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Full text of "The Lloyds of Birmingham, with some account of the founding of Lloyds bank"

CO 




THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 




I 



THE LLOYDS OF 
BIRMINGHAM 

WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF THE 
FOUNDING OF LLOYDS BANK 



BY 



SAMUEL LLOYD 



SECOND EDITION 




BIRMINGHAM 
CORNISH BROTHERS, LIMITED 

LONDON : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL & CO., LTD, 
1907 



C5 



Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON 5r* Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh 



INTRODUCTION 



IN the following pages Mr. Lloyd begins one of the 
most interesting of tasks he has embarked upon 
the history of a family. It is difficult to conceive 
of anything more pleasant to a student of human 
nature, endowed with leisure, a gift of expression, 
and the desire to re-create the past, than to set out 
on such an enterprise. 

To write the history of a family ! The biography 
of an individual, even a dull one, offers almost too 
many attractions, and certainly too many distrac- 
tions, to the really sympathetic pen ; but when one 
is made free of a whole race, to pick and choose 
where one will, to dally as long as one will or as 
briefly, one's labour can become more fascinating 
than the old moralists would ever have liked it 
to be. 

Resorting to imagery, one might liken the 
biographer of an individual to the navigator of a 
river from its source to the sea, always in the main 
stream ; and the biographer of a family to a similar 
navigator with an extended charter, who even 
before embarking spends much time among the 
springs in the mountains whence the river flows, 
and, once afloat, urges his boat down every 
tributary, however small, and into every back- 
water. 

Mr. Lloyd, as I have suggested, has here 
attempted only a sketch : he has not taken to the 
river with boundless time before him, prepared not 



VI 



INTRODUCTION 



only to explore the tributaries but cast anchor in 
them too, and even perhaps to pass on to explore 
and cast anchor in their tributaries in their turn, 
and then theirs ; but he has done enough to show 
how rich in possibilities to the biographer a mer- 
cantile family in the English midlands can be, even 
when it is a family pacific not only by nature but 
by religion, law-abiding, sagacious, and prosperous, 
lacking any extremes either of genius or misfortune, 
and almost guiltless of mistakes. Not that passion 
or error, poverty or riches, war or art, recklessness 
or excess or that indefinable quality, composed 
of certain of these ingredients, which we will call 
romance is indispensable to the biographer, or 
indeed makes a better book than the more sober 
characteristics that I have named ; but it is usual 
at the first blush to expect more from the records 
of a family that has known Fortune's frown as well 
as smile that has had its adventurers, its aliens, 
and its rebels than from a house of commercial 
fame. The expectation, however, is not always 
a sound one. There is, when all is said, just 
about the same amount of human nature in one 
man as another. The only difference is that your 
romantic wears it on his sleeve. The business of 
the biographer being rather less with what is worn 
on the sleeve than anywhere else, the difference 
hardly touches him. 

There may have been no border-fighting among 
the early Welsh Lloyds, but Charles Lloyd of 
Dolobran was a spiritual warrior of no mean 
strength and endurance, and of him, as of many 
of the early Quakers whose attempts to obey the 
Sermon on the Mount were to lead to imprison- 
ment in Christian dungeons, we cannot know too 
much. Fighting is barbarism ; and though one 
would never say a word against that blessed leaven, 



INTRODUCTION vii 

one may be permitted to remark that a little of 
it in a book can go a long way, whereas with stuff 
of the conscience one asks for more and more. 

There may not have been literary genius in the 
Lloyd family, although I think that Charles Lloyd 
of Old Brathay comes near it, but he at least was 
of sufficient capacity to attract the genius of Cole- 
ridge and to be allowed to collaborate with Lamb ; 
while one of his brothers, by his sympathetic quick- 
ness, was able to draw from Lamb certain letters 
that if not his best at any rate stand alone in 
his fascinating correspondence. It is sometimes as 
pleasant to read about the friends of great authors 
as of great authors themselves. And in Mr. 
Lloyd's pages which follow we are often in such 
company. The picture of Dr. Johnson losing his 
temper over Barclay's Apology one will not easily 
forget ; nor his rage at the perversion (as he 
thought it) to Quakerism of the courageous Miss 
Harry, the governess at " Farm." 

Every one has his own taste in books. Mine 
is towards quietude, and I know that it would be 
difficult to give me too many particulars as to the 
members of this spreading family their sterling 
Quaker merits, their shrewdnesses, their benefac- 
tions, their solidarity, and their acquaintances. I 
want to know much more of Dr. Johnson's host, 
much more of John Taylor who first made snuff- 
boxes and then decorated them with his thumb, 
and who founded with Sampson Lloyd a bank whose 
assets now (1906) amount to seventy-five millions. 
I want to know more of the incidents of the bank's 
early years. Too much attention has been paid 
to the growth of kingdoms : the growth of a bank 
is equally interesting. Both are equally the story 
of human ambition and address the difference is 
purely one of glamour. Custom has decided that 



viii INTRODUCTION 

the affairs of a throne shall be considered romantic 
and the affairs of a bank prosaic. But one thing- 
is certain : that a king may be an accident and yei 
reign for half a century ; whereas a banker can 
never be so. A banker has got to be a banker 

r *' E. V. LUCAS. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 
THE LLOYDS OF DOLOBRAN 

PAGE 

Our Welsh origin John Lloyd's Sunday bodyguard Dolobran 

Hall The Lorts and the name of Sampson Cromwell's letter i 

CHAPTER II 

CHARLES LLOYD THE QUAKER 

George Fox in Wales Richard Davies the autobiographer A 
persecuted sect Magna Charta overridden Bishop Burnet's 
comments Thomas Ellwood, the friend of Milton, and the 
early Quakers Charles Lloyd in prison A birth in jail 
The return to Dolobran Thomas Lloyd's troubles A dis- 
putation between Lloyd the Bishop and Lloyd the Quaker 
Lloyd the Bishop in his turn in captivity The old Bull Lane 
burial-ground Charles Lloyd's skull Tresses in the dust 
Thomas Lloyd and the Pennsylvania^ Friends ... 5 

CHAPTER III 
THE LLOYDS COME TO BIRMINGHAM 

The first Sampson Lloyd The Conventicle Act Birmingham and 
Dissent Our first ironmasters The Lloyd slitting-mill The 
adventures of Foley A fiddle leads to wealth Fuel and iron 
Friends at the slitting-mill and at an old iron furnace 
Robert Plot describes the making of iron Protection advo- 
cated in 1783 Richard Reynolds, Free Trader ... 20 



x i CONTENTS 

CHAPTER IV 

THE SECOND SAMPSON LLOYD AND "FARM" 

PAGE 

Lloyd fruitfulness Our first banks Sampson Lloyd in Park Street 
and Old Square The purchase of "Farm" The Jacobite 
elms The summer-house of the four seasons Two stanzas 
on " Farm " ? " Farm " to-day The heirs of Parkes Rachel 
Lloyd Kings and queens among the Quakers Kings and 
clothes David Barclay 3 1 

CHAPTER V 

BIRMINGHAM'S EARLY TRADE 

John Taylor The snuff-box and the thumb Hutton's panegyric 
on Taylor Friends at the button factory The bank supplies 
a demand Birmingham begins to be prosperous Hutton's 
prophecy Bad roads and highwaymen The metal trade and 
inventors Matthew Boulton and James Watt Intellectual 
Birmingham Aris and Baskerville The Lunar Society 
Mary Anne Galton takes notes Matthew Boulton's head and 
James Watt's voice Heathfield Hall and its relics Murdock's 
discoveries Birmingham and the slave trade .... 40 



CHAPTER VI 

THE FIRST BIRMINGHAM BANK 

On June 3, 1765, the bank opens Old accounts The partners 
Divisions of profits Mary Lloyd marries Osgood Hanbury 
Rival banks The wealth of Birmingham The Priestley Riots 
Miss Ryland, the benefactress of Birmingham ... 54 



CHAPTER VII 
FINANCIAL STORMS 

Lloyds notes Tokens The difficult year 1797 Charles Lloyd of 
Bingley in London The "Clean" Bank The Napoleonic 
unsettlement Sixty banks stop payment Charles Lloyd 
weathers the storm Runs on the bank Mr. Mynors 
thanked for nothing An Irish bank story The use of .100 
notes 



CONTENTS xi 



CHAPTER VIII 

END OF THE PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND THE 
FOUNDATION OF LLOYDS BANK LIMITED 

PAGE 

Other Birmingham banks Other Quaker banks The joint-stock 
fashion The Lloyds fall into line The failure of Attwoods 
Lloyds prospectus The company is founded The first annual 
report, Dec. 31, 1865 Lloyds acquires London status The 
process of absorption begins The process of absorption con- 
tinuesA gigantic corporation Present-day figures . . 70 



CHAPTER IX 

PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 
LLOYDS AS BANKERS 

Directors' policies Banking tact The making of a multi-million- 
aire Overdrafts Saying " No " Managerial methods 
Anecdotes The banker and the usurer The late G. B. Lloyd 
Religious argument Three politicians John Bright and 
Thomas Lloyd John Bright and the Society of Friends The 
late S. S. Lloyd Free Trade and Protection The old way 
and the new My adventure in the safe The Silent Highway 81 



CHAPTER X 

THE THIRD SAMPSON LLOYD AND BETSY FIDOE 

Mrs. Schimmelpenninck's story A beautiful Quakeress Jail 
fever Sampson Lloyd seeks a woman and finds an angel 
Fecundity A philosophic father Richard t Reynolds and 
Sampson Lloyd A modern patriarch Mr. Beverley at 
"Farm" An elopement A Gretna Green marriage A 
child at Child's Bank 95 

CHAPTER XI 

DR. JOHNSON AND MARY KNOWLES 

The great lexicographer at Birmingham Dining at Sampson 
Lloyd's The discussion on Barclay's Apology The doctor in 
a rage And in repentance His exploration of Birmingham 
The Dictionary Olivia Lloyd Mrs. Knowles Bos well's 
reports of dialectical bouts Religion and the rights of women 
" The Farm " governess and Dr. Johnson A long conversa- 
tion Thrale's brewery 106 



xii . CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XII 



THE GALTONS 



PAGE 



The Society of Friends in Birmingham Bull Street Meeting-house 

Tainted money Quakers and force Gun-making and 

Christianity The third Sampson Lloyd as ambassador- 
Samuel Gallon's letters Dr. Livingstone's testimony War 
and peace George Dawson Later Galtons Dr. Francis 
Gallon and heredity The Rev. Arthur Galton . . .120 



CHAPTER XIII 
CHARLES LLOYD OF BINGLEY 

Thomas Lloyd in Mexico A narrow escape The Gentlemaris 
Magazine on Charles Lloyd A busy philanthropist The 
translation of Homer Charles Lamb's opinions A good 
passage Lamb on Mr. Lloyd's Odyssey And on Horace 
" To my Steward" Some anecdotes A kindly father Robert 
Lloyd's character-sketch of his father Aris's Gazette on Mr. 
Lloyd A determined friend Elizabeth Fry Mrs. Charles 
Lloyd Welcome to Richard T. Cadbury . . . .133 



CHAPTER XIV 
CHARLES LLOYD THE POET 

An unwilling banker Advice to a young brother S. T. Coleridge 
appears in Birmingham Philosopher and neophyte Bristol 
and Nether Stowey First mental illness Charles Lloyd visits 
Charles Lamb A falling out of friends Thomas Manning 
Lloyd marries At Old Brathay De Quincey's testimony 
Shelley Troublous years London and Macready Lloyd as 
a poet Lloyd's children " Lile Owey" Hartley Coleridge's 
poem . 147 

CHAPTER XV 

ROBERT LLOYD AND CHARLES LAMB 

Charles Lamb's letter of advice Duty to parents A mother's 
letter A runaway Charles Lloyd of Bingley in London 
Lamb on marriage Robert Lloyd marries A determined 
bachelor Robert Lloyd in London Literary society A 
glimpse of Charles and Mary Lamb at home Robert Lloyd's 
death Lamb's memoir of him 164 



CONTENTS xiii 

CHAPTER XVI 

ANNA BRAITHWAITE 

PAGE 

The Edgbaston Street home A house without gossip Charles 
Lloyd's letters to his daughter An opponent of Elias Hicks 
Dr. Edwards recalls his youth An American mutiny Harriet 
Beecher Stowe at "Farm" The late Joseph Bevan Braith- 
waite 175 

CHAPTER XVII 

THE FIRST SAMUEL LLOYD 

George Braithwaite Lloyd's parentage My grandfather and his 
coachman The first head of a Lloyd family to leave the 
Friends Elias Hicks and his influence Isaac Crewdson's 
counterblast Mr. Beverley at " Farm " George Stacey 
Quaker Conservatives And the new spirit Quaker dress 
Samuel Bowley's beard 182 

CHAPTER XVIII 
THE LLOYDS AND WEDNESBURY 

The Wednesbury mines Richard Parkes' bargain Lord Eldon's 
delays The Quaker and the motto Pumping-engines in- 
vented "Squire" Wilkinson Excursions to Wednesbury 
The beacon-fires The " Clippers "Wednesbury in my early 
days Cock-fighting My father, "Quaker" Lloyd A tall 
family The Friends and tithes Nonconformity at the present 
day Lloyds, Fosters & Co. The Blackfriars Bridge and 
financial difficulty Lessons from adversity A truly generous 
man The Lloyds and iron Famous ironmasters The Bible 
in Spain The end 189 

APPENDIX I. Ancestry of the Lloyds 205 

APPENDIX II. Reports and Balance Sheets of Lloyds Bank . . 212 

APPENDIX III. The late S. S. Lloyd's speech at the opening of 

the Exchange Buildings, Birmingham, 1865 .... 230 

APPENDIX IV. Charles Lloyd's Imprisonment, &c. . 235* 
INDEX 235 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

The Illustrations in this volume have been engraved and printed 
by the RUSKIN PRESS COMPANY, Birmingham 

VIEW OF "FARM" IN THE SNOW. TAKEN AT 

CHRISTMAS, 1906 Frontispiece 

PLAN OF CENTRAL PORTION OF BIRMINGHAM, 
SHOWING POSITION OF THE FIRST RESI- 
DENCES OF SAMPSON AND CHARLES LLOYD 

AFTER THEY CAME TO BIRMINGHAM . . To face page 2O 

CHARLES LLOYD'S HOUSE, No. 56 EDGBASTON 

STREET ,, 22 

SAMPSON LLOYD'S HOUSE, No. 18 PARK STREET 32 
"FARM" FROM THE WEST SIDE OF THE AVENUE 34 

OWEN'S FARMHOUSE, AS IT NOW is, DECEMBER 

1906 36 

THOMAS PEMBERTON, JUNIOR . . . . 42 

FACSIMILE COPY OF HANDBILL (THE FIRST STAGE- 
COACH BETWEEN BIRMINGHAM AND LONDON) ,, 46 

LANDSCAPE VIEW OF BIRMINGHAM WHEN A 

SMALL TOWN, 1731 ,, ,,48 

GENEALOGICAL TABLE ,, 60 



xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

ONE-POUND BANK NOTE To face page 62 
ONE THIRD OF GUINEA BANK NOTE 
ONE QUARTER OF GUINEA BANK NOTE ' 

Issued by TAYLORS & LLOYDS 

THE SECOND JOHN TAYLOR 7 2 

GEORGE B. LLOYD . 88 

THOMAS LLOYD . 9 

SAMPSON S. LLOYD . > 9 2 

POLITICAL CARTOON : 

STATE OMNIBUS: THE RIGHT HON. JOHN 
BRIGHT THE DRIVER, S. S. LLOYD THE 

PASSENGER . 94 

BETSY FIDOE . 98 

MRS. KNOWLES . II0 

DR. JOHNSON . IJ 8 

BINGLEY HOUSE . ) 134 

S. T. COLERIDGE . . > X 5 

CHARLES LLOYD THE POET AND HIS WIFE . 154 

CHARLES LLOYD READING TO HIS WIFE AND 

Two LADIES ,, n r S8 

FACSIMILE COPY OF LETTER BY ROBERT LLOYD'S 

LITTLE DAUGHTER, SARAH LLOYD . . ,, 174 

SAMUEL LLOYD OF "FARM" ... 202 



THE 

LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

CHAPTER I 

THE LLOYDS OF DOLOBRAN 

Our Welsh origin John Lloyd's Sunday bodyguard Dolobran Hall 
The Lorts and the name of Sampson Cromwell's letter 

THE Welsh family of Lloyd, from which came the 
Lloyds of Birmingham, claims descent on the male 
side from Aleth, who in the eleventh century was 
King of Dyfed, otherwise Demicia or Demica, a 
territory which included what are now the shires of 
Cardigan, Pembroke, and Caermarthen. 

The sixth in descent from Aleth was Celynin, 
who acquired Llwydiarth (hence the name) by in- 
heritance about the year 1300, and the family be- 
came seated at Dolobran from that time to 1780. 

Llewellyn Einion, grandson of Celynin, had 
three sons, and to David, at the division between 
them of their father's estates, fell Dolobran and 
Coedcowrid near Welshpool. 

He was succeeded by Ivan Teg, or the " Hand- 
some," whose son and heir, Owen, about the year 
1476 assumed the name of Lloyd. This he took 
from Llwydiarth in Montgomery, the seat of his 
grandfather, and he was thus the first Lloyd. His 
grandson, David Lloyd of Dolobran, was born in 

A* 



2 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

1523, and was in the Commission of the Peace for 
Montgomeryshire. His great grandson, John Lloyd 
of Dolobran, also a county J.P., was a noted 
antiquary, who, by means of the parchment deeds 
of Welsh properties, traced his ancestry among the 
landed gentry of Wales from the sixth century. 

John Lloyd of Dolobran made his home at 
Coedcowrid, where he lived in great state, as it 
was then considered, having twenty-four men, his 
tenants, with halberds, to attend him to Meifod 
church, placing them in his great pew under the 
pulpit. A prosperous landowner, he added to his 
estate and also improved his house, wainscotting 
the parlour and the hall. Most of the com- 
munion plate was his gift. His son, the first 
Charles Lloyd of Dolobran Charles being a 
name that ever afterwards recurred in the family 
was born in 1613, and married Elizabeth Stanley, 
a lady belonging to the family of Stanley, Earls 
of Derby. 1 He also succumbed to the temptation 
to enlarge and added many timber buildings to 
Dolobran, " making the said Hall's platform to 
resemble the figure of a capital L." The old house 
still stands, but its glories have departed. Coed- 
cowrid stands, too, and Meifod church. 

The first Charles Lloyd of Dolobran fostered a 
hobby which has always been honoured in the family 
he was a keen genealogist. He died in 1657. 

With Charles Lloyd of Dolobran's eldest son, 
Charles, the second Charles Lloyd, this history may 
be said to begin. Born in 1637, he was educated with 
his brothers, John and Thomas, at Jesus College, 
Oxford, the first purely Protestant College founded 
in that University. 2 The two elder, Charles and 
John, graduated in medicine ; John afterwards 

1 See Appendix, p. 208. 

' 2 See College Histories, by Mr. E. G. Hardy. 



THE LLOYDS OF DOLOBRAN 3 

became one of the six Clerks in Chancery, and 
presented to his native parish church of Meifod a 
flagon and a paten of silver-gilt for the Communion 
service, which may still be seen. Thomas, the 
third son, became William Penn's chosen friend. 

On January i, 1661, when twenty-four years 
of age, Charles married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sampson Lort of Pembroke, the son of Sir George 
Lort, baronet, of Stackpole Court, Pembrokeshire. 
The Lorts were an old Norman family, Sampson 
being named after a Norman saint of the early 
Church, to whom one often finds churches dedi- 
cated in Guernsey and Normandy, and also at 
Crickdale in Wiltshire, and elsewhere. 1 By this 
marriage the name Sampson came into the Lloyd 
family and into Birmingham, for without it there 
would be no Sampson Road at Sparkbrook. 

Sampson Lort was a Parliamentarian, who with 
his relative John was in 1648 selected by Cromwell 
to assist in the destruction of the castle of Haver- 
fordwest. The Protector's autograph letter ad- 
dressed to the Haverfordwest Corporation runs as 
follows : 

" Whereas upon view and consideration with Mr. Roger 
Lort and Sampson Lort, and the Maior and Aldermen of 
Havorford west, it is thought fit for the preservinge of the 
peace of the countye that the Castell of Havorford west should 
be speedily demolished. These are to Authorise you to call 
to your assistance in the performance of this service the In- 
habitants of the Hundreds of Dangleddy, Kemis Roose and 
Killgarron, who are hereby required to give you assistance. 
Given under our hands the I4th of July, 1648. 

O. CROMWELL. SAM. LORT. JOHN LORT. 

To THE MAIOR AND ALDERMEN 
OF HAVORFORD WEST." 



1 Extracts from Montgomeryshire Collections, vol. ix. Printed by the 
Powysland Club, Welshpool, pp. 339-341. 



4 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

In 1660 Sampson Lort attended the nomination 
for the return of a member to the Covenanters' 
Parliament, and had, as even his opponents ad- 
mitted, a majority of the electors, " but the Council 
and Sheriff [returning officers] having decided 
beforehand to refuse his nomination, his opponent, 
Mr. Phillips, a representative of the younger branch 
of the Picton family, a hot Royalist, was elected." 



CHAPTER II 

CHARLES LLOYD THE QUAKER 

George Fox in Wales Richard Davies the autobiographer A perse- 
cuted sect Magna Charta overridden Bishop Burnet's comments 
Thomas Ellwood, the friend of Milton, and the early Quakers 
Charles Lloyd in prison A birth in jail The return to Dolo- 
bran Thomas Lloyd's troubles A disputation between Lloyd the 
Bishop and Lloyd the Quaker Lloyd the Bishop in his turn in cap- 
tivity The old Bull Lane burial-ground Charles Lloyd's skull 
Tresses in the dust Thomas Lloyd and the Pennsylvanian Friends 

CHARLES LLOYD, the second, of Dolobran had been 
instructed at church that he should make every pre- 
cept in the Scriptures a law unto himself, and that 
a man should desire to please God in all the actions 
of his life. His religious principles and thoughtful 
intelligence were soon to be put to the test. 

His spiritual sufferings came about in this way. 
There lived at Welshpool a fervently religious 
young man, who had studied his Bible for years, 
named Richard Davies. When George Fox visited 
Wales on a preaching mission Davies was one of 
his most influential converts to the beliefs of the 
early Friends, or, as they were called in ridicule, 
the Quakers. Davies one day arranged for a reli- 
gious meeting to be held at Dolobran at the house 
of Hugh David, one of Charles Lloyd's tenants. 
In his Autobiography l we read : 

" A day or two after we went to the meeting, where came 
in Charles Lloyd of Dolobran, who was formerly in Commission 

1 The Autobwgraph 
entitled An Accout, 
of Ancient Friends 



6 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

of the Peace, and had been in election to be High Sheriff of 
that County, and also several of his well meaning neighbours 
. . . the Lord was not wanting . . . and in the love, fear, and 
life of truth, we parted." 

One result of this meeting was that Charles Lloyd, 
who had already, at Oxford, become interested in 
the Friends' doctrines, joined the new sect. 

Upon the day following the meeting convened 
by Richard Davies, a similar religious meeting was 
held at Charles Lloyd's own house. Reports of 
these meetings were quickly spread, and there is no 
doubt that their significance was emphasised by the 
social position which Charles Lloyd then held. 
The reports having reached high quarters, he and 
six others were summoned before Edward Lord Her- 
bert, Baron of Cherbury, who lived about three miles 
from Dolobran. After a superficial examination, 
the six unfortunate Friends, upon their refusal to 
take the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy all 
oaths being held wrong by Fox and his followers, who 
obeyed to the letter Christ's command, " Swear not 
at all " were sent to Welshpool, and cast into the 
prison there, to await a trial which never took place. 

It may be asked, What had become of Magna 
Charta? This charter, extorted from King John 
by the Barons in 1215, was amplified in the reign 
of his son, Henry III., and confirmed by his grand- 
son, Edward I. The twenty-ninth chapter of the 
Act of Henry III., passed in the ninth year of his 
reign, says : 

" No freeman shall be taken or imprisoned or be disseized 
of his freehold or liberties, or free customs, or be outlawed, 
or exiled, or any otherwise destroyed ; nor we will not pass 
upon him, nor condemn him ; but by lawful judgment of his 
peers, or by the law of the land." 

This was the law when Charles II. ascended 
the throne. How then, the question naturally 



CHARLES LLOYD THE QUAKER 7 

arises, could these early Friends be kept in prison 
for so long a time without trial ? Bishop Burnet in 
his History of his own Time throws some light on 
the subject. He says : 

"I was in Court the Greater part of the year 1662-3-4. 
An Act was passed empowering Justices of the peace to con- 
vict offenders without Juries. . . . And a meeting for religious 
worship at which five were present more than the family, was 
declared to be a Conventicle ; and every person in it was to 
lie three months in prison, or to pay ^5 for the first offence, 
six months for the second, or to pay a fine of 20, and for the 
third offence, being convicted by a Jury, to be banished to any 
plantation except New England or Virginia, or to pay a fine of 
one hundred pounds. All people were amazed at this severity." 

Bishop Burnet might have added that, not only were 
the people amazed at its severity, but also at its 
violation of the primary law of the realm ; for the 
Magna Charta had made it a clear principle of our 
constitution that no man can be detained in prison 
without trial. 

Thomas Ellwood, 1 the friend of Milton and 
William Penn, and one of the early Quakers, 
writes of the Conventicle Act which was passed 
in May 1664 as u A very severe Law made against 
the Quakers by Name, and more particularly Pro- 
hibiting our Meetings under the sharpest Penalties, 
. . . which Law was looked upon to have been 
procured by the Bishops, in order to bring us to a 
Conformity to their way of Worship." He further 
describes it as " that unaccountable Law, if that may 
be allowed to be called a Law, by whomsoever 
made, which was so directly contrary to the Funda- 
mental Laws of England, to common Justice, 
Equity, and Right Reason, and directly contrary 
to the Great Charter." 

1 History of the Life of Thomas Ellwood, written by his own hand. 
London: Headley Bros., 1906. 



8 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

By this Act, he says, the informers were entitled 
to a third part of the fines, and "they drove an 
underhand private trade, so that men often were 
convicted and fined without having any notice or 
knowledge of it, till the officers came and took 
away their goods, nor even then could they tell 
by whose evidence they were convicted. Than 
which what could be more opposite to common 
justice?" It may be assumed, however, that the 
Bishops thought to serve God by stamping out 
Dissent. 

"No sooner," says Ellwood, "was this cruel 
law made, but it was put in Execution with great 
Severity," and on the first day of the Fifth Month 
following (new style, July 1665) "one of the Quakers 
having died, others of them were carrying his corpse 
in a coffin on their shoulders to bury him in his own 
orchard outside Amersham in Buckinghamshire, 
when a Justice of the Peace (named Benett) stopped 
them, and his order to put the coffin down not being 
observed as quickly as he desired, threw the coffin 
off the bearers' shoulders with a forcible thrust to 
the ground" obliging them to arrest Ellwood 
and nine others and send them to Ailesbury Jail, 
"for what neither we nor they knew," and they 
were ordered to pay a fine of six shillings and 
eightpence each, or remain in prison a month. 

"Innocent of doing anything wrong," Ellwood 
says, they declined to pay the fine, so before he 
left the prison at the end of the month he wrote : 

" Some men are Free when they in Prison lie ; 
Others, who ne'r saw Prison, Captives Die," 

which he termed a riddle. The following he styled 
the solution : 

" He only's free indeed that's free from sin, 
And he is safest bound, that's bound therein." 



CHARLES LLOYD THE QUAKER 9 

Thomas Ellwood says of the terrible year 1670, 
so disastrous to the Nonconformists, that under 
the Conventicle Act " Persecution was carried on 
with very great Severity and Rigour in the year 
1670 ; the worst of Men, for the most part being 
set up for Informers ; the worst of Magistrates 
encouraging and abetting them ; and the worst of 
the Priests (who first began to blow the Fire) now 
seeing how it took, spread, and blazed, clapping 
their Hands, and Hallowing them on to this Evil 
Work." 

Charles Lloyd and others of the Friends thus 
imprisoned were substantial freeholders, and al- 
though they might probably have regained their 
liberty by taking the oaths of Allegiance and Supre- 
macy, and by payment of fines, yet they underwent 
imprisonment rather than be false to their religious 
convictions. 

Incidentally, however, it may be observed that 
the Quakers, or Friends, were not the first who 
refused to recognise the right to enforce the adminis- 
tration of oaths. A sect called the Anabaptists 
had long previously condemned all oaths whether 
profane or judicial, holding the prohibition of 
Christ to be of general application. 

The following passage quoted from Dr. Thomas 
Hodgkin shows clearly the state of things at the 
time : 

" But there was now to be a demonstration of the fact, often 
proved in after years, that the Quaker would rather under-go 
any amount of imprisonment than satisfy what he conceived 
to be an unjust demand. It was in many cases a living death 
that he thus confronted, for the prisons of England in that 
century were horrible beyond description; still, when the 
Quaker had made up his mind that a certain claim was 
unrighteous, he would rather suffer anything than pay it; 
and this invincible resolution of his had no small share 
in bringing about the victorious issue of the battle which was 



io THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

to be waged for liberty of thought during the following half 
century." 1 

During the first year or two of the imprisonment 
of Charles Lloyd and his fellow-sufferers for con- 
science' sake, there appears to have been no relaxa- 
tion of the harsh prison discipline prevailing at 
the time ; for Richard Davies describes the jail as 
a " dirty, nasty place," and says, that Charles 
Lloyd " was put into a little smoky room, and did 
lie upon a little straw himself for a considerable 
time, and at last his tender wife, Elizabeth . . . 
was made willing to lie upon straw with her dear 
and tender husband." 

In these unhappy circumstances their eldest 
son, the third Charles Lloyd, was born August 18, 
1662, though the presence of Elizabeth Lloyd in 
the prison was not compulsory, but optional. Her 
name is not included in the list of the six Friends 
sent by Lord Herbert to Welshpool. 

Charles Lloyd's younger brother, Thomas, 
hearing that his brother was in prison, travelled 
quickly from Oxford, where he was still a student, 
to visit him. u They told me," writes Richard 
Davies, "that the great sufferings of Friends, in 
that city of Oxford, by the magistrates and by the 
wild and ungodly scholars, did work much upon 
them, and they had some secret love for Friends 
then. So when Thomas Lloyd came home, being 
sometime with Friends in prison and elsewhere, 
the Lord opened his understanding by his light 
life and power, and he received the truth and was 
obedient to it, and took up his daily cross and 
followed Jesus, came to be his disciple, was taught 
by him, and went no more to Oxford for learning, 
and I may say with David, the Lord made him 

1 See George Fox, by Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L. : Methuen & Co., 
1896. 



CHARLES LLOYD THE QUAKER n 

wiser than all his former teachers. He stayed 
pretty much at home and with his eldest brother 
Charles Lloyd and in these parts." 

Richard Davies says that he went with Thomas 
Lloyd to visit most of the Justices that had a hand 
in committing Friends to prison. They called on 
Lord Herbert, "and although he did not agree to 
their liberty, they heard that he sent private instruc- 
tions which resulted in the jailer allowing the 
Friends to go to an empty house at the end of 
the town, which was a sweet convenient place near 
the fields, without any keeper over them, and they 
had the liberty of the town and to go where they 
pleased except to their own houses. 

"So Charles Lloyd took a house in town for 
him and his family to live in, and we kept our meet- 
ings in that house of the jailers aforesaid several 
years." 

It seems incredible now, but it is a fact that for 
ten years Charles Lloyd and the other offenders were 
prisoners, although after half that time had elapsed 
their condition was thus improved. In this house 
in the "Rules," so to speak, of the prison his 
second son, Sampson (the first Sampson of the 
family), was born, on February 26, 1664. Later 
was born a daughter, Elizabeth, who eventually 
married John Pemberton, of Bennett's Hill, Bir- 
mingham. In the following year Elizabeth Lloyd 
died. She was buried in the Friends' burial-ground 
at Cloddian Cochion, near Welshpool. 

Meanwhile Charles Lloyd's possessions were 
put under prcemunire ; his cattle were sold, and his 
house was partially destroyed. At last, however, 
on March 15, 1672, Charles II. made his Declara- 
tion of Indulgence, suspending the execution of 
all penal laws in ecclesiastical matters, and 491 
persons, chiefly Friends, were released. 



12 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

On returning to Dolobran, Charles Lloyd, whose 
property seems to have been restored to him, at 
once enlarged the Hall and built the little meeting- 
house that still stands, where some years later 
George Fox held a meeting. Some opposers came 
in, says that great spiritual man in his Journal^ 
" but the Lord's power brought them down." 

Persecution was by no means over, as Richard 
Davies' Autobiography tells us. 

In 1674-5 he and Thomas Lloyd held a meeting, 
at which the latter " uttered a few words by way 
of defining the true religion and what the true 
worship was, all which David Maurice, an informer 
who was present, approved of as sound and accord- 
ing to the doctrine of the Church of England, yet 
notwithstanding he fined T. Lloyd twenty pound 
for preaching and he fined the house twenty 
pounds, and five shillings a piece for the hearers. 
And on the i6th of the fourth month 1675 he 
caused to be driven from Thomas Lloyd four cows 
and a mare, all worth about sixteen pounds, by 
two of his servants, these were lurking near the 
ground about two hours before day and drove away 
the cattle before sunrise. 

" About the same time Charles Lloyd of Dolo- 
bran had ten young beasts taken from him by John 
Jones of Golynog, an attorney-at-law who was that 
year overseer of the poor of the parish of Myvod, 
together with the petty Constable, &c., upon a 
warrant from David Maurice, the informer before 
alluded to, for preaching within the liberties of 
Welshpool at Cloddiecochion, though the said 
Charles Lloyd was not at that place that day, nor 
many days before, or after at any meeting." 1 

1 I append a list, drawn up by Mr. J. Spinther James, of charges against 
Charles Lloyd after his liberation : 

1673. Sept. 15, at Pool (Welshpool) he was " presented for not repayringe 
unto his p'ish Church." 



CHARLES LLOYD THE QUAKER 13 

Richard Davies also gives an account of a 
disputation between the Quakers and the Church. 
He writes : 

"About the year 1680 or 1681, came Dr. William Lloyd to 
be the Bishop of this Diocese. Persecution was very sharp 
and severe in several places about this time upon account of 
excommunication and the statute of twenty pound a month. 
But this new bishop thought to take a more mild way to work 
by summoning all sorts of dissenters to discourse with him 
and to seek to persuade them to turn to the Church of England. 

"Charles Lloyd and Thomas Lloyd discoursed with him, 
his chaplains, and other clergy, so called, from about two in 
the afternoon till two in the morning. Afterwards they dis- 
coursed with him two days at Lladvilling. The first day from 
about two in the afternoon till night, and the next day from 
about ten in the morning till an hour in the night, publicly in 
the town hall. The first day at Pool our Friends Charles 
Lloyd and Thomas Lloyd gave their reasons for separation. 
In none of the three days would the bishop and his clergy 
defend their own principles or refute ours, but only held the 
three days on the general principles of Christendom, and the 
apostles' examples of water-baptism, and once a small touch 
at the bread and wine. Thomas Lloyd held the last day our 
reasons why we separated from the Church of England, which 
were : 

" (i) Because their worship was not a gospel worship. 

" (2) Because their ministry was no gospel ministry. 

" (3) Because their ordinances were no gospel ordinances. 

1675. He had ten young beasts taken from him upon a warrant from 
David Maurice of Penybont. (Davies' Autobiography.} 

1678. Oct. u,at Llanfyllin, the High Constables of the Hundred of Pool 
presented, amongst others, Charles Lloyd of Dolobran and Thomas Lloyd 
his brother as desenters from the Church of England. 

1680. Sept. 2, at the Great Sessions held at Montgomery, Charles Lloyd, 
and Thomas Lloyd and his Wife, were presented as absentees from Church. 

1681. August 29, Great Sessions at Llanfyllin, in the list of Quakers 
presented is ' ' Charles Lloyd, one of the Balieffes of Pool." He had evidently 
been made a Bailiff to vex him. 

1682. April 24, Great Session at Pool, Charles Lloyd was presented for 
not coming to Church ; also 1682, Oct. 8 ; also 1683, August 27. 

1685-6. March 8, at Poole, High Constable of the Lower Division of the 
Hundred of Llanfyllin present Charles Lloyd and his wife for not coming 
to Church. This is the last mention of Charles Lloyd in the Montgomery- 
shire Jail Files as extracted by Richard Williams, F.R.Hist.S. The 
sentences or Judgments of the Courts are not quoted. 



i 4 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

" But they would not join with him to prove any of them 
though often solicited thereunto. Friends being sufferers 
must submit to all disadvantages, for they had not any notice 
beforehand of what matters they should argue till they came 
to the place of dispute and the last day they forced Thomas 
Lloyd to about twenty-eight Syllogisms, all written down as 
they disputed, to be answered extempore; and the Bishop 
said he did not expect so much could be said by any on that 
subject on so little warning, and he said that he expected not 
to find so much civility from the Quakers. He highly com- 
mended Thomas Lloyd and our Friends came off with them 
very well." 

This Bishop Lloyd (who was no relation of our 
family) was destined to have spiritual difficulties of 
his own ; for he was one of the seven bishops who 
were imprisoned in the Tower for conscience' sake 
in 1688. Richard Davies writes : 

"Then I remembered that which I spoke to the Bishop 
at his Palace in the year 1681 What if another Prince 
should arise that would impose something upon him that 
he could not do for conscience' sake ? And that year when 
at London I went to visit him in his troubles, and he said 
to me, ' I often thought of your words and I could wish I 
were in Pennsylvania now myself.' " 

Charles Lloyd died at Birmingham in 1698, 
aged only sixty, while on a visit to his son-in-law 
John Pemberton. He had been twice married. His 
second wife, Ann Lawrence, who was one of the 
six Friends imprisoned in 1662, survived him nearly 
ten years. They were both interred, as were also 
his daughter and son-in-law (John Pemberton and 
his wife), in the old Friends' burial-ground in Bull 
Lane, leading off Monmouth Street, now Colmore 
Row, Birmingham. In 1851, when this burial- 
ground became extinct through the operations of 
the Great Western Railway in the making of their 
line, the coffins of these past witnesses of troubled 



CHARLES LLOYD THE QUAKER 15 

times, together with those of others, were dis- 
entombed and carefully removed to the Friends' 
burial-ground in Bull Street, which, in 1803, Samuel 
Galton helped them to acquire. 

My cousin, the late George B. Lloyd, at the 
request of his father, visited Bull Lane graveyard 
during the process of exhumation, and had in his 
hands the fine skull of the long-deceased Charles 
Lloyd of Dolobran, disturbed for the first time 
after lying there 153 years. He told me this at 
the time, and again when I commenced to write 
this narrative. 

In this graveyard were discovered also the 
remains of Mary Gill, daughter of Charles Lloyd's 
second son, Sampson Lloyd. The colour of her 
rich brown hair had apparently remained unchanged 
through all that long period ; and Dickinson Sturge, 
who had become possessed of a portion, showed 
it to me. I also visited the graveyard soon after 
these bodies had been removed, and noticed a coffin 
embedded in the deep red sand, wherein the body 
of a woman lay. The lid having become detached, 
I could see within, and it was evident that after 
death her hair had continued to grow till it extended 
beneath her feet and practically filled the coffin. 
I learnt afterwards that other cases of this sort 
have been noticed and recorded that the human 
hair frequently continues to grow after the death 
of a person, and endures when the flesh has 
crumbled into dust. 

A few of the coffins had brass plates upon them, 
with names and dates quite decipherable ; but, in 
many cases, the wood had completely perished so 
as to crumble when touched, revealing the bones 
and dust within. 

From this burial-ground were also removed the 
remains of Richard Parkes, who by the marriage of 



1 6 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

his daughter to the second Sampson Lloyd became 
closely associated with the family in the eighteenth 
century but of him more anon. 

Before leaving altogether the subject of the 
Lloyds' contributions to the rise of the Society of 
Friends, I would add that Thomas Lloyd went to 
Pennsylvania as a friend of William Penn and acted 
as Deputy Governor of that colony when Penn 
visited England. He left no male descendant, and 
therefore does not figure in the main stream of this 
record ; but the late Horace J. Smith, of Phila- 
delphia, who resided for a while at Moseley, used 
often to remind me that Thomas Lloyd was his 
ancestor, and he was very proud of the fact. 

From a paper drawn up by Mr. J. Spinther 
James I take some particulars of Thomas Lloyd's 
career. He suffered imprisonment in 1663, but was 
soon released. In 1664 he was arrested with others 
while quietly travelling on the highway ; and for 
refusing to take the oath of Allegiance and Supre- 
macy, was again imprisoned, and detained for eight 
years that is, until 1672 when the king ordered 
" that all manner of penal laws on matters eccle- 
siastical against whatever sort of Nonconformists 
or recusants should be from that day suspended." 
A short time before his incarceration, he had 
married Mary, daughter of Gilbert Jones of Welsh- 
pool. After his release he resided at Plasmawr, 
near Welshpool, and was much harassed for his 
Nonconformity. 

On March 7, 1675, David Maurice, Justice of 
the Peace, with armed men, visited a Friends' meet- 
ing at Cloddian Cochion, where Thomas Lloyd was 
speaking : the Justice fined Thomas Lloyd ^20, 
the House ^20, and each person present 55. 

On April 5, 1675, at the Great Sessions at Pool, 
Thomas Lloyd, among many others, was presented 



CHARLES LLOYD THE QUAKER 17 

for not coming to church, and the stock of his farm 
was distrained upon. 

On October n, 1678, he was presented at Llan- 
fyllin on the same charge. At the Great Sessions 
at Montgomery, September 2, 1680, he and his wife 
were presented as absentees from church. This is 
the last mention of him in the Jail Files. 

Thomas Lloyd, accompanied by his family, in 
1683 took passage in the ship America, and, after 
a voyage of eight weeks, landed in Philadelphia, 
which then consisted of three or four little cottages, 
nearly surrounded by a dense forest. His devoted 
wife died soon after their arrival, and was the first 
interred in the Friends' burying ground. 

Thomas Lloyd's history in America, and the 
service he rendered there to the establishment of 
civil and religious liberty, is well known and 
much revered and cherished on both sides of the 
Atlantic. 

The following account of Thomas Lloyd was 
drawn up, with the admirable simple eloquence of 
Friends, by the monthly meeting of Haverford in 
Pennsylvania, on Thomas Lloyd's death in 1694. 

" The love of God, and the regard we have to the Blessed 
Truth, constrain us to give forth this testimony concerning 
our dear friend Thomas Lloyd, many of us having had long 
acquaintance with him, both in Wales, where he formerly 
lived, and also in Pennsylvania, where he finished his course, 
and laid down his head in peace with the Lord ; and is at 
rest and joy with Him for evermore. 

" He was by birth of them who are called the gentry, his 
father being a man of a considerable estate and of great 
esteem in his time, of an ancient house and estate called 
Dolobran, in Montgomeryshire in Wales. He was brought 
up at the most noted schools, and from thence went to one 
of the universities; and because of his superior natural and 
acquired parts, many of account in the world had an eye 
of regard towards him. Being offered degrees and places 

B 



1 8 THE LLQYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

of preferment, he refused them all; the Lord beginning his 
work in him, and causing a measure of his light to shine 
out of darkness, in his heart, which gave him a sight of 
the vain forms, customs, and traditions of the schools and 
colleges. And hearing of a poor despised people called 
Quakers, he went to hear them, and the Lord's power reached 
unto him and came over him, to the humbling and bowing 
his heart and spirit; so that he was convinced of God's 
everlasting Truth, and received it in the love of it, and 
was made willing like meek Moses, to choose rather afflic- 
tion with the people of the Lord, than the honours, prefer- 
ments, and riches of this world. 

" The earthly wisdom came to be of no reputation with 
him, but he became a fool, both to it and his former asso- 
ciates, and, through self-denial and taking up the daily cross 
of Christ Jesus, which crucified his natural will, affections, 
and pleasures, he came to be a scholar in Christ's school, 
and to learn the true wisdom which is from above. Thus, 
by departing from the vanities and iniquities of the world, 
and following the leadings, guidance, and instructions of 
the Divine Light, grace, and Spirit of Christ, he came more 
and more to have an understanding in the mysteries of 
God's kingdom, and was made an able minister of the 
everlasting Gospel of peace and salvation ; his acquired parts 
being sanctified to the service of Truth. 

" His sound and effectual ministry, his godly conversa- 
tion, meek and lamb-like spirit, great patience, temperance, 
humilit}', and slowness to wrath ; his love to the brethren ; 
his godly care in the church of Christ, that all things might 
be kept sweet, savoury, and in good order; his helping 
hand to the weak, and gentle admonitions, we are fully 
satisfied, have a seal and witness in the hearts of all faithful 
friends who knew him, both in the land of his nativity, and 
in these American parts. 

" We may in truth say, he sought not himself, nor the 
riches of this world, but his eye was to that which is ever- 
lasting, being given up to spend and be spent for the Truth 
and the sake of Friends. 

" He never turned his back on the Truth, nor was weary 
in his travels Sion-wards, but remained a sound pillar in 
the spiritual building. He had many disputes with the 
clergy and some called peers, in England, and also suffered 
imprisonments, and much loss of outward substance, to the 



CHARLES LLOYD THE QUAKER 19 

honour of Truth, and stopping in measure the mouths ot 
gainsayers and persecutors. Yet these exercises and trials 
in the land of his nativity, which he sustained through the 
ability God gave him, were small, and not to be compared 
to the many and great exercises, griefs, and sorrows he met 
with in Pennsylvania, from that miserable apostate George 
Keith, and his deluded company. O, the revilings, the great 
provocations, the bitter and wicked language, and rude 
behaviour which the Lord gave him patience to bear and 
overcome. He reviled not again, nor took any advantage, 
but loved his enemies, and prayed for them that despite- 
fully abused him. 

" His love to the Lord, his truth, and people, was sincere 
to the last. He was taken with a malignant fever, the 5th 
of the /th month, 1694; and, though his bodily pain was 
great, he bore it with much patience. Not long before his 
departure, some friends being with him, he said : ' Friends, 
I love you all, I am going from you, and 1 die in unity and 
love with all faithful friends. I have fought a good fight, 
and kept the faith, which stands not in the wisdom of words, 
but in the power of God : I have fought, not for strife and 
contention, but for the Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and 
the simplicity of the Gospel. I lay down my head in peace, 
and desire you all may do so. Friends, farewell all.' 

" He further said to Griffith Owen, a friend then intend- 
ing for England : ' I desire thee to mind my love to friends 
in England, if thou lives to go over to see them; I have 
lived in unity with them, and do end my days in unity with 
them; and desire the Lord to keep them all faithful unto 
the end, in the simplicity of the Gospel.' 

"On the loth day of the 7th month aforesaid, being the 
6th day of his sickness, it pleased the Lord to remove him 
from the many trials, temptations, sorrows, and troubles of 
this world, to the kingdom of everlasting joy and peace; 
but the remembrance of his innocent life and meek spirit 
lives with us, and his memorial is, and will remain to be, 
sweet and comfortable to the faithful. He was buried in 
friends' burial ground in Philadelphia, aged about 55 years, 
having been several years president and deputy governor 
of Pennsylvania." 



CHAPTER III 

THE LLOYDS COME TO BIRMINGHAM 

The first Sampson Lloyd The Conventicle Act Birmingham and 
Dissent Our first ironmasters The Lloyd slitting-mill The 
adventures of Foley A fiddle leads to wealth Fuel and iron 
Friends at the slitting-mill and at an old iron furnace Robert 
Plot describes the making of iron Protection advocated in 1783 
Richard Reynolds, Free Trader 

WE now turn to the history of the first Sampson 
Lloyd, the son who was born to Charles Lloyd 
during his imprisonment in 1664, since it was he 
who carried on the line. But first I should say that 
his eldest brother Charles remained at Dolobran 
Hall, to which he made many pleasing- additions, 
and established an iron-work nearby in 1719. Why 
he was so venturesome as to commence making iron 
so far from a market for its produce is not recorded, 
for it is said that some of it had to be carted as 
far as South Staffordshire to find a sale. The 
venture probably started when iron was at a high 
price, but it became unprofitable, and he was involved 
in monetary difficulties. Eventually, in 1742, he 
removed to Birmingham. A Minute of a Welsh 
yearly meeting held at Bridgenorth, which alludes 
to these difficulties, " recommends Charles Lloyd 
with his wife to the Friends in Birmingham in 
sincere love and fellowship, desiring that the 
Almighty may crown the evening of their days here 
with peace, and hereafter receive them into the 
arms of His eternal and unspeakable mercy." He 



LLOYDS COME TO BIRMINGHAM 21 

died in 1747 or 1749, and he and his wife were both 
buried in the Birmingham Friends' burial-ground. 
None of the Birmingham Lloyds are descended 
from him. Both his sons, Charles Exton and 
James, died unmarried. It was James who sold 
Dolobran in 1780, the estate thus after many genera- 
tions passing from the family. It was, however, 
bought back in 1878 by the late Sampson Samuel 
Lloyd. 

Sampson Lloyd the first married twice. His 
first wife, Elizabeth Good, bore him four daughters ; 
his second wife, Mary Crowley, four sons and two 
daughters, of whom Sampson, the third son, is, to 
us, the most interesting, for it was he who built 
"Farm." But first a little more about his father, 
Sampson Lloyd the original. 

It was at the age of thirty- four, and in the 
same year that his father died (1698), that Sampson 
Lloyd migrated to Birmingham. Like his father, 
he was a Friend ; and, like his father, although less 
severely, he had been continuously persecuted in 
Wales. He was attracted to Birmingham because 
his brother-in-law, John Pemberton, lived there ; 
but he also chose it to escape the harassing and 
ruthless legal penalties of the Conventicle Act. 
Birmingham, moreover, was always friendly to 
Dissent. 

The pains and penalties to which, by Acts of 
Parliament, the followers of George Fox were 
rendered liable, and the harsh and ruthless manner 
in which those punishments were enforced, had 
already induced thousands of Welsh people to emi- 
grate to Pennsylvania. The first Sampson Lloyd 
might have followed his uncle Thomas to that early 
English settlement. In Birmingham, which he 
chose instead, and which was then in its infancy, 
he soon found scope for his energies and capital. 



22 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

He started business as an iron merchant in Edg- 
baston Street. 

The town owed much of its early intellectual 
eminence and progressive spirit to its not having 
been a corporate borough, for other superior men, 
stimulated like Sampson Lloyd by the desire for 
religious liberty, also settled in it. Those who 
came were consequently not affected by the " Five 
Mile Act" of Charles II., which debarred Noncon- 
formist clergymen from coming within five miles of 
any borough. The very atmosphere of the place 
soon seemed to favour religious liberty and intel- 
lectual freedom. 

Sampson Lloyd, after a profitable career as an 
ironmaster in the firm of "Sampson Lloyd and 
Sons," died on January 3, 1724, aged, like his 
father, sixty. His will shows him to have been 
possessed of a large property. It states that he had 
purchased the house in which he was then living for 
^400. This was No. 56 Edgbaston Street, which, 
though no longer a dwelling-house, still stands and 
retains many of its old characteristics, including a 
fine oak staircase. An inspection of the property 
makes me doubt if, when it was acquired for 
^400, the present house existed. It must have cost 
several times that sum to build. However this may 
be, Sampson Lloyd's son Charles came into posses- 
sion, and lived there until he moved to Bingley 
House. Sampson Lloyd also held freehold property 
in Stourbridge and had a residence at Lea, near 
Leominster, Herefordshire. His executors were his 
widow, his son Sampson, John Gulson (a son-in- 
law), and John Pemberton, his brother-in-law. 

My cousin, the late G. B. Lloyd, who prompted 
me to undertake this narrative, saying, "I know 
you can do it, and it is worth doing," wished it to 
contain some account of the slitting-mill which 



LLOYDS COME TO BIRMINGHAM 23 

Sampson Lloyd and his son, the second Sampson 
Lloyd, erected at the bottom of Bradford Street, 
near the centre of the town, the motive power for 
which was obtained from the river Rea. To do 
this, it is necessary to go back to the time when 
young Foley of Stourbridge went to Sweden and 
learnt what a slitting-mill was. The story is an 
interesting one. 

It was early in the seventeenth century when 
the neighbourhood of Stourbridge was the centre of 
the nail-making industry of England that Sweden 
became a discomforting competitor to those en- 
gaged in this industry ; as nails made there were 
sold in England at prices with which Stourbridge 
makers could not compete. This caused young 
Foley of Stourbridge to resolve to find out, if pos- 
sible, how their underselling was accomplished. He 
accordingly started for Sweden, but with so little 
money that it was exhausted on his arrival there, 
and he was left (not unlike Oliver Goldsmith in his 
travels in Holland) with the solitary but somewhat 
lively resource of a fiddle. He was, however, an 
excellent musician, as well as a pleasant fellow, 
and he successfully begged and fiddled his way 
to the celebrated Dannemora Mines, near Upsala. 

He readily ingratiated himself with the iron- 
workers ; and, having for some time carefully ob- 
served their machinery, he believed he had found 
out their methods. He therefore returned to Stour- 
bridge, full of hope that he had acquired the secret 
of the construction of a slitting-mill, by means of 
which plates of wrought iron could be slit into nail- 
rods. So strongly persuaded was he of success that 
a gentleman was induced to advance the requisite 
money ; but, alas ! to the great disappointment of 
all concerned, the machinery failed to slit the 
iron. 



24 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

Foley therefore set out for Sweden a second 
time, receiving on his arrival a joyful welcome from 
the Swedish workmen. So gladly indeed did they 
receive the returned fiddler, that, with a disastrous 
confidence, to make sure of him they lodged him 
in the very citadel of the business, the slitting-mill 
itself, looking on him, in their simple-minded, 
uncommercial good-fellowship, as a mere fiddler, 
and nothing more. He remained long enough to 
ascertain where his mistakes lay, and then again 
disappeared. On his return to Stourbridge he 
succeeded in having machinery constructed that 
perfectly performed the work required. There- 
after he not only supplied the nail-makers with 
the nail-rods they wanted, but also made a fortune 
in doing it. It is pleasant and gratifying to record 
that while amassing wealth himself, he was not 
unmindful of the needs of others ; for he invariably 
and generously aided all the plans of benevolence 
set on foot in his neighbourhood. 

Richard Foley and all the early Foleys were 
Puritans. He (the founder of the family) died in 
1657, aged seventy-seven. He was succeeded by 
his son Thomas, an equally clever man of business, 
who successfully carried on the manufacture, and, 
as the result, was able to purchase a very fine 
Worcestershire estate. Upon this he lived, a 
peerage having been granted to the family in the 
reign of Charles II. The main line of the Foley 
family, however, eventually becoming extinct, the 
property was sold to the wealthy Earl of Dudley 
for ,900,000. 

The question may arise, Does not this prosperity 
exceed the bounds not only of probability but of 
possibility? How could any one possessed of 
nothing but a fiddle make so much, with his son, 
out of a slitting-mill, that the latter could leave an 



LLOYDS COME TO BIRMINGHAM 25 

estate worth ,900,000 ? This seems to be a truth 
stranger than fiction. But Dud Dudley, in his 
Metallum Martis, published in 1665, throws some 
light upon it when he says : " Wood in these parts 
[in 1663] is almost exhausted, although it were of 
late a mighty wood-land country." The Foleys 
had this abundant and cheap supply, and so made 
their great fortunes, and now in 1663 there was 
next to none left for others to do the same. Dudley 
adds that there "were a supernumerary number of 
smiths, near twenty thousand," who had doubtless 
been using the Foleys' iron as fast as they could 
make it, the nails being sent to all parts of the 
country and also exported. But in 1663 a time 
of depression followed, so that the same writer adds : 
"Twenty thousand smiths or naylors, at the least, 
dwelling near these parts and taking of prentices 
have made their trade so bad, that many of them 
are ready to starve and steal ... so that it is 
wished [for them] not to take so many prentices." 

Foley drove his slitting-mill by water, the only 
suitable mechanical power then known. Sampson 
Lloyd and his son and partner (Sampson Lloyd the 
second), and afterwards his grandsons, derived their 
water power from the river Rea. In a plan of 
Birmingham of the year 1731, Lloyd's slitting and 
corn mills are shown with access from Digbeth by 
Lower Mill Lane ; another plan of Birmingham, of 
the date of 1751, displays the slitting-mill with a 
mill pool and a large garden. 

The following description of the slitting-mill is 
given in a letter dated July 31, 1755, written by 
some London visitors to the Pembertons : 

"Next Morning (Monday) [July 1755] we went to see Mr. 

L 's [Mr. Lloyd's] Slitting Mill, which is too curious to 

pass by without notice. Its use is, to prepare Iron for making 
Nails. The Process is as follows : They take a large Iron 



26 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

Bar, and with a huge Pair of Shears, work'd by a Water- 
wheel, cut it into lengths of about a Foot each ; these Pieces 
are put into a Furnace, and heated red-hot, then taken out and 
put between a Couple of Steel Rollers, which draw them to 
the length of about four feet, and the breadth of about three 
inches; thence they are immediately put between two other 
Rollers, which having a number of sharp Edges fitting each 
other like Scissors, cut the Bar as it passes thro' into about 
eight square Rods ; after the Rods are cold, they are tied up 
in Bundles for the Nailor's use. We din'd and spent the 
Evening (after walking again to Dudson) at Mr. Lloyd's." 

The Pembertons' London friends having visited 
the slitting-mill, were taken the next day into 
Staffordshire to see ironstone converted into pig 
iron, as one of the interesting local industries, and 
the following is their account of it : 

" Next day (Wednesday) we went to see an Iron Furnace at 
a small distance from Birmingham (at Hamstead near Perry 
Barr on the River Tame), where the iron ore is smelted and 
run into pigs. The furnace is built like a lime-kiln, and kept 
continually burning. The iron stone or ore being mixed with 
a quantity of charcoal, is put in at the top, when falling 
on other parts of the same kind already burning, the charcoal 
catches the fire, and, as it burns, sinks lower in the furnace 
with the ore; as it descends, the fire burns more fiercely, 
being continually blown by two pair of monstrous bellows, 
which moving alternately by means of a water-wheel, throw 
in a continued stream of air, which increasing the fire in the 
charcoal, and the iron stone being mixed with it, it melts away 
into a proper receiver, and the dross runs from it in streams 
of liquid fire. When a sufficient quantity is thus fluxed, the 
metal is let out into a wide frame in the ground, filled with 
sand, which is hollow'd into trenches of the shape of the pigs 
of iron, and many pigs are cast together joining to a long 
middle-piece, call'd the sow." 

The plan of smelting iron thus described is 
very similar to that named by Robert Plot in 
his Natural History of Staffordshire, published at 
Oxford in 1686 ; and as the second Sampson Lloyd 



LLOYDS COME TO BIRMINGHAM 27 

and his sons were engaged in the manufacture of 
iron before they became bankers, and some of 
their descendants have carried on this business ever 
since, it may be admissible to give a further short 
description of the mode of making iron for many 
years before they commenced its manufacture early 
in the eighteenth century. 

Plot describes the iron ore as being calcined 
and then thrown into the furnace with "charcole," 
a basket of ore, and then a basket of charcoal, 
"when by two vast pairs of bellows placed behind 
the furnace and compressed alternately by a large 
wheel turned by water, the fire is made so intense, 
that after 3 days time the metal will begin to 
run, still increasing," he says, u until at length 
in 14 nights time it is made so fluid by the 
violence of the fire that it not only runs to the 
utmost distance of the furrows but stands boiling 
in them." 

Plot also mentions the still more primitive mode 
of manufacture when men worked at the bellows 
with their feet, a great amount of manual labour 
being expended with very little iron as the result, 
and upon which the water power made use of at 
Hampstead was a great advance. 

Plot then describes the further processes : how 
the iron is re-melted and compressed and beaten, 
and brought " to the great hammer raised by the 
motion of a water-wheel," and then after re-heat- 
ings and beatings it is " wrought under the hammer 
into such sizes as they think fittest for sale." Some 
of the iron smelted at the furnace at Hampstead 
would no doubt be purchased by the Lloyds for their 
charcoal forges at Burton-on-Trent and Powick. 
The Powick works were under the management of 
Nehemiah, the eldest son of the second Sampson 
Lloyd by Rachel Champion, his second wife. 



28 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

He died unmarried and left his Warwickshire 
property to his brother, Charles Lloyd, the 
banker. 

That the Lloyds, and others in the trade, 
were able to command a high price for their iron 
in 1757 may be gathered from an advertisement 
which appeared in that year. It was headed, 
"The High Price of Iron," and informed the 
public that a subscription had been opened at 
the Swan in Birmingham "for presenting a petition 
to Parliament for the Importation of Bar Iron 
from America, Duty free, to all Ports of England ; 
and that a general meeting of the Subscribers 
will be held at the said Swan on Thursday 
next at two o'clock." Probably other unrecorded 
meetings were held as occasion required, and 
were the forerunners of the quarterly meetings of 
ironmasters which are now held in Birmingham, 
attended by ironmasters from all parts of the 
kingdom. 

The price of iron was then, as now, alternately 
high and low, and consequently profitable or un- 
profitable to the manufacturer, but in either case 
it contributed to the revenue. This was pointed 
out in 1783 by Richard Reynolds, the friend of 
Sampson Lloyd the third, in a letter to Lord 
Sheffield, expressing the pleasure it gave him to 
find that his argument met with his lordship's 
approbation namely, that the making of iron in 
England brought to the revenue more than six 
pounds per annum for each man employed. Thus 
the Lloyds of Birmingham had the satisfaction 
not only of giving employment and providing 
the means of honest livelihood to those they 
employed, but of contributing to the country's 
revenue. 

Nehemiah Lloyd appears to have been a very 



LLOYDS COME TO BIRMINGHAM 29 

active partner in the Lloyds' iron business. From 
some of his correspondence, which has been placed 
at my disposal by Mr. Steeds of Edgbaston, it will 
be seen that the ironmasters of his day were, like 
those of the present, much concerned about foreign 
competition and the effect upon British trade of 
the fiscal measures both of their own and foreign 
governments. In view of the discussion that has 
recently been held with regard to similar questions, 
and in view particularly of its especial interest in 
Birmingham, the following letters which Nehemiah 
Lloyd received from Richard Reynolds, the wealthy 
Shropshire ironmaster and also a Friend, may be 
given here : 

" KETLEY, $th of yd Month, 1783, 
" SHROPSHIRE. 

"RESPECTED FRIEND, NEHEMIAH LLOYD, I received 
a letter from a Friend in London the 3rd Inst. covering one 
of which the enclosed is a copy It appears to me more 
necessary for the relief of the Iron trade of this country 
that a bounty should be given to the exporters of manu- 
factured English iron than that a drawback should be allowed 
on the exportation of Russian iron in any state, or even a 
lessening of the duties on importation, one or both of which 
may be presumed to have been the object of the Russian 
Company's Remonstrance, as it is of the Scotch manufacturers 
of Russian iron. If anything should be attempted relative to 
it in Parliament this session I presume it should not pass 
unnoticed by the makers of iron in this Country, and having 
occasion to write to Rd. Croft yesterday and not time to write 
two letters by that post I sent a copy of the letter to him 
desiring he would communicate it to those most immediately 
concerned, concluding thou wouldst be the first person he 
would consult but lest anything should intervene to prevent 
it or his receiving my letter, I thought I would trouble thee 
with a letter on purpose believing thou wouldst excuse it, and 
I am with kind respect to thy brothers, 

"Thy obliged Friend, 

"RiCHD. REYNOLDS." 



30 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 



" GLASGOW, igth Feb. 1783. 



"MR. HUGH ATKINS. 



" SIR, By yesterday's newspapers I observed a para- 
graph mentioning that nine Gentlemen belonging to the Russian 
Company waited on Lord Shelborne with a Remonstrance 
relative to the visible declension of their commerce, in con- 
sequence of the present plan of peace. 

"Pray can you favour me with a copy of the Remonstrance 
and the result. The iron manufacturers in this country having 
Slitting Mills and other valuable extensive establishments for 
manufacturing goods from Russian iron for exportation, are 
exceedingly alarmed at the present state of the iron trade 
paying a heavy duty on the iron at importation, not drawn 
back at exporting the goods made from it, and America left 
free to trade with other Countries, perhaps paying no duties, 
whose provisions are cheaper and taxes less than they are in 
Britain, or perhaps ever can be. In these circumstances is it 
possible for the British Manufacturer to compete unless he 
draws back all the duties payable on importation ? Without a 
speedy remedy the important branch of British iron manufac- 
ture is ruined. 

" Pray, what are the English manufacturers of Russian iron 
to do in the present state of things ? are they to join you 
Russian gentlemen, or are they to make a spirited application 
to Parliament for immediate relief? 

" Your answer will oblige, Sir, 

" Your Most Obedient Sernt., 

"WILLIAM ROBERTSON." 



CHAPTER IV 

THE SECOND SAMPSON LLOYD AND "FARM" 

Lloyd fruitfulness Our first banks Sampson Lloyd in Park Street 
and Old Square The purchase of " Farm " The Jacobite elms 
The summer-house of the four seasons Two stanzas on " Farm " ? 
"Farm" to-day The heirs of Parkes Rachel Lloyd Kings 
and queens among the Quakers Kings and clothes David 
Barclay 

THE second Sampson Lloyd, who was born May 
15, 1699, joined his father's business. He was 
married twice. By his first wife, Sarah, daughter 
of Richard Parkes, of Oakswell Hall, Staffordshire, 
he had one son, the third Sampson Lloyd. 1 He 
married, secondly, in 1731, Rachel, daughter of 
Nehemiah Champion, of Bristol, and by her, whom 
he survived twenty-three years, he had six sons 
and five daughters, fruitfulness having been a 
Lloyd characteristic with some consistency ever 
since the family began. It was his fifth son, 
Charles, who is known to students of the family 
history as Charles Lloyd the Banker, of Bingley 
House, and of whom and of whose sons there is 
much to be narrated. Of Rachel, Sampson Lloyd's 
youngest child, there are also interesting records. 

As one of the founders of Lloyds Bank the 
second Sampson Lloyd won lasting fame. The 
present extensive and flourishing corporation of 
that name sprang from the firm of Taylor and 
Lloyd, who owned the first bank establishment 

1 Her Bible, which is in my possession, records her birth, thus : " Sarah 
Parks was born ye nth day 6 month 1699 about half an hour past 
9 o'clock in the forenoon being- the 3rd day of ye month." 



32 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

in Birmingham. It was started in 1765 by 
Sampson Lloyd and John Taylor, a maker of 
buttons and japanned ware, with their sons. From 
this time forward the family of the Lloyds con- 
tinued to be prominently associated with banking. 
Not only did Sampson Lloyd, the third of that 
name, manage, with his younger brother Charles, 
after their father's death, the Birmingham bank, 
but he was the prime mover in the formation of 
the London bank of Taylor, Lloyd, Hanbury, and 
Bowman of 60 Lombard Street. This bank, under 
various names, changing as new partners were 
admitted, had a long and prosperous career, and, as 
we shall see, was ultimately merged in the present 
Lloyds Bank. Again, by the marriage of Sampson 
Lloyd's youngest child Rachel, to David Barclay, 
the Lloyds became associated with the Barclays, 
and it was in Barclay's counting-house that Charles 
Lloyd of Bingley learned the banking business. 

The story of Lloyds Bank is dealt with at 
length in some of the succeeding pages. For the 
present, we are concerned chiefly with the more 
personal aspect of the second Sampson Lloyd's 
history, the principal event in which, from our 
point of view, is perhaps the purchase of the pro- 
perty on which the writer of these memoirs now 
resides ; which, since the middle of the eighteenth 
century, has been known as "Farm"; and which 
is still looked upon, by the Lloyds of Birming- 
ham and other descendants of the second Sampson 
Lloyd, as being in a special sense the home of the 
family. 

It is stated in Farm and its Inhabitants (a very 
interesting account of the old house, written by 
Rachel J. Lowe and privately issued in 1883) that 
the second Sampson Lloyd previously lived at Old 
Park House, in Park Street. He may have lived 




SAMPSON LLOYD'S HOUSE. No. .8 PARK STREET, BIRMINGHAM. 



THE SECOND SAMPSON LLOYD 33 

there at the time of his marriage in 1727 ; but this is 
doubted. It is at No. 18 Park Street that it is 
known that he lived ; but he did not go there till 
his second marriage in I732. 1 His son, the third 
Sampson Lloyd, also lived at No. 18 Park Street 
till he moved to Old Square in 1774. Park Street 
leads to and ends opposite the parish church of 
Birmingham, St. Martin's. The house, a picture 
of which is attached, was then a pleasant one, for 
beyond the garden the meadows led down with a 
gentle slope to the river Rea, then flowing with 
pure water from the Licky Hills, and beyond it 
was open and well-cultivated country ; but now, 
in 1907, this is all built over, and the neighbour- 
hood has become a busy hive of town life and 
industry, and the river Rea a dirty stream. No. 
1 8 Park Street still stands a roomy house now 
used by a riveter, with all its walls crumbling to 
decay. Old Park House stands too empty and 
forlorn, but giving signs of ancient comfort and 
refinement. 

On the 28th of April 1742 Sampson Lloyd 
purchased the property called "The Farm," con- 
sisting of fifty-six acres with a farmhouse and out- 
buildings. My cousin, G. B. Lloyd, on examining 
the original conveyance, found that the price paid 
for it was ^850. Its value in the course of time 
increased, so that in 1849 forty acres of it, including 
the house and farm buildings, were valued as worth 
,20,000. Since then a large part of the estate 
has been built over, some of the streets taking 
their names from the family. " Farm " itself to-day 
consists of only ten acres. 

The avenue of elm trees in front of the house 
was planted in 1745. This was a great year the 
year of the Scottish rebellion. In July Charles 

1 See Memorials of the Old Square, p. 101. 



34 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

Edward Stuart (or " Bonnie Prince Charlie," as he 
was called) landed in the Hebrides, and at Perth he 
was proclaimed king. The rebellion spread ; the 
English were defeated at Prestonpans ; and the 
rebels reached as far south as Derby. The invasion 
occasioned a panic in London, and the Funds fell 
to 49. The young prince, on reaching Derby on 
December 4, found that his army was not joined 
by English recruits, as he had hoped, and he had 
therefore to retreat. The invasion terminated at 
the Battle of Culloden, where he and his followers 
were utterly routed. The following is the Birming- 
ham record of his defeat : 

"The 1 3th of October 1746 having been appointed as the 
day for a general Thanksgiving for the suppression of the 
late unnatural Rebellion by the Defeat of the Rebels by his 
Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, at the battle of 
Culloden, the same was observed here [in Birmingham] with 
the greatest Loyalty." 

It must not be assumed that Sampson Lloyd was 
a Jacobite. The planting of the avenue in the year 
of the invasion was a coincidence which has served 
to keep the date of both events in the memory of 
the family. After it was planted the house was 
built. It faces the south-east. The pleasure garden 
was laid out by Mrs. Knowles, the friend of the 
Lloyds and Dr. Johnson. One choice summer 
arbour, called the fish-house, was placed by the 
pond, and another was also erected, in a more 
secluded situation, lighted by a window containing 
blue, green, yellow, and purple panes of glass. 
This produced a very pretty effect, and has been 
the delight of successive generations of children, 
but, alas ! no longer to be enjoyed. The blue 
panes, when looked through, gave a wintry appear- 
ance to the scene : the green, spring ; the yellow, 



THE SECOND SAMPSON LLOYD 35 

summer, with glowing sunshine ; and the purple 
panes, autumn. 

The following ode by a Birmingham poet 
was perhaps intended to depict the garden at 
"Farm": 

" Ye bow'rs where nature sports in artless wiles, 
And fancy frolics with bewitching smiles ; 
Whose power, like that of fairest beauty, charms 
And care, of its heart-piercing sting, disarms : . . . 

But hark, methinks I hear 

Enchanting music near ; 

Sweetly it breathes its notes around, 

And loving echo thrills beneath the sound." l 

" Farm " is to-day almost unaltered, except that 
whereas it stood originally in the country it is now 
surrounded by the small streets of Sparkbrook, and 
whereas of old its gardens were bright with flowers, 
the smoke of Birmingham's chimneys is now rather 
discouraging to vegetation. Not that we are with- 
out flowers and vegetables : quite the reverse ; but 
we are not allowed to forget that we are in a great 
manufacturing city. The famous avenue also is 
sadly depleted, not only by the falling of the trees, 
but by the falling of limbs. In fact, " Farm," ex- 
cept at the beginning of the summer, when it can 
be very beautiful and fresh, looks what it is an 
anachronism, not only a survival of the eighteenth 
century in the twentieth, but also a piece of the 
country caught and imprisoned by a town. Within, 
it is unchanged. The rooms here and there may 
have been altered ; the telephone bell may tell 
rather insistently of modernity; but "Farm" re- 
mains what it always was if I may quote the words 
of a visitor " the friendliest of Friendly homes." 

There are older houses in Birmingham. The 

1 A Century of Birmingham Life (p. 202), by J. A. Langford, 
published 1868, vol. i. (with the last line slightly altered). 



36 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

Park Street houses obviously are older, but there is 
no Georgian abode in better preservation. Perhaps 
if it comes to age, the oldest building in Birming- 
ham is the actual farmhouse Owen's farm, as it was 
called, which stands in the grounds and gives the 
estate its name a very beautiful piece of Tudor 
architecture. 

The second Sampson Lloyd remained all his 
life of the same religious persuasion as his father, 
the first Sampson Lloyd, and his father-in-law, 
Richard Parkes. He died aged 79, on November 
30, 1779, and was laid to rest in the Friends' 
graveyard in Birmingham, where his two wives 
had been buried before him. 

It was through Sampson Lloyd's first wife Sarah 
that the Lloyds became connected with Wednes- 
bury, of which more is said in a later chapter. 
Her father, Richard Parkes, owned valuable mining 
property at Wednesbury ; and his residence, Oaks- 
well Hall, Wednesbury, he acquired, with property 
pertaining to it, in 1689. A picture of it is given 
in Shaw's Staffordshire. Some of his Wednesbury 
property he inherited through his wife, but in 1708 
and 1710 he added largely to it by purchase. By 
his will, dated May 2, 1728, he left it all to his 
four daughters as tenants in common ; and in this 
way, and by subsequent purchases, the Lloyds 
came into possession of that which ever since 
has been a source of income to those of his de- 
scendants who style themselves " Heirs of Parkes." 
Their annual meetings, held for some years at 
"Farm," for the division of rents and royalties, 
are remembered as bringing into social intercourse 
members of the family who might not otherwise 
have met. 

To Sampson Lloyd's fifth son, Charles Lloyd 
of Bingley, we come later, and also, naturally, to 



THE SECOND SAMPSON LLOYD 37 

his eldest son Sampson ; but here I might say 
a little of his daughter Rachel, who married 
David Barclay, junior, of London, grandson of 
the Robert Barclay of Urie who wrote the cele- 
brated Apology. David Barclay's father, David 
Barclay the elder, having moved from Scotland to 
London, became a very successful merchant there. 
He lived in a good house at the corner of Cheap- 
side, with windows looking towards the open space 
before the Royal Exchange and Mansion House. 
In this house he had entertained Royalty, and 
how interesting it must have been to the charming 
Rachel to hear all about it when the young Barclay 
came on his visits to " Farm " in 1767. 

"It was six years ago," he would say, " that the 
Royal visit of which I am about to tell thee took 
place ; but my father had previously entertained 
King George the Second ; and King George the 
First and Queen Anne had been entertained at the 
house before them." "Really," she would say, 
"and thy father a good Friend like thyself? And 
Queen Anne entertained before them ! Really, I 
can hardly believe it." Then taking his sister's 
letter from his pocket, he would be able to read 
her written account of it. 1 

"It may be proper to remark, previous to the 
Royal Family's coming to my Father's house to 
view therefrom the Lord Mayor's Show, which 
Queen Anne, George I., and George II., had 
done, the latter when my Father lived in the house 
(which was supposed to be the most convenient 
for the purpose), the House was repaired outside 
and inside." That was in the year 1760. The 
letter continues: "On the second pair of stairs 

1 Nearly fifty years afterwards the letter was published in the 
Gentleman s Magazine^ David Barclay being- still alive, and writing- to 
Hudson Gurney as to its g-eneral accuracy. 



3 8 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

was placed our own Company, about 40 in 
number, the chief of whom were of the Puritan 
order, and all in their orthodox habits. We per- 
formed the ceremony of kissing the Queen's hand, 
and at the sight of whom we were all in rap- 
tures. . . ." Queen Charlotte was then a bride, 
having been married in September, two months 
previously. 

44 One of Mr. Barclay's daughters, little Lucy, 
was at the time a pretty child five years of age, and 
the King much delighted by her beauty took her 
on his knee and asked her how she liked him, she 
replied, * I love the King ; but I should love him 
better without the fine clothes.' This greatly 
amused him." 1 And so on. 

In 1767 Rachel Lloyd and David Barclay were 
married. There is a record in the Birmingham 
meeting -book that David Barclay, junior, and 
Rachel Lloyd passed the meeting on September 9, 
1767, and were left at liberty to accomplish their 
marriage a month later. He was thirty-nine years 
of age, and Rachel was his second wife. The 
drawing-room at "Farm" (now the dining-room) 
was built, it is said, for the occasion, and we may 
picture the greetings the handsome David and 
his bride received, in the newly built, finely pro- 
portioned room, on their return from the marriage 
ceremony. They lived very happily together at 
Youngsbury near London until twenty-two years 
after their marriage, when she was stricken by 
illness and died. 

Charles Lloyd's letter describes her interment at 
Winchmore Hill as a very " striking opportunity." 
"As we left Youngsbury at six this morning," he 
wrote, "my dear brother [David Barclay] remarked 

1 She became Samuel Gallon's wife, and their daughter Mary Anne 
married Mr. Schimmelpenninck. 



THE SECOND SAMPSON LLOYD 39 

'how mutable and unstable are all human enjoy- 
ments. My wife and I,' he said, 'had been labour- 
ing to make Youngsbury a perfect place, and this 
spring all seemed perfection, when, alas ! the partner 
of my joys was taken from me ! ' 

David Barclay died in 1809. The Morning 
Chronicle of June 5, 1809, wrote of him as 
follows : 

" The late David Barclay, who died in his eighty-first year 
at Walthamstow, was the only surviving grandson of Robert 
Barclay of Urie. . . . We cannot form to ourselves, even in 
imagination, the idea of a character nearer perfection. Gifted 
by nature with a very noble form, all the qualities of his mind 
and heart corresponded with the grandeur of his exterior." 



CHAPTER V 

BIRMINGHAM'S EARLY TRADE 

John Taylor The snufif-box and the thumb Hutton's panegyric on 
Taylor Friends at the button factory The bank supplies a 
demand Birmingham begins to be prosperous Hutton's prophecy 
Bad roads and highwaymen The metal trade and inventors 
Matthew Boulton and James Watt Intellectual Birmingham Aris 
and Baskerville The Lunar Society Mary Anne Galton takes 
no tes Matthew Boulton's head and James Watt's voice Heath- 
field Hall and its relics Murdock's discoveries Birmingham and 
the slave trade 

IT is to the business of the first Sampson Lloyd 
in Edgbaston Street, and to the success of their 
slitting-mill in Moat Row, that the association of 
the name of Lloyd with banking must be traced. 

The second Sampson Lloyd had inherited a 
respectable fortune and a thriving business from 
his father. As we have seen, he largely extended 
the business and added to his possessions not only 
by trading, but also by his marriage. The Lloyds, 
in his time, were already looked upon as men not 
only of probity but of substance, and it was this 
reputation which, on the founding of Taylor and 
Lloyds Bank in 1765, secured the confidence of 
the public at a time when there was little or no 
legislative provision for the protection of de- 
positors. The bank was called Taylor and Lloyds, 
but John Taylor, the Birmingham manufacturer 
who joined Sampson Lloyd in its formation, was 
content to leave the management chiefly in his 
hands. 

This John Taylor, who was born in the early 

40 



BIRMINGHAM'S EARLY TRADE 41 

part of the eighteenth century, is a notable figure 
in the industrial history of Birmingham. He was 
a button manufacturer ; but was still more famous 
as a manufacturer of japanned goods. "He was 
particularly successful in hitting the fashionable 
taste in snuff-boxes, articles then in universal use. 
For one style of snuff-box, which he alone pro- 
duced, there was an enormous demand. The boxes 
were of various colours and shapes, but what took 
the public fancy was the peculiar ornamentation of 
the surface. Each had a bright-coloured ground, 
upon which was an extraordinary wavy pattern of 
a different shade of colour. The two tints alter- 
nated in such an infinite variety of patterns that it 
was said that no two of Taylor's snuff-boxes were 
ever found alike. As other makers found it im- 
possible to imitate them, Taylor, while the craze 
lasted, was able to command a large sale at high 
prices. John Taylor did this ornamentation with 
his own hands, securely locking up his room 
during the process. He had the boxes brought 
to him while the second coat of colour was wet, 
and then with his thumb, which was unusually 
broad and coarse-grained, he wove, in endless 
variety, the patterns he desired. While the craze 
lasted the process remained to all others a mystery, 
and in after years he used to tell with a chuckle 
how it had been done." 

It was not only by japanned snuff-boxes that 
Taylor made his name and fortune. The value of 
his weekly output of buttons alone was said to be 
not less than 800. " There was," says Hawkes 
Smith, " in his inventions a decisive elegance, and 
an obvious indication of good taste, that ensured a 
good sale and large profits." 

Taylor was something more than a tradesman. 
Dr. Johnson, during his sojourn in Birmingham in 



42 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

1732, became interested in him and his pursuits. 
Our local historian, Hutton, expressed a great ad- 
miration for him. " Part of the riches, extension, 
and improvement of Birmingham," wrote Hutton, 
with true patriotic excess, "are owing to the late 
John Taylor, Esq., who possessed the singular 
powers of perceiving things as they really were. 
The spring and consequence of action were open 
to his view whom we may justly deem the Shake- 
speare or the Newton of his day. He rose from 
minute beginnings, to shine in the commercial 
hemisphere, as they in the poetical and philoso- 
phical. Imitation is part of the human character. 
An example of such eminence in himself promoted 
exertion in others ; which, when prudence guided 
the helm, led to fortune. . . . To this uncommon 
genius we owe the gilt-button, the japanned and 
gilt snuff-boxes, with the numerous variety of 
enamels. From the same fountain also issued the 
paper snuff-box, at which one servant earned three 
pounds ten shillings per week, by painting them at 
a farthing each. One of the present nobility, of 
distinguished taste, examining the works, with the 
master, purchased some of the articles, amongst 
others, a toy of eighty guineas value, and while 
paying for them, observed with a smile, * he 
plainly saw he could not reside in Birmingham 
for less than two hundred pounds a day. 5 ' 

The following is an account from a family letter 
of a visit to John Taylor's button manufactory on 
July 311 1755: 

"We saw the Manufactory of Mr. Taylor, the most con- 
siderable Maker of Gilt-metal Buttons, and enamell'd Snuff- 
boxes : We were assured that he employs 500 Persons in 
those two Branches, and when we had seen his Work-shop, 
we had no Scruple in believing it. The Multitude of Hands 
each Button goes thro' before it is sent to the Market, is like- 







THOMAS PEMBERTON, JUNIOR. 
From a painting noiv at "Farm." 



BIRMINGHAM'S EARLY TRADE 43 

wise surprising ; you perhaps will think it incredible, when I 
tell you they go thro' 70 different Operations of 70 different 
Work-folks. . . . 

"We were too much straitened for Time to see more of 
the Manufactories of the Town, and were inform'd this was 
the most worth a Stranger's Notice. We din'd at Mr. Lloyd's 
[Sampson Lloyd]. In the Afternoon we walk'd to his Country 
Seat (about two Miles from the Town), which he called his 
Farm: it consists of a large genteel House and Gardens, 
Stables and Out-houses, which are mostly new Buildings, 
very neat and convenient ; before the Front of the House is a 
long spacious Lawn, planted on each Side with Rows of Elms, 
leading to the Road ; the Dairy and other Branches relating 
to the Farm lay at some Distance from the House, which 
renders it more cleanly and agreeable : After drinking Tea, 
we returned, and spent the Evening at the Castle Club over 
' a Half-pint and Cheat.' The Company was pretty large, 
and very cheerful. My Companion in particular became 
extremely joyous; but I am afraid we Londoners rather 
encroached too much on the Good-nature of our Birmingham 
Friends ; for ' Cheat ' after ' Cheat,' so disorder'd their (Eco- 
nomy, that in the end I am afraid we either cheated our 
landlord or cheated ourselves." 

John Taylor, who died in 1775 at the age of 
sixty-four, began life as a journeyman, it is be- 
lieved as a cabinet-maker. Hutton says he was 
regarded by his fellow-townsmen as one whose 
name was a guarantee of success, and without 
whose support no undertaking was likely to com- 
mand public approval. He left a fortune estimated 
at not less than ,200,000. 

The increasing trade of Birmingham had caused 
its merchants and manufacturers and its shop- 
keepers to feel the need of a bank in which money 
could be deposited for safe keeping, and, probably 
still more, of an establishment where the traders 
could obtain temporary advances upon deeds and 
such other securities as they could give. To John 
Taylor and to Sampson Lloyd the traders of the 
town naturally looked as the leaders in such a 



44 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

matter. As a matter of fact both men had ad- 
vanced money and undertaken banking transactions 
for some time before they decided to make a regular 
business of it. 

The bank which, in 1765, they founded to meet 
these requirements remained for exactly a hundred 
years a private concern. During all that time the 
Lloyds continued to be associated with it as pro- 
prietors and managers. And since 1865, when the 
business, carried on at that time under the style 
of Lloyds & Co., was transferred to the limited 
company known briefly as Lloyds Bank, the 
family has been continuously represented not only 
in the proprietorship of the bank, but in its con- 
duct too. 

Before reviewing the history of the private 
partnership which commenced in 1765, it may be 
well to glance at the local and general conditions 
existing at that time. Birmingham, as we have 
seen, had already given evidence of the progres- 
sive spirit of which it is still able to boast. The 
establishment of the bank was in itself a sign 
of commercial progress. Though not the first 
of the country banks one having been estab- 
lished in Newcastle-on-Tyne ten years before - 
it was one of the earliest to achieve an enduring 
success. 

The times were favourable to the Birmingham 
trades. The treaty of Paris, in 1763, had brought 
to a close the Seven Years' War, and left England 
in possession of Canada, Cape Breton, Florida, 
and some of the West India islands ; the older 
American colonies were no longer menaced by 
French aggression, and their development was pro- 
ceeding to the advantage of British trade, though 
the colonial policy of the Government was tending 
to discount this advantage. Clive had laid the 



BIRMINGHAM'S EARLY TRADE 45 

foundations of our Indian Empire, and the period 
was generally one of territorial and commercial 
expansion. 

Macaulay puts the population of Birmingham at 
the time of the Commonwealth at less than four 
thousand. It steadily increased. In 1750 the 
population and houses in Birmingham, according 
to a survey made by S. Bradford, were : popula- 
tion, 23,688; houses, 4170. In 1765 the popula- 
tion was about 25,000, and the number of houses 
increased in proportion. In 1865 the population 
was about 320,000 ; houses, 7o,ooo. 1 

The belief in a great future for the town, which 
existed among its inhabitants, was voiced by our 
historian Hutton. He dates the modern growth 
of Birmingham from the Restoration. One writer 
put the extent of the town at that time at three 
streets, but Hutton thinks that there were probably 
fifteen, and 900 houses. He proceeds, with his 
customary regard for rhetoric: " Though she had 
before held a considerable degree of eminence ; yet 
at this period, the curious arts began to flourish, 
and were cultivated by the hand of genius. Build- 
ing leases, also, began to take effect, extension 
followed, the numbers of people crowded upon each 
other, as into a Paradise." 

During that period, as ever since, Birmingham 
has benefited by immigration. "As a kind tree," 
says Hutton, "perfectly adapted for growth, and 
planted in a suitable soil, draws nourishment from 

1 In 1880, I might remark, was printed at the Chiswick Press an odd 
little pamphlet entitled, An Historical Curiosity : One Hundred and Forty- 
one Ways of Spelling Birmingham, the examples being- taken from different 
writings, chiefly old. Among them I note Brumwycham, Bermyngeham, 
Burmyngham, Bromicham, Burmegum, Burningham, Brumegume, Brim- 
midgham, Brumigam, Bermgham, Bremecham, Brimisham, Burmedgeham, 
Brumingam, Bermynehelham, Bromidgham, Bromycham, Berkmyngham, 
Bremisham, Brumicham. There seems to have been a desire on the part 
of these old spellers to approach as nearly as possible to " Brummagem " 
without ever quite saying the horrid word. 



46 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

the circumjacent ground to a great extent, and robs 
the neighbouring plants of their support, so that 
nothing can thrive within its influence ; so Bir- 
mingham, half whose inhabitants above the age of 
ten, perhaps, are not natives, draws her annual 
supply of hands, and is constantly fed by the towns 
that surround her, where her trades are not prac- 
tised." Captivated by the advantages offered by 
the town, which had led men like the first Sampson 
Lloyd to become inhabitants and enjoy freedom 
to live and think unmolested, Hutton bursts into 
magnificent prophecy : 

" Though we have attended Birmingham through so im- 
mense a space, we have only seen her in her infancy, 
comparatively small in her size, homely in her person, and 
coarse in her dress : her ornaments wholly of iron from her 
own forge. But now her growths will be amazing ; her 
expansion rapid, perhaps not to be parallelled in history. We 
shall see her rise in all the beauty of youth, of grace, of 
elegance, and attract the notice of the commercial world. 
She will also add to her iron ornaments, the lustre of every 
metal that the whole earth can produce, with all their illus- 
trious race of compounds, heightened by fancy, and garnished 
with jewels. She will draw from the fossil and the vegetable 
kingdoms; press the ocean for shell, skin and coral. She 
will also tax the animal, for horn, bone, and ivory, and she 
will decorate the whole with the touches of her pencil. ... It 
is easy to see without the spirit of prophecy, that Birmingham 
hath not yet arrived at her zenith, neither is she likely to 
reach it for ages to come. Her increase will depend upon 
her manufactures ; her manufactures will depend upon the 
national commerce ; national commerce also will depend upon 
a superiority at sea; and thus superiority may be extended 
to a long futurity." 

In Hutton's time Birmingham was going ahead 
very rapidly, and he estimated that the population 
had in 1780 reached 50,295. But at the time of 
the founding of the bank of Taylor and Lloyd in 
1765, some of the developments which were about 





BIRMINGHAM 
STAGE-COACH, 

In Two Days and a half; begins May the 
14th, -1731- 

ETSout from &t$wan-lnn in Btrmixgfato, 
every Monday at fix a Clock in the Morning, 
through Warwick, Runbury and A/e$hnry^ 
to the Red Lion lnn*n Alderfgate jlrcet^ London^ 
every Wednesday Morning: And returns from 
the faid Red Lion Inn every Tbwfday Morning 
at five a Clock the fame Way to \htSn>an-hm 
in Birmingham every Saturday, at zi Shillings 
each Paffenger, and 1 8 Shillings from Warwick^ 
who has liberty tocarry 14 Pounds in Weight, 
and all above to pay One Penny a Pound. 
Perform d (if God permit) 

By Nicholas Roth well 



The Weekly Waggon /ets out every Tuff day fro-m the Nqgg't-f&ad in 
BirminghaiTJ* to the Ked Lion Inw afortfaid, every Smierdty > and nt*mf 
from tht (aid. Inn every Monday, to the JSu-ff^-Hi&d in. Birnuntb*m every 



Noce. 3^/^e/W Nicholas Rothwellrft Warwick, oMTerfont may be 
Ifi/hed with a Tjy-Ce&h) Chariot. Cbai/c, orHearfe, <&ttk a 
**d dtUHorfes* to&nj PartofCreat 
el ft Saddle fjorftf to bt ha<L 



HANDBILL ADVERTISING THE FIRST STAGE COACH BETWEEN 



BIRMINGHAM'S EARLY TRADE 47 

to take place were still unknown ; for it was not 
until 1767 that the Act was obtained to construct a 
canal between Birmingham and the coal " delphs " 
about Wednesbury. 1 Here the thick coal-seam, 
thirty feet thick, lay so near the surface that a con- 
siderable area was got by open work, and when not 
sufficiently near the surface for open work, then by 
underground excavations and gin-pits with drainage 
into the river Tame. 

"The necessary article of coal, before this act," 
says Hutton, "was brought by land, at about 
thirteen shillings per ton, but now at seven. It 
was common to see a train of carriages for miles, 
to the great destruction of the road and the annoy- 
ance of travellers." 

The wretched state of the roads at that time, 
giving great facilities to highwaymen, was very 
prejudicial to Birmingham, not only as a trading 
town but as a great coaching centre. A coach 
began to travel to London on May 24, 1731, 
occupying two and a half days. In 1745 another 
undertook to get there in two days, "if the roads 
permitted." But in 1782 the journey was accom- 
plished in thirteen hours ; and in 1825, when 
175 coaches, post-chaises, or other vehicles, daily 
arrived at, or passed through, Birmingham each 
day, the distance was sometimes accomplished in 
eleven and a half hours. We can now reach 
Euston, by rail, in two hours. 

To quote from Mr. Dent's Making of Birming- 
ham : 

"Workers in iron there were in abundance, as well as 
those who prepared the iron for the manufacturers' use. . . . 
Of works in iron there had sprung up quite a host of 
branches; grates crude and barbarous in ornamentation 
sad-irons and furnace-bars, pots and kettles, sauce-pans and 

1 See pag-e 94. 



48 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

cart-wheel boxes (the latter turned out at the Eagle Foundry, 
in Broad Street). Fenders and fire-irons began to form a 
separate trade; steel works for making crucible steel gave 
Steelhouse Lane its name; heavy and light steel toys, a 
variety of useful articles being included under the term, 
were sent by the Birmingham Manufacturers to all parts of 
the world. The implements for the carpenter, the glazier, 
and the gardener for the plumber, mason, and farrier, and 
almost every workman under the sun ; the thousand and one 
requirements of every-day life, bodkins, corkscrews, tweezers, 
sugar-tongs, and nippers, tobacco-stoppers, snuff-boxes, and 
many similar articles ; chains and manacles for the slaves of 
America, tomahawks for the red men of the West, axes for the 
settlers in the backwoods, bells for the vast herds of cattle 
in Australia, all these as well as buckles for the shoes of the 
English dandy dress swords, stilettos, chatelaines, keys, seals, 
watch-chains, bracelets, clasps, brooches all of steel these 
and many other productions in the then fashionable metal 
were supplied largely from the workshops of Birmingham." 

It is estimated that not fewer than 1000 tons of 
brass were used in Birmingham in 1781. 

The establishment of a proof-house in Birming- 
ham in 1798 attests the importance to which the 
local gun trade had attained. The treatment of the 
American Colonies by the home Government had 
led the colonists to avoid, as far as possible, the 
purchase of English goods, and no doubt had, to 
some extent, injured the trade of Birmingham. But 
the War of Independence brought large orders from 
the Government for Birmingham guns. There were 
demands also from other quarters, and it is com- 
puted that in the last twenty-five years of the 
eighteenth century, Birmingham gun-makers turned 
out at least three-quarters of a million stand of 
arms. The Birmingham sword-makers, too, de- 
monstrated their superiority over their German 
competitors, and large manufactories were kept at 
work supplying the East India Company, as well 
as home and foreign governments. The wars 



BIRMINGHAM'S EARLY TRADE 49 

which followed the French Revolution gave an 
enormous impetus to the Birmingham trade in arms, 
during this and the succeeding century ; at the 
same time the freedom of the country from invasion 
gave Birmingham manufacturers in all departments 
an advantage over their rivals on the Continent. 
They would benefit also by the financial reforms 
effected by Pitt during the nine years of peace 
which marked the first half of his eighteen years' 
ministry (1783-1801). The reduction of the National 
Debt, and improvements in the national system of 
finance, the lowering of the heavy duties on tea, 
wine, and spirits, and the reform of the excise and 
customs, led at once to a reduction of taxation, an 
extension of trade and an increase of revenue. 

Birmingham, in fact, had then become some- 
thing more than a "considerable market-town in 
the county of Warwick" the designation given 
to it in a map published in 1752. It was becoming, 
to quote Burke's description, the "Toy-shop of 
Europe," the term "steel toys " embracing a variety 
of articles of utility as well as all kinds of the then 
fashionable steel ornaments. The steel-toy business 
was, in fact, the parent of the Birmingham jewellery 
trade. Matthew Boulton, who had established 
himself in the steel-toy trade in Snow Hill, had 
just transferred the business to Soho, and was 
shortly to be joined by James Watt, the inventor 
of the steam-engine, and later by Murdock, in 
a world-famous partnership. In Farm and its 
Inhabitants it is stated that "When Boulton and 
Watt were short of money, and when their inven- 
tions were looked upon as very doubtful experi- 
ments, they were greatly assisted by Sampson 
Lloyd's liberality to them as a Banker." 

Birmingham at that time was in fact not only 
the home of industry but the mother, or the foster- 

D 



50 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

mother, of much of the mechanical ingenuity and 
industrial enterprise of England. 

Intellectually, as we have seen, the town had 
advanced since the time of which Macaulay wrote, 
when "on the market-days Michael Johnson, the 
father of the great Samuel Johnson, came over 
from Lichfield once a week, and opened a stall 
during a few hours when this supply of literature 
was found adequate to the demand ; and the place 
whence, two generations after, the magnificent 
editions of Baskerville went forth to astonish all 
the librarians of Europe, did not contain a single 
regular shop where a Bible or an Almanack could 
be bought." 

The first book printed in Birmingham appeared 
from Matthew Unwin's press. Mr. Warren, with 
whom Johnson, as well as his friend Hector, lodged 
for a time, set up a book-shop and was the first 
to issue a newspaper, in which some of Johnson's 
essays appeared. 

When Hutton settled in Birmingham in 1750 
he found that Thomas Aris had commenced his 
Gazette nine years previously, and that two or three 
other purveyors of literature existed. 

Birmingham was soon to become famous as the 
home of eminent philosophers and literary men. 
Baskerville in 1765 the year that saw the forma- 
tion of the bank was producing some of his finest 
editions, and in that year Dr. Ash issued the appeal 
which led to the establishment of the General 
Hospital, to which the partners in the bank were 
among the first to respond. 

The town was advancing in other ways. The 
drama, as well as literature generally, interested 
many of its people. Strolling players appeared in 
the various assembly rooms. There was a theatre 
in King Street, and ten years later the Theatre 



BIRMINGHAM'S EARLY TRADE 51 

Royal was erected. In 1768, three years after the 
formation of the bank, the first musical festival 
was held, and other recorded incidents show that 
the industrial and commercial life of Birmingham 
had reached a stage at which its strenuousness was 
brightened by a sense of assured prosperity, favour- 
able to the cultivation of the arts. 

The celebrated Lunar Society so called because 
its monthly meetings were held on the evening 
when it was the full moon was formed in 1765. 
Among those known to have taken part in these 
meetings were Mr. Withering (a celebrated botanist, 
and one of the first physicians to the General 
Hospital) and Dr. Priestley, both of whom lived 
near " Farm " ; also Josiah Wedgwood of lasting 
fame, Sir Joseph Banks, Sir William Herschel, 
Dr. Darwin, Dr. Parr, and many other distin- 
guished persons. Every member was entitled to 
bring his friends with him. 

Mrs. Schimmelpenninck (nee Mary Anne Galton) 
wrote that her acquaintance with the Lunar Society 
commenced in 1786 when she was eight years old, 
continuing till she was twenty-four. The appear- 
ance of each individual, she says, was deeply en- 
graven on her memory. She describes Matthew 
Boulton, James Watt's partner, as tall, with a 
fine countenance. He took the lead in conversa- 
tion. After she had attended phrenological lectures 
Mrs. Schimmelpenninck noticed that his forehead 
was magnificent and that he was a man to rule 
Society with dignity. James Watt was altogether 
different, more fitted to follow the contemplative 
life of a patiently observant philosopher. His 
head was generally bent forward : its intellectual 
development was magnificent ; but his utterance 
was slow and unimpassioned, deep and low in 
tone, with a broad Scottish accent. 



52 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

When Dr. Priestley entered the room, it seemed 
to this critic, though far removed from believing in 
the sufficiency of his theological creed, " that while 
the glory of Matthew Boulton was terrestrial, that 
of the Doctor was celestial, so different was he 
from so many orthodox professors I have unhappily 
lived to see who, like a corpse, or a mummy, 
exhibited all the form and lineaments of truth, 
but were destitute of one vital spark." 

The statues of James Watt and Dr. Priestley, 
one on each side of the Birmingham Town Hall, 
appear to be well executed and to present good 
likenesses. 

Mr. George Tangye, the brother of the late 
Sir Richard Tangye, and now head of the firm 
of Tangye Bros., engine-builders, of Birmingham, 
resides at Heathfield Hall, the house belonging 
to the Watt family, in which James Watt died. 
He had a private workshop at the top of the house, 
which Mr. Tangye has shown me, and which is 
still kept locked up by request of the Watt family 
so that the lathes and contrivances of James Watt 
may remain just as he left them the last time 
he went out of it. 

I have just seen a copy of a letter from 
Matthew Boulton to James Watt, dated 2nd 
September 1786, telling him he has stopped 
Murdock from going to London to take out a 
patent for his steam carriage, which had, in 
Cornwall, already travelled a mile or two, in 
River's great room, in a circle, carrying the fire, 
shovel, poker, and tongs. Boulton adds to this 
that it was fortunate that he met him and per- 
suaded him to turn back and not throw his money 
away. In reply, James Watt writes to Boulton 
on September 12 : "I have still the same opinions 
concerning it that I had, but to prevent as much 



BIRMINGHAM'S EARLY TRADE 53 

as possible more fruitless argument about it I have 
one of some size under hand and am resolved to 
try if God will work a miracle in favour of these 
Carriages." 

The letters prove that all three Watt, Murdock, 
and Boulton were alive to the possiblity of 
locomotion by steam power, which was so well 
accomplished afterwards by George Stephenson. 
Incidentally I may mention that I am a link be- 
tween the present and the past in that I heard 
George Stephenson give his only lecture in Bir- 
mingham. It was upon the Fallacies of the Rotary 
Engine. 

Many of these Lunar Society meetings and 
other literary and scientific gatherings were held 
at Bingley House, the home of Charles Lloyd. 
Southey, Coleridge, Wordsworth, and Charles 
Lamb were among Charles Lloyd's occasional 
guests, and thus his children became acquainted 
with some of the most eminent persons of their 
time. But to them we come in a later chapter. 

Birmingham was inclined also towards pure 
philanthropy. Thomas Clarkson, in his History 
of the Slave Trade^ mentions his visit to the town 
in 1783, and says : 

" I was introduced by letter at Birmingham to Sampson, 
and Charles Lloyd, the brothers of John Lloyd, belonging to 
our Committee, and members of the Society of Friends. I 
was highly gratified in finding that these, in conjunction with 
Mr. Russell, had been attempting to awaken the attention of 
the inhabitants of Birmingham to this great subject ; and that, 
in consequence of their laudable efforts, a spirit was beginning 
to show itself there, as at Manchester, in favour of the abolition 
of the slave-trade." 



CHAPTER VI 

THE FIRST BIRMINGHAM BANK 

On June 3, 1765, the bank opens Old accounts The partners- 
Divisions of profits Mary Lloyd marries Osgood Hanbury 
Rival banks The wealth of Birmingham The Priestley Riots- 
Miss Ryland, the benefactress of Birmingham 

IN circumstances, local and national, which promised 
well for such an undertaking, the bank of Taylor 
and Lloyd, on June 3, 1765, commenced business. 
The partners were John Taylor, John Taylor, junr., 
button manufacturers, with Sampson Lloyd (the 
second) and Sampson Lloyd, junr., iron dealers. 
The office was at the corner of Bank Passage in 
Dale End ; and here the business continued to be 
carried on until 1845. The passage, still bearing 
that name, existed until late in the last century. 

In the earliest known Birmingham Directory, 
dated 1770, under the heading " Public Offices," 
stands "The Bank, 7 Dale End," no other bank 
being mentioned in the book. The firm Taylor 
and Pemberton appear as button manufacturers 
in Queen Street, John Taylor as living at 65 High 
Street, and Sampson Lloyd & Son as "mer- 
chants" in Edgbaston Street. 

Though the date of the formation of the bank 
is always given as June 1765, it appears that the 
partners had taken the premises and had com- 
menced a banking business some time in 1764. 
No doubt they had thought it wise to work up a 
little connection before formally opening the bank 

54 



THE FIRST BIRMINGHAM BANK 55 

to the public. The following curious extracts from 
the housekeeper's accounts have been supplied to 
me from Lloyds High Street bank, Birmingham 
(still known to many people as "The Birmingham 
Old Bank") : 

"1765. 4 lemons, 6d. ; two fowls, is. gd. ; a neck of 
mutton, is. i id. ; a leg of veal, 9 lb., 2s. iod.; goose, is. 3d.; 
I doz. wax mould candles, 7s.; pair of scissors, 2s. ; five 
sheets of pens, 53. 5d. ; cod fish, 4} lb., 2s. I Jd. ; paid Miss 
Powell for making two negliques [negligees] and newbodying 
a gown, i, us. 6d. ; 7 lb. of soap, 33. 2d. ; a sirloin of beef, 
weight 22 Ibs., at 3d., 55. 6d. 

"1765. Sponge, 6d.; lobster, nd. ; mole catcher taking 
4 moles, 8d. ; handkerchief for Kate, 2s. 8d. ; -J doz. oranges, 
8d. ; 4 lb. butter, 2s. 4d. ; peck wheat, pd. ; i lb. coffee, 
6s. 8d. ; carriage of a box from Bristol, is.; 2 lb. brown 
sugar, 8d. ; 2 lb. salt, 8d. ; 3 lb. salmon, 35." 

The capital was ^6000 in four equal shares, 
and no deed of partnership appears to have been 
ever drawn up during the one hundred years of the 
partnership, reliance being placed upon the entries 
in a private ledger signed annually by all the 
partners. 

Sampson Lloyd the third, styled "junior," was 
then thirty-seven years old. He was an enterpris- 
ing man and at the same time careful and prudent, 
and was the chief acting partner of the bank in 
the early years of its existence. The wealth and 
capabilities of the partners were so well known that 
the bank at once commanded the confidence of the 
public. No interest on the deposit of money was 
allowed in the early years of the bank, the partners 
thinking it quite enough concession to take care of 
other people's money without making a charge for 
doing so. Hitherto, those who had money had been 
accustomed to keep it locked up in their houses, 
in stockings, hiding-places, iron coffers, and secret 
drawers if they had any. It was an unheard-of 



56 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

idea to those who had saved money to let it out 
of their sight unsecured. 1 

One day a would-be customer asked Mr. Lloyd 
if the bank would do something for him for 
nothing. "No ! " was the reply, "we do nothing 
for nothing for nobody." 

No formal division of profits was entered in the 
books until the 3Oth September 1771. The books 
show that the divisible profit for the six years' 
trading amounted to upwards of ,10,000. Each 
of the four partners had ,2,629 placed to his 
credit, and ,1,049 was carried to "Bad Debt 
Account." The salaries allowed for doing the 
work of the bank were very small. As all the 
Taylors had small families, and the Lloyds had 
large ones, the latter, throughout the partnership, 
were always the workers in the bank. 

The second division of profits took place on the 
3ist December 1775 (by which time John Taylor, 
senior, had passed away), and profits were received 
from the London bank of Hanbury, Taylor, Lloyd 
and Bowman, a bank which Sampson Lloyd the 
third was, as I have said, the means of forming. 

(Mary, one of the third Sampson Lloyd's sisters, 
having married Osgood Hanbury of Tower Street, 
E.G., and Coggeshall, Essex, and Sampson Lloyd 
and he being close friends, Sampson Lloyd arranged 
to join him in partnership ; and accordingly, in 1770, 
the bank of Taylor, Lloyd, Hanbury & Bowman 
was opened in Lombard Street, William Bowman 
having a share in it as manager. In 1814 the firm 
was Hanbury, Taylor & Lloyd ; in 1864 it became 
Barnett, Hanbury & Lloyd, and in 1884 it was 
absorbed by Lloyds Banking Company Limited.) 

The third division took place on the 3ist of 
December 1777, among the same three survivors of 

1 See Lombard Street, by the late Walter Bagehot. 



THE FIRST BIRMINGHAM BANK 57 

the original partners and with similar entries as to 
" Silver and Gold delivered," and " Demolished 
Money," 1 as on the 3ist December 1775. 

The fourth division took place on the 3ist 
December 1779, the participators being John 
Taylor, junior, the third Sampson Lloyd, and 
Nehemiah and Charles Lloyd, his half-brothers. 
The second Sampson Lloyd had died in November 
of that year. Afterwards the division of profits took 
place annually throughout the partnership of the 
Taylor and Lloyd families. 

The two chief clerks in 1779 received salaries 
of 80 a year each, but in 1781 the chief clerks 
received ^100; in 1783, ^"150 a year, and in 1791, 
^200. On January i, 1796, Sampson Lloyd (the 
fourth of that name) and the first Samuel Lloyd 
became partners, making six partners in the busi- 
ness, more than six being forbidden by Act of 
Parliament. 2 Taylor took eight-twentieths and the 
five Lloyds twelve-twentieths among them. During 
this period profits were received by the firm from 
the London bank of Hanburys & Co. on a capital 
in that business of ^10,000. 

Early in the history of the bank the books have 
entries of indebtedness from firms for "silver and 
gold delivered," showing that the bank did a trade 
in bullion, also three items of "demolished money." 
The account of the sons of Sampson Lloyd the 
second in the iron business is treated exceptionally, 
as if in some way connected with the bank, but as 
no similar mention is made at this date (December 
31, 1 778) of Taylor's button trade, it had probably 

1 See p. 79 of Walter Bagehot's Lombard Street as to worn, clipt, and 
degraded coin ; also Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations ; book iv. chap, iii., 
on Banks of Deposit, &c. 

2 The Act of 1742 gave the Bank of England exclusive banking privi- 
leges, and no bank consisting of more than six partners in England could 
trade in the ordinary way as bankers. 



58 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

been disposed of, or was carried on by Taylor and 
Pemberton, the firm named in the Birmingham 
Directory of 1770 as button manufacturers in 
Queen Street. At the close of 1796 a memorandum 
was made in the books " that Sampson Lloyd [the 
third] may divide his share of the profits with his 
two sons and may retire in their favour at the close 
of 1798." 

The late Alderman Lloyd, who was the last 
surviving partner of the private partnership, to 
whom I am indebted for the particulars of the 
division of profits, did not mention the amounts 
subsequently divided ; but there is evidence that the 
profits increased and became year by year a very 
satisfactory source of income to the partners in 
fact, before the first Samuel Lloyd died in 1849 I 
know them to have been as much as ,20,000 a 
year. After James Taylor's death in 1852 the 
profits increased. One day my cousin said to me, 
" After James Taylor's death, my father made 
money very fast." 

For some time Taylors & Lloyds (to give the 
firm its true style) was the only bank in Birming- 
ham. Button, in recording its formation, says : 

" Perhaps a public Bank is as necessary to the health of 
the commercial body, as exercise is to the natural. The circu- 
lation of the blood and spirits are promoted by one, as are cash 
and bills by the other, few places are without ; yet Birmingham, 
famous in the annals of traffic, could boast no such claim . . . 
until the year 1765, when a regular Bank was constituted by 
Messrs. Taylor and Lloyd, two opulent tradesmen whose credit 
being equal to that of the Bank of England, quickly collected 
the shining rays of sterling property into its focus." 

After a time, the success of Taylors & Lloyds 
brought other banks into existence in Birmingham, 
and before the end of the century three new ones 
had been started. " Success," to quote Hutton, 



THE FIRST BIRMINGHAM BANK 59 

"produced a second bank, by Robert Coates, Esq., 
a third by Francis Goodall, Esq., & Co., and in 
1791, a fourth by Isaac Spooner, Esq., & Co." 
In 1793 the bank of Dickenson & Goodall was 
started, but those forming the firm in 1805 called 
their creditors together, and paid them about 125. in 
the pound. In 1835 the Coates Bank had changed 
its name to that of Moilliett & Sons, and in 1865 it 
was merged into Lloyds & Co. 

Birmingham then and for many years after- 
wards is described as a place where fortunes could 
be made by the enterprising, where large sums of 
money were expended and received, and where 
financial accommodation must have been in ever- 
increasing demand. 

The Priestley Riots in 1791 cast a dark shadow. 
The sentiments of Dr. Priestley, a resident of 
Birmingham in those days, had been represented to 
the lower classes as dangerous to the Church and 
State, and when a dinner took place at Dee's Hotel 
on the I4th of July to celebrate the triumph of 
liberty in France, a mob collected in the street, and 
becoming excited by the cry of * ' Church and King, " 
their passions were so aroused that they began to 
plunder, burn, and destroy the houses of the most 
prominent non-church citizens, until at last after 
four days of rioting the military were sent for, and 
quickly arriving, order was immediately restored. 

The partners in Taylors & Lloyds must have 
experienced considerable anxiety, as the town was 
at the mercy of the mob for four days. The rioters, 
after destroying the residence of one of the partners, 
the second John Taylor, at Bordesley Park, sacked 
and burnt Dr. Priestley's house near "Farm." 1 
Some of them, it is said, approached "Farm" but 

1 A tablet on a house in Priestley Road, Sparkbrook, now marks the 
place where Priestley's house stood. 



60 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

were pacified by Sampson Lloyd, who came out to 
them with wise words and refreshments and thus 
placated and got rid of the foe. 

Neither the Bank nor the Friends' Meeting- 
house was attacked. It is probable that the 
Quakers, who took no part in politics, were not 
regarded as sympathisers with Dr. Priestley's 



views. 1 



In a little volume of recollections by the late 
T. H. Ryland, Mr. W. H. Ryland writes that his 
grandfather's house was doomed by the Priestley 
rioters, but " it turned out that the premises adjoin- 
ing belonged to a Canon of Worcester Cathedral, 
and as the fire-engines could not be used to protect 
them, the engines having been injured and the 
water-pipes cut so as to be useless, it would never 
do to run the risk of burning the property of a 
Canon of the Church ; so my grandfather's house 
was saved." 

The same little book gives the parentage of 
the late Miss Ryland, the great benefactress of 
Birmingham, who is gratefully remembered as the 
giver of the Cannon Hill and Small Heath parks. 
By her relationship to the Pembertons she was 
slightly linked to the Lloyds, and also through 
the late Thomas Lloyd becoming the purchaser 
of "The Priory" at Warwick, which belonged to 
Miss Ryland, but which, when the Great Western 
Railway came there, she preferred to leave and live 
instead at a charming residence at Barford, where 
the inheritor of most of her property, Mr. Smith- 
Ryland, now resides. 

Mr. Ryland's grandfather married a Miss Pem- 
berton, one of whose sisters became the wife of 
Charles Lloyd the poet, as we shall see. 

1 For an excellent account of these riots see Dr. Priestley, by T. E. 
Thorpe (Dent & Co., 1906). 



CHAPTER VII 

FINANCIAL STORMS 

Lloyds notes Tokens The difficult year 1797 Charles Lloyd of 
Bingley in London The " Clean " Bank The Napoleonic unsettle- 
ment Sixty banks stop payment Charles Lloyd weathers the 
storm Runs on the bank Mr. Mynors thanked for nothing 
An Irish bank story The use of ^100 notes 

THE bank, very early in its history, issued its own 
notes. Five-guinea and one-pound notes are 
among those of which the plates are still kept at 
the head office. Probably notes for larger amounts 
were also issued, as plates for notes as high as 
;ioo are in existence ; but the only recorded issue 
of ,100 notes is that given later. 

Great inconvenience was occasioned at the 
latter part of the eighteenth century by the 
scarcity of small change. Taylors & Lloyds 
remedy was the issue of seven-shilling bank notes, 
an engraving of one of which is given opposite 
page 66. The possessor of any notes, should he 
require gold, had to bring three to the bank, when 
he would receive a guinea in exchange. 

Others helped to remedy the scarcity by the 
issue of tokens. I have by me, as I write, a copper 
coin with the word " Halfpenny " upon it, with the 
head of John Wilkinson in profile on one side, and 
a workman at an anvil on the other, dated 1792. 
It is one of the tokens struck at Matthew Boulton's 
Soho Works, Birmingham, for John Wilkinson, the 
celebrated Midland ironmaster. The great scarcity 
caused such inconvenience, that in 1797 Matthew 



61 



62 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

Boulton was empowered by the Government to 
provide the public with a copper coinage, and in 
eight years he struck upwards of 4000 tons weight 
of such coin. An Act at last was passed which 
declared that on and after January i, 1818, such 
tokens would be illegal. 

In A Century of Birmingham Life, by the late 
Dr. J. A. Langford, the following quotation is given 
from Ariss Gazette, April i, 1793 : 

"At a very numerous and respectable Meeting of the 
Inhabitants of this Town and Neighbourhood, held at the 
Hotel this day, pursuant to a Notice given in the Birmingham 
Gazette, Mr. W. Barks in the Chair, It was unanimously 
Resolved, That every Confidence may be placed in the 
Five Guinea Notes issued by the following established Bankers 
of this Town, viz., Messrs. Taylor and Lloyds, Robert Coates, 
Esq., Messrs. Dickenson and Goodall, Messrs. Spooner, 
Attwoods, and Ainsworth, and Messrs. Bloxham, Yates, 
Coddington Francis, Smith, and Knight ; and we pledge 
ourselves to the public, and to each other, to take them in 
Payments as usual, that these Resolutions be immediately 
circulated in Hand Bills through the Town and Neighbour- 
hood, and advertised in the Town and Country papers." 

In this year, adds Mr. Langford, the Bank of 
England began to issue five-pound notes, and the 
local bankers five-guinea notes. Some doubts about 
the latter appear to have existed. Hence the above 
meeting. 

In the year 1 797, through the drawing of immense 
sums from the Bank of England by the Govern- 
ment for the War with France, the heavy taxation 
for the same purpose, and the hoarding of money 
by the people through dread of invasion, the Bank 
of England was authorised to suspend cash pay- 
ments, its notes being made a legal tender except 
to the army and navy; and it was not until 1819 
that the Act for the resumption of cash payments 
was passed. We shall see how at that time, and 








o^es 



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& m^M 



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/Q\ ^^ f 

P^ 

y^fi\ u INN- ^ 

: J-.^^T^ifet ' . Vt2T; " rs 

f j@8>-.ti^/ 
^i' ; W, 

#, ft ^ ^t. / T~^r ' ' ' -1^ '^ 

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FINANCIAL STORMS 63 

in a similar crisis some years later, Taylors and 
Lloyds rendered signal services to local trade. 
Dr. Langford further says : 

"The public credit was in jeopardy at this time (1797). 
By an order in council on February 26, the Bank of England 
had been restricted from cash payments ; and one-pound notes 
were issued on the 4th of March. Birmingham at once gave 
support to the authorities ; for on March 6th we read : 
'A very numerous Meeting of the Merchants and Trades- 
men of this town was held at the Hotel on Thursday, to 
consider of the most effectual means of supporting the public 
credit at the present juncture, when unanimous resolutions 
were entered into not only to take in payment upon all 
occasions notes of the Bank of England, but the five guinea 
and other notes of the Banks of this Town. Similar resolu- 
tions have been entered into at other places, but it is sincerely 
to be hoped that all persons will be as accommodating to 
each other as possible, in the circulation of the specie, as 
the only means of averting a probable calamity, which the 
hoarding of money at the present crisis is more likely to 
create than any cause whatever. One of the powerful reasons 
which operated upon Government to order the Bank to 
withhold for the present their payments in specie, is the 
circumstance of an English guinea now selling at Hamburgh 
from 23 to 24 shillings; and the Jews had found means to 
export our coin thither by thousands weekly.' " 

Some light on national financial history is 
thrown by an extract from one of Charles Lloyd's 
letters given in the Memoirs of Anna Braithivaite. 
He wrote to his wife, under date ist of 3rd month 
1797 : 

" On my arrival in London I found quite a new state of 
things. The Bank of England, whose notes are always 
reckoned as cash, for which cash has always been ready 
(at least ever since the year 1745, when there was a temporary 
stoppage) has entirely stopped payment of cash, so that no 
money can be had from them, the consequence of which is 
that all payment, except for a little change, must be made 
in paper. What will be the result of this desperate measure 
is uncertain. I believe we are better off than most, and I 



64 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

am thankful to say, that a good degree of calmness and 
decision covers my mind, so that / hope we shall be favoured 
to stem the torrent, as far as relates to ourselves. Our 
Friends in Lombard Street also are well and collected, and 
feel the blow much less than might have been expected." 

Amid all the distractions of the country at the 
end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of 
the nineteenth the growth of Birmingham con- 
tinued. The rising fortunes of the town called into 
existence, early in the nineteenth century, new 
rivals to Taylors & Lloyds. On January i, 1804, 
the bank of Wilkinson, Startin & Smith was 
opened ; and on the iQth of the following Novem- 
ber, Samuel Galton, with his son Samuel Tertius 
Galton, and Joseph Gibbins, also commenced busi- 
ness as bankers. The Galtons, who were Quakers, 
and of kin to the Lloyds, were also their friends, as 
will be seen in the account given elsewhere of an 
episode in the history of the Birmingham meeting. 

There was also a Birmingham bank the doorstep 
of which so seldom showed traces of footprints that 
it was called the " clean " bank; but this one dis- 
appeared. 

Birmingham during the Napoleonic wars must 
have suffered less than the rest of the country from 
the impoverishment which war, however success- 
ful, must cause. The demand for arms raised the 
manufacture of guns and swords to the position of 
staple trades of the town ; and, as has been pointed 
out, Birmingham profited by the state of things 
abroad. The local banks, at any rate, found their 
difficulties arise not from the war, but from the peace 
which was secured in 1815 by the battle of Waterloo. 
On the banishment of Napoleon to Elba in 1814, it 
was thought that the time had come for the re- 
sumption by the Bank of England of payments in 
specie, but the preparations for this measure pro- 






FINANCIAL STORMS 65 

duced results which for a time made the peace 
seem to some a hindrance rather than a help. The 
money-market became " tight," prices fell, credit 
was injured, trade became dull, general distress 
and discontent ensued, and riots broke out all over 
the country. Birmingham itself was the scene of 
food riots in 1816 (as it had been in 1608). 

The Government thought it wise to postpone 
the resumption of cash payments until 1819. The 
Act, known as " Peel's Bill," provided that the 
Bank should be compelled to exchange its notes for 
bullion at the rate of ^3, 175. xojd. per ounce, and 
that after 1823 holders of notes might demand 
current coin of the realm in exchange. Legal 
tender of silver for any sum beyond 405. was also 
abolished. But the distress and the financial con- 
fusion only increased, and Parliament by panic 
legislation only made matters worse. To keep up 
the rents of agricultural land to the war level, the 
Corn Laws were passed, but wheat fell from I2S. 
the bushel to 55. ; land became practically unsale- 
able, employment was scarcer than ever, and the 
poor-rates went up by leaps and bounds. 

Financial measures were hurried through Parlia- 
ment, five money bills being passed in one night. 
The issue of one-pound notes as currency was 
allowed, by an Act passed in 1823, to continue for 
ten years longer. Relief was felt immediately, but 
it proved to have been dearly purchased. Trade 
revived, and for a time employment was general. 
But the inordinate issue of paper money led to a 
mania for speculation. " Besides the joint stock 
Companies, who undertook baking, washing, life 
insurance, brewing, and the like, there was such a 
rage for steam and navigation, canals, and railroads, 
that in the session of 1825, 438 petitions for private 
bills were presented, and 286 private Acts were 

E 



66 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

passed." A tremendous panic ensued, and during 
the winter more than sixty banks stopped pay- 
ment, while, in spite of the efforts of Government 
and generous-hearted philanthropists, distress and 
misery everywhere prevailed. 

At the beginning of December 1825 the Bank 
of England held in cash only a few thousand pounds. 
Cabinet Councils were held daily, and it was de- 
cided to issue two millions of Exchequer bills. 
The bank was to issue an equal amount of notes 
upon these, and was recommended to issue a 
further sum of three millions, upon the security of 
produce and general merchandise. But the panic 
was allayed, not so much by these measures as by 
an accidental discovery. The bank had ceased to 
issue one-pound notes six years before, but when 
the destruction of these notes had been ordered one 
case of them had been overlooked. These notes 
came to light during the panic, and an immediate 
issue of them was ordered. This enabled the crisis 
to be tided over ; and a reform of the Banking laws 
which followed shortly after, depriving the Bank of 
England of its monopoly of joint-stock banking, 
brought about a new era in financial trading. 

How did Taylors and Lloyds fare during this 
crisis ? 

A very able member of the Lloyd family had 
then become, as we have seen, prominent in the 
management of the bank namely, Charles Lloyd 
of Bingley House, an account of whom in other 
interesting relations is given later. The panic of 
1825 came while he was at the helm, and that he 
was a trustworthy pilot is shown by a paragraph 
in the Birmingham Chronicle of December 22 
(Thursday), copied into the London Courier: 

" During the run on Messrs. Taylors & Lloyds on Saturday 
a postchaise and four drove up with a seasonable supply of 




ONE THIRD OF A GUINEA NOTE. 

Issued by Taylors and Lloyds 



itrmin01jam Dank 

for five Sbiltin&s & 5, 
Payable there 
/eft tan Four tow the r. 



'77 



ONE FOURTH OF A GUINEA NOTE. 
Issued by Taylors and Lloyds. 



FINANCIAL STORMS 67 

specie and Bank of England Notes. The time occupied in 
travelling from London was under eight hours, a further 
supply has also since been received. We are happy to say 
there has not been the slightest run on any of the Banks 
since Monday." 

That coup was Charles Lloyd's. 

The year 1825 was a fatal one to many money- 
lenders and bankers. The following is an extract 
from a paper still preserved at the bank, dated 
November 6, 1825 : 

" It would never have been necessary at former periods to 
explain what is a Banker's Bill ! none are such but what 
are drawn by a Banker upon a Banker in London, in which 
case the Receiver has three securities, viz., his Customers 
and the two Bankers. The experience, God knows painful 
enough, of many years past ought ere this to have taught 
the Manufacturers of Birmingham the danger of taking 
Promissory Notes, or any Bills indeed but such as are 
drawn by, and upon a Banker. . . . Enquire at Leeds, Man- 
chester, Sheffield, or in the great Cotton Manufacturing 
Districts of Lancashire, whether any but accepted Bills are 
ever presented to them in payment for their goods, to offer 
them a promissory note would excite their Ridicule. What 
would be their surprise then if a Stranger, of whose means 
they are in profound ignorance, were to presume to become 
a purchaser of Goods on his own worthless paper alone. . . . 

" Inhabitants of Birmingham, you have paid smartly for 
your Folly ! cease then to be plundered in the shameful way 
you have been. ... If you are again sufferers from similar 
means, the Fault will be your own ! You have made Credit 
too cheap your confidence has been continually abused ! " 

Other financial crises arose from time to time, 
but the firm came out of each of them un- 
shaken, and practically unscathed. Panics such 
as ruined or seriously injured other banks seemed 
to serve for them only as occasions for demonstrat- 
ing the stability of their business. Thus it was that 
the bank, throughout its existence as a private 
concern, steadily increased in favour with the 



68 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

public, and its proprietors laid the foundation for 
the vast financial corporation which, under the 
name of Lloyds Bank Limited, now represents 
the modest business begun in 1765. 

Of a little panic which the bank had to meet 
later in the nineteenth century some curious stories 
are told. A run upon the bank, my cousin, G. B. 
Lloyd, told me, was occasioned by a market woman 
tendering one of Lloyds & Co.'s notes at the book- 
ing-office at New Street Station. The young clerk 
probably interpreting too literally some general 
regulations of the railway company refused to 
change the note, and the story spread among the 
woman's friends. A number of the market people 
rushed to the bank, but they were quickly paid, and 
the panic ended. 

One of the humours of this occasion used to be 
told by the Rev. T. H. Mynors, of Weatheroak Hall, 
Alvechurch, who died March 8, 1906, at the age of 
eighty-seven. His father, Mr. Robert Edward Eden 
Mynors, had a large account with Lloyds & Co., and 
when the panic was over he received a letter of thanks 
from the partners for the confidence he had shown 
in the bank by leaving his money there during the 
supposed crisis. The amusing part of the story is 
that Mr. Mynors knew absolutely nothing of the 
panic till he received the letter of thanks ! News 
travelled slowly in those days, and the noise and 
tumult of the crisis did not break in upon the 
solitude of Weatheroak. 

It is said that on one occasion, when panic 
prevailed, the firm displayed a large open bag of 
guineas in the front window of their bank, with 
the names of various customers attached, who had 
only to come in and receive their money if they 
wished for it. 

In Ireland, not long after this, I heard an 






FINANCIAL STORMS 69 

amusing story of a run upon a bank in that 
country. The bank being full of irate customers 
all wanting their money (on a market-day, I be- 
lieve), the bankers had a number of sovereigns 
heated, and the clerks brought them in and laid 
them on the counter ; they were so hot that the 
customers threw them down faster than they had 
taken them up, and even with their handkerchiefs 
could not hold them. Presently, one of the 
Irishmen remarked, " It's no use troubling about 
our money ; nothing will ever break this bank. 
Shure, they have a mint at the back and can coin 
sovereigns as fast as they want them." And so 
the run immediately ceased. 

The unreasoning state of mind to which financial 
panics are often due has another amusing illustra- 
tion in the history of the firm. The incident is 
also interesting as being connected with the only 
known issue by the bank of its 100 notes. During 
a period of panic an old lady asked to be allowed 
to withdraw without notice her deposit account of 
^500. The request was granted without hesita- 
tion. " How will you take it?" the lady was 
asked. Promptly came the reply, " In your own 
notes." Five ^100 notes were handed to her and 
she went away quite happy. The notes were 
carefully hidden away in the lady's house ; and 
were not presented until after her death many years 
later. 



CHAPTER VIII 

END OF THE PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND THE 
FOUNDATION OF LLOYDS BANK LIMITED 

Other Birmingham banks Other Quaker banks The joint-stock 
fashion The Lloyds fall into line The failure of Attwoods 
Lloyds prospectus The company is founded The first annual 
report, Dec. 31, 1865 Lloyds acquires London status The pro- 
cess of absorption begins The process of absorption continues 
A gigantic corporation Present-day figures 

AT the time of the panic of 1825 there were six 
banks in Birmingham, most of which have since 
been merged into Lloyds. " Smith's Bank," in 
Union Street, carried on by the firm of Gibbins, 
Smith & Goode, previously Smith, Gray, Cooper 
and Co., which then had the largest banking 
business in the town, was the only Birmingham 
bank that succumbed. Their downfall is attributed 
to the failure of a customer who owed them ,70,000, 
but in spite of this and other severe losses they 
were able, after paying heavy bankruptcy costs, to 
provide a dividend of nineteen shillings and eight- 
pence in the pound. 

Galton's Bank (then carried on in Steelhouse 
Lane by the firm of Galton, Galton & James) 
was one of the banks which weathered the storm. 
Coates's, established forty years before, had premises 
in Cherry Street (since used for a time by the 
Worcester City and County Bank), and the firm 
had become Coates, Woolley & Gorden. The 
business was transferred some years later to the 

firm of Moilliet, Smith & Pearson, afterwards 

70 






END OF PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP 71 

J. Moilliet & Sons. Attwood, Spooner & Co.'s 
Bank had been founded early in the century. The 
firm comprised Thomas Attwood, who was one of 
the two Birmingham members of Parliament (both 
Liberals) from 1832-1840, and whose statue in 
Stephenson Place commemorates his services as 
founder of the famous Political Union, and Richard 
Spooner, who, though he began life as a Liberal, 
is remembered as the only Conservative member 
Birmingham had (until 1886) ever sent to Parlia- 
ment. Mr. Spooner became member in 1844, and 
retired in 1847 in favour of his previous opponent, 
Mr. William Scholefield, when North Warwickshire 
gave him a seat, which he held until his death 
in 1864. Freer, Rotton & Co.'s Bank was in New 
Street ; the name of the firm being changed after- 
wards, first to Rotton, Onions & Co., then to 
Rotton & Scholefield, and finally to Rotton and 
Son. The Scholefields gave Birmingham two 
famous Liberal members, Joshua, the colleague 
of Attwood, and his son William, who, as a 
candidate on his father's death in 1840, was de- 
feated by Mr. Spooner, but was returned in 1841, 
and remained as a colleague of G. F. Muntz and 
afterwards of John Bright, until his death in 
July 1865. 

It may be noted that the Bank of England, 
which by the Act of 1826 was deprived of its 
monopoly of joint-stock banking, but was at the 
same time given power to open provincial branches, 
opened its branch bank in Birmingham on January 
i, 1827, its first premises being those which had 
been occupied by Gibbins, Smith & Goode. 

It has been said that there were times when 
half Birmingham was in debt to Taylors & Lloyds. 
It would be impossible to verify or to deny this as 
a literal statement, but it represents the popular 



72 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

estimate of the place held by the bank even then 
among the institutions of Birmingham. Unques- 
tionably it was conducted by able men during the 
hundred years' private partnership, men who, while 
astute in safeguarding their own interests, re- 
cognised the truth that the greater the service the 
bank could render to the mercantile community, 
the better in the long-run for themselves. Many 
of the leading firms in Birmingham had cause 
to be thankful for the facilities which the firm 
judiciously afforded them, in the shape of im- 
mediate advances on deposit of securities, or in 
numberless instances, of temporary accommodation 
without security. One of the partners said that 
although it might have been laid down as a 
maxim, in earlier days, that they did nothing for 
nothing, yet they often did a great deal for very 
little. The Lloyds, in fact, knew their business 
as bankers. 

During 1802 the partners in Taylors & Lloyds 
were John Taylor (son of the first John Taylor), 
Sampson Lloyd (third), Samuel Lloyd, Charles 
Lloyd, and James Lloyd. At the close of 1804 
James Taylor of Moseley Hall was admitted a 
partner, and he and his brother William took their 
father's share at his death in 1814. My cousin, 
G. B. Lloyd, told me many years ago that William 
kept ,100,000 outside the bank business in the 
Funds ; such an amount was thought to be a large 
sum, as much, perhaps, as a million would be now. 

The firm of Taylors & Lloyds retained its 
^10,000 share in the capital of the bank of 
Hanburys until the death of Sampson Lloyd the 
third, when the interest in the London bank was 
transferred to his son Henry and the two banks 
became separate firms. At this time David Story, 
chief clerk of Taylors & Lloyds, received a 







JOHN TAYLOR THE SECOND, BANK-DIRECTOR FROM 1765 TO 1814. 
After the painting by Gainsborough. 



END OF PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP 73 

salary of ^300 per annum, and James Taylor 
became the last surviving partner of the Taylor 
family in the bank. 

Two of the sons of the third Sampson Lloyd, 
Ambrose and David, joined the Gurney Norfolk 
Bank at Halesworth in 1820. After the death of 
Ambrose, which occurred two years later, David 
Lloyd continued as the resident partner until his 
death in 1839. But previous to this Sampson 
Foster, a son of one of Sampson Lloyd's sisters, had 
become one of the Gurney Bank managers. He was 
a very able man in whom entire confidence could 
be placed, and he became their head manager at 
Norwich, and retained the post for many years at a 
handsome salary, his services being greatly valued. 
The Gurneys of Norfolk ceased to be private 
bankers on July i, 1896, when the joint-stock bank 
of Barclay & Company Limited took over their 
business. 

I must not omit to mention that Alfred Lloyd, 
another of the third Sampson Lloyd's sons, was 
a successful private banker at Leamington. His 
signature is very neatly written with a diamond on 
a pane of one of the windows at " Farm," with the 
date, January 1801. 

When James Taylor died in 1852 the interest 
of the Taylor family in the bank ceased, and its 
title was changed to that of Lloyds & Co. 

The bank with its changed name still con- 
tinued its prosperous career. The Lloyds' calling 
as bankers had become hereditary, and their inheri- 
tance included a financial sagacity which enabled 
them to see that the time had come for an im- 
portant change. The shrewdness which led the 
second Sampson Lloyd to invite John Taylor to 
join him in opening the bank in 1765 was equalled 
by that of his successors a hundred years later. 



74 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

They saw that the time had arrived when their 
customers should be allowed to have an interest 
in the expansion of the business and a share in the 
profits which that expansion, wisely controlled, 
must bring. 

The tide, as they perceived, had set in decisively 
in favour of joint-stock banks. One of the part- 
ners told me that there had been in the last few 
years of the private partnership a perceptible ten- 
dency towards losing the large accounts, and being 
left with a multitude of small ones. This was a 
general experience with private banks, and has 
proved a great factor in that rapid conversion of 
private into joint-stock banks in which Lloyds, 
since its incorporation, has taken a leading part. 
In 1810 there were forty private banks in Lombard 
Street; now there are but two or three. In 1865 
the bank, after an existence, without any deed of 
partnership, of one hundred years, became incor- 
porated, and the first amalgamation took place. 

Preparations for the conversion of Lloyds and 
Co. into a public company had been going on for 
some time. As a preliminary, a very searching 
examination by a firm of public accountants had 
taken place. But when the prospectus was ready 
to be issued a panic was caused in Birmingham by 
the failure of the old bank of Attwood, Spooner and 
Co. (at that date Attwood, Spooner, Marshall and 
Co.). A proposal for the amalgamation of this 
bank with the recently formed Birmingham Joint 
Stock Bank in Temple Row was under considera- 
tion, when, on March 10, 1865, four months after 
the death of Richard Spooner, the firm stopped 
payment. At the time of the failure which was 
attributed to the withdrawal of large sums of money 
by representatives of the former partners, the Att- 
woods the liabilities amounted to ,1,007,000. 



END OF PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP 75 

The business and assets were ultimately taken over 
by the Birmingham Joint Stock Bank, which paid 
the creditors of Attwood & Co. a dividend in cash 
of us. 3d. in the pound. 

As Attwoods Bank had been regarded as one 
of the safest in the country, the failure for the 
moment shook the faith of the public in private 
country banks, and Lloyds & Co. deferred its issue 
of shares to the public. But the delay was only a 
short one, and Lloyds turned the public feeling to 
their own advantage by publishing the accountants' 
report upon their own business. 

Lloyds Banking Company Limited was regis- 
tered on May i, 1865. 

The business of the company also included that 
of the Lloyds' oldest rival, Coates's Bank, which at 
this time was represented by the firm of John 
Moilliet & Sons, who also had a large connection 
and a high reputation. The two firms were allotted 
12,500 ^50 shares each in the new company. A 
further number, 12,500 shares, was issued at a 
premium of ^5, and in regard to the issue of 15,000 
additional shares the directors were given a free 
hand as to premiums, date of issue, and the persons 
to whom they should be allotted. 

A remarkable feature in the prospectus, antici- 
pating conditions made by Parliament fifteen years 
later, was a provision that the aggregate amount of 
calls should not exceed ^12, los. od. per share, 
the remaining ^37, los. od. to be available only 
for the ultimate liabilities of the bank. The re- 
putation of the two banks and the confidence 
inspired by the publication of the accountants' 
report proved more than sufficient to overcome 
any public distrust, though the excitement caused 
by the Attwood failure had not yet subsided. The 
shares in Lloyds Banking Company were eagerly 



76 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

subscribed for, and the company was formed. The 
terms of issue were regarded as being so favourable 
to the investor that almost immediately the shares 
could not be bought for less than $ premium. I 
remember that one of the partners (the late James 
Lloyd, grandson of Charles Lloyd), at a luncheon 
at the Queen's Hotel, told the company (much to 
my surprise) that the shares were not worth that 
premium, and he warned them not to give it. But 
the investing public knew better ; and the ,50 shares 
8 paid stand now at about ^33 each. It is 
because it was not often that a Lloyd was in error in 
matters of this kind that I mention the circumstance. 

The surviving partners of Lloyds & Co. were 
among the directors. To Sampson S. Lloyd, who 
became chairman, in succession to Mr. Timothy 
Kenrick, the first chairman, the rapid advance of 
the bank was in great measure attributed. 

The Wednesbury Old Bank (P. & H. Williams) 
was taken over three months after the formation of 
the company, and the Stafford Old Bank (Steven- 
son, Salt & Co.) shortly afterwards. 

Mr. Howard Lloyd (son of Isaac Lloyd) was the 
first secretary, acting also as a sub-manager. In 
1871 he became general manager, a post from 
which he retired in 1902. Having been head of 
the bank staff for some years before the formation 
of the company, he was well acquainted with the 
details of the business. His organising power was 
also great, and his success in forming an able staff 
of managers and clerks, and in inspiring them with 
his own devotion to the interests of the bank, com- 
bined with his acquired, or maybe partly natural, 
ability as a negotiator, continually helped forward 
the success of the policy of expansion and amal- 
gamation which has brought Lloyds to its present 
position. 



END OF PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP 77 

The first annual report (December 31, 1865) of 
Lloyds Banking Company Limited showed 

A paid-up capital of .... 143, 41 5 

A reserve fund of . 27,750 
And current and deposit accounts 

amounting together to . . . 1,166,000 

The profit for the eight months' operations in Bir- 
mingham, and five months in Wednesbury, after all 
deductions, was ,18,323, out of which a dividend 
of 10 per cent, was declared, and the balance, 
,9,335, was carried to reserve. 

Little more than a bare catalogue must suffice 
to indicate the process of absorption of other in- 
terests, which, aided by great shrewdness of judg- 
ment and masterly management, has resulted in 
Lloyds Bank Limited becoming one of the largest 
joint-stock banks in the world. But it may be noted 
that in acquiring, in 1884, the London bank of Bar- 
netts, Hoares & Co., the company brought back 
into association with the name of Lloyd a business 
which the Lloyds had helped more than a century 
before to found namely, that of Hanbury, Taylor 
and Lloyd. 

The year 1884 is memorable in various respects 
in the history of the bank, but chiefly for the ac- 
quirement by Lloyds of the status of a London 
bank. Up to that time the range of operations 
was restricted by the fact that a country bank must 
needs have a London agent to do its business at 
the London clearing-house. By the acquirement 
simultaneously of the two Lombard Street banks 
of Barnetts, Hoares & Co. and Bosanquet, Salt 
and Co., Lloyds became a London bank under 
the title of Lloyds Barnetts & Bosanquets Bank 
Limited. They were the fourth country bank to 
adopt a town office, having been preceded by the 
London and County, the National Provincial, and 



78 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

the Capital and Counties. Five years later, on the 
amalgamation with the Birmingham Joint Stock 
Bank, the company adopted its present name, 
Lloyds Bank Limited. The present palatial London 
office in Lombard Street was erected with frontage 
also to Cornhill, where it looks across at the Bank 
of England. 

Lloyds, in addition to obtaining the status of 
a London bank, and the advantage to their country 
business of having a seat in the London Bankers' 
clearing-house, in a few years succeeded in taking 
over some of the oldest private banks in London. 
The absorption of important private and joint- 
stock country banks also proceeded apace. By 
taking over the Birmingham Joint Stock Bank 
Limited in 1889, Lloyds acquired the valuable busi- 
ness of one of the most energetic local banks, and 
two of the largest bank buildings in Birmingham. 

In nearly every case of amalgamation with 
Lloyds, the offer to join forces has come to, not 
from, the company ; and no offer has been accepted 
without the fullest consideration and investigation 
by Lloyds. In three-fourths of the cases the amal- 
gamations have been with private firms a dis- 
tinguishing feature of the amalgamation policy 
apparently having been to take over businesses 
which, though comparatively small, offer, by their 
connection and local conditions, opportunities of 
larger development through the advantages afforded, 
in the way of security and otherwise, by joint- 
stock trading. 

The paid-up capital of Lloyds Bank Limited 
amounted in 1906 to ,3,851,600 more than four 
hundred-fold the capital of the parent bank in 1765, 
and more than twenty-fold that upon which, in 1865, 
the bank was floated as a joint-stock company. 
The nominal capital, originally ,2,000,000, is now 



END OF PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP 79 

^30,000,000. The reserve fund is ,2,950,000 ; 
the deposit and current accounts amount to 
^63,587,931, 155. 6d., and the net profit last year 
was .830,804, us. 9d. Lloyds have absorbed more 
than thirty private and some dozen joint-stock banks. 
A list of the amalgamations is subjoined : 

In 1865, Lloyds & Co., Birmingham Old Bank (established 
1765). 

In 1865, Moilliet & Sons, Birmingham. 

In 1865, P. & H. Williams, Wednesbury Old Bank. 

In 1866, Stevenson, Salt & Co., Stafford Old Bank 
(established 1737). 

In 1866, Warwick and Leamington Banking Company. 

In 1868, A. Butlin & Son, Rugby Old Bank (established 
1791). 

In 1872, R. & W. F. Fryer, Wolverhampton Old Bank. 

In 1874, Shropshire Banking Company. 

In 1879, Coventry and Warwickshire Banking Company. 

In 1880, Beck & Co., Shrewsbury and Welshpool Old Bank. 

In 1884, Barnetts, Hoares & Co., London (established 
about 1677). 

In 1884, Bosanquet, Salt & Co., London (established 1796). 

In 1888, Pritchard, Gordon & Co., Broseley & Bridgnorth. 

In 1889, Birmingham Joint Stock Bank Limited. 

In 1889, Worcester City and County Banking Company 
Limited. 

In 1890, Wilkins & Co., Old Bank, Brecon, Cardiff, &c. 
(established 1778). 

In 1890, Beechings & Co., Tonbridge Old Bank, Tun- 
bridge Wells, Hastings, &c. 

In 1891, Praeds & Co.,. London (established 1802). 

In 1891, Cobb & Co., Margate, &c. (established 1785). 

In 1891, Hart, Fellows & Co., Nottingham (established 
1808). 

In 1892, Bristol and West of England Bank Limited. 

In 1892, R. Twining & Co., London (established 1824). 

In 1893, Curteis, Pomfret & Co., Rye (established 1790). 

In 1893, Herries, Farquhar & Co., London (established 
1770). 

In 1894, Bromage & Co., Old Bank, Monmouth (established 
1819). 



8o THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

In 1895, Paget & Co., Leicester Bank (established 1825). 

In 1897, County of Gloucester Bank Limited. 

In 1897, Williams & Co., Old Bank, Chester, &c. (estab- 
lished 1792). 

In 1898, Jenner & Co., Sandgate and ShornclifFe Bank 
(established 1872). 

In 1899, Stephens, Blandy & Co., Reading, &c. (established 
1790). 

In 1899, Burton Union Bank Limited. 

In 1900, Liverpool Union Bank Limited. 

In 1900, Cunliffes, Brooks & Co., Manchester, &c. (estab- 
lished 1792). 

In 1900, Brooks & Co., London (established 1864). 

In 1900, William Williams Brown & Co., Leeds (estab- 
lished 1813). 

In 1900, Brown, Janson & Co., London (established 1813). 

In 1900, Vivian, Kitson & Co., Torquay Bank (established 
1832). ' 

In 1902, Bucks & Oxon Union Bank Limited. 

In 1902, Pomfret, Burn & Co., Ashford Bank (established 
1791). 

In 1903, Hodgkin, Barnett & Co., Newcastle-upon-Tyne, &c. 
(established 1859). 

In 1903, Grant & Maddison Banking Company Limited, 
Portsmouth, &c. 

In 1905, Hedges, Wells & Co., Wallingford Bank (estab- 
lished 1797). 

In 1906, Devon & Cornwall Banking Company Limited. 

Lloyds Bank now has Head Offices in London 
and Birmingham, 12 branch banks in London, and 
30 in Birmingham and the suburbs, and, in all, 518 
offices and branches, in 444 towns and districts. 

As the prospectus of 1865 and the first annual 
report are of interest as a contrast to the present 
state of affairs they are given in Appendix II. 
One very interesting fact to be noticed by the 
reader of that Appendix is that the only sur- 
viving member of the original Directorate of the 
Bank, appointed in 1865, is the Rt. Hon. Joseph 
Chamberlain. 



CHAPTER IX 

PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 
LLOYDS AS BANKERS 

Directors' policies Banking tact The making of a multi-millionaire 
Overdrafts Saying "No" Managerial methods Anecdotes The 
banker and the usurer The late G. B. Lloyd Religious argument 
Three politicians John Bright and Thomas Lloyd John Bright 
and the Society of Friends The late S. S. Lloyd Free Trade and 
Protection The old way and the new My adventure in the safe 
The Silent Highway 

THE late Sampson S. Lloyd, speaking as chairman 
at one of the annual meetings of Lloyds Bank, 
said that the directors did not think it wise 
policy for a bank to slaughter, without discretion, 
its customers, when they got into difficulties. The 
sentiment was naturally more in accordance with 
the views of those he addressed than the strict 
rules of another local bank no longer in existence. 
Woe to the customer who was in anywise a de- 
faulter in his account, or to a director even who 
was not at his place at the board table when the 
directors met. One member of the board of this 
bank was one day crossing the churchyard in front 
of the bank when the clock struck the hour for 
the directors' meeting. He was only one minute 
late and he had a good excuse ; but it was the 
practice of the bank to hand to the attending 
directors their fees in cash at the stroke of time, 
and the fees on this occasion having been divided, 
he was deprived of his. 

The policy of consideration and, where pos- 
sible, of assistance, steadily adhered to, undoubtedly 

81 * 



82 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

greatly promoted the prosperity and success of 
Lloyds Bank. 

The story of the life of the American multi- 
millionaire, John D. Rockefeller, as told recently 
by himself in the columns of the London Daily 
Mail, affords a remarkable illustration of the service 
which a banker may render at a critical point in a 
man's career, and of the great advantage which not 
only the customer but the bank itself may derive 
from considerate trustfulness at such a juncture. 

There came a point at which Rockefeller's father, 
who up to that time had financed him, could lend 
no more. Though the father was a wealthy man, 
the son's enterprises had reached a magnitude 
beyond the scope of the paternal resources. 

" Meanwhile," says Mr. J. D. Rockefeller, " I needed more 
than I could get from him, and I went to my banker, who had 
known me in Sunday school, and had known me as an employee 
in this form, and I said to him, ' I must have some money.' 

" He said, ' Mr. Rockefeller, how are you doing your busi- 
ness ? ' I told him. He said, ' Do you make any advancement 
on merchandise without you have the bills of lading or the 
property in the warehouse ? ' I said, ' No, sir.' ' Well, do 
you speculate ? ' ' No, sir.' ' Do you promise me, Mr. Rocke- 
feller, that if I loan you money you will continue to do so, and 
be very careful not to make any advances without you have in 
hand the collateral, in the shape of bills of lading or warehouse 
receipts ? ' He asked, ' How much do you want ? ' And I 
said, ' Four hundred pounds.' And he said, ' Certainly, 
Mr. Rockefeller, certainly; all right.' That was a happy day 
for me. 

"Later on, the president of this same bank (I have 
borrowed many times the 400, I do not remember just how 
much) said to me one day, and it was another president who 
was then in the position, 'Why, Rockefeller, do you know 
you've got nearly all the money in this bank, and do you know 
our board of directors want to see you and talk with you?' 
I said, ' I thank you, I thank you ; I shall be very pleased to 
come up and see them, and I want to come right away, because 
I've got to borrow a great deal more,' " 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS 83 

The writer of that record, said now to be the 
richest man in the world, has just given ,6,400,000 
to the General Education Board of the United 
States, the largest single sum ever given for a 
philanthropic purpose. 1 

The late George B. Lloyd once said to me, 
44 Mind and keep out of your banker's clutches." 
His father had given him this advice early in his 
business career, and so, he said, he would pass 
it on to me. I therefore pass the advice on to 
any reader of these lines whom it may be likely 
to benefit. Another instance may be quoted show- 
ing that no rule as to overdraft can be laid down 
to fit every case ; for at Middlesborough a very 
careful bank allowed two customers, whose names 
I need not give, in partnership at that place, to 
overdraw their account by ,90,000 and on my 
next visit I found it had been all paid off. The 
timely overdraft was of immense benefit to the in- 
dividuals, and of lasting advantage in the position 
of the bank in the then rising town of Middles- 
borough. 

In the early years of Lloyds Bank as a limited 
company such large accommodation was quite out- 
side the scope of their business. The late Mr. S. 
S. Lloyd, at one of the early annual meetings, 
stated that amongst all their numerous accounts 
there was not one that exceeded an overdraft of 
^"20,000. 

A century or more ago it was not invariably 
necessary for those who commenced banking to be 
possessed of ample means. In proof of this I may 
mention a curious case. Two most respectable 
young men, connected with the Society of Friends, 
who wanted to go into business together but 
lacked the necessary capital, suddenly came to the 

1 The Times, February 9, 1907, p. 8. 



84 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

humorous decision that as they could not borrow 
money they would lend it ; and notwithstanding 
their very small means, they accordingly opened 
a bank. And what is more, they managed their 
affairs so well that they succeeded and became well- 
established bankers. 

Mr. G. B. Lloyd, senior, once told me that to 
be a banker it was necessary to know how to say 
"No." I gathered he meant that a banker might 
abruptly say "No" and give unnecessary offence 
and lose a good customer, whereas he might say 
" No " in such a way as to make the customer quite 
as much satisfied as the circumstances of the case 
would admit. 

A South Staffordshire bank director said to 
me one day, " Mr. Lloyd, never become a bank 
director, for if you advise enlarged credit, and any 
disaster happens to the firm, all the blame will be 
heaped upon you by your co-directors." He pro- 
bably spoke from personal experience. 

A bank manager's advice to a customer is often 
opportune and useful. For instance, at one of 
the local banks some years ago the manager 
dropped a hint to one of his customers to sell 
a Birmingham property, the deeds of which the 
bank had held as security until they were tired of 
doing so. The customer, who reluctantly complied, 
obtained a much better price than in his most 
sanguine dreams he had expected, and was thus 
enabled to clear off his debt to the bank, with 
many thanks for the advice it had opportunely 
given him. Both parties were in this way 
benefited. 

A manager's interviews with his customers have 
not always such a pleasant sequel. One bank 
manager, whom I knew very well, was one day 
suddenly brought face to face with a tradesman 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS 85 

whose story of financial difficulties was so serious 
that it seemed clear that not only was he ruined, 
but that the bank would also lose very heavily. 
The manager passed a very anxious night, so 
much so that by the next morning his hair had 
turned white. I saw him both before and after 
the event, so can vouch for the fact. 

There was a prominent instance of loss by an 
overdraft in the case of the first Birmingham Bank- 
ing Co. an unlimited company. An ironmaster 
named Blackwell, one of the cleverest men, intel- 
lectually, ever engaged in the South Staffordshire 
iron trade, gained the entire confidence of a leading 
director of the bank, and he was allowed to in- 
crease his overdraft till it reached ,150,000. 
While this was going on he was pressed to reduce 
the amount, with the result that his valuable assets 
were sold, while the iron-works, which were not 
carried on at a profit in ordinary times, were left 
with the bank and creditors, and only produced 
a trifling dividend. This was a prelude to the 
wild proceedings of a young bank manager which 
caused the collapse of the bank, the present suc- 
cessful Metropolitan Bank (of England and Wales) 
Limited, taking its place. 

I was talking one day with the late Mr. 
Lancaster, when I was with him in his yacht in 
the Mediterranean, and was praising the services 
that bankers rendered to the community, and con- 
trasting them with the usurers of the far off past. 
I reminded him of what Dr. Thomas Hodgkin, 
who is both banker and historian, said in his book, 
Italy and her Invaders^ respecting the difference 
between a banker and a usurer that the former 
could lend money, and make a good profit for 
himself at a much less rate of interest than the 
usurer could. The latter, to make 15 per cent, on 



86 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

his capital, has to charge 15 per cent, to his cus- 
tomers ; while the banker may make the same rate 
of interest on his money while charging only 
3 per cent, to his customer, if a sum of money 
equivalent to fifteen times his capital be deposited 
with him at 2 per cent. 

The usurer's best chance of greatest profit, Dr. 
Hodgkin continues, is in being able to foreclose 
on oppressive terms his debtor's mortgage. To 
foreclose and thus lock up his ready cash with his 
debtor's property is the last thing the banker de- 
sires, knowing, as he does, that he himself may be 
called upon to pay back, in cash, the several 
amounts deposited with him. Thus, the banker, 
though he need not be regarded as being less 
selfish than the usurer, is led by mere self-interest 
to give the borrower every chance he prudently 
can of recovering himself. 

Mr. Lancaster agreed that a banker gives the 
borrower more time, and does not so quickly give 
him the coup de grace. The banker proceeds more 
scientifically ; he gives the unfortunate borrower 
a longer period of existence, by getting him to 
place in his hands all the title-deeds and securities 
he may possess to cover the advances made to him. 
So, able to go on, he keeps paying bank charges 
and commission, hoping for better times. But 
should these not come, and the debtor's circum- 
stances become worse, his fate is the same as if a 
usurer had lent him the money. 

The late Alderman G. B. Lloyd told me that 
when he was a young man and was learning 
engineering at the works of Bury, Curtis & Kennedy 
of Liverpool, he himself made all the working 
drawings for the engines of the first steamer that 
plied between Liverpool and South America. But 
the time came when he looked to marriage, and it 






PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS 87 

was necessary for him to have favourable assets at 
his father's bank. He accordingly gave up the 
drawing work that he was so fond of, and com- 
menced business in the tube trade, in which he 
was so successful that he acquired the necessary 
good assets and very soon married. Later he 
entered the bank. He was elected Mayor of 
Birmingham in 1870. His only son, the present 
Alderman John Henry Lloyd, was Lord Mayor 
from November 1901 to November 1902. 

I was one day alone with the late Mr. G. B. 
Lloyd, when he said that it struck him as rather 
remarkable that the Lloyd family had so con- 
tinuously held a middle place, none of them 
giving way to the blandishments of ambition, but 
contentedly maintaining the even tenor of their 
way. His remark calls to mind the lines : 

" Strive to hold fast the golden mean ; 
And live contentedly between 
The little and the great." 

The sons of some of the Lloyds, as we shall see 
in the case of Charles Lloyd the poet, had other 
pursuits than the acquirement of wealth, while 
more than one of " The Farm" Lloyds had trade 
disappointments ; but none the less the family may 
be said as a whole to have been always prosperous 
and unambitious. 

The liking for an intellectual discussion on a 
theological subject caused G. B. Lloyd to have 
several arguments with the late Dr. Bowlby, 
Bishop of Coventry, as to the continuity of the 
laying on of hands from the time of the Apostles. 
He asked the bishop how he could get over the 
fact of its having ceased, or been broken, for two 
or three centuries, when all trace was lost in the 
darkness of that period. The bishop's reply was 



88 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

that when a train goes into a tunnel, and travels 
along in the darkness, it is stillthe same train when 
it comes out at the other end. It is needless to 
say that neither of them convinced the other, but 
my cousin lent me the book which he thought the 
best on the subject. It requires, however, an 
intellectual, argumentative mind to delight in such 
a question. It may remind us of his ancestor, 
Charles Lloyd of the seventeenth century, whose 
argument with Bishop Lloyd lasted till past mid- 
night (see p. 13). 

The political views of the three chief acting 
partners of Lloyds & Co. during the last years of 
its existence were dissimilar. Thomas Lloyd, who 
was Mayor of Birmingham 1859-60, was an ad- 
vanced Liberal ; S. S. Lloyd was a Liberal Con- 
servative and Churchman ; while G. B. Lloyd, as 
opportunity arose, criticised the views of both 
political parties, and had opinions of his own on 
almost every subject. Thus Liberal customers of 
the bank could, after transacting their business, 
have a congenial talk with Thomas Lloyd, who was 
a very energetic conversationalist. Conservatives 
calling and seeing S. S. Lloyd would find their 
views corroborated by him rapidly and clearly, and 
go away intellectually refreshed, feeling well re- 
warded for their interview, even if the actual busi- 
ness transacted was of the slightest ; while G. B. 
Lloyd, who was a little more prosaic than the other 
two, but always kept on a high level of plain 
common sense, was particularly suited to the hard- 
headed Birmingham man full of facts and figures. 
When any business required the decision of the 
three partners, they always gave it their best and 
speedy consideration. 

My cousin, Thomas Lloyd, wrote a letter to the 
Birmingham Daily Post, a year or more before his 
death, putting upon record the service which he 




THE LATE GEORGE B. LLOYD. 

Mayor of Hi'rininghaw, /<V~r>-/. 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS 89 

considered he had rendered to the city by inducing 
John Bright to become one of its members. Mr. 
Bright had only just recovered from an illness, but 
was willing to talk over the situation ; and after a 
little while, in response to my cousin's personal 
appeal, he went into another room and quickly 
wrote his election address. He was elected, and 
continued to represent Birmingham in Parliament 
till his death. Some years ago I was asked to see 
him to take his opinion respecting a projected 
railway across the Berar cotton-fields in India, and 
he invited me to his house at Rochdale. I found 
him disinclined to take up the advocacy of such a 
railway ; he preferred to leave it to others. He 
was in the finest intellectual vigour, and when I 
returned I described his conversation as so vividly 
depicting needed reforms and so buoyant that it 
was asaf he would have taken me up and projected 
me into the future to a time when all the improve- 
ments he so desired should have been accom- 
plished. Amongst other things he said was this, 
that no one who left the Society of Friends and 
joined the Church of England was ever afterwards 
any good. Thomas Lloyd, who had championed 
his election, had been brought up as a Friend but 
had joined the Church. If I had reminded John 
Bright of this he could have replied, " There are 
exceptions to every rule." 

A Friend himself, and much attached to the 
Society, John Bright did not like the very narrow 
and rigid conservatism of some of the leading 
Friends who then guided its affairs ; and one day 
when I was dining with a few of them, Mr. Bright 
being one of the company, he very vigorously 
expressed his view that they did not lead the 
Society in a way conducive to its best interests. 
He desired to awaken them from the fossilised 
state of conservatism into which he deemed they 



90 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

had lapsed, and to stimulate them to meet new 
requirements, and, if necessary in order to do so, 
to modify the Society's rules and regulations. 

John Bright, it should be remembered, was not 
an advocate for the disestablishment of the Church 
of England, as he did not consider that the 
majority of English people were prepared for such 
a measure, and, I believe wisely, thought we might 
go farther and fare worse. 

In 1883, on the fourth centenary of Martin 
Luther, he wrote the preface to a small book I 
had written concerning that reformer. 

At the time when the late Sampson S. Lloyd 
twice unsuccessfully endeavoured to represent 
Birmingham as a Member of Parliament in the 
Conservative interest, John Bright declared that 
the town was as " Liberal as the sea was salt." 
Though unsuccessful at Birmingham, he became a 
member for Plymouth ; and afterwards for South 
Warwickshire. An M.P. said of him that when out 
of Parliament he wanted to get in, and when in, 
getting tired of it, he wanted to get out. His 
brother told me that he was much struck with the 
gift he possessed of speaking in public not only 
with fluent rapidity and in a very pleasant voice, 
but with such clearness that every syllable of every 
word was perfectly enunciated. He spoke with 
extraordinary ease and cogency, as was particularly 
evidenced at the annual meetings of the bank. 
Sampson Lloyd's oratory, however, when seeking 
election in Birmingham was not on the popular 
side, so that all his arguments and eloquence were 
unavailing. A report of his speech at the opening 
of the Birmingham Exchange in 1865 will be found 
in Appendix III. 

He contributed largely towards the erection of 
Christ Church, Sparkbrook (near the end of the 
avenue at " Farm "), in memory of his first wife 




THE LATE THOMAS LLOYD OF THE PRIORY, WARWICK. 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS 91 

Emma, who was a daughter of Samuel Reeves of 
Leighton Buzzard, and who died in 1863. 

In reply to a letter I wrote to Sir E. W. Fithian 
inquiring how long Mr. S. S. Lloyd was President 
of the Association of Chambers of Commerce of the 
United Kingdom, and saying that I should be 
glad of any particulars of interest he could give, 
he replied, "Mr. Sampson S. Lloyd became 
President of the Association in February 1862, 
and remained President for eighteen years ending 
February 1880." He further said that "he was 
a most popular President, as this long period of 
office proves, and was greatly esteemed for his 
fairness and lucidity of speech. No one could be 
more popular as a President than he was." An 
inspection of the annual reports of the proceed- 
ings evidences the great variety of commercial 
questions that were brought before the meetings 
of the Association for discussion and decision. 

At Hull, in 1877, speaking as President, he 
said that if they did not discuss burning questions 
of party politics at their meetings they could as 
good citizens do so elsewhere in their own localities, 
but to discuss such in their meetings would make 
their efforts useless instead of useful, and serve no 
good purpose whatever ; and at the annual dinner 
in February 1878 he said that in that Association, 
party politics were forgotten ; and whatever their 
private opinions might be, they were always ready 
to give a hearty welcome, and tender their cordial 
support to any whom Her Majesty may have 
trusted with the guidance of the destinies of this 
country. Her Majesty's ministers, no matter which 
party was in power, always received from them 
most loyal support. 

Amongst other subjects the question of Free 
Trade and reciprocity was (as might be expected) 
discussed ; resulting in the following resolution 



92 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

being carried, in February 1878: "That the 
action of several Foreign and Colonial Govern- 
ments in imposing protective and in some cases 
high and Prohibitory Duties on the Importation 
of British manufactures, is a subject requiring the 
continued and earnest attention of the Government ; 
and that the Council of the Associated Chambers 
be requested to press this question by Memorial 
and Deputation, at the Foreign Office." Thirty- 
seven representatives of Chambers voted for, and 
ten against. It is interesting at this date to 
read this decision taken under the presidency of a 
Birmingham business man. 

In the course of this annual meeting, which 
lasted three days, it was moved that an " Inter- 
national Free Trade Association should be formed 
with the view of the more general adoption of 
Free Trade in other countries " ; but after a dis- 
cussion, on a show of hands being taken, it was 
found that there was a majority against the motion. 
In the course of discussion the President said that 
he believed the best Free Trade influence they could 
exercise was "to go on their own way rejoicing" ; 
and if other countries did not see that it was to 
their interest to do the same, he did not believe 
all the rest of the nations in the world would con- 
vince them of the advantages of Free Trade. 

His own individual opinions, Mr. S. S. Lloyd 
pointed out on several occasions, were well known. 
He was in favour of the enforcement of Fair Trade, 
as far as possible, upon foreign nations in their 
dealings with us ; he was in favour of Free Trade, 
but against one-sided free trade, when carried on 
to the detriment of our home industries, he said 
his views were that the laws of the country should 
be made "for the greatest benefit of the greatest 
number." 

I do not wish to pass away from this reference 





S. S. LLOYD. 
From a photograph taken January ij, 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS 93 

to the three partners without alluding* to an obser- 
vation made by S. S. Lloyd at the close of an 
afternoon lecture by the late Professor Leone Levi, 
in a Birmingham room crowded with business men. 
In returning thanks to the lecturer, he said that 
there could be no doubt but "that the most scru- 
pulous honesty oug-ht to mark all our transactions." 
The knowledge that the bank partners were men of 
sterling honesty, as well as of ability, gave the 
public that perfect confidence in the bank, whatever 
the state of the money market might be, which 
doubtless greatly contributed to the continuous 
prosperity of the partnership. 

Mr. G. Herbert Lloyd reminds me, as I write, 
that none of the Lloyds, during the whole hundred 
years of the partnership, were misers ; in fact, the 
three surviving- partners, to his own certain know- 
ledge, were rather the reverse. 

Some of the older men of business of the pre- 
sent generation may look back with regret upon 
those times, when they could have the friendly 
advice and the kindly attention of one of the 
principals. It certainly was different from treating 
with a bank official, bound hard and fast by rules 
which do not always admit of the monetary assist- 
ance which the applicant desires and feels sure 
might be and under more personal circumstances 
would be wisely and beneficently extended to 
him. Some banks are, however, as fortunate in their 
head clerks and officials as in their principals ; and 
as an instance I may mention the late Mr. John 
Hickling, who for forty years was the valued con- 
fidential head clerk of Lloyds. 

One day, when a small boy, I was at the bank 
at Dale End with my father and went into one of 
their large safes, which reached from the floor to 
the ceiling of the bank parlour, where we were 
sitting. My father and my uncle, Mr. G. B. 



94 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

Lloyd's father, could not imagine how I had dis- 
appeared, as the door of the room was shut. 
When, on being called, I came out of the dark 
chamber, my uncle was so surprised and amused 
that he gave me half-a-crown. 

Soon after the bank was opened in 1765 Samp- 
son Lloyd and his son Sampson were convinced of 
the desirability of a canal to connect the coal-fields 
of South Staffordshire. Others being like-minded, 
after one or more meetings had been held in 
Birmingham, an Act of Parliament to authorise the 
construction of the canal was applied for, and this 
received the royal assent in 1768. By the Act 
Commissioners were appointed, Sampson Lloyd 
and his son being among them, and any five of 
them were "empowered to determine and adjust 
what shall be paid . . . for the absolute purchase 
of the lands or grounds." This proved a very 
simple, cheap, and quick way of settling the price 
to be paid for the land required for what was termed 
THE SILENT HIGHWAY. No time was lost, and the 
canal being quickly constructed and opened, it soon 
paid dividends of 20 per cent, and proved con- 
tinuously a wonderful success. 

It will be noticed that the canal, after it was 
opened, paid 20 per cent, dividends, but it now 
pays only 4 per cent. How is this? The expla- 
nation is that the proprietors watered the capital 
several times before the London and North-Western 
Railway Company came into possession in other 
words, wrote up the shares to what they considered 
was their marketable value. Accordingly, those 
descendants of the first shareholders who have 
retained the original shares, having received in the 
past very satisfactory dividends, now receive 4 per 
cent, guaranteed dividend equal to 8 or 10 per 
cent, on the capital originally invested. 



CHAPTER X 

THE THIRD SAMPSON LLOYD AND BETSY FIDOE 

Mrs. Schimmelpenninck's story A beautiful Quakeress Jail fever 
Sampson Lloyd seeks a woman and finds an angel Fecundity 
A philosophic father Richard Reynolds and Sampson Lloyd A 
modern patriarch Mr. Beverley at " Farm " An elopement A 
Gretna Green marriage A child at Child's Bank 

AFTER this long financial interlude, which seemed 
to me to come more fittingly after the account of 
the first banker in the family and the real founder 
of Lloyds Bank Sampson Lloyd the second we 
return to the story of " Farm " and its occupants, 
and come to Sampson Lloyd the third, who was not 
only the son of Sampson Lloyd the second, but also 
his partner, with the two Taylors, in the bank. 

The third Sampson Lloyd, who was born August 
2, 1728, was, like his father and his grandfather, an 
excellent man of business, and was also a man of 
strong affections and friendships. 

The romance of his life was his attachment to his 
cousin, the charming Betsy Fidoe. Elizabeth, the 
only daughter of Charles Lloyd of Dolobran, had 
married John Pemberton of Birmingham, and their 
only daughter, Rebecca, in 1716 married John Fidoe. 
In 1723 the Fidoes lived in Birmingham in the Old 
Square, and it was there that Betsy Fidoe was born. 1 
John Pemberton's son Thomas married the second 
Sampson Lloyd's sister-in-law, Jane Parkes. 2 

1 I have in my possession the Bible of " Sarah Fidoe," with her name 
written in it at the beginning: "Sarah Fidoe Her Book September 27 
1685," and again, on the last page, "Sarah Fidoe Her Book September 27 
1685." The book has been in the possession of the Fidoe, Parkes, and 
Lloyd family ever since, and is very well printed, with excellent type, a 
perfect pleasure to read; published "Anno Dom. 1646," and dedicated 
"TO THE MOST HIGH AND MIGHTY PRINCE JAMES." 

2 See Memorials of the Old Square, Appendix B, p. 129. 

95 



96 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

Sampson Lloyd, when he was over seventy years 
of age, told his young relative, Mary Anne Galton, 
the story of his attachment to Miss Fidoe. She 
was immensely interested, and wrote down what 
he said as follows : 1 

" No one, I believe, could take more pleasure in outward 
objects and delights than I did when I was a boy; all that 
was beautiful or gay, pleasurable or pathetic, alike transported 
me. In vain did my pious parents, venerated though they 
were, endeavour to moderate my course; it seemed impos- 
sible to resist the intoxication to which I was subject. There 
are chambers in my past life I never re-open, though I 
allude to them now to speak of the mercies of God. I was 
particularly delighted with the society of beautiful and accom- 
plished women, but amongst them there was one who soon 
fixed my especial attention, a sindeed whose gaze did she not 
fix ? Her name was Betsy Fidoe ; you have no doubt heard 
of her. She was beautiful, but it was that beauty which 
is never thought of as such, because the outside form seems 
but a transparent covering to the soul. She was accomplished, 
but I never recollected that she possessed accomplishments; 
for her singing, her music, her recitation of poetry, and her 
eloquent speaking, seemed but the natural language of her 
heart. All that she said sparkled with intelligence and wit 
and kindliness. 

"She passed before my eyes like a splendid vision and 
thenceforth I had no light but in seeking the light of her 
countenance ; all that I had hitherto called enjoyment ceased 
to be such, and I sought those higher pleasures which refine 
the heart and the imagination. Betsy Fidoe was some years 
older than myself. I earnestly sought thenceforth to acquire 
that character which would make me less unworthy of her 
friendship, but ah ! how different were the views of my 
Heavenly Father from my own ! Sore misfortune fell upon 
the object of my idolatry ; first was the wreck of her fortune, 
but that was little." 

Sampson Lloyd then related that by con- 
tagious disease all the Fidoe family were swept 
away and Betsy lost her reason and had to be sent 

1 See the first vol., Memoirs of Mrs, Schimmelpenninck^ p. 194. 



THE THIRD SAMPSON LLOYD 97 

to an asylum. The disease was jail fever, of which 
nothing is now heard in England. A medical man 
tells me that the term was given to what had 
been termed the plague, from its breaking out in 
insanitary jails. It was very infectious, and carried 
off indiscriminately not only prisoners and prison 
officials, but also judges and lawyers. Afterwards 
it was almost stamped out, the comparatively non- 
infectious typhoid following it. 

"Miss Fidoe [Sampson Lloyd continued] was prostrate 
in body and mind; at length, like the first ray of morning 
after the darkest night, away from all human influences, she 
was gradually restored, and from conviction of the heart 
returned to the usages of the Friends." 

"Some years [he said] had passed. From a boy I 
had become a man; from a son dependent on his father, 
I had entered into possession of an independent and honour- 
able position. I knew her deep affliction, and I longed to 
be her helper; and though, in profound respect, I felt the 
distance greater than ever between us, yet I knew there was 
but one title under which a young man could acquire a right 
to be the efficient help and protector of a still young and 
beautiful woman. My heart faltered, yet I determined to 
see her, and learn what form that vision, which I had never 
yet dared to behold in connection with myself, would assume. 
When I came to the door of the small cottage in which she 
then lived, and looked on the beauty of the little garden and 
its flowers, I still recognised the same hand of taste and 
beauty, and felt as if my die would be cast when I looked 
on them next when quitting the house. 

" I was ushered into a little parlour ; I found myself 
alone ; I had time to observe the neatness and delicacy, but 
the perfect plainness and simplicity of all around, and the 
one vision of brightness that my heart had ever known 
appeared, but oh ! how altered ! what a change had passed 
over her! The elegant taste of her dress was exchanged 
for the delicacy of Christian simplicity; in her eyes, which 
had once been playful with wit and kindly brilliance, was now 
the expression of peace, yet the peace of a deep inward life, 
constantly varying in lustre or mantling the complexion with 
shades of thought and feeling. Truly a change had passed 

G 



98 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

over her. If my natural reverence for her had been increased 
by her misfortunes, now it was as the holy reverence we 
feel for one to whom we see that God has spoken, and by 
whom His voice has been heard. She had, indeed, passed 
as it were through a bitter death since I had seen her ; she 
had entered it in the beauty of naturalism; she had risen 
from it in the beauty of spiritualism. I was silent, and I 
believe I should have gone away without opening my lips 
on the subject for which I expressly came, but for the 
thought that I might still be her helper and support, and 
her restorer to that wide field of blessing she had so well 
adorned. 

"With great effort to myself I tried to begin, but in a 
few words she checked my proceeding. She said she had 
tasted the sweetness of converse with Heaven in the deepest 
of human calamities, and though she cordially and gratefully 
thanked me, she felt thenceforth unfit for earthly things, and 
she looked for happiness above in her Heavenly home; that 
she had found the peace of God all-sufficient, and she would 
not exchange it for anything this earth could give. She 
then with much kindness and affection told me that she 
should best testify her deep sense of the sympathy I had 
shown her by endeavouring to point out to me the same 
inestimable treasure which she had herself found, by leading 
me to the same Good Shepherd who had taken care of her; 
and she asked me to sit down by her, and have a hearts' 
conversation, as of two friends called by the same grace, 
traversing the same ocean of life, and bound to the same 
port. I did sit down ; long and deeply we conversed ; how 
long I cannot tell, for it was morning when I entered, and 
the sun was fast declining when I took my leave. . . ." 

He continued : " I entered that room admiring a woman ; 
I departed from it in deep communion with an angelic spirit. 
I closed the door of the house ; I looked again at the flowers. 
I had entered the house with a bright vision before me; it 
had passed away. ... I felt the one hope of my life, its 
one inspiring motive, was for ever gone. But then, yes, even 
then, I also felt that a seed had been dropped into my heart 
full of vitality, even the seed of the Kingdom, the manna 
from heaven, which would thenceforth grow and germinate, 
and which, I was enabled to hope, might not only issue in 
life eternal, but was so even then, for ' he who believes hath 
everlasting life.' How little did I think when in my blind 




BETSY FIDOE. . 

After the fainting at " Farm " probably bv Wright oj Derby. 



THE THIRD SAMPSON LLOYD 99 

though affectionate zeal I went to offer an earthly home to 
this stricken one that she had a home far better than any 
I could give her." 

It was not till ten years after this love-affair 
that Sampson Lloyd married. The lady of his 
choice was Rachel, daughter of Samuel Barnes, 
of London. She was only sixteen. They were 
married on November n, 1762, and they had 
seven sons and ten daughters. 

One of his acquaintances, who either had no 
children or only a poor dozen, said jestingly : 
" Lloyds are like weeds : they grow apace ; " but 
Sampson Lloyd regarded his brood, large though it 
was, as insufficient. It is recorded that when, as 
she sometimes would, his wife expressed dismay 
at all that so many children involved, he would 
heroically reply, " Never mind, the twentieth will 
be the most welcome." 

This Sampson Lloyd the third, who succeeded 
his father in the management of Taylors & Lloyds 
Bank, besides being one of the original partners, 
was also a partner with his half-brothers, Nehemiah 
and Charles Lloyd, in the iron business, and, as 
I have said, was one of the founders in 1770 of the 
London bank of Hanbury, Taylor, Lloyd & Bowman. 

He had some warm friendships. Among letters 
which have been preserved are some from his friend 
Richard Reynolds of Ketley and Coalbrookdale, 
who was seventeen years his junior, and who, as 
soon as he had acquired ample means, became a 
distinguished philanthropist. The letters show 
that neither the third Sampson Lloyd nor his friend 
Reynolds was unduly absorbed in money-making. 
I quote a few passages from Richard Reynolds. In 
January 1770 he writes : 

"I duly received thy affectionate letter. ... I wish not 
for many friends, nor to be the friend of many ; but I would 



ioo THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

have my friends more eminent for virtue than for under- 
standing ; for understanding than for wealth ; and rich, as far 
as riches may contribute to their advancement in either virtue 
or understanding ; and no farther may I be rich myself." 

Richard Reynolds ends his letter, after ex- 
pressing his approval " of inoculation against that 
dreadful scourge the small pox," by alluding to 
the doubts of others as to such a remedy, and 
adds, "Let every man be fully persuaded in his 
own mind ; and happy is he that condemneth not 
himself in that thing which he alloweth." 

He writes again from Ketley in 1771 : 

" To be considered by thee as thy friend, in the most 
intimate and endeared sense of the word, gives me particular 
satisfaction. ... If I do not express myself exactly as thou 
hast done, on the notion that matches in friendship, as well 
as in love, are made in heaven, I am sure thou wilt join me 
in hoping, that whether or not ours was made in heaven, 
it may at least be admitted there. I so far agree in the 
notion, that I consider a faithful friend as a blessing from 
the Almighty, if not the greatest blessing we can here enjoy. 
Friendship, including true religion, . . . tends to insure 
celestial happiness, as it constitutes the greatest part of 
mundane felicity. . . . Though we cannot doubt that all the 
twelve, while faithful, were objects of our Saviour's affectionate 
regard, one of them was so emphatically distinguished as ' that 
disciple whom Jesus loved/ This . . . suggests the suppli- 
catory wish that his blessing may accompany our friendly 
regards for each other; then, . . . our advancement in love, 
as in bliss, may only be bounded by eternity." 

In the year 1774 there was great depression in 
the iron trade, and prices went down to such an 
extent that there was positive loss to almost every 
one engaged in it. Sampson Lloyd having written 
to Richard Reynolds about it, he replied : 

" I sympathize with thee under every disappointment ; but 
as disappointment is only the frustration of hope, and more 
properly a negative than a positive loss, instead of attempting 
to suggest alleviating considerations, let me inform thee that 



THE THIRD SAMPSON LLOYD 101 

under a recent positive loss of many hundreds, and a pro- 
bability, next to assurance, of a still greater, I endeavour 
to reconcile myself to what I cannot avoid, not only by 
remembering the important truth thou mentions 'That trial, 
and even adversity is best for us ! ' but also by considering 
that the real goods of life are to be purchased by less money 
than I shall have left at last. ... In general the peasant enjoys 
his coarse fare with a higher relish than the peer his costly 
viands, and I drink ale equal in colour and brilliancy to wine, 
with superior satisfaction, though at a sixth of the price. . . ." 

He goes on to say that the melody of birds, the 
voice of winds and of waters, from the whispering 
of the breeze to the shouting of the storm, from the 
tinkling of the rill to the roar of the ocean, can be 
listened to and enjoyed by the poor as well as by 
the rich ; and alluding to the great effects attributed 
to music he says : 

" I do not forget those which it is recorded to have had 
upon Elisha, and upon Saul. ... As it is the Almighty 
who has established certain laws in nature, which operate 
uniformly, unless He is pleased to suspend them, so I con- 
sider every display of human genius as the effect of delegated 
power from the Divine origin of all things, and only wrong 
when perverted or misapplied by us. ... The grandeur of 
the scenery of the visible creation, the immense ocean 

" ' The pomps of groves, the garniture of fields, 
And all the dread magnificence of heaven ' 

these through the goodness of the great Creator, who makes 
that which is the most valuable the most common, . . . are 
offered to the sight of all men. . . ." 

Mrs. Schimmelpenninck wrote of the two 
brothers, the third Sampson Lloyd and Charles 
Lloyd, to whom we come in a later chapter, con- 
trasting them as follows : 

" The person [she writes J ] who most deeply impressed 
my childish mind was my aged cousin [the third] Sampson 

1 Autobiography of Mrs. Schimmelpenninck. 



io2 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

Lloyd. His temperament was very sanguine, and when young 
he must have been exceedingly susceptible to all objects of 
taste and feeling, but then his hair was snowy white, and 
his form bowed as he sat at Meeting. His countenance bore 
traces of conflicts long past in a heart and mind that could 
have felt exquisitely, and that had been deeply torn. I shall 
never forget the beaming expression of his eye, not unmingled 
with compassion, with which he looked on all, especially the 
young. Truly he seemed like Moses who had been on the 
Mount, and who descended, with the glory still in his 
countenance, to bless the people. I seem yet to see him, 
and look upon his venerable and loving countenance, his white 
hair, and the tears streaming down his cheeks as he spoke 
tears such as I have never seen before, for they seemed 
to tell of mingled affection, gratitude, and peaceful joy." 

It was this Sampson Lloyd, it will be seen, who 
had the interview with Samuel Galton in 1796, as 
recorded in a future chapter. 

"Very different," says Mrs. Schimmelpenninck, "from 
my cousin Sampson was his half-brother Charles, who was 
twenty years younger. He too was a man of remarkable 
character. Whilst my cousin Sampson drew forth the 
religious affections, the conversation of his brother tended 
to establish religious foundations. I have often thought 
how great is the blessing of associating both with those who 
possess the inspiration of the Spirit of love, and also with 
those who are in the habit of accurately defining and strictly 
applying truth. It is good to have not only a loving spirit, 
but a sharp and definite outline of truth. In this my cousin 
Charles Lloyd was remarkable." 

Mr. R. M. Beverley, of Scarborough, author 
of Darwinism Exposed and other works, writing 
in his Diary of his first visit to " Farm," Thursday, 
July 16, 1835, tells us more of the third Sampson 
Lloyd : 

" I walked after dinner for some time in the garden with 
Mr. Lloyd [the first Samuel Lloyd]. He told me that his 
father, Sampson Lloyd, though born and bred a Quaker, was 
a young man of gaiety, who, though he used occasionally 



THE THIRD SAMPSON LLOYD 103 

to attend the Quakers' meetings, yet did so only for form's 
sake, and to keep up an old custom. He was a remarkably 
handsome young man, with a fine tall figure and comely 
face, and this was a temptation to him to run into vanity. 
He dressed in the fashion of the day, visited in high society, 
and became at last a companion of Lords and Ladies. 

"It pleased God, however, that whilst he was running 
this course, he should be arrested by Divine grace and 
converted. A sermon delivered at one of the Quakers' 
meetings touched him deeply, and some other sermons by 
the same minister made him an altered man. He determined 
all at once to give up the world, to hold no parley with the 
flesh, but to ' tarry not in all the plain, but to hasten to the 
mountain.' With this resolution he at once adopted all the 
strict plainness of the Quakers, and ordered his tailor to 
make him a sober suit of Quaker apparel. When the tailor 
came and laid the clothes down on the chair, he felt as if 
they had brought him his coffin. It was a severe and hard 
trial, but he flinched not from it; he cast off his finery, and 
from that day forth wore the Quaker dress. 

"He was a religious and tender-hearted man, and died, 
I trust, in the faith of God's elect. Mr. Lloyd told me that 
he had his correspondence with the gay, as well as with the 
religious world. He finds that he was a correspondent on 
familiar terms with some of the most fashionable of the 
grandees of his day." 

A recollection of the third Sampson Lloyd was 
given to some members of the family now living, 
by two of his grand-daughters, Mrs. Howard, of 
Bruce Grove, Tottenham, and Mrs. Fox, of 
Falmouth. They were very young at the time of 
his death, but they remembered well their aged 
grandfather, as " a venerable-looking old man with 
beautiful white hair resting in curls upon his 
shoulders, led into the room by two of his sons. 
He was always dressed in grey clothes, the idea 
being, that the natural colour of the wool was better, 
and that dyes were vain things." "The Farm" 
carriage, with a pair of bay horses, these ladies 
related, was sent to the Crescent to fetch them and 



104 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

their parents, Samuel and Rachel Lloyd, to spend 
the day at "Farm." The pleasure of seeing the 
primrose bank in the spring is vividly recalled. 
"This," as we read in Farm and its Inhabitants, 
"has been the delight of many eyes since then; 
the high sloping bank near the fish arbour, the 
avenue high above to the right, the deep pool, with 
its wooden palings, on the left, and the arbour in 
front, and all the bank a fragrant wall of moss and 
dewy leaves, and violets and primroses." 

The serenity of the third Sampson Lloyd and 
of " Farm " was disturbed while he was a successful 
banker by the death of one of his married daughters, 
followed by the widower making love, it was said 
to console himself for his loss, to her sister ( ' Nancy," 
with whom, in 1799, he eloped to Gretna Green, 
where they were married. Such a thing was not 
unknown in those days, and Sampson Lloyd was 
not the only banker who had suffered. Through 
the courtesy of one of the partners in Child's 
Bank I have before me a volume relating to their 
bank, from which the following is an extract : 

" One afternoon in May 1782, Lord Westmorland was dining 
with Mr. Child at Temple Bar, and, amongst other subjects 
upon which they conversed, Lord Westmorland said, ' Child, 
I wish for your opinion on the following case : Suppose that 
you were in love with a girl, and her Father refused his con- 
sent to the union, what should you do ? ' l Why ! run away 
with her, to be sure ! ' was the prompt reply of Mr. Child, 
little thinking at the time that it was his daughter the querist 
was in love with. 

" Either that same night or a few nights after, Lord West- 
morland eloped with Miss Sarah Child, in a postchaise and 
four, from the Berkeley Square house. The duenna, who 
slept in the outer room of Miss Child's apartments, was 
drugged by her maid, and her flight was only discovered by 
the ' Charley ' (or night watchman) finding the front door open 
and raising an alarm. A hue and cry arose ere long, and 
Mr. Child, having ordered out a second postchaise in which 



THE THIRD SAMPSON LLOYD 105 

to pursue the fugitives, sent on in advance a messenger, one 
Richard Gillam, mounted on his own favourite hunter, with 
orders to detain them until he should arrive. 

"Richard, who doubtless changed horses several times 
(unless the hunter equalled Black Bess in powers of endur- 
ance), came up with the carriage near Rokeby, in Yorkshire, 
and delivered his master's message to its occupants. ' Shoot, 
my Lord,' exclaimed Miss Child, who must have been a 
strong-minded young lady for her years only 17 (she was 
within two months of 18). Lord Westmorland accordingly 
cut short further discussion by shooting Gillam's horse ; and 
when Mr. Child, who was now approaching the scene of action, 
saw the poor beast fall, he turned back and would carry the 
pursuit no further. 

" Gillam ended his life at an advanced age as lodgekeeper 
at Middleton Park. He used to relate this adventure with 
great gusto, and from the tone of satisfaction with which 
' Shoot, my Lord/ was repeated to me J by one of his hearers, I 
gather that the groom's admiration for his young mistress's spirit 
quite outweighed any resentment for the discomfort which the 
execution of her order might have entailed upon himself." 

They were married on the i8th of May 1782 at 
Gretna Green by the Rev. John Brown, and married 
again at the Mansion in Apethorpe by the special 
licence of the Archbishop of Canterbury on the 
7th of June the same year Mr. Robert Child giving 
his consent for the marriage licence, which was 
necessary, his daughter being a minor. 

Apropos of Child's Bank, when the new premises 
at Temple Bar were opened for business in 1880, 
one of the first to enter was a small boy with a few 
coppers in his hand, who asked what was the 
smallest sum that could be received upon deposit, 
as he wished to place his small savings in safety. 
After being told that such small accounts were 
never opened, he explained that he had come in 
because he saw the notice-board on the steps, 
" Entrance to Child's Bank," and thought it was a 
bank for children's money. 

1 The Countess of Jersey. 



CHAPTER XI 

DR. JOHNSON AND MARY KNOWLES 

The great lexicographer at Birmingham Dining at Sampson Lloyd's 
The discussion on Barclay's Apology The doctor in a rage 
And in repentance His exploration of Birmingham The Dictionary 
Olivia Lloyd Mrs. Knowles Boswell's reports of dialectical 
bouts Religion and the rights of women "The Farm" governess 
and Dr. Johnson A long conversation Thrale's brewery 

UNTIL 1779, when his father died, Sampson Lloyd 
remained in the Old Square, in the house that 
had been the Fidoes'. Betsy Fidoe left her pro- 
perty to him, but his view was that it ought to go 
to the heir-at-law, a surgeon named John Burr, 
of Ware. John Burr, however, died a bachelor, 
leaving the property, in his turn, to Sampson Lloyd ; 
so that, after all, it came to him. The Wednes- 
bury portion of it, which descended to three of his 
grandsons, was valued, when they received it, at 
2*9000. 

It was at the Old Square house that Dr. Johnson 
visited Sampson Lloyd, in 1776. Boswell describes 
their calling first on Dr. Hector, Johnson's old 
schoolfellow, and the great man's annoyance at 
being treated by the servant as if only a poor 
patient. 

"We next called [Boswell proceeds] on Mr. Lloyd, one of 
the people called Quakers. He too was not at home, but Mrs. 
Lloyd was, and received us courteously, and asked us to dinner. 
Johnson said to me, ' After the uncertainty of all human things 
at Hector's, this invitation came very well.' We walked about 
the town, and he was pleased to see it increasing. . . . 

" Mr. Lloyd joined us in the street ; and in a little while 

106 



DR. JOHNSON AND MRS. KNOWLES 107 

we met Friend Hector, as Mr. Lloyd called him. It gave 
me pleasure to observe the joy which Johnson and he ex- 
pressed on seeing each other again. Mr. Lloyd and I left 
them together, while he obligingly showed me some of the 
manufactures of this very curious assemblage of artificers. 
We all met at dinner at Mr. Lloyd's, where we were enter- 
tained with great hospitality. Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd had been 
married the same year with their majesties, and, like them, had 
been blessed with a numerous family of fine children, their 
numbers being exactly the same. Johnson said, ' Marriage 
is the best state for a man in general; and every man is a 
worse man, in proportion as he is unfit for the married state.' 

" I have always loved the simplicity of manners, and the 
spiritual-mindedness, of the Quakers; and talking with Mr. 
Lloyd, I observed, that the essential part of religion was 
piety, a devout intercourse with the Divinity; and that many 
a man was a Quaker without knowing it. 

"As Dr. Johnson had said to me in the morning, while 
we walked together, that he liked individuals among the 
Quakers, but not the sect, when we were at Mr. Lloyd's, 
I kept clear of introducing any questions concerning the 
peculiarities of their faith. But I, having asked to look at 
Baskerville's edition of Barclay's Apology, Johnson laid hold 
of it, and the chapter on baptism happening to open, Johnson 
remarked, ' He says there is neither precept nor practice for 
baptism in the Scriptures ! that is false.' Here [says Boswell] 
he was the aggressor, by no means in a gentle manner, and 
the good Quakers had the advantage of him ; for he had 
read negligently, and had not observed that Barclay speaks 
of infant baptism, which they calmly made him perceive. 

"Mr. Lloyd, however, was in as great a mistake; for when 
insisting that the rite of baptism by water was to cease, when 
the spiritual administration of Christ began, he maintained, 
that John the Baptist said, 'My baptism shall decrease, but 
his shall increase/ Whereas the words are, ' He must in- 
crease, but / must decrease. ' J 

14 One of them having objected to the ' observance of days 
and months, and years,' Johnson answered : ' The church does 
not superstitiously observe days, merely as days, but as 
memorials of important facts. Christmas might be kept as 

* "As to the baptism of infants, it is a mere human tradition, for which 
neither precept nor practice is to be found in all the Scripture." Barclay's 
Apology , Proposition XII. 



io8 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

well upon one day of the year as another ; but there should be 
a stated day for commemorating the birth of our Saviour, 
because there is danger that what may be done on any day, 
will be neglected.' " 

Tradition says that Johnson in his fury with 
Barclay flung the volume on the floor and stamped 
on it. 1 And later that he continued the debate at 
the dinner-table in such angry tones, and struck the 
table so violently, and continued the debate with 
such anger that the two children, the elder aged 
thirteen, were frightened, and desired to escape. 

It appears that this was a midday dinner, for a 
story is preserved that in the afternoon the mag- 
nanimous doctor went down to the bank in Dale 
End and called out in stentorian tones, "I say, 
Lloyd, I'm the best Theologian, but you are the 
best Christian." 

After dinner Johnson explored a little, and 
although the expedition was made independently of 
Sampson Lloyd, yet such is the family's interest in 
Birmingham and iron works that I may quote here 
what Boswell says of the doctor's subsequent ad- 
ventures in Birmingham : 

" Mr. Hector was so good as to accompany me to see the 
great works of Mr. Boulton, at a place which he has called 
Soho, about two miles from Birmingham, which the very 
ingenious proprietor showed me himself to the best advantage. 
I wish Johnson had been with us : for it was a scene which I 
should have been glad to contemplate by his light. The vast- 
ness and the contrivance of some of the machinery would have 
i matched his mighty mind.' I shall never forget Mr. Boulton's 
expression to me : ' I sell here, sir, what all the world desires 
to have -power' He had about seven hundred people at 
work. I contemplated him as an iron chieftain, and he seemed 
to be a father to his tribe. One of them came to him, com- 
plaining grievously of his landlord for having distrained his 
goods. 'Your landlord is in the right, Smith (said Boulton). 

1 The identical volume is now in the possession of Alderman John 
Henry Lloyd of Edgbaston. 



DR. JOHNSON AND MRS. KNOWLES 109 

But I'll tell you what : find you a friend who will lay down 
one half of your rent, and I'll lay down the other half; and 
you shall have your goods again.' " 

There is no record of any other visit of Dr. 
Johnson to the Lloyds, but he had stayed six 
months in Birmingham in 1732, forty or more years 
before the incident of the Apology, with his old 
schoolfellow, Hector, and for some months after- 
wards he was in lodgings in the town. Mr. 
Warren, who joined with Hector in urging him 
to undertake the translation from the French of 
Lobo's Voyage to Abyssinia, was then the only 
bookseller in Birmingham ; and as Johnson was 
constantly seeing him about the printing of the 
work, and the shop was no doubt the chief 
meeting place of the townsmen of literary tastes, 
Sampson Lloyd and others of the family might 
perhaps have had some acquaintance with him. 
And when, in 1755, the great Dictionary appeared, 
the result of seven years of immense mental effort, 
the Lloyds and other Birmingham friends of 
Johnson must have been very eager to get a 
sight of it, probably ordering their copies through 
Mr. Warren. 

A copy of this first edition, in two volumes, is 
among the most valued of my books. In addition 
to many sarcastic definitions and characteristic 
comments which were afterwards expunged, this 
edition has the famous preface in which the doctor 
describes, with so much pathos, the difficulties that 
beset his path. Thus: "The English Dictionary 
was written with little assistance of the learned, 
and without any patronage of the great ; not in 
the soft obscurities of retirement, or under the 
shelter of academic bowers, but amidst inconveni- 
ence and distraction, in sickness and in sorrow." 
Boswell, remarking upon Johnson's confession, 



no THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

says, "Let the preface be attentively perused, in 
which is given in a clear, strong, and glowing style 
a comprehensive yet particular view of what he 
had done. ... I believe there are few prose 
compositions in the English Language that are 
read with more delight, or are more impressed upon 
the memory, than that preliminary discourse." 

When Johnson was fifteen he went for a year to 
a school at Stourbridge, staying with his cousin 
Cornelius Ford. Boswell states that while there 
he was admitted to the best company of the place, 
"and became much enamoured of Olivia Lloyd," 
who was then about eighteen, to whom he indited 
some verses, but the verses cannot be found. 

This Olivia Lloyd was the youngest child of the 
first Sampson Lloyd and Mary Crowley, his second 
wife. Olivia was therefore aunt to the third 
Sampson Lloyd, Dr. Johnson's host in the Old 
Square. She is described in Memorials of the Old 
Square as "the pretty Birmingham Quakeress." 
She died at Birmingham in 1775, and was buried 
in the Friends' ground in Bull Lane. 

The Lloyds and Dr. Johnson had a mutual 
friend in Mary Knowles, a frequent visitor at 
"Farm," where she is said to have laid out the 
shrubbery. She was the wife of Dr. Knowles, an 
eminent and much-esteemed physician in London. 
Mrs. Knowles "excelled," we read, " in the polite art 
of poetry and painting, and the imitation of nature 
in needlework." The queen expressed a wish to see 
her, and this interview and subsequent ones with 
George III. and his queen led to her undertaking, 
in needlework, a representation of the king, which 
she completed, to the entire satisfaction of their 
Majesties. The following is an account of her : 

" She became a great favourite with the King and Queen, 
and had frequent access to the Royal Family, where she 




MRS KXOWLES. 
J'roin " />>;-. Johnson and ike Pair Sex. 



DR. JOHNSON AND MRS. KNOWLES in 

presented herself in the simplicity of her Quaker dress, and 
was always graciously received. She accompanied her husband 
in a scientific tour through Holland, Germany, and France, 
where they obtained introductions to the most distinguished 
personages. She was admitted to the toilet of the late un- 
fortunate Queen of France [Marie Antoinette], by the par- 
ticular desire of the latter. The appearance of a woman in 
the attire of a Friend, was somewhat extraordinary to that 
Princess, who made many inquiries respecting the principles 
of the Quakers, and acknowledged that at least they were 
philosophers. Dr. Knowles was one of the Committee of 
six formed by Clarkson to organize opposition to the slave- 
trade. Another was John Lloyd, a London Banker, son of 
the second Sampson Lloyd." 1 

It was Mrs. Knowles (described by Boswell as 
"the Quaker lady, well known for her various 
talents") who said: " Dr. Johnson gets at the 
substance of a book directly ; he tears the heart 
out of it." Dr. Johnson and she had several 
dialectical bouts, which are reported not only by 
Boswell but also by her friend and correspondent, 
Anna Seward, in her Letters. Here is one at Dr. 
Dilly's : 

Boswell. I expressed a horrour at the thought of death. 

Mrs. Knowles. Nay, thou should'st not have a horrour for 
what is the gate of life. 

Johnson (standing- upon the hearth rolling about, with a 
serious, solemn , and somewhat gloomy air). No rational man 
can die without uneasy apprehension. 

Mrs. Knowles. The Scriptures tell us, "The righteous 
shall have hope in his death." 

Johnson. Yes, Madam ; that is, he shall not have despair. 
But, consider, his hope of salvation must be founded on the 
terms on which it is promised that the mediation of our 
Saviour shall be applied to us namely, obedience ; and where 
obedience has failed, then, as suppletory to it, repentance. 
But what man can say that his obedience has been such, as he 
would approve of in another, or even in himself upon close 

1 From Select Miscellanies . . . illustrative of the History . . . of the 
Society of Friends. By Wilson Armistead, 1851. 



ii2 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

examination, or that his repentance has not been such as to 
require being repented of? No man can be sure that his 
obedience and repentance will obtain salvation. 

Mrs. Knowles. But divine intimation of acceptance may be 
made to the soul. 

Jo/mson. Madam, it may ; but I should not think the better 
of a man who should tell me on his death-bed he was sure of 
salvation. A man cannot be sure himself that he has divine 
intimation of acceptance ; much less can he make others sure 
that he has it. 

Boswell. Then, Sir, we must be contented to acknowledge 
that death is a terrible thing. 

Johnson. Yes, Sir. I have made no approaches to a state 
which can look on it as not terrible. 

Mrs. Knowles (seeming to enjoy a pleasing serenity in the 
persuasion of benignant divine light}. Does not St. Paul say, 
" I have fought the good fight of faith, I have finished my 
course ; henceforth is laid up for me a crown of life " ? 

Johnson. Yes, Madam ; but here was a man inspired, a 
man who had been converted by supernatural interposition. 

On the same evening Mrs. Knowles had pleased 
the doctor by one of her remarks. The party were 
discussing Soame Jenyns' view of the internal 
evidence of the Christian religion. Boswell said, 
addressing Mrs. Knowles : 

You should like his book, Mrs. Knowles, as it maintains, as 
your friends do, that courage is not a Christian virtue. 

Mrs. Knowles. Yes, indeed, I like him there ; but I cannot 
agree with him, that friendship is not a Christian virtue. 

Johnson. Why, Madam, strictly speaking, he is right. All 
friendship is preferring the interest of a friend, to the neglect, 
or, perhaps, against the interest of others; so that an old 
Greek said, " He that has friends has no friend!' Now Chris- 
tianity recommends universal benevolence, to consider all men 
as our brethren, which is contrary to the virtue of friendship, 
as described by the ancient philosophers. Surely, Madam, 
your sect must approve of this ; for, you call all -m^u friends. 

Mrs. Knowles. We are commanded to do good to all men, 
" but especially to them who are of the household of Faith." 

Johnson. Well, Madam, the Household of Faith is wide 
enough. 



DR. JOHNSON AND MRS. KNOWLES 113 

Mrs. Knowles. But, Doctor, our Saviour had twelve 
apostles, yet there was one whom he loved. John was called, 
" the disciple whom Jesus loved." 

Johnson (with eyes sparkling benignantly]. Very well 
indeed, Madam. You have said very well. 

BoswelL A fine application. Pray, Sir, had you ever 
thought of it ? 

Johnson. I had not, Sir. 

And here is Mrs. Knowles on a subject which is 
just now, as I write, of especial interest, the rights 
of women : 

Mrs. Knowles affected to complain that men had much more 
liberty allowed them than women. 

Johnson. Why, Madam, women have all the liberty they 
should wish to have. We have all the labour and the danger, 
and the women all the advantage. We go to sea, we build 
houses, we do everything, in short, to pay our court to the 
women. 

Mrs. Knowles. The Doctor reasons very wittily, but not 
convincingly. Now, take the instance of building; the mason's 
wife, if she is ever seen in liquor, is ruined ; the mason may 
get himself drunk as often as he pleases, with little loss of 
character ; nay, may let his wife and children starve. 

Johnson. Madam, you must consider if the mason does get 
himself drunk, and let his wife and children starve, the parish 
will oblige him to find security for their maintenance. We 
have different modes of restraining evil. Stocks for the men, 
a ducking-stool for women, and a pound for beasts. If we 
require more perfection from women than from ourselves, it is 
doing them honour. And women have not the same temptations 
that we have : they may always live in virtuous company ; 
men must mix in the world indiscriminately. If a woman has 
no inclination to do what is wrong, being secured from it is no 
restraint to her. I am at liberty to walk into the Thames; 
but if I were to try it, my friends would restrain me in Bedlam, 
and I should be obliged to them. 

Mrs. Knowles. Still, Doctor, I cannot help thinking it a 
hardship that more indulgence is allowed to men than to 
women. It gives a superiority to men, to which I do not see 
how they are entitled. 

Johnson. It is plain, Madam, one or other must have the 

H 



1 1 4 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

superiority. As Shakespeare says, " If two men ride on a 
horse, one must ride behind." 

Dilly. I suppose, Sir, Mrs. Knowles would have them to 
ride in panniers, one on each side. 

Johnson. Then, Sir, the horse would throw them both. 

Mrs. Knowles. Well, I hope that in another world the 
sexes will be equal. 

Boswell. That is being too ambitious, Madam. We might 
as well desire to be equal with the angels. We shall all, I 
hope, be happy in a future state, but we must not expect to be 
all happy in the same degree. It is enough if we be happy 
according to our several capacities. A worthy carman will 
get to heaven as well as Sir Isaac Newton. Yet, though 
equally good, they will not have the same degrees of happi- 
ness. 

Johnson. Probably not. 

A controversy which Mrs. Knowles had with the 
doctor, arising out of the conversion to Quakerism 
of Miss Harry, the daughter of a wealthy West 
Indian planter, who was then acting as the gover- 
ness at "Farm," led to the writing of the doctor's 
verses beginning, "A bone for Friend Mary to 
pick." Mrs. Knowles' answer was entitled, "The 
bone picked." Boswell's account of the argument 
between Mrs. Knowles and the doctor, concerning 
Jane Harry, runs as follows : 

Mrs. Knowles mentioned, as a proselyte to Quakerism, 

Miss , a young lady well known to Dr. Johnson, for 

whom he had shown much affection ; while she ever had, and 
still retained, a great respect for him. Mrs. Knowles at the 
same time took an opportunity of letting him know " that the 
amiable young creature was sorry at finding that he was 
offended at her leaving the Church of England and embracing 
a simpler faith " ; and in the gentlest and most persuasive 
manner, solicited his kind indulgence for what was sincerely a 
matter of conscience. 

Johnson (frowning very angrily]. Madam, she is an odious 
wench. She could not have any proper conviction that it was 
her duty to change her religion, which is the most important 
of all subjects, and should be studied with all care, and with 



DR. JOHNSON AND MRS. KNOWLES 115 

all the help we can get. She knew no more of the Church 
which she left and that which she embraced, than she did of 
the difference between the Copernican and Ptolemaick systems'. 

Mrs. Knowles. She had the New Testament before her. 

Johnson. Madam, she could not understand the New Tes- 
tament, the most difficult book in the world, for which the 
study of a life is required. 

Mrs. Knowles. It is clear as to essentials. 

Johnson. But not as to controversial points. The heathens 
were easily converted, because they had nothing to give up ; 
but we ought not, without very strong conviction indeed, to 
desert the religion in which we have been educated. That is 
the religion given you, the religion in which it may be said 
Providence has placed you. If you live conscientiously in that 
religion, you may be safe. But errour is dangerous indeed, if 
you err when you choose a religion for yourself. 

Mrs. Knowles. Must we then go by implicit faith ? 

Johnson. Why, Madam, the greatest part of our knowledge 
is implicit faith ; and as to religion, have we heard all that 
a disciple of Confucius, all that a Mahometan, can say for 
himself ? 

He then rose again into passion, and attacked the young 
proselyte in the severest terms of reproach, so that both the 
ladies seemed to be much shocked. 

Mrs. Knowles subsequently wrote her own 
recollections of the whole dialogue concerning 
"The Farm" governess and sent it to the Gen- 
tleman s Magazine for June 1791. It runs as 
follows : 

Mrs. K. Thy friend Jenny H. [the Governess at Farm, 
Jane Harry] desires her Kind respects to thee, Doctor. 

Dr. J. To me ! Tell me not of her ! I hate the odious 
wench for her apostasy, and it is you, Madam, who have 
seduced her from the Christian Religion. 

Mrs. K. This is a heavy charge, indeed. I must beg 
leave to be heard in my own defence ; and I entreat the 
attention of the present learned and candid company, desiring 
that they will judge how far I am able to clear myself of so 
cruel an accusation. 

Dr. J. (much disturbed at this unexpected challenge^ said), 
You are a woman, and I give you quarter. 



u6 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

Mrs. K. I will not take quarter. There is no sex in souls ; 
and in the present case I fear not Dr. Johnson himself. 

(" Bravo ! " was repeated by the company, and silence 
ensued.) 

Dr. J. Well then, Madam, I persist in my charge, that 
you have seduced Miss H from the Christian Religion. 

Mrs. K. If thou really knowest what are the principles of 
the Friends, thou wouldst not say that she had departed from 
Christianity. But, waving that discussion for the present, I 
will take the liberty to observe, that she had an undoubted right 
to examine and change her educational tenets whenever she 
supposed she had found them erroneous; as an accountable 
creature, it was her duty to do so. 

Dr. J. Pshaw ! pshaw ! an accountable creature girls 
accountable creatures ! It was her duty to remain with the 
Church wherein she was educated ; she had no business to 
leave it. 

Mrs. K. What ! not for that which she apprehended to 
be better? According to this rule, Doctor, hadst thou been 
born in Turkey, it had been thy duty to remain a Mahometan, 
notwithstanding Christian evidence might have wrought in thy 
mind the clearest conviction; and if so, then let me ask, how 
would thy conscience have answered for such obstinacy at the 
great and last tribunal ? 

Dr. J. My conscience would not have been answerable. 

Mrs. K. Whose then would ? 

Dr. J. Why, the State, to be sure. In adhering to the 
religion of the State as by law established, our implicit 
obedience therein becomes our duty. 

Mrs. K. A Nation, or State, having a conscience is a 
doctrine entirely new to me, and indeed a very curious piece 
of intelligence ; for I have always understood that a Govern- 
ment or State is a creature of time only, beyond which it 
dissolves and becomes a nonentity. Now, gentlemen, can 
your imagination body forth this monstrous individual, or 
being, called a State, composed of millions of people ? Can 
you behold it stalking forth into the next world, loaded with 
its mighty conscience, there to be rewarded or punished, for 
the faith, opinions, and conduct of its constituent machines, 
called men ? Surely the teeming brain of poetry never held 
up to the fancy so wondrous a personage ! 

( When the laugh occasioned by this personification was 
subsided the Doctor very angrily replied)^ I regard not what 



DR. JOHNSON AND MRS. KNOWLES 117 

you say as to that matter. I hate the arrogance of the wench, 
in supposing herself a more competent judge of religion than 
those who educated her. She imitated you, no doubt; but 
she ought not to have presumed to determine for herself so 
important an affair. 

Mrs. K. True, Doctor, I grant it, if, as thou seemst to 
imply, a wench of twenty years is not a moral agent. 

Dr. J. I doubt it would be difficult to prove that those 
deserve the character who turn Quakers. 

Mrs. K. This severe retort, Doctor, induces me charitably 
to hope thou must be totally unacquainted with the principles 
of the people against whom thou art so exceedingly prejudiced, 
and that thou supposes us a set of Infidels, or Deists. 

Dr. J. Certainly, I do think you little better than Deists. 

Mrs. K. This is indeed strange ; 'tis passing strange that 
a man of such universal reading and research has not thought it 
at least expedient to look into the cause of dissent of a society 
so long established, and so conspicuously singular ! 

Dr. J. Not I, indeed ! I have not read your Barclay's 
Apology ; and for this plain reason, I never thought it worth 
my while. You are upstart Sectaries, perhaps the best sub- 
dued by a silent contempt. 

Mrs. K. This reminds me of the language of the Rabbis 
of old when their Hierarchy was alarmed by the increasing 
influence, force, and simplicity of dawning Truth, in their 
high-day of worldly dominion. We meekly trust our principles 
stand on the same solid foundation of simple truth, and we 
invite the acutest investigation. The reason thou givest for 
not having read Barclay's Apology is surely a very improper 
one for a man whom the world looks up to as a Moral 
Philosopher of the first rank ; a Teacher from whom they think 
they have a right to expect much information. To this ex- 
pecting, enquiring world, how can Dr. Johnson acquit himself 
for remaining unacquainted with a book translated into five 
or six different languages, and which has been admitted into 
the libraries of almost every Court and University in Christen- 
dom ! {Here the Doctor grew very angry, still more so at 
the space of time, wherein the gentlemen insisted on allowing 
his antagonist wherein to make her defence, and his impatience 
exciting one of the company in a whisper to say, " I never 
saw this mighty lion so chafed before." The Doctor again 
repeated that he did not think the Quakers deserved the name 
of Christians^) 



n8 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

Mrs. K. Give me leave then to convince thee of thy 
error, which I will do by making before thee and this re- 
spectable company a confession of our faith. Creeds or 
confessions of faith are admitted by all to be the standard 
whereby we judge every denomination of professors. 

(To this every one present agreed ; and even the Doctor 
grumbled out his assent?) Well then, I take upon me to 
declare, that the people called Quakers do verily believe in 
the Holy Scriptures, and rejoice with the most full reverential 
acceptance of the divine history of facts as recorded in the 
New Testament. That we consequently fully believe those 
historical articles summed up in the Apostles' Creed, with 
these two exceptions only, to wit, our Saviour's descent into 
Hell, and the resurrection of the body. These mysteries we 
humbly leave just as they stand in the holy text, there being 
from that ground no authority for such assertion as is drawn 
up in the Creed. And now, Doctor, canst thou still deny to 
us the honourable title of Christians ? 

Dr. J. Well ! I must own I did not at all suppose that 
you had so much to say for yourselves. However, I cannot 
forgive that little slut for presuming to take upon herself as 
she has done. 

Mrs. K. I hope, Doctor, thou wilt not remain unforgiving, 
and that you will renew your friendship and joyfully meet at 
last in those bright regions where Pride and Prejudice can 
never enter ! * 

Dr. J. Meet her ! I never desire to meet fools anywhere. 
( This sarcastic turn to wit was so pleasantly received^ that the 
Doctor joined in the laugh; his spleen was dissipated ; he took 
his coffee y and became, for the rest of the evening^ very cheerful 
and entertaining?} 

Before leaving this point I should like to say 
that, according to Anna Seward, Miss Harry, who 
had become a protegee of Mrs. Knowles, was very 
cruelly treated by her father, quite in the old spirit 
of persecution to which the early Lloyds were 
accustomed ; for on hearing of her inclination to 
Quakerism he told her that she would have to 

1 It has been suggested that Miss Austen took the title of her book, 
Pride and Prejudice, from this remark by Mrs. Knowles ; but that she found 
it in Miss Burney is more probable. 




DR. SAMUKL JOHNSON. 

After the painting by Reynolds. 



DR. JOHNSON AND MRS. KNOWLES 119 

choose between a hundred thousand pounds and 
his favour or two thousand pounds and his re- 
nunciation, according as she remained a Church- 
woman or joined the Society of Friends. Miss 
Harry chose the two thousand pounds. Such is 
Miss Seward's story. It is, however, only fair to 
say that Croker, in his edition of Boswell, tells a 
different tale. 

Boswell relates that when once he, Dr. Johnson, 
and Mrs. Knowles went to look at a picture with 
the famous John Wilkes of the North Briton^ 
Wilkes declared that Johnson instead of looking 
at the picture spent the time in looking at the 
fair Quakeress, as the more interesting picture 
to him. 

The Lloyds had another slight connection with 
Dr. Johnson, in that David Barclay, who married 
the second Sampson Lloyd's daughter, bought 
Thrale's brewery, which he carried on in conjunc- 
tion with his son-in-law, Richard Gurney, Robert 
Barclay, and Mr. Perkins, under the style of 
Barclay, Perkins & Co. It became a very profit- 
able investment, bringing to the partners a large 
income. It was valued at Thrale's death at 
,150,000, but "as no set of men could be found 
to give so much, it was sold with the stock in 
trade for .120,000." Mr. Thrale was, of course, 
the husband of Mrs. Thrale (afterwards Mrs. 
Piozzi), Dr. Johnson's great friend and almost 
Muse, and Dr. Johnson was one of Mr. Thrale's 
executors. Johnson himself was at the sale of 
the brewery, remarking to one of the negotiators, 
"We are not here to sell a parcel of boilers and 
vats, but the potentiality of growing rich, beyond 
the dreams of avarice." 



* 



CHAPTER XII 

THE GALTONS 

The Society of Friends in Birmingham Bull Street Meeting-house 
Tainted money Quakers and force Gun-making and Christianity 
The third Sampson Lloyd as ambassador Samuel Galton's 
letters Dr. Livingstone's testimony War and peace George 
Dawson Later Gallons Dr. Francis Galton and heredity The 
Rev. Arthur Galton 

THE existence of Friends in Birmingham is recorded 
as early as 1682, sixteen years before the arrival of 
the first Lloyd in 1698. Hutton is of opinion that 
adherents may have previously gathered together, 
probably in meetings held from house to house. 
The original meeting-place in Birmingham was in 
Bull Lane, Monmouth Street, where the old burial- 
ground existed until it was taken possession of 
by the Great Western Railway. 

The meeting-house in Bull Street was erected 
between 1702 and 1705. Hutton describes it in 
1781 as "a large and convenient place, and not- 
withstanding the plainness of the profession, rather 
elegant." In 1792 a committee was appointed to 
collect subscriptions for its enlargement, as it was 
then the only place of worship in the town for the 
Society of Friends. This appeal was the means of 
raising a very interesting ethical point ; for Joseph 
Robinson, one of the Friends, wrote to the com- 
mittee as follows : 

" When so many eyes are opened to scrutinize into the 
several branches of the African trade, the minutest of which 
are likely to be weighed and exposed, the supplying of slightly 



THE GALTONS 

proved guns to the Merchants of the coast of Guinea, doubt- 
less to be used by the natives in their wars with each other, 
and for us to receive part of the thousands of pounds which 
have probably been accumulated by a 40 years' commerce 
in these articles, and apply it to the use of Friends, is, I think, 
a matter which requires your very serious consideration." 

This letter raised the question whether any of 
the money made out of the sale of weapons of de- 
struction should be accepted by the committee. 
No names were mentioned in the letter, but as 
Samuel Galton, and his son Samuel Galton, junior, 
were the only two members of the meeting who 
were gun-makers, it evidently referred to them. 
Samuel Galton, senior, soon afterwards retired, 
when Sampson Lloyd (the third) and two other 
Friends were appointed to see Samuel Galton, 
junior, upon the subject. 

The Galtons had prospered greatly in the gun 
trade, and until the year 1795 the meeting took 
no official action with reference to those engaged 
in the manufacture of arms. Samuel Galton and 
Sampson Lloyd, well read in Barclay's Apology and 
other writings of the early Friends, would know 
what the testimony against war was, as expressed 
by them. Isaac Pennington, for instance, express- 
ing the views of himself and other Friends of his 
time, says : "I speak not against any magistrate, 
or people defending themselves against foreign 
invasions, or making use of the sword to suppress 
the violent and evil-doers in their borders ; for this 
the present state of things may and doth require ; 
and a great blessing will attend the sword when 
it is borne uprightly." 

" In these circumstances," writes C. D. Sturge, 
"it is not wonderful that the Friends in Birming- 
ham were very loath to proceed against such able 
and respected members as the Galtons." 



122 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

Sampson Lloyd and the other two Friends, 
when they visited Samuel Galton on behalf of the 
Society, were confronted with the argument that 
they were going beyond the views formerly held 
by members of the Society on the use of physical 
force, as stated in Penn's Fundamental Constitu- 
tions. In the first article Penn states, with regard 
to physical force, "that both Christ did not use 
force, and that He did not expressly forbid it in His 
holy religion ; " but "perceiving the disorders and 
mischiefs that attend those places where force 
is used in matters of faith and worship," Penn 
decided to disallow it in Pennsylvania. He wrote 
as follows : " I do hereby declare for me and mine, 
and establish it for the first fundamental of the 
government of my country, that every person that 
does or shall reside therein shall have and enjoy 
the free possession of his or her faith and exercise 
of worship towards God in such way and manner 
as every person shall in conscience believe it to be 
most acceptable to God." 

In legal affairs very great weight is attached 
to precedent ; and, up to the time of the present 
generation, great weight has equally been attached 
to precedent by the Society of Friends. In my 
early days the views of George Fox, William 
Penn, and Barclay, the author of the Apology, 
were quoted as those by which their fellow- 
members were bound for all time. It must not 
therefore be considered an unallowable digression 
if William Penn is thus referred to in connection 
with Samuel Galton's appeal to the early views of 
Friends. 

Sampson Lloyd would doubtless point out to 
Samuel Galton that the views of the Society as to 
the unlawfulness of war were identical with those 
held by the earliest converts to Christianity in the 



THE GALTONS 123 

first and second centuries, and that the Society as 
a body, as their official documents prove, had held 
them continuously and consistently. He would be 
able to remind him that the Friends in Pennsylvania 
had remained true to their principles notwith- 
standing times of great unsettlement and opposi- 
tion to their views, and could instance 1764, when 
a body of Presbyterian settlers from the north of 
Ireland arriving in Pennsylvania were fiercely exas- 
perated against all Indians and madly desirous 
to avenge the sufferings which other settlers had 
received at their hands. Their pastor, John Elder, 
preached a militant Christianity to them from the 
pulpit, with his loaded rifle by his side, and the 
anger of these irate settlers having been thus 
intensely aroused his subsequent endeavours to 
restrain them were futile, and the Pennsylvania 
Quakers who from time to time had helped the 
Indians were told that if they defended them 
"they would be murdered." Notwithstanding this 
threat Galton would be told that the Friends in 
Pennsylvania remained true to their principles ; 
for in the autumn of that year, 1764, the yearly 
meeting of Philadelphia wrote a long letter on the 
subject to their London brethren ; and Sampson 
Lloyd, who was twice clerk to the Friends' yearly 
meeting in London, 1 would have heard all about it. 
One of the two Friends who accompanied 
Sampson Lloyd in his interview with the able and 
accomplished Samuel Galton was the great-grand- 
father of .Alderman Baker of Birmingham ; the 
other was Joseph Gibbins, the grandfather of 
W. B. Gibbins of Ettington, near Stratford-on- 
Avon. The interview resulted in Mr. Galton's 
sending the following letter, which is such a clear, 

1 In 1777, and again in 1782, the Yearly Meeting Epistle bears his 
signature as clerk. 



i2 4 THE LtOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

argumentative, and able statement, that I give it 
in full : 

" I have been visited on the part of the Monthly Meeting 
by my worthy Friends Sampson Lloyd, Samuel Baker and 
Joseph Gibbins, whose candid and liberal conduct to me on 
this occasion I acknowledge. 

" My grandfather, afterwards my Uncle, then my father 
and Uncle, and lastly my father and myself have been en- 
gaged in this manufacture for a period of 70 years without 
having before received any animadversion on the part of the 
Society. I have been engaged in the business from the year 
1777, and it was not till the year 1790 that the Minute (of 
the Yearly Meeting) was made under which this process 
against me is founded. 

" I am convinced by my feelings and my reason that the 
manufacture of arms implies no approbation of offensive war. 
Will any person for a moment suppose that as a manufacturer 
it is my object to encourage the principle or practice of war, 
or that I propose to myself any other end than that which 
all other commercial persons propose ; the acquisition of 
property ? And although it is true that in too many instances 
side arms are employed in offensive wars, yet it ought in 
candour to be considered that they are equally applicable to the 
purposes of defensive war, to the support of the Civil Power, 
to the preservation of peace and the prevention of war. If 
the arguments from the abuse are to be admitted against the 
use, objections may be made against every institution. 

" Is the farmer who sows barley, the brewer who makes 
it into a beverage, the merchant who imports rum, or the 
distiller who makes spirits, are they responsible for the in- 
temperance, the disease, the vice, and misery which may ensue 
from their abuse ? Upon this principle who would be innocent? 
I know that there are certain texts from which some of our 
Society have drawn literal inferences against all kinds of 
resistance. 

" Permit me to enquire whether any of you carry the 
literal interpretation into your own practice. When smitten 
on one cheek, do you actually turn the other side ? 

" Permit me to refer to the practice and the sentiments 
of our predecessors; my grandfather, who was the first of 
my family concerned in the manufacture of arms, and from 
whom the trade has descended to me, was a convinced 



THE GALTONS 125 

Quaker; George Robinson, a Friend of this Meeting and 
Son of Thomas Robinson, an approved minister long since 
deceased, was bound apprentice to a gun-maker without any 
censure from the Society. Samuel Spavold, a minister in 
high esteem in the Society, worked many years in the King's 
Yard, Chatham. Do not such of you as are concerned in 
East India Stock, who subscribed to the loan, etc., as directly 
and as voluntarily furnish the means of war as myself? Do 
not all those who voluntarily and without being distrained 
upon, pay the land tax and the malt tax which are voted and 
levied from year to year expressly for the payment of the 
army, as directly violate the principle you would enforce? 
With respect to the taxes, it may be urged that the contribu- 
tion is merely a compliance with the law; but can any of 
you, my Friends, adduce this plea whilst you not only refuse 
a compliance with the law, in the case of Tithes, but enjoin 
that disobedience in others, unless indeed you suppose the 
mode of the moral and religious instruction of the clergy to 
be more criminal than war ? 

"The censure and the laws of the Society against slavery 
are as strict and decisive as against war. Now, those who 
use the produce of the labour of slaves, such as Tobacco, 
Rum, Sugar, Rice, Indigo and Cotton, are more intimately 
and directly the promoters of the slave trade, than the 
vendor of arms is the promoter of war, because the con- 
sumption of these articles is the very ground and cause of 
slavery. 

" If you carry speculative principles into strict and rigid 
practice you will abstain not only from the consumption of 
West India commodities, but from all commodities which are 
taxed, especially from malt and wheat ; for you may be well 
assured that every morsel of bread you eat and every cup 
of beer you drink has furnished the resources for carrying 
on this war, which you so justly censure. If you should 
be so conscientious as to abstain from all these enjoyments 
I shall have no reason to complain of any partiality in apply- 
ing the same strict construction of principle against me. I 
shall greatly admire the efficacy of your opinions, whilst I 
lament that the practice of our predecessors is not followed ; 
and if I should be disowned, I shall not think that I have 
abandoned the Society, but that the Society has abandoned 
its ancient, tolerant spirit and practice. 

(Signed) "SAMUEL GALTON, junr." 



126 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

This letter, being based on precedent rather 
than upon religious principles, produced little 
effect upon the meeting; so that on the loth of 
the 8th month 1796 the monthly meeting issued 
the following minute : 

" This Meeting in order for the clearing of our Society 
from an imputation of a practice so inconsistent as that of 
fabricating instruments for the destruction of mankind, thinks 
it incumbent on them to declare him [Samuel Galton, jnr.] not 
in unity with Friends, and hereby disowns him as a member 
of our religious Society ; nevertheless we sincerely desire 
that he may experience such a conviction of the rectitude 
of our principles, and our practice correspondent therewith, 
as may induce Friends to restore him again into unity with 
them." 

Although thus disowned, Samuel Galton con- 
tinued to attend the meeting till his death ; and 
notwithstanding the views it officially held, as to 
the trade by which his fortune had been acquired, 
the meeting accepted from him afterwards a dona- 
tion towards the purchase of the new burial-ground. 
That the views of Samuel Galton were very similar 
to those held by leading Friends at an earlier date 
is shown by a document sent to Sampson Lloyd in 

1757- 

That physical force must be used in the pre- 
servation of peace and order was the general view 
of members of the Society of Friends with whom 
I was brought up ; but one day early in 1858 when 
Livingstone, then about forty years of age, was 
about to start, on what I believe was his last visit 
to Africa, that great philanthropist, Joseph Sturge, 
with whom I, though so much younger, was on 
very friendly terms, asked me to take tea with 
him. I remember Richard Cobden was one of 
the few also invited. In the course of conversa- 
tion Livingstone was asked whether as a peaceable 



THE GALTONS 127 

man he carried weapons of defence, and he said 
the only weapon he carried was his gun. Some one 
present queried whether he ought to carry a gun, 
when Livingstone replied that it was easy to say 
so in a drawing-room at Edgbaston, but to go 
alone among the natives in Africa without one was 
a very different thing. When the natives saw that 
he could bring down a bird useful for food by his 
mysterious weapon, those not friendly to him felt 
some awe ; otherwise what would happen would be 
this : one would come near and touch him ; another, 
seeing no harm resulted, would take something 
from him ; others would then do the same, and 
he would soon be deprived of everything of any 
value. 

Joseph Sturge, who at the time was an ultra 
peace man, was asked what he would do if, when 
walking in the streets of Birmingham, some one 
robbed him of his watch. Would he not give the 
man in charge to the police and get his watch 
back ? He, however, would not commit himself to 
any decision. Further interesting conversation took 
place, and the whole scene was so engraven on my 
memory that I still retain a complete picture of 
how they looked, and where they stood and con- 
versed. This was twenty years after Joseph Sturge 
had become celebrated by putting an end, in 1838, 
to the apprenticeship system of slavery in the 
West Indies, accomplishing the abolition of slavery 
there winning its extinction, as Lord Brougham 
said, "off his own bat." 

Referring to the subject of that scourge of the 
human race, war, very much might be written upon 
it, but all might be summed up in the apothegm 
that " Offensive war is an offence against God and 
man ; and that defensive war very often admits of 
no defence." 



128 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

War between Christian nations seems very far as 
yet from becoming a thing of the past ; but if pro- 
fessing Christian nations should decide to unite in 
condemning it, and entered into a compact to settle 
every dispute by referring it to an appointed tribunal 
to adjudicate upon, agreeing that any recalcitrant 
nation refusing to accept the decision of the arbi- 
trators appointed should be cut off from all inter- 
change of commodities with every other Christian 
nation, and that all piratical dealing with the 
offending country, or with any inhabitant of it, 
should be punished by confiscation of property 
and imprisonment for life ; why, then, there would 
be a step in the right direction. But this is, of 
course, the counsel of perfection. Who knows as 
to the future ? A peaceable Napoleon of mighty 
intellect might unexpectedly arise, able to convince 
civilised mankind that there would be plenty of 
scope left for their energies in fact, more abun- 
dant scope than ever. All those in Europe who 
cannot dig and to beg would be ashamed, would 
then cease to devote their lives to the profes- 
sional slaughter of their fellow-men, chiefly fellow- 
Christians. 

A few years ago an intelligent Hindoo visited 
Birmingham, and I attended two of his addresses. 
He begged us not to ask him or his co-religionists 
to become Christians, for it would be abhorrent to 
them to go forth to the ends of the earth, like 
English Christians, to kill and destroy, with a Bible 
in one hand and a weapon of destruction in the 
other. This reminds me of George Dawson of 
Birmingham, whose lectures I attended whenever 
I could, and who was, I should think, the best 
lecturer any Lloyd, or indeed any Birmingham 
man, ever listened to. He was asked, when about 
to lecture upon peace, what he was going to do 



THE GALTONS 129 

with the soldiers ? Do without them, he replied ; 
adding that St. Paul, when he preached Christianity 
at Ephesus, did not mourn over the shrine-makers 
being thrown out of work. "I open," he said, 
"the beautiful scroll of prophecy, and find that in 
the latter days the sword shall be turned into a 
ploughshare, the spear into a pruning-hook ; mean- 
ing that men shall then study war no more. If 
peace be the destined result of religion, how can 
it be supposed to countenance war, which opposes 
the realisation of that result? " 

In December 1905 the present Prime Minister, 
in an electioneering speech, said that as " the policy 
of large armaments feeds the belief that force is the 
best, if not the only solution of internal differences, 
it becomes one of the highest tasks of the statesman 
to adjust armaments to new and happier condi- 
tions." This is a commendable sentiment with 
which we may all agree ; but where are the states- 
men of sufficient ability and power to induce 
Europe to readjust to these u new and happier 
conditions"? 

Although Samuel Galton, junior, the friend of 
the third Sampson Lloyd, and a leading citizen of 
Birmingham, may be almost forgotten, it is but a 
few years since his grandson, Douglas Galton, 
addressed us in the Council House. I knew him 
very well, and was present on the occasion when 
without effort his clear voice, now silenced by 
death, filled the Birmingham Council Chamber. 
He surpassed even his grandfather in literary gifts, 
and was long a leading member of the British 
Association, with a whole string of initials after 
his name signifying the different learned societies 
to which he belonged. Whilst he thus became dis- 
tinguished, Francis Galton, another grandson of 
Samuel Galton, junior, published Hereditary Genius: 



1 30 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

its Laws and Consequences^ giving" very many in- 
stances of genius and ability derived, as he con- 
tends in the book, from hereditary sources. He 
continued his investigations in another book 
entitled Human Faculty. His researches and 
untiring diligence in collecting data seem clearly 
to show that he at any rate inherited his grand- 
father's thoroughness ; but he perhaps owes even 
more to his mother's ancestors, her father being 
the celebrated Erasmus Darwin, and the great 
Charles Darwin thus being Dr. Galton's cousin. 
Most of his works may be said to have followed 
Darwinian lines of thought and research. 

Dr. Galton, at the commencement of Here- 
ditary Genius, expresses confidence that he can 
show that a man's abilities are derived by inheri- 
tance, under exactly the same limitations as the 
whole of the rest of the organic world, so that by 
judicious marriages it would be quite practicable to 
produce a highly gifted race of men. He appears 
to have derived these views from his predecessors, 
who, like many others of the small select Society 
of Friends, certainly held decided views as to 
suitable marriages. An instance in illustration of 
this may be given. The house and grounds of 
Samuel Galton, junior, were described as enchant- 
ing, and the occupants also were attractive. One 
day, as he was leaving the house, he met a 
doctor in the carriage - drive. The doctor had 
come to court the daughter of the house, as Mr. 
Galton knew. "Coming to see one of the ser- 
vants?" he inquired of the undesirable suitor. 
The hint was sufficient, and nothing came of the 
courtship. 

Mr. Arthur Galton, M.A., of New College, 
Oxford, for some years chaplain to the Bishop 
of Ripon, but now a vicar in Lincolnshire, is a 



THE GALTONS 131 

great-grandson of the second Samuel Galton, and 
the author of several books. His first, Urbana 
Scripta : Studies of Five Living Poets, and other 
Essays, appeared in 1885. This was followed in 
1887 by a work entitled The Character and Times 
of Thomas Cromwell /* in 1889 by another on Rome 
and Romanising, and in 1902 by Our Attitude 
towards English Roman Catholics. Mr. Galton for 
a time belonged to the Roman communion, but 
he now, while admiring many individuals in the 
Church, speaks most unfavourably of the system. 
His studies leading him to look into the past 
history of the Jesuits, he contrasted their astute 
and cynical methods very pointedly with the 
spiritual campaign of Fox and Penn. In Our 
Attitude towards English Roman Catholics he 
writes as follows : 

"Toleration for all Protestant Dissenters was really won 
by the Christian methods, the passive resistance, the un- 
conquerable goodness, the orderly and blameless conduct of 
the Society of Friends. 

"The Great Battle, if we may venture so to describe it, 
of George Fox and his disciples lasted about forty years. 
13,000 Friends were imprisoned in Great Britain ; 322 of them 
died in gaol; many were sold into slavery, and transported; 
all were impoverished by fines, by damaged properties, and 
by interrupted business. Nothing could overcome their in- 
vincible patience. If they were ejected through the doors 
of their Meeting, they climbed in again through the windows. 
If the walls were pulled down, they meditated among the 
ruins. 

"Against such Christians as these there could be no 
effectual coercion. Their high principles, and their faultless 
behaviour, gained the cause of Toleration, though at an heroical 
expenditure of life and suffering. No bloodshed, however, 
can be laid to their charge ; they planned no invasions, and 
plotted no assassinations. They never slandered their foes 
or their allies. They had no political ambitions, no lust 

1 Cornish Brothers, Birmingham. 



1 32 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

of power. They were soiled by no intrigues. Instead of 
equivocating, they declined all oaths; and their affirmations 
were inviolable. 

"The early Friends stood for that which was honest, 
simple, truthful, honourable, and worthy of the fullest con- 
fidence in every sphere of human intercourse ; and, as a body, 
the English Quakers have never forfeited that reputation. It 
still remains to be won by several denominations of professing 
Christians." 

Mr. Galton goes on to denounce the Jesuitical 
system which, in the interests of the Papacy and 
to get England for the Pope, was ready to instigate 
the Armada and the Gunpowder Plot. 

Another book by Mr. Arthur Galton has just 
appeared, entitled The Appeal of the Anglican 
Church. He is now at work on a study of Church 
and State in France. 

Samuel Galton, junior, I might add, died in 
1832 at the age of seventy-nine. To the last he 
wore a powdered wig and pigtail. 



CHAPTER XIII 

CHARLES LLOYD OF BINGLEY 

Thomas Lloyd in Mexico A narrow escape The Gentlemaris Maga- 
zine on Charles Lloyd A busy philanthropist The translation of 
Homer Charles Lamb's opinions A good passage Lamb on 
Mr. Lloyd's Odyssey And on Horace "To my Steward" Some 
anecdotes A kindly father Robert Lloyd's character-sketch of his 
father Arises Gazette on Mr. Lloyd A determined friend Eliza- 
beth Fry Mrs. Charles Lloyd Welcome to Richard T. Cadbury. 

AMONG the Birmingham representatives of the 
Lloyds of Dolobran there is a Charles Lloyd 
occupying a large place in local history whom we 
have seen once or twice in connection with the 
Lunar Society, and with the successful manage- 
ment of the bank in moments of stress Charles 
Lloyd of Bingley, the fifth son of the second 
Sampson Lloyd by his second wife. One of his 
grandsons, the late Thomas Lloyd of the Priory, 
Warwick (son of James Lloyd, Charles Lloyd's 
second son), one day most energetically impressed 
upon me, with the ardour characteristic of him when 
he was most deeply moved, that his grandfather, 
Charles Lloyd, was far away the greatest man the 
Lloyd family had ever produced. 

As he spoke he swayed his arms so energetically 
that it reminded me of what happened to him once 
in Mexico. A sentinel having behaved rudely to 
him, he went instantly to complain to the officer of 
the guard, but in making his complaint, his manner 
was so vigorous and demonstrative that the sentinel, 
who already was suspicious, came, rather naturally, 

133 



I 3 4 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

to the conclusion that the officer himself was being 
threatened, insulted, or endangered, and incon- 
tinently fired, the bullet going through Mr. Lloyd's 
shoulder and narrowly missing his heart 

In the family correspondence Charles Lloyd of 
Bingley appears as Charles Lloyd the banker, 
being thus distinguished from his eldest son, 
Charles Lloyd the poet. His principal residence, 
"Bingley House, Warwickshire," as it was then 
called, afterwards Bingley Hall, was pulled down 
in 1850 ; it is on its site that the annual cattle-show 
is held. In 1849 Bingley Hall was used for an 
Exposition of Arts and Manufactures, and I well 
remember seeing the Prince Consort on his way to 
it. The idea of the great Exhibition in Hyde Park 
in 1851 is believed to have originated in his mind 
when he was in Bingley Hall. 

Perhaps the best way at this date to bring before 
the reader the domestic merits and intellectual 
activities of Charles Lloyd the banker is to print 
an article on him in the Gentleman's Magazine in 
March 1828 and then to enlarge a little upon that 
document. 

" In the pursuit of any object of his attention, he suffered 
no other to interfere with or distract it, and he possessed the 
power of turning, after laborious investigations, with sur- 
prising freshness to occupations requiring intellectual exertions 
of a different nature. Few men, perhaps, so rich in resources, 
had them so much at command. He embraced with prompt- 
ness, and zealously prosecuted, whatever appeared to his 
comprehensive mind conducive to the benefit of his species, 
or the happiness of those connected with him. He was an 
unwearied and able member of that body of philanthropists, 
to whose persevering efforts Great Britain is indebted for 
the removal of that foulest stain upon her annals the Slave 
Trade. Nor have his efforts ever slackened to aid the plans 
proposed for the amelioration of the condition of the Negro 
population of our dominions in the West Indies; and although 




:c 



CHARLES LLOYD OF BINGLEY 135 

he wished for the trial of more moderate measures than those 
proposed by many of the advocates for emancipation, yet 
he generally concurred in the principles advocated in Parlia- 
ment by his nephew, Mr. Buxton (afterwards Sir Thomas 
Fowell Buxton (1786-1845)), and he always took the lead 
on public occasions when this subject was brought forward 
in Birmingham. A lover of peace and an admirer of the 
constitution of his country, he deprecated, in common with 
all the friends of humanity, the unwise measures which the 
ministry of Lord North in 1775 were contemplating for 
stifling opposition to its will in the North American colonies. 
When all negotiation seemed fruitless, and the overbearing 
conduct of the Minister had determined Dr. Franklin to 
depart; when the horrors of civil war and the disunion of 
the Empire seemed inevitable, Mr. Lloyd and his brother- 
in-law, Dr. David Barclay, did not consider affairs so irre- 
trievable as not to warrant another attempt at reconciliation. 
After much persuasion and entreaty, Dr. Franklin yielded, 
and he told his friends that, though he considered the attempt 
hopeless, yet he could not resist the desire he felt, in common 
with them, to preserve peace. Some minor concessions were 
made by the Colonies at the suggestions of these gentlemen. 
Lord North, as is known, was inexorable ; and the Envoy 
returned from the conference, the last which a representative 
from that country had with an English cabinet, until she sent 
her plenipotentiary to treat as a Sovereign Republic. . . . 

"What minds less energetic would have deemed studies 
of no trifling nature, were allotted by Charles Lloyd for the 
occupation of those hours which he considered set apart for 
relaxation. His acquaintance with ancient and modern history 
was accurate and extensive, and he read in several European 
languages their works of note. Few men were better versed 
in the Holy Scriptures, or more complete masters of their 
contents. He could repeat from memory several entire Books 
of the Old Testament and the greatest part of the New, 
and was well versed in theological learning. But next to 
the Scriptures, the classics were his favourite study. When 
past sixty he commenced a translation of Homer, and executed 
a faithful and agreeable version of the whole of the ' Odyssey/ 
and great part of the ' Iliad.' He also turned his attention 
to Horace, translating several of the ' Epistles ' into easy 
verse ; ' Virgil ' was very familiar to him ; his extraordinary 
memory retained to the close of his life the whole of the 



136 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

' Georgics ' and ' Bucolics/ The agreeable picture of farming 
so beautifully portrayed in those inimitable descriptions of 
pastoral life, induced him to take one of his estates into his 
own hands, and for thirty years he farmed, under his own 
inspection, nearly two hundred acres. [This was at Olton 
Green.] One day in the week was at least devoted to this 
pursuit, and the relaxation which this interesting employment 
yielded him, contributed, in conjunction with temperance and 
cheerfulness, to keep a naturally delicate constitution in health 
and vigour to a late period of his life." 

Charles Lloyd's son Charles, the poet, to whom 
we come later, having many literary men among his 
friends, they were asked to criticise Mr. Lloyd's 
translations. Among others Charles Lamb, who 
had stayed at Bingley in 1798, saw them and wrote 
his opinions, extracts from which I quote from 
Mr. Lucas's book, Charles Lamb and the Lloyds. 1 
Thus of the last book of the Iliad, which is all that 
Charles Lloyd printed, Lamb wrote : 

" I received with great pleasure the mark of your remem- 
brance which you were pleased to send me, the Translation 
from Homer. You desire my opinion of it. I think it is 
plainer and more to the purpose than Pope's, though it may 
want some of his Splendour and some of his Sound. Yet 
I do not remember in any part of his translation a series of 
more manly versification than the conference of Priam with 
Hermes in your translation (Lines 499 to 530), or than that 
part of the reply of Achilles to Priam, beginning with the 
fable of the Two Urns (in page 24); or than the Story of 
Niobe which follows a little after. I do not retain enough 
of my Greek (to my shame I say it) to venture at an opinion 
of the correctness of your version. What I seem to miss, 
and what certainly everybody misses in Pope, is a certain 
savage-like plainness of speaking in Achilles a sort of 
indelicacy the heroes in Homer are not half civilized, they 
utter all the cruel, all the selfish, all the 'mean thoughts even 
of their nature, which it is the fashion of our great men to 

1 Published by Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co., to whom and to Messrs. 
Macmillan I am indebted for permission to quote from Lamb's letters. 



CHARLES LLOYD OF BINGLEY 137 

keep in. I cannot, in lack of Greek, point to any one place 
but I remember the general feature as I read him at school. 
But your principles and turn of mind would, I have no doubt, 
lead you to civilize his phrases, and sometimes to half christen 
them." 

This is one of the passages which Lamb best 
liked, the conference of Priam with Hermes : 

" The old man answer'd ' If thou truly art 
Of fierce Achilles' family a part, 
Tell me, oh tell, if noble Hector lies 
Still in the tent, depriv'd of obsequies ; 
Or has Achilles in an evil hour, 
Thrown him to dogs in piece-meal to devour ? ' 
The swift-wing'd messenger replied and said, 
' Neither the vultures nor the dogs have made 
A prey of Hector's corpse, which lies yet sound 
Within the tent, neglected on the ground. 
Twelve mornings now are past since he was slain, 
But still the skin its freshness doth retain ; 
The worms, which make of warriors dead a prey, 
From this dead body have been kept away ; 
Our chief, when morning brightens up the skies, 
The noble Hector to his chariot ties, 
And drags him round his dear Patroclus' tomb ; 
But still the dead retains his youthful bloom : 
The blood all washed away, no stains appear, 
The numerous wounds are clos'd, the skin is clear ; 
Thus round thy son, the care of heaven is spread, 
It loved him living, and it guards him dead.' 
These words reviv'd the aged king, who said, 
' 'Tis right that sacrifice and gifts be paid 
To the immortals, and the pious mind 
Of noble Hector ever was inclin'd 
To honour them, while here he drew his breath : 
And hence have they rernember'd him in death. 
Accept for all the kindness thou hast shown, 
This golden cup, and keep it as thine own, 
And if it please thee, with the gods' consent, 
Conduct me safely to Achilles' tent.' " 

The letter ends : 

" 1 wish you Joy of an Amusement which I somehow seem 
to have done with. Excepting some Things for Children, I 



138 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

have scarce chimed ten couplets in the last as many years. 
Be pleased to give my most kind remembrances to Mrs. Lloyd ; 
and please to tell Robert that my Sister is getting well, and 
I hope will soon be able to take pleasure in his affectionate 
Epistle. My Love also to Charles, when you write." 

In 1809 Mr. Lloyd sent Lamb, in MS., the first 
two books of the Odyssey. His critic writes : 

" I think of the two, I rather prefer the Book of the Iliad 
which you sent me, for the sound of the verse; but the 
difference of subject almost involuntarily modifies verse. 
I find Cowper is a favourite with nobody. His injudicious 
use of the stately slow Miltonic verse in a subject so very 
different has given a distaste. Nothing can be more unlike 
to my fancy than Homer and Milton. Homer is perfect 
prattle, tho' exquisite prattle, compared to the deep oracular 
voice of Milton. In Milton you love to stop, and saturate 
your mind with every great image or sentiment; in Homer 
you want to go on, to have more of his agreeable narrative. 
Cowper delays you as much, walking over a Bowling Green, 
as the other does, travelling over steep Alpine heights, where 
the labour enters into and makes a part of the pleasure. 
From what I have seen, I would certainly be glad to hear 
that you continued your employment quite through the Poem : 
that is, for an agreeable and honourable recreation to your- 
self; though I should scarce think that (Pope having got the 
ground) a translation in Pope's Couplet versification would 
ever supersede his to the public, however faithfuller or in 
some respects better. Pitt's Virgil is not much read, I 
believe, though nearer to the Original than Dryden's. Perhaps 
it is, that people do not like two Homers or Virgils there 
is a sort of confusion in it to an English reader, who has not a 
centre of reference in the Original: when Tate and Brady's 
Psalms came out in our Churches, many pious people would 
not substitute them in the room of David's, as they call'd 
Sternhold and Hopkins's. But if you write for a relaxation from 
other sort of occupations I can only congratulate you, Sir, 
on the noble choice, as it seems to me, which you have made, 
and express my wonder at the facility which you suddenly 
have arrived at, if (as I suspect) these are indeed the first 
specimens of this sort which you have produced. But I 
cannot help thinking that you betray a more practiced gait 



CHARLES LLOYD OF BINGLEY 139 

than a late beginner could so soon acquire. Perhaps you have 
only resumed, what you had formerly laid aside as interrupting 
more necessary avocations. 

" I need not add how happy I shall be to see at any time 
what you may please to send me. In particular, I should be 
glad to see that you had taken up Horace, which I think you 
enter into as much as any man that was not born in his days, 
and in the Via Longa or Flaminia, or near the Forum." 

Mr. Lloyd, taking the hint, next attacked Horace 
and sent Lamb the result. The reply came from 
the India House on September 8, 1812 : 

"DEAR SIR, I return you thanks for your little Book. 
I am no great Latinist, but you appear to me to have very 
happily caught the Horatian manner. Some of them I had 
seen before. What gave me most satisfaction has been the 
1 4th Epistle (its easy and Gentleman-like beginning, particu- 
larly), and perhaps next to that, the Epistle to Augustus, 
which reads well even after Pope's delightful Imitation of 
it. What I think the least finish'd is the i8th Epistle. It 
is a metre which never gave me much pleasure. 1 I like your 
eight syllable verses very much. They suit the Epistolary 
style quite as well as the ten. I am only sorry not to find 
the Satires in the same volume. I hope we may expect them. 
I proceed to find some few oversights, if you will indulge 
me, or what seem so to me, for I have neglected my Latin 
(and quite lost my Greek) since I left construing it at School. 
I will take them as I find them mark'd in order." 

Here may be quoted the Epistle which best 
pleased the critic the Fourteenth : 

TO MY STEWARD 

/'Steward of my woods and self-restoring farm, 
(Despised by thee) which formerly was warm 
With five bright fires a place of some renown, 
Which sent five Senators to Varia's town j 

1 This is the metre : 

" If rightly I know thee, thou wilt not offend, 
My Lollius, by flattery, the ears of a friend." 



140 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

Let us contend, who is the most inclined, 

I to pluck up the thorns which choak the mind, 

Or thou the thorns which my estate molest ; 

And whether Horace or his farm thrive best. 

Lamia has lost his brother, and my grief 

For him who mourns, despairing of relief, 

Detains me here, tho' there my heart and soul 

Bear me impatient of undue controul. 

I call the country, thou the town-man blest ; 

He hates his own, who others' lots likes best : 

The place is blamed unjustly, for we find 

That change of place can never change the mind ; 

At Rome by others hurried here and there, 

Thou for the country didst prefer thy prayer ; 

My steward now, thy fickle heart resorts 

Again to Rome, its bagnios, and its sports ; 

While I, consistent with myself, pursue 

One steady plan, and this thou know'st is true ; 

And when by hateful business forced to move 

To Rome, I leave with grief the farm I love : 

Our inclinations differ hence we see 

That I and thou must ever disagree ; 

For what thou calPst a wild deserted waste, 

Exactly suits my own and others' taste. 

Who hate what thou applaudest ; filthy stews 

And greasy taverns, suit thy low life views 

Of city happiness. A rural scene, 

Where spices grow, not grapes, thou thinkest mean ; 

No tavern near which can its wine supply ; 

No dancing songsters to allure the eye 

And charm the ear ; yet, if thy tale be true, 

Thou dost not fail thy business to pursue ; 

To plough my fallows overrun with weeds, 

And strip the leaves on which my bullock feeds ; 

To watch the river when the showers descend, 

And currents rippling thro' the fields to tend. 

Come now ; I'll tell thee why we disagree \ 

Fine clothes and hair perfumed delighted me. 

Rapacious Cynara I once could please 

Without a fee, with pleasantry and ease ; 

In rich Falernian wine I took delight, 

And often sat till very late at night ; 

Now I eat little and but little drink, 

I sleep delighted near the river's brink, 

On the soft grass. I can't recall the past, 

But I should blush, did youthful follies last. 



CHARLES LLOYD OF BINGLEY 141 

Safe in the country, there no envious spy 

Views my possessions with a jaundiced eye ; 

No biting slander and no secret hate 

Approach the confines of my small estate ; 

The clods and stones I carry from my ground, 

My neighbours see me, and the smile goes round, 

To sit with slaves is thy delight and pride, 

At a large city table well supplied ; 

With them thou wishest thy abode to fix, 

And in their meals and merriment to mix ; 

While my more active footboy longs to change 

Places with thee, and o'er my fields to range ; 

The flocks, the garden, and the wood heap'd fire, 

Despised by thee, excite his fond desire ; 

The lazy ox, the horse's trappings saw 

With longing eye the horse the plough would draw ; 

But as in different stations they excel, 

Each cheerfully should act his own part well." 

The letter concluded : 

" Let me only add that I hope you will continue an 
employment which must have been so delightful to you. 
That it may have the power of stealing you occasionally from 
some sad thoughts is my fervent wish and hope. Pray, Dear 
Sir, give my kindest remembrances to Mrs. Lloyd, and to 
Plumstead I am afraid I can add no more who are likely 
to remember me. Charles and I sometimes correspond. He 
is a letter in my debt." 

In her Memories of Old Friends, Caroline Fox, 
of Penjerrick, Falmouth (whom I knew very well, 
as her father's younger brother, Alfred Fox, became 
my uncle, by marrying my aunt, Sarah Lloyd of 
" Farm "), writes, on the 23rd of January 1840, that 
Derwent Coleridge gave them some anecdotes at 
breakfast of " the mild old (Quaker) banker Lloyd " 
and his family. In reply to the question why he had 
never translated the whole Iliad^ he said, " Why, I 
have sometimes thought of the work, but I feared the 
martial spirit." One day he sent his son to reprove 
a shopkeeper for sending him a bad article. On 



142 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

his return home he was asked, " Hast thou been to 
the shop to reprove the dealer?" " Yes, father, I 
went to the shop, but a maiden was serving, and she 
was so young 1 and pretty that I could not rebuke 
her." To this may be added another anecdote. A 
mother asking one of the banking Lloyds what she 
should name her son, he said, " Name him Maker- 
shalal-hashbaz [Haste to the spoil : quickly take 
the prey], and I will give you ^100 when he is 
twenty-one if you come to the bank for it." It is 
told that she did come to the bank and claimed 
the fulfilment of the promise, and was paid. 

In his private relations Charles Lloyd is revealed 
to us as a man of gentle manners and warm sym- 
pathies, although for the taste of his more rebellious 
sons he may perhaps have been a little too much 
inclined to a patriarchal control. A fondness for 
children characteristic of the Lloyds endeared 
him to the young among his relatives. An 
illustration of his parental sympathy and of his 
attitude towards the problems of life is afforded 
by a letter addressed to his sons Robert, Thomas, 
and Plumstead, during their school days : 

" I have sent you [he writes] some paper, a spade, pencils, 
and painting brushes, and a ' Virgil ' and ' Selecta/ &c., all 
which you will, I hope, make a good use of. ... I observe 
your request for fishing rods, but I do not wish you to be 
too frequent in using them, for it is cruel to the poor worms, 
who are put to great torture. I have not sent any rods, 
thinking if your Master approves of your fishing now and 
then that long Osier twigs will do as well as any rods. As 
you have already plenty of books, I would have you be 
diligent in reading them, for a few books well chosen and 
frequently read are much better than a great number ill- 
chosen. . . . Though you are very young, yet you are old 
enough to know and consider that life is very uncertain, and 
the Youth as well as the Old are often summoned to the 
Silent Grave; but these reflections, my dear boys, have no 



CHARLES LLOYD OF BINGLEY 143 

occasion to make you sorrowful, for if we do what is right, 
Death can never come at an unsuitable time." 

His son Robert, when twenty-three, wrote a 
letter which is quoted by Lamb in a letter to 
Southey. It is dated March 1803. " Robert 
Lloyd," he says, " has written me a masterly 
letter containing a character of his father. See 
how different from Charles he views the old man ? 
(Literatim) ' My father smokes, repeats Homer 
in Greek, and Virgil, and is learning, when from 
business, with all the vigour of a young man, 
Italian. He is, really, a wonderful man. He 
mixes public and private business, the intricacies 
of disordering life, with his religion and devotion. 
No one more rationally enjoys the romantic scenes 
of Nature, and the chit-chat and little vagaries 
of his children ; and, though surrounded with an 
ocean of affairs, the very neatness of his most 
obscure cupboard in the house passes not un- 
noticed. I never knew any one view with such 
clearness, nor so well satisfied with things as 
they are, and make much allowance for things 
which must appear Syriac to him.' By the last 
[says Lamb] he means the ' Lloydisms ' of the 
younger branches." 

The following notice of Charles Lloyd's death 
appeared in Aris's Gazette of January 21, 1828 : 

"On Wednesday last, in the 8oth year of his age, 
Charles Lloyd, Esq., Banker of this town, a member of the 
Society of Friends. His long and active life was marked 
by great intelligence in business, unaffected piety, and zealous 
exertions to promote the welfare of his fellow creatures. 
How often has his simple but impressive eloquence been 
heard amongst us, pleading the cause of the oppressed 
African, advocating the diffusion of the Holy Scriptures, and 
promoting the education of the people ! For the prosperity 
of the General Hospital he always manifested deep interest, 
and aided it by his personal exertions. As Treasurer, he 



i 4 4 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

kept the accounts with his own hand during a period of thirty 
years. In public subscriptions he set a generous example, 
and in private charity he was most bountiful and kind. 
Cheerfulness and piety were mingled in his character with 
a simplicity truly patriarchal. Strict and conscientious in 
his own conduct, he manifested a Christian and benevolent 
spirit in regard to others ; and whilst he endeavoured to act 
up to the principles of the Society in which he was educated, 
he felt unbounded love and charity, and prayed for the 
prosperity of all denominations of Christians. To a very 
numerous family he was ever a most affectionate father, 
counsellor and friend, setting them the example of a religious 
life and conversation ; and reaping, during seasons of great 
trial and affliction, the divine consolations of his Lord and 
Master. Hopeful unto the end, he showed his mournful 
friends with what peace a Christian can die ! " 

A beautiful marble bust of Charles Lloyd was 
placed in the General Hospital as a memorial of 
his services to that Institution. It bears this 
inscription : 

CAROLUS LLOYD 

SENEX PROBITATE PRUDENTIA 

BENIGNITATE VENERABILIS 

MlGRAVIT EX HAC VlTA 

ADMDCCCXXVII 

ANNOS LXXIX NATUS 

To the end of his life Charles Lloyd was in 
the habit of regularly attending the meetings of 
Friends. His voice was not infrequently heard in 
brief and pointed exhortation, and for many years 
before his death he was one of the recorded 
ministers of the Society. A volume of his ad- 
dresses, as they were taken down by one of his 
interested relatives, is preserved in manuscript by 
a member of his family. He assisted in the for- 
mation of the Bible Society, and with his nephew 



CHARLES LLOYD OF BINGLEY 145 

Samuel (grandfather of the writer), also assisted 
in founding in Birmingham the Society's first pro- 
vincial auxiliary. 

Mr. Lloyd, although a strict Friend, was yet 
sufficiently broad-minded and imaginative to allow 
his son Charles to become a pupil of Cole- 
ridge. This was in 1791, after Coleridge had 
visited Birmingham to obtain subscriptions to the 
Watchman. 

The celebrated Elizabeth Fry was one of the 
many visitors at Charles Lloyd's house, and felt 
herself sufficiently related to call him cousin. She 
greatly valued his friendship, and found, like his 
other congenial acquaintances, that his high cul- 
ture and ardent piety formed a combination which 
made converse with him a pleasure to the mind 
and a feast to the heart. Twelve years after his 
death she was a guest again at Bingley House, 
and during this visit she came to "Farm" and I 
saw her several times. 

Mary Farmer, his wife, proved herself a partner 
worthy of such a husband, and won love and 
veneration from those of her children whom she 
had the most reason to chide. "The kindest and 
tenderest mother," wrote her eldest son Charles, 
after her death. "She was humble," he added, 
"even to profound self-abasedness : disinterested, 
even to nobility of soul : and self-denying, and 
devout, to a degree which those who give the 
preference to the active over the passive virtues 
would call ascetic and mystical : but with all this 
rigidity and austerity, as respected herself, she 
was of all human beings (and in many striking 
instances she evinced this), the most disposed to 
extenuate the failings of the inconsistent, to check 
the despair of the culpable, and to wipe the tear 
of shame and penitence from the cheek of the 

K 



146 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

victim to ' the sin which most easily besetteth 
him.' This, as many can testify, is not panegyric, 
but plain and unvarnished truth." 

Mrs. Lloyd shared with her husband and her 
sons Charles and Robert the privilege of the 
friendship of Charles Lamb. Writing to Robert 
from London on March i, 1800, she says: "If 
C. Lamb pays his respects I wish it might be 
some morning at breakfast. ... I hardly think 
we shall have one vacant day." She had taken 
her second daughter, Olivia, to London with her. 
Lamb writes a fortnight later to Thomas Manning : 
"Tell Charles I have seen his Mamma, and have 
almost fallen in love with her, since I mayn't with 
Olivia. She is so fine and graceful, a complete 
matron-lady-quaker. She has given me two little 
books. Olivia grows a charming girl full of 
feeling, and thinner than she was ; but I have not 
time to fall in love." l 

Mrs. Charles Lloyd died on December 9, 1821, 
her husband surviving her seven years. 

Before leaving the Bingley House banker, I 
might recall the interesting fact that Richard T. 
Cadbury, father of John Cadbury, the founder of 
the great Bournville business, when he came to 
Birmingham from Exeter in 1794, dined, on the 
first Sunday after his arrival, with Charles Lloyd at 
Edgbaston Street (it was just before the move to 
Bingley), and on the second Sunday with Sampson 
Lloyd. He was then twenty-six : he lived to be 
ninety-two. It was a good day for Birmingham 
when Richard Cadbury settled there, and I am glad 
to think that he was so warmly welcomed by Charles 
and Sampson Lloyd. 

1 She married Paul Moon James, of Wake Green, a banker in Birming- 
ham, a Justice of the Peace for Worcestershire and in 1834 High Bailiff 
of Birmingham. Mr. James died on July 13, 1854, and his wife in the 
following December, in her seventy-second year. 



CHAPTER XIV 

CHARLES LLOYD THE POET 

An unwilling banker Advice to a young brother S. T. Coleridge 
appears in Birmingham Philosopher and neophyte Bristol and 
Nether Stowey First mental illness Charles Lloyd visits Charles 
Lamb A falling out of friends Thomas Manning Lloyd marries 
At Old Brathay De Quincey's testimony Shelley Troublous 
years London and Macready Lloyd as a poet Lloyd's children 
"Lile Owey" Hartley Coleridge's poem 

CHARLES, the eldest son of Charles Lloyd of 
Bingley, born in 1775, became known as Charles 
Lloyd the poet. He was, to quote Mr. Lucas's 
truthful summing- up of his character in his book, 
Charles Lamb and the Lloyds, "a contemplative, 
self-conscious, sensitive youth, afflicted with nervous 
weakness. He had much of the Lake Poets' de- 
light in scenery ; he was a profoundly interested 
inquirer into ethical questions ; he would examine 
an emotion with almost more assiduity than his 
master Rousseau himself ; and quite early he 
ceased to subscribe to the teaching of Friends." 
Quaker families, even in those days, now and then 
produced such exotics. 

The worthy banker, who was as earnest in his 
business as he was enthusiastic in his studies, 
cherished the hope that his eldest son, the bearer 
of his name, would succeed him in the management 
of the bank. Charles*' was accordingly placed in 
the bank on leaving school early in the seventeen 
nineties, where he seems for a time conscientiously 

to have endeavoured to gratify his father's wish ; 

147 



148 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

but daily office-work was intolerable drudgery, and 
in 1794 his health gave way. His enforced leisure 
appears to have been accompanied with reflections 
which convinced him that whatever success might 
await him it did not lie in the realm of business. 
To this conclusion his father, with a grief which 
was often expressed, seems at last to have agreed. 
On his recovery, the youth therefore went to 
Edinburgh with some idea of studying medicine. 
But in 1795 he was living with Wordsworth's friend, 
Thomas Wilkinson (Wordsworth's " Wilkinson of 
the spade"), at Yanwath. There he produced his 
first volume of poems. Wilkinson wrote of him, 
" He has a poetical turn, and writes most beautiful 



verse." 



The serious side of his character in early life, 
as well as a lack of humour, is seen in his letters 
to his brother Robert, three years his junior. He 
writes in 1794, when he was but nineteen : " Do not 
give way to useless speculation. I advise you 
particularly to read Rousseau's Emilius^ in French 
if you can. . . . Do not attend to the intricacies 
of sectarian peculiarities ; be a good man, retain 
a pure heart, but oh ! avoid alike the Quaker 
and the Libertine, the Methodist and the Atheist." 
Robert at that time was an apprentice to a draper 
at Saffron Walden. 

The turning-point in the literary life of the 
young poet seems to have been the visit of Samuel 
Taylor Coleridge to Birmingham in 1796, full of 
enthusiasm and eloquence. When Coleridge came 
again, a few months later, the youth passed com- 
pletely under his influence. " He desired," as 
Mr. Lucas tells us, " with all his soul to live the 
exalted existence of a philosopher and poet ; and 
already having written a number of sonnets of 
a meditative and melancholy cast, forswore the 



CHARLES LLOYD THE POET 149 

paternal creed, and passed through a stage of 
acute Rousseauism ; he was perhaps entitled to his 
dream. And to Coleridge, who was but two years 
his senior, the young Birmingham visionary looked 
to help him to the fulfilment of his dream." 

Coleridge was equally in love with his new- 
found disciple, and a proposal from Charles to live 
with him as his pupil and friend proved to be as 
agreeable as it was flattering. Mr. Lloyd was 
willing, and the experiment began. Coleridge 
responded to his young admirer's advances in a 
poem describing the delights of their projected 
companionship 

" Ah ! dearest youth ! it were a lot divine 
To cheat our noons in moralising mood, 
While west-winds fann'd our temples toil-bedew'd." 

And Lloyd, in a poem which appears to have been 
written at the same period, and which was after- 
wards published in the joint volume by himself, 
Coleridge, and Lamb (1797), exclaimed 

" My Coleridge ! take the wanderer to thy breast." 

While staying with the Lloyds in September 
1796 Coleridge received the announcement that 
on September 19 a son, afterwards famous as 
Hartley Coleridge, had been born to him. He 
hastened home. Charles Lloyd accompanied him, 
and became for a time a member of the family, 
first at Bristol and then at Nether Stowey. 

Coleridge's gifted daughter, Sara, wrote after- 
wards : " My mother has often told me how amiable 
Mr. Lloyd was as a youth ; how kind to her little 
Hartley ; how well content with cottage accom- 
modation ; how painfully sensitive in all that 
related to the affections. 1 ' 



150 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

The intimacy between the two young poets 
ripened fast. On September 24 Coleridge wrote 
to his friend Thomas Poole : " Charles Lloyd wins 
upon me hourly ; his heart is uncommonly pure, 
his affections delicate, and his benevolence en- 
livened but not sicklied by sensibility. He is 
assuredly a man of great genius ; but it must be 
tete-a-tete to one whom he loves and esteems that 
his colloquial powers open." With this letter 
Coleridge enclosed two sonnets written at Bir- 
mingham by Lloyd, who in them credited his new 
mentor with having convinced him of the truth of 
Christianity, "for he had been, if not a deist, yet 
quite a sceptic." 

The elder Lloyd seems to have had no mis- 
givings as to the influence of Coleridge upon his 
son. In announcing to Robert Charles's departure, 
he writes of Coleridge as " a very sensible religious 
man and an extraordinary poet, who was educated 
for a clergyman, but for conscience' sake declined 
that office. Thou mayst, " he adds, "order Cole- 
ridge's poems of the bookseller at S. Walden." 

Coleridge meanwhile, in a letter to Mr. Lloyd, 
dated October 15, 1796, wrote: "Your son and I 
are happy in our connection our opinions and 
feelings are as nearly alike as we can expect : and 
I rely upon the goodness of the All-good that we 
shall proceed to make each other better and wiser. 
Charles Lloyd is greatly averse from the common 
run of society and so am I but in a city I could 
scarcely avoid it. And this, too, has aided my 
decision in favour of my rustic scheme. We shall 
reside near a very dear friend of mine, a man 
versed from childhood in the toils of the garden 
and the field, and from whom I shall receive every 
addition to my comfort which an earthly friend and 
adviser can give." 




S. T. COLERIDGE 

From the Original Drawing (see Appendix IV. p. 236*). 
By permission of Messrs. T. C. & E. C. JACK. 



CHARLES LLOYD THE POET 151 

The "Cottage with half a dozen acres of land, 
in an enchanting situation near Bridgewater," was 
at Nether Stowey, and the friend was Thomas 
Poole. 1 The elder Lloyd fell in with Coleridge's 
plans ; the arrangement being that Charles was 
to pay ;8o a year for board, lodgings, and in- 
struction. 

It is probable that there was little of systematic 
study at Nether Stowey. But Charles gained all 
he wished for and perhaps more in the com- 
panionship of a kindred mind and the stimulus of 
a gifted fellow-worker in the field of poetry. While 
at Bristol he produced a folio volume in memory of 
his grandmother, Poems on the Death of Priscilla 
Farmer^ to which Coleridge wrote the introductory 
sonnet, and Coleridge's old schoolfellow and present 
correspondent, Charles Lamb, then at the India 
House, contributed "The Grandam." 

A tendency to melancholy foreshadowing the 
affliction which clouded Charles Lloyd's later years, 
and settled upon him permanently towards the close 
of his life, seems to have engaged the solicitude of 
his friend. Coleridge addressed to Lloyd about 
this time a poem adjuring him to cease self-pity, 
and to seek escape from it in sympathy with those 
who had cause to mourn. 

" Know (and the truth shall kindle thy young mind) 
What Nature makes thee mourn, she bids thee heal." 

His fears were justified by an illness of which 
he writes to the father, under date November 14, 
1796. Charles's health, he states, is so "unsatisfy- 
ing" as to shut out anything but amusement. " I 
chose Dr. Beddoes," he explains, "because he is a 
philosopher, and the knowledge of mind is essentially 

1 At the moment that I write a project to purchase this cottage for 
the nation is before the public. 



152 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

requisite in order to the well-treating of your son's 
distemper." 

This was the beginning of a series of illnesses 
which were to cloud Charles Lloyd's life till the 
end, and reduce to a great extent his undoubted 
mental gifts to powerlessness. 

"It is not surprising," says Mr. Lucas, "with 
Charles Lloyd in such a state and his own move- 
ments so impeded by domestic responsibilities and 
want of money, that Coleridge should wish to free 
himself from his undertaking with regard to his 
disciple." He therefore wrote to Charles Lloyd, 
senior, on December 4, 1796, suggesting a new 
arrangement, under which the younger Lloyd was 
to occupy a room in the cottage "as a Lodger and 
a Friend." "He had mentioned," he states, "to 
Charles, the circumstances which rendered his 
literary engagement impracticable." "I never 
dreamt," he adds, "that he would have desired to 
continue with me : and when at length he did 
manifest such a desire, I dissuaded him from it. 
But his feelings became vehement, and it would 
have been as little prudent as humane in me to 
have given an absolute refusal. Will you permit 
me, Sir ! to write of Charles with freedom ? I do 
not think he ever will endure, whatever might be 
the consequences, to practise as a physician, or 
to undertake any commercial employment." 

Agriculture, the poet concludes, might prove 
congenial to his young friend. " I think you could 
wish nothing better for him than to see him married, 
and settled near yoti as a farmer. I love him, and 
do not think he will be well or happy till he is 
married and settled." 

Charles Lloyd's desire to remain with the 
Coleridges was granted. He spent Christmas at 
home, and early in 1796 joined his friends, who had 



CHARLES LLOYD THE POET 153 

in the meantime removed from Bristol to Nether 
Stowey. 

So far, Lloyd had known Lamb only through 
Coleridge. In January 1797 he visited Lamb in 
London. That the impression he made upon "the 
gentle Elia" was favourable is proved by Lamb's 
letters to Coleridge, in which he welcomed the 
young man into the literary companionship which 
was to be signalised by the publication of a joint 
volume of poems. To this volume Lamb contri- 
buted some verses, "To Charles Lloyd, an unex- 
pected visitor." One or two extracts will serve 
better than anything else to show how instantly 
Lamb was captivated. 

11 Alone, obscure, without a friend, 

A cheerless, solitary thing, 
Why seeks my Lloyd the stranger out ? 
What offering can the stranger bring ? 

For this gleam of random joy 

Hath flush'd my unaccustomed cheek ; 

And, with an o'er-charged bursting heart, 
I feel the thanks I cannot speak. 

Long, long, within my aching heart 
The grateful sense shall cherished be ; 

I'll think less meanly of myself, 

That Lloyd will sometimes think on me." 

"Lamb," says Mr. Lucas, "was much in the 
shadow of the tragedy of the year before, and 
needed a mind as serious and sympathetic as 
Charles Lloyd's to sympathise with him : l and 
their nearness in age only two days separated 
them : both would be two-and-twenty in the fol- 
lowing month was an additional bond. Lloyd's 
spiritual life, in spite of his youth, had been fully 

1 It was in 1796 that his sister, in a fit of insanity, had taken her 
mother's life. 



i 5 4 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

lived, and though he lacked nimbleness, flexibility, 
fun, he was possessed of rare intellectual gifts, 
which at that time were more to Lamb's taste 
than humorous quickness. It is probable that 
the two friends spoke more of conduct than of 
literature." 

Charles Lloyd wrote some time afterwards to 
his brother Robert : "I left Charles Lamb very 
warmly interested in his favour, and have kept up 
a regular correspondence with him ever since ; he 
is a most interesting young man." The corre- 
spondence with Lamb unfortunately has not been 
preserved. Lloyd is believed to have preserved all 
the letters, but after his death they were burned 
by his son Grosvenor. Only three or four remain, 
and these are not of the best. 

In 1797, shortly after the publication of the 
volume of poems by the three friends, Lloyd left 
Coleridge and returned to Birmingham. His 
health had again failed and unsettlement had 
grown upon him. "You will pray with me," 
wrote Lamb, "for his recovery, for, surely, Cole- 
ridge, an exquisiteness of feeling like this must 
border on derangement." 

In September 1797, in a poem by Lamb on the 
anniversary of his mother's death, which was sent 
to Coleridge, there are references to his friendship 
for Lloyd, and to the latter's affliction : 

" I thought on Lloyd 
All he had been to me . . . 
I pray not for myself. I pray for him 
Whose soul is sore perplexed. Shine Thou on him, 
Father of lights ! and in the difficult paths 
Make plain his way before him." 

Referring to a coldness that had arisen between 
Lloyd and Coleridge, Lamb writes: "You use 
Lloyd very ill, never writing to him. I tell you 




CHARLES LLOYD THE POKT AM) HIS WIFE. 
From a Drawing. 



CHARLES LLOYD THE POET 155 

again that his is not a mind with which you should 
play tricks. He deserves more tenderness from 
you." This coldness in part arose from Lloyd, in 
his novel, Edmund Oliver, having made use of 
experiences and incidents in Coleridge's life when 
he was a private soldier. But there is no doubt 
also that with too much trust in other people's 
discretion, he had unwisely let his tongue play 
around the home-life at Nether Stowey and certain 
weaknesses of S. T. C. so much to Coleridge's 
disapproval that what had begun as a coldness soon 
developed into a real quarrel and breach. For a 
while Lamb's sympathy was with Charles Lloyd, 
but he came to see that new friendships must not 
injure old ones, and he arid Coleridge were recon- 
ciled. The story may be read at some length in 
Charles Lamb and the Lloyds. I prefer to say no 
more of it here. 

In 1799 Charles Lloyd unwittingly performed a 
signal service to literature. He had settled at Cam- 
bridge, whither Lamb came to see him, and while 
his guest there was introduced to Thomas Manning, 
Lloyd's mathematical tutor. To Thomas Manning 
Lamb indited some of his best letters ; and he it 
was who furnished the Chinese story which sug- 
gested to Lamb his Dissertation on Roast Pig. 
Robert Lloyd, Charles's brother, also became a 
friend and correspondent of Manning. 

It was during his residence at Cambridge that 
Charles Lloyd married. He had long found it 
impossible to remain insensible to the charms of 
Sophia, daughter of Samuel Pemberton of Birming- 
ham. But alas ! she happened to be outside the 
very select few his parents would have chosen for 
him. His mind was strangely uncertain even here, 
for having once gone so far as to make her an 
offer in a letter, thinking it premature he hired a 



156 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

post-chaise, overtook the mail, and got it back 
again. Not only had he difficulties with his own 
parents to overcome, but, according to De Quincey, 
Miss Pemberton's parents discouraged the young 
man's attentions. He had at one time even de- 
vised a plan for carrying her off by force, with the 
assistance of no less reputable a person than 
Robert Southey ; but this very poetical enterprise 
fell through. Parental obstacles being overcome, 
the marriage took place on February 12, 1799, 
and, through Robert, Lamb sent to Charles his 
" warmest wishes for his and Sophia's happiness." 

Lloyd continued to write poetry when his health 
allowed. He contributed, in 1799, to the Annual 
Anthology, edited by Southey for the publisher 
Cottle (with whom Lamb, Lloyd, and Coleridge 
had already been associated), four poems, one of 
them Lines to a Brother and Sister (Robert and 
Olivia). 

In the summer of 1802 he went to live at Old 
Brathay. Coleridge, too, had taken up his residence 
in the Lake District, and though he had declared 
that he would not call upon Lloyd, the association 
was patched up for a time, through the influence, 
it is believed, of Dorothy Wordsworth. Amongst 
others, Sir Walter Scott was one of Lloyd's friends, 1 
and with the poet Wordsworth he became very 
intimate. The intercourse with Lamb also seems 
to have been more or less renewed. Robert Lloyd 
writes of him in March 1803 : " Charles has become 
steady as a Church, and as straightforward as a 
Roman road. It would distract him to mention 
anything that was not as plain as sense ; he seems 
to have run the whole scenery of life, and now rests 
at the formal precision of non-existence." 

1 The acquaintance probably commenced during his stay in Edinburgh 
in 1794. 



CHARLES LLOYD THE POET 157 

The records of the life at Old Brathay are 
meagre. When he was well he was a happy man ; 
but under his afflictions he was in the depths of 
despair. Dr. Garnett, writing in the Dictionary of 
National Biography, says that his fits of gloom 
bore a curious likeness to those which depressed 
Cowper. But during his less troubled periods 
Lloyd's condition had little resemblance to those 
of the recluse of Olney. His house was noisy 
with children, to whom he was a loving and 
solicitous parent ; his wife was ever at his side ; 
members of his family continually paid him visits, 
and in the neighbourhood he had many friends. 
His tastes were simple, walking, with long pauses 
for the contemplation of scenery, gardening, read- 
ing, and conversation at high pressure these were 
his favourite beguilements. According to De 
Quincey, Lloyd's house was at one time a centre 
of gaiety. Many dinner-parties were given, at 
which he was an admirable host, and there were 
even dances, in which, though he took no part, 
he found much pleasure. 

The Old Brathay cottage numbered among 
its visitors, in addition to the Wordsworths, the 
Southeys, "Christopher North" (Professor John 
Wilson), Jane Penny (afterwards his wife), Dr. 
Watson (Bishop of Llandaff), Miss Watson, his 
daughter (with whom Charles Lloyd corresponded 
in French), and De Quincey. By the last named 
Charles Lloyd is thus described : 

"Lloyd could not, in candour, be considered a common 
man. Common ! He was a man never to be forgotten. He had 
in conversation the most extraordinary powers of analysis of a 
certain kind applied to the philosophy of manners, and the 
most delicate nuances of social life, and his translation of 
Alfieri, together with his own poems, show him to have been 
an accomplished scholar. He was tall and somewhat clumsy 



158 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

not intellectual so much as benign and conciliatory in his 
expression of face. His features were not striking, but they 
expressed great goodness of heart ; and latterly wore a depre- 
catory expression that was peculiarly touching to those who 
knew its cause. ... It was really a delightful luxury to hear 
him giving free scope to his powers for investigating subtle 
combinations of character ; for distinguishing all the shades 
and affinities of some presiding qualities, disentangling their 
intricacies, and balancing, antithetically, one combination of 
qualities against another." 

For Mrs. Lloyd De Quincey had a great 
admiration and respect. He declared her to be 
"unsurpassed as wife and mother"; and her ap- 
pearance, he said, "reminded him of Mrs. Jordan, 
the actress." 

" Lloyd appreciated Pope," wrote Hartley 
Coleridge, "as rightly as any man I ever knew, 
which I ascribe partly to his intelligent enjoyment 
of French writers, tempered as it was with reve- 
rent admiration of the greater English." Charles 
Lloyd's wife, he added, "was one of the best 
of women." 

Shelley was among those upon whom Lloyd's 
subtle mind exercised a strong fascination. Re- 
ferring to Lloyd's copy of Berkeley's works, which 
he borrowed through Southey, while on a visit to 
the Lake District, he wrote in 1819, to Leigh 
Hunt: "I remember observing some pencil notes 
in it, probably written by Lloyd, which I thought 
particularly acute. One especially struck me as 
being the assertion of a doctrine of which even 
then I had long been persuaded. . . . ' Mind 
cannot create ; it can only perceive.' ' 

In the spring of 1818, Lloyd, leaving his wife 
and children for a time in the north, paid a visit 
to London, when the gloom which had settled 
upon his spirit began to break. Macready, in his 
Reminiscences, tells of the receipt of an unsigned 



CHARLES LLOYD THE POET 159 

letter of gratitude and a sonnet of appreciation. 
The sonnet a year or two later came to him 
again in a presentation volume of poetry, and 
Macready then knew that the author was Charles 
Lloyd. The unsigned letter told Macready that 
his performance as Rob Roy, in the play of Rob 
Roy McGregor, had caused the writer the first 
gush of tears that had come to him for years, with 
which restoration of sensibility came a renewal of 
mental health and activity. 

His London life at this period brought him 
the acquaintance of, among others, Hazlitt, Leigh 
Hunt, Procter ("Barry Cornwall"), Godwin and 
his wife (Mary Wollstonecraft), Joanna Baillie, Mrs. 
Barbauld, and Miss Aikin. The first public indica- 
tion of his renewed literary activity was the issue of 
Nugce Canorce, in which were included some of his 
earlier poems and some new ones. It was dedicated 
to his wife. It was not remarkable, yet was well 
reviewed, notably by " Christopher North" in Black- 
wood. Coleridge's copy, with his very characteristic 
pencillings in the margin, is in the British Museum. 

Nothing that Charles Lloyd wrote, it may be 
said here, has passed into the language, and his 
poems are rarely seen now, either in their own 
volumes or in anthologies ; but his intellect was 
a very curious one, and his work was always 
marked by sincerity. His metaphysical tendency 
led Lamb to make the amusing but not unilluminat- 
ing comment that his poetry could not be read 
u standing on one leg." Dr. Garnett's criticism 
in the Dictionary of National Biography may be 
quoted : 

"Lloyd cannot be ranked among good poets, but his 
writings are the reflection of an interesting personality. De 
Quincey compares him with Rousseau, whom he certainly re- 
sembles in sentimental pensiveness and intense love of nature. 



160 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

As a descriptive poet he has considerable merit, and exhibits 
that gift of minute observation so frequently found combined 
with powers of mental analysis. His poetry, however, is 
mainly subjective, and monotonous from the writer's continual 
self-absorption. His versification is frequently worse than 
inharmonious, and his diction so prosaic as to evince that 
his power of expression bore no proportion to his power of 
thought. His best poem is Desultory Thoughts in London, 
which contains, with other good passages, a beautiful descrip- 
tion of his home in Westmoreland, and deeply felt though 
poorly composed eulogies on Lamb and Coleridge. His 
abilities as a thinker were highly estimated by those who 
knew him intimately. ' It was really a delightful luxury/ 
declares De Quincey, ' to hear him giving free scope to his 
powers for investigating subtle combinations of character.' 
* His mind/ says Talfourd, ' was chiefly remarkable for a fine 
power of analysis. In this power of discriminating and dis- 
tinguishing, carried almost to a pitch of painfulness, Lloyd has 
scarcely been equalled.' " 

In 1822 Lloyd's literary career had reached its 
climax. In that year he published The Duke of 
Ormond, a Tragedy, and Isabella, a Tale, with the 
poem, Desultory Thoughts in London. In 1823 
the shadow of his affliction returned, never again 
to depart. He took up his abode in France, and 
on January 16, 1839, a month before his sixty- 
fourth birthday, he passed away. The wife who 
had tenderly watched him did not long survive him. 
She died at Versailles, August 7, 1839, at the age 
of fifty-three. 

Of her nine children, eight survived her. One 
of the sons became the Rev. Owen Lloyd, Vicar of 
Langdale. Edward, another of the sons, wrote a 
pamphlet addressed to Sir G. C. Lewis, M.P., and 
was manager of the National Provincial Bank in 
Birmingham with Henry Rotton. He was then 
promoted to the N.B. Bank, Liverpool, and after- 
wards founded the stockbroking business in 
Copthall Court which was successfully carried 



CHARLES LLOYD THE POET 161 

on by the late Charles Arthur Lloyd. From the 
daughter Agatha was descended, among others, 
Mr. Stephen Phillips, who has achieved fame as the 
author of Christ in Hades and Marpessa, and who, 
by virtue of his Herod, Paolo and Francesa, and 
Nero, is now recognised as the leading English 
poetical dramatist. 

Let me end this chapter with a few words about 
Owen Lloyd, Charles Lloyd's son, who entered 
the Church, became incumbent of Langdale, in the 
Lake Country, and was there the darling of his 
parishioners, who knew him affectionately as " Lile 
Owey" Little Owen. Owen Lloyd brought 
happiness to others, but after his boyhood knew 
little himself, having inherited too much of his 
father's temperament. Early in life he had suffered 
a love disappointment, from which he never rightly 
recovered. Wordsworth, who was his firm friend 
throughout, addressed to him, in 1826, the remon- 
strance beginning, " Ere with cold beads of midnight 
dew," ending with the rally, "A Briton, even in 
love, should be a subject, not a slave." But it was 
in vain : Owen Lloyd began to display a grievous 
tendency to religious melancholia. By Words- 
worth's advice he moved from Langdale to more 
exacting pastoral work at Whitwick, in order to 
divert his mind. In a while the experiment was 
successful, and then Owen Lloyd gave way. He 
died in 1841, and was carried to Langdale to be 
buried in the churchyard there. 

Charles Lloyd and Coleridge being doomed to 
misunderstanding, it is the more pleasant to think 
upon the trusting friendship which these two gentle 
and melancholy sons, Owen Lloyd and Hartley 
Coleridge, enjoyed from boyhood onwards. Both 
Wordsworth and Hartley wrote poems on Lile 
Owey's death. Hartley wrote also this touching 



162 THE LILOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

" Schoolfellow's Tribute," which was circulated in 
leaflet form among Lile Owey's friends and is prized 
in Lake Country cottages to this day : 



I 

" I was a comrade of his childish days, 
And then he was to me a little boy, 
My junior much, a child of winning ways 
His every moment was a throb of joy. 

Fine wit he had and knew not it was wit, 

And native thoughts before he dreamed of thinking ; 

Odd sayings too for each occasion fit, 

To oldest sights the newest fancies linking. 

And his the hunter's bounding strength of spirit, 
The fisher's patient craft and quick delight 

To watch his line to see a small fish near it 
A nibble ah ! what extacy ! a bite. 

Years glided on, a week was then a year 
Fools only say that happy hours are short ; 

Time lingers long on moments that are dear, 
Long is the summer holiday of sport. 

But then, our days were each a perfect round 
Our farthest bourne of hope and fear To-day. 

Each morn To-night appeared the utmost bound, 
And let the morrow be whate'er it may. 

But on the morrow he is in the cliff 

He hangs midway the falcon's nest to plunder : 

Behold him sticking like an ivy leaf 

To the tall rock he cares not what is under. 



II 



I traced with him the narrow winding path 
Which he pursued, when upland was his way ; 

And then I wondered what stern hand of wrath 
Had smitten him that wont to be so gay. 



CHARLES LLOYD THE POET 163 

Then would he tell me of a woful weight 
A weight laid on him by a Bishop's hand, 

That late and early, early still and late, 

He could not bear, and yet could not withstand. 

Of holy thoughts he spoke, and purpose high 
Dead in his heart, and yet like spectres stirring ; 

Of Hope that could not either live or die, 

And Faith confused with self-abhorred demurring. 

How beautiful the feet that from afar 

Bring happy tidings of eternal good ; 
Then kiss the feet that so bewildered are 

They cannot farther go, where fain they would. 



Ill 

I saw his coffin 'twas enough. I saw 

That he was gone that his deep wound was healed. 
No more he struggles betwixt faith and law, 

The fulness of his bliss is now revealed. 

He rests in peace ; in Langdale's peaceful vale 
He sleeps secure beneath the grassy sod. 

Ah no, he doth not he hath heard ' All hail, 
Thou faithful servant,' from the throne of God." 



CHAPTER XV 

ROBERT LLOYD AND CHARLES LAMB 

Charles Lamb's letter of advice Duty to parents A mother's letter 
A runaway Charles Lloyd of Bingley in London Lamb on 
marriage Robert Lloyd marries A determined bachelor Robert 
Lloyd in London Literary society A glimpse of Charles and Mary 
Lamb at home Robert Lloyd's death Lamb's memoir of him 

ROBERT, the third son of Charles Lloyd the banker, 
though he did not share his brother's literary power, 
affords an interesting study. His comparatively 
early death cut short an intellectual expansion that 
was proceeding apace under the fostering influences 
of Charles Lamb and other eminent men in the 
literary circle to which his brother Charles had 
introduced him. It is through Lamb's letters that 
we get the most picturesque glimpses of Robert's 
character. Robert would not have lived in vain 
if he had done nothing more than give occasion 
for these letters. Lamb adds to his claims upon us 
by the patience and insight shown in his dealings 
with the wayward youth, helping him to a better 
knowledge of his own capabilities, and of the moral 
and intellectual worth of the father, towards whom 
at one time he seemed disposed to play the rebel. 

Robert Lloyd appears to have met Lamb in 
London late in 1796. At that time the young man 
was serving his apprenticeship at Saffron Walden. 
Lamb writes to Robert early in 1798, claiming him 
as one of his very dearest friends. In a later letter 
Lamb deals exclusively with Robert's affairs and 

state of mind ; and it is so quaint an illustration of 

164 



ROBERT LLOYD AND LAMB 165 

Lamb's methods as a mentor, that it may be well 
to give it in full. It throws a light, too, on the 
perplexities caused to the worthy banker by the 
drifting away of some of his family from the re- 
ligious doctrine which he and his ancestors had 
done so much to adorn. 



DEAR ROBERT, I acknowledge that I have been 
sadly remiss of late. If I descend to any excuse (and all 
excuses that come short of a direct denial of a charge are 
poor creatures at best), it must be taken from my state of 
mind for some time past, which has been stupid rather, and 
unfilled with any object, than occupied, as you may imagine, 
with any favourite idea to the exclusion of friend Robert. 
You, who are subject to all the varieties of the mind, will 
give me credit in this. 

" I am sadly sorry that you are relapsing into your old 
complaining strain. I wish I could adapt my consolations 
to your disease, but, alas ! I have none to offer which your 
own mind, and the suggestions of books, cannot better supply. 
Are you the first whose situation hath not been exactly 
squar'd to his ideas ? or rather, will you find me that man 
who does not complain of the one thing wanting? That 
thing obtained, another wish will start up. While this eternal 
craving of the mind keeps up its eternal hunger, no feast that 
my palate knows of will satisfy that hunger till we come 
to drink the new wine (whatever it be) in the Kingdom of 
the Father. See what trifles disquiet us. You are unhappy 
because your parents expect you to attend meetings. I don't 
know much of Quakers' meetings, but I believe I may 
moderately reckon them to take up the space of six hours 
in the week. Six hours to please your parents and that 
time not absolutely lost. Your mind remains ; you may think, 
and plan, remember, and foresee, and do all human acts of 
mind sitting as well as walking. You are quiet at meeting : 
one likes to be so sometimes ; you may advantageously crowd 
your day's devotions into that space. Nothing you see or 
hear there can be unfavourable to it you are for that time 
at least exempt from the counting-house, and your parents 
cannot chide you there; surely at so small an expense you 
cannot grudge to observe the Fifth Commandment. I decidedly 
consider your refusal as a breach of that God-descended 



1 66 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

precept Honour and observe thy parents in all lawful things. 
Silent worship cannot be unlawful; there is no idolatry, no 
invocation of saints, no bowing before the consecrated wafer 
in all this, nothing which a wise man would refuse, or a good 
man fear to do. What is it ? Sitting a few hours in a week 
with certain good people who call that worship. You subscribe 
to no articles if your mind wanders, it is no crime in you 
who do not give credit to these infusions of the spirit. They 
sit in a temple, you sit as in a room adjoining, only do not 
disturb their pious work with gabbling, nor your own neces- 
sary peace with heart-burnings at your not ill-meaning parents, 
nor a silly contempt of the work which is going on before 
you. I know that if my parents were to live again, I would 
do more things to please them than merely sitting still six 
hours in a week. Perhaps I enlarge too much on this affair, 
but indeed your objection seems to me ridiculous, and involving 
in it a principle of frivolous and vexatious resistance. 

" You have often borne with my freedoms, bear with me 
once more in this. If I did not love you, I should not trouble 
myself whether you went to meeting or not whether you 
conform'd or not [to] the will of your father." 

This good seed sown by Lamb and afterwards 
watered by many conversations with his friend 
Manning sprang up under the sunny influences 
which both the friends brought to bear. Some 
years later, near the close of Robert's life, he thus 
writes to his friend Manning : 

" I feel more attached to my family, and I fully intend 
going to the Quakers' Meetings again. Not that my father 
has spoken to me of it, for he behaves in the most noble 
manner to me, but I can no longer withstand his affectionate 
solicitude without showing some free gift, something which 
will give him great pleasure and which is his right my 
sitting two hours on a Sunday under the same roof in 
silence." 

But to return to the time of Robert's revolt 
against the discipline and tenets of the Friends, 
a state of mind which was indeed sorely troubling 
his parents. His mother, in August of the same 



ROBERT LLOYD AND LAMB 167 

year, wrote to him as follows : " Permit me to drop 
one hint more, and then I hope this sermon will 
be ended. I was grieved to hear of thy appearing 
in those fantastical trousers in London. I am 
clear such eccentricities of dress would only make 
thee laughed at by the World, whilst thy sincere 
friends would be deeply hurt. Canst thou love thy 
father and yet do things that sink him as well as 
thyself in the opinion of our best Friends ? Thou 
art, my dear son, form'd to make an amiable figure 
in Society, but for once trust to the judgment of 
thy mother, neither thy person nor mind are form'd 
for eccentricities of dress or conduct." The father, 
too, remonstrated, thus: " Thou wilt please me 
by observing simplicity in thy dress and manner. 
Do not let the customs of the world influence 
thee." 

The mother never lost the love of the children 
who were so grieving her. Nor did her grief exhibit 
itself in harshness. In time, it would appear, she 
ceased to vex herself about non-essentials in her 
children's behaviour ; though her sorrow at their 
graver departures from Quaker belief and strictness 
of conduct must have remained. 

Robert, having run away from Saffron Walden,, 
had taken shelter with Lamb, who writes : " What 
the issue of his adventure will be, I know not. He 
hath the sweetness of an angel in his heart, com- 
bined with admirable firmness of purpose ; and 
uncultivated, but very original, and I think superior, 
genius." Robert is next heard of at Worcester, 
staying with his uncle, Nehemiah Lloyd. 

Returning to Birmingham, Robert Lloyd met 
Thomas Manning, the mathematical tutor to Charles 
already mentioned, and between them a warm and 
enduring friendship ensued. Manning was then 
about twenty-seven and Robert twenty-one. After 



1 68 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

an introduction to Coleridge, Manning writes : "I 
was introduced to Coleridge, which was a great 
gratification to me. I think him a man of very 
splendid abilities and animated feelings. But let 
me whisper a word in your ear, Robert twenty 
Coleridges could not supply your loss to me, if you 
were to forsake me. So if any friendly interposer 
should come and tell you I am not what I seem, 
and warn you against my friendship, beware of 
listening to him. ..." 

The correspondence with Lamb continued, and 
the interchange of letters between Lamb and 
Charles Lloyd, senior, proves that Robert's esca- 
pade had brought no blame to his friend. It was 
in December 1797 that the banker met Charles 
Lamb in London, and invited him to breakfast and 
dinnqr at David Barclay's house. In a letter to 
"dear Rob" Lamb describes the dinner and what 
followed : 

"Your father was in one of his best humours (I have 
seldom seen him in one not good), and after dinner, while 
we were sitting comfortably before the parlour fire, after our 
wine, he beckoned me suddenly out of the room. I, expecting 
some secrets, followed him, but it was only to go and sit with 
him in the old forsaken counting-house, which he declared 
to be the pleasantest spot in the house to him, and told me 
how much business used to be done there in former days. 
Your father whimsically mixes the good man and the man 
of business in his manners, but he is not less a good man 
for being a man of business. He has conceived great hope 
of thy one day uniting both characters, and I joyfully expect 
the same. I hope to see Priscilla, for the first time, some 
day at the end of this week." 

Priscilla Lloyd, who had joined her father in 
London, was the sister who afterwards married 
Christopher Wordsworth. The counting-house was 
David Barclay's, where Charles Lloyd, senior, had 
served his apprenticeship in banking. 



ROBERT LLOYD AND LAMB 169 

Robert at that time was contemplating* marriage. 
In a letter dated March 13, 1804, Lamb wrote to 
him : 

" I hear that you are about to be married. Joy to you 
and uninterrupted satisfaction in that state ; but who is the 
lady ? It is the character of your letters that you omit facts, 
dates, names, and matter, and describe nothing but feelings, 
in which, as I cannot always partake, as being more intense 
in degree, or different in kind, from my own tranquil ones, 
I cannot always well tell how to reply." 

The letter concludes, after an expression ot 
affectionate longing to see the writer : 

" I could tell you many things, but you are so spiritual 
and abstracted, that I fear to insult you with tidings of this 
world. But may your approaching husband-hood humanise 
you. I think I see a dawn. I am sure a joy is rising upon 
you, and I stand on tiptoe to see the sun ascending till it 
gets up and up, and ' while a man tells the story,' shows at 
last a fair face and a full light. 

" God bless you, Roby, 

"C. L." 

The lady upon whom Robert's affections were 
set was Hannah Hart, the daughter of Francis 
Hart, of Nottingham, banker. The marriage took 
place on August 2, 1804, in the meeting-house 
at Castle Donnington, Leicestershire. The bride 
and her family were Quakers, and Robert Lloyd, as 
we have seen, had returned to the faith of his fathers, 
though, singularly, one of his love-letters reveals 
the fact that he had joined the Militia. Lamb's 
congratulations form the subject of a letter, in this 
inimitable letter-writer's happy vein of mingled 
raillery and wisdom : 

" Some day I certainly shall come and see you in your 
new light ; no longer the restless (but good ?) single Robert ; 
but now the staid, sober (and not less good) married Robert. 
And how does Plumstead, the impetuous, take your getting 



170 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

the start of him ? When will he subside into matrimony ? 
Priscilla has taken a long time indeed to think about it. I 
will suppose that her first choice is now her final; though 
you do not expressly say that she is to be a Wordsworth. 
I wish her, and dare promise her, all happiness. 

"All these new nuptials do not make me unquiet in the 
perpetual prospect of celibacy. There is a quiet dignity in old 
bachelorhood, a leisure from cares, noise, &c., an enthroniza- 
tion upon the armed-chair of a man's feeling that he may 
sit, walk, read, unmolested, to none accountable but hush ! 
or I shall be torn in pieces like a churlish Orpheus by young 
married women and bridesmaids of Birmingham. The close 
is this, to every man that way of life, which in his election 
is best. Be as happy in yours as I am determined to be in 
mine, and we shall strive lovingly who shall sing the best 
the praises of matrimony, and the praises of singleness." 

Plumstead was the fourth son, and fifth child 
of Charles Lloyd the banker. Priscilla was the 
ninth of the family and the eldest surviving 
daughter. Christopher Wordsworth, her husband, 
was then a Norfolk rector, and a few months later 
became Vicar of St. Mary's, Lambeth. Priscilla 
had left the Friends, but was not baptized until 
the morning of her marriage-day. 

Lamb's longing for a sight of his friend's face 
was not gratified until early in 1809 when Robert 
Lloyd visited London on business. The rapturous 
anticipations expressed on receiving the news of 
the intended visit show that though the intercourse 
had been, as Lamb says, broken off apparently 
through Robert's occupation with new interests 
in the Midlands Lamb had been constant in his 
friendship. 

Of Robert's visits to London we read much in 
his letters to his wife. "My head," he tells her 
in his first letter, dated March 1809, "has been 
in a perpetual whirl since I came here, and in two 
days I have lived many weeks." He mentions 



ROBERT LLOYD AND LAMB 171 

visits to the Horse Guards, "to hear the band 
play while they mounted Guard," to Mr. Millar's 
the bookseller in Albemarle Street, "where we 
.had a complete treat," to the London Institute, 
and to the House of Commons, seeing "The 
place where Fox and Pitt sat occasioned most 
lively emotions," but an invitation to dinner with 
Lamb prevented a visit while the House was 
sitting. Robert the same evening went to supper 
with Godwin and his wife, Mary Wollstonecraft. 
"Godwin," he writes, " is a bookseller. . . ." He 
appears to have been delighted to find that a man 
of such literary eminence as Godwin was of the 
same trade as himself for Robert by this time 
had settled down in Birmingham as a printer and 
bookseller. 

He went to the Opera, to Covent Garden new 
Theatre to see Kemble and Mrs. Siddons in 
Macbeth. "Pray dispatch me," he requests his 
wife, "from the Dog Inn at seven O'clock in the 
evening, 2 pair of White Silk stockings. I must 
go smart to the Opera I have ordered a pair of 
dress-clothes in London." Mention is made, in 
these and subsequent letters, of visits to his Uncle 
John (who was a partner in the London banking 
firm of Barclay & Lloyd), of a meeting with 
Wordsworth (evidently Christopher), who "gave a 
very poor account of Priscilla," i.e. of her health ; 
of a public meeting at Guildhall ; and of introduc- 
tions to celebrities in various walks of life. His 
delight in the friendship of Charles and Mary 
Lamb seems to have reached its highest point. 

" I spent yesterday (April 2nd) with Lamb and 
his sister it is sweetly gratifying to see them ; 
if I may use the expression, their union of affec- 
tion is what we conceive of marriage in Heaven. 
They are the World one to the other. They 



1 72 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

together are writing a book of poetry for children. 
Lamb and I amused ourselves in the afternoon 
by reading the manuscripts I shall send one or 
two of the pieces in my next. Lamb is the most 
original being you can conceive, and suited to 
me, in some of his habits, or ways of thinking, 
to a tee." This letter seems to mark the end 
of the visit to London, the record of sight- 
seeing ending with " the London Institute, the 
European Gallery (a most splendid collection of 
pictures and paintings), Miss Linwood's needle- 
work (grand indeed), and the Panorama of 
Grand Cairo." 

As far as is now known, this was the last 
occasion on which Robert saw his friends in 
London. The early months of 1810 were months 
of troubles and anxiety to him. The Birming- 
ham business of Knott & Lloyd, booksellers and 
printers, successors to Thomas Aris of Ariss 
Gazette, in which he was a partner, was not 
proving profitable. 1 Following upon this financial 
worry came a succession of family trials and 
sorrows, for Thomas, his next eldest brother, who 
was a merchant in Birmingham, died on September 
12, 1811, in his thirty-second year. Robert had 
tenderly watched him during his illness, and felt 
the loss most deeply. Other bereavements fell 
upon the banker's family. Little more than a 
month later, Robert lost his sister Caroline, who 
died on October 15, in her twenty-second year. 

Sympathetic and sensitive in the highest degree, 
Robert Lloyd broke down under these repeated 
blows. On October 26, 1811, eleven days after 
the death of his sister, he passed away, not having 
completed his thirty-third year. 

1 The business exists to-day under the name of Hall & English. Some 
old invoices of Robert Lloyd's time are still preserved. 



ROBERT LLOYD AND LAMB 173 

Robert Lloyd, notwithstanding- his early death, 
had lived long enough to prove to his friends that 
their patience with him in his youthful wayward- 
ness had not been thankless, and that their belief in 
the existence of nobler and finer qualities had not 
been mistaken. He left a widow with one son 
and three daughters. 

Many touching tributes were paid to his 
memory. One whose friendship had been at once 
a distinction and a boon, and whose faith in him 
had been his stay during the critical period of his 
youth, was among the first to give public testi- 
mony to his worth. Lamb's memoir of Robert 
Lloyd appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
November 1811. It had been shortened by the 
editor, but it was sent to the widow in full. 
"Such," wrote Lloyd (the poet), "is the beautiful 
and appropriate account sent to the Gentleman s 
Magazine by dear Charles Lamb, who, if I lov'd 
him for nothing else, I should now love for the 
affecting interest that he has taken in the memory 
of my dearest Brother and Friend. C. Lamb sent 
me the written copy himself. 

" The following is an extract from it : 

" 'To dilate in many words upon the character of R. LI. 
would be to violate the modest regard due to his memory, 
who, in his lifetime, shrank so anxiously from every species 
of notice. His constitutional misfortune was an excess of 
nervous sensibility which, in the purest of hearts, produced 
rather too great a spirit of self-abasement, a perpetual ap- 
prehension of not doing what was right. Yet, beyond this 
tenderness, he seemed absolutely to have no self-regard at 
all. His eye was single, and ever fixed upon that form of 
goodness which he worshipped wherever he found it, except 
in himself. What he was to his parents and in his family the 
newness of their sorrow may make it unseasonable to touch 
on; his loss, alas! was but one in a complication of afflic- 
tions which have fallen so heavy of late upon a worthy house. 



174 THE LEOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

But as a Friend, the writer of this memorial can witness, 
that what he once esteemed and loved, it was an unalterable 
law of his nature to continue to esteem and love. . . . 

" ' To conclude : 

Love, Sweetness, Goodness, in his countenance shin'd 
So clear, as in no face with more delight.' " 

Robert Lloyd's father wrote of him : " I con- 
template his character as the most sweet and 
affecting that I ever knew." 

Those who may wish to see Lamb's letters to 
Robert Lloyd in full will find them in a book which 
has interested very many, Charles Lamb and the 
Lloyds, and also in Messrs. Macmillan's edition of 
Lamb's Letters. 



CHAPTER XVI 

ANNA BRAITHWAITE 

The Edgbaston Street home A house without gossip Charles Lloyd's 
letters to his daughter An opponent of Elias Hicks Dr. Edwards 
recalls his youth An American mutiny Harriet Beecher Stowe 
at "Farm" The late Joseph Bevan Braithwaite 

ANNA LLOYD, the youngest but two of the 
daughters of Charles Lloyd the banker, occupies 
a prominent position in the history of the Society 
of Friends, not only by her labours in America, 
but also as being the mother of a prominent 
member of the Society the late Joseph Bevan 
Braithwaite. On this account, as well as for the 
light she throws upon the characters of some 
other members of the family, some extracts from 
the memoirs of her which have been preserved 
will be of interest. 

Anna was born on December 27, 1788, and 
was married on March 16, 1808, to Isaac Braith- 
waite of Kendal. The circle in which she had 
moved previous to her marriage was well calculated 
to promote enlargement of mind and habits of 
widespread sympathy ; for not only her parents, 
but also her brothers and sisters were exception- 
ally gifted people with unusual intellectual powers. 
Her early home, until she was eight years of age, 
was at the house in Edgbaston Street ; the family 
then moved to Bingley Hall, which, as I have said, 
in those days was called Bingley House. 

175 



176 THE L'LOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

She thus records some recollections of her early 
years : 

41 1 was born in Edgbaston Street, Birmingham. It was 
not until the death of our reverend grandmother, Priscilla 
Farmer (in 1796), that we removed to her residence, Bingley 
House, near the Town. Although my grandmother died when 
I was little more than seven years old, her countenance and 
figure are vividly remembered. She always sent her carriage 
(to our house in Edgbaston Street) for my Mother and the 
' little ones,' of whom I was one, on sixth days, which we 
spent with her. . . . My grandmother had been fond of gay 
life when young; and had had great zest in attending the 
theatre. This continued many years after my mother's birth, 
which took place ten years after their marriage. (She was 
their only child.) 

" One thing must not be omitted. Never do I remember 
at Bingley in my Grandmother's time, nor afterwards on the 
part of my father, unkind remarks about any one. Personal 
conversation in the way of gossip was unknown. Their 
richly stored minds never lacked subjects which were in- 
structive and adapted to every variety of character; and they 
habitually endeavoured to find the right key to open the 
hearts and minds of their visitors. It was an axiom with 
them that in this way we may learn something from every 
one." 

In Charles Lloyd the poet's volume of sonnets 
to the memory of Priscilla Farmer these visits of 
the children to her are very prettily, if at this date 
somewhat artificially, commemorated. 

In his daughter Anna her father evidently 
delighted, as one who, unlike his sons Charles and 
Robert, was in full sympathy with his religious and 
philanthropic aspirations. One of the letters he 
wrote to her while she was visiting friends in America 
has been preserved : 

" BINGLEY, 6tk of gift mo : 1823. 

"My spirit is often with thee, my dear daughter, in 
sympathy with thee in thy service for thy Lord and Master. 
I well know that those who are deeply baptized have often 



ANNA BRAITHWAITE 177 

much to undergo. They can feel the truth of Paul's expres- 
sion, ' as sorrowful, yet always rejoicing ; as poor, yet making 
many rich ; as having nothing, and yet possessing all things.' 
This comprises a great deal in a few words. With the latter 
part, 'as having nothing, and yet possessing all things/ I 
am particularly impressed. It is in this state of nothingness, 
when self is of no reputation, that we are among those to 
whom our Saviour's words are applicable, ' Blessed are the 
poor in spirit, for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven.' In this 
state, how tender we are in noticing the weaknesses of others, 
and how do our minds expand in love, so that though we 
are poor we may make many rich, and though we may have 
but little to say, this little from a deeply baptized spirit will 
comfort far more than many words spoken without life. Our 
meetings often suffer from a multitude of words. I do like 
to feel a gathering influence. This is sometimes lost, when 
testimonies and especially prayers are too long. 

" How I shall rejoice to see thee return in health and 
peace ! My mind has rested and still rests in the faith that 
the Divine blessing is over thee. 

"Farewell, my very dear daughter. May every comfort 
attend thee." 

Anna Braithwaite had become a minister of the 
Society of Friends in England, but felt impelled, 
as we have seen, to visit America. The object of 
her visit was to confront the teachings of Elias 
Hicks, of whom something has been said in another 
chapter. Anna Braithwaite, like Mr. Crewdson of 
Manchester, the author of the book mentioned in 
chapter xvii., considered Elias Hicks's religious 
views deplorably unscriptural, as did most of the 
Friends amongst whom she had moved in Eng- 
land, and she could not rest without proceeding to 
America to preach what she believed to be the 
truth. 

Of one of Anna Braithwaite's visits to America 
an interesting recollection was preserved by Dr. 
John E. Edwards, who received the rudiments of 
his education at the Friends' School at New Garden, 

M 



178 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

and afterwards became a Presbyterian minister. 
In a notice in the New York Illustrated Christian 
Weekly for April 5, 1879, Dr. Edwards thus re- 
calls some of the scenes of his early boyhood : 

" How vividly all these scenes take form on the canvas 
of memory. Many a dear old remembered spot stands out 
conspicuously to the backward glance! Anna Braithwaite 
came from England to attend the Yearly Meeting not less 
than fifty years ago. It is the first day of the week. The 
highways and byways are thronged with the people on the 
way to New Garden. It is the Yearly Meeting of the Friends. 
What a crowd has assembled and is assembling. They come 
from all quarters, by all sorts of conveyances. Every panel 
of the fence has a horse ' hitched ' to it. Every branch on 
every accessible tree has a bridle tied to it. Carryalls and 
gigs, carts and wagons of every description are crowded 
together on every hand. The Meeting-house is already filled 
to its utmost capacity ; and males and females sitting apart. 
Hundreds are outside; but everywhere a Quaker silence 
pervades the multitudinous crowd. 

"Within, silence reigns. A little rustle is heard. The 
softly modulated and sweet-toned voice of Anna Braithwaite 
is rising in prayer. It is heard all over the assembly. That 
voice grows stronger and fuller in its compass, and rings 
in the closely ceiled house. What fervour, what subdued 
earnestness, what pathos ! She prays that war and blood- 
shed may speedily come to a perpetual end ; that nation 
may cease to lift up sword against nation; that national 
differences may be settled by peaceable arbitration; and 
that the time may soon come when war shall be heard of 
no more. She prays that the slave trade may be abolished, 
and that slavery may not only be mitigated in its horrors, 
but for ever banished from the earth. She closes her prayer, 
and silence again pervades the house. 

"Presently she unties the white ribbon under her chin, 
and lays aside her bonnet, and rises to her feet. A neat 
and tidy cap, as plain as plain can be, without frill or other 
appendage, fitting closely over her smoothly dressed hair, 
and pinned under her chin, is the only ornament. Her hands 
are ungloved and as white as marble. Serenity marks her 
sweetly composed face. A sort of heavenly light kindles 



ANNA BRAITHWAITE 179 

on her radiant brow. Her lips part, and that sweetly 
modulated voice again fills the house, as she repeats a pas- 
sage from the Gospel of St. John, the beloved disciple. The 
cadenza of a mellow-throated bird in the ringing forest could 
not have been softer or sweeter than the musical tones of 
that silvery voice as it rose and fell in measured cadence. 
Every ear bent in rapt attention; every heart in sympathy 
with the speaker. 

" ' Peace on earth, goodwill towards men,' is her topic. 
She warms with her theme, and grows more and more 
eloquent as she advances in her discourse. An hour has 
elapsed since that sweet-faced woman arose, and still the 
listening crowd hang breathlessly on her lips. Many an 
eye is moistened with tears. Here and there heads are 
bowed. And still with glowing diction, clothing her beautiful 
and touching thoughts, Anna Braithwaite continues, until, 
overpowered with her emotions, 'tears in her voice,' she 
quietly resumes her seat, while a positively awful silence 
pervades the house, and reigns unbroken over the scene." 

In a letter Anna wrote to her father from Virginia 
in 1823 she says : 

"To see what we have seen the last few days ought 
surely to be sufficient to convince the strongest advocate of 
slavery that the system is injurious. ... In Virginia, the 
slave owners rear slaves for sale in other States, and keep 
as few as they can for themselves. The land appears, so 
far, poor and badly cultivated. No one, observing the alac- 
rity of the black children in anticipating our wants, and the 
readiness in performing various services, could for a moment 
imagine them endowed with inferior capacities. An agreeable 
young man, who has been with us several times, a resident 
in the town, told us that he has a black girl about ten years 
of age, who attends to his children. She has taught herself 
to read, by being with them and making use of their books; 
and he scarcely ever sees her, even rocking the cradle, with- 
out a book in her hand. He fully believes they have great 
facility in acquiring knowledge. This is also exemplified 
in the schools for. coloured children in New York and 
Pennsylvania." 

The practice above alluded to of rearing slaves like 
cattle for sale occasioned such a revolt of public 



i8o THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

feeling against it that it hastened the downfall of 
slavery in the United States. 

At a very early date the Society of Friends 
made it a rule for their members not to keep slaves, 
and as early as 1780 there was not a single slave 
owned by any member of the Society, with its 
knowledge and consent, in America or England. 
Having freed themselves from the guilt of slavery, 
in 1783 they petitioned the House of Commons to 
abolish the slave trade and slavery. This was the 
first petition on the subject presented to the House 
of Commons, and in the great struggle which now 
commenced, members of the Society of Friends 
occupied the most important position till, in 1833, 
slavery was abolished in all the British possessions. 
But no reader of Uncle Tom s Cabin will need to 
be told this. And here I might remark that Mrs. 
Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of that book, 
came to " Farm " in 1853 to see mv grandmother, 
Rachel Lloyd, who was also passionately an 
abolitionist, and a short description of the visit 
will be found in her Sunny Memories. 

Anna Braithwaite crossed the Atlantic to America 
three times on her missions of love to the meetings 
of the Society of Friends in that land. This in- 
volved many weeks on the sea, often in stormy 
weather, tedious and frequently dangerous journeys 
on land, and long separations from her most affec- 
tionate husband and young children ; but all was 
cheerfully endured by this heroic Christian woman. 

She was much beloved in England, and her 
ministry was greatly valued. Her health was never 
strong, but a peaceful evening of life was granted 
her. She died in 1859, aged seventy-one. 

An interesting memoir, chiefly compiled from 
her letters and journals, was written by the youngest 
of her three sons, Joseph Bevan Braithwaite, who 



ANNA BRAITHWAITE 181 

was born at Kendal in 1818, and inherited many of 
the intellectual abilities of his grandfather, Charles 
Lloyd. This remarkable man, who left school 
before he was sixteen, afterwards continued his 
studies in Greek and Latin with such zeal and suc- 
cess that his uncle, Bishop Wordsworth, believed 
him to be unsurpassed by any one at the time in 
his knowledge of these languages. At the same 
time he taught himself Hebrew, in which he became 
very proficient. He was called to the Bar at the 
Middle Temple in 1843, and for long rose at four 
or five in the morning to continue his classical 
and Biblical studies before the business of the day 
commenced. He paid occasional visits to " Farm " 
until the year 1895. Joining the committee of the 
Bible Society, he was for many years chairman of 
their translation committee, on which his classical 
attainments were much appreciated. He died in 
November 1905. 



CHAPTER XVII 

THE FIRST SAMUEL LLOYD 

George Braithwaite Lloyd's parentage My grandfather and his coach- 
man The first head of a Lloyd family to leave the Friends Elias 
Hicks and his influence Isaac Crewdson's counterblast Mr. 
Beverley at "Farm" George Stacey Quaker Conservatives 
And the new spirit Quaker dress Samuel Bowley's beard 

MY grandfather, the first of the Lloyds to bear the 
name of Samuel, was so named after his maternal 
grandfather, Samuel Barnes of London. He was 
born in 1768, and married, in October 1791, Rachel, 
eldest daughter of George and Deborah Braithwaite 
of Kendal. They both were twenty-three at the 
time. They began their married life in the Old 
Square, removing afterwards to a larger house 
in the Crescent, which had become the fashionable 
part of the town, where they lived till the death of 
their father (the third Sampson Lloyd) in 1807, 
when they moved to "Farm." Twelve children 
were born to them, and their eldest son having died 
in infancy, they gave the name George Braithwaite 
to the next, who, in his time, became the father of 
two sons still so well remembered in Birmingham 
Sampson Samuel Lloyd and George Braithwaite 
Lloyd, of whom I have given many reminiscences 
in chapter ix. 

At the end of the eighteenth century the busi- 
ness of the bank had become so extensive and 
important that it was thought undesirable for any 
acting partner to be associated with the manage- 
ment of any other business. The first Samuel 



182 



THE FIRST SAMUEL LLOYD 183 

Lloyd therefore devoted himself solely to its affairs. 
He was a man greatly respected in Birmingham 
serious, scholarly, and very fond of his home-life. 
He took great interest in the flowers and fruit of 
u Farm," and exercised wide hospitality there. 

One of the third Sampson Lloyd's daughters 
married an Irish gentleman named Phelps, and a 
son was born to them at " Farm " in 1803 who was 
named Joseph Lloyd Phelps. He lived at Yardley 
near Birmingham, and every now and then when a 
Lloyd relative died he found that 100 was left to 
him in the will, which, as he was out of business, 
was very acceptable. I mention him here to intro- 
duce a characteristic anecdote ; for he told me 
that when the first Samuel Lloyd's coachman, 
" Reynolds," became possessed of property which 
gave him a vote, he opposed his master politically, 
but it made no difference in their friendly relations ; 
Samuel Lloyd's widow left him ^300 in recognition 
of his long and faithful services. 

My grandfather was the first head of any family 
of Birmingham Lloyds to leave the Society of 
Friends. His severance was gradual but complete, 
and it began, as had that of many other seceders, 
in the example of Elias Hicks, a gifted minister 
of the Society in America, who, having embraced 
views of a Unitarian tendency, proclaimed them so 
convincingly in his sermons that many Friends in 
Philadelphia accepted his doctrine and joined him, 
thus causing a schism in the Society. His followers 
are termed Hicksite Friends, w r hile those adhering 
to the views previously held are known as Orthodox 
Friends. 

This schism in America was followed by one 
in England, although Isaac Crewdson of Man- 
chester, my grandfather's first cousin, did all he 
could to check it in a book entitled A Beacon to 



1 84 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

the Society of Friends^ published in 1835. This 
book, which contained extracts from the writings of 
Elias Hicks, and in opposition to them passages 
from the Scriptures of a contrary tendency, was 
studied with deep interest by my grandfather, 
whose mind, I should say, was not wholly unpre- 
pared for a change of religious belief, a new sect, the 
Plymouth Brethren, having already attracted his 
questioning notice. It is unnecessary here to state 
the tenets of the Brethren, as they are called, beyond 
saying that their conception of the spiritual life 
is not very different from that of strict Friends, but 
that they add certain sacramental ceremonies foreign 
to the teaching of George Fox. 

Samuel Lloyd's natural desire to know more of 
this new creed was increased by the circumstance 
that his lovely daughter Rachel had married Robert 
Howard, a Plymouth Brother, and in 1835 several 
of the Brethren visited " Farm," as we read in the 
diary of Mr. Beverley, who was among them : 

" Tuesday, April jilt, 1835. Dined at 'Farm,' at Mr. Lloyd's 
the Quaker and Banker, where I dined once before : an agree- 
able day : the conversation not trifling. I had much conversa- 
tion with Mr. Lloyd, apart from the rest. I find his views of 
the gospel not in the slightest degree tinged with mysticism. 
He is of the Evangelical, the modern school of Quakerism. 
Drank tea with Joseph Sturge ; the family of the Lloyds from 
' Farm ' were of the party. I talked with Mr. Lloyd the whole 
evening. The more I converse with this good old man, the 
more I respect and love him. I believe him to be a sincere 
Christian, and I know he is an honourable man and a most 
kind father and friend." 

This Mr. Beverley was a clever, intellectual, 
critical man, and his visit to "Farm" doubtless 
helped forward the change which was to take 
place in my grandfather's religious convictions. 
At last, five years after the publication of The 



THE FIRST SAMUEL LLOYD 185 

Beacon, and after much thoughtful consideration 
and many conversations with leading " Brethren" 
and with his son-in-law, Samuel Lloyd sent in his re- 
signation to the Society of Friends. It was dated 
February 12, 1840. R. T. Cadbury and T. Southall 
were after the usage of the Society, who lose their 
members with reluctance and sorrow appointed 
to visit my grandfather and make sure that his 
mind was clear and decided. The step, however, 
was irrevocable ; and my grandfather joined the 
Brethren. He continued one of them to the end ; 
but although I was with him almost every week 
during the ensuing nine years, I never heard him 
say a word in favour of any of the family following 
his example. His wife remained a Friend. My 
father also remained a Friend, being known as 
"Quaker" Lloyd. I left Friends for some years, 
but in 1892 I rejoined them. 

It has been suggested since that if those Friends 
in authority at the time could have tolerated evan- 
gelical views not held or expressed exactly in the 
same groove as their own, neither he nor his cousin 
Isaac Crewdson, nor others, who were the cream of 
the Society of Friends in Manchester, would have 
resigned. They did not at first express any desire 
to leave the Society, but felt impelled to do so rather 
than not obey their own religious convictions ; 
and as the breach grew wider separation became 
inevitable. 

I recollect that old Edward Pease, "the Father 
of Railways " as he was called, and the father also 
of my brother-in-law, viewed with extreme mis- 
giving and reluctance the secession to the Brethren 
by members of the Society of Friends. " They will 
come to naught; they will come to naught," he 
said. 

The clerk to the yearly meeting for some 



1 86 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

years subsequent to 1840 was George Stacey of 
Tottenham, who when a young man had felt at- 
tracted to pay a visit to "Farm," and had there 
fallen in love with and married Deborah, my father's 
eldest sister. Near to the clerk during the annual 
meetings sat Josiah Forster, my father's old school- 
master, whom he greatly revered as being much his 
superior. I may here mention that not only had 
my father a very modest view of his attainments, 
like some other Lloyds now passed away, but 
he seemed inclined unduly to depreciate his own 
abilities ; which reminds me of Matthew Boulton 
writing to James Watt that he thought they had 
better think a little more of themselves. 

The leaders of the Society of Friends in 1840 
were all religious conservatives against change. If 
they were to yield to the clamour for it, they might 
well ask, Where were they to stop ? The digni- 
taries of the Church of England at the present 
day feel the same difficulty ; if the Athanasian 
Creed were obliterated from the services of the 
Church, and other dogmas were regarded as doubt- 
ful or obsolete, and no longer to be held, what 
would the end be ? 

It is the natural wish of the leaders of any sect 
to leave things as they are. Edward Smith of 
Sheffield, one of the prominent Friends of the past 
generation, told me that I should find the views 
of Friends all dovetailed into a circle, the whole 
of them fitting into each other, thus making a 
complete circle of truth. When the members of 
any church or congregation have arrived at the 
certain conviction that what they unitedly believe 
is really the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, it results in great unity. This was 
so conspicuous in early Christian days, and also 
among the early Friends in the midst of their 



THE FIRST SAMUEL LLOYD 187 

sufferings, that it was said, " Behold how these 
Christians love one another ! " 

Extremes are said to meet ; and Friends are 
not alone in favouring the preaching of those who 
have a gift leaving the others to worship in silence, 
for in the Catholic Church those priests who have 
no gift are not expected to preach every Sunday, as 
in the Church of England, but only those who can 
do so to manifest edification ; and worshippers in 
their chapels are seen worshipping in silence as in 
a Friends' Meeting. 

Members of the Society of Friends, like those 
of other religious societies, have their favourite 
ministers. The second Samuel Lloyd's favourite 
minister, par excellence, was Stephen Grellet. He 
was a Frenchman who had lived in America and 
then settled in England. In 1831 on one occasion 
he preached at Chelmsford, and the newspaper 
report of it said his address lasted "two hours 
and a half," and that the spacious meeting-house 
was crowded with " persons not belonging to the 
fraternity." 

Though the Friends' basis of worship is silent 
waiting upon God, all are encouraged to feel that 
they have an important part in the service by their 
secret prayers, not only for themselves, but for those 
who meet with them. Regarding Christ as the 
Head of their Church, they look to Him to prepare 
some of those present to take part in vocal prayer 
and preaching. 

In Friends' meetings singing is now permitted 
or tolerated, and public announcements are now 
made stating that such and such a minister will 
deliver an address a complete surrender of the 
old belief in sudden and unexpected promptings of 
the Spirit. These changes alone show how much 
the Friends have become modernised. Few Friends 



1 88 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

any longer wear a distinctive dress or use the 
second person singular in conversation ; and the 
whole tendency is to merge Friends completely 
with other Christian people. 

The Friends about half a century ago were 
very rigid in keeping to their Quakerly dress, and 
when George Stacey, my uncle, who, as I have 
said, was clerk to the Friends' yearly meeting, 
came back from America wearing trousers instead 
of knee-breeches, the Friends of Banbury, whom 
he happened to visit on his return, alarmed at 
seeing such a change of attire, were afraid that 
he had altogether fallen away. 

The old Friends were also expected to shave, 
a point on which the Bishop of Oxford also held 
strong views. He tolerated a clergyman wearing a 
moustache, if he had a beard, but forbade a clergy- 
man going into the pulpit with moustache only. 
The Duke of Wellington's orders to his troops with 
regard to shaving did not permit the whiskers to 
descend beyond the line of the nose, and my father 
having adopted this regulation when a young man, 
adhered to it to the end of his life. One minister 
of the Society, Samuel Bowley of Gloucester, 
ceased to shave altogether, and let both his beard 
and moustache grow. Such a departure from ortho- 
doxy amazed some Friends, who expected the 
Spirit of the Lord to depart from him ; but my 
father hearing him preach afterwards, said that this 
was manifestly not so, as he spoke as spiritually 
and as much to edification as he had done before. 
Samuel Bowley explained afterwards that he had 
been obliged to give up shaving as his hand shook 
too much for him to be able any longer to attempt 
it. His example gave courage to others; and so 
another piece of latitudinarianism crept in. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE LLOYDS AND WEDNESBURY 

The Wednesbury mines Richard Parkes' bargain Lord Eldon's 
delays The Quaker and the motto Pumping-engines invented 
"Squire" Wilkinson Excursions to Wednesbury The beacon- 
fires The " Clippers " Wednesbury in my early days Cock- 
fighting My father, " Quaker " Lloyd A tall family The Friends 
and tithes Nonconformity at the present day Lloyds, Fosters and 
Co. The Blackfriars Bridge and financial difficulty Lessons from 
adversity A truly generous man The Lloyds and iron Famous 
ironmasters The Bible in Spain The end 

OF the two principal branches of the Lloyd family 
banking and iron have been the mainstay. But 
iron came first. The branch to which I belong is 
still true to iron, and for many years I lived at 
Wednesbury, where the business was centred. I 
did not move to " Farm " until 1870. The story of 
the Lloyds' association with the Wednesbury mines 
is, I think, not without interest. 

We can now scarcely realise that it was not 
until a century and a quarter ago, when the in- 
ventive genius of James Watt had been directed 
to the subject, that steam as a motive power 
became available to assist and supply the wants 
of the human race. In the seventeenth century 
the Marquis of Worcester made experiments. He 
burst a cannon by imprisoning steam within it, 
proving, as he said, that there was power in steam, 
and he patented what he termed a " water com- 
manding engine " ; but nothing came of it. Savory 
and others followed, but without any commercial 

success. 

189 



190 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

In the years 1704 and 1708 the owners of 
several hundred acres of land at Wednesbury re- 
garded the mines, which existed, if at all, under 
water, as practically of no value, since there was 
no power known by which they could be rendered 
dry and workable. This was three-quarters of a 
century before the inventions of James Watt, who 
had to some extent, it is true, been preceded by 
Savory, but the steam-engine of that pioneer 
created in 1739 for pumping purposes burst, and 
so did not effect much good. The owners evi- 
dently thought themselves fortunate in finding that 
our ancestor's relative, Richard Parkes, was will- 
ing to purchase and able to pay for what to them 
seemed so valueless. He therefore became a pur- 
chaser, and legal documents were drawn up and 
executed, giving him, his executors and assigns, 
the right to get the minerals during a term of 
500 years. 

I have a copy of the deeds so well and carefully 
drawn that it would be thought that the rights of 
Richard Parkes and his heirs could not be disputed, 
but when, three-quarters of a century later, Boulton 
and Watt's pumping-engines performed such won- 
ders in Cornwall, evidencing the possibility of the 
Wednesbury mines being unwatered, one of the 
principal landowners raised the question whether 
the 500 years' lease which his father had granted 
was binding upon his successor, alleging, as a 
reason, that the mines had not been worked in 
the lifetime of the landowner who granted the 
lease ; but it was proved that the heirs of Parkes 
had exercised their right of ownership during his 
life without their right having been contested, so 
that this plea failed ; moreover, he and the others 
from whom the mines were purchased had received 
in cash as much as, with interest and compound 



THE LLOYDS AND WEDNESBURY 191 

interest, since the payments were made, amounted 
to more than ,90,000. A Chancery suit to settle 
the question was commenced in 1818 by the heirs 
of Parkes (by a plea for discovery). 

Lord Eldon, who was Lord Chancellor at the 
time, was proverbially very slow in giving his 
judgments : a tendency that seemed to increase 
with his age, and caused great dissatisfaction to 
litigants, so much so that a debate once took 
place in the House of Lords as to whether or not 
he ought to be censured. In the heirs of Parkes' 
case it was announced that he would give his 
decision on the following Tuesday, but Tuesday 
after Tuesday passed and none was pronounced. 
Ultimately, however, the case was settled out of 
court in 1821. 

Lord Eldon's first journey from Newcastle to 
London, when he was plain Mr. Scott, was in 
May 1766, in a coach called the "Fly," "by 
reason," Lord Campbell says, "of what was then 
considered its rapid travelling, as it was only three 
nights and four days on the journey." The panel 
on the coach bore this inscription : " Dat cito, si dat 
bene," which made a great impression on young 
Scott. It happened that an old Quaker, who was 
his fellow-passenger, when the coach stopped at 
the inn at Tuxford, called to a chambermaid to 
come and receive sixpence from him, telling her 
that he forgot to give it her when he slept there 
two years before. Scott said, "Friend, hast thou 
seen the motto on this coach ? " The Quaker 
replied that he had not. "Then look at it," said 
Scott, "for I think that giving her only sixpence 
now, for all she did for you two years ago, is 
.neither ' dat cito' nor Mat bene.'' 

This reminds me that the first Samuel Lloyd, 
once driving from Walsall to Birmingham, and 



1 92 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

coming to a toll-gate, found he had not got four- 
pence, the amount of the toll, in his pocket ; and 
so the next time he came he paid 4^d., telling the 
toll-keeper the farthing was for interest. 

After the settlement of the lawsuit my father 
and partners had to erect a suitable pumping- 
engine, and they decided in favour of the " Atmos- 
pheric Engine," which, invented by Newcomen and 
improved by Smeaton, was made serviceable for 
pumping by Watt. It was accordingly erected, 
and I remember it very well at work as late as 
1843-4. It required only 3 Ibs. pressure of steam, 
which was generated in a balloon boiler. It 
successfully drained the water from a seam of 
coal eight feet or more thick, but the seam 
was not much more than twenty yards below the 
surface. 

From the date when steam power became avail- 
able, about the year 1780, great improvements in 
the manufacture of iron had been taking place. 
John Wilkinson, at Bradley, near Bilston, in 1785 
used the first blast engine driven by steam ever 
employed in this or any other country in the manu- 
facture of iron, the success of which inaugurated 
a new era in the iron trade of south Staffordshire 
and elsewhere. He also invented machinery for 
boring cannon accurately, and this led to the per- 
fecting of the steam-engine by James Watt, as it 
enabled him to get a steam-cylinder made of iron, 
instead of wood lined with tin, as previously. The 
erection of one of Matthew Boulton's rolling-mills 
at his works at Bradley was another great step in 
advance. The story is well known of how " Squire " 
Wilkinson was " prayed into" building a " cast- 
metal " meeting-house with an iron pulpit for the 
Methodists, and it is recorded that on his death, 
at the age of eighty-nine years, his body was en- 



THE LLOYDS AND WEDNESBURY 193 

closed in an iron coffin and its final resting-place 
was an iron tomb. 

My father, the second Samuel Lloyd, as already 
mentioned, went to live at Wednesbury in 1818, 
w r hen he was twenty-three years of age. Although 
the development of the mines had to await the 
settlement of the Chancery suit which related to 
the chief part of them, there was much needing 
attention. Among other things that came of 
neglect he found some strips of land had been lost 
to the family, owing to no rent having been col- 
lected for over twenty years. My father in those 
days spent each week-end at "Farm." Doubtless 
he would now and then take his three unmarried 
sisters to Wednesbury with him, and would show 
them the view from the top of Church Hill, where 
St. Bartholomew's stands on the site of an old 
castle which was defended by Ethelfleda, daughter 
of Alfred the Great, against an incursion of the 
Danes. Here also it is believed the Druids offered 
up human sacrifices. They had also a settlement 
at Barr (where for many years the second Samuel 
Galton lived, close to Barr Beacon), and it is 
thought that they went at times to the Wednes- 
bury hill, the hill of Woden, the god of the woods. 
The popular idea is that Woden's temple stood on 
the site of the parish church preceding Ethelfleda's 
castle. 

Samuel Lloyd, standing there with his sisters, 
would doubtless descant to them of the view. On 
the horizon to the east they would see Barr Beacon 
with its poles, iron basket, and chains, just as 
they had been at the time when the news of the 
landing of Napoleon was daily expected. Forty 
years and more later I found them still undisturbed. 
The light fixed on the dome of St. Philip's Church, 
Birmingham, would be clearly seen at Barr Beacon. 

N 



i 9 4 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

On the west horizon, also five miles away, they 
would see Sedgley Beacon, the fire from which, 
should invasion take place, would be visible at the 
Wrekin and far into Shropshire. Upon the south, 
on the horizon another five miles distant, Dudley 
Castle is a very conspicuous object from Wednes- 
bury. From here a fire would flash far away into 
the country beyond. But in 1822, the year in 
which I imagine such an excursion to have taken 
place, the year of invasion and of the terrible Boney 
was over, for he died on the 5th of May 1821. 

When a schoolboy and afterwards I saw much 
of the two youngest of these sisters, who were 
charming all their lives. More than forty years 
after this pictured conversation, one of their 
admirers confided to me his admiration, saying, 
in the most expressive words he could command, 
apparently with a lover's sigh, " they were clippers." 
Neither of them fell to his lot. 

In the diary of a visit paid to Birmingham in 
1819 of some relatives I find more than one refer- 
ence to the " clippers," Rachel and Sarah. Thus : 
"We had a nice chat ... in the drawing-room 
after the party separated, talking of the comparative 
beauties of the ladies who had left us, some preferring 
Rachel, others Sarah." The next day the visitors 
went to "Farm," where they regaled themselves 
with u milk warm from the cow, presented to us 
by the fair hands of the lady Rachel, who made a 
sweet, elegant, sylph-like dairymaid." Rachel was 
sixteen in 1819 ; Sarah was eighteen months younger. 
In 1825 Rachel married Robert Howard of Totten- 
ham, and had eight children ; Sarah, in 1828, 
married Alfred Fox of Falmouth, and had twelve 
children. 

I joined my father's business in 1843 at the age 
of sixteen. When I first remember Wednesbury 



THE LLOYDS AND WEDNESBURY 195 

the few shops kept open after it was dark had 
either a couple of rush-lights in the window suffi- 
cient to make the darkness visible, or one or two 
aboriginal dip candles, with wicks that badly wanted 
snuffing. Bull-baiting and cock-fighting were then 
the sports of the uneducated people, who delighted 
in the excitement. 

While on this subject I am tempted to quote a 
passage from an interesting article on Wednesbury 
written in 1868 by Mr. J. C. Tildesley : 

"The place was less known for its industry than for its 
pastimes. It was the acknowledged stronghold of the national 
sport of ' cocking.' At a cock-pit in the Potter's Lane birds 
were reared and trained for King George ; and the annual 
1 cockings ' here at Wake-time were attended by the nobility 
and members of the sporting fraternity from all parts of the 
kingdom. "Twas wonderful to see,' says an old record, 'how 
the great men of our land would flock to Wednesbury to 
behold a few brace of spurred cocks tear each other to pieces 
in their mad fury, set on and abetted by their anxious 
possessors. Lawyers and apothecaries, country squires, 
nay, even parsons in their cock-an-pinched hats, have I seen 
crowding the pit and applauding the bravery of the birds.' 
Ninety years ago the ' cockings ' of Wednesbury were as 
famous throughout the country, and produced almost as much 
excitement, as the modern Derby-day. Early in the present 
century, however, their glory had begun to wane. Wesley's 
warning voice against the sport had found an echo, and the 
plea of humanity began to assert its claim. The better class 
of townspeople gradually discountenanced the pastime, and 
the fraternity degenerated into the mere rabble of mobocracy. 
Sarcasm and ridicule did much to render the sport and its 
devotees unpopular. A street-song called 'The Wednesbury 
Cocking ' greatly infuriated the cockers, and the guard of the 
mail coach ' Nimrod,' venturing on one occasion to give a few 
airs of the melody on his bugle, while passing through the 
town, was attacked by the fraternity, and savagely stoned 
for his pains. Bull-baiting, bear-baiting, and badger-drawing 
were also included in the popular recreations of the period, 
as many as six bulls having been subject to canine encounter 
during a single Wake-time." 



196 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

Public opinion may have been powerful, but 
it was ultimately the vicar of the parish, the 
Rev. Isaac Clarkson, who, opposed as he was to 
" Quaker" Lloyd in religious views, united with 
him in inducing the people to accept the Act 
that made these cruel pursuits illegal. 

My father was very handsome as a young man. 
Once when he sent me, when I was sixteen, to call 
on the late Thomas Walker, the proprietor, at the 
time, with Mr. Geach, of the Patent Shaft Works, 
I remember Mr. Walker saying, " You will never be 
such a handsome man as your father." I was a little 
taken aback; but he said, "Your father, when I 
first saw him, was the handsomest man I ever saw 
in my life. He had knee-breeches, and silk stock- 
ings, and a velvet coat." I conclude it must have 
been at the time of one of his sisters' weddings. 

My father rode a fine grey horse, and the 
county people wanted once to make him a captain 
of the Staffordshire Yeomanry, but his Friends' 
principles prevented him accepting the post. The 
Lloyds have been a tall race. One day when I 
had finished growing, my father asked me how 
tall I was, when I replied, 5 feet 9^ inches. He 
said, " My grandfather was 6 feet i inch, my father 
6 feet, and I am 5 feet 1 1 inches, and you only 
5 feet 9^ inches ! What are we coming to?" My 
wife, however, said that the cleverest men she had 
ever met were all short men. 

Talking one day with my father respecting re- 
ligious persecution, I said that, as far as the Church 
of England was concerned, it was now a thing of 
the past. He replied, "No; the same spirit is 
still in them, and no one can tell how soon perse- 
cution may again take place," and lately it has 
become manifest, by the Act of Parliament of 1902, 
under which Nonconformist ministers and others 



THE LLOYDS AND WEDNESBURY 197 

have been imprisoned upon the religious educa- 
tional question. He considered that he had suffered 
at Wednesbury when, soon after he went to live 
there, two fine horses belonging to his firm, and 
worth ^40 each, were seized and sold, because he 
had not paid the Great Tithe. Four days after- 
wards both horses died, and the people of Wednes- 
bury deemed this to be a judgment following the 
taking of them. 

Happily the Tithe Commutation Act, passed 
in 1834, tended greatly to allay friction between 
Church and Dissent ; and when Church Rates in 
Birmingham, more than half a century ago, were 
abolished, the houses of dissenters were no longer 
invaded, and articles, often of double the value of 
the rate, seized and sold at little more than half 
their value. The Friends have always defrayed 
the expenses connected with their own places of 
worship, besides distributing to the necessities of 
their own poor, &c. 

Some members of the Lloyd family are now 
earnest members of the Church of England. As 
an instance of friendly feeling towards it, I may 
mention that John William Pease, banker, of New- 
castle-on-Tyne, though a Friend, gave up his 
residence there, worth ,10,000 or more, as a 
bishop's palace was much needed in the newly 
appointed diocese. He died a few years ago, and 
his widow, my first cousin, is, I am sure, very well 
pleased in remembering her husband's timely 
generosity. 

Coming events cast their shadows before, and 
the year 1906 opens with a document signed by 
1700 clergymen of the Church of England which 
was sent by them to the members of the Episcopal 
Church in America, in which they assert their 
confidence that " the faith of the Church will stand 



198 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

whatever historical revision may await us," and 
they desire that the clergy, as Christian teachers, 
should take part in, and welcome, a patient, 
reverent, and progressive criticism of the Old and 
New Testament . . . " lest the door of ordination 
should be closed to men who patiently and 
reverently apply historical methods to the gospel 
records, and so an increasing number of men, both 
spiritually and intellectually qualified, should be 
lost to the high office of the Ministry." 

The Quaker descendants of the Lloyds of 
Birmingham, and the most enlightened members 
of every religious society, no longer deprecate in- 
vestigations into the correctness of any and every 
passage of Scripture fearing lest the whole citadel 
of truth should be shaken to its foundation and 
infidelity triumph as the result. This small book 
welcomes the declaration of these 1700 clergymen. 

The imprisonment and continued religious 
persecution of Charles Lloyd, which caused the 
migration of the family to Birmingham, his de- 
scendants may freely and thankfully acknowledge, 
has been overruled, in their case, by a kind Provi- 
dence, for good. That persecution calls to mind 
the experience which George Fox gave expression 
to in his Narrative of the Spreading of Truth, 
where he writes : " There was never any persecution 
that came, but we saw in the event that it would 
be productive of good ; nor were there ever any 
prisons that I was in, or sufferings which I endured, 
but it was for bringing multitudes out of prison ; " 
for " they who imprisoned the Truth, and quenched 
the Spirit in themselves," quenched it also out- 
side the prisons, so " that it became as a byword : 
* truth is scarcely anywhere to be found, but in 
jail.' ' 

It would take many pages to describe the com- 



THE LLOYDS AND WEDNESBURY 199 

mercial success attending the industrial enterprise 
of the firm of Lloyds, Fosters & Co., from the 
starting of the blast-furnaces about 1825-26, with 
" Quaker" Lloyd, as my father was called, at its 
head, until death terminated his labours in 1862. 
The business had by that time become large and 
prosperous ; engineering works and forges and 
mills had been erected, and the weekly wages 
amounted to ^3000 ; but almost as fast as money 
was made it was spent in what seemed to be needful 
outlays to supply the increasing requirements of 
customers, so that no great amount of money was 
available for distribution amongst the partners. 
Particulars respecting this firm are given in the 
Wednesbury papers at the time of the sale of the 
business in 1866-67 to the Patent Shaft and Axle- 
tree Co. Limited ; and also by Mr. P. W. Hack- 
wood in his Wednesbury Ancient and Modern, and 
The Story of the Black Country, &c. 

What became of the business afterwards ? may 
be asked. My father impressed upon me, when 
young, the truth that riches can take wings ; and 
amongst other truisms I heard from time to time I 
remember my elder sister's husband, the late Henry 
Pease, of Stanhope Castle and Darlington, remark- 
ing that he had been greatly struck with the 
rapidity with which a good business may be de- 
stroyed by an unfortunate change of management. 
He was the youngest son of Edward Pease of 
Darlington, " The Father of Railways," who told 
his sons to remember that a business was not an 
estate. I remember my father further saying that, 
partnerships are awkward things. 

After this preamble, what happened may be 
briefly described. In 1861-62 the Corporation of 
London decided to erect the present Blackfriars 
Bridge across the Thames. The contract for its 



200 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

construction was let to Messrs. Thorn, a London 
firm, who ordered the necessary ironwork from 
Lloyds, Fosters & Co., and agreed to pay cash 
monthly for each previous month's deliveries. 
When the first monthly payment became due, they 
could not meet it, but sent instead their four months' 
promissory note, which also they failed to meet. 
Thereupon I strongly urged that deliveries to them 
should cease, for it showed that a crisis had arrived, 
and that we ought to adhere to the terms of our 
contract. I knew that this would have been very 
decidedly my father's view if he had been still alive 
and a partner, but those who then owned three- 
quarters of the share capital of the firm (and shortly 
after owned seven-eighths), said decidedly it would 
be better to finance the contractors. I, who took 
the opposite view, only owned one-eighth. My 
partners were so confident that theirs would be the 
best course that all the arguments I could advance 
as to the risks and danger of doing so were totally 
unavailing. I reminded them that we knew that 
the Messrs. Thorn had taken the contract at a 
price far below that of other tenders, ,100,000, for 
instance, below the tender of the Messrs. Brassey ; 
and amongst other things I reminded them that 
Fox, Henderson & Co. of Smethwick, a prosperous 
firm, our competitors for a long time in supplying 
ironwork to railways, had been ruined by becoming 
contractors in Denmark ; and another well-to-do 
firm, Bury, Curtis & Kennedy, engine-makers, of 
Liverpool, had likewise been ruined by departing 
from their ordinary trade and undertaking the con- 
struction of a bridge across the Neva at St. Peters- 
burg. It was in vain. Their minds were so fully 
made up that all argument was useless. 

Expenses meanwhile mounted up, all to the 
detriment of the contractors' bargain. In the 



THE LLOYDS AND WEDNESBURY 201 

construction of the Blackfriars Bridge the stone 
piers had to be built up in the bed of the river, the 
men working inside iron caissons that had to be 
made and kept water-tight. These caissons had to 
be sunk into the London clay below the bed of the 
river to obtain a solid foundation, and as the tide 
was rushing to and fro night and day this was 
found to be much more difficult than my partners, 
or the contractors, or even the engineer, Mr. Cubitt, 
had contemplated. A further difficulty arose at the 
city end of the bridge, where the Fleet ditch, as 
it was called, had been pouring its waters for 
thousands of years into the river, and in doing so 
had burrowed down and made the ground so soft 
that there seemed no bottom to it. 

But money and perseverance at length overcame 
all difficulties, and the bridge was finished, and 
was opened by Queen Victoria, on November 6, 
1869. But through financing the contractors, the 
partners of Lloyds, Fosters & Co. incurred a loss 
of a quarter of a million sterling. This necessitated 
the sale of the works and business to the well- 
known Wednesbury firm, the Patent Shaft and 
Axletree Co. Limited. The sale was satisfactory 
to the purchasers, as in about seven years the 
profits were sufficient to pay the whole of the 
purchase-money in dividends ; and notwithstanding 
the disaster, among the partners of the absorbed 
firm, I have pleasure in remembering, not one word 
of recrimination ever passed. 

Although we remained good friends, in spite 
of this perfectly unnecessary calamity, the disaster 
caused me to repeat to myself many hundreds of 
times, while the wealth, having taken wings, was 
thus daily flying away, the Latin words: " Quos 
Deus vult perdere, prius dementat " (Those whom 
God wishes to destroy He first deprives of 



202 THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 

their reason) ; and I repeated also the words, 
"Consider it," being my own abbreviation of 
Ecclesiastes vii. 14: " In prosperity be joyful, 
but in the day of adversity consider." 

Meanwhile, while some of the descendants of 
Charles Lloyd of Dolobran thus lost a quarter of 
a million of money, two others, both Lloyds, first 
cousins of mine, working in partnership together, 
were being so successful in their business affairs 
that they gained nearly twice that sum. The 
elder of the two brothers most generously gave 
away of his superfluity and abundance, not forget- 
ting those of his own kith and kin to whom he 
believed timely assistance might be acceptable, and 
so far from wishing that a word of thanks should be 
said by any relative in praise of his generosity, he 
expressly forbade it. The gifts to relatives generally 
came unexpectedly, accompanied by a letter, al- 
ways in his own clever, amusing style, sometimes 
assuring the recipients of his bounty that they 
were doing him a favour by helping him to get 
rid of a burden that was weighing him down. He 
so expressly forbade any word of praise or thanks 
that even his name must be withheld in this slight 
reference to him. Some who had converse with 
him may adopt the lines 

" Say not the long ago grows dim, 

Though years have taken flight ; 
We ever shall remember him 

Who filled those hours with light." 

To return to my own affairs, I left one iron 
business only to establish others, in which, in their 
turns, my sons are now occupied so that Lloyds 
are still true to iron and are likely to be so, as 
my sons take kindly to different branches of the 
business. Ironmasters have always been among 
my heroes and friends from George Stephenson, 




SAMUEL LLOYD OF " FARM." 



THE LLOYDS AND WEDNESBURY 203 

whom I heard lecture on "The Fallacies of the 
Rotary Engine," to Sir William Bessemer and 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie. I worked with Sir William 
Siemens in his experiments towards utilising the 
waste heat of furnaces. I will not say that iron 
has entered into my soul, for that would not be 
true ; but I am deeply interested in it, and was 
much pleased the other day to learn that George 
Washington's father and Abraham Lincoln's great 
great grandfather were both ironmasters. 

Writing about oneself is not a congenial task ; 
yet, lest it be thought that I am over much given to 
business, I should like to mention the time I have 
given not only to the study but also to the distri- 
bution of the Bible even to smuggling, under the 
influence of George Borrow's book, copies of the 
Scriptures into Spain by hiding them in the hollow 
balance-weights of the machinery we sent out to 
Barcelona when we supplied the rolling-mills there, 
the dissemination of the literature being under- 
taken by a zealous Welsh foreman. I have long 
been an active member of the Bible Society, and 
recently I myself published The Corrected New 
Testament, in the preparation of which I had the 
valuable assistance of the Rev. G. C. Cunnington 
and many famous theological scholars. I consider 
that my life-work. 

This narrative must now conclude. It was 
Lord Bacon who said, " Lives contain a com- 
mixture of actions, greater and smaller, public and 
private, and of necessity a more true native and 
lively representation than histories that merely 
record the pomp of business." However this may 
be, the task my cousin set me to perform seems 
to me sufficiently completed for me now to take 
leave of the reader. 



APPENDIX I 

ANCESTRY OF THE LLOYDS OF BIRMINGHAM 
AND ROYAL DESCENT 

THROUGH the marriage of the second Charles Lloyd with 
Elizabeth Lort, his descendants are able to claim royal descent 
in more than one line. In Foster's Royal Descent the ancestry 
of the Lloyds of Birmingham has been traced, through this 
marriage, to Edward I. of England. But a chart prepared 
in 1903 and 1904 by the Rev. R. Owen Thomas from 
authentic pedigrees shows that the Lloyds' pedigree, in addi- 
tion to the descent from Edward I., and the more direct 
descent from four lines of British kings, goes back, in some 
cases, more than a thousand years. 

The four principal converging lines proceed respectively 
from the monarchs of a united kingdom of Wales; from 
the Anglo-Saxon king Alfred the Great; from William, the 
Norman conqueror of England ; and from the early kings of 
Scotland. The chart shows that in successive centuries these 
four lines were woven by various marriages. This, while 
complicating the pedigree, puts the fact of this fourfold suc- 
cession beyond dispute. To trace all these connections would 
be a somewhat tedious process, but some of the leading 
genealogical facts may be found interesting. 

The Lorts, from whom, through the marriage of the 
second Charles Lloyd of Dolobran, the immediate ancestor 
of the Birmingham Lloyds, a descent from Edward I. is 
commonly traced, claim descent also from the Scottish kings 
and from William the Conqueror. The father of Sampson 
Lort was Sir Roger Lort Stacpoole, 1st Baronet (died 1664), 
and his mother was Hester Annesley, daughter of Francis 
Annesley, 1st Viscount Valcntia and Lord Mountm orris in 
Ireland (died 1660). Francis Annesley 's wife, Jane Stanhope, 
Was daughter of Sir John Stanhope, ancestor of the Earls of 

205 



206 APPENDIX I 

Chesterfield and Harrington. The grandfather of Sir John 
was Sir Michael Stanhope (executed on Tower Hill 1552), 
who, through both parents, was descended from Princess 
Gundred, daughter of William the Conqueror and wife of 
William de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. It is through Sir 
Michael's mother that one of the lines of Scottish descent is 
to be traced. This lady, Avelina Clifton, was a great grand- 
daughter of Henry de Clifton, who was one of the English 
commanders at the battle of Flodden, and died in 1523, aged 
seventy. John, the 9th Lord Clifford, married Margaret, the 
only child of Lord Vesci, a descendant of William the Lion 
of Scotland, while through Joan Dacre, wife of Thomas, the 
8th Lord Clifford (slain at the battle of St. Albans 1454), and 
her mother, Lady Phillips, daughter of Ralph, Earl of West- 
moreland, appears a descent from Edward III. of England. 

The main line of descent from the Scottish kings is 
through Lady Joan Douglas, wife of the 5th Lord Dacre, and 
daughter of the Princess Egidia who married the 1st Earl 
of Douglas (died 1384). Princess Egidia was a daughter of 
King Robert of Scotland ; and so, through a succession which 
includes Robert the Bruce, and the king Duncan who was 
murdered by Macbeth, the ancestry goes back in a direct line 
to Donald VI., who succeeded to the throne of Scotland in 
889, on the abdication of Gregory the Great, and died in 900. 



ALFRED THE GREAT 

The succession from Alfred the Great, and also that from 
the Norman kings, is linked at more than one point with this 
Scottish ancestry. 

Lady Adeline, wife of Prince Henry of Scotland, was 
descended from William the Conqueror, and Henry's father, 
David I., King of Scotland, and Earl of Huntingdon in the 
English peerage, had married Lady Maud, daughter of 
Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland (died 1153), who was a 
descendant of Alfred the Great. A descent from Alfred is 
to be traced also through the marriage of another Scottish 
king, Malcolm III. ("Canmore"), who died in 1098, and whose 
wife was the Princess Margaret, daughter of Edward the 
Exile (died 1057), son of the Saxon king, Edmund Ironside. 

The English line of the descent from Alfred the Great 



APPENDIX I 207 

(died 901) is through the Lady Eleanor Nevill. She married 
Thomas Stanley, ist Earl of Derby, who crowned Henry VII. 
on Bos worth Field and died in 1524. A descendant of his, 
Elizabeth Stanley, married the first Charles Lloyd of Dolobran 
(born 1 597). The descent of the Nevills from Alfred is traced 
through the Lords of Raby to Cospatric, Saxon Earl of 
Northumberland, who was confirmed in his dignities by 
William the Conqueror, but was deposed soon afterwards 
for rebellion against the Norman rule. Cospatric fled into 
Scotland, taking with him Edgar Atheling, the Saxon claimant 
to the English throne, and Edgar's sister, the Princess Mar- 
garet. Cospatric was descended, in the female line, from 
King Ethelred II., and so, through kings Edgar, Edmund I. 
and Edward the elder, from Alfred. 

By the marriage of the Saxon Princess Margaret to 
Malcolm III. of Scotland comes another collateral royal 
descent. Their daughter Matilda was espoused by Henry I. 
of England. This union of the Norman and Saxon royal 
families contributed greatly to the popularity of Henry I. and 
to the pacification of the kingdom, while from the marriage of 
their daughter, the Empress Matilda, to Geoffrey Count of 
Anjou, sprang the Angevin or Plantagenet line of English 
kings. 

From one of the greatest of these, Edward I., " the English 
Justinian," the best known pedigree of the Lloyds, that given 
in Foster's Royal Descent, is traced through Elizabeth Lort, 
wife of the second Charles Lloyd of Dolobran. Her mother, 
Olive Phillips, was fifth daughter of Sir John Phillips, Bart., 
of Picton Castle, Pembroke (died 1629). Sir John, who was 
descended from Prince Rhys of South Wales, married Mary, 
daughter of Sir John Perrott, of Haroldstone, K.B., who was 
Lord-Deputy of Ireland in 1583 and Admiral of the Fleet, 
and died in the Tower. Through Mary Berkeley, the mother 
of Sir John, the Perrotts were descended, through the 
Berkeleys of Ragland, from Sir Maurice Berkeley (summoned 
to Parliament 1362-1368), who married a daughter of Hugh 
le De Spencer (ancestor of the present Earl Spencer). This 
was the younger of the two De Spencers, father and son, who 
championed the cause of the weak Edward II. against the 
barons in 1326, and endeavoured to strengthen the throne on 
constitutional lines by a statute directed against the assump- 
tion of legislative power by the baronage alone. The younger 
De Spencers, on the capture of the king by the barons in 1326, 



2o8 APPENDIX I 

was summarily condemned as a traitor and hanged on a gibbet 
fifty feet high, the king being murdered at Berkeley Castle in 
the following year. This De Spencer had married Eleanor, 
whose parents were Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and 
Hertford, and Joan Dacre, daughter of Edward I. 

Curiously, Mr. Owen Thomas in his more elaborate chart 
has not carried back the pedigree of the Lloyds through the 
line thus leading from Edward I. Olive Phillips is mentioned, 
but her descent is not traced. Probably he was satisfied with 
having discovered a more ancient royal ancestry. His chart, 
however, does give a double line of descent from Edward I., 
converging in the Stanleys, ancestors of the wife of the first 
Charles Lloyd of Dolobran. 



THE FIRST EARL OF DERBY 

The first Earl of Derby was descended, in the female line, 
from the De Bohuns, one of whom, Humphrey de Bohun, 
Earl of Hereford, High Constable of England (died 1341), 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward I. This Earl of Derby 
married Lady Eleanor Nevill, through whom a descent from 
Alfred the Great has already been shown, and whose father, 
Richard Nevill, Earl of Salisbury, through his mother, Lady 
Joan Beaufort, daughter of "John of Gaunt, time-honoured 
Lancaster," was descended from the first three Edwards. 
Moreover, Lady Eleanor's mother, Lady Alice Montacute, was 
descended from Prince Edward, Earl of Kent (executed 1329), 
third son of Edward I. Lady Joan Plantagenet (known as 
" The Fair Maid of Kent "), daughter of this prince, married an 
ancestor of the Lady Eleanor Holland, who became wife of 
Thomas Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, and mother of Richard 
Nevill's wife, Lady Alice. 



OUR WELSH ANCESTRY 

The Welsh ancestry of the Lloyds, traced by Mr. Owen 
Thomas, is equally interesting. There is the direct family 
descent from the kings or princes of South Wales already 
mentioned, and through the marriage of John Lloyd (cousin 
of the second David Lloyd of Dolobran) with Margaret 



APPENDIX I 209 

Kynaston, and that of their granddaughter to the first John 
Lloyd of Dolobran, the Lloyds of Birmingham are descended 
from King Roderick the Great, who in 843 became King of 
all Wales. Roderick was King of North Wales by maternal 
inheritance, of Powis by paternal descent, and of South Wales 
by marriage. 

The mother of the first Charles Lloyd, and grandmother of 
the Charles Lloyd the Quaker, through whose sufferings for 
conscience' sake occurred the migration of one branch of his 
family to Birmingham, was Katherine Wynne, daughter of 
Humphrey son of the John Lloyd and Margaret Kynaston 
just mentioned. Humphrey Lloyd had assumed the surname 
of Wynne and was settled at Garth near Duffryn, Mont- 
gomeryshire. The father of Margaret Kynaston was Sir 
Roger Kynaston, Knight of Hordley, Salop, who distinguished 
himself at the battle of Bloreheath (1459). His wife, Lady 
Elizabeth Grey, daughter of John Powis, could claim royal 
descent through Princess Gundred, daughter of William the 
Conqueror, and through Prince Thomas, Earl of Norfolk, 
second son of Edward I. 

An ancestor of Sir Roger's, Madoc Kynaston, who was 
.slain at the battle of Shrewsbury (1403), having taken part 
with Owen Glendower (also a descendant of King Roderick 
the Great) in the Percys' Rebellion, had married Lady Isolda 
Percy, a descendant (through her father, Henry, 1st Earl of 
Northumberland of his line) of Henry III., and, through her 
mother, Margaret Nevill, of Alfred the Great. Madoc Kynaston, 
through his mother, Agnes, and his grandmother, Annes, the 
wife of Llewellyn Dhu, 3rd Baron of Cymmes (a descendant 
of Prince Madoc of Powys), was descended from the eldest 
of the lines of princes which traced their origin to Roderick 
the Great. The father of the Lady Annes was Jevan ap 
Jorwerth of Llanwyllin, Merionethshire, while her mother, 
Margaret, was a direct descendant in the male line from Prince 
Madoc of Powys, and, through her mother, from Richard de 
Cornewall, grandson of King John of England. Jevan's mother, 
Gwen, was in the line of descent from Roderick, while his 
father, Jorwerth ap David, was descended from Prince David, 
son of King Owen of North Wales, and Princess Emma, 
daughter of King Henry of England. Among the illustrious 
ancestors of the Lady Gwen was Prince Cadwalder, Earl of 
Cardigan, the famous Welsh general (died 1172). 

Some interesting facts in the genealogy of the Lloyds may 

O 



210 . APPENDIX I 

be noted at this point. The wife of Prince Cadwalder, Lady 
Alice Fitz-Gilbert, was daughter of Richard, Earl of Hertford, 
and of Lady Adelicia, through whom is to be traced yet another 
line of descent from Alfred the Great. This line goes back 
through Algar, Earl of Cornwall and Mercia, whose wife was 
a daughter of William Mallet, a Norman baron who buried the 
body of Harold after the battle of Hastings (1066). Algar's 
father was the Leofric, Earl of Mercia (died 1057), and his 
mother the Lady Godiva, who figures in the famous Coventry 
legend, and who were buried in the abbey founded by them 
at Coventry. Leofric was descended from Alfred through that 
king's daughter, the Princess Ethelfleda, who, it is curious to 
note, took the field against the Welsh on the death of her 
husband Ethelred, the last Duke of Mercia. The Lloyds can 
also claim an infusion of Danish royal blood, through the 
marriages of some of their ancestors. For instance, Leofrine, 
Earl of Mercia, and father of Leofric, married Alwara, daughter 
of Athelstan, Danish Duke of East Anglia. 

To resume the Welsh genealogy, Prince Cadwalder or 
Cadwalader was a son of King Griffith II., who was Sovereign 
of North Wales 1077-1137, though his father, Prince Conan, 
and his grandfather, Prince Jago, had been excluded from 
the throne in favour of princes of a younger branch. Jago's 
father, King Idwall II. (died 993), was fourth in the line of 
descent from Roderick the Great, through the eldest son, King 
Anarawd, Sovereign of North Wales. The kingdom had been 
divided on Roderick's death North Wales to his eldest son, 
South Wales going to his second son, Cadell, and Powys to 
the third son, Mervyn. On Mervyn's death Cadell took pos- 
session of Powys, and these two kingdoms remained united 
for 170 years. A descent from Roderick through Cadell is 
established by the marriage of Ivan Teg with Maud Blaney, 
a descendant of this king, as well as by marriage of earlier 
ancestors, while in the tenth century the families of Cadell and 
Mervyn had been united by the marriage of King Owen I., 
Sovereign of South Wales, with the dispossessed Crown 
Princess, Angharad of Powys, granddaughter of Mervyn. 

An Irish royal ancestry of the Lloyds is to be traced 
through the marriage of Prince Conan, father of Griffith, with 
Ranult, daughter of Alflaad, Prince of Dublin. From King 
Griffith are descended the William- Wynn family of baronets 
and the Tudor sovereigns of England. 

In the privately printed books by Joseph Foster, also 



APPENDIX I an 

Burke's Landed Gentry, &c., also Farm and its Inhabitants, by 
Mrs. Lowe of Ettington, it is mentioned that Meorig, the first 
of that name on record, was succeeded by his eldest son Sawl ; 
then followed Lyman, Llewellyn, Leissyltt, Lowarch, Collwyn, 
Prince of Demeca or Dimitia, part of Merionethshire and 
Montgomeryshire; then followed Gwyn Prince of Dyfed, 
G wry ant, Ivor, Llewellyn, Cadwyan, Griffith, Cadwegan, Aleth 
Prince of Dyfed; Uchdryd, Jerweth Lord of Falgarth, who 
married, in 1112, Ellen, daughter of Uchdryd Edywn Prince of 
Fegengl; Georgeman, Gwerfyl, Cynddelw, Rivid, Celynin or 
Cyhylin. The Heralds Office gives the descent from Aleth, 
Uchdryd, Gwrgency, Jerworth, Cyndheln, Ririd, Cyhylin. 

Further information is given respecting the Lloyds of 
Dolobran in the ninth volume of the Powys-land Club 
(printed for the club by Thos. Richards, 37 Great Queen 
Street, London, 1876). 

Charles Perrin Smith of Trenton, New Jersey, one of the 
descendants of Thomas Lloyd, having joined the Powys-land 
Club, has since compiled from the Montgomeryshire collections 
and other sources, addenda to the Lloyd lineage; also in 1870 
he had privately printed, The Lineage of the Lloyd and Car- 
penter Family -, and in 1875, The Home and Ancestry of Thomas 
Lloydy Governor of Pennsylvania , who was born in 1640, and 
died in 1694. 



APPENDIX II 

I GIVE here, from the second number of Lloyds Bank Magazine, 
December 1902, the original prospectus of Lloyds Bank issued 
on March 29, 1865, together with the names of the Provisional 
Committee, and also the first Report of the Bank, dated 
February 9, 1866, and the first balance sheet, dated December 
31, 1865. I add also the balance sheet of December 31, 1883, 
just before the London amalgamations, and the balance sheet 
of December 31, 1906. 



LLOYDS BANKING COMPANY LIMITED. 



Founded on the Private Banks of Messrs. Lloyd & Company 
and Messrs. Moilliet & Sons. 



To BE INCORPORATED UNDER "THE COMPANIES ACT, 1862." 

Capital .2,000,000 in 40,000 Shares of .50 each. 

First Issue 25,000 Shares. 
Calls not to exceed in the aggregate 12, ros. per share. 



PROVISIONAL COMMITTEE. 

John Foster Adams, Esq., Olton Hall. 
Mr. Thomas Adams, Birmingham. 
Mr. Arthur Albright, Oldbury. 
Rev. G. W. B. Adderley, Fillongley Hall. 
Charles Haden Adams, Esq., Fillongley. 
Mr. Frederick Ash, Birmingham. 



APPENDIX II 213 

Mr. J. Bates, Birmingham. 

Rev. B. Jones-Bateman, Sheldon. 

James T. Bolton, Esq., Solihull. 

Mr. Samuel Briggs, Birmingham. 

Mr. Joseph Bourne, Birmingham. 

Edwin Bullock, Esq., Handsworth. 

Mr. R. C. Brinton, Birmingham. 

Mr. John Cadbury, Birmingham. 

Mr. Henry Cooper, King's Heath. 

H. H. Chattock, Esq., Solihull. 

Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, Birmingham. 

Mr. J. B. Chamberlain, Birmingham. 

Mr. Charles Couchman, Temple Balsall. 

Mr. J. Cooper, Birmingham. 

Mr. C. W. S. D. Deakin, Birmingham. 

William Stratford Dugdale, Esq., Merevale Hall. 

Mr. Wm. Hy. Deykin, Edgbaston. 

Abraham Dixon, Esq., Birches Green. 

George Dixon, Esq., Birmingham. 

Mr. T. S. Eddowes, Sutton Coldfield. 

Mr. Alfred S. Evans, Edgbaston. 

Mr. William Fowler, Erdington. 

Mr. D. J. Fleetwood, Birmingham. 

Mr. Hy. A. Fry, Birmingham. 

Joseph Foster, Birmingham. 

Edward Gem, Esq., Bellevue House, Halesowen. 

William Gough, Esq., Edgbaston. 

Mr. William M. Gough, Edgbaston. 

Mr. James Grundy, Birmingham. 

Sampson Hanbury, Esq., Warley Hall. 

Mr. Vincent Holbeche, Sutton Coldfield. 

Mr. William Hutton, Ward End Hall. 

Timothy Kenrick, Esq., Edgbaston. 

Thomas Lane, Esq., Moundsley Hall, Kings Norton. 

James Lloyd, Esq., ) 

Sampson S. Lloyd, Esq., ( Partners in the firm of 

Thomas Lloyd, Esq., f Lloyds & Co. 

Mr. George B. Lloyd, ) 

Mr. Sampson Lloyd, Wednesbury. 

Mr. Samuel Lloyd, Wednesbury. 

John Towers Lawrence, Esq., Balsall Heath. 

James Moilliet, Esq., ) of the firm of 

Theodore Moilliet Esq., } Moilliet & Sons. 

Mr. McCallum, Birmingham. 

Mr. W. G. Postans, Birmingham. 

Thomas Piggott, Esq., King's Heath. 

Mr. Joseph Price, Birmingham. 

Mr. Henry Richards, Birmingham. 

Mr. Thomas Redfern, Edgbaston. 

Rev. P. M. Smythe, Solihull. 

Mr. Joseph Small wood, Birmingham. 

Mr. William Southall, Edgbaston. 

Mr. Brooke Smith, Birmingham. 



214 APPENDIX II 

Mr. William Sutton, Birmingham. 

Mr. Robert Thomas, Smethwick. 

W. F. Taylor, Esq., Doveridge Hall, Uttoxeter. 

Mr. Samuel Timmins, Birmingham. 

Mr. F. Timmins, Birmingham. 

Mr. Z. Twamley, Castle Bromwich. 

Mr. W. M. Warden, Birmingham. 

Mr. John Wilkes, Birmingham. 

With power to add to their number. 



SOLICITORS. 

Messrs. GRIFFITHS BLOXHAM, 6 Bennett's Hill. 
Messrs. RYLAND & MARTINEAU, 7 Cannon Street. 
Messrs. INGLEBY, WRAGGE EVANS, 4 Bennett's Hill. 

BROKERS. 
Messrs. J. PEARSON SONS, Bennett's Hill. 



PROSPECTUS. 

The recent alterations in the Law affecting Banking Partner- 
ships, and the growing requirements of the Trade of this District, 
have determined Messrs. Lloyds & Company and Messrs. Moilliet 
and Sons to extend the basis of their present Partnerships by 
converting them into a Joint-Stock Company with limited liability. 

Arrangements have consequently been made with the Provi- 
sional Committee above named, on behalf of themselves and such 
others as may become Shareholders, for the formation of a Company 
under the name, and with the Capital appearing at the head of this 
Prospectus. 

After allotting 12,500 Shares to Messrs. Lloyds & Company 
and Messrs. Moilliet & Sons, it is proposed to issue 12,500 Snares 
at a Premium of $ each, and this it is estimated will raise a sum 
equal to the amount required to be paid for the purchase of the 
Goodwill, so that the whole amount to be received for Deposits and 
subsequent calls may be available for the purposes of the Bank. It 
is proposed that the remaining 15,000 Shares shall be reserved for 
issue at such premiums, at such times, and to such persons, as the 
Directors shall consider most conducive to the Interests of the 
Company. 

The Surplus Premiums (if any) not required for the payment of 
the Goodwill will be carried to a Reserve Fund and it is intended 



APPENDIX II 215 

that until such Fund, arising from this source and from profits, 
shall amount to a sum equal to one-fifth of the paid-up Capital, no 
Dividend shall be made exceeding 10 per cent, per annum on the 
amount of paid-up Capital. 1 

A Deposit of ^"5 a Share is to be paid on allotment in addition 
to the Premium. Further Calls are not to exceed at one time 
^"2, i os. a Share, and are not to be made at less intervals than 
three calendar months. The aggregate amount of Calls will not 
exceed ^"12, IDS. a Share; the remaining ^37, los. a Share is to 
be available only for the ultimate liabilities of the Company. 

The Business of the Company will commence as from the ist of 
May 1865, or as soon afterwards as may be practicable, and will 
for the present be carried on at the premises occupied by Messrs. 
Lloyds & Company and Messrs. Moilliet & Sons. 

The Messrs. Lloyds and Messrs. James Moilliet and Theodore 
Moilliet will retain a considerable interest in the Capital of the 
Company, and it is proposed to offer them Seats on the Board of 
Directors. 

The Provisional Committee are taking the necessary steps for 
the Registration of the Company. They will make the first Allot- 
ment of Shares, and appoint the first Directors. 

Applications for Shares from the present connections of the two 
Banks will receive especial attention ; in dealing with applications 
from other persons, preference will be given to those who bring 
Accounts. All applications must be made in the Form, of which a 
copy is annexed, and sent to the Offices of 

Messrs. Griffiths & Bloxham, 



Messrs. Ryland & Martineau, (. ^Solicitors, 

or 
Messrs. Ingleby, Wragge & Evans 

BIRMINGHAM, 29^ March 1865. 



or (Birmingham. 

> J 



1 The conclusion of this paragraph differs from that in the Prospectus first 
issued, which did not correctly express the intention of the Promoters. 



THE FIRST REPORT OF THE BANK. 



LLOYDS BANKING COMPANY LIMITED. 

FOUNDED ON 

The Private Banks of Messrs. Lloyds & Co. and Messrs. Moilliet 
and Sons, with -which have subsequently been amalgamated the 
Banks of Messrs. P. 6r H. Williams, Wednesbury, and Messrs. 
Stevenson, Salt <5r* Co., Stafford and Lichfield. 



Authorised Capital . . . .2,000,000 o o 

Paid-tip Capital (3ist Dec. 1865) . 143,415 o o 

Reserved Fund (3ist Dec. 1865) . 2 7>75 2 6 



Directors. 

TIMOTHY KENRICK, Esq., Chairman. 

THOMAS LLOYD, Esq., Deputy- SAMPSON HANBURY, Esq. 

Chairman. SAMPSON SAMUEL LLOYD, Esq. 

JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN, Esq. GEORGE BRAITHWAITE LLOYD, 
CHARLES COUCHMAN, Esq. Esq. 

GEORGE DIXON, Esq. JAMES MOILLIET, Esq. 

ALFRED S. EVANS, Esq. THOMAS SALT, Jun., Esq. 

EDWARD GEM, Esq. HENRY WILLIAMS, Esq. 

Managing Director. 
SAMPSON SAMUEL LLOYD, Esq. 

Secretary. 

Mr. HOWARD LLOYD. 
216 



APPENDIX II 217 

Sub-Managers. 
Mr. J. HICKLING. Mr. HOWARD LLOYD. 

Head Office : HIGH STREET, BIRMINGHAM. 

Branches (in 1865). 

Cherry Street, Birmingham Mr. THOMAS EVANS. 
Stafford Mr. E. DICKENSON. Oldbury Mr. WILLIAM JAGGER. 

Lichfield Mr. E. C. SEARGEANT. Tamworth Mr. W. N. FIELD. 
Wednesbury Mr. F. DEAKIN. 



Sub-Branches and Agencies. 

BREWOOD, COLESHILL, ECCLESHALL, HALESOWEN, PENKRIDGE, 
RUGELEY, and SUTTON COLDFIELD. 

LONDON AGENTS for Birmingham, Wednesbury, Oldbury and Tam- 
worth : Messrs. BARNETTS, HOARES, HANBURYS & LLOYD ; 
and for Stafford, Lichfield, Rugeley, and Eccleshall : Messrs. 
STEVENSON, SALT & SONS. 



CURRENT ACCOUNTS (whether large or small) are received and con- 
ducted on fair and liberal terms. 

DEPOSITS (of any amount not under ^5) are received, from customers or 
from the public, on favourable terms, the rate of interest allowed 
fluctuating occasionally with the value of money. Persons having 
current accounts can at any time transfer a portion of their credit 
balance to deposit account. 

LETTERS OF CREDIT are issued upon the principal places in England, 
Scotland and Ireland, also in America, Australia, Van Diemen's 
Land, and New Zealand, and are obtained at two days' notice upon 
the chief cities of the Continent. 

DIVIDENDS on all descriptions of Government and other Stock are 
received. The Sale and Purchase of English and Foreign Stocks 
and Shares effected, and every other description of Banking 
Business transacted on liberal terms. 



THE FIRST REPORT. 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTORS 

OF 

LLOYDS BANKING COMPANY LIMITED, 

TO THE SHAREHOLDERS, 

At the first Ordinary General Meeting, held at the Exchange 

Assembly Room, Birmingham, 

On Thursday, the fifteenth of February 1866, at Twelve 
o'clock Noon. 



The Directors of Lloyds Banking Company Limited have great 
pleasure in laying before the Shareholders, on the occasion of their 
first Ordinary Meeting, the annexed statement of the Liabilities and 
Assets of the Bank at 3ist December last. 

At the close of eight months' operations in Birmingham and 
Oldbury, and five months in Wednesbury, the Balance in favour of 
the Bank, after payment of all charges, expenses, and bad debts, is 
,26,944, i6s. i id., and the amount available, after providing for 
contingencies, rebate of bills, and two-thirds of the preliminary 
expenses (which are an exceptional charge) is .18,323, 25. gd. 

In accordance with the Articles of Association which provide 
that so long as the Reserved Fund is less than one-fifth of the paid- 
up Capital, no Dividend shall be paid exceeding the rate of ;io 
per cent, per annum, your Directors recommend that ^8988, os. 3d. 
be appropriated to the payment of a Dividend at that rate, and 
that the remainder, ^9335, 23. 6d., be carried to the Reserved 
Fund, which will then stand at .27,750, 23. 6d. 

The amount of business done has much increased since the 
amalgamation of the three private Banks which formed the basis 
of the Company, and your Directors feel that they may congratulate 

218 



APPENDIX II 219 

the Shareholders on the result, which has exceeded their anticipa- 
tions, especially as the state of the Money Market during the 
summer months was by no means favourable to Banking operations. 

Since the last General Meeting, a branch has been opened in 
the town of Tamworth, which your Directors have reason to be- 
lieve will prove beneficial. 

Your Directors have the satisfaction to report that they have 
concluded an agreement with the well-known and old-established 
firm of Messrs. Stevenson, Salt & Company for the amalgamation 
with this Company of their Banking Business at Stafford, Lichfield, 
Rugeley, and Eccleshall, and that this agreement has had the 
unanimous approval of the Extraordinary General Meeting held on 
3ist January last. It will be again submitted to you for final 
confirmation after the close of the Ordinary General Meeting. 

In the opinion of your Directors this extension of business 
should be accompanied by some enlargement of Capital, and after 
careful consideration they have decided to recommend a further 
issue of Shares in the proportion of one in ten to the proprietors of 
all Shares issued previously to 3ist December last. 

Your Directors recommend that on this occasion the issue be 
made at a premium of 6 per Share. 

The Directors who retire by rotation are Messrs. Joseph 
Chamberlain, Charles Couchman, George Dixon, and George 
Braithwaite Lloyd; they are all eligible, and offer themselves for 
re-election. 

The Auditor, Mr. Edwin Laundy, also retires, but is eligible for 
re-election. 

The Dividend will be payable on the igih instant, free of 
income tax. 

TIMOTHY KENRICK, Chairman. 
BIRMINGHAM, gth Febrtiary 1866. 



THE FIRST BALANCE SHEET OF THE BANK, 



STATEMENT OF LIABILITIES AND ASSETS, 
ON 3 IST DECEMBER 1865. 



LIABILITIES. 

Amount of Capital paid up ..... .143,415 o o 

Amount due on Deposit, Current, and other Accounts 1,166,160 6 7 

Reserved Fund 18,415 o o 

Profit and Loss 18,323 2 9 

1*346,313 9 4 

ASSETS. 

Cash in hand and at Agents ,126,170 16 7 

Bills of Exchange ....... 655,435 19 2 

Advances on Current Accounts, Loans on Stock, 

Purchase Account, and other Securities . . 556,115 17 4 

Bank Premises. Furniture, Fittings, &c. . . . 8,054 18 o 

Preliminary Expenses (less amount written off) . 535 18 3 

.1,346,313 9 4 



HOWARD LLOYD, Secretary. 

I hereby certify that I have Audited the Accounts of the Company, 
and that the above Statement correctly sets forth the position of its 
affairs on 3ist December 1865. 

EDWIN LAUNDY, Public Accountant, 
A uditor. 



At this time the number of Offices was 13 ; the Staff consisted of 
50 ; and there were 865 Shareholders. There are now in 1906 over 
19,000 Shareholders. 



POSITION OF THE BANK AT 3iST DECEMBER 

1883, 

SHORTLY BEFORE THE FIRST LONDON 
AMALGAMATIONS. 



LLOYDS BANKING COMPANY LIMITED. 

Subscribed Capital .... .3,062,500 

In 61,250 Shares of 50 each. 

Capital paid up (61,250 Shares, .8 paid) .490,000 
Reserved Fund . . . . 300,000 



Directors. 

SAMPSON SAMUEL LLOYD, Esq., Chairman. 

THOMAS SALT, Esq., M.P., Deputy-Chairman. 
WILLIAM COPE, Esq. JOHN GULSON, Esq. 

CHARLES COUCHMAN, Esq. J. ARTHUR KENRICK, Esq. 
WM. FLEEMING FRYER, Esq. THOMAS LLOYD, Esq. 
EDWARD GEM, Esq. GEORGE BRAITHWAITE LLOYD, Esq. 

JOHN SPENCER PHILLIPS, Esq. 



General Manager. 
Mr. HOWARD LLOYD. 



Secretary. 
Mr. HENRY MORTIMORE. 



Head Office: COLMORE Row, BIRMINGHAM. 

221 



222 



APPENDIX II 



POSITION IN 1883. 



BRANCH. MANAGER. 

Birmingham 
Colmore Row Mr. Francis C. Bourne 
High Street Mr. John Hickling 
Aston Road Mr. Charles P. Newman 
Deritend Mr. Wm. H. Fletcher 
Five Ways Mr. John Willis 
Gt. Hampton St. Mr. James Matthew 
Burton-on- Trent Mr. Octavius Leatham 
Cannock Mr. Charles Harper 
Coventry Mr. Harry B. Francis 
Dudley Mr. George Wilkinson 
Great Bridge Mr. Frank H. Ragg 
Halesowen Mr. Frederic D. Nutt 
Hanley Mr. Fredk. S. Stringer 
Ironbridge Mr. Thomas Powell 
Leamington Mr. Edward Seymour 
Lichfield Mr. Wm. B. Wordsworth 
Longton Mr. Henry C. Ramsdale 
Newport (Salop) Mr. Wingfield Dickenson 


BRANCH. MANAGER. 

Oldbury Mr. John Y. Anderson 
Rugby Mr. Arthur R. Cox 
Rugeley Mr. Arthur H. Pratt 
Shifnal Mr. John Harrison 
Shrewsbury Mr. John F. Champion 
Smethwick Mr. John A. Goode 
Stafford Mr. EdwinC. Seargeant 
Stratford-on-Avon Mr. J. Dixon Taylor 
Tamworth Mr. Charles Hensman 
Walsall Mr. Andrew McKean 
Warwick Mr. William Tims 
Wednesbury Mr. Walter Blackburn 
Wellington (Salop) Mr. John Kynoch 
Welshpool Mr. Matthew Powell 
West Bromwich Mr. John Y. Anderson, 
pro tern. 
Whitchurch Mr. John Rogers 
Wolverhampton Mr. R. Fryer Morson 



BLOXWICH 
BREWOOD 

COLESHILL 



Sub- Branches and Agencies. 



DAWLEY 

ECCLESHALL 

ELLESMERE 

SUTTON 



HEDNESFORD 
MOSELEY 
OAKENGATES 
COLDFIELD 



PENKRIDGE 
SOLIHULL 

SOUTHAM 



London Agents. 

For Birmingham, Coventry, Dudley, Great Bridge, Halesowen, Leam- 
ington, Oldbury, Rugby, Smethwick, Stratford-on-Avon, Tamworth, 
Walsall, Warwick, Wednesbury, West Bromwich and Wolver- 
hampton : 

Messrs. BARNETTS, HOARES, HANBURY & LLOYD. 

For Burton-on-Trent, Cannock, Hanley, Ironbridge, Lichfield, Longton, 
Newport, Rugeley, Shifnal, Shrewsbury, Stafford, Wellington, 
Welshpool and Whitchurch : 

Messrs. BOSANQUET, SALT & Co. 



THE BALANCE SHEET PRECEDING THE 
FIRST LONDON AMALGAMATIONS. 

STATEMENT OF LIABILITIES AND ASSETS 
ON 3 IST DECEMBER 1883. 



LIABILITIES. 
Subscribed Capital (being 61,250 Shares of "50 each) .3,062,500 o o 



Capital called up, viz. : 

61,250 Shares at .8 per Share .... 
Amount due on Deposit, Current, and other Accounts 

Reserved Fund 

Profit (including ^5483, i8s. 2d. 

brought forward from last year) . ,102,969 o 7 
Less Interim Dividend for half-year 

ending 3oth June, at 20 per cent. 

per annum 



Balance, proposed to 
be appropriated 
as follows : 

In Payment of half- 
year's Dividend 
to 31 st December 
at 20 per cent, 
per annum . 49,000 o o 

To be carried for- 
ward to next year 4,969 o 7 



49,000 o o 
53,969 o 7 



490,000 o o 

6,467,497 19 9 

300,000 o o 



53,969 o 7 
,7,311,467 o 4 



223 



224 .APPENDIX II 



ASSETS. 

Cash in hand, at Agents, at Call, and at Short Notice ,1,139.981 5 4 

Bills of Exchange 1,326,426 5 o 

Consols, India Stock, and other Government Securi- 
ties (,686,205, is. 4d.), Colonial Government, 

Railway, Freehold, and other Investments . . 1,470,112 15 6 

Advances, Promissory Notes, Loans on Security, &c. 3,227,397 16 4 

Bank Premises and Furniture 147,548 18 2 

7,311,467 o 4 

HOWARD LLOYD, General Manager. 

We hereby certify that we have audited the Accounts of the Com- 
pany, and that the above Statement correctly sets forth the position of 
its affairs on the 3ist day of December 1883. 

LAUNDY & CO., Chartered Accountants, 
Auditors. 

The profits were ,97,000 ; Offices, 49 ; Staff, 520 ; Shareholders, 
about 1750. 



BALANCE SHEET, 3IST DECEMBER 1906. 



LIABILITIES. 

Current, Deposit, and other Accounts, including 
Rebate of Bills and provision for Contin- 
gencies ^63,587,931 15 6 

Profit and Loss Balance, as per Account below . 428,683 5 9 

^64,016,615 i 3 

Bills Accepted or Endorsed 4,852,666 3 7 

Liabilities in respect of Customers' Loans to 
Brokers, fully secured . . . ^341,500 

Capital paid up, viz., 481,450 Shares of ^50 each, 

^8 per Share paid 3,851,600 o o 

Reserve Fund 2,950,000 o o 

^75,670,881 4 10 



ASSETS. 

Cash in hand and with the Bank of England . . ,10,971,975 18 8 

Cash at Call and Short Notice 4,008,849 5 9 

Bills of Exchange 7,516,567 16 n 

Consols (at 85) and other British Government 

Securities 6,946,794 9 5 

Indian and Colonial Government Securities, Cor- 
poration Stocks, English Railway Debenture 

and Preference Stocks, and other Investments . 5,101,736 14 o 

^34,545.924 4 9 

Advances to Customers and other Securities . . 34,577,069 i 2 
Liabilities of Customers for Bills Accepted or En- 
dorsed by the Company 4,852,666 3 7 

Bank Premises 1,695,221 15 4 

^75,670,881 4 10 

225 P 



I 
226 



APPENDIX II 



PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT FOR THE YEAR ENDED 
3 iST DECEMBER 1906. 

Dr. 

To Interim Dividend for Half-year ended 3oth June, 
at 17^ per cent, per annum 

Reserve Fund ........ 

Bank Premises Account 

Income Tax 

Half-year's Dividend to 3ist Decem- 
ber, at i8| per cent, per annum . .361,087 10 o 

Balance carried forward to next year 67,595 15 9 



50,000 
35,000 
39,155 



428,683 5 
^889,853 8 



Cr. 

By Balance brought forward from last year . 

Net Profit for the year, after making provision 
for Rebate, Bad Debts, and Contingencies 



,59,048 16 6 

830,804 ii 9 
.889,853 8 3 



E. ALEXANDER DUFF, General Manager. 

7 t Country General Managers. 



AUDITORS' CERTIFICATE AND REPORT. 

In accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1900, we 
certify that all our requirements as Auditors have been complied with. 

We have examined the above Balance Sheet with the Accounts of 
the Company, including the Certified Returns from the Branches ; and, 
having satisfied ourselves as to the correctness of the Cash and Invest- 
ments, and considered in detail the other items of the Account, we are of 
opinion that such Balance Sheet is properly drawn up so as to exhibit 
a true and correct view of the state of the Company's affairs on the 
3ist December 1906, as shown by the books of the Company. 

PRICE, WATERHOUSE & Co., Chartered 

A ccountants, A uditors. 
nth January 1907. 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTORS, 

To be presented to the Shareholders at the Forty-ninth Ordinary 
General Meeting, to be held at the Grand Hotel, Colmore 
Row, Birmingham, on Friday, the Twenty-fifth day of January 
1907, at i 



Your Directors present herewith a Statement of the Liabilities 
and Assets of the Company on the 3ist day of December last. 

The available Profit for the past year, including the amount 
brought forward, after payment of Salaries, Pensions, other charges 
and expenses, and the annual contribution of 4500 to the 
Provident and Insurance Fund, and making full provision for 
Rebate, Bad Debts, and Contingencies, is 889,853, 8s. 3d. 

Out of this an Interim Dividend at the rate of i;J per cent, 
per annum, free of Income Tax, amounting to .337,015, was paid 
for the half-year ended the 3oth day of June last; 50,000 has 
been added to the Reserve Fund; 35,000 has been written off 
the Bank Premises Account; and .39,1555 23. 6d. has been 
applied in payment of Income Tax on the Dividends, &c. 

From the balance remaining, 428,683, 55. gd., your Directors 
recommend that a Dividend of 153. per share, being at the rate 
of i8J per cent, per annum for the past half-year, amounting 
to 361,087, i os. od., be now declared, and that the balance, 
67,595, T 5 S - 9d- be carried forward to the Profit and Loss Account 
of the present year. 

The amalgamation of the Devon and Cornwall Banking Com- 
pany Limited with this Bank, alluded to in the last Report, has 
been carried through, and has proved mutually satisfactory. 

The Directors who retire at this meeting are Messrs. Richard 
Hobson, J. Arthur Kenrick, and Edward Nettlefold. They are 
all eligible, and offer themselves for re-election. 

The Auditors also retire, and are eligible for re-appointment. 

The Dividend will be payable on and after the 2gth instant, 
free of Income Tax. 

J. SPENCER PHILLIPS, Chairman. 

nth January 1907. 

I append an abridged report (from the Birmingham Daily 

Post) of the last annual meeting of Lloyds Bank, which 

227, 



228 'APPENDIX II 

was held on January 25, 1907, at the Grand Hotel, Birming- 
ham, under the presidency of Mr. J. Spencer Phillips, chair- 
man of the bank. 

There was a large attendance of shareholders. The 
Chairman, in moving the adoption of the report and the 
declaration of the dividend, said the year 1906 had been 
remarkable for its commercial prosperity, activity of trade, 
and advance in price of commodities. We had had nothing 
like it for nearly thirty years, and it had been the result of a 
variety of causes all making for the same end. For the first 
time for seven years we had had general peace throughout the 
world. . . . How great the general prosperity had been was 
shown by all the figures which bore on the trade of the country. 
Our foreign trade had for the first time on record exceeded 
IOOO millions sterling. Imports had increased by 42,968,000, 
or 7.8 per cent., and exports by 45,856,000, or 13.9 per cent. 
And those increases were on the year 1905, which greatly 
exceeded the predecessor. What was more satisfactory was 
the fact that not only was the percentage of the increase 
of the exports nearly double that of the imports, but the 
actual amount was 3,000,000 more. The increase in im- 
ports had been mainly in raw material and unmanufactured 
articles, which accounted for 29,000,000 out of 42,000,000, 
or more than two-thirds of the whole ; whilst the gain in 
exports had been almost entirely in manufactured articles, 
particularly iron and steel 36,000,000 out of 45,000,000. 
Our exports during the last three years since 1903 had 
grown no less than 85,000,000, or 29 per cent., and the 
exports of the United States, which also had increased 
23 per cent, during the same period, were less in the aggre- 
gate than our own by some seven millions. . . . The average 
Bank rate had been 4, 55. 3d., as against 3, os. 3d. for 
1905. . . . They had 360 branches and 162 sub-branches, 
making a total of 522. Their staff numbered 2623, and 
their shareholders 19,200. The number of their accounts 
had increased by 11,123 during the year, after allowing for 
the Devon and Cornwall amalgamation. Their pensioners 
numbered 178, and the amount of pensions they paid during 
the year was 41,280, an increase over the previous year 
f 76?>7, of which 3824 was due to the Devon and 
Cornwall amalgamation. As he had so often explained, their 
policy was that profit came second, and a long way second, 



APPENDIX II 229 

to safety and strength; and if they had less regard to the 
latter consideration they could increase the former by 30 
per cent, to 50 per cent. He concluded his speech last 
January by saying, in reference to 1904, that the balance 
sheet then presented was the strongest they had ever 
shown. He thought they might honestly say that the pre- 
sent one was stronger still. (Applause.) 

Mr. J. A. Kenrick, in seconding the resolution, said that 
the Chairman, who had, as usual, given them a masterly 
and illuminating address, had been elected president of the 
Institute of Bankers for three consecutive years, an honour 
which had not been accorded to any previous president, 
and his presidential addresses had caused so much interest 
that the Governor and ex-Governor of the Bank of England 
paid him the unique compliment of being present to listen 
to the last address. Under the wise and sagacious policy 
of the Chairman, backed up by the Directors and a zealous 
staff, the bank, which was without exception the largest in 
the kingdom, was steadily growing in good repute and 
prosperity, and they could look forward with confidence 
and assurance that its future would be as satisfactory as 
its past. (Applause.) A vote of thanks was accorded the 
Chairman and the Directors for their services, and in acknow- 
ledging it the Chairman mentioned that on no occasion during 
the eleven years he had presided over the meetings had any 
question been asked him by a shareholder. A vote of thanks 
to the general manager, the country general manager, and the 
staff concluded the business. 



APPENDIX III 

OPENING OF THE BIRMINGHAM EXCHANGE 

IN 1865 

MR. S. S. LLOYD was one of the speakers at the opening of 
the Exchange Buildings in Stephenson Place, Birmingham, on 
New Year's Day 1865. The construction of the Exchange 
was greatly needed, and it has proved an immense con- 
venience to the mercantile community of Birmingham and 
South Staffordshire. After prayer had been offered by the 
Rector of St. Martin's (the Rev. J. C. Miller, D.D.), giving 
especial thanks for the many blessings the Almighty had per- 
mitted us to enjoy in this land, and after speeches by the 
Mayor, Alderman Thomas Lloyd, and others, John Bright 
(then M.P. for Birmingham in conjunction with Mr. Scholefield) 
having spoken, Mr. S. S. Lloyd followed by proposing the 
Members for the Northern Division of the County (Messrs. 
Newdegate and Bromley-Davenport). 1 

These gentlemen, he said, were too well known the senior 
member at least to need any words of commendation from 
him. They represented a peculiar constituency of mixed 
interests of agriculture and manufacture. They represent 
a community in which widely different views are held on 
political subjects; and it was all the more interesting a con- 
stituency, he should think, for Members of Parliament to 
represent on that account. They had been told by their 
respected and most able junior borough member (Mr. Bright) 
that industrial success waxed and monarchs' power waned. 
Now he trusted he would be permitted to say that the com- 
merce of this country, and the industrial interests of this town, 
which had waxed almost more than history gave any example 

1 I am indebted to Mr. Wm. Wright of Moseley for the report of this 
speech, which was given in the Birmingham Daily Post of January 2, 1865. 

230 



APPENDIX III 231 

of, were a very good example of commercial interests waxing 
while the monarchs' power did not wane. (" Hear, hear," and 
applause.) By no class of her Majesty's subjects was her 
Majesty's rule mild, constitutional, and benignant more 
honoured and more valued than by the commercial men of 
this district. (" Hear, hear," and applause.) 

The hon. gentleman had told them truly of Phoenicia, 
Carthage, and the republics of North Italy; and with his 
usual eloquence he had descanted on the fact that their great- 
ness arose from commerce, but he (Mr. Lloyd) thought, while 
listening to his eloquent tongue, that he had also read in 
history that their prosperity, instead of waxing and remaining 
permanent, very soon waned, and that the republics of North 
Italy soon degenerated into the worst of despotism. (" Hear, 
hear," and applause.) Carthage and Phoenicia are gone ; 
and though, as the hon. gentleman had said, they had left 
their mark behind them, they had left a most telling mark 
that no wealth they got by commerce, attended merely by 
democratic liberties, afforded a security for the stability of 
either commerce or liberty (" Hear, hear," and applause, and 
demonstrations of dissent) and that security for commerce 
as well as for true liberty were best to be found in our own 
constitutional limited monarchy. (Applause.) 

One other remark was made by the hon. gentleman viz., 
that the liberties of the nation did not come from the lords of 
the soil. Now he thought they had all read, when schoolboys, 
of the barons of England who wrung the Magna Charta from 
the reluctant King John, and when they might have sought 
liberties and franchises for themselves, were generous and 
noble enough to value the liberties of their poorer fellow- 
countrymen, and laid the foundation of our magnificent system 
of liberty. (" Hear, hear.") He also thought that he had read 
in history of a time when Lord Essex and Lord Brook were 
found fighting in the army of Cromwell, and when John 
Hampden (he did not know whether he was a merchant or 
not) led forth the freeholders of Buckingham to do battle for 
liberty against the arbitrary power of the Crown. But, as 
he had said, they could not all agree about these things. He 
was afraid that even the members for the northern division 
of the county, whose health he had the honour to pro- 
pose, did not agree with his views of the subject ; but their 
senior county member had represented them more than twenty 
years. 



232 APPENDIX III 

Mr. Scholefield had gracefully said what every gentleman 
felt in that room about Mr. Newdegate. He was the inheritor 
of an old ancestral name, though they did not think in Bir- 
mingham that everything depended upon that. Agriculture 
was indebted to him for his devoted attention to the farming 
interest ; and commerce was under no less obligations to him 
as the author of a most valuable book on the world's tariffs, 
which he brought out at a time when her Majesty's Govern- 
ment did not think it worth while to give the country such 
a work. Mr. Newdegate devoted his leisure hours and no 
doubt midnight often witnessed his labours in compiling the 
work he had referred to, which had ever since been a standard 
work on the subject. He was also distinguished for another 
thing. He was the stern opponent of Government monopoly 
in manufacture, and he was glad to see that Mr. Cobden, with 
his great powers of eloquence and weight of character, had 
taken the subject up, and in his hands, no doubt, some power- 
ful opposition would be made to the system ; but they must do 
honour to whom honour was due. To Mr. Newdegate they 
were indebted for making a stand when no one else stood 
up against the system of Government monopoly. They were 
also obliged to him for the readiness, affability, and courtesy 
with which he attended to the interests of all who had re- 
course to his assistance, whether friends or opponents in the 
political sense. 

Their junior member for the northern division of the county 
came before them, and he was sure they were all very glad to 
see him. Though a comparatively untried man, he was not un- 
tried in good works. Though not past middle age, he had what 
our great poet told them they ought to have "Love, honour, 
and troops of friends." He was old enough to remember 
when both their senior county member and senior borough 
member stood on the hustings as untried men. Yet they saw 
what they had done. By a policy of conciliation they had 
made themselves universally respected in both town and dis- 
trict, and had acquired no mean position for themselves in 
the House of Commons. This might assure them and their 
junior member that no man, however highly and conscien- 
tiously party feeling might run at or before ~an election, and 
however strongly they might venture to try and turn out 
those from whom they might differ, yet when once a man 
was lawfully elected, the Warwickshire constituency might 
be depended upon to regard all acts as bond fide endeavour 



APPENDIX III 233 

to do his duty, and to interpret them in the most liberal 
manner, and that he would always find, consistently with the 
conscientious views of gentlemen, the most cordial and frank 
support in endeavouring to do that duty. With these words 
he proposed the health of the members of the northern division 
of Warwickshire. (Applause.) 



NOTE 

Thomas Pemberton, junior, whose portrait faces p. 42, accom- 
panied the London visitors to the slitting-mill, referred to on pp. 
25-26 ; he also formed one of the party mentioned on p. 43. 

He was the son of Thomas Pemberton, whose father married 
Elizabeth, eldest child of the first Sampson Lloyd (p. 95). 



APPENDIX IV 

CHARLES LLOYD'S IMPRISONMENT WAS ENDED 
BY THE DECLARATION OF , INDULGENCE BY 
CHARLES II. ON MARCH 15, 1672 

COMMENTING upon this George Tangye tells me that though 
I correctly state at page n that those liberated were chiefly 
Friends, it might be of interest to mention that John Bunyan 
was liberated at the same time, and how this came to pass. 

No doubt many like myself have been to " Boscobel," 
and have seen the secret rooms in the house and the fine 
oak-tree up which the young King Charles II. climbed, dis- 
guised as a wood-cutter, to elude his pursuers after the 
battle of Worcester in 1651. He escaped, but found another 
difficulty ; for when he reached the English Channel with his 
companion, Lord Wilmot, he was in mortal terror of being 
betrayed and brought back to suffer like Charles I. He was, 
however, told that he might trust himself to two or three 
Quaker sailors who, having promised to carry him to their 
sailing vessel, might be trusted to do so. When the boat 
had crossed the Channel and had reached shallow water, 
the king was carried through the waves on the shoulders of 
a Quaker, Richard Carver by name. 1 Twenty years later, 
ten years after Charles II. had been made king, Carver 
appeared at Court, when the king at once recognised him, and 
asked why he had not sought a recompense before ! Carver 
replied : " Sire, I ask nothing for myself, but that your Majesty 
would do the same for my friends that I did for you." The 
king offered to release any six. Offer says we may imagine 
the sailor's blunt answer: "What? six poor Quakers for a 

1 Corroborative evidence is preserved in the archives of the Society of Friends 
at Devonshire House, London. 

235* 



236* APPENDIX IV 

king's ransom ! ! " His Majesty invited him to come again, 
when, after some persuasion, the king agreed to release 
471 Quakers in jail at the time. 1 

Although they had been much reviled by other Dissenters, 
and the king's intended pardon did not extend to any but 
Quakers, they asked that twenty others might be included in 
the pardon. The king conceded this, with the result that 
twenty other Dissenters were released, amongst them John 
Bunyan, who in 1660 was imprisoned and still remained in 
Bedford jail. 2 

About as many Quakers had already perished in jail as 
those who were thus released. 

I was travelling one day with the General of the Salvation 
Army, shortly after he and Mrs. Booth had been staying for 
a few days with us at Farm, when he referred to the 
restoration of Charles II., and how he had rewarded those 
who had been true to him. " How immeasurably more," said 
the General, " will the Almighty reward those who have 
been true to Him." This theme was uppermost in his mind, 
and if a large congregation had been present, he no doubt 
would have spoken most impressively. 



THE FRIENDS' BURIAL-GROUND 

At page 15 reference is made to Mary Gill's rich brown 
hair having remained unchanged for a very long period after 
burial. It was G. B. Lloyd, senior, who became possessed of 
a portion of it ; he had also some of the hair of Rachel Lloyd 
(ne Champion), who was buried in 1756 in this Bull Lane 
burial-ground. When the burial-ground was taken over by 
the Great Western Railway in 1851, it was found that her 
hair remained perfect after ninety-five years' burial, but the 
wood of the coffin had decayed. The hair still exists as 
perfect as then found, and is in the possession of G. B. Lloyd 
senior's grandson, J. H. Lloyd. 

1 Offer's complete edition of Bunyan's works, p. xci. of the Memoir pre- 
fixed to the 1862 edition (pp. i.-cxxiii.). This Memoir is not in the 1861 edition. 

2 The relation of the imprisonment (vol. i. of the works of John Bunyan, by 
Geo. Offer, p. 50) is worth reading. Macaulay wrote there were only two great 
creative minds in the latter half of the seventeenth century : one produced 
Paradise Lost, the other the Pilgrim's Progress. 



APPENDIX IV 237' 



LIKENESS OF S. T. COLERIDGE (page 150) 

Coleridge took a kindly interest in Charles Lloyd, the poet, 
when he came to Birmingham in 1796 (p. 148), and after he 
had been with him for a short time as his pupil he wrote to his 
father: "Your son and I are happy in our connection; our 
opinions and feelings are as nearly alike as we can expect." 

Much of course happened between that date and Cole- 
ridge's death thirty-eight years afterwards, but this early 
friendship causes me to insert a likeness of Coleridge with 
the permission of T. C. & E. C. Jack of Edinburgh, the 
publishers of an attractive little book of his poems ; and if 
we open Molesworth's History of England, 1830-74, in three 
volumes, 1 we find amongst other things recorded as taking 
place in i834, 2 that "the 25th of July witnessed the death of 
the great philosopher-poet S. T. Coleridge." Molesworth says 
that he and Robert Southey, fired with enthusiastic hopes 
which the dawn of the French Revolution inspired, dreamed 
all kinds of Utopias ; but its sequel quenched the bright anti- 
cipations its dawn had created. In 1800 Coleridge took up 
his abode at Keswick, where his two friends Southey and 
Wordsworth resided. Here he exchanged his Unitarian views 
for those of the Church of England. " His works," writes 
Molesworth, " are replete with profound thought and the 
loftiest eloquence. . . . Perhaps few men ever lived who have 
more powerfully influenced understandings of the highest 
order. We believe that Dr. Arnold, Keble, Pusey, T. Carlyle, 
Gladstone, the two Newmans, the two Froudes, Colenso, and 
the writers both of the Tracts for the Times and Essays and 
Reviews, were all largely, though perhaps unconsciously, in- 
debted to the seeds of thought which were directly or indi- 
rectly sown in their minds by his writing or conversation." 
This reminds me of a remark in a recent address of the 
Bishop of Birmingham (Dr. Gore), that each generation had 
writers who especially impressed them for instance, Dr. 
Johnson recommended Grotius as a good Bible commentator; 
" but who," asks the Bishop, "reads Grotius now?" 

Time may have put an extinguisher upon Grotius, but 

1 The first edition was published in 1871, but my copy is a later one, published 
in 1886. 

2 Page 330. 



238* 'APPENDIX IV 

Coleridge, besides his powerful prose, wrote "The Ancient 
Mariner," " Christabel," and " Kubla Khan," so that many 
regard him as one of our great poets. 1 



MRS. CHARLES LLOYD, nte PEMBERTON 

The following trifling incident is vouched for by Mrs. F. 
H. Steeds, who is descended from the Bingley Lloyds through 
both her parents : 

One day when Mrs. Charles Lloyd, the poet's wife, was 
taking a walk with her little children at Brathay she met a 
gipsy woman, who said, "You may have my little girl for 
half-a-crown," so Mrs. Lloyd bought her. Everything went 
on well for a time till the little girl grew older, and was told 
by Mrs. Lloyd that she must prefix the word "Master" when 
speaking to or of her little boys, but the little gipsy girl 
would noL Mrs. Lloyd therefore thought it best to make 
another arrangement respecting her. 



MRS. KNOWLES 

A likeness of Mrs. Knowles is given at page 1 10. She 
was the daughter of Moses Morris of Rugeley who attended 
Stafford Meeting. A clergyman of the Church of England 
was attached to her, and the only obstacle on either side 
was a conscientious objection mutually felt, on account of diffe- 
rent religious sentiments. She afterwards married, as stated, 
Dr. Knowles, a member of the Society of Friends. 



SAMPSON SAMUEL LLOYD 

Mr. Howard Lloyd, in reply to a suggestion that he might 
give interesting particulars respecting S. S. Lloyd, with whom 
he was intimately associated in the management of the Bank 

1 The Literary Supplement of the Times, May 10, 1907, p. 145, contains an 
interesting article upon him as a poet. 



APPENDIX IV 239* 

for so many years, writes as a summary of much he could say, 
that, taking him all in all, he was the finest Lloyd of the 
present generation. 



EARLY WELSH CHRISTIANITY 

Mr. James Simmons, of Wellington Road, Edgbaston, 
writes to me referring to the genealogy of the Llo3 r ds, that 
in a book he bought a few years ago he read with interest 
a passage relating to early Welsh Christianity. It stated 
that soon after the Crucifixion, a Christian Jew named Lud, 
flying from persecution in Palestine, settled in Wales, from 
whom it would appear that the Lloyds were descended, and 
that Christianity was introduced into Wales A.D. 60. This 
was in a small book published by Banks & Son, Red Lion 
Court, Fleet Street ; but the information, upon inquiry, I found 
to be too indefinite for me to do more than thus allude to it. 



NOTES BY C. D. STURGE 

Page 21. Mary Crowley (not Crawley) was a sister of Sir 

Ambrose Crowley. 

24. It appears from Burke that the present peer is 
a direct descendant from the first Lord. 



THE CONFERENCE BETWEEN THE BISHOP OF 
ST. ASAPH (WILLIAM LLOYD), AND CHARLES 
AND THOMAS LLOYD IN 1681 

This conference is referred to at page 13. After the first 
edition of this book was published I found that " The original 
MS. by the eminent antiquary Mr. Robert Davies of Llanerch, 
an ear-witness of this well-known conference between the 
Bishop and the Quakers, which took place at Llanfyllin, 
September 22-23, 1681," was in the possession of the Cardiff 
Central Public Library. I accordingly communicated with 
Mr. John Ballinger, the Librarian, and he had an exact copy 



240* -APPENDIX IV 

made for me. It is too long for insertion in this Appendix, but 
I am presenting it to the Birmingham Reference Library. 

The MS. is endorsed: "The Bp's dispute with ye 
Quakers, 81." 

The MS. was purchased by the Cardiff Libraries Committee 
in February 1899 from Mr. LI. Lloyd of Tendring, near Col- 
chester, who stated that the manuscripts of which it formed a 
part were collected by the Rev. John Lloyd, the friend and 
companion of Pennant. 



INDEX 



AlKIN, Miss, 159 
Ailesbury Jail, Quakers in, 8 
Aleth, King of Dyfed, i, 211 
Amalgamations with Lloyds Bank 

Limited, list of, 79, 80 
Amersham, burial of Quaker, 8 
Anabaptists, on oaths, 9 
Annual Anthology (ed. Southey), 

156 
Apology (Barclay), 37, 121 ; Bas- 

kerville's edition of, 107, 108 n. ; 

Dr. Johnson and, 107, 117 ; Mrs. 

Knowles and, 117 
Arts' s Gazette, 50, 62, 172 ; notice 

of death of Charles Lloyd the 

banker, 143, 144 
Ash, Dr., 50 

" Atmospheric Engine," 192 
Attwood, Thomas, 71 ; his statue, 

7i 

Author, informed by George B. 
Lloyd regarding skull of Charles 
Lloyd the Quaker, 15 ; sees 
portion of Mary Gill's hair, 15 ; 
case of human hair growing after 
death, 15 ; undertakes present 
work on suggestion of G. B. 
Lloyd, 22, 203 ; his residence, 
32, 33, 35 ; shown James Watt's 
private workshop, 52 ; stories of 
runs on the bank, 68, 69 ; per- 
sonal recollections of the Lloyds 
as bankers, 81-94 ; adventure in 
the safe, 93, 94 ; possesses Bible 
of"SarahFidoe,"95.; possesses 
copy of first edition of Dr. John- 
son's Dictionary, 109, 1 10 ; takes 
tea with Dr. Livingstone, 126, 
127 ; on George Dawson, 128 ; on 
Douglas Galton, 129; Thomas 
Lloyd in Mexico, 133, 134 ; Caro- 
line Fox, 141 ; meets Elizabeth 



Fry, 145 ; grandfather, 182 ; 
leaves Friends, but rejoins (1892), 
185 ; Edward Smith's opinion, 
186; lives at Wednesbury 
moves to "Farm" (1870), 189 ; 
father, 193 ; the beacon-fires, 
193, 194 ; joins father's business 
(1843), J 94 5 recollections of 
Wednesbury, 195 ; on religious 
persecution, 196 ; welcomes de- 
claration regarding Biblical Criti- 
cism, 198 ; Lloyds, Fosters and 
Co., 199-201 ; Lloyds still true 
to iron, 202 ; on ironmasters, 
202, 203 ; distributes copies of 
the Bible into Spain, 203 ; The 
Corrected New Testament life- 
work, 203 

BACON, Lord, quoted, 203 

Baillie, Joanna, 159 

Baker, Alderman, his great-grand- 
father, 123, 124 

Banbury, Friends at, 188 

Bank Passage, Dale End, 54 

Banks 

Alfred Lloyd's (Leamington), 73 
Amalgamations with Lloyds, 79, 

80 

Attwood, Spooner & Co., 71, 74 
Bank of England, 62, 63, 64, 65, 

66, 67, 71 
Barclay's, 32, 168 
Barnetts, Hoares & Co., 77, 79 
Birmingham Joint Stock, 75, 78, 

79 

Bosanquet, Salt & Co., 77, 79 
"Clean," 64 
Coates (Moilliettte Sons), 59, 70, 

71, 75, 79 

Dickenson & Goodall, 59 
Freer, Rotton & Co., 71 



235 



236 



INDEX 



Banks (continued} 
Gallon's, 64, 70 
Goodall & Co., 59 
Gurney Norfolk, 73 
"Smith's," 70, 71 
Spooner & Co., 59 
Stafford Old, 76, 79 
Taylor, Lloyd, Hanbury & Bow- 
man, 32, 56, 57, 77 
"The Birmingham Old Bank," 

55,79 

Wednesbury Old, 76, 79 
Wilkinson, Startin & Smith, 64 
Worcester City & County, 70, 79 

Banks, Sir Joseph, 51 

Barbauld, Mrs., 159 

Barclay, David, the elder, his house 
in London, 37 ; Royal visits, 37, 

33 

David, junior, marries Rachel 

Lloyd, 32, 37, 38, 119; life at 
Youngsbury, 38, 39 ; estimate of, 
39 ; buys Thrale's brewery, 119 

- Lucy, George III. and, 38 
Perkins & Co., 1 19 

- Robert, 119 

Robert, of Urie, 37, 39, 
122 ; his Apology, 37, 107 and ;/., 
117, 121 ; Dr. Johnson and the 
Apology, 107, 117 

Barford, 60 

Barr, 193 

Beacon, 193 

"Barry Cornwall," 159 

Baskerville, 50, 107 

Beacon to the Society of Friends, A 
(Isaac Crewdson), 177, 183, 184 

Beddoes, Dr., 151 

Benett, Conventicle Act and, 8 

Bessemer, Sir William, 203 

Beverley, Mr. R. M., visits "Farm," 
102, 103, 184 

Bingley House (Hall), 134 ; used for 
Exposition of Arts and Manu- 
factures, 134 ; Prince Consort at, 

134 

Birmingham, 3, n, 14, 15; Lloyds 
come to, 20, 21 ; Dissent and, 
21, 22; "Five Mile Act" and, 
22; No. 56 Edgbaston Street, 
22; Lloyd slitting-mill, 22, 23, 
25, 26 ; meeting at the Swan, 28 ; 
No. 1 8 Park Street, 33 ; " Farm,'' 
33~35; Owen's farmhouse, 36; 



John Taylor, 40-43 ; increasing 
trade establishment of first 
bank, 43, 44; population and 
prosperity, 45, 46, 59; different 
ways of spelling, 45 n. ; Hutton's 
prophecy, 46; bad roads and 
highwaymen, 47 ; Making of 
Birmingham (Dent), quoted, 47, 
48 ; gun trade, 48 ; " Toy-shop 
of Europe," 49; Boulton, Watt 
and Murdock, 49, 5 1, 52, 53 ; Aris 
and Baskerville, 50 ; first musical 
festival, 5 1 ; Lunar Society, 5 1 ; 
statues of James Watt and Dr. 
Priestley, 52; George Stephen- 
son's lecture, 53 ; slave-trade and, 
53 ; earliest known Directory of, 
54, 58; Priestley Riots, 59, 60; 
Mayors of, 87,88; Members of 
Parliament, 71, 80, 89, 90; Dr. 
Johnson's visits, 106-109; Society 
of Friends in, 120; Bull Street 
Meeting-house, 120; Coleridge's 
visits, 145, 148, 149 

Birmingham 

Chronicle (1825), 66, 67 

Daily rost, Thomas Lloyd's letter 

to, 88, 89 
Directory (1770), 54, 58 

Blackfriars Bridge, London, con- 
struction of, 199-201 

Blackwell, Mr., 85 

Blackivood, Christopher North's 
review of Nugcz Canorce (Charles 
Lloyd), 159 

Borrow, George, 203 

Boswell, 106, 107, 108, 109, no, 
111-115, 119 

Boulton, Matthew, 49 ; Sampson 
Lloyd's liberality to, 49 ; descrip- 
tion of, 51 ; letter to James Watt, 
52, 53; works at Soho, 61, 108; 
rolling-mills, 192 

& Watt, pumping-engines of, 

190 

Bowlby, Dr. (Bishop of Coventry), 
87,88 

Bowley, Samuel, of Gloucester, his 
"latitudinarianism," 188 

Bowman, William, 56 

Bradford Street slitting-mill, 22, 23 

Bradley, 192 

Braithwaite, Joseph Bevan, 175 ; 
sketch of, 1 80, 181 



INDEX 



Brassey, Messrs., 200 

Bridgenorth, Welsh yearly meeting 
at, 20 

Bright, John, 71 ; Thomas Lloyd 
and, 88, 89; on Quaker con- 
servatism, 89, 90 ; writes pre- 
face to author's book on Martin 
Luther, 90; on politics of Bir- 
mingham, 90 

Brown, Rev. John, 105 

Bull Lane, Monmouth Street, 
Friends' old burial-ground in, 
14, 15, 21, 36, no, 120 ; Charles 
Lloyd's skull and Mary Gill's 
hair, 15 ; human hair after death, 
15 ; original meeting-place of 
Friends in Birmingham, 120 

Street, Friends' burial-ground 

in, 15 ; meeting-house in, 120 

Burke, Edmund, description of 
Birmingham, 49 

Burnet, Bishop, on severity of 
Conventicle Act (1664), 7 

Burr, John, surgeon, Miss Fidoe's 
property and, 106 

Burton-on-Trent, charcoal forges 
at, 27 

Bury, Curtis & Kennedy, 86, 200 

Buxton, Sir Thomas Fowell, 135 

CADBURY, John, 146 

Richard T., 146, 185 

Campbell, Lord, 191 
Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry, 

Prime Minister, on policy of 

large armaments, 129 
Cannon Hill Park, 60 
Carnegie, Mr. Andrew, 203 
Castle Donnington (Leicestershire), 

169 

Celynin, acquires Llwydiarth, i, 21 1 
Century of Birmingham Life 

(Langford), 35 and ., 62, 63 
Chamberlain, Rt. Hon. Joseph, 80, 

213, 216 

Champion, Nehemiah, of Bristol, 31 
Charles Lamb and the Lloyds 

(Lucas), 136 

Charlotte, queen of George III., 38 
Chelmsford, Stephen Grellet's 

preaching at, 187 

Child, Robert, daughter's elope- 
ment, 104, 105 
Child, Miss Sarah, elopes with Lord 



Westmorland, 
riage, 105 

J>~ T? 1 



2 37 

104, 105 ; mar- 



Child's Bank, small boy and, 105 

Christ Church, Sparkbrook, Samp- 
son S. Lloyd contributes largely 
towards erection of, 90, 91 

" Christopher North," 157 ; reviews 
Nug<z Canor<Zy 159 

Clarkson, Rev. Isaac, 196 

Thomas, visits Birmingham, 

Cloddian Cochion (near Welsh- 
pool), Friends' burial-ground at, 
ii ; 12, 16 

Cobden, Richard, 126 

Coedcowrid (near Welsh pool), 
estate, i, 2 

Coggeshall, Essex, 56 

Coleridge, Derwent, anecdotes, 141 

Hartley, 149 ; on Charles 

Lloyd's appreciation of Pope, 
1 58 ; friendship with Owen Lloyd, 
161 ; his " Schoolfellow's Tri- 
bute," 162, 163 

Samuel Taylor, 53 ; visits to 

Birmingham, 145, 148 ; Charles 
Lloyd the poet and, 148-155 ; 
residence in Lake District, 156 ; 
his copy of Nug<z Canortz, 1 59 

Sara, 149 

Colmore Row, Birmingham, 14, 221 
Conventicle Act (1664), severity of, 

7-9,21 

Corrected New Testament, The, 203 
Cottle, publisher, 156 
Crawley, Mary, marries the first 

Sampson Lloyd, 21 
Crewdson, Isaac, of Manchester, A 

Beacon to the Society of Friends, 

177, 183, 184 ; leaves Friends, 

185 

Croker, 119 
Cromwell, Oliver, autograph letter, 

Cunnington, Rev. G. C., The Cor- 
rected New Testament and, 203 

DANNEMORA Mines (Sweden), 
Richard Foley and, 23, 24 

Darwin, Charles, 130 

Dr., 51, 130 

Darwinism Exposed (R. M. Bever- 
ley), 102 

David, Hugh, 5 



2 3 8 



INDEX 



Davies, Richard, becomes a Quaker, 

5 ; Autobiography, 5, 6, 10, 11, 

12, 13, 14 
Dawson, George, on peace, 128, 

129 
De Quincey, describes Charles 

Lloyd the poet, 156, 157, 158 ; 

opinion of Mrs. Lloyd, 158 
Dictionary of National Biography, 

Dr. Garnett on Charles Lloyd 

the poet, 157, 159, 1 60 
Dilly, Dr., in 
Dissertation on Roast Pig (Lamb), 

155 

Dolobran, estate, I, 2, 17; meet- 
ings at, 5, 6, 12 ; ironwork 
established near, 20 ; sold, 
21 ; bought back, 21 ; 133, 202, 
205, 208, 209, 2ii 
-Hall, 2, 6, 12, 17,20 
Dudley Castle, 194 

Dud, Metallum Martis, wood 
and iron, 25 

- Earl of, buys property of 
Foleys, 24 
Dyfed (Demicia or Demica), i, 211 

EAST India Company, Birming- 
ham sword-makers and, 48 

Edgbaston Street, No. 56, 22, 175 

Edwards, Dr. John E., describes 
one of Anna Braithwaite's 
meetings, 177-179 

Einion, David, inherits Dolobran 
and Coedcowrid, I 

Llewellyn (father), I 

Elder, John, militant Christianity 
and, 123 

Eldon, Lord, his delays, 191 ; first 
journey from Newcastle to 
London, 191 ; Quaker and the 
motto, 191 

Ellwood, Thomas, on severity of 
Conventicle Act (1664), 7-9 ; 
his riddle, 8 

" FALLACIES of theRotary Engine," 
George Stephenson's lecture, 53, 
203 

" Farm," home of Lloyds of 
Birmingham, 32; purchase of, 
33; "Jacobite" elms, 33, 34; 
summer-house of the four seasons, 
34, 35 ; stanzas on (?), 35 ; estate 



and house to-day, 33, 35, 36, 38 ; 
description of, 43; Priestley 
rioters and, 59, 60 ; Alfred 
Lloyd's signature, 73 ; the prim- 
rose bank in spring, 104 ; the 
story of the governess at, 114- 
119; visit of Mrs. H. Beecher 
Stowe, 1 80; first Samuel Lloyd 
moves to, 182 ; Mr. R. M. Bever- 
ley's visits, 102, 103, 184 ; author 
moves to, 189; second Samuel 
Lloyd spends week-ends at, 193 ; 
Mrs. Howard and Mrs. Fox at, 
103, 104, 194 

Farm and its Inhabitants (Mrs. 
Rachel J. Lowe), 32, 49, 104, 211 

Farmer, Priscilla, Charles Lloyd's 
Poems, 151, 176; Lamb's "The 
Grandam," 151 ; Anna Braith- 
waite and, 176 

Fidoe, Betsy, 95 ; story of third 
Sampson Lloyd's attachment to, 
96-99; leaves her property to 
him, 106 

Fithian, Sir E. W., on Sampson S. 
Lloyd as President of Association 
of Chambers of Commerce, 91 

"Five Mile Act," 22 

Foley, Richard, his fiddle leads to 
wealth, 23, 24 

Thomas (son), 24 



Ford Cornelius (cousin of Dr. 

Johnson), 1 10 

Forster, Josiah, schoolmaster, 186 
Foster, Joseph (Royal Descent}, 

pedigree of Lloyds, 207, 210 
Sampson, 73 



Fox, Alfred, 141, 194 

Caroline, of Penjerrick, 141 

George, in Wales, 5, 12; on 

oaths, 6 ; 21, 122, 131 ; Narrative 
of the Spreading of Truth, 198 
Henderson & Co., of Smeth- 



wick, 200 
Franklin, Dr., 135 
Friends, Society of. See Quakers 
Fry, Elizabeth, guest at Bingley 

House, 145 
Fundamental Constitutions (Penn), 

122 

GALTON, Rev. Arthur, sketch of, 

and writings, 130-132 
Douglas, 129 



INDEX 



2 39 



Galton, Francis, works on Heredity, 
129, 130 

Samuel, senior, 121 

Samuel, junior, 102, 121 ; 

gunmaking and Christianity, 122, 
123 ; interview with Friends, 
123; his statement, 124, 125 ; 
"disowned," 126 ; helps Friends 
to acquire burial-ground in Bull 
Street, 15, 126 ; undesirable 
suitor and, 130; dies, 132 

Samuel Tertius, 64 

Garnett, Dr., 157, 159 

Geach, Mr., 196 

General Hospital, establishment of, 

5o>5i 
Gentlemarts Magazine -, 37 n. ; Mrs. 

Knowles's disputation with Dr. 

Johnson, 115-118; article on 

Charles Lloyd the banker, 134- 

136 ; Lamb's memoir of Robert 

Lloyd, 173, 174 
George I., 37 
George II., 37 
George III., 38 
Gibbins, W. B., of Ettington, his 

grandfather, 123, 124 
Gill, Mary (daughter of first 

Sampson Lloyd), her hair, 15 
Gillam, Richard, 105 
Godwin, William, 159, 171 
Good, Elizabeth, marries the first 

Sampson Lloyd, 21 
Great Western Railway, Friends' 

burial-ground in Bull Lane and, 

14, 15, 120 
Grellet, Stephen, his preaching, 

187 

Gretna Green, 104, 105 
Gulson, John (son-in-law of first 

Sampson Lloyd), 22 
Gurney, Hudson, 37 n. 
Richard, 119 

HACKWOOD, Mr. P. W., 199 

Hamstead (near Birmingham), iron 
furnace at, 26, 27 

H anbury, Osgood, of Coggeshall, 
Essex, marries Mary Lloyd, 
56 ; partnership with third 
Sampson Lloyd, 32, 56, 99 

Harry, Jane, governess at " Farm," 
114; Dr. Johnson and Mrs. 
Knowles on her conversion 



to Quakerism, 114-118; Miss 
Se ward's story, 118, 119 

Hart, Francis, of Nottingham, 
169 

Haverford, Pennsylvania, Friends' 
tribute to Thomas Lloyd, 17-19 

Haverfordwest Corporation, Crom- 
well's letter to, 3 

Hazlitt, William, 159 

Heathfield Hall, its relics, 52 

Hector, Dr., 50, 109 ; Dr. Johnson's 
visit, 106-108 

" Heirs of Parkes," 36 

Herbert, Lord Edward, Baron of 
Cherbury, 6, 10, 1 1 

Hereditary Genius (Francis Galton), 
129, 130 

Herschel, Sir William, 51 

Hickling, John, confidential head 
clerk of Lloyds, 93 

Hicks, Elias, religious views, 
177, 183 ; Anna Braithwaite 
and, 177; influence, 183; Isaac 
Crewdson's counterblast, 177, 
183, 184 

"Hicksite Friends," 183 

History of his own Time 
(Burnet), 7 

History of the Slave Trade (Clark- 
son), 53 

Hodgkin, Dr. Thomas, on the 
Quaker, 9 ; on banker and 
usurer, 85, 86 

Howard, Robert, of Tottenham, 194 

Hunt, Leigh, 159 

Hutton, historian of Birmingham, 
42 ; settles in Birmingham, 50 ; 
panegyric on John Taylor, 42, 
43; on growth of Birmingham, 
45, 46 ; on carriage of coal, 47 ; 
on formation of Taylors & Lloyds, 
58 ; description of meeting-house 
in Bull Street, 120 

INFORMERS, under Conventicle 

Act (1664), 8, 9, 12, 16 
Iron, high price of (1757), 28 
furnace, description of (1755), 

26 
Ironmasters, quarterly meetings 

of, in Birmingham, 28 ; famous, 

202, 203 
Italy and her Invaders (Dr. Thomas 

Hodgkin), 85 



240 



INDEX 



JAMES, Mr. J. Spinther, list of 
charges against Charles Lloyd, 
the second, 12 n., 13 t?.\ parti- 
culars of Thomas Lloyd's career, 
16 

Paul Moon, of Wake Green, 

marries Olivia Lloyd, 146 n. 

Jenyns, Soame, 112 

Jesus College, Oxford, 2 

Johnson, Dr., interested in John 
Taylor, 41, 42 ; his father's stall 
in Birmingham, 50 ; essays in 
Warren's newspaper, 50 ; visits 
third Sampson Lloyd, 106-108 ; 
volume of Barclay's Apology and, 
107 ; translates Lobo's Voyage 
to Abyssinia, 109 ; at school at 
Stourbridge, 1 10; dialecticalbouts 
with Mrs. Knowles, m-ii8 ; the 
picture and, 119 ; remark at sale 
of Thrale's brewery, 119 

- Michael, his Birmingham 
stall, 50 

Jones, Gilbert, of Welshpool, father- 
in-law of Thomas Lloyd, 16 

Jordan, Mrs., 158 

KEITH, George, Thomas Lloyd 
and, 19 

Kemble, John, 171 

Kendal, 175, 181 

Kenrick, Mr. Timothy, first chair- 
man of Lloyds Banking Com- 
pany Limited, 76, 216, 219 

Knott & Lloyd, 172 

Knowles, Dr., no, in 

- Mrs., lays out pleasure garden 
of " Farm," 34, 110; sketch of, 
no, in ; dialectical bouts with 
Dr. Johnson, 111-115 5 lier own 
recollections of dialogue concern- 
ing " The Farm " governess, 1 1 5- 
1 1 8 ; Dr. Johnson and the picture, 
119 

LAMB, Charles, 53 ; on translations 
of Charles Lloyd of Bingley, 
136-141 ; on Robert Lloyd's 
character-sketch, 143 ; the joint- 
volume, 149; "The Grandam," 
151 ; verses to Charles Lloyd 
the poet, 153 ; correspondence 
with Charles Lloyd, 154; poem 



(1797), 154 5 letter to Coleridge, 
154 ; introduced to Thomas 
Manning, 155 ; value of his 
letters to Robert Lloyd, 164 ; 
as a mentor, 165, 166 ; Robert 
Lloyd takes shelter with, 167 ; 
on Charles Lloyd the banker, 
1 68 ; on marriage of Robert 
Lloyd, 169 ; glimpse of him and 
his sister, 171, 172; his memoir 
of Robert Lloyd, 173, 174 

Lancaster, Mr., 85, 86 

Langford, Dr. J. A., 35 ., 62, 63 

Lea (near Leominster), 22 

Levi, Professor Leone, 93 

Licky Hills, 33 

Lincoln, Abraham, 203 

Lloyd, David, of Dolobran, I, 2 

John (grandson), a noted 

antiquary ; his Sunday body- 
guard, 2 

Charles (son of John), the 



first of Dolobran ; marries Eliza- 
beth Stanley ; his hobby, 2 
Charles (eldest son), the second 
of Dolobran, at Jesus College, 
Oxford, 2 ; marries (i) Elizabeth 
Lort, 3, (2) Ann Lawrence, 14 ; 
becomes a Quaker, 5, 6 ; in 
prison, 6, 9-11 ; released, and 
returns to Dolobran, n, 12 ; list 
of charges against, 12 n. ; "dis- 
courses " with Bishop Lloyd, 13, 
14, 88 ; dies, 14 ; his skull, 15 
John (brother), 2, 3 



Thomas (brother), 2, 3 ; visits 

Charles in prison, 10 ; pleads 
with Lord Herbert, n ; "dis- 
courses" with Bishop Lloyd, 13, 
14 ; fined and imprisoned, 12, 
16, 17 j marries Mary Jones, 16 ; 
friend of William Penn and 
Deputy-Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, 3, 16, 19 ; dies, 17 ; Penn- 
sylvanian Friends' Tribute, 17- 

19 

Charles (the third), born in 

jail, 10 ; remains at Dolobran 
Hall, and establishes an iron- 
work, 20 ; minute of meeting 
at Bridgenorth, 20 ; dies at Bir- 
mingham, 21 

Sampson (the first), n, 15, 

20; marries (i) Elizabeth Good, 



INDEX 



241 



(2) Mary Crawley, 21 ; migrates 
to Birmingham, 21, 198 ; iron- 
master property dies, 22 

Lloyd, Sampson (the second), 21, 
22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 31 ; marries 
(i) Sarah Parkes, (2) Rachel 
Champion, 31 ; one of the 
founders of Lloyds Bank, 31, 
32 ; lives at No. 18 Park Street, 
33 ; purchases " Farm," 32, 33 ; 
planting of " Jacobite " elms, 33, 
34 ; dies, 36 ; "The Silent High- 
way " and, 94 

Sampson (the third), 31, 32, 

37; prime mover in formation 
of Taylor, Lloyd, Hanbury and 
Bowman, 32, 56, 99 ; lives at 
No. 1 8 Park Street and in Old 
Square, 33, 106 ; formation of 
bank, 54, 55 ; memorandum of 
1796, 58; character of, 55, 95, 
99; "The Silent Highway" and, 
94 ; story of attachment to Miss 
Fidoe, 96-99; marries Rachel 
Barnes, 99; family of seven- 
teen, 99 ; letters from Richard 
Reynolds, 99-101 ; Mrs. Schim- 
melpenninck contrasts two 
brothers, 101, 102 ; estimate of 
Mr. R. M. Beverley, 102, 103 ; 
recollections of two grand- 
daughters, 103, 104 ; Miss Fidoe's 
property and, 106 ; visit of Dr. 
Johnson, 106-108 ; one of depu- 
tation to Samuel Galton, 102, 
121-124; dies, 182 
- Charles, of Bingley, 31, 32, 
36, 57, 72 ; on death of Rachel 
Lloyd, 38 ; Lunar Society 
meetings, and occasional guests, 
53 ; in London (179?), 63, 64 ; 
weathers the "storm" of 1825, 
66, 67, 133 ; contrasted with 
third Sampson Lloyd, 101, 102 ; 
opinion of Thomas Lloyd of the 
Priory, Warwick, 133; "Bingley 
House, Warwickshire," 134; 
Gentlemarts Magazine (1828) 
estimate of, 134-136 ; Charles 
Lamb on Mr. Lloyd's transla- 
tions from the Iliad, the Odyssey ', 
and Horace, 136-141 ; anec- 
dotes, 141, 142; a kindly father, 
142, 143; Robert Lloyd's 



character-sketch of his father, 
143 ; Arisfs Gazette on death of, 
143, 144 ; marble bust in General 
Hospital, 144; assists in form- 
ing Bible Society, 144 ; Mary 
Farmer, his wife, 145, 146 ; 
Charles Lamb's letter, 146 ; on 
Coleridge, 150 ; dies, 146 

Lloyd, Charles, the poet, 87, 136, 
145, 146; Mr. Lucas's summing 
up of character, 147 ; unwilling 
banker, 147, 148; advice to 
brother Robert, 148 ; visits of 
Coleridge, 148, 149 ; at Bristol 
and Nether Stowey, 149-154; 
letters from Coleridge, 150; 
Poems on the Death of Pris cilia 
Farmer, 151 ; first mental ill- 
ness, 151, 152; visits Lamb in 
London, 153 ; Lamb's verses, 
153 ; correspondence with 
Lamb, 154; quarrel with Cole- 
ridge, 155; Edmund Oilier, a 
novel, 155; settles at Cambridge, 
155; introduces Thomas Man- 
ning to Lamb, 155 ; marries 
Sophia Pemberton, 155, 156; 
at Old Brathay, 156; visitors 
and friends, 156, 157 ; testimony 
of De Quincey, 157, 158 ; Shelley 
and, 158 ; Macready and, 158, 
159; poems, 159, 1 60; Dr. 
Garnett's criticism, 159, 160 ; 
dies, 1 60 ; his children, 160, 161 ; 
Owen Lloyd" Lile Owey," 
161 ; Hartley Coleridge's poem, 
162, 163 

Robert (third son of Charles 

Lloyd the banker), 142 ; char- 
acter-sketch of his father, 143 ; 
letters from his mother, 146, 
167; advice from his brother 
Charles, the poet, 148 ; Charles 
Lamb's letters, value of, 164 ; 
Lamb as a mentor, 165, 166 ; 
runs away from Saffron Walden, 
167; Thomas Manning and, 
1 66, 167, 1 68 ; Charles Lloyd 
of Bingley in London Lamb's 
letter, 168 ; Lamb on marriage, 
169; marries Hannah Hart, 
169 ; visit to London, 170-172 ; 
glimpse of Charles and Mary 
Lamb at home, 171, 172 ; busi- 

Q 



242 



INDEX 



ness of Knott & Lloyd, 172 ; 
dies, 172 ; Lamb's memoir of 
him, 173, 174 ; his father's esti- 
mate, 174 ; Lamb's letters to 
him, in Charles Lamb and the 
Lloyds, and in Lamb's Letters, 

174 

Lloyd, Samuel (the first), marries 
Rachel Braithwaite, 182 ; Old 
Square, the Crescent, " Farm," 
182; devotes himself solely to 
banking, 183 ; his coachman, 
" Reynolds," 183 ; the first head 
of a Lloyd family to leave the 
Friends, 183; Elias Hicks and 
his influence, 183 ; Isaac Crewd- 
son's counterblast, 183, 184 ; 
Plymouth Brethren visit" Farm," 
184; joins the Brethren, 185; 
dies, 58 

Samuel (the second), 193 ; the 
view from Church Hill, Wednes- 
bury, 193, 194; the "Clippers," 
194; description of, 196; on re- 
ligious persecution, 196; Lloyds, 
Fosters Co., 199 ; dies (1862), 
199 

Sampson Samuel, buys back 
Dolobran, 21 ; directors' policies, 
8 1 ; on overdrafts at Lloyds 
Bank, 83 ; Liberal Conservative 
and Churchman, 88 ; as M.P., 
90 ; report of speech at opening 
of Birmingham Exchange (1865), 
90, 230-233 ; contributes largely 
towards erection of Christ 
Church, Sparkbrook, 90, 91 ; 
as President of Association of 
Chambers of Commerce, 91, 92 ; 
Fair Trader, 92 ; remark at lec- 
ture, 93 ; parentage, 182 

Thomas, of the Priory, Mayor 

of Birmingham (1859-60), 88 ; 
John Bright and, 88, 89; his 
opinion regarding Charles Lloyd 
of Bingley, 133 ; adventure in 
Mexico, 133, 134 

George B., senior, advice of. 

83,84 

- George B. ? 15, 22, 33, 68, 83, 
86 ; Mayor of Birmingham, 87 ; 
arguments with Dr. Bowlby, 87, 
88 ; estimate of, 88 ; parentage, 
182 



Lloyd, Mr. G. Herbert, 93 

Alfred, 73 ; his signature at 

" Farm," 73 

Ambrose, 73 

Charles Arthur, 161 

Charles Exton (son of third 

Charles Lloyd), 21 

David, 73 

Edward, 160 

Grosvenor, 154 

James (son of third Charles 

Lloyd), sells Dolobran, 21 

James, 72 

John, of Golynog, 12 

- John, London banker, 111,171 
John Henry, Alderman, Lord 



Mayor of Birmingham, 87, 108 n. 
Nehemiah (eldest son of 
second Sampson Lloyd), 27, 28 ; 
correspondence, 29 

Rev. Owen, sketch of, 161 ; 
Hartley Coleridge's " School- 
fellow's Tribute," 162, 163 

- Plumstead, 142, 169, 170 

- Thomas, 172 

Agatha, ancestress of Mr. 
Stephen Phillips, 161 

Anna (daughter of Charles 

Lloyd the banker), marries 
Isaac Braithwaite of Kendal, 
175 ; recollections of her early 
years, 176 ; letter of Charles 
Lloyd, 176, 177 ; confronts 
teachings of Elias Hicks, 177 ; 
Dr. John E. Edwards describes 
one of her meetings, 178, 179 ; 
letter on slavery, 179; character, 
1 80 ; dies, 180 

Caroline, 172 

- Deborah (eldest sister of 
second Samuel Lloyd), marries 
George Stacey, 186 

Elizabeth, marries John 

Pemberton, of Bennett's Hill, 
Birmingham, 1 1 

Mary, marries Osgood Han- 
bury, of Coggeshall, Essex, 56 
Nancy," married at Gretna 



Green, 104 

Olivia (youngest child of first 

Sampson Lloyd and Mary 
Crawley), 1 10 

Olivia (second dauj;hter of 
Charles Lloyd of Bingley), 



INDEX 



243 



marries Paul Moon James, of 
Wake Green, 146 n. ; Charles 
Lamb and, 146 ; Lines to a 
Brother and Sister, 156 

Lloyd, Priscilla, marries Chris- 
topher Wordsworth, 1 68, 170, 171 

Rachel (youngest child of the 

second Sampson Lloyd and 
Rachel Champion), 31 ; marries 
David Barclay, junior, 32, 37, 38, 
119 

Rachel, marries Robert 

Howard of Tottenham, 194 ; 
recollection of third Sampson 
Lloyd, 103, 104 

Sarah, marries Alfred Fox of 

Falmouth, 141, 194 ; recollection 
of third Sampson Lloyd, 103, 104 

Dr. William, Bishop of St. 

Asaph, "discourses" with the 
Quakers, 13, 14 ; one of the 
" Seven Bishops," 14 ; Richard 
Davies and, 14 

fruitfulness, 21, 31, 99, 182, 194 

Lloyds, Welsh ancestry of the, 

i, 208-211 ; origin of name of 

Lloyd, i ; Royal descent of the, 

205-208 
Bank Magazine (Dec. 1902), 

212 

Banking Company Limited 

(Lloyds Bank), original pro- 
spectus of, 74, 75, 214, 215 ; 
names of Provisional Committee, 
212-214; Mr. Timothy Kenrick, 
first chairman, 76, 216 ; Mr. 
Howard Lloyd, first secretary, 

76, 216; first annual report, 77, 
216-219 ; first balance-sheet, 220 ; 
process of absorption begins, 76, 

77, 78, 216 ; position of bank at 
3 ist December 1883, 221-224; 
acquires London status, 77, 78 ; 
policy of bank, 81, 83; list of 
amalgamations, 79, 80 ; present- 
day figures, 80; balance-sheet, 
3ist December 1906, 225, 226; 
report of the directors, nth 
January 1907, 227 ; last annual 
meeting, 25th January 1907, 227- 
229. See also Taylors & Lloyds 

Fosters & Co., 199-201 

Llwydiarth (Montgomeryshire), 
gives name to family of Lloyd, i 



Lombard Street (Walter Bagehot), 
57 n. 

Lort, Sir George, bart., of Stack- 
pole Court, Pembrokeshire, 3 

Elizabeth, marries second 

Charles Lloyd of Dolobran, 3 ; 
gives birth to third Charles 
Lloyd in jail, 10 ; dies, 1 1 

John, 3 

Sampson, of Pembroke, 3, 4 

Lorts, name of Sampson and the, 3 
Lowe, Mrs. Rachel J., Farm and 

its Inhabitants, 32, 2 1 1 
Lucas, Mr. (Charles Lamb and the 

Lloyds], 136, 147, 148, 152, 153, 155 
Lunar Society, 51 

MACAULAY, Lord, on population 
of Birmingham, 45 ; on intellec- 
tual condition of Birmingham, 50 

Macready, William Charles, 158, 

159 

Magna Charta, overridden, 6, 7 
Making of Birmingham (Dent), 

47,48 
Manning, Thomas, 155 ; introduced 

to Charles Lamb, 155 ; Robert 

Lloyd and, 166, 167, 168 
Maurice, David, informer, 12, 13 n. 
Meifod Church, 2, 3 
Memoirs of Anna Braithwaite 

(Joseph Bevan Braithwaite), 63, 

175, 1 80 

Memorials of the Old Square, no 
Metallum Martis (Dud Dudley), 25 
Milton, John, 7 
Montgomeryshire Jail Files, 13 n., 

17 
Morning Chronicle, estimate of 

David Barclay, 39 
Muntz, G. F., 71 
Murdock, William, 49 ; his steam 

carriage, 52, 53 

Musical Festival, first, in Birming- 
ham (1768), 51 
Mynors, Robert Edward Eden, 

thanked for nothing, 68 

Rev. T. H., of Wetheroak 

Hall, Alvechurch, 68 

Narrative of the Spreading of 
Truth (George Fox), 198 

Natural History of Staffordshire 
(Robert Plot), 26 



244 



INDEX 



Newcomen, 192 

New Garden, Friends' School at, 

177, 178 
New Street Station, action of clerk 

at booking-office, leads to bank 

panic, 68 
New York Illustrated Christian 

Weekly (Dr. Edwards), 178 

OLD Park House, 32, 33 
Old Square, 33, 95, 106, no, 182 
One Hundred and Forty-one Ways 
of Spelling Birmingham (Chis- 
wick Press), 45 n. 
"Orthodox Friends," 183 
Our Attitude towards English 
Roman Catholics (Arthur Gal- 
ton), 131, 132 

Owen, Griffith, Thomas Lloyd and, 
19 

PARK Street, No. 18, 33 

Parkes, Richard, of Oakswell Hall, 
Staffordshire, 15, 1 6, 31, 36 ; pro- 
perty at Wednesbury "Heirs of 
Parkes," 36 ; 500 years' lease, 
190 

Parr, Dr., 51 

Pease, Edward, of Darlington 
(" The Father of Railways "), 185, 
199 

Henry (son), of Stanhope 



Castle and Darlington, 199 

John William, of Newcastle- 

on-Tyne, his generosity towards 
Church of England, 197 
Pemberton, John, of Bennett's 
Hill, Birmingham, marries Eliza- 
beth Lloyd, n, 14, 21, 22 
Samuel, 155 

- Thomas, 95 

- Thomas, junior, 233 note 
Penn, William, friend of Thomas 

Lloyd, 3, 1 6 ; friend of Thomas 
Ellwood, 7 ; on use of physical 
force {Fundamental Constitu- 
tions], 122 

Pennington, Isaac, 121 

Penny, Jane, 157 

Perkins, Mr., 119 

Phelps, Joseph Lloyd, 183 

Phillips, Mr. (1660), 4 

Mr. Stephen, dramatist, 161 

Plasmawr (near W 7 elshpool), 16 



Plot, Robert, describes making of 

iron, 26, 27 
Poole, Thomas, letter of Coleridge 

to, 150, 151 
Powick, charcoal forges at, under 

management of Nehemiah Lloyd, 

27 

Powys-land Club, 9th vol. of, 211 
Pride and Prejudice, 1 1 8 and n. 
Priestley, Dr., Lunar Society and, 

51 ; Mrs. Schimmelpenninck on, 

52 ; statue of, 52 ; Riots, 59 and 

TZ., 60 

Prince Consort, 134 
Prison discipline under Conventicle 

Act (1664), 10, ii 
Protection, advocated in 1783, 29, 

30 

QUAKERS (or Friends), Richard 
Davies and, 5, 6 ; persecuted, 
6-12, 1 6, 17, 1 8, 21 ; oaths and, 
9 ; released, 1 1 ; Dr. Thomas 
Hodgkin on, 9, 10 ; disputation 
with the Church, 13, 14; emi- 
gration to Pennsylvania, 21 ; 
kings and queens among the, 
37, 38 ; slave-trade and, 53 ; 
John Bright and, 89, 90 ; Dr. 
Johnson and, 107, 108, 117, 118 ; 
Society of Friends in Birming- 
ham, 120 ; physical force and, 
121-123, 126, 127 ; Charles Lamb 
and, 165, 166 ; schisms, 177, 183- 
185 ; religious Conservatives, 
1 86 ; basis of worship, 187 ; dress, 
188; " latitudinarianism," 188 ; 
tithes and, 197 ; Biblical Criti- 
cism and, 198 

Queen Anne, 37 

REA, the, 23, 25, 33 

Reeves, Samuel, of Leighton Buz- 
zard, 91 

Reminiscences (Macready), 158, 159 

"Reynolds," first Samuel Lloyd's 
coachman, 183 

- Richard, letter to Lord Shef- 
field, 28 ; letters to Nehemiah 
Lloyd, 29, 30 ; letters to third 
Sampson Lloyd, 99-101 

Robinson, George, 125 

Thomas. 125 

Rockefeller, John D., 82, 83 



INDEX 



245 



Ryland, T. H., 60 

- W. H., 60 
Miss, her benefactions, 60 



SAFFRON Wai den, 150, 164, 167 
St. Philip's Church, Birmingham, 



St. Martin's Church, 
:. PI 
193 



Sampson, Norman saint, 3 

" Sampson Lloyd & Sons," 22 

Road, Sparkbrook, 3 

Savory, 189, 190 

Schimmelpenninck, Mrs. (Mary 
Anne Galton), describes Matthew 
Boulton, James Watt, and Dr. 
Priestley, 51, 52 ; story of the 
third Sampson Lloyd's attach- 
ment to Miss Fidoe, 96-99 ; con- 
trasts the third Sampson Lloyd 
and Charles Lloyd, 101, 102 

Scholefield, Joshua, 71 

William, 71 

Scott, Sir Walter, 156 

Sedgeley Beacon, 193 

Select Miscellanies . . . illustrative 
of History . . . of Society of 
Friends (Armistead), account of 
Mrs. Knowles, no, 1 1 1 and n. 

Seward, Anna, in, 118, 119 

Shaw, Staffordshire, 36 

Shelley, on Charles Lloyd's copy of 
Berkeley's works, 158 

Siddons, Mrs., 171 

Siemens, Sir William, 203 

Slave-trade, Birmingham Quakers 
and, 53 ; Samuel Galton, junior, 
and, 125 ; practice in Virginia, 
179, 1 80 ; action of Society of 
Friends, 180 

Slitting-mill, Foley's, at Stour- 
bridge, 23-25; Lloyd's, at Bir- 
mingham, 22, 23, 25, 26 

Small Heath park, 60 

Smeaton, 192 

Smith, Charles Perrin, of New 
Jersey, 211 

Edward, 186 

Hawkes, on John Taylor, 41 

Horace J., of Philadelphia, 16 

Smith-Ryland, Mr., 60 

Snow Hill, 49 

Soho, Boulton's business at, 49, 108 

Southall, T., 185 

Southey, Robert, 53, 156 



Sparkbrook, 3, 35 

Spavold, Samuel, 125 

Spooner, Richard, 71 

Squire Wilkinson, story of, 192, 193 

Stacey, George, of Tottenham, 
clerk to Friends' yearly meet- 
ing, 185, 1 88 ; marries Deborah 
Lloyd, 1 86; Quaker dress and, 
1 88 

Staffordshire (Shaw), picture of 
Richard Parkes's residence, 36 

Stanley, Elizabeth, marries the first 
Charles Lloyd of Dolobran, 2 

Steeds, Mr., of Edgbaston, 29 

Steelhouse Lane, 48 

Stephenson, George, lectures in 
Birmingham, 53, 202, 203 

Story of the Black Country (Hack- 
wood), 199 

Story, David, 72 

Stourbridge, 22 ; nail-making in- 
dustry of, 23-25 ; Dr. Johnson at 
school indites verses to Olivia 
Lloyd, 1 10 

Stowe, Mrs. H. Beecher, visits 
"Farm," 180 

Stuart, Charles Edward ("Bonnie 
Prince Charlie "), Birmingham 
record of his defeat, 34 

Sturge, Dickinson, 15, 121 

Joseph, ultra -peace man, 

127 ; apprenticeship system of 
slavery and, 127 ; 184 

Sunny Memories (Mrs. Beecher 
Stowe), 1 80 

Swan (Birmingham), meeting in 
the, 28 

TANGYE, Mr. George, James Watt's 
private workshop at Heathfield 
Hall, 52 

Sir Richard, 52 

Taylor, John, starts first Birming- 
ham bank with the second 
Sampson Lloyd, 31, 32, 40 ; " the 
snuff-box and the thumb," 41 ; 
Dr. Johnson and, 4 1, 42 ; Hutton's 
panegyric on, 42, 43 ; button 
manufactory, 41, 42, 43 ; dies, 43 

James, of Moseley Hall, 72, 73 

John, junior, 32, 54, 57, .59, 72 

William, 72 

Taylor & Pemberton, 54, 58 

Taylors & Lloyds, first bank in 



246 



INDEX 



Birmingham (1765), 31, 40, 44, 
54, 58 ; partners, 32, 54, 55, 57, 
72, 73 ; old accounts, 55 ; divi- 
sions of profits, 56, 57, 58 ; salaries 
of chief clerks, 57, 72, 73 ; rival 
banks, 58, 59,64 ; Priestley Riots 
and, 59, 60 ; Lloyds notes, 61 ; 
the difficult year 1797, 61-64 ; 
Napoleonic unsettlement, 64, 65 ; 
panic of 1825, 65-67 ; Charles 
Lloyd weathers the storm, 66, 67 ; 
runs on the bank, 68, 69 ; use of 
^100 notes, 69 ; half Birmingham 
said to be in debt to, 71, 72 ; 
change of title to Lloyds Co., 
73; joint-stock fashion, 74; failure 
of Att woods, 74, 75. See also 
Lloyds Banking Company 
Limited 
Teg, Ivan (the" Handsome"). 1,210 

Owen (son), assumes name of 

Lloyd (c. 1476) "the first 
Lloyd," i 
"The Silent Highway,'"' and its 

dividends, 94 

Theatres in Birmingham, 50, 5 r 
Thomas, Rev. R. Owen, his chart 
of pedigree of the Lloyds, 205, 208 
Thorn, Messrs., 200 
Thrale's brewery, 119 ; Ur. John- 
son's remark at sale of, 119 
Thrale, Mrs.. 119 

Tildesley, J. C.,on Wednesbury, 195 
Tithe Commutation Act, 197 
Tuxford, story of Quaker at the 
Inn, 191 

UNWIN, Matthew, first book 
printed in Birmingham, 50 

VIRGINIA, practice of slave-owners, 

179, 1 80 
Voyage to Abyssinia (Lobo), 109 

WALKER, Thomas, 196 
Walthamstow, 39 

Warren, Mr., Dr. Johnson and, 50, 
109 



Washington, George, 203 
Watson, Dr. (Bishop of Llandaff), 

157 

Miss, 157 

Watt, James, 49, 189, 192 ; 
Sampson Lloyd's liberality to, 
49 ; description of, 51; statue of, 
52 ; private workshop, 52 ; letter 
to Boulton, 52, 53 

Wealth of Nations (Adam Smith), 
57 n. 

Wedgwood, Josiah, 51 

Wednesbury, Richard Parkes's 
property at, 36; coal "delphs" 
about, 47 ; Miss Fidoe's property 
at, 106; Richard Parkes's 500 
years' lease, 190; second Samuel 
Lloyd goes to live at, 193; ex- 
cursions to, 193, 194; J. C. 
Tildesley's article on, 195 ; 
Lloyds, Fosters & Co., 199-201 ; 
Patent Shaft and Axletree Co. 
Limited, 199, 201 

Wednesbury Ancient and Modern 
(Hackwood), 199 

Welshpool, I, 5 ; Friends in prison 
at, 6-ii ; 12, 16 

Westmorland, Lord, Gretna Green 
marriage, 104, 105 

Wilkes, John, 119 

Wilkinson, John, his tokens, 61 

- Thomas, 148 
Williams, Richard, 13 ;/. 
Winchmore Hill, 38 
Withering, Mr., 51 
Wollstonecraft, Mary, 159, 171 
Worcester, Marquis of, 189 
Wordsworth, Christopher, Bishop, 

marries Priscilla Lloyd, 168, 170, 
171; opinion regarding Joseph 
Bevan Braithwaite, 181 

- Dorothy, 156 

- William, 53, 156 

Wright, Mr. William, of Moseley, 
230 n. 

YARDLEY (near Birmingham), 183 
Youngsbury (near London), 38, 39 



Printed by BALLANTVNE, HANSON 6- Co. 
Edinburgh & London 



CS Lloyd, Samuel 
439 The Lloyds of 

L55 Birmingham 2d ed. 
1907 



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