo- 
rating, left the salt behind. oiroa: *on both sides.' IS. 
aedis: nominative. 

Chap. XXXIV. 16. Luoumo : originally, at least, this was 
not a proper name, but the common designation of the ruling 
class, the nobles of Etruria. 18. Tarquinlte : locative ; one 
of the twelve cities of the Etruscan league. 20. DoouuraU: 
the Bacchiadae, the aristocratic rulers of Corinth, were expelled 
by a revolution about 657 b. c. ; the traditional chronology 
places the reign of Ancus 640-^16 b. c. Demaratus, however, 
may be only a personification of the influence exercised by 
Greece upon the arts and civilization of Etruria, and, indirectly, 
of Rome. seditionM : cf. note on p. 3, 1. 6. 25. rellota : 
has the meaning of a present passive participle ; wA Na- 
gclsbach, Lat. Stil. 260. 26. veutram forra: *was with 

child.* 27. in nullam sortam bononim: 'to no share in 
the property;' but by the Roman law posthumous children'^ 
received a share in the property of their fathers. 28. Ega- 
rio : from tjrere. 30. anlmoa : • ambition.* dnoU in ma- 
trlmonium Tanaqnil : • his marriage with Tanaquil.' 31. hla : 
'than that position,* * those relations.* 

Page 44. 1. quo ^ tu quae ; the adverb represents a 
case with its preposition. 2. Bparnantibiia : a stranger could 
not gain admission to the nobility of Etruria. 3. inganiUa 
arga patriam oariutia : it has been observed that the Latin 
has no single word for * patriotism.* 4 vidarat : A. 314; 
H. SUfi-; C. sy$. 5. ad id potlaaimum: *most desirable 
for that object* 6. rapantina : ' of rapid growth.* 7. virttita : 

264 NOTES. [Paoe 44. 

'merit* forti me streniio : qualities specially admired by 
the Romans. 8. Sablnam : * though a Sabine.* 10. una 
Inuiflao Nnmaa : in later times at Rome a family first be- 
came noble when one of Its members attained a cunile office. 
The waxen masks of such men hung in the afnuM of their 
descendants. In this instance the later language is applied 
naturally enough to the earlier age. 11. oupido: dative, 

agrees with the indirect object of persuadeL 12. eseet: 
A. 320, /; H. 517; G. 636. 14. oarpento: in omitted, as is 
C^^' constantly done by Livy, and especially with sedere. This was 
^ * i a covered two-wheeled cart, used by priests and women, and 
'*^lor transporting goods. 15. avpenais . . . alia: * gliding 
^* * y{;ently down on motionless wings ; * demiaaa : has a middle 
force. pUleum : a close cap of felt. 

XL earn alitem: some birds were regarded as harbingers of 
good, others of ill fortune ; particular ones were looked upon 
as the messengers of particular deities, the eagle as coming 
from Jupiter. regione : i. e. the favorable quarter. 22. 
oolmen : an augural term, here s= caput 23. hnmano : 
antithetic to diviHiius, 25. !•. : i. e. Lnoinm : this name 
appears here as an adaptation of Lucumo. There was an early 
gtn* Tarquinia at Rome ; the name Tarchnas appears in Etrus- 
can inscriptions. That the former name was identical with or 
derived from the latter is traditional, but cannot be regarded as 
hbtorically certain. 26. Priaoum: an original surname, 

not one afterwards applied to distinguish this Tarquin from 
Supcrbus ; at least, Livy so understands it. Other families had 
this surname. 28. oomltata: coordinate with conciliando. 
benefioitoqno : instrumental ablative with eanciliando, 30. 
NotttiaoMiiie . . . inra : * he developed mere acquaintanceship 
into the relations of intimate friendship.* 31. llberalitar: 
'handsomely;* Hberalis expresses the qualities proper for a 
free man, the character of a gentleman, as opposed to anything 
servile, mean, low, or small-spirited. 33. par omnia : * in all 
capacities.' aaKpertna : passive, though the verb is deponent. 
34b tator: 'guardian;* in case of intestacy it was an agnate 
kinsman that was appointed to this office. But tlie earliest 
written law recognized .the power of a father to appoint by will 
guardians for the children who had been under his poUsitUk 
Mocey, Outlines of Roman Law, S54. 

Pagb M.] book I. CHAP. XXXIV. 26$ 

Page 45, Chap. XXXV. 3. Xun ftUi : the sons of 
Ancus seem to have regarded themselves as the proper sac* 
cessors to the throne, yet the monarchy nowhere appears hcrcdh 
tar)', but always elective. C comitia : i. e. cmriata. x^ ors- 
ando : A. z^ b ; H. 544, 2, N. 3 ; G. 430. 5. fierent : * be held :* 
by the iHierrex\ who alone could hold them. sub tempos: 
* as the time approached.* 6. pattsM ambitioso : * canvassed 
(or the crown.' 7. orationem : this must have been before 


the meeting of the comiiia^ at which votingonly ^Qok place. 
8. plabis : here again we find the anachronism of ix^garding 
the plebeians as at that time citizens with the right of voting. 
13. uitro: ' \'oluntarily ' on the part of the Romans. ex quo: 
' since ;' = rjr eo tefupore quo. 14. aui poteoa; a Roman 

son was subject to the potestas of his father until he was 
emancipated, or his father died. Then he became stti iuris 
or sui potcHs, A. 218, a\ H. yy)^ i., 3; G. 373 17. aub 
baud paenitendo magistro : * under a teacher that he did not 
need to be ashamed of ; ' the litotes has equal force in English. 
18. iora: * civil;' ritoa: 'religious institutions.* 22. insait: 
this is the vote of the ccmiiia* 23. cetera egregiam: 

*in other respects admirable.* 

25. centum In patrea legit: these patres mitwrnm 
gentium seem to have been, in fact, the heads of certain 
important plebeian houses, raised to the patriciatCi or, in 
other words, made full burgesses. In ch. xvii., but one hun- 
dred senators are spoken of, and in Boole 11., ch. i., the regu- 
lar number of three hundred is unplied. Wc suppose tlic 
second hundred to have come from the Sabine half of the 
state after the union under Romulus and Tatius. 28. Ibi 
= in Laiio* The treaty of alliance with Ancus appears dis- 
solved by his death. Apidlaa: position unknown. 3a 

fama : nominative. 31. prlorea reges : the previous existence 
of the lutii Romani in some form is here taken for granted, 
though not mentioned, and yet they are ordinarily spoken of as 
founded by Tarquin. 

Pagre 40* 1- looua : the valley of Murcia, between the 
Palatine and Aventine. 2. apeotaonla: * stands,' from which 
to view the games. 3. Spectavere : sc paira iquUesqmt. 

ftiioie . • . austinentlbus : ablative absolute; the object of 

266 NOTES. [I'AOS 47. 

the participle is speeiacuia. 4. X«dionim fait: Mhe sports 
consisted of/ 7. oirca : i. e. on the long sides, northeast and 
southwest. The Forum was in the valley between the Palatine 
and Quirinal, with the Capitol at the northwest end. Shops and 
money-changers* stalls afterward occupied these sites, but build- 
ings can hardly have stood here before the drainage of the 
Forum had been effected. nedlfloanda: *to build upon.* 

Chap. XXXVI. 9. Muro . . . Upldoo : afterward finished 
by Servius Tullius, and called by his name. 16. equitom: 
singular for the collective tquitaium. 17. viribus: A. 231,11; 
H. 386; G. 346. 18. addar« alia* oonstituit: it was his 
purpose to form three new centuries, independent of and dis- 
tinct from the old ones. 19. Id : the formation of the original 
centuries. 2a inaugurato: 'after consulting the auspices.* 
Livy often uses the perfect participle alone in the ablative 
absolute, as here. This is unusual, though not unknown, in 
cariier writers. Attos NaTiua : his story is told by 

Cicero (De Div. i. 17). 22. nisi «▼•■, etc.: it is implied 

that the king had not intended to consult the auspices about 
this matter. addiadssent: a technical \90xA ^ admisissent. 
23. aludenaque : 'mocking.* artem: the augural science. 

Ago dom : dum is intensive with the imperative. 24. divine : 
sarcastic, 'man of God,* 'inspired one.* 

26. anlmo : animus includes the will and purpose ; pnens is 
the purely intellectual faculty. 28. aves tuae : is ironical. 
30. oomitio: {co{m)ire, 'meeting place*) the northeast portion 
of the Forum. 31. gradibm : a flight of steps led up to the 
Curia. fnit: this implies that the statue no longer stood 
there in Livy*s time. The attitude of the figure may have sug- 
gested this tale of a miracle. Moreover there was, near by, a 
puteaif L e. an enclosure marking as sacred from human touch 
a place where lightning had once struck. ootom • . . sitam: 
it was customary to bury, in such places, a flint as a symbol of 
the thunderbolt Possibly a piece of iron buried with the flint 
may have figured in popular imagination as the razor of 

PAgo 47* !• oorto: contrasted with yOrnrn/, p. 46, 1. 29. The 
inflttcnce of the augurs is henceforward widened to a greater 
iraHety of objects, as well as intensified in force. 3. anapioato : 


c£. note on p. 46^ L 2a ooaelUa populi : the organiied meet- 
ings of the pubs were called concUia* axeroltus Tooati: 
*mustenng8 of the army;* probably the autlior means meetings 
of the comitia ctniuriata^ a political assembly constitutedt as 
will appear later, on a military basis. 4. aununa remm: the 
most important matters ; smntw is neuter .plural, return parti- 
tive genitive. 5. dirimerentur : an augur was always present 
when comitia were to be lield, and if he pronounced tlie omens 
unfavorable, saying ^^alio dW*^ {pbHUHiiatio)^ tlie assembly was 

6. alteram tantum : neuter as substantive ; * as many 
again.* 7. miUe ot octiiigouU: there seems to be here 

a confusion with the eighteen equestrian centuries established 
by Servius TuUius. Previous to this time there appear to 
have been three centuries, one from each of the tribes. 
These had been enlarged by Tullus (p. 38, 1. 8), but even allow- 
ing for this, wc do not get eighteen hundred. 8. Poatorioroa 
. . . iadom nominibua, etc. : * those that were added were 
called by the same names, but posierhresy i. c. Ramtics pot- 
tiriorest Titits posieriores^ and Lucerts posUriores or secuudt 
to distinguish them from the R. T. and L priorcs or primi ; so 
that formally, instead of new centuries, they became halves of 
the old, but the three doubled centuries were spoken of as six, 
and later were called the sex suffragioy i. e. the six patrician 
centuries, among the eighteen equestrian centuries of the 
Servian constitution. 

Chap. XXXVII. U. Hao parte: the cavalry. 13. miaaU: 
agreeing with the implied antecedent of qui; ' by sending men 
to,* etc. 14. vim: * quantity,* 'mass.* 15. ardontem* 

* setting it on fire as they did so.* oonioerent: A. 517, 3; 
H. 497, i; G. 545, I, 632. 16. ploraquo in ratiboa: *for 
the most part lying upon rafts,* or 'formed into rafts.' aub- 
liois: construe with inpacta* 17. haerarent: the burning 

timbers, striking the piles, were arrested, the rafts being too 
large to pass through, and so set fire to the bridge, which 
had secured the retreat of the Sabines in case of defeat. 
19. mortalaa: poetic for homines, effugiaaent: concessive 
as well as temporal. A. 325, 326; H. 515, iii. ; G. 588. 20. 
flnltantla: spears and wooden shields would readily float. 
22. proallo: A. 259, tf ; H. 429: G. 392. 23. ab oomilnia: 
'on the winjcs.' 24. Ita inourrisaa: 'charged so fiercely.* 

_ \ 

268 NOTES. [Page 4a 

25. alitoront: 'arrested.* 26. Instantes: accusative, oaden- 
tlbiu : i. e. the Roman foot. 27. petabant : * tried to reach.* 
tenn«r«: 'succeeded in reaching.' 29. instandum: imper- 
sonal. A* 230; H. 301, I ; G. 199, R. I, 208. 31. Vttloano: 
god of iire. 32. ot quamquam • • . roa arant: 'and though 
they had met with but ill success.* 33. geatoroa meliua: 
'that they would succeed better.* 

PaiTC 48* X. raa: 'the situation;* nominative. 2. 

tamultuario milita: 'irregular, hastily levied soldiery;' the 
concrete singular miUs for the collective exerciius. 

Chap. XXXVIII. 4. Collatia: about ten miles east by 
north of Rome, on the Anio. 5. Sabinia: A. 229; H. 385, 11., 
3; G. 344- Egerina : cf. p. 43, 1. 28. 6. in praeaidlo: 
possibly a colony is intended, probably only a military occu- 
pation. 7. ita: construe with deditos, 8. legati: 'envoys;* 
oratoreaqno : ' spokesmen ; * probably feiiaUs, 10. in sua 
poteatata: independent, and so entitled to dispose of itself. 
Sabine cities, like the Latin cities, belonged to a confedera- 
tion, but preserved their separate independence. 12. dalu- 
bra, ntanailia : 1. e. res sacrat and privatae as well as publicae, 
15. triwmphana : a triumph is here mentioned for the first 
time by Livy, yet in ch. x. Romulus is virtually represented 
as celebrating a triumph, though the express term is not used. 

16. Priaoia Z^itinia: communities of Latium. most of which, 
if not all, were .older than Rome; to be distinguished from 
the later coioHiae Latinae^ colonies of Romans or Latins pos- 
sessing the ins Ijtiii^ cvves sine suffragio* 17. iiniTaraaa 
rai dimioationani : 'a generally decisive conflict,* 'a battle 
decisive <tf the whole contest.* 18. nomen: by metonymy 
for ' the nation.* 19. Corniculum, etc. : these towns 
lav between the Tiber and Anio and the Mons LucreiUis. 
21. dalsoarant: after being previously in the hands of the 

23. Maiora • . . animo . . . quam . . . balla: 'with an 
energy that exceeded the effort with which he had carried on 
the wars.' 25. ftiiaaat: A. 342; H. 529, 11. ; G. 666. 26. qua: 
 where.* 27. inllma . . • loom : the Velabrum, the valley of 
the Great Circus and, circa forum^ the low portions of the 
Sabura, the Vicus Tuscus and VicMs Fugarius; the Forum 
hacUmost have been drained at this time or previously. 29. 

PA0B49.] BOOK I. CHAP. XXXIX. 269 

oloacis : {cluere^ to cleanse), sewers, vaulted and subterra* 
ncan, built of heavy blocks of tufa without mortar, fastlclo: 
*on an incline,' with a downward slope. 32. ooonpat fun- 
damontia : to secure a large level site, it was necessary to build 
up walls from the slopes of the hill and fill in the enclosed 
space with earth; fundamtntis refers to this substructure. It 
was upon the southwest peak of the Capitoline. 

Pnsre 40. Chap. XXXIX. 2. pnaro: A. 235, a; H. 384, 
II., 4, N. 2. 4. ad: * in consequence of.* tanUie rat mi- 
raculum: *so extraordinary an event.' 5. regaa: 'the king 
and queen.* familiarium : * of the domestics ; * the familia 
included all persons, free or bond, under the pciestas of the 
pater familias* 9 in secrotum: * aside;' neuter adjective 
as a substantive. Viden = videsne ; a poetic and colloquial 
form. 10. humili cultu: 'simply.* U Scira licet: 

*it is evident.' rebus nostria dubiis: refers to the future. 

12. materiam : ' one who has the capability of.* 13. pubUce 
priTatimque: Mn public and private relations.* omni indnl 
gentla nostra: 'with all the kindness in our power.' 14. 
liberum looo: *as their own child;' iiberum is genitive 
plural. 15. ad magnae fortunae oultum: 'to the style of 
living suited to a high station.' 17. oordi: A 233, it; H. 390; 
G. 350. esaet: causal; the cause being not simply stated 
as a fact, but rather by way of inference from the prodigy*, 
'because, as might be supposed, it was,' etc. A. 321; H. 516, 
II* ; G. 541. avasit: 'turned out.' indolia: A. 215; 

H. 396, V. ; G. 364. 18. quaereretor: A. 323, 325; H. 521 ; 
G. 586. Tarquinio: dative of agent and interest 

21. Hio . . . habitus : ' the fact that such respect as this 
was paid, for whatever reason it may have been.' 22. senra . 
tradition said her name was Ocrisia. Another version of 
the story makes the iar familiaris of the royal house the 
father of the child. 27. prohibiUm: 'rescued.' 28. 

muliares: Tanaquil and Ocrisia. 30. eduotum: 'brought 

up;' strictly tducatum^ as in line 10, snpra^ would be the 
correct word, but the distinction was not always observed, 
fortnnam . . . feciaaa: 'that the misfortune of his mother, 
in having fallen into the enemy's hands upon the capture of 
her homc^ caused the belief that he was the son of a slave 

3/0 NOTES. IPaoe 51. 

woman.* 3X ▼•nerlt: perfect where we should expect a 

secondaiy tense. 

Page 50* Chap. XL. 3. maximo honore; ablative of 
quality. A. 251; H. 4i<>» 11.; G. 402. Cf. //i caritaie^ p. 49, 
1. 30, where the ablative has no attributive and a preposition is 
necessary. 4. fiUi duo : the period starts with Jtlii as sub- 
ject of the principal verb, but at ium inpensius the construe, 
tion changes; the original subject is represented by fi>» dative 
of reference, and indignitas now becomes the subject of a 
different verb from that originally intended {Jn\iignabantMr\ 
Such a violent change of construction is calledianacoluthon. 
5. toodo : cf. ch. xxxv. 6. non modo : elliptical =: non 

modo dicam, 8. al . . . rediret; si here is equivalent to 

quod; it introduces the ground of their feeling; the subjunctive 
represents the cause as occurring to their minds — * if, as 
they thought,* etc ; A 340, 341, d\ H. 528; G. 665. 9. aorritia 
szurvos; abstract for concrete. Livy has just been at pains 
to show that Servtus was not of servile birth. 

10. canteaimum . more precisely one hundred and thirty- 
nine years. quod: relative pronoun, object of lenuerit; 
construe ; id rtgnum senms possideat quod Romulus tenuirit, 
U. dec prognatna : antithetical to serva uaius. tanuerit : 

for the mood cf. note on rediret^ 1. 8 ; for the tense, note on p. 6, 
L 4. 19. anporoaaot . . . fatama orat : cf. note on d^ductura 
orauty p. 10, 1. 10. 23 quibua, etc. : construe: (iis) ferramentis^ 
quibus coHsueii trauty etc. ; ferramentis is instrumental abla- 
tive with couvtrtuni^ but attracted into the relative clause. 26. 
appaUarent: 'appealed to the king' (to decide their quarrel). 
27. pargunt: H. Tiedke (Hermes, xviii. 619) thinks we should 
strike out the period after this word and make the two fol* 
lowing infinitives depend upon it. 31. Dnm . . aa . . . 

totoa aTorterat: while he was giving his whole attention to 
one, and so turning away from the other. Gassical usage puts 
the indicative with dum in this sense, but Livy here treats 
dsum like cum. 32. daiaolt: * brought down* (with force). 

Pftge 51. Chap. XLL 1. moribiuidiim : A. 164, /; H. 
333f K- Vii oitoa araot: *the bysUnders.' 2. illoa fogiantaa: 
'thtm aa they fled,* not * those fleeing.* Cnai^or: wc/uii. 

Pack SI.] BOOK I. CHAP. XLl. 271 

3. mirantiiim : plural agreeing with the individuals conceived 
of as composing the collective populij this is an instance ol 
irx$^ Kara vwKvwy ccHStrudio ad sensttm; cf. p. loo. L 22, 
pars ma^na nanUs. quid rsi essat : ' what was the matter.* 

4. arbitros = testes ; cf. note on p. 26^ 1. 14. 5. qua* . . . 
opus sunt : A. 243, /, r.; H. 414, iv., N. 4; G. 390. 6. %x^ 
essat : A. 312 ; H. 513, 11., N. 1 ; G. 604. 7. praesldia : meaiu 
of securing (he sovereignty in the family if Tarquin should die 
10. sinat: A. 331 ; H. 49tS, i. ; (;. 546. U. facinun faoara: 
Livy also says pugnam pugnatam (vi. 429 5) ; Mlum Miattim 
(viii. 39i 16); odissi odh (ii. 58, 5). 12. hoc: we should 
rather expect istud^ the demonstrative of the second person. 

15. paragrini : concessi\'e. Qui : interrogative adjective ; 
'what kind of man.' 16. nnda = tf^, de^ or ex qua. It 

was only his mother that was a slave, his father had been 
princeps Corniculi (ch. xxxix.). conailia torpant : *>*our 

far.ultics are paralyzed.* 18. ax aupariora parte : * from 

the upper story.' In general a Roman house had no windows 
on the first floor, looking into the street; all the apartments 
faced inward upon courts open to the sky; the upper story 
had small windows facing the street. 

19 NoTam Viam : the Via Nova began at the Porta Mu- 
gonia, and went around tlic north and west sides of the Palatine. 
20. ad ZoTia Statoria {aedem) : a Grecis m ; we say * near 
St. Peter's.' 21. aopitum: * stunned.* 23. ad aa redlaaa: 
*had recovered consciousness.' 24. omnia aalubria aaaa: 
*that all was progressing favorably** Confidara : sc m. 

25. ipsum : i. c. regem. iubara : sc. regem. 26. dioto 
audiantam asaa s^parere; dicto is variously explained, as dati^-e 
of reference and ablative of cause. A. 227, k. 2 ; H. 390, 11., v.y, 
G. 345. 27. trabaa : * Suetonius dicit tria esse genera trale- 
arum, unum dis sacratum^ quod est tantutn de purpura^ aliud 
regum, quod est purpureum^ habet tamen album aliquidy ter- 
tium augurale, de purpura et cocco iuixtum,' Servius on 
Verg. Aen. vil. 612. 28. aada . • • aadana: notice the 
absence of in. 31. liingendaa vicia : fungor is here treated 
as a transitive verb. This use of deponents which are coo* 
strued with the ablative is exceptionally frequent in Livy. 
32. palam factum aat : i. e. that the king was dead. con- 
plorationa: ' the death-waiV raised in a house at the death cl 

272 NOTES. [Paok 52. 

one of the family. It was customary to call aloud the deceased 
by bis name. 33. praesidio : * body-guard.* iniUMU popoU : 
'without election by the people/ 

Page 52. 3. opes Benrl : i. e. before he ascended the 
throne, while the king was still believed to be alive. 8u- 
•••am PometUm : so called to distinguish it from Suessa 
Auninca, was a Volscian town, of which the position cannot 
be precisely determined. 

Chap. XLII. 9. TarquiniU: the Mo/fun agreeing with more 
than one pratHomen is always plural. These men were the 
brothers-in-law of Servius, cf. p. 49, 11. 19, 20, and marriage be- 
tween uncle and niece was not permitted by the Roman law. 
mpit. *was able to obviate; involving the idea of prevention, 
this word is properly followed by a quin clause, rather than a 
clause with ut . . nan. A. 319,^; H. 505, 11., G. 547, 550. 
Iiiti nooeMitatom *the unalterable course of destiny.* 10. 
quin loTidla . . . faoorat : ' that envy of the throne should 
create general distrust and hostility even among the members 
of his family.' 13. IndutUe: there is no mention of a truce 
made by Tarquin, nor of any war of his with the Etruscans. 
15. hand dublns r^x : ' now sure of the throne.* 16. sen . . . 
p«rloUUr«tiir : s€h ss sive, A. 315, c. The reason for the 
mood and tense appears upon the expansion of dubins into a 
clause: kaud dubium erai quin nx crearetur^ uh^ etc. It will 
be recalled that Servius had begun to reign iniussu populL 

19. diTlni . . . iurls: 'the religious system* of the state. 
21. ordinumqii* : rclers to the various classes described in the 
next chapter. 22. aliquid interlnoot: *some visible distinc- 
tion Is made;.* this use of inttrlucert is almost unique. fama 
farront: * should award him the distinction of being.* Consum 
{c€ms€r€)\ an assessment of patricians and plebeians without 
distinction. 24. Tiiitiiii : by all individuals alike without 
distinction of wealth. pro: *in proportion to.* 25. olaaaes: 
(MXIf^ff, ^tf/tfr/), * callings,* 'classes.* hnno: 'the following.* 
26. ordinom: 'arrangement/ 'distribution.' oz: 'according 
to,* 'on the basis of.* doo6rum: adjective; 'suitable.' This 
was at once a military organization and a political constitution. 

Chaf. XLIIf. The classification originally made upon this 
reform of the constitution was based, not upon a money valua* 

Page 53.) BOOK I. CHAP. XLII. 273 


tion, but upon the number of iugera of land owned by each \ 
man. The change to the money basis was made long after- ; 
ward, perhaps by Appiua Claudius the censor, in 312 ii« c. 
Moreover the sums mentioned cannot be the original ones, as 
the libral as must have been originally contemplated, and these 
figures probably refer to the tricntal as (four nncia^), the weight 
to which the as was reduced from a supposed weight of twelve 
unctac (really about ten) in 269 b. c, just before the first Punic 
war, at which time silver was first coined. Copper (tfer) was 
first coined under the Decemvirate 451 n. c. Vitit Roby's LaL 
Gr. I., p. 444, sqq., for the value and history of tlie at. Moritz 
iiluller and Tucking consider the as here counted as one fifth 
not one third of the libra. 27. milium; substantive » sc 

28. oenturias : companies in war, units in voting in the 
comitiay each century casting one vote, determined by the ma- 
jority of individual voices. The numlx:rs in the centuries 
must have varied greatly in the different classes; for the first 
class, conuining the richer men, had far more centuries than 
any one of the lower classes, containing the poorer men, who 
must have been more nimicrous. Further, the seniores^ who 
must have been less numerous than the iumorts^ formed the 
same number of centuries. 29. oeniorum! from forty*six 

years upward. ioniorum : 'seventeen to forty-six years, 

classis : the first was ciassis par excetlenu; the others were 
often called infra classtm ; cf. our * classic* 

Pni^e 53. 1* ut . . . essent, ut . . . gererent: clauses of 
purpose, depend! njT on con fee it, 2. galea, etc.: the student 
will find descriptions of all these pieces of armor in Guhl and 
Koner*s Life of the Greeks and Romans, sec. 107. It is suf- 
ficient here to mention that the ctiptum (or cUp€Us\ a small 
round shield of metal, which was large enou;;h for those who wore 
the hrica^ was replaced in the second class, where no iorica was 
worn, by the large wooden scutnm^ covering the whole person. 
5. fabmm: genitive plural; carpenters and smiths; they voted 
with the first class, but did not constitute part of it. Different 
authorides, however, assign these extra centuries to different 
classes. 6. maohinas: 'engines,* chiefly used in sieges. 

7. intra • • • milinm : from one hundred thousand (not inclusive) 


2J4 NOTES. [Pagb 53. 

down to seventy-five thousand. 12. ▼oluit: 'he determined.* 
16. anna mntata = aiia arma impertUa; arma means both 
armor and weapons. The first three classes made up the 
heavy infantry. datum: this does not mean that the state 
furnished the arms; that was done by the men themselves, the 
completeness of equipment varying according to their prop- 

17. anota: *made larger' than the preceding. 18. 

aooanai: 'enrolled in addition/ but constituting part of, or at 
least attached to^ the same class. 20. Hoo minor census : 
'an assessment less than this.' While land was the basis of 
assessment* this century consisted of those who owned none at 
alL They were free from military service except in time of 
extreme necessity. 21. habuit: 'embraced,* 'contained.* 

inda: 'of this.* 22. oroato : 'equipped.* 23. equitnm: 
taken from the richest men, patricians and plebeians. 24. 
Sax . . . oenturiaa . . . anb isdam . . . nomlnlbua : retaining 
the arrangement of Tarquin as explained in note on p. 47, 
II. 7. 8. 

This is an mstance of the extraordinary tenacity with which 
the Romans dung to old institutions, forms, and names, when 
no longer needed, or even, in many cases, understood. These 
six centuries were the so-called suffragia (Cic. de Rep. ii. 
2^ 39)* ^I'd probably contained patricians only. 26. dena 
milia aarla : the net cqnestre^ paid once for all. 27. qnibua : 
neuter ; its antecedent is bini% mi/ia* ▼iduae : * unmarried 

women. * 28. bina 'milia : two thousand yearly for each 

knight, not from each woman; this was the acs hordearium. 
These figures do not properly apply to the first census. 

30. honos: 'political privilege.* antithetic to ontra. 31. 
▼irittm : in the coniitia atriata ever)* member had the right to 
vote in his own curia^ irrespective of his property, each curia 
casting one vote according to its majority of individual voices. 
But Livy regards plebeians and patricians as having voted to- 
gether indiscriminately, while we suppose that the plebeians did 
not possess citizenship prior to this reform. 

34. Tla omnia panes primorea : it will be readily seen by 
the following table that the tquiUs and first class alone had a 
flsaiority of all the centuries. 

Paob 54.] 



Eq«itM 6(ns^»^rM)ol4 



f ao imgfrm or I 

\ loo^ooo «Mrj| I ^ 

\ IS imgtra or I 
1 75.000 «Mr«. I 

{le Mtfvni or I ^ 
50,000 «Mrf, \ ■• 
I S M»/rri« or ) 



. . tS 



M •• 

I a i«/rnt ^ ) .. •« 
( u»owMr, I ' 

no TwoMioa, ^ cmrtucimgt and f«m 



} . • • 4 

35. Tooabantor: *were called on to vote.* 
' if there was a difference of opinion.* 

36. Tuljurat 

PnffO 54. 1. ut . . . vooarantiir, neo . . . daaoanderent : 

the clauses depend on some principal verb in the imperfect 
indicative, — * it was customary * or the like ; the subject of dr^ 
sctHdtrtHi is the magistrates %vho held the comitia, or else 
is quite indelinitc. 3. huno ordinem, qui nimo ast: the 
thirty-five territorial tribes were completed in 241 B. c. ; the 
arrangement here spoken of as existing in the author's time 
was such that each tribe had a century each of unhr€i and 
iuniarts in each class. 


itt Qass, I century mrMnrr, 1 centory hnutm 
aa " I •* •• t " •• 

jd " I " * I 

4ih •• , •• •• I 





•« M 

► X IS - ^ 


i. e. exclusive of equites^ twice as many centuries as under 
the former scheme (193 --18= 175) 4. duplioato . . . 

■enioramqae : the expression is obscure and inexact ; it was 
the centuries that were increased in number, not the tribes, 
of which there were never more than thirty-five» and there 
were twice as many centuries in each class as the whole num- 
ber of tribes, and twice as many altogether (excluding eqniies) 
as under Servius* plan. 

7. ragioiiibiw . . . habitabantnr : ' according to the dis- 
tricts and hills that were inhabited;' though this was mer«Iy 

276 NOTES. [Pack 54. 

a division of the city, Livy regards it as including all the Ro- 
mans. Other writers, however, speak also of rural tribes. The 
rtgiotuM were Palaiina {Ramnes)^ Coiiina (^TiiUs% Suburana 
i^Lmcerts)^ and Esqniiina, (the suburbs). 8. tributo: this 

word, of course, is formed from tribuo^ tribus; (tri^ bu s=/m/ 
cf. /jy/, ^vm). The idea of a threefold division appears from 
the beginning of the national history. The tribuium was not- 
a regular tax, but an extraordinary contribution to the treasur)*, 
regarded as a forced loan, and to be repaid when the treasury 
should be full again. 9. aequaliter: * proportionally.* 10. 
noqao . • • qnioquam pertinnero; *and had nothing to do 
with,' etc. 

Chap. XLIV. 12. metn: fear of the severe penalties of 
the iex de incensis* 13. latao: the technical word for the 
passage of a bill by an assembly of the people. IS. Campo 
Martio: outside the city, for the people in the comiiia cen- 
iuriaia was the army, and an army might not enter the gates 
except for a triumph. 16. Instructnm: i. e. armed and 

arranged by classes and centuries. suovataurilibus : a hog, 
a sheep, and a bull were first driven around the assembled 
people and then sacrificed to Mars. 17. oondltum: agrees, 
with fV/, and Inatmni is predicate nominative. 18. milia 

TiXy y ; it is needless to say that the number is too high for 
this early time. 19. Fabina Piotor: vide Introduction, p.viiL 

22. oollaa: the Quirinal, Viminal, and Esquiline arc north of 
the Palatine and Caelian, separated from them by a valley; 
they are long ridges which at the east unite into a plateau. 

23. Bsqviliaa: 'suburbs* {ex^quilinns from tx-coUn^ cf. im- 

2i. Agigara: from the vicinity of the CoUine Gate to the 
Esquiline hill the ground was level, and artificial fortification 
was necessary'. This was accomplished by ^^ fossa thirty feet 
deep and a hundred feet wide at the bottom, the earth taken 
from which formed an embankment {agger)^ which was faced 
and supported by a massive stone wail. Portions of this vast 
work still remain at Rome near the railway station. Vidt Mid- 
dleton. Ancient Rome In 1888, pp. 66, sqq. niiiro oirovmdat: 
now first the "seven hills,** as we understand the term, were 
smrottiided by a ring wall. 25. Pomerlnm : (/^j/, murtu^ 
HMmtf / cf. pmmirt^ Poena); Mommsen (Hermes, x. t, 40, sqq.) 


Pack 55.] BOOK 1. CHAP. XLV. 27/ 

declares this to be a space inside the walls, between them and 
the houses. Others take it to be a strip of ground consecrated 
and left vacant on both sides of the wall. ▼erbi Tim: *the 
etymology.* 27. oiroamoerium : on both sides, within and 
without the wall. 28. XStnisoi: they ran a furrow with a 
])low, drawn by a heifer and a bullock, round the proposed 
site, lifting the plow wherever there was to be a gate. The 
earth was turned inward as the beginning of the rampart, 
while the furrow was the beginning of the fosse. 

Pn^c 55* Chai*. XLV. 6. onmibos: neuter. 8. oon- 
silio : ' policy.* 9. deotw : i. e. the temple of Diana. lam 
tarn inolitum: it would have been surprising if the temple of 
the Ephcsian Artemis were then famous at Rome, as it was 
built only about 6oo D. c. 10. communitar : this was a com- 
mon sanctuary of the twelve Ionian cities of Asia Minor. Uut 
it IS to be noted that Rome was not a member of the Latin 
league, but allied with it as an equal over against the whole 
confederacy. U. AsUa: Asia Minor. 12. deoaqua oon- 
aooiatoa = dcorum consociatiottem. 13. prooaraa : the aris- 
tocratic governing classes. publico : the hospUium pnbiktim 
insured to the citizens of a friendly state hospitality, succor 
in difficulty, a share in public solemnities, legal protection and 
assistance. 14. Saapa itarando aadam: pleonasm. X5. 

Dianaa : the goddess of brightness (feminine of Dianus^ ianus)^ 
a very old Latin goddess. When identified with the Greek 
Artemis, she acquired the attributes of the latter. 17. con- 
faasio, etc. : this does not necessarily prove that Rome exercised 
hegemony at this period; there were several common religious 
centres in Latium. 

21. as Sabinia : it appears from the context that the rektion 
of the Sabiiics to this sanctuary was similar to that of the 
Latins. There is nothing improbable about this when we reflect 
that Rome was a Sabino-Latin city. 22. cnidam patri 

famiUaa : * a certain man of property ; * tradition said his name 
was Antro Curiatius, reminding one of the Alban trigeminL 
Ihne maintains that Atba was a Sabine town. Livy always says 
paUr/amiiiae; familias is the older form. 24. Taatibnlo: 
the space between the columns of the porch and the entiance 
of the €€lta, the •portico.' 26. oaoinara : •predicted,* 

278 NOT£S. IPAGK56. 

"prophesied;* poetry and prophecy were looked on as due to 
the same sort of inspiration; so that the names for the two 
sets of notions are the same, e. g. vaies^ a seer or a poet 
27. oarmon: 'prediction;* prophetic utterances were often in 
verse. 29. nt prima : generally we find ui primum, 30. 
d«duolt: cf. note ontUducius^ p. 23, 1. 24. 32. fama : ablative. 
33. Inooato: 'unwashed;* ituesius (ih, casiui) is whatever dese- 
\ crates by defiling. 

Page 50. 1- Quin : {qui moh = cur ncn), < why not* 
▼Ito: 'running,* 'flowing,* as was necessary for ceremonial 
purification. 2. perfandaria: with middle force.* 3. Reli- 
glone: 'conscientious scruple.* 4. ouperot: A. 320, #; H. 
517; G. 636. 

Chap. XLVI. 7. van: 'by prescription;* a legal phrase. 
8. Saotarl Tooaa : ' that insinuations were thrown out* 11. 
Csrra ad popolum : i. e. to the new comitia centuriata; here 
we have the prototype of a consular election under the republic. 
It was by Servius* reform that, for most purposes, the comiiia 
of the centuries took the place of the comiiia of the curies. 
It will be remembered that previous elections of kings had 
been by the vote of the curies, upon the nomination by an im- 
Urrtx* ToUent ioborantne : the regular expression for a rogatio 
in such cases, 14. apem adfectandl: 'hope of success in 
his efforts to secure.* inpanaiua: construe with criminandL 
15. agro : the patricians had always regarded private occupation 
of the ager publicHS as their exclusive privilege; hence their 
opposition to the liberal measures of Servius. 16. cresoon- 
diquo : ' and of increasing his own influence.* 17. et ipso . . . 
at . • • lucoro . . . atlmulanta : a curious change of construc- 
tion, recalling a similar one, p. 3, 1. 13, 14, profugum . • . 

19. ToUt: 'produced,' 'afforded.* aoeleria tragioi: crime 
fit for the theme of a tragedy; the crimes of the Pelopidae 
and of Oedipus formed the motive of some of the greatest of 
Greek tragedies. So Li vy says * the royal house of Rome also.' 

20. rogom: objective genitive. A. 217; H. 396, iii. ; G. 361, 2. 

21. altfmamqao rogniim: Tarquin II., who obtained the throne 
by crime, was the last king of Rome, and was banished 510 B. c. 
tt ftUiia aopoaiio : when we remember that Tarquin L reigned 


Pace 57.] BOOK 1. CHAP. XLVII. 279 

from 616 B. c, having come to Rome at a mature age (cli. 
xxxiv.), and that Tarquin 11, was alive after the battle of Lake 
RegiUus, 498 B. c, we shall not be inclined tc regard the latter 
as the son of the former. 27. ne duo, etc. : not mt mom^ lot 
the idea of purpose is hinted at in/tfr/iata/ as if it had been 
the purpose of destiny to avoid this union of evil natures, 
so fatal to the nation. 29. oonstitaiqao, etc.: *that the 

(reformed) constitution of the state might become firmly estab- 
lished.* 30. ferox: an adjective is not usually joined imme- 
diately to a proper name, but as there were two TuUiasi this 
specifies which one is meant 

Pago 57. 1. DiuUebri oassaret andaela: 'was deficient 

in the boldness which (as she thought) became a woman.* 4. 
Tiri alienl : of another*s (i. e. her sister's) husband. 5. d« vtro 
ad fratrem: de aorora ad Tirum: * about her own husband 
to his brother, about her sister to her sister's husband.* ^ 
▼iduam: 'unmarried.* 11. aduleacenteiii : Scrvius married 
his daughters to the sons of Tarquin at the beginning of his 
reign (ch. xlii.), which had lasted forty-four years. A man 
was ordinarily called inv^fiis from seventeen to forty-six, tuitt- 
Usctm from seventeen to thirty. 12. Xta Ziuoins : the 

MSS. have Arruns^ a manifest blunder of the author or the 
copyists. 13. foneribna: by the murder of their respective 

Chap. XLVII. 16. infeatior: 'more insecure;' passive in- 
stead of the usual active sense. 19. no gratoita, etc. : the 
past murders availed nothing unless Schrius were put out of 
the way. 20. non aibi defuisae, etc. : ' that she had not 

been in need of one to whom she might have the name of 
being married.* 23. 8i tu as: mark the abrupt change to 
oratio recta, oui : A. 227, 3 ; H. 385. ii.» N. 3 ; G. 345, R. 2. 
24. appello : ' I salute thee as,* etc. 25. rea : ' my situation.' 
iatio: 'in thee;* adverb from demonstrative pronoun of the 
second person. 26. aooingerla : passive in middle sense. 
27. paragrina regna: 'a kingdom in a foreign land.' 29. 
imago: cf. note on p. 44, 1. 10. ragia: 'belonging to a king.' 
ragala: Mike a king;* but here the two words are used with 
one meaning, simply for variety. 32. Fkoaaaa: 'take yoll^ 
•elf o£L' 

280 NOTES. [Page 59. 

Pasre 58* 1- AerolTere, etc: 'sink down again to the 
original level of your family.* fratria : A. 234, if\ H. 391, xi., 
4; G. 356, R. I. 3. 9iz=.gtttui; cf. p. 50, 1. 8, and note 

6. nullam momontum . . . faoeret: 'exerted no influence' 

7. mnllebribiis . • . furiU : ' by the passionate ambition of his 
wife.* 8. minomm . . . gentiam patres : i. e. those who had 
been raised by his father to the patriciate and senate. 10. 
iuTenas: the young men, who were not in the senate. 11. 
ragia orlmiiiibiia = regan criminando, 14. pro ourla : in 
the front part of the senate house, not in front (outside) of it ; 
cf. ^pro rosiris,^^ 15. ad regem : the king alone had au- 
thority to summon the senate, which was his advisory council. 
17 na non Taniaaa Craudi aaaat: *lcst it should be the 
worse for them if they did not come.* fraudi: A. 233, <f, 
and foot-note; H. 390; G. 35a 

18. da Banrio aetnm: sc. esse; Mhat it was all up with 
Servius.* 19. ab atirpa ultima oraoa: 'starting from his 

very origin ' (ch. xxxix.). 20. ani : ' his own,' i. e. the 

speaker's. 24. odio alianaa honastatia: *in his hostility 

toward the honorable position of others,' contrasted with his own 
ignoble birth. 25. aoroidlsaimo ouiqua: 'to all of the 

meanest class.' 27. fuarint: notice the use of the perfect 
where we should look for the pluperfect. 

Page 50. Chap. XLVIII. 2. ad haeo* 'in reply to 
this ' 4. par Uoantiam, etc. : * by playing his insolent 

game had been a standing insult to masters of slaves.' 9. 
madiam : 'about the *waist.* A. 193; H. 440, N. i ; G. 324, 
R. 6. 10. In . . . gradua: 'down the steps to the bottom.' 
U. ad cogandnm: the sitting had broken up and the members 
had to be assembled again. 14. noo abhorrat a oataro 
aoalara: 'it is not inconsistent with the rest of her connection 
with the crime,' L e. her conduct in the immediate sequel. 
16. nao rararita, etc. : the appearance of women in public at 
times of excitement was regarded as indecorous. 18. prima 
appallavit: A. 191 ; H. 442, n.; G. 324. r. 7. 20. Cyprium 
▼loiim: thb street ran along between the Carinae and the 
QuirinaL Dianiiim =5 saceUnm Dianae. flaotanti znjlee* 
Un imbtnH. 21. daxtra: '/^ the right.' Urbinm oliTiim : 
thte atreel went up the Eaquiline from the highest part of the 

Page 60.] BOOK I. CHAP. XLIX. 281 

Vicus Cyprius, 24. inde traditur scalus : *from this point 
on, the crime is commcmoralcd/ by the name •• vicus Sctitratus.^ 
26. ament agitantlbus foriis: * maddened by tlie avenging 
spirits.* 28. MiiiguiiiU ao oaedia: hendiadys. 30. quibua 
iratU: *by whose wrath.* prope diem: *soon;-' ycl Tarquin 
reigned twenty-four years before his fall. 34. inata: though 
his original occupation of the throne was of the nature of a 
usurpation, it had been confirmed and made legal by the vote 
of the people. 

Pi)(iro CM). 1- ni . . . iatanreniaaet: elliptical, L e. 'and 
would have carried out his intention, had not,' etc Intaa- 
tinum: *in his own family.* 

Chai'. XLIX. 3. oocepit: archaistic. Superbo: *the 

OvcrlHraring,* rather than • the Proud ; * he overrode all restrainu 
of right and custom. 5. Romulum . . . iuaepoltum : cL p. , 
fti,l. 6. 6. Benri rebua: *thc cause of Servius.* 8. eapi: 
learned from him and turned against him. 9. Neqna . • . 
ad ius regui quicquam praeter vim : ' nothing by way of right 
to the throne but forcible i>ossession ; ' rather a self-contradio 
tory expression. 12. apei: partitive genitive. reponenti 
agrees with the agent of tHtanHnm esseL 14. oapitalianEi : 
affecting the ^Uapui*^ of a citizen, i. e. his physical or civil 
existence, — his life, liberty, or reputation. aina oooalUla : 

though the power of decision of causes lay with the king 
himself, it had become customary that he should take, in 
hearing them, the advice of senators of legal experience. 
This is one of the customs that Tarquin disregards. 

17. undo = a quibus. 18. ia patraa legere : appoint- 

ment to the senate was one of the king*s powers. 19. ordo: 
this term for the senate belongs to the period of the late 
republic and the empire. 22. domeaticia conailiia: 'with 
the advice of his intimate friends.* 23. foedera: alliances 
for mutual protection. aooiatatea: for active undertakings; 
so Heynacher distinguishes these words. 28. Tuaonlano: 

Tusculum was a town of Latium, southeast of Rome on the 
Alban hills. 30. oriundua : a rather poetic word, s &rtusj ^ 
ab is used with the names of remote^ ancestors, not with those • 
of parenU. Tradition said that Mamilius was the soa oi 
Mamilia, daughter of Telegonus, son of Ulysses and Circe. 

28a NOT£S. [Pack 61. 

Page 01* Chap. L. 2. ad luonm Ferentinae : the grove 
of Fercntina, the meeting place of the representatives of the 
Latin League, the present valley of Marino, was on the north* 
crn shore of the Aiban lake. 3. Indicit: this implies that 
Tarquin held the presidenc)' of the confederation. 4b Con- 
▼eninnt: i. e. the representatives of the cities in tlie league. 
5. aote quam aol occidaret: sittings might be held only 
between sunrise and sunset. 7. iaotata sermonibua: 'dis- 
cussed;* they could not pass a vote in the absence of the 
president 8. ▲rloia: a Latin town on the (later) Appian 

Way, south of and quite near the Alban lake; now La 

9. Suporbo : agrees with ei understood. 10. mussitantM : 
'muttering under their breath;* the word is borrowed from the 
lauiguage of comedy. Tulgo tamen : the name was already in 
common use, though, for fear of the tyrant, men did not speak 
it aloud. U. an qaloqnam . . . osae : a rhetorical question. 

A. 338; H. S23, 11., 2; G. 654, K. I. 13. indlxerit: notice 
the repeated use in this speech of primary tenses of the sub- 
junctive in the subordinate clauses where secondary tenses 
would be expected. This is a favorite device of Livy, the 
effect being increase of liveliness and vividness, by transferring 
the reader to the temporal standpoint of the speaker. 

15. obooadoa premat: ' treat them as his subjects,' 1. e. 
oppress them as slaves. 16. Quod al aul bene, etc. : quad 
refers to im/krium; Mf his own citizens had done well in 
intrusting authority to him, or if it had been intrusted to him 
at all, and not (as the fact was) seized by murdering (the late 
king), even then the Latins should not commit authority to 
him, as he was a foreigner.' 24. eodem pertinentla: Mo 
the same effect.' aedittoena: it is hardly fair to call him 
so, as he was not a subject of Rome. 25. artibus: 

'means,' 'methods,* with special reference to the qualities ex- 
pressed by the foregoing adjectives: it might be rendered 
'qualities' in this case. 26. oum majdme: 'just when.' 

2S. monltoe . • • nt pnrgas^t: A. 331; H. 498; G. 546. 
29. Id temporia: *so late.' A. 240, b\ H. 378, 2; G. 331, 
lu 3« diaoeptatorem : 'an arbitrator,' chosen by the parties 
to a dispute. 32. Ke Id • . . toUsao taoitani: *that Tur 
aaa did sol let even this pass without remark.* 

Pace 63.| BOOK I. CHAP. LI. 283 


Page 02. C habitamm infortttniam eM# : the subject 
i$ filium; * he would get tlie worst of it* * it would £are ill 
with him/ because of the patria potesias^ the father*s legal 
power of life and death over hb children. Inforiunifim is a 
colloquial term, used by i'lautus and Terence for the scrapes 
of slaves. 

Chap. LI. 6. aliquanto: limits aegrius. 9. pro 

impario: *by virtue of his royal authority,* which applied to 
Rome only. 10. poterat . . . oppresait : notice the awkward 
change of subject. oblate falao erimlne : ' by trumping up 
a false charge.' 11. advenuie faotionia: the partisans o£ 
Tarquin. 12. vim: 'quantity.* 15. prinolpibua : it was 
the aristocrats who sided with the Roman king. 17. <«^i*f« : 
'occasioned.* saluti: cf. note on fraudi^ p. 58, L 17. Ab 
Tamo: construe with parari; the infinitive clause is the sub- 
ject of dUu 19. nt • . . toneat: notice in the subordinate 
clauses all through this speech the use of present and perfect 
subjunctives (exc. pttertU 1* 21), where we should expect to 
find secondary tenses. ▲dgresaunim fuisso: the apodosis 
of a condition contrary to fact in cratio obliqua* A. 337, h^ 2; 
H. 527, III. ; G. 662. 21. peteret : this is perhaps one of 

those cases where the ingenuity of scholars has been taxed 
to find a reason for what was only an unnoticed inconsistency 
of* the author ; it seems hard to say why this single imperfect 
should occur among the primary tenses, without becoming 
altogether fanciful. We can scarcely think that Livy meant 
to imply all that Wsb. understands from tliis tense. 28. 

Buspeotam fecit rem : 'confirmed the suspicion.* 32. nisi 
gladiia daprehensia : translate as a conditional clause with 
finite verb; the use of nisi with an ablative absolute is not 
uncommon in Livy. 

Pasre 03. 3. looia: 'comers.* 7. Indiota oauaa: 'with- 
out a triali* which did not seem necessary under the circum- 
stances. 8. novo genera lati : i. e. unusual in historical 
times; Tacitus (Germ, xii.) shows that it was in use among 
the Germans; cf. also Plautus, Poen. v. 2, 65. ad eapat: 
' at the source/ * fountain ; * the aqua Fereniina starting In the 
imcus FiriHiinoi empties into the Tiber some six miles befow 

284 NOTES. [Page 64. 

Chap. LI I. U. novantom res: 'attempting a revolution.* 

22. adfeeiMent: a causal relative clause. 13. omnea 
Ztfitini: cf. chaps, iii., xxxii., xxxiii., xxxviii.; it is not clearly 
stated before this that all the Latin towns were colonics of 
Alba. 15. quo ab Tullo: in the treaty made by Tullus 
(ch. xxiv.) there is no mention of colonies of Alba. A^ Tullo 
is by some understood as *from the time of Tullus.' 22. 
paranaanm: A. 227, 2jo; H. 385, 11., 301, i; G. 345, R. 3. 

23. auperior . . . arat: *the supremacy of Rome was ac- 
knowledged.* capita : * the chief men.' 25. dooumaDtum : 
'warning.* 26. ianioribna: men of military age; cf. the 
centuries of iuniorts in the constitution of Servius (ch. xliii.). 

30. aacretnm : * separate.' 31. manipuloa : maniples, or 

double centuries, were in later times the smallest tactical 
unit of the legion; we suppose that at this early time the Ro- 
mans fought in a phalanx, for the manipular organization was 
introduced, as Livy himself says (Bk. viii., ch. 8), at the time 
of the great Latin war, 340 h. c. az binia ainguloa, etc. : 

one new maniple was formed of one half of two old ones, and 
the two halves of each old one now formed parts of two new 
ones, as each new maniple consisted half of Latins and half 
of Romans. 

Pairo 01. CiiAi*. LI 1 1. 1 ut . . . iU: * though . . . yet.* 
a. praTua: * unskilful.' quin: *n«iy even;' the construc- 

tion is independent. 3. daganaratum in alila: *his de- 

generacy in other respects;' this use of a neuter participle 
for an abstract verbal noun is so common in Livy as to form 
a distinctive feature of his style. 4. Volaoia: a nation of 
the Umbro-Sabellian stock, which had advanced from the 
mountains into the southern plain of Latium and occupied it 
as far as the sea. In dnoantoa . . . annoa: 'that was to 
last (including its intervals of peace) more than two hundred 
years.' duoantoa ampliua: A. 247. c\ H. 417, i. N. 2; 

G. 311, R. 4. 5. Buaaaamqua Pomatiam: the chief town 
of the Vol^cians; cf. note on p. 52,1. 3. 6. quadraginta 
talanta : following Fabius Pictor, who wrote in Greek, Livy 
uses the Greek term * talent ; ' the only money in use in Latium 
at that time was copper, the sum here intended to be ex- 
pressed waa 1,000,000 assa graviiTSiikMxX 150,000. 7. 00a* 

Pagb 65.] UOOK I. CHAP. LIV. 285 

capit animOb etc.: 'formed a plan for so magnificent a temple 
of Jupiter as/ etCy i. e. tlie Capitolinc temple to Jupiter, Juno, 
and Minerva. 10. Captivam : this word is used several 

times by our autlior, referring to things without iile^ss cap/am j' 
cf. p. 107, 1. 17. 

X2. XZxoepit . • . earn : * claimed his attention.' lantiiia ape : 
* which lasted longer than he had expected;* this is an instance 
of the so called comparatio compcHdaria* A. 247, h\ H. 417, 
I. K. 5; G. 399, R. I. Oablos: a Latin city about seven 
miles east of Rome. 14. pulso: A. 229; H. 385, \u^ 2; 

G. 346. 15. minime • . . Romana : a patriotic remark that 
the historian feels called upon to make more than once in the 
course of his work. 18. miuimua: sc. iiatu. 19. trana- 
fugit: this is evidently a borrowed legend, not an historical 
fact; cf. the story of Zopyrus at Babylon (Herod, iii. 154). 
21. frequentiae; *the large number.* A. 221,^; H. 409, iii. ; 
G. 376. 24. inter: *from the midst of.' 26. ne •rm- 

rent: elliptical; *(he informed them) that they might not be 
mistaken/ etc. A. 317, r. 26. Quod at: *but if.' 30. 

Aequoa et Herniooa: Umbro-Sabellian nations, in the north- 
east and east of Latium, respectively. 

Pafire 05« 3. si nihil morarentor : colloquial ; ' if they 
did not care for him;' the origin of the phrase was the for* 
mula used by a judge in dismissing an accused person when 
the charge was not sustained; cf. Livy iv. 42, 8, and viii. 35, 
8; for the case of nihil^ vide Roby, Lat Gr. 1094; A. 236, 
^; G. 331, R. 3. 6. oredere: sc. se. 

Chap. LIV. 11. oonailia: •deliberations.* 12. adaentire : 
this verb \% usually deponent. 13. anotor ease: 'advised.* 
17. rebellandum : not 'rebel', but * renew the war.' 20. 

▼ana . . . fidea : * mistaken trust.* 21. ad ultimnm : ' at last.* 
belli : construe with dux, 24. oertatim . . . oredera : 

all agreed in believing.* 26. obeundo: Tucking obser\'es 

that we should expect rather subtftndo or adeundo, 27. p«- 

riter: *in like manner with the soldiers.* largiendo: plunder 
was often sold for the benefit of the state, and was then of 
no advantage to the individual soldier. 32. omnia mma: 

antithesis, heightened by reversal of the natural order of the 
words. omnia . . . posaet: the use of the neuter adjective 

286 NOTES. [Paoi 67 

is to express the extent of the action of the verb. Cf. note 
on L 3. 

Paff6 00. 2. doUbembnndun : A. 164, P\ H. 333, i; 
this class of verbals is much afTectcd bv our author. The fol- 
lowing story looks like an imitation of that of Thrasybulus 
and Periander (Herod, v. 92). 6. ut ro inporfaota: *as 

if he had not accomplished his errand.* 11. sua . . • oppor- 
tonoa: *made easy victims by their own unpopularity.' 14. 
▼olentibna: 'if they chose it;* the construction is a Grecism 
(/bvXoficiRf ^ ^vrir) ; cf. p. 125, lines 10, 1 1. fkica: 'vol- 

untary exile.* 15. iuxta atqne Ts,pnrittr ac or <uqu€ ac; 

Livy often uses iuxta in this sense. Xourgltlonea : i. e. 
distribution of confiscated property among the partisans of Sex- 
tus. 17. oonaiUo aiudlioqno : paronomasia. 19. in ma- 

num traditor: the treaty with Gabii is said to have been 
extant in Livy*s time in the temple of Sancus. 

Chap. LV. 20. Aequomm : in northeast Latium, be- 
tween Mt Algidus and the Lduus Fucinus, ZL, foodna: 
agreements with the Etruscans were always truces for a fixed 
term of years (indutiae), 23. monta Tarpaio* the Capi- 
toline hiU, especially the southern part of it; this if the older 
name. 24^ Ttoquinioa, etc.: this clause is cpexegctical to 
mamumunium; the idea is 'posterity should say that the two 
Tarquins,* etc. 25. a oataria raligtonibna : from conse* 
cration to other deities.* 26. aaaat tota : Ma is predicative, 
* might belong wholly.* 27. axaugurara: the limits pre- 
viously consecrated by the taking of auspices were now, by a 
similar ceremony, de-consecrated, that they might be free for 
n new purpose. 29. pngnaa: cf. ch. xii. 31. moviasa 
nmaan: 'exerted their power;* numtn fr. nneriy to nod; a 
nod is a sign of will. 33L TMmini: Jupiter Terminus, god 
of boundaries, was worship(>ed in the form of a boundary stone, 
in the vestibule of the uUa of Minerva, one of the three 
divisions of the Capitoline temple. In Bk. v. ch. 54, we find 
an allusion to the rest of this legend, concerning luvtHias^ 
who also refused to move. 

Page 67* !• noa motam . . . non avooatnm : ' the fact 
llial^* ate 2. flaUraa : elsewhere in Livy evocan takes kt 

pAGier.] BOOK 1. CHAP. LVl. 287 

with the abbtive« 5. cmpQt hamannm: it was further 

related that this was the head of a certain king Olus (tm/ul, 
OH MM!f), and the name of the htU was explained by this 
ludicrously naTve story, which is an extreme example of the 
etymological myth. 6. aperiantibiia londamenta : 'as they 
opened the ground to lay the foundations.' 7. per nmbeges : 
cf. p. 66f 1. 10, p. 68, L 26. 10. ex BtnarU: these must 
have been karMspkes. Angebatttr . . . animus: *his am- 

bition was stirred to incur greater expenses.* 11. sd 

inpensas; sc. ftuUudas, Pomptiiiae ss Fometituu: *of 

Suessa Pometia.* ' 12. manubiae : in a strict sense, were the 
generars share of the spoils. 

15. Pisoni : vidi p. ix« qnsdrsgliita milis pondo : reck- 

oning one hundred pounds of silver to the talent, this would 
make four hundred talents instead of forty. It was usual to 
reckon only eighty pounds to the talent (Liv. xxxviii. 38, 13); 
even this would make an incredible sum for the period. • 18. 
et nuUorum . . . ezsuperaturam : *and would more than suf- 
fice for the foundations of any of the splendid buildings even 
of these times.' This was written in the days of the emperor 
who * found Rome of brick and left it of marble.* 

Chap. LVI. 20. ez StrurU: the architecture of this period 
was mainly derived from Etruria, and this temple was in the 
Etruscan style, which was an ungraceful imitation of Doric 
forms. 21. peounU . . . pubUoa : %>€ctigaiia^ tithes for the 
use of the ager pubiicus, etc. ; the king appears as absolute in 
the disposal of the public funds and of the labor of the ple- 
beians. 22. operis: 'workmen;' A. 79^ « ; H. 132. 25. 
ut speole minora, etc.: Mess showy in outward appearance, 
indeed, yet involving considerably more labor;' the second 
phrase shows a curious change of construction. 26. forot 
. . . faoiendos, oloacamqne . . . agendam: these gcrundire 
phrases are in apposition with opera. 27. oloaoamqiM 

maadmam: so called to distinguish it from other sewers, eg. 
those mentioned in ch. xxxviii.; this magnificent drain, stiU 
doing its work, built of hewn tufa blocks, and about twelve feet 
in diameter, runs for more than two hundred yards under the 
Velabrum and carries the water, from the low ground of the 
Forum and vicinity, into the Tiber. Its mouth is partly v]si> 
ble, at the ordinary level of the river, in the stone embankment 

288 NOTES. [PACB69 

which lines the shore. It is the main artery of a system of drain* 
age that must have occupied many years in buildiing. 31. ubi 
vans noa osaet : ' when there was no employment for them.* 

Paffe 08. 1. Signlmm : on the north side of the Volscian 
mountains in the valley of the Trenis (ierrd)* Ciroeiosque : 
on the promontory of Circe, the southern frontier town of Latium 
on the coast {mari), 3. angoia : a symbol of the genius of 
the house; snakes were common domestic pets. 6. aiudU 
. • . oiuria : ' anxiety for the future.' 8. Delphoa : consul- 
> tation of the Delphic oracle was very unusual ; this is the first 
instance in Roman histor}'. 9. responaa aortium: here in a 
general sense, * answers of the oracle;' sarUs were wooden 
tablets inscribed with certain signs, and by drawing or throw- 
ing them the minds of the gods were interrogated ; this was a 
peculiarly Italian method of divination. 20. factua ad imita- 
tlonam: * accustoming himself to feign.* 21. Bruti: for the 
meaning of bruifu^ vidt Lexicon. This whole story seems 
pimply an attempt to account for his name. 22. liberator: 
u.V^n attributive adjective in this instance 25. inolusum . • . 
r j baoulo : Livy is the first author to omit the preposition with 
^ I includtre. The gift was a very valuable one for a man in 
t^ Brutus' circumstances to offer. 26. par ambagea, etc. : * by 
way of symbolic representation of his own character. 29. ad 
quam : (or ad MimM/ they intend only themselves; but the 
i^ oracle's answer '^ir/ primus^ not ^ priori applies to a third 
person. 36. alio . . . apaotara : ' had a different significance.' 

Page 00* 3. Ratoloa : in Latium, south of Rome, about 
Ardea; cf. ch. IL Livy omits the story of the purchase of the 
Sibylline books, told by Dionysius (iv. 62). 

Chap. LVIL 6. Ardaam: an important town about twenty 
miles south of Rome. nt in aa regiona : ' considering it ,was 
in that district ; * the country around was swampy and unhealth* 
fnl, but Ardea had a port on the coast and considerable com- 
merce. 10. ragno : not merely regL 12. si : A. 334, /; 
H. 529, tl., I, N. I ; G. 462, 2. 13. pamm prooaaait: *met 
with no success,* owing to the strong position of the city. 
IC lit fit: 'as it generally the case.' 15. commaataa: 

'forlouglis,* * leave of absenca.' 17. otlam ... tarabantae 

PagbTI.] book 1. CHAP. LVIIl. 289 

tempus 0tw UtibaHt. 18. apod: 'at the quarters o£<^— ^* in 
the camp. 19. Bcerti: cL chaps, xxxiv. and xxxviii. 23. 
Quin {qui n^n); *why ... not?* 24. ioventae: this word 
was introduced by Livy into prose. pra i an t — ; *¥rith our 
own eyes.* 25. nostrmmm : sc. uxarum. spootaH— inn nm : 
*the most striking, most signal proof.* Seeley thinks cuiqui 
refers to the wives, and that the expression is equivalent to 
/// spectatissima quaeque secundum id quod^ etc. 28. inton- 
dentibtts tenobris : ' as the shades of evening were faOing.* 
29. Ck>lUtUm : cf. note on p. 48^ L 4. 30. oooTivio Ivxaqno: 
hendiadys. - * . 

Pa|ir8 70. 2. Unao: spinning, carding, and weavii^ were 
the chief occupations of the Roman housewife; cf. the well- 
known inscription on the grave of a matron, ^iaui^ca^ pia^ 

Chap. LVIII. 12. ignarii: * unsuspicious.* 14. oiioasr 
quae circa erant. sopitiqao* * sound asleep.* 17. moiioro: 
forms of second person pn.ssivc i:i -re (rather than -n>) are rare 
in Livy. 18. pavida ex somno : ' awaking in affright* 

20. versaro . . . animum : ' tried in every way to work upon 
her feelings as a woman.* 22. ad metum dedecua: *fear of 
disgrace to fear for her life.* 24. aordido : i. e. with a * mean * 
man, a slave. 25. velut vi atrox : this is one of the least 

objectionable conjectures as to the reading of a very perplexing 
line in the MSS. Velut vi: i. e. by threats he accomplished 
the same result as if he had used force. 26. loroz . . . 
muliebri : * triumphing in his conquest of her womanly honor.' 
29. faoto matoratoqao opua : ' need of action, and that speed- 
ily.' 31. Valerio: afterward called Pubiicaia. Toioai: 
this pr aenom en does not occur elsewhere than in connection 
with this individual 

Pasr6 71* 3. auonun : refers to the logical subject Lucre' 
Oa^ though the grammatical subject is iacrimae. 4. Satin 
aalTao?=:.SVi/Aric^ saivae sunt reef Ms all well?' ICinimt: 
colloquial; a strong negation like our 'anything but* 7. mors 
toatia arit: *my death shall prove.* 9. lioatia pro hoapita: 
a favorite paronomasia of our author. U. poatifonun: 

•fatal;' cooatnie with miki sibique, 12. aidiBi : A. 2i8» ^, lu; 

290 NOTES. IFagk 72. 

H. 399, in^ I ; G. 374t R- 3- »«•» : * g«>lt.' 15. videritU : 
A. 266;* H. 483* 2; G. 256. 18. prolapM in vulnus: 'h^r 
head tioking 00 her wounded breast* 19. Conolamat: cL 

P- 5if L 32f auid note. 

Chap. LIX. 25. acaierata: especially because of her con- 
duct towaid her father ; cf. cb. xlviii. 30. In BruU pootore : 
Mn the breast of the Dullard.* . 31. totiqno : adverbial, 
'altogether;* there ia no adverb from Mtts, 

Page 72. 4^ turn Brutna . . . auotor: 'as well as the 
surprising fact that it was Drutus who reprehended useless tears 
and advised,* etc. 6. adToraua hoatUia auaos =r advtrsus 

€0S qui kfisHlia ausi essent. 7. Ferooiaaimua qulaque : • all 

men of spirit.* 10. regiboa : • to any of the royal family.' 
13. Rnrans: 'again,' *on the other hand.' 14. hand tomere 
•aaa: *that it was not without good reason.* 17. Celarum: 
cf. p. 20, 1. 19. and note. 18. magiatrata : the iribunus ulerum 
was not a magistrate in the sense in which that word was used 
under the republic, but an officer subordinate to the king, and 
not having the right, as such, to call an assembly of the people. 
Here he is made to act, in the king's absence, like a repub- 
lican Master of Horse in the absence of the Dictator ; but, as 
Seeley remarks, these proceedings were revolutionar>\ not con- 
stitutional. Some editors consider it unlikely that an imbecile 
should be appointed to so important an office as this, and others 
regard the fact as a good illustration of the vicious methods of 
monarchical government, while the simple truth is that it is 
most unlikely that Brutus was a dullard at all. 

19. peotofla: in the sense of 'character, disposition,* is 
rather poetic. 22. Triolpltini: i.e. Sp. Lucretius, the father 
of Lucretia. morto : construe with indignior ac tniserabilior. 
25. dMaaraae: used here only by Livy with in and the accu- 
aativc. 26. olroa: used adjectively. 28. oaedu : older 
form of nominative; cf. liirpis^ p. 4, L 18; mdis^ p. 43, 1. 15. 
3a pniaaana: * existing at that time.' indignltaa : subjective ; 
'indignation.' 31. aoriptoriboa : construe with faciiia; the 
ficiy indignation of the speaker could hardly be expressed by 
the hbtorian. anUoit: ' suggests* (to a speaker) ; present tense 
because it is a general truth. 32. imporimn • • . abrogarat : 
Tarquin had not been regularly elected by the people, nor had 

Pauk 7aj BOOK 1. CHAP. LX 391 

he received the auspices from a properly constituted iuierrex; 
he was therefore a usurper, and the people had the right to 
take from him his imperium^ whidi was de facto only. This 
would not have been true in the case of a king regularly and 
constitutionally appointed. 34. nomlna dalMUBt: * enlisted,' for 
service against Tarquin. 

Pafce 73. !• praofooto urbis: an officer left in command 
when the king, afterward when the consuls, left the city, **qmi 
ins rtdiUrtt ei subiiis uaden/Hr^^ (^slc, Ann. vi. 11). 

Chap. LX. 7. flojdt viam : *took another road.' 9. 

Ardaam: the siege of Ardea and its result seems entirely for- 
gotten in the interest of mori! important events. 12. Ca«ro: 
terminal accusative. 17. Ragoatum: sc. r//, *the monarchy 
lasted.' 18. Duo oonsulaa: originally called praetors; these 
magistrates held at the beginning the same powers as the king, 
but there were two of them with equal authority, and their term 
oC office was limited to a year. 19. oomitiia oaoturUitia : 
the assembly of all the citizens, patricians and plebeians, voting 
by classes and centuries. a praafaoto urbia: it seems that 
this ought to have been done by an initrrex; Dion)'sius says 
that it was so. The authority of a pttuftctus urbis ceased with 
the imptrinm of him who had appointed him. The sovereignty 
then would return to the pains^ who wouki delegate it to an 
inierrex. a: * under the presidency of.' 20. •> oobubmi- 
tasiis: 'according to the constitution.' 



192 NOTES. [Page 74. 


Page 74. Chap. I. X. parte : sharply contrasted with 
summoi toiius; 'a section of my work/ the third decade, of 
which the second Punic war was the subject. 2. aummae 
totlua; 'of a whole histor)*.* Li\7*s work embraces the whole 
hbtOT)' of Rome; the works of others had embraced single 
periods only. 3. maxima . . . mamorabile, etc. : Thucydides 
opens his history with a similar statement about the Peloponnesian 
war. The second Punic war was memorable because it was a 
decisive conflict for supremacy between the Ar>'an and Semitic 
raccSi involving the whole subsequent histor}* of European civil* 
ization. 4. umqnam : he does not mean simply Roman wars, 
but all wars. gaata alnt: this clause is put as a logical 

part of the statement contained in mt script nrum, etc. A. 336. 
343; H. iv^ II.; G. 6<)6b Hannibala: (-^df/, though the early 
Roman authors wrote -A<l/X the name means *' Grace of Baal ; ** 
Baal was the supreme god of the Phoenicians. The second 
Punic was very properly called the Hannibalic war; after its 
unsuccessful issue, the aristocratic party at Carthage tried to 
devolve all responsibility for it upon Hannibal, who was, at all 
events, not to blame for the final failure. But Livy considers 
it the affair of the Punic state, though in Bk. xxxiii., ch. 45, he 
says, ^BtlH per unum ilium hoh magis gesti quam tnotiy 

5. gaaaara: A. 336, b\ H. 524, 2; G. 631, r. 2. 6. neque 
▼alidloraa : the following sentence contains four reasons for 
calling this war maximi memorabile, opiboa: all kinds of 
resources, sources of power. 7. hia ipaia : it may be 

questioned whether the power of Carthage was not greater in 
the first war, when certainly the manifestations of it were greater. 
And Rome, of course, was subsequently more powerful, though 
perhaps never so vigorous. 

8. Tiffinm . . • roboria: strength for offence and defence 
respectively, manifest outward power and inward vigor. ball! 
■ftaa: * methods of warfare,* tactics;' yet the first war was 
mainly naval ; the second, carried on almost entirely upon land. 
iBiar aaaa : seems to refer primarily to unfirtbani^ like inttr 



Page 74.} BOOK XXI. CHAP. I. 393 

u , . . coHimUtunt^ above ; but probably in the author*s mind 
the phrase may have been associated also more or less dis* 
tinctly with ignotas, 9. •xportas : passive. 10. proplui 
pericalum: 'nearer the brink of destruction/ the reference 
being chiefly to the critical position of the Romans after the 
battle of Cannae ; prapt in all degrees is followed in Livy by 
the accusative. 11. qoi Ticorunt: an independent statement 
of fact not logically subordinate to m/ . . . fuerint^ and so not 
put into the subjunctive. 13. ultro iuferrent araui : 

•presumed to m.-ike war.' A. 341* d\ H. 516, 11.; G. 541. 
PoonU : sc. indh^nantibHi. 14. superbe nTaroquo : cf. note 
on Siciiia, etc., infra, 1. 20. credarent: put into the sub- 
junctive by a false analogy with inferrcHt, I. 13. inperitatum : 
one of the author*s favorite frequentative forms. 

15. Fama est : this is not a mere tradition, but a story attested 
by Polybius, Appian, Ncpos, Valerius Maximus, and others, an- 
norum : A. 21 5, ^ ; H. 396, v. ; G. 364, R. ; a genitive of quality is 
not usually attached directly to a proper name. 16. bUAdien- 
tem : * coaxing,* wheedling, tr)*ing to induce by caresses, hence fol- 
lowed naturally by ut dHcereinr. Hamileari : * gift of Melcart ; * 
the great Hamilcar Harca, father of Hannibal and his valiant 
brothers, the *Mion*s brood.'* 17. Afxico bello: the war of 
Carthage' with her mutinous mercenaries and revolted subjects, 
at the close of the first war with Rome. 

18. altaribus : generally used in plural with singular meaning. 
19. hoatem: in deed as well as in feeling. ^ 20. Bplritus: 
genitive. ▼imm : Hamilcar. Sioilia Bardinlaqne amisaaa : 
*the less of Sicily and Sardinia;' Hamilcar was unsubdued in 
western Sicily, when his countrymen, regarding the war as 
settled by their naval defeat off the Aeg^tian islands, made 
peace in 241 11. c, ceding all their possessions in Sicily. After- 
wards, when Carthage made preparations to subdue Sardinia, 
which had revolted, Rome pretended to regard this action as a 
menace of war against herself, and obliged Carthage to pur- 
chase peace by giving up the island and paying an indemnity of 
twelve* hundred talents, about $1,500,000, {siiptndio itiam insupir 
tnposiio\ The indemnity exacted in 241 B. c. had, moreover, been 
increaMd by the Roman senate beyond the amount stipulated 
by the Roman commander in the preliminary treaty of peace. 
All this conduct explains tuptrbt avanqmi in 1. 14. 22. inter: 

194 NOTES. IPAGI75. 

'during.* motam : the same u Africa biUo^ 1. 17. 23. stlpMi- 
dlo : sUpirptmdium (sHps^ pendere). 

Page 75* Chap. II. 1. ouris: refers to the last sen* 
teoce of ch. i. 2. anb: * immediately after.* quinquo anaoa : 
the whole war lasted according to Diodorus but four years 
and four months, according to Polybius three years and four 
months, and Hamilcar was not placed in command at (he be- 
ginning of it. (241-237 B. c.) 3. noTom annia : he was killed 
in a battle with the Vettones in 228 b. c. A. 256, ^; H. 379, 1 ; 
G. 392, 2. in Hlspanta : there had been from remote an- 
tiquity Phoenician colonies in Spain, but no great conquests 
till Hamilcar*s time; the country was valuable chiefly for its 
vast mineral wealth and its hardy population, which made 
.^ excellent soldiers. 3. daoo: merely for variety, the form of 
expression is changed in the next line, ductu with the genitive. 
8. pQiiltU : inaccurate ; he was eighteen at the death of his 
father. 10. obtiiiiiit: *held.' flora . . . conciliatna : 

'at first, as they say, a favorite with Hamilcar because of his 
youthful beauty.* 12. profeoto: contrasted with uti feruni; 

* this is certain ; that, mere report. animi : epexegetical to 
alUm imdoUm; 'a different character, that is, the character 
ol bis mind.* 13. faottonia Baroinao: named after its 

leader Hamilcar Barca; this was the popular, national party, 

, favoring war with Rome, which gradually succeeded in driving 
its opponents from the management of the government and in 
gaining control of the state policy. 

15. prinolpam: the aristocracy and the rich, who desired 
peace at any price. oooailio . • • ▼! : * policy • . . force of 

arms.* 16. ragulomm: 'chiefuins,* 'petty monarchs.* 17. 
prineipQm: * leading men' in republican communities. 18. 
albUo . . • totior: peace afforded him no greater security 
than war to Hamilcar. 23. praobuerit: a primary tense 

/ of the subjunctive, where strict sequence would require a sec- 
condary. 25. ranoraTorat : Hliad renewed the treaty already 
made in 241 b. c, but with the additional provisions here 
aUted. This was in 225 b. c. 28. ut: 'providing that' 
finla • • • Imptiii : the Romans had no possessions outside of 
Ital/tbot Sicily and Sardinia, and the Carthaginians had not 
iolljr conqnerad Further Spain. 27. medlia : Saguntum was 

Pack 76.] UOOK XXI. CHAP. III. 295 

several days* inarch from the Ebro, on the Punic side. This 
statement about the Saguntines is not confirmed by Polybios 
and is not absolutely reliable. 

Chap. III. 29. quin: the predicate has been ,Iost from 
the text; sc. turn imptraiorem crearct^ or some equivalent 
expression. 30. praerogatiTa : 'provisional' or 'preliminary* 
choice ; * in the Roman comiiia the tribe or century first called 
on to vote was called tribus or ccnturia pmcrogaiiva. The 
adjective was then used substantively, and extended in meaning 
from the voting body to the vote itself. The vote of the first 
century was usually followed by a similar vote of the others. 
In regard to the case here in point, it seems to have been 
legally regular for the Carthaginian army to elect its general 
provisionally, subject to confirmation by the senate and people 
at home. ajctemplo: (/jr, i€mp(M)i0; dimin. of itmpms). 

31. praatorium: tlie general's tent or the open space in front 
of it; as usual, Roman terms are applied to the affairs of a 
foreign people. \ 

Pagre 70. l* favor: 'applause.* 2 ▼Ixdum pnberom: 

this is inconsistent with the rest pf the story; cf. p. 77, 1. 18; 
Hannibal was twenty-six when chosen commander; this expres- 
sion would be applicable to a boy of fourteen. We are told 
that he was nine years old when his father went to Spain, 
and that Hamilcar commanded there nine years, and Hasdm* 
bal eight. As is often the case, the author is following more 
than one account, and is constantly betrayed into inconsistency. 
3. aocersierat: i. e. arccssicrat (ad^ cessere, causative oi 
ccden; cf. arbiter for adh(i)ter); this is in plain contradiction 
with ch. i., and with the words put into HannibaFs mouth in 
Bk. XXX., ch. 37. sonata: the governing class at Carthage 
was an aristocracy of birth and wealth ; there was a sen.nte of 
nobles, presided over by the two Suffetes or "kings;*' but the 
chief power was really exercised by the Council of one hundred 
and four Judges. fuerat : we have noticed the author's frequent 
use of this auxiliary for erat 

8. admiratione : 'surprise at.* anoipitia : 'self-contra- 

dictory.' 10. fruondum: construed as if transitive; orig- 

inally the verb was so. iuato iure : the strength of the 
expression is increased by the pleonasm. oiua: Le.^/VM, 

2g6 NOTES. [PAGI77. 

which stands in the relative clause, as usual when that pre- 
cedes. A. aoo, ^, N.; H. 445, 9; G. 618. U. rapeti: the 
word means seeking in return, asking what one is entitled to. 
12. pro . • . mdlmento: 'by way of military training.* 13. 
pnMtorttm: in a general sense, * commanders.* An . . . 

timenras: in this rhetorical question is stated a second ground 
for the previously expressed opinion of the speaker. 14. 

regni: Hamilcar and his successors in Spain were virtually 
independent sovereigns. spooiom: * display.* 16. latum 
iuvenam: 'that youth of yours;' addressing the Barcine 

Chap. IV. 20. optimas: the aristocratic party always has 
the attthor*s sympathy, and, besides, this party favored peace 
with Rome. 21. maior pars : this implies that the nation at 
large supported Hannibal's policy. 24. Hamilcarem : he was 

in the prime of manhood at his death. iuvenam: predic- 
ative, 'as a youth.* 27. pat«r in so: 'his likeness to his 
. father.* 29. diveralssimas : * most opposite.* 30. disoer- 
I noTM: translate as if it were pluper^ct. A. 311, a, r.; 
H. 485. N. I : G. 252. 32. obi . . . osset : A 322, 309, 6 ; 

H. 518, 1; G 569, R. 2; Roby, Lat Gr. 1716. £^^/ss'when- 
* ever.* 3a fortltar ao atroniM : ' with gallantry and energy.* 

Pafire 77. 4. patientia: 'power of endurance.* 7. id, 
quod. . . aiiperoasot: 'whatever remained after the performance 
of his duties;* the subjunctive is of the same general character 
as etui, p. 76, I. 33. gorendia rebua: dative. 8. ea; 
t.e.firiW. 9. sagulo: the ordinary soldier*s cloak,* dimin- 
utive of sagtim. 10. ouatodlas aukonaaquo : the former 
are sentries; the latter, pickets or outposts. V^titua . . . 
Mrma . . • s antithesis emphasized by asyndeton. 12. idem 
. . . arat : • he was at once.* 14. ¥iri : vir is emphatic 

for if, as r4s is for id, vitia: it is always to be remcm- 
bered that Hannibal*s history was written by his enemies, who 
were inclined to exaggerate the darker features of his charac- 
ter, if not to invent them. But the medium through which we 
view him fails to obscure the grand proportions of his figure, 
which towers above the greatest of his contemporaries. The 
charges here made against him are the commonplaces of na* 
tiooal aatipatby. The Romans -generations after his death — 


could never think of their terrible foe without a thrill of rage 
and dread. In other passages Livy expresses admiration for 
Hannibal*s great qualities. It must be admitted that Hannibal 
was sometimes cruel, but he was more humane than most of 
his countrymen: the fault was not a personal but a national 
characteristic; and the Romans were not tender-hearted. 

15. perfidia . . . Punioa: to those who read the history of 
Rome's dealings with Carthage, recorded by Roman, not by 
Punic writers, this proverbial phrase sounds like mockery. 
We are not told what the Carthaginians thought of ^omama 
fides* 16. nihil Tori : mkii and uutius are used in this pas- 
sage to express negative qualities for which the Latin has no 
abstract substantives. Nagelsbach, Lat. Stil. 60, 6t. 17. 

religio: 'conscience,* sense of obligation to, or dependence 
upon, the supernatural 18. meruit: 'served;* sc. stipetuiia. 

Chap. V. 21. Cotarum: analogous to the French ^du 
rtstc^^ is resumptive,' marking the continuation of the inter- 
rupted narrative. Tolat: sc if. 22. proTinoia: this 
word, used by analogy to Roman custom, means the sphere of 
duty specially assigned to a magistrate or general. 26. Qoi- 
bua oppugnandia : * by an attack upon these.* moTobaa- 
tur: indicative, rather than a periphrastic subjunctive form, to 
mark the inevitable certainty of the expected event; translate, 
'would certainly be set in motion,* i.e. at any time he might 
attack Saguntum. 27. Olo&dum: on the upper Guadiana 
(Anas), priua: in the summer of 221 n. c. 28. in parte 
magia quam in dicione: on the Carthaginian side of the 
Ebro, but not yet conquered. 30. iungendo : without aa 
object, is awkward. 31. Cartalam: a town not otherwise 
known, though it is possibly the modern Adca on a tributary 
of the Guadiana. 33. atipandio: *a war contribution.* 

Pafce 78. 1- Viotor : nouns of agency arc often used, 
and especially^by J«ivy, as adjectives. praeda : i. e. prai' 

hefida; cf. ne-homo^ netno^ praehibtn^ pracbtre, 2. Car- 

thaginem NoTam : this means ' New Newtown^* now Carta- 
gena; then the Punic capital of Spain, a large and splendid 
city wit^ a fine harbor, and valuable silver mines in the vicinity. 
3. atip^ndioque praeterito : ' the arrears of pay.* 4. anl- 

mia in ao: * devotion to himself.* 5. Tara : aao B. C Tao- 

298 NOTES. [Page 79. 

caaos: in northern Spain on the Douro (DurtNs). promo- 
tam: to correspond with the rest of the sentence, should be 
prom&vii. Honnandioa: possibly the modern Salamanca. 
€. Art>oo«la: not known, perhaps the modem Albucella. 9. 
Cnrpotanos: east of the Vaccaei^ in the modem Castile and 
Estremadura. 10. prooul Tago: classical usage requires ab, 
la ab hostilraa: *on the part of the enemy.* 14. traiecit: 
from the north to the south bank. ita : restrictive, * only 
so far* toward the river, or at a little disUnce sideways from 
the ford, or leaving an opening in the middle of the vallum. 
20. iflTiota: this participle contains, in disguised form, the 
apodosis of the condition si dimicaretur. 21. ferocas : 


22. Id : i. e. id mnum^ * that the fact of the river being 
between (them and Ihe enemy) alone delayed their victory.* 
2i. qua enlqiM proadmum aat: explains passim: *each man 
taking the nearest way.* 25. az parta altara ripaa s ex 

alUra ripa. 27. quippa Qbi . . . poaaat, aqnaa . . . gararat. 
A. 320, /, K. I ; H. 517, 3, I); G. 636. 28. tamara : 

'at random,* without special aim or effort. 32. In hoatia: i. c. 
Hannibars men posted with the elephants on the south bank. 
FoatramI: in translating put cum^ 1. 34, first. 33. az varia 
trapidationa : 'after their flight in different directions.* 34. 
prinaqnam . . • raclparant : A. 327 ; H. 520 ; G. 579. 35. 
agmina quadrate: 'with the army marching in fighting trim;* 
at first, doubtless, the phrase meant an army marching in the 
form of a square or parallelogram, so as to present a line of 
battle on every side. 

pApre 7f>* 2. Bt iam, etc.: here, apparently, the cam- 
paign of 220 B.C. ends. 

Chap. VI. C catemna: here, as so often in Livy and 
Sallttst, as sed; adversative. 5. oartamloa : * controversies * 
between Saguntam and its neighbors, in order to get a pretext 
for interference. 3. Tnrdatania : this was the name of the 
chief nation of Baetica, the southwest of Spain; the neigh- 
bors of the Saguntines had the same name, and may have 
been a branch of the hrger nation ; they were enslaved by the 
Romans in 214 B. c. 7. nao eartaman • • . qnaari: 'that not 
a coolest for Justice, but a pretext for violence was bei^g 

Page 80.] BOOK XXI. CHAP. VH. 299 

sought; * this was in the winter of 220-19 b* c- ^- CooralM: 
z mistake, as the author aclcnowledges in ch. xv. ; dieae wtre 
the consuls of 218 B.C.; those of 219 b. c. were M. Livius SaH- 
nator and L. Aemilius Paulua. 

U. introdnotis : i. e. after the ambassadors had been listco&i 
to by the senate and had left the curia. de re imblica 

retollssont: *had laid before the senate the question of thi 
policy of the state ; ' rtferrt ad stnaium de aliqua re is a stereo- 
typed phrase for the action of the consuls, who had the rigb: 
to convene, to preside over, and to consult the senate wbca 
occasion required. It was the consuls who brought forward 
the original questions for discussion, but the senators wcrt 
not obliged in their speeches to confine themselves to these 
subjects, and were able to call for the opinion of the bodj 
upon other matters. Theoretically the senatc*s resolutions wcr 
simply advice given to the magistrates, but in practice thq 
had legal force. 

X3. sooiomin: Livy does not tell when this relation witk 
Saguntum was formed; Mommsen supposes it was in 226 B.C 
just before the treaty made with Hasdrubal. qnibiia d 

viderotur ss qui^ si eis videretur. 17. omnlnm apt 

oelaiiua : comparatio compendaria^ ' sooner than any one tJc 
pected.* A. 247, b\ H. 417, i, N. 5; G. 399, a. i. 19 
proTinolas cf. note on p. 77, 1. 22. . 20. deoemontet: 
'proposing to assign.' 22. Intendobant, etc.: *were is 

favor of concentrating the whole war against Spain and Haa- 
nibal.* 23. ez Hispania legatoa : i. e. the return of the 

envoys about to be sent. 26, Flaeous at . . . TamphlliM: 
young men of no prominence. 27 al non abaiatervtor; 
the apodosis is atqne inde Carihagitum^ sc. ireni. 

Chap. VII. 30. Saguntum: now Murviedro (wivrr vr/^irr; 
cf. OrvietOi urbs veius); ruins of the ancient city are still 

Pagro 80* 1. mllle : the distance is now about three miles. 
2. Orinndl (fr. crior^ like secundus fr. seqnor) : u e. SagHM/tMi 
Zaoyntbo: now 2Umte, one of the Ionian Islands. SagMtUMm 
Is merely an older transliteration of the same word into Latia; 
the early alphabet had no s and made no distinction between ( 
and ^9 or between d and r; the Greek origin of the ci^ ii 

300 NOTES. [Page 80. 

well attested historically, especially by coins, 3. ab Ardea, 
etc.: this part of the story is evidently intended to explain 
the friendly relations with Rome- It is hardly necessary, for 
Rome had similar relations with the Greek cities of Massilia 
and Emporiae. 4. maritimU son terrostribua fruotibus: 

commerce or agriculture. 6. Ildem sooialom: * faithfulness 

to their allies , * they were lighting for themselves, not for 
their allies, against Hannilnl, but this is the Roman point of 
view, which makes the conduct of the Romans all tlie more 
discreditable. They seemed to feel it so, for in 214 b. c. the 
senate ordered Saguntum to be restored to its old inhabitants; 
vide Bk. xxiv^ ch. 42. 

8. Angultis : probably a triangular bastion. 10. ▼ergena : 
'jutting out.* vinoaa: 'mantlets,* heavy sheds about sixteen 
feet long, eight feet wide, and seven high, covered with planks, 
hurdles, and rawhides as a protection from missiles and fire. The 
besiegers rolled or carried them to the point where they were 
needed; vide Judson, Caesar's Army, pp. 91, sqq. U. per 
qoas =: Hi per eas. aries : a long beam of wood suspended 
by the middle and swung endwise against a wall, or sometimes 
simply carried on the shoulders of the besiegers. Often it was 
provided with a metal head, sometimes shaped like a ram*s head, 
vt . . . ita: 'though . . . yet.* 12. prooal mnro: i. e. 

the ground, looked at from a distance, seemed level enough. 
14. coeptia auocodebat: impersonal, *the attempt was not 
successful* 15. ut in auapeoto loco: *as the point was 

one where attack was expected.* oeterao . . . altitudinis: 
'height in other places.* 18. emnnitna: 'built up ; * _ex 

often has the force of up. 20. pro moenlbus : ' upon the 1>at- 
llcments;* pro is not merely *in front of,* but 'at the front of.' 
tola: nominative. mioaro: 'flashed.* 24. adveraum 

fomiur: 'in the front of his thigh,* the part turned toward the 
wall. A. 240, e\ H. 378; G. 332. 25. tragula: a heavy 

barbed spear, hurled by means of a strap attached to the shaft. 
28. vt aoa mnltiim, etc.: 'so that the siege works and mant- 
lets came near being abandoned.* The quin clause is the sub- 
ject of eiUsui. 

Chap. VIII. 28. por pavcoa diea : A. 256, a ; H. 379, i ; 
G. 33/. 29. dvm • . . ouraretnr: dmm means 'in order that 
In the meanwhile;* A. 328; H. 519^ n.« a; G. 574. 30. 

Page 81.] BOOK XXI. CHAP. IX. 301 

operum . • • mnnitionuiii : the former are offensive^ the Utter 
defensive. 32. parttbus : note the omission of the preposiiioa 
with a local ablative. Tix aocipiautibaa . • • opera : '*scarceij 
admitting the construction of siege-works.* 

Paf^O 81* 2. cantum quinquaginta milia: he crossed the 
Ebro the following year with 102,000 men. 3. ad omnia tnanda 
atqua obaunda : ' to meet all attacks and perform all duties.' 
4. coapti : Livy uses the active or passive of coepi indifferently 
with a passive infinitive. 5. muri: i. e. the wall at difTerrnt 
points. 6. una: sc. /«frx murL 7. trea dainoapa tarzis: 
* three contiguous towers.* quantumqua . . . muri : what \ 

military engineers call a 'curtain.* 9 qua . . . proouraam 
eat : ' and yet here they rushed forward on both sides to battk, 
just as if the wall had been an equal protection to both/ Lc. 
the Saguntines acted as if they had broken down the defences 
of the Carthaginians. 12. par ooeaaionam partia altorios: 
*when a favorable chance offered itself to either side.' 13. 
iuatae: * regular/ * formal.' 15. conatitarant : 'took their 

stand.' Hino . « . hino : * on the one side ... on the other.* 

16. capiaaa . . . ai . . . adnitatur : corresponds to cepi^ si 
adni/ar of oratto recta^ where the perfect a|)odosis, instead of a 
future, marks the certainty of the conclusion. 18. padem 

rafaranta : ped^m nfcrre = to retreat, pedem inferrt = 10 ad- 
vance. 19. quo . . . ao : ' the more . . . tlie more.' 20. 
oonfartim: Wsb. says this adverb occurs but twice in Livy. 
21. Tano: 'without doing execution.' 23. oatara taretl,ctc: 
*for the rest, round except at the end.' 24. aicut in pUo: 
the phrase modifies quadrat atn only. 26. armia : the defen- 
sive armor. 27. id maxima : * this circumstance in partic 
ular,' i. e. quod . . . cogebal^ below. atiam ai : ' even if . . . 
only.* ai haaaiaaat . . . faoiabat : cf. note on ubi . . . tssti 
p. 76. 1. 32. The supposition is a general one. 28. madioa ' 
aooansnm : 'lighted in the middle.* 29. concaptomqM 

. . . ignam : 'a fire kindled to greater intensity by its very 
motion.' 30. nudum: predicative, 'without defence.* 

Chap. IX. 33. quia . . • raaiatarant: the reason in the 
minds of the Saguntines. A. 341, d\ H. 516, 11.; G. 541. 
Poanua: the army, not the leader; it is characteristic of tbe 
author thus to use a singular for a collective or pluraL 



302 NOTES. [Fagx 63. 

Page 82* 1. pro vioto mamt : * was as good as vanquished.' 
2. in miiuw: *into the breach;* the fighting had been going 
on in the dear space inside the line of the wall. 3. fosum 
IngAtmnquo : *in total rout;' two similar verbs instead of one 
modified by an adverb. 5. nb Roma : this author regularly 
uses m^ with the name of a city ttndi, T aifrenatarum 

gontiiuii: the wild, half-savage Spanish tribes, who might not 
respect the sacred character of envoys. 8. in tanto dis- 

eiimino romrn : * in so important a crisis.' oporaa ease, etc. : 
*it was not worth his while/ or 'he had no time to listen to 
embassies.* Optroi may be expbined as genitive limiting //-/- 
Hum understood, or as predicative possessive genitive, or as dative 
of service. (Roby, Lat. Gr. 1283). nrma . . . rernm : this 
line is one of those accidenUl hexameters, so carefully avoided 
and yet occasionally found in prose Latin. 10. Idtteraa . . . 
nnnttoaqv*: 'messengers with letters.' 12. anorum : 'of 

their partisans.' qnid . . . gratificari: 'to make any con- 


Chap. X. 15. qnoquo : here also, as well as in its mission 
to Hannibal. Hanno: the same as in ch. iii. 17. ogit: 
* pleaded. 33. anporait : strict sequence would require super* 
esui* laTonam : a sudden change to 0rtUh recta, 24. 
oapidino : cupido is poetic for cupiditas. 25. ax boUia 

baUa: *war after war.' aarando: 'by instigating.' ano- 
cinotna annla lagionibuaqna : zeugma. 30. par qnoa : ' by 
whose aid.' 31. priora ballo : the first Punic war, 264-241 d. c. 
sunt nlti : agrees with Romani rather than UgiomM ; an instance 
of eomsirucih ad s/uesim. 32. fortanam . . • popuU : nations, 
like individuals, were conceived as watched over by tutelary 

Pair6 83* 1. bonna : ironical. 2. Iva gantlnm : ' the 
law of nations,' which required audience to be given to the am- 
bassadors of allies, and even of enemies. 4. publioa fraoa : 
by giving up Hannibal the state as such would avoid responsi- 
bility for his breach of treaty ; it would be otherwise if his acts 
were confirmed by their refusal to surrender him. 7. AagaUs 
Inanlaa: the scene of the naval victory of the Romans under 
Catttlus, which brought the first war to a close. Bryoam: 
Hamilear had maintained himself through the last yean of the 


war at Mt Eryx. 8. quae: asyndeton; 'and in short aL 

things whicl)/ etc. 9. puar : contemptuously referring to Has- 
nitnl. 10. Man alt«r : ' a second Mars.* tott : the bks 
of the opposite party. Toloat : ' maintain.* 

11. Tareuto: a Punic fleet appeared in the port o£ Tam- 
turn in 272 u. c, but the Romans liastcncd to take possession d 
the city by land, it being surrendered to them by Milo^ wboa 
Pyrrhus had left in command. This was eight years before 
the first Punic War. Rome and Carthage had made a treaty 
of offensive and defensive alliance against Pyrrhus in 279 B.C 
There were, according to Polybius and Livy, tliree treaties ear- 
lier than this defining tlie mutual rights of the powers: vix. 
those of 509 B. c, 348 B. c, and 306 D. c. ; but Mommsca 
denies the first. Polybius denies the existence of any clause is 
that of 279 B. c. excluding the Romans from Sicily and the 
Carthaginians from Italy. Philinus was probably Ltvy*s author- 
ity for the statement that the Cartluiginians violated this treatj 
by the action mentioned above, -— a statement found in the epi- 
tome of the lost Bk. xiv. At any rate, this was not the cause 
of the first Punic war. 

13. di: as avengers of bad faith. hominM: accusative, 
et. id do quo, etc.: *and as to that about which,* etc.; the sen- 
tence is anacoluthic, iW having no predicate. 15. undo = a 
guo, * on the side of which.' Carthagini . . . Cartha^is : 
emphasiz2d by abnormal position. 17. utinam . . . aim : A. 
267: H. 483, 2; G. 254. 21. In eo: *in his (Hannibars) case.* 
paternaa inimioitiaa : * enmity with his father,* due especially 
to the fact that Hamilcar had been preferred by the army to 
Hanno, as their leader in the war with the mercenaries. 2i 
tamquam furiam faeemque, etc. : * who in his mad passion 
kindles the torch of this war;* the alliteration is intentional 
25. dedendum : sc. esse/ this and the following codrdinate infini 
tives depend on ctfisM understood. 27. ad noa . . . aociders 
• . . possit: this phrase expresses distance more forcibly than 
ft0t audirt . . . possimus, 29. qulatae olTitatia atatuia: 
hypallage for guiiium civiiaiis siatum. 34. deoerno : * I an 
In favor of,* * I advise.* 

Paere 84. Chap. XI. 1. nemini . . . oartara . . . etas: 
this saves the trouble of mentioning the arguments used on the 

304 NOTES. IPagi 65. 

other tide. 2, adoo : *so true it is that;* the word qualifies 
the whole sentence. 3. Honniballs emt: *was devoted to 
Hannibal ; * the majority was so decided that discussion seemed 
superfluous. A. 214,^; H. 401; G. 365. 4. Flaooum Vale- 
rinin : note the inversion ; this is very common when the 
pracnomen is omitted. - 5. ortum . . . •••a : ' had been begun.* 
7. 8«cviitino« : brachylogy for socUtaiem SagHHiinornm ; the 
alliance with Saguntum was of recent date, and they were not 
mentioned in the treaty of 241 n. c, which was ver}- unfavor- 
able to Carthage. Tatuatiaslmaa : the hrst treaty between 
Rome and Carthage, as Polybius says, was in 509 B. c. ; Momm- 
sen casts some doubt upon this, but there certainly was one 
in 348 n. c. 10. militam . . . iia : plural pronoun because 
mihUm is collective. 14. pro oontione*. *at a general assem- 
bly of the army.* 20. noTnm murum: behind the old wall. 

22. piimum aut poUasimnm : alliteration. 24. satis scira 
poterant: 'could feel quite sure.* 25. tiurria mobilia: a 

wooden structure on wheels, propelled by men behind and 
within it 27. eatapoltia: gigantic bows for shooting arrows 
and bolts nearly horizontally. balUatiaqna : engines for hurl- 
ing stones at a decided upward angle. tabnlata : * stories,* 
of which there were several in such towers, accommodating 
aiege artiUery of smaller size. For descriptions of siege en- 
gines, etc, vidi Judson, Caesar*s army, pp. 87, sqq. 28. ooca- 
aionam ratna: 'judging that a favorable opportunity was come.* 
31. oaamenta (caedimtnta)^ etc. : * the quarr)* stones had not 
been hardened into a solid mass by the use of lime.* 32. 
ganara: 'after the fashion of;* primitive masonry was accom* 
plished without mortar. Ztaqna latiaa: pulling down a por- 
tion of a wall so loosely built brought down further portions, 
right and left. 

Page 8K. 1. mabat: sc. murus, patantla minla: 'the 
breach;* paOntia is a neuter plural participle. 4. habarant: 
the sequence is correct, for circumdani is historical present. 

7. intariora taando: 'by contracting their line of defence.* 

8. la diaa: an exaggeration, of course, for we cannot suppose 
that erery day a wall was demolished and another built further 
back. 10. Romaal : the Illyrian war was in 219 b. c., but it was 
aot of mdi magnitude as to prevent the succor of Saguntum. 

paoi aa] BOOK XXI. cmap. xii. 30$ 

U. adfectoA animos r«oreavit : * revived their drooping spirits.* 

12. profeetio ... in : tlie verbal noun followed by the same pre- 
position as its verb. Oratanoa : south of the Carpetani (note 
on p. 78, 1. 9X about the upper Guadalquivir (Daetis) and Guadi- 
ana (Anas) and the Sierra Morena (jusa Oreiamay^" 13. 
dileotas: the levy of troops was compulsory among the sub- 
jects of Carthage. 14. matom . . . praabniaaent : * had 
given reason to fear.' 15. omiaerunt mota anna: *laid 
down their arms again.' 

Chap. XII. 17. Maharbale: a very enterprising dficer, 
often mentioned subsequently as commander of the cavalr}*. 

13. ita . . . agente : ' pushed on tlie siege so vigorously. 19. 
civea: 'his own soldiers;' there were few civis^ in the proper 
sense, in the Punic army. 23. ad ipaam arcam: * directly 
a;^ainst the citadel.' 26. Tamptata . . . apaa : * slight as 
was the hope of peace, an attempt was made to secure iL' 28. 
aliquid moturum : * that he would accomplish something.* A. 
23S, b\ H. 575; G. 331, R. 2. 29. poatqoam . . . moTobant: 
the imperfect is used with postquam about a hundred times by 
Livy, four times by Cicero, twice by Ca\esar ; it shows the action 
of the temporal clause still continuing when that of the prin- 
cipal clause begins. 30. tristaa: ' harsh.' ut ab irato 
▼iotora : ' as was to be expected of an angry conqueror.* 3L 
transfuga . . • faotua: 'turning from an intercessor into a 
deserter.' 32. moriturum: 'would be put to death.' 33b 
reddarant raa Turdatanla : this was necessary to justify his 
own action, for alleged injuries to the Turdetani had been the 
pretext for his attack on Saguntum. 

Pnffo 80. 1. agreaai urba: the position was strategically 
too important to leave in an enemy's hands. Hannibal wished 
to leave no hostile stronghold in his rear. For those times the 
terms olTercd were not very severe. 2. ainguUa veatimantia : 
cf. p. 87, 1. 5, biHis vestimeniis; the inconsistency may be the 
error of the author or of a copyist, or both expressions may 
mean one change of clothes besides what they had on. 3. ab- 
nuanta = neganit, 4. Tinoi animo% etc. : ' that courage too 
is conquered when other things are overcome.' 6. Intarprt- 
tam: 'mediator.' 6. pnblioa • • • hoapaa: *a guest-friend 

of the Sagundne state,' i. e. a citizen of a communit/ which 

306 NOT£S. [Pagi 87. 

bad tlie relation of hospiiium with Saguntum. 8. praotorem * 
*tbe commander-iiKhief.* 

Chap. XIII. 16. orator BaonibaUa : he was not sent by 
Hannibal, and so was not a Ugatus. Whether Hannibal knew 
o£ his going is not perfectly dear from the context If he 

* did, he took an unfair advantage in the circumstances described 
*< in ch. xiv. 17. lllo: i. e. Alca 22. altoriua: often used 

J ioi aiiMS. 23. vol oa fides sit: Met this very fact be a 
proof;* ta agrees with tlie predicate noun, instead of being 
neuter to correspond with its antecedent, the substantive clause 
•fuod . . ./prtV A. 195, 1/; 329.333; H. 445f 4; 540. iv. ; G. 
535. 24. restitistiB . • . sperastis : the perfects mark a state 
of things no longer existing. To express 'you have been (and 
still arc) resisting • • • hoping/ the present would be us^d. 
26. Poatquam: * since;' very rare with present tense. 26. 
nuigia nooasaariam quam aeqnam: 'unavoidable rather than 
favorable.* 29. Ita: *on this condition.* 31. ot non • . . 
habltori oatia: 'and shall not regard what is given up as loss, 
since all belongs to the conqueror, but whatever is left as a 
gift (from him).' 33. Tobia: A. 229; H. 385, ll.,2; C. 344, 

Page 87* 2. In quo . . . aodifiootla: A. 317; H. 497, i ; 
C. 545, 1. 6. aanrat . • . ai . . . vaUtia: Hannibal*s own 

words would be urvada (or ttrvo in the sense 'I promise to 
preserve'), ti . , . voUtis, Inviolata: 'neither killed nor 
ensbved.' bints : cf . note on p. 86^ 1. 2. 6. ab Sagunto : 
as usual in Livy, ab with name of town u$uU* 7. quamquam 
aunt: A. 313. /; H. 5i5t <•; G. 6^7. 8. auadot : * bids 

you to accept.* 10. Tel haao : * even these.' 11. corpora : 
'selves,' 12. belU iuro : construe with m/i /nr^/i^M/. ainatia: 
as if corresponding to pntinmini {patutulaA^ 10); but the sub- 
junctive's required by poiins quam. Roby, Lat. Gr. 1676; A. 
332, b% H.- 503, 11., 3; C. 647. R. 4. 

Chap. XIV. 13. Ad haao aadianda . construe with cir- 
emmfasa. IC oonoiUum : subject of ptrmixtum essei, 15. 
primoroa : the aristocracy, specially friendly to Rome, had most 
to fear from the enemy. 18. oonioiantaa : here we are re- 
minded that the Latin verb has no perfect active participle. 
SL oolMts . • . dodiaaot: begin the sentence with €mm^ the 

pAGiaaj BOOK XXI. chap. xv. 307 

Roman cohort, after the reorganixation of the army by Marios, 
consisted o£ three maniples of two centurirs each, and ten cohorts 
formed a legion. Here the word is simply used in a geocraJ 
sense, ' a body * of soldiers. 22. nudatam atationilMia : this 
state of affairs appears not to have been anticipated, and im*' 
plies that Hannibal was not aware of the negotiations of Alorciis. 
Livy would be prompt to notice bad faith on Hannibal*s part 
26. puberea: * lighting men;* Uie women and children would 
be sold as slaves. cmdela: sc. /ir//y the Romans ordinarily 
did the same in storming towns, so the charge of cruelty is 
hardly fair. 28. oui . . . parol: A. 227, 230; H. 385, 11., 
301, I ; G. 345, a. 3. Saguntum was not destroyed; a Punic 
garrison was placed in the town and the Spanish hostages were 
confined in the citadel (cf. p. 165, 11. 24, sqq.) ; nor were all the 
inhabitants killed or sold into slavery. 

Page 88. Chap. XV. 2. do induatrla: * purposely,' ia 
order to make it worthless to the captors. 3. in oaadlbos 
. . . feoerat : this is mentioned, because those who were killed 
might have been sold as slaves. 4« mlUtum praeda: i. e. 
slaves whom the soldiers were allowed to sell for their own 
benefit 5. rodaotom: * realized.* 6. aupaUectilem : 

probably from sttptr Uctus^ Maid on the surface,' not fixtures, 
but 'movables.' Toatemqne: textile fabrics in general, not 
merely clothing, but carpets, tapestry, etc; sending plunder to 
Carthage was politic, encouraging to his own party and a bait 
to the opposition, for, by accepting it, the government became 
committed to his line of action. 

The description of this siege, masterly in point of rhetoric, 
divided into three parts, separated from each other by dip]o> 
matic episodes, has been aptly compared to a five act t^alg^ 
dy. 8. qnam: post is often omitted in such coUocations. 
oaptom Saguntum: this was in the autumn of 219 n. c. 
11. profaotua ait: in May 218 b. c. 12. ComeUus • . . 

Sampronina: as previously stated these were the consuls of 
2f8 B.C; it was their predecessors of 219 B.C., L. Aemiliiis 
Paulus and M. Livius Salinator, who received this embassy. 

15 Tioinnm • • • Itabiam: tributaries of the Po, in Cis* 
alpine CauL 16. ambo: not quite correct, as Scipio had been 
wounded and did not take part in the fight. 17. piinolplo 

3o8 NOTES. [Pagb 89. 

annl: the author seems to forget that at this time consuls toolc 
office on March 15th, not, as later, on January ist 19. 

•zeeMlMo . . . non potest: * cannot have been so late as.' 
20. imgna aA Trebiam: sc. c^mmissa^ or the like; Livy in 
such phrases regularly omits the participle which earlier writers 
would express. 21. Arimini : in Umbria, on the Adriatic ; 

the circumstances of this extraordinary proceeding of Flami- 
nius are expbined in the notes on ch. Ixiii., ift/ra. 22. oreatus : 
declared elected by the magistrate presiding at the eomitia ctn^ 
imriaia. No magistrate of lower rank could hold a consular 
election; if no consul was available, a dictator or interrex had 
to be appointed for the purpose. The consuls at this time were 
elected ordinarily in December. Polybius* chronology of the 
events of this book is perfectly clear and consistent, and by 
following it Livy would have avoided all difficulties such as 
he here confesses. 

Chap. XVI. 25. Bub idem faro tempos : it is hard to 
see how these envoys spent so long a time in their expedition. 
Wsb. suggests that this remark may have been taken from an 
authority who made the siege much shorter. 29. non lati 

nwdlil: 'for not having rendered assistance.' 30. da sum- 
ma roram: *for the life of the nation;' the impending contest 
was for the very existence of Rome. 

. Page 80. 2 trapidarant magia quam oonanlerant: 
I • were too much disturbed for calm deliberation.' 4. rem 

Romanam =s Romam. daaidam : a word not found before 
Livy, Wsb. The sUtement is much exaggerated. 5. Sardoa 
. . . XUyrioa : an enumeratk>n of the wars of the interval since 
the end of first Punic war in 241 b.c There had been also one 
with the Ligurians, not mentioned here. Sardinia and Corsica, 
so far as possessed by Carthage, had been seised by the Ro- 
mans, as prevtously stated, but it took several years to sub- 
doe the inhabitants. The first lUj-rian war was in 229-228 
B. c the second 219 a. c. A severe contest with the Giuls, 
225-233 B. c resulted in the subjugaHon of the Boii and 

T. tnmnltaatem: tumuiiu* expresses the dtsorderiy and 
dcaoltofy hostile outbreaks of barbariana, as distinguished from 
Mimm^ lonnal, civilised warfare; the word has a shade of 

Pack 89.] BOOK XXI. CHAP. XVII. 309 

contempt, yet the last Gallic war had been a very serious one 
bsUigeratum : archaic, not elsewhere used by Livy. WdllfliiL 
8. trium st Tlgiiiti anaomm : the whole interval between the 
first and second Punic wars; but Hamilcar did not go to 
Spain till 236 B. c. 13. (HlUoas s^ntw : the tribes of Gs- 
alpine Gaul. oum orbo terramm: * against the workL' 

14. in XtalU : it does not appear, in the light of the following 
context, that the Romans had as clear a notion of Hannibal's 
plans as this statement seems to imply. Polybius expressly 
tells us that their purpose was to Aght in Spain. 

Chap. XVII. 15. anten: before the news of the £all of 
Saguntum reached Rome. The statement of the election of 
the consuls and their choice of provinces stood in Bk. xx., no 
longer extant. provinciao: the * provinces* or departments 
of duty were settled by the senate, and one assigned to each 
consul by agreement or by lot, as in this case. 16« Hispnnla: 
Hannibal was to be kept busy there. 17. Afrioa was to be 
invaded from the Roman province of Sicily. ouna BicUia: 
p. 123, 1. 26, and note. 18. sooium: genitive plural. ipais: 
i. e. cousuNbus; generally it was the ^nate which determined 
the number of troops to be levied. 19. Quattnor ot Tiginll, 
etc. : i. e. six legions. Romanonun . . . aoolomm : the con- 
tingents of allies were usually somewhat larger than those of 
citizens: the cavalry was always more numerous. 32. qnla- 
queremes: here an adjective; plenty of ships were available, 
owing to the late war with the Illyrians. 

23. oelooea : masculine in Livy; small swift vessels, 'cutten* 
(probably fr. ctier, celto), dednoti: 'put into the water;* 
they were kept on land when not in use. X«tam ... ad 
popnlum: *the question was put to the people (in comiiim um- 
iuriatHy as this was a question of peace or war) whether* etc; 
the presiding magistrate said: Vclitis iuheatisni popnlo Cmt^ 
thafriniensi helium indici, ila vcs. Quiriles, r^go: vidt Laage, 
>• 563. 

25. snppUoatlo: a special observance, a liUny, wherein d» 
citizens of all ranks and ages, going round in procession, 
offered prayers at the different temples. The same name was 
given to solemn thanksgiving after a victory. 26. qnod 

bellnm: in archaic style, the antecedent attracted into the 
relative clause, though it follows the principal one. 28 



310 NOTES. (Pace 9a 

•a: I. e. UgUnts^ but agreeing with the predicate milia. A. 
195,1/; H. 445, 4; G. 202, R. 5. 30. miUe: an indeclinable 
adjective; jwi/m, a substantive. aaves longae: * galleys,* 
•hips of war, propelled mainly by rowers; longer and narrower 
than merchantmen, which depended on their sails for motive 
power. Here the quinqoeremes, mentioned above, are meant 
33. Its ... at: 'only if.* tranamt— uroa : 'with orders to 

Page fM>. 2. yLu£ikoM (Vuls0)\ Xht praiiorperfgrimus: 
his forces would be a reserve for Scipio in case of need. 3. 
mittobatiir : 'was about to go.* 5. oa parte, etc.: *in 

that kind of warfare,* i. e. naval. 7 auo luato eqoiteta : 
'their regular proportion of cavalry.* 10. Oallia: the 

country along the Po, recently conquered, not organized as a 
province till 191 b. c. 11. oodem ▼•»«: 'intended for the 
same purpose;* eodem is explained by in Punicum bcllum; 
vtrsa^ neuter, agreeing with the various accusatives that pre- 
cede, or specially with milia. Luterbacher makes %»€rsa agree 
with provincial ' because it lay in the same direction (as Scipio*s 
province).' The other explanation is preferable. habait: 

received,' 'contained.' 

Chap. XVIII. 12. luata: *in due form;' to the Roman 
mind it was essential to begin the war in formally correct 
fashion according to the fecial law, and this, notwithstanding 
that war was already determined upon, and, indeed, virtually 
begun. 13. maioroa natu: the former ambassadors, only 
two in number, were comparatively young men; now five men 
of influence are sent Q. Fabium : the famous dictator of 
217 B. €.« sumamed Cunctator, the * Shield of Rome.* M. 
Llvinm Xb AomUinm: probably the consuls of 219 b. c. 14. 
C Liolnium : a man of this name had been consul in 236 B. c. 
Q. BaeMuaa : if, as is likely, this is one of the members of the 
first embassy, he can hardly be classed with the maiores nalu, 
IS. ad porovnotandoa ... at iadioaront : note the different 
way* of expressing purpose. 17 faterantar ao dofondarant: 
* should confess, and, with justification of the action, declare.' 
19. aaaataa: 'an audience by the senate.' 22. Praaoapa: 
*over hasty,* assuming from the start that their opponents were in 
the wroQg. Imqmii ts frequently wanting in LIvy at the begin- 
nfnir of a direct quotation. 24. dapoaeabatia : i. e. as the guilty 


party, in order to punish liim. 25. adhuo: 'so far,* 'as 

yet.* 27. at a oonfeMU : a Grcek^constnictipn, mc with 

participle; the meaning is active, the verb being dcpoocjit 

29. censaaun: ironically polite. A. 3fi,^; H. 486^1.; G. 25a 

30. nostra: emphatic. 31. animadveraio in: 'punishmeot 
of.* quid . . . facarit: connect with qnacsih^ not with wh 
$nadv€rsw, auo . . . arbitxio: 'upon his own rcspoosibUity:* 

Pii}ire Ol. 2. a C. Latatio: after the battle of the A^ 
gatian Islands, 241 H. C. 5. At anim . . . axciptttntar : 

the words of a supposed objector ; at cnim is elliptical, — ' Uui 
(some one will say, that makes no difference) for the Sagun- 
tines are protected by a special clause in that treaty,* etc 
10. aliud . . . foadua : the second treaty, also negotiated br 
C. Lutatius, did not differ radically from the first, but its 
terms were a little more severe. publioo conaillo: 'with 
the public sanction,* the approval of senate and |)cople. 12. 
na . . . quidam : 'certainly . . . not.' 15. diu parturit : 'has 
long been (and still is) in travail with ; * parturire is the de- 
siderative of /tfrerr^. A. 167, ^; H. 338. 16. Romanna : Fa- 
bius, chief of the embassy. sinu . • . facto: holding up 

a comer of his io^qa as if he were carrying something in it; jfjra 
effuse^ I. 19, letting it fall again as if to drop out its con- 
tents. 18. Sub: 'immediately after.* farooitar: 'defi- 
antly.* 19. itarum : 'in reply.* 

Chap. XIX. 22. daraota parcnnotatio : ' straightforwartl 
demand for an explanation.* 23. ax: 'in accordance with/ 

'b3fitting.* 24. oum anta, tarn maxima, etc.: 'now espe- 

cially since.* 25. axcisa: agrees with urbe. fur syHesim.wy 
else Saqnnto is the ablative of the late and poetical form; 
Sagunhis, which is feminine. 26. quid: 'in what respect* 
27. quod mutatum ast: Lutatius* treaty was altered at once 
by the Roman senate, HasdrubaKs had been tacitly confirmed 
by the practice of years. 28. disarta: 'expressly.* 32. 

atsi priora foadara ataratur : ' even if they should base their 
argument on the former treaty,' 'abide by the former treaty,' 
1. a. that of Lutatius as modified by the senate* 

Page 92« 1. aooiia : the Saguntines were included under 
this term, if no distinction was made between then existiDf 

313 NOTES. [PAGEda. 

1 and after-acquired allies. 4. oenserat : * would have thought;* 
1 potential subjunctive; censeai would mean 'would think (now).* 
i Thb imperfect is not the apodosis of a condition contrary to fact» 
Init of a possible condition stated in past time. A. 311, a\ 
H. 485, N. I ; G. 252. 5. Ob nulla . . . reoipl : ' that no 
one, for any services whatsoever, should be received into 
friendly relations.* 6. fidem : * protection/ for which the 

honor of the state is pledged. For the various meanings of 
JidcSf vide Nagelsbach, Lat. Stil. 165-7. (j/) Tantnm {cavere- 
ittr) no, etc. : ' if only it was provided that ... not ; ' this 
clause, so completed, may be regarded as the protasis for 
which the thought in censtrtt^ etc., is the apodosis. 9. siout 
• . . Imparatiun orat : this was not mentioned previously. 
12. Bargnaios : a tribe near the Pyrenees and the city of 
Ilerda. 13. qnia taadabat : construe with erexeruni not 
with exctpUj for the Uargusii, being north of the £bro, were 
not subject to the Carthaginian^. !ۥ novae fortunae: 

equivalent to the usual Novarttm rerupn, 15. Voloianoa: 
probably near neighbors of the Dargusti. 18. respondlt: 

i. e. to the solicitations of tlie envoys. Tareomidia : sarcastic, 
*a modest request.* 26. verba tulere: 'got answers.' 

Chap. XX. 29. Xbi lis : this reading, the conjecture of 
Heraeus, while probably not correct, is simple and intelligible, 
and I have adopted it rather than that of VVsb, which is 
confessedly unsatisfactory. 30. gentis: * the (Celtic) race;' 

we may so understand it, though probably the word referred 
to the name of a particular tribe, lost from the text. The 
custom characterized the Gauls generally. Caes. D. G v. 56. 
▼enenint: the perfect confines the statement to the instance 
in question. Tn early times the Romans had attended the 
€omtiia ccmiuriitM in full armor. 31. verbis : used with 

extoiUnUs to show that its meaning is metaphorical. 

Papre 03. 1. InfereDti aas // in/erret; this implies that the 
invasion of Italy was expected. 2. tantna . . . risue : * such 
shouts of hughter.' 4. atolida: * stupid," absurd.' oen- 
•ere: *to think it right,* 'to expect' 0. transmltUnt: 

we should expect the imperfect; the same Is true of enmant, 
L la U. p^ : to make room for the colonists of Placentia 
and Cremona, founded 218 b. c. 19. Maaetllam : (now 


Marseilles) a Greek city, a colony of the Phocacana founded aboftt 
600 B.C., which early made alliance with Rome, and which hau 
sent money to Rome 390 B. c. to assist in paying the ran«» 
demanded by the Gauls. 16. praooccupatos • • . ante: 

a characteristic pleonasm. 18. ipai : of themselvcsi without 
outside influence. 19. anbindo: * occasionally/ *now and 

then.* 20. Xtn : ' with such (so small) results.* 22. hand 
ita multo: *not so vtry long.* oonsnlea in provincias 

profeoti erant: it is not probable that the consub started 
before the return of the embassy. 24. aatia oonatanta 

lama: * while reports pretty well agreed,* etc 

Chap. XXI. The narrative is resumed from the point when 
it was interrupted by the digression beginning in ch. zv. 
27. hiberna : the winter of 219-18 B.C. 28. forantss 

tsstni; the two are quite synonymous in Livy, but f^rem^ as 
an equivalent for issem^ is avoided by Cicero and Caesar. 
29. cauaam: war had been declared, upon the refusal of his 
countrymen to surrender him. 30. nltra differondum: the 
siege of Saguntum had already delayed him too long. 3L 
▼on . . . ot ipaoa, *you as well as I.* aocU: really the 
Spanish subjects of Carthage. 32. pacatia . . . popnlis: 

causal ablative absolute. omnibua : a rhetorical exaggeratioo. 

Pago l>4« 4. ex allia gnntibna: Hannibal's real design 
does not appear to have been known to his troops. 5. 

looginqun: * distant,* not 'long.' 7. Inviaera: also Tiaendi, 
1. 10; A. 167, e, N. 8. Primo: A. 193; H. 440, k. r. 

▼ere : noun, not adverb. die bene iuTantibna : so we say 
"by the 'good help' of God.'* 11 ultro : •voluntarily,* 

without their requesting it. deaiderantibua . . . proTidentibiis : 
dative agreeing with ommhHs. 12. desiderium : ordinarily 

•regret,' • homc-sicknes.s,' here rather the absence that causes 
such feeling. Per totnm tempue hiemia : adjectival phrase, 
attributive to quies. 13. laborea . . . eathauriendoe : ' toils 

already endured and those in store for them.' 15. Tere prime: 
the author is fond of reversing the usual order in such phrases. 
18. Oadia : (now Cadiz) outside the strait of Gibraltar, a very 
ancient Tynan colony, celebrated for the worship of Mdkart, 
whom the Romans identified with Hercules, as they did 

Baal with Jupiter, etc« 19. eveniaeent: protasis of a fotuit 


3 14 NOTES. [Paob 95. 

perfect condition of which the apodosis is a future '^infinitive 
implied- in Migai votis; ' Hannibal bound himself by vows 
(to perform ceruin sacrifices) in case his further undertakings 
should result successfully.* Znde partloos ouraa, etc. : 

it is probable that Hannibal, as Polybius says, made these 
arrangemenU in the previous winter at New Carthage, rather 
than in the spring at Cadiz. 20. inferendnm atquo arcen- 
dnm boUttin: 'offensive and defensive warfare.' 

21. OalUas : plural because the Romans made several 
provinces of Gaul; so people used to say *the Jerseys* and 
*the Braxils' 22. ab Sioilia: Ulybacum, at the west of 

the island was only about ninety miles from the African 
coast 23. Pro eo: i. e. praesidio : in the place of the 

troops sent to garrison Africa. 27. mutuis pigneriboa : 

the families and property of the absent soldiers. atlpendia: 
first 'pay,* then 'service* by which it was earned. 28. 

oaotratoa : ' targeteers,* men armed with the eaetra^ a small 
shield (nearly =s peiin). 29. Baliares : according to the 

ancients, the name of the islands was derived from jSaXXccv, 
owing to the skill of the people in using the sling. 32. 
coiiquialtoribiis : 'recruiting officers.* 33. in oivitates: a!« 
appears from Polybius, cities of the Metagonians in Africa. 
The whole passage, from p. 94, 1« 17, to p. 95, 1. 18, seems 
to be an imperfect transcript of a passage in the third book of 
Polybius, who says that he copied the figures from the tablet 
of brass which Hannibal erected at Lacinium. 

Page Oik Chap. XXII. 2. oiroumiUm : 'canvassed.* 
4. Tiro : it is not usual to join an adjective directly to a proper 
name, therefore a common noun is put in apposition to the 
proper. proTinoiam : predicate accusative. destinat : 

' assigns.* 6. Ugnribus : from the region between the 

mountains and the gulf of Genoa. Men of this nation, ac- 
cording to Polybius and Herodotus, were found in the Punic 
service in early times. They were poor, warlike, and hostile 
to Rome. 8. Libjrphoanioos : descendants of marriages 
between the native Africans (Berbere) and the Phoenician set- 
tleis along the coast. They seem to have enjoyed some of the 
rights of Carthaginian dtixens, and to have been upon a better 

PA0B96.1 BOOK XXI. CHAP. XXIll. 31$ 

footing than the rest of the subjects. Their relation to Car- 
thage was much like that of the Latins to Rome. Mommsen 
regards the name not as ethnical but as entirely political. 
Mommsen (Am. ed.), ii. 17. 9. quadringenti quinquagliita: 
three squadrons. Numidao : from the country roughly cor- 
responding to the modem Algeria; they furnished superb ligfat 
cavalry. Itfaori : the people of the modem Morocco and 
Fes. 10. ad : adverb, not preposition. Ilergitiiiii : living 
in the northeast of Spain, between the Ebro and the Scgre, 
near the Pyrenees, and not subjects of Carthage. 

13. qua parte boUl Tlcarant : the Romans had been sig- 
nally successful in naval battles in the first war. 16. aptas 
^aptatae. Inatruotaequo remigio : 'provided with rowers;* 
rcmij^iunu lit. =: oarage, the abstract for the concrete i^ural. 
17. triginta et duao : ' only thirty-two.* 19. Carthaginam : 
sc. Navttm, azaroitaa : genitive, limiting kibema. 20. 

Onuaam : a conjectural reading ; the place is not certainly 
identified; possibly it is the modern Valencia. 21. oca: 
ablative of the way by which, instead of per oram. Xbl : at 
the Ebro; construe with vhnm, in quietessiVr somnis ; a 
slightly different version of this story is given by Cicero, (De 
Div. i. 49). 24. aequaretur: A. 339; H. 523, in.; 

G. 655. 26. onra ingonii homani : 'by reason of the cu- 
riosity of human nature.* omn . . . agitaret animo: 'whea 
he wondered.' 28. oouUa : dative with iemperan, Sa 

ferri : * rolling along.* 31. molea : * monster.* qoidva 

prodigU essat : * and what was its significance (as a portent).' 

Pagre 00. Chap. XXIII. 4. Hoo viaii laotna : this looks 
as if Hannibal had more regard for the higher powers than the 
author allows him in ch. iv. Hlbemm oopiaa trateoit: 
A. 239, 2,^; H. 376; G. 330, R. I. 5. praemiaaia : sc. 

nuntiiSy or a similar word; it would have been strange if Han- 
nibal had not before this had negotiations with the Gauls, and 
made some survey of his route. Polybius, iii. 34, says that be 
had done so. 7. Nonaginta, etc.: these are Polybius' 

figures. 9. Auaetanoa : a people of upper CaUlonia. 

Laoataaiam : at the southern base of the Pyrenees, east o( 
the Vascones. 10. oraeqne : the possession of the part of 
the conquered country next the sea was all that was neceasaiy 

3l6 NOTES. (Page 97. 

for the protection of the passes and the line of communication 
between the countries. U. Hannonoin : not his political 
opponent; the name was very common. li. Pyrenaeum 
Mdtnm : the most eastern pass of the P}Tenees, over which 
afterward a Roman road was built 15. terbaroa : in the 
Punic army. 16. iter aTortanmt: * deserted.* 19. anoepa: 
* dangerous,* 'of doubtful policy.* 

Chap. XXIV. 23. aolUeitaret : 'should unsettle/ 'render 
uneasy.* 24^ roUqnla oopiis : according to Polybius, 50,000 
foot and 9,000 horse; ch. xxiii. accounu for 21,000. This 
leaves 32,000 as the loss in the fighting between the £bro and 
the Pyrenees. 25. ZUberri : accusative; here indeclinable; 
DOW Elne. 28. Ruaoinonem : now La Tour de Rousillon 
near Perpignan. 29. aliquot popnli : appositive to GatU 
L 25, but restrictive in sense. 30. moram magia quam 

boUnm matnena : because he must cross the Alps before 
winter. Doubtless the fighting in Spain had already delayed 
him longer than he had anticipated. 

Pagre 07* 2. Tal . . . vel : emphasizing the freedom of 
choice left to the Gauls. 6. Hoapitem . . . non hoatem ; 
the author's favorite paronomasia; cf. p. 16, 11. 30^ 31, and 
p. 71, 1. 9b . 7. al . . . llceat: 'unless the Gauls should 
oblige him to do so.* 8. haao : sc. egU ; cf. p. 115, 1. 27. 
10. onm bona paoe : ' without molestation ; * a stereotyped 
phrase. 12. tranamiaenut : ' allowed ... to pass.' 

Chap. XXV. 13. In Italiam: construe with pirlatum erat: 
standing at the head of the sentence, the phrase marks the 
transition to another part of the field of action. 16. Boi: no 
formal .statement of previous negotiations with these tribes is' 
made, but they are taken for granted in ch. xxix. and ch. lii. 
The Doii were conquered by the Romans in 224 d. c. and 
the Insubres in 222 b. c, as was related in Bk. xx. These two 
nations, respectively south and north of the Po, were the most 
powerful in Cisalpine Gaul. dafaoarunt: the perfect indic- 
ative is used with cum to express simultaneity ; there is really 
an inversion of the principal and temporal clauses in this case. 
ob Tataraa . . • iraa : they had been engaged in war with the 
Romans in 358 and in 283 b. c. 17. oiroa Padnm : Placentia 
(now Piaceaa) ia on the south, and Cremona on the north 

1*acb99.] book XXI. CHAP. XXVI. ilj 

bank* 18. oolonias: the outlying bulwarks of Rome's pover 
were her colonies, established as permanent garrisons amoi^ 
hostile races ; to each of these two places 6,000 men were 
sent. 22. triomviri: three commissioners sent to superintend 
the work of the agrimtmscrts. ad agrum . . . adsisnaDdom : 
* to distribute land * (to the colonists). 23. dlilUl Plaooatiae 
moonibua: the colony was not attacked, nor was it abandooctl 
by the inhabitants. Mutloam; seventy miles southeast of 

Placentia, afterward a Roman colony, and a fortified town on 
the Aemilian Way, now Mod^na. 30. ad . . . artoa radis: 
this adjective is usually construed with the genitive. 32. 

intaotla: 'without attacking them.* 

Page 08. 2. legatl : apparently the triumviri are meant ; 
so Polybius understands the case. 4. obsldea: given when 
they submitted to Rome in 224 b. C. 5. dimiaaurca : sc. u, 
a characteristic omission. 7. Zk Manlivui ; cf. note on p. 90, 
1. 2. eifuaum : ' in loose order.' ad Mutlnam : Upward 
Mutina;>he did not reach it. 8. plariaquo inoaltia: *for 

the most part untillcd.' 9. inexplorato : * without reconnoit- 
ring;' ablatives absolute consisting of participles alone are com- 
mon in Livy and in later prose. 20. TaoAOtam, vloiua pro- 
plnoum Pado : in fact it was between Parma and Mutioa, and 
a long way from the Po. 21. oontendero: perfect indicatift 
22. ad tempoa : sc. /acip, ' temporary.' oommoaabiiaqat 

fluminia: * supplies brought along tlie river;* the author was 
probably thinking of the Po. Briadanoram : Brixia (Brescia) 
was the capital of the Cenomani, the only Gallic tribe friendly 
to Rome. 

Chah. XXVI. 27. aooepenint : * learned,' * received tidings.' 
C. AtUium {Serrantifn) : if, as is probable, this man was //»^ 
tor urbanus^ it was unusual that he should take a militarf 
command. 28. dUeotn novo: Scipio had just been raisii^ 
troops to go to Spain, part of whom were transferred to Manlios. 

Page 00. 2. profeotna : the departure of the consuls ii 
mentioned at the end of ch. xx. as preceding the return of die 
envoys from Carthage and Spain, but it is probable that Sa^ 
started in August. 4. SallnTiam : the most powerful of tbc 
Ugurian tribes, living between the maritime Alps and ik 

3l8 NOTES. (pAalOOi 

Rbooe. A. proarimum ; nearest to Italy, plnribiw: modal 
ablative with dicurrii* 10. iaotattona maritnma: * seasick- 
nesa.' 12. duoibna: 'guides.' aiudUaribaa : mercenaries 
in the service of Massilia. 12. ▼iaandoaquo • • . hoataa : * to 
reconnoitre the enemy.' 13. cataria: other Cauls besides the 
Volcae. Hannibal had come viA Ruscino, Narbo, and Nemau- 
sua (Nismes) to the Rhone. He crossed at a point about equally 
distint from the aea and the mouth of the Is^re, north of the 
mouth of the Dnientia (Durance) near Arausio (Orange), perhaps 
at Roqucmaure. Voloamm : the Volcae, in several tribes, ex* 
tended from the Pyrenees to the Rhone. 

14. validaa: 'nunieroua.! Colnnt: intransitive. 15. oita- 
riora agro: on the weat bank, nearest the Carthaginians as 
they approached. 17. avis : neuter, 'their possessions.' 

18. ot»tlnabaa^ etc.: 'were holding possession of the further 
bank,' when Hanmbal reached the river. 19. ipaorum : par* 
titive genitive; *of the Volcae themselves.' quoa aadaa auaa 
taananuit: 'who had been unwilling to quit their homes* (on 
the west bank). 22. taata hominum nrganta tnrba : 'from 
the burden of so great a host of men.' 23. via : * force,' i. e. 

* number.' navium: large boata. 21. Untrium: light skiffs. 
tamara : * carelessly.' ▼ioinalam : a word not found be- 
fore Livy. Wsb. 27. matariaa : 'timber' for building; 
iigmum ia fire-wood. alTooa Informaa: 'rude dug-outa.' 

Chap. XXVII. 31. ax adrarao: in front. aqnitaa 

wiriqua: 'with horse and foot,' appositive to kosies. 32. 

BoosUoarla: son of one of the Suifetes or 'kings 'of Carthage. 
33. Tlgilla prlna nootia : mtUU ia pleonaatic ; for the day 
waa divided into hours, and the night from aunaet to aunrise 
into lour equal watchea. 

Paff6 100. 1. adTaiao flnmlna : ablative absolute ; ' up 
atream.' ira itar: A. 238; H. 371,11.; G.331. 4^ Ad id: 

* for thia pmpose,' to conduct them to a place where they could 
crosa. 9. inanlaa : above the mouth of the Ardiche. latiora 
. . . oataadara: 'afforded a crossing where the channel, being 
broader at the point of division, waa less deep.' diTidabatnr : 
indicative, expresaing a fact independently of the connection. 
ao. asola: 'trouble.' vtraa: 'leathern bags' that served aa 
booya whan Inflated. oaatria anparpoaitia Inevbaataas 

Pace 101.] BOOK XXI. CHAP. XXVIU. 319 

Meaning on their shields, which were rested on the hoop.' 
U. Alins Mnrcittts: *the rest of the army' (Hanno*s dctacb- 
ment). 12. ratibns iunotia: this does not mean rafts joiocc 
together to make a bridge, but rafts formed by joinii^ lop 
together. 14. Intonto duoo: concessive ablative absolute, 
* eager as the leader was.* 15. odito : construe with Ua, 
17. na tompori dea s s a t; *not to miss the opportunity.' 19. 
fara : * in general' 22. praababat : the subject is Hamnihtd, 
para magna nautaa : an example, often cited, of consirmcth sd 
syntsims pars magna =s equi^ with which nantes agrees. 21 
uaui: 'ready for use.' A. 233; H. 390, N. 2; G. 350. 

Chap. XXVIII. 26. olulatibiia: an onomatopoetical word. 
commonly applied to barbarians. 30. at qui ... at qui : the 
former referring to nauiarum and miiitum^ the latter to milh 
turn only, i.e. such of the army as could not be taken acrosi 
at the first trip, and so remained cheering on the further banL 
32. psTaataa: accusative. 

Pasre 101. 1. adortoa: transitive. . 2. ipaa: Hanno, 
opposed to clamor, 5. vimfaoara: 'to resist.' paliabantor: 
imperfect because, the. process occupied soqie Jime. . 7. psr 
otinm: ^at his leisure.' 8. tumultua: * noisy demonstrations.* 
10. variat: intransitive. mamorla: 'record.' 12. rafu* 
giantem : i. e. rectorem, nantam : agrees with /crodssimum, 
unless it be a gloss upon rtfugitnttm, 13. ut qnamqns 

. . . rapianta: *and the very force of the current swept each 
toward the other bank, whenever, though fearing the deep water, 
he got beyond his depth' (lit. the bottom failed him). It is not 
clear how the current carried them across, 14. daatituartt: 
iterative subjunctive. 

16. id : i. e. ratibus traiceri. ut . . • its : * not only 

. . . but also.' ioxtX Mitsui; the mood may be explained 
by expanding anti nm into si res nondum tssil facta* 17. 
ad fidam proaiua : 'easier to believe,' 'more probable.' 19. 
aaouoda aqua : ' down stream.' 20. pluribua a= €omplurh 
bus : ' several.' ripaa : explained as genitive with parti or 
dative with nligatam, 25. tamquam ▼iam : ' as if along a 
road ' (on land). 27 ab . . . navibua : as if they were volon- 
tary agents, leading us to think rather of the persons who propcUed 

3^ NOTES. [Page 10^ 

them. 28. partnhitar : the subject is altera ratis* 29. 
Vibil . . . trepldabant: *gave no signs of alarm.' 30. doneo 
. . . agerontiir : subjunctive because the statement is general, 
not referring to any one trip, but to all. B«*t vide Roby*s Lat. 
Cr. 1670, upon this sentence. 31. ab ooterla : only one 

stationary raft is mentioned, so this is probably neuter, *from 
whatever held it fast* 34. ciroumspeotantibiM aquam : 
* seeing the water all around them.* 35. saeTientea : * mad- 
dened' by fear. pondero ipao : it was a common belief 
among the ancients that elephants could not swim. Polybius 
tells how they waded over with the tips of their trunks held 
above water. So the word maniem above, 1. 13, is to be re- 
garded with suspicion. 36. qnaerondla pedetemptim vadis : 
*by feeling for the bottom, one step at a time.* 


Page 1<^. Chap. XXIX. 2. oaatra Romana : cf. p. 99^ 
L 6w 4. alao : * squadrons ; * regularly used to designate a body 
of cavalry of the allies. 6. atrooioa qnam pro numaro : 

a Greek construction ; * than was to be expected from the num- 
ber.' 7. caodea : * loss of life.' 10. para OaUomm : 
*part, consisting of Gauls.* 12. snmmao ranun prospernm 
•raiitiim : ' ultimate success.' 13. inoruentam anoipitisquo 
eortamlnla : -^ir/ connects the adjective with the characteris- 
tic genitive, both modifying victoriam. 16. noo Soipioni 
• . • potorat : * Scipio could decide on no plan.* 17. Hannl- 
iMdem : object of mvr/iV, 1. 20. 18. inoertum : it is hard 
to believe that Hannibal can have hesitated here or thought 
of any other course than to hasten on, in order to cross the 
Alps before winter. The arrival of this embassy, however, 
would have a stimulating effect on his soldiers. 22. Intsgro 
bello : ' without trying a battle.* 23. nusquam . . . Ubatis 

▼iribns : Polybius gives the numbers of the army after the 
passage of the Rhone as 38,000 foot and 8,000 horse. 24. 
oanasat : historical present. 25. Iter inmaosum Alpesqna : 
hendiadys. 26. fama : ablative. ntiqus iaszpsrtiB : * es- 
pecially to people who had not tried it* 

Chap. XXX. 28. poatquam . . . ststit: 'after he decided.' 
30. mllitam Tsrsat animos : * sought to work upon the minds 
of the soldiers.' Notice in the following indirect quotation the 
slicmatkMi of primary and secondary tenses in the subordinate 

PAGB104.] BOOK \X1. CHAP. XXXI. 321 

dausea like that o£ perfect and historical present in mrmtk 

Pag^ 103« 1. faoere : prrsent, because they were stni 
serving. 3. duo maria : the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. 
Cartb^iCUiienalttm esaent : * were subject to the C ; * this must 
be addressed to the Africans; it is very different from the 
speech to the Spaniards in ch. xxi. 4. quod • . . Romaniis: 
* because the Roman people had demanded the surrender of all 
who had fought against Saguntum, as if on account of a crime 
against itself ; * an intentional exaggeration. 5. nozam : for 
the legal significance of this term, viiie Sandars' Justinian, 
547*8 (Am. ed.)i 7. liborandomquo orbem : it was much 

later that the * world* became subject to Rome; this is doubt- 
less an historical prolepsis rather than a prophetic implication 
intentionally put into the speaker*s mouth. 8. ozortiia: un- 
usual for arius. 9. multo maiorem partem : Polybius says 
the distance from New Carthage to the Ebro was 2,600 stadia, 
thence to the Rhone 3,200, thence over the Alps to Italy 2,60a 

14. XUUaa ait : * belonged to,' * formed part of Italy.* 16. 
montium altitudinea ^ monUs aiit\ Fingerent . . . iogia : 
'they might imagine them higher than the peaks of the Pyre- 
nees; cratio rifir/a would }x Jingatis ot JiMgiii% 21. sublime: 
' in the air.* 24. modo : construe with migrantium ; tato : 
with transmisisst, 28. caput orbis temrum : a very un- 

likely expression for Hannibal. 29. adeo . . • quod: usually 
ade0 . • . w/. 30. quondam : in 390 B. c. 31. oa : Rome 
and her possessions. 32. oedarant : ' confess themselves 

inferior.* 33. sparant : the author cannot consciously have 
intended all the fine distinctions attributed to him by editors at 
every variation in tense sequence; a certain careless ease in 
such matters is one of the charms of his style* oampom 
intariaoantam : the Campus Martins. 

Paire 104. Chap. XXXI. 1. oorpora ennira : 'to refresh 
themselves.* 3. advaraa ripa : * up the bank.* 4. aaaat : 
in fact it was not ; erat would mean that it was. 7. Quartis 
oaatria : « after four days' march.* 8. divcraia ax Alplbus: 
*firom different parts of the Alps;' the Rhone rises in the Pea- 
"line, the Is^re In the Gralan Alps. la Xnaulaa: dative, 

322 NOTES. [Page 104. 

A. 83t« ^; H. 387, N. I ; G. 322. 11. propa : near the con- 
fluence of the rivers and the point just reached by the army. 
lam lad* : ' already at that time.* 12. disoors erat : i. e. 
gens. 13. Res&l : objective genitive. 14. imperitarat : 

frequentative for simple verb. 15. qui . • . iuro . . . poterat: 
refers to frain^ not cottn. 16. peroportuna : translate as 
an adverb. 18. prinolpumquo : * the chief men * of the tribe, 
not the two princes. 20. vestia : collective ; this must have 
been much needed. The Spanish troops ordinarily wore white 
linen tunics, and the autumn was now coming on. A large 
part of the enormous loss in the passage of the mountains 
must have been due to the effects of the cold upon the na- 
tives of warm climates. 

22. noa racta ragiona : not in a direct line. The question 
of Hannibal's route over the Alps, already in Livy*s time a matter 
of debate, has been a favorite subject of controversy ever since. 
Many books have been written in the vain attempt to settle 
it, and there Is hardly a pass from the St. Gothard to the 
Meditenanean that has not found its advocates. It is safe to 
aay that the question will never be answered be}*ond a doubt. 
The great majority of historical authorities have narrowed it 
down to a choice between the Little St. Bernard, the Mont 
Cenis, and the Mont Gen^vre passes; and the preponderance 
of opinion rather favors the first of these three. It is generally 
agreed that Polybius* account points to the Uttle St. Bernard 
as HannibaFs pass. We are not here concerned with the fact 
of the case, but with what Livy means to indicate ; and his state- 
ments, such as they are, seem to point to the Mont Gen6vrc, 
with a slight possibility in favor of the Col d'Argenti^re. For 
a convenient discussion of this subject, vide Capes* Livy, Ap- 
pendix i. A risumi of all that Is known of the matter is given 
by Hermann Schiller, In the Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift, 

Jv- 705, n% 769. 

23. ad laavam in Trleaatlnoa : vide map. Ad laevam is, at 
best, difliicult to explain ; the author may have said * left * when 
he meant 'right;' or Hannibal may have gone up the valley 
of the la^ on the south side among the Tricastini^ and not 
turned lo either side till he reached the Drac; or he may have 
turned soutliward after leaving the Insula^ and then struck 
eastward {fld iarveum as he came southward) Into the valley of 


the Orome, then gone on viA Vapimcum (Gap) to Eborodmuum 
(Embrun) on the upper Druentia (Durance). But the whole 
description of the route leaves much to be desired in point of 
clearness, and can in no perfectly satisfactory way be recon- 
ciled with the gec^gjaphy of the region. in Ttioastinoa : it 
seems that the army did not enter the ImuUl AlMrogum at 
all ; the northern boundary of the Tricastini was the I sere, and 
their capital, afterward named by the Romans Angusia Trksh 
Hnornm^ is now Aouste on the Drome. 24. Vooontlonim: 
this nation inhabited the region from the Drac to the Durance: 
if the march was up the valley of the Drac, it skirted their 
northeast frontier. 25. Trieorioa : on the upper Drac, east 
of the Vocontii. 26. ad Druentiam : it has been suggested 
with some plausibility that Hannibal, after going up the soutii 
bank of the Is^re, passed from the valley of the Drac into that 
of the Druentia, by turning into that of the Romanchc. 
Alplnns amnia : it rises in the Cottian Alps (Mont Gen^vre); 
it has been remarked that the description in the context does 
not suit the upper part of this river, which is a small, insignifi- 
cant stream. 31. vadn :  shoals/ gorgitM : * deep 

Pasre 105. 1. ad hoo: * and besides.' 4. oottn: ac- 
cusative neuter plural. 

Chap. XXXII. 7. quadrate agmina: cf. note on p. 7S, 
1. 35. 9. neo faoilo . . • adseoutnnun : ' and that it would 
not be easy for him to overtake tbos/e who had so much the 
start of him.* U. tutius faoUiuaque : the enemy would be 
encountered with less danger and trouble after crossing the 
mountains, because they were sure to suffer loss in so doing. 
12. aiuciliis Romania: troops sent from Rome to help tke 
allies. A. 243, //; H. 414, in.; G. 388. 14. Iratrem . .. 
misit: he had a right to depute this command to a lieutenant 
Under the circumstances, he seems to have taken the wisest 
course^ for it was supremely important to keep Hasdnibal busy 
in Spain, and the Romans had not then the same reason that 
they afterwards had to fear Hannibal. There were already 
about twenty-five thousand troops in Cisalpine Gaul, apparently 
a sufficient force to check the invader. Scipio*s great mistake 
was in not attacking the Punic army instantly upon its 

3^ NOTES. [Paob 106. 

ftt the fool of the Alps, before it recovered from its fatigues. 
18. OoBoam: he may have stopped there to gain further in- 
formatioii« but he went on to Pisa; cf. p. 112, 1. 8.- qui 
oiron Padnm «rat ozoroltiis: the substantive attracted into 
the relative clause; the armies of the two praetors* besides 
the colonists of Placentia and Cremona. 

20. ab Dmontia: ab probably means from the place where 
he reached and perhaps crossed it, up along the river. cam- 
p s sti t maaimo itinero: *by a route mainly through level 
country.* East of Gap the valley of the Durance is quite 
broadv but this phrase is scarcely applicable. But if he had 
come by the valley of the Romanche he would not have gone 
near Gap. The valley of lUrcelonettc has been suggested as 
what is meant, but that is too far south. ad Alpia: doubt- 
less in the vicinity of Embrun. 21. oum bona paoo: 'un- 
molested by.' 22. prloa . . . praooepta: pleonasm. in 
mains Toro fsnl aolant : * are generally exaggerated ; ' tfftrri 
would be more usual. 

2C montinni : this terrific description is quite unsuited to the 
lower slopes of the Alps. Livy had never visited this region. 
We notice in him, as in most ancient writers, an absence of appre- 
ciation of the picturesque in nature. They were so impressed 
by the terrors, that they failed to see the grandeur of mountain 
scenery. 26. tonida: 'shrivelled;* the same word expresses 
the effect of intense cold and heat. intonai: 'with hair and 
beards untrimmed.* inonlti: 'unkempt,* 'wild.' 28. 

Xhifontibua . . . oUtoo: 'as they directed their march up 
the first slopes.' The scene is probably some pass near Em- 
brun, which nuiy be the casUUum mentioned p. 107, 1. 15. 
29. inminnntoa: accusative. insidantaa: nominative. 32. 
dodiaaont: 'would have caused.' oonsiatoro signa inaait: 
'ordered a halt' OaUiaqna: these may be Cisalpine Gauls 
sent to meet the Carthaginians (cf. ch. xxix.), or guides fur- 
nished by Brancus, the Allobrogian chief. 


Pttge 100. L tranaitnin on non oaao : ' that the pas* 
aage of the gorge could not be forced.' 8. qnam axten- 
ttMlrna potent Tallo: *in the widest part of the valley that 
he could find ; ' note the . superlative of a participle. 4 

accnsativtt *who did not differ' (from themouft* 

Page 107.] BOOK XXI. CHAP. XXXIIL 525 

taineen). 7. dilabi: * dispersed.* subllt: 'approached.* 

Qt • • . Tim . . . faotunw: *as if he were going to force his 
way.* 11. lazatasquo: 'thinned out«" reduced.* 12. qnaa 
pro nnmoro : * than were in proportion to the number * of those 
who remained in camp. 13. to spooiom: 'for appearance* 
sake,* 'to deceive the enemy.* 15. qnoquo: ablative d 

quisque^ agreeing with viro* nnguatUa oTadit: 'passed 

through the defile.' 

CiiAP. XXXI 1 1. 17. caatra motn: 'they broke camp.* 
18. iuoodera : ' to advance in order.' 19. castoUii : * moan- 
tain villages,' 'hamlets.* 20. area: 'stronghold,' in this case 
a natural one. iaminantia: agrees with alios. 21. vis 

transira : * going along by the road ; * this illustrates the author*! 
tendency to dispense with prepositions ; we should expect /cr 
viam; c£. marituma cra^ p. 95, 1. 21. hoatia: construe with 
the first, as well as the second a/ws, 22. Inmobilea . . . 
dafijdt: 'made them stand . . . motionless.* 24. quidqnid 
=.if quid. 25. Ipai: i.e. mcHtami, ad pamiolam: for 

the destruction of the Carthaginians. 26. iuxtm ss far tier / 
often so used by Livy. adaueti: the construction with in 
and accusative is exceptional, usually this word is followed by the 
dative as p. 89, 1. 10. 28. aiblss/r^^/ 'selfishly.' 

quoqua tandanta : 'as each one strove.' 30. infeatnm . . . 
faolabant: 'endangered the column of march.' 32. rapar- 
onsaaaqua: 'reechoing;' applies properly to ciamores, but is 
transferred to vai/es. tarriti trapidabant: 'were rushing 

about in their fright.' 

Pa{fe 107. 1. atragam: 'overturning.' 3. tnrba: the 
pushing of the crowd in the narrow way. 4. in inmanaum 
altttttdinia: a bold use of adjective as substantive ; s: ijv fJ^ 
fNtPuam aliitudincm^ ' to an enormous depth,' ' into a fathomless 
abyss.' 5. quosdam at armatoa: implying that mulias, 

1. 3, means the mule drivers, not the soldiers. aad mlaao 
maxima modo: 'but very much like a falling wall.' 9. 
interrumpi agman: the column was broken by the barbarian 
attack, so that front and rear were separated by a body of the 
enemy. 10. axatnm s=s ji /jtm/dt j issii, A. 310, a\ H. 549, 
a; G. 594, 3. U. traduadsaat: i. e. through the pass. 

daonrrtt: perfect* 13. momaato tamporia: of. p. 879 Las 

i26 iNOTES. (Page loa 

without Umpens. 15. CMtellnm: as before suggested, pos- 
sibljr this was Eboroduaum, which lay on ' the upper Durance, 
on a steep hill at the foot of the Alps. 16. Tioulos : * ham- 
lets.* 17. onptiTo: often applied to inanimate things. Cf. 
p. 64« 1. la 19. nuigiio opere : often written as one word, 
ft Chap. XXXIV. 21. Ponrentum : the frequent use of 
^ //neuter verbs in compound tenses of the passive is character- 
^iiistic of Livy^ style. froqaentem : *full of.* 22. ut inter: 

* considering that it was among.* populum: *a district/ not, 
as usual, the people who inhabited it; cf. similar use of d^/ior. 
There are many valleys among the foot hills of this region, with 
mild climate and fertile soil, hence the large number of farmers 
(cmU^ribus) is natural. 27. eommeatoni : ' provisions.* 
28. ad lldom prooiiMonim : * as a pledge of the fulfilment of 
their promises;* brachylog}*. 33. at inter iMioatos: sc. 

Jieri solei. oonposito asmiiio : virtually equivalent to qua- 
drmia agmim$^ cf. p. 7S, 1. 35, and note. 

Page 10S« 2. roboro: *main body;' generally the 'flower* 
of the army. 4. parto altora : ' on one side.' stibiootam : 

* running close under.' •. potunt: * assailed them.* 7. In 
•CO TOTMi . • • quia, etc.: *when the infantry faced about 
against these (enemies in the rear), it became perfectly clear 
that,' etc. 

10. aooipionda . . . luorit: Roby, Lat. Gr. 1521. Tono 
qaoqtto: *evcn then,' *as it was.' axtremum periooli = 

txiremum pericnium, 12. demittoro agmen in angustias: 

the infantry had not yet reached the narrowest part of the defile. 
when it was thus attacked in the rear and flank. While he 
thus hesitated, the foremost part of the army, passing on, be- 
came separated from the rear, and the enemy took advantai;e 
of the chance to occupy the vacant road. quia non . . . 
roUqnl orat: * because no force was left to protect the rear 
of the infantry, as he had himselif (with the infantry) protected 
that of the cavalry,' i. e. the infantry Itself was the rear guard. 
14. por obUqna: 'on the flank.' 

Chap. XXXV. 19. innotao ooplao : i. e. after the sepa- 
ration oC the previous night. 23. ntoomqno • • • daret: 
m conditional relative clause corresponding to the form of prot- 
aaia In A. 3091^1 vuif also .116; H. 507, 2, 511, 1; G. 594^ >• 

Pace 109.] BOOK XXI. CHAP. XXXV. 327 


24. progrMsl morative : ' those who straggled ahead or lagged 
behind the main body.* 25. aiout . • • ita: 'whilst . • . yet.* 

26. qnaoumquo Incoderrat: same construction as darei^ 1. 24. 

27. insnotis : i. e« to the elephants. 

29. Hono die : after beginning the ascent ; the point of 
departure is not mentioned, but cf. note on p. 105, 1. 20, «i/ 
Aipes. N9H0: ninth, including the days of departure and arrival; 
three days were spent in fighting, one in camp, four in march- 
ing; Poly bins gives the same number of days, but his account 
is understood to apply to the Little St. Bernard, and we have 
supposed Livy^s to indicate the Mont Gen^vre. in lugnm: 

the summit of this pass is 6^102 feet above the sea. per inTia 
. . . faciebant : * over ground where tlierc was generally no 
road and after (fruitless) wanderings, which were caused either 
by the treachery of the guides, or, where they were not trusted, 
by tlic fact that valleys were mistakenly entered by those who 
guessed at the road ; * that is, they wasted time in exploring 
valleys that led them out of their way ; the subjects of facit- 
bani 9S^ fraus and valUs, 

32. Biduum : undoubtedly the day of arrival should be 
counted as one of these two. in iugo : on the summit of 
the Little St. Bernard and on that of the Mont Gen^vre there are 
considerable level spaces ; on the latter there is some timber, 
and oats and r}*e are cultivated. 

Pngo 100. 4. nivia . . . caans : *a fall of snow;* snow 
begins on the Little St. Bernard about the end of September, 
somewhat later on the Mont Gen^vre. oooidente iam aidera 
VergiUarum : * as the constellation of the Pleiades was now near 
its setting,' i. e. their morning setting simultaneous with sun- 
rise. We learn from Pliny that the ancients regarded the setting 
of this constellation at the end of October as the beginning of 

If the passage of the mountains did not take place till the 
end of October, the events from this time to the battle of the 
Trebia, including the bringing of the Roman army from Sicily 
to the Po, are somewhat crowded. We may therefore tnms- 
late iam occidente 'approaching their setting,* and place the 
crossing early in October. 

3^8 NOTES. [Page XXO. 

1. pIfiitUqae at dMparatio: * indifference and discourage- 
ment' 8 praesraMOs aisna: going, to the head of the 
column from bis place further toward the rear. in promun- 
tmrio : no point commanding such a view as that described is 
to be found on either of the two passes last mentioned. We 
must regard this as one of the author*8 rhetorical flights above 
tlie region of fact. 13. uno • . • altaro: note the change 
from cardinal to ordinal, awnmnm : adverbial accusative ; * at 

17. fnrta: * stealthy atUcks.' 18. ut : 'inasmuch as/ 

* since.* 19. ab Italia: 'on the Italian side.* 21. auatinera 
aa a lapau : * to save themselves from falling.* 22. paulum . 
titabaaaaat : * had but slightly sUggcred * or ' stumbled.* haarera 
adfijtf Taatiglo aao: 'to keep their footing;* ai(/ixi expresses 
the effort to remain Arm in any one spot 28. oooidarant: 

Chap. XXXVI. 24 mpam : probably a narrow rocky ledge 
oo which they were walking. 25. raotia: perpendicular. 

tamptabiindiia : feeling for points of support 28. lapau 
tarraa : a ' land-slide,* ' avalanche.* in . . . altttudinam : 
this is evidently a mistake made by the author in copying from 
Polybius or their common authority. Polybius tells of a place 
where the road was thus swept away for a /4mgtA of i^ stadia 
(937( Roman feet). 

31. Digraaana: 'left his place in the column of march.* 
33. qnamria loofo ambita :  by however long a circuit* 

PfiffC 110* 1. oiroamdnoarat : 'would be obliged to lead 
. • . around ; * the subjunctive here has jussive force. 2. veta- 
ram nivam intaotam : ' the unmelted snow of the year before.* 
It is not at all likely that this was at the altitude of perpetual 
snow, but in shady glens the snow lasts all summer. The 
description would suit such a place in some respects, in others 
it seems like that of the slanting surface of a glacier. 

3. moUi nao praaaltaa : i. e. movm nivL 0. dJTapaa 

aat: 'was dissolved.* par nndam infra glaoiam: 'over the 
bare ice beneath.* 6. tabam: 'slush.* 7. non raoipianta 
waatifiQa: *affofding no foothold.' 8. in prono oitina padaa 
fsUanta: *betnyiqg the steps the more readily because of iu 
tocliocd aaifaoe.* 9. adiv^iaaaat i iterative subjunctive. lOi 


ipsis ■dminlowlto proUpsU : 'when these very supports gaie 
way by slipping out from under them.' 

12. in !•▼! tantam glaoia : * on what was nothing but 
smooth ice.* 13. seonbant . • . Ingredioatin. proUpsa . . . 
perfringobant : chiasmus. 14. lactandis graTina In oool- 
tendo vngulia : * by striking their hoofs in too heavily, in their 
struggle (to rise).* 16. alto oonoreta: * deeply froicn;* this 
seems to refer to an icy crust upon the old snow, rathier than- 
the solid ice of a glacier. 

Chap. XXXVII. 18. in ingo: evidently not the suramic 
(p. lo8, 1. 29) where they had halted two days, and which they 
had now left behind. 20. ad mpam muniandam : * to build 
a road through the rock.* 22. arboribua droa : this could 
not have been above the snow line, and seems to be a con- 
tradiction to II. 10, II above, and to U. 2^31 below. Larches 
grow on the summit of the Mt. Gcn^vre pass, but nqt^ol the J 
Little St. Bernard. daieotis detranoatiaqua : * felled and 
trimmed.* 23. atmem : * a heap.* 

25. infuao acato: *by pouring vinegar upon it;* this story 
has always been a subject of controversy. This means of soft- 
ening rock had long been used in the Spanish mines. Lime* 
stone would readily yield to vinegar thus employed. The 
soldiers may have carried sour wine or vinegar (pcsem) io 
their canteens. So there is nothing inherently improbable in 
the statement, if the operation was carried on upon a small 
scale; the difficulty would be to get enough wood and vinegar. 
The Journal dcs Savants for April, 1889, contains an article by 
M. Bcrthelot, *'/7^ femphi du vinaigrt dans it fiassmge da ^ 
Aip<s par Annibai,'*^ showing by citations that the ancients , 
often used vinegar in this way. 

26. moUiantqua . . . oUtos: 'render the descent easy by 
curves at a moderate grade,* i. e. a sigsag path down the face di 
the steep. anfraottbus: fr. ambi- and frangere. 28 
Quadriduum : Polybius says the horses and baggage animab 
were able to pass on after one day*s delay, that only the ele- 
phants were detained four days. 29. propa fama sb- 
aumptia: « almost starved to death.* 

30. obrunnt nivaa : this and the mention of the bare rocky . . 
summiu are quite inconsistent with the large trees that have ' 
josl been cut down in the vicinity, and shows how little ve 

330 NOTES. IFagb 111. 

can base an argument upon the author's description of the 
march. 32. propa ailTaa : an awlcward expression ; it may 
mean * almost forests,* or (wc Jia^ttUs) propi sUvas^ 'flowing 
bj foitsts.* dignloim: 'fitter for.* 

Page 111* 2. muniendo: *by the work of road-building.* 

Chap. XXXVIII. 6. mazime : 'in the main,' without going 
into every dctaiL 6. qulnto menso; apparently May — Octo- 
ber. 7. qulnto deoimo die: nine days to the summit, two 
«lays* rest, one day down to the rock, four days* delay, three 
days for the rest of the descent, make nineteen, or eighteen if 
one of the two days at the summit was the day of arrival 
there. I'olybius gives the same total, but, as already stated, 
says that the bulk of the army was detained only one day at 
the rock. Livy is very careless about such details. 

U. Tlglatt miUa, etc.: Polybius says these numbers were 
given by Hannibal on the Lacinian tablet. Zi. CInoitts Ali- 
montna: cf. Introduction, p. ix. 12. majdmo • . • movoret: 
'would have the greatest weight as an authority.* 

14. CMtogintn miUa : of course, it is quite improb- 
able that a large host of Gauls and Ligurians were brought 
over the Alps ; they joined the army after its arrival in Italy. 
15. addnotn : * brought with him.* 17. transieiit : cf. note 
on mudierii^ p. 4, L 6. 19. Tanrini : this tribe lived east of 
the Cottian Alps ; their capit«il is now Turin. semigalli : some 
authors call them Gauls, but they were more probably Ligurians. 
The passes that would lead into the country of the Taurini are 
the Mt Cenis, the Mt« Gen^vre, and the Col d*Argenti^re. 

20. Intor omnea oonstet: this is not so. Polvbius 
says that Hannibal descended among the friendly Insubrcs, 
which would have been probable and natural, especially as he 
was conducted by Roian guides. The Boii were allies of the 
Insubres, to whom the T.nurini were hostile. 21. ambigl: 
Mhat it is disputed.' '22. Poenino: ablative of tlic way by 
which. The Pennine At|)8 run from the Great St Bernard, 
which is here meant, to the Simplon. Tlie derivation is perhaps 
from the Celtic jAr^^ *a head ; * cf. Den Lomond, Ben Nevis, etc 
lado soman: i. e. from PoenMs^ 'the Punic Alps.* 

23. Coolinm: L. Coelius Antipater; cf. Introduction, p. x. 
Mb CkMMOin iogaa: this name is not understood, but pre- 

PAGBlia.] BOOK XXI. CHAP. XL. 331 

Bumably the Little St. Bernard is meant. 25. OalsMot: 

living east of the Graian Alps, in the ralley of the Dora Baltca, 
theVal d*AoBta. Llbao«: further east, between the Salassi 
and the Insubres; they were tributary to the latter. 26. Veo 
▼•ri aimlle, etc. : second argument against the Great and Lit- 
tle St. Bernard. oa tnm, etc. : yet long before this Gallic 
hosts had crossed the Alps in that region. 28. Xfequo ss ti 
n^n; €t with Horint^ non with inditHm^ 

29. si • • • movat: 'if perchance this name serves any one 
as an argument for the passage of the Carthaginians that way.* 

30. Beddiii VerSsrt: living in the modern canton of Valais. 

31. norint: subjunctive in ironical modesty ; *they should 
know, one would suppa^e.* 32. saomtttm : having a sanc- 
tuary. Poeninom: identified with Jupiter by the Romans; 
there was a Celtic god Penn.' 

Pocre 112. Chap. XXXIX. 1. ad ptinoipla ramai: 
'for the beginning of operations.* 3. armare: *to call to 

arms;* generally it means to provide witli arms. 4. in 

refioiendo: wc.u; 'in the process of recovery.* 5. ax: 

'immediately after.* 6. inlaTlo tabeque: 'filth and ema- 

ciation* 7. efferata: 'wild.* movebat: * affected.' 8. 
Manlio Atilloque: the praetors. 9. tirono: *raw,* 'com- 

posed of raw recruits.* novis Ignomlniia: tlie recent dis- 

graceful discomfitures at the hands of the Gauls described is 
ch. XXV. 10. nondam rofeoto, etc. : a little more promptness 
on the part of the Romans in Cisalpine Gaul would probably 
have resulted in HannibaKs defeat at the foot of the Alps. 

13. oaput gentis : Augusta Taurinorum, as the Romans 
soon after named it, now Turin. 18. quae = vZ/vr. SO. 
alottti . • . ita: 'while . . . yet.* 23. oelabanrimiini : aside 
from his own achievements, Hannibal must have inherited much 
of the prestige of his father, the one enemy whom the Romans 
had failed to conquer. 24. ao ipao, quod: *from the very 

fact that.*. potUsimum: 'in preference to all others.* 26. 
intar aa opinionam : ' their mutual respect* 29. Ooonpavit 
. . . traioara: cf. note on p. 18, 1. 27. Padum traioafi: 
above Placentia, between the Lambrus and the Ticlnus. 

Pacre 118. Chap. XL. 2. anparaadlaaam; *I sbooU 
have considered it superfluous.* apud voa: lUogtcaL for 

353 NOTES. [Pagb U4. 

mpmd turn. a. referrat: i. e. si idHcenm; *what would (in 
that case) be the use.' 4. ad Rhodanmn: a reference to 
the cavalry encounter described in ch. xxix.; the expressions 
are highly exaggerated. vtolMont: subjunctive by assimi- 
lation to reftrret^ to which it is subordinate. A. 342; H. 529, 
II.; G. 666. But kabMt (1. 7) sUtes a fact independently of 
the connection and subordination of the clause. 

6. oonfoMlonom ... habui : * I held his confession in 
retreating and refusing to fight as equivalent to a victory.* 8. 
Hiapaniao proTinoiae: dative. 9. meis auspiciis: the 

auspices were talcen by the commander-in-chief; if they were 
taken by a lieutenant, it was only in the name and as the repre- 
sentative of the former, not in his own capacity. oum : i. e. 
exercitum, 10. ego : asyndeton ; this is the beginning of the 
second member of the causal clause. voluit : singular be- 

cause stmaius popttlusqui Romanms together constitute a single 

12. httio . . . oortamini: it was perfectly competent for 
the consul thus to Ulce the direction of the Italian campaign, 
instead of going on to Spain, as originally intended. 14. 

oum iia oat, etc. : brief for vobis diio cum Us tssty etc. 
X6w vlolstla and •zagistia apply, not to the individuals ad- 
dressed, but to a former generation. per ▼iginti annoa: 
only ten years were finally allowed for the payment of the in- 
demnity sifter the first Punic war. 17. BiciUam ao 8ar. 
^Unlam: cf. note on p. 74, 1. 20. 21. Incolnml: before 

the losses suffered in crossing the mountains. pugnam 

dotnMtavaro: *relused to fight.' 22. dnabua parti- 

bus : ' two-thirds ; * iribus partibus would be three-quarters^ 
quaiiupr partibus four-fifths, and so on. Even counting 
the whole losses since leaving the Pyrenees, this is a slight 

23. At eniiii, etc. : a supposed objection offered by his auditors. 
26. InluTlo aqualoro : * by filth and misery.* 28. ad hoo : 
« besides.' praanati =s  frost-bitten ' — at the extremities 

Cpraf)^ toes and fingers. torrida : 'parched,' * pinched.' 

ai. babotla: 'you have to deal with.' 

pAfiro 114. 2. eommittera ao profligaro : 'begin and 
virtually decide.* 4. oonAoara: "put the finishii^ touches 

Page 115.] BOOK XXI. CHAP. XLI. 333 

Chap. XLI. 5. ▼Mtrl adhortandi: vestri is neuter singu- 
lar of visUr. 7. Xiloalt ... ire :' I might have gone,* 9. 
haberom: * I should (now) have.* 11. mlnorem . • • motem 
balU: *a less difficult campaign.* 12. ad famam: *upoo 
hearing of.' 14. Bqnaatri proelio, qua parte: amstmciU 
ad syHtsim ; qua ^rii refers to equiiatni included in the ad- 
jective tqutsirL 15. fndi: he was not personally present. 
20. timondo: ironical. hoati: A. 228^ b. cmn daoU- 

narem: depending on mcidissi not on vidtor ; cf. note on 
vicisstnU p. 113, 1. 4. 21. oooorrere in Toatiglia: 'to dog 
his steps.* 23. alioa: * another sort of.* per: 'during the 

25. Ab Eryoe: Eryx was the stronghold where Hamilcar 
had maintained himself during the last years of the first war, 
and whence he had to be allowed to depart with the honors of 
war. duodevioenia denariia: 'eighteen denarii apiece * = 

three dollars; a low price, but the Romans probably did not 
think it wise to ask more. 26. aeatJmatoa : aes^ iima (r^X 

27. itinerum HercuUa: Hercules is said to have passed 
over the Graian (Grecian) Alps in coming from Spain with 
the oxen of Ger)*on ; cf. Dk. i. ch. 7. veotigalla atipeodi- 

ariasque: vtctigal includes such regular taxation as tithes of 
produce, rent to the state for use of the ager publicns^ port 
dues, and customs; stipe ndinm is a general word for tribute, 
and is especially applied to a war indemnity imposed on a con- 
quered state. The phrase' here is a rhetorical exaggeration, 
for Carthage had paid only stiptndium^ and that for ten years, 
not twenty, so that the payment was finished in Hamilcar*s 
lifetime. 28. quern nisi . . . =r qniy nisi turn ... 29. 
agitaret : ' maddened.* reapioeret : ' would have some regard 
for.' 31. aoripta manu: Hamilcar had conducted the pre- 
liminary negotiations with Lutatius Catulus. 33. fremens 

maerenaque : with rage and grief in his heart. 

Paffe 115. 3. Telim : A. 311, b\ H. 486, I. ; G. 25a 
4. velttt si • . • ▼ideatia : A. 312, R. ; H. 5x3, zi., N. I ; G. 604. 

7. in Alrioam traioere: it was but ninety miles from Sicily. 

8. intra panooa dies aine uUo oertamine : an absurd exag>> 
geratioo, as the third Punic war shows. 10. taMae delnds 

334 NOTES. [Pack lie. 

nostra* dtudmiia : * we considered them thereafter as under 
our protection ; * the Romans allowed them, at the beginning of 
the Mercenaries* War, to buy grain and levy troops in Italy 
and Sicily» but soon seised Sardinia by an outrageous abuse 
of power. 

U. Pro his inpertttU : ' in return for these favors.* 13. 
uitliiam . • . asset : A. 267, b ; H. 483, 1, 2 ; G. 254. 15. da: 
note the prepositions; de with the object one fights to gain, 
/ry (1. 16) with the object one defends. 17. nisi : * if • . . 
not,* not ' unless.* 18. quaa dum, etc. &s »/, dmn tas^ etc. 
21. non :b non soinm, oorpoa auom : * himself ; * we have 
already u as subject. 25. Tia virtuaqua : paronomasia. 

Chap. XLII. 27. Haao : sc. dixit or ej^i, 31. aoqnia: 

* whether any.* 

Pnire 110* 1. Oom . . . poaoarant^ at . . . aaaat : the 
sense is iterative, and wc find tlie imperfect indicative in the 
principal clause, capiehat^ 1. 5. ad nnnm : * to a man.* far- 
nun pognamqna : hcndiadys. 2. daiaota : tlie lots were 
thrown into a vase or urn, or, in this case probably, a helmet, 
whence they were shaken out singly {rxcidgrat), 3. ou- 
Inaqna : not genitive of quisqne^ but = // cuius* 5. 
trlpndiia : for the etymology, vidt Corssen, i. 3$8. 6. dimi- 
carant : iterative sul>junctive. 7. ainadam . . . oondicionis 
hominaa : i. e. the other prisoners. 8. apaotantaa Tulgo : 
«the mass of the spectators.* 

Chap. XLIIl. 10. aio . . . adfaotoa : *in this state of 
mind.* parilraa : substantive, ' pairs.* U. dimisissat : he 
broke up this informal gathering and called together a regular 
assembly of the army {contio), I'olybius says he at once ad- 
dressed the troops, which seems more natural. 12. in 
nlianaa aortia azamplo : i. e. at the sight of the conduct 
o£ other men in their position, serving you as an example of 
how you should act in you . 

14. Tioiniua : * victory is ours ; * perfect to express a 
future event regarded as alisolutely certain. 15. qnaa- 

dam: this pronoun is often used to introduce a metaphor. 
X6. naaoio an : 'I rather think that,* etc maiora : 

* stronger/ 17. malo r aaqoa naoaaaltatas : *more desperate 

FagkU?.] book XXI. CHA1\ XLllI. 335 

18. daztra laeraqua : ablative. duo maria : Mediterra- 
nean and Adriatic. 2a olroa: sc tst ; we should nther 
expect afrcHie^ but the word is not to be Uken too literally; 
there were many rivers in the neighborhood, of which they bad 
but vague impressions. maior ao violentlor Rhodano : \ 

rhetorical exaggeration. 21. integria Tobto ao ▼isanttbas; 
•when )-our numbers and strength were unimpaired.* 

27. parentibua: A. 229; H. 385, 11., 2. 31. Zo: 'in the 
hope of.' 32. Batia adhuo : * long enough.* vaatis : 

*\vild,* * desert,* not *vast.* 33. Luaitaniao: corresponding to 
the modem Portugal and the adjacent parts of Spain. Cel- 
tiberiaeqao : the central region of the Spanish peninsula. 
oonsaotando . • . Tidiatia: 'you have followed . • • without 

Pagro 117* 6. emeritia atipendiia : * after your campaigns 
are finished.' 7. Neo =s ei nt. qnam magni nondnia . . . 
tarn dilBcilem: •difficult in proportion to the prestige of the 
enemy.' 8. existimaritia : A. 266^ h\ II. 484, iv., N. x, 
G. 266. 9. perlevi momento : • by very slight effort.* 10. 
fulgora: 'glamour.' U. our . • • oonparandi aint: A. 320. 
a\ 11.503,1.; G. 634. Livy prefers the gerundive to the ver- 
bal in -bilis* 12. Ut • • . taoaam : • not to mention.* ▼!- 
ginti annonim mllitlam (sc. peractam) : applicable to HamH- 
car*s veterans, of whom there were doubtless a few in the 
army.' ilia: 'that well known;* A. 102, b\ H. 450, 4; G. 

292, 2. 

13. Harculia columnia : the * Pillars of Hercules ; ' Caipe 
(Gibraltar) in Spain, and Abyla in Africa. 14. ab Ooaano: 
very few had come so far. 16. hao ipaa aastata caeao, etc : 
referring to the events in ch. xxv. 19. natum . • . adnctaai: 
this is consistent rather with the tisual version of Hannibars 
boyhood than with that implied in ch. iii. and iv. ; edmctmm : cL 
note on same word, p. 49, 1. 30. 

22. aemenstri : the consuls took office March 15th. da- 
aartora : it will be remembered that Scipio had sent his origiaal 
army on to Spain. 25. panrl : A. 252, n ; H. 404; G. 379. 

26. quod nemo eat: A. 333; H. 540, iv., N.; G. 525. 
27. oui . • . daoora : ' to whom also I cannot, from having 
been an eye-witness of his gallantry, recall his own brave deeds. 

336 NOTES. [Paob 119. 

specifying the time and place of their performance.' 31. 
IgnotoA • . . Igttorantesqne : pleonasm. 

Page 118. Chap. XLIV. 1. frenatos infrenatoaque : 
respectively the Spanish and Numidian cavalry; the latter used 
no saddles and no bridles (in/reHaios) j in- is here the negative 
prefix. 2. socioa : Africans as well as Spaniards, all but the 
Carthaginian citiiens. 7. dolor, etc.: besides the natural 

smart of defeat, they had reason to resent Kome^s unfair and 
overbearing conduct in the years since the first war. 9. 

doindo Tos omnes : no such demand as this was made. 
qui • • • oppognassatis : * who (as they said) had besieged ; * 
informal indirect discourse, implied in dtpop^scerunL 10. 

dodilos: A. 310, a\ H. 54^ 3; G. 594, 2. adfeotori fue- 

nmt: A. 308, d\ H. 511, 2; G. 599, R. 3. 

U. snlqiio arbltrti: A. 214, r ; H. 401; G. 365. 12. Cum 

qnSboa . . . habeamua : the treaty of 241 b. c. forbade war 
with any ally of Rome. 13. modum inponere : 'to pre- 
scribe/ 14. monttum fluminumqus : a rhetorical flourish ; 
be means simply the Ebro river. 16. No transieris : here 

Rome appears as party to an imaginary dialogue with Car* 
tbag^ represented by Hannibal. Na quid • • • oum Sagun- 
tinis : but the treaty with Hasdrubal had merely secured the 
independence of Sagiintum. 17. At ois Hibarum: I have 
preferred this reading to ai Ubernm, 18. vastigio: 'from 
where you are standing.* 21. autam: * do I say?* this 

figure of rhetoric is called epamortkosis^ ** correction.*' 

22. nnniii ^ nlUrum. in Afrioam : Semprontus never 

went beyond Sicily. 23. in EUapanlam : Scipio did not 

reach Spain till the following year. Nihil . . . raliotum ast, 
nisi ss nihil kaMimns^ nisi/ hence vindioarimus, future per- 
fect. 2S. raspaotnm: *a refuge,* a place to look back to. 
26. ToMs: A. 272, a. 27. fortibna viris: Ji_Grecism2. A. 
272, h\ H. 536, 2, 3. omnibus • • • oarta dasparationa 
atonptis : 'renouncing with decision all hopes,* etc. 29. 

dnbltabit: 'wavers,' euphemistic for 'iodines to the enemy.* 
ai. iriolstis: A. 307, c. 

Page no. Chap. XLV. 2. ponta Tioinum Inngnnt; 
• build a bridge over the Ticinus ; * originally they must have 

PAcsxaa] uooK xxi. chap. xlvi. 337 

said poHtt ripas JlumiHts wngtrij the Ticino is a tributary 
of the Po, flowing into it near Pavia. 3. castelliua: a 
redoubt, ilti jf_ Pont» inaupar: * besides;* we say *ovcr 

and above.* 5. ala: live hundred seems to have been the 
regular number of a regiment of Numidian cavalry; cf. p. 102, 
1. 2, and p. 193, 1. 17. 6. parol: A. 230; H. 465, i; G. 

345» 3* 7* defeoUonom: from the Romans to himself. 

9. agmm Insubrium: the fact is that most of the Insubres 
lived east of the Ticinus. Viotamolla: in the district of 
Vercellae, later known for its gold mines. Livy thus puts the 
battle a good deal further north than Polybius, who implies 
that it was quite near the Po ; the scene of it cannot be cer- 
tainly determined. 12. oarneret: A. 325, 326; H. 517, 521, 
ti., 2 ; G. 586, 587. 13. eerta : * definite.* 14. pagnareat : 

A. 317; H. 497. I.; G. 545. I. 

16. velit: for vtUet^ for greater vividness. inmimoiii 

ipsi . . . libariaque: 'free of tax to himself . . . and his chil- 
dren.* 18. qui . . • oivoa • • . fieri ▼•Uent : Hannibal assumes 
the prerogative, sometimes exercised by Roman generals, of 
conferring citizenship. 20. no cuiua • . . Yellent: 'tliat 

their lot should be such that they should not wish to exchange 
it for that of any of their country-men.' 21. aeoum = cum 
sufu 22. binaqae: two new slaves for each one set free. 

24. ailioem : the flint knife, a relic of immemorial antiquity, 
was still used by the Romans in sacrifice long after the au- 
thor*s day. ratinaiis : i. c. dnm prtcabaL 26. aaonndum : 
'immediately after.* 27. velut dia . . . aooeptia: *as if each 
one had received from the gods a guaranty of the fulfilment of 
his hopes ; * quisqut^ without grammatical construction, is appos* 
itive to the logical subject of the clause. 28. id mona 

. . . rati : thinking that the only cause of delay in realizing 
their hopes was the fact that they were not yet fighting.' 
29. poUenda: A. 249, N.: H. 421, N. 4; G. 405, r. i. 

Pago 120. Chap. XLVI. 3. Inpua: the mere appear- 
ance of a wolf in an unusual place was considered ominous; 
its ferocious action only exaggerated the significance of the 
omen. obTiia : substantive, * those whom it met.* i. 
•xaman: i.e. ix^gi'mtn^ exagmtn. praatorio: the prmt- 

iorium. waa the ' Umplnm * of a camp. 6. iaoulatoribuaqas 

338 NOTES. [Pack 121. 

•xptditlA: rather pleonastic, for all iaculaions were expidiiij 
the latter word may, however, express the reason why they 
were taken, 'dart-men because they were light-armed.' 7. 

ooplasqaa, quantao, etc: A. 334, e\ H, $'d% 11., 3. 9. oiroa: 
with adjective force. U. propinqnantiaiii : poetic for ap- 
propinquantium. M^^ is fond of using simple verbs for 

12. Conalatit: momentary action of the collective body; €x» 
pediikiHt^ continuing action of the component individuals. 14. 
Romanoa aooioniiiiqiio, etc : this cavalry was heavier than 
the' Gallic 15. in aubaidiis: *in reserve,' *in the second 
line.* fronatoa : i. e. the heavy Spanish horse. 16. oomua 
. . . Ilrmat : ' posts on the wings,* lit ' makes strong wings 
of N.' Numidls: instrumental ablative of persons, often 

used by the author. 17. fugerunt . . . aciem: * retreated 
among the reserves in the second line.' 19. labentibus: 
falling from their horses (restive and frightened by the foot- 
men, quia turbabant^ etc). 20. desilientibus : ' jumping off,* 
so au to fight on foot (explained by nbi . . . vidissent). 

2L ad pedes pugna venerat : * it had become a batde on 
foot* (and so continued until, etc.). 25. turn primum pu- 
besoentU: *just coming to manhood:' he was in his seven- 
teenth year. propQUatain : * averted.' 26. erit : * was, as 
we shall see.' 27. Tiotoriam : the victory at Zama in Africa, 
203 B. c, which brought this war to an end. 30. alius 

confeitne equitatiw : perhaps * the rest of the cavalry in 
dose array,* some having fled with the iaculatores; or *the 
rest,* i.e. 'the cavalry,' distinguished from the iaenlatores. 

PaK6 121« 1. redudt: 'marched back.* BervaU oon- 
•alia deoua : ' the honor of having saved the consul.' Coelius 
(Antipeter), vidi Introduction, p. x. 2. equidem: gen- 
erally used with verb in first person. 3. plnrea: cf. p. s(^^ 
L 23. lanui obtlnuit: obtinuii is intransitive, fama nomi- 
native; quod is not applicable to this clause. VVsb. explains 
the irregularity by suggesting that the author had in mind as 
pitdicate to quod^ factum essi^ which would be applicable to 
both clauses. 

Chap. XLVII. 7. ob id: strictly classical prose says ab 
turn nm. 9. aUentio: without the usual trumpet signals. 

Paob 122.] BOOK XXI. CHAP. XLVIII. 359 

10. ab Tioiao: 'from the vicinity of the Ticinus;' Scipio 
had encamped some distance west of the river. Of course it 
is here implied that he recrossed it. 11. imucont floineii 
*had bridged the river.* 12. Priua . . . profootoa: prob- 

ably an exaggeration, yet Polybius explains that Hannibal 
watted some time, expecting an attack of the Roman Infantry. 
13. Plaoontiam : this was on the south bank of the Pes 
near the mouth of the Trebia. satis aoirot: *was well 

14. moratomm : from moraius, in oitorioro ripa Padi: 
Hannibal appears to have gone up the north bank of the Po» 
west of the Ticinus, till he found a crossing-place. But there 
has been a great deal of controversy about the different move- 
ments of the armies, and several questions remain to be settled. 
15. ratam : ' bridge of boats.* 17. In aeonndam aquam 
labenta : 'drifting down stream.* auotor eat: 'is authority 
for the statement that,* etc 18. Magcmem: the younger of 
Hannibal*s two brothers. 

20. in ordinem : ' in a row.' 21. ad anatlnendam. etc. : 
'to act as a breakwater.* peritia: dative. 22. anuila: 

A. 2t8, tf; H. 399, 2; G. 373. fidem feoerint: 'awaken 

belief,* ' meet credence ; * subjunctive of modesty. 24. nt lam 
. . . utrea; 'even granting that all the Spaniards had floated 
across on their inflated bags.' 27. Potiorea apnd ma 

auotorea sunt: 'to my mind those authors have greater 
weight,* 'are more credible, who,' etc. 

PniTC 122. 1. Plaoentiam : in the direction of Placentia. 
3. aoie dereota: 'with the army formed in battle array.' 

Chap. XLVIII. 5. in oaatria Romania: the flrst camp was 
probably on the west bank of the Trebia, though near Placen- 
tia ; there is no statement yet of either party*s having crossed the 
river. ۥ Oallia: mercenaries, not the Cenomani mentioned 
in ch. Iv. 8. portas : the camp had one gate on each of its 
four sides. 9. adloontna at . • . aooanaoa : Adioquor be* 
ing deponent has no passive, hence the non<oncinnity. 12. 
oontaotoaquo 00 aoalaro: 'infected by the bad example.' 

14. gravia : ' crippled by,' ' suffering from ; ' less strong than 
ff/jf/r. adhuo: strictly means 'till now,' but Livy often 

uses it of the past qoarU vigilia: the last quarter of the 


540 NOTES. [Paob 123. 

night, before sanrise. 16. inpeditiores eqnlti: Mess adapted 
for the movements of cavalry.* 17. Minus • • . fefellit: 

*was less successful in eluding observation/ than at the Tici- 
nus. 19. iitiquo novisslmnm ngmen: *at least the rear 

23. transgroasos : i. e. from the west to the east banlc. 
2%, netantlsquo oastra: 'laying out the camp.* The Roman 
camp was always of fixed proportions and, so far as possible, 
upon the same plan. 25. oitra : i. e. on the west bank. 

26. inoUtI : • Irritated * by motion. 

oolUgam . • • expaotandum: Sempronius would come to 
join Scipio by the Aemiltan Way from Ariminum on the Adria- 
tic. This was the natural and easy line of communication with 
the capital. Therefore it seems extremely improbable that Scipio 
would have retreated from the east to the west bank, leaving 
Hannibal in possession of his line of communication. 29. 

Hoc prooul indo Hannibal : on the opposite bank, however, 
as appears in the sequel. 32. Mcoipiabat: * awaited him.' 

Pn^O 123. 1. Claaddium: now Casteggio, about twenty- 
live miles west of the Trebia, a fortified place, where the Romans 
had a supply of military stores. numerum * quantity.* 2. 
mittit : sc. mUitts or the like. vim pararent : ' were pre- 
paring for an attack.* 4. nummla aureis quadringentia : 
gold was first coined at Rome in 217 b. c, the year after this 
occurrence ; the aureus = 25 dtnarii =s $4. 16. These words 
mean an amount of gold of the value of 400 aurei; Roby, Lat. 
Gr. i., p. 446. 6. horreum : * magazine ; * not very convenient 
if the Romans were west and the Carthaginians east of the 
river. 8. nihil aaoTitum oat: A. 238, b\ H. 378, 2; G. 

33i. 3- 

Chap. XLIX. 9. oonatitisaat : had come to a stand-still. 

10. interim : the following events in Sicily had taken place 

before the encampment on the Trebia, and were rather simul* 

taneous with the occurrences described in chaps, xxvi.-xlvii. 

Xtalino inminontea: 'in the vicinity of Italy.* U. torn 

BUttiqvo: all the fighting was at sea. 

12. Tiginti qninqneromas • . . milla nrmatiB ; I. e. about 

fifty combatants to each ship; by comparison with ch. 1. we 

find that there must have been about two hundred rowers and 

Pagb 124.] BOOK XXI. CHAP. XLIX. 341 

sailors in each crew. This miserably inadequate fleet indicates 
the decadence of the Punic navy. IC Xilpftraa : the chief of 
the Lipari Islands, north of Sicily, ceded by Carthage to Rome 
in 241 B. c. The insula Vuicani is south of and very near to 
Uparat. tonnerant: sc. ^ivriiriMry * reached.' 

15. frotum : i. c. SUu/mm, the strait of Messina. aaataa : 
*a heavy sea.* 16. Hiorono: the faithful and valuable ally 
of Rome since the early part of the first Punic war. He 
was now near the end of his long life and his prosperous 
reign of fifty-four yean. His death in 216 B. c. brought to 
an unhappy conclusion the friendly relations of his kingdom 
with Rome. 18. oppoiioiia : ' waiting to receive.* 19. prmmtmt 
Tiglnti . . . essent; etc. : * besides the twenty ships of the fleet 
to which they themselves belonged;' c/assis is attracted into 
the relative clause. 

22. vetorea aooioa: a large part of the island had once 
belonged to Carthage. LUybaei: (now Marsala) the strong 
fortress at the west end of the island, the siege of which had 
occupied the Romans during the last ten years of the first war. 
24. Aogatis inaulaa : a few miles off Lilybaeum, to the north- 
west. 25. doieotam: * driven out of its course.* 26. prmo- 
tori : there were then four praetors, including one for Sicily 
and one for Sardinia-Corsica. The praetor of Sicily was regularly 
stationed at Lilybaeum. 

provincia: cf. p. 89, 1. 17; he may have been the incumbent 
of the preceding year, waiting for the arrival of his successor, 
or appointed to this province in subordination to Sempronius, 
who was expected to cross into Africa. 28. legatl: 'lieu- 

tenants,* staff-officers, not envoys. tribuniquo: the six field- 
officer.s of the legion were called tribuni miliium ; they 
rommanded, two at a time, in rotation. 29. auoa: the Ro- 
man garrisons of the towns, ad ouram ooatodiae Intondtto: 
'admonished to keep careful guard.' 

30. teneri : like intmdere, historical infinitive. 31. soeil 

navalM «- MUMAf/ // remiges^ as opposed to mitU^t titusiei, 
marines ; so called because in the early days of the Roman 
navy« the crews were chiefly formed of allies, leaving dtitens 
to do the fighting. 

Pafire 124. 1. apoonUa: •watch-towers* along the coast. 
2. moderati . . . onmt: 'had regulated;* the fleet could easily 

54^ NOTES. [Pagb 125. 

arrive loog before Hiero*t letters. 4. pamox: a poetical 

wofd. 5. aublatii armamentii: *with yards raised/ i.e. 

* under fan aaiL* 10. demeodla armamentia : it was custom- 
ary to clear away tbe rigging before going into action. 15. 
eiroa oa ipaa looa : the references to tlie victory at the Aega- 
tian Islands grow a little tiresome. 

Chap. L. 18. Tiraa oonferro: 'to measure their airength/ 

* come to dose quarters.* Telle and malle (1* 20) : historical 
infinitives. 19. aludera: 'to dodge.' 21. aooiia naTalibua : 
as before^ crews, distinguished from fighting men. ad- 
iatfm: 'to a sufficiency;* akin io faiiscere^ fatigare, 

22. aioubi {si cabi^ not sic mbi) : ' if anywhere,* ' wherever.* 
oonaerta • • . aaaet: 'had become engaged at close quarters,* 
bad been grappled by the enemy. 23. numema : in the first 
war the Romans ordinarily had one hundred and twenty soldiers 
and three hundred oarsmen and sailors to a quinquereme. 25. 
llUa : L e. Poenis. 27. MUla at aapttnganti : about fifty sol- 
diers and two hundred sailors and rowers apiece ; cf. p. 123, 1. 12. 
29. parforata : rammed by the beak of one of the enemy*s 
ahips. 30. raduoa : usually in prose this word is applied 

to living beings only. 32. Maaaanam vanit: i. e. from 


Page 121^ 1. omatam annatamqua : 'fully equipped.' 
2. praatorlam naTam : 'the flag-ship;* praetorius has the 
general sense 'belonging to the commander-in-chief.' 3. 

.oiim asareitn at naTibua: his army was 26400 men, ac- 
cording to p. 89, i. 28, sqq. It had doubtless marched down 
by land to Rhegium, and as a whole, certainly, did not 
take part in the operations described in this and the next 

7. iuTania: forty-three years old in 264, now eighty-nine. 
10. qnibnadam Tolantibua . . . fora: 'that some would be 
glad of a change of government,* apparently a Greek construc- 
tion (cf. p. 66^ 1. 14) : though some explain voUntibus as ablative 
absolute. 13. Ha^igantaa : i. e. along the northern coast of 

Crap. LI. 18. Malitam: Malta; fifty-eight miles southwest 
of Capa Pacfaynum. The Inhabitants were mainly Greeks, and 
tha Island had not been ceded by Carthage In 241. 20. 

panlo flUava : A. 247f ^\ H. 4i7f >• m. a; G. 311, r. 4. 21. 


Page 126.] BOOK XXI. CHAP. LII. 343 

tnditar: a tort of zeugma; HamiUnr st iradiij insuia irm- 
ditnr, 22. reditum : sc. tst. 23. praeter • • • Tiroa : the 
nobles were reserved for ransom or exchange. aub ooroDa 
▼enlerunt: *were sold as slaves.* The heads of such prison- 
ers, like those of animals about to be sacrificed, were crowned 
With garlands. VtHco is used as the passive of v€md». 

24. «b ea parte : ' on that side.* 25. inaulas Vulcani : i. e. 
the Lipari Islands, of which one in particular had tliis name. 
26. olassem : seventeen of the twenty ships sent to ravage the 
Italian coast 27. forte: they happened to be gone when the 
consul arrived, though they had not expected his arrival. 29. 
urbem: Vibo or Hippo, on the west coast of Bruttium. 
Repetenti SioUiam: *on his way back to Sicily,* or else im- 
mediately upon his arrival. 30. eacenaio: * descent,* 'land- 
ing.' 32. primo qttoque tempore: *as soon as possible;* 
quoqui is ablative of quisqui. Nothing is said of the battle 
on the Ticinus; presumably this message was sent before it 
was fought 

PafiTO 120* 2. ▲rimXnum: (now Rimini) on the coast 
of Umbria, or, more properly, of the Ager CallicMs^ latclj 
connected with Rome by the Flaminian Way. Polybius says 
that the consul made the troops take an oath to meet him 
on a certain day at Ariminum, and that they completed the 
march in forty days from Lilybaeum. The navigation of the 
Adriatic in winter was dangerous. Taking Livy*s account as 
meaning that the wliolc army went by sea, we should ques- 
tion whether, after- detaching so many ships from his fleet, 
the consul had enough left to carry the troops. marl aupero : 
the Adriatic; the man infirum was the Tuscan Sea. 5. 

quinqua|;lnta . . . ezplevit : ' filled up the number of the fleet 
to fifty ships.* 6. oompoaitis SioiUae rebus: 'after takin|r 
measures for the defence of Sicily.* 7. oram . • . legeas : 
a Vergilian phrase; cf. Georg. ii; 44* From this we should 
suppose he sailed up the eastern coast, but Polybius says he 
sailed to Rome and went thence by land. 9. oonleese 

ooniangitiir : we hear of no opposition to this junction, which 
tends to show that Scipio was on the east bank of the Trebis^ 
Hannibal on the west. 

Chap. LII. 10. Xam smbo oonsules (sc cppositi)^ etc.: *the 
fact that now both the consuls and the whole Roman forces 

344 NOTES, [Vace 127. 

were opposed to Hannibal made it quite clear,* etc. quid- 
qoid . . . ar«t : this docs not mean all possible or even all 
actual forces, but only that the usual consular army was about 
doubled, and that no other large force was immediately avail 
able. 13. oonaul nllor : Scipio. oquestri proaUo : the 
battle on the Ticinus. 14. animl minutus: A. 218, ^, R.; 
H. 3» III.. I ; G. 374t K. 3. 1*. -Itwr: Scmpronius. faro- 
oSor: 'more headstrong, impetuous.' 18. par ambiguam 
favoram: 'by a policy that committed them to neither side.' 
19. apaoUntaa : • aiming to secure.' Id Romani . . . aatla : 
•the Romans were satisfied with this, provided they (the Cauls) 
committed no overt act of hostility.' 

21. aeeitttm : cf. p. 102, 11. 20, sqq. 25. oum ad Id . . . 
•nlmoa: 'although, up to this time, they had preserved their 
attitude of indecision.' 27. ad vindioaa futnroa : • to those 
who (they expected) would be their avengers.' The future par- 
ticiple here expresses an assumption of the Gauls. 29. oul- 
tonun: MnhabiUnts.' 32. ut aUa TatusUta obaolaviMant : 
* supposing other things to have been forgotten in the lapse of 
time.' A. 266. c\ H. 515, in.; G. 610. Boiomm parftdUm: 
the selxnre of the triumvirs (ch. xxv.). 

Page 127* 5. tnina Ttabiam : i. e. to the west. 6. 
Sparaoa : sc. Poenos. 7. invaalssant : i. e. Sempronius' 

troops had attacked the enemy. 8. statiODaaqaa : ' out- 

posts.' 10. aaqnantas inter oadantaaqna : anastrophe of 
the preposition. 

Chap. LI 1 1. 14. iuatiorqua: 'more complete.' 15. gau- 
die affarri: 'was delighted,' 'beside himself with joy.' 20. 
non • • • aanasoandum : ' they must not all grow feeble to 
keep the sick man company ; ' cf. p. 27, I. 5. 21. differri : 
A. 333*, H. 523, II.; G. 654, R. I. 25. pati : were the object 
of attack. 28. aoliti : an exaggeration ; there had been but 
one invasion of Africa, and that a signal failure. 31. adsi- 
dans aagro oonlagaa : ' when he sat by the bedside of his 
sick colleague.' 32. in praatorio : the open space in front 
of the generart tent is here meant. propa oontionabnndua : 
almost as if ha were addressing an assembly of the army. 
Livy it fond of adjectives in '■hundns^ which are rare in das- 
sioil prose. 33. oomitiomm : 'elections.' 

PAOKia9.| BOOK XXI. CHAP. LV. 345 

PaffO 128* 1. noTOft oonsulas : the inauguration of con- 
suls, March 15th, by the calendar, which was about two months 
In advance, really fell in January. This confusion was not 
remedied till the year 46 u. c. 3. parari s= // pdrare, 

8. percitom ao forox : * hot-headed and impetuous.* It is 
curious to obser\*e this same contrast of character repeated 
in several pairs of consuls, and even in the dictator and «rtf- 
gisier iquiinm of 217 D. C U. Cuiua: i. e. uriamimis or 
gtrcndae reL 17. ot laoere, ai oeaaaretor, onporet : ' and 
desired to force an engagement, if there should be a dispoaition 
to avoid it* (on the part of the Romans). 

Chai*. LIV. 22. in modio : between the Punic camp and 
the river. 24. equitea • . . tagando : the dative gerund with a 
direct object is very rare even in the poets. 27. oantaaos : 
too from the infantry, 100 from the cavalry. 30. 
aiiaaum : * the council was dismissed.' 

Page 120* 1. ex turmia manipoliaqua : Roman techmcal 
terms; * from the troops (of horse) and the companies (of 
foot).* The Roman turuui was the tenth of the 300 equitcs 
of the legion; the maniple, the thirtieth part of the legion, 
and its tactical unit, containing at this period about 140 men. 
7. iniecto delnda oartamine : * and then, when a fight bad 
been brought on.* 8. oitra flumen: across to the west 


13. ferox : * confident.* 14. ab dastlnato iam ante oon- 
■iUo : ' in accordance with his purpose already formed before* 
hand.* 15. bmmae {brtvimae^ brttnssimae) i *the shortest 
day,* * the winter solstice.* 16. nivalis : the author is fond of 
adjectives in W/r, and introduces many for the first time 
into prose. 18. hominibns atque equia : construe with 

inerat (1. 20). 20. quidquid =5 qu0 magis. 21. aotior: 

translate by adverb. 22. rofugientea : accusative ; imst-^ 

qutniis^ nominative. 24. turn utiqua : *then certainly* 

(however it may have been before). 

Chap. LV. 27. milaa: singular for collective. 88. at 
moUiront : ' to render . • . supple.' 31. anta aigna : i. e. as 
skirmishers in front of the infantry bodies with their standards. 
Each maniple had its standard; the legionary eagles were of 
later date. 

34^ NOTES. THagk 130. 

Paipe 190. 2. in oomibus : * on the wings ; * constituting 
the wings. 3. ab oomibun In ntnunqno partem : the mean- 
ing ol this is disputed; some understand, beyond each wing, 
outside the cavalry, at the extreme ends of the line; others 
think it means, from the two wings toward the centre, su|>- 
posing that the elephants were placed as a protection in ad- 
vance of the wings of the infantry, leaving the centre open. 
€. roooptnl : A. 233, d, and foot-note; il. 384, 11., 1, 3) ; G. 350 ; 
Roby, Lat. Gr. 1 1 56. circumdedit peditibua : placed them 

on the flanks of the infantry. Dnodaviginti mllia : as the 
legions consisted of 4,000 infantry each (p. 89, f. 28), this would 
make five legions somewhat diminished by losses. Two legions 
had been stationed in Cisalpine Gaul at the beginning of the 
season, and another had been sent under the praetor Atilius 
(p. 98, I. 27). Sempronius had brought two with him. Two 
consular armies would ordinarily make four legions. 7. Ro* 
BMUia : Instead of Romanornm, aooiom : genitive plural ; at 
this time there were 443,000 socii and 325.000 Roman citizens 
of military age. nominia Latini : the term Is political; the 

* Latin name * included all who possessed the ius Latinum or 
Laiiij vide Morey, Outlines of Roman Law, pp. 49, 50. Of the 
thirty original towns of the Latin league {Prisei Laiint)^ some 
had lost their independence, some had disappeared, some had 
received fuU Roman citizenship. In their places, not in a Latin 
league, but in relatran to Rome, were other towns, many of 
them the so<alled Latin colonies, and many also far beyond 
the boundaries of Latium. 

0. Cenomanoram : this tribe lived north of the Po, east of 
4ie Insfibres, west of the Veneti, about Brixia ^nd Verona. 
12. quaa res olloolt nt . . . : 'and this movement had the 
result that ... * 19. insupar : * besides.* 16. Ad hoo : 

* in addition to this.* . eminentos : the meaning of this de- 
pends somewhat on our understanding of ab cornibus (1. 3); if 
we take the first view it may mean * extending beyond;' if the 
second, 'conspicuous.* 20. recsntis : accusative pluraL 21. 
oontm : adverb. 26. simul : ' as soon as.* 30. Bos : 
the elephants. TsUtss : strictly speaking this class of troops 
was not Instituted till 21 1 n. c. ; the meaning here is genend, 

* light-armed troops.* ad id ipsnm: *for this very purpose.* 
31. Tonrtls: darts about four feet long with six4nch iron 
heads. •▼trteie : perfect indicative. 

Piios ISa.] BOOK XXI. CHAP. LVII. 347 

Pair® 131* Chap. LVI. 1. TrepldantUqtM : L c #/#- 
pkatiios. inropa iam in suos ooiutematos : * just about to 
turn upon their own men, in their panic,* * driven in fright 
upon,* etc. 2. ad ainlstmm : the Punic lefL advoniift 

Galloa : elephants were new to the Gauls, while the Roouds 
V> had known them for two generations. 6w in oibom : prvg* 
"^ nant construction ; after being forced into a circle, they fought 
~s 4M that order; we say a * square,' but the idea is the same, to 
face every way at once against the enemy. 7. media . . . adit:. 
local ablative without preposition. 10. interoluais : posses> 

\ sive dative ; it was impossible in their flight to pick out a fit 
i place to cross! besides, the water may have continued to rise. 
"1 11. Plaoentiam :, as we have concluded that the battle took 

• place on the west bank, we must suppose that the fugitives 
/, crossed again by a bridge close to Placentia. It is clear from 
^^ this, however, and from 11. 21-24, that Livy thought either that 
<; the battle occurred on the east bank or that J^laccotta was west 
i of JhcLjTitlVA. 12. in omnoa partaa : *in ail directions.* 
•mptionea: 'attempts to break through,* the enemy being 00 
adl sides of them. 14. inter oanctationem ingrediendi 
'while they hesitated to enter* the water. 19. bonines 

i. e. in Hannibal*s army. 23. et quod reiioom • . . erat 
'and the remainder of the soldiers, who were in great part 
wounded.* 24. sanoiomm : probably those wounded at the 
battle on the Ticinus ; those wounded in this battle could hard!/ 
have gotten back to camp across the river. 25. traicefent; 
according to the view we have taken, this must be a mistake: 
it is very improbable at any rate. eensere : i. e. PaenL ob- ' 
atrepente plnvia : ' on account of the noise of the rain.' 27. 
aentire aeae diasimolamnt : 'pretended not to hear.* 29. 
Pado traieoto Gremonam : 'crossed the Po to Cremona.* 
which was about sixteen miles down the river on the north 

Paffe 182. Chap. LVII. 1. Romam : put first to mark 
the change of scene. 2. nrbem Romanam : more sUtelj 
than Romam. 7. qnoa . . . ease : cf. note on p. 127, L 21. 
8. territlB : ablative absolute. 10. fallendi : 'of passion 

unobserved.' This was rather a fool-hardy expedition. A die 
tator or mtemx might easily have been appointed to hold the 

• > 


348 NOTES. [Pagb 133. 

consular elections. The constitutional rule required that they 
should not be held by one of lower rank than consul. 14. 
ItenuB, ' for the second time,* applies to Flaminius only, 
whose first consulship was in 223 B. c. It is not unlikely, as 
appears from Polybius, that this election was held by Sempro- 
Bius on his way nortli before the battle of the Trebia. Hut 
Livy mentions the journey twice (cf. p. 88, 11. 22-24). 16. ut 
qvaoqno Us inpadltlora erant : * wherever the ground was too 
rough for them.' 18. olausl . . . emnt: not *had been cut 
off,* but were and continued so. 

19. subTohorent : A. 309, ^; H. 51 1, 1. Bmporlum : (c'^ira- 
^Sor), a trading place, a ma;;aEine, a market; Placentia, lying 
some little disUnce from the I'o, had a port at the bank of the 
river* opera magno : 'strong fortifications.* 20. Biua 

• • . oppogoandi : success in this operation would have cut off 
the supplies of the troops at Placentia. 23. efrootnm (sc. in- 
cepii) : ' success.* But Hannibal had no means to prosecute 
m siege. apol s construe with plHrimum^ 25. sub Inoem : 
'just before dawn.* 29. praesidlum : not here tlie garrison, 
but the 'fortified post* held by it. 31. ViotomiilM : cf. p. 
Ii9t 1- 9^ auKl note. 32. aalUoo beUo : A. 259, a, 

Pag« 133. 1. frequentaverant : ' had settled in large 
numbers at* adoolao : those who had previously lived in the 
vicinity. mizti : Gauls and Ligurians. 3. fama . . . ao- 
cenaa : ' fired with emulation by the report of the gallant 
defence of the fort near Placentia.* 9. Magia agmina quam 
aeloa : 'more of a mob than an army;* literally, 'in marching 
column rather than battle order.* 8. triginta qninquo milia : 
doubtless an exaggeration, as the place does not appear to be 
of very great importance. 14. adoo : 'for.* 'so true it is 
that ; ' thus used, adto introduces a clause containing the 
ground of a preceding statement. omne . . . ezomplnm : 

* every sort* 15. •ditnm : was practised : it was contrary to 
Hannibars policy to treat any but Romans with severity. 

Chap. LVIII. 17. intolarablUa frlgora : most of the army 
wen natives of warm climates. 19. in Stmriam : he did 
not^ however, reach Etniria. 21. adlunotuma : sc. tihi. 

aa. adortn: transitive, 'assailed.* 23. forrotur : 'dashed.* 
85. T9rtio9 intorti adflifobantnr : 'they were caught up by 


Paok X35.] BOOK XXi. CHAP. LIX. 349 

the hurricane and dashed to the ground.* constitere: ^tbcy 
hailed/ 2^ cum (sc. vinias) . . . aineret : * as the blast 
then stopped their breath and prevented respiration.' 27. 
Averal a Tento : ' with their backs to the wind.' 28. atr*- 
pero : * thundered ; ' this and the following infinitives arc his- 
torical. 29. firafforea : 'crashes,* 'peals.* mioaro ignst: 
*the lightning flashed.* capti anribua et oonlia : 'deafened 
and blinded;* capti means 'deprived of the use of;* cf. p. 144, 
1. 7. 30l affoao imbre : ' when the rain had poured itsdi 

out,* 'exhausted itself.* 31. aooanaa * 'aggravated;' a cu- 
rious metaphor in this case. 

Page 134* I. expUcare qnioquam : 'to unfold anything' fu 
the sliape of a tent). 3. peraoindenta : 'tearing to shreds/ 
a very rare word. 4. aqua : ' mist,* ' watery vapor.' 5. 
oonoreta eaaat : 'had congealed.' deiaoit: the subject is 
aqua. U. movere ac reoipere : sc. coepcruHU from tst 

coeptus. 13. ad alienam . • • tendara: 'each in his help- 
less state sought the assistance of others.* opem • • • loops : 
paronomasia. 15. elephanti . . . aeptem: Polybius says 

only one had survived the battle of the Trebia. 

Chai*. LIX. 17. Degreaaua: Polybius makes no mentioo 
of this attempt to cross the mountains, and there is a good 
deal of doubt as to the fact. ad: 'near,' to the vicinity d. 
18. ad: 'about.* This means west of Placentia. Livy seeois 
to crowd too many events and operations into the interval 
between dubia signa veris^ p. 133, 1. 18, and the actual openiag 
of spring. 20. rediarat : i. e. after holding the electiois. 

22. tria: 'only three.' bina: A. 95,^; H. I74f 2, 3). 2a 
pugnatam eat: this is probably an exaggerated account of 
one of the skirmishes that would naturally take place in the 
Jhen ^existing circumstances. 25. Tinoerent: sc. R^mamlati 
res Romanar 29. nona . . . hora: the middle of the af^er 
noon. 31. reoeptui: cf. note on p. 130, L 6. 38. laxatam- 
qua: 'had slackened.* 

Pasre 135* 1. paditum roboro: 'the heavy-armed »> 
fantry.' 3. aaeva: 'bloody.* 5. diremit: *put an end to^* 
8. aloa: i.e. Humeri, 9. maior qoam pro Dumaio: *oi^ 

of proportion to the mere number.* 11. praafaoti: amoiv 

350 NOT£S. (Pack 136. 

the Mcii^ corresponding to the tribuni of the Romans. 13. 
Ztaoam : in Etniria, on a tributary of the Amo, about twelve 
miles from the sea. This statement has been questioned and 
causes a good deal of confusion. Sempronius would, it seems, 
naturally have gone to Placentia; and, from the beginning and 
end of ch. Ixiii., it would appear that he did so. 

16. oqiiostris ordlnis: meaning the eighteen centuries of 
equiUs established by Servius Tullius (of. Bk. i. ch. 43), who 
served €qu0 publico without pay, and had the right to wear a 
gold ring. Later the cavalry provided their own hones, were 
. paid, and wore iron rings, and the equites equo pHblUo became 
\ an honoraiy body. aonatomm fermo liberis: 'mostly sons 
of senators;* they had equestrian not senatorial rank. 

Cmaf. LX. 20. In HIspaniam • . • misaas: cf. p. 105, 
L 13. 22. Bmporiaa : a Phocaean (Creek) colony, a few miles 
south of the Pyrenees; the name is plural because the town 
was a double one, an Iberian settlement adjoining the Greek 
one. 23. Xiaootaiito: inhabitants of the coast southwest of 
Emporiae, about the modem Barcetona. 24. aooiatatibus : 
Empr^ae and the Bargusii were already allies of Rome ; cf. p. 
92, L 12. 2S. dioionis: A. 214, ^; H. 401 ; G. 365. 26. ad 
sszmpmd. 27. oMditerranoto quoquo ao montania: neuter 

pluraL forooioroa iam: the idea is that the tribes were 
more savage in proportion to their distance from the coast. 
30. aiudlionim: troops of non-Italian allies; they were not 
formed Into legions. oohortes : used in rather a general than • 
technical sense. As previously observed, the Roman legion 
itself had not at this time been divided into cohorts. 31. 
eia Eibonun: north of the Ebro. onm roliquarat Hanni- 
bal: cf. pi. 96^ L II. 32. ad . . • praealdivm : expresses 

Page IdO. 7. 011m praosldio: 'besides the guard.' 9. 
prinolpibiM: in view of Polybius* account o( this battle, it ap- 
pears that this word applies to Spanish chiefs fighting on the 
Punic side. Claala : probably a town of the Ctssttani^ who 
lived on the coast between the Laeetani and the Ebro. U. 
ruraai fnlt : * consisted of things,* etc. : supiUix is appositive 
*o prtuda^ mameiphmm to remm* 12. otua . . . ucaroitua : 
fiiits mmmibus • • . rthus. 14. no . . . oaaant: Uhat their 
^Iggage mi^t not be too heavy for them to carry.* 

Page 137.1 BOOK XXL CHAP. LXII. 351 

Chap. LXI. 17. aooideret: * arrived.' 19. mille: used 
here as an indediDable substantive. 20. perditaa res: *tbe 
disaster.' 22. Tamcon« : subsequently an important Ro> 

man city, capital of the province of Hispania Tarraconessis. 
militea . • . aooioa: cf. note on p. 123, L 31. 29. la . . . 
iininadvartisset : *had punished.' praafactoa: * captains.* 

31. Vixdum . . . adarat : vividly expresses the swiftness oi 
Hasdrubal's movements. Zlars6tum : this tribe lay further 
inland than those just menticned, and extended from the Pyre- 
nees to the Ebro. 

Pago 137* 4. cadit: i.e. Hasdrubal. 6. Atanagmm: 
position not certainly known. 9. pacunia : * by a fine** 12. 
Ztaoatanoa: cf. p. 96, 1. <>. 13. urba : now Vich. 18. 

minus quattnor padaa: cf. note on p. 125, I. 20. plataos: 
* screens ; ' 19. Tinaaa : * mantlets ; * the former chiefly a pro- 
tection in front, the latter from above; for cuts and descrip- 
tion see Judson, Cacsar*s Army, pp. 98, 99. 22. paoti: used, 
like a verb of buying and selling, with an ablative of price. 
The meaning is, they surrendered after agreeing to pay Scipio 
twenty talents as tlie price of their being spared by him. Lttte^ 
bacher remarks that this would be only about a month's pay for 
twelve thousand men, not enough to compensate them for the 
hardships of the siege. deduntar : middle force. 

Chap. LXII. 24. Romaa : cf. note on p. 132, L i. 
prodlgia : prodigies were regarded as the manifestation of dis- 
pleasure on the part of the gods. The place and circumstances 
of their occurrence were important considerations in their in- 
terpretation, with regard both to the source whence they came 
and the persons or communities to whom they were intended 
to apply. The lore relating to this subject was the province 
of the college of pontiffs, whose business it was to examine 
the evidence as to the occurrence of prodigies, interpret their 
significance, and prescribe the means by which the displeasure 
of the deities was to be averted. To assist in thia matter, 
they kept a record from )*ear to year of the well attested prodi- 
gies, which served subsequently as a list of precedenta. 

In certain spheres of natural phenomena the (originally Etruar 
can) kamspices were consulted. They were especially akiDed 
in the lore of lightning, and the interpretation of the signs 

353 NOTES. [Pack 13a 

given by the entrails of animals slain in sacrifice* and of mon- 
strous births. Where the ordinary resources failed, or the 
omens were especially terrifying, and in times of great public 
danger, recourse was had to the Sibylline books, which were 
dzrivtd from a Greek source, and to the influence of which was 
due the gradual introduction of Greek divinities into the Ro- 
man Pantheon. 

It appears that the state was concerned with such omens 
only as appeared within the limits of Roman land, and that, 
too, in the ager pubHcus. What happened on private land 
concerned the owner personally rather than the commonwealth. 
At this period there were numerous communities in various 
parts of Italy, possessing full citizenship, whose territory was 
part of the agtr Komanus^ and attached to one of the tribes; 
and also many conquered places belonging to the ager publkus. 

25. in rollgionem : ' toward fear of the supernatural.* 27. 
qvla: syncopated form of quibns. ingenuum: 'bom of free 
parents.* 28. triamphnm olamasso: 'had cried "lo tri- 

umphe I ** * foro l>oario : the cattle-market lay between the 
Tiber and the Palatine, the forum oUiorium (1. 32) was directly 
north of it, close to the Capitoline but outside the Porta 
Carmentalis. In the same locality was the AaUs Spci (1. 31). 
32. ZrfuiiiTi: this town and Rome had common sacra, so this 
omen applied to Rome. hastam {luHonis): lances, before 

the use of images, were the symbols of deities. 

Page 138* 1. in agro Amitornino : Amitemum was a 
Sabine town. 3. visoa . . . oongroMon (esse) : the subject 

is thoroughly Indeflnite — • beings * or • apparitions.* lapi- 
dibos ploTisss : cf. note on p. 39, 1. 3. 4. Caere : locative ; 
this ancient city of southern Etruria, called sometimes the 
'"Delphi of Italy,** was from eariy times in friendly relations 
with Rome. sortes: * oracular tablets;* divination by "lots*" 
a distinctively Italian institution. Shrinking of the Ublets 
a sign of impending misfortune. 

OslUs : I. e. Cisaipina, Inpnm : merely to see a wolf in 
an unusual place was ominous. 5. vigili: A. 229; H. 385, 11. 
a ; G. 344. 8. libros : i. e. Sibyliincs. The decemviri sacris 
fadundii were a permanent commission charged with the care 
and consolution (when ordered) of these sacred books. 7. 

Pack 138.] BOOK XXI. CHAP. LXIil. 3S3 

&OT«mdlalo smoram: cf. p. 39, II. 15-17. 0. snbindes 

diindi, operate taXX^^opcram deait^ hence governs the 

dative. 9. hostlAoquo maioros: mature animals, as distin- 
guished from young ones, kosiiai lacUnits. It was the busi- 
ness of the pontiffs to say which should be offered in sacrifice. 
U. pondo qoadraglnta: * forty pounds;* pondo^ treated as an 
indeclinable noun, is an ablative of specification, 'as to weight,* 
and libra in the appropriate number and case is understood 
with it 

13. lootiBternlum : the first recorded instance of this obse^ 
vaiice, which seems partly due to Hellenic influience, occurred 
in 399 B. C. (Livy, Dk. v., ch. 13). A costly banquet was pie- 
pared for the gods, whose images or symbols were laid upon 
couches spread {ftcius^ siernere) for them at the tables. 14. 
■uppiicatio: a kind of processional litany, in which all classes 
of tlie people went about to the different shrines to beseech 
the help of the gods. Algido (sc monU): one of the Al- 

ban hills. 15. XUventati: this goddess (Hebe), the wife 

of Hercules, had a chapel in the precincts of the Capitol, 
having refused to give up her place when the Capttolinc temple 
was built by Tarquin. Cf. p. 66, 1. 33, for the part of the legend 
concerning Terminus, who also refused to depart. 

16. aedem HerouUs : near the Porta Trigemina. nomina- 
tim: contrasting ad Aedem Hercutis with drca omnia pmSvi- 
naria^ the special with the general. 17. pulvinaria : the 

supplicationes were connected with the lectisternia^ hence the use 
of pulvinaria here, the images of the gods being at the time 
laid upon them. Oenio (populi i\omani)\ the guardian 

spirit of the nation, analogous to that of each individual. lA. 

C. AtlUna ; cf. p. 98, 1. 27 ; the consuls were both absent, or 
this duty would have fallen upon them. 

Chap. LXIII. 23. aorta: both being obliged to defend 
Italy, they cast lots for the two armies. 24. •diotnm at 

litteraa: hendiadys. ad oonaulem: Sempronius; cf. p. 140. 
11. 2-4* 27. tribnnua plabia: in 232 B. c, when tribune, 

he had carried a law assigning to poor citizens land in Pioe- 
num and Umbria. This led to the Gallic war of 225-2 B. C 
28. qui abrogabatur: conative imperfect; * which they a^ 
tempted to annul* The senate tried to compel him to lay 
down his consulship, owing to alleged irregularities connected 

354 NOTES. [Pacb 139. 

with his election. A letter to this effect being sent him on 
the eve of his great victory over the Insubrcs, in 223 d. c, 
he refused to read tlic letter till after the battle. 

29. do trinmpho : after this victory the senate refused him 
the honor of a triumph, as he was not in their view legally 
consul ; so he triumphed by a vote of the people. ob novam 
locem : probably in 220 B. C, directed against the new spirit of 
commercial speculation that had sprung up among the aristocracy. 
mavam : * unprecedented/ or perhaps * recent. ' 3L uno pntrum : 

* alone of the senators* (not patricians). 

PaSTO 130* 1. trecentamm amphorarum: amphora ^z out 
cubic foot, and so was called also gitadrafitalj three hun- 
dred amphorae = seven and one*half tons, not allowing for 
the difference between the Roman and English foot. 3. 

patriban : construe with indecdrus, 7. Ijatinammqne ferla- 
nun mora: 'delay caused by the Latin festival.* The new 
consuls had always to appoint by proclamation the time for this 
festival, and to offer in person the sacrifices to Jupiter Latiaris 
cm the Alban mountain, before departing from* Rome. 

0. consularibns aliia Inpedimentis : ' other hindrances ap- 
plicable to a consul ; * the adjective has the force of an objec- 
tive genitive. 9. ■imnUto itinera : i. e. on private business. 
13. loaiupicato : abl«itive absolute. revocantibus ex ipsa 
aoie: cf. note on p. 138, 1. 28. 13. apretomm: i. e. dcorum. 
CapitoUtun, etc. : here follows an enumeration of the for- 
malities attendant upon the consuls* taking ofiice. solemnem : 

* usual,* sanctioned by custom. 17. senatum, etc.: the senate 
held a sitting at once in the Capitoline temple, at which re- 
ligious matters were discussed and the time for the ferine La- 
iimae was fixed, and then one of the consuls delivered a speech 
de repubUca. 

ZL paladatna : ' after assuming the (red) military cloak,* 
which was done at the Capitol before going forth to take com- 
mand of the army. Paludamentum pallium fttil imperatorium 
purpura ei auro distinclum. It was, like the axes in the 
fasces, a sign of the full military imptrium^ which could be 
exercised, only outside the pomoerium. 24. solum ▼ertiaset : 
solum veriere to take up one's abode in another country ; Ro- 
mans could go into voluntary exile, when charged with a capiul 

PaoiIM.] book XXI. CHAP. LXIII. 3SS 

crime, and so avoid other punishment 27. retrahendnmqaa : 
yet they seem to have been afraid to use actual force. 2d. 
prassaatom : ' in person.* 34. inmolantique •! : A* 235 ; 

H. 384, II. 4; inmolarg is to sprinkle the sacred meal {mM) 
on the victim's head. 35. saoriAoantittm : the priest's 

assistanu. proripuiaset : this was a dire omen. 

Paffe 140* 2. Xiosionibiia . . . daabiia : we suppose they 
had been all winter at Placentia, and not that they proceeded 
at this time from Luca to Ariminum and then back to Arre- 
tium; cf. note on p. 135, L 13. 4. AtlUo: doubtless he had 
been sent to relieve the wounded Scipio. The fifth legion was 
probably left to defend Cisalpine Gaul. Aponntni 
not the Via FUminia^ but mountain passes. 


3S6 NOTES. [Paok 142. 


PafiTO 141. Chap. I. 1. vr: the spring of 217 b. c 
hibernto : Hannibal had spent the winter in the neighborhood 
of Placentia and, according to Bk. xxi., ch. 59, partly in Ligu- 
ria. 2. ante oonatua, etc. : cf. Bk. xxt., ch. 58 ; there 

could hardly have been time between the prima ac dubia 
tigna vifis and the time when iam ver adpetebai for so much 
as the author attempts to include in the interval. 5. pro 
•o, ttt . . . agorantquo : ' instead of their plundering,* etc. ; a 
somewhat awkward equivalent for the Greek wn\ rov <tyfur; 
ferre agert is a more usual expression than the one here 
used. 7. hibemia: the Romans had wintered in Cremona 
I and Placentia; but cf. p. 135, 1. 13 and note. vt dera ; notice 
I the frequency of this form of perfect. 9. fraudeT construe 
with urvaius erai. 10. levitata: construe with indUan- 

Hum, 12. togomoiita oapitia: wigs of different colors; 

Polybius mentions this fact. orrora: 'confusion/ 'uncer- 

tainty.* 15. idibna Martlia: by the corrected calendar this 
date would have fallen in January and would not be simul- 
taneous with iam ver adpeiebat; there is a confusion of the 
two calendars in the author's mind. 16. da re pubUca 

rattnliaaant : cf. note on p. 79^ 1. 11. 19. Imperium: in 

his case no Ux emriata d* imfurio had been passed; this 
had to be proposed by the consul in person to the thirty lie- 
tors representing the ancient curioi^ and though it was a mere 
formality, yet It was considered as of essential importance, 
and without it he could not take official auspices. In any 
event the auspices must be first taken at Rome; after that 
they could be continued abroad. The formality of the lex 
euriaia is one of the best illustrations of the intense conser- 
vatism of the Romans. Magtatratna : accusative plural. 
22. anaploia: subject of uqni, 24. conoiparo : (li^^>'^y 
*lo formulate,*) * institute,* *take.* 


Page 142. 3. aqultl: A. 235; H. 384,11. 4, n. a. 5. 
nliitti : probably a partial eclipse ; the usual verb for sn 


eclipse is defiant 6. Praenoste : an allied city in the east of 
Latium; locative. Upldes . • . oooidlsse: Le. single stones; 
distinguish from lapidibus plugre^ for which a MCVtmdiaU 
sacrum is always ordered. 7. Arpis : in Apulia. 8. 

Capenao: in southern Etruria. aqnas CaeretM: the cele- 

brated hot baths of Caere, of which the principal one was the 
fons Htreulis, 10. AntU: on the coast of Latium. U. 
Faleriia: in southern Etruria. 

14. ezoidisae : they were kept on a string. 15. algnwin : 
* statue;* standing in his temple on the Appian Way. 16. 
luporum : the wolf was sacred to Mars. Capuao : the chief 
city of Campania and the second in Italy. 18. minoribiis 
. . . diottt: Mess noteworthy.* 21. anotoribusquo in cvriaBa 
introduotia : those who reported prodigies were carefully ex- 
amined, to test the correctness of their information. 23. 
maioriboa hostiia : cf. p. 138, 1. 9 and note. 26. oordi : 
A. 233,11; H. 390; G. 350. 27. carminibna: the Sibylline 
oracles were metrical. 28. ZotI . • . Zononi Minsnraoqae : 
the three supreme deities of the Capitol. pondo : cf. note 
on p. 138, 1. II. 34. Ubartinae: this corresponds with the 

enrollment of Wurtitii in the legions ; infra^ ch. xi. 35 
Feroniaa : a goddess of spring, of flowers and of love ; her 
chief temple was near Mt. Soracte; emancipations took place 
at her altars, especially in her temple at Tarracina. 

Page 143* 1. Deoembri : of 217 B.C., an anticipation. 
2. aedem Satumi : at the foot of the Capitoline hill, on the 
side toward the Forum ; it was used as the state treasury and 
record office. 3* aenatores : this was unusual : generally it 

was done by the Decemviri or Duumviri. 4. Satnmalia 
. . . olamata : 'they cried, "lol Saturnalia!*** This was an 
ancient Italian festival or carnival, originally celebrated a single 
day, December 19th ; cf. Hon Sat. ii. 3, 5. It survives in the 
convivial features of our Christmas. Perhaps on the occasion 
in question Greek rites were connected with it in obedience to 
the Sibylline books. 5. diem et nootem : * one day and one 
night;* Madvig, Emend. Liv. 487, note i (2d ed.). 

Chap. II. 8. dUectu : dative. A. 68; H. 116; G. 67. 
Besides the remnanU of the last year*8 army, each consul re- 
ceived two new legions and a contingent of allies. 9. Ane- 


358 NOTES. [Page 144. 

tinm: an Important town and strategic position on the yia 

CasAia in Northern Etruria, now Arezzo. 10. aliud IoqsIub 

• • • iter: out of several possible routes we can hardly identify 
any one as intended by Livy. He might have gone to the west 
vii Luna or Lucca to Pisa, or to the east vi& Bononia and 
Ariminum. Manifestly his object was to bea t Flaminius before 
his junction with Servilius. It is not unlikely that the nearer 
way which he chose brought him v\k Pistoria into the Arno 
valley, which, in the vicinity of Faesulae (Fiesole), corresponds 
somewhat, In the spring, to the description here given. The 
long time occupied in going so short a distance can be ex- 
plained only by the extraordinary difficulties of the ground. In 
any case, it was a route which the enemy did not expect him to 
take. 14. noonbi : ir/ cM, not mec nbi; cf. ali-cubi^ etc. 

19. mollis ad telia : cf. p. 97, L 31 ; pigerrhna tut tadem. 
dilaberentnr : 'slip off,' 'desert* aubaiaterent : 'refuse to 
proceed/ cohibentom : the present participle expressing pur- 
pose is ynusuaL 20. qua modo : ' wlierever,* ' anywhere . . . 
if only.' 21. profundaa : ' almost bottomless ; * there was no 
bottom but soft mud, so far as they could reach. hansti : 
concessive. 22. inmorgonteaqtte so : ' plunging in.* 23. 
anstioora aa prolapsl : ' to regain their feet when they 
slipped.* 27. Tiglliaa : Moss of sleep.* 29. in aiooo : a 
characteristic phrase, a substantivized adjective with a prepo- 
sition« 31. aaroinia : individual packs, distinguished from 

collective baggage * impedimtnia.^ 32. tantum . . . dabant: 

* afforded a bare resting-place to men who sought merely some- 
thing that stood above the water.* 

Page 144. 3. intomparia . . . frigoraqna : ' bad weather 
with its alternations of heat and cold.* 4. quo : A. 317, 3. ^; 
H. 497, II., 2; G. 545, 2. 6. caelo : 'atmosphere.* gra- 
▼aate: * affecting.' 7. altero oonlo oapitnr: 'lost the sight 
of one eye.' 

Chap. III. 8. foada: ' ingloriously.' 9. da: we should 
expect ex* U. Arrati : a good position from which to watch 
Hannibal, who might be expected to march upon Rome by the 
line of the Via Cassia; thence also it was easy to combine 
forces with his colleague coming from Ariminum. - 13. copiaa 
ad oomaaaatna axpadiandoa : ' opportunities for obtaining sup- 

Pack 145.] BOOK XXII. CHAP. III. 359 

plies.* 14. in rem erat : 'it was to bis interest/ * useful.* 
15. in primiA . . . fertilis : *onc of the most fertile.* Uut 
VVsb. remarks that the statemcat docs not apply to the country 
between Fiesolc and Arezzo. 16 Faesulas inter Arre- 

tiumqua : a curious anastrophe of inUr, 18. ferox ab ooa- 
aulatu priora : referring to the year 223 is. c. ; cf. note on 
p. 138, II. 2$, 29. 

19. non mode : translate as if it were uon math mm. 
Roby, Lat. Gr. 2240. lagum . . . maiaatatia . . . deonua 

. . . matuana : a poetical or Greek construction ; objective geni- 
tives for object accusatives with participle of transitive verlx 
21. proapero . . . auccaaau : besides military success, Flami- 
nius had in politics been a successful opi)onent of the noUes; 
cf. note on p. 138, 1. 27; and to his censorship were due the 
yia and Circus which bore his name. balUoiaque : referring 
to his victory over the Insubres in 223 B. c. 

23. ferooitar . . . ac praepropara, etc.: we should remem- 
ber that Flaminius has been p;unted for us by his political 
enemies. Here Livy*s aristocratic bias is evident Wc nwtai 
admit that the consul was outgencrallcd in the sequel, but that 
his intention was so utterly pcr\'crsc is not dear. The battle 
of Lake Trasimenus was not of his choosing, and it is reason* 
able to suppose that he was marching to meet his colleague, as 
well .IS following the enemy, when he was so fatally entrapped 
It wan certainly proper to follow Hannibal, if not strong enough 
to stop him, when he appeared to be moving toward the capital. 
It is not his general purpose, but his carelessness in allowing 
himself to be surprised, that we must condemn. If Flaminius 
had remained at Arretium, Hannibal might have met and d^ 
feated Servilius. Livy*8 view of Flaminius is a traditional, bat 
hardly a just one. Cf. Capes* Livy, Appendix iii. 24. Quoqoe: 
quo que^ two words. 25. laava ralloto hoate : app.ircntly a 
blunder of the author, who is never satisfactory in his topo> 
graphy ; going toward Faesulae* the Punic army would have A^ 
retium on its right. But why should it go toward Faesulae? 
It is barely possible that there was another town of thia name 
further south. 31. auum: 'personal.* 

Pnsro 145. 1. ceteris : i. e. legates, tribunes, and senkir 
centurions, who would take part in the council of war. 

36o NOTES. IPagx lis. 

ft. •fhisa ; ' unrentrained.* 6. signumque : the signal to 

march was given with the trumpets; for battle, by raising the 
red flag (yexiiiMm) on the general's tent; this passage may 
simply mean that, by giving the former, Flaminius was under- 
stood as intending to fi^c^^t at the first opportunity. 7. Zmmo : 
ironicaL 12. Camillain ab Volis : in 390 B. C, when the 
Gauls had possession of the city of Rome, except the Capitol; 
but dmillus was in exile at Ardea when summoned to assume 
the dictatorship. 13. aimul inorepana : cf. p. 32, 1. 15, for 
same expression. 17. slsnum : this was planted in the 
ground, the staff being sharp at the bottom. omni vi mo- 
Itont* slgiillsro : 'though the standard-bearer exerted all his 
strength.* 18. Num littsrss quoqna : to explain the allu- 
sioo, cf. note on p. 138, 1. 28. 22. primoribus : an unusual 
word for 'officers.* 24. in ▼nlgns : 'generally.* 

Chap. IV. 26. inter Cortonam . • . laoum: the distance 
is about ten miles, the direction southeast. The lake is now 
called Lago di Trasimeno or di Perugia ; the railway from Cor- 
tona to Perugia skirts the northern shore and passes over the 
battle-field. 29. perTsnerant: sc. PtfenL nata: suited 

by nature. iasidUs: A. S34; H. 391, I.; G. 356. maadms 
s= prorimt. 

30. mootes . . . subit : it is generally supposed that the 
locality here described is the narrow passage between the lake 
and Monte Gualandro, near Borghetto» which leads into a valley 
some four miles long and one and a half broad. Another defile 
near Passignano is the eastern exit On the north side of the 
valley, about the middle of its length, a spur of hills projects, 
clividinf; the valley into two distinct parts. Livy's description 
suits this locality, but that of Polybius does not, without a fxtaX 
deal of explanation, and some have understood him to refer to 
a region further east, beginning with the pass of Passignano 
and extending into the broad valley east of Magione in the direc- 
tion of Penigta; bespeaks of the Romans as having hills on 
1>bth ^es of them and the lake in their rear; on this subject 
%^ide Hesselbarthf Hist Krit. Untersuch. cur 3ten Dek. des 
IJviiis, 694. Tia . . . perangnsta : the defile near Borghetto. 
33- lads CM>llss iasnrgnnt : this may mean the spur of Tuoro, 
the mountains at the east of the valley. 33. Xbi : it is rea> 
to suppose that Hannibal placed his camp east of the 

Pagb 147.] BOOK XXIL CHAP. V. 3^1 

Tuoro hill, where it would be visible to the Romans, but not dU 
they were fairly in the valley. 

Pnffe 140* 2. post montls: this again may refer to the 
same spur of Tuoro, or to the hills surrounding the valley, behind 
whose crests the light troops could easily be concealed. 3. ad 
ipaas faaooa : tlie western defile, where the enemy would enter 
the pass. 6. aolis oooasu, etc., and Tiacdum satis certa 

luoo. etc. : these expressions show the haste of the consul in 
pursuit of the enemy, and help to account for the complete- 
ness of his surprise. 7. inexplorato : here lay Flaminius* real 
fault 9. pandl: 'to deploy.' id tantum hovtluiB: the 
Africans and Spaniards (1. i). 

16. oampo . • . montibus : as in poetry, in omitted. 17. later 
•a aatla ooaapeota : ' quite visible to each other ; * coHs^cia ^ 
eoHspicabiiia* 19. aatla: 'distinctly.' corneret . • . inatm- 
eretur . . • poaaent: A. 327; H. 520; G. 579. 22. ezpodirl 
arma: on the march the shield and helmet were carried, for 
greater comfort, on the shoulders. The soldiers' kit included, 
besides, many things that would be in his way when fighting. 

Chap. V. 23. aatla . • . inpavldua : the author seems 
obliged, against his will, to acknowledge Flaminius' courage, 
ut In re treplda : * as far as possible in the panic' 24. quo- 
que: ablative of quisque; qnoque vtrtente explains iurkni^s. 

27. neo enim . . . Totia, etc. : this remark, tending toward impiety, 
accords with the usual aristocratic view of Flaminius' character. 

28. vl ao Tirtute: the author is fond of alliteration. 30. 

ferme: 'generally.' 32. tantnmqiie aberati etc.: A 332,1^; 

H. 502t 3> ^* 55^ R* ■• algna: i.e. tlieir maniples, ordioee: 
' centuries.* 

Page 147. 1. oonpeteret animoa : * they had presence 
of mind.' quidam =s nonnulli^ as is so often the case in 
Livy. onerati : i. e. they were cut down in their m.^rching 
^uipment. 2. oaligine : akin to celart, miXvirrciy. 4. mbctos 
. . . olanores : • mingled cries of triumph and terror.* tenren- 
tlam paTentlumque : active and passive, referring to the 
Carthaginians and Romans respectively. 6. globo: * solid 

mass.' 8. impetua oapti : a phrase often used by the author; 

362 NOTES. IPAOl ita 

Wftb. distinguishes impetus capen from impetus facere^ as ex- 
pressing greater effort ; tr. * diarges were attempted/ 

12. nova do intogro: a characteristic pleonasm.* 13. ilia: 
*the usual,' the 'wcll-lcnown;* A. 102, b\ H. 450, 4; G. 292, 2. 
pifnoipoo hastatoaqno : the order at tliat time was has tat i, 
pHmcipes^ triarii ; the arrangement had ceased to exist before 
the author's time, and if this expression is meant to be tecli- 
nically precise, he makes a mistake. 14. neo (sc. ita ordinate^ 
vt; etc. antesignani : men of the front line, usually the 

kastati^ whose standards would be placed just behind them. 
1^ odiorto : an anachronism ; the cohort as a tactical unit 
dates from the time of Marius, 105 b. c. 17. anta aut peat : 
sc sigua. 

19. avm motam tarraa : Coelius Anti pater, in a passage 
quoted by Cicero (De Div. i. 35), records this earthquake : Ovid 
gives the date of the battle as June 23, i. e. by the corrected 
calendar, about the middle of April. 22. aonaerit: really 
an aorist subjunctive. 

Chap. VI. 23. THa fetme horas : this detail is mentioned 
by Coelius. 25. robora virorum: 'the bravest troops;* ab- 

stract for concrete, as in poetry; cf. p. 1 28, 1. 31 ; the generals 
had no regular body-guard at this time. 29. Duoario: cf. 

note on Troiano^ p. 3, 1. 12. noaoitaiia: the frequentative 

here, as often elsewhere, seems not to differ at all in meaning 
from the simple verb, which would be more correct. 30. 
logionoa Boatraa oaoidit : alluding to the campaign of 223 d. c. 
31. nrbam: we do not know what town is meant; Mediolanum 
(Milan), the lusubrian capital, was captured in 222 b. c, but not 
by Flaminius. 

3X hano TiotUnam ss Ajimr pro vietima; victima is akin 
to viere and Htta, peramptomm foado : in 223 b. c. Fla- 
minius, being in a dangerous position, made a capitulation and 
was allowed to depart ; then securing the help of the Cenomani, 
be returned and defeated the Insubrcs. This may explain the 
aigailicance oi foede. 

Paffe 14S* 1. annigoro : a^rather poetic word. 2 Infasto 
▼anlantl: «to his chaige.* 3. triaiil: the men of the third 
line, the tried veterans. For the three legionary systems (the 
phalanSt the maniples, the cohorts) vide Mommsen, i. <^« 4531 

Paob 149.] BOOK XXII. CHAP. VII. 363 

HL 200, and Livy, Bk. viii., ch. 8. 6. evadimt: conative; 
' tried to escape.* 7. para . • . prograaai : c£. note on pan 

magna nanUs^ p. 100, 1. 22. 

9. quoad . . . poaaoat : ' till they could keep only heads or 
shoulders above water.* 11. qnao : i. e. /aga. lamoiiaa so 
aino ape : * endless and hopeless ; * the laike is about ten miles 
long and eight wide, and the author does not seem to know of 
the islands near the north end. 12. deficientibiis aoimSs: 
* when their courage failed.* 15. Sox milia, etc. : thest 

could escape the more easily as they were apparently opposed 
by the light troops only. 17. ex salta: doubtless the defile 
of Paastgnano is here meant tumulo qnodam : possibly the 
hill where Magione stands. 81. Inoaleaoente . . . dloas: 'the 
dispersion of the mist by the increasing heat of the sun had 
cleared the atmosphere.* 

22. perditaa res: *that the day was lost.* 27. Maliarbalo: 
leader of Hannibal*s cavalry. 30. Ponioa religione aerrats 
fides: the usual sneer at Punic honor; to us it seems as re- 
liable as Roman honor; and there are numberless instances 
where the Romans refused to ratify the terms of capitulatioo 
granted to or accepted by their generala, on the ground that 
they had exceeded their powers. 

Chap. VII. 32. nobilia : 'famous.* 33. memoratas 
mefttorabilis, Quindeoim mllia: other authorities make the 
losses in killed and prisoners considerably laiger. Polybtos 
makes the prisoners number fifteen thousand, and the Caitha- 
ginian loss smaller. At all evenu the army was virtuallj 

Page 140. 4. Multiplex: 'far greater;* literally 'many 
times as great.* 6. auotum ex vano: 'groundless exa^ 

geration.* 7. Fabium: Fabius Pictor, vide Introductkw. 

p. viii. aequalem temporibua: 'contemporary;* itmper^Mi 
is dative. 9. Xrfitini nominia: Hannibal consistently pursocs 
the policy of discrimination in the treatment of captives, in the 
hope of alienating the allies of Rome. 12. Flamlni . . . 

oorpos . . . non i&venit: doubtless the consuPs political ene- 
mies regarded his deprivation of burial rites as a merited judg- 
ment of heaven. This conduct of Hannibal does not evince 
"^imkumann crtnUlitas*^ (p. 77, I. 15), 

364 NOTES. [Page IM. 

16. rapMis: constnie sm an adverb with adiata, 18. 

fnqiMotis oontloiils modo: Mike a crowded assembly;' a 
comiw was a meeting of the populus^ but not in its legislative 
or elective capacity. oomitinm : the northeast portion of the 
forum, in front of the senate house, the place where magis- 
trates usually addressed the people. 20. M. Pomponius 
prMtor (peregrinus) : we should expect M. Aemilius, praetor 
urkanus^ to appear on this occasion; the city praetor took pre- 
cedence of the others, and we know that all four praetors were 
then at Rome. 

30. doino«p« : equivalent to an adjective, attributive to dies^ 
^following.* 33. oircamfandobantnrquo : *and crowded 

around.' 3C utiquo: 'especially.' 36. oemeres: A. 311, 
tf, N. 3; H. 485, N. I ; G. 352. fratolantisqno ant oomso- 

lantto: accusative* 

Page 150« a. porta: of the city. 6. pmetores: be- 
cause there was no consul in the city. ab orto . • . aolem : 
the senate could not pass resolutions after sunset. 

Chap. VIII. 10. quattnor milla aqoitum: the vanguard 
i/L the army of Ser\'ilius, who was advancing to join Flaminius. 
U. propraetoro : he had not been a praetor in 318 b. c, but 
lad praetorian rank as a legatHs of the consul. 13. aver- 
mrwaX iter: *had turned back.' cironrnventa : *cut off;' 
-fannibars light cavalry could easily do this, as the Roman 
lorses were doubtless tired after a forced march. 20. rerum 
asi^isitadiiie : *its real importance.' 21. qnod adgraTarot: 
which placed any additional strain upon them.' 

22. remadiom lam din neqna deatdaratum : the last dictator 
r/ £er€mdat cnnsa had been A. Atilius Calatinus, in 249 b. c, 
fter the overwhelming defeat of P. Claudius Pulcher off 
^repantini, in the first Punic war. Dictators for formal pur- 
>ses were frequent. Fabius himself had been dictator, ccm* 
f^rmm hmbituiorum causa^ in 221 b. c. 23. dioandum : 

•coding to precedent, the senate, as the ordinary executive 
urtcil, determined when it was necessary to name a dictator. 
ae of the consuls then ascended at dead of night to the Capi- 
^ cook the auspices, and named the dictator, whose authority 
»o superseded that of the ordinary magistrates for not more 
a«m six months. This was tantamount to a prodamatioD of 

Paob 191.] BOOK XXII. CHAP. IX. S^S 

martial law. The dictator named his own subordinate col- 
league, the magisUr tquitum^ the special significance of whose 
title had long since become obsolete, and who served in gencrd 
as second in command. 27. diotatorem populiM croavit: 

in the comiiia ctHturiata; tlie unusual nature of the crisis jus- 
tified this unprecedented proceeding even in the eyes of tl\c 
conservative Romans, though some authorities explain that 
Fabius was only a pro-dictator. 

26. Q. Pabium Majdmum : he earned the surname CuucUtor 
by his cautious tactics in the ensuing campaign ; cf . p 90, L 13, 
where he appears as chief of the embassy which declared war 
at Carthage. 29. M. Minnoium Rufum: consul in 221 

B. c. ; he represents the popular, Fabius the aristocratic party. 
3X fluminum : especially the Tiber and Anio. 

Paffe 151. Chap. IX. 1. reoto itinero: i.e. straight 
toward Rome, the most direct route being viA Spolctium in Urn*. 
bria, sixty miles southeast of the field of battle. 4. oolonUe : 
it had been a ** Latin '* colony since 240 b. c baud nimls 
proaparo: * without success;* litotes. 5. quanta moles, 

etc. : * how difficult it would have been to talce the city of Rome ; ' 
but Hannibal, destitute of siege artillery and without allies in 
central Italy, could not have thought seriously of attacking 

8. Ibi : from this point he sent news of his victory to Car* 
thage. 9. statiTa : it was on this occasion that he supplied 
his African infantry with arms taken from the slain and cap- 
tured Romans. U. lovl aut faoili: the former refers to 
wounds and losses, the latter to the exertion needed in the 
fight. 13. Praotatlannm : in the south of Picenumt the 

modem Abruui. Hadrianum: Hadria, or Hatria, was a 

colony founded 289 b. c, on the Adriatic coast of this district, 
just after the third Samnite war, when Rome was establishing 
her supremacy all over Italy. 

14. Maraoa, etc.: these nations, Osco-Sabellians, lived fur- 
ther south; notice that there are no names for their districts. 
15. Arpoa: in the north of Apulia. Laooriam: a ** Latin** 
colony since 314 b. c, founded to keep the Samnites in check 
in that direction. 13. Oallla : they were trying to shake 

off the Roman yoke. 

i66 NOTES. [Pack 132. 

22. voeato Mnata, ab dte orsus; this ii analogous to the 
usual procedure of a consul immediately after his inauguration. 
On such occasions matters of religion were always discussed 
first* 23. oaorimonlamm : tlie ancients derived this word 
from Cat»e in Etruria; Pott connects it with eura^ Corssen 
with sim^ir-H^, 24. insciUa : military * incompetence.* 27. 
taetra: for ordinary cases the consultation of the pontifical 
books or the advice of the haruspices was deemed sufficient. 
29. latalilran: *of fate/ 'fateful/ not 'fatal.* oaoMi: ab- 
lative. 30. forat = r/^#/. 31. ludoa magnoa: called 
also /udi Romania annual games supposed to have been insti- 
tuted by Tarquinius Priscus, held in the Circus Maximus, in 
honor of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva; cf. Dk. i. ch. 35. 

32. Vanari Bmolnaa : there was at Eryx, at tiie western 
extremity of Sicily, an ancient and much venerated temple of 
the Phoenician Astarte. She was identified with Aphrodite or 
VenuSy the mother of Aeneas, and so had a peculiar interest 
for the Romans. 33. Tar aaorom : an aiftient Italian cus- 

tom of vowing to the gods all that should be born in a given 
spring from March ist to May 1st. In the earliest times the 
human offspring was included in the vow, and, when human 
sacrifice was no longer practised, was sent forth at maturity 
from the fatherland to find a new home. Much of the coloniza- 
tion of the Sabellian nations was thus brought about. Prellcr, 
Rdm. MythoL 104, // passim. The vow here mentioned does 
BoC indttde human beings. 

Page 152* 4. pontilloiim : cf. note on p. 25, L 20 ; since 
300 B. c. the college of pontiffs had consisted of eight members. 

Chap. X. 11. quinqnannlum : yet it was not till 195 b. c. 
that the vow was performed {LXyy, Bk. xxxiii., ch. 44). 13. 
daallla : archak for Miis/ cf. duonms = boMHs, duis s= hisy etc 
05. daits^/y A. 128, t, 2; H. 240, 3; G. 191, 3. 17. pro- 
fsoa : *aot (already) consecrated.* fiari : be offered in sacri- 
fice. 19. laga s ritu. faadt : future perfect, etymologically 
probably fntnre, analogous to the 9 futures in Greek; A. 128, /, 3 ; 
H. 24^ 4; G. 191, 5. 20. profanum : 'consklered as uncon- 
aecrated.* 21. naqua aoalua aato : * the owner shall be 
gidltksa.* nuBpats corrumpti : * shall wound.* 22. aa 

Pace 153 J BOOK XXII. CHAP. XL 3^7 

fraus eato : i. e. no responsibilitv on the part of the owner 
to replace the ttobn beast. depait : future perfect, like 
faxii^ above. 23. coi : 'from whom.' A. 229, 3S5, 11. 2. 
atro dia : * on a day of ill omen.* fazit : * if the owner offer 
in sacrifice.* 25. antidea =<iM//ay antid is archaic for 
anti^ the d being the old ablative termination; aniidea ac=^ 
ante quam, 26. UoAyxiX :=. factum erit* 

28. aeria : i. e. assium ; the odd numbers were supposed 
to be favored by the celestial, the even by the infernal gods', 
and with the Latins three anU its multiples had a specially 
sacred character. The old libral as oi 10 (nominally 12) uttcioi 
was retained in religious reckoning. For civil purposes the as 
was reduced in 269 B. c. to 4 unciae^ and in 217 D. C. to 1 uHcia, 
31. adiota : ordered by proclamation of the praetor ; cf. 11. 2-5, 
supra* 33. quoa . . . cura : * who, as they had some prop- 
erty of their own, were also concerned for the public welfare;* 
they had *a stake in the country.* 

PaffO 153* 2. deoamTiria aaororum : identical with the 
keepers of the Sibylline books. 3. Zovi ao Zunoiil, etc: 
these are the twelve supreme deities of the Hellenic Olympus, 
whose introduction into the Roman pantheon was doubtless due 
to the Sibylline books, which were of Greek origin. These 
deities were more or less identified with the Italian ones, under 
whose names they appear, though often originally very different 
conceptions ; e. g. the resemblance of Mars and Area is a very 
superficial one. unum : sc. pulvinar stratum* 

Chap. XI. 11. daqaa ra poblioa . . . rattuUt: 'opened a 
discussion of the condition of the state;* cf. p. 79, 1. 11, and 
note. 14. aeoiperat; aoribarat : the subject is dictator; 
scribtret =z conscribcrct ; one of Livy*s poetic tendencies is to 
use simple verbs for compounds. 17. a ra iMibliea : ' for 
the advantage of the state.' 19. Tibur : sixteen miles north- 
east of Rome, now Tivoli. 20. oaatalla : small towns or 
villages; many of them occupied positions of natural strength. 

21. inmunita : /// is negative. uti : simply a repetition of 
ui for greater perspicuity. 24. via Flaminia : built by 

Flaminius, when censor, in 220 B. c. It led from Rome to 
Ariminum. 25. axaroitnqua : dative. 26. oircMi : * near.* 
OoriQQlum : on the upper Tiber, the first Umbriaa town on 

J<38 NOTES. [Pagb 195. 

I the yia Ftamimuu 27. Tiatorom : a general term for all the 
I attendants of a magistrate, but specially the messengers, in dis- 
' tioction from otlier attendants. 28. sine liotoribua : he was 
to give up the insignia of authority in the presence of his supe- 
rior; a consul had twelve lictors, a dictator twenty-four, a praetor 
six. 30. spooieni : * prestige.' 

Page 154« 2. portum CoMuram : an important naval 
station on the coast of Etruria. 3. ad urbem : in the 
neighborhood of the city, i. e. in the dockyards near the Porta 
Tng^mintu 9. navalibus aooiis : cf. note on p. 123, 1. 31. 
7. libertini : then, as well as for more than a centur)' later, 
military service was a duty, and, in theor)' at least, a privilege 
of free-born citizens only. aetas militaria : normally from 

seventeen to forty-six. 8. in verba : the oath was dictated 
to them by a military tribune, and they repeated it after him. 
urbano : the freedmen, no matter where they lived, were con- 
fined to the four city tribes, which were therefore regarded rather 
contemptuously. XO. alii = r^/m. 

Chap. XII. 14. tranavorals limitibua : 'cross-roads,' not 
paved l ike the great **Knf^.'* Tiam X^atiiiam : this highw'ay 
ran southeast from Rome vi& Casinum and Tcanum Sidicinum, 
and joined the Appian Way near Capua; a branch of it led to 
BeneventuoL 16* oogeret : subjunctive because the relative 
is indefinite. 22. BCartioa : alluding to the Roman claim of 
descent from Mars. debellatamqno : *and that the war was 
finished.' 23. oonoessum : * that they yielded the palm.' 
25. Flamini : A. 234, d\ H. 391, ii., 4; G. 356, R. t; Roby, 
Lat Gr. 1317. 26. futura aibi roa eaaat : *he would have 
to deal.' 27. parom Hannibali : no Roman general was 
oompaiable to Hannibal, but it was the fashion of the aristo- 
f cratic annalists to enhance the negative services of Fabius, 
I whose prudence may have been partly due to incompetence and 
timidity. 33. at . • . poMot : ' to see if he could ; ' A. 334,/*; 
H. 529^ 11.9 It N. I $ G. 462, 2. 

Page IAS* 2. omittoret eoiii : * let him out of his sight' 
9. stitio: * outpost* 8. noqno . • . oommlttobator : *the re- 
sult of the campaign was not staked upon a general engagement.* 
•• panra moinonta lerlimi oortamlnnm : 'petty and trifling 


encounters.' XO. r^oeptu : * retreat/ * place of refuge,* doubt* 
less their camp. 11. miiitem : singular for collective : * the 
soldiery.* minus . . . paenltsrs : * to be less hopeless,* lit- 
erally * dissatisfied;' this verb, not in a finite mood, is often 
used personally. 13. habobat : ' he found.* 14. qui nihil 
aliu4 . . . mora* : ' whom nothing but the fact of his subordi- 
nate authority prevented from,* etc ; Livy*s aristocratic bias rcn- /^ 
ders him somewhat unjust to Minucius, as before to Sempronius • 
and afterward to Varro. ^ 17. propalam in Tulgus : * openly, 
so that everybody might hear him.' 19. premendo : * by 

disparaging/ ss dtprimendo* 

Chap. XIII. 22. •« Hirpinis : a nearly direct line from 
Luceria to Beneventum, runs southwest vi& Aecae, over the 
Apennines, and through the country of the Hirpini. The dis- 
tance is about fifty miles. The Hirpini were a Sabellian nation, 
ltd from their original home by a wolf {kirpHs), They had 
been included in the Samnite league, but that existed no longer. 
Samnium, here used in a narrow sense, means the land of the 
Caudini. Telesia was fifteen to eighteen miles northwest of 
Beneventum. The latter was the name substituted for Malcven- 
tum, when the Romans planted a colony there in 268 n. c. 32. 
ras maior quam auotores essot: *the enterprise was too im- 
portant to be undertaken upon their sole guaranty.' 33. nltar- 
nisqno : sc. vicibui, 

Pngre 15G« 4. duoi : • the guide.* in agrum Casinatem : 

it is hard to see why he should have taken the route vi& Casi- 
num, when he was aiming at Capua. Poly bins makes no men* 
tion of the misunderstanding, and the story is suspicious. 
Casinum is about forty miles northwest; Capua about fifteen 
miles southwest ; Callifae and AUifae about nine and twelve 
respectively northwest of Telesia. Casilinum was three or four 
miles north of Capua, on the Voltumus, and Cales four or five 
miles north of Casilinum. The campus or ager Sieltas was 
north of the Voltumus and west of the Via Appia. 

5. enm saltum : the pass into the valley of the Liris. 6. osd* 

tum: from Samnium or Apulia; but the Via Appia^ the most 

-direct road from Rome to Capua remained open. 8. ut 

aooiporet faoit : * caused him to understand.' 12. nbi ter- 

raram: A.2i^tf,4; H. 397,4; G.37I,r.4. 13. mansomm: 

370 NOTES. [Pagb 157. 

* would lodge ; ' * spend the night.* X7. agnim Falerniim : 

north of the agtr SUltas j famous for producing the best wine 
in Italy. 18. aquas Sinuesaanaa: these famous baths still 
exist, now called I Bagni, near Mondragone. 

22. inato . . . impario : this was substantially true of most 
of Rome*s dependencies at this period, before the era of for- 
eign conquest and its consequent corruption. Yet Capua was 
treated with exceptional severity, and was anxious to throw off 
the Roman yoke. 

Chap. XIV. 26. Maaaioi montia : on the border of Latium 
and Campania; hence came the famous Massic wine. 29. 
oolarina aolito: Fabius* real object, as appears later, was to 
shut the enemy in the Capuan plain by seizing the passes. 

32. oolonommqua Binuaaaaa : a colony and fortress had been 
planted here in 296 B. c, at the time of the third Samnite war. 

33. Bpaotatom : supine ; ui ad rem fmendam oculis^ is a sort 
of appositive to it, both expressing purpose. 

Page 157* 3. na . . • pndet: *are we not asliamed be- 
fore these feUow<itizens ? * Pudci takes a causal genitive; 
dvium^ however, expresses the occasion rather than the cause 
of their shame. 8. pro: interjection. 9. nuper: though 
the period referred to was more than a generation previous, the 
word marks the rapidity of their degeneration. 10. dedecua 
imparil: Philinus says that before the first Punic war the Car- 
thaginians were excluded by treaty from the Italian waters, 
and such seems to have been the popular belief, though it is 
now known to have been erroneous. 12. modo: more re- 
ccntly than nuper. 19. aaatlToa aaltna : mountain pastures 
used in summer. 

21. M. Forlua (Camt'/ims): he is said to have delivered 
Rome, when dictator, from the Gallic invaders of 390 b. c. 
(Livy, Bk. ▼• ch. 48.) 22. unioua : * unegualled/ * admirable; * 
aarcastic. 2a Vaioa aUatnm: incorroct, for CamTllus'^s 
in exile at Ardea when summoned to assume the dictatorship. 
Xanloiiliim : the highest hill at Rome, but on the north bank 
of the Tiber, and so on the road from Veil. 29. in aaonm : 
«to the plain.' 

31. Bnata Oallioa: the * tombs of the Gauls,' so called 
becansa auuiy Gauls were said to have died of a plague, and 

Pagk I5a| BOOK XXI i. CHAK XV. 37 1 

their bodies to have been buraed there, during the siege of the 
Capitol, after the burning of the city. 33. Forcolaa Can- 
dinaa : here in 321 B. c, during the second Samnite war, a Ro- 
man army, marching to relieve Luceria, was siirrounded and 
made to pass under the yoke. 3C Xi. Papiriua Curaor: 

gained great success in the same war, and captured Luceria in 
320 B. C. 35. p«rluatraBdo : *by traversing;* processions 

formed an important part of the ritual of the iusirum^ and the 
word was readily transferred to general use. 

Pni;e 158* 1. Modo : twenty*four years before ; another 
allusion to the battle of the Acgatcs Islands in 241 b. c. & 
deballarl poaao : • that the war could be finished.* 9. volut 
oontionanti : cf. p. 127, 1. 32. X3. baud dabto forobani: 

*tliey declared plainly.* 

Chap. XV. 15. paritor: tautological, unless it be taken in 
temporal sense, =s simul. 20. aumina opo : modifies petitu 
22. praesentia . . . oopiao : it was a region of fruit rather 
than of grain, and besides it had just been laid waste. non 
parpetuaa : this was not the only reason why Hannibal should 
prefer to winter elsewhere ; he had possession of no cities, and 
the Romans occupied strong positions on the hills near by. On 
the broad open plains of Apulia, in a fertile region, he would 
be master of the situation. 23. arboata . . . conaita, etc. : 
a loose construction ; the meaning is rtgio . . • eomsiia arbmstis 
vineisque tt omnibus^ etc. 

25. eaadem anguatiaa: yet Hannibal Is represented as hav- 
ing come into the campus Stellas from Allifae, through the 
territory of Cales, i. e. apparently to the west of the hills between 
Cales and Casilinum, and now Fabius guards a position to the 
east of the same hills to keep him from going back. 26. 
Callioulam montam: somewhere in the range of hills extend- 
ing from Cales to the Voltumus: the pass over the mountain 
is intended here rather than the mountain itself. 27.' CasUl- 
num : this fortress on the Voltumus, at the junction of tbe 
Appian and Latin Ways, blocked Hannibal's nuirch by a southerly 
route. 28. dirempta : I. e. the river flows through the town. 
Campano : in the narrower sense, • Capuan,' for the m^f 
Faltmut was part of Campania. 29. roduoit: the most 

373 NOTES. [Faos lea 

Ditanl aod obvious thing for Fablos to do was to block the 
passage between Cales and Teanum Sidicinum. 

Page 150. 1. ooonpatua: 'carried away.' 2. oaroide- 
nmtqno : sc animoi * were forgotten.* 7. Cnithalo : cf. p. 
195, L K and p. 204, 1. 14. oqueatria : adjective for objective 
genitive. 13. «»nuil parto virlnm : a rather inaccurate phrase, 
as they had cavalry only on both sides, unless we understand 
it as meaning *in all respects.* 18. saltum: the defile of 
Lautulae on the Appian Way in Southern Latium. Tanra- 
oinam: on the Volscian coast, originally called Anxur. 20. 
Applaa (vMr) Umlta : * by the line of the Appian Way.* 
■gnus Homannm : the territory of the thirty-five tribes of 
iivti R^manu 22. la Tiam : apparently the road over the 
CMUulm moms. 23. Duo Indo milia: an unusually short 

Chap. XVI. 24. bina: A. 95, ^; H. 174, 2, 3); G. 95. r. 2. 
28. Caspttm: 'at different points,* or * repeatedly,' or ' in detach- 
ments ; ' it is difficuh to say which of these meanings is the one 
intended ; we have noticed Livy's fondness for adverbs of this 
form. 31. ab Romania: 'on the side of the Romans.' 

32. Xnolwma: Polybius speaks only of an attempt to surprise 
Hannibal at one pass. A complete blockade of the district, 
soch as seems here indicated, would apparently require more 
troops than Fabius had. via ad Caailinum obaessa: 'the 
road (to the south) being blocked at Casilinum.' 33. tantum 
. . • aooiomm ^ M sociL 34. ab targo . . • soolomm : 
in their rear,' i. e. the Latins. 

Page 100* 1. Pormiana: Formiae was on the Appian 
Waj, on the coast, a little north of the Uris. Litemi : on the 
coast near Cumae, the scene of the voluntary exile of Scipio 
Africanus in 185 b. c 2. silTas : the silva Gailinnria near 
Camae, infested in the author's time by brigands. 5. aaoubi: 
n£'€ubi^ final conjunction. 6. Indibrium: 'illusion.' U. 
doflsitoa: 'broken' to the yoke. 13. affaota: ^raised,* 

' collected.' Hasdmbaliqna : chief of the engineers or work* 
meiiv as Polybius tells us. 18. at poasat ; of course it was 
difficult to drive the oxen with any precision. The whole story 
is aot very probable. anpar aaltna : not along the pass, but 
so aa to make the Romans think their flank had been turned. 

pAGBiea.] BOOK xxiK chap. xix. j7j 

Chap. XVII. 20. la advervos . • . montis: 'up the moun- 
tains.* 22. ad vivom : * to the quick.' ad Tivom ad 
imaquo oornua: hendiadys. 23. repeuta: equivalent to 
an adjective, altributive to discursu; this is one of the Grecisnw I 
characteristic of the Latin of the silver age. 2ii hand 
aaooa quam . . . acoanaia: *aa if (purposely) set on fire.* 

29. praasldio: 'station/ *post.* 33. flammaa aplranUom : 
the substantive is properly omitted, for the soldiers did not 
know what the creatures were. 

Pa^e 101* 3. XiOTi . . . armaturaa: characteristic use 
of abstract for concrete. 4. inourrara : ' met,' ' encountered,* 
not 'attacked;' this verb is usually construed with in and the 
accusative. 5. nautros . . • tanuit: a very awkward sen- 

tence; 'kept both sides from beginning a fight before morn- 
ing.' 6. Hannibal: for similar instances of a nominative 
inserted into an ablative absolute, cf. p. 1 1, 1. 2, and p. 104, L ai. 

Chap. XVIII. 12. ab aula: 'from their comrades.' 16. 
ooncuraandum : ' skirmishing.' 18. atatariumqua : i. e. 

used to fighting only in a regular formation. 24. Romam 
aa patara aimulana: Hannibal always strove by rapid move- 
ments to perplex and alarm the enemy. 25. Paallgnoa: 
almost directly east from Rome; their chief town was Cor- 
finium. 27. abslatana: 'avoiding.' 28. Qaraoniom: a 

town of the Frentani near the frontier of Samnium and Apulia. 

30. Larlnata agro : Larinum was about fifteen miles north .bf 

Page 102* 1. confidat . • . Imitator: strictly according 
to the rule of sequence we should expect secondary tenses after 
agtns^ which depends on revocatus (esi). 3. ludlfioattonam : 
' baffling.' 7. haao . . . praamonlto : karc is cognate accu- 
sative retained with the passive verb. A. 238, d\ H. 371, il; 
G. 331, R. 3. 

Chap. XIX. The narrative broken off at the end of Dk. 
xxi., ch. 61, is here resumed. It will be remembered that Cn. 
Scipio had invaded Spain in the previous year and gained 
considerable successes. U. Haadmbal: the elder of Han- 
nibal's brothers. quam . . . aooaparat: he had received 
fifty^even ships, of which thirty-seven were equipped for use; 

374 NOT£S. [Paob 164. 

d. p. 95, 11. i5«-i8« 14. Carthas^* (AVva): the modern 

Caithageiuu 15. quaomnqna s= utracHmque^ i. e. by land 

or by sea. 16. ooouniaaat : A. 316; H. 507, iii. 2. 

17. id«m oonaUli : subject of /«//, = idtm consiltum. His 
purpose was coHfliger§ quacumqut parity etc. 18. mlnua: 
mildly for twm. Ingantom: usually explained as agreeing 
by hypallage with famam instead of scciorum. 19. ad 

aaTM: construe with diUcio; *for ship-service.* 21. Altaro 
. . . dio : ' on the day after leaving.* Tarraoona : on the 
coast, about forty-iive miles north of the Ebro. 23. Maaaili* 
analuin: cf. p. 93, II. 15, 16, and note. apeoulatoriao : light, 
swift vessels^ without beaks, used for reconnoitring. 

Pasre 163. U. roaolutia oris: casting off their moor- 
ings ; crat were cables from the sterns to the shore, = red- 
Hoculaj the cables from the bows to the anchors were an^o- 
rMlia. la anql^oraa erehuntur : * drifted out to their anchors ' 
(intending to raise them). 16. derescarat: *had drawn up 
ialine.* 19. adTsral amnla oa: *the mouth of the river 
u they moved up stream.* 

CHAP. XX. Page 104. 1. Onusam: cf. note on p. 95, 
1. 20. 6. Loagnatloam: its position is not known, but by 
reason of the vis tnagnn sparii it is supposed to have been near 
New Gtfthage. 6. apart! : ' Spanish broom,* used to make 
ropes and cables. 9. praalaota eat ora : ' they coasted 

along the shore.* ia Eboaum: tlie largest of the Pityusae 
Islands, now Iviza, and counted as one of the Balearic group. 
10. XM arbo : the town also was called Ebusus. U. naqui- 
qaam: 'without result* 12. fimatni: *with vain efforts.* 

17. oltarlota : i. e. north of the Ebro. provinciaa : 

Spain had not yet become a Roman province. 20. laoti 

alat: subjunctive because the antecedent of qui is meant to 
be indefinite; the relative clause is characteristic. 21. popnli: 
* communities.* 23. aaltam Caatoloaeaaam : the eastern part 
of the Sierra Morena, or the *pass of Castulo' leading over 
the range near the city of that name, which was. the capital of 
the Oretani, and so Carthaginian in sympathy "»/ uxor iude 
HamuibaU ssai." This disunce from the Ebro is so great 

WW * 

that the story here told is improbable. 24. Lnsitantom ; 

corresponding substantially with the modem Portugal. 

Chap. XXI. 26. par Poooum hostem: 'as far as the 
Carthaginian enemy was concerned,* *if it had depended only 
upon the Carthaginian enemy.* 27. nvidaquo: this adjective 
usually takes the genitive. 28. Mandoaius: brother-in-law 
of Indibilis. qui refers to Indibilis only. 29. Bersatom: 
between the Pyrenees and the Ebro; cf. p.95» 1. to, and note. 
nb saltn: sc. CastuhneHsL 33. aiudUU: probably Spanish. 

Page 105* 3. oia : from his point of view, i. e. to the 
south side. 5. ZlargaTonansiam : south of the Ebro along 
the coast. NoTsm Clasaam: perhaps between Ilerda and 
Tarraco, but not certainly identified. 6. Caltibail: the great 
central nation of the peninsula. 

Chap. XXII. X4. P. Soipio: the consul of the year before, 
who had been wounded at the Ticinus. 15. prorogato . . . 
impario: he was now a proconsul. 18. ingana : 'swelled.* 
19. portum Tarraoonia: it was only an insecure roadstead; 
Emporiae was the usual port of the Romans in this quarter. 
tanuit: 'reached.* 21. oommnni animo: this is a contrast \ 
to the usual ^dissensions of the consuls. 23. nao ullo tIso 
ss// nuilo visa. 24. Baguntum: this city had not been 
destroyed after its capture by Hannibal.- 27. omniom: a 
decided exaggeration* 28. Uliaruiii : genitive. 30. 

Bagunti: locative. 

Pn^e IGG. 2. nniiin . . . oorpua : 'a single ordinary and • i 
insignificant individual.* 3. id agabat : * his purpose was.* 
5. potastatia aiua potarat faoara : 'could put into his power;' 
this is a statement of fact, not a report of the thought of 
Abelux, hence the verb is indicative. 8. Bostarla : the name 
means 'servant of Astarte;* Livy thinks of him as the governor 
(praefictHs) of Saguntum. 10. in ipso litora : the town 
was a mile from the shore (p. So, 1. i). 12. in aaoratnm : 
'aside;* c£. p. 49, L s^ 15. oia : i. e. south. 16. novaa . . . ^ 
raa : * a chang e jpf masters.' 19. subitum tantaa rat donnm: ' 
'a gift^that would be all at once so effectual.* 21. nomaa: 
'position,* 'in^uence.' 22. Volt . . . oradi . . . ftdaa: 

* every one likes to be trusted, and trust reposed usually hrgets 


376. NOTES. [Pagi 16a 

smtiirn of confidence.* 25. opera • . . inpensa: *by the 
pains which I shall take.' 27. ad: *in comparison with.* 
28. nocto olam : cf. lua palam^ p. 168, I. 31. 31. fide : 
'assurance of good faith.* 

Page 107« 3. per eundem ordinem s: eodem ordim^ 
which would be a more natural and usual expression. 5. Ro- 
Bumomm : objective genitive with gratia. 6. fntnra . . . 
faerat: future from a past standpoint. Roby, Lat Gr. 1494. 
nioa : the Carthaginians ; though the last mentioned, they are 
the more remote in the writer^s thought 7. gravia : ' op- 

presuve.* eaqpertoa : passive. 12. apeotare : * were pre* 
paring for.' 

Chap. XXIII. 15. seonnda aestate: 217 b. c. 17. oune- 
tatio: Ennius, quoted by Cicero (De Senec. iv. 10), says, *^Unus 
. kpmo nobis cunctando resiUnii rcm;^^ and cf. also Veig. Aen. 
vL 8461 ' 18. aollioitom . . . habebat : * kept in a state of 
anxiety.' 19. eum =s taiem, miUtUe magiatrum : the 
early title of a dictator was pcfuli magister ; corresponding to 
* eqmium magister, 20. ratione : ' by system.' 22. laeto 
▼erina . . . quam prospero : ' gratifying rather than fortunate ; * 
I e. pleasing at the time, but leading to sad results by inspiring 

29. ea : attracted from id to gender of the predicate, mercts. 
altera : correlative to una (1. 25), both being in apposition to 
dmae res (1. 24). primo : adverb. foraitan : generally used 
with a verb in the subjunctive mood. Madvig, Lat. Gr. 350, ^, 
Obs. 3; Roby, Lat. Gr. 1766-7; A. 311, tf, N. 3; H. p. 267, foot- 
note I. 30. dubio : 'questionable;* agrees with facto^ as 
does also verso (1. 32). non eaqpeotata . . . auotoritas : * he 
did not wait for the sanction of the senate.' 33. oonveoerat : 
*it had been agreed.* 

Page 108* 2. argenti . . . aellbraa : zyi pounds of silver, 
the pound contained 84 denarii (about 6 to a dollar); 2}i 
pounds as 210 denarii^ about $35. in militem : *for each 
sokiier.* 4. arfentmnqiie • . , tardiua erogaretnr : * there 
was delay in voting the money; ' because the senate was offended 
at Fabins' neglect to consult it in advance. 7. agram: he 
had a small estate of about four acres between' Rome and 

Paoi 170] BOOK XXIL CHAP. XXV. 377 

GabiL 9. oaptae: cf. p. l6i, U. 27-30; such inconsistencies of 
detail are very frequent in Livy, to whom they seem to have be:n 
a matter of indi£Ference. They are due to his system of fol- 
lowing first one authority and then another, without careful 
comparison. 14. neounde : nt cunde^ 'lest from any point* 

Chap. XXIV. 15. Larlnati: cf. note on p. f6t, L 3a 
19. pro: *in accordance with.' 20. caUdiork : 'more rash.* 
23. ferooina qnam oonanltlas : *with more impetuosity than 
discretion.' A. 192, H. 444, 2; G. 314. 25. tertiam partem: 
Hannibal sent large numbers to forage, because he was anxious 
to lay in large supplies at Gereonium before the Romans inter- 
fered with his movements. 28. oonapaotum : * visible.* 
aoiret : sc. kostis. 29. Propior : i. e. nearer to the enemy 
than the hill mentioned in 1. 27. oi : i. e. Hamnibaiij construe 
with npparuiL 

PafiTO 100. 3. per arena a oaatria HannibaUs : from the 
rear of their own camp, the part furthest away from Hannibal's ; 
in other words, by the porta dccumana. 7. arttbna : ' tactics* 
10. Zusta . . . dimioatum : ' that a regular pitched battle was 
fought.' 13. Numeri Deoimi : nominatives in -ins. 15. 
BovianI : the former capital of the Samnite confederacy. 
Samnio : notice the omission of iVr. 21. duo oaatelU : per- 
haps at the position of the enemy referred to on p. 168, 11. 30, sqq. 
23. Tanam : 'lying,' 'boastful.' 

Chap. XXV. 28. ut vera omnia eaeent : 'granting that it 
was alt true.' A. 313* a; H. 515, iii.; G. 610. 32. gerendat 
. . . gestae : cf. couditam condcndamve^ p* i» 1- 23, and txkaus' 
tos attt exhaHritndoSy p. c>4, 11. 13, 14. 33. quo diutlas : a 
dictator might lay down his office at any time, but could not 
keep it more than six months. 

Page 170. 3. ablegatom : cf. p. 154, 1. 3. praetores: 
since 227 b. c. there had been four,— the/, urhanus^ /. pengrinusy 
and one each for Sicily and Sardinia. 8. quo . • • oonces- 
aom ait : 'from which district they had retired before the Car* 
thaginisuis.' Qu^ • • • agro^ ablative of separation; Pcenis^ 
dative of advantage. tanquam trans Eibenim {esset)i al- 
luding to the treaty made with Hasdrubal (p. 75, U. 23, sqq.). 
13. prope : construe with etausos. 14. nt . . . at: 'wben* 

378 NOTES. [Page 171. 

... * as if.* 17. abroguido : constitutionally a superior 

magistrate could not be deposed* though he might be induced 
to abdicate voluntarily. So this was an empty threat Even 
supposing. Fabius' appointment irregular, it would have required 
an act of the comiiia unturiata^ by which he was elected, to 
annul it; and a tribune could not call a meeting of that body. 
20. mittondiim as dimitUKdum : * allowed to depart* 22. 
soffseiMet: 'had presided at the election of a consul mffectus^ 
i. e. a consul to take the place of the dead Fkiminius. in 
actlone: 'in addressing the people.* 23. aatia : 'quite.' 
21 hostom : Hannibal, not his army. 

29. pi ope diem : * soon ;* often written as one word. bono 
imperatore: ablative absolute. 31. in tempore: 'at the 

(right) time,* ' opportunely.* 34. M. Atilio Regnlo : he had 
been consul in 227 b. c, and was now an old man, as he him* 
self said, p. 186, 1. 17. 35. rogationls ferendae: for voting 
OQ the proposal (of Metilius). 

Page 171* 1. plebia oonoiliam: whether this was or 
was not identical with the comitia iributa is one of the vexed 
questions of Roman constitutional history. Dut long before this 
time the principle had been established that resolutions of the 
pkbi {plebicita) should have the force of laws binding the whole 
nation. The plebeian tribunes had the right to call this assembly 
and propose legislation to it. 4. favore anperante: 'though 
there was abundant disposition to favor the measure : * supernre 
in the sense of superesse^ and contrasted with dterat (1. 5). 
auetorittts : ' the support of influential men.* 7. humili • . . 
sordido : we may take the first as referring to his family, the 
second to his trade. 8. ipanm inatltorem merois: *a re- 
tailer of his own wares.* Retail trade was considered ignominious 
by the Romans. 

Chap. XXVI. U. liberalioria : 'more respectable ; * Nberafis 
is what is worthy of a free man. 12. togaque et forum : 
'public life;* we say 'the cloth* for the clergy and 'the bar* 
for advocates. At Rome the lower classes ordinarily went in 
the tuniCt without the toga, the formal dress for all public occa- 
siona. proolamando : contemptuous; 'by declaiming.' 13. 
rem et iunam: 'property and reputation.* 14^ bonomm: 
'respectable people;* as in Gcero» the word is used in an aris- 


tocratic tense. honorea : men wishing to reach the consul- 
ship had to pass through a regular succession of lower offices. 
15. duaboa aodUiUtibiw: it was very unusual for a man (o^, 
hold both aedilcships. 

18. diotatorla: this adjective is equivalent to an objective 
genitive. 19. oniia craUam tiilit: *got the whole credit.* 
21. aoqui atquo iniqui: * friends and foes.* 22. aocepemut: 
'understood.* 23. ••: \. t, Fabittm. wA^mapud. 26. 
aequato imporlo : this was inconsistent with the whole idea and 
purpose of the dictatorship, an undivided and unlimited command. 

Pnfire 172. Chap. XXVII. 4. annaliam: the annaUs 
maxiMi, drawn up annually by the pontifcx maximus^ and ex- 
hibited on a white Ublct at his house. Historical literature 
had not begun at this time. 6. tremero: the transitive use 
of this word is poetic, and in prose post-Augustan. The refer- 
ence here is probably to Q. Fabius RuUianus, who barely escaped 
being put to death in 325 u. c, by the dictator L Papirius Cursor, 
for fighting contrary to orders, though he gained a victory. 
7. aoottturum no fortimam suam : * he would try his own 
luck,* *act on his own responsibility.* 12. optumum docere: 
in Polybius it is Fabius who offers the alternatives and Minu> 
cius who prefers to divide the army. 13. partltla tomporibus: 
'in equal periods.* 17. omnia earn fortunam, etc. : *that the. 
fate of the whole enterprise would then be staked u|)on the 
rashness of his colleague.* 20. parte • . . ceaaamm: 'give 
up the chance to guide measures with prudence so far as he 
could.' 22. ejcoroitom : adversative asyndeton. 24. stent 
oonaulibos moa eaaet: it is true that ordinarily the armies were 
equally divided between the consuls; but, when they were com- 
bined, it was customary for the consuls to command the whole 
force alternately, usually one day at a time. 26. •Tonemnt: 
(sc. sorU\ * fell to.' 

Chap. XXVIII. 31. aum faUebat: 'escaped his knowl- 
edge.* indioantibiia • • . axplorantom : notice the awkward 
change of construction. 33. oaptaturum . . • daoaaalaaa: 
these infinitives depend on the notion *he was glad to think' im- 
plied in gaudium (1. 29). 

Paiire 17^ 2. qnam qui . . . faotnnia: 'the occupatioa 
of which would render,* etc. 5. oparaa prattuiii: * worth hit 

38o NOTES. [Pagx 176. 

while ; * cf. p. i« L I and p. 82, 1. 8. 6. satis aoiebat : * he 
was pretty sure.' 8. non moda: the negation in ne . . . 
quidem affects the first as well as the second clause ; translate 
as if it were ttom modo non. 9. Tsstitam : agrees with quic- 
qttam* natns: 'fitted by nature.' U. in anfraotibns: 
*in the windings* of the valley. IS. Neoubl : final, Ht tubi, 
18. ftTeitit: sc HannibaL 19. deposoere pellendoa: 

'begged to be allowed to dislodge.* 22. leTem armatu- 
tmm: abstract for concrete. 30. snoeedena tumulnm: 

'advancing up the knoll.* aucoedeotem := subsequeniem^ 

' coming behind tliem.* 33. itiata : ' in regular array.' recta : 
'with the enemy in front/ i. e. not coming ex insidiU as the 
case really was. 36. eum =s tanium* 

Page 174. Chap. XXIX. 6. fortiina: Mil fortune.' 
9. hoati . • . dvibiia: A. 229; H. 385, 11. 2 ; G. 344 R. 2. 15. 
BolntiB ordinibua: 'having broken ranks.' 16. plnrea si- 

mul: 'in a body,' 'keeping together.* 17. volyentesquo 

orbem: 'forming a circle;' as we say 'forming square.' 18. 
aeiiaim: 'only very slowly.' 20. receptni: A. 233,^; H. 

390; G. 350. 21. palam farente: 'openly admitting.' 25. 
primnin • . . aeonndam: 'the best ... the next best;* Livy 
here puts into Minucius* mouth a quotation from Hesiod (Works 
and DajTS, 293). 28. ea:tremi : ' lowest* 30. aora : ' rank.* 
31. in animttm indnoamna : ' let us make up our minds.* 

Page 175. 3. patronoa: they owed their lives to their 
comrades as a UbertHs owed his freedom to his patronus. 

Chap. XXX. 5. oonolamatur : ' command was given.' 
6. Tasa: all kinds of bfiggage, including tents and utensils. 
8. tribunal : a raised platform, to the left and in front of the 
pratiorium^ where stood the generaPs sella curulis* 10. 

ciromnliiaosqaemlUtani: i.e. soldiers of Fabius; a very un- 
usual treatment of a partitive genitive. totam agmen: 
Minudus* army. 12. quod fando poaaum : ' which is all I 
can do by mere words.* 14. plabeiaoitum : whereby he was 
made equal in authority to Fabius. onaratua . • • honoratna : 
paiooomasia ; a solemn pun, — ' rather burdened than guerdoned.' 
15. natlqao: this word is not strictly applicable, as it means 

Fagi 177.] BOOK XXII. CHAP. XXXI. 381 

to vote against a proposed measure, i. e. * I approve the old and 
wish no change.' abrogoquo: the proper word for repealing 
or annulling what Is already in force. 

16. quod ... ait folix: *may it prove fortunate.' 18. aigna 
• . . resttttto: the standards were set up in camp before the 
general*s tent. 26. pro so quiaqua: 'every one individ- 

ually.' 29. bioimio: the Carthaginians were just beginning 
their second year in Italy, as they had arrived late in the hli 
of 218 B. c but this was the close of the second campaign. 

Poipe 1 70. 2. Bodaro in iugia : a witty allusion to Fabius' 
habit of keeping on the hills, out of reach of the Punic 

Chap. XXXI. 5. oontum Tiginti: the numeral, lacking 
in the mss., is supplied from Polybius. 8. oaoeiialooea : 

'landings,' 'descents.' Monigo: Menix, or Meninx, a large 
and fertile island in the Syrtis Minor, the island of the lotus* 
eaters described in the Odyssey. 9. Cerolnam: a small 

island about equally distant east from Carthage and south 
from Sicily. 

10. talontia: cf. note on p. 67, 1. 15. 12. iazta . . . ao 
•i: 'just as if.' 14. frequentibQa palantoa . . . ignaii 

. . . gnaria : antithesis and chiasmus. 21. Zpao : Servilius, 
opposed to ciassiSf not to legato. ' pediboa : ' by land,* not 
necessarily 'on foot.' 24. aemenatri imporio: as already 
stated, the dictator's imptrium was limited to six months at 
most Qang enough for a campaign). Probably, also, it expired 
at the end of the term of the consul who had appointed him, 
though less than six months had elapsed since the nomination. 
2S. diotatoram: 'as dictator.' 27. primum: misleading;' 

he was the only one before Sulla and Caesar, who were subse- 
quent to the time of Coelius. 31. eo deoursum asso: 'they 
had recourse to this expedient' 32. pro diotatore : i. e. to 
exercise a dicUtor's functions, though not technically a dictator, 
because not nominated in the constitutional manner. 

Page 177. 1. titolitm Imaglnia: 'the inscription on his 

bust or mask;' alluding to the custom of preserving in the 

airimm the images of those ancestors of the family who had held 

curule offices, together with inscriptions narrating their exploits. 

•3. obttnuUiBe: 'brought about.' 'cauaed.' 

383 NOTES. [Paoi X7a 

Chap. XXXII. 6. raliquom antmnni: it was probably 
Ihca October, as the battle of Truimenut had been in April. 
8. oaipantM . . . •solpiontes : * harassing his army on the 
march and cutting of! stragglers.' 13. rapetiturus fuerlt: 
Roby« Lat Gr. 1521. 17. KoapolitanI : Ncapolis, an an- 

cient Greek city on the Campanian coast, became an ally of 
Rome at the end of the thiid Samnite war, 290 d. c. 24. 
fortona* : sc. adversae. 26. In ■••• : in themselves, as dis* 
tinguished from their property. They were expected to furnish 
naval assistance only, when called upon. Only Romans and 
Latins served in the legions. 28. diudssent . . . iudicave- 
slnt: an unusually abrupt change from the narrator*s to the 
speaker*s temporal standpoint 30. ro : * intrinsic value.* 

Page 178. Chap. XXXI 1 1. 3. in oruoem acU: cruci- 
fixion was the ordinary way of executing slaves. 4. in campo 
Martio ooniurassant : Uiis is a puzzle to commentators; the 
common explanation — viz. that they had surreptitiously got 
themselves enrolled as soldiers, and taken the military oath, 
which freemen alone had the right to do — may be the true one, 
but it is not entirely satisfactory, and the expression in the 
text is too vague to be interpreted with certainty. The Campus 
Mariius was the place of militnry enrolment 5. aaria 

graria: sc 4usium; in public rewards, as in religious rites, 
the libral tu, ten times as heavy as the «/ of 217 b. c, was 
still used; this sum was about eight hundred and seventy-five 

6. PhiUppnm : Philip V. of Macedonia, with whom the Ro- 
mans ha4 two wars, conquered by Flamininus at Cynoscephalae, 
197 B. c. 7. Damatrium : to Demetrius of Pharos was 

given by the Romans the rule over several islands on the 
Illyrian coast; he revolted, was defeated by Aemilius Paulus 
in 219 B. c.« and, fleeing to Philip V., tried to induce him to 
espouse his cause against Rome. 11. Pinaum: when queen 
Teuta of Scodra, who had aided the Illyrian pirates, was de- 
feated by the Romans in 228 b. c, her young stepson Pineus 
was placed on her throne, under the guardianship of Demetrius. 
The tribute imposed on Pineus was now overdue. 13. al 
diam profaifi vallat: Mf he wished to have the date of pay* 
ment postponed.' 14. aaqaam tarramm : * anywhere in the 
worid.* Cf. note 00 p. \$^ L 12. 


X6. Zn r^liglODem • • • Tenit : * became a subject of re- 
ligious scruple,* * caused reproaches of conscience.* aodem 
Concordiao: beside the temple of Juno Moneta, on the erx^ 
not the famous temple on the Ciivus CapitoitHus^ dedicated 
by Camillus, 367 b. c, after the long contest about opening the 
consulship to plebeians. 17. aeditiODem: this probably 

occura*d at the point reached in Uk. xxi., ch. 25. 18. 

looatam: * contracted for;* public contracts were usually made 
by the censors, sometimes by commissioners specially ap- 
pointed. 27. intorrogen : tliis title was a relic of the ancient 
monarchy; cf. Uk. L ch. 17. 29. Patribos: the senate had 

the right to decide whether an inttrrex or a dictator should be 
appointed. roottos : ' more proper,* the consub being still 
in office. 

Pagre 1 70* 1. Titio : there was some informality in 
the appointment that was not immediately noticed. 2. ad 
interregnum : the consuPs term having meantime expired, 
a dicutor could not be named, and so an iniernx was 

Chap. XXXIV. 4. Znterreges: in the early centuries of 
the republic elections were very frequently held by initrrtgcs; 
it was never the first interrex, and it generally was the second, 
who held the election; the first one w^as appointed by the 
senate, each subsequent one by his predecessor; each held 
office fiyt dap; the patrician senators alone had a share in 
the formalities of an inttrregnum, prodiU : • nominated,' 

6. patmm : ' the nobles,* i. e. all families, plebeian as well as 
patrician, whose ancestors had held curule offices, which gave 
admission to the senate. 8. prinoipum : i. e. the leading 

politicians among the nobility. 10. aliena iiiTidia: *by the 
unpopularity of another man* (Fabius). eztrahere: *to raise 
up.' 13. oognatoa : strictly speaking, a relative on the 
mother's side, a relative on the father's side being ttgmnius. 
As these men did not belong to the same gtns^ the former 
must be meant. 

20. nniversla: «if united.* 24. priiia s iwtf^V. 28. 

homlnem noTum: the first of his family to obtain a ctiruk 
office was so called. 29. nobilM : the meaning of the word 
is explained in note on patntm^ 1.6; the old war of castes 
between patricians and plebeiaaa had long since been super 

384 NOTES. [Pagb X80. 

sedcd by that between nobles and commons. aaoiis: 'mys- 
teries;* the sense is rather metaphorical than literal; the 
essential bond of unity in a gins^ or family, was community 
of sacra^ i. e. a common worship of the household gods 
or gentile divinities, especially the deified ancestors common 
to all the members by birth or adoption. What is meant here 
b that plebeians admitted into the charmed circle of political 
** nobility ** were as anxious as any patricians to keep out '* new 
men.** 30. ox qno: sc. (Jemport)^ *as soon as,' *from the 
moment that* 31. id aotnm : * that this was their object' 
32. In patmm poteatato: because the inUrrex was a pa 
trician magistiate. 33. amboa : logical subject of mortutdo; 
'by both renaining.* 

Page 180. a. oxpngnatam . . . floret: 'it had been 
carried through that the dictator's appointment should be 
declared invalid by the augurs.* 4. ooaanlatmn mmm, etc. : 
this was provided by the Licinian law, 367 B. c 

Chap. XXXV. 9. lam : modifies nobiUum. 13. rogan- 
do : all votes put to the people were in the form of a question 
to be answered 'yes* or 'no;* but translate 'for the election 
oL* 14. L. Aemilinm Paulnm: a pUbiscitum^ passed in 
342 B. c, provided that no one should be elected to any office 
twice In ten years. Paulus had been consul in 219 b. c. An- 
other pUbiscitum^ in 217 n. c, had provided that any ex-consul 
might be reiilccted as often as desired while the war in Italy 
lasted (Livy, Uk. xxvii., ch. 6). 15. M. Xdtrio, afterward 
called Salinator, consul in 219 b. c, was condemned for dis- 
honesty in the disposal of the spoil captured in the lllyrian 
war of that year ; but he was consul again in 207 b. c 

16. propo ambttstna avaaorat : ' had barely escaped un- 
scathed.* 13. oomitlaU die : cf. note on p. 24, 1. 33. 19. in 
advoraandam : an unusual form of expression of purpose. 21. 
Pomponina : prathr peregrinus of the preceding year; cf. note 
on p. 149^ L 20. 23. Additi duo : the expression is mislead- 
ing, for four praetors were annually elected, and then they chose 
by lot their respective spheres of duty (praviHciai\ 24. BC 
CUradina BCaroeUiia: the "Sword of Rome** (as Fabius was 
the " Shield **X the conqueror of Syracuse, killed in 208 b. c, in 
bis fifth consulship. 

Craf. XXXVI. 30. multlpUoatl : 'largely increased.* 

Pack 183.] BOOK XXII. CHAP. XXXVIll. S^S 

Pofire 181* a. tMMom tdm I A. 311, ^ ; H. 486, i.; G. 250. 
6. milibiw : to be taken distributively =s miiUnis^ as is made 
clear by im simguias. 7. treoeol : Ltvy usually gives 300 as 
the number of cavalry to a legion; from thb we should infer 
that it was ordinarily 20a 9. qoidam aaotores aunt : 'some 
authorities say.* 10. rem aotam : * preparation for the cam- 
paign was made.* 16. Ariolao : cf. note on p. 61, 1. 8. 17. 
■Igna: * statues* of the gods. 18. Caoro aquas : sc. mtiita 
cruort with manasst, 19. aaeplna : * repeatedly.' 80. via 
fomioata : * a vaulted, arcaded street,* a line of porticoes. 
Campum : sc. Aiariium, erat : *used to lead.* 81. da 
oaolo taoti: i. e. 'struck by lightning.* 88. Paosto: a Greek 
town (Posidonia) in Lucania, colonized by the Romans in 373 b. c, 
now celebrated for its magnificent temple ruins. 

Chap. XXXVII. 88. ■• : i. e. Hiero. 

Pa^e 182. 1. ▼iotoriam : ' a sUtue of Victory.* 8. 
aaao : i. e. the ambassadors. 3. propriam ot parpetnam : 
' their own forever.* 4. modinm : genitive plural. 6. MiUto 
^ peditt, 7. aoiro : sc. Hierotum. non uti : i. e. in the 
legions. 8. aujdlia : Polybius says that the Romans had 
already asked and received auxiliary troops from Hiero. XI. 
pugnaeasque : 'used to fighting.* 13. traioarat : doubtless 
he meant a regular invasion, not a mere plundering expedition. 
As the sequel proved, this was sound advice, and the only way 
to end the war. But what succeeded later might have failed 
then. 14. minuaqua lazamanti : ' less leisure.* 17. one 
tenordi ax quo : 'steadily ever since.* 81. gratia ral : *kind 
intention.* 83. dara dioara : pleonastic formula usual in 

such cases. 84. tamplum : the Capitoline temple of Jupiter, 
Juno, and Minerva. 87. ad . . . navlnm olaaaam : the nu- 

meral has been lost from the text ; the fleet is probably the one 
mentioned in Bk. xxi., ch. 51. 30. a ra poblioa: ' for 

the public interest* 

Chap. XXXVI 1 1. 33. lura iurando . . . militaa: 'the 
soldiers had an oath administered to them by the military 

Pagre 183. 3. nbl ad daouriatam, etc.: *when they had 
come together to be formed into decuries (of cavalry) or ccib 


386 NOTES. [Pack 189. 

tiaries (of infantry).* 5. deonrtoti equites: *the troopera of 
n decuiy.* 6. fugno • . . orso : . archaic. A. 223, 4\ H. 398, 
5 f G- 37^ 7* awBendl : L e. from the supply in the rear. 
f«p«tondl : i. e. to recover a weapon already thrown toward 
the enemy. 8. Id . . . tranalatum : * thia voluntary agree- 

ment among themselves was changed into a formal administra- 
tion of an oath by the tribunes.* 11. Contiones : ' public 
harangues.* 12. denuntiantlB : * openly declaring.* 17. 
TMTtor qiiam gratior: A. 192; H. 444, 2; G. 314. 19. qni : 
"how.* 22. diem . . . qua: A. 73; H. 123. 24. raa 
dont : * circumstances suggested.* 28. ad id looomm : 
'op to that time.* A. 216, «, 3; H. 397, 3; G. 371. 29. 
mruk aponto apparobat: *it was self-evident.* 

Paire 184. Chap. XXXIX. 1. boni . . . maU : disguised 
protases, *if you were both good . . . bad.' A. 310; G. 594, 3. 
warn iadioonta as me nan dUtnte : ' without my speaking.* 6. 
•Itora parto olandanto : * halting/ ' limping on one side.* 
7. Idom : construe with iuris ti poUstatU, 10. nesoio an : 

• I don't know but,* * I rather think that' 15. Ominia atiam 

• . • oanaa* etc.: 'to avoid the ill omen, I would rather not 
mention,* etc. 16. demum : only after he became consul and 
reached hb province, not beforehand, as Varro had done. 17. 
ftirere . . • Inaanit : the former means to act like a madman, it 
may be only at times; the latter denotes the chronic state of 
madness. 27. adTerana s: coram : one would not boast in a 
conversation with a single man, even though one might do so in 
addressing an assembly. 28. modum ezoeaaarim: 'I would 
rather transgress the limits of moderatk>n.* 29. una: 'only 


Page lft5* 2. tempua dieaqna : * lapse of time.* 6. in 
diem: 'for the day,* 'one day at a time.' partem tIs tertiam : 
this waa true of his originad army that had crossed the £bro, 
but he had received large reinforcements in Italy, and had 
about 50,000 troops at this time. 9. aoppeditat : 'is forth- 
coming.* 10. aeneaoat: 'grows weaker.' in diea : 'day 
by day,* denoting progressio n. 16. Indifioati aint: 'have 
baffled.' 19. oonanl Romanoa . . . Poenna Imperator : 
chiasmus. 21. Raaiataa : ' you will (successfully) withstand.* 

FAUKiaaj BOOK XXII. chap. xlii. 387 

23. fmlaa infamU : 'undeserved unpopulaurity.* 24. Imbonre: 
*be obscured.' 25. Sine . . . Tooent: Met them call you,* 

* never mind if they do call >'ou.* 31. ta«o potestatis, etc : 
'alwa)^^ keep command over yourself and your circumstances.* 

Pa;jro 180. Ciiai*. XL. 5. populara inoondlnin : the fire 
of popular indignation, referring, as previously explained, to 
219 n. c, when his colleague was condemned. 9. Ab : 'im- 
mediately after.* U. conspeotior : i. e. in regard to numbers. 
12. dignltatas : abstract for concrete. 13. oastni : for the 
locality, cf. p. 161, 1. 30, and p. 168, 1. 15. 14. bifariam ; i. e. 
they pitched an additional one. 17. axoasantam : * alleging 
by way of excuse* (from active service). 20. parte dimidis: 
it vms not half as large again, but twice as large. 22. sups- 
rabat : *was left;* =s snptrcrat. 23. raliqni : A. 216, «, 3; 
H. 397* 3 ; G. 371. 27. parata fuerit : 'was already arranged, 
and would have been carried out* 

Chap. XLI. 29. oonaolia: of one consul, Varro. 

PnfiTO 187. 3. par: * equally favorable,* *on equal terms.* 
4. Ad . . . aeptlngaoti : ad is adverbial in this phrase, and 
!(0 used with the nominative. 5. affuse: 'headlong.' 11. 
ineacatam : ' lured by the bait.* 12. omnia . • • hoatiam : * all 
the circumstances of the enemy.* 14. dnaa . . .paHas: 'two 
thirds.* 18. fortunae: 'property.* 20. ImiNidimenta : 

this means only baggage essential for their march ; most of their 
belongings, as already said, being left behind. mediam: 

* intervening.* 23. nt fidea fieret . . . voliiiMe : ' to create 
the impression that he had wished.* 

Chap. XLII. 27. aubduotae • . . atationea : 'the fact that 
the outposts had been withdrawn.* 30. praetoria oonsulnm : 
each consul had his separate proitmrinm^ though they were both 
in the same camp. nontiantiiim : does not refer to c^nsuium, 
but limits C0MCursus. 

Pagre 188* 1. iaberent, etc.: the verbs are plural; one 
consul was in command, but the other could not be entirely 
disregarded. He was still second in command, and his opinion 
of courM had weight. 2. ooaaul alter: Varro« * velut 
imiia, etc: 'like any private soldier.* 5. aeditUmem: 'mu- 

388 NOTES. [Pack 189. 

tiny.* dnotoi Mditionls: this is rather strong, as it was 
Various turn to command on that day. 6. praefeotum : a 
commander of a iurma^ probably the senior of the three decu^ 
riones commanding the decurioM composing a turma. 12. 
iBpromptn: * in plain sight* 18. puUi: if the sacred chick- 
ens ate greedily, it was a sign of victory ; if they refused to cat, 
the indication was adverse. 19. auapioio: circumstantial 

ablative ; * as he was taking the auspices.* Varro had the auspicia 
proper o«i that day, Paulus only the auspicia minora, addix- 
ftwont: 'had given their assent* 21. Claudlqae . . . oladaa: 
referring to the overwhelming defeat off Drepanum in Sicily, in 
249 B. c, of the consul P. Claudius Pulcher, who treated the 
omens given by the /«/// with contempt. 23. raligionem . . . 
Inonaait: 'occasioned religious scruples.* 27. Bldioini: 

from Teaoum Sidicinum. 32. ambitlo : ' striving for popu- 
larity.* - 33. auam primum: 'his own first,' implying 'and 
his colleague's afterward.* 

Page 190. Chap. XLIII. 2. nequiquam: construe, not 
with deticta^ but with rtdiii ; 'returned without having accom- 
plished hb purpose.* 5. mixtoa ex conlnviono : ' a mixed 
ro^d ky** 9. annonam: 'scarcity,* or 'high price of pro- 

visions.* U. ipso . • . Hannibal: it seems to be a slight 
solace to the historian's national pride to paint Hannibal's situ- 
ation in the darkest colors. But this, in our eyes, serves only 
to heighten the brilliancy of his success. Anything like a 
cowardly desertion of his own army by Hannibal, even in im- 
agination« we may regard as one of the ordinary groundless 
aspersions of his character by the Romans, who could never 
forgive him for humbling them so completely. 15. oalidiora : 
the plains of northern Apulia were warmer than the highlands 
about Gereonium. matarlora mesaibua : ' sooner ripe for the 
harvest* 21. Statilium: cf. p. 188, 1. 6. 28. Cannaa: 
an qpfin village in Apulia on the southeast bank of the Aufidus, 
a few miles from the coast urgonto fate : a favorite phrase 
of the author; be regards Varro, and previously Flamintus, as 
afflicted irith a sort of judicial blindness and infatuation. 
Fropo ovm ▼ioimi : evidently on the same (southeast) side of 
the river. 29. Voltumo: the Scirocco, east-southeast wind, 
io called betause it blew over Mt Vultur ; this indicates thai 

Page 191.] BOOK XXII. CHAP. XLV. ^ 

the camp faced northwest 30. oampU torridii : cf. 

Hor. Carm. Hi. 30, 11, *'i?/ qua pau^r aquat Dannus;^ with 
€ampis^ 8C. iW. 

Piifire lfM>. Chap. XLIV. 2. Ad Cannas : • to the 
vicinity of Cannae.* Livy does not mention, what Polybius 
makes clear ; viz., that before the battle Hannibal had transferred 
his camp to the same side of the river on which the larger Roman 
camp lay. 3. bina oastra: the large one on the northwest 
bank, the smaller on the southeast. 4. intarwallo: Polybius 
says it was ten stadia. 5. Aofidiua: generally spelled Au- 
Jliius^ a swift river rising in the Apennines and flowing into the 
Adriatic. Horace who was bom at Venusia, near its banks, 
says, ^qna vwUhs obslnpit Aufidus^^ Carm. iii. 30, 10. In 
summer it becomes quite shallow. 6. ez aaa . . . oppor 

tuuitato: 'according to each one*s convenience.* 8. trans 
Aufidlom: on the southeast bank. 10. natla: 'naturally 

fitted/ i. e. level. U. faoturoa : connect with sptm. 13. 
■odltiono: 'insubordination.* 16. spooioaum: 'furnishing it 
plausible excuse.' 17. hio: Varro. 19. uaa copisset: 
HSU captre is to gain title to property by continued possession. 
By the Twelve Tables, occupation of land for two years gave 
ownership by usucapion. Sandars* Justinian, 206 (Am. ed.)' 
21. militibiia: A. 229; H. 385, 11. 2. iUe: Paulus. 24. 
▼iderot: *he should see to it that;* subjunctive, representing 
imperative of oratio recta. 

Chap. XLV. 27. ad multam diei: 'till late In the day.* 

Pnsrc 101 • 2. aveoti aunt: 'they rode on.' 3. tomtil- 
toario: 'irregular.* 7. aors: 'chance' or 'turn:* not that 
they drew lots every day. 9. quia masla non probaro, etc.: 
'because, though he could not approve, he still could not re- 
fuse to aid in carrying out the plan.' U. Transgreaai flames: 
the battle, it seems, took place on the southeast bank, as the 
Romans, according to Polybius, were facing south and had their 
right flank resting on the river. Yet some of the best his- 
torical authorities have placed the site on the northwest bank. 
Livy*s account, explained by that of Polybius with reference 
to one detail (note on p. 190, 1. 2), seems to indicate a situation 
somewhat like that shown in the following diagram. 



[I'AUK 192. 

1141 •rmi 


rmtT CAMr 



fl'^'-^^-'f-V i«-..«. 




16. laonlatorM . . • prima aoies facta : ' dingers . . • con- 
ftituted the first line : * the verb agrees with the predicate nomi- 
native. The date of this battle, nominally August 2d, 216 b. c, 
was really some day near the middle of June. 

Chap. XLVI. 21. transsfMaiia : from the northwest to the 
southeast bank. ut quoaquo . . . looabat : * stationed them 
m line of battle in the same order in which he had led them 
across the river.' 2S. firmata : * f ormed of.' 26. Oalll 
^ atquo Hlapani : it was his intention, as usual, to let them bear 
the brunt of the fight, and to spare his Africans as much as 
possible. 29. aouta: oblong shields, covering the whole 

body. 30. diaparoa ao diaaimiloa : 'different in size and 


Page 102. 2. praatojctia: *edgedt* * bordered.' 6. Baa- 
I dmbai : not Hannibars brother, who was in Spain. 9. obllquua 

^ anit: * shone sideways.' 

' -I ' 

Chap. XLVI I. 17. mintmo equeatrla more pugnae: there 
was no room for the ordinary cavalry tactics; the cavalry op- 
posed to the Romans on this wing were numerous enough to 
push them off the field by mere weight; 8,000 Gauls and Span- 
iards againal lest than a^oo Romans. 19. ad eTacaadiuii : 


* for manoeuvring.* 20. In dereotam : ' straight forward.* 
21. tnrbn: modal ablative. 22. Pedastre: predicate. 25. 
Bab: * about the dme of.' . 27. OaUU: A. 235; H. 384,11. 
4. N. 2. 

28. obliqiui fronta : this probably means that they advanced 
their wings, making their front concave, so as to fit against the 
convex front {cutuum) of the enemy, whose centre was advanced 
beyond the wings. The Gauls and Spaniards seem to have 
fallen back till the Africans on the wings became engaged. 
The latter were called subsidia^ reserves, not because placed' J 
directly behind the other troops, but because placed further back , \ 
and not intended to engage at the outset in the fight. As the Ro- > 
mans pressed on the shallow centre of Gauls and Spaniards, the 
latter, falling back, first made the front straight {atqttavii froih 
Um), then, retiring still further, made it concave {sinnm in medio 
dtdity Then the wings enveloped the Romans on both flanks, 
so that they were assailed on three sides at once, while the 
centre ceased to give ground in front of them, and the Africans 
gradually extended their lines around the rear. The Romans, 
thus huddled into insuflicicnt space, found their unusually deep 
files another source of embarrassment, for those in the interior 
of the columns were unable to fight, while tlie ever tightening 
ring of the enemy kept closing in as the outer ranks fell before 
them. 31. tenore ano: * without stopping.' 

PAfTO 103« 6. comua : the extremities of the atoi. 

Chap. XLVIII. 16. aogno : this is not surprising, as the 
2,000 light Numidian horsemen were opposed to more than 
twice that number of the Italian allies. 21. In modiam 
aoiam: this phrase probably arises from the fact that Livy is 
following two different accounts, — one of which represents this 
manceuvre as carried out by Celtiberians against the Roman 
infantry in the centre; or possibly the phrase simply means that 
the cavalry open their ranks in the midst to receive the Numi- 
dians. 29. soutls : i. e. of fallen Romans, which would for 
a time prevent their being recognized as enemies. 29. alibi 
. • • alibi: the firat refere to the right wing, the second to the 
centre. 30. In mala lam apo : ' though hope was already 
^nndoned.' Saadmbal : we must infer what is not stated ; 
▼is., that after disperaing the Roman right, Hasdrubal had made 

39^ NOTES. [Paob 195- 

his way behind the Romans to the left wing to help the Numi- 
dians against the cavalry of the allies, and that, when the latter 
were routed, he left the pursuit to the Numidians and turned 
with hb own heavy cavalry against the Roman infantry. But 
still the phrasci subdmcios tx mudia acU^ is unintelligible. 

Page 104. Chap. XLIX. 3. Parte altera: this is am- 
biguous, as all parts of the battle have been described, but occurrii 
. . . Hannibali shows that the centre is meant. 

10. Quam mallem, etc. : ironical ; he feels that they are 
beaten just as surely as if they were already prisoners in his 
hands. 11. qnalo : sc. esi or soiei tsst* lam baud dnbia, 
etc: *when the victory of the enemy is no longer doubtful.* 
IS. anperantia : 'survivors;* as often, superan '=i suptrtsse, 
18. praotervelieiia : * riding by;* used as participle of pratier- 
vtkar^ as if it were a deponent. 25. maote virtuta: A. 241, 
d^ K. ; H. 369, 3 ; G. 324, r. i. 26. €»▼• . . . abaumaa : A. 
33"f /f *a»l note; 269, a^ 3; H. 289, 2); 499t*; C. 264, u. 

Page 10& 1. alieno orimino: *by accusing another.' 
2. Haeo . . . agontia : *as they were talking thus.* U. Venu- 
■iam: about twenty*eight miles southwest of the battle-field; 
since 291 B. c. it had been a ** Latin '* colony. 16. imdatrlcinU 
tiitrani: the staff and field officers of the legions, six for each. 
consvlaras, etc. : ex-consuls, ex-praetors, ex-aediles ; in apposition 
with tribunL 20. eoa . . . undo • . . daberont : * such as gave 
them the right to be enrolled in the senate ; * on giving up a 
cumle office the incumbent was entitled to a seat in the senate, 
but could not be formally placed on the list of senators till the 
next census. 22. ana Tolnntata: *as volunteers;' after 

holding such offices they were exempt from ordinary military 


Chap. L. 25. AUanai: the battle on the AUia, July 18th, 390 
B. Ct was followed by the capture and destruction of Rome by 
the Gauls. 27. quia . . • oaaaatom : * because the enemy were 
remiss * in following up their .victory. 20. alterina . . . oxar- 
oitoa Mt: 'almost all the army shared the fate of the other 
one who died ; ' miierius, predicative posseiaiTe genitive. 33. 
: i. e.'to the smaller camp. 

Page 197.] BOOK XXII. CHAP. LII. 393 

Page 106. 2. Canntiqm : about five miles southwest, 
near the river. 10. aostiiiiwrique capita, etc.: to have a 
value set upon your beads and your ransom determined. U. 
oMm . . . an . . . aooiaa: cf. p. 149, 11. S-io, for the different 
manner in which Hannibal treated the Romans and their allies. 
12. altari : the saciits as distinguished from the avis; compar- 
atively the former would experience koHos^ the latter coHtumelia. 
15. oiYoa : fellow citizens ; coHcivis is not classical. 19. 
quansTis: construe with confertos ; * however.' Cuneo: Mn 
a compact column/ the usual sense of the word. 22. Baar. 
nbi, etc. : a hexameter and a half, supposed to have come from 
Ennius through Coelius. 25. transUtls . • . aoutia: thft 

shield was ordinarily worn on the left arm. 26. Inde pro- 
tlnua : ' then as they went on.* 

Chap. LI. 32. bollo: if this word is used intentionally 
instead of pugna^ it is not to be wondered at that they thought 
such a victory would end the war. Against any but the Romans, 
it doubtless would have done so. 

Pagre 197. 6. maiorque, quam . • . poMot : * too 

great to be at once realized.' 7. Toluntatem: *zeaL' U. 
satis orodltnr, etc. : in after times it was a stock question for 
debate in the schools of rhetoric whether or not Hannibal should 
have marched upon Rome at this time. He certainly could not 
have captured it by a sudden dash of cavalry. The walls were 
strong, the population large and* us^d to fighting. His army was 
not large enough to invest the city, and he had no engines for a 
siege. What he was waiting for, was the desertion of Rome's 
allies and the breaking up of the Italian confederacy. 14. 
•tiam hostlbus : * even in the eyes of an enemy.* 1.7. striota 
matutino frigoro : * stinging in the cold of the early morning.* 
24. oonrertit omnM : « attracted the attention*of all.' 2S. Ulo : 
the Roman. 

Chap. LII. 29. ad multom dial: 'till late in the .day.* 
31. braohio: 'a line of entrenchment,' *a breastwork.' 33. 
Paoti: followed by double construction: (i) the clause, W . . . 
iradereni; (2) the ablatives of price, tncenis, etc., i. e, the price 
at which they might be ransomed if they surrendered as prisoners 
of war. 

394 ' NOTES. [Paok 20a 

Page 108« 1. nnmiBii qaadrigatU : silver diHorii (of the 
valac of ten reduced asses, about out sixth of a dollar), so called 
because stamped with an image of Jupiter driving a four-horse 
chariot (quadriga), Mr. Capes observes that money dealings with 
the Carthaginians were by weight 5. seonam: s/(=s:siM€) 
and varsum (ss versum), like rursus (=^ re^ersus) and prorsus 
{ss:,pn^v€rsus), ttc 7. hominum=:pedi/ttm. 12. si quid 
■rc^ati : sc. /m/. X3. ad vosoaadum laoto : * made for 

table service.' 14. pereadguo : the era of luxury, introduced 
by foreign conquest, was soon to begin. 

Chap. LI 1 1. 30. adulesoentem ; eighteen years old. 31. 
snnuaa impeiii : ' the chief command.' 32. inter pauoos : 
'with a few others.* da ■ununa r«nam: 'about the general 
situation of affairs.* 33. P. Farias Pbilua : probably a son 
ol the praiior ur^nutj cf. p. iSo^ 1. 21. 

Page 100* 4. speotare : * had in view,' i. e. * intended to 
have recourse to.* ragnin : they would take service in the 
army of some foreign prince. 5. super : ' following upon.* 
6. torpidoa defijdssat : * had petrified ; * the adjective expresses 
the effect of the verb. 9. fatalia . . . belli : ' destined to put 
an end to this war,* i. e. by the defeat of Hannibal fourteen 
jears later at Zama in Africa. 13. hoapitiaia : * quarters,* 
* lodging.* 16. Bac met animi senteatia : * upon my honor,* 
i. e. without mental reservation ; a common formula in taking an 

Chap. LIV. 30. togas : not worn at all by the private 
soldiers of the infantry, and not by any one when actually under 
arms. quinos vioeaoe : the tquitcs had ordinarily three times 
the pay of the ptdiits s what the latter received on this occasion 
was about a month's pay. 

Pairo SOO. 1. graviiia : * too heavy.* 8. oonsnlaris 
eseroitas : this was ordinarily two legions, with the proper com- 
plement of sociL 12. oooidioae oooisum : * utterly de- 
stroyed;* this sounds like a Hebraism. 14. salva nrbe : this 
phrase is inserted to cover the single exception to the statement, 
L a. the capture of Rome by the Gauls in 390 b. c. 15. ne 
iham oaeil : it would perhaps be better to omit nit 

PAGsaoaj BOOK XXI I. chap. lvi. 395 

and translate : ' I shall decline the task/ neque ss tt non^ \ 
there being no corresponding ntqui. 18* noa Tulnos svper 
▼ttlnns : i. e. not another blow of the same kind, but muiiipUx 
cladeSy 'a disaster many times as great* 23. tanta mole 
cladia : * by so overwhelming a defeat.' 24. ad Aecatis 

Insulaa : the concluding battle of the first Punic war, 241 b. c. 
25. fraoti : * disheartened.* Bardioia : this island was not 
ceded then ; cf. note on p. 74, 1. 2a 26. rectigalia no stipeadia- 
rioa : cf. note on p. 114, 1. 27. 27. pttgnam ... in Africa : 
the battle of Zama, 202 h. c. . 

Chap. LW 30. praetorea : the highest magistrates in the 
absence of consuls. Upon them devolved the chief executive 
power. It should be remembered that the senate was in theory 
a mere advisory body. The magistrates acted by virtue of their 
impcnum^ but took counsel of the senate, which, however, had 
no initiative of its own. 31. onriam HoatiUam : cf. note on 
p. 38, 1. 5. 

Page 201. 1. aiouti . . . ita : * as ... as,' not 'thought 
. . . yet.* no . . . oxpedirant : ' they could not form any 
definite plan.* 3. nondum palam faoto : 'as the facts were 
not yet published.* 5. Appia at Xrfitina via : the two great 
southern roads, by which fugitives or messengers from the battle- 
field would arrive. 13. ageadnm : * measiures were to be 
taken.* 18. auao . . . fortoaaa : ' as to the fate of his own 
relatives ; * sua forinna means what specially concerned himself. 
I 19. domi : locative ; construe with txptcieL aaotoram : * an 
^^^ informant.* 

Chap. LVI. 25. pedibua . . . iasent: 'had voted for* 
^ (without debate) ; the division was made by going to one or the 
• * other side of the house. 27. divarai : *in different directions.' 
31. inoonpoaitonua iaordlaatonuaqoo : ' demoralised and dis- 

Pnflre 202. 1. anadiaantem : * baigaining,* * haggling ; ' 
denomin&tive verb from Huudinae (ntivem diis\ 'market days.' 
3. aaaiveraarinm Cereris : the regular Cerealia occurred in 
April. This statement is obscure, as the battle was fought 
nominally on August 2d. The allusion may be to another feast 
of Ceres mentioned by Cicero (Pro Balbo, ii\ De Leg. ii. 21, 
37). The CtnaUa was a festival of matrons, and to many ol 

396 NOT£S. [Pack 203. 

.them were in mourning that few were left to wear the white 

^ fesul garb. 7. diebns : ablative. U. regnum Hieronia : 

Syracuse and the country about it along the east coast of the 

island. 13. Aogatla inaulaa : off tlic northwest corner of the 

island. 15. XiUybaoum : cf. note on p. 123, 1. 2a. 

Chap. LVII. 20. M. Claudlum {Afarceiittm) : he had not 
* yet gone to his province (cf. p. 180, 1. 24). He was already a 
distinguished soldier, and had gained a signal victory over the 
Gauls in 222 b. c, slaying their king Viridomarus, and thus 
gaining spoiia epima for the third and last time in Roman 
history. olasai : probably the one mentioned p. 176, 1. 18. 
28. nooata : it was deemed sacrilegious to lay violent hands on 
the Vestals who had been consecrated to the goddess, and so, 
when convicted of unchastity, they were buried in a subterra- 
nean vault in the campus sceUratus by the Colline gate. 29. 
•crilNi .... qaoa : constructio ptr syntsim^ the relative indi- 
cating the class to which the individual belonged. 

Page 203. 1. Fabiua Piotor: the historian; cf. Intro- 
duction, p. viii. 3. supplioiis = suppiicationibus j archaic. 
4. fatnliboa libris: the Sybilline books. 6. in foro bovario: 
cf. note on p. 137, I. 28. 6. minimo Romano: what Livy 
disapproves is un-Roman; the blame is here laid upon the for- 
eign books. There are several traces of human sacrifice in 
Roman history, e. g. M. Curtius, Decius Mus, the ver sacrum^ 
etc. 13. logio tertla: it appesired, p. 198, 1. 29, that the 
third legion was at. Cannae. This may have been the third 
marine legion, or a new count may have been made after the 
destruction of the consular army, or it may be a mistake. 14. 
Taannm Sidioinum : an imporUnt town in northern Campania, 
commanding the Via Laiina. 17. M. Junius (Pera): the 
last dictator ret geretid<u causa, Ti. Bemproniua (Gracchus) : 
consul in 215 and 213 d. c. 19. praeteactatos : boys under 
seventeen, who had not exchanged the toga praeUxta for the 
i0ga viriiis. 21. ex formula: the list of those capable of 
bearing arms, according to which the quota of each of the allied 
communities was regulated. 25. aanritiis = sen/is : ab- 
stract for concrete. Dy being enrolled in the legions, the slaves 
were emancipated. 28. oopU Herat: 'the opportunity was 
.. CSAF. LVII I. 29. eeoaiidiuii: 'immediately after.* 


Paff6 204. 8. aliquaiitom adiolebatttr : ct p. 198, L I, 
where no distinction la made between tquiUs and ptdiUt* 17. 
aUquid obUtaa : A. 219; H. 407; G. 375, R. 2. 20. 

dietatorto Tarbla: 'in the dictator's name.* 21. flnibna 

Romania: the territory of the thirty»five tribes of mwf Ho- 

Chap. LIX. 22. aonatna: *an audience of the senate.* 
23. M. Ziini : the dictator, as the presiding officer, is addressed 
first and by name. 

Pngc 20ft. 7. a Oallla: in 390 B. c. 8. patros 

troa : more than sixty years before, the senate had sent an em- 
bassy concerning an exchange of prisoners to Pyrrhus of Epinis. 
14. nisi in quibua : ' only because,* etc 19. promondo : 
^ss. diprimtndo^ *by disparaging.' 25. utamini: *you will 


Pngro 200.. 1. avarior an omdellor: A. 192; H. 444, 
2; G. 314. 5. Zntueri potastia: the doors of the curia 
were standing open, so that the crowd outside was visible to 
the senators. 10. in diaorimine: *at stake.* U. ma dina 
fidina : i. e. ita me d. /! invct^ ' so help mc,* etc. 21. voa 

. . . peperoisae : * that you grudged the money.* 

Chap. LX. 24. in oomitio: the northeast part of the fo- 
rum, in front of the curia. 28. arbitria : including the 
delegates of the prisoners ; cf. note on p. 26, 1. 14. oonanli : 
passive because individual members were called on by the 
presiding magi.str<ite for their opinions. 32. mntnam: *as 
a loan.* praedibnaque : * sureties,* * bondsmen;* praedes 
= provides. 33. praediia : * landed estates,* i. e. * mort- 
gages ; * praedium ^ prachendium. T. Manlina Torqnataa : 
consul in 235 and 224 B.C.; the surname was from the torque 
or necklace of a gigantic Gaul slain by his ancestor, 361 a. c. 
34. priaoae, etc.: Cicero would not thus join a genitive ol 
quality with a proper name. 

Pasre 207* 4. quid anim alind quam : in translating put 
quam directly before utj aiiud, A. 238, *; H. 371, !!•; G. 
33 >f K. 2. 19. ipaia: «they too,* as wdl as the Romnna, 
81. atiam p«r oonfortoa : • even if they had been in close array.* 

39? NOTES. [PA0B2U. 

23. Koote prope tota: rhetorical exaggeration; cf. p. 196, 
lL8,sqq. 28. P. Decina (Afus) secured the retreat of the 
Roman army in the first Samnite war, 343 d. c, by seizing and 
holding, with a small detachment, a position where their destruc- 
tion by the enemy seemed almost certain. 30. priore: 
not primo^ as the speaker knew of no third Punic war. Cal- 
pnniiiia Flamma, in 258 b. c. in Sicily sacrificed himself and 
his detachment to save the army. 

Paj^e 208. 10. dominatl oapito : for the different grades 
of capitis diminution vide Sandars* Justinian, p. 124 (Am. ed.); 
these men suffered the maxima c. d,^ as they lost liberty as well as 
citizenship. Being no longer cives^ they had no patria to regret. 
aballenati =s privati. 18. conati aunt : ' attempted (and 
would have succeeded).' 28. Tiginti milia : a round number, 
Imt an under-statement. 

Page 200. 2. At ad animpendnm, etc. : rhetorical state- 
ment, made in order to be contradicted with emphasis. 8. Orto 
aola : the speaker drops his irony and states the fact as it was. 
10. Tobia: A. 236; H. 389; G. 351. 

Chap. LXI. 29. loouplatari : a weak argument; the same 
result would follow if the prisoners were sold as slaves, and 
we learn that these very ones were sold in Greece for five hun- 
dred denarii apiece. (Livy, Bk. xxxiv., ch. 50.) 30. rediml : 
present, instead of future, showing the certainty of the decision. 
33. fidlaol reditu : cf. p. 204, 11. 15, sqq. 

Pnfl^e 210. 14. peroauaam: 'under the pretext.* 18. 
proammia cansoribua: temporal ablative. 19. notia: the 

nata was the censor's entry on the list of senators, equites, or 
citizens, giving the reason for the degradation of those whose 
names were removed therefrom; thence it came to mean any 
brand of disgrace. 21. omul delnda vlU : 'all the rest of 

their lives.' 28. Defeooro : the nations here named did not 
all fall away at once, but gradually ; but it was at this time that 
defection on a large scale began. 

Page 211. 2. oauaa maadma: it is not unlikely that Varro, 
like FUuninhis, has been made a scapegoat for the errors of the 
government It is altogether probable that the senate and people 

PAOB211.] BOOK XXil. CHAP. LXI. 399 

had resolved to fight a pitched battle and end a situation that 
waa felt to be no longer tolerable. The extraordinary prepara- 
tions and this subsequent action of the senate support this 
view. After the event it was easy, and soon became traditional, 
to lay the blame on the plebeian consul. 

6. nihil reouaaiidam sappUoii forot: 'there is no extreme 
of punishment that he would not have had to bear;* the Car- 
thaginians were in the habit of crucifying generals who were 





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