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N. GROSSMAYER 



AND DEALEU IN 



FINE 



iliTllli 



s 



AND 



Gents' FurnisMng Goods, 

iVHOLESALE & RETAIL. 

Cor. 22d Street, SS'HW ^©IBSg 

And 47 Fifth Street, Pittsburg, Pa. 



STEINWAY &o SONS' 

GEAND, SQUAEE & tJPEIGHT 

]? i a iio»-]P o r t es 

are now acknowledged the best in.sl.rumoniri in Amurica, as wcii as \n Europe, 
having taken Thirty-Jive lirst FreaiLiims, Gold and Siluer Mcdats, ul tiie 
Principal Fairs held in this country within the last ten years, and in addition 
thereto, they were awarded a First 1 rize Medal at the Great International 
Exhibition in London, 1862, for 

Powerful, Clear, Brilliant and Sympathetic Tone 

with excellence of workmanship, as shown in grana au;t square I'iaxus. 

Iherc were 269 Pianos, from all parts of the world, entered lor competition, 
and the special correspondent uf The Titnes says : 

" Messrs. Sieinways' indorsement by the jurors is emphatic, and stronger 
and more to the point than that of any Kuropean maker." 

" This greatest triumph of American Piino-Fcrt! s in Kut^'land has caused a 
sensation in musical circles throughout the cniuuM'jit, and, as a result, the 
Messrs. Steinway are in constant receipt of oniois irum Ivarope, thus inaugu- 
rating a ne-\y phase in the history of American Piano-Fortes, by creating iu 
them an article of exi)ort." 

Every Steinway Piano-Forte is Warranted for 
Five Years. 

Among the many and most valuable i!np i: li.it improvements introduced by 
Messrs. Stelvway & tfoxs, iu their Fiano-iortes, 

THE SPECIAL ATTENTION OF PURCHASERS i3 directed to their 

Patent Agraffe Arrangement. 

(For which letters patent \ve;-e granted them Nov. 29, 1859.) 
The value and importance of this invention having been practically tested 
Since that time by Steixway & So.\s, iu all their Grands and Highest-pnced 
Square Piano- Fortes, and admitted to be the greatest improvement of modern 
times; they now announce that hereafter their '• Patent j\gkaffe Arkaxge- 
JiEXT '' will be introduced in every Piano-FoHe manufactured by them, with- 
out increase of its cost to the pm- chaser , in order that all their patrons luay 
reap the full advantage of this great improvement. * 

Testimonials of Distinguished Artists. 
We have, at different timrs, expressed our opinion regarding the Pianos of 
various makers, hni freely and unhesitatingly pronounce Messrs. Steixvay & 
Sox-i' Pianos superior to them all. 

a. B. Mills, Theo. Thomas, F. Brandeis, Carl W^^lfsohn, 

Robert Goldbeck, Max Marctzek, Theo. Moelling, B. Wollenhauptj 
Henry C. Timm, Wm. Mason, I), Muzio, Chas. WeLs, 

F. L. Ritter, Robert Heller, Carl Anschutz, F. Von Breuning, 

Geo. W. Morgan,' Wm. Berge, A. H. Pease, Theo. Eisefeld, 

Carl Bei-gmaun. And many others. 

From" A Discouasa on Pianos," by Rev. Henry SVard Beeeher. 

N. Y. IndepenJjint, Dee 7, 1865. 
Upon a lucky day, a Steinway Piano stood in oar p;ui<jr. For povvei-, »ull- 
aess, richness and evenness of tone, it was admirah!<> ; nor do we believe we 
could better our choice. In our summer honi>' it stands yet, a musical avgel; 
and our wish is, that the day may come when every wwrkmg man iu America 
may have a good " Steixway Piaxo." 

Y/arerooms, 71 & 73 East 14th St., 

Between Union fcquare and Irving Place, NEW YORK, 



THE IVE^^ I>IAPrO. 



LIMBEMAN & SOU'S' 

f Htm! €^thi)i §ian0- Jfsrtes 




Have Superiority of Actual Melodious Power, a' Purity 

and Yocality of Tone, a Perfection of Touch, and a 

Just Mechanical Construction securing Novelty, 

Elegance and Strength, 

AND WILL STAND IN TUNE LONGER THAN ANY 
OTHES FORM CE PIANO, 



f wtiittm^ g 



At tlie Pair of the American Institute, New York, October, 1S65. 

At the Michigan State Fair, October, 1S65. 

At the Indiana State Fair, October, 1865. 

At the Leavenworth, Kansas, Agricultural Society Fair, lS6a 

WAREROOMS, 

No. 2 Leroy Place, Bleecker Street, 

Corner Mercer, one Block "West of Br6adway. 



\ 



WHOLE^.Li. .^..^^ A^D RETAIL 




And 4tli Avo cor. cf ^^'^^^:^^ Seventeentli St., 

NEW YORK. 



DJ2UQS, r^^EDICSNES, FAriGY ARTICLES, Etc., Etc. 

Hogeman ci Co.'s D?>rZMTO, f'>'' t!ic instant loniov:!! orr;'.int, Grease Spots, cto. 
H :g3 ?ri &, Co "r. C-ir;phor Ice with Givcerino, a certain cure for Chapped Hands, 
Suiibu.n, Soic JLipa, Ci.iiblains, etc, 

IJpg'^man ^ Co 's G-^niiinc Cod Liver Oj!, wm-rantefi rnre, and prepared from f.io 
fi-'s'i l.ivt-rs, wit. 1(1 lit bl< ;u;l.in^- or an-, chemicar pi ciiarati.m. 'i liis ni ticU^ ha.s stood the test of 
filtecii \ curs' cxpeiicnce, witli iiicic\;sins n'lmtation, tor C\)nsuni[)tioii. ^crulu'.a, etc. 

H'g3mnn & Go's Cordia Elixir of Calis?ya Bark- ivvnaved from tiie Calisaya Cor 

Kins's. rark.btiii,' t;^^ !.<-st variety ol Peruvian i'-;i,k. It is an a-rep.tble cordial to the taste, 
and possessing t lie va'iUalle t.i. ic p-opei tii s oi tlo laTl; — an cxcelient preventive to Fevers, 
Fever and Ague, etc , IVir n-sid^nts in nialai ions distiicls. 

Hegptm^n A- To's Vc'pfnu's Diarrhea Remerly and Cholera Preventive) ""d 

■with nnTailinj,' success diirin;,- ami since tlie c olera ot 1S45. A sinjj.e dose will usually check 
or cure t!ie Diarrhea. No faniilv sliould be without it. 

Hegeman & Cn 's Hair Tonic, or Ricine Hair Preserver. This is simply a prepa- 
ration of highly purified Castor Oil. combined witli in.-redients that stimulate the scalp siightly, 
keepins it healthy, and effectually preveutins Dandruff, Falling off of the Hair, etc., keeping it 
soft and curly. 



The Most Perfect Iron Tonic. 

HKGEMAN S FERRATED ELIXIR OF BARK, OR ELIXIR OP 

CALISAYA BARK, WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IROX, PREPARED BY 
HEGEMAN & CO., CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS, NEW YORK. 

PYROPHO-PHATE OF IROX was introdnced by E. RoEiQrET, of Paris, in 1858, 
and received favorable notice from the 1 reiich Academy . it is easily assimilated, 
and not decomposed in the stomach by food or the gastric juice ; it is a prompt, 
efficient tonic, combining the effects ol' Phosphorus and Iron, and is not stimulat- 
ing or irritant. 

Our FERR.\TED ELIXIR OF B.4RK is a pleasant Cordial, possessing the valu- 
abl projK'rtif^s of f';ilip:iya Bark, and contains cicht grains of the Pyrophosphate 
of Iron in ench flip i fniDr •■ : and in all cases, where a mild and efficacious Iroa 
Tonic is desired, will bo iViund a most valuable preparation. 

JKg=" Samples furnished t'^ Physicians on airplication. 

PURE VACCINE CRUoT3, selected Irom healthy country children, warranted 
reliable. 



CASWELL, MACK & Co., 

MAXUFACTURKRS AND VENDERS OF 

Choice Perfumeries and Toilet Indispensables. 

UNDER FIFTH AVENUE HOTEL, 

(Junction Broadway and Fifth Avenue,) 

MANUFACrCEKRS 03? 




PUREST AND SWEETEST IN THE WORLD. 

FEREO-PHOSPHORATED ELIXIR OF 

CAL_ISAYA BARK, 

THE BEST OF ALL TONICS, 

Caswell, Mack & Co.'s Lotus Balm, the best hair tonic 

"^'tido of^Seni "^^-1 ?'^''""j'' '^^ ^^^' ^^'^ '^'•^^^^i^g. containing not a par- 
^J^cSef'not^oif^^^'SSrSS"^^^^'^^^^^^'^^^^^^^^^^^-^^^^^^^ 

^^S'fJSht^ ^"■■'' ^'-^'f '•■"'^ f^'-^^n^- a° admirable unguent for the skin in 
toJd weather, curing and preventing chaps, cold-sores, etc. 

^XlL^^S^H.S>V' I^^^P^f"'^ Karrhoea Remedy, the best medicine for 
cuoiera, uiarrnoea and cholera morbus. 

^"^Anii "'i?''''''' ^n^""-'^ ^''''^''^ Powders of Lavender, Rose, New slown Play 
Ml lie l<leurs, Carnation link, Heliotrope, etc., all which comrmmicate a 
delicious odor to the clothmg when put in drawers, runks,e?r * 




' ^ 
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LL O YD'S 



POCKET 



COMPANION AND GUIDE 



THROtTGH 



ive:^v^ TTOitii: oit^^. 



FOR 1866-67. 



/ 



PUBLISHED BY THOMAS LLOYD, 
lOS ^VTater Street, 

(Old. U. S. Hotel Building,) NENA/ YORK. 



i^- 




! 1 V^ •" 



Entered, according to Act oT Congress, in the year 1866, by 

THOMAS I^LOYD, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the 

Southern District of New York. 






(3) 



CONTENTS. 



WPIY IT WAS WRITTEN. 

PA'E 

iNTEODUcnoN. — Arrival of Jonathan Griggs. Jonathan 

wants to see New York 7 



WALK THE FIRST. 

On Broadway. — The Battery. Castle Garden. Emigrants. 
Bowling Green. Trinity Church. An Impostor. 
Jonathan purchases a new hat. The Crossing 
Sweeper, St. Paul's Church. Astor House. City 
Hall. Stewart's Store. An Accident. New York 
Hospital. Pearl Street. Carter. Kirtland & Co's. 
A Dinner at Taylor's Saloon. The AiTest. Billiard 
Tables. St. Nicholas Hotel. Prescott House. The 
Diamond Palace. Metropolitan.HoteL Sewing Ma- 
chines. Jonathan Buys* a Carriage. History ot an 
Inventor. Gurney's Gallery. Stewart's Retail 
Store. Union Square. Steinway'3 Pianos. A visit 
to the factory. Fifth Avenue Hotel. Madison. 
Square. General Scott. Hoffman House 11 



WALK THE SECOND. 

Central Park. — Jonathan late. Hours the Park i§ open ; 
its size, location and, names of the various gates. 
The Mall. The Lake ; Swans, Venetian Gondola. 
Music. Croton Reservoir. The Roads. The Trees. 
Remains of Military Fortifications. A Menagerie. 
Play Ground. Jonathan Sleepy. Skating Pond .. . 69 



IV. COJJTENTS. 

WALK THE THIRD. 

PAGS 

Public and Benevolent Institutions. — The Tombs ; cost 
of keeping a prisoner Castom House. Bulls aiui 
Bears. Sub-Treasury. Post Office. City Arsenal. 
Five Points. House of Industry. Astor Library. 
Cooper Union. Mercantile Library. New York 1 
University. Bible House. Historical Society, Free 
Academy. National Academy of Design. House 
of Industry and Home for the Friendless. Institu- 
tion for the Blind. Deaf and Dumb Asylum. Mag- 
dalene Female Asylum. Orphan Asylums. Jew's 
Hospital. St. Luke's Hospital. Children's Hospi- 
tal. University Medical School. College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, Medical College. Medical In- 
stitute. Medical Dispensades, Belle vue Hospital. 
Black well's Island and its Hospital, Penitentiary, 
Aims-House, Work-House and Lunatic Asylum. 
Eandall's Island. Where to obtain permits to visit 
Blackwell's and Randall's Islands 70 

WALK THE FOURTH. 

NrwsPAPER Offices. — Jonathan ahead of time. A Fare 
Wanting. The Missing Fare accounted for. Circula- 
tion of New York Papers. Tribune, Times, and 
Herald. A visit to the l^mes Office. Torrey Brothers' 
Printing Office. Subterranean Establishment — Din- 
ner Hour. A Great Country 89 

WALK THE FIFTH. 

Public Amusements. — Academy of Music. Irving Hall. ' 
Wallack's Theatre. Winter Garden. Olympic 
Theatre. Barnum's Museum. Wood's Theatre. 
Broadway Theatre. Bowery Theatre. New Bowery 
Theatre. New York Stadt Theatre. Negro Min- 
strelsy 98 



CONtfiNTS V. 

WALK THE SIXTH. 

PAGS 

Wharves and Shipping — Camden, and Amboy Hailroad. 
Bethel Ship, Savannah and New Orleans Line. 
Jersey City Ferry. Washington Market. Hoboken 
Ferry. Erie Eailroad. Albany Boats. The Cali^ 
fornia Line. The Steamship Arizona. Oyster Boats. 
Liverpool Line. How Kiudliag Wood is made. 
Bishop's Derrick. Manhattan Gas Company. The 
Offal Boat. Across the East Biver. Hunter's 
Point Ferry. Novelty Iron Works. Webb's Ship 
Yard. The Dunderherg. A Kepresentative Ameri- 
can. Italian Marble. Dry Docks. Fulton Market. 
Dorlon & Shaffer's Oyster Saloon. Farrar & Lyon. 
Franklin lifarket. Brooklyn Ferries. North Ameri- 
can Lloyd Line to Bremen 102 

-' ALK THE SEVEKTH. 

Churches. — Baptist. Congregational. Dutch Reformed. 
Friends. Jewish Synagogues^ Lutheran Methodist 
Episcopal. African Methodist Episcopal. Methodist 
Protestant. Presbj'terian. United Presbyterian. 
Associate Reformed Presbyterian. Reformed Pres- 
byterian. Protestant Episcopal. Roman Catholic, 
tfnitarian., Universalist. Miscellaneous. Missions. 125 

HINTS FOR REFFERENCE. 

Carriage Fares. — Banks. Insurance Offices. Post Office 

Guide...... '.....•..... 147 



(») 



ILLUSTRATIONS, 



PAGE 

Hoffman House, (Frontispiece,) . . .> . 

Carter, Kirtland b. Co.'s Store . . . T . 27 
International Hotel. . . , * , .31 

Phelan & Collender's Building 35 

Ball, Black & Co.'s , . 41 

Metropolitan Hotel ....,., 43 

"Wheeler & Wilson's BuiLDiNa 45 

Steinwat & Son's Warerooms . . ;^ • . 53 
Steinwat & Son's Manutactort .7 <» . . '.ST 
The Bible House . . ..•";";. 77 
Steamship "Constitution" , . ,^ , , .115 
United States Lunch Rooms] 123 



0) 



WHY IT WAS WRITTEN. 

J _ — . < ♦ ■« 

1 will introduce myself. Header, my name is John Wetherbt. 

I was born in Greenwich Street, near the Battery. At that 

, period Greenwich was a far different street to what it is now. 

' Then, many of our leading merchants had their residences 

there'. However, we have not to do with Greenwich Street, 

beyond the fact that I was born there. 

Neither would I have mentioned that, if I had not wanted 
to show that I am a native of New York City, and to the man- 
ner born. I have grown with its growth, and there is not a 
nook or corner on the whole Island of Manhattan that I am 
not familiar with. 

I am now a hale, hearty old man of But no ! There 

are some secrets a man kpeps locked up within his breast. 
Suffice it that I am a tolerably old man, and have never been 
absent from the city more than a month at a time since my 
birth. 

Walking is my delight. Often, stick in hand, do I start out 
of a morning, and roam about the whole long day, viewing 
the various pkces of interest, and noting down in my memory 
any curious or quaint story. 

I have said walking is my delight. So also is it my pride. 
I am proud that I can still out- walk many a younger man. 

A nephew of mine, who was brought up in an Eastern city, 
once pa'id me a visit, but I walked him off his legs in no time. 
On the second day he protested against so much walking, and 
actually wanted to hire a carriage. 

I sternly declined such a conveyance. I told him that Nature 
had given us legs to use, and we ought to use them— not keep 
them cooped up imder the seat of a carriage. 

It was no use talking to him ; so I let him have his own 
way, but positively refused .to accompany him. Subsequently 



8 ARUlVAL OF JONATHAN GRtGGS. 

he regretted this, for, without a guide, he left the city very 
little wiser than he came. 

This, it must be confessed, set me thinkii\g ; and I thought 
of the m.any strangers that visited New York and departed in 
the same condition as my nephew. 

" Why not/' I pondered, " write a Guide of the goodly City 
of New York ? " 

The idea grew^ strong upon me. So I determined upon writing 
one that would be equally useful to the resident or the tran- 
eient visitor, whether viewed while riding or afoot. 

It was evening. I had just partaken of my supper, and en- 
sconced myself in my easy chair to read the evening papers, 
when I heard a carriage drive rapidly up to my door. 

"That can be nobody for me," I muttered. But that asser- 
tion was seemingly contradicted by the door-bell being violently 
rung. 

" Who can it possibly be ? I expect nobody. Some one has 
mistaken the house. " So I turned once more to my news- 
paper. 

In a few minutes my hired girl entered the. room, and told 
me a gentleman was down stairs in the parlor who wished to 
Bee me. 

"■ A gentleman ! That can't be," I said, somewhat foolishly 
it must be owned. 

" Yes, sir, it can," she replied ; "he said he wanted to see 
Mr. John Wetherby, and that's your name." 

"Well, well, tell him I'll be down directly,'' and I com- 
menced putting on my coat and boots, for when interrupted I 
was taking mine ease in dressing-gown and slippers. 

On entering the parlor I discovered that my visitor was my 
old friend Jonathan Griggs, whom I had not seen for years. 

" Why, Jonathan ! " I exclaimed. 

" Why, John ! " he ejaculated. 

And we seized one another's hands and shook j;hem BO 
warmly that it would have done you good to have seen it. 

" When did you arrive ? " I asked, as soon as I had recovered 
sufficient breath to put the questicJn, for the hand shaking had 



WHO JONATHAN GRIGGS !S. 9 

been so hearty that it partook somewhat of violent exer- 
cise. 

'' Only just now. As soon as I got off the cars, I called a 
carriage and drove to your hoUvSe." 

" That's right. If you hadn't done so, I would never have 
forgiven you. You stay with me, of course ? " 

" If you have any place to put me." 

" Any place to put you ! Jonathan, you shall have the best 
room in the house. A room, did I say ? While you are here, 
the whole house is yours, and at your disposal.'' 

** The same impetuous John Wetherby as of old," said Jona- 
than, smiling. '' I shan't want the whole house, John, but I 
will accept a room in it." 

" Then the affair is Fettled. Where is your baggage ? We 
must send for it at once." 

" It was on the carriage at the door, but, by the bumps I 
heard in the hall just now, I imagine the hackman guessed I 
was going to stay here, and has deposited it there already." 

This supposition was soon verified by Mary entering the 
room and stating that the coachman wanted his fare. 

After Jonathan had been shown to his room, and he had 
cleansed himself of the dust and grit of travel, we sat down to 
spend a comfortable evening and talk over old times. 

Dear me .' I have been so busy receiving Jonathan Griggs 
that I have almost forgotten to introduce him. It is an over- 
sight almost unpardonable, but I will now strive to make 
amends. 

Jonathan is now a large farmer out West, owns ever so many 
thousand acres, and is one of the largest corn and cattle raisers 
in the whole State of Illinois. 

He went out there when he was quite a young man— proper- 
ly speaking, he was only a boy— and by his energy and indus- 
try made himself what he is. 

That is now over thirty years ago, and this was his first visit 
to New York since his departure. Consequently, he was as 
much a stranger in the city as though he had never been 
in it. 

" We sat long into the night, and it was with a feeling of re- 



10 THE START. 

luctance we parted to take the rest we Both needed—but Jona- 
than more than I, as he had been traveling. 

In the morning, after we had partaken of breakfast, to which 
we did ample justice, 1 asked my friend Griggs how long he 
intended to remain in New York. 
I '' A week. Then I have to visit some friends down East.'' 

" Only a week ! Why, you can't see New York in a week." 

" That's all the time lean spare ; so I must make the best 
of that. I place myself under your guidance, and you must 
show me as many of the sights as possible in that time." 

" Can you walk ? " was my only reply to this. 

** My dear John, what a question ! I am as robust and as 
healthy as ever, and you know in my younger days I was no 
mean pedestrian." 

"That's sufficient. Come, let us be off at once ; " so, taking 
our hats and sticks, we sallied out, arm-in-arm, to view the 
sights and see the lions of New York. 



(11) 



WALK THE FIRST. 

BROADWAY. 

"This," said I, as the stage deposited us at the extreme end 
of Broadway, ** is the Battery." 

" Indeed," replied Griggs, who was all eyes and ears ; " but 
where are the cannons ? *' 

" Cannons," I exclaimed ; " this is not a battery proper, but 
only bears that name. Tbat round building on the edge of the 
water is called Castle Garden." 

" I have heard of that before. When Jenny Lind came to 
this country, she made her first appearance there;" and 
Griggs was delighted at his knowledge. 

" True,'' I replied ; " it was one time a fortification, but now 
it is devoted to more peaceful pursuits, being used as an emi- 
grant depot.'' 

** Is that where all the emigrants land ? " 

''Yes, every one of them. It is an excellent institution, 
and saves many a poor person from being robbed of all they 
possess in the world." 

♦*How?" 

*' In former times the emigrant, as soon as the ship touched 
the dock, was dumped out upon the pier like so much mer- 
chandise, and made to shift for himself the best way he could. 
Sharpers were on the watch for him ; he was robbed and cheat- 
ed in every direction ; and in a few hours he had not a cent 
left to bless himself with." 

" Poor fellow ! How terrible it must be. In a strange 
country ; no friends ; no home ; and robbed of your all ! '' 

*' That is altered now. As soon as the emigrant arrives here, 
he is at once taken in charge by the Commissioners of Emi- 
gration, who watch over and care for him as though his inte- 
rests were their own. If the emigrant wishes to go East, West, 
Kortb, or SouUi, his r^road ticket is procured for him, and he 



12 THE B0WL'ir«6 GREEN. 

is started toward his destination without the expenditure of ail 
unnecessary cent." 

" And what do the Comifiissicners of Emigration charge for 
their trouhle ? ' ' 

*' Kothiug. The people of the Empire State pay for the pro- 
tection of the poor emigrant, and it is their pride to do so." 

"A most excellent institution.'' 

" It is indeed. Many a poor foreigner has had reason to eay 
the same.'' 

" What is that little inclosure ? ' ' 

"That is the Bowling Green.'' 

" Do they play bowls there ? " asked my friend Griggs^ 

"No, not now ; but before the Revolution it was used as 
Buch." 

"There is a fountain there," said Griggs, delighted as a 
child at the jet of water that was spirting up. 

' 'Yes ; and where that fountain now stands was once a 
leaden statue of George III., which, at the commencement of 
the Revolution, was torn down and moulded into bullets." 

" How interesting ! What a number of omnibuses ! Gra- 
cious, they seem endless. It appears to me that everybody 
must ilde in New York, or else they would never want such a 
number of stages.'' 

" Some people walk," I replied, laughing, " as you will see 
before we finish our peregrinations.'' 

** How many omnibuses are there, do you know ? " 

"Yes, I do. There are nearly seven hundred stages that go 
up and down Broadway daily. Each one. on an average, makes 
ten trips per diem. A trip is the journey down and up again. 
This makes it equal to the employment of seven thousand 
stages daily for the use of our citizens. " 

" Dear cae ! And do they all pay ? '' 

" Indeed, do they. Besides these, there are several car lines, 
all of which are more or less crowded, and which I will tell you 
about in course of time.'' 

'' What church is this ? " 

" The Church of Trinity. It is the oldest church on Broad- 
way. That street opposite is Wall Street. In it are the Ous- 



TftlNItr CHtRCH. 13 

torn House and the Treasury building, which we will visit one 
rjl these days.'' 

" Can we enter this church ? ' ' 

"Certainly. Every visitor to ITew York should do the 
same ; ascend the steeple, and there view the city which lies 
stretched out like a map at his feet." 

Our ascent of the steeple was a work of some little difficulty, 
for both Griggs and myself are no^^ so young as we once were ; 
and though we can hold our own with many a younger man 
upon level ground, stairs and ladders have a tendency to make 
us breathe somewhat hurriedly. 

But our exertions were amply repaid by the beautiful sight 
that met our gaze, as we looked out from our giddy height 
upon the world below. Beneath us lay the city, which now 
appeared in all its vastness and power. No one who has not 
viewed the Metropolis of the "Western World from an elevated 
position can form an adequate idea of its greatness. 

"As we look beneath us," said I to Jonathan, "and see 
the busy throng hurrying to and fro, hither and thither, each 
bent on his own particular business and the accumulation of 
wealth, and then cast our eyes upon the stores and warehouses, 
many of them filled to depletion with the products of every 
nation upon the face of the earth, brought hither by those 
very ships we now see fringing the shore, we can scarcely be- 
lieve that a little over 230 years ago the whole of this island 
was purchased of the Indians for a sum equivalent to twenty- 
four dollars. Yet so it was.'' 

*' No ! Is that so ? A mighty good speculation. " 

"And now its estimated value is between seven and eight 
hundred millions.'' 

Jonathan could only gape at me open-mouthed with aston- 
ishment. 

" In this city over two bundled miles of paved streets have 
already 'been surveyed and laid, leaving room for over one 
hundred more streets not yet projected. ' ' 

"How large is the city ? '' queried Jonathan. 

" From the Battery to Harlem Bridge is eight and a half 
iniles ; the are^, twenty-three square miles." 



14 THE CHIMES OF TRINITY. 

" A wonderful city, truly." 

" Wonderful, indeed. Destined at no late day to be ttie 
foremost city in the world — though, perhaps, not rich in his- 
torical association and buildings, rich in energy, tact, and com- 
mercial enterprise that will soon place it beyond the reach of 
foreign rivalry.'' 

Jonathan made a motion as if to speak, but, apparently 
seeming to think better of it, he refrained ; so I continued : 

" On the right, Jonathan, if you will look through this little 
window, you can see our justly celebrated and beautiful Bay, 
dotted with the ve.«:sels of every clime. Beyond that are the 
Narrows ; and, stretching far away in the dim distance, may be 
seen the delightful Highlands of Navesink." 

" How far," or rather how extended a view, can you obtain 
from here ? ' ' 

"About twenty miles. But come, if you have enough of 
this, let us get down " 

So saying, we proceeded to the floor below, in which are the 
chimes, the finest in Ameri'^a. Pointing them out to Jonathan, 
he wished to know why there were so many bells, and stated 
that at home, in the part of country he came from, one bell 
was sufficient to ring the people into church. 

"Certainly,'' I said, "one bell is enough to summon 
people to church, but one bell can never ring out such music 
as these.'' 

" Music ? " echoed Griggs. 

"Yes. On all holidays the bell-ringer peals out the most 
delightful- music, comprising such tunes as ' The Star-spangled 
Banner,' 'Hail Columbia!' 'Yankee Docdle,' 'The Last 
Kose of Summer,' and other melodies of a like nature.'' 

"How I should like to hear them.'' 

" And so you could if you were in the city on Washington's 
Birthday, the Fourth of July, Christmas Eve, or New Year's 
Day." 

" What a pity it is I can't be,'' and Jonathan heaved a deep 
sigh. 

When we. had once more reached level ground, and were 
bIiowu the beautiful chancel service of silver that had beea 



THE BEGGING IMPOSTOPw 15 

presented to the church by Queen Anne, we went to look at 
the exterior, and view the monuments that have been erected 
to many illustrious men, such as Alexander Hamilton, Commo- 
dore Lawrence, and Lieut. Ludlow. 

On the north east corner of the churchyard, just facing 
Broadway, a very fine monument, in an architectural point of 
view, has been raised to the "Sugar House Martyrs," and- 
those American patriots who fought and fell in striving for 
and obtaining our National Independence. 

'^ Is Trinity a, very old church 1 " asked Griggs. 

'* It is the olde.-t church in the city. The first building was 
destroyed by tire in 1776, and rebu It in 1790. This second 
edifice was pulled down in 1839, and the present noble struc- 
ture erected. It was finished and consecrated in 1846." 

" How high above the level of the street do yon think we 
ascended ? " 

" About two hundred and fifty feet, '* 

*' Ko ! I never was up so high before. That will be some- 
thing to talk of when I return home. Why, my neighbors 
will scarcely credit it; " and Griggs was evidently delighted at 
the surprise he intended giving his friends. 

"The extreme height of the steeple is two hundred and 
eighty-four feet ; length of the building one hundred and 
ninety-two feet ; breadth, eighty feet ; height, sixty feet." 

" What a memory you have ! " 

" 1 told you I knew New York pretty well. But let us be 
going ; we have more sights to see." • 

As we left the church, Griggs, who was a little in advance, 
was accosted by a man all grimy with coal dust, carrying upon 
his shoulder a shovel and a basket. To him this man told a 
: most piteous tale : how he had been sick for over twelve 
weeks, and in the hospital, leaving his sickly wife and six 
young children totally unprovided for. He was now trying to 
earn a few cents by carrying in coal, but up to that hour he 
had been unsuccessful. Griggs' heart opened in a moment, 
and, putting his hand in his pocket, was about bestowing alms 
upon the man when I arrived upon the scene. 

" What are you doing, Jonathan ? '' I asked. 



16 HOW TO GIVE ALMS. 

" This poor fellow here is iu great want. He has a wife and 
six children, and has been sick himself. Let us give him 
something, John.'' 

" I will not give him a cent,'' I replied ; *' and if he does not 
immediately be oft, I will give him in charge of the police." 

" Why, John,'' exclaimed Griggs, with a look of horrified 
surprise, " how can you be so cruel ? " 

"Cruel! Not at all. Look how he slinks away at the 
mention of the word policeman. That man, Jonathan, is au 
impostor." 

" Goodness gracious— an impostor ?" 

" Yes ; he has been about the city, playing that same old 
dodge, for years." 

" You don't say so? " ejaculated Griggs, opening his eyes 
with astonishment; "I was just going to give him some 
money." 

" I saw you were. But, Jonathan, it would be a safe plan, 
and the most judicious, not to give a cent to any beggars. 
When you feel like giving away money in charity, give it to 
some public institution, not indiscriminately in .the street. 
The Commissioners of Charities and Corrections are especially 
appointed by the city to look after and relieve the deserving 
poor.'' 

" That is a very good idea. I will do as you suggest. During 
my stay in New York, whenever I feel like giving money away 
in charity, I will put the amount I intended giving in a sepa- 
rate pocket, and \^hen I leave will send it to that institution 
I think most needs it." 

" A capital idea. If every one were to follow your sugges- 
tion, there would be fewer beggars to importune or annoy 
people in their walks.'' 

Jonathan Griggs became so enthusiastic and elated over this 
proposition of his that he paid no attention to where he was 
going, and as we were crossing Cortland Street I was alarmed 
and startled by seeing him floundering and scrambling under 
the very feet, apparently, of a horse attached to a dray. 

His hat was knocked off and trampled in the mud and mire 
of the street, his cane lay in the gutter, and he himself was 



JOJJATHAn's ACCtDRNT. iT 

performing some of the most curious gyrations ever before at- 
tempted by any staid, respectable old gentleman on Broadway. 

The driver quickly pulled up his horse, and in another mo- 
ment I had Griggs, panting and breathless, on the sidewalk. 

" Are you hurt ? ' ' I anxiously inquired. 

" No, no,'' responded Griggs, cautiously feeling his arms and 
legs to see if he was uninjured ; "I don't think I am ; but it 
Somewhat frightened me." 

'^ And no wonder, for it frightened me also, and I was not 
fitrugfling with a horse. How did it happen ? " 

*' Well, John, I really don't know ; but I think it was all my 
fault, as I was not looking -where I was going." 

Jonathan Griggs' hat, which had been picked up and handed 
to him by some of the passers-by, was in a most deplorable 
state. It was crushed out of all shape, and almost unrecog- 
nizable from mud. His clothes were also bespattered, and it 
was absolutely necessary he should be brushed off before we 
proceeded on our walk ; so, taking him across to the Howard 
House, at the corner of Broadway and Maiden Lane, I requested 
the boot-black of that hot-el to make Jonathan again present- 
able, which he speedily did. But his liat was beyond redemp- 
tion. There was a big indentation in the front, and a slit ex- 
tending from the crown to the rim had been made in the back. 
Passing again into the street, we soon found that Jonathan's 
battered hat was attracting gxeat and universal attention. 
Many were the remarks made upon it, and many were the 
titters given as we were passed by, some unruly boys even 
going so far as to aSik Jonathan who was his hatter. This 
could hardly be wondered at, for, to say the least, it did look 
somewhat curious to see a man, otherwise respectably attired, 
adorned with such remarkable head gear. 

''John," queried Griggs, "don't you think the remarks 
made ^bout hats are applied to me ? " 

"Yes, Jonathan, I think they are; indeed, I might say, 
though not wishing to hurt or wound your feelings, I am sure 
they ar£." 

" You don't -say so ! I was laboring under that impression 
myself. John, I must buy a new hat. Where can I get one ? " 



18 THE CROSSING-SWEEPER. 

" I will show you. The man I'm about to take you to is the 
hatter of all hatters. His styles set the fashion in New York, 
and you can safely say that every well-dressed, stylish-looking 
man you meet wears one of his hats." 

"You don't tell me! Where does this celebrated hatter 
live, and what is his name ? " 

" He lives at 210 Broadway, corner of Fulton- street, and his 
name is Knox ? " 
^ " Why, I have heard of him ouj} West.'' 

'* I have no doubt ; but here is the store." ■ ^ 

So, entering, Jonathan was soon fitted with a becoming hat 
from the varied and extensive assortment always kept on hand 
by Knox. 

*' It is astonishing,'' said Jonathan, " how a decent hat adds 
to the appearance of a man, and makes him satisfied with him- 
self. " 

" A trite and true remark,'' I responded. 
Ab we crossed Broadway, opposite St. Paul's Church, in order 
to obtain a view of the new building now being erected at the 
corner of Ann Street and Broadway, by James Gordon Bennett, 
the proprietor and editor of the New York Herald^ and to be occu- 
pied, on its completion, for the transaction of business and publi- 
cation of that influential journal, a little crossing-sweeper, broom 
in hand, importuned me for a penny. As I was about to give 
her one, Jonathan, laying his hand upon my arm, stopped me 
with — " Why, how's this? I thought you told me never to 
give anything to beggars ? " 

" So I did. But this girl is not a beggar ; she works for 
what she asks for ; she is, you might almost say, a necessity ; 
by keeping this crossing clean, she helps to keep my feet dry 
and my boots unspotted. ' The laborer is worthy of his 
hire ; ' so I givj her a penny.'' 

" Quite right, too,'' ejaculated Griggs ; " I did not think of 
it in that light ; '' and the kind-hearted fellow dropped a dime 
in her hand. 

" This,'' said I, facing Jonathan round to look at the edifice 

corner of Broadway and Vesey Street, " is St. Paul's Church." 

** Oh ! yes," chimed in Griggs, always ready to impart what 



ST. Paul's cnrRCH. 19 

little inforrnation he possessed of New York, " I know ; Gene- 
ral George Washington att^-uded Divine service at this place of 
worship after his inauguration." 

'' Yes ; quite right ; I see you are posted on some of the his- 
torical events of New York " 

" 1 have read a little about New York," said my friend 
Jonathan Griggs, stiffening himself up, and hlusliing like a 
girl at the compliment I paid him ; " but what entablature is 
that? " ho asked, pointing to a small slab of marble inlaid on 
the front of the building. 

"That,'' said I, " is in commemoration of the gallant Gene- 
ral Montgomery, who foU at Quebec during the Revolutionary 
struggle. St. Paul's is also famous for two other monuments- 
one of Robert Emmet, the Irish pitriot ; the other, of George 
Frederick Cooke, the eminent tragedian." 

I would here mention that strangers visiting New York in- 
variably want to know the height, length, and breadth of 
every building ; so, imagining, anrl correctly, my friend was no 
exception to the rule, I continued : 

*' St. Paul's Church is 151 feet high, 73 feet wide, and the 
extreme elevation of the steeple i-i 203 feet." 

"My goodness ! you know everything." exclaimed Jonatlian, 
clapping his hands together with mingled admiration and sur- 
prise. 

" No, not everything,'' I returned, smiling ; ''but there are 
few men living who are more thoroughly acquainted with New 
York City as it is than I am.'' 

"That I most readily believe. But what is that large 
granite building on the opposite corner ? " 

'* That is the Astor House, the largest and best hotel down 
town. It has been built twenty six years, and has received 
within its walls as guests some of the most distinguished men 
of modern times. It can accommodate now over 600 guests at 
one t^me." 

" Quite a little town in itself, I declare," murmured Griggs. 
That's £0. Let us enter for a few seconds and take a look 
at the rotunda." 

So we ascended the steps and entered the room> situated oa 
tho ground floor, that bears that name. 



20 THE CITY HALL. 

"Here," I continued, "the thirsty can bibnlate and the 
hungiy can be fed (if their impecuniosity is not too great to 
prevent them), even if they are not guests of the house.'' 

" It is a handsome and commodious room/' said Jonathan, 
gazing vfondrously around him ; " and the frescoes on the ceil- 
ing are quite pretty, too.'' 

" Yes, the house throughout is well appointed and fitted up. 
But come ; time flies ; let us be getting farther up town." 

Once more in the street, Jonathan Griggs, wishing to see the 
height of the building, backed himself into the street, and for 
the Second time that day nearly made a Juggernaut sacrifice of 
himself by being crushed by a passing vehicle. 

Kescuing him from this second danger, I told him— some- 
what petulantly it must be confessed — he must certainly be 
more careful for the future, or I most positively would not ac- 
company him if lie insisted on risking his life and limbs in 
Buch a reckless manner. 

He was all apologies in a moment, and as penitent as a 
chided child. So sorry did he appear, that I regretted having 
said a word, and turned the conversation by pointing out to 
him the City Hall and its surrounding park, situated just 
across the way. 

*'The City Hall Park," I commenced, in my character of 
showman, " contains about eleven acres. That white building 
which you see at the northern end of the inclosure, is the City 
Hall, in which the City Fathers are supposed to dispense justice, 
of which that figure perched on the summit is the em- 
blem." 

" And there is a fountain here, too, same as on the Bowling 
Green." 

" Yes ; but this one is generally dry, though occasionally it 
does give a few spasmodic squirts. In former days, strangers 
and visitors from the country were often fleeced by sharpers 
when they attempted to enter any one of the park^ates. 
One of these scamps would accost the stranger and demand 
money for admittance, which the stranger, not being accus- 
tomed to the ways and manners of New York, would incontl- 
itently pay. 

* ' The scoundrels 1 ' ' vehemently exclaimed Jonathan Griggs, 



THE. CITY HALL CLOCK. 21 

casting a snspicioua look around and hastily buttoning up his 
pockets. 

"But, thanks to the eflficiency of the Metropolitan Police, 
Buch petty ways of extortion nre never heard of now." 

' ' And are your police good ? ' ' 

"Good? Taken as a whole, there never was a finer body 
of men in the world. Even foreigners praise our police system ; 
and New Yorkers may well point with pride v/hen they see 
them marching- in platoons up Broadway." 

Here Jonathan pulled out his watch to compare it with the 
City Hall clock, and inquired if the latter was right. 

"New York time u governed by that clock. I presume 
that every man who possesses a watch, and whose business is 
downtown, regulates his timepiece by it. It originally cost 
$4,000." 

" Four thousand dollars ! " ejaculated the astounded Griggs ; 
" a good price fur a clock." 

"True ; but then it's a good clock for the price. The main 
wheels «>f it are two feet six ijiches in diameter, and the pen- 
dulum-bob weisrhs three hundred pounds." 

" Gracious goodness ! Three hundred pounds!" muttered 
the astounded Jonathan. 

"Tlie works of the clock," I continued, "are not imme- 
diately behind the face, as many suppose, but in the story be- 
low, and are connected with the hands by rods twelve feet in 
length." 

Jonathan Griggs lifted up his hands in mute surprise. 

" The building itself was commtnced in 1803, and finished in 
1810 In it are the Mayor's offices, the Common Council's, 
and several others, all intimately connected with municipal 
affairs " 

*' What is that unfinished building behind intended for ? " 

" That, when finished, is to be the new City Hall. It is 
Ifiirger and more commodious than the present one, and, owing 
to the rapid growth and increase of the city, was found abso- 
lutely necessary in order to facilitate tlie city's business.'' 

Jonathan, apparently thinking he ought to say something, 
mumbled, "Indeed I " 



22 . ALEXANDER t. STfiWAHf* 

"The corner-stone," I went on, "was laid in 1<S62, and 
there is no doubt that 1867 will see the completion of the 
building.'' 

"That," said I, as we crossed Chambers Street, pointing to 
the white marble building on the opposite side of the street, 
"is one of the largest wholesale dry goods establishments in 
the world. ' ' 

*' Whose house is it ? " 

" Alexander T. Stewart's. You see it runs the whole length 
of the block, and extends some distance down Chambers and 
Eeade Streets, which are on either side. Besides this, he haS 
one equally as large up town, which was expressly built for 
the retail trade." 

" He is very rich, is he not ? " 

*' Rich ! I presume he is one of the richest men in NeW 
York City. The tax he pays upon his annual income is enor- 
mous. I am afraid to tell you how much it is, lest I should 
not be believed." 

"But I would believe you," said Jonathan, eagerly. 

" "Would }OU ? " I asked, assuming a doubting tone. 

" How foolishly you talk, John. Have I ever doubted your 
W(;rd ? ' ' 

Seeing he was taking seriously what I only intended for a 
joke, I told him : 

"The man who knows everything, and whose memory is so 
excellent, has really forgotten the amount of tax Alexander T« 
Stewart does p^y. If he had not, he would have told you in 
the first instance " 

"You don't tell me! I really thought you imagined I 
would doubt your veracity. How stupid of me ; " and Jona- 
than laughed loud and long at his obtuseness. 

" It is an excellent plan," I continued, " when in conversa- 
tion you come across any startling fact you are not quite sure • 
of, or have forgotten, to say in an off-hand manner, as I did 
just now, ' If I were to mention ijt, I should not be believed.' " 

If Jonathan laughed loud and long at his own obtuseness, 
he laughed louder and longer at what he was pleased to term 
my adroitness. 



AN ACCIDENT. 23 " 

"Can you find out, John? " he asked; "I really should 
like to know the income of such a man as Stewart. 

" I can and will. Before you leave, I will tell you the tax 
pjiid upon the annual incomes of several of our Merchant 
Princes." 

"Thank you. That will be another very interesting item 
to carry away with me." 

" When Stewart first commenced business," I went on, 
** he determined to mark his goods at a fair profit, and to 
make no abatement under any circumstances whatever." 

" A most judicious plan." 

"So it proved. In those daytj it was no uncommon thing 
for ladies even to haggle over their purchases, both buyer and 
seller trying to get the best of the other." 

"That was not a judicious plan." 

" No •, Stewart saw at once it was not ; so he determined 
upon altering it, and has reaped his reward by now being 
worth his millions." 

As we were talking, there wUs of a sudden a loud cry of 
warning, followed by one of terror, and right in front of us 
we saw a poor old man knocked down by a passing vehicle, the 
wheel going clean over bis body. 

In an instant, as if by magic, the body of the man was 
hidden from view by the gathering crowd. A policeman 
soon appeared, Iiailed a passing carriage, and placed therein 
the injured man in order to Convey him to the New York Hos- 
pital. 

We followed. 

Jonathan was all sympathy, and was anxious to learn the 
extent of the man's injuries. 

Knov/ing the resident physician, we had no difficulty in ob- 
taining admittance, which otherwise we should have done, as, 
very properly, the crowd is always excluded. 

If, when an accident happened, all who followed the injured 
person to the hospital were admitted, the movements and 
operation of the surgeon would be greatly impeded, and the 
excitement upon the patient seeing so many people around 
liim would be extremely injurious, and might result fatally. 



24 THE NEW YORK HOSPITAL. 

Learning that the only injury the man had sustained was a 
few external bruises and a slight pcalp \»ouDd, avo left. 

Upon doing so, Jonathan immediately overwhelmed me 
with questions concerning the institution, which I at once en- 
deavoured to satisfy. 

** The New York Hospital," I commenced, " situated, as you 
see, between Duane and Worth Streets, and exactly opposite 
Pearl, was founded by the Earl of Dunmore, who was then 
Governor of the colony, in 1771." 

"Then it was originally founded by an Englishman ? " 

" Yes ; but it did not receive its first charter until 1776, nine 
days after the Declaration of Independence." 

"Thus leaving Americans to finish what an Englishman 
begun." 

"Just so. With only an annual revenue of sixty-one dol- 
lars and sixty cents, the New York Hospital has to depend 
mainly up. n voluntary contributions." 

' ' And is no charge made to the sick or maimed ? ' ' queried 
Jonathan Griggs. 

** Yes, a charge of five dollars per week is made for females, 
and six dollars for males ; but the patient for that sum nas the 
best of nursing and the best of medical attendance." 

"It must do an immense amount of good," said Jonathan. 

" It does. The ground upon which the, hospital stands is ex- 
tremely valuable, and, if sold, would realize sufficient to build 
and support a hospital, without any extra aid, further up town." 

"Then why not sell it ? " asked Jonathan. 

" For this reason : this is the only hospital down town, and 
many a poor injured creature's life has been saved by receiving 
prompt surgical attendance here, who would have died had 
they been carried to any hospital away up town. The Board 
of Governors know this, and prefer pa}ing any deficiency in 
the expenses out of their own pockets to risking the litis of a 
human being." 

" Do you know how many patients they receive here yearly ? " 

" From three thousand to three thousand five hundred. 
For those afflicted with contagious diseases, separate apart- 
ments are provided." 



THE BLOOM INGDALE ASYLUM, 25 

"A very proper precaution." 

" Most decidedly. It also possesses a theatre for surgical 
operations, besides other apartments necessary for so large a 
hospital. The building is one hundred aud twenty-four feet 
long, and the two wings are fifty feet deep." 

" And what a splendid approach to the building," exclaimed 
Jonathan, admiringly. 

" Yes, indeed. The avenue is ninety feet wide, and a double 
row of trees stand sentinel from the entrance gate to the very 
door of the hospital." 

"And splendid trees they are, too," said Jonathan, gazing 
upward at their gnarled and weather-beaten limbs. 

" Seven miles from here," I continued, '• is a branch hospital 
of this. It is for lunatics, and is called ' The Bloomingdale 
Lunatic Asylum.' " 

"What a terrible place it must be." 

" No ; there you are mistaken. Everything is as light, airy, 
and as pleasant as possible. Nothing that can alleviate the 
suffering of the poor demented creatures is left undone. All 
the surroundings are cheerful, and, though a place of confine- 
ment, the chief end and aim of the physicians is to make the 
place comfortable, and as much like a home as possible." 

" I see I was mistaken ; but my idea of a lunatic asylum was 
a gloomy, sombre place, like a tomb." 

♦'So it is most people's. The building is two hundred and 
eleven feet long, sixty feet deep, and fo-ur stories high. From 
the roof a most delightful view of the surrounding country 
can be obtained. ' ' 

"How terrible to lose one's reason," said Jonathan, more to 
himself than me ; and he was lost, apparently, in melancholy 
thought. Rousing himself at last, he asked what street that 
was opposite the hospital. 

*♦ Pearl- street," I replied ; " and they say that the man whc 
laid out that sti-eet did it in a very extraordiuary way." 

"How was that?" asked Jonathan, pricking up his ears, 
and all agog in a second to hear anything in the shape of a 
Btory. 

" The other end of this street is about a mile down Broad* 



^^ OHIGm or PEARL STREET. 

way ; and of all the sinuous, tortuous thorou-hfares in the 
■ wide world, I believe there are none to equal it.'' 
"Is it crooked ? " 

"Crooked? Crooked as a ram's horn. Well, the le-end 
iias It, the surveyor, wishing to lay out this street, started a 
coNv in the morning, and in the evening he fallowed the track 
the lactaceous bovine had made, and staked it out for a street ' ' 

On that site." said I, pointing to the large whole.sale 
cloth.ng house oi Carter, Kirtland, and Co. , situated at No. 340 
Broadway, between Worth and Leonard Streets, '•once stood 
the Broadway Tabernacle, famous—" 

'' Oh ! yes I know," said Jonathan, eagerly interrupting me : 

Deacon Johnson, when he once made a visit to New Yod. on 

his return told me all about it. He came on to attend 'the 

TalernadI "'''''''' '''''^ '^'^ they were hfid in the Broadway 

^.!^f^' . ^"^ ^^T^ ""''"• ^"^ *^^^ mutations of a great city 
W transformed u mto an immense mercantile house, with 
marble front, the largest of its class in the world." 
" What business is carried on there? " 

'•A business," I continued, " that is one of the largest and 
most important on this Continent. Over one hund^d firms 
are engaged m it in this city, of which Carter, Kirtland, nd 
Co. s IS the representative house." 

^'|Bat you have not told me the nature of the business " 
^ I am speaking of the wholesale clothing trade, in which 
"lupl^l'd '^^^^'^ capital, probably, of over tweut'y milli^us' 

•' It does. Residing in this city and vicinity, there are about 
ninety thousand operatives, who receive as wages upwards of 
hay mdhons of dollars. This firm has facilities for emp ly 
ing from 5,000 to 8,000 good hands.-' ^mpioy 

" You surprise me." 

-ix i.aranrs m order to thoroughlvover«ee -.nrl .•„., 
v.e eve,,- depa.tae.t of the bu.ine.r The fi™ ^fZ ^^ 



\ 



CARTEn, KTRTLANH k CO. 27 

Messrs. Samuel Carter, William H. Kirtland, Charles B. Peet, 
John Rose, aud John H. Werts— gentlemen who have been 
identified with this branch of business for many years past, 
and whose acquaintance ranjces through nearly every State and 
Territory in the Union." 

" So large a house I should like to inspect. Can we do so ? " 
"Certainly," I replied; and entering, we m.ide known our 
wishes to a gentleman who came forward to receive us. 

The first floor, which has a frontage of SO feet on Broadway, 
and extends back 200 feet, with an extension on Worth Street 
and Catharine Lane of 100 square feet, is used as a salesroom, 
in which are piles upon piles of ready-made clothing in endless 
variety. On the second floor is the cutting department, con- 
nected with which is the modeling room, where the designs 
and patterns are conceived and prepared. The third floor is 
devoted to the cloth room, where all productions, domestic 
and imported, intended for manufacture, are taken, and sub- 
jected to a rigid examination by a competent and experienced 
inspector. 

We were also informed that none but the most skillful opera- 
tors are employed, and that, in point of material, durability, 
and finish, their goods are in all respects equal to custom 
work. 

"That I can readily believe," said Jonathan, taking up 
Bome articles and examining them, '^ for no man could wish to 
wear better articles of dress than these." 

"And that seems to be the opinion of their customers," said 
I, " for I am told that this house does business to the extent 
of a million and a half dollars per annum." 

Leaving this building, we soon arrived at Franklin Street, on 
the north east corner of which is located Taylor's Saloon. The ' 
upper part of Ihe building is used as a hotel, named the Inter- 
national. 

' Quite a handsome saloon," whispered Jonathan to me, 
peeping in at the door 

" Yes, and a commodious one, too. I presume it is the 
largest one of the kiatl in New York." 

"So I should judge But look at the floor. It Lj inlaid 



28 Taylor's saloon. 

•with variegated marble. And how handsomely the -\vholo- 
place is fitted up ! " 

" It is, and must have cost a good round sura to have so 
decorated it, as that floor you are now looking at contains an 
area of seven thousand five hundred feet." 
" You don't say so ! " 

" But I do ; and in the saloon below there are accommo- 
dations almost as ample. ' ' 

" My gracious ! Are all the tables ever filled ? " 
"My dear fellow," I replied, pitying his ignorance, "the 
tables are always full. It is an accident when you see them 
empty." 

" Eeally, now! " 

"It la the favorite resort," I continued, warming with my 
theme, " of the fashion and elite of New York, and strangers 
never consider they visit the city unless they make a call at 
Taylor's." 

"John," said Jonathan, grasping my hand, " we must dine 
here some day." 
"That we will," l replied, returning the pressure; "and 

if you find in any place better fare or attendance, I'll I'll 

forfeit a hat. ' ' 

" One moment, John," said Jonathan, stopping me as I was 
moving onward ; " I have an idea ; you may not credit it, but 
I assure you that I have." 

'*' Well, Jonathan, and what is it ? " I asked, laughing. 
" When I was a boy, I was told there was ' no time like the 
present.' Acting in that belief, let us dine here to day." 

" With all my heart. My walk has made me hungry, and I 
feel I could do justice to the excellence of Taylor's viands." 

On entering the saloon, Jonathan was at once struck with 
the gorgeousness and Oriental magnificence of the interior ; 
and when I told him that the cost for embelleshing the ceil- 
ing alone cost $3,500, he was filled with awe and wonder- 
ment. 

Seating ourselves at one of the marble tables that was 
covered with a cloth rivaling newly-fallen snow in whiteness, 
we were waited upon by a polite and attentive attendant, 



Jonathan's perplexity. 29 

whobe sole end and aim in life appeared to be to give ua 
pleasure. 

It took a long -while to order our dinner, uad I am afraid we 
must have taxed the patience of our waiter most severely, 
but he was too well trained to show it, for Jonathan was so per- 
plexed with the extent and variety of the bill of fare, that it 
was extremely difficult for him to choose. 

"Why,'' said Jonathan, when the waiter had departed to 
give our order, "they seem to have here every known eatable 
and drinkable in the universe." 

" Yes,'' I replied, " the luxuries of the world are always at 
the command of the guest ; every delicacy that can be brought 
to New York being promptly and liberally supplied by the j)ro- 
prietor." 

*' And the prices are not high ?'' 

"Indeed they" are not. A dinner at Taylor's may be ren- 
dered as economical as the most prudent can desire, or as ex- 
travagant as the requirements of a gourmand.' '' 

Further conversation was cut short by the arrival ot our 
meal, Jonathan holding that no man can do two things at 
one time ; when he eats he cannot talk, and when he talks he 
cannot eat. So our prandial repast was devoured in silence. 

When we had finished, and the demands of the cashier satis- 
fied, Jonathan expressed a desire to see the kitchen and other 
auxiliaries of so extensive an establishment. 

Making known this wish to the cashier he at tmce referred 
us to Mr. Taylor, whom we found in his private office. This 
gentleman immediately acceedcd to our request, and lead the 
way to the culinary department and store rooms. 

The kitchen was as clean as a new pin, and the various uten- 
sils appertaining to the cuisine were as shining as polished 
silver. Those not in use were ranged along the walls, each 
hanging upon its allotted peg, as the motto of this house is 
"a place for everything and everything in its place." 

Next we were ishown the butcher's shop - laiger than the aver- 
age of such shops in the city ; the poultry store ; the bakery ; 
the vegetable xomv, the milk rot.m ; the grocery ; the laundry ; 
and, though last not least, the wine vaults and segar room. 



30 ransom's store. 

Everything was in apparently endless profusion, and on 
our expressing surprise at so large a quantity of stores being on 
hand, we were told that then- store room^, extensive as thoy 
are, could not hold more than a couple of days' supplies. The 
segars and wines, however, had been stored for years. 

We were next shown the up-stairs portion of the building, 
which is set apart for Hotel purposes, called, as I have f^aid be- 
fore, the International. The whole is replete with comfort, 
being elegantly furnished, and with bath rooms and other con- 
veniences on each floor. 

'' There is an old saying,'' said I to Jonathan * that there is 
nothing like leather,' which is verified by the handsome and ex- 
tensive establishment of W. A. Ransom&Co., just across the way. 

" Are they in the leather business ?" 

" They are in the boot and shoe trade, and their house is the 
largest and oldest in the United States. '' 

** Indeed !" 

"It is situated on '384 and 886 Broadway, between "White and 
Walker streets. The building is of white marble, and is 175 
feet deep, and 45 feet wide.'' 

" The business houses of this city are certainly of palatial 
proportions," remarked Jonathan. 

" They are indeed. The house of Kansom & Co. was estab- 
lished in 1820, and has been successfully carried on by dififei-ent 
members of that family ever since, and during forty-six years 
have only changed their place of business three times." 

**That is somewhat remarkable for an American hou^e of 
business, is it not?" 

' ' It is. But it has great advantages. . The members of the 
firm are so well known throughout the trade, and buyers so 
well satisfied with them that in many instances the amount of 
goods wanted to be purchased is simply given, and the selec- 
tion left to the firm." 

"Such a system must be of great benefit to country mer- 
chants." 

" And country merchants seem to think so. For this house 
is constantly shipping goods to all parts of the United btates." 

** And the territories as well,. I presume." 



THE DETECTIVE r 31 

" You are right. Besides which they are constantly export- 
ing goods to the West India Islands and South America." 

".Americans have occasionally to look after the understand- 
ings of foreigners,'' said Jonathan slyly. 

Seeing that lie expected me to laugh at this terrible joke of 
his, I did so, evidently, much to his satisfaction. 

Passing Canal Street, Griggs and myself sauntered leisurely 
up Broadway, he admiring the various stores and' the goods ex- 
hibited for sale in the respective windows. 

"I imagine," said Jonathan, "that here on Broadway a 
man can obtain everything he wants. Let him make known 
his wishes, whether an article of luxury or necessity, and he 
can be supplied without leaving the street." 

*' I guess you are right. As the Cheap Jacks say, anything 
can he procured, from a needle up to a locomotive." 

"What a splendid store!" and Jonathan Griggs pointed 
admiringly at the dry goods establishment at the corner of 
Broadway and Grand Street. 

" Yes, and an ornament to our street." 

" So it is. Who are the proprietors ? " ^ 

•'Lord and Taylor." 

" What a business they appear to be doing ! ", 

"Their house is one of the largest for the retailing of dry 
goods in New York, which you will readily imagine when I 
tell you that the building cost three hundred thousand dollars." 

"No?" 

" A fact, I assure you." 

At tfiis juncture, and before Jonathan had recovered from 
the surprise he had been thrown in by my informing him of the 
cost of the building, a quiet, determined-looking man stepped 
up to him, and in a bland, courteous manner, inquired : 

* ' Have you lost anything ? ' ' 

" Lost anything ! What do you mean ? No ! " And Jona- 
than hurriedly slapped his pockets to see if they were safe. 

*• Excuse me," said the man, " I am a detective ; and seeing 
some young pickpockets hovering around you in a suspicious 
manner, I thought I would ask you.' You axe sure you bave 
lo&t nothing ? " 



S2 THE ARREST. 

" Quite ; '* and Jonathan again v?«nt through the pantomimo 
of slapping his pockets, 

" Jonathan, your watch chain is loose," I told him, as I saw 
that article of dress dangling from his bntton-hole. 

" Gracious me I so it is ; and, John^ my watch has gone." 

"Ah! I thought you had lost something," said the detec- 
tive ; " wait here a moment ; ' ' and he darted away from us, 
and was lost in the crowd. 

" I wouldn't lose that watch for a thousand dollars," ex- 
citedly exclaimed Jonathan ; " it was given me by a dear 
friend of mine, who has since died. How careless of me, to be 
sure." 

In less than a minute the detective returned, leading by the 
arm a decently-attired young fellow, whom he briefly told us 
was the man who had taken Jonathan's watch. 

"I assure you I am innocent," said the accused. ''Do I 
look like a thief? " 

"No; I cannot say you do," replied Jonathan, quite be- 
wildered. 

" But I know him to be one," chimed in the detective, " and 
one of the most expert of Broadway thieves ; so, come along 
with me to the station-house and prefer a charge against him." 

Leading the way with the culprit, we followed, Jonathan be- 
wailing his loss, and unwilling to believe so respectable-looking 
a young man could be a thief. 

"If he should prove to be innocent," remarked Jonathan to 
me, " I should never forgive myself. Having an innocent man 
dragged through the street like a felon ! Oh ! it's terrible." 

" But, Jonathan, the detective says he's a thief, and you may 
depend upon it he has good grounds for so saying." 

Further conversation was cut short by our arrival at the 
station-house. The charge was made, the man searched, and, to 
Jonathan's surprise and delight, the watch found iu his pos- 
session. 

"How wonderful!" ejaculated Griggs; "the loss of my 
watch known to a stranger before I, the owner, was aware of 
it ; the thief locked up ; the watch returned to me ; and all in 
less than twenty minutes ! " 



mechanics' hall 33 

"Quick work," I said. 

" New York is a wonderful city, truly. Though the tempo- 
raiy loss ol my watch annoyed and worried me at the time, I 
am not Borry it wad stolen, for it has given me an experience 
that I otherwise would not have had." 

" That is so ; but be more careful for the future. Your next 
experience in the same line may be more dearly bought." 

" By not recovering the article stolen, do you mean ? ' ' 

" Just so.'* 

When we had regained Broadway, and were continuing our 
journey up town, I pointed out to Jonathan, Mechanics' Hall, 
472 Broadway, near Grand street. In it is a library, contain- 
ing about 16,000 volumes, for the use of apprentices. 

Leaving Broadway for a few minutes, I said to Jonathan 
Griggs, *' we will par a visit to th establishment of Messrs. 
Phelan & Collender the largest billiard table manufacturers in 
this country or in Europe." 

" Nothing I should like better,'' replied Jonathan. " But is 
the head of this firm the celebrated billiard player, Michael 
Phelan?" 

' ' He is none other ; and has done more toward elevating the 
game of billiards making it a refined and intellectual accciu- 
plishment, than any other man in America.'' 

'* You don't tell me !" 

*' Not more thaa twenty years ago the delightful pastime of 
billiards was looked upon by the many as immoral, and voted, 
by the fair sex, as low. Nov/, no gentleman's house is con- 
sidered complete without a billiard table, an^ ladies and child- 
ren alike indulge in the recreation.'' 

" But who wrought this change V 

" Who, but Michael Phelan. He by his integrity and up- 
right bearing, showed that the game of billards was not neces- 
sarily associated with ill-breeding and ungentlemanly conduct, 
and has reaped his reward by now being looked up to as one 
of the leading business men of this city.'' 
^ *' Such a course is one to be repaid in good time,'' 

" But here we are at the manufactory," said I stopping before 
the buildings, situated at No's. 63, 65, 67 and 69 Crosby street, 



34 PHELAN AND OOLLENDEr's BILLIARD TABLES. 

between Broome and Spring streets. " It is five stories high, 
and is looked upon as the best appointed factory of its kind in 
the world ' 

Entering, we were at once received by the prompt, courteous, 
energetic executive member of the firm, Mr. W. H. Collender, 
who showed us the various objects of interest in the building. 

Jonathan, who is a regular Yankee, in the matter of asking 
questions, immediately wanted to know how many men were 
employed. 

" About one hundred and fifty ; we could employ more, but 
the capacity iof our present factory will not admit of it.'' 
" How many tables do you make yearly ?" 
"Between eight and nine hundred, but that number is hardly 
sufficient to supply the demand made upon us for them.'' 

" Goodness gracious !" exclaimed Jonathan, " I should never 
Lave thought there had been so large a sale for them.'' 

" The great secret of our success is our combination cushion. 
It is made-of one solid substance with three degrees of density, 
has, comparatively speaking, a Folid face, and an elastic back, 
yet inseparable, and is insensible to injury by the concussion of 
balls. This permits an accurate calculation in regard to tht 
rebounding force, and the scientific principle of angles, thus 
rendering the player less liable to err in his calculations." 

" I play a little at billiards myself," said Jonathan, ''and I 
know such a cushion must be of incalculable value." 

' ' It is. This is the machine for making balls ; it is patented, 
and is, as you see, of most peculiar and ingenious construction. 
It is exclusively owned and iicied by us. By it each ball is 
made to a mathematical nicety, as round as possible for them to 
be made, and not one deviates a hair's breadth from the other." 
"Do you make cues on the premises, also?" asked Jona- 
than. 

" Oh, yes ; and our stock kept on hand, both imported and 
home made, is the largest in the v/orld.'' 

" Are all the tables you make sold in this country ?'• 
" Dear me, no. Our tables are in demand and sold in Cuba, 
South America, China, Japan, Biitish America, and through- 
out the whole of Europe. 




PHEI.A\ & COLLENDER'S BILLlARn TABLE ^rANUFACTORY 

Nop. 63, 65, 67 & 69 Crosby Street. ' 



IIEGEMA^• S Dra'G STORE. o5 

'•Where will not American handiwork go to 1" said Jona- 
than astonished. • 

*' Beside, all the leadinp: hotels in the principal citier of the 
Union are fm-nished with onr tables ; indeed, so popular have 
tl)ey become, and so great the dt-mantl for them that they arc 
acknowledged by the nublic generally as the standard billiard 
tabic of Anie iea." 

Having thoroughly examined the building, and admired the 
ehgauce and finish i f the dilfereut branches of work, we with- 
drew, much pleased with our vi?it.. 

On our return to Broadway, the first building that attracted 
Jonathan's attention was the St. Nicholas Hotel, lociited be- 
tween Broome and Spring streets. To his many questions I 
replied : — 

"The St. Nicholas Hotel was erected in lS-3-1, at a cost of a 
million dollars. It is built of white marble, and is of the Co- 
rinthian order of archit cture. It has a frontage of 300 feet 
on Broadway, and has accommodations for 600 guests.'' 
" Immense !" was all that Jonathan said. 
'• As a security against fire, a large water-tank is fitted on the 
top of the building, wdiich is sufficient to deluge the whole 
place in less than five minutes." 

'•Under this hotel, the St. Nicholas," I informed Jonathan 
'* is a branch of one of tlie oldest drug houses in the city. I 
allude to the firm of Hegeman & Co " 

" "Why, we passed a druggist's store, of that name, some 
distance dow^n Broadway." 

'* True ; so we did. And as we get fnrther up, you will pass 
some more of the same name. There are five houses of that 
name in this city. At least, when I say five houses, I mean 
five stores, as the whole of them belong to the same firm. The 
principal house is situated at No. 203 Broadway ; the branches 
of this parent house are at 399, 511 and ToG of this, the same 
gre;it street, and on the corner of Fourth avenue and Suvon- 
teenth street. 

"It is a very handsome store," said Jonathan. 
" So it is ; indeed, this firm is celebrated for the beauty of 
their stores. They are also famous for the superior quality of 



36 ^ lasak's store. • - 

their drugs, medicines, &c. Purchasers may rest assured that 
all articles procured of them are geauiae, and the purest that 
can be obtained.'' 

" In case of sickness that is a great desideratum." 

"They are also noted," I continued, "as being the first 
manufacturers of Medicinal Cod Liver Oil, and for which they 
have an eaviable reputation throughout the whole of the 
United States." 

"Out West," said Jonathan, " Hegeman's Cod Liver Oil is 
regarded as the standard medicine for all pulmonary com- 
plaints." 

" Mr. "William Hegeman," I continued, "the senior partner, 
gives the benefit of his long experience to the superintendence 
of the business ; every tiling that is bought or made, passes un- 
der his careful supervision." 

" The eye of the principal is almost always necessary to in- 
sure success." 

" That is a true and trite remark. The different stores are 
under the charge, either of junior partners or assistants, who 
have been brought up by them and who have had from fifteen 
to twenty years experience in the business.'' 

" A most excellent plan," ejaculated Jonathan. 

" The motto adopted by this house for the guidance of sub- 
ordinates, is, never to send anything out of the establishment 
that is not perfect in every respect. It is needless for me to 
add, that strict adherence to such a course, has met with the 
success it deserves." 

' Of that I could not have a momentary doubt ; it would 
have surprised ma had it been otherwise." 

At this juncture a number of beautifully stuffed animals in 
the window of a fur store, opposite the St. Nicholas, attracted 
Jonathan's attention, and nothing would do but he must cross 
the street to^view them. 

We did so, and found it was the store of F. W. Lasak's Son, 
No. 520 Broadway. Jonathan was evidently well posted on 
the subject of furs, and related to me several little adventures, 
in which he figured conspicuously as a trapper. 

At last, espying some splendid Russian sable, he entered the 



PRESCOTT HOUSE. 



zn 



store to examine it. He was received by a polite and gentle- 
manly salesman, wliom he overwhelmed with questions. 
Had he been a Yankee, instead of a Western man, his inter- 
rogatories could not have been greater. 

He soon found that the stock of this house comprised the 
richest Eussian sable, Royal Ermine, Hudson Bay sable, Mink, 
Oriental Lamb, as well as all other kinds of furs, includmg the 
lower grades, such as Water Mink, Jennett, Coney, and in fact 
all kinds of goods connected with the fur trade. 

" You keep manufactured goods on hand?" he asked. 
•* Oh, yes ; our business is both wholesale and retail, but our 
principal trade is the latter." 

«' And I can most positively asseverate," I chimed in, " from 
personal knowledge, that they have always on hand a full and 
complete assortment of manufactured goods." 

"We also make to order goods of any desired pattern, 
whether for ladies or gentlemen' s wear " 

" Your house has been established some years-has it not? 
" Since 1823 ; and our long and successful business career is 
a sufficient guarantee that purchasers can rely upon the repre- 
sentations made by our house, and that their confidence will 
not be misplaced." , ^ 4. 1 1 

We were also of that opinion, and after Jonathan had told 
another little story about a fox and a trap, we thanked our in- 
formant, and retired. , , x ^u 
" Is that a hotel, on the opposite corner ?" asked Jonathan. 
" Yes • that is the Prescott House, named in honor of our 
great American historian. In point of architectural beauty it 
is unsurpassed by any other building on Broadway." 
* ' It certainly is very handsome . " 

''The entrance hall, with its beautiful frescos and tesselated 
pavement, is one of the finest in the country." _ 

- That I can readily believe," said Jonathan, looking in at 
the door, admiringly. 

-The furniture is of the most elegant, costly and comfort- 
able d<iscription, the majority of it having been made expressly 
tor this house in London and Paris.' ' 

"You surprise me." '^^^ 



S8 THE DIAMOND PALACE. 

" The chief guests of the honpc arc Furopeans, who, npon 
arriving here in the i-teamcr, at ouce proceed to the Prescott 
House, and make that their headquarters And within its 
hospitable walls there is always some foreigner of disiinc- 
tion." 

"That church opposite, situated at 548 Broadway, is the 
Eev. Dr. E. H. Chupin's, the celebrated Universalist preacher." 

" Here, at 563 Broadway, is the music store of Mr. Thaddeus 
Firth, succe.-sor to the late firm of Firth, Son, & Co. His 
father, senior member of the firm, was for 45 years the head 
of the most influential music house in New York." 

"Forty-five years! Almost a lifetime," ejaculated Jona- 
than. 

" True, And his son, keeping pace with the march of the 
times, intends maintaining the excellence of the house to that 
standard obtained by his predecesjsors. It will continue to be 
the popular music house, both in the wholesale and retail de- 
partment." 

"Among the many splendid and costly edifices," said I, 
" erected on Broadway, none is more imposing than the lofty 
marble palace of Messrs. Ball, Black & Co., at the corner of 
Broadway and Prince street." 

" It is a beautiful structure !" and Jonathan looked with un- 
feigned admiration upon the building. 

*' Constructed,'' I continued "of East Chester marble, it pre- 
sents an ornament at once striking and beautiful, and may 
well be called ' The Diamond Pcilace of Broadway.' '' 

" And is that the name it bears ?'' 

** Yes. But let us enter. The members of the firm will be 
glad to see us, and will give us a cordial welcome. The porch, 
through which we ai'e now passing, is built in the Corinthian 
Btyle of architecture ; the doors are imitation ebony, relieved 
by sandal wood and bronze.'' 

" What large windows !" exclaimed Jonathan. 

" Each one measures nine by fifteen feet, and were manu- 
factured expressly in France, for this building." 

" You don't tell me !'' 

" As we enter the vestibule what a beautiful scene is present- 



A GOOD LiPt. 8S 

ed to out gaze, momentcarily bewildering U3 by the dazzling 
display that breaks upon our view." 

' ' That is so ; it is like fairy-land." 

*' The floor is of Italian marble ; the counter of the same ma» 
terial and richly carved ; the ebony colored cases around the 
room filled with most beautiful and costly goods. On either 
side are diamonds^ amethysts, rubies, sapphires, emeralds, 
onyxes, and precious stones of every description. Every hue 
is represented ; every degree of brightness sends forth its charm, 
and the bewildered eye of the spectator is fairly dazzled by the 
beauty and splendor of the Various gems." 

" You are quite enthusiastic, John,'' ejaculated Jonathan. 

" Enthusiastic ! and who can help being so, in such a place as 
this ! Look at the ceiling ; see how beautifully it is painted to 
harmonize with the whole ; an either side see what elegance 
and taste has been exhibited ; behold the finely wrought cabi- 
net work, and finely executed bronze candelabras with which 
this floor is lighted, and then say if you can be surprised at my 
enthusiasm." 

•'No, John, I cannot be surprised ; to tell you the truth, I 
feel a glow of enthusiasm myself 

At this juncture one of tbe junior members of the firm, a 
most genial and courteous gentleman, approached us, and we 
at once placed ourselves under his guidance. 

The basement floor of the building is used for a packing 
room, and the manuftictory of gas fixtures. One portion of 
this room is divided off into a sort of cage, forming a burglar 
proof safe 40 by 25 feet, in which can be placed from 1,200 to 
1 ,500 plate chests, and other valuable articles entrusted to the 
firm for safe keeping. Under the sidewalk on the Prince 
street side, is the boiler room, where steam is generated in a 
boiler of thirty horse power, for the purpose of driving ma- 
chinery and heating the building. A steam engine of ten 
horse power, furnishes the motive by which the machinery in 
the mnnufacturing department is driven. A donkey engine 
operates an elevator capable of raising six thousand pounds, 
which communicates with each of the upper floors. 

Passing through the main floor, wo are led up stairs over a 



40 Paintings and !?tatuary. 

flight of marble steps, fringed with ebony rails, and Trainscoted 
with tho same material, relieved by occasional ornaments of 
sandal wood, poliched anc^ finished in exquisite style. At the 
foot of these stairs are two life size bi'onze statues, elegantly and 
art stically finished. To attempt to give a description of these 
rooms into which we were led by these stairs, would be worse 
than u-eless. Such an agglomeration of beauty, magnificence, 
wealth and taste, can not be equalled anywhere. Paintings 
and engravings ot the most costly kinds ; statues and statuettes, 
in silver, gold, glass, wax, cork, bronze, plaster and stone ; 
ornithological groups combining taste with elegance ; illus- 
trations of natural history as rare as beautiful ; clocks and 
watchesof every conceivable style of finish, from France, Eng- 
land, Germany and other parts of Europe ; Italian paintings, 
sculpture and engravings, of the jnost ancient as well as of the 
most modern schools — all these articles of vertu, with thou- 
sands of others, are scattered around in the best arrangement, 
but with a profusion truly wonderful. 

The upper stories of this building, which is six stories in 
height, are devoted to the manufacture of jewelry and silver 
ware. The facilities for the manufacture of everything relat- 
ing to precious metals, are immense ; indeed, there are no more 
extensive workshops, in the whole country, than Messrs. Ball, 
Black & Co.'s, having room for and frequently employing three 
or four hundred men at one time. 

The building is entirely fire proof, and so satisfied are the 
firm of this, that they do not insure any portion of their own 
goods. Though those articles of plate and value, deposited 
with them by gentlemen visiting Europe or the country, are 
insured to their full worth. This is simply done to satisfy the 
depositors. Often property to the value of many millions is de- 
posited with them. 

It is also proof against the incursion of burglars ; the ar- 
rangements for their detection being exceedingly ingenious and 
perfect. By means of a pate-nt clock, and the services of ac- 
tive watchmen— six of whom are in the interior of the build- 
ing, and two out— the most daring burglar would be foiled 
on every plan of attack he might make on the store. The 



EXPENSIVE r)!AMoN0g 41 

iron doors are fitted by a kind of lock which would defy all 
the ordinary force to move one of their tongues from its 
place. 

The building is one hundred feet on Prince street, and fifty 
two feet on Broadway ; its height is ninety-eight feet from 
curve to cornice, and one hundred and twenty feet from base 
to apex. The average cost of the building was about $150,000. 
Now, with the present high price of materials and labor, it 
could not be buiit under nearly treble that sum. It is of the 
Corinthian style of architecture. On the summit of the build- 
ing there is a golden eagle, about eight feet high, and measur- 
ing the same length from the tip of his wings ; it has seryed as 
a sign for this firm for the past forty years. 

Before leaving the eftablishment, the gentleman who had 
kindly escorted us through the building, led the way to a pri- 
vate office, and there exhibited to our astonished and delighted 
gaze some diamond sets valued at $30,000 and S50,000 
each. 

•* Do you ever sell such exi)ensive sets?" asked Jonathan. 

*' Certainly," .?aid our informant, smiling at the question ; " or 
we should not make them up. In former times when a sales- 
man sold to the amount of a thousand dollars, he thought he 
had done a big thing, and would consider himself master of 
the situation, for that day, at least. But now a sale to the ex- 
tent of a thousand dollars is an ordinary occurrence, and causes 
no comment whatever.'' 

Thanking our guide for his courtesy, we withdrew, much 
pleased and gratified with our tour of inspection. Upon reach - 
jog the street Jonathan asked me how long the house had been 
established. 

" It was founded," I replied, "by Erastus Barton in 1810, and 
the entire capital then invested by him was about equal to a 
day's profits at the present time." 

'* That I can readily believe.'' 

* ' It shows what industry and energy will do. Persever- 
ance, combined with integrity of .purpose, will tell, and sooner 
or later will crown a man with success." 

"That brown stone building," said I, pointing to the edifice 



42 A GREAT iNVEKTiOff. 

OTi the north-east corner of Prince street and Broadway, ''1.4 the 
Metropolitan HoteL It extends through to Crosby street, aucJ 
covers two acres of ground.'' 

*' It.is a coble-looking etructure, truly,'' said Jonathan. 

"You are right; it is. As an item of intei^est I would toil 
you, that there are over 12 miles of gas and water-pipes run* 
ning through the buildings." 

" You astound me." 

"There are many things that astound," said I, somewhat 
sententiously, " in New York city." 

Jonathan emphatically agreed with me. 

" Here," said I to Jonathan, ''at No. 575, is the fixshionable 
boot and shoe store of Mr. E. A. Brooks, who is celebrated fot 
the'excellence and elegance of his work.'' 

" Now," I remarked to Jonathan, as we neared 625 Broadway, 
" we will take a look at thegreatestinventionof modern times." 

*'The greatest invention of modern' times !'' exclaimed 
Jonathan, surprised ; "what do you mean ?" 

'"I mean what I eay ; in fact, I am not sure if I said the greats 
est invention the world ever saw, I should not be more correct." 

" You don'^t tell me ; v/hat invention is that ?" 

" I mean the sewing machine — one of the marvels of these 
later days.'' 

" You are right ; it is a great invention.'' 

"And has done more .good, and more to alleviate the suffer- 
ings of poor overworked humanity, than almost any other in- 
vention you can name, and in many departments of industry, 
has wrought a complete change. Tailors, dressmakers, shirt- 
makers, hatters, shoemakers, clothiers, harness-makers, um-.» 
brella-makers, and in fact, all business and trades, where sewing 
is required, have been benefitted." 

'* You remember Hood's poem of the * Song of the Shirt ?' " 
ask^d Jonathan. 

" Indeed I do : a more touching and beautiful poem was 
never written in the English language. If the sewing machine 
has done nothing else, it has improved the condition of poor 
seams trecses, and now it cannot be said that shirtmakers are 

♦' • Sewing at ouce, with a double thread, 
A ehroud as well as & shirt.' ** 



THE Fin ST SEWlNG-MACniNE. 43 

"There are several makers of sewing-machines, arc there 
not ? Whose machine do you consider the Lest ?" 

'• It is universally conceded, both by families and manufac- 
turers, that Wheeler & Wilson's bear the palm. They arc in- 
dorsed by srch men as Henry Ward Eeecher, Solon Ilobinson, 
the llev. Dr. Yin' on, and many other equally •well known 
gentlemen, all of who.m hailed the advent of a sewing-raachino 
1)1 their houses as a blessing. But here we arc at Wheeler & 
Wilson's store." 

Entering the front door, Jonathan was at once struck with 
the immense depth of the building, and the beautiful and 
elegant manner in which the store and warei'ooms were fitted 
up. The M'hole of the wood work, comprising the cases, desks, 
counters, staircase, &c., is of black walnut, oil-finished, and 
ornamented with carving and ebony moulding, making the 
tout ensemble perfectly delightful. 

One of "ihe most interesting things shown us, was the first 
machine ever made by Messrs. Wheek-r & Wilson. It was con- 
structed in 1851, and has been in use more than fourteen years. 
Compared with the machines of to-day, it is a cumbersome- 
looking affair enough, though in its day was considered re- 
markably handsome. Its original cost was $125 — a much 
superior article can be obtained now for $55. 

" I presume your sales aie much larger now than then," said 
Jonathan. 

" Slightly so," replied our informant ; "in 1853 we sold 799 
machines ; now we are manufacturing them at the rate of 
50,000 per annum." 

" It seems almo;-t incredible.' 

*'■ It will not, when I tell you, that there are many establish- 
ments in this and other cities, that have four or five hundred 
^ew;ng-machiueii for the use of their workpeople. In Kew 
Haven there is a house that employs 400 of the Wheeler & 
Wil- on machines for making shirts alone. A shirt made by 
the machine, takes one hour and sixteen minutes in the mak- 
ing ; so you can imagine, that in the course of a week, there 
are quite a large number of shirts turned out." 

"Has the introduction of sewing-machines injured needle- 
women to any extent ?" 



44 QUICK STITCHING. 

"On the contrary, f.hey have been greatly benefitted ; new 
branches of needlework have been introdticed, and the old 
ones greatly extended, giving the operator better remunera- 
tion, and lighter and more healthful work. Many owners of 
sewing-machines earn from $50 to $100 per month." 

*' Why, the smallest amount is a small fortune to many 
needlewomen.'' 

*' True. The sewing-machine has become almost a necessity ; 
no family or manufactory where sewing is required to be done, 
is complete without it." 

' ' It must be more healthy than the cramped and stooping 
posture of the old style of sewing ?' ' 

" The hygienic importance of the sewing-machine is not 
second to its commercial ; the iinhealthful nature of needle- 
work is proverbial. The cramped posture, the strain of the 
eyes, the derangement of the digestive organs and the nerves, 
over a monotonous task, have told, with telling effects, upon 
the health and character of needlewomen.'' 

" How many hands do you think your machine is equal to?" 

" About ten. Sewers accustomed to make by hand thirty or 
forty stitches a minute, are surprised at the facility with which 
the machine accomplishes so much, and come to look upon 
operating on the machine as an agreeable pastime, rather than 
work.'' 

' ' How many stitches can the machine make a minute ?' ' 

" Ffom five to six hundred, according to the material and 
quality of the work ; when driven by steam-power, fifteen 
hundred, and two thousand stitches a minute are not an un- 
usual average." 

" My goodness ! it seems almost incredible." 

*' It does ; but it is, nevertheless, a fact. One great feature 
in the Wheeler & Wilson machine, is the wide range of its ap- 
plication. For instance, a person furnished with one of those 
machines, can employ them in making shirts, mantillas, 
diamond ruffiing, skirts, hats, caps, &c ; in fact, it sews all 
materials, from the stoutest woolen to the finest cambric ; con- 
sequently, as long as sewing is to be done, the machines are 
sure of something to do." 




WHEL'XER & WIL<('N'S BUILI'ING, 625 Broadway. 



Ham*s carriage factory 45 

*' Do these machines make button-holes ?" 
" No ; but they do almost everthing else. Garments are 
made entirely by it, with the exception of sewing on the but- 
tons ; laces are stitched on ; folds, tucks, gathers, plaits are 
laid and stitched ; cord run in ; binding put on, and quilting 
can also be done after =jlaborate and beautiful designs." 
*' It is certainly wonderful." 

*' We have a button-hole and eyelet-hole machine, which is 
capable of making 100 button-holes per hour.'' 

** Astonishing !" exclaimed Jonathan, as we bowed to ou\ 
guide, and made our exit from the building. 

"On the corner of Bleeker and Mercer streets," said T, " ;8 
the establishment of Messrs. Lindeman & Sons, the '.nventors an(3 
manufacturers of the new Patent Cycloid Piano Fortes, whicb 
they claim have a superiority of tone, a more beautiful form, 
and will stand in tune longer than any of the old style of in- 
Btiuments." 

"And what hotel is this?'' asked Jonathan, when we had 
arrived opposite Bond street. 

"This is the La Farge House," I responded. "It is built 
of white marble ; feven storie^ in height, and capable of ac- 
cmmodating between four and five hundred guests.'' 

During our walk up Broadway, Jonathan had been admiring 
the various stylish and elegant equipages that crowded that 
thoroughfare. As we neared Fourth street, a splendid Clarence 
Carriage, with a full circular front of plate-glass, drawn by a 
couple of bays, dashed by us. This set us talking about fast 
hoises, carriages, wagons, and all things else appertaining to 
the road. Jonathan said he wanted to purchase a carriage aud 
set of harness, and asked me the best place to do so. 

' • You could not have spoken at a more opportune time, for 
just across the way, at No. 10 East Fourth street, are the car- 
riage and harness warerooms of Mr. John C. Ham ; we will go 
there and look at some carriages, and if you cannot be suited, 
you will be hard to please, as he constantly has on hand about 
150 different styles.'' 

"Is Mr. Ham celebrated as a maker ?" 

"Indeed, is he. Unlike most of the principals of other 
firms, Mr. Ham is himself a practical mechanic, and Bupervisea 



46 TETE omciNAL sfiwmG uAcmnt. 

the make and fmish of each vehicle turned out of tis faS* 
tory." 

" Then, he is a roan of great experience ?" 
" Me is : has been in the trade thirty-five years, twenty of 
which he has bei n located on Broadway ; now he has these 
spacious warerooms, corner of East Fourth street and Broad' 
way, Thus, by avoiding the enormous rents of Broadway, he 
is enabled to sell at least twenty-five ner cent, less than his 
competitors on that thoroughfare." 

*' As much as that ?" said Jonathan, astonished. 
"Yes; such warerooms as Mr. Ham occupies, would, on 
Broadway, command a rent of $30,000 per annum, while where 
he now is, one door from Broadway, the rent does not exceed 
one-fourth of that sum." 

So speaking, we entered the building, and Jonathan was 
soon lost in admiration of the elegance and beauty of the va- 
rious styles. 

When Jonathan had completed his purchase, he was told — ■ 
with pardonable pride — that in 1840-44-52 and 64 Mr. Ham 
took the first pi-emium from the American Institute, for the 
best Carriage, over several of , the first manufacturers in tho 
country, and in 1854-5 was awarded a gold medal, as the first 
premium, by the Commissioners of i.he World's Fair, in New 
York. And Jonathan was also told, that the manufacturing 
facilities of this establishment were not 3xcelled by any other 
in the country — giving constant employment to 400 to 500 first- 
class mechanics — and that the manufacture of carnages far sur- 
pass, in high fmish, good workmanship and fine quality of stock, 
any Broadway establishment, lie has orders from every quarter 
of the world— from Cuba, ]\Iexico, England, France, China, &c. 
"By the way, we were talking of sewing-machines a few 
minutes ago. Let us drop in here. No. 609 Broadway, the oflSce 
of the Howe Sewing Machine Company, and see if we cannot 
catch a glimps^e of Mr. Elias Howe, the original inventor of the 
sewing-machine " 

*' Nothing would please me more/' said Jonathan delightedly. 
"At any rate." I went on, " if we have not the good fortmie 
to see him, we shall be enabled to see the original machine 
made by him, and patented in 1846.'' 



A NICE INCOME. 47 

After examining the machine, which embraces all the prin- 
ciples embodied in the present sewing-machines, the only im- 
provement being in form and simplicity, we were told the 
mechanical history of Mr. Elias Howe, who is now the presi- 
dent of this company, giving 'tiach branch of the manufacture 
his immediate supervision. 

It appears that, nearly a quarter of a century ago, Mr. Elias 
Howe, H native of Massachusetts, first conceived the idea of 
making a mechanical seamstress. His history is remarkable, 
and in some respects, presents a happy contrast to that of other 
great inventors, whose genius only brought them trouble and 
penury through life. 

When only twenty-two years of age, whilst working as a 
mechanic, he conceived the project of making a sewing-machine. 
This was about the year 1841, at which time he was married 
and had a little family a,round him, for whom he !iad to labor 
hard throughout the day. In after hours he labored in his 
humble abode, at Cambridgeport, contriving the various move- 
ments of the machine. 

The patient endurance, the intelligence, and the perseverance 
of Mr. Howe were destined to overcome all difficulties in his 
way ; and on the 10th of September, 1846, he obtained his first 
patent. 

Singularly enough, Americans failed to see the advantages of 
this invention, so it was sent to England, where tbe patent 
right was sold for £200, equal to about $1,000. Beyond that 
Mr. Howe did not benefit himself in England. Nothing 
daunted, he returned to' America. In 1853 he granted his first 
license for the making of his machines, and by degrees, was 
enabled to re-purchase the patents he had «old in the days of 
his adversity. In 1855 he was in possession of the wh- le of 
them, and now receives a royalty upon every sewiug-machine 
manufactured in the United States, which produces an income 
of $100,000 u year. 

"An immense sum,'' said Jonathan. 

"Yes ; but incomparably trifling, to the benefit ho has con- 
ferred up(m the world at large, by the gift of his labor-saving 
machinery." 

'* You are right." 



48 gurney's art gallery. ■ 

" When the Piince of Wales was in this country," I informed 
Jonathan, "there was none amoni;- liis suite that admired so 
much, and paid such attention to American art as he." 

Jonathan seemed somewhat surprised at this statement, as it 

was apparently apropos of nothing. Noticing this, I continued : 

; "Iwas led to these remarks by our arriving at Gurney's 

Photographic and Fine Art Gallery, 707 Broadway. It is the 

oldest house in the country ; and it is here the Prince of Wales 

;| sat for liis portrait " 

' " A photographic porti-ait ?'' 

" Yes ; but afterwards finished in oil, by Mr. Constant Mayer, 
tlie .well-known artist of the establishment. It was sent to 
Queen Victoria as a present, who was so pleased with it, that 
she sent a letter of thanks to the Messrs. Gurney, for the beau- 
tiful specimen of American art, and as an assurance of her ap- 
preciation of the skill with which it was executed.'' 

" Quite a feather in their cap, I declare. '' 

** Accompanying the portrait was an album of photographs, 
which was presented to the Prince of Wales. He was so pleased 
with them, that he caused a splendid gold medal to be struck 
off, and sent to New York, for their acceptance." 

" That shows mo^t conclusively that American art is recog- 
nized abroad." 

"Indeed it does. In the portrait gallery may be seen seve- 
ral fine specimens of the rare skill and pov^er of these artists ; 
two are especially worthy of notice ; they are likenesses of tho 
greatest generals of the day, Winiield Scott and U. S. Grant." 

Jonathan, wishing to see these portraits, we entered the 
splendid art gallery of the Messrs. Gurney. 

Before leaving, we were shown the latest novelty in the art, 
a microscopic photograph— a picture not larger than the eye of 
a needle— set with a lens which enlarges it to nearly life size. 
It is a pretty article of ornament, and enables the possessor to 
carry about with him, in the smallest space, and in the most 
unsuspected manner, a complete representation of the most 
precious of friends or lovers. 

" The next hotel of any note on Broadway is the New York 
Hotel, extending from Washington to Waverly Place. It is 



ALEXANDER T. STEWARt's. 49 

miicTi frequented by Southerners, and conducted on the Eu- 
ropean plan." 

" "What large building is that?'' asked Jonathan, iadicating 
the object of inquiry with the aid of his dextei- linger. 

"That is Alexander T. Stewart's retail dry goods store ; it 
stands on the corner of Tenth street, and is one of the greatest 
emporiums for articles connected with that business the world 
ever saw.'' 

" Is the whole of that large building used for the transaction 
of Mr. Stewart's retail business?" 

" Yes ; and large as it is, I warrant it is none too commodious 
for the proper assortment and care of goods, and the accom- 
modation of customers.'' 

" I wonder Mr. Stewart should allow such a line of carriages 
to stand before his store-doors. Are they fur hire ? or, is there 
some public place of amusement in the neighborhood, and they 
are waiting for the audience to come out ?" 

I could not refrain from laughing at this interrogator)'. 

♦* Those carriages," I replied, " are in waiting for those ladies 
who are now inside the store shopping." 

" What ! the whole of them ?" 

" Yes ; and if you will looic up Tenth street, you will see the 
line extends some distance up there." 

** What an immense business he must do !" 

" You are right ; he does. There is no house, either in this 
• country or in Europe, that does so large a retail trade. But 
that is not to be wondered at, for no house has so large and 
varied an assortment. No matter what a purchaser requires — 
a pair of gloves, a silk dress, a lace shawl, or a parlor-carpet — 
she is sure to find a more varied and choice assortment of goods 
here than at any other hou>e in the same line of business." 

" Their trade is wholly with fashionable people, I presume ?" 

*' The greater portion of their trade is with the elite of the 
city ; but people not so well to do ia the world, also make their 
purchases here, finding it their interest to do so. For this 
reason, Mr. Stewart's facilities for buying are so large, and 
his purchases so great, that he is enabled to sell goods at a 
more reasonable rate than suiailer houses." 



60 GRACE CHURCH. 

"Ah ! It is an old and true saying, that ' money makes 
money.'" 

On the north-east corner of the same street is Grace church ; 
one of the most fashionable places of worship in the city. It is 
Protestant Episcopal in its denomination, and the Rev. Dr. 
ITiomas N. Taylor is the rector '' 

" It is a splendid edifice," ejaculated Jonathan, admiringly. 

" It is; but soma are of opinion it is too richly decorated 
for a religious edifice. There aro tipward of forty windows of 
stained glass, all of •v^hich have decided artistic merit, and well 
worthy inspection." 

" The famous Diamond Wedding was celebrated here, if I am 
not mistaken ?' ' 

"You are right. Tl^e sexton of this cnurch is the well- 
known Isaac V. Brown, without whom, as master of the cere- 
monies, no fashionable wedding is considered complete." 

"My goodness !" ejaculated Jonathan Griggs, as we stopped 
on the corner of Eleventh street. "Is this another hotel? 
Why, Few York seems full of themi !" 

" This is the St. Denis," I replied. " It is considered, archi- 
tecturally, one of the handsomest buildings on Broadway. It is 
conducted on the European plan, and much frequented by for- 
eigners." 

Among the well-known art emporiums of Broadway, there is 
none better known than that of Messrs. Weisman & Langer- 
feldt, successors to Emil Seitz, the well-known virtuoso. 

Mr. Seitz has been for years connected with fine art estab- 
lishments, both in this country and in Europe, and has ob- 
tained one of the finest collections of line engravings, etchings, 
mezzotints, drawing studies, water-color drawings, &c., ever 
seen on this continent. 

Now, on his retirement from business, he has transferred the 
whole of his business to the above-named gentlemen, who, 
from a long experience, are worthy to fill the place left vacant 
by the retirement of Mr. Seitz. 

Their store is at No. 842 Broadway, corner of Thirteenth 
street, and will be found one of the centres of attraction on 
that fcj.r- famed street. 



WASHINGTON'S STATUS. 61 

"What deliglitful place is this?" queried Jonrilban, when 
we had reached Union J-quare. 

"This,' 'said I, " is Union Square, and extends from Four- 
teenth to Sevent/2enth streets. In the centre- is a charming 
pleasure ground, surrounded by an iron railing. In it are 9 
fountain, and a moderately large basin of water, filled with 
fish. It is a place of favorite resort during the sumr.'xr 
months, and is much affected by nursemtfids and their infantile 
cares. ' ' 

"Such a spot in the heart of a great city, is like an oasis in 
the desert. ' ' 

" Quite poetical, I declare," I laughingly replied. ** On the 
northern side of the square are the Everett House, the Claren- 
don Hotel, and the headquarters of the Fenian Brotherhood ; on 
the western side are Dr. Cheever's church, fiimous for its Abo- 
lition proclivities, and the Spiagler Hotel ; on the southern 
side are the Union Hotel, and the liaison Dorce, celebrated ag 
one of the best restaurants in the city.'' 

" What statue is that V ' 

**'That is the bronze statue of the immortal Washington. 
It was designed and executed by Mr. Biown, who was four 
years completing his ta«k. It is fourteen and a half feet in 
height, and the extreme elevation, including the pedestal, 
which is of granite, is twenty-nine feet." . 

" What- is the expense of such a statue ?" 

'' This one cost upwards of $30,000. On the opposite side of 
the square, on the Fourteenth street side, a companion statue 
of Abraham Lincoln is to be erected." 

Jonathan went nearer, to examine the statue, and as he did 
so, reverently raised his hat. 

"Just round the corner," I remarked to Jonathan, "is the 
salesrooms of the largest piano-forte manufacturers in the 
wiiole wide world." 

" How very singular," exclaimed Griggs. " I Avas just about 
to tell you that I had promised, while in New York, to nurchase 
a piano for my daughter." 

"Then Ftein way's is the very place ; for they are not only 
the largest manufacturers in the world, but the best, as you 



52 A NEW MUSIC HALL. 

will readily believe, when I tell you they are endorsed hy such 
pianists and musical celebrities as S. B. Mills, Robert Gold' 
beck, Theodore Thomas, Max Maretzek, Robert Heller, Carl 
Bergmann, William Mason, and a host of others, equally well 
known in the musical and operatic world.'' 
" You don't say so !" 

" And they are equally well known and sought after 
throughout the whole of Europe. In London, at the Great 
Exhibition of 1862, the Messrs. Steinway carried off the first 
prize ; indeed, so great was the superiority over all other 
pianos, that the jury not only awarded a prize, but a high en- 
comium upon the fortunate makers." 

*' Do you mean to say, the Steinway pianos are superior to 
those made in Europe?" 

'* I do, iudeed ; but when I say so, I am only reiterating the 
statement of the most celebrated Professors of Music through- 
out the whole of Europe." 

" Are these the salesrooms ?" asked Jonathan, as we stopped 
before No's. 71 and 73 East Fourteenth street, between Union 
Square and the Academy of Music. " Why, it is like a palace !'' 
" It is ; and fully deserves that name. It is, as you see, 
built of white marble, has a front on Fourteenth street of 50 
feet, and a depth of 85 feet. It has a basemen«t and four 
stories, the whole of which are used as salesrooms for the sale 
Df their Square, Upright and Grand Pianos.'' 

So saying, we entered the building, and Jonathan was at 
once struck by the elegant and commodious salesrooms. After 
Jonathan had made his purchase, I casually mentioned, he was 
a stranger in the city, and was surprised at the magnificence and 
extent of their building. 

The salesman, with pardonable pride, admitted it to be a 
splendid edifice, and informed us that a new Music Hall, to ex- 
tend through to Fifteenth street, was being erected in the rear 
of ihis building, which, when finished, would be 123 feet long, 
75 feet in breadth, 42 feet high, and capable of holding 3,000 
persons. He also told us that everything would be done to 
make it the finest Music Hall in the country ; between the 
flooring and the ceiling of the basement will be a heavy coat- 




FTEINWAY & SONS' WAREROOMS, 71 & 73 E. 14th St. 



STEINWAY^S PtANOFOUTE PACfORY. 63 

ing of solid cement. This vvill prevent vibration, and add 
greatly to the acoustic properties of the hall. A new Grand 
Organ will also be erected, enabling music to be performed 
never before attempted in this country, such as Oratorios and 
Festivals. And, in case of fire, every ])r6caution will be made, 
so that the audience will be enabled to effect an exit in a few 
seconds. 

As we were about leaving the building, we were asked if we 
•would not like to visit their Mammoth Piano-forte Manufac- 
tory. 

To this question we gladly answered in the affirmative. So, 
being furnished with the necessary credentials, we at once pro- 
ceeded, by cars, to this su.perb edifice, which is situated on 
Fourth avenue, occupyin.g an entire block, extending from 
Fifty-second to Fifty-third streets. 

Upon our arrival, we were received most courteously by one 
of the partners, who at once showed us round the building, 
and explained to us objects of interest. 

"The front of this building, our manufactory," said he, 
'♦has a length of 201 feet, with a depth of 40 feet. The 
wings, on Fifty-second and Fifty-third streets, are each 165 
feet in length, and 40 feet in depth. The whole building is six 
stories high, including the basement ; the architecture is of the 
modern Italian style, with brick lintel ar-^^hes, brown-stone 
trimmings, and brick dental cornices.'' 

" It seems very sub'^tantially built," I remarked. 

** It is ; the basement wall is grouted brick, two feet thick ; 
the first story walls twenty inches, and the upper walls sixteen 
inches in thickness. The main buillings cover fourteen city 
lots, twelve other lots are also used for the pm-pose of seasoning 
lumber, of which there is a stock of about 3,000,000 feet always 
piled up on the groimds." 

" How long a time must elapse, before you consider your 
timber properly seasoned ?" inquired Jonathan 

"Two years. Kot a piece of lumber is used in the manu- 
facture of our pianos that has not been in the open air for that 
time, and subjected, also, to the kiln-drying process for a period 
3f three months." . 



54 THE VARNISHING PROCESS. 

"The kiln-drying process?'' interrogated Griggs. 

" Yes. In the yard, here, as you perceive, there are four 
drying bouses, each of which is heated by 2,000 f-et of st< am 
pipe, and contains about 75,000 feet of lumber ; conscqiiet.lly 
there are about 300,000 feet of lumber constantly under the 
process of kiln-drying. Here, also, is a splendid engine, of 
fifty horse power, as well as three steam boilers of filty horse 
power each. In the basement of the Fifty-second street wing, 
there is a supplementary engine, of twenty horse-power, so as 
to guard against any accidental interruption." 

•* A most proper precaution.'' 

"All the heavier portion of machinery is located in this 
room,'' said our guide, as he led«the way to the basement of 
the Fifty-third street wing. " These planers, Of which there 
are three, were made expressly for our establishment, and are 
the largest implements of their class existing, planing the largest 
piano top or bottom at once. Here, also, are the up-and-down 
saws, circular saws, and turning lathes. These wonderful and 
powerful i)ieces of mechanism are constantly at work, shaping 
the rough plank, ready for use on the first floor above, where 
the bottoms, blockings, wrest-planks, and other parts of the 
case, are gotten up, with the aid of moulding, joining, and 
other machinery. On the third floor is located all the finer 
machinery for scroll-sawing, rounding* corners, and ehapiug 
the various parts of mechanism." 

" Wonderful, most wonderful 1" interrupted Jonathan. 

" The floor above,'' continued our explanator, " and the cor- 
responding floor, in the wing on Fifty-second street, are occu- 
pied by the casemakers, who take all these single parts, put 
them together, veneer and finish, ready for the varnish-room, 
on the top floor." 

" The varnishing, I presume, does not take long." 

" To varnish a case thoroughly takes three months." 

" No : I never should have believed it." 

" On the floor below, the instruments are strung, the action 
and key-boards fitted in, and the tops, legs and lyres adju.-ted 
and put on. The partly finished instruments are then taken 
to the floor below, where the action is regulated * thence to 



THE REVENUE TAX. 55 

fjhe first floor, -where the hammers and the tone are regulated ; 
after which the final polish i8 put on ttie cases, and the perfect 
piano fs ready to he sent to tlie {salesroom." 

"How many workmen do you employ?" asked Jona- 
than Griggs. "If it's a fair question?'' he added apologeti- 
cally, 

"■ We have about 450 men constantly employed, who turn 
out, on an average, 35 Square, 7 Grand, and 3 Upright Pianos — 
in all, 45 instruments a week. Nearly 800 pianos are con- 
stantly in course of construction ; and these, in connection 
with the hardware, machinery, engine, veneers, lumber, &c., 
&c , represent, at least, the sum of 8450,000, exclusive of the 
buildings, the cost of which, and ground, were about $150,000. 
Of course, this docs not include our building on Fourteenth 
street, which represents, at the present value of property, one 
million of dollars,'' 

" Goodness gracious ! It seems incredible." 

'* It will not, when I tell you, that our annual sales are over 
a million and a quarter dollars,' on which we have to pay a 
revenue tax of over $75,000." 

"So large a business must be systematized to a nicety," 
spoke Jonathan. 

" Our business is divided into eighteen different departmeiits, 
each under the immediate superintendence of a,skilful foreman, 
who is responsible for the work done in his special department.'' 

" And quite right, too." 

" No person is allowed to change from one branch to another, 
each workman having but one department of labor, by con- 
stant application to which much greater skill is acquired than 
can be attained in smaller factories, where the several different 
branches are performed by the same person.'' 

" An excellent plan, truly." 

" We never employ apprentices — only the most skilled arti- 
zans. Indeed, our standard of excellence is so high, that it is 
a frequent occurrence for a workman who has long given satis- 
faction in other factories, to fail in achieving it with us." 

" And these foremen, of whom you have spoken, I presume 
are overlooked by members of the firm." 



66 THE Flt^TH AVENUE HOTEL. 

" Yes ) our firm consists of father and three sons, who have 
under their immediate personal supervision, the construction 
Df every instrument, from the selection of the rough >umber 
until the finished piano is sent to the salesrooms." 

Thanking oui- guide for hia kindness and courtesy, we with- 
drew, and once more returned to Union Square, and resumed 
our walk on Broadway. 

Jonathan, by this time, was becoming tired, so we sauntered 
leisurely further up Broadway, taking a casual glance at 
Moore's Madison Square Hotel, corner of Twenty first street, 
and the St. Germalne, occupying the block on Twenty-second 
street, between Broadway and Fifth avenue. 

" At No. 940 Broadway," said I to Jonathan, " the corner of 
Twenty-second street, is the new store of N. Grossmayer, who 
has latelj'- opened a large and fine clothing est-iiblishment. 
The proprietor keeps constantly on hand a large and varied 
assortment of goods, both ready made and to measure. The 
cutters are the best that can be obtained , while for elegance 
of style, workmanship and durability of material, Mr. Gross- 
mayer' s goods cannot be excelled by any other House in the 
trade." 

"This hotel," I said, pointing to the white marble building, 
occupying the block between Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth 
streets, " is the celebrated Fifth Avenue Hotel, and is one of 
the largest in the city, having accommodations for nearly eight 
hundred guests.'' 

" You surprise me.' " 

" Let me draw your attention to the magnificent drug store 
under the hotel, and at the corner of Twenty-fourth street.'' 

*' It is, indeed, a superb place.' ' 

"The proprietors are Messrs. Casewell, Mack & Co., and 
their store is generally acknowledged, both by foreigners and 
travelled residents, to be the finest and most spacious es- 
tablishment of the kind in the world. It is well worthy a 
view, and all strangers should certainly pay a visit to it before 
leaving the city. From that marble tank, which you see, is 
drawn tlie celebrated spring waters of P^urope, such as Kissea- 
gen, Vichy, Pyrmont, &c., all kept at the same temperature as 



MADtSON SQUAHE. 57 

that obtained immediately at the springs. Another feature of 
this truly magnificent establishment, is the deliciously cool 
soda water, with the choicest fruit syrups, passed through a 
mass of Rockland Lake ice, and drawn from the grand fountain 
you see near the entrance." 

"How my mouth waters for it !" exclaimed Jonathan. 

*'This house also manufactures that best of all tonics, the 
Ferro-phosphorated Elixir of Calisaya Bark, which you meet 
from Canada to New Orleans, and even to San Francisco : be- 
Bides, they make Hazard & Caswell's Cod-Liver Oil, which has, 
among the medical profession generally, the reputation of be- 
ing the purest and sweetest in the world : they also manu- 
facture the famous Toilet Cologne, ' No. 6,' now famous all over 
the country. Every article emanating from their establish- 
ment, is of the choicest quality. With the fashionable, this es- 
tablishment is a great favorite, as is their branch house, at New- 
port, R. I." 

''What park is that?" 

" That is Madison Square, and contains about 10 acres of 
land ; in it are many noble trees, and in summer, the grass and 
shrubs are pleasant to the eyes of many weary New Yorkers, 
who come here ;to relieve themselves of the dull monotony of 
50 much bricks and njortar." 

"What is that tall, pillar-like looking thing, sticking up 
there?" 

" That is a granite shaft, erected by the Common Council of 
the city of New York, to General Worth, who fell during the 
Mexican war. If you are asked, you can say it is situated on 
the western side of Madison Square." 

As Jonathan was examinkig the monument, a cu,rriage drove 
rapidly up to the Hoffman House, which is exactly opposite, 
and situated on the corner of Twenty-fifth street, at the junc- 
tion of Fifth avenue and Broadway, and a small crowd almost 
instantaneously collected." 

"We are fortunate,'' I cried; "General Scott must be in 
that carriage,'' 

" What ! General Winfield Scott, the old Mexican hero ?" 

And Jonathan, with an agility worthy of a much younger 



58 HOFFMAIT HOUSE. 

man, darted into the crowd, eager to catch a glimpse of the 
veteran, for it was he, indeed. In another instant, the tall, 
commanding figure of the General descended from the carriage, 
and, amid a few cheers, which he acknowledged, entered the 
hotel. 

" The sight of General Scott is, uione, worth a \isit to New 
York," said Jonathan, decidedly, and then added, '* I wonder 
what he is going to do inside.'' 

*' He lives at the Hoffman House, and has done so since it 
was first opened, in 1864.'' 

"You don't tell me! It is a splendid-looking house, and, 
looking upon Madson Square, as it does, and being on Fifth 
avenue, at the junction of Broadway, through which a constant 
stream of gay and dashing equipages are constantly passing to 
and from the Central Park, must make it additionally pleasant 
to those stopping there." 

" It does. This house is the representative house of its kind 
in New York, and is conducted on the European plan. It has 
accommodations for nearly 400 guests ; yet, great as this num- 
ber is, it is invariably filled with the elite and fashion of the 
country.'' 

" Who are the proprietors ?" 

" Messrs. Mitchell and Eead, gentlemen whose names, to the 
hotel-going public, arc a sufiQcient guarantee for the excellence 
of their house, and the superiority of their accommodations.'' 

"John,'' said Jonathan, interrupting me, with an air of pro- 
found wisdom, " I am getting very tired." 

"Are you?" I replied, assuming a dubious tone. To tell 
the truth, I was tired myself, but I would not have owned it 
for the world. 

" Yes ; let us be getting home." 

So we reiurned to my house. Jonathan w.^s so completely 
worn out, that he actually fell asleep over his supper, which, I 
observing, suggested a bed as the better place to slumber in. 

Bidding me good night, he retired to his room. I soon fol- 
lowed his example, and was quickly off to the land of dreams. 



(59) 



WALK THE SEOOID. 

CEMTRAI. PARK. 

It was a beautiful morning. As I drew up the window- 
shade and threw open the blinds, the sun streamed in brightly 
through my chamber window, lighting up my room and in^ 
fusing a cheeriness in me perfectly delightful. 

"Just the day for my purpose," I thought. *' Nature will 
appear in her most delightful garb, and if I don't astonish 
Jonathan, I'm a Dutchman." 

So, dressing with rather more than my usual care — for I hold 
that, when visiting a beautiful place*, you should not help to 
mar the general whole by being badly dressed — I proceeded to 
the break fst-room, there to wait for Jonathan, in order to par- 
take of the matutinal meal. 

I read all the morning papers, wrote a couple of letters, 
drummed one or two tunes with my fingers on the window- 
panes, and still no Jonathan appeared. Becoming impatient, I 
rang the bell, and asked Mary if she had called Mr. Griggs. 

"Oh! yes, sir," she replied; "I called him when I called 
you." 

"Strange he does not appear. He must take a very long 
while dressing Mary, just run up stairs, will you, and tell 
Mr. Griggs breakfast is ready." 

l\Iary departed on her errand ; quickly returned Avith the 
infornxation that Mr. Griggs would be down directly. He was 
as good as his word, for almost before Mary had left the room, 
he bustled in. 

" How now, laggard ? " I said. " Breakfast has been ready 
this hour." 

" No ! Has it, though ? I am very sorry to have kept you 
waiting, but the fact is, I ovi3rslept myself." 

"Your walk yesterday was too much for you," I said, 
laughing. 



60 JONATHAN TIRED. 

*' Well, to tell you the truth, John, I was very tired. 1 
thiuk walking on pavement id more fatiguing than walking on 
soil ; don' t you ? ' ' 

" No doubt,' I replied, somewhat drily, " to those not ac- 
customed to pavement, it must be tiresome." 

" Ah ! that accounts for it, then ; for I think I never was so 
tired in all my life before, and never rose from my bed so re- 
luctantly " 

I was not sorry to hear this. I, also, was excessively tired, 
but, of course, did not own it, and began to think my prowess 
as a pedestrian was on the wane. Jonathan's confession, how- 
ever, reassured me, as he was the very picture of robust health 
and strength. 

" Today, Jonathan," I said, "we will have a rest." 

" What ! not go out to-day? " and Griggs' face assumed an 
expression of blank dismay. " I haven't tired you out 't " 

*' Tired me out ! ' ' and I laughed heartily at the idea. " No, 
no, Jonathan ; you nor no other man can do that. But what I 
meant was to-day we'll take a carriage." 

" A carriage ' " 

" You may well look surprised. To-day, a carriage is an 
imperative necessity. What I am going to show you to-day 
would take two or three weeks to explore properly on foot." 

"Nonsense!" 

* ' No nonsense at all about it. Could you examine in one 
day, and on foot, nearly forty miles of walks, rides, and 
drives?" 

I would here mention that there are only about thirty-eight 
miles, but when talking to a fiiend, it is as well to give the 
round number, and say forty. 

" I don't think I could ; in fact, I am sure I could not. But 
what wonderful place is this you intend taking me to? " 

" Not more than eight years ago," I continued, not heeding 
him,. '' it was a bleak and barren i-pot, with scarcely the slight- 
est vestige of vegetation ; the accumulated filth of bone-boiling 
establishments and other offensive refuse matter was gathered 
there ; stagnant pools of slimy mud and water infected the air 
"with malarious diseases ; dead do^s and cats were strewn about 



A GREAT CHANGE. 61 

in reckless profusion, poisoning the atmosphere and offending 
the olfactories of those who were luckless enough to pass that 
way." 

'' You don't mean to take me there, do you ? " asked Jona- 
than, giving a little shudder. 

*'Now," I went on to say, paying no attention to his ques- 
tion, " it is one of the most beautiful and charming places on 
the face of the earth. The whole scene has been changed as 
if by enchantment. Instead of stagnant pools of water, are a 
beautiful lake, waterfalls, and pure crystal streams. Instead, 
of dead and putrid animals, the air is redolent with the per- 
fume of a thousand flowers ; and instead of a bleak, barren 
spot, the whole is alive with vegetation." 

" What place is this ? " 

" Can you not guess ? ' ' 

" I think I can," said Jonathan, as eagerly as though I had 
propounded a conundrum ; " you mean the Central Park." 

"I do. What other could I mean ! For there is none like 
it— none." 

" 1 have read so much about it that I am anxious to see it. 
When do we start ? ' ' 

" At once, il you have finished breakfast. I heard the car- 
riage arrive some lew minutes ago." 

''Then lei us be oil;" and Jonathan put on his hat and 
pulled on his gloves in the most expeditious manner imagin- 
able. 

"If," said I, as we were being rapidly whirled toward the 
Park, "on your return home, you wish to post any of your 
Western friends who intend visiting New York on the best way 
of reaching the Park, you—" 

" One moment, it you please ; " and in less than that time 
he was ready with note-book and pencil to jot down what in- 
formaticm I might give. 

"You must tell them," I went on, "that the cars of the 
Third or Sixth Avenue Eailroads will take them there. The 
latter will deposit them at one of the principal gates ; the 
former, within a short distance. If they wish to hire a car- 
riage, as wo have done, let them hire one from some respect- 



6'2 Tire TARIOUS GATFS. 

"ble livery stable, and not at the entrance of the Park gates. 
If they do, the dri^-er may not demand an exorbitant fare : 
hut if he does, the Park Commissioners ai'e not to blame, as 
they arc entirely beyond their control." 

Jonathan spoke not a word, but went on busily writing. 

" During the months of December, January, and February, 
the gates are open from 7 am. to 8 p m. ; during March, April, 
May, June, October, and November, from 6 A.M.^to 9 p.m. ; 
during July, August, and September, from 5 a.m. to 11 p.m." 

"At what period of the year do you think it best to visit 
the Park?" 

" That is impossible to say, as Nature at all seasons of the 
year has its peculiar charms, and at all times, providing the 
weather is not too inclement, the Central Park is a delightful 
place to visit." 

•'How large is the Park ? " asked Jonathan. 

"The length, from 59th to 110th Streets, is 13.507 ft. 
9 4-10 in. ; breadth, from 5lh to 8th Avenues, 2,718 ft. 
6 9-10 in. ; making a superficial area of 843 019-1000 acres." 

" I could never have remembered all that," said Jonathan. 

" Neither could I, it I had not read up just before I left 
home. But here we are at the Park," I said, as the carriage 
rolled slowly in at the Scholar's Gate, corner of 5th Avenue 
and 59th S^treet. 

" The Scholar's Gate ! " exclaimed Griggs ; " is that the gate 
for scholars to go through? " 

" Yes, or for any one elso who likes. There are sixteen gates, 
all of" which are named. Besides the Scholar's Gate, there are 
the Artist's Gate, situated on 6th Avenue and 59tli Street ; 
the Artizan's Gate, 7th Avenue and 59th Street ; the Mer- 
chant's Gate, 8th Avenue and 59th Street ; the Women's Gate, 
8th Avenue and 72d Street ; the Hunter's Gate, 8th Avenue 
and 79th Street ; the Mariner's Gate, Sth Avenue and 85th 
Street ; the Gate of All Saints, Sth Avenue and 9Gth Street ; 
the Boy's Gate, 8th Avenue and 100th Street ; the Children's 
Gate, 5th Avenue and 7 2d Street ; the Engineer's and Miner's 
Gate, 5th Avenue and 79th Street ; the Stranger's Gate, Sth 
Avenue and 90th Street ; the Woodman's Gate, 5th Avenue 



A VENETtA>f GOXOOLA. 63 

ftiad 96th Street ; the Girl's Gate. 5th Avenue and 102d Street ; 
the Farmer's Gate, 6th Avenue and 110th Street ; the War- 
tier's Gate, ?th Avenue and 110th Street." 

Telling the coachman to stop at the entrance of the Mall, we 
alighted, as I wished Jonathan to view the terrace and foun- 
tain, which he could not do in a carriage. 

''This nohle avenue," I commenced, "lined on either side 
•with trees, and called the Mall, is 1,112 feofelong and 35 feet 
in width. On the right, as you enter," said I, pointing to tha 
spot, "is the site of the Shakespeare Monument. At the end 
of the Mall is the Water Terrace, from which we can ohtain an 
excellent view of the lake." 

" What are those birds? " asked Griggs, pointing to the water- 
fowl floating calmly on the bosom of the lake. 

"Those are swans, presented to the Commissioners by the 
Senate of the City of Hamburg ; by the Worshipful Company 
of Vintners, London ; and by the Worshipful Company of 
Dyers, London." 

" And there are row-boats, too, upon the lake ! '* 

"Yes, and for viewing the beauties of the lake no better 
means could be obtained, a.s our citizens are fully aware, for the 
revenue derived from them is between six and seven thousand 
dollars yearly." 

" What is that strange-looking craft ? " 

" That is a Venetian gondola. If you wish to imagine your- 
self in the 'land of romance, poetry, and song,' all j'ou have 
to do is to hire that, and give your fancy full play ; but be 
careful not to speak to the gondolier, for he might answer you 
with an Hibernian accent, and dispel the illusion." 

Jonathan laughed. 

*' This terrace, upon which we now stand, is the main archi- 
tectural structure of the Park. It is the principal assembling 
place for pedestrians, and an expenditure has been made upon 
it commensurate with the important position it holds." 

"It is certainly very beautiful," said Jonathan, looking 
round admiringly. 

" In the elaboration of details and purity of execution, the 
architect has elicited imiversal admiration. On the Esplanade, 



64 MUSIC i:f THE PARIC. 

just beneath u?, is a most beautiful fountain, the chief flgttre 
of which is Pe.ice, bearing the olive branch, designed and 
modeled by Miss Emma Stebbins." 

" It is like fairy-land ! " was all that Jonathan said, giving a 
sigh of pleasure. 

"On the left of the Mall, near the Terrace, is the Musio 
Hall. Every Saturday afternoon during the summer, weather 
permitting, mus'^t entertainments are given. On such occa- 
sions the Park is crowded ; indeed, so much so, that the Com- 
missionerg are at a loss how to provide ?eats, or even standing 
room within convenient distances for hearing, and have in con- 
templation the establishment of another band at some other 
locality of the park." 

*' Music hath charms, indeed," said Jonathan. 

"The programmes are varied, and interspersed with national 
airs from the music of other countries, that the stranger who 
may be present, catching the sound of a familiar air, may feel 
that in this city he finds a welcome." 

''Nothing left undone that can contribute to the comfort 
and happiness of anybody. Look, look at that little bird 
perclied on the rim of that basin, and drinking.'' 

"It is a sparrow. Fourteen of them were brought from 
Europe, in 1863 ; they were let loose in the park, and have 
largely increased in numbers. They are very tame, and are 
much valued for their capacity for consuming worms and in- 
sects." 

Having previously told the driver of the carriage to meet us 
on the drive, west of the terrace, there was no occasion for 
ns to retrace our steps ; so, once more getting in, I told him to 
carry us to the grand Croton Reservoir. 

"This," said I, as soon as we arrived at the reservoir, "is 
York Hill." 

" What a body of water !" exclaimed Jonathan. 

"It is immense ; but not too large for the requirements of 
New Yorlcers. The water surface is about ninety-six acres ; 
the depth of water, when full, about thirty-eight feet, and its 
capacity more than a billion ot New York gallons.'' 

," You surprise me.'' 



THE CliOTON KfiSSRVOIR 65 

" The gate-houses," I contmued, "one of which is on the 
north, the other on the south side, cost nearly two hundred 
thousand dollars, and the masonry of the reservoir nearly £ix 
hundred thousand dollars." 

" Almost incredible !" was all that Jonathan could say. 

" Two miles from here, on Murray Hill, is the distributing 
reservoir, its capacity being a hundred and fifty millions of gal- 
Ions. It is built in the Egyptian style of architecture, and cost 
nearly fourteen millions of dollars in building.' On the walls is 
a promenade, much frequented by New Yorkers.'' 

" What a number of fish !" ejaculated Jonathan. " Do they 
allow any one to angle here ?"' 

"Oh, no. The fish are guarded very carefully, as they are 
found to be very useful in devouring the animalculi, thus keep- 
ing the water pure." 

Leaving the reservoir, we proceeded to the hill situated on 
the south side, from which an excellent view can be obtained 
of the whole Park. 

'* This walk," said I to Jonathan, " upon which we are now 
standing, is tunneled for a transverse road, four of which roads 
cross the Park, at the following places, viz. : at Sixty-fifth, 
Seventy-ninth, Eighty-fifth, and Ninety-seventh streets." 

" What are the objects of these roads ?" 

" When the Park was first contemplated, it was at once seen 
that to cause business vehicles, that wished to go from either 
side to the centre of the other, make the whole circuit of the 
Park, would be a waste of time, and a great obstruction to 
business. To allow them to go through the Park itself would 
never do : if they were allowed to, they would be extremely 
detrimental to the pleasure-seekers in their walks, rides and 
drives. So these four roads were constructed, and are found to 
answer, excellently well, the purposes for which they were in- 
tended. ' ' 

"The trees are very young,'' said Jonathan, in a tone of 
voice that was meant to be disparaging 

" They are,'' I replied ; but every year will help to rectify 
that. You must remember that I told you, only eight years 
ago the ground on which the Park is now situated, was a bleak 
and barren spot, almost destitute of vegetation." 



66 militae-V breastwork. 

" True ; so you cUd." 

"Experience has shown/* I went on, "that it is not, as a 
general rule, economical to plant trees of a very large size ; 
those of less size, carefully transplanted, and well cared for, 
beinj5 much less likely to fail in the process, and generally 
making far better trees." 

"That's true.'' 

" There are frequent instances of Ihe successful transplanta- 
tion of quite large trees, but the increased expense, and the 
great liability to die out, in from one tg four years after their 
removal, point to the economy in time and money, in the ulti- 
mate perfectness of the trees, to the superiority of the practice 
of removing trees of the usual nursery sizes. 

" I have found that out, in my orchard at home.'' 

** In the first years of the Park there was- great impatience 
expressed by the public for the immediate planting of large 
trees ; but with the growth of the earlier planted trees, this de- 
sire has yielded to a recognition of the necessity of time to pro- 
duce trees of luxuriance of growth, and perfection of form." 

" Is the whole of the Park inclosed by a wall like that?" 
asked Jonathan, pointing to it. 

" Xot yet ; but it is rapidly being pushed forward toward 
completion. When finished, exclusive of gateways, and of 
such portions as will, at present, from the precipitousness o^ 
the rock, require no enclosure, the total length of the wall will 
be 29,025 feet, or about seven miles.'' 

Once more accepting the help of the carriage, we were 
iriven to the Great Hill, situated on the north-west corner of 
the Park. . 

" Here," said I, "on the brow of these broken and precipi- 
tous hills, may still be seen the remains of military fortifica- 
tions, consisting of breastworks of earth, about three feet in 
height." 

" When do you think these breastworks were erected ?" in- 
quired Jonathan, deeply interested. 

"They, no doubt, formed a part of a chain of fortifications 
of the war of 1812, that extended from the Harlem to the 
Hudson river, passing across the Park, to a point a little west 



THE MENAGEKIE. 67 

of what i^ now the Eighth, avenue, and extending along the 
rocky eminence ou the west of the plains, to Manhattanville. 
The stone structure, still standing on this rocky bluff, formed 
a portion of the line.'' 

" How very interesting !" 

" On the northern si<le of this hill, about two feet below the 
surface, the remains of a military encampment were found. 
Ihe ground, in spaces of about eight feet square, was com- 
pactly trodden, and in a corner of each space was a recess, 
rudely built of stone, for a fire-place, with straps of iron, that 
seemed to have been used in cooking. Shot and bayonets 
were also fuunU in the vicinity." 

'• And were these some of the relics of 1812, too ?" 

" There is sufiicient known of the history of this property, to 
warrant the belief, that it was pass»^d over, and perhaps occu- 
pied during the year 177G, by the British and Hessian troops, 
shortly after their landing on the islaml, and that it was oc- 
cupied in the w.ir of 1812 by the American soldiers." 

"Quite historical ground, I declare.'' 

"The relics alluded to, in all probability, belonged to tho 
latter period. It is the intention of the Commissioners to 
preserve, .as far a? practicaljle, the remains of these works, that 
so much enhance the interest of this section of the Park.'' 

"And very right, too, for every year will add to their in- 
terest.'' 

"Let us retrace our steps,'' I said, "and pay a visit to the 
menagerie " 

"Is there a collection of animals here?'' asked Jonathan, 
surprised. 

"Oh, yes; it is situated on the eastern side of the Mall. 
The collection, thougli not large, is excessively interes'-iag, and 
well worth looking at. It is increasing, however, very rapidly, 
by gifts from those interested in the bubjec!, both at home and 
abroad.'' 

- Afcer looking at the animals, we proceeded to the west 
side of the ]\Iall ; there I showed Jonathan the oak and 
elm trees that were planted by the Prince of Waleg, ou^ hia 
visit to tlila country, in 1860. 



68 I>TCrvEASIi\G THE ATTRACTION". 

Thence we went to the play-ground, situated at the south- 
west portion of the Park, which is used by our citizens, both 
children and adults, as a cricket and base-ball ground. It is 
the object of the Commissioners of the Park, to encourage the 
more organized and active exercises, sports and amusements ; 
to this end, the ground is well kept and cared for by the keep- 
ers, and every facility and protection is given to the players. 

During the past year, nearly seven millions of persons visited 
the Park, and out of that immense number, only a few over a 
hundred were arrested, and those for minor transgressions, 
committed generally through thoughtlessness, and a want o€ 
familiarity with the rules of the Park. Thus showing a gene- 
ral disposition prevailing among those who resort to the Park, 
to conform to the prescribed regulations. 

The number of equestrians and vehicles entering the Park, 
is the largest between 4 and 5 p.m. During three months of the 
year, viz. : June, July and August, the greatest number enter 
at a later hour. 

Yearly the attractions of this pleasant ground are increasing. 
The foliage becoming dense with the lapse of time, constantly 
presents new and more striking effects. The planting has 
been done, in areas as the ground was prepared ; upon some 
portions, consequently, the growth gives evidence of more 
maturity than upon others. Already, in some parts of the Park, 
there is sufficient development to readily lead the imaginatiou 
to realize, in some measure, beauties which the hand of nature 
will perfect in her own good time. 

It is from the fields and the flowers, the festooning of the 
climbing vine, the many-shaped and many-colored drapery of 
the forest, and from the green carpeting of the lawn, that the 
most refined gratifications are derived. These, to the lover of 
nature, are always sources of pure enjoyment, and, in their 
perfect development, afford pleasure to vast numbers, in modes 
to which it will be difficult to take exception. 

If other countries excel in the magnitude of the products of 
the animal kingdom, by general assent, natxiraiists accord to 
our own continent marked superiority of vegetable life. Its 
trees are peculiarly numerous and majestic, its fields luxuriant 



SKATING IMO MATRmONY. 69 

aad prolific, its tiowets brilliant and varied. So far as is con- 
sistent with the convenient use of the grounds, vegetation 
holds the Ihst place of distinction ; it is the work of nature, 
invulnerable to criticism, accepted by all, as well by the igno- 
rant as the cultivated, and affords a limitless field for interest- 
ing observation and instruction. 

Thus did I hold forth to Griggs, as we were whirled rapidly 
homev\'ard. Turning to ask him if he did not agree with me, 
I found ho VfAd fast asleep. 

" Jonathan,'' I cried, shaking him, "wake up. Here have I 
been talking to you for the last twenty minutes, and I might 
just as well have talked to the wind." 

"Excuse me, John ; but the fact is, I'm very tired, and fell 
asles'p before I was aware of it. Pray go on with what you 
were saying." 

*• I was about to tell you, Jonathan, of the appearance of the 
Park in winter, but as you are tired, I will defer it till some 
future time.' ' 

" I beg of you not to ; do go on ; I promise not to become 
somnolent again." 

"During the winter," I commenced, " when the condition 
of the lake will permit, skating is the favorite pastime of those 
who visit the Park. Often twenty or thirty thousand people 
enjoying this healthy recreation at the same time." 

Jonathan here made a sort of guttural sound, that I thought 
was one of approval. 

"Ladies, too, are great skaters. There is not a prettier 
sight in the wide world than seeing a young and pretty girl 
upon skates. The grace she exhibits is bewildering ; many a 
young fellow has lost his heart, and skated himself into matri- 
mony, on the Central Park pond." 

At this juncture, the carriage stopped at my door. Alight- 
ing, I look round for Jonathan ; finding he did not follow, I 
returned to see the cause, and discovered he was fast asleep again. 

"The Central Park," said Jonathan, when I had aroused 
him, " is a very beautiful place, but it is somewhat tiring to 
endeavor to view it all in one day." 

So saying, he retired to hia own room, and I did not see him 
{ot several hours. 



(fi) 



WALK THE THIRD. 

PUBliIC AMD BENEVOLENT INSTITU- 
TIONS. 

This, the third day of Jonathaa's visit, we were up by times, 
and started at an early hour on our tour of inspection. My 
fiieud Griggs was anxious to see the Halls of Justice, or, as 
they are more familiarly termed, on account of their gloomy 
and doleful aspect, "The Tombs." 

" The Tombs' ' is a large and spacious building, or rather, 
series of buildings, situated on Centre street, occupying the 
whole block, and running through to Elm street, both on the 
Franklin and Leonard streets sides. It is built in the Egyptian 
style, and the melancholy aspect of the building makes one 
^ive an involuntary shiver as he passes. 

Having obtained the necessary permit, procurable at No. 1 
Bond street, we presented it to Mr. James E. Coulter, the 
warden, who at once proceeded to ehow us the prison. 

From him we learned that there are three other city prisons, 
besides " The Tombs," viz. : Essex Market, Jefferson Market, 
and Fifty-seventh street prison. All prisoners committed for 
trial by the criminal courts are sent to the * ' Tombs' ' for safe 
keeping. During the past year, the total number of prisoners 
committed to the city prisons was thirty-nine thousand six 
hundred and sixteen, being an increase over the previous year, 
of eight thousand three hundred and eighty-three. 

Leading the way to the male department of the prison, on 
the first tier of which are the cells, eleven in number, where 
prisoners condemned to the State Prison, or under sentence of 
death, are confined. Also, on this tier, are six more cells for 
the accommodation of prisoners convicted of minor offences ; 
likewise six cells used for hospital purposes. On the second 
and third tiers are sixty more cells, for prisoners charged with 
felony — making, in »ll,eighty-fiye cells in the male department. 



THE CUSTOII HOUSE. 



n 



For the confinement of female prisoners, there are twenty- 
two cells ; eleven of which are used for those accused of grave 
offences, the remainder for women committed for intoxication 
and disorderly conduct. 

Thus it will he seen, there are one hundred and seven cells 
in the "Tombs,'' but this number is found inadequate to the 
proper care and reception of all the prisoners confined therein. 
Many have to be confined in the game cell, and the evils aris- 
ing from so doing cannot-be over-estimated. So, it is in con- 
templation to enlarge the present, or build a new prison. 

The average cost of keeping a prisoner in food, clothing and 
bedding, is a fraction over thirty cents per day. 

We were also shown the court-yaid, in which criminals suffer 
the extreme penalty of the law. Jonathan looked, with a 
strange fascination, upon the material used in the construction 
of the gallows, and gazed, with a sort of inquisitive awe, upon 
all the paraphernalia appertaining thereto. 

Jonathan, contrary to his usual custom, had hardly spoken a 
word, and when we were once more fairly in the street, he gave 
a little sigh of relief, as if pleased at being once again outside 
of four such sombre-looking walls. 

Our next visit was to the Custom House, through which the 
majority of the imports and exports of the country pass. It is 
located on Wall street, on the corner of William, and extends 
through to Exchange Place. It was formerly known as the 
Merchants' Exchange, and cost in building, including the 
ground on which it stands, nearly two millions of dollars. To 
the original stockholders it was not a successful undertaking— 
they losing every cent they had invested— a mortgage was 
upon it, and that was foreclosed by the Messrs. Barings, of 
London. Some few years ago it was purchased by the Govern- 
ment for the purpose which it is now used. The rotunda is 
well worthy of inspection, and gives at once a correct impres- 
sion of the vastness of the interior of this building : it is capa- 
ble of containing three thousand persons. It is built of blue 
Quincy granite ; is 200 feet in. length, 171 feet in width, and 
the extreme elevation 12i feet. 

I am not sure, but I am inclined to think, Jonathan was un- 



*12 THE POST OFFICE. 

der the impression he ^yould see bulls and bears, and lame 
ducks on Wall street, for he peered about most curiously, and 
finally asked me where those animals could be seen. 

Laughingly, I explained the terms to him He looked some- 
what sheepish, and told me he had only asked me for a joke- 
he knew all the while they were men. 

I pretended to believe him ; but I still have my doubt^\ 

The splendid building of white marble, constructed in the 
Doric order of architecture, at the corner of Wall and Nassau 
streets, is the United States Sub Treasury and Assay Office. 
It is 200 feet long; 80 feet wide, and 80 feet high. At the en- 
trances on Wall and Pine streets, are handsome porticos, with 
eight columns, purely Grecian. Each column is 5 feefr 8 
inches in diameter, and 32 feet high. Formerly ifc was occupied 
as the Custom House, but not being large enough for the proper 
transaction of its buei;:e»ss, it was removed, as has just been 
mentioned, to the old Merchants' Exchange. 

Leaving Wall street, we passed up Nassau street, and, stop- 
ping opposite the Post Office, betv/een Cedar and Liberty 
Etreets, I pointed out the little wooden steeple, on the top of the 
brdlding, I said : 

^' In that steeple Benjamin Franklin many a time has prac- 
tised his experiments m electricity." 

" How very interesting !'' Jonathan's note-book was out in 
an instant, and he jotted down the historical fact. 

" It was formerly the Middle Dutch Church, and when this 
city was occupied "by the British, was put to military uses by 
them, and received much dajnage. Afterwards it was repaire<i, 
and used for divine worship ; subsequently it was purchased by 
the Government, and put to its present uses.'' 

" It is not so large a building as I expected to see for a post 
office in the Empire City.'' 

•"'No; such an edifice Is a disgrace to the principal city of 
the Western World. Everything ft done, that space will per- 
mit, to facilitate the transaction of business, but the medns 
are totally inadequate, and how the clerks manage to get 
through their multifarious duties, so cramped for room, is a 
mystery." 



THE CITY ARSENAL. tS 

" Why don't the Government build a new one ?" 

*' It has been talked of for the last ten or twelve years ; but 
nothing definite has been done. Some thought the present 
good enough ; others wanted it removed further up town, 
while many thought if it were removed a step from its present 
Bite, the commercial interests of the city would be at stake." 

**I should have thought they would have been enabled to 
have settled the matter in ten or twelve years.'' 

" One would think so. But the Government are, apparently, 
acquainted with the fable of the old man and his ass, and 
know that striving to please everybody, you will please no- 
body, so have done nothing." 

"If I had a. say in the matter/' said Jonathan, "I would 
quickly have one built ; for, in a city noted for such magnifi- 
cent stores and public buildings, it is a shame for the Govern- 
ment to have such a mean and ugly-looking structure for a 
post ofSce, which I presume is visited more by strangers than 
any other building in the city.'' 

"You are right. If you, as a stranger, notice it, what an 
eyesore it must be to those who are resident, and have to visit 
it daily." 

Jonathan wished to purchase some postage stamps, and was 
crossing the street for that purpose, when I stopped him, with 
the information, that time v/as money. And, if he had any 
regard for that axiom, it would be better for him to procure 
them at one of the stations up town. 

" Here, in Nassau street, and vicinity, are the various news- 
paper offices, which I intend shov/ing you — but not to-day. 
An especial pilgrimage must be paid to them." 

'' Whatever you say, John, I am entirely in your hands, and 
during my stay, you are my counsellor and guide. 

On the corner of Elm and White streets is the lower City 
Arsenal ; it is very strongly built, and is so constructed, that 
a company, of not more than fifty men, could protect it from 
the assault of any number. The upper floors are used as drill- 
rooms for a portion of the New York State Militia ; the lower 
floor contains the artillery of the First Division. This and the 
new ars^al, at the junction of Thirty-tifth street and Seventh 



74 THE FIVE POINTS. 

avenue, are connected by telegraph, so that in case of a riot 
uninterrupted communications coulJ be had between the two 
buildings. 

" Now,'' said I to Jonathan, ** we will pay a visit to the 
'Five Points.' '' 

" The ' Five Points !' I have heard of that before ; are you 
going alone ?'' 

** Going alone ! No ; I want you to accompany me." 

" Yes, yes, of course. But I mean are you not going to ob- 
tain the company of a policeman for our protection ?" 

" Dear me, no. ' Five Points ' is not what it used to be in 
your day. Now a person can visit there without fear of moles- 
tation ; fights and broils arc the exception —not the rule. Not 
that I mean to say it is the quietest and most peaceable portion 
of New York, but it is a little elysium, compared to what it 
was some fifteen or twenty years ago." 

" What has wrought this change ?'' 

"That building !'' and I pointed to the House of Industry, 
near Centre and Pearl streets. 

"Bat how?'' 

" Listen, and I will tell you. In the year 1851, the Pvev. L. 
M. Pease first established this institution. It was brought 
about by his witnessing the suffering of children, and the crime 
engendered by their being allowed to wander about the streets. 
So, with the assistance of a number of gentlemen, he estab- 
lished the House of industry, and with the most beneficial re- 
sults. Chilh'ea are taught to read and write, and if, by di- 
ligence and good condact, they are found sufficiently worthy, 
homes and situations are found for them out West, or in the 
country ; anywhere, in f.ict, out of the city, so as to wean them 
from old associates. Thus, an honest start in life is given 
them, and Vj is their own fault if they do not make good and 
respected members of society. ' ' 

'• A most philanthrophic and excellent plan,'' 

" It,'' I continued, *' is a receptacle for all who have nowhere 
else to go. Tno orphan, the deserted, the children of parents 
soparat-ed by convictions for crime, the offspring of those totally 
unable to support their children — ail here find a home until 



THE ASTOR LIBRARY. 15 

they can be properly placed and cared for. They are cleansed, 
clothed, fed, taught, and furuibhed with labor as early us prac- 
ticable.'' 

" Are men and women also assisted ?" 

*' Yes ; so far as it can be done, without encouraging a de 
pendence upon charity, and efforts are made to reform and pro- 
cure labor for sach as are willing to work. Since its founda- 
tion, nearly a thousand women have been sent to situatiojis in 
different parts of the country. In short, this institution stands 
between wretchedness and crime, with open gates for all " 

Jumping into a Fourth avenue car, we rode to Astor Place ; 
thence walked to Lafayette Place, on which is situated the far- 
famed Astor Library. It is a grand edifice, built in the Ro- 
manesque style, and is constructed of brick, ornamented with 
brown stone. But the crowning glory is the interior, not in 
point of architecture— though that is beautiful enough— but in 
the long lines of stately and goodij books that that are ranged 
on shelves in the different alcoves of the building. 

In this library there are already over one hundred thou.-aud 
volumes, and additions are constantly being made by the 
learned librarian. Here may be seen the pale student, poring 
over some well-worn tome, that to the scholar is worth its 
weight in gold ; or, the man of leisure, who has just dropped 
in to wile away an hour ; or, the young lady who wishes to 
re-peruse once more her favorite novel. All, all are repre- 
sented ; but quietness reigns supreme, and each man, as he en-' 
ters, doffs his hat, out of respect to the dead and living authors 
that surround him. 

It is free to all, and will stand as an everlasting monument 
to its founder, John Jacob Astor, who endowed it with the sum 
of $400,000. 

At the junction of Third and Fourth avenues, occupying the 
entire block on both sides, and extending through to Eighth 
street, stands the Cooper Union, or, as it is more generally 
called, The Cooper Institute. It was built by Mr. Peter 
Cooper, at the cost of $300,000, and is devoted to the " moral, 
intellectual and physical improvement of his countrymen.' 
In it are a free reading-ro -ni, supplied with foreign and do 



t6 NEW YORK UNlVERSltYi 

mestic newspapers and magazines, a gallery of paintings and 
sculpture, and a school of design. The basement is fitted up 
as a lecture-room— the largest in the city— used chiefly for 
political meetings, but occasionally for lectures, concerts, and 
other entertainments of a Idndred character. 

The whole is under the control of a Board of Directors, Avho 
let out the first and second stories, which are arranged for 
stores and offices, so as to meet the current expenses of the In- 
titute. From this source an annual revenue of nearly $30,000 
is obtained. 

The American Institute is in this building, the object of 
which society is to promote and encourage new inventions in 
science and art. The annual fairs for that purpose are held 
under the auspices of this association. It has also a library, 
relating principally to the inventive and mechanical arts, and 
which, as books of reference, to inventors are invaluable. 

On Astor Place, running through to Eighth street, is the 
Mercantile Library. The building is now called Clinton Hall, 
but was formerly the Astor Place Opera House, the scene of 
the notorious Macready riots. The library contains nearly 
50,000 volumes, embracing nearly every department of knowl- 
edge. In the reading-room can be found nearly every periodi- 
cal published either in this country or Europe. It is, as the 
name indicates, expressly for the use of those engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits — either merchants or their clerks. The former 
have to pay an annual subscription of $5 ; the latter, an ini- 
tiation fee of $1, and $2 subscription. 

On the east side of Washington Fquare, formerly the site of 
a Potter's field, but now beautifully decorated with superb 
trees, shrubs, grass plats, gravel walks, and a fountain, is the 
New York University. The various departments of learning 
are governed by a chancellor, and a number of professors. Its 
reputation as a seat of learning stands high, and graduates are 
celebrated as scholars. It is built in the Gothic style of archi- 
tecture, and was erected in 1831. At the usual hours on Sun- 
days, divine service is held in the chapel. 

On Eighth street, extending through to Ninth street, 
bounded by the Third and Fourth avenues, and occupying three 




4 



THE BIBLE ttOU^E. 77 

quarters of an acre of ground, stands the Bible House. It ie 
the property of the American Bible Society, and cost, in build- 
ing about ii5300,00O. 

The society was organized in 1816, and the receipts for the 
Urst year were $37,779 35 ; and 6.410 Bibles were issuer). Dur- 
ing the past year, §677,8^ 36 were received, and 1,530,568 
Bibles and Testamecfts distributed. 

"The work oi distribution never ceases. In the cellars and 
garrets ot the'poor, jn our great cities, in the distant and soli- 
tary cabins of the new Territories, in the mining regions, glit- 
tering with gold and reeking with.wickedness, on the frontiers, 
whefe savages have slaughtered the helpless settlers, in the 
lonesome military posty of the far North west, among the rich 
and the poor in every part of the land, among emigrants, upon 
the ship and the dock, the good work goes bravely forward. 

Hundreds of thousandth of poverty-stricken faniijies and in- 
dividuals, to-day. but for the direct efforts of the society, would 
not possess a Bible or Tes^^ament, and not one of hundreds 
of thousands more Ivas been refused because of inability to 
purchase the precious treasure. 

Bibles, or portions of the Bible, have been published in 
twenty-six different languages or dialtcts. Editions of the holy 
book are sent to Europe, Asia and Africa ; neither have the 
Choctaw, Ojib,wa, Cherokee, Mohawk, and other North Ameri- 
can Indians been forgotten. 

In the building of the Bible House, the anTi<'X<'<l societies 
have their offices : The Protestant Episcopal Society, for the 
Promotion of Evangelical Knowledge ; the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions ; the American Home 
Missionary Society; the New York Coloniztition Society; 
Society for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Jews ; 
the House of Kefuge ; Children's Aid Society and Home of the 
Friendless. 

In the same building, on the Third avenue side, is the Young 
Men's Christian Association, where devotional services a^e held 
on Wednesday and Saturday evenings. Strangers are cordi diy 
invited to attend. 

At the corner of Eleventh street and Second avenue stands 



T8 • THE FREE ACADEMY. 

the New York Historical Society, estaolished upwards of fifty 
years. It is built of yellow !~aadstoue, and is considered fire- 
proof. 'So strangers are permitted to enter, unless provided 
with, tickets of admission, procurable from one of the member?. 
The society boasts of a library of about 20,000 voiumcs ; a 
picture gallery, and a epleudid collection of Kineveh maiblts 
and Egyptian antiquities. 

'She Free Academy, at the corner of Lexington avenue and 
Twenty-third street, is under the control of the Board of Edu- 
cation. It was established in IS-IS, in pursuance of an act 
passed in 1847, for the purpose of providing higher education 
to those pupils of the common schools who wish to avail them- 
selves of the privilege. Though under the control of the Board 
of Education, an Executive Committee is appointed by that 
body, and are responsible for its proper care and management. 
As its name indicates, it is a free institution, and the expenses 
for instruction, books, stationery, &c., are paid from the State 
appropriation. 

The full course of study embraces a period of five years ; at 
the end of that time, the Board of Education is authorized, by 
law, to confer degrees on those scholars who have massed the 
proper examination. 

It is arranged for the accommodation of a hundred pupils, 
who, when they graduate, can become what is termed Resident 
Graduates, and continue their course of studies. The cost of 
the building, including ground-rent, was nearly one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars. 

The Kational Academy of Design occupies the whole of a lot, 
situated at the north-west corner of Fourth avenue and 
Twenty-third street, eighty feet wide on the street, and ninety- 
ei.qht feet nine inches long on the avenue. It is three stories 
high, besides the cellar. The lower story contains the Janitor's 
apartments, the floor of which is raised one step above the 
sidewalk occupying the whole end on Twenty-third street, and 
the rooms of the School of Design, the floor of which is four 
feet lower than that of the Janitor's rooms ; thus giving a 
Ciiling sixteen feet higli, and which occupy three-fourths of the 
whole basement story. The accommodations for the school 



THE ACADEMY OF DESIGIT. 79 

are ample. It occupies three studios, or alcoves, on Fourtli 
avenue, liijhted by large windows, and a hall for casts and 
models, the whole covering a space of forty-seven by sixty- 
eigl.t feet. The Life-School occupies a hall, in the north side 
of the building, twenty-seven by fifty-four feet, and paitially 
lighted from a court-yard. "The entrance to all the rooms ou 
this story is by a door in the southern end of the Fourth 
avenue side. 

The principal story is reached by a double flight of steps, on 
the Twenty-third street end, and is entered by a large door- 
way, from which a hall, eighteen feet wide, runs nearly the 
whole length of the building. The whole Fourth avenue side 
is occupied by a suite of four rooms ; the most southerly is 
the Reception room, twenty-two by twenty-six feet ; the next 
two, each the same size as the reception room, are for the Li- 
brary. The m jst northerly is the Council Koom, which is 
twenty-two by forty five feet. To the west of the Central Hall 
are ladies' and gentlemen's dressing-rooms, and a Lecture room, 
which is immediately above, and the same size as the Life 
School room, in the story below. 

On the upper story are the Exhibition Galleries. In the 
centre is a hall thirty- four by forty feet, divided by a double 
arcade, supported on columns of polished marble. In this hall 
are hung the works of Art belonging to the National Academy. 
Around this are the Galleries, all opening out of it ; one thirty 
by seventy-six feet ; one twenty-two by forty-six ; one twenty 
by forty ; one twenty by thirty — all lighted by sky-lights ; 
also a gallery for Sculpture, twenty-one feet square, lighted 
both from the roof and the side. 

Visitors to the Galleries enter at the main entrance, in the 
first stoiy. On the left of a person bo entering, is the ticket 
office ; on the right, the umbrella depository. Passing through 
the vestibule, the visitor enters the Great Hall ; in front are 
'the stairs leading up to the Galleries above ; four steps, the 
whole width of the hall, lead to a platform, where he gives up 
his ticket and purchases his catalogue ; from this a di)uble flight 
leads to another platform, from which a single flight reaches 
the level of the Gallery floor. 



80 ANNUAL EXHIBITION?. 

These stairs, together with all the doors, door and window 
trimmingS; mantels, &c., are of oak and walnut combined, 
oiled and polished. The halls and vestibules are floored with 
mosaic. 

On the exterior, the walls of the basement story are ofWcst- 
Chester County gray marble, with bands of North River gray- 
wacke. The walls of the first story are of white marble, with 
similar bands ; and of the third story of white and gray marble, 
in small oblong blocks, forming a pattern of chequer Work, 
The building is surmounted by a rich arcade cornice of white 
marble. 

The School of Design, in the basement, is lighted by wide 
double windows, with segmental arches, each pair of arches fum- 
ported in the middle on a clustered column, with a rich carved 
capital and base, and resting oa ea.ch side on a carved corhel. 
All the other windows in the building have pointed arches, and 
those of the first story have their arch i volts decorated by 
voussoirs of alternately white and gray marble. There are 
no windows in the upper story upon the street, but circulai 
openings for ventilation, filled with elaborate plate tracery. 
The principal entrance is very nigh. A broad archivolt, eti* 
riched with sculpture and varied by voussoirs, alternately white 
and gray, springs from columns, two on each side, of red Ver- 
mont marble, with white marble capitals and bases. The 
double flight of steps leading to this door, is an important 
feature of the building, being entirely of marble, hav ng undet 
the platform, a triple arcade, inclosing a drinking fountain, and 
being richly decorated with sculpture. 

The style of architecture is revived Gothic, now the domi- 
nant style in England, and combines those features of the 
difierent schools of architecture of the middle ages. 

Taken altogether, it is a quaint and elegant structure, and 
was erected at the cost of about $150,000. P. B. Wright, Esq .. 
was the architect. The annual exhibitions of the Academy* 
take place during the months of April, May, June and July, to 
which the public are admitted on payment of a small admission 
fee. In these exhibitions living artists are only represented, 
and no pictures are allowed to be shown that have previously 
been exhibited in New York. 



THE BLIKD ASYLt?M« 81 

f- 

During the months of November and December, annually, 
the Artists' Fund Society is held here, when another exhibition 
of pictures takes place. The proceeds are devoted to the relief 
of sick and indigent artists. 

On Thirtieth street, between Fourth and Madison avenues, 
stands The House of Industry and Home for the Friendless. 
Its object is the protection of deserted children, and adult 
persons who need relief ; it is an excellent society, and in one 
year relieved and found places for over 600 persons. In its 
interest is published a paper called The Advocate and Guardian, 
issued semi-monthly, which has a circulation of 15,000 copi; s. 
Some few years ago the attention of Dr. J. D. Russ was called 
to the helpless and sightless condition of a number of children 
who were occupants of the City Aims-House. Pained at the 
sight, he benevolently determined to do something for their 
relief, and to that end took seven children from the Aims- 
House, and instructed them, gratuitously, for nearly two years, 
when he obtained from the Legislature the passage of an act 
for their support. 

In this laudable undertaking he was nobly and ably sup- 
ported by a well known member of the Society of Friends, 
Samuel Wood ; also by Dr. Samuel Akerly, well known for his 
well directed energy in behalf of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum. 
Finally, The Institution for the Blind, on Ninth avenue, 
between Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth streets, was erected. 
It occupies thirty-two lots of ground which were presented by 
James Boorman, Esq. 

It is one of the most interesting institutions in the city to 
visit, which can be done isvery day, except Sundays, between 
the hours of 1 and 6 p.m. The pupils are taught to read, 
and are instructed in several useful brancaes of trade. 

From the Blind. Asylum to that of the Deaf and Dumb is a 
natural transition. It is one of the best conducted and best 
endowed charitable institutions in New York, and is situated at 
Fan wood, Washington Heights, near One Hundred and Fiftieth 
etreet. Two to three hundred pupils are constantly Tx ing 
instructed therein in reading, writing and the ordinary rudi- 
ments of an KngliMh education. Besides this, they are taught 



82 ORPHAN ASYLUM. 

useful and various brancbes of industry. Dr. Pease is the effi» 
cient Snpsrintendeht ; visitors are ad:nitted from lialf-piist 1 
to 4 p. M. , every day. 

Among tlie many admirable institutions that New York can 
boast, none has done more gooil, or been productive of more 
beneficial results than the Magdcden Female Asylum, located 
west of the Harlem Kailroad, between Eig.ty-eighth and 
liglity-ifinth streets. As its name denotes, ii is intended for 
the reformation and restoration to society of those poor unfoi'- 
tunate females who have erred from the paths of virtiie. It is 
well sustained, and by its exertions many have been restored 
to the means of gaining an honest livelihood. 

At Bloomingdale, near Eightieth street, is The New York 
Orphan Asylum. From the grounds of which institution a 
beautiful view can be obtained of the Hudson and East Pavers, 
the Palisades and surrounding scenery. It received its first 
charter in 1807, and the present building, 100 feet long by 60 
feet wide, was erected in 1840. About 200 orphans are regu- 
larly provided for in this Asylum. 

There is also another Orphan Asylum, on One Hundred and 
Seventeenth street, between Fourth and Fifth avenues. It 
was founded by two charitable personages whose name it bears, 
viz: The Leake and Watts Orphan Asylum The grounds com- 
prise about twenty-six acres, and are laid out with much taste. 

Besides the Hospitals, already mentioned, there are the 
Jev/'s Hospital, located at 158 West Twenty-eighth street ; St. 
Luke's Hospital, corner of Fifth avenue and Fiftieth street, 
under the auspices of the Episcopal churches of New York ; 
and the Children's Huspital and Nursery on Fifty-first street, 
near Lexington avenue. 

The University Medical School is on Fourteenth street, be- 
tween Irving Place and Third avenue, to wliich is attached a 
most valuable and extensive museum. 

At the corner of Twenty-third street and Fourth avenue is 
The College of Physicians and Surgeons, founded in 1807. In 
it are an anatomical museum, and a small but valuable medical 
library of nearly IGOO volumes. These can be visited by 
making application to the janitor. 



BELLEVUE HOSPITAL. So 

No. 90 East Thirteenth street is tlie building known fis The 
New York Medic.il College, to which is attached the College of 
Pharmacy, hoth of which are devoted to the instruction of 
medical htudants. 

The New York Medical Institute is at No. 8 Union Square, 
and is devoted almost exclusively to the science of electricity. 
As a remedial agent, electricity has heen little known, but 
since the establishment of this institute it has been found that 
its vitalizing eiTects are wonderful, and that in all pulmonary 
and renal comphdnts it is invaluable. 

As well us all these hospitals are TheNev/ York Dispensaries, 
established for giving medical advice and medicine to that class 
of poor who are not sick enough, or, who do not wish to obtain 
admittsnce into a hospital. The oldest one was established in 
1795, and is on the corner of White and Centre streets ; the 
Northern Dispensary, on the corner of Chiistopher and Sixth 
streets, wasiustituted in 1829, and the Eastern Di^-pen^ary, on 
the corner of Ludlow street and Essex Market Place, was 
found-d in 1834. It is estimated that between five and six 
thousand persons are annually benefitted at these dispensaries. 
In the building, at the corner of Second avenue and Twenty- 
third street, is The Demilt Dispensary, which, witli the gound, 
was donated by the late Miss Demilt, at the cost of $30,000. 

Bellevue Hospital, occupying the entire block on First 
avenue, between Twenty-sixth and Twentv-seventh streets, is 
under the control of the Commissioners of Charities and Cor- 
rections, and is of inestimable benefit to the poor of New York. 
It is capable of holding one thousand beds. 

Under the direct daily superintendence of the most distin- 
guished surgeons and physicians of the city, supplied with every 
remedy for disease, and every comfort, the poor and friendless 
have all the advantages in the treatment of disease that the 
mo^•t affluent cm comsnand. 

Whether tested by the number of patients, by the variety of 

the forms of disease, or the percentage of ssuccehsful operations 

and cures, there is no institution in Europe or in this country 

that excels Bellevue Hospital in public usefulness. 

Nor do its benefits end here ; as a school of inEtructioa to 



84 blackwell's island. 

the students of the several medical colleges, it is of great and 
permanent value, for here can be learned, under the tuition of 
the most skillful physicians and surgeons, the proper treatment 
of disease in all its forms, and the best modes of performing 
operations. 

On the 1st of April last, a medical department for the treat- 
ment of the Out- Door Side Poor was established, and provision 
made for the treatment of cases of general medicine and 
general surgery, and in the specialties of diseases of the eye 
and ear, of the skin, of the nervous system, and diseases of the 
chest. 

This was done, as it was found that a large class of patients 
who sought admisson to the hospital might be as advanta- 
geously treated as out-door patients, and the hospital thus be 
relieved from the burihen of their maintenance, and that many 
suff .ring from maladies which did not incapacitate them from 
pursuing their usual vocations, but who are unable to pay for 
the services of skillful physicians, or for expensive medicines, 
would avail themselves of this mode of reief. 

Anuesid is a table showing the number of persons admitted 
in the hospital during the year 1865 : 

Number of patients admitted 7,073 

Of which died 658 

Discharged cured 6,801 

Remaining 614 

7,073 

The daily cost of treating each in-door patient is a trifle over 
thirty-nine cents per day. 

. Our next vidt. is to Blackwell's Island, on which are a Hos- 
pital, a Penitentiary, Aims-Houses, Work-House, and a Lunatic 
Asylum 

Th ! Hospital is situated on the southerly end of Blackwell's 
Island, and holds 1,200 beds. It embraces all the improve- 
ments in heating and ventilation, and its general internal 
ar:angementsare unsurpassed by any hospital in the United 
States. During the past year radical changes have been made 
In the organization of the employees. 



THE ^EN^rENTIAkY 85 

Previous to the 16th of May, 1865, it was in charge of the 
warden of the Penitentiary, and the nurses and orderlies were 
Work-House prisoners. The wards were filthy, and drunken- 
ness and riot were of frequent occurrence. On the 16th of 
May, a resident warden was appointed, who returned to the 
work-house the prisoners acting as orderlies and nurses, and 
appointed, at moderate wages, respectable and competent 
persons in their stead. 

An instant improvement was observable, the wards were 
cleaned, turbulence and drunkenness disappeared, economy 
and individual responsibility were introduced, and now the 
hospital will compare favorably with any other institution in 
the world in cleanliness, order, and the attention and devotion 
of its employees. 

The greater portion of the patients are afflicted witii a loath- 
some disease, and it is apprehended that with the increase of 
the population of the city, this class of patients will increase, 
and that it will be necessary either to assign this hospital, or 
to build one for their exclusive treatment. 

Subjoined is a statement of the number of i)aiients treated 
during the past year. 

Number of patients 9,877 

Died 744 

Cured 8,157 

Eemaining 976 

9,877 
The average daily cost of patients received i5 this hospital, is 
about twenty-nine cents. 

Since the close of the war, the number of prisoners confined 
in the Penitentiary have greatly increased. In 1864, only 921 
were confined, while in 1865, the number swelled to 1,670. It 
is believed there will be a large increase this year. 

' The system of prison discipline is defective. Instead of re- 
forming persons convicted ot crime, it is admitted, that the 
present discipline, by its narsh and imdiscriminating character, 
confirms the prisoner m his criminal pursuits, and, on his dis- 
charge from prison, he is prepared for the commission of graver 
crimes than when he entered. 



8© THE ALMS HOUSES. 

At several of the European prisons there has been a radical 
change in the system cf prison discipline, and the chaiige seema 
to have been followed by the hap, itst results A large portion 
of the convicts, under tlie influence of the new system of dis- 
crimination, have, it is alleged, been entirely reformed, and 
have become orderly citizens. 

Tl^ experiment of the new system, however, has been too 
recent to warrant its general introduction into the prisons of 
the State ; yet, the evidences of improvement are sufficiently 
authentic to justify the trial to a limited extent. 

In the Alms Houses, ou Bhickwell's Island, on the 1st of 
January, 1865, were 1,497 persons, and there were received 
during the year, 3,590 mure persons, making a total of 5,087 
persons. Of these, 2,682 were dischaiged, 823 died, and 
1,582 remain. 

Among the most difficult problems of social science, is the 
proper mode and measure of relief for the poor and friendless. 
The indiscriminate aid through public officers, to all persons 
in want, is sure to encourage idleness and beggary, while the 
total withdrawal of support would increase the mass of wretch- 
edness and crime. There can be no doubt, if the remedy were 
adequate, the poor would be more judiciously assisted by 
private charity than through the means of public relief. 

The examination into the circumstances of each individual 
case is more thorough ; the opportunities for fraud are lessened ; 
the measure of relief more readily and accurately ascertained ; 
nor is the recipient degraded in his own esteem, by receiving 
aid from private sources . The inmate of an alms house loses 
all self-reliance, if not self-respect, when the doors close upon 
him. 

Hence private hospitals, asylums, retreats for the old and 
infirm should be encouraged, as being not only the most etfect- 
ive and economical modes of relief, but. above all, because 
they strengthen the bonds of sympathy between the rich and 
the poor, between the donor and recipient. 

Bat, unhappily, the charity of the rich is not commensurate 
with the wants of the poor, and the deficiency must be supple- 
mented by contributions from the public funds. The regula- 



RANl5ALt^S tSLANO. 87 

tidnS established before persons can be admitted into the Alms 
House, or obtain out-door r«iief, are as stringent as is com- 
patible with the ends for which this Commission was created ; 
yet many obtain aid who have either means of their own, or 
who have relatives abundantly able to support them. It re- 
quires constant vigilance^ by the officers employed, to detect 
and punish these frauds. 

The "Workhouse is used as a reformatory for vagrants and 
drunkards, with the rigorous discipline of the penitentiary, 
without its degrading associations, and has fulfilled, under the 
able admiuistration of Mr. Fitch, the purposes for which it was 
intended. During the past year, 12,346 persons were commit- 
ted to his care. 

The nest, and last building to visit on Blackwell's Island, is 
the Lunatic Asylum. It is probable that no similar institu- 
tion in the country is as much visited as this ; and everything 
is being done, through motives of humanity, interest and 
pride, to make it the model asylum of its kind in the world. 

In 1865, there were 1,284 lunatics treated at the Asylum ; 
of these, 421 were discharged, 127 died, and 736 are remaining. 
Here, on Randall's Island, are the nurseries for the reception 
of vagrant and helpless children. They are objects of increas- 
ing interest and usefulness, and are the homes of abandoned 
children, or of children whose parents are unable to support 
them, or of widows living at service, who can make little or 
no provision for their care, though, so far as their ability will 
permit, the parents or relatives are required to pay for their 
support. 

Aside from the dictates of humanity, requiring that provision 
should be made for abandoned and foundling children, the 
public interests are deeply involved ; for, it is ascertained, that 
of the convicts of the State, o2 per cent, were, in childhood, 
either orphans or half-orphans, 

Under the supervision of the Wardens, and of intelligent 
and kind matrons, the children are clothed and fed, and edu- 
cated, and thus rescued from the contamination of evil associa- 
tions in the streets of a great city. 
Whea they arrive at a proper age, they are apprenticed to 



88 INSTRUCTION Pon IDIOTS. 

some industrial pursuit, and become useful citizens. It is difiS- 
cult to over-estimate the positive good derived from these pub- 
lic nurseries. 

Every day affords evidence of their supreme importance, aa 
a refuge for children without the moral restraint of parental 
care. Here, distributed according to their ages, in small fami- 
lies, they are tenderly watched by the matrons, and are subject 
to all the kindly influences of v/elJ -regulated homes. 

There are sixty idiot children on Randall's Island, and a 
separate building is assigned to them, but no attempts have 
hitherto been made to develop their latent reason. Applica- 
tion has been made to Doctor Wilbur, the principal of the 
State Asylum for Idiots, for a competent teacher, and it is 
hoped that, by the employment of the same means, the same 
gratifying results may be obtained as have distinguished Dr. 
Wilbur's efforts in behalf of this unfortunate class. 

Permits for visiting Blackwell's or Randall's Island can be 
obtained of Mr. George Kellock, Superintendent of Out door 
Poor, No. 1 Bond street. 



m 



WALE THE FOURTH. 

NEV/SPAPSR OFFICES. 

Jonathan was ahead of me this morning. 

When I descended to the breakfast-room, I found him al- 
ready there, waiting for me. Apparently he was pleased as 
a child with a new toy, and on my entering the room, he 
looked slyly at his watch, and asked me if I was tired. 

" Tired ! not a bit. Why do you ask ? ' ' 

"Oh, nothing ! " and he again, with a facetious twinkle in 
his eye, consulted his watch. 

''Come, out with it," said I laughing; "I see you have 
something to say, so out with it." 

"I- was thinking, John, that if you felt tired to-day we 
would not go out. It is true my stay in the city is not long, 
but I would rather miss seeing some of the sights than distress 
an old friend.'' 

The serious comic manner with which he said this was in- 
imitable. 

'' Why, you old humbug," I replied, " because you are a few 
minutes ahead of me this morning, you try to make it appear 
I am worn out with our travels." 

" No, no ! not at all ; it is simply my extreme solicitude for 
your health." 

" Now I see through it," I exclaimed. " You are worn out 
yourself, and don' t feel like walking, and want to throw the 
blame of an excuse upon me," 

"No, really I do not," replied Jonathan earnestly; "I like 
walking, it does me good," here he inflated his chest; "but 
you have chided me every moi'ning for keeping you waiting, so 
I thought I would have a little joke about my being first. 
And you know I must have my joke.' ' 

If Jonathan had said he must have his little choke he would 
have been nearer correct, for chuckling over his own facetioua- 



90 A FARE WANTING. ■ 

Hess a piece of breakfast biscuit went tlie wrong way, and he 
coughed and spluttered in a manner painful to behold. I went 
to his assistance and restored him to his normal condiiioa 
by administering a few severe thumps upon his back. 

*' Where are you thinking of taking me to this day ? " que- 
ried Jonathan. 

"To-day we will devote our attention to newspaper offices 
and as soon as you have stowed away sufficient cargo we wil. 
start. ' ' 

This was my jocose way of saying " when you have finished 
breakfast." 

" I am ready,'' said Jonathan, rising and brushing the crumbs 
from his lap with a napkin. 

" Tlien off we go,'' and in a few minutes we started. 
Getting into a stage to ride down town we obtained seats 
near the further end. I had the twenty cents ready, and be- 
fore Jonathan noticed it had handed them to the driver. 

Soon another passenger got in, and seated himself near the 
door, who handed ten cents to Jonathan for him to give to the 
driver. 

I observed that Jonathan gazed with a surprised and bewil- 
dered look at the stamp, and heard hiiu mumble something to 
himself, lut beyond that I took no further notice. 

Presently the driver began thumping most vigorously on the 
top of the stage, much to Jonathan's annoyance, who told me 
that he thought it disgraceful for the man to make so much 
noise. Finally the driver, when he found his stock of thumps 
exhausted, shouted through the hole, " that some man in there 
had not paid his fal-e.'' 

No one took the slightest notice. 
** Are you going to pay me that fare ? " asked Jehu. 
" Goon driver,'' shouted a passenger, "everybody's paid." 
" No they haven't. That gentleman who last got in, and 
who is sitting near the door, hasn't paid." 

All eyes were turned toward the gentleman indicated. 
'•Yes I have," said that individual, and frowning to Jona- 
than he continued : * ' You remember, sir, I handed you my 
faro to pass up, on entering the stage." 



JON'ATRAN RESrXTS AN IN^SULT. 9i 

Jonathan turned all manner of colors, muttered something 
perfectly unintelligible, drew a ten cent stamp from his waist- 
coat pocket and handed it to the driver. 

"■ A queer old chap that,'' said the gentleman, as he alighted 
from tiie stage, alluding to Jonathan. 

By this time we had reached the City Hall Park, so we, also 
got out. When we had done so, I said to Griggs, " Why did 
you pay tliat fellow's fare V 

" To tell you the truth, John, I never was so mortified in all 
my life. I will explain to you why. When that man handed 
me the ten cents — ' ' 

" Oh ! then, he did give you the money ?'' 

" Yes, of course. And when he did so, I thought he in- 
tended to insult me, by offering me money ; but why he 
should do so, I could not define, so, determining to punish him 
for his insolence, I took the money and put it in my pocket." 

I laughed heartily at Jonathan's mode of resenting an insult. 

" Did you not know that it was a common occurrence for peo- 
ple sitting near the door of a stage, to hand their fare to the 
person nearest the driver, for them to hand it to him?'* 

" How should I ? When I left the city, New York was not 
the New York it is to-day, and stages were not. But I assure 
you, I never felt so ashamed in all my life. When that man 
said he had given me the money to pay his fare, I wished my- 
self anywhere but iu tiiat stage." 

freeing that Jonathan's feelings really were hurt, I changed 
the conversation. 

" There are," I said, "published daily, in New York, about 
fifteen papers, with an aggregate circulation of about 300,000 
copies.'' 

" My gracious ! as many as that ?" 

" it is impossible to get at a correct estimate, but I presume 
it amounts to that. Publishers, as a rule, are so jealous of 
their circulation, that they tell none of its secrets, and guard 
it with as much care as a husband would his wife, or a lover 
his sweetheart." 

" This number, I presume, includes both English and for- 
eign ?" 



02 PRINTING HOUSE SQUARE. 

" Yes ; English, French, and German. The principal Eng- 
lish papers are the Herald, Times, Tribune, World, Post, and 
Express ; the two last being evening papers." 

Bv this time we had crossed the Park, and now sto od in 
Priiitiag House Square. 

" Is that The Tribune T' asked Jonathan. " Horace Greeley's 
paper?" 

"Yes; that is the celebrated Horace Greeley's paper, and 
stands, as j'ou see, at the corner of Spruce and Nassau streeets. 
Ibis fine, handsome building, facing Chatham street, is the 
Times office. It is the finest newspaper building in the city, in- 
deed, I might say, in the whole United States." 
" It is a magnificent edifice, certainly." 
" The Herald, which now stands on the corner of Fulton and 
Nassau streets, is shortly to be removed to the corner of Ann 
and Broadway, The building is not yet completed, but rumor 
says it is going to be a model edifice of its kind." 

"I presume Bennett will endeavor to beat the Times in the 
elegance of his building. Competition is a great thing." 

" I should not be at all sm-prised. But let us, as the French 
say, return to our muttons. The Times building was erected in 
1857, a year memorable in the commercial history of this city, 
as the panic year. The site was formerly occupied by the old 
Brick Church, erected when this portion of the city was con- 
sidered out of town. When the church and ground were sold, 
Government talked of buying it, and building a post office 
thereon." 

" It appears to me, that no better vocation could have been 
selected.'' 

" It would have answered the purpose admirably. But the 
proprietors of the limes wanting it for their own use, bought it 
over the heads of the Government officials." 
'* It must have cost a good round sum V ' 
" About ^300,000, I believe ; a much less sum than it could 
be purchased for now.'' 

"Can we examine the building ?" 

" Oh, yes. When we have gone through the Times building 
it will answer for the whole, as the prominent features in all 
large newspaper offices are the same." 



CLERKS IN GLASS CASES. 93 

Entering the building, we made known our wishes, and was 
Immediately placed in the hands of a guide, who, at once, be- 
gan to show and explain to us objects of interest. 

On the ground floor is the counting-room, where advertise- 
ments are received. On the right of the counting-room, as 
you enter from Printing House Square, is the cashier's office ; 
through that little window in the glass case that contains the 
cashier, the hearts of the editorial and reportorial attaches are 
gladdened every Friday afternoon. 

On the left is the mail clerk, who is also engaged inclosed in 
a glass case. From appearances, the proprietors of the Times 
think a good deal of their clerks, they take so much care of 
them ; or, else they adopt the forcing system, and keep them 
under glass, to more fully develop them. 

The duties of this clerk are, to receive all letters that are re- 
ceived at the Times office. A boy fetches them from the Post 
Office, but as the majority of them contain money, they are 
put into a tin box, which is securely locked, a kej'^for that pur- 
pose being kept at the post office, and a duplicate one by the 
mail clerk. 

" These," said our guide, pointing to a heap of letters that 
were being rapidly opened by the mail-clerk, *' are letters con- 
taining subscriptions for our weekly, semi-weekly, or daily. 
It is the business of this gentleman to see they are properly en- 
tered into the subscription books, and that when the term of 
subscription expires, to see that the paper is no longer sent 
unless re-subscribed for " 

" Quite a task for one man," said Jonathan. 

*' Yes ; but, then, the business is so well organized, that sel- 
dcm or never does a mistake occur. In this room are the 
wrapper-writer^, whose only occupation, during the entire day, 
is to write the addresses of subscribers." 

" A somewha.1 monotonous job." 

" Not more so than copying, generally. Now, before visit- 
ing the press-room, we will ascend to the third story, and 
examine the editorial rooms." 

•'Will Mr. Raymond be there?" inquired Jonathan. "I 
should like to see him." 



04 iiow REPoftTfiF.s ^'oiiK. 

" He is at present in Washington ; his duties, as a Member of 
Conq^resis, calling hm there." 

" A iM ember of Congress ! and still edits this paper ?" ejacu-* 
iaied Jonathan, surprised. 

'Oh, yes. In Mr. Raymond's absence, the paper is undet 
the. control of the managing editor, who is thoroughly ia-" 
structed in the line of conduct the paper should pursue ; so there 
is little danger of his going wrong." 

After being shown the editorial rooms, Mr. Eaymond's private 
room, and the library, which is well stored with books of refer- 
ence, we were taken to the reporters' room, on the same floor* 
By the reporters the city news is obtained. 

Jonathan was under the impression, that reporters procured 
news by walking about the streets, and that whenerer they 
saw an incident or a murder, they rushed forward, got all the 
particulars, and published them. 

But when told that each reporter had his especial duty to at- 
tend to, and that his business for the day was arranged for him 
by a gentleman, called the City Editor, he waa much aston- 
ished. 

" On the fourth story is the composing room — the best ap- 
pointed, the best lighted, and most commodious one in the 
city. Compositors are constantly employed, day and night ; 
they are ever busy, no idleness being peri^itted for a moment.'* 
Thus spoke our guide. 
Jonathan murmured something about the busy bee. 
" If, as frequently happens, there is no copy for the men to 
go on with, they are made to work on setting up * dead ' mat- 
ter. That is, composition never intended to be printed.'' 
" But why is that done ?' ' 

"For this reason : if there was no work for the men, they 
would not stay in the office. In a daily newspaper office im- 
portant telegraphic news may be received at any moment, tliiit 
would necessitate the publishing of an extra edition i*so it ia 
absolutely necessary to find the men employment.'' 

On the left of the composing room, is the stereotyping de- 
partment. Here, when the paper is all set up, two stereotypes 
are taken of each form -occupying rather less than twenty 



LIGHTNING PRINTING PRESSES. 95 

minutes of iirae — thus enabling two presses to throw off copies 
of the same form at once." 

"That must be a great advantage." 

" It is ; for it allows us to go to press at a much later hour, 
which was an invaluable boon during the war, and even now 
has great advantages upon the late arrival of European 
news." 
** Just so." 

" Besides this, something had to be done to enable us to 
print a sufficient number to meet the demands of our increas- 
ing circulation." 

We next descended to the vaults ; they are the finest and 
most commodious ever constructed in New Yorli, and extend on 
Spruce street, one hundred by twenty-six feet ; on Park Row 
one hundred by twenty feet ; on Nassau street ninety-five by 
fifteen feet, and are twenty-four feet deep. On the Park Row 
side is the store-room for paper ; on the Nassau street side are 
two immense boilers— large enough for an ocean steamer — 
used for running the presses, of which there are two. 

One is a ten cylinder, the other a six cylinder press ; they 
are known as Hoe's lightning presses, and at each turn of the 
cylinder the former prints ten papers, the latter six. 

"John," said Jonathan, "I have arrived at the conclusion, 
there is a vast deal of difference between running a paper in 
this city and out in the town I come from." 

I was also of opinion there was some difference. 
"There," he continued, " the editor among other odd jobs 
helps to set type and collect advertisements, and who, with the 
assistance of a boy, prints the whole edition upon a hand pi ess, 
and delivers it to the subsci'ibers." 

* " Now we will pay a visit to Torrey Brothers' establishment, 
No. 13 Spruce street." 
" What are they ? ' ' 

" I am astonished. Do neither circuses nor shows ever visit 
your benighted town ? ' ' 

" Of course they do. Bat what has that to do with my 
question ? ' ' 

*' A great deal. Have you not noticed before the arrival of 



96 A SUBTERRANEAN ESTABLISHMENT. 

a show that your town was gaily decoratea with many colored 
wood cuts and posters ? ' ' 

" I have, and often examined them with a good deal of 
curiosity." 

" Then did you never notice the imprint of Toirey Brothers 
upon them ? ' ' 

" Let me consider. Why, yes, of course I have." 

"I thought so, for that firm are printers of the majority of 
Buch show bills and posters. However, it is not the printing 
office I wish you to examine, hut the subterranean establish- 
ment of Messrs. Torrey & Green.'' 

"The subterranean establishment!" exclaimed Jonathan, 
doubting if he had heard correctly. 

" Yes, Do you see those buildings on either side of the 
street?" 

"If it is not an optical delusion, I do." 

" In each of those buildings machinery of some kind is 
used ; also in the corresponding block of Beekman street, 
which is below, and the corresponding block of Frankfort 
street, which is above. For all this machinery the running 
power is obtained from the engines of Messrs. Torrey & Green, 
who were the originators of the plan for supplying motive 
power to machinery from engines situated a block off." 

" You don't tell me." 

Descending into the engine-room, Jonathan expressed his 
admiration of the engines, of which there are two, and was 
lost in wonderment at the fly wheel, which is 48 feet in cir- 
cumference. 

At this juncture we heard the shrill shriek of the steam 
whistle ; in an instant the engine-room was deserted, save by 
one man, and there was a patter and clatter of many feet above. 

" What, what's the matter ; is it fire ? " 

The man to whom this question was addressed, laughed. 

" No ; it is half-past 12, dinner hour ; and the boys belong- 
ing to the various offices are anxious to get out into the street 
to play." 



A GREAT COUNTRY. 97 

" Dinner hour ! " said Jonathan. *' I am, hungry ; let us go 
and have some lunch." 

So we went to Crook, Fox & Nash's restaurant, Nos. 40 and 
41 Park Eow, and satisfied the cravings of our appetites. 

" Here," said I to Jonathan, ' * may be seen a sight that can- 
not he witnessed in any other than a Republican country." 

"How so ?" 

** You see the throng that is now collected here, doing as we 
have just now done. Well, it is composed of editors, literary 
men, artists, politicians, merchants, their clerks, the niillionare 
and the man wlio has hardly a penny to bless himself with. 
The poor man is jostling the rich man, and Eepublican aud 
Democrat are quietly sitting side by side, as though there was 
no such thing as politics, and i^arties were unknown. Ta!lc of 
the lion and ti.e lamb lying down together, why, it's nothing 
to it." 

" Ah I it's a great country," was all that Jonathan said. 



(98) 



WALK THE FIFTH. 

PUBLIO AMUSEMENTS. 

I have no doubt that my readers will now accuse me of a 
Hibermanism, for this chapter is called a walk, and there is no 
more pedestrianism in it than there is grass on Broadway. 

However, there is one consolation, it is not my fault. If 
any blame is attached to anybody it is solely to Jonathan. So 
you will please pour out your vials of wrath upon his head, 
and not mine. 

I will endeavor to explain how it is his fault. 

It was my intention to visit a theatre every evening of 
Jonathan's stay with me, but he had the happy facidty of get- 
ting so completely tired out during the day, that he was fit for 
nothing in the evening, but bed. 

Now, be it known, I take a great interest in dramatic enter- 
tainments of all kinds, and felt sorry that Jonathan would 
have to leave the city without visiting one of our leading 
theatres. 

I thought of the chagrin he would experience, upon his 
return home, when asked about any place of public amusement, 
at not being able to answer it. This state of deplorable igno- 
rance would recoil upon me. He would be asked who was his 
friend, counsellor and guide in New York, and he would have 
to answer John Wetherby. 

This would never do, so I made out a list of the various 
theatres with a brief account of the style jof entertainment to 
be found at each. Here they are. 

AcADEvnr of Music. — This splendid theatre, the largest in 
New York, is situated at the corner of Irving Place and Four- 
teenth street. It is devott-d almost exclusively to music — 
during the season operas being given three or four times- a 
week. Opera is one of the fashionable amusements of New 



A DRAMATIC TniUMPIT. 99 

York, consequently the build in^r is froDc-rfillv well filled with 
■what is called the elite of society. Whellie'- this is brought 
about by the deep love our citizens have for music, or a strong 
yearning to exhibit their good clothes— for. be it known, you 
are nothing unless full dressed — I will not determine. Certain 
it is, the fact is as 1 have stated. It is capable of accommoda- 
ting about four thousand persons. 

Irving Hall. — Exactly opposite the Academy of Music, on 
Irving Place, is the most fashionable music hall in the city. 
Mr. Lafayette Harrison is the proprietor and manager, and has 
well earned the deserved title of being the best caterer for the 
amusement of the public in the city. During the winter 
months, when balls are all the rage, many of the best are 
given here. No matter what the style of entertainment, 
whether a concert, ball, or lecture, it is safe to depend upon a 
pleasant evening's amusement. 

Wallace's Theatre. — Now under the management of Mr. 
Lester Wallack, the best li^ht comedian in the country, is 
located at the corner of Thirteenth street and Broadway. Its 
style of entertainment is varied, consisting of comedy, melo- 
drama and farce. No matter what the play, it is sure to be 
better put upon the stage, and acted with more artis'ic finish 
than at any other house in town. It is celebrated for the re- 
production of old comedies — plays that our fathers, and their 
father's fathers laughed over. For a quiet, pleasant evening's 
amusement, no place is more likely to afford it than this. 

Winter Garden — Under the La Farge House, and opposite 
Bond street, on Broadway, it is one of the most conveniently 
situated theatres for pleasure-seekers. The class of entertain- 
ment offered at this house ranges " from grave to gay, from 
lively to severe." Shakespeare's tragedy of Hamlet, in which 
Mr. Edwin Booth appeared, was so beautifully acted by that 
gentleman, aftd so charmingly placed upon the stage, that it ran 
for a hundred consecutive nights — a triumph unknown in the 
annals of the drama. Bulwer's play of Richditu, in which the 



^^^ THE QUEEN OF COMEDY. 

Bame actor represented the Cardinal Duke, was also mounted 
so superbly that both the press and public went almost crazy 
^vith dehght. It was an epoch in dramatic history, and reflects 
great credit on the enterprise and liberality of the manage- 

Olympic THEATRK.-This charming theatre is under the man- 
agement of Mrs John Wood, the most pleasing, vivacious and 
jolly actress on the stage. Vaudevilles, farces and burlesques 
a e usually the attractions at this house, which are always 
placed upon the stage with due attention to scenic surround- 
ngs. For a man afflicted with the blues, there is no place bet- 
ter adapted to dispel them than here. All are sure of a hearty 
laugh for Mrs. John Wood's comic powers are irresistible. She 
well deserves the enviable title of Queen of Comedy. It is 
situated at 622 Broadway. 

Barnum's MusEUM.-Among the many places of amusement 
m 2^ew York, none are so popular with country people as Bar- 
num s Museum When the old building, at the corner of Ann 
Btreet and Broadway, was burned down, Mr. Barnum, in an in- 
credible short space of time, fitted up the old Chinese Assembly 
Rooms, located on Broadway, between Spring and Prince streets 

diversified entertainment cannot be procured anywhere Here 
inay be seen giants, dwarfs, serpents, monkeys, three-horned 
bulls, and almost every description of curiosity the mind of 
man can imagine. Besides all this, there are dramatic enter- 
tainments m the lecture-room, every afternoon and evening. 

Wood's Theatre is exactly opposite the St. Nicholas Hotel, 
and IS well patronized by pleasure-seekers. It was formerly a 

^h!2^ ' '""^ ^"' ""^^ '^'''y ^^^^ ''^"''■'''^ '-'- ^ 

Broadway TnEATRE.-This theatre, one door from Broome 
s.reet, on the west side of Broadway, is well worthy a visit as 
a pleasmg evening's entertainment is sure to be obtained he're 
It has been the scene of many histrionic triumphs, the latest of 



NEGRO MINSTRELSY. 101 

T^liicli is Mr. John Owens' , who played the character of Solon 
Shingle, va. "The People's Lawyer," for nearly four hundred 
nights. 

Bowery Theatre — As its name indicates, stands on the 
Bowery, near Canal street, and is celebrated for its spectacle 
pieces and pantomimes. Mr. G. L. Fox, the manager, is one of 
the best dumb clowns on the stage. The manner in which he 
expresses the various emotions of love, hope, fear, cunning, am- 
bition and revenge, simply by contortions of the face and body, 
is unapproachable, and must be seen to be appreciated. 

New Bowery Theatre.— This popular place of amusement is 
also on the Bowery, near Hester street. The blue and red 
fire school of melo-drama holds almost undisputed sway here, 
as that class of entertainment best pleases its patrons. 

New York Stadt Theatre — Is nearly opposite the Bowery 
Theatre. Thj plays are in German, and are well supported by 
the German population. 

Negro Minstrelsy. — The principal and best halls for Ethio- 
pean Minstrelsy, are the Bryant's 472 Broadway ; San Francisco, 
opposite the Metropolitan Hotel, and George Christy's, on 
Twenty-fourth street, under the Fifth avenue Hotel. 



(102) 

WALK THE SIXTH. 

WHARVES AND SHIPPHTG. 

"To-day," said I to jona than, when we had finished our 
matutinal repast, " I iatend giving you some idea of the vast 
commercial importauce of the city of New York." 

" Nothing I should like better,'' replied Griggs, rubbing his 
hands, " how do you intend doing it, for my ideas are pretty 
thoroughly fixed upon that point already.'' 

"I have no doubt of it, but they will be more strongly 
planted when you have seen the ceaseless activity along the 
wharves, and examined the shipping and ship j'^ards." 

" That may be John, but I am somewhat dubious ; for my 
opinion at present is, there is no city like this in the world. I 
may be right, or I may be wrong, but that rs my opinion." 

*' We will see." 

So we set out upon our pilgrimage. Biding down town I 
conducted Jonathan to the foot of the North Eiver, and com- 
menced my harrangue as follows : 

" Here, at Pier No. 1, is the landing place of the boats be- 
longing to the Camden and Amboy Railroad, the first line built 
running South from New York. When the road was first built 
it was traveled over by horse cars, and the first locomotive 
ran upon it only thirty-five years ago. It was built in 1829 ; 
•now the earnings of the road are over a million and a half 
dollars per annum." 

Jonathan said nothing, but gave a little gasp of surprise. 

" At Pier No. 2, is one of the Boston lines ; Pier No. 3 boats 
leave for ;pong Branch and Port Monmouth, and the splendid 
steamers belonging to the Savannah line start fram Pier 
No. 4." 

" What strange looking vessel is that? " 

" That is the Bethel ship, used as a church for seamen. At 
Pier No. 11 are the steamers for Wilmington, Delaware, and at 



WASHINGTON MARKET. 103 

Pier No. 13 are the boats for Savannah, New Orleans and New- 
bern. The boats for Savannah belong to the far-famed Empire 
side-wheel line, and leave every Saturday promptly at 3 
o'clock, and run in connection with railroads throughout 
Georgia and Florida. For excellent accommodation for passen- 
gers, this line couipares favorably with any. Messrs. Garrison 
& Allen, 5 Bowling Green, are the agents. Here are steamer 
upon steamers, from one to five thousand tons, clustering 
around the docks like boys hoverixig around a !^ugar barrel." 

" A perfeco forest of masts I do declare,'' chimed in Jona- 
than. 

" Here, at the foot of Cortland street," I continued, " is the 
Jersey City Ferry, also connecting with the Erie Railroad, New 
Jersey Kailroad, Northern Railroad of New Jersey, and the 
Morris and Essex Railioad." 

" How large a population has Jersey City ? " 

"About fifty thousand, and it is estimated that twenty-five 
thousand people, and two thousand vehicles cross this ferry 
daily.'' 

" Goodness gracious ! half of the inhabitants. How many 
boats are needed for so many passengers ? ' ' 

•' Seven boats do it all, the largest of which is eight hundred 
tons." 

" Rather a good size for a ferry boat.'' 

" Yes, indeed." 
. * Does the ferry belong to the city ? " . 

" No, to a C( mpany who pay to the city $5,000 for the privi- 
lege of carrying passengers across the river at three cents per 
head.'' 

" A profitable speculation I should judge." 

"Here, at Pier No, 19, is Washington Market, extending 
northerly to Pier No. 26. It ygas in old times called Bear Mar- 
ket for, in those days, all the bear meat that came to the city 
v,as sold here. Piers 19 and 20 are crowded with propellers 
and canal boats ladened with produce of every kind to feed the 
hungry of the city." 

Passing through Washington Market, we soon came to the 
first slip of the Hobokeu Ferry, at the foot of Barclay street. 



104 THE ELYSIAN FIELDS. 

*' Across this ferry is Hobokeu, a great resort for rurally" 
disposed people. Its great charm are the Elysian Fields, which 
are much resorted to on Sundays by our German citizens who 
seek recreation and lager amid the sylvan groves of this far- 
famed place.'' 

" The traffic does not seem so great here as at the Jersey 
City Ferry." 

"It is not) but the proprietors do a pretty good business, 
notwithstanding. There are three ferries in all to Hoboken, 
for which the city receives SI, 050 per year." 

** Not an overwhelming suaa for such privileges." 

" The traffic, however, is rapidly increasing, and will no 
doubt continue so to do, for this reason, the North German 
Lloyds steamers for Bremen, via Southampton, sail from the 
pier at the foot of Third street, Hcboken, and the passengers 
for those vessels necessarily have to cross this ferry.' ' 

"Ah, I see." 

*' These vessels carry the United States mail, and are con- 
sidered admirable sea going boats." 

" They carry passengers of course ? " 

" Oh, yes, cabin, second cabin and steerage, for whom ample 
kccommodations are provided." 

'' Now we have arrived at the wharf of the Erie Railroad 
Company. It is the great route to the West, and the most 
stupendous work of private enterprise ever executed in this 
country." 

'* You don't tell me ! " 

" Yes, it cost thirty millions of dollars, and is an entci prise, 
though it is not so profitable as it might*be, that reflects great 
credit on the enterprise of New Yorkers.'' 

" I guess I will return home by this route," said Jonathan. 

" You could not do better, for since the great ' cut-olf ' has 
been completed, it is one of the most comfortable roads to 
travel on to the West." 

" I will certainly go by this road," said Jonathan decidedly. 

" At Salamanca, the Erie connects with the Atlantic and 
Great Western railway, thus enabling a person to travel all the 
way to Dayton, Ohio, on a broad guage track.'' 



THE ALBANY BOATS. 105 

" That must not be forgotten,' ' and Jonathan made an entry 
of the fact in his note book. 

"Here, at Pier No. 33, the steamer Matteawan leaves daily 
at 3 p. M. for Middletown Point ; it is also the dock for the out- 
side freight line to Philadelphia. At Piers 37 and 38 the ice 
ladened boats discharge their cargoes, here also is the wharf of 
the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, who bring to this 
city over two hundred thousand tons of coal a year, nearly 
fifty thousand tons of which are landed at this wharf. ' ' 

Jonathan only lifted up his hands iu wonderment. 

"At this wharf is the dumping ground for the manure and 
garbage collected in the streets ; usually there are about 1,200 
loads dumped weekly, but in the spring when the accumulated 
filth of winter is collected, it frequently runs up to 2,000.'' 

" Is this the only dumping place in the city ? '' 

" Dear me, no. There are several much larger on the East 
side of the city ; the total amount dumped weekly is about 
17,000 loads, which, in the spring, has been known to increase 
to as many as 40,000 loads.'' 

* ' It appears to me that New \ ork must be a very dirty place. ' ' 

"Pier Ko. 41 is the landing place of the Albany boats. 
They are magnificent boats, and may well be called floating 
palaces. If you wish to see life and activity you should visit 
this dock a few minutes before 6 a. m. and 6 p. m. 

" Is that the time the boats leave ? '' 

"It is. And if you never witnessed a scene of confusion, 
you will witness one then Such hurrying, such shouting, a 
stranger would think they would never be ready to start at the 
appointed time. Heaps of freight upon the dock, and on board 
the boat. Deck hands busy wheeling it on board, while the ever- 
busy freight master stands, book in hand, tallying each pack- 
age. Passengers arriving in carriages and on foot ; the bag- 
gage master surrounded by a sea of trunks, checking the same. 
The boat itself shrieking like a monster in pain, all, all com- 
bined to make a scene of confusion impossible to describe.'' 

" I shoujld like to witness it.'' 

" So you ought ; but the months of July and August, when 
ttie people a^e rushing out of town to Niagara, Saratoga, 



/ 

106 ' CLINTON MARKET. 

Canada, or any other place their fancies may dictate, is the 
time to see it at the height of its glory.'' 

"Just my luck," said Jonathan with a sigh, " I cannot be 
here those months.'' 

"At the foot of Canal street, is the second landing of the 
Hohoken Ferry ; also the docks known as Pier No. 42, for- 
merly occupied by the Collins line of steamers, now the start- 
ing place of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company's boats '' 
" They go to California do they not? " 

" Yes ; they sail on the 1st, 11th and 21st of each month, 
except when either of those days fill o*^ a Sunday, then they 
leave on the proceeding Saturday." 

" I have often thought I should like to go to California.'' 
" Well then, Jonathan, if you do make up your mind to go, 
you cannot do better than take your passage by this line. It 
is wonderfully well conducted, and every thing that can be 
done, is done by this Company for the comfort and accommo- 
dation of passengers.'' 

" How long does it take to go to California ?" 
"The average time is about twenty- two days; but it has 
been done by a steamer of this company — the Arizona, I be- 
lieve—in eighteen days, twelve hours, that being the quickest 
time on record." 

" I have never been on board a large vessel, but I should 
much like to.'' 

''Then your wish shall be gratified." 

As good fortune would have it, the Arizona was lying at the 
dock, taking in cargo ; so, obtaining permission to go on board, 
we at once set to work to examine the ship. Jonathan was 
much struck with her noble proportions — it was a revelation 
to him — and l»e babbled, delightedly, about all he saw. 

The neatness and cleanliness of the state rooms were to him 
a theme of general laudation, while the cabin, with its ele- 
gance and beauty of fitting up, was fit for the abode of a prince. 
With much reluctance, Jonathan left, and we wend; d our 
way past Clinton Market, and the piers opposite, at which a 
vast number of oyster boats were lying. Pointing these out to 
my companion, I told him that a large number of our oysters 



JONATHAN UNWELL. lOT 

were landed at those dock^, and that it was not an unusual 
thing, for 40,000 bushels to be sold there in one week. 

"At pier No. 4 1, are the Ininaa line of steamships They 
sail, semi-weeklv, for Liverpool, calling at Queenstown." 

"John," said Jonathan, suddenly stopping me, "I don't feel 
well.'' 

" Not well ; what's the matter ? " 

"I don't know, but I think a little Bourbon would put me 
to rights." 

We imbibed. 

" Did you suffer any pain ? " I asked. 

" No, I can't say I did, but I thought ' prevention was better 
than cure' any day." 

I laughed, and thought any excuse better than none. 

'* Here, at Pier No. 47, is another steamship line to Europe. 
It is the National Steam Navigation Company's d:)cks, and 
their vessels sail weekly for Queenstown and Liverpool." 

" What a number of vessels «ail for Great Britain." 

" Yes, but our commercial relations are so great with that 
country, that there are none too many.'' 

"I presume not." 

" This,'' I continued, " is the cheapest line to Europe, as the 
cabin passage is only ninety dollars, and the steerage thirty, 
payable in currency. ' ' 

" This certainly is cheap.'' 

"It is. If you wanted to bring a poor friend out from 
Liverpool or Queenstown, you could do so by sending him a 
passage ticket, which would cost forty dollars." 

" I thought you said thiity dollars, just now." 

" So I did ; but the passage out takes longer, so the charge 
is higher.'' 

"Ah, I understand." 

At the foot of Christopher street is the third slip of the 
Hoboken li'erry, on either side of which are huge piles of lum- 
ber, towering upward toward the skies 

" From here," I informed Jonathan, '' the greater portioTi of 
our poorer class of citizens obtain their kindling wood " 

" They get it here, then carry it home, and chop it up." 



108 RAISING SUNKEN SHIPS. 

" It is sawed and split by steam, tlien done up into small 
bundles by boys, and sold to grocery store keepers for 1^ 
cents, and by tliem retailed for 2^ cents per bundle.'' 

Jonathan's attention was now attracted by a huge floating 
box, that lay upon the water, having upon its deck a house, 
from which towered a gigantic mast, rigged with cross beamg 
and pulleys. So he wished to know what it was. 

"That is a derrick — Bishop's derrick, as it is generally called. 
It is used for raising sunken steamers, ships, and, in fact, all 
classes of vessels .that may have foundered." 

•' Do you mean to tell me that that thing can raise a vessel 
from the bottom of the river ? " 
- " I do indeed. "With five men and one horse that arrange- 
ment hss raised a boat with 300 tons of coal on board." 

" Astonishing ! I never would have believed it. " 

*' This is done more by the lifting force of the boat itself, than. 
by the power on board." 

*' How do you mean ? " 

" The boat being seventy -six feet square and twelve feet deep, 
it is only necessa-ry to make her fast to a sunken boat at low 
tide, which, at high tide, will raise it six feet off the bottom." 

" I see ; the buoyancy of the derick doing this." 

"Just so. It is then towed in nearer shore; at the next 
tide the process is repeated, until at last she is raised high 
enough to be pumped out." 

"Well," said Jonathan taking off his hat and running his 
fingei-s through his bair, " we are a great people." 

"Here,'' said I, when we had reached the foot of Fifteenth 
street, " is the crossing of the American Telegraph Company. 
The cable is three times as thick as the Atlantic Telegraph 
cable, and runs from here on the bed of the river to Brimstone 
Point in the Elysiau Fields, Hoboken." 

''Thence, I presume, all over the continent of America." 

"Very nearly.'' 

"We were now at the foot of Eighteenth street, where a por- 
tion.of ihegas of the Manhattan Gas Company is made. It is 
the largest company in the city, and have another station for 
the manufacture of gas at the foot of Fourteenth street, East 



MAKING GAS. 109 

Kiver, and another at the foot of Sixty-fifth street, North 

Eiver. 

" Is this the only gas company in New York ? " 

"No, there is another one, which we will speak of anon. 

This company furnishes light to certainly not less than 350,- 

000 people, think of that, Jonathan." 

" I do, and think it a most startling fact." 

"In one year," I continued, "this company consumes a 
hundred thousand tons of coal, and sixty thousand hushels of 
lime, from which they make a thousand million cubic feet of 

gas." 

Jonathan gave a little whistle of surprise. 

" To do this fifteen hundred men are employed." 

" They must have a vast quantity of piping laid throughout 
the city," Griggs remarked. 

" Altogether about 230 miles of cast-iron main laid through- 
out the streets; But that will not so much surprise you when 

1 tell you that the Manhattan Company light the whole of this 
great city from the north side of Grand street to the south side 
of Seventy-ninth street. ' ' 

Still, steadily onward we progressed northward. Past swill- 
fed cnw stables, that sickened us to look upon the forlorn, 
wretched, diseased animals therein confined ; by distilleries and 
slaughter-houses, making the air pregnant with poisonous 
vapors; by sugar refineries, and pork packing establishments, 
with such facilities for the transaction of business, that hogs 
are killed, scalded, scraped, dressed, and ready for cooking, be- 
fore they know what has actually happened them. 

Past great clipper ships that are being loaded and unloaded 
by steam ; past tow-boats ladened with the cereals of the 
West the coal of Pennsylvania, and the thousand products of 
a thousand places; past ships, and sloops and schooners thatr 
have brought the products of nearly every clime to our shores, 
and that are bound to a thousand different places ladened with 
the results of American industry and skill. 

As we neared Thirty-fourth street I noticed that Jonathan 
gave three or four suggestive and unsatisfactory sniffs, finally 
pulling his handkerchief from his pocket, and applymg it to 
bis nose. 



110 THE OFFAL BOAT. 

" What is the matter ? ' ' I asked. 

"Do you not perceive a most disagreeable and offensive 
smell?'' 

" I do, but that is not to be wondered at, for at this pier is 
the offal boat.'' 

" The offal boat ! " 

"Yes, the boat that receives the animal dead of the city, and 
the refuse of slaughter-houses. If your .olfactories are not too 
sensitive we will go upon the dock and take a nearer view." 

" The odor is not pleasant to my nostrils, but in the search 
for information I am prepared to suffer." 

So upon the pier we went, and saw a small sloop lying there 
piled high with the carcases of horses, pigs, cows, dogs and 
cats, in every stage ofdecomposition. Besides these, a number 
of tubs and barrels filled with blood and entrails, stood about. 

" How are these animals collect ed ? " 

" Whenever one dies, notice must immediately be given at 
the nearest station-house, or at the ofiBce-of the City Inspector. 
The contractor 'then sends one of his carts— of which there are 
ten constantly employed— and the funeral takes place with 
neatness and dispatch." 

" A terribly disagreeable business." 

" The offal and blood from the slaughter-houses, the butchers 
are compelled by law to deliver themselves." 

'* And quite right and proper." 

" The whole of this is done under the auspices of the Bureau 
of Sanitary Inspection, who, among other things, watch that 
the denizens of New York do not have unhealthy food sold to 
them." 

"You do not mean to tell me," said Jonathan horrified, 
^' that men sell food knowing it to be bad." 

*' We will give them the benefit of the doubt, and presume 
they are ignorant of it, but the officers of the Sanitary Inspec- 
tion can detect it at once, and in one week condemned as unfit 
for human food, 1,236 pounds of beef; 495 pounds of veal ; 
2,900 pounds of fish ; 350 pounds of poultry ; 8,580 pounds of 
other meats, and sixteen hogs." 

" What an immense quantity ! " 



THE TONNAGE OJ' NEW YORK. Ill 

**But for this Bureau all this would have found its way- 
down the throats of our hungry citizens, and engendered no 
end of sickness." 

*• Where is all this abomination carried to ? ' ' 

" Up the river to a bone boiling establishment, where it is 
quickly converted into various articles much more useful." 

"■ Let us go ; I feel sick and faint." 

" Now,'' said I, "as there is nothing more of any very great 
interest to be seen this side, we will cross over and and take a 
glimpse at the East Kiver side," . 

As we trudged along we talked of the commercial impor- 
tance of New York, and the marvellous increase of her com- 
merce, which has no parallel in history. 

"In 1701," I informed Jonathan, "the mercantile marine 
of this city consisted of seventy-four vessels, seven of which 
were ships.'' 

" Only seven ships ! '' 

" Now the tonnage of the port of New York is nearly 
a million and a half tons, one-fifth of the entire United 
States." 

" Immen-se, immense ! '' was all that Jonathan said. 

*' Here, at the foot of Thirty-fourthestreet, Ea^t Eiver,,is the 
ferry to Hunter' s^roint, hon^ Island ; at the foot of Twenty- 
third street is another terry to Greenpoint." 

" Apparently the means of egress from New York to the 
suburbs are ample." 

" Yes, but not too many for our rapidly increasing growth. 
Here, also, is the other gas company I told you of— the New- 
York. It is not so large as the Manhattan, their customers all 
being below Grand street." 

•'How many miks of main have they laid ? '' 
About one hundred and thirty, they manufacture about 
six hundred millions cubic feet of gas per annum, and give em- 
ployment to five hundred and thirty -five men.'' 

" Here are the Novelty Iron Works, where the clang and 
clash of the hammer is never still, and the air is dark with the 
dust and labor of a thousand men." 

•' What ! where they make the engines for ocean steamers ?'' 



11^ THE NOVELTV WORKS. 

" The same ; and as we walk along, I will endeavor to give 
3'ou pome little description of Ihe work.'' 

'' Praj-- commence." 

" The entrance to the Novelty Works is by a great gateway, 
through v;hich the visitor, on approaching it, will very proba- 
bly see an enormous truck, or car, issuing, drawn by a long 
team of horses, and bearing some ponderous piece of machinery, 
suspended beneath it, by means of levers and chains. On the 
rii^ht of the entrance gate is the porter's lodge, with entrances 
from it to the offices. Beyond the entrance, and just within 
the inclosure, may be seen a great -crane, used for receiving or 
delivering the vaat masses of metal, the shafts, the cylinders, 
the boilers, the vacuum pans, and other ponderous forma- 
tions, which are cootinually coming and going to and from 
the 3'ard. Beyond the crane is seen the bell by which the hours 
of vrork are regulated." 

" Which is, no doubt, heard with pleasure when it rings for 
dinner hour." 

" On the right of the entrance is the porter's lodge ; beyond 
it, in the yard, stands the crane. Turning to the left, just be- 
yond the.crane, the visitor enters the iron foundry, a spacious 
inclosure, with ovens and furnaces along the sides, and enor- 
mous cranes swinging in various directions in the centre. 
These cranes are for hoisting the heavy castings out of the pita 
in which they are formed." 

" And what are these ?" 

" Those are ovens for drying the moulds. Turning to the 
right from the foundry, and passing down through the yard, 
the visitor finds himself in the midst of a complicated maze of 
buildings, which extend, in long ranges, toward the water, with 
lanes and passages between them, like the streets of a 
ftown. In these passages companies of workmen are seen, 
some going to and fro, drawing heavy masses of machinery 
upon iron trucks ; others employed in hoisting some ponderous 
cylinder or shaft by a crane, or stacking pigs of iron in great 
heaps, to be i eady for the furnaces, which are roaring near, as 
if eager to devour them. And all the time there issues from 
the open doors of the great boiler-shops and forging-shops be- 
low, an incessant clangor, produced by the blows of the sledgea 



ftEGULAtlON OF LACOK. 113 

upon the livets of the boilers, or of the trip-hammers at the 
forges. 

The motive power by which all the machinery of the estab- 
lishment is driven, k furuitiied by a stationary engine, ia 
the very centre of the works. It stands between two Of the 
principal shops. On the right is seen the boiler, and on the 
left, the engine. 

" This central engine, since it carries all the machinery of the 
works, by means of which every i bin g is formed and fashioned, 
is the life and soul of the establishment — the mother, in fact, ot 
all the monsters which issue from it ; and it is impossible to 
look upon her, as she toils on industriously in her daily duty, 
and think of her Titanic progeny, scattered now over every 
ocean on the globe, without a certain feeding of respect, and 
even of admiration 

"The number of men employed at the Novelty Works, is 
from one thousand to twelve hundred. These are all men, in 
the full vigor of life. If, now, we add to this number a proper 
estimate for the families of these men, and for the mechanics 
and artizans who supply their daily wants, all of whom reside 
in the streets surrounding the ^vorks, we shall find that the 
establishment represents, at a moderate calculation, a popula- 
tion of ten thousand souls. 

" The proper regulation of the labors of so large a body of 
workmen au are employed in such an establishment, requires, 
of course, much system in the general arrangements, and very 
constant and careful supervision on the part of those intrusted 
with the charge of the various divisions of the work. The es- 
tablishment forms, in fact, a regularly organized community, 
having, like any state or kingdom, its gradations of rank, its 
established usages, its written laws, its police, its finance, its 
records, its rewards, and its penalties.'' 

As we passed on we saw the great skeletons of ships, gaunt 
and vast, lying upon the stocks. Hundreds of men were at 
work upon them, and the bustling activity, and the noisy hum 
of labor were pleasing to the sight and t-ar. 

"John,'' said Jonathan, " I have never visited a ship -yard, 
and I should like to do so very much.' ' 



114 A REPRESEXTATiVE AMERICAN. 

" Then you shall do so now, more especially us we are in the 
vicinity of the representative ship builder's yard of America." 

*' Indeed, then I am fortunate." 

"I mean the ship-yard, at the foot of Sixth street, of Mr. 
William H. Webb, a builder who has constructed more ships 
than any other man in America." 

" How many has he built altogether ? " 

" One hundred and twenty-nine vessels in his own yard, and 
a large number in other yards, making, as I have just now 
eaid, an aggregate of tonnage larger than any other American 
ship-builder." 

"That is something to say, for ships go much toward making 
a country prosperous." 

"His latest triumph in the way of marine architecture is the 
United States steam ram Dunderberg, launched on Saturday 
morning, July 22, 1865." 

" I have read of her in the newspapers, and from all accounts 
she must be a wonderful vessel." 

" She is an iron-clad frigate ram, of seven thousand tons 
displacement, five thousand tons registered tonnage, and of 
very peculiar construction. She is the most powerful and for- 
midable vessel of her kind afloat, and the famous iron-clads of 
France or England cannot begin to compare with her." 

" If England does not look out she will lose the suptemacy 
of the seas.' ' 

" If she has not already done so ; and how has she done so ? 
I will tell you. By the skill, enterprise and energy of such 
men as Mr. Webb, of whom Americans are justly proud." 

*' How many guns will the Danderherg carry ?" 

" Her armament will consist of four 15-inch Rodman's, and 
from twelve to fourteen 11- inch Dahlgreen guns. " 

" Goodness gracious ! sufficient to sink any ordinary ship in 
a few seconds.'' 

" And that is what she is made for. Her dimensions are as 
follows : length, 380 feet 4 inches; beam, 72 feet 10 inches ; 
height of casemate inside, 7 feet 9 inches ; length of ram-bow, 
60 feet, and the iron armor upon her weighs 1,000 tons." 

" She must be of immense draft." 



A SUCCESSFUL CAREER. Il5 

"No, not so great as one would suppose, drawing, when 
ready for sea, only 21 feet. She has six main, aud two donkey 
boilers. The engines are horizontal, back-action, condensing, 
with two 100-inch cylinders, and 45-inch stroke of piston. 




Steamsliip " Constitution," built for the Pacific M. S. Co., launched by 'Wm. H. Webb, 1S60. 

The propeller is 31 feet in diameter, and has a varying pitch of 
from 27 to 30 feet, and weighs 34,580 pounds. Her coal-bunkers 
will accommodate 1,000 tons of coal, sufficient for 10 to 15 days 
steaming.'' 

By this time we had reached the yard, and Jonathan watched 
with eager curiosity, the busy workmen, active as so many 
beavers, engaged upon the construction of a ship that, with 
ribs all bare and bleak, lay upon the stocks. 

*•' If you like," I said to Jonathan, " I will give you a short 
sketch of Mr. Webb's most successful career." 

'* Nothing I should like better,'' he replied. 

So, seating ourselves upon a heavy beam of timber, I com- 
menced : 

" William H. Webb, the eminent American ship-builder, was 
born in the city of New York, June 19, 1816. The family came 
from Connecticut, but was of English extraction. His father 
was the senior member of the firm of Webb & Allen, ship- 
builders in New York, and William, who had served his ti:ne 
with them at his father's dock, soon after became a partner 
in the buiine^s. This was in 1849, and this is the same ship- 
yard.'' 

"Then Mr. Webb has been twenty -six years in business ?'* 



116 LAUNCH OP THE GKXERAL ADMIRAL. 

' * Yes. Three years later, M». Allen retired with a fortune, 
leaving the business entirely in Mr. Webb's hands. Having a 
great ambition to build a new vessel, in 1851 he applied to the 
proper officials of the American, French and Eussiau Govern- 
ments, for a contract to build a frigate, but \rithout success. 
During the next year he dispatched a special agent to St. 
Petersburg to press the matter there ; later, he sent a second 
agent, and at length, notwithstanding a great pressure of busi- 
ness at home, went himself to the Eu^sian capital." 

•'A true American. The more difficulties the more deter- 
mined to overcome them." 

" At last, after about two m'onths of hard work, he had made 
so favorable an impression on the Grand Duke (Constantine) 
that the latter obtained from the Emperor Nicholas an order 
for Webb to build in New York for the Eussian Government, 
one line of-battle ship of ninety guns, and for its delivery at 
Cronstadt, with a large quantity of ship timber." 

'•Go on," commanded Jonathan somewhat excitedly "' 
am becoming quite interested." 

" He returned to America, and preparations for the building 
of the ship were commenced at Mr. Webb's yard, but delays 
occurred by reason of the want of definite instructions on the 
part of the Eussian naval officers sent out to superintend the 
work, and subsequently on account of the war between Eussia 
and the Allied Powers of France and England. At the close 
of the war, Mr. Webb was directed to go on and build a ship 
with a less number, but larger guns. The keel of the General 
Admiral was laid September 21, 1857, in the presence of a large 
concourse of people, including the Eussian Minister, Baron de 
Stofkle, his suite, and various Eussian naval officers. The 
launch took place exactly one year later, and the vessel was 
completed and sent to Eussia in 1859. TUe General Admiral 
was of about six thousand tons burden, carrying seventy-two 
guns, and fully met the expectations o^ the Eussian Govern- 
ment." 

" Of course, that was to be expected." 

" From 1861 to 1863, Mr. Webb was engaged in the construc- 
tion of two iron-clad frigates of six thousand tons, for the 



A REPRESENTATIVE AMERICAN. 117 

Italian Government. The work on tht se vtsscls was prosecuted 
during the cfiiatoitoiis rebellion without interruption, and the 
ships, on their delivtiy to the Italian Government, provolied 
the most unbounded admiration.'' 

Jonathan was about to iuten-uptme, but I silenced him with 
a motion of my hand, and continued. 

" Mr. Webb is truly a lepresentative American. Ilis aston- 
ishing career, his bold claim, not only for superiority over 
native but foreign ship-builders, and his determination, at 
every hazard and every cost, to demonstrate all this to the 
world, have proved him largely animated by the soaring ambi- 
tion common to his naiion.'' 

''That's so " 

'' And now let us sum up what he has done for the naval 
architecture of the world. He built a vessel which is the pride 
of the Eussian navy ; he has placed two splendid iron-clad 
frigates in the navy of Italy, and now he contributes a new 
marvel to the navy of his own proud country. He has been 
enabled to do this because he was one of the born geniuses of 
the laud, and because he determined to make his talents a new 
source of Ameriian renown." 

"Such a man," exclaimed Jonathan enthusiastically, **is 
part of the history of the country." 

I was of the same opinion. 

*' At Pier 54, is where all the Italian marble is landed that is 
brought into this port. Those great blocks you see before you 
are destined to grow into life under the chisel of American 
sculptors." 

"What! those unshapely blocks of stone to be converted 
into works of art, it seems almost incredible.'' 

*' r>ut nevertheless it is true. And here are the dry or sectional 
docks, most important adjuncts to a mercantile marine, where 
damaged or leaky sh ps are taken and repaired. There are two 
companies owning these docks, the ' Sectional Dock Company,' 
and the ' New York Balance Dock Company,' and have accom- 
modation for five vessels." 

' ' What a number of men there are employed on a ves- 
Bel!" 



lis A filO llAtlL. 

"Yes, it is no tiniisxual sight to Bee two or three hundred m6n 
at once at work on a ship's bottom. The largest of these 
docks is 300 feet in length, and has a lifting power of 4,000 
tons ; the power iised is steam, and four men can lift the largest 
ship out of the water with the greatest ease — of course that is 
"with the aid of the engine.'* 

" You don't imagine,'* said Jonathan laughing, " that I sup- 
posed for a minute that four men could lift a ship without that 
aid?" 

"If/' I continued, paj^ing no heed to my companion's re- 
mark, *' a vessel presents itself in a sinking condition, and the 
docks are full, a certificate to that effect will procure her admis- 
sion to the United States eectional dock, at the Navy- Yard, 
Brooklyn, but not otherwise." 

" What do they charge for hoisting out a vessel ? " 

" Twenty-five cents per ton for sailing vessels and fifty cents 

for steamers. At Pier 3D are the ' Hydrostatic Lifting Docks ;* 

pier No. 34 is the Catharine Ferry to Brooklyn, and pier 

No. 33 is where the oysters come in by the hundreds of tons." 

"We walked on. 

"Pier No. 32 is another ferry to Hunter's Point; pier 29 
another ferry to Williamsburg and Bridge street, Brooklyn. 
And here, at the foot of Beekman street, was started the first 
ferry to Brooklyn, in 1642. From that time the Brooklyn ferry 
became an established fact, and was removed to Fulton street 
some thirty or forty years ago.'' 

*•' John,'' said Jinathau, looking up into my face, " I think 
an oyster would do me good." 

" And I am also under the impression that a good roast or a 
stew would do me good. More especially as we are at Fulton 
Market, and it is only here that oysters can be obtained.'' 

"Why, John, how you talk ! I am sure I have seen in the 
course of our walks no end of oyster saloons!" 

" So you have ; but what I have t^poken I have said advisedly, 
there is no place to get oysters in New York save Fulton Mar- 
ket." 

"I did not know," remarked Jonathan, slyly, *' that Fulton 
was an oyster market.'' 



THE DIFEERENCE IN STEWS. 110 

*' Neither is it, in the strict sense of the term, hut I alhide 
more particularly to the stand ; or, more pi'operly speakvig 
to the Oyster Saloon of Messrs. Dorian & Shaffer, situated at 
the south-eastern portion of the market.' 

"Messrs. Dorian & Shaffer,'' said Jonathan, inquiringly, 
*' who are they?'' 

" My dear fellow," I replied, somewhat sternly, "never ask 
that question again. Not to know them, is to argue yourself 
unknown." 

Jonathan faltered out something about excusing him. 

"They are," I continued, "one of the institutions of New 
York, and New York cannot he accounted seen unless a visit is 
paid to them." 

" Then, how fortunate I suggested oysters." 

I allowed Jonathan to take the praise to himself ; hut, if the 
truth was told, I was about doing the same myself. 

" At my house,'' I went on, "since you have been staying 
with me, you have eaten oysters in nearly every style, and con- 
sidered my stews as near perfection as possible '' 

" So I did, so I did ;" and Jonathan smacked his lips at the 
recollection. 

"They were nothing of the kind. Good, I admit; but as 
to being perfection ! Nonsense ! '' 

This cost me a hard struggle to admit ; for, be it known, if 

there is one thing I pride myself on more than another, it is 

my stews. 

"If any boay else had said that, John, I think I should 

have quarrelled with him." 

" I don't know how it is, or why it should be," I resumed, 
" but what I am about to state will, I presume, be indorsed by 
all New Yorkers, or, indeed, I might say, by all oyster-eaters 
that ever visited this city." 

"And that is?" 

" It is impossible to get a roast, a stew, or a fry in your own 
house in the same manner you do at Dorian and Shaffer's. 
Whether it is in the style of cooking, or what, I cannot tell, 
but certain it is, the fact stands as I have related." 

" You know * the proof of the pudding is in the eating,' so I 
will decide by-an'-by." 



120 A BEVY OF BEAUTY. 

By this time we had reached the saloon, and my friend Jona- 
than was at once struck with the extreme- neatness and capa- 
ciousness. At least, capacious for a stand in Fulton Market, 
for one hundred persons can be seated and ferved with crusta- 
cean delicacies at one and the same time. 

We commenced on a stew, accompanied by a "toby " of ale. 
Our order was taken by a neat, active attendant, attired in a 
blue checked apron and sleeves, who, apparently, b^-fore we 
could say ^' Jack Robinson" — supposing we had wished to 
utter that gentleman's name — placed the desired articles be- 
fore us. 

Jonathan was astonished . at the celerity with which our 
■wishes were executed, and strongly asseverated it was like 
magic. 

" Quickness is a necessity here," I remarked ; " if the orders 
•were not served expeditiously, one half of their customers could 
not be supplied.'' 

" That I believe, judging from the people who are now present 
appeasing their gastronomic propensities with bivalves.'' 

"Why, between the hours of six and twelve, v. m., no less 
than between three and four hundred iadits have been known 
to visit here, and partake of oysters, in one form or another. Of 
course, these were attended by cavaliers, swelling the number 
to no doubt, nearly a thousand.' ' 

*' From such a business their receipts must be enormous." 

" They are ; on an average nearly fifteen hundred dollars be- 
ing taken daily." 

** You surprise me. Shall we try a roast?" 

I acquiesced. 

Some of the most noted people of New York and Brooklyn 
come here for oysters. Lawyers, politicians, literary men, 
editors, divines, and merchants, all, all visit this establish- 
ment, and indulge in their fondness for this delightful shell- 
fish." And, as I spoke, I poised a beauty on the end of my 
fork, previous to swallowing it. 

" Are there any celebrities here now?'' queried Jonathan, la 
an audible whi.-i-er. 

♦'Hush ! not so loud. I will look in a minute." 



NOTABLE PERSONAGES. 121 

In less than the speciSed time, I cast my eyes around the 
room, and espied several notables. 

"Do you see that pleasant-faced, stoutly builc gentleman, 
seated three tables from us ?' ' 

"That one with rather long hair ? Yes." 

" "Well, he is the most popular preacher in Brooklyn, likewise 
the editor of one of the leading religious journals of the citv." 

" You don't mean that's — " 

" Don't speak so loud ; everybody will hear you." 

Jonathan lowered his voice, arid whispered across the table, 
the name of one of our most famous divines. 

" The same." 

"What!" exclaimed Jonathan, surprised; "he come 
here?" 

" And why not ? Gentlemen of his cloth must eat as well 
as you and me, and everything here is as quiet and as well con- 
ducted as at any hotel in the laud. ' ' 

" That's so. I spoke without thinking." 

" That lady there, seated at the table just opposite ours, is 
one of the most popular writers of the day, a regular contribu- 
tor to Bonner's Ledger, and the authoress of several popular 
works, from the sale of which she has made a very comfortable 
fortune.'' 

Jonathan gave a side-glance at the lady indrcateil. 

" The gentleman with her, is her husband, he also is a literary 
man, a historian, and his lives of Aaron Burr, General Jackson 
and Horace Greeley are among the standard books of the Eng- 
lish language.'' 

A number of other notable people were present whom I 
pointed out for Jonathan's delectation. 

By way of variety, Jonathan now proposed a fry, but to this 
I turned a deaf ear ; seeing he was disappointed at my refusal 
I insisted upon his taking one, which he did. 

Everything must have a:i end, even an oyster meal, so Jona- 
than at last declared he was fmi.shed and had enjoyed himself 
exceedingly. 

Before leaving Jonathan turned and took a last fond look 
and wiped away — not exactly a tear —but the crumbs from his 



122 SUMMER OYSTERS. 

mouth, and expressed, as his opinioa, that Dorian & Shaffer 
did a large business. 

" They do. Taking their wholesale and 'retail business to- 
gether none larger ; their trade extends all over the Continent 
of America, and they are constantly shipping to every State 
and Territory in the Union cans and barrels of oysters." 

" Indeed, before leaving I must get them to send a few cans 
on to my place. ' ' 

" It is genorally supposed," I continued, " that no oysters fit 
to eat can be procured during the months of July and August ; 
this is a mi-take." 

" A mistake. Do not oysters spawn during the summer 
months ? ' ' 

• ' Yes. But the oysters that are eaten during the months I 
have mentioned are brought from Virginia, replanted in Prince's 
Bay, and dredged fur when v/anted." 

" Do not Virginia oysters spawn at the same time as other 
oysters ? ' ' 

"Oh, yes. What I meant was, by removing them the spawn 
is destroyed." 

"Ah, I see.'' 

By this time we had left the market ; looking up Fulton 
street I pointed out to Jonathan the old United States Hotel, 
at the corner of Water and the above mentioned street. 

'' That hotel was a famous one in its day. It was the resort 
and home of marine captains»and s^eafaring men. Kow it is no 
longer used as a hotel, but is let out for ofiices." 

'' Changes are taking place every day," said Jonathan some- 
what sententiously. 

"That's true. In the building, at 196 Water street, is the 
United States lunch-room, decidedly the best at this portion of 
the city, as the merchants and clerks-in this vicinity amply testify, 
by their visiting it to satisfy the cravings of the inner man.'' 

"A large rush of customers is a sure criterion that the edi- 
bles and drinkables of such an establishment are excellent." 

"That's so. The proprietors are Messrs. Andrews «& Terry, 
gentlemen of large experience as caterers for the appetite of 
the public.'' 




llilflllill^lii 




U. S. LUNCH ROOMS, 196 Water Street. 



A GOOD SAMPL-R. 123 

"John," said Jonathan Bolemnly, placing his hand on the 
lower button of his waistcoat, '' I think those oysters want a 
corrective.'' 

" A corrective ! '' 

'•Yes. I always nse Bourbon, what do you take ? " 

I could not help smiling, as I replied that Bourbon was also 
my favorite medicine. 

"And." I continued, "as we are now at 91 South street, 
kept by Messrs. Farrar & Lyon, we will just drop in and try 
so:ne of their superb old Kentucky whisky.'' 

"Well," said Jonathan when he had tasted it, "this is 
really excellent ; some of the right sort, and no mistake." 

" You are right, it is. The firm of Farrar & Lyon have 
been in business for over half a century, consequently they 
Lave long experience, and have greater facilities for the transac- 
tion of business, and obtaining pure and genuine articles than 
almost any other house can boast of." 

" Judging Irom the sample I have just swallowed, I believe it. '' 

"Before leaving, we will just take a stroll through their 
vaults and store rooms ; " so saying I led the way to escort 
Jonathan through the building. 

We taw thousands upon thousands of cigars, piled box upon 
box, reaching from the floor to the ceiling ; barrels upon bar- 
rels of liquors and the most precious wines, and innumerable 
demijohns upon the floors, on shelves, and suspended on hooks 
from the rafters above. 

'' What an immense stock ! " ejaculated Jonathan. 

" One of the largest in the trade. Besides the supply you 
see here, this house always has a large quantity of wines, 
liquors and cigars stored away in bond, so it is safe to calculate 
the stock twice as large as that which meets the eye on a tour 
through the premises." 

" It must take a large capital to conduct such a business.'' 

" Over a quarter of a million dollars, I believe, is the capital 
used by this house. You were talking just now of the excel- 
lence of the Bourbon ? " 

*' I was John, and it is good." 

** Then this may be a consolation to 3'ou ; wherever you go 



124 INFORMATION NOTED BY JONATHAN. 

throughout the Continent of America, jon will always be ena- 
bled to procure some of it." 

" B}^ carrying it with me, I presume you mean." 

" No, I mean that Messrs. Farrar & Lyon have customers in 
nearly every town and city in the Union, so you see, with very 
little difiBculty you can procure some of their Bourbon." 

" I do see." 

"Or,'' I continued, warming with my theme, ** if business 
or chance should have you visit foreign lands, you can still 
obtain a " smile " from the cellars of those gentlemen." 

"How so?" 

" There is hardly an American vessel, either sailing or steam, 
that leaves this port that does not get her supply of wines, 
liquors and cigars from this house.'' 

** Ah, I see ; that information is worth mentally noting.'' 

We now resumed our walk along the wharves, 

"Pier No. 26 is now occupied by the Peck Slip Ferry Com- 
pany to Williamsburg. This Company pays to the city the sum 
of 821,000 per annum for the privilege of ferrying passengers 
across at this point." 

" A good round sum." 

" Yes,, but the Company make money out of it even at that. 
Piers No. 24 and 25 are the docks of the New Haven and Hart- 
ford steamboats. From Piers 20 to 21 is Burling Slip. Talking 
of Burling glip reminds me ; if you ever become thirsty in this 
neighborhood drop in at No. 40^-, the Ocean House, and my word 
for it, you will be thoroughly satisfied with what you obtain." 

" Upon my word John, you know everything." 

Paying no attention to Jonathan's interpolation, I continued. 

" At the foot of Wall street is Pier No. 16. From here start 
the fast sailing Murray's Line of steamships for Savannah. 
The boats are the Leo and Virgo, both staunch sailing crafts, 
and fitted up with every convenience for the accommodation of 
passengers. They leave every Thursday at 3 o'clock p. m.'' 

*' Is this another market ? ' ' 

*• Yes, the Franklin, formerly known as the Old Fiy Market. 
It was the first market established in this city, though now it 
is not much used." 

* * What great ugly looking thing is that, moored off the pier?'' 



A DREDGING MACttlNE* 125 

•' That is the dredging machine. ' ' 

" Used for dredging oysters? " 

'* Still harping on your oysters, Ko ; it is commonly called 
a ' mud scow,' and is used for cleaning the docks of the accu- 
mulated mud and filth, that is not worked off by the ebb and 
flow of the tide." 

" Useful, but certainly not ornamental." 

•'At Pier No, 2 are the slips of the South and Hamilton 
Ferries to Brooklyn. On Pier No. 1 is the barge ofiicc;, where 
inspectors of customs wait, when not on actual duty, to be 
assigned to incoming vessels so as to watch over the interests of 
Uncle Sam ; on this pier is also the office af the Associated 
Press, and in the boat-house below, the Harbor Police keep their 
boats. Here is also the ferry to Staten Island." 

'*If I am not mistaken, this is the Battery, where we started 
from this morning ? ' ' 

"It is." 
. *'I thought so, and now John, as I am somewhat tired, let 
us get into an omaibusaud ride to your residence." 

"One moment: before we leave the wharves and shipping 
let me rectify an omission I made passing up along the docks 
of the North E,iver." 

" An omission ! what was that ? ' ' 

" Forgetting to point out to you ' The North American 
Lloyd ' line of steamships that run from this port to Bremen." 

" Is it such an excellent one ?" 

" Not only that, but it is the only purely American line that 
runs between here and Europe. All the mail steamships, for 
the past few years, to Europe, have been owned by foreign 
companies. Consequently, when we see an American company 
Ftriving to break down this monopoly, we, as Americans, 
should give it our most cordial recognition. 

'' That's most emphatically so." 

"The pier of this company is at No. 46 North Eiver ; office 
45 Beaver street, and the steamers, carrying the United States' 
mail, leave bi-monthly for Bremen, touching at Cowes, where 
passengers for France and England are transhipped." 

Having had my say, I hailed a passing stage, and getting into 
it, we were carried up Broadway towards home. 



(126) 



WALK THE SEVENTH. 

CHURCHES. 

It had been my intention on this, the seventh day of our 
peregrinations, to have taken Jonathan to some of our leading 
churches. But, upon examinativn, I found they were so nu- 
merous that it would be impossible to visit them all in one day. 
So 1 compromised the matter by giving Jonathan the following 
list, wbicn IS a correct one, of Kew York churches : 

BAPTIST. 

Abyssinian, 166 TVaverly Place ; W. Spelman, Minister, 
70 Grove street ; Moses Wester, Sexton, at church. 

Amity btreet, 161 Fifth avenue ; K. Brownlow, Sexton, 17 
Amity Place. 

Antioch, 264 Eleecker street ; John Q. Adams, Minister, 
63 Morton street. 

Berean, 85 Downing street ; John Cowling, Minister, 6 
Ashland Place ; William Morgan, Sexton, 25 Bedford street. 

Bethesda, Fifty-third street, near Seventh avenue ; W. H. 
Pendleton, Minister ; Azariah Clark, Sexton. 

Bethlehem, 395 West Forty-fifth istreet ; Charles Gayer, 
Minister ; C. Gauger, Sexton, at church. 

Bloomingdale, 220 West Forty second street ; I. Westcott, 
Minister, 200 W. Forty- second street. 

Calvary, 50 West Twenty-third street ; E; J. W. Buckland, 
Minister, 445 West Twenty-third street; Henry Estwick, 
Sexton, 1276 Broadway. 

Cannon Street, Madison street, corner Governeur ; E. K. 
Fuller, Minister. 

Ebenezer, 154 West Thirty-sixth street; James C. Gobel, 
Minister ; M. A. Quackenbush, Sexton, at church. 

Fifth Avenue, near West Fort-y-sixth street ; Thomas Armi- 
tage, Minister, 350 Broome street. 



CHURCa^S OF THE CITY. 127 

Fiftli Avenue, near "West One Hundred and Twenty-sixth 
street ; Elijah Lucas, Minister, West One Hundred and Twenty- 
fifth street, corner Seventh avenue. 

First, 354 Broome street ; Thomas D. Anderson, Minister, at 
church ; Joseph Toung, Sexton, 357 Broome street. 

First German, 19 Avenue A ; John Eschman, Minister, 19 
AveDue A. 

First Mariners', Oliver street, corner Henry street ; J. H. 
Hodge, Minister, Brooklyn; John Davis, Sexton, 32 Henry 
street. • 

Free-Will Baptist, 74 West Seventeenth street. 
Laight Street, corner Varick street ; Kobert McGonegal, Min- 
ister, 16 Beach street ; Thomas Eichards, Sexton, 2 Watts street. 
Macdougal Street, 24 Macdougal street ; L. W. Olney, Min- 
ister ; D. Baschan, Sexton, 31 Cornelia street. 

Madison Avenue, corner East Thirty-first street ; Henry G. 
Weston, Minister, 140 East Thirty-first street ; S. Douglass, 
Sexton, 461 Third avenue. 

North, 126 Christopher street ; A. Cleghorn, Minister. 
Pilgrim, West Thirty-third street, near Eighth avenue ; W. 
Clark, Sexton, 377 Ninth avenue. 

Sixth Street, 211 Sixth street; J. Senior, Sexton, 613 Fifth 
street. 

Sixteenth Street, 257 West Sixteenth street ; W. S. Mikels, 
Minister, 174 West Seventeenth street; James Carpenter, 
Sexton, 147 West Eighteenth street. 

South, 147 West Twenty-fifth street ; H. W. Knapp, Min- 
ister ; J. Vanbrakle, Sexton, 335 Eight.avenue. 

Stanton Street, 36 Stanton street ; T. C, Fisher, Sexton. 
Tabernacle, 162 Second avenue ; J. K. Kendrick, Minister ; 
R. Brownlow, Sexton, 17 Amity Place. 

Welsh, 141 Christie street ; Laban Lewis, Sexton, 141 Chris- 
tie street. 

Yorkville, Ea.st Eighty-third street, near Second avenue ; C. 
C. Norton, Minister, East Eighty-second street, near Third 
avenue ; G. Walters, Sexton, East Eightieth street, near Se- 
cond avenue. 

Zion (colored,) 155 Sullivan street; J. 11. Raymond, MIq- 
ister ; A. Duncan, Sexton, 15 Laurens street. 



128 CHITROHES OV THE CITY. 



COKGREGATIONAL. 

Bethesda (colored,) 681 Sixth avenue ; C. B. Ray, Minister, 
81 West Thirty eight street ; George Rogers, Sexton. 

Church of the Puritans, Union Place, corner East Fifteenth 
street; G. B. Cheever, Minister; A. A. McGee, Sexton, 117 
West Thirty-third street. 

Tabernacle, Sixth avenue, corner West Thirty-fourth street ; 
J. P. Thompson, Minister, 32 West Thirty-sixth street ; Fre- 
derick S. Boyd, Sexton, 47 WestjThirty-lifth street. 

Welsh, o3 East Eleventh street ; Evan Griffiths, Minister, 
171 Eighth avenue. 

St. John's Forty-first street, near Sixth avenue 

DUTCH REFORMED. 

Bloomingdale, Broadway, corner West Sixty-eighth street ; 
Enoch Vanaken, Minister, 47 West Twenty-ninth street. 

Collegiate, Lafayette Place, corner East Fourth street ; North 
Dutch, William street, corner Fulton street ; Fifth Avenue, 
corner West Twenty- ninth street; Lecture-room, West Forty- 
eighth' street, near Fifth avenue; Thomas Dewitt, 123 Ninth 
street, T. E. Vermilye, 20 East Thirty-seventh street, T. W. 
Chambers, 70 West Thirty-sixth street, and J. T. Duryea, 26 
West Thirty-sixth street, Ministers ; Arch. C. Brady, 100 East 
Fourth street ; James Dunshee, 22 King street, and W. J. 
Schoonmaker, 65 West Twenty-ninth street, Sextons. 

Fourth German Mission, 112 West Twenty-ninth street; J. 
H. Oerter, Minister, 143 West Thirty-first street. 

German Evangelical Mission, 141 East Houston street ; Ju- 
lius W. Geyer, Minister, 215 Forsyth street ; William Roth 
Sexton, rear of church. 

German Reformed Protestant, 129 Norfolk street ; H, A 
Friedel, 127 Norfolk street; Frederick Tromp, Sexton, at 
church. 

Greenwich, 53 West Forty-sixth street ; Thomas C. Strong, 
Minister. 

Harlem, Third avenue, corner East One Hundred and Twenty 
first street ; Jer. S. Lord, Minister, rear of church. 



CHURCHES OF THE CITY. 129 

• Manhattan, 71 Avenue B ; Ebenezer Wiggins, Minister, 408 
Fifth street ; H. Miller, Sexton, 406 Fifth street. 

Market Street, corner Henry street ; J. C. Butcher, Minister, 
235 Henry street ; T. P Rogers, Sexton, 238 Clinton street. 

Mouni Pleasant, 158 East Fiftieth street ; Isaac M. See, Min- 
ister, 151 East Fiftieth street. 

North Dutch. (See Collegiate.) 

North West, 145 West Twenty-third street ; H. D. Ganse, 
Minister, 358 West Twenty-second street ; W. Allason, Sexton, 
102 West Twenty-fourth street. 

Prospect Hill, Third avenue, near East Eighty-SoVenth street; 
D. McL. Quackenbush, Minister, Eo.st Eighty-sixth street, near 
Third avenue ; J. Chandler, Sexton, Third avenue, near East 
Eighty-fifth street. 

South, Fifth avenue, corner West Twenty-first street ; E. P. 
Rogers, Minister, 6 East Thirty-first street ; J. Young, Sexton, 
52 Third avenue. 

Thirty-Fourth Street, 307 West Thirty-fourth street ; Peter 
Stryker, Minister, 205 West Thirty-first street ; John Cleverley, 
Sexton, 495 Eighth avenue. 

Twenty-First Street, 47 West Twenty-first street. ; A. R 
Thompson, Minister, 25 West Twenty-seventh street ; J. S. 
Brady, Sexton, 447 West Forty-fourth street. 

Union, 25 Sixth avenue ; Isaac L. Hartley., Minister,. 147 
West Fifteenth street. 

Washington Heights. 

Washington Square, Washington Square, East corner Wash- 
ington Place ; Mancius S. Hutton, Minister, 115 Ninth street ; 
Thomas Burton, Sexton, next to church. 

FRIENDS. 

East Fifteenth Street, corner of Rutherford Place ; William 
Barry, Janitor, at church. 

East Twentieth Street, near Third avenue ; B. Barriogton, 
Janitor. 

West Twenty Seventh Street ; J. W. Onderdonk, 1,252 
Broadway. 



130 CHURCHES OF THE CITY. 

JEWISH SYNAGOGUES. 

Adaareth El, East Twenty-ninth street, near Third avenue ; 
Charles Musch, President, 114 Third avenue. 

Adas Jeshurun, 65 "West Thirty-fourth street ; E. Schwab, 
President, 

Ahawath Chesed, Avenue C, corner of East Fourth street ; 
Ignatz Stein, President ; D. Nessler, sexton, 41 Avenue C. 

Anshi Bikur Cholim, Ridge street, corner of East Houston 
street ; M. Westheimer, President. 

Anshi Chesed, 146 Norfolk street ; M. Schwab, President ; 
A. Sternberg, Eeader ; Simon Hermann, sexton, 146 Norfolk 
street. 

Beth Cholim, 138 West Twenty-eighth street ; B. Nathan 
President. 

Beth Joseph, 45 East Broadway ; A. Alexander, President. 

Beth EI, 176 West Thirty-third street; Jacob Lewis, Presi- 
dent ; Jacob Bergmanu, sexton, 171 West Thirty-third street. 

Beth Hamidrash, 78 Allen street ; B. Goldstein, President ; 
A. Jacobs, sexton, 78 Allen street. 

Beth Hamidrash Second, 157 Chatham street ; Isadore 
Eaphael, President. 

Beth Israel Bikur Cholim, 56 Chrystie street ; S. Kreuter, 
President ; I. Bielefeld, sexton, 56 Chrystie street. 

Bikur Cholim, U-Kadischa, 63 Chrystie street ; Levy, 

President ; J. Keiser, sexton. 

Bnai Israel, 41 Stanton street ; E. N. Ezekiels, President ; 
K. Pose, sexton, 41 Stanton street. 

Bnai Jeshurun, 145 West Thirty-fourth street ; Israel J. 
Solomon, President ; M. J. Eaphall, Eabbi Preacher, 46 West 
Washington Place ; J. Kramer, Blinister, 174 West Thirty- 
third street ; J. Joel, sexton, at the church. 

Bnai Sholom, 127i Columbia street; A. Bar, President, 405 
East Houston street. 

Mischkan Israel, Allen street, corner of Grand street. 

Poel Zedeck, West Twenty-ninth street, corner of Eighth 
avenue ; D. Kempner, President. 

Eodeph Shalom, 8 Clinton street ; S. Hyman, President ; J. 
Kimmelstiel, sexton, at the church. 



CHURCHES OF THE CITY. 131 

Shaarai Berocho, 275 Ninth street ; J. Abrahams, President ; 
S. Sachs, sexton, 121 First avenue. 

Shaarai Each Mim, 156 Attorney street ; N. Sonneberg, 
President, 115 Avenue C ; D. Frank, Reader ; D. S'.raus, sex- 
ton, iG9 Second street. 

Shaarai Tephihi, 1,306 Broadway ; T. L. Solomons, Presi- 
dent; S. M. Isaacs, Minister, 145 West Fotty-sixlh street; J. 
Bildersee, sexton, at the church. 

Shaarai Zedek, 38 Henry street ; S. D. Moss, President. 

Shaaer Hasharaoin, 91 Eivingtou street; H Eckstein, Presi- 
dent ; R. Lasker, IMinister ; Isaac Fink, sexton, at the church. 

Shearith Israel, West Nineteenth street near Fifth avenue ; I. 
Abecasi.-5, President ; J. J. Lyons, .Minister, 77 Seventh avenue ; 
S. Isaacs, sexton. 

Temple, 84 East Twelfth street ; A. Michelbacher, President ; 
Samuel Adler, Rabbi, 124 East Thirty-first street; A.Rubin, 
Reader ; S. Kakek s, sexton, 324 Third avenue. 

LUTHERAN 

Lutheran, Avenue B, corner of Ninth street ; F. W. Fo'eh- 
lin,'er, Minister. 303 Ninth street. 

St. James', 103 East Fifteenth street ; A. C. Wedekind, Min- 
ister ; P. Smith, sexton, 95 Macdougal steet. 

St. John's, 81 Christopher street ; A. H. M. Held, Minister, 
290 Bleeker street ; Peter Asmussen, sexton, 343 Bleeolier 
street. 

St. Luke's 208 West Forty-third street ; G. W. Drees, Minis- 
ter, 09 West Forty-first street ; J. Burckhardt, sexton. 447 Ninth 
avenue. 

St. Marcus', 62 Sixth street; H. Ragener, Minister, 138 
Second street ; John Theisz, sexton, 238 Ninth street. 

St. Matthew's, Walker street, corner of Cortlandt alley ; C. 
F. E. Stohlmann, Minister, 167 Mott street ; Charles F. Hobe, 
sexton. 

St. Paul's 226 Sixth avenue ; F. W. Geissenhainer, M nister, 
76 East Fourteenth street; John Fackiner, sexton, 112 West 
Fifteenth street. 



132 CHURCHES OF THE CITY. ' 

St. Peter's, 125 East Fiftieth street ; C. Henicke, Minister, 
house Dext the church ; C. Heckel, sexton, 218 East Fifty- 
second street. 

Yoikville, East Eighty-seventh street, near Fourth avenue ; 
G. J. Rentz, Minister, Fourth avenue, near East Eighty-ninth 
street. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL. f 

Presiding Elders : Kew York Distnct, M. D. C. Crawford, 
237 West Nineteenth street ; New Yorlc East District, E. E. 
Gr is wold. 

Alanson, 55 Norfolk street ; parsonage, 155 Clinton street 
T. R. Ryers, sexton, 65 Norfolk street. 

Alien Street, 126 Allen^strqet ; parsonage, 128 Allen street ; 
J. L. Kellogg, sexton, 61 First street. 

Bedford Street, 28 Morton street ; parsonage, 47 Morton^treet ; 
Bfekman Hill, East Fiftieth street, near hecond avenue. 

Bethel Ship, foot of Carlisle street ; 0. G. Hedstrom, minis- 
ter Jersey City. 

Central, 44 Seventh avenue ; parsonage, 46 Seventh avenue ; 
James Anderson, sexton, 379 Bleekei street. 

Central Paik Misbion., Third avenue, corner of East Seventieth 
gtreet. 

Duane Street, 291 Hud^on street. 

EighteeiiiU Strert, 193 West Eighteenth street ; parsonage, 
191 \Ve.<t Eighteenth street ; J. B. Smith, sexton, 169 West 
Eighteenth street. 

Fiftieth Street, Lexington avenue, corner East Fifty-second 
street ; Par>onage. 114 tasL Fiftieth street ;* C. Stockinger, sex- 
ton. 773 Third avenue. 

Fifty-thinl Street, 133 West Fifty-third street ; parsonage, 
137 West Filty-third street. 

Forsyth Street, 10 Forsyth street ; parsonage, 12 Forsyth 
ptrcpt; P Beacb, sexton, rear 11 Eldiidge street. 

i't^ity third Street, 177 West Forty-tliird street ; parsonaire, 
175 Wesl Forty-iiiird street ; J. Lapthorn, sexton, 1824 West 
. orty- fourth street 

German, 252 Second street; parsonage, 256 Second street; 
J. Muck, seiiton, 256 Second street. 



CHURCHES OF THE CITY. 133 

German Mission, 222 West Fortieth street. 

Greene Street. 59 Greene street ; parsonage, 57 Greene street. 

Harlem, East One Hundred and Twenty- fifth street, near 
Third avenue ; parsonage, East One Hundred and Twenty- 
seventh street, near Third avenue ; W. H. Ferine, sexton, 1,946 
Third avenue. 

Hedding, 170 East Seventeenth street ; parsonage, 168 East 
Seventeenth street ; J. Barry, sexton, 42G Second avenue. 

Jane Street, 13 Jane street ; parsonage, 11 Jane street. 

Janes Mission, 4G1 West Forty-fourth street. 

John Street, 44 John street ; Henry Davis, sexton, 453 
Greenwich street. 

Ladies' Home Mission, 61 Park street. 

Kose-Hill, 125 East Twenty-seventh street ; parsonage, 123 
East Twenty-seventh street. 

St Paul's Fourth avenue, corner of East Twenty-second 
street ; parsonage. 289 Fourth avenue ; T. H. Patterson, sex- 
ton, 64 East Twenty-fifth street. 

Secona Avenue, corner of East One Hundred and Nineteenth 

street. 

Second Street, 276 Second street ; parsonage, 280 Second 
street , Cornelius Waldron, sexton, 268 Second street. 

Seventh Street, 24 Seventh street ; parsonage, 22 Seventh 
street ; E. Lewis, sexton, 50 Third avenue ; Mission, 306 East 
Fourth street. 

T'hirfieth Street, 207 West Thirtieth street ; parsonage, 20.^ 

West Thirtieth street. 

Thirty-seventh Street, 1^9 East Thirty-seventh street; par- 
sonage, 1B3 East Thirty-seventh street ; James Mills, sexton, 

483 Third ixvenue. .^^o ^xr i. 

Trinity ^^48 West Thirty-fourth street ; parsonage, 263 West 
Tliirty-rourth street -, Thomas Haight, sexton, 148 West Thirty- 
third street. . ^, ^ i. 

Twenty-fourth Street, 251 West Twenty-fourth street ; par- 
sona"-e 272 West Twenty-fourth street. 

Washington Square, 137 West Fourth street ; parsonage, 80 
Macdougal street ; F. C. Senior, sexton, 84 Bedford street 

West Harlem, West One Hundred and Twenty-fifth street, 



134 CHURCHES OF THE CITY. 

near Sixth avenue ; Albert H. "Wyatt, Minister, 33 East Ono 
Hundred and Twenty-ninth street. 

Willet Street, 7 Wiilet street; parsonage, 5 Willet street; 
Alfred C. Vallotton, sexton, 14 Willet street. 

Yorkville, East Eighty-sixth street, near Fourth avenue ; 
parsonage, next to the church ; J. Chapman, sexton, East 
Eighty-eighth street, near Fourth avenue. 

AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL. 

African Union, IGl West Fifteenth street ; E. G. Wilson, 
Minister. 

Bethel, .214 Sullivan street ; Pv. P. Gibhs, Minister ; J. Cooper, 
sexton, 216 Sullivan street. 

Zion, 331 Bleecker street ; S. Jones, Minister, 76 Sullivan 
street ; John Darnel, sexton, 154 Sullivan street. 

METHODIST PROTESTANT 

First, 87 Attorney street ; W. G. Clark, Minister, 7 Eldridge 
street ; Thomas Brown, sexton, 192 Rivin'gton street. 

PRESBYTERIAN. 

African Union (colored,) 157 "West Twenty-eighth street ; P. 
Hopkins, Minister. 

Allen Street, 61 Allen street ; William W. Newell, Minister 
66 Second avenue ; J. T. Reed, sexton, 81 First street. 

Brick, Fifth avenue, corner West Thirty-seventh street ; 
Gardiner Spring, Minister, 13 West Thirty-seventh street ; J. 
0. Murray Assistant ; James S. Hull, sexton, 65 Second street. 

Canal Street, 7 Green street ; A. Carlyle, sexton. 

Central, 40L Broome street ; James B Dunn, Minister, 186 
West Nineteenth street ; P. Hickok, sexton. 

Clielsea, 353 West Twenty-second street ; E. D. Smith, Min- 
ister, 29L West Twenty-first street ; William Stevenson , sexton 
446 West Twenty-fifth street. 

Covenant, Fourth avenue, corner East Thirty-tifth street, 
George L. Prentiss, Minister, 70 East Twenty-seventh street 
C. CuUen, sexton. 



ciamicsEs of the cjty. 135 

ChurcK of the Covenant, (colored,) 231 West Sixteenth 
street ; H. M. Wilson, Minister^ 26 Bible house. 

Eighty-Fourth Street, n^^ar Bloomingdale road ; F. L. Patton. 

Eleventh, East Fiftj'-fifth stieet, near Lexington avenue; A. 
E. Kittredge, Minister, Lexington avenue, near East Fifty- 
fourth street ; E. Keeler, sexton, 157 East Fifty-eighth street. 

Fifteenth Street, 71 East Fifteenth street ; Samuel D. Alex- 
ander, Minister, 90 East Twenty second street. 

Fifth Avenue, corner East Nineteenth street ; N. L. Kice, 
Minister, 30 West Eighteenth street ; "William Culyer, sexton, 
231 Thompson street. 

First, Fifth avenue, corner West Eleventh street ; William 
M, Paxton, Minister ; Charles J. Day, sexton, 196 West Eigh- 
teenth street. 

Forty-Second Street, 233 West Forty-second street; W. A. 
Scott, Minister ; J. M. Vannett, sexton, 117 West Forty-first 
street. 

Fourth Avenue, 286 Fourth avenue ; Howard Crosby, Min- 
ister. 

Fourteenth Street,' corner Second avenue ; L. M. Keeler, 
Sexton, 101 East Fourth street. 

Fortieth Street, corner Lexington avenue ; Charles B. Hart, 
Minister, 48 West Thirty-sixth street. 

French Evangelical, 9 University Place ; J. B. C. Beaubien, 
Minister, 62 West Fourth street. 

German, 290 Madison street; Fred, Steins, Minister, 288 
Madison street ; Henzy Oberback, sexton, 36 Montgomery 
street. 

Grand Street, West Thirty-fourth street, near Broadway ; 
John Thompson, Minister, 307 West Twenty-fourth street ; R. 
Eobertson, sexton. 

Harlem, East One Hundred and Twenty-seventh street, near 
Third avenue ; Ezra H. Gillett, Minister, East One Hundred 
and Twenty-ninth street, near Fifth avenue. 

Lexington Avenue, corner East Forty-sixth street ; Joseph 
Sanderson, Minister, rear of church ; R. McQuhae, sexton, 641 
Third avenue. 

Madison Square, Madison avenue, corner East Tweatti-fourth 



136 CHURCHES OF THE CITY. 

Btrcet ; William Adams, Minister, 8 East Twenty-fourth stre"et ; 
James S. Huyler, sextou, 235 Sullivan street. Mission, 419 
Third avenue ; C. H. Payson, Minister, 95 East Thirty-sixth 
street. 

Manhattanville, West One Hundred and Twenty-sixth street, 
corner Ninth avenue ; E. P. Payson, Minister. 

Mercer Street, near Waverly Place ; R. R. Booth, Minister, 
77 Ninth street ; John Calyer, sexton, 23L Thompson street. 

Mission, West Thirty-third street, corner Eighth avenue ; R. 
C. Shimeall, Minister, 371 West Thirty -fifth street. 

Mission Chapel, 107 Seventh avenue ; Morse Rowell, Minis- 
ter. 

Mount Washington, near Kingsbridge ; R. W. Dickinson, 
Minister. 

North, Ninth avenue, corner West Thirty-first street ; Tho3. 
Street, Minister, 9 Lamartine Place ; Alfred W. Walker, sexton, 
360 Ninth avenue. 

Prince Street, corner Marion, (colored ; ) J. S. Martin, Min- 
ister ; Thomas Jackson, sexton. 

Rutgers Street, Madison avenue, corner East Twenty-ninth 
street ; J. M. Krebs, Minister, 88 East Thirty-ninth street ; J. 
P. Cantrell, sexton, 393 Fourth avenue.' 

Scotch, 53 V\''est Fourteenth street ; Joseph McElroy, Minis- 
ter, 63 West Nineteenth street ; Charles A. Stuart, sexton, 126 
West Thirteenth street. 

Seventh, Broome street, corner Ridge street ; Thomas Ral- 
ston Smith, Minister, 23 Rutgers Place ; Andrew J. Case, sex- 
ton, 397 Grand street. 

Spring Street, 216 Spring street ; J. D. Wilson, Minister, 137 
West Thirteenth street ; J. Ford, sexton, 30 Vandam street. 

Thirteenth Street, 115 West Thirteenth street ; S. D. Bur- 
chard, Minister, 45 Seventh avenue ; J. Hanna, sexton, 7 
Seventh avenue. 

Twenty-Eighth Street, 252 West Twenty-eighth street ; W. 
B. Sutherland, Minister ; Robert McHugh, sexton, at church. 

Twenty-Third Street, 210 West Twenty-third street ; Fred. G. 
Clark, Minister, 201 West Twenty-third street ; F. P. Wood, 
sexton, 296 Eighth avenue. 



CHUIICHES OF TitE! CITY. 137 

University Place, coraer Tenth street ; A. H. Kellogg, Minis- 
ter ; N. Wilson, sexton, IG Tenth street. 

Washington Iljights, Charles A. Sto.ldard, Minister. 

West, West Forty-second street, near Fifth avenue ; Thomaa 
S. Hastings, Minister, 81 West Forty-fifth street : J. Main, 
sexton. 

West Fiftieth, 166 West Fiftieth street, S. B. Bell, Minister. 

W^estminster, 151 West Twenty-second street ; Alexander B. 
Jack, Minister. 

Yorkville, 147 East Eighty-sixth street ; A. P. Botsford, Min- 
ister, 141 East Eighty-sixth street ; J, Martin, sexton, Third 
avenue, near East Eighty-fourth street. 

UNITED PRESBYTERIAN. 

Eleventh Street, 33 East Eleventh street ; J. A. McGill, Min- 
ister. 

Jane Street, 41 Jane street ; John Brash, Minister, 202 West 
Twentieth street ; John Watson, sexton, 41 Jane street. 

Seventh Avenue, 29 Seventh avenue ; James Harper, Min- 
ister ; Charles Ellis, sexton, at church. 

Seventh, 134 West Forty -fourth street ; G. Gambell, Minister 
435 West Forty-fourth street ; J. Whitehead, sexton, at church. 

Third, 41 Charles street ; Hugh H. Blair, Minister, 34 Perry 
street ; Robert Carnes, sexton, rear 41 Charles street. 

West Twenty-Fifth Street, 101 West Twenty-fifth street ; 
James Thompson, Minister, 241 West Twenty-second street ; 
W. Cochran, sexton, at church. 

ASSOCIATE REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN. 
Fourth, 157 Thompson street ; William Freeland, Minister, 
next to church ; Joseph Greer, sexton, at church. 

REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN. 

First, 123 "West Twelfth street ; J. N. McLeod, Minister, 147 
West Twenty-second street. 

Second, Clinton Hall ; S. L. Finney, Minister, A. J. Park, 
sexton. 

Second, 1G7 West Eleventh street ; Andrew Stevenson, Min- 



138 CHURCHES OF the city. 

ister, 341 "West Twelfth street ; Samuel G. Williams, sexton at 
church. 

Third, 238 West Twenty-third street ; J. R. W. Sloane. Min- 
ister, 203 West Twenty-second street ; William Ilill, sexton. lOG 
Seventh avenue. 

Sullivan Street, 101 Sullivan street ; J. C. K. Milligan, Min- 
ister, 200 West Twentieth street ; Kohert MilforJ, sexton, 101 
Sullivan street. 

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL. 

Et. Rev. Horatio Potter, Bishop, 33 West Thirty-fourth 
street. 

Advent, 725 Sixth avenue ; A. Bloomer Hart, Rector, 7G2 
Broadway ; John Parkinson, sexton. 

All Angels, West Eighty-first, corner Eleventh avenue ; C. 
E. Phelps, Rector, near the church. 

All Saints, 28G Henry street; S. J. Corneille, Minister, 39 
Governeur street ; A. W, Fraaer, sexton, 19 Scammel street. 

Annunciation, 110 West Fourteenth street ; S. Seabury, R c- 
tor. West Twentieth street, near Ninth avenue ; E. H. Cressy, 
Assistant, 44 Ninth street ; S. W, Gilham, sexton, 127 Sulli- 
van street. 

Ascension, Fifth avenue, corner Tenth street ; John Cotton 
Smith, Rector, 61 Tenth street ; W. Donaldson, sexton. 

Calvary, Fourth avenue, corner East Twenty-first street ; E. 
A. Washburn, Rector, 64 East Twenty-first street ; James 
Adair, sexton, 351 Fourth avenue. Mission, 133 East Twenty- 
third street ; W, D. Walker, Minister, 82 East Twenty-third 
street ; James Aikens, sexton, 401 Second avenue. 

Chapel of the Holy Comforter, foot of Hubert street, North 
river ; H. F. Roberts, Minister ; Charles Hernberg, sexton. 

Christ, Fifth avenue, corner of East Thirty-fifth street ; F. 
C. Ewer, Rector, 137 We-^^t Forty-second street; G. Radan, 
sexton, 547 Sixth avenue. Mission, 176 West Eighteenth 
street ; Thomas Cook, Minister. 

Du St. Esprit, 30 West Twenty-second street ; A. Verren, 
Rector, 28 West Twenty-second street ; C. M. Wale, sexton, 
rear 159 West Thirtieth street* 



CHURCHES OF THE CITY. 139 

Epiphany, 130 Stanton street; G. D. Smith, sexton, 110 
Columbia street. 

Good Shepherd, East Fifty-fourth street, near Second avenue ; 
Ealpli Hoyt, Kector, house at the church. 

Grace, 800 Broadway ; Thomas U. Taylor, Rector, 804 Brotid- 
way ; Isaac 11. Brown, sexton, 94 Fourth avenue. 

Holy Apostles, Ninth avenue, corner of West Twenty-eighth 
street ; R. S. Howland, Rector, 409 West Twenty-third street ; 
G. J. Geer, Assistant, 229 West Twenty-seventh street ; Robert 
Bennet, sexton, 239 Ninth avenue. 

Holy Communion, Sixth avenue, corner of West Twentieth 
street ; W. A. Muhlenberg, West Fifty-fourth street, corner of 
Fifth avenue, and F. E. Lawrence, 208 Y*^est Twentieth street, 
Pastors ; J. E. Connor, sexton, 113 West Twentieth street. 

Holy Innocents, 94 West Thirty-seventh street ; John J. El- 
mendorf. Rector, 98 West Thirty-seventh street. 

Holy Martyrs, 39 Forsyth street , J. Millett, Rector, 109 
Second avenue ; John J. Kearsing, sexton, 220^ Broome street. 

Holy Trinity, Madison avenue, corner of East Forty-second 
S H. Tyng, Jr., Minister, 26 East Forty-first street; W, K. 
Whitford, sexton, 276 Sixth avenue. 

Incarnation, East Thirty-fifth street, corner of Madison ave- 
nue ; Henry E. Montgomery, Rector, 115 East Thirtieth street ; 
William Lewers, sexton, 73 West Twenty-ninth street. 

Intercession, West One Hundred and Fifty-fourth street, cor- 
ner of Tenth avenue ;, J. H. Smith, Rector, West One Hundred 
and Fifty-sixth street, near Tenth avenue. 

Madison Street Mission, 256 Madison street ; W. A. Stirling, 
Minister, 58 Rutgers street. 

Mediator, Lexington avenue, corner of East Thirtieth street ; 
T. Irving, Minister ; A. H. Langhans, sexton. 

Memorial Church of the Rev. H. Anthon, 103 West Foi;ty- 
eighth street ; T. A. Jaggar, Minister; W. L. Childs, sexton, 
744 Sixth avenue. 

Messiah (colored,) 192 Mercer street. 

Nativity, 70 Avenue C ; Cabel Clapp, Rector, 225 Sixth street. 

Our Saviour (floating,) foot of Pike street; Robert W. 
Lewis, Minister, 62 Pike street ; John Williams, sexton. 



140 CHURCHES OF THE CITY. 

Keconciliation, 150 East Thirty-first street ; ^. b. Hunting" 
ton. Minister •. J. F. Hare, st xton. 

Hedeemer, East Eighty -fiftk street, near Second avenue S. 
C. Thrall, Rector, 206 East Eighty-fourth street ; A. D. Ash- 
mead, sexton, 1315 Third avenue. 

I Eedemption, 98 East Fourteenth street; K. G. Dickson, 
■Minister, 91 East Thirteenth street John Green, sexton, 29 
, Third avenue. 

f Eesurrection, 65 West Thirty-fifth street ; E. 0. Flagg, Eec- 
tor, 67 West Thirty-fifth street J. G. Burdett, sexton, 415 
West Thirty-fourth street. 

St. Alban's, Lexington avenue, corner Forty-seventh street; 
C. W. Morrill, inister ; B. McKeever, sexton, 736 Third 
avenue. 

St. Andrew's, Harlem ; G. B. Draper, Rector, East One Hun- 
dred and Thirtieth street, near Fifth avenue. 

St. Ann's, 7 West Eighteenth street*, Thomas Gallaudet, 
Rector, 9 West Eighteenth street ; K. Benjamin, Assistant, 164 
East Thirteenth street ; S. M. Ferine, sexton, 183 Third avenue. 
St. Bartholomew's, Lafayette Place, corner Great Jones 
street ; S. Cooke, Rector, 60 West Eleventh street ; John Can- 
trell, sexton, 393 Fourth avenue. 

St, Clement's, 108 Amity street; T. A. Eaton, Rector, 106 
West Thirteenth street ; Robert Heasley, sexton, 374 Bleecker 
street. 

St. George's Chapel, Beekman street, corner Cliff street ; 

Sylvanus Reed, Minister ; J. Maret. sexton, 338 Pearl street. 

St. George the Martyr, 39 West Forty -fourth street ; A. S. 

Leonard, Minister, 875 Broadway ; C. S. Hallock, sexton, 266 

Eighth avenue. 

St. George's, Rutherford Place, corner East Sixteenth street ; 
Stephen H. Tyng, Rector, 213 E-ast Sixteenth street ; H. T. 
Tracy, Assistant ; George Briarly, sexton, 173 Third avenue. 
Mission Chapel, 220 East Nineteenth street; C. S. Stephenson, 
Minister, 124 East Twenty -first street ; T. Tiitley, sexton, at 
church. 

St. George's German Chapel, East Fourteenth street, near 
First avenue ; C. Schramm, Minister, 91 Second street. 



CHURCHES OF THE CITY 141 

St. James, East Sixty-ninth street, near Third avenue ; P. S. 
Chauacey, Rector, 29 West Thirty-sixth street ; Edward L. 
Smith, sexton, 100 East Sixty-second street. Mission, East 
Eighty-fourth street, near Fourth avenue, 

St. John Baptist, 231 Lexington avenue ; C. K. Duffie, Rec- 
tor, 233 Lexington avenue; E. Dowkers, sexton, 443 Third 
avenue. 

St. John Evangelist, 20 Hammond street ; W. Coffman, sex- 
ton, 194 Waverly Place. 

St. John's 46 Varick street ; S. H. Weston, 30 Laight street, 
and J. F. Young, 33J West Twenty-fourth street, Ministers ; A. 
Craig, sexton, 17 Clarkson street. 

St. Luke's, 483 Hudson street ; Isaac H. Tuttle, Rector, 477 
Hudson street; John M. Forbes, Assistant Minister, 7 Fifth 
avenue ; William Ely, sexton, 486 Hudson street. 

St. Mark's, Stuyvesant street, near Second avenue ; A. H. 
Yintor, Rector, 156 Second avenue ; C. L. Carpenter, sexton, 
24 Third avenue. Mission, 141 Avenue A ; G. W. Foote, Min- 
ister. 

St. Mary's Manhattanville ; C. C. Adams, Rector. 

St. Matthias' , Broadway, corner West Thirty-second street ; 
N. E. Cornwall, Minister, 608 Seventh avenue. 

St. Michael's, Broadway, corner West Kinety-ninth street; 
T. McC. Peters, Rector, Broadway, corner West One Hundred 
and First street. 

St. Paul's, Broadway, corner Vesey street ; B. J. Haight 
Minister, 56 West Twenty-sixth street ; Henry Weld., eexton, 
187 Fulton street. 

St. Paul's, Harlem ; F. M. Serenbez, Minister. 

St. Peter's, 224 West Twentieth street ; Alfred B. Beach, 
Rector, 228 West Twentieth street ; Robert Curran, Sexton, 169 
Ninth avenue. 

St. Philip's (colored,) 305 Mulberry street; John Morgan, 
Minister, 762 Broadway ;' Charles Willets, sexton. 

St. Saviour's, West Twcnty-Biulh street, near Ninth avenue ; 
G, L. Neide, Minister, 239 Ninth avenue. 

St. Stephen's 120 Cl>rystie street ; J. H. Price, Rector, 62 
Second avenue ; Henry R. Jones, sexton, 116 Chrystie etreet. 



142 CHURCHES OF THE CITY. 

St. Thomas', Broadway, comer "West Houston street ; "W. F. 
Morp^an, Rector, Astoria ; Benjamin W. "Williams, sexton, 276 
Sixth avenue. Mission Chapel, 117 Thompson street; F. Sill, 
Minister, 25 Yandam street. 

St. Timothy's, West Fifty-fourth street, near Eighth avenue ; 
G. J. Geer, Eector, 229 West Twenty-seventh street. 

Transfiguration, Ea.st Twenty ninth street, near Fifth avenue ; 
G. H. Houghton, Rector, 1 East Twenty-ninth street ; J. C. 
Eappelyea, sexton, 411 Fourth avenue. 

Trinity, Broadway, corner Rector street, and the Chapels of 
St. Paul's, St. John's, and Trinity Chapel ; Morgan Dix, Rec- 
tor, 50 Varick street ; F. Vinton, Brooklyn, and F. Ogiiby, 219 
West Twenty third street. Assistant Ministers ; A. W. Meurer, 
sexton, Trinity church. 

Trinity Chapel, 15 West Twenty-fifth street; E. Y. Iligbee, 
42 East Thirtieth street, and H. A. Neely, at church. Ministers ; 
Rutherford Clarke, sexton, 393 Fourth avenue. 

Union (colored,) Second avenue, near East Eighty- fourth 
street. 

Zion, Madison avenue, corner East Thirty-eight street ; Ho- 
ratio Southgate, Rector, 72 West Fortieth street ; Alexander 
Samuels, sexton, 83 West Thirty-eighth street. 

Zion Chapel, 557 Third aven;;e ; John Boyle, Minister, 179 
East Forty-fii-st street. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC. 

Annunciation B. V. M., West One Hundred and Thirty-first 
street, near Broadway ; John Breen, Priest. 

Assumption, West Forty-ninth street, near Ninth avenue ; 
Benedict Strochle, Priest. 

Holy Cross, 335 West Forty-second street ; Patrick McCarthy, 
Priest, 331 West Forty-second street ; Michael Hayes, sexton, 
592 Eighth avenue. 

Immaculate Concept'lon, 245 East Fourteenth street ; W. P. 
Morrogh, Priest, 243 East Fourteenth street. 

Most Holy Rt^deemer, 1G5 Third street ; L. Petsch, Priest, 
173 Third street ; J. Hoffman, sexton, 196 Third street. 

Nativity, 46 Second avenue ; George McClosky, Priest, 44 



CHURCHES OF THE CITY 143 

Second avenue ; Michael McCiovera, sexton, 45 Second ave- 
nue. 

St. Paul's, West Fifty-ninth street, near Ninth avenue ; I. 
T. Hecker, Priest. 

St. Alphonsus, 10 Thompson street ; served from church of 
Most Holy Eedeemer. 

St. Andrew's Duane street, corner City Hall place ; Michael 
Curran, Priest, 31 City Hall Place ; T. Hamill, sexton, 17 City 
Hall place. 

St. Ann's, 140 Eighth street; T. S. Preston, Priest, 145 
Eighth street ; M. Fox, sexton, at the church. 

St. Boniface, East 47th street, near Second avenue ; M. Nicot, 
Priest, 181 Eixst Forty-seventh street. 

St. Bridget's, Avenue B, corner of Eighth street; Thomas 
J. Mooney, Priest, 119 Avenue B ; Isaac Brown, sexton, 1 Lean- 
dert's place. 

St. Colomba's, S89 West Twenty-fifth street; M. McAleer/ 
Priest, 343 West Twenty fifth street ; Daniel Quinn, sexton, 
333 "West Twenty-fifth street. 

St. Francis (German), 93 West Tliirty-first street ; A. 
Pfeifler, Pliest, 89 West Thirty-first street. 

St. Francis Xavier, 30 West Sixteenth street ; J. Loyzance, 
Priest, 40 West Fifteenth street ; James Dowd, ses:ton, 119 West 
Eighteentli street. 

St. GibriePs, East Thirty-seventh street, near Second avenue ; 
W. 11. dowry. Priest, GG3 Second avenue. 

St. James', 32 James street: J. Brennan, Priest, house 23 
Oliver street. 

St. John B.xptist (German), 125 West Thirtieth street • Au- 
gustin Dantncr, Priest, 127 West Thirtieth street. 

St. John Evangelist, East Fiftieth street, near Fifth avenue ; 
James McMihon, Priest, house near the church ; J. Smith, sex- 
ton, 733 Third avenue. 

St. Joseph's, Sixth avenue, corner of Yi^est Washington place ; 
Thomas Farrell, Priest, 49 West Washington nlacc ; Nicholas 
Waloh, sexton, 8 Sixth avenue. 

St Joseph's (German), West One Hundred and Twenty-fifth 
street, near Ninth avenuo ; F. A. Gerber, Priest. 



144 CHURCHES OF THE CITY. 

St. Lawrence, East Eighty-fourth street, near Fourth avenue ; 
S. Mnlledy, Priest; T. fliley, sexton, East Eighty-third street, 
near Third avenue. 

St. Mary's, 438 Grand street; Michael McCarron, Priest, 11 
Ridge street ; J. Terrell, sexton. 

St. Michael's, 265 West Thirty-first street; Arthur J. Don- 
nelly, Priest, 2G1 West Thirty-first street; J. McGee, sexton, 
833 Ninth avenue. 

St. Nicholas (German), 125 Second street; F. Krebez, Priest, 
185 Second street. 

St Patrick's Cathedral, Mott street, corner of Prince street ; 
Most Rev. John McCloskey, Archbishop ; Very Kev. William 
Starrs, Vicar General ; T. S. Preston, Chancellor ; F. McNierny, 
Secretary; P. F. McSweeny, J. H. McGean, and Eugene 
Maguire, Priests ; 263 Mulberry street ; James Hart, sexton, 
261 Mulberry street. 

St Paul's, East One Hundred and Seventeenth street, near 
Fourth avenue ; George R. Brophy Priest. 

St, Peter's, Barclay street, corner of Church street ; William 
Quinn, Priest, 15 Barclay street; Michael O'Meara, sexton, 70 
North Moore street. 

St. Stephen's, 93 East Twenty.eighth street; Rev. Dr. Mc- 
Glynn, Priest, 80 East Twenty-ninth street ; John McLaughlin, 
sexton. 

St. Teresa, Rutgers street, corner of Henry street ; James 
Boyce, Priest, 141 Henry street ; Hugh Smith, sexton. 

St. Vincent de Paul, 127 West Twenty-third street ; Annet 
Lafont, Priest, 90 West Twenty-fourth street. 

Transfiguration, Mott street, corner of Park street; Thomas 
Treanor, Priest, 30 Mott street. 

UNITARIAN. 

All Souls, Fourth avenue, corner East Twentieth street ; H. 
TV, Bellows, Minister, 59 East Twentieth street- Charles C. 
Siaipson, sexton, 89 East Twenty-second street, 

Messiah, East Twenty-eighth street, corner Madison avenue ; 
S. Osgood, Minister, 154 West Eleventh street; James Berry, 
Eexton, 619 Second avenue. 



CPrPCHFS OF THE CITY. \ 145" 

Third, West Fortieth street, near Sixth avenue ; 0. B. Fro- 
thingham, Minister, 50 West Thirty-fifth street; S. P. Lathrop, 
sexton, 602 Seventh avenue 

UNIVERSALIST. 

Second, East Eleventh street, corner Second avenue • G. L. 
Demarest, Minister. 

Third, 206 Bleeker street ; G. K. Crary sexton, 17 St. Luke's 
place. 

Fourth, 648 Broadway, E. H. Chapin, Minister, 14 East 
Thirty-tliird street ; J. B. Ferdon, sexton, 82 Crosby street. 

Sixth, 116 West Twentieth street; E. G.Brooks, Minitter, 
274 West Twenty fifth street. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Catholic Apostolic, 128 West Sixteenth street ; D. M. Fackler, 
Elder in charge, 216 West Twenty-fifth street. 

Centre Street Mission, 110 Centre street 

Christian Israelites, 108 First street ; J. L. Bishop, Minister, 
108 First street. 

Church of the True Believers, Levi Rightmyer, Treasurer. 

Disciples' Meeting House, 24 West Iwenty-eighth street ; 
E. Parmly and Dani 1 Monroe, Elders ; Urban C. Brewer, Min- 
ister, 25 East Thirty-first street. 

Evangelical, rear 108 West Twenty-fourth street; C. B. 
Fliehr, Minister, at church. 

First Congregational Methodist, West Twenty-fourth street, 
near Sixth avenue ; Samuel Curry, Minister, 189 West Twenty- 
ninth street. 

German Evangelical Reformed, 97 Suffolk street ; J. F. 
Busche, Minister 108 Rivington street. 

Mariners', Madison street, corner Catherine street ; E. D. 
Murphy .Minister, 72 IM^dison street; Thomas Halverson, sex-- 
tr.n, at church. 

Messiah's, 7 Seventh avenue ; P Hawkes, Minister, at church. 

St. John's (Ind.; Methodist Church, 10 West Forty-first 
street ; D. Hand, sexton, at church. 

Second Advent, 68 East Broadway ; G. Storrs, Minister. 



146 CHURCHES Of THE CITY* 

Sfventh-Day Baptist, Second avenue, corner East Eleventh 
i-tr-et. 

Swedrnborgian First New Church Society, 68 East Tnirty 
fii;h street ; Cbauncey Giles, Minister, 43 East Thirty-third street. 

True Reformed Dutch, 25 King street; John Demott, sext.-ni. 

United Brethren (Moravian,) J- H. Kummer, Minister, 51 
East Houston street. 

Welsh i\Iethodist Calvinistic, 133 East Thirteenth street; 
"Uniliam Roberts, Minister, 204 East Sixteenth street ; Thomaa 
Jones, sexton, 194 East Thirteenth steeet. 

Wesleyan Methodist Church of the Pilgrims, 235 Vfest 
Forty-eighth street ; Seymour A. Baker, Minister, house next 
to church. 

MISSIONS. 

City Missions. — 27 Greenwich street; 147 Duane street; 
327 Madison street; 693 Hudson street; 21 Avenue D; 39 
Columbia street ; 22^ Marion street ; Fifth street, corner of 
First avenue ; 2S3 Avenue B ; 17G West Thirty-seventh street ; 
655 First avenue ; corner Fourth street and Avenue C. 

Protestant EpiscoPAii City Missions. — 304 Mulberry street. 

Methodist Episcopal Missions. — 21 Worth street ; 289 Riv- 
ington street ; 117 Bank street ; Fourth street, corner of Ave- 
nue C ; Tenth avenue, near Thirty-seventh street ; Ninth ave- 
nue, near Fifty-fourth street. 

Hours of service on the Lord's day, 10| a.m., 8^ and 7i p.m. 
Sabbath school, 9 a.m., and 2 p.m. Week-day evening services 
generally on Tuesday and Friday evenings, 7i o'clock. 

Noon-day Prayer -meeting, Consistory Room, Fulton street, 
near William street, daily, from 12 to 1 o'clock. Daily 
Prayers in Trinity Protestant Episcopal church. Daily Prayer- 
meeting, Mariner's Church, 72 Madison street. Young Men's 
Christian Association— rooms open day and evening — 161 Fifth 
aveaue, corner of Twenty-second street. 

Strangers visiting the city, desiring information as to the 
Churches, the Missions, or any of the Religious or Charitable 
Institutions, can obtain it at the rooms of the New York City 
Mission, 80 Bible-house, Third avenue. 



(U?) 



HINTS FOR KEFEKENCE 

CARRIAGE PARES. 

Not exceeding one mile, one passenger, 50 cents ; each addi- 
tional passenger, 37^ cents. Exceeding one mile, and not exceed- 
ing two miles, one passenger, 75 cents ; each additional passenger, 
37tr cents. Children under two years of age, uo charge ; between 
two and fourteen, half price only is to be charged. The baggage 
to be taken without charge with each passenger, is one trunk, 
valise, saddle-bag, carpet-bag, portmanteau or box, if he be re-, 
quested so to do ; but for any trunk or other such article above 
named, more than one for each passenger, six cents can be 
charged. No charge can be made unless the number of the can 
riage is placed on the outside, and the rates of fare in a conspicui 
ous place inside of said carriage. If more than the legal rates are 
asked, nothing can be collected for services. A violation of thi§ 
ordinance subjects the offender to a fine of $10. 

TO WEEtCH 13 ABDKD A TABLE OF DISTANCES. 
Fm Battery. Exch'ge. City H;a,ll. To 

yi mile "Rector street. 

% ).^ mile Fulton street. 

X K City Hall. 

1 X M mile Leonard street. 

\yi 1 Yz Canal street. 

IK \yi X Spring street, 

\% \}i 1 Houston street. 

2 \% \yi Fourth street. 

2<^ 2 1>^ Ninth street. 

1%, 2>i IX Fourteenth street. 

2X 2>^ 2 Nineteenth street. 

3« 2^ 2yi Twenty -lourth street 

3^ 3 2>^ Twenty-ninth street. 

•6% 3)4 IX Thirty -fourth street. 

3^ 3^ 3 Thirty -eighth stree|. 

4 Z'X ^X Forty -fourth street. 

4:}4 4 3>^' Forty -n inth street. 

41^ 4jii 3X Fifty -fourth street. 

4X 4>^ 4 Fifty -eighth street. 

5 4X ^X Sixty -third street. 

5;^ 5 4>^ Sixty-eighth street. 

51^ 51^ 4X Seventy-third street. 

bX 51^ 5 .... .s'eventv-eighth street. 

6 bX 5X ElsflUy-third street 

6}i 6 6^ Fi^'htv-eighth street. 

6>^ 6}i bX NinetV-tliird street. 

&X 6>a 6 Nmetv-seventh street. 

7 &X ^X One Hundred and Second street. 

7X 7 6)4 One Hundred and Seventh street. 

7>^ 7X ^X (^n. Hundred and Twelfth street. 

7% 7>^ 7 One Hunrlred and Seventeenth street. 

8 7X '^X Oni" Hun'lm! and Twenty-first street. 

8X 8 IX . • . . .t^-'ne Huaur«cl aud Tweuty-sixth street. 



us 



HINTS FOR REFERENCE, 



BANKS. 

Banks marked with an asterisk are under the State system ; all 
others are National. 

Leather M'frs 29 Wall 

Manhattan Co* 40 Wall 

Manufacturers 132 Front 

Manuf. &Merch*. .561 Broadway 

Market 286 Pearl 

Marine 90 Wall 

Mechanics' 33 Wall 

Mech. Bk'g Ass'n 38 Wall 

Mech. & Traders'. . 153 Bowery 

Mercantile 191 Broadway 

Merch'ts Ex 257 Broadway 

Metropolitan 108 Broadway 

Merchants , 42 Wall 

Nassau*, 137 Nassau 

Nat'l Currency 2 Wall 

N. y. County 81 Eighth Av 

N. Y. Exchange. .185 Greenwich 
North Eiver* . . . .187 Greenwich 

Ninth 363 Broadway 

Ocean 197 Greenwich 

Oriental* 122 Bowery 

Park - 5 Beekman 

Pacific 470 Broadway 

People's* 395 Canal 

Phoenix 45 Wall 

St. Nicholas 7 Wall 

Second 190 Fifth Av 

Seventh Ward 234 Pearl 

Shoe & Leather. . .271 Broadway 

Sixth Broadway cor. 35th 

Tenth 240 Broadway 

Third 25 Nassau 

Tradesmen's 291 Broadway 

Union 34 Wall 



American 80 Broadway 

Am. Exch 128 Broadway 

Atlantic 142 Broadway 

Bk. of America* 46 Wall 

Bk. of the Ptepublic ...... 2 Wall 

Bk. of New York 48 Wall 

Bk. of N. America 44 Wall 

Bk. of Commonwealth.15 Nassau 

Bk. of Commerce 29 Nassau 

Bowery 58 Bowery 

Bk. of St. of N. Y. . . . 33 William 

Broadway 237 Broadway 

Bull's Head* 314 Third Av 

Butchers' & Drovers'. 124 Bowery 

Central 318 Broadway 

Chatham 182 Broadway 

Chemical 270 Broadway 

Citizens' 381 Broadway 

City 52 Wall 

Continental .7 Nassau 

Corn Exch* 13 William 

Croton 17 Nassau 

Dry Dock* 143 Av. D 

East River GSO Broadway 

Eighth 650 Broadway 

Fifth 338 Third Av 

First 140 Broadway 

Fourth 27 Pine 

Fulton 37 Fulton 

Gallatin .' 36 Wall 

Greenwich* 402 Hudson 

Grocers' 59 Barclay 

Hanover 33 Nassau 

Imp. & Traders'. . .247 Broadway 
Irving Warren & Greenwich 



INSURANCE OFFICES. 

FIRE. 



Adriatic 139 Broadway 

iEtnaf 170 Broadway 

iEtna (Hartford) 62 Wail 

Arctic IS Wal; 



Astor 16 Wall 

Atlantic, Brooklyn 14 Wall 

America nf 48 Wall 

Am. i.xchango . . .141 Broadway 



HINTS FOR REFERENCE 



149 



Baltic 54 Wall^Jersey City, N. J 67 Wall 

Beekman ..10 WaliiKings Co., Brooklyn. . .1 Nassau 

Broadway 158 BroadwayjKiiickerbocker G4 Wall 

Brooklyn, Brooklyn 18 Wall Lamar 50 Vv^iU 



Central Park 1G8 Broadway 

Citizens' 156 Broad wa.y 

City 58 Wail 

Clinton 156 Broadway 

Colurabiaf 161 Broadway 

Commercial 49 Wall 

Commonwealth. . .151 Broadway 

Continental 102 Broadway 

Corn Exchange. . .157 Broadway 

Commerce 27 Wall 

Croton 180 Broadway 

Eagle 71 Wall 

East River 69 Wall 

Empire City 102 Broadway 

Equitable, N. Y 58 Wail 

Excelsior 130 Broadway 

Exchange 170 Broadway 

Firemen's 153 Broadway 

Firemen's Fund.. .200 Broadway 

Firemen's Trust 52 Wall 

Franklin, Philadelphia.. .27 Wall 

Fulton 172 Broadway 

Gallatin 96 Broadway 

Gebhard 141 Broadway 

Germania 175 Broadway 

Globe 197 Greenwlcli 

Greenwich 155 Broadway 

Grocers' 76 Wall 

Guardian 142 Broadway 

Hamilton 11 Wall 

Harmony 158 Broadway 

Hanover 45 Wall 

Hoffman 161 Broadway 

Home 135 Broadway 

Hope 92 Broadway 

Howard 66 Wall 

Humboldt. „ UO Broadway 

Irving 9 Wall 

Imp's & Traders. .100 Broadway 

International 113 Broadway 

Indemnity. 207 Broadway 

Jefferson 60 Wall 



Lenox 16 Wall 

Liverpool <fe London. .45 William 

Lorillardf 104 Broadway 

Long Island 48 Wall 

LaFayette, Brooklyn 14 Wall 

Mauliattan .68 Wall 

Market 37 Wall 

Mechanics', Brooklyn . . .31 Wall 

Mechanics & Traders 48 Wall 

Mercantile 163 Broadway 

Merchants' 106 Broadway 

Metropolitanf. . . .108 Broadway 
Montauk, Brooklyn. .168 B'dway 

Nassau, Brooklyn 65 Wall 

National 52 Wall 

New Amsterdam 20 Wall 

N. Y. Fire & Marine ... .72 Wall 

Niagara 12 Wall 

N. Americanf . . . .114 Broadway 

North Kiver 202 Greenwicli 

New World 151 Broadway 

Pacific 470 Broadway 

Park 237 Broadway 

People's 15 7 Broadway 

Peter Cooper 74 Wall 

Phoenix, Brooklyn. 139 Broadway 

Republict 153 Broadway 

Rutgers 130 Chatham 

Relief. 8 Wall 

esolutef 151 Broadway 

Sterling . . .\ 155 Broadway 

St. Mark's 67 Wall 

St. Nicholas 166 Broadway 

Stuyvesant 122 Bowery 

Security! 119 Broadway 

Standard 11 Wall 

Star 187 Greenwich 

Tradesmen's 153 Bowery 

United States 69 Wall 

Washington 172 Broadway 

Williamsburg City. 165 Broadway 
Yonkers & N. Y. .161 Broadway 



f Participation. 



150 Hints for eeferen'ce. 



LIFE INSURANCE. 



American Mutual. .170 BroadwayiMutual 146 Broadway 



Equitable .92 Broadwa} 

Germania 90 Broadway 

Knickerboclier . . .121 Broadway 
Life & Travelers'. .243 Broadway 
Maubattan 156 Broadway 



Xew York 112 Broadway 

X. E. Mutual 110 Brondwuy 

North ;^merica 63 William 

Security. . .^ 31 Pi)ie 

Washiugton 98 Broadway 



MARINE INSURANCE. 



Atlantic Mutual 51 Wall 

Com. Mutual 57 William 

Gr. Western 39 William 

Metropolitan 103 Broadway 

Mercantile Mutual 35 Wall 



Orient Mutual 43 Wall 

Pacific Mutual. , . .111 Broadw^ay 

Security 119 Broadway 

Sun Mutual 49 Wall 

Union Mutual 61 William 



N. y. Mutual 61 William Washington Mutual 40 Pine 

POST OFFICE GUIDE. 
The Post OfiBce opens at 7.30 A. m., and closes at 7 p. m. On 
Sundays, open from 9 to 10 a. m., and 12.30 to 1.30 P. M. Letters 
obtained at any hour of the night at the night window on Nassau 
Btreet. 

MAILS CLOSE. 

North Through, 5 a. M.; 3.45 p. m. 

North Way, 2 p. m. 

Harlem Railroad, 5.30 A. M. 

East (via New Haven), 5 A. m.; 1.30, 6 P. M. 

East (N'ew Haven Way), 2.20 p. m. 

East (via Newport), 4 p. M. 

South, 5 A. M.; 4.30, 6.30, 10.30 p. M. 

Erie Railroad, 5 a. m.; 4.15 p. M. Way, 5 A. M.; 3 P. m. 

New York Central, 3 p. m. 

New Jersey Central, 5 a. m.; 2 P. M. 

New Jersey Northern, 2.30 p. m. 

Morris & Essex, 5 a. Ue.; 2 p. m. 

Freehold and Keyport, 1.30 p. ar. 

Staten Island, 5 a. m.; 2 f. m. 

Brooklyn, 5, 9 a. m.; 2, 4.30 p. M. 

Astoria, 9 a. m.; 3.30 p. m. Long Island, 5 A. M.; 2^ p. M. 

Mineola, Hempstead, Jamaica, Syosset, 5 a. m.; 2.30 P. M. 

Canada East (except Fridays), 5 a. m.; 3.45 p. m. 

Canada East (Fridays) 5 a. m.; 6 p. m. 

Canada West, 5 A. M.; 6.45 p. m. 

California., (overland,) 5am.; 4.15 p.m. 

Atlanta, Augusta, (Ga. ,) Charleston, Colambns, (Miss.,) Mobile, 
Montgomery, (Ala.,) New Orleans, Pensacola, Wilmington, (N.C.,) 
6 A. M. Richmond, 5 a. m.; 5.30 p. M. 

Sundays, all Mails close at 1.30 p. m. 



umzz hm unnmm 



OUT OF THE CITY. 



Take ITour Otvit Measure and Send to 

E. A. BMOOKS, ^j,t, 

iuiporter aud Manufacturer of 

BOOTS, SHOES, &©., 

S'T^^ Biroacl^v^a^^, IVeTV York. 



DIRECnOXS FOR MEASURDnG TEE FOOT. 

First. Place the foot on a piece of paper and trace the outline 
of the same with a pencil, which will give the length and spread 
of the foot, as shown in figure A. 



Second. Mate the following measurements, in inches and 
fractions, with tape measure, as shown in figure B, viz : 



lEl,— The Ball ol the Foot. 
2d. — The Low Instep. 
Sd. —The Hi-h lastep. 
4lh.— The Heel. 
£th.— The Ancle. 
6th.— The Calf. 








OF EVERY DESC^SPTSO^S. 

THEODORE BUTTON 

his old friends, Managers and the pu 
that he is now located at the 

e: ]m: :e^ I It. e: 



Begs to inform his old friends, Managers and the public generally, 

that he is now located at the 



13 SPRUCE STREET, KEW YORK, 

Where he will give his personal aHeution to the production, in any style, of 
all kinds of 

PLAIN, OOLOEED AND ILLUSTEATED 

1 

PARTICULARLY ADAPTED FOR 

Traveling Exhibitions, .^ 

Circuses, Menageries, 

Ethiopian Performances, 
G-ymnasts, Magicians, 
Track Cuts of all kinds, 

Trotting to Harness or Wagon, 

Double Teams or Running Horses, 

I^oiitical 01ii.I>s. 

T. D. trusts that his many years' experience in the business, 
the very large assortment of cuts at his command, any of which 
can be printed in one or more colors, the services of the best 
Designers and Engravers for new work, will secure to him a 
continuance of past favors and a trial by new patrons. 



FOR N EW ORLEANS , DIRECT. 

ATLANTIC & MISSISSIPPI STEAMSHIP LINE, 

Composed of First-Class Ftcamers, one of which leaves New York every 
S.aTUHD.'vY, having large freight capacity, and superior accommadations 
for Passengers. 

GOODS shipped through to all points on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers at 
Less Rates than by RAILROAD. 

Through Bills of Lading issued for all points on the Mississippi and Ohio 
Rivers in connection with the Atlantic and Mississippi i^teamship Company of 
St. Louis, 

For Freight or Passage apply to GARRISON & ALLEN, Agents, 

No; 5 Bowling Green, or to 

J. EAGER & CO., Agents of the A. & M. S. S. Co. of St Louis, 

No. 41 Broad street, New York. ; 




EMPIRE LINE for SAVANNAH, Ga. 

Sail every SATURDAY, from Pier 13, N. R., foot of CEDAR St., 
connecting with Railroads throughout Georgia and Florida. 

The Elegant Side •Wheel Steamships 

COMMANDER JOSHUA ATKINS, AND 

COMMANDER WINSLOW LOVELAND, 1500 Tons Burthen each, 
Have been permanently placed on the route to Savannah by the ATLANTIC 
^AIL STEAilSHIP COMPANY of New York, and are intended to be run by 
them in a manner to meet the first-class requirements of the trade. 

The Cabin accommodations of these ships are not excelled by any Steamers 
on the coast, and although their carrying capacity is large, their draught of 
water enables them to ensure a passage without detention in the rivec. 

KetiirDifig, leave SavaBiiah Every Saturday. 

For further particulars, engagement of Freight or Passage, apply to 

GAEBISON & ALLEI^, Agents, 
No. 5 Bowling Green, New York. 
Agent at Savannah, B. H. HARDEE. ***Goods for Augusta and points be- 
yond, will be delivered Central Haiiroad at Savannah, and forwarded free 
of commission by our Agent. 



S*acific I^ail Steamship Oompany'^ 

THE0U6H LINE TO CALIFOENIA, 

Toufihing at Mexican Ports & Carrying the U.S. Mail. 
THRO UGH 8H TWENTY-TWO D AYS. 

BTEAMSHIFS OX THE ATLANTIC: CONNECTING ON THE PACIFIC WirH THB 

ARIZONA COLORADO. 

HENRY CH AUNCEY CONSTITUTION. 

NEW YORK GOLDEN CITY. 

OCEAN QUEEN SACRAMENTO. 

COSTA RICA GOLDEN AGE. 

NORTHERN LIGHT MONTANA. 

&c., &c. 




One of the above large and splendid Steamships will leave Pier 
No. 42, North River, foot of Canal Street, at 12 o'clock, noon, 
on the 1st, 11th, and 21st of every month (except when those dates 
fall on Sunday, and then on the preceding Saturday), for ASPIN- 
WALL, connecting via Panama Railway, with one of the Company's 
Steatnships from Panama for SAN FRANCISCO, touching at 
ACAPULCO. 

Departures of 1st and 21st connect at Panama with Steamers for 
SOUTH PACIFIC and CENTRAL AMERICAN PORTS. Those of 
1st touch at MANZANILLO. 

A discount of ONE QUARTER from Steamers' rates allowed to 
second cabin and steerage passengers with families. Also, an al- 
lowance of ONE QUARTER on through rates to clergymen and 
their families, and school teachers ; soldiers, having honorable dis- 
charges, HALF FARE. 

One Hundred Pounds Baggage allowed to each adult. Baggage 
Masters accompany baggage through, and attend to ladies and 
children without male protectors. Bnggage received on the dock 
the day before sailing, from steamboats, railroads, and passengers 
who prefer to send down early. 

An experienced Surgeon on board. Medicine and attendance free. 

For Passage, Tickct^^, or fnrther iuformation, apnlv at the Company's Ticket 
Office, on the Wharf FOOT OF CANaL STHEET, NORTH RIVER, NEW YORK. 

F. W. G. BELLOWS, Agent. 



STEAMERS 




TO AND FROM 

NEW YOEK to LIYEEP0OL 

CALLING AT 

Queenstown to Land Passengers. 

steamatoTtIon CO. 

(LIMITED.) 

One of tills Company's first-class Iron Steamers, as follows, will 
be dispatched, every SATURDAY, from Pier 47, Xorth River. 

ENGLAND, 3,4.50 TONS Captaia Grace. 

SCOTLAND,' 3,678 " " Hall. • 

ERIN, 3,215 " '' Lewis. 

VIRGINIA, 2,876 " " Pbowse. 

HELVETIA, 3,509 '* " Ogilvie. 

THE QUEEN, 3,312 " " Grogan. 

PENNSYLVANIA, 3,673 " " McNevin. 

LOUISIANA, 2,116 " " CuttIxNG. 

These Steamers were lately built under inspection, and are 
classed A 1 at Lloyd's for twenty-one years. The accommodations 
for passengers are unsurpassed, and they are supplied with every 
comfort and luxury. 

Particular attention is given to the care of steerage passengers, 
and they are allowed ample deck room. 

Rates of Passage, | l^^H^^^ Is^OO [ ^^^^^^® ^^ Currency. 

Freight at the lowest current rates ; for terms of which, and for 
passage, apply at the Company's offices, No. 5 7 Broadway. 

F. W. J. HURST, IVlanager. 

j^" Prepaid tickets to parties wishing to send for their friends, 
for $40 currency, and Return Tickets at corresponding rates. Pas- 
sengers booked through to all parts of the Continent. 



THE NOETH AMEEICAN LLOYD'S 

lirst-Olass XJ. S. Mail Steamship Lina 

i;;;t\vki.n' 

Calling at Cowes, where passengers for England and France are 

transhipped, on the following THURSDAYS: 
Mississippi, WM, G. FURBER, Commander, 

(chartered,) 10th May. 
Atlantic, C. HOYER, Commander, 

8000 tons, 1600 horse power, 31st May. 
iOaltic, A. G. JOXES, Commander, 

3000 tons. IGOO horse power, 14th Jnne. 
"Western. Mleti-opolis, H. SANDERS, Com'r., 

260U tons. 1000 horse power, 28th June. 
And THURSDAY, [July 19 ; Aug. 2 & 16 ; Sept. 6 & 20 ; Oct. 4 & 25j; Nov.jlS 
& 22 ; Dee. 3 & 27 ;] one of these well-knowu favorites of the traveling pubhc, 
with comfortable accommodations for passengers of all classes, will leave 
New York from 

Pier 46 North Eiver. 




PRICES OF PASSAGE TO BREMEN', SOUTnAMPTOX, LONDON AND HATRE, 

PAYABLE IN GOLD. 

First Cabin, $105 ; Second Cabin, $62.50; Steerage, $37.50. 

Fr >m Bremkn to New York— 1st Cabin, $112.50 ; 2d, $S0 ;"3d, $45. 

BETURN TICKETS : 

First Cabin. S205 : Rpcond Cahin, $132.50 ; Steerage, $77.50. 

DEPAKTUBES FROM BREMEN. 

Mav 9 & 23 ; Juno 6 &: 27 ; Julv 11 & 2.j ; Aug. 15 oc 29 ; Sept. 12 ; Oct. 3 & 
17 ; Nov. 1 & 21 ; Dec. ^5 k 19. 
An experienced Surgeon on board. For freight or passage, ap- 

ply to B.UaZiB. BROB, General Agr'ts. 

45 BEAVER ST. 
J®" For subscription to the stock of the North American Lloyd, offering a 
very desirable and remunerative investment (in shares of $100 each), apply 
at the office of the Company, 45 Beaver street, to 

V. PRECHT, Secretary. 



NORTH GERMAN LLOYD 




STEAMSHIP LINE BETWEEN 

New York, Southampton and Bremen. 

I 8661] The Favorite aud Splendid Iron Hail Steamships [ | 866. 

AMERICA, <^apt. J. C. Meyer. HANSA, Capt. K. von Otorendorp. 

NEW YORK, " G.Ernst. BREMEN," n. a. F. xXeynaber. 

HERMANN," G. Wenkc. UNION, " H. J. von Santen. 

DEUTSCHLAND, Captain H. Wessels. 

Of 3000 Tons and 700 Horse Power, Carrying the United States Mail. 

J8®=\YILL S.AIL REGULARLY EVERY ALTl' RNATK SATURI)AY.-=g5gl 

These Steamships have been constructed iu the mostapprovcd manner, and 

are commanded by men of experience and character, who will make every 

exertion to promote the comfort of passengers, They leave positively on the 

appointed days, unless prevented by unforeseen circumstances, touch at 

Southampton each way to land passengers, the mails and specie, and take 

passengers at the following Eates of Passage, payable in Gold or its 
equivalent in Currency. 

From New York to Southampton, Havre, London and Bremen : 

Adults. Child, between Child, under 
1 & 10 yrs. 1 vear. 

First Cabin, Upper Saloon, S105 $52 50. Free. 

do. Lower Ealoon, 62 50. 3125. " 

Steerage - - - - 37 50. ' 18 75. " 

Servants accompanying first-class passengers, pay two-thirds of the price 
of passage. These prices include for Upper and Lower Saloon everything, 
except wines and liquors. 

Each vessel carries an Experienced Surgeon, who is not authorized to make 
any charge, either for his advice or medicines, except to Cabin Passengers 
who come on board ill. 

Cabin Passengers are avowed 20 cubic feet of Baggage, Children and Ser- 
vants 10 feet. In the Steerage, each Passenger has 15 feet frc-e. For Baggage 
exceeding these allowances, freight is charged as lollows : From Bremen, % 
Bremen Thaler; from Southampton, 2 Shill. Sterling; from New York, 35 Cts. 
gold, per cubic foot. 

CERTIFICATES OF PASSAGE 

from Bremen, Havre and Southampton to New York, arc issued by the un- 
dersigned at the above rates. Holders of Certificates have to address 
" Norddeutscher Lloyd," Bremen. Messrs. Keller, Wallis & Postlethwaite, 
Southampton, or Messrs. Lherbette, Kane & Co., Havre and Paris, in order 
to obtain information, by which steamer they can take passage. 
For Freight or Passage apply to OELRICHS & CO, 

68 Broad Street, coraer Beaver, New York. 



SAVANNAH, GA 




The Entirely New and Magnificent Steamships, 

x^ :mi o 

1 .000 Tons, H. DEARBORN, Commander, And 

•\7- Z . R. C^ O 

i,200 Tons, E. m, BULKLEY, Commander, 

WU.L SAIL FKOJt 

PIEE 16, E. E., FOOT OF WALL STEEET, 

EVERY THURSDAY, 

At 3 o'cloclc, P. M., i^recisely ; returning, tliey will leave 

SAVANNAH EVERY THURSDAY 

Arriving in New York Sunday Afternoon, without fail. 

These Steamships having been built within tlie last few months, 
expressly for the SAVANNAH ROUTE, no expense has been spared 
to make them, in speed and appointments, unequaled by any 
Steamers in the Southern trade. Passengers liave the choice of 
large and airy Staterooms, on deck or below. These ships make 
the passage iu from 65 to 70 hours, nearly 10 hours less than the 
average. 

The Railroads in Savannah always connect with this Line, and 
Passengers are transferred without detention for all points in 
GEORGIA, FLORIDA, ALAB.\MA, and other points South. 

First-Glass Passage, including Stateroom, $25 

FOG PASSAGE OK FUEIGUT APPLY TO 

MUIIRAY, FEIIR18 & CO., 

01 & 6Q South Street. 

OCTAVUS.COKEN, Agent ia Savannah, who will forward all goods for 

the lutenui'. 

FREIGHTS ALWAYS AS LOW A3 BY ANY OTHER UNE. 



J. W. BEABLEY'S Few Patent 

DUPLEX ELLIPT! 

O^ DOUBLE 




They will not bend or break like tlie Single Springs. 

Each Hoop is composed of twj finely-tempered steel springs, braided tightly 
and firmly tosrether, edge to edge, forming the Ftrongest. most Flexible, and 
still the Lightest Hoop made They will ]"ireserve their graceful and perfect 
shape where three or four ordinary skirts have been thrown aside as useless. 
Combining comfort, durability and economy, with that elegance of shape 
which has made tho D^iptp^ Elliptic the STANDARD SKIRT OF THE 
FASHIONABLE WO LD. 

DUPLEX ELLIPTIC (or double) SPRIf^C SKIRT, 

Jlannfiirtured exclusively by 

WEST, BRADLBY do CARY, 

The Sole Owuera of the Patent, 97 Chambers, aud 79 & 81 Reade Street, 

NE\V YORK CITY. 
For s.ile in all first-class Stores throughout the United States, Havant, de Cuba, Mexico, 
South America, West Indies, aud other Countries. 



OPINIONS OP THE PRESS. 

This Skirt is really the on& thln^ to be desired, being capable of endurins anv mnount 
ofcrushiuj,' and doubling, without the sli,-lite.st damage to its Shape. — Gode>/s Lady's Book. 

The Duplex Elliptic is the greatest improvement in Hoop Skirts.— iV. Y. Daily Times. 

They are uneqnaled in elegance, elasticity, durability, comfort or economy. — N. Y. Herald. 

T!ie Duplex Elliptic is accepted as the latest step toward peWection in Skirts.— iV. Y. 
Evening Post. 

It gives the most ordinary dress a style that readers it genteel.— .Bo*<on Poit. 



H 107 89 










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HECKMAN l±J 

3IN0ERY INC. |§| 

ft, NOV 89 

N. MANCHESTER, 
INDIANA 46962 






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