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Full text of "The location of site of Breen Cabin; General C.F. McGlashan, Donner Party historian, declares present pioneer monument covers exact spot where hut stood. Array of interesting facts presented relating to early investigation of sites of various cabins occupied by members of ill-fated pioneer party"

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University of California Berkeley 

The location of Site 
of Breen Cabin 

Qeneral G R McQlashan, Donner 

Party Historian, Declares Present 

Pioneer Monument Covers Exact 

Spot Where Hut Stood 

Array of Interesting Facts Presented 
Relating to Early Investigation of 
Sites of Various Cabins Occupied 
by Members of Ill-fated Pioneer Party 

Oakland, California 


At the session of the Grand Parlor held in Truckee in 1918, during 
which session the Pioneer or Donner monument was dedicated, the 
Historic Landmarks Committee of the Native Sons of the Golden West 
was instructed by resolution to mark the sites of the various cabins 
occupied by members of the Donner Party, the committee to confer with 
General C. F. McGlashan, Donner Party historian. 

Acting upon the mandate of the Grand Parlor, conferences were 
held with General McGlashan, the sites of all the cabins located, and an 
order placed for the tablets. 

The sites of both the Murphy and Graves cabins were suitably 
marked. The Murphy tablet was placed on the face of the rock which 
formed the north end of the fireplace of the cabin, and contains a complete 
list of the members of the Donner party. 

According to General McGlashan, the best living authority, the 
Pioneer Monument stands on the exact site of the Breen cabin. The 
committee thought it most appropriate that a tablet be placed on the 
north side of the monument facing the main road. Mr. L. De Rome, 
who cast the monument, designed a tablet which harmonizes. The 
following inscription on the Breen cabin tablet briefly recounts the history 
of the Donner Party, which the monument was originally planned to 
commemorate, but in no sense conflicts with the later proposal of making 
it a memorial to all pioneers: 


"On this spot stood the Breen cabin of the 
party of emigrants who started for California 
from Springfield, Illinois, in April, 181fi, under 
the leadership of Captain George Donner. 
Delays occurred, and when the party reached this 
locality on October 29, the Truckee Pass Emi- 
grant Road was concealed by snow. The height 
of the shaft of the monument indicates the depth 
of the snow, which was twenty-two feet. After 
futile efforts to cross the summit, the party was 
compelled to encamp for the winter. The Graves 
cabin was situated about three-quarters of a mile 
to the eastward, the Murphy cabin about two 
hundred yards southeast of the monument, and 
the Donner tents were at the head of Alder Creek. 
Ninety people were in the party, and forty-two 
perished, most of them from starvation and 

Objection was made to placing the tablet on the Pioneer Monument 
by the chairman of the Donner Monument Committee, who contended 
that it did not stand upon the site of the Breen cabin and quoted General 
McGlashan as his authority. At the session of the Grand Parlor held 
at San Diego, the matter came up for discussion, and a resolution was 
passed referring the matter of placing the tablet to the Donner Monu- 
ment Committee and the Historic Landmarks Committee to act jointly, 
with full power delegated to the Board of Grand Officers to determine 
the matter if the committees failed to come to an agreement. In order 
to clear up the question of the location of the Breen cabin, General 
McGlashan was asked to present his views, which he has done in the 
letter addressed to the Chairman of the Historic Landmarks Committee, 
and printed hereafter, in which letter he most emphatically declares that 
the monument stands upon the exact spot occupied by the Breen cabin. 

Chairman Historic Landmarks Committee. 

TRUCKEE, CAL., June 2nd, 1920. 
Hon. J. R. Knowland, 
Oakland Cal. 

In re Site of Breen Cabin. 
Dear Sir: 

You ask if I can furnish any information to substantiate the fact 
that the Monument dedicated by the Grand Parlor of the Native Sons, 
June 6, 1918, was placed on the location of the Breen Cabin. 

I have resided in Truckee almost uninterruptedly since July 12, 1872. 
While collecting data for the History of the Donner Party in 1879, I 
brought survivors of the party and of the Relief Parties to Truckee to 
establish the exact location of the cabins occupied by the Breen, Graves 
and Murphy families, and the approximate location of the Donner 

Last Friday, May 28th, 1920, Dr. C. W. Chapman, Chairman of the 
Donner Monument Committee, told me, in the presence of Hon. Joe V. 
Snyder, that the site of the Breen Cabin was thirty (30) feet from 
the base of the Monument. That is the first time that he or anyone else 
ever declared in my presense that the Monument does not stand over 
the identical spot where the Breen Cabin stood. My reply to him was: 
"If any man on earth knows the site of the Breen Cabin, I do, and I am 
ready to take an oath that it is covered by the foundation of the 

When I first learned the location, the print of the foundation logs 
was distinctly visible, the fireplace remained intact, and about four feet 
from the northwest corner of the site of the cabin stood a jagged stump 
about eight feet high. 

I personally began excavations of the site, taking care to examine 
every shovelful of earth myself. The relics exhumed by myself, or in 
my immediate presence by workmen whom I employed, most positively 
established the correctness of the identifications of the Breen Cabin. 

The character of the identifications supplied by the relics discovered 
is illustrated by the following quotation from the History of the Donner 
Party, page 258 : 

"Among the relics found at the Breen Cabin are numerous pieces 
of old porcelain and china-ware. These fragments are readily distin- 
guished by painted flowers, or unique designs enameled in red, blue 
or purple colors upon the pure white ground surface of the china-ware. 
This ware is celebrated for the durability of the glaze or enamel, which 
cannot be scratched with a knife, and is not acted upon by vegetable 


acids. The relics unearthed were found at a depth of from one to six 
inches beneath the ground which formed the floor. A fragment of this 
ware, together with an old-fashioned gunflint, was sent to Hon. James 
F. Breen, who wrote in reply: 'The relics, piece of china-ware and 
gun-flint, are highly appreciated. The china-ware was at once recognized 
by my brother. In fact, there is one piece of the china set (a cream 
pitcher) still in the possession of my brother. The piece sent is 
recognizable by the decoration figures, which correspond exactly with 
those on the pitcher.' " 

One more quotation is made from the History, page 260 : 
"A whetstone, or what might more properly be called an oilstone, 
was discovered at the Breen Cabin. On this stone were the initials 
'J. F. R.,' which had evidently been cut into its surface with a knife 
blade. Mrs. V. E. Murphy and Mrs. Frank Lewis, the daughters of 
James F. Reed, at once remembered this whetstone as having belonged 
to their father, and duly identified it upon examination." 

Year after year I have pointed out the site of the Breen Cabin to 
visitors, pioneers and members of the Donner Party, and feel absolutely 
positive that I know the site. Since 1879 the site was marked by the 
stump, the excavated floor, and by the fireplace, for I did not dig up the 
fireplace in searching for relics. The ashes were sifted, but the burned 
earth and foundation of the fireplace stood undisturbed, and formed a 
blackened landmark liberally covered and surrounded by bits of broken, 
charred remnants of charcoal, by which I mean the small black coals left 
from a wood fire. The excavated space showed the size of the cabin, 
and with the stump and fireplace as markers anyone could find the 
site of the Breen Cabin from 1879 until 1910. 

As early as 1880 I began talking up and advocating in the public 
press the desirability of permanently marking the sites of the cabins 
and the erection of a monument on the site of the Breen Cabin. There 
was never any question as to this being the one spot where a monument 
should be placed. The ground is level, high, sightly, and near the road 
which crosses the mountains. Its location made it the central, most 
important of the Donner Cabins during the days of the Donner tragedy; 
the place where the imprisoned emigrants met to discuss plans of escape. 
Here the "Forlorn Hope" was planned, and from this spot they began 
their heart-rending struggle. Here came the Relief Parties, here they 
started back over the cruel mountains after the agonizing task of select- 
ing what survivors should accompany each expedition and who should be 
left behind, perhaps to perish. It was the final parting place of loved 
ones; it was where Tamsen Donner bade her last farewell to her three 


little daughters and fled back to her dying husband and to her own 

Planning for long years to see that a monument should be erected 
on this identical spot, guarding the place sacredly, visiting it often 
each year for thirty years, can anyone doubt my claim that I know the 
site of the Breen Cabin? 

Early in the eighties Joseph Marzen, who owned the ground, prom- 
ised to donate the acre of land surrounding the Breen Cabin for the 
purpose of erecting a monument to the Donner Party. When he was 
about to sell the land he asked me to select the particular acre I desired. 
With great care I measured off an acre with the site of the Breen Cabin 
as nearly as practicable in its center. No thought was in my mind 
except to choose the most suitable surrounding for the erection of a 
monument on the exact spot where the Breen Cabin stood. / chose 
the ground with the sole thought that the Breen Cabin floor was to 
be underneath the base of a monument to the Donner Party, a 
monument which I supposed it would devolve upon me to build. 

Joseph Marzen and a number of prominent citizens coincided with 
my selection of the best acre possible to surround a monument built upon 
the ground occupied by the Breen Cabin, and on the 21st day of July, 
1894, Mr. Marzen deeded to me the following described land: 

"One square acre of land surrounding the site of the 'Breen Cabin* 
of the Donner Party, situate in the Donner Meadows, Nevada County, 
California, near the, and south of the Dutch Flat and Donner Lake 
wagon road in Section Seventeen (17) North, Range Sixteen (16) 
East, M. D. B. & M. ; the Eastern side of said square acre (208 feet 8% 
inches) having this day been designated by stone monuments erected 
by the parties hereto. Said acre of land having been expressly deeded 
for the purpose of a site for a monument to the Donner Party, and for 
such fences, buildings and improvements as may be deemed desirable 
in maintaining the same. Together with the right to conduct water 
from the adjacent hillside to said land, and full access to and from 
said land to said wagon road." 

Among the plans devised by me for raising money with which to 
build a monument to the Donner Party on the site of the Breen Cabin, 
one seems pertinent: 

On the 12th day of August, 1893, accompanied by Prof. A. E. Baugh, 
principal of the Truckee Schools; Hattie A. Baugh, his wife; E. K. 
Downer, publisher and proprietor of the Downieville Messenger, and my 
wife, Mrs. Nona McGlashan, I took up the last remaining log of the 
Murphy Cabin and conveyed it to my residence. Six logs of this cabin 


were in place in 1879, but all had decayed and vanished except the log 
on the western side of the cabin, the one containing the threshold of 
the door. With the assistance of the ladies of Truckee, five thousand 
small vials were filled with the partially decayed wood of this log, and 
these, together with the remnant of the log, were placed in the Rocking 
Stone Tower. The vials containing the relics were sealed with wax and 
bore labels, one of which read: 

"No Price $1.00. Sent by mail prepaid. 

"I hereby pledge that the net receipts from the 
sale of 5000 of these relics shall be devoted to the 
erection of a monument to the Donner Party. 


In writing the History of the Donner Party, I visited, so far as 
possible, the twenty-six members of the party then surviving, and brought 
members of the party and of the relief parties to Truckee, as heretofore 
stated, to give accurate identifications of the locations of the cabins. I 
had another motive, and that was to have them give the narration of the 
incidents of the tragedy on the very ground where it had occurred. All 
went to the site of the Breen Cabin to explain important details of their 
narratives. Everyone identified it. 

During the writing of the History the various chapters were first 
published in the Truckee Republican, and the paper was regularly sent 
to each survivor for corrections. A first edition of the book was then 
issued and sent to each survivor with an earnest request for corrections. 
A year was then spent in writing the twice revised history. Meantime, 
members of the Party who were taking an especially active interest in 
assisting in having the story correct, came to Truckee and added their 
testimony to the location of the cabins. During subsequent years other 
survivors came. There was never the slightest difference of opinion as 
to where the Breen Cabin stood. 

When Dr. Chapman came to me first, some years ago, it was as 
Chairman of the Donner Monument Committee of the Grand Parlor 
of the Native Sons of the Golden West, and his avowed purpose was 
to erect a monument to the Donner Party, under the auspices and 
with the assistance and co-operation of the Native Sons. My delight 
can readily be imagined. I was to be relieved of a great responsi- 
bility. I gave him the heartiest welcome, and cordially pledged him 
every assistance in my power. I explained each detail of my long- 
cherished plans, and was pleased and proud to have his approval. 
He agreed with me that the site of the Breen Cabin was the appro- 
priate and only place for the monument, and I promised to deed to 
the Grand Parlor the acre of land Mr. Marzen had given me sur- 


rounding the cabin. I promised to give him the 5000 vials to help 
raise funds. Nothing was ever said in those old, first days of a monu- 
ment to the Pioneers; all our talks and plans were of a monument to 
the Donner Party. 

In 1909 Dr. Chapman was ready to break ground for the Donner 
Monument and very generously insisted that I was the proper person 
to turn the first spadeful of earth which, he said, must be turned in 
the very center of the site of the Breen Cabin, as that was to be the 
site of the monument. Due solemnity was observed, and among the 
witnesses and participants were Hon. Frank M. Rutherford and Dr. 
George F. Kelly, representing Donner Parlor No. 162 of Truckee. 

When called upon by Dr. Chapman to speak, I dwelt upon the 
appropriateness of erecting a Donner Monument over the precise 
location of the Breen Cabin. Dr. Chapman on that occasion, and more 
than once since, very kindly and cordially praised my remarks. I uttered 
only the views we had often discussed together, and upon which we were 
at that time in perfect accord. I stood in the exact center of the Breen 
Cabin and turned the first spadeful of earth. Ground was broken for a 
Donner Monument. The corner-stone was to be laid the following June 
by the Grand Parlor. 

When the workmen came to construct the foundation upon which 
the monument would rest, and upon which the corner-stone was to be 
laid, they excavated the earth to a considerable depth and erected on 
the firm foundation thus obtained a most substantial and imposing cement 
base for monument and corner-stone. Its dimensions and stability were 
in keeping with the splendid monument now standing upon it, being 
twenty by twenty feet, and raising four feet above the surface of the 
ground. I was present on different occasions to watch the progress of 
the work which meant so much to me, because of the years of waiting. 
At last a wonderful monument was to be reared on the site of the Breen 
Cabin. This cabin covered only twelve by fourteen feet, as is stated 
by Moses Schallenberger, on page 61 of the history. The workmen 
removed all traces of the floor, the fireplace and even the stump. Their 
excavations were far deeper and broader than I had anticipated; yes, 
and the cement work was far higher and presented a more massive appear- 
ance. I saw and know that the cement foundation covered and obliter- 
ated the site of the Breen Cabin. Upon the several occasions when I was 
present watching the progress of the workmen, I do not recall that at 
any stage of this work was Dr. Chapman present. I was afterwards 
informed by him that he was unavoidably absent and had to trust the 
work to the workmen. 

/ am ready to testify under oath, at any time or place, that I 
know of my own knowledge that the foundation constructed for the 
corner-stone covers the exact spot where the Breen Cabin stood. The 

foundation of the monument today is over twenty-three feet square, the 
outside finish or ornamental work being outside of and completely 
enveloping the cement foundation, and the cement foundation covers and 
overlaps the floor of the Breen Cabin. 

On the tenth day of June, 1910, the Grand Parlor laid the corner- 
stone with impressive ceremonies. Three of the survivors of the Donner 
Party were present at the invitation of Dr. Chapman. Patty Reed and 
others donated articles to be placed under the corner-stone. At Dr. 
Chapman's request I gave a bound copy of the Donner History. Dr. 
Chapman auctioned off some of the 5000 vials which I had given him, 
one bringing $30, another $27.50, others bringing good prices. Finally 
quite a number were disposed of at $1.00 each. In the few words 
spoken by me on this occasion, I stated that the foundation of the corner- 
stone covered the exact site of the Breen Cabin. Dr. Chapman heard 
every word I said. I was the historian of the Donner Party uttering 
facts connected with the history. This fact was fresh in my memory, 
fresh in the memory of many who were present and heard my positive, 
public statement. The Grand Parlor were present. I think that you, 
Congressman Knowland, had come from Washington to preside over that 
very meeting and help to celebrate the event. The Landmarks Com- 
mittee were present and could not fail to understand that I would not 
make such an assertion unless I knew its truth. It was truth and my 
statement was not questioned. Because the vials were sold above the 
site of the Breen Cabin was mentioned as one reason the survivors of 
the Donner Party who were present should autograph the labels on the 
vials sold, and thus give them a greater value at the sale. The barbecue 
was held in the tamarack grove surrounding the Murphy Cabin. It 
was quite a Donner Party day. 

On September 1st, 1910, I signed a deed to the Grand Parlor of 
Native Sons of the Golden West for "acre of land surrounding the site 
of the 'Breen Cabin' of the Donner Party," thus fulfilling the promise I 
had made to Dr. Chapman. 

In 1918 the Grand Parlor held its annual session in Truckee on the 
6th day of June, and the monument was unveiled and dedicated in the 
presence of a vast assemblage of people. Dr. Chapman presided and 
honored me by placing my name on the list of speakers. I stated dis- 
tinctly and emphatically, just as I had done at the laying of the 
corner-stone, that the site of the Breen Cabin was exactly and com- 


pletely covered by the cement foundation of the monument. Thus, twice, 
on public and momentous occasions I placed myself clearly on record 
by stating that the site of the Breen Cabin is marked by the monument 
itself, is directly under the monument. Both times Dr. Chapman stood 
close to me and heard every syllable I uttered; both times the officers 
and members of the Grand Parlor were present; both times hundreds of 
witnesses were present; both times members of the Donner Party and 
many descendants of members were present ; and both times I dwelt upon 
and elaborated the importance of the fact in showing the relation of 
the monument to the Donner Party. I stated the simple truth, and 
never in my presence, either in public or private, did Dr. Chapman or 
anyone else every deny or question this truth until the 28th day of 
May, 1920, when Dr. Chapman stated that the site of the Breen Cabin 
was thirty feet from the base of the monument. I replied to this astound- 
ing assertion, as stated at the commencement of this letter, "If any man 
on earth knows the site of the Breen Cabin, I do, and I am ready to 
take an oath that it is covered by the foundation of the monument." 

The conversation thus abruptly terminated was resumed in my office 
on the afternoon of that day, Hon. Joe V. Snyder again being present. 
Dr. Chapman again declared that the site was 30 feet from the base 
of the monument. I told him that he could easily prove his contention 
if he was right. That the hearth or foundation of the fireplace of the 
Breen Cabin, if he could locate it, would be found intact. I have always 
honored and revered Dr. Chapman and felt sure I could convince him 
of his error. I knew he could not find the fireplace of the Breen Cabin 
because it was under the monument. It was agreed that we should test 
the matter next day by digging at the spot Dr. Chapman claimed the 
cabin stood. 

Arriving first upon the ground, I pencilled the following in duplicate : 
"Memorandum : 

"Donner Monument, May 29, 1920. 

"Dr. C. W. Chapman and C. F. McGlashan 
are, and for many years have been, staunch 

"Yesterday, May 28, 1920, Dr. Chapman first 
told McGlashan that the site of the Breen Cabin 
is thirty (30) feet from the foundation of the 

"McGlashan is positive the base of the Monu- 
men is directly over the site of the Breen Cabin. 

"By amicable agreement they will today 
excavate the site pointed out by Dr. Chapman to 


ascertain if evidence can be found to support Dr. 
Chapman's contention. 


"Signed in duplicate 
in the presence of" 

When Dr. Chapman arrived he was accompanied by T. C. Wohl- 
bruck in an automobile driven by John Cabona. It was near 11 o'clock 
a. m., and I had walked out from Truckee, arriving at 6 o'clock a. m. 
I had written the memorandum on a little tablet I had found in my 

Dr. Chapman seemed greatly excited and said: "We have looked all 
over town for you." He went at once to a spot some fifty feet or more 
from the monument, and striking a shovel in the earth said : "This depres- 
sion in the earth is the spot." There was an irregular depression in the 
surface of the ground of from two to six inches. 

I said I thought we should sign a memorandum of what we were about 
to do, and read what I had written and asked him to sign. I had 
already signed. He said: "Yes, I will sign that, but it should be 
changed to read the spot is the one pointed out by you to me." I asked 
him when I pointed it out, and he said in 1909. He said the only knowl- 
edge he had of the spot was that I had told him so. I asked how he 
could identify a spot pointed out by me eleven years ago, and he 
answered: "It was burned into my memory." I said I would change 
the wording to read as he wished, and started to do so. The two mem- 
orandums are inclosed and marked "Exhibit A" and "Exhibit B." It 
will be seen that in "Exhibit B" I had interlined the words: "It is 
agreed that the site was first shown by McGlashan." But while I was 
writing Dr. Chapman was digging in the place where he said I pointed 
out the fireplace in 1909. The first few shovelfuls uncovered small bits 
of charcoal which Dr. Chapman picked up exultingly exclaiming: "That 
shows there has been a fire." I stopped writing and said we could sign 
afterwards. Dr. Chapman agreed to this, and I began taking the bits of 
charcoal and other things discovered and placing them upon a silk 
handkerchief which I took from my pocket. 

Within about two feet of the place where he first struck his shovel 
in the earth, at a depth of from eight to ten inches, Dr. Chapman and 
Mr. Wohlbruck uncovered the upper surface of four closely packed 
stones, carefuly matched stones, fairly flat and level, showing evidence of 
having been burned and blackened to some extent by fire. There was 
a score of smaller stones, about a dozen pebbles and a small handful 
of little pieces of charcoal, or charred coals, and several bits of rotten 
wood. All these we carefully examined, and I placed them in the 


handkerchief. It was clear there had been a fire at that place. Dr. 
Chapman was positive that he had discovered the hearth of the Breen 
Cabin. While I knew this was not true, I realized that Dr. Chapman 
and Mr. Wohlbruck were thoroughly convinced, and that no argument 
could undeceive them. I had challenged the Doctor to find the Breen 
fireplace and he had promptly accepted the challenge, and without any 
doubt, hesitation or difficulty, had located a place where a fire had been 
built. The stones indicated to me a camp fire, but nothing resembling a 
hearth to a fireplace. 

Subsequent measurements show that the larger stone was approxi- 
mately 25 x 15 x 4>y% inches, another was 9x8x4 inches, another 9x7x5 
inches, and another 12 x 8 x 4% inches. There were twenty small stones 
ranging from two inches to five in their greatest diameters. All are 
irregularly shaped and the dimensions are approximations. I have in my 
possession all the stones, pebbles, bits of charcoal and little pieces of 
wood, in fact, every single particle of evidence unearthed. A careful 
inspection of these will convince any expert woodsman or mountaineer 
that they did not form the hearth to a fireplace built and used by the 
Schallenberger party in 1844, used by Schallenberger during that winter, 
and used by the Breens, Reeds and Keseberg during the winter of 1846-7. 
There are not enough stones, and the stones are not black enough. There 
are not enough coals, for coals do not readily disintegrate. The stones 
would make a very comfortable camp fire. 

Three stones of unknown size were partly uncovered which were in 
line with each other, and which Dr. Chapman and Mr. Wohlbruck felt 
sure formed the foundation of the side wall of the cabin on the north 
side. They were at a suitable distance from the fire, but were so large 
and so firmly imbedded in the earth that we could not, or at least did not, 
remove them. I mention these because we found them, but knew that 
no such stones were under the imprint of the north foundation log of 
the Breen cabin when I excavated the floor in 1879. 

I have spoken of four rather large flat stones, though we all sup- 
posed there were five. Wedged tightly between the straight edges of 
two of the stones was a strangely flat, smooth stone whose upper surface 
was quite regular, and which appeared exactly square with regular 
rectangular outlines. I asked that this stone be removed. John Cabona 
pointed to it and excitedly exclaimed, "That is brick." Upon examina- 
tion we found it comprised two bricks firmly wedged together by heat. 
They were modern, hand-pressed bricks, and had evidently occupied a 
place in the kiln where the fire came in direct contact with them during 
the burning. 


There was a brick kiln and brickyard just west of Truckee, and about 
a mile and a half east from the Monument in the years from 1868 to 1873. 
Sisson, Wallace & Co. erected a brick building in Truckee during the 
days when the Central Pacific Railroad was being constructed; and many 
chimneys and other buildings were built with these bricks. Old discarded 
brick from this yard, particularly the badly burned bricks, which were in 
contact with the fires of the kilns, were often used by fishermen and 
others in their camp fires. It must be remembered, too, that just across 
the road from the present site of the Monument, during those days 
of railroad building, there were several dwellings and a store, and on 
Donner Creek about a hundred yards west of the site of the Murphy 
Cabin was a saw mill owned and operated by Towle Brothers. Bricks 
were to be found in abundance in the ruins of these old buildings in 
those early pioneer days following the completion of the road when I 
first came to Truckee. 

While Dr. Chapman and I were still examining and talking about 
the two bricks, the hour of noon arrived, and Surveyor E. C. Uren and the 
two sons of Dr. Chapman arrived on the scene. Upon seeing the bricks, 
one of the Chapman brothers said: "There are other bricks like these 
around here," and not twenty feet from where we were working he 
picked up from the surface of the ground two of the very same kind 
of bricks, similarly welded together by heat. Going to an old camp fire 
about fifty yards away he brought back five other bricks of the same 
peculiar burnt appearance, and two of these were welded together by 
heat. We had now nine bricks of identical appearance, two of which 
formed an integral part of the fireplace which Dr. Chapman had 
been so sure was the Breen-Schallenberger fireplace of 1844-1847. 

I omitted to mention that Dr. Chapman's fireplace was pointed out 
to Surveyor Uren and he carefully measured with a steel tape line its 
distance from the south base of the Monument. It was not thirty feet, 
but fifty-two feet, from the base of the Monument. 

Yours very respectfully,